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Full text of "Chambers's Encyclopædia"

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i 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



GIFT OP 

JAMES STURGIS PRAY 



To be kept in the nuin ooUcOion of the 
College Library 



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DisiiizBdbjV^iOOQie 



CHAMBEES'S 



ENCYCLOPEDIA 



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CHAMBERS'S 

ENCYCLOPEDIA 

A DICTIONiRY 
OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOE THE PEOPLE 

ILLD8TKATED 

VITE VAFS AKI SDUEBODS WOOD ENSBATIIIOS 
SE VISED EDITION 

VOL. VI 



LONDON 
% AKD B. CEAHBESS 47 PAIEENOSTEB BOff 

AND HIGH STltBBT BDIHBUEGH 

1876 

AH Sinhtt art ratntd 

— DiamabyGoOglc' 



MHVARU CULuLoL llbBABv 

blFi ur 
JAMF3 !TUt<bl& PRAT 

MN 5 1924 



LIST OF MAPS FOR VOL VL 



THE NEIHERLAJTDS, 
NEW ZEALAND, 



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UNIVERSAL KHOWIEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE 



LABEADOB-LABRIDJE. 



LABRADOTB (Port. Urra laharadtyr, ' cultivable 
had '), the name f^ron by certain Portuguese dia- 
cnreren to the continental coait of America near 
Newfoondlaiul ; a name aa inapprapriat« aa that 
of Orecnland ! The name gnuiimlly came to be 
fitended from tbe Strait of Belleisle to Hudson's 
Stt^t, being aometimn curied a» fv westward ad 
the eaatem ihorea of Hudson's Bay. More properly, 
hfqrcTer, L. embraces only snch portions of that 
last penicBola u do not fall mthin what were 
fonnerly the chartered tertitoriea of tbe Hudson's 
Bay Com^ny (q. t.), by pouring water into Hudson's 
Strait or Bay. In Uiis sense, the coontry stretches 
in N. tat. Horn about 62° to about 60^, and in 
W. long, from about 65° to upwards of 66° ; area, 
70,000 square miles ; pop. 5000. Of this extensive 
coaotry the interior is little known ; but is under- 
stood to be mostly an impenetrable wilderness of 
swamps and forests. The maritime border, how- 
ever (althoDoh its shores are wild and precipitous, 
reaching a height of from 400 to 600 feet, and 
on the north from 1000 to 1500 feet), is not 



tcmpcratoie is remarkably favonrable both 

quantity and the quality of its fish. Of the entire 
population of L., 4000 are Esquimaux, who are 
>ettled on the gulfs and creeks of the coast, and who 
■nbsist chiefly by fishing.. Many European estab- 
lishments also have sprung up on the coast, some 
of them, such as the Moravian settlements, blending 
commercial pursuits with missionary labours. The 
principal missionary stations are Nain (founded 
1771), Okak (1776), Hebron (1830), and Hopcnthal 
(1783). The fisheries employ, in the season, nearly 
1000 decked venels, belonging partly to the Briti^ 



and Bcol-oil— the annual amount being estimated at 
fully £600,000 sterhng. The climate, like that of 
North America genersJly, is sabject to great viclasi- 
tudea. In summer, tbe thennometer ranges as high 
as So' Fahr. ; in winter, the temperature, and that 
in nearly the same latitudes as the British leles, falls 
30° below the freezing-point. L. is a dependency 
of the United Kingdom, but it has never had a 
separate government of its own, being considered 
sometimes aa an appendage of Canada, and so 
times as an appendage of Newfoundland. It it 
present in the latter position. 

LA'BRADORITE, or LABRADOR STONE, a 
variety of Febipar (q.v,), common as a constitnent 
of dolerite, grecimtone, IJie gabbro, and hypersthen 
rocks. It consists of about Ii3 per cent, of silice 
and 29 alumina, with 12 lime, and a little soda and 
peroxide of iron. It is cut into anuS-boxes and 
other ariicles ; taking a fine polish, and often 
exhibiting rich colours, not unfrequcntly several 
in the same piece, when the light falls on it id 
particular directions ; the general colour being 
gray. It was fint discovered by the Moravian 
missionaries in the island of St Paul, on the 
coast of Labtador. It has been found in meteorio 



LA'BRID^ a family of osseoua fishea, ranked 
by Cuvier in the order Acantlioptfrygii (q-v.), by 
MUller in his new order, PharyngognaVu (q. v.). 
They are divided by MiiUer into two families, 
Claio-labridiB and Ci^Jo-labrida, the former having 
ctenoid, the latter, cycloid scales ; the former com- 
paratively a small, the latter, a very numerous 
family. They are generally oral or oblong, and 
ipr^sed, with a single dorsal fin. 



front, and the jaws covered by fleshy 1 
* gen 
chiefly in tropical seas, bnt twelve or thirteen 



T colours a 



brilliant. 



. by fleshy lips. 
ITiey abound 



valuable M- the family is the Tantog (q. v.) of North 



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LABETJTEBB— LABTEUNTH. 



Ajnnioik To this bmOy bdong the Wmbwb and 
the FuTOt-fithWi one oi whioli is the celebrated 
Seanu <^ ibe andeDts. 

LABBVTERE; Jux dm, b French &nthor of 
celebritnr.particnlfttly noted for his nice and delioate 
deliceatioiis of cluUBCter. He was boni at Dourdan, 
in Normandy, in 1644 or 1M6, wm bronght to 
the French coart at the recommendation of Bosmet, 
and became one of the tutors of the Danphin, whoBe 
education Fenelon mperintended. He spent the 
-whole remainder of hii life at ooort, in the enjoy- 
ment of a pention, and in the moat intimate int«r- 
course iritu the moet accompliahed men of his time. 
liia work on which his high reputation reati, La 
Caraetira da TUojAnute, tradviu dv. Qrtc, ooec 
U$ Caracttra ou U» Maun de ee Siide (Par. 1687), 
' - '"-'in*, some of th^n 

ilated into sereral 



IjABUA'N, a member of the Ualayan Archi- 
pelago, lies aixnit thirty miles off the north-weat 
coast of 'Borneo. It mcegnrei ten milea by five, and 
the latdtnde and loiuptiule of its centre are S° 22' K, 
and 116° lO* E. Small aa it ia, it is peculiarly 
Talnable. Beeidei poHeiaing a good harbour, it 
contains am extensiTe bed o( excellent ooal, which is 
worked by a company of British capitalists formed 
in 1862 ; ud having become, in 1846, a British 
poBsesaion, it bids fwr, from its political connection 
and its natural advantagea, to be a nnolens of ciTHi- 
sation for the whole of the sutronnding islanda. It 
is a see of the Church of England. Exports (1870), 
£G1,21S; imports, £122,982. Fop. (1871) 4S9& 

LABTTTwrtTM [GytiimM 
small tree, a native of the 
tains of the south of Europe, mnoh planted in 
shrubberiea and pleasure-grounds in Britain, on 
acconnt of its ^oisy foliage and ita large pendnlone 
racemea of y^ow Sowers, which are prodnced 
in great abimdanoe in May and June. It i* 
often mixed wiQi lilac, and iriien the latter pre- 
ponderatea, the combination has a fine efiect. In 
UTonrable ' ^ ' _ — -^ _""" ~ 

TOT 



h^^t of twen^, or even for^ feet. It L 
hanly, and nowiten fionrishea better than 
norUk of Sootlaod. It is of rapid growth yet its 
wood ii bard, fine-grained, and very heavy, of a 
dark-brown w dark-green colour, and much valued 
for caUnet-work, imayin^, and turnery, and for 
"— H"g knifa-handlea, musical instruments, b.a. The 
leaves, bark, ftc, and particularly the seeds, are 
nauasotui and potsonoua, containing Cylitint, an 
wnetie, puiigative, and narcotic principle, which is 
also found m many allied plantai Aooidenti from 
L. seeds are not onfrequent to obildren ; but to 
ham and rabbita, L. is wholesome food, and they 
an K fond of it^ that the safe^ of other trees in a 
yonng plantatlMi may be insured hy introducing L. 
plants m great nnmber, which spring again from the 
roots when oAta iowa. — A flue TWietv of L., oalled 
ScoMB L, by Mme botaniats ttgtrdta as a distinct 
species [C. Alpinv*), T* diattngniahed by broader 
leavM and darker yellow flowers, which are pro- 
duced later in the season than those of the common 
or EngliA labomam, 

LATBTRIKTH (a word of unknown origin, 
derived by some from Labaris, the name ot an 
E^ptian monarch of the twelfth dynasty), the 
name ot tome celebrated buildings of antiquity, 
consisting of many chimibers or pasaagee difficult to 
pass through without a guide, and the name hence 
applied to a confused mass of constructions. In 
the hiarwlyphics, the word tnera signifiea a ' laby- 
rinth.' The laindpal labyrinths ot antiquity were 



the Egj^tivi, the Cretan, *"^ the SuniaiL Thio 
first, or Bg^rptian, of which the others seem to have 
been imitations, was situated at Crocodilopolii, olo«« 
to the lake Jtarii, in the vicinity of ttke nresBat 
pyramid of Biakhmu. According to the Hamrii'al 
authois, it was built by an Egyptiui monarch named 
Fetesuohis, Tithoea, Imandes, Ismandes, M^ndes, or 



Mendes. The recent discoveiy of 
this building by Lepaius baa, howe' 
the city was founded by Amenei 



the r 



a of 



., . lOWevar, shewn that 
... by Amenemha I, of tho 

twelfth i^QTptian dynasty, about 1800 B.a, and 
that thia monanih was piobablv buried in it, while 
the pyramid and south tem{de ' ' ' 

AnetiemhA m. and IV., whose pi 

the nama of Mteris, and their aister, 
Scemiophris, appeals to have been the last Bovereign 
of the twelfth dynasty. Great confusion prevsus 
in the ancient authorities as to the object of the 
buildiug, which contained twelve palaces under 
one roof, supposed to have been inhabited by 
the Dodecarchy, or twelve kings who conjointly 
reigned over Egypt before Fsammetichns L ; while, 
according to other authorities, it was the place of 
asaGmbly of the govemore of Uie nomea or dietricts, 
twelve m number accoi'ding to HerodotoB, sixteen 
accoiding to PUnj, and twenty-Seven according to 
Sttabo. It waa built of polished stone, with many 
cliambem and passages, eaid to be vaolt^d, havine 
a peristyle court with 3000 chambers, htlf of 
which were under the earth, and the others above 
ground, nhich formed another story. The upper 
chambers were decorated with reliefs ; the lower 
were plain, and contained, according to tradition, 
the boilies of the twelve foundeia of the building, 
and the mummies of the sacred crocodiles, oonferring 
on the building the character of a mausoleum, 
probably conjoined with a temple, that of Sebak, 
the crocodile-god, and so resembling ths Serapeium. 
Herodotus and Strabo both visited thia edifice, 
which wai difficult to pass through without the aid 
of a guide. It stood in the midst of a great sgnarQ. 
Fart was oonsbneted of Parian marble — probably 
rather arragonite — and of Syenitie granite pillars ; 
had a itairoase of ninety steps, and columns of 
porphyry ; and the opening of the doors echoed like 
the reverberation of thunder. For a long time, 
great doubt prevailed whether any remains of the 
building eiifited, and it was supposed to hare been 
overwhelmed by the waten of the lake Moaria ; and 
although F. Lucas and Letronne thought they had 
discovered the dte, ita rediacoTHiy ia dne to Lepeius, 
who found part of the foundations or lower chambeis 
close to the site of the old Mreris Lake, or modern 
Birket-el-Keroon. Aocording to Pliny, it was 3600 
years old in his days. 

The second, or next in renown to the Egyptian, 
was the labyrinth of Crete, supposed to hav« been 



Although represented on the Cretan coins of Cnoasoa 
sometimes of a square, and at other times of a 
circular form, no remains of it were to be found 
even in times of antiquity, and its existenoe traa 
supposed to be fabulous. The only mode of finding 
the way ont ot it was by means of a hank or skeiu 
'" Lcn thread, which gave the clue to t'tfp dwelling 
B Minotaur. The tradition is supposed to have 

based on the existenoe of certain natnt«l 

cavM or grottos, periiapa the i«maina ot quarries, 
and it has beoi sni^iotad to have existed north- 
watt of the ialand, near Cnossus, while a kind ot 
natural labyrinth still remains dose to Gor^a. 
Hie idea is sii[^osed to have been dsrived from the 



abyCoogle 



LABTBINTHODON— U.O. 



bii Bchod, in the age of Po^'cratea (640 B.a}, 

snpjioaed to be a 'work of nature embeUished by tat, 
hiTing 150 coIraoDB erected by a clever mechanical 
eontrivance. — Other inferior labyrinths eiitrted at 
Naaplia, at Sipontom in Italy, at Yal d'Ispica in 
Sicily, and eliewhere ; and the name of labjrintb 
via applied to the Babteiraneous chamben of the 
tomb of PonffiUL, mppoeed to be that now existing 
u the Poggio Ouel1&, near ChinsL Labyrinth! 
called mazee vere at one time fashionable in garden- 
ing, being imitations, by hedges or borden, of the 
Cretan ; the best known jn modem times being the 
Maze at Hampton Court. 

Hetodotn^ iL 148 ; DiodoniB, L 61, 97, iv. 60, 77 ; 
PanBania«,L 27; Strabo, i. 477, "liL 111; Plotarch, 
Thaau, 15 ; Pliny, fT. H.. xxvi 19, 3, 83 ; Uidorau, 
Orig., IV. 2; 6 : Hack, Creia, L 447 ; Prokesch, 
Detihe., L 606 ; Pac de Lnynes, ^nno'i, 1S2S, 364 ; 
Leprins, EMoL, p. 26S. 

LABYRI'HTHODOS', a genua otgigantic »auroid 
latrachiana, fonnd in tite New '&A Sandstone 
sores of Great Britain and tha continent: The 
ains of several species have been described, but 
■o fragmentary, that no certain restoration of 
the genus can yet be made. The head was triangular. 



teeth in front. The baaes of the teeth vera aoehy- 

losed to distinct shallow sockets. EztemaUy, they 
were marked by a eeiiea of ItMifptndinal groove^ 
which correspond to the infleoted fiud* o( the cement. 
The peculiar and chamcteriatio internal atmetnre 
of the teeth is very remarkable, and to it these 



charaat«iB, leaning, however, on the whole, more to 
the first type. The restoration ezhibiteid in the 
wood-out IB uiat snggeatsd by Owen ; it must be coU' 



a the 



Ti:> 




1, in the East Indies rignifles a ram o 
n mpeea. A lao of Compainfi Bajpeet L 
M £9370 sterling; a lao of Sieea Bvpttt 



LabjrinChodon tachjgiiBt 



but with well marked structural modifications 
vomer, and in the mode of attachment oE the 
1 to the atlas, that atamp it with a batrachian 

character, conapicuoua above the more apparent 



Footprint and Bain-drops. 



^e mouth was fumifihed 

.. I of remaAable teeth, nnnteroua and 

null m the lateral rows, and with six great laniary 



imperfect materiab for such a wod^ 

depoaita there have been loi^ notice.. u±m^ ^.u.— u,, 

feet, which so mnch reaonued the form of the 

human hand, that Kanp, their original desoriber, 

gave the geaerio name of^Cheirothenum to the great 

unknown *ni"m»U which produced them. EVom the 

fore being much smaller than the hind foot, he 

considered that they wen the impressions of a 

marsupial ; but this relative differenoe in the feet 

exists also in the modem batiaohians; and the 

discovery of the remains of so many huge »"'"■«■<» 

belom^ng to this order, in these very strata, 

the different slses of which answer to the 

different footprints, leave little doubt that the 

_^^'"^ _ y-\ cbeirotherian footprints were produoed by 

— —__ ^^ labyrinthodont nptdes. 

JiQ LAO. ■ " - - 
100.000 : 

XI to £9370 sterling; a lao of Sieea Buptet, 
h in some places are also in very genenl 
use, is equal to £9898 sterling. One hundred 
lacs, or ten miUions of mpeee, make a CVore. 
LAO, the ceneral name tmder which the 
various prodncta of the lao insect (Coccui laaa) are 
known. The curious hemipterous insect which 
yields these valuable contribotions to commerce ia in 
many respects like itg congener the Cochineal Insect 
[Coceta carSj, bat it also differs essentially from it: 
the males alone, and those only in their last stage of 
dsvelopinent, have wings, therefore the wbole liib 
of the creature is spent almost on the same spot. 
' They live upon the twigs of trees, chiefly species of 
Butea, FicuB, and Croton, and soon entomb them- 
selves in a mass of matter, which oozes from Bmall 
punctures made in the twigs of the tree, and which 
j thus furnishes them with both food and shelter. It 
: is said that to each male tfa^ are at least 5000 
, females, and the winged males are at least twice as 
loi^e as the females. When a colony, consisting of 
! a few adult females and one or two iaalee|nnd 
j their way to a new branch, they attach themselven 
I to the bark, and having pierced it with holes, 
through which they draw up the resinous juiceB 
upon which tbey f^d, they become fixed or ^ued 
by the superfluous excretion, and after a time die, 
forming by their dead bodies little domes or tents 
over tiie myriads of minute eggs which they have 
laid. In a short time, the ^gs bont into life, and 
the young, which are very mmute, eat their way 
through the dead bodies of their parents, and swarm 
bH over the twig or small yoong branch of the tree 
in such countless numbers as to givo it the appear- 
ance of being covered with a blotS-red dust. Thtsi 
Boon spread to all parts of the tree where the bark 
is tender enough to afford them food, and gener- 
ation after ^ncration dwells upon the same twig 
until it is enveloped in a coating, often half an intm 
in thickness, of the resinous exudation, which is 
very cellular throughout, the cells being the casts 
of the bodies of the dead females. During their 
lifetime, they secrete a beauliful pun>le colonring 
'■ ' ' ■■ with them, bnt 



matter, which does not perish i 



C' l OOg i 



LAOCADIVES— LACE. 



ronaina shut up in tile odii inlii the othet ramltB 
of decomposition. 

The imall twigs, when well covered, ate gatliered 
by the luktires, and are placed in hot water, which 
inelta the resinous matter, libmtes the pieces of 
wood and the remains of the insects, and also 
diuolTes the colouring matter. This is facilitated 
by kneading the melted resin whiM in the hot 
water; it is then taken out and dried, and is tltei- 
wards put into strong and very coarse cotton hagB, 
which are held near enough to charcoal fires to 
melt the retdn without bummg the baes. By twist- 
ing the bogs, the ntelted reain is then ^rced through 
the fabric, and received in thin curtain-]ike films 
upon stripe of wood. This hardens as its surface 
becomes acted upon by the air, and being broken 
in fntgnients. constitutes the shell-laa of commer 
The best sheU-lac is that which is most completely 
freed from impurities, and approaches mor ' ^ 
light orange brown colour. If the colouring 
-has not been well waahed out, the resin is often 
very dark, conseqaently, we find tbe following 
varieties in commeroe— orange, garnet, and liver- 



larger ones, from an inch to two or three inches 
in diameter, constitute the ptalt'lae of conmie 
That known as tlick-lac is the twigs as they 
gathered, but broken short for the convenience of 
packing. 

Below the iBC-beariag treea there is always a very 
considerable quantity of the resin in imall particles, 
which have been detached by the wind shaking and 
chafing the branches; this also is collected, and 
constitutes the aeed-loc of our merchants. 

The water in which the stick-lao is first softened 
coDtoiins, OS before mentioned, the colouring matter 
of tlie dead insect. This is sbsined and evaporated 
until the tesidne is a purple sediment, which, when 
sofficiently dried, is cut in small cakes, about two 
inches sqoare, and stamped with certain trade- 
,inarkB, indicating its quahty. These are then fully 
diied, and packed for sale as lae-dye, of which 
large quontitiee are used in the production of scarlet 
cloUi, such as that worn by our soldiers ; for this 
purpose, lac-dye is found very suitable. 

The lac insect is a native of Siam, Aasam, 
Burmah, Beo^, and Malabar ; tbe lacs and lac-dye 
come chiefly &om Bombay, Pegu, and Siam. During 
the year 1S67, 1580 tons of shfllao and 4C0 tons o1 
lac-dye were exported into Great Britain. The 
annual consumption of tlie latter amounts to abont 
1,200,000 lbs. 

As we have no strictly analogous resin from the 
vegetable kingdom, not even from the lac-beariug 
tr^E, it may be assumed that the juices of the 
trees arc somewhat altered by the insects. The 
best analyses shew that shell-lac contains several 
peculiar reeins. The ^reat value of the lacs is 
Eoand in their adaptability for the manofacture 
of varniBheB, both in consequence of their easy 
solubility, and also because of the fine hard coating, 
snicepUblo of high polish, which they give when 
dry- The well-known 'French polish' IS little more 
dian shell-lac dissolved in alcohol ; and a fine thin 
varnish made of this material constitutee the lacquer 
with which hnas and other metals are coated, to 
preaerve their polish from atmoepberic action. 

All the vaiietieB of lac are tramlucent, and some 
of the finer kindo, which are in fiakea not much 
thicker than writing-paper, are quite transparent, 
and all, as before stat^ are coloured vsrioua shades 
of brown, from orange to liver. Nevertheless, if a 
quantity of shell-lac bo softened by heat, it may, 



by oontinually drawing it out into lengtha, and 
twisting it, be made not only quite whit«, but also 
opaque ; in this state it has a beaotiful silky lustre ; 
and if melted and mixed with vermilion, or any 
other colouring matter, it forms tome of the fancy 
kinda of sealing-wax: the mora usual kinds are, 
however, made by merely melting shell-lao with a 
little turpentine and camphor, and mixing the 
colouring matter. Shell-lac has the property of 
being lees brittle after the first melting than aftur 
subsequent meltings ; hence the sealing-wax manu- 
factm«d in India has always had a high repu- 
tation, and hence also the extzema beanty 
"■ " of art in 



durability of those CSiinne works o 



1 lac. 



made in wood or metal, and covered over with a 
crust of lac, coloured with vermilion, which, whilst 
soft, is monlded into beautiful pattema- So rare 
and beautifnl are some of these works, tJiat even in 
Ciiina they cost almost fabulous prices. 

LA'COADIVES (called by the nativea Laiara- 
-DivA, L e., the Lakara Islands), a group of islanils 
in the Arabian Sea, discovered by Vasco de Oama 
in 1499, lie about IGO miles to the west of the Mala- 
bor coast of the peninsula of Hindustan- They 
extend in N. hit between 10° and 12", and in K 
long, between 72° and 74°, and are 17 in nunil)ei-. 
Being of coral formation, they are generally low, 
with deep water immediately round them, and ore 
therefore all the more dapgerous to navigators. 
Pop- 7000 ; chief productions cocoa, rice, betd-nuts, 
sweet potatoes, aod cattle of a small breed- Tho 
inhabitants, who are called Moplays, arc of Arabian 
origin, and in religion follow a sort of Uoham- 
medanism. They [jay tribute, said to be about 
£1000 a year, to the district of Cananore, in tho 
presidency oE Madroa. 

LACE, an ornamental fabric of linec, cotton, or 
silk thread, made cither by tho hands, somewhat 
after the manner of embroidery, or with machinery. 
The manufacture of lace by hand ia an operation 
of exceeding nicety, and requires both skill and 
patience of no ordinary kind, and the best produc- 
tions of this fabric surpass all other applications of 
textile materials in cosUiness and heauty- 

Whether the ancients really had any knowledge 
of lace-making, excepting gold-lace, which wiUbo 
mentioned at the end of this article, is not known, 
nor is it known with any certainty when this art 
come into practice in Europe; but there is good 
reason to auppoee that poini-iace, the oldeat variety 
known, was the work of nuns daring the latter haft 
of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th centnries. 
This point-lace is very characteristic, and is truly 
t production. The artistic character of the 
patterns, and the wonderful patience and labour 
shewn in carrying them out, places them, as female 
productums,on a parallel with the decorative works 
— atone, wood, and metal of the monks. They indi- 
te no tiresome efforts to copy natural objects, but 
masterly conceptions of gracefol forms and tastefnl 
combinations. The exact figures of the pattern 
were cut out of linen, and over these fonndation- 
picces, as they may be called, the actual lane-work 
was wrought by tbe needle, with thread of marvellous 
Bneuess, and with such consummate art, that the 
malarial of the foundation is quite undiscoverablo 
under the fairy-like web which has been woven 
over it These portions of the fabric were then 
joined together by connecting threads, eooh of 
which, like the broader porta, oonaiats of a founda- 
tion, and laoe-work covering ; the former being a 
mere thread, often of exce^ngly fine vam ■ the 
Utter being a sort o( loop-wo& like the modem 



dhy Google 




Elg-L 



cnnlMt (fig. 1.). Tha ironderfol durability of point- 
" 'ed l^ the firct, that it ii not unoomnuia 
cluaca oollectioiiK, ilthongh the ift is 
■uppoaed to tiave b««ii 



jneutljr cJleAper 
style of point'Uce, dii- 
i the older and 
mora artistio kind. 

The point-lAce of the 
■econd period, though 
khrayi Teiy beaatifnl, wu deficient in solidity aod 
ia rarity (n design ; moceover, it bears indicationB 
of haviiiK been copied from patterns, whiM the 
older kind wai erideatly tha oarrying out of artistic 
thonghtB, •■ they veto oonceivad, in tha original 
material, the worker and the deaifper being the same 
penoD. It was during this penod that the pillow 
vas first used, and it is most probable that the use 
of patterns led to the applicatJon of the pillow. 
Fiist, the lace woold bo worked on the pattern, to 
insure Dorrectnees, where the worker waa marely a 
copyist ; then it would aoon become evident that if 
the pattern -were 80 arranged as to avoid ihiftiM, 
the lacilildefl of working would be f[reatly increaaad-, 
and it has been suggested that the pattern pinned 
to tha pillow, and the threads twisted round the 
pins, to pr?Tent ravelline when not in use, soggested 
the net-work which afterwards became a ludillg 
feature in the fatoic 

The invention of piUow-Iace has been claimed b^ 
Bcckmami, in his - quaint wav, for one of his 
coontlywomeo. He says : ' I will venture to assert 
thai Uie knitting of lace is a German invention, 
^nt known sbont the middle of the leth c ; and 
I shall consider M bne, until it be fuUy contradicted, 
the aocoont given as that this art was fonnd out 
before 1B6X, at 8t Annabarg, by Barbara, wife of 
ChristoyJier Uttmann. This woman died in the 
Gist year of her aoe, after ahe had seen six^-four 
children and grandchildren ; and that she was the 
invenlress of vut art is nnanimonsly affinned by all 
the annalists of Saxony.' Whether she iavented, or 
moely introdnced the art, cannot now be proved, 
but certain it is, that it toon became settled in 
^^cmy, and spread thence to tha Netherlands and 
France. Even to the present day, we occasionally 
hear of ' 3axon bone-lace,' a name which was given 
to indicate the use of boce-pina, before the intro- 
doction of the common brass ones. 

It will readily be supposed that an art depending 
to mnch on individual skill sod taste, would be 
likdy to vary exceedingly ; nevertheless, all the 
Tsnotiea resolve themse^es into few well-marked 
firoups, nnder three distinct classes. The first class 
IB the Onipurt, which comprises all tha true needle- 
worked laoe, whether ancient or modem ; its varie- 
tiet are — Hott-poitU, in which the Sgorea are in high 
n^Iiet, having a rich emboaaad appearance ; Veutiaa- 
pnal, Portugueaerpoint, Maltae-point .- in all of these 
the patten is flatter than in the Sote-poini, Point 
li'Jlncas.andBnuseCr-jiotnf. The last two are still 
nude, the modem Point d'AIen^n qoite equalling 
in beauty *'>«^ value that made in the middle of the 
ITUi c, when its mannfactDra was introduced bjf 
the celebrated Colbert, chief minister of Louis 
XIV. The Point d'Alenfon has very distinctive 
characteristics. When the pattern is once designed, 
ocb portion may be worked by a separate person, 
■nd us varioDs flguree an then connected by a 
pmndwork of threads, whioh are so passed from 
oat figne to another as to represent a web of 
vcaderfal delicacy and r^nlanty : small spots 
f otte ignra an here and there akilfolly -wtAei 



Kg. 3. 



1 ^era the threads oom each other ; these are 

»Ued TTiodet, and not onl^ 
of the fabric, bnt great! _ 
effect In all these varieties, 
but two kinds of stitohes are 
employed, and these difier chiefly 
in the erester or leas eloseness 
of the threads employed. First, 
a B^iea of thraada are lidd down 
all in ons direotiim, so as to 
cover the pattern, Mid then * 
certain number of these ace 
taken np and oovared by loops 
of the cross-stitches, as in fig. 1, 
held together, as in fig. 2. 

Tha second class is Fiiitne-laee, sometimes called 
Coshion or Bobbin lace, from the pillow or cushion 
being used to work the pattem upon, and the various 
threads of which the Ggurss are made up, each being 
wotmd upon a bobbin, usnally of an om&meatM 
oharacter, to distinguish one from the other. The 
pattem on parchment or paper, bmng attoohed to 
the pillotc or onahion, pina are atuok m at regular 
intervals in tha lines of the pattern, and the threads 
of the bobbins are twisted i ■ - • 



™li0rtly 




Kg. 3. 



Jig-i 



K«.E. 



to form the not-work arrangement which is cbarao- 
riatic of this claas of lace (figs. 3 and 4), the pattern^ 
„, figured portions, being worked out by a crossing 
of threads, which, although actually plaiting, gives 
the effect of weaving, as in fia. 5. Thevarietiesi " ' 
lace are— iTpaJitaft, GTrmndid Spanish, 
Sta»au BruigeU, Fltmiih Bruueii, 
Mtchltn, Vaiendennea, DuttA, lAtUi, 
Chatumy, SiU: and Cotton Blonde, 
Limerick, Budcinghanukire, and Honi- 
ton. The loat has of late years becomo 
tiae most beautiful of bU the varieties 
made in Great Britain. The Irish or 
Limerick lace has also taken a hi^ position. ^ 

Tha third class is machine-made lace, which, by 
its wonderful improvement and rapid development, 
has worked a complete revolution in the lace-trade, 
BO that the prices formerly obtained for hand-made 
i„~. ^.n ni> longer be commanded, whilst machine 
«at beauty, has become so cheap and 
I te be wom by all classes. It has been 

„,^_„ before that Uie use of the pillow led to 

the introduction of net as the groond-work for lace 
figures, and it was to the manufoctora of this 
so-called boiiiait-Tiel that the machinery was first 
applied (see BoBBiN-NBT). The flgore in the article 
reterred to indicates very satisfactorily the structure 
of not. "The lace-machme, ot /noM, as it is tech- 
nically called, is so complicated, that it would be 
hopeless to convey any really intelligible appreciation 
of it without a voluminous description of all its 
partfl. One or two peints of chief importance may, 
however, remove any difficulty in understanding its 
general principles. First, then, os in tha loom (seo 
Loon), thow IS a series of wani-threadB, placed, 
however, petpendicularly instead of horizontally, 
and not BO ctose as in otdinary weaving, the ^ace 



plentiful ai 



abvGoogle 



ZtACE-BABK TB£K— LAOHBS. 



b«twami each hang nifBaiailly irida to admit ot a 
■lulling paamig a^ewsyi between them. Behind 
UuMflinBda, "' " 



ia B nw of ingemioMly ooutnieted flat bobbuu __ 
reela Tcating in an anangeiiMtLt called a eMnS-Aor 
or bolt-bar. Cieu an «o jdaoed, that with tiie 
flnt monmant of the maohine, each bobbia, -whioh 
oaniea iti Qmad witii it, paaaea thnmdi two of the 
PMallel and ptrpendioakr thr«ad« of um vaip,a]id 
ia lodged in another and nniilar bolt-bar in frait of 
titewaraL Botthiatrant boltbar, bendwaBadTanc- 
ing and receding motion, haa another moT«ment, 
oaUediAo|raHia—&(nn right to kft WhenitreeeiTeaa 
bobbin by ita Wrnid tnotion, it dnwi back, bringing 
the bobbin and thread throngk two of die npnght 
thread*; it then Mhogi or morea to one aide, i '' 
goea forward again, taking the thread thnmdi ; 
neit two wajp-thraada, anid lodging the bobnn 
Uie baok bolt-bar agun, one diatanoe beyond iti 1 
apaoe ; thia it reooven by the next morement, i 
it a^ain paaMa throiu^ the fint ap^ce, to be again 
roceiTed oy the frotri bolt-bar. By thcae move- 
menta, the bobbin-thread ia twisted finite round one 
Qpri^ thiead of the -waiv; 
then ahifti the bobbin, eo that 



unwinding from the lower lieun, and being rolled 
on tke nj^ier one. There being twice as many bob- 
Una aa there are threada in the warp, each bolt-bar 
hBTing a aet which it ezohangea with the othav and 
all being regnlated witii great nicety, a width of lace 
ia made in te laaa time than haa been required to 
write thia ahort deiieription. The Tariona additiona 
to, and TariatiMia apoa, tliese operations, which only 
aiqply to bobbin-net, for tiie production of patteme, 
are bo aumerooa and complicated — each pattern 
requiring new compUcationa— that it will be useleaa 
attemptuu to deecribe them ; suffice it to lay, they 
all depend upon the Taiistiona which can be given 
to the moTamente of the Sat, diac-like bobbins. 

^ohiato^of the lace-nuichina ifl not very clear; 
it ia aaid to hare been originally invented b^ a 
fivme-w/rie knitter of Nottingliam, from studying 
the lace on Ida wife's cap ; bin it has been cootinn- 
ally r«ceiving improrementa, amongat which thoae of 
Heathoota in ISW— tiie first to wink atiooea*fii% — 
Horlcy, in 1811 and 1SE4, and thoae of LeaTcr and 
Tnrton, and of Clark and Mad, all in ISIl. The 
mannfaotnre <^ laoe by nuMihinery ia oMeBy located 
in NottJngham, whmoe it ia sent to all parte of the 
world ; but we have no means of knowing to what 
extent, for, wiQi that atran^ yerrafs i tj whioli dia- 
tingiuahes onr atatdatied admuua^tttion, only Arauf- 
kux is mentioned in the lists of eiporta, whilst our 
vast production of cotton-lace is mixed np with the 
returns of calico and other fabrics of that materiaL 

Gi)ld-iaet and SHver-lace, }Roperly speaking, are 
lacea woven, either by the lund or by maehinaiy, 
from exceedingly One thie*d* of the sKitals, or from 
linen, ailk, or cotton thread* which are oosited with 
atiQ finer threada of gold or silver; but in thia 
county it ia too common to deri^iato as gold or 
ailver lac^ lut only that wUdi i* rightly so-called, 
bat alao fringe made ot theae materials, and also gold 
and aQver embroidery, anch aa ia seen on state i«bea 
and trappings and upon aomo eocleaJastical dnasea, 
to. Gold-Iue ia made in London, hut consider- 
able quaotatiea of that naed for decorating nniforms 
and othw dreawa, ftc, in this country, is obttuned 
from Belipom, where it is an important branch of 
nunnfaotore. France mppliea much ot the gold and 
dver thread naed, and excels all other countries in 
its prodootion, in at^ne of the more artistic varieties 
ot gold and ailvm' lace and embroidery. Italy has 
latdy ahawn great taate and skill. The woiks 



about £16,000 worth per 

LAGB-BAKK TBJm (LagMa Imtearia), a tree 
of the natnra] order H^ymelsKta, a ikative of tlie 
West Indies. It ia a loftjr tree, with ovate, antbe, 
smooth leaves, and white dowera. It is remarkable 
for the tenacity of the fibres of its inner bark, and 
the readiness with which Uie inner bark may be 
separated, after maceration in water, into lavera 
resembling laoe. A governor of Jamaica is >ud to 
have presented to Charlee IL a cravat, frill, and 
mffles made of it. 

IjA.CE-LIlAJ'. See LamoB Lsir. 

IiAOdP^B, BZRMASD Obkiuih &ixNirx t>K 
L^TiLLX, Comrr d^ an eminent naturalist and 
el^ant writer, was bom of a noble family, 28th 
December 1706, at Agen. Having early devoted 
himself to the study of natnral hStory , in which 
he was greatly raicoura^d by the friendship of 
Buffon, he was appointM curator of tke Cabinet 
of Natural Eistorv in the Boyal Qardena at Paris. 
This office he held till the Bevoluticn, whan he 
became IVifesaor of Natural History, and also 
entered upon a political career, in which he loee 
to be a senator in 1799, a minister of state in ISOD, 
and, after the return oE the Bonrboos, a peer of 
IfVano^ although ha had previously been one of the 
most zealoos adherents of Bona^atte. He died of 
amall-poz at his mannon of Bfuni^, near 6t Denis, 
Bth October 1625. A collective edition cfhiaworka 
waa poblidiad in 1BS& Among them an worka on 
the Nataral Hiatoiy of Beptilea, of Fiahea, and c4 the 
Cetaoea, a WoA on the Natanal Hiatory irf Man, and 
one entitled Lt» Ages dt la Nature. His work, cm 
Fishes (S vols. 1796—1803) U the greateat of his 
works, and was Ions unrivatled in tfajit deparbnent 
of Eootogy, althoneh it has now been in a great 
neasnie auperaeded. L., who wa* a hi;^y aocom' 
plisbed musician, waa the author of a work entitled 
La Poltiqm dt la Mutigue (2 vols. 17SS), and of two 
romances intended to illnabltto aociol and moral 
nrinciplea. He waa an amiable man, eztmnely 
kind, delisting in domeeHa life, and veiy simple, 
and almon abatemknu, in hia habits. 
IiAOVBTA and JjJlCE'UTIDM. See Li£aiii>. 
IiACHAISfii, Fjujioib D'aiz sb, a Jesuit, bora 
of a noble family, 26th August 1624, in the castle 
of Air, now in tjie deparbuent of Loire, was a 
provincial of his order, when Louis XIV. selected 
turn for his confessor on the death of Father Perrier 
167S. Hia position was one of great difficulty, 
owing te the different parties of the court, and the 
strife between Jansenista and Jesuits. In the most 
important queatioos of his time. Father L, avoided 
exb^me couraea. A xealooa Jesuit, and of moderate 
abilities, ha yet sustained among his contemporuiee 
the reputation of a man of mili£ simple, honourable 
character. Madame Maintenon could never forgive 
him the little zeal with which he opposed the reasons 
urged against the publication of her marriage with 
the king ; but during the liurty-fbar yean uiat he 
filled his (^ce of coiueaaor, he never loat the favour 
I king. He was a man of some learning, and 
f autj^oarian pomiits. He died 20th January 
1709. — Louis XIV. built him a oountry-honse to the 
west of Paris, the large garden of i^tuh was in 1801 
converted into a bnnal-place, and is known as the 
Ptre-lorChaMt. 

LA'OEES, in Iki^iah Law, is a wotii used (&om 
Ft. ItUJter, to looatai) to denote n^ligenoe or undue 
delay, toch aa to disentdtie a pany to a particular 
remedy, or to relief. In Scotland, the wnrd mora 
ia often naad to denote nndna del^r- 



«i),Google 



T. AntTWHT H— T. A nnKT^ A TBiBi 



■sftkea in luTing ilie tul temunatai with • cpitte 
imCaad ot a nttte, and in faaving the limd oorend 
witii ioalcB, aad not with platea. The ipecdM Me 
■11 oatiTw of the warm parti ol Amarioa, where 
■Hue id tbna an among the moat dieaded of 
Teoonuma MTpants. ^nuy an lunaUr aeoi ooilad 
Dp, wHli kMn glaring «f«e, watohiiw for piej, on 
whioh thej dart with Uie (wiftocw olan anow, and 
then ooiling thcmaelrea up t^o, wait quietly till 
tlie death-abno^ of the viotim i» ovw. Some of 
them attain t£e length ei leren feeb They are 
uid to be apt to attack men, even when not 
attained or threatened. 

LA'CBIiAK, a river ot East Anitralia, riBea in 
New Sooth Wales, to the WMtwaid of tiie Blue 
Uoaataina, and, after a conne of 400 milea, with 
the chantcteriatica of the Darling (q. y.) oa a amaller 
tc^B, joina the Mumuabid^e, which itself, a little 
furtiier down, enten the Uurra^. The format of 
then two point* of coofluGncc u !□ lat 34° 30* S., 
and long. 141* lO'E. 

TiACBMAKS, Kjal, a oelebrated Oerman critic 
and philoliMprt, wai bom 4th Muoh 1793, at Brana- 
wick, abtdied at Iieiptio aiid Ofittiagen, became a 
profaewr in the tlnirern^ oi KUoinberg in 1810, 
and at Bs'ljn in 182T. He died 13tii March 18E1. 
L.'a literary acting waa extraordinarv. He wae 

XHf demrted to claaiical ai^eeta and to those of 
Qfltinaa literatar^ aod iUiutnited both by a 
prafonod and ai^;aoioat critictam. Among his moat 
uDportant productiotti are his editioiu of the Ifibe- 
tuMgaUied, the worki of Walter von dei Vogelweide, 
Propertias, Catullus, IHballtu, and the Now Testa- 
ment [Beri. 1S31; 3d edit ISM), of which a larger 
editiim, witii the Volgate traiulatdon, appeared in 
2yols. (BerLlS46andl8G0). The design of the lost 
of theae works was to restore the Greek text ss it 
existed in the Eastern Church in the 3d and 4th 
oeotoiieB. It is considered, on the whole, the best 
(ditirai of the Greek Testament that has yet been 

LA'OHBTILS! OHRI'STI, a mnscatel wine of 
a sweet but piqnant teste, ud a moat agreeable 
iKraqnet, wMui i* jRi>lneed. from the grapes of 
Monnt Somma, near VeraTina. There are two 
kinds, the white and the red, the first beic^ generally 
preferred. The demand for this wine bemg Kreater 
than the supply, laroB quautitiea of the pro£ice of 
Pozsuoli, Istrta, ana Nola are tolA under this name. 
A similar wine is produoed in many islands of the 
Arehipcdago, as Candia, Cyproa, &o. 

LA'CHRYMAL OROANH, Thk, are sufficiently 
deseribed in the article Etb. There ve, however, 
certain djaoaeeo to which they are liable, which 
reqiiiie a brief notioe. 

^wre ma; be « defident eecre. 
tioD ol tears, an aSeotioa for which 
the tenn XeropfUhaimia hai been 
invented. It may be palliated by 
keepins the oome* oonstantly moist 
witti gifrcerine by meaiiB of an ■ 
cap. Or there may ho an o 
secretion of tears, to that thejf 
down the duAt. This affection is 
termed Epiphora, and tunst not 
confonmled. with the SliUiddi 
liuhqfmanim, or overflow of te 
that arises bom an obetniction of 
r.™* of atrle. *" channels through which they 
' ^ass mto the nose. It is common 
.•liiMmn, and should be treated with 
,j,yji, 



bicarbonate of soda, and tonioa, aaoli a 
of iron and quinine. 

ObdnutiOH cf At natal duel is 

it, and is a not nnanmnicin affection, especially in 
scnrfalons young paiKioa. Thsre is a feeling of 
weakness cS the aye on the affected side, and tean 
ran down the chew, while the DO*tail on that aide 
U onnatnnJlr di^. The ladirymal mw (we fig. 6 in 
the artiole En.) is distendad with team, and fonn* 
a small tomoor by the side ot the root of the nose. 
Oa pieeiing this tnmotu, tears and mucus can be 
iqueexed baokwaids throogh the pnncta, or down- 
wards into the nose, if the cloture is only partiaL 
This affection often leads to iajtararaatioa qf lAe toe, 
or to tiis fonoation of a fistulous aperture at the innsr 
oomer of the ^e, oommanicating with the lacbry- 
and known as Fittuia XocArymoUt. TMs 
the boiating of an 



abscess, snsing fnsn m 

generally sor '"^ "" 

urty kirawn 

red and thickened from the irritation eansad by the 
flow of tears. In theae osaes, the sac most be opened 
by a pnnctnre, and a st^le (a silver [vobe about an 
inch fang, with a head like a nul) should be pushed 



thttni;^ the duct into the 
this instroment oausea the duct to dilate, so that the 
tears flow by its side. The flat head of the style 
hes on the cheek, and both keeps the inslamment in 
its plaoe and facilitates its occasianal removal for 
the purpose of cleansine. Sometimes it is necsMsry 
that the instrument uiould be worn for lifc^ but 
in less severe oases the duct remains permanently 
dilated, and a cure is effected in a few months. 

LAOO'NIO. The Spartans, or LacediemoDianB 
(whose oonntry was called Lwionia), Bystematically 
endeavoured to confine themsslvea to a sententions 
brevity in speaking and writing ) hence the term 
laeonic has been ap^died to this style. 

LAOOBDAIBE, Jxis-BAmtffB-HKXBi, the 
most distinguished of the modem pulpit-oratora of 
France, was bom at Beoey-sur-Oarce, m the depart- 
ment CAte-d'or, March 12, 1S02. Ha was educated 
at Dijon, where ha also entered upon his legal 
studies ; and having taken bis degree, he transferred 
himself in 1822 to Puis, where he began to practise 
as an advocate in 1824, and rose rapidly to distinc- 
tion. As his prinoiples at this period were deeply 
tinged with unbelief, it was a matter of Dnivenal 
surprise in the circle of his acqnaintanoe that he 
sud!denly gave op his ^fsesion, entered the College 
of 8t Sulpice, and m 1827 received holy orders. 
He soon became distinguished as a preacher, and 
in the College of Juilly, to which he was attached, 
he formed uie acquaintance of the Abbe Lamen- 
naia, with whom he speedily formed a close 
and intimate alliance, and in conjunction with 
whom, after the revolution of July, he pabliihed 
the well-known journal, the ^vsnir, an organ at 
once of the highest ohuroh prinoiplei and of the 
most eztieme radicalism, llie articles published 
in this journal, and the proceedings which were 
adopted m asserting the Uberty of eduoatian, led to 
a pioeecution in the Chamber of Peers in 1831 ; and 
when the Avtmr itself was condemned by Oregoty 
XVI., L. formally suboiittad, and for a tune with- 



aUysul 
pddio 



aflUn, devoted himself to tiie 
,„ niebriDiaiioyafbiBelaqiiMioet 
and the novel and striking ahanotar of his views, 
excited an interest aHf^ether nnprsoedented, and 
attracted unboimded aiiUairation. His oonrses of 
sermons at Notre-Dame drew to that immenae pile 
.crowds such as had nevoc been seen within the 
memoiy of the Jiving genontion, and had pfodnoad 



„Gt>oyle 



LACQUEB— LAOTIO ACID. 



la eztnorduuuy leiuatiou avea on the oon-ielisiauj 
world, when once kgun L. fixed the wonder of thi 
public by rdiuqoiuing the cu«er of ditrtiuctioi 
whicli WM open to kim, ud entering tha noviti&te 
of the Domimom order in 1340. A ihort time pre- 
TiouBly, he bod publisbed a memoir on the re-eitab- 
liihment of that order in France, which was followed, 
after bia enrolment in the order, by a Life of ' 
founder, St Dominic ; and in 1S41 he appeared o: 
again in the pnlpit of Notre-Dame, in the well-known 
habit of a Dominiuui friar. From thii date, he gave 
mach of his time to preaching in various paiiji 
of France. In the finit election which succeeded 
the rsTolutioQ of 1848, be was chosen one of the 
TepreaentatiTen of Moiseilie, and took part in soi 
oE the debates in the Anembly ; but he reeigned 
the following May, sod withdrew entirely from 

CUticol life. In 1B49, and again in 180) and 18S1, 
reBraned hig coorte* at Notre-Dame, which, 
together with earlieA disconrees, have been collected 
in three volumes, under the title of Con/eraux) dt 
Noln-Dame de Parit, 1835—1860. About this 
time, howaver, his health begau to decline, and 
he withdrew in ISM to the conyeut of Soreze, 
where he spent the remainder of hii life. In 1858, 
he wrote a seriea of LeUers to a Toting Friend, 
which have been much admired; and in 1860, 
having been elected to the Academy, he delivered 
what may be called his last addreao — the customair 
inaugural diacontae, a Memoir of hii predecessor, M. 
de iMjquarille. L. died at Soreze in the following 

LA'CQTJER is a varnish prepared for coating 
metal-work (see Lao), aaoally polished biMi. The 
formula usually employed is, for gold coloar: 
alcohol, 2 gaUons; powdered tutmenc, 1 pound, 
macerate for a week, and then filter with • covered 
filter, to prevent waste from evaporntioii ; to this 
add, of the lightest-coloured shell-lao, 12 ounces; 
^mboge, 4 ounces ; gum-Bandarach, 34 pounds. 
This is put in a warm place until the whole is dis- 
solved, when 1 quart of oommoa turpentine varnish 
is added. A red lacquer, prepared by subatitatins 
3 ponnds of annotta for the turmeric, and 1 pound 
of dragon's blood for the gamboge, is extenrively 

LACQTTERINO, the art of coating metal with 

varnish. The term has also a wider significstion, 
and is made to apply to the process by which 
some varieties of goods in wood and papier michfi 
are also coated with layers of vamieb, which are 
polished, and often inlaid with mother-of-pearl, ka. 
Sec P&FIEK TiXoai. It wonld appear, from the 
very fine specimens from Japan in the International 
EinibitioD, that the Japanese excel in the art of 
producing articles of exquisite Himtii-a and delicacy. 
The vamiah used by the Chinese and Japanese 
Bppeara to be IJie same, and is a natural secretion 
which flows from incisions in the stem of the 
Varmsh-tree (q. v.) Utnolly, the oriental lacquered 
work is tastefully ornamented with designs painted 
in gold, or with inlud shell-work. The Japanese 
have carried this art bo for sa to apply i' 



their delicately beautiful china, s 






(pes and other designs. 
LAOS D'AMOUR, in Hsraldry, a cord of 
r unning knots used as an external deooratioa to 
surround the arms of widows and unmarried 
women, the tord^Hier, which difien but slightly 
from it| being used similarly with the ahields of 

LAOTA'NTinS, iu several MSS. designated 
Luonn Oxum, or Cxciuub Fikwiuids L., an 
eminent Christian author, who floniished in the 



early part of the 4th century. He waa of Italian 
descent, hat studied at Sicca, in Africa, under the 
rhetorician Aniobios, and in 301 a.d. settled as a 
teacher of rhetoric in Nicomedio. Ee was invited 
to Gaul by Conatantine the Great (312_318 ^.n.), 
to act as tutor to his son Crispus, and is supposed to 
have died at Treves about 326 or 33a L?s priii. 
dpal woik is his Z>tf)rKiruin 7n<tilufidnum, libn vii., 
a production both of a polemical and apologetic 
character. A supposed teodency to Mamcheism in 
his views, and his Chiliaam, have marred his repu- 
tation for pure orthodciy. He attacks paganism, 
and defends Cbriatianity. Among ms other 
writings are treatises Dt Ira Dei and De MorlUnu 
Parteeutoram. Some elegies have also been ascribed 
to him, but erToneoosly. His style is wonderful, 
if we conaider the late age at which he wrote, 
and has deservedly earned Tor him the title of the 
Cltrittian Cicero. He was, besides, a roan of very 
considerable learning, but as he ajipears not to have 
become a Christian till he was advanced in years, 
his religions opinions are often very crude and sin- 
gular. L. was a great favonrite during the middle 
ages. The editio prineeps of this writer ia one of 
the oldest extant specimens of typography. It was 
printed at Sabiaoo in 1466. 

LA'CTBALS, Thk, or CHYLIFEROUS VE3- 



Aselli (q. v.), and received their ikome from con- 
veying the milk-like product of digestion, tho 
Chyle (q. v.), during the digestive process, to the 



The licteala : 

iluiD faming the comtDenuDieDt or Ibe tboncla duct, 

■Dbclatiui, and d. tbt jugular rrla, on tbe riolit ilde^ 
he Tntobnil calmnn, Ttas Urge •«»], with ■ pnr- 
I nmoTtd, irlDg in rront of the Tertehnl eolmiui, la Ih* 
ndiag ai Inferior rcna cute. 

Thoracic Duct (q. v.), by which it is transmitted 
to the blood. These vessels commence, as has been 
shewn in the article DtOBanoH, in the intestinal 
villi, and paiiiDg between the layers of the Mesen- 
tery (q. v.), enter the mesenteric glands, and finallv 
umte to form two or three laqp trunks, which 
terminate in tha thoracic duct. 



abAjOogle 



LACmO FEBHENTA'HON— LADAEH. 



""*TTTtf "'**'''■'. syrupy liquid, of apecifio gnvity 
I'ilS. It u deroid tn odour, has a iLarp, Mid 
Uite, Htd ii Kilabls in all proportiona in water, 
alcohol, And ether. 

Hie beat method of obtaining thii acid i« bjdiaMlv- 
ing 8 paHa of eane^ngar in abont CO partt of water, 
and then adding 1 wt of decaying cheese, and 3 
parts of clulk. If this mixture be set aside for two 
or thrao weeks at a temperatare of about 60°, it 
bsoMUes filled with a mass of crystali of lactate of 
lime, which must be purified by re-cryBtalliaation, 
and treated with aboot one-tbini of tiieir weight of 
salphniio acid. The residae must be digested in 
sloohol, which leaves the sulphate of iime, and dis- 
soItss tin lactic acid, which mar be obtained 
r the Bolation. The mode 



led pure 



[O I^ERUNTATIOK. 

Lactic acid is also formed in many other ways ; 
thus, it is a frequent jnt>dnot d the acidificatian of 
vegetable aabstaocea, and in tliis way is formed in 
tauer-trmU, in malt Tinegar, and in the acid fennen- 
" ' ' ' ' ' ' g the manufacture of 



iriieat^tarch. It occnra Ttsd; 

plants, and is Teiy larat^ prod 

body. It i> found either free or combined, or both. 



daced in the animal 



contaita of the small and large inteetme, in the 
chyle (after the nse of amylaceous food), in the 
mnscols)' juice (both of the voluntary and involun- 
tary muscle*}, in the parenchymatous juices of the 
spleen, liver, thymua, pancreas, lungs, and brun, 
and is foand as lactate of lime in the urine of 
the liDive. It has been found in certain morbid 
conditiODS of the systcni in the milk, where it is 
fonned from the sugar by the fermenting action 
of the caseice; in the blood in leucocvthiemia, 
I^Kmia, and puerperal fever ; in purulent and 
other tnnsodstioiis I in the urine when there ia 
diitorbance of the digertive and respiratory organs, 
and in licketa and softening of the bones (and 
almost always after eipoBure to the air for some 
time] ; in the saliva in diabetes ; in the sweat in 
pQeinnl fever, and in the scales that form upon 
the skin in lepnk 

The lactic add occurring in the system may be 
ttaced to two (tistinot sonrces : that which is found 
in the intestinal canal is merely the product of the 
deeompositioii of the starchy matters of the food ; 
bnt that which exiets in the gastric juice (even when 
only animal food baa been taken), in the miiscnlar 
joioe, and in tbe jnicea of the various glands, can 
only be regcirded m a product of the regressive 
metamorph^is or disintegratioD of tiia tissues, and 
how it ii formed is not accurately known. 

Ihere ia no ready test for Uctic ociA. The beat 
conrsD to pursue is to obtain it, if it is present, as 
1 iactale of lime, which cryrtallises in beautiful tufts 
of adiTolar prisms, or as a lactate of zinc, which 
OTBtalliaes m a very characteristic form in crusts 
consisting of delicate f oor-sided priams. 

lACTlO FBKMENTATIOS. Althoneh lac- 
tose or ingkr-of-milk may, under certain conditions, 
be mode to undergo alcoholic fermentation (as in the 
prtparation of kumiss by the Tartan from marts' 
milk), it generally yields a very diSereat product. 
Tit, lactic acid, as may be seen in liie aue of milk 
tuinieg sour in warm weather. The caseine ia nsnaUy 
coosideKd to act as the ferment, but being insolubte 
ia acids, H is thrCwn down in flokee as soon as tiie 
isilk becomes sonr. In this insoluble form, it exerts 
little action in converting the lactose (C,,H,,0,,) 
into lactic acid {C,H,0„HO); bnt if the acid be 
wtnliscd by carbonate of aoAit or by chalk, the 
nrd it red^lved, and Uie tnoifomiation of the 
■■ ' ' "" evolution of 



g absorption ot oxygen takes place during ths 

conversion of the sagar into ths add. 

Not only sngar-oi-milk, bnt cane-iugar, starch, 
dextrine, and gam post readily into lactic add under 
"« infloence of coseine or other animal matten 

ideivoing decompoeitiou. 

Fasteur coaaidei* that ■ specific ferment, the germs 
ot which exist in the atmosphere, is conoerned in 
ths production of the lactic fermentation. Daring 
process recommended in the preceding article 
ihe preparation of lactio add, a layer of particles 
. gray colour is observed on the surface of the 
wdiment. This substance, when examined under 
the microscope, is seen to condst of little globules or 
very short alticalationB, constituting irrwnlor flooca- 
lant particles mucb smaller than those of beer-yeast, 
and exhibiting ■ rapid gyratory motion. When 
washed with a large qnantiK of water, and then 
diffused throogh s solution of sugar, the formatioa 
of lactic acid at once commences. Hence it foUowi 
that these organic particles, and not the casane, are 
the actual agenta in the coavetdon that takes place. 

LACTUCA-BICM, or LETTUCE OPHTM, U 

le inspisBsted milky joice of several species of 
__adiica ot Iisttuce, and is obtained by incision of 
the stem. By drying in the air, the juice loses 
abont half its weight of water, Uia residue being 
loctucorium. It usually occurs in commerce in 
Bmoll lumps about the size of a pea or small bean i 
they are ot a tvddish.btown colour, but ore some- 
times covered with ' a grayish efflorescence ; and 
they have a bitter taste, and a smell resembling 
opium. Lactncarium has been frequently analyse^ 
but chemistry hss thrown little light on Hz com- 

I«ctncarium' postessefl anodyne and sedativs 
properties, and is employed where opium is oon- 
sid^^d objectionable ; as, for instance, when there 
is morbid eidtement of the vascular system ; and 
it ia of service in aJlaying cough in phthisis and 
other pulmonary diseases. The usual dose is flvb 
groins, bnt it may be safely given in larger doses. 

LACU'lTARB, or LACUNAEIS, the panels or 
coffers of ceilings, and also of the soffits of clasdc 
cornices. Thay ore much used in the ceilings of 
portiaos and similar clasaio structures, and ore 
freqoently ornamented with patene. 

LADA'KH, otlierwiBe known as Middli TtBKr, 
lies between Great Tibet on the E., and Little Tibet 
on the W„ stretching in N. lat. from 32° to 36', and 
in E. lon^ from 76° to 79". On the S., it is separated 
from Couunere by the Himalaya, while on the N., 
it is divided by the Ksrokoram MonBtoins from 
Chinese Torkestsn. It contains about 30,000 square 
miles, Kid abont 12I>,000 inhabitants. 'Hie country 
was conquered by Oholab Singh, the ruler of Cash- 
men, in 1836. It lies chiefly within tbe basin of 
the Upper ^idus, being litUe better than a mass of 
mountains with narrow valleys between Uicm. Not- 
withstanding ita ^eat devadon, which ia equally 
uiifaTourable to soil and climate, the tonperatale u 



the atmosphere, and partly 
nre. Pretty good crops of 
wheat, barley, and buckwheat ore raised ; while the 
minerolprodncis are sulphur, iron, lead, copper, and 
gold. The tnuidt-trade is extouive, being carried 
on mostly by mules and sheep. The inhabitants are 
very peaceful and indoitriona ; they are excellent 
farmers, and thdr woollen manufactures are said to 
be important. The women are freab and fair, but 
lather lax in their morals ; among the lower classes, 
polyandry is common. The popuWion is eeaentiaUy 
Mongolian, but has intermixed with the Cashme- 
rians. The language is Tibetan, and in tbe oinniou 



«i),Guu^l 



LABANDM— LADY. 



of Klaprotli the primitiTe dulact of the aboriginal 
people inbabitiiiff the regjon betwaot Hiudiutaii 
and Tartary. l^e religioa i* I«ai>iim, a fonn of 
Bnddhiim (q. t.). It it a provinco of ' OMhmere, 
which u nndor a Mabarftjah, and ii a firitiih food' 
atoiy. The capital dty is li {q. v.). 

LATJAITUM, or LABDANUM. See Cibtm. 

IiASIES OF THB BEDCHAUBEH. Sea 
LADns or the Queen's Household. 

LADIES OF THE QUEEN'S HOUSEHOLD, 
Tee, conaiit of the Miitrew of the Robea, the Ladies 
of the Bedchamber, the Bedchamber W< 
the Muds of Honour. 

The office of Miitrcn of the Bobes b of 
able antiquity. It ii her dntj to regulate 
tion and tinieB of attendance of the rest of the 
Ladiea of the Houaehold, vho are aSI subordinate 
her. She has the mpeiintendence of all dutica co 
nected with the bedchamber— within which the 
Lord Chamberlain has do autborit; — and the custody 
of the robea. On state occaaionl, she must see that 
the ceremony of robing the Qneea ia properly per- 
formed. In pablio ceremool^ she accompanies 
the Queen in the same carriage, or wolkt imtoeafately 
before Her Majesty. Tim Ladia of the Beddiamba; 
who now number eight, with four extra ladiea, and 
the Bedchamber Women, of whom there are eight, 
besides one resident and tour e>±ra, are {tereoDid 
attendaota, ministering to the state of Her Majesty. 
The Maid> of Honour, ol whom there are eight, are 
immediate attendant* ou the royal penon, and in 
Totation perform the duty of accompanying the 



Totation perform the duty of accompanying the 
Qoeen oD all oooasionil. They enjoy byeonrtm tiie 
title ' Honourable,' when not entitled to it b^ birth, 



LADIKO, Bru. or. See Bill of Lasiho. 

LADISLA8, VLADI8I.A8, VLADISLAF, 
ULADIfiLAS, different forms of a name frequeotly 
occurring in the hittories of Poland, Hungary, 
Bohemia, and Serria. — Vluhblu L of Fobmd, sur- 
named Lokietck (the Short) — one of those princes 
who appear to be taised up during a period of 
intestine confusion and disorwiiaatioii, for the 
purpoae of shewing how powerrul is tlie influence 
of one great mind — wai ruler of the amsll ptorinoe 
of Cracow, at a tame when Poland WW subdivided 
into oonntlen mull inlBpsi>denoi<B. V. united them 
in 1S19 ; and the further to increaae the stability of 
the gorammant, he Mdnced the priTileges of the 
higher nobles, lanorvd the council of prelates and 
magnates, replacing it by a popular aasembl; ; he 
greatly im^toYtA the adminlstratioD of juttioe, and 
farthered commerce and industry. — VnDiaLM II. 
and Vuj)DK.AH UI. Sea Jaqkllons. — Vlujislas 
IV. (1633—1648), whUe yet a youth, was elected 
Ozar of Russia in 1610, Imt was prevented by his 
(•titer, Ebgitmnnd, from acoepting the crown. He 
WM a wis* and piditia pcinoe, yet it WM under his 
n^u that Sweden, Bnaua, and Turicey 
to nibbls at tlw onUying proTincaa. 



_. .._... dying proTUK 

manfnlly to nmady tiie peculiar defects (A the 
Polish ooMtitittion, bnt they were too deeply rooted ; 
' "' )reialoiiof "' 



and thoof^ he KNU^t to wkd the oppreisloi 
difsiiMit^ and tooE tha part of the Cossacks 
thoM nobles who had d^nired them of theii 

IB tba n^al anthori^, t^t hit suppon 
D noUiin^ The Coaniok^ maddtnea by 
of tfadr libntiei, the impoaitioD of new 
le penaevting te«l of the Soman Catholic 
ited the Polish army, 
rale of Bnaaia. At 



ud pnt ttMrnsdre* under 
this critical moment, T. dieu. 

LADCO A (SiAKAlA, or Old Ladoga), an ancient 
BnsBan town. In the goranmunt of St Peletatnug, 



the left bank of the river Wolkhof. It waa the 

.1 of Rorik, the foondsr of tlie Knsnan 
monarchy, and the wall* of a fortress erected by 
him , and a cbnrcb of the Ilth c, still mark its aita. 
Pievunuly to tlie aeceoioii of Peter I„ Old I^do^ 
was an important Btrategio point for the defenea of 
Novgorod. Peter I. built the town of Novo, or 
New Ladoga, near the entoance of the Wolkhof into 
Lake Ladoga, and now on the site of tlie old town 
of Burik snuids the small village of Ouspenskoe. 



land and the governments of Olonets and Peters- 
burg It it 120 miles in length, TO miles in Intadth, 
and 6804 square miles in area. It receivea the 
waters of Lake Onega, Lake Saint, and Lake Dmen, 
and ita own waters arc carried ofF to the Oulf of 
FimJnnd by the Neva (q. v.}. The depth of Lake L. 
vatic* from 12 to 1000 feet, and the navigation ia 
eiceedingly dangerous, owing to tbe sbaUows, sond- 
bonlu, and gunken rocks in which it abounds, and 
which are created by its steep 
Of the several islands of the 
lake, the priiLcipal are the Valaom and Konevetz, 
— ^"~ asterics, which attract nnmbers of pilgrima 



Of the TO rivers which faU into Idika L, the 
principal are the Wolkhof, the Bias, and the Svir, 
each of which ia a means of commnnication between 
the Neva and the Volga. In order to obviate 
the difficulty of navigabon, canals have been con- 
atructed along its south and sontb-eaat shores, the 
principal beiitg the Ladoga Canal (70 foet wide), 
which unites Qie mouth of the Wollchof with the 
Neva. Other two canals unite the mouths of the 
Bias and Svir with the Ladoga CattaL This canal- 
system fomu the thoroughfare for a very ertendve 
traffic between the Volga and the Baltic Com- 
munication by water subsists between Lake L. and 
the Wltita Sea as well as the Caspian. 

LADKO'NES, or THIEVES' ISLANDS, a map 
about 20 islands, the northernmost Australian 
group, in lat 131 "—SOi" N., and long. 146i°— HT" R 
Thev are disposed in a row almost due north and 
south. Their united area is about 1351 square miles. 
They were discovered by Mogellsa (in 1621), who 
gave them the name which they still bear, from the 
ah propensity displayed by the natives. They 
afterwards called the Lamnu lAind* ; and 
the Jeauit minooaries, who settled here in 166T, 
called them the Marvma IJandg. They are moun- 
tainous, well watered and wooded (among the trees 
are the bread-fruit, the banana, the coooa-nat), 
fruitful in rioe, maize, oottoit, and indigo. European 
domestic »"'"■«!■ are now very commoiL At the 
tiitie when tiiey were discovered, the population waa 
reckoned at 100,000, bnt the present p<q>ulatian 
is only about 6600, The inhabitants, idto are 
docile, rehgiouB, Idnd, and hospitable, resemble in 
physiognomy those of the Philippine T»i«ni<^ The 
islands are very important \a the Spaniarda, in a 
commercial pomt of view. The lugeat ialand ia 
Gnajan, 90 miles in circumferenoe ; on it ia the 
capital, San Ignocia do' Ag^ia, the aeftt of tha 
Spanish governor. 

IiADT, a woman of distinction oomlatively to 
Lord (q. v.), used in a more extensive senae in cem- 

pu'Ionce correlatively to gsOiem/m. As a title, 

tongs to peeresses, the wives of peers, and of 
by courtesy, the word Lady bemg in all these 

prefixed to the peerain tJUe. Tba dan^tcra 

of dukes, marquises, and earls are by oourtesydesig- 
itat«d by the title Lady prefixed to their Chiis- 
tian name and surname ; a title not lost by marriage 
with a commoner, when the lady cmly tubstitatea 
her husband' *— >. .. i 



on pu'Ioi 
belongs 



abvGoogle 



LADT OBAPM^LA£NNEO. 



^ _ [t A [Mer's daughter nursing a peer, 

cu BO IiMiger be dauguated by her Cbruti&n n&me 
with L*dy ; aba matt take her basbaad's rank and 
titles area dioidd a lou of precedenoe be the rosult. 
M wfaea the daoghter of a doke marries an earl, 
TJKOont, or baron. Should her huiband, however, 
be merely a courte^ peer, she may retain her 
dcaj^natioii l^ Christian name with Jmj preBied, 
■■bratating her huaband'a oonrteay title for her anr- 
name ; thia titia and preoadenoe betng again dropped 
on h^ fanaband'a niooeMion to the peerage bv Jiii 
father'* de«th. He daoghter-iU'law of a doke, 
marqnia, or eari, U gesenUr deaignated bv the title 
Lady prefixed to ttie Chrittian name and tanuune 
of her hiubaod ; but if she be the daughter of a 
pen of a higher rank thao her fatber-io-law, she 
may, if ahepleasea, be dedgned bj Lady prefixed 
to her own Gnriatian name and ber hoaband** aur- 
name, and in iJut ease ahe retains the precedence 
which ahe had when nnmarried. The wife of a 
baronet or knisht ia generally dednied by Lady 
nrefiied to her husband'i surname ; &.e proper I^al 
deei^natioii, howerer, being Dame, followed hy wit 
ChnAtiBn name — "* — '^^ — 



alwava, pi 
attached t 



LADf CHAPEL, a ch^wl dedicated to the 

Virgin tiaiy ('Our Lady'), and lunally, but not 

alwaya, plooed eattwarda from the altar when 

' '- catbednla. Heniy VU.'s Chapel at 

ia the lady cbftpel of that cathedraL 

IiADY OF HEBCY, Cub, b Spaniih order of 

kni^thood, founded in 121S, by Jamea L of AngoQ, 

in iSlfilnieat d a tow made to the Yiivin during his 

captiTity in France. The object for which the order 



. . . was the relemption of Cbristiai] 

captive* from amon^ the Moon, each knight at 
his uwngnration Towmg that, if necessary for their 
ranaoiuTne wonld renam b'"™'* a captive in their 
steftd. Within the first six yean of the existence 
of the ordis, no fewer than 400 captave* are said to 
have been raziaomed b;f ibi mean*. Oq the expulsion 
of the Uoon from 3pun, the luboora of the koi^ts 
were bsasferred to Africa. Their badge is a, shield 
par^ p«r feaa gnle* and ci, in ohief a croaa pattte 
ac^fot, in biae four pallets gules far Atagon, the 
shield crowned with a ducal coronet The order wm 
extended to ladle* in 1261. 

LAI>T OP HONTBSA, OvB, an order of 
kni|ijitbood, founded in I3I7 by King Jamea IL of 
AngoQ, who, on the abrogation of <£e order of the 
Templais, arged Pope Clement V. to allow him to 
csDpIor aH Ukeii eatate* wiUiin hia territtny in 
fconding a new knightly order for the protection of 
the (^matiana against &e Hoora. His reqaest was 
acceded to by the following pope, John XX II., who 
granted him for this purpose all the estates of the 
Tetnplan and of the Knights of St John situated in 
Valencia. Out of these was founded the new order, 
which King Jamea named after the town and castle 
of Mont*s«, which he aasignad as ita head-qoarten. 
'™" ' ' I now eonferred merely as a mark of 



creationa. The 
badge is a red cros* edged with gold, the costome a 
long white woollen mantle, deoorateid with a crots 
on the Wt breast, and tied with very long white 

LADYBIRD {Coffindla), a genns of coleopterotu 
inaeeta ot Uie section Trimera, containing a gr^t 
Bim^ier i^ species very similar to each oth^. They 
are very ynXiy little neetlea, well known to every 
coe, generally ot a brilliant red or yellow colour, 
with black, red, whita, or yellow spote, the number 
and distribntion o( which is one of the oharacteriatic 
naA* «t the di&rent species. The form is nearly 
lliiniwiiiwl.tbii iiiiikr nirfimbniniiTnTyflit the 



thorax and head amoU ; (ha anteniue are short, and 
terminate in a triangular olub ; the legs are abort 
When handled, these insect* emit from their joints 
a yellowish floid, hav- 
ing a disaRreeable amelL 
They and their larvn 
feed chiefly on whidea, 
ia devouring which they 
are very useful to hop- 
growers and other agri- 
culturists. They deposit '' 
their ega under the 
leaves of plants, on 
which the larve are to 
And their food^ and the 

larv» run about in pur- IMjiird{C«xiMUaee;atala): 
suit of aphides. I^y- Utgnlfled. 

birds are sometiniea to 

be seen in immense numbers, which, from ignorance 
ot their uaefulnesH, have sometimes been regarded 
with a kind of aaperstitioua dread. Several speoiea 
are abundant in Britain, and the largest of these 
{C. aepttm-purKlata) is found over all Europe, and 
in porta of Asia and Africa. The name L. ie perhaps 
a corruption of Ladybvg [Lady, i e., the Virgm 
Mary). The Oerman name is MarUnbi/er. 

LADT-DAY, one of the regular quarter-days in 
England and Ireland, on which rent is generally 
made payable. It is the 25th of Uareh in each 

LADVB FRIEND, a name given to an offloer of 
the House of Commons, who used to take care that 
a proviaion was inserted in favour of a wife when 
the bosband "ppbed for on act of parliament to 
divorce her. llie pnctice is now supuseded by the 
difTerent practice m an ordinary suit in the divorce 

LADVS GOWIT, a preaent formerly made in 
Scotland by a purchaser of an estate to a wife on 
her renouncing her liferent over her husband's 

LAST'S MANTLE (AUIiemUla),ageiaaot her* 
baceoua plants, chiefly natives of temperate and cold 
climates, of the natural order SoKUxa, sub-order 
Sanjfaiaorbta ; having amoll and numerous flowers, 
an 8-cleft calyx, no corolla, and the fruit aurroundud 
by the penostent calyx. The name L. M. signifying 
Jiantie of Out Lady—l e., of the Viijin Mary, is 
derived from the form of ^e leavea.— The Commoh 
L. M. iA. valgarU) ia abundant on banks and in 

Citures throughout Britain. Its root-leaves are 
ge, plaited, many-lobed, and serrated ; its flowers 
in corymbose terminal clusters are nsoally of a 
yellowish-CTeen colour. — Still more beautiful ia the 
AlphTK L. M. {A. alpina), which grows on mountains 
in Scotland, and has digitate serrated leaves, white 
and satiny beneath. — A common Britiab pjont of 
very hnmble growth and unpretending appearance 
ia the Fold L. M., or Parslkv PlisT {A.—oi 
AjAano — arvoisii], found in pastures, an astringent 
and diuretio, said to be sometimes useful in cases of 
atone in the bladder, by producing a large secretion 
of lithic acid. 

LADY'S SLIPPER {Cgpr^iedmm), a Kenns of 
plants of the natural order Orchideit, ot which noe 
species, C. Caleeoltu, is a native of Britain, being 
found in a few places in the north of England, and 
ia reckoned one of the most beautiful of the British 
Orcbida. The genus is remarkable for the lanp 
inflated lip of t^e corolla. Several very beautiful 
apeciea arc natives of the colder parts ot North 
America. 

LAEJflTEC, BaxA T&ioFaiLi Htaotnthz, i 
distinguished physician, was bora at Quimpar, ii 



abvGoogle 



L^WAM smroAT-LAPAYBPrE. 



Lower Brittany, in 1781, aod died there in 1826. 
He atndied medioins in FariB, vhere he attended 
the jiiactice oE CorviMJi, to whom the medical pro- 
feinon ia mainly indebted for the introdnction of 
percunion in l£e investi^tion of dimues of the 
obett, Klthongh ike origmal discovery is due to 
AvenbruEger. In 1814, he took the degree of 
Doctor ofMedicine, and in the same year, he became 
the chief editor of the Jotimai de Sfidedne. In 
1816, he was appointed chief phjnician to the 
HApitol Ncclur, and it was there that he Boon 
atter made the discovery oE mediate auscultation, 
or, in other words, oE the nse of the Stethoscope 
(q. v.). In 1819, he published his TraiU de FAiu- 
catlation MidiaU, wmch has undoubtedly produced 
a greater eSect, in so far aa the advance of dioffnorit 
is concerned, than any other single book. His 
treatise hud not long appeared, when indications 
oE consumption were discorered in his own cheat 
by means of the art of his own creation, and after 
a few years of delicate health, daring which he 
continued to practise in Pans, ha retired to die in 
liis native province. 

hXTAfRt SUNDAY, called also Mu-lkkt, is 
the fourth Sunday of Lent. It is so named from 
the firvt word of the Introit of the mosa, which is 
from Isaiah IxvL 10. From this name the charac- 
teristic of the Bcrvices of the day is joyouaness, and 
the music of the organ, irtiich throngnout the rest 
of Lent is sospended, is on this day resumed. 
Ltetare Sunday u also the day selected by tlie pope 
for the blessing of the QolDeh Robe (q. v.). 

LA FARI'NA, an Italian anthor and politician, 
bom at Messina in I81S. In the univeiBity of 
Catania, the degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
on him at the ^ of 19 ; and in 1S37, having taken 
part in an ioe^ctoal revolutionary movement in 
Sicily, he sought safety in expatriatioo. In 1839. 
he returned to Sieily, was received as a lawyer, and 
started several pouldcal journals, which were all 
successiTely sappnoaed. This led him to remove 
to Flormce, iraere he published several works, 
more ronarkahle for their oontenta than for the 
graces of their language^ In the rising of 1848, 
La F. took a promment part in the movement of 
Tuscany, where he edited the first democratio and 
anti-papal journal, the Alba. He soon returned to 
Sicily, and was elected member of the council of 
war, and member of parliament ; and on the depooi- 
tion of the kJD^ by the Sicilians, he was despatched 
by the provisioaol government on a mission to 
Rome, Tuscany, and Turin. On his return to 
Palermo, he dischaiwd the combined duties of 
Minister of Public Instruction, of Public Works, 
and of the Interior. After the capture of Messina 
by the royal troops, La F. accepted from the king's 
government the post oE Minister of War, a step 
which incurred the severe censure of the party of 
liberty, hut which only led to his renewed bamah- 
ment from Sicily. In the war of the south, by 
which the heroic Garibaldi liberated the kingdom 
of Naples, La F. reappeared in Sicily ; but his 
unfortunate differences with Garibaldi liid to his 
nltimateoiDnldou from the island He died two yean 
later, in lSo3. Some of his principal works an — 
Souvemrt of Some and Tutcany ; liaiy (1 vol); 
Saitxrland (2 vols.); Chma (4 vols.); HMory of 
the Jimotiition qfSicUy in 1848 and 1849 (2 vols.). 

LAFATETTB, Makik Mapelsme Fiochk de 
Lavbbohs, Coutesss de, bom 1633, died 1693, 
the authoress of a number of novels, excelled by no 
work* of that age in the development of character 
and true delineation of human nature. Her father, 
^ L She 
I 16SS 



most distinguished 

literary men ot her sge, at tlie some time that 
it was frequented by tna penons of highest tank 
and fasbion in Paris. Her novel*, ZtOde aod La 
Pjineetat dt Clintt, have been frequently reprinted. 

LAFAYETTE, Mabis Jsah Paul Roch Ytss 
GiLBEBT MoTDB, MAKQnu HE, deecended from an 
ancient family of Anvergne, was bom 6th September 
1T6T, in the castle of Cnavaraiac, now in the depart- 
ment of Upper Loire. He oecame a soldier at oa 
early age, and in 1777 went to America, to take ^rt 
witli the colonista in their war of independence. The 
friendship of Washington exerciBed a great inflaence 
over the development of hit mind and the formatian 
of his DpinionK. The declaration of war between 
France and Britain gave him an opportunity ot 
aiding the new repnbUc effectually, by returning to 
Fmnca, where he was received with honour by the 
court, and with entlmaiavn by the people. Be 
again repaired to America in 1780, and was mtmited 
by Congress with the defence of Yirginia, where 
he rendered important services. On a third visit 
to North America in 1784, after the conclusion of 
peace, he was received in such an 
tour was a continual triumph. 

L. had imbibed liberal principles, and now eagedy 
sought topromote a tliorough reform in his native 
country. He was called to the Assembly of Notables 
in 1787, and was one of those who moat earnestly 
urged the Assembly of the States. He took part 
also in the movements which converted tiie Assembly 
of the States into the National Assembly ii 



te prooeedings of the 



He took a 

Assembly, ai => * . 

mond of the armed citizens, laid the foundation of 
the National Guard, and gave it the tricolor cockade. 
In these first periods of the Bevolntton, it seemed ai 
if L. had the destiniea of Franoe in bit hands. Bnl. 
he foimd himself unable to control the excitement 
The extreme republicans u 
L, because he advocated a o 



rendered them — because of his seal for the new 
order of tbines- Along with Bailly, he founded the 
dub of the Fenillonts. After the adoption of the 
constitution of 1790, he retired to his est'" ' 
Lagrange, till he received the command c 
army oE Ardennes, with which he won the first 
victories at Philippeville, Maubeuge, and Floienneo. 
Nevertheless, the calumnies of the Jaoobins rendered 
him exceedingly unpopular, and he wss accused of 
treason, but aoquitted. After several vain efforts 
to maintain the cause of rational liberty, he left 
Paris for Flanden. but was taken prisoner by 
the Austrions, and conveyed to Olmutz, whem 
he remained (or about five years, till Bonaparte 
obtained bis liberation in 1797; but he took no pari 
in pubhc affairs during the BBcendency of Bona- 
parte. He sat in the Chamber of Deputies for the 
department of Sarthe from 1818 to 1824, and was 
cue of the extreme Left From 1823 to 1830, he 
again a leader of the opposition in the Chamber 

>epntiea. In 1830, ha * ' " ' - " - 

lution, and commands 
He died 20th May 1834. 

LAFAYETTE, a ci^ oE Indiana, United State* 
of America, on the east bank, and at Um head of 
navigation of the Wabash River, 63 miles north- 
west of Indiaoopolia, on the line of the Wabash 
and Brie Canal, and at the intersection of four 
railways. It is a fiourishing city, in the midst of 
a rich prairie-ceuntty. Ud out in I82S, it has liS 
ehurches, 2 daily, and 4 we^y newspapera, with 



>dhy Google 



LAFFirTSULAGBANGK 



in 1870, 1^300. 

IiAJfiflTUB, JiOQun, ft XVcmoh Unko- bdcI 
■Niwiinaii, bom of humble parentis >t Bftjoime, 
34th October 1767, VM eailr empbnd u a clerk 
bj tlie rich banker Perranux in Pirii, and snc- 



oeeded him i 



in 1814 Koyernor of the Bank of Fnnce. On the 
return of Napoleon from Elba, Louia XVIII. depo- 
tited » large mm in L.'t handi ; and after the 
battle of Waterloo, Napoleon intruated 5,000,000 
trano to him, which ba kept aafe, atthoagh the 
it mads ■oma attempta to lay hold of it. 



JJter 



the aecond reatontioQ, he became oi 



I of tl 



Paris. When the 
«». broke oat in 1830, be wrote to the Duke of 
Orleans, nying, 'Toa have to make yonr choice 
between s crown oad a jtaisport.' He freely 
■applied the money requinte on that occasion. 
Be became one of the first ministiy of the new 
king and in Iforember IS30 waa intmsted with 
the formation of a cabinet, the conaervative char- 
acter of which caiued the loaa of hie papalaiity. 
Meanwhile hia banking oEQure fell iato cojifu^oa, 
and he woe obliged to eell all hia property to pay 
hia debts. A tuktioaal subscription preeerved hini 
his hStel in Puis ; aod being ^aiQ elected to the 
Chamber aa ft depnty for Pans, he became a leader 
of the opuositioa. from the ruins of his fortune 
he founded a new Biscoact Bank. Aa the govero- 
ment receded more from the principles of the 
lerulutioD of 1830, L. became more active in oppo- 
sition, lu 184% to the great diapleaaare of the 
court, he was elected preaident of the Chamber of 
Deputies. He died 28th May 1844. 

I.AFOHTAINE, Jeak dk, a French poet, 
distineniali^ above all hia countrymen aa a fabulist. 
WBB the eon of a Maltre des Eaui et Forita, and 
was bora July 8, 1621, at Chitean-Thiernr, in 
Champagne, la hia eiLrly youth, he learned umost 
nothing ftnd at thx age of 20, he waa aent by 
hii fauer to the Oratoir at Rheima, in a state 
U eitrem* ignorance. Hers, however, he b^ian 
lo exhibit » decided taste for the clanics and 
for poetiy. Though sel&ib and vicious to the 
last d^(ree, he poasaBssd withal a certain child- 
like bonhamie ; it was not erace, or vivacity, or 
wit, but ft certain soft and feasant amiability of 
mamier, so that he never wanted friends. He 
BDoeMBvely found proteeton in the Duoheas de 
BoniDon, who drew him to Paris ; in Madams de 
SsUitn, and in H. and Madame Hervart. He 
eajojed tha friendship of Moli&re, Boileau, Kacine, 
>u other contemponuy edebritias ; and even the 
nintly Feoelou lamented his death in extravagant 
■bHna. In 1693, after a dangerous illness, he 
euried into execution what a French critic cha^ 
uteiisticBlIy terms his projd, de convertiori, and 
talent the Inief remainder of his life in a kind of 
Ktifidal penitence, common enoogh among licen- 
tious men and women in those sensual days. He 
died at Puia, April 13,1695. His best, which, how- 
ever, sre alao hia most immoral productions, are 
CmUt tl J^oumUu en Veri (Paris, 1665 ; 2d part, 
1666; 3d part, 1671). and FaiUt Chokitt mita m 
Ftn (also m tliiee parts, of which Ota first appeared 
in less, and the third in 1693). The editions of the 
FMa have been inmuoerable. The beat edition of 
L's odleeled works is that of Walckenaar (IS vols. 
Paris, 1819—1820; improved edition, in 6 vols. 



I1A.QEBSTIUBUU. ft genua o( plants of Uie 



natural order LytAraixa, the type of a aub-order 
Laqenlrctmiea, which is distinguished by winged 
seeda, and in which are to be found some of the 
noblest trees of tropical forests, whereas the true 
Lylhna are eeneraUy herbaceous. LagtrtlTamia 
Btgina is the Jjlbool of India — a mftgoificent tree, 
with red wood, which, although sof^ is durable 
under water, and is therefore much used for boat- 

LA'OOUYB, a ffenus of rodent quadrapeds, of 
the family Leponda, much resembling hares or 
rabbita, but with limbs of more «^al length, 
more perfect clavicles, longer daws, longer bead, 
shorter ears, and no tail They are interceting 
from their peculiar instincts, storing up herbage 
for winter use in heaps or stacks. Tl^ Alfinb 
L., or PtKA of Siberia {L. oZptntu), the largest 
of the ^nns, is scarcely larger than a guinea- 
pig, yet its gtacks ara sometimes four or five feet 
ni^ by eight feet in diameter, and often afford 
adventurous sable-hunters the food necessary for 
their horses. The little «nimal. Uva in burrows, 
from the inhabited part of which galleries lead to 
the stacks. The herbage of which they are com- 
posed is of ths choicest kind, and dri^ so as to 
retain much of its juices, and form the very best of 

LAOOO'ir (lAt laeuna, a hoUow or pool) ia a 
species of lake formed by the over&owing either of 
ths sea or of rivers, or by the infiltration of water 
from these ; and hence lagoons are sometimes 
divided into fluvial and marine. They are found 
only in low-lying lands, such as ,the coasts of 
Holland, Italy, Uie Baltic, and the oast cowit of 
South America ; are generally shallow, and do not 
always present the same aapecL In soma cases, 
they are completely dried up in summer ; in others, 
after being once formed, they preserve throughout 
the whole year the character of stagnant marahy 
pools J and m others, again, the sea, vhich re-nnitcs 
them to iloelf in winter, is separated from them in 
summer by a bar of sand or shingle. 

IiA'QOS, a dty and seaport of Portugal, in the 
province of Algarve, on a wide bov, 23 miles east- 
north-east from the eitreniity of Cape St Vincent. 
The harbour affords protection from north and west 
winds only, and accommodates only small vessels. 
A productive tunny-fishery is carried on in the 
vicmity. Pop. 0800. In the hay of L., Admiral 
BoBcawen obtained a signal victory over the French 
Toulon fleet, August 18, 1759. 

LAOBAVGE, Jonrs Locia, Covra, one of 
ths ra«atest of mathematdciani, was bom at Turin 
in 1736. He was of French extraotion, and 
was the grandson of Deacartes. When still ft 
youth, he salved the isoperimetrical problem of 
Euler, and when scanxly 19 yean of age, was 
appointed Professor of If athematics in die Artillery 
School in Turin. Frederick the Great appointed 
him to be Euler'a successor, as director of the 
Aoademv at Berlin, in 1759. After Frederick's 
death, Naples, Sardinia, Tuscany, and Prance strove 
for the honour of offering L. a better position. Ho 
accepted the offer ot France, and took up his 
quarters in the Louvre in 1787, obtaining a pension 
of 6000 francs (i338). In 1791, he was chosen a 
foreign member of tiie Royal Society of Londim, 
and the same year the National Assembly con- 
firmed to him his pension, and he waa appointed 
one of the directora of the Mint. He was in great 
danger dnring the Beign of Terror, but aac^)ed, 
and was aftrawards prraessor in the Normal and 
Polytechnio Schools. Napoleon made him a mem- 
b^ of the Senate^ bestowed on him the Grand 
Cnm ot the Legtim of Hononr, the titk of Coant, 



dhy Google 



LAOEIMOSO-LArrr. 



the Puitheoa. 
^incipnl work* tre : Memoin ' on the Motitni of 
Fluidi' sad 'the Propaeation^of Sound;' mother 
memoir refated D'Alembert'i Tiewi rqjuding the 
theory of the earth's formation. When only 2t 
yeara of age, he published hia Iftw Method, lubea- 
qnently luioim as the Cidcttiiu <ff FariuJtoiu. 
thna addins a new and powerfnl weapon to the 
phUoaopluoal armouTy. la 17U, hia memoir on the 
'LilnutiOD of the Moon' earned off the firat prize 
at the Academy, It waa in thia treatiae tiiat ha 
shewed the extent and fmitfolnem of the ptin- 
ciple of 'Tiltual vjomtiea' wliich he afterwatds »o 
HuiMeBafully applied to macluuiica. Next appeared 
his work* on the solution of 'nnmerioaf' and 
'algeVuo' eijuatiaiiB; aad in 17ST, hia Micaniqiu 
jlno^&fM, twork in wliich mechsaica is rednoed to 
a mere qoeatJoD of calculation. Hia last important 
works were, OaLcid d» Fonc^ont AnaiyUqaa, Tn^U 
da FoncHoru, and Bltdviion da EqiUzttouM Jftiml- 
riqiiea. L. made many other important investiga- 
tiona in pure and mixed mathematics, and partica- 
Lirlj in aEtionoin||' — the chief subjecbi of wHioh Kn, 
the prohlem of Three Bodies, the Long Inequality 
of Jnpiier and Saturn, the moon's Secular Inequality, 
attraction of ellipsoids, perturbations of Jupitera 
satellites, diminution of the ecliptic, variation of the 
elemeDte of the planetary orbits, &c, 

LAQBIMO'BO, an Italian term used in Uuaio, 
meaniiiK weeping, or mournfully ; similar to lamm- 
lotOf which expresses the same, but in a higher 
d^ree. The delivery should be heart-stirTing, nut 
at the tame time me from all mannerisms and 

LA OFAYRA. See Gua'cba, Li. 

LA OU^BONSIERE, Louia SnxiiNB Abthitb, 

VlcoilTl DX, a conspicuous French politician of the 
preaent day, was bom in IS16, of a noble family of 
Poitiers. He first attracted notice by the articles 
which he contributed to the Avemr IfationtU of 



master, Ultimately, he came to a rupture with 
LamortiDe, and became an ardent Bonaportist, and 
after the amp d;itat (2d December 18J!1), the apolo- 
gist of that audacioua deed. In 1853, he entered 
the Council of State. La 6. stood ao weU in the 
good graces of the late French emperor, that his 
articles and pampidets were considered to posaess a 
Bemi-official value. Id 1868, he went as ambassador 
to Brussels, and afterwords to Constantinople. On 
the downf^ of the empire, he was imprisoned for a 
time, and now Uvea in retirement. Among his moet 
noted publications are — L'Entperetir Napolion III. 
et rAnqleterre (1858), L'Empereitr NapoUan III. 
ft VlUdU (IS£9), Le Papt el k Congrit (18S9}, and 
La France, Rime, et Vltalit (1861). 

L AHIJA'N, an important trading-town of Persia, 
in the province of uhilan, close to the southern 
shore of the Caspian Sea, thirty miles eaot-sonth- 
eoatofHesbd. Pop. 7000. 

LAHN, an important affluent of the Rhine (q. v.). 

LAHOllE, one of the ohieC dtiea of the Punjab, 
atonds on the left bank of the Ravi, the middlo of 
the five riverg which give name to the country ; lat. 
31° 36' N., king. 74° 21' B. It ia surrounded by a 
brick waU, formerly twenty-five feet high, and by 
fortifications seven miles in circuit In the north- 
wMt comer of the city stand the citadel, the great 
magaidne, and milituy workshops. The sbeeta 
ape narrow and gloomy, the bazaars well famished, 
bat the hontea in gene^ insignificant. Witiiin 
u 



the oirouit, welli tm abundant ; the ground is weU 
cultivated, adomed with magnificent gardens, on^ 
strewn with numeroua mina of a bygone ■pleadonr 
and proapaiity. The pres en t town, whioh has a 
popnlatian of (1S68) 98,924, is Mid to have poa- 
aeased under the Mognls 1,000,000 inhabitanta. In 
the 12th 0., it was the capital of the dynasty of the 
Qhaznevidea, and subsequently a favourite resi- 
dence of the successcm of Baber. In 1799, Runjeet 

but ai 

city about forty mile* to the east, L. became mnoh 
neglected. Since IS40, the epooh of the British 
oonquest of the Punjab, L. haa advanced in com- 
merce and wealth. More eepeoiaiUy, however, has 
the change of maaten been beneficial to educa- 
tion. A seminary not only for imparting Hindu 
and Mohammedan literature, but aJao for commu- 
nicating, through vernacular languages, European 
knowledge, has been suooesafnlly established. The 
institution, though it does receive a grant in aid 
from the supreme government, is yet mainly sup- 
ported by the rulers and popnlations of native 
priucipalitiee. There is also a university college, an 
hospital and medical school, a museum, ka, 

LAHH, * manufacturing town of Baden, sitnated 
on the Shutter, an affluent of the Bhine, 53 miles 
sonth-soatti-west of Corlsrohe. It stands a 
and beautiful district, and carries on considerable 
manufactures of linen and woollen cloth, ailk rib- 
bons, leather, and tobacco. Pop. (1871) 7710. 

LAI'BACH, or LAYBACE, a town of Austria, 
capital of the orownland of Knun or Camiola, Liee in 
an extensive plain on a liver of the same name, fifty 
miles north-east of Tiieate, It contains a lyoeum, 
gymnasium, and other educational instituldon^ and 
carries on an extensive transit-trade with Trieste, 
Fiume, Qrfitz, ka. Ita manufactures of cotton em- 
ploy 400 hands, and upwards of 200 workmen are 
employed in the suear- works. To the south- west of 
the town is the Laibach Morass, which formerly was 
frequently covered by the swollen waters of the river. 
It IS upwards of eighty square miles in extent. 
Within the lost forty years, three-fourths of it have 
been brought under cultivation ; the remainder affords 
an inexhaoatible supply of tnrf. Pop. (1869) 23,032. 

This town is famous for the congress of mouarchs 
which met here in 1821. The pnrpoee of this 
congreBB wss to secure the peace of Italy a 
Carbonariem, to arrest the then increasing pr 
of revoltition, and to restore in Naples and ^cily 
the former condition of affairs. The result of it waa 
the passing of a resolution establishing among Euro- 
peon notions the right of armed intervention in the 
afioirs of any neignbooring state which may be 
troubled with factions. In thia congreci the British 
minister refused to take put, 

LA'IS, the name of one, or, more probably, 
two Greek oourtesana, celebrated for extraordinory 
beauty. The elder is believed to hove been bom 
at Corinth, and flouriahed during the Peloponnesian 
War. She was reckoned to possess the most grace- 
ful figure of any woman of her time in Greece, bat 
she waa capricious, greedy of money, and ta her old 
age became a iipmer. — The younger appears to 
have been bom in ^cily, but came to Gonnth when 
still a child. She sat as a mode! to the painte: 
Apelles, who is said to have recommended ner ti 
adopt tiie profession of a prostitute, in which she 
obtoined a ' had eminence? She was stoned to 
death by some Thesoolion women wham she had 
made jealous. Both of these women had temples 

" Qr.I „, 

e Bomaa Catholio Chuicn to 



ai,Googte 



LAKE— LAKSHMt 



tO [Mcaona who do not baloog to the Oleigy {□. t.)- 

Tht oaiiw appMn to ba,n origiiuted ■■ emy la 

Hu M c^ trluD Uie idea grew np tliat fhe ineit- 

booi fonoed »a intermedin olaw between Chrut 

■nd tlM Chiutua covmnnity. Thn inflnenoe which 

I the laity had at fint eiereised in the goreniment of 

I the chmtli gndnally declined ai the power of the 

I hioaiehy incnaaed, and altboo^M lata u the end 

I of the 3a e., eaaea oocni in which learned laymen 

I tan^t pnbUolf wttik tile approval of biihops, still 

I thi* Ubfrt^ wai ever mora and more narrowed, 

' nutil fisallj, in S02, a lynod. held at Some under 

' the biab<^ Symmaohiu, forbade laymen to inteztsre 

1 in any w» in the ^ain of the church. The 

I ProteMaiit Chnrch, in general, '"""'»'"" on aoiip- 

j tnial gronnda the common and equal priesthood of 

I all ChriatiMU ; atill, ae making a Tiaiue diafcinetiou 

I of offio^ tha wordaoontinne in' very general lue, the 

, depUi of tha diatinctioo implied varying with the 

I ijinRik' TiawB ot thoM emplimns thivn. Some 

I nty (fcrict Protestants are cwelnl to lay-iiiinister 

' and people, initead of clergy and laity. 

1 LAKE (Iiat ban) is a portion of water ma- 

I rounded by land. There are (1) eomo lakee which 

nuther recaire Dor emit atreama ; (2) eome, fed 

by spring emit, but do not receiTe etreama ; (3) 

othen, aa 'ttte Caipian and Aral Seas, receive rivers, 

bnt have no vinble oatlet; but (4) by far the greater 

number boUt recrave and emit etreama. Almost Hie 

whole d the lakes coming under the third class 

are salt or hrackiah; Lake Tchad, in Central Africa, 

fbnoing one of tha most prolninent eioeptiona. 

LAKB OF THE THOUBAKD ISULSVS, an 
expan^n ot tlie St I^wrenoe (q. v.), eitends ftbout 
40 milea below the north-east end of Lake Ontario. 
It is well worthy ot its name, being said to contain 
1700 ideti, the lafgwt measnring 10 mQea by e. 
It eepaiataa Upper Canada from the state of New 
Totk. 

LAKB OF THE WOODS, a body of water 
Ivnoua in tbe history ot the intfflnationiu boundary 
between the United States and the Hudson's Bay 
Company'B teiritories, takes its name from the fact 
of its being Rtndded with wooded islands, and lies 
130 mil^ weat-iuirth-west of Lake Superior. At its 
south-east end, it receives the Hainy River from the 
Kainy Lake ; and at its north-west extremity, it 
sends forth ibe Winnipeg on its course to Hudson's 
Bay. According to tie treaty which olosed the 
War of Independence, it was divided by a central 
line between Endand and her old colonies. It 
measurea abont ^ miles round ; and its remotest 
pimitisinUt'19''N.,andloDg. 95° W. 

LAKE SOHOOL, tiis nave with wbtch tiie 
EdMmr^ Sariea dabbed certain poets (Words- 
wortii, Oidandge, and Sonthij) who, towards the 
dosa el iMt o., toi^ np thsiT rendence in the Lake 
district of Cnmberiaod and Westmoreland, and 
Tli»^4haagh widdy diffennt btaa each oQiet in 

sbMtt «T«ry other respect— profeMed * 1- '*■■ 

BDoross of poetioal induration in *>" • 
nstoie, rauwr than in tbe worl 
ccasQfi Sftd the fo^'i™* of the ti 
howefs, is not a h^l? on^ ai 
to a bettor knowledge of the mc 

LAKES, in ptrint of law, belong to the owner of 
the laod which surmnnds ^cm ; by which is meant 
not only tlte water and the use ot it, but the soil 
under the water. Where the land surroimding tiie 
like bdonA to different owners, each has prfntd 
/ocutiie rSt to use the lake [or ordinary pttrpoees, 
indnding Shing or boating ; bnt it depends on how 
^ ptoperiiea were acqnirod, whether and how £ar 
tiii* genenl mle applies to any particular cai«h 



IiAKBB, oolmn prepared ^ . 

and vegetabls oolonring matton with ala 
which has a remarkable property of nniting with 
and separating tliess oolonn fnnn their sobitions. 
Thns, if we tue the coloured solution of ooahineal, 
and add to it a solution of alum, the alumina in 
the alum immediately combines with the coloming 
matter, and the result is a precipitate irtiich iH 
carmine or Florentine Lake. 

Aed lake is made in a ■imila r maimer from Biatil 
wood, a little loIutioD of tin being added to hei^ 
the colonr, and potash being used to aoaelerate 
preoimtatioa. Lakes of several shades of red and 
purple are also made from madder-roots, the quantity 
of potash used determining the proper oolour. Two 
or three yellow lakes are lued, the manufacture of 
which is very sinulari they are prepared from 
yellow berries or from amotto. Almost svery known 
»"■"■»! (v v^petable colour may be converted into a 
lake, but thCM mentioned are the only ones found 
practically uaefuL They ara chiefly employed by 
o<mco-printers and paper-stainers. 

LAKSHMt, in Hindu Mythology, tbe name of 
the eooaort of the eod Viahn'u (q. v.), and considered 
also to be his female or creative energy. According 
to tbe mystical doctrine of the wonhippen m 
Tishn'u, this god produced the three goddeaaas, 
Brihml, lakshiol, and Chon'dikft, the fliat represent- 
ing his creating, the second, his preeerving, and the 
third, his deetroying energy. This view, however, 
founded on the superiority of Visbn'a over the 
two other gods of the Hmdu triad — Brthmt, or 
Saraswatl, being generally looked upon as the 
aneray of Brahmi, and Qian'd'ikA, another name 
of Durgft, aa the energy of S'iva — is later than 
the mjili, relating to J^ of the epio period ; for, 
aocordmg to the latter, L. is the goddess of Fortune 
and of Beauty, and arose from the Ocean of Milk 
when it was ohumed l>y the gods to procure the 
beverage of Immortali^, and it was only after 
this wonderful ooourrenoe that she became Uie wife 
of Vishn'u. When she emerged from the aptated 
milk-sea, one text (^ the Rimiyan'a relates, ' she 
was reposing on a lotns-flower, endowed with 
transcendent beauty, in tha first bloom of youth, 
her body covered with all kinds of ornaments, and 
marked with every auspicioas sign Thus origin- 
ated, and adored by the world, the goddess, who ia 
also called Padmd and ^rE, betook herself to the 
bosom of Hari — u e., Vishn'u.' A curious festival 
is celebrated in honour of this divinity on Iha fifth 
lonar day ot the light half of tbe month M&gha 
(February), when she is ideutiiiBd with SaraswatJ, 
the consort of BrohmH, and the goddess of leom- 
ing. In his treatise on festivals, a great modem 
authority, Raghunandana, mentions, on tbe fiiith 
of a work called SamwaliaTa-iandlpa, that L. is to 
be worshipped in tbe forenoon ot that day with 
flowers, peilumes, rice, and water ; that dno honour 
ia to be paid to inlutand and writing-reed, and no 
writing to be dons. Wilson, in his essay on the 
Sdigioui Pativai* qf Vte Hindus (works, voL iL 
^ 188, ff.), adds that, on the momina of the 2d 
Febrnary, ' the whole of the pens and iokstanda, 
and the iKioks, if not too numerous and bulky, are 
collected, the pens or reeds cleaned, tbe inkstanda 
scoured, and tiie books, wrapped up in new doth, 
are arranged npon a platform, or a sheet, aod 
strewn over with flowers and blades of yonng 
barley, and that no flowers except white ara to be 
oflered. After performing the necessary rites .... 
all the members of the family sasemlue and make 
their proBtrations; the book^ the pens, and ink 
havinganentireholiday; and, should any emergeni^ 
require a written communication on the day dodi> 
cated to the divinity of schctlarahlp, it is done with 



;^ 



TJUg 



LALAMDB— LAMAISM. 



chalk or ohsrcoil npon & black or white board.' 
In different parts of India, thii feEtival ia oelebmted 
at dtSerent aeasooa, accordiog to the double aspect 
under vhich L. ii viewed by her woiahippera. The 
festival in the month Migha BeemB onginally to 
have been a vernal fcaat, marking the commpnce- 
meat of the •eaaon of spring. 

LALANDE, Joseph Jfindn LcnuHfAis db, 
an eminent French aitronamer, wai bom at Bonrg, 
11th July 1732. Ho devoted himself with such 
BuccesB to mathematioB and astronomy, that the 
French Academy aent him to Berlin in ITSl, to 
determine the moon's panllax, at the same time 
that Lacaille was seat to the Cape of Good Hope- 
In 1752, he returned, and was appointed one of 
the Bstronomers-rojal ; and in 1761, gucceeded 
Lemonnier in the profotaonhip of aatronomy in 
the CoIlGge do France. His leetnres had a rare 
attractiveness, and he published several astron- 
omical worlu of a popuUr kind, as wpII as works 
of profound seienco. Be finiiUy filled the of&co 
of Director of the Paris Observatory, and died 
4th April ISOi. His character was marked by 
extreme vanity ; but no one has ever equalled bim 
OS a lecturer on astronomy, and few have contributed 
more to the general prtwress of astronomical science. 
His principal work is his TVaiM d'AstTWU>mU 
[2 vols. Faris, 1764 — a new and angmented editioa 
in 4 vols. Faris, 1771—1781). He also published 
minor works on astronomy, navi^tion, tc, and 
an account of his travels in Italy during I76is and 
1766 (9 vols. Faris, 1786). 

LALITA-VISTARA is the name of one of the 
most celebrated works of Buddhistic literature. It 
contains a narrative of the life and doctrine of the 
Buddha S'lkvomuni (see BODDSA), and is considered 
by the Buddhista as one of their nine chief works, 
treating of Dhorma, or reli^ous law. It is one of 
the developed Sutras of the MahAyina system. An 
edition of the Sanscrit text, and on E^gliah transla- 
tion of this work by B&bu KljendraTU Mitro, is 
publishing under the anapicea of the Asiatic Society 
of BengaL A French translation from the Tibetan 
has been made by Fh- Ed- Foucam. In Chinese, 
there ore two traaialatioiis of it See E. Burnouf, 
Itttroductian d VHutmrt da BttddAimie /nrfien 
(Paris, 1844) ; ond W. Wassiliew, Drr £vddhitmv», 
■eins Dogntea, OueUcUt und Lita-atur (St Peters- 
burg, I860). 

IiA'UA, or LLAMA {Aui^aiia lama), a moat 
useful South American quadruped of the family 
Camtiida. It is doubtful whether it ought to be 
regarded as a distinct species, or as a mere domes- 
ticated variety of the Huansca (q. v.). It vos in 
general use as a beast of burden on the Peruvian 
Andes at the time of the Spanish conquest, and Was 
the only beast of burden used by the natives of 
America before the botse and ass were introduced by 
Europeans- It is Still much used in this capacity 
on the Andes, the peculiar confomution of its feet 
(see AucHKHii) enabling it t« walk securely on 
slopes too rough and Steep for any other ammal. 
rho working of many of the silver mines of the 
Andes could scarcely be carried on but for the 
assistance of lamss. The burden carried by the L. 
should not exceed 125 ponndo. When too heavily 
loaded, the animal lies down, and refuses to move, 
nor will either coaxing or severity overcome its 
resolution. It is generally very patient and docile. 
Its rate of traveling is about 12 or 16 miles a 
day. The L. is about three feet in height at the 
shoulder, has a lonsiah neck, and carries its head 
elevated. The fenuUes are smaller aid lesa strong 
than the males, which alone are JiBBi for carrying 
burdens. The colour is very various, generally 



_ ._, _. _ _ ._ block, frequently 

speckled, rarely quite white or black. The Sesh u 
sponsy, coarse, and not of a very agreeable fiavonr. 
The hwr or wool is inferior to that of the alpaca, 
but is used for similar purposes ; that of the female 
is finer than that of the male. The L. has been 
introduced with the alpaca into Australia ; but it 
is only for steep mountain regions that it aeetos to 
be ad^ted. 

LAlaAISM ifwm the Tibetan liLama,' spiritnal 
teacher or lord) is the name of the religion prevMl- 
ing in Tibet and Mongolia. It is BniMhism (q. v.) 
corrupted by S'ivaism (see Siva), and by Shamanism 
(q. v.), or spirit-worship As ancient Buddhism 
knows of no worship of God, but merely of an ador- 
ation of saints, the latter is also the main feature 
of Lamaiim. The essence of all that is sacred 
is comprised by this religion under the name of 
dEoa mChhog gSsum (pronounced Konehogtum), 
which oonsists of the ' three most predous jewiels' — 
vit, 'the Buddha-jewel,' the ' doctrine -jewel,' and 
•thepriesthood-jeweL' Aeimilar triad is implied by 
the atree Buddhistic foimulie : ' I take my refuge 
in Buddha ; I take my refuee in the law [or doc- 
trine) ; I iak.e my refuge in the congregation (of the 
priests],' but it did not obtain the some dramatic 
importance in Buddhism as in LamaiBm, where it is 
looked upon as a kind of trinity, representing an 
essential unity. The first person of this trimty ia 
the Buddha j but he is not the creator, or the orunn 
of the universe ; as in Buddhiint, he is merely the 
founder of the doctrine, the highest saint, thiough 
endowed with oil the qnalitiea of supreme wiadom, 
power, virtue, and beauty, which raise him beyond 
the pale of ordinary existence. The second jewel, 
or the doctrine, is the law or religion— that which 
ia, OS it were, the incarnation of the Buddha, his 
actual existence after he had disappeared in the 
Nirvjma. The third jewel, or the priesthood, is tho 
congr^atiOD of the saints, comprising the whole 
clergy, the incarnate as well as the oon-incamate 
representatives of the various Buddhistic saints- 
The latter comprise the five Dhy&ni-Boddhas, or 
the Buddhas ot contemplation, and, besides, all 
those myriads of Bodhisattwas, Pratyeka-Buddhoa, 
and pious men, who became canonised after their 
death. It is obvious that among their number a 
portion only can enjoy practical womhip ; but the 
clergy, as the visible representative of these ssints, 
claim and receive due honu^ at all the religious 
ceremonies. Inferior in rank t« these saints are 
the gods and spirits, tho former chiefly token from 
the Pantheon of the S'ivaJts. The highest position 
amongst these is occupied by the four spirit'kings— 
viz., Indra (q. v.), the god of the firmament; Yama, 
the god of death and Uie infernal regions ; Fam4n- 
tata, or S'iva, as revenger in his most formidable 
shape i and VaUravaita, or the god of wealth. Tho 
wonhip of these saints and gods consists chiefly in 
the reciting of prayers, and sacred texts, and the 
intonation of hymns, accompanied with a kind of 
music, which is a chaos of the most nnharmonions 
and deafening sounds of boms, trumpets, and dnmui 
of various descriptions. During this worship, wluch 
takes place three times a day, &e clergy, summoned 
by the tolling of a little bell, are tasted in two or 
mora raws, according to their rank ; and on special 
holidays, the temples and altars ore decorated with 
syroboliosl figures, while offerings of tea, flour, 
milk, butter, and others of a stmilar nature, are 
mode by the worshippers ; animal sacrifice or offer- 
ings entailing injurv to life being forbidden, as in 
the Buddhistic faith. Lamaiam knows especially 



abvGoogle 



due* 9«at tmUvlB. He Log gStar, or tika festiTal 
of Um now year, in Febnui;, nurks the commeiice- 
mad of liia aeaaoD of spring, or the victory of light 
mad wanntli orer daitoeBa and eoid. The Lanu ' ' 
liks Um Bnddiiiata, oelelnste it in conunemoratic 
the Tiebvy obtMued by the Buddha S'ftkTamimi, 
tiu nx lH>«tio teacheiB. It UstB fifteen dayi, and 
MDuatB of > Kiiea of feasts, dancea, iUuminationfl, 
and otho' manifestatioDs of joy ; it is, in ahort, the 
nbrtan canuFaL The Boeood featiTaJ, pro^bly 
the oldeat festiTal of the Buddhirtio Chorch, U 
held in commemoration of the cooceptioa or incar- 
natioD of the Boddha, ood marka the conunence- 
Dteat vi mmmer. The third ia the vytixr-fiatt, in 
Angoat and September, marking the commeDcement 
of antnnm. Baptism and confirmation are the twi 
principal sacraments of Lamutm. The former i 
administered on the third or tenth day after birth , 
the latter, generally when the child can valk and 
speak, 'nie marria^ ceremony is to Tibetans not 
a toligioaa, bat a ava act ; neveriheleBS, the Lamas 
know how to turn it to the best advaat^e, as it 
JB from them that the bridegroom and bride have 
to leant the anspicious day when it shoold be 
parfoimed; nor do they fail to complete the act 
with tnayoB and ritea, which mnat be responded 
to witli handaome presents. A similar obserrBtion 
Wpliea to the foneral ceremoaiea of the Tibetans. 
nopczly speaking, there are none requiring the 
aniatance of the clersy, for Tjunoism does not 
allow the tntennent ot the dead. FerBona distin- 
giushed by nok, learning, or piety, are burned after 
UieiT death ; bnt Uie general mode of disposing of 
dead bodies in Tibet, aa in Mongolia, is that of 
expoKiDg them in the open air, to be devoured by 
binis and beasts oE prey; yet it is the Lama who 
most be present at the moment of ''"'♦^T', in order 
to sapecintend the proper separation of body and 
son], to calm the departed spirit, and to eoabfe him 
to be reborn in a happy existence. He most deter- 
mine the anapicious uy and hour when, and the 
auapicions place where, the corpse is to be exposed. 
The most faoative pact of his bosness, however, 
ia the mnsspt which he has to perform, nntil the 
■onl is released from Yama, the mfemal judge, and 
ready to le-enter into its new existence; the^trine 
of metempcychoais being the same in this religion 

One of the most interesting features of Lamusm 
ia the organisation of its hierarchy. Its summit 
is occupied by two Lama popes, the one called 
Daiai-laiiui, i e., Ocean-prieat, or priest aa wide as 
the ocean — he resides at Potala, near H'lassa— the 
other bearina the titlea of Tt^o-laina, Bogdo-lama, 
ftc, and officially called Pan-eUiai Bin po cAAe, 
litoally, 'the right reverend great teaeher.jewel ' 
[L e., preciooa tocher) ; be resides in the convent 
at bSra Shiaa Lhun po, near gShiu Ka cTee. In 
theci^, both popes have the same look and autho- 
rity, m spiritual as well as in temporal matters ; 
bnt as Uie Balai-lama poasesaes a much larger 
tcnitoiy than the other, be is in reality mach more 
Next in rank are the KhufvMuj, 



may be oompared to the Roman Catholic cardinals 
and anhbianopa. The third deRree is that of the 
Ehnbilghana or Hobilghana — which Mongol name 
is mote frequently given to them than the libetan 
title Bjtmg eUuS— a translation of the Sanscrit 
BodhiMttwa. Their number is very great These 
three degrees represent the clergy that claims to 
be the incarnation of tJie Bnddhistio saints. The 
Dalai-lama and the Paa-chhen were in their former 
[ives the two chief diaaples of the great lamaiat 
reformer bTsong kha pa, who was an mcamation of 
the Bodhisattwa Anuttbha, or, as some will have 
i^ of Uanjus^ii and Vajrapio'i, and who is repnted 
3E3 



to have founded, in 13fSC or 1357 of the Christian 
era, the present system of the Lama hierarchy. Tlie 
Khutuktus were in their prior existence* other 
Baddhistio sainto of very great renown ; and the 
KhubUghana ore tiuwe reborn hoste of saintiy 
patrons whom the temples and oonventa of T»Tn»i«in 
possess in boundless nnmbers. Up to the end of lost 
century, the clergy of these vanons classes deter- 
mined the choice of the children into whose bodies 
the souls of their departed members had migrated. 
At present, however, it seems that the emperor 
of China exerciaee a paramoont inflnence on the 
discovery of those tranamigrations— or, in other 
words, on the filling ap of clerical posts— and there 
can be do doabt that his influence is supreme in 
the case of determining the election of the two 
highest functionaries of this theocracy. In order to 
ascertun the re-birth of a departed Lama, various 
means are relied upon. Sometimes the deceased 
hod, before his death, confidentially meniibned to 
his friends where and in which family he would 
re-appeor, or Mb will contained JntimationB to this 
effect. In moat instaQces, however, the sacred 
books and the official aatroIogarB are consulted on 
the subject ; and if the Baloi-lama dies, it is the 
duty of the Pan-chhen to inteipret the traditions and 
oracles ; whereas, if the latter dies, the Dalai-lama 
tnders him the same service. The proclamation 
! 80 great an event, however, as the metempsy- 
chosis of a Dalai-lama or Pan-chhen is preceded 
dose examination of the child that claimB to 
n possession of the soul of either of these 
peEnonagea. The reborn arch-saint, usually a boy 
lour or five years old, is qnestioned aa to ois pre- 
vious career i books, gaimenta, and other articleiL 
used and not used by the deceased, are placed 
before him, to point out those which belt ' ' 



T life. ;But 
be, they da not yet suffice. Tarions 
little bells, required at the duly devotions of the 
Lomo, are put before the boy, to select that which 
he did use when he was the Dalai-lama or Fan- 
chhen. 'But where is my own favourite bellT' 
the child exclaims, after having searched in vain; 
and this question is perfectly justified ; for, to 
test the veracity of the reborn samt, this particular 
bell had been withheld from him. Now, however, 
there can be no doubt as to the Dalai-loma or Pan- 
chhen being bodily before them ; the believers foil 
on their lueea, and the Lamas who sucoesafully 
perfoimed all the«e fntude join them in annonnciDg 



the momentous fact. 
Besides these tJiree classes of the higher clergy — 
presenting the incarnate existences of departed 
jnts, ana chosen, tiierefore, without regud to 
_erit, amongst the children of [oivileged families — 
Lamuam possesses a lower clergy, which, having no 
dum to mcamate holiness, racruite ite ranks on 
the principle of merit and theological proficiency. 
It has four orders ; the pupil or novice, who enters 
the order generally in his seventh or ninth year ; 
the assistant priest ; the religious mendicant ; and 
the teacher, or abbot To these may be added two 
academical or theological degrees, and also two 
digoitica. conferred by the sovereign Lamas on those 
dootors who have distinguished themselves by extra- 
ordinary sanctity or leomiog. All the members 
of these ordera must make the vow of cehbacy, 
and by far the greatest number of them live m 
convents. A Lamaist convent, dOon pa, consists 
of a temple, which forms ite centre, and of a number 
of buildings connected with the temple, and appro- 

Sriated te the meeting-niomB, the library, refectory, 
wellings, and other spiritual and worldly wants 
of the mouka. At the head of the convent i* a 
EhnbOghan, or an abbot, the latter being eltoted 1^ 



dhyGoOgll 



LAiffASTIN— LAMABTmE. 



orden of mooki Rnd conventi, T.atiiMimi Ium like- 



The LunuEt bible bean the name ol iKa' gjvr 
(pronoimced Kea^w) — L a., ' tranilatiaii of the 
irorda,' »dl., oE Uie Buddha. It contain! not lesa 
tb*Q 1083 vorka, which in «ome editioDB fill 102 to 
108 Toliimei in folio. It connstB of the following 
■actioDt; 1. 'i>ul£a (Saniorit, Tinaya), or discipline; 
3. Sherphjin (Sans. PrajnftpAiamitft], or philoaophy 
and metaphyaicB ; 3, Phai diAen (Sans. Buddhayata 
Saogha), or the doctrice of the BnddhiB, thaii 
iiiianuttiaiM, Ac ; 4. dKon brTtegu (Sans. Ratna- 
k&t'a), or the oollection of pteaona things; 5. toDo 
uDe {Sauii. SCltra], or the ooUection, of Sfitru; 
6. Mjang 'dot* (Suit. Nirrtna), csi the libentioa 
from worldly paina; T. rQjai (Sana. Tantraa), or 
incantationa, Ac. Besidea uiis maaa of worha, there 
i* a vet7 volominoM oallectioD, the hta Tan 'gjur, 
or the tnuulation ol the doctrine, in 225 Tola, in 
folio; but it doea iLot aeem to poaKea caoonioal 



The oldeet biitory of TjTnjl^m js ihronded in 
iliiknrw For it* growth and derelopment under 
the HmukJ and Manjn djnaatieB, see the article 
Tmr.— The bart work on LutmLsm ia Die 
LamaitAt Hierarchie und KireA^ ton Karl 
JVMrie& JToefipai (Berhn, 1859}. See alio Hoo, 
8om>atir$ itta Voyage done la TaTtarU, le Tib«t «t 
In Chim (Farii, 1802) ; and Sail Eitter'a Erdkunde 
(reLir.). 

LAHAirrnr. SaeHAXATU. 

LAHABOE, ZtiX BAPTtsn Phrrx Ahtohtb 
SK MomT, Cesvaxkb ds, a moat distingniihed 
Frendi nattmliat, wu bom of a noble family at 
Barentin, in Vicaii.3, Angoat 1, 1744. Hs was 
intended for the church, bat prcferrod the army. 
An accidents injoi?. which placed hia life in danger, 
pot a it^ to thia eaieer, and he became a hanker's 
aterk. Hia fltat acientifio pnirait waa that of 
motaoroltwr, from which he turned to botany, and 
attempteifto bizodiioe a new ayatem of cUnifica- 
tion, which he called the Analytical Syatem, bat 
which met with little aoceptaoce. In 1778, he 
publiahed hii Flore Franfaite (3 Tola.}, which waa 
atterwaidl made the baaia of the work of Decan- 
doUe> Shortly after, he waa appointed botanllt to 
the king, and tutor to the aon of BoSon, with 
whom he viaited foreign countries, and inspected 
their botanical collectiana. He luso cODtnbuted 
many botanical artidea to acientiflc works. After 
a condderaUe portion of his life had been spent in 
the eanurt atody of botany, L. devoted himaelf 
duefly to todogy, and in 1793 was made profeai — 
tA the natnral Uatary of the li 



took an active part xa the war of 1869, by which 
Lombardy waa aoqnired by Victor Emanuel, and hi 
IS3I he received the appointment of oonunando^in- 
of the tMope of the king of It^. In 1864 
IB appoiated prime-minister. Me took an 
part in the campaign against Auafaria in 1806; 
. the 34th of June he lost the faatUs of Cna- 



by Deahnea and Milne-Edwards, Paris, 1830, Ac). 
In hia Pmmphie Zoohgique {2 vols. Faris, 1809), 

__i oti^ works, he indulged in extremely 

■e views, some of which, however, are 
raoting gnat attention in the acientiflc world at 
the preeMitdajr. L. waa the flrat (if we except a 
few obecnn words of BoSbu towards the close of 
his life) to set forth the theory of the 'Variation 
of ^eoaa,' which has been reoenUy revived by 
Darwin. L. died 20Ui December 1S29, aftar having 
been for aevanfeen yeal* blind, in conaeqneuce ol 
smaU-poi. 

LA MABHOBA, Alkuibo, Majiquii bz, a 
Sardinian genenl and etateaman, bom 17th Novem- 
b«c]804. InlSlShaentered thomilitaiyacademy, 



where he reodved ttw grade of lieutenant In 
the artinery, pravious to leaving in 1B23. He 
was speedily promoted to be adjntut-major, and 
directed hia special attention to the improvement 
□f regimental epuiattics, riding, and shooting, and 
to the ot^nisi£on of normal schools for the benefit 
of the private aoldien. In 1831, ha^ng obtained 
his captaincy, he «et ont on a tour of inspection of 
the great nutitary ettablishmenta botit of Bnroipe 
and the Eaab In 184S, he became major, ad for 
hia distinguished conduct in the national war of 
1848, was decorated with tlte medal of valonr. 
The services he then rendered the Sardinian army 
removed from the mind of Charles Albst a preju- 
dice which his warm advocacy of mHitaty refmrn 
had aronaed in the kintC- Li 1849, he entered the 
cabinet aa Minister of Wa^ and notwitiutandin^ his 
sincere zeal tor uaeful reforms, a nineial aront of 
oensurewss evoked by hia vlgoTotiiaforta to oiaplaoe 
from the Sardinian tanks t& Italian tefogee* iriw 
had entered the regolar anny. In ISSS, he withdrew 
from the mlniatry, to aaanme the command of tha 
Saidlnian troope in Uie Orimea, uid at the close of 
the war was invested with the Order of the Bath, 
and the Qrand Cross of the Legion of H<»ioaT, and 
re-entered the mlnist^ in his fonns" "' 



1861 he received 

chief of the tnMpe of the king of It^. In 1> 
he waa appoiated prime-minister. Me took 
active r"*-- *■ ■ ■ 

buton'. - .-. 

toma. Sinoe then he has been engaged in aeveral 
diplomatio miaalona. 

LAMABTINE, Airaovst, was bom at Ulcon, 
aiat October 1792. In his Memoin of iw ZtnulA, 
he has given ns a tooching acconnt of Ute hard- 
ships to whioh hia funily was snbjeeted during 
tha Beign of Terror. He waa educated principally 
at the ooUege of the Fires de la Foi, at Belly. On 
leaving oolite, he spent aome time in travelling in 
Italy. After the 601 of Napoleon, he entored_ the 
trtss, whioh, however, he soon quitted, revisiting 
Italy in 1818. In 1820, upean^ his JTbfUilUont 
PoJttguu. The auoceaa of Qui work helped to opni 
up for him a diplomatic career. He waa aiwonted 
ottoeU to the French embassy at Naples, and on hi* 
■wtig thither manied, at Chambery, a beantoful and 
aocoupliihed English lady, ITias Birch, whom he 
had met the year before in the vallciya of Savo^ . 
In 1823 appeared his Snwa^ta UedilaSmM, and m 
1824 he became aecretary of the leoation at Flor- 
encft Ah unlnoky expreasion which L. had uaed, 
descriptive of the Italiana, in bia Jiemirr OHfoit dt 
aUU< HqtiM (1820), led to a duel between him 
and Colonel Pep6. Though L. waa wounded, the 
result, luckily, was not aerioua. In 1320 appeared 
the cdlection of Harmonlei PotHqae* et Bmgiaute. 
In the aame year he waa elected a member of the 
French Academy. After the revolntion of 1990, 
having fuled to procure a seat in the Chamber 
of Deputies, he aet out in ISas to travel in tha 
East. The death of hia only daughter threw a 
gloom over this period of hia iSc. Recaving 
news, when at Jerusalem, of hia election by the 
constituency of Bergnes, he returned to Parijb 
Though he aoon became a noted apeaker in the 
Chunber, he still vigorously pursned hia literal^ 
atudiu. In 183C he puhlidied an aooount of his 
eaatem travels. The Hittory o/Ae Qirondini, which 
originally came ont in iounials, waa, in 1847, pub- 
liahed com^jete in 8 vols. It nad nnqoestionaUy 
mnch inflnenoe in brinnng about the neat events 
of tha following year. When the BenMotion took 
place in February 1S48, L beeame a tnemlNt «t Aa 



DintizoribyGoOgle 



T.AMAIl flnT^ T.Aliniini.T 



PianBOBal Qoranunent mnd Mi"'"*"' of Sortiga 
ASun, and exndted a grest inflnoice aver -£0 
first moT«meDU of the new lepnUio. Ten depart- 
meiita eUeted Um m Ifceir T o pr Mcn taliTe in the 
Conctatocnt AmbdMj ; Ite vm alio choeen ona of 
the fiTe monben id the £xecatiTe (kaamiaaoi 
and enjiijed for aoma """■**■" an immenaa popi 
lari^ ; lAIlBt bia epiiited and patriotic comdiict, i 
cmaniDjf the mtera anarchio infamctiona of the L6tli 
April and ISUi Ukv, miift be r^uded aa having 
prevented gnat erOa, T«t tiu* was one of the 
principal eaoMB ot hia downfall ; the crowd become 
ennged, the ataembly hoatile, and the mpreme 

Swer paaaad for a raief period into the hands of 
Tsignao (q. t.^ Thcm^ L. was nominated for 
the premdencTi but few yotea were recorded in 
Imi &vonr; lOd the eoitp ittai of 2d Deoember 



SitUny of As iluforotum if Monarchy in ^France ; 
and in ISA^ by the Sitlory of Turtey. He also 
contribnted lugsly to aerBral jonmali. In 1660, he 
nndertook the poblioation of a oomplcte edition of 
hia woAs, leTued and ooneoted by himself. Hs 
finiilted tioa labour in ISeS. The edition oonmata 
of 41 Tola. In 1807 a pBnmon was granted li'm ij 
tlw garenunait. He died March I, 1869. 

I1AMA8OOI1, or LAHFS-WOOL, an old Eng- 
liah berow^ composed of tia and the pnlp of 
mated afipM, with aQgar and apdoes. The naou it 
fran the anetent Britiui La mat* abhil, the day id 
appleo, becMiaa thia berer^e waa drank at a feast 
on the ^pte-pthering in avtanui. 

LAMB, CeJlKUb, an Oigliih poet and caaayut, 



waa bon in the Temple, on Uie 18th Febrn^ 1770, 
and nceired faia edniMMt at Ohriaf a Hoapitaj, 
lAera h* had ColcridM for a lohool-feQow. With 



Coleridge WotdaworOi, Hnnt^ Hulitt, and othor 
djatinguahad men of hia time, he lired in afikcticoute 
intimaaj. In 17S2> he became m okdc in one of tiie 
depntmoita of the Indi» Honae ; and in 182S he 
waa aUowad to retii« with a poiaion gtanted Ijy 
th« direetixa. Hie firat pooiia kj^awad in a inu^ 
Tolimie, in whicfa Tentur* Golendga and Uovd 
were hia ptrbuta. In ISOl, ha pabliahed J^ 
Woodtii, a drama, in which he looks upon loan and 
nature with the ^ of an IQizabethan. Hia Sttagt 
<^ Km were gnginally published in the London 
MagoMiM. L. was never married; he lived with an 
ooljr sister, wha waa anbjeot to insane fita^in one 
of iriuah aha killed her mother — and tor whom he 
ehedabed the t«Bdenat afiaotion. H» died in 
London, on the Z7th December 1S34. Aftai hii 
dieth, Hr Jnstioe Talfoord pabliahed two votamtea 
of hiaX<«cr*; and thiae, in 1848, he sopplemented 
1^ tha Final ManorialM, in wiiich, for the firat ^ne, 
the wodd beoama acquainted witii the atoiy of Ui 

lie poems ot L. -were never widely nad, nor are 
ikmj J* i hia i^ntatian teala enbrely upon hia 
erituiHH and hia Etnyt. Tba eritioal remarks 
•ppaoded to bia SpteaitoM o/* Bnaiiih Dromotie 
Potmt are ot the bi^iest value, while his £i»ay 
on Ae O mt i tu ^ Hogarlh is cooiidBrad by many 
the finest eritioal paper in the Isi^nage. In tM 
VmlitM* of i^ace, qnamtneaa, and a certain tcmder- 
uces of humnir, 'a ^oile on the lip^ and a tear 
in the «fe,* the Bttajfi <f Sin aie onione ; the 

wit, Ua poetia instime^ his charity, and his odd 



der Joseph atanislana do Bonrboo, Prince of Lam- 
balle, who soon after diid, a victim of debaoohary. 
The prinoaaa beoame the intimate friand and ehosen 



B sondit 
in Fab- 



. bivitr of 

the queen, bnt was aoon aapanttely immured in 
the priaon of La Foree. and on Sd Septmnbor wm 
bronght brfore the tribunal, and commanded to 
that ahe loved libertv and eqnali^, and 



not ; my heart rebeld agsiDrt it' Many of those 
who stood by were amions that she should eeoape, 
but ahe did not hear the advicee which th^ 
addreaaed ti> her. 'Let madame go I ' said the prcei- 
dent ; and at this signal of death two men conducted 
her to the door, 'Mere she received a stroke of a 
sabre 90 the ba<^ of her head, when blood spouted 
□p. and her Ions hair fell down. On receiTing a 
Becond stroke, ua fell, and the mutderers tore 
her body to pieces, placed her head and heart 
upon piiee, and bratidly paraded tiiem before the 
windows of the Temple, where the royal family 
were confined. 

FiAMBBAUTC, a cross, in Henddiy, is 
formed in the upper like a croes patt^ 
but with the lower limb not wutened, 
bnt terminating in a label of three 
points, ' having,* scoordins to Syjvanus 
Mor^, ' a great deal dL mysteiy in 
relatiOQ to the top, whf^eon the firat- 
bom Son of Qod did anffer, Moding 
out three atreama from his hands, feet, •^^tt.v^^, 
and sides.' 

LAMBEBT, Jotumr HronioB, a philoao^er 
id mathemalaaian, was bom 29th August 1728, 
of German parentage, at Muhlhansen, now in the 
department of Hsnt^Shin, France. His talents uid 
~>pplicatioD to study having gained him friends, he 
ibtoined a good education, and mode remarkable 
progress in mathematics, pluloeophy, and oriental 
longuogea. Ha obtuned a situation as olerk in an 
office, and gradually rose, till Frederick the Great, 
"64, summoned him to Berlin, and made >iiiri 
amber both of the Council of Architecture 
of the Academy of Sciences. He died at 
Berlin, SSth September 1777, leaving b^und him 

"■ of having been the greatort analyst in 

— .- I. logic, and metapbvsics that the 18th 
produced He wae the first to lay a soien- 
. _ .asis for t^e meaanremeat of the intoiaity 
of light, in his PhoUnraXna (Augsb. 1760). and he 
discovered the theory of the speaking-tube: In 
philosophy, and particularly in analytical logio, he 
sought to establish on accurate system by brmging 
mauematica to bear upon these snbjecta, in hia 
Neaet Organon, Oder Oethnben <iier di« Erforaduaig 
und BtsaAung da Wajirai (2 toU. Leip. 1764). Ot 
his other wotlu, we may mentiou his profound 
^ . . , ^ ,.. „. .. „... ... Sj p.^ 

I with 



Kant. 
IiAUBEBT, JoKtr, 



IT, JoKtr, an English porliomentaiy 
bom at Eirkby-Malhamdale, in York- 

nber 7, 1619, and on the outbreak of 
theCivH War, became a captain under FairfoL He 
fouriit at MaratOQ Moor, at Naseb;^, in Scotland, 
and at Woroeater, bnt did not acquire importanoe 



LAUBBTH— LAUENKAIS. 



a 



tm mfter tile 3tMi of the great Protector, when lie 
bec&me the hud of the ca,ml of malcontent officeni 
who overthrew the feeble adtninistration of Bichard 
CnmiwelL L. wm now looked upon ae the leader 
of tiie Fifth Mooaccby or extreme republican partjr ; 
Bnppreued, trith considerable vigonr, the royalist 
maunection in Cheshire, August 1669 ; oud two 
months afterwtnia, diamissiiig the lemiunt of the 
Rump Parliament, virtoally governed tliB country 
along with his officers under the title of the ' Com- 
nittee of Safety.' For a brief period, hia position 
was considered so important, that Charles IL was 
advised to moke terms with b™ by marrying 
his daughter. The counterplot of Monk, however, 
frustrated all his designs ; Bad on-the 22d of April 
he was taken prisoner by a Colonel Ingoldsby, tried 
in 1662, and banished to the isle of Ouemsey, where 
ha died in 1692. 

LA'MBETH, a parliamentary borough of Eng- 
land, in the county of Surrey, fomiB a great part of 
the south-west qoarter of London. It is said to 
cover an aroa of 8840 acres, and had, in 18" 

>p. oC 379,048. Bnides Lambeth Falace, which 

iS been tlie official residence of the arcbbieliops 
of Canterbury for uveral centuries, it contains 
Astley'a Theatre, the sito oE the once famous 
Vanihall Gardens, and the Surrey Zoological Gar- 
dens. It returns two members to the House of 
Commons. 

LA'MBREQUIN, a word used in Heraldry in 
thT«e lenses ; 1. The mantling attached to the 
helmet, and represented as depending over the 
shield {see Mastlino) ; 2. A Wreath (q. v.) ; 3. The 
point of a label. See Label. 

LAMB'S LETTUCE. See Corn SM-ut. 

LAME'GO, an old town of Portu)ta3, in the 
province of Beini, is situated amid rocky moun- 
tains on an affluent of the Douro, about three 
miles from that river, and forty-six miles east of 
Oporto. It contains a Gothic cathedral and » 
biahop's palace : and there are ancient remains, 
both Koman and Moorish. Pop. 9000. 

LAMB'LLIBRAN CHIArrA, a class of nccphol- 
ons moUoscs, all of which have bivalve shells (see 
BlvALVxa), and which respire by gills in the form of 
vascular plates of membrane attached to the inner 
surface of the mantle. Oysten, cockles, and muaaels 
are familiar examples. The adductor muscle, which 
closes the shell, is single in some, double in the 
ereator number. More im^rtant diflerences eidat 
in the powers of locomotion possessed by some, 
and demed to others. Thus, oysters are fixed to 
cue spot by one of the valves of the shell ; but most 
of the L. have the power of moving by swimming, 
leaping, or burrowing in sand, sometimea in more 
thui one of these ways, being provided for this pur- 
pose with a fleshy muscular organ called the foot 
Some, OS mussela, when they have found a eiiitable 
place, fix themselves there by a By>m» (q. v.). The 
month of the L. is jawless and toothless, and all 
seem to depend for their food on the currents of 
water continually brought by ciliary action into 
the mouth. They alt seem more or less sensible 
to light, ami numerous small red spots on the 
edge of the mantle of some are supposed to be 
oyes. They have organs of hearing, and labial 
tentacles, which are supposed to exercise the senac 
of smeU. 

LAMELLICO'RHES, ■ very numerous family of 
coleopterous insects, of the section PiatameTa, con- 
taining the largest of the beetles, as well as many 
species remarkable for peculiar conformations of 
the hmd and thorax. The three last joints of the 



antennn are flattened into lanuUte, which are some- 
timea disposed like the leaves of a fan, aometdnies like 
teeth of a comb. Many of tlie L. feed on decaying 
animal or vegetable matter, but some on leaves o 
floweiB ; the latter are generally of brilliant metalli 



Siag-Beelle (Zkbobi «nwi). 

colours ; the former, black or brown. The larrs ara 
soft, cylindrical, with six small legs, and the body 
always curved - Bune-beeties, stag-beetles. Cock- 

LAMELLIRO'STBES, in the system of Cnvier, 
a large group of web-footed birds (Palmiptdtt), dis- 
tinguished by a thick bill having tooth-like Uanellix 
at its edges, apparently more for the purpose of 
straining water &om the food than of masticating or 
comminuting it. The Anatida and Meryida (dncks, 

swans, geese, goosanders andi " — ' ^■-' 

the group of Lamellirostres. 

LAHENNAI8, F^ucrrf Robert se, one of 
the most celebrated of the pohtico-religioas writers 
of France during the present century, was bom of 
a family engs^ed in the ahipping-trade at St Halo. 
Jane6,1782. Witli the excepbon of some initmcUon 
in Latin, which he received from his elder brother, 
L. was, owing to the revolutionary troubles, almost 
entirely self-^nght. Win early turn of thought was 
strongly religious, as well as decide<lly literary ; and 
rosiEtrng all nis father's efforts to lix hjm in com- 
mercial life, he pursued a litenuy career, and in 
1807 received an appointment as teaoher of mathe- 
matics in the college of his native town. His first 
work, published in the next year. On Oie State of Oie 
Church in France during CAe 18*A Catlury, is written 
in a strain of high orthodoxy, and directed against 
the materialistic philosophy of the ISth c, its 
influence still subsisting in ue hteratnre of his own 
time. A few years later — having meanwhile taken 
the clerical tonsure — he produced, in oonjunction 
with his brother, a treatise On tAe TVtufiffon of 
the Church on tie Jntliiulvm of Bithopt, which arose 
out of the conflict of Napoleon wi^ the Hdy See 
as to the afCaim of the church in France. During 
the Hundred Days, ho was obliged to flee to EEigland 
where he was received by the celebrated Abb6 
Caron ; and On his return to France, he entered 
the seminary of St Sulpice, whore he received 
priest's ardeni in 1816. A year afterwards, he 
published his mo«t celebrated work on the side of 
orthodoxy. An Eisay on Indijertnee tn Jtdigion, 
which is a work of exceeding acutenesa, and of 
great leaminE and brilUancy. In this work, how- 
ever, he pushM the claim of authori^ to such a 
length, and makes all reasoning reaolve itself so 
completely into authority, that even those who 
agreed in the conclusion at which he arrived, were 
lot surprised at the recoil by which, this prindfle 



,s;"Goi_ylc 



LAMENTATIONS OF JEEEUIAH— LSMMEBOEIEB. 



of sotiiotity once abandoned m hii after-conflict 
with the cliTirch, hia mind rothed into the opposite 
dtreme of utter and nnlimited Ttubeliel The 
' e^tbtitj which this work hod for him led to a 
' d«gii on the part of the pope, Leo XIL, to pro- 
I mote Ii. to the cardinalate. This design, how- 
I erer, waa afterwards abandoned. L.'b political 
views, from the first moment of the Reetoratton, 
had been UberaL Neverthelefu, he joined himself 
I to a powerful and active section of the most dis- 
, tmgmahed memben of tbe royalitt and church 
part; — Chateanbiiand, I>« Bon^o, Ftsyssinous, and 
I oUwn, tha cr^n 4^ wfaioh was a jonmal named 
the Coiutrvalair, and afterwards the D^auair, 
and th« Drapnat BIoik; but he rapidly oat- 
stripped the views of most of his colleagoes. Ha 
waa fined, in 1^4, for a woA On tht Relattmu 
of BttigioH and Pdilk*. After the rerdution of 
1S30, while he adopted in it« fullest sense the 
doctrine of the sOTereignt; of the people, he oon- 
tinned a sealoua adherent of the faitJi of tiie 
ehnteh ; and, in oonjunotirai with a nomber of 
aident yomig friends, all of whom have since 
tiaen in theur Tariona linea to distinction — Mon- 
talembert^ Lacordaire, Gerbet, and othere — he 
estabtidled a jounial called L'Avenir, the aim of 
which «M to reconcile liberty and religion. The 
doctrioM of this jonmal on the separatian of 
^ni^ and state and on many other ^palar 
topMB, gave giave offence to the ecdeaiastioal 
aathoritie a. They were cenmred by the pope. 
Grainy XVI., in 1S32; and L., in obedience to 

piofeaasd his future sabmisdon to aotlioiity ; bnt 
Iran this date his opinions underwent a rapid 
ehangt^ and in a work which he published in 
the year 1S31, and which obtained an immediate 
and nnpreoedented popularity in France, Parola 
jm Crvfani, prodaimed his comidete and irrecm- 
dlable ntptnte with tlie damb of which he had 
long been llie ehamiMn. The work waa inunedi- 
at^ condemned at ItMne; but it pMMd in E^anoe 
■ ■ *• '■■ and waa i 



innumerable editions, a 



into ul tiie 
re^y to tha papid 



pouted^ afiKfeaBTe work, in 1936, entitled .^aires 
lie Some. With his characteristic impetuosity, he 
now threw himself into the arms of the opposite 
psit^. His racoeaaive publications. The Book tff 
the PeOfU {1S37), The CounJry muL lAe OoBemrnait 
(ISM), On Af%i'on (1841), The Ouide of (he Fint 
Age (1844), A Voieifrom Priitm (1846), were but so , 
many new ntteranoes of the most extreme demo- 
cratic prindples. The revolntioD in his religious 
■entimaita was eqnall; decisire and complete ; 
he not merely ceased to be a Eomsnist, but even a 
bdiever. InAis last illness, he declined all religions 
ministrations; and at hie death, which occurred 
Febmary 27, 1854, he gave directions that lus 
interment should not be marked by anv religions 
eenmony. He also directed, by his will, that c«tain 
papers which he left ready for press shonld be 
paUisbed without alteration ; and on tha refusal 
of his luece to surreDder these papeis, a soit-at- 
law was inatttnted, which terminated in an order 
for the lurrender of the papets ; and his PoMumove 
Work* were poblisfaed aooordinely iu 1SS5— 1869. 
The most elabonrte wtA of U's latter period is his 
BiqauK <f«ne PUfoMpUe (4 vds. 1840—1846). 

luUfENTATIONS OF JTBBBMLAH {MegHUOh 
Edut ; Ixx. Tbrtnoi), the name given to one of the 
canonical books of tlie Old Tertament, containing 
laments over the desolatioo of the land, the exile of 

the p ■ ■ ' ■' 

faUol 



ckaely connected in regard to their sabjeot-mstter ; 
but eonsiderahle divenit^ of opinion ezista con- 
cetninE t^eir artistio relation to each other. Some, 
as De Wette, Bvald, and Eeil, have tried to shew 
that they are really parte of one poem ; others, as 
Kichhom and Bertholdt, t^t they were originally 
quite independent and isolated elegies ; while a 
uiird party, as Lowth and Davidson, bold that 
there is a certain pervading harmony of sentiment 
and idea, indicating, probably, that they were com- 
posed b^ the poet-pro^et under the aame condititm 
of religious feeling. The structure of the lamenta 
is very artificial Most oitiea ai« satii^ed, ittxa 
internal evidauc^e, that the tradition which makea 
Jeremiah their aothor is wcrtl^ of credence, and 
that they were all written by him ihortljr after the 
destruction of Jerusalem. 

LAMINA'BIA. See Tahole. 

LAMIN A'TION, the sirangnuent of rocks 
in thin laycis or laminm, the condition of a lai^ 
proportion of the earth's strata. Shale depomta 
exhibit this structure very plainly, being frequently 
easily separable into the Qim lamina in which th^ 
were originally deposited. Shale is the fine sediment 
that semea down at the bottom of some tranquil 
or slightly moving water. Tha Utninm indicate 
interruption in the supply of the materials, whicli 
may have been occasioned by succeesivs tides, by 
frequent or periodical floods, or by the carrying 
medium having access to a sapply of different 

tterial, passine, e. a., from mud to sand, and back 

again to mud. Xhe VT"ini») of the brick-clay depo- 

aits are separated, in manjr plaoea, b^ tJie finest 

Lokliiig of sand, which ia almost invisible in 

vertical sections. The layen are occasiouaUy 

obvious, from their being of different shades M 
colour, often produced by the bleaching of iha 
layers when tbey were deposited ; bnt frequently 
the various laminn of a bea are lo united, and ths 
bed so homc^eneoos, that except when the face is 
exposed to weathering, the laminated structure is 
not visible. This condition seems to have resulted 
izooL Uie shortneas of the interru(ition 
" not permitting the Bolidi£ca'^~~ 

era until oil waa deposited, w 

^cred together as a single bed. 

LA'MHAS-DAY, the Ist of August, is one of 

e cross quarter-days, or half-quarter days, in 
England. On this day. which is the feast of St 
Peter ad Vincola, it was customary in early times 
to make offeriuge of the first-fruita of tlie harvest, 
and hence tjie feast took the name of SU^maat 
(Ang.-Sax., loaf-mass or loaf-festival), afterwards 
corrupted Into Tjunm— In Scotland, it is the 
practice witb fanoers to pay the half year's rent 
dne at Whitumday on Lammas-day. 

LX'MMEROBIER [GypfOto* bortetet), a large 
bird of prey, also called tha Busdkd Vuudr^ 
BxAJtsm OiumN, and GiER-xAaLX It is the only 
known spedes of its genus, which forms a connecting 
link between vnlturee and eagles, although commonly 
ranked among the TKlticrida, to which it approacbra 
most nearly. The fnll-grown L. is of a shining 
brownish block on the upper parts, with a ^lite 
stripe along Uie shaft of each feather ; the head is 
whitish, with black stripes at the eyes; the neck 
and under-part of tbe body are rusty fellow. It 
is 4 feet hidi when sitting; nearly 6 feet knj;; and 
from 9 to 10 feet in ex^nse of win^ It w very 
bold and rapacious, swooping down on liarsa, lamba, 
young goata, chamois, Ac., and sometame* carrying 
offchil&BL It Uvea on animals nawly killed, ettting 
carrion only when pressed by neoesri^. It wsa 
once phetty common in the Alps, bnt ia now ran. 



vGoogli 



T-A M M^U ""'"'— TAVTMtF y, 



Africa, And will i 



' (OypalUii iarbatv). 

a high aboT« the loftust 



T ,* MTWTtltM nmiH, a range of low hill* in Scot- 
land, TunDisg in an east-north-eatt direction for oat 
half of their leneth on the boundai^-lins between 
bat Lothtaa and Berwiokthire, tiie otiier half lying 
in the BODth-eaatam corner of the former county, 
and forming, where it meets the Gennan Ocean, a 
bold, Todkj, and dangennu ooast The L, tend off 
Mveral minor range* aonthwards into Berwickghire. 
The bigheat nmmiitl are Lammer Law (ITSS feet] 
and Spartleton [IfiM feet). 

IjAHORIOlfeRB, CsKtararwt Lion Lonu 
J(I0H1.ULT DB, a French geaetal, was horn at 
Nantea, 6th Febnuu? 1800, studied at the Ecole 
P<Jjt«chniqae, and after IJie rerolation of 1S30, 
went to A^eria aa a lieutenant of engiueert. In 
IS33, ho became chief of the battalion of Zonares ; 
in IB3S, lientanant-colonel ; and in 1S3T, oolonal. 
He particaUrl; distingaislied himself at the siege 
of Cooitantine. In 1843, he wm appointed a 
general of division^ in the following Tear, com- 
mander of the Leeion of Hononr; and in ISIS, 
inteiim-govemor of Algeria. To him belong! the 
gloiy of conolnding the war in *f""«-| where he 
had made no fewer than eighteen campaign!, by 
fonnng Abd-el-Eader to mrr^Lder in 1847. On the 
ovtbreak of the rerolution in February JS4S, he 
Beady loat hia life in endeaTouring to proclaim 
Uie ngnoy ot tOie IhudioH of Oilean*. In June 
1848; he commanded Hie attack on the bamcadea, 
and QueUed the aaaT<chio toinnlte of the SociAliata- 
He waa war-miniiler daring the sorenunent of 
Oenenl Ckvaignae, to whose repnbUoan pMty he 
afterwacda attached himielf in the Legiilative 
Chanbw; bnt bnng a vary decided opponent of 
the edieniee of Louia If^iolaon, he waa arrested 
OD the oecMiMi <d the covji (Tilat of 2d December 
ISSl, and at fltat impriioned in Ham, bnt after- 
warda ooDTe^ out of France and set at 
Uber^. Dnnng lua exila, whidi he ipent in 
Oennany, fielginm, and England, th« great aoldjtr 



became daxnit, as hia connt^men phtMe it ; and 
when the ItaHan war of independance threatened 
the aafe^ of the pope, L. proceeded to Borne in 
1860, and was appoioted by Fioi IX commander of 
the pami troopa. He waa, however, oompelled to 
Burrender with his whole force to the Sardinian 
ge&oal, Cialdini, at Ancona. He died Sept. 1865. 

IiAHP-BLACK, ths aoot produced by burning 
resin, torpeotin^ pitch, oil, ud other matters, in 
such a manner that large Tolnnui of smoke An 
formed and ooUeoted in properly arranged noea- 
taclea. Lamp-black ii the oolouiing matter of Uack 
and slate-ooloiired painta. 

Large quantities of this jngmmt are made in 
Owmaay by^ bnming the refuse r«ain and fragments 
<rf fir and mne trees. The combustion is carried on 
slowly, and the denas smoke pasaea np a long flae, 
at the top of which is a lane hood made of coarse 
woollen cloUi. In this hood the carbon is deposited 
rapidly at the rate of twenty to thirty poands an 
hinir, irtiiah is oolleoted by lowering the cloth hood, 
and shaking it tmt. In Qrsat &itain, a cimilar 
prooeaa ia adopted; bnt Urga quantities of an infe- 
rior kind are alw odleoted Bom the flue* of coke- 
orena [ and a anpeiior kind, known as hont-Nack, is 
obtained ftom the flnea of kilns in which bones are 
oaloned for manors By "liiing lamp-black in 
Tarions jxagartimm with white-lead, every grada- 
tion of ocdonr, from jet black np to date and gray, 
— n be easily produced. 

LA'MPREY {Piiromj/am), a genns of cartQ- 
aginons fishes, Dermopterous (q. t.), and haring 
a dmulat mouth fcrmed for sucking ((yetoriinnaiu). 
They are of eel-like form, and have no soklea. The 
skeleton ia very soft and impeo^ect. The tongue 
acts as a piston in the sucking mouth, which Is 
armed wiUi nomerons hard teeth, or tooth-like 
tubercles. There are seven roundiah gOI-oriSees 
on each side; the Oerman name is I^em-Avgen 
(Nine-eyes). Ijanpreys have the power of drawmg 
iu as well as of expellins water thrmigh the 
gill-orifioes, and thus respiration ia earned on 
even when they are firmly attached to soms object 

Sthe ancking mouth. Lampreya often attach 
Jmaelvea very flnnly ' ' 




Cauunon Lamprey {Pdrorngton narinvtX 

with the bodv floating in the water ; they live by 
sucking the blood of nshea, the skiui of which their 

teeth readily pierce, and which 

"- " They eat ' 



any soft animal matter. 
The ipeciee are numerous, and are widely distri- 
buted in the seas of different parts ot die world. 
Some of them are periodical visitants of fresh waters, 
as the Common L. IF. marlnui], found on ths shares 
and in the riven of most parts of Eur(q>e, It some- 
leogth of more t^a thre« feet, and 
..1 — »■ ,.^ -■- llie latter 



is often two feet long. It ascends ri 
part of spring or b^inning of ■ 



■, for t 



dbyGoogle 



IiUCFBXT'— L&JCF8. 



poipaM of ■pawnia^ Itmt foimvlriiittLelLighaat 
HttM to* w tabu^ kqd it U an olaonrtoinftnUi* 
ej^ <d OloooMtor to pramt a L. pie annnally to 
tta Mvmign. Wonaitw ia alao bmoiu for iti L. 
{■aa and potted lanpnTK In Sootlai^, a itrong 

di AmwiM, ■iM'Tiigli TfT timilw, in audtobe 
djatinet apaeica (P. ^■MrtMNwl. — A imallat ^mm. 
the Bim L. (A jfuMtdtfit), oftan oaUad the Luc- 
viMi, ia Totj afawidaat in aoma ot the 



when laiDpreyi am anpposed to be, iodii att 
tham to Hm (poi. Thev an caught 1^ baakata 
oths'tiapa, like eel). TtujiMTtryimiaaaaMt^JiSo, 
living for daya in a damp plftMs out of the v»ter. 

IiAMPB are oenbivaiiOM in lAioh to bom any 
^Aipyiag matoial, and 80 make nee <rf iia iUam- 
'--■^- ni nuMi primiltre lampa wore 



^^ the eknllB of animalB, in which ._ 

btmed; and oertah) aea-^kaUB fmned adminble 
lampa for thoae to whcra thej were attain^de. 
To thia im, Oten mn oooaaonaUv be Been laa- 
pended in tu oottagea in Zetland, ihella of the'ioar- 
ing bvckie' (Afu* antiqatu: see Tdsdb), irhiah fonn, 
perbapa, ttte moat andant kind of lamp in exiitence. 
Wmci pottery and metal began to be uaed, the 
pinople of tluee natnral lamm waa ior a loiu time 
ratuoed, ai aeen in ancient ^nplian, Oredc, and 
Rtnnan Wpa (Sg. 1), and in the itone cnpa and 
boxM ct notrthttn iMtiMW. The inTcatioi ot lainpa 
haa been at tri buted to the Sgy^Htat, bat it ia far 
■una pcobable th^ r eewT o a it from the (ddw 




oiviliaatiini of India. Harodotoa (u. 
oa of the Chinee* feaat «f ' 
the feaat of lampa at Sale, i 

that in fiff. 1 wen eelled bcoiui oy , . — 

IiM0««i brthe Bixnana, ana Tarioui modifieatdinia of 
tbe form are fraqoently found in the mina of Oreak 
* '" TBiy oonrnderabla numben have 
1.- — jj£ Tarsna and 



xiotDS (u. 0. we) remutoa 
lantenu, bv ipeaking <d 
n Egn>^ Sa^ lampt aa 
K&an by the Oieeka, and 



It light-giTina poirer m 
E made to hold aeve: 



bj tiiair being nude to Hold aeveral 

vioki^ from two to twelve, lie wink nied in thia 

waa MBwallr made oi flax-tow, aome^ 

iTK, oTnalui and other ragetaUe Sbrea. 

" BMtheni natioDe of ai^nity, lam^ 

t the diffiranoe ot i^limet^ iMniiaii 

kind of lamp. The limjod <^ of 

" - CeWo and 



waa thmrt i - - = 

lighted, conaruned the fat ta it melted. Stone cnp* 
of thia kind are oooaiionaUy dng np in Scotland 
and elaewhere ; in prindpU^ they an the Mtme 
•i the padelle, naed in Itahan iunminationB, and 
the old greaae-pota, which formed the foot-lishti of 
our theeaea not aiany yean liace, and whien may 
atill oooMionalljr be eeeo in the tntTeUing'ihowi 
at oounfar &iti. ^e Emuiduuix fonn iqnam 
boxea of aoap-itont^ and nee uiem in the aame way. 
No great improTamtait took place in the con- 
atniction of lamjB until tile b^jnnins of the preeent 
oentiu^. Tartaliad been ahawn in tbe daiifflM, but 
the pruunple lenuuned the aame ; a wick mcking up 
oil man the reservoir of the lamp to mpply itteQ 
during oombuatdon, and notblni more, if we eicMrii. 

Smrement effected by tne invention of M. 
in 1784. See AnQijni. In 1S08, M. Cereal, 
Iter IVenchman, made on excellent improvement 
the lamp by apfuying olock-woik, whioh acta by 
ring the cdl dp tube* in oonnaetion with the wiok, 
ao that the latter ie kept oontinuaUr eoeked. It 
property managed, this is pediapa the beet el all 
oil-Wpa, aa it wiE keep np a wdl anatained and 
brilliant light for seven or a^t houn, and the H^t 
rather inareaaea than othcowise aa the lamp hiJna 
and beoomcB wanner, thereby rendering the oil more 
limpid. Bat the Caroel lamp haa two djaadvantage*) 
is eipendve, and ia easily disaminged, theMore 



M^ua. 



._ ^uy would not have 
MM diswn 19 or ue wick, if amnged as in 
Ae eld Boman and Oreak htanuw. Hm solid fat 
of vafiooa Biirm'- waa tluor chief illnminating 

material, ooept on the wa-ooast, whore seal and 

wbale oa ooMdoD^ hatold ftem. Small ^1 ib^'u^ ot i^u&>imi ia'ttttiA tiiiii'pai^ bert 
staoe pota, aftarwardi endiaived for metal, were j .^^ intoodaoed mto Gnat Britain &rai K™iiny 



The French laoderator lamp ia mnoh limpler, and 
appears to overcome the diffionlties of Uie cmb. 
The body of this lamp oonaiets of a cylinder or 
barrel, the bwer part of wfaioh oontaina die rtore of 
oiL On the top of the ml ceata a ^aton, whieh is 
oonattntly pressed down fay » aidral spring idtaated 
between h and the top of the baneL llu«n{^ tiie 
platou ia inserted a amall tube, iriiioh paaaea up to 
the bnmer at the top ; and the prasanre of tiie 
spring on the piston oaosea a oonatant stream of oil 
to rise up through thia tube and feed the wick. 
What ia not oonsnmed flows over tbe burner, and 
baok into the burel above the piston. It ia above 
the ^aton also that fi«sh oil is Introdnoed. When 
tbe joittm has reaohed the bottom, it ia woimd i^ 
agau by a rack and pinion, and a vaouum beiag tiina 
foime^ the ml above it u forced to Uu under aide 
throiu^ a valve kind of oontrivanoe round its edge. 
It IB obvious that in tiua maohine the flow of ml 
will be graateat lAian tbe piston has been newly 
woimd up, and the apring ia at its gieateat tensioa. 
This ineqnalify ia r^;n£tted, or moderated — hence 
the name of ue lamp — 1^ an exfaemaly ingenioua 
oontrivanoe, which narrowa the paaaige for tJie oil 
when the preiaitre ia strongest. 

The introduction of mineral oils — known under 

the various namea ot parafBn oil, pe^^enm, kero- 

% naphtha, ahale wl, Jto. — haa m a great meaanre 

eneded the use ot animal Mkd vagMable dla ttx 

iting purpcaea. The great recommendation (rf 

„_ fonnar ia their chaapneaa. Ooo 0eat diffioulty 

Willi tiie mtoaral oils at dist waa tlia^ without oare- 

fnl pnpentiMi. they are apt to give aET inflammable 

T^onra at • lew temprntoK^ which siva rise to 

* ' ' This haa been obviated hj 

. . . n iridoh get tid <tf the lightar 

volatile ingredienta. An oil that siTea off 

mable vapour at a temper»tui« under 120* 

F, can hardly be considered safe. Paraffin oil from 
Boghead oou will not form an explodve mixture 
under 140* F. It is illegal to atore or iasne oil form- 
ins an inflammable miznire under 100* F. Another 
ifficnlty waa to nuke the ml bum without amdte. 



i,Googl ( 



LAMP-SHELL— LASASKBHIEE. 



aboot 1856, and, with minor improTsmonti, the foim 
ii rtiU adhered ta The body of the lamp i« a glob- 
nlar-ahaped reservoir of glaaa or stoneware for the 
oil, monnted on a foot or pedeatal ; into this a b«m 
wick-holder in Bcrewed, the wict being raised or 
lowered by meaiu of a rack and pinion. The neml- 
liarit; ot the paraffin lamp is a dom«-«hn)od cap 
■orronDding the wick-tnbe, and luiTing a lilt rnnmng 
acrom it, tlirough which the flame iMoea. A long 
gUoa chimn^ reats on a ledge or gallery arooikt the 
baee of the cap ; and by peirtoratdona in the biMi «» 
■ii^obamber in formed below. The chimney caoMB 
a etrong draught throngh this chamber, ana the cap 
or dome deflect! the current of ur, and makes it 
impinge against the flame as it passes throogh the 
slit, t£aa producing perfect combustion and * white, 
brmiant lu^t without snwke. Hie demand for theae 
lamps ha^beoome so great, that the maanfaature and 
■ale <A tiiem forms an ezteniiTe bn^neM of itaeU. 

A great drawback in the nee of the common par. 
affin lamp ia the expense and annoyance attendant 
on the frequent breakage of the gbua chimney. To 
obviate >tius, Bowatt and Son of Edinbargh have 
introdnoed their patent Atmeapi^ (tcwAeleae) lamp, 
idiich dirooisee with the glass chimney altoeetber. 
Instead of it, a aeoond oap or dome ia plac^ over 
the ordinary one, leaving a narrow space between 
the two. As the two oones get hot^ a powerful 
dranght is created, and two sepaiate currents of air 
ai« £reoted against the flame, one by the lower 
oap, as in the oidinatj lamp, and the other from 
brtween the two oapa. The result is perfect eom- 
bnatioa, without a ohimney. A large glass globe 
ta Dsed to protect the flame from correnta of av, as 
well aa to disperse and soften the light. Such a 
^obe is also often used with the ordinary lamp in 
addition to die chimney, a flange for supporting it 
bang added to the burner, fig. 2 represents the 




smallest form of paraffin lamp. A Motion of the 
bnmer is represented at a. The double-domed 
lamp ia represented in fig. S, 




Mineral oil thus burned furnishes a satisfactory 
light, rivalling gaa in cheapnesa. 

LAMP-SHELL (Tlo'eftrafdla), a genus of biachio- 
podouamoIluuM (see BsACHiorOD*), having a delicate 



shell, of which one of the valve* is larger and 
more convex than Om other, prolonged ba^wards 
into a kind of beak, which is pierced by a hole 
or flssure. Internally, there is a delicate bony 
framework, of two bnuichea, attached to the donal 
valve, by iriiich the armi (see BKA.CHloroiu) are 
supported. This is called the hop, and often by 
Bhell-collecton the earriage-rpTing. It is well seen 
in many fossil Tertbratuia. The recent speoiea are 
numerous, and very widely distributed from tba 
polar to the tropical seaa ; the fossil speeie* are 
extremely namerous. 
LAMPTTtIS Airo LAMTT^ID-«. See Glow- 

L A'lf AUK, a parliamentai? and municipal bntgh 
and market-town of Scotlan(£ in the county of tim 
same name, is situated on an elevation rising &om 
the Clyde, 30 miles south-west of Edinburgh. Its 
antiqmty ia attested by the fact, that here, in 978, 
Kenneth IL sMemhled a parlisiment, or meeting 
of tiie estates of the resho. Little trade is here 
carried on ; but tlie town derives some support 
from the nomben attracted to this dismct 
by the beauty of the sceoery in the vicinity. I^ 
nnitea with Hamilton and lour other burghs in 
■ending a member to partiament. Foa (1871) 
609fL— About a mile to us south, lies the maou- 
boturing village of Kxw Lanajik (pop. 973), oele- 
brated aa the scene of Robert Owen's experitnent 
[1815 — 1827} for the aocial improvement of the 
working-classes. 

LAITASKSHIRBjOrCLTDESDALE, an inland 
oonnty of SootJand, lies west of the shires of Edin- 
burgh, Linlitlieow, and Peebles. Its length is 54 
miles, and width 34 miles. Its area is 8&0 sqnaio 
miles, or 564,284 acres, of which there were under 
crops in 1873, 242,188 acres. This couoty is sub- 
divided into upper, middle, and lower wanls. The 
firvt of these oompcises more than one-haU of the 
coon^, and coosuts in a great measure of bills 
and moorish ground ; the second contains about 
160,000 acres, much of which is unprofitable; the 
thirA, which contains the dtj of Glasgow, is nearly 
all cultivated, although very little of the soil, unless 
that bordering on the Clyde, is of fiiit quality. The 

S'ncipal bilu are the Lowthera, wnich rise in 
Mm Hill to the height of 2403 feet; Tintock is 
2335 feet high. In the upper ward is the village 
of Leadhills, which is 1323 feet above sea-lev^ 
being the higbEat inhabited place in Scotland. This 
county poBsesHcs great mineral wealth. There are 
upwards of 200 collieries, and 14 iron-works, hav- 
ing nearly 100 blast furnaces. The cotton, flax, 
Bilu, and woollen factories (described in the Article 
Glaboow) are very extensive, and constitute one 
of Hba most important sources of wealth in the 
country. The county is watered principally by the 
Clyde (q. V.) and its affluents, ll was famous for 
its onwards as early as the time of the Venerable 
Bede. They yielded, early in the present century, 
as much as £8000 yearly, but have latterly fallen 
off ; and the ground is more profltabty employed 
in prodndDg gooBeberriea, vegrtables, kc, for the 
Glo^ow market The climate of L. is moist, and 
in many of the lower districts mild and genial, but 
often cold and boisterons in the hi^h grounds. It 
is not in general well suited for raising gnun-cro^ ; 
but much of it is excellentiy adapted for the reanng 
of stock and for dairy parposes. In 1873, the num- 
ber of ocoupanti of land was 3068, and the total 
acreage under rotation was 242,168 ; of which there 
were 4828 acres of wheat ; OlS bariey ; 46,547 oats ; 
10,272 acres turnips; and 748S acres potatoes. 
The total acreage under com crops was 54,478; 
under green crops, 19,395; under clover and grasae% 



lizMbyGUU^IU 



LANCA8HIBE-LAK0ASTBR. 



7%906; andimder permansiLt pubire, 87,149. Of 
li w H oek. the nnmben were— honei, 6911 ; cattle, 
•7,828; sheep, 218,520; swina^ 8199; total rtock, 
SNvlS& L. contum 5fi pwdies. It is unuly 
HmpUed with nulwaya and good roada. BeiulGa 
Qiaegow, L. oontaius the royal burgha of Laoark 
(wtoOi H Uk) county town) and Ruthwglen, the towna 
at HanultoD, Aitdne, Coatbrid^ Wiiritaw, Mother- 
vuJ, mCt L wnda two membttv to pariiajni 
oonrtitiMHicy, 8S06. Pop. (1871) 765,m 

I^'HCASHIRB, one of the laivest and the 
moat popokiia counties in Euidand, u boaaded - 
the fi ty Tor-^ "^ . ^^T-^- 



T Yorkihire, and on the W. by the Iriah 



acrea. Pop. !;819,49& Increate in' ten' years, from 
I86I to 1871, 390,086 aonla. Annaal value of pro- 
pa^, rated onder schedule A, in ISTl, £1^888,601 ; 
"■""■' value upon which direct taxes were paid in 
1671, indading property, land, occupiers, and income 
taze^ raQwayi, caoals, minea, Ac, £27J23,057, 
An ootlying portion of the coiinW, called Funieis, 
whose greatest length ia 2S miles, and greatest 
breadth IS milea, in separated from the main porCioi 
by Motecambe Bay. The larger division is inter 
sected in the north and east by branches of the hill 
•yitetn which runs southward through the counties 
of York and De(by, while Pumess has on its eastern 
IxTider the Combnan range. Towards the coast 
Oxe west the surface is flat, particularly in the 
larger division, with a curving outline and laive 
■tretches of sand, over which in various places the 
so seems to be extending its dominion. I3ie chief 
riven are the Mersey, Kibble, Lune, Winster, 
Leren, and Doddon, ul of which enter the Irish 
Sea l^ estuarie* nore or leas importaat; More- 
cambe Bay, b«uig the chief imfsotation. The 
dimate ia moist, bat mild, the soil being peaty in 
tke ofdanl diatriota, but a fortile loam for the most 
pMt m the flats. Oats and potatoes an general 
crop*; wheat also grows well in tiie southern 
division. Coal is the chief mineral product (the 
coal-field betng estimated at 400 square miles in 
extent); lead and <x^PT«r also occur, and iron is 
pleoti^ in Pnniess. The whole surface is covared 
with a net-work of canals and railways, which 
connect the principal manufacturing and commensal 
centres. See MAifCKnrEB, Livkrfooi., PmsroN, 
Buoumir, Ac L. ia famoni for ita immeiue 
cotton manufaetnreii iriiieh in 1870 numbered 1789, 
^viM employment to 380,601 paraons. The otlter 
teztiu masmaetnrw are likewise of considsrable 
importanoe. The mamifactnra ot all kinds of niachin> 
err ia extensvely owrried on ; and ship-building, 
•aU-makin^ and kindred t ' " " "- ---=^ 



n a flourish- 



eot for the county, and tweoty-toor (w 
I within the county. The lustrict of 
JTumMB pcesente many attractions to the tourist 
On ita DMih-esstam border stratchea the beautiful 
lake Windermare, weetwaid from which ia EaaUi- 
wute Water; and fnrtlur west, Coniiton Lake, and 
file' Old Han o( Coniston,' with a height of 2677 feet. 
In fhs peniimla between the rivers Duddon and 
Leven i PnrMM Abbey, a noble rain, tiia eSeot 
of which H enhanced % the ^otnreaqne beauty 
of tiia scenery in the vidnity. The abbey waa 
fDonded by Stephen, Earl of Morta^ or Mortoil, 






The 



SOT feet long, . .. 

In the township of Whallev, in the east of L., is a 
very dd chtindi, and in we ohurchvard are three 
crosses, ^qipareotiy of Saxon origin. In the vicinity 
are the mins of an abbey ol about the same age as 
PumefB. A few miles from Whalley is the Roman 
Catholic college of Stonyhurst. The only islanda 



along the coast, of whioh Walney Island is the 
largest, are off the louthem eitromity of Pamus. 

LA'HCASTBR, a municioBl and parliamentary 
borou^ and seaport of EngUud, capital of Lanca- 
shire, IS picturesquely situated on an eminence on 
the left bank of the Lune, near the mouth of that 
river, and 230 miles north- north -west of London. 
The ancient castle, which overlooks the town, 
is now used as a coonty jail and court-house. The 
houses are built of the freestone quarried in the 
vicinity, and though the streets are narrow, the 
town IS neat and well built. The Lune is here 
crossed by a bridge of Ave arohea, and by an aque- 
duct carrying the Lancaster Canal across the river. 
The town contains numerous scientific, benevo- 
lent, and educational inatitutums. There is some 
trade in coal and limestone. The chief manufac- 
tures are furniture, cotton, silk, table-baiie, Ameri. 
can leather, doth, and cast-iron work. In 187i 
1639 vessds, of 26^3^S tons, entered and d^ied 
the port. Ii. formerly returned two members to 
parliament, but was disfnuichissd in 1S67, for 
oorrupt praotioes at elections. Pop, (1871) 17,246. 

LANCASTER, a dtv of Penn^lvania, United 
States of America, 68 miles (bv raiQ west oE PhUa- 



ddphia, on the Pennsylvania Cenbal Bailway. 

" itoga river, made navigable by dams and - 

through <^ dty. and sup[diea it with ooal 



Iway. The 
and locks. 



. theatre, __ . 

College, high-school, 12 daily and 7 weekly papers, 
3 cotton ketones, iron-fouadriea, &a. It la par- 
ticularly celebrated for the manufacture of rifle*. 
Pop. (1870) 20,233. 

LAlfCASTCB, Dncav or. L. is a dnchy and 
county palatine (see Fsj.ATDni] of England, created 
by rt^al charter, ia whidi reapect it difien from 
Ihitham and Cheater. Edward lIL, on the death «f 
Henry, Duke of Lancaster, conferred the duchy on 
John of Oaunt and his heirs for ever. During the 
Wan of the Itoses, Henry IV. and Edward lYTbatfa 
eudeavonied so to settle the duchy that it ahonld 
the hein of their body apart from the 
crown, and continue with them m the event of 
their loaing the latter. The result of tliese several 

~^ '~ baa been the preeervatioa of the duchy as 

e poaa o ssioa in tn-der and goveimneuCbut 
point of inheritance. The revenues irf the 
duchy form no part ot those hereditary revenues in 
lieu ot which the Civil List (q. v.) was gnnted. He 
net proceeds are paid ever to the Privy Purse, and 
wholly exempted from pariiamentary control, except 
"- it uie annual account for receipt and expenditura 
preaented. The county psl^ine forms only a 
portion of the duchy, which indudes considerable 
estates not within the county palatine. There ia a 
chancellor of the duchy (L e., of the part of it whioh 
does not lie within the comity), and of the county 
palatine, which two offices are generally united. 
The Duchy Court of Lancaster, held at Westminster, 
and presided over by the chancellor of the dnchy, or 
his depu^, exercisea jurisdiotion in all matters of 
equi^ rdating to the lands of the dnchy. The 
administaation of |n*tice has recent^ been assimi- 
lated to that of the teat of England. The office of 
chancdlor is a politaoal appointment, whitih it ia the 
practice to comer on a statesman t^ eminence fre- 
quently a member of the cabinet, who is expected 
to devote his time to such larger queattona oooupying 
the attentioii of government as do not fait within 
other departments. The emduments of the office 
are about £2000 per annum By IT and 18 Tict e. 
12, the chancellor of the duchy, with the two loidl 
justices of the Court of Appeal, form the PalatiDate 
Court of AppeaL 



lizoabyGUU'^lf 



TiATTrfiffl'HlK TiitTTfTBBfl 



LA2TGASTEB, SiK JjJtm, tlie fint fi^i^uL 



Id 1600, tlw imwIt oonftitated JEnif /fulia Con^any 
iBtnutedliiiiivitEttMirfiTit expeditioii. L. haTing 
in the oonne of hi* voyagM, eolleoted * nuniber r^ 
valiubl* docnmenti in m tyo rt of the exiitence of 
Dorth-weat paaage, the gorenunent, Actiiig on h: 
adnoe, sent ont an expeditioii to atteiopt to dij 
coTsr it. Ilief diioavcnid a itnit in 74' N. lat 
whidi wu named bj Baffin Xanciufer iSbund, i 
hononr of I^ncaater. L vaa created a baronet 
for hii MTTiaea, and died in 1S20. The history of 
hia TOfRgei haa been preserved liy Haklayt and 
PurcJuu, 

LiLNCASTER, JosKPO. See Bbu, Aksrcw, 
and UumAii IifBTSnonoK. 

LAN0A6TEB Girir.aspedei of rifled oai 
which hai been paitiaQp adopted in tlia British 
serrica. When the great difflotilty of rifling heavy 
ordnanoi to an extent to give a aaffident rotaiy 
notion to the projeotile betams a^^Mimt, lb l«n- 
cattcr devised a idan by vhioh grooves mi^ be 
dispenied with altogeOier. Tnitjiwl of a rtrictly 
circular bore, he gave his nin tw aOjptical bote, the 
ellipse being of toy small eocmtrioity. The tnajor 
axis was not in one plane from end to end of the 
gun, bat wat niade to revolve in the length, <mtO. it 
had moved ronnd one-foortii the periphecy of tJie 
ellipse. The projectile* are, of conrse, elliptical 
also ; elonmted, and somewhat pointed in front. 
When the Aell is projected, it most follow the twist 
in the bore, and the rotary motion thus imparted 
if retuned to the end of the range. The effect of 
this wiH be explained under Ritled Abi^b , Sereral 



(with eiimdH . . _ ._ 

Mlilandatd, and thamtoM weakened. Thawroi^-, 
iron giras (m his special model have f^wta, howerer, 
more oertiin i«snlts. Itie special adruitagedaimed 
for the Lanouter gnn is that it fool* leas tluui any 
of the othM gnni in om. 8m Bitlxd Asia. 

LAITOASTER HEBAJJD, one of the six heralds 
of Bndand, ranking second in point of seniority. 
His office is said to have been inetitated by Edward 
HL, in tile 84th year of his reign, when he opeated 
his Bon, John of Oannt, Dnke of I^oa«t«r. Hen|y 

-, — , revived 

by Henry Vn. 

LASOASTEB SOTTKB, a western iolet of 
Baffin's Bay, in lat li' N., and extending from 
80" to 87* W, long. Thonoji this opening into the 
polar ocean was oiscovereif by Baffin himself, as far 
back as 1616, yet it lay vtrtuailv neglected for 
more than 200 yean. At length Farn-, in I3I9, 
penebated tbronsh it into Bttrow*! Strait, and, 
Deyond it, to the North Georgian leUnds. 

LAJ7CE differed from (jNnr or javelin in that it 
was not intended to be thrown, but to be thrust at 
the enemy by force of bond, and with the impetus 
acqniiad by speed, and thus was moat eCTective in 
the hands of a mounted soldier. Hence the lance 
WM the favonrite arm with knights for eommancing 
a combat: it was of tongh ash, of considerable 
Id^ftli, we^^ited at the sn^ and held not &r from 
the hilt See Tcmtsuam. In modem warfan^ 
the lasce is a long rod of tongh aah, with an 
iron point, and nsoally a eolonrea fl^ near it It 
is die ofi^iiMTe *nn of Lutosbe (q. v.). 

UkTSOSOMt {Ampkumu, at AwieUarianM), a 
genns of Donnoptarous (q. T.] fishes, of T«(y remark- 



able organisation, far lower than Uiat of any oilier 
vertebrate nifinVf^ oonnaoting cutilsAnous fi«i^«* 
both with molluKs and wi£ annalifli. A few 
■pedea are known, aQnnallioneof them(^. Iniioao- 
loto), the flnt which wm dtMovered, i native of 
the ooasti of Britain and of Enrc^ generally. It 
inhabits banks of sand, and whan dng up, bniiea 



length, vecy much compressed, tapering to a point 
at each extremity, the head not notably distinct 
body. It is sQvsry white and semi-tnins- 



parant; the skin dsstitate of scales. A low dorsal 




fin extends the whole hngtii of tbs back. IHm 
skeleton is merely mdimantarj, the smne being 
represented by a tihrooi iheath, oontainuig a great 
number of In^tsverse memWanoiu platea. Thoe is 
no vestige of » sknll, or any anlargemaot of tlie 
spjinal cord into a bnin ; nor ii the L. fomislied 
witii omms of siidit or of bearing. Ths month is 
aitnated bsBeath Qiat part of tiiebody whioh nay 
be regwded ai the head; and is soiroonded by a 
cartOiginoui ring, in aeranl plaoes, each of iriiich 
gives off a prcJongatian to attpport oirv^ or aWrt 
Slamenta. The month oonnonnieatM with a wide 
and long cavity, which ooatsuu the oi;pns of repar- 
ation, and b^ ths oUmt exttemity of whioh tb* 
alimantan' canal prooeeds. The L does not aat or 
swallow, bttt simply imbibaa it* food, altawwith the 
water wfaioh tnppliaa air for reaimtioik Ilia intea- 



sloider and almcat stnij^t : But tiun - 

very long omoim. The walla of the le^ratoir 

i>!^ and the intestine are oorwed intKnaLy witn 

fftntile cilia. The blood is oolonriaaa. Instead of 



abanted bh 
'i aoaattba 



the vessels aennected with the 
. . .. m than is a little oontraotile bnlb. 
The muscular *y*tem aceoids with that of the 
higher fishes. — The voy anomalous stnutiua of ths 
L. has led to the snppesitioD, that this gaoos may 
repreaant a tamfly or order onoe more nnmennis, bat 
belonging nther to fomaar geologio periods t^*'} to 
the present. 

LAXCBLOT OP THB LAXB, one of the heroes 
of the lemndary story of King Arthur and the Round 
Table. See Abtbds. 

LANCBBS, a description of eavalnr soldiers who 
are armed with lancea. "Ho type and perfection of 
lancers are the Eusaiaa Cossa<±a, whose long Uocet 
eoable them to combat with "■itt-jwi at a distance 
from i4iick they themaalves taka littU harm. Ttit 
laooers ware bronght into Koiopean notice by Nwk>- 
lem, who greatly relied npon some Polish r«imenl«. 
After the peaoe o( 181S, tJM arm was adopt^l^ the 
'"- *' ' service, bat it is thmght by many that the 
Isnoar has a weapon too short to enable 
bun to ohargs an infantry sqnan with any chaooe 
of snooflsa ^Die regiments anaed as lancen sm 
snnmanted in the aiiiala CUtuat. 



dbyCoogle 



LANGET-WINDOW— LANDED PEOPEETY. 



IiAJfOBT-WIHDOW, a uErow window with 
aoDtalf-poiiitad anlh lusd. This fona wai moch 

nmited jMnod of Oothio arohiteotnre. Severkl 
iMinrt wmdowi mre fraqoently gioapad togetiiar, lo 



M to pndiM & plMong afiaoL In SwrtLuid, Uie 
lanmi-wiiidow wm, like m>D7 othw fektiire* of 
Sootdi Oothio, retainad to a, nuu^ Uter period th 
in ^'■^»~* Hw fig. (hewa the sMt vrindow 
Wiagow Cathadnl, wUch oonniti of four Unoet- 
win^wa ponpad togather. 

IiAVGBWOOD, a wood vahubla for ita gt«»t 
•tmigUi and duticity. It is prodnoed by the soiaU 
bee ffuatteHa nrfrolti (lutanl order >liK>n<Ksea). 
Anothor ipedei, O. kmrtfoUa, yieldt the wood called 
Whita lAoeewood. The Utter is not mach luH 
L. is of gnat ralae to ooaeb-boilderB, lij whom 
i« nMd_fOT ihafts and earringe-polaa, for whioh it 



I 



eapedaUy fitted. The pwt 

oTUm tM«^ which is TUy ttrught, and rarely more 
than niua tnehea in diameter, with the bark on. It 
omua in muH qnaatitiea from the West Indiea, 
cUeflir, howerar, from Jamtde^ 

^WMOf I 

1 ItalT, in 
a diitrict. 



allj dadicatad to DiooletUn. The oentral poncioa 
of lUa tows favoared ita being (elected m a centre 
nt jndieial and oitU adminisbration dming both the 
£MBaii and QoUiio period*, uid from ita exteniiTa 
faaffic!^ it obtained the title o£ ' ^le Emporinm 
ol the nantanL* L. pow ow aa a fine cathedral, 
■donad with matUea and ralnable paintbp ; con- 
taiaa aarwal large foaodriaa, and carriea on manu- 
faetotaa of linen goodi and faiinaceooa paatea. 

IiAKD, nn^B TO. Bae Titlk. 

LilfDATr, a town and fortrow o! Bavaria, 
in the dictrict of Bhenith PMz, ia dtaated in a 
beantifnl npm on the Qneieh, which fills its 
tome with water, twenty miles north-west of Catli- 
mhe. There are here important muiafactiuee of 
tobacoo. The population in J87I was 6921, L. 
haa bveo the aoene of important erenta dmingereiy 
aince the 10th century. In the^lurty 
- ;* _. taken a^t timea by Swede(^ 



t War, it 



impregnable imtil tfaVtn. in 1702^ by tiie imperiallsta 
nnder the Markgraf Lndwig of Baden. 

LAKD-CBAB, the popnlar name of all those 
apeciea of Crab (q.T.) which in a nature state are 
not aqiiatie. They are now eraoted into a family or 
tribe, and divided into aereral geneta. The species 
are muoeraos, and all inhabitonU of warm oonntrieB. 
They very maoh resemble the common crabs of our 

by gills, and yet not aqaatic, some of them inhabit- 
ing Tery dry places, where they burrow in the aand 
or earth ; but luch presence of moisture is absolutely 
naeeaaary to them as to prevent the desicostion ot 
their gilu. Hany, and probably all of them, deposit 
their ipawn in water, for which purpoae aome of 
them annnally migrate from considerable distances 
to the aaa ; but there is reason to suppose that some 




Land-Crab (Gdattmut mationii). 



deposit their apawn in freah water. The BuOK 
Crab, or MomrrAIS Cius IQecareimu rurieota), of 
the West Indiea, nanally retddea in woods and on 
^''1s at a diatanoa <d at laaat one mile, often two 
three milaa from the aea, which, however, it 
rwolarly viaits in the montha of Afvil and May, 
when immense nnmbers may be aeen jonmeying 
together, moving itrai^t on, nnleaa ohataelea quite 
ininperable impede their progreaa. Like most oi the 
other spaoiea, thia L. ia aoUvs ohiefly durins the 
ni^t ; and aioept in rainy weather, it addom teavea 
ita borrow by day. It feeda ohiafly on vwetable 
food When in saaaon, it ia highly eateemed for the 
table, aa aome of the other land-craba alao are ) and 
jta apawn or roe, which before being, depoaited forms 
a bunch as large as a hen's egg, is accounted a 
delicacy. — A L. of Ceylon (Oq/pode) ia lo tronblo- 
oa acoonnt of the boirowa lAtch it makaa in 



awarm with amall land-oraba, i 
nus or on green stalka of rice. 
LANDED MEN, Jubt of. In Scotch Law, it ig 
privilege belonging to a landed proprietor, when 
tried for a criminal offence, to demand a jury the 
majority of whom are landed proprietors. 
LANDED PEOPEETY ia not a leral, but rather 
popolar phrase, to denote that kind of property 
hich conaists of freehold estates fn land, or, in 
«itlaad, heritable estatea. A person may have a 
ere chattel int«reat in land, such aa a lesae (thoaEh 
_ Scotland even that is heritable estate), and the 
landed property does not in sooh cate belong to 
him, but to his landlord, to whom and whose noirs 
the land descends for ever, until alienated. Landed 
property inoludee houaea and all things called cor- 
poreal, and also aome incorporeal righta connected 
with land. 



....-Googid : 



LAITDER— LANDLORD AND TENANT. 



The TWioni ways in which thit important kind 
of property U held, and the formaUtiefi attending 
its tranafer, u« treated ol under iuoh heads at 
Aixonnm, Fst, Fbssboui, Cofthold,* Feovf- 
MEMT. Deiii, Pzc, Sisma, OHAaira, Coktbtamcx, 
CoNTKYANcnia, Salb, Trrui, fte. 

LAHDEB, RiCHABD, the discoverer of the mouth 
of the Niger, waa bom in Cornwall in 1804, and 
became a printer; but in 182S went with Captain 
CUpperbiD, aa hia aerraDt, to Africa, and occom- 
nnied him from the Bay of Benin to S6koto. 
lliere Clapperton died ; and L, returning to England, 
published a journal containing an acoonnt of the 
expedition, giving proof of saai qualificationa, that 
the ^tieh government intruated to him the proae- 
cation of furdier reaearchea eonceming the course 
of the Ni;^. In 1830, be and his brother iTobn 
aucoeeded m proving that the Qoorm, or Niger, f alia 
b; many mouths into the Bight of Benin. The 
brathera were, however, seized by the n^roes, and 
•old to a alave-dealer, but being brought to Cape 
Fonnoaa, were redeemed by the maiter oE a Liver- 
pool ahip. They retonied to Ekigland in Jane 1S30, 
tad mOatMA % Journal 1^ an &cpedilion to .Keplore 
tltt CouTK and Ttrmiitalion qf the Niger [3 vols. 
Lend. 1832). In 1832, they undertook a new expe- 
dition to the Niger in an iron steamboat, and 
bought a sntall isluid aa » British trading-stalJoii- 
In 1833, BioliArd L, with a few companions, made 
a trading excursion in the delta of the Niger ; but 
they were assailed by the natives, and L. received 
a wonnd, of wluch he died, at Fernando Po, 27th 
January 1S34. — JoHir L, who was abont three 
yean younger than his brother Richard, was 
rewarded wiui an appointment in the Costonis ; but 
died, 16th November 1839, from the effects of the 
Airisan climate^ 

LANDBS (Ft. heaths], extensive tracts on the 
coast of the Bay of Biscay, between the Gironde and 
the Pyrenees. Few districbi in Ent«pe are more 
desolato and nnprodnctive. The part neareat the 
aea is more so than that which Um further inland 
on the rivers Adoor and Hidooie. The soil is in 
general sandy, sometimM mwslqr, mostly covered 
with nothing better than heath and dwarf ahruha, 
except where large jdantationa of fir and cork trees 
were made in 1789, by direction of the minister 
Necker. Only a few more fertile apots yield crops 
of rye, maise, and millet. The inhabitants, irtio are 
called Parent, live in scattered villsfea of wretched 
huts, in the eastern part of the L, i they are of 
Gascon race, very poor and rude, but active, good- 
natured, and hospitable. They very generally walk 
on stilts in the marshy and sandy grounds. They 
keep beea, svrine, and sheep, and also live by fishini; 
and hnnting ; and have begun to derive much 
advantage from the plantations, in which they find 
occnpatun in ohaicoal-buming. oork-cotting, and 
collecting turpentine, reain, and pitch. liiey ijso 
mauaEactare laboU, or wooden shoes. The sheep of 
the L. are of a very wretched breed, with coane 

LANDES, a maritime depAitment of FnuiM, and 
one of the largest and most thinly peopled in the 
country, is bounded oa the W. by the Bay of Biscay. 
Are», 2.434,762 _aci«t; pop. (1ST2) 300,628. The 
principal river is the Adoor. The railway from 
Bordeaux to Bajonne passes through the whole 
length of the province nom north to sonth. Of 
the entire area of the department, 51,100 acres are 
'n vineyards, and about 11^000,000 ^Uons of wine 
ire produced annually. The department is divided 
into the three arronmssements, Mont-de-Marsan, St 
Sever, and Dax. Capital, Mont-de-Marsan. 

ItAlTDGBATE, or LANDORAF. SmObav. 






LANDLORD AND TENANT. The a<mttact 
by which the owner of land or houses, or the party 
entitled to the exclusive possession thereat, let* 
or hires this exclusive possession to itaoihar tar k 
limited time, is generally called a lease, and tiiereby 
the relation of landlord and tenant is craatcJl 
The party letting is called the landlord or lessor, 
and the party taking the lease is called the leasee 
or tenant. In order to let a house, the con- 
tract need not be in writing, unless the property 
is let for more than three years ; but writing is 
always useful, especially if any variation is lude 
from the usual terms. In Scotland a verbal lease ia 
good only for one year. If nolhing is said as to 
details beyond the amount of rent, and the lengUl 
of time the lease is to last, (here are certain ri^ts 
onderstood to exist as between landlord and tenant 
of which the most important are as follows in 
England. The tenant has a right to assign or sublet 
the property, if not otherwise agreed, but he still 
i«niains bound for the rent, unless the landlord 
accept the sub-tenant in his place. As a general 
mle, the tenant is primarily liable to bear all public 
impositions, whether the^ be parlismentaiy taxes or 
"~---ite8, paving, lightmg, watching, watar-n^ 
ly^teo, county or borough rates, and ehnrch- 
. Hence, if the tenant wishes the landlotd to 
pay these, or any of them, he must make some 
special agreement to that efiect, for the only tnro 
rates which the landlord is bound to pay, or rather, 
to repay to the tenant, are the land-tax and pro- 
perty-tax, and the sewers.rate. As regards repain, 
the burden of repairs is, at common law, thrown 
on the tenant ; and therefore, if the landlord ia to 
repair, he must bind himself by express conti-act. 
But the tenant ia only bound for ordinary repairs, 
not for repoits to the fabric itself. He is bound to 
use the premises in a fair and reasonable manner, 
~ ' ' give them up at the end of the term in mnoh 
me condition, m«Tring allowance for tear and 
, uid Oio efiects of time. Stnuige to say, the 
landlord does not impliedly warrant the hooss to be 
reasonably fit for habitauon, or that it will lost 
daring the existence of the lease ; and it has been 
held Uiat a house infested with bugs could not be 
thrown up by the tenant merely on that greund. 
Moreover, if the landlord agree to do repairs, and 
fail to do them, the tenant is not entitled to quit on 
that account, unless there is Bo express agreement 
to that eCFect. Where the premises consist of a 
farm, the tenant is bound to repair the fences ; and 
when a tenant makes great improvements on a fonn, 
he has no claim gainst the landlord for the value 
of such improvements, if no express agt^ameot has 
been made. This state of the law was, however, 
altered in Ireland in 1870, by the act of 33 and 34 
Vict 0.40. Asr^rdsgame,thet«nanthasaTu^tto 
shoot the game,ifiiehas a game licence, unless be has 
otherwise specially agreed. The tenant of a farm has 
no light to the mmes of coal or other mineral, unless 
they are already open, in which case he may take 
"~ 901 tor his own use. If nothing ia speoiaUy agreed 

to the time of payment of the ren^ it is aalj doe 
at the end of each year, but thcfe is atatiuy sn 
express agreement to pay quarterly at the end of 
each quarter. Sach qoarterHlays are IJuly-dBy, 
March 2S; Midsummer-day, June 24; Minhj^lmrm . 
day, September 29; andChriatmaa-da}t,Deoamber2Si, 
Rent ia sometimea agreed to be paid in advance, 
but there must be sa expnss sgreanent to tlwt 
efTect In case of &«, if nothing ^ besn ezpresdy 
ureed, the tenant ia bound to go on paying t«nt as 
ii the honie octnally existed ; and yet tMre is no 
means of compelling the- landlord to rebnild the 
house, and it is not even expressly ssttled whether 

that case the tenant can get quit of his lesM by 



abvLjOOgle 



LANDLOSD'S HYPOTHEC-LAHDON. 



oficnng to abHidan it. &. luidk»d u priTilesed 
■bore all otbvr creditor* u to the my in which 
lie reeorei* bit tent, for he need not, like other 
craditors, ^ to the eipeiue and daUy of bringing 
aa kotkm, bat he can make a diitreu on t*" 
ITOniaea, L e^, seise at once aa mach fumitore 
gooda aa he finda there, to pay the rent in airec 
and he can recoTer lix jeazi rent in thia way. And 
it b inunaterial whether the goods so seized 
balmiB to the tenant or aot, ezoept the gooda 
are UtoBE ol a lodger, who has' paid his TenL 
HeuM, thongh iho honse ia sahlet to another 
toiaat whose gooda ate there, or eren if the fnmi- 
tOM ia hired, add thoogh the landlord knew this, 
7et he may seize it aod pay himself ; the only 
exception being made in favour of trade, as where 
the goods have been sent to a tailor or weavei' to 
be made np. Tbii privilege of distreaa, however, 



the raat is due. Heooe, if the tenant ia bound only 
to pay his rent at the end of the year, he may <Hk 
the last day remove all his goods and famiture, and 
■o pat tJiem beyond the reach of the landlord's 
dis^vsa. It ia trne he does not get quit of the debt, 
for the luidlord may then sne him, like other 
ereditora, but ha has no privilege. On the oUier 
band, though tiie landlord cannot distnin till after 
the rent is due, still it may happen tiiat, even after 
rent ia dae, the tenant niay yet manage to cUndea- 
I tinely temove the goods, the rule being, at common 
1 law, that if once the goods be taken off the premises, 
the landlord's secnrity is gone. In sacb oases, f" 
I landlord ia entitled by an express statute to folk 
I the goods so fraudulently removed to avoid a 
I distreaa, provided he do so within thirty days ; and 
I he can then adze them, in whose hands soever they 
may be, and distrain them, as if they were still on 
I his ptemiaea. Another qualiScation of the land- 
I knd'i right of distroa is of some importaaoe ; he 
cannot break ojieit the outer-door of the hoose, oi 
I force hia way to, thonj^ he may nse stratagem to 
' get in peaceably, and vbea onoe in, he can enect his 
[nrpoae by eeaina a table in name of the other 
goods, and leaving his broker or bailiff in ^ 
I It ia gHnerallv the bailiff or agent of the landlord 
who nukes the distress, bat it is the same thin 
HenCT^ it often happens that a tenant who is vi) 
lant, and not to be surprised, may for » long tin 
efiectnally keep his landlord at bay, as far as t] 
powo' of distress is concerned, for bis faonse is li 
castle to this extent. Another adrantage a landlord 
has aa a creditor is, that if his tenant is indebted to 
third parties, who obtain judgment agtunst suoh 
tenant, and put an exeoutioniii Uie house, Le., seize, 
ander the authority of the jodstoent, the tenantfs 
Koodi, or if the tenant become bankrupt, the land- 
lotd is entitled to be first paid out of the proceeds 
of the fnmitnre or gooda, one year's rent if in 
airear; if there ia more rent dae, then he must take 
the same remedy as other creditors. The mode of 
tenninating a lease is by the time expiring, or by a 
notice to quit. In the ordinary tenancies of houaea, 
which are called tenandes from year to year, the 
nUe is, if nothing is ^reed to the contrary, that 
eitho' party can pat an end to the tenancy by 
Kiving a half-year's notice at such a time that the 
tease will end at the same time of the year as the 
tenancy commenced. Thus, if the tenant entered 
on lit May 1874, then he can ^vs a half-year's 
notice to quit on 1st May 1875, 1876, or any subse- 
quent yekT. Sometimea the parties agree that only 
a qoarter's noidoe vrill suffice, and utat at any of 
the nsoal quarter-days of the year. Sometimes the 
tenant, after giving or receiving j"*J"- ~fi,~— +-. 
renoret and lulds over ; in which 



lord ehoMea, ha mav aocept him, and thereby th« 
tenancy is renewed from year to year ; or he may 

insist on the notice, in which case he require to 
bring an action of ejectment to turn the tenant oat; 
and m such cases, the landlord is entitlod to demand 
doable rent or double valae, until he gets back the 
possession. A lodger has fiow a better position than 
a tensnt to the party from whom he hires the lodg- 
ings. See LoDoiNa& 

In Scotland, the law on the subject of landlord 
and tenant differs in a great variety of details from 
the law of England as above stated, but it will be 
necessary only to notice the lesding ppinta. There ia 
no implied right in the tenant to assiEU and sublet 
an or£aary lease of an agricultural subject, such aa 
a farm ; but sub-letting and assigning are implied 
rights of the tenant of on urban property. If 
a tenant take a farm or house, he ia impliedly 
bound to stock the one and furnish the other. 
If a house is let, the landlord impliedly war- 
rants that it ia in a fit state of repair ; and if 
the landlord is bound to repair, tliB tenant may 
either do the repairs at tite landlord's expense, 
or retain the rent till the repairs are done. TJsnally, 
the landlord puts the farm buildinga, fences, road- 
ways, &c, in thorough repair at enti^ of the tenant, 
who is bound to leave the whole, at the end of the 
lease, in good condition, except as regards deterior- 
ation from ordinary tear and wear ; by which 
arrangement all disputes, aach aa occur in Ireland, 
are avoided. The tenant has no claim for improve- 
ments, unless when his lease is abmptly tenmnated, 
and this is of rare occurrence. See LxAAl. The 
tenant of a farm is, in the absence of special agree- 
ment, not entitled to the game. Seat a payable 
twice a year, if not oUierwise agreed. In case ^ 
accidental fire, the tenant is no longer bound to 
pay rent if the destruction is complete, and other- 
wise ia botmd only pro lanlo. A landlord has a 
hypothec, and can sequestrate (resembling the 
power of distress in England) the tenant's goods 
for rent which is ourreDt but not yet due. But 
the landlord cannot in general sequestrate a 
stranger's goods, unless in town-houses, and even 
then subject to qualification) and he cannot take 
a sub-tenaat'e goods, if the sub-tenant has pud 
the rent te the tenant. The landlord's hypothec or 
secnrity over the goods lallows the goods wherever 
they go i but iu cose of farma thia right waa car- 
tailed, as r^arda crops sold or removed, in various 
paiticulan by the Hypothec Ameikdment (Scotland] 
Act, 1867, 30 and 31 Viot. o. 42. The notice to qnit, 
or warning, ia sufficient if ^ven forty days before 
the term Ol reinovaL But m Edinburgh the local 
custom is to give a three months' warning at 
Candlemas. Rent cannot be retained for on illiquid 
or unconstltuted claim. If no notice is given forty 
days before the terminatioa of a lease that advan- 
tage is to be taken of ita close, the agreement is 
held to be renewed for another yeor by tadt reloca- 
See PaterBOn's Compmdittm qf UngliA and 
SwtA Lam, pp. 127—149. 

LANDLORD'S HYPOTHEC, in Scotch Law, 

eana the lien or security for the landlord's rent 

which attaches upon the tenant's goods. See Lu4D- 

LANDON, LrrtTU EuzAnnH, an English 
poetess — -better known by her iiutials L. B. iT — 
in London in 1802. Her childhood was 
spent in the house of a relative in Hertfordshire. 
In 1820, her first poems Bm>eared in the Literary 
OaxeOt, and atbacted considerable attention. On 
the death of ber father, she devoted her entire 
attention to litentare, earning both tune and money. 
She published several volumes of verse, the most 



TZC^ 



LAHDOB—LAKOS-OLAUBBS AfJI. 



widely raad mud Bdmired. of wliiclL waa the Intpra- 
vitalnce, and tluw noTeli, which kare long amce 
been dweited hj the world of reader*. On the 
7th of Jnne 1S38, ihe married 0«ot«e Uaolean, 
Eaqtiire. GaverDcir of Oape Cout Oaatle, and wu 
found dead in her new honae on the IStli October 
1S39. It ii ondeTEtood that tor the alleriation oi 
■paonB, wit^ which she wu occasionally riiited, 
*be waa in tho habit of taking small doeee of pnuaio 
acid, and bar death ii inppoaed to faaTe bean caoaed 
by an overdoae. TOiora ii no re*«m to suppose 
that her death waa other than acoidentaL In 
1841, Hf Tjm*¥i Blanchard publiahed her Life and 
liimty Ttjnn.jii. is 2 vols. 

L. R L. mifiht lie called a sort of f snale Byron, 
Byton had wnttea nothing but the Coraalr and Lara. 
Efer poemi are altogether high -flown and ronu 

but th^ have » certain mnvcal irnmilM whi 

pleaaujg, and which ffftve tium all tbe cham they 



LAimOR, Wattir Sataok, aon of Walter 
Landor and of Elizabeth Savage, waa bom at Ipaley 
Ooort, Warwickshire, in 177S. He waa ednoated 
at Bu^by, and at Tnni^ CoUege, Oxford, glutting 
the iimT«iti^ without taking a degree. He mo- 
ceeded to the family ertatea on tbe deaUi of bii 
father, la 1808, he nuted a bod^ of men at liia 
own espenae, and jmned tbe Spanish patriots under 
BUk& Ha WM made a colonel in the aervir- ' 

Sptdn, bnt redsned his commission on the res 

tion d! Eius I&dinand. In 1811, be married Mia* 
Julia TliuiDier of Bath. After hie marriage, he 
feuded first at Tours, then at Florence, wMte he 
bon^t an estate. He first became known as tt 
anthor of Count Julian, which ■*»« followed by 
poem called OMr. In 1820, appeared Id^tia 
Haviea ^ Latin), and in 1S24— I8S9, his Ima- 
ffinary Converiatiotu <if Iiiterary Men and Staitt- 
mtn (0 vols.), Ii. waa a thorough claaaioal scholar, 
and hit Graek and Boman characters speak as we 
should expect the andeiit heroea to hare spoken. 
Heia sreaMTM a proM writer than as a poet; bnt, 
Mcor£ng to Bmrason, who visited him in 1833, 
natnre meant >iiTn rather for action than for litera- 
ture. ' Ha has,' says Emerson, ' on End.iih appetite 
for action and heroes.* In 1836, he pnbEisbed 
Iidiiertof a. Oontereative ; in the same year, a SaUrt 
on SaiiriiU, and AdmonUion to Deiraelor*; in 
1837, The Pentaneron atid Ptntalogvx; in 18*7, JTfe 
HtSinKt; ialSiS.ItnaginaryOonvertalioiiaiifKing 
Carlo Alherlo and IM jyua\fM Brlgknoio on Ota 



Trte; in 1854, LeOen ofaa Amerkan. Some more 
recent ptoductioni of L't pen are not considered to 
bare added to hii imputation. He died at Florence, 
Septembat 1864. 

LAIfDOTJ'B, a sanitary station in British India, 
on the soath bordn of the protected state of 
Gurhwal (a.T.], at an elavatian of 7JI79 feet above 
"" '— On aswmfiing to Una point from the 
thermometer has been known to fall 

- G2* P. in the cottwe of two or three 

hours. Even in June, the temperature rarely rises 
to 80* ; while, ia January, it averages only about 
63*. Uuoh has been done to render tha place avail- 
able for invalids. Barracks have been ereotod, aa 
also a post-office, a obnroh, a hoepita], a hotd, a 
tibnuy, and many private lLoaae& L. is 102S 
milea to Hus nortii-weat of Calcutta. This sani- 
tary station ia all tiie mon aoos aa i b le from iti 
proximitv to both the et«at riv«n of the neigh- 
bourtiood, the Jumna ana the Owigea. 

LAKD-RAIIi. SeeCuXK 






LANDBAILB, in point of law, are imtMtad by 
&a nme-laws from ulsgal liiis[iMiiiis. thoa^ not 
included in the definition of 'game.' 8m 9*1(1, 

POAOBXBB. 

LAITDSBERO, a town of Prussia, in the pro- 
vince of Brandenborg, is rituated in a pleasant 
and &nitfnl district on the Warthe, 40 milea north- 
east of Trankhrt Its com and wool markets are 
important; weaving, tanning, distillinA and machine- 
making are carried on. FopL (1871) 18,631. 

LAfiDSOAFB-OABDENDia, the art of layins 
out gronnda in order to b«aa^ and pleasure, wnit£ 
maf fairly cJaioL to be NOkoned among the fine arta. 
It M ehidy pnotiMd eithat in oonnection with the 
reaidancea oftha opulent, or in tha public paries and 
pleMutt-gmnnda di oitiea. Tba h^ipiest resnlta are 
mdeed obtained, where tLa mare purpose of pleaaiog 
is not too mnch oUndad «a attantiMi, but where it 
ia seesi to hannoniae with siHne other design. 

Whero the general aspect of a count^ i« wild, 
and has been little modified by ddtLvatuin, enclo- 
snrea, and other works of man, those eoenes are 
felt to be mosi pleasing Nrhich exhibit his progress 
and triumph. Ibua, when glealnre-arounds first 
began to be laid oat, they exhibited amy geometric 
ttmia i and alley*, avanuea, and parterres did not 
seem artofioial anou^ to give delight, without 
buildingi of vaiioua kmda, terracM, mounds, artifi- 
cial hiUa, lakea, and atreama, doae-dipped he^es, 
and toeea or ahjuba trimmed by topiarian art mto 
fantastic ahapee, inch aa figures ol ftnimftf^r. vasee, 
and the like. The art of the Itipian'ui or pltacAer 
— datingfton UgeAaguatanaKeinRomo— isnowno 
longer in repute. In districts miere the general scene 
exbibita a eucceasion of rectangular fiel^ and where 
evetything haa evidently been raduc«d to a condi- 
tion sabservient to utihty, a greater irregularity 
gives pleasure, and the eye loves to rest on any 
pariion of the landocape -which seems to exhibit 
the original beauties of nature. The landscape- 
gardeoBi, however, must not attempt an exact imita- 
tion oC nature, or to reduce eveiytajng to a state of 
primitive wildnesa. Like the pamter, ne must seek 
to exhibit nature idealised. The introduction of 
water is seldom succeaafnl ; the mere landscape- 
gardener's lake or cascade ia too obviously aridficia]. 
Where water ia widiin view, it ia a chief objeot of 
the landacape-gardeoer to arrange everything so 
that the view oC it may be enjoyed from tha 
window* of the mansion, or from the principal walka. 
Much care is given to the disposal of wood, in 
maaaea, groups, and nngle fasea. Belts and clumpa,- 
wbicb ware mnoh in vf^na in the latter part cA tbe 
18th c, are now oonqiarativelf seldom planted. 

The stfla of landsoape-aardening in which ragD- 
lar forma prevail is oalled the Oeonxfrk ; and Ihe 
oppoaito style, from having been fint extensively 
praetiBad in F^gUnd, in 'Miich country, indeed, it 
may ba said to have originated, is known as the 
Ib^/UA. On the continent of Europe, a pleasure- 
ground laid out with winding and irregular walks, 
and soatteced ttaea o' eronpa of beea and ahruba, is 
called an JAvJuA gar&t. But many of tiie cooti- 
nental ^'^"p*"'' ntdena are rather caricatures of the 
true I'^c'"'' '^^ ^^^'^ illusbations of it 

The iaato of Hm present age reject* the grottoa^ 
temples, statues, monumanti, fonntains, jets-d'eau, 
i&, with which it waa once the fashion to fill 
jdeasure-gronnda, cc admits onl; of thur sparing 
introduction. 

In the UyW ont of grounds, whether on a laiga 

or a small aeaJe, it is ol great inqiortanoe tiiat tb» 

trees and shrub* be well choaen, and the difieRort 

kinda well grouped. 

LANBS-CLAnSBS ACT, a tWvka pNMtd in 



,.b,Goo<;^le 



I 



^1 coda of regnlitioiil generally 

I iMUtud ia bU lookl acta irtieTe a powsr is ^ren to 

' hk» eomptilaarilj k man'i land fi^ the porpooeB of 

I pobUe inqmronentB. Aa no man can be mmpelled 

, otliairiBe to (ell hii pronrty, a itatntory power to 

cempel him u naxuMxj in all cmm wbue a pobUc 

udotakin^ mch a* a lailinqr, harboiir, Ac, 

I nqnina it A ■tatnte, 8 Tint e. IS, twoonlmglr, 

I with the abora title, was fawod for En^and, and 

8 Tkt. c 19 lor SootUad, Mch contaiiiiiig detailed 

I ftorinnw •• to the mode d eetmng the ^loe to be 

I ^m in meh OMM, &0. 

I LAITDSEBB, Bis Edwin, RA., an Bngliih 
paintn/ean ot John Landuer, an eminent engraver, 
wai ham in London in 1802, and wai carefollv 
< ttuned hr hla father, who naed to take h™ oni, 
^ when Out a child, to Homntead Heath, and 
accnrtom bim to sketch anlmala from life. The 
fliat work of L-'e that brought Tilm prominently 
bsEbn tiw pnblio waa ' Dogs Plojitlng,* exhibited 
, in 1819. tt wae micoeeded by Qie ' Doga of St 
I Qothard' (1810), the popularity of which waa very 
ptA The Boene ot lennl of hit flneit pictures a 
' Mid in the Highland! of Scotland. For npwiirds ol 
thir^ y*»n, CTerv London oxhibitum hM witnessed 
hi* nooe«L In 1827 he was elected a R.A., and in 
' 18S0 ha waa Valghtj^ Among his most celebrated 
' achieremsBts are: 'The Ketnm from Deer-stalk- 
ing,' "The Illidt Whisky-still,' 'High Life,' 'Low 
I^' 'Poadera Deer-stalking,' 'Bolton Abbey in 
I the Olden Tim^' 'The Drorer's Departure,' 'He- 
1 ton from Hawking,* ■ The Old Shepherd's Chief 
' Uonmer,' * DigniW and Impudence,' ' Peace,' ' War,' 
: 'Ststfat B^?' The Drive— Shootmg Deer on the 
i Ph^ 'Xha Bandom Shot,' 'Night,' 'Morning,' 
'The ChOdisi of the WaL' 'Saved,' 'Ei^land 
Knnea,' * Deer-etalhing,' and ' Flood in the Hidi- 
j latida' (1861), and; mote tacently, ■ Windsor Park,' 
I ' SqidrTds etnekiiig Nnts,' and ' Han proposes, bat 
I Qod diapoaei.' L.'wai elected prtaidGnt of the Hoyal 
Academy in 186^ bnt declined the honour. He 
I died Om. 1, 1873. L. isteckoned the most tnperb 
. animal-punter of his time. Most of his plchires 
have been engraved.— Two brothen of L, CBAXUta 
and Tboiu^ are alio artists. Thomas ia one of 
I the beat living engraven in England. 
I LAHiys KND. See Cobitwali. 

LAinXtHTTT^ anoisnt and potureeqne Oerman 
! town, of Dpper Bavaria, it siteat^d in a pleasant 
and fertile diitriot on the Isar, 39 miles north- 
esat of Unnich. Ita streets are rich in qoaiat old 
nhlee, and thers are sumeroaa towen ; Uiat of St 
I Martin'a Church (a Qothio bnilding, dating from 
KW) ia 4S0 B^uh feet in hei^ L. oont^Da 
N btewwiea, and lue maouttctnrsaof woollen doth. 



LAHI>SEEB--LA2n)-TAX 



Isaths, honeiy, and tobaoea In iat6, the oni- 

I *eiiiW, wUoh was remered hithsi from Ingobtadt 

i in 1800, wae tnyufared to Hnnieh. The cMtle of 

TiMantti^longtbe lendsDca oftiie Dakea of Bavaiia, 

I ■ iiui^iUMd to utTe been ot^niUy a Boman itation. 

Dniaa the Thii^ Yean' War, and the war of the ' 

j AiwMin g n asw i on, L. wai an impivtaat tbrtresa, 

I aDdtheioeDeofnianyoonfliota.PopL(lSTl)14,UL 

LAnMLIPS, large portions of land which from 

. some eMMbkTebeoomedetadied from their origiiial 

pwstii iaj and aUd down to a lower level They aie 

eepeotally oonunon in voloanie distriota, where Uie 

trembling of the eardi that frequently aooompaniet 

the npfion of a Toloano ia snfficient to split off 

Is^ portioDa of mountains, whioh ilide down to 

the pIuD* below. Water ia another great agent in 

Cnkuunns landslipa It operates in various waya 

Tim (DOM comnuKt method, is when water inainu* 

stea itself into minute cracks, whid> are widened 

Bd deeptmed by its freeiing in winter. When the 



Assure becomes sufBciaitW deep, on the ""J**'<g of 
the ice, a landslip is prodnoed. Sometimes, ireen 
the strata are very much inclined, and rest on a 
bed niBoaptible of abaorbins water, and baooming 
slippmy, tne tnpniDomnbanf mass elides over it to 
a lower leveL This took place on a large scale in 
Doiastahire between Lyme and Alminster in 1839, 
an onurully wet teaaon, in which the strata had 
become satumted with moistoi^ A maaa oC chalk 
and neensand here slid over tlie slippery sorfaoe of 
a bed of liaano olay down into the sea, leaving a 
rent three-qnartet* of a mile long, 240 feet wide, 
and lU feet deep. Of the same kind was the 
slip ot the Boaiberg, in Bwitnrland (see Goldau). 
Luidslips of a different kind hare been produced 
in peatmoasee, whioh becoming by heavy rains 
thoronshly satunted with water, have bnnt their 
natoral boundaries, and discharged themselves on a 
lower leveL The moat remarkable case on record 
is that of the Solway Moss, which, in 1772, owing 
to greater r^ns thui had fsUen for n«a>4y two 
aentuiies, spread ftself in a slowly rolling, reeutless 
deluge c^ black mud over 400 aorea of cultivated 
fielda, and to such a depth as almost to oover 
several houses while it reached tiie root of others. 

LAHtDBilLAJS, a term applied on booid shipto 
a sailor who has never bean at sea bafore. The 
word is gradually becoming obsolete, and is sopplied 
in the royal navy by titM expression ' ordmary 
seaman of the 2d cW^ 

liASD-eURirXTam, m the mssMimnent ol 
the M«ft of a parHoa, iriiethw small <v lans, of 
the earth's luilaoe^ ia an imsorlaut appHeation of 
mathemwtios, and inv^vea a thoiou^ aoquaintance 
with ceometay, togOBometiT, and the theory and 
use oftho instnunokts aojloj^ for the determin- 
ation of an^es. Fialds or portiims of sroond of 
amaU ezta^ sre nuMond easily and with soffi- 
dcmt aoannt^ t^ a <di^ (for distances), and a boz- 
oonqiMsmortMs staff (for anriee). For latgei areaa, 
the USB oi the surveyor'B tabla is requisite ; and for 
those of afcill pester extent, in which the greatest 
aocoraoy is reqnidte in the deteiminatioti, of the 
anfles, the astrolalie, theodolite, saztaut, oiicle, 
refCeotor, micrometer, kc., are uied TitM surface 
to be measured is divided into Iziangles, iriiich are 
sepantely measured and calonlated ; but when a 
large extent is included in the meosuremsfit, it is 
not aiou^ to fnweed from one tiiai^^le to another, 
in irtiiiih way >* <cto at the outsat may be pn^a- 
nted with continnal inotesse; but a baae lu(^ as 
long as drcttmatsnoea admit ot must, in the firat 
insMnesi be oeouratel; measured, upon whiidi, hy 
means m tiie msssnremeot of angloa, all t^e subse- 
quaut ealenlations ore made to depend, and lilies 

- ■- "-- - - - -- • '- ™*«,ul«J *A I.* 



Wbn the eirte&t of suiface ia still gnstn, as when 
a whole oo unby ia to be measured, pi^i^ hen and 
then an sefatinoakally detnmined, tlwr meridians 
on SMunitalT laid down, and a eonqilioated system 
ol triaa^es u tuployed to inmra aoonnay. This 
is called IVinvuJiiMM. 

LAITD-TAX, a tax imposed upon land and 
housea for purposes of revanne, in lien of the ancient 
subsidies, scuta^ talliaget, tenths, fifteenths, 
and such occastonol taxea. IVom a vety early 
period to the middle of the 17th c., parliament 
had provided for the exttaordinoiy necesaitie* of 
the government chiefly by grouting subsidies, iriueb 
were raised by an impost on the people In respect of 
their reputed estates. Landed property was the 
chief snbf ect of taxation, and was «t»™H nominally 
at 4«. in the poond. But this aaeamest wm made 
in such a way that it did not rise 'wHk the vnhis 



«i),L.oogle 



LAKD-TBAHSPOET CORK-LASOENSALZA. 



of land, but dwindled away to kbont 2d in the 
potmd. The Long Parli&mant deviwd a more 
efficient plan by fixing the wula to be nuaed, and 
then diibibuting it among connties accoiding to 
their mppoaed wealth, leaTing them to raiae it 
by a nte. In J692, a new TsJuatioa of lands wai 
made, and it woe foond t^t a tax of la. per pound 
voold yield half a million. In war, tbii was raised 
to 4i. In 1796, the parliament relieved itself of the 
troable of eveiy year passing an act, aad a general 
act was passed, permanently fiiiiut the I^d-taz 
at 4a in the pound. This act (3S Qeo. IIL c 00} 
enabled the landlord to redeem tiie tax, and accord- 
ingly, dnee that tim<^ a great part of it has been 
redeemed, only about one million being unredeemed. 
Though the act of 1T98 directed the tax to be 
assessed and oalleoted with impartiality, this pro- 
■vision wia not carried out, but the old valuation 
of 1S98 was acted on, and in modern times the 
fp-e^ttst possible ioetfuality prevails. If the tax is 
in arrear, the tenant is liable to a distress ; but the 
tenant may deduct it from the next rent he pays. 
The tax, though Dominally chargeable on the land' 
lord, falls neither on the landlord nor the tenant, 
but on the beneficial proprietor, as distinguished 
from the tenant at rack-rent; for if the tenant 
haa sublet, and has a beneficial interest, he pays 
pro tonto the tax, charging the residue on the land- 
lord. The proportion of Und-tax fixed on Scotland 
was £i'J,9Si, and a proportioo was fixed on each 
county, tiie commissioiieta having power to amend 
the valuation, llie collection faui management of 
the tax was given to the commisrionet* of taxes by 
the statute 3 and 4 Wia XV. o. 13. 



IiA'KDWZHE (Land- defence), a military force 
in several of tiie Oerman xtatea, tomewhat oorres- 
ponding to the Militia (q. v.) of Qreat Britain. 
It ia not always retained under arma. During 
peace, it* membum spend most of thdr time in civil 
pursnita, and are oJled out for military service 
only in times of war or of commotion—care being 
takeu however, that Uiey are sufficiently exercised 
to make them ready for such service when necee- 
sary. The name I^idwehr was first applied to the 
Tyroleae, who rose against the Frcach ; and in 1S05 
a similar force was raised in the other German pro- 
vinces of Austria, which, however, the emperor nos 
recently abolished. By far the most elaborate and 
complete system of land-defence was the Prussian, 
which was called into existeocs in ISl 3, when all 
Oermany rose against Napoleon. As early, indeed, 
as 1806, or earlier, Harahal Knesebeck, then a major 



u the Fmasian army, had proposed such a thing ; 
U the (^>ening of the campaign of 

1813 that the Praniaa Landwehr was ornuused 



but it was not till t 



according to Sohamhorat'a [dan by a royal edict, 
dated ITth. March. At first, it was designed solely 
as a land defence, properly so called, and not, what 
is now the case, as an int^^ part of the regular 
army. It was called oat in two separate levies, 
the first comprising all men from 26 to 32, and the 
■eoond those from 32 to 39. Tha old men up to 
60 belonged to the Landtlurvi, which was called 
out only for the defence of house and hearth. 

After the second Peace of Paris appeared the 
Ltatdwhror^vnff (lindwehr-regolation) of 21st 
April 181S, according to which the cotmtry was 
divided into 104 distaicta, each of which hikd to 
furnish a battalion of Laqdwehr. To every bat- 
talion of L*ndwehr was attached a squadron of 
ulans i three battalions formed a reoiment ; two 
raiments, a lAikdwehr brinde, which, along with 
the brigades of cavalry and infantry, was placed 



nnder a general of division. By ttie eonititnlioii «t 
April 1871, the Prussian obligation to serve in the 
anoy ^waa extended to the whole German empire 
£vGry German capable of bearing arms, after serving 
in the standing army far seven yean, has to enter 
the Landwehr, and remain in it for otier five yean. 
LANFBANO, the most eminent of the forei^ 
churchmen who rose to distinction in the medie- 
val Church of England, was bom of a noble 
family at Pavia, in 1005, and educated, partly at 
Pavia, partly at Bologna, for the profession of the 
law. For a time he followed the profession of an 
advocate at Pavia ; but in the hope of greater 
distinction, he removed to Fruice, and founded at 
Avranchea a school of law, which soon became one 
of the moat popular in France. Having been way- 
laid and all but murdered by robbers during one 
of his journeys to Bouen, he was carried to the 
monastery of Bee, where he was treated with much 
tendemeHa ; and the deep leligions impreadona there 
received determined hjT n to abandoa the world and 
become himself a monk. He was soon (1041) chosen 
prior of the monastery ; and his reputation for piety, 
as well as the fame for theological leomiug which 
he acquired, especiaUy in his cootroveny on tlie 
Eucharist with Berengar, led to his tronahition in 
1062 to the still more important monaaterT of St 
Stephen, at Caen, recently founded by William, 
Duke of Normaikdy. Having enjoyed the coofideaoe 
of that prince for many years, he was selected by 
him, after the coDquest of England, to fill the prima- 
tial see of Canterbury, and ne was induced with 
mnoh relnctance to accept it in 107O. Having once, 
however, undertaken the charge, he 



infusion of the Norman element 
was forced upon the political system of England 
by the iron haod of the Conqueror. L. ouuived 
William ; and to hia infiuence ^e hiatorians mainly 
ascribe the peaceful submiadon with whidi that 
monarch's successor, Rnfus, was accepted by the 
kingdom, at well as the comparative moderabon of 
the earlier years of Rufus's reign. The tyranny 
which has made the name of Rufua odious dates 
mainly after the death of L., which occurred in 
1089, in the 84th year of his age. Hia chief writ- 
ings are — Commeotaries on the Epistles of St Paul, 
the Treatise against Berengar, and Sermons. His 
letters, however, are very interesting. The firrt 
complete edition of hia works is that of D'Acheiy 
(fol, Paris, 1648). They are also found in the 
Bibiioliuca Palrum. See Milman's Latin CAritli- 
tuui}/, vol iiL pii. 438—440, and also Dr Hook's 
i^iDss of the Ardtbuhopt of Caattrhay, voL iL 1861. 

I^'NOi^AND (L e., long land), a Danish island, 
situated at the sonthem entrance to the Oreat Belt, 
between Fuhnen and LoaJand. It ia 33 miles in 
length, and about 3 miles, in avenge breadth. Area, 
about 100 square miles; pop. 17,100. ItoonsiatsoC 
a ridge of low hills, is very fertile in soU, and ia 
well wooded. Grain, pease, batter, and cheese are 
largely produced. RndkiQbing, pop. {1870)2780, on 
" e west coast, is Uie only town. 

LANOBNBIElxAV, a laeoession of smaU eon- 
idgaous villages in Prussia, in the OTorinoe of Silesia, 
33 miles soath-west of Breelan. Entire pop. (1871) 
12,670, who are employed in linen, cotton, and oUier 
manufactures, and m sugar- refining and dyeing. 

LANGENSA'LZA, a town of the Prussian pro- 

□ce of Saxony, with a pop. of (1871) B445, and 
considerable manufactures of various kindd In 
the wari of 1866, L. was the scene of an e&coonter 
between the Prussiaiu and Hanoverians, when, after 
coDsidenible bloodahed, the ItJIXei suiH^dwed. 



a b, Google 



LANGHOLM— LAJTNER. 



LA1TOHOLM, a burgh of barony and market- 
town in DnrnMeaahire, EMotlond, at the jtmction of 
the Ewee, the WAnchi^M, and the Esk, about 30 
milei east of the comity town, and 8 miles oorth oE 
the Bn^ish border. There are f actoriea ia the town, 
whoM atapla mannfactnres ate woollen yams, and a 
woollen cloth called Tweed, for which the town is 
noted. Dye-works are also in operation. L. con- 
atba of the anited yillagea of Old and New Lons- 
holm. Pop. (1871) 3275. 

LAUGBES, a roanufacturrng town of France, in 
the department of Hante-Mamc, ia situated at an 
elevation of 1408 feet above sea-Ierel, 20 miles 
■onth-east of Chaumont. Here cutlery of the finest 
qnality is manufactured, and there is a oonidderable 
trade in grun, lint, cattle, and sheep. It it said to 
have been the see of a bishop since the 3d c, and 
possesses a cathedral of the 11th century. Pop. 
(IST2) 6^2. L,, (he ancient Andomatunum, waa 
Id the iame of Cfcaar the capital of the Licgones, a 
name oomipted into Langres. 

LATfGSAT, or LAKSEH. See Mmnnry, 

LASGTON, Stefhkn, celebrated in the history 
of the liberties oE EngUnd, was bom probably in 
Lincoln <a Devonshire, in the early part of the 
12tli century. He received tbe chief part of his 
education in the anivcndty of Paiie, where he was 
the fellow-student and &iend of Innocent III. ; 
and having completed his studies, he rose through 
■uoceasive grades to the office of chancellor of the 
nniveni^. After the elevation of Innocent, L, 
having visited Boms, was named to the cardinolate 
by tho pope; and, on occasion of the disputed 
election to the see of Canterbury, he was recom- 
mended fa) those electors who had come to Rome 
on the appeal, and having been elected by them, 
was conaecrated by Innocent himself at Viterbo, 
Jane 27> ISOT. His appointment, nevertheless, wis 
resisted by King John ; and for six years, L was 
eidnded from the see, to which he was only 
admitted on the adjustment, in 121."}. of the king's 
dispate with Innocent through the legate Pandidf. 
See iHfOdtrr IIL This reooudliation/however, was 
hot tan 

his name is the firat 
of Magna Charta. When the pope, acting 
representation of John, and espousing his cause as 
that of a vassal of the lu>ly see, ezcommunicsted the 
barons, L refused to publish the eicommuiiicatioD, 
and waa in consequence suspended from his fonc- 
tiuoB in 121G. He was lesttnred, howover, probably 
in the following year ; and on tho acceasion i^ 
Hcmry IIL, he was reinstated (1218) in his see of 
Canterbury, from which time he chicHy occupied 
himself witji church reforms till his death, which 
took place July 9, 1228. L. was a learned and snc- 
cisaful writer, but his writings ore lost, and the chief 
tcace which ho has left in sacred literaturo is the 
division of the Bible into chapters, which ia ascribed 
to him. Giioldus Cambrenaia (q. v.) dedicated 
sevGial of his books to Lsngton.— See Wharton's 
AngUa StKra, vols. i. and ii. ; Lingard, vol ii ; 
Milmaii'B Latin CkTiiiiojtily, vol iv. ; and Dr Hook's 
Liva of lU ArMithi/ps of Canlrrlniry, voL u. 1361. 

LAITGUAGK See PraLOLOOT. 

liA'NGUED, or LAMPASSfi. in Heraldry. An 
animal whose tongue ia of a different colour from 
his body, is said to be lanffued of that colour. It 
is understood in England that unless the blazon 
direct otherwise, all animals are langued gules 
wboM tinctnie is not gules, and an animal gules is 
langued scure. Thia rule does not hold good ii 



^^t 



bodies, they are to be mentioned as armed and 
langued of such a tincture.' — NMeL When a beast 
or bird ia represented without teeth or claws, this 
ia expressed m blazon ' sans langue and anna.' 

IiANGUEDOC, the name oiven in the middle 
ages, and down to tho French Kevolntiou, to a 
--- ivince in the south of France, bounded on the 
by Anvergne and Lyonoois ; on the E. by the 
nver Bbone ; on tho S. bv the Mediterranean and 
the counties of Foix and KoussiUon ; and on the W. 
by Gasoony and Quienne. It was traversed through 
its whole length, from north-east to iouth-WMt, 
by the Cevennca (q. v.). L. is now divided into 
the departments otLozfere, Gard, Ardftohe, Aude, 
H6ranlt, Upper Loire, Tarn, and TTpper Groronne. 
Tho capital of L. was Toulouse. The name is 
derived from that of the southern French dialect, 
or Provenpd, which was called the langue Job, 
whjtsl the northern was called langut cToai or 
langvt iToii, because in tho former the word oe 
'-u abbreviation of Lat Aoc) was used for yet, and 

the latter oil or oai (from Lat. hoc iUoj. 

IiANI'AD.^ a fumly of birds, generally ranked, 
by Cuvier, in the order iTueaora, anb-order 



tiro^Tfi^ preying on small birds, quadrupeds, and 
reptiles, as well as on large insecta. Many of them 
have t^o Gurioua habit of imp&llng their prey on 
thorns, after which they pull it in pieces, and devour 
it at leisure. They have a short, strong, abruptly 
hooked bill, with a notch or tooth on each side, and 
sharp claws. The Shrikes (q.v.), or Butcher-binls, 
— the type of the family; but it is united by 
[neroiis links to the faiuily of the Mwtcieapida, 
Fly-catehera, and the limits of the two funilies 
are very uncertain. 

LANKA, the ancient name of the capital of 
Ceylon. In Hindu mythology, it is renowned as 
the chief city of tho giant KAvsna {q. v.), who, by 
carrying off Sitk, tho wifo of RAma, caused the 
conquest of Ceylon by the latter personage, who is 
considered as an incamation of (he god Yishn'n. 

LANKAVATABA, the name of one of the chief 
religious works of the Buddhists. It treats of their 
rel^ious law, aud of some of their moat abstruss 
^lilosophical problems. See B. Bumouf, Ac., and 
W. Wassiljcw, kc, as named under LAUTA'TiaTABA. 

L^NNEB {Falco laimariut), a spedea of falcou, 



iMiuer {F<Uco lannariiaj. 



«i),Guu^l 



L&NITES— LANZL 



IiAIfKBa, JiAir, DiTKK or Honmnxo, .. 

nurehkl of the French EmpinL wm bora 11th Apiil 
1769, at Iiectonn ; eotered tna umy in 179% and 
Boon roee to high tnilituy nuik. He rendered 
N&poleon importont Bsrvica on the 18th Brumaire, 
and enjoyed hia hi^wt favour. On 9tli June 1800 
he won the battle of Montebello, whence bii title. 
He bore a ptincipal share in the battle of Marengo, 
and commanded the left wing at AuEterlits. He 
■erred in the campaign againet Pruisia in 1306, 
commanded the centre at Jena, and distiiigniahal 
himself at £ylan and Friedland. Seing sent to 
Spain, he defeated General CaatoDoe at Tudela, 22d 
November 1808, and took Saragoaia. In 1809, he 
again served on the Dannbe. and commanded tile 
centre at Aa^em (the 22d May), where he hod both 
hia legs earned away by a cannon-ahot. He was 
tenoved to Vieima, and died there, 31st May. He 
wag interred in the Pantheon, in Paria. 

LANIflON, a town and river-port of France, ._ 
the department ot Cfitea-da-Kord, on the Goer, 
abont seven miles from the mouth of that river. 
Ita trade is ohiefly in deals, Bordeaux wine, and 
colonial produce. Pop. (1872) 6462. 

LAHSDOWNB, Hehbt PETn-FrranAUBiCB, 
thiid btutQinB or, an Bngliih statenoan, was 
bom at Lonsdowna House, London, July 2, 1780. 
His father, the oelebrated li^l of Sfatlbome, was 
premier to George HL, and received the coronet of 
a marquis in 1784. L. (then Lord Henry Fatty) 
was a younger eon, and was sent to Weotminirter 
School, and afterwaids to Edinburgh, then tiie 
school of tiie young WMgs destined for poUticol 
life. He took hiB degree at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1801, and when barely of age, entered 
parliament as M.I'. for Calne, He turned his 
attention to finance ; and on Pitt's death, ho 
became, at the ago of 25, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, in the ailmiuiattation of Lord Gren- 
ville. In 1809, he encceeded his half-brother in 
the marquisate, became one of the heads of the 
liberal party in tiie House of Lords, and during 
a long opposition, oonsiatentiy advocated those 
yarioua measures of progress which he lived to 
see biumphant. When the Wbiga, after their 
long exclusion from power, came into office witb 
Ead Grey at their head, L. became Lord President 
of the Conncil, which post he held, witli a brief 
interval, from November 1830 to September 1841, 
resuming it in 1846, after the fall of the Peel 
ministry, nnd afmn filling it until 1852. He then 
formally bode urewell to office, and redgned the 
leadership of the House of Lords ; but consented to 
hold a seat vrithont office in the Aberdeen cabinet, 
and again in the first administration of Lord 
Falmenton. After the death of the Doke of 
Wellington, he becanke the patriarch of the Upper 
Han«e, and the personal friend and adviser of^ the 
Queen. He had a keen relish and a cnltivated taste 
for literature, and was the ceneroua patron of men 
of letters. He formed a splendid library, and one 
(if the noUort collectioaa of pieturaa and statuary in 
the kingdom. He refused a dukedom, and misht 
more tlum once have been prime minister. His 
death took place January 31, 1863, at Bowood. 

LA'NSDTO, the cajntal of ACchigan, U.S., on 
Grand River, 110 miles north-west of Detroit, con. 
tains a «t»t»-honsc, female college, state agricul- 
tural college, and model farm of 700 acres, noueo 
of correctdon for juvenile offenders, 12 churches, a 
bank, two weekly papers, and several mannfactoriet. 
L. waa settled in 1S47. Pop. (1S70) S241. 



LASTEBK, in Architeeturs, an oniameotal 
stmcture raised over domes, roo&, fto, to givB lidit 

and venljlation. The dome of St Faul^ CaSe- 
dral and many other large domea are crowned 
with a lontenL Where a lantern is for the purpoae 
of giving light, it ig called a latUem-ligAi. In 
Qothio architecture, a lantam-touier i* frequently 
placed over the cenire of cross churches — the vault 
bein^ at a considerable hei^t, and the light 
admitted by windows in the Bides. York and Ely 
cathedrals, and many chnrches in England, have 
such lant^^-towers. 

LA2f TBRN-FLT [FvJgora), » genu* of liomop- 
terous insects; the type of a timiily FvlgoTi£e, 
aUied to Cicadida, bnt liaving l^s more adapted 
for leaping and destitute of ormns for producing 
Bonnd. The forehead is remarkobljr prolonged into 
an empty venenlor expansion, wlucli asaomea in 
the different qieciea various and very aingnlor forma, 
sometLmee equalling the body of the insect in size. 
The colours are generally ijoh. The spedea are 



IdUitero-Fly {Pulgara latamaria). 

natives of tlie warmest parts pf the world. The 

10 L. was originally given to F. latemaria, » 

fi species, found in Guiana, and of which the 
ited projection of thq for^lead is said to be 
sometimes most brilliantly luminons ; bat the evi- 
dence is donbtful, and many naturaliats refuse to 
believe in the lumiDosity of any of this nous. 
The most probable explsjiatiom is, that thelumi- 
noeity ia sexual, and merdy occasional, perhaps 
limited to nrticnlar seaaons. Conoerning the 
ninosity of the CHunni L. (F. eaadtLiria), thme 
still greater doubt The piolongotioa of the 
forehead in this specie* is a compsntively narrow 

L A'KTHANUM, or LiNTHATJIUM, so named 
from the Greek word LimOianm, to lie hid, is a 
metal which was discovered by Mosander in 1S4I 
!n Cerite (q. v.), a hydrated silicate of cerium. It 

of htUe chemical interest, and is of no practice 
value. Till recentW, the Qiree metals cerium, 
lanthannm, and diayminm were all confounded 
togetlier under the name cerium. 

LA'NYABDS, in a ship, ore short ropa used 
eitlier to make fast various apparatus in ita plac% 
or to stretch other and important ropes to their 
utmost tenuon. 

IiANZAB(>T^ one of the Canariea (q. v.). 

LAlfZI, Luioi, a celebrated Italian antiquary, 
as bom at Monte dell' Olmo, near Maeerato, June 
14, 1732. He entered the order of the JeeuiU, and 
resided at Rome, and afterwards at Florence, where 
he died March 30, 1810. In 1782, he pnUithed at 
Florenoe hia Daariaont deOa Oidlaia di Fininr;. 
His great works, disttnguiabed for thdr profaniid 
erudition, are his Sofgio di Lmgua Btnttea (3 vols. 
Rome, 178S), in which, contrary ta the prevaloit 
opinion among Italian savanta, he m»iT» t-jiTn ^m 
iufluenoe of Greece npon Etrusoan cdvilisation, and 
his Sloria Piltorka dfHaSa, <£c (Florence, 1792 ; 
aod Bamano, 178% and 1806). Iliii latter work 



dbyCoogle 



IAOCOON-U.O0-T 



BigliBh br ThomM Bowoe 
(Bohn'i Standard Librat;, 3 roU. 1$4T}. He ii tbe 
matlMr »lao of teTmsl poeioi, works on Btniwwn 
v>Hi^ acuIptoMi, fto. Hu poathumooB worki were 
poUittad in 2 toIb. kt ^Florence in I8I7. 

LA'OCOOK, ftceordicg to elanic legend, a priest 
either of Apollo or Ifepttme, in Troy, who in Tain 
wmmed hia countrytnen of the deceit practised by 
the Greeks in their pretended offering of the wooden 
horse to Minerra, luid was destroyed along with hia 
two sons b; two enormous serpenta which came 
from tho sea. lliey first fastened . on hia children, 
and when be attempted to rescue them, involved 
hims^ in their ooils. This legend is not Homeric, 
but of Uter criffn. It was, however, a favourite 
theme of tha Greek poets, and ia introduced in the 
Jiiuid at "VbffL It acquires a peculiar into^st 



from being the subject g| one of the most famous 
«n^ of ancient sculpture still in exiatence ; a 
group discovered in 1506 at Rome, in tha Sctto Sale, 
OB t£e aide of the Esquiline Rill, and purchased by 
i'orie Jaliaa II, for the Vatican. It was carried 
to Paris, bnt recovered in 1814. Tho whole treat- 
ment of tbe subject, the anatomical accntacy of the 
fignres, and the representation both of bodily pain 
and of passion, have always commanded the higheat 
admiration. According to Pliny, it was tiie work 
of the Bhodian artists Ageaander, Polydonu, and 
Athenodoms, bat this is <£)ubtfuL Costs of it are 
be fbnnd in every Entopei ~ 



uiuJPoene. 
LAODICZ'A, a city of ancient f^irygia, near 



of an older town named Diospolis. It wa« destroyed 
by Sit earthquake during tha reign of Tlbenus, 
but rebnilt by tha inhMiitanta, who were vary 
wealthy, feU into the hands of the Turks in 1250, 
was again dastngFed in 1402, and is now a heap 
of nninter^sting ruins, known by the name ol 
Eaki-Hissar. £ii and Mdeocs flourubed among tbe 
uicient Laodicean*, and it was the seat of a famous 
medical achooL The nnmber of Jews who were 
settled here at the rise of Christianity will account 
for ita importsnoe in the primitive history of tlie 
chuich. An important ecclesiastical oonncil, the 
Pint Coundl of I^odicea, was held here in 363, 
which adopted reeolutions oonceming tho canon 
ef tha Old and New Testamanta, aiu coiMenuji|( 



ecdenastioal discipline. A second connoil was held 
here in 476. which oondunnad the Entychians. 

IjAON, chief town of the department of Aisn( 
France, is situated in a strong position on a Bte«) 
isolated hill, SO miles north-esst of Paris. Hia walls 
(flanked with towers) with which it is surrounded, 
the noble Gothic cathedral (built 1112-1114) On 
the aninmit of the hill, and the charming character 
of the soeneiy in the vicinity, greatly enhance the 
appearance of the town. The public library, with 
20,000 vols., contains also a beautiful statue in 
marble of Qabrielle d'Estrees. The mannfactures 
are nails, hats, leather, and hosiery. Here, on 
March 9 and 10, 1814, Napoleon I. was defeated by 
the alliea, and compelled to fall back on Soissoca. 
Pop. (1872) 8600. 

LA'OS. See Sban Siats. 

LAOU-T8ZE, a celebrated philow^ihar of China, 
tbe founder of a raliditai aa ancient and important 
aa tliat of Confudus (q. v.). This sect is commonly 
known as the Taoa, or sect of reason. His family 
name was lit, or Plum, and his yoatbfnl nai 
Urh, or Ear—^van him cm acocmnt of Hia s 
of bis ears. Hia name of honour was Pe-vang, bis 
surname Laoa-tta ('old child'], or Jjotm-ievM'Ute 
[' old prince '), by which ha is gsnerally known. 
Little antbentjo ii known of the lifa of L., his 
followers having subsequently made a myth of his 
biography. He was born in the Uiird year of tha 
Emperor Ting-wang, of the Chow dynast; (604 
B.O.), in the state of Tseo, at present known sa 
Hoo-pib and Hoo-nan, S4 yeaiB before Confudus. 
Hia father, according to tha legends of the Taou 
eect, was 70 years b^ore he mamcd, and bis mother 
40 years of age when she oonceived bim. Ha wi 
tbe incarnation of a ehooti^-star, a kind of god o^ 
eartb, and was 80 years m bis mother's womb. 
More trustworthy is tha statement that he was 
a historian and archivist of a kin^ of the Chow 
dynasty, who loved books, studied ntes and history, 
and went, about 600 L,D., to tha westatn parts of 
China, where ha might have become acquainted 
with the worship of Fub or Buddha. Confndua 
was so attracted by his renown, that he went to 
sea liim , but the meeting does not ^ipear to have 
been entirely amicable, for L. reproached tiie sage 
with pride, vanity, and ostent^ion, stating that 
sagos loved obscurity and retreat, studied time 
ai^ circamstauceB b^ors they spoke, and made no 
parade of knowledge and virtue. Confuoins, how- 
ever, highly lauded L. to his follDWers, and called 
him a dragon soaring to tbe olonda of heaven, which 
notiiin^ could surpass. L. asked Confudus if be 
had diacoTered the Taou, ('patli' or 'reaaon') by 
wbiob Heaven aota, when Ct^fudos answered that 
he had searched for it without soocecs. L. repbed 
tiiat Uie rich sent away their friends with presents, 
sages theirs with good advice, and that he humbly 
thou^t himself a sage. By this he probably meant 
that all ha could o&r Confudus was the advice of 
seeking the Toon. He retired to Han-kwan. whero 
the magistrates of tbe place received him, and there 
ho wrote the Taau-liJt-lang, at Book of Reason and 
Virtue. Ha died, or, according to other aocouuts, 
mounted to heaven on a black buSslo, in the 21st 
year of the reign of King-wang of the Chow dynasty, 
G23 B.C., having attaint^ the age of 119 years. 

The doctrines of L. diSor from t^ose Of Confudus, 
indeed, have a higher scope—the object of Uia 
last-named philosopbar, or rather statesman, being 
the practicu govemniHot of man through a code 
oE morals ; that of L., tha rendering of man immortal 
through tjie contemplatdon of God, tlie repression 
of tha passions, and tbe perfect tranquillity of- the 
soul. Hence his doctrine wai^ that Silence and '*" 



liiMbyGOO^fe 



LAOTI-T8ZB-LAPIDAHY.W0RK. 



Vend produced the Taou, the ' Logos ' or KMon by 

which movement wu prodnoed; and from tb»e two 
tpnuig all being! vhich contained in themaelvea 
the d^al principle of mala and female. Man was 
compoaed of t«ii ptinciples. the one material, and 
the other apiiitnaJ, from which he emanated, and 
to vhioh he ought to return, hy throwing off the 
shackleB of the body, omiihilatinfi; the material 
pasaioQS, tba indin«,tiDiia of the aoul, and plea- 
Burea of the body. By thia means, the soul was to 
TCEain its odgin — become immorial. This could 
ouy be effected by the reQimciatton of richce, 
houonTO, and the ties of life. Up to the period of 
L.. the national worship had been reatcicted to the 
Sluatg-te, or 'supreme ruler' of the world, and the 
Teat, or 'heaven.' For theee, Ij. substituted the 
Taou ('path' or 'reaaon') of the cosmos, not oiting, 
at the Confucianiita, the precedenta of ancient kiogs 
or sages— appealing to the abstract principle, and, 
in fact, preaching a reliraon which found an echo 
in the Chineee br^st. The followers of his sect, 
however, considerably altered hia doctnnes. The 
mraal code of the Taou Beet is eicellent, inculcating 
all the great principles found in other religions 
— .ehari^, benevolence, virtue, and the free-will, 
moral agency, and reaponsibilit^ of man. But it 
■ufaaeqnently became corrupted with atrgjige doctrlnee 
and praotiOM. They promulgated that they had 
diaoorered the drink of immortality, and obtained a 
host of partisans in the reign of Wan-te of the Hon 
dynasty, 140 A.11., and many of the emperoiB were 
addicted to their rites, and some poisoned by the 
drink of immortality. Alchemy also becvne another 
purauit of the sect ; so did divination, the invo- 
ootion of spiritB, and the prediction of the future. 
The doctors of the sect, called Teea-tze {' celestial 
doctors'), were supposed bf these meani tji become 
ethereal, and to be caught up to heaven with- 
out pOHsing through the intermediate state of 
death- Such atatomenta, however, were ridicnled 
by the Joo-ixaoa, or sect of Confudus, the aceptica 
of China, who openly derided their pretensions. 
Innnmerable gods were also introduced into the 
worship, whioB waa assimilated to the Buddhist 
Since the 2d c. A.H., the aect haa continued to 
spread in China, Japan, Cochin-China, Tonquin, and 
amongst the Indo-Chinese nations. Monostenes 
and nunneries belonging to them were founded 
and flourished. The principal books or classics of 
the sect are the Taon-lih-hng already cited ; the 
collections called Ta«u-cAivig; the Kan-ying-paa, 
or Book of Rewards and Punishments ; and the 
Thn-hviei-ttiA, or List of the Scarlet Laurua Cassia. 
Stanislas Julien, Le Livn da Stcompaua (Svo, 
Paris, 1S38) ; Pauthier, La Chine (8to, Paris, 1637, 
p. 114—117); Neumann, Ldmaal da MUtdreicJa 
(8vo, Monich, 1866) ; Grosmer, Daeription dt la 
Chine (4to, p 571) 1 Aftnurira fur la Chine (x. 425 ; 



diamond-powder or emery, which is next to it, fur 
the cutting of all kinds of stone«. Diamond-duat ia 
fonnd to cut ten times faster than emery ; so that, 
except where the machine ia driven by water- 
power, it ia fonnd more profitable to employ diamond- 
powder, notwithstanding its high jirice. Diamond- 
Eiwder is prepared from the mfcrior kind of 
iomonds (q. v.) called bort (costing about a guinea 
per carat), by grinding in a steel mortar. 

To produce a plain polished surface on &ny 
stone, say a jasper, it goes throuf^ the three pro- 
ceases of cuttiuz or slitting, grindmg, and polialuns. 
The diamond-sUtting tnacmojB (the emery-uachiiio 
is e«saitiaUy the some) ia shewn in fig. 1. Tho 



L A'PIDART- WORE, the art of cutting, grinding, 
and polishing amsll pieces of ornamental or precious 
stones for jewellery. (For the engraving of fignrea 
on precious stones, see Caueo and Gems.) The work- 
ing of the less precious ornamental stones boa made 
great strides within the lost twenty or thirty years, 
and nowhere has it reached gr«at^ perfection than 
in Scotland. A large trade is now carried on in 
this kind of work between Birmingham and some 



nesa comroonda a ready market. 

Stones are cut by rubbing the powder of a harder 
atone against a softer one. There are ten types of 
Hardness (q. v.), from talc up to diunood ; bnt in 
piactioe it is found most oonvenieut to employ either 



6 to 9 inches in diameter, with a turned edge, and 
is generally placed in a horizontal position. The 
diamond-duat, mixed with a little sperm-oil, is 
apphed to the edge of the alitting-wheel with the 
finger, and is then pressed into the soft iron with a 
amootji hard stone The wheel will then continue 
to cut for several hours without any renewal of the 
iwder. When the wheel is thua prepared, a stono 



held by the hand to the cutting ec^ is rapidly slit 
throu^ Daring the operation, aperm-oil is kept 
droppng from the c«n, C, to keep the wheel from 



heating. 

The grinding ia performed on a horizontal lead- 
wheel, charged on ita upper surface with emery- 
powder ; the stone to oe ground being pressed 
against it with the hand until it it "" 



If, instead of a plane flat surface, some ornamental 
surface ia required, say an agate brooch in the shajic 
of a butterfly, a model ia produced in plaster of 
Paris, to serve as a guide, and metal sizc-platea ore 
prepared for the pieces of stone which are to form 
the winia, &0. For theae, thin shccs of agate are 
cut at the slittdng-machine, or chipped off with n 
hammer and chisel, and are then formed rou^ly 
into shape, by means of soft iron nippers. Tbu 
several pieces are now ground and polished, as 
already described, and the wooch ia finished. When 
pieces of stone are too small to be held in the hanil, 
they are attached with cement to a wooden han '" 
and then applied to the wheels. 

One of the most elaborate operations of the 
lapidary is ^e cutting of Cairngorm (q.r.) etonca. 
The mode of faceting ^e surface, which so much 
enhances their beauty, is shewn in fig. 2, which ia 
just the ordinary gri&ding-wheel, with the addition 



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LAPIS LA2tTLI— LAPLASD. 



iif a wooden peg, stack round with projectiiig 
I wiret. The stooe i» fixed with cement on the end 
r>f » itick, hsTing a hole at the other end fitting or 
' the wire-pointa, which, being at different heipita, 
I nisU«a the atone t« be held at any angle to the 
Knnding mrface. With thia gimplo guide, the lapi- 
dary proceeds to cut the facet*, dividing them ofl 



Fie. 2. 

by the eye, aided by hia aense of feeling ; and in 
Om way, in about a fortni^t^s time, oa many as 
TOO faceta ore [irodiiced of perfect regularity npon 
a atoDe, aay an inch in diameter. A Cajrngonn of 
good colonr, lo cut, may be worth about £30. 

LA'PIB LA'ZULI, a mineral of beonHfal ultra- 
marine or Bzore colour, congistinH chiefly of silica 
and alnmina, with a little Eulphunc acid, sods, and 
lime. The colour variea much in its degree of 
intengi^. L. L. ig often marked by white apota and 
Iianda It is generally found maaaire, (ud la trana- 
liiceut at the edges, with uneven, finely granular 
fracture^ bat sometimes appear? crystolEsed ii 
rhombic dodceohedrooi, ita piimitive form. It ii 
found in primitire liineatone and in granite; ii 
SiOtenk, China, Tibet, Chili, ko. The £ie«t apeci- 
Buna are brought from Buchoria. The Greeks and 
Uomans called it Sapphire, It was more highly 



esteemed by them , .._ .. 

now ia. They used it much for engraving, for vases, 
^ It is extensively employed in ornamental and 
iDOSBic work, and for sumptuous altars and ahrinea. 
It ia easily wroaght, and takes a good poliah. The 
viloable pigment ci^ed Ultramarine (q. v.) is made 
from it It i* one of the minerals Bometimea called 
Ature Stone. 

LATITH^ a wild race, {ohabitine, in ancient 
timea, the monntaina of Thesaalj, They derived 
their name &om a mythical ancestor, LapUha, a son 



war is said to have been waged between tbe kindred 
fxa in pre-bigtoric times, which ended in the 
ileieat of the Centaura, but ^e L. were in their turn 
anbdned by Hercoles. 
LAPLACE, Pierre SiHoy, Masquis se, one ol 



the G 



t of I 



23d March 1749, at Beaumont- en- Auge, 
in the department of Calvados, wae for some time 
3 teacher of mathematicB in the military school 
there, and afterwarda went to Paris, where, havii^ 
attracted the notice of D'Alerabert, ho was, through 
tis ioflneuce, appointed professor in lie military 
■chool, and was admitted a member of the Academy 
of Sdenoes. He bod by this time niast«Ted the 
whole range of mathcmatdcal science, as then known, 
and had besides solved several problems, which had 
fur many years defied the attempts of 
and now it occurred to him '■- ' — '' 
matieal powers to the 
he accordingly < 
afterwords a; 
his political 



devote h 

1 of 






was appointed Minister of the Interior by Bonaparte, 

but was, after ait weeks, deposed for incapacity. 
He continued, hotrever, to receive marks of hononr 
from Napoleon, and on the erection of t^e imperial 
throne, was rnade a count. In IS14, he voted for 
the appointment of the proviaional goverament, 
for Napoleon's deposition, and t^e restoration of 
the Bourbons. After the aecond Reatoration, Louis 
XVIII. made him a peer and a marqnis. In the 
Chamber of Peers, he ahewod, aa he had done under 
the revolutionary government, the greatest unfitneaa 
for political affairs, and the most extreme servility. 
He died at Paria, 6th March 1827. L. was giftal 
with wonderfnl scientific sagacity ; this appears 
especially in liis explanations of cert^ results 
of mathematical aruilysis formerly looked upon a* 
inexplicable, bat which he shewed to be the enres- 
sion of physical phenomena which hod hitherto 
escaped detection, and subsequent observations 
generally confirmed L.'b conclusiona. Above ijl his 
wers, his wonderful memory shone pre-eminent, 
is Mtmniqux CtlaK, and sapplements to it (5 vote. 
Parifl, llQe— 1826), are, next to Newton's Prindpia, 
the sreateet of astronomical works. His Expontiou 
du Sytime du Monde [2 vols. Paris, 1796; 6th 
ed. 1824) is intended for those who cannot follow 
the difiicult demonstrations and calculations in his 
great work. All L.'s important Investigations were 
made for the purpose of testing the generaUty of 
the law of gravitation, and the cause of snndir 
irregularities in the motions of the planets. Hia 
works comprise many able treatises on parttcnlor 
subjects in Astronomy, Pure Mathematics, Proba- 
bilities, Mechonica, Heat, and Electricity ; moat of 
them being Memoirs communicated to the Academy 



LA'PLAND. The territoty stiU known under 
lit name does not constitute a separate political 
autonomy, but is included under the dominions 
of Sweden and Norway, and of Bussia, to the 
articles on which we refer for a special notice of 
its several divisions. L., or the Land of the 
Lapps, which is called by the natives Sameanda, 
or Somellada, occupies t^e north and north-east 
portions of the Scandinavian peninsula. Norwe- 
' ~>n L. ia included under the provinces of Norr- 

id and Finmark ; Swedish L., under North and 
South Bothnia, and divided into Tom(«, LnleO, 
Piteii, Vmek, XJseUl I.aMimarh ; Russian L, under 
Finland, in the circles of Remi and Kola. Norwe- 
gian L. comprises on area of nearly 26,600 aqnara 
miles, wiili a native population of 6000 ; Swediab 
L., an area of 60,600 square milea, with 4000 inha- 
bitants ; and Russian L., on area of 11,300 sqnaie 
miles, with a population of 8800. These nnmbera 
refer merely to the true Lapps, in addition to whom 
tWe are ViimB, Swedes, Norwegians, and Buaaiana, 
settled in variona parts of the Lappish territmj, 
whose respective numbers probably bring the popu- 
lation of the several ports to about the following 
figures — viz., for Norwegian L., about 60,000 [ for 
Swedish L., about 14,000; and for Buasian I., 
about 60|000 ; but the boundaries of these dirisians 
so loosely defined, and their areas and popula- 

[is BO variously given by different writers, that it 

difiioult to amve at an accurate estimate of 
..-Her. The climate of the Lappish territery is 
extremely cold for qine montliB of the year ; while 
the exoessive heat of July and August, when in ilie 
northernmost parts the aun never sets for several 
weeks, is only separated from the cold seasons by a 
short spring and autumn of a couple of weeks. The 
general limit of the cereals ia 66° N. lat. ; but 
barley can be grown aa far north in L. as 70*. The 
country is covered over a conaiderable part of ita 
Buifooe withf(a««ta, eoosiating chicfij' of Diroh, pine. 



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LA PLATA— LAPWINO. 



fir, and alder, and having an nndergroirth of lichen* 
and iDotaet, vldch ntpplf abon&nt food for the 
herdfl of leindeer which ootutitnte the prin^pal 
•onrcM of wealth to tiio inhabitanta. Many elevated 
tncta are, however, entinlj deatitate of v^jeta^on, 
wad ooDieqnentlj nninhahitable. 

Tho Laips Of LiPLijnuHa, who «re cl 
elluiolo^ic»llj in the aame familj u the Finm, 
Eithamaiii, and Livonlans, and who occn^y the 
most northern parta of the Scandinavian peninBtila, 
are distingniahed, in accordanoe with the nature of 
their pnianita, ai the Soelappen and the Bodai 

o' the Seafaring and Land-tilliji^ '-^1^ j 

were orig^nallj all nomsdio ; bat the dfflculty at 
fiM '"g anSinent food within the limited space fa 
which the increaiinK civilisation of the neighboarin| 
people had gradu^y restricted them, bas com 
pelled some of the tribee to settle near the larger 
riren and lakes, where they fallow the pursnita of 
Eahing and hnnting with considerable snccew. 
They then 0«at akifi as marksmen, and regularly 
(npply tie Targe aonnal markets of Vitangi (md 
Eengu with game and skins, which are seat by 
Tomdt to Stookholm, where they find a ready 
mart. The Lapps, who call themselves the 8ami or 
Safandadt, are a phyelcally ill-developed, dininn- 
tive race, with amsOl eyes, low forehead, hi^ cheek- 
bones, pointed chin, and scanty beard. They ore, 
however, neither wanting in mental capacity nor 
manual dexterity; and m the Seminary for Lapp 
teachers at Trondeaaes, in the district of 8enien, 
several of the stodeuts have distinguished themselves 
by their eitenaive acqoirements. In the mythical 
aagas of Scandinavia, the Lappa are represented as 
an inferior race, distingoished only for croft and 
treachery, and addicted, to practices of sorcery. 
They are regarded, in accordance with the same 
authorities, as the ori^nal occupiers of the whole 
of Scandinavia, from the fertile and more sontheni 

artions of which they were in ancient time* 
iven forth by the snperior, god-desoended race of 
Odin, who banished them to the inhospitable 
regionfl in which the^ are now oireumioribed. 
Their tendency to deceit is probably Id a great 
measure to be attributed to the inferior position in 
which they are kept by the Norwegians, Swedes, 
and Rusaians, near whom they live, for they are 
honest, and strongly attached to their own people 



tiie Greek Church. The Bible has been translated 
into their own language, which is divided, like that 
of all nomadic tribes, mto nnmerous dialects, whose 
many idSnitiet and differences have of late yean 
attracted mnch attention from Northern and Ger- 
man philologists. The number of the Lapps prob- 
ably falls below S0,000 (see above), of whom about 
half are included in the population of Sweden 
and Norway, and half within the Bussian domin- 
ions. The reindeer is the chief source of wealth, 
supplying the people with most of the artioles 
of food and clothing which they use. Their 
dwelling consist either of conically shaped mud- 
huts, raised on stakes and almost impervioot to 
light and air, or of hide-covered tents. Towns 
or villages are unknown amongst them. The 
oontempt with which their are regarded by tbe 
tall, well-developed Norwegian peasants, hinders all 
amalganmtion between the race^ while their peculiar 
babito, and the tenacity with which they chug to 
their own cnstoms, tends still more to isolate t£cm 
from the neighbouring nations. 

LA PLATA. Bee Asobmuhx Eecdbuo. 



of Indiana, United 

Lake Midugan, and at . . -- - 

important ntilwaya. It contains II chorches, a 
medical college, 3 newspapers, and large fonndnes, 
tDachine-shops, and mannfactorieo. Pop, (1870) 6S6L 
LAPPENBEBO, Johakn Umatut, a Oemuin 
historian, was bom 30th Joly 179^ in Hwnban^ 
He studied medicine at BdiabuJKh, bat afterwards 
devot«d himself to historical and pohtical studies. 
He resided for some tdma in London, and afterwards 
studied law and history in Bcriin and Gitttingen. 
He became the representative of hi* native dt; 
at the Prussian ooDrt in. 1890, and in 1823 was 
appointed archivist to the ^mhnig senate, an 
appointment which led to his discovg^ of many 
valuable histciria records which were soppo«ed to 
have b«*n lost In IseO, he represented his native 
city at Um diet of Ftankfnrt. One of his principal 
works is a OtteHchie von England (2 vols. Hamb. 
IS34— 1337 ; with continuation in 3 vola. Hamb. 
1863, and Ootha, 1866— 18fiS, bring ing down the 
history to tbe end of Henn ViL's reign) ; the 
first volume of wliich has been ttsnalated into 
En^ish by B. Thoipe, with the title of A Hietory 
of Bngland tinder (At Aii^'Saxon Kingt (3 vols. 
Ixind. 1S45). and the second, with that of A 
Hilary of Sngkaid wndtr the Norman Kings (1 vol. 
1867). Hewaatheaothoralaoofthefollowiagworks, 
which are remarkable for the care and research 
which they display; viz., Urkundlichs Oeachichte 
du Vrtpnmga dtr deiittOhtn Hansa (2 vols. Ham- 
u — 'T30); i)ie OeKhichtt Brlgoiandt (Hamburg, 

. . ,'also ao edition of Ditmar of Meneburg, 

and many valuable works relating specially €> 
Hamfanrg and Bremen. He died in I86& 

LAPSE. A le^^acy is said to lapm if the legated 
dies before the testator; for as a will only operates 
from the deatJi of the testator, and at that tune the 
legatee is dead, the l^aey lapses ; i. e., falls into and 
becomes part of the lesidiiary mtate. So as to 
a devise. See LsoAtrr. 

LAPSED {Lapii), the designation applied, in the 
early centuries of the Christian Church, to those 
' overcome by heathen persecution, did not oon- 
faithful to the ChristiBn religion. Their num- 
aa most consideTable, when, after a lone time 
of peace, the first general persecution under Decius 
. ; but those who saved themselves by flight 
reckoned amongst tbe L., although their case 
[lot regarded at equally bad with that of 
those who saorificed to idols. Tlie L. were at first 
punished by eioommunication, and their reception 
'"'" '^9 chnreh again was strenuously resisted; 
the 3d c a milder course waa generally 
adopted with regard to them. The treatment of 
the lapsed was one of the praotioal guestioua most 
eamertly discussed in the early chunjt. 

LAPWING (FotuKiM), a genus of birds of the 
family Gharadriadie (Plovers, Ac), differing from 
I^B plovers chiefly in having a hind-toe, which, 
however, is small. The nasal grooves are also 
prolonged over two-thirds of the b^k.— One ipeQee, 
the CouMoir L., Crktid L., or Peewit ( V. erif 
iatui'), is a well-known British bird. It is also a 
native of almost all parts of Europe, and of some 
parts of Asia and of Africa. It is found in Bengal, 
m China, in Japan, and in Iceland ; but it is not 
a native of America. It is not quite bo large as 
a pigeon, and has the head eurmounted with a 
beautiful crest The head and crest an black ; 
the throat black in snmmer, and white in winter ; 
the back is green, glossed vrith purple and copper 
colour. Tlie name L. is derived from the sound 
which the wings make in flight; the name Peewit 



DiamabyGuUt^lL 



LAE-UlEOENY. 



fScottuh Ptttiaetpi, with the Fienoh DuAutf, 4Jie 
weduh TTipo, the Dooiah fmt and Fife, the old 
F.n glinS W]/pe, the Grsek Alx, tc, liom the plain- 
tJTe note; the local Scottish TeueA-hmd (Tufthead}, 
trtna the crested head. The L. la very plentifnl 
in moon, open commotu, and in&Tehj tracts, in 
paua dnrinff tbs breediDg-leasoa ; and in winter in 
fiocki, ehiS^ on the sea-shore. Its aitificei to 
prereat the ducorery of iti Iieit are very intereating. 



Lapwing (F. eriHattu), 

Tiie nest ii little more than a mere dcprenion 
in the groimd, and the fall complement of egga is 
usually fonr; but if Some are taken awaj, the 
bird goea on lapng, an instinct of which the nfig- 
gatherera take adrantage. The eggs are esteemed 
a great delioai^, and great nmnbeis aie aent to the 
LondoD maAet, imder the nama of Plover/ Eggi, 
from the manhy districts of En^aod. The bird 
itself is also highly esteemed for Sie table. — A pet 
L. in a garden is of great service in preventing the 
too rniest increase of worms and slugs. — Some species 
of L. hare wattles at the base of the bilL— The 
Tbku-tkro of South America {V. Cayanam), a 
speciea with span on the wings, abounds on the 
Pampas of South Aznerica, is noisy on tbe approach 
of tnvellen. like the common L., and its eggs are 
Bkewiae in the higbeat esteem a« a delicacy. 

LAS, an important town of Persia, ca^tal of the 
prorince of Laristan, is situated on a well-wooded 
plain, at the foot of a ridge of hills, 00 miles from 
the Persian Gulf, and 180 miles louth-Bouth-oaat of 
Shiras. The baiaar of T^r is said to be the Hnent 
and most elabonte in Persia. Pop. 12,000, who 
monafactnm swords, muskets, and cotton-cloth. 

LABBO ABD, an abwdete naval term for the left 
side of a vesel, toMng fonmrdi. From its liabili^ 
to be confused I^ the steersman with the not very 
different sound, * starboard,' the word was a few 
yean ago officially abolished, and the expression 
' port' srbitrarily substituted. The terms ttarboard 
and larboard were originally Italian — quote tonio, 
this side (the right) ; a^ qadlo bordo, that side (the 
left); which were contracted into 'tUt bordo and 
'lo fionlo, and finally became starboard and larboard. 
The worA port is wd to be an abbreviation of porta 
la ftmOTU, ' cany the tulm,' soggestiDg the analogy 
of poitiiig the aims on the left hand. 

I^ltCENY is tiie technical leg^ term used in 
England and Ireland to denote the crime of stealing. 
Simpla laroeny mevis larceny unaccompanied with 
other Crimea or cacomstancea of aggravation. Lar- 
ceny ia '^'^"'^ as an unlawful tflki"g of *^i"g" per- 
•omJ, witlt intoit to dep»Te the owner, and without 
IdacoDMnt. On each word and phnae of this '" 
nition uany oommentaiiea have been written ; 
M wa^botg m>to»tiT^ what theft ii^itU«o*rcely 



necessary to enter into detailed explanations aa to 
the vaiiety of circumstances attending its perpe- 
tration. The common law, which vas very defec- 
tive in not mentioning many sabjects which are 
capable of larceny, such as title-deeds, wills, 
ns, doga, oysten, vegetables, fruits, flztutes, 
has been amended by varioos statutes, the 
sioDS of which have been nearly all conaoli* 
dated in tlie recent act 24 and 25 Vict c 06. An 
doctrine of the common law was, that 
oairiers, trustees, Ac, could never be convicted of 
larceny, because tliey get the poesession of the 
goods lawfully, in the firet instanoe ; but now these 
p«nK>ns may be convicted of stealing, like othen 
Formerly, Uiera was a distinction t>etween petty 
larceny uid grand larceny, according as the value 
of the thing i^Ien was under or above twelvepence ; 
and thepunishment was more severe in the latter 
■, The distinction boa been abolished, and in 
!ases the crime of larceny is felony, though there 
certain things, such as fruit, vegetables, hoies, 
__., Oia taking of which, though unlawful, and 
often called stealing, is not treated aa such, bat 
ia ponished by a moderate fine or impritonmt 
Whoever corruptly takes a reward under pretence 
of assisting in recovering stolen proper^, mdess 
he use due diligence to cause Uie onender to be 
brought to tria^ is gnilty of felony, and liable to 
BGven yeara^ penal servitude, or two years' impriaon- 
ment. Whoever ahall publicly advertise a reward 
for the return of stolen property, stating that no 
ciucationa will be asked, or promising to return to 
pawnbrokera or othen any money advanced on such 
property, and also whoever shall print or pablish 
such advertiacmcnt, shall forfeit £50 to any person 
who will sue for the some. 

The ponislmient of larceny has varied in thii aa 
in oil countries. In the Jewish law, it waa punish- 
able by fine and satisfaction to the owner. At 
Athena, it waa converted frem a capital oQcnce 
into an oETcnce punishable by fine. Our Saxon 
laws punished larecny, if the thing was ab 
twelvepence in value, with death ; tut the L.. 
became subject afterwards ^ the softening effects 
of the Benefit of Clergy (q. v.). In 1827, tbo dia. ■ 
tinction oE petty larceny waa abolished, and every 
person convicted of simple larceny of any amount, 
was made liable either to tranaportation or impri- 
sonment { but later statutes We abolished the 
puniahment of transportation, and now the eencral 
puniahmcut for simple larceny, and for Monies 
puDisbable like simple larceny, is penal scrvitnde 
for three years, or imprisonment not exceeding 
two years, with or without hard labour and solitary 
confinement, and in the case of a mole under IG, 
with or without whipping — such whipping to be 
admioisterod by a blich-rod, and not more tbon 
twelve strokes. In cose of previous offences, the 
term of penal servitude may be extended to le 
or ten yean. In some cases considered to be 
attended with great a^ravation, as stealing linen, 
woollen, siUteo, *c go<^ while in process of manu- 
facture, if of the value of ten ■►'■"'"y, the term ia 
increased to 14 yean' penal servitude. In stealing 
cattle, the term is also 14 years, or imprisonment for 
two years. Larceny in a dwelling-house of money 
or goods above five poonda in vdae, is snbject to 
14 yean' penal servitnde, or two yean' imprison- 
ment; ana the same is Ibe ponishment, whatever 
be the value, if hy threats any one therein is put 
in bodily fear. The same ponishment is awaited 
to larc^iiea in ships, whans^ tc I^ucei^ from 



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LAEOENY— LABCH. 



int«at to n>b, the pnniahmeiit is two yean' impriaon- 
m«ot, or three yean' penal lervitnde. Again, if th« 
UMuit or robbery «u with oETeiudTe weapons, or 
ia company with other criminals, or attended with 
peraoDaL violence, the ptuiiiluaent ia pecial lervituda 
lor life. Larceny by a clerk or servant is punish- 
able with 14 yea™' pooal servitude, or two yearB" 
impriaonineat. Laroeny of letters by post-offios 
letter-canien is puniihable witli seven years' penal 
servitude, or two years' impriaoniuent, and if the 
letter contained money, with penal servitude for life. 
Becaivars of stolen properly ore also guilty of felony, 
and pnniahed with 14 years' penal servitude, or two 
y«air imprisonmeat. 

Besides the ofTencea under the head of larceny 
which are indictable, there are many eogoata 
offences which have been included in the same 
oonaolidation statute, but which are considered so 
far of a pet^ nature as not to merit the lolemn 
punishment by indictment, and are left to be 
punished aummaiily by justicea of the peace. Thus, 
some offences relatmg to wild «"'""'" and game are 
•0 treated ; tor example, hunting, carrying away or 
killiug deer in the nneodosed part oS a forest or 
park u punishable by jnslicee with a &ie of £60 i 
and persons in possesion of deer-sldna, and not 
accounting for thsin, or aettiog snares for deer, 
incur a puialty of £20. Taking or killing, or setting 
snares unlawfully for bares or rabbits m endosed 

Sand by day, subjects the paity to a penalty ol 
atediug a dog is subject to a penaltv ot £20, 
over and above the value of the dog ; and having 
a stolen dog or its skin in one's poaaeasiao, subjects 



tor any doroestio purpcee (not bein^ fit for food), 
□r wilfully killing the same, with mtent to steal, 
subjects to a penalty of £20, besides the value, or 
to six mouths impriaaninenL Killing or wounding 
bouse-dovea or pigeons snbjects the party to a 
penalty of £2, besides the valne of the bird. Taking 
or destroying Ssh in a stream or water which is 






induces a penalty of £2, besides seizore 
of the fishing-tackle. SteaUn^ trees and shrubs 
or underwood worth 1«., subjects the party to a 
Ity of £0 ; so does storing or desbx>ying 
IB, or poets, wire*, jtc, lued as such. Stealing 
fruit or vegetablea irom ^Aene, Ao., subjects the 
par^ to a pmal^ of ^0, besides the value, or 
to SLX months' impriionmant Stealing cultivated 
roots or plants used for the food of man or beast, 
□r for medidue, growiog in fields, ftc, subjects the 
party to a fine of 20(., besides the value, or to one 
month's imprisonment. Having shipwrecked goods 
knowingly in one's possession, nr e^^osiog the same 
for sale, subjects to ■ penalty of £20, beaidee the 
value, or to ax months' impiisonment. See Loar 
Pbopebtt. 

In Scotland, theft ia distinguished into trifling 
ibsft or pickery, which is puniahahls with fine, 
imprisonment, or whipping. Simple theft was 
never a capital offenoe, unless aggravated, as theft 
by » trustee, theft of cattle, or of children. The 
piuiishmeat of theft in Scotland is left very much 
to tiie discretion of the court. 

IiAACH [Larix), a genus of trees of tile nalnml 
Older Cot^tra, di^ring from firs [Al/ia) — of which, 
however, some botanists regard it as a mere sub- 
genus — in having the scales of the cones attenuated 
at the tip, and not falling off from the oos of the 
«one when fully ripe, anathe leaves deciduous and 
in dostera, except on shoots of the same year, on 
which they are smgle and scattered. — The Cohkov 
L (L. EuTopeta or Abia Larix) is s beautiful tree, 



growing wild on the mountains of the south and 
middle ot Europe, and found also in Asia, where it 
extends much further north than in Zurope, even to 
the limits of perpetual snow. The L. is not a 
native of Britam, and was not planted in any part 
of the island as a forest tree till the middle of 
the 18th t, when it began to be very extensively 
planted. Its introduction has cbai^aed the wpeot 
of whole districts, particularly ia Scotland. Tho 
perfectly erect and regularly tapering stem of tho 
L., its small branches, its r^ulsr conical form, and 
its very nuiueroas and veiy small leaves, make ita 
aspect peculiar, and veiy different from that of 
any other tree seen in Britain. It attains a height 
of 60—100 feet, and an ace of 200 years. The male 
catkins are small and bri^t yellow, Uie female 
catkins generally purple and erect; the cones ovat«- 
oblonz, about an inch long, and erect. The L. grows 
rapid^, and is useful even from an early sab ; the 
thinnings of a plantation being employed ^r hop- 
poles, palings, ftc. ; the older timber for a great 
variety of purposes. 
It is very remnous, 
does not readilj nrt 
even in water, u not 
readily attacked by 
worms, and ia much 
used in ship-building. 
It is, however, veiy 
apt to warp, and is 
therefore not Well 
suited for planks. — 
L.-bark is used for 
tanning, although not 
nearly equal in valne \fi 
oak-bark. — In Siberia, 
where large tracta ol 
L. forest are not unfre- 
quently consumed by 
accidental fires, the 
scorched stems yield, 
instead of a ream, a 

orabic, reddish, and 
oompleteiy soluble in 
water, wmch is known 
as OraAurgh Own, 
and is used for cement- 
ing and in medicine, a: 
somewhat resinous smell, 
food. — In warm countzies, a kind ot Manna (q. v.) 
exudes from the leaves dt the L., in the hottest 
season of the year, having a sweetish taste, with a 
alight flavour of tnrpeatane. It is gathered prin- 
cipally in France, and is known as Sriantmi 
Manna, or L. Maitna. — liie L. woods of Bri^un 
have of late years suffered greatly from a disease, 
in which the centre of t£e stem decays; the 
'hich are very imperfectly 
'^ he Bumciontly 
are peculiarlj 
liable to it which are fonoed where any lund of hr 
hss previously gr«wn, and those least so which are 
regularly thinned, so that the trees enjoy abundance 
of fresh air. The L, does not dislike moisture, but 
stagnation of vatar is very injurious to it, and 
thorough drainage is therefore neceaaary. — There 
are varieties of tho Common L. remarkable for 
crowded branches, for pendulouf bnnches, and for 
other peculiarities, which are sometimes planted 
as ornamental trees. — The Bed AunuaaN L., 
or HiCKUATACK {L. lenu^olia), distii^piiBhcd 
by very small cones not quite half an inch in 
length, is oommon in the nnthem parts of Ifortii 
America, and on tbe AUechany Mountains, ofUn 
■ ■ ets. Itisa ■■ ■ 




Larch (L. Eurepaa). 

notwithstanding a 



covering extensive truett. . 



noble bve> much 



abvGoogle 



LAED— LABOa 



tcaembliDK the common L., and ita timber ii highljt 

vxlned. — Tha Fzitditlouh L, or Black AmsioAK 

L. {L. pmdula), a uiotliBr very fine Nortk Ameri- 

caa ipeciea, with la^er le&ve&^-The Hiuaiatak 

I L. {L. Or^OuHl, abomidB in the Hicnalava, but is 

I gETienJIy b amall tree of S0_40 feet high. Its 

I ooDce ire larger than those of the Common Larch. 

Ita irood ia very durable. 

IJJBD, the f>t of the hog. UntU after the &nt 

Soarter of the preaent century, laid waa only lued 
>r colinaiy prupoaea, and ■■ the bue of varioua 
ointmeDla m medical nae. The enonnoua extent^ 
bowever, to which pork was taiaed in Americtt, 
rendered it necessary to find aome other applications 
Talnable a material, and large quantities were 
d at a low tamperatore, by wHc"" "" — ' — '~- 
. leine were separated. The for 

tor candle-makiDg ; and the latter 

a, Yerj important article of commerce, under the 
name of 'lard oil,' which was found to be araluable 
lubricant for machinery. As much as 20,000 tons 
of lard, atearioe of lard, and lard oil hare been 
imported in One year, more than two-thirda of 
whi(^ were from the United States of America. 
The manofactnre of ateaiine candles and fine oleioe 
bftm palm oil, cocoa-nut oil, and vbHoub kinds of 
sreaa^ by MeasiB Price ft Co., and other ltu];emanu- 
uctniers, baa greatly diroinialLed the impOTts from 



IjABDITEB, NATKAHm, D.D., an eminent 
English divine, waa bom at Bawluhnrat, in Kent, in 
16S4, and atodud first in London, and aftervarda at 
irtrecfat and Leyden. L. belonged to a bod^ of 
English Pralbfilmant, who had becoioe Unitaiuns. 
He died in 17K. L. was not apopular preacher ; but 
hia CrtdibiUlg of the Oatpd JTidorg, and his Jev/iah 
and HtiUhat TedmonUi, have aecnred fur him a 
permanent place among the modem apol(^;ists for 
Chrirtiauity. The last edition of hia worka, in ten 
volumes, appeared at London in 1S28. 

IiARDNEB, DioxTStc^ LL.D., a diatinniished 
writer on physical science, waa bom in Dublin, 
Apnl 3, 1793, and first became known by bis 
Treatiae on AloAraiad Otomdry (Lond. IS23), and 
by a work on the Di^ereJitial and Inltgral Calculua 
(Lond. IS2S). tn 1^, he wa* appointed Profewor 
of Natnral PhiloBOpby and Aatronomy in University 
College, London ; and in 1830. he projected a sort 
of encyclopedia, consisting of origmai treatisea on 
history, Bcience, ecoooroica, Ac, by the moat eminent 
anthois ; and 134 volumes were accordingly pub- 
lished, under the Ecneral name of LardntPi Ouclo- 
padia, between 1830 and 1844. Some of liiGse 
Tolnmefl were from his own pen. A second issite of 
tilia work was begnn in 1853. He pnbliahed vari- 
otu scientific works, the moat important of which 
an hi« 'handbooks* of vuiona branches of natural 
ptnloaophy (ISM— 1866). L was aUo tha anthor of 
the Mtitram t^Sciaice and Art, an excellent popu- 
lar eipontioti of the physical sciencee, with their 
applications. Hedied in Kaples, April29, 1SS9. 

LA'RBS, MA'NES, akd PENA'TES, were tute- 
lary srarits, ccnii, or deities of tha ancient Bomana. 
Tlie derivation of the names is not perhaps quite 
certain, but the first ia generally considered tha 
plnral ot lar, an Etruscan word signifying ' lord' or 
* hero ;' the second is aupposed to mean ' t£e good or 
benevolent ones 1 ' and the third is connected with 
paua, ' the tnnennost part of a boose or sanetnary.' 
The tares, Manes, and Penates do not appear to have 
been regarded as essentially different beings, for 
the names are frequently ased either interchange- 
ably or in such a conjunction as almost impUes 
identity. Tet some have thought that a diitioHion 
is diaceniible, and have looked upon the Lares as 



earthly, the Manea sa infenial, and the Penatea aa 
heavenly proteoton — a notion which has probably 
originated in the fact, that Manes is a genenJ 
name for tha souls of the departed, those who 
inhabit the lower world ; while among the Fenates 
are inclnded inch great deities as Jupiter, Juno, 
Vesta, Ac Hence wo may perhaps infer that the 
Manea were just the Lares viewed as departed spirits, 
and that tlie Penates embraced not omy the Lares, 
bat all spirits, whether daimons or deities, who 
exercised a 'special providence' over famillea, cities, 
Ac Of the former. Manes, we know almost nothing 
distinctively. An annual festival was held in their 
honour, on the 19th of Febmary, called l^ertdia or 
Pareidolia ; of the Iatt4ir, Penates, we are in nearly 

Sual ignorance, hut of the Larca we have a some- 
lat ^'tailed account. They were, like the Peoates, 
divided into two classes — Lares domutiei, and Lara 
■pMid. The former were the aouls of virtuous 
ancestors set free from the realm of shades by the 
Acherontio rites, and exalted to the rank of pro- 
tectors of their descendants. They were, in short, 
household-goda, and their worship waa really a 
worship of anceston. The first of tlie Lares in 
point of honour was the Lar fainSiaria, the founder 
of the house, the family Lor, who accompanied it 
in all its changes of residence. The Lara publiei 
had a wider sphere of infloenee, and received 
particnlar names from the places over which they 
ruled. Thus, we read of Lara annmCaUt (the Larea 
of croK-roada). Lara vieorum (the Lares of streets), 
the Lara mrtdet (the rural Lares), Lara ntoles (the 
Lares of the highways), Lara permarini (the Larea 
of the aca), ana the Lara aibieiM (the Lares of the 
bedchamber). The images of these guardian spirits 
or deities were placed (at least in larce houses) in 
a small shrine or compartment called cedieulit or 
lararia. They were worshipped every day : when- 
over a Boman family sat down to meals, a portion 
of the food waa presented to tbem ; bat particular 
honours were paid to them oa the Calends, Nonea, 
and Ides of the month ; and at festive gatherings, the 
lararia were thrown open, and the miagca of the 
household gods were adoined with garlaruls. 

L, 
tbe . 

occasions, for proclaiming the style and title of the 
Bovercign and his nobles. The rwnlar fees, as 
record^ in one of the Ashnolean MS8., were, ' At 
the coronadon of the king of England, c£ apparallod 
In scarlet At the displaying of the kind's 
banner In any oampe, c. markes. At the displaying 
of a duke's ijanner, £20 ; at a marquis', 20 markes ; 
at an eaile's, 10 markes. The king marrying a 
wife, £60, vrith the giftea of the kinoa's and qooone's 
uppermost garments ; at ^a butn of the kinge's 
eMeat son, 100 markes ; at the birUi of youngsr 
children, £20. The king being at any syge with the 
crowne on his head, £5. 

LARGO, oa Italian word, used in music, to denote 
Qia slowest of all tha temjpi, and especially in 
compositions where the sentiment is quite solemn. 
Lakqkbito is the diminutive of Largo. 

LAROS, a small town on the coast of Ayrshire, 
Scotland, a favonrite resort for sea-bathers, is 
beautifully situated on the Flith of Clyde, on a 
pleasant strip of shore, backed by billa, 18 miles 
below Greenook- The population ■- '"''" 

ider IIL of SooUand, 

__ between that country and 

the Norwwian colonies of Man and the Tales, 
defeated Sicon, king of Norway, who, with 100 
ships and 20,000 men, had descended upon the 
coast of Ayidiire. The results of this battle were 



yGOOgll 



LAEICIO— LARESPTJE. 



lediate withdrawal of tbe iavAduig force, 



LARICIO. SeePlKB. 

LAfRIDM, a family of birdo, of &e order Pai- 
miptda or Natatorti, called Loaaipamei bj Cavier, 
froni tiia length of wing which m characteriitdo of 
them. They are geoerally capable of protracted 
■a wall u of rapid and graceful flight ; all of them 
are BOO-bird», although Homs itamt to breeding- 
pUoee at «ome distance inland, and tome follow tho 
■ ■ ■ laiderable diet- 



the lea. Some of them are the moat oceamo of all 
birds, being often seen far from an; shore. They 
gencriilly take their prey either by a audden deecent 
w the water during night, or whilst iwinuning, 
and are not good diven. The hind-toe ii unall and 
free ; th« biU ia pointed or hooked, but destitute of 
lamelliB. Onlla, Skuas, Terns, Petrels, Shearwaters, 
AlbatroMoa, Noddies, Skimmers, &c, belong to this 
numerous family, which hot many reprasentatiTBl 
in all parts of Oie world. They prey chiefly 
fishes and moUoscs, and are in genera reai^ to 

LABI'SSA [called by tlie Turks Tenilichir), a 
town of European Turkey, in the proTinoe of 
Thesnaly, and one of the most ancient and import- 
ant in that territory, is situated on the Salembria 
(ant Patau), in lat 39° 37' N., long. 22* 28' E. It 
contains numerous mosques, from which arise many 
sleuder and dazzlingly white minarets. It carries 
on an important truislt-tiade, with manufactures 
of silk and cotton goods, and TWkey-red dyeworks. 
Pop. 26,000. In ancient timeB it was oelebrated for 
itsWl-fighti. 

lul'BiaTAN AND MOOISTAN, two 
provinces of Persia, bounded on the S. by the 
Fenian Onlf, and the Gnlf of Oman, and on the 
N. by the provinces of Farnabtn and Kennan. 

LABE {Alauda), a genus of small birds of the 
order Inttuaru, section ConWottrtt, the tjve of 
a family Alaudidm, to tho whole of which the 
English name is oommonly extended. In tJiis 
family, tbe bill, although Etont, and nearly conical, 
is more lengthened than in buntings and finches. 
The toes are long, and separate to the base; the 
claws long and little curved, that of the hind-toe 
generally Teiy lon^. The true larks (genus XZmida] 
have also long wmos, and great power of flight 
Many of them are birds of passage. In oommon 
with almost all the family, they nestle and seek 
their food — seeds, insects, wonns, ka. — on the 
ground ; and in admirable harmony with this mode 
of life, tbeir plumage exhibits much unifonuity of 
colouring, so that when on the ground they may 
not rcamly be noticed by thair encmiei. The L. 



Sky Lark {Alauda otmium). 

family is very widely distributed over the world. 
The CoKXOR L, Field L., or Sky L. {Alauda 
arvfnMi, is one of the beat-knom British bird^ 
and notwithstandiDg the tameness of ila brown 
plumage, ii a anivenal favourite, on aeoonnt of 
Uw awettauM of Ha oheerful aong, irtdeh it ponn 



forth whilst Kiaring and floating in die air, and 
which every one associates with meaaant scenes and 
delightful days. It more rarely sings on the ground. 
It is in great repute as a ca^-biid, and sings well 
in confinement, but flatten its wings whilst sing- 
ing, ss if still desirous of soaring m the air. It 
abounds chiefly in open but cultivated distiiota. It 
is common in moat parte of Europe, but &om the 
more northern parts, it migrates southward on the 
approach of winter. It is also a native of Asia, and 
is a winter visitant of the north of Africa. It is 
not found in America. It makes Its nest generally 
in an open field, and often under shelter of a tun 
ot herbage, or a clod of earth ; lays four or five 
mottled eggs, and generally prodnoes two bnxids in 
a season. It is not truly gregarious In aummv, bat 
in winter large SocIlb assemble together ; and at 
this season multitudes of larks are token for the 
table in the aouth of England, in France, and other 
countries. They are onen canght by horse-hair 
nooses, attached to a long line of packthrvad, to 
which the nooaea are fastened at distances of about 
six inches, the line being pwged to the ground at 
intervals of twenty yards, ^niis mode is most snc- 
oessfot when the ground is covered with snow, and a 
litUe oom is scattered along the line. The Clap-net 
(<j. V.) and Trammel-net (q. v.) are also employed 
by lark-catehera, and great numbers of larks are 
taken in some parts of Endand by dragging 
the trammel-net over the stubbles and pasturea. 
Twirluig for larkt is a peculiar mode of turning 
to account the attractivenees which any glittering 
object poasesBes for these birds. It is a French 
practice. A piece of highly polished mahogany, or 
of some common wood inlaid with bits of looking- 
daas, is fastened on the top of a rod, so as to reflect 
the sun's rays upwards, and is miuie to twirl by 
means of a string. Larks are greatly attracted by 
it, congregate around it, and are r^dily shot in 
1k^ numbers. — Tho Crxstsd L. {A. crutata), very 
aimilar in size and plumage to the common ll, but 
having the feathers of the crown of the head more 
distinctly developed into a crest, although a very 
common bird in many puts of Europe, and abundant 
near Calais, has very seldom been seen in Britain. 
^-The Wood L. [A. arhorea), a smaller spedes, not 
unfrequent in some parts of EngUnd, but lare in 
Scotliuid, is a bird ot very dehghtful aong, and 
usually sings perched on the branch of a tree. It 
frequents wooded distncta. Its neet, however, is 
made on the ground. — The Suobb L. {A. alpatrit), 
which has only in rare instances been found in 
Britain, inhabite the northern parts of Europe, Asia, 
and Ajuerica, and ia tho only North ^unerican 
Bpecies. Its song is very sweet, and gladdens tho 
visiter of such desolate inorea as thoae of Idbrador, 
where it breeds, amidst the tufts of mosses and 
lichens, with which the bare rocks are interspersed. 
It is a winter visitant of New England, and ia Hnoe- 
timea seen aa far soath as Georgia. The head has 
two erectile tuf^ of featheiv, somewhat rvembling 
those of homed owU. Black, whit^ and yellow 
vary the brown plumage of the Shore Lark. 

IiABKHA'HA, the capital of a district of it* 
own name in Sinde, stuids 146 milea noitii of 
Hyderabad. It contains about 12,000 inhahitante, 
and naoufaoturea silk and cotton, besides being 
-ie of tbe largest com-marta in the ooontiy. 

LARKSPUR {Ddphiaiam), a genns of plants of 
the natural order Ranuncidacfa, 9.-nnw v\ and peren- 
nial herbaeeons plants, natives of the temperate and 
cold regions of the northern hemiaphere. They have 
five sepals, the upper spurred; tour petals, distinct 
or umted into one, the two upper having spurs 
insartedintotheiepalinagpDTiaudl — Omany-ieeded 



..Google 



LAEMES— LAHRETf. 



foUtdai Some of them are well known and faTonrite 
gantea-flowerB, ag the Uprioht L [D. Ajaait), a 
aatin of Switzerland, and the BsAircHIMO L. [D. 
wiuolida), a native of most parti of Bnropo, and a 



T.ARME8, in Heraldir, When the field 1b 
tMsb«w«d Witt BO iodefioite wunber of drops of a 
blue colour, it U aaid to be guiU de larmea, a nomen- 
cbtue wluch, thoaEb French, ii pecnliar to Britiih 
Heimldr;', the French blaionins IDcb a ihi^ld giUtt 
•Ciuur. 

LAfiOOHKFOUOAtJLD, an old Trench family 
of great celebri^, whose original leat waa tlie imall 
town ol Larochefonoauld, near AngonlAme. The 
histiRT of the family ii traced back to 1026, when 
a certain Foncanld, first ieignsnr da la Koche, is 
ipoken of in a ohArter of an abbey of Angoulflme m 
vir no&i^unmui Fuleaudui. In the reli^oiu wars o( 
the IGth c, it embraced tbe caiue of the Frotgetants. 
— Fram^is, Ddo dk L., and Pbihcb db Mabsilti^c, 
bom 1S13, was inuch attached to litemry paisuita ; 
and aEter liafing been involved in intrigues oniuBt 
Cardinal Kich^ien, and in tbe tomulte <S the 
Fronde, he retired into private life, onltivated the 
•mnety of the most eminent literary perBoni of his 
time, Boileau, Racine, and MoliSre, and composed his 
famoni Mtmoirtt (Colore, 1662 ; AmsL 1723, tc), 
in whicli he gives a umple but mostoi'ly hiatono 
acconnt of tha political events of hij time. In 1665, 
he published also his Jl^flexiont cm Saiiemxi e( 
Maxima MoraUt, a work containing 360 detached 
oat widely cele- 
'. hTpocrisy. ■■ ' the homage 

.-tue? The book is regarded 

aa a modal of French prose, and exhibits much 



itcne« of observation, and a clear perception 
the prevalent corruption and hypocnsy of his 
le. He died 17tb March 1680. His (Eanrtt 
CompiHet were edited by Deppina (Par. 1818), and 
Iiii wrilingB have been oomtDested on by a host of 
critics oE the most different eohoola, as Voltaire, 
Vinet, Sai^ite-Beuve, and Victor Cousin. — PBAM501B 
Aleukokk F&in&tic, Duo se L-LuHcocniT, an 
eminent philanUkrofHst, bom 11th January 1747, 
WIS lepreseatatiTe of the noblea of Clermont in 
tha Statw-geneial, and — " ""' ^ '" ' 



icfom, bnt •ought to preserra tha monarchy. After 
tbs cstaattophe ot 10th Auguct, ba fled b> Wgland, 



and lived in great pennnr, till be obtained back, in 
179*. some fiaements of his property. He now 
visited North America, and afterwards published 
his Voyage daat la Efatt-Umt ^Ameriqae fait en 
1795—1797 (8 voLl Par. 1798). Having returned 
to Paris, be lived for some time in retirement, ocon- 
pied only with the extension of vaocinalion and 
similar works of benevolence. Napoleon restored 
bim his ducal title in IS09. After tn« BMtontioo, 
he was made a peer, but soon gave offence to 
tha court, by opposing itt tinconstitational polio^. 
He laboured zealously ia promotion of many patrietia 
and philanthropio objeots. He founded the first 
savings-bank in Franoe. He died 27th March 1827. 
liABOOHEJAQUBLEIN, Dn Vebokb dk, an 
old noble family <^ France. The name Dn Verger 
ia derived from a place in Poitou. Guy du Verger 
married, in 150G, the heiress of the sognenr of 
Ijaroohejaqaeleia. Several of his descendants dis- 
tinguiBbed themselves as soldiers, after the begin- 
ning of the French Bevolation, by their strenuous 

efforts In the cause of the Bourbons Hehbi, 

Oomte de Larochejaquelein, bom 1773, was an 
officer in the guard of Louis XVL,and after the 10th 
of August 1792, left Paris, and put himself at tbe 
head of the inaui^ent royalists m I« YendSe. Ha 
signalised himself by many heroic deeds, and for a 
time BQCcesatnlly repelled the republican forces, but 
waa defeated by Graierals Westermann, Mtlller, and 
Tilly, 13th December 1793, and escaped with diHi- 
co!^. He raised a new body of troops, however, in 
Upper Poitou, but was kUled in a battle at Nouaille, 
4tli March 1794. — His brother, Louis dij Yerobii, 
Marquis de Larochejaquelein, bom 1777, emigrated 
at the commencement of tha Kevolntion ; returned 
to France in ISOt, but resisted all Napoleon's efforts 
to win him, and in 1813 placed himself at the head of 
the royalists in La Vendfc. Louis XVIIL appointed 
bim, in 1614, to the command of the army of La 
Vendfe, and during the Hundred Days he main- 
tained the royalist cause there, supported by the 
British. He fell in battle at Pont-deB.Mathis, 4th 
June 18IS. His wife, Marik-Loitibk Viotoirb, 
lise de Larochejaquelein (bom 1772 — died 
,. published Mfmoira of the War in La Vendfr, 
of which she was an eye-witness (BordeatiE, 1S56), 
which are of great value, and have gone through 
many editions. 
liA ROCHELLE. See Rochblls, La. 
liABRET, DoKiNiilcrB Jkam, Baroh, a celebrated 
French surgeon, was bom in 1766 at Baad^an, near 
Bagn^res-de-Bieorre, studied medicine with his uncle, 
Alexis L., and attended the two hospitals, the 
HOtel-de-Dieu and tbe ndtel-dea-lnvalides, having 
previonsly served for a abort time both in the army 
and navy. In 1792, he waa ain)ointed second 
physician to tbe Hfitel-des-Involides, and in 1793 
accompanied the French army to Germany and 
Spain, making at tbia time the important mvcn- 
tion of the ornWonce voUaiie, for the convenience ot 
transportins tbe wounded. Napoleon summoned 
him to Ita^ in 1797, after be had been for a short 
I a professor in tbe medico- aiu-^cid school nt 
de-Grftoe ; and he accompanied the expedition 
ilgypt. In 1S06, he was placed at the Lead of 
the medico-surgical department in the I^«ncb army, 
and was created a Buvn of the Empire, receiving 
also a considerabla pension. He was woniided and 
taken prisoner at Waterbo, and at the Bcstora- 
X lost bis rank and pension ; tbe latter, how- 
r, was restored in 1S18 ; and he continued 
.. fill important and honourable offices till IS3G, 
when be retired from that of surEcon-general of 
the Hatcl-des-Invalides. On the 15th of May 1842, 
*- - embarked for Algeria, having been appointed 



«i),Guu^le 



LAETA— LAEYNX. 



inspeotor of the military hoipitals there, and while 
on tail return, aiter having condaded his laboura, ha 
died at Lyon, 24Ui July 1842. Apart from the skill, 
talent, courage, and humaniW shewn in the course 
of his practice, L. ba« B high scientific reputation, 
and is the aatJior of a number of very valuahle 
books OD variooB Bubiects connected with his pro- 
fession, most of which have been translated into 
other longnagea. L.'b works have been oonsidsred 
by eminent authorittea to be ' the conneoting Unk 
between the sntgery of the last age and that of tlie 
present day.* 

LATtVA, in Natural History, is the denomination 
ol animals which nndergo transfarmstion, in that 
state in which they first exist after issuinz from the 
egg. Until recently, the larva ital>e was Known in 
insects only, and the term larva is still commonly 
nsod only with regard to them ; but it bos been dis- 
covered that many marine animals Bi>end a consider- 
able port of their exiatenge in such a state, during 
which they ore often extremely iliQerent fnnn what 
they became after their next transfonnatioo : some 
of thera, SB the yoang of the Cirrhopods, swimming 
about freely in the larva state, whilst they become 
£rmly fixed to one spot when they have reached 
their perfect development, and— which seems still 
more remarkable — po»aeaaing esies in the former 
state, and becoming destitute of them in the latter. 
The larva state ol crabs eihihita a very Bingular 
fonn, long known as a distiniit genus of cmataceans, 
under the name ZoKa. The young of at least some 
Entozoa pasB throngh a larval state ; those of the 
tape-wonns were toraierly regarded as creatures 
alttwether distinct, and received the generic name 
StxMx, which when now used is with regard to these 

animals equivalent to larva The larvie of insects 

differ very much in the degree of their develop- 
ment, the differences being characteristic of different 
orders ; some of them much resembling the perfect 
insect, except in tJie wont of wings, and others being 
very unlike it. The larvae of many insects, particu- 
larly those which are very unlika the perfect insect, 
as grubl (coleopterous larvre), maggots (dipterous 
larvm), and caterpillan (lepidoptcroos larvie), ooeu- 
mulate fat in great qoontity, which serves to Bustsin 
them during Qidr Pupa (q. v.) state, in wliich they 
take no fo^ The same accumulation of fat does 
not take place in larvn more nearly similar to the 
perfect insect, as in nearopterons insects, the pupai 
□f which ore active and 



LARTNGITIB, or INFLAMMATION OP TEE 
LABYNX, may be either an ocnte or a chronic 
affection. Acute larynptis, in Its more severe form, 
with a chill, which ia followed by fever, 



face. There: ._ , _..._._ 

of the voice, great difficulty in swallowing, and a 
feeling of extreme constriction of the laryox. There 
is a painful atridulons congh. but only a little mucns 
IB ejected. Great difficulty of breathing soon comes 
on, the act of inspiration being prolonged, and 
wtieezin^ in consequence of the swollen membrane 
of the glottis impeding the entrance of air. Oa 
examining the fauces, l£e cpielottis (see LAsrvx] is 
observed to be of a bright n3 colour, erect, and bo 
much swollen sb not to be able to descend and close 
the glottis during deglutition. The patient exhibits 
symptoms of great anxiety and distress ; his lips 
become blue, his face of a livid palcuess, his puiao 
irregular and very fceblo, and at length he sinks 
into a drowsy state, often preceded by delirium, 
and quickly followed by death. The disease is very 
rajnil, ending, when fatal, in tbrco or foor days, and 
occasionally m less than one day. 
The moat frequent oatue of lat^ngitif, whether 



mild or severe, is exposure to cold and wet, e«p»- 
cially when in a state of perspiration. It frequently 
also arises from direct injury to the larynx, as from 
attempting to swallow boiling water or corrosiva 
fluids, frem inh^ing irritating gases, Ac 

In severe cssee, toe strongeEt antipblogisiic ixeat- 
meat must be at ones adopted, as general bleeding, 
leeching, and either tartar emetio or calomd. If 
these fui,ti>e onlyremedy upon which much relianoa 
con be placed is tiacheot^y. In chroma laiyngitis, 
there is hoarseness, the voice is altered, and variona 
morbid sensations are felt in the larynx, which 
excite cough. If the disesBO goes on to ulceration, 
phthisis or Bvphilis is probably ita oanse. Tha 
treatment of luceratad laiynx is noticed in Labtrx, 



LARY'HOOSOOPE ahb LARYNGOSCOPY. 

Although attempts had been previonsly mads by 
Avery and Garcia to explore the recesses of the 
larynx by means of a reflecting mirror, it was not 
until two 0«rmaa phyaiologisu, Drs Turck and 
Czermak, took up the subject in 1657 and IftSS, 
that the great importance of lotTngoscopy was first 
generally recognised. 

The laryngoscope 1b a small mirror placed on a 
stalk attached to its margin, at an angle of irata 
120° to 160°, the stalk being about six inches in 
length, and being composed of flexible metal, bo 
that it can be bent at the will of the operator. 

The mouthpieoe of a largo reflector, with a central 
opening through which the observer looks, is held 
between the molar teeth ; or, which is better, the 
reflector may bo attached to a spectacle frame 
by a Btiffly working ball-and-socket joint The 
rays of the sun or of a good lamp ore concentrated 
*" means of this reflector on the InryngesJ mirmr, 
ich is placed against the soft palate and nviihk 
The laryngeal minor, introdoMd with the ri^t 
band, which rests by two fingers on the jaw, ia 
maintained at such an inclination that it throws 
the light downwards, and illuminates the parta to 
be examined, while at the same time it reflects tiie 
imagas of these parts into the eye of the observer 
through the central opening of the reflector. By 
this means he con look through the larynx into th« 
trachea or windpipe. 

By means of this instrument we can see the actual 
position of small tumours, ulcers, Ac, whose exist- 
ence would otherwise have been at moat only sos- 
pected ; and the precision and accuracy of diagnoatB 
to which we can thus attain, eoable uB to employ 
rational means of local treatment to on extent that 
was quite impossible before the introduotion of 
laiyngoscopy. 
LA'BYNX, Tbe (Or. larynx), is the organ of 
lice, and takes a part in the respiratory jh-occss, 
all air passing either to or from tbe lungs tnusl 
iss throng it. It is a complex piece of meiSianism, 
sembling a box composed of pieces of cartilage, 
which may be moved on each other, and encloaing 
membroncuB bands (the dwrdas voeait*) by 
which the vocal vibrations aro produced. 

. is situated between the tradiea, or windpipe, 
and the base of tbe tongue, at the upper and front 
part of the neck, where it forms a considerable 
projection (especially in men) in the mesial Une ; 
ond it opens superiorly into the pharynx, or throat, 
and inferiorly into the windpipe. 

The cartilages of which tbe skeleton of the larynx 
_ composed are five in number— viz., the thyroid 
and the cricoid cartilages, the epiglottis, and tho 
'~io arytenoid cartilages. 

The tiyntid (Or. shield-like) cartilage consists of 
two square pUt«8 of cartilage united m front at an 
acuta an^e, which forma the projeotioii which is 



abAjOogle 



.!^ fa 
moa and 



Jy known la th« oomuni ^(fomi, or Adam'a 
Each of tliese ^UtM ii prolonged at the 



eonunooly known 



lower poBteiior comera. lie thyroid 



in form, ood mpportB an uytEnoid Gartilaf(& 

lio arstenotd (Gr. Udle-like) cartilsgeB are pjra- 
midal bodies reiting on tho oval articular BunEaces 
at the upper and posterior part of the cricoid 
cartilage. When in tiiti, they present a concave 
porterior surfaoe (fig. 1). From their connection 
with the Tocal cords, and from their great mobility 
ai compared with the two larger cartilagei, the 
orytenoida play a very important part in the 
mechamam of the larynx. The rpigUiltia ia ftTery 
flexible cartiUginona valve (fig. 1, /), dtnated at 
the base of the tongas, and covering the opening of 
the larynx. Its direction ia verticu, except during 
deglutition, when it becomes horizontaL It ia 
attached inferiorly by a kind of pedicle to tho 
angle of the thyroid CDTtilage. Upon removing tho 
investing mucous raembrana, the cartilage ia ^and 
to be perforated by numerous foramina, /. Each 
perforation admits some fasciculi, of yellow, clastic, 
ligamentous tissoe, which expands on its anterior 
Mpect, and secareB tho return of the epiglottis to 
its vertical position, independently of any moacular 
action. Such is the Bkcleton of the larynx, which 
hangs from the hyoid bone, with which it is con- 
nected by the thyro-hyoid ligament and certain 
muscles. 

The various cwtiloges which have been descrilied 
are connected to one another by ligaments, the chief 



Fig. 1. 
(FrfliB Toda mill Bowman.) 
CKtllija erf Urjni asd iplGlolll^ tnA upiwr rings oj Ir 

f>« if oleoLd ; /, «i»loHi-, i>lth it. ptrtor..™. J ^ owe' 
■uu-pD of ihjroid ! jS, lu left lntenor tubercle ; I, traobM. 

cartilage fonuil almost the whole of the anterior and 
lateral walla of tho larynx. 

Tho aieoid (Gr. ring-lifee) cartilage is a ring whose 
loiter margin is parallel to the firat ring of the 
tncheii, to which it is united by fibrous membrane. 
Ila upper border is connected in front with the lower 
bolder of tho thyroid cartilage by a thick yellow 
fibiooi tisane. It preoento two articular surfaces on 






ir^rnoid CBFlll^ire; h, «i 
^B ■rUnUtJD^ wltb the 



titka side, viz., a lower one (A in B, fig. 2), which 
artiaUatea with the interior comua of the thyroid 
eutili^ and an xtypez one (b in B, fig. 2), wh-i- '- 



of which are those known as tbe true and fidee 
vocal cords. In their nuicscent etote, the trne vocal 
corda do not lie parallel to each other, but convei^e 
from behind forwBrda (see fig. 3). The length of 
tho vocal cords is greater in the adult mole than m 
the adult female, in the ratio of throe to two. lu 
infancy, they are very short, and iucreaac rwu- 



larly fro. 



that period to tho age of puberty. 
^,^„w, ^embrane of the larynx ia part o. ,^^ 
great respiratory tract {see Mucous Membrane), 
and is remarkable tor its groat sensibility. 

The length of tho chink or aperture of tho glottl^ 
which is directed horizontally from before b.ick- 
wards, varies, like the vocal corda, until tho period 
of puberty, when its length, in the male, nndergoea 
a suiiden development, while in the female it 
remains Htationary. In the adult male, it is about 
eleven lines in length. 

The larynx ia provided with two seta of mnsclea, 
vii, the airimie, by which tho whole organ la 
elevated or deprMsad, and the ialHmic which 
regulate the movements of tho various sonneots 
of the organ in relation to one another. By tbe 
actdon of these latter musclea, aided, in some cases, 



dhy Google 



LA 8AIJ1B— LAS OABA& 



by tliB sxbinno mnadw, Uu teiuion ol tha vocal 
cord< nay be iocrewed or diminiihed, md the aize 
of the opeuiiig of tha glottii regal&ted at vDL 

Tbe nerves of the larynx are derired from the 
(uperior imd inferior Uiyngtal bnochea oi the pneu- 
momurtrio or vagiu nerve. Tha aupeiior branch 
i» for the most part (eoaoiy (beins mainly distri- 
buted to tha macoui membnme), wnila the inferior 
branch conununicatei motor- power to all the 
intrinsio muaclea except the crioo-thyroid. 

In the preceding account of tbe cortiijwe*, vocal 
corda, mucona membrajie, moacles, and oervea 
of the loiynx, we have included only tbe moat 
eaiential pointi. For detaila regarding tha attooh- 
ments of mnaclea, Ac, the reader must oomnlt any 
atandard work on Anatomy. That the larynx ii 
the organ of voice, in proved by nomaroua facta, 
amoiigit wldch the following may be mentioned. 
' Fint, tha lent altermtion ia the condition of the 
mueon* membrane covering the vocal corda, it 
invambly accompanied by a change in the tone 



cords, deatroyi oi 



T thevf 



;thmlly. 



divert tha current of air in expiration from tbe 
larynx, will decboy the voice ; foarthly, section 
of the inferior larjingeal uervea, by which the 
iiinuence of the wul la breast to bear on the 
muscles which regnlate flie tension of the vocal 
cords, deatroys the voice ; and lastly, by experi- 
menta on the dead larynx, sounds may be produced 
resembling thoae of the voice.' — Todd and Bovrnuin's 
Pkytiological Anatomy, voL a. p. 431. 

DimoMt of Iht LaTynx.--iH these, the most 
Bcrious is acu(0 infUaianaHon of the larynx, or 
lAtyngitis (q.v.). 

(Edema, or iwdling qf lit ghttu, althonsh of 
common occuirenoe in laryngitis, may be developed 
independently of inflammation, from obatmctioa of 
the veins l(»ding from that port, or from other 
causes. The symptoms are tboee of acute inflamioa- 
tion, except tl^t there ia no fever or inflammation, 
and lesa cUffiouIty of awallowing. Tracheotomy 
(thp opeiatioo of making an opening into the wind- 
pipe. Wow the Beat of the disease) affords the 
patient almost his only chance of life. 

"' — ■- -'nfiamjruitioa and utcemtion ot the larynr 






.._,.. . tubercular conaumptioii and in 

ndary syphilis. In these cases, the laryngeal 
affection ia merely a local manifestation of a general 
disease. The chronic hoarseness and cough are often 
remarkably relieved, in these cases, by swabbing the 
epiglottis and upper part of the air-passages with 
a (bong solntion Of Innar coostio. 

IA SALLE, a citrf of Illinois, United States of 
America, 110 miles nortb-north-east of Spiingfleld. 
is the terminua of tbe DJinois and HicM^n Canal, 
and junction of the Illinois Central and Cmcago and 
Bock Island Eailways. L» S. has coal-mines near 
the city, rinc-works, five churches, and two news- 
papers. The Illinois Central Railroad here crosses 
tbe niinoia River on a bridge of twenty arches, 900 
feet in length. Pop. (1870) S200. 

LA'SCAR, in the East Indies, aigniSes properly a 
camp-follower, but is ReneraUy applied to native 
sailors on board of British ships. The Lascars 
make good seamen, but bcdng of an excessively 
imtable and revengeful nature are generally kept 
in tjie minority in a ship's crew, 

LASCABIB, CONBTANTINV, a celebrated Greek 
refugee, after the capture of Constantinople by the 
Turks, and one of the firat foonden of Greek 
studies in the West. He was received with diatinc- 
tion by Franeesco Sfoiza, Dnke (rf Uilan, in MM, 



who intrusted to him Uia education of his doodita' 
Hippolyta ; but a more imptatont aoene of hia I 
lalxNui waa Boms, where he settled in the boia | 
of the leamad Greek oardinal, Beasoiion, and, 
finally, Naples and Mesoina, iriiere he taught 
rhetoric and Greek lettara until hi* deatll in ItfS. 
Hia Greek grammar, entiled SmUmata, and dated 
147G, ia the earHest printed Greek book. To 
him his oontemporariea were also indebted for 
several other elemBotary Greek booka of leas 
note. Hia grammar ia known chiefly through a 
Latin translatioQ printed st the Aldine press, uid 
frequentiy reprinted. His library, whioh ia very 
valuable, ia now in the EscurisL — John Jands 
L., a member of the aamo family, sumamed Khvh- 
DACKNUS, haa alao acquired a pace in the history 
of the revival of letten. He waa one of tboao 
whom Lorenzo de* Medici employed in the collectioa 
of ancient, and especially Greek cUssical autiiors, 
of whom L. brought home a valuable collection 
from Mount Athos. On the death of Lorenzo, L. 



Rome, where he was appointed l^ Leo X. ._ 

Baperintendenoe of the Greek press which that 
pontiS CBtablished. L. edited aaveral of the edilionfg 
prineipel at the Roman preea. He waa emplqyed 
as ambassador at the court of Franaa L, and after- 
worda at Venios, and died in Rome, at a very great 

r. in 1635. See Yillemain's Lokotu, ou la Que* 
IS— SOde {Paris, 182S). 
IjAH OASAS. HutTOLOKti DE, Bishop lA 
Chiapa, in Mexico, aomamed the Apot&e qf t&a 
Indiaat, a cdebnted evuiKeliat and philanthiripist, 
waa of French descent, and waa bom in Seville in 
1474. He studied at SalamanciL In 1502, he 
acoompaitied Don Nicolaa Ovando, who was sent 
out as governor, to 8t Domingo. Eight years 
after his anival there, he was ordained to the 
priesthood, and waa subsequently appointed to 
a charge in Cuba. Here he b^an to signalise 
himself by his exertions in favoor of the oppressed 
Indians. To oppose the law which divided them 
amongst the conoueroiB, be went to Spain, where 
he prevailed on Cardinal Ximenes to send a com- 
mission of inquiry to the West Indies; hut the 
proceedings of^ the commission by no means saUs- 
tying his leal, he revisited Spain, to procure the 
adoption of stronger meoaurea for the protection 
of the natives. Fiaally, to prevent flie entire 
extirpation of the mitive rooe m the toils to which 
they were sabjected, he propoaea that the colonista 
should be compelled to employ ncgiv slaves in 
the more severe labours of the mines and augar- 

Cntations; and the proposal waa adopted. Laa C. 
on this aocount been repreaented aa ihs author 
of the slave-trade, although It has been proved to 
have existed long before this proposal was made. 
Laa C afterwards attempted to carry out Castilian 
peasants aa colonists to the West Indies, with the 
view of giving more complete effect to hia schemes 
on behalf of the Indians ; but failing in this, he 
retired to a Dominican convent iu Hinianiola. Ho 
again visited Spain in 1539, out of benevolent 
regard to tbe native inhaMtants of the West Indies, 
and published bis Brevitiima Jldadon de ia Degtrve- 
don de las Indiat, which waa aeon translated into 
the other languages of Europe. The rich tirishopric 
of Ouzco was o^red to hi">T) , but he preferred the 
poOT one of Chiapa, in a wild and almost nnexplored 
region. The colonists reodved him with no friendly 
fe^ugs, and as he went the lengtli of refuong the 
sacraments to those who disregarded the new laws 
in favour of the Indians, he drew upon hinuelf not 
only the resentment of the planters, but ijie dia- 
qiprobation of the ehnrch, ao that he 



.Google 



LAS OASES— lATEEN-SAIL. 



to ntam to Spain, wban he ended hii life in a 
ooBToit in Uaarid, Julv 1S66, at the age of 92. 
In liw oomaa of lui ardaDt career, he oiveaed tlie 
jUlutio Ti-rtnii timeB. A ooUeotdoQ of hii worki 
BpfMMtd in Ilia lifetime (Seville, 1562), but hii 
mMt importaat work vaa pobliahed after hi* death, 
thiB Sidoria gmemi de Uu India*. 

LAS OASES, SbouirraL Auauvn DixuiMMKi, 
CouKT, tiie ooiqataiion and hiitoriosTajiher of 
Nqnleon in St Hdena, said to be of the same 
faimljr m the preoeding, waa bom in 1766, in the 
cUUesa of Ijm Gaaea, near Bevel, was a lieateoant 
in tho navy b«fom the lUvolation, ajid thun fled 
frcRD Prance, Mrred in the Prince of Condi's ann;, 
■pent aome time in England, where he lupported 
*'"'lTf°J* by private teachmg, and took part lo the 
expedition to Qnibemo. After Napoleon'i acceo- 
von, he retained to France, and laboured in the 
preparation of hia admirable AUom hi^t/rique, 
which WM publiahed under tho name of Le Sage 
(Far. 1B03-1804; laat ed. Far. 1824— 1S28}. Tina 
work attracted the attention of Napdeon, who 
made him a baron, and em^ojed him in officea 
Gcmnacted with the home-adminiatration. After 
the battle of Waterioo, he offered to ahare the exile 
of Napoleon; and in St Helena, the ex-emperor 
dictated to him a part of hia HBinoin. A letter 
whidii L. confairad to aend to Lucieu Bonaparte, 
led to hia a^iaration from Napoleon; and after 
^^t months confinement at the Cape of Good 
Hope, he waa brought to linrope, and icaided 
mostly in Belgium till Napoleon died, when he 
retained to SrtiiOB, and pablished tiie Mtntorial 
de Sle-JIitine [8 tqIk Far. 1B23; amended edi- 
tion, 1S24, often reprinted), a work which must 
be always a chief aoorce of information respecting 
Napoleon, but in which the author has taken too 
mnch liberty with hia materiola. After the revalu- 
tim of IS30, he was for lome time a member of the 
Chamber of DepntieB, where hia place waa on the 
eztifltne Left He died 15th May 1842. 

1UAS PAXHAS, chief town of the Canary 
Iilandfl (q. v.), is lit^ted on the cost coaat of the 
ialaod of Gran Conaria. It ia a larae, well-built 
tcnm, ia the aeat of a biihop and of the luprema 
coort for aU the ialanda. Fop. 17,382. 

liASSA. SeeffLASU, 

LABSEN.'Chribtuv, a meet eminent oiientaliit, 
waa bom on 2^ October 1600, at Bergen, in 
Norway ; atodied at Chriattania, and aftcrwarda 
(1S22) at Heidelberg and Boon, and aiaiated Schl^l 
ia tho publicalioD of the Bdfdyaaa and ffUo- 
jntdtaa Ha also aaaooiated iiimwlf with Eugtoe 
Bnmonf in the praduction of the Bttai rar U 
PaU (Pax. 1826). Ia 1830, he became Extraordi- 
narr, a^ in 1810, Ordhiaiy Frofeaaor of Ancient 
Lnuan LangnagM and Ijtcrahire at Boim. He haa 
edited many &iuerit works, deeply inveatigated the 
tdatioM of the oriental lan^iagea and antiquities, 
and puUiihed aereral Toy important works, the 
chief of which are Die at^trntdun KaliiudiTiften 
CBoon, 1S36) ; Voilttaaidijft ZuaammauleUaiu/ aUer 
bU 1645 bdaamt gtmoMoi aUptn. KtUhu^. mil 
SrUSruag, embodying Weate^ard's inveatigations 
(Bonn, 1845) ; Bajr^ lur OeteJaiJUe dergrieckund 
nHfe-jtyltoetoi Kamg« h> Biulrim, Kafnd \tnd 
Iitdiet (Boob, 1838) ; IntlUutionet Lingua Prcarilua 
(Bonn, 1837) ; OUtmoeinda Tayadeea (Bonn, 1837) i 
A»tliotogiaSaiuaitiea (Bonn, 1838) ; IndUche Alter- 
■ ' (Tola. 1—4, Bonn, 1847—1861) ; Oram- 



fnfm inscriptions, and of the andent 

modem Iianic dialecte, on which and kindred *ub- 

jaots nnmerona artidea bom his pen are to be found 



in the iTnbcAryi ^ die Kmde det Morgtniande*, 
tiie Indiaehe BtbhoUiek, RhainiMbe'i Mutojoit, EiBoh 
and Gruber's Enr^loptedia, fto. 

IiA'BSO, a long stout cord or thonf of skin, with 
a leodeu ball at each end, employea by the South 
Americoui in capturing wild horsea, oxen, ho. It 
ia thrown in euiui a manner, that when it strikes 
the neck or leg of the animal to be captureiL 
the impetus of the ball cauaes Uie cord to ochI 
round the limb. The hunter's horte is famished 
with a saddle having a hich pommel, so that the 
banter may ooil his end of the laMO round it, or 
even fix it, if he choosea, though thia lattwpractice 
often leads to dangnona comeqnenee*. The laaso 
was freqnentiy naed ^Mnit Btuopeau soldian 
during the eontcet of the Sonth American repubhca 
for independeoce ; and, thongb with very little 
Eucoeas, oy tho barbariuis in the Bussian army 
aguntt the Fieoch sentineb during the Crimean 
war. Similar in iti name aod application is another 
implement consistiag of a stoat thong of hide with 
a ilip-Doose, used m many countries, but chiefly 
among the South Amerioan aod Mexioan hnntert. 
It requirea mnch greater sddran U> ose it suooea*- 
fully. In Mexico, the lasso is called a iariai. 

LAST HEIR, in Scotch Law, means the sover^fn, 
who takes tho property of penons deceased who 
leave no Ic^ heir. See Ihtesiaot. 

LAST TESTAMENT, or WILL, is the last 
instrument in point of date, and it revokes prior 
wiUa so far as inoonsiatent See Wiu. 

LA'STAQE, in Maritime Language, denote* tha 
ballast or lading of a vessel. 

LATAKI'A (Turkish, LadaHyeh; anc. Zaodieea), 

seaport of Syria, in tiie pashalio of Tripoli, and 
situated 75 milus north of the town of that name, 
and 60 milca south-wcet of Antioch, is sarTouaded 
by plantatioiiH of myrtle, pomegranate, mulberry, 
and olive treea. It oonsista o£ the decaying Oppcr 
Town and the Lower Town, which are separotod by 
magnificent gardens. On the hiUs in the vicinity, a 
mild and finely-flavottred tobacco is grown, and is 
eiteDsively exported. Pop. from 7000 to lO.OOa 
L. oocapies the site of tho ancient Laodteea ad 
Man, which was founded by Solouous Nieator, 
and named after his mother, and which formed 
the port of Antiodh. The ruins of the aqnoduct 
built here by Herod the Great are still extant. 

LATBB'N-SAIL, a large triangular sail, common 



dbyGoogle 



LATENT FAULT— LATBTKUS. 



deck, by means of a maat orouiiig it at a third or a 

fonrth of the way np. 

LATENT FAULT. la ths contract of sale, it 
is a rule that tho buyer takea the nsk of aU latent 
faulta or defect* in the thing told which were 
unknown to the aeller at the timo of the aalo, all 
that the idler anewera for being, that the thing is, 
«o far aa he knows, what it appears to be. Ttia, 
which was the Engliah rule, wai extended to Scot- 
land by the itatute 19 and 20 Vict c. 60, a 9. 

LATENT HKAT. See HEiT. 

LA'TERAH", CHnncK OT St Josk, the firat in 
dignity of the Boman chuci^hea, and styled in 
Boman usage ' the Mother and Head of all the 
chnrchee of the city and the world,' is so called from 
ila occupring the site of the splendid palace of 
FlantiBS Lateroaus, which, haTing been escheated 
(66 A.ri.), in coaiequeace of Latenuma beiog impli- 
cated in the conspiracy of the Pisos, became impe- 
rii^ property, and was assigned for Christiui uses 
by the Emperor CoastantiQC. It was onginally 
dedicated to the Saviour ; but Lucioa TL, who 
rebuilt it in the middle of the 12th c, dedicated it 
to St John the Baptist. The solemn entrance of 
the pope ioto office is inangutated by his taking 
poBBesBion of this church i and over its portico is 
the balcony from wliich the pope, while still sove- 
reign of Home, was used, on certain feativala, to 
bless the entire world. The original church is s^d 
to have been the Basihca which was presented to 
Sylvester by Constantine, but it has bean several 
times rebuilt, its final ""- 
]iontiSc»ta of Clement 
of live councils, regarded as eoumenical by the 
Bonutn Church, See Coimcii.. The Lateran 
Palace waa the babitoal residence of the popes 
until after the t«tutn from Avignon, when they 
removed to the Vatican. It was afterwards 
occupied by officials of the chapter, and is now 
mider the control of the Italian government. The 
present pope, Pius IX., ' had converted a portion 
of it into a museum of Christian archiealo^. In 
the piazza of St John Lateran stands tbe celebrated 
relic called tbe ' Scala Santa,' or ' Holy Staircase,' 
which is reputed to be the stairs of Pilate's house 
at Jerusalem, made holy by the feet of oar Ijord aa 
he passed to judgment. 

LA'TBRITE, a mineral substance, tbe product 
of tbe diaintegtatioQ and partial decomposition of 
gneiss. It forms a bright red earth ; which, where 
it abounds, as in some parts of Ceylon, being blown 
about as a fine duat, imparts its hue to every 
neglected article, and to the dresses of tbe inhabit- 
ants. The redness of the streets and roads attracts 
the notice oC every stranger at Galle and Colombo. 
L, however, is not always red Its redness u 
supposed to be owing to the presence of iron in 
considerable quantity. When felspar preponder- 
ates in the gneiss, it is whitish ; when hornblende 
preponderates, it is yellow. 

LAT^S [Laia Jfiloikia), a fish of the perch 
family, one of the most delicate and best-fiavoured 
fishea of the Nile. It grows to a laige size, some- 
times 3 feet long. It is mentioned by several ancient 
authors. In form it resembles a perch, and tbe 
genus is rery nearly allied. — Another species of this 
genus is tho Tacti {Lata nobilie), called Coot-u}) by 
the EngUsll in Calcutta, one of the most este^cd 
lishcs of tile Ganges, which it ascends aa fitr as tha 
tide doea. 



vartously. They are not alwi^ of nnifoim thick- 
ness, but preaent many distoitions, often almost aa 
if articulated. Peonliar CDirenta ai« obaerred in tim 
Lalex, which were first p(>inted out by SohuHi, who 
has bestowed great atteotion on tin* wahject, and oa 
the branchea of physiology connected with it. The 
L differs verr much in dtfFetent plants, io colour 
and other qualitiei, but in all it is full of gnuiilos. 
LATHAST, EoSKRT Qobdon, an eminent Englinh 

6hilologist and ethnologist, waa bom in 1812, at 
iillingborough, Linoolnahire. He was educated at 
Cambridge, and took the degree of U.D., but having 
made a tour in Denmark and Norway, he was led 
to direct his attention particularly to the Scandi- 
navian languages. For several years he was pro- 
fessor of l£e English Language and Literature in 
University College, London. As a p hysician, he 
has held important appointments. Hu well-known 
work, KngliA Language, was published in 1841, and 
haa gone through numeromt editions. The yalural 
Hittory of the Varielia of Mankind (Land. 1850) 
is a valuable contribntioa to ethnology. Among 
his other works may ba mentioned his edition c3 
Tacitus's OennanirL, with philolagical and historical 
notes {ISX) ; Elhnolor/y of tiieBriluh Colonia ; Man 
and kii Miyratione (Loni 1851) ; DeicriptiBe Ettino- 
loffu (2 vols. Lond. 1859) ; »nd The NalumaiUiea 
of Europe (Lond. 1S63). L. published, in ISTO, the 
thirty-suth and last number of a new edition of 
Johnson's DiOJonary. Ho is an F.E.3. 
LATH& See TuBNlHO. 

LATHS AND LATHWOOD. Laths ore smaU 
strips of wood of various lengths, rarely more than 
4 feet ; they are mode either by splitting lathwoud, 
which is tbe Norway spruce fir [Pvau oOKi], or else 
they are sawn from Caoada deoL The sawn latha 
are a modem introduction, due to the development 
of steam saw-mills in Canada, which thua use up 
the small portiona of the lumber. Laths are used 
for nailing \o tbe uprights of partition-walls, and 
to the rafters of ceilings in our ouildings ; they are 
placed slightiy apart to receive tbe pluter, which, 
by being pressed into the intervals between the 
laths, is retained, and when dry, is held SDCurcly 
on the wall Slaters' lotlis are longer stripe of 
wood, nailed on to the fiamewurk of tho roof, for 
the purpose of sustaJning the slates, which ore 
fastened to the laths by naUs. 

LATHY'RUS, a genus of plants of the natural 
order Legamiiuna, sub-order PapUiauafOeia. The 
leaves are fumiahed wiUi tendrils, and are pinnate, 
but often only with one pair of leaflets. Tho 
species are numerous, Knnn»l uid pereDoial herba- 
ceons plants, natives of temperate countries in the 
northern bemis^^ere. Few of them are Ameriosn. 
A number are natives of Britain. Some have very 
beautiful flowers of considerable size, on aocount 
of which they find a place in flower-gardens, aa 
L. latifoimi and L. ti/lvettrv, the latter a native 
of England, and the former of the south of Europe, 
both perennials, and known I^ the name of Evin- 
LAsriNa Pka. The SwxKT Pea {L. odorabu), a 
native of the East, is one of the best known 
oraaments of our flower-garden^ a hardy an min i, 
esteemed not only on account of the be^ty of its 
flowers, but of their delightful fiagianoe. Many 
varieties are in cultivation, differing in colour, &c. 
The most common Britdah species is the Meadow 
Vktchliso (i. pratatna), with bright yellow flowers. 
L. tativut, the Chickuho Vetco, or Lentil or 
Spaik, a native of the south of Europe, with flowers 
generally of a brisht blue colour and winood pods, is 
cultivated in India and in Qeimany, Fianoe, and 
other countries for its seeds, the flour of which, how- 
ever, is mixed witii nther flour latlisi than used 



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LATTMEE— LATIN LAITGUAQE AKD UTBaATDRB. 



■lone, on ■coonnt of narcotio qualitiea wUcli it 
poMOMM, and vbich caowd ita cultiTatioa for food 
to be interdicted ia WBrtemberg in 1671. An 
inconble nnlfsia of the limba has Bom«time« bean 
produced by it, both in hnnmn beingg and lower 
■"i"— <« The seeds of L. deera, althoi^h sometilDea 
I W the coontiy people of France, ai 
e ^ugeroiuL TAoaa of L. ApAaea, a 




Errriutiiig Fea [£. luberaiai) : 
a*«|ilB( root, irilti lalwn ; 4, poJ, villi Mlii, 

lea found on graTsIly aoila in England, pos- 
I aeaa nmilar qnalitieB when ripe, but in an unripe 
I state aie eaten with the podi which contain them, 
I and are qnite wholesome. L, iubtroiut, a natira of 
I Germany and other parts of Enrope, bat not of 

Britain, is enltirated on the contanent for its amy- 
i laceons tnbera. The tabers are lometiDiee called 

JhOch Mice; in Oeimanj, they are known as 
I BariKmuU. The herbage of the plant ii relished l^ 

I IiATIHBB, Hugh, one of &e most distinguished 
«f the Ki^i«h reformer, was born at Thnrcaston, 
in Inowtsrshir^ in the ^ear 1490 or 1491. He 

I WM edncatad at Cambridge, and after a brief 
period of Hnlona derotion to tiie papoc; (* I wad as 
obstinate a papiBt,'he says, 'as any in England'], 
be became attained to Uie new learmng and 
difinity which had began to establish themtelvea 
tliere. He very soon became a zealons preacher of 
tk nfonned doctrinea. The consequence of this 
new-born seal was, that many of the adherents of 
tba eld faith were itrongly eidted a^inst him, and 
ha was emiMoiled in manj controvemoK. 

Tho dispote ibont Henry VUL's matriage with 
Catharine of Aragon bronffht L. more into notice. 
He waa one of the diTmes appointed by the 
anirein^ of Cambridge to ezanune aa to its law- 
fdlneM, and he dedared on the king's side. This 
aecnred Henry'i faTonr, and he was appointed one 
of his chaplains, and reoetred a living m Wiltshire. 
In I63G, ha was appointed Bishop of Worcester ; 
and at tiie <^)ening of ocmTocatdfui on the 9th of 
Jnna 1038, ha preached two very powerfol and 
imprasmTe sermrati, nr^ng the necessrty of reform. 
Aiitr a while, the work of reform rather retn>- 
pnded than advanced, and L. found himself with 
his bold opinioD* in little faTonr at court. He 
tstired to hia diooete, and laboured there in a 
id «1 'teMJung, praa«liiii(t exhorting. 



writing convctiog, and reforming, either as hia 
ability would serve, or the time would bear.' This 
his true function. He was an eminently 



a\j 



practical reformer. During the close of Her 
reign, and when the reactionary party, headed by 
Qardiner and Bonner, were in tlie ascendant, L, 
lived in great privacy. He was looked upon vrith 
jealousy, and closely watched, and finally, on conung 
up to London for medical advice, ha waa brought 
before the Privy Council, and cast into the Tower, 

On the accession of Edward VX, he again appeared 
m public He declined, however, to resume his 
episcopal fonctiona, although his old bishopric was 
offered to him at the instance of the Hotise of 
Comnions. He devoted himself topreaching and 
practical woib <A benevolence. The pulrai was 
hia great power, and by hia stirring and homely 
sermons, he did much to rouse a spirit of religious 
eamectnen thronshont the count^. At lenstb, 
with the lamented death of Edward, he and other 



jail there, where he lay for more thui 
a j«u-, iccuje, sickly, and worn out with \iiM hard- 
ships. Death wouU. not have long spared the old 
man, but his enemies would not wait for the oatoral 
temiinatian of bis life. In September IC66, ho wu 
sumtnooed before certain commissioners, appointed 
to ait in judgment npon him and Ridley ; and after 
an ignoQumous trial, he was condemned to ba 



of October IfiSS, exclaiming to his companioi 



of good comfort. Master Ridley, and ploy the m 
we shall this d^ light such a candle, by Qod'e gr 
in England, as I trust shall never bci pnt oi " ' 



Ii-'s character presents a combination of many 
noble and disinterested qualities. He was brave, 
honest, devoted, and energetic, homely and popular, 
yet free from ^ violence ; a martyr and hero, yet 
a plain, simple-hearted, and unpretending man. 
Humour and cheerfulness, manly sense and ditect 
evangelical fervour, distinguish his sermons and his 
life, and moke them alike mterestina and admirable. 

U's sermons were reprinted at London, 2 vols., 
1825. The latest edition is by Rev. O. Corrie, 4 vols., 
1M5.— See TuUoch's Ltadert of lAe S^ormalion 
(1859); and Z^JnKT, a biography, by Demaus (1S69}. 

LATIN CROSS, a cross with the lower limb 
ooniiderably longer than the other three; 



LATIN EMPIRE, the nsme given to that nn^ 
tion of the Byzantine empire which waa aeiied in 
1201 by the Crusaders, who made Constantinople 
thi ■' ...... 



See Btzantikk Eupisb. 
LATIN LANGTTAGE ash LITERATURE. 

— Lanffuege.—Tbe I^tin language is a member of 
the great family commonly called Indo-Oennanio, 
Indo-Eoropean, or Aryan. It is therefore closely 
allied to the Qreek, Persian, Gtermon, Celtic, Tlng;H«li, 
and many other tongues and dialects of Europe, and 
to all these its kindred is more or less clearly shewn 
by identity of stems and stmilari^ of stenctura; 
It waa primarily developed among the people wlu> 
inhabited that port of Western Italy which liea 
between the rivers Tiber and Lirit ; and tiionj^ the 
city of Some stamped her name on the imitical 
Institntions of the empire, yet the standanf tongue 



language, fict the Roman. As the Roman conquests 
extended, Latin spread with equal atrides over the 
oonqnoed countnea, and was generally used by the 
educated classes in the greater part of Italy, in 
Prance, Spain, Portugal, Germany, and other Roman 



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tATDH— LATTPODB AWD LOKOITDDEL 



pTOTinoM. But even In lUlf iiaelf, and ia lAttnm, 
there Kem to have been two fonna of the lAnEnoge, 
differinx very considenbl^ from each Quier^a 
poltah^ dialect and a mitio one — a language of 
booka and of the higher clanea, and a language of 
eonreisation and ererydajr life among tbe Tiuzr~ 
It via in the laat jeam of the Republic and the ni 
of tho Empire that the poliihed language reached its 
bigheet point of perfecbon in the writmni of Cicero, 
Horace, TirgU, and others. But by the inflnx of 
■trangers, by the gradual decline of Soman feelinaa, 
and Soman spirit, and by the intermixtnre of Ue 
claamc forma vith tbe dialects □{ ths proTince^ it 
became coimpted, the process of deterioration goma 
on with double rapidity alter the diatnembennent ol 
the Roman Empire in the 6th century. Thns wem 
lorroed the modern Prench, Spaniah, Italian, and 
Fortngnese. Tbe EngHah language alto owea much 
to Latin, both directly by denvBtiOD from the 
clatncal fomu, and at second-hand through the 
Norman- French. latin continned to be (ia diplo- 
matic Ungasge of Enrope till a comparatiTcly 

rocent period. It is stiU the medium ot co: 

catiou among the learned of the world, and 
M it has always been, the official language of the 
Boman Catholic Church.^ — For a diacuasion as ^~ 
the origin and aourcei at the Latin language, 
Donaldaoo'a Varroniamu, 

The grammar of the Latin language hai been 
studied and illuatrated by many celebrated achalaia 
from Varro (116— 28 B,c.) down to Zumpt, Qrote- 
lend, Euhner, and Madrig, throng a long list 
ot namea, auch oa Donatua, Priacian, Laorentiua 
Talla, MauutinB, Melancbthon, Scaliger, Perizonina, 
Schneider, Linacre, Ruddimon, Alvarez, and many 
more. In ieiicoparfiT, Partitti, Stephanua, Faber, 
Oesoei, Porcellim, Sdneller, Frennd, Oeorgea, aod 
othen of lew note, bare done valnable nrrice. 

LUavlure.—'Tbo Roman Republic had well-nigh 
mu ita ooutee ere it poauMed a writer or a litera- 
tore worthy ot the name. A kind of mde poetry 
waa cultiTated from the earlieet times, and waa 
employed in such oompoaitiona ai tbe Hymn of the 
ITratre* Arvalea (dug up at Rome in 177S, and in the 
fiiat burst of enthuaisam excited by ita diBC<iTer7, 
isugned to tbe age of Romulua), in the lacred aongt 
to partionlar deitiea, and in triumphal poems and 
ballada, in tbe Fesceunine Carola, and otlier mde 
attempts to amuse or dupe an illiterate and Tolj 



MFolaOSL 

Kotnana d 



And < 



didb 



. later yean, t 



tor Oreak . 

ilionght. It waaoonrndaredbigUymeiitorioaa 
tate or tnnalate a Greek writer) while, on the oUier 
Ittjid, it waa deemed diahononrable to follow a Latin 
author. Such was ths feeling aren in the daya of 
Horace and Viigil, both of whnn are lugely indebted 
to their Greek modela. 'Hie flnt period of Roman 
Ijteratare mav b« said to extend Bom 240 a o. to 
the death of SuUa (78 b. a] > the seoond, or Golden 
Age, from the death of Snlla to tbe death of the 
Emperor Augoitns (11 i. n.) ; tbe third, or Silver 
Aee, from the death of Angnatnt to ths death of 
AdriaD(138^1>.); and the fourth frran ths death of 
Adrian to the overthrow of the Weatent ESmpire in 
4T6 A.S. In the first period, tbe qiost diatingnlabed 
ikamea ore those of Liviua Andronicu*, a writer of 
dramas adapted from the Greek, whose Srit p1^ 
waa brought out in 240 b. a j Fnnim^ whose chief 
w^k wa* an epio poem on th« History <d Rome, and 
who alao wrote dramaa and aatiree; with Nnviiu. 
Flantna, and Terence the comediuu The second 
period IS adorned hj Tarro, who wrote on agri- 
cultnre, grammoi^ antiqnitica^ Ac. ; by Lnoretin^ a 
writw of the didaotio epic ; by Tirgil, who, to hia 
peat ^ie, Uie JBMid, added pastoral and agriool- 



L satire ; by Catullna, 

1 lyric ; by Tibnllns and Propertiua^ in el^y ; by 
livy, GiGBar, Salluat, and Nepos, in history and 
biography ; br Cicero, in philosophy, rhetoric, and 
oratory; and bjr Orid, m elegiac and didactio 
poetry. The thinl period boaeta of Tadtos, the 
hiatorian and biographsF ; of the elder Fliny, tbe 
naturalist ; of Peiaiua and Juvenal, tiie aatmsts : 
of Martial, the epigiammatiit ; of Columdla and 
Lucan, tbe didaotio and epic poets ; of Statins, Silius 
ItaUcos, ' ■' "•■ 

of lesser , , 

of name ; but among those who are best known may 

be mentioned the Emperor M. Aureliua, ' 

Maroellinua, Qellius, Justin, Appnleioa, ' 



The spread of Christianity gave rise to the eccle- 
siastical poetry of the middle asea, which deputed 
from the classio models, and Kmck out for itadf 
a new type. It disregarded the reatridiaaa of 
qoantity and metre, and aubetituted aoceot and 
myms as the regulating principles of its focio. The 
most fsmoua name iu ths eailier period is that of 
FrudmtinB— to whom we may add Sedolius, St 
Hilary, St Ambrose, and St Or^^oiy the Great; 
and in the later period, Fortunatus ; the Emperor 
Charlemagne, auUior of Veni Craaior ; Bede (the 
Venerable}; Bernard do Moriey; Adam of St Vic- 
tor ; Thomas of Ceiano, author of the famoui IHa 
Irrt; James de Benedictis, author of the equally 
famous Slabai Mater; and St Thomas Aqninas. — 
See Bernhardy'B Aoman Lileralurt, and Trench's 
Sacred Laitn Pottry. 



times had established thcmsclvea on the lower part 
of the Tiber and the Aaio, between the sea and the 

l& pradaioft 
Dthe south, 

., ItheSabiiMi 

on the north ) but after the subjqgstim id theaa 

tiibea by the Romaoa, the nuns of Latiom was 

given to the whole of the eonqnered diatricte. Tlu 

originsl and striet^ ethnological Latinm is called by 

™'iy, LaiiuM Antimium, and ths newer and added 

luaa, Laiann Adjtelum. The legend whidi foms 

tabjeot of the jSntid, the great national epio of 

tbe Bmums, and which descrtMi the intoodootioa 

a third or TVofon element in the puaona ol 

leas and his oompan' — 



prinoipal toinis ot the L^ns wen 
Laurentum, Lavinium, Alba LiMiga (q.v.), from 
which, according to tint leeaod, want f<nth " 



Bench ; now obsolete. 

LATITUDB ATO IiOTirGrnn)E,m Geography, 
denote the angular distaoeee of a place on the eartit 
from the equator and first meridian respectively; 
the angular distance in lonsitnde bting found by 
supposing a plane to pass ttirouf^ the place, tiu 
earUi's centre, and the poles, and measniing tbe 
angle made 1^ this plane with the plane of ths fint 
meridian; we angular distance in Utatude being 
found in the same manner, bat subsHtuting the two 
•itremitiea of an equatorial diameter tor fto polea ; 
or, more simplj', latitude is the angls mode by two 
linea drawn from the eariJi's centre— the one to tb* 
plaee, the other to the equator at tiie point when 
ft ii OHMSed by the meridian of the jdace. Latitude 



dbyGoogle 



IiAStTFDDB AMD LOHOirUDlB— UuTOtTE TfAV VEBffSZ. 



H KAeatA from Qi« eqnator to Qie paleo, ■ ^ 
on tba eq^&tor hkTing Ut 0*, uid the poles 90* 
V. ud 90* S. i«tpeotiTdy. Longitnde ia reckoned 
klco^ Uw eqoAtoT bvna tiie flnt maridiaii ; but ai 
nature lua not, ■« in tile cue of latitade, (applied 
m vith a fixed stutiiig-poinl^ eaoh ntlloo haa 
dce^ ita own fiiat mendiaa ) thiu, in Great 
Biitam and bsr a^aniai, in HoUaivd, and other mari- 
t^ it^M^ longjtoda ia leckoned from the meri- 

*■"— — »^'->- thnm^ Qieanwioh; in IVanoe, 

. Paiii, A/O,; and in wanj old 
a (one of the Canary lalea), or 
Lilta. It ia reckoned eaat and 
veat from 0* to ISO*, thongb aatrooomen iMkon 
bom 0* W.to 360* W., and new nee eaat longi- 
tnde. ItwiQeMilybeaeeatbatifthBlatitQde and 
loontnda of » plaoe be even, iti exact poaitaon 
eaaM detennined, loi the Istitade flzea ita pomtJon 
to a <ir(i» paanng round the earth at a aniform 
fixed diataocv from the equate* (called a parallel 
of latitade), and the lon^tode ahsin what point of 
ttiia cirele ia to be inteneoted by the mendian <rf 
thaplace, the place being at tiie intenaotion. 

Xtie determmaticm boui of latitade and longjtade 
depend* apon aatromomioal obeerration. The ptin- 
i^ OD wbicli -QiB mme naoal method* of flndiiig 



fbUoiring 
•arUk'a eqaator, 
horiaon, ami the itmrtifi.n point of the eqnator ii 
in the zenith. If now he tmrel nivthwarda over 
one dagree of the mnidiui, the north wiealaal pole 
will maar one degree abore the boriaoa, while 
the ■'fT^'-^ point of Uie eqnator wiU deduw one 
digiea aonUiwBida; and ao mi, nntil, whan he 
ttachad the tarnafatial pole, the pole <d u>e hea-ma 
woald be in the awitii, and Ota eqaator in the 
koritoB. The aame thing ia true with regaid to 
'^ m It Urn* ameta» that to 
td a plaoe we naT* (»l7 to 

<r<whiaku 



find the altitada of the pole, or the a 

point of the e^wtor , 

I oomftoiMat tf ita altitode^.^ 13ie 



' itf Uw nvidian point d 



of tlie poU ii fonnd muat diieetlr by 
f ttw gnatert and leaat altitada* U tba 
I rou), or of any 



•Dd (odnaotioa being made for rabaotion) taUng 

halt the anitt. Similaily, halt the anm oi the 

gnateat and lewt ?"'»»■"■ aUitadaa of the ann. 

at the two aoli t icea, oocrected for refraotian and 

parallai, ^«i tilie attitude of the mendian poiat 

of the equator. The method moat uanal with 

Barigatota aDd faaTsllen is to obaerre tba meridian 

attitDde of s ctar whoae deolinatian or diatanoe 

tnm Uw equator ia known; <v of the aun, whoae 

dadination at Uw time may be found hta^ the 

SaKHad Abnanae; the ann or difieranoe (aooori- 

in^ to the direohoii of tiie deolina&m) ot the 

ahitade i^"^ dedination KiTca tlie meridiui altitude 

; of fte eqnattO', whii^ la the oo-latitndch Other 

' BHihoda of ftidiiu the latitude nqoiie mora or 

I W JriguMomabioal calculation. 

' n* detanuination of the lotudtnda ia br no 

I meaaa ao readily aocximpliahed. varioua methoda 

! hara at diffn«nt timea been pnnNwad, moat of 

' which are odIt fitted for Obae^atoriea. Among 

, titan imv hi; numnd thoM which depend npon the 

n of the looal time of the occuneaoe d 

_ tid. idienamena, anch aa the eaUpaet of 

tha Bon, moon, or Ji^Hw** aataUitei, ooeal&taana 

! (f bed (latB by tiie moon, flia time ooovpied 

'atranHt orertlia m(Eidian,Ao.j anaeom 



i,Ao.j anAMomaring 

the calonlated time 

«( 0M ooraurence, at aome atatioD whoee lonidtode 
ii known (e. g, Oreenwich), the diffecenoe '~'~ 
«kat ndODed to deg ' — '— — ' — 



the rate of S60* to 34 honia, giraa the difihreno* of 
lonsitude. The two methoda in nae amons traTellen 
ana on board ship are remarkable for Qieiroombina- 
tion of aimplicity with acooracy. The fint oonaiita 
merely in determining at what hour on the chron- 
ometer (whiob ia iet to the time at Qreonwioh, or 
■ome plaoe of known longitude) the aan oroaaea tiie 
meridian. It ia evident that aa the ion completea 
a revolntion, or 960°, b 2i boon, be will more 
OTor IC* in 1 hoar, or 1* in 4 minntea Now, if 
the watch be aet to Oraeowich time— via., jtdnt 
to 12 o'clock wben the ann ia on the meridian of 
Oreenwioh, and if at aome other plaoe, when the 
■on ia on the meridian Uiara, the watoh poioti to 
8 boon S2 minutea, the difierenoe of longitude ia 
SS*, and the longitude will be W., aa tlie ann haa 
arrived over t^e place later than at Gtreenwich; 

at 9 honra 40 nunatea A.ii, the longitude ii S^ K 
(by the ohroiiometeT). The aoomacyof thia method 
dependa eridaatly upon the nnneotuaaa of time- 
keepen (aee WATOHn). The crthsr method— tiial 
' " ' — may bo briefly explained 

noe (rf the mocai from oerti 

ated with great ac 
three yean in adTanoe) for every tj 
Oreenwich time, and publiahed in 1 
Atnumai^ Uia moon'a diataDoa from aom 
having bean ofaaerved, and oarraoted for : 
and pBialla^ and the local time having alao been 
noted, the diffBraDoe between thia locu time and 
Aai HtM te tkt IM» mUcA corraponda to Oie «u»4 
di ilimei givea the l(au[itadg, vrhioh may be oon- 
VNted into dagr o t a at Setoie. It may alao be men- 
tioned, that tlw kai^tade ot all plaoea oouiacted by 
telegc^i with the nduninit'Point eau be eaaily 
fonod by tranamitttog from Uw latter a nsaul to 
an obaerver in thaplaae, at a oertain SxA time 
(ndbtned in Kdac time at tit* raokoning-point), and 
by the obaerver inalantly and aoonntely notins the 
local time at which the aignal arrived; th* aUGw- 
eoce of the two tinea, rednoed in tiie way ahawn 
above, will give the longitude tha time ooou^ed in 
the tranamimion of the lisnal being ao nnaU ai to 
be ne^eoted. When ap^ied to a heavenly body, 
tlie terma latitade and lon^tude have the lame 
relationi to the eoliptia and ita polea, and to tlia 
point on the ecliptic oalled the Equinox [q. v.], that 
terreatrial lalitnde and longitude have to the 
equator and a Scat meridian. The poaitiona of a 
heavenly body reUtivsly to the eqaator ace called 
ita Declination (q. v.) and Right Asoenaion (q. v.). 

I^TOTJE D'AUVBRGNE, THftoPHiLB Malo 
OoBBXF DB, bom 28d Novembw 1743, at Caritaix 
in Kniattra, EVaooe, of an illegitimate bnnch of 
the familf ot the Dokea of Bouillon. Ha entered 
the army In 1767 ; and In 1781 aarved under Uie 
Duke do CMllon at Fi^ Malum. On the out- 
break o( Uie Revidntioii, he attached himadf to 
the national cauaa. The army of the Alpa, which 
optrated aflinBt the Sardiniana in 1792, contained 
no bnvn ^oer than Latoor. Ha waa tiie firat to 
enter Chambeiy, award in hand, at the head of hit 
company. Bat he would not hear of advanoamant 
in nulitaiy rank; and in the fdlowingyear, Uiou^ 
plaoed at the heikd ot a oolnmn of SwO gmnadisia 
In U)e aimy ot tiie Pyreneea, he oontinned to wiar 
4ia aniform of a oaptain. Hia coipa obtained tha 
a of the 'infemal ooluimi,' on acooimt of the 



180(t aa be AiU refoaed all promoticm, Bon^arta 
beatowed oa him the tiUa of 'Hie Fint Oranadier 
ot Franoa.' Ha waa killed, on 27th June of thai 
:, at Obtthaaaen, new N enbnrg in Bavaria Ilia 
rtMwk an.^ roignaiilniiij of L wva mndanolj 



OBitnm I 



abvGoOg 



LA TEAPPB-LAUD. 



Mid EVench biogcmhiw an MI of iDatances of 
hii daruig valour, his Spartan aimpltcit; of life, 
and hia cmvalroua affeddou for hla fiienda. When 
he died, the whole French army mourned foi 
tliree dayl ; eTe^ loldier set aside a daj'a 

to purahue a sUver um to hold hii heiut , 

labre wat placed in the church of the Invalidea ; 
ani^ each momina, till the close of the Empire, at 
the mOBter-roll of his reffiioeDt, hia name continued 
to be called, and the oldest sergeant answered U 
the call : ' Jiort au eJiamp iTKonnair ' (Dead on thi 
field of honour). L. was not only a brave warrior 
but alao a man of a atudioiu diapoaitioD, and thi 
author of two works, Jfouvdla SaJurcha air k 
Langvia VOrigme tt la AntiquiUt da BrHont 
(Bayonne, 17^), anil Orxgina Oauloiiea {Hamb. 
1801), which ia, however, only a third edition of 
the former. 

LA TRAPPE, a narrow valley in Normandy, 
the department of Ome, closely ahut in by wood* 
and rooki, and very difficult of acoeaa. It ii notable 
ai the place in which the Trappista (q. v.) originated. 

LATKINBS, conveniences for soldiers in camp* 
and barracka. Much attention has of late been 
devoted t« their constmotiou, a large percentage 
of the army sickneas having been tnced to their 
defeotive and impure condition. 

LA'TTEN, a term now seldom nsed. 
applied to sheet-brass, and previona to Uie t«forms 
in the Costonu toriO', the name was regularly recog- 
nised. There are three varietiM of Utten known^ 
Moot, Aavai, and wlL The first is rolled braae 
about the thickness of ordinary fwrteboard, and 
nnpoliahed; the second as thin as wn ting-paper; and 
the third is either of the oCher kinds polish^ on 
both sides. The term latten is of some aTchiea- 
logical interest, as it is not known what is meant 
^ the 'mi nes of latten' mentioned in the time of 
Henry VllL, and frequent mention ia made of this 
metal in various public records, without eijjiuia- 

LA'TTICE-BBIDOE, so called ^m haviuK the 
aides oonstructed with cross-framing resembling 
lattice- work (Fr. and Oer. latle, a lath). See Fbamb- 
BsmoB. Many very large bridges of this kind 
have been erected wiHi timber-fruaing in America. 
That over the Susquehanna at Columbia is abc ' 
one mile and a quarter long, and has twenty-ni 
snans, each 300 feet wide. The principle on which 
lattice-bridges are constnicted resembles that 
' ' n^ewof roofs (A,B,C, fig. 1), with 



manylal 
of tlie ti 



a king.post or hanger in centre. Each span ..._ 
aiata of a series of these rafters, so arranged that 
the head of one rafter (B) in immediately over the 
feet of the two adjoining rafters. Other lattlce- 
hridgea are constructed with diagonal braces, nnited 
with strong pina, and without suapeiision-rods. The 
former method is the stronger, aa in the latter 
the strain comes chiefly on the pina uniting the 
diag onal ooss-braoes. Lattioe-bri^ea are also con- 
structed in iron, and have been much used for 
railway {lurposes. The first uplication of the 
lattice principle to iron was made by Mr George 
Smart, who Festered, in 1824, his ' patent iron 
bridge.' Many modifications of the same principle 
have been adopted'-the horizontal tioi at top and 
bottom being always of wrought iron, and the dia- 



gonals either simple wronght-iron bai 
malleable iron tubes, or of cast iron. ' 
iron tubular bow-bridge, now in very cc 



Kg. 2. 

railway construction, is a combination of the tnbnlar 
and the lattice principle. See Tubular Bbidob. 
Fig. 2 shews a portion of the lattioe bridge over the 
Ouse at Lendal Ferry, York, as designed by Mr 
Dredge, C.K The bridge has a clear span of ITS 
feet 6 inches. 

LATTICE LEAP, LACE LEAF, WATER 
YAM, or OUVIRAKDRANO {OuTorandm fata- 
troiif), a plant referred by gome botanists to the 
natural order Jyauagmet, and by some to Ntdad- 
acea. It is a native of Madagascar, and grows in 
running streams. It has a root-stock about tho 
thickness of a man's thumb, six to nine inches long, 
often branching, internally white, with a li^t- 
brown skin, farmaoeous, and used for food. The 
crown of the root is under water, and the leaves 
float just under the anrfaoe; Uie flower-stalks 
rise above ib The flowers are in forked spikea. 
The leaves are very carious ; the blade resembling 
lattice-work or open needle-work of a moot n^ular 
pattern ; the longitudinal ribs being crossed at right 
angles by fine tendrils, and the intervening apace* 
bemg opea. The blade is of an elongated oval form, 
abruptly acuminated ; the length of the stalk varies 
according to the depth of the water. The whole 
appeuance of the plant is very 
beautiful It grows wtU in hothouse K 
aquaria in Britain. V, 

LATTICED, or TREILLfi, in N 
Heraldry, is a term applied to a V 
shield covered witli a decoration \ 
resembling Fretty (q.v.), but di^r- 
ing in Uus respect, that the pieces 
do not cross over and under each 
other ; those directed from dmter Latticed. 
chief to sinister base are placed 
uppermost and doiU, that is, have nails inserted at 
the joints. 

LAU'BAN, a town o( Prussia, in the province of 
Silesia, is situated iu a charmins valley on the 
Queis, 40 miles west-south- westofLiagnitE. Pop. 
(1871) 90S2, who are eng^ad chiefly in woollen, 
linen, and cotton weaving, bleaching; printing dye- 
ing, and bell-f aunding. 

LAUD, WnALm, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

u the son of a clothier in f" ' ' 



became a Fellow in 1693, and took bis degree of 
M.A. in 199& Ordained a priest in 1601, ho eooa 



dbyGoogle 



LATTDANUM— LAHENBURO. 



Dud* Ittmidf ooDifHcnons at tho nniTemly hj hit 



definite ecoleaiaaticism, and 
_ luliQlfiihimB of Hii devotion to the 

choich. Boon won him both friends knd pstrona. 
In 16OT, he wu preferred to the Ticange of Stan- 
fmd in Northamptonihire, and in Itm obtained 
tbe advomon of Kortb Kilvorth in'LeiecateiahiTe. 
In both of tbsae liringa he shewed hinuelf in 
exemidar; clergjrmaii acHirdinz to the High-chorch 
patters — zealoiui in repairing tne paivoaage-hoiueg, 
and liberal in maintamins the poor. In 1600, he 
waa q^inted Hector oE Weat Tilborf, in Vksa; 
in 1611— in ^ts of itrong oppoeition — President 
of St John'a Coll»e; in 1614,Trebendar7 of Lin- 
coln ; and in 1610, Archdeacon of Huntingdon. 
King James now bagan to recognise wluit swt of 
» man L. was, and to see that he might rely on 
ont nU notions 



nuuntain the abeolate aobhority of the . 

and L. tbe aha^nte aathoritf of epiacopacv. In 
1617, I* acoompaoied his majesty to Sootiano, with 
the 'new of intiodiiciDg q>iso<^>ac7 into tho ohnrch- 
BOvarmnent of that country; but tike attempt 
foiled. In IKl, ha was oonMCcikted Bishop of St 
DaTidi. Aftsr tho aooessioa of ChsrlM L, he wm 
tnmalated from the see of St David* to tliat of 
Bath and Wells, became hi^ in favonr at conrt, 
waa more than ever hated by the Puritans, and wm 
deaaanced in parliamoit. In 1628, he was made 
Bishop of London. After iiie assassination of 
Bnckm^kam (q. v.), L. became virtnally the chief 

nttoly opposed to the spirit of the times and to the 
the gresit body of Puritans ' " ' ' 



opmions 
t&one 



one mi^t uve foreseen his niin to be inerit- 
in nite of the royal favour. In 1630, he wm 
n chancdlor of the nnivenity of Oxford, the 



in I mm 111111], Pmitanisni. The m 



la ai£ipted were 



tbe eta*, slitting the nose, branding the 
fines, iaprisonments, are not at any time satiamc- 
toiy mewad* of defoidmg a rdigioos systoD, but in 
itae then temper ot the En^ish nation thev were in 
ibe last de^ee weak ana foolish. In tue High- 
commission and Star-dumber Courts, Uie influfnoe 
«( Zv was sopreime; bnt the penal^ he paid for this 
t>.Wmwm. was, the hatred ot the Bnglish parliameat 
■M «{ tiM people ^enerilly. In 1633, he was raised 
to ttks archbishopric of Cantsrbnry, and in the same 
nar made chaooelloi of the univeni^ of Dublin, 
ba famons ordinanee regardii^ Sunday sports, 
■wiiA waa poUMhed abont this fame by r^al oom- 
nMod, waa believed to be drawn tqt br L., and 
mat^ incmaaed the dialike felt towHda nim by th( 
Fnritaiw. Wm minute alterationa in puUic wotshi]- 
his legnlatiaaB about the vroper — "^— ' 
aUar and the feneiiw of it with 



rotahip, 
of the 



feneiiw I 
forei^ Dntch and Walloon consregations to use 
tlw ii^ gii'ii Liturgy, and all WnglTiAiiim to attend 
the panih churches where they resided, ditplay a 
pet^ intellect and an intolerant spirit ; ■• other of 
Lis actiMia indicate that there loMed in fats amall 
obstinate nature no inoonsiderable amount of cruelty 
Bid maUce. Stitl, it must be coofetaed that in 
tbe loD^^rtm, L.'* ritnalitm haa ttiiunphed. The 
Chnrch'Ot Ensland was graduallj^ penetrated with 
hi* ^irit, andthe hi^. value which she has come 
to pot on religious ceMmonies is pertlv owing to 
the pertanacioiH efCivt* of Hm irchbianopk This 



s death, and passed 

~ ' 's the Upper 



n violation 



influence, in short, has hindered her from 

a* doctrinal and CalvittidK as her articles wouM. 
loeically necessitate. During 1635—1637, anothsr 
eflort was made by him to establish episoopa<7 
in Scotland; |but the Sr*t attempt to read the 
liturgy in St Giles's Church, Edinbiugh, excited a 
datu^erons tumult. Proceedinn were finally taken 
against him, and on the 1st c4 March 1640— 1G4I, 
he was, by order of Uie Honse of Commons, con- 
veyed to the Tower. After being stripped of his 
honours, and exposed to many ind^oitiea and much 
injustice, he waa finally brought to trial before the 
House of Lards, November 13, 1643, on a chuge of 
treason and other Crimea. The Lord*, however, 
did not tind him guilty; bnt the Commons had 
previously resolved on hjs d " 
ordinanoa for his execntioD. 
Houae gave its anent ; and in spite of L.' 
a royal pardon, he waa — nndonbtedlj 
express statute, and b^ the exercise of aprenwative 
of tiarliament as arbitrary aa any king hadevar 
exhibited- beheaded, 10th Jannaiy 1644— 164JL L. 
had a Kenuine r^ard for Ifsming at least'ecol^ 
■iastieaT learning — and enriched the university ot 
Oxford, in the couise of his life, with 1300 MSS. 
in different Eoropean and Oti«ktaI languages ; but 
his exclusive saoaidotaliain, hi* inability to mder- 
atsnd his fellow-creature*, and hi* oonseqaent 
disregard for their rigbta, forlMd us to admire his 
chatacter, though we pity hi* fste. Hi* writinn 
are few. Wluuion published hi* Diarj/ in IWt; 
and during 1867-1860, Parker, t^e Oxfoid pub- 
lisher, issued Tke Worb of Ilia Moat Beatrmd 
Father tn Ood, William Laud, D.D., tomttime Lord 
jireUtaJkop iff Conterfrury, containing, among other 
things, his letters and miscellaneons papeia, some of 
them not before published, and, like his Diary, of 
great value in helping us to form an adequate 
conception of the man and his time. 

LAUDAHTJM, or TmCTUItB OF OPIUM, is 
tbe most generally used of all the preparatioaa of 
opium. It is obtuned by macetatiog the shced or 
powdered drug in apiiit, and filtering. It is of a 
deep browniah-red colour, and poaaesses the peculiar 
odour and amell of opium. One of the greatest 
objection* to it is, that it is liable to great variations 
of strength. Dr Chiiatiaon remarks : ' Laudanum 
is mode by all the colleges with such proportions ti 
the opiom and spirit that about thirteen minims 
and a halt or abont twenty-five drops, contain tba 
entire part of one grain of opium. But the London 
tincture may be sometimes sixteen per eent. stronger 
than tbe othera, as dry opium is directed to oe 
oaed.* ^^lis medicine is, moreover, very often 
adulterated. 

Landaniun is a powerful anodvne and soporific^ 
bnt is more liable to caoae headache than the solu- 
tion of one of the salta of morphia. Its general 
action and its usee will be described in the article 
OPTUir. The dose for an adult varies from ten 
""""'"I" to a drachm. To children (a* ia the case 
with sU opiates), it must be given with extnone 

■ . . _i.:,u , '— -"mt to tho 

known to 



I eqmvali 



120th of a grain of morphia, 
prove fatal to an infant. 

LAtTDS- See C^ifOMiOAi. HoDita. 

LAtJ'BNBtJRG, or SAXE-LAUENBURO, 
a duchy bdonrang to Frusna, bnt formerly united 
to the crown of Denmark, In the eariier half of tbo 
13tfa o., it fell into the possession ot the Duke ot 
Saxony, one of whose son* became the founder ot 
the dnotl House of Saxe-Laneaburs. After the ex- 
tinction of this line, it was inherited by the Duke of 
Brunswiok-Celle in 1689, and passed into the poa- 
aeaaion of the Hanoverian kiji]^ ot Great Britiui^ 



«i),Google 



LAUGHINO GAB— LAtTGHTEB, THE LUDICEOUS. 



troa teiiad along with Hanover by the Franclt in 
1S03, and afterwardi, with aome ohkuRM of bound- 
arj, waa made over to Fnuoio, and by Pmaua 
traufBrred to Denmark, but with reoervation of all 
right! and privilegaa. By the treaty of Qotteiii, 18&5, 
it cune into the poaseuioD, of PnuaiA It haa an 
an* of 400 H. milM, and (in 1871) 49,661 inhabit- 
anti. Hm oaOe ridit bank of the £lb^ and bordan 
with Hanovet, MeoklenbiiTt Holitein. and tha terri* 
tcniw ol Hamburg and Lobeak, and u a well-cnlt)- 
vwted and (artile eonntry. It ii clo«^ oonuected 
b poUtical aSain with Hobtain. 1^ capital, 
Ziaiiienburg, haa only about 1100 inhalntantl : the 
two laisMt towiu are Batceburg (pop. 8S00}, and 
Molln {pop. SSOO). 

LAUaHINQ GAS. Sea Nitsogkit. 

LAUGHTBK— THE LUDICItqUS. Thia 
f«miH«j and pacnliarly human exprouion baa been 
tlw oooaaiou m a good deal of diaonnaioa and oontro- 
Taray, being eonueoted with a large and important 
flla« of efl&ta, nsned the ludidmiB, and alio with 
vit and hmnoiir. We ahall fint advoi to the 

Sfiioal part d ibe pbeuomeaOD, and then ooniider 
I itMu rt^' Miwea or aooompanimentt of it, 
iHiyncally, lan^itar ia a eoovnloTe action ot tiu 
^. /_,__. jjj jj^ irtate. aa remuked by 



ito 



inoliinniHiYni ' Una oonrubioD ol Um diaphragm ii 
tfae priniqial part irf tho pl^aioal mamf eatationa <rf 

Uuwbtar; but then an aereial aooeawH^" 

diu^ttia ihaip rooal nttcnnoa ariiiiig 
violent taoMon of ttia Wynz, and tlka exi 
the faatuna, thia baintf a nore intcaua Iwia w uw 
■nila, tha ohanotariabo of phaang emotiona gener- 
al^. In«itnmeiMaea,the nea ara mdatanadby 
tfm oObiica frm tiia latukrymal glanda. 

The caoMi* of landtar are both p%HMi and 



I, wa moat nak fint 

generally. When there 
Bplrita, It takea the form 
anoDg other Tiolant DuuiifMtations. 
The leboimd cj robuat natoKa from oonatnunt or 
oon&nement, aa whan children are released from 
achool, ia maiked with uprouiona ^ee and ezoite- 
ment lAnghtGi' ia aometimea ptodnoad by the 
applioation ot cold, aa in the cola bath. Another 
notable foim ia the hyaterical fit, where the 
ezpIoaiTaness of the nervoiia ayatem ia an effect of 
diaeaae, and followed bj exhauation. 

The mictttal caoaee of laafhter are what have given 
rite to the controveny. To determine the common 
chancteriatic of oil thoae thing! termed ' ludioroua,' 
tuu been found a problem of no common difficulty. 
Taiiooa theories have been propounded, all wiui 
•oms truth, but perh^a none enttc«ly ezpUiniiw 
the faota. Ariatoile layi it down thkt 'the ridicnl- 
ona impliei aomething deformad, i ~ 
thoaa imallai fonlta Midi are neithar painful nor 
bnt nnbeaatming— thua, a &ce esdtea 
'harwk there ia deformity and diatortdnn 
witliont pain.' Here he tondtua npon aaveral of the 

inmortant poatditiona-^Ti^ that thm!a ahoold bi ~ 

genea or deviationfrom tha onUnair a 
I of natnrt^ that thia deviation ahonld be 
•ida of d<^;ndation or inferiority, and that it ahonld 
not ba of a kind to azeita any other atrong onotion, 
aa pi^. Hofabaa Iun ovan a theory to the effeot 
that JMghttr ia 'a aodden ^ory, ariaing from a 
•oddan a^«eption of aome emineney in ouraelvea 
by oawpariaon with the inflnnity of othen, or with 
•■r vwn fbniKriy.' Tbia sridantly anita a oertain 
Boahar «( aaaaa, e^wciaUT the lugh ot ridicnle. 



uly the laugh of ridic 
It woold not be ao e 



of thoae tliat are bnt little gives to self -glorification 
or proud ezolUtioB over other men'a ^aoamfitnrab 
Partly owing to thia deficiency, and putly from th« 
harah judgment of human nature Implied in it, thia 
theory hat been T«zy onpopnlar. It baa been con* 
toided, in oppoaitbn to Eobbca, that there are Jeata 
that do not im[dy Uu degradation of any living 
being ; and that we often feel contempt for others 
and auddsn glorying in ouraelvea by the oompaiiaon, 
withoat being urgea to laughter. Aa to the firat of 
all^^ona, CampbeQ, in the PAiloaopAy of 



who never dieatoed that there waa any ptnon or 
party, praotice or o[dnion, derided in tbam.' But in 
additiDU to the agreeahla anrpriae oauaed b^ tha 
novel^ of tha aompariaon, which ia tha chief uup^ 
dient tn wit, ami majr eziat without ai^ degmdMMl 
of die anbjeot, there ia here a moat a^nuent dagra^ 
dation of tlu poetio att, hallowed aa it ia in nun'a 
minda by the moat dignified aaaodationa aa anma- 
thing alon to divifta inapiration, and now reduoad 
to a Tulnr machaniam cn riiyme-makini^ HoUkaa 
eondBMMi dtdnition too much to aotoal poaona ; 
lor the laugh may be raiaad againat olaasea, partiaa, 
nitama, opiniona, inatitntinM and ann inanimate 
tningi ai^uaed to be peiaonifiad. It would not be 
ewy to jnodnoa any nnaquirooal inttanoe of a lan^ 
laiaad withoat degrading aamre puaon or intanat, 
whiie in a vaat nimiber 5 oaaea thia eircamataoea ia 
tho inditpanaable ■j*^ admitted oooditioii of the 
effort. 

of Eobbsa, aubatitataa nothing 



ita ^aoe e 



Indinrooa effeota. 11ieaeai«,fint, thedabaaanentof 



or ainggJari^ of the 

„__.. ^ i^ first of thMa, the 

debaBeniBnt of thiuB <aninantly gmat by ^** tike 
largaat cla« — the floettine of Hobbea, if proparir 
guiuded, would be Enmd fully apjlioable. !nieie M 
■. -*-<oug aatiafaation in polling anytliing dawn fnn 

^ pinnaole to plunge it u tMmSa, whid w« 

mtOTpret only aa a mode of the 



; aad not otdy ao, bnt (what 
Hobboa neglected to lemaik) alao by aaaiag the 
afloat prodnaed by the uenoy of aome other panon. 
A fcumiiif mode of pandering to tbe atoat of paww 
ia to put any one to fright; avan tiia child eaa 
chuckle over thia triniMk <rf ita young ahili^. 
Cunpbell'a aaoond elaaa of^caaea ml^t aeem at first 
light to be the oppoaite of the first, and Ihanby to 
eontndict tiie general theory whieh that EUnafavtea, 
But when mean and Uttla tungi are ^mndiaed, bv 
alsTatad phraaecdogy, ao aa to raiia aHaugh, it wiD 
always be fonnd that the eAct ia,ewing, not to tha 
raimng of the anbjeot, but to the d^nding <rf tha 
language W oonnectiMi with audi a mbjsiA. Thia 
ia the ao-ouled modb-ktnrie, where the grand and llio 
lofty in apeeoh being employed upon the mean and 
inaignifioant, are dabaaed to the level of what t^^ 
are a;qilied to. Sunh ia the natam of parody. 9a 
that, m &et, Campbell'* aeoond apeoiea are merely a 



abvGoogle 



UTrHOS-LA.trBACEA 



■ottdtBoript, but ou anal jni «lva;i yuld 
Itm at the alemant of implied littlraeM or i 
in a (Dbjact otiuJlf Iteld great or dignified. 

Li (hoit, if m carefoU; aet aside the element __ 
the vitty, ire ahajl geosrally be able to explain the 
Rodnetioa of laoghler upon a aoifoim prinoiple. 
Bvtxy ttOA vonld probaMjr allow that nine caiea ont 
of every ten ol tbe genuuiely ladicrooa are caeea of 

TbfB figarsB of a powerful imaranation, the resource* 
of laamin^ and ths polish o[ rhetorical art, maj 

in tha woAa of the great comio writers — in the 
plan of AnT^<y>i^inif, Holifcre, and Shalupeore, 

Sf dnflj Smith — bnt wbererer uiere ii no ezpreaaed 
— '~tplied dcdfndatuui of uom^ ohuact^Bi rliiim, 
— — "latitatioiia, we ahall probably not 
proper delight of the liidicroQE. 
LA.ITNCE C^mm>mIs<m}, a mmw of fiahea, d Uie 
eel (nbe, -witii vtrj elonrated Dody, elongated bead, 
large gill-^>enina, dored 'fin esteudiDg neaily tiia 
whola length of the back, anal fin auo Umg, tail- 
fin diatinct fran Uiem hotli, and foriied. Tw« 
nedea an Gommrai on Hie British ooMt,oftan called 
Sunr-TO^ a name which, in aome book* of natural 
hiatwy, is reatricted to the laraer and leM ahondant 
of tiietn (A. Tobiaitut), a fi£ about a foot lonft 




tjuul luuoB {J.. Umeta). 



tbs Homd of the Firth of Forth. The mailer 
■peciea {A, laaaa), about fire or mz inches koig, is 
much naed aa but by fiahermen. Both are, however. 
rei7 delicate andpalatablB. Iley ore of a beaclifm 
■ilrery colour. The under jaw jirojecta beyond the 
npper, and is ued in bnnowing in the aandj to 
idudi theae fishes retreat when the tide retires. 
Ther aro obtuned by digging in the sand, or by a 
Una of cake, la by nets drawn along the sand, when 
it ia corezed by the lea. 
IiAITKCESTOK, Vbe leoond town of Tasmania, 
Van Diemen*a Tj.tu^^ u to the north of the island 



the jnnction cf the Eik with the Tamar, 
which, after a conrae «t 32 mjlea, enters Baas'a 
Sbait (q. T.) a* Fort Dalrynmle. It ia aooesaible 
to shipa of ooueidaable boraai, and caniea <hi a 
thriiing eommeroe with the cdontea of ^otoria 
and 8om Anafaalia. Among the print^al bnitd- 
inga m a chnrcli, a goremment-iuHiaa, a ooari- 
boaac^ a jail, a college, a bank, and • hwrmek^ and 
•ebooli. ^a970)lO,66& L. ha* a well-patnm- 
iaad wiaxh^nvm' iiwtitabB, which poMeseea a libruy 
containing 6000 toIoiim*. Thwe weM, in 1873, a 
gisnunar-fchoA 33 private *iihoolt, and 3 pablio 
Kboola. ITieinwMrtaeoniirtof mangfantnredgooda, 
tea, mgar, fto. llie ohisfartielea of export are wo^ 
oata, what, floor, timber, potatoes horsaa, froita. 



county of Cornwall, is situated on the Eensey, 
tributary of the Toaiar, 21 miles north-east of 
Bodmin. It is a veiy old town j it* castle wsa 
held of the Conqueror by the Earls of Moreton. It 
aaitea with the borough of Newport in sending a 
member to the House of Commons. The county 
assize formerly held here is now hdd at Bodmin. 
Pop. [1861) ol mun. borough, 2790 ; (1871) 2935. 

LAUITCH, the UTEWt boat belonging to a ship. 
The launch has neaily snperaeded the long-boat, 
formeriy the pciacipal of a ahip's boats. In modem 
sbipa of war, the lanuoh is usually a small steamer, 
fully equipped, wiUi oapabilitiea for stowing seTeral 
days' pronsiooa. The launch of a man-^-war is 
frequently armed with a small piece of artillery 
in the bow ; and when the ship is emplOTed in 
naiTOW sea* or rivers, it is not unusool for the 
launch to be despatched on expeditions far from 
the ship, and to points which she is unable herself 

LAUHOH is the proocss of removing a Tsoaal 
from Uie laud to ths water. The keel of a ship is 
laid upon a seriea of wooden blocks, placed six or 
seven feet apar^ and buUt up three or four feet 
from the ground, the top* of whioh lie in a line 
whiob slope* downwards ti> the water at an angle of 
about five-e^tha of an inch to the foot. The whole 
ship, thwefora^ when it is finished, slopes down- 
wards with this inclination, and rests upon the 
blocks just mentioned, and upon suitable timber 
shorea. Whan the Teasel is ready for launching^ 
'ways' of plsukin^ m« Uid down parallel to the 
kael, and at some httle distance on each aide of it^ 
under tha bilgsa of the ship ; they extend into the 
water a oonsidwable dis^uioe below high-water 
mark, A ' cradle ' is then built under the ship, of 
which the bottom ia formed of smooth timbers 
■ting i»on the wayL Before launching, tlie under 
_iea of theBO timben and the upper mdea of the 
ways are well sreaaed, and the weight of the ship 
is tiansfeiTed oom the keel-blocka to the cradle 
and way*. Timbers, called 'dog-shores,' ace placed 
~ '9 reurt the tendenoy of the ship to slide down 
he right moment. When this arrirea, at high- 
the ceremony of naming the ship take* place : 
the dog-shores are knocked away, and the vessel 
ffUdes stern foremoat into the water. As soon as 
the vrater removes the weight of the veatel from the 
cradle, the Utter breaks up into pieces. 
The Onat Eatlem, owing to her immense lenzth, 
as built with her keel parallel to the water; out 
owing to exceasive friction, it took three months' 

' — , oven with the aid of powerful hydraulio 

po^ the immense mass of 1^000 tons into 
the river. 

IiAURA'OIlM, a natural order of axogenou* 
lUnta, conaisbng of trees or shmba whioh have 
saves without ^pulea, and flowers in panicles or 
tmtbela. The penantii is 4 — G-cleft ; the itameni 
Of^Msite to it* *wments, and twice a* many. The 
frnit i* a one*no£»d berry or drupe; the fruit-stalk 
often enlargiag and becoming fleshy. — Thia order 
cmtaina about 4S0 known ipeoieB, moatly tiquoaL 
Tbe Laurel (q. t.) i* the <mly £ur(^>ean ^ecia*. 
An aromatia uid fragrant charaotw perrades tbe 
order, and amongrt ita prodnot* are '^'h"M""", 
caana, and other armnatio barka, also a number of 
aiomatio fruit* somewhst resembling mitBte^ See 
SunfMO. The' timber of some niecaea, a* green- 
heart, is valuable ; iome are ralnable for their 
medicinal baik*, a* greenheart (bebeeri^ and saaia- 

I ^ — fof ^^^ secretiona, of whioh camphor 

It important OrtodapAnt op^era, a 






dhy Google 



LAUREATE— LAVA. 



South Ameriun tree, ^eld* a cunph( 
volktila oil in great qoantdty, if mere inciuoiu ure 
made in ita bark. The frtiit of <ome ipeciea ia 
■(reeable, u the Avocado Pear (q. v.). — A tew very 
remarkatje Bpedea, fonnitig tha genni Ciuj/tha, 
have beea united with, tbia order by manjr botaniata, 
althou^ othen separate them aa a diatinet order. 
They are climbing parantea, like dodders, and 
inhabit the woodi of the hotteat parts of the globe. 

LAUltBATB, FoEr-,i> an officer of the household 
of the Boyereigns of Qreat Britain. The appellation 
•eema to have originated in a cuatom of the Rngliah 
univeraitiea of proHentinif a laurel wreatb to gradu- 
ate* in rhetoric uid TerBmcation ; the new graduate 
being then styled Poeia Laureatiu. The king's 
laureate was then simply a graduated rhetorician 
in the service of the king. R. Whittington, in 1612, 
seems to have been the laat man who received a 
rhetorical degree at Oxford. The earliest mention 
of a poet-laureate in England occurs in the reign of 
Edward IV., when John Key received the appoint- 
ment. In 1630, tlie Gist [Atent of the office seems 
to have been granted. The saUry wad fixed at 
/lOO per annum, with a tierce of caoory ; which 
latter emolument was, under 3oathey's tenancy of 
the offioa, commated into an aunuu payment of 
£27. It used to be the duty of the laureate to 
write an ode on the birthday of the aovereign, and 
sometimes on the occasion of a national victory ; 
but this custom was happily aboliahed towards the 
conclosioa of the reign of Oeorse III. The following 
poets have held the office ol laureate aince the 
year 1670 : John Dryden, Nahum Tate, Nicholas 
Sowe, Laurence Euaden, Colley Cibber, William 



, _...., , smg 

known species, the Noble L., Vicroft's L., or Swsr 
Bay {L. nobUit), a native of Asia Minor, but now 
diffltsed over all the countries around the Uediter- 
nmean Sea. It is often a mere bush of Rfteea feet 
or less, but sometimes becomes a tree of thirty, or 
even azty feet high. It has rather large, lanceo- 
late, leatlieiy, 'tiiTung leaves, reticulated with veins, 
and BztUary dngten of yellowiab-white Sowers of 
no beauty. The fruit U oval, bloish-blaok, and 
about h^ an inch long, Botb the leaves and the 
fruit are bitter, astringent, and agreeaUy anuuatic, 
and were formerly much uaed m medicine aa a 
•tomachic and stimulant, but are now almost out of 
naa. The leaves, however, are still used in cookery 
for fiavoorin^ They contain a volatile oil (oil of 
tuMl bay), ai3 a bitter, giunmy extractive. 

By ^e ancient Greeks, the L was called dapAne ; 
it WBB saored to ApoUo. Beny-bearing twigs of it 
ware wound round the forehead of victorious heroes 
and poets; and in Uter times, the degree of Doctor 
was conferred with this ceremony — whence the 
term laurmUon ; and, according to some, the term 
BatA^tr (q. v.). And to this day, a L. orown is the 
•nblem of^ tiie honour to which poets, artists, and 

liie NobleL. is oommon in shrubberies in Britain, 
but not nearly to oommon aa the species of Cheny- 
laurel (q. v.), which share with it Om name L., as do 
not a few other abrubs botanically veiy different, 
but somewhat similar in their evergraen foliage. 

LAUBBL-WATER is obtddned by distilling 
a mixture of chopped and braised leaves of the 
cheny-laurel and water, after 24 hours' macer*- 
tioo. It is seldom prescribed medicinally in this 



neuralgia puns, spasmodic cough, and palpitation 
of the heart ; in shorij in all Uie cases in which 
hydrocyanic is applicable. Death has occurred, with 
all the symptoma of hydrocyanic poiaoning, front 
its inoautiout use as a flavouring ingredient in 
creams and poddinggL 

LAUBElfTIAN STSTEU, a series of highly 



ihoaed rocks, older than the Cambrian, and 
apparently the fundamental seriea of the stratified 
rocka I'tiey hare been so named from their cover- 



Lo^UL ^ey consist ot nomblendie and : 
gneiBs, alternating with or passing into mica-Mhiat, 
the wikole being considerea to have been orienally 
•edimenlary deposits, and to have beai thus Mtered 
by long-oontinued metamorphio action. A leaf 
liuve, irrc^alar beds of crystalline limestones, and 
bed-like masses of magnetic oxide of iron and other 
minerals, ar« inteistratifled with tiie gnei™. True 
igneous rocks are frequently intruded among theoa 
nraU, as veins and masses of granite, syenite, 
■" greenstone. The beds are hij^y imiined 
iQy contorted, '" ' 



can be made of their thickneas, which seems to oe 
very great. Murchiaon and Oeikie have lately 
determined that certain great maaiea of highly 

period. It is probable that acme of the highly 
metamorphosed rocks of the north of Ireland may 
be of the same age. 

LAURUSTI'HUB ( Vitnimutn Iftiw, see Vibuk- 

hdm), a ahmb very frequent in pleasure-grounds 
in BritUD, a native of the south of Europe and the 
north of Africa. It is a beautifnl evergreen, with 
dark, shining, leathery leaves, amsll whibsb Qoweis 
in cotymbs, and smul blackish- blue berries. The 
flowers appear in winter or very early spring. The 
berries have drastic pnrgotiTe properties ; Uiey are 
very acrid, and influne the month violently, yet 
some kinds of birds eat them with avidity. The L. 
cannot endure muoh frost ; and in Qennany and 
the northern parts of the United States, it is a 
green-house plant 

LAUSA'ITNE (Lat Lovtana), a city of Switm^ 
land, capital of tbe canton of Vaud, is pictnreaqnely 
situatea on tJie southern slope of the Jon Nloun- 
taina, close to the norihem shore of the Lake of 
Gensva, on which the village of Ouehy fonns its 
haibotir. The two principal parts of uie dty are 
wrpanted by a valley, across which a fine bridge 
has been recently thrown. L. has a number of 
religion i, educational, and scientifio institoiiona. 
The cathedral, a beautiful Gothic building, begnn 
in the 10th c., and completed in the 13th, is 
the greatest ornament of the ci^. L is much 
frequented by visitors from all parts of the world. 
Here Gibbon resided for many years, and the honaa 
in ffbicb be wrote the greater part of the Dtdine 
and FaU is still shewn. John Kembte the actor 
is buried in a cemetery in the vicinity. Brewing, 
litbogra}^iin^ and cotton and wool s|Bnniug are 
the principaibranchM of tnde. The popolstloii in 
1S70 was 26,S20. 

LA'YA, a name tometiinet q>plied eenenlly to 
Volcanic Bocks [q. v.), bnt more strictly confined 
to those rocks which have been poured out ss a 
■tream of molten matter from a voloanio opening, 
either on dry land or in shallow water. The surfaoe 
of the stream, which speedily cools and hotileiis, 
is geneiaUy qnite porous and veaicular, from the 
eacwe of Uie ctaifiued gaaes ; but as rook is always 
a bad oonducttH' of beat, the interior often remains 
kuig in a liqnid condition, permitting the ooatinnod 



«i),Google 



LAVAL-LAVENDEB. 



Sow <^ tbe rtream Bometimea to x veiy great 
distanoe from the orifice from which it hu Deen 
diacharged, notwithatanding ita indurated covering. 
Hie ad of the stream ia a alowly-moring mau 
id loose porona blocks, rolling and tumbling over 
each other with a land rattlins noiae, being pushed 
forward in fiti and starta by uie viacid lava, when 
it bonta the hardened cnut and mahea on. The 
•tmotore of the interior of a aolid htvs-stream ahewa 
k compact and homogeneona rock, Baanming a more 
•od more emtalline ■Iruulure aa the coding haa 
been the won of a longer or ahorter period of time. 
CBTema are aometiniefl formed in lava-itreama by 
tbe escape of the molten masa below, leaving the 
eooled eniat atanding like the roof of a tonneL 



I IiAVAL, an andemt Mid pctnreMtM town c 
I Trt^aot, c^tal of the department of Mi^oitiie, i 



Bennee. Ita chief bmUBng ii aa old cMte»n, now 
a iptitoa, and former^ Um reaidence of Qie Dnkea 
€>f Ia iWiioailJe:. For 600 year*, this town haa 
been celebrated for ite Unen muiufactiirea, which 
are exported from, aa well aa aold throughout 
I'rance. CotUuu, calicoea, serge, soap, and leather 
are alao manofaetared, and there ia a considerable 
bade in grain, wool, timber, and iron. In the vicinity 
of Ii. tbe Vendaaoa nnder Lorochejaqnelein gained 
a brilHaut victoty over the BepuUicana, who loat 
12,000 men and 19 cannon iu the engagement. Fop^ 
(1872) 2^113. 

lUt TjUiBTTA. See Yalkita, La. 

IiA VALLI^RE, FaAii{OiBi Loinai db Labauu 
IiXBLUiO DS, a celebrated miatreea of Looia XIV. of 
nance, wm bom at Toon, in 1S44, of an ancient 
and noble fanuhr. At an early age, she loat her father, 
and WM brou^t to court by her mother, who had 
married a second time. She waa not a great beauty, 
and had a alight lameneBS ; bnt her amiability and 
winning mannen, and, above all, the extraordinary 
■weetness and tendeniess expressed in her looks, 
rendered her very Httractiv& It is seldom that one 
can do more than praise the face of a king's mistreas, 
bnt this aingnlftr ereature was characterised by on 
extreme, we mis^t almost say a morbid deheacy 
and mraelty. She really loved IiOnia, and bore 
him tour duldteD, of whom two died in infancy ; 
bat althoa^ she and they received wealth and titles 
of bcttoor, sbe nanained always extremely ungible 
of tlie di^jnoe of their birth. When Madame de 
Uontemttn became the roysl favourite, she retired 
into a CanndHe nunnery in Paris, where she took 
the Teil in 1674. She died Gth Jane 1710, after 
having Bpent more than 30 years in penances and 
regions ansterities. She wrote a work entitled 
Jtffiaioii* tuT la MittrUorde de J>ieu (Paris, 1680), 
U which a copy, dated 1638, with corrections by 
Boasnct, waa discovered iu the Louvre in 1852. Both 
liave beoi edited by H. Bomaine Coruut Claris, 
1SS4). A coQeotiMi of her letters was puUished 
inl7«7. 

IiATATEB, JoBAmn Kasfar, bom on Uie Ifith 
November 1741 at Zurich, waa tbe son of a [diym- 
ciu. As a boy, he was by no means diattngniahed 
for his talents ; bnt in 176% ffbilst yet a youth, he 
gave a sgnol proof of his energy and courage in 
4X>miiig forward, aloi^ with Mearf Fuseli, to accuse 
the lamdvoigl Qrebel of opprcamon and injustice, 
nnder which others had groaned without dsjing to 
tvunplain He early gained a high reputation by 
«. -mlnnio of poems, entitled BehvxKxrUedtT (Bern, 
17BT]. Hi* next publication waa AvttvAien in die 
SmgitU (3 vols. ZUr. 1768—1773). of which several 
editiima were aoon called for. The tone of this work 
ia that of ^'^E^' religioos entimsiann, mingled with 



a socceeaion several cede- 



1786, became miuistei 
there. Hia powers of 
and his disoriminatioi: 



that Physiognomy mij^t oome to be reckoned 
among the sciences. He labonred, therefore, to form 
a system of physiognomy, hoping thus to promote 
greatly the welfare of mankind, and at last he pub- 
Jiahed the work to which he owes the chief part i^ hia 
celebrity, FhytiogTionuachm FraipnenU tar B^fOr- 
dentng dee Memdiattainltuti tud IferudtenliAe (4 
volB.,Xdp. and Winterth. 1776—1778). lliia woA, 
whiiji bos often been reprinted and translated, is 
written in on inflated style. It gave rise to much 
discussion, and occamoDed not a linle display of wit 
and homoor. L. himself appears latterly to have 
bera convinced that his ^stem waa &uicifuL Bat 
he was of a highly imaginative temperament, and 
the religious orthodoxy which he mmiy retained 
was incongmously combined with novel speoiUationa 
and with superstitious notions. He was tbe (dioaen 
spiritual adviser of manv peison* both in Switzer- 
land and Qwmany, with whom he maintained an 
unwearied correepondmce. On his tonra in Ger- 
many he received eitisordinary marka of popular 
esteem and honour. When the French Bevolntiou 
b^an, L. bailed it with joy ; but after the murdtH' 
of Uia king, he r^atded it with religious abhorrence. 
In pccforming kind offices to some wounded pelBOUl 



effects of which he died, aftm long safEanng, S 
January 180L 

LAVATTB, a town of France, in the deportment 
of Tarn, is situated on the left bank of the Agout, 
20 miles north-east of Toulonse. Its manufactures 
are cotton-yam, leather, and silk. Pop. (1872) 4481. 

I^'VENDBB (LamndiJa), a genus of plants td 
the natural order habiaitx, having the stamens and 
style included within the tube of the ocrolla, the 
corolla two-lippod, the upper lip bifid, tbe lower 
trifid.— The Common L., or Nabkow-lzavxd L. (L. 
eera or L. angiulif^ia), grows wild on stony moun- 
tains and hills in the south of Europe, and in man 
northern regions is very generally cultivated in 
gardens. It has a deligbuul aromatic fragrance, 
and an oromatio bitter taate, and conbuns a great 
quantity of a volatile oil, oii qf lavender. The 
whole plant pcmeese* stdmulant propertieii, and ia 
used in medicine, bnt particularly the spikes of the 
flowers, aa a tonic, atomacbic, nervona stimulant, 
&C. L Sowers are often put into wardrobes to keep 
away motba. They are much used in perfumery. 
OS qf L. ia procured by distillatJon of L. flowera 
with water. It requires 70 Iba, of flowers to yield 
1 lb. of oil It is rather Ughter than water, pale 
yellow, very fluid, and very fragrant. Spirit ^ h. 
IS made by distilling L. flowers with rectiiied spirit; 
L. vxxler, one of tbe most popular of all perfiunca, 
by dissolving oil of L. with smaller qnantitiw of 
other volatile oils in rectified spirit L. is eiten- 
sively cultivated for ita flowers in some places near 
London, and particularly at Mitcham m Surrey, 
where more than 200 acree are occupied by it, the 
light and sandy aoil being especially suitable to it. — 
Bboad-leavkd X> {h. 2ali/blta or X. (jjko) is also a 
native of the ionth of Europe, but is more tender 
than common lavender. It is alao less fragrant, and 
the oil which it yields is called Oil qf^Smix, and 
Bometimea Foragn Oil of Lanaider. This oil is 
used by punters on poroeUin, and In tl 
of vorniabes. 



abvGoogle 



IATE&-LAW. 



■M-voed, vtuob ftra nfsd u food, eapaciaUy /"or- 
jAyni vidgarii ud i*. ladnlofa, of uie lub-order 
Confarvaeea, aaA noftri; allied to the gsnui (Hki. 
Xtwae pUnts grow on rocka »iid itoDei in the sea, 
ko4 are not unfrequent on the Brituh ehorei. They 
oaoaiat of k very Uiui flat purpla froad, whidi is not 
gelstinoua. THo frond of P. valgaria is waTj and 
imdivided, tb&t of P. ladniata [soiaetimea called 
Sloki) i* deeply cleft, and bu the i^imenta lobod 
•nd cut at tiia edgea. L- i> stewed and brou^t 
to table u a luiui? ; alao [uckled and eatea with 
pepper, vinegar, and oQ, or with lemoo juice. It is 
regarded M iiseful in KTofulona affectioiu and 
gUJiduUr tnmoun, a prapeitf which it probably 
owea ta the iodine which it contaioa. — The name of 
Obeeh L. is given to Ulva latittiina, » common 
■ea-weed of tliB Britiih ihorea, the frond of which 
ii grem, memtsamnu^ broad, flat, wavy, and lome- 
tdmea inHM.lfaA u u bitteriah, but is often used 
in the lame way a* the true L., and poaaessee 



B made an aoademicia& ; in 1TT6, 



liAVIBK PBBSONS. 8aa IvnRDionov. 

IjAVOIBIEB, Antohib LurKmrr. the founder 
of the antifUi^M^ or modem chemiatry, waa 
born in Paria, Angnat 1T43, and devoted himself to 
■cnentific, and pamonlu^ to oliemioal atndiea, to 
obtain tha meana of more folly proaecating which, 

he aocepted, in 1769, 1^ office ot Uinaer- ' 

" 17«4 he 



ot gnnpowder ; ami n 



Mrioottare. Availing bimaeJf of the diacoveriea of 
Maok^ Priestley, and Cavendish, and '"«-T''"g many 
ezpenmente and diacoveiiM himaelf, he waa led to 
eoDMci the raoently-diaoovored na, oiysen, with 
the phanomena of comboation and of bci£^; and 
in 1783^ he proved that water oon be focmed by 
bnmiiw o^gan and hydrt^an faigetlur, and that it 
can be oecompoaed into the aome elementa. He and 
Mi aaaodatea inrented a new ebxaak*! nomenda- 
ture, adapted to tte advanced atate of the adenee, 
whidi woB veTTCMierally adopted. See CHmmsr, 
and ChkkioaL Noinnroi.ATVKi. L.*a aervioei to 
aoieooe oonld not aave him from tha popalar rue 
dincted winat tonnen ot tiis taxea dming the 
Brign of Ttaor, and he died by the guillotine, Bth 
HaylTM. Hiamincipalwo^ i« hia iVaiMfUinett- 
laire ds CMmte (2 vola., Faria, I7SQ) ; bat of ootme 
oU hia chemioal works are now interesting merely aa 
ni^ting the history of the aeience. 

LAW, in Thaologv, a term rarioDily naad. In the 
Bible, it often indodea the whole of revelation, 
doctrinal as well aa preoeptive; but it ia often ajao 
used, in a more natrieted and aomewhat conven- 
tional aenae^ to aignify the booka of Moaea, the whole 
Jewish acnptona bong comprehended under Uie 
twnfALI ilflaunuticoi of ' the law and the propheta.' 
of the tent) law ia 



Ui« wao^ve jiart of levdation, the term I 
aometiinaa Hgniaaa the Jewish code of precepta 
to ritea and eeremoniM, colled 1^ theologians the 
CuutKOnAl. Liw, and which ia ruardcd as having 
been abtnoted when tiu Jewiah fspenaatioii gave 
}daee to tSe OuiatiaiL The oeramonial law ia also 
tegorded oa having in Urn ritea and ceremonies — ' a 
ihadow of agood uinKB to eoma' — symbolised the 
mot dootrmea which fntn tha ayalem of Chris- 
fianity. — ^m Moku Law is that piieoeptivs reve- 
lation of the divine will iriiicli la ot perpetoal 



and nniveraal obligation. It ia commonly r^ardod 
by theologians as summed np in the Ten Coaanaad- 
matlt; and, according to our Savionr'a own atate- 
ment, aa atill more iirieSy and comprehenflvely 
summed up in the two commandment* of loving 
Ood with all our heart, and soul, and strength, ana 
mind, and loving our neiabbonts oa owaelvea. 
Although the Ten ComnuLodments were given to 
the Jewi at Uount Sinai, it is not there&r* held 
that they were intended for the Jews alone, or were 
theu fint promolgated ; the moral law being 
regarded u really uie Uvi ofnatart, written on thia 
heart of man at lus creation, altbongb to fallen man 
a dear and expresa levelation of it has become 
neceaaary. One of the chief coateated p<nnta in cou- 
neotion with this labject ia that of the Sabbath 
(q. v.). Another rtdatea to the law of natan, and 
the value wbidi aai^ to be pnctioally ***'|[r'^ ^ 
the decisions of tb fodpnent and coDMuaee irf 
man, ^lort irtaa, ezpreea rerelotioB. — Hm oUi^alaon 
d the monl law on tike oonsoeneea of CSuiatuiis ia 
admitted by all except Antinomiana {<{. v.). 

LAW haa been vaiionaly defined Blai^stoaa 
gays it means the mlea of human action or oondnot 
This definition ia too wide, for it is confined only to 
mch rules aa coorta, auppoTted by proper antlionty, 
will enforce. Hie law of nature couista of Uuaa 
laws which are common to all mankind, and ai« 
sunioaed to be, aa neaily aa can be oonjectnrei^ 
ind^tendent of the accidenta of tame and place. Tha 
civil or municipal law of a nation is what ia com- 
monly undentood by the term law, when u^iliad to 
a particular country. Hie ' Civil Law ' is also some- 
times used par oxrOeict to denote the (M Bomaa 
Law as embodied in the Iniliiutfi of Joatinian, the 
Code, and other parts ot what is conmionly coDed 
tha Corput Juris OinUU. Many of the leading 



has adopted the least from Uiat code of law, while 
Sootland foUowa the continental nations in adopt- 
ing tha Bomsa or Civil Law to a large extent, 
and OS many anbjecta in adopting it entirely. Ilia 
law of natu>na u snbdividsl into pnblio Inter> 
national Law (q. r.) and private international law, 
OT the comiieu gei^bim. Law is often used in 
Eugland as contradistinguished from equity, bat 
this is cliiefly doe to the accidental circumstanoe, 
that there is a subdivision ot courts into eoorb 
of law and equity, according to the nature of the 
remedy KiTen. See JcBJHFBunaiicB, IimEMi.'noHAL 
Law, C&AHOERT. Law is also often in pcnnilar 
porlaiuw distinguished firom justice, tiie latt^ being 
supposed to be perfect in its nature, or aa near the 
Btandaid of perfection as can be suppcaed i whereas 
there are nnmberlesa casca of injury, hardshin and 
oppression, which, owing to luunon Infirmitr, no 
aysUm of human lawa can odeqaatelf rednaa ; 
and this is often adduced as connimation of the 
dootiine of future rewards and ^unidiments. Law 
is ijao aometimes anbdividad into crimiDal law, 
oonstitatioiul law, ftc, aoootding to the porticnlar 
aoljeet-inatter. 

LAW, BoKUf or Givn. Bee Law. 

LAW, WiLLUit, an influential idiidons writer ot 
last csotuiy, was bom at KingacliflTa, Northampton- 
ahira in 1686, and educated at Gminanuel Colltne, 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of M-A. m 
1712. Be was for aome time tutor to Edward 
Qibbon, father of the historian, who speaks of his 

Iie^ and talents with unusual warmth. About 
740, two of his friends, Miss Hester Gibbon, sister 
of his pupil, and Mrs Hntcheaon. widow of a London 
barrister, having tesolved to retire from the worl^ 
and davota tbemaelvaa to works ot charity and a 



abvGoogle 



LAW— LAWEENOE. 



nUpow ISe, aboM L. tor thair klmoner a 
iofbnetor. Hie ladin MtUed mi EingtoliS^ ■ 
ho* L. diad, April 9, 1761. h.'» wtitiag^ m« oaaj 



... L'Bwritin« 
tinggd with wbat ia ooaunonlf atllaa i , 
Hii nnncinl to4 ia lii* Beriovt Oatt to a Dtvout 
md ffatf ti/i (1739J, % tttmHtm that fint awakened 

I ibo ralJgUHU BouibQitiea of Dr Johnson, who ipeaki 
of H in high tennt, and trom wbkh the brotben 
Wuitf alao darived Dmch advantage. Next to Ibe 
Saiaat CalL his moat important irorka «i« hia 
Ajuwer to Handaville'i FaSU qf the Btet (publiahed 

, 1724: Kpabliahed, with an intnxtnotion by the Rer. 

' T. D. HaarioB, 18M}, hia Lettata to the Biabop of 
Baognr, The Way to Kwndtdge, and Tht Spipt tff 
Love. Hit oollscted work* were publiahed (I^mo. 
9 Tola. 17BZ]. 

LAW, Jomr, OHiiptraDv-genenl of the finaooea 
of Franca^ and famboa for hia credit ofrtkturtu 
dmiog the minontr <rf Louia XV., waa bora at 
EdiDbnTvh, 2Ist April 1071. Hia father waa a 
goldmita and banker, and pn^iriatar of the eatate 
' *~ ~ ' ' EdinbnTgh. L earijr ahewed 



admitted into 
the firrt oiroka irf IMhiiHi, but waa toon eompellBd 
to flee, in oonaeqnaiae of a doel in which he killed 
hii adraiBzy. He went to Amatetdam, and apent 
hia tinM in atndving the credit operatioDH of the 
bank. About the year 1700, he rt^med to Edin- 
bor^ a Mslonl advocate of a paper ennencj ; but 



anbjast net with an aofavoc 
now ritited diffiaent parti of the oontinent, iriii 
ha aoegmoiated a laige fortune by sambling, but 
iOBdit la vain to win the favonr oigorenunenta 
to hia baling aehemea. At tail^ ue aettled in 
Paiia, aad in e^npasT witili hia brother William, 
•at np, in 1716i a {cfrata bank, whioh waa aoon 
aDcceMol aod ptMperoaa toaaeh an sxtraordiaaiy 
degrees that tta Dnka of Oriaaoa, the Begeni 
a£pted, in 1718, L.'a plan of a national bank, and 
'" — " — -•-■-!--j, qnjititiaa of bank-notaa, which 
emdit, wbilal tbe oidinaij natioaal 
~~ thar had Loiu been, at a pHce 
linal T^ua. & 171S, L. on^- 



far bdowtlMii n 



leagaed the latbv office, and tbongfat it prudent to 
qnit Wmwe, Ha prooeeded fint to Braaaala, bnt 
Vanio^ whan lia managed to eka 



LAWBUBBOWB, Lwmrs or, in Scotch Law, 
a wiit w documeot in the name of the aovermga, 

ing violence agatnat anoOer, The paion i^pljins 
tat or iwning the letter* mnit fwcar to the truth 
rf Mma cMiae of alarm, auoh aa actual peraoDal 
TioleoM M threata of violeac& Sotnattmea a wife 
'"V *n'7 for lawborrowa araJnit a huabaiuL The 
pcnon Mninat whom the IcUera aie directed, mnat 
nnd eamon to keep the peace within a certain 
number of days apecifled, and thia he doea by 
euadiDg a bond of oantioa. If he, notwithatana- 
inft nae -riolenee, an aotioa of contraTention of 
law btt irowa ma; be raiaed anfnjrt him before 
J mH cm of tile peace, and he la fined in a aum 
eqnal to the aotnal damage remJting, which ia paid 
to the ftiitf injnted. An action lie* against a 
TCtacn who naaluaouly take* oat lattera of law- 
wnowi uprinit Mwrthtf. lAwtamnn coneaponda 



to wliat are called A^tidea 
Fnglan^ or Irelaad- 
LAW-HBBOHANT, a name often uaed in law 
Uch liare grown up am 

) meroantiia documenta 

, _ billa of exchange, billa of lading 

fte. These ouatoma beotmie incorporated with, ana 
form part of, the common law, and are binding a* 

LA'WRENCB, a dlj of MaaaachnaettB, IT.8., on 
both aidea of the Uerrunack RiTer, 2$ milea from 
ita month, and the aama -li**.!!™ noth of Boaton. 
It ia a handaome m *mif ■j^<5nTJii g oitj, with a'pu'k, 
and foonUifl* anii^ied from a reaerroir 140 feet 
high) haa 14 ohnichaa, S weekly newapapara, and 
ocfton mannfitctoriea employing a capital of 
milliona of dollar*. Ilieee are anpplied with water- 
by a granite dam acroaa tlM Memmaek 
, 1029 feet i^g, and at the deepeat part 40| 
feet lugh, wliich haa created a baain 9 muea hma 
The inter ia diatributed to the milla by a eanfl 
1 mile long, 100 feet wide, and 12 deep. The "- 

I/AWBBNGB, Guu OT Br, a weateru inlet of the 
Northern Atlantic, waahea at once all the Britiali 
rovincea, properly ao called, of North America — 
Tewtoundland, danada. New Brunawick, Kova 
Scotia, and Pnnoe Edward's Island It haa tliree 
with the ocean — the Sb^t of Belle- 



iale, between Newfoundland and Labrador; the Out 
of Canao, between tiie iijand of Cape Breton and the 
peninaula of Nova Scotia : and a, far wider paaaase 
than either, with Hie iiland of St Paul in the middle, 
between Cape Breton and Newfoundland : while in 
the oppoaite direction it nairowi, at the weat end of 
Antiowti, into the eatuary of the migb^ river, to 

' ' V aa far even aa ita aoorcea, it baa sradaaU;f 
ided ita own name. Beaidea Anticoati, Bt Paul'a, 
and Prince Edward's, already mentionad, this arm 
of the aea oontaina very many olusteia of islanda, 
and, more partionlarly in ita aoathani half, the 
Hagdalen* and the Birda ; these islands bein^ ons 
ana all, rendered more daugeroua to ahippin^ by 
* hickueat of the fogs and the unoartainty of the 
nto. The Oulf of St L. ia celebrated for tlie 
productiveneaa of ita fiaheriei ; but periu^ it ia 
beat known aa a ^'h^"""' of traffic, oonneoting, aa 
it doee, the bnaiMt thoroughfarea of maritime trade 
with ou <d the most ezteniiva ayatama of inland 

ni^Hoa in the worid. 

I^WBENOB, 8t, the river mentioned in the 
prooeding article, oonstitntee by far the larrat bodj 
of fresh water in the world. Inohiding tiie lake* 
and streama, whioh it oompriaea in ita widaat aooep- 
tation, it coven, acoording to tlte loweat eatimata, 
fully 73,000 aquare milea ; and aa nearijr the wbde 
of tlila area averages oonaidacably more than 600 
' in dcoth, the aogi^ate eannot m p w ant lea* 

9000 Bcdid nulea— • man ot watw whioli 

would take apwaida of 40 yean to poor over the 
Falla of Niagara, at the oompnted race of a millioa 
cnbia feet in a second. Aa the entire bamn of thia 
wata^avat«m falli abort of 300,000 a^oara milea. 
the auriaoe of the land ia only three tunea that of 
the water. 

Thia might; artery of North-eoat America riiee, 
_jder the name of Um St Louis, on the apadoni 
plateau which sends forth also the Hiaaiaaippi 
towards the Oulf of Mexico, and t^ Bed River of 
the north tomrda Hudsoi^s Bay— all tlirea bein^ 
■aid, in wet seaaons, oeoasionally to nmule their 
floodjk L^e Baperior, the next link in the chaiiL 
finds ita way to Lake Enron throngfa the rapid 
of St Uu7, wliich hM been ov«ro(Mne b; a •hip 



>v Google 



can&l on the riglit, or Amenuu ud& Below Lake 
Huron, which receivea Lkke Miohigan from **•- 
■outh, the river St Cliur, Lake St Clair, the i 
Detroit and Lake Brie maintain pretty nearly the 



lea-IereL From thia, the laat of the connected 
Mtiei of inljuid Mas, imnm the St L. proper, which, 
with ft few oomp*nilive|T iuiniifioant ezpanaiona, 
preaentB th« chAracter fint of a rivo', and then 
of an MtttarTi down to the gnlL Between Lake 
Ontario and we atj of Uontrral, which mark* die 
head of V» navigi^um, there are Tatioai catatacta 
ot rapida, which, beude* having been gradually 
aacartained to be more or leM pnoticable, may be 
all avoided by mean* ot oanala <m tiie Bntiah tide. 
At aboat two'thiidi of the diitance from Lake 
Ontario to Hbe dtj of Uontreal, the intersection of 
the parallel of 4S* determinea the point where the 
8t v., after having been an iDtema^cnal boundary 
from the head, or nearlv ao, of Lake Superior, 
beoomea excluaiTely Canadian. Immediately above 
the iiland of Montreal, the St L. ia joined by its 
principal Mudliaiy, the Ottawx, frooi the north- 
weat ; and a little more than half-way between 
thia confluence and Three Bivera, the hishest point 
of tidal influence, the Bichelieu or Sord, from the 
■onth, brings in the faibnte of I«ke Uiampbuo. 
Between Montreal and Qnebeo the Bt L ha* 
recently been mnoli deq>aned (aee Uoktbui.). At 
Quebec, after » run of nearly 400 mile* from Lake 
Ontario, it iteadily wideni into an estuaiy of abont 
the nme length, nte entdte leogUi, indnding the 
chain of lakea, it abont 2200 milet. 

In oonnsotioD with the improvements on itaeU and 
ita affluenta, the St L. offen to aea-going abipa the 
DObleat ayatem of inland navigation in the world, 
ctnbiacing a continuon* line of aboat 2000 mile* ; 
ita advantagea, however, are toaterially impaired by 
the aeveri^ of the cliniate, which binds it in the 
chaini of wmter at least five months in the year, 

IiAWBENOE, Sr, the Deacon, one of the meet 
celebrated martyri of the early church, the tah- 
Ject of many ancient panegyrica, and ot one of the 
moat elaborate of the hymns of Pnidentiui. He 
was one of the deacons of Rome^ in the pontificate 
of Siztui L (3d c), and as such was especially 
charged with the care of the poor, and the orphans 
and widows. In the peneenbon of Valerian, being 
nmunoned, aocofding to the legend, befcne the 
pnetot as a Christian, and being catlad on to deliver 
np the baasnrea of tha ohurc& he mockingly pro- 



d the pi 



Bs of the ohurch, he mockingly pro- 
and the sick of nil charge, deduing 



B his treasures ; ' and 






sisting in his nfuaal to sacrifice, being condenmed 
to be roasted on a gridiron, he oonldnQed tbrough- 
ont his tortnisa to mook his persecntois. Many of 
the details of bis martyrdom are probably dne to 
the imagiuatifm of the poelica] nanator; bat the 
martyrdom is nnqneationably historical, and dates 
from the year 268. His feast is celebrated on the 
loth August. 

LAWBEHCE, Sib Thoius, President of the 
Boyal Academy, was bom at Bristol in 1769, and 
at tbe early age of ten years entered on the pro- 
fession of a portrait-painter in crayons, at Oxford, 
when he immediately obtained full employment 
There is an engraving which bears to have been 
' directed by L K. Shenrin,' the celebrated engraver, 
of a portiajt of the young artist ; it is dedicated in 
the following tenns : ' To the nobility and gentry in 
gener^, and the nniveraity of Oxford in particnlar, 
who have lo liberally countenanced his pencil, 
tins portrait of Master Lawrence is inscribad by 
their most devoted and most grateful servant T. 



Lawrence, senior.' It was published by I^wrence, 

senior, at Bath, Joue 16, 1783, alonR with a print ' 
of Mrs Siddons in the character of Zara, drawn 

by Master L., and engraved by J. R. Smith. Hie , 

young artist next set up at Bath, where he ' 

met with great encouragement ; and at the age ] 

of eighteen, settled in Loridon, and entered as a I 
student of the Royal Academy, having a year 

previously taken to painting in oil. His success : 

extraordinary; in 1791, before he attained the 1 



king ; on Beynolds's death a year afterwards, w . 
uipointed limner to his majesty; wss made a | 
BoyalAcademioiaDin 1798; knij^ted in ISlfi ; and 
on Benjamin We«t'a death in 1S26, sncoeeded him I 
as President of liie Boyal Academy. He died in 
London, 7th January 1630; L. was the bvourite 



His talent as a painter was donStless ovenated 
daring his life, but justice has scarcely been done 
to it oE late years; for his style, though in many 
reapeots mentricious, was greatly influenced by the 
fashion and dregs of the period, and in time to 
come, impreBsiona of the principal charaoteia who 
figured during the B^geni^, and Eu the reign of 
C^rge rV., wdl be taken mainly from hia works. 
His portraits in the Waterloo Qallery at Windsor 
are of the greatest value as historical monuments. 
He was a man of great urbanity and fine taste, 
and left at his death a most valuable oollect*Mi .«( 
dtawings by the old masters, now unfortunately 
broken up. See the Li/e and Contipondame ttf Sv- 
T, Laturenee, by Williams (1831), and Cunningham's 
Liva of BriHth PainUn (1833). 

LAWBENOB, Bikoh thb Rioot Homodkabui 
JoHK LAinD-MuB, is younger sou of Lieutenant 
colonel Alexander Lawrence, who served in the 
Mysore oampiugn, and at the ca^ure ot " ' 



obtained, ia 1827, a presentation to Haileybarr 
College, whers he carried off the ohief prises. Hm 
first j'eais in the Indian civil service were apeut in 
Delhi and the neighbourhood. On the annexatiaa 
of the Punjab, L. was appointed oommissianer, 
and afterwards lieutenaDt-govemor of the Punjalv 
When the Indian mutiny broke out, he proved the 
mainstay of the British dominiOD in India. The once 
restless Sikhs had become so attached to his firm 
and benefioent rule, that L. was enabled to send 
troop* to the relief of Delhi, && So timely was 
this snoconr, and so great was his foresight, that he 
was styled 'the saviour of India.' On his return to 
England, he received the *ii«nira of parliament, with 
the grant of a pension of £1000 a yesr. He wss 
le a baronrt in 1868, and a privy-conndUor 
18S9; In 1861, L. wss nomin^ one of tiie 
knights ot the 'SUr ot India.' In 1863, he suc- 
ceeded the late Lord Elgin as governor-general of 
India ; he was made a member of tha Indian conn- 
oil, and the Court of Directors of the Bast India 
Company granted him a life pennon of £2000 a 
year. In 1S69, he was raited to the House of 
Peers. At the first election of the London school- 
board in 1870, Lord L. wss elected chairman, a post 
he subsequently resigned. 

His elder brother, Brigadier-general Sir Hehkt 
MoHiooifXRT LawKSKCi, bom in 1806. was <^iief 
commissioner ot Lucknow, and virtually governor 
of Oude when the Indian mutiny broke ont. While 
in command of the handful of heroic men who 
defended the women and children in the Beaidsucy 
of Lucknow, Sir Heniy was wounded bythe explo- 
sion of a shell, and died July t, 1867. Ho was tiw 



dbyGoogle 



LJLW-TEKMS-L&ZZABONl 



of tiM ohildreii of the Enropean aoldieis ii 

A moDOment to hu memoir baa bMii plMed ii 
PuTa CathednL 

IiAW-TSBHS. Ths unal Uw-terau in En^ 

aod IiclBnd mesa thoae perioda of the fear Hm ^ 

which Uw law-oooitB dt in banc oi in fall oomt to dio- 

p«M of boaiiMM, Theae «je of uidant origin, and axe 

IMV fixed bj atatnte u fbllowB : ffiluy term b^ina 

I Jaanuy 11, ooda 31st JKoiuuy; £uter Uasa b^ini 

, AiHill5,«ndBSUiMsy;Trinit7tennbe^iuU»f 22, 

I sida 12th Jan* ; Michwlniiw term begins November 

I 2, anda SSth November. Thongb the courts alwaja 

' Ht at thoae jiedoia, yet tli^ have a power ot 

I upmnting aitbi^i after term alao, which power is 

I uw^a ezociaed for the deapatoh of arrears of 

bwinaaib And the indgca alao pmeticaUj ait nearly 

I all the year nmnd, lUapoaing of bnaineBS of one kind 

or aooUier, except m tiia long TMstioD, irtiicb 

{ extenda from lOth Anmat to 24tb Ootober. But 

erm during that period alao, one or more jndgea 

aWimri to perform incidental boaineai; and it la only 

for aome nirpoaea, and for aoma kinds of '^ ' 

I that the loDg Tacation ad 

hoatjlitiea. 

I IiiSootIand,tiialaw-temiaaredifierently arranged. 

, The Court rf Semion aita from ISth October to 20th 

I Haich, and from 12th May to ISth July. Bat there 

atao the jndM are onployed in other boaineaa during 

I As ta the qaartct^days nanal between laodlord 
and tcnaa^ aee Lutdlobs una Tutant, 

IiAWTEB, in the TTnited Kingdom, Is not a 
technical term of law, bnt a popular name given to 
thoee who are mlher pracfatioueta of the law or 
intimatdf connected with ita adminiatration. In 
Ottat Bntain and Ireland, lawyera are subdivided 
into two claaaea. See ArrORircTB Aira Soucttobs, 
Bakrutbu, ADVOCAm. In the United Statei of 
America, an attorney acta aa counsel, and rice 
Mnd, tbne beiiu no mmilax anbdiviaion of tbe 
profcaaion, and the expediency of the aubdivision 
ha* often been eanvasMd in the r ~ 
of late yean. 



bulla and lions, and e«( 
were placed in the Britil._ _ 

have amce remained the chief 

oonducted hia aearch at hii own expenae ; be wu 
in 184S, Ifliarally aasisted by LoiA Stratford do B«d^ 
eliffe, then SirSiah an^ saw dor in Constantinople : 
and evmtually, aa the value of these apecimena of 
Asiyriau art b^an to be known, tbe House of Com< 
moua voted a aum of £3000, which was applied by 
the trustees of the British Museum, in continuiDg 
the excBvationa under L.'s luperintendeuce. On hia 
retnm to England, he published a narrative of hia 
exploratioaB, under the title of yinetA and tit 
Semaint, and another woi^ entitled MonamtnU qf 
yintvA. Be was preaented with the freedom of 
liie city of Loudon, received the honour of D.C.L. 
from the university of Oxford, and was Lord Beotor 
of Aberdeen university in 1366 — 1866. Having 
determined to devote himself to a political career, 
he became, in 1862, M.P. for Aylesbury, but lost hia 
186T. He visited the Crimea during the 
war, went to India after the mutiny; in 
1860, again entered the House of Commons for 
Southwark ; in 1861, he was appc^nted Under-Sec- 
retary of State foe Foreign A&ira, ThJM post he 
filled till 1866. In 1869, he went as Biitiih ambaa- 
aador to Spain, a position he still (1S74) holda. 
IiAYINO, or LAYBEINO, a mode of propagat- 
es, shruha, and per — !-■'--'- ' ■ 

is veiy frequently en 



e United Kingdon 



LATAED, AunxK Hinrt, English traveller 
and politiciaii, was bom at Paris in l817. He was 
destined for the law, but finding the profession little 
congenial to his tast««, he set out on a course of 
eaatem bavei, vicited aereral districts of Asiatic 
Tnrk^, and became familiar with the maimers and 
dialecta ti Foraia and Arabia. On his first journey 
■Ions the banka of the Tigris, in 1840, he was 
aliu^ witii the ruina at Nmiriid — a village near 
the junction of the Tigris and the Zab, pointed 



of tbe ' birthplace of the 
wisdom of the weab' In 1842, M. Botto, the French 
eonanl at Mosul, conducted some extensive ezca- 
vationa at that place, and L. returning to the 
r^ion, again directed his attention to Nimrud. It 
waa 184fi before he could obtain the requisite means 
and fadlitiea foi his search, and lie then, with the 
kelp of aome Aiab^ began secretly to dig in the 
■aaani supposed to oontain the ruins. He soon 
(9une apm some sculptured remsinB, and became 
ttMTinced that be had touched a rich vein of arctuoo- 



V^csl trsMttre. Hia . 
1MB and 184^ and hia energy and perseverance 
wna nwarded by the diaoovery of the ground 
tvmaina ot fbor distinct palatial edifices. The walls 
had bees Ikied with large slabs of gj^ieum or 
alabaster, ovvered with Ms-reliefa and cuneiform 



there to throw out roots, the extremity being made 
grow erect in order to form a new plant The 
sepatation from the parent i^ant is not effected till 
the layer i* sufficiently provided with roots. Any 
irtiich prevents tke free return of the sap 
greatiy promotes the formation of roots, and a notch 
IS thcraore usoally made in one side of the branch, 
at the place where the formatiou of roots is desired ; 

is alaa often a little split up from the notch; 

d sometdmee a ring of bark is cut ofi^ or a wire 

twisted round it. The time which must elapse 
before the layer should be separated from the 
parent plant is very various ; a few months being 
sufficient for souic^ and two years requisite for 
otheiB. Many plants which can be propagated by 
cuttings are more easily and succeesfulty propagated 
by layers. 

LA'ZCXITB, or AZURITE, a mineral lou 
oonfoundod with Idpis Laiuli (q. v.), but althou^ 
somewhat similar in colour, very difiereut in com- 
position i consisting chiefly of phosphoric acid and 
alumina, with roagneeis and protoxide of iron. It 
occurs imbedded m qnartii or in fissures in clay- 
slate, in Styria, North Carolina, Brazil, kc 

LAZZABOTTI, a name said to be derived fmm 
that of Lazarus in the parable, and, until lately, 
desiguatine a particular class ot the inhalntants of 
Naples. They had no fixed habitations, regulw 
occupation, or secure means of subsistenoa, bnt 
occasionally obtained employment aa messengers, 
porten, boatmen, itinerant vendois of food, ko. 
They have performed an important part in all the 
revolutions and movements in Naplea for a long 
period, and in recent times have allied them- 
selves to the cause of despotism, miey were woat I 
annually to elect a chief (Com ZiOMom), who was I 
formally recognised by tbe NeapoUtan govanunenl^ 

'ho exercised an extraordinary power over ! 
them. Of late, they have lost many of Uieir pecn- I 
liaritiea, have come more within the pale of civit 
isation, and, in fact, are no lonoer recognised aa a i 
separate class, thongh tiie name is still given to Hie I 



«i),Google 



LB, tb« oaiiital of LadaUi, or Uiddle Tibet, on 
Om right but of ths Upper lodut, in kt. 34* 10' N^ 
Mid long. 77° 40" E., •* Bu elevatjon of m — *■"— ~ 
10,000 feet abore the lea, The populaticm 
400a The idaoe ia ft m>m «»tr^ betireen ChineM 
Taituy and the Punjab, beinf; more enradallj the 
grand mart for the famooi ahawl-mxd of Tibet. 

TiEAD, Tsi, naed on ahtpboard, for aaceitainincr 
the depth of water, consiata of a piece of lead ahaped 
like aa elongated dock-weight, attaobed to a line of 
about 30 fnhoma. The lower part of the lead is 
aoooped oat, and filled with tallow, that portiana of 
tlie bottom may adhers. The deep-sea lead weidia 
bom SB to 30 Ibi., and la attached to a line of far 
greater length. 

LEAD (BTinb. , . ._.._,. 

li a hluiab-white metal of considerable 
which Boon diiappean on anioanre to the ur, owing 
to UiB fonnation of a thin film of oiide. T' 
•oft that it may be leadily ant with a knife, 
be made to take impreaaiona, and it learea a 
npon paper. It maj be cut or beaten into thin 
■heeta, bnt in ductiuty and tenacity it ia low in 
the acale of metaJa. It ia readily fudble at a 
temperature ot about 620°, and at a higher temper- 
ature it abaorba oxygen rapidly from the air, and 
the oxide thus formed volatiUset in the form of 
whitBfiunee. 

The combined action of air and water on lead ia 
A (nbject of great piaotical importance, in oonse- 

Sienco ot tiia metal being ao frequently employed 
the conatmctdon of ciitema and watet^pipca. 
He lead becomea ozidiaed at the aorface, and tbe 
water diaaolvea the oiide ; thia aolution abeorba tbe 
oarbonio add of the atmoaphere, a ATm of hydrated 
Oiycarbonate of lead (PbO.HO + PbO,(X),) 



way a rapid corroaion of tbe metal enaues. Thia 
action is mstenally incTeaaed by the praence of aome 
aalla, and diminished by the presence of other aalta 
in the water. It ia much iocreaaed by the oocai- 
of chloridea [which, aa chloride of aodlum. 



river waters, from the decompoeition of organic 
natter) ; while it la diminiahed. by the sulpbates, 
phoapluitea, and oorbonatee, and etpaciaUy by 
oarbooate of lime, which ia an extremely oommon 
fanpuri^ in apring water. In tlie latter oaae, a 
film of inaomhie oarbonate of lead ie nipidh 
formed on tbe anrfaoe, and tlie metal beneath la 
thua protected from the action of tlia wat«r. I^ 
however, the water contain muoh carbonic aoid, 
the carbonate of lead may he diaaolved, and coo- 
nderina the dangers that aiiae from the nae of 
water mipregnatu witii lead, cistenu Mnstrncted 
of alate are far prrfeiable to leaden ones. 

Pure lead is of my rate ooonrraice. Almost 
all tbe lead ot oommerM is obtained from Q^lena, 
the native anliibida ot lead bv ■ process ' ' 



p res e ntly explained. 



L thus obtained : 



left by igniting the pure nitrate or carbonate. 

The oomponnda ot lead with oxygen are four in 
numbetv-vu., a snb-oiide, Pb,0, which ia a black 
powder of no importance; a protoxide, FbO, which 
u tbe baaa ot thg ordinary aalta of the metal; a 
binoiide, FbO, ; and red lead, which ia a oom- 
ponnd ot the two laat-namad oxides, and ii naually 

._i jjy jjjg fOTmni, 8PtO,PbO,. The 

'- "--own aa LWtarge. It is 



obtained on a large aeale by the oxidatian of lead 
hi a current of air, when it tormi a scaly mass Ot 
a yellow or reddish tinb It the oxidation be 
effected at a temperatore below that required finr 
the fojdon of oxide, a yellow powder, jwrmeii 
Mtttikot, ia obtained. lithaige ia much ussd b^ 
the assaysr (ses AauT) aa a flux; it enten largdy I 
into the oompositum of Ota glaaa tA oommon 
eartheDwan, sjid it is onployea in pharmacy in 
the preparation oj fasten. A mixture of I port | 
of moasicot with 10 of biickdos^ made inhi a I 
paste with linaasd-oil, forms the oompound known I 
as DAtt ommMc, iriiioh, from the hardness with which 
"' seta, ia treqnoatty emplc^ed to repair defecta in I 
one-tacinga. | 

The most inqiartant ot the salts of the protoxide 
of lead are-'l. The MrhMcUa (PbO,CX),), which , 
--- — native as a beautiful mineral in tranaparent 

\ tit flbroos maasea, and whioh ia prepared | 
under the naue of uAJl« Itad on a large arale aa a 
momsnt by a prooaas to be tnbseqnenUy described, i 
The carb(»iate ia insoluUe in water, unless it ia | 
largely ohaived with Darbonic acid. It is qnitddy 
blackened by expcenre to hydroeulphuric acid i 
(Bulfhurett«d hydrogen], either in the form of gaa I 
'" — aolution, and thia i* a aerions drawback to ' 
.90 of the lead salts aa pigments i. Tha 1 
niipAofa (FbO,SO,), which oooon native in white | 
pnnuatia crystals, and is fonned as a heavy white i 
precipitate on addir~ —■-•-—■- - •' — - • >-' 
anlphata to a solnl 
(PbOJJO,), which u 
its [oiitoiida in dilate ni 
of which tbe prindpsl are tho neutral chromate or 
cArome vsflou (PbO.CrO,), and the dichromate c^ 
oron^ diTOme, These are much used aa pigmented 
and m calico-dyaiog. 5. The aadata. The tn^dinary 
or neutral ooetat* (FbO,0.H,0, + 3aq.] ia pre- I 
pared on a large acale by the solntion of litharge 
'". distilled vinegar, and evaporation, when the aut ' 
obtained in tour-sided prisma, or more commonly i 
a mass ot contused miuute white cryatala, which 
at 212' lose their water of cry atallisation. fWu ita 
appearance, and from ita sweetish taste, it derivea 
ita common name of tu^ear o/lead. It ia much used I 
both in medicine and m the arte. Bono acetate of 
lead, T^srded l^ some i^temists aa a diacetate, and 
by others as a triaoetate, and commonly known as 
OoulaT^a Ei^Tact, is prepared by boiliDg a eolation 
of sugar of lead with litharge, and admng* dcohd, 
when the salt separates in minute tnimatent 
needles. It is the sctive ingredient of Ovdard 
Water, whioh is imitated bv the Liquor PbtmH 
piacelaiU DUviiu, and of GovJar^t Ceratt, whid) 
is imitated by the Otratum PiuriM Compontuni of 
the London Riarmaeopaia. 

The >eet testa for salutioss of the salta of lead 
are the formatioe of a black sulphide with hydro- 
sulphurio _ acid or hydrosulphate of ammonia 
inaolnble in an exceaa ot the reagent; ot a white 
inaolable sulphate with Kulphorio actd, or a aotnble 
solphate ; of a yellow chromate with chromate of 
potash; and a yellow iodide with iodide of 
potassium. All the salts of lead, insdnbla In 
water, are soluble in a sotuticA of potash. Before 
the blow-^ipe on charcoal, the salts of lead vield 
a soft white bead ot the metal, sunoiuided bj a 
I ring of oxide. 
_ _ UM in itedidnt.— nie most important oom- 
pound ot lead in the materia medioa is the aeetati 
of lead, which is administered intenuJly as an 
astringent and as a sedativa It is of service as 
on ostrincen^ e^ecially in combination with opialI^ 
fn oasea ^ mild English cholera, and even of Asiatio 
cholera, and In vanona forma ot diarrbno. It will 
frequently check the pninlent expeotomtaou tu 



«i),Google 



1 TironcMtdi. 

-u from tiie 

I famn, stonuch, bcnrels, or Iromb — it id employed 

putlj witlk the view of iTiminiKhing the diameter 

I of tu bloediiig vemelB, and partly irith the object 

' trf lowering the heftrt'e action, and by theee means 

I to stop the bleeding. The ordinuy doae ia two or 

three Q>>ii*i wtih ^U * g™" of optnm, in the form 

' of ■ ^U, repeated twice or thrice daily. If given 

for too long s time, lymptoms of Lead-poitoniiig 

(q. T.) win ariBc 

, Miniita, Smdliag, ite.— Lead was largely vorked 

by Oie Romana in Great Britain, And pigs with Latin 

inacriplioni have been freqaently loond near old 

■melbng-worka. The mining of lead in England wa« 

(onnierly regulated by cniioni lawt ; Mas plocea, 

tnch OS the Kin^s Field, in Derbyihire, having 

I apedoJ pririleges. It w» the custom in thil dii- 

faict not to oUow flic ore to leaTe the mine till it 

I waa meantrad in the presence of an offlciol coUsd a 

bar-ma^er, who set aaida a 20th part »* the king** 

j cope or \(A, Up to a compaiatiTely recent period, 

I perBoni were allowed to aeuch for veins of the ore 

I wrthoat being liable for any damage done to the 

■c»l or cropa. 

! Lead ore is pretty generally distribated, bat by 

I far the largest soppl; of thii metal is obtained from 

Oreat BritMn and Spain, the former cour try yielding 

Borne SS,000 tone per annum, and the latter prob- 

I ably an equal Eapply. Nearly a fourth of the total 

I British produce u procored from the Northnmber- 

land and Durham dlirtrict, where there exiata, at 

I AUenheada, ime of the largest ntining establiahments 

in the worhL Scotland and Ireland fumiih only a 

very imall qnantfty. 

With the exception of a Uttie from the corlxRlate 
of leuL all the mpplies of this metal are obtained 
fnim ue sulphide of lead or Oalena (q. v.). The 
Itfd ore, when taken from the mine, i> broken 
np into small piece*, ' hotohed,' and woahed, to 
separate impurities, by means of apparatus deeoribed 
under MiTiLLnKOT. Sulphide of lead, when 
tderaUv pure, is smelted with comporatdTB ease. 
It )■ fir^ roasted in a reverberatory fnmoce, 
such M is durim la the figures 1 and 2. Vtom 



reduces mneh of the lead, snlphnreons acid being at 
the tame time evolved. In the third (toM, lime is 
thrown in and mixed with slag and nnrednced ore. 
When this becomes acted on, the whole of the lead 
ispracticall; separated from the ore^ and is thai run 
off at the tap-hole g. 

In some distriota, the roosted ore ts smelted on a 
separate ore-hearth called the Scotch fumooe, where 
the heat ia nrged bf bellows. Peat and coal are 
used as tiie fnei. Hus is a slower mode of iin^ting 



Kg. L — Seetlon of a Bererberatory Lead Fnmaee. 

SO to 40 owta. lA galena are put into the fur- 
nace at a time, either with or withont lime. In 
iJMnit two hours, the charge becomes mfHeiently 
roosted. During 1^ process, the larser porti 
the ore (FbS) tAea np fonr equivalents of ox; 
•nd beemnes tnlphate of lead (lUDrSOj), a utua 
oxide of lead (I^) is also formed, whue nnoiher 
portioit remains nnaltered as sulphide ol lead. 
After it is roasted, the ore is thoroughly mixed 
tMether, and the heat of the furnace suddenly 
ra&ed. Thia oansee a reaction between the un- 
ehugsd and the oxldiMd pmrtiom of the ore, and 



Fig. 2.— Plan of a BeTerheiatary Lead Fi 



worka. and poisons cattle and other animals f eediDg 
near tjiem. Much attention has of late been paid 
to the obviating of these evils, and several plans are 
in Dse for the purpose. Where it can be done, no 
method is more effective than simply conductiDg 
the smoke from the furnaces through aloQjg horixon- 



being left for the purpose of coltectiog it. About 
33 per cent, of the fmne thus recovered oonsiats of 
meUlllelead. 

Whan lead oontains antimonr and tin m impuri- 
ties, they am separated b^ fuslu^ the metal in 
shallow pans, and allowing it to oxidise at the sur- 
face. In this way, the antimony and tin form oxides, 
and as such are skimmed oSi Lettd reduced from 
galena tjwaya contains a little silver, of which 6 or 



10 onnceH to the ton is a very common proportion, 
althouf^ it often exists in much larger quantity. 
The separation of this silver is now greatly facilitated 
t^ means of a decHveTiilng proocM patented hr the 



d"byGOOgle 



LEAD^LBAD-POISONING. 



Ikta Ut H. FftttinwD of NewcMtle-on-Tyue. It 
cotuiitB in maltiii^ the lead, and allowing it to cool 
llowly, at the same time briskly itirring the melted 
dua. A portion of the lead is thus made to crjB- 
talliaa in snuill gr^na, which, aa pore lead Eolidineil 
at a lower temparatare than when alloyed with 
»ilT8r, leave* the uncrysWliBed portion richer in 
■ilTer. In thil operation, a row of, say, nine caat-iron 
pot* are used aimilar to the one uewn in fig. 3. 
u!1iey are usaaUy about 6 feet in diameter, and each 
heated with a fii« below. The lead from the amelt- 
itig famace ia treated as above in the middle pot, 
from which Qm poorer dytrtalliaed portion is ladled 
with a itrduer into the Br«t pot on the right, and 
the richer ptxtion, which remaina liqoid, i* removed 
to the firat pot on the left. WiUi both kind*, the 
prootea ia Mveral times repeated— the one becoming 
poorer, and the other richer in silver every time, till 
the lead in the pot on the eitrema ri^t has had it* 
ailver almoet entirely removed, and that in the pot 
on the extreme left coDtaine abont 300 ounoe* of 
tilver to the ton. The silver is then obtained from 
this rich lead by melting it on a flat bone ash cupel, 
placed in a revGrberatacy funuice, and expoong it to 
a cmrent of air which reduces the lead to the oxide 
«c Ulharm of oommercc^ leaving the tilver on the 
onpeL VaOf 600,000 onnee* of laver are in thi* 
way annnaUy ceparated from Brttiih lead, the latter 
1^ Uke some time being improved in quality. 

Lead ia an important metal in the art*. Bidled 
out into aheete, it is largely used for roofing home*, 
for water-ci*t^nB, and for water-pipes. It is also 
<d great servioe in the construotioD of lan^ chamber* 
for the manufacture of aalphorio acid. Ita value for 
tilie mannfactore of shot i* well known. Alloyed 
with antimony, ka., it ii largely consumed for type- 
metal, and with tin tor aoldor. Much lead ia alao 
required for the manufacture of pewter, Britannia 
metal, kc See Auat. 

Of the compounds of lead other than alloys which 
occur hKgelf in commerce, the following are the 
principal : 

WhUt Ltad or Carhonate of Lead, a subetance 
very extensively used aa white paint, and also to 
form a body for other colour* in puntiug. As mnoh 
at 1S,000 tons of it are annually made in Eo^and. 
White lead is still largely made by the old Dutch 
prooen, which conaiat* m treating metallic lead, cast 
m the form of stars or gratings, m such a way •■ to 
facilitete the absorption of carbonic acid. These 
■tais of lead placed in earthenware veasels, like 
flower-pots, conteining a little weak acetic add, are 
built up in tieis in tiie form of a stack, and sur- 
Tonnded with spent tan or hone-dung. The heat 
given oat from Uie dung volatdlises the acid, which, 
along with the air, oxidisea the lead. The acetic 
acid changes the oitde into the acetate of lead, and 
thia ii, in torn, ooaverted into the carbonata by the 
oarbonie acid raven off from the hotbed. By thia 
pnosM. metallio lead leqnirei frun six to eig' ' 
weeks lot ib conversion mto white lead. Sevei 
htm tediona proo n — as for the manufacture of 
white punt from lead have been tried at vario__ 
timea, but the only one now practised is that for 



n raw galena w 



Minium, Bed Ltad, or Red Omdt <if Ltad, -^ 
much OMismned in the numnfactore <rt fiint-f^aas 
and porcelun, and to some extent aa a pigmeet It 

teqnma to be made of very pure lead, as a sU^t' 

of oopper would impart a colour to gUai. U^l 

is prepared by heabog matneol or protoxide of lead 
to a tempenture of ew* F. in iron trava, in a rever- 
berator^r furnace, carefnlly avoiding tuaion. More 
o^^sen i* thu* gradually absorbed ; and a compound 
of the protoxide and the peroxide of lead i* fdnnedf 



having a bright red colour, which i* the red lead of 
commerce.— ^>)t/uir[7« has been already noticed. 

LEAD -POISONING. Peisona whoeo lyriam 
beoomes impregnated with lead, oa, for example, 
painters, who are constantly handling white lead, or 
person* who for a length of time have been nsing 
water charged with a lead-salt, exhibit a eeiies n 
phenomena of 1^ or saturnine poisoning. 

The early phenomena, which constitute what 
Tanqaerel dee Planches, the highest authority on this 
subject, term* primtttM taiumine mbaaeaUo^ are, 
(I), a narrow Une line^ due to the preaenoa of sul- 
phide of lead, on the margin of the gum* next the 
teeth ; {2), a peculiar taste ia the month, and a 
peculiar odour of the breath; {3), a jaundioed state 
of the ikin, with more or lea emaciation ; (4), a 
depressed slite of the drotdation. , 

leM piemonitory phenomena are followed, unlea 
dial meaia are adopted, by the four following 
fonna of diseoae, each of which may exist alone, or 
may be oomplicated with one or more of the othu^ 
or may fcjlow the others, without, however, having 
any definite order of succession. 

1. Lbad Cou(^ which is by far the most frequent 
of the diseases. 

2. Lku) RKsmuTiaK or Akisbaloia, wluch in 
frequency is next to cohc 

3. Lku Palbt or "Paruxso, which may affect 
either motion or sensation, and is next in frequency. 

4. DiBKASK or TBt Bkuh. which ia the least 
common of .all the form* of lead-poisoninj^ and ia 
manifeeted by delirium, by ooma, or by 

Lead CaHe it charaoterised by sharp 

abdominal pains, which are utnall^ diwinished on 
pTcetore ; by hardness and depression of the abdo- 
minal indls; by obsdoato oonstipation, slowness 
and hardness of the pulse, and general disturbance 
of the system. The blue line on the gums serve* at 
once to distingnish it from other varieties of calia 

Lead Jtiaimalum i* aharacterised by sharp noioi 
in the limbs, unaccompanied by rednei* or *wellin& 
diminished br preanire, increased by motion, and 
accompanied t>y cramps, with hardness and t^iii 
of the affected parts. It it distinguished fzoai aimi] 



aBecta the upper than (be lo 
mosoles most freqnentiy affected are those of ths 
ball of the thumb, and the extensors of the wrisi, 
giving rise to the condition represented in the figni« 

a* WTUt-drop, 




(Mln et the »t*ii»r 



a sulphuretted bath, 

salte on the skin into the inert black snlphids of 
lead. These baths should be repeated till tiisy osase 
to causf soy coloration of the skin. At the same 
time, he should drink water acidulated with sol- 
pboiio acid, or a solution of sulphate of nugnasia, 
witii a alight excess of snlphnrio acid, by whisb 



DioliiMbyGoOgle 



LEADER— LEAMINGTON. 



rawm ta inaolnble rnhdute of 

which ii eliminated by the pnrgat 

tietm at lulphate of magoefu. Iodide oF potu- 

nam ii then admiiiiatered, which acta in diaaotving 

the lead ant of the tiames, and allowing it to b« 

lemoTed by the urine. 
Hie pal^ may be specially treated, after the 

rliminatum of the lead, by electricity, and by 

■trrchiUDe in minnte doaea. 

Pmoaa ezpoaed from their oecapation to the liik 
of Icad-poiaoning Bboald be eapeoally attentiTe to 
clmuilineM ; and if they combine the bet^ent appli- 
cation of die warm bath vith the tue Of mlphuric 
lononade or treacle beer acidoUted with mlphuric 
add, u a drinl^ they may escape the effecta of the 
metallic poison. 

LEADER, the name pven to the performer in an 
DTchestra who pla^ the principal first-violin. 

LEASINO NOTE (Fr. note mOiU), in Mnaic, 
is omally understood to mean the sharp seventh of 
tiie diatradc scale, or the semitone below the octave, 
to which it leada. The most of the German theoriata 
have now t«linqmibed the term leading note, as 
ereiy note, when it ia felt that another imme- 
diately above or below it should follow, may be 
sud to be a leading note. 

LKADINQ QUESTION is a technical expres- 
sion in Law to denote a question so pnt to a witness 
as to niggeet the answer that is desired or expected. 
Thns, iia witness ia asked : ' Was he dressed in a 
black coat ?' it is sapposed the witness will answer, 
^■es ; whereas the proper way of putting the qiieatian 
u; 'Howwashedressedt'or, 'What kind <M coat*' 
Ac Hie role establiahed in conrts of justice as to 
the oonect practice in such matters, is, that when a 
witneai i* examined in chief, L e., 1^ IJie party who 
adduce* snch witness, leading questions are not 
allowed, except in one or two rare cases ; whereas, 
vfaoi the witness ii croaa-eiamined. L e., by tlie 
opposing party, leading qneationa may be put ; for 
the object is to make the witnees contradict and 
stultify himself, so tllat the jory will disbelieve him. 
The above rule, however, only applies to material 
^oestions, for in inunateiul qaeebons leading ques- 
bons may be put, sou to save time. 

LKAF-CTJTTER BBB, a name given to certain 
•pedes of toUtary bee* (see Bix} of the genera 
Megadiile and Oimia, in consequence of their habit 
of lining fheor nesta with portdona of leaves, or of the 
petals <3 flowers, which they cot out for this purpose 
with the mandibles. Mfgachile antmicutaria, a 
common British species, uses the leaves— not tlie 

Stals — of roses, Stting the pieces together so as to 
-m one thimble-shaped c^ within another, in a 
long cylindrical burrow, the bottom of each cell 
contaiung an egg and a little pollen paste. The 
rtructore of theae neets is very nioe and curious. 
LEAF-INSECT, or WALKINO-LEAF (Pk^ 



lieal-ljiieoc. 

^m), a very remarkable genus of orthopterous 
mseota, of the famOy Phaamida (q. v.), natives of 



tropical oountries, having wings extremely lik« 
leaves, not onlv in colour, but in the way in which 
they ore ribbed and veined. The joints of the legs 
are also expanded in a leaf-like manner. Theae 
insects spend their live* among leaves, move slowly, 
and would be mucb exposed to every enemy, did 
not their leaf-Uka qtpeanmce preserve them from 
observation. 

LEAGUE (from t^ I^t. laua), a measure of 
length of great antiquity. It was used by tile 
Bomans, who derived it from the Oaule, and esti- 
mated it as equivalent to 1600 Roman paces, or 
1376 modem Bkiglish miles. The league was intro- 
duced into Endand by the Normans, probably before 
tlie battle of Hastinra (10S6), and had been by this 
time lengthened to 2 English miles of that time, 
or 24, modem EugUsh miles. At the present day, 
the league is a nautical measure, and sifuifes the 
20th jiMt of a degree — i. e., 3 geographiciu milei, or 
3*466 statute miles. The French and other nations 
use the same nantical Inigue, but the former nation 
hod (until the introductioa of the me^isl system) 
two land-meaiurea of the some name, the Ifsal 
poating-Ieague -^ Z-^ Eng. miles, and the league 
of 25 to the degree, which is = 2-7S statute EngMi 

LEAGUE, the term genentUy employed in the 
16th and 17th centuries to designats a political 

allianoe or coalition. The most famous leagaet were 
those of Cambray, Schmalkold, Nllmber^ to. But 
Ibe name has a peculiar importance in the history 
of France, as applied to the oppodtiou organised by 
the Duke of Guise [q. v.) to the gnmtong of the 
free exercise of their religion and political rights to 
the Huguenots. Tiiis league, known as the Holy 
Lea|gue {SaMt Ligut), was formed at Pfrouae, in 
1576, for the maintenance of ihe Boman Catholic 
religion in its predominance ; but the object of the 
Guiaee was rather to exclude the Protea^t prince 
of the blood &om Uie succession to tiie throuie. 
For an account of the civil war that ensued, see 
HamtT IIL, Hbnby IV., and GinaB.-_8ee Miguet, 
HiOoirt de la Liffut (6 vols. Far. 1820). 

LEASE, WlLUAM Martik, a lieutenant- colonel 
in the British army, and a traveller who has contri- 
buted much to onr knowledge of the ancient and 
modem geography, history, aiu antiquitiee of Greece. 
He was bom in 1777, and died January 6, 1860L 
With remarkabie critical acoteness and soundness 
of judgment, he combined great learning and an 
admirable power of clear statement. His principid 
works, containing the matured frait of hia obaei^ 
vations and stui£ea, are — RfKorehea in Oruce, ftc. 
{I8K); The Topography qf AOvrm, 4o. (1821); 
Journal of a Totir in Aeia Minor, ujjfA Oomparal'iiit 
Remartr on Ihe Atuieat and Modern Omgraphy of 
Oat Country (1824) ; Travdii m Ou Sforta (1830) ; 
TravelsinjfoTlhtm Or«e« (1835); andJVunnnniiiioa 
HdUniea (1894). 

LBA'HINGTON, a fashionable watering-place 
Wuwick, EngUnd, and one of the 
OS in the country, ia beautifully 
situated on the Leam, a tributaiy of the Avou, 
about two miles from Warwick. It contains publio 
ffiudens, a prourietaiy college, erected in 1847 in 
the Tudor style, and other institutions. In the 
centre of Vbe town is a Pump Boom, a handsome 
tfaructure. L. is wholly of modem growth, having 
become important only within the present centuiy. 
Its mineral wateis are saline, sulphureous, and 
chalybeate. The watering-seaaon laste from October 
till May. The town stands in the centre of a fine 
hunting- country, and is much resorted to by lovera 
of the chase. Fop. in 1871, 20,010. 



dhy Google 



LEAP-YEAK — LEATHER. 



LEAP-YEAR, a Jttr of 366 days (lee Calxi- 
bak), 10 called becMM it lo&pa foiward a day aa 
oompaied iritli an oidinary year. It to h^^eni 
that ths le^>-*Mn oconnde witii the yean that an 
dtTioUe by Liit, sod that they may be known. 



H a leap-year, bw 

dinnble V 400, aa 

Bu»ee^ applied by the BomanB to leap-year, anwe 

fnun thur reckooiiig the 6tb before the Kalend* of 

Maich (S4tb Febroarr) twice ' {bit), wbereai we add 

a day to the end of the month, ""'"g the 29th of 

Eebrnary. 

LEASE ia the oontnct eatabliiliing the relation 
between I^adlcsd and Tenant (q. v.]. If the term 
of jttM it more than three, taen it nuut be by 
deed nndcr Mai in England, or Inr writing in Soot- 
land, it fw mon than one jean An iu^rariDg leaN 
ie wbwe the knee wwe to ke^ the imnuMa 
in repair. A hnHding lease it iriwe the tenant 
intends to bnild a boow on the land. SeaBmxDuiii 
IxAEK, liaa QaoninymMin. 

Tba gnnting of Uaaea to Uicee holding land 
frton the ownere, bat bean gmaral in Scotland 
for mare tiian a eentuy. To thii ie, no doabt, 
to ba ascribed, to a great extent, the rajud 



I in Scotland ia commanly i 



Beoently. In jaatonl bmu 
oropa itVeqnired, and no si 
expected, abort baaea of at 



into nae. What we haTe to notioa in parlj- 

onlar, ia the oommon agriodtniBl leaaa of nineteen 
jaan, ^rbkSk ferma the great baae of nual nroe- 
parity. Duiinf^ Sta cnrreD^ cf ttiia apedes of leaaik 
&e tenant haa m a great meaanre tiie nnoontrolled 



e iBTeated in tbe Ii 



Share no oUiar MonritT tiian tiie iraod faiUi 
faeling betwem Huamirta and laadlorda. In 
Scotland, bowOTBT, the antem of leaaea alnaa nueta 



. Uataa and gadu of farming. A lease ahoold 

be dMily and oonosely written, ao that Uie teima 
may be well nndentood by both partiea, and all 
diapnteaalit*eziiirTaT<»dea. Hie oroppiDg danaea 
of UaBaeTatywitnuia localities. In the neshboor- 
hood^ towna, the tmaot it Dtaally allowed to aell 
the wb(de ];aodaoe, indoding ibe ttraw, bnt ii bound 



its fron seUbig 
b be caoridered 



It w 

tomipoi Both tlwae danaaa cannot 

as anylkardthip to improring tenants. Tht mirnng 

— ' — "-- - -' potatoea off the land ihoold not be 

the beat aiabla distriots, tetiaoti 

often boond not to take two irttite aopa 



„ ahoold be 

lyttenta prevailing in the neigbbombood. Whatever 
tMse ate, tbey ahoald ba el^Iy defined. Va snch 
cianam aa * fuming according to the rales of good 
bnabandty' shonldbe allowed, at ttut ia apt to.lead 
to a diaagreemant in defining what tlieae rales are. 



Tbe terma of enUy are osnally Wbitannday and 
Mattinnuub which require veiv different airange- 
nmata in the terma of leases. In drawing np thran. 
the moat expmeneed fannsn of their renaetive 
districts ■hotud be eoutnlted, snd tiis tsnns feaaaed, 
as far aa possible, to encoorage the free ^ipUcatJOB 
of capitsl to land, and at the ssai* time to ktiM the 
detenoiatdon of tike land at the enniy of the tenn. 

The following are the nmal olnitN in aa aori- 
onltural lease: viz. — 1. Landlord lets lands qMci&d 
for term of 7"*r*i ezdnding aaaigniSi sad snb- 
tenanta. jL Eeaerres mins^ Ac, witli power to 
work them; power to escanb, plant, altar amd 
make roads, bnnt, Aoot and fiah, cat and can; 
away trees, fen part of lands for buildiag potpose^ 
inspect farm, Ac. When eieroise of l es ai T a tiDna 
oaosea aoiface damage, this to be pt^ for. SL 
Qanae of wsmndioe, 4. Aaaignation to obligatum 
of preriona tenant to leave premisea in order. 1. 
" '" ' taila aa to additaonal boneee and fmcts 
0. Obligation on tenant to pn- rant 
: two terms. 6. To ■"""'"'" ana IsaTa 
_ „ood Tep«r. 7. To insnts honsM ■tyr'-Tt 
damage by fir& 8. Otoppiug elania rendslii^ 
onUtvatiMi i£ lands, snd msnner in whioh (hey 
sre to be left; and also dinaaal of w^rgoing mop^ 
mannrc^ &llow-break, Aa Ik Arbitiatiiin alassa for 
settlement of diaputea. 10. Obligation to lemore 
at expiration of leaae. 11. General oblisatcry ctanae. 
IZ CUsuse of rogiriration. And 13. iWin^ clanse. 
Erei7 lease has its own peculiar details in refar- 
loe to drunagBj honaoa, and crop^ang. Wli«i a 
tenant eaten without paying for t^ atnw or 
mannn, it ia called 'tteelbow/ and he recraves no 
valne for these when he leaves. Occasionally, rents 
are paid iriiol^ or in part b^ the onnent piioe of 
grain, a qnantity c^ grain being fixed, CMivertible 
H the kTets^ mstket price of tut aessMi, as detv- 
mined 1^ a junr befwe the sheriff in a oonrt caOed 
ths Fiart CMiri. In oonteqnenoe of the predaeneH 
which Sootoh leases are ^wn vp, dispites are ot 
_..ce oootnrenoe. It will, of oomse, be imdeistood 
that tnt^ leases eau only be bronxht into Cfiantion 
where Iandl(»ds ate able sod wimng to put frims 
thoron^i^ in Mder for the tenant, sod when tiie 
tenant posaeasM mifllcient ospital to vrodc the Earn 
advantageous^. 

LEASE Aim RELEASE, a nsme ^v«n to a 

conreyance ot land formerly Dmoh used in ^^-"i, 

*~it now anpcrseded t^ a Ot*at. i 

LEASEHOLD. A lauwhold estate is moiriy tiie 

teiest or property wUch a man has t/ho holds a 

sse; and he is also lometimea called a leaadralder. 

leasehold estate is of mnch less value than a 

freehold estate, for a lease most some lime or 

other oome to an end, whereas a freehold eetsta is 

bald by • man and hia beii* for ever— that is, until 

' -I or they choose to part witii it. See LamunD 

LEABH, in Fsloonry, ths thimg of leather by 
wbich ji hawk is hdd. The word also signifita a 
-' '- "-- --"— -' rhonnd, and is 



line affiled to ths oollsi of a greyho 
used in botb signifieations in Henldry. 

LEASING-UAEDTG, in Scotch Law, mesiia 
seditions word^ whioh mustitulisd an offtawe 
pnniahaHe with dssth by sndent statntes of 1CS4 
andlSSKi 7^ ponishment was afterwards mitigated 



le and imprisonment, or both, at the 



dsts essentially of the at 
animals chemically altered by the T(^;etabl( 
dple called Tannin, or Tannic Add {q. T.), to 
aneet that proneneaa to decompose whidi is o 
teiistie of soft animal anbabmoas. 
reaches beyond the dawn rf history, Mid 



«i),Google 



motmhlj amou the aariiort g«rm« of civlliaatiaiL ; 
■■iiMi A* first artiakB of dathiiur. mny nMDt <^ 

by dfTiDg 
that baS 



voald ba In^Uy piiaad. Th» duooreij 



n* pnM^ilaof it* Aotioa WIS nnkoown ^ to tiie 
jritiif emton; and itie aama nnvaiTing nethod 
lad he— va^ajtd {ron the oailiMt tamea tintil 
Am iMt few yean, -riiae tite iiiT«nta<m of ~ 



1%0 akiBa ct ell I'iirnh oeed in 
cf leather eooaift diiafly of {[el«tiBe, a*i 
vlii^ mmQj enfaeta into ohenuoal oonunnatioii witis 
tbe tannif Msd foond in the haifk of niDat Mf^^f of 
baa^nikd ConHTrtut nuvha tanaad ^ iiwidnUe 
lamio-f/ttatm. Thu ie Uw vhds tfaaray of tanning, 
or oonmriiBC tte Ana of »"""*'- mto Tnathai 
y<gi u ^ l y, oak-faaik wm Rnpoaed to ba Uw only 
♦""'-g matwtal of anj n&a ; hak lataljr, voir 
B nm MOM additkna hair* bom made to this biautdi 

In Addition to ue raooeaa ot taiuunsin makiiif 
leathsr, th^ are other modea, one of trhioh u 
tawing, antrilier draring fa oS. Th» toUowing are 
the uDiM which fcom the staple of onr leather 
manaEBOtiiTe : ai, cow, calf oad kip, buSalo, hone^ 
aheep, limib, goaf^ kid, dear, dog, leol, and lug. 

TEta« tona ptU ii uiplied to all gkms before thn 
*■« oonrertad into leather. Whon nmply made 
into hatbwr in tiia atate we find in Bhoe-aola*, it 
in oaHad 'ran^ laatlier;' hot t^ in addition, it 

■ ■' ealUd onnTiiig, irideh 

it ia taonad "dnved 



a and kip^kina (th«t t», the ikina of baaati 
_.t than calve*, bat not fnU-giown oxen) an^ 

whMi tanned, naad chiefly for the npper-leaiihar of 

boot* and ahoe*. 

"AeQ* tmd lamb «Mm are imported (in the wool) 
large qoaotitie* fmn Anatialia and the C^w cf 
)d Hope; and tanned, from ow E*«t Indian 
HBnona. The latter, with the Cape ^Jna, an 
i for bookbindii^ foniitura, ^ovee, ftc. I«mb- 
u are imported aim from It^y, Sioily, and 
in, and tawed and djed for makmg dona, in 
taiaoB of kkL A. neat portion of all Mrt* of 
ibe and iheop an awed and naed ba mMona' 

aiocna, aewing hanaai, plaater-akiB*, tjrinA np 

bottle*^ MjuBg ihoea, and ouar jobluiig aiu inmior 

i W ih ' a* are die*Mil 1^ the cal prooew, and 
a KR«t portion of tbo io-eallad Aamag leatiiar, 
i deraTea ita name from the ohamou of the 



Mil 




n» ft^lowinc tnde-tmmi are in genonl nse : 
bdiB or arop^dee, batta and baoki, benda, ofhl, 
■ad iliitm. The complete hide ia leen in fif;. 1. 
Tb» •*»• mnnded, with the oheeka, ahanko, and 
b^-PMM, fto., pared oS, it called a bnU; the 
- -^" -\e o«tl.' and «Um 

■ ahMp, 



haoM-taada, nut Bombon am imported bom Uimte- 
Tidso^ finmioa Ayn^ Bnmla, and NcattMin Ota- 
many, aad a vmr nnnriiilaial'iln unmbo- «t dry 
bifclfbltuliH are uondkt fioan the Beat ^idiae. 
' of an aort* miported into Gnat Biitun, 
' ' ^- ■■ ■*" ■"" cwti and the --"— 



Baqwmtity' 
inini, amoo 






I 1871 



a £11^000^731. liliaae ratnmo, how 



and boot*. SttOilaiu 

into the lo-oaUed 'patMit laathar,' by Tanuahin^ 



thdr npper mriaoo. 

kind U leather ha* ot late beenne of 0«at 
ance to the Trf>ndi>T^i Sdinbnrsii, u^ Ifc 



Xho mannfaotnre of *^f 
tat jmprat- 

Kew<M>Ue 



Hog or fig Mm an in^orted from Bniiia and 
other oontmmital oonntcjea, and many are auppliad 
by Sootiaad j their naa ii ohitdy in ™*^ mannfaotaue 
of aaddlaa for hoHM, An. 

ITalnM tmi hkffopotamu hidn SM tanned in 
mwiMflt rnKlw numbcn fi^ *li* nae of ontJan ^^A 
other workeia in ftaal good^ ' bnlSng-i^eel** being 
m^^ft of them, often an ineh thiak, which are w 
great importuoe In giving the pohah to metal and 
hom goods. lately, belt* for driring maidunwy 
hare amxumtiJly bew made from them. 

JoN^oroo-aUlw of Tariooji apeciea are tanned or 
tawed in Amtialia, and form a kiiU of leatiiBC in 
gtMt faronr for gentlenen'* dnes-boota. 

Tht flnt nrooewis maldag taniiaif job batter ia 
to aoak the akin* OT hide* in watar for agreatttcr 
leas time, to waah and aoften them; they are 
thai laid in heaps for a ahott lime, and aftei^ 
warda hnng in a haatad mom, by wUch means 
a alight pn&efaolire deoompoamon is atarted, and 
the hair becomae so Ioom aa to be easilT dctwihed 
This proceaa -ot 'onhairins' ia mostly followed in 
America ; but in Ctrest Britain, milk of lime is used 
for eoaking tlie hide till tie h^ locaena. Hidea 
car Aina intended for drsming pnrpoae^ andi aa 
shoe, ooaoh, hirniiT. or bo(AJ>iimin& after the hair ia 
taken off by lime, have to be submitted to a pnotm 
oallsd'batmib'for the — ~ '—' — :--•>■-•■'■■-'- 



e^ and for oleanaing the akin from grease and 
omer o^mrituft This ia affeotad by wooing the 
akiiu tnadeooction a£ pigaon^ or d<^ dni^[ and 
warm water, and no ill railiiii Iwilhnr ia erer sub- 
mitted to bark or ahuuao wiQumt nndargoing tliia 

If the old metbad of tanHbig ia followed, the 
hides, after vnhairing, are placed in the tan-pita, 
with layer* ot oak-baric or othar tunning matsriBla 
batwaan tham ; and whan aa many iHnn of hidea 
■od balk ai« amoged a* the pit will hold, water 
ia lat in, and the hide* nnaitt to be acted upon by 
the tanninp material for months, and eren in *ame 
oaaea for yean, being only oocaaionally turned. Bnt 
thia pdmitiTBprooan ia now m«ly oarried ontj ao 
mncn improrement has been *tfiW**«^ in the tanner'a 
art linoa ita ^kemioal (ainaiple* 1 



«i),Google 



thmt tnneh leaa tdme BiifGoes ; and nuterialB are noir 
uwd Thich act so nmch more quickly thuk <»k- 
baric alone, that even if the old proceu ia used, it 
it Moatly accelerated. The moit useful of these 
mMarials are catechu and cutch (of which 9000 tons 
tt« aonnally imported into Great Britain from Jndioi 
and Singapore), gambier (about 1200 tons, from 
Singapore), divi-diTi {3000 tona, from Maneaibo, 
Ac), valonia (the acorns of the Qnercus .^^lope, 
SB,(KK> tons of which are yearly imported from 
Tark^), and sumach leaves (16,000 tons, chiefly 
from Turkey). 

The flist attempta at immviTemeut in tanniiiz 
were the method indented by Mr Spilsbury in 1823, 
and the improvement on tiiia method by Mr Drake, 
of Bedminster, in 1831. The principle consisted in 
causing the ctne or lan-Uqtu>r to filter throu^ the 
hides under prawure. For this porpoae, in Drake's 
process, the edges ot the hides were sewed op so 
as to form a bag. The bs^ being suspended, were 
filled with cold tan-liquor, which gradually filtoed 
through the pores of tbe hides, and impregnated 
"■ — with the tannin. The proceases by infil- 



, hides to each other to form a long 

belt, and pressed them between rollers, to squeeze 

out the parlially exhausted tan-liquor from the 
pores, BO that a stronger liquoi: misht be abaorbed- 
M«aars J. and O. Cox, of Gorgie Mills, near Edin- 
burgh, made an improvement on this mode, by 
attactung the hides to a revolting dram, so Uiat 
the hides press on each otiier on the top of the 
drum, but hang suspended in tbe ten-hquor from tbe 
lowOT part i and thus, by the hides being alternately 
in and oat of the liquor, the t«nning is quickly 
effected. 

After the bides have become thoroughly tanned 
in the pie by the action of the tannic acid upon 
their gdatinoas nibatauoe, and when partly dried 
(if for 'strack' sole-leather), they are operated 
QjWD by a two-handled tool with three blunt edges, 
called a pin (fig S, and section, a), which, by being 



-A 

Ks.2. 

rubbed with great preasure backwards and for- 
waida on the grain-side of the leather, makes it 
mom and more compaet ; and this is still further 
accomplished by submittiDg the leaiJier to the 
action of a heavily loaded brass roller. 

The tanning of goat.skins ffrom which our 
morocco is made), sheep for unitation-morocoo, 
and small calf-skins for bookbinding, is done by 
■swing np tbe skins, and filUng the bag with a 
decoCBon of shnmao in a warm state. They are 
kept in an active ttata for twenty-ftmr hoiua or 
BO, which Buffidantly satnrates them. 

A process has beoi patented by Mr FreQler, of 
Bennondaey, within the last few years, by which 
the heaviest skins are oonverted into leather 



veiT short space of time ; but tiie process is tawing 
rather than tanning, and is used for machinery- 
belts principally. 

TaviKg oonaists in dressing Uie skins with anti- 
septie materials, so aa to preserve them from decay; 
faat by ttiis (^leratian no chemical change is effected 
in the gdatine <A tha skint ; hence, tawed leatiier 



a be used in the manufacture of g1 



is, however, mach varied, according to the kind of 
skin and the experience of the woiker. Lamb-skins 
of home-production are generally timed on the fleah- 
tide with crvam of lime, which enables the wool to 
be easily pulled off. Dried lamb-skins an geDerally 
submitted to the heating proau, to set the wou 
removed. The pelts, after being washsd, are rubbed 
on the convex piece of wood called the btam ; and 
when supple, the flesh-side of each akin is thickly 
besmeared with a cream of lime ; and when two 
are so treated, they are laid with the limed sarfaces 
in contact ; and a pile of them being made, tbey 



Fig. 3. 

unless it it >«qiured .... 
of skins for doot-mats, &c Alter thorough 
ing, the pelts are steeped for two or three weeka 
in a pit filled with water and lime, being iaktti 
out &om time to time, and drained on ll<^iiag 
benches. When removed finally from the line-pit, 
the skins are worked with the knife, to rendar 
them still more supple, and they are then pat 
into the trranning mixture. This couBiafai of brm. 
and water, in the proportion of two pounds of hraa 
to a gallon of water. From this mixtore, in about 
two days, they are transferred to another bath, con- 
sisting of water, alum, and salt After the proper 
amount of working in this mixture, they underao 
what is called the pattirtg, if intended to form whita 
leather. The ptule is a mixture of wheaten-bran 
and sometimes flour and the yolks of ^gs. They 
are nsuallv worked in a rotating cylinder with this 
paste and water, and are found in time to have 
absorbed the paste, leaving litUe more than the 
water. If the skins are wA intended to be white, 
other materials are often need, and nrach ngeons* 
and do(^ dung is amjdoyed, tome targe leaUier- 
dressera expending aa moch as £100 per annom 
np(m each of these materials. lastly, the skins are 
dried and examined, and, if necessary, the pasting 
is repeated ; if not, they are dipped into pure water 
and worked or staked by pulling them backwards 
and forwards on what i> i^Ied a «tre(cAni0 or m^ft- 
tning iron, and smoothed with a hot smootmng-iron. 

Another kind of dressing ia by treating the skin 
with oiL By hard robbing with ood oil, or I^ the 
action of ' stocks,' after the skin has been proptriy 
cleaned with the lime, the oil works into the skin, 
displaces all the water, and becomes onited with 
the material, rendering its texture peculiarly soft 
and spongy. Wash-leather or chamois-leather is bo 
pispued, and for this purpcke the flesh-hslves of 
split sheep-skina are chi^y used. 

Bendes (ottninji and fawfao, many kinds of leather 
require the cumer's art to bring them to the state 
of completion required for various purpoasL The 
currier receives the newly tanned skins, and Snda 
them hanh to the feel, and rough on the flesh-nde. 
He removes all the roughness by carefully shaving 
with a pBonliat knifs. After a soaking in de*- 
water, n* then teraiiea the skin with 



«i),Google 



LEATHEEt— LEAVES. 



Hn—m a upon & acnfnii^tool or ilidser, ud thiu 
nmona mj imgai^nUta. Tha moiatiiTe ia then 
laacmd •■ mncli m poMible, aiid oil, nsiully cod- 
oil wd tallow, »re mbbed otsi the lekther, wluch ia 
laid uide to diy coiapletely, sad u the moiatore 
' "■ '\e<»l ■—'-— "^ ■^- ' ■ > ' 



ntrated irith the oil, the akin ia iiib1>ed on » bowd 
wrAk KMUtded ridges, by whinh ■ peculiar grained 
fmntnoe ie ^Ten, ana the leather ia rendered Yery 
jdubJe. In onnying, almoat ereiy Tuiety of kaiher 
nqajrea woma vmri^ion in the proceMe* employed, 
hot the enrriei'B object is in aH ewea to gira a 
■ipdeneaa bimI fiae ^iah to the xkin*. 

Monicco leaAtr,t(jnMtly an article of import from 
the Bwbai^ CMMt, m now prepared in large qnan- 
titit* in tlus coonttjr, from goat-akini ; aheep-aldna 
alio an aaed for imitalion. It a alwaya dyed on 
Ihe ovter or grain aide vith some colour, and the 
leitlier-dreaMr in flnjAing givea a peculiar ribbed 
or a ranghlf granulated somce to it, by meam of 
engnved boxwood balla which he worlu orer th« 

Suuia UoAo' ia much Talned for it* aromatic 
odonr, which it derirea from the pecQliar oil of tile 
bitdi-hatk need ia t'-""'""g it. The fact that thia 
odonr rqiela motlu and oUier inaecta, renden this 
leather particnlarlv valnable for Mndiog booka ; a 
few booka in a lionry, bonnd in Roatia leather, 
bang ^ecbre aaffguards againat inaect eneroiee. It 
ia alao aud to deabv^ or prevent the vegetable evil 
called mildew, to whioh booka are «o very liable. 

IiEATHHR, VidKrABLi, ia a compoaition, the 
base (rf which ia nppoaed to be oxidiaed oil It ia 
apmd orer cotton or other cloth, and i* naed aa a 
water-proof nutarial for carriage-hooda, aeata, gaitan, 
boots, ic At preeent, it is only made by one con- 
fooy, which holda the secret of ita manufactute. 
LBATHEBWOOD IDirisa palvtlrii), a deeidnoua 



the natnral <»der Htjimdeaeece. The bark and wood 
sie exceedingly too^, and in Canada the bark ia 
naed for mjttM, baskets, to. The leaves are lanoeo- 
lat«-aU<nig; the flowers are yeUow, and appear 
beCm tin leavm 

LBATE AXD LIOEKCE, a phrase in English 
law to denote that leave or perniiaaion waa given to 
do iome act complained oL It ia ■ oommon defenoe 
in actions of trrrpaaa. 

LEATER', ' sour ' don^ or don^ in which 
putrefaction has began, and which, owing to the 
pnsence and rapid growth or multiplication of the 
Tcait-plant qnickly commnnioatea ita character to 
fnah dough with which it ia mingled, oaosing the 
JTDcea of termentation to take plaoe aooner ttun it 
othenriae wonld. The use of leaven in baking dates 
from a very remote antiquity ; the employment of 
yeaat ia more recent. See Ykast and Bbxajx 

LEATZNWOBTH, a city of Euissa, United 
States of America, founded m IS54, on the right 
bank of the Miaaouri Biver, 25 milea above Eonzaa 



-_-.,- -, _ _ , — —jad avennes, 

lighted wifli gM, with seventeen churches, severu 
imM, hotda, daily and weekly papers, and large 
imUs sod factories. It ia Uie headqoarten 
the government oonbaotora for b'aina aoroaa 
pUina to Utah, New Mexico, &&, and baa done 
u inunense buaineas in thia way. Pop, (1870) 
17,871 



nore or lass flat and green, never bearing flowera, 
"i rf great om in the T«getable eoonomy, as 



exposing the lap to air and light on their extensive 
BuHacea. It ia aanally in the Axils (q. v.) of leaves 
that buds and bnnchea are developed; and with 
reference to bnda and branches, Uiey are never 
mtuated othenriae than beneath them, although in 
the aiila of many leaves no development of boid or 
branch ever takes place. After ita full develop- 
nent, a leaf rataina iti form and size noohanged tul 
ita d«ath. Aa to the duration of their life^ leave*. 
exist either for (me year — that ia, during a year's, 
period of active Testation — in whioh case they are- 
called Dedtbunu (q. v.), or for mora than one year,, 
when they are oaiUed Setrffreat (q. v.). 

A leaf first ^nieais as a httla conical body, 
poshed out from tiie stem or brandL At first, it. 
conaists entirely of oellnlar tisane, continuons with 
the bsrk, but vssonlar tissue sfterwards generally 
appeara in it. When folly developed, it naoally 
consiata of two parts : an expanded part, called the 
bituU or limi; and a stalk simportine this part, 
and called the leqf-iliM, or petiole, which sometmies 
assumes the form of a iheath of the stem, as in 
grssseo. The leaf-stalk, however, ia often wanting, 
m which case the leaf ia called tatUe ; and whra 
tha base of the leaf embraoea the stem, it is ooUed 
amplxaeavL A leaf which has a leaf-stalk is called 
pe&iiale. Sessile leavea often extend in wing-like 
prolongations down the stem, and are then called 
decarra^ They are sometimes per/otiate, entirely 
aurrounding the item with their base, so that it 
seems to pass thrcngh the leaf. Opposite leaves 
are sometimes combined in this way. Leaves ara 
called limpU, when all their oarta are united into 
one whole by a connected cellular tissue ; they ara 
called eontpoutuf, when they consist of a number 
of distinct, completely separated parts, which ara 



when they arise from the very baae-^and many 
plants have radical leaves only; or eauline (stam- 
leavea), when tbey arise from the ieadopti stem 
or branches — the ndioal leavea really arising from 
fioral, when th^ arise from the 



^ ... . at ri^t angles to those 

next above and below. AS these modes lA amnge- 
ment on the stem can be reduced eitho' to the uAorl 
or to the aptml ; whilst by the tearing out of the 
whori, the sprat arrangement arises, and the whorl 
by tb» ctmipression of the spiral, but so that Uie 
whori and the spiral an essentially the same. The 
number of leaves requisite to form a complete eydt, 
or to encircle the stem, ia very constant in the 
game ipecies. In the Common Honseleek, the cycle 
oonaista of no fewer than thirteen leaves, which are 
grouped together to form the TOtetU ot this plant- 
Leaves consist either exclusively of ceUnlar tissue, 
as in moasea, or, mora generally, of cells and bnndlea 
of apitkl Tniinin aa in the leaves of trees and moat 
other phanero^noos plauta. The stronger bundles 
of vessels form nerves, externally canapwnona, the 
Bjier ramifications of which are called vtina. In 
endogenous {juito, the nerves of the leaves run 
mostly in atrught linea, and nearly parallel; 
whereas, in exogenous planta, a net-like nunifiofc- 
tion of liie nerves prevaOa. 

The leavea of pbjuieragamoiia plants and ferns ara 
covered with a well-developed aeparabla ^lidmnit, 
which extends over all their parts, and which ia 
provided with nomeroua small pore*— fftonoftt (^. v.) 
— sometime* on one, aomeimea on both tides, 
serving for the abaorption and exhalation of gaseous 
snbatuioes. Snboieiged leaves, however, and the 
under side of leaves which float on the surfaoe of 



«i),Google 



intar, have no rtoouta, no ti 
trae vmoqIu' tiaaoB. 

Some plants luTe no 1««vb«, their lmiatirm» being 
parfonned by the grean juicy rind of the italks, u 
in Oaelaeea and »onm ot the senna Euphorbia; or 
by the genanl pirfMe of the lEollas (q. v.) in ouuiy 
aerogeooiu plants. 

It is in die U»ve« <A pUnti that the elabontion 
of the up chiefly fadtea pUce, and when a tree ii 
deprived of it* lesTsa, no wood is formed nntil they 
are again derdoped. The inonsant removal ot 
leaves m they are formed dertroys a plant, and 
this method is sooKtinMa sdvanti^eonsfy adopted 



1 weeds having deep or Ipnsdin^ perennial 
mota, and otherwise diffionlt of extirpation. 

Leaves Bzhibit more or leas decidedly a perioditial 
alternation in their direction Kod eipansian, gener- 
ally Qoneapondiiig wit^ the alternation of day and 
night. Sane leaves exhibit a peculiar irritability 
nndcr variotM inSueoocs, and those of two or tliree 



spMnes <rf plants, by their closing together, cattdi 
and kin insects which slight on them, a 11iin& 
however, ot which no ralaticQ to the - vqgetabfa 
eoonomy is known. Ses Isktuxilitt' tx R.AXia, 
Slbf of Fi.urra, and Diosju. 

The forma «f leaves are erbemely variona. fionle 
leaves vary from a fonn almost perfectly aironlar, 
or even broader than long, to an extreme ekmntioB, 
as Itnair or JU^bm (thread-like). The breath cl 
scone increases towards the i^tn, and this is iadi- 
osted l:^ the tenus obotait, obeordale, fto., asd 



term which . . — , _. — ^ 

either sntJre, or thcT are laoTeorlesa aeqily tooAsd 
or serrate; or tlwy areetit or loM by drrimona 
extendias from the raaroin towudi tits bsaa; or 
the divkioQ may extvid towards the midrib of Uls 
1g«^ when tba leaf is ptnMOi^ or »itmaie, or 
nMtliuUt, ko. The socompsnyiuK Sgnrn exhibitB 
{rf Ute forms of leaves, and explains moi« 




; t, OTilSj B, iBunUc; 1, ta; 



Forms of Lesrea : 



Imefly than words coold, some of Ac termi need 
in deacrilnna them. Similar terms are employed 
as to the I^eta of compound leaves, but the vanely 

of foims is not nearly so great. Compound leaves 
exhibit two chief vorietiee of fonn, according as 
the divisions which form the leaflets extend 
towatds the base of the blade, or towards the 



I, pHHDite; I, ijitxt; 



_._ leaves, ftc.; the Ihtter are 

laaTes. Bat the same mode of divimon may be 
repeated in the leafleta, and thus a leaf may be 
Msmol*, or, if again divided, trUernaU, ke., and 
tery many leaves are Mpnuute, fripunale, A& 
When the division is often repeated, the leaf is 



abvGoogle 



USANON— LEOTEEN. 



aDad An 



Old. A jrinoite UmI, 
b^ ia Mlled pari-pbui 



d pari-pbaale, 
pam^; bdt > inniwte leaf ray often ta ... _ 

mn «dd laa&e^ and ia thai ckDnd impari-pirmate. 
Ih blade of • l««t ia gnkSrally in the Home plane 
witb the atalk, but ia Bometim«a at right tm^ to 
i^aa in or^ieular and peUde leaTca. 

1W Terttatiim (n. v.) of learaa, or the manner in 
iriueh thejr are folded in bud, is, like the atHeaOon 



Jo o ( I mre i are genanDr laiger than Am-Iaiw*, 
b«t are only pr«a ein t ia herlMiMaaa plants, and an 
genorally the fint to f 
are Banerallv anaUcr 
thoae 
By 






iwo* often pasBng into 

— ,. 1 of learea, all bracta, 

« piodnoed, and all the difTemrt 
a cal^ cmllai, itamoia, carpela, 
n frmta; and tlie mode of theii 



Bwrplkoaia of fearea an «alled Ituf-myamM. See 

MORPHOUMT. 

Sted-Uava aie the cotyledonc of the aeed, nuaed 
above ground after genniiution, and aerrit^ the 
porpoaea of leava to the foong pluit, al^jsngh 
generallT yary unlike iU futiire leave*. Thia, how- 
ever, only takes place in some planta. 

LB^AHOS, MotTNT, or JEBEL LIBKAN', the 
weataa and hi^er of two monntain-ch&ina whidi 

with the cowt of the Levant, Ibi average height 
te aboat 7000 foet, hat iti loftiert pei^ Dohrd- 
Kbotib, in Ha range called Jebel MJrmi-l^ yjninti 
•a elevation of ll^OSO feet For aiz montha of 
ttuTBar, thia monntain U covered with anow. The 
aert higliaat point ia JeM Snnnin, 86SS feet 
Hw Foad from BaallMk to Tripoli croaaea L. at an 
elevation of 733> feet From the weatem side of the 
rang^ aarcral apn* strike off acroaa the narrow 
•km of levd mart, and ra^oot open Hie Leivant in 
bcdd promontories. In the aoDth are the sources 
of the Jordan, the mort important river that rises 
in LefaaocBi; not far from Dahrel-Ehotib, thoae of 
the Oitmtee, the next largest streazn, which flows 
northward, and intersects the chain at Antaki 
{An&och). L, derives its name, not from the snow 
that whitens its peaks, but from its chalk cliSk. 
tnw T»etation of L. ia, on the whole, acan^ ; 
ben and there, vooda and willow-grovea are aeen ; 
tbe lower parte of the moontai^ however, are 
eyerjwixn well watered and onltivated, and the 
vallrfB are often covered with orchsrda, vineyatds, 
dive and molberry plantations, and cornfields. 
The habitaible diatricta are mostly in the pooaoeaion 
of Haronitea (q. v.) and Dmses (q. v.). Everywhere 
the nn^ of L. is wild and solitary; the only sound 
that iSim upon the ear of the traveller is the 
•cream of the ea^e. Numerous monasteries offer 
comfortable accommodatian to the weary traveller 
at the close of almost eveiy day's wandermgs. The 
once famous Cedars of L. have almost disappeared ; 
only a solitary grove remains. See Ckdui or 

Asfn-LuAiioii, or JAA^sK-^>erld, lies east of 
tlie preceding; the nnge i» leas compact, and ita 
avenge hdght infeiior. The Ri'sat plain between 
the two is known as CtBle-Sjiia (q. v). Anti- 
Lebanon terminates aouthwards in Honnt Eermon, 
its higheat point, which reaches an elevation of 
CT6feet. Its sidea are clothed with green poplar- 
treea, but it has no cedsi«. On ita tatde-Iands are 
found numerous little lochs or tarns, which are a 
characteristic featnre of this range, and diatingniah 
it from Mount Lebanon. 



LEBEDLAlf, a i^strict town of Great Roaala, in 
the government of Tambov, 100 milu weet-norUi- 
weat of the city of that name, on the Don, in lat 
53^ N. It baa two **i"iinl faiia, the conuneniial 
tranaactionB of which realise £700,000. One of the 
obief articles of aale is honca ; azid government 
oflSoFffs freouent the fairs of L, in order to fumiah 
horaea for the cavalry regimenta. 

LEBEDIlr, a town of Little Suasia, m the 
(mvemment of Kharkov, 90 n^ea north-west of 
tne town of that name, in Ut 60* Sff N., long. 
34* 30' E It was foonded in the 17th oentory. 
Fop. (1867) 15,149, who manufacture girdles and 
saahea to the value of many tijonsand roublaa, 
Thete articlea, which are worn by the Russian 
pensanta, are sent for sale to Moscow, and to tbe 
fairt of Nijm-Novgorod, Kursk, ha. 

LEBRDK, Chaklb, a Fremih painter, bon at 
Paris, March 22, 1819, studied in the school of 
Vouet, and afterwards at Rome, under Ponsnn, for 
aiz yeara, returning to Prance in 1648. He beoacw 
mincipal coort-pauiter to Lonia JtlV., and died at 
Paris, Febniary 12, 169a L'a beat worka are a aerie* 
of pictures reprfsenldng the batOea of Alexander, 
which were feficitonsly eiu^ved bjr GfraM Andran. 
L. belongs to the dassJcal and srtifiaial aohool, bnt 
he is a very favourable spedmoi of it 

LHCCE, the chief town of a piovinoeof the same 
name in Southern Italy, 10 miles from the Adriatio, 
and 2S sonth-sontb-east of Brindisi, had a popq in 
1872, of 23,947. It is the Lupioe of the ancient 
Salentnes, the name having become Lycia in the 
middle agM, and hence Leoce. It contains fine 
ehnrohes and public edifices, tiie architecture of 
which ia much enhanced by the beauty of the fine 
white stone found in ahnndance in the neighbour- 
hood, which admits of eiqniaitdy minute cutting. 
L. baa a large trade in oliva-triL Fop. ti prov. (1871) 
493,694 ; area, 3292 aqnare miles. 
~ LECdlPTOS, once the capital of Eanaas, 
TJnited States of America, ia aitnated on Kanaaa 
River, 60 milea from ita month at Eansaa City. It 
has greatly declined in population and importance 
In 1^0, the popnlatton was only 971. 

LE'OTEBN, or LETTEEN (I^t ladorbim or 
lectridum), a reading- 
desk or Bland, properW 
movable, from whidi 
the Scripture Uuotu 
IfaHona), which form 
portion of tbe various i 
cbnrch-servioBs, are 
chanted or read. The 
lectern is of very 
ancient use, of various 
forms, and of different 
matenals. It ia found 
both in Roman Catholic 
churchea and ia the 
cathedrals and college- 
chapels of tbe Church 
of Engknd. The mort 
ancient leotona are 
of wood, a besntifnl 
iple of whicih 



n e^le (the aymtra 
geliat), tiie outapread winp i 



abvGoogle 



LECTTHHUCBA— I-IiK 



■iqiporliiig tlie T0I11111& — 
Scotland, the pieoentot'l 
choTchea U called the lei 

LECYTHIDA'C&iE, a natnnJ ord«r of esogen- 
00* pluts, or nib-oider of Mvrtaette, the diitia- 
gniihuig ctuMctoutio beiiig that liie fruit is a 
Uige woody capaole, with a Damber of cell*, which 
in M>me apecael remuiu doaed, and in tome opeoi 
with a lid. All the known specie*, about forty, are 
natives of the hotteit parta of South Americ*. All 
ate laive ta^es. They have alternate leaves, and 
large iowy flowert, aohtary, or in racemes. The 
■tajneni are nnmerons, and a portion of them (ome- 
time* oonnected into a kind of petal-like hood. 
Brazil Nats (q. v.) and Sapucaia Nnts {q. v.) are the 
*t:ed* of trees of this order. The Cannon-ball Tree 
(q. T.) belong! to it. The capniles of some species 
are known as nonley-polt. Monkeys are very fond 
oft! 



', the wife of the 



LEDA, in Grecian Uytholoj 
Spartan king Tyndareoa, whom . 
night in the disguiae of a swan. She became by 
tile god the mother of Castor and Pollux, and after 
her death, was raised to a divinity under the name 
of Nemeaia. The story has supplied a theme for 
many works of art. 

LE'DBURY, a small town of England, in the 
county of Hereford, is situated fourteen miles east- 
Bontli-eaat of the city of that name, on the Here- 
ford and Glouceater oanaL Olove-making is the 
principal branch of industry. Pop. In 1871, 2967. 

LEDOEEt-LIN^ a kind of tackle nsed in fiab- 
ing. It consist* of a ballet or jnece of lead with a 
hue thronsh the centre ; through which a gnt-line 
i* threaded having at the end 01 it a hook. About 
18 or 20 inches vMva the hook, a shot or bead is 
fastened firmly to the line, to prevent the lead 
from alipping down the line nearer to the hook. 
The hook bamg baited, the tackle is then cast into 
the water. The lead rests on tile bottom, and the 
line is kept tu^t, hut without lifting the lead off 
the bottom, ^le moment a fish bi(» at the bait, 
it is felt by the angler, who immediately gives a 
strong pail or strike. This method of fishing is 
used chiefly for barbel or bream. 

LEDRIJ.BOLLIB', Alexandsi Auouste, a 
noted French democrat, born in Paris in 1808, 
studied for the bar, to which he was admitted 
1^. He was oounael for the defence in m< 
of the prosecutions of oppotituin |ounia]B during the 
reign of Lonis Philippe, and obtuned a great repu- 
taboB among the lower ordeta. In 1841, he was 
elected deputy l^ tiie department of Suthe, 
beoune a prominent member of the extreme Left 
In 1S46, he published an Appet auz TVamfUmrf, 
which he declared ' universal lu&rage ' to be the only 
panacea for the miseries of the working-classes. 
He was also an ardent promoter of the reform- 
meetings that preceded the crash of 1S48. On tht 
Dutbredi of the revolution, he advocated the foimo- 
tion of a Provisional Government, and vrheo this 
was carried out, was intrusted with the portfolio of 
the Interior. He was afterwards one of the five in 
whose hands ^e National Assembly placed the 
interim government. In this high position, he 
■hewed great want of perception, finnness, and 
(ueigy. In oonseqoenae of the inson-ection of June 
184^110 ceased to hold office, and then sought to 
(lAat he had lost t? accepting office) hia 
■" the extreme demoorata. He partially 

, , t even ventured on a candidature for 

the ptendency, but obtained rady 370,119 
The nncncoessfnl tmeutt of June 1849 put an end to 
L. B.'s pijitioal rAle. He fled to England, and in 
leas than a ye«r poLtely published a work sgainit 
Tt 



land which had given him an asylum. De la 
Dicadena de VAngletem. For the next twen^ 
nars, he lived alternately in London and fensanls 
His name was excepted from the amncstiea of 1860 
and 1869; but in 1870, a decree having been pub- 
lisbed penuitting him, be returned to France. In 
Fetffnary 1871, he was returned to the National 
' Membfy, but at once rengned. He died in' 1874. 

LET>UH, a genus of plants, of tlie natural order 
Enaa, siib.order AAoddrecs, consisting of small ever- 
green shrubs, with oompaiatively luge flowers, of 
which the oorolla is cut into five deep petal-like 
B^ments. The species are natives of uuvpe and 
North America ; some of them are oommon to both. 
The leaves of h. lal^olium are said to be osed in 
Labrador as ft substitute for tea, whence it is some- 
times called LlBRADOR Tka. Sir John FVankltn 
andhisparty, in the ai«tic expedition of 1819—1822, 
used in the samq way the Ledum p/UnMn, which 
produced a beverage with a smell resemhling 
rhubarb, yet they found it reEieahing; The leaves 
of both these sbniba posseaa narcotic properties, and 
render beer heady. Tbey ax 
agues, dysentery, and diNrhcsa. 

LEE, or LEEWARD, a nautical term for the 
quarter io which the vrind is directed, as distin- 
guished from mndaard, or the part vAence tim wind 

LEE, the name of a distiugoished Virginian 
family. Their ancestor, Eichaud Lk^ emigrated 
with a numerous household to America, in the reign 
of King Charles L, and settled in the couutiy lying 
between the R^ipahannock and Potomac rivers. 
He was a bold royalist, and during the Protectorate 
of Cromwell, was mainly instrumental in inducing 
the colony of Virginia to assume a semi-independent 
attitude. — RicEuto Hembv Lee, great-grsndsoa 
of the preceding, and the most illusbions member 
of the family, was bom at Stratford, in Virginia, 
January 20, 1732. He was educated first at home, 
and afterwards in England. He did not come promi- 
nently before hi* countrymen till after the British 
[larliuuent had passed (17M) the act declaring ita 
right to tax the ct^ouies, aod also the Stamp Act 
(1765), when he immediately became the centra of 
an ac^ve opposition among the colonists, sasociated 
himself with Patrick Henry (q. v.), and drew up 
most of the 'resolutions' of the period. He was sei^ 
as a delegate from Virginia to the first American 
Congress, which met iU Philadelphia (September 
5, n74), and at once became a leader in the 
assembly. He wrote most of those addresses to 



' tor solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, and 
wisdom of conclusion, under such complication of 
circumstances, no nation or body of men can stand 
in pi'eference to the general oongjess at Philadelphia.* 
When war between the mother.oountry and the 
colonies became inevitable, Lee was placed on the 

ittees charged with preparing the mnnitioaB 

:, and with devising all other means of oQering 
a Tworoos resistance to the British govemment. 
His uboun at this tame were enormous. On the 
7th of June 1776, Lee made the moat celebrated (and 
important) ol all his speeches, when introducing 
before the congress of Philadelphia a measure 
Aar^^rittg the ' United colonies ' to be ' free and inde- 
pendent states,' and ' absolved from all allegiance 
to the British crown.' Durins the war of inde- 
pendence, he was — in spite of ill-healtli— one of the 
most active of the palnotic party, chiefly, however, 
as a civilian. In 1764, he was elected president of 
congress, and when the federal constitution vra* 
established, he entered the senate for Virginiik 



«i),Google 



LEE-LEECH. 



Towmrditbe close ^hii career, he becAme a decided 
fedenlii^ attlioii^ ori|^juUy lie had rieired that 
«7«tan of sorerament with gre*t Biupidoii, as tend- 
iagtorank a dcapotio ccntmliution of power. In 
179^ he retired from pnbHc aSain, and died in hit 
satire atate, June 19, 1794 Hie Life and Com- 
momiaux -wag pabliehed by hii graat-grandaon, H. 
H. Lm (2 vols. Philadelphia, 1S26].— Leb, Akthcb, 

?»uigeet brother of the pieoading, waa bom 
iiBioia, December 20, 1740. He was educated 
EtoD, then Btndied madidne at Edinburgh, and 
after travelling on the contioeDt for some time, 
ratomed to America, and started aa a phygicuuu 
CJr^unataiicea, however, aoon drew him into the 
field of politiee ; he retnined to EagUnd, advocated 
tbe ri^ta of tile coloniea in the £n^iih newipapen, 
•nd m 1776, took np his resideoce at Faris, aa 
the aecret agent of the American con^reo. In thii 
'~~"'"**~ . he WM boul; employed during the whole 
Mid ooodocted hu biuiaea on the oonti- 



neatly to the advantage of the oolonista. 
died December 12, 1792. Lee, like hii brother, 
wva an admirable aeholar and writer, enjoyed the 
frieodah^ of acme of the moat eminent men of 
his timci, Burke, Wyndham, Sir William Jones, the 
Abbe Baynal, and the Doke de Kochefoucauld. 



lag, waa bom in Virginia, January 29, 1766. He 
mM one of the mart daring, vigilant, and succeeaful 
CAraliy offioen on the aids of Uie coloniati. ' Lee"* 
li^ion ' waa probably the moat effective and eonr- 
ageoua body irf troo[B niaed in America. In the 
bmona retreat of Qreene before Lord Corawallia, it 
formed th« irar-gnard, the poet of honour, and 
covered itKlf with gbrv. At the battles of Guild' 
fold Coort Honae and Butaw, at the siege* of Forts 
Watson, Hotte, and Qranby and Augusta, and at 
the atomung of Fort Grienon, Lee particularly 
■ignaliaed hunaelL After the war, he was sent to 
ooDgreaa as a delegate from Virginia, advocated the 
adoption of a fedmal constitution, and in 1792, was 
choaen governor of Vii^nia. In 1S09. he published 
a valuMile work, entitied' Maiioira of the War in l&e 
StnilJumOtjpartmaUofllu United Stata. He died 
at Cnmberland LOamj, Georgia, Uarch 25, 1S16.— 
Lis, Bobzbt £.. General and Commander-in-chief 
of the army of the Confederate States of America, 
waa a son m theprecedini;, and waa bom in Virginia 
about ISIO. He waa educated at the mihtary 
academy of Weat Point, entered the army of the 
United Statea, lerved as captain of engineers under 
Geoenl Scott in the war with Mexico, was raised to 
the mik of Ueateeant-colonel, and bievetted colonel 
for distinguished aervicea. He was employed in 
the oSct of the oommander-in-cMef at Waahiugton 
when Virginia seceded from the Union, April 1861, 
when he learned hii oonunission, and waa appointed 
«onmandar-m-«hief of the foroea of Virginia. When 
that state entered the Contedcmcy.lM waa amointed 
to ita hi^uat military lank of gonetal, and thongh 
not the senior, wm adected by Fmident Davis as 
conunaDder-in-chiei In Jolv 1862, he defended 
Biohmand against the Federal army onder General 
Ii*C3enan, and after six days of aannmiary battles, 
drore him to the shelter of bis goa^boata. March- 
ing north, he defeated General Pope, August 29, in 
the aeoond battle of Manassas. Croaaing the Poto- 
mao into Maryland, with a force of 40,000, he waa 
met at Aotietam by General IfClellao with S0,000, 
and after a bloody but indecisive conflict, Sej^m- 
ber 17, TCGroaaed the Potomac, and took a position 
at IVedecickaburg, on the Bappahannock, where, 
Deoember 13, he was attacked by General Burn- 
tid^ whose army he defeated wiUi great ilao^ter. 



General Hooker, the successor of General) M'Ctdlan, 
Pope, and Bumaide, whom Lee had sueceasiTely 
defeated, crosaed the Sappahannock, May 1, 1863, 
and waa attacked by General Lee on the 2d and 
3d, routed with heavy loss, and compelled to 
escape in the night across the river. He i^nrarda 
corned the war mto the northern states ; but finally, 
being overpowered, he aurtendered to General Grant, 
and retired a ruined man into private life, gaining 
his bread in the capacity of sovemor of Lexington 
College. He died October 1!^ 1870, leaving a char- 
acter extolled for integrity and piety. General Lee 
married the adopted grand-danght^ and hetreas of 
Washington, by whom ha had five Bona. 

LEE, Sawiil, D.D., an Engliah orientalist and 
linguist, was bom, 14th May 1783, at Longnor, in 
Shropshire, studied at Qaeen'i College, Cambridge, 
and took his degree of B.A in 1817. Two years 
after, he was choeen Arabic Profeaaor in the same 
nniversity, obtained the degree of D.D. irom Halle 
(unsolicited) in 1822, and itom Cambridge in 1833. 
was appointed R^ua Profeasor of Hebrew in 1831, 
and med rector of Barley, in Hertfordshire, 16th 
" " 1S£2. 'Bia Qrammor of iJte Htbrea Lan- 
guagt (2d ed. Lond 1331), his Book of Job, trtou- 
hled from the Original H^rrua (3 vols. Lond 1837), 
his HAreiB, Chaldmc, and EngtiA Lexicon (Lond. 
1840), his taanslatian from the Arabic of the Travels 
of Ibn-Batuta (L<md. 1833), hare secured for him 
a very high reputation. His Strmont on the Study 
of the h3u Scriptvra (1830), and EvenU and Timet 
of the Vintma qf Daiud and St John (Lond. 1861), 

are alao h '^'- -' ^ " '-■- "^ -- '- "^ 

Britiah 

the Syriac Old Testament, and of the Syriao New 
Testament, or Peshito, of the Malay, Persian, and 
Hindustani Bibles, and of the Psalms in Coptic 
and Arabic 

T.Rff.^ Fhtokrio Bicha£J>, R.A., ui £nglish land- 
acape painter, born at Barnstaple, in Devonshire, 
■bout the oloae of loot century, and first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1824. He became an 
AILA in 1834, and an B.A in 1S38. Lee ii one 
of the roost thoronghly national painters of his day, 
the ohoracteristic scenery of his native country, its 
qniel river-bsjiks, ita parka, its leafy lanes, and ita 
pictnresque villages, forming the favourite sabjecta 
of hia pencil 

admired pict . 

Mill,' ' llie Watering-place,' ' The Fidterman'a 
Haont,' 'The Silver Pool,' 'The Plou^ed Field,' 



hurst Avenue,' ' Avenue in Shobrook Park.' Among 
his latest works are ' The Bay of Biacay,' ' Ply- 
month Breakwater,' ' View of Gibraltar bora the 
Sands,' 'Land we Live in' (1867.) In 1848, he 
began to paint a series of worka alimg with " 
"ooper, the cattle-painter — the former i 

le landscape, and tie latter the animala. 

LEECH, John, an English artist, was bom in 
London in 1817, and received his education at the 
Charter-honae. The reputation of this artist is 
almost entirely associated with PuncL to which, 
beginning about 1840, he contributed thousands of 
humorous sketches. These sketches are frequently 
as full of grace as of humour ; the drawing is often 
excellent ; and his female faoea have a quiet, health- 
ful beauty, which would be attractive in the ball- 
room, but more attractive by the fireside and with 
children on the knee. In the Punch sketches, he 
haa satirised keenly, yet on the whole humanely, 
the vagaries of male and female attire, the precocity 
of the young, the pomp of Paterfamilias, uie prii^ 
of domeetie aerrants, and the siiigular iielationt 



«i),Google 



,^_ . Victori»n 

en, thaw huty AetcheB will b« inTslnsble. 

A collection of L.'b b«Bt contribatioiia to PrniA 
bu been pabliidud Bcpumtaljt, in Kvenl seriel, 
under the title of pKtura qf Lift and ChartntitT ; 
ciaa » Tolnme of PendOMigt fnm Pmeh, He died 
Korember 1S64 

LEECH (fftrudo), ft Linnjun genua of Anndida, 
ot the order SvOoria, now fomins Uib fwnily 
Hirudiaida, and dinded into a unmber ot genen, 
■ome of wbich contain mui; ipeoies. Tb^ are 
moatly inliabitanti of fnah wmtva, although loiiie 
live uiunurgTMs, Ac, in moist plaM*, and some are 
msiine. They we moat common in wtim climltea. 
The body ia aoft, and oompoeed of ringi like that 
ot the earthworm, bnt not furaiahed with briatla 
to aid in progreaaion, M in the earthworm; instead 
of which, a ancking diik at each extremity enablea 
the laech to avail itaelt of ita power of elongating 
and abortening ita body, in oraer to pretty rapid 



locomotion. The month ia in the anterior ancking 
^ak. The month ot many of the apeciea, aa of the 
common me^nal leechea, ia admirably adapted 

lut only for HHing and nating tiie minnf~ '~~ 

animals irtiicli wjuatltu te Vb/ea crdinaiy 
for making little wonnda in the highei 
when opportonity occim, throngh whwh blood may 
be ncked. The month at the mediciiial leech hat 
three small white hard teeth, minutely wmted 
along the edgea, and curved eo as to form Uttle 
KQUfflrcnlar aawa, provided with mnsolea powerfnl 
enongh to work uem with ^eat affect, and to 
produoe a triradiate wooad. The atonuu^ : 
lane, and i* divided into compartments, si 
whiah have laroa lateral cMoa; and a leacli irtiieh 
has coce gorged itaelt wiUi Uood retains a at 
for a very long time, little changed, in thelB reo 
taclea, whilat the digertiv* p r oeaaa aloirly goal 
The circulating system oonsata ot four grvat unli 
ing trunks one domal, one ventral, ana two lat 
wnh their branches ; then ia no heart. The aera- 
tion of the blood takea plaoe by nnmerooa amall 
apertorea on the vantnJ anrfaoe, Lesdina into reajnT- 
atory sacs. Leeches are oviparous, and each indi- 
vidoal >* androgynous. They have amall eyes — in 
the madiciual leeches ten—appearing aa black ipota 

near the month, and of the most sunfde '' ' — 

Leechea freqoently change their skin; and _ 

ot tiie great mortality so otten experienced among 
leeottea kept for medicmsl oae, ia the want of aquatic 
ijanta in the vessels containing them, among which 
to nib themselves for aid in this proceaa, and for 
gettbg qoit of the slime which their akina erode. 
Leech aquaria in which aquatic plants grow, are 



lateral. 



much more favonrable for the health ot 

leechse than the tanka aiul veaaela formerly in ua& 
—The MrpicniAL L. {H. medieinidu or Staigviauga 
offlemalii) is a rare native 
of Britain; bnt leech- /^^l^:^ 

gathering is the occu- 
pation of some poor 
persons, particularly in 
Cumberland. Leeches, 
however, are fnnaally 
imported from Hambnrs 
and from the aotith A 
Europe. His collecting 
of leechea gives employ- 
ment to many penona 
in some parta of Europe ; 
and leech - gathervra 
sometimes adopt the 
simple mode of wading 
into the water, and seiz- 
ing the leechea which 
attach themaelres to 
their bare l^a. Heces 
of liver, ke^ are some- 
times used for bute, • 
and a kind of net ia 
sometimea used. Some 
paria of Europe are anp- 
plied from more eastern 
region*. Slight differ- 
encea have led to the 
eatabliihment of two 
apeciea — one more north- 
ern, and one more aonth- 
em — among those com- 
monly imported into 
Britam. The more north- 
em — which is that above 
named— baa the bellj 
spotted with black ; the Th< 
mora aoitthem {ft. pn>- 

vaiciaiu, or Sanfftiuuga \i. Um itomufa ; *, litoKl 
medidnalU or varidimi- "'^ i ■> Inuuina, 

ali>) has the belly mt- 

apotted. Other apeoies are uaed for the smh 
medicinal mupoae of blood-andi^ in (rther parts 
of tbx wodd. tie ancients were well acqnamtod 
with leechea, bnt their medicinal use aeema to 
have originated in the middle ages. Many millions 
of leeches Bre annnally imported into Britain. — 
The HoBHE-LEicH lIf(rniopu iangui»arba) is oom- 
mon in Britain ; it ia much larger than the medi- 
cinal species, but ita teeth ore oomparstiTely 
blunt, and it is little of a blood-anckcr— notwith- 
standing the popular notion — and useless for medi- 
cinal pnrpoaee. It feeds greedily on earthworms, 
which iaaoe from the banks of the ponda or 
slnggish atreanu which it inhabits. — In many parta 



le DioeatiTe Apparatna ot 
the HedioDaTLeeoh : 



Hona Leech. 



ot India, aa In the n 



valleiTa o! the Himalaya, 

_. „ . . ._.j with leeches, some Ot 

them very small, but very troublesome to cattle 
and to oien who have occasion to walk through 
the graaa. Sir James £. Tennenfa description ot 
the und-leech of Ceylon (ff<Krnadipta Oej^nlea) is 
very amoaing. In size, it is about an inch in 
length, and aa fine aa a common knittine-needle, bnt 
capable of distension to the thiokness of a quill and 
a length of neariy two inchae. It can inainuate itaelt 



Goi>t|c 






clo—ly-wOTan okiQt for proteatoon. HonM 
diiiu wild bj Ham pMta. 'ind ituiip ihe 




ffxnsA in forj* to ihiko tikem {ron 
to which they hang in tdoo^ tusels.' The bmre 
Im ol paUnqmn-'btann an adwn«d with diutera 
«f (iMm lik* bimohM of PWM- ^eir Dnmben 
h*v« «Am oooMoned tik* dMkh of tncn oompeUed 
to tftoA 4>ya iA«m tbay abonndad. Ths moirt 
Tallm at Jant, Somatn, Ohih, aad other tnnrical 
c o o M nti, cwaim with laiid-leechea >■ mnoh m 
I ttMa« of India Mid O^lon. 

ZiXBCHDTO, cr the aj^dicatioii of LncHis [q. v.), 

tor the pmpoM «l ahafenctang blood, ii pnfenue to 

TMMMctiaD or enpvnM in many foima of disease; 

I as, for «uuiipl»— L In load detenninations of blood, 

I nnattanded with fdiril* nrnptomi, aa in acute 

' . d the female Dr^rt, when the ptes' 



^ In abdominal iniiainioationa, oipeciallj' in 
toaitai (q. v.), tiie applieatioa of teeohea ia often 
pnfenUe to gencnd Dlood-lettaiw, parlicalarfy ia 
patiEntactfawraikooDetitation. 3. In variout organic 
■ficticBia of the heart and Inngi, leeohing irften 
aSerda eiMt leliei Indeed, then an few diaeaaea in 
wUi^ Qm at blood ia wqua ed, ezoeptiiig er^pelaa, 
in whidi tiie ^ilieation of leeohee ie oMectunable ; 
atthongh it ii in«q;>edieut, aa OMDUtrea with Tene- 
aactton, in flioae oaae* in wldch it i« deaiable to 
rndte an immediate inqntaaion on the diiease (aain 
pnitomtia in loboat nnana), or where the diaeaae 
u ver^f ra^ and fatal (aa in cronp). 

In the diMaace <^ infanti and joong childTen, 
liiwiiM usat be ^pEed with cantion. Infanta are 
complete^ blanched bj the application 



ni«<rad fatal to a child aged siz years. In applying 
Uadiaa, the part ahonld he thoraogblj cleaned, and 
the leechea, aftfc beiiui dried by nibbing them in a 
claen Unen doth, ^tonld be placed in an (^)en pill- 
box, or in a wine-|^aai, aad imlied to the ipot at 
whidi U ia daanedtitat therdionld attach them. 
■d*M. Vlua it ia wUMd to affix ■ leac^ to the 
inaida ef the nootti, it ia ^daead in ■ narrow tobe 
caUad a leedi-glaaa. Wbn the animaia will not 
attaah WxMinnhra readily, they m^ TtnnMnw be 
JndMcd to bite by moJatB^ina *>» F~t with ndlk 
orMooi 

The qoantity of blood which a leech ia capable of 
dmwing may be eatimatsd at an average ^ about 
a diaohm and a half, althoogh occaaiomuly a leech 
win ababmct betweea three and four drachma ; and 
this quantity does not include that lost after the 
aoimu has fallen oE^ which Is frequently, eapeoially 
in ofandren, rery ocmsidenble. In or&r to canae 



Whan the leeobei have fallen oS^ it is usually 
Mimble to promote to aome extent the flow of 
" 'by 



fluff ol ■ hat, or of a bit of oobwEb, will ommUj 
check it, the flbrine of the blood ooagnlating on 
the applied filamenta, aad fonning a small olob If 
theae means fail, a litHe oone ol lint diootd be 
inserted into the bite, ov«r which a oompreai ahonld 
be laid and a bandaffe aj^lied ; or the bite al^nld 
be tonohed with a ni«k of nittate of lilTar (lonar 
oaialio) scraped to a point. 

L e edt e a, wbeo m^ied to the mouth or interior 
(rf the noec^ have ben eoeaaionally cwallowed, and 
nnp lo s t a n t mnptmni. The 
*ae of thii kind is to pre- 
_ . Jaw, at evm a glai^ ereiy 
. _ ._ honr-^irtikh wiE apee£ly destroy 
vDa leeoh. A. Btoderataty ttni^ solntiim of oran- 
monaalt wonldprobaUycaert anmilarfatal aotiim 

LEEDS, the fiiat town in Torkahir«^ and fifth in 
neland in point of population, ia a pariiamentaiT 
id mnnidiwl borough, returniiu t^kree msmbera to 
the Hooae id Oommona. It ta situated in tht 
north-we*t of the West Biding of Yorkshire, in tlte 
valley of On Aire, and ii tlie oentre of the clothing 
distnot. The extent of thb and the ottier in- 
ddBtrial pursuits of the town mav be eatimated from 
the foQowiug statiitica of employmenta in L., aa 
asoertained in 1871 ! 



MM 

lU 

1,(71 




1» 



PiiNii; Acildiivf.— There are 30 chnrchea in L^ 
6 Soman Catholic and abont 60 dissenting places of 
The chief church ia St Peter'a^ which ia 
te, nod was rebtdlt in 1S3S at a coat of 
£29,770. It is 180 feet long by SB fo«t wide; the 
tower ia 139 feet high, and containa a peal of IS 
bells. It ia a very noble edifice. The principal 



__ memory of those natLves of L. who fell in the 
Crimea; the church has a good oboir. Tba most 
.-... .-__ (j]j„j^ ijj tj,^ town ia 8t Joim's, New 



1C_ _ _ ,__ . 

chnrch, and still retaimng the on^nal flttinga. 
The otber principal buildings are chiefly (rf recent 
eroo^on, and are aa foDows : The Town-hall is 250 
feet lona 200 feet broad, and the tower ia 23S feet 
TiigTi It ooveiB 5600 square yards. The great hall 
ii 161 feet long, 72 leet wide, and 75 feet high. It 
is richly decomted, and contains one of the largeat 
sjid moat powerful organs in Europe, also statnca of 
Edward Baineti and lEubert H&U, formerly memben 
for the borough. There ia also a colossal statue of 
the Queen ia the vestibule, and of WallingtoQ in 
the front of the buildiug. Eirkstijl Abbey, about 
three milea from L^ was founded between 1147 and 
1153 by Henry de Lacie for the Cistercian order of 



«i),Google 



monka. It U « fine old ruio, Temartuble for its 
simple gModeur and nnily of demsn. Adel Chnich, 
mbout four mile* from L., ii an inbareatiiig building, 
erected 1144. JHeix it WM ft Boman Btation, where 
■eventl aatiquitiea have been found. He General 
InSrmaiy, waa erected in 1866 from d«ngM by Sir 
a. G. Scott, at a cost of £100,000, Mid oontauw 
accommodation for 300 in-patienta. The Mechanic^ 
Inrtitate, ei«cted in 1867, at a coet of £26,000, 
contains ft lecture-hall accommodating 1700 per- 
■otu. The Free Library, utabliahed in 1870 
(under the Free lihrariea Act), oontaJni 30,0( ~ 
Tolumea. The Gmnmar-iohool was built in 185 
at a cort of £13,000 ; it is built in the ibape of . 
eroas in the Gothic ityle, decorated period, and mui 
designed by E. M. Barry, Eeq. The borouih Jul ii 
a large caatellated building at Armley, admirably 

adapted for i' "" " " "- -'^ 

a handaoma 

Pott-office, fon 

ia ft etatue of Sir Bobert Peel ; the Queen's Hotel, 



ftnliiteetttM, and having a 

Weftlnran Traioing College, i . , 

oected in_ 1868 ; Tnrkisb Baths (cost £14,000): 



«iDing Collem, in the Gkithic i 



Beckett's Bank, a fine work by Sir Q. O. Scott; &c. 
There is also a library of 30,000 volames, founded 
by Priestley in 1768. The number of suhecribeni is 
liinited to 600. Among charitable iostitutioiu may 
be mentioned tbe Dispensary ; House of Becovery ; 
Hospital for Women and Children ; Tradeoman's 
Benevolent Society ; Industrial School ; Gonva- 
letcent Home; a handsome new workhouse; the 
Keformstory at Adel, where about SO jnvenile 
oiiminalB are usefnlly employed in agricoltiu^ and 
otJier oocupatioDt. L. has aUo a Royal Exchange 
in course of ereotioD, a Stock Exchange, two 
general markets — one of which is ft handsome 
s tm ot u re of iron and s}"' — ' cattle-market, 
colonred and white cloth halls, five railway-stations, 
eleven banks, two theatres, four daily and three 
weekly newspapers. Konndhay Park, one of the 
most beautiful demesnes in Elnoland, at a distance 
of two miles from I*, was bought by the coipora- 
tion of the town in 1872, at a coat of £140,000, 
and converted into a recreation ground for the 
use of the public. It coven 733 acres, and contains 
a lake with an area of 33 acres. Pop. in 1871, 
269,212. 

LBEK (Jlltutn Pomon ; see Ai.'t™), a biennial 
plant, and a native of the South of Europe ; with 
no proper bulb at the root, but generally a slight 
increase of the thickness of the stiem ; ft stem about 
3 feet high, leafy at bottom ; the leaves abont an 
inch wide ; the nowers in a large and very dense 
tenninal globular umbel, which is not bulbiferons. 
It has been long in cultivation, and some of the 

it the effects of cultivation in greatly 

> of the 
_. ^stalk, 

, _, __ other means which also 

indnoe it to swell and extend, is much esteemed for 
eolinaiy purposes. Its flavour is much milder than 
that ol the onioD, or any other species of AUman. 
The L. hsa long been an especial favourite of the 
Wd«h ; and mooh attention has of lata been paid 
to its cultivation in some parte of Scotland. It is 
eeneially sown in spring, and is used daring the 
following winter. It dSighIa in a rich but light 
and di^ soil Gardeners often transplant seedluu 
leeka, instead of merely thinning out the orinnM 
rows ; and sometiines make deep holes for &em 
with 41ie dibUe, into which tliey merely throw a 
little earth to cover the roots, leaving t£e stem to 
swell in the open hole. 



LmcK, a maonbctnrinK and market-town of 
England, in the county of Afford, 24 mil«« n<Brth- 
north-east of tbe town of that name. Tbe parisb 
ohnrcli dates originally from 1180, and the town 
contains also numerous educfttional and benevolent 
institntioni. Pop. (1871) 11.331, who ue employed 
chiefly in the monnfactnre of silk goods. 

LBBT COURTS, in ^igliah Law, mean oonrtB 
held in ft manor, township, or hundnd, foe locfti 
purposes. 

LEETrWABDBIT, a town of the KeUieriands, 
capital of tbe province of FrieaUnd, in a rich and 
extensive plain, on the Harlingen and QiSatDgeD 
Canal, 16 miles east-north-east of HarliagnL It 
coDtama a handsome town-hall, an ancient pftUo» 
of the Princes of Orange, and many charcllM. 
Nomeroas canals intersect the town. L. has a 



investigation of Frisian history, 

., longu^e, and another (or tlie study 

of natural hiatoty. Unen fabrics and p^ier at« 



antiquities, and li 



manufactured, and a trade in ht»ses 
Pop. 24,461. 

LEEUWBNHOBK, or LEDWKNHOEK, 
THONY VAH, One of the earliest microsoaiHC ohser 
wu bom at Delft, in Holland, in 1632, and died : 
the same town in 1723. The oomfunitid viierMCopt, 
a* it existed in his time, was very imperfeet, Mid 
(abject to many errors, which induced L. to onplo* 
only mm-fiU mkroKopet, that is to say, very «bmII 
lenses of short focal lengths, which wew fixed 
between two pUtes of metal that hod been piat^d 
with a, very narrow opening. He bequeamed to 
the Eoyal Sodety of London (where thejr ate caie- 
fully preeerved) a collectdon of these microscopea. 
It was in tlie Pfahtophieal Tranaaetioiu <d this 
Society, to which he contributed 112 papers. Hoi 
most 1^ his observations were orinnolly pnbliAed. 

Amongst the matt important m his mvestigations 

may be mentioned ft Memoir commnnicated to tbe 

Royal Society in 1690, in which he discovered, and 

clearly demonstrated, the continuity of the arteries 

and veins through intervening capiUorieo, and thus 

afforded Ocular demonstration of the truth of 

irveys views regarding the circulation ; he also 

omined the structure of the crystalline lens and 

the brsin. He is perhaps most generally known 

as the discoverer of the Jtoti/ert, and as beins the 

recognise the property which these """"L 

of alternately dying and being resuscitated, 

according as they are dried or provided with the 

— -■■-■ necenary for the msintenance of their vitally. 



publication extending from 1686 to 1732. A LfttiB 
translation, under t£e title of Opera Omnia, sm 
THi JTofuriE, was published at Leyden in 1792 ; 
so English translation wsa published by Mr 
Samuel Hoole, in two 4to volomes, in 179S— ISOa 
LBBTVABD ISLANDS See Amulub. 
LEEWAY. When a ship is steering in a direc- 
tion AB, and a strong wind is blowing aa indicated 
by the oiTow, the ship's actual coarse is the resnlt- 



r locomotive power), the otlisr by Om fOTOe nrgiiig 
r in the diiectim of the witti This resultant 
list be stmewhat in the line CD ; and with tha 



power of wind, the an^ BED will be great or 
small as the headway is diminished or inowased. 
This sngle represents the leeway ; and the amount 



«i),Google 



LEPEBVHE-LEGACY. 



altowBuee has to be nuda for leewkjr. Some ahipa, 
in tcJenble wekther, nuke lorcelj uij perceptiDle 
leeway, wUIe bad aailet* fill off at nmah ■■ ser 
jMmifi of the compaM. 

IiEFEBTRE, Fmn^a JoBwra, Dnke of Danzig 
and W«wi>i»1 of France, waa bom at Boffach, in 
AInoe, 2StIi October 175G. He enteted the amy 
at the ase of ei^teen, and ma a aeigMnt in tba 
Froich Qnardi wben the Barolution broke out. 
On the diaaohitian of hia regiment, he vaa trana- 
temd to another, and on two occaaiona had the 
opportnniW of rendering important help to the 
rojal {unify. There waa alwayi aonkethioxgallant 
aiid humane in the valour of Lefebrre. He rose 
in nnk with wouderfiil rapidity. He took part 
frith Bonaparte in the coup itlai of the ISUi 
" and it waa he who, at the head of hia 



readied hia faintii . .._ 
ISO^ hs waa made a Marahal of the ISnpire. __ . 
tha battle of Jena, be oomnunded the iiiMoti? of 
the Gnaidi. Be alao condneted theaiege of Daniig, 
and after iti aptnra waa created Dnke of Danag; 
He diatingaUhed himaelf in the early part of the 
Peninaolar War, bat waa recalled to Qermany, 
where he waa inTcated with the command of the 
Baraiian amy, and aapm^ased the inanrrectioD in 
the ^rrd. During the HuasiaD campaini, he had 
" ~ ind of £e Imperial Ooard, and in 1814, 

wing of the army which reaiited the 
the alUes in France- Snbmitting to the 



from Famagoata 
tad ""■*-■"- aaraial buildinga of intereat. 



of St NicholM, and I 



kitigi of Crprai of the Iinmsnan dviiaitf 
here. Caliro-printing. tamung, and aOk-i 
are the principal em^ymenta of the inha 






ui,A>a. 

LEFOBT, Vkur^is, aon of Jacqnea Lefort, 
mender of Uie Qiand Cixmcil of Genera, wu bom 
at G«tieT& in 1656. He waa deacended from a^t old 
Seotdi family that had been aettled there for a cea- 
tmy, and meuben of which ttiU eoat at Geneva. 
After serring for aome time in the Vnoeb and 
Dutch aernoe, he went to Bnaaia, where he obtained 
a captain's eommianon in the army. He fought with 
■-■ — ^ — '-;ainat the Turka uid Tartara under 
of Bomadanofiki, and took an active 
' ;aea which placed Peter the Great 
The czar never forgot L., who 
hie chief favourite, and, next to Peter, the 
■Boat importiiat peracmage in Ruaiia. He waa a 
man el ^eat acotenees and abUity- He remodelled 
the Baaaian army, and alio laid the foundation of ita 
luvj ; be •ought also to encoon^ manofiictiirea, 
and to promote the improvement of agriculture, and 
'Attained for ttniigera a certain measore of tolemtioa 
in niattn* of religion. In 1691, he waa made Grand 
Admiral and Generalisaimo of the Ruaaian Army, 
and in 1697i sovemor of Novogorod. When Peter 
tbe Qre«t nnurtoc^ hia viait to foreign countries in 
1697, Lefwt waa the chief of the emlaiay, in the 
tnun of which the czar tmvelled ineoffnito. L died 
in 1G99. Compare Voltaire'i Sufotra dt Pierre k 
OroMd, and Oo&koTa Vie de Lefort. 



IjEO, The. compriaea all that part of the lower 
extremity ' " ' ' 
ankle. It eonaiita of two bonea, the tibia amd 



r which 



between the kneo and the 



fibnla (lee Skelxtoit and Foot), and of 
mtiBclea (together with nervea and veMela) which 
are held in their position by covering! of faaoia, and 
are enveloped ia the genraal integnment. 

The ihaft of the tibia is of a ttiangnlar pria- 
moid form, and presenta three anrfaoet imd ihree 
border*. The internal miface ia smooth, convex, 
and broader above than below ; exoept at ita upper 
third, it ties dinctly nnder the skin, uid may be 
readily tnced by the hand. The external and the 
poatenor sorfaoe* are covered by nomerona musclea. 
The mnaeolar nuua laming the calf (formed by 
the gattroatentiu*, tolau, aid plantarit mnaolei) la 
peculiar to man, and is direcUy connected with 
his erect attitude and hia ordinary mode of pro- 
gresaion. The anterior border of tiie tibia, the moat 
prominent of the three, ia popularly known aa tAt 
Am, and may be traced down to the inner ankle. 

The fibula, or imall bone of the 1^ lies on tiie 
outer aorface of Uie tibia, and ar^cn&tes with its 
^pv and lower extremities, and with the oatrBgolna 
ieiioAj. It affords attat^unenta to many ol the 
uadea of thia rt^ion. 

Una r^ion is nonriabed by the anterior and pos- 

rior tibial artraies into which the poptiteal artery 

separates. Both thaae arteries ocoaaionally require 

ba tied W the anrgaon in caaet of wonnds or 

ntriam. The blood ia retomed towards the heart 

by two eats of veins— Uie deep, which aoccaupany 

the arteries, and the luperfloial, whi^ are known 

aa the internal or long saphenona, and the external 

or short saphenona veina. These superficial veina 

are very liable to become permanently dilated or 

varicose (a condition Uie nature and treatment 

of which are considered in the article Tabicosc 

Vxixa}, if there ia any impediment to the free 

trannnWon of &e blood, or even from the mere 

weight of the aacending colnmn of blood, in penona 

hose occupation requires continnona atsiidii^. 

The nerves of the 1^, both lenaory and motor, 

« derived from the great aciatio nerve and from 

ita terminal branchea, ue internal pophteal and the 

external popliteal or peroneal nerve. 

In cases of fracture or bndom leg, the two bonea 

e more frequently broken together than singly, 

and the most common situalaon is at the lower 

third. The tibia ia more often broken by itself 

than the fibula, in oonsequenoe of its sustaining the 

whole weight of the liody, while the fibnla haa 

lothing to support. 

LEOACT is a bequest or gift contained in the 
will of ■ deceBBed person of a chattel or sum of 
money or other thing. In Snglood, it ia provided 
by Btatate tliat if a legacy ia given to the witness of 
a will, or to hia or her wife or husband, the legacy 
is void ; therefore, a legatee should never act aa a 
witness. 9a bequests to auperstitions oaea are void, 
aa, for example, to ">''"*■*'" a priest, or an anniver- 
Bary or obit, or a lamp in a church, or to aay moasea 
for the testator's soul, or to circulate pamphlets 
inculcating the pope's supremacy. Legacies of 
money for charitable purposes, as for the use of 
schools, churches, tti., a[« valid, but if the money is 
directed to be laid out in the purchase of land for 
such purposei, the legacy ia void by what is called 
the Mortmain Act (q.v.), 9 Geo. IL c 36. The 
policy of this statnte bos often of late been qnei- 
tioned, and it is enongh to aay tliat there is a mode, 
often practised, of evading it 

I«gacieB are divided into specific and general 
A specific legacy means a l^acy of a apecifio 
thing, aa a ^rticolar hors^ picture, silver-plate, 
JEc, or a BQm of stock in the funds. A geoetal 



>dhyGoo<^le 



LEGAL— XJ»£ND. 



legacy meaiu a nua of 11101107, 'without wying 
oat IH what fund it ii to ooma, and it ii payabls 
ovt of the aoeti generallj'. Ths important ^ffar- 
•noe between the two kinda of legacy ii ttiiB, that 
if the lobjeoi-iiiattar of the qwcifio l^aoy fail, 
af if the hone die or be pteriDiulf aold, &;o., the 
iMkcy ii ff""! "'^ "" compenaation ii giran for it ; 
while, OD tiu other hand, il thoie ii not enoii^ 
to pay ftll the general legtcua, then tiiay muit 
abate— thftt ia, ihAre the lou-^whvea* th« WoiAo 
legfloj, if it eiiat, mnat itill be paid in fill. Then 
are Tvian* role* of great nioely and inbrioeo; oon- 
neoted with the proper conitrnetion of l^;«eiM in a 
will, whioh ue too teohnieel to be notiMd. It ia 
a goncml role ^)plioable to all legaoiea, tiiftt thef 
are 011I7 payable if there ia non«7 enowh for ue 
poriKiaa, after paving all the teatator'i doMa, foe Uie 
applies, that a man miwt be jnit ~ ~ 
. oi. The rale ii, that ' 
Dy the exeentor till a year ..._ . 

teetator'a deaUi, for it ia preciirMd _. __,_ 

time to iaqnite into the state of the pwip ia ty ; and 
thia ia tone «v«b thoo^ tiie teatator naa ordsMd 
the legMT to b« paid within nx monlha after the 
death. If al^acyisleft toantofantonder twanfy- 
one, it cannot be paid to th« fatbcr, or any othM 
relation, wit^oiit the aasetiMi of the Gout of 
Chanoei^. If a legacr is left to a married wraaaa, 
the hubaad wae entiued to claim iti nntrw il waa 
left to het lepatate lue, or nnleM die waai 

Tided tor by the hoaband; bnt now in idl _^ 

the wife geta for her aepaTata nae all proper^ 
coming to her. Intenat ia doe on legaoua from 
the time wbio the pnaoipat (on b payable— i. «., 
one year after tiie death— nnleaa otherwiae apedfied. 
If the Watee die before the teatator, the legacy 
l a p aea — that ii^ baoomaa void; bnt there are 
aome exeeptions, aa whert the Imtea ia a ehild 
or gnndchild ol tike teatator. — & Scotland, lia 
rolei aa to legadea are mainly tfae aaoMt bat not 
eafirelT. ^e detaila an too taehmoal to require 
notioelun. Saa PatTaon'a OomfmtMu m t^Otj^iA 
and SootA Laie,p.SSa. bi Sootlaad, a Imot can 
be mfoToed in aix mottUia after the lartatoA cEaath, 
and baara iutanat b<mi BBoh death. IfalegMyia 
left to a maniad woman, the hniband ia now in 
general booiid, aa in Bodand, to lettls it on the 
wife, by the statute 3ft aid 2S Tioi c 8& 

In the United Kingdam, a leracy or aoooeBion 
duty il levied on tiie amotmt of all leMdM (ezoept 
to husband or wife). Ohildrea and issntk also 
parents and anceatora, pay one per coot, dnty ; 
brothera and sisters, and their imae, pay three per 
oenL ; nnclee and aunta, and their iiaast p<V Uve 
per oent. ; Krandunolee, ka., and tkeir ia ' 

pel cent. Strangers in blood, and distai 
alao illegitimate duldten, p^ tot per oent 

LEGAL, or LEGAL BEVEBSION, in Sootoh 
law, means the ri^t of redemption of an adjndioa- 
tion of heritable property, equvalent in WngUni4 to 
eqnity (d redempboa of a tenant in thgU. 



LBOATB, the name of . , . 

aentativcs iriietiwr tcanporarr or permanent, smt by 
the -pope to a parttciuar oaoMa. In the aiieient 
ohtDeh, we meat many axMnplea of oSeiaK oallBd 
in Qtaak tmermarioi, and in I«tin rHpoaaolei, at 
tha oonrt ol ConatantinotJo i bnt thnr oommiasifm 



, ^ . .. anid granted for 

sMoal object 1^ the later oooitEtntion of the 
onnKh, thma nlsaina of lagataa are diatinoniahed ; 
1. Ligali a lotev, ' lagatea deapatnhed &otn tiie 
side' of tha pontiff w£a are eommonly 
i- LvaS miiii, called alao ' ipoaUdio nu 
incluwng a lower grade called 'into: 
Ltgali •Mli, 'legatee bom,' whoae offloa 



penonal, but is attached by ancient ii 
oaage to the see or other eooleaiBetical dignity 
wluch tluy hold. Of the last daaa there were 
ezamplea in moat nation^ oharohea ; ttm^ the 



cam, the Bishop of Arlea !(a t. . , _, 

Mains for Germany, the Bishop id Toledo (tkinigh 
" '' ed) for Spain, the Bishop 



as Bone « , ... 

indeed, the authoiily of l^ntea is maoh modiiSed in 
the modem ohuroh. In llie medieval timrai. Um 
legate claimed full papal jniiadiotion in the coontor 
assigned to him, even overruling Ota loeal juriadio- 
tdon of the Usbops of the nabonal ohoreh. ^sa 
led to many dispiA<a; tor^nsals to receive Isote^ 
aa in Prance, where the legate wu oUiged to 
wait at Lyon till his credentuus diould hav* been 
examined and approved at court ; and to ooimtar 
lesiBlBtion, as in Kngland, to the statute of 18 
BMhard H, mrnmonly known as the Statota of 
Premmire; and the Coondl of Trant nmoved 
the gtonnd of eontaotion by abcliahiiu iH aadt 
HaiTTis to loc^ jnrladiotion aa tnauihaa upon Iha 
aothoiity of the hishopa. The legate. In tike aMdvn 
ehnroh, ia littte Dths than the amhMsador, msdnly 
iot ^iritnal purposes, of Hhe pop». Ha ia hdd aa 
belonKing to the diplomatio body, and bf Hm naago 
of CatbMio eoorta enjoys preoedenee Ot aU oOur 
ambaasadora. Tho legaMa at the saoMid-nta Mwrta 
have the title of iniermmeh. Legataa an eoaa- 
mooly bialiOTia or archMabope, in ynrtfein i^/IMitim. 
^nie eetabliihntent of a nnneiatme at Munidi, in 
nsS, led to an animated oonfcrovraty. In the 
pope 8 own statea, aa they exiatad baloi« tha lata 
revolation, the governoc* of the Legal' 
Italy, Papal Btatb) were called I^potsa 

LEGATO (ItaL tied), in Hnsio, msens that tha 
notaa are to be played as if bound or tied together, 
or in Bocli a manno' that the one nota ia aa it wne 
Tonnded off, or flows into the following one. Uany 

iraaiciana think that l^ato i mi» ^oaU be 

^yed slower, which is a great mistiAa. Wbrevw 
Xtgata ia tiuM«d, other aa the iihar»flt<w of the 
wlu>le piece, or oiJy oro: a pari) of tlie notaa^ it ia 
tlia liffn that the muaia inquires to be pvfcivad 
in a flowing mannar, and without ai^ in tafnudi en 
between the atrifcing ol &e Botsa. 

LEGATTTH RBI ALIXTH.^, m the Bonaa 
Law, is the legacy (rf a thing which doca not b«kng 
to the testator. In Rtrffctwt and Irelai^ aodk a 
legacy ia simj^y null ancfWd; but in ftmitlantl. tha 
Boman law has been adopted, by which, if the 
testator knew the thing bequeathed was not Ua 
own, the eseontor is bound to punhaoe "^T^tiitng 
Isa, as compensation to the legrtee. 

LEGEITD {lat. tegada, thinn U 
laaoos) waa the name given in e^y ti 
Bomaa Catholic Chr— '^ '- - '--'- — 



iurcA, to 



- - of thel 

of sainta and martyrs, as well as the colleotiima ti 
Buoh namtivee, reaeived this name, beoane the 
monk* read from them at matins, and after dinner 
refectories. Such legends were also inserted 
I breviaries [aee Bksvuxt), in order ttiat 
they might be read on the festivids of ths ^nta 
and mar^ra. Ammg the medieval oolleoli<ms of 
legends, tliat drawn i^ hv the GeDoeae arobhiBbm, 
Jacobus da Vonwne, in tne second half of ths ISth 
c, under &« title tit Legtnda J.vrta (the Oolden 
Legends)^ fftttana Lombardiea, ia the moat od»- 
brated. Bnt the most comprehensive and valnable 
work on the subject ia that commenced by the 
Bollandists {q.v.) in tha ITth c— .^cfti Simelormm 



dhy Google 



tivaa vitk taiM ^Mkarf, caoaed ■twiM of a nl^poo* 
cr milMJiilinl aatnra {[•nnallf to b« dwigrinted 
■a ImiiiiiIii. m ocmtndMtuotiiHi &om antnentio 
•odisafltiGal hvtoiy ; ^«^ &iu thtt wofd * Iwenda ' 
abo nrm to npanto Mligiaiu from leeolar toadl- 
tim, a»d frvn tkaw wild talM [Om. ntardm) 
thftt AJi^t**! tbs iniMiilij <d BMdtercl Eorqp*. 
TiBgiada m Uiia Mua erf ilt6 word, aa apiritnal 
or ■riiilrniaitifnl aagM, ue foimd >ot twljr u tha 
111 Milan ffathflHn Int a'f in tka Oraak Ghonh, ""1 
titeir 0M& wacl^t baok to the tarliaat ^m of 
Cluiaium^— GhiMt lumwl^ tha Vu^ John tU 
Ba^aat^ the afwatUa, and oUiar pnmunent ponona 
<rf UiB goqpet hutcxT b*Ting bwom^ at a vary aarly 
period, taa aatrfait o( thmn. Bat Uiia tendaney 
to mytliio onbdliabmait ibewad itaalf man cape- 
oaDy in ngari to Maiy, tbe {at«r ninta. nlart^ 
aod 1k^ men md mueo. Tron Uie eadariaatical 
•■""'- and W«afcern Chnrehea, 



ahooather vasttng at an eAier pimod. 
may tmmim, for "••^'i the XaiMrAv»ib fbapa- 
rial Chnnkl^ iriwra tha l^ndaty dament fonna 
a nn inmoTtaiit part ot tha whole; aad W«nu>'a 
-rsnnSad MaHaJi m (lata of Marr), mhtan in 
117& ft<L The Httlion of theaa worka wen eeola- 
naabea; b«t tbmij laymen, too, had a[q)«and 
in the ^me field. The poetio Tsiaioiui of the 
legnd tt St Onrsld and that of Pilate «pnmg 
{ran thia elaaa ; and in the toDoiring »gB, when the 
medirral poetiy of Qennany waa in iti iich«et 
1>Ioem, and the f catoen of the poetio ait 



til* relioioiia 
Fuaaabiffiine 
Jeaaai'Bl^ 



x-ma»er at (fxe narnnrea. xno^ 
m Ana (q. *.) woAed np into a poam 
lasoida abmtt QMgory ; Eonnd von 
n, thoae uuuow n i ng toiB 'childhood e( 



'.) i and IMnbot Ton Ihun^ thoaa 

— ' Between the l«h and ISth 

abo to 



oortariea, legMkda in praae bean abo to Wpmt. 
each IB ficnuim Ton Fritdara Von do* Hcu^cn 
ZtftM (written about IMS), aad giadnally aap- 
Ranted the othen. Tinally, in tbe lOth o, trhn 
Fioteataatinu h««*a to powetfolly inftumca the 
whole of QtcmaoStei^xire, lite Intend dJaappearad 
tturn QvmHi poeby, w paaaed oror into the noral- 
nanatiT*, in which 
jgm Sadia with tha 
atttmpta bave boMi 







aad ■nritnal efasMnta of the dd Chiktian 

w»alUder(4.T.)(»n4Mr~ *■'-■■ ' 

pwta— 4<» atawple. tbe ' 
•odaamwad to give theaa 

IiBCnZTDBB, Anon Makci, an aminait 
neuA iMthMMtinaa, ban at Paria in lTii2. He 
obtained, hi 177^ a xaofaaaonliip cd ■"■**"■"-*■" 
in tha UOitBry Sdwd at I^uia, and in 17S3 waa 
admitted a mambsF of the Academy. In 17ST. ba 



1808, ha waa uoointad by the imperial aoreiainaiLt 
jawiiliail tor uh of tha nnivemty, ana after Um 



oommittee of Weight* and Mewurea. But becanae 
in an election to a ^ace in the Academy ha did not 
-vote for the miiuitnial candidate, he wm depriTed, 
in ISSii, of bia penaion of 3000 fiwiea. He died 
9th Jannaiy 1833. L ia the author of nttorit 
dtt yombrt* and BUmtutt de Gtomttri^ and ni- 
tioQlariy diatingniihed hi^*wtlf by hia* iuTOatigation 
tit the di^oU tidnect Ot IIm attraotion of the 
dlnitio nhennd, aiMl of a iii*^hi>d tot detennimng 
the p^ita «l eemetc. 

LEOBB-tiDIIES, in Mnaio, the name of thoaa 
abort linea aboTe or below the itaff which are naed 
to ezpraaa thoaa notea irtiich extend beyond the Atb 
linea of the ataK 



nroriime of liTonu^ K 
FloimM, and 14 muaa 
• t ^r 32' r N., long. 

'ftO^ innludiag ahoot 

unber of Jewa waa mnoh greater. 

Till 1668, L. waa a &ee port, and it ba* long been 

le of the laading amporininc ot trade in Italy. Ita 
-ipoct tnda naad to be eatamated at £^000,000 
yea^yi IJm ohief inuiorta being trotn TlnglaiiTl and 
nana*. Even einoe the abd&on of ita priTilegea 
aa a bee poc^ t^ tnde of L haa not been Icaaenad, 



but only 

pctft of duNwit than of tcanait to and from the 

ieoted with oanala, by which roegobandite ii con< 
T«;ed from the harbonr to the nnmerooa wice- 
honaea of the city. The port oonairt* of an inner 
and odtn haiboor, the latter iMtiig aheltend by a 
mole, irtkioh projeota into the bm npwafda at half 
a mU^ oloae to the great liaht.hoaBa. To aaoiin 
innrawad Mpsina acoomnwdatioii, a new harboor 
haa bean oiwtlnicted fw the rao*iition of veaieb ot 
raadatead, whieh ia 



Bonth of the haiboor itaudt the lanratto, Hm 
tows ia eonoected by nilwava with Bome, PiM^ 
Oanan, aad the ether parte of Italy. 

^□le pc^olatun miintiana natma of many dime* 
(Qr**fc*, Armwnana, Tnrka, Hoora, &4x], whoaa 
fordffi ^^peannoe and atiiking wb gire a pkitnr' 
eacpie ^peataoee to the plaoa. Thia eonconne of 
fbat^oia ia further «iilai^ in tha anmmer aeaaon 
ty a freat influx of natiTa and foreign viutun, who 
raaort to L. lor ita hatha and mineral apringa, the 
lattw of which enjoy high medical tepnle. The 
town itwU ia chitdy of modmn origin, and daatitnta 
cl the giand hiatnioal aaaotaationa and elaaaical 
moawMota which iaveat moat Italian oitiea with 
thur higheat interaat; ita fine Madit«mnean lite, 
animiirH aapad^ and mat oommaroial life, are ita 
principal attnotion^ £be (treat* an tegoJar and 
mil paTsd, bnt nattow, and in oonaeqnenoe of beina 
flanked 1^ bi^ ^""'*% ^^ an for the moat part 
dark and doon^. Ine cnnrohea an numooos. 
Han of t£» private dwdlinga <rf L. am taitefnl 
and hunrion*, and eharming villaa abound in the 
enTiion*. The pnblio inatitaSona are well oigaoiaed, 
and inehide three hoapitala, an ofaaervatoiy, a pooi. 
honae, and a free library. Some year* ago, the cir- 
' the town waa extended by the demolition 
rti&cationa, and tha extenaion of the banieia 



of old' ,_- 

nr oity walla. The numnfaetnre* of L. are Tanow 
and inportant ; it poaoeaaea peat factoriea of dl, 
tc^MMW, *o^ aalt, and the well-known liqnenr 
Saaeiio; ita diatiUeiiea and dyeing week* aie 
alao edebiated. Ita chief ezpturta are raw and 



dbyGoogle 



LEGION— LEGION OP HONOOB. 



muuifactimd nlki, (tnw-hats ud straw-plutiiig, 
oil, fniitii, bon-x, chsese, uichoTiea, marble, Bnlphur, 
and conL Its import* compriaa colonial produce, nw 
and manufactured cotton, and wool, catletv, hard- 
ware, metallic good*, euthenware, and lalted fiah. 

Towardi the end of the I3th c, L. was an unpro- 
tected village, which only aammed Bome importance 
on the destruction of the port of Fisa, and especially 
on its beiiw asaiened to Florence in 1421. Ales- 
sandro driMedici constructed its citadel and forti- 
fied the town ; Cosmo 1 declared it a free port, and 
from that time date* the riie of its pnwperity. In 
the ITth c, under Ferdinand L, it w>« a town of 
great commercial importance ; and during the French 
uiperial occopation of Italy, L WW proclaimed the 
chief town (^ the department of the Mediterranean. 
Since 1830, L. haa taken a foremost part in the 
rerolntionary life of Italy. 

LEGION, in the Roman military ivfltem, corres- 
ponded in force and organisation to what in modem 
times we ihould call a arrpi itarmte. It differed in 
constitutioii at different periods of Soman histoiy. 
In the time of the lUpabUo, a le^on comprised 4SO0 
men, thtu divided : 1200 Aostatt, or iaeiperiemoed 
troops ; 1300 prineipa, or well-trained soldiers ; 
1200 vdila, or skinnisheTS ; 600 Iriarii, or pUani, 
veterans fonning a reeerve ; and. 300 egtritet, kiii^ts 
who acted 0* cavalry, and belonged to families of 
rank. During this period the legions were formed 
only for t^e season ; standing anniea being of later 
growth. 

The hastati, prindpes, and triarii formed three 
separate lines, each divided into 10 jnanipla or 
companies, of 120 men each in tfee case of the two 
front lines, and of 60 men in the triarii. A manias 
was commanded by a centnrion or captain, who 
had a seoond-centurion, or lieatenant, and two sub- 
office^ or sergeants, under him : as non-commis- 
Doiked officers, there wsa a deranui, or corporal, to 
every tanad or tent of ten men. The senior centurion 
of each line commanded that line, and had therefore 
fnnctiona corresponding to * modem lientenant- 
coloneL The pruntpUtu, or senior centnrion of the 
triarii, was the meet important regimental officer, 
and commanded the legion in the absence of the 
tribunea. The 300 cavalry formed a regiment of 
iisa furmcc, or troops of 30 horsemen, each under 
three deBUriota, of whom iliB senior had the com- 
mand. The velites were light troops, not forming 
part of the line of battle ; bad anparently no officers 
of their own ; and were attached to the 30 maniples 
in equal propoTtiona. The staff of the legion con- 
siited of dz tribnnes, who managed the paying, 
qnartering, proviaionins, tc of the troops, and who 
commanded the leraon m turns for a period each of 
two mouths. "nuB changing command, although 
inconvenient, la*ted till the bmes of the dvil wars, 
when a legaltu, or lientenant-genentl, was appointed 
as pennanent commandant of the legion. 

The offensive weapons of the hastati and principle 
were two barbed iron-headed javelins, one of which 
was burled at the enemjr on the first onslaught, 
while the other was retuned as a defence azamr^ 
cavalry. The triarii had lone pikes. In additio 
to t^ese armi, every soldier b(ae a short, stronj,. 
cnt-and-thmst, two-edged sword. The legionaries' 
defensiva annoor consisted of plomsd helmet, bresat- 
plate, iron-bound boot for the right leg, and a semi- 
cylindrical shield 4 feet long by 2} luoad. The 
vebte* bad no defensive armonr, won li^Uy armed, 
and in Mtion Qinally operated for flanking pniposea. 
Eaoh maniple bore an ensign aloft, and each li^ion 
had iti distinguishing ea^& Up to the time of 
Marios, MTvice in a legion was aot^t a* honoonble 
occupation, and men of some nteani were alone 
eligible ; bnt Marina enlisted slaves, and turned 



At the same period, the manij 
abolished, the three lines we 
the l^on was divided into 10 cohorts, each of 3 
maniptes. Soon the oohoiU were raised to 600 
men, making-tbe legion 6000 infantry beaidss cavalry 
and velites. It was ranged in 2 Unas of 6 cohorts 
each ; but Cnsar altered the fomiation to 3 linea, of 
re^peotively 4, 3, and 3 oohortii 

Durii^ the later Empire, the legion became com- 
plex andunmanageable ; many »o^ of arms being 
UiTown together, and balistn, catapults, and onager* 
added by way of artillery. Having «o degensi^ed 
from its pristine simplicity and com^et^Mss, the 
legionary formation was soon orerttarown amid the 
incursions of <^ victorious barbariana. 



LEGION, Thi THDMDERDia (Lat Ltgio Fvlmi- 
nairix), a legion of the Roman army which is tlia 
subject of a well-known miraculous l^^d. During 
Marcus Anrelius's war with the Marcomaaoi (174 
A. D.), his army, according to tiiis narrative, being 
shut up in a mountainous dehle, waa reduced to 
great straits by want of water ; when, a body of 
Christian soldiers having prajred to the God of the 
CliristiaDs, not only wa* ram sent se*sonably to 
relieve their thirst, but this rain was tamed upon 
the enemy in the shape of a fearful tiiunder- 
shower, under cover of which the Bomans attacked 
and ntterly routed them. The legion to which 
these soldlen belonged was thence, acoording to 
one of the narraton, called tlie Thunderinx L^ioo. 
This legend hu been the subject of mnan oontio- 
venj ; and it is certain that the lost told dioiun- 
stence at least is false, aa the name * thundering 
teaion' existed long before the date of this story. 
There woidd appear, nevertheless, to liave been 
some fonndatiou for the story, however it may 
have been embellished by the pious seal of the 
Christiaiis. The scene is represented on the colnma 
of Antoninus. The event is recorded by the pagan 
historian Dion Coasius (Ixii 8), who attributea it 
to Egyptian sorcerers ; and by Capitolinus and 
Themistiiis, the latter of whom ascnbea it to the 
prayers of Aurelius himself. It is appealed to by 
the nearly contemporary Tertullian, m his Apoiogg 
(c 6), and is circumstantially related by EnaetMUS, 
by JerCHDB, and Oroaius. It may not mqnobaUy 
be conjectured, euppoaing the substantial truth <K 
the narrative, that the iact_of one of the Ic 



toe narrative, that the fact of one of the legiou 
being called by the name ' Thundering ' may have 
led to the localising of th« story, and that it may 
have, in consequence, been ascnbod '" ""'" -- ' 
cular legion, which was supposed to 



le from die circumstance. 



may 
hivve received 



LEGION OF HONOUB, an order of merit 
instituted under the Fieooh Republia in 180S by 
the First Ccoural, ss a recompense for militaiy and 
civil services. It was ostensibly founded for the 
protection of republican principles and the laws of 
equally, and for the abohtion (^ differenoes of rank 
in Bociely, every social grade being eqnaUy eligiUe ; 
but its real aim doubtless was, by popularising the 
idea of personal distinction, to pave the way for 
the estebtishment of the Empire and of the nioi« 
exclusive titles of nobility that were to accompany 
it. The proposal for its institution was at first 
violently opposed by the legislative body and the 
tribunate, <m demoontio grounda, and cairied even- 
tnally by a narrow major^. 

The ordar originally oomprised three i lisiiia — 
Grand Officers, CSimmandera, and L^onaries. Th* 
class of Grand Officers was, on the oonmatiDn <J 
Napoleon L, divided into Knijdits of the Giaod 
Eagle (the highsat class), and Grand Offioers. On 
the reatoratum of the Bourbons, the L^on wh 



■(Google 



r 



I Rtaiiwd, bat nonodeUed so >■ to lose much of ita 

oiiguul character. The eagle waa called a croai, and 

the effiCT of Heniy IV. replaced that of Napoleon. 

I The Eni^ts of the Oiand Eagle became Orand 

CroBC^ the Legumaries were tranafarnied into 

[ Eid^ita, and the nunmoiu edacaUonal inititatioaa, 

I fboiSed by Napoleon for the cfafldi«n and relstivw 

of the memben of the order, were tnnch redneed in 

Kale. In 1837, a new militaij daaa called OiBcerB 

I waa admitted. Uiuler the Praradentahip of Looii 

I Napoleon, part of the property of Looia Philippe 

. vbich had been reitored to the state, waa aet 

I apart as an endowment for the Legion, and new 

I nsolations were made T^;ardinE the pemiona of the 

I dineient daaaea. The oiiginal form of decoration 

I mw reintroduced, which under the second Empire 

I vaa aomewhat modified. Aa worn then, it consisted 

' » croai of ten pointi of white enamel edged 



noM n etnigned by the imperial crown of Franc^ 
' and won attacdted to a red ribbon. The Grand 
' Officer* alao wore on the right breaat a ailrer atar 
i chwrged with the imperial e^le. The tame atar waa 
I worn on the left breast byUie Enighta Orand Crou, 
I and th^ cross waa attached to a broad red rtbbos 
whii^ passes orer the ri^t shoulder. 

The Tsat Dnmbers of this order, and the insigni- 
ficance of many of tbe persons on whom it hai 
been oonfertnl, have detnicted much from its value. 
In 18M; the member* nnmbered 49,417 ; but tiuce 
I I8&1, only one new nomination haa been made for 
I erery two extinct one*. The College of the Legion 
i* in poaa ossi on of conudenble mean*, which fiaTe 
I beanaa^mentedbythe addition of property belonging 
; to Louu Fhil^^ Out of thia fond penaiona are 
I Hud to oertam members of the order, inclndinB 
knuhts and legionariea who hare been woundei^ 
I or hare undecgone the amputation of a limb in 
servioe. These pensions have sometimes amonnted 
I to as lar^ a sum aa six million franca annually. 
B J the existing atatntea, candidates in time of peaoe 
I niiiit haye served in some militan or dvil capacity 
for twenty years ; eipkdta in the field or severe 
I wounds conrtitnto a claim jn time of war. Two 
distributiona take place in the ye*r. The Qomi- 
nation of milituy persona takes place on |>itrade, 
and of civil in tile courts of justice. No ignoble 
ponishment can be inflicted on a member of the order 
•o Jong aa he belongs to it. To rise to a superior 
tank, it ia indispensable, at least for natives of 
Pnnne, to have pawed through the inferior gradee. 
I LEQITIH, or BAIRN'S PAUT, in the Simtch 
Iaw, is the l^gal provision which a child >* entitled 
to out of the movable or personal estate of the 
I deseaaed father. In Scotland, a father ia not allowed 



LE»ITIU— LEQS. 



' sot. If ft wife anrvive, and lUaa childrea survives 

' llMiBon^>le estate ia divided into three equal parts. 

. Oas i* the widow's Jvt Siticla (q.v.), another is 
the cUUren's Itsitiin, the other third is the I^ead's 

I Part [^ v.), wbi^ the father may bequeath by will 
if he pteaaee, but if he nuke no will, then it goea to 
the children as next of kin. If the wife is dead, 

' titan half ia Ic^tim, and the other half is dead's 
" a father, thou^ in his lifetime he 



1 aii^, withoict anv check from his children, sqnandt 
I hii property, st^ ia not allowed on his death-be 
' to nuke gifts so a*_to lessen the fund which will 



■ply l^tim. 
y be qnalifli 



„ The children's 

qnalifled by an antennptial ( 
" ' ■" other p 



I maniue, wtack ptovidM nrae other provision to 
the ehiUTea in liaa ol legitimi bat. aa a general ToK 



tbe children's claim cannot be defeated by anything 
the father can do by means of a will or what is 
equivalent to a wilL The ledtim ia claimable by 
all the children who survive uie father, but not by 
the issne of those children who have predeceasBL 
It is immaterial what the age of the child may be, 
and whether married or not. Children claiming 
legitim must, however, give credit for any provision 
or advance made by the father out of his movable 
estate in hia lifetime. All the children, tliough of 
different maniages, share in the lesitim. In England 
and Ireland, there is no similar nght to legitim, for 
the father can bequeath all his property to atranoeni 
if he pleaae ; but a """"'«'' custom once eiisted in 
the city of London, and York, now abolished by 19 
and 20 Viet c. 94, 

LEGI'TIHAOT, Pnrnoir to Dkiubi. In 
Scotland, it haa alwaya been competent for a party 
who wished to estaUiah that he wa* a l^^miate 
person, to raise an action of dsolarator of If—"—— 
wben the court solemnly dedded the qi 
England, this could not be done, 
in the conrse of some suit for anotberpnrpoae, 
until I8fi8, when the sUtnte 21 and 22 Vict. c. 93 



Court to have the question decided. 
IJIQITIMA'TION, in Scotch {and Porragn) I^w, 



led If^tiniBtion per mitejitau mi 



This effect, however, can only be produced provided 

' " '' ' the birth the parents m^ht have 

there was no obstacle to l£e 



at tbe time of the birth t 



inclined, as, for example, if they 
were ooia unmarried, and there w>* no impediment. 
Sometimes it has happened that the father, A, or 
mother, B, after the child's birth, marries a third 
person, and haa children, and after the dissolution 
of the mairiage, A and B tiien marry. In this 
perplexing case, the courts have held that the 



prevent tb 
from beinc 



being le^timated by the subeeqaent marriage 
of A and R But it haa not been settled what 
aro the mutual ri^ts of tbe children of the two 
marriagea in such circumstances, though it appeam 
that the legitimate-bom children caunot be displaoed 
by the legitimated bastard. The doctrine of legiti- 
mation per tu&tiqiunt mairimanivni a not reccw- 
nised in England or Ireland, having been solemnty 
repudiated ^the famous statute of Merton, and 
the maxim prevails ther^ ' onoe a bastard, always a 
bastard.' Legitimation ia alao reoogniied in Scotland, 
but not in England or Irdand, where tiie parents 
were not really married, though they both bond-fide 
believed themaelves to be manied. This is called a 
pntative mairiage. The law of Scotland on these 
snbieota follows the canon law, and the French law 
is the some. 



aakM, sometimes booted, and 
they may be couped, L e, cut 
evenly off, or erased, cut with 
a ja^ed edge, and that either 
at the thigh or below tiie knee. 
The knee when tepresented is 
always embowed. A remark- 
able device of three leas in 
armoor, conjoined at the t£ighs, 
and flexed in triangle, forms 
the insignia of the ancient kingdom of Van (see 
fig.), wiuTthe appropriate motto, QuoeuiiSTte leeeris 




;;t^oDgl 



IXOrWB—'LBIBSlTZ. 



itabiL 'The dMrical mubol of ths itlaud of SIoQt 
(Trinacri*) wm formea of three naked lea Binu- 
larly conjoined, 4lld the triple-moiintainea Ida of 
Man mi^t hare awakened in iti Noimaa aoTereiana 
■oma TeooUeotianB of Okoz Heditezranean conqnena.' 

LE'QUHE (Legwmen), in Botany, a frnit consirt- 
ing of a eingle caipel, two-ralved, and vith the 
■eedi — one or many — attached to the rentnJ antim 
only. It ii conunonl; called a pod, aod oooon in 
most of the apeciea at the great natural order 
LtffunwiOKB (q.Y.), of vhioh the Bean and Fea are 
frmfli^i- exunpleB. The legoms generally opem 
vhen ripe, and tlien both by Idie dorsal and ventral 
■ntnm; irhereaa the/oSic2e, which nearly reaemblei 
it, opena by a antora along ita face, and 1* one- 
yiiyii. A tnr legnmea do not open, bat the nttoiee 
u« pw ao nt. Scone are divided by toanaveiM pu> 
titiou {dia/AragBu) ; and Uia kind called a fenm- 
(«m ii ooDtnoted m the ipacea betwixt the aeedi, 
and iqianitea into piaoei inatead of opening. 

LBGU'HINi:, or VEGETABLE CA3EINE. 
The aeeda of tnoct legnmfnona planta {peaae, beana, 
Itntila, to.), and of the aweet and hitter almond, 
eontain a protsine or albmninon* hodj, which in all 
ita ««8ential propcrtiea coireapanda wi& the caeeine 
of i"iiv For example, it ia precijdtated from its 
wdntioni by rennet, aortio tmi, aloohol, fto., and ia 
not coagulated bf- ">>Ui>K • wluU^ aa in the caae of 
nulk, the application of heat occaaioui the formation 
of a pellicle on the aorfaoa Tim affinity of the 
two kmda of oaaeine ia further shewn by the fact, 
that oheeae ia made by the Chineee from peaae 
and beana. 

In order to obtun lecomine, peaae, beana, or lentila 
are well aoaked in hot water, and after being 
rednoed to a pulp, are mixed with a oonmderaUe 
quantity of water. The stamh, membianea, fte., 
won link to the bottm^ aad tiie lecnmine mnit be 
preerptated t^ aeetio add from the deoauted or 
filtered flnid. DiT peaae oontaln abont one-foorth 
of their weight d legmnin& 

LBOTTHmO'B^ [Fdbaeem of Lindlejr), a great 
uatoral order of exogenoiu pUnta, containing her- 
baoeoof jJanta, ahraba, and treee, many of them of 
the greateat nagnitnde. The leavea are alternate, 
Qaoally oomponnd, and have two atipnlea at the 
baae of the leaf-stalk, which often aoon fall oft 
The inflonaoence ia variona. The calyx ia inferior, 
5-paitad, toothed or deft, the Begmenta oftem 
nneqnaL The petala are S, or, by abortion, fewer, 
inaerted into the baae of the calyx, uanally nneqoal, 
often PapSiotKueatu (^. v.). Hie atammia ore few or 
mairy, dirtiikot or vanonoly nnited. The ovny is 
l-celled, generally of a amg^ carpel; the ityle 
aimiJ«( proeeedmg from the upper margin, the 
atigma imqtle. l£e fruit ia eitiier a Lt^nme (q. v.) 
or a Drape (q.T.). The aeeds are aolitary or nomer- 
oni, oooadMul^ witb an aiil, often curved ; the 
ool^ledona very lar|^ — There an three aQb-ordera ; 



petala. 

This natural ordv eonteina 
nieoie^ of which about GOOO belong to the nib-oider 
Pttf^liimaeeci, They are spread over all part* trf the 
world, fr<Hn the equator to the polaa, but their 
number ia greatest in boinoal and anh-tropioal 
r^iont. They &re applied to a great varied of 
purposea, and some of them are of great importanoe 
m oonuatie eoonomy, the arte, medicine, &o. To 
tide order belong the Bean, Pm, Etdney-bewi, and 
allldndaof jniiM; Clover, liqnorioe. Broom, Labur* 
nnm, Luiana, 8am% and many otiuff medicinal 
pliirt«(TMMrind,Logwi>od, Indigo and Hianyotbm 



which afford dyes, fta; the AtaAu, Mimotai, Ac 
Many apeciea ai« interestduK on acoount of thdr 
beauty of form, folii^e, or Soweie. In the aeeda I 
of many ia found a nitrogenona sabatance called 
Legumiiii (q. t.) or Vegetable Odtelne. 

IjBr A, an important trodins town of India, in the 
Fuiuab, is aituatad in a fertib diatrict on Uie left 
bank of the Indna, 60 mQee aoutli of Dtta lamael , 
Khan. Lot 31° N., long. 71* K Beadea beiiu a i 
mart for the aale of the produoe of the aoTroundrng i 
district, it oarriee on an extensive transit-trade b«- 1 
tween the Punjab and the r^ona weat of the Indue. I 
Froviaiona, metals, grain, and cotton and wool are I 
the chief article* of aale. Pop. (1868) I7,03S. I 

LBIBHITZ, QorrrBXKD WuHBm von, perhape 
the moat exbsordinaiy example of nnivenal echolM^ 
ahip npc« record, w«* boni, July 6, 1646, at Leipzig 
whWehia father wu profroeor of law. He puaol 
thrond) the elementaiy studiea at the 'Nicholaa 
School' of hia native ciqr, undo' Thomasins: but be 
derived much more of the vast atore of miscellaneoQa 
leaning which hia after-life fixhibits fnmi hia 
private atadies iu a library to which he had acoeaa, 
and thus entered the nniversity with peeoUar 
advantages, in his ISth year, selecting the lawaa hia 
pmfeanim, bnt devoting himself also to philasaphy 
and literature. He spent some time at uie univer- 
ai^ of Jeoa, and on his return, presented hinuelf 
for the df^ree in law, for which he compoeed two 
eaaaya of \erv remoiiable merit In consequeuoe 
of hia youth, however, he was refused the degree at 
Ledpog, and ultimately (in hia 20th year), in 16S6, 
graduated at Altdorf, wbere he waa offered, but 
declined, a profeeeor^iip; accepting in preference 
the poet of eecietary and tutor in t^ family of the 
Boron von Bomebur^ to whom he rendanid, from 
1667 till 1672, a varied of literary and politico- 
hteraiy sarrioea, and miongb whoee reconuneo- 
dation he was ^ipointed member (ri the jndidal 
conncil in the aervioe of the Arohbiahop-eleator of 
Mains. Ia 167% he acoompanied B<nnebunfa bodb 
to Pane, and there submitted to Louia JQV". an 
essay entitled ContiUum ^gvpHaevm, containing 
* plan for the invasion of Egypt, which ia by 
Borne auppoaed to have led to the Egyptian 
expedition of Bonaparte in 1798. In the course 
of this tour, which extended also to London, h« 
formed the acquaintance of the moet eminent 
philoaopheie of ^ance ud En^and, and amooz 
them ot Newton. On the death (d tils Elector M 
Mum, L., declining an i^pmntment at Pari* which 
would have neoeeaitated his becoming a Gathdic, 
entered the eerrice of the Duke of Bruaawick, 
and followed that prinoe, in 1670, as privy-coun- 
cillor and librarian, to Hanover, wluov be per^ 
manently fixed his Toddanoa. Hia litoary semcoi 
to thia oourt wer« of a very miaoellaueoiis chuactcr. 
After a tour of hiatoriokl aqdoratioB, he prapared 
a eerJea of worka illiHtratiilg the History A the 
HoQse of Bmnswicik, Mven Tuumea of which was 
published b^ bimself, and two have be«ai edited 
in oar own tune by Dr Pers, ^aiute /tnisrii Oed- 
dtMi Awmvtenab (lH3-tS4S). He nndertoi* 
likewiae the smcaitiflo direction and organiiatiott M 
tha n^al ninea, into wfaioh be introdaoed manj^ im- 
provement* ; and he iJac^ at ihedeeireot tbeprinc^ 
to(A an aotive part in tit* negotiatioDa fm ohurdi 
union, aad the tiieohidoal ^onadoos comaotad 
therewith, wUdi form*allienb}eot of a protntcted 
oorreniandenoe with the oelidirated Boaaaet (q. t.) 
and widi H. Pdiasm, and led to the prspantion, OD 
his own port, of a very curioaa expoaibon <rf doetnnal 
belirf (publialied from his BIS. within this cent ury , 
nndsr the title dk*'''"^ n<0l00fcwH), iriiMt,aMMugh 
i written in the aMamad ehaiaote <d a Catbdl^ 



v,Goo*^le 



LEIOESTEtU-UIOESTEBSHISIl 



WM tntaidedto fonn 

ft^pUloIo^aaL Hia comapondanoe on tlicse m^jeo 
WH mwt extenmTe, and be oontribated largely 1 
•bnoat CTeTj liteniy and scientifio janmal of h 
d^. He WH the cnicf orgatiiaer of the Acaden^ < . 
B^a, ot which ha was the Bxet preddent, and 
oiigiiuited both at Breaden and Vienna a project for 
the cataHJahment ot eimilai bodiea. It waa to hin 
likewiae, that Peter the Qrent, who inTited Tiim to 
Meeting at Torgao, tad bestowed on him a pen«io_ 
of 1000 mblea, with the title of priTy-conncilloT, 
owed the plan of the Knee celebrated Academy of 
3t Petenbnrg. On the aoceaaion of the Elector 
George to the down of Great BritaiQ, aa 0«olge L, 
L. waa diaappranted in hit eq)ectation of acGom- 
T>ai^iii^ the prinoa to Ua new court ; nor did he 
umg inrTTT« that eroit. Hia death, which waa 
la^er onezpected, oocnrred at Eanorer, November 
li, 171& Sua biographera inatlr complain that hi« 
memoiy waa treated with bat little bononi by hia 
tardy atonemant for their 



The Bchidarahip of L., aa regarda the VMtiieaa 
of ita lange, la probably unexamided. He waa 
enunant in langoagea, hiatory, diTJnity, philoaopby, 
poUtical ftodiea, experimental tmence, meohanlcil 
adenoe, and even bellcs-letbea. But it ii chiefly 
thran^ hia jUIoaophical itnataticn tlurt be lirea 
in hiahny. ft would be £fflcalt to OMiTay, in 
a popiilar aketcb, a oonect notua ot bit ^lilo- 
■opliical ayatem, eapecdally aa ho haa nowben ' ' 
auEmetbodiMdit. lnthemain,henM^b«deacr 
aa a Carteeian, but be differed from Deaoartca 



badeaoribed 



rednoed to four : his dootiine aa to the Origin of 
Ideaa, Ua tbewy of Movaes (q. v.), the 'Pre-eatab- 
BAeJ Harmntiy.'andthe thaory of Ownowi (q. v.). 
Of tiicM, ttuea will be foond d M c na a n d under aepar- 
ate heads. Tbe Pre^fataUiabed Haimm^ rMmna 
a faw winda <rf «^d*aation. Hie object « thia 
■Denhr ooQc^tion waa to explain the myatMVNU 
probUn of die joint aoiion of^ mind and Dody, or 
eren in geooal toe joint aotaon of any two cr sure 
ot the jo-caHed ' motiadi,' ainceL. hc£l that no two 




^j» of two 

« to sfarike 

N tbe oUmt pointed to the banr. In tbe miaa 

' — "■ -'- '■^- 1 whai -Qw mind fracly 

icnlar ao^ tbe bo^, by a 

r \y Qod, wul prodDoe tita 

on wUcb ia Mqnirad to dtb tMauoj 

I M the mijxL One m t&a nmt 

painfal intadtaiti in tbe literary and aoiantifla 

uatoij of L, WM bia oentroTeray witii Newton 

I aa to pnoci^in the dJacoreiyoftaamBtbodof tbe 

I ealraloi. 8m OAURn,tiB, FurzKnn. L. waa tbe 

I inaator d a cateakting-maidiine, tbe woikuu- 

I Bodel of Kiiicb ia atill pttMrred at GMtin(<a>. ma 

wotfctwera fiiat obQaeted by Dotana, In 6 Tida. 4to, 

G<aat>; bia fdnloamluea] woAi by Ba*p<v ' — '" 

daai,17ST; and bia lrtt«w at Lwiaanne md 



late yearn, both in Oerma)^ and In Frasoe, meoially 
I by,I^ GnhnMer, to whom we we alao Indebted for 
a biography. See Leibnitz, ErM BiographU, 2 T<da. 
Sto. Braslaii, 1842. 

LGrOESTEB, a town of Tiin gl^Tui_ mtinicipal and 
parliamentary boron^ and capital ot the county 
of the same name, la aitnated on Uie ri^t bank 
of the Soar, about 100 mile* nralb-north-weat of 
London. It contraru nmnarona interatitu chnrcJkM, 
one of which, St Niobolaa, ia partly boilf of bricks 
from an ancient Soman bnilding in the Ticimtr. 
""-■'— ■"■- ei»]«aiaatical edifice*, there are a 



ibinaand dyeing, are eitennvely carried _. ^ 
centre c^ a tamons agricnltnral and wool-raiting 



. known to the Bomana as Saia, derives Ha 
present naoM either from Leirs, tin fomur name irf 
the Soar, or from ila having been a OMtn* Ltgiormm, 
a atation or oamp {cattra) of the l^iom, which 
tiie Baxtna would tnndate into Legeo-OMster, 
oomtponding to tbe Britiah or Welab Caer-leon. 
Under tbe Lanoastiian prinaea,itacaatU|nowalniaat 
eotdrely deatoo y ed, waa freqnenUy a tojA reai- 
dence. Hie mina of tbe abbey of St Mary Prt, or 
De Pratis, where Cardinal WoUay cUed, ttiu exist. 

LBIOaSTBB, BonncT Ducur, Eui, of, bom 
in 1S31, waa tbe eon of Jcdm Dndlay, Dnke of 
Nortbnmberland. Hia father was exeooted on 
acoonnt <rf tbe perl whiA be took in the caote of 
Lady Jane Grey, and be waa bimaelf impnaMied 
on tiie same aeoonnt. He waa liberated in IJSM; 
and in 1S08, on tbe aeoeaaion of Elicabetb, tb« dawn 
ot bl* fortune began. He was made Master ot tbe 
Eoraa, Enigfat M tbe Garter, a Frivy-ootmcillor, 
Hifdi atewaid of tbe nniveraity of Cambridge, Baron 
Vaalaj, and £ari of Laioeatar. For t&ea bigh 
boaonra, he teama to have beeoi indebted aijely'io 
btome pereon and a cenrtly ntaa^, tor the 
ot hia life abawa him to bare been poaaessed 
- - aiule qoalilj either ol bead or heart 
„ t a£nirMion. Wboi yoimg, he nuirriad 
Amy, dan^iter at Sir Jobu KobMrt The goaer>l 
TMoe of we tiuaa baa durged bim with being 
aooeaaoiT to lur nnrdtr; ud it ia certain th2 
abe died anddenly, and vary opportmuty tor hia 



I anddenly, an 
M fiewL na b 



y opportanety ft 
A tbat time a i 



tbe hand of EUnbetb. Hiaabeth gave oat 

ahe witbed Urn to marry Mary ot Sootland ; 

bnt in tbia tbe T'i'^gli*'' qneen was acting wilb bn 

-> ,._ ' gj^ enoonraged L. openly aa a 



t long aftea ^ „ 

Ba^ t^u bia profligacrr bad bronght ^"" into 
On natum. Hia marrian to Lady 
me exdted tbe anger of bia royal 
he toon fdigave bim. In lOSS, he 
went iido the Lonr Oon^risa at tbe bead of a 
Mva ; but on tbia, aa on two tabatqaetit 
be ahawad bimaetf ntterly nnflttad for 
He died anddenly, on Septsmber 4. 1S88. 
amonly aaid that he waa pobonad by his 
wife, tbe having given bim a potaon whlidt be had 



LEI'OESTliBSHIBI^ an inland comrty ot 



tfamiighont by low bills. The diatrict in tbe aovQi- 
weat, still called 'Cbainwood Fcreat^' retaina its 
name, aHhon^ it ia now afanoat deatitate at wood. 
Ihe ' FoMSt ' ia oconpied by Jdlla, wbiob, tbooj^ 



,Coog 



LBIGH— LEIPOA, 



^ ..__ --„-_, distinot, ■nd 

individuAl ia - ~ ..-—......, 

BnrAon Hill, . _ 

ia obtamad. Hie clinuta 
which Tariet in ferttlitf, is chiefiy loamy. The 
ricbert tract* ■!!« kept io putore, for whioh this 
coau^ufamotuL lo 1873, th« acreage tinder eom 
crops was 11^603; Been OKipa, 23,966 ; andperman- 
ent paBtnie, 286,704 Onuiug, and aheep and cattle 
breeding, are oairied on with great ekiU and moceaa^ 
An improTed long-hom ia uie faToorite bnsd of 
cattle. Id 1873, there were in the oonntj IS, 
bone* ; I31,9M cattle ; 445,377 aheep ; and 30, 
piga. The 'Stilton' Tarieiy of cheeae ia for the 
moot pftrt made in thta coonty. Coal-mine* are 
worked, and granite, slate, and freestone quarried. 
The cooaty returns four membeis to parliaments 



Liverpool Railway, is sitaatad 13 miles ^ 
Mancheoter. SiUcs, cambrics, mvalins, and fostiana 
are extenaiTely mannfactured ; ootton^pinning and 
weaving are carried on ; there is a large foundry, 
where agricnltural implamaoti are eztensiTen 



1 ISai, 10,621; i 



, ^d in the 
mines and flcnr-mil]& Pop. 
1871, 33,692. 

LEIQHTON, BoBKBT, Archbishop of Olasgow, 
wa* bom ia Sdinbmsh, or, as others t^iiVi in 
London, in the year ISll. He entered the university 
, of the former d^ in 1627. took hia degree of M.A. 
in 1631, and afterwards proceeded to Fiance. Here 
he Tended with some relatives at Donay, and 
formed the acquaintance of several Boman Catholic 
students, whose Christiaa virtues confirmed the 
natnnJ chati^ of his spirit. L., indeed, conld nerer 
have beea a bigot Gentle, tender, and piooa from 
his earliest years, he shrunk from all violence 
and intolerance; bat his intercoone with men 
whoso opinions were so di&jerent from his own, 
convinced his reason of the folly and unfulness of 
'thinking too rigidly of doctnne.' Retntning to 
Scotland, he was appointed, in I64I, to the pari3i of 
Newbattle, near Etunborah ; but he was not militaat 
enough to please his fierce co-presbyten. They 
appraired to him, who had studied far more deeply 
than any Scotchman of hia time the varioua ei^le- 
■iastical politiee of Ghristendcan, truculent about 
trifles. According to Bishop Burnet, > he soon oame 
to dislike their Covenant, partionlarlT their imponng 
it, and their fui; against ^ who difiered from than. 
He found Ih^ were not capable of huge thonghta ; 
theira were narrow as their tempers were sour ; so 
he grew weary of miiing with them.' Yet we 
cannot aJtogetier approve the facility with which 
be fraternised with the party that bad inflicted 
such horrid craelties on hie eicalleat fatter, Dr 
Alexander )>i^ton, in 1630. for merely publishing 
a book in favour of Preebyteriajiiam. In 1852, he 
resigned bit charge, and in the foUowine year was 
elected Prindpal of the nnivewity of Edinburgh, a 
digni^ which tie retained for ten years. Eai^est, 
spiritual, and utterly free from tH selfish ambition, 
he laboured without ceaaintr for the wel&n of the 
•tDdentK After the rotOTation of Chaia«t II, L., 
who bad long separated himself from the Presby- 
terian par^, was, after mnch nlnctanee, induoed to 
accept a biBbopii& He chose Dnnblue, becMise it 
was small and pow. UnfortniiatelT for hia peace, 
the men with whom he was now ^lied were even 
more intolerant and nnacrupnloDa than the Preaby- 
teriaiu The despotio measures of Sharps and 
I^uderdale sickened him. Twice he proceeded to 
London (in 166S and 1669) to implore the kins to 
adopt a mildo' ooune — on tile former of toese 



. declarinc; 'that be could not concur in 
planting of the Christian religion itself in snch a 
manner, much less a form of government' Nothing 
was reijly done, thousb much was promised, and L. 
bad to endure the nusecy of seeing an ecclciiaatical 
system which he believed to be intrinsically the 
Mat, perverted to the worst of pnrpoaea, and binuelf 
the accomplice of the worst of men. In 1670, oa 
the reaignatdon of Dr Alexander Burnet, be waa 
mads AJrchbishop of Glasgow ; an office which he 
accepted only on the condition, that he should be 
assirted in his attempts to carry out a liberal 
meaanre for ' the comprehension of the Preaby- 
teriani.' Hia efforts, however, were all in vain ; the 
high-handed tvranny of bis colleagues waa lenewed, 
ai^ L. felt that be mnat resign, which he did in 
1673. After a short residence in Edinburgh, be 
went to live with his siater at Bioadhurst, ia 
Sussex, where he spent the reat of his days in a 
retired manner, devoted chiefly to works of nligioo. 
HediedJnne2a,1684 L.'s heat works [he pnblished 
nothing during his lifetime) are to be foimd in an 
edition published at London (4 vols. 1823). All hia 
writings are pervaded by a spirit at once lofty and 
evangdicaL The trutlu of Chiistaani^ are aet 
forth in the spirit of Plato> It was this that tecom- 
mended them so much to Coleridge, whose Aids to 
SefieeUon are only commentaries on the tnarhing of 
the saintly archbijdiop. 

LBIGHTON-BUZZABD, a maiket-town of 
England, Bedfordshire, ia aitnated ia a large agri- 
cultural district, 40 milea north- north-west of 
London. It has claims to coasiderable antiquity — 
its church was erected in the bt^jnaing; of th« 
latu . ._j ;_ itg market-Dlace is an ancient and 
Many of the inhabitant* 
teaw-plait. Pop. (1871) 

LEI'NIXOEX, the name of one of the wealthiest 
of the mediatiaed Eonsea of Oermany, was formerly 
applied to a Oenoaa conn^ in the district of 
Worms and Spires, with which, in the beginning 
of the 13th c, the county of Daehsborg became 
connected as part of the fami^ poaseesJOTW. ^e 
family is one of the oldest atUl eximng in G«nnMiy. 
In 1779, the head of one of the teanonea into which 
it bod become divided, the Count of Leininsen- 
Hardenbarg-Dachaburg, was raised to the ntJL «t 
a prince ; but the peace of Lonfiville deprived bim 
of hia ancient poaseasions-'-about 2JS2 sqnare miles 
in extent, on the left bank of the Rhine. He 
received, bowaver, a cmnpensataon in other part* 
of Germany ; and though no longer an independent 
prince, he retains hia nak and wealth, his po«Ms- 
sions being within the territoiiea of Baden, B*varia, 

IiEI'NSTBR, one of the four provinoe* «f Irriand, 
occD^iea the sonth-eaat portion of the oounby, 
and u bounded on the E. by St GeoTse's Channel 
and the Iriab Sea. Ar«a, 4,876,211 acre*; pop^ 
(1871) 1.335,966. At the period of the invasion 
by England (1170), this raorinoe fanned two 
kingdoms, ttoae of L and Meath. PievuMialy to 
the reign of Henry VIIL, the province had been 
dividea into the conntiea ci Dublin, Meatli, Lontli, 
Kildare, Cariow, Kilkenny, and Wexford. The 
following coontieB were erected subaeqnuttly : 
Wicklow, formed from a portion of the conn^ of 
Dublin; West Heath and Longford, from apart o( 
Meath ; and King's and Qneen'a ConntiGa formed 
out of part of Eildare. 

LEIPOA, a ^us of gallinaoeoua birda, of Um 



nt pentangular d 
employed m mall 



ai,G0Ut.>lf 



LEtPOA — JjSXPZXQ. 



or Nauti Phxuuit, by the cobnuts. Like tlis 
AnB»«m];*ii jiinrie-fowl, Uie L coofftmctB moundB 
r euth, mod luvee, in which to lay ila 



Leipo* {Ltipoa oc^lala). 

Man thmn s draen &re often found in b nest. 
>t« &boat three timei u large m tHoae of > 
fowl ; tnd are mnch eeteemed oa food. 
Wbcn panned, it aeeka to escape rather ty roiuting 
and hii£iie in the bmh, than by the use of its winiji. 
Pew litai teem m<ae likely to prove oaeful '~ 
dconeaticatioo than the Leipoa. 

liBTPZIO [formerly Libit or Li/nk said to me 
the home of the linden or lime treee, from the SUvio 
Lip <x Lipa, a lime-tree), a city of the kingdi 
Suony, ntoat^ about 65 nuies weet-nortii-weBt 
id Dreaden, near the Pmuiau border, in a '. 
and fertOe plain. The Elster, the Pleieae, ani 
Partbe flow through or past the dtf, ud 1 
about 3 milea below it. The inner or ancient dty 
waa fonoedy sorroonded by walla, which have now 
dia^ipeared, but it is itill separated from the far 
more eiteniiTe ■nbnrbs iFrieiirieh»-tladl, Johannen- 
tladt, ftc) I^ promenadea planted with beautiful 
aveouea of lime and cheatout trees. Many of tbr 
atreeta of the inner city are nairow and crooked, 
thoae of the more modem part (which contaiuB 
al*0 » DOmber of Gne equarce) are wide and well 
bnilt The sanitary state of the city has been much 
promoted by an extensive and costly aystem of 
•ewen. Hie inner city is the principal seat of 
bnsineaa and merchanaise. The population in 
1S71 waa 106,926, of whom a vast majority were 
Froteataota, noatiy beloneing to the Lnthenui 
Chni^ Of the public bnSdingi of L, few are in 
any way Temaifcable. The best i> the Angoatenm, 
the seat of the nnivenity, finished, acceding to 
designa \j Schinkel, in 1836. The court has a 
spl^did appearance. Of tiis three castles which 
focmoly enated, only one remaina, the Pleisaanbnrg, 
now nsed for government offices and barracks ; aad, 
a portion of it, aa a wool-store ; the ditch has 
beoome a place for drill ; and the tower, formerly 
an obwrratoty. L. is the seat of courts and public 
offices for a Ivge distiiot, as well as of those 
raopetiy belonrang to the city itself. It has many 
benevolent intUtotions, and also many educational 
iutitiltiona, mdnduig the nnivenity and two 
gymnasia^ The onivennt^ owes its origin to the 
removal of b large number of Qerman students 
from Frsgue to Ic in 1409, in consequence of dii- 
pdtea between the Bohemians and Ciermana It 
oppoaed a strenaous resistance to the Eeiormation. 
Itliaaal 



connected with it. Connected with 
the nniversity are 90 prefeospn, and 70 private 
teachei*. The nomber of atudanta is neaily 3000. 
In the early part of the present century, the 
nnmber unonnted to abont 130ft The University 
Library conttun* 150,000 volomea and 2D0O manu- 
scripts, and there are also in connection with 
the nniversity a botanic ^rden, and a nnmber of 
-"^'■■'-s devoted to different deparbnanta of 
The City Library contains 100,000 Tolnmea 
and 2000 manuscripts. There are a number of 
scientific aseodationB, and various 
institutions for the cultivation of the fine 
particular may be mentioned the 
^ music, which is reckoned one of the first in 

orope. See CotramtVATOiiiK. 

The three annual fairs (held at Easter, Michael- 

as. and the New Year, and lasting from three 
to five weeks) add much to the importance of L., 
and render it^ with the exception of Hamburg, the 
peatest seat t& trade in GCTlnany. The origin of 
these fairs is traced back tor mora than 600 years. 
They ara attended by Jews, Turks, Greeks, Arme- 
-- — Persians, and even (of late) bj Chinese^ The 
ion of Buonv to the German Customs' Union, 
IZcHtxrtin), and the opening of railways, have of 
late years produced a great increase of tiie oon- 
courve and of the bnsiness at these fairs, which 
had previously bwun to decline. Transactions to 
the extent of ?0,0n),000 thalers (above £10,000,000 
sterling) now take pUce at an Easter fair. The 
wool-market, which was instituted in 1S26, and ie 
held for three days in Jane, is much frequented. 

L, is the principal seat of the booluelling and 
pablishing trade in Oeimatiy, and indeed, in this 
respect, ranks third amons^ the cities of the world, 
coming immediately after London and Paris. 



s. Up. 
k-trade. 



wards of 300 hooses at« engaged in the book- 
There were also, in 1870, 40 printing eetablishmi 
Here the Qerman booksellerB have founded a com- 
mon exchange, and annual settlements of acoonnte 
take place at the Easter Fair. One thouaand 
houses are then represented by their eommiaaioners 
at I/eipzig. In consequence of this activity, L. 
has become the princip«l seat of type-founding in 
Oermany. Among its other manufactures are 
pianofortes, scientific inatnuneuts, wax-cloths, oils, 
chemical prodncta, perfnmes, ftc 

The c 
HeinricI; 

Farthe. It ia first' mentioned as a town in 1015, 
and in the latter part of the 12th &, hod fiom 6000 
to 6000 inhabitants. It gradually increased in 
prosperity and importance. The famous Ltipiig 
CoTiferaux between Luther, Eck, and Carlstadt, in 
1519, greaUy tended to the promotion of the Refor- 
mation. L. sufiered greatly in the Thirty Years' 
War, in which it was five times besieged and taken, 
and again in the Seven Years' War ; and although 
the commercial changes connected with the French 
Bevolotion at first ^ecl«d it very favoorably, yet 
it suffered not a litUe amidst the terrible strogglea 
of the years 1812 and 1813, when it was alternately 
'". possession of the French and of the allies. 

The immediate neighbourhood of L. has been die 
_jene of two battles of great importance in the 
histoi^ of Germany and of Europe — the batUe of 
'-ipzig, or of Breitenfeld (q. v.), on September 7, 
II ; and the great battle of Leipzig-^^^ed the 
Bailie o/Nationi, which continued for three days — 
from the IGth to the 18th of October ISia The 
latter was one of the most bloody and decisive ot 
those which effected the deliverance of Enrope from 
French domination. The troops under Napoleon in 
this batUe amoonted to about ISO.OOO men, and those 
of the allies, commanded by Prince Schwaraenbei^ 



dhyGUO^Ii 



T.BIT H— T.HT.T 



Manhol Blnehir, and Bonxlatte, Ctawn-prioM ol 
Swedoi, to mlmort 800,00a Abcnt 3000 ^M«a of 
■itUlerr wen brra^t to the field. Tha loa of ths 
Franoh VM nokimad at about 88,006 UlU and 
wmnded, and StMMO ^bonan t that of ^* *" - 
' >*baattf/}Oa llioTktoirof tliaalliM 



Leipzig, 



eipzig. 

LBITH, an impcrtant mport, 

rariianwotaiy bn^ of Scotuod, . . 

•bore of the Tirtii of Forth, at tha mouth of the 
Water of Leith, two mile* luirth of Edinburgh, with 
which it ia now connected by a oontinuona hue of 
hoQMa. Although not without nuui; fine edificaa, 
the town, M a whole, ia lather mean m appearance, 
bnng irregolar and dinK?! eapecially in the older and 
central puis. Hie Uuiity-honas, Coitom-hooa^ 
Town-hill, Boyal Ezidiange, Cora Exobange, and 



branch-linw with the Tarioiia railway! centring in 
Edinbnr^ The harbour extend*, b^ mean* of two 
piei^ imwarda of a mile into the Firth, and has a 
dc^h ot from SO to 20 feet at high-water. There 
■r* thtea wet-dack% oontaining a floating wes of 
2S Mooi; and additional dock MMonunodation ia 
oontaoqlated. There aia aix grannit-doclui ; one 
of than 78 feet broad at the opoun^ 378 feet lon^ 
and 21 deep on iill at apnoittidaa. In the year 
ending WhiteimMde 187^ «77 veaMbi o' """ """ 
tou airiTed at L., and 4fiS3 ot ^Wfi^3 
that port daring Uie aame period. The trade of 
Lii chiefly in OMonial and frangnprodooa. Among 
the importa for 1B72 were 678,SS3 qn- wheat; 
18S,6«2 Qti. barley; 166,018 qn. oati; £7,113 
beana and peaaa ; 185,888 bigi ot flour: and 11. 
fama of gnano. Wine ia alao extenaiTely imported, 
"niae ia a dailr maAet mi the Cun Rinhanga 
71»a chief '--' — -"■'— *•■ ' 



dailT manet 
kno&otima m 



I with Pottobelio and 

LEITBIM, a coon^ of the province of Con- 
naught, in Ireland, which reachei the tea on the 
Bay of DoDcml, but ia encircled on itz other lidea 
by the conntiM of Donegal, Fannaaagh, OaTan, 
Longford, Boeoommon, and Sigo. Area, 613 aquan 
milea, or 392,363 acrea, of which 249,361} are arable, 
and 23,784 are covered hr water. The anfaoe 
of L, ia irregular. It ia divided into two parta 
by a eouaiderable lake called Louffh Allen. The 
aouthem division ia broken up by low narrow 
ridgea, which endoae nnmeroua email lakes, ihe 
chief of which ia called Lough Binn. The more 
level portion of tiiia diviaion of the county fbtma 
part ot the great limestone plaio of Ireland, 
and contains aoma excellent arable and paatnre 
land. The northern division is much more inegnlar 
in Burboe, being intersected by several ridgea of 
considerable elevation. To the north of Loogh 
.Allen the idl, except at raia intervals, ia unfaTour- 
l the climate ia dan^ and 
1 CTcps are potatoea^ oala, 

- _ _, , — , rhole, the condition * """ 

agrioultorB, conmdering the many inTentions 

provementa i«oentIy mode, ia not forward, Ukc total 
nnmbw of acres nndtr cropa of all kinds having 
beoi, in 1872, 63,911. L., however, ia more a Kraaing 
than a tilla([e district Large qnantitiee of Wned 
cattle are raiaed in the soutbam diviatoo. Hie total 
number of cattle in 1872 was 105,003; of sheep, 
21,993. Turf ia abundant in all psrta of tbe county. 
~ ' ' ' 1671 nnnibei«a »5,8«. Ofthve, 



aUe tea Bgrioultun, uid the climate ia dan^ and 
nn geniri. ^le principal crops are potatoea^ oala, 
and hay; but, on Ilia whole, the condilion of the 



le population in 



85,712 were Bomaa Catholica, 9612 Froicetanta of 
the Epiaoc^ial Church, and the rest Froteatanta of 
other danominationa. Hie number of children 
receiving education in the schoola of the Board 
of Ni^>nal Education in 1871 waa 23,816, of 
whom 21,747 were Boman Catholica. The river 
Shannon (q. v.) enters this county near its aoutce 
in Cavan, and traversing Lough AHan, paaaea oat 
at the Bouthom axti«mity ci Ldtrim. Of other 
rivers, tiie Bonnet, the Yellow Biver, and the 
DaS| may be qiecially mentioned. The only 
towns of any note are Cairiok-on-Shannon, Manor- 
H^nilton, and Mntiill Xhe northern divisiim ot 
the oounty ia mcce rich in minerala than moat 
distridi <^ Ireland. Coal ia found in the Lourii 
Allen baain, the chief woiking-beda being in 
the 8Iieve-an-Isrin Mountains, wluire coal it raised 
tor tDtelting purpoaea. In the aame district ia 
found iron, the ore of t^ Arign» mines yieldii^ 
at much aa 68*2 per cent, ot metoL Lead ore is 
alto abundant, althou^ the T uinino operations have 
betoi discontinued. The occupation ot the pecq)la 
being chisfly agricultural, there are hardly any 
mannfactorea. 

L. anciently formed part ol the territory of 
Breifoe O'Bonrk. It waa reduced to tlie English 



1SS8, submitting onoe more in 1«8, whan tha 
CBouik accepted a patent of liia residue et hia 
estate. Hie oonfiaoationa which foUowad the great 
civil war may be aaid to have axtingaishea the 
native proprietary and the family of O'Boo^ 

LBIiAND, JoEN, DJ)., an English divine and 
apologist tor Chrisdanity, was bom at Wigan, in 

I^caahire,in 1691, became a dissent? :-.j-~i~ 

Dublin in ITSl, and first appeared ai 
1733, ^ publishing a reply to Tindal'a 
work, CAritHtaub/ a* Old om the CreaHon. In 1737, 
appeared anotiier apology, T/ia Divme AntkorUy o^ 
Oa (M and New Tetlamenl averted agahut thi 
UiavM AmrHont and faiae Bvuoningi c^f a Book 
enteied ' The Moral PhSotojAa^.' As the learning 
displayed in these work* waa great, and the abilities 
conaii&rable, the univernir; OI Aberdeen oonferred 
on L. the d^ree of D.D. His beat waik is A 
new of (JU Prineipoi DiMiixA Wntert Ihat lum 
appeared in England. It once held a high position 
in Christiau apologetio literature, and many people 
ttm regard it aa a aatiafactory dtunoUtian of deiam. 
ii, diedin 1766. To his honour it should be added, 
that tbough his life waa one ot oontroversy, tiie 
spirit of fairaes* and charity never fcisook him. 

raiment of infantry, who waa generally called 
Le Oapttaine du Lyt, or Lely, bom havuig bean 
bom M the Hague, in a houae the front of which 
was decorated with a fleur.de-Iia. L. waa bom at 
Soest, in Westphalia, in 161& HU father placed 
him in the Bchool of Feter Grebber, a painter of 
talent at Haarlmn, where he nmained two years; 
Ha commenoed hia career aa a painter ot land- 
aoapea and aubjeota from hisbar; but hia talent 
induced him to devote himsJf ^LclusiTely to 
portrait-painting, snd soon after the death of Tan 



in all the higher qualitdea of art^ waa wall 
suited for his poaitimi as the favourita portrait- 
painter of mcb a oourt aa Hali of hia chief ratrcm. 
Hum ia a large coUedionot his pwlnita at Hamp- 
ton Court, wall known to the nunHrona nnton of 



dbyGoogle 



LEIUN— LEMON. 



loiia.2 



■itii^«d on a inwll itceom called the 
•ow ba«m amonir hilli. L>t. 49* 
L Fop, (1869) 87,106, at whom a 
Jews. L. U tiie aeat of » Roman 



the Beantiea o( the 

I Londoii in 1680. 

LSrSSAJH, LiKi. Sm Qihxt*, Li« or 

LflEBEBG (fonnerly LAstnlfurp, ' d^ of the 

lion;' La., of Lto Danielowic^ Pnnoe ot Halici, 

wbo fbouded it in 1259; Polith name, ' LlwUw'), 

the capital of the AnBtriao kingdom of Galicis and 

Lodomeris, ■- — ' — '-^ — " -* "'■' '■^- 

Peltew, in 
CC N., lo] 

gT^tnun - - 

CathoHo, > Greek United, and an Aimeniau aroli' 
biahoh and has 29 (it ohm had CO) chotchea. It ii 
on« M the fineat towns in Austria, yet the booua 
an^ for the moat part, roobd wilji ihioale. The 
■ynago^oea in partioiilsr are Tciy beautLraL The 
nnivemtjr [Alma Frandtaa), founded in 1T84, hu 
3S protcMOra and 1000 itndeati. The miireraitf 
libnnr oontaini 4D,000 Tolmnfis, 350 MS9., and a 
colleobion of coina, amaimtiiiK to 10,000. Here alio 
ia the seat of the ioaldtate Mnnded by Oaaolinaki, 
with & libtaiy of 80,000 yolomes, and 1200 MSS., 
cliiefly of PoGih literatnre^ The trade and manv- 
factnrea of L. are ot great importance. The town ia 
now Rgolaidy fortified. 

TiKMMA (Cb. a thing aommed), a pieparatorj 
propootioii introdooed for Uie parpote td rendering 
the demonttiation of a theorem or conltnictioii of a 
problem mete penpicnoua. l^termiicoaflnedto 

I^ETMXISQ ILaami* or OtoryAiu), a genna of 
rodent qaadrnpedB, of Uke family iturida, and tab- 
family jJrviw&IcE, nearly allied to vole*, but differing 
from them in tha extreme ihortnen of the eon and 
tail, and in having larg^ and stronger claws, more 
adapted lor digging. They are also more heavily 
fonoed. His moct noted ipedes ie the Scoadin- 
aviaa L (^ or <7. JTorropiMu), an animal of aboat 



1 M l li nin g [Lannut tfarvtffiau) 

five inches long, with variegated black and tawny 
for, an inhabitant of the nortbem Scandinavian 
mcmntains, where it ordinarily feeds on reindeer- 
moM and other lichens, gnas, catkins of birch, &c 
Bat, breeding often in tiie coone of a year, and jntK 
dociiig fonr or five at a birth, it mnltipliea so much, 
ttist, periodically, vaet boopa leave their native 
r^ons, migrating either toward the Atlantic Ocean 
or the Gnlfof Bt^hnia. Bears, wolves, Eoics, lynxea, 
follow and prey npon them. Hawks «-"'l owls also 
jLttend, and contribute to the diminution of their 
anmberi. It is said that those which survive, after 
spending a winter in the region to which they have 
mignted, seek to find their way hack to their 
ordinal abode. In timei of prevalent siroetetdtioEL 
Ipinniing were aft«n exoKiaed by the pnesia, ud 
the peaiantn^ Norway sapposed them to fall from 
*'-- doods. ^Rm Laplanders eat "^ ' 



LB'HNIAK EABTH, a mineral found in 
the bland of Lemnos ; masdve, chalk-like, soft, 
jiellowish Day, or whitish, and falling to powder 
m water. It conniti of aboat 60 per cent, silios. 



with 14 of alwnioa, and a little oxide of iron, soda, 
and water. It lol^ had a great and ondesnTed 
reputation in medicine, and being sold in little 
pieces, each (tamped with a paitumlar stamp, it 
acquired Om name of Terra SIgBtala (Sealed Earth). 
The belief in iti medicinal power ia of very great 
antiquity. The stamp in ancient times, (}alen says, 
was the head ot Diana, the tutelary goddess * 
Lenmoa ; bat is now only the Turkish name <:t 
mineraL ^Hie incients had more than one legend 
respecting the discovery of tha viiioe* of Lenmian 

LEUNGS (now commonly called Stalinme), on 
island ia the anthem port of the Grecian AJ«hi- 
pelago, aboDt 40 milea west of the entrance to tha 
Dardanelles. Jt is iirwnlar in shape, and is neariy 
divided into two islai^, by two deep bays — Port 
Paradise oa the north, and Port 8t ^AJitony on the 
south. Area, 150 square miles. Pop. about 12,000. 
The women are famed for their beauty. It is hilly, 
rather bare ot wood, and bears unmistakable traces 
of volcanic aoiion at an early period, which fact 
probably originated tbe anoient myth of Ynlcaa 
lighting oa this island wbea Jupiter hurled him 
froniheaven. Moaohyloe, a votoano, no longer 
active, was believed to be the workshop laid 
favourite reoidenoe of this deity. The principal 
product of L. is the Laimian Earth (q. v.), used ia 
ancient times ss a cure tor wooods and serpent* 
bites, and still hi^ily valued by botb Tub and 
Oreeka. The chiS town, Eaatron (on the ait« of 
the ancient Jfjrrina], has a popolatioa of 2000. 
It fumishea excellent sailors. 



India. )ts leaves are ovate or oblong, usually 
serrulate, pale green, with a winged nalk ; the 
fiowen are streaked and reddish on Oie outside ; the 
fruit is oblong, wrinkled or fumwed, pale ydlow, 
with generally concave oil-cysta is the nnd. In the 



Lsmon (flitm Limannat). 



oomnum variety, which is vnr extensively oalti< 
vated in many tiopical and sab-tropical counfansa^ 
the pulp ot the miit is very add, abounding in 
citric add. Thei« is, however, a variety cslleatlie 
Sweet L., oocasionally cultiv^ed ia the south of 
Europe, ^ which the juice is sweet It is CStru* 
iMvim of some botanists, and has both oouoave i 
Donvex dl-cysta in the rind. Tha acid juk« <A 



«i,,Goo^le 



LEMONADE— UaiUR. 



coDunon L, ia maoh ii8«d in the prepantian of 
the vell-knoini cooling beverafte owed Laatmade, 
uid is also sdmiautered in tutoui formi in febrile 
ud scorbutic mmplainta. Jt ia lanch lued by 
calico-printen to diBchuve colours, to produce 
grester clearneoi in the vhue put of patterns, dyed 
with dye« cootaining iron. A» > i^eventive of 
aea-acurry, it is on important article of sea-stores. 
Citiio und and lemon-juioe am likewise made 
Erom it in great quantities. The rind of the fruit 
{Lemon-peti), separated from the pulp, and kept 
a dried state, is a grateful stomachic, and is mu 
used for flaTOoring. The produce of the lemon- 
grove* of Italy, toe IVrol, Spain, Portugal, the 
aouth of France, and oUier countries bordering "~ 
the Meditananean Sea, is largely exported to ra. . _ 
Dortbem regiooa. Sicily alone exports annually 
30,000 cheats, each containing 440 lemons. Tha 
L.-tree is rery fruitful ; it is more hardy than tha 
orange, and in some parts of the south of En^nd 
produces very good crops, being trained to a wall, 
and protected by a movable friune in winter.— The 
L. ia anppoaed to have been introduced into Europe 
during the Craaades. It is ahnoet naturalised in tha 
■outb of Europe. It is so completely naturalised in 
some parts of the south of Brazil, that the flesh of 
the cattle which pasture in the woods aoqnirea a 
strong amell of lemons, cattle being very fond of tha 
fallen fruit. 

LEHONAT>E ia formed by adding two lemons 
■liced, and two ounces of white sugar, to a quart 
of boiling water, and digeating till cold. It ia a 
useful dnnk for allaying tbirat, and as a refrigerant 
in febrile and inflammatory complainta, and in 
luemorrbsge, in which casea it should be given iced. 

LEM OX-GRABS (Andropogon Khanaathui), a 
beautiful perennial grass, three or four feet high, 
with panicle mostly leaning to one aide, and apikeleta 
in pairs, or, if teiminal, in threes. It ' ~ 



oppreeaive where the grass abonnda. 
ooarse to be eaten by cattle except when young, 
and ia therefore often burned down. Europeans m 
India make an agreeable stomachic and tonic tea of 
the fresh leaves. By distillation, an eesential oil 
ia ohtained {Larum-grat* Oil), which is employed 
extemallv a* a Etimulant in rheumatia afiections, 
and ia yellow, with a strong lemon-like smell. This 
oil is used in perfumery, uid ii often called OU of 
Verhtna by perfumers. L haa been introduced into 
the West uidiea, Australia, ka. See alao G&ias Oil. 
IiEMON-JUIOB ia a somewhat opaque, very 
aonr liquid, obtained from lemona by expression and 
■training. Its acidity ia doe to the preeenoe of 
citric and a little malio acid. Its principal uses in 
medicine are the following ; 1. Aa an anb-Bcorbatic. 
— 'Those only,' saya Sir Gilbert Blane, 'who have 
made Ibemsefves acquainted with the early part of 
tbe naval history of this country, can duly Kpgm- 
date the value of this simple remedy.' Ite activs 
principle, citric acid, is now fr^uenuy subetitnted 
lor it 2. In rheumatism.- Dr O. 0. Bees, who flrst 
employed it in this disease, ' conaiderB the citric 
add to undergo changes in tha atomach, and to 
mpply oxygen 10 such element* as tend to produce 
uno add, and thereby to induce tbe tonnation of 
nreA and carbonic acid instead-' 3. In the formation 
of eServeocing dranshts. — A acmpte of bicarbonate 
of potash in eolation, mixed with about three 
drachma and a half of lemon-joice, so aa to form a 
dtrate of potash, fomis an excellent efferveacent 
diMgbt ; it acta as a mild diaphoretic and dinretic, 
tends to allay febrile disturbance, and serves to 
oheck nausea and TomitiDg. If the object ia 



specially to determine to the akin, a draught 
posed of a scruple of aeaqoicarbonate of ami... __ 
tn solution, with six drachms of lemDn.juice, so aa 
to form a dtrate of ammonia, is preferable. Bffer- 
veacing draughts are often anployed aa agreeable 
vehicles for ue exhibition of other remedies. 

LEMONS, On, cr EmxHCE of, is extracted from 
the minute cells which are visible on the rind of 
the lemon, by submitting raspings of the fniit to 
pressure in hair sacs. It may also be obtained by 
distiUing the peel with water ; but ita flavour, whea 
obtained in this way, ia leas agreeable, although the 
oil itself is purer, owing to Uie abeenoe of mucil- 
aginous matter. The distilled oil is sold under the 
namie of scovrin^-cfropi, for removing gresae-apot* 
from sQlu and other fabrics. Pore oil of lemon* is 
mai^y composed of a hydrocarbon, dtren or dtrmnfi, 
C,,E!,, which ia conseqnently isometric with oil of 
toipentine, with which it ia often adulterated. It 
is prindpally used for the purpose of communicatiDg 
an agreeable odour to other medidnea, although it is 
sometimes taken in the doaa of two or three drops 
on sugar as a carminative. From ita agreeable 
sceut, it is often added to evaporating lotions and to 



LEMONS, 8*LT or, a name commonly but 
improperly applied by dmggista to binoxalate of 
potaah mixecf witb a little of the quadroialate. 
Thia mixture occurs in the Oxo^is aeetoedla, and 
hence it baa been desi^ated Salt of SorreL It ia 
employed in taking out ink-spots. 

LEHPRIERE, JoHN, D.D.. bom in Jersey about 
1760, was educated at Westminster School and 
Pembroke College, Oxford, and died February 1, 
1824. His name was once well Imown to every 
claaaical student in the British empire, but the 
rising generation is forgetting it, and it will sooa 
become vox et pn^erea niAtZ. L.'b Claatieal Dic- 
tionary (BiblioUieca Clasaica, 178iB) was for many 
years the standard work of reference ■ " ' ■ 
on all matters of andent mytholc 
geography. To elderly scholars, 
■p many pleasant memories of years long gone by ; 
<ut the book itself ceased to posaeas any intrindo 
valne after the publication of the magnificent 
clasetcal dictionaries edited by Dr William Smith, 
1942-1863. Another worii of L's was ITnuvnai 
Biography (Load. 1808). 

LB'MHB, a gsius of "'»"'"«Vb which oven it* 
the fuiily Lenmrida, a family allied to 
J i:i„ .1 —ladnimauous, having on 
a well-developed thomb 



opposed to the fingert, but in other respects eiJiihib- 
ing an approach to the ordinary quadrupedal type^ 
The general form is slender and elongated, the 
muule pointed, the eyes large, the eaw very small, 
the hind limbs longer and latger tbau the tore limbs. 

Digitized hyt^OO^Ie 



LEMUEES— LENa 



'nte BiiJar teeth are forniilied with pointed tnberde* 
fittiag into ewh other, a» in /n*ectn»ra, and tbg 
whole dentiticia of ouuiy of the funilj' ia ad&ptsd 
to aoimal rather Oam TegetaUe food. All the 
Jjamurida are nativeB of the warm parts of the old 
wedd, and lire chieBy in forest*, inoet of thea 
dimb^« trees with all Urn agili^ of moaiuij^ The 
luuae C. {I^L Imatr, a gkMt) ii aUanra to their 
tmfid and peculiar noieelen inov«meiita. inie; tm 
graceful utd beantifol CTMtnMS, and genmllj 
gentle and eamly tuned ; but Hmj hare MitlieT tu 
laying and mjachieToiu di^Mutioii*, nor the intelli- 
gence of moi^ys. The speoiea of the geniu L., w 
Aow reabricted, ace all natives of Madagaec&r. Thej 
are gre^nona, and their food oouaists partly ol 
fnuta. The namea MaH and Jtacaveo are dtgd to 
indedtoi^ The 



the Bomans to all %pt^ of deputed person^ 6t 
whran the good wero honoued aalAiea (q.v.), and 
tiie bad (Lum) were feared, aa shoats or spectres 
still are l^ the gnpeiatitioas. like the latter, they 
were aaid to wander about during the night, aeeking 
for an opportunity of inflicting injniy on the living. 
The festiTal called Lenutria was hald on ike 9th, 
11th, and 13th of May, and was aocompamed with 
oeremmies of waahing Handa, throwing olack beana 
orer the head, Ac, ana the pronimciation nine times 
of Uieae wnrda: 'BesMie, you i^ieetoas of the house!' 
whiohdeprired the L.«f their power to harm. Ovid 
deacrihea the Lsmniia in the filth book of hia Fatti. 
LPNA, an important river of Eactem Siberia, 
rises amid the mountaina on the north-weat shore 
of I«ke Baikal, in the govenunent of Irkutsk, 
flowa first in a north-eaatem direction to the town 
of Jakobk, then north to the Arctie Ocean, into 
which it falls by aeveral mouths. Ita ooorae is 
aOOO miles in length, and its chief affluents are the 
Viloi on t^ left, and the Vitim, the Olekma, and 
Uie JUdan on the ri^t. Navigation on the L. i* 
open fram May till Novemher. l>Bring sprin^b the 
water* of the river legolariy overflow thnr banka. 
Meat the town of Jakntak, tiie beadth of the rivn 
is fii milea. L is the principal artny lA the bade 
of ^atem Siberia. Ruaaian and ChmcM ^ooda, as 
well as SiberisQ furs, fnmiahed by the nabvea, are 
exported from this river. The etiief harbonrs on 
the river are Olekminak, Jakutsk, and Kochugak, 
where £50,000 worth of gooda from Trkotak are 
ahipped annually. 

IXSGZl'ZA, an ancient Polish tovrn, io the 
g oremment <A Kalisz, abont 90 miles west-sonth- 
wiat of the city ol Warsaw. It oontaina the ruin* 
of a castle of Karimir H, erected in 1180. Pop. 
(1S67) 6407, half of whom an Oennana and Jews, 
linen and woollen cloths and soap we mannfaetared. 
LENKORAII, a Enanan seaport on the Caapian 
Sea, and a diatrict town in the eoivenimeDt of Baku, 
in the Cancasna, in lat 38* M*, ia a place of great 
importance for the trade between Enasia and 
Penis ; bnt a defective haibonr, and the vicinity of 
wuUie tribes, have hitherto rendered its natural 
advantages of little avaiL Fop. (ISS?) lS,93a 

LEKITBP, Jak Dahikl tas, a Dutch philologist, 
waa bom at Leenwaiden, in the province of Friea- 
laad, in 1721, and studied at Fiaoder and Leyden. 
In 176Z,he waa^ipcintedProteMor (d Andeot I^n- 
gnages at Oroningen, and fifteen yeaia afterwards 
at^aneker. He died in 1771. The works which 
prindpally obtained hi"" a reputation for learning 
and acntenco, are his Etgnoioj/iatm Lingva Oraea, 
sod hi« -De AntdogiA Lingua Oraca, both of which 



were posthumously published. 13>a progreaa ol 
etymological science, nowevn, haa rendered them 
naelcea. — David Jaoob van LimrKF, a member 
of the aame family aa the preceding, waa bom 
at Amaterdam, ISih July ITU, devoted him— If 
to the study of philology, and ultimately became 
ProfesMT « Bhetorio at Leaden. He died 10th 
February 18S3. B««tdea being one of the best 
I^tinista among hia countrymen, he wrote several 
exquisite pieces (rf poetry in his mother-tongue. 
Hi* principal writings are Carmma JmieniUa 
(Anut 1791), £Mreiialiona JurtM (Leyd. 1796), 
valuable annotated editions of some of the classic 
autfaon, and a metrical Dutch translation of the 
WotIm and Day of Hesiod (Amit 1SZ3).— His 
ton. Jajxib vur Lkhnxf, bom at Amsterdam, 2Sth 
Much 1802, is proudly called by his countrymen, 
the 'Walter Scott of Holland.' Educated for the 
law, he passed aa a barrister, and aoon achieved a 
great r^^otation for legal knowledge. Yet vrith- 
ont nedecting his extensive practice, he for more 
than t£irW yean oaltivatedT htorature with un- 
tiring aandmty, and, conaidering the drudgery 
of hia pnrfessiaisl work, with astonishing Buccess. 
' ~ ~ author ahortiy before 



1830, in a" work entitled VadertaadteU Ltgeitdm 
(Kational Lmnda). Since then, hia most popular 
worka have been the cnnediee, Hti Dorp aan dU 
Oremen (The Frontier Till«g^ 1830). Htt Dorp 
over die Orenzen (The Tillage over the Frontier, 
1830), and the novels, Oiae VoorotuUrt (Our Fore- 
fathen), De Root van Ddcama (The Boae of 
Dekama, 1837~Engliah by Woodley, 1847), and 
De Plemoan (The Adopted Son— Engliah by 
HoakiuB, New York, im). L., who paiieaaed a 
remarkable knowledge of the Endiah language 
and literature, has translated into Dutch some of 
Shakapeare'a finest plays, and of Bvron, Southey, 
and TeoDyson'a poeuia, A complete edition of 
his dtauuttie works, ocmpriiing tiagediea. comedies, 
sad opaiM, speared at Amsterdam in 18S2— ISSGl 
He wai engaged for several yean on *a edition M 
the great Dntoh poet TondeL Hedied Ang.25,lS6a 
UB'KM'OXTOWIT, a villi^ of Stirlingshire, 
Scotland, i* situated in a pic^iresque diatinct on 
Ohoeit Water, at the terminus of the Campaie 
Railway, eleven milea north-north-east of Qlas^w. 
It contains (1871) 3917 inhabitants, employed chiefly 
in the nrint-worka and alum-works m the imme- 



in Scotch law to denote a^naiwnd'a connivance 
his wifes sdultery The wife can set up suoh 
defence to a smt for divorae, on the ground of her 
adultery so procured. 

LETTS (Lat 'a tenbl'] ia a thin circular section 
id any transparent aubatance, adapted to magni- 




^Fing purpose* by iwving its two snrfaces dther 
both spherical, or one of them plane and the 
other aphttiosL The above figure lei^esents, in 



dbyGoogle 



LENT— LBMTTL. 



tnnarana ■edioil throiurh their oentrea, the di2er- 
ant lomu of lentea. AS tlisM aB^snte fomu are 
tmagai into two cluaei, thoas which its thiokcat, 
■ud tSoee whioh are thiimeBt, in the centre, the first 
being generally denominated amotx, and the second 
ameave lenua. The effect produoed by lenieB 
rayi of lisht paaiiiig throngh tham, ii, aa ia piiima, 
to bend the ran toward* the Uutdceat part of ^'~ ~ 
tens i lo that when a pencil of parallBl laji p 
throngh a convex leoi, the emergent niyi ara Ooit- 
verffoU (q. ▼.), while, if a concaTe leni be iwed, they 
are Dia^oa (q. t.), and the paint to whidt tiie roya 
conrerge, or fram which they dirrage, apfroadiea 
neam to the lent ai iti corntnre iooreMes. This 
pi»ut ia called ths piiiic^wl focna, and i* real, L e., 
Uie laya actnallv pan tJuiMigh it, (or a eottva 
leni; but Tirtail or imaginary, for one that ii 
concave. Aa a simple iUaitration of tiie mods 
in which thui point is determined, we shall tab 
caae of parallel rays falling directly npon a An 
eoavtx lens (fig. 2). Hera, O is Uie centre of Qm 
curved anilaoe FAP', and O' of the mirface PBP; 
f is ike point towards which the rays tend while 
paniiig throng the lens, and F the pmnt to idiiah 
thmr oonyarge after emergence. Let OA=r, OB a. 
t, Aq =f, and BF <the focal leogtii) ■=/; then, if 



the thicknesi of the lens is bo small aa to be 
ne^actad, whioh may always be done when 
cnrvatnre ot the lens is small, Ag = Bq, and A 

BiORTRiOB, we findy « — ^ r, for the rafraotion at 
the fini snrfaoe; and, for the second snrfaes, 
find, Ia the ordinary treatises on Optica, that when 
a pencil of converging rays emargea from a ' 



— f. Adding this formula to the 
l)|p + M;andiftheleniba equl-oo: 



r • /■ 

formw, we obtain 



"(^-*).i 



-7=? 



'/=■ 



This , 

lens; bnt if the 
acconnt, there is a amall quantity which is addi- 
tive to the valne of ^ in the oonvaz, bnt anbtraotiva 
in the concave lens. The determination of the 
principal foona in the other and lea common forms 
of leiuea, will be found in any ol the ordinair 
text-books. AH the lenses flfored in fig. 1, thoo^ 
they may be of the same focal length, have pecnliar 
propertiea which r«ider them suitable for particnlar 
optical instruments; thna, the oonvexo-plane lens 



convex, or two-thirda of an eqni.conves or eqai- 
ooacave of the same focal Imglh— bnt, in gsoeral, 
the eqni-oonvei is the most deainbis form of leni. 
^lis abeiratian* haa been to opticians what rdrae- 
' The dii«ctiona which have been gtraa for ficdins 
the fed of IsMea, applr onlr to n^ whioh pan thisn^ 
and near the oantn ol tha lent : the i»s whidi pass 
near the edses oonvsige to a dUhrsnt locns, and tba 
distanca ba^nen thsas two foci it called the lon^> 
tndinal abanattaS' 



which ipoila his finest theoriet, and seta a limit to 
the accuracy of his renlta. Bnt^ in the case of 
lensei, the aberration haa been destroyed by com- 
bining lenaea of equal and oj^iotite aberrations, as, 
for instance, nnitinK, by meaiu of Canada balum, 
a double convei with a double oonoave, A itiU 
better method would be the formation of lenaea 
having one aide apberioal, and the other of an ellip- 
soidal or s byperboloidal form; this, however, haa 
not yet been tucoessfully accomplished. 



. QaadTogetima), the fi 
before Easter, which it ODMrved in the ■^'■^"^^"^ 
and in the Greek, and other Orienbd churches. 
Under the head of Fist Hbtb been considered 
the doctmal and historical question* connected 
with the general practice of fasting. It remains 
only to explain briefly what is peculiar in the 
imtitDtiou and the observanoa of the Lenten fast. 
It is certainly of very ancient, if it be not even i^ 
primitive inatitntion. The eariieat alluBon* to it 



speak of it as an established usage handed down 

' — "-- ■"-"--ra. The fort " 

our Lord's forty 
the similar perfunctory &sta of Motes and of Gliaa, 



from the Fathers. The fori? dayr p 

Lord's forty days' fut, 



commences with Aab-Wadnesday, between which 
day and Easter-Sunday (omitting the Sundays on 
which the fast ii not ohaerved), forty clear days inter- 
vene. The tTgour of the ancient obaervanee, which 
excluded all flesh, and even the so-oalled 'white 
meats,' it now auali relaxed: but the nineiple 
permitting but ' — '*• - -'■~^'- -•~^~ 



B meal, with a sU^t refection oi 



the Cruaade* • 
tice arose of permittm^, in 
tution of a oonlribatiou 1 
obaervsnce of the Lenten i 



with the Hoors, i 



SS: 



pannitted, under the same title of tha 
Gnaada. In the Qreek Church, the antfrpaiwihal 
fast is of 48 days ; but it is only one of four 
similar laeHaa periods observed in titat ijiureh. 
See Fa^t. In tiie AngUean Church, Lent is retained 
church season of the calcodtr, wiUi apadal 



LESTAIfDO, in Music ti>e san 
or ribmlanifo, meaning a gradoal decrease in th* 
^oed of the movement. 

LB5TIBULABIA'CE£, a natural order (4 
exoKeDona plants, allied to Prifnmlaeeit, but distin- 
Koithed by an irregular corolla, and disndroua 
nowera. It has alto intimate relationa with Seropku- 
laria/xa. It oontaint nearly 200 known spedci^ 
all herbaoeoDS, and all living in water or manhaa. 
They abound chiefly in the tiopias. A few speciea 
of Bladdarwort (q. v.) and Bntterwort {q. v.) an 
its only repr o a c n taU vea in Britain. 

IiBKTIIj {Srvam lau), an annnal ;Jant of tha 
same feaaa with Tares (q. v.), a native of tha 
countries near the Mediterranean, and which has 
been cultfrated from the earliest timet, yielding an 
esteemed kind of pulse. The Rngljub tnuulation 
of the Bible is prohaUy oorrect in calling tiie red 
pottage with which Jaoob puMliaaed Bsan'a Uith- 
right, jmHo^ V taUOt; the red oolonr buig veiy 
charact e ristic w this, irtiicU JM still a very oommon 
article of food in the East Tba L. is eztensivdy 
onltivated in the south of Europe, Egyp^ and tM 
But, and to some extent in other parts of Uisworid. 
It has a weak and branching ston, from 6 — 18 
-'-■--■ high, and pinnate Isavea with 6— S pair at 



abvGoogle 



LEHTrni-LBO. 



Iwrfetn thff npper lekvw 0DI7 raimuig into teodrila. 
Tha flowon an ■maQ, white, lilao, or pals blue, 
the oornlla much ooncealed by the oalyz, whioli ia 
divided almost to ita baae into fire narrow teeth. 
The poda are Tery ahort knd hlimt, thin, two-seeded, 
tad imooth ; the aeeda hare the form at a round 
loia, oonrex on both aides. There 



Tvtetica, haring white, brown, and blat^ leeda, 
which alio differ considenbly in size, the greatert 
diameter of the lai^est being abont eqnal to thftt 
of modcrKte-sized pease. Lenbls are a rery nntrjtire 
food, containing an oncommonlj large amoont of 
nibngenona aabatancea, and more eaaily digested 
than pease. They have recently become common ii 
the shops of Britain in a form resembling tpUt pout 
and in that of meal IL./arina), wiktdt is tike Dasii 
if not tlie whole inbstance, of StvcUaita AraMet 
and Srvalaila, so much tidrertjied aa food foi 



bones ; and the herbage nsed aa green food for 
cows, renden thsm extremely productive of milk. 
The L. grows beet in a lii^t and rather d^ toil. 
In a very rich aoil, it prodncee comparatively few 
poda. Some of the ranetiei succeed well even on 
very poor soils. The whole life of the plant il 
ahorter than that of any other of the Legmitittota 
cultivated in Britain. The seed may be sown in 
April in tbe climate of Brib^n; but ^though 

to picrent the snccessful coltiration of lentils, it 
aecoiB to be too moist for them, the ripe or ripen- 
ing seeda being very apt to be injured by moisture. 
There is no evident reason, however, why this 
plant should not be cultivated for green food of 
cattla. 

LBNTI'NI, a town of Sicily, in -Uie province of 
SiracQsa, standi near the lake of the ssme name, 
00 a bin 16 -miles aonth-sonth-west of Catania, and 
haa 7962 inhabitanta. It has a huve gunpowder 
mill, and derivta a good revenue from uia fiahery in 
Lake LentiuL 

VrSTO, m IJ^STAMBnUTi, in Uxime, mean* 



slow, gentle. Acoordinc to the beat anthorities, 
the movement implied by Lailo is quicker than 
Adagio, or between it and Andajite. 
IiEO, the fifth lign trf the Zoduo (q. v.). 
IiB'O, the name of twelve among the popes of 
the Bomau Catholic Church, of whom Uie following 
call for mrtionlar notice. — Leo L, lonuuned 'the 
Great,' who is held a saint of the Boman Catholio 
Church, and is one of the most eminent of the 
Latin Fathers, was born of a distinguished Etmriau 
family at Borne aboat the end of the 4th century. 
Of his early life, little ia known. On the death oC 
Siztos IIL in 440, L was chosen as his < 
It ia in his pontiocate tliat the regolar 
papal letten and decretals may be said to c< 
Leo's letters, addreosed to all parts of the church, 
exhibit prodigious activity sua zeal, and are used 
by Roman controversialists as an evidence of the 
extent of the jorisdiction of the Roman see. In a 
council held at Rome in 449, he aet aside the 
proceedings of the council of Efdiesns, which had 
proQounosd in favour of Eutychas (q. v.], summoned 
a new council at Chalcedon, in which hia l^ates 
preaided, and in which Leo'a celebrated ' Dogmatical 
Letter ' was aco^pted ' aa the voice of Peter,' and 
adopted a* the aallientto exposition of the orthodox 
doctrine on the peison of Chri«t. The history of 
Leo's interpontioD with Attila in defence of tiie 
Soman city and people will be fotmd under tlie bead 
Atth.^; and hu sabaequeot similar interposition 
with Qraueric, if less dmmatio in the inddenta with 
which history or It^nd has invested it, was at least 
•0 far successful as to save the lives of the citiieuL 
and the public and wivate buildingH of the city of 
Btane. Leo died at Bome In 461. His works, the 
most important of which are his Letters and Ser- 
mons, were first printed in 1170, and afterwards by 
Qnasnel (2 vols. Paris, 1676) ; but a much mora 
mplete and tnistworthy edition is that of Cacciari 
vols. foL Rome, 1763~1TGG), and of the Brothers 
kllerini (Venice, 1767}. — The pontificate of Lso 
ITT , ia chiefiy ootieeable as the epoch of the formal 
establishment of the Empire of iJie West He was 
utive of Rome, and was elected pope on the death 
._ Adrian L in 79S- During the greater part of the 
Sth c, the popes, through the practical withdrawal 
of the easteiu emperors, bad exercised a temporal 
supremaoy in Rome, which was fully recognised by 
the gift of Fepin, and plaoed nnder the protecto- 
rate of the Pruik sovereigns, who received the title 
of Patrician. The pontificate of Leo, however, was a 
troubled one, and in 799 be was treated with much 
violence, and obliged to flee to Spoleto, whence he 
afterwards repaired to Faderbom, in order to hold 
a conference with Charlemagne. On his return to 
Rome, he was received with much hooonr by the 



and the temporal sovereignty of the pope 
Bomao city and state, uikder, however, the tuxei^ 
amty of the emperor, waa fonnally established. In 
S04, Leo vifited Charlemagne at hia court at Aix- 
la-Chapelle. With Charlemagne's successor, Louis 
le DtiboiiinMre, Leo wia embroiled in a dispute 
about the right of sovereign jurisdiction in Rome, 
which had not been brought to a conclomon when 
Leo died in 616. — Lio X, Oiovanni de' Medid, the 
seoond son of the celebrated Loreoxo de' Medici, 
waa bom at Florence in December I47S> From 
hia cradle, he was destined to the eoiJealastical 
career. Hia edaoation was intrusted to the ablest 
•oholata of the age ; and through the influence of 
his father with &a pope. Innocent TIIL, he wai 



dhyGoogle 



LBO m.— LZON. 



oreated Mrdiiul iX the nnpraoedeDted an of 
tlurteeo jeani, in 1488. la the expnliioD m tlie 
Medim mini Florence, after the death of LoranEo, 
tiie yoong cardinal was included, and he nied tba 
occaoioa an an opportunit;f of forei^ tiaTeL He 
was employed a* legate by Jotint IL ; and during 
the war with Hie Frencli, he wai taken priaoner in 
the battle of RaTSima, bat lOon afterwaidi effected 
hii escape. On the death o[ Jnliiu IL in 1S13, 
Cardinal de' Hedtci waa choKCk pope at the earij 
age of 37, nnder the name of Leo X. Hia firat 
appointinent of the two sreat icholan Bembo and 
Sadoieto a« faia aecretane* waa a pledge of the 
favoor towards learning which waa the charac- 
teriatdo of his pontificate ; but he did not nec^ect 
the more mal^nal intereata of the church and the 
Boman see. He broaght to a sncceasful concln- 
aion the fifth council ot the I^teran (see ConrciL), 
and the achism which waa threatened by the rival 
oooncil of Pisa. He concluded a oonoocdat with 
Francii L of France, which conliDned to regulate the 
Trench chnrch till the Sevolotion. In the politioal 
relationa of the Boman aee, he oonsolidated and, 
in aome degree, extended the re-coDqneata of hia 
warlike predeeeaor, Jnliua IL, although he also used 
faia poeitian and his infioence for t£e aggrandiae- 
ment of hia family. Hia deaertioa of the allianoe 
of Francis L for that of hia younB rivt^ Charles V., 
although the subject of much criticiam, waa dictated 
hy a sound conaideiation of the inteieata of Italy. 
Bat it is moat of all as a patron of leamizig tkoA 
art that the reputation cJ Leo has IiTed with 
pofterity. Himaelf a scholar, he loved learning for 
ita own aake ; and hia court waa the meeting-point 
of all the acholan of Italy and the worI<L He 
founded a Qreek college in Bome, and catabllslied 
a Greek press, which be endowed mnniftcently (see 
LuCASis). In the encoursgement ol art, hs was no 
lesa munificent. Painting, sculpture, architecture, 
were equally favoured ; and it ia to hia vast project 
for the rabnilding of St Peter's, and to tiie at^ to 
which he hod recourse for procuring the neceaaaiy 

' ' '■ -'^" "- 1!-- -J gjj indnjg. 

g which waa 



liis pemiittJng the preaching of an indulg- 

e of the oonditionB of obtainiug which waa 

the contribution to this work — that Ue first rise 



I ascribed. He 



squabble 



of the Itefomiation in German] 
' himaelf seems to have refjarded tt 
<A little importance, describing it as 
among the frian;' and though he cauaBuuieu 
tiie ]popontiana of Luther, ana iasnad a cammia- 
aion to inquire into hia dootrinea, hia meaaurea, 
on tfa« whcue, wera not marked by nmch aeverity. 
His peraonal habita were in keeping with hia taate 
— quendid and munifioent in the highest degree ; 
but in hia moral conduct ho maintamed a sbict 
propriety, and hia. ohaiacter, although not free 
hota the stun of nepotiam, the vice of that ag^ 
and more modelled on the ideal of an enlightened 
pnnce than on that of a aealooa and ascetic 
chnrchman, was beyond all imputation of nnworthi- 
neas or irr^ularity. His d«»tli, which oocnrred 
rather suddenly during th« paUic rejoicings in 
Boma for the taking of Milan, waa by some aacribed 
to poison ; but then seeina no solid reaaon for the 
auspicion. It took place December 1, 1621, in the 
Mth year of his age. 3ee Boscoe's Life aitd Pon- 
tUUate of Leo X. (4 vols. Liverpool, 1806 ; Italian 
by BoasC 12 vola. Milan, J818). 

LEO 111., FLavrm, sumamed 'the laanrian' (from 
hia birthplace). Emperor ot Conatsutinople (718— 

741 *.».}, was, like moat o( the c^— 

firtt a aiMer in the imperial anny, 

etmnaaoa throo^ hia miUtaiy tui — — _ 

IL appcunted lum to goaid the Asiatio portion of 
the empire from the ravages of the Arab*, who 
wcM headed by the oelebnted Moalema; but '~ 



the depodtionot the former by Heodoaia*nL,LM^ 
outwitting his Arab opponent, marched against the 
usurper, whom he oonqielled to rengn bis omwn, 
which he himself assumed (March 716). Ijbo wm 
Bcareely aaated on tho imperial throne, when tba 
Calif Suleiman laid siege to Constantinofde by 
land and sea; thia, the third siege of the capital 
by the Arab^ lasted for two yeaia, but waa finally 
raiaed throu^ the energy oE Lea The governors 
of several provinces had meantime rebellM, and it 
coet Leo aeveral years of petty warfare before 
peace waa restored to the empire. The opptn^ 
tnnity having at length arrived tat which he had 
long watched, Leo issued an edict condemning the 
worahip of images in the CathoUc churches through- 
out the empire. In this he seems to have been 
actuated by a double motive — the rcst<sation ot 
purity of woralup in the Catholic churches, and tlw 
removal of a grievous eyesore to many of his tub- 



pope, and accordingly removed Oreeoe, TUyria, and 
Macedonia from his spiritual jurisdiction, subject- 



them to the Patriarch of Conatantinople, thus 



reign, little of imp>rtance oocurred, excepting an 
iiukcisive war wiui the Arabs, and a great earth- 
quake {October 740) , which caused dreadful calamities 
throughout the empire, ^any of the principal 
buildings and monuments in Constantant^e were 
thrown down ; the towna of Mioomedia, PreDctus, 
and NioBa in Bithynia, w 



Leo died 16th X 



LEOBSOHUTZ, a town of Prussia, csfntil of 
the circle of the same name, near the river Zinna, 
33 miles south of Oppein, has large com and flax 
markets, and manufactures of various kinds. PopL 
(1871) 10,680. 

LEOMINSTER, a market-town, and municipsl 
snd parliamentary borough of Inland, in the 
county of Herefoid, situated 12 miles north of the 
dty of that name, on the river Lug. It returns 
<»e member to parliament. The immediate vicini^ 
of L. ia the most oelel«ated cattle-breeding disfariet 
in ths worid-'«ll the raiM ' Herofords' at the 
shows being bred and fed here. Fop. (1871) fi861 

IjE'ON, the name of a city, and of a lake, called 
also Managua, iu Kieangna, in lat. 12* 2S N., and 
long. 86* 67' W. The city stands near the north- 
west extremis of the lake of its own name, distant 
about 10 miles from the Pacific Ocean, is finely 
situated in a most pictnreaque dietrict, and contains 
a cathedral, a noble edifice, and a university. From 
the top of the cathedral a beautiful and extensive 
view, embracing 13 volcanoes, may be obtained. It 
ia now partly in ruins. Pop. about 25,000.— The 
lake measures 35 miles by 16. It derives consider- 
able importance from ita being an essential part of 
pertiaps the most promising route across Central 
America between the Atlantia and the Pacific. Be- 
tween it and the former ocean lies the still larger 
Lake of Nicanigna, into wliioh it empties itself, 
with a f^ of on^ 28 feet. 

LEON (the Z«[no scpfiina ganina of the Bomaas), 
oapitsl of the fanner Spanish provinoe of the same 
name, is situated between the rivers Beme^ and 
Torio, in a beautifully wooded plain, 86 miles 
north-weat of Talladoltd. Part <rf the old Boman 



dbyGoogle 



IKON— LEONINE V£BSE8. 



wtO, 90 fset thick, u dall aUnding. The (treeta 
an etooked uid ^i^, but the chnichea ue both 
nometDiia and qdendid, eapecUIly the cathedral, a 
■peoiBMD (rf the pqrert Gothic, cimtainiiig the tombe 
d rnanr •oreicdgiu of L., Mints, and nuftyre. The 
tnd» cj Lk i« DOW nniiDporbuit Pop. GT20. 

LEON, fonnerl^r a kingdom, and sabeeqnently b 
province of Spain, now nibdivided into the smuler 
I jHvrincea of Salamanca, Zamora, and Leon, is 
' ited in the N.W. of Spain, S. of AttariaM, and border- 
I ingoaFOrtu^ Areaaboatl6,000>q.m. Fop. (1870) 
Sal,930 {of modera province, ZBO.OK). The country, 
[ wluch ia iatenected bv the Donro, is maantainouB, 
generally fertile, bnt miBerabl7 cultivated. It affbtds 
paitnr^e to vaet flocks of merino aheep. The in- 
BabitantB are for the meet part nnadncated and laty, 
bnt an Tery hidi-ipiiited, rich in peculiar cnitoma, 
of pan Spaniu oeacent, siDceie, hoepitBhle, and 
fatave. It ie cud that in the hi^ districta aontb 
of Sf|lftinf^n>-«j Tenmaota of the pnre Gothic tribes 
dirt, and at Astorga, remnanta ot the old Celtiberi 
—the MaragatM. The meana of co 
are everywhere very defective. The Kingdom of 
Leon wH erected, in 746, by Alfonso the Catholic 
out of the provincea he }ud wrested from the 
Suacena, and the older kingdom of Attnriaa, and 
in 1230 it waa pennanently onited to Castile. 

LEOVABDO DA VIITCL Thia great geniua, 
whoae works in painting are classed with those o' 
Kni^iad and Midiael Angeto, was alao a scnlptoi, 
andiitec^ and envineer, i^ be cultivated socoeaS' 
fully anatomy, botany, mathematios, astronomy, 
poetiy, and monc He was born, in 1452, at Vinci, 
in the Val d'Amo, near Florence ; his father, Pietro 
da Vinci, notary to the sigoiory of Florence, placed 
him in good time with Andrea Verroochio, who 
was an able sculptor, and a good painter ; bat in 

r' atiDg, hia pupil sood surpaaaed him. In 14S3, 
Tent to Milan, and tiie Duke Lodovico il Maro 
coofeiTed on him an annual penaion of BOO doUars. 
BendM perfonning variooa aervicea for the duke. 



of Arta „, . 

named director, waa attended by many eminent 
artiata, and influenced most beoeficislly the Lombard 
•chool of paintinx. It was in 1497, when 45 years 
of sge. that he ezecnted hia famous lucture, 'The 
Laat Super,' which waa painted in oil on the wall 
ia tbe FMectoiy of the Dominican convent of Saota- 
Maria-delle'Gracie. He remained in ^^i*n till 
IBOO, when, on its occnpation by the Flench, he 
retonied to Florence, and in 1502 was appointed 
architect and chief en^neer to Ceaare Borgia, 
captain-general of the pope'B army. In 1503, 
he was emplo^ by Soderini Qonfaloniere of 
Florence to P<unt ooe end of the conncil-hall of 
the Palaizo Veccbio. For thia, L. only completed 
the celebrated cartoon called the 'Battle of the 
Standard ; ' aikother cartoon for a painting in the 
aame apartment, the eiiaaUy celebnttea design 
called the * Cartoon ot I^a,* having been executed 
at the aame time by Hicboel Angelo. He ratnmed 
to UiUo in IGOG. In 1613, he visited Borne in the 
train of Qinliano de' Medici, who went thero to 
asiiat at the coronation of bis brother, Leo X. ; and 
in ISII^ BCCompaDied FianciB L to Bolt^a, where 
be signed the concordat with Leo X. "-•■-- 



preaamg invitation of Francis, he acoompanied that 
monai^ to Fiano^ in 1S16, akms with Us pujala 
I Salai and MeliL la bad health during the whole 



le waa in France, he executed 
I there, being chiefly occupied in angineermg. 

death oocnrred at Amboiae, 2d May 1619. j-uo 
I (cnina of h. waa nniveraal : painting vras not hia 

•die occnpatioD. He imparted to hia worka oeitain 



qualitiea tA the highest kind, for his drawing evinoM 
very great delicacy and elevation of style, not 
modelled on the antique, bnt formed on a profound 
knowledge of nature; and in hia treatment of light 
and shadow, he infused a degree of power, combined 
with softness, into his productions that invests 
them with a peouiiar charm ; while the influence 
of his style has operated powerfully on the schools 
of Milsa and Parma. L.'b Treatise on Paintiag, 
Tratlato delia PUtvra, baa been published in aeveral 
languages. The principal edition is that published 
at Pans, in folio, by Du Fresne, illustrated with 
drawings by Nicolas Poussin ; the best, as regards tha 
text, wss published at Some in 1817- Mr Hallun 
says, in his Inirodudion to Ihe LiUratKrt of Europe: 
'Leonardo's greatest literary distinction is derived 
from thMe short fragments of his unpubliahed writ- 
ings that appeared not many yeais since, and which, 
according, at leaat, to our oommon estimate of the 

rin which he lived, are more like revelations 
physical truths vouchsafed to a aingle mind, 
than the superstructure of its resaoning upon any 
eetablished oasis. The discoveries wliich mads 
Oolileo and Kepler and Maeatlin and Maurolicoa 
and Castelli, ukd other names illustrious, the 
system of Copemicna, the very theories of recent 
--ologists, ore anticipated by Da Vinci, within the 
mpass of a few pages, not, perhaps, in tha moat 
ecise language, or on the most conclusive reasoning, 
it ao as to atrike na with something like the awe 
of pietematnral knowledge.' The writii^ referred 
to by Mr Hallam were pnbliahed by Venturi at 
Paris, in 1797, under the following title : Ettai nir 
tti Ourraga Phyneo-liaUtimatiqttet de Lionard da 
VbKt, avtc da Fragnen* lirli de gee Maniiaeril* 
apportti de ritatie. These MS3. were afterwards 
restored to Wilan^ where they are still preserved. 
IiEONFOUTE, a Sicilian town, in the province 
Messina, situated in a monntamons neighbour- 
hood, on the shore of the Mediterranean. lb ia 
surrounded l^ walla, and haa a pop. of 11,622 
inhabitonta. There ia a tJiriving trade in oil, wine, 
and grain. 

LBO^IDAB I., son of Anazandiidea, king of 
Sparta, succeeded his half-brother, Cleomenes L, 
about 491 B. c When the Peraian monarch Xenea 
approached vrith an immenae army, L. opposed him 
at the narrow pasa of Theimopyls (4S0 B.a} with a 
foroe of 300 Spartana, and rather mote than 6000 
aoziliaries. The Persians attempted in vain to win 
L. by the promise of making h™ niler of the 
whole of Greece ) and when Xerzea aent a herald 
calling the Oreeka to lay down their artos, the 
Spartan answered : ' Let him come and take them.' 
ilie treachery of one Ephialtes having made it 
impoaaibie to bar any longer tha progreas of the 
foe, II. and bis little band Uirew themaelvea on the 
swarming myriada, and found a heroic death. 

LE'ONIKB TERSES, the name given to the 
auuneler and pentameter veisea, oommon in the 
middle ages, which rhymed at the middle and end. 
They were so named after Leoninns, a canon of the 
church of St Victor, in Faris, about the middle of 
the 12th c., or, as others say, after Pope Leo IL, 
> lover and improver ot music. Trace* ot 
thia kind of versification appear here and there in 



whoB 






_, I hmn Walter de ,. 

Mmhml^ the Cornish poet, and Dan "BiKiiglimm, _ 
monk of lintoiL ^e story of the Jew who, having 
fallen into a refuse-pit ou Saturday, would oot be 
helped out, because it was Mt Sabbath, while the 
Christian, who offered him aaslstanoe, refnaed to do 



abvGoogle 



LEOPARD— LEOPARDL 



•0 next it,y, becaoM it vu AIi,liaB be«n thrown into 
Leonine vene as follow* : 

Tsnds nuuini Aitomcn, ego te ds (taroor* toflim ,■ 

S»bb*ta nottn mto, de iterooie miere nolo. 

iUibatk &o*tn quideM Sdonion eekbnibii ibidel*. 
Leonine Tens it not imcomiiioD in Eng ti i h poetry, 
e, g.: 

ArethdM aroM from her oondi of moiM 

Tn tbfl Aurocerannivi mountains, 
From peak and from eraff, with nun; a ;a^, 
Hhepherding hii blight fooDtuns. 

LEOPABD (Pdif leopardia), one of the Ur^ 
FtUda (q.T.), now genemllf luppotad to be identical 
with the panther (F. pardus), although by loine 
they are rcfiMded aa yuieties, and otheit still mp' 
poee them to be dialinct specLee. Great oonfnaion 
bu prevailed in the nomendatore ; the panlAer and 
pnrdoju of th« anoicnte are not certainly known ; 

the iagnar -'- ■" ■'"^ " **• **■- 

by BaSon 



Leopaid ( JUi> leopardiu). 

America ; the L. a known by the name of ti^ in 
Africa ; and an Sir J. E. Teiment telli ni, it la by 
miitake often osUed cheetah in Ceylon. Snppomng 
the L. and panther to be one apeciee, we may 
describe it aa characteriicd by a pecnliar eraoefol- 
neea, alendamesa and flexibility of form, wiui a vezj 
long tail, and spotted fur, the apota being arraugea 
in niunerona rows along the aides, and each spot com- 
posed of five or six small spots aiTBiiged in a drcle 
or rosette. The general colour ii yellowiah > the 
lower parts lighter i the wpott darker tun the general 
oolooi of the tar. The L. ia extremely amle, and poa- 
■esset the power of leaping and also thu of climbing 
treee in great perfection. It hannta wooded plaoea, 
and is sddom to be found in open i^iona <n long 
zraaa, like the tiger. When ponued, it takes lefoge, 
U passible, in a tree, and if In ill jiiiimiiiI ipriugi 
down on its aaaailanta. It is cunning, ami adofn* 
derices similar to those of the fox for carrying on 
its depredations, and concealing its place of reboot 
Deer and antelopes are its habitoal prey; but it ia 
equally ready to feed on pigs, ponlt^, or whaterer 
may he found in the vioinity of a farm or village. 
The aize and strength of the L. render it aa danger- 
ooB to man aa any of tiie Fdida ; but it generally 
■aem* to dread and flee from man, unless a«wilea. 
It is very capable o( domeatioation. 

LEOPAKD, in Heraldry. The leopard has been 
described by some heralds aa the issue of the pard 
and Uoneas ; and the circumstance that such hybrids 
are nnpioductiTe, is angned aa a reason for appro- 
priattng that animal to the aimorial enaigna of 
abbot* and abbeaseo. However, the repreaentations 
of leopaida, at least in English henldrr, are to 
exactly like those of the lion passant eardant, that 
it has been made a questioa whetW there is 
any difference between the two, and it has more 



especially been a keenly contested point whether 
the tkree animals in the royal escutcheon of England 
were lions or leoparda. In early times, wa find 
them blazoned in both ways, and the true solution 
of the quattio vtxaUt aeema to be, that at one period 
the heraldio leopard came to be considered aa a 
mere synonym for the lion passant gardant, though 
the two i»niTn»lri ircre originally regarded as distinct. 
In the infancy of heraldry, b^ore distinctive appel- 
lations were invented for the different attitadea 
of animal*, it waa cnstomary to draw a lion in 
the attitude nooe c^led rampanl^ and a leopard as 
paasant gardant. This difference of position suffi- 
ciently indii-Bting wMch aninkal was meant, they 
wen oUierwise similarly lepiesented, and no attempt 
was made to exhibit the spots of the leopard. By 
and by, Ba ooats of armour were multiplied, it 
became neoessary to difference tbem by varying the 
position of the *"■■"»'« depicted ; and the blaz^iers 
of those days, thiiiltin g more of attitude than of 
loology, had recooive to a oompromiae in their 
nomentjature. The lion waa natnrally auppoaed 
to be rampant and in profile, the leopard passant 
gardant When the conventional animal that might 
stand for either waa panant and in profile, be waa 
designed a tion-itopanU; and whenrampant gatdant, 
he waa a larparA-liimnL The kiu^ of beaats waa 
very early aaanmed as hi* mvopnate insignia by 
the sovereigQ of En^kndjta indl a* by the aoverei^ 
irf other countries in Western Bnrope. The lioa 
was at fliat borne singly, and hia natural attdtode, 
like that of other hona, waa oonaidered to be 
rampant But when a second and third lion were 
added, it became leas convenient to draw them 
the rampant attitnde, and the liona became 
— -i»-Ieopaidt or passant, as seen in the seal of 
King John ; a further change of position to paasant 
gardant made tbem heraldically leopards. Edward 
in., Edward the Black Piinoe, and Bichard IL, 
speak of their crest of the leopard. Nicholas 8erby 
was designated Leopard Herald in the reirai of 
Heniy IV. ; and it was not till the middle (3 the 
IGth e. that the Uona of England regained tlieiT 
oiicdnal name. 

Though leopards, properly so called, hardly occur 
in 't'JTigli^h heraltby, having passed into lions 

Bsaant rardant, their heads or faoea are occasionally 
me. If no part of the neck is shewn, Uie proper 
blazon ia a leopard's face ; if a portion of the neck is 
drawn, it is a leopard's head, erased or eonped, 
aocording as it is cnt off evenly or witit a jagged 
edge. 

LEOFABDI, OuooHO CocKT, a modem poet 
and classical sehokr of Italy, was bom at Becanati, 
a town iu Uie march of Aucona, on the 29th June 
179S. Without the aid of instmotors, L, at t^ 



MS of seventeen, had attuned to a degree of 
cIsBsicsl scholarship almost marvellous. Latin and 
Greek he masteredT as his own mother-tongue, and 



iposed some of his philological 
the age of nineteen, when be was elected member 
of the Academy of Science at Viterbo. Shortly 
after, he departed from his sedndad home for 
Borne, where he won the friendahip of several cele- 
brated men, amongst others, of Niebnhr, who was 
deputed to offer him the chair of Greek philosophy, 
in the univeraity of Berlin, which he declined. 01 
health acting on tiu temperament characteristic of 
genius, seems to have cast a gloom over his spirit, 
which deeply tinged bis generS impressians of men 
and thin^ On his return from Bome to his native 
place, hia health grew seriouslv imp^red, from the 
ardour with wbick he pursuecl his varied studies. 
He finallv took up hia (bode in Florence, where he 
puhlished hia aunired Canami and other works, 
amidst a conflict with failing health, straitened 



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LEOPOLD L — T.WW ilOPTl'iHA. 



finaaoo, Mid deep deapondency. In this bittoc 
crin of hi* life, lie fonned a warm friendship with 
the hntanui Antonio Banieri ; and by the delicate 
mad ince — a nt cares of Banieri and his sister, the 
■hattered, soSering poet wu shielded to the hoar 
at hia death. Titan this period, a sensible softening 
of apirit became manifest m his writings ; it seemed 
aa if the poet had learned to ralne and cling to 
life and fnenda only when smnmoned to relinquiih 
both. He died in his friend's arms at Naples, 
I4th Jnne 1837, at the aee of 39. His remains lie 
in » tmall chmoh at Poailqfio. The works of 
L. ai« all mora or leas the i«flex of hia morbid, 
de^onding mind, ^m; an nmarkable for coisin- 
alitv, vigonr, and elegaao* of «t^ Hia oolleeted 
woAa wne pnUiahed in 1S49, by Le Monnier, at 
"• nnder the title of Feni«iV[iMi2iCN(K»7no 



Jj^opardi. Hia Italian loTe-ai>imeta are full of &re 
and graoa ; and bia inaauoos imitations of the 
antiqaa fonn of oompoaibon, written in Greek and 
l^tin, were so perfect, la to be miitakrai by many 
for gonaina long-lost gems of claaaioal literature. 

LEOPOLD L, GioBOB CannmLH Fbbderioe, 
King of the Belgians, son of Frauds, Duke of Saze- 
Cobnrg, was bom 16th December I7S0. HereceiTed 
aa exoellent literary and scientific education, and at 
the ooncluaian of lua studies had the reputation of 
Itang one of the beat ioformed princes m Bnrope. 
The marriage of his sister Joliana with the Oiand 
Duke Constutnie tuiTiii^^ dosely allied the Hoose 



present at the battles 

, , j_j, and Enlm. Having 

[ England after the peace of 1816, he woo the 
affections of the Prinoeaa Charlotte, the heireu of 
the throne. L. was bow naturalised by act of 
parliament in 1616, and received an snnaal pen- 
■k>n of fdO.OOa The marriage took place on 
2d Hay 1816; bnt the princeas died in child- 
bed on fith November 1817, and her child did 
not larvrre. Prince Leopold now lived in com- 
plete retiremeDt, acmetimea in London, and some- 
timea at liis seat of Claiemont. Ha received, 
in February 1830, the offer of the crown of Greece, 
knd at fint favourably enterbuoed the proposal, 
but aftennrds rejected it, because of the di^tis- 
iaiction of the Greeks with tiie arrangements deter- 
miDed upon by the Great Powers. In LTniie 1831, 
he waa elected, W a National Congress, king of the 
Belgians, and on Slst Jnly lA that year, his inaugura- 
tion took place at Bmasela. In 1S32, he married 
the Princess Louise, dau^ter of Louis Philippe, 
King of the French, who died in October ISGO, bv 
whom he had issue the Crown Prince Leopold, 
Duke of Brabnut, aooUier son and a daughter. As 
* moaawih, he condaeted himself with great prn- 
danoe, firmnea, and modentioii, with constant 
regard to the pmcblea of the Belg^ oonstitntioii. 
He died December 1860, and was ancceeded by hit 
•on Leopold U. 

LXOPOUD OF BABENBERG or BAMBEBG, 
the deseotdant of a noble family which derived 
it* origin from the Prankish kings, was the first 
hereditary HaAgraf of Austria (^ A.I>.), and hia 
ilwumiilsiilii coDtinned to mle over that connby 
tOl tlte liiM became eztino^ in the pemon of Fred- 
■riek the Wariike, in 1246. This family i^yed an 
imporbuit part in Qu Onelph and Ghibelme conflicts 
of the 12tli 0., and obtained the dnehy of Bavaria, 
ID 1138, on the rebellion ot Henry the Proud, but 
after a long conflict with bis son, Henry the Lion, 
waa compelled to resign it to that prince in IISO, 



LEPAIfTO (ancient Xavpa'eltu), now oalled by 
the Greeks J^raefo, the chief town of the eparchy 
of the same name, in the province of .^Kolia- 
Acamania in Greece, is aitnated on the north side 
of the Gnlf of Lepanto, 20 tnilea east at Uisso- 
longhL The town, which ia HI built, and has a 
miserable appearance, is the seat of an archbishop, 
and has an excellent pott Fop. 2600, In the 
middle acea, it was giTen by the Greek emperon 
of the Aat 1« the Venetian*, who fortifledTit so 
strongly, that in 1477, it stood a nege of foor 
months by 30,000 Turks, and was only taken in 
1499 1^ Bajazat IL, at Uie head of 150,000 men. 
Near L, took place the celebrated' naval battle 
between the Turks and Christians in 1G71, in which 
latter, commanded by Don John of Austria 
(q.v.), achieved a decisive victory. 

LEPIDODB'NDRON, a genus of fossil plants, 
abnndant in the coal measure*. Some spadea were 
of snuJl «ii^ bnt the graater number were large 
trees, 40 or 50 feet long, and more than 4 feet m 
diameter, Thev taper upwards, and branch gene- 
rally in a dichotomons manner. The snrfao* is 



Lepidodendron. 

either covered with narrow, sharp -pointed, scale- 
like leaves, or marked with iozenge-ahaped spaces — 
the scars of the tallen leaves— arranged in a spiral 
manner. The leaves which are fotmd separated 
from, but associated with the tmuks, have been 
d in a provisional genus under the name of 
iophyllam. The frmts are elongated, cylin- 
drical bodiiea, compoaed of a conical axis, around 
which a great quantity of scales are compactly 
imbricatetL 

Bn^niart and J. D. Hooker consider that Lepido- 
dendra ore gigantic Lycopods. Their modem repre- 
•entativee would thua be a class of small, genenlly 
aetping, moss-like plants, the largest not beiag 
mote tSui tluree or lami feet hi^ In tkedi fwm 
aad in Ute ttnictura of thor fnit, they oertMoly 
approach them more neariy than ai^ other living 
plants ; Lindltg', h o wever, sees in the Oonifem^ and 
especially in the Norfolk Island pines, the closest 
teeemblMioe* to this ancient class of plants. 

IjEPIDOTTEKA (Qr, scaly-winged), an order <rf 
inaeots, ondcivoing complete metamor^hoeta, having 
the montii in their perfect state exelnnvely adapted 
for BuckinA and fnnlier characterised by four mem- 
bianona wings covered with minute, closely sat 
scales. Hie Mdw oontsina a vast number of •peciee, 
abonndiiw chiefly in warm climates ; but the British 
spedes ^one are about two thousand. The L. are 
very naturally divided into three great sections — 
Diwma, CTtpntaiiaria, and Nortuma, so named 
because almost all those of the fint seotion are to be 



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LBPIDOSmBN— LBPEOST. 



Ken on 'wing only durine the <Ulj, thon of the 
second more senenlly dnnng the twilight, whilit 
tiioae of the tmirl ait mare noctonial ; their popnlai 
deiigiistioiiH respectively being BmrsRVun, H&ws- 
HOTHS, anA Mtnvs. See these heads. Among the 
L. are incladed muiy of the I&rgeit and moat beauti- 
ful of insects, with coloim aa exqoiaitely varied aa 
they are brilllBJit ; there are also many — particu- 
larly amoDB the motha— of amall size and sober 
hue, but not one of them can be denied the praise of 
beauty. The difEerence between the lame and the 
perfect insects in food, stmctnie, and habits, ii very 
wonderfaL The larm are described in the article 
CATBSFiLLAit, the pupEB in Certsalis. The perfect 
insect feeds only on the nectareoos juices of plants. 
The principal organs of the month are the mcaiUcs, 
the mandiblea and labnim being reduced to mere 
Tudimenta ; and the m^Tillai ajipear in the form of 
two king slender filaments, which combine to form 
a probosda or tmnk, spirally rolled np when not 
in nae. This tmnk is capable of great variety of 
moToment, and is of extremely ddicate strnoture. 
— The BoaUa of the wings are of very varioni fonns, 
bnt with a ceneral similarity. Some of them are 
figored in tw artdele BurncRnT. The wings are 
generally large, and are not folded when at rest. 
The tiiree aegmenta of the thorax aie mnch united. 
The abdomen has neither tting nor oripoaitor. None 
of the L. form toeUiKt, aluon^h great nombers 
are often found together. Sluc u the product of 
some of them. 

IiEPIDOSI'KEIT (or ProUmUroM), a very remark- 
between Amphibia (gr Batrachia) and Fishes, and 
ranked by some natnialists with the former, and by 
■ome wiui the latter. Owm strenuously maintains 
the proper place of this genus to be among fishes. 
There are several speciea of L., of wbich the beat 
known is L. annedons, an inhabitant of the upper 
part of the liver Gambia. It is about a foot long. 
The bones are very soft and cartilaginous, or eyea. 
gelatinous, eioept those of the head, which resemble 
in substance those of oeaeons fishes. The scales are 
cydaid. The dentition ia rery remarkable. The 



Lepidoiiren. 

iawi are fomiahed with an nndnlaling ribbon of 
bone, oovcnd with enamel, the undnlatioita t^ Vae 
upper and lawa jaw adapted to each other, and 
altnig the edgsa are small sharp teeth. There are 
frae filamentMy gills attoated under giU-ooven, m 
in ooaeoas fisbBS, b«t two of the arterial archea, 
which ordinarily supply the gills of fishes wiUt 
blood, are represented in L. by trunks, which 
pooeed to the double air-bladder, and racufy over 
its oellular surface, so that the air-bladder, having a 
commanieaticm with the (noath, ia citable of serving 
to a ocrtui extant the pultmes of Innn and ths 
animal is enabled to sustain a torpid eziiteDce 
during the dry aeaaon in mud, in whidi it foms 
foe itself a kind of nest, which has been likened to 
the coooon d an insect by means of a mncona 
sseretioD from its body. Spedmena of L. imneclant 
have sometimes been bfoni^t from Africa with 
ilanta, among the roots of which tbey had taken np 
their ieBidenc«i Nonerona spedmena have been 
kept aUve in Qta Zotdogical Oirdens of London and 
the Crystal Palac«^ and their habits have been 
caratnlfy studied, "niey do not seem to need the 



annuM period of torpidity, for which, aa forced upon 

them in their native counti;, they are so well pre- 
pared. They re&dily eat any kind of animal food ; 
frogs ore particularly acceptable ; and when placed 
in Uie some tank with gold-fishes, they kill them by 
a single bite close to the pectoral fins, approaching 
them from below, biting oat the piece, and often 
eating do more of the fish than that one bite. In 
its native country, the fle«h of the Ii. is much 



LE'PrDTTS, an illustnoas Roman family o( the 
anoient ^twilian gens. It makes its flnt appear- 
ance in history about the beginniiig of the 3d 
c. before Christ; and was long one of the tooet 
distingaished in the patridiua order, reckooiog 
amon^ its members many who held the greatest 
dignibea in the state, consuls, augun, pnetori, 
milita>7 tribunes, censors, and heads of tiie priest- 
hood. It djsappean about the dose of the 1st 
0. i. D. The only individual, however, who requires 
special mention, and that not because of his 
talents, bnt because of the important events in 
which he took a part, is Mabcub Sxnjxx L., 
who, when war broke out (49 b. c.) between Cnsar 
and Pompey, declared for C^sar, who appointed 
him, during his own absence in Spain, Dictator of 
Kome, a Magitta- EqaUam (47 B.C.), and his col- 
league in the coDBulate (46 B.C.). He afterwards 
supported AntoD}^, and became one of the trium- 
virate with Octavianns and Antony; bnt his weak- 
ness of character, and want both of militaiy talents 
and of statesmansbipt made him of very inferior 
im^iortaoce to the other two, who assignad him 
Africa as his province (40 — 39 B.O.). AftO' the 
defeat of Sextos Pompeiua, be thought to have 
maintained himKlf in Sicily against (Kitavian, bnt 
his soldiers deserted him, and went over to his rival, 
who, however, allowed him to retain bis wealth and 
the dignity of pontifex maximus. He died 13 B.C. 

LE'POItID.<G. SeeHiu. 

LEPRA is a Greek term which is now generally 
employed by medical writers to designate ft scaly 
affectjon of the skin. These scales occur in droular 
patches of a grayish colour, with a red, eligKtly 
elevated margin. If the scales fall ofiT or are 
removed, the soiface of the skin ia red and ohininA 
and new scales rapidly foim. The patches vary in 
siie, being often about an inch in diameter, and 
sometimes much larger. Lepra most commonly 
oceura on the limbs, and especially on thoae pskrts 
where the bones are most thinly covered. Its 
duration ia nncertajn, and if not interrupted by 



wiU frequently continue for yoMS, 

without materially afTecbbg the general health It 

ia not contagions. The local apfdication of bir 

(Hntmait, or the iodide of snlphur contanenl^ will 

sometimes remove it. If it ddos not yield to this 

*-)atm(mt, small doses of Fowler's Arsenical Sola- 

in (three to five minima) may be prescribed, twice 

tbrioe a day, either in wnt^ or m the deooctiMl 

dulcamara, which is supposed to be specially 

beneficial in chrenic akin ' ' 



LBPBOSr. Ilus term has been very vanelr need 
both by medical and other writu* ; we dull hm 
leabrict it to the L^pra tubtnulota, as it ajxiean to 
have prevailed during the middle ages and down to 
modem times in Borope, and as it is now met with 
Fsrions warm climates; the scaly variety, which 
reali^ is a perfectly separate disease, being 
noticed in the article Lxfba. The affection here 
discussed is identical with the daiiantiajM <^ tAe 
Oratt, and the lepra of Iht Arabiaiu, while it is 
altogether different from the elgiAanfiant of iKa 
Arabian*, and the lepra tjf Ihe Qred^ which utter 
' ■" ' ' ' u own day. 



«i),Google 



LEP8IUS-LERNEA.DA. 



The men pnnmiient STrnptoniB of leprim ue 
nmiDed op by Dr Coplud in hie Medical Die- 
tiimarf mt follow i 'Dusky red or livid 'tnbonlles 
of TanooB nne od the face, ears, and extiemiticm ; 
Uti)±Mied or rogooe state of the shin, a dimiaation 
of ita •ensibili^, and tailing off of the hair, ezoept- 
ing tliat ol the scab) ; hoane, nasal, or lost voice ; 
iM.Mtt; ateoBtioiiaot -UiesarfaoeandeztianeftBtor.' 
neM tatMTolea vary ia sise from that of a pea to 
aa olivch Of aD parts, the face is particolarly 
' wpedaUv the noee and ean. 
~ of loelaiid, described by Dr (aftar- 



and othwi^ and that stilt met with 

Afrioa, in the East and West Indies, and in many 
tn^Mal JsJaods, an all identical with the dtMMe 
now described— the leprosy of the middle age*. 

CbMelvallied to it, and often oonfbanded with i^ 
am : I. llie Lepra AltaMetiaai of Winterbottom, 
Copland, and otheis^ which is charaoterised by 
noMvfcahlB ab— lee of senrilnlity lA the general 
■arfaoBi by cemfiatiTie amootTmii <rf UieBkm,and 

Ths oaaca renordsd 1^ Winterbottom and Coj^and 
were aeen in Africa^ 

3, The JewM Leproty, r^;arding which nothing 
certain is known. The term lej^oey (or Banil in 
th« Hebrew) was probably ^iplial by ue joiests to 
vaiiona cnluieoiu aSeolioDS, paiticalarly those iriiioh 
were of a dmnio and contamons nature^ ' It is 
pn^MUe^' tays Dr Coriand, ' that frambcssia or the 
yaws (a tabcnmlona diaeaae) waa one of these, as 

from the modes of living the habits and airtnun- 
atanota of the Jewa at that time, and of the 



£e0» d M. BatrUini mr fAlphabtt hilrogli/pliigKt 
(Rome), and a namber of diuertatioos on the 
monnments of Egyptian art and their sencral 
architeotnral style, which wer« ituerted in the 
TVonnctiiMu of the Archteological Instittite. He 
also applied himself to the study of the ancient 
Etrurian and Oscan languages, the remains of 
which he published in hi« Inicriplionat Umbrvxc el 
Otca (Leip, 1341), and other works. Tn 1S42, he 
was placed at the head of an antiquarian expedi- 
tion scut to Kgypt by the king of Pmssla, and 



the results of his Egn'tian researches, in his 
DenhnHia' emt Aegmten vMd AetMopiat (in folio, 
1S63— 1S6T), a magnificent work, published at the ' 
expenae of the kin? of Fmssia. His Ckronologie 
der Aeaspttr [vol l Beii 1849], and l/On- dot 
ertUn At^j/pt, Qoetttrbtit, have laid the foundation 
for ft Kientifia toeatment of the earlier parts of 
Egyptian hkrtcoT. He has connected with the study 
ofthe more familiar departments of Elgyptian archn- 
oloKf, tiie investigation of the languid, hiatory, 
andmonnmenti of the T«gions furtiier up the Nile. 
Hi* Britfe em* Atmplta, AeMopiat, vad dtr HaSt- 
itttd iIm Suai (B^ 1862), UAer aaigt BrgAitiMt 
da- Atgyp^tclien DenhnUer, Jko. (18&3), are writings 
of neatTalne; I>aBi^lgttn^ntUng%Mi»ehtAlplu^ 
(l^Si is tile work on whioh L. baaed hi* SUmdard 
Alphabet fir rtdudiig vnmiUen Lonmutgta and 
For^gn Oraphie Si/tlemt to a Uayform Qrlhograplty 
' " LeUtrt (Land, and Berlin, 18S3}. 



Nolhiiv cotain is known ngardiiw the oanses of 
tiiia diswsn, Tt» investigationa of Mr Stewart at 
l^anqntitar, where it i* very ^erslenl^ led him to 
cMiofaide: 1. niat wMnen are less liable to this 
malady than men; 2. Hut it is hereditary: 3- 
ThKt lis contagionsness i* extremely problematical ; 
4. That a fish-diet is found to render every 
nmptom wotse ; S. That poor living, want ot 
I liwiiliwi. and exposure to cold and damp, are 
otmstant attendants on thia affliction. Dr Copland 



ribes its origin to the use of semiputrii 
I, and of rancid oils; to insumeient 



'^S^ 
£^" 



ieient vemtable 
di>ch*ig^ from 



>my OMltinne without causing death 
m. When it is far advanc^ it i« 

I, and oven in the early stages, 

uuMatMn. Probably such altorktive 

taevmn sublimate and wsenioDi add 

likely to be of 



Sohdmr fumigating faath^ 
water-h«tli% have Sbo been 

ZiKFSrnS) ir*T"- BiCH., a distingmslied German 
inreatustor of £|0ptiaii antiquities, was bom at 
Nainn&i^ 20thDMember 1813. His father, an 
advocate and muistrste there, was a eealoos auti- 
qxwi7, and paUisned many wtnfca on the antiqmtiee 
of that pBt of Qermuy. The yonneer L. studied 
at Lopng, OMtingen, Berlin, and Parts. His first 
mrA waa his .Die PaiOogrvphU alt liilld der 
Sprad^omimn (Berl 183«, for whioh he obtained 
the Tolney prue of the Fnoich Institute. This 
waa followea by works on the most ancient 
ali^Bbeta and other kindred subjects. In 1836, 
•-- i-*-J '•^-aelf intimately wHh Bnnsen at 



liEPTOaPB^MUH, agenns of trees and shrubs, 
natives of Australia, If ew Zealand, Ac, of the natural 
order Myrtacea, snb-ordar LepUnrpofMi*. They are 
evergreen, with leaves somewhat resembling those 
' lyrtlea. Some of them bear the name of TxA- 
Tuat, OS L. lemga-um, L, baeeatunt, L, Xeeuomm, 
and L. gnmdi/Uirum, because the leaves have been 
used as a substitute for tea. L. laiparium is i 
times called the JTno Zealand Tea-plant, r" 
the Broimt-tree or Doffieood-tree, It ii 
both in New Zealand and Aiutralia. 



belonging t 
broognt fro 



Pop. I 



broognt 

port w frequented by nnmeroa* vessels ; the town 
a waUed, and woteot«l b; a casUe. In the 11th 
and 12th centuries, L was mclnded in the territory 
of Pisa, when it wa* strongly fortified against the 
rival etaUflof Lucca aad G^ok At Ik tne famous 
tcanJtfer of Aikdrea Doria's service* from Francis L 
to the Emperor Charies V. took place. 

IiBlCIDA, a town of Spain, capita] of the province 
of the same name, on the river Begre, a tkbutary 
Ebro, abont 100 mile* west-ncvth-west * 



, bjfliBcitadeL 

is a elooiny latiTrintlt of maan-loakmg streets. He 
csEtb baa an dd ealliednl attached to it of tlie 13th 
c ; Ute town, a new and imposing one of tiie 18th 
oentnry. L oame* on manufactures of woollen, 
cotton, leather, £»m, aikd gimpowder. Pop. 19,027. 

L. is probsluy the Celtibeiian Herda. In the 
neif^boDriDg [dain, Bdpio Africanus defeated 
Bonno, and at a later period Cnsar, the lieutenant* 
ot Pompey. A council was held at L. S04 i. s. 

LERNE'ADA, an order of Crustacea, having tiie 
mouth formed for snotion alone, and in organisation 
very inferior to any of the oUter emstaoeans, so that 
the gBOOi Iitnwa, from vrttich the order derivsa 



ab,G00g|( 



LEBOT SB BAINT ABNAUD-LESLIE. 



ib njuoa, Tu pikoed „ 

crnBUceana, bni Bnloioa. Ths tme reUtkuw . 
t^Me CTSktarH, hmrevsr, aftsr luiTiDg been rendarad 
prob&ble by othen, wera finally damotiatntod b^ 
Von Nordmum. A muarkabls lurouuutMloa t 
that, when youn^ they RMtubla th« I ' 




ta own peouIuT ipeciM of nmt- 

__ _ J» adhwe to the ejm at aOum, 

wbich they Milder blind, aome to the ^Hm, msm 
to other parbi of the bod^. Tha aiuMiita w«)« 
aoqaunted with »ach ponwitea of tha taniiy and 
aword-fiahi and Ariatotla mantioDi thuu aa ''t^^t^^^g 
neat annoyauM to the fiahea iahtbti by HMrnt. 
Tha L. aaaome in their BUttun «tate -ntj Tariou 
' and groteaqoe foima. 

I.BBOT DB SAINT ABNAUD, Jaoqw, a 
Ft«neh aianhal of the teoond Emnra, waa bom 
at Pam, SOth Angort IBOl, eDt«rad the army in 
1816, but foond it neeeanrr more than ODoe to 
leave it, ao that, in 1831, alter a li^tae of fiftwn 
yeaiB, ha waa oiJy a lieatoujit In 18S7, he was 
appointed captain of the foreign l^on, and fint 
rose to entineiice in the Abictm wan. The raloor 
he exhibited at the liege of Constuitine ma him 
the croia of the Legion of Honour. In l&ifi, he 
became a cA^ de iaiaUha; in 1&42, a lieutenont- 
odonel; and In 1844, a eoloneL Dorins the riling 
of the doaert tiibea undet Bou-Maa^ CSonel L. de 
St A. iignaliaed KiTrtw^lf ^t the head of the column 
placed under bia ordets, redoced the Dahn to 
■nbjDctdoik, and made Bou-Maza a priaoner. On 
the termination ol the campaign, he waa promoted 
to be a Commander of the Xe^on of Honour. In 
1847, he waa raised to the rank of a field-marshal ; 
'n the early part of ISSl carried on a bloody 



Lonia Hapolecn 
npablic, and waa o 
onicnipulou 



the b^inning of auti 



tlie S6tli October be became war minirier, and took 
•n actdTB part in the caa|i fttat at 3d December, 
aad the nbaeqaent maaaacrca it the b*nicadea. 
On the breaking oat of the Oiimean war in 1854, 
ba wai intraated with the command o{ the Vrsach 
tatott, and oo^qparated with Lord BagUn in the 
battle of the Alma, 2Dlh September. He died 
nine day* attarwaid*, tlia vicbm of an inonrable 



Breaiay Sound, In laL OtT »' N., and itmg. T 8* W., 110 
milee nortb-eait «( Kirkwall L. lua no regular 
street*, the only tbonni^hfarea betweeo the houasa 
being badly kept and winding pathwm. IIm har- 
bour ia oommodiona and aafe. Pop, (1871) 3610. In 
1872, 897 vewja, of 78,778 tone, enterad and deired 
tha port Fiahing ia the chief branch of induatiy. 
Vaload rent, £SW7 in 1S7S— 1874. Sea SHnuim. 
LBSAOE, A^ita RXH^ a French drsmatirt and 
noreliit bom 8th May 1668, at Sanean, now in 
the d^wteuDt of Uorbihan, and itudied noder 
the JeaoitK In 1693, he came to Paria, to puime 
hii iQiilMo^iia and jinWio atndic^ and to aaak 



hm hand ; bit in 169S he manied _. . 
of * oitiHfi ot Pwii. He rawnnoed the prac4iee 
of hia pmfeMion m an adrocate to derate himadt 
to litenton^ and lired entiTely by hii liteniy 
laboon, till the Abbt de Lyoooa »Te kin a 
•niall pennon of 600 lineib Bgni* of bia dnualio 



Tttrotret, a Uttar Mtin ob the fisaoeiM* ol the 
tiin^ bat he rtfUMd the cfite. Hii oonio aemla, 
whicik have nenr been exoeUed hiy'anTthing ai 
the lame kind, won tot him » ml hignar ^ac* 
in litsntnn, partjoulariy L« DUUt BSltia, La 
AtMnrti d» Chamm fJIAndta (aa alnidged 
tnuHlataoB from the Spanish of Alman), and GU 
Bku d* Stmtaiame & vck Far. 171S), which ia nni. 
TmaUyr^^afdedaahiimaBter-pieoo. Hedied 17th 
November 1747. A complete editiau of his 'moAa 
waa pnbliahed in Paria in 173IX The norela ahore 

iiiiiiiilliinil Iiiiiilaliiil iiilii iliffiBiiil liiiMifM. 

and OH Bias, m pwtienlar, ia axbsndy pqpulai: 

.. ol ta ialand in the 

to Tmkey, called, 
during the middle agea, JUHylen* (from ita oaintal 
eity) , and hence, by the modem Oret^i, Jfilj/lot or 
Mdmo, and by the Tnib MidOU. It Ilea 40 vika 
BOuth-eut of Lemnoe (q. ?.), near the ooaat t4 Alia 
Minor, from whloh it ia diitant only 10 milaa ; area, 
about 600 iquBn milea ; pop. about 40,000, of iriion) 
from 10,000 to 18,000 are Tarkfe tha rest are Ormki. 
L. i* isther monntainoui, but tnbrone ot ths 
mountuna attUai an eleration of SOOO feet. Kie 
climate UMtlutmnu beyondthatof another ialand 
in the iBgean, and the eoQ i« fertile. ABciestly, it 
wai famooi for ita winea— Horace e«labntes the 
iiuioetntU poaJa £«M— bnt tlie modem prodoee ii 
indifferent. Ita figa, howevw, are eieallent ; bat ita 
principal exerts are oil, timber, and gaB-nuta. l^o 
chief town u Castro (q. T.). — L. was the birthplace 
of Terpander, AiIod, Aloeui, S^qiho, Pittacii^ 
Theophraetui, and Cratippni. 

LESIOIf, a term in Scotch Law to denote iujury 
or prejudice lustained by a minor or by a penou 
of weuL capadly, sufficient to be a fcronnd of aotioa 
to reduce or act aside Ota deed which caused the 
Icaion, See Ikvaht. 

LBSLrE, LBSLT, or LESLBY, Thb Family or. 
"Bm first trace ot thia Soottiih historical booie 
ia found between tha veer* llTl and 1199^ when 
David, Earl of Htmtmgdon and the Oaiioch, brother 
irf King William the Lion, gtanted a oharter to 
Malcolm, tha Km of BarthoU, of the land of Leailyu 



^ta^wUui 
uqnired lari 



from their Iwidi of Leali^ aoqi 

domains before the end of the 131b o, I^ 

with the hsieaa of Both** on the Spey, and mth 
1 ^v. ea-Mramm of Abenethy m the Tay. 



—It beoame en- 

noUed ui :i<S7, whoi Qeorge of Leatie, of Bothsa, 
and of Leslie upon Leren (the family had tnnateiTsd 
the nunc of its first pcwswien in the Oariooh to the 
huida<rfFethkil,iniif«},wumade£ari<if Bothv 
and Lord Leelie. The tiiiid earl waa the father <d 
Noimao Leslie, Master of Rothes, tha chief actor in 
the murder d Cardinal Beaton. The fifth eaH, 



although a nun o(diBBolDtelite,4is(i&giii* 
asoneoftheaUestoftheCoveiiaBtingleadan. Hi* 
Btm, Bcaroely less abl& thovrii almoA niuduattsd. 
Lnd ChaiNiaor of SoottaBd m U67. Md 

DintizoribyLiOOgle 



OMted Duke of Botiiea, llMqnii of 

Banini.wA.li, Bwl of Leoli^ ho. Thxm hononn, 
. ■ . ol kU body, "^ 



ii Iks riztantk lAo bM Md ttia dignily. 

Baku o* Lxtht.— Sticm tiw iamily Ctnodt iti 
fint M*t in AboriMMbint tt bad tbiown off 
(rf lAkb rtiU flowbb tiwra. Tho 






ebiaf, tiurt of BilmthMn, bM prw biitb In 
or bjr id lAhDOto l<» MrtnJ bmb <d nuA, 
•■ tbe kKTMd Jobn Lcalii^ BUwp id Boas I. .__ 
in 15S7, diad in 1696), Um dnoted ehaiiqnm nt 
Harr, (Joean of Seoti; Sir AlaxandK LmUb of 
Awaintaiil, > ganaal in the Hmeorite •arrioes 
who di*d nwnor <rf SiDotonako in 16A8; Mid 
OhatlM I«uie, ohanoallor d Om diooeae of Oonnor, 
aathor of a ShoH Mtlkod wrflA lie iWiti, who 
died in 1782. A abU more diaWMwiihad mao 
waa Alf""^" Lialiet '^ aoldiar of tortniut who, 
IniBttBg the toaBmah of illagitiniatw Urth and a 
Bc^rty adnealiai (ht ocmld write liia nain^ but 
noOdng wum), mao to be a field-maabal of Sweden 
andK' the ^aat Ovalavna AdohdiiH. He waa 
noaOad to £adand in 1680^ to take the ocani 
of tba OoTtBaoting ann; and in 1611 waa 
Bail of Leren and Xttd Balgoay. He died in . . . 
leainna tw« nandohildnn, the TOnncar rA whan 
tuani^ the BuA irf HatriU^ and left a bod, who 
beewne thnd Bari <l Leran and aaouid Eail of 
itOnlia. Hia daaoandant is now ninth Eari << 
Leven and ei^tth Sail <rf Uelnlle. 

LoKsa LiirooBi& — Ihe aeoond aon of the fifth 
&ri of Jtothea waa created Lord Lindoraa in laOCL 
The title haa been donnant ainee the death ot Uie 
BBTenth lord ia 1T7E> 

LoRM Hewabx.— Carid Ledie, fifth aon of the 
lint Lord Lindorea, aerred with di " '' 



ixptnuant in Uia fdloiring yaar before tba Etnal 
Boida^ tt Londiw, and in 1813 pvbliahad a tnll 
explanatioD ct bia nawi en the rabjeol; 



Gnata-ma Adolijtiw of Sweden, and ratnniina to 
Sootlaad, im the ontbreak of the Oreat CirU War, 
waa ma of tba hadera of ttw Farilanentarr 
txmf at Uaistom Hoor, and lorpriaed and rontsd 

■*— ' ti PhJUpIunigh. He waa defeated t^ 

at Dnnbar in lOOC^ and aftn- toi yaara* 



16S1, and died in 16891 Ihe title baa bean dormant 
BiDCe tbs death of hii grest-grandtofw the fovth 
loid. in 1791. 

CouiriB LtSLOL — Walter Leslie, a younger aon of 
the Bonaa of Balqubain, distinguished himaelf in the 
Anatriaa snn;, and in 1637 waa created aconnt 
<rf the ein[HTe, as a reward for his servicea in the 
mnrder oTWalknatein. He died without inu« in 
Iflff^ when be waa ancceeded hy hia nephew, Jamea, 
a fidd-manhal in the Assbian aervice, trho died in 
16»f. The title became extinct in ISM. 

The history of the Lediee waa written by Father 
William Ak^fmoi Lealis, a yonnger brother of the 
Moond coDnt in a large wid aiunphiona Mio pnb- 
bahed at Giate in 1692, with the title (rf Lawiu 
Letliana ^pfieote. The Pedigree <^Ae Familw of 
Letlie qf Sid^tAaiit waa printed at Bakewell in 
1961, ftr mirato dnnlation. Soma bistoriea of the 
(amdy abU rem^ in US. One ot them boaata 
tiiat 'at one time thiee Lediea won genenla at 



Qtrtamaj ; Alsandar Liali^ Eaii ot Leno, in 
■dawl; and Sir Alexander Lealia of Anchintovl, 



bnr^lSGS). 

LBBLIB, Sm Jtiax. a oelebfatad natural ^lil- 
eaoidtO', waa born in I^rgo, Fife, I6th April 1766. 
W^ a bc7, abewlng a atarang Um for the axaat 



aoienoes, ha na ant to 8t Andnwi Univettity In 
177S. In 178iik ha enteral the Edinbnrdh Dinni^ 
HaU, bnt darirted moat <rf hia time to tie aai«UM^ 
partNolariT obmiiitiy. In 178S, ha left EdiiOmi^ 
and after being two yean in Amerioi^ aa tntor to 



eontribating to the w— , md in 
ital reiiaro h Ba i the Onita of bia 
Mndation of Bsffim'i IT 
of AM* tmSi, the innntian ol 
XhenaoneW. a HygnnMter, aed 
andtiia paUMtion iri a& SqmHmm 



» in ttia biatuT 
, and for which 



VM> 



logeni , --_ .^ 

of that faranoh ol pl^noal eoienaei and 

tha Boyal Soeiefy awaidad him the Bumford 
-dak. In Uarob 1800, ha waa, aftv a gteat daal 
__ oppoaition from the Edinlmigh <^aray, deoted 
ftoEeaor of Matbematioa in the univen^ of B^- 
borgli, and aoon aftar ooMmanoad the [inbuoation o( 
hii OiMrM t^ MaHmtaHei. In IBIO, L. Inrented 

praoeaa of aiti&oial aiui|aIatiaa,jMrfanud 

■iuant in Uia fdlow' 



qMoIfy, he diaoorarad a modo nt frea^ng mm- 

OUT. Id 1819, be waa tcanafwred to the ohair of 

Nafaral Fbilo^by, a podtiw bettir ad^tod to 

paonliar ganin^ and in 18S8 pnUidiad o 

ana of BGrnmU ^ Satmi, Fmmfkf, nei 



.Abrioaoope, tfnmcopa, and Atanometer, and oon* 
toibutad many artidta to Tanons periodicala on 
Haat, Light, Meteorology, the Thaoiy of Compraa* 
aion, Seotiici^, Atanoapbcno Piataoits Aa. Hia 
' t important work waa hia diaoonrae on the Pro- 
,. Ml <tf MaOuaatie^ and Fhyueai Saiaut d urin g 
lAe Ei^UeatA Ctntury, vhioh constitutes the fifth 
iTiwuiUliiiii in the fint Tolume of the Etxefdopadia 
BrUamtiea. 

IiBSLIB, CiiAnui RoBKRT, B. A. Tbia diatin- 
gniabed artiat waa bom in London in 17M. Hii 
pareota wete Americana leaident then at tha time 
ti hia birth ) they went book to Anarioa in 179S; 
taking with them CiiaTlea B«bert aloncwith tlmr 
other children. His fathw died in liU, leaving 
tiie fiunily in atraitenad oiroornataiwea. Tonng Li. 



, Mng L. 

having, from infan^, beau food of drawing, wiabad 
to lie 4 DNDterj but hia Mother net having tha 
meaiM of^pviar him a |iaint(r'i edueation, he waa 
honnd ^ifrentuo to MeHra Bradford and InAaan 
bookaallera aid pBhliahera in Philadelphia. Ha had 
been Oree year* at bia s^ptntieoshipt whan he 
managed to exacnte a diairiag of the pi^alar a«tar, 
Oeoiga Fredeiiok Oook, Tba fiknaaa havii^ b«a& 
prononnoad sxoallent t^anombar of eonn oM aa n n, 
a nbsoriptiao waa raiaed to aaable tba riamg 
aitiat to atady painting two yean in E^nopa. Ha 
" ' ~ ~ 'nmed to Kubud in 1811, and 
todsBt in tha Boyal Aeadeaay. He 

bo han attemptad SDhfaota iniriiat 

is oallad tiw rJaarinal style, tageUur with porfaaita ; 
bnt hy diyaea ha oama to foUow out tiie bent of 
hia genhiBk and torn hia attantian to wcoka in that 
B^la in wUoh be diatingnidted bimaaU—Tia, ganre- 
pMOting of the bi^ieat daaa, IHie fint pKtnn 
^ hro~^* '■- =-' " ""- ™ 



dhy Google 



• Mtj-d^Y in ^ Bdgn of Qaeen Etiabeth' «aanr«d 
hii election m bo Atmodmta ol the Acwdemjr ; uid 
' Suicho FaoEa kad the Duchen,' tainted for Lord 
Eoremonfc, and e^iibited in 1824, nui bmt work (of 
which there ii a repetition among the paintingi < ' 
tite Britiih ichool lieqiieathed t^ Mr Yemon t 
him the n 
: tlie perioc 
hia death, there were fer exhibitioni of tns Ro 



lleiy], < 
After 



this, till near the period of 



Mnci, 



contribate. 



uie worka of nuui7 of tho tnovt DopTUar ftatkon- 
ShakHpeare, Cervmitea, lienge, Mo1ii[«, Additoo, 
Steme, PieldinA and Smollett. Bi« wotki have 
had a great inflitenoe on the "Wf^'t^ tchool ; and 
thoo^ he almoat alirayi eiecntearape ti tiona of his 
piinaipal wi^i — a praolace that geDarally leads to 
deorawa the Tilno of jnotoKa — hia [ootarea bring 
imiwMi— prioea. Oreat power of ezpi«Mion, and ~ 






Li'a potnrea. In the early part 
vuBBT, uiB (lyle may be objected to as defici 
oolonr, and nther dry and hard ; bat the inL__. 
of Newton, hii talented compatriot, led him 
direct hi* attention to the worka of tb 

maaten, and impart greater richoen to 

ing. I^ter in lite, the example of Conatable iualiaad 

hmi to atrive at prodndu 

mrfaoe, in hia {ocAarea. C 

ment of ProUiUcit ol I 

academy «f We«t pMnt, Nrnr ToA; but he gave 



tores. II accepted tbe appoint- 
r <rf Drawiiw at the militaiy 
pMnt, Haw ToA; but he gave 



Profeaaor of Fainting at th« Bojtd 
ramcned in 186L He died in Loadon In May 1669. 
Hii leobuea were pnbliihed in IMC onder the title 
of A Handboot for Totmg Pai»ter» — a vary sound 
and neat neefol work on mA A life of his mtimate 
friend aad bmther-artist, ConstaUe, whoae great 
talent he was the fint fully to ^ipreciate, was 
published by him in 184S, and deservedly tanks 
with the bMt writinn of that class. The Aulo- 
bioffraphieal BtcoOabon* of Ledie, edited by Tom 
Taylor, Eaq. (Load. 18S0J, i* a very interesting 

LESSINO, GoiTHOis Ephkuh, an illnstrion* 
Gorman author and literary refonner, was bom 
Januuy 2% 1729, at Kamen^ in Ssjon Upper 
Lnsatia, where his father waa a clerOTman of the 
highest orthodox Lutheran aohooL ^ter spending 
five years at a school in Meissan, where he worked 
very hard, he proceeded to the miireiiity of Leipzig 
in 1746, with the intention of studying Uie<dcwy. 
Bnt he soon began to occupy himaelf with other 
matteit, made the acquaintance of aotora, oontraoted 
a great f (mdneas for dramatio entertainment^ inA. 
Mt aboat the composition <A dnunatie piecoa and 
Aaaoreontio pOMDB. This aort of life pained his 
aerere reUtivea, lAo pnmonnoed it 'ainfal,' and iat 
a abort time L. went home ; bnt it was hja destiny 
to leviTe the national <diaiBot<r of Oermao litera- 
ture; aod after ons or two Uteraiy ventorea at 
Ldpsig of a trifling charaoter, he prooeeded to 
Btalin in 17W, iriwn ha oommenoed to pnhliah, in 
conjunction wiOi bis ftimd Mylius, a ooartedy, 
entdJed AiM^e aw Sitoris ond AvfMUme det 
"ntalef*, which oofy went tha IsngUi tA taar num- 
ber*. About thia time abo appearad hia oolleotion 
of littto poons, entitled fIsJRigfetbn. After a brief 
leaidenaa at Wittenberg, in oomplianoe, once more, 
with the wishes of hi* parant^ ha returned to Bedin 
in 1703, and in 17B5 prodnoad hi* Jfis* 8«ra 8amp- 



Qermany, which, in spite of , 

baoama van pc^Kilar. L. now formed valniAla lite- 
>«ry frieodoipa with Qleim, Bamlar, Nioolai, Moaca 



last two, he started , 

WinauiA^ftta, the best Iitesary journal d ita nme, 
and still valnaUe for it* clear natural criticiam; 
he also wrote hii fabdH, hia LUtratuTbri^e, and a 
variety of miscdlaneous artddea on literatura and 
Mtiietiea. BotweMi 1760—1760, he lived at Ibaalau 
at sacretaiytoGkinenl TMienzien,gDvemur (tf Sileaia. 
The year after hi* return to Ba£n, he pnbUsbed hia 
maater-jaeoe, theXoowon, periu^ the Aaeat and 
most olaMJcal toeatise on oaAetio criticitinin tho 
Qerman ot any other language. In 1767i WMMrad 
Minna vox Banthdm, » na^nal drama, hirStr lea* 
oelebrated than tb* Laoeam; and in 1768, hi* 
Dramalurffie, a work, which ezeroi*ed a powwfnl 
influence on the oontmvm^ between the Tnaek 
and the *'!"gl'J' atylea ot dramatio art — i. e^ 
between the artificial and the natur^ betwean the 
conventional and the taue, between ahallow and 
pompon* riietorio, and genuioe human emotion. In 
1770, L. wa* i^Hnnted keeper of the WolfonbUttel 
Library. Two years later appau«dhis£nnJveOa&)(ti,- 
and between 1774—1778, the fu-fuued WoffoMUld- 
t(Am Froffmwie ones Ungeaanntcn. Theae Widfen- 
buttel Fragments are now known to have been the 
oompcaition of Bdimams (q. v.), bot Uie odium of 
their autbonhip fell at the time on Lq and he waa 
invtdved in mm^ bitter conboversy. In 1779, he 
poUished his KaOia» der Wtim, a dramatie e^o- 
ntioa of his reli^oua opinion* (hi* friend Hceea 
MimdnliSrthn ia said to have been the ofiginal <A 
Nathan) ; and in 17SD, hU Kitidmng tUt Mmteltm- 
gttAU^l*, a work whi<^ is the ^erm of Heider'* 
and all lata worita on the EduMbon of the Human 
Baoe. He died February 10, 1781. L. i* one of 
the greatest namee in Qennan literature. If his 
works seem hardly equal to hi* fame, it is because 
he sacrifloed hit own gemoi, aa it were, for the sake 
of others. When he appeared, the Uterature of hi* 
oouatry was con-npted and enslaved by ilVench 
influences. The aim of L. was to reinvigorate and 
emancipate the nataonnJ thought and taste; and the 
splendid outburst of national genios that fallowed, 
was in a large measure the remit of hit laboun. 
Compare Ad^ Stahi's 0. B. LatHUj, £Um Ltbat 
vnd Seuu Werkt (2d. edit. Berlin, 1862). 

LBTHAL WHAPON, in Sootch cHminal law, 
means a deadly weapon by which death w*a ranwid, 
at a tword, knif ^ pistol. 



ditpoaal of the property taken), the 
auUioriaing a privateer to make war upon, or seize 
Uie property ot another nation. It moat be granted 
by the Lo^ Commissionen of the Admintlty, or 
1^ the vice-admiral of a distant province. Yeatels 
Bailing under such commissions are commonly 
spoken of as ietten^ marque. Making war without 
letters of marque by a private vessel is [Hracy. 
Lettora ti marque were abolished among European 
nations at the faeaty of Paris in 18S6. 

LBTTBB8, a legal term used in the United 
Kinadcm in combination with other words. Lttten 
^ AdmmMnitim in England aod IrelMid n 



to a jMnon who ^. .._ „ _ 

deceaaed person who hM died intettattk SeeAsiOH- 
iBtHATias, Will, iKmrACi. LtUa- of Attomeg, 
or power of attorney, in English law, is a writing 
or deed authorising an agent (whether he )s a 
— ^o__._j ,tt„„^ ju j,o(j ^ ^ ^^ lawM act 



dhy Google 



I^TTEBS— LETTEBS Ain> AB.TICUIiA.TB SOUKBSl 



in the itead of the party execatinq it. XeOen 
eo^/brM, in Scotch lav, meui k writ unied by the 
■npnme court enforoing a decree of an inferior 
conrt. Letter of emUt ii aa anthori^ from one 
hknker to another to ^7 money to a Uiird penon. 
Leita-a qf aculpation, m Sootch orimlnal law, are 
k irairant obtained by a prisooec to nmunon 
■ iliiilii II on hia behalf at hi> triaL Ltttar qf guar- 
mUee, in Sooted law, meaoB a writing guaranteeing 
kdebtor engagement of another. L^ler of lianix ia 
a deed or initniment eieoated h^ the oreditora of a 
Inder who is insolvent, (pvine hun time to pay, and, 
in the meantime, to carry on lit biuineM nncler BUi^ 
rdDancs. Xeffn-(M£M<a(^inEngIand,)« an order from 
the Lord Cbaacellor to » peer requesting the latter 
to enter an ^ipc«nmce to a lull filed in Chancery 
against auch peer ; in Scotland, the word means any 
written agreement or memoiaadnm relatiTe to some 
bargain aa to mercantile matters, or aa to the sale of 
lanOOT hoosee or the letting of land. Lttia-s patent 
mean a writing d the Qneen, sealed witJt the Great 
Seal of Great SriUin, anthoriung or appointing the 
fatty to iritom it ia addressed to do some sot, or 
exeoate wnne <Moa, as cie*ting a peer; a judge, a 
Qoeoi'tConitMl; also granting a patent right to a 
person who is the first inventor of some new contriv- 
anoe. See Fatkht. Lttlert of requeit, in Eoglisli 
tuilmiiiitli il Uw, mean a writ which commences a 
■ait in the Court of Arches aguost a cler^man, 
instead of proceeding, in the fint instance, la the 
Ccnosiatary Coort. Zettert of mtfe conduct mewi a 
writ, under the great seal, to the subject of a state 
at war with this country, aathonsing and protecting 
■nch subject while d^ing or trsTelling in this 
country, so that neither he nor his goods may be 
seiied, as th^ otherwise might be. 

LETTEBS xifD ARTICULATE BOUNDS. 
Letters are conventional marks or visible signs of 
the elemental somida of spoken language. The 
eadJeat syuibolB of sounds represented stables 
rather than ranple sounds (see AiZHAsn',EiSRO- 
OLTraicB, Chuibi LAKGVAaz). It was only ^wlu- 
ally that syllable* were reduoed to their nltdmate 
elements, and all tJ^beta yet bear marlui of their 
^llabary oririn (see letter K), diiplaying various 
imperfectiont Ixith of excess aad defect. 

Articulate sounds are divided into vowela and 



__„ , and the latter are subdivided 

voicdeM and voosl elements (otherwise called 
* shaipa ' and ' flats ' ], obstructive and oontinnous 
element* (otherwise called 'mutes' and 'semi- 
vowel* '), and liipiids. Many other divisions have 
been {w^wsed, but t^ above classification embraces 
all real varieties. Hm elements are likewise classi- 
lleid socwding to the otvaua which form them, as 
UbUI*, '■"g"*'*. gnttorab, nasals, &b. A physio- 
logical deaoiption ot the articulate souads used in 
•RwgH.Ti apeecn, will shew the neceswirf eitect of a 
peiiect system of letters, and exhibit the short- 
comings of our present alphabet. 

All tiw elements of speech «re susceptible of 
aeparate formation ; and in the following deecriptior 
reference i« always intended to the exact sound c 
each eletnent, and not to the names of the letters. 

Emitted breath mechanically modified forms every 
artscolate sound. The breath is first modified in 
the throaty hj a certun amount of constrictioa 
in the laiynx, wanting which restraint, the air 
would flow out noisdsMf , as in ordinary breatlung. 
M gMhingly, as in righiwj^ The breath ij thus 
economised into a steady stream, and rendered 
aoditde by the degree of rou^uiess or ' asperatii 
it acquires when forced throogh a non-ow aperti 
This 'anieratad' cuneut of air, when arbcidated, 
fonna whispered speech. In pMaing T 
laiynx, the breath is further acted 



oppomng ligament* of tile glottis (the aperture of 
the larynx), and sonorous voice is produced. The 
vocalised or asperated breath receives vowel and 
articulate modihcation in its passage through the 
mouth. When the mouth is sofGcdeiitly open to 
allow the breath to flow without obstraction or oral 
asperation, the air is moulded into the various 
qiuJities of nowel-soand ; and when the channel 
of the mouth is obstructed, or narrowed so much 
*■ to oanse a degree of asperation of the breath 
between the tongue and the palate, the lips, kc, 
coruDDonl-sonnd* are raoduced. 

^nie toiper part of the month i* an immovable 
arch : all variation* in the ihape of the oral passage 
are consequently effected by the tonene and t£e 
lips. [A nasal varie^ of vowel-soui^ occurs in 
frenoh — represented by n after the vowel-letter*. 
These sounds are formed by depressing the soft 
palate, which otherwise covers the inner end of the 
nostrilB, and aUowing part of the breath to pass 
through the nose, wMle the remainder ia modified 
in the nsiial way.] 

Voted*. — When the tongue is raised in !b greatest 
convexity toward* the roof of the month, but 
without being so close aa to rooghen or asperate 
the breath, the reeullJiig vowel quuitf is that beard 
in the word ed; and progressively less degrees of 
elevation produce a series of lingual vowels, of 
which Ah is the most flattened— the lips being 
equally expanded throughout the series, to allow 
the breath to escape without labial modification. 

When the aperture of the lips is cootracted in 



the greatest d^ree short of asperating the breath, 

the resulting vowel -quality is that hoard i- ■" ^ 

ooze / and pn^ressively leas degreea 



traction form "a seriee of labiaT vowels, of which 
Aw is the most open — the tongue being retracted 
throughout the series, to direct the breath without 
lioguSmodiJlcBtion forward against the lips, 

A. third seriel of vowela is formed by combining 
elevated pcations of the tongue and contracted 
podtionB of the Upe, or retracted position* of the 
tODgne, and expanded positions of the lips. Of this 
labio-lingnal series, the German a is the most con- 
tracted, and the English sound heard in the word 
err the most open. 

The following table shews the principal vowels of 
each class : 

OhM, . . . «lO 



The jMMsible modifications of the oral ehaimel 
are miliii*. and mitraceably minute, as are the 
shade* ot vowel-qoality heard in dialects, and 
among individual speakers. In En^^ish, there are 
altogether tiUrtom established varietaes, a« heard in 
the words td, iU, <Ue, di, an, aik, aX, err, igi, ali, 
ore, old, otae, BeaLdes these, which a perfect 
alphabet must represent, we have the diphthougsl , 
sounds heard in the word* itle, ovi, oU, and Uie 
asperated compound yoo — the sound of the letter ti 
in use — which is oftoi, but erroneously, tupposed 
to be a diphthonW vowel 

The Aapirale J?.— The latter H (see AsPOUtt) 
represents an expulsive breathing, modified by 
the form of the vocal element which follows it 
— sa in he, iay, high, hoc, ix., in which the H will 
be observed to have the quality of i, d, f, 0, &&, but 
without the loryngal contraction, and consequent 
asperation of the breatii, which forms a whispered 

OnMonani*— When the tongue is raised convexly 
ogiuust the hack of the palatal arch so as to stop the 
bnalli, the aepaiation of the tongue from the root 



«i),Google 



LETTERS AND AUTlCUlATE 80UMM. 



or back of the month U accompsidBd by s perciunvs 
effect, whicb It reprewnted fn the TJ^igi"" klphsbet 
bj C, K, and Q, wtd^r G whrai the obBtruoted 
bra&ui ia VooaliMd. Wtkila the tongoe ia in this 
oba Uu i iUv i ) poailioii, if the wift pakte be de^iMMd 
so as to nneover the mcer end of the noibila, the 
breaUi viU pua throng tlia noae. Thia, with 
ToctJiaed breath, is the lormstion of the clement 
«d in Kn g lii ih , for lack of mi alphibetia 



fled hy the point at which the tongae learea the 
palate before different vowela, as in the words bey 
and caw; the canaonsnt of the latter word being 
atmck from the soft pal&te, and that of the fOTtnsr 
word farther forwaitl, from the hard pftlate. A 
peculiar AoAlicdim of prononoiatioit It dtnived from 
the sabatitddMi of the anterior tor the poaterior 
formation of E— G) in certain words, at hud, card, 
0Mt, yuord, girl, to.] 

When the foro-mrt of tlie tongoe is raised to 
front of th« pslMe^ so aa to ttop the breatb, the 



iqiaiatdon of the tongae ia aoeompamed hy tbe 
percDStdre effect wbioh is represented b; T, sod by 
I> when the DbetroDted breath it Tocuised The 



^ of the end of the noctrils while the 
tongue it m Uiit obttructivB poeition pTvdacM, with 
vocalised bnikth, the tonnd represented by "S. 

When the lips are brought in contoot (the lower 
'■- ~'-^ — to join the — — 



ibstmoted lx«ath ia vocalised. The nncoTering 
oi -Ene nan* while the lipa are in contact, produced 
with vDoaliaed InvKth, the aonnd lepresented by U. 

or non-obstiiMtiTO olaaa; the organa of utioolation 
bdng BO placed aa merel^ to nurcfw tlie apertorea, 
centnl or latenJ, throng whieh the breath iasnea 
with a d^iee of hiacing or aqieration. 

Hie elevation of the base of the buune to 
leave a narrow aperture between its centre and the 
back-part of the palate, fbtmt, with vocaliaed breath, 
Uie aonnd of Y initial aa in ya The sound of y 
lesamlile* that of the vowel f, but with the con- 
tracted ^otare and recutting oral asperation of the 
breath eaaeotial to a contonant. The same pomtdon 
with voiceUM breath forms the German cA as in tcA 
— an dement which it heard in tJjngi"*' aa the aound 
olH before O, as in hta, fTheScotehgattnral heard 
in IdcA difliKt from this Milv in the more retracted 
pootiDm of the tongoe, whitti ia apmoumatsd to ' 
soft instaad of the hard palate. The tune posit 
with vocalised breath prodncea the toft P^fjt 
btnr. The approximatton of the ooncave root of the 



le middle of the ttmgne towards 
tal arch, with a narrow central 

, o li, prodncea tlie dement wUofa, 

lor lack of an ali^befio character, it repreeented 

b^ tho dijnw& Sh: and the same pomtion forms, 

with TOoabealirMQi, the common element heard in 

to., bat which haa no appropriate 



for lat^ ( 



literal nm 



litend lymbol in EngKdi. 

The a pp ro xim ation of Uie flattened pcdnt of the 
tongoe to the front of the month, so aa to leave a 
narrow oentnl pasMgs bstwMn ths tongoe Mtd the 
upper Run, fomu the loimd representedby 8 ; and 
by Z Aen the bmath it vooaliaed. 

nt* elevation of the Upoi the tongae towaidi the 
rim of tb* palatal arch aratet a de^ee of vibration 
of tha edce ol the tongoe, and oonseqnent aspera- 
tion <d we breath, proportkmed to tke degree of 
•levation, which ia the Bluish fonnd of tiu Irtter B. 



[R final, or before a consonant, hal 
atperatlon. bnt haa almost the pate i 
of a vow^^oa in err, earn, kc Tht roaghlf trilled 
Scotch or BMnith R Is formed by the qtdvertng of 
tite whole ior»'pait of the tongne at it ia l£[1y 
apranudmated to the pslste.] 

The approidmatlou ot the iowet to the upper lip, 
to aa to Ieav9 a oentoal aperture for the breath, pro- 
dncei, with vocalised brcAth, the sound of W initial, 
at in tDOO. ^ta sound of «> resemblea that of the 
vowel oo, but with a more oontiscted aperture^ 
The same position, with voiceless breath, formt the 
element represented, for lack of an alpbabetio 
character, by the digraph WK 

The remaining vsnetiea of Endlsh artieolate 
sounds are formed by forcing the breath tlmnigh 
laterfii apertures, instead of one central aperture. 

When the fore-part of the tongue it spread ag^nst 
the front ot the palate, and vocalised breath passes 
laterally over the middle of the toutfue, the sound of 
Lis heard. {Thesamepodtioiioftite tongae form^ 
with voiealeeB breath, the sonnd of £J & Welsh. 
The :E^iglith L, aa heaid before fl (=• yoo) Is modified 
by convezi^ M tlie baek-part <rf Uia tongae towards 
its position for T.fonningtiie sound wliudiia repra- 
tented in Smart's Dictionary by L', as in tvre, pro- 
nounced toor. A peculiar Qoelio variety of L i> 
formed by raimng the back-part of the tongae to the 
soft paUte, and passing the voice ktetnlly over the 
root ot the tongoe.] 

When tbe tip of the tongue it applied to the tipper 
teeth (or the gum), and the breatn it enutted later- 
ally over the point of the tfmgua, the sonnd of the 



elanenta ia repreaented in 



ir alphabet. 



edffe of the Dpps teeth, aod the brcatii . 

lateraUy between the teeth and the lip, the sound 
repreeented by F is prodnoed ; and, wttji vocalised 
braatfa, the aonnd of V. 

LiqM*. — The voice ia so litUe intetoepted in 
paaeinc through tte noetrila (fonnins m, m, ^ "?)• 
and throng the wide q)ertnrea rA ii, and also of 
R when not initdal in a syllaUe, that tbe aonnd 
hat almost the pure sononmsneaa of a vowel ; and 
theee elementi have noeived tbe name of Lfqoidt, 
to dfflienate their property of ayllabicaUj omnUn- 
ingwit£ voiceleat contonanta— eeeming to Sow bito 
and to be absorbed by tbem, and loidag modi of 
tlieir natural quantity at vocal Boundt ; aa in Uaitp, 
■ nm, too, tamytaUk, M <~ fajrfc), fte. t mm, ipot, 

iPfl^.Hm, FeUt, MA, te. ; hark, hwt, harp. 
■crXeortA, kanft, kcnw, fto. The cbatactoriilie cdM 
of tJie Liquidt inll be bestferosired by < 



■tperosire 
d Thamm, 



I Liquidt 1 

dK and eS^ curse and curt— in which the nmnal 
influenoe of vooal oonsonanta on subseqnent elementa 
it manifested in the vocalising of the sibilant in tlte 
second word of each pair. 

From this review ot the physiologieal varieties of 
artjcalate tonadi, it will be evident &t our alphabet 
of 26 letters it very imperfect, both 1^ tednadanoy 
(].} The same aounds ai* rmn- 
thADDueletta; aa 0, K, and Q ; C 
and S i O and J. (2.) The same lettw wyr ew sita 
more than one sonnd; as C, whieh ia aometimse 
K, and aometJmM 8; G, iwoh is souetimsa the 
vocalised form of K, aad sometimes J; N, iritioh 
lea N, and sometimea tt^; & wUdi it 
8, and sometimea Z; and T, whiA it 
a consonant (when initial), and aomciimee 
vowel, sounded like the letter I. (3.) Sinfde letten 
are naad to represent articulate compoonda ; as 
and J, which are sounded diA [the vmoeleas form 
of J is re presen ted by e^ as in mm-] ; U, lAieh it 



abvGoogle 



LBTTER-TOOD— UTTUCE, 



tonnded feo; ud X, wbich la aoanieA b, 

■oitMtimM gB, (4.) The ftlidubet contaisi no dhar- 
acteta for nz of our undoubted cotucmant slemenfai 



-vU, Vh, Th(m}, Th(en), Sb, Zb, fTg. (S.) Each 
TDwal-Ietter repreKmii man^ Boundi ; and the lack 

of aereii chancten to denote tiie 

vowd-Mond* over the nombat of our Towel-letten, 
!■ Mppliad by abont Aiir oonbinationa of two 
or of^ thna letten, so tbii tlte .original pbcmetio 
chanuter <rf the alphabet is ahnort entirely lott in 
the eoDfoMoa of our ortliogn^;r- 



1 braij 



■kcMm <jt jpeeeh t vowda giva dsdnite ^pe 
itidindiujity to wtvda. 3%h Oe ooaMoanti iprl 
amMtMta tha nmnnMi ikabtoi of aaoli diTene 

, «nri^ iRocii noMTe tiieir dia- 
toMt emflnratiiiD tikd fli ' 
1>^ i£di eonr flw 



fibw ttw Bore (laUe dMoento o( imda. and their 
intetelungN in Um oBnwpoDdiDa mcda of allied 
tounn an fonnd t» Mlow eec&in gsneral lawi 

- - - - ,|ggj^ ^ J, 




»-partB of the tongne and palate 
Bnt iTbile iH the >oim^ of each 



Sue alao called ijoiloit) j and in 
■parte of the toi 
are en^loTed. Bnt iThile all the 

rlaiM hart flmB " " '" - 

pair dIffHa * 

{q.T.)7ae 



called JfHte 
J open spertnrea, 

it in 'efect— othenme called 

The diflb:«nce ^ao between ttie 
■ennl pair* ia of the lame Idnd 
aroa^wat: a dift^ &om & as /does fromi^ort 
b«m (L or A from til. 

In Hi SaUi'i Pha for PhtmiOe SptUing, and Ur 
UelviSe Bell'* PHncfolu c^ Spetch, fiie student 
will find a complete development of the theoiT <A. 
Articnlate Sonnda. Variona attempta haTB been 
nade to introduce a aystem of phonotjpea, in which 



•ad Bound ahould be'repreaetited b; one invariable 
chaiacter. lTDOe of the achemea come* near in anc- 
CM« to the Bjaleiu of Hfitfe SpwA {q. v.) pubHahed 
bjr Mr HdviDo Bell lome yean aga 

IiBTTEn-WOOD, <Me of tiia moat bejuitifnl 
Hidaatioaia of tine vagataUa kingdom; it ia the 
TiiMil ■mill ct % ta«e, Itrnnd aparingly in the foreata 
el Bntuh Qniana, the PiratiMra Chuaaamt of 
AMtt, and tha Brttlmum JutUii of Poeppig, 



.,, It if hMrf 

■ouid at r final aftw ■ eonaaBant, M In tkt^n; aad 
fai ftealcA, aa a nMlta** for lAr, aa In ttna, 

t na 'akaip' faiBB of the MMla an 1b Oonaluit naa 
aa IntajaaWwal KmOa, aa la AmtfA/ (pnnkouuiad 
•km/), '«/ (anraariva id aoaetiBg), and *mii»/ need 
aa an aOimativT hi Saotiand. 



belon^g to the BN«d-&uit family {Arloearpaeea). 



wood (alburnum) are white and bard ; the central 
portion, or heart-wood, which rarely eioeeda 7 inchea 
m thickneaa, is extremely hard and heavy, and ia of 
a rioh dark-brown colour, moat beantifnUy mottled 
with very deep brown, dmoat Uadi apo^ arranged 



with mneh ^eater 



. peater rwalarity 
mar^inga in wood, i 



than u uanally the 

-" ■ alight 

blaok- 

letter printing. Ita aearoitiy and Talne make it an 
article of rare and limited appUcatioo. It ia uaed 
only in thla country for fine veneer and inlaying 
wcA, and In Oniana for ainall artidea of oabmet- 
work. The nativea make bowa of atate of it, bnt 
are aaid to pnfer a variety which ia not mottied. 

SB OAGHET, Out name nvan to 
. iaaoed by the 
king^ of ftanoe betoe the Kevolatian. AH royal 

' ittera (Mre* r^ow' '"^ 

r Idtnt de atuhet. 
y the kin^ a 
bad the great I 
were aU ordinanoea, graota ot privilege^ tm. All 
letteia-patant w«n regiataced, <w Mterintitd, by the 
narUamentft Bat tiuae ehe^ on arbitrary powar 
did not eziat with lagard to lettna da oaohe^ alao 

adMfrin<(Mat,<xaealadlett '^'^ ' " ' 

^ and aealed iriUt the Ud^ 1 
by whldi the nyil plaaanra v 
indMdnala ct to conwatioafl, 
tioa of jnitiaa waa cnm inteifared wiA. The naa 
at lattaa da eadwt became mnch more fnqpcot 
after the aooMakn d Lmila XIT. than U had been 
bc&m, and ft waa vny oomnKin for paiaona to be 
amated upon andi waRant, and ooofinad in tha 
" "He (q. T.)i or aome othar alata priaon ; where 
al ami lamamad for a Tety umg (ime^ and 
foe lifc^ aithar baea«Me it waa ao iotaBded, or, 
!iar oaaea, beoanaa thay ware forgotten. The 
lieatenant-ganeral of the pdioe kept {btma of 
lettrea da oadiet raady, in whioli it waa only 
... I ._i .1 ^ yj^ individual to 



a made known to 




LVmjOE {Laehua), „ , 

ing to the natural order CompoMa, anb-otdet 
' irooMi, haviut amall flowaia with Imbrioated 
■MS, and all the eoroUaa lignlate, flaUy com- 
proaaad fmit, with a thread-like beak, and thread- 
tike^ aoft, damdnona pupnar— Hie Gakdin L 
(£. Miiudi ia auppoaad to be a native of the £aat 
Indiaa, bnt ia not known to eziat anyiAere in • 
wild atat^ and from ronote antiqoi^ haa bean 
cultivated in Europe aa an esculent, and partionlariy 
aa a aalad. It has a le^ item, oblong leavea, a 
apreadiiu flat-topped panide, lomewhat reaemblins 
a corrmb, with yellow flowera, and a fruit without 
margin. It ia now generally cultivated in all parta 
of the world where the climate admitd of it ; and 
there are miiny varietiea, all of which may, however, 
be r^srded as aub-varietiea of the COfs L. and the 
OUBAQK L,, the former baring Xbe leavea more 
oblong and upright, requiring v> be tied together 
for blanching — the latter with rounder leavee, which 
tpread out nearer the CTvnncL and attervsirla 6oll 
or roll together into a head like a amall cabbage. 
The L I* easy of digeation, gently laxative, 
and moderately nutritiouB, and ia generally eaten 
aw with vibesat and oil, more rarely aa a boiled 
.'eeetaMe. ^I%e white, and aomawhat narcotio 
milky juice of thla plant ia Inspiaaated, and uaed 
under the name of Laetaeartim (q. v.), or Tkridaet, 



dbyGoogle 



LECOADIA— LEDTSlSrf. 



M ftn anodyne, wdstiVB, opiate medioiae. -The beat 
and most useful kind of thii jnk« ia obtained by 
making indnona in the floverins atrana, and 
•lloving th« joioe whklt flows to d^ qpon them, 
Lettncoi Me ■own in ^gudem from time to time, 
that thev nuy be obtaued in good condition dniing 
the lAole anmmo?. In mild winten, th^ may be 
kept ready for planting ont in ipring. — The other 
apeciea of thia genna exhibit nothinoof the bland 
quality of the garden lettnca— ?rha StbohO' 
SCXNTED li, {L, nrota) ia distingniahed bj the 
prickly keel of the leaTea, and by a black, amooth 
•oed, with a ntther browl margin. It ia foond in 
•ome parts of Britain. Zactuoaruon ia pnipared 
fnon ita frath-gathered leavea, in the ^weiing 
•eaaoD. The leave* have a ateong and nanaeoua, 
narcotde and opium-like imelL — L. ptrtmtu adorns 
with beantifnl Dine flowers the atony deolivities of 
monntaiiks and clefta <d rocks in some parts of Ger- 
many, as in the Haiz, to., bnt is not a n~^' — 
of Kitain, which, however, pnrmmira one or 
other species in qualitaes resembling £1. ttrota. 
IiEnCA'DIA, the ancieat name id Saku UAtrKA 

(q. v.). 

LEn'OHTBNBERO. See BurHARMAiB. 

LETTOIITE (derived from the Greek wrd leueot, 
white) belongs to the class of bodies to which 
chemists now apply the term amido-acids, and 
which are inbstuices in which one eqoivtjent of 
tba hydrogen of the radicle of an acid is replaced 
by one equivalent of amidogen (NH,), The 
empirieal formnla for leucine ia C,,H,. NO,, while 
that of osproio acid (whoae amido-acid it is snp- 
poaed to be) is 0,,H,,Oi. It is obvious that if for 
one of tluae twelve equivalent* <rf hydrogen 

equivalent of amidogsi is snlNtitntecL the 1 

fcnmula bec<nne* C„H, ,( NH*) O4, wluch oonWnt 
the aaine eqnmkuti as the fonnola 0,,H,,NOi, 
but indicatM mca« closely their mode of gronpi 

Leucine is of great importanoa in j^yiiola^ .... 
chemistry, being a constituent of most of "the 
glandular jnioea of the body. Considering the 
•onrces fnun which it is obtamed artificially, there 
can be no donbt that the leucine found in the body 
ii one of the nnmeroos products of the regressive 
metamorphosis of the nitrogenous tisanea. 
^ LEUCI'PPna, the founder of the Atomistio 
" ' 'of Qreciatt philoaophy, and foteranner of 



was present in sixteen, enlargement of liie liver 
in thirteen, and enloraement ol the lymphatics 
in eleven instances. Hence, tumefaction of the 
abdomen is one of the most prominent symptoms^ 



him, ndtlier liie time nor Sis place of his birtlil 
nor the circumstances of hia life. 

LBUOI'SOUB, a genus of frMh-watn fishes, of 
the family CypTinida, containing a great number of 
species, amooe which are the Roach, Ide, Dace, 
Graining, Chub, Red-eye, Minnow, fto. There are 
no barbela The anal and dorsal fins are destitute 
of strong rays. 

LHUCOCYTHElaiA (derived from the Greek 
words leucM, white, alot, a call, and homo, blood) 
IS a disease in which the number of white corpuscles 
in the blood appears to be treatly increased, while 
there is a simultaneous dimination of Uie red 
oorpusoles. The disease was noticed almost at 
the same tune (in IBBO) by Bcsinett of Edinbnirfi 
and Virehow of Wttnbuiif; ; the former giving it £e 
n^me standing at the begioning of the article, while 
the latter gave it the leas expresmve name of 
* ' ■ ir Ifite Blood. 



of blood is sufficient to determine the natnre 01 
the disease. The eausea of leuoooythnnia m« 
unknown j and although the most vaned remedies 
have been tried, the disease is almost iaVBriatdy 
fatoL 

LBtJ'OOI^ LBUCOLINB, or QUINOLIHB 
(C,,HrN], i« one ol the oompounds obtained by 
the distillation of coal-tar. It is alao obtained l^ 
the distillatioD of quinine, cinchonin^ or •tiyohnine 
with potssh. It is a colouriess and sbondy refract- 



ing (nl, which boiU at about 460*, haa a spacifie 
gnvity of 1061, ia inaohiUe in water, ia siJuUe in 
alooluu and ethsr, and nentz^lises acids, forming 
dTstalliaable salts with them. On boiling two parte 
of leaoc^ with three of iodide of amyl, crystals ore 
obtained, whioh, when dissolved in water, treated 
with an exoess of ammonia, and bcsled £ar some 
time, yield a reaiiKnui substance, which is readily 
Bcdnble in alcdhd, and furnishes a splendid blue 

LEUCO'MA (derived from the Greek word 
teucoa, white) is the term applied to a white vguici^ 
of the oornea— the tnuspatent front of the Eye 
(q. v.). It is the result of acute inflammation, 
giving rise to the deposition of coagolable lymph <m 
the surface, or between the layen of the cornea. 
It is sometime* re-absorbed on "~ 



implications; of whitm the 



t was found that enlargemdit of ^^f* spleen 



TjETT'CTBA, anciently, a village of BcMitia, in 
Ireece, famous for the great ^ctory which the 
Thebaos under Epaminoadas (q. v.) here won over 
the Bpartan king Cleombratus (371 B.a), in oonse- 
ince of which tiie influence exercised by Sparta 
centuries over the whole of Greeoe was broken 
for ever. 

LKUK, a small town (pop. about 600) in the 

nton of Valais, Switzerland, on the right bank ut 
the Rhone, 16 mUee above Sion. It is noted in aaso- 
oiation with the BaOu of Leuk, situated S mile* 
northward at the head of the valley of the Dala and 
the foot of the ascent over the Gemmi pass. At 
this place, which is 4500 feet above the sea, there is 
a iuunlet of 300 inhabitants, and several lod^ng. 
hoosee and hotels for the accommodatioD of pati^Ms 
and travelleis. The springs have a high temperature 
(120' F.), are slightly sa£ne, chaly^te, and snl. 
|)hureonB, and are used both for dnnking and bath- 
ing They are chiefly useful in diseases of the ekin; 
and one peculiarity is the loigth irf time the patients 
remain in the bat£s— as long as Shout* aday. For 
this purpose there are several apartmenta of 20 feet 
square, in which as maoy as 10 or 20 persons of both 
sexes, olad in long wooUen dresses, baUie in common ; 
sitting up to their necks in water, they bwiile the 
time with conversation, cheel, reading the news- 
papers, ha. There appears to have be^ a bathing 
es^blishment here as early as the 12th century. 

LETTTHEN, a village of Prussia, in Lower Silesia, 
9 milea west of Breslan. Pop. 8M. It is celebtsted 
for the victory won ther& 6th December 1TG7, by 
Frederick the Great, wi& 33,000 men, over the 
Anstiuuis undo- Prinoe Charlsa of Loiraine at Uie 
head of 02,000. I^ Amtriaas kst 7000 killed and 
wounded, 21,000 prisonem, and 134 piece* of artil- 
leiy ; the Pnwnsiis only 3000 killed and wounded. 
The renitt of this viotoiy was the reeonqoest of tlw 
greater part tA Silesia by the Praseians. 



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LBTAST— I^TEB. 



UXYAfST, TBI— bom the lUliftn Jl Laatite, 
the Orinl, or RM^, that is, ths Eist — m name 
cuplonMl throDghoot the vhols of fiuTopa to desig- 
nata Vba easteni pMii of tlie Heditenrnncan Saa and 
■dfawnt ooantrica. Id a wider aeiiaB, it ii ap^iad 
to all tbe regiona Mrtwaid from Italy, aa far aa the 
Ei^lmites aod the Nile ; bat mora generally ia naad 
in a more natlieted •enae, ai inolodiug iHkly the 
ooaata tA Ana Minor, Syria, and Egypt. 

LKVAITT AND OOUOHANT, a phiaae in 
RigKA Imw uiplied to cattl« whleb hare itntyed 
into ttBoth«r*s lud^ aikd luTe been to long then 
thai they have lain down and alept there, 

LHYAIU FA'CIAB, wxir of, in Enoliah Law, 
■I a writ of execution inned npon a jui^ment, by 
which the jodgment orsditor takei the real and 
' — ' Mtate, tneh as landa, hoiUM, fmnitare. 






ita., of hk debtor to miutf hi« debt. Tha mode by 
wMoh. thk wa« dwM waa by the ahmiff drawing 
Hn recta and paying the creditor. The wnt » 
now waetioally nj — 

(q.' T.) aa n^irda 

\q. T.) at ragaMt pertonal eetata 

XiWjiK, the atate ceremonial of the aoreiagn 
ncMTing -riaite from thoae inbjecta wboaa poaititm 
cntillaa tl^ to that honour. By thenar of the 
oonrt erf Oraat Britain, a kiTee diSera from a draw- 
ing-room in this reipect, that gentlemen only an 
proaent [eioapting the chief ladica of the oonrt), 
irikila at a diawing-TOom both ladiea and gentlemen 
ai>pear. Tbe name i* owing to inch receptiona being 

hoar of ring (Fr. Iwa^. 

UtVklt, iiie French name for an Knbanlcment 

LEVEIj AMD LETELLINa. Lerel ia * term 
wipf&tA to nirfacea that are parallel to tiiat of atUl 
water, or peipendionlar to the direction of tlie 
plwnb-line; it ia also ^iplied to the inatnunent 
emptoyed )■ determining the amount of viuiution 
fraoi periect Icrelneaa. Xhe iiutrament ii a cylin- 
drical ^aaa tabe very ilightly convex on ona ride, 
and ao nearly filled with -water, or, what ia better, 
with alccM, that only a •mall bnbble of air renuuna 
iuide. Tt» leral ia thm mounted on a tbrea or 
four I«gged etand, with ila convex aide upwarda, 
and by meana U a pivot and elevating acrewa, ia 
made capabla of aaanming any leqniied paation. 
If the urel be propeily conabncted, the bubble 
ahoold lia emcOig in the "'^i'^l'' of the tnbe when 
tka inabnment ia pcoperiy adjuatad, and, at t^ 
aams time, the line of mi^t of toe telcaoope attadied 
to the lord ahotdd be accurately parallel to the 
•nrfaca of itill watar. In oidmary levels thia 
firat conditkHi ia aeld^nn aeen, and, inatead, two 
laik the podtiau 




tie of eonaiderable length to iunre t 
larmier requina two aaaatante, each 



a pole &:cm 10 to 14 feet high, and graduated to 
feet and inchea, or feet and tentha of feet If he 
wiabea to measure the height of A above B, he 
may do this by beginning other at A or B. Let 
t^_latter be &e ease, than one aaaistant ia ^daoad 
, bidding hia pole upright : the other u aent 
lid to <whidi must be below the lev^ of the 
tM> of the pole at B) ; Vb»waiw«jor,iiboi^MOttHm- 
atlf between them, teadt oft the hei^lA, which he 
pnta down in tlie baek-aitdit column of hia book, and 



hia ■■ittant at B then take np i 
lattw at D : the baok-aight Ce and the front-n^t 
Dm an read ol^ and the piootaa is repeated till one 
c( tbo aaaiatanta reachea A. The axoeaa lA the lum 



the hoght oTA above B. A little conaideration 
will ahew that tiiia method can only bold bnie when 

"--' on a amall aoalet and conaequently in 

surveys, the level (aa found by theabove- 

deaoribed method) reqoires to be lednoed by an 
diowanoe for the earth ■ cnrvatnia 

TXYES, Loch, a beautifal dieet of water, of an 
o^ form, in the east of Einroaa-ahire, Scotland, 
measuring between 10 aod It miles in circnit, and 
dotted bu« and thoe with amall ialsnds, the chief 
of which are, St Serf a Inch, at the east end, 80 
in extent, with the Temains of a religions 



on wMch atand the ruins of Loch Leven Castle. 
The loch is anpplied by leveiat snull streams, 
and empties itscdi by the Levcnl into the Firth of 
Forth. It hM long been celebrated for the qnan- 
tity and qoality of its trout, «bicb an of excdlent 
flavour, and BTerage about a pound in weight, 
although some are laniid of 4, S, and even 10 Iba. 
lUe and perch also occur ; a pike was caught in 
ISt6 weighing 29 Iba. The rich oolour of the Loch 
U trout ia due to the abnndance of a certain kind 
(rf Crustacea opm which tbsy feed. Loch Leven 
Castle ia oonnected with ssvsnl eventa in Scottish 
history, the most noted being the impnsonmeot 
of Qneen Hary in June IH7. Hera she waa forced 
to aign her abdicalaon <rf tile throne; and, aft« 
one unancceaaful attenqit, succeeded, by the aid of 
George Douglas, the governoi's brother, and of Willie 
Doaria& 'afoundliBg,' soiqKsed to be a relative of 
the S^y, in effeoting her eacape (2d May 166S). 

LETEK, Lock, an arm of the sea, or nther of 
Loch Linuhe (q. v.], on the west ooaet of Sootiand, 
between Argyle and Inverness, ia about 11 milee in 
length by, on an average, leu than one mile in 
bnaulth, and ia nmarkAle for the wildneas and 
—fjigig^ (J- ■■ "^ — -'■ ■■■ J ■- 

Qua loch b 

LBVEK, the meat rimple and 
at the aame time, moat important 
meijianioil powers, conaiats <rf an ix. . 
atrught or bent, as the case may be — annionea m 
some point of ita length on a pup which is called 
tiaafiS^vitt, and having the uv^Af to be moved and 
the potBtr to move it apiilisd at other two poinU. 
In VM aooompanyiug iliastr«tion (fig. 1, a), AB ia 

the lever, F the ful- ,,,,^^_.— - 

arum, A and B the u tI\ "if 

points (rfappHoation F I 

S P anj W, the 0' 'D 

power (or preasnre) Fig. 1, a. 

and weight respec- 
tively. If the arms AF and 2F be equal, the power 

Pandthewe' '"" 

equilibrium; 



1 inflexible rod— 



iiiMbyGoogle 



Bqiiilibriom, tkt power P mnat ba ItM 

weight W, and nee wnd; if AF be donble the 
leucth oE BF, then P, to pnidnce eqtiiljbrinm, mnrt 
be half ol W ; and, generally, ai w ahewn in tiis 
elementary tnatiMB on medkauioa, Ua potoer and 
weishl ore In IA< tevrw raHo ^ tMr dittanat Jrom 
OMjklentn. Thia ii equally tffle for itraight or 
bent leren; but (Sg. 1, h), the distance of Uie 



ernm epon the dinotionB of tbe power and wiaglit. 
Thii pnndple hold* good, whateret be Om Klatire 
poeitionB of the power, weight, and tolcnun t and m 
there can be three different arraiu«meiita <A thcM, 
we UtuB obbun what are called *t&e thiee kindi of 
leven.' Tltefint kind (Bg. 2) it when the folcnun 
ia placed between the power and the weight ; the 
Balance (q. r.], apade (when o«ed for raiaiiig earth), 
Mo-iaw, so., are examidea of thii ; and teuBom and 



r 



T 



7ig.X 



II»3. 



pinoBi an example* of doDbla-laTei* of the lame 
kind, hertm of At laeond Und (flg. 2) are thcM 
in whioh th« wei^it ia betweaa the power and 
folonun; azam^ea of thia are the orowbar, when 
mad for poahing wei^ta forward, the oar — the 
water bmog kha fnlornm, and the row-lock the 
point at applioation of tJia weight — and the wheel- 
uamw ; umI of donble-laren <n thia kind we have 
nnt-crackera aa an axaapla. In leven of At 
Hard bit»d (Gg. 4), the 
power 18 between the 
weight Bad the ful- 
onun. Fiahing-roda,iriiifa, 
^ nmbrellaa, and moat m- 
-Vn alnuneDti oaed ^th the 
hand >Jon^ are lever* of 
the third kind, and aheara. 



r 



he power 
imgUia of 



claia. It ia evident tha^ 

I 4. to prodnoe equilibrium in 

leTeiH of the firat kind, 

may, according to the ratio ol the 

the aim, be offer greater or lesi thui 



the third kiitd, alwayt greater. Thit 
ia eipreaod in technical phraae by aayiiu; thai Ute 
firat kind of lever dvea a mt^Mileat aaponlaift or 
ditad»antage (aee Iuchahioal Powkrb), the Ncond 
■Iwaya gives a mechanical advantage, and the third 
alwaya a mechanical diaad' — ' — ' "' '■'"" 



aecond kind, having the 
hen woAed by 
the firit kiii4 



tage, a 



becaiiae in the o: 



he uaes hit muacnlar form aa the power, 
other caae only hit weigbt. Leven of the third 
kind an tued when velocity, or a large extent of 
motion, ia leqniivd at the eipenae of power, and 
we conieqnentlf flttd thii form mnoh naed in the 



atmotoM of the Umba of animala. Hie atmotnra 
of the human arm (fig. 6) ia a verv good examiJa 
of thia ; the fajcrum it the aocket (U) U the elbow- 
Joint^ the power it the atrong mnacia (the Napi) 



which paaaea down the front of the hvTTienu, and b 
attaohed, at A, to the radiia (aee Aru) ; the weight 
is the weight of the forearm, together with aay- 
thing held m the hand, the two brans auppoaed to 
be combined into me weight aotdcg at B. By thia 
amnsement, a large extent of motion it gained, by 
a diant contraction or extenaioa of the mttaole. 

When a large mechanical advantage ia required, 
tbia may be obtuoed, without an tUOTdinate length- 
ening Ot the lever, ir meaoa of a cotnUnatimt of 
them (a* in fig. 6). Here tbe leven have their arraa 
in the ratio of 3 to 1, and a Utile connderation will 
make it plain that a power (P) of 1 lb. will balance 

g. ff. J_ 



^ 



a weight of 37 lb*. | but in thit inatance tiia 
partiaular defeat ol the lever aa a meohanical 
power ahewa Itaelt pttsninently g for if the wwf[ht 
haa to be lifted two indica, iba power reqnirea 
to be dmrened (SxST or) M inchea; and aa the 
extent ol aweep ci tba power cannot be larget; 
inareaaed witboiil iDaonvcaJenee, Uie advantages of 
thia ma^una are ^■"fl''»i< within narrow limita. 

IiBTBR, Obaslh^ Iriah novaliat, waa bom in 
Dnblin, Slat Anguat 1806. Ha wm adacated for the 
medioal profeaaiaa, atodying Btet at IVinih Collesi^ 
and afterwarda oo the oontinent. After ukiafj^Aia 
degree at OOttingen, he waa attached |>a ph^ctan) 
to the legation at Brawala, and, on hu resignation 
of that pott, beoamo editor of the Dublin Umeertilg 
Magraine. He opened hia bnlliant literary career 
by Harry Lorrrqwr; alter which he pnUiahed a 
whole Ubnuy oF fiction, the larger proportion of 
which waa issued in tie aerial form with illustra- 
tiona. Among L's beat novds may be apecitied 
CharUM O'liaSej/, Tom Burke, Rolaitd Cathel, The 
Knight of Ov>j/ruK, The Dodd FamHy Abroad, 
Davenport Dunn. When he undertook tbe editor- 
ahip M the famona Irish magadne, L. fixed hia 
reaidenee in the neighbourhood of Dublin ; but 
when, after a few yeara' trial, hia work became 
distaateful, he removed to Florenee. He waa 
apptrinted vloe-eonsul at Spenia in ISfiS, and waa 
tnntfened In 1867 to Trieate, where be died in 
1672. He earlier noveb ol I. are remaa^ble tor 
a certain boisterona nbtil and vhiil of ineidaol. 



«i),Google 



LETKUST— UEV11JSB. 



Hii Imdiea and gentlsmcn ■ecm mder tha inflnanee 
of oluiiimigne, hi* poaaante and acrfant-meii of 
'potliean. IMbeHj, the Aurrent of hia ganiiu 
became broader aaid clearar, aod aerenl of hla latar 
work*, while tbaf are not devoid of the euly fkah, 
■im aftar aomething of a thonghtfol intersat. 

LErVUUSI, the yoong of the hara during the 
fiat jBat of iti age. 

UVEBBIER, DxMiw Jiur Joskpu, a Fnooh 
■•bmamn of pait oelefati^, wm bora at St U, 
in tha dnaitmoit irf Hiiidt^ 11th March 18II. 
Ha vaa admittad into the Pelytaahnia in 1831, and 
waa nbaaqncntlr amploTad lor aoma time ai an 
engjtwar in oonnaodon iridi the Tobaooo Board. 
In 1836, ha pnUidied JfAnoIrM tur laa Conibmaiaant 
dx PluMert atee tSfdrogiiu et oaee Otggiite. His 
TaUea a» Mereare, ud aavenl memoira on 'the 
aomlar tnttipiaWiVie.' opened to him the door of the 
Acadonj in 1S46 : and at Hie inatigation of Araeo, 
ha ^^liadhimadl totheszaminatioD of tiie diatnnv 
in the motioiia of the phuteta, from whioh 



Hia azi(t«Dce <d an nndiscoT^ed planet oonld be 
infsrad ; and *a the reeolt of hia labonona calonla- 
tiooa, directed the attcmtion of aatronomen to the 
point in the heaTana vhere, a tew days afterwarda, 
' ' TTeptoiie waa aotoally diaccvered, the lame 
g xiao, by a remarkable coinddenoe, done 
— ^ tmie, and independsntly, m the 
mer Adams (q. t.). for thia L waa 
Oh Orand Otoaa of the Lesion td 
al a a l a to M m y in the Faonltf 



Wl^ 0» BcTolntum of 1B48 broke oat, L aonght 
diatmolieB aa a demonldo poUtidaa ; Uie dcput- 
ment of Ia Manche ehoaa Imn in Uuy 1349 to be 
a number t£ the Le^alatiTe Aaasmbly, vhere be at 
emce became eonnter-rarolntiomuy ; and in 18S2, 
''Tmdeon made him a aanator. After the 



tor joCP am an office which be held till 1870. 

Ven, the third aon of Jaoob and Leah (Qtm. 
zxiz. 34). He i« oanqncaona timmgh tin urt he 
took wiUi hie tmtlur SimBoo in tiM wColeaale 
daogjittf fid tha inhalntanle trf Shihem, together 
with B««Dr and ShMhem thdr prinoa^ while 
n a dafenaeleM atate, in order to avaoge the 
WTO^ inffidad hy the latter on Dtnab. Jacob, 
em oB hia dMthbed, oonld not forgiTe thia, their 
bloody 'engEr and aelf-will,' and pnmonaoed thia 
eiu«e on £em both, that tii^ ehoold be aoat- 
^nd ammg larael (Oeik xllz. 7). How thia waa 
hISQed in the ease of Levi, witoee deaeendanta, 
n^(ledoat for the Mrrioa of tha lanataaij and the 
jjenoal inalndiini of the peeide, had to naide in 
dtiea aat aaide iar them throiuibont the length and 
Ube breadth «t the land, will be more fuUjr ehewn 
mtder XjKTIIB. In Elarpt, the Hoota of Lavi had 
dnided iteelf into three &uiuli«a, tbaee of Qerahom, 



IiKTTATHAIT, a icriptiml term for a great 
' aea-nMHWter,' bnt more eapeciall^ a Crocodile (q. t.). 
In the Froph«t« and Fulma, it i* oceaaionally used 
asaaTmboIofBgfFt and Pharaoh. Ibnywondmu 
aHegaricat take are oonnected wiUi thia word in the 
Talmud and MidrailL 

X'ETITA, Eluab [EaUvi, Ben AAer; AMsnad 
= tlie Qarman, MabaAur b Qie Haatar, Hamedak- 
«let >■ *^ Grtsunarian), a Jewiih grammuian and 
wh^ tiioa^ much orerrated, atill holdi a 



lumi rank 



One of the then fraqocnt ezpnlaiona of the Jewa 
(oRwd him to aeek r^o^ in Italj, wherehe held a 
hi^ poaitioB aa teacher of Hebrew, firtt in Tenice, 



next In Padna, finally in Berne (1014). Oaidinal 
Egldio hen beoame hia pafaon and pt^il, bnt even 
he conld not prevent Li'a a^in being expelled thia 
tatj, togatbar with hU Jewiah bn&ien, in im. 
He then ratnnwd to Venicai where he lived for 
the moat part nntil hia death, IHSi Se prineip^ 
ttxegetieal and tnblieal worfca am a CtonHMtKory on 
Job <n wrat, a Chnmnt TntutaOon of tfe Pt^mM, 
aa AUMM i/ Ue Fmdmi bU KtmAla Obmnn- 
tOTU, an BdUo» ^Me TVnywN to Propa*», and 
ot KiniACi Oonanmlarjf to Amoa. Hia grammatical 
wCTka are chiefly i MiuortA HammmottA (Tradi* 
tiim of Tradition*), a treatiae on the vowel-pointy 
&D., intheOldTeatament; TVS T'oom (Ocod Jndg. 
ment), a beatiBa on Accanta; S^tr acixuhvt ot 
Dikdvt (Qrammar), beaide* nan; mioor tteatiiea. 
In the nald of lexiccgraphT, he ha* oontributed 
MOvrgtauM (= Dragoman), an attempt at a Tal- 
modiwil and Tarsvnloal Sietionai^; TiJM, a 
complement to Hebrew diotionuist ; ^emolh 
JMarimt (The Kama* <rf Thing*], a Hebrew-Oecman 
dictionaiy ; NioDiiaat, ^oaaaa to David Eimchi'a 
Boot <^ MebroB Boott, to. Moat of L,'i woik* tiave 
been repeatedly edited and partlv tnualated by 
Bnxtorf, MUnitar, fWu^ and othen, who owed 
moat d thtir Hdirew knowledge to L exchuiTely : 
a fact not generally Nccgniied. 

LBVlTSa, the dcacendant* of Levi (q.v.), who 
wer* Mngled ont for the aerriee of the tanotnary. 
The tMm ii more nartioiilarly employed in oon- 

Pnaata (q.v.), in ' -'- 
tkcae memhara of the tribe who w 
family of Aaron. It waa their <Ao»-'for whioh no 
further ordination waa nqnired in the a*«e of the 
indiridnal — to ereot, to ramovet and to oanr the 
tabamacle and ita ntennla dnrfng the aqjonrn of the 
laraelitea in the wilderBam. When the aaaetoaiy 
had fonnd a fixed abodes they anted aa iln t«CTanta 
- "* murdiana, and had t» a*(i*t the priaato in 
' noly fimctiona in the HUiottiary aod m their 
medical eapadty amwig the people. The vocal 
and inafanmwitaJ niaaio ia tlie Mmple wa* like- 
were alao the general 
inatmetion ^ ^ the people, cert^ Jndic!^ and 



_ and the propagation c 

the Law among the community. In order to 
jiiaU*^ them better to fulfil ^rno functiona, no 
apedal part of til* land waa allotted to them, bnt 
they ware i«att«nd— in aoeordanee with Jacob'* 
hat wcoda {Qen. xlu 7) — in Inael ; tortj-mght 
L&vitiotl ratiei, among whioh ihat wve alio oartAin 
'oiti** of tefage,' b«mg cet aiid* for tbem on both 
aidaa of the Jwdan ; witlwut, however, preventing 
their aetUiag wbanTer elae they plea*ed. Thiir 
i«v4nn« oonaiatad of th* annual Titbe {□. v.), 
end of a ilian in tha aeoand tithe, doe ever; third 
year, and in th* aacrificial repaata, ITie length of 
th«r aerTioa varied at different timea, No ipecial 
dreaa waa preacribed for them nntil tha time of 



in iLe deaett not more than SfiSO eervice. 

e men atnmg they had, under David, reaohed 

. nmnber of W,000 men fit for the •ervioa, 24J)00 

whom tikii Ung aeleeted, and divided them 

into font claw** — eaoerdatal aariatanta, dootkeepets, 

~ and moiidan*, and jodm and offioen. A 

oall nnmber only ntorBed from theeuKand 

Moaaio ordinanae* with napeot totbelr etti**, 

tith**, Bbare in aaorifleial repeat*, fte^ were viitn- 

ally abrogated dming the (eoond temple. Nothing 

but the aervioe in the temples in which they 

were awated by oertaio menial* called NMMm, 

vras left to them. It may be praanmed that they 

earned their livelihood partiy like the reet OC 

the communis, partly aa taaohew, Mrib**, and 



aiTCoogle 



LEVmOUS— LEWIS. 



tile like. Theibr tmrelling-g&rb oonBisted, mcoinl- 
ing to the Tklmod (Jobun., 122 a), of & itoff, a 
pouch, and & VoA of the Iaw. Fiveign nden 
also gnuted them exemption from taxes. Thii ii 
the oolf tribe vhiuh ia mppoeed to have kept 
up its pure lineage to thii day, and oertain, albeit 
■mall, Ktm» cJ jlntjnirUnn are still bestowed opon 
its aemW*, more cepeoia^r in the omb of the 
prenuaeddeaoeodantBof AaiMi (the JToAtwlm). Bat 
ue pniitT of lineue ii more than qnartionable in 
manj' invtancea.'-L. iii also the name eiven to 
certun sacerdotal asuitaati in the Bomiah Church. 
LEVITIOCS (Hab. Ftyiira) is the name of the 
third book of the Pentateuch, containing chiefljr the 
laws and ordinaccea relating to the Levttes and 
priests. Little or no progress is mode in it ^th 
respect to the history of the people, and the few 
events recorded are closely oonnedad irith the 
special urn and pnrport of tie boot The erection 
of the Bonctiiary having been described at the end 
of Exodus, the nature of tiie worship — revealed 
by Ood within this tabernacle — is set forth in 
Leviticus, which forma its continnatioD. The 
order followed is not strictly syatematioal, but a 
certain plan is apparent, in its^ontlineB at ' " ' 

1 the other * Uoaaic ' 



The a^ and authorship of Levitioua will be con- 
sidered, toaether with Wat of the other <Uo("' ' 
records, niuler VartiTKOCB. Wa shall confine 



aclrea to mentionio^, 
the snppoeed ' crigiaal ' or Elohistic docnment (i 
GeNB9t3) is by mcKiem critica held to be embodied, 
in its primitiTe shape, as nearly as possibla at 
leut, in the ' Leviticus' as wa have it now. Among 
the few additions and alterations ascribed to the 
Jeboviit, are reckoned chapten x. 16 — 20, XX. 
20—25, TTV. IS— 22, and the greater ^art of 
chan xxvL (3—36], the second verse o( which (end 
of Para^ah xxxii) ia held to have cooohided the 
Sinaitic legislation in the ori^nal doeameot. 

LEVY (Ft. feefe), is the compulsory raising of a 
body of tnxips from ai^ specified dass in the com- 
munity for pnrpoaea of general defence or offence. 
When a ooanbT is in danger of instant invasion, a 
ta/tt en matM is sometimes made — i e., every man 
capable of bearing arms is required to contribute in 
pcnion towal^ the common defence. On leas urgent 
occasioQB, the le^ may be restricted to a class, as 
to men between eighteen and For^years of age. At 
other times, » levy of so many thousand men (rf a 
certun age 14 decreed, and the districts concerned 
draw them by lot from among their eligible male 
population. In armies snstuned by volunteering, 
the levy, which is a remnant o( barbarous times, 



resorted to in Tnaee b 



seiiption lawi : 1862 has shewn ^reat leriN i 
United 8t*tw 1^ America ; and m. laj Muntr 
ire great danger i* apparent^ and volunteers 
sufBciently numerous, recourse must at sU ti 






be had to a levy of the peofJe. 

LB'WBS, the county-town of Sussex, market- 
town, and parliamentary borough of England, most 
picturesquely situated on the navigable river Ouse, 
00 milea south from Iiondon, and 7 from Newhaven, 
which u its port Fop. (ISTl) 10,753. L is the 
seat of the assizes. It returns one member to 
parliament and is the seat of election tot. East 
Sussex. Fairs are held here on Whit-Tuesday 
and 6th May for horses ; on the 20th July, for 
wool ) and on 21st and 2Sth September, for South- 
down ahaep. of which from 40,000_ to 60,000 
ai« often coUected. The chief trade is in grain, 
sheep, and cattl& There are three iron fouoories ; 
and ahip-buildin^ brewing, faumioa^ rope-making, 
and Uma-bunung, employ many of the luhabitaota. 



Baoca are held here annually in July or August; 
near Mount Eatry, on the Downs, where the cele- 
brated battle of Lewea waa fought, l^etween Heniy 
IIL and the intni^nt barons of the kiiudom, on tu 
14Ui May 1264. The castle, the principal tower of 
which now forma tha muaenm of the Sussex Anihm- 
oltj^ical Society, vaa loog ^^c seat of William de 
Warreane, whose remaina and thoae of hia wife, 
Gnndnda, dau^ter of tha Ckmqueror, were dis- 
eoyered here, L. is of vccy ranote orudn, and was 
the lite of a Boman station or camp. Three pvpeis 
ore hate published, and the town is govomed by 
two high-coostsbles. 

L&WBS, 0B0BQ8 HxNKT, a verwtile EnfilUh 
author of Uie present day, was bom at Oriff, War- 
wickshire, April 13, 1819, educated at various schools, 
studied medicine for some time, and finally reBolved 
to devote himself to authorship. In his twenty-first 
year, he proceeded to Germany, where he renwined 
for two yean, studying the lite, language, iad 
literature of that country. On his reum to 
England, he took up his residence in London, and 
has ever since been one of the most indnsbrious as 
well as successful of litttraleun. An intellaot clear 
and sbani, if not remarkably strong ; a wit lively 
and piquant, if not veiy rich ; sympathies warm, if 
not wide; and a style as finn as it is graceful, hare 
made L. one of the best of critics and loographera. 
He has contribnted to moat of the quaiterlien and 
magazines of the day ; edited (with admirable talent) 
tha Ztadfr newspaper from IS49 to 1854; composed 
novels, comedies, and tr^edies ; and, of ' late years, 
has turned his active mind to the study of phyu- 
ology and cognate branches of science, in which he 
has won ss nigh a reputation as in the lighter 
departments of literature. His principal works are 
his BiograpliicaL Hutory of Phiwtophy (1915, a new 
edition of which, much enlarged, has since been 
published) ; The SvanuA Drama, Lopt dt Vtga and 
Calderoa (1846) ; Comi£» PkiioKpky of &t Selatcet 
(forming one of the volumes in Bohn'a i^eicn^fe 
LQirary, 1853), a work which ia not a mere tiansu- 
tion of the French savant, but in several parts 
a complete remodelling by which the style does not 
sofTer ; LV' and Worb of QottKt, fto. (1865) ; Sea- 
lide Sludits at /{/VnAHntie (1858); and PtosJoIog* 
of Common Lift (1860). In 1666, L. foonded Ota 
Foritughll]/ SetMie, the editorship of iridoh be 
resigned in December 1866. The fitat volume of a 
new work by him. Problem* qf Life and Mind, 
appeared in 187^ 

LEWIS, or SNAKJ: BIVER, the great soothem 
branch of Columbia Biver, TTnited States of 
America, rises in the Rocky Uountains, od the 
western borders of Nebraska Territory, Mid after 
a circuitous cotUM, the general direction ia north- 
wert, through Or^on Tprritory, it joins Uie 
Ckiliunhia, near Fort WnUo-Walla, lat 46' 6' N., 
long. 118^ 40* W. Length, 900 milee. 

LEWIS, BioHT Hotr. Sm GxoRaa Corhkwau, 
Babt., Eittliah statesman and author, was bont in 
London 1806. He waa eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Frankland Lewis, fint baronet, of Harpton Court, 
Radnoishire, who, after a long official career, waa 
chairman of the Poor-law Boa^ from 1834 to IS39. 
L was educated at Eton and Christ-church, Oxford, 
wber& in IS2B, he was fint^clasa in classics, snd 
tecond-class in mattiematica. He was called to the 



as Poor-law Conunistii 

the Po6r-lBw Boanl nnlil it was broken up and rMon- 
stdtuted in 1847. He had meanwhile married Lady 



abvGoogle 



Umi8-WITH-HABItI8— LETPBIT. 



__„ to adopt k pcditioal cuBer, and 

beiiw thiB incoTporatfld imo tha nmnber <rf Whis 
cAcul EnniliMiluipranationwMMttMnindniBiL 
He Mt icff Hmtedriure bom 1847 to 1802. and 
bacBBM wooewiTdy SeerotM 
id Oontnd, UMder-aactetanj 
Bent, «Bd FicuwcMl Saoretuj to tha Tufaaiiry.' in 
183% he loot hU Mat in the Hmua of ConunonB, and 
nbMqnenttj' accepted the editotsLip of the Edm- 
hofik £«tla», which ha oontinaed to oondaot nntil 
IBBS, wlun he vaa alaoted for tha Badnor diatiict 
<rf boroa^na. Ha had ourcely takm hia aeat when 
LocdPftuoaiabm offered him the Chanoeltonihip of 
»tioii, whuji 



Im held iram March 1856 to the diaeolntion of the 
goTcniment in Febnuuy 1868. On the Tstora of 
Lrad mmenton to power, in June 1859, L. accepted 
the post of Seeretai^ ol Slate for the Home Deput- 
Hwirt, which, to tne lorpriBe of tha nation, he 
azclianged, in 1861, on the death of Lord Herbert, 
for tiie office of Seoretan of State fez War. In the 
^jne Tear, be pnblilhed a work of much reaearch, 
entiOed Uie Adrtmomii qf A« AndeaU. Tliie nnre- 
mittiitt labooT weakeiMd hia fmme, and a cold 
oa^it iA3e hewaa enjoying the Eaater holidays 
ak &• fkDoly aeBt, wai followed by oongestion of 
Qw longk which prored fatal, Apnl 13, 186% L. 
waa an ablt^ ^fpipf^, and ainceie politician. Aa an 
orator, he eoidd ecarcely be aaid to erpieaa him- 
•ell intlL doqnence or Tivocity ; yet iiii aoond 
aeDsa, railed Imowled^ and nunal md intelledmal 

piihlio aiid pditdcal life m England. Hia Inquiry 
lato tte OTrdMlitg of E1XA3 Rtrman Hittory, u 
conducted on the .criticiJ lainciplM of NiebiULi, 
but ia more rigoiona and iMptioal in apiiit Oian 
the wi^ iat Sie great Oetmu lurtorum. The 
beaaoiM tA raiied knowledge and wisdom which 
he had collected doling hia compamtively ahort life, 
mw ha gathered ham a lift of hia works, which 
inclade a treatise on the Orinm and Formation of 
IM Bomantt iKatguage, Tie FaUa qf Babritu, The 
U»e tmdAbtmtfPolUicai Ternu, The Jnflvence 0} 
Atlliorilf it Matlen of Opinion, The itOhod of 
ObtervaUim oMdRaaonrngin FolUii», Local Diituri- 
<mett mtd the JriA ChmA Qii««tiim, Tie Chferntnent 
tif Dmmda^aet, A OlMtam q/* ProeiaeiiU Wordt 
lued M Ha^ordMrt, and ths JMronomg of the 
Andattt. Hn latest woric waa a IM<dogit« on the 
Atri Form y OovemmttU, which waa publiihed a 
lew days befora his de«th. 

I.EWI8-WITH-HABBIS (the name Lewis is 
derired from the Norwegian ijodihiu, the sonnding 
honae), an taland <tf Scotland, one of the Outer 
Hebrides the moat itorUiem and the laiseat of tiie 
grooii^ lies abont 30 miles north-west fiom Boos- 
Uie^ from which it is separated by the Minch (q. v.). 
Lowii^ the larger and most noruierly port of the 
uland, hciongi to Boss-shire; the otlier portion, 
Hinria, belong to InTemeas-ahira. Entire length, 00 
Buba ; greatest bmadth, 30 miles. Area, 770 mium 
nuleBi ya^ (1871) 26,H7. Bie ooaata ara wild 
•Bucl n^sd; tha diiet indentationa being Broad 
Bmr, loebs Kisort, Seatorth, Besort, and Boag. 
^□le Bntt ot Lewis, a pranontory at the eztoeme 
IlorU^ in lat SS* 31'N., long. Q^lfi'SO" W., rises 142 
feot above se«-leveL The sorfaoe is mgged, with 
tracts of awanip, a considetsUe portion u covered 
with peat, and there an remaina of ancient forests. 
Barlw and potatoes ue tha nindpal crcgpa raised. 
Bemaina of anraent edifices abonika on the iaiMidi 
Tlu inhabitants us almoet all <rf Celtio extntotion, 
with the ezoeption of a colony in the north, who, 
althoDf^ UiBf speak the QaaliQ language, are of 
purely Seaadmavisn dsaoent. Stomowajr, on the 
east coas^ i« the jrinoipal towru Ke4i it ia Stomo- 



way Castle, the seat of Sir James Matheson, Barb, 
who, la piofsrietor of Lewis, haa expended large 
snins in lanooa kinds of improrements. Storao. 
way ia visited by steamera from Glasgow. See 

HKBRIpaB> 

LEWI'SU, a genus of planta, of the natural 
order Por1tilaeae«tt (see PvRSLAtrs), named in honour 
of tlie Amerioan toaveller Lewis. L. redivitia ia 
found in the regions of his eiplorationa, on tha west 
ride of the Rockjr Monntlins. Its roots are gathered 
in great quantities by the Indians, and are Ughly 
valued aa nnfaritive, and also a* nstoiativ^ a vary 
email quantity heti^ deemed soffieient to sustain a 
man throo^iont a long jonmey and muoh fatigue. 
It ia eaUed Tbtoceo Jloot because^ when cooked, it 
haa a tobaoco-like smelL 

LB'WISTON, a town of Main<v United States 
of America, on the Androscc«gin River, 33 miles N. 
of Portland. The liver has ben a fall of 00 feet in 
200, and the water-power ia distributed by a dam 
and canal to 7 mannfacturing oompanies, and several 
large saw-mills, to. There are several chnrehes^ 
nantpaiiera, and schools. Pop. (1870) 13,001^ 

UBX. FVIU, a 1^ expreesicm often used to 
denote the law of the connby where a soitor brings 
hia action or snib See Inteiuutioh'Ui Law. 

LEI LCyOI, a legal ezpcession to denote the 
law of the country where a particular act was done, 
or where laud is situated. See IntkritatiokaIi 

LEX KON BOBI'FTA, the unwritten law, m 
expression often applied to the common law, or 
immemorial custom. 

LEX TALiairia. the htw of retaliation, 00m- 

on among all barbarous nations, by which an 
,'e for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, waa con- 
sidered the Htpropriate punishment. The doctrine 
is repudiated by all civilised countriea. 

LEXICON. See DtcnORABy. 

LE'Xf NGTON, a Hmall vilWc of Masaachuaetta, 
_ . S. of America, 10 miles N.-W. of Boston, cele- 
brated aa the scene of the first coa&ict between the 
colonists and British troops in the War of Independ- 
ence, April 18. 1776. Pop. of township (1870) 2277- 

LBXINGTON.acityot Kentucky, United SUtes 
of America, on the Town Fork of tha Elkhom, 
a tributary of Eeutncky River, 77 milea east of 
Looisvilla. It is a handaome city, aunoonded by a 
country of great baauty and tertuily. Its principal 
edifices are a Court-house, Trans^vania University, 
State Luoatio ABvliiiii,City Hcepital, Orphan Asylum, 
banks, IS churches. There are 2 newspapers, and 
many manufacturioK establishments, mostly of 
hemp and tobacco. The town was being laid ont 
when news arrived of the skirmish at Lexington, 
1779, when the name was adopted. It haa a ^n- 
tijful cemetery, with a handaome monoment to 
Heniy Clay. Pop. (1870) 14.801. 

LEXINGTON, a town of Missouri, United States 
of America, on the right bank of the Misaonri Biverv 
~~0 milea ^ve St Lonia. It has 7 churches 2 

iwsu^m*, a branch of the bank of Missouri. It 

■s the scene of repeated conflicts during the War 
of Seoeasioo. Pop. (1S70) 6330. 

LE'TDEN (Fr. Leyde, the Lvgdumtm BaUaantm 
tA tha Kranana, originally Ltiykdmn, from hi^t, 
an end, and dsn, a nill; during tbe middle ^ea, 
iMOfMn or Legdit), a oelabnrtad aeat of learning in 
Ht^laodj situated on the Old Rhiii^ 22 miles lonth- 
west<JAmBterdam,aall7iiorthotKotterdam. Pop. 
(1st Jan. 1871) 38,897. It is the oldeat town m 
Holland, and tuu space fm three times its present 
populatirai. In 1640, L oootained 100,000 souls ; in 
17«l, the numbers had fallen to 70^000; and atths 



dhy Google 



LETDSS—UASAS. 



it aentoiy, to 9O,O00l Bmoe 
AtMu, BiHiQ nan ii(SBut bMTUi to floiuul^ Mna tht 
popidatioii to incTCMab Ilia itoseti an mAa, Ow 
pnblia boiUiun beantifol, ud the cauU broad and 
niuneKHUb Wtthio the d^ are the niiiia of an 
old eaitiot mdled tbe 'Boig, nuijwaed to have been 
built by the Bamaiu before the birth of CliriBt. Ths 
prindpM niMinfaotarM are linen oIqUu, oiliooaa, 
woolleu, but oa a very amall aoal^ aa oompared 
with Ibimer timea. There ii a oonodarable ireekly 
market, for Om whole of that part of Holland oallad 
Bhipjand, held at L^ at whioh madt bntter and 

tud dot7 of the oitT ia ite nniTeni^ — once unanr- 
pawM by taj in £aiope. The origin of the 
nnivenity ia well known. In 1S7^ when Holland 
waa atnu^ing to throw off the yoke of Sptun, 
L. waa Gcidemd by the Spaniuds, and bad to 
endure all tha nonon of famuub For eeven weeki 
the citiiena bad no brekd to eat, and moltitndea 
periahed of bnngw. The hei^ borgomastw, 
Pieter Adriaanazoon Van der Wwff, evan offered 
his body aa food to some who wme ira^oiiDg him to 
capitulate. At laat, the Frince of Orange broke 
down the dykei, flooded the oonnttr, drowned a 
^reat number of the Bpaniarda, ana relieved the 
mhabitanta. The Prince of Orange now offered, a» 
aome compenaatian for their nnp^lleled Bufferings, 
either to remit certain taxes or to eetabliah a nni- 
venity in the city. The Leydaneis noUy choae the 
latter, which waa inaugurated by Prince William 
in IS7S. Many eminent men, bma all oountriaa of 
Europe, have bees oooueoted with it, boUi aa pro- 
fesBon and atudenta. Wo may mentitm Soahger, 
Gomanu, Armiaitu, Qiotiiu, Deaoarte^ Boerhaave, 
Camper, Spanhwm, Rhnnken. At preaant, it baa 
27 oidwaiy pfrfoMOCi and 1 extrBordinaiy. In 
186% the itudenU wen «8T— being, law, 269; 
theology, 100; medidue, 82; other obuMa, 40. 
" a valuable libtvy, with many mro 



botanical^.. _ 

a museum of natural history, ___ ._ , 

in Europe ; and another eqoijly fine of compara- 
tive anatomy. The Mnaeom of Antiquitiea is tiao 
excellent. On the 12th January 1807, the moit 
beautiful quarter of the city wim dealiOTed, and 
many Uvea lost, by the eiploeion of a Bhip'i carco 
of gunpowder, and the aite of the ruined atroets w 
now a plain on which the troope are exerdacd. 

LBYSBN, Lotus viH, one of the moat celebrated 
painteia of the early Diitch school, woe born in 
Leyden in 1491. Hia talenti^ which were devdoped 
wban he was very young, were firit cultivated by nia 
father, Hugo Jocoba, an obacure painter ; but he waa 
afterwaida placed in tim aohool of Comeliua Bugel- 
brechsten, an artist of repute in his day. He com- 
menced eDgravingwhen scarcely nine joara of age. 
Hia picture of St Hubert, painted when he wai o3y 
twelve, hroogfat him very hidi conunendatiDn ; and 
the celebrated print, so well known to coUeoton by 
the name of 'Mahomet and the Monk SersiuE,' 

■-'"•—' -- ■ "^, when he waa only '- ■ 

'at every lb 

- thoae early poiatera 

•luu cegraTOd their own works, and he sooceeded, 
like Albert DUrer, in itapejting certain qnalitiea of 
delicaoy and finiah to his engnvinga that no mere 
engraver cnar attained. Tbe picture* of Locaa van 
Ii. are noted for deamesa and delieaoy in oolonr, 
variety «l ohaiaotar and eipiesaion ; but hia drawing 
ia hard and Oothio in loim. Bzamphs are to be aoen 
inmanjofdiegalleriaaontheoontinait. Hisrange 
of iubjeot* waa verv wide, and embcaoed erentaln 
•acred history, inoiatnti illnitnitiTe of tba nannera 
tt hia own pMrM. UHl perbaifeh Hk engraviagi 



are very hubly ptited by ooUeeton, and are ranked 
about •■ QAbly m thoM of Albert DUtw. He 
also exMnted some wood-onti, which are vorr rare. 
BartMk give* a UiA of 174 tngnriua bf 
habits were ezpeuiTe. Eeteenatohavai 



admired without picttmaoBil iealoiOT. 

iuMrly li£»»la^<tf tba nofaubmily . _ 

by whota ha had me dan^ter. He died in li 






Ha had been confined to bed aiz year* 
before his death, bat oontrived to paint and engrava 
till witliin a abort period of hia deoeaaa. 

LETDBS JAB. See Eubotbioitt. 

IiB'ZE liAJESTT, 



LIA'NAH, a tena first used in the FiwKh 
colonies, but afterwards adopted by I'Wif'v Oer- 
man, and other travellers, to desigoata ttw woody, 
climbing, and twining plants widch aboand m 
tropical foreat% and constitute a remariuU* and 
eveivTMying featuro of the scene. Such plants are 
oomparativd; rara in colder climatea, althon^ the 
honeysucklea and some apedes of ClematU affind 



iplea of them : but aa theae often O' 



top tbe hedges or bushes in which tboy grow, 
'all down PLgain by the weight of tbnu' Icatc 
Lheir stems elongate, so the £. of tropical ooun 



their stems elongate, so the L. of tropi 
OTertini the tidleet trees, desoend again to tbe 
ground in vut festocos, pass from one tree to 
another, and bind the whole forest together in a 
maae of living network, and often by caUea aa tluck 
as those of a man-of-war. Many parts of the forest 
— as in tbe alluvial redone of the Amaion and 
Orinoco— thus become unpenetrable without the 
dd of the hatchet, and the beasts which inhabit 
them dther pans tbroogh murow ooroed nUu, 
kept open br eontinoal use, or from bough to boosh 
far above tin ground. Hany L. — as SMne of tbe 
■peeiMotrrvfiia— beounetne-HkalnUMtUdEiKaa 

>dhy Google 



LIAB— UBSL. 



of ttoT (ieiiu, mnd oUat kill bj ooiiBtriotiaD tha 
beoa irioch (aigiiiallj inpported tlian ; and when 
thcBs hkTS deoved, Um conTohitioiu of Uib L. 
axhibit a wvndon] mau of ooafurion M^iifloant 
in thalnxurianoaof foKagsaiidflinraB. Notroptoal 
flowon «z«el in iplaDdoar tluw of mdm lir — 
Anunig them are fonnd aba aome YatnaUs uedi 

planta, m mmparUla. Tha nUtaa and vuillL 

lianao. BotasioallT eraiaidved, I. balong to natanl 
<Hdsn tk« mort mTerant. Trot>i««l plioiti <d thu 
d««cEriptktii M» addom to be m« in o«r hothooaw, 
owing to the diAonlty of tbidr odtivatkm. 

LIAS. The liaa ii Uie lower diviBtoQ of the 
Oolitic or Jnnnio Fariod (q.T.). The bed* com- 
poaing it ma; be eoaaidered as the airillaceoiui botii 
_. .i_j. — ■ ( — 1— i-l: — , ^ more tJi 



of that B 



It 



The Upper Xiai condats of thin limestone bedi 
Kattered Suoa^ a great tiiicknen of bine 0U7, 
moie or lew ii^nrated, and ao ahuninoal th&t it 
haa been wrou^t for alam at Whitby. A thick 
baitd of v^eteUe matter or impnre lignite oooon in 
Una dhniiaa, in iriuch ate foond nodwea and lamps 
irf i«t^ a pemHar mintrnd oompoaed of carbon and 
tgmi^Beo, and probably bavins a umilar ori^n to 
the aoiter of the tertiaif bgnitee. A tenet of 
laowii aad Tellow Modt, and a peonlim- layer called 
the cephalopoda bed, from the abtmdanoe of these 
foMili eontained in i(^ oocnr abore Uwss ol^; 
reotntif , they have been asparited from the infanor 
oolite, "t^ jmned to tlue division, 6n the eridenoe of 
the contained f oaails. 

^nie MulBtonB is an arenaoaon* dapcnt, botmd 
together either by a caleareoni or Ismgiuoni 
cement, in the ooa case paisiag into a eoarse ahellT 
limestone, and in the other into an ironstone, iriiiali 
has been exteniJrely wTOOght botb in tlie ntwth and 
lonth c^ £^tud. 

He Lower Lias beds connst of an exteniiTe 
tlucknoB ol bine dayi, intenningled with Ufvn of 
arrillaoeona limeatone. In weatheiinc, the thm beds 
of bine or gnty limestone bec(»ne hsht brown ; wbilo 

-■— "^-^ -•-- ' ^in uor daric oolonr, 

ic^ at a diatano^ a 

-like appeamce, iritence, it is 

, . rt name Das or layers isderired. 

OinmJfy, ^e clays re«t on triasdo rocks, but 
occaaional^ tliere is interpoeed a thin bed of lime- 
■tme, oonbunine fragmeDts of the bon«a and teeth 
of reptilee audflah, genenlly of nodonbted liudo 
ue ; occasiooally, tiie bones of keeper reptileu are 
met with in it, caemng it to haYs been rnerred to 
theTrias. . , 

He Lias is hlahly fcsdlifefoiiH, the cont ained 
being wwl preserved ; the fisliea are often 
, M to Bxbixat the complete torn of the 
jth the fin* and so^ in their nattu«l 
Komnoiia rem^nl of plants ooonr in the 
and in the ahalea. Ths name Oiyphite 
I^estona has beoa Krran to the lias, from the 
great qnantitiea of (tryp^ta hcwrofel, a hind of 
oyster, toond in it B<w>e of the (dder genera of 
mollnsca are still fonnd in these beds, bnt tbe 
general diaract«r of these animala^ mere iMwly 
appioacbei the "■" 



seoocduy ferma. 

are froqoantly met with; the tupai 

however, an tiie most striking featores. Tiij 
mnsrkiUa tot the {^sst numlMrs in iriiMi tl 



ViA- 



r, for the si 



I iriuoh many of the speoiM attain, 



fitted Uum to live in water. The most note- 
worthy are speoie* of lohthycaaoras (q.T.) and 
FledDaanma (q.v.) 

•Bm liawo roeb extend in a belt of varying 
bnadth aoreai ibgland, from Whitbr, on the ooMt 
of Yorkshire, sonth to Leicester, Uien sonth-east 
by Gloaoester to Lyme Regis in DonetaluTe. 

IrlBA'FTCa, one of the latest and most eminent 
of the Qreek sopliitts or rhetoriclaos, was bom at 
Antiodi, in Syria, about 314 or 816 1.D. He studied 
at Athens vnaer varions tea<diars, and flret set up a 
■ohool in Oonstantinople, where hi* preleetums were 
■0 attractive that he emptied the benches of the 
other teachers of rhatori<^ who had him bronght 
bef(nre the prefect of the oi^ on aohaigeot 'mano,' 
and expelled. He thai noeeeded to Niounedia; 
bnt after a rendenoe of Bve yesn^ was tbreed by 
intrignea to leave i1^ and retomed to Oonstan- 
tinople. Here, however, his adversaries wwe in the 
asoendantj and after several vioiBEitnd«*| the old 
sophist, broken in health and spirit, settled down ia 
hi* nativB city of Antioch, when he died about 393 
I. L. vras the initmotor e( 8t Ohiysostom and 
. . Basil, who always remained hi* friends, though 
L was himself a pagan. He wat a great biend of 
^e Emperor Jnlian, who corresiiODded. with him. 
rki are Dumarous, and mostly extant, and 
of oration*, declamation*, narrative, lettws, 
he iDMt oomnlete edition ol the ptations 
and declamation* i* that by Baiake (4 vols. AJtenb. 
and Leip. 1791— 1T9T), and of tha letter* tiwt by 
Wolf (Amst 1738). 
LIBAHOK. SeeLBBANOK. 
LIBATION (iML Oxm, te pow out), literally, 
anything paurtd etU bafora tha god* aa an act of 
booiaca or worship ; a drink-offering. The tenn 
was (utea ezteoded in ■■;"■''"■'"'"". lioirever, to the 
whde oSering of whieh this formed a part, and in 
wUidt not imly a little vine wai poured upon the 
^tar, bnt a smaB oak* was laid npon il This 
ui in the houses <a tha Boroans, 
made an offering to the Iatbs 
- "-- hasrth. The 
'giaoa before 

LI'BATT, a seaport of CooHand, Bnsala, on the 
Baltic, 6S0 milet. iontii-imt of Bt Petersburg. 
It exiited pravioos to the settlonsnt here of the 
Teutonic mughts, who surrounded tha town with 
wall*, and er^ted in 1300 a cathedral and a casUft 
- it was aoneied to Russia. The port, with 

I harbour 14 feet deep, is open umost the 
whole year. Its inhabitants, slnoo the ITth c, 
have devoted themselves to ship-bujlding, and now 
fumiih merohaut-TesselB to 8t Petersburg, Bin, 
and ReveL In 1S63, 171 ahips entered, and 178 
cleared the port Tha imparts, amonntiug in value 
1,673,866 rubles, consiri: of salt herrinss, wines, 

it^ and colonial produee ; tiie exports (1,739,802 
.-jlea in value) are chiefly cereals, leaUier, flai, 
seeds, and tdmber. Pop. (1K7> 9090. 

LIBEL, in Scotch Law and in English Gedlesl- 
oaticsl Law, means the anmmons is similar writ 
■uiL and ooutaining tiie fdaintifra 



n prevailed evm 
ttthebmeals m 



LIBEL 1* a pnblioaticn either in writing, priut, 
.r by way of a piotura, or the like, the tendanoy of 
which i* to d^p«da a mwi in the oinnicta of his 
neighbetui^ or to make him ridiooloua. When 
^J ti^i^j results fdUow from words spoken, tha act 
is edled Slandec {%. v.], vhioh, howeve^ is leas 
•em^r pmiibtd. It is extnmely diffioult to 



■(Google 



UBEEiULA — UBEEinS. 



define what unonnta to libelloiu matter, for tha 
qnestion whether ft publioation unonnta to libel 
moEt ainya be left to Out deoiaion of a jmy, 
and this dectaion is aomewhat nnceitain, and Tiriea 
with the popular mood for the time. Bnt t^ 
teet is, in point of law, wtiether there reanltl 
defmdation of character. There are two ramedie* 
in jBugUnd for the wrong caused hj libel ; one 
is bjr mdiotment, the other ia by aoaon. If tile 
offence U of a publie nature, an indictment U 
generally resorted to, for avmy libel tendl to a 
breach of the peaoe ; or the limlled party applies 
to the Court of Queen'a Bench for a criminal 
informatioD, which ia a Tariebr of indictment. 
'ynien an aieiion is brought, iti object is to recover 
damsiges for the priTate mjury sustained. The role 
formerly was, in indictetenta and criminal informa- 
tions^ tbat the defendant was not allowed to plead 
in d^enoe ttiat tha libellous matter was true. But 
the law was in 1S43 alter^ and the defendant is 
now allowed in eriminal as well as civil proceed- 
ings, to prove the truth, and that it waa for 
the pnblio benefit that the matter should be pnb- 
liahed, atatine how. If, however, the juty by their 
verdict find otherwise, tliis defence ofteii ^Knvatel 
the pnnishment. The statute 6 and 7 vict a. 96 
also improved the law of libel as r^jarda editon, 
and propiieti»« of newspapers, and penodical publi- 
cations, who were fotmeriy held uabla for libeli 
inserted without their knowledge. By the present 
law, the defendant may plead in defence that the 
article in question was inserted without actual malice 
— d without gross negligence, and that, before the 



Jt of the action, or at the earliest oppor. 

tnnity aft^rards, the defendant inserted an ^lology, 
or if the periodical did not appear within an interval 
of a we^ that be oSered to pnblish an apcdiogy in 
aojr newspHier or periodical to be seleetM 1^ the 

nintiffi Kit the defendant^ when he pleadi this 
enoe, must also pay into oourt a som of money, 
by way of amends for the injury done. In tlieae 
case^ even where the proceeding ta by indictment or 
diminal inftnmation, the defendant, if he obbuna 
a verdict, will (ooutrary to the general rale) be 
entitled to liave his oosts paid in the proaecator. 
There are certain libels which an a^ledbbsphcsnou 
on aooonnt of tboir denying the fnndamantal tanUw 
of ChrisUaoity,and these sre punidisble l^fine Md 
imprisoument. Bo there are seditdoos, beasonable, 
and immotal libels, acootding to the nature of the 
subject-matter. If any p«aw»i tiireaten to pnUiidi 
a libd, or ofier to prevent neh publication, with 
intent to <^rt any money, secnrity, or valnaUe 
thing, or with intent to indnoe anrpenon to o<»ifer 
or procue any appcontmeut or omoe of profit or 
tmst, he is liable to irapiiaonment with or without 
hard labour for three yean. If any person mall- 
cionsly Publish a defamatory libel, knowing the 
same to oe false, he is liable to two years' imprison- 
ment and a fine ; and the malicions publication, even 
though not with knowled^ that it it false, makes 
the satbor liable to one year's imprisonment and a 
fine. 

LIBE'LLULA and LIBELL17Lm.£. See 
DSAOoti-rLT. 

LIBER. See Bask and Bast. 

LIBEBATION, in Scotch Law, means discharge 
from impriBonmeob Foimerh', if a person was 
imprisoned for debt, and paid toe amount, he had to 
present a bill of libtostton and suspension to get out 
of priscQ, which is not now necessary. 

LIBERIA, a negro republic on the Grain Coast 

of Uppa- Guinea. The territory of th« republic 

extends from long. 5* 54' to 12* M" W. The length 

of coast is about SOO milei^ tile awam breadth of 

us 



ibniiedt for th« purpose of fonnding 
odony ot sniaodpated negroes^ and ct giving 
than favourable niportunities of salf-improvemeBt. 
The first attempt failed, in consequence of tbe 
■eleotion of an unhe^thy locality; bi^ in December 
1821, a treaty was concluded with the native princes, 
by which a tract of land fit tor the putpoee waa 
acquired. The association immediately c(»nmetieed 
operations, and allotted to each man 30 acres of 
land, with the means of cultivating it A town, 
called Monrovia, waa founded at Cope Mesorada; 
the boundaries of the colony were enlarged by the 
purchase of new tracts; and a seooud town, cnlled 
Caldwell, in honour of the originator of the associ^ 
tioii, was founded upon the nver Meanrado. New 
settlementa were afterwarda formed at Cape Monte 
and in the newly aoquired Baaaa Idnd, m which, 
in 1S34, a town was fcnndBd, and called Edina, 
in Bcknowledrancnt of pecuniary aid aent. to the 
colony from Cdinbur^b. Uany of the neudibonring 
chiefs were received into the colony, whust others 
were subdued. In IU7, L. waa left to its own 
resources, declared an independent republic, and 
tbe goverameut committed to a prteident, senate, 
and bouse of repreaentotivea, lliB president and 
lepresentatives are elected for two, and tha seoa- 
tots for four years, all citizens being qualified 
eleetois when they reach 21 wart i^ age, and 



Slavery and the slave-trade aro prohibited, and 
tha right of petition established. Whites are 
eiclnded from rights of citizenship, but this ia 
only a temporary meaaore. The prt»petity of the 
colony aoon became very obvious ; chun^es and 
Bchocus were founded m greater proportiou to 
the population than in moat parte of Britaiti 
or Ameiica ; a r^ular postal ayatem was estab- 
lished, iiewBpi^>erB published, and alavery in the 
neigbbooring atstes abolished. Negroes from the 
neighbouring r^ions, settling ia the republic aod 
sabmittiiig to ite laws, were admitted to partici- 
pattOQ in civil and political freedom equally witJi 
tiie ooloiiista. The new republic waa recognised 
by Britain in 184S, and since by other European 
The Britidi ^vemmeot made it a preeent 
3tte of war with four guna. The proaperi^ 
and usefnlneBs of L. have since continued to increase, 
but the number of settlers fiom North America has 
never been gnat in any year, and up to 1868, the 
wh<de number in the country was reckoned not to 
exceed 19,000. Additional negro tribes, are, how- 
ever, from time to time included within ita territory. 
In 1868, the native inhabitants of L, were estimated 
■ 701,CK)C^ and about 00,000 had acquired the Eng- 
h hbmagfi, of whom about 3000 were memben 
of the christian ohnrch. Agricnltore is carried on, 
bnt^ ts yet, without much success. Coffee is a 
^indpttl article of ptodncft Cocoa, cotton, the 
sngarsiaiM, arrow-root, and rice are alao ealUvated. 
Tims is npidly eKtendinft and palm-oil, ivoi7, 
gold-dust, Mmwoo4 wax, c<Aee, indigo, ginger, 
aiTOw-root, and hidiM are amongst the prmupal 
artialas of export The total exporto to the United 
States in 1869 were valued at £18fiiR. Con- 
sult Bowen's CaUrai AJrka (New York. 18571, 
and Thomas's Wett Ctxut of Africa (New York, 

LIBBHIUa, a native of "Ramt, bom in the 
rly part of the 4th c, succeeded to the see of 
9<» »- the death of Pope Julius L His 



Borne m 3 



u-Arian OMibovnrsy. 



aAaim. 



dhy Google 



UBERTT— IIBERTT, BQUALITT, PEATERNnT. 



CowrtMtiui tnpported the Mmi-Ariui party ^rith 
all hii uthority ; and tbe council of Arlei m 363, 
and tlut of Hilaa in 3E>5, fonnftlly coadenuicil 
■AthaoMiiw (q.T.]i ^s great repreieatative of the 
orthodcx belief. L. refused to confiim thin decree, 
aad, even in oppoaition to the peisonAl commuidi of 
CoutantiDi, withlield his iiibacriptioii. He wu, in 
eonaeqnence, in common with Htvenl others, deposed 
and butiahed to Saaa, by the emperor, who caused 
a Rnman deacon, Felix, to be elected in hii atead. 
Tha later hiatory irf L. ia a subject of controveray. 
Be -waa i«*torad to hia see in 358, but the terms on 
wfaidi be was recalled are much disputed. He 
■Di-riTttd his retom from exile dght yeats, and died 
in hj^ nrpote for sanctity at Rome in 36S. His 
only remains are lome letten preaerved by Constant 
in the HjnMolas Somanomm Fonlifieam. During 

circulated in 



distritTt i 
Pa junadi 

I.IBERTT, EQUALITY, FRATEHTTITT. 
For neariy a century, theae three words have been 
accepted as embodying the creed of those who 
maintain the rightful supremacy of the numerical 
majoritj ; and they have been sounded as the 
iratchword of that formidable movement known on 
the continent of Europe as 'the Revolution,' of 
wliich the object is to assert this supremacy by 
cverturaing the existing fabric o( society. When 
oonbaated with the democmtio creed of antiquity, 
tlia only novelty which the modem symbol exhibits 
conaiata in the proclamation of ' equality ; ' for 
' liberty,' in the widest tense — meaning thereby the 
ultimate extendon of political power to the whole 
body of tlie citizens — has been the object of the 
moat enlightened politiciana of all agea ; whilst the 
protest in faronr of 'fraternity' is a mere senti- 
msatal ooounonplace, about the specnlative sonnd- 
neas of which tliere never was any t«al difference 

"Ae first state doenntent of importance in which 
the doctrine of equality is set fortti is the American 
Declaration of Indepeodenoe of July 4, 1776. This 
celebrated docnment proceeds thus .- ' We hold these 
truths to be saU-erident : thai all men are created 
egwd ; that th^ are endowed by their Creator with 
certain nnalienable liBhti; that among these are 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, ko.' This, 
aa wa have aaid, was in 1776. But as a speculative 
opnion, the doctrine ot eqnali^ had been pro- 
claimed by Hebbes more tJiau a centnry before, 
and from his time down to the period at which it 



wlu(dl Hobbes belonged. Under diflarent forms, and 
from Tarioos points of view, it had been reasserted 
lij SfniKwa, Rousseau, Helvetins, and ultimately by 
the class of political declaimera whose works were 
aimultanaoiis with the American, and immediately 
preceded the French Revolution. 

Hobbea was bolder than his followers, and br 
fT— ^'"■■g a premise which, had it beea true, would 
certainly have justified his conclusion, saved his 
logic, though he did not secure a very stable founda- 
tion for his law. He asaerted that men »n not onlv 
born, but oontinue in easentials very nearly equal 
'Ifatore,' he said, 'has made little odds among 
BMn ol mature age aa to strength and knowled^^ 
RmiMnsn. on the other hand, feeling that subjectlie 
and objective experience would at once repudiate 

— I — tion, admitted the existence ot 

stnrity, and scaroely ventured to 



deny them even at birth, but ascribed them mainly 
to education, and to other distorting and deranging 
principles in human nature and liuman society, 
which it is the object of law and govenuneot to 
counteract. A third dam of reaaoneis, whilst 
admitting the tact of inequality, and not condemmne 
it OS abnormal in the case of individuals, asserted 
that the argument in support of social and poli- 
tioal eqoality is sufficiently founded do the generic 
eooality of mankind — on the propoaitioD, viz., that 
ail nun are equalig nun. They forgot, or found it 
convenient to ignore, that the argument of their 
opponents rested on the proposition, that all men art 
not egKol nwn ; and consequently would not have 
been in the slightest degree affected even by the 
admission of the generic equality for which they 
contended. To this last class belong Profeaaor 
Ahrens, whose work on Natural Law is at present 
used as the text-book in the Eeole lie Droit in Faria. 
Bat all these writers agree in muataining the 
inalienable connection between equality and liberty ; 

' in asserting that the realiaation of the latter 
. of necessi^ be in proportion to the com^ete- 
with which the former is realised. In Qreat 
Britun, hitherto, the opposite creed has prevailed. 
Experience, both subjective and objective, has led 
to the conclusion that in point of fact men come 
into the world and continne during the whole course 
of their esrthly sojourn to be extremely unequal 

strengtb, intelligence, virtne, and worth. It is 
this aasumptioa that the whole fabric of our 
liberties rests. So far from believing liberty to 
involve the fictitious mcognition of an equality 
which does not exist, or the creation of an equality 
which is coutniry to nature, we hold it to necessitato 
the recognition of the inequalities which nature has 
establiihed, and which God as the author of nature 



has decreed. Kay, further, 
to be in direct proportion 
which these iqequaUtiea 



its perfect]' 
the completeueas with 
reoogniaed, and their 
the shape of property, social poei- 
and the like, are vindicated by the pohtical 
maijmiary of the state. Society, in our view of the 
~ ~ '^er, is an organic structure, is cosmic, just in so 
I it recogniacB these inequalities ; and bcj;ina to 

^organic, chaotic, the moment that it ignoree 

them. In like manner, the poLtical, which is the 

Mr of the social organisation of the state, per- 

la its appropriate function only when, and in so 

u it truly reflects the inequalities which society 

reconiised and sanctioned. It must neither add 

or iSke from the facts which society presents to 

To each it must assign his own, and nothing 

but his own; and his Own politically is the place 

which society has already conceded to him. These 

views, which in a somewhat irregular manner have 

always been recognised and acted upon in England, 

have been thought out and systematised within 

theae lost few yeara by Mr Mill and the class of 

iliticians to whom in nitaro t!ie title ot Progresaivo 

inservativea will probably be applied. By no 

.. Hter, perhaps, has the true doctnne be<<n stated 

with greater force than by John Adams, the friend 

and successor of Washington, and second president 

of the United States. The following passage is 

selected from many to the like effect m the recent 

edition oE his works by his grandson, Charles 

Francis Adams : ' That ul men are bom to equal 

rights, i* true. Every being has a right to his own 

as dear, a* moral, as sured, aa any omer being has. 

This is as indubitahliBas a moral government in 

tiie universe. But >to -f^ach that all men ore bom 

with equal powers and facultiea, to equal infln- 



«i),Guu^l 



LIBEETy OF THE FEESS— LIBBARIBS. 



wu practiwd by n 



snki, by Dinids, b; Brohmkns, 
by imeBte of ttio immortal Lama, or bythe idf- 
i^led pliiJosopliera of the French BeTolation. For 
boaouTB sake, Mr Tavlor, for trath and Tlltae't 
take, let American philoaophen and politir*— 
despise it'— (YoL vi p. 4M.} 
IjIBERTY of the PRESSl See Pi 

LlBEKTT OV ; IXBXU 



-abject to do ail things not specially prohibited by 
the law, and the less restriction there is by the law, 
the greater ii the extent of the liberty enjoyed. 
In its widest sense, the phnue may be ondeistood 
as compiisiiiR the whole ot the rights allowed by 
law to Uie tubjeot ; but what is generally understood 
is the liberty of the penon, <»■ of riehts connected 
with the penon — snch ai penooal uberty or free- 
dnn from alaTery, the right of free speech, liberty 
<tf oonsdenoe, libo^ ot the press, and oonstitDtiDDd 
libnty, or fhe liberty to influoiae and take part in 
lepslation, whidi nay be fnrUier nbdivided into 
tlie limib^on of tha royal prerogatire, the powers 
and pririlegM of parliament the n^t (^ applying to 
oonrti of law lor ndreu of injuries, the right of 
petitioning Hm arown or parliunent, tha right of 
UTing aims for defence, Uie right of habeas corpus, 
fte. AH theae snbjeota are noticed ia detul under 
Qieir pn^Nr beads. 

LIBISIBL See B ivmivL 

LIBOlTBin!!, a handsome town of Franoe, in the 
department of Oironde, on the risht bank of tiie 
Dwdognst at its conflaence with tba Isle, 20 miles 
DOTllir«Mt of Bordeaox. It is one of the luicient 
Battidet or Tnt Towns, and was founded by 
Edward L, king of Bnglud, in 128S. It canies 
on considenble trade in wines, spirits, grain, salt, 



Pop^C 



11,456. 



LI'BRA, the serenth dgn in the Eodiae. At the 
first point of Libra, the ecliptio panes across the 
equator to the Boutham hemisphere, this point 
being thos the autamtial eqi^nox. 

LIBBABIES. The term library is applied 
indifferently to buildings, &o., destined to oootain 
books, and to the books themselTes deposited in 
these buildings. In the present article, it it nsed 
ohiefly, if not exclusiTely, in the latter tense. 

Passing over the ' libnuies of day,' as the collec- 
tiona of mtcribed bricks and tiles of the Assyrians 
and Babylonians have been apUy desisnated, the 
first library, properly so called, of wbiaL we have 
any knowledge, u that which, according to Diodoms 
Sicolus, was formed by the Egyptian king Osy- 
mandyas. The existence of this establishmeiK, with 
Hb qipropriate inscription, PsyeAu ioCrefcni — the 
■torenonsa of medidne for de mind — was long 
regarded as bbnlous ; but the researches of Cham- 
pdliim, 'Wilkinton, and other modem investigators, 
go far to prove tbat the aoconnt of Diodorus, uiouzh 
iikiqn ezaggmstad, is at least based upon tmUL 

1.1 — --"^TOtJin library wa* that founded 



a formidable rival to that ot Alexandria, 
led probably by Attalus L, and was largely 
by the fettering core of hia successors. A!b 
■saieQ m the article just refeoed to, it was ultimately 
removed to Alexandria, being sent by Antony as a 
gift to Cleopatra. At the time that this transfer- 
ence took pMce, it contained, aoocffding to Plutarch, 
200,000 vDlnmea. 

The flnt poblio library established at Atiiens is 
■aid to have been foonded by Pimsbatiu ; bnt the 



information we possess regarding thia and oQur 
Oreoian libraries umMgraudnnsatistaotcMy, The 
earliest Boman libraries were tiioM oolleeted hy 
LncnUus and t:^ Aainins Pollia Tho latter was a 
pnblic library, in ilie Aillsst tense ; and ths lonam, 
uum^ private property, was adminittered witk so 
mna£ liberality as to place it nearly on the tame 
fooling. Yariona other libraries were founded at 
Rome by Augustus and his suocessois ; the most 
important, p^lapt, bei^ the Ulpian library of 
the Emperor Tnjan. "nie private oolledions of 
Emilins ^nlus, SoUa, LucuHna {already mentioned), 
and Cicero, are well known to every student of the 

The downfall fint ot the Weatem, and snb- 
aequently of the Eastern Empie, involved tba 
"—' ' dispernon of these ancient lilmtriei; 



inolination for Qie onltivation of letteta ; but even 
in the daikcat of the dark ages, the lamp of learning 
oontinned to iluDSi if with a feeble, yet still witk a 
steady light THthiii the ahelteiing walls of the 
monasteries, Hu bodu wkich had escaped destenc- 
tion, the salvage, if we may so expreas it^ of the 
general wreck, lonnd a safe a^lum ; and not only 
were they carefnDy preserved, bat to mnltqilisd t? 
the indostay of the tranaoriber, as to be idaeed 
beyond all risk of lose for the fntore. Amongst tks 
oonventmd libnriea of tile middle am spaoialty 
worthy of notioe are tliose ot CSuist CEnioh, and M 
tba monast^ (^ St Ai«nsfcine, Canterbury : of the 
abb«vs of neary and Clugni, in Franoe ; of Hcote 
Oasraio, in Italy; and of St QaU, in Switsarland. 
Private ooUeotom, too, existed tiien as now, thm^ 
of coiuBo, their number was small. Amonnt thes^ 
Richard de Bury, Bishop of Duriiam, holds a dia- 
tinsuisiied place. 

^e revival of learning in the Uth and IStk otn- 
torisa, followed immediately by the invention of 
the art of pointing, led naturally to a vast iiii iiasn in 
the production ofoooki^ and mtroduoed a now eia 
in the history of publio libraries. Hie nmnbor of 
these establishments which have since ^trang into 
exEttenoe it immense) and is oonstantly innresslM ; 
lock sc^ tiiat a ban list of them would fir 
id the famits of an artaole like the pnaenb AH, 
therefora, that wa propose to do is to give a short 
accotmt of the most important and intarestang 

First among the Iflnariei of Gh-eat Britain, and 
seoond to few, if to any abroad, is that of tile British 
Unsram. For an aoconnt of tJiis maoiifioeot ooQeo- 
tim, see BBinaE Hoannc Next la rank is tiw 
Bodleian library at Oxford, iriddi has also been 
already desoribad. See Bodlktax or Bodliuv 
LiBluiiT. The third and fourth placea are ooouraed 
by the PuUic, of Univeiaitv, Xitnair of Cambridge, 
and the library of the Faool^ in Advocates at 
Edinbnr^ whidi are nearly on a par as regarda 
extent and value. A more particular notioe m the 
latter will be fonnd nnder Oie heading Adtocati^ 
LlBRAST ; the number of volumes which it con- 
tains at present may be stated as not less than 
230,000. The Library of Trinity College, Dnblin, 
with about 170,000 volumes, is the lai^eat and most 
valuable in Ireland. These five libranee have long 
been, and etill are, entitled by statute to a copy of 
every book published in the empire ; the act of par- 
liament by which the privily is at present regu- 
lated is the 5 and 6 VicL c 4S. Btsides the above, 
other libraries bad been in the enjonnent of tha 
le piivilwe np to the year 1830. By the act 6 
I rWill. IT. c. 110, wluch was then pasted, tke 
nomber was reduced from eleven to five : conroeui 
Mtion for the loe* of the privilqga being sJloweci, in 



«i),Guuj,ilf 



LIBRARIES. 



the form of mn T-'i""ft1 grant of mooey charged 

the Comolidatod Pund. The kDunint of thig grant 
wu, in each caae, determined by s oompabition of 
the_ kT^age annoal vslae oE iha book* received 
during the three years immediatelj preceding the 
paasiog of the act The names of the librariea 
rtSvma to, with the number of volomeB thi 
preMnt oontain, and the aauoal snm receivi 
liea of the priTili^ are m follows : 



Edlnbnc^ DDlrtnllj, . 



Mia^w Idd'i, I>DbllB, , 90,000 

aba CbUtCE, LoaduM, . . EE.OOD 

The minor binaries of Great Britain are _. 

oiU| that a mere list of their names would ezcoed the 
liauta widiin which an article like the present mnit 
be confined. Amongst those deserrinK special 
notice are the labraty t>t the Societj of Writers to 
the Sign«^ Edinbnrgli, containing npvards of 65,000 
Ttdnmea; the Hnotniao Libniiy, Ghwgow, with 
abont l^OOO Tdnmet, incloding mai^ choice ~ ' 
men«of earif priatuu; the OheUum litmn, 
idie«t«r, npnida of 16,000 vdomes ; Dr Vm. 
LilwwT, Bad OroM Street, London, with mon .._ 
SO^OOO Ttdnnws, freely n^ea to the puhlio ; the 
" ^^^¥^ ■ ' 



Ai-chi^aoM>at Libraiy kt Lambeth, 
iMMt 37/WO Tohune* ; Har " ' " 
with ahont lEMXN) volnmes 



ituning at 

Handi'a Libnuy, Snblin, 

the Libraiy of the 



Oxford and Cambridge, 

- . -I of whidi are oi coneiderable extent and Tolue. 
Hm Public libraiiea' Acts hare been adopted by 
■ere^ irf the large town* in EngUnd— Manchester, 
"' ' ' im, and Livetpool being the most import- 
fiee libmrirs eatablished in these places 
the proriaiona of the acts just named are in a 
ihing condition. Of private hlnvriea in Eng- 
land it will be niffident to name that of Earl 
^lanoer, at AHhorp, oontaiaing upwards of fiO.OOO 
i^nmea, maoy of extrema lahty and Talne, and all 
in admirable condition. 

The peat national library of France, Ia B3>Iio- 
tUqaa An Boi, aa it need to be called, La Biblio- 
tU<nie Nationale, ■■ it it called at present, is one of 
the laigeat and meet valoable oollectiont i^ books 
^ '~'" ' theworld. Attempti to form a 

" " " " ~" and h 



lOmiy had been m 



le by Loni* XL ai 



IT. may be regarded as the tonndation of the eetab- 
IMimrtit aa it now existi. The nnmber of printed 

Iflmfitn, and of mannscripta at about 00,000. 
Amongrt libraries of the second class eiiittng in 
Pane, the Uazanne Library, and the Library oFste. 
OeneViivc^ are the chiefs The former contain* nearly 
UOfOO TDlnmea : the Utter, upwards of 180,000. 
Han^ excellent librariea are to be tonnd in the 
inDTiiioial towns of France, particolarly at Bonen, 
Bocdomz, and Lyon. 

Italy ii rich in important librariee, amongst which 
tliat M the Vatican at Borne stands pre-eminent. 
Tile nnmber cA printed volumes is only about 40,000 ; 
Imt in the manuecript department the number 
•mcFnnti to no Um than 23,080, the fineet collection 
bt the world. The Caaanata library, also at Borne, 
k aaid to coatain upwards of 120,000 volumra. The 
AjulsMiaB Ubraiy, at Milan, has a collectioa of 
naariy 140,000 volames ; and the Brera library, of 
the MBM oity, one of aboat \20flW. At Florence 
we find the lAni«Qtiaa libnry, omuting almost 

*AhoDtthrw 
CcOsca, and the 



entirely of mantucripte ; and the Ma^iabeohi 

Library, with about 175,000 Tololnes. Amrai^ the 
other libraries of Italy worthy of notice are the 
Royal Library at Naples, with 200,000 Tolmnea, and 
" ■ '" Venice,with 120,000, and 10,000 



>f 8t Hark at M 



The prmcipal libraries of Spain are the Sblioteea 
Nocional at Madrid, nnmbering nearly 230,000 
Toliunes, and the Library of the ll^corial, whioh has 
been already noticed. See Escuitui. — Of the 
libraries of Portugal, no trustworthy statistice con 
be obtained. 

The Imperial library 'at Vienna, founded by the 
Emperor Frederick III, in the year 1440, is a noble 
collection of not fewer than wO.OOO volumes ; of 
which 16,000 ore of the class called incunabula, or 
books printed before the ^^ear IfiOO. The BotiI 
Library at Munich owes its oru;in to Albert V., 
Duke of Bavaria, about the middle of the leth cen- 
tury. The number of TOlnmee is estdmated at 
— noo, mcluduig 13,000 inonnabnlo, and 22,000 
iBonpta. It H worthily lodged in the ^lendid 
building erected by the lata kii% Lodwia L, in the 
* idwig StiMM The Royal J^niy at DMidmt ia 
collectitHi of about 400,000 Tcumes, amongit 
which aM included soow el the aoarceat specimena 
of early printing, amMUtrt othtn the Maini Psalter 
of 1457, the first book printed with a dote. 1!he 
foundation of the Eoyal library at Bcriin datea 
aboot the year 16&0. It now extenda to 
aboDt 70IVKW vdnmes of printed books, and 15,000 
valumea of manuscripta, inclnding amongst the 
lattw many preciona relic* of Lnthm' and the other 
leaden of the ReformatioQ. Of the other librariea 
^ OermoDy, it will periiaps be eoongh to notioe that 
of the Qiuveni^ of OWingen, wiUk upwards of 
500,000 Tolnmee} and the ducal library of Wtdfeu- 
bttttel, with about 220,000. 

In Hollisd, the principal library ia the B^^al 
Library at the Hague, containing rather more than 
110,000 volumes, of which about ISOO ore good 
specimens of early printing. 

The Boyal Library at Copenhagen was fonnded 
about the middle of tiie 16th oeutury. Its contents 
are now estimated at nearly 560,000 volnmea. The 
University Libnurv poasesaes nearly 200,000 vdumes ; 
and Classen's Library, also in Copei^iagen, about 
20,000. 

In Sweden, the largest lUirary ia that of the 
university of TTiml, conaiating of nearly 200,000 
volnnus, One <a its ohief treasuioi is the fomoas 
maaueoript of the Oothie Qospel* of Ulfilaa, com- 
ittonly known as the Codex Argentens. The Royal 
LibnuT at Stockholm is next in Kia, numbering 
upwards of 70,000 vohunea. 

The library of the aiiiTenity of Christuuiia in 
Norway, founded in 1811, contains upwards of 
200,000 Tohmus. 

The Imperial Libnwy of St Petersburg was 

founded abont the bc^pnoiiig of the ISth oentory. 

In the year 1795, it was largely inorMsed by the 

addition of the Zaluaki lilauy of Waraaw, which 

was seized and carried off tx> 8t Peteisborg by 

SuwaroE At present, the total number of volnmea 

estimated at 800,000, and about 20,000 manuscripts. 

In the United Statea of America, though there 

« no libraries equalling those of the first rank in 

£nro;pek there are still not a few of eonndeiable 

magmtude and value. The oldest and one of the 

' it oDLOt^ them is that of Harvard College, 

>ridge, hbaaachusetta, which has been in exiit- 
ence for more than 200 rears, and contains nearly 
100,000 volnmM. Libraries are also attached to the 
otiwr ooll^iate institutions of the country. The 
Aator library. New York, named after its liberal 
founder, was opened in 1864 with a collection of 



Google 



LIBRARIES' ACTS— UOHEinN. 



about 80,000 voliimM, which hu lince been l^rnly 
inoreased. It ii in the fuUeat «eiue a free public 
Lbrary. The Library o£ CongreM, the only library 
■iipp(»ted by government, to which a copy ol every 
copynght book must be *eot, is natanUly the largest 
in the States^ numbering about HSOfiOO volumea, 
and 45,000 pamphlets. The Smitluoniaa Institution 
at Washington embraces in its plan the formation 
o[ an exteniiTe library. But little progress has 
been made in carrying ont this part of the schema. 
The proprietary tibrariea are nameroua, and several 
of them are of considerable extent ; that of Phila- 
delphia, in the fonndatioa of which Franklin w>b 
largely oonoemed, nombera upwards of 60,000 
yolumes ; and that of the Boston Athemeom, 
founded in 1S06, is still latter. The Boston Publie 
Libniy has, in 20 yean, become llie second largeat, 
and perbapa the most widely uaefnl library in the 
Statei ; it now numben S00,000 volumes. 

The best work on the aubject of libraries it 
Edward's Memoirt of LibrarU* (2 vola., London, 
1869), which those deairous of fortfaer infonnation 
may ocnsnU with advantage. 

LIBRARIES' ACra Though there ia no systa- 
matio proviaioa of tibrariea for public use, at the 
expense of the atate, except the British Mueenm 
Library in London, an attempt baa been made by 
the l^ialatare of late years to empower districts to 
establish librariea, and to tai the inhabitants for 
that porpose. The first act, 13 and 14 Vict a. 60, 
passed in 1A60 for England, has been repealed by 
Bubaequent amended and extended acts, tJie last of 
which is 29 and 30 Vict c. 114, in 18G6. It ii 
■pplioablfl to any burah, distric^ or parish, what- 
ever the amount of the population ; > meeting of 
the ratepayers may be obtained by the requisi*' — 
of ten oftheir number addressed to the town-c 
cil, or other local board, and the adoption of the 
act is decided by a simple majori^ of those 
present at the meeting. The rate to be levied in all 
■noh cases is not to exceed Id. in the poand. All 
Bach librariea are to be open to tie pnbho, free of all 
charge. A aimilar act extended the first English act 
toIrdandandSootiaod; bat 1^ amended acts, passed 
in 1867 and 1871, Scotland haa been placed on a 
■iTp^TftT' foottng to England fitf the adoption of t^* aot. 

LIBRABIE9, HnccaxT, ara either garriion or 
redmraitaL The fbimer comprise laige collections 
of Dooki, with newspapers, games, lectures, kc, in 
commodions rooms, and are intended to win aoldiera 
from the gin-shops and vicious haunts which are 
ever prevalGnt in garrison towns. Attempts have 
bMn made to provide the soldien with books, both 
for inatmction uid amusement ; bat statistics prove 
that the men patronise few besides fiction and 
travahi, and religious books not at alL Regimental 
librariea are smaller collections of books, which 
accompany regiments in their varions movements. 
The charge & mihtaiy libraries in the British 
army ia for 1S73— 1874 the sum of £4187. 

IiIBRATION (from Lat Ubra, a balance, mean- 
ing a balancing or oecillatinK motion], a term applied 
to oertain phenomena of the moon's motion. The 
moon's librations (or, more properly, apparaU libra- 
tions) are of tiiree kinds— Gbratdoa in longitude, in 
latitude, and the diurnal libration. If the moon's 
rotation in her orbit were onifonn, at her rotation 
on her axis is, we should always see exactly the 
same portion of her surfaoe, bnt aa this i* not the 
caaa, there are two small strips of snrfaoe ranning 
from pole to pole, on the east and west aidea, which 
become alternately visible ; thia ia called the moon'a 
Umgiludinal libra&jn. The WrraUaa in latitude 



her snrfaoe round the north pole is visible dnring on* 
half, and a corresponding portion round the aouth 
pote durmg the oUier half of her revolntiun in htt 
orbit. Tne divmai libration hardly deserrea tiia 
name, and it simply a consequmce of the obsarrer'a 
position on the suriace of the earth, and not at the 
centre : it conailtt in the gradual disappeatanoe of 
certain points on one edge of the moon's ^*k aa 
she approaches her cnlmination, and ilte appeanuce 
oE new points on her oppoBita border aa she dewendai 
The first and third of these libntdons were dis- 
covered by Qalileo, and the second by Heveliua. 

LI'BYA, the name given by the oldest geogiaphera 
to Africa. In Homer and Hesiod, it denoted the 
whole of this quarter of the globe, except Egypt ; in 
Herodotos, occaaioDally, the entire continent ; bat 
it is ^Bo applied by others in a more restricted 
sense, to the nortluati part of the countr7, from 
Egypt and the Arabian Qulf westward to Mount 
Atlas. The great saody tract of which the Sahara 
forms the prmcipal part, was called the Lilian 
Desert. To what extent it was known to the 
ancients is not very clearly ascertained. See ATKlca. 

LICEyCE. See Gak^ Fcfblic-houbb, Mak- 

BUOE, AUEN. 

LICE'KTIATE (from Lat liatf, it it lawful), 
one of the four ancient univeraity decreet. It ia no 
lon^ in use in England, except at Cambridge, 
which confers the degree of licentiate of medicine. 
In Fiance and Germany, however, where it it 
more general, a Lcentiate is a peraon who, having 
undergone the prescribed examination, has receired 
pertnisaion to deliver lecturea. The degree, as aa 
honoar, is intermediate between Baehaar <tf AtU 
toA. Doctor. 

LICENTIATE, amons Preabyteriana, ia a per- 
son authorised by a presbytety or timilar body to 
preach, and who thus DecmnM eligible to a pastoral 

LI'CHEN, a papular diaease of the skin. Thers 
are two species, viz., L. riimtex and L. agriia, the 
latter of which may be regarded aa a very aggravated 
form of the former. L. tinyilex oonsiBtB in an erup- 
tion of minnte papnls of a red colour, which never 
contain a fluid, bikI are distributed insularly over 
the body. They appear first on the face and arms, 
then extend to the vunk and lower extremiliea, and 
are accompanied with a sense of heat, itching, and 
tinging. In a mild ease, the disease is over in a 
we^ but sometimes one crop of papuba succseda 
another for many weeks or monUu. In L. agrhu, 
the papulae are more painted at Uie summit, and are 
of a bright-red colour, with more or leas iiiilnias 
extending round them- In this form of the dirmssn. 
the geoenl health ia uaually affected, in ooose- 
qnence of loss of sleep and gener^ irritation. 

It it often hard to say what is the cause of lichen. 
The idmpler form it often dependent in cbildren on 
inteBtinal irritation, while in other catea it may 
frequently b« traced to exposure to heat, orerronM 
diet. The severe form ia also occanoned by extreme 
heat and by the abuse of apiritnoua drinks. 

In ordiiiBry cases, an antiphlogistic diet, a few 
gentle aperients, and two or three tepid hatha, are all 
that is required. When the disease aasumes a ohronio 
character, a tonic treatment (bark and the mineral 
acids) is necessary ; and in very obstinate oaaca, 
small doses (three to five minims, well dilated) m 
Fowler's Araenical Solution may be given with 
advantage. 

LICHENIN ia a atareh-like body, found in 
eland mosa and other lichens^ from which it 

extracted by digesting the most in a o^|d, weak 



BolntioD of carbonate m todtt for si 



abvGoogle 



LICHEarS— LIEBIO. 



then bating. By thii proeen, the liahenin 



I Oienue, 1860, p. S14), 
■aasmea a bias, and lOmetimes e grsemaa unc, 
when traat«d irith iodine^ In most of its reUtioai 
it oonreapanda -with ordiiiAry itarch. 

LICHENS, a n>tnnl order ot acotTledonoiu 
pUnte, aOied to Fungi and to Algn. Thej are 
UuiUogatoiu, coniistmg mainly of a TTiallua {a. v.), 
' and without stent uid lures ; -wholly oellalar, 
and Douriahed throash their irhole Burfaoe by the 
medinm in irhich tEey hve, vbich ii air, and not 
-water, although a certain aniount of moiatnre in 
the air is always neceesary to their active (rrowthi 
and when the air becomes Tery dry, they Become 
dormant, ready to resume tbeir growth on the 
retnni of more favourable weather. The thallns of 
■ome m pnlveralent i that of others ii cnutsceom ; 
of othen, leaf-like ; oF others, fibrous. Reproduc- 
tion takes plsoe by spores, naually coDtained in sacs 
(atei, lieea), embodied in repositories of various 
form, often shield-like or disc-like, called apotAecia 
(or ahielda), which arise from the outer layer of the 
thallns, and are generally very diSerent in colour 
from the tl^Hnj Bat there is also saotber mode ot 



propdntion by gonidia, separated cells of the ii 

or medullary layer of the thallus, usually sphe ' 

arly so, and always o( a green colour. Thii 



isottheatwenceof li|^t — m 

. e to the tcamation of thecal and apores. 

tdanti of ioag life, differing in this very widely 
from fnn^ lliey are moat widely diffused, growing 
equally in toe warmest and the coldest re^ona. On 
the ntmoat limits of vegetation, in very uigh lati< 
tndo, or on the very highest mountains, they cover 
tha ani in great masses. Some erow on earth, 
otben on stonea, othera on the bark of trees, and 



: of vegetation, especially 1 

OTiisation. 

-„-.--, d walls are 

pn>duced by minute L>, which have begun to v^^ 
Me when Dothinig else could. The curiously scat- 
tet«d apotheda ot SMue present the iqtpearance of 
written chancten often seen on the bark of trees. 
Some hsng as tnfts or shaggy beards from old itrM, 
some grow amidst heaths and moss«« to cover the 
soil of the most frigid redone. L. contain a peculiar 
nlatinooi aubstaoce resembling starch, and called 
IiiiAaiin or Lkhen Stardt ; generally liao a bitter 
subotance oalled Cttrariiu; resin; a red, bright 
yellow, or brown colouring matter ; oxalato and 
pb«ajihata of hme, tc i and are therefore adapted 
to purposes of domeitic economy, medicine, and 
the arts. Some are used for food, as Iceland Moss 
(i|. T.) and THpi! <U Roche (q. v.) ; soma afford food 
for cattle, as Beiudeer Mosa (q. v.); some are 
medicinal, as loelaod Moss; some sffmd dye-atuffs, 
as Archil (q. v.). Cudbear {q. v.), Ac 

I.rCHPIBLD, an ancient episcopal tHj of Staf- 
fordshire, England, a municipu and parliamentary 
bontu^ and connty in itself, is situated 17 miles 
aouth-^ast of Stafford, and 1 Ifi north-west of London. 
Ita chief edifies is the cathedral, part of which is 
in the Esily English style. It has tiiree towers, 
each snTmoonted by a spire, and is profuse and 
elaborate in its ornamentatioa. The Free Oramnuf- 
aeluM^ in which Addison, Ashmole, Johoaon, and 
Garrii^ ware educated, has an income of about £100 
a year, and has nine exhibitions, tenable for thres 
yean. ConsidOTablB brewing is carried on. Pop. 
(ini) 73*7> I* retuma ooe member to parliament. 



LlCiynrS, a Roman emperor. See Coinrut- 

LICTORS [according to Aulua Gellins, bunt 
Ugarr, to bind, because lbs Uctors had to bind tha 
hands and feet of criminals before punishing them) 
wen^ among the Bomsns, the omdal attendants 
of magistrates of the highest rank. They oarried 
the FoKa [a. v.) before the magistrates, clearing 
the way, and enforcing the use ot the appropriate 
marks ol respecL It was their duty to execute the 
punishments ordered by the magistrates, suoh as 
acoiugiog with roda, and behsaSng. They were 
originally free men of the plebeian order, and not 
tin the time of Tacitus oonid the office be held by 
freedmen. Slaves were never appointed lictors.. 

LIE, in point of I^w, is not a ground of action. 



nnless in pecnliai 
is materiu, and i 



his information, tell a lie, and which is belies 
be true, and acted on, and damage foUows, the party 
telling -the lie may be sued for the damagea. But in 
other cases, lying per m is not punishes by law, 
civilly or criminally. 

LIEBIG, JiTnrrs, Bsxon tow, one of the greatest 
chemista of the present agfli was bom at Darmstadt^ 
12th Hay 1803. He early shewed a strong predileo- 
tion for natural science. He studied atBonn and 
Erlangen, and afterwards in Paris, where he attracted 
the a-ttention of Alexander von Humboldt by a paper 
on Fulminic Add. This led to his appointment, in 
1824, as Extraordinary Professor, and in I8K, aa 
Ordinary Professor of Chemisby at Gieeaen, where 
he laboured with great activi^ for more than a 
qoartor of a cemtnry, making that small university 
a oentae of attraction to ftntwuts of oheniistry frMn 
all parts <A Germaoy and from foreign oonntriea. 
Many honours were conferred on him. xhs Duke of 
Hesse raised him to the rank of baion. In 1SS2, he 
accepted a professorship in the university of Mnoich, 
and the charge of the ohemical laboratory there ; 
and in 1660 was appointed president of the Muuioh 
Academy of Scienoea, as the successor of Thieisch. 

L, has laboured with suocess in all departments of 
chemistry, but particularly in organic ohemistiy, 
in which he has made many discoverisa and done 
mneh to imi^ove the methods of analTsLs. He 
hsa investigated with great care the iwations of 
organic chemistry to plmiology, pathology, agrioul- 
ture, kc ; and although many of his views have 
been combated, and several have been abandoned 
by the author himself, it is, nevertheless, oniveraally 
admitted that his researches have matly advanoed 
#Vfl a^aTiAA r^f >o,.{/>nUi,w, i^ paTticular. Hauy of 
the AtataUn der Chaaie 
led the WBrterbudi da- 
CAmue (Bninsw. 1S37— I36I) in oonjnnction with 
Po^endorf, and also a Supplement to this -work 
(1^>— 18SZ), hut the discoveries of moM recent 
years are exhibited in the later volumes. He 
wrote the part relative to Organic Chemistry in the 
□ew edition of Qeicer's HandbueA der Paarmade 
(Heidelb., 1839), published afterwards aa Dit Or- 
gaaiidiie CKejiaa in iArer Ameeadung anf PhytioU>(/ie 
und PalhoioffU, which was translated into French 
and En^h |lS42). His work on Oraanii: ChaiUitrjf 
in iU AppUealxan to AgriaiUttre (Bninaw, 1840] 
Tili l gli- h translation by Dr Lyon Flayfair, 1840; 
and French translatiaa by Oeriiardt, 1840), and his 
Chanical Leiier* (Paris, ISCS), all of which have 
gone through numerous editions, and have been 
translated into different languages, are afflong the 
most valnabls contributions to chemical literatore 
made in our age. He died April 18, 1673. 



dbyGoogk 



UECUTBNSIBUK— LIBUnSN'Airr. 



tioD, hoamnftren of only 60(qiiaresule«, vithftpop. 
of (1668) 6060. L. ia > monutaanoui dirtrict, Ijing 
OB the Upper Bhino, between SwitzerUnd «na the 
Tyrol, the IkUer bonnding it to tte N. and E., while 
the lUime fonns its western, uid the caaton of the 
OnBOEu iti Hmthem boUDdarr. It ii divided into 
the districts of Vodutz uid Schellenberg, &nd the 
OTincipa] town is Liechtenatein (pop. 1000), formerly 
known M YadnbL The products are wheat, f »t, 
and good winee and froit. Conaidmable nnmben 
of cattle are lused. L, with aereral other imall 
■tatea, fomed the USth memher of tiie Goman Cod- 
fadentLon, bnt in tiie Pkntm, or fall GonuoQ of the 
Diet, it had a separate Tote. It fnnuihed a eon- 
tinsBnt of 70 men to the federal anny. The Prince 
ot U, whose family is one of the mo«t ancient and 
illiiatriDaa of Centr^ Europe, poeseasea eztenaiTe 
mediatiied prindpalitieE in Austria, Fnuaia, and 
Saxony, whioh together extend over nearly 3300 
Btjoare miles, with a pop. of more than 600,000, and 
yield their proprietor an ^nnnal rerenne of 1,400^000 
Dorina. The government of L. is adnuniftered by 
the aid ot a chamber of repreoentative^ who meet 
annually to hold ■ diet, bnt whose aeti are nnder the 
oootrol of a Connoil of State, whioh has its M*t at 
Vieanai, where the prinoe onally naidM. The 
revenue of L. is 50,000 to 6(^000 BoriDa. Now, it 
ia not formally united with the Qennan BmjHre, 
bnt joina in. the Castoms-unioo of Anatria ; and it 
haanoanny. 

LtB'OB (so called in French, bnt W the Oermans 
ZtUHiA, and by the Flemings Xujne) is the most 
easterly prorince of Bel^um. Are^ 1100 square 
miles ; pop. {1870} 502,177. The southern p«tt of 
the province is nilly, rocky, heathy, and much 
covered with wood, in some places jieldinp, "- — 

of the Wo 

extraordinarily fertile and well onltiTated, and 
also splendid paatioage far cattle. The yalln- oi 
the Weeze is very beantifnl, and exhibits an endleee 
diveraity of sceneir. The railway from Aix-1&. 
Obapelle to L., which pnagei through this valley, 
haa had immense difficnJtiefl to overcome in the 
uatore of the gronnd, and ia conieqaently retarded 
as a cWifonim of the kind. Nearly a Kiith of 
tiie whole road had to be artiflcially oonttmoted. 
TiM inh^utants are Walloons. 

LiB'OB, capital of the province of the same name, 
ia aitaated on the Mouse, immediately below its oon- 
flneooe witii the Onrthe, in a magnifioent ] 



cm each side of the city, one of which is 

occupied by the citadeL Hie river, which divides It. 
Into two parts, the old and the new town, is crossed 
t»17I>ri^ea. I>. ia aaid to be the most ^otnreaqiie 
ody in fieuiam. Mai^ of tiie pnblio bnildii^ are 
fine^ especially Qie churdiea, of whioh the principal 
are the Chwdl ot St Jamea (founded 1014, finished 
1638), the cathedral (fitusbed 1S67), the Church of 
8t Martin's, the Churoh of the Holy Cioes (oonse- 
cnted 079), and 8t Baithelemy (which has 6 navea). 
The Palace of Joatioe, with it« painting and 60 
rooms — formerly the residence ot the episcopal 
princea of L. — and the TJmvenity, noted tor its 
mining-school, also deserve mention. The general 



high, badly ured, and 
of arms is the great 



nncleanly. The manufacture of arms is the great 
staple of mdustiy. Everywhere the hammer is heard ; 
coontless fo^ea flash out their sudden sparks, and 
iriiole ttreeti are red with the refleotica of firea. 



diate neighbourhood are important nno-toundiiea. 
h. i* connected by lailwayw with Bmssela, Antwern 
Narour, fto. Pop. in 186V, 106,412. 

L. became the seat of a bishop in the 6th c, and 
continued to be so till 1704; and its tnslu^ wen 
reckoned among the princes ' * " 

bnt as it early acquired 

importance, its inhaluti__ ,__„^. 

tot their own independence against thor lHib(^ 



ined a strog^ 



which frequent appeals were made 
Ihiring the wan ot Ixiais XIV,, it wi 
times taken and retaken. 

LIEGE POnSTIE. See Duts-bkd. 

LIE'ONITZ, a town of Fmasia, in th 

msnt ot t'l""'*, at the confluence of the 

waaser and the Katabach, 40 adles weat-north- 
waat of Breelan, It has nmoeront educational and 
benevolent institatians, art-collections, ftnd indna- 
tzial moMnms. Cloth, leather, and tobaooo are 
largely munt&otnred, and vegetables are ezten- 
sivdy cultivated in the gardens of the suboria. 
This town was, from 1161 to 167S, the residence id 
the Dokea of lieoniti. Here, in IS13, BlUchv 
defeated the Frendi. Pop. (1871) 23,12^ of whom 
about cme-fitth are Catholics. 

IjIEN, in &iglish andlrish Law, mean* the seoori^ 
or hold over goods or land for a debt whioh ia dne> 
A right of lien is the rij^t to retain good* of a ihiid 
partv which are in the creditor's huiOB, until a debt 
doe oy *noh party to the oreditor is paid. Pnssts 
sun ia in gmeral eaaential to constitute a lien, fcr 
the moment the goods are voluntarily parted with 
the lien it gone^ lisiw are goner^ or paiticnlar. 
Thus, an attornqr baa a nnend hen ovsr his dient^a 
papeis and title4eeds tSl the amonnt of hia bill ot 
costs is paid. So have bankers, dyers, aalioa-pdnt«n, 
factors. A partionlar lien is a hen ovtat goods, for a 
debt contrai^ed in respect ot soch goods, as for the 

See of them, or some labour expended on tbeta. 
oa, a miller has a hen on the floor he hsa groood, 
a toainer on the horse he has trained, to. There are 
also maritime liens snd equitable liens, which do 
not require powcsrion to ooiutitnte the right la 
Sootland, lien is generally called either Betentiia 
(q. V.) or Hypothec (q. v.). 

LISTRRB, a town ot Belgium, in the province cf 
Antwerp, 10 miks sonth-esst of the o^ of that 
name, at the confluanoe <rf the Great m^ little 
Nethe. L has noted hreweriei ; extensive mans- 
faoturea of linen, silk, Uoe, and mndoal inatmuenti 
an oanied on, and there are seven! ttuar-nfinesiM 
and oil-mills. Fop. (1S70) abont lE^SOO. 

LIBTTTB'NANT (Fr. bom Let. loBma-tmait, 
holding the plaee of another), a tsm applied ' 
variety of offioea of a reprcssotativs kind. 1 

in uiilitaiy matten, a Ueutaant-gaieral pvsoL— 

with each division of an trmy the general-ia-chkl 
A Lieuteiant-totMid (q. v.) eommanda a battalion 
for a oolonel, in the latter** absence. Bnt the title 
lientenant. without qualiflcatioD, denotes the snrnnd 
officer and deputy, or locum-tenens, of the captain 
in each oomnny of cavalry or infautay, A lieuten- 
ant in the British Foot Guards ranks as captain in 
the army, and exchanges with a captain in another 
regiment.— Copfain- lieutenant an obsolete lank, was 
the subaltern who commanded the 'ooImmI'* oom- 
pao^* in each re^ment — A teeottd^^itultaoMt i* the 
junior subaltern ot a ctmipany, and oorresponda to 
an Ensign (q. v.). The pay ot a lieutenant varies 
from 10*. id. a day in the Life Guards to 6a. 6<t in 
the line. 

In the BriMi navy 
in Uie case of the offii 



Thni, 



dbyGoogle 



tminESAXT—UFE. 



■peote cranawaid to tl 
r, with whcHU Iw naks, 



LlEUTiiHAirr, LoKD-, 



uny u 



----, JtM in i^ard to w. A 

. ._ . fall p^rialOA ft day; nod liii hiU-pky 
nngoi^ accndiog to length of wrTioM,&om. 4«; to 
7a b di^- ^i*: yean' wrriiM afloat an reqnuite *- 
qnal^ HI offioer for th« rank of UsatonaD^ and 
«andidat«ba« aUo topaMantkEaotoryezaminaC-^ 
ia ■emmaoahip and genanl piofenianal knowledge 
Am leaden in all minor aDtarpriaBa, aucb ai boat 
<xpeditioiia,<mttin([ ont,ftc.,lieutsnantB in WBr-tinie 
oany cA moat ot iha lanrala amidad 



L CoTTHTT, a per. 



from the oocamonol oommisai 
. by the crown in timea of dangc 
, requiring experienced peraona to miutai 
the inhabitanta of the oonntiea to which tha conunia- 
noBei* wara aeot, and aet them in military order. 
Hm ri^U of the crown to liane anch eommiwioai 
WM dntied t^ the Long Pu-liamont, thia queation 
nraring the immediate caoae of the breach between 
Charloi L and hia aabjecta. Their legality wu 
eatabliihed at the Bestoration by a declaratory act. 
The lonl-lientenant ii now the pennansut local 
of the crown, who, "~ ^' '-~ * 



land. L) act 1438 0. 3 



, to bring the , ^ 

of castlea and forfaIk«a into aabjeotionL 
and Uioiuh hia powen wo* executive nthor than 
jndiiaal, he aeema lometimw to hvre had anthoiitf 
to ezeiciae the f onctiona of the iherifi^ or overrola 
hi* dedaioiii. The loid-Iientanant of a county ii at 
the bead ot the mag a tntfy, the mihtiai and the 
TBomaiiryj he nonunatea officets of mitilja and 
vofatutema, and ia the chief axeontive aathority, 

between the ^Temmant and the magiatraoy, and 
oanaidBred aa nsponuble in oaaea of emergency for 

are permanent depi^-lientenantE appointed bj him, 
LlK LI TENANT, IjOIII>^, of Ibiuhd, the Ticeroy 
or depn^ of the aorereifn to whom the govemment 
of Ireland ii oommitted. The offioe haa existed 
tmm a remote period, the appointment having betm 
made under mSerent deai^utionc. Hia powen 
were in eariy timea very eitenaiTa, almoet r^aL 
For the laat half centanr following &a Berolntion, 
the lord-lieittenant reaided little in Ireland, viaitinff 
it only onoe in two yean, to hold the aeasion a 
pariiament Some lorda-hentenant never went to 
Ireland at all, and occaaionolly, instead of a viceroy, 
brda-jiutjcee (aee Jubttcb, Lonnfl) were appointecL 
The lOTd-limtenaot ia appointed nnder t^e great 
Kal of the United Kingdom, and bean the aword of 
atato aa Uie lymbot of hii viceregal office. He has 
the aaajatanoe of a privy-cooncO of 6S membera, 
appointed by the aovereign, and of officen of state. 
Ho b conmuBiioDed to keep the peace, and the laws 
aiMl enitrana of Irdand, and to see that justice 
it impartially administered. He haa the oontml of 
ths polioe, and may iinw orden to ibe general 
oomuandinK the tooopa for the support of uie civil 
oathori^, the protection 6f the pablic, the defenoe 
of the kingdom, and the sappression of insurrection. 
He may oonfer knighthood, and. previous to its 
ilisistililiiiliiiii III, had the diaposai ot church pre- 
fmmeat, aa well as all the otiier patronage of the 



ooTu^cy. The fraotinx of money, and lands, and 
pensionB, ot all titles of homonr aiM^iimj^ knight- 
hood, the ^tpointment of privy-councillor^ jiidgea, 
I»w-officef% uid gOTtmon of forbi, and Uie app^t- 
msnt to nulitary oommissions, are reserved to the 
Mvenign, noting however, on the lord-Ueutenanf a 
advice and reocanmendation. No compiaintof inins- 
tice or oppresaion in Ireland will be entertajjud by 
the sovereign untd fiist mode to the lord-lientanoot, 
who ia in no case required to exeouto the royal 
mstrucLoDB m a matter of which he may disappnjvo 
until ba can oommomoate with the aovcrei^ and 
reosive further orden. Tet, notwithstanding 
dignity and iwponiibili^ of hia offioe, iihe laro-l 



who is held reapcoudlde for the sovamment of Ire. 
land, and with whom it ia the iAy of the lord-lieu. 



the Treasury. Onhiaoooasionalartemporaiyabsene* 
from Ireland, lords-jnatioea are ^tpcoDted, who an 
uanally the Lord Pnmate, the Lord Chancellor, and 
the Commander of the FoToao. His salary is £SO,OUO, 
with a reaidenoe in Dublin C^utle, aa wall aa one in 
Fhmuix PaiL Bis tenure of office depends on tiiot 
of Uie minisbr of which he is a member. By act 
ID Qeo. IV. 0. 7, a Boaan Cathoho ia ineUgible fat 
the lieutenancy of Ireland. 

TTKT. (n ^10 British 
arwimant; 



t virtually a „_ ^ 

battalioD of m&ntiy and resiment of caraby, the peat 
ti oolmd hctng mwely an honourable sinaonTe, with 
asnally £1000 a year attaohed, awarded to a gennal 
cAoer. lite linitenant-ocdoMl is responsible fOr the 
discipline ot his battalion, the oomfort of hia meo, 
and ullamately for every detul oonneoted with their 
or^uiiaation. He is assisted in his dntiea 1^ the 
m»or. In the artillery and eugineen, whcie ths 
rank of colonel is a substsulivB rank, with tangible 
regimental dnticL the Ametiona of lieatenant.c(^ud 
~~~ man limited <Mia having ohatip of every two 

wries of MtiUay, or two oon^aniea of engineen. 

I laV of a lientenantoolonal varisa &i»i £1, Of. X(i 
, dicon in tbe HooBahold Oavaliy to 17a in the 
tnfaatiy of the Una. Elve yaata'zwnientalaOTioe 



seeking 
cult to find one thu 
is necessary, or exclude aonuthing that should 
be token in. Rioherand's definition of life^ that it 
ia ' a collection of phenomena which succeed eacll 
other during a limited time ia an oiganiaed body,' 



the twofold internal movement of oompodtion and 
decompoaitioa, at once gsnend and oontinnona.' Aa 
Mr Herbert Spauxx in hia i>{iidpl«t q^ Biologjf 
well obaarves, this omiception ia in some reapaots too 



excludes those nervous and iquacular funotiona whidt 

form the most oonspicuons and distinctive classes ot 

vital phenomena, while it equallv applies to the pro> 

sea going on in a living body and in a galvanic 

itery. Mr Spenoer (in 18S2) proposed to define 

> as 'the oo^ordinatian of actions,' but, aa ha 



iiiMbyLiOogle 



LIFE— LIFE-BOAT. 



observe*, 'like the othen, tbia definitiDQ iuclodea 
too muiJk, for it nuiy be uid of the solar ■yitem, 
with ita regalkrlj recarring movements uid iti 
■elf-baliuiciiig perturbatioiiB, that it also exliibits 
oo-ordinstion of actionA.' His present and amended 
oonoeptioa of life is : * The definite combination of 
heterogeneon* changes, both ■imultaneons and snc- 
oessive, in correepoadeiice with externa! oo-ezisteacel 
aad Bequencee.' One of tlie latest definitions of life 
is that irbich ha* been siiggested by Mr 6. fi. Lewes : 



-wjtbin an individual without deatrojlng 
titj.' This is perhaps as good adetinitiim aa ama fet 
been given ; but no one of those ve have quoted 
is more than approximately true, and a perfect 
definition of life seems to be an impossibility. 

LIFE, Mkam Dctb&tioh or. By this tenn is 
meant the average length of life enjoyed by a 
given number of penons of Uie same aga. Suppose 
we look at the Northampton Table of Uortality, we 
find that, of 3635 persons aged forty, 35S9 reach 
iottv-oae, 3482 reach torty'two, and so on ; the 
whole fa^g at ninety-six. The avenge a^ then 
attained by the 3636 persons being ascertained on 
these data, would be the mean duration of life after 
the age of forty bss been reached. Suppose, then, 
that a be the given number alive at a given age 
by a given mortality table, and b the number 
alire at the end of the first year, c the niunber 
alive at the end of the second, and so on ; then 
there die at the end of the first year, a — b; and 
amniming that those who have med have, on an 
average, lived half a year, the aggregate length 
of life enjoyed by those who have ^ed during the 
first year will be Ha—b] years; then 6 beinff 
still alive, the a persons have enjoyed, at the end 
of the first year, ^{a — b) + b = \{a + b) years. 
In the second year, the a petsons enjoy i(D->-c); 
in the third, the e persons enjoy {(e+<^ years; 
and so on. Summing thesr, and dividing by tiie 
original number of Qves, so as to Moertsin the 

average^ gives ) + — ; hence the role ; Add 

the numbers olivs at each age above that given, 
divide by tha number alive at the given age, and 
add half a year. The mean duration of life at a 

E'lven age ia often called tha ' expectation of life ;' 
ut thia is clearly a wrong term to use. 
Of 1000 lives at twenty, suppose GOO to 
reach forty-five; then a man aged twenty 
has an equal chance of reaching forty- 
five, and twenty-five years wonld be tus 
expectation of life. But it clearly does 
not follow that taking the fiOO who have 
not reached twenty-five, along with the 
SOD who have survived it, we should 
find, on extinction of tiie whole, that 
the Diean duration was twenty-five years. It mi| 
be either greater or less. The term ' expectation oi 
life,' oa generally applied by assurance companies to 
denote mean duration, is therefore a wrong one. In 
oonnection with this sabject, see Mobuutt, also 

LIFE-ASSTTILANCB. See Ikbuxasck 
LIFE-BOAT, a boat adapted to 'live* in a 
stormy sea, with a view to the saving of life from 
shipwreck. Its qrujitiea mnrt be buoyancy, to 
avoid fonndering when a sea is shipped; strength, 
to escape destruction from the violenoe of wave*, 
from a rocky beach, or from collision with the 
wreck ; facility in turning ; and a power of righting 
when capelEed. 

A melancholy wreck at Tynemouth, in September 
1789, soggested to the auMcribers to the Sontii 



Shield* News-nxon, who had witnesaed the destmo- 
tion of the crew one by one, that some special c 
struction of boat might he dsviaed for saving lifa 
from stranded veaseu. They immediately offend 
a premtum for the best form of life-boat; aitd the 
fiiBt boat built with the express object of saviu li'~ 
was that couatmoted on this occasitm by Hr Henrj 
Oreathead. It was of great strength, having the 
form of the quarter of a spheroid, with sides pro- 
tected and rendered buoyant within and without by 
the superposition of layers of oork. So useful was it 
in the firat twen^-ona years after ita introduetioo, 
that 300 lives were saved through its initrUTnentahty 
in the mouth of the Tyne abne. Mr Qiealhead 
received the gold medals of the Society of Arts and 
Boyal Humane Society, £1200 from parliament in 
1802, and a purse of 100 guineas from Lloyd's, the 
members of which society also voted jC2000 to 
enoourage the building of lifeboats on different 
Tiorti of the coast. Altbough various other life-boata 
have been invented from time to time, Greathead's 
remained the general favourite until about the year 
1S51, and many of his construetion are still to be 
seen on different points of the ooast They tailei, 
however, occaaion^ly ; aod several sad mishaps befell 
ths crews of life-boaU, especially in the case of one 
at South Shields, in which twenty pilots perished. 
Upon this the Duke of Korthnmberland offered a 
prize for an improved constmctiou, and numerous 
desinu were submitted, a hundred of the beat of 
~ h were exhibited in 1851. Mr Jamea Beeching 
of Yarmouth obtabed the award ; but hia bo^ 
was not aonsldered entirely satisfactory, and Mr 
R. Peake, of Her Majesty's Dockyard at Woolwich, 
was intmated with the task of producing a life- 
boat which ahould combine the oeat qualities of 
the different iuventiouB. His efforia were very 
suoceasfnl, and the National Life-boat Inrtitntion 
adopted bil model as the standard for tiie boats 
they should thereafter establish on the ooasta. 
Sections of Mr Feake's life-boat are shewn below, 
IB lengthwise through the keel, the other crosa- 
ise in the middle. A, A, are the thwarts on 
which the rowcra ait; BB, a water-tight deck, raised 
Buffidently above the bottom of the boat to be 
above the leval of tha aea when the boat ia loaded ; 
0, 0, are air-ti^t chambei* running along each 
^A, and occupying from 3 to 4 test at ea^ end : 




the buoyancy afforded by these more than suffices 
to anstun the boat when fully laden, even if filled 
with water. To diminish the liability to capsiae in 
a heavy sea, the life-boat has great beam (breadth) 
in proportian to her length, viz., 8 feet botm to 30 
length. In addition, the bottom is almost flal Aa 
in her boild it has been found convenient to dis- 
pense with cross-pieces, some means are required to 
preserve the rigidity of the whole structure amid the 
buffeting ot a tempest To achieve this, and also 
to serve the porpoaes of light ballast, Mr Peake fills 
the space between the boat's bottom and the water- 
tieht deck (BB) with blocks, tightly wedged together, 
oTcork and tig^t hard wood, D, D. These would 
form a false bottom, were a rent made in the outer 
covcaing, and, by tiieir comparative weight, coun- 
teract in some degree the top-&eavioess induced by 
the air-vessels, which are entirely above the water 



aiiyCoogle 



LIFE-ESTATB-IJPE GtJARDa 



line (H). nua unugnneDt would be insafficient to 
iHMtitMn the eqniUbnoai of the boat, however, &nd 
tmpedMHj under uil, n Mr Peake hM added a 




Tig. 2. — Saction ci«aawiis. 

bcavy ircm keel (B) of from 4 to 3 cwL, wbicli eCTeo- 
ta*Ilykeepa the boat atni^ht. Soma builders object 
to ttiu inm billaat ; the Liverpool and Norfolk boate 
tak« out their ^age, and preferably admit water 
wntil Bteadinen ie ■ecnred ; but Mr Peake has aa 
•ddilional object in view — tbat of caiuiiiig the boat 
to immadiatelj right itielE if tnmed upuds down, 
aa the beat hoata Bometimee will be in heavy galea. 
It will be noticed that the eoda of the boat liae 
above tlia centre U to 2 feet This, for one tMng, 
facilitatea taming ai the pivot on which her weight 
rents ia ahoitenea ; for another, if ihe capsizea and 
ia thrown bottom up, these nuaed caiaaona are anffi- 
cient to mitain her by their buOTaocy. So long, 
then, aa ihe floats preciaely in an inverted atate, she 
will be ateady ; but the slightest motioD to either 
aide — which, <tf course, in practice ensnea instantly 
— throwi the heavy keel off the perpendicular, in 
which ita centre of gravi^ was exactly over the line 
between bow and ttero, and the boat muat imme- 
diately right itaelL Thia prooesa ia ahewn in fig. 3, 



Kg. 3. 

where it will be perceived that the overtnraed boat 
mut forthwith right itaelf in the direction indi- 
cated by the arrow, on acconnt of the heavy top- 
weuht at El F is a covered trough, to contain the 
ta^e, aaila, &c, when act in use ; in aervice, it ia 
•bo Dsefol to receive any water that may penetrate 
among the cork and wix>den chocks beneath the 
water-ti^t deck ; thia leakage ia at idmea con- 
siderable when the outer skin of the boat hss sus- 
tained damage. The trough may be fitted with a 
small hand-pump, to enable one of the sitters to 
clear it out when necessary. 

Perhaps the most beautiful contrivance in tile 
life-boat ia that for discharging the water which 
tha ahipa. Thia conaista of nl relieving tubes, Q, 
each mx inches in diameter, raasinK through the 
deck, B, the ballaat, D, and the bottom. The 
tube*, which are near the centre of the boat, three 
on eiwfa side, have at the bottom a valve opening 
oatwarda. As the deck, B, ia always above the 
water-level, any water in the boat necesaarity flows 
oat through theae tubes, ao that if a wave burats 
over her, aud completely fills the boat, the relieving 
tobea free her, and she ia empty again in a few 
minntea. The greater the height of wator within, 
ths falter will S ran out. The advantages of the 



life.boat may be thus summed up. The air-cham- 
bers and the light ballast render nuking impossible ; 
the keel neariy prevents oapsizing, and rectifiea 
it, if it does happen ; while the relieving tubes 
effectnallyclear off any water that fioda its way 
within. With such preoautiona, the aafety of the 
crew wieaiB almost assured, and, in fact, loss of 
life in a life-boat is a very rare occurrence. 

The boat is kept on a truck — of coosidetable 
streEigth, as the life-boat weighs two tons — dose to 
the beach, and ia drawn to the water's edge when 
required ; the crew are treined to their work, and, 
it need not be added, are among the h&rdiest of 
seamen. Ordinary life-boats are rowed by eight 
or twelve oan (of the beat Hr) double banked ; but 
for small atationa, where it would be difficidt to 
collect ao many men at short notice, smaller boats 
are made, rowing six oara single banked. 

The importance of the lifel>oat ia saving life can 
scaroely be over-estimated. Hundreds (U vessels 
have their crews rescued through ita use every year ; 
and aa the National Ijfe-boat Inatitution obtains 
funds, this invention is being gradually extended 
all roiuKL the coast of the IToitod Kingdom, while 
foreign nattona have not been remiss in thus pro- 
tecting their shores. 

The J^ointi National Lift-hoot Irulitution, after aa 
nnrecognised existenoe for several years, was formally 
incorporated in 182^ Ita objects are, to provide and 
maiotain in efficient working order lif«-boata of the 
most perfect deacription on all parte of the coast ; to 
provide, through the instrumentality of local com- 
mittees, for their proper management, and the 
occasional exercise of their crews ; to bestow jiecuni- 
ary rewards on all who risk their lives in saving, or 
attempting to save, lile on the coast, whether by 
means of its own or other boats, and honorary 
rewards, in the form of medals, to all who display 
unwonted heroism in the noble work. It is sup- 
ported entirely by voluntary contributions. It saves 
about 800 lives annually, and is therefore eminently 
worthy of aupport. Its income for 1ST2 was £27,331. 
*' izpenditure for the same period was £2:t,l21. 
lociety has now a fleet of 2.^ life-boats itatioiied 
all round our shores. The coxswains of the boats 
e are paid at the rate of about £8 a year. The 
of the brave fellows who man the life-boats are 
volunteers. Since it* formation, the Society has 
been instrumenttJ in saving 21,485 lives, and has 
siven rewards in cash to Uie extent of £40,200, 
beaide* 91 gold and 843 silver inedala. 

The size of a common life-Boat renders it incon- 
venient for stowage on shipboard. To obviato this, 
the B«v. E. L. Berthon, of Farehsm, invented a 
collapsing boat, which is readily expanded, poasesaaa 
great streneth, and at the same time occupies 
comparativ^y little space when out of use. Ita 
sides are connected by various hinges. This boat ia 
extensively employed for ocean steam-shipB. 

LIFEl-ESTATE, in English Law, ia an estate or 
interest in real property for a life. The Efe may be 
either that of the owner or of aome third party, in 
which latter case it is called an estato pur autre me. 
Life-estates in lands are classed among Freeholds 
(q. v.). The tenant for life has certain rights in 
regard to the nses of the estate. He is entitled to 
cut wood to repair fences, to bum in the house, Jtc 
Be cannot open a mine on the estate, but if it was 
already opened, he is entitled to carry it on for his 
own profit Life-estates are created by deed, but 
there are certain estates created by law, as Courtesy 

3, v.), Dower (q. v.), tenancy in tail after possibility 
issue extinct As to Scotland, see Literemt. 
LIFE QUAKD8, the two senior regiments of 
the mounted portion of the body-guaid of the 



ab,G00gl( 



L^E-PRBSEBYXEtS — LIGHT. 



Britith lOTBrai^ and pziitcai <i Londim. They 
took their origin In two troops of horac'grsaAflien 
niaed reapectiTsly in 1693 and 1702 : them troops 
wsre reduced ia 1783, ud reformed u regiments of 
Life Gnards. Althougji oaually employed about 
the ooort uid metropolii, the I^e Ouards are not 
exempt from the liability to foreign ■errioa wlien 
requireiL ban^ di«tiiigni>bed th^naelTee in the 
PaunniU and at WateiW The men ace all nx 
feet bi^ and iqtwardi, aimed with airord and 
carbinet wmt knse-booti, iMther braeobe*. rad ooats, 
and ctael belmeti. Tb»j also v«Br iteel cnirasaea, 
the utility of which it coniida«d Teiy donUfnL 
With tbis unwieldy armonr, Huy '^SSP* pov^i^ 
borae«i which an nnifonnly black. Tba nro regi- 
moita oompriae S6S men, with OSO honea. and thair 
pfty a^ penoual allowanoeM amount to £53,201 

LIFE-PBESKUV EHS, inventtoni for the pneer- 
ration of life in casee of fire or ihipwreok. The fire 
lifa'preaerven will be fannd traated of nnder 'Facm- 
DCuira. The other olata inclndea the varioni oos- 
trivances tor pteaerring the buoyancy of the hmiuui 
bodr, and for reaching tbs ahoie. Of tiuM, the 
reameit and most tStmrt are empty water-OMki, 
well bunged-np, and with rcpM attadied to them 
to bold on by. It has been tonai that a 3&-gBllon 
cask u prepared can support ten men oouTeniently, 
in tolerably smooth water. Cook's and Bodgers 
patent life-rafts oonsiit of square frames bnoyed 
up by a cask at each comer. Among foreign 
nation!, frames of bamboo, and inflated goat ^d 
aeal ikina, bare been long employed as life-pre- 

fallW into Ae water. Since . _. 

cork, Jadtets and belts of that material 

Tariefy hare been patented. It has been oaleulated 
that one pound of oork is amp^ anffideut to aiqipart 
a man of ordinary nze and nuks. A few yean agoi 
on the inrentian of india-rubber doth, inflated bdti 
of this material wera made, and found to be nip«rior 
in bac^aney to the oork belt, beaidea, when emptied 
of sir, beiugrery portable. l^eyar«^baweTer,maah 
mon liable to damage by being punctured ot torn, 
or to decay by being put awar miile dMipk Some 
of'theee defects an remedied br haring the intoior 
of the belt divided into aererai compartments 
that, when one is '^■""g-^. liie nm; ' ' 
still suffice. TariODS forms of inflated 
pillowy &C., bare been made on tl 
and been found rery effectire , 
the Oreat Exhibition ot 18SI having anstained 06 
pounds for fire daya without injury. Bnt the 
lavoante life-buoy among sailon ia eompoaed of 
ilicM of cork neaUy and compactly arranged, so as 
to form a buoyant zone ot about 30 or 32 inches 
in diameter, 6 in width, and 4 in tJiiflrm— i^ 
oouMqnently contuns about 12 Ibe. of cork, and ia 
genadly oorered with painted canvas to add. to its 
Btisigth and protect it from the injnrioua action of 
the water. A buoy «o oooatructed can nwtain >ii 
persons, and it ii generally famished with a lifit-Une 
(a oord running round tiie outade ot the buoy and 
fastened to it at four poiata) to afford a mora conve- 
nient hold. Tbis life- pn ae i TU i is found on boaid of 



; and in China, it ia customary for those 
a the banks of the canals to lae gourd* to 



ne principle 



'LIFBKBNT, in Scotch Iaw, means a right to 
nie a heritable estate for life, the person enjoying it 
beilig called a liferenter. The ri^ts of a hferenter 
nearly resemble, though they are not identical with, 
diaee of a tenant for life in En^and. See Lmt- 



peas from the deck over pulley at the mast-head, 
and tbanoe to ne«r the eztnmitiM ot tike ytatL Hw 
lift bean the designation ot the yard to which it is 
ittaohed, as /on-tifl, maai'top-gaUajU-lifl, Ik. Sea 



LI'GAMBNTS are cords, band*, or membnnona 
\ ot white fibrous tissue, which play an 
■ ■ aol joints 



bone to ■ 



t tbsy 






fixed 
! to limit I 

joint, while they freely allow othera. 

Todd and Bowmait, in their Pkytiological JnaAmif , 
airaiwe ligament* in three dasua : 1. Anteulor, 
rounded crads, sodh as tlu external lat«ral Bgameat 



or lest Kcpanded, rmIi a* ttie latn«l limmsnta of tba 
elbow-Jtunt, and the ap«at mijoity m ligMn«nt« ia 
the body I 3. OaptiMr, n^iioh are banal-ahaped 
expaoaioiw attached by tiietr fvo enda to tiie two 
bcolee entering into the lormation of the joint, whioh 
they oompletdy but loosely invest : tiiey ooostitnta 
one of the chief charaotan of the baU-and-aocket 
joint, and occur in the shoulder and hip joints Sea 

LIQATU'HA, an Italian term in Murio, mfftJiing 
binding, frequently marked by a dur, thus ^ — s, 
which u placed over certain notes for the nurpoae at 
shewing that they are to be blended together ; if ia 
Tocal mnsio, that tiiey are to b« sung wiUi one 
breath ; also used in instrumental mnmo, to mark 

LI'OATinElE, the term applied, in Suigen, to 
the tiuead tied round a blood-TDMel to atop bleed- 
ligatm«* moat oommonly used oonsist at 



„ ^lie ligatm«* moirt oommonlyi 

itKniR hempcu or nlk thieadji; bat catgut^ ] 
hair, so., have bean employed by aome surgeoi 
ligature should be tied round an artery with 
sufficient tightness to cut through it* middb and 
internal walls, Although the opetation of tying 
arteries was cleariy known to Bufos ot Ephean^ 
who flourished in the time of Tnjan, it mbaequently 
fell into desuetude, till it wa* rediscovered by 
Ambrcaa Pai^ in the leth centuiy. 

LIGHT is the subjeot of the edenoe id Optica 



a all 



nd Uiat it* 



... . on the o dipa o s of Japiter'a *a teUit *B and othsg 
neana,tabel6&0wmilei^ieocmd. Shadow* (q. v.) 
are a rtanh of it* abai^ transmisn^i j au '' 
foUowa friBn it* dirar^ng '- " '^—-"—- *- 
a Inmiiun* ceutrav tlut it 
inveraely as ihe squan ot the 
Dentre. When it fidls on the surfaces of bodies^ 
it is reflected from thorn, regularly or irregularly, 
totallr or paitiallr, or is putly or wholly bans- 
mitted at refracted thnwoh them. The phenomena 
of the rafleotian and of we nfmction of light an 
treated of nspectively nnder the beads Catoptriei 
(q. T.) and Dioptrics (q. v.). The taoti of obaar- 
ntion on whidi ottoptrica ia founded an two: 
1. In the rtdeotkm of li^t, tlM incident ny, the 
nonnal to Uia wcataob, au the rsdeoted iw an in 
one plane ; St. The an^ ot redeetion i* equu to the 
ano^ of iondcBoe. Similar to theae an tMiiiyncal 
law* on which dioptric* ia founded. When a t^ 
of homogeneona li^t i* incident on a rWiacting 
snrfaoe, 1. The incidimt and rafraoted rH lie in tiie 
same plane as the normal at the point of intriilcni^ 
and <m of^Maita aidea ot it ; 2. Tbe ana of tha ai^ 

,1, ibjljoogle 



UGHT— LIGHT-HOUSB. 



«( h>iiHi™*> trbatenr th»t *^Off' ™V ^ bean, 
to the angk <d nfnotioii, * r»aa dependent only 
on Um astora <^ tb* medi* batwaan whioh the 
nfmaUon t^e* ]^Mei and ca the nitiu* of the 
liglil in itatW tiuM l«w% we h»T« hiated ftt 
KgU hmg <^ di&nnt kioda. At one timt, it wm 
— _* ^ — . - - - ^ that oolonr had uiythinff to do with 
tlMTB ia no BBtiou di^ata but t^at 



txax I — _ „ -_ 

tfaeoi^ ob«jring tbe Mine gsnanl lawa. 



propeitiei. 



ri^t of DToapaot, of of hsTing a flue view, k not 
Teoagniaed by Ote Uw, except to fu that the lightL 
-£.„ nn L ,^ jj^ ieniibly i-«- --^°^•- 



not notioed abora, the artidra Abmbjuxiov, 

Dirnuonmi, DnrxBsiov, lanansxncb 

Two hypouiaaa* have been adTmnoed to otplMn 

"-* it pltencoaena U light, via., the theoiy of 

' tM ampaaenlar tbMi7, and the theory of 

nAnwoi^ or fitenndiilatory theory. Aooordingtothe 

foraMz, lidt is an attemuted inptoklarable snb- 

•tMtee, noaa oohnm dc^Mtd on toe Telocdty of ita 

It nomida reflecldoa m aoalogons to 

itio bodiea ; vhile, to explain 

, „ . . that there are iutenticei in 

toattnanut bodiea^ to allanr of the puaage o£ the 
partidee of li^^ ud that tieaa particle! are 
atfaaoted bj tfce moleciUee of bodiea — their attiao- 
tum oomhining with the Telocity of the particles of 
light to oaaaelhem to deriate in their ooime. The 
tudnlatay theory aunme* tiut li^t ia propagated 
hv Uu ribralicaia of an imponderabla matter turned 
Ether (q. t.). On Una view, light is Hmewhat 
■imilar to sound (see Ivtibfebbiiqb}. Newton was 
tba anthor of the former thsocy, and Huyghens 
may be t^arded as the author of Uie latter. The 
thaoric* were long Hvali, bat now no doubt remains 
that the theory ol nndulatiotia has triumphed over 
the other. Iti soundDaw may be said to reat on 
juiilmj- eridence to that which we hare for the 
theory of giaritatioii : it had not only satisfactorily 
aocosntod for all the phenomena of li^t^ bnt it has 



d diMonring 

fae^ h hw siqrpliad Hm philaaa|ibn with the power 
of pn»ciBDca m renid M its Bnbjeot. Thoee who 
vidi to rt^y the theocr may adTantagMiuly oou 
■oU ita poniW szpoaitioii by Toiuig (^ei:^r«t 01 
JToteral J^UlMopAy, Lcodon, IMS), and Uoyd' 
?raK T^laMy^JD^f (Dublin, 1S06}. Ibe mathe- 
mataoal theory ia very fnUy inveatigated in Airy*a 
Mntluiwtatieal Tradt. 

LIOBT. In point of Iaw, the ii(^t to li^ ia one 
of ^ ri ghta incident to the owiMmhip of laad and 
hooMi. wImd it ia daimsd in inch a way aa to 
intnto« wiA * neidiboiu'a abaolnta rigbbi, it ia 
eatted, in Eiu^a&d a^ bdand, an Easement (q. v.), 
•nd in SooUMd » Scrvitada (q.r.). In Eu^tand 
»oA bland, the ri^ to ligh^ aa between nei^- 
bem, ia qualified in Qua way, and toimi a anbjeot 
of &«qiunt ^apate in towna and poytdooa plaoea. 
U A Mild a hcraaa on the edge A hia ground 
with windowa lookisg into ffa field tx garden 
which ia adiaaent, B nutj next day, or any time 
within SO Teara, nm up a honaa or aoreen eloaa 
to A^ window^ and daAan them all, for one haa 
■a good a luht to build on hia own land aa the 
otliai. Bnt SB allow A'a honsa to stand 20 yean 
withodt building B ia for ever aft«r prevented 
frooi bnOding on hia own land so aa to darhBn 
A'a lighta, (or A then aoqoiies a prescnptivs right 
to an laaeiiiiiiil over Ka luida. In the Soman law, 
a MCSon waa entiUad not <mly to a aervitnde d. 
li^d^ but also of jmspeot; but in thia oountcy tiie 



.... . jpt by apeoial 

fl-ant ; whereaa in En^aAd, if nothing ia aaid, the 

right ia aconiied by preMnption, or mere l^ae of 

tjme. In uootlsnd, a ndghDonr, B, may, aner i!0 

"^aiBiOrai^diBtanoeof timetbnijdonhia own land, 

id darken A'a windowi, proridad he do not act 

antomly, enmlou^, tw ao aa to oanaa a nniaance^ 

LIOHTER, a large flat-bottomed barge or boat, 

oanally propelled or guided by two heavy oara, and 

uaed for conv^Hng merchandise coala, ftc., between 

-ihipa and portions of the shore they oannot reach by 

'eason of uibit draoght. 

LIGHTFOOT, John, one of the earlier Hebrew 
scholara of England, was bom in 1602 at Btoke-apon- 
Trent, in StafTordshire. He stndied at Chrufa 
Colh^e, Csmbridce, and, after entering into order*, 
beoame nhapUin to Sir Bowland Cottw, who, being 
himaalf a sood Hebrew aoholar, innired L with a 
desire to beoome one alao. In 10x7, appeared hb 
BnMim, or Mitedbaua ChrMaa <u>a Judaieat, 
which were dedicated to Sir Bowland, who, in 1031, 
preaeuted him to the rectoiy of Aahley in Staffotd- 
ahiik Subeeqnentlj, he ramored to London, that 
ho mi^t have better oi^orttmitaea tor the prrae- 
cntion of hit bvonrite atndy; and fn lSi2 he 
waa choaen miniater of 9k BarthoIomeVit to the 
paiiahionen of wUch he dedicated his ffandfiil 
of OUtmbtgt out ^ Om BoiA <)/ Beodu* {London, 
ltH3). Hia most important won if ffora Htbraica 
et "ralmudka, ftc {Cambridge, l&tS)), recently 
- ■■'-■ byR-GandeU (4 voh., Oxford, 1859). L. 
of the Assembly of Divinee who met at 



ro-edtted bv R. OandeU (4 vola., Oxford, 1869). 
WHS one of the Assembly of Divinee who met __ 
Weatminater in 1643, and In the debatn that 
oe there, betrayed a deoided predileeldan for 
ibytenan form of ohoreh government. In 
» vear, he waa choaen Ha^^ of Catharine 
Hall, Camteidge, and in 1656 vioa-chaiicellor of tha 
, At the HeatoratioB, he oomplied with 
of the Act of TTniformity. He died at 
Ely, December 6, 1676. At hia death, he waa 
ennoed on a Harmony. 'Die first oclleoted edition 
of Xi. a works was pnbhahed in 16S^ in 2 vola. folio ; 
the best, by the Bav. J. Pitanan, in 1822— 182^ 
i_ ..■_ j^ ^^^^ ^ very learned Hebraiat for 
he waa not frae from the nnamentiflo 
cTOtciheta ot the poiod, holding, for example, the 
of the Towel-pointa, ka. He haa done 



and Ifidraahie writinga and the New Teatunent, 
which, to a eertidn ax^t, is cnh> to be nndentood 
by illnalistiona Ircan the anterior and contempo?' 
aneoua religkna litetvtnre. 

IiIGHT-HO0SE,a bnilding on some conaplonona 
point ol the seft'ihore, island or rock, from which a 
%ht is exhibited at nifjht aa a guide to mariners. 
The Hght-booaffl of the LToited Kingdom now num- 
ber, vnUi harbonr-Ugbts, upwards of 600 atations, 
and indnds some ot uie finest specimens of enEineer- 
ing, such at Smeaton'i Eddyitone, Robert Steven- 
age Bell Book, AJan StevenBon's Skerryvore, and 
James Walker's Bishop Bock. More recently, some- 
what similar atracturas have been erected OB the 
Wolf Book in the English Channel by Mr Dooglaas, 
and on the Duheartach Rock, Argyleahiio, and on 
the Chickena, off the lale of Man, by Mesgra D. ft T. 
Stevenson. Aa information will do found under 
their reapeotive heads regarding some of these inter- 
eatiagiworka, we shsll restrict ouraeivea in the follow- 
ing lEort memrar to the meet approved means of pro- 
^nuing a powwfnl light for the nae of Uie mnmer. 



Digili 



dhy Google 



LlGHTHOUSa 



Catoptric w Rejleeting Sgttem. — All of those n^ 

... .. , .» _ paraboloid 

a reflected 

a form s wlid beam of 

n of luch n&ecton are amuiged 



incidsnt upon iti Burfacs into one beam of paral' 
lei rayi, it would be abiolutelj impouible, were 
the Uame from whioh tlie raya proceed a mathe- 
niatical point, to prodaca a light which woald 
illnminate the whole of the honzon, niileu there 
were an itiSnite niunber of reflectors. Bat as Uie 
radiant, inrtead of being a madenUitical point, is a 
physical object, oooststing of a flame of 7017 notable 
size, the rays whioh come from the outer portion of 
the ImninouB cone proceed, after reflectioo, in such 
divergent directions, as to reader it practically 
possible to light op, thoogh unequal^, the whole 
noriion. The oseful divergence produoed in th 
way bv a boruer of one inch in diameter, with 
focll distanoe of four inches, is in the horiiontal 
plane aboat 14° 22". The whole horizon may thus 
be illuminated by reflectors. 

If, tar the porpose of distinction, it is desired to 
■hew a Ttmlvmg light, then several of those reflecton 
•re placed with their aiea parallel to each other on 
each of the faces of t, fonr-sided frame, which is 
made to revolve. la saeh a case, the mariner sees a 
light only at those timea when one of the faces of 
the frsme is directed towards him, but st other 
times he is left in darkness. The rotation of the 
fraoM npoa its axis thus produces to his eye a 
■accession of light and dark intervals, which enables 
him to distinguish it from tlie fixed light whidi 
is constantly m view in every atimutb. The dis- 
tinetioa of a red lisbt is produced by using a 
chimney of red insteadof white glass for each burner. 
The Jfofhing or scintillating light, giving, by rapid 
revolutions of the frame, Suam once every nve 
seconds, which is one of the moat striking of all 
the distiuctioal, was first introduced by Ue late 
Ml Bobert Steveason, the en^neer of the North- 
em light-hooses, in 182^ at Rhions of Islay, in 
Argyleshire. The same engineer also introduced 
what has been ealled the iniemulUni light, by which 
a slktioaary frame with reflectors is instantaneously 
ecUfiaed, aud is again as suddenly revealed to view 
by the vertical movement of opaque cylinders in 
front of the reflectors. The intenaittent is distin- 
guished from the revolving light, wbich alga appears 
aud disappears successively to the view, by the 
suddenness of the ecIipBes and of the reappearances, 
whereas in all revolving lights there is a gradual 
waxing and waning of the light. The late Mr 



Wilson introduced at Troon Harbour an 
tent light which was proiluced by a beantifolly 
simple contrivance for suddenly lowering and rais- 
ing a gas'flamb Mr Robert I^uis Stevenson has 
ptoposed an intermittent light of vofpial periaU 
by causing onequal sector of a spherical mirror 
to revolve between the flame, and a filed dioptric 
apparatus (such as that shewn in flgs. 3 and 4). 
The power of the light is increased by tite acUon 
of the spherical mirror, which also acts as a nusk 
in the opposite azimuths. The number of distinc- 
tive Ught-hoose characteristics has oot yet been 
exhauated in practice, for various other distiuctions 
may be produced by combiDstion of those already 
in use ; a* for example, revolving, flashiag, or inter- 
mittent lights might be made not only red and 
white alternately, Dut two red or white, with one 
white or red. Similar combinations could of coarse 
be employed where two lights are shewn from the 
samc^ or from separate towen. 

Dioptric Syiteta. — Another method of bending the 
diver^ng rays proceeding from a lamp into such 



solid beam of light M. Augustin Fresnel was 
first to propose and to introduce lentlaulai action 
into light-house illumination, by the adoption of 
the annular or built lens, which had been sug- 
gested as a burning instniment by BnfTon and Cun- 
dorcet He also, m coniuDction with Arago and 
Mathieu, used a large jamp having four concen- 
tric wicks. In order to produce a revolving light 
on the lentiooUr or dioptric system, a dUTereut 
arrangement was adopted from tliat which we have 
described for the catoptric system. The large tamp 
was now made a fixture, and four or more annular 
lease* were fitted together, so aa to form a frame of 
^lass which surrounded the Ump. When this frame 
IS made to revolve round the lamp, the mariner gets 
the full effect of the lens whenever its axis is 
pointed towards him, and this full light fades 
' lally into darkness as the axis of the Uns passes 
him. In (nder to operate upon thoae rays of 



gradually in 



rendenng . — .-j..^.—^ — ^ _;..- ^ 

which came from the annular lens, L. But Fresnel 
lid not stop here, for, in order to make the lenticular 
lystem suitable for fixed as well as revolving lights, 
ho designed a new optical agea^ to which the name 
of egtit^rie refractor has been given. This consisted 
of cytindrical lenses, which were the solids that 
would be eeneratBd were the middle vertical profile 
of an anuiJar lens made to circulate round a verlicsl 
axis. The action of this instrument is obviously, 
while allowing the rays to spread naturally in the 
horizontal plane, to suffer refraction in the vertical 
plane. The effect of this instrument is therefore to 
shew a hgbt of equal intensity constantly all round 
the horizon, and thus to form a better and more equal 
light than that which was formerly produced for fixed 
lights by parabolic reflection. It is obvious, how- 
ever, from our description tlmt the diveivifig rays 
which were not intercepted by this oylindric hoop, 
or those which would have pwed upwards and been 
uselessly expended in illumiaating Che clouds, or 
downwards in uselcsaly illuminating the ligbt-room 
" }ar, were lost to the mariner ; and in order to 
. inder these effective, Fresnel ultimately adopted 
the use of what has been called the internal or total 
reflection of glass ; and here it is necessary to explain 
that one of the great advantages of the action by 



«i),Google 



LIGHTHOUSE. 



glau over refiection by met&I ii the amalUr quuititj 
of light that it abaorbs. It has been ucertaiaea 
that there ii a gain of nearly one-fourth (-219} bj 
employing glau priBmi instead of metallic reSectora 
for lieht-hooae it lamination. There were therefore 
iiibn>dac«d above and below tbe cylindrio refcactiog 



Fig. 3. 

hoop which we have deacribed, Beparet« glaM priimB 
of triaii);alar aectioQ, the Qrat aurface of each of 
which refiMted to a certain extent any ray of light 
that fell upon it, while the teoond rarfaoe waa 
placed at inch an angle oa to re&eot, by total refleo- 
tion, the ray which had before been redacted l^the 
flntmrface ; and the lait or ontar inrfaco prodnced 
another refraction, which made the nya fiiuUy paM 
ont parallel with thoae refncted by the eenlfal 
cylii^ric hoop. The light falling abore the cylindrio 
hoop was thus by r^ractioni and raflecUoni bent 
downwardi, and that falling below waa bent opwiiila, 
M aa to be mniB horizontal and panllel with that 
proceeding from the refracting hoopt Figs. 3 and 4 



Bg.& 

eleration and vertical lection thia, which 
ia the moat perfect of Premel's ioventiooi in light- 
hooM iUnimnation. eapecially when made in' pieces 



with the diagonal framing introduced by Mr Alan 
SterenaoD. La the fig.,pahewi the refracting and 
totally reflecting priinu, and R the cylindrio refractor. 
From what biM been stated, it will be readily 
•een that, in ao tar ai regarda filed lights, which are 



required to illaminate eotulimt'ji the whol« of the 
horixoa with equal intentity, the dioptrio light of 
fV«snel with Mr Alan Stevenson's improvemeut* ia 



a perfect inatmment. But the case ia different m 
regards revolving lights, or thoae where the whole 
rays have to be concentrated 



p reach the 

aye of the mariner, while, if we return to the 
dioptrio revolving light of Freanel (lig. 2|, we Hod 
that thoae rayi which eacape paat the lens are acted 
on by l\BO agents, both of which cause loss of light 
by abaorption. The loaa occaBioned by the inclined 
mirrors (Hg. 2). and in pasaing through the pyrainidnl 
inclined leases, wu estimated by Freanel himself at 
one-half of the whole incideot rays. In order to 
avoid this loas of light, Mr Thomas Stevenson pro- 
posed, in 1849, to introduce an arrangement by 
which the use of one of these agent* is avoided, and 
the employment <i total r^ection, which bad been 
Bucceasiully employed by Freanel for fixed light); 
was introduced wiui great advantage for revomng 
lights. 

'This effect may be produced in the cose of 
metallic rellectara by the combination of an annular 
lens, L (fig. 5) ; a parabolio conoid, o, truneated at 
its parameter, or between that and its vertex ; and 
a portion of a spherical mirror, b. The lens, when 
at Its proper focal distance from the flame, subtends 
the same angle from it aa the outer lip* of tbs 
paraboloid, ao that no ray of light coming from 
the front of the Same can escape being intercepted 
either by tbe paraboloid or the lens. The spherical 
reflector occupies the pUce of the pambolic conoid 



which has been cut oEF behind the parameter. The 
flame is at once in tbe centre of the spherical mirror, 
and in Uie common foous of the lens and paraboloid. 
The whole sphere of rays emanating from the flame 



iGoogli 



LIQHT-HOUaE. 



may be legarded as divided into two heimaphen 



jericd miiror tx^hid the flMiie,aiid i .. 

fleeted fotirarda agun, throng tlu loom in tt 
■■■"■ lines, but in ajqioBite diredooiu to thoM i 



from th« anterior iMmiiphere. Thii iiurtraiaeiit, 
therefore, foMls the neoeaeary conditums, by collect- 
inB the aUire tjAert t^ diaergmg ragi into otic beam 
4ifparaM rayt toiAout emploj/mg any imneceiMry 

What has been jnat described ii Ahat Mr Steven- 
•on terms a eato^ric holophate. What folloira is a 
description of hit dioptric hoiopkoti, in which total 
reflection, or the moet perfect system of illnminati 
ia adopted. The front half of the raye ia oparal 
upon by totally reflecting gloss pritim (p, |), fig. 



timilar in Mctian to thoae ^iplied by Fresnel for 
fixed lights ; bnt instead of being onrrilineaT in the 
IiorizoiSal plane only, they an also onrrilinear in the 
Tertical pUne, and thtu produce, in nnioa with an 
aontilu lens, a beam of parallel rays, similar to what 
is efTacted 1^ the parabolio mirror (fig. 1). The rayl 
proceeding bBckwarda fall npon jjlais prisms, ai, ab, 
which prodDCB two total reflection* iroon each ray, 
and canse it to pass back throiuh the flam^ so as 
nltimate^ to fait in tbe proper direction npon the 
diopbric Eolophote in froo^ m> that the whole of the 
light proceeding from the flame la thus nltimately 
paraHeliaed by means of the smallest nnmber and 
the beat kinda of optical agents. It is a remarkable ' 
property of the spherical mimv, al>, that no ray' 
pawea Otrough it| so that an oba^vet itandinK 
behind the initmment perceires no light, thoagh 
there is nothing between tiim and the flame bnt a 
■oreen of tracaparent glass. 

Where the light it prodneed by a great central 
stationary homer, the niparatus asanmei the form 



rerolvea roqnd the central flame, the mariner is 
alternately illuminated and left in darluieea, accord- 
ing at the axis of each snoceraive face ia pointed 
towards him or from him. The difference between 
the rovolring light of Presnel and the bolophotol 
light, will be readily seen by oomparing fig. 7 and 
fig. 2, in the former of which, one ^ent is enabled 
to do the work of two agents in the latter, white 
total reflection, or that by which least light ia lost, 



is snbstitated for metallia reflection. The dioptrio 
holophotal system, or that by which total r^fltctioH 
U uted at a portion <f Ue rnwieifiy apparaiaM, was 
firat employed on a 
small soJe m 1S60 at ' 
the Eorsburgh Light- 
house, and on the large 
scale m I8GI, at Noi& 
Ronaldahay in Orkney. 
Since that date, tlus 
system has been all 
bat nnivenally iutro- 
duoed into Europe and 
America. 

AvmiMihal VimdeM- 
uiff lAght. — The above 
is a description of the 
genmal pnnciples r- 



ing a light i . 

sitnationa, regard, how- 
ever, most be had t 
rsical pecoliari 
the locali^; 



Kg. 7. 



Ur Thomas 
may be dted as ez- 
amplea. In fixed lights of the ordinary constrao* 
ticn, the light is distributed, as already ezpluneiL 
equally all ronnd the horizon, and is wall adwted 
for a rock or island snrromided by_ the sea. Bnt 
where it ia only necessary to iUuminate a nanor 
Sound, aa shewn by the chut, fls. 8, it it obviont that 
the requirements are very di&rent. On the aide 
next the shore, no light is required at all ; acroa the 
Sound, a feeble light is all tbat ia neoetsary, becanaa 
tile distance at which it has to be seen it email, 
lii^ to the narrowness of the chsnnel ; while up 
e £>nnd pC) and down the Sound (AA), the bm 
be Olnminated ia of greater or le«er extent, and 
requires a oorreaponding intensity. If the light wen 
made sufficiently powerful to answer tor the gteater 
much too powarful for tiis 



ently powe 




thortardistanoe aoroaa the Sound. 8u<^ an arrange- 
ment would occasion an unneceaaary waate of oil, 
while the lisht that was cast on the landwaid side 
would be altogether nseleat. Pig. 9 Tepreeenta (i 
plan) the condenaiDg light, by whi<^ (A« I 
ingframiiKJUxmiieiiSiooattiim lAedtAi 



marked jS to a somewhat smaller distance up the 
Sound. In Older to strengthen those arcs, the spare 
light proceeding landwards, which would otherwise 
be lost, is intercepted bjf portions of holo[^otes, B 
and C, subtending spherical angles proportioiied to 
the relative ranges and angular spaces of the arcs 
a and ^ The portioni of light thus intercepted are 
parallelised by the holophotee, and fait npon atmi^ 
priams a, a, and i, h, respectivdy, which again refract 



LIGHT-HOUSE. 



them ID the liori«nit*l pkne onlj' ; ftnd, after paning 
throng focal pointa ^dependent for each prum), 
the^ emeise in leparate eqoal beami, and direm 
UiToogli tEe Mine angles aa ■ and ji leapective^. 



■bengtheni 

otOiaing, in the manner ire hare dewnibed, the light 
whieh would oilierwiBe have been lost on the land. 
Theae initnimeota «er« fint intradnoed at three 
Sooudli^tain thewett ot8eotland,iu isn, where 
ifipantna of a amall aite, combined with % imall 
bmner, waa fonnd to produce, in the onlj directiona 
in which neat power wai reqaiied, beuna of light 

anal to ue laigeat cIms of appar^na and bnrner. 
le taTioff thoB eSeoted in ou, Ac, haa been eiti- 
nwted *t abont £400 or £SW> pec annnin for theae 
tiiree atationB. 

AppartKi Light — At Storaoway Bay, the position 
of a aonk rock haa been aufGcieatly indicated by 
meuis of a beam of parallel rays CArount from tHe 
AoTt upon certain optical apparatna fized in the top 
oC a beacon elected inmn the rock itself. It waa 
nggeated that the Hght-houie ahoold be bnilt on 
the ontlying labmerged reef, but the coat would 
hare been very great, and Mr Steveoaon'a aoggeatiOD 



' X^'l 


ITH 


ji 


J 



<rf the apparent light waa adopted. By meuu of 

tliia plan (vids chwt, fig 10), the ezpenae of erect- 
ing a b^t-hdhae on the rock ittelf haa been aaved, 
*>>a all the pnrpoaea of the mariner aerred. It haa 



been called an apparent lighi^ from 

to proaid/roin afiime oit tie rt>et, wAi'Ie tiie tight St 

raiuttyproMab/nnntAeiAor*, about 690 foetdiatant, 

and it refracted l^glaaa priami placed on the beacon. 

Floatmff L^i» are Tcaaela fitted with lighta 

moorad at sea in the vicinity of reefs. Prior to 

1807, the lantern wa« hung at the yard-arm. 

Hie late Mr Bobert Stevenson then introdoced 

the present system of lanterns, having a copper 

tnbe in the centre capable of reoetving the 

Teasel's mast, which pMwd throngh the tube, 

tlie light* being placed all roand. In this way, 

proper optical appliances can be employed, and 

the lantnn can be lowerod on the mAst so at to 

pass throneh the roof of a honse on the deck, 

where the lamps are filled or trimmed. In 1864, 

UK floating lights were constructed for the 

Hoo^hly nnder the directions of Messrs Stevea- 

son, m which the dioptric principle waa applied. 

5ht half-fiied lioht appanttui of glass with 
erical mirrors behind, were placed in the 
lantern round the mast, so as to shew in every 
azimuth rays from three of them at onc& 

D^atnliat Lmt. — This is an annular lens, 
curved to different radii on both oidsB, ao »a to 
increase the divergence in an^ giTeii ratio. The 
small arc of about 6°, wMcn ia nueqnallv 
iUnniinated by the leus as preBently eonstnicted, 
may be made of eqnal intenaitT thronghont by 
the difierentdal form, or by means of separate 
ttntigbt prisms placed at the sidea. 

SmtretM of LighL — The deacriptions wUah 

bave already beui given have all had reference 

to the best means of employing a given light. 



covered by Dr Faraday, and recently adapted to 
light-house pnrposM by Trofessor Holmes, has lately 
been introduced under die auspice* <d die Trinity 



. Trinity 

Honae of London. 

Oat. — The nnoertunty and other objeotdons 
attending the mannfoctura and use of gas in remote 
and inaccessible placea, have with some ezceptioas as 
fet prevented its adoptioa at light-hooae stabous, bnt 
it haa been successfully n*ed at tataf harbour-lights. 

Oil and Paraffin The oil which is now employed 

in Great Britain is that which goes by tlie name of 
ooha, and the quantitiea annu^y consumed at die 
Northern Lifih^hotuefl may be stated at 40 gallons 
for an argand one inch in diameter, and SOO gallona 
for the four-wick burner, which is used in uoptrio 
lights of the first order. C^itoin Doty's buiner for 
paraffin, which is the beet which has as yet been 
suggeated, has been introduced into the Frraich and 
theSootch light-houses. Paraffin haa been foond to 
give a more intense light than colxa at half the cost. 

ViiibVity of JAgliU.^-Tha distance at which any 
litfht con be seen, of course depends on the height of 
t£e tow^ and varies with the state of the atmos- 
pbere. The greatest recorded distance at which an 
oil-light has been visible is that of the holophotal 
light of Allepey at l^vanoon^ which lias been sees 
from an elevated aitoation at a distance of 45 miles. 
The holophotal revolving lif^t at BaccaUen, in New- 
foandland, is seen every night in dear weather at 
Cape Spear— a distance of 40 nautical miles. 

PovKT qf lAght-fumte ApparaivM. — The refleotoc 

S> intakes diameter) used in the Northern Light* 
oaes, with a burner of one inch diameter,^ias 
been estimated as being equal to about 360 argand 
flames. The oylindrio refractor, used in fized light^ 
with a ioor-wick burner, haa in like manner been 
estimated at 2C0 ; while the annular lens emploved 
I revolving lighti, with ths lanie burner, is equal to 



Dinitizpd hy 



Coogk 



LlOHTNWO-LlOffnmfG-CONDTTCTOfi. 



LIGHTNIHO (Ft. fdm; Oer. SlUs], tbe name 
given to the niddeD diachuige of eleotricity between 
one Kranp of cloudi and another, or between tbe 
cloudj and the gronnd. It ia enentiallj the ume, 
thoagh on & tnuch gnnder scale, la the spark 
obtained from an electric machine. Clonda charged 
with electiicitT are called thunder-clonds, and are 
Mudl^r known by their pecnliarly dark and denae 
appearanca. The height of thnnder-olouda ia very 
variooi : soEDetiines tbey have been icen aa high ai 
25,700 feet, and a thunder-cload ia recorded whoae 
height was only 89 feet above the gronnd. According 
to Antgo, there are three kinda of lightniiig, which 
he names lightning of the first, second, and third 
classes. Lightning of the first class is famiJiarly 
known as forked-ughtnLDj; (Fr. tdair en ng-zag). 
It appears as a brdten Ime of light, dense, thin, 
and well de&ned at the edges. Occasionally, when 
darting between the clouds and the earth, it breaks 
np near tbe latter into one or two forks, and is then 
called bifurcate or trifurcate. The terminations of 
these branches are somatimes several thousand'feet 
from each other. On seveial occasions, the length of 
trigon 



forked- lightning has been tried to be got 
metrical^, ana the result gave a length 
miles. Lightning of tbe aecond class is what ia 



monly called aheet-lightniog (Ger. FlaeAenbliiz]. It 
has no definite form, out seems to be a great maaa 
of lighb It has not Uia intensity of lightning of the 
first cImi. Sometimes it is tinged decidedly red, at 
other timea, blue or violet AV^en it occurs behind 
a cloud, it light* up its oatline only. Occasionally, 
it illmniues the world of clonds, and apneara to 
oome forth from the heart of them. Sheet-liuhtning 
ia very mach more freqnent tluui forked -I i^tning. 
lightning of the third kind ia called ball -lightning 
(Fr, (rfoiw de /at, Ger. Svgdblits). Thifi so-called 
lightning describes, perhapa, more a meteor, which, 
OB rare occasioDS, accompnoies electric discharge, 
or Ughtaing proper, than a [iheDomenon in itself 
dectncaL It is said to occur in this way : After a 
violent explosion of lightning, a ball is seen to pro- 
ceed from the region of the explosiou, and to make 
its way to the earth in a curved line like a bomb. 
When it reaches the groand, it either splits up at 
once, and disappears, or it rebounds like an elastic 
ball several times before doing so. It is described as 
being very dangerous, readily settinj; fire to the butld- 
iug on which it alights ; and a lightning-conductor 



widely from lightning of the first and second classes, 
which are, in the strictest sense, momentary. 

The thunder (Fr. Umnem, Oer. Donner) which 
accompanies lightning, as well as the snap attending 
the electric spark, has not yet been satisfactorily 
• ■ * '"-"- -- 'onbt,"^""* 



for though the sound originating at each point of 
the path is produced at the same instant, it ia some 
time before the sound coming from the more distant 
points of the line reaches the ear. A persoB near 
the middle of the line hears the whole leas prolonged, 
because he is more equidistant from the diflTerent 
parts of it. Each listener in this way hear* a difier- 
ent peal, according to the position he stands in with 
reference to the line. On this supposition, however, 
thunder oueht to beein at its loudest, and gndoally 
die away, becaaae the sound comes first from the 
nearest points, and then from points more and tnorv 
distant. Such, howerer, it i« well known, is not the 
cose. Distant tbuoder at tbe beginning is just 
audible, and no more ; then it gradually swells into 
a crashing sound, and ag«n grows fainter, till it 
ceases. The rise and fall are not continuous, for the 
whole peal appears to he made up of several succes- 
sive ]ieals, which rise and fall as the whole. Some 
have attempted to account for this modulation from 
the forked form of the lightning, which makes so 
many different cenbea of sound, at different an^sB 
with each other, the waves coming Erom which inter- 
fere with each othn', at one time moving in opposite 
directions, and obliterating the sound, at anotnor in 
the aame way. and then strengthening the sound, 
produced by each. Thunder hu never bem heard 
more than 14 miles from the flash. The report ot 
artillety has been heard at much greater distances. 
It is said that the cannonading at the battle of 
Waterloo was heard at the town of Creil, in the 
north of Franoe, about IIS miles from the Add. 

LIGHTNISG-CONDnCTOR (Fr. pamUut- 
nrrrt, Ger. ^iiteoiidfer}. The principle of the 
lightning-conductor ia, that electrici^, of two 
conducting passages, wlacts the better; and that 



Bcoounted for. Both, ni 



p1ac& Suppose this difficulty cleared, there still 
renuuns the prolonged rolling of the thunder, and its 
strange rising and foiling to account for. The echoes 
sent between the clouds and the earth, or between 
objects on the earth's snrface, nu; explain this to 
some extent, but not fully. A person in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of a Hash of lightning bears only 
one sharp report, which is peculiarly stuup when an 
object is struck by it. A persoo at a distance hears 
the same report as a prolonged pesl, and persons in 
different situations hear it each in a different way. 
This may be so far eiiilained. The path of the 
lightning may be reckoned at one or two mile* in 
Imgth, and each point of tbe path is the origin of a 
separate sound. Suppose, for the sake of simplici^, 
that the path is a stnught line, a person at the 
extremity of this line must hear a prolonged report; 



. IB P" „ . 

when it has got a sufficient conducting passage, 

it is disaimed of all destructive energy. If a 

peraon holds his hand near the prime conductor of 

powerful electric machine u ' ' ' 



I frame. But if 



long forked stinging sparks, each of which 
a very sensible convulsion in his frame. 
he h<^ds in his hand* a ball, connected with the 
^imd by a wire or '■>'«'"| the above senaatim 
IS scarcely, if at all, felt, as each spark occurs, 
for the electricity, now having the ball and wire 
passage to the ground, prefers it to the lea* con- 
ducting body. If, instead of a ball, a pointed rod 
were used, no sparks would pass, and no sensation 
whatever would be fclL The point silently dis- 
charges the prime conductor, and does not allow the 
electricity to accumulate in it so as to produce a 
apark ; iiid the quantity passing at a time, even sup- 
posing the rod djsconnected with tbe nound, is not 
sufiicient to afiect the nerve*. If, for Uie prime con- 
ductor of the machine, we mbstitate the thnnder- 
clonds ; for tbe body, a building ; for tbe convulsive 
sensation, as the evidence of electric power, heat- 
iugand other deah-nctiveefTects; for tbe ball, or rod, 
and wire, the I^btning-conductor, we have the *am» 
conditions exhibited on a larger natural scale. It 
is easier, however, to protect a building from the 
attacks of lightning than the body from the electrio 
spark, as the rod id the one case is a much better 
conductor, compared with the building, than it is 

compared with the body, and, in 

easily diverts the electricity into 

The lightoiog-conductor consists of three parts: 
the rod, or part overtopping the building ; the 
conductor, or part connecting the rod Vith the 
ground ; and the part in the ground. The rod is 
made ci a pyramidal or conical form (the lattix 
being preferable), from 8 to 30 feet in he^t, 
securely fixed to tbe roof or highest part of the 
building. Gay-Lusaac proposes thJst tfiia rod should 
consist, for the greater part of ita length below, ol 



abvGoogle 



LiaHTNINO-CONDUOTOB-LIOHTNINa-FBnriB. 



iron; that it ahanH then b« ■aimoaiitod by a abort 
■haip oone of bnos; uid that it alionla finally 
end ID a fine plj-tHnnm noedle; tlla whole beiuj; 
riveted or lold^vd tt^ether, so ai to reader perfect 
the conducting connectioa of the parts. The difB- 
cnlty of conibnoting mch a rod Imi led geuarally 
to the adoption of ample rode td troa or c^liwr, 
whose ptrinte are ^It, to keep them from becoming 
blnnt Dj imdation. It is of tiM otDMMt impwtance 
that the iq^ 
ahaip point. 



iqqwr extremity <^ ^ rod thoold end in 
uit, became the ihMper the pinnt the moi 



the prant, and direited from the mt of the 
doctor. There ia thna leea danger of the electricitv 
■paiUng from the oondnelor at the tide of the build- 
ing into the bnflding itaell Were Hm qnaotity of 
the electricity of the clondi not w enonDoaa, the 
painted rod wonld prevent a lightoing-dincharee 
alb>f;etheT; but even as it is, the Tiolence of we 
lishtniu-diacharge ie conaideiiibly leaMmed by the 
■jlent iSschBTgins-power of the point [Venouily 
takins place. AcoordinK to Biauilofar, a coniou 
rod, 6 feet in hei^t, oagbt to have a diameter at 
its baae of 13.3 linea, and one of 30 feet a diameter 
of 26.6 lines. 

The part of the liditning-ttaidactor forming the 
connecbon between the rod andtbe eroDod, is eeue- 
lally a [oiimatac or cylindrical rod of iron {tbe utter 
being preteaUe), or a itra^ of copper ; mmelimeB a 
rope at iron tO' copper wire is need. Iron wire 
improves aa a conductor when electric cmrents paia 
through it ; c0|^ier wire, in the same circiunatances, 
becomee bnttle. An iron rope ia mnch better, there- 
fore, for ecHiducting Uian a copper ona Galvaniacd 
iron is, of all matenala, the best for condnctora. The 
condoctiiig-rod ought to be properly oonnaoted with 
the couicu rod either by nvetdng or loldering or 
both. Here, u at every point of juncture, the 
nbnoat care moEt be talcen that there ia no break 
in the conduction. The condiictiDg-rDd ia led alonK 
the roof, and down the outaida ol the walls, and 
ia kept in ita position by holdfasts fixed in the 
building. There must be no sharp tnrna in it, but 
each bend must be made as round aa possible. 
Conaideiable diacuasion has arisen as to the proper 
thickness for the conducting-rod. If it were too 
anull, it would oidy conduct part of the electricity, 
and leave the buildiiig to c<niduct the rest, and it 
might be melted by the electrici^ endeavouring to 
force a paHoase through it as an insufficient coa- 
dnetOT. The Paris Commission, which sat in 1S23, 
gave the iriEnlmnin section of an iron conductor 
as a aqosje of 16 millimMD-ea (about {ths of sji inch) 
in aide, and this they coniidered quite sofficieDt 
in aU circamstanoeB. A rod of copper would need 
to be only {tfaa of OoM, a* oopper conducts elec- 
tricity abont six tdnws more readily than iron. 
Iliia calcmlatuni ii v«ry generallv followed in prac- 
tice. In leading the cmdnctor along the building, it 
ahonld be kept ai mneh wart aa poanble from masses 

These may form ~ 



. , ityl 

: l^taiing'oaodnat^. If such took place, ui 

«*eh intemption deoMdfy wonld paaa in •■ -^ 
and dangerooa way, and the effioaoy of flie d 
wooldbelost, if the ooadnotor cannot be properly 
tnnlr^ from these miKina of metal, the oecessorv 
secority >■ got by pnttdug them in connection with 
Uie coDdnoSar, so as to fonn a part of it. Water- 
mnB, leaden roofa, sad tbe like, must, for this reason, 
■11 be [daced in oondacting connectian with the 



The portion of the lightning-conductor which 
jdaced m Ute gronnd ie no leN worthy of attenti 



than the other two. Should the lower part of the 
conductor eod in dry earth, it is worie than useless, 
for when the liehtmng, attracted by the prominenoe 
and point of tha upper rod, atiikes it, it finds, in 
all likelihood, no passage through the onoonductins 
dry earth, and, in conseqneace. strikes off to a psii 
of the gronnd wh«e it nay eanly disperse itself and 
be lost. Wherever it ii practicabu^ a li^itnigg- 
omductoT shonld end in a well or large body of 
water. Watv ia a good conductor, and harit^ vari- 
ona ramificatiMH in Uie soil, ofl^ the best fiidlily 
to the electricity to become dispersed and li»rTnT>™ 
in the ground. The rod, on reochins the ground, 
should be led down a foot and a hau, or two feet, 
into the soil, and then turned away at right an^es 
to the wall from the building in a hoiiiontal 
drain filled with charcoal, for about from 12 to 1$ 
feet, and then turned into the well so for that its 
termination ia little likely to be left dry. Where 
a well cannot be made, a hole 6 inches wide (wider, 
if possible) shonld be bored, from 9 to 16 feet, the 
roa placed in the middle of it, and the ioterveninf 
apace dose^ packed wiUi &edily heated ehorooaL 
The cJmhwsI serves Uie double purpose o( keeping 
the iron from rusting and ti leading away the 
eleotticity fmn the rod into the ground. 

Li^tninfi-conduotois, when oonatruoted with 
care, have neen proved beyond a doubt to be a 
sufficient protection from the ravages of lightning. 
The drole within which a lightning-conduotor la 
found to be efficacious, is very limited. Ita radius 
ia generally assumed to be twioe the hei(^t of the 
roil On large buildings, it is therefore iinrnaaij 
to have several rods, one on each prominent part 
of the building, all being connected so as to iana 
one conducting system. In ships, a rod is plaoed 
on evBiT msst, and their coimection with the se* is 
estabU^ed by strips of copper inlaid in the masts, 
and sttaohed below to the metal of or about the 
keeL 



appears, from a theoretical point of view, highly 

improbable, as the essential conditions of forming 
a photosraphic image are wanting ; still, sennd 
apparendy well-outheniicated instaiices have been 
recorded, which have led scientifio antiiorities to 
give at least partial credence to them. One or 
two instances may aerve to give a general idee 
of what ore meant by lightning.printa. At Uaa- 
delaria (Cuba], in 1638, a young man was atruck 
dead by lightning near a house, on one of the win- 
dows of which was nailed a horse-shoe ; and the 
image of the horse-shoe 



^ Ltning stnick the Ch&tcau of Benatoimitre, in 
I^ Tend£e ; at the time, a lady happened to be 
seated on a chair in the salon, and on the bank 
of her dress were printed minutely the ornaments 
oD the bock of the chair. In 8^)tember 18S7, a 
pessant-gijl, while herding a cow in the department 
of Seine- et-Hsme, was overtaken hj a thunder- 
storm. She took refnge under a tree; and the bee, 
the cow, and herself wore struck with ligfatmog. 
The cow wBS killed, but she lecovaed, and on 
loosening her dress for the sake of respiring freely, 
she saw a pioture of the cow npon ber breast. 
These anecdotes are typical of a great maaa of 
others. They tell of metallic objects printed on 
the skin; of*^ clothes, while being worn, receiving 
- of neighbotiring objeotsj — ~' ■"■- -'--■- 



« of the si 



dbyGoogle 



UQTOS— LIQVUK-TITX 



being pictured vith (omnndinB aceneiy or objwta, 
during thnndar-itoniu. One object Teiy ^onsiallj 



apoksn of u being printed is % neighbonnng toee. 
TbiM may b« Mconnted for by mpponng thM tbe 
ligbtning-diBcharge baa token place <n me akin in 



ipponng 

^ _ . „ , oe OB fti 

form of the eleettia bnub (lee ELMrmoiTr), 

which hM Uie (trongeit poaaible naanUBnoa to 
k tree, and that Uiia being in aoma inj or othv 
imprioted on tiie akin, haa led obee r rem to oon* 
f ouid it trith a ne^bonling tree. Of other piinto, 
it woold be diScT^t to ^e a aatiabotoiy aoconnt. 
Howerer obMrrera have done aomething in imita* 
tiini of uem. It has been ahewn, for inatanoe, by 
Qemuji obaerren, that when a coin fa [daoed on 
glMt, and a itream of aparka ponred on it from a 
pownfnl deotricat machine, on the glaaa being 
breathed upon, after its remoToI, a dirtinct image 
o( the coin u traced ont by the dew of the br«a& 
Mt TcffliliiMon, iiy interpoaing a pane of glan 
between the knob of a charged Leyden jar and 
tiiat of the duoharging-tonga, obtained a perfect 
brtath-/gtire of Uie discharge on each aide of the 
glaM, wbich bore the moat striking icsambUaee to 
a trM. With all dne allowance for the probable 



e been from an early 



printing-power of lightning the acconnta giren 
it, in moat CMM, bew the stamp of eza^gsstion ; 
and moh of thraa aa hare been mqnired into have 
beeo found to dwindle to a Teiy small rcaidniun 
at tut^ in which there remained little that waa 
wondennL 

LIGHTS, Un oi 
irhieh prevuled in < 
and in most <rf the andsnt religiona, and whicli 
retdned both in tlie Roman and in the Oriental 
Au«faca. The nae of li^ta in the nisht-aerviocg, 
and m nbtennneaii ohnrSiea, soch sa Uiose of tbe 
earir CSuMuuw in the catacomb^ is of comae easily 
intelUfpUe ; but tbe practice, --*---- ' — — 



bohoaTalliuioii to the ' Light of the World ' and to 
tbe ' light of FMth,' wu not confined to 
of nweaintj'. bat appeui to bare been fron 
tine an aMmnpaouneat oE Christiui worahii 
ciallj in oamection with ths saoraaieiita of baptuni 
and the ewiharist The time of the service in which 
ligfata are used haa varied very mooh in difiarent 
am. StJetDmeapeaks of it only during the reading 
ottheMspeli AnuJarin% from the beginning of the 
uaM till the end of the gospel; Isidore of Seville, 
frointhegaepelto the end of the canon; anderent- 
nally it waa extoided to the entire time of the 
mass. In oCher services, alao, light* have been nsed 
from an early period. Lighted tapera were placed 
in the hand a the newly Mptiied, which St Omgory 
Naziaiii«a inteipreta as ""M""* of fotnrs gtory. 
Indeed, In the Roman Catholio Church, tho moat 
profoM use of lighta ia reserved for the senicee 
ooonected with that ssonunent. The usage of 
blaiang tbs Paaohal Light ia described elaewnere. 
Sea Holt Wnx. The mateiial used for lights in 
chnrohsa la ather oil or wax, ths latter in peni- 
tential dm^ and in services for the dead, being of 
a yellow ooloor. In the Anglican Chnrch, oaiidle- 
sticks, snd in tome instance* candle* themselves, 
are retained in many chorohea, on the oommnnion 
tablt^ bnt they are not lighted. The rstenticm of 
Uiem IB g rM t y favoured by the 'High Chnrch' 
partg^ana mmm disapproved by the 'Low Chnrdi' 
m 'EvangaUoal' pat^. In the Preeh^terian and 



LrGlflTTB (derived from the lAtin word U^num, 
wood} is the iocrasting matter contained withm the 



)■ iuBolDble i& watay alcohol, ether, and dilnt* addi, 
and iia chief nhwrncal oharaotori*^ ia, Hut it h 
mors readily soluble in alkaline liqnida than cdln- 
loaa. It* «xaot con^ositian w utaertain, bnt it is 
known to ooniist of carbon, h^rdrogen, and oxygen, 
utd to diffv in its c«mpo*itu& from oellnloae ia 
containing a ffeater pennUMe of hydnjgaa than is 
to tonn water with ita oxygen. Whsa 



acid (wUeh i* maete «nida aoetie acid) obhuBsd by 
the destmotlTe distiUation of wood, ia pKmd by tbe 
fact, tttat tha bardeat wood* (tlMwa, nun*);, wbiok 
contain the greateat pwpo rtk ii «C Ggnina] yidd the 
laigHt amouiit oi and. Ijg»«t»u» ia M^-Wal with 
the noHtn terMAMtto of f ayu and other AwA 



LIQNITB, foaail wood imperfeotly minenliaed, 
and retaining Its origiDal form and structure much 
mMe oompMely than the buly mineial coaU, and 
thetefbn not improperly dsaoAed aa inttnnediata 
between peat and ooaL BrtnM eoal, Surturbraad, 



a d terreatzial mammalia am uao found 

LI'OirUH BHODnJH, a kind of wood whi(^ 
occurs aa an article of commoroe, having a pleaauit 
smell resembling the imell of rosea. If is bron^t 
to Europe in strong, thick, and ratitsr heavy jrieocs^ 
which are cyhndncal but knotty, and sometimes 
split. They are externally covered with a cracked 
gm; bark ; internally, thware ydlowish, and often 
reddish in the heut. nty have an amnatio 
bitterish taste, and, iriien mbbed, emit an agneable 
rose-like BtndL lliia wood oomea from the Canary 
Islands, and is prodtieed by two shrubby and erect 
specie* of OoiiMkrubu, with imall leavn, O. teopa- 
no* and 0, Jtoridu*. It ia the wood imth of the 
root and of the stem, but the latter is nuier inferior. 
An easential cul [OH ^L. £), having a sbong smell, 
is obtained from it by distillation, and ia used for 
aalvea, embrocationi^ to., and also very tnquentlr 
fot adulteration of oil of roaei.— Beddes this L. %. 
of Qke Canary Islaikla, an Amakan kind is also a 
common article of oommeroe ; it ia produced by 
the A-a^irt* taI«am(Ani, a native of Jamaica, and 
yields an eaaentjal oil, very aimilBr to the formw. 
The L, R. of the Levant ia now eoaroely to be met 
with in oommeroe. It ia the prodooe of Lvptad- 
anibar OrUniale. fVom this, however, the name 
haa been transferred to the other kinda. 

LIGNtrM-TTT^ the wood of Gtu^aaim offA 
tie (nat. ord. ZygephgUacta), hUd probably of soma 
other spedea, nativea of Jamaica and 8t DominsoL 
The hardness and exceeding toadiness of this 
VS17 useful wood waa slwwn bjr Professor Toi^ 
to depend npon a very peculiar interlaoiiig of ^e 
fibres. He heart- wood, which is Uie part ned, is 
'leavy, of a dark, greetiisfa-Iwown 
» than 8 iacfce* in diameter; tim 



and grow* to the hd^ of about 30 feet lliewood 



_ 



toughness are required ; large quaotltiea am ««.- 
snmed in m^ing the iheavM (see Pullet) of ship^ 
blocks, BMidestheaensso, the wood, trtManduaed 
to fine shaving or raapiiigB, the bark, and also a 
greenish resin which endealrom the Stan, are mni& 
used in modioiue, bring reaarded as having powotel 
anti-syphilitio and anti-rSemnatia pn>p«AM. Sea 
Odauouic 



Digitized hyGUO^lL' 



UaNT— UUAOBA 



IiI'OBT, * vilt^a in Bel^nin, in the proTinoa of 
Nmmnr, abont 10 iii9m notth-cMt irf ChmilKoi, 
fajDoos on ftoeonnt of Um battia loo^t tiaie by 
Um netxii, nuder Napoleon, and (ha Pnianuu, 
mdv KVcber, lefli Ame IMS, Uw aatna daj 
on whicii tbe Kanch, nndar Matihal Her, vote 
OBgaged witk tbe Britiah, nDter Wallington, at 
Qnaba-Kaa. Napoleon had fonned a plan for 
oTBTpowMinff bis antaamvla in detail ere Hmj 
oonld uuuu e nifa te tbeir lorcea ; and oootaiy to ua 
(opectatuna bo4lt of Wellington and Blttcho', besan 
luB opentiena br MniHiig the Pnnaiana. llie 
battle took plaoe in tiie afttmoon. 'Hie poaManoa 
of tiie TiOagea of L. and 8t Amand was botlT con- 
torted ; Imt tbe Fnurians mn at laat cconpeUed to 
^va mf. The Praadasa krt in thii battle 11,000 
DKB and 21 cannon ; the Freikefa, 7000 man. A 
mjatako prcreBted a corpa of tha Pmich aaaj, 
ondcr Bhob, tram taking tha nut aafflgned to it 
in -Oie battle, and led to Vnyt encoimteTing tbe 
BdgianB and Britiah at Qoatre-Bnu (q. t.). inatead 
of uniting bia forae* with thotfo ragaged a^uoat the 
FnmianB at Iiigiv. 

IiTOUIiATB (lAt Ugula, a Iittl« tonsae), a term 
■ ■ ~ ■ ■ ' " - "a rf one petal 

Um tarm of a 
tbe eitnaaity. This 
lorm «c oonuM i« reiy oommon in tbe Ooa^imkt, 
appearing m bD the flOTSta of aome, h the daiulelion, 
and cmly in the floreta of the ray of otiien, m the 
dain and alter. The tenn, howaver, ii ot giseniJ 
•pfocation. 

LIGULE. See Oba«b. 

LIQVOBI, Alvomio Majol D*, a aaint of tha 
Boiaan Catholio Chnroh, and fonnder of tha otdar 
cf LitfBori^ sr RodetnptMifti. He waa bora et a 
noUa fuilr at Naplo^ STth Septonbtt 1696, and 
«aibnoad the nrafemm of tha law, wbioh, howaror, 
be anddmly Mtinqvithed fw tha pnipoae <)< deTt^inK 
Umadf cmnIt to a reli^ooj life. Ee received 
p(iaat^aatdaninl72Si.and iiil732,in conjonctiou 
wiA twtire compaaiou, loanded the Biiw^itinn 
iriiich it now c^ed by hii nam*. Bee Liouobubb. 
In 17G2, he waa ^pointed bishop of Sanf Agata 
<Lei Gob, in the kingdom of Naples, and bia life 
im a biahop ia confeaied by Troieetant aa well aa 
Catholic hiatwialM to have heea a model of the 
iKMliaal chanoter ; but abrinkijig ffom the reapon- 
■ibilitrw d noh an oOoa, he tca^nied bia aea in 
177^^ after whiclt date ha retaraed to" ' 



itanv to daaciibe a < 



in Uw Mine aim^ anateritf 
id bil eadf UCa. Baviiu ani- 
vdre yMM, ha died at Hooeia 



dai Fagani, Awoat 1, 1787, and waa aolannl; 
iMiiaiiaail in the B«taaa Cattulie Camrah in 1830. 
It. M ooe of tlia moat Tolnmiiunia and moat pt^nlar 
of modan ChAolio tbMdog^ wtitara. Kawotka, 
which oitwd to aavMity Tohnoea Sm, embnMe 
almcat eraiT dapariauMt of thaolo^oal Isaming, 
dinnity, oacnialvy, eugevi, hiatoar, canon law, 
bagiagnflir. wcetiBiam, and aran poetry. Hia 
i.ww]y>nda«at alao it Tolnminoo^ but ia almort 
ortii^ <n apnitaal anl^eota. Xne prisciplaa of 
I wwiialij aspUined 1^ I* have bato reomrad with 
m^ finoBT in tba madam BomaaaoliooUi and in 
tlwt diardt )ih ncnl thednar, whioh ia • modifi- 
cstaoa el tba ao-oajled ' nmbaSiUatio ayaten' of the 
a« immediate^ before nia on 

£e direction of eonaoienoea. _-_ 

It would be mil of plaoe hare to eater into a 
i1iaiiita«iiii of ^ ezce^ona wUdi hare been taken 
to "frtB'" partaona of it on the aoore of morality, 
wliatlwr in raiMen oe to the Tirtne of diaatity or to 
ttwt of jntioa and of Tan(%. Theae obiectiana 
ap;^ aqaaUy to meat of the oaamata, and have oftco 



be«ai the atib}aot of ocutiOTaMj. L'a TheohoiM 
Mertilit (Svola. Sro) haa been nfttnted DombeMea 
timee, aa alto mort of hia aaoetio worka. The moat 
o<«iplete edition ol hia wotfca (in Italiaa and Latin) 
ia tnat of Monta, 70 Trituua. Ihcy hare been 
tianalated entire into Fnoeh and GtraiMi, and in 

eat part into Bnfjiah, Spaniab, Pdiab, aad othar 

JK^MBD langaagea. 

LIGUO'BIAKS, called aba KniKUPTOBiara, a 
congregation of missonary prieata founded by 
Liguon in 1732, and appnTred by Pope Beoediot 
XIV. in 1759. Their obieot la the religlona 
inatmctioD of tbe people and the reform of public 
molality, by peiiodicaUy viaiting, preachii^ aad 
hearing aotueaaiona, with the conaent and Quder the 
direction oil the pariah der^. llkeir initmctiooa 
are ciderad to be of the pLuneat and moat dn^le 
chanotar, aitd their mmiatratdona are entirely 
withont pom^ or oerwnonial, Tb« oonzregatiom waa 
toanded mi^iudly in HiHila^ bnt & afterwarda 
extended to Oennany and Switzerland In the Ana- 
triau proTinc«a they had aeretkl honaes, and were 
by some repreeented as but eatablishmenti of the 
■appreaaed Jeaoita under anotJier name. Notidn^ 
however, ooold tie more djfTerent than the conititu- 
tiou and the otrjeota of the two orden. Since the 
Beatontion, and eepedally since tbe RerolntioD of 
1830, the L. bare effected an entrance into France, 
and aereral honaea of the eongresation have been 



foDnded in England, Iidand, and Amerioa ; bat 
tea ia ^ great meaanre ooonpied bf the 
bite oongrwatian of tha Latariat or Tln- 
X^Aam, lAoM objacta are anbetaDtial^ 



LIGUHIAN BEPXTBLIO, tha name (pvan to 
the repnl>lic i^ Otooa in 1707, when, in conae^nence 
of t^e oonqaaata of Bonaparte in Italv, it waa 
obliged to exchange its aiistocratio for a demooratac 
eonstitnticm. See Gclio^ The name waa choaen 
becanas the Gnoaae tanitory fonned the prinoipal 
part of ancient Lignriak 



and small trees, with 4r0left corolla, 2 staneiiL and 
a 2-ceUed, 2-TalTular capanla, Tbe CoKwoir Lil&o 
{S. vidgarit) ia one of the moat common omai 



abrubi ooltivated in Bnrope and North Amraica. It 
ia a native of the north of Persa, and waa fint 
brought ta Vienna by Bnabeoq, the ambaiaador at 
Ferdinand L, to whom we alao owe the introdoetion 
of the tulip into European gardena. From Vienna 
it soon apraad, so that it ia now to be found half 
wild in tifie hedges of aome parte of Europe. There 
ai« many Taneties. The flowers grow in large 
oonical paniolea ; are of a bluish ' lUac ' colour, 
purple or white, and have a very delioions odour. 
The leBTaa an a faTourite food of oantbaridea. The 
bitta extract of the unripe eapsnlia baa Twy 
' ' ' and febrifugal propotiea. The wood 



tbe 



na-nainad, and ia uaed for inlaying turning . 
) m^dug d imall articlea. A tramot <m oan 
lobtuned from it by diatillatioD. The CmmaB 



LiiJ>0(A (AJMMUhaB larger flowen, bnt wit^leaa 

Kwetfnl odonr, wd the PniauH Lq^O (& Paraiea) 
I nanower leaves. Both are often planted in 



^rdena awl iJeaime-fronnda. There a 
other apedea. 

LILIA'CRS, a natural ordar of andoganoaa 
plantB,oontainingaboiit 1200 known apeciea. They 
are moat nnnieronB in the warmer parte of the tem- 
perate lonaa. They are mostly herbaosona plants, 
with bulbous or tuberous, aometimea fibrous roots i 



Google 



LILLB— LILT. 



ntrely ahnita or treeo. The shmbby and 

oont apecicB are uuteQy tropicaL The stem is liiople, 
t» branching towards the top, leaSera or leify 
The leaves are limple, goaeriUy narrow, oometimei 
cylindrical, sometimes flstular. The flowers an 
generaUy large, with 6-elrft or O-toothed perianth . 
and grow Bin^ or in spikei, raceniec, mnbek, heads. 



r panicles. 



e to the 



3-oeUed, many-seeded avary, and a sinele slylo. ' 
fruit is mcculent or capsular ; the seeds psicksd 
upon another in two rowEL This order contama 
many of our finest garden, green-house, and hot- 
hooae flowera, aa UEea, tiJipe, dog's-tooth violet, 
lily of the valley, tuberose, crown imperial and 
other fiitillaiiefl, hyacinths, Olorioaa eupa-ba ; many 
species asefnl tor food, as garlic, onion, leak, and 
other spooies of AUiwa, AspaTagus, the Qaamaah or 
Biscuit Boot [Camat»ia aadenta) ot North America, 
the Ti {Draocaut tOTniaalU or CordyUne Ti) of the 
South S^, ftc. ; many species valuable in medicini 
as sqaill, aloea, Ac ; and some valnable for the flbi 
which Uieir leaves yield, as Kew Zealand Hai, ani 
the species of Bowstring Hemp or SajuenieriL—Thi 
natural order has been the subject of a number of 
splendid wocha, among which may be particularly 
named Redoate'e Lt» LSiaeeet (8 vols. Paris, 1S02— 
1816). 

LILLE (formerly LISLX, 'the isLmdi 
Synelj, an important manufactnriiig town and 
fortieM in the north of Franoe, chief town of f" ~ 
department du Nord, is situated qn the Deule, __ 
a level, fertile district, 140 miles north-north-east 
of Paris, and 62 miles south-cart of Calais. The 
BtreetB are wide, the squarsa imposing, and the 
houses, which are mostly in the modem style, well 
bmlt. The principal bmldin^ and institDtions are 
tha Medical School, the Lyceum, the Bourse, and 
Om pahwe of Richebourg, now the Httel-de-Tille, 
in which is the school of art, with a famons collec- 
tion of drawings by Baphael, Michael, and other 
masters. L. iterives its name bom that of the 
castle around which the town ori^nallj arose, and 
which from its position in the midst of marshes was 
oalled Ida. It was founded in 1007 by Baldwin, 
the fourth Count of Slanders, and has suffered 
greatly from frequent sieges. Of these, the moat 
recent, and perluips the most severe, took place 
in 1708 and 1792. On the former occasion, during 
the war of the Spanish Succession, the garrison 
camtnlated to the alliee, after a bombardment of 
120 days ; on the lattra;, the AuBtrians, after a 
torrific bombardmanl^ were obliged ti> raise the 
iptniant military centre. 



\B and pottery 



The good* principally manufactorad are linen, 
bodery, jclovei, blankeU, laoe, Lille thread, and 
tulle. 'Hie town contains many ipinaing-millB, 
bleach-fieLls, lugor-tefineries, distilleries, tiui-pits, 

dye-honsea, Ac In the vicinity ar" 

oil-mills, porcelain-factories, and ^ass 
woAb. FopL (1872) 144,165. 

LI'LLIPUT, the name of a fabulous kingdom 
if Swift in Onliwer'M Tramit, of which 
ti are not neater in nze than an 
.*■ fingo'. Tba term lillipntlan has 
come into common use as a dedgnation m anytliing 
very dimimrtivck 

LILLY, W p.ijJH , an ^'^"gJ"^ astraloger, bom 
at Dtieworth, in LeicMt«rslure, in 1602. WMlit 
yet a young man, he was employed sa book-keeper 
by a merchant in London, who could not write, and 
on his enndojrer's death, married his widow, with 
whom he obtained a fortune of £1000 sterling. He 
betook hioLself to the study of asbology, partiou- 



larly the At* Notoria of Comelhis Agrippa, and 

soon acquired a conaderable fame aa a caster of 
iwtiTities, and a predictor of future events. la 
1634, he is siud to have obtained permission from 
the Dean ' of Wesbninstec to aearch for hidden 
treasure in Weatminater Abbey, but wss driven 
from his midni^t work by a storm, which ho 
ascribed to helGah powers From 1644 till tiia 
death, he annually isaued hia Mtrlima Angliau 
Junior, oontaining vaticination*, to which no small 
importance was attached by many. In the Civil 
War, he attached himself to the parliamentary 
party, and was actually sent in 1648, with uiother 
astrologer, to the camp at Colchester, to encourage 
the troops, which service he performed so well that 
he reoeiTod a pension for it, which, however, he 
only retained two yeara. Neverthdeaa, he mode 
a small fortune by his 'art' during the Common- 
wealth, and was able to purchase an estate. After 
the B«rtoiatioD, he was fo( some time imprisoned, 
on tbe supposilioD that he was acquainted with Uie 
secreta of the Republicans ; but being set free, he 
retired to the counby. He wa* R^goiD apprehended 
on suspicion of knowiag something of the causes 
of the great fire of London in 1666. He died, 
9th June 16SI, at bis estate at Hersham. L. 
wroto new^ a score of works on his faTourito 
subject. They are ot no value whatever, except 
to illustrate the credulity or knavery of thor 

LILT, a genus of planta of the natural order 
LSiaaiE, c<Hitaining a nnmb«r of ntecdea muck 
prized tar the size and beauty of tneir flower*. 
The perianth is bell-shaped, and its s^ments are 
often bent back at the extremity. The root i* a 
scaly bulb, the stem herbaceous and simple, oftm 
sev^^ feet hi^ bearing the flowen near ita 
summit.— The Whitk Lilt (L. eatuUdum), » native 
of the Levant, has been long cultivated in gardens, 
and much sung by poeta. It has laive, erect, pure 
white flowers, as much prized for ueir fragrance 
aa for their beauiy.— The Orange My (L. bu&i- 
/enim], a native of the south of Europe, with large, 
erect, orange-colcured flowers, is a well-knvwn and 
very showy ornament of l^e flower-earden. — ^Hm 
Martagon or Turk's Gup Lily [L. Martagon), a 
native of the south of Burepe, and allied species 
with verticillate leaves and droopinB Sowera, are 
also oommon in gardens. The Tiger Lily {L. 
tignaum) is a native of China, remarkable for the 
axillary buds on the stem; and some very fine 
species are natives of N"OTl]iAmerioa,os L. Ji^wrium, 
which grows in marshea in the United States, has 
a stem 6— S feet high, and refleied oiange flowers, 
spotted with black; L. Catiadaue, Im. Several 

flne species have been introduced from J^tan, 

Japonieum,L. ipeeiomm, tJiA L. Janq/blhtm.^ 

The bulha of £. Ponqxmiuni, Zi. Mariagim, and L. 
Kamttdiaeente, are roasted and eaten in Siberia. 
That of L. eaadidim loses ita acridi^ W drying, 
roasting, or boiling; when oooked, it is viscid, 
pulpy, and sojtaiy, and ii eaten in some parti of 
the East. — Liliee are gemetBlly propagated by o&et 
bnlba. A nnrie scale of tba duId will, kowerer, 
sntBce to modnoe » new plant, or eren part nf « 
scaler of Kttich skilful gaidoun avail th'^ft' tt, — 
nie name Uly is often popularly extended to flowen 
of other genetk of tKs same wder, and even of 
-'lied Older*. 

LILT,Giauinc (DorjiantAeteccelsii}, of Australia, 

plant of the natural order AmarT^UdsE, with 
flowering stem 10 or 14, sometiines 20 feet high, 
bearing at top a clnater ot large crimson blosaoio*. 
The stem is leafy, bat the largest leaves are near 
the rooL This plant is found both on the mountain* 



«i),L.oogle 



LILY OP THE VALLEY— LMBDEO. 



Lil7-Tieo (Dorfaiitha acalta). 
been found eicellent for ropea and tot textile 

LILY OF THE VALLEY (ComaOana),^ % 
genua of planti of the natural older LiUacax, baTing 
termiiu] ncemes of Qowen; a irhite, bell-ihaped, 

tobnlar (i-clef( or 6-toothed periantjii a 3-celleal 
Keimeii, with two OTulea in eaoh cell, and a incca' 
jent irnit. — The ipeciee commont; known bb the 
LUjr of the Valley {C. matfi^it), the MaibUane or 
MayBowir of the Germane, growi in buah; placee 



Lay of the Vallej (C. maialit). 

■nd woodt in Europe, the Nortli of Asia, and Korth 
America, and has a leaflsM icaw with a raceme of 
email flowen tamed to one aide. It ia a niuTeraal 
favoorite, on account of ita pleasing appearance, the 
fracrance of its flowers, and the early season at 
whKdi they appear. It ia therefore very often 
enltivated m gardens, and forced to earlier flower- 
ing in hothoDSM. Varieties are in cultivation with 
, Tari^^ted, and double flowers. The berries, 
I root, and tlie flowers have a nauseous, bitter, 
and somewhat acrid taste, and purgative and 
diuretic effccta, The smell of the flowers when in 
laree quantity, and in a close apartment, ia narcotic 
Dried uid powdered, they become a sternutatory. 
The esteemed Bait Sor of the French is a water 
distilled from the flowera. — Allied to Lily of the 
Valley is Solohoh'b Sul (q. v.). 

LIVA, the capital of the republic of Fern, 
itaad* on the Rimoc, from whose name its own ia 



cDitnpted, in lat. 12° 3' 3., and long. ^T C W. It 
ia aiz miles diatant from its port, on the Pacific, 
Callao, with which it ia connected by a railway- 
Including ita anbniban villagea, ten in number, 
it co^tama (1S7I) 160,066 i^sbituits. L is of 
Spaniah origin, and ita generally magnificent public 
bnildings entitle it to rank aa the handsomest oi^ 
<A 8on& America. At one time the crand entri^Kt 
(or the west coast of the continent, it still oarriea 
on a large trade, importing cottons, woollens, silks, 
hardware, wines, and brandy ; and exporting ailirer, 
copper, bark, soap, vicuna wool, chinchilla skins, 
nitre, BUgar, Ac. The temperature is agreeable, 
avcragiDg 66'I* in winter, and ^^■6' in summer; 
and the climate is comparatively salabrioua, abund- 
ant dewa "if^iig up for the wont of run. 

LIMA WOOD, a name of the dye-wood also 
called Femamboco Wood, Nicaragua Wood, and 
Peach Wood, the heart-wood of Caaalpima echmaia. 
Sea Brazil Wood. It ia extenaively used for 
dyeing red and peach-colour. 

LIUAX AMD LIHACIDAE. 8e«Si.uo. 

LIMBEB is half the fleld-equipoge of a cannon 
or howitzer. The one half consists of the carriage 
itself, with the gun; while the limber, a two- 
wheeled carriage, fitted with boxes for the field- 
ammnnition of the piece, and having ahafta to whidi 
the horaea are harnessed, forma the remainder. At 
the back-part, the limber haa a atrong hoc^ to 
which, on the march, ia attaohed the foot of the 
gnn-carriaga by a ring at A, in the flgure under 
GuK-OAKSuaK (q. v.). This oonatitntea at onoe a 
fonr-wheeled frame, which, whilat easier for trans- 
port than a gun on two wheels only, has the 
advantage of seeping together the gun and its 
aamimition. In marching, the gun points to the 
rear; but ia coming to action, the artillerymen, by 
a rapid evolntion, wheel romid, ao that the gnn 
points to the front It ia then unHnilered, or 
unhooked, and the limber convned far eikough to 
the rear to be out of the way of the men waking 
the piece. To Untbtr up again, and retreat or 
M, is tbo work but of a few : '- 



LI'MBURO, an old province of Belgium, which, 
after bavias formed port of Belgium, France, 
Holland, and Austria, was, in IS39. divided between 
Belgium and Holland. — Beloiah Liubcsq, or Liu- 
BOUBO, in the north-east of the kingdom, is separ- 
ated from Holland by the Meiise up to lat. 61* 9' N., 
and theoce by a lice running east- north-east to the 
northern boundary of the kingdom. The aorface 
of the province ia flat, and a large portion of it ia 
occupied by barren heath; but in the south and 
centre there ia good arable land. There ia excellent 

iturago along the banks of the Mense, and large 






lerda of catUe and swine are here reared. The 
nuuiafactmea include soap, aalt, pottery, paper, 
tobacco, atraw-hata, beet-sugar, ic. The area of 
the province ia 923 English square miles, and the 
population (1870) 200,336. The ca^tal cf the 
province is Hassclt (q. v^. 

LIHBUBG, a province of Holland, which waa 
once also a duchy in the Germanic Confederation, 
forms tiie south-east comer of the kingdom, being 
contiguous to the Belgian province of the same 
name. Ita surface ia Rcncr^y| level, and Qie soil 
is poor, a great part of it consisting of moots and 
msjshea. However, in the vallcya of the Meiue 
and ita chief tributaries, excellent cropa of grain, 
hemp, flax, oil-aeeds, ftc, ais rajaed, and cattle 
and aheep reared. There are many manufactories 
of g^, tobacco, soap, leather, paper, and glass. The 



iiiMbyGoogle 



T,t T4T> TTB T.Tif, 



LmeVS (Idt Umbut, a border), tha i 



a CaUi 



tiieology to tli 
Diila in iniioli i 



or oonditioii of dqiarted soiila in iniioh thoM 
dM«hi«d who have not offended by any pemxul act 
of tbeii own, but, Mrailielen, an n(A admittad to 
tiw divina TJaioii. Th«j ■^'^''g"'«*' it into tiia 
JI^Mm Patnm and tha £{«&m /ii/iin<niin. Bj 
ttw fortnttr name tiiay imderatand the jJace of tJioaa 
jwt who died before tiie ooming of tne Badeemer, 
•od of whom it ii taid (1 Petai uL 19), that ha 
prawlied to thoM ipirita that -wan in priawi. By 
tha tatter ia meant the pkM or state of the aonu 
of infanti who di« wiwont baptiaoL 8«e H«t.i. 
Betiding tile natoM of both tiuM plaoM of d«t«a- 
tim, great vahe^ <d opintOB mnila iit JUmaa 
CathoEo B<diool& Sea Wetaei'a EinAm-LaiaiM, 
art 'Hallanfahrt ChriatL' 

LIME ia the oxide of the metal Calcimn (q. v.}, 
and ia known in ehemiatry aa one of the alkaline 
eartha. Ita aymbol ia CaO, ita eqiuTaknt ia S8, and 
it» niemfio gravity ia 3'IS. In a atate of purity, it ii 
ft wtlita caoatic powder, with an alkaline reaction, 
and ao infovble aa to levat eren tlie heat of the 
jeb See Dbdmmohd LraHT. It is 
' "ig pore earbonate of liaie (aa,for 
Bkuble or loelaad apar) to foil 
Mnia add ia eifellad, and lime 
lim^ whieli u obtainad t^ 
bomiiig oonmon limertone in a kiln, ia oanally Tat7 
far btxa pun. Thia vxaoonai (OaO) ia known aa 
^ftkUimt, or, from the OKUnaiy ineth<ia of lAitainiiig 
it, a» bunted time, to diatii^niah it from the hfdraU 
t^ Vme, or tlaiai Ume, wbich ia rspnaented by the 
rormnls CaO,HO. On pooiinff water oa qniokiime, 
there ia an aagmcntktum of tjulk, and the two 
and if the pcoportion of 
graat, a li^i^ white, dry powder 



thehrdrata 
<nuoUiiDeia 



toaredbi 



If qaJAiiinet inatead of bttng beated witli watw, 
IB m^ly aj^OMd to the air, it ahnriv attneta betii 
aqnaooaf^ioaraadoarbcDic acdd, and bec<wMt what 
ia termed air rfiijinf, tiie rvaoltni^ c<tfnponad in thia 
oaae being a powder whkh ia a mutnre (or poaaibly 
a oomUnatitm) of carbonate and hydrate of fitne. 

lime ia abont twice aa aohible in oold us in boiliiif 
water, bat eren ooldwater only takea Dp abont Tii*^ 
of ita wei^t of lima. Thia aidntion ia known aa 
Bine unfcr, and ia mni^ employed both aa a medi- 
eina and aa a test for carbonic amd, which inatantly 
nodeia it turUd, in aonaeqtwnoe of tlw catbonate irf 
lime tiuit ia fonned b^JU[ more izaKdohle evon than 
lime itteU. It mnit, ot ooura^ be kept oarafully 
gnarded from tiw atmoapluK^ tlia cattioDie acid of 
irtuch would n^dd^ affect it. If in the preparation 
tt alaked lima ooDitdctaUy mon mtar ia naad than 
ii neoeaaaiy to form tht hydrate^ a white i«ni-flaid 
Batter ii prodnoed, whioh ia termed mift qf time. 
On allowing it to atand, Ibn* ia a dapodlion of 
l^diate of lime, b1>dt« whidi ia lime-watw.' 

The oae of lime in the preparatim of mortan and 
oementa ia deacribed in the articles on theaa aabject*. 
Lime ia alao larsely emnlcmd aa a mannre (aee 
below), and in the pnriocation ot ooal-na, in the 
nrepaiation of hidea for tanning, for ranooa labora- 
tory y ooe aaa a <from ita power of attracting water), 
fto. It* medicinal naca are noticed bdow. 

The following ai« the moat iwKirtant of tiie aaUa 
ot lime. si^haU iff Ume (CkOjSO,) oooua htt 
fr«)m water in the minaral <aik^ar1le, but ia ntncii 
more abundant in oombinalion with two eqniralenta 
of water in e^exite, and in the dilbnot rarietiea of 
g]/ptUM and alabail^. See OmUK. 

OarboniUe of Ume (CaO.OO,) ii atmndantly pre- 
Mnt in both the Inorganio and onnio kinfldomi* 



In the inoraanic UngiliuYi^ jt ooonn in a ciyatalliiie 
farm in louand apar, Aragonita^ and marble— in 
which it ia found in minnte granular ciyatala — while 
in the amorphona oondition it foima the diffarent 
varietieB oE limeatone, ohalk, ko. It ia alwayi 
preaent in the aahee of planta, but bete it ia, at 
all erenta, in part tha recnlt of the ccanbustiou oC 
citratea, aoetatea, malatea, &C., d lima. It ia the 
main conatitaent of the ahelli of cruataoeana and 
molluaca, and ooonla in oonaidarBble quantity in 
the bones of man and other TStotaatea. Caibouate 
of lime, held in aolntion by free oarbonio acid, ia 
alao p i eaeo t in moat apring and rivs watery and 
in aea-water. Stalaetatea, atalaynitea^ tufa, and 
tr a v e gt in an all oompoaad of tha aalt, deponted 
from ratloareoiu wattm. Certain fivma of oartMoata 
of Ume— the Portland and other oolitea, amne of Uu 
mameaian limestones, && — are of eztnme -value 
far buildina purpoaee, and the Tariou naaa of tha 
finer Marblea (q. t.) are too well known to reqoin 
comment. 

There ia a oomliination of Ume with an organic 
acid, viz., oxalate of lima, which is of great import- 
ance in pathtdogy aa a frequent constituent of 
urinary calouli and aedimenta ; for a deacriptioa 
of it aee Oxaud Aad). 

The aolnUe aalta ot Una (or, more aeanratelr 
speaking, of calcium) give no precipitate with 
ammonia, but yidd a irtuta pracipit«te (cd oar- 
boaate ot Ume) with carbonate m potaah or of aoda. 
Theaa raaotiona an, however, nxmnon to the aalta 
of barium, atroutiaia, and oaldom. SolntioB of 
snlphate ot lime jrodwoes no marked etfeot idien 
added to a salt of oldnn, but throwi down a 
white sulphate with the other salt*. The most 
dalioate test for lime ia oxalate of ammonia, whkh, 
even in very dilate neutral or alkaline solutions, 
throws down a white predpitate ot oxalate of lime. 

There are several compounds of phosphoric acid 
and lim^ of which tha moat important u the iatie 
•photfliaie qf Uma, sfimnHnw termed hone phot- 
nA^ from its being the <diie( tnpediait cf b<me«. 
Tkim bMBc phosphate ia lepveaentad by Uie formula 
3CbOJO„ and not only ooom in hmea, but alao 

.. ii_ .. 1_ — -jt, ,^ i^oaphonts^ and in 

termed cop'^te^ iriiidi aza 
fonnd in the Norfolk crag. It forma ftha of the 
ash of well-bumed hone, the remaining (th b 
carbonate of lime, niia ash ia known aa Eone-eo 
and ia («n[doyed ai 
of^oifhc wia , t" 

Tha aabatano 



Lmae ai l/tuturt, — This minmal subatanos has 
bean used for many oentniiea as a means of increasing 
the fertility of land. All cropa require at 



marl a>d lA^k, bat in 

laoad to a fine powder hy slakinf witl 
nke quantity cf calcined lime applied Taiie . 
from three to ee^ tons to tbs aara.' Xba Hsalkr 
quanti^ may ba suffioient for light laad co«tai»iing 
little vegatable matter, irtiile tte farnr may be 
required for abvog land, or tor lead bMding mn^ 
organic laaltir in an taert itahi na lam qnaa- 
ti$ c( line apidiad ahawa thnt ita manarlBfaAet ia 




on the land, than to its aftn:^ HKtilmsaA to tin 
orope. lime pramotes the deoonpaastHB ^ all 
kinds of vegeteUe matter in the mA, and, furtbcr, 
it corrects any acidity in the organic matter, and 
thns deatroju those weeds wUeh are fitvonrad by 
such a oondition at tlte soil. It Msuta in tha 



.Lioogle 



UHX — LIUKEICK. 



decompivitiQii of eeitMn Mtta lAoaa bam fom 
Uie food «f pluita, aod in thU war it miy be raid 
to digeot or prapua theii food. On oartkis kinds 
o£ ImwI , the finw gnsMi do not thriTe until tlie 
Lmd hat b«en limed, and in tba*a omm ite nn 
becomaa •U-impottcnt. lime i* the only care, 
too, thkt oaa Ee teliad en for ' fingocHUid-toe' in 
tamipB, and iti tM6 ia, tom thii eenae, beooming 
mon genenL 

lAmt-Co mpo imdl a* Maltria MeMea. — QmeUinc, 
witii potaah, titlier u the Pokuia 



The (cmier U in Ftmnoe 
a popolar remedy iifr oktwHia. The Mod* abonnd in 
a fixed iweet oiL— The 'Emwormns L., or LnroKir 
{T. Eurevaa), often attain* a larg« aze, paiticiilarlj 

^tio) and 



in rioh aUnvial ioUa. 






Tkwm PaMe, i« onea mon al l y nnd 
XJwe wB t ar, mixed with an equal 
excea of milk, le one of imr belt 

_ _ B Tomitins dependent on inrttdnlity 

ofthertomac^ Piom hau an oonee to two or tiiroe 
ooncea may be thua taken three or four times a day. 
Ita me a* a oonititnent of Oanon oil in bona ia 
noticed in the utiole LuriKXinB. Chalk, or a*r- 
ioKote of inw, when freed from the 



powder inn 
lonntrfoital 



ia a popolar nuftdj in 

A mmme <tf so Minee of predintated eaitonate of 
lime and a qnwter of an onnoe >£. fitwil^ powdered 
oamiAiar, is sold aa Canqilafatad Crdetctoiu Toolk- 

UHE ICibiu aada), a froit nmilar to the Lemon 
(q. v.), bat much omalleT, beiiw onl^ about 1 1 incli 
in diameter, and almost elobalBr, with a thin rind, 
and an extremely add jiuoe. It ia regarded by many 
botaniata aa a rariety of tho BAme apecies with the 
Citron and Lemon. The plant does not attain the 
magnitude of a tree, but ia a ahruh of aboat eight 
feet in height, with a crooked tmnk, and many 
spreading ptii^y biaoches. It is a natire of India 
and Cliin% bat liaa long been culldvatcd in the Wert 
Indica, the (OuHi ot Eortrae, So. In the Weat Indiea, 
it is planted both for the soke of its fruit and for 
hedge*. The tmit is used for the same purposes aa 
t^elemoo ; hot its acid i« by maiiy_ reckoned more 
agreeable. Lime-juice is imported into Britain like 
lemoa-iuice for the manufacture of citric acid, and 
it ia iUtM naed as a boTetaga.— The Sweet Lime (0. 
XimeUa of Risao), cultivated in the south of Europe, 
am>earB to be a mere variety, nrobabl; tlie result of 
cultivation, with a sub-add pnlp. 

LIMB, or LINDEN (IVia), a genn* of 
the natural order THiaax, natdvea of Europe, the 
north of Aaia, and North America. The spetnes 
an rcry aimilBr ; graceful, mnbrasecva beee ; with 
deiadnoiH, heart-aht^ed, seriated leaTet, and oymee 
ac nuMe* o( rstiier niall ydkwidi flowers ; each 
«Tme or panicle aoeompanied with a targe, oblong, 
ydhnriA, nembrauon* brsotea, with netted veins, 
tfae low«r part of iriud) adhere* to the flown^vtalk. 
•Bxa wood H &ht and soft, bnt toagh, dnrable, and 
parlaealartT aartable for cured wink. It ia much 
laed by tomas, and for makiliR piD-boxn. The 
charocel oade of it ia often naed for t«oth-powder, 
tor medieiual pnrposM, for trayona, wd for the 
mamifoetBre oT gonpowder. Th* oaa of Uie fibioiu 
inner bark for miking w»pea,Hi*t«i, and other riMtod 
■woit, ia notioed in the arttchs Baw. It la also aMd 
M a heaUng spplioatioD to wonnda and eore*, bting 
- and aboonding in a bU»d sap. 
some ooontriea naed a* toed Ut 
bad batter. 



Linu-Tise (T. Surt^foa). 



others regard them ai 



V varietiea. The Hoodsd 



^IIm leavaa are in 



* fed 



eable 



honey, mniA Knight Aor W beee. "tte oetebrsted 
f ««nK> SiMei, mndi vrfned (or modiciml nae and 
tor making liqnenn, ia the ^odooe of neat 1^ 
toMta near Kowno, in litbnania. Tho Tnfaswn 
aod (btilled wator of the dried fiowwa are ^itly 



The L.'tree is often planted 
and the principal itreet of Berlin ia called UnUr din 
Linden, from the rows of L.-treei which line it 
The L is a very doubtful native of Britjiin, although 
indigenous on the continent from Scandinavia to the 
Mefiterranean. In Britain, the L.-troa is genarally 
propagated by layeis.— The Aheeioix X^ {T.Amtfi- 
ama, or T, glalim] , commonly called BiHHWOOD in 
America, has larger leavee than the European spede*. 
It abounds on tho ahoree of Lakes Erie and Ontaiio. 
Other species take its phuia in more western and 
more south^ regions. 

LI'UEBICE, an inland aonnl^ of the provinoe 
of Munster, in Ireland, antarated by the Shannon 
on the N. from Clare, and bounded mi the B. b; 
Tipperary, on the & by Cork, and on the W. W 
Kerry. Ita extreme length ia 35 miles, ita breadHi 
64 inUes ; area, lOM aqoare milee, or 6803*2 acne. 
Pop. in 1871, inclusive of the aty of Limerick, 
181,313 ; exclusive of thu city, 161,286, of whom 
142,488 were Komau CathoUoa, and the rest 
Proteetanta. The surface of L. ia an undulating 
p^n, whidi fomu port of tbe central carbon- 
iteroua limeatooe pfiun of Iretasd. A moun- 
tainous district on tiie west belongs to the great 
oool-tiaot of Munster, bnt the coal ia of an ia- 
ferior quality and is chiefly used for the burning 
o( hme. WiUiin a abort distance of the oity ot 
Limerick is a quarry which producaa a reddiah- 
brown marble of fine qoality, as well aa a blaok 
marttle of infwior valae. Mme than i»ie ot the 
distriota conti^ inm, copper, and lead ore* ; bnt 
at present^ no mining operatioDa are oarried on. 
The ioil in geneial ia very fertile, espeoiilly the 
diatriet oaOsd the Oolden Vale, whi<ii oomfHiaea 
npWMds of 160,000 acre*; aa also a portion of 
the loft bank of the Sbvmon below limeridc Of 
the entire acrcMe of the eonnty, 626,876 aarea 
are vable, and 121,101 ommited to cultivation. In 
aenaraL the toil is equally fitted for tillage and lor 
Pasture. In 1873, 176,888 acres were under crops 
c^varions kinds, only 936 being reported fallow. 



dbyGOOgle 



LIMEBIOE— LDfESTONE. 



I ; And of pigs, 51,973. Th» DBtiiuuJ 
wuKKiu in 1872 were Attended bv 38,203 pnpili, of 
whom 37,379 wore Bonun Cathokck. 

The principal towni of L. (le tiie 
nMoe, NewoMtle, tud RMikeiie, Of tlie leoondAry 
riven, the DmI Mid the Munie ue tiia moat impcot- 
■nt. ^Hm gimt hJKhWky of water-commnmoAtion, 
however, is the BiMiiaoii itself, the naTintica' ~' 
which haa been mnch improved, and in which 
hariionr of Foynea promiaei to foim the nnoleni of 
an extended foreign trade. L. enmmnninatea by rail- 
way with Dnblin,Wat«ifoTd, Coi^ and &mia. The 
popnUtion ia ohie^ occopiad in agricultnre, hardly 
— .__j — '*tm« Dotaide the cUij. £. 



invaaion, it feU^ throngh many 
part to the Deantond Fitzgeraldi— the oonfisMted 
eatatea of the laat earl in L. containing no fewer than 
96,lSSacre& On the forfeiturea after 1611 and 1690, 
it wae paroelled ont to new proprieton. Zi. ia more 
than oaoally rich in antiqiutieB, both eccUaiBatical 
and civil, of tba Celtic as wdl as of tlie Anglo- 
Norman period. There were at one time nearly 40 
religiona foundatdona of the CBrieu* alone, and 
the mina of abont 100 castle* an atiU in exiatence. 
The eodeidaatioal remaina of Adare an exoeedin^y 
interesting, two of the ancient chnrehea havmg 
been reatmd, one M the Kottetaot, the other as the 
Catholic pariah chorch. Two other monaatio ruioa, 
ia very good preservation, fortn a (jTonp of eocleei- 
aatical remains hardly toipaaaed, m number and 
. ~«™ .« •!.. _«t favonred districta 









LIMERICK, city, capital of 

described, ia aituated on the ri' , _ 

miles west-socth-weat from Dublin, with which 
ia connected by the great Sonthem and Western 
KaUway. Pop. in IsSl, 53,448; in 1S6), 44,626; 
in 1871, 39,828, of whom 18,267 were males, and 
31,071 females. More than 90 per cent, were 
Bomaa Catholics. L is a parliamentary and 



aether with a tnut called Ein^a Island, 
which uea on a biforcation ol the nver ; and 
ia divided into the English Town, the oldest 
p«rt of the city (and connected with tlie exten- 
sive suburb called Thomood Qate, on the Clare 
nde of the SJbannou], and the Irish Town, which, 
within the preteot c., has extended on the south 
bank of the river into wliat ia now the best part 
of L., called the New Town, or Newtown Pery, 
one of the handsomest towns in Irebnd. L is 
a place of great antiqui^. From ita poaLtioD on 
the Shannon, it was long an abject of deaini to the 
Danes, who occupied it in the middle of the Sth 
c, and held poaaoaaion till reduced to a tributary 
condition by Brian Bomimhe, in the end of the 
10th oentuiy. It was eariy occuped by the Eng- 
lish, and in 1210, Kins J<uin visited and fortiliol 
it. It was afterward assaulted and partially 
burned in 1314 by Edward Btuocl Its later 
history is still more intereatiuK. It was occupied 
by the Catholic party in 1641, out surrendered to 
Ireton in 1661. At the Berolntibn, it was the 
laat stronritold of King James. Having been 
ansucceaafdly besieged by William after the victory 
of the Boyne, it waa regularly invested id 1691 by 
Qeoeral Qmkel, and after a vigorons oud brilliaut 
defence of aeveral weeks, an armistice was pro- 
poaed, which led to the well-known 'Treatv of 
Limerick,' the alleged violation of which has been 
the anbject of freqoent and acrimonious contni- 
Tvty between political portie* in Ireland. The 



so-called * Treaty Stone ' still marks the spot, nesr 
Thomond Bridge, at the entranoe of the suburb of 
Thomcnd Qate, where this treaty waa signed. Ths 
modem oi^ of L. is more tasteful in itn general 
character, and paaseasn more of the apphancss of 
commercial enteipriae and social cnltnre than most 
towns of Irelani£ Its pnblic buildings, eepeiuBUr 
the new Bomon CatikouQ cathedral, and chnroh 
of the Redemptorist order, ar« imposing, and in 
exaellant taste. Its charit^de and religioaa estab- 
lishmauts are truly monifioait for a prorincial town. 
It poaaeaaea aermJ naliimal aohoola, aa well as 
mai^ other educational inatitationa. Ths Shao&on 
at L. is atiQ a noble river, navigable for ships of 
1 !.._.._ ji^ dodka and quays are on * 



export trade is oondocted with ccnaidetable enter- 
prise. The Wellesley Bridge, over the harbour, 
cost £85,000. The inland navigation is l>y means 
of a canal to Killoloe, where it enteis Longh Da% 
and thence W tiie upper Shannon to AtUone, aiid 
by the Grand Canal, which iesnes from the Sbaonon 
at Shannon Harbour, to Dnblin. The manufacture* 
of L. are not very extensive, bnt *Mne of them enjoy 
not merely an Irish, but an imperial reputation 
— such are ths muiufactures of Isocs of glavts, snd 
of flih-hodn. There are Bsvstal iron-foondriea, 
flonr-millB, I»eweries, distilleries and taoueriea, and 



itered. and 248, of B3,e06 tons, cleared the port 
LIMESTONE, the popular as well as technical 
Line for all rocks which are composed in whole, 
to a large extent, of carbonate of lime. Few 
[leioU are so extenravely dirtribated in nature aa 
this, and in some form or other, limestone rocks 
occur in every geological epoch. Carbonate of lime 
is netvly inHcluDle in pure water, bnt it ia rendered 
easily soluble by the presence of carbonic add goa, 
which occurs in a variable quantity in all natural 
waters, for it is absorbed by water in its passage 
through, the air as well as through the earu. 
Carbonate of lime in solutioa is consequently found 
in all rivers, lakes, and seas. In evaporation, water 
and carbonic acid gas are given oO^ but the car- 
bonate of lime lemsins oninfluenced, becoming 
nadually concentrated, until it has anpersaturated 
the wat^, when a precipitation takes place. In this 
way are formed tne stalactites whicli hang icicle- 
like from t^ roofs of limestone caverns, and the 
stalagmites which rise M columns from their Boors. 
Travertine Cnber-atone), or oalcareoua tufa, is 
similarly formed in running atreams, lakes, and 
springs, by the depcaitioa of the carbonate of lime 
on the beds or sidea, where it encrusts and binda 
together shells, fragmenta of wood, leaves, stones, 
&c So also birds' neats. wiga, and other objects 
become coated with lime in the ao-oaUed pebifying 
welU, OS that at Knaresbonmgh. From the same 
oanse, pipes oonveying water from bmlera and 
min«e often become choked up, and the tea-kntlJe 
geta lined with 'for.' 

While water ia thus the great atore-honse of 
carbonate of lims, very little of i^ however, ia fixed 
by precipitation, for in tJle ooean, evaporation does 
not take place to inch oo extent as to permit it to 
deposit, beaidee, Oxera is Gve times tJie quantity of 
free oarimnic acid gas in the water of tba aea that 
is required to ke^ the carbonate of lime in it 
in solution. Tmnimti quantities of lime are never- 
theless being abstracted from ths sea, to form 
the hard portions of ths nomerous ^nim.u which 
inhabit it. Cnistaoea, mollosca, loophytea, and 
foraminifeia are ever busy separating the little 
particles of carbonate of lime fnm the water, auil 
solidifying them, and so supplying the materials 



abAjOogle 



inaioBB— LnfN.£A. 



for fmniii^ >did mck. It haa been found th«t 
» iMga poitKo ol the bed of tbe Ati«iitic between 
Emcpe and Nmtii America is covered vith k lisht- 
ooloitred oom, eamaottA chieflj of the peif ect or 
teokea ekdetoM A fommaifen, farming » lub- 
■bnce, when dried, wbi^ in qmeemtoe ud itrue- 
tm^ doael V NMii^ile* chalk. In trtfiwal Tepoea, 
«Dntla are Dnildiiig tvS» of enonnoiu macmtnde, 



eMbettCemn and other fonnationa. The locki 
<iigameall7 tc«iaed do not alwa^ ooonr ai 
wera orinnaUy depoehed; demtdatdoii has 
□p to ra-depoeit them 
(tfeat chansee, too, may 



the textiue of tbe _ . 

hard, otben eoft, lome cmqiaii^ ooiuaetimary, or 

UTetaUine. 

Hie ebief ratietiea of limeatone an : Okalt (q. t.) ; 
OoBU ((].v.); Compact Lioutlone, a hard, miooth, 
fiD»-gnimed rock, gmenUyof ablnuh-gray ookiar; 
OrfUattltte IxmOUmt, a rook whk^ from meta- 
mm^tie acticm, baa beoome granular; fine-gruned 
vbito vatfaUaa, wembKng loaf -an^r in teztore, are 
" ' " ' riM or StaHarg Marble. Magnaim 
Dolamile (q. t,) ia a rook in which 
magncaia ia mixed with carbonate of 
Fntunlar oamea are btoq to lome lime- 

from Uie kind of (oaeilj that aboond in tlum, 

as Nnnmoltte, Hippdlite, Tndnigal, and Crinoidal 
linuetooea ; aod to othera from Hia fonnatioii to 
irtiicfa they bekmg, aa Deroniao, Carboniferona, and 



LIHFIORD. See DmuRK. 

LIMITATION, in Engliah Iaw, ia the limited 
tame allowed to partiee to commence their snita or 
actioDl, or other proceedingB, ao u to ahorten 
litigation. In all OTiliaed conntries, some period 
ia preecribed by itatnte (called Etatutes of Imuta- 
tioDB, or js'QBcriptiDii) with this view, Uioogh Few 
coantries adopt the same limit, and Scotland diffen 
much from England and Ireland in thia point. In 
England, anita to recover land muat genenlly be 
broDght witUn twenty yeara, and to recover aebta 
including Inlla oE exchange) and danugee within 
aix yean. ActUma for aaaault or battery must be 
bron^it within four yeara, and for Blanoer within 
two yeaiK In Scotland, Freacription ia the word 
geoenlly need for limitation, and actions to recover 
Imd geneiftlly mnst be broogbt within forty yeara, 
for many ordinary debts within three ye*™, but 
for billa of exchange within aix years. There are 
many other differences of detail. See Patarson's 
Comprndium qf EtiglM and BaiUk Laie. 

LIMITED lilABILITY. See Joiirr.aTOCK 

COMTAirXRB. 

LIMITS, Tkkobt or. The importance of the 
notiaD ot a Until in MathematicB cannot be over- 
eatimated, aa many brenchea of -Uie adaice, including 
the diflcoential oalculua and its adjunct^ conaiat 
of nothing else than tracing t^ consequenoea 
which flow from this notion. The following are 
ample illiutnttiona of the idea : Tha mm of the aeriea 
l.|.^ + ^+|4. Ju., approachea nearer and nearer 
to 2 aa the nomber at terma is increaaed ; that, the 
■erend mma are H, If, If IH. ^, each aom 
a]w«y« differing fiom 2 by a fraooon equal to the 
' '' i( lAich have been added ; and ainoe 

lonUa of the ra«oad)Dg one, 
I extended, the leas the ditfer- 
ewa between it* anm and 2 beocmea; also this 
diflercDcs may be made amaller than toy aaaign- 
aUe quantity— a», tW.jvn '>T marely extend- 
ing tha aeria till the ijart denominator becomes 
greater than 100,000 (for thia, we need only take 



^,b 



18 tenna : 3 terma more will gii 
Ou^ t.tA-ww i *iid >■> "") i <>gB>'>> the sum of the 
•eriea can never be greater than 2, for the differ- 
ence, thoogh steadily diminisliing, atill snbsiats ; 
onder these droomatanoes, 2 is said to be the 
limit of the anm of OiB seiiee. We see, then, that 
the oriteria of a limit are, that the seriea, when 
extended, aliall approach nearer and nearer to 
i^ in vsjoe, and so that the difierence can be 
made a* nuaU aa we pleue. A^ain, the area of a 
etrcle is greater than that of an inacribed hexagon, 
and 1«M than that of a droanuoribed hexagon ; 
bat if thoM polygon! b« converted into fignree of 
twelve ndM, the aiea of tho :' 

ianreaaed, and that of the estt. ._ 

area o( the dicle alwaya oontinning ii 
in poaition and value ; and aa the tiwuuBr lu 
aide* ia increased, each {jolygon ^tproaohea nearer 
and neater to the oitcle in aiae ; and aa, when the 
aidea are equal, thia difieranoe can be made aa amall 
■« we plaaae, the drele i* aaid to be Uie limit of an 
aqoilatetal polygtm, the nomber of whose aidea ia 
inoteMed indcsmtely ; or, in anothv form of worda 
oonroonlj^ oaed, ' tiw polyg<m ^proachea Uke ciide 
aa tta limit, whan ha ■dee incieaae without limit,' 
or again, 'when the number of aidea is infinite^ 
the p«^giMi becomea a dmle.' Whoi we use the 
terma 'infinite' and 'zero' in mathematics, nothing 
more ia meant than that the qoaatity to which 
the tetm ia applied ia inemumg wiOunU Utnit, 
or diminMiag tnd^/biit^ ; and if thia were kept 
in mind, thar« would be much leaa confunon m 
the ideoa connected with theoe terms. ¥iom tbe 
nme Cause has ariaen the diacuaaion concerning the 
JbiUty of what are called vaikiahing fractiona 
,, fractioos whoae numerator and denominator 
become zero mmnltaoeooaly) having nai valnea; 

thos j- = -jf when a = 1 ; but by division we 

find ^t the fraction ia equal to sc + 1, which ^ 2, 
when X = 1. Now, this discnsaion could never have 
ariaen had the question been interpreted rightly, 

aa follows : : approaches to 2 aa its limit, 

when X oontinually approaches 1 aa iti limit, a 
propoaition which can be proved true by mhati- 
tutmg successively 3, 2, 11,1), 1^ lih, &&, when 
the corresponding values of the fraction are i, 3, 
2i, ^1 2^< ^rhf ^ "^B doctrine of limita is 
employed in the Differential Calcnlos (g. T.). The 
beet and moet complete illnstrations of it are found 
in Newton'e Prineipia, and in the obaptors on 
Mjiiina md Minima, Corves, Summation of Series, 
and Integration generally, in the ordinary works 
on the Calcolus. 

LI'HMA, an interval which, on aooount of its 
exceeding smallnesa. does not appear in the practice 
of modem music, but which, m the mathematical 
calculation of the proportians of different interval^ 
is of the greatoit importance. The limma makes 
its appearance in three different magnitudes — viz., 
the great limma, which is the difFerenoe between 
tbe Lu^ whole tone and the soiaU semitone, being 
in the proportion of 27 to 25; the small limma, 
which la tiia difference between the grest whole 
tone and the great semitone, being in the proportion 
of isis to 13S 1 and the Pytbagoreon limma, which 
is the differenoe between tbe great third of the 
anoienta (which consisted of two whole tones] and 
the perfect fourth, the proportbn of which is as 2S6 
to 243. 

LIUN^A (Or. limne, a awampj, a rbbu* of 
gsateropodous molluscs of the order Piumonafo, 
gmng ita name to a family, Lmutaada, allied to 
Htlicida (Snails), Litaadila (Ship), fte. The spenies 



dbyLiOOgle 



LIlDrOBIA-LIHOOt.N. 



T^etable tubataucea. They ill h&ve a tfain, delicate. 



nn ia the differaot miun ; bcdng prodnced into 
KUevhat eloD^ted niie in the trua £imn<Ba 
'ovD-EKiUB), whilst in PIonorMi the aptre it Miled 



(Poin> 
mthe 
Hialimi 



of floating ani 
Face of then 



, with a Bomewlut pndnoad 
ly of the LinrncBoda have a habit 
I Riding aheH downwarda at Ou snr- 
. . . . Jiter, aa nujr readily be obsemd in a 
fraah-watar aVDaiinm, in whioh they an of great 
naa in jnerenting the ezosa^Te growth of oixifer- 
Totda, ud renxtrmg all daoayiiw Twetable matter. 
They aarre tha aama porpoae m tna eoonomy of 
natim is lakea, poada, ana rinm, and fomiah food 
for fiahaa. They are hermaplurodite. The? depoait 
th«r ^ga on atenae or aqnatio planti, anTelopad in 
maaaei irf a glury anbatauoe. The daTdonnent of 
the jOKog mallnao may eaaily be watched in the 
aqnarinm, tlie membtaoe of the egg baing perfectly 
tnuMpaiwLt. 

LIUHO'RIA, a genua of cruatocea of the order 
ftopoda, cautainmg only one known Epedee, which, 
howaTcr, ia important &oai the jDiBcluef it doea to 

S'era, dook-ratca, and other nood-work immeraed in 
a water cf the aea, on the couta of Britain, and 
of eome porta of continental Europe. It ia only 
about a auth of an inch in length, of an aah-gray 
colow, with black ^ea, which are compoaed of 
numerooa oceOi, placed cloee together. The Head ia 
broad. The 1^ are ahort. The general appearance 
TTanmblm that of a amall WDod-Ionae, and the ere; 
tore lolla itadf np in 
The ooDtoita of l£e ah 
wood, and food k the object of Ute 
wood for which the Xi. ia notable 
found it very troublcaome dnrinj 
eonneoted with tiie ' 
The pera 



dnring^tba opaiationa 
bnHdins of the Bell Rock Zig^ 
at Soathampton haTs anffored 



LIHOOEIB, c^tal of the depatbnetit of Hante- 
Tiemae, in TnJiM, and of tha f oimcr pra*inoe of 
Umonain, jdctateaqndy litnated on a hill in the 
vallay of the Visiuie, 67 milea aonth-eaat of Poitiera. 
It ia an ancient city, and the aeat of a biahop. It 
ha* a cathedral, began in the 13tb 0., tntt atill 
inoomplete ; • number of aoientifio and benevolent 
inititutkiDaandpnblicbQildiiiga; emuriderabletOMin- 
factnrea of poKelun (employing 2000 haada), of 
dmgmta, of a kind of paaktUMduown aa LimogM, 
&&lt waa the Angoatoritom of the ^"■"»"°i and 
of LeiiKmo% whaooe 



Pop, (1872) 44,9M 
LtHPBT (PaldUi, • geona of gaataapodona 
BMllaaaa, of Iba order OgebbranMata, the type 
' ■' fiwiily Pallida. In all t^iij f~^- 



e ahell ia neariy conical, not 






1, and has a 

Iforward*. The 
^ or oval muaonlar foot, by 
t adherM firmly to rocka, the power of 



apeta live on rocky oout^ between tide- 
niatka, and remain firmly fixed to one ipot iriien 
Uie tide il out, aa theb giQa cannot bear ezpoanre 
(o tike Mr, but nwre about when the water corara 
Qiem J iniMiy of tiiem, howevti, it would aeem. 



I^^n: 



tiie a 



_ ia fomid hollowed to their a 

nt^ feed on algn, which they aat by m 



long ribbon-lifca tMigot^ eorcmd willi immc^ 
rowa of hard teeth ; the Cohkov L. (PotaOi 
,artt) of the Britiah coaata haWng no fawv 
thui 160 rows of teeth on ita tongua, 12 in each 
row, 1920 teeth in all. The toagne, whmi not in 
nae, lie* folded deep in the itttenor of the aaimaL 
!nia silli are arranged under tlw matgin of tiw 
mantl^ between it aadthe foot, laming a oirola ct 
leafleti. The mm are dMinot— Hm ptnnr of 
•dheraioe of lia^eta to tha rook ia TeiTgrea< ae 
that nnleaa ampnaed t^ auddoa aM»nt«t tMT are not 



nlaaa a ai p tia ed br 
ToaHmdwithoat < 



n» OOMDMB 



the ihelL Tba apacieB 
many Tariatiea of form 

L. ia most abundant cm tba rocW eoaati ct foitain, 
and is much niad for baiC by fialuniiea; it ia alao 
uaed for food. Some of the limpate of wamer 
climatea have very beantiful ahella. A apeeiea found 
on the waatem ocaat of South Ameaioa naa a ahell 
a foot wide, which ia (rftan uaed by tha inhabitanto 

IjUXA'O&M. SeePux. 

LIITOOLir, Axuxax, dxtaenth Preridaot of tha 
United Statea of America, waa bora in Kentnaky, 
February 12, 1800. Hia graadfatiier waa ao ean- 
giant frran '^rginla ; hia father, a poor farOMr, who, 
in 1806, nmond tram Kentucky to iudianL In 
the rode life of the baeftwooda, Il'b mtin adioatiBg 
did not exoeed one year, and ha waa eaniloyed in 
the aerereet asiicultural labour. He lived with 
his family in Spenoer Couaty, Indiana, till 1830, 
when he removed to lUipois, whore, amth another 
mBO, he perfoimed the feat of apUtting 3000 raila in 
a da^ which gave him tha popular aobriqiul of 
'the aaOipUtter.' In I83«, he waa elected to the 
niinoia legislature. At thia period, he lived by 
surveying land, wore jiatohr ' ' ' " 



, , fetched homeapon dothea, 

spent his leiRure nourt in itndying law. He 

three times re-eleeted to the l^iauture ; waa 

tisB law in 1838; and ranored to 



le itate capitaL In 184^ he eanvaaaed 



[aveiy; and in 13M waa a recog^uaed \euiet 
rwlv-foimed Republican party, to 18S6, he 
i tlw atate aa a oaadidate for United Stated 



admitted to practiaa 

Springfield, the state capit . ,_. ..._ _.. 

we (We f^ Mr Clay, uen nominated (or preaidenl 
Mr Clay waa deferied, but the popularity gained 
by L. in tha oanvasa teemed hit own election to 
oongreaa in 1846, where he voted againat tiie exten- 

in tha oewlv 

canvaased in . _ . . 

tenator, ^uut Mr Donglaa^bat witboot _ _ . 

In 1856, he wat an active supporter of Mr IWoooat 
in the pveeideutial canvait which leaulted in the 
deetion of Mr Buchanan. In 1860, he wu nomi- 
nated tor the premlen^ by the Chicago Conveutun 
over Mr Beinud, who expected the nomination. 
The Dim-actcaiiion of davery to tbe tenitoriei, ct 
new atatM to be tonned from them, waa the »oat 
important prindpfe of hit par^. There were three 
other oandidatee — Ur DoiuJaa of Qlinoit, Nortben 
Democnt ; Mr Breakenridse of Eentuiokr, th«i 
viee-}reuanl^ and aftawaMt a general of ute Con- 
federate avny, Boathani DemooMt ; and Mr Bell of 
Tsnnsaaes , Hatira *»««»i»- With thia diviaioa, Mr 
Lincoln Natived a mMoritr of Totea ovw ai» of 
the athtr candidate^ tboo^ a milliou ahort (tt an 
■baolntamajcnW; every Sovtbtn and one Nortben 
state voted agamtt him. He wat inttaUad in tha 
Fceaidenf ■ diair 4th March 1S6L ffit eleotioo by 



tha South, wat foDawed by the etiiMiin of 11 
Sootheim ttataa, and a war for tke rsatoration ol 
the wami. Aa a militaiy ntsatui*, he prDclaimcd, 
Janiury 1, 1863, the freedom of all slavea ' 
rebel stataa ; and waa re-elected to Om 
in 1864. Tha war waa teotu^ to 
1S6S; and m the ICth cd the a 



a oioK April ^ 
me niontb,L wai 

>dhy Google 



UKoom—UNttaiY. 



ItmCOLIf (cilled hj the Romuu lAndum; 
bom which, with CbionJa (nbjcdned, oodwi the 
modam luuna), a dty of En^luul, impitftl of the 
comt^ of the miob ntuae, » pwlUmantaiy uid 



» of ft bin, whioh ii 
city i« impoaiiig in 
» raiT aonmdiertAiU 
imgnurl^ hid out, 
_ ^edmeiw of early 
•idutaetim. Hie MthedmL one o( tbe Quest in 
&igUnd,i« the^vinoipalbniloit]^ It ii •aimouited 
fcf Ihiee town, two of wliich, 180 te«t ia tui^t. 



hei^t, 

i. The 



80 feet. "Oa fuuHu bell called Tom of Liscoln 
was cut in 161IX uid wm honz in one of the weit 
towen ot thii edifice. It wm broken up, liowsrer, 
m 1834, and, together with «iz otbai bella, wm 
racaat to fonn the preaent largo bell and two quarter 
hella. Tbe pnaent bell, iriii^ hang* in the oonttal 
toiwer, ia 6 tana 8 nrt in wd^^ and ii 6 feat IO4 
inalMB in ilfv^tW at Qm nunth. The atyla of the 
natheilral, ^wu^^ Tarioui^ ia chiefly Ear^ T!infljinh 
T. .1— __«.:^ many other intcireatiiiA religjona 



ti jdre three choittEe^ <<fctihg 

tnm bafcne tlw Befonnatios, &c^ namorooa aohoola, 
•ad beneroleot iulitalioni. Serenl iron fonndrie^ 
tttd nunnfaotorie* td portable ateam-en^nea and 
a^ricnttonl machine*, a* well a« large itMin flonr- 
mlk an in oftnMoa h«n, and thare i* an active 
tnde ia flo«r. Brewing and machine-making wiUi 
a tada in ooin and wo^ an klao carried OD. Two 
■— T*"T »n ntiuned to tlw Honse^of Commona 

iBipartaiio& an 

it pwaerrad » — , __ . . 

cvteoaiTe t^ nuMinaiit tnde at tiie time of the 
Norman Ccmqnaat ; bat ita advancement lince that 
tamahaa DDtbaan eqoalljr rapid. It containa aome 
Toy intvwtiiig anbqmtiG^ aa 1^ Soman gate, 
Uie nmaini m the palace and ataUea of Jobk at 
Gannt^ and tba town-h^Ll, which datea fyr" iiie 
time <rf Henry VHJ. 

LnrOOUIBHIBK * BwHiiiM oomty tt Viag- 
kad, and, aftor TcrtiluK^ tkehiMtt i&the ooont^, 
ia bondad on the N. by YoA^itb, and on the B. 
by tbe Nntti Saa. Ana, l,7S7,ae2 atatate aerea ; 
pop. am) 438,899; Ibe ooaat, from tiie Hnmbtr 
— wUoh aeparatca tb* ooonty from Yorfcihin on 
tte Bdrtb-^o Um Waib, it abnort uniformly low 
and mnihy : ao low, indeed, in <me part— betweto 
OemoiithB of the WellMKl and tiie Nen— Ihattbe 
alure ha« nqnirta flw defnoe of an embank- 
ment faom the Innadi o( the sea. L. haa kAg 
ben divided into thme dMiiota,or 'paiti,' a* tbey 
an callad— via, the Parte of linda^, an inanlar 
diabiot, fonniK the Bottb-eaatam Dortian of L, 
and indading Oe WoUa or chalk failla, which 
■n abmt fl milM fat length by < mHaa in avoue 
bnadth; the Pltfta of Keateven, in Uie acmtib- 
«Ht ; and the Parta of Hdlsnd, in the aoolb- 
the greater part of tile (foa. CSiief 
— *- tbe tm-Tinlirm, the Witium, 
Hie enrfaoe ia compaiatiTaly 
lenl, with the azcntion e( tbe Wold* in the north- 
eaat Tbe aoil, lbo«|^ ve^ vanona, ia no IIm 
wMe T«^ fntile. It indodea traeta «( graimg- 
ptnad nnannaMad in riehiMaa, and the 'warp- 
bnda' tteeWurora) almg the Bide of tha Tnnt 



prodnoe aplendid crop* of triieatv beana, oata, and 
tape, witbont the aid of mannni No other county 
in Bu^aod baa finer breed* of oxen, hoitea, and 
■heep. Homeaatle and Lbooln hone-fain 



□ooited by Ptvncb, Oeman, Runiaji, and London 
dealan for tbe poTpaaa ot buying anpraior bunten 
and oaniaga-Iunfea. The climate, though lubject 



._ atrong weeteriy winda, ia muoh — 

of the other oentral cauntiei of England. Six mem- 
ber* are rctamed to parliament 

LIKCOLN'S UfS, one ot the tonr Bnglidi Ins* 

Court, having exclusive pO¥rer to aaU pereon* 

to tbe bar. It la (o called beoanae it belonsed to 

the Earl of Unooln in the nign of Edward IL, and 



LIBD, JsBNT. See OouiaciBiiiDi, ILuujfK 
IiCTDIjSY, Johk, a diitinguiihad botaniet, wm 
bona, Febmaiy 1799, at Catton, near Norwiob, where 
hi* father, who waa the author of A (htidt to 
OrAardakdEitAm Gartleru,owBed alaigenutaety 
garden. Botany aeama to have earlr attracted hi« 
att^ioi^ a*, in ISlt^ he fabliabea a twudatkni 
of Biebard'a Analyte du 



Jfatund ByiUn of Bolaag (1830] ; Ifitroduelbm to 
Ha SmuMrt and Pifmotoey tif Plant* (2 vola. 
1S33): Slora Mtdka (1836); and The YegdabU 
Kiitadon (1B40), wfaioh ia a etandard work on the 
Bobject of olawiftcation, and ia . on expanaion of 
Ida Imtroditttiom to Ae Natur<d Sa^aa, which had 
nrevioiiBly (in 1830} been romodelled under the 
title of A Ifaiurtd Sytttm q/* Boto^ L. did a 
gr«at deal to popnlariae the tbaAy of botany by the 
publication of Cla LadieJ Bolmig, 8A00I Botattp, 
'Botany' in tbeXtiniry qf CTjf^ f mmpIh^k and 
the botanieal articlta aa far m tbe letter R in 
tbe Ptmf Oifdopadia. In hie Theory i^fHortkul- 
turt, which baa paaaed tbrongh aereral »^ '*■""■, 
and in the well-known periodical, Tht Qardvae^t 
Cbvniefc (the bortianUDral department of^ which 
be edited fnm ita oomaenoement in 1841), be 
praotioal valoa of a knowledge of 
, , ogvin tha oommea operation! ot 
the field and BaMEan. In oonjnnotiai wiUi Mr 
Button, be pnUiabed Tht Fomd flora <J Ortat 
Brilain, whidi oonBata of d n acri p tio n a and figur«a 
of all &» tomal planta found in tbi* coontiy np to 
the time ot th» comnMBoenMnt of tin* poUioation in 
1333. Oar Hmitcd noe preventa na from notiaii^ 
hia nnmeniga oontribotiaaa to 
In 1829; at the opening of 
,. he waa^ipointedPralMBor 
andba eonttnnedtodiadiarge tJtedatiM 
at the dmir till I860; whan be reaigned. Vtom 
\SSSt, be acted at aanatant aeenUty to tbeHorti- 
onltural Sookty, and not only edited th«ir IHna- 
actioiai and Proceeding bnt took an aetiTe part in 
" imaouemntof tbeir^ardenaatTnnibamQTeen 
__ tbe date of tbeir diecmitinnaane. Ba wa* a 
Fellow of almoat all tbe leaned aoeietiM both at 
home and afanad. Ha died Noran^^r 1S6& 

-LIITDSAT, or LYND3AY, 8m David, of tbi 
Motim, one of Uie beat, and UMg tbe meat popnlar 
of the older SocAtiab porta, waa the aon 01 David 
Lindaay of Oarmylton, in Eaat Lothian, whose 
pandfather waa a bod ot SirWilUam linduy of tbe 
Bttcb. IAo poet ia md by Chalmen to have been 
bom at tbe Mount about tbe v«ar 1490, bat Laing 
in hia recent edition of Lynoaay (ISTl) note* tbe 
abaeaea e( evidMiee on tbia poin^ Obahnen having 
apparentlr aKomed it aa a oonaeqaenoe of hia anp- 
pontion tW ti» poe^a father waa ' David Imidaay 



lyCoO'^lc 



LINE-IINEN AND LINEN MANUPACTtmES. 



of tba Monntht,' while ^^^ '"^ ahewli th>t thii 
WHthepoet'isTandfathar. -— .- ■ 



'S.I 



israndfi 

. ... I lilt of ' incorpontad ' itndenta in 

SaivBtor'i Callesa, St Andrevn, for the jre&r 150S or 
1G09. It nm; b« th&t of the po«t. We Monot tell 
wlien he entered the loy*! lervioe, but in October 
1511 he u found talcing part in a plftT acted before 
thecoQitofEiDK Junes IV. lathe folloHing spring, 
be WM appointed ' kee]>er ' or ' iieher ' of the prince, 
who, when little more than a twelvemonth old, be- 
camo King James V. ; and hia Terees preserve Bome 
pleofling traoea of the care and afTection with which 
he tended the king's infant years. Hii wife, Janet 
Donglas, had long the charge of the royal apparel 
In 1G24, tiie coart fell nnder the power ol the 
queen-mother and the Douglases, and L. loet his 
plaee ; but foor years afterwards, when the Doug- 
hwe« were overthrown, L. was made lion King at 
Arms, and at the same tLme received the honoar of 
knighthood. In this capacity he accompanied em- 
bsBsies to the conrta of £nel>utd, France, Spain, and 
Denmark. He appean to Gave repreaented Cupar in 
the patliaments M 16^ and 1M3 1 and he was present 
at 8t Andrews in 1547, when the fcdlowers of the 
reformed futh called Enoz to take npon himself 
the office of a pubUo preaaher. He died childless 
before the summer of ISGSl 

The first eolleetion of L.'s poems appeared at 
Copoihagen abont 1S03. They were repnblished 
at Paris or Bouen in 1S58; at London in 1666, 
167S. and 1681: at Belfart in ITU ; in Scotland in 
1568, 1571, 1674, 153S, 1S92, 1697, 1604, 1610, 
1614, 1634, 1648, 1696, 1709, 1720, and 1770. This 
mere enmneration of editions might be enoo^ to 
shew the great popularity which L. Ions enjoyed. 
For nearly two centuries, mdeed, he was what Bums 
ba« since become— the poet of the Scottiah people. 
His works were in almost every hous^ his verses on 
almost eveiv tongne. Like Bums, be owed part of 
his pt^tnlan^, no doubt, to hia oomplete manecy ol 
the popular apeeob. Bnt^ like Bums, L. wonld l^ye 
basn read in whatevn languue he ohoM to write. 
His vsnea shew few marka of the hl^iest poetical 
power, bat their merit* otherwise are 0e*t. Their 
fancy ia scarce^ leM genial than their nnmoor, and 



they ant foil of good sense, varied learning, 
knowledge of the world. They are valuable now, 
if for nothing else than their vivid pictures of 
manners and feelingi. In the poet's own day, 
they served a nobler purpose, by preparing the 
way for the gteat revolutiou of the iGth century. 
It has berai said that the vetvea of L. did more for 
the Befonnatian in Scotland than all the sermons of 
Knos. like Bums, L. shot some of his sharnest 
■hafta at the clei^. The licentiousDess that obar- 
actariaea his vene mutt be attributed in part to 
the age in which he lived. The earlieet and moat 
poetiMl of his writings is The Dreme; the moat 
ambitioiu, Tlt» M<inaTckie ; tbe meet remarkable 
in hk own day, pertiaps, was The Saiyre of lAe 
Tkrie Jldaitit; bat that which ia now read with 
most pleaaore, both for the charm of ita subject 
and for ita freedom from tbe allegorical fashion of 
the time, ia 7^ Hittorie tff Sqvj/er Mddnaa. An 
admirable edition of L.'s worka is that of Chalmers 
(Lond, 1806,3 vols.]; but in points of detail it is less 
accnrate than that cj Laing (Edin. 1871, 2 vols.). 

LINEi, an expresmon used in the army to distin- 
guish ordinary cavalry and infantir from the Guardii, 
Artillery, and Engineers. It obviously takea its 
origin bam the fact, that the troops in qaestJoa 
oonstitnted the nsoal ' line of battle.' 



LINEAL DESCENT, the denxint in a ri|^t 
line, as from father to son, grandson, && 

LINEN AND LINEN MANUFACTURES, 
fabrics manofactured wholly from flax or lint (L^t. 
Zinum). The manufacture of linen has reached 
its greatest perfedaon in France and the Netbei^ 
lontb, where the atimulus to produoa fine yams 
(see SpDiNiHa) for the lacemakars has given rise 
to suoh care and attention in the cultivation and 
preparation of flax, that in point of Gnenesa of 
fibre they have been unaquallod. Consequently, 
the linens of Fraace, Belgium, and Holland have 
lon^ enjoyed a well-deserved reputation, and in the 
article of lawn, which is tbe uieat kind <rf linen- 
doth made, the French are unrivalled. In the 
ordinary kinds of linen, our own manufactures are 
r^iidly improving, and will soon equal in qnality 
the productions of continental competitors. Those 
of Ireland, especiallv, are remarkable for their excel- 
lence, and this trade has become a vety important 
one in that country ; whilst in ScoUuid a large 
ttade in the coarser and inferior kinds hat located 
itMll The export of linen manofaeturea and linen 
yarna from the United Kingdom, in 1872, was in 
value £10,366,761 ; and the amonnt prodnced for 
home-coosumption may be reckoned at £10,000,000. 

The chief kinds of linen maonfactores, besides 
yarn and thread, which will be described under 
Spinkino, are ; Lawk (Pr. iwon), the finest of fiax 
manufactures, formerly ejcludvdy a French pro- 
doctioQ, but very fine lawns are now made in 
Belfast, Armagh, and Warringstown ; Cahbrio 
(q. T.) ; DAMAai (q. ».) ; DlArSB (q. v.). Of the 
finer jjain fabrics, Shedmga are the most impc«tant 
in tbjs oountiy. The chief places of their manufac- 
ture are Belfast, Armagh, and Leeds. Common 
Bhtettitg and Tottdtiag are very extenavely manu- 
factnred in Scotland, partaonlaily at Dundee, Eiric- 
oaldy, Forfar, and Aihroath. Jjvdct, ffudxibadtt, 
Otnabutvt, CroA, and Tick (corrupted from ticitn 
and deGtot, Dutch for cover), are verr ooarse 
•nd heavy tnateriala, some fully bleached, others 
nnUeaehed, or nearly so. They are chiefly made in 
Scotland, tjie ^mtt seat of the manufacture being 
at the towns just mentioned, althongh much i« 
made in the smaller towns and villuea, alao at 
Leeds and Batnsleyin England. Somo ^wvarietiei 
of velvet and ■'elveteen are also made of flax at 
Manchester, and much linen-yam is used as watp 



UNE, Uaii 
having oidy ens dimenaion. Eoelid defines i 
■ that whicn haa length without breadth.* 



to be. 



for other i 

Linen is one of the moat ancimit o( all textile 
manufactures, at least it ia one of tho earliest men- 
tioned. The ceredotJi, in which the most aadent 
wrapped, im>vea its eariy and very 
among the Egyptdani. It formed 
also parts of the garmsnta of the Hebrew as 
well as tbe Egyptian priests. Panopolis was the 
Belfast of the ancients, aa, according to Strabo, it 
was there the manufacture of linen waa chiefly 
conducted. The wonderful durability ot linen is 
evidenoed by it* existence on mummies, and by the 
remaAabla fact mentioned by the 0<nnan writer, 
Seetzen, aad referred to b7Blumenbacfa,thathehBd 
found several napkins within the folds of tlu eoyet- 
ing on a mnmmy whidi he unwramied, and that he 
had them washed several time* wiuunt injury, and 
used with great venetatioD 'tlus vmetsble linen, 
i^iich had been woven more than 1700 yean.' 
From the time of these ancient Egyptians up to 
the present period, the use of linen for clotiting 
and other purposes has been continuous ; and 
although tbe intrododion and vast develt^iment 
of the ootton manufacture checked it* oonaumption 
for a time, it has fully reguned, and has indeed 
BTixwrlHl ita fomer proporboiu a* one of our great 



exceeded, it 



dbyGoogle 



LINQ— LDJKOPINQ. 



moc^t of r 



UNO [Lola molva), a fiili of tlie funily Qadiia, 
abundAot on most parts of tha Brituh ooasto, and 
elaewhete Ummghont the northern seas, and in 
valD« almoat liTaUiiig the cod. In form, it ia much 
more dongated than the cod, and even more than 
the hak(^ with which it agrees in having two donul 
fins and cme anal fin, the anal and second dorsal 
lonf; ; bat the nnna diffen in the preaence of barbels, 
of which tlie X. has only one at the eitremitj' of 
the lower jaw. The L. ia generally three or four 
feet li^, aometimBB more, and haa been known 
to wei^ aeveo^ ponnda. Hie oolonr ia g^fi 
inrliniiig to dive ; thebdl^, lilTCTyi the fin* Mged 
with white. The tail-fio u lonnded. Sis g^ia is 
largi^ and the monUi wd] farniahed with tnetL 
"Die L. is a very roracions fiih, feeding duefiy on 
amaller fishes. It is abo very prolific, and deposits 
June, in soft ooiy ground near the 
verK It ia found ofiefly where the 
bottmn of the sea ia rocky. Great nombere are 
eaiu^ in the same manner aa cod, ^ hand-lines 
and long lines, on the coasts of Ckimwall, the 
Hebrides, the Orkney and Shetland Islands, kc. ; 
•od are split from liead to tail, cleaned, salted in 
biioe, washed, dried in the son, and sent to the 
maAet in the tonn of SlodC-JSth. Tiuj are lugely 
exported to Efpain and other coontries. The aii^ 
bladden or mnauia are pickled like those of cod. 
The lirar alao vislda an <al ainiilar to cod-liTer oil, 
wltich is nasd for the sapply of lamps in Shetland 
and elsewhere.—Other species of L. are found in the 
Boathsm seas.— The Burbot (q. t.) is a fresh-nrater 
■pecieB of the nme genns. 

XJBQA (a Sanscrit word which Uterally means a 
sign or symbol) deaotes, in the sectarian worehip of 
the Hindna, the phaUut, as emblem of the male or 
generative power of natnre. The Linga-worahip 

C'ails with the S'aivas, or adoren of S'iva (see 
dn Beligion nnder India). Originally of an 
ideal and mystical nature, it has degenerated into 
pncticta of the g ro sses t description ; thus taking 
Uie aame conne as the limilaT worship of the 
Cbaldaans, Greeks, and other nations of^the eact 
and WGsL The manner in which the Linga ia 
represented is generally inoffensive— the pistil of a 
flower,a mllar i^ stone, or other erect and cylindrical 
objects, being held as appropriate symholB of tha 
generative power of S^va. Its connt«rpart is 
lOM, or the aymlMl of female nature as fractified 
and ptodnctive. The S'iva-PntAna names twelve 
Lingns which seem to have been the chief objects 
of &a wonhip in India. 

X.INGARD, JoHK, D.D., a member of a hmnble 
Bonan Catholio fami^, waa bom at Windiester, 
Febtiuiy 1, 1T71 ; and Doing destined for tits prieet- 
hood ti that chmdi, was sent to the TJlngHt*' College 
of Donai, in France, where he remained till that 
ooIbM^ in common with most of the religioni 
estauishments of fronce, was broken np by the 
tniables of ihe Bevolntion. The recent Catholic 
Bebef BiH enabling CaUiolica to open Bcha<^ in 
^glBTvl. the Donai commnnity was transferred to 
Crookhall, and -ultimately to Ushaw, in the comity 
<f Dtirliwn. L continnad attached to the collef^ 
in its ierenl imarwtion*, although not always resi- 
denL In 1793, be aoct^ted tba office of tutor in 
tho lamilT «f Lord Stomrton ; but in the follow- 
i«g ^ear ke retmnad to complete his theoli^^pcal 
(tndiea at CrooUudl, where he antmed into pnest'- 
' ' whidi he oontinuAl 



however, he accented the hnmbie cure of Hornby, 
nor IdnMster, tn which he oontinned to reside 



L's fint important 



woA was the A/iiiqtuly of fAe Anglo-Saxtm ChimA 
(SvOk 1806), reprinted in 1810, and afterwaids, in 
a much enlaced edition (2 vols. 1M6). This 
was bat the pioneer of what became eventually 
the labour of his life — a Hitlory qf Ennland (6 
vole. 4t<i), published at intervals, 1819— ISZS; and 
afterwards in 14 vols. 8vo, 1823—1831. This 
work, before the death of the author, had passed 
through six editions, the last of which [10 voU. 
Svo) appeared in 1864—1855. From its flnrt 
appearance, it attracted much attention, aa being 
fonnded on original anthoritiea and tlie result in 
much new research. It was critioised with coq- 
■idetable asperity in ita potemioal bearings; bat 
the author, m Ml replies, mipl^ad so mn(£ eradi- 
tion, and so eanfnl a considccation of the original 
authorities, that the reault was to add materially 
to his repatation as a scholar and a critic. It won 
for itaalf a place aa a work of original research, 
and altiiongh it bears unmistakable evidence of the 
religions opiniom of tha author, yet there is alM 
evidence of a sincere desire to investigate and to 
sscertain the truth of history. In recognition of 
his great services, many hononrs were offered to 
him ; and he received a penmen of £300 from the 
crown in reward of his literary services. His 
remains were interred in his old college of St 
Cuthbert, at Ushaw. 

LiyOAYE'N, a town of the island of Luran, 
Fhilippine Islands (q. v.), on a bay of the same 
name. Pop. 23,063, who export rice and sugar. 

LI'NIMBNTS (from Qia Latin word Onlre, to 
besmeiar) may be resided, in so far as their physical 
properties are ooncemed, as ointments having the 
coniiBtenoe of oil, while, chemically, most of them 
are Kxipa — that is to say, compounds of oils and 
alkalies. In conseqnenoe of their slighter consist- 
ence, they are rubbed into the skin mora readily 
than ointments. Among the nuist important of 
them are : Xintmenl o/ Ammonia, popularly known 
at Harttkom and Oil, which is prqiued by mixing 
and shaking fawethei eolation of ammmia xnA olive- 
oil, ud it employed as aa external stimnlant and 
rubefacient to reheve neuralgic and rhennatio 
paina, sore throat, Ac : Soap Linimenl, or Opodddoe, 
Gm cODttituentt of whioh are aoap, camphor, and 
spirits of jrosemsiy, and whioh is nsed in sprains, 
bruises, rheumatism, kc : Liniment qf Linu, or 
Corron Oil, which is prepared by miiriiig and 
sbokinK together equal measures of olive or finteed 
oil and lime-water ; it ia an excellent applioation 
to bums and tcaldi, and from its general employ- 
ment for this purpose at the Canon iron-workil, 
has derived itt popular name : Camphor LimmaU, 
consisting of camphor dissolved in olive-oil, which 
is used in spajnt, braises, and glandular enlarge- 
ments, and which must not be confounded vrith 
Compinind Camphor LinimetO, which contains a 
considerable quantity of ammonia, and is a powerful 
stimulant and rabefacient : Oviam Linirntnt, whioh 
consists of soap liniment and tincture of opium, 
and is macb employed aa an anodyne in neunlin, 
rheumatism, kc ; and t^e Simple Linimoa of tike 
Edinburgh Pkvmacopiria, which is composed of 
four parts of olive-oii and one part of white wax, 
and IS used to soften the tkin and promote the 
healing of chaps. 

LIXKOPINO (old Norse LongalOptuigar, later 
LiongaiiBping], one of the oldest towns in Sweden, 
capi^ of the Inn of the same name, is situated on 
the Stknga, which here flows into Lake Boxen, 110 
miles Boulii-weat of Stockholm. It it regularly 
built, with fine market-places and poblic squares, 
but tlie hooses are mostly of wood. L. has three 
churches, of whioh the cathednJ — a Gothic edifloe 



abAjOogle 



umsTBOOW—uinri. 



of th« I3Qi o., containing monnmBnte of maoj iUn*- 
trioiu penoDftgo — ii one of the nuvt bawitifnl in 
Sweden. It«&o ikmsmm* > Ubiwy of 30,000 toIa 
Ito tnde fi conndenble. Pop. ftbont 7000. In old 
heathen time^ L. wu s place at Morifioob 

LINLITHGOW, or WEST LOTHIAjr,»eoun^ 
in Sootland, ii bounded on the N. by Uu Firth of 
Forth, having tiie oonntiet of Uid-Lothian, I^naik, 
and Stirlii^ on the K, S^ aad W. Ita length, north 
to Mntli, i« 30 milei, ud eMt to west IS mjlea. Its 
ana i« 127 (qtiaro buIm, or Sl^U acraa. The 
rarfaoe of tin ^nnd it irregular, bot the hilb an 
inooiMictaiBble m hw^t, the higheat not being above 
1000 letib The tiliuato it ehaogeaUa, bnt healUiy. 
nw xnl ia VWT vaiitd, aud, exo^ alocV th« bordeim 
of the Firth, th«M i* little land of fiift quality. In 
•ome of the hi^ eroaada then ia gtrad paatora, 
alto a conodetwjle l^eadth of QAraaLaimaa wit 
ExoeUttit fi ff^'^ r uerailfl here aa in ISdinboiKluhiTe 
and HaddiagttmAiTik There are low itieaiM of anr 
note, thaT^mcod anil Atoq bung the cnodpaL 



Them 



e d aamddeiBble value. 



K1! 



tional Q*Ueij, and other pnblio boildiDgi 

bnigk waa got at Binnj. There an Hvenl ooUieriea 

in foil and piofitabla opezation. 

There are two rayii bnrgbi — Linlithgow, the 
coonty town, and Qoeenif erry. The other inin^>al 
towns are Bathgate and BorrowatannneeB. Toia 
county ii inteiaected with lailwaya, and the Edin- 
burgh and Olaigow Union Canal, on whi<^ there ia 
a great traffla in mannre and minetala, tr a veiaM it 
for npward* of ten milea. The <Ad vafaied rent waa 
£6237. In 1811, the teal rent waa £SS,74S ; and in 
1873—1874 it wa^ ozcloding ntilwayi and eanala, 
£l8fi,SM. 

The tallowing an the ^rienltoial atatislica for 
187S : Number of oocnpanta of land, 531 ; acres 
ander a rotation of crops and gtaas, 68,006, ef which 
there were 1641 acrca of wheatj 0293 acre* of barley, 
10,303 Mna of OBta,10Claerei of beaoa, 90S8 acree 
of pot«toM,«Dd4486acTeB(rftDniipa. Ofliveitock, 
tilt nnmb«n wet»— horaei^ 1996; eattle, 11,922; 
aheep, 23,081 ; ewiit^ 1396. lotU stook, 37,3H. 
This oonnty oontaini tarenJ remaini of Bdinan. 
antiqnitiu. Pop. (1871) 40,961L Ooartitaancy in 
1873--1874, retiuning one nMmber to pwliaiuent, 
II96. 

LIHLITHGOW, a market-town, and royal and 
parliamentary burgh of Sootl«nd, chief towu of the 
connty of tb» aame name, is dtoated on a small 
lake, 16 mile* west of Edinburgh. It ia one of the 
oldest town* in Scotland, and, though it ha* been 
mneh modemiaed, still amtama maikv anUqnated 
I rich in hittmi-^i aMfrnntiftn 



The pariah chnroh of St MiohaJs {bi^t partly in 
the 10th and partly in the leth a), a portion of 
which is itill in nae, i* a beantifal speuimMi of the 
latest Soottish Gothio. Hie palaoe, strikingly sitn- 
atad on an aminenoe which jnta into the lake (of 
103 acToa], dividing it into two almnft eqnsl parte, 
ia heavy, but impoMDS in appearance ; was fre- 
quently Uie remdence of the Scottish monarchs, and 
was the birthplaoe of Mary Queem of Scots, and 
of her father, Jamee T. The earliest record of its 
eiisteooe is of the time of David L (1124—1163), 
Mid fragmenta of various ages are easily detected. 
nwUtert work iaofthe fimo of JamM YL L. 
noite* with several other boiria in sending a 
member to padiamenl Pop. {ISti) 3090. 

lilNlrfi, EutL Tov, often called LnrwMOM, one 
of the gnatect of naturalista, was bom 4th Hay 
1707, at Bashnlt, in Smaland (Sweden), where bis 
father wm £ oonntiT parson ia voj poor droom- 



fNtt his vecj bo^Mod, the p wii t sst lor* for botuiy. 
Hit frthw, diMmwiBted, psopoted to uipnnlios 
him to a sboeoiakcr; bsit &r John Ttiftnmann, a 
idinieiaB at WeiiSi a bind of hia fatter, nndv- 
COM lor a Tear tiw MqwMe ct hia adneatioB, 
and goided UK in the itsdr of botanjaod of 



.... -logy. In 1737, the yamg natnnlirt wmt to 
stndy iMJidne at Land, Kod & tha jaar IdUowing 
he weal to ITpaala, bnt daring hia aMeadaaea at tiM 
nnireni^ he endared fpt^ poreity. Otaf Od^ns 
reoMved him at last into hu hoose, aad availad 
himself of hia aasiatance in nepariDg a wsrk cm the 
plants at the Bible. Ha slso woa tho lavoDrabfe 
repaid <rf Olaf Badbedi, the pnrfeaaor of botany 
at Upaala, br a p^er in iriuidi ha ezhiUted th« fitat 
ontlmea «f Ut* aazbal syltan of botai^, with iMA 
hit name most «v«r remain coaneotad. BttdbeA 
^pointed him oniwtar of the botaaie gatden aid 
botanical demoDatratar. In hia 34th year ha wiete 
a Borlu* Upbmdieu4. Fmn Umr to Novmnbw 
173% be tmrellad in Li^land, at tha expmise of tiu 
BoremnMot; The fmili ct this tonr appeared in his 
nrn Trij-f nnlnrrJAmat 1717] He atewaids spent 



a(AMk.I737). Hei 
FBhlaOj storing t 



some time at nUoo, ttn^jing mineralogT, ■w^j 
ihcre he baoarna acqnamted with the ladjr Momhe 
afterwards manied, the daa^br at a phymdan 
named Hoitea, who aoppliad Um with tha lanana 
of gwag to Holland to take hia dsm& vAiob ha 
oUmed at Haidarwyak in 173S. ^ Holland, k 
baoame the awodste of aonie of tiia moat esntnaat 



of tiia timc^ and „^ _ 

., 1 *a a natanll4^ devek^iog ongiaal 

which attracted no littia attention, wtuu he 
eagerly prosecuted his reaearehca in all departUKnta 
of n&turiJ history, Dunng his rsaidenoe in H^I Tw d, 
L. oomposed and putJi^ed, in rapid snaceadon, 
if hia greatest works, partdcolarly bia Sftlenm 



high 



CoroUoriwn O aienBH PtatOamm (Le^ 1737K && 
Be viiited EogUnd and France, and ntiroad to 
Sweden, where, after some time, be was »^)ointsd 
royal bcftauitt and pmddent of the Stockholm 
Academy. In 1741, he was appdnted profeaaor of 
medidne in TTpaabs and in 17^ profeasor of botany 
there. The remainder of his life wss moatly spent 
at TTpsala in tiie greateet activity of scientific study 
and authorship. He produced revised editions of 
his earlier works, and unmeions new works, a 
Flora Suedea {1745), Faxma Svedea. (1746), tortus 
Cpsoliauis (1746), UaUria Matioi (1749—1762), 
hia famona PItiloiiphia Botomka (1761), and the 
Bpteia Plamlantm (1763), in sobm nmeeta the 
graatart of all hi* wtitka. Ha died on lOth Jannaiy 
1778, Um lart hot yean of Ua life having been 
apent in past msetal and bodily infinnitr. !& 
was act only a aatnralist of moat aoearato oCaw*- 
tion, bat of moat philoaopliioal ndnd, and t^on tl^ 
depsndad in a naat degraa tha almoat onpaiallelad 
inflnane* ^lioh be ezerdsed i^on Hm prwtaa 
of army hrandt of natural Urtoy. AmaoB tita 
inmortaat servioaa ^nch be nad«ed to amnea, 
not tha least waa the introdiwtaon af a moie <imi 
pnam nomenolatnn. The gnmpa which he 
sted and ruuned have^ in tha great majori^ <d 
atm, been retained amid all tte vnmm -U 
De,and ai* too natural era tobetin£eanp: 
whiK if the botawMl syatsm whidi be intoodMl 
- "iifidal, L. himself waa perfectly awai* of tUi^ 
■snnmmendad it for mere itmpmij use ^ tha 
knowledge ct idanta diould be so tar advanoad tbA 
it oould give plaoe to a nUnral 



,lized"l),L.OOgle 



LXNSKT— UN-TSEH-SU. 



LlAAJST {LiMita), A gcniu of Bnutll ttirda of tbs 
Eunily FrmgiUidte, Dearly raoDbliiig tiie tme fi"p>»««, 
goId-SnelKe, km. The bill is ahint, stawbt, ctr ' 
xbA pointed ; Qis wingg loBj^ and Bomswhat poii 
the tail forked. Tie ipeeiM ars widely distribated 
in tha tmrthem, tcmpeiat^ and arotio i^ona, but 
nmch confoEioci has ansea oonoranil^ tham, fnnn 
the difTerence betiroen the {damage of the breeding 
araaon and that of tbe greater part of the year. 



mmoD linnat [h. eannoMaa). 

r Ia Ua eatmaJnna), or Qmusb Bxd- 
(ipoU), it orannKiii in almoat every part 
1) Iibiida and of Europe^ and eztenda 
I Japaa. In aae, it ia ^wst eqnal to 
In its winter^plomase, ita preTailin^ 
odiaar ia bRnm, the qinll and tail feattum black 
with whits edges ; in ue mipldal-plimiage, the orown 
of Uis haad and the breaat are bn^it Termilion 
ocdoor, aad a giiDMal brightaning oTaJonr take* 
place orer Uw nst <A the ^wnage. Thii ohange of 
plmnags e anacs it to be designated the brown, gray, 
or naa L, aeooidiBg to the aeaaon of the year and 
tiuMZ. ItiithaJ:«i(ie<rfthe8ocitoh. The sweet- 
■ of its Ki^ make* it eroTwhere a faTonrite. 
ainga wdl m a owe, and readily breeds in 
bnt tbe briditneea of the nnptial- 
r appeaiB. Ilie L. abounda chiefly 
open diatrioti, and aaema to prefer 
uneiiltiTBted aiu fnnemorared gronnda. Ita neet 
is very often in a fnne-bnah or hawthom-hedge; 
is forned o( amaU tw^ and stems tA mtm, nitxly 
lined with wool or hair; the ef^a are four or fire 
in Dnmbier, pals bloiah wUte, apeoUsd with purple 
and tivown. limets oongiegate in large flocka in 
winter, and in great part dMcrt tiis nidands, and 
naist to the Ma-«owi— The Hu].T Rcdfoli {L. 
goMMoM) ia alao a widely diatribnted specieB, and is 
lomid in North Amerioa, aa well aa in Enrape and 
Alia, chiefly in Tery northern regions. It ia rare in 
KitKbi. In si^ it ia nearly equal t« the Common 
limefc "Bj tomb, it ia teguded aa a larger variety 
<rf the Lbub Bntrou or Ookxov Rm>POi<i [L. 
tturte), wUeh is (xnnman in Britain, although in the 
SMitli at Ifci gUmt it ia chiefly known as a winter 
viMteafc Ths fordiead, tiiroat, and lore are black ; 
ia the apfing-idiiBage, the crown of tbe head ia 
deep crimson; the geneial colour ia brown otvarioiifl 
ihaVa ^l^ia spMies is cranmon in all the uorthem 
part* ti the wmld, enliraning with its pleasant 

'-"' '^-'-"-babita even the deaolatewartes 

_> only other Britiah apeoieB ia 
or Twm (£. nmtium), chiefly 
or Tory northern districts. 
ineediDg; baa a yellowish 
UM red edonr which maika 
the tn^tial-^nnage of other spedes. 

LIKSEXD, the seed of flax, ia imported in large 
qoantitiea into Britain from the continent of Enrop& 
and fioin In<^ for the making ot Unteid oU aoA 



oiUcakt; is order to which the seedi are first braised 
at omahed, then ravnnd, and afterwards subjected 
to pressure in a h^ranlic or swew press, sometimes 
withaat heat, and aometiines with the aid of a steam 
heat of about 200° F. iMmed oil is nsaaUy amber- 
coloored, bnt when perfectly pore it is colonrleaa. 
It has a peculiar and rather diaagreeaUe odour 
and taste. It is chieflv need for mMing Tamkibea^ 

Cta, ka. Tbti made withoot ha4 (iwU-drawn 
ed oti) is purer, snd leas u^ to beoome nuoid, 
than that in ""^""g which heat ia aj^ilied. By cold 
eipreesion, the seed yielda from 18 to 20 per oent., 
and with heat from 22 to 27 per cent, of oil Iiin- 
■eed ml, boiled either olona or with litharge, white 
lead, or white vitriol, dries mnch mote rapidly on 
exposnie to the air than the nnboiled oil ; and boiled 
or drying oil is psrticalarly adapted for ntaay nses. 
— The wi-cake made in expressing linseed oil la ve^ 
nseful for feeding cattle, sad, besides what is made 
in Britain, it is laraely imported from tke oontineDt. 
See On-KiAXK. Lmseed itself is excellent food foe 
cattle and for oonltay. The seed ooats abound in 
mndhtga, which forms a thiek jelly with hot water, 
and ia veiy nsefnl for fattwwog oattUt — Liiueed 
mtal mnoh used tat ponltiaes, is cenaally made by 
grinding fresh lul-aak^ but it is Mttei i made I^ 
grinding tbe seed itselt 

LI'NSTOCK, an iron-Bhod wooden staff used in 
gunnery, for holding the lighted match in readiness 
to be applied to the touch-hole of the cannon. In 
old pictorea, the linstock is seen planted is the 
ground to the right rear of each piece, vrith a match 
■mokiag in each of the ends of the fork is wbidl it 
tonninatea. 

LINT. See F1.12. 

LINTEL, the hcriaimtal beai-er over doors. 
MndowB, and other openings in walls, usually either 
of stone or wood. 

LIN-TSEH-StT, Chinese Imperial Gommisdoner, 
was bom in 178S at ^ng-hwa, in the prorince of 
Fuh-keen, and his Chinese biographers bare not 
failed to find that his birth was attended with 
sapomatural indicatdona of future eminence. Till 
he reached his 17th year, he assiated his father 
in hie trade ot ypaliing artificial flowers, and spent 
his evening* in. studying to qualify himself lor 
the Tillage competitive examinations, at whioh 
he suooe^ed in obtaining successively the degreea 
analogouB to Bachelor of Arts and faster of 
Arts. His ambitiona mind, not satisfied wiUi 
these triumphs, pointed t« Pekin aa the fitting 
sphere of his talents, but pov^ity barred the way. 
Happily, however, a wealtly friend, who was filled 
ibU admiration for L.'s merits and virtues, invited 
im to become bis son-in-law, and he was now in 
.. position to push his fortune at the capital He 
became a doctor of laws and a member of the 
Hanlin College, which latter honour qnalifled him 
for the highest offioial posts. When SO yean of age, 
be received his first offidal appoiatttient aa oauat; 
and by displaying the same seal and industry, 
combined with inepntachable probity, which he 
had shewn in piivate life, he gradually rcM into the 
favour of the emperor and his —J-i-*— 'b- — 
sent to superintend the repairing 

Yellow Ifaver; and onthetermin . , 

two years after, was highly comidimented t^ his 

"— '— his diligmoe and enerp, and, as an evi- 

,erial favour, was appointed to tbopost 
of financial 'commissioner for Kiang-nan, in which 
province a famine was at that time decimating the 
popnlation. L, exhausted all his private resources 
and emoluments in providing food for the sofferera, 
and by careful muugement succeeded in restoring 
the pfoaperity ot Se province. He waa n«n 



«i),Google 



LDJTZ-LION. 



ttiB aflbctiolu ol Vhe people andlhe commendationi of 
the emporor. On hii teception by tiia emperoi after 
hia return, nev titUe were Hhowered npon him, uid 
he obtained the Eignal hononr of enterm^ the impe- 
rial precinetB on honeback. Bat now hiE brilliant 
progrera waa to be ohecked. He had long urged 
upon bin aorereign the adoption of itcingent measuree 
towards the iinportera, deilera, and consumeni of 
opium, the bane and uoum of hii native land ; and 
on the commencement of difficnltieB vith Great 
Bribun, he wna appointed to deal vith the growing 
evil, and, if poanble, put a stop to the obnozioua 
traffic. He aniTed at Canton, inveated with un- 
limited authority; but hia unwise thongh well-meant 
meamcea excited a war with Britain, and brought 
down upon hinueif the vengeance of hia inccnaed 
■overeigD. Ha waa baoiahed to the region of 
Gle, where he emploj'ed himaelf in improvuig the 
agricaltore of the country, by introducing more 
tcientific methoda of cultivatioii. He waa aoon 
recalled, and rentored to more than his former 
hononn, and did gocd aerrice by cmahing a rebel- 
lion in Tun-nan. Hia health now bwan to fail, and 
be obtained permianon to retire to hia native pro- 
ylaee; bat atiortlj afterwatda, while on hia wayto 
attack the Tai-piun, he died, Jannar^ ISCa Hif 
death waa the aignal for general monnung throodi- 
out China, and the emperor ontered a aacrificial 
prayer to be compoaad, recoiling the illoatnona 
deeda of the departed; a mgnal favoor, only confen'ed 
npon persona <tt extraordinary merit and virtue. 

h., iMaidea thoronghly maatarinf the alatuticB and 
poUtica of China, devoted much of hia time to atudy- 
me the geography and hiatory of foreign countries, 
ai3 to private lite ' ' " ' ' ' 



d to private literary stndy. 






literary merits and logical order of bia public docu- 
menta form a abange contraat to the usual diSiiae, 
rambling and inoobarent atyle of Chinese state- 

LINTZ, the capital of the crown-land of Upper 
Austria, is situated in a pleasant district on iha 
right bank of tbe Danube, which is here crossed by 
a wooden bridge S3S feet long, 100 miles west of 
Vienna. Pop. (1S69) 30,63& It is a itrongly forti- 
fied, qniet town, and a biahop'a seat, with numermia 
churches, benevolent inatitutiona, and government 
oScee. There are large imperial factories for 
carpets and other woollen gooda ; and cloths, 
cottons, cassimeres, fustians, leather, and cards are 
alao made. Th» navigation of the Danube occa- 
aiona a lively trade. Steam-boata ply duly np the 
river to Batiabon, and down the nver to Yienna. 
The women of L. are celebrated for their beauty. 

LION IFilit Uo), the largest and most majestic 
oE the i'tlida and of camivorona qnadmpeda. 
It is, when mattlre, of a nearly nniform tawny or 
yellowish ooloor, paler on the nnder-parta ; the 
yoaa^ alone exhibiting mra-bJTig. like those com- 
mon m the Felidae ; the male haa, nsnally, a great 
shMEgy and flowii^ mane ; and tiie tail, which ia 
preSr Irai^ terminate* in a tnft of hair. The 
irtiole frame ii extremely mnaonlar, and the fore- 
paita, in particnlar, ara remaikablv powerful ; 
gtvuft with the Urge head, bright-flaahing eye, and 
eopiona mane, a noUe appearance to the animal, 
which, with its atrength, has led to its being called 
the 'king of b«Mt^ and to faneieB of ita noble 
and generona diapoaitioa, having no toundarion in 
reali^. A L. of the largest siie measure* abont 
8 feet from the noae to the tail, and the tul 
abont 4 feet. The iitmeti ia amaller, has no mane, 
•nd ia of a lifter colour on the under-parta. The 



strength of the L. ia each that be ean oany off a 
heifer ai a cat carries a rat. 

The L. is chiefiy an inhabitant of Africa, althoogh 
it M found alao m some of tbe wilds of Aaia, par* 
ticnlarly in certain parte of Arabia, Peina, and 
India. It waa anciently much more oommon in 
Asia, and waa found in some parts of Europe, 
particularly in Macedonia and Thrace, aocM^ing to 
Eerodotua and other authora. It haa diaaweared 
also from Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, ia which it 
waa once common. Tbe L. ia no^ in general, an 
inhabitant of deep forests, but rather of open plaina, 
in which the aheltcr of occasional bushes or thickets 
may be found- The breeding-place ia alwaya in 
some mnch aeclnded retreat, in which the young — 
two, three, or f onr in a litter— are watched over 
with great assidDity hy boUi parents, and, if neeea 
sary, are defended with great courage— altlioiif^ in 
other circumstances, the L. ia more diapoaed to 
retire from man than to assail him or contend with 
him. When met in an open conntrv, the L. retire* 
at fint slowly, as if ready for battle, but not deairotia 
of it ; then more swiftly ; and.finaUy by r^id boonds. 
If compelled to defend nJmself, the L maniferta great 
courage. Tbe L. often spring npon hia prey by a 
sudden boond, accompanied with a roar ; and it i* 
tud that if he fails in seizing it^ he doe* not osoally 
pnrsae, but retire* aa if ashamed ; it ia certain, 
however, that the L. also often takes his prey l^ 
pursuing it, and with great persevenmce. Theanimal 
ainded out for ponnit, aa a aebm, may be swifter 
id foot than the L, bnt greater power of eodniBnca 
enable* him to make it bia victim. Deer and ante- 
lopea are perhaps the most common food of liona. 
lie L., like the rest of the FdidDs, ia pnt^ mnoh 



night or twilight rather thu fw the day. It lurka 

oidit come* on, when its bemendous rear be^n* to 
be neard in tlie wildemeaa. It has a horror 3 fire* 
and torch-lighta ; of which travellers in Africa avail 
thenuelvca, when anrronnded by prowling lions in 
the wildemeaa by nigbi, and sleep in safety. Lion- 
hunting ia, of conrae, attended with danger— a 
wounded and exasperated L. becoming a meet for- 
midable adveraaiy — bnt bcaide* the nii m all j tt it 
to farmers in South Africa and other eoontrie* 
where liona abonnd, it has been found atbiactive to 



proved too mighty for the L 
it has been employed i^ainat htm, and Uon* rapidly 
dia^pear before tiie advance of civilisation. In 
Indi^ they are now confined to a few wild diabricts ; 
and in Sonth Afriea, their nearest hannta are far 
from Cape Town and from all ihe long and fnlly 
settled regiona. 

The L la easily tamed, at least when taken yonng ; 
and when abundantly sopplied with food, is very 
docile, learning to perform feat* iriiich excite the 
admiration of the crowds that visit 
Exhibitions of this kind are not, howsver, 
tended with danger, aa too many instanoes hav* 

Cved. lion* were made to eontribnte to the bar- 
ona sporta of &e andeiit Bomans ; a combat of 
hons waa an a tt rac tiv e spectacle ; and vast nomber* 
were imported into Bmoe, ehie^ from Africa, iiu 
the aupply tS the amdutheatre. Fompey exhiUted ' 
600 at once. — lion* have not nnfreqnently laed in 
the men^ariea of Europe, and a hybrid belnTecm tha 
L and the tiger has oooMionally been produced. 

The mane oftheL.,*DdthetuftatUieendofth« 
tul, are not fnlfy devek^ied till he ia six iw seven 
yean old. Hie tail terminates in a oiall [dekle^ 
tbe existence of which waa biown to tho ancient*, 
and which was anppoeed by them to be a kind « 
goad to the »"'t^ when imhing hinadf with hi* 



«i),Google 



LION— UPPE. 



tail in nge. fbe prickle has no connection with 
the candil nrtebne, bat is merely a little nail <n- 
homy cone, abont two lines in length, "*'""ng to 
ibo skin at the tip of the taiL 

Tbeiv an seTeral Tarieties of iiia L, slightly 
differing from each other in form and colour, btit 
jMrtieuiariy in tbe derelopment of the mane. The 
wgMt UoBa of the aonth of AMca are remarkable 
for the laige siBe of the liead and the great and 
bbek mane. The Persian and other Asiatio liooa 
are gtnmlly of a lijghter colmir, and inferior in size, 
•tivngth, ani f«ix3t]> to the **™»" lion. Qnzerat 
and toe sontli id Persia produce a somewhat saialler 
Tariety, remarksJile as being almost destitute of 

LION, in Heraldty. The lion Holds an important 
place unong the animals borne in coat-Krmoar. 
As early aa ilie 12th c., die king of beasts was 
aesomed as an appropriate embl^ by tlie sove- 
reigns of England, Scotland, Norway, Denmark, the 
nafire princes of Wale*, the counts of Flanders 
and HoUaod, and Tarioos other Europeanpotentates. 
Lkms ocenr in different nodtiona. 1. The earliest 
•ttitode of the heraldic lion is rampaiU {a), erect 
oD his hind-Ic^ and looking before him, the liead 
beine shewn in pn^e, as he ap^eara in the aims 
of Scotland, and origiiially did m thoae of Eng- 
land- Thia was the □ormal positdoD of a lion j'bat 
■a tbe royal uiiioal came to be used by all who 
claimed kindred with royalty, and to be granted 
to faTonrite followeta by way of angmentation, a 
diTeiaily of attitude wan adopted for disljnction'a 
sake. i. ibs^ianCaanfanJti], erect OD the hind-l^a, 
and a&ontC or fim-&ced 3. Sampanl rrgardant {e|, 




Pamant (dl, in a iraiktng poirition, with the head 
•eenin profile. G. PoMont (rordoiii (e), walking, and 
with the head aSitnM. 6. Fauaal regardant, walk- 
ins, and with the head looking behind. ?. Slaianl, 
WW) all the four 1^ on the gronnd. 8. SaHant, in 
the act of sprin^ng forward on hia prey. 9. S^ant 
(/), rinDg to pr^are for actjut. 10. S^ant affiimU, 
aa iu the crest of Scotland. IL Coudumt, lyins 
down, hnt with hia head erect, and his tail beneath 
him. 12. Dormant, asleep, with hia head resting on 
his fora-paws. 13. Coward or Cmi4, with his tail 
buging between his I^;a. The lion passant gardant 
iM oJftan blanmed as the Km cf England ; and at a 
tima when terms of blannOT were oon^aiatiTely 
few, it was oonfoonded with the Leopard (q. t.), 
and henoa the hon pawant and rampant gwdant 
came to be called reapeetiT^ the Uon^eopardt and 
leapant-Uomi. Two lions may be depicted tw)nM«( 
fOBibaianl — L e., face to face— or rampant addafi, 
back. Among leonine monsters, we 
two-headed liona, bioorponte and bicorpraate 



plaoed 



ntmbh 



the Bohemian lion, with two taili, and the a 
' ~ winded lion of St Mark, adopted by 

VeniceL The island repnblio DOM, aznre, 

winged or sejant, holding oetween his fore-' 

kWB a book open argent, in which are tbe words, 

raa tibi Manx Evanffeluta meat. Two or mors 

lions borne on one shield are aomelimes (thongh 

nerer when on a royal coat) blaioned Iiione^ 

LITABI ISLANDS, a croup of volcania ishuids 
in the Mediterranean, twefre in number, are si 
ated between lat. 38* 20' and 3S* 56' N„ long. 
16* and 1S° 15' K, on the north coart of Sic 

and comprised in the department of Mearina. 1 

intense Toloanic action induced the ancient rlamrinnT 
poeta to localise iu theae islands the abode of the 
fiery god Yulcau — hence their ancient name, Vut- 
canta Iruvla. Their collectiTe population is about 
22,000, 16,000 of whom ore found in the island 
of Lipari, wbioh, for extent and produce^ is much 
the most important of the group. Lipari is about 
18 miles in circuit. Its finest product^ are grapes, 
figs, olives, aud com. It has a large export trade 
in pumioe-stone, sulphur, nitre, sal-ammoniac, node, 
capers, fish, and Sulmsey wine, which is largely 
manufactoigd both for home sjid foredgo trade. 
Tbe warm springs of this island are much noorted 
to. The climate is delightful Lipari, ita ohM 
town, ia a bishop's see, posseasca two harbcnn, an 
episcopal palace, hoe{Hta^ gymnasinm, and a castle 
built oa a One rock. P<K). 12JM0i 13te island 
is almoat irilolly oompoeed of pomioe^toDi^ add 
sopplies all parta of the world with that article; 
Besides Lipari, the pindpal islands are Tnloana 

Xlstica ; Stromboh aud Vulcano are actively 
volcanic 

LI'PBTZK, a town in the sonth-wett of ■■ 
government of Tambov, European Russia, on 1 
ri^t bank of the Yoronetz, a iribntaiy of the 
Don, waa fonaded in 1700 by Peter the Orea& but 
only b^an to flourish *t the commencement of the 
present century, when the admirable qoalitiea of 
■'- chalybeate springs became known. At present, 
iss a lai^ azmual influx of viaitani during sum- 
r, for whose accommodatioD a bathing eatablish- 

at and a splendid garden have been ^tmed. I^ 

has woollen mannfaotorea. Fop. (1867) 14^239: 

LI'POQRAH {Or. Uipo, to leave out, and 
gramma, a letter] is a species of verse characterised 
by the exclusion of a certain letter, eitJier vowel or 
consonant. The earliest author of Upognunmatio 
verse wis the Greek poet Lasus (born 538 b. c.); and 

' recorded of ono Tryphiodonia, a Gneco-Eoyp- 
writer of the same period, that he composed an 
Odyssey in 24 books, fnm each of which, in succes- 
sion, one of the letters of the Greek al^iabet was 
excluded. Fabios CUndius Gordianns Fulgentiua, 
a Christian monk of the 6th c, performed a similar 
T.atin. In modem times, tiie Spaniards 
have been most addicted to thia laborions Mvolity. 
Lope de Yeg^ has written five novels, from each of 
which one of the vowels is excluded ; but several 
French poets have alao practised it See Henry B. 
Wheatl^B book on Anagrama (1862). 

JA¥PA or, as it is generally called, UFPE- 
DETMOli), a small principality of Northern 
Germany, surrounded on the W. and S. by West- 
phalia, and on the E aud N. by Hanover, Bruus- 
wi(^ Watdock, and a detached portion of Hessc- 
Cossel Area,438squaremileB; pop(16Tl) 111,136, 
nearly ths whole of whom belong to the Befonued 
Church, and are very well educi^ed. The present 
constitution of L utea from Idth March 1SS3 : 
capital, Debnold (q. v.] ; other towns, Leouo and 



dbyGoogle 



LTPPI-UQUIDAMBAB. 



Horn. The funool Tmtobnr^-Wald (Sallut Tenia- 
hurgeiuM), in which the legioiu of Vmnu were 
■miihilAtod by Ammiiiu (we GEUumcui dau^), 
miu throngh the aouthem put of the princi- 
palitj, vhJofa is od the whole Mtiier hilly, but 
hai nuuiy fertile Talleyi. The largeat river is 
the Werre, » trihutary of the Weser. Tlie piiii- 
cipaJ oooapation of the inluibitBiite a uricnltare, 
uid the reaririff of Cattle, aheep, and Bwiue ; 
much puns ia likewise bestowed on the cnltirttion 
mod mui^ement of foreita, u L. is perhapa the 
moat rich^ wooded district in Qermany. Linen 
weaving is the chief manufacturing induitiy of the 
country. Among the mlaenl ppodncta are marble, 
iron, lima, and salt. The prmces of L, ore one 
of Uie oldest sovereign fsmiliea of Qennany, and 
were in a flourishing condition as early as the 13th 
century. The tiiat who took the name of L. waa 
Bemhard von der Lippe, in I1S9. The family split 
into three branches in 1613 — Lippe, Brake and 
Scbamnburg. 

LIPFI, Fba FiurrOj a Flormtine painter <A 
gnat talent, the events of whoae life were of a rery 
romantio Und. Bora about 1412, left an orphan 
at an early age, he apant liia youth aa a novice 
in the convent of the Carmine at Florence, where 
his talent for art WH enooonwed' and developed. 
Sailing for plsasure one day, De was seiiad by 
oorsairs, and carried to Barbwy ; after some years' 
oaptivit^, he regtuned his liberty, and is next found. 
In 143B, painting at Florence. Filippo was much 
employed by Conno de* Medici, and executed many 
important works for him. While painting in the 
convent ot Sta " 
Iiucreoa Bnti, 

allowed by tiie nuns to sit for „ . . __ 

his juctore, eloped with him : and though strenuous 
efforts were made by her relations to recover her, 
he successfully resisted their attempts, supported, it 
is thought, by Coamo ; and she remaiuea with and 
bad a son by him, who became on artist perhaps 
even mora celebrated than Fitippo hiiiiT *lf. fie 
died at Spoleto, 8th October 1469, bebR at the time 
in punting the choir of the cauedral, along 
Duuoant^ one of his pupils. 

LIPPI, FiLiFPnro Filippo, commonly called 
FlUPFUio LiPPi, the son of Fra Filippo andLncrezia 
Buti, waa bom at Florence in 1460. It is said Uiat 
his father left him to the core of Fra Diamante, his 



^elebtatad of his schooL He soon acquired a high 
reputation, and executed various works in Florence, 
Bologna, QeuoK, Lnoca, and at Rome, where, in 
1492, he painted some freacoe* for tho Cardiool 
Caraib, in the church of Sta Maria ~ 



But the high position he a^ 
pally by his works iu the E 



pally by his works in the Brancaoci 

church of the Carmine at Floreaoe. The frescoes 
this chapel hare always been held in the highest 
estinution ; they have been studied bj the most 
celebrated poioteia, among others by Raphael and 
Michael Angelo ; and though long believed to be 
entirely the work of Masaccio, are now ascertained 
have been commenced by MasoUno, oontiDaed by 



Cfueiflxion of St Pefc;' 'St tater and St Paul 
befora tiie Proeotuml.' and 'St Peter liberated from 



8t Peter in PriHni, in which the flgnre 
was adopted by Kapbael in his cartoon 
preaching at Atheoa.* Filippino died at 
on l^Apd ISOC 



LIQUEUB. This name is given to any sloobolio 
preparation which is flaronred or perfumed sod 
sweetened to be more sgreeable to the taste ; there 
is consequently a large class of liqnnua, of which 
the fallowing are the principal ; Aiuaaid Cordial, 
prepared by flavouring weak spirit with anisnnd. 
coriander, and sweat lannel seed, i ' 
with finely olarified ayrup of nfinad i 



is sweetened apitit flavoured with the yonng topa of 
certain spades of ArtemisiB <q. v.). Clo«s ConUal, 
much sold in tiM London gin-slMM, is flavoured with 



dove*, bruised, and ooloimd with bomed i _ 

KOmm^ <Jt Doppd-KOmmd, is tlie prbidpal 
liijoenr oi Bnisifti it ii mads in titm ordiiuuy way 
with sweetened sinrit, flavoured with cumin and 
caraway seadi, the latter usually so sbong aa to 
conceal any other flavour. It ia chiefly made at 
Bin, and there are two qualities : that ui«da in Bin 
is uie sort in common use, and is not the finest; tha 
better sort is only manufactured in smaller qnantitiea 
at Weissenstein, in Eathunia ; the chief difference ia 
in the greater purity of the spirit used. ManueJtino 
is distdled from cherriee bruised, bnt instead <jt 
the wild kind, a fine delicately -BaToured variety, 
called Maraxqua, grown only in Dalmatia, is used. 
This cherry is largely cultivated around Zaro, the 
capital, when the liqueur is ohisfly mada, Great 
care is taken in the distillation to avoid injnry to 
the delicate flavour, and the finest su^r is oaad to 
sweeten it. 

J^oyau, or Crime dt Noyau, is a sweet cardial 
flavoured with bruised bitter-olmoods. In Turkey, 
the fine-flavoured kernels of the Maholeb chsrry an 
used, and in some places the kernels of the peach or 



essential cdl of peppermint, which is previously 
rubbed np with refined sugar, and formed into aa 
oleosaochamm, which enables it to mix with the [ 
veiy weak apirit 

Oamfoa «nd KiriAteataer are described under 
their own names. j 

LIQUIDA'MBAR, a genus of trees of the uatonJ ' 
order A Umgiaaa, and the only genus of the ordiu', 
havins flowers in male and fenule catkins on the ' 
same tne, the fruit formed of Z-ceUed, m 



eapnles, and the seeds winged. Thsysre tallbeea 



abvGoogle 



LKJUOBIOE— LISBON. 



itBC It noin m. 

lumi tenura and fine 
f^niii, and make* good famitura. Fram ontcka oi 
inciaioiu in the bwk, a tranapareut^ yeUoiriali bal- 
mnio flnid undtB, called Liquid Liquiiambar, Oil 
of hiqmda:ai>ar, A-menam Slorax, Copalm Baltam, 
and •omeiiiiies, but erroneotulj, WAilt Saitam <(/' 
Pom. It gradually becoma ooncirvte and dariur 
oolonred. Its prop«rtic« ore umilar to those of 
•tOTBZ. That of commerce ia moatlj brought 
Mexico and New Orlean*. — L. Orientale, a nt 
troe -with palmate karea; is a native of Uw Levant 
and of mora eaatem rwona, and yialdi abondaotlj 
a halaiTTiin flnid, which naa been rappoted to be the 
idjpntj StOTOx imported from the Levant, bnt on 
thia paint than ia direnitj of opinion. 

LrQUOBIOB (O^eyrrUia), a g«nna of perannial 
herbaoeona plants of the natural order Leguminoia, 
mb-order PapiHouaeea ; having long, pliant, aweet 
cooti, and gmerally creeping root-itooka ; pinnate 
leavea of many leueU, (md terminatiDg in an odd 
one; Aowen in apikea, ntcemea, or headi ; a 6-cleft, 
S-lipped calTX, and a 2-leaved keel liie ancient 
Ora^ name, now tb* botanical name, ngniflei tatd 
not, and froni it, by ooiniption, liquorioe and other 
modian name* are derived. The rooti of L, depend 
for dieir ralnjible prcpettica on a inbatanoa called 
aigryrrhaiite, allied to annr, yellow, banipareot, 
tmoryatalliaabU, loluble boQi in water and aloohij, 
and ftvmiog oompoondi both with acida and baaea. 
ThejraM* well-known article of materia medica, and 
were naad bv the ancienta a» in modem timet, I ' 
emollient, uemulcant, very oaefnl in catarrh 



Conuaen liqnoiiM [fflfCpfTfttM gbbra). 

irritBtaoni of the mnconi membrane. — Tba iwAa of 
th« ComoM L {O. glabra) are chiefly in use in 
Enrop«i The plant has atemg 3—4 feet high, and 
raeomei of whitiih violet- coloured llowera. It is a 
native of the south of Enrope and of many parte of 
Asia, as tar aa China. It i* cultivated in many 
eoontriea of Ennme, chiefly in Spain, and to some 
extent in the couth of BngUnd, where its cnltiva- 
tion is at least as old as the times of Elizabeth. 
The roots are exteniirely employed by porter- 
brtww i. They are not imported into Britain in 
conaiderable qoantity, but the black inspissated 
Citnet of them (Black Stigar m 8Uek Lypioriee) 



is largely imported from the sonth of , _ 

rolls or tUckt, packed in bay.leaves, or in bons 
of abont two owts., into whioh it has been run. 
It. is prapagated h? slips; and after a plantation 
has been mode^ ahnost three years most elnne 
before the roots can be digged op for nsa. The 
whole roots are then taken up. L reqnires a deep, 
rich, loose soil, well traaohed and mannred ; the 
roots penetrating to the depth of more than a y^rd, 

and straight tap-roots being most iiilim 1 The 

4dd stems are deared off at the end of each ssason, 
and the root-stocks so cnt away as to prevent over- 
growth above notind neit year. The plant is pro- 
pagated by onUings of the root-stocks.— The toots 
of the Peioklt L (<?. tcAtnota) are need in the swne 
way, ohiefly In Italy aild Sicily, Rossia, and the 
East — The only American species is O. l^ridota, 
whioh grows In the plains of the IfiasonrL 

IiIBA (Let. libra ; see Ltvbi), an Italian silvca* 
coin of greater or less valne acoordici to time and 
place. The Tuscan lira was equal to Kl French cen- 
times ; the Austrian lira or zmaToiger was abont the 
same value, llie present Lira Italian^ or lira 
nuova, of the Italian Kingdom is egoal to the French 
franc, and is divided into 100 centunes. 
lilRIODEIfDROn. See Tduf Tbdl 
LI'SBON (called by the ancient LotitanianB, 
OUripo or Ulitippo, and by ibe Moon LUKbuna 
or AMmiKCi, the oafstal of Portusali is situated in 
the province of Estnmadora, on the right bank of 
the Tagns, whioh is here about six miles vride^ and 
about eighteen miles from the mouth of the river. 
Fop. 23^063. The oity is boilt partly on the shores 
of the Tagns, and partly on tluee larger and fonc 
smaller kiDs. Its appearance ia wonderfully piotu^ 
awne; and ita reseotblanae^ in point of sltuatioB 
and mapiifioenoe of prospect, to Constantinople! At 
precdsely the opposite extremi^ of Eorope, luis 
bean frequently remarked. Induding its suborb^ 
it extends about five miles along the river. The 
harbour, which is safe and epacioos, is protested 
by strong forte, but the city itaelf is onwalled and 
withont any fortifications. The eastern and older 
part, which lies round Uie Castle- 



Iwdly-paved streets, with high, glooniy, wretohed* 
looking bonsesj but the newer portions are well 
aad rsgolarly built. The most beantiful part 
is oallM the Nob Touia — it atretchei along ibm 
Tagoa, and is crowded with palaces. Among the 
^Msa w squares, the ptinuipa] are the PrxtfO do 
Commtmo, on the Twus, X5 feet long, S20 
broad, surrounded on Uree sides with splendid 
edifices; the Profo do Roao, in the New Town, 
forming the market-place, 1800 feet long, and 1400 
broad ; and the Pameio Publico. The whole of the 
New Town, and the district round the royal castle, 
' lighted with gas. L. hM 41 parish churches, 
monasteries, luHpicee, and hospitals, 99 chapels, 
5 large theatres, and an amphitheatre. Hie most 
conspicuous pnblio buildinjp are the Chnroli of the 
Patriarch, the Monastery of the Heart of Jean* 
{with a cupola of white marUel, the Chnroh of 8t 
Ttoque [built of marble], the Foundling Hospital 
Reiving annually about 1600 children),l9t Janiee's 



^ecsiViiig I 
Hospital (c 



the royal palaces of Ajuda, yotia 
Jfteeutdada, and Bempoeta, the custom. -uuiun^ w 
arsenal, and the National Theatre, which ooenjrie* 
the site of the old Inquisitiaa bnildings. There 
are likewise a niunber in educational and soientiflo 
institutions. Among other notable objects, Hie 
most important is the Alc&ntara Aqueduct [called 
Os Areot, or Agiuu livnt, and flmshed in 1743), 



DintizoribyGoOgle 



LISBUBH— USZT. 



n one pl»CB 

260 feet K^ and Temomad miiiijnred nt the ^ie»t 
Mrthqiulub It is the greatest piece of bndge- 
anhitectiiTe in the world. The nutDntuctnrea of X<i 
are iuotniAdvable, but it is the priQcipkl trading 
port of Foitagal, The trade of L. was mach d^ 
pressed by the Franoo-Pnusian war during 1S70 ; 
DDt in 1871 it recovered a great deal ; the exports in 
that year were above the average, and trade gener- 
ally waa good. Steam navi^timi it on the increase 
in tiie port. The trade with Africa is, natorally, 
flonrishing more and more yearly. In 1972, tne 
coatoma reoeiptB, as is shewn by the accounts of 
the Lisbon Custom House, were £21,000 over the 
pravioos year. About 30,000 QaWos (Galiciuns) 
earn a sidwirteaM bete m porters mil labourers. 

L. ia Olid to have been founded by the Fhteni- 
eiani, waa • flonhshing commercial city when the 
Bomiiiu first became Mqaainl«d with it, and the 
capital of Lnsitania, It was taken by the Moors 
Id 712, from whom, after undergoing many vicisai- 
tudee, it was recaptured b^ Alfonso L m 1147 ; 
became the seat of an arcbbiaboprtc in 1390, and of 
a patriwtliate In 1716. L. has been frequently 
visited by earthquakes ; that of 175fi destroyed a 
great part of the dty and 20,000 of the inhabitanta 

U'SBTTBIT, a msj^et-town and parliamentary 
borongh, sitoated on the river I^gan, partW in the 
county of Antrim, partly in the eoon^ of Down, 
Ireland. It is distant from Dnblin 97 miles north- 
ntnth-sast, and Sf south.sonth-west from Belfast, 
with both which places it is connected by the 
Dublin and Belfast Junctaon Railway. The popu- 
lation ia 1S71 was 9310; of whom Uiere were twice as 
many adherents of the Episcopal Church as Bomau 
Catholica. There were also members of other 
denominations. L. originated in the ereotion of a 
oastle, in 1610, by Sir Folk Conway, to whom the 
manor waa am^ied in the settlement of Jamea L ; 
bnt its impratanoe date* from the settlement of 
number of Hngaeoot faMJH'*^ wko,afttt the revoci 
tion of the Edict of Kantes, established themselves 
at L, where they introduced the manofactnta of 
linen and damawk, after Uie method and with the 
machinery then in use in the Low Countries. It is 
a clean and well.ordered town, with a oonvenient 
maricet, and ooniiderable manufactures of linens and 
damaaksi beaidea which, bleaching, dyeing, flax- 
dnasinfL flax-spinning, ic, ' ' "^ 



' Turlor, wko wasbishop of Chat see, and died at h, 
in 1667> L- returns oae member to parliament. 

LISIETJX (ancient ytmiomagut Leamum), a 
town of Northern France, in the dep. of Calvados, on 
the Tonqoea, 27 m. £1S.£. of Caen, at the entrance 
of a beantifnl valley. The principid building is the 
chnrch of St Fierre (formerly a cathedral), beTonging 
to the 13th c, and boilt on the sito of an older eduice, 
in which Henry II. of Eo^and married Eleanor of 
Gnieane. L. is the centre of an extensive manufac- 
ture of coarse linens, woollens, fl'"""!', horsecloths, 
ribbons, Ac, which givea employment to more than 
3000 worinnen. Fop. (1872) 12,152. 

LISKKA'BD, a mnnidpal and parliam^mtary 
borongh in Cornwall, ia aitmrted in a well-cultivated 
district, on the Looe, IS mi]«s west-north-west of 
Plymouth. Two miles to the south of the town is 
a umoos q>ring, said to have been presented to the 
inhabitanta by St Keyne, and the virtne of whose 
's set forth in Southey'i well-known ballad, 



MToe and leatb 
(iMnoe of Um 



r, and owiaidetable traffic in the 



n«d)bonriiood. L-ietnmB a member to parliament. 
Pop. (1871) 6673. 

LISMO'BE, an island of Aigyleahir^ six milca 
from Obsn, ia sitoated in Loch linnhe, and is 
10 mile* in length, wilh an average breadth of 1^ 
miles. It contams the remuns of several intereattng 
buildings, as Achindnin Castle — formerly the rem- 
dence ot the Bishops of Argyle — an old cathedral, 
and Castle Bachal, a Scomunavian fort, now very 
ruinous. The island is for the most part under 
cultivation. Pop (1871) 703. 

LI'BSA (PoL Lazna), a town of Prussia, in tha 
province of Posen, and the circle of Frauatadt, 44 
miles south-south-west of Posen. Fop. (1871) 10,635, 
of whom nearly one half are Jews. L. haa a fine 
townhonse, a caatle, one Soman Catholic and three 
Protestant chnrche*, with mannfactntes of woollens, 
leatiier, and tobacco. This [dace became for a time 
the chief seat of the Bobemian Brother*. 

LIST. See Fiixxr. 

LISTON, Eobhit, a celebrated surgeon, wss 
bom at Ecclesmachan, in the county of LmliUigow, 
in 1794, and was tha son of the Bev. Henry listoa, 
the minister of the pariah. After studying anatomy 
under Barclay in Edinburgh, and following tlie 
usual course of medical study in that city, he pro- 
ceeded to LondoD in 1316, irtiera he att^ided ibe 
surgical practice of the Blizards at the London 
Hospital, and of Abemethy at St Bartboloioew's. 
After becoming a member of the K^al CoUt^ of 
Surgeons of London, he returned to !&linbiu^ and 
in 1818 was elected a Fellow of the Koyal CoUega 
of Surgeons of that dty. 

L. now commenced his career as a lecturer on 
anatomy and siugeiT, and soon became remarkable 
for his boldness and skill aa an operator. In conse- 
quence of his performing man^ successful operations 
on patdents who had been discharged as incurable 
by the surgeons of the Edinbur^ fifrmat^, he waa 
requested by the managers to refuse his assiatanee 
to any person who hod been a patient in that insti- 
tution, and to abstain from visiting the waids. He 
naturally declined to accede to these eitisordinary 
propositions, and in consequence waa expelled, and 
never entered again its words, until in 1837 he waa 
elected one of its surgeons. His surgical skill, and 
the raiodity with which his operations were per- 
formed, soon acquired for him a European reputa- 
tion ; and in 1835, he accepted the invitation <a tha 
oouncil of University Collega to fill the chair of 
Clinical Surgery. He soon acquired a large London 
practice ; in 1840, he was elected a member of the 
council of tha College of Surgeons ; and in 1846, be 
baosma one of the Board a ExaminerB. In the 
very climax of his fame, and apparently in the 
enjfmnent of vigorous health, he was struck down 
by disease, and died 7th December 1847. 

His most important works are his ElemaOt of 
SaTgery, which appeared in 1831, and his Fnetical 
Surgery, which appeared in 1837, and has gone 



these defects, he always succeeded in obtaining the 
regard and esteem of his pupils. 

LISZT, FoANz, pianist, was bom at Baiding, 
in Hungary, 2Sd October 1811. His bther, a 
functionary employed on the estates of Prince 
Baterhazy, waa himself possessed of some musicsl 
skill, and carefully cultivated the wonderful talent 
which L shewed evai in his infancy. In his nintli 
year, the child played publicly at PresbniK and 
excited univeraal astonidmient. By tlia aaairrt«nce 
of two Hungarian noblemen — Coiuita Anadi and 



..Google 



LITANT— LITHIO ACID D1A.1BX8&, 



d^taen months, after iriiiah }ie 
mth kiDiant ■acctn. In 1633, he prooeededwia 



Fraace, intending to con^)lete hi* 
ioQ at the Conierratoire ; but he ma 
nf ased adminion on account of hia being a foreigner ; 
nerertheleaa, hia genitu made a way for itself. He 
jdayed hefore the Dubo of Orleans, and vetj 



J paid homage to bis marvellona gift, and 
only owing to hia father's strict superrimon that 
yonng L. was not euiarely spoiled. In the course of 
the next three years, he visited England thrice, and 
was warmly received. In 1S27, lus fKbher died alt 
Bonk^e, uid L. became his own maater at the »m 
of sixteen. For some years after tiUs, hia life snffi- 
ciently proved that he had becone indi^iendent 
too soon. Altonationa of disaipation and religiooa 
mystiuisin indnced his admiisiB to fear that his 
artistic conrse would end in disastroas failore. 
Fortunately, he heard the famous violinist, Paganini. 
in 1831, and was seized with » sodden— bu^ as it 
also proved, a penuaneiib— anibitioa to become the 
Pa^nini of the piano ; and one may say that, on 
the whole, he has sooceeded. Up till 1847, his 
career wsa a perpetual Heries of triiunpbg in alt the 
ca{ritals of Europe. He then grew tired of hia 
itinerant life, and accepted the sitoatioii of leader 
of the court concerts and operas at Weimar. In 
1865 he took sacred ordera and became a monk, in 
the chapel of the Tatioan, Rome ; and in 1S71 re- 
turned to hia native country, which nanted him a 
pensiiw of £600 a year. L. has also been an indus- 
trious and original oontrifautor to musical literature. 

LITANT [Or. lilaneia, a snppUcstioa), a word 
the specific meanmg of which hu varied consider- 
ably at different times, but which meaos in geneml 
a solemn act of satrplicatioii addressed with tiie 
object of averting the divine anger, and especUlly 
on oocaaions of public calsjnity. lirougb all the 
varieties of form which litaniee have assumed, one 
characteristic has always been maintained — viz., 
that the payer sltemates between the priest or 
other miuster, who announces the object oE each 
petition, and the congregation, who reply in ■ 
common supplicatory form, tbe most usosl of 
which was the well-loiowD ' Kyrie eleisou 1 ' (Lend, 



_ . „ _. . 'Christe 

eleison,' was repeated 300 times ; and in the 
capitularies of Cbarlemasne, it is ordered that 
the 'Kyrie eleisoo' shall be sung by the men, the 
women answering ' Christe deiaou. From the 
«h <^ downwatda, the use of litanies was geoenl. 
Tlie AntiphoriaTy of 8t Qregoiy the Qreat contsiiu 
sevenl In the Roman CaUlolio Church, three 
litanies are especially in use — the * litany of the 
saints ' (which is the most ancient), the ' litany of 
the name of Jesus,' and the ' litany of Our Lady of 
Loretto.' Of th«ae, the firat alone has a plaoe in 
the public service-books of (be chuivb, on the roga- 
tion-days, in the ordination service, the service Tor 
the consecration of churclies, the consecration of 
cemetenco, and many other offloes. Although called 
by the name of litany of the saints, the opening 
and cUang petitions, and indeed the great«' part 



their help, but for their intercession on behalf of 
the wonhippers. The htany of Jesus consists of a 
number of addressee to our Lord under his various 
relations to men, in connection with the several 
details of his pasaion, and of adjurations of him 



throng the memcoy of what he has done and 
suffered for the aalvation of mankind. Ths data 
of tikis form of prayer is unoertain, but it is 
r^eired, irith muon pmbalulity, to the time of 
St BeniaidinD of Siena, in the IStii century. The 
litany of Loretto (see LoBnTo) resembles both the 
above-named htames in its opening addresses to 
the Holy Trini^, and in its cloaing petitions to 
the ' I^nb of QoA, who taketh away the sins of 
the world ;' but the msin body of the petitions are 
addressed to ^e Virgin Mary under various titles, 
some taken from the Scriptures, some from the 
lanffusge of the Fathers, some from the n^stio 
writers of the medieval chnnh. Neither this 
litany nor that of Jeans hss ever formed pert of 
any of the ritual or liturgical offices of the (^tholio 
Church, but there can be no doubt that both 
have in various ways received the sanction of the 
hidiest autiuintiea <n the Boman Church. 

In the Fnyer-book of the English Church, the 
litany is retained, but although it partakes of 
ancient forma, it differs from Uiat of the Roman 
Churdh, and contains no invocation of the Vir^it 
or the saints. It is divided into four parts — 
invocations, depreoationB, interceoiona, and suppli- 
cations, in which aro preserved the old form of 
alternate prayer and responae. It is no longer ft 
distinct service, but, when used, forms part M the 
morning prayer. 

LITOHI. or LEE-CHEE {N^liMim XttoU), one 
of the most ddidons fruits of China and <^ the 
Malayan AjrchipelagOt The tree which fODdDces it 
bdon^ to the nstnral mder Iiopindaeeei, and has 
piniute leaves. It is exteuBvely cultivated in the 
southern provinoes of China, and in the northern 
provinces of Cochin-China, but is said to be im- 
patient of a climate either much more hot or much 
moiecoLi Thefmitisof thesixeof asmallwalnat, 
and grows in racemas. It is a red or green berty, 
with a thin, tongh, leathery, sc»Iy rind, and a cdour- 



lesa Bemi-tzansparent pulp, in the centie of which is 
one large dark-brown seed. The puIp is sli^tly 
sweet, subacid, and veiT gntefnL The Chincaa 
preserve the fruit by drying, and in the dried state 
it is now frequently imported into Britain, still pre- 
serving much richness of flavour,— The liongcat and 
Sambiitatt ore fruits of the same genus. 

LITHABOB. See Lxad. 

LITHIA. See LrrmviL 

LITHIO ACID. See Uwc Acm. 

LITHIC ACID DIATHESIS is the tenn 
employed in Medicine to designate the condition in 
which there is an excess at litiua (or uric) aoidi 
either free or in combination, or both, in the urine. 
The urine of persons who have the LUiio acid 
diathesis is usually of a dailc golden colour, Uko 
brown sherry, and is more aciiC of higher specifio 
gravity, and less abundant than the urine in health. 
When the urine cools, there ia usually a deposit or 
sediment of hlhatee. The sadimeut is oanally 
spoken of as one of lithste (or orate) of ammonia, 
but in reality it consista msinljr at Ltiiato of soda 
mixed with lithates of ammonia, potash, and lime. 
Ite colour varies according to the amount and 
nature of the urine-^iigment which tensoionsly 
adIieieB to it, so that its tints vary from a whitian 
yellow to a brickdust red, or even a deep purple. 
Fersons seeing these deposits in their urine when it 
bw oooled, aro very apt to beheve that they may 
aggregate and harden in tlie bladder, and form a 
stone. Such feais may, however, be relieved by 

temperature of the interior of the bod^ (about 100^ 
when the fluid will resume ite original oleameai^ 
and the oadiment will disappear. 



LITHIUM— LTTHOORAPHT. 



Tha eolaat of ths dipoeit a of coiuidenble 
imporUnoe in dstenniiiiiie Iti tkIqo u a morbid 
B^ptom. Tkwny or reddilll ledimenti of thia 
land 4ra (rBquentlj tba nmlt of men indiswtion 
at ■ cmnmon oold; ths felloiriih-iTlute onea danrre 
lniH« attantion, aa they are beliered fraqnantly to 
jneeede the exoration <n angar tluongh tha kidnaya. 
The pink or briekdoil aedimenta are alnuat tdwaya 
aaaoouted irith febrile diatorbance or acnte riieiima- 
tiim ; and if theae aedimenta are halntual, withont 
faro', there ia moat probably diaeaae of the Utbt or 
nileen. If tlie orine ia very acid, a portion of the 
lithia add ii separated fram ita bate, and aliewB 
Itaelf, aa the fluid ooola, ia a free oryataUiaed state. 



. . _i the lithatea, and doea not diaaolve on 
the application of heat. 

The penoDi irho suffer from this diathesis are 
ohiefly adnlta beyond the middle ase, and of indo- 
lent and hiznrioiu or intemperate habits. Aa the 
formation of litbio depoaita ia dne to over-addity of 
the urine, alkalies are the medicines most oommonly 
pnacribed, and the preparationa of potaah ani far 
prefetable to thoae of aoda, becauae lithate of potaah 
la pnfeoUy aoluble, and will pasa off diaaolred in 
the mine, lAOa litiiate of aoda ia a hard, inaolnble 
salt. 

K^imen ia, however, of far mora nae than medi- 
oine m tiw liUiia add (Uatbeaii. The patient ihonld 
dine modaratelr aad vnj plainly, avoiding acid, 
sKwhaiine, ana atarohy mattert and fementad 
liqnora. Tha akin ahonld ba made to act fiealy 
by friotioii, and by oocaaional warm or duly tepid 
baths. Warm olothins most be used ; plenty of 
aotive aierciae moat be taken in ^e open air ; 
and the healthy action of ths bowels and liver 
duly attended to. It must be leooUeoted that the 
lithatea are aometunea thrown down, not from 
ondne addity of the nrine, bnt aimpty from that 



cold apring-water taken nisht and morning will at 
oaoB canaa tha nnsastirrn of thia mnrbid symptom. 

LITHIUM (syrab. Li eqniv, 6-4; sp. gr. 0-B986) 
is the metallic baae of tlie alkali litkia, and derives 
i-ta name from the Greek word EtCAos, a *t(»ie. The 
metal is of a white silvery appeannce, and ia ranch 
harder than aodinm or potasiiiun, but softer than 



It admits of being welded at ordinaiy tem- 
peraturca, and of being £awn ont into wire, which. 
bowerer, is inferior in tenacity to leaden 



toses at 3M*. It is the li^htMt of all known 
metals, it* apedflo gravis bemg little more than 
half that of water ; it dacompoaaa water at ordi- 
naiy tanperatuTea. It boms with a brilliant 
light in oxygen, chlorine, and the Taponis of iodine 
and Ixximinft It is easily reduced from its chloride 
by meana of a niTanio battery. lithium forms two 
oomponnds wiu onrgen, vix,, lithia (known also aa 
lithion or llthon}, whidi ia tha oxide of jithimn, and 
iiide of lithinra whoso formula has not been 



detemiii 



LMia, in a pnre and isolated state, eannot be 
obtuned. Hyibate of lithia (LO,HO) ooouts aa a 
white translucent mass, which closdy reaemUea 
the hydrates of potaah and soda. The ealts of 
Uthia are of spanng oocnrrence in nature. The 
mineral* petaUte, tripbane, lepidollte, and tour- 
maline contain Ittliia in combination with nltdc 



small quantitiee 
ui many mineral wateta. 

Carbonate of lithiA (LO,CO,) is 
when oarbwuta of *'nTff™H is added 



ithod of obtaining it, and 



solution of ohlorids of tiUiinm, and oocars aa • white 
maa with a slight alkdina reaotiim. At a doll nd 
beat, it melta into a white «BainaL It raqniras 100 
parts i:d water for its scdutira, bat is nore MlHble in 
water charged with carbonic aoid. nie adntion of 
the salt baa been atoong^ noonauikled in aasw ol 
gout and gravel, is consaqoenoe of the solvent power 
which it exarta on nrie Mid. ^Hie sulphate, phos- 
phate, and nitrate of litliia are irf no ipedal import- 
ano*. Chloride of lithinm {L01-)-4aq.) b readily 

Erepared by diasdving the hydnte of lithia in 
ydroohlorio acid, and tntpontia^ It er^stsllisea 
in oetohedra, and ia one « tke moat dabqueaoaot 
■alta known. It ia of importanoa as htan,- "•- 
■onrOB from whenoe lithium and oatbonate of 
are obtained. 

lithia waa discoTered in 1817 W 
The metal lithium was flnt obtained in 182S by 
Brands, but nothing waa known regarding its pro- 
pertiea until 18S6, when Bunsen ud Matthieassn 
discovered the prsssnt method of 
carefully invesf"'""'"' "" ~'' — '" 
charaoters. 

LITBO'OBAFHT {Or. Vdot, a itone), the art 
of printing from atone, was invented bv Aloys 
Senefelder, at Monich, about the end of the 18th 
centmy. It oonaists, fltst, in '" • • ' 

on the stone with the pen t 
gTaver, and witli tiie crayon or chalk; or in 
tranaferring to the stone writioB* and drawings 
made willi the pen or braah on mnsfer-p^ior, or 
ImpresalonB from copper, ateal, and pewter jplUas, 
taken on ft ooated paptr, and then m prinlmg off 
from the stone the wrnings or drawing* thus made 
upon it. The prindplaa of the an are theae : 
an unctuous compontion having been made to 
adhere to a cslcareo-argillaOeous stone, those parts 
ooTsred by it — L e., the writing or drswing — aoqnire 
the power of receiving printins-ink, whereas tnow) 
parts not oontaining the writang or drawing are 
prevmted from receiving ink oom the liJdng- 
rollw by the isterpoaition of water ,- and lastly, 
an abaorbent paper being laid on 1^ stone, and 
subieoted to sbcog pressure, ooi^cs are obtained. 

The btsA Ulioip^jMc tUm— are found at Kelheim 
and Solenhofen, near Aippenheini, on the Danube, in 
Bavaria ; bot they have been found also in Silwia, 
Kigland, France, Canada, and the West Indies. 
These stone* an composed of lime, day, and silidoua 
earth, and are of various hnea, from a pale yellowish- 
white to a light bnff; reddish, pearl-gray, fight-giay, 
bine, and greenish colour. Those of nnifomt colour 
are the best. The yellow-buff cmea, being aoft, are 
adapted for lettering and to«nafer ; the peari-gray 
ones, beiog harder. Tor ehalk-drawinp and engrav- 
ing. They are (onnd in beda, oommenoing with 
layer* of the thioknesa of paper, till they raaoh the 
dimensions of one, and aeveral indies in fhirknssa, 
when they are easily cnt^ bdng yet soft in the 
qnarriea, to the sizes required for wintina pnr- 

... m . . , ^ ground plane with aand, and, 

he pen. the bmah, tiis graver, 
;e polished wiUi pumice and 
water-of-Ayr (tone; and for chalk-drawinga and 
gradosted tints, an artifidal grain i« given hy 
ground glass or flne sand. 

When any writing or drawing has becsi finished 
on stmie, it then requites to be etched, thus: a 
mixtore of S P**^ <>' nibic add, and from 40 to 
00 parts of djaaolved gmn-arabic, ia poured over 

" "■""" ~~ aevtnl timea, acooiding to the 

1^ The etching ehange* the 
snrfaoe tA the aton^ raising the ■mxk, on it to a 
degree ■oaraefy peioeptible to the naked im, ^a 
writing or dmwing, «4ud^ Imw been •fieotad hy 
--'- - ohau, nmaifla f rotaotod froBi Um 

-TTa-Eab yGoOglc 



LrrHOlOOT— UTHONTRimOS. 



ii the aiulifi nation ^ raceiTiDg printing-bk ; 
■whan tfa( - '-' ' " ' <-.' . 






printer 'wet* the itons before >ppl7ing 
the iiikiiig-roUer, the watet ent«ri only tboa* puta 
of the (tone which hsve beeo aSeoted b; (^e "oi^ 
while the ink kdhetei onlj to thow put*, how- 
•rer fine, on whioh the aoid oonld notopeMta, owing 
to the oaotmnM aompontion id tb ink or ohalk with 
whioh the dimwing w wriUns hat been done, ud 
wluoh, being greMj-, Tejecta &e water. Thni it it 
called dioKtail printing. 
The ctcmleaJ ink, for tBrituua and ffmuiruM At Uin, 
d of 2 parti of white wu, 2 ' " ' ' 



inn At liiM 
■hell-lao, I 



hard loap, 4 tallow, i oarbonata of soda, and 1 of 
powdered lamp, m better, Pari* blaok. The cfaemioal 
chalk (sTajonJ is made of 3 p«iia of white 



hard loap, 1 ahell-lac, \ *drape of maetie, 1 tahow, 

ioldlard, t ^^fittantnrpeiit- — '■" — — .'-vi-i— i- 
ctrbonate of aodo, and 14 o 
melted and bnrtied togeth^. 

When the drawMg or writb; lolA Ml on a polithed 
(tone ia completed, the etohlng is proeeeded with, 
and a portion of iJie etohing compomtioa aUowed to 
dtyouthsabmB, Thspiiniarthenadjiutihisitoiie 
in the pna, waahea off the dried gum, renorea the 
whole drawing or writing with turpentine, wet* 
the etotie with a qionse or damping canTas, then 
appliei hi* roller contaming the prmtiDe-ink, and 
toll* ft sereral times OTsr tiie stone till the lines 
appear sgain. Wlien mfflcient ink haa been applied 
to the hnea, the p^er ia lud on the stone, drawn 
throiigh the preaa, and the impreanon ^eoted. 
The umping and inking ot the none an renewed 
fn ereiy impreanon. 

Chal£-dravingt are done tm the grained atone with 
tiie chonical ebalk, with the atnmp aad ■enmr, and 
thai^ linw wiUi ink; to th»t^ if Doldlyaad ayete- 
mataoaHv treated, hy priiig the effect first, and 
detail ^terwarda, there will be prodoced ridmeaa 
and aoftaeea ot appeanmoe and freedom of mani- 
pulation, and B great many imprasiiona will be 
yielded. 

Tinltd draicbtgi, <Aromo-lUhoffniphj/, and eobuml 
majM raqnire aa many atonea— gramed or polished, 
a* tjie oaie may be — aa there are rarioua tints or 
colonrl, one atone being printed after the other, 
and eo fitted and bleuded together aa to piodnoe, 
when oomDlete, the effect decired. 

Qnat Bribun ii famed for vrlUnfi, pbou, and 
draningt, done with tntniparent qnills. ateel-peni, 
and snail oamel-hair bmahea, on ydloxe trw^fer 
paper, prepared aa follow* : 1 part beat fioke-white, 
1 uinglaae or gelatine, wiUi a little gamboge to 
pre it colonr, are disaolTed in water orer a alow 
fire, then aifled thi*>Qgh double mnelin, and apread 
once, ni a vtry warm date, with a lai;^ flat camel- 
hair bmlh on one side ot good-sized, amootb, 
tiiiD paper, which, when dry, Teqniree to be pasied 
freqnoatl; orer a heated stone, throngh the press. 
Tlie }N>per being drawn or written upon with litho- 

Kptic ink, is, when flnished, pnt for a few minutes 
ween damp blotting-paper; a warmed itone ia 
put in the press, the sheet is placed with Uie 
coated side upon it, and then paased several times 
thnnigh the press ; the back of the f«T>er, now 
adhanng to the atone, ia then sponged with water; 
the stone ia turned, and psaaed eereral times again 
through ths preaa in the opposite direction, after 
vliich the ahaet i* aoftened with water, and rubbed 
with the finsei* until it can be eaaily removed from 
the stone. Some gam is then put upon it, and a 
linen rag, dipped in piinting-ink, and, with the aid 
of a littie water, panad in all directiona over the 

i* than allowed to cxxil, inked np with th« ndkv. 



then very ilif^tly etohed, and, after b«ng cleaned, 
i* ready for use. 

AtiiitorjTajihis is the name given to a writing or 
drawing done with the chemical ink on one si<u of 
any plain — net coated — -paper, for example, banker^ 

a* already deaoribed, with tiie differenoe, that the 
sheet, when laid on Qu itons, is passed <mly ones 
throng the press. 

Tran^^rriig '^ang wHtlnjTf, hum drtxalmga In Una 
or flUMte, dtaa on capper, steel, taa pealtr-plaitM, and 
ntranifirrtitg of any licia-woA, atnady on &t lloiu, 
form a very important part of lithography, aa i 



unguuu puH« or BHHwe,^ «DU mm ^nm ui v«riuLU 
platesi etonee, and Irtterpreei can M transferred t^ 
and printed ftom, At mdm done. TiM beat trtm^tr- 
paper/or Ait pvrpoee fe the following ; mix S i^rt* 



best ground plaster of ] ..,.._ . - 

glue, and some tepid water ; strain the miztnre through 
doable muslin m a conunoa jar, and, when oooted, 
apread it with a latge^ fiat camel-hair bmah over 
half-siisdthickishp^er. Thetaiforfoiinommf/in-a 
ia a con^osition of two tsble-spoonfnla « printing 
TBmiah, I| parte of tallow, 8 Drown bard soap, •I 
brown wax, S aliell-laa, S bUK^ piteh, and H parti 
of powdered lampblack. The Tariona iiua-Mieota 
are mdted for 2S minntes, and fir* set to Ue mua 
for other IB minntes — afterwards f(«med in stiek*. 
When the impteaaiona have been made on thla coated 
paper witli ttiia fasnafer-ink, the b*a*fer i« Moom- 
phshed oo the stone as already deeoribed. 

With regard to tngravbig and eti^in; on tlont, 
■^loto-Ulhogra^, the applicatioa ot eUdrotsping to 
lHJmgnph'g, we workins of the ni&nr-raa«Una for 
akiea and onumenti, Aa UtHioffrofhic tieam-pnu, 
&C., we mnst refer the nader to spanal work* 
treating on Lithography. 

It maf not be out of place to mention, that in the 
field of hthogtaphyOermany occupiee the first place 
for cttt^fid meo^lon, Fnuice forrtfA and artitOe tSttt, 
Britain for trantfarir^, Unt-printing, and cAromo- 
printing. 

Striine 

Calame, Laaalle, Haghe, Qhemar/EuUmandel, Day, 
Hanhart, Brooks, Lemervier, may be mentioned, 
from among many others, who have helped to 
perfect lithography. 

LITHO'LOOT {lilAot, a atone) ia that division 
of geology which considers the constitution and 
'ructore (d rooks, apart from their relations in time 
: position to each other. See QEOLoar, 

lil'THOHABOB, an earthy minend, sometimea 
called JfounCatn MarroiB (Oer. Sleinmart), consist- 
ins chiefly ot silica and alumina, with oxide of iron 
M^ variona colourina sabstanocs. It is soft, greaay 
to the touch, and adhere* ataongly to the tonous, 
It is gsneiaUy white, yallcnr, or r^ often exhibiting 
very MMitiful Goknir*. It is fannd in Qerman^, 
Rossia, fto., also in the tin-mine* of Bedmth m 
Com wall 

LITHOKTfirPTICS (from the Oreek worda 
UOiot, a atone, and tribo, I wear ont) is the term 
whioh ia applied to the** retnedie* which, whether 
taken by the month, or tnjeoted into the Uadder, 
aot •* eolTenti tor the stone. 

Tarions medicine* have at different time* been 
recommended and employed a* solvents for the 
etooe. Rather more than a ototnry ago, limewater 
and aoap, when swallowed in sufficient quantities, 
bad a high reputation ss solvents for urinary calculi 
These WW* th* only aotir* ingtedisnts in Uia* 



d byGoogte 



LTTHOFSA.QID^^LITHOTKITir. 



St^luna's £ece^ for A* Stone and Qraed, vUcti 
wu reported oa iD favoDnbl; h^ a committee of 
prof eaaujnBl men, that pu-liunen^ m 1739, purduaed 
the aeeret for £6000. The ttotment donbtleu 
ftflbrded relief; but there ia no evideoce thkt any 
(ndcoliu WM actually diaaolved, for in tha bladder 
ot each of the fonr persona whoae core waa certified 
is the niport, the atone waa found after death ! 
At prtaent, no anbatance, which, t»ken by the 
month, haia tlie power of diaaolving calcnli, is 
kliowu ; bat aa Dr Front lemarka in hia well-known 
tRAtiae, On Ae Natart and TrtatmtM of SlonuuA 
tmd Urinary Dittue*, remediw of thia a 



ingredienta, both aa alkaliea and i 
of the aaper-carbonated alkalies a „ ^ 

•zceaa of carbooio acid — as, for example, Hie nataral 
mineral waters of Vichy — approach moat nearly to 
what ia required. The relief which, in loony 
in«tjTi<-<n ]ua followed IJae administration "b^ tha 
month of anbstancea aappoeed to be litfaontnptica, 
haa been dmived not from the solution of the 
calculi, but from tlie diminntion of pain and irritation 
in the bladder. 

On Qm other hand, conaiderable sncceas has been 
obtunad I7 the direct injeotion of solTents into the 
bladder, eapeoially when the nature of the calcnlua 



apcoted ; weak alkaline aolntiona haring appar- 
snUy oanaed the diaappearanoe <rf luic 
while phospbatio «alcnli hare 1 



haTmg appa 
c ocia oucn! 



ajalranic current 
ut^ fomuL moceaafnl m the hands of 
on Italian surgeon. 

LITHOFHA'GID^ (Gr. rtone-eaters), » term 
sranetimea af^lied to the mollusca which bore holes 
for their own residence in rocks. See Fsolab. 

LI'TH0PHA2IB (Or. pAnnot, dear, transparent), 
a peculiar style of ornamental poroelain chiefly 
adapted to lamps and other banaparenciea ; it con- 
sists of pretty pictures produced on thin ^eeta of 
white porcelain by stomping the porcelain, whilst 
•till soft, with raised plaater-of-Poris caats of the 
jactores intended to be produced. By this means, 
an intaglio impression is obtained; and when the 
•bset of porcelain has been hardened by fire, the 



gives a picture, owing to the 

of Uie porcelain, which hu the lighta and 

ahadowa oorreoUy shewn, if viewed by trsnsmittcd 



porenoy of ti 



light. lithophue 
moi^, where the sjt has been more favonrably 
recmTcd than in France, its native country. They 
are usually emplc^ed to form the sides of orna- 
mental latws and lanterns, and are aometimes 
inserted in decorative windows. 



symptoms of stone in the bladder 
(which are noticed in the article Cauiulus) may be 
simulated by other diseases of Uie bladder and 
adjacent parts, it is neceMsry to have odditioitsl 



b«f(«e resorting 



consists in intaodudng into the 



' operatic 
bladder. 



— ,^ , throndi 

the natnnJ nriiury paaaoM (the urethra), a metallic 
instmment, by msaiu at whioh the stone con be 
plainly felt and heard, 
lithotomy has been performed in various ways at 

''" ' " The earlieart form of lithotomy ia 

on At gripe, or C^mt't mstAwt It 



by the pieaanie of tiie ftrkgeis in the anus, 

„ oirootly cut opon and extooeted ; and the 

latter, from its havins been first described, so &r 
as is now known, by Celaua, althon^ it hod prob- 
ably been practised from time immemoriaL At a 
lat^ period^ tbia operation teoeiTed from Marianua 
the name of the apparaittt nunor (from a knife and 
hook being tlie only instruments used), to distin- 
guish it from his own method, which he called the 



. idea, that wounds of membranons parts 
would not heal, while their dilatation was compar- 
ative^ hamdeea. The object was to do as little as 
posrible with the knife, and as much as possibla 
with ■<ii«<JT'g instmnenta ; and the neoossaty result 
waa loceratimi and such other severe injory,t£at this 
became ons of the most fatal opeiaticnis m s u rgery. 
Nevertheless, it was the operation mainly in vcgne 
for nearly 900 yeara, till Fi^re Jaqnes, in 1697, intio- 
dnoed what is essentially the mettkod now in use. 

The laterai operaiirM, so called frran the lateral 
direction in whioh the incision is made into the 
neck of the bladder, in order to avoid womidins the 
rectum, is that which, with various minor modifies. 
tions, is almost universally employed at the present 
day. Ftire Jaqoes, a priot, seems to have teamed 
the method from a proviikcial SDroaoD named Pierre 
France, and to have practised it with much success ; 
and, in 1697, he came to Paris in order to moke it 
publioly known. The advantage of this operation, 
by which a free opening, sufficiently large fm Che 
extraction of a atone, con be made into l£e bladder 
without laceration of the parts to: injury to the 
rectnm, was immediately recognised by the '"■^'"g 
snrgeons of the time, and the M^w^n process was s« 
once universally given up. 

We can on]y very In^efly indicate tlie leading 
steps of the operation. Tha paticmt being laid on 
the table, and cUoToform being administered, an 
instnunent tenned a corred stafi', with a deep 
raroove, is passed into the bUdder. As inciwon is 
tben inode on tho left side of the mesial line, about 
an inch and three-quarters in front of the anus, and 
extending downwwds to midway between th> anna 
and the tuberosity of the left ischinm. The indsion 
ahoald be sufficiently deep for the operator, <n 
introdoeiDg a fbger of the left hand, to feel the 
groove of the staS. The knife, directed by this 

it towards the bladder, diyides tiie membranons 
portion of the urethra, the edge of the proatate, 
and the neok of the bladder. The knife ia now 
withdrawn, as also is the staff, and the surgeon 
introdncee the fracepa over the finger of the left 
hood into the bladder, feels for um stone, and 

It is mmecessary to enter into any of the details 
of the after-treatment. At first, the urine esMpea 
tbrough the wound, but in favourable cases it is 
voided by the natural passage in a week, and the 
wound heals in the course of a montiL 

From the shortness of the female urethra and tiie 
extent to which it con be jlilj-t-ivli and, additionally, 
from the comparative rarity of calculouB affeotiotis 
in women, the operation of lithotomy is exclusively 
restricted to the male sex. 

The danger of the operation seems to vary witil 
the age of the patient. Out of 186 coses collected 
by Mr Butchinson of the Loikdon Hospital, 137 were 
under the age of 20, and of these, 123, or nnrly 90 
per cent., recovered ; while of the 49 who were over 
20 yeara of age, 26, or more tiian 63 per cent., died. 

lilTHO'TRITT [Or. stone-cmahing), the aar|^cal 
toleration ot breaking up ■ stone in the bloddat into 



abvLiOOgle 



LITHUiMIA— UTUBOT. 



facb mull fngments that Hiey mmy readily be 
expeUed bj the urethra. Althoi^^ the importaDce 
of Boch an operatioa haa been recogniaed m>m Oie 
earlieat time, a Freach (mrgecn, Crviale, who oom- 
meneed hia rsaearches in ISIT. but did not perform 
hi* fiiat openlion till the b^inning of 1824, ia entitled 
to be t^^ided •■ the discoveier of liOiotntf. The 
inttmment by vhich the diamtegratioa o£ the ttone 
ia effected, i« introdneed in the aame uuumer as a 
catheter or aoand into the bladder, Mid, after catch- 
ing the abas, either boree, hammera, or cmahw it to 

Cmahing ia 
batnggraqted 

in the flgnre, one blade acting on the 

S^k other by meana of a screw. 

,@|^ The pToceaa aeema, at fiiat mght, ao 

''^Va aafe, ai compared with the operation of 

^M lithotomy, that it ia neceaaary to diatin- 

jl guish ttuwe eaaee in which it may be 

II reaorted to, and thoaa in which it ia 

eoatnk-induvted. It may be reaortad to 

when tiie mtieiit ill an adult, and the 

urethra fnU-iized and healthy, ao aa 

jeof the in 



freelyto admit the pauage . . 
ment ; when die proatate ia not much 
enlaived, which is very often the caae 
in old men, and when the bladder ia 
not thickened or very irritable : while 
it muat be avoided in childrelt, in 
oonaeqnence of the amallneae of the 
urethra ; when there ia great irritation 
and thickening of the bladder; when 
there ia great enlargement of the pro- 
state, which hindera the manipulation of 
the iuatrument, and the escape of Oia 
broken fragments o! stona ; when the 
atone ia of large nze, as, for example, of 
a greater diameter than two ioche* ; and when there 
is reaaon to believe that the concretion ia amnlbcny 
calcnlii^ which, from its extreme hardneaa, oannot 
readily be l:n>ken. Qreat care mnst be taken that 
no fr^ment ranaina in the bUdder, aa aoch frag- 
mmta are almoat aura to form the nadei of freeh 



of that Goontry, was composed of three groups of 
territoty ; 1. L. proper, or Litdva, which formed the 
g(iTenunent« of Wuna and Troki ; 2. The dnchy 
^ Samc^tia; 3. Ronian L., comprising Poleaie, 
Block BiW* or Noviwrodek, White Raigia or 
Minsk, MosUt, Witeb^ Smolensk, Polotsk, and 
Polish Livonia. This country contained about 
ISeCoOO English square miles, and was partitioned 
between Buaoa and Pmmia, the latter receiving 
what is now denominated the govemmeDt of Oum- 
lauDoi, in East Prussia. The Lithuanians, a race 
to whom belong the XjfMn uf Livonia, the Cours 
of Conriand, and the ancient inhabitants of East 



Fniiaia, are probably a Slavonic 






acterisi 



■ have been 



peopl 



lie, whose 
modified 



by time and the intermixture of other 
According to Tiathmn, the Lithuanian language 
apiRtiacbes nearer to the Sanscrit than any other 
monber of the Aryan group. 

L. was at first subjeot to Bniaia, but shook off the 
Tob about the end of the 13th c, and beoama an 
indenendcnt nower. Their rolera, who bore the 
conqusmd the neighbouring 

, , __d even carried flimr ravages 

to the very gates of Moscow. The Grand Duke of 
L., Jmellon, waa in 1386 elected king of Poland, 
and iatoed an edict of union between the two 
conntrie*, and in 1669 tiie two were declared to 
be one oonntiy. 



LITUtTS ia a well-known colooiing matter, 
which is obtained from aeveral lichens, but ohiefiy 
from Ltetmora tariarta. The lichen* ore powdered 
and diraated with ammoniacal fluids (urine, for 
eiampl^ till they undergo dacompositioii. Alum, 
potaan, and lime are then added, and the mixture is 
allowed to stand till the m^x in m rn degree of colour 
is obaarved. Sand and chalk are oddeiC to aive a due 
degree of eolidity, and the mass is then driedin cubes, 
and is ready for the market. The exact nature of 
the chaugea which enaue is not altogether known ; it 
is, however, certain that the pigment is orieinally 
rei, and that it only becomes blue on the addition 
of alkalies or of lime. This blue colour is again 
changed into a red, on the addition of a free aci£ 

The uoe of litmus-paper and tincture of htmus 
for the purpoee of detecting the acidity of fluids, 
Ac, is faiown to every student of chemistry. See 
Tnr-ru^Bs. 

LITHE, the unit of Hie present French measurf>a 
of capacity, both dry and uquid. It is the volume 
of a cnbic decimHra (see lUTBl), and is equal to 
0-2200967 British impwiot goUrai. It is subdivided 
decimally into the aeeUitrt, cetUUitn, and miUilitre 
fcespectivaly -^tb, -Antii, and lAi*)! °^ » litre). 
Ten litres are a duiOilrt; 100, a hectolUrt ; 1000, a 
hUoUlTe, The hectolitre is ^le common meaaure 
for groin, and is eqaal to 03439009 British imperial 
quarter, or nearly 2J imperial bushels. 

LITTLE PALLS, a village of Kew York, United 
States of America, on the llohawk River, 91 miles 
north-west of Albany, on the line of the Erie Canal, 
and New York Central Railway. The Mohawk here 

E asses through a romantic defile of two miles in 
;ngth, with foils of forty-two feet, giving water- 
power to several poper-milLi, wool&n uctotioa, 
nouring-mills, Ac. The viD^e has numerous 
churches, a bank, newBpapers, and manufactures of 
itarch, shoes, ka. PopL in IB70, 0387. 

LITTLE BOCK, the copital of Arkansas, United 
States of America, ia situated on the south bank of 
the Arkonaos River, KK> duIbs from its mouth, on 
the first bed o! rocks bounding the olluvial valley 
of the Mississippi It coutuns the state capitol, an 
arsenal, penitentiary, and tiie ususl number of 
churches. Founded in 1820. Pop. in ]g70, 12,380. 

LITTLETON, or LYTTLETON, Sni Thomas, a 
celebrated English jurist, was bom eariy in tiie 
IGth 0. (the exact year is not known), studied 
—it is thought proboble— at Cambridge, alter which 
he removed to the Inner Temple. Henry VL 
uinointed liim steward or judge of the Court of the 
Kiace, and in 14Cfl king's serjeont, in which capa- 
city he travelled the northern circuit. In 1466, he 
was mode one of the jnilges of t^e Court of Cotumoa 
Pleas; and in 147G, ne was created Knight of the 
Both. He died August 23, 1481. L's fome t«sts 
on his work on Tatura, which was oruinolly written 
in Normon-French, and first publi^ed about the 
time of his death. It went throush o multitude of 
editions. The first ttouslation mto T-^igl"*' woa 
mode in 1539, and in the course of the next hundred 
yeors it went through no less than 24 editions. The 
changes in the laws relative to property have greatly 
dimiuished its value, and it is now little stu£ed by 
lawyers ; yet it is craisideted a model on account 
of l^e clear and logical manner in which the subject 
is handled. 

LI'TUROT (Qr. ItHourgia, a public service), in 
generol, signifies a form of prayw and ceremonial 
estoblishedby eoolesiastical autliority, to be used in 
the public services of the church, but is especially 
applied to that used in the celel^ation and adminia- 
tration Oi the Euohorist The very earliest historical 
records of Christianify plainly ahew tiiot such lanat 



abvGoOgli 



ware m me in the jBiaaUre famea, but it Menu 
higUj probable that lor • conaidarable pariod they 
weia not rednoed to writins ; and benoe eren thoie 
of the extant litorpaa wMeh rep r aa e nt the earlieat 
fonna differ eonaiderably from Mofa other, it not in 
the aabatauioa of the nte, M leaat in tba arrange- 
ment even d thoaa parte vhiab kre eonunon to 
them alL A theoloeoal diaonniMi of the anbject 
U the liturgy, thonm, of eotma^ moat important in 
a doctrinal poiot of vier, and no«t intereating for 
the atu<^ of (Xiriatdan antiqnitiea, iroold be ont of 
plaee in a popnlar ovdopwdj^ Tht litui^ea fotm 
the great itrODghord ot the CatboUo oontrover- 
lialinB an the eabject oE the real preaeooe and of 
the eaoharutio aacrifioa ; bat wb murt oonfine oar- 
selvea to a brief hiitoriu^ aooonnt of the raiioiu 
litoigle* now ezt&nt, and of their conneotioD with 
tile vuiooa andent Chriatian oommunitiea, whether 
of the But or of the West. Liturgies may, indeed, 
best be diatribntod into two olaaBBa, thoae of the 
Eaat, and thoae of the WesL 

I. Orietititi LUurgitM. — The Oriental Utnrgiea are nz 
in nnmber, four ofwhich are derived from the great 
chntchea in which they were naed ; the fifth Inim 
the Anuenian Chorch, which early formed a diitinct 

n Uia great Sj 
litn^^ waa mi 

ta. 'meaa lita 

, — — iitnrKiea rf Janii — , — , __ 

Antiocb, of Alexandria, and M Constantinople, the 
Armenian litoxgy, and the Nestorian liturgy. The 
divet«tie« of theae litareies, although Tery great in. 
appemace, ^at can hartuy be aaid to be aubatantial. 
Certain leadmg parte are common to them all, and 
are found in Si without labrtantial Tariation ; but 
they are arranged in a different order, and, ezcept 
in the form of the eucharistic conseoration, taa 
byTnn Triiagion, and a few other details, the form 
of words is often entirely dissimilar. The litur^ 
of Jerusalem, although ascribed to 8C James, u 
of onoertoin origin and date ; nor is it well ascer- 
tained whether its original luigoage was Syrioc or 
Greek. The latter is the laagnage in which it is now 



St Oytil of Jeroaolem in hia well-known Myrta-. 
gogical Leotorea. The liturgy of Antiooh eiiste 
m Syriac, but it is evidently <^y a free translation 
of thg litnr^ of Jerusalem. The andent liturgy of 
Alexandria is aacribed to St Hark; but the "^'^■''g 
liturgy ha« raoeired nuniberlesi additions at later 
dates, and haa been modified by both the filial aecCa 
of this patriarchate to suit their pecoliar doctrines. 
SeTerol other lituroiea are in ate among the Ccntta, 
under the nam* (3 St Baail, 8t Qregory, and St 
Cyril ; and the AbyMtnian Chriatians have no fewer 
than tea, which are diitinott at leoat in name. The 
ohnrch ol Conifamtineple has two different lituigiee, 
both of great antiqnity, that of St Basil, and that of 
St Chiysoatom. 'niesa, however, are not indiserim- 
inately oted, aaeb being employjed on opMial ooca- 
dona or on certajn denned leetivalB. The litnr^ 
of Constantinople is the original of the Slavomc 
litargy, whid is used in the Bnaoian and Eusso-Oreek 
Church, and in its vanona braneheo. Tbt Armenian 
litur^ date* from the introdnctiim of Cbristiani^ 
into Ajmania under Ot«K0i7tJie Olnminator. It is 
in most res^Mfai derived mm that of St Chiysoatom. 
The N«stonanB have thM« Hturriea— the hturgy of 
the Apoetlea, the litorgf of Theodore of Mopmaatia, 
and the liturgy of Neotoriai. Theae, however, are 
all oombioed into one, eooh being aasignad to a 
' r Maaon, or used on apecialoonaaioni. ^le 
-^ of all i« Syiiao. 
_ .'tder* IAtuTgitt.—Tb» liturgiaa of the West 
jnaant mnohleM vaiiety, and indeed are all derived 



eitbst from the eastern litur^iea orfram^ 

MUTOe. The Catholic Uturgiea may be redoced to 
four — the Boman, the Ifilaneee or Ambroaian, the 
Qothic or Moiarabio, and the Qallic Uturgies. The 
oldest forms of the Boman liturgy are to be found 
in three ao-called saonunentariea— that of Leo, that 
of Oelaaiua, and that of Ongwy the Great. It ia 
the last that haa left ita impr«as moat clearly on 
the modern Boman miaaal, whi^ waa brought to 
ita present ahape by a commiaiioQ ordtred ^ tba 
ConncU of Tren^ after a careful levinon and ooUa- 
tion of all the litDTocal forms in use in the Weat in 
the 16th century. ^efiiatteviaiontoiAplaoeander 
Pins v., and two subsequent revision* w«ra made 
by Urban VIIL and Clement TUL The Ambrosiao 
liturgy is used only in the diocese of lllilan, and is 
poptuiTly traced to St Ambroaa. It bears a oloae 
analogy to the Boman hturgy, but it hsa many 
pecnliaritiea, some of which are highly interesting, 
at illmtratiiig the history of the details of Christian 
worihip. Its oeremonii, which is observed wiUi 
great solemnity in the cathedral of Milan, is in some 
parte highly striking and charact«riatia Ilia Gothic 
or Mozaralna is ot still more limited use, being now 
confined to a tingle chapel at Toledo, founded and 
endowed for the purpoae by the celebrated Cardinal 
Tiirmni It ia the old liturgy of tJie Qothic Cborch 
of Bp^ ; and after the infusion of the Arabio 
element, which followed the Uoorish invasion, it 
was Dslled by the name of Mozarabic, a word of 
dispated a^rmolwy. This liturgy is oertsinly of 
Onentsl ongin ; but its history, and the time and 
dronmstancea of ita introduction into Spain, have 
furnished matter for much speculation. Some parte 
of the rite are exceedingly curious, especially those 
which aooompany the breaking of the host The 
Galilean litnny hat no piaeiae modem representa- 
tive, and is on^ known Erom ancient forma, mere or 
less oomplebe, which ^ve been edited ^ Mabillon, 



from the Greek Chrittiaa colony which settied at 
Marseille, Lyon, and the other chujchea of the 
Bouth. The later forms approxiiiiato more to the 
Boman. Neither of these, however, is to be con- 
founded with the more modem misssls in use in 
several of the French dioceses, which do not differ 

of which have now been displaced by the Boman 
miwsl Of Protestant oommunitieB, the 4 uri Wn 
Church alone professes to follow the ancient Utur- 



2 vols. ; Asaamannl'a Bibliclheea OrimltUU; Falmei'a 
Antiqiutia of IXt Sngti^ Liturgy ; Kntetim't 
Datkuilirdigi^len dor OltriMt-KaiJiotiiaien KirtAe. 

Ll'TURGT, JiwiEH, in the narrower sente of a 
ritual of fixed pnyero. chiefly for public wtuahipt 
The Mosaic records contain an ordiuaace letpeoting 
the ' confeaaioD of sins ' (Lev. v. 5; zvi 21), with- 
oat, however, prescribing a distinct form tat the 

Surpose. Tlu'ee formulas only are fixed— the bene- 
iotiou of the priests (Num. vi 24—26), the nayer 
of thanksgiving on the oocasion of the flnt offering 
(Dent. xzvL fi — ID), and that which was to accom- 
pany the offering up of the third veer's tithe, 
tMgmning : > I have brought away the hallowed 
things cut of my house ' (ib. 13— IS). Although 
prayera are often mentioned before Uie £xile, yet 
they do not aeam, ezoept in the oaaes mentioned, to 
have been introduced as yet as a regular element 
into the tervice of the Temple. The aongs of the 
Levitsa (1 Chr. zvL 4; zziiL 3), and ooootional 
prayen, such at are to be found m the Ptolms, or 
like that of Solomon at the inauguration ot the 
Temple, are all we find teoorded. I%vate devotiona 



.Google 



LnrrPBASB— LrvER. 



mra onniiioa (of. 1 Kiog^ riiL SO, Ao. ; I*. L IS), 
bnt aveiy ono pnyed when hii luart prompted hini 
in llie words inipirod by bii jor or >am>w. Not 
before the time of I}4iuel is & fixed inttitntioD of 



three dsilj pnyen mentioned (Dta. vL 11). 

*— '^ -^ -raDtpihng a liturgy proper, Mid of ft 

and teaiooi of prayer, i 



liturgy proper, and 
w of prayer, irai probably fint 
undertaken by the men of the Oreat Synagogne. 
Two chief gronpa around which, •■ time wore on, 
•B enonnooB maei of litorgioal poetry haa slnslarnd, 
are diatinctlT diacemible~-the one, the ShtnuA, 
(* He^, Iinel, Ae.'), being ■ collectioii of the thrae 
biblical pieeea [Dent. vi. 4—9 ) xL 13—21 ; Nam. 
IT. 37— *1) exOTeMive of the unity of God and 
the menuwy of Hii government otbt ^^^^ •trong 
together intfaont any extr«iiaoua addition ; the 
aeooad, the T^BlaA, or Prayer, by way of eminenoe 
(adopted into lalam aa Saiaval, 8ur. ii. 40 ; o* ~ 

Ifi), conmating of a certain numbar of aoppliaat 

witJi a hymnal introdnctioD and oontJuion, and 
fcdlowed hv the prieatly bleaaing. Hie nn^ por- 
tiona of thia jmjm tffaanally increased to mghteen. 



formed the introdnotory thanksgiTiD^ tor the 
renewed day, in accordance with the ordinanoe &at 
ereiT lappUoatJ 

of Uianha, called Joier (Creatoi . 

to which mre joined Ae l/iru EoUa (O/on), and 
the mpplication for epiritoal enlightening in the 
divine law [ASaba). Between the Shemah and the 
Teflllah wa« ioaerted the Otulaft (liberation), or 
piuae for tlie miracoloiu delireranoe from Egypt 
and tiie constant watchinn of prorideaca. A Sad- 
diA (Sanctifioation), and oertain pealms, seem to 
have concluded the serriM of that penod. This 
was the order of Qm ShaiaiiA, at inonui^ pr^er; 
and very rimilar to this was the Maar3>, or erening 
prayer; while in the Minha, or afternoon pnyer, 
the Shemah was omitted. Oil new moons. Sabbath 
and (east daya, the general order was the same aa 
on week daja ; but iinoe the (estiTe joy waa to 
orerrnle all mdividnal sorrow aad aappUcation, the 
intermediate portion of the Teflllah' waa channd 
•ccordinj; to the special aignifioauoe and the 
memorie* oF the day of the solemnity, and addi- 
tional prayen were introduced for these extraor- 
dinaiT ' occaaionB, correaponding to the additional 
aacrifice in the temple, and varyiig according to 
'Uie special aolemni^ <j the day {Miuta/, IfMah, 
Ac). !Ilie first compilation o( a Ittnrgy w reoorded 
of Amram Qvm [{m-480 A.D.); Se fiivt that 
haa rarvived is that of Saadja Oaon (d. M2 a. n.). 
These eariy collections of prsyere (nneraUy con- 
tained also compositions from the Band of the 
compiler, and minor additiona, mch as et^oal 
tracts, ahntuiace, tc, and were called Siddurm 
(Orden, Rituali), embracing the whole calendar 
year, week-days and new moons, fasts and fettivala. 
I^tcr, the term was restricted to ths week-day 
ritual, that for the festiTBls bdog called JfaeAiDr 
(Cyde). Beodea these, we find the StUOolh, or 
Penitential Prayers ; SbioA, or Ele^es ; Hot/uaiiAt, 
or Hoaannahs \lar the seventh day of the Feast of 
Tabemaelea) ; and Babuhoih, or Bpeoial Supi^oa- 
tion*, chiefly for private devotion. 

Tiui pabUe prayers were for a lon^ time only 
said hj the ^blic reader {Chaian, SMiarA Zibbur), 
the peo^ joining in silent responses and amena. 
Tlww readers by degrees — «hieny from the lOUi 
c — introduced occssiinial prayers (Pbttm) of their 
own, over and above Ihoae used of ytn^ Tlia 
materials were taken from Halacha (q. v.) aa well 
as tram Baggada (q. v.) ; religions dootrme, history, 
laA aogel^ogy, and mysticum, interspersed witb 
^^eal versw, are thus foond pat together like 



a moaaio of the moat original and fantaitda, oftea 
Krand and toillian^ and cAen obaonro and feeble 
iindi and the pun Hebrew in many oasea made 
room for a corrupt Chaldee. We can only point 
out here the two chief sroapi of religions poetry 
— vii., the Arabia on toe one, and Uie l9enoh- 
Ocrman sohool on the other hand. The most 
uninsnt re nr sa a nt at ive of the Fajtanio age (ending 
0. 1100) H Eleaiar Birtbi Kalir. ALumg the 
moat oMtnied poets in hit manner are Meshu' 
lam b. KalonymoB of Lucca, Solomon b. Jehuda 
of Babylon, R. 0«son, EUe b> Msnaham of Mans, 
Bnjamia b. Seraeb, Jaoob Zom Elsm, Xllieza' b. 
Samuel, Ealonymoe b. Moeea, Solomon Issaki. 
Of exclusively Spanish poet* of this period the 
most brilliaij aro — Jehnda Halsvi, Solomon ben 
OabircJ, Joaef ibn Abitar, Isaac ibn Giat, Abra- 
ham ibn Ena, Moas b. Naohman, to. When, 
however, in the beginmng of the 13th c., secret 
doctrine and philoMphy, oasnistry and dialectics, 
became the psraaount stiidv, tliB cultivstion of the 
Pint became uadeetsd, and bnt few, and for the 
most part insignlfieaat, are tha writats of Uturgioal 
pieoes from thia Mine downwards. 

According to the different oountrias, the order 
and even um oontenta of the cycle differed, since 
not sll litunrieal pfeoas had been incorporated 
uniformlr- We have thus — to name a few oat of 
many — the ritnals of Oermany (Poland), of France, 
Spain, and Portugal (Sefardim), Italy (Rome), the 
Levant (RDmwna), and even of aome special towns, 
tike Avignon, CariMintrai, Montpellier. The rituals 
of Barlwy - (Algurs, l^iwli, Oian, Morocco, Ac.) 
ara of Spanian origin. The Judco-Chineaa litnrgy, 
it may t>e oheerved by the way, eonsista only of 
piece* from the Bible. T^ Jewah lltai^ has, in 
its variou* form*, very Eraquantiy been commented 
upon, and ha* been IraniiUted into nearly evtry 
modem langnage. 

We may ad^ in oonolaalon. Hut liturgy forma 
at this moment the osnbs of a great oonteet within 
the pale id Judaiam. Iht ' retotmsn ' of more or 
less advanoed tendeninea are intent upon shortening 
the prayers, and prinoipaify npoa abrogatiDg t^ 



inrtful to 

LIDTPRAITD, or LUTTPRAND, aa author to 
whom we owe mooh of our knowledge of the history 



foUowed the £mperor Otto I. to Italy in 961, and 
waa made Bishop of Cremona, and afterwards sent 
on an embaasy to Constantinople. Be died aboat 
970: His Anlapodoni treats of the period from 
888 to Ma Ha wrote also De Jttlnu OttUt OtUmit 
Magni Imparalorii, and Dt Legi^OM Con tl iu af no- 
polUanA. The best editdon of his work* i« that 
in the third volume of the Sfomunenta OtmuiMia 
Hlttorka (Hanov. 1S99}. Compare Etipke, Di Vita 
et ScriplU Z^pnindi (BerL 1842). 

LIVADI'A, the name givai under tiie Turidsh 
r^im* to the anoient Hellas (q. v.] or Greece (q. v.) 
north of the Morea. 

LIVADI'A (anciani LAadtia), a town of Greece, 
lomarohy of Attica and Bcsotia, is situated on tlie 
little (tnam Hercyna, about 60 miles north-west 
of Athena, and tb«a milea west of the Copaic 
Lake. Pop. GOOO. Here aro the famous cave and 
oracle of TTC^onins, and the fountains of Lethe 
and Mnonoeyne. 

LIVBB,Th^ is the largest ^and In the bo^; 
it weigh* from three to few poondi, and meoaum 



dbyGoogle 



■bout twelve inches from ride to side, and gix . . 
■eren inchea from its Bnterior to ita poaterior border. 
■ituat«d in the ri^t hypochondriac re^ou, and 
; being thick and indented 
ea the convex bodiea of the 

, __.. .«nppBr sarfaee, where it HeB 

in the concavity of the diaphnkgm ; and concave 
below, where it reata against the itomach, colon, 
and light kidney. This lower soiface preaentE a 
fiunre dividing the organ into a right and a left 

The liver a retained in its position by five liga- 
ments. Besides the right and left lobe, there are 




tiiree smaller lobes. The gretA bulk of the organ 
is, however, made up of the right lobe, which is six 
times as large as the left. 
The vessels of the liver are the hepatia artery. 



Vein, which conveys to Oie liver the venous blood 
of the intattinea, spleen, and stomach, and from 
which (after the veaaet has ramified like an artery) 
the bile ia secreted ;* the hepatic veins, wliich 
convey the blood front the bver into the inferior 
Tena cava ; the hepatic duct, which carries off the 
bile from the liver ; and Oie lymphatics. 

The liver, both on its sniface and internally, is of 
a dark reddish tint, which is so well known that 
the term Utier-caloured is universally recosnised. 
The subctaoce of the organ is composed of lobules 
held together by extremely fine areolar tissue, and 
nunidcations of the minute branches of the various 
hepatic reesels. Each lobule is composed of 



obtain the biliary matten that are found in their 
interior), of a branch of the hepatic vein, and 
of minute arteries. The exact mode in whidi the 
bile formed in the cells makes its way into the 
origin of the dncts, is not known with certainty. 
The nomberless minute ducts gradoally run into 
one another, until, a« they emerge from the lower 
snrfaoe of ue liver, th^ are reduced to two laive 
trunks, wliich soon mitts (see fig') to form the 
hepatio dneb Into the bepatio dnot, the cystic 

* Beoent investigations throw doubt on this view, 
and there are reasoni for belioving that the bile ia 
secreted from the oapillaries of the hepatia artery, 
while the portal blood contributes the material from 
which the Uvsr-sntar or ^yoogen is tonned or seonted. 



dnct from the neck of the gall-bladder (presently to 
be described) enters, and the two cqmbme to form 
the common duct (Dvxlia eommvnw AoledoehKa), 
which opens into tJie duodenum (see Diannoir). 
This common emretoTy dnct of the liver and nil- 
bladder is about three inches in length, and of 
the diameter of a gooBe-4{uilL 

The chemical composition of the liver baa been 
studied by Dr Beale, who flnda that t^e organ in 
health ooutains 68ii per cent, of water, and 31 '4 per 
cent, of solid constituents — of which 3'S are fal^ 4'7 
albumen, while the rest ia mads np of vessels, ^ta, 
and eztnctiva matters. (In tbe disnaiwd oonditioa 
known aa fatty degeneration of the liver — which, W 
the way, ia artificially indnced in the geeae whico 
ooBtribiite to the fonnation of Straabnig Ke, or 
jodU de fiat gnu— iiie fat is enormougly increwed ; 
UL one remarkable ca«e analyeed bv Dr Beale, it 
■moonted to 66'2 per cent of^ the whole weight of 



sarcine, xanthine, and leucine usually occur i 

lot It 
iwhat the shape of a pear, and hes in a 
depression on the under sorfaoe of the liver. Its 
use seems to he to serve ss a reservoir for the 
accumulation of the bile, when its flow into the 
intestine is interrupted, aa it is always found fuU 
after a long fast, and empty when digestion is 
going on. That Uie gall-bladder is not an numntiil 
appendix to the hver, is ahawn by the fact that 
it is absent in many genera of mtminaTa Thus, it 
is present in the ox, £eep, and goat, but absent in 
the horse and many other herbivoia. 

formerly believed that the liver served 



that the blood itaelf is changed by its 
such a way as to shew that Uua ghuid pc_a>c« <u 
aitimiiaiing aa well oa a depurtUxng action. Thua, 
the albunkinona matter contained during digestion 
in the blood of the veins wMch pass from the intes- 
tine to the portal vein (the mesenteric veins), is very 
diflferent from the albuminous matter contiuned in 
tlie hepatic veins ; the blood, before reaching the 
hver, coatoimng a crude albuminous product, while 
the hepatic veins contain only true blood-albcmen. 
That the liver possesaea an assimilating power on 
albuminous suhrtances is also shewn by the experi- 
~'nt8 of Claude Bernard, who fonnd that if a aoln- 
a of egg-albumen be injected into any part of 



the body) in the Qrine, and is eliminated 
:traneous matter ; but if it be injected into the 
>rtal vein, it does not appear in the urine, but 
«omea a normal constituent of the blood (blood- 
albumen), through the ofeacy of the liver. It is 
now also known, that if uie liver does not secrete 
true sugar, as Bernard supposed, it at all events 
icretes a substance closely allied to, and readily 
convertible into sugar — viz., Glycogen (q.v.) — which 
must be regarded as a respiratory or heat-fonning 
food. Further, it appears from Bernard's researches 
that fatty matters are elaborated in the liver — the 
blood of the bemtlc veins which leave the liver 
containing considerably more fat than that of the 
portal vem which enters it. Some of this Ut is 
donbtleas bumad off in Uie lungs ; but if a deficient 
BUf^y should be introdnced b^ the lacteals, aooie 
of it would doubtless be apnhed to the formative 
processes. Lastly, durins tiie last three days of 
incubation of the chick, Uie liver ia made btisbt- 
yellow by the absorption of Ota yelk, which eiucra 



abvGoOgk 



LIVZBr— UVBEPOOL. 



the bmichca of tha portal 'mn, and U Uwn oon- 
verted parlilT Into blimd-eorputtia, irhich enter the 
emalatwn, and paitly into tnle, iriiioh i> dncharged 
into tbe intertine. Hence, there ia dietinet eyidenoe, 
from MTN*! pmiit* of view, thai the liver i^u 
aMimilatina wgan- The dgmraUitg •eti<» of thii 
oraan is MUiib^Bd in the Mcfetion of Bile (q. v.], by 
wSch the hydTo-cubonaoeoa* portion of the effete 
matten of iha hlood it nntored, jort ■■ the nitro- 
genoni portion ia eliminated by the kidneyi. The 
uae of the bila in the disertiTe prooeaa ia si^oiently 
en^ained in the article Piorniov. 

Onr limited apace doea not allow of onr noticing 
at »oij length tbe oomparative anatomy of thia im- 
portant dand, which nrat ahewa itself in the form 
of yellowuh-brown cella in tha polypea, and gradu- 
■Ify baoomea more ooncentoated uia developed in 
the eehinodenu, aimeUdea, nndobrandhiate gaataro- 
poda, inseota, croataoeana, air-breatiiinK nulliuca, 
cephalopoda, fiabea, reptile*, Iwda, and mammals. 
Till we arrive at the vertebrated ckaaei, it cooaiHts 
(rf tnbea or follidca containing celta, which atand to 
them in the relation of on epitbelium, and ita itnic- 
tnie ia eaaily made oat ; but whan, as in tiie verte- 
hrata, it ia mainly oompoaed of a solid pvend^ina, 
made up of lobulea, each of vrbioh i* compoeed of 
aggr^ationa of cella sorronnded by the Mtemate 
ramiteatiani of the dncta and other venela, it pre- 
aenta an anatomical complexity which it ia almoat 
impoaaible to unraveL 

LrVBK, Dqkabb ol THE. Congestion of the liver 
ia one of the meet frequent of ita morbid condi- 
tiona. It ia moat commonly caused by obetraction 
to the pasaaffe of the blood from the hepatio veina, 
ariaing from uioracio diseaae impeding the drculatiaii 
through the ri^t aide of the heart. The con&eation 
may be relievM at thia Aa^ga, or may, by ita obatmo- 
tdve action, cause congeation of the portal branchea, 
in which caae we have the Kver much enlarged, the 
complexion dnaky, tiie mine high colour^ aedi- 

--- — and aoant]', aod often more or leaa dropay 



In a foll^ devalt^ed case of ebriioui^ tite liver ia 
ao altraed in atmcture tliat ralliative treatment i* 
all that can be attempted. Thia mn«t be dirroted 
to tha relief of the dropay, and if medioinee fail to 
ranove or diminiah i^ temporary relief may be 
obtained by tapping. The dia a aa a ia at beat a vay 

Amongat the other afiectiofu of thia organ are the 
faltS litw. The liver in thia case ia muc£ enlarged, 
of a white colour, and roonded at the edges ; it 
ia moet commanly found associated with ^t}:^BiB. 
Cloaely allied to thia ia the lardaeamt or mia^ liver, 
in which the depoeited matter ia not fat, but scone. 
thing between fat and albameu ;' it chiefly occnra in 
acRiftiloaa young peraons. Tnberale, different forma 



be left entirely tw the phyncian. 
ilion of the liver baa been already noticed 
in the article Bcr atiti& 

Another important affeotion of the liver ia that 
which ia known li^ the name of CirrAom (Gr. iin-Aoj, 
yellowiah). It begins aa an inflammatory affectioii, ia 
which lymph (see Imtlakmation) ia eSbsed in the 
aracdar tiaaiie anrronnding the branches of the portal 
vein. The maDer branches become obliterated by 
the jsewnre, and aa the lymph anbsequently con- 
tracta, larger branchea of the veins and ducts became 
ttongolated, and tha surface of tbe organ asanmea 
the uneven or boeaed appearanoe known a« hob- 
jiaSed. Id tiiis affection, tbe liver is at fiivt some- 
what enlarged, but aa the contractioii of the effiisioa 
goea on, it at length becomes considerably smaller 
than the natoral aiza. The ordinary caose of this 
disous ia spiiit-drinkins, and it is popularly known as 
Oie gm^Tinka'* Koer. The obatrocUon to the portal 
drcidation occatioaa tha effnaion of aemm into the 
peritoneal cavity ; and this eSiision often goes on so 
rapidlv as aoon to force up the disphis^ and 
impede reapiistion. The ^wer extremities aoon 
beoome anasaroons, but tha arms and face are never 
affected. The portal obatructi<ai often also givea 
riae to hamorrhage from f^e bowels or atomadi. 



CS 



mi snbject, tbe reader ia referred to the article 



LI'VERPOOL, situated on the north bank of the 
Mersey, Lancashire, ia, after London, the largeat 
town m the Umted Kingdom, and, taken in con- 
nection with Birkenhead, on the opposite aide of 
the Mersey, it ranks in maritime importance before 
the metropolis itaelf — a circnmataoce due to its 
position on the west coast of Gnghmd, not only 
aa a port for the adjacent mannfa^oring districts, 
bnt for the traffic with America. It is situated 
at one honr'a diatance by railway from Man- 
cheater, five hours &om London, aix hotini from 
Edinburgh, and eight hours by steam from Dublin. 
The riae of Liverpool is remarkable. In the middle 
of the 14th c, It contained only 840 inhabitants 
and Ids cottages ; whilst in I56I its population was 
only 690. It was not until 1647 that it was made 
a free port (having been subject down to that date 
to the Cheater offioera) ; whilst ita distinct individn* 
ality as a pariah was not declared until 1697, when 
its population numbered about 6000 soula, and 
its ahip^nng about 80 veasela. Between 1710 and 
1760, ita population increaaed from 8160 to 2S,780 ; 
and its oommercial navy from 84 veasels to 1245 
vessela. In 1700, ita &et regolai dock was built, 
on the tite where tha Ciiatom-home siaads at the 
present dav. From 1760 to 1800, the population 
advanced from 26,700 to 77.700 inhabitanta; the 
shipping from 1200 veasels to 5000 vessels; and 
the amonnt of dock dues collected, from £2300 to 
£28,300; nearly two-thirda of the increase taking 
place dating the last 16 yeara of the period The 
rapid progreaa of the cotton trade waa the chief 
cause of uiia almost sudden improvement. Simul- 
taneonsty with the mechanical revolution bronght 
about by Hargreavea, Arkwright, Crompton, and 
others, uiere came an inoreaaed foreign tnule, and 
on augmented inland bnainesa, owing to the opening 
of the Bridgewater Canal in 1773. About tbe same 

Eeriod, too, a great start was given to the ahip- 
nilding tnde of the port, by several extensive 
orders received from -tne oovemment : some IS 
vsskIs of war being launched between 1777 and 
1782, of very cansideiBble tonnage, and ranging 
between 16 and 60 gnne. By thia time, L. hmiiai 
outstripped Bristol u commercial importanee : the 
trade of the latter port being. in proceaa of i^d 
tranaferenoe to the former. The following atate- 
ment will shew liow far L. vraa benefited by the 
cotton trade : 



l™. 


BswCsUsn. 


Cotto. 




Vomit. 


DOilkDWlM 






17»l 




4,4i«,a* 


a.p™d. 

as 


35,1100 
M,OM 
n.000 




S.TOO 

5I:S 



«i),Google 



Bat thii prfgnM, faapDrtul u it wm, hM bs«n far 
exoeeded bj tha ■nbaeqiiaiit inoTMae of bniiiiMi, 
Mid >t tiie preMnt time L. itend* ri tha liewl of 
British oommerdkl poiti, ud has no eqnal in th< 
world. Ita rapid gnwtii irill b* wan from th« 
following table : 



Tb« foUowiag tabla will ahav tiw in^ortaooeof the 
export tmde of L. t 



UTfrpml. . 


. £1I»,0M,<1I> 






























M,<U.1W 


I». 



J3I),tt7,MT IQfi'OD 

Tbit gigftDtio trado hu given being to the ma^fl- 
cent fljiteiii of dockt, extending aloncr the margui of 
the river tm a diitanoe of aboM S mile% oontaiaing 
54 dock* and baiini, oovering an ace* of ore "* 

scree, ud having nearly 19 milee of qnaj i^ 

Tha whole of theae dock* have, with tli« exception 
of the Salthonee, Eiiu'i, part of the Geoive't^uid 
[Mit of tha Queen'a, beui built linoe I8l£ Thej 
were ereoted chieflr under the inperinlandence of 
the late Jewe Hartl^, B»., and We ooniidared b^ 
all who have aeen Mem to bo one of tiie neatat 
en^eerini trini&pha of the preeent centniy. iBeveral 
of the doun are endoeed with lanje warehousea : 
tha creation of tbow round the Albert Dook coat 
£35B,DCI(^ aod the dock iteelt £141,000, Xn addition 
to the woal pier q>pniaehea, there are two lai 
fioatiiig landing-atagai, one of which it 1002 faet _ 
length, 80 feet in width, and 4A00 tone in weight. 
In tha general traffic of L., that carried on bj lu;-- 
atoamen with United States, Oanadiait, Bont_ 
American, Ueditarranean, Auitralian, mi other 
ports, ha* deeervedljr attained oelebritj, uid dnwe 
targe nnmbert ot pMMng«* to the town, 

Tha approabhai to tha town on the land (idea 

tha lAnwdiire and Yoritahirt^ B*«t lAnoaahire, 
London and North Weatam, Qieat Northern, Mid- 
land, and Uaocheattf, Sheffield and Linooln Bail- 
waye. There are fonr tnnneU ander the town in 
oonnsetion witb the IiMidon and N'orth-Wsatem 
Bailway, and one in oonneotion with the Midland 
IUUwtv^> takiw difieraot direotiona. Tarring fn 

mile aad a hauto two aiilei and a half in leu, 

^ pMMnmr itationa in LioM Street H.nJ^gT, 
Itoec^andTithabam Btreot are large aadhandatnne 



Qeorge'i Hall Pablio offloea, Cnatom-honaev Sailoitf 
Honu, Polioe^ffioea, Workhonaaa, Batha and Waah- 
honiea, Waterwoiki, and Qas Offloea, are the moat 
noteworthy ; next follow the variooa literary and 
educalianal edEfioea, ■neb aa tha Free Library and 
Monom, preaented to the town by &t Wuliam 
Brown, at a ooat of aomethins like jUO,O00 ; Botanio 
Oardene, Observatory, the Liverpool OoUwe, Livai^ 

CI Lutitnte, Queea'a College, UedJoal liutltnte, 
j>i InatJtution, the rarioua achooU attached to 
the national and other ehnrohea, Academy of Fine 
Arta, the Exchange, I^oenm, and Attieueam, iMWi< 
roonia and libcuie^ and nomerona aaaociation* 
devoted to comaennal, political, and rdigioiuaffliin. 
That the inhabitanta are not niggardly, fi noved by 
the fact that there are abont IW oharitaUe inatitn- 
tioni in the borough devoted to the alleviation of 
tha variooa evlla tJiat fleah la heir to. Amonnt the 
more prominoit are the KotbI Inflrmary, Northern 
and Southern Hoapitala, fndnatrial Sohocja, Blue 
le. Female, and Infant 



Coat Orphan Sohcola; 
Orphan 



Hoapitala, fi 

Johcola; Mall 



AaylniM and Chtfrch ; aohool, Woiiihop^ 
inroh for the Blind: Deaf and Dumb, and 



The architeotsra o( the town haa been wonder- 
folly im|mv«d wlUdn tha past thirW or forty y«>n, 
and eapwnally during the mtw halt of tha period, 
and it now poaaaaMa maav fine UiMongnfarea, 
throoged wiUi nomarona qdendid edifloaa. Here 
are aevenJ lai^ and elegant aqnaraa in the eaat, or 
faahionable put of the town, and a number of 
thoTDoghfarea, lined with the private reaidenoea 
of the merchanta and tradesmen ; whilat itui out- 
skirts of the town are stadded with the manaionB 
of the oommeroial aristocracy. Of what may be 
termed the official bnildings— the Town Hall, St 



lation In ISTTrwuhed 6tiO,S10, against SB7,m in 



Blind; Deaf and Dumb, and 

and Ear, Institutions " 

diapensaries ; Lying-in 
Visitors will And no lack < 
with such inmenaa ertsblfshineota a* the North^ 
Wcateni, AdelphL Washington, Qneen's, Alexandra, 
Soyal, AJigel, and a scora or two of minor import- 
aoce. The biuldings dedi