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XERI'NO, on ImportaDt breed of slieep, oHglnnlly 8pan!»li, bnt now widely 
diffawd ttamai^bont Eprope, aud couBtituiiug iigreut part of the wealth of Aqh- 
tralla. The M. has large liuiba, and the male lias large spiral horiia, which do not 
tiac above the head ; the pkfu of «lhe iicck i» loose and pLiiduloan ; the cheeks uud 
forehead bear wool: Uio fleece is fiuc, long, soft, uud twisted in silky spiral i-iiig- 
leta, abounding iu oil, which attracts dast, so that it ha8];ener:illy a dingy appear- 
ance. The fleece is sorovtimea block, and black spots are apt tu up|M>ur even iu tlio 
most carefojly bred floclu. The K. ahcep fattens slowly, aud owes its valae alto- 
gether to tke excellence of ita wool. It has not been found profitable in Britain, 
where the prodttctiou of matton ia a groat purt of the object of the sheep-f uriner. 

HERINO. See Wooum Makufaotubb. 

MB'RIONBTH, a connty of Wales, in bounded on the w. by Cardigan Bny, and 
on the n. bv the conutics of Caernarvon and Denbigh. Area, 8S6, 291 acres; pop. 
fl871) 4C,59S. The couat immediately aonth of the town of Harlech rises into cnff^. 
» skirted by sands, and fringed by three daugcrous sandbanks at some distance out 
to sea. M. iathe moat monntainooa county ki Wales, although fta penks do not rise 
to the heigkt of tome of those in Caernarvonshire. The chain comprising the hiL'h- 
cat peaks nwa from north-west to ao«th-c«8t, and its summita are Arrau Mowddy 
(»Q6 feet) and Cader Idria (a. v.). The connty ia watered by the Dee, which flows 
north-ease, and by the Mawadach and the Dovey, which reach the sea after a sonth- 
veac coBfae. The soil of M. is geoeraNy poor, and hirge tracU are nnflt for pi oflt- 
able eottivatloii. Of the total acreage, only 151,291 acres wei>s nnder crop in 187« ; 
and of this portion 11S,(I08 acrea were in permanent pastnro. Ttiere were S76,964) 
Bhti'p in tin- cuuijry. Sluti'Hiid IhiieHtone mo largely nii:iint<l ; u lillli' Uudiuul ("t- 
per U liilued; iiud of lato i^olil Lai* beca found in ilurioueth. In ISGG, iliL-rt; wvre 
obtained at Oust «• 11 Curudochan 629 oz. of golil, and ut Vigra and Clogau, 814 oz. 
Wooileus aud fluuuels are maiiufaciurcd. Cliicf luwii, Bol^elley (q. v.). 

MERIVALE, Jolm Hcrmnn, an £n?1lBh scliolnr and translator, was born at 
Exeter in 1T79, atndied at St Joho'B College, Cambridge, aud whh calird to tlie bar 
in 1805. He contributed largely to Bland's"' Collections from the Greek Anthology/* 

Kablishcd in 1813, aud brouglit out a second edition himself \\\ 1833. From 1881 to 
is death in 1844, be held the office of Commieslouer of Bankruptcy. Among \m 
other literary pcrformunces may be mentioned *' Foe ran Original and Translated " 
CiSliy.and "MiDor Poems of bcliiller" (1844).— M., the Rev Cuakles, sou of the 
pTKediug, wan boru iu 1809, studied at St John's College, Cambridge, where ho 
took his degree in 1830, and was sncccBsively scholar, fellow, and tutor. He has ac- 
qnired a great repntatiun naau antlior by his '^Fa)l of the Uomau Kepublic" (1853), 
" History of the Komaus under the Empire," 8 vole. (1859-65), and Boyle U'c- 
tnres (1864-65), &c M. was Installed Dean of Ely in 1869.— Aufither sou, Her- 
man, bom In 1S05. was appointed Professor of Political Economy at Oxford iu 183", 
and permanent Under Secretary of State for India in 1859. In the ^auie year he waa 
made C.B. He also wrote on colon iznti on. He died on February 8, 1874. 

MERLK D'AtJBTGNE, Jean Henri, a popular ecclesiastical higtoriau, was born 
at Eanx-Vivea, near Geneva In Switzerland, Idth August 1794, studied thorn and at 
BerilQ — nnder Neauder— and subsequently became pastor of the P^euch Protestant 
Cborcb tu Uamlinrj^. Thence, after a ivsidence of five years, he proceeded to Brus- 
•ei«,b«caukecha{>laiu of KLug VVJlliam, who, after theruvolutiuu of 183u, hivilcdhtm 




Merlin O 

Menebnrg ^ 

to Hollaod, aa tntor to the Prince of Oranee. 3Lf however, dtHsllned the offer, and 
retaniing to Oeueva, took part In tliu iiisntatloD of a new college for the propaga- 
tion of orthodox theology* In which lie wua appointed Professor of Church History. 
With the exception of some visits to Bnglana and Scotland, wliere he had unmer- 
ons readers and admirers, he remained constantly at Geneva. The woric which has 
given liim so widespread a reputation Ls his ^'Histoire de la K^formaiion aa 
Scizi&me Sitele " (1885, et seq.). It is writu^n with the atmost viviicity, and is some- 
timea eloquent. Its popularity has been immense. Among M. D.'s other wrillngs 
are— "1.0 Lnth^rauisuie et la RWormo" (Par. 1844); "Germany, England, and 
Scotland " (1848) ; *• Le Protecteur, ou la B^publlque d'Angleterre aux Jours de 
Cromwell'' (1848); "Trois Sij^jlcs de Lutte en Ecosse" (1850); "Caracldre du 
Reforninteur ct de la Reformation de Gdn6ve," and " Histoire de la R6forma- 
tion en Europe au Temps de Calvin " (1862—1877). He died at (^ueva, aoth Oc- 
tober 1872. 

MB'RLIN {Falco cesalon or BypotriorehU ceaaUm)^ the smallest of the British 
Faleonidce, scarcely exceeding a black-bird in sl2c, but very l>old and powerful, and 
posseMing all tlie charactci's of the true falcons, witli the cfistinctlon of large hexa- 
gonnl scales on tlie front of the tarsi. It is of u bluish ash color above; reddish 
yellow on the breast and belly, with longitudinal dark spots, the throat of the adult 
male white. The wings reach to two-thtrds of the length of the tail. It builds its 
nest on the ground, and is fond of localities where large stones are plentiful, on 
which it Is often to be seen perched, and is therefore often called the ^tme Falcon, 
It is connnon in most parts of Buroi>e, is found in Asia and Noi-th America, and ex- 
tends southwards in Africa, even to the Cape of Qood Hope. It was of great reputo 
in the days of falconry, being very easily trained, and flying readily at its quarry. 
It was therefore often used for taking partridges and wood-pigeons. It is a very 

lively bird, and often utters a harsh scream. It usually flies low and verv rapidly, 
threading its way, if necessary, through bmuchea and leaves, but it will also lollow 
its prey ui mounting upwards to a great lieight. 

HBRLIN, the name of an ancient Welsh prophet and enchanter, who la be- 
lieved to have flourished during the decline of the native British power in its 
contest with the Saxon invadorsi Both the Cambrian and the Stratholyde Britons 
boasted of a M. who was, in all probability, the same personage dedced out In dif- 
ferent iM^ndary guise. — ^The Cambrian M., called JIf. Emvr8 or Attibroatutf is said 
by Geoffrey of Honmontli,in his^^HlstoriaBrittonnm,'' to have lived in the 5th 
c, to have sprang from the intercoarae of a demon witlt a Welsh princess, and to 
have displajred the poasemion of miraculons powers from infancy. He is alleged 
to have been the adviser of King Vortigern, and sabsequently of Ambrosias, Vwr- 
pendragon and tlie great King Arthur. He is often aunded to by oor older poets, 
especially Spenser, in his " Fairy (^neen, " and also flgm^s in Tennyson's " Idylls 
of the King. " He has been made the subject of a metrical romance, of which 
there is a manuscript copv in the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh. (For au analv^ 
sis of this romance, sec Ellis's '* Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances.)" 
A collection of prophecies attributed to him appeared in French (Paris, 1498), m 
English (Loud. 1529 and 1538), and in Latin (Yeuice, 1654) ; and their existence Is 
tmceable as least as far back as the time of the poet Lawrence {circa 1860).— The 

the Scottish M., called Merlin, the Wyllt, or Merlin Caledonlus, is placed in the 6th 
c, and appears as a contemporary of St Kentigem, Bishop of Glasgow. His grave 
is still shown at Drummelzier, on the Tweed, where, in attempting to escape 
across the river from a baud of hostile rustics, he was Impaled on a hidden stake. 
A metrical life of him. extending to more than 1500 lines, professedly based on Ar- 
moric materials, and incorrectly ascribed to Geoffrey of Moumouth, was published 
by the Roxburghe Club In 1830. His prophecies— published at Edinburgh iu 1616— 
contain those ascribed to the Welsh Merlin. 

ME'RLON, in Fortiflcaiion, is the portion of the parapet between two embras- 
ures. Its length is usually from 15 to 18 feet 

MERMAID (i. e., sea-maid), an imaginar3r inhabitant of the sea. The upper 
parts of mermaids are represented as resembling those of a human being, genenuly 
of a female— although the Merman is also sometimes heard of— whilst the body le> 


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q Mtrlln 

^ M«n«bwg 

miDfttes in ft UU l&e tb«t of ft flih. There to an erideni afflof ty between the etoriee 
concerning roennaklB and those ooncemiDe the sirens and tiitons, perhaps also the 
nereida, of the ancients. The probability Ta that these stories liavo orlgiuHted in 
the sppearanco of seals, walmses, and perhaps still more of the herbivorooacetacea, 
ia regioi^a where they are rare, or to persons nnaccuetomed to see tlieiu. ** Lurge 
■llowance most bo made for the workings of an excited imagination, in sltuntious 
of solitude and apprehension, on the unexpected appearance of an extraordinary 
and anknowu object.'* Many of the stories concerning mermaids belong to the 
northern parts of the world, where the herbivorous cetacea are of rare occan-eiice, 
and perhaps some of the solitary seals have often given occasion to them. But tlie 
hprbivorooa cetaceans do occasionally wander into the British, and probably even 
into more northern seas. Sir Jan>es fimersou Tennent says concerning the Dogong 
(q.T.): **Tlie rude approach to the human outline, observed In tlic shape of t lie 
head of tills creature, and the attitude of the mother while suckling her youne, hold- 
ing it to her breast with one flipper, while swimming with the other, holding the 
hdads of both above water; and when disturbed, suddenly diving and displaying' her 
flsh-like tail— these, together witli her habitual demontit rations of strong nintemal 
affection, probably gave rise to the fable of the mermaid ; and tlins that earliest in- 
vention of mythical physiology may be traced to the Arab seamen and the Greeks, 
who had waiched the movements of tlie dngoog In the waters of Manaar." it Is 
right, however, that we should bear In mind the possibility of the existence in the 
ocean of cetaceans not yet known to natantiists.— The mermaid is a not unfrcqucnt 
lieraldic bearing. In the heraldry of Pranc4.», she is called a Siren, and in Uermany 
•he is occasionally furnished with two fishy tails. 

HBBMAID'S OLOVE (fla/ieAotM^rto iM^tnato), a sponge preltv common in tlie 
British eraa, and the largest of British sponges. It grows in deep water, and is 
Bometimea two feet In height. It receives its name from the somewhat flngerJllke 
arraug(?raent of its branches. It is not slimy, and hait a very porous surface ; rough, 
with myriads of uiiunto fragile aiHcuke. Its color ia yellowish. 

ME'ROM. Sec Ethiofia. 

MERO'PID^ See Bke-kateb. 

' XEROVI'NQIANS, the first dynasty of Frnnkish kings in Gaul. 1 he name Is 
derived from Merwig or Mcrovaens, who ruled about tlie middle of the 6th c, liaving 
united a few tribes under his sway. Hisgrandson.Chlo(1\v)gurClovis<q. v.), greatly 
extended his dominions, and on his death divided his kingdom tunonsr his lunrt*ons, 
one of whom, Chiotar or Clotalro L, re-unlted them under his own sway in 568. On 
his death in 041 the kingdom was again divided into four parts — Aquitalue, Bnr- 
gnudv, Xeostria, and Austrasia. His grandson, Clotaire II., again united them lu 
CIS; but after his death in 688, two kingdoms, Neu.*<trin and Austrasia, were formed, 
in both of which the Merovingian kings retained a merely nominal power, the reut 
power having passed into the hands ot the mayors uf the palace. The <IynaHty of 
the M. terminated with the deposition of Childeiic IV. in 752, and gave place to ihaV 

of the Carlovingians (q. v.), sprung from the Anstrasian mayor of the palace.— The 
rhief authority for the earlier parts of the history of the M., is Gregory of Tonrs. 
See also Tlilerry's ** Recits m6rovingieD8 " (Par. 1839), and Pert*, "Geschichtc der 

MBHRIMAC, a river of New England, XT. S., rising in New Hampshire, and fall- 
ing into tlie Atlantic Ocean at Newbury port, after a course of about 120 miles. Ii'ie- 
ceives several small tributaries, and has numerous falls, affordlu}' immense water- 
power, on the principal of which are tlio manufacturing towns of r^ashua and Man- 
cheater, in New Hampshire, and Lowell and Lawrence, iu Massachusetts. Naviga- 
ble 16 miles to Haverhill. 

MB'RSEBURp, a town of Prussian Sftxony. capital of a circle of the same name, 
on the Saale, 60 miles south-south-east of Magdeburg. The cathedral, a noble speci- 
men of medieval architecture, is surmounted \ij four beautiful towers, and lias one 
of the largest organs (with 4000 pipes) In Germany. It contains the monument of 
Rodolf of Swabia. an aspirant to the imperial title, who was here defeated and slain 
(1080) by Henry IV. ; a btonte plate In low relief, probably the oldest medieval effljry 
extant. The castle-^ picturesque edifice, mostly of the 15th c— was once a real- 


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Mmtf A 

dcnco of tho 8*toti piincM. Ck)ti6n eiid wodflen foo&i, pwMr, and toliROeo tra b«to 
inntiaructnred, and bleaching and brewing are carried on. The beer of M. ta fomona. 
Pop. (1875) 13,678. It vrsa near thin town that the wuperor Henry the Fowler gafnad 
bis famons victory over the Huugariana iti 9M. 

ME'RSETf an Important river of England, sepftratep, In Its lowcf conrw, tbe 
conntles of Chwhireaud Lanca^hir.-, aud line !t»onplii in tho jmictlou of tho Thame 
and Goyt, on tbe borders of Derbyt!>hirc, east of {^tuckport. It flows In u wcBt-sonth- 
weist direction, and Is joined on tho riglit by tlie Irwell from Manchester, at wliicU 
point It b 'comea navi^^nble for large vessels. Be^tidea the Irwell, tbe chief offlnenta 
are the Bollln and the AVVaver from Clieshlre. At its junction with the Weaver, 
the M. expands into a wide estnary, which forms the Liverpool channel. The ea- 
tntiry Is abont 16 miles long, and fro;n 1 to 8 miles broad : opposite Liverpool ft is a 
mile and :i qutirtcr In widtli, with a considerable deptli at low water. It la much ob- 
Btractini by suudbunks : but the excellent system of piiouige in practice here rendera 
the navigation comparatively secure. Congers, shrimps, flounders, and sparliuga 
abound m the river and estuary. Sutlro length with tho estuary, nearly 70 milea. 

ME'RTHYR-TY'DVIL la a markeMown of South Wales, with a population, in 
1871, of 61,M9 within thu parish, which baa a local board of health. Tbe parlia- 
mentary boroagh embracea Aberdare ami two other outlying disiricta ; pop. W,OiB. 
It is on the northern border of the county of Glamorgan, abutting upon the county 
of Brecknock, aud surrounded by lofty hllia* It ia oailt upon Uke river Tali, 900 
feet above sea-level, M mllca from Its moatli and port at Cardiff ; and It ineludoa 
the junctions of the greater and leaser Taff, the Morlaia, and the DowUis, streams 
which there unite to constitute the main river. M. is tbe seat of the iron trade of 
Glamorgan, as represented by Che great works of Dowlais, Cyfartbfn, and Plymouth, 
and In a less degree by that of Peuydarren. It aim contains large collieries, and ia 
celebrated, with Aberdare, for tlie excellence of its steam coal. Tlie annnal mako 
of ftnished iron tn thhi place, chiefly in the shape of rails, merchont-bara, gtrdera, 
and ship-plates, may bo stated rongbly at iOO.OOO tona. Tlio exports of coal are con- 
siderable, and are increasing, but tue chief conanmption is witnin the works. The 
population are all directly dependent upon the worka, there being no other trade or 
manufacture. Raliwaya branch from M. to Brecon, to Swansea, to Cardiff and 
Penurth, and to Newport and Hereford. The borough was created by the flrrt Re- 
form Act, and now returns two members. It« chief town-ofllcer is the headborongh 
of the lordship, called the ** High Constable/' and its gOTemment ia vested in a Lo- 
cal Board. Oowhils contalna some flue public bulhlings, but M. Is deficient In this 
respect. Though a busy, it Is not a striking place, havhig rlaen very rapidly with 
the local trade, and having attained nearly its present dinMoeions before lt;wa8 under 
any but the ordinary parochial govemmenL There are, however, symptoms of Im- 
provement. It is well supplied with water, and the Infantile mortality, long extra- 
ordinary, is now reduced. The people, chiefly WeMi, are indnstrlous, and. on tbe 
whole, very orderly. There are 17 eatabllsbed churches, and 118 diiseuting cbapela 
in tbe borough. 

MBRTON COLLEGE, Oxford. Tbe House of tbe Scholan of Merton, commonly 
called M. C^ the model ot all the secular colleges, was first founded in Muldou in 
Surrey by Walter de Merton, Bishop of Rochester, and Lord HIsh Chancellor, In 
1864, for the maintenance of 20 scholars in the schoola of Oxford and of a warden 
and three or four ministers of the altar, who were to maunge tbe property. Before 
1274, he transferred his warden and ministers to Oxford— thereby not only founding 
his own college, but contributing in no small degree to flx the university In Its 
present locality. The fellows were to be as many aa the raaans of the bouse coukl 
maintain, and after some changes, this number was fixed by Archbishop Laud at 
24. They were to be elected first and chiefly from the founder's kin ; but ttds was 
from an early period evaded, aud'the commiaaiouers of 1862 spcalc of **a common 
belief in tbe uuiTeraity that the elections to fellowshlpa at Merton were formerly 
determined by personal interest.'' In 1880, Dr Wylllot, Chancellor of Bxoter, en- 
dowed twelve portiomiMm^ or postmasters aa they are now called, eouivaleot to the 
scholars of other colleges ; and In 1604, John Oliftmber, fellow of Iton, endowed 
two more— restricted, bowever, to foundationers from Eton. By the ordinances 
under 17 and 18 Vict. c. 81, considerable changes were made— aiz fellowships were 


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Rspended, of wtafch tiro wero usigiicd to fncreaM the pOPtmaBtenihfpfi, Ac., tnd 
loor to tbe endowment ot the Linacre profeMtorshipof piiyplolofnr, of vulne £800 p<'r 
ftonnm. The remainiug IS were tbrewD open, and not to exc(*ed jCSSO per nunnni, 
•zclnsiTe of roooui, untl) the origtiial nuroocr of 84 wu8 reKtor d. The namher now 
betttf completed, they have reached Ui«>ir Ihuiihig value of XltOO. Sixteen po!>t- 
maateMhfpa. and fonr schoiarships (fonbded by Henry Jack«on in 1758), cuch of the 
value of ^080 a year, are open witiiout reetrictlon, and cennble for 90 terms from eli c- 
tion; bat the two poatmasterahipa on the foundatioD of John Chamber are only to 
be thrown open in default of candidates from Eton beine foand duly oaaliflcd. 
I*bi8 college poaaeeaea 18 beueflcea, to some of which, cowuver, certain other 
paxroos pfeaent iu tarn. 

KBRU, lo Hhidn Mythology, a fabalous moaotaln In tbe centre of the world, 
80,0M leases high. It fa the moat e^acred of all mythical mountains, the abode of 
Vfahnn, and endowed with all Imaginable charms. 

HERU'LIDiE, or Tnrdida, a family of birdn of the orrler hmMares, anb-order 
Dtn/tree^ea, having arched and compreaaed bills, which are pointed and notched, 
bat not atrougly. They are regarded by many nuturuliatf* as intermediate between 
the Ltmiadm (Shrikes, &c) and the Sflviadai (Warblera, Ac). The apecieaare very 
DMoieroiis, and are arranjced in many Kenera. They are very widely distributed over 
the globe, some of them Dei ng found in cold and some iu warm ciiuiates. Home are 
migratory; a few species are gregarious at all seasons, many are gregarioas only in 
winter. They generally baiid their nesta in trees. They fee<l chieilv on soft animMl 
and vegetable aubetaucea, as berries, insects, and worms. Many of them are birds 
of very aweet song; some are remarkable for tlieir imitative powers. To tiila 
family belong thrushes (among which are reckoned tbe Uack-bird, redwing, field- 
fare, ring-onsel, &c), orioles, mocking-birds, dipi>ers, Ac 

MESA'GNA, a town of the province of Leoce, in Southern Italy, sitaated amidst 
scenery of oriental l)eauty. 87 miles north- we»t of iiecct), and surrounded by strong 
walls. The district around is frnitfol, and yields delicious oil, which forms an im- 
portant article of the trade of Mvsagno. Pop. 8600. 

MESBMBRTA'CBiB, or Ficoldee, a natnral order of exogenom plants, botli 
herbaceons and shmbby, hot all succulent. As defined by H«>me botanista, it in- 
chides the orders 7Wra$Km»ae««, SftuviaeeWj Ac.., of others. Of the more rcatricicd 
M.. about 400 apedes are known, a few of which are natives of the south of Europe, 
but none are Britiah ; the greater number be!on8' to Sonth Africa and the South 
""i Islanda.--Tbe Ice Plant (q. v.) belongs lo this order. The leaves of some 

-'-I when bnmed, yield soda in great abundance. Large quantities of barilla 
an made from them in the Cuuary Islanda, In Spain, and iu Egypt. The seeds of 
some, as Msmmbryanthtmmn etystaUinum (the Ice Plant), nuS'M. gtnieuli/lorumy 
are gronnd into floor to make bread* M. wnieHUJhrum is used as a pot-herb in 
Africa, llie fruit of M. eduls (Hottentot's Fig) is eaten iu Sotiih Africa, and that 
of Jf. iBqivC-^ raU> (Pl^'^-f icea) lo AuBtralia.— JIf. emarcidmn is called Kou \ry the 
HoUentotar ^vilO bent and twUt up the whole plant, allow it to fernient, and chew 
it like tobacco. When i^wly fermented, it is narcotic and intoxicjitiug.— Some 
necfes of MesevibryaHtlicnvm are now common annuals in tlower-gurdeus iu 

ME'SENTERY, MeseTite'ric Disease. The mesentery derives ita name from be- 
ing couijfCt> d to the middle portion (Or. me§on) of the small intestine (enteron). it 
is a hroud fold u( peritoneniii (the great serous membrane of thf^ abdomen), fur- 
roandiii^ tlie jt'iujiuin tiiul tlie ileum, and atfjiched posteriorly to tlie verieb al col- 
umn. lib breudtii betwu^n the iiite^itinal and vertebral borders is ahont four iuches*; 
its attachment to the vertebiat column is ahont six inches in length, and its intonti- 
tiai bonier exieudf from the duodenum to the end of tlie small intestine. It serves 
tot^^taiu tlie ginuJl intttHtines iu their place, wliilv it at the same time allows the 
Beooassry amount of muvem«Mit, and It contains betwtH^>u its layers the metienieric 
vtsscls^ the Iticteul vr^ftets, and mesenteric elandt*. Thefto glands are 100 to 15U in 
Dttmber. and are ubout. tlic hi>.o of an almond They exert an oryauisinir nctiou on 
tbe contents of the Ituteuln. tlie cliyle being moreabandnnt in fihrine and in corpuH- 
da after it boa passed tbruugh tUeni, Hence, it is obviotia that disease of luose 


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Meshid A 

Mom ^ 

glaiidfi mnst always aerloariy affect tbo process of assunilstion. The most itnpor* 
Dint uffeciiou of tlieHe oruttua is their scrofolons or tubercnUir degeneration, which 
gIvtM rise to the dieeave kuowu as Tabes Meatnttriea^ a disease most common in 
childhood, liat coullned to uo period of life. lu the threat mnjority of cases, it is 
U9suciated with, and often marked hy, other results ot the tobercular or scrof nlons 
diathesis, such as pulmonary consoraption, tubercular peritonitis, scrofulous disease 
of the eiplne, riclcets, &c, ; but sometimes the mesenteric glands seem almost exclu- 
sively affected, iu which case the disease becomes sufflcTently distinct to allow o£ 
easy detection. The leading symptoms are acceleration of the pulse, occasional 
fever, especially towards evening, loss of color and flesh, derangement of the diges- 
tive organs (constipation or diarrhoea, and occasional vomiting), a steady pain In the 
region of the navel, increased by pressure ; but perhaps the most cnaracteristtc 
symptom is tumefaction and hardness of the alxlomen, with general emaciation. 
The enlarged glands can sometiraed be detected by a careful examination with the 
hand, especially In advanced cases. The progress of the disease is generally slow, 
but at length hectic fever sets in, the emaciation becomes extreme, dropsical effusion 
api>ears, and the patient dies exhausted, If not cut off by the access of some acute 

Tlie treatment mainly consists In the administration of cod-llvcr oil, or, if the 
stomach is too irritable to bear that medicine, of Iodide of potaasfuin, combined 
with some bitter infusion, the bowels being at the same time carefully attended to. 
The application of stimulating llnimeats, or of iodine ointment, or the abdomen is 
often of great service. When the disease has advanced to a considerable extent, 
remedies are of llttie use, except to palliate some of the more urgent symptoms. 

Independently of the disease that has just been noticed, inflammation of these 
glands is by no means uncommon, when the mucous membrane of the small intos- 
tine Is ulcerated, as, for example, in typhoid or enteric fever. 

ME'SHIB, a Important city of Persia, capital of the province of Kboraasan, in a 
fertile and well-cultivated plain, on the Tejend, in laL ZtP 17' n.. long. 6IP 40' e. It 
is by far the most important town of the north-cast of Persia, oelng tlie centre of 
numerous converging routes. The city presents a surprising and beautiful view from 
a distance. Above the walls, which are of vast circuit, shine the gtlded dome of one 
of the most splendid mosques of the Bast, the beautiful minarets of the tomb of 
Imaum Uixa, a follower of All, andthesnmniitsof other sacred bnlklings. M., as the 
chief scat of the great sect of the Shiltes, is of nearly equal importance with Mecca, the 
sacred city of the ortliodox Mohammedans, and hence it abonnds In ** holy " men, 
arrayed in green turbans and sashes, who instruct the pilgrims visiting the city. The 
town carries ou manufactures of woollen goods and of metal-wares, especially 
sword-blades, gold work, and articles of jewellery. It Is a famous place of ptlgrim- 
age, and a centre, to some extent, of education. Caravans arrive almost dally. Pop. 
70,000. In the neighborhood are the ruins of Thus, the old capital of Khorassau, 
which contains the tomb of the celebrated poet Firafl^L 

KESI'LLA, a town and valley on the Rio Grande, New Mexico, U.S., acquired 
of Mexico iu 1834 by purchase, under the Oadsdcn treaty. Lat. 88*' 17' n., long. \Qffi 
40' w. It is a narrow, but fertile valley, on the southern overland route to California. 
The town, settled iu 1800, had iu 1870 a population of 1078. 

MBSMER, Franz (according to others, Fricdrich-Antou), the founder of the doc- 
trine of Animal Magnetism (q. v.). or Mesmerism, was born in 1788 or 1784. at a 
village near the Bodensce. He studied at Vienna, and there took the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine in 1706. About 1779, he began, along with Father Hell, to investigate 
the curative powers of tha magnet, and was led to adopt the opinion, that there 
exists a power similar to inagnetism, which exercises an extraordinary influence on 
the human body. This he called Animal Magnetism, and published an account of 
his discovery, and of It Medicinal value. In 17iO. Honors were conferred upon him 
in Germany. In 1778, he went to Paris, where he attracted much attention. 
His system obtained tlie support of members of the medical profession, as well as of 
others ; but he refused au offer of an annual pension of 20.000 livres (about X800) to 
reveal his secret ; and this, combined with other circumstances, gave rise to suspicion, 
and induced the goverment to appoint a commission, composed of physicians ana 
uaturalistfl, whose report was unfavorable to him. He now fell iuto dbrepute, and 


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>7 MMhid 

■ Meu 

Mtter a visit to Snglaod, retired to Meersbni^, where be spent the reat of his life in 
complete obacority. He died March 6, 1816. 

ME'SMEBISM. See Amxmai. MAaKETisK. 

MESNE LORD is, in EngiiBh Law, a lord who Is himself a tenant to some other 
lord, called a lord paramounL The phnise is, however, not now nsed, because sub- 
infendatlon was abolished in the time of £dward L—Mesnb Pbooebs whs the name 
given to writs which issncd in respect of a pending action before final jndt^ment was 
eiven.-— Mbsms Phovitb are the profits or rents dra\i-n by a person who is. wrong- 
fnlly in poeseesiou of real property, and who is afterwards ejected, in which cnHe 
the mesne profits are recOYerable, along with the estate itself. 
I MESOPOTA'MIA (Gr. mews middle, and potamo«, a riyer), the region between 
the Euphrates and the Tigris * but the name is generally applied to the nortliem 
part of this r^on, which is called by the Arabs Al-Jesira (the Island). The north- 
emmost districts of M. are monntainons, being penetrated by (he southern spurs of 
the monntains of Armenia ; all the i^est Is a plain, rarely broken by rocky heights. 
Tliis plain is dry steppe, green with vegetation onlv In the wet season ; bat wherever 
it is natarally waterea, or artificially irrigated, It displays fertility. The iuliabitauts 
consist chiefly of I'nrks, Kurds. Turcomans, and Tesids, with Armenians In the 
north, and Syrians and Arabs in the plains. The chief occupation of the people is 
the feeding of cattle ; and of the civlusatiou of ancient times, or even of that which 
prerailed In a later pieriod (during the Ayubite rule), few or no traces now exist. M. 
forms a ^rt of the Turkish empire, and Is divided into several eyalets or govern- 
ments. For the history of the country, see A8stbia,Babyix>nia. 

M£SOZO'IC (Gr. middle-life), a term Introduced by Professor Phillips to desig- 
nate the gronp of geological periods, the fosi^il remains of which differ equally from 
tlioee of the Falsozoic (ancient^Ufc) and Cahiozoic (newer-life) epochs. It is syu- 
ooymons with the more generally employed term Secondary, and includes the rocks 
of the Trlassic, Oolitic, and Cretaceous periods. 

ME'SPILUS. SeeMxi>i.AB. 

MESS (Fr. m^te, Old Fr. mes, Ital. m^sso, a dish, from Lat. fntMtcm, sent, or 
served np) origiualJv signified a dish or portion of food ; but is used in the British 
army and navy In the sense of a number or association of officers or of meu taking 
their meals leather. In societies consisting entirely of the male sex, and of one set 
of men continnally thrown together, it is a very Important social point that the mess 
siionld be well regulated. There are conseguently stringent rules— both of the ser« 
vice and of motnal etiquette — laid down for its government. One officer acts as 
caterer, receives subscriptions from tlie several members, chnrges the wine to those 
who dnnk it. &c.; a steward has charge of the more menial department, arranging 
for the cooking, purdiase of viands, servants, rations, &c. 

In the navy, the Admiralty lend the plate and glass : In the army, such expenses 
are met by the mess fund, which Is kept up bv a contribution not exceeding thirty 
days' pay, or difference of pay, on the appointment or promotion of an officer, and 
an annual snbscrlption from each officer not exceeding eight days' pay, which snb- 
scriptiou, in the case of subalterns, is, since 1872, paid by tne state. Of course, each 
officer has to pay periodically his share of the general expense for provisions, &c. 
In the navy, this expense is limited to X3 a month per head for the ward-room 
mess, and jGI lOs. In the gnn-room. In the army, there is no specific limit, but com- 
manding officers are enjoined to enforce proper economy. Government assists ihe 
mess of regiments Bcning at home, and on certain foreign stations where the neces- 
saries of lift- :iri' r:x])t'i)sive, with an annual allowance of X26 for &ich troop or com- 
pany. The whole *A f liis a\lowance is to be applied is aid of the cost of the first 
allowance of wine, r towards reducing the daily expense of the mess, &c. The 
ammal vote for this allowance is about X40,000. 

In r^i incuts, tlieie is tlie officers' mess, to which nil the officers of the regiment 
are boand to bu1>«ci)1>o their regnlated entrance-fee ; but It is optional with married 
oBeerB VI ubc it nr noi, and if they elect not to do so. they are exempted from the 
annoal coutrMiution, aud only pay for their share of the consumption on the special 
occasions when they may attend. The sergeants have also a mess, when the coin- 
maoding officer cau saccecd In estabUsbing one. It is considered necessary for dis- 


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MeisaUna Q 

Mtuiah ^ ^ 

clpllnc that Ihcpe mcfues ebonld t»e qntto exclnslvo, though, In contlnciital armle^ 
uud epp«H;hiIIy ihe Freuch, tlie cose \% different, the ntmoj-t fomillJirlty being encoar- 
nced iMtweeu all ranks when off dnly. The social t^aaliry of offlcer» and mon, due 
to cotiKiipti m and promotion from tbn rankt*, raflioes to accooni (or ibia differeoce 
of f«y}«tem. The sergeantA draw their RaJbrnnM (q. t.), suppleiDeuting tbein at their 
discretion; theoflloera can draw them or not (tbrongh tbelr metamau) but on for* 
eign BtntJoas they almoal invariably do 00. 

There is uo maM for staff-offlcers witli an army, anleM they form private ar- 
raugeineuta amou/ tlieioselvea. In the Britiah navy« \i the ahip be amaD, there is 
one general ineti — the gun-room — to which all the offloers mn»t belong. If the vea- 
m1 have a considrable complement, tht*re ia the ward-room mesa {oi which the cap- 
tain Ifl not an effective member, as he dinea in his own suite or caoins), for the com- 
mander, lientenantp, mastt^r, chaplain, paymaster, marine officers, surgeon, aaaistant- 
snrgeon, and chlef-enRineer ; the gun -room, for snb-lieutvnants, second masters, 
midshipmen, ctidets, and mooter's assistants; and the engineers' mess (governed by 
the rules for the gun-room), for engineer officers below the rank of chief-engineer. 
Offlcon* or civilians voynglng in a sTiip of war as pnsseugf'rs are oi'dinarlly elected 
honorary members of the mess to which their rank would entitle them. Rations 
are not issued to members of a moss; but each isgranud, in lieu thereof, an allow- 
ance of £1 a month, with the power of purchasing slilp*4 provisions at goveru- 
menr rntc^ Comniuii S(>amen and coniinou soldiers, in the luivy uod army r^s- 
pertiVfly, m«M together ill tables comprising a certitln number, according to their 
ratings or Hoiiads; but this has uo reference 10 the ttThnlcal nieauiiig of m<'8slngas 
appll d to cifflc'Ts. and Is merely for the purpose of economy of fuel and labor in 
the cooking of their rations. 

MKSSALl'NA, Valcrlo, the daughter of IHarcns VoUfrius Messala Barbatus, and 
wifu of the Koinnn empiTor Claudius, a woman infamous for her iasciviousness, her 
avarici;. andthn atrocities which she porpetratfd. Taking advantage of the weak- 
ness and Hiupidity of the emp-ror, she playetl the adulteress without restraint, and 
ullrol('ntln^ly caiiA^d all to be put to d ath who stood in tha way of her uitlmllowed 

S ratifications. Tho Iw^^t bo d of Rome flowml at 4ii'r pleasure. Among hur vlc- 
ms w<-re the daiight ts of 0'rm»nicU'« and DmsuiS Justus Ctitonins, M. Vinclns, 
Valerius AMiiticu^.and tier eon federate Fulybius. Sir? went so far in vice jw« to off'»r 
her charms for sale like a coinmun pro5«tiiite; sod at ln<«t, during a temporary nb* 
s -ncf of tiie emperor, she pnblicW married one of her favorlUs, 0. Sillns, upon which 
Nur<issiiS,onuof tin* empoior't* fr''ednien,repn*sente<l to lil.n tlial M. was aiming at 
hlx d<'struction, and ri-cHev^S ord rs for her exi'cution. She wan put to deatii by 
E.khIus, a tribune uf the Kuard:^. in Ihe gardens of Lacullus, 43 A.D. Uer name has 
become a l»yo-word for crime aiHl lust. 

MESSENtiKRS. King's (Q»eenV). officers employed by serretories of state to 
convey dlspatcli'^M at home :nid ahr(m<l. In former d lys, their occupullon connlsted, 
to tt coni»Idem'»le extent, in serving ilie necretarlei** warrants for the flpprehenrlou 
of iMTSons ucrni«e<l of h'gh trwai»on and other gnive offences against the state, nOf 
was li unusual fur them to keep the pHs<>n«>rs wtiom th«'y appnihended at their own 
houses. 'J'hey are now principally employed in foreign service. 

MESSENGERS- AT- AUMfl, the officers who execute the process and letters of 
the C'OurLf* of Session and Jut'ticinry In Scotland. They nn* appointed by, and are 
nndi r ilie contiol of the Lyon Klnc-at-Arm!« (q. v.). Act 1587, c. 4«. contains 
vuriDUH provl.>*ion8 n^iirding thepe officers, which shew that, prior to that pi-rlod. 
tin; Lyon « xircit^i-d juriKliciion ov« r tliein, both an to their admission and tlie trial 
of Oi)inplaiuts n;:Uin>>t tht in. lliere tti*e u ceitiiin unml>er of mesHtnirers-at-arms la 
cvi'ry county of Scotland, aniounting In all, at present, to alH)ut one nuudred. 

MESSK'NIA, a district in th*> s(mtli-west of the PeloiKinnesus, i>ouiided on the 
e. by Ltoinia, on Ihe n. by Arcadia and Elis, and on the s. and w. by tlie sea. It 
was composed chiefly of extensive plains, watered by tlie Pamit(a» and other 
streams. Tliose plains were famous for their (ertlliiy. and particularly for their 
wheat-harvests. At nn early |ieriod, after Ihe Doilc couquiwt, it rose to power and 
opulence. Its chief citt«« were Messeue, MethoiK*, and Pvkh>. It I0 chu fly noted 
for iia two wars with bparto, kuowu as tbu MoaaeuUiu Wacs, the flrsi of which 


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O Mesaalina 

^ ^ Mesuah 

^according to the common chronology) lasted from 743 to 724 b.c. ; and the second 
from 665 to 666 B.O. In both instances, the Messeniuns were defeated, and in cou- 
seqaence, a great part of them eroisrated to Sicily, where they look porscssion of 
Zancle, which then received the name of Mcssaun, the present Messina. After the 
lapse of 300 years, Epaminondas invited their descendnnts back to Greece, and 
they joyfally responded to his invitation. M. is the name of one of the nomarehieM 
of the modem kingdom of Greece. 

MESSI'AH (Heb. Ma«hiach\ equivalent to the Greek ChrUtoe^ the Anointed, 
defti^iates, in the Old Testament, the great deliverer and Saviour, whom the Jews 
exp<w;tod to be sent by God, not only to restore their country to the power and splen- 
dor which it exhibited In the days of David, but even, by compelling the Gentiles to 
acknowledge the suprcmacv of tlie theocratic people, to raise it to the summit of 
anlverml ^minion. This large conception^ however, first t}egins to develop itself 
after the time of Solomon * for the oldest biblical records in their Messianic Indica- 
tions refer rather to the high degree of prosperity which the chosen people were to 
expect />r themttelves. Thft expectation, aheay visible In the Abrabamidw, appeared 
for a moment to have realised Itself in the conquest of Canaan ; but the subHcqueut, 
and often disastrous wars (in the period of the "Judges'* and of Saul), as well as 
the internal fends and dissensions of the Hebrews themselves — left it, in point of fact, 
unfulfilled. Nevertheless, the hope of the appearance of the M. had rooted iiself 
stjougiy in the people, and during the glorious and peaceful reioiis of David and 
Solomon, had so grown and eulareed, that even after the secession of Israel, and 
dnrinc the momentous ages that elapsed until its destruction as a kingdom, not only 
was the hope of a universal world-sovereignty, and of an extraordinary degree of 
prosperity, warmly cherished, but it was also confidently expected that God would 
raise up a branch >from the ftem of David as the M., the fonnder of the national 
prosperity, and the briuger-in of tha all-embracing theocracy. That branch was dc- 
clarra to l>e ^* the anointed of the Lord," and since Davia applied tliat epithet to 
himself, the Jewi* transferred it to the deliverer whom they expected^ and culled him 
'*Son of David.** The prophetic writings contain many siich allusions to the M., 
whose coming was expected shortly, and even during the time of the generation then 
living, whose birthplace, in congruity with his Davidic descent, was announced 
to be Bethlehem, and who, it was believed, was lo be endowed with Divine at- 
tributes. These prophetic allusions are commonly termed Messlanio Prophb- 
CTE9. Along with such, the prophets associated the Idea of a forerunner (Elijah, 
Jeremiah, or Moses), whose function was to prepare the people for the appearance 
of the Messiah. The coming of the Messianic kingdom was to l>e preceded by a 
p(*rioci of severe misfortune and birter sorrows, the pnri)ose of which was the recon- 
ciliation ol the people with Grod (Isaiah i. 25, &c.; Joel iii,; Dan. ix.; Zech. xiii ). 
These sorrows are called the woes of the M.; they arc minutely described in the 
seoooid book of Esdras— an apocryphal work. Hence sprung up the idea of a suffer- 
ing M. — ^widely diffused among the Jews— who, by enduring grief and shanie, should 
make atooemeut for the people, and reconcile them with God. This conception 
was greatly streugtliened by the picture in Isaiah (chapters lil. and liii.), of a ** ser- 
vant of God," which, in fact. Is generally regarded ss the most distinct prophecy of 
the Saviour. Hence the step' further of considering the M. an offering and sacrifice 
for the sins of tiio people, was an easy one ; yet, on the other hand, it is sliij^ular that 
DO Iraoe of this la found in the Apocrypha, not to mention the popular belief of the 
Jewa, that the M. was to live for ever (John xii. 84), that a crucified Saviour was a 
stombUng-biock to them (1 Cor, i. 28), that even the disciples of Jesus did not com- 
prebendbis allusions to his death, and that their faith in him as the M. was for long 
dim and doubtful. In fact, this popular belief of the Jews was the very reason why 
th^ did not recognise Jesus as the Messiah. In the later Judaism (as it shews it- 
aelf in th^' la! nuu),) the conceptions of the M. are rich In singularities. It was be- 
liered that tin! frn^* M., the son of David, would be preceded oy another Messiah, a 
son of Jo^ph, or fiphraim, who should suffer death for men as a sin-offering. 
Century si r- r r.-utury, the Jews have expected the former, and repeatedly have they 
risen and i>::u ' d t tieinselves under the standard ot dreamers, fanatics, and impostors, 
who took to iheinselvestiie sacred name; as, for example, Bar-Cochba (q. v.) in 
the 2d c; ouc Mosoa iu the Isle of Candia, in the 5th c; one Julian iu Pulei^tiue, in 


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tbetfthcj several In Perafa aud Arabia io the 12th c; and as late as the 18th c; 
Sabatai Zievi, in Aleppo. Even yet, tbe hope of a H. is not dead iu the hearts of the 
Strict Taimudlstic Jews. 

Tlie eruoial qaeetioo of theolonr, however, is not the form Id which the doctrioe 
(so to speak) of the M. was lieloby the Jews. All rational students of Scripture, 
whether ** orthodox *' or ** heterodox," now admit that its growth was gradosil, and 
tliat it acqnlred precision aud deflniteness o( ontliue ia the course of ages from its 
ilrst mde phase, among the pastoral princes of the Syrian wilderness, down to that 
sublime yet shadowy personality— the Man of Sorrows— that contbiaally floats be- 
fore the Ylffiou of the '^Yonuger Isaiah." The grand qaestionis: Was this doc- 
trine essentially a Divine Inspiration, an objective truth of Qod, or only a lofty con- 
ception of the religions soul? The strict rationalistic theologians niaiatain— and 
endeavor to prove oy an analytic examination of the Gospels— that Jesus assumed 
the dignity of M., either to accommodate himself to a rooted conception of hia 
countrymen, or partly because lie had come to believe It himself —a conclusion, it 
to raid, at which he miglit arrive quite houestlv, since he felt that the truth which 
lie taught was the real and only '^kingdom uf Qod,'' and that therefore he was 
justifl^ In nppiy\ug to himself all ttintwap said (tropically) by tlie prophetic poeta 
111 old times concerning him who should usher in this *' golden age " of the 
world's faith. The mass of orthodox theologians, on the otner hand, r^ardinfc 
the so-called Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament as jpositive. divinely sug- 
gested (perhaps, even on the part of their authors, eonseioua) predictlous of Jesus 
Christ, repudiate the priuciple of accommodation, or even spiritual applicatioD,aud 
try to shew that the Saviour accepted the Messianic prophecies as literally and ex- 
clusively applicable to him. The hlstorico-spiritual scnool, represented In Ger- 
many by men like Neander, Rotbe, Tlioluck, sc., aud iu Buglana, genorallv speak- 
ing, by the divines of the ** Broad Church" party, occupy a miudlo position be- 
tween these two extremes : with the rationalists, they hold that the 01(l Testament 
doctrine of the M. was gradually developed, cootolns many huumii elements, and 
does not imply any knowledge of the historical Jesus on the part of tliose who an- 
nounce it; with the ** orthodox," on the other hand, they assert that the doctrine it 
tiie expression of a fact, not of n sentiment— that Jesus of Nazareth was actually 
the Son of Qod, the appointed M., and that in him the so-callod Messianic prophe- 
cies wore fulfilled In a far higher sense than ever the prophets could have dreamed. 
It will thus be seen that the rationalists resolve the doctriue of the M. into a merely 
»ubjfctive religious iOeu ; while the orthodox, and also the hlstorico-spiriiual school 
of theologians, hold that ttie doctriue was the expression of u divine fact— the tub- 
Btanee of a heavenly faith. 

MESSI'MA, a city of Sicily, chief town- of the province of same name, one 
of the most ancient and most important cities of the isUind, is charmingly situated 
on the strait of M., endrcied by a zone of abrupt conical rocks, and commands a 
vittw of Calabria. Pop. In 1871, 71,92L The town is enclosed by old walls, aud has 
several fine squares and wide lava-paved streets. The harbor, which is formed h^ s 
projecting tongue of l^nd curved in the form of a sickle (wtieoce its primitive name 
Zaude— Gr. sickle— see Mbssbmia), is about four miles in drcnmferenoe, and cun 
contain a tliousand ships; it is defended by a citadel and alx forts; the depth is 
sufflcieiit to admit vessels of large siae ; and the quays are spacious. The trade of 
M., ctuefly In sillc, oil, wine, coral, fmita, linseed, flsli, Ac., althoneh less extensive 
than formerly, is still an important source of wealth to Sicily. 1^ chief ioiports 
are cotton and woolleu manufactures, hardwarea, aud other articles of colonial pro- 
duce. The damasks and satins of M. are excellent, and the fisheries important. M. 
lias steam-boat communication with Naples, Marseille, and Malta. In the 16th c, M, 
was a renowned seat of learning, and in the Kith c. a famous school of painting was 
founded there by Pelid<Ht> da Caravaggio. In modem times It lias undergone ter- 
rible vlcissiindes, having beeu ruthlessly bombarded by the royal forees on several 
ocQasions during the war of independence in 1846. 

MESSINA, Straits of (Ital. Faro di Jfestino, Lat. Mamertinumfretum), between 
Italy and Sicily, are ti miles In length, and varv from 2)4 to 10 miles In breadth. A 
strong cnrrent runs through tlie strait, which is of great depth. See ScnxA ako 


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' KB'SSTTAOIS, the legal term nsed in EngllBb law to describe a dweUiD}^hOQae 
and piece of land adjoliiiiig. 

ME'STRS, a town of Northern Italy, tn the province of Venice^ and 5 miles 
north-west of the city of Venice, on the maii;iu of a lagoon. It is connected With 
Yen ice, Padna, and otlier places by railway. There are many ▼fflas around tlie 
town and along the roud to Padna, reaching almost U> thst city. M. has a consider- 
able traiisil-tnule. Pop. 8B00. 

ICBTACS'NTRE. See Htdbostatics. 

lf£TAL (in Heraldry). The field of the eKiitcheon and the charges which 11 
Ears may be of metal as well as of color ; and the two metals in nse timoug heralds 
are eold nod silTer, Imowu as or and argent. It is a rale of blazon that metal should 
not be plweed on metal, or colnr on color. 

HBTALLURGT, is the art of extracting metals from their ores. The opera- 
tions ore partly mechanical and partly chemical. Those processes which depend 
principally on chemical reactions for their results have raferencc chiefly to the 
roasting and smelting of ores, aud arc described under the heads of the different 
metal9. But there are certain preliminary operations of a mcbanicnl kind which 
metallic ores undergo, such as crushing, jiggling, washing, Ac., which we shall de- 
scribe here, as they are essentially the ruiue for the ores of lead, copper, tin, sine, 
and indeed moat of the metal:>. (For Iron, see that head.) 

Ores are first broken up with hainmei-s into pieces of a convenient size fOr 
cmshlug or stamping. Waste material, such as nieces of rock, spar, &c., which 
alwaya accompany ore, are as far as possible pickecl out bv baud, aud the ore itself 
arranged in sorts according to its purity. Various kiudp of apparatus, such as rid- 
dles, sieves, Ac, ore then used for separatiujg it into different sizes, iu order to se- 
cure a uniform strain on the crushing machinery. 

The ore Is raised by means of small wagons, to the platform, where it is ready to 
be aopplied to the crashing- rollers, lliesc rollers are mounted iu a strong iron 
frame, neld together by wrought-iron bars, and bolted to strong beams. Their dis- 
tance apart is regulated bv means of a lever, to which a weight is attached. The 
bearings of the rollers slide in grooves, so that when any extra pressure is put upon 
them by a large or hani piece of ore, the lever rises, and allows the space between 
tiie rollers to widen. The crushed ore falls upon a series of sieves, which are made 
to vibrate. These liave meshes Increasing in fineness as they descend; aud the up- 
per two are so wide that pieces of ore too large to pass through them are conducted 
Into the lower part of the bocket-whecl, and raised again to the platform to be r»- 
crusfaed. The lower four sieves separate the remaining portion of the crushed ore 
into different degrees of fineness, which is collected iu the pits. 

Instead of crushing-rollers, sometimes a stampiug-roiU is used, especially fOr tin 
ores, which require to be reduced to a fine powder. The stamping-mill oonshits of 
a series of npright shafts with a weighty piece of iron at the bottom of each. They 
are raised by means of an axle with projecting cams, aud then failing by their own 
weight, net like liammtTS. 

AiXer being crushed, the ore Is wa«*hed and .sifted on a jigging sieve. The ore is 
placi'd on tiie table from which the nicvf m filled. It is then immersed in a tub of 
wntpr and a jifTging motion comuinnicated to il by a workman altenmtuly raising and 
towering a hat idle. This effccti* two purpof*og — it waahes the ore, aud it separates 
tiie maifrial into two Inyere: the upper consist!* of the lighter spar aud other impu- 
riliei^t which are niked off; and the lower coiisii-te of the heavier aud purer portions 
of the ore. which are now ready for the roasliny furnace. 

It will l>e apparent that in ttte l>oitom of the tub there must be a quantity of more 
or less valuable ore^ which, from Its flnenesit. imi* fallen through the sieve. This is 
call«d sludfre or plirae; and the niinnte particles of ore it contains are recovered 
either by niinplr forming; an incline on the ground, and washing it with a current of 
water, or by using an inclined table, called a akeping-table. Ore which has beeii'i'e- 
dured to powder ut the Ftainpiug-null, as well jih Klinie, is washed b^thls apparatus* 
Tbc material in put into the chest, whicti is placetl in a slophig position, and is sup- 
plied with water on turning the sioiicock. Tlir current carries the contents of iho 
ehest through the opening at the bottom, and spreads it, with the aid of a series oC 


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Metals 1 9 

M«tamorphIo ^^ 

stops, or small bits of wood, over the surf Aoe of the table. A stream of water is then 
kept flowing? over the table till the earthy impurities are all carried down into the 
troogh, the pnre particles of the ore remain! ug, by reason of their greater specific 
gravlQr, near the top of the taUe, whence they ure removed to be smelted. Some- 
times the table Is saspended by chains, and receives a snccession of blows at the top 
from a bufer^ naoved oy cams on the same principle as the Btampiug-mllL This ar- 
rangement is found of greut advantage in dressing very poor ores. 

The variety of macnlnery and apparatus used in dressing ores is very great, 
and they pass under different names in different dbtricts, but they are all very simi- 
lar in principle to those we liave described. 

ME'TALS, ME'TALLOIDS. Although each metal is considered in a separate 
article, there are various points regarding the general physical and chemical char- 
acters of these bodies, and the method ofclassifying them, which require notice. 

It is not easy to define a metaL All the elements are nsually divided by chemists 
into two groups— viz., tlie non-mctalllc bodies or metalloids, and the metals ; the 
list of non-metallic bodies containing all those elements in which the characteristic 
properties of the bodies popularly known as metals (such as silver, gold, 
iron, Ac.) are wanting; these characteristic properties being their metallic lustre, 
their opacity, and their capacity of conducting heat and electricity. The uon-me- 
talllc elements are 14 in number— vis., oxygen, bvdrogen. nitrogen, snlphur, sele- 
nium, tellurium, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluorine, carbon, boron, 
and silicon, of which five are gases, one a liquid, and the rest are solids at ordinary 

The division of the elements into these two great groups is, however, not based 
upon any definite scientific grounds, and it is still an open question whether some 
of i^.e metalloids, as, for example, tellurium and silicon, should not be placed 
amongst the metals. The non-metallic bodies or metalloids being only remarkable 
as a group for their negative properties, require no special consideration, and we 
therefore proceed to notice the general properties of the metals. 

The following are the most important of the physical properties of the metals. 

1. All metals, unless when they are in a finely pulverised form, exhibit more or , 
less of the characteristic lustre termed metallic U'wo of the non-metallic elements, 
iodine and carbon, in some forms, present also a metallic lustre. 2. All metals are 
good conductors of heat and electricity, althousrh in very unequal degrees. 8. With 
the exception of mercury, all the metals are solid at ordinary temperatures. With 
the exception of gold, copper, calcium, and strontium, the metals are more or less 
white, with a tendency to blue or gray. Most of them have been obtained in crys- 
tals, and probably all of them are capable of crystallising under certain conditions. 
4. Metals are remarkable for their opacity, and, with the exception of gold, do not 
transmit light, even when they are reduced to extremely thin loaves. 6. All the 
metnls are fusible, althbngh the temperatures at which they assume the fluid form 
are very different (see Fuhimo Poiktb) ; and some of them, as mercury, arsenic, 
cadmium, xinc, &c., are also volatile, ft. Great weig^it, or a high specific gravity, 
is popularly but erroneously regarded as a characteristic of a metal ; while platinum, 
osmium, and ridlum (the lieav^t bodies known in nature), are more than 20 times 
as heavy as water, lithium, potassium, and sodium are actually lighter ilian that 
fluid. 7. Great differences are observable in the hardness, brittleueHs, and tenacity 
of metals. While potassium and sodium muy be knended with the finger, and lead 
may be marked by the finger-nail, most of them possess a considerable degree of 
hardness. Antimony, arsenic, and bismuth are so brittle that they may be easily 
pulverised in a mortar; while others, as iron, gold, silver, and copper, require great 
force for their dlsintecrailon. Taking Iron and lead as representing the two ex- 
tremes of tenacity, it is found that an iron wire will bear a weight 26 times as heavy 
as a leaden wire of the same diameter. See Ductility, Maixe ability. 8. It is 
a remarkable property of the metals, that none of them are capable of being dis- 
solved without midergolng chemical change. Sulphur, phosphorus, iodine, &c., 
may be dissolved, and after the evaporation of the solvent, may l>e re-obtained wilb 
all their original properties : but this Is never the case with metals. 

Amongst the chief ehemteal properties of metals we next notice : 

Their strong affinities to certain of the non-metallic elements. All the metals^ 
wlthont exception, combine with oxygen, sulphur, and chlorhie, and often In severa*. 


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proportions, formine oxides, sulphides (formerly termed snlpbiirets), nod chlorides. 
Many of them commiie with bromine, iodine, aud flnoriiie. The other componDdfl 
of this natare, excepting carbide (formerly cnrbarct) of irou, or steel, «ud the 
bvdrides of arsenic and antimony (commonly known as* arncniuretted and autimo- 
morettcd hydrogen), which are of importance in toxicology, rouy be passed o?er 
without DOUce. 

The metallic oxides are, without exception, solid bodies, insoluble in water, and 
nraally present a white or colored earthy appearance. Hence tl»e old name of ni«> 
talHe eatc for these oxides. 

Those oxides whicli are termed basic possess the property of directly uniting 
irith ttie so-called oxyacids (such as sulphuric, nitric, carbonic, and silicic acid^, 
and of forming a new chemical compound of the second order, termed a 9aU (q. v.). 

The compoands of the metals with chlorine, iodine, bromine, and fluorine, ench. 
for instance, as chloride of sodium, or common salt (CINa). are tenned Ilaloia 
Salts (q. T.). The same metal may often combine both with chlorine and with oxygen 
in more than one proportion. For example, wo have snbcliloride of mercury 
(Hg,Ci) ; saboxide of mercury (Hg,0) ; chloride of mercury (HgCl) ; oxide of mer- 
cary (HgO). For the compounds of the metals with sulphur, see Sulfhidbs of the 


Metals enter into combination with one another when they are fused together, 
and such combinations are termed Alloys (q. v.), unless when mercnry is one of the 
combining metals, in which case, the resulting compound is termed an (vmalgam. It 
is doubtful whether all alloys are true chemical compounds. Definite compounds of 
the metals with each other do, however, certainly exist, and are sometimes found 
native, as, for example, the crystallised silver aud mercury compound i^resented 
by the formula AgHgj. 

In consequence of their strong afflnitlos for the metalloids, the metals are seldom 
found in a free or uncombined state, even in the inorganic kingdom, and never in 
animals or plants. The more common metals, in cousequence of their strong 
aflhiity for oxygen aud sulphur, are very rarely met with in the uncombined state ; 
but H}me of Utose which are less abundant, such as gold, silver, aud platinum, are 
fouod uncombined, in which case the terms native and virgin are applied (o them : 
aud other metids, as mercury and copper, occur both in a free and in a combined 
state. Hauy native alloys are found, but the ordinary sources of the metals are 
oxides, sQlphides, chlorides, and carbonates, sulphates and other salts. These iire 
termed the ores of the metals. The methods of obtaining the metals from their 
various ores fall nnder the head of Metallubgt. 

Varioas classifications of the metals have been suggested by different chemists. 
The following is probably one of the most convenient : 

L— The Ught MetaU, subdivided into— 

1. The metals of the alkalies— vis., potassium, sodlnm, csesium, nibidinm, lith- 

2. The metals of the alkaline earth»-~viz., barium, strontium, calcium, magne- 

3. The metals of the true earths-^vic. aluminium, gincinum, zirconium, yttrium, 
erbium, terbium, thorinum, cerium, lanthanum, didymium. 

IL— The Heavy Metals^ subdivided into— 

1. Metals whose oxides form powerful bases— viz., iron, manganese, chromium, 
nickel, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, lead, bii^muth, copper, uranium, tlmllium. 

Sw jletals whose oxides form weak bases or acids— viz., arsenic, antimony, 
titanium, tantalum, niobium (or columbinm), tungsten, molybdenum, tin, vanu- 
d^TiTn, rtm^Tm. 

A. Mc't;iiH whof*e oxides are reduced by heat — noble metals — ^viz., mercury, silver, 
gold, platiiiniit, pallndium, iridium, rnUioninm, rhodium, osmium. (Sevei*al of the 
rare nietaiH are herf; oniitt^.) 

Aiiothr^r ctaȣ> ion Is tiiat by which the M. are arrnnt^ed in six groups, each 
gronp beiiifj iiaimii after a metal which possesses the common characters in a well- 
uiarkt'd d4>f;ree : viz.. (1.) the sodium gronp; (2.) the calcium; (8.) the iron ; (4.)tlie 
copper; (&.) the pbtinam ; and (6.) the antimony groups. 

METAMO'RPHK? ROCKS. Pew of the deposits forming the crust of the earth 
remain in ihe condition in which they were deposited. By infiltration of a cement- 




Metamorphos!a i A 

\uz fluid, by preveuro, or hy some other indorating aeency, sand bas become con- 
vcrLed iuto vaudatuue, and clay uiul mad iuto shale. In iH>me stralat tills operatloa 
has bocii carried still further. There in a clHsn of rocks, iiiclndiiig gneiss, mica- 
Bcbisl, clay-slute, uiarble, and llie lilce, which, whilv certainly of aqueous or wecbau- 
icul origin, have, by intense molecular action, become more or lem» crystalline. To 
them, tTie conveuient name Metamorphic (Ur. uansforuied) Rocks has been giveu 
by Lvell. 

The Metamorphic Rocks were formerly considered to be ilie fundamental strata 
of the earth's crust. The original incandescent mass, it was said, losing its heat by 
radiation, a solid uneven crust of granite was f ormvil. Aa soon as tne ordinary 
atmospheric and nqneons agencies began to operate, a disintegraiiou took phice, and 
the abraded materials carried down by tiie waters, were deposited in tlie basins 
which contained the boiliuff sea. It was thought that this not only accounted for 
the condition in which the Metamorphic Rockauow exist, but for the remarkable 
nndnlatlons and contortions so characteristic of these strata. Quelsa and the allied 
chrystalline schists were accordingly placed aa the lowest sedimentary strata in u 
diviaiou equivalent to tbe Palieosoic Period, and called the Aaoic, because th^ 
were deatltnte of organic remains, the cooditioua in which they were formed being 
opposed to the existence of animals. 

It^la now, however, known that Metamoiphic Rocks ooonr as cootempomneona de- 
posits in all epochs of the earth's geological histoiy. In Canada and In the Uebridea, 
they are of Laurentian afo ; in tbe Uiebhindt of Scotland. Cambrian and Silurian ; in 
Devon and ConiwaH, Okl Red Smidatoue and Carboniferous; and In the Alps, 
Oolitic and Cretaceona, and in some parts even TRrtiaiy. Althougti deposits of 
such various ages have t>eeii thus altered, the resulting rocks are in structure and 
composition very similar ; their nltimate coustitnentM do not differ from Uiose of 
ordlnaiT days and saiidstouea. In nil of tbein, silica forms the largest proportion, 
dDnsisting of about ¥i to 70 per cent. ; alumina follows next, and then oilier sabstan* 
cea in smaller quantities, sndi as lime, soda, potash, iron. Ac This simihirity of 
composition, and the abundance of days and sandstones, suggest the supposi- 
tion that the Metamorphio Rocks may be nothing more than these de- 
posits greatly altered ; this is coufinnod by many observed Instances, in whicli 
aqueous strata are continuous with, and gradoillv change into, Metamorphic Rocks. 
Tne grauHe of Dartmoor has intruded itself Into the state and slaty sandstone, 
twisiing and contorting the strata. Hence some of tlie slate rocks have become 
micaoeoos; others more indurated, having the characters of micandate and gneiss: 
while others, again, appear converted into a hord-soned rock, atroogly impregnated 
with felspnr. In some places in tbe Bastem Pyrenees, the chalky limestone be- 
comes crystalline and sacchacold aa It approaches the granite, and loses all trace of 
tlie fossils which it elsewhere contains in atxindnnce. These illustrations tell of 
changes occurring in the proximity of granite, and it has tieen consequently somewhat 
hastily Concluded that this rock, comuig up In a molten condition from below, has, 
by tbe radiation of its heat, produced the ineUmorphosls. But the observed strati- 
grnnhical position of granite. Its somtimcs passing by insensible degrees Into gneiss, 
and the experiments of Solly and Bryson on Its intemsl structure, shew without 
doubt that this rock Is, at least in many pUoes, an extreme result of metamorpliic 
action, and not the cause of it. To call the energy producing these resnUs metam- 
orphic or molocnlar action, is simply to hide our ignorance— we get a name, but 
nothing more. To speak dogmatically on a subject so obscure, is a sign of tbe same 
ignorance. The following, however, are the most probable ageuts that, together or 
separately, produced these remarkable changes : 

1. UefU.—Vtoxn whatever source derived, heat does exist, either dlstiiboted uni« 
versally, or occurring locally In the mass of the earth ; and where it exists, thermo* 
electric influences indnoo action, whicli, carried on over imiLeiise series of years, 
might produce in the end great cnanges. It is generally maintained that granite is 
the result of crystallisation from perfect fusion, and tliat tiie strata converted into 
gneiss must have been rednced to a ebite of seml-fnsloo. But we know of crystals 
Usation taking phice in tlie most compact amorphous solids without any approach 
to fusion, as In the axles of railway^carriages ; and of metamorphic action vlthoul 
semi-fusion, aa in the highly Indurated bottoms of bakers' ovens, in which tbe clay 
is sabjected to a long-coutinued though not a great beat ; or m tbe sandsious floot 


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ig lf«liiiB«rphMi» 

Of an iron fnraace, wbtch, from long contact with the molten Iron, loees Its color, 
becomes white nod hard, and breaks with a porcelonic fracture, having, Indeed, been 
changed Into qnartz rock. Boeides, the freqnont occurrence of cavities In the rock 
crretals of granite containing a fluid which nils them only when the temperature Is 
nused to at least M° F.. shews that the crystal could not have been formed at « 
higher temperature. Wo are therefore safe lu maintaining, that the heat was not in 
alTcases so great as to pro<lnce fusion. 

2. Pressure. — This alone is sufficient to effect the consolidation and Indnration of 
aqueous deposits, convertlue clny or sand into solid stone. Wlieu heat is added to 
pressure, greater activity is likely to lie the result. The nndnlatonr movements of 
the earth's crust, by carnriug down to great depths deposits formed on the surface, 
bring them nnder the luflucuce of pressure, heat, and thermo-electricity, and at the 
same time elevate rocks that have been thus acted npon. 

It Is thought that heated water may be also a powerful agent, especially when It is 
snl>K>cted to great pressure. 

Tbe«te and other agents, then, operatlns; through Immense IntcrraTs of time, set 
in motion chemical attraction, whereby the various substances which entered Into 
the composition of the sedimentary deposits i-earrauged themselves as they are 
found in the Metamorphic Rocks. 

The description of the various Metamorphic Rocks will be found under their dif- 
ferent names, viz., Gneiss, Quabtzite, IAioa-schist, Clat-slatb, and Marblx. 

MKTAMO'EPHOSIS (Qr. change of form) denoted, hi the mythology of the 
ancients, those transformations oi human beings Into beasts, stoues, trees, and 
even into flre, water, Ac, In fables of which that mythology abounded. The origin 
And sisuiflcauce of snch fables it Is often Impossible to determine. Some of them 
probBbJy originated in observation of tlie wonderful transformations of nature: 
some in a misApprehension of the metaphors employed by the older poets; and 
some, perbsps, in mere superstition and love of the marvellous. The wild Imagi- 
nation of the Orientals filled their mythologies with metamorphoses lu the greatest 
nnmber ; sod the classic mytholooy approaches to them In this respect They were 
the theme of some of the poets and other Greek authors of the Alexandrine period, 
and of Ovid among the Latin classics. The medieval literature of Europe, espe- 
cially of Gt^rmany, m Its f uiry tales and other forms of folk-lore, Ls also wonderfully 
rich in metamorphoses. 

METAMORPHOSIS OF ANIMALS This term is applied to changes which 
certain animals undergo ufier their escape from the envelope of the egg, and which 
are of such a nature as essentially to alter the general form or the mode of life of 
the IndivldnaL 

The most remarkable metamorphoses occur In the Batraehlans, Crustaceans, In- 
fects, and Tape-worms, and are urlefly noticed In the articles on those classes of 
snhnali'. For an excellent general account of the metamorphoses of animals, the 
render is referred to a series of articles by De Quatrefages in the " Revue des Deux 
Moiides - for 1863. 

METAHORPHOSIS of organs, in Botany, n subject of so much Importance, 
thai it liuj* nivi) ( xiilted to the rank of a di^tinct branch of l)0tanlcal science, under 
the name of Uorpliology or Ve(fetah(e Morphology. Attention to it is essential to a 
pbito«ophlcal Ftudy of liotaiiy : yet it may almost be said that nothing was known 
either of it;* f;ict? or its laww, itlf the poet Goethe proclaimed them to the world in 
bis trwitiw; I'lititlHl " Die Metiinifi-phose der Fflansen," in 1T90. Linmens had, hi- 
de^ called attention to (ho d'v« lopment of oi-gans, and the changes which they 
ndeTgri, and Imd njjule thiB Hi.' rtnb}ect Of a •* thesis" entitled "Prolensis Plan- 
tanim " in 1760 ; but, in a inuiint i very unusual with him, he mixed up wnh his ob- 
servations and philo»OE>hicMl speculations certain fanciful suppositious, the false- 
hood of which soon becoming ap])arent, caused all the rest to he neglected. Wolff 
sftemmrds extricated ttie true from the fanciful in the views of Lluussus, and gave 
tbf*m greater completeuesH ; but lie Introduced the subject only incidentally In a 
pjpcr on comparative autitomy, which failed to attract the attention of lx>tanlsts, and 
probably had never been fitMii l)y Goethe, whoso discovery, apparently altogether 
original, is one of the flnest iuBlauces on record of acuto observation combined with 
pmiGffopbical generalisation. 


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Matamorphosit 1 a 

Metaytr ^" , 

The metamorphoais of orgaos is uoticed in the articles on particnlar oniKiiB. It 
ia oniT necessary here to make a very geueral Htdtemeot of Its facts and laws. A 
plant is composed of the qom aud its aiweiuiage9; the axis appearing above ground 
as the stem and branches, below groaiid as the root; the appendages beiug entirely 
above ground, aud essentially Uavea ; all organs which are not formed of the axis 
being modified leaves. The proof of this consists very mnch In the gradual transi- 
tion of one organ into another, manifest in some plauts, although not in others; as 
of leaves into bracts, one of the most frequently gradual transitions ; of leaves into 
sepals, as seen in the leaf-like sepals of many roses ; of sepals into petals, as seen 
in the petal-like sepals of lilies, crocuses, &c ; of petals into stamens, as seen in 
watei>mles; and even of stamens into pistils, often exemplified in the common 
house- leek. The proof is confirmed and completed by observation of the monstrosi- 
ties which occur in plants, particularly in the frequeut return of some part of the 
flower to its orieiual type, the leaf, and in the conversion of one part of the flower 
Into another, wnich is often the result of cultivation, and is particularly illustrated 
in double flowers, the increase of the number of petals being the result of the con- 
vcrsiou of stamens into petals. 

A flower-bad being a modified Icof-bud (see Bud), and a flower therefore the de- 
velopment of a modi&d leaf-bud, the parts of a flower correspond in their arrangc- 
roeut with the leaves on a branch. But peculiar laws govern the development of 
organs in each species of plant. Thus, the leaves in one oie opposite ; in another, 
alternate; in another, whorled; all depending on the law which governs the growth 
of the axis In relation to the development of leaves, which is very constant in each 
species ; and in like manner the parts of the flower are developed in whorls around 
an abbreviated terminal portion of the axis, the energies of the plant beiug hero 
directed to the reproduction of the species, and not to the increase or growth of 
the individual. The fruit itself, being formed from the pistil, is to bo regarded as 
formed of modified leaves. Goethe truly says : ** The pod is a leaf which Is folded 
up and grown together at its edecs, and the capsule consists of several leaves 
grown together ; and the compound fruit is composed of several leaves united round 
a commou centre, their sides being opened so as to form a communication tieiween 
them, and their edges adhering togetner." 

The metamorphosis of organs has been ipvestigated with great diligence and 
success, and beautifully elucidated by Mlquel, Lindley, Schleldeu, aud other 


MB'TAPHOR (Gr. tn^toflAora, a transference), a figure of speech, by means of 
which one thing is put for another whicii it only resembles. Thus, the Psalmist 
speaks of God's law as being '*a light to his feet aud a lamp to his path.*' The 
metaphor is therefore a kind of comparison, in which the sneaker or writer, cast- 
ing aside the circumlocution of the ordinary similitude, scoks to attain his end at 
ouce, by boldly identifying his illustration with the thing illustrated. It is thus of 
necessity, when well conceived and expressed, graphic and striking In the highest 
degree, and has bceu a favorite flgure with poets and orators, and the makers of 
proverbs, in all ages. Even In orainary language the meanings of words are In 
great part metaphors ; us when wo speak of an tueuU intellect, or a bold promontory. 

METAPHY'SICS. a word of uncertain origin, but first opplied to a certain group 
of the philosophical disnertatious of Aristotle (see Aristotx«e). As since employed, 
it has had various significations, and more especially two— a larger and a more cou- 
fined. In the more confined sense, it is allied to the problems of the Aristotelian 
treatise, and Is concerned with the ultimate foundations of our knowledge of ex- 
isting things. "What Is the nature of our knowledge of the external world, seeing 
that mind cannot properly know what is not In contact with itself ? has been asked 
by philosophers, and answered in various ways ; and this is the great question of 
metaphysics (see Pkroeption, GomioN Sbnsb). The name " Ontology^' has been 
applied to the same inquiries into oar cognizance of existences out of ourselves. 
But as the solution of this diflftcolt question was foiuid to involve an Investigation 
into the nature of the human mind, it became allied with the science whose object 
It is to describe fully and systematically the laws and properties of our mental 
constitation— « science colled by the various names of Psychology, Mental Pbilos- 


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oph7, Moral Phtloeophy ; and hence Metapbysice came to be an addltSonal name 
tot Uiis more comprebenBive department The word ia emplojed at the present 
day by writers of rupate iu both ineanioga. Tbae, Ferrler's ** Institutes of Mela- 
physic " i« occnpied solely with the qoeations connected with knowledge, or the 
nature of our perception of an ezteruul world ; his explanatory title is, ** The 
Theory of Knowing and Being." On the other hand, Mansel's Metaphjrsics is di- 
vided into two purta— PsTCBOLOGT, or the science of the facta of consciousness, 
which expresses the science of mind generally: and Ontology, or the science of tho 
same facts considered in their relation to realities existing without the uiiud— that is, 
the problem of Perception, or Metaphysics iu the narrower sense. 

METASTASIO (originally Trapassl), Pletro, one of Italy's most admired poets, 
was boru at Rome in 1698, of bnrable parents, and gave early evidence of his genius 
by bb boyish improvisations. M. having attracted the casual notice of Gravina, a 
famous juriscoiiHHlt of the day, the latter undertook the entire education and career 
of the youth, whose paternal name of Trapassi >)ecame thenceforward Urecised into 
Metasiasio, both words being identical iu siguiflcation. The young poet speedily 
advanced io classical and general knowledge; and to his patron's enthusiastic de- 
votion to the Greek drama, may doubtless bo traced much of the after-bent of M.'s 
own poetical tastes. By the early death of Graviua, M. was placed in possession of 
considerable property. In 1784, he published one of his most celebrated dramas, 
** Ia Didone," which, with »*I1 Catone^aud "II Siroe," conferred on tho poet a 
Earopean name. In 1780, M. accepte<1 the post of |>oel -laureate to the imperial court 
of Vienna. During his sojourn iu Vienna, M. composed his "Giuseppe Ricono- 
acinto,"'* II Demofonte," and the " Olimpiade." He died at Vienna in 1782. M. 
was distinguished for the generosity, integrity, and candor of his nature, the sin- 
cerity of his friendships, and the disinterested warmth of his sentiments. His 
worlca are innumerable, embracing 68 dramas, 48 cantatns, besides a vast number of 
elegies, cancouette, sonnets, and translations. They enjoy unexampled popularity 
among all grades of his countrymen ; iu their pure classical subjects and forms, tho 
edocflited student finds instruction and delight ; while their facile musical grace and 
verbal simplicity adapt tliem to the popular appreciation of the ortless beauties of 
poetry. Ttie best edittona of M. are those of Turin aT87, 14 vois.) ; Paris (1766, 12 
vols.) ; Paris (1780, 18 vols., large 8vo) ; Genoa (1808, 6 thick vols.) ; Mantua (1816 
—Ib^u, 20 vols.). 

METAYER (Ital. iMtd, Fr. moitii, half), in French, is tho cultivator of a metairie^ 
or farm, the tenant of wlilch gives the landlord a portion of the produce ns his rent. 
In some of the older French dictionaries, such as that of Trevonx, the word is said 
to apply to any kind of farmer, but iu the oldest dictlouury of French and English, 
Cotgrave»s, the word is thus interpreted : '* Properly one that takes ground, to the 
halves, or binds himself by contract to answer unto him of whom he holds them 
half, or a great part of the profits thereof." The term has lately ^ot a meaning iu 
political economy on account of some eminent writers having raised the quesnou, 
\\ J. I r I Ml ! rn .. ni< II* lit ween landlord and tenant is not so much more advan- 
tage^ oas than ;uiy oIUlt, both to the parties immediately concerned, and to the public 
at large. lh:it it ouijlit to U* specially encouraged. Sismondi apoeurs to have Ixjeu 
the first to open this wide view of the influence of the practice, and he has given a 
chapter to its coiisideratiuu in his Political Economy (b. iii. chap. b). He says what 
cannot be denied, Hiat j»nch an arrangement was a great improvement on mere serf- 
dom, which gave the cultivator no interest in the produce of his industry. But in 
giving the reasons for hi^ adiuiration of the system as one which provides iu the 
genera! cxx^ for the wants of the |)ea8ant while relieving him of all auxiely about 
mari^ets and prices, he atliiuts that a metayer peasantry never advance beyond the 
hnmhle, happy, and contentL'd lot which immediately falls to them. It is a sjsteni, 
therefore, inconsistent witli the application of large capital to cultivation, and con- 
sequently with tho extraction of the highest value which the soil can yield. A ten- 
ant will hesitate to lay £50 worth of guano on his fields If half the atldilional crop 
H will bring goes to his lan(lli)rd. To those who maintain that the moral effect of 
the system is beucflcial, ttii^ will be no argument against it, but to the political 
economist it is an iirgnniont ;i;;ainpt the practicability of the system in a rich money- 
making aericuUurat count rv. Where there is an enterprising peasantry without 
capital it Is a valuable res*)iirce; a great portion of tho valuahle agricultural dis^ 


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tricts of Scotlnud were thne broaght Suko caltiyaflon by Improve™ wha^e rent wm 
ft portion of the crop. Bnt while these very dItftrictR in ft {^rvat measure owe their 
preeeut prosperity, and the existouco of a set of capitalist^farmers to such a system 
of cultivation pursacd witli more eneixT tlian M. Sismondi considers natoral to it, 
there is nodoabt that the sabetitntiou of soch un arrangement for moncy-reut 
would now be a very serioiu waste. 

METELLUS, tlie name of a Kopan family of the plel)eiBU gens CaeclHii, wliich 
rose to be one of the fli-st familits of the Roman nobility. — One uf tlie most dintin- 
gnishcd niembers of Uie family was QuiHTus Cjbciucs 3f. Macbdonicus, who re- 
ceived his surnnniB from iiis victory over AndrlscuSj an aspinnt to the tlirone of 
Macedonia (148 b.c^. His life was considered by ancient writers an ex imple of tiio 
greatest felicity. He dli-d lift B.a — Another wns Qcintus C^ciLius M. Numidi- 
ODs, who twice defeated Jngurtha in Nninidiu (109 B.O.), and was celrbrated for his 
iMKTjrity of cliaracter, Ikh was superseded In his conimnnd by Marltis. His son, 
QnniTUB C.A0ILIU8 M., surnamed PifiM. joined Snilu in 8S b.c., nnt soagtit to mode- 
rate the seveiliy of hi-* proscriptions. He, too, iwre a distiujruished character for 
virtue.— i^MTUs CiBciuus M. Crbtiocts conom^red Crete, and reduced it to a 
Roman pn»vince («7 B.C.).— QuiNTUs CiKciLius M. Pius HoiPio, sometimes cAlled 
QuiKTUS ScntPio, and sometimes 8cipio M.. was a son of PnbllusCornellns Scipio, 
who was adopted by one of the MetHll, ana biHjame the fnther-iu-law of Pompey, 
and his zt^alous partisan. He commanded inider liiin at Pharrnln^ maintained war 
on hik t)ehalf for some time in Africa ; and after tlie battle of Thapsus (40b.o.), died 
by his own Inmd. 

METEMPSYCHO'SIS. See Transmiobation of Soclb. 

METEOUO'LOGY {Qr. metddra. meteors, or atmospiieric nhenomena) waa orig- 
inally applied lo the cousideraiiou of all ap^ieanuices in tlie sky, IxMh astronomical 
and atmospherical ; but the term is now oonflued to tlnit deimrtnii'ut of natural phi« 
losopliy which treats of the piicuomcua of tlie atmosphere as regards weatiier and 
cliiiiau*. The leiidin^ points of this wide stib)ect will i>u found under snch liends as 


Evaporation, Fog. Hailstones, Halos, UoAR-raoar, Liohtmino, Magnetism, 
Rain, Snow, Stobms, &c» We couflue ourselves hero to. a historical sketch of the 


Owinz to the complexity of the phenomena, meteorology is the mo«t difficult and 
inv')lv(td of the sciences, and seems, indeed, at first sight, almost incnpablc ol being 
reduced to a science at all. On this account, the only proct-dure admissible in the 
flret place is long and pnticiit observation, and a faithful recoitllng of facta. 

From the nature of the suhj.'cts which make no the science, It may be inferred 
that I hey occupied men's mindf* from a remote antiquity. Tlie splendid and cver- 
vary ng p'mommu of the sky, and the changes of tempiTature through th(! days and 
the 8eaftom», with all thoothtr elemeiits couMiltutiug the weather, and thus power- 
fulJy air«*ctinjj the nccensltii's and comfort of man, are of a nature well fitted to 
arrest his attention. From the time spent in the o|M>n air In the early age.*^, and from 
thf iinj>erffct protrctlon afford -d ngnmst the ioclemency of the Seasons those ap- 
peftraiici'S which exi>erience proved to precede a change of weal her would be eagerly 
recortled and handed down. In this way, many most valuable facts were ascerfuined 
pnd iiass "d current from hand to liand ; and, p-rhaps, there is no science of which 
njore of the leading facts and inferences have been from so early a period iuco^pol^• 
filed Into popular lunsuage. 

Aristotle was the flrj«t whocolhHjted. in his work " On Meteors," the current prog- 
nostics of the weatiier. Some of these Were derived from the Egyptians, who liad 
studied the science as a branch of astronomy, while a consldembUi numlk-r were the 
result of his own ohs.'rvafion,and bear the mark olhis singularly acute and reflective 
inlnd. The next wTiter who took up the sublecl was Theophmstus, one of Aristotle's 
pupils, who classified the opinions commoiily n»ceived rt^irardlug tlie weather under 
four h«'ads. viz., tlie prognostics of rain, of wind, of storm, and of fine weather. 
The subject was discuiised purely In it* popular aftd practical Itearings, and no at- 
tempt was made to explain piienomena whose occurrence appeared so invgular and 
ca^irlcious. Cicero, virgii, and a few other writers also wrote on the subject with- 
out making auy enbstanihu accessions to oar knowledge ; indeed the treatise of 


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1Q MtftelTiw 

•■' ^ M«t«oro:og7 

Tbeophrastns contains nearly all that waa known down to comparatively recent 
time*. Partiul explAiiationa were attempted by Aristotle and Lucretius, )>nt hh they 
wauled tbe elemeuts iieceaaary for t«ucli an inquiry, beluj^ all i>ot. totally iKiioraiit oi 
erco' depaLTtiueot of |)liyt*icai BCieuce, tbeir ezplanutioua were ueceaaaniy vague, 
aud often ridicaloua and absurd. 

In thid donimnr condition, mfteorolc^v remained for agefi, and no progress was 
iQade till proper inetniinenti; were invented for malcing n*aiobM;rvatioua wftb reffurd 
to ibe t**mpertttnre, the pressnre, tbe bnmidity, and rhe electricity of ibe air. The 
discovery of tbe weight or pressure of tlie aunosphere uiude by TorriciUi in 1643, 
was nndoobcedly tbe flrat step in the prugreos of meteorology to tbe rank of a acieuce. 
Tbie memorable discovery difclosea whnt waf> patching iu the more elevated regions 
of the atmojtpbere, aud lima tbe elevutionB and depresiHioiiB of the Imrontetric col- 
niun largely extended oar kuowlt^lge of this subtle elemeut. See Baromkteil 

Tbe invention aud gradnal perfecting of tlie Tliermometer (q. v.) iu tliu same ceii' 
toty, formed another capital step; as without it, uothui^ could be known, beyond 
▼ague impressions, rugardine temperature, tbe most important of all the elements of 
climate. This great invention soon bure excellt;nt fruit. Fuluunbeit coustractcd 
small and portable thermometers, wblcb,.bein^' cmried by modicul men und truvetlcis 
over every part of tbe world, fnrnit^bed uiMervatious of the most valuable descrip- 
tion — tbe comparative Temperature of different coiutries became known, and the 
exaggerated acconnta of travellers with regard to extreme bear and cold were reduced 
to liteir proper meaning. Scarcely less important was tbe introdnctiou uf the Ily- 
sTometer (q. v.), fln»t systematically uoed by De Suussure ^dled 1799), And ufterwunls 
Tin|m)wcd by Dalton, Baniell, and August, From tbe porlud of Uie invention of 
them instruments, tbe number of meteorological observers greatly iiicreused, and a 
large body of weil-autlientJCHted facts of the ntmosi value was collected. Tbe 
diroates cf particular parts of the earth were deiermine<1, and the science made jtreat 
and rapid advances by tbe investigations nudeilaken by distinguished pbilosopliers 
into tbe laws which regulate tbe changes of the atmospheric phenomena. 

The theory of tbe tradowiuds was flrnt propounded by Qeorge Hudlcy in the 
'* Pbilusopbicol Transactions " for 1735 ; und it may be mentioned as a remarkable 
fact, that, for about half a century, it remained quite unnoticed, when it was iudcr 
jMiidsutly arrived at by Dalton, and published in his essays. 

Tbe publication of l^alton's Meteorological Bss^iys, iu 1798, marks an epoch in 
meteorology. It is the flrsl instance of tne principles of philosophy being brought 
to bear on tbe exphmuiion of the intricate phenomena of the atmospliere. The idea 
that vapor is an independent elastic fluid, and that oil elastic fluids, whether alone 
or mixed, exist independently ; tbe great principles of motion of the atmosphere ; the 
theory of winds, their effect on the barometer, aud tbeir rebition to temperature and 
raiD ; observations on the height of clouds, on thunder, and on meteors ; and the 
relations of magnetism and the aurora borealis— are some of tiie im|>ortant ques- 
tions diacossed in tliese remarkoble essays, with an acuteues, a fuiuess, und a 
breadth of view that leave little to be desired. 

One of the most interesting and fruitful subjects of inquiry that engaged iha at- 
tentkni of meteorologists waa d«w. The obti'ervations on this subject were first col- 
lected and reduoefl to a perfect theory by Dr Wells. See Dew. 

In 1888, DanieU published his *' Meteorological Esaays and Observations,*' which, 
vhlie adding largely to our knowledge in almost every deptirtmeut of the subject, 
are chiefly valuable as bearing on ttie hygrometry of the atmosphere. Though tliu 
practical advantages which be anticipated wonld flow from it Imve not been realised, 
yet this difficult and still obscure department of meteorology stands iudul>ted to him 
more than to any otiier philosopher. The law of the diffucnou of vapor through the 
air. its influence on Uie barometric pressure, aud its relations to tbe otiicr coustiLu- 
euts of tbe atJUMiphere, are among the least satisfactorily deteni.ined questions iu 
pieteoroloffy. Since this element is so important ai« an indicator of storms and other 
changes ot the weather, and since so much remains still to be ncliieved, it is to be 
beped that it will soon be more thoroughly investigated. A mof t important addition 
aa« liif ly been made to our knowledge of tlie vapor of the atinosnbere by Professor 
ryndalL in his experiments on radiant heat, especially as reg»i*ds the gases, llie 
vapor of water Is there shewn to exert extraordinary energy as a radiant and absorb- 
ent of beat ; and hence the vapor dissolved hi the ub: acts the part of a covering or 


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Meteorology OQ 

prdtection to the eattn. As It is, to some extent, ImpenrlotiB to sofar and terrestrial 
i-adiation, it follows that if the air were quite drained of its moisture, the extremes 
of heat and cold wonid be so intense and insafferable, that all life woald insUntly 
perish, there being no screen shielding the earth from the scorching gl|re of the 
snn by day, and (rum the equally scorching and blighting effects of its own radiation 
by night. It is to be expected that this great discovery will soon throw light on 
many questions of meteorology. 

ifiectrical observations have been, of all meteorological ol>servations, perhaps 
the least productive, partly owing to their scantiness, from the expense and tronbM 
attending ttiem, and pnrily, no doubt, to the free and bad use mndo of the name of 
electricity by crude tneorists in explaining phenomena of «rhich it would have been 
wiser to nave confessed their ignorance. But the brilliant discoveries whicli have 
recentiv been made on the mutual relations of heat, motion, electricity, magnetism, 
and th6 other forces ot matter, lead us to indnl^ the hope that the application of 
these results to meteorology will 1>e attended with discoveries eqnallv nrilliant and 
important. Humboldt's treatise on ** Isothermal Lines" (1817) constitutes a notable 
epoch in experimental meteorology. Dov6 has since continued the investigation, 
and in his splendid work, *'On the Disttibutiou of Heat on the Surface of the 
Globe,*' has given charts of the world, shewing the temperature for each month, 
and for the year, and also charts of abnormal temperatures. It is scarcely possible 
to overestimate tiie value of this work, for thongli, to a considerable extent, the 
Unes are hypothetical, there can l>e no doubt that a close approximation to the march 
of mean temperature and its distribution over the earth through the year, has been 
arrived at.. The idea lias been carried out with greater fulness of detail by tlie 
United States' government in the beautiful and elaborate series of charts of temper- 
ature and ralntall given in the "Army Meteorological Register" for 1855. In these 
charts, tiie temperature and rainfall in the different seasons for every part of the 
United States, deduced from accurate observations, may be seen at a glance. Buchan 
has published isothermals for the British Isles, Mohu for Norway, and Blandford 
for Hindustan ; and isothermals for the sea have been pnbUshed by the Admiralty. 

The establishment of meteorological societies during the last twenty years roust 
also be commemorated as contributing in a hlffh degree to the solid advancement of 
the science which, more than any other, must depend on extensive and carefully con- 
ducted observation. In this respect, the United States stand pre-eminent, the ob- 
servers there numbering nearly 800; Great Britain is also well represented in the 
English and Scottish societies, which together number above 800 observers. In 
France, Germany, Russia, Ac., the science is also being widely cultivated. Owing 
to the disastrous flooding of tlie Rhone, an inquiry has ncen carried on for several 
years, having for its ob}eot the determination of thoso causes which affect the rain- 
fall in the basins of the Rhone and SaOne. Oi)serverB in Germany and Great Britain 
have l>een secured to co-operate with the French observers, and under the manage- 
ment of a commission, it may be expected that important conclusions respectiiig 
the rainfall and the progress of storms will be arrived at. and means devised to avert 
the calamity of these great floods, by timely warning being given of their approach. 

A special object of meteorological societies is to ascertain the degrees of heat, 
cold, and moisture in various localities, and the usual periods of their occurrence, 
together with their effects on the health of the people, and npon the different agri- 
cultural productions ; and by searctilng into the laws hj which the growth of such 
products is regulated, the agriculturalist may be enabled to iadge with some degree 
of certainty wnether any given article can be profltablv cultlva^. 

But perhaps none of the arts have benefited to so large an extent by the labors 
of meteorologists as navigation. The knowledge thus acquired of the prevailing 
winds over the different parts of the earth during the different seasons of the year— 
and the regions of storms and calms—and the laws of storms, have Ix>th saved in- 
numerable lives, and by pointing out the most expeditious routes to be followed, 
shortened voyages to a remarkable degree. In connection with this, the name of 
Captain Maury 7q. v.j deserves special commendation for the signal service he has 
rendered to navigation. 

Another fruit of the multiplication of meteorological stations is the prediction of 
stonns and " forecasts" of the weather, which have been carried on In the United 
States, and commenced with ability aud Buccess by Admiral Fitsroy in Bnghind. 


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TheM ''fbrecasts" are based on telegrams which are received every iDoming from 
above forty selected statioos in Great Britain and Ireland, and ou the continent, 
from Haparanda as far south as Lisbon. These telegrams give ihe exact state of 
the barometer, thermomeler, hygrometer, and rain-gauge, with the direction and 
force of the wind, and appearance of ihe sky at each of these forty stations at eight 
Sd the morning. In the event of there l>eing any storm or otlier atmospheric disturb- 
sDoe at one or more o* these places, a fall und accurate description of it is thus con- 
veyol to Loudon ; and it is thence the duty of the officials there to consider the di- 
rection in which the storm Is moving, so as to enable them to give warning of its 
approach by special signals. But in addition to warnings of storms, Fitzroy also 
issued daily "forecasts" of the weather likely to occur in the different dis- 
tricts of Great Britain for the following two days, and which were iu liko 
manner fonndea on the state of the atmosphere at distant points, 
keeping in view tiic atmospheric currents known generally to prevail at 
that particular time of the year. As the cost of this svstem was about £2000 
anniuiUy, a severe test was applied, at the instance of the T^asury, from July 1861 
to June M68, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the expenditure was inetifled 
by the success attenoing it. Durine the first six months, 413 signals were hoisted, 
aud in 214 cases a storm occarred where a warning was given. It must not bo in- 
ferred that in the remaining 199 cases tl^ere was no storm any wiiere ; all that was 
meant was, that no slorm occurred at Vsb places wbere the signal was given ; bnt a 
storm may have occurred, and probably did occur, in some other part of the coun- 
try. Now that the aysteni has been longer in use, the signals are given from a bet- 
ter knowledge of the movements of the atmosphere, so that if the test were tigaiu 
applied, the number of failures would be found to be much fewer. Since the baro- 
metric depression is in almost all cases spread over a wider area than the storm 
which accompanies it, an<l since the storm occnsionally passes into the upner re- 

gons of the atmosphere, so as to be less felt on the earth's surface at that place, it 
obvious that a considerable time muHt yet elapse before a sufflcientlv iutlnmto 
knowledge of the movements of the air be acquired iu order to indicate with certainty 
fbe particular places where the storm will break out, aud where it will not. The 
problem to be practically worked out is this : Given itie telegrams from the statious 
showing the exact meteorological conditions prevailing over the included area, with 
indications of a storm approacliing in a certain direction, to determine, not the pro- 
bable area over which the tempest will sweep, but the precise localities which will 
altogether escape, the places where the storm will rage, and the places where it wUI 
not touch the earth, but pass inocuously iAto the upper regions of the atmosphere : 
its continuance, its violence, and the particular directions from which the wind will 
lilow at the places visited by the storm while it lasts. Considerable progress has 
already been made towards the solution of this difficult problem ; and if a complete 
solution be impossible, such an approximation to a solution will doubtless be ar- 
rived at tt& will render ft foolhardy to disregard the warnings given. 

But these predictions only extend to a lew days. Does the present state of the 
science afford any grounds to hope that prediction for longer periods will yet be 
attained? Weather-registers extending over long periods give no countenance 
i\lml'Vi^r to flj< i" 11, tit 1 tin r are regularly recurring cycles of weather ou 
wtiich prt'dictjo: :...i> bu h;i»jed. iMiither, tnc manner in which good and bad soa- 
Foti-* occur in diffi rent places with respect to each other, shews clearly that they 
have little direct iniinecliat*! dependence on any of the heavenly bodies, buttiiat tliey 
dcpinddirtxtiy on terrestrial causes. Thus, while the summer of 1861 was almost 
nijpn?cedentedly wet and cold iu Scotland, the same summer was hot and dry to a 
'1 ;:rcf ( qually niipreccdented on the coutinei:t of Europe, and particularly in Italy; 
anl such examples m-iy be m u It i pi it'd almost od infinitum. 

The assumption that the equal >iial and polar currents of wind at any locality 
may ulthnately balance eacli otht r, would appear, from recent observation, to give 
soiue ground for prediction pxtci ding over considerable intervals. Thus, a wet 
eommer wuh predicted for Britsiin m 1^, from the circumstance of a most unusual 
prevalence of east winds in the gpriufr of that year. An almost incessant continu- 
ance of soutti-west windH followetl, \\hich discharged themselves in deluges of rain, 
clouded skies, and a consequent low temperature. As these south-west winds pre- 
vailed till the spring of 1S63, less south-west wind was looked for during the sum- 


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in«r, which was fhni expe<ited to be Une and warm— a predlcttoQ whleh was teaHse^ 
ThtH prediction holds In aboot three casec out of four. 

The fbilowiDff are a few atasdard works on MeteorologT, In addition to those 
already referred to: L. P. Kaemta*s ** MeleorologT," trausmted from the German 
<Lond. 1845) ; Dr Brost Erhaitl Scbraid*s ** Lelirbuoh der Meteoroi<^ ** (Lef ps.lSW) ; 
Professor Bspy's **Foarth Report on Meteorology,*' (Wasblngtou, ISfT); Drew's 
** Meteorology,'* a nsefnl handbook (Lond. 8d ed. 1860) ; Hei^chel'ii ^ Meteorolosry ** 
(1S«1); D. P. Thomson's *« Introdoction to Meteorology" (18W); Bndian'a 
** Utindy Book to Meteorology " (1868) ; Loomls, " lYeatiso on Meteorolosy " (1868). 

MKTBORS. The whole subject of meteors was treated la the body of the 
work under the bend of AIboutes. The subject, however, has since occupied a 
great deal of attention, and there !s at present a tendency ou the part of astron- 
omers and physicists to separate that class of meteors known as ''shooting-stars'* 
from tiie group of weteoroUut (which Includes ah-o-Mderite*^ or masses of meteoric 
iron ; 9ideroliUs^ which are conglomerates of Iron and stone ; and aerolits^ which 
are wholly of stouc), on the grounds, that the most prominent appearances of the 
former are periodic^ wiille the latter seem to occur at irregular Intervals* and tlial 
the former nave liltherto not been proved to leave any traces of their visit on the 
earth's surface. We are, however, hardly as yet in u position to decide as to the 
Bimilaritv or dissimilarity of the two chumes of bodies. 

Popnlar interest has been largely aroosed respecting "shooting-stars," by 
reason of tlie brilliant dispUiy of them which took place ou the night of 
November 18, 1866. This ** star-shower." the grandest that has ever been ol>- 
Bcrved in Britain, was confidently predicted, from the occurrence of a similar 
shower at the corresponding date 1799, 1888, and 1834; and the extremely 
favorable state of the atmosphere rewarded those who were ou the watch 
with a complete view of one of nature's most magnificent disploys. The 
shower commenced about 11)^ TM., with the appearance at brief Intervals of 
single meteors; then they came in twos and threes, steadily and rapidly In- 
creasing in number till ih. 13m. ▲.](. on November 14, when no fewer than 67 
appeared in one minute. Prom this time, the Intensity of the shower diminished 
gradually, wholly ceasing about 4 ^.x. The total number of meteors which at that 
nme came wlthlii^he liinits of the earth's asmoephere was estimated at about 940,- 
000, and the nnmber seen at each of the several observatories in Britain averaged 
6000. This stAT-shower, like those of 1888 and 1884, seemed to proceed from the 
region of the heavens marked by the stars and in the constellation Leo; and It has 
been shewn by astronomers that this was the point towards which the earth In her 
orbit was moving at the time ; consequently, she bad either overtaken the meteoric 
shower, or had " met " It proceeding In a contrary direction. The meteors on that 
occasion presented the usual variety of color, size, and duration ; the great majority 
were white, with a bluish or yellowish tinge; a considerable number were red and 
orange ; and a few were blue ; many surpassed the fixed stars in Instre. and soma 
were even brighter than Veiiua (the most biilliaut planet as seen from the earth) n\ 
her maximum. Most of the meteors left trains of vivid green light 6^— 16o in length, 
which marked their course through the heavens, and endured for 8" on an average, 
then becoming dissipated ; thotigh some of the trains were almost 40o in length, 
and remained m sight for several minutes. Professor Air}- observed that the dlreo- 
Uon of the meteors' flight was little influenced by the earth's attraction. 

On the morning of r^ovember 14, 1867, a star-shower equal In magnitude to that 
of 1866 was observed in France and America, but was almost whoUy invlslblo In 
Britain, on aocoont of the cloudy state of the atmosphere. 

The brilliant display of 1866 gave a vigorous impulse to the astronomical Inves- 
tigation of ahootlug stars, snd It Is now generally agreed that the November 
meteors move in on orbit round the sun, Indliued at about 7^ to that of the earth, 
and that, in all probability, this orbit forms a ring or belt of innumerable small 
fragments of matter, distributed with very variable density of grouping along it, thus 
corresponding so far to the Planetoid (q. v.) group between Mars and Jupiter. It 
is also agreea that the motion of this meteor ring round tlie sun is retrograde ; that 
the earth's orbit at that point where she Is situated on November 18—14, Intersects 
this ring; and that, probably, in 1799, 1888—1884, and 1866— 1867. it is the same 
group of meteom wliich has been observed ; and the lust-mentioned uypothesis bjui 


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b«en made tlie fomudatlon of a calcnlation of tb« protiable orbit «iid periodic time of 
this meteor-rine. The fact tkat a November ttar*Rbower generally occors for two 
yeara iu ea€ce8w>n» and tb^i recurs ut an intervail of 88 or 88 years, seems to ludicate 
tiuit tboogb tike eortb may pass thvongh ihe meteor-orbit everr year, the meteors 
are so grouped at iutervals along the riog, and their periodic time differs bo much 
from that of the earth, that it requires 82—83 years before this nccnmnlatiDg differ- 
citce amonuta to a coinplete revofotion of either the earth or the ring, and a rcpeti- 
tloD of the star-shower becomes possible. 

Professor Newton of Yale Ck>ilego, America, who entered into an elaborate in- 
Textigation of tlie subject, couchided that the 6 possible periodic times <tbe eurth's 
beiog taken as unity) of the meteor- ring were 8:^1-83*25, l^^.l-SS'SS, and l-SS'SS* 
and that of these, the fourth, 1—1-88-85, or Ba4-«8 day.«, is the actual period of Its 
rerolution round the sun, nud Hint, oonsequeutly, it has described 84 reyo'ationi 
while the earth has described 33, the cycle of 34 meteor revolutions differing from 
8S ^ears by only S'lT days; and in accordance M'ith this estimate, he calcniuted its 
orbit and the approximate extent (seeing the meteor shower genorally occurs in 
two succesvive years) of the meteor-group wliich produces tlie NovemlKT sliowers. 
His coiiclosIODB liave, however, been vigorously opposed by other eminent astrono- 
mers, such as Professor Ad nms (q. v.) and Mr Alexander Herschel, both of whom 
hold that the first four of the possible periods given by Professor Newton are tm- 
ymiblet and that the last, 1-33-25 (i. e., that the mcteor-riug makes 1-33-25 of a 
Eolur revolution in a year, and one complete revolution round the sun iu 83*. 5 years), 
la the correct estimate. If this view be correct, the meteor-group must ih^ so much 
extended along its ring or orbit as to take more tiiau a vear to cruss the eartti'i» 
orbit, and a lone time must necessarily elapse before a fair e!>timnte of this extent 
can be obtained. A periodic time of 83^ years, and tin orbit which at the same 
time approaches so near the sun as to lutersecL that of the earth, iiKUcate a path of 
great eliipticfty, akin to those of the comets ; and the Idea of the cometory natui-o 
of these meteors derives support from two remarkable fuels, the one discovered by 
Schiaparclll of Mllnn. that this assnmed orbit coincides very nearly with that of tho 
great comet of 1862 (Professor Adams connects this comet with the August meteors), 
and the other by C. F. W. Peters of AUona, thai it coincides with that of Temple's 

Jf r Alexander Hersthel also maintains that the meteors are of recent origin. 
protKibly fragments from some of the great luminous bodies, and thai though at 
present a!*sembied in a comparatlvi ly dense group, tho difference of their relative 
velocitiea will have the effect of gradually distribuling them all over the meteoric 
ring, when a November shower will occur eveiy year. Mr Herschel aleo cuiefully 
obiHiTved 80 meteors with the view of calculating their weight, from the rate of their 
motion and the amount of heat (as shewn by Uieir bright uess) evolved iu the de- 
struction of their velocitjr, by the resistance of the uuuosphere, and found their 
weight to vary from 80 groins to 7^ lbs. 

The cause of the luminosity of meteors was long a point in dispute, the two chief 
suppositions being, that the resistance of the atmosphere to a bo<Iy dashing through it 
at aboQt 80 miles per second, generated so much heat as to produce ignition ; while the 
Dtlnr was t!»e ivV\ ' '< tiestrlal magnetism. The point most strongly urged 
a^aiii?! the flr>t , , i, by the supporters of the second, was, that the height 

ai which Hicleurs wcru occasionally seen rendered any action of the atmosphere 
iiiipo?«tble; but ns this objection was founded on the purely hypothetical opinion 
tJiat the atmoHphero did not extend more than alxjut 60 miles from the eartlrs sur- 
face, It was not very cogent. This problem was handled by Sir John Uerschel in an 
abie pnper publi*«hed in the *' Edinburgh Review " (Jauuiiry 1S4S), hi which he clearly 
sb«wed that the very hSgl! latent heat of the uir In the higher and rarer parts of the 
atmosphere, would W sufficient to cause an enormous development of heat in the 
e\-ent of ihe air being comi)res«ed before a bodv advancing into it with a •'phiuetary" 
velotjity. This opinion is ikjsv held by almost all eminent men of science. The enor- 
moua heat to which the inntf or is thus subject, produces incandescence, after which, 
with more or le^s facility, fu ( ording to the nature of the materials of which the 
meteor i^ corapoi-ed, the outer portion becomes liquid, and, by Uie powerful resistr 
aiictr of the nir to the meteor'*; rapid course, is thrown off in a long sti-enm, forming 
the tail, which, after rapidly losing its velocity, is precipitated to the eartli as a fine 


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dant like volcaolc osh ; while the meteor thus rapidly and coostantly dtmlniahlDg as 
it flies along in Its headlong course, either becomes wholly diesipated into *' tail," 
falls to the eartli, or makes its way oat beyond the limits of the earth's atmosphere, 
and continues its conrse. This supposition of exclusive atmospheric agency also 
gives a plausible explanation of the phenomenon of meteors ** bursting," this being 
caused ny the sodden heating and consequent expansion of the outer part, while the 
interior was still in the state of intense cold acquired while in interplanetary space. 

While astronomers physicists in general have been thus trying to reduce the phe- 
nomena of meteors to a system, their chemical brethren have not been idle. Public 
collections oi meteoric bodies have been made at Vicuna, the British Museum, Paris, 
Berlin ; and private ones by Mr Greg of Manchester, Baron Kelchcnhach in Aus- 
tria, and Professor Shopord in Amcnca; and opportunities have thus been afforded 
of determining the nature of their composition. 

BTBTHODISTS, the name originally given, about the year 17», by a student of 
Cbri8t-Church to the brothers Wesley, and several other vouug men of a serious 
turn of mind, then members of different colleges of Orford, who used to assemble 
together on particular nights of the week chiefly for religious conversation. The 
term was, selected, it is believed, in allnsion to the exact and methodical manner in 
which they performed the various engagements which a sense of Christian duty in- 
duced them to undertake, such as meeting together for the purpose of stu(Wiug 
Scripture, visiting the poor, and prisoners in Oxfordjail, at remUcw Intervals. 8utK 
sequeutly, It came to be applied to the followers of Wolsry and his coadjutors, when 
these had acquired the magnitude of a new sect; and though their founder himself 
wislied that ** the very name," to use bis own words, ** might never be mentioned 
more, but be buried in eternal oblivion," yet it has finally come to be accepu>d by 
most, if not all of the various denominations who trace their ori^u mediately or 
immediately to the great religious movement commericcd by John Wesley. For an 
account of the origin and earlier development of Methodism, sec articles on the 
brothers Weslbt and Whitefield. Wo confine ourselves here to a brief notice of 
its organisation, doctrine, and present condition. 

1. Orj7ani»at<on.— This appears to have been partly improvised by Wesley to suit 
the exigencies of his position. It was not a theoretical and premeditated, bat a 

Sracticalaud extempore system. In the " Knles of the Society of the People called 
[ethodists" drawn up by himself, he says: *Un the latter end of the year 
1739, eight or ten persons came to me In London, who appeared to be 
deeply convinced of sin, and eameslly groaning for redemption. They de- 
sired (as did two or three more the next day) that Iwould spend some time with 
them in prayer, and advise them how to flee from the wrath to come, which they saw 
continually nnnging over their heads. Thtit we miglil have more time for this great 
work, I api>oiuted a day when they inlght all come together, which, from thencefor- 
ward thev did every week, viz., on Tlmrsday in the evening." 'this l»o calls'* the 
first Methodist Society." Its num1>ers rapidly increased, and similar '* societies '' 
were soon formed In dlffercnts parts of England, where the evangelistic labors of 
the Wesleys had awakened in many miuds ** a desire to flee from the wrath to come, 
and be saved from their sins "—the only condition, we may remark, required of any 
for admission into these societies. In order to ascertain more minutely how the 
work of salvation was progressing in individual cases, Wesley subdivided the socie- 
ties into ** classes," according to their respective places or abode, each class contain- 
ing about a doxcn persons, under the superintendence of a *Meader," whose duties 
are partly religious and partly financial. 1. lie has to see each person in bis class 
once a week,"* to inquire bow their souls prosper, and to encourage, comfort, or 
censure, as the case may require. 8. To collect the voluntary contribatious of 
his class, and pay it over to the ** stewards " of the societv. and to give 
the ministers all necessary Information regarding the spiritual or bodily condition of 
those under ids leadership. For preaching purposes on the other baud, tho 
societies were aggregated— a certain number of them constituting what is called a 
circuit. This now generally includes a town, and a rural circle of ten or fifteea 
miles. To each circuit, two, three, or four ministers are appointed, one of whom is 
styled the ** superintendent ;" and nere they labor fur at least one year, and not nioro 
than three. Every quarter, the classes are vit*ited by the ministers, who make it a 
point to couTerse personally with every member; at tlie terminuliou oC which proo 


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ceeding. a "circn!t-inceting**is held, compo«ed of minletora, Btewardp, lenders of 
ciib»ec», lay-preachers, Ac The Htewards (wbo are taken from the fsocicUiee) deliver 
their collections to u circuir-stewiird, and the financial bn^incss of the body \a hei-e 
pnblicly settled. At this quarterly meeting, candidates for the office of the niiui^try 
are proposed bv the presidout, and the uonilnatioii is approved or rejected by the 
members. Still larger associations are the ** districts," composed of from ten to 
twenty circuits, the mintstersjof which meet ouce a year, under tt)cpret»idency of one 
of their number, for the following purposes : 1. To examine candiotites for the min- 
istry, and to try ** cases " of immorality^ heresy, insubordination, or inefficiency on 
the part of the clergy. 2. To decide preliminary questions concerning the 
building of chapels, a. To investigate and detcr»nine the claims of 
tiie poorer circuits to assistance from the general funds of the body. 
4. To elect a representative to the committee of Confereuce, whose duty 
is to nomiuate roiuiptere for the different stntions for the ensuing year 

—their appointments, however, being subject to the revision oC Conference. In 
" * ' * * ' " i\j teemar ' ' 

eliberato ai 

lie "Confei 

Charles, tw 

his zealanc 
nbr employments, and devote themselves to declaring the nu ssage of the Gospel. 

business of the districts, Inyineu (such us 
md vote eonally with tlie clergy. The eu- 
irence." The first was held in 1744. wlieii 

all the financial and other pnrelv 
circvft-stewardsaDd otiiers) deliberate and ^ 

premeHetbodistassembly isthe "Conference.' 

John Wesley met his brother Charles, two or three other clerpymen, and a few of 
tiie *• prejichers^ — men whom his zeal and fervor had induced to abandon their sec- 

Tbe purpose for which he called them together was, he says, " for tlie sake of cou- 
▼ersiugOD the affairs of the * societies' and the result of our consulta- 
tions we set down to be the rule of our future practice." In the course of his life, 
Wesley presided at forty-seven of these annual assemblies. The Conference now 
consists of 100 ntinisters, mostly seniors, who bold their office accord! iig to arningo- 
ments prescribed iu a Deed of Declaration, executed by John Wesley liimsiOf, and 
enrolled in Chancery. But the representatives previously mentioned, and all the 
ministers allowed by the district committees to attend— who may or may not bu 
members of the legal Conference — sit and vote usually as one body, the 100 confirm- 
Sngtbclr decisions. Iu this assembly, which is exclusively clerical, every minister's 
cbarr.cter is snbjfectcd to renewed and strict ■scrutiny, and if any charge be piovod 
agwust him, he is dealt with accordingly ; candidates for the ministry are examined 
both pablicly and privately, and set apart to their sacred office; the entire proceed- 
ings of the inferior courts (if we may so call them) are finally reviewed; and the 
condition, requirements, and prospects of the body nre duly considered. 

8. Doctrine and Worship. — Uuaer this head, not much requii-es to l)e said. Wos- 
leyan Methodists claimed to be considered orthodox, J^otestant, and evangelical. 
Ttie propriety of the last two appellations will probably not be disputed^ but a rigid 
CaJvtnist might object to the flnt They accept the artfWM of the English Church, 
bat believing these articles to have been framea on a basis of comprehension, they 
consider themselves at liberty to acceitt them in an Anniniau sense. It mutt not, 
however, be supposed ttiat they are out-and-out Arminians. Tiieir great dlstin- 
gniflijng doctrine istbe universality and freedom of the atonement; hence they re- 
ject the Calvinistic doctrine of predestiuatiou (which they conceived to be incom- 
patible with tlie former), but while they maintain the freedom of the will and the re- 
fp i-nillity ('[ 1)1 HI. tin y :ilso maintain his total fall in Adam, and his utter i nu- 
bility lu recover IiimBclL If these two appear to the human uuderstandinfr to con- 
flict, it irii nevertheless asserted that the Bible tenches both; and it is ol)jecled to 
hi'^h Calvinism, that iu its anxiety to be loeical, it has shewn itself un- 
ecriplurai. Prominence is also given by the Wesleynn M. to certain points 
of religion, ^ome of which are not altogether peculiar to them. Thry 
luslst on the necessity of men who profess to be Christians feeling a 
pertcnai interest iu the blessings of salvation — i. e., the assurance of for- 
^vf^iiL*-^ oC sins and adoption into the family of God. This, however, 
IS not to by confounded with a certainty oi final aalvalion. They believe the Spirit 
of God gives no asjsurance to any man of that, but only of present pardon. In har- 
mony w)ih this view, they reject the doctrine of the necessary perseverance of tiie 
saiut»(. and iiold that ii ii< fearfully possible to fall from a state of grace, and even 
to pel tj»h at liBt nftcf liavlog "tasted of the heavenly gift," end having been " made 
pamkexii of the Xloly Ghost." They also maintain the perfectibility of Chrlsiiuns, 


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or rather the powriblllty of their entire sanctlficatlon as a privilege to be enjoyed In 
thla life. But Wer<ley •* explains ** that *• Christian perfection does not imply au ex- 
emption from ignorance or mistake, infirmities or tomntntious ; bat it implies the 
being so crucified with Christ as to be able to testify, •I live not, bnt Christ liveth 
iu nie.' " ne regards the sins of a ** perfect *' Christian as " inrolnntary transcrcs- 
sious," and does not think tliey shonla be called *' sins "at all, thongh he admits 
thai they need the atoning blood of Christ The Weuleyan Methodists in their re- 
ligions senricos use more or less the Knglish lituKjy ; the mornin«; service being read 
in many of their cliapiils, and the sacramental offices being required In all. They 
observe a •* watch-night" on tlie eve of the New Year, on which occasion the re- 
ligious services are protracted till mldniffht, and their chnnels are generally crowded 
to excess; and in the beginning of the year they hold a ** covenant-service," at 
which congregations stand up to a man (though this form is not Invjiriable), and 
solemnly vow to serve the Lord. But even the ordinary nliglous services in some 
places are freqnentiy marked by an ebnllitiou of fervent feeling on the part of the 
audience, which has a very singular effect upon a strau'jer. 

8. ££wtory.— The history of Methodism is for many years the history of Christian 
effort to evangelise the neglected ** masses" of England. The labors of Wesley, and 
of those whom he inspired to imitate his example, were of tlic noblest description, 
and met with remarkable success. Tiic reformation of life which lils pnachlng 

{produced, for example, among the Kingswood colliers and the Cornwall wrecken«, 
8 a testimony to the power of religion which cannot l)e too hi^lily estimated. The 
zeal which has inspired the body in regard to foreign missions', although in the 
highest degree lionorable, is only the logical development of their eiforts at home 
— lor they originally re«'arded their society In England as simply a vast " home mls- 
Bion," and neither Wesley nor his followers desired to consider themselves a •* sect," 
a new church. In the common usage of the term, but were warmly attached to the 
old national chnrch, and considered themselves among iier true chlldieu. Wlien 
Wesley died (ITOl), his "societies " had spread over the United Kingdom, the con- 
tinent of Europe, tlie States of America, and the West IndicK, and cumbere<J 80,000 
members. Since then, they have laittely increased, and, according to ihe returns 
for the year 1875, the membership (in^diug the numbers in foreign misfions, em- 
bracing continental India, Northern Europe. China, Asia Minor, the Sontli Sea and 
West India Islands) amounted then to 664,815 (of whom S93,S43 belonged to Great 
Britain and Ireland), and the number of ministers, S905 (of whom 2050 l>e1ons^ed to 
the United Kingdom). The annual Income of **Tho Wcsleyau Methodist Missiou- 
ary Societv " In 18T6 was £190,000. 

The Wesleyan M. have three theological colleges for the training of ministers, 
one at Richmond Hill, Surrey, a second at Didshnry, South Lancashire, and a thii-d 
at Headlngley, in Yorkshire, besides the establishments at SliolHcld and Taunton ; 
two schools (New Kingswood School and Woodhouse Grove School) for the educa- 
tion of sons of Wesleyan ministers ; and two for the daughters, one at (Clapton and 
another at Sonthport. The boys receive a six years' and the girls a four years* 
course of instruction. The Methodist Book-room is situated in the City Koad, 
London, and issues hundreds of thousands of religious publications (tracts, &<-.) 
monthly. The newspapers and other periodicals porfessedlv in connection with 
the body are the larger and smaller Magazines, the *' Christian Miscellany, " *• Wes- 
leyan Sunday School Magazine," monthly ♦'Exercises on Scripture Lessons," 
" Bariy days," the " Watchman," the " Methodist Recorder," and the •• London 
Quarterly Rcvie^v." Among the more eminent Methodist authors may be 
named the two Wesleys, Fletcher, Benson, Clarke, Moore, Watson. Drew, Ed- 
mondson, Sutcl iff e, Jackson. Treffry, Rule, Nichols, Smith, and Etheridgc. 

Mbthodist Episcopal Church, the name given to the Society of We!»leyan M. 
In the United StaloB of America, where the first members of tliat body— I in migrant a 
from Ireland— established themselves as a religions society in New York Tu the 
year ITW. In the course of a year or two, their numbers had considerably iu- 
.creased, and they wrote to John Wesley to send iheni out some competent 
'preachers. Two immediately offered themselves for the work, Ricliard Boardinaii 
and Joseph Pilmoor, who were followed in 1771 by Francis Asbury and Richard 
Wright. The agitations preceding the War of Independence which soon afterwards 
broke oat, interrapted the labors of the Bnglish Methodist preachers In America, all 


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of whotOf with the exception of Asbury, returned home Def ore the clo*e of the yenr 
1T77; but tbei -place appears to have been supplied by others of native origin, und 
tliey continued to prosper, so tiiat, nt tlie termination of the revolutflonnry Btrucgle, 
they nnmbered 43 prcaclicrs and 13,740 members. Up to tliis time, the American 
Wesli'yan M. Iiud laid no claim to bein^ a distinct religious organisiition. Liice 
Wailey himself, tiiey reernrded themselves as members of llie Biigllsh Episoopul 
Cbarch, or rather of that branch of it tlien existing in America, and tlieir 
** preacliers " as a body of irregular auxiliaries to the ordniiied clergy. •• Episcop.ii 
churches." wc an; informed, " arc still £>tandinc in New York and elsewhere, at wIidwj 
altars Embury, Pilmoor, Boardman, Strawbrldge, Aebury, and Kankin, the earliest 
Hetbodif't preacliers, received the holy communion." But ihe recognition of the 
United States as an independent country, and the difference of feelings and interests 
that necessarily sprnug up between the congregations at home and those in America, 
rcoderod the formation of an independent society inevitable. Wesley became con- 
ccioas of this, and met the emergency In a manner as bold as it was unexpected. 
He himself was only n presbyter of the Church of England, but having persuaded 
himself that in the primitive church a presbyter and a bishop were one and the same 
order, differing only as to their official functions, he asi<nmed the ofDceof ihe latter, 
and, with the assistance of some other presbyters who had joined his movement, he 
set apart and ordained the Rev Thomas Coke, D.C.L., of Oxford University, bishop 
of tlie infant church, September 2. 17S4. Coke Immediately sailed for America, and 
appeared, with bis credentials, attbo Conference iieid at Baltimore, December 25 uf 
the same year. He was nnaniroously recognised by the assembly of preachers, 
appointed Asbnry coadjutor bishop, and ordained several preacliers to the offices 
Of deacon and elder. Wesley also granted the preachers permission (which shews 
the extensive ecclesiastical power he wielded) to organise a separate and independ- 
ent church under the Episcopal form of government : hence arose the *' Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the United States of America. " Nevertheless, there wei-e not 
a few who were dis«>atisfied with the Episcopal form of government. This feeling 
grew stronger and stronger, until, in 1830, a secession took place, and a new eccle- 
siastical organisation was formed, called the Mxthooist Fbotestant Church, 
whose numbers, according to the returns for 1874, amounted to 66,000 members and 
fU preachers. In 1842, a second secession took place, chiefly on the question of 
slavery— the seceders pronouncing all slave-holding sinful, and exclnding slave- 
holders from churcli membership and Christian fellowship ; and in 1843, a meeting 
WAS held at Utica, New York, where a new society was constituted and named the 
Weslstak Methodist Connection of America, whose members in 1870 
amounted to 90,(!00 and Its preachers to 250. But in 1344 a far larger and more im- 
portant secession took place on the same question, when the whole of the Methodist 
societies in the then slave-holding states, conceiving themselves aggrieved by the 
proceedings instituted at the general conference of New York (1844) against the 
Ker. James O. Andrew, D.D., one of the bishops, and a citizen of Georgia, wiio 
had married a lady possessed of slaves, resolved to break off connection with their 
northern brethren. Ilence originated the Methodist Episocopal Churoh, South, 
whose nomt>er8 in 1874 were as follows : Travelling preachers, 3184; local preach- 
en^ 5344 ; and members, 643,10d, Including whites, colored, and Indians. To these 
must be added 200,000 members, forming the African Metliodlst Episcopal Churcli, 
ftnd 170,000 of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. In 18«9 a inovement 
began iu favor of the re-union of the northern and sontliern sectiousof the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Churches, whicii may — now that slavery is abolished— be sncccss- 
fnlly carried out. It may here be stated thot the members of the Northern Metho^ 
dMEyu i I < -eh amounted in 1874 to 1,345,080. 

Refni * English Wesleyan M.. wc now proceed to mention the various 

lecessioii - ii in ifie parent body in the order of time. 

1. The Mi^TnoDisT New Connection.— This society detached itself from the 
older one n 1T9T. Its doctrines and order are the same ; the only difference being 
that it a v!n oiH layman to each minister into the Conference, and allows them to 
share in the tmneactfou of all bnsinci>B, both secular and spiritual. These laymen 
srecl>08«n either by the circuits, or by ** guardian repi-esentutives" elected for life 
by the conference. In 1876, the Mumbersof the New Connection were: members, 
w,7<0 ; preachers, 169. There were iu addition :i849 members ou probation. 




M«thiMii OQ 

Methfleno ^^ 

%. Privitiyb Methodists, Ta1p:Ar1y desf^nted Raktebs, were first fonned 
into ft society in 1810, tlioui;U the fouiidrra hadMpnrnted from the old society somo 
years before. The imnu'diutc caa^ of this sepanitiou wns a dli^agreetneiit as to the 
propriety of carap-meeiiufifa for religions purposes; and also npon ttiequcstiou of 
females being permitted to preacli, A third |)olut of difference is the ndinission to 
tlieir conference of two liiy delegates for every minister. lu 1815, their numbers 
were : menii)ers, 1T9,429 ; preachers 1160. 

8. Independent Methodists, who separated in 1810. Thev arc chiefly distin- 
guished by their rejection of a paid ministry, and number in Eugmnd and Scotland : 
members, 4000 ; preachers, 290 ; scholars. 6000. 

4. Bible Christians, also called Brtanites, wcm formed by a local preacher^ 
named Bryan, who scc<raed from the Wesleyans in 1815. The only distinction bo- 
twe^i them and the original body appears to be that the former receive the euchar- 
lstio«lements in a Bittuig postnrc. In 1875, their numbers were : members, '26,699 ; 
preachers, S76. 

6. United Free Churoh Methodists IiaTclieen recently formed by the amalga- 
nation of two sects of nearly equal nnmcrica! strength. The oUh^r of these, called 
the We^letan Association, originated in 1834 in tlio removal of one or two in- 
flnential ministers from the original connection. Points of dilference subsequently 
appeared with regard to the constitution of the conference.— Tlie yoanger sect, 
called the Wesltan RsroRX Association, toolc its rise in 1849 tlnougn the ex- 
pnlsion of several ministers from the parent lK>dy on a charge of insubordination, 
and being founded on the same principles as the last-mentioned commnnity, arriiugc* 
mcnts were entered into for their union, which was subseqntntly effected. Church 
independency, and freedom of rcpreseutfltlon in the annual assembly, are two of 
tlie most prominent distinctive traits in the organisation of the United Methodist 
Free Church. Their nuited numbers in 1875 were: members, 71,817; ministers, 
875; local preachers, 8966.— Tiie We^leyan Jhtform Union consists of al)0ut 20 
ministers and 7000 members, who liave not amalgamated with the Methodbt Free 

This is perhaps also the most convenient place to notice the Welsh Calvan- 
isTio Methodists. They are not a secession from the followers of WesU y, but 
orisiuated partly In the preachlni; of his friend and fellow-evangelist, Whiti'lleld, 
and partly In that of Howe! Harris, a Welsh clergyman of the Church of Bngland. 
Whitefleld was a Calvlnist ; Wesley, as we have scon, was on somo points decidedly 
Armlnlan. A difference arose between them on the snbji'ct of election. Hence- 
forward their paths lay in different directions. Whitefleld, however, did not form 
a religious sect; and after his death (1769), bis followers, being left without any 
distinct bond or organisation, either followed the leading of the Countess uf 

Huntingdon (a. v.), or became distributed amonc other denominations, a large 
portion, especially in Wales, becoming absorl>ea in the new society gradtuilly 
forming Itself through the preaching of Howel Harris and his coadjutors. This 

body, however, was not formally constituted a religious society till the bogiouiug 
of this century. 

METHUBN" TREATY, a commercial treaty between England and Portugal fn 
1703. so-called in consequence of being negotiated by Paul Methnen of Corsham. 
English ambassador at Lisbon. It was agreed, by the treaty, that the wines ol 
Portugal should be received by England at a rate of one-third less duty than thotto 
of France, lu 1836, the Portuguese government relinquished the stipulations of 
the treaty. 

ME'THYL is an organic radical homologous with Ethyl (q. v.), being the lowest 
term in the series Cnlln + i, n In this cjisc being equal to 9. Its formula is C^Hs : 
but In its free state, two atoms unite to form a single molecule, so that free methyl 
is more accurately represented by (C.Hs)*. It is a colorless gas, of specific gravity 
1'086; it burns with a very feeble bluish flame, and Is not liquefied at a temperature 
of QP. It Is obtained by acting upon iodide of methyl with sine, in the same num- 
uer as in the preparation of etnyl. 

Like ethyl, it forms a very numerous class of compounds, of which the fol- 
lowing are the most important : Hydride <^ "Methyl (C^UsfH), known ac Light 
Carbttreited Hydrogen (q. v.), Marah-gaa and Fire-damp^ may be obtained either na« 


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tnrally or artiidany. As a natnral prodncf, !t Bometimes iffsnes from llasareff in 
c(»I-ffeflins, m&hine foi'th as if nnder liigti pressure. These di^cliarges of this 
pas are termed "Blowers" by the miuers, snd It is by the combuMion of tliis 
fire-d:imp that the terrific explosions which occasloually take place in coal-pits 
are caD<«ed. For its combustiou, twice Its volume of oxygen (and consequently ten 
times its volume of air) is required ; the resnlilng compounds being one volume of 
carbonic acid and two of steam. The vitinled air thus produced, which i» utterly 
nnflt for respiration, is known as the a/ter-damp or choke-damp^ and is as much 
drsaded as the explosion itself. Hydride of meihyl is nlhO one of the gaseous exhti- 
ktioas from roarslies and stagnant pools; and ttio bubbles thnt rise to tlie Kuifuce 
when the mod at the bottom of a pond is stirred up, consists chiefly of this gns. It 
nunr lie prepared artificially by siroujilv heating a mixture of crystallised acetate of 
flooa, hydraU; of potash, and powdered quicklime. It is a colorless inodorous, ^ste- 
les? gast, which may he breathed without npparcnt Injury If well diluted with air. 
Hydrated Oxide cj Methyl (CaHgCHO), known also as Methylie Alcohol^ Wood 
Spiritynnd Pyroacylie Spirit under wliich title its properties arc described), is the 
Btricc homolo^oe of vinous or ethylic alcohol {C^\lf,Oy\ib). Oxide of Meihyl (CglfjO), 
or Methylie Jsther, corresponds to the ordiuaiy, or, correctly speaking, the etiiylic 
ether, aud,like the latter, is produced by the di&tilluiion of a mixture of nietliylic 
aleohol and sulphuric acid. Oxide of methyl, like oxide of ethyl, combiue;* witli 
acids to form a class of ethereal salts, or couiponud ethers, as ttiey arc termed by 
some cliemists as, for example : Acetate of Methyl (or metliyl-ncetic etijer), 
CjHjCC^HtO, ; Buty rate of Methyl (or methyl-butyric ether), CaH80,CB»70, ; Ni- 
trate of Methyl for methyl-nitric ether), C,H30,N06 ; Salicylate of Methyl (or 
methyl«*a{icytic ether), C^U^OyCuU^Oi. The last-named compound mnv not only 
be obtniued br distilling a mixture of pyroxylic spirit with ealicy lie and sulphuric 
acidfs bat occurs ready formed in the vegetable kingdom, constituting the ef^sential 
oil procared from the Setula letUa, a species of birch, and from the GauUheria pro- 
cumbertB, or Winter Green, 

M'-ythl may be made to enter Into combination with bromine, iodine, chlorine, 
and fluorine, the bromide and iodide of methyl being colorlef^s fluids, and tiie chlo- 
ride aod fluoride colorless gases. Amongst the most interesting of the numer- 
ous methyl compoouds must be mentioned the artificial buses ornlkalies. which 
can be obtafned nrom ammonia by the sulwtitntlon of one, two, or three equivalents 
of methyl for one, two, or three of the equivalents of hydrogen contained in the 

If only one equivalent of hydrogen Is replaced by methyl, the resulting com- 
pound is NHj (CjH.) or CafIgN, an extremely alkaline gas known as methyiamitie^ 
or nuthylia, which ts more soluble in water than any other known gas ; water at 65° 
diK>olviug 1160 times its bulk. It is a frequent product of the destructive dis- 
tilifttion of nitrogenous Fubstances; and it is present when many natural 
alkaloids, such as narcotine and morphia, are distilled with caustic potash. 
The product resulting from tlie Fubf^liiuiion of two equivr.lents of inetliyl 
for two of liydrogen, and known as amethylamine^ closely reeehibles methylamine. 
Wi>en the three eonlvnlents of hydrogen are replaced by three of methyl, the result- 
ing compound la N (CoHji)) or C«Hj>N, a colorless gas, which is known as fri- 
fHtikylmnine, or triuiethylia, and has a disagreeable fl»hy odbr. It occurs in large 
qaaDtiiy in herring-brine, and has been detected in the spirit in which anatomical 

G'ejMratioos have iieen long kept. It is also found in Chenopodium vulvaria (Stiuk- 
g Gooee-foot), in the flowers of CrcUcegus oxyacantha (Common Hawthorn), and 
la ergot of rye. 

¥l: rnYLATED SPIRIT consists of a mixture of alcohol, of specific gravity 
O-SM', Willi 10 per cent, of Pyroxylic (q. V.) or wood-spirit. This addition of wood- 
■pirir n ndeis u unfit for drinking, although it scarcely interferes witli ita power as 
asolvt.t It U jiHoued by the exciseto be sold duty-free for manufacturing pur- 
poses, and for preserving specimens in museums. 

ME'THYLEHE. Bichloride of (CjH„Cl,), Is an organic compound which has 
recently aifiacied mnch attention from its value as an aueesthctic agent. Dr Rich- 
unlMm, vv* u !i;i!» long been studving the physiological properties uf the meihyl- 
componudsj with the view of fiuoiug ajnougst them a safer compound than chloro- 

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Mathylcn* DA 

form, belleres, from his ezperimoDts on anlmali, that in the subject of tlito trticto 
he Uas fouud aach a compoaud. As the deatha from chloroform muy bo compoted, 
according to him, at oue in 1600 administrations, It is obvious that tiiere is reason 
for searching for a aiiii safer aucestiietic agent. Dr Suow, as is well known, 
thonsht that be bad discovered an almost positively aofo agent in Amylene 
(C,«U|o) ; but ttie value of more tban 800 safe admlnlittralions was at once de- 
etruytfd by two rapidly succeeding deaths ; and heuce a larse number of succeasful 
caf>ee of tbe new agent must l>e reported before it will displace ctiioroform from its 
present well-deserved position. In the article on Mithtl (q. v.), we have shewn 
that tbc composition of liydrido of methyl (or roarsb gas) is expressed by CsHg.U, 
wbicb may bo writlen C,UUUH. Now, accordlue to tbe theory of subvtitutiuna, 
one, two, tbree, or even ali four of tbe atoms of hydrogen may be replaced by a 
corresponding nnmlier of atoms of clilorlne. Tbns, (a) if oue atom of H t>e replaced 
by oue atom of CI, we have chloridt n/ mtthyl^ C1H9CI ; (2>) if two atoms of H 
are replaced by two atoms of CI, tbe i-e^ulting compound is hiehloridA cf tiitthylent, 
CsH,UI«, the C^Hs bere representing a new radical termed metbyicue, of wbicb very 
iiitle is known ; U) if three atoms of H. are replaced by three atoms of CI, tbe ru- 
suiting compound is terchloride n/fomyUy CsUCly, or common cbloroform, another 
mdical, vIk., formyle, CiH, now appearing ; {d) if tlic whole of the H is replaced by 
CI, tbe resulting compound is tetrachloride <if carbon^ CCI4. We tbua tmve four new 
bodies wbicb may be coustractcd step by step out of bydnde of meibyl or marsh gas, 
and similarly, by starling with tetrachloride of carbon, tbe chemist may retrace tbe 
iudividual stages till be geta l>ack to nmrsh gaa. Ali these derivatives of marsh gas 
possess the power of prodnciug auflesthesin when they are inhaled as vapor by men 
and animals. That tbe latter two — viz., cbloroform and tetrachloride of carbon- 
possess this power, has been long known, Dr P. Smllh having especiolly directed 
attention to the properties of tbe last named compound; but that the first two also 
exert the same influence is a fact new to science, for which wc are indebted to Dr 
Riclmrdoou. "I discovend," be observes, ** that chloride of methyl was a certain 
and gentle ansstbetic in July [1367] lost, and this led me to liope that aontctbing 
more stable and manageable could be obtained—something that should stand Iratweeu 
the chloride of methyl and chloroform. Tlmt substance la now found in the bichlo- 
ride of methylene. That this compound would produce rapid, safe, and easy gon(*ral 
anse^Uietfia, I discovered by experiment on August 80th of the present year.' — ^*^Med. 
Times" October 19, 1S6T. 

It i» n colorless fluid, having an odor like that of chloroform ; and Is pleasant to 
inhale, as it causes little irritation to tbe mncouarmembrane. It boils at SSP, and 
has a spec gr. of 1*844, while that of its vapor hi 2i^7 (or nearly three times that of 
air). Hence, it boUs at a lower temperature than other ansesthotics ; while 
lis specific gravity, both as a liquid and a vapor, is lower than that of chloroform, 
but nmch higher than that of ether; hence, from its easier evaporation, it requires 
more free administration than chloroform, and, from its greater vapor density, it 
should be given less freely than ether. It mixes readily with absolute ether, and this 
combination yields *a vapor containing corresponding proportions of each, their 
boiling-points only differing at nMwt by 4°. It also coml>ines with chloroform in 
all proportions. It should have a neutral reaction to test-paper. If a trace of acid 
bo present— which is possible, but not probable— its Inhalation might prove dan- 
gorouH. To prevent decompoeitiou. It should, lilce ciUoroform, be well guarded 
from the action of light. 

Pigeons are the animals which Dr Kichardson most employs for experiments on 
anffi!*thctic agents generally. They present various advantages over roost other ani- 
mals ; oue otl be most important being that they die with singular readiueas under iba 
infinence of these agents. On exposing three pigeons to the action of the va|>or 
of a drachm of chloroform, bichloride of metbykne. and tetrachloride of carl>on, 
tiie peculiarity in the action of the bichlondo Is the absence, in the sleep 
it produce.*, of the so-called second deeree of narcotism. The bird elides 
from tbe first degree directly into tbe third, or that of absolnte insensihilify. 
The bichloride enters tbe circulation freely, and sustains the insensibility 
BO well, that intervals of many raiuntes may be allowed to pass without 
readmiiitstration ; while, from its being transformed aliogcUier into vapor 
at A temperature lower than Uiat of the pody, it can be more readily olimin»- 


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fed from the system than chloroform, or tetrachloride of carbon, when Its adminis- 
trfttiou is withheld. On animals, it acts more evenly on tlio respiration and circnla- 
tiou than any other of ihc various substances which Dr Ricbaidson has tried ; and 
the only diiiwi)ack, yet observed, is, that it sometimes produces vomiting; but 
this misadventure, so far as wc know, has not yet been observed when it has been 
administered to tuc human subject, and pigeons are known to vomit on slight 
provocation. The numbers of the resi^ratfons and of the pulse rise and fall together. 
which " is a good point, l)ecanse there is no condition more perilous than disturl)ea 
balance of the circulating and respiratonr systems." 

All anethetics given by inlialation after a certain dose destroy Hfe ; but thattiie 
destructive power of this new agent is less than that of cither chloroform or tcs^ 
tiachloride of carbon, seems proved. 

On trytngthe vapor upon himself, after ascertaining that it could be safely given 
to the lower animals, Dr Richardson inhaled it until ft produced insensibility. ^ I 
funsd the vapor very pleasant to breathe and little irritating, M'iiile drowsiness came 
on and unconsciousness without any noise in the bead or oppression. I recovered 
also, as the animals seemed to recover, at once and completely. I felt as tlKtugli I 
had merely shut my eyes, and had opened them again. In the meantime, I hnd^ 
however, performed certain acts of a motor kind unconsciously; forlinlialed the 
vapor in the laboratory, nnd there went to sleep, bull awoke in the yard adjoining. 
This was on September 28th last, when I iniialcd from a cup-shaped sponge. Since 
then, I have inhaled tt)evai)or in smaller quantities from several instruments, with 
Uie effect of proving that there is little dilterence required for its administration and 
that of chloroform. A little more bichloride is required in tlie earlier stages tlmu 
would be required if chloroform were being used, the fluid being more vuporisable. 
One drachm of bichloride to forty minims 0ids of a drachm) ot clilorofonn, reprc- 
seuta the difference required ; but when the narcotism is well set up, less of the 
bichloride is required to sustain the effect." 

The matoriafs on wliich this article is based are taken from a lecture delivered by 
Dr Kichardsou on the Stli of October 1867. In an address on Ana»tbctics by Dr Tidy, 
published in the '^Biiiish Medical Journal," Jan. 4, 1S79, it is mentioned that Mr 
Mor^mu, a dentist, has '* administered methylene 1800 times to persons of all ages, 
atMl for periods varying from a few minutes to three-quarters of an hour, witiiout a 
single accident. He also regards it as safer than chloroform, and speaks of the 
rauTdity with which it effects complete unconsciousness, as a rule two minutes only 
boiug uecdi'd; tlio rapidity of recovery, from one to three minutes only being re- 
quire for tue ansestbt'Sia to pass away; and lastly, the rapidity witli which con- 
sciousness may be abolished, if it return during tlie operation— as the chief points 
in its favor. The cause of death from its administration is syncope, not coma ; 
heiice, a bloodless condition of the lips— a point easily to be noticed— is the priuclpul 
iudiciition of danger." 

On the other hand, the preliminary report on the action of ansesthotics presented 
to the committee of the British Medical Association, and published in the same 
unmber of the "Journal," does not speak so favorably of methylene. The so-culled 
bichloride of methylene, it is alleged, has no definite and constant boiling point, and 
therefore appears to be a mixture. The formula, as now generally used, OHaCU, 
shews it to oe a compound of chloride of methyl mid chloroform (CH9CI + CBCI3). 
With frogs under methylene it was found that the heart became rapidly aftectid and 
soon stopped. With rabbits, respiration rapidly deteriorated and stop)>ed while the 
heart was still beating. In an experiment with aitiflcial respiration and exposure of 
the heart, the heart was weakened and Boon stopped, but not as rapidly as wit li 
chloroform. As in the case of chloroform, the right ventricle became enormously 
di^'ended, the first sign of paralysis being the commencement of the distension. 
r£tber doea not affSect tlie heart] The experimenters found that as nua'sthetics, 
jMbtUyl Chloride <C(H«) and Slhidene DicMoride (C2H4Clg) combine tlie advaulages 
of speed and safety, and are therefore preferable to methylene. 

Chloride of Metfiyl, the first of the compounds derived by substitution from hy- 
dride of methyl, Iimi, according to good authorities, also valuable remedial qualities. 
Half an ouuce of ir, diluted with water, and with the addition of a little sugar, acts 
as a pleasant but potent intoxicator. In smaller doses, it might be useful as a sooth- 
ing and refrigerating agent 


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Mf^ 32 

MfiTO'NIC CYCLE, so called from Its InTeotor, Heton, who flonrlshed at 
Atheufl nbont489 B.C., is n cycle of 19 years, at the end of which time the new iiiooiis 
fall ou the saiue days of the year, aud eclipses recur iu uearly the same order. This 
arises from the circamstance, that 19 8oI»ryf*ar8 are uearly equal to 235 lonations, 
their average values beings 6989*63885 aud 6989*60249 days respectively. 

MB'TONYHY (Gr. metonymies, sigoifyius: a chauge of uame) is a ftgnre of speech 
by which oue tliiug is put for another to which it bears an important relation, as a 
part for the whole, the effect for the cause, the abstract fcr the concrete, &c. ¥6t 
example, " X^^^ /ip« are an abomination to the Lord." This figure is very ex- 
pressive, and is much used in proverbial and other pithy modes of speech. 

ME'TOPfi, the space, in the frieze of the Doric order, between tlie trlglyphft— 
generally ornamented with figures, or bulls' heads, or paterse. 

MB'TRA, an Ingenious pocket-inslrurocnt, invented by Mr Herbert Mackworth, 
about 1S58. It combiues the thermometer, climometer, goniometer, anemometer, 
level, plummet, scaler &c., so that, by Its assistance, travellers or cneiucers can at 
once record their observations. It enables U3 to determine the dip of rocks, angles 
of crystals, temperature, rate of wind, to take levels of large surfaces, determine lati- 
tude, and a variety of other matters connected with physical science. As a pocket- 
iuBtrument, it is of great value. 

ME'TRE (Gr. measure) is that regulated succession of certain groups of syllables 
in which Poetry (q. v.) is usually written. A greater or less number of groups forms a 
litu or verM (Lat. a turnlnc), aud in modern languages, the verses usually rhyme 
with oue another ; although this U not at all essential to the notion of metre. See 
Rhtxe, Blank Vbbse. In the classic languages, metre depended upon the way iu 
which long and short syllables were nuide to succeed one another. Bugllsh metre 
depends, not upon the distinction of long and short, but upon that of accented and 
unaccented syUables. Thus, in the lines, 

The cuVlfew tolls | the kne'll | of pa'rtling da'y— 
Wa'rriors and | chl'efs, should the | sha'ft or the | swo'rd— 

the accents occur at regular Intervals ; and the groups of syllables thus formed con- 
stitute each a metre, or measure. The groups of long and short syllables composing 
the metres of cUissIc verse, were called feet^ each foot having a distiuctive name. 
The same names are sometimes applied to Euglish m^isures, an accented syllable iu 
Buglish being held to be equivalent to a long syllable iu Latin or Oroek, and an uu- 
ucc<*nted syliablo to a short 

Every metre iu Buglish contains one accented inrllable, and either one or two an- 
accented syllables. As the accent may be on the first, second, or third syllable of 
tiie group, there thus arise five distinct measures, two dissyllabic and three trisylla- 
bic, as seen in the words— 1, foully (corresponding to the classic Trochee) ; 2, reca'Il 
(Iambus) ; 8, te'rribly (Daciyle) ; 4, coufn'sion (Amphibrachys) ; 6, absentee' (Ano- 

These measures are arranged in lince or vertee^ varying in length in different 
pieces, and often in the same piece. The ending measure of a line is frequenily in- 
complete, or has a supernumerary syllable ; and sometimes one measure is snbsti- 
tntea for another. All that Is necessary is, that some one measure be so predomi- 
nant as to give a character to the verse. Constant recurrence of the same measure 
produces monotony. The following lines exemplify the five measures : 
let Measure. 
Ri'ch the — trea'sure. 
Be'tter | ti'xty | yea'rs of i Bn'rope | tha'n a { cy'cle | of Ca | tha'y. 

2d Measure. 

Alo'ft I in a'w I fnl sta'te. 

The prompter stu'd i y of ) manki'nd | is ma'n. 

8d Measure, 

Bi'rd of the j wi'ldemess. 

Wa'rriors and 1 dii'efa, should the | sha'ft or the | swo'rd. 


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The deV of | tho mo'rofog. 

yoa'ng Locb|ixiTa'r has | come oa't of | the we'st 

6th Heaaure, 

As they ro'ar | ou tho sho'ro. 

The ABsy'r [ fan came do'wu | like a wo'lf ( on the fo'Id. 

It te faMtlDCtivel J felt that some of theM roeiisaree are better ignited for particular 
sabjects ibaD others. Tbtis, the first lias a brisk, abmpt, energetic character, agree- 
ktg weJ] with UtcIj and eajr subjects, and also with the liiteose feeliug^of such pieces 
as ** Scots, whft ha'e." The secoud is by fur tlie most usual metre iu English poetry ; 
it occurs, in fact, most frequently iu the ordinary proiHi-movement of the laugaage. 
It is smooth, graceful, aud stately ; readily adapting itself to easy narrative, aud the 
expression of the gentler feelings, or to the treatment of severe and euhllme sub- 
jects. The trisyllabic metres, owlDg to the number of nueccented syllables in 
them, are rapkj in their movement, aud calculated to express rushing, bounding, 
impetuous feelings. They are all less regular than the dissyllabic metres. One of 
tbem is frequently substituted for another, as iu the oponiug of Byrou's *' Bride of 

Kno'w ye the | la'nd where the | cy'prcss and | my'rtle 

Are e'mblems | of dee'ds that | «re do'ne iu | their cli'me ; 

Where the ra'ge | of the vu'l | tare, the lo've | of the tu'r | tie- 
where each of the three Hues is Iu a different metre. In addition to this Irrego- 
larity, oue of the imaccented svllables is often wanting. For instance, in Hrt 
Hetnana'B poem, '* The Voice of Spring :" 

1 co'mc, 1 1 co'me I j ye havcca'lled | me lo'ng; 

I co'me 1 o'er the mou'u | tains with li'gbt | and so'ng— * 

the first line has only one irnlRf ure of three syllables, although the general character 
of the versification is trisyllabic 

Id a kind of verse introduced by Coleridge, and used occasionally by Byi-on aud 
others, tlie unaccented syllables are altogether left out of account, una the versifl- 
csdoo is made to depend upon having a regular number of accents iu tho line : 

There i's not wi'nd euou'gh to twl'rl 

The o'ue red le'af, the la'st of its cla'u, 

That da'uces as o'fteu as da'uce it ca'n 

Ou the to'pmost twi'g that looks n'p at the sky'. 

Here ther^ are four accents in each line, but the number of syllables varies from 
eight to eleven. 

To aeon a line or group of lines, ia to divide it iuto the measures of which it is 

llie variety pf combinations of metres and rhjrmes that may be formed, is end- 
less ; but a few of tlio more usual forms of Euglish versification liave received special 
names, and these we may briefly notice. 

Oetot]fUdbic» are verses made up each of four measures of the second kind of 
metre, and therefore containing eight {octo) syllables : 

With fm'it I less la' | bor, Cla' j r» bon'nd 
And stro've | to sta'uch | the gu'sh \ iug wo'nud. 

Scott's poems ore mostly in octosyllabics, aud so is " Hndibras," aud many other 

Heroic is n term applied to verses containing Jive metres of the second kind, or 
ten syllables. Heroics ettlier rhyme in couplets, or are without rhymes, constituting 
blank verse. Many of the chief narrative and didactic poems in the English Inu- 

Siage are in rhyming heroics ; as those of Chaucer, l)rydeu, Pope, Cowper, &c 
Dton's two greatpoems, Young's " Nleht Thoughts," Thomson's " Seasons." 
CTcnrper's^Tatt," Wordsworth's ** Excursion," ana many others, are written in 

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Mottmrnlch «>* 

blank heroics. Metrical dramas are almost always in blank Terse ; In which case 
tliere is freqaentJy a supeninmerary syllable, or even two, at the end of the line : 

To be, I or not i to be, | that is i the quee | tUm: 
Whether | 'tis no | bier iu | the mind | to sof \/er. 

In EUgiaetf the lines are of the Riinio length and tbesnmo measnrensin heroics; 
but tbe rhymes are alternate, and divide the poem into quatrains or stausos of four 
lines, as in Gray's ** Elegy. " The Spenserinn stnnss, popalarlsed by Spenser In 
tbe ** Fairy Qaeeu, " and mnch used by Byrou. differs from common heroics only in 
the arrangement of the rhymes, and iu conclnaing with au Alexandrine (q. t.). 

Service metre^ also called comnton metre^ is the form of verslflcatiou adopted in 
the metrical Psalms, in many hymns, and other lyrical pieces. From l)eing fre> 
quently employed iu ballads, tliis metre is also called baUad fnetre. The first and 
third lines often rhyme, as well as the second and fourth. 

Such are some of the more usual and definite forms cf rersiflcation. In many 
pooms, especially the more recent ones, so much licence is assumed, that it isdiffi- 
cult to trace any regular recurrence or other law determining the cliaugesof metre, 
or the leugtlis o( the lines; the poet seeks to suit the modtuntion at every turn to 
the varying sentiments. But it mnv be questioned whether much of this refinement 
or urt is not thrown away, npon ortlinnry readers at lea^^t, who, failing to perceive 
any specisl suitubleuess, are inclined to look upon those violent departures from 
occnstomed regularity as the results of caprice. 

The kind of verse called Hexameter is described under its own name. 

MtTTRE, the basis of the " mctrlail " or modem French system of weights and 
measures, and the unit of length. The first sn<*:ge5tioti of a chaufre In the previous 
system dates as far back as the time of Philippe To Bel ; but up till 1790, no impor- 
tant change liad been effected. On the 8tli May ITiN), proposals were made by the 
French government to the Britit^h, for the meeting of an equal number of mcmbem 
from the Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London, to deterniinc the 
length of the simple pcndnlnm vibrating seconds in lat. 40^ at the level of tl>e sen, 
wiih the view of making this the unit of a new sysremr of measures. The Britisli 
government, howevor, did not give this proposal a fuvurnUlc reception, and it fell to 
the ground. The French government, impatient to effect a reform, obtained the 
appointment by tbe Academy of Sciences of a commission composed of Borda, Ia- 

frrange, Laplace, Mougc, and Ccmdorcct, to choose from the following three, tlie 
cugth of tne pendulum, of the fourth part of the equator, and of the fourth part of 
the meridian, the one best fitted for their purpose. The commission decided in 
favor of the lost— resolving that the l-10,0U0,00eih of a quadrant of the meridian (the 
distance from the equator to the pole, measured as along the surface of vtlll water) 
1>e taken for the basis of the new system, and be called a ** metre.'' Belambre and 
Mcchain were immediately charjzed with tbe measurement of the meridian between 
Bunkcrqne and Barcelona ; and the result of their labors was referred to a committee 
of twenty member*, nine of whom were French, the rest having been deputed by 
the governments of Holland, Savoy, Denmark, Spain, Tnscany, and the Iloniau, 
Cisalpine, Lignriau, and Helvetic republics. By this committee, the length of the 
m6lre was found to be 443*296 Parisian lines, or 89*8707904 English inclies; and 
standards of it and of the kilogramme, (see Graxsib) were constructed, and de- 
posited among the archives of France, where tliey i«till remain. The "metrical 
system " received legal sanction 2d November 1801. The following are the multiples 
and fractions of tne mdtro which are iu cummon use, expressed iuiCngiish measure: 
English Inches. 
MilUmdtre, -0898707904 

Centimdire, -898707904 

Decimetre, 8*93707904 Bngllsh Feet. English Tarda. 

Mbtbb. 89-8707904 = 8*2808992 = 1093633 

DecamAtre, 893*707904 = 83*«(»899« = 10-98638 

Hectometre, 8907-07904 = 828*09992 = 109*8683 

KiUmidtre, 89870*7904 = 3980-8992 = 1093*033 

Myriam^tre, 893707*904 = 82808*992 = 10930*83 

From the mMre, the other principal units of measure and weight are at once de- 
rived. See ABB, LxTBE, Gbaxice, Fbakc. 


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MBTRONOMB, a Tftliiable small machine for Indicating the correct time or 
speed at which a ronslcal composition ehonld be pinyed. It wns iuveuted in 1815 by 
Halzel, the Inventor also of the automaton trnnipetcr. Sec Automaton. The test 
oC a correct metronome is, that when set at 60 it shall beat seconds. 

ICETRCyPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACT. The metropolis of the United 
Klugdom, owing to its immense size, bus been regulated foroKlile and s;iuUary pnr- 
potes chiefly bT special acts, oue of which is called the Metropolis Local Management 
Act. It had long been subject to a special Building Act, which laid dowu minute 
regulations as 1o the formation of streets, alteration and building of houses; and the 
Metropolis Buildings Act stili contains a code appUczible to building regulations, the 
chief principle of which is, that no person can build or make alterations till they 
bsTe boeti dulir approved by the inspectors, whose duty it is to see that certain con- 
diilooa have oeeu complied witli as regards the public safety. In 1855, a great 
change was made In the internal economy of tlie metropolis, by the Metropolis Lo- 
cal Mana{:ement Act, which crcatinl the Metropolitan Board of Works, and provided 
it with extensive powers of druinnge, sewerage, lighting, cleaning, removing nui- 
sances, and general improvements, and with powers al»o to rate the occupiers of 
booses for the expenses of tlio general management. Formerl}', each vestry did 
what it thought proper within its own parish, and there was no uniformity observed 
in the details of management. Bnt the above act contained a code of laws affecting 
nnmeroos details of street and city life. Oue important function was the systematic 
construction of sewers and the removal of nuisances. No new building is now 
allowed to be buUt without suificleut draius aud wuter-closets. Paving la enforced 
i& most cases. 

MBTROI*OTITAN. in Church Law, tho bishop of a ^netropolia^ or " mother 
dty," upon which other episcopal cities an? in some scupe depcudcnU The grnda- 
tioos of the hierarchy, on which this dependence isfonnded, are of very early origin, 
and may, it is alleged, be traced, at lea^t In germ, in the lettere of 8t Paiil to 
Timothy and to liius. The commentarios of the Fathers (as Chrysostoin, 15 ** Horn. 
in 1 Tim.,'' and Ensebina, ** Hist Bccles." 1. ill. c iv.) recognise it as of apostolic 
iastitutiou. The jurisdiction of metrofMlit^ins, according to the ancient law oC the 
church, was very considerable, and extended over all the bishops of that province 
of which tlie metropolitan see was tho capital. It was their privilege not only to 
sommou and preside 'over provincial council?, to consecrate the provincial bit^liops, 
iMit also to decide certain causes, and In other wnys to exercijse auihority witlilu 
tbf< sees of their suffragans. Recent canons have very mncli restricted iheir 

Ewers. The metropolitan is distinguished from an ordinary archbishop by his 
v'mg suffragan bishops subject to ulm, which is not necessarily the case of au 

In the Church of England, tho archbishops of Cauterbnrv and York arc metro- 
politans, and in the Protestnnt Epif*ropnl Church of Ireland, those of Arningh and 
Dublin. In the ncwly-constitiit: d hierarchy of the Koman Catholic Cliurch in Eng- 
land, the Archbishop of Wcstniinhter hoa* tiie rank of metropolitan. In tlie Roman 
Catholic Church of Ireland, tho Archbishops of Armagh, Dubllu, Coshel, aud Tuuuv 
all possess the same rank. 

METTERNlCII,»Clemena Wensel Ncpomuk Lothar, PriiH5e von Mettemlch, and 
I>ake of Poiitella, au eminent Austrian diplomatist and statesman, born at Coblenz, 
15tU May 1T73. Ilis father, Fraue Ooorg Karl, Count von Melternlch, was also an 
Austrian diplomatist, and an associate of Kaunitz. Ho represented a very ancient 
and diiUliigui^hed family, whoso original seat was in JQIich. Young M. was educa- 
ted at the university of Strasbnrg, aud afterwards studied law atMamz and travelled 
in England. In 1795, be married the grand-daughter and heiress of the celebrated 
mlnlMer Eannitz, by whom ho acquirtKl large estates. His diplonmtic career com- 
menced at tlie congress of Riuitadt, which bo altendtxl as representative of the Wc*^t- 
phallan counts. His rise was very rapid ; ho added to tlie advantages of his biilh 
aud connections, a more thau ordinnry share of diplomatic ability, with the most 
graceful aud wluniue manners. In 1801, he became Austrian ambassador at Dres- 
den ; and on tho outbreaking of the third coalition war, he uegoilated the treaty of 
alliance between Anstria, Prussia, and Russia. In 1S06, he went as anibassndor to 
Paris, aud concluded, in 1807, the treaty of Fontuiuebleuu, very favorable to the in- 


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tfrents of Austria ; bnt on the outbreaking of the war between France and Ansf rA 
]n IS09, lie wiis df tuiued some time ere he could obUiiu his pa&>porf. In course of 
that ycuir, he succeeded CouuC Vou Stndiou as Miiiieter of Forci;,ni Af- 
fahVf couclndc'd the treaty of peace with the French miuifter Clutmpugoy, and 
nccoinpauied the Empre64 Maria Loui:<a to Paris. He suidt-d the course of 
Austria amidst tlie dilflcullies of ' 181%— 1813. He maiutalued at fir&t a 
temporising policy and a scheme of an armed mediation of Austria ; but the obsti- 
nacy of Napoleon reduced him to the necessity of adopting at Inst a decided step, 
and led him to resolve n|K>n that declarntiou of war by Austria a<;ainet France, 
which took place in August IStS, and he sul>8eqnently conducted with great ability 
the negotiations which ended in the completion of tiie quadruple alliance. On tlier 
fve of the battle of Leipzig, the emperor of Anstrfa bestowed i:pon him the 
princely dignity. He was afterwards employed In almost all the chief diplomatic 
ttfCuirs of that eventfnl time ; and after the congress of Chatlllou and negotiations 
with the Count d'Artols, he wont to Paris, and signed the convention of Fontalne- 
bleau with Napoleou, went to England to negfltlate concerning a new onadrnnle 
alliance, and attended the congress of Vienna, of which he was unanimously elected 

8 resident He signed, as Austrian plenfpotentlary, the second peace of Paris, 20tta 
fovember 1816. After this, he continued still to conduct the diplomacy of Aus- 
tria, and in 18)1 was appointed ciiancellor (Hous-, Hofund Staatskanzl^r), and In 
1836 succeeded Count Zichy in the presidency of ministerial conferences on home 
affairs. Hia efforts were now enniestly directed to the maintenance of peace in 
Europe, and the preservation of the existing state of things in the Austrian domin- 
ions by the strictest measures of police and severe despotism. The revolutionary 
movement of 1818 breaking forth with sudden violence, cansed the aged minister . 
to flee from Austria, and to seek refuge in England ; nor did he return to Vienna 
till the end of 1851, when he received ^reat marks of honor and favor from the em- 
peror; but although sometimes consulted, he was never again asked to undertake 
the cares of office. He died at Vienna, 11th June 1869. The general opinion ro- 
B|)ecting M. has been well expressed by the •* Times " newspaper : " He was re- 
nowned rather than great, clever rather than wise, venerated more for his age than 
bis power, admired but not lamented. '* His son Hichard became ambaaaador at 
the Court of Napoleon IIL, after the peace of Villafranca. 

METTRAT. The Reformatory of H. is the true parent of all iostltntlona 
intended to reform and restore to society, and not merely to punish, juven- 
ile delinquents. M. Demetz, a member of the Parisian bar, struck with the 
evils and hardship attending the committal to prison Qf young, and, considering 
their training and habits, scarcely responsible criminal?, there to languish hopelessly 
for a time, and then to emerge worse than when they entered, resolved. In conjunc- 
tion with the VIcomte Bretigndres de Conrteiliea, to found a school which should 
have for i>s object the reformation of this class of offenders. In 1889, accordingly, 
the Reformatory, or, as it is called, the Colony of Mettrav, was set on foot, alx>nt 
five miles from the city of Tours in France. Thns M. Demetz, by his assiduous 
labors and self-devotedness, rendered to France and Europe one of the greatest 
benefits that could bo conferred on society, by proving that, by agricultural and 
other labors of industry, and well-considered rules of orsauisatlon and discipline, 
the neglected and criminal may be trained to take their place honestly and honor- 
ably in society. The clilldren consist wholly of orphans, foundlings, and delin- 
qnents, and, in 1878, amounted in number to 792. From the foundation up to that 
date, 4887 had been received. The relapses into crime of those who had left the 
colony amounted only to about 4 per cent. The success of this establishment is to 
be attributed not solely to tlie excellent irnlninp and close supervision at M. itself, 
but to the care which is taken to presei*ve tli-j link between tlie authorities and those 
who have left the colony. A small payment is made by the state for children sent 
troder judicial sentence ; the large extra expenditure necessarily incurred being de- 
praved from cliaritable contributions from the individuals constituting the " Pater- 
nal" Society of Mettray." 

MBTZ, the strongest fortress of the German imperial territory of Alsace-Lor- 
raine, and capital of the district of Lorraine: before 1871, the main bulwark of 
France In her north-eastern frontier and capital of tlie department of Moselle. It la 
Bitnated on the Hoselle at its couflaeuce with the SeHle. The strengtJi of M. con- 


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Bista !n Its eTt«nor defences, of which the principal are eleven fonp, partly »trength- 
encd and improved eince the Oermnu occnputiOM, mid partly entirely new. 'J he 
city contoinf! many iniportnnt InstitutiouB, buiTacl^s, hoepitiil. militnry schools and 
anenalii. The cathedral, a Gothic edifice, begun in 1014, aud unislicd in 1546, Ithre- 
markable for Itff boldiiesa, ligUtness, and elegunce, and has a beaati£ul spii-e of Dpcn 
work, tTSfeet in height. The indnstry of M. in active; there is a good trade in 
wine, brandy, indigo, glass ; and there are eevemi cloth mannfactories in the nei^ih- 
borfaood. The pop. of M., which in 18(tQ was 43,825. had in 1875, by reason of emigra- 
tion into France, decreased to 37,926, or with garrison, 46,866. 

M.. known to the Romans as Divodurweny was afierwai-ds called Mettis (cor- 
niptea from Hcdiomatrici, the name of the iieople), and hence tlie present form. 
Under the Franks, M. was the capital of Au»trasia (q. v.). At the divJMon of 
Charlemagne's empire, M., with the rest of Lorraine (q. v.)t fell lo Germany and 
was afterwards made a free city of the Empire. In 1552, it W{JS treacherously U\kv\x 
possession of by the French ; aud alihough Charles V. besieged the place from Oc- 
tober 1553 to January 1568, they kept it till it was formally ce<led to them in IWS. 
In Angnst 1870, Bazaine was compelled to retire into H. with his anny ; and after 
an investment of 70 days, during which no attempt wns made to take the city by 
force (not even a single shell having been fired into it), Europe was startled to hear 
of the capitulation ofM., by which 180,009 men and immeupe mllit:iry stores fell 
into German hands (27th October 1870). ©y the treaty of Frankfurt, M. was an- 
nexed to Germany as part of LorraUie. 

MEUDON. a town of France, in the dep. of 8cino-et-Oise,' 5 miles west of Pari^. 
on the Versailles and Paris Hallway. The chateau^ npprouched by a fine avenue of 
foor rows of lime-trees, was built by the t>ide ot an older ch&leau, the work of 
Phillbert Delormc, by the Grand Danphin, son of Louis XIV., in 1699. During the 
RcvolaUou, it waa converted iuto a factory for warlike engines, and euiTOundeu with 
a permanent camp, to keep out spies. The ch&tenn, as it exists at present, was 
iUted no for Murie Louise by Na.noleon, in 1812. It has a fine tei-mc4>, gardens beuu- 
tifnlly laid ont, and commands a very fine prospect. The Fordt de Mendou is a 
favorite holiday resort of the Parisians. Near it has been erected au expiatory 
chapel, dedicated to Notre Dame des Flammcs, marking the spot where a terrible 
railway accident occurred in May 1842, in which more that 100 persons were burned 
alive. Whiting is roannfactured to a considerable extent, and there are uumeroua 
btea£b>field8. Kabelaia was cord of M. for a long time. The chAfouu was for many 
years a favorite sanuncr residence of Prince Napoleon. Pop. (1876) 6385. 

MEITLEBEKE, a town of Belgium, in the province of West Flanders, 20 miles 
Bonth-wesl of Ghent, on the Mandel, a tributary of the Lys. Weaving la carried on, 
and there arc several breweries. It it near a railway, which connects it with Bi-uges 
and other phices. Pop. 8,800. 

SIEURTHS^ formerly a department In the north-east of France, immediately 
sontb of the former department of Moselle. The area wns about 2254 sq. miles ; 
pop. In 1866. 428,387. Its surface is undulating and picturesque ; while alone the 
eastern border run the Vosges Mountains, rising in one point to 1148 feet in height. 
The chief rivers are the Moselle, and its affluents the Meurthe. the Madon, the 
SeiHe, Ac This district is no less remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, than 
for the fertility or its soil and the variety of its productions. After the treaty of 
Frankfurt, by which part of M. was ceded to Germany, tho re^t of M., together 
with the smaU part of the department of Moselle that remained to France, wns 
formed into a new department tmdertbe name Mecrthe-et- Moselle; area, 2016 
so. miles ; pop. (1876) 404.609. Arrondissements : Nancy, Lnn6ville, Toul (from 
IL), audBney (from Moselle) ; capital, Nancy. 

MSUSE, a frontier department in the north-east of France. Area, 2400 sq. 
miles; pop. (1876) 294,054. The surface is traversed from south-east to north-west 
by two parallel ranges of hills, which form the right and left bank of the rh-er 
Mense (see Maas), and separate It from the bjisin of the Seine on the west, and 
from that of the Moselle on the east The Mense, the Omain, and the Aire, are the 
chief rivers. The soil is generally poor, except in the valleys of the principal rivers, 
which are remarkably fertile and well cultivated. The usual crops are raised in 
average qnantities. 22,000,000 gallons of wine (red and white) are made annually. 


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Tho fonr nrrondlssements are Bar-le-Dne, Commercy, Hontm6dy, and Verdim. The 
capital Id Bur-le-Doc. 

ME'XICO confltitutcw the nonth-west extremity of North America, nnd occapies 
a portion of tho iKthiiiUR which coiiuects the latter with tlie nooth port of tho Aineri- 
cau coiitiuent. It is boaudcd on the n. by the tcrritoriuH of tlie Uuited Statets on 
the w. by the Pacifiq Ocean, on tho 8. by the Pacific and Central America, and on 
the e. by thn Ga!C of Mi'Xtco. The area of M. is aboni 750,000 square mik«, and 
the pop. (1878) abont 9,a40,000. lu 1861, the 8,000,000 inhabitants were thns distrib- 
Qt^l amoni^t the varions races : Indians, 4,800,000 ; whites, 1,004,000; half-breeds, 
1,190.090; negroes, 6000. The following table pives the names of the provinces 
and tlicir chief towns, with the populations for 1869 : 


Pop. in 1863. 

Chief Towns. 


Agnas Calieutcs 



95,397 . 

63 833 

83,707 ' 


Agnas Calientes 


10 475 


CaniDeachy. ... 


San Cristobal 




Coihuila. ... . • 






Dnransro.. ......... . ..■.. 









Hidalco .% 



iQjiwS .........:....:..... 









Nuevo Leon 



0:i jiica 







San Luis PotosI 

San Luis Polosl 





Sonora. ....• 



San Juan Bautista. 

Ciudad Victoria 


Tainaulioaa. ......... ..... 



Vera Cmx 

Vera Crux 








Federal District 






PhyHeal Character^ <(?<;.— The great mass of the Mexican territonr consists of an 
cl«vatt!d plateau, formL*d by an expansion of tho Cordilleras of Central America (q. 
v.), from which terraced slopes descend with a more or less rapid inolmation to- 
warils the Atlantic oil the en^t, and the Poclflc on the west This vavt tract, which 
extendi from 18^ to 32^ n. lat., and from 95^ to MfV^ w. long, comprises one of the 
ricl)e:tt nnd moM varied xones in the world ; (or while its geographical position se- 
cures to it a tropical vegetation, the rapid differences of elevation which character- 
ise ii, afford it the advauta;,'e9 of temperate climates, in which all the varieties 
of onr European flora and fauna can come to perfection ; and it thus combines 
within irs limits an almost unparalleled exuberance and multiplicity of natural nro- 
dwQlB. The tal)le-lands of M. lie at elevations varying from 5000 to more than 9000 
feet above the level of the sea, and exhibit great differences of level and varieties of 
soil. They geuemlly incline northward, and are for the most part girt in by low 
monnt2in chains, among which rise individnal lofty peoks, as Coffre de Perots 
<13,400 feet), Orizava (17,670 feet), and others ; while they are IntersecttHl by higher 
ranges, above which tower a few cones, as latacclhaatl, tho White Woman (15,700 


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feci), and the Tolcnno of Porrbcatapetl, or the Smoking Monntain (17,880 feet), 
llieee volcauoes and several others of Icm note, lying witniii tbc pariillels of 18° 15' 
aod W^ 30' II. Int., form a trnusversc volcnolc band between the two oceaus, and do not 
follow the fDcihiatiou of the central chniu, aa is the cane in the volcanoes of SouiU 
America. Volcanoes also occur isolated, as, for instance, in the plain of Hlxttcapan, 
S900 feet above the sen, where, in 17C9, the volcano of Jorailo, which still emita 
snioke, was fornie<l after an eruption by which a snrface of many sqaare miles 
"w^A raised several feet above the level of the plain ; in fact, every part of ihe MexU 
can territory betrays the volcanic nature of its formation, although neither eanh- 
qukes nor any other active phenomena have of late been of fr«qtient occuireuce. 
'1 tie principal chain, intersecting the table-land, is the Sierra Madre, or Tepe Snene, 
ill wliich lie the chief gold and silver mines, and which, arter traversing the states 
U Qneretaro and Qnanajnato, divides into three main bi-anches. the central of 
wtiich forms the water-shed between the Pacific Ocean and the Gull of Mexico. In 
addition to these greiU cluiins, the Mexican teiTitory is intersected by numerous 
lesser ranges, which on the Pacific side break up the terraced declivities into innu- 
merable deeply-cleft valleys, which assume almost the character of steep ravines 
near their junction with tho narrow littoral plains of the Pacific Ocean. Violent 
storms rage on this coost, blowing from the south-west daring the hot mouths, 
when the climate is as prejudicial to whites as on the Mexican Oulf, although it is 
not visited by the yellow fever. M. may bo said to be generally deficient fii navi- 
gable rivers ; for although some of the largest have a course of more than 1000 
miles*, few are free from rapids. The Rio Santiago, or Rio Grande, with a course 
of 600 miles, is brokeu near Guadalajara by 60 falls in the space of 
le«8 than three miles; tho Rio Grande del Norte, which forms in its lower 
courses tho boundary between M. and the Unittd Stales, has a winding 
course of nearly ISOO miles, but it is only navigable for small sailing- 
▼e«sela to Hatamoras, 60 miles from its mouth, where a bur and numerous 
shoals prevent the passage of Inive vessels. A similar remark applies to 
the majority of the rivers which fan into the Gulf of Mexico. The eastern 
coast genirany presents gnat olxstacles to navigation, as it is low and 
vandy, unbroken oy bays or inlets, and lined by sandbankv' several miles in 
width ; the only points of access being the moutlis of rivers, which are not good 
roadsteads, as, with few exceptions, the rivers Iwve little water, except at the nuny 
season, which gcncndly sets In about June, accompanied by overpowering heat, 
dnring the prevalence of which the yellow fever, or vomito prieto, rages like a p<!Pt 
in all the low lands. M. it on the whole badly supplied with water; and since the 
Spaniards have discontinued the t-ystem of in'igation, which was followed by the 
A^ec races with so much success, many tracts have become barren, and uusnitcd 
for thepnrposes of human occupation. A great portion of the table-lands can only 
be used for pasture. Springs aro rare, andmany of the rivers flow in deep moun- 
tain-beds, without receiving smaller tributaries, while the rapid evaporation on a 
lisrht soil, covering porous rocks, leaves the surface dry and hot, and unable to sup- 
port any vc^^etation beyond the cactus and some low grasses. The plains, more- 
over, contain the beds of numerous dry salt lakes, but this is chiefly the cane on 
tt«e north and east of the table^land. The western parts of the plateaux between 
JQtP and \029 w. long, (known as the Baxio) yield, by careful irrigation, rich crops 
of maize and wheat, and rank among the most fertile agricultural districts of Mexico. 
They are, however, here and there interrupted by sterile tracts, either covered by 
etones, and then known aa ^* pedegral,^ or with lava, when tliey are characterised 
Q^ a mat pais ^bnd country). In contrast with these uiiprofltable (lisiric:s, tho 
plams nre occa?-ioiinily broken by depressions of the soil, known as JiarrancaSf 
aeMeiidiiig E^onK*!lnieu'lO'!0 feet-, and measuring several miles across, which are 
covered with a luxuriant vegetation of trees aud shrubs, and watered by .mnall 
streams nininn^: through the middle of the valley. M. has numerous lakes, but 
few of any imp(j»rraiicf ; ttmt of Chapalu in Jalisco is one of the most considerable, 
being more than 90 rai'cs long. 

Cirmat«, ProtlucU.—T\ui differences of climate, depending upon the different de- 
prees of altitude, are eo grunt in M., that the vegetable products of this vast coaulry 
iiictade almost all that are to bo found between the equator and the polar circle. lu 
Lbe eourfie of a few hourg, the traveller may expericace every gradation of climate. 


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erabraclns: torrfd he&t and gladal cold, and pase tbrongh different Eones of Tegeta- 
tiou, iucludiiig wbeat and tlie «ngnr-caue, tbe aah nud the pnim, applefi. olives, aiid 
gnavas. The Spaniards, on their first occupation of M., dit^tiuguii*hed its greut cli- 
matic divisions nudor tlie characteristic names, which are still retained, of the T^ter- 
rM Calien.tM (hot or littoral lands), TUrroA Templadae (temperate lands), and Tier^ 
rw Friaa (cold or high lands). The mean anunai beat of the Tientut Galioutes is 
77° ; and me soil, wliich is generally fertile, produces maize, rice where water can 
hs procured for irrigation, bananas, pine-ap|>ies, oranffee, manioc ; and aarsapa- 
riilu, jalap, and vanilla in tbe littoral swampy forests. This tract has only two sea- 
sons—the winter, or season of north winds, and tbe summer, or season ot breezes. 
In the former, the hurricanes are the terror of navigators, but the const Is clear of 
yellow fever, which prevails in the hot season. On the medium elevations of the 
Ticrras Templados, the temperature is extremely equable, varying only from al>oat 
70° to BdP F. ; the climate nealtliy, and wherever water is abundant, a perpetual 

r reigns, vieldinK a varied nud active v^ctation, which embraces all the ce- 
reals, fruits, and vegetables of Central and Southern Burope, amongst which maize, 
oranges, lemons, grapes, and olives are produced in the most exuberant abundance. 
The Tierras Frins, which would scarcely have been characterised as cold by discov- 
erers belonging to a less soniheru climate than Spain, possess a generally temper- 
ate climate, the mean annual beat ranging between M^ and 9B9 F. ; but on the 
bigliest of the table-lands, the air is keener, and the soil more arid, 
aud agriculture is limited to the cultivation of barley and of the agave, or Mexl* 
can aloe, which held the place of the vine among the ancient Aztecs, aud is still ex- 
tensively cultivated for the sake of its juice, which is made into the fermented drink 
known under tbe name of pulaut. In addition to the vegetable products already 
referred to, M. yields coffee, tonncco— whose growth is, however, limited by gov- 
emmentAl restrictions— yams, capsicums, pepper, pimento, indigo, ipecacuaiibn, 
dragon's-blood, copaiva, fau>paluis, india-rubber trees, mahogany, rosewood, 
ebony, ^tc. 

The products of the mines, which rank among tbe richest in the world, Include 
) the precious metals. Thegold>minesof M. occur principally on the west side of 
the sierrn Madre, north of M® n. lat, and, until the discovery of the metal in Aus- 
tralia, their yield surpassed tbe produce of any other part of the world. Silver 
mines abound in M., and the argentiferous veins, which may be said to intersect 
every ptirt of tbe western decliviues of the Andes, occur in some places, as in the 
Vela Mwbre lode at Guanajuato, in beds varying from 10 to 60 yaras in depth ; tbe 
precious metal beins in these cases intermixed with sulphur compounds, antimony, 
and arsenic. But althongh these mines possess the additional special advantage of 
being situated in fertile dbtricts. affording abundant food to ramersand their cat- 
tle, tlielr working has been very imperfectly carried on, owing to the unsettled state 
of the country. At the close of tbe last, and the beginning of tbe present century, 
the annual value of the gold and silver of M. was upwards of ^£6,000,000, of which 
9-lOths were yielded by the silver ; but the political disturbances, preceding and 
consequent on the wars of Independence, have verr considerably reduced this sum, 
which has probably never been reached since M. waa finally separated from the 
mother-country. In addition to gold and silver, M. vields tin, antimony, mercury, 
copper, lead, iron, and zinc; while CArbouateof soda, used in smelting siivcr,*la 
found crystallised on the surface of several lakes, and occurs, together with common 
salt, in dry seasons, on tlie more arid partsof the surface of tbe elevated table-lands. 

Cattle, horses, asses, mules, and slieep abound in M., where. In consequence of 
the extent and excellence of the posture-grounds, all the domestic auimnis intro- 
duced from tbe Old World have multiplied excessiycly. Buffaloes feed in the lower 
plains ; gouts and sheep are plentiful ; the tapir, wolf, American lynx, jaguar, wild- 
cat, twveral species of the skunk, the brown porcupine, stag, deer, &c., are to lie 
found. Purruts, humming-birds, aud wild game birds, including turkeys, are abun- 
dant; and almost all the lakes yield large quantities of fish. The cochineal insect 
^d the silk-worm are reared with great success on the table-land of Mixtecapan. 

Commeree^ <lrc.— Notwithstanding the enormous advantages presented by her 
natural productions, and the important geoffraphical position wliich she occupies 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific, M., owing to her unsettled government, and 
the consequent insecurity of life and piroporty, has not been able to develop her 


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foreign commerce beyond tlic value of nbont 10 mHlions sterling. The prccions 
metals coii:»Mtnte, It \» estimated, nearly nine-teutlia of llie cxportei, the reniafiider 
being made up by productions of the coil, and ludustrlul products, pnch o« cotton, 
wooliea, and 0ilk gooda, aoap, leather, saddlery, gold nnd hi Ivor luce, cigurSf brandy, 
Ac England, France, Hamburg and L&beclk, and the United Stntea of America 
are the principal powura with which M. maintains rtlatioiiM of foreign coniniercc; 
whi.e the city of Mexico is the cluef focus of internal trude, nnd Vera Cm? tlic prin- 
cipal port for maritime commerce. Tlie total value of the foreign trade of M. in 
1818 was— for imports, jCfi,600,000 ; for exports, £5,100,000. For tlie unmlwrof sliips 
entering aDd clearing the ports of M., see Vera Cruz and Taxfico. M. po5!(e6ee8 
about 400 inilea of railway, the line from Vera Cruz to Mexico Ijeing one of tlie 
most wonderful pieces of engineering enterprise in the world. The nnunni traffic 
amount* to about 250,000 passengers, and 190,000 tons of freiglit. The fluauciul 
condition of M. has been allowed to fall into such disorder since the establifhment 
of indcpeudcuce. that the expenditure lias been continually incrcaFlng beyond the 
receioAa. According to the printed estimates, the eslimatcd amount of the budget 
for 1875-6 was X4,7e0,000. The total expenditure for the pnme year was e*«tinnitrd 
at X4y9S0,0U0. The revenue is derived mainly from the customs. The total amount 
oc the BatiouaJ debt cannot be stated. The loans conlrncted by the imperial gov- 
eniment arc entirely repudiated by the present government. 

Army, Havy^ <i-c.— In accordance with the old constitution of M., the standing 
army was to consist of 26,000 men, witli a reserve of 65,000 men ; bni this number, 
which had &llen to nearly half the required force in 1855, hus been so extensively 
reduced feince that perlocf by continual civil wars, that nccording to Siwinish author- 
iliesy tbecrovemmeut of the late President Juarez, on the breaking out of hostilities 
wiUi the French in 1862, was unable to bring Into the field more than 5000 Infantry, 
80O cavalry, and 0500 of the national guard. l*he total strength of the army is 
now estimated at al)0ut 20,000 men. The navy consisted of only some SOO 
BK-n, while the fleet numbered only 9 small ships of war, carrying In all Wween 30 
and 40 cannon. Education in M., long In the lowest possible condition, even among 
the wealthier classes, is now steadily improving. Lil)enil allowances have been 
made by the central and sUite governments for establishment of new schools, Ac. 
In 1873 there were in M. nearly 4000 public schools, with about 190,000 scholars. 

Btliffiony Ac.— The Roman Catholic is the dominant church of M.. but all other 
sects are tolerated. M. has 3 archbishops and 10 bishops. The administration of 
^i»tice ia not what !t should be, but is not so inefficient, nor the courts so corrupt, as 
formerly. Brigandage and smuggling endanger personal security, and seriously 
damage the resources cf the nation, but are gradually disappearing. 

Ttie supreme power of the state was. In 1858, vested in the hands of Benito 
Juarez, who was to bear the title of Coustiintional President and administer public 
affairs in conjunction with a legislative congress, composed of a chamber of senators 
and a lower house of representatives. Each province was to elect two senators and 
Doe deputy to every 40,000 inhabitants, and was, moreover, to have a separate pro- 

viucial legislative chamber, presided over by its governor. President Juarez is 
uiidoobtedly, along with General Iturbide, to be regarded as the most distinffuished 
character In modem Mexico. The unfortunate Maximilian wrs a mere episode in 

the career of the country. A Provisional Regency of the Mexican Empire was 
appointed by the Junta superior del Gobierno ; which was Itself constituted (16th 
Jane, 1863) by a decree of Marshal Forey, leader of the French army of invasion. It 
was composed of 86 meml)ers. This Junta at tlie same lime established, under 
Fr 'i • ' -ucc, an Assembly qf NotableSy whom it charged with deciding in the 

i opiti what form of government M. should adopt On the 10th of July 

1)7 an overwhelming majority, decided in favor of a constitutional 
i< n hy, and that the new ruler should bear the title of Emperor of 

M. : ICO. The present constitution dates from 1857. The executive 

po , II a president, elected by universal suffrage, for a period of 6 years. 

Ti ; I! J wer is confided to a congress consisting of a House of Representa- 

ih. .1 each 80,000 inhabitants), and a senate (wHih two members for each 


Hi'rv of Mcxioo.—Thc history of ancient M. exhibits two distinct and widely-dif- 
fering periods, the former of which, that of the Toltecs, appears to have begun in 


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thu Till, and ended with the ISthc; while the second, that of the Aetecs, hegan Sn 
the year 1200, and nuiy be eald to have been closed by tiie conqncst of Cortes In 151» ; 
for uJtIiuugb the race has maintained occapation of the Mexican territory, itsexist- 
cucc 08 a Hiition ceased with the Spanish domination, 'l^ie origin and primitive 
seats of tlic Toltecs are slironded in mystery ; and all that we learn of this 
people is, tliat they came from the north, from some nndeflned locality, which they 
designated Tallan, and from whence tliey brought to the valley of Mexico the flr»t 
elements of civilisation. Their laws and nsages stamp them as a peoiile of roiid 
and peaceful instincts, industrious, active, and enterprising. They cnltivnted the 
land, inttodhced maize and cotton, made roads, erected monuments of colosfal di- 
mHUsiQiis, and built temples and cities, whose rums in various parts of New Spain 
stili attest their skill in architecture, and sufficiently explain why the name Tol- 
tec should have passed into a synonym for architect. They knew how to 
fuse metals, cut and polish tbe hardest stones, fabricate earthenware, and 
weave various fabrics ; they employed hieroglyphics for the record of events, were 
acquainted with the canses of eclipses, constructed sun-dials, devised a simple sys- 
tem of notation, and measured time by a solar vear, composed of IS months of 90 
days each, adding S complementary days to make up the 865, and Intercalating \%}4 
days at the expir&ion of every 5S years, which brought them within an almost inap- 
preciable traction to the length of the tropical year, as established by the most ac- 
curate observations. These and other arts, with a mild form of religion, and A 
simple but just mode of administering the laws, the Toltecs bequeathed to the 
Aztecs, who engrafted upon the civilisation of their predecessors manv fierce and 
sanguinary practices in tlieir religions, and many puerile usages in their sodulHfe. 
Nothing is known of the exact time;, and stili less of the manner and causes of the 
departure of tlie Toltecs from M. ; but It has been conjectured that theywent towards 
the south, and that the colossal arcbiiectnral remains of the cities of Falenqne, Ux- 
mal, and Mitla, in Central America, are the work of tlieir hands. The Axtecs, as wo 
havt) said. Imparted to the lustltutlonf of the Toltecs a tmge of their own sombre 
cruelty, and produced an anomalous form of civilisation, which astonished the 
Spaniards by its mingled character of mildness and ferocity. Like the Toltecs and 
the Chichmecs, a rude tribe who had succeeded them, the Aztecs came from the 
north, and after wandering from place to place, founded in 132fi the city of Tenoctw 
titlan, or Mexica On the arrival of the Spaniards, their empire was found to extend 
from ocean to ocean, stretching on the Atlantic from \BP to 2P n. lau, and on the 
Pacific from 14° to 19* n. lat. Their government was an elective empire, the sov- 
ereign being selected from the brotliers of the deceased prince, or. In default of 
them, from Tils nephews. Their laws were severe, but justice was administered In 
open courts, the proceedings of which were perpetuated by means of picture- written 

The Aztecs believed in one supreme invisible creator of all things, the ruler of the 
universe, named Tuoll— a belief, it is coiiiictured, not native to them, bnt derived 
from their predecessors, tbe Toltecs. Under this supreme being stooa 18 chief and 
200 inferior divinities, each of whom hud his sacred oav and fesUval. At their head 
was the patron god of the Aztecs, the frightful Huitzuopochtli, the Mexican Iforc 
His temples were the most splendid and imposing ; In every city of tlie empire his 
altars were drenched with the blood of human sacrifice. Cortes and his companions 
(see DiAX) were permitted by Montezuma to enter that In the city of Mexico, and to 
behold the cod himself. ** He had a broad face, wide mouth, ana terrible eyes. He 
waf covered with gold, pearls, and precious stones; and was girt about with goMen 
serpejits .... On his neck, a fitting ornament were the fnce^rof men ^vronght in 
silver, and their heaits In gold. Close by were braziers with incense, and on the 
braziers three real hearts of men who had that day been sacrificed" (Helps' ^'Spantsh 
Conquest In America,** vol. 11., book x., chap. 4). The smell of the place, we are 
told, was like that of a slaughter-house. To snnply victims for these sacrifices, the 
emperors made war on all the neighboring and subsidiary states, or in case of re- 
volt in any city of their dominions, and levied a certain number of 
men, women, and children by way of indemnity. The victims were 1)ome la 
triuniphul processions and to the sound of mnsic, to the summit of the great 
temnltts, were the priests, in sisht of assembled crowds, hound them to tho 
sacnflcial stone, and opening tho breast, tore from it the bleeding heart, which was 


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dther laid before the iimce of their codi, or eaten by the worshlppere, tfter hnvltig 
beeo cafefnlly cut np aucf mixed with maize. lu the years immediately prec^'diiig 
the Spuoieh cooaoeet, not ie*tt iliau 20,000 victims were auoually imraolateo. The^e 
fttroeUies were lucougruoneJy Iileoded with milder forms of worstiiu, in which 
fruits, flowen>. and perfumes were offered up nmid joyous outbursts of song and 
dance. AccordinK to their mytiiology, Taotl, who dehglitetl in titese purer sacrTflces, 
bad ouce reigi^co iu Aualtoac (a uaiue which at first prot>abIy applied only to tlic 
country in ttie immediate vtcinity of the capitiil, though ufierwards It was applied to 
the wh<^ Aztec empire) in the golden age of tlie world, but beiug obliged, from 
some imezplained cause, to retire from earth, bo departed by way uf the Jf exicau 
Gnif, prorainug to retiiru. Tills tradltiou accelerated the success of the Spaniards, 
who«e light skins and long darl£ liaicand beards were regarded as evidences of their 
affliitty witli the loiig-tooKed-for divinity. The Mexican priestliood formed a rich 
asd powerful order of Uie state, and were so numerous tbat Cortes found as many 
as fittOO attached to the great temple of Uexica The education of the young of both 
sexes reumiiH-d till the age of puberty in the bauds of the pricsti* and priestesses ; 
sod the saeerdolal class were thus able to exercise a widely diffused influence, 
wlilcb, nnder the later rulers, was almost equal to tbat of the emperor Itiuiself. 
Tt>e women shared in all tiie occupations of the men, and were taught, like tlum, 
the arts of reading, writing, ciphering, singing iu chorus, dancing, &c., and even 
initiated in tite secrets of astronomy and astrology. 

On the arrlrai of Cortes, iu 1519, tlie A8^ec throne was occupied by Montesnma, 
an eitergetic (flrlnce, who. after his election to the throne, which for several gener' 
ations bad been occupied by his ancestors, made successful war on the |)Owerf ul 
and highly -ciyilised npigliboring state of Tlascala, and on Nicnroguaand Honduras ; 
after n time, however, lie grew ludoleut, and alieinited the affcclfons of his stbjecis 
hy his arrogance and exactions, and by liis unremitting devotion to ilie services of the 
temples. According to the oracles which be frequently consulted, great cliauges 
were impending over the empire, the return of Quetzalcoatl was near at liand, and 
the fnll of his race was impending. The tidings of the arrival on the coast of tlie 
expedition of Origalvu in 1518 terrified Montezuma and his priestly councillors; 
and when the hieroglyphic reports of bis provincial officers aunonnced tlie laud- 
ing hi the following year of Cortes aud bis companions, he endeavored to propitiate 
the dreaded strangers by sending an embassy charged with valuable gifts to meet 
them. The road to success was thus open to the Spanish captain, who, with a 
bandfalof men. advanci>d from 8t Juan de Ulloa to M., nnd gradually subdued the 
entire empire of the Aztecs, whose power crumbled to dni«t betore the greater energy 
and svpenor civilisation ot tlieir Cliristian invaders. In 1540, M. was united with 
other American territories under the name of New Spain, and govfimd by 
Tkeroys appointed by the mother-country. The intolerant spirit of tlie Catbo- 
lie clergy led to the suppression of almost every trace of the ancient 
Axtee nationality and dvillsiition, while the strict system of sequestration enforced 
lu M. cripi>ted thu nwources of the colony ; yet notwithstanding tlienrt dniw- 
bttcks, M. ranked first among all the Spanish colonies iu regard to popula- 
tion, material riches, and natural products. It may be said to have vejietat< d for 
nearly three centuries in a state of scinl-qnlescent prosperity, intcrrnptid bv few 
disturbances of any kind until the year 1810, when ttie discontent, which bad'been 
gaining ground against tiic vice-regal power during the war of the mother- 
country with Napoleon, broke into open rebellion under the leadership of a conn- 
try priest U'imed Hidalgo. The dt^eat and subsequent execution of the latter in 1811 
put a partial stop to the Insurrection, but the atrocities committed nndcr tiie saiic- 
lion of the new viceroy, Caileja, exasperated tiie iieople, and gave an irreeistibki im- 
puite to the revolutionary cause. Qnerrero aud Itnrbide in turn gained signal ad- 
Tantiigee over the Spaniards. For a time, Itnrbide maintained a scK-establii^hed 
imperial rule over the colony ; but on tlie downfall consequent on bis tyraimical 
abase of power, a con^ititiitional mode of government was inaugurated, and In 1824 
the independence of M., which had chosen a federal republican form of government, 
was finally established, aud in the following year definitely recognised by every for- 
eign power, except Spain. Tlie Mexican war was staiued with excesses and atroci- 
tiee on both sides; but It must be confessed that the Spaniards guiiud an unenvia' 
bto pre-eminence lu regard to the wanton cruelty which charactcnsed their method of 


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condacf iai: hontilitles. With them the war was ODe of extermhmtloii, every oommaih* 
der being allowed, at hU own discretion, to hoiit down and alADgbter the Ineafgeots 
like brutes. The welfare of the new repahlic was anhnpplly distnrbed by constant 
ontbrcaks' of civil war nuder the leadersliip of tlie B^coeseSf or arls- 
tocnitic fnclion, and the Yorkinos, or democrats; and the history of the quarter of 
a centnry during; which M. has exercised independent power, leaves little lo recount 
beyond ever-recurring acts of violence, and the rapid and snmmnry deposition of 
one president after another. In 1836, 'IVxas secared its independence of tlie Mexican 
rcpnulic, for which it had straggled for several years, and at the same period differs 
ences arose with France, which were, however, brought to a peaceful conclnsfon 
after the taking of Vera Cruz in 1838 ny the French troo))8. In 1S41, General Santa 
Anna, on the retirement of Btistamente, sncce«ded in regaining tlie direction of 
affiiirs, from which he had been more than once deposed, and nnder the title of Die* 
tutor, exercised the power of sn autocratic ruler. In 1846, M. was compelled to rec- 
ognise tiie independence of Texas, wliich was incorporated with the United States, 
whose troops havinir entered tlie Mexican territory, provoked a declaration of war 
on tlie part of the Mexican government. Ilostilities were carried on with great e»- 
^^fSJ ^ ^^^ parties until 1848, when peace was finally concluded, after several 
bloody engasremeuts had been fought without any definite result on either side; and 
the city of Mexico had been stormed and taken by the Americans under Oenenri 
Scott. In 1862, after Santa Anna and Herrem had Doeii in tnm deposed and recalled 
to power, a revolutionary movement of more than ordinary importance brought 
General Cevallos for a time to the head of affairs ; but, when the insubordinallon 
and arrogance of the soldiery threatened universal anarchy, Santa Anna was again 
recalled, 17th March 1868. Having reorganised the army, ai^ suppressed by th« 
most cruel severity the insurrection of the federals, he declarea himself President 
for life, and thus again rekindled civil war. In 1866, he had to flee from the coun- 
try, since then, utter confusion has prevailed. Santa Anna was succeeded 
by General Alvaree, who held office for about two months, after whom 
cnme General Comonfort, who was forced to resign in 1868; when a 
General Znlvago assumed supreme power, but was almost Immediately deposed 
by a General Kobles. This person ahw proving a futility, Benito Jnares was 
elected; but his claims were contested by General Miramon— the head of the 
priestly and conservative party— and the country was plunged in civil war. The 
acts of wanton aggression and flagrant injustice perpetrated on foreigners in M. 
during this period of internal disorder, during which the Cortes passed an act 
suspending all payments to foreigners for two years, conid not fail to oraw upon the 
Mexican government the serious remonstrance of those Kuropean powers whose 
sulijects had just cause of complaint ; and the result was to bring a fleet of English, 
French, and Spanish ships Into the Mexican Gulf for the purpose of cnCurciug 
satisfaction. In December 1861, the British minister lefiM., and the Spaniards 
disembarked a force at Vera Cruz, and took possession of tlie fort of St Juan 
d'Ulloa, a step which was soon followed by the arrival before the former city of 
the allied fleet. A proclamation, signed by the commanders-in-chief of the ttiree 
naval divisions, and addressed by them to the Mexican people, elicited no satis- 
factory reply ; and steps vrere aocordingly taken to advance at once upon the 
capital. This measure alarmed the provisional government of M., and brought 
about an armistice, with a view of negotiating a treaty for the future reBrulallon of 
commescial intercourse between M. and the great European powers. This treaty 
was drawn up and provisionally ratifled by the different commanders, but not con- 
firmed on the part of France, and consequently the French troops retained occu|>a- 
tiou of the Mexican territory after the English and Spaniards had declined to join 
in further hostile demonstra^ns. In April 1862, tlie French emperor formally de- 
clared war against the government of Juarez, who had asfumeu arbitrary rule as 
president of the republ^ The French, who spent £8,000,000 on the Mexican eX' 

pedition, did not meet with the sympathy and welcome from the people at large 
which the assumed unpopularity of Jnares had led them to anticipate ; and, although 
the taldng of Puebia and other decided successes gave them a Arnier footing in the 

country, it was evident that whatever grievances the Mexican nation had against 
their government, they entertained a deeply-rooted hatred against foreigners, and 
were certainly not prepared to welcome with cordial unanimity Uie thorough re- 


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(HigaDisation of tbeir poHticnl gystem, which the Boropean powers, with France st 
tbf Ir head, were Initiatiue for the country. 

MEXICO. After the declaratiou of war agolnat Jnarez by the French, they lii- 
ned a proclamation to I he Mexican people, April 16, 1868, setting fortli tliat one of 
the objects of the contest waa to reecue them from the granny of tlie President, 
and put the government of the coantry on a stable footing. Little faith, however, 
•eenis to have been put in these professiona ; nud the invaders, though ioiued by 
liarqaez, the military leader of the clerical party, met with little enccess till the ar- 
rival of GenenU Forey with a reinforcement from France in Septen^ber. Forey then 
took tiie command in chief, addressed a proclamation to the Mexicans, promising 
them perfect liberty in the choice of a new goTenimeut in room of that of Juarez ; 
and in the apriug of 1868, concentrated the French troops, nud marched on Mexico. 
On his way, he lool^ the strongly fortified city of Penbla after a two mouths' si^, 
capiariug ita defender, Ortega, and his wi*olo force (May 18) ; and, Juarez having 
lira from the capital, and transferred the seat ol his Rovcrumeut to San Luis Po> 
toel at their approach, the French entered Mexico on June 10. A fortnight after- 
waria, a provisional govorumeni, l^eaded by Qeneral Almonte, was establifetied, and 
an '* Asaembly of Notables," which was called (June 24} to deliberate upon the best 
f<jrm of government, decided in July, by a vote of '231 to 19, in favor of a " Limited 
Hereditnl^ Monarchy,'' with a Catbollc prince for sovereign, under the Htle of 
** Emperor of Mexico," and resolved in the first place to oner tlie crown to the 
Arcbdnke Ferdinand Maximilian (q. v.) of Austria, failing whom, to i^eqnest the 
good ofllc^ of the Emperor Napoleon in obtaining another monarch. That this 
r»olatlon was the fruit of a general earnest wish on the part of the 
Mexican notables, the feeble and almost unwilling support most of them 
accorded to their choi?en emperor after his desertion by the French, will not 
allow na to supp0(>e ; but, on the other band, we have not the slightest reason 
for believing that anything approaching intimidation or undue influence was exer- 
cised by the French. Most of them doubtless argued that n government supported 
by France would be anfficientlv powerful to maintain the country in a state of tmn- 
quillity, and in the hope of this long-wished-for result, cast in their lot for empire. 
'Ilie«e changes were, of course, vigorously protested against by the republican as- 
sembly at San Luis, and the two parties prepared witli eagerncas to try the fortune 
of war. On October 1, Forey departed from Mexico, and General Bozaine took the 
command of the French forces, and commenced the campaign with vigor. The re- 
sult of the winter's struggle was that iu spring the impcriollBts were in possession of 
the whole country, with the exception of the four nortljem provinces. October 3, 
1863, the Archduke Maximilian had given audience at his chateau of Miramar, near 
Triei>te, to a deputation which waa sent to offer him the crown, and had accepted it. 
On May 99, the emperor and empress landed at Vera Cruz, and on June 12, made 
tbeir poblic entiy into the capital ; and soon after the middle of the year, the Im- 
peria!ista had gained' posseaaion of every state in the kingdom, Jnarez fleeing in 
Atq^st to the United States. As small parties of the repubilcnns still maintained a 
R)«ctea of guerrilla warfare in various districts, Maximilian, on October 2, 1865, pub- 
hshed a proclamation, menacing with death, according to the laws of war, all who 
were found in armed opposition to his government ; the republic havine ceased, not 
only by tlie express wish of the nation, but also by the expiry (Novemocr 22, 1864) 
of Jnarex*s term of ofllce, and his flight beyond the frontiers : the amnesty, however, 
being accorded to such as submitted before November 16. In accordance with this 
edict, Oeuerala Arteaga and Salazar, who were defeated and captured, October 13, 
were shot on the 81st; and roanv hnndrcda of captured republicana were dealt with 
Quder the terms of the same order. 

This couteet in M. had from tiie commencement excited the liveliest interest in 
the United States, though the civil war, raging there also, prevented anv active in- 
tttierence in tlic affairs of Its nelghl)or. A general impression existed that France 
bad taken advantage of the troubles of the United States to establish its authority 
firmly on the American continent ; and this belief, along witli the violation of the 
** Monroe doctrine" by the establishment of imperialism in M., induced the United 
States to give all their sympathy and diplomatic aid to Juarez and ills supporters. 
In Noveim)er 6, 1865, Secretary Seward forwarded a dispatch to Paris, in which it 
waa staled that the presence of the French army in M. waa a source of *' grave re- 


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M«zloo A a 

Mazo *^ 

flection '' to the government of the United States, and that the tatter coald on no 
accoaut allow the establishment of »n imperial goveruraeiit, bnned on forei]<;ii aid, 
in M., or recogtiiae in that country otiier than reuubiican luetituiiona. Tliie dis- 
patcit led to an interchange of diplomatic notes dminj; the following »ix mouths; the 
Aiuetic^ms holdnig firmly to their first statements, and even lusiuonting the proba- 
bility of an nnned Tuierf«renco on behalf of Jaarez ; tiil the FreucJi emperor, who waa 
wearied with a contest bo expensive and, though succcssCul, so barren of lasting 
fruits, nltlmately agreed, in the summer of 186^ to willidraw his troops from Mex- 
ico. The Bi!igiai\ lesion and some Austrian levies, however, were not included lu 
this nrraiieement. Accordingly, from the antumn of 1866 till Feb. 1S67, the French 
troops by degrees evacuated M., and their departure wus the signal for a frt-sh rli*- 
ing on the part of the JiiariaUs. See Maxixiuan and Juassz. The political cou- 
diUon of M. is still far from satisfactory. 

MEXICO (City). Mexico, or Mejlco, the capital of the republic, Is situated !n 
19<5 20' n. lat., and W^ 5' w. long., nt an elevation of nearly t500 feet above the level 
of the sea, in the valley of Tenoclitltlan. 2)^ miles west of Lake Teacuco. ITie pop, 
w:is, in 1878, 230,000. This benntifnl cltv, whieh is built on the site of the ancient 
Tenochtitian of the Azf^c empire, U situated on an extensive plateau, liaviiig an 
area of more than 1700 square mile?, surrounded by loftv mountains, nnd incluaing 
five lalcc's within its* areiu 'ITie princlpul streets, which all converge towards the 
great sqnnre of Mexico, are regularly and well laia-ont, broad, clean, and well-paved 
and lighted ; but the buildings, l>oth privute and public, are low, and of a light style 
of architecture, in consequeute of water being found in many parts of the citv at 
only a few feet l)elow the surface, and partly from apprehension of earthquakes. 
The Plaza Mayor, one of he finest 8<]Uttres of the western world, contains the cathe- 
dral, a spacious and Jinposlnsr building, erected on the ruinff ot the great tfOceUli, or 
temple of the Aztec g«)d Mixftii, and udomed with the keltenday a circular stone, 
covered with hieroglyphics, by which the Aztecs used to represent the monthF> of 
the year. The palace of the Cortes, in the s.ime square, consists of various build- 
ings approprUited to ofllces of siate, govenimeut schools, and public Institutions of 
various kinds, but like evcrythlusr else in Mexico, has Iwien suffered gradually to fall 
to decay since the evacuation or the Spaniards. Mexico contains fourteen churches, 
some monasiteiles and convents, and nnmcrons charitable institutions; the fine hos- 
pital has been converted into a barrack. There are schools of jurisprudence, medi- 
cine, agriculture, engineering, and an academy of the fine arts, containing valuable 
Aztec antiquities ; also several theatres and a circus: the bull-ring was demolished 
in 1874. In icddition to the ordinary alameda or public walk of a Spanish city, Mexico 
Is remarkable for the extent and beauty of its jnimos, or raised paved roads, planted 
with double rows of trees, which diverge far into the country from every qnarter of 
the city. Mexico still boasts a few of the water-gardens for which the ancient city 
was so celebrated, and although no longer floating, as in the days of the Aztecs, 
they form attractive objects in the midst of the surrounding swamps, whicti, by the 
negligence of the Mexicans, have been suffered to increase in the vicinity of ttie 
lakes. The trade of Mexico is chiefly a transit-trade, although it has a few manu- 
factures, as cigars of su[>erior quality, gold-lace, hats, carriages, saddlery, ^kc ; nnd 
these articles, together with gold and silver, and some of the nutnerous valuable 
natural products of the Mexican pluin, it transports, chiefly t)y means of mnles, to 
Vera Cruz and other ports, importing in return the manufactured goods of Europe 
and various colonial products. 

MEXICO, Gulf of, a basin of the Ath^itic Ocean, the estimated extent of which 
is 800,000 English square miles, is closed in by the United States on the north, by 
Mexico on tiie west and south, audits outlet on the east is narrowed by liie jutting 
peninsulas of Yucatan and Florida, whicli approach within 600 miles of eacii other. 
Ui^fiitin the middle of thU entrance is planted the isluudof Cuba, dividing the strait 
into two— the Strait of Florida, 120 miles widy, between Cuba and Floiichi, and the 
Strait of Yucatan, 105 miles wide, between Cnha and Yucaun. The former or 
uurtherii entrance connects the Gulf witli tlie Atlantic Ocean; the latter or sontli> 
ern, with the Caribbean Setu The depth of water is supposed nowliere to exceed 
three-fonrths of a mile, yet tlie gulf contains few islands— the Florida Keys, the 
deltas of the Mississippi, and a few on the coast of Yucatan, being the most import. 


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A^ M«xioo 

* ' Mezo 

■nt of them. The shores, which are very sinnons, form nnmerons bays, tho largest 
of which is the B»y of Campeachy (q. v.). The coasts arc mostly low aud sandy or 
marshy, and are liued with nameron:» laeoous ; good harbors are consequently not 
fiumerous, the best being those of Vera Cruz, New Orleans, Pensacula, aud Uuvana. 
The gulf is visited by violent northeni gales called n(yrte%^ which prevail from Stp- 
tenaber to March, when thev attain their maximnm force, and then immediately ter- 
minate. The most remarkable fentare in connection ^\ith the Onlf of M.istlie 
Gyif ^xemn, (q. v.)* which enters it by tiic soutlioru clinnuel, pasf*es round it, and 
emerges throagti the Strait of Florida. Owine pnrtly to the presence of this heated 
current, the temperature of the gulf is 8° or.9° nlgher than that of the Atlantic in ibe 
same latitade. 

M£TERB£EIR, Jalcob, commonly called Gincomo Meyerljcer, a celebrated mn- 
tical composer of the pivaent age, was the sou of a weuithy Jewish banker, and 
w^ bum at Berlin, September 5, 1794. Ho was u precociuns child, playing tunes 
on the piauo spontaneously (it is said) as early as his fifth year. Ho began to stndy 
dramatic c^mpositlou under Beruhard Ansclm Weber; and in 1810 entered tho 
•chooi of Vogier at Darmstadt, where he formed an intimate friendship with tlie 
renowned Kari Maria von Weber. While at Darmstadt, he wrote a cantata, " Gott 
and die Natnr. " Snbseqnently, he composed an opera, •* JephMiah, " produced at 
Munich iu 1818; bnt though warmly admired by nis friends, Vogier, Weber, and 
ctltens it fell flat on tho andTence, and was considered a failure. He now pro- 
ceeded to Vienna, where he acquired a brillinnt reputation as a pinuist ; but an- 
other opera which he produced liere by command of the court, *' Die beiden Kha- 
lift-n," was uo more sncce^isf ul than the previous one. Italian music was the rage 
at the time, and nolMxIy had a chance wi>o did not imitate Rossini. H. was in- 
duced by his friend Snlieri to visit Italy, where he became an enthusiastic convert to 
the new Italian school, and began ttie composition of a scries of operas which 
proved highly popular. We may mention his '* Itomilda c Constanza, " (perfornicd 
at Padua lu 1819), "Semiramide" (Turin, 1|19), **Emma di Reshurgo" (Venice, 
18M), the first of M.*s compositions that excited a furor ; '*Margheritad'ADJou" 
(1822), " Esnie dl Grenada" (I823),and " Crociuto" (Venice, 1825). The last of these 
aflforded, perhaps, the most decisive proofs of tho high genius of its author, and 
was received with greiit applause in Parist whither M. now proceeded, and took up 
his residence. l\x 1831, was produced, after numerous rehearsals, his " Robert lo 
Diable,"' which caused an excitement ** perhaps unparalleled in the liistoryof tlie 
Parisian stage ;" while It was received with nearly as great enthusiasm in England, 
Italy, Austria, and Russia; and in 1686, •• Les Huguenots," in which he reached tho 
climax of his fame. His next opera, •* Le Prophdto " (1S49), fairly enctalnrd his re- 
pntation. It was followed by "Pierre le Grand" (1864), "Dluorah" (186S), aud 
** L'Africaiue " (1865). M. died on May 2, 1864. 

MEZJE'N, or Mezeinc, a district town in tho government of Archangel, European 
Ruffdn, CW miles from the mouth of the river ofthu same name, remarkable for tho 
salmon and herring fisheries which supply St Petersbuig with frozen flsh during 
winter. Pop. a86T) 1T46. 

MEZEN, or Mezenc, a river in tho north of European Russia, rises In the north 
of the government of Vologda, aud flows north-west into the White Sea, having a 
cour^ of about 450 miles. 

M^lfeRES, a fortifled town of France, capital of the dep. of Ardennes, on tho 

right bank of the Meusc, on the isthmus uf a promontory formed by tho river, which 

Tt-:r« -c f*- \rnllB on two Pidr3, niid Pfptirntfn it from Charlevillo (q. v.). It was 

tilled by Viuilmii, mid is ikivntled by a citadtU. It comnmnicates with 

villi- by ft Buppfusiou-bridije. In ibl3, the town held out for two months 

< tho AUif^H, who ln's^ic^ed' ilNdittr tlui battle of Waterloo. Over the north 

'•A tho church is u bouih-fihell, which lias been sticking tliere eviT since tlio 

:\plt ulntetl. In l.'S20, tire Chevalier Bnyiirtl, with 2000 men, successf nlly dcftMuled 

: f-t 4O,*:(00 Spaniards nitdm* Charlt-B V. In the Franco-Geruiuu war of 1871, M. 

- -itc-d ufler u cannonade of two dtuti. Pop. (1876) 5204^ 

ME'ZO-TU'R, ft town of Ilmmnry, on flit- B^rottyo, an afllnent of the KOrop, 60 

miles sonth-wc«f of Debreczeu, Poitury is made, aud there is uu important nturkeU 

Pop. (I86T> 20,441. 


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Mezqnttd AQ. 

Miasma ^" 

MEZQUITE, the nnme of two Mezicau tree« or shrubs, of the nstaral order 
LegumifUMCB, sab-order Pawilianacea!^ bearing pods filled with a natiitious palp. 
The CoMMOH M. {Atgarohia glandulosa) is a smtill shmb, with 8t«ms often 
dcrnmbent, and armed wilh strong straight spines. It is foniid in great 
prufusioD tliroughoat vast regions, chiefly consisting of dry sud elevated 
pin inn. In dry seasons, it exudes a great qiioutity of gam (Cfufn Mezquite), 
sliuilar in quality to gnukarabic, whici) seems likely to become a considerable urticie 
of commerce, and wriich has bezun to be exported to San Francisco from the Mcxi- 
cjin ports on the Puciflc— The Cublt M., or Screw M. (Strombocarpa pubfeetu)^ 
uiso culled Scasw Bean and Toubxil, although only a shrub or small tree, is of 
great vulne In the wild and desert regions of the western part of North America, 
where it occurs along with willow-brushes near springs of water. Its wood is nseu 
as fuel, and the pulp of its pods for food. Tlie pbds uro spimlly twisted into com- 
pact rigid cylinders, from an inch to an inch and a half in lengtli. 

HEZZOFANTI, Giuseppe, Cardinal, a remarkable linguist, was bom, t7th 
Septemiier 1774, at Bologna, where he received his education, and snbseqnently (1816) 
received tlie office of university librarian. In 1S81, he settled in Home, and wus ad- 
vanced to the dignity of a Monsignore ; in 18S3, he was appointed secretsiy of the 
College of the Propaganda ; then keeper of the Vatican Libnuy ; and in 188S, he was 
raised to the dignity of c;irdinal. Ho died, 15th March 1849, at Rome. M.'s Euro- 
pean reputation was founded, not on anv literary or learned works that he wrote, 
lint on tbe almost miraculous extent of his linguistic acquisitions. Towards the end 
of his life, lie understood and spoke fifty-eight different tongues. As early, iu<1eed, 
ns 1820, Lord Byron called him *'a walking polyglott, a monster of languages, and a 
Briareus of parts of speech.*' He was not in tlie strict sense a critical or scientific 
scholar; yet, allhongh his linguistic ekiU lay cldefly in verbal knowledge, his ac- 
quirements in oth<!r departments were by no nieaua inconsiderable. See Russell's 
-Life of Cardinal Meausofana" (Lond. 1868). 

MEZZOTI'NTO. See Enoravin^ 

MEZZOJIJ'SO (Arab. Memil-Jum^, village of Joseph), a town of Sicily, In the 
province of Palermo, 18 miles sonth-souih-east of Palermo city. It is one of the 
four colonies of Albanians, who, on the death of Scanderbeg, in the 15tli c, ficd to 
Sicily, to avoid the oppression of the Turks, They preserve their language to a 
great extent, and follow the Greek ritual, their priests being ollowed to niarry ; but, 
except on fete-days, they are not to be distinguished in feature or dress from the 
peasantry of the rest of Sicily. Pop. 5700. 

MGLIN, a town of Russia, in the government of Tchemigov, 196 miles north- 
north-east of the town of Tchemigov. There is a large cloth-factory, and a con- 
siderable number of German families. Pop. (L867) 6842. 

MHENDIQU'NJ, a town of British India, in the territory of Onde, 90 miles 
south-east of Lnckuow, 8 miles south of the right bank of the river Saee. It is a 
busy, thriving place, with a pop. estimated at 90,000. 

MHOW, a iovru of British India. In the territory of ludore. 13 miles south-west 
of the town of Indore, near the Vindnyan Mountains, on an eminence on the Gnmber 
river. Near it are the cantonments, which have altogether the appearance of a 
European town, having a church with steeple on an eminence, a spacious 
(ecture room, a well-furnished library, and a theatre. They ara situated 
at an elevation of 2019 feet above the sea, and are occupied by a considerable 
force. On the 1st July 1857, the sepoys mutinied here, during the great rebelllou 
of that year. 

MIAGAO, a town In the Island of Panay, one of the Philippine Isles, In the pro- 
vince of lioilo. The inhabitants, who are iudttstriom, comfortable, and well edu- 
cated, are estimated at 81,000 in number. 

MIA'EO, or Eioto, now called Sai-Kito, the ancient capital of Japan, situated 
In the 8. w. of the island of Nipon. Broad and clean streets cross each other at 
right angles, and the houses are mostly of the better class. During the double rule 
in Japan, it was the rAtidence of the Mikado, then ouly the spiritual emperor, and 
was and is the stronghold of the national religion. Some of the temples are of 


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4.Q Sffesqnito 

^^ MUftma 

great sfze and splendor. In 1886, the 'graot revolntlon hroke ont: Hie Slioenn, or 
teiDponil ruler, woe deposed, and tbe Mikado, who wns now juvested with com- 
pietu aathority, both temporal and spirftoal, ri'DioTed his court lo Yedo. Mo«t of 
tiie arietocmUc dwellings are consequently teuantlcfui, and tlie i>opnlation in ISTtf 
was only 374,496. M. is Btill, however, the seat of cou9iflomhle trade with llie In- 
ttfrior. It is also a centre of Japcu)eae Uteratare and nrt, and is well provided with 
pablic Khools tot boys and girls, besides special provision for histruction in En- 
gibh, Frendi, and German. It is faiuttd for the manufacture and dyeing of silks. 

MIA'MI, a river of Ohio, United iJtates of America, rifles by several bmnches lu 
the western centre of the slate, and after u sonth-SfuUh-west conree of ISO miles 
throuffh one of the richest regions of America, and the important towns of Dnytoit 
and Hnmilton, empties itM;It into the Ohio River, 20 miles wef>t of Cincinnati. It 
id so4uetlmcs called the Qrent M., to distingnii^h it from the Little M., a smaller 
river, wtich runs parallel to It, 15 to 25 miles east, througli the Miami Valley. 

MIA'SMA (Gr. pollution ; in the plural, Miasmata)^ or Malaria. It is proved by 
the experience of all nges that there is an intimate connection between marshy dis- 
tricts and certain diseiuuis, especially the various forms of intermittent and remit- 
tent fever ; bat the exoct nature of the noxious agent, and the circumstances on 
which its formation and extrication depend, are even at the present day not alto- 
gether established. It is clearly neither heat nor moisture, for tlie crews of clean 
ftbips, when cruising in the tropics at a distance from land, are usually very healthy; 
nor is It any known gas extricated from the marsh, for the gafies collected by stir- 
ring ap marshes (carlK>nic acid, nitrogen, oxygen, and carburetted hydrogen) moy 
be litspired without giving rise to any symptoms resembling those produced by 
malaria. It may be rcgurde<l as au cstaoHshed fact, that the noxious agent is a pro- 
duct of vegetable decomposition occurring under certain conditions of heat and 
moistnre. That vegetable decomposition is the source of thepoipon, Is inferred 
from variona circumstances. For example, this special morbid Influence i« nowhere 
so powerful as in the deltas and along the banks of large tropical rivers wiiich, in their 
flood tiring down the washings of the soil, full o9vegetable remains, which, upon the 
subsidence of the waters, are left recking in the hot sun. Again, the poison lias 
been traced, in various places in Italy, France, and the Netherlands, to the prnciico 
of steeping flax in stagnant waters, and even in streams ; and in India, it was (or- 
meriy the costom, after extracting the coloring matter, to throw the remnins of the 
iudigo into large heaps, which, in the course of three yeors, became excellent ma- 
aure: it was found, however, that these heaps, altenuitely soaked by the heavy 
rains and heated by a tropical sun, decomposed and emitted miasmata pn^clBely 
similar in their effects to those produced by marshes. Marsh-miasmata are seldom 
evohed at a temperature under flO°, but at and above 80° they are prevalent and se- 
vere; and the nearer wu approach the equator, the more violent, as a general rule, 
do they become. Although moisture is necessary to the evolution of mizusmatti, an 
exoc» of it often acts as a preventive, and l»y impeding the access of atmosplieric 
air, retards or prevents decomposition. This explains the apparent anomaly of an 
uncommonly rainy season producing opposite ellicts In different localities, some- 
times not far distant frf>m one another. Thus, in the West Indiets a very rainy sea- 
son induces general sickness in the dry and well-cleared island of Barbadoes ; while 
at Trinidad, whose central portions are ** a s^m of swamp," and where it rains nine 
months in the year, the excessive rain is a preservative from siclvuess ; for in tho 
•easons wlien rain falls only eight months or lef>8, the swamps become dry and ex- 
posed to the sun, and severe remittent fevers are sure to follow. 

CtNimistry has hitherto failed in detecting any si)ecial ingredient to which the air 
evolved by marshes owes its poisonous qualities. The air collected in the most poi- 
Mfious districts gives, on analysis, the same gases existing In the same proportions 
as normal air. nor (if we excepC the observations of Boussinganlt, which have not 
been confirmed by other chemists) does it give evidence of tho presence of any or- 
ganic body. 

The infecting distance of this poison is a subject of great practical importance ; 
and both the lUtitndinnl range and the horizontal spread have to be noticed. In 
Italy, it is estimated that au altitude of about 1500 feet assures au exemption from 
manli-polaou ; whUe in tlie West Indies, au elevation of at lexist 2000 feet is ueces- 


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SfflmatM KA 

sary. From (ybservstions made by Sir Gilbert Blane daring the lU-fated Walcheren 
ezpediliou, It appears that, hi Europe, the horizoutnl uprend of murBh-mIa.«mat{i 
oyer fresh water is !e«s thuc 8000 Uei : bnt over ealt water— at all events, iu the 
tropics— the horizoutal range is greater. The extent to whicli the poison may spread 
bonzoutaiiy over land, la a moch more complicated qaestiou, and depend!*, to a 
great extent, apon tlie uaf are of the solL The efiCect of trees in intercepting niios- 
mato is very remarkable, and is probably dae partly to their condensing the vapors 
of the mnrsh, ttud partly to their altering the direction of tlie current of air. Pope 
Benedict XIV. caused a wood to be cat down which separated Villatrl from the Pon- 
tine Murt^^hes, and iu suusequence, for many years, there was a most severe and 
fatal fever iu a district previously healthy; and the same results have in mjuiy 
otiier cases followed the removal of trees. 

In districts wliere this poison exists, it is found by experience that thosejrho go 
out of their liouses only during the day, after the mumiiik fogs have dhspersed, and 
before the evening mists appear, often esca]>e the bad effects; and a full meal, witli 
a few grains of qninine, siionld be taken before exposure to the morning air by 
travellers in a malarious district. 

Dr Wood of PhiUidelphia has pointed out the extraordinary and very ImportAut 
fact, that miasmata arc nentnilised, decomposed, or iu some other way rendertnl 
iimocuons liy the air of large cities. Tliongli malarious diseases may rage around 
a city, and even invade the outskirts, yet lliey are unable to penetrate iuto the in- 
terior, and individuals who never leave the thickly-built parts almost always escape. 
What it is in the air of the city which is tlius incompatible wilh malaria, is nn- 
knowii ; but very prol)ably it is conne<Tted witli the results of combustion, for the 
fire and smolce of camps are asserted to have iiad the same effects. 

MIAU'l'SE, the aborieines or hill-tribes of China. From the dawn of Chinems 
history, wc find the people of the plains coutendiug against those of the high hinds. 
And to the present day the linrdv moautaineers have maintained tlieir independence. 
They consist of uuiucrous tribes, occupying large portions of Kwang*se, Kwei- 
chow, Yun-nau, Sze-chuen, and Mjaceni provinces. Some of them own Chinese 
fiwny ; other tribes are absolutely independent. They are smaller iu sise and 
stature, and have shorter necks, and their features are somewhat more angahir rhau 
tlie Chinese. Tlieir dialects are various, and wholly different from the Chinese. 
Dr Mucgowan describtts them as skilful in the mauafacture of swords. He has 
shewn tiiat the M. of Western China and the Karens or hill-tribes of Barmah are 
identical.— Reports of Dr Macgowau's Lectures. 

MIA'VA, a market-town of North-west Hungary, on the Mlava, an affluent of 
the Morava, 4S miles east-north-east of Presbnrg city. There are manufactures 
of woollen cloth and bogging, and hemp and Hnx are cultivated. Pop. (1869) 9C37. 

MI'CA (from the saino root with Lut. micot to glitter), a mineral consisting 
essentially of a silicate of alumina, with which arc combined small proportions of 
elilcates of potnsli, soda, llthia, oxide of iron, oxide of manganese, Ac, according 
to which and the somewhat varying external charuciers, numerous species have 
been constituted by mineralogists. Coxmok M., also called Potash M.. contains a 
notable but variable proportion Of silicate of potash ; it contains ult^o alifUe fluorine. 
It is a widely diffused and plentiful mineral, euteiine largely into tlie com|>osi- 
tlon of granite, ndca-slate, and some otiier rocks, veins and fissures of which it 
also ottcii fills up. It has a strong, and often almost metallic lustre. It is reinarkahlo 
for tlie readiness with which it sniits into thin clastic plates, which are geuuraliy 
transparent. The thinness and elasticity of tlicsc pUiles readily distinguii^ them 
from those of talc, and of the laminated variety of gypsum; they are also devoid 
of the greasy feel of talc They are soinetiines not more than one SOO.OOOlh part 
of nn inch In thickness, are generally quite transparent, and are thereifore mucti 
used in sotting ol»jt»ct8 for the microscope. Plates of M. of large sixeare also used 
In Siberia, Peru, and Mexico as a sulMtitute for glass in windows. Laii^e plates, 
often a ynixl in diameter, are found in these countries, and in Norway and Sweden. 
M. Is advantageously substituted for glass iu lanterns, as ft 1)cars sudden changes 
of temperature Iwttcr than glass, and in ships-of-war, as it is uoi liable to Im 
broken on the discharge of cannon. Another use of M. is for making an artificial 
avauturine : it is also employed In a powdered state to give a brilliant appearance 


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r.^ Mlaxitie 

y^ Michael 

to wallB, and as a sand to eprlokle on writing. In tb« state of a veiy flno powder, 
it is known as CaJC9 Gold or CaVa Silver, accordiug to its color. It is ubikiII}' color- 
kss« but sometimes white, gray, greeo, red, brown, blaclc, and rarely yellow, owing 
to the presence of iron, uuiugaiiese, chrome, flaoriue, &c., in its composition. It 
is aometimes found in beantitul crystals, which are generally rhombic or six-cidcd 
tables— LxTHiA M., or Lepidolxtb, contains lithiu in bdiaU proportion. It is 
often of a rose color, or a peach-blossom color. It Is UBed for omameiitul pur- 
poses. It is fonnd in several places in Britain.— Magnesia M., or Biotite, cou- 
tains about as much magnesia as oiuntiiia. It is often dark green. 

MICA-SCHIST is. next to gneiss, one of the most abnndnnt of the Metnmor- 
phic Rocks (q. v.). It consists of alternate layers of mica and quartz, bat in some- 
times compoaied almost entirdy of the thin and shining plates or scales of mien, 
sod from this it pisses by insensible gradations into clay-Blnte. The qonrtz occurs 
pare in thin layers iike vein quartz. Garnets ore in some districts nbandanc in tliis 
roclc, making up a Isi^ge proportion of the whole mass. Mica-schist is l>elieved to 
be a highly altered shale or dav deposit, and the component minerals, including 
the gamelis. to have been developed nnder the influence of metamorphic action 
from maleriais already existing in tlie mialtered strata. In many places, the mica- 
schist has a finely corrugated or wavy structure. 

MI'CAH, the sixth (third in the Ixx.) of the twelve minor prophets (Micaynhn : 
Who is like nn to Jah?), probably a native of Morcsheth, prophesied during tho 
reigsB of Jot ham, Ahaz, and Hezekiali, and was therefore contemporary with 
InHah, and Hosva, and Amop.— The Book op M. is regarded as divisihle into three 
part^, each commencing with ** Hear ye," orfxanlcnlly connected, however, with 
each other, and sliewiug even a progressive development of idea in the mind of tlio 
writer. The destruction of Samaria (Israel), the danger and subsequent captivity of 
Judah ; the wickedness of the rulers, the punlshmrnfs that overtake the land, tho 
glorious restoration of the theocracy; Jehovah's " contrisrersy with his people" 
on account of their sins, his warningf*, his exiiortatious, and hi? sublime pronilse 
of forgiveness, form the principal points of M.'s prophecies, which relate to ihe in- 
Tasions by Shalraaneser, Sennachuiih, the Babylonian exile, the return, and the 
re-establiehmeut of the theocracy under Zerubbabel. The style of M. Is clear, 
vivid, concise, yet richly poetical ; some passages, eFpccinlly»in the beginning and 
the last two chapters, are among tho noblest in the Old Testament. The phiy upon 
words noticeable in Isaiah is also n nuirkcd feature of this writer. 

MICHAEL ANGELO (BUONAROTTI), who, In an oge when Christian art had 
reached itfi zenith, stood almost unrivalled as a painter, sculptor, and architect, was 
bom In 147-1 at Chins!, in Italy. He was of noble origin, having det^cendtd on hiH 
mother's »ide from tho ancient family of Canoi<>^a, in 'luscany, wliile the Buonarotti 
had long been associated witli places of trust lu the Florentine republic M. A. 
learned the rudiments of painting from Bertoldo, a pupil of Domenico Giiirlandnio ; 
and having been admitted 08 a student into the seminary which was established by 
Lorenzo tlic Magniflrent for the stndy of ancient art in connection with the collec- 
tions of statnary in the Medlceau Gardens, he attracted the notice of Ix}renzo by the 
artistic skill with which he had restored the niultilated head of a laughing faun, and 
was received into the palace of the Medici, where he s])ent several years. Lorenzo's 
di-alh in 14^, and the temporary reverses which iHjfcll tho Medici family in conse- 
queuce of the incup.'icity of his euccessor, Piero, led M. A. to ret! re to Bologna, 
wliPncff he poon removed to Koine, w hither his fame had preceded hini. His earlieet 
original work* weru a. Kiicclinj; An >;el, executed for tho grave of St Dominic, at 
Bologna; the statues of Bacchus and David ut Florence; and a magnificent group 
rcprfcM-nting the " Mater Dolorosa," whicli was plueed in St Peter's at Koine. Ni xt 
in order of time, and, according to Bonie of his contemporaries, first in merit, ranks 
M. A.'b great ctirtoon for the ducnl palace at Florence, which, together with tho 
pendunt execnted by Leonardo da Vhiul, has long since p<'i-i.«^hcd. This work, wliith 
lepn'i^Mited a s^ene in the wars wirh Pisa, when a number of young Florentines, 
while bathing in the Amo, are sunnij^ed by an attack of tlie Pisans, shewed so raar- 
Tenoos a knowledge of the unatoniicnl development of the human figure, and such 
exiraordinarr facility in the powers of execution, that it became a stmly for artit^is 
of ereiy huiiC and by its exceUcuce created a new era in art. Pope Julius IL called 


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M. A. to Koine, tnd commlrafoDed bim to mnKe blB monument, which was 
to be erected within St Peter's. Although this work was never com- 
pleted on the colossal scale on which It had been deslxned, and was ultimately 
erected in the chni-ch of St Pietro ad Vinculo, it is a magnificent composition, 
nnd is meniOQtible for having uiven occa^ioa to the reconstruction of St Peter's on 
its present sublime plan, in order the better to adapt it to the colossal dimensions 
of the proposed monument. The pope insisted upon M. A. palntiue with his own 
hand ttie ceiling of the Sistine Cnapel, and although unwillingly, he bcgjm in 150S 
and completed within less than two years his colossal task, which proved one of the 
most marvellous of bis works. The sab)ec(s of these cartoons are taken from the 
lM)ck of Genesis, while between these and the representations of the persons of the 
Saviour's genealogy arc Colossal flguros of proplietn and sibvls. M. A.*s genius was 
too often trammelled by the UHWorlhv tasks in wliich Leo X. and successive iMpes 
engaged him, tiie former having employed him for years In excavating roads for the 
transportation of mar))le from Carraj^ and in other ignoble hibors. llie Florentines 
and Bologueee vied witii the pontiffs iu trying to secure his services; and to his 
skill as an engineer Florence was indebted for the plans of the fortlAcatioiis by 
•wliich she was enabled for a prolonged time to resist the attempts of the Medici to 
recover possession of the city after their expulsion from it. On the surrender of 
Florence, he returned to Koine, where his great picture of the Lost Judgment was 

Raiptfd for the altar of the SiHtiue Cliupel. This coloi>sul fresco, nearly w feet in 
eight, which was completed in 1641, was regarded by contemporary critics as having 
aurpassed all bis other works for the unparalleled powers of invention and the con- 
eummate knowledge of the human figure which it displayed. After its completion 
M. A. devoted himself to the perfecting of St Peter's, which, by the touch of his 
genius^ was converted from a mere Saracenic hall into the most superb model of a 
Christian cburcii. He refused' all remuneration for this labor, whlcli be regarded a8 
a service to the glory oLGod. M. A. died in 1563, at Kome, but his remains were 
removed to Florence aim laid within the church of Santa Croce. His piety, benevo- 
lence, and liberality mode liini generally l>eloved ; and in the history of art, no name 
ehincs with a more unsullied lustre than that of Michael Angelo. — See Vassarl'a 
** Vite de' Pittori" (Bug. trans), and •• Lives" by Dnppa (1806), Harford (185T), and 
Wilson (1876). . 

MICHAEL VI., sumamed Paljeologub, emperor of Constantinople. See Palji- 


MICHABLIS, Johann David, one of the most eminent and learned biblical 
scholars of the 18th c. was born on 27tli February 1T17. at Halle, where his father. 
Christian Benedict Michaelia, a theologian and orientalist of some distinction, was 
a professor. After completing his studies at his native university, he travelled in 
Euglaud and Holland, where he made the acquaintance of several celebrated 
scholars. In 1T45 he became a professor of philosophy at GOttingen, and took an 
active part in the formation of a scicnllflc association there. From 1758 to 1770, he 
was Olio of the editors of tlie *' GOttinger gelebrten Anzeigen," and for some years 
he filled the office of librarian to the university. During tnc Seven Years* War, he 
was occupied in making preparations for an expedition of discovery in Arabia, 
which wa« afterwards made by Niebuhr. In the latter years of his lite, he was nl- 
niosr always In the professorial chair or at his desk. He died on Md August, 1791. 
M. was a man of vast attainments in history and archeeology, and his labors were 
of great importance in the departments of Biblical Exegesis and History. He may 
1>e regarded as among the earliest of the critical school of German theologians, but 
he lived at too early a period to acquire anything like a consiotent or evstcmatie 
theory of the genesis of the Hebrew Scriptures. He loved to rationalise In details, 
and was never quite certain what to think about Inspiration ; at all events, he seelu 
constantly to prove how thoroughly human the Mosaic legislation was, thouj^h lie 
does not exactly deny its claims to being considered a Divine revelation. Many of 
his pupils became prof essors, and disseminated his piinclplea through the Gorman 

M.'s chief works are his <*Eln1eItnng in die gottlichen Schrlflen dee Neuen 
Bnndes" (« vols. GOtt. 1750; English by Bishop Marsli) ; bis **Mosaii«che8 Recht" 
(6 vols. Frankf. 1770—1776; &gllab by Dr Alexander Smith, 1814); and hla 


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Mich gan 

"Moral ** (8 voIk. GOtt 17«»-18S8). See lii« •< Lebeosbeflchreibnnp: yon Ihin Bclb^t 
ftbgefaast " (RiDtelii uiid Leip. 17W). 


MICHAELMAS DAY, one of the English qnnrter-days for payment of rent by 
teuttuta— vis., 89th September. MichacliuNii term \» one of tlie four lG<;nl ti rms 
daring which the £nglii«li courts of law and equity fit daily for despatch of busi- 
iiesv. It begins on tbe 2d. uud ends on tlie t^Sth November. Michaelmas licud 
Coart ia the name given in Scotland to llie annual meeting of lieritorsor frceiioldors 
of each county to revise the roll of freeholders, tbe duties being now discharged by 
the Commiaaiouers of Supply. 

MICHELET, Jules, a brilliant French historian, bom at Paris 21ft Anguft 
1798. He studied with great success under Villemaiu and Ijcclerc, and at the ago 
cC 23 became a professor in the College liollin, where he taught iii«itory, philosophy, 
and the claasic*. In 1826, he published '* Lea Tableaux Syuchroniqnes de THietoiro 
Modeme," and was named Master of Conferences {MaUre des Conferencet) at the 
EeUt SormaU. After the revolution of 1880, he was chosen head of the liistoric 
section, intrusted with the care of the archives of the Isingdom, assistant to 
Gu!si>t at the Sorbonne, and tutor to the Princess Clementine, daogliter 
of the French king, and published several valuable books, such aa ** Precis 
de PUiBtoire Hoderue" (1888, of which tti^re liave been more than 20 edi- 
tions), **Pr6cis de THistoire de Fmuce jnsqn'& la Revolution Frangnise (the 
7lh edition of which appeared in 1842), •* M6moires de Lullier " (1838). *' Origi- 
ns* dn Droit Frauyais cfierch6es dons lea Symboles et Formnles du Droit Univesel " 
(183T). In 1S38, he succeeded Danunu In the ColI6ge de France, and Comte Rein- 
hard in the professorship of Moral Philosophy. He now plunged Into controversy 
with all the vivacity and impetuosity of his nature. Tbe Jesuits were the grand ob< 
iects of his dislike ; and eloquence, sarcasm, sentiment, ond history were all 
brought to bear upon them with brilliant effect. Three books were tlic fruits of his 
polemic : ** Des Jesuits, In conjunction with Edgar Quinei " (1S43) ; ** Du Pr6tre do 
h Femme, et de la Famille»* (1844) ; "Du Penple " (1846). In 1S4T appeared tlie fli-st 
volume of his ''Histoired*) la Revolution;" and itwns finished in 1853, in 6 vols. 
Wlieu theaftnirof 1848 broke out, acting more wlselv than most of hit<k learned wn- 
frem^ he declined to take an active part in political struggles, and quirt'ypurFucd 
bis literaiT avocations. He, however, lost bis situation in the Archives OfiSce after 
tbe amp critat, by refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Louis Napoleun. Other 
works of his were " L-Olseau " (1858), ** Ulnsecte^* (1857), ** L'Amour " (1858), and 
•* U Femme" (1859) ; "Ln Mer " (1861), " La Sorciire" (1862), " Lii Bible de rHuinau- 
Ita " (16<4) ; and " Nos Ffls " (1860) a plea for compulsory ediicatiou. His mnstcr-pitce 
isbis ** Histoirc de France,** continued in *' Histoire de la Revolution Frauyaisc, and 
** Uiatoire du XIX nu 816cle. M. died lii 1874. 

MT'CHIGAN, one of the United States of America, lying In l«t. 41 o 40'— 48o 20' 
D.. and long. 99P 25'— 90o 84' w. It Is bounded on the ii. by Lake Superior and St 
Mary's River; c. by Lake Huron, River and Lake St Clair, Detroit River and 
Erie; s. by the states of Ohio and Indiana ; and w. by Lakes Michigan and Wiecon- 

r«ij. aii'.l has ati ;iri a ui 5tj.243 f'jjiiMre mill'**, or i>G,y8u,u20 itnr^. Jt it* ilivUltil ihiu 11 
coniiUcs. Tl»»i capital is I^u!»iii^s t*>c chief towns an; Detroit Unind Kapifi^, K:i*-t 
Sagittaw, Jackson, Bay City, Saginaw City, Ac. M. H divklcd by Lnkes Mii-liigun 
and Huron into two irrcgu!ar prninpulas— the nppcr, a wild isnd roujrli ngioii of 
mountains and forcetis containinij about one-lhiid the uroa of tlu; Plate, lies iK'iwren 
tlie northeni portions of I^kes Micliigan niid Huron, and Lake Superijjr ; while* tho 
towtT Is nearly enclosed in u vast liort»c-?lioe bond of Lakes Micliigan, Huron, Erie, 
and the connecting straits and rivers. In tiie ni>i>er p4?nlnsula are tl»e rorcu])iiie 
Mountains, rifiuj; to a height of 2000 feet, with f aiuly [ilains and forrnt?;. The eouth- 
ern is a level, ricli, fcrlile cnuuiry (»f prairifs and oak-open in gp, watered by nuincr- 
ons rivers, as the Grand, KaJiuiuzoo, Mnekegou, Satiinaw, &c. '1 he lower iwniuiinla 
la of limestone stmth, with coal and gypsum; the upper, of iitoic formations, willi 
metamorpbic sluteH, gnet?** rocks, trap, and rich mines ot copper and irori. Tlie cli- 
mate i» mild in the t*oathem, and cold and bleak in the northern rejrions. T!io 
aoaihem portion produces wheat, maize, ti-uits, butter, chcei>o, and wool in great 


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Michigan ^a 

Microscope ^^ 

nbundanco. Vn^t qnontitfes of pine-lnmber are exported from the northern half of 
tlio 6t:itc. The prii.cipui mauufucinres nre flonr aud woollona. The extensive coa»t 
and rivers nffonl greut facilities to uuvigntiou, whilo eevcrnl milwiiya Iruverae tlie 
Btato. The government is eimilar to those of the other staf et*, and the school-system 
is based on that of Pinwa, with nbnudaut rcvcnuea from pnhlic lauds. The nnl- 
versity of BL at Ann Arbor lias 44 profeaaora. aud a foandatiou of 1,000,000 acres of 
land. The only charge to students who are reciident in M. is 10 dollars admiaBlon, 
nud 15 dollars annual fee. Detroit was settled by the French in 1610, who also es* 
tahlished a trading i>crt at Mackinaw at abont tlie same {>eiiod. The Brltisti took 
DwtroU in 1818, bat restored it at the end of the war. The ptnte was admitted to tlie 
Union in 1837. Vo\i, in 1S40, 212,267; iu 1S50, 897,654 ; in 1880, 1,686,987. 

MICHIGAN, a lake in the United States of America, the second In sbse of the 
Ave great freah-water lakea, and the only one lying wholly in the United States, 
having Michigan on the n. and e.. and Wiscnnstn ou the w. It is 890 miles long, 70 
miles In mean breadth, and 1000 feet in mean depth. It is B78 feet above the level 
of the sea, and baa been fonnd by accurate observations to have a lunar tidal wave 
of three inchea. It is the outlet of nnmerona rivers, aud is connected by a canal, 
aud sometimea by flooded rivera. with tlie Mississippi, which is believed to Inivo 
b-jen its ancient outlet. Ita )>rtucipal harbors txxw those of Chicago, Milwankee, and 
Cjrand Haven ; aud ita bold and, at certain seasons, dangerous ahoret^ are guarded l>y 
23 light-hooaus. It forma, with the lower lakes and the St Lawrence, a natural 
outlet for one of the richest grain-growing regions in the world. 

MI'CROCOSM AND MACROCOSM. The belief, current in andent times, that 
the world or cosmos was animated, or had a soul (see Animi Mundi), Itnl to the no- 
tion, that the parts and members of organic beings must have their counterparts in 
the metnbcra of the cosmos. Thus, in a hymn ascribed to Orpheus, the aiui and 
moon are looked upon as the eyes of the animating godhead, the earth and its moun- 
tains as hia body, the ether na his iutelloct, the sky as his wings. The natural phi- 
losophers of the 16th c — Paracelsus at their head— took up iliia notion anew In a 
somewhat modlflcd shape, and considered the world as a human organism on the 
large scale, aud man as a world, or cosmos, in miniature; hence they called roan a 
microcoHm (Or. little world), and the universe Itself, the viacroeotm (great world). 
With this wns associated the belief, that the vltiil movements of the rmcrocosm ex- 
actly corresponded to those of the macrocosm, nud reprroented tliem, as it were, in 
r^ipy; and this led naturally to the further assumption, that the movements of tho 
stars must exercise an inflaeucc on the temperament and fortanes of men. See 

MICROCO'SMIC SALT is a tribaalc phosphate of sodm oxide of amraontnm, 
nnd water, which cryaiallisca with 8 eqnivulenia of water. Ma formula being 
NaO.H4NO,UO,I*Oe + 8Aq. It is prepared by mixing a hot solution of parte of 
phosphuleofsuda with a concentrated solution of 1 {lart of muriate of ammonia, 
when tho microcosmic salt crystallises in largo transparent prisms, while common 
salt reniaius in solution. Ou the application of heat, it flrst loses its water of crys- 
tallisation, and tlien ita oxide of ammonium and basic water, so that only meta* 
phosphate of soda remains, which, from ita ready fusibility into a colorless glass. 
Is valuable as a flnz iu blow-pipe expcrimeuta. See Blow-pips. Tbie aalt occiub 
iu decorapoacd urine. 

MICRO'METER (Or. wOrM, little ; rtu^on. raeaMire) Is an Instmment used for 
the measurement of minute distances and angles. Its different forms, depending 
(11 different principles, may be divided into two sections, according as they are ap- 
plied to Physics or Astronomy. Of the former aoction are the Vernier (q. v.) aud 
the Micrometer Screw, tbe latter Instrument belne merely a screw with a very regu- 
lar thread, aud a large round head, which is carefully graduated, generally to sixti- 
eths, and furnished with an index. It U easily seen that if a complete turn of the 
screw advance its point l-30th of an inch, a turn sufficient to pass the index from 
oite graduation to another will onfy aflvnuce It l-1200th of an inch, &c. This is the 
micrometer used In tlie construction and grnduation of instmnieuta. Of those ap- 
plied to astronomical ptirpo»es, the most idmple Is a short tube, across the opening 
of which are stretched two parallel thread*, which are moved to or from each other 
by screwa. These threada are croeeed by a third perpeudicnUirlyi and tbe whole ap- 


by Google. 


^^ Mlcroicope 

p«mm te i^ced In the focaa of a tens. Tbe disUmee of two stArs Ts fonnd by nd- 
jnstini; the two paralle] tbrenda, oue to paM throaffh tbe centre of each star, tnkhig 
care thet tlie tfaveads are placed perpeodicalar to the liue joining the stars, and find- 
ing how iDftiiy tOTQs and parte of a turn of the screw are required to bring tbe wires 
to coincide. Tbe angle of position of two stars is ali«o obtained by tnrnine round 
tbe iostrameDt till tbe third wire, which is normollT horizontal, biHccts both stora. 
sad reading off on tiie circnmference tbe arc passed over. Frat$nho/(T'$ tuspendiM 
MmtUar rKiercmeUr consists merely of a steel ring sarroondid by n flat rlin of glass. 
and the position of the star is deduced from the time when it crosses the ring and 
its path while within it. The Khhd Kocbon snbstitnted for tlie wire micrometer 
(ma made of two prisma of rock-crystal or Iceland spar, capable of doable reifrac" 

MICROPHONE. This Instmment, invented in 1878 by Professor Hnghes, does 
for faint sounds what tbe microscope <q. v.) does for matter too small for sight ; 
the fall of a bit of tissne'pttper or the tread of a fly being rendered audible at many 
miled distance. In priDci[de the microphone iilnstrntes the action of sonorous vi- 
brations on tbe strength of an electric current. One of the most sensitive sub- 
stances for microphonic action is wiUow-cbarcOal, plunged In a state of white heat 
iuto mercary. The theory is that in a homogeneous conductor the compressions 
and dilations of tbe molecules balance coch other, and no variation of current en- 
niep, while nnder miunte snbdivibion, with electrical continuity, sonorous wuves 
affect tbe strength of an electric current, and variations in the current reproduce 
BonorooB waves. One form of microphone <Oii»istsof a plect, of mercury-tem- 
pered carbon, an inch long, placed vertically between two curbon-t)locks hollowed 
to receive Its ends, wires connecting tbe blocks with the battery and the receiver 
by which the sonuds are to be heard. " A piece of wlllow-chsrcoal, " says the in- 
ventor, ^the size of a pin's-bead is sufficient to reproduce articulate speech." Two 
Dsila laid parallel, with wire connections, and a third nail laid across them, make a 
simple form of microphone. A few cells of any form of battery may be Ufed. 
A contiunons sound has been made by the mutual interaction of the microphone 
and Telephone (q. v.), each Instrument In tnru repenting the sound made by the 
other. Many useful applications of the microphone have been made or suggested. 

MI'CROSCOPH (Or. mikrog, small, and akopeo, I see) is an instrument for ennb- 
Hng us to examine objects which are no small as to be almost or quite undisceniible 
bj the unaided eye. Its early history is obscure ; but as It is qHito evident tbe 
property of magnifying possessed by tlio lens must have been noticed as soon as it 
«asmaide, we are quite safe in attributing its existence in its simplest form to a 
period considerably anterior to tbe time oi Christ. II Is generally believeti that the 
Cfflt compound microscoue was made by Zacharias Janscn, a Dntcliman, In the 
rear 1590, and was exhibited to James 1. In London by his iirtronomer, Cornelius 
Drebbel, in 1619. It was then a very imperfect incti-nment, coloringand distorting 
aJl objects. For many years. It was more a toy than a useful instrument, and it was 
not nulillbe invention of the acromatic lens by Hall and DoIIond, and its application 
to tbe microscope by Lister and others, that il reached tbe advanced poaiUou it now 
occupies among scientific Instruments. 

An object to be magnified requires simply that It be brought nearer 
to the eye than when fir?t examined, but as the focal distance of the 
eye rans^es from 6 inches to 14 inches— 10 inches being the average focal distance 
—it follows that a limit to the magnifying power of the eye is attained 
whenever the object to be examined is bronclit so near. If, however, we blacken a 
card, and pierce n bole In it with nfinc needle, and then imagine a miiiute ol)ject^ 
as, for instance, the wing of an insect held about an Inch from the card, we shall 
scti it distinctly, and that toounagnifled about ten times its size. This is explained 
by the fact, that the pin-hole nmus the divergence of the pencil of rays, so that the 
eye con convertre it sufficiently on the retina to produce a distinct impression, whicli 
is faint; auddid not the blackened card exclude all other light, it would be lost. 
If we now remove the blackened card without eitlier removing our eye or the object 
under examination. It will be fonnd that the msect's wing is almost invisible, the 
UDaflcfeted eye being able to see clearly on object so near as one Inch; thus 
demonstmtmg the blackened card with the needle-bole in it to be as decided a mag- 
nifying hMtrument as any set of lensea 


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Bj the appnrent ^ize of nn oh$cct is imderstood the angle formed by tnx) lines 
drnwu from tbeceutru of the eye to the extremities of the object, which is larecr 
wUeu tiie object is nenrer the eye thnn when farther removed. This angle is called 
tlie nuifle of vision, and Is onite distinct from the angle of the pencil of liglit, by 
wliicli the object is reeii. The focal length of a lens determines its magtiifviug 
power. The object to bo examined is plnctxl in Its focas, so that the light wliich di- 
Terpcs from ea'h point may» after refraction by the lens, proceed to the ere In lines 
as nearly parallel as is necessary for distinct vision. In the fig. 1, AB is a donble 



convex lens, in the focus of which we have drawn an arrow. EP, to represent th« 
object under inspection. Tlie cones drawn from its extremities are portions of Uie 
rays of light diverging from these |>oints, nnd falling on the lens. These rays, if not 
interrapled in their course by tlie lens AB. would ne too divergent to permit their 
being brought to a focus upon the retina oy the lenses which cousUtoie the eve. 
But tts they are first passed through the lens AB, they are bent into ue:irly pamUei 
lines, or into lines diverginj; from some points within the limits of distinct vision, 
as from CD. Thus t>ent. these rays are received by the eye as if proceeding from 
tlie larger arrow CD, which we muy suppose to l>e ten indies from the eye, and then 
the miTo of the length of the virtual int^nge to that of the real arrow (nearly 10 to 1) 
gives tlie magnifying power of the lens in question. The ratio of Cl) to BF is tlie 
same as that of 11 Q to KG. Now, HG is the diotance of distinct vision, and KG 
the focal length of the lens, so that the ninguifying power of a lens is obtained by 
dividing the distance of distinct vision (ten inches for most indlridnals} by its focal 

length. Thos, if the focal length of a lens be }i inch, the magnifying power is — 

= 40. This supposes that the'distauoe between the eye and the lens is so small as 
not materially to interfere with the correctness of this statement 

We huve supposed the whole of the light to enter the eye through the lens AB 
(flg. 1), but we must now state that so large a pencil of light passing tnroueh a single 
lens would bo ^o distorted by its spherica! figure, and bv the chromatic dispersion of 
the gla.«s. as to produce u veiy indistinct andimpejfect Image. This is so far reclifii'd 
by applyini; a stop to the lens, so as to allow onlv Uie central portion of the pencil 
to pass. But while such a limited pencil would represent correctly the form and 
color of the object, so small a pencil of light is unable to bear diffusion over the mag- 
nified picture, and is therefore iiicaimble of displaying those organic markings on 
animals or plants which are often of so much imiiortnnce in distinguishing one class 
of Objects from another. Dr Wolloston was the first to overcome this difficulty, 
which he achieved by constructing a doublet, which consists 
of two plano-convex lenses, having the focal lengths in the pro- 
^^^ ,^-_ portion of 1 to 8, and placed at a distance best ascertained by ex- 
^^ ~ perimcut. Their plimo sides are pluoM towords the object, and tlio 

'^ ^^ lens of shortest focjil length next the object. By this arrangement, 
< H the di»toition cansed bv the first lens Is corrected liy the second, 
and a well-defined and fllumlnuted image is seen. Dr Wollastou*s 
doublet was farther improved by Mr Holland, who substituted two lenses for the 
first In Dr Wollaston's doublet, and retained the stop between them and Uie third. 
This combination, though generallv called a triplet, is vhtnaUy a doublet, inasmuch 
aa the two lenses only accompUah what the anterior lens did in Dr Wallastou'a 


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AI croacopo 

donblet, altbongb with less precision. In tbis comblnalion 
of lenses, the errors arc still farther reduced by the clo^e 
approximatiou of tlie lenses to the object, which canses the re- 
fractions to take place near the axis, and thus we have a still 
larecr pencil of light transmitted, and have also a more distinct 
ana vivid image presented to the eye. 
Simple Mieroseope.— By this terra we mean an instrument by means of which wo 
view the object through the lens directly. These instruments may be divided into 
two classes— tliose sunply used in the band, and those provided with a stand or 
frame, so arranged as to be capable of being adjnsted by means of a screw to its 
exact focal distance, and of being moved over different pnrts of tlie object. The 
siude lenses used may be cither a double convex or a plano-convex. When u 
bigner power is wanted, a doublet, such us we have already described, may be eni- 

ployed, or a Coddington lens, which consists of a sphere in 
which a groove is cut and filled up with opaque matter. This is per- 
haps the most convenient hand lens, as it matters little, from its 
spherical form, in what position it is held. In the simple microscope, 
smgle or combined lenses may be employed, varying from a quarter 
to two inches. There arc many di£Ewent kinds of stands for simple 
microscopes made, but as they are pnncipaliy used for dissection, the 
most important point next to good glasses is to secure a Arm largo 
stage for supporting tiie objects under examination. When low powers alone are 
ns^ the stage movements may be dispensed with ; but when the doublet or triplet 
is employed, some more delicate adjustment than that of the hand is necessary. 

Ontipound Miero9eope.-^ln the compound microscope the observer does not view 
the object directly, but an inverted image or picture of the object is formed by one 
lens or set of lenses, and that image is seen through another lens. The compound 
microscope consists of two lenses, an object and an eye lens ; but each of these may 
be compounded of several lenses playing the part of one, as in the simple micro- 
scope. The eye-iens is that placed next the eye, and the object-lens that next the 
object. The former is also called the ocular, and the latter the objective. The 
object^iass is generally made of two or three achromatic lenses, while the eye-piece 
generafly consists of two plano-convex lenses, with tlicir flat faces next the eve, 
and separated at half the sums of their focal lengths, with a diaphragm or stop be- 
tween them. Lenses of high power are so small as to admit only a very small beam 
of light, and consequently what is gained in magnifying power is often worthless 
from deficient illumination. Various devices have l>een employed to overcome this 
difficulty. The light may be concentrated by achromatic condensers placed beneath 
the stage, or the curvature of the lens may be such as to allow as large a number of 
divergent rays as possible to impinge upon it. 8nch a lens is said to have 
a large ** angle of aperture,^ the angle of aperture being that made by two lines 
converging from the margins of the lens to its focal point. Recently lenses, termed 
^Mmmersfon lenses,'* have been constructed, of such a curvature that when 
immersed in a drop of water placed over the object, light is admitted on all sides. 
With an immersion lens there is high magnifying power with sufllcient illumin- 

The following diagram explains the manner in which the compound mi- 
croaoope acts. We have here represented the triple achromatic^ objective, consist- 

ing of three achromatic lenses combined in one tube, m connectioi^ with the eye- 
piece, which consists of the field-glass FF, and the eye-glass B£. Three rays of 


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Mcrozamia ffQ 

Mlddleborg OO 

lizht aro represented ns proceeding from the centre, and thtee from each end of the 
object. These rays woaid, if not interfered with, form an image at AA ; but coming 
in contact with the field-glass FF, tliey are bent, and made to converge at BB, whero 
the imai^ is formed, at which pincc a stop or oiaphragm is placed to intercept all 
light, except what Is reqnired to form a distinct image. From BB, the rays proceed 
to the eye-glass exactly as they do in the simple microscope, and as we have ex- 

Elained in fig. 1. The image therefore formed at BB is viewed as an orietnol object 
y au observer throngh the eye-piece £E. The lens FF is not oescntial to a com> 
ponnd microscope; but as it is qaite evident that the rays proceeding to AA.. 
wonid fall withoot the eye-lens EJB, if it was removed, and only a part of the 
oI>jcct woold tlina be brought nnder view, it is always made use of in the com- 
pound microscope. 

A mirror Is placed under the stage for reflecting the light through the object nn- 
der observation. This method of iHnminalion by transmuted light is used when the 
object is transparent. When opaque, light is reflected on the object by a bnll's-^e 
lens, called a condenser. The best instruments are supplied with six or seven ob- 
ject-glasses, varying in magnifying power from 20 to 2600 diameters. The eye- 
nieces supplied ure three in number, each of which consists of two plano-convex 
lenses, between which a stop w diax)hragm is placed, half-way between the two 
lenses. As the magnifying powOT of a compound microscope depends on the pro- 
duct of tlie magnifying powers of the object-glass and tlie eye-piece, it follows that 
its power may m incrtmsed or diminished by a change in either or both of these glasses. 
In the mechanical arrangements, It is of importance to have the instrument so con- 
structed, that while every facility is afforded for makin|r observations and easy means 
of adjnstmcDt, there should also be great steadiness, \nthont which, indeed, no sat- 
isfactory results will be obtained. These ends are achieved in various ways, of 
which one of the simplest is a brass stand, supported on three feet; mirror supported 
on trunnions; diaphragm, pierced with circular holes of various sises, to regu- 
late the admipsion to the object of reflected light from the mirror ; stago-pLate, on 
which the object is placed ; screw, with milled head for fine adjustment; the object 
gloss or objective ; brass tul)o in which the body of the instrument is moved, so as to 
effect the coarse adjustment; the eye< piece, or ocular. 

The microscope has now become so important au instrument in education, that 
almost every department of science in which it can bo employed has a microscope 
suited to its particular kind of work, and a special treatise explaining and illustrat- 
ing its use; and many branches of science have instruments peculiarly their o>vn. 
Thus, chemists, anatomists, eoologists, &c, have eoch an instrument which they 
value as being peculiarly adapted for their special fiekis of inquiry and observation. 
From this instrnmcnt the chemist, and natural philosophers generally, have derived 
great assistance in studying the different kinds of crystahi; for by means of it, they 
can not only observe and recognise the great variety* of forms that exist, bnt at any 
moment, and with little trouble, they may witness the process of crystallisation, 
and leisurely stady it. Those sciences In which it is most used, and for which it 
has done most, are anntoniy, physiology, botany, zoology, medicine, mineralogy, 
and geology. In the practice of medicine all medical men who aim at a scieutMc 
treatment of diecase have fully recognised how ueK>ful it has been as an agent iu 
diagnosis, more especially in dlet^ases of the kidneys. In the detection of crime and 
the vindication of innocence it is no less useful, as by means of it wo can with cer- 
tainty determine whether n suspicious stain, found for instance on the clothing of 
an Indivttlual chai-ged with murder, has been caused by l)lood or by another coloring 
matter. In like manner, we can determine whether hair found in simiUir circum- 
stances belongs to a human being or not It has ulw> enabled us to distingnisli the 
difference existing between substances that have a similar chemical reaction (o. g.. 
the various kinds of sturch, as flour, potato, sago, &c.)t and thus Wd aio provided 
with au agent quick in detecting adulteration. 

A few hints to amateur observers may not be out of place here. In choosing au 
instrument, the simpler It Is the l>etter. The essential puiut to attend to is, to have 
Eood glasses, which ore tested by their power of shewing some very minute mark- 
ings, such as we find on diatoms. The circumference of the field of view should 
not be tinged with color, and the definition should be as good at the edge as at ti:o 
centre. The beginner snould oso low powers iu preference to high ones. The best 


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light Iff that reflected from a white clond during the dav-. Artificial light Bhonld, if 
poesible, be avoided. The table must be Btcady on which the microscope is placed, 
aod wheji uot in nsc, the in^trnnient should be covered by means of a glass shade. 
The oUperrer also re<[uire8 n few oblong gloss slides, and a few circles of *^hin glass, 
called covering-glasses, to lay over the preparation uudcr examiuutiot:. For mak- 
ing Bcctioui*, dissectiug, and the various manipulatory operatious altctidtug the use 
of^tbc microscope, he requires, moreover, a pair of forceps, a Icuife, or, perhaps 
better, a razor ground flat on the one side, a few needles fixed in baudlcB, and two 
or Three hair-pencils. So equipped, the observer is able to bc(:in examinations of 
texture at once with pleasure aud advantage. Begin with simple objects, such aa 
polleu and tliin slices of the cuticle of flowers, mosses, aud different kindjf of stnrcli, 
each as tous le nwis, back, yam, cycafl, arrow-root, &c., and notice particularly 
their difCereut characters. Make as thin a section as |K>s8iblt', nlace it on the centre 
of the slide, and allow a drop of water to fall ou it from tl>e end c f the handle of the 
needle. Then allow the covering-glues to fall gently on it— obliquely, so as to press 
ont any small bubbles of air. Ue should aleo have a few bottles containing "rc- 
agente,'' such as dilute acetic acid (equal parts of pyroligneous acid and water) and 
I^uor potaasse. By means of these reagents, pecullarilies of structure may often 
be o1»crved. 

Microscopes vary much In price, from 6<. to upwards of jCIOO.* a good scrvicea- 
Ue dt»iecting simple microscope may be had from any philosophical-instrument 
maker for from 9«. to 15& Comnound microscopes are more expendve, but a won- 
derfallv good iustrament for beginners can be had at 30s. It has one eye-glass and 
three ODject-glaBses, and magnifies from 70 to 200 diameters. If a superior iustm- 
mentis wished— one suited for most purposes of observation and reseorch — any ono 
of the foilowing will be found well worth the price :— The microscope of Hartnack, 
with a joint, so that it may be inclined at any angle, has two-eye pieces, two object- 
giasscs, ma^iflea from 60 to 450 diameters, and costs about £7 ; Nachet's micro- 
scope has three eye-pieces, three object-glasses, magnifies from 50 to 750 diameters, 
and costs iClO ; Sraitn and Beck's etiucntional microscope has two eye-pieces, two 
ohiset-glnsses, magnifies from 50 to 360 diameters, and costs jGIO; Koss supplies 
microscopes from jC5to jCIOO, with various number of glasses. 

For a more complete account of the different kinds of microscopes, aud the vari-* 
oas purposes to which they are applied, see Quekett **0n the Microscope" (1865) ; 
Carpenter " On the Microscope " (1862) ; Hogg *• On the Microscope *" (1856) ; ond 
* Ilowto work with the Microscope " (1864), by Beale. 

MICROZA'MIA, a genua of plants of the natural order Cycadacece, They arc 
widely diffused over Australia. The fronds resemble those of palms, and are used 
intbeKoman Catholic Church on Palm Sunday. The underground stem is large 
and tamip-Iike, but covered with scale or leaf-scars, and couiaius a substance re- 
semblra^ tragaamth. The nuts of M. spiralis are edible, but are only used in times 
of ecaraty. 

MTDAS, a common name of Iho more ancient Phi-ygian kings, of whom Midas, 
\\\i - i!i (jf GorUin.H nud Cybelc, istbo most famous, lie was a pupil of Orpheus. 
Aiiir,;,:; tiu'. uiauy legends regarding him is one, that Bacchus granted his wish, that 
-.v;.a;vVir he touches might become gjold ; from which so great iucouvenicnce en- 
>■ .1(1, that he was glad to get himscU relieved from the burden by washing, at the 
roiiiinand of the god, in the Paclo!u8,lhe sands of which became thenceforth pro- 
'iiatifcof gold. Another legend rt'prcyentshim os iiaving offended Apollo by assign- 
1 i^;U'j prize in a musical competition to Pan, aud as having therefore been endowed 
1 y iiirii wiili a pair of nss's curs, which lie concealed uudcr his Phrygian cup, but 
v.lji' li were discovered by liis servant. 

JirDDELBtJliG, a town of the Nelhcrlauds, capital of the province of Zeeland, 
in the iabnd of WalchertMi. It is connected with the sea by acanol, five miles long, 
which aduiita Rhlps of heavy burden, and is a station of the railway from Flushing 
to Roosendaal to join the Dutch and Hclgian lines; Pop. (Ist Jan. 1875) 15,J»26. Tlio 
city la nearly circular, aud a league in cii-cumference, surrounded by a broad canal. 
In former times, M. was one o£ the leading mercantile cities of the united Provinces, 
SGndiug many ships to the East and West Indies, Americavimd all European ports, 
foundiDg the colonics of Suriuaui, Bcrbice, Esseqnibo, I)cmerara, &c; bat the 


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Middle ac\ 

MiddlMbronsh ^^ 

opeiiiDe of the Scheldt for Atitwerp, and other Mnso?, have reduced the foreign trade 
to BJiiijio sl>lps to Java. Manv of tho iuhubitaiit« ore wealthy, which, with its being 
the mcctiuy-i»lacc of tho provincial states of Zeelanil, and posae#sine a considerable 
trade in grain, gait, &c— making beer, vinegar, starch, leather, having snuiL choco- 
late, oil and saw mlllp, and foundries — make it still a city of Importance. It is the 
finest city of tho northeni provinces, having liaud<=omo hoasc^, oninincntcd with 

f;ardens, and the canals and streets shaded witli lree«. The Town-hoiiHJ, fomidcd 
II 146S, hnu a beautiful tower, and is decorated with 25 colossal statues of Counts 
and Countesses of Holland. At the beginning of the IStli c, an abbey was founded, 
which was, later, enriched by Willcm IlT, Count of Holland and Zcclaud. The build- 
ings arc now occupied as the ir.oeting^place of the provincial states. 

H. does not date further back than the 9th century. In 1574, tlie Spaniards, under 
Mondra^on, were compelled by famine to give up M., after bavins: defended it for 
22 months against Prince Willem 1. Though troops are stationed in M., it is no 
longer tenable against an enemy. 

MIDDLE AGES, the dc?ignation applied to the great historic period between the 
times of classic antiqnitv and modern times. Tlie beginning and close of this 
period arc not very deflntte. It is usual, however, to regard tho middle ages as bo- 
ginuing with the overthrow of I lie Western Roman Etnpiro in the vcar476; and 
tliere is a pretty general concurrence in fixing on the Reformation as the great event 
which brought this |>criod to a close. It began with the rise of the Franldsh upon 
the ruius oftho ancient Roman Empire, and witli the commencement of civilisatioQ 
among the barbarous tribes which liad taken possession of the former Roman pro- 
vinces. In course of It, tho different nations of modern Europe were formed, and 
their political and social systems developed. It was a period of much superstition, 
in connection with which much religious enthusiasm very extensively prevailed, 
manifested in mmy great religions endowments, in magnificent ecclesiastical balld- 
Ings, in pilgr images, and, above all, in the Crusades. In the earlier parts of tlils 

E:riQd, the Chur^ was much occupied in the extension of its bounds in the uortli of 
arope, where heathenism still subi^is^ted, and the means employed were not always 
consi&teut with the spirit of Christianity. During the middle ages, the hlerarcuv 
acquired enormous power and wealth, and the papacy rose from comparatively vmall 
bec[inuiiig8 to its utmost greatness. During the middle ages, chivalry had its rise 
and decline, modifying, and in many respects tending to refine the feelings and 
usages of society. Towards tho close of the middle ages, the revival of letters, tho 
increase of knowledge, and tho formation of a wealthy and infliienlial class iu so- 
ciety, distinct alike from the aristocracy and the peasantry, tended, even before tho 
Reformation, both to the diminution of the power of the hierarchy and the decay 
of Uie feudal system. See Oulzot's *' nistoiredo la Civilisation ;" Rfins* ** Handbuch 
der Qcschichtc des Mittclalters ;" and Ualhim's *' History of the Middle Ages." 

MIDDLE BASE amd MIDDLE CHIEF. See Poikts of Escutchson. 


MIDDLE LEVEL. Under the heading Hbdpord Level, a remarkable district, 
cfjvering 400,000 acres, is described, bounding tho Wash on all sides except seaward, 
extending landward nearly to Brandon, Cambridge, Peterlwrough, and Bollncbroke, 
and embracing portions of the six counties of Northampton, Huntingdon, Cam- 
bridge, Lincoln, riorfolk, and Suffolk. It nearly coincides iu area with what is 
popularly known as the Feus. The whole region was, centuries ago, converted into 
an unprofitable marsh by repeated Incnrsions of the s^n. coupled with obstructions 
to the outward flow of the rivers None, Cain. Oose, Welland, &c Vast operations 
have been carried on ever since the time of Charles I., by digging new channels and 
outfalls, and emplojrlng windmills and steam-engines to pump tho water from the 
marshes and ponds into these artificial channels. Tho Bedford Level Is divided Uito 
the Abr^ the ifuid^e, and the South Levels, managed by commissioners, whoso 
powers are derived from special acts of parliament. The improved value of tho 
land Is the fund out of which the expenso of tho engineering works is defrayed. It 
was in one of these district* (the Middle Level, between the None and the Old 
Bedford River) that an Irruption took place in 1862, which strikingly illustrates the 
dependence of the safety of tlie whole region on well-formed and well-maintained 
embanlunents. There was a sluice, called St Qermain's Sluice, situated at the cou- 


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A1 Middle 

^^ Middlatbrongh 

flaence of the Middle Lcrel main ontfaU drain with the river OnBCf near llio npper 
eud of another artificial channel, known as the Ban Brink Cnt. 'J'he dm!n was made 
iu 1S47, and wa» enlarged ten ^ears afterwards to a bottom-width of 48 feut, a eide- 
alope of 2 to l,aiid a level of 7 feet below low- water spriusf-tiile in the river; the rise 
of bigli-water spring-tide at that point was 19 feet, and the sill of (lie sluice was 
fert below low-water spciug-tide. 

On the 4th of May 1862, this sluice gave way without the slightest warning; the 
tidal waters undermined tlie brick work, and formed a hole in the bed of the river, 
iuto which the worlcs of the sluice sank. The tidal waters rnshed up the opening, 
and ebbed and flowed throughout a distance of 20 miles. The commipj^ionci-s of the 
Middle Level applied to Mr Hawkshaw, the engineer, to devise means for repairing 
the disaster. An earth and cradle-dam was attempted to be thrown across the drain, 
at abont 600 yards from the fallen sluice ; bnt this was relinquished in f uvor of a 
permanent coffer-dam of pile-work, at a distance of half a mile from the sluice; and 
after inceeeant exertions from May 16 to Juno 19, the tidal waters were at Ungth 
efftictaaHy shut out by a strong dam. Tne failure of the St Germain's Sluice was 
aoi the only irmptlon that had to be battled with; eight days afti-r thnt failure, 
ooder the pressure of a high spring-tide, the we^t bank of the drain gave way, on 
Maj 12. at a point abont 4 miles from the sluice ; the bank had been bnut only to re- 
sist upland watens and not a rush and a pressure of the sen. The rupture carried 
stray TO yards of the bank, scouring out a hole 10 feet deep at the sp-ol, and admit- 
ting a msh of water which covered 6000 acres of fertile hind to a depth of 2 or 8 feet, 
increased at successive high-tides to 10,000 acres. 

When the finishing of the dam had enabled Mr Uawkshaw to shut out the tidal 
waters, means had to bo devised for getting rid of the flooding waters, and pro- 
viding an outlet for the usual rivers and kuid-drainage of the Middle Level. It was 
restrfved to utilise aome of the old outlets nt other spots, and to supplement their 
action by enormous syphons, placed over the coffer-dam. SIxtt en syphons were 
provided. They were made of cast iron, 3 feet 6 inches internal diumcter, and some- 
what over 1 Inch thick ; they rested on the lop of the dam, and on inclined frame- 
work supported by piles at the sides. The valves were so arranged, thnt the gyphons 
could be nnt In oneration. either by exhausting the air or by flll4iig them with water. 
When only six of the syphons were in position, they carried 50,000 gallons of water 

ST miimtc over the dam. — For more minute details of the dam and the synhons, see 
r Uawkshaw's paper read before the Institute of Civil Engineers in 1863. 

Tlicrc are large items both of cost and of compensation in works of this kind. 
Nearly the whole of tlie Middle Level is 15 feet below high-water spring-tides; it ia 
diflleait to keep out the sea-water, and at the same lime to preserve an outlet for the 
land-water, especially WhltUesea Mere ; there are 130,000 acres to be drained some- 
bow or other; bnt as the land is rich for farming, the commissioners, in past years, 
did not hesitate to spend ^€400,000 on 11 miles of drain, and jCSO.OOO on the sluice. 
The draiu runs through a district called Marshland^ between Lynn and Wisbeach ; 
and as the bursting of the bank caused this district to be deluged with water, the 
commissioneni have had to compensate the Marshland farmers and others; the 
amount of this compensation was frequently litigated between 1862 and 186T. As 
concerns the land iuelf, it is fonnd to be more fertile after such inundations than 
before, owing to the amount of silt deposited on the fields. After repairing the 
breach in the bank, the 10,000 Inundated acres were drained without much difflculty, 
fhroDgh the Marshland, Smeeth, and Feu drain, and the Marshland sewer; the 
pypbons are pcnnancnt channels, to carry off the usual land- waters regularly. The 
^phons were subjected to a severe trial in January 1867, by the ice which accumu- 
lated around their lower ends ; but iron gratings cSectuaily resisted the entrance of 
the ice into the syphons. 

MIDDLE TEMPLE, one of the four English Inns of Court, having the exclusive 
privil«^e of calling persons to the bar. See Inns or Court. 

MI'DDLBSBROUGH, the centreof the north of England iron manufacture, is 
sn important market-town, port, and parliamentary borough in the North Riding 
erf Torkshire, at the month of the Toes, 48 miles n. e. from York, returning one 
member to pariiament. Th« town is of recent growth, and owes its origin as a 
port to its convenient position for the shipment of conls brought down by rallwav 
from the mines in Boath Durham. In 1842, a commodious dock was constructed, 


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Middleatz nc\ 

Midrash OZ 

which has recently becD very considerably cohirf^, and will admit Bhips of the 
lur^rost touiiagc. 

Oil tho discovery, in 1840, of immenfie beds of ironstone, cxtcuding throaghoot 
the whole range of tlic Cleveland Hilla*,' a itortion of which lieu close lo the town, 
tiiu smelting of iron was spec<Iily embarkea in on an extensive t-csile, which has 
since incrca!*ed to a marvellous extjent, to which lias been added iron-fonudriee, 
the roantifaciurc of rails, locomotive engines, tnbcs. boilers, &c., clieniical works, 
potteries, and ship-building arc alw) carried on to a large extent. The town of M. 
was incorporated in 1853. and coustituted a parliamentary borongh In 1869, is well 
built, and some of the streets present handsome specimens of architecture. The 
Royal Exchange, bnilt in 18GT, is a latige and handsome building; within its 
spacions interior, tlie weeltly iron market is held on Tnesdays, and is attended by 
parties connected with tho iron trade from all parts of ttie kingdom, aa well as 
foreigners. There ai« five churches of tlie national estabMshment, and namerout 
places of worship connected with the varionq religions denominations. Albert 
Park, containing 72 acren, is tastefully laid out 

At the census taken in 1831, M. was an obscure hamlet with 883 inliabitants ; in 
ISTl, the parliamentary borongh contained a pop. of 46,643, and in 1874 it was 
estimated at upwards of 60,000. 

MI'DDLESEX, tho metropolitan county of England, in the south-east of the 
country, lK>nnded on the north hy Hertford, and on the south by Surrey, and about 
60 miles inland (westward) from the North Sea, with which it communicates l)y the 
river Thames. Next to liullaud. It is the smolle^^t of the English counties, its area 
behig only 180,136 statute acres; but Its population is inferior only to Unit of Lau- 
caslilrc, and was, in 1871, 8,539,756. The surface is on the whole kvel, wltli gen- 
tle undulations. The Thames, which forms its southern boundary, and its afflu- 
ent*, are tho only rivers of the county. Two of tliese, tho Colne and the Lea. form 
respectively the western and the etfstern Ix)nndaries of the county. The surface id 
also traversed by the Grand Junction and Regent's Canal, and ifio New River, an 
artiflcinl cut intended to supply tlio capital wiUi water. The soil is in general poor, 
with the exception of a tract along tlie i)anks of tlie Thames, which consists of a 
good fertile loam. The county is chiefly occupied in gross and Iiay farms, aud iu 
market-gardens, tho produce of which is sent to supply the metropolis. Parlia- 
mentary elections of members for Middlesex are held at Brentford, which is the 
county town. There are no other UAvus of importance except Loudon. 

MI'DDLBTON, a small manufncturinc; town of Lancashire, six miles north- 
north-east of Manchester. Pop. (1861) 9876 ; (1871) 14,587. It Is chiefly dependent 
npou its manufactures of cotton cloth and sillu. 

MIDDLETON, a small decaying market-town of Ireland, in tho county of Corfc- 
aud 18 mihjs by railway east of the citjr of tliat name. It contains a college founded 
In 1696, noticeable as the place in which John Phil pot Cnrran was educated, and 
still of considerable reputation, aud carries on a general trade. Pop. (1871) 8608. 

MIDDLETON. Conyere, D.D., a well-known divine and scholar of tho Clinrch 
of England, was bom iu 1633, at Rlclimond, iu Yorkshire. He studied at Cam- 
bridge, where he took tho degree of B.A. in 1703, was elected a fellow in 1706, aud 
shortly after married a l.idy of fortune. His life was a series of bitter, and, on the 
whole, not very creditable controversies, though he is said to have been ratlier a 
likeable person in private. His first and most formidable opponent was Richard 
Bentley (q. v.) ; afterwards, liis polemics wore chiefly ofj* tiicological character. 
Tlie views lie expressed and defended were generally such as to draw down upon 
him the imputation of being an ** infidel in disguise,^' though some of them — such 
as that tlie Jews borrowed some of their customs from Egypt, aud that the primi- 
tive writers in vindicating Scripture found it necessary sometimes to recur to alle- 
gory—arc now established beyond all doubt ; while a tliird opiniou, viz., that the 
Scriptures are not of al>solato mid universal inspiration, has since M.'s day becu 
adopted by many of the most learned and accomplished divines even of his own 
church. M. died at Hildersham, in Cambridgeshire, July 28, 1750. His principal 
writhigs are " Tlie History of the Life of M. TuUius Cicero " (2 vols. 1741), n work 
both interesting aud valuable, but neither very impartial nor quite accurate. His 
celebrated ** Letter from Rome, shewing aa exact Conformity between Popery and 


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FiBganism ; or the RcHpion of the present Komans derived from that of their 
Heatlien Anccstoni " (1T»)), provoked tlie roost violent iudigiiatioii among Homan 
CatboUcs, aud is stDi read with interest. All his pamphlets, treatises, &c., were col- 
lectefi and pablished nuder the title of " Miscclhiucons Works" (4 vols. Loud. 1T53 
—1757), aud cou tain much that is curlonsuud valuable ou theological and antiqua- 
rian topics. 

Ml'DDLETOWN, a city and townsliip in Connecticut, United States of America* 
at the liead of navigation, on the right bank of tlie Connecticut River, 23 miles from 
its mouth. It is a well-built to\vn, with a handsome custom-house, Wesleyau uni- 
versity, episcopal seminary, 16 churches, 4 banks, 3 cotton factories, fouudrieji, 
miUs, Ac. Pop. of city in 1810, 6928 ; (1880) 6.826. 

MrDDLEWICH, a small market-town of England, Cheshire, on the Grand 
Trunk Canal, 90 miles cast of Chester. Salt is extensively made ; boat-building is 
carried on, and brick-works are in oi)€ratiou. l^op. (1871) 3086. 

MID6E, the common name of many species of small dipterous Insects, of the 
family lVptc2id<r, much resembling giuits, but having a shorter proboscis. Their 
larvae are aquatic ; the perfect insects are often very annoying both to human beings 
and to cattle. Ttie little plnk-colorcd tortuous worm known to anglers as the Blood' 
worm, frequent in water-barrels and in ibe mud near the edges of ponds and ditches, 
is the larva of a species of M. {Ckirofwrniia plumomut), a little larger than the com*- 
mou guat, very abundant in Britain, particularly in marehy situations. The larva 
is much songut after both by birfis and fishes, and is a very tempting bait for the 
latter. The pupa is cylindrical, with respiratory organs on the sfdcs of the thorax. 
When the iu^^cct Is ready to quit its pupa case, It rises to the surface of the water, 
and there remains suspended for a snort time ; the pei-fcct insect, when it has issued 
from the cnse, also stands for a short time on the surface of the wntcr. Tlie genus 
La remarkable for the long hairs with which the antenna; of tlic male are fun)ished. — 
Another genus of Midges {Simulia) contains many epicies which are most torment- 
lug to men and cattle, oy entering the ears and nostrils, and alighting on the cyc- 
ndk Several species are British. They swarm on marshes and daniplicaths in the 
warmer months. But none of them is nearly fo mischievous as a species (.S'. column 
ba^heruig) found on the l)anks of the Danube, and so plentiful, that hoi-ses anM cat- 
tle are often suffocated by the numbers which get Into the wiud-pipo. 

MIDHURST, a market-town and parliMmentary borough of England, in Sus- 
sex, on the Kother, a navigable tributtiry of the Arun, 60 miles soutli-west of Lon- 
don. Here are the ruins of an old castio of the Bohuns, lords of M.; and within 
luUf amile east of the town stood Cowdiy Bouse, the seat of the Montaigues, which, 
with the exception of the gate-house, was burned down in 1798. M. returns one 
member to parliament. Vop. (1861) of parliamentary borough, 6406; (1872) 6768. 

MI'DIANITES, an Arab race, descended, according to Scripture, from Midian, 
tlie son of Abraham by Ketnrah. They occupied the greater part of the country 
between the north side of the Arabian Gulf and Arabia Felix as far as the Plains ot 
Moab. Others more civilised (if not, indeed, of Cushite origin) dwelt in the vicinity 
of the Sinaitic peninsula, and carried on a trtide, particularly with Egypt. To the 
latter, we may presume, belonged Jethro, priest or **shoik"'of Midinn— the fatliei^ 
in-hiw of Moses. The M. were very troublesome neighbors to the Israelites till 
Gideon's victor^ over them. Their national god was Baal-Peor. 

MIDRASH (Ileb. cfarosA, to search, explain the Scriptures) is the general name 
given to the exposition of the Okl Testament, whicli, for about 1500 years, formed 
1ft? f-rrrr' cf fiM Trn*:itr,l n<:tivity. both in and out of thescliools, among the Jews 
aCtesr uif Ba >vioijis'li Lxile. Tno prohibitions and onliiiauces containtd in the 
Mosaic record?, ro whicii a precise meaning was, not in all cases, attached, were, 
ficcordiuj; \o cfrtaln ijcrmeneutical rules, specified and particularised, and further 
eurruuuded by inulirional ordinances and inliibitions: Halacha (q. v.) = rule by 
wliicli logo, or the l)'tnding, authoritative, civilj and religious law. The chief codes 
of tlilH are the Mis^iiiJu (q. v.), Gemnra (q. v.), Sifra (an anipliflctitiou on Leviticus), 
Sifri (on Numbers ;ind Deuteronomy), and Mtchiltha (on a portion of Kxodns). 
Aitorticr braucli of the Midrash, however, is the Uaggada (q. v.), a kind of free po- 
etical homileciics on the whole body of tlie Old Testament (ilie Halacha being chiefly 


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conflnod to tlie Pentateach). The chief collectione of that iMirt of tho Hidraah are 
Hidrash Rabba, 700— UOO a.d. (on Peutateoch aud Hegilloth), andPealkta (TOO), the 
extracts from which (Jallcot. Peeikta RabbatI, Sutarta, &c) only are kiiowu, the 
origiual itself never havlug dccd priutcd. 

MTDSHIPMAN, tho second rank attained by combatant offlcera in the royal 
nayy. After two years' i»ervlce as naval cadet, tlie aspirant becomes a midshipman^ 
which is ratlicr an apprenticeship for his after-naval career than any really effective 
appointmuiit. Ttie midshipman^s time is principally devoted to receiving iustruc- 
tion, l}Oth in tlie ordinary snbjecta of a eeutleman's cdncation, aud In the special 
professional daties of a naval officer. Alter 1>^ vear's service as snch* the miaship- 
man is rcqali'cd to pass a qualifying examination In geograjphy, history, aud (gen- 
eral kuowledge ; and, two years later, he most pass in French conversation, and in 
seamauship, steam, aud giinneiT> He then becomes a Sub-Iientenant (q. v.) ; and 
If 19 years of age, is eligible for promotion to licotenaut, wheucvcr opportnnlty 

A midshipman ouly receives I«. 9d. a day (je31, 18«. 9d. per anuom) ; he Is conae- 
qnently de|)eudeut on his friends for more or less pecuniary assistauco until be bo- 
comes a sub-lieatcuaut. 

MPDSUMMER DAY, one of the fonr English qnarter-days for payment of rent 
by tenants, viz., 84th June. See Landlord and I'enant. 

MIDSUMMER EVE. Sec John's (St) Evb. 

MI'DWIFE, MIDWIFERY. Midwife (Anglo-Saxon, med-vHf, meaning probably 
a woman hired for tiiede^ or reward) is the name applied to a woman who assists In 
parturition or delivery. From this Is derived tho term Midtoi/ery, for that depart- 
ment of medical science which concerns itself with delivery, and its allied snb- 
]ect<t. Writers who prefer words derived from Latin and Greek root*) to sncli plain 
old Engllsli words as midwiferv, have substituted for it Obstetrics (Lat. ohstetrix^ a 
woman who stands near, a midwife), and Tokology (Gr. (jokos. child-birth), or OuncB- 
kology (Qr. gyne, woman) ; for a male praciilioner In this lino of tho medical art, 
the French name accoucheur Is used; and recently, an obuoxioos new verb, fo 
awouch (Fr. aecouefier, to deliver a woman), has mado its appearance in medic:il lit- 

Midwifery, as a branch of medic:il science, Is understood to Include the study of 
the anatomy of the parts of the femalo l)ody concerned ; the doctrine of conception 
and of sterllitv, and the signs and duration of pregnancy; parturition In all its va- 
rieties ; and the diseases peculiar to the puerperal state. To enter Into details of 
such mattors, would be out of place In thi? woric With regard to parturition itself, 
it mav be interesting to remirk. that in a vast majority of cases the labor Is what is 
called ** natural ," that is, tho child presents itself in tlie normal position, and un- 
aided nature completes tho delivery within twenty-four Iiours with safety to tlie 
mother and child. Dr Smellie calculated that 990 In 1000 are '* untnnii " labors ; and 
the later statistics of Dr Collins, basod on 15,850 cases, give a similar result— viz., 
963 in 1000. 

** Unnatural ** labor arises either from malformation, disease, or weakness on the 
part of the mother, or from abnormal conditions of the child : and manual or lustm- 
mcntal aid becomes necessary to prevent the labor from being dangerously pro- 
longed, or— In the more extreme cases— to render delivery at all possible. Of instrn- 
mental appUcatious, by far the moat Important and frequent Is that of tlic Forceps 

S,. v.), winch is not Intended to injure eitlier mother or child. In 123,895 casos of 
bor attended by British practitioners, there were 842 forceps cases, or 1 in 860 ; of 
these, about 1 in 81 proved fatal to the mother, while I cdiid in 4 was lost. In 
Craniotomy, the head of the child Is intentionally destroyed, with a view to save the 
life of liie mother, the death of both being otherwise inevitable. Among British 
practitioners, this 0))eration is not often resorted to ; it proves fatal to about one 
mother in 5}^. See also Cjesarban Operation. 

History. — From all the paM«ages In tho Scriptures where midwifery is referred to, 
it Is plain that women were tlte only practitioners of this art amongst the Hebrews 
and the Egyptians (see Gen. xxxv. it, and xxxviii. 23. and Ex. I. 15 — ii\, and It is 
equally certain that the Greeks aud Romans confided this branch of medicine to 
women. Phanarete, tho mother of Socrates, was a midwife ; aud Plato explalua th 


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foDctions and mentions the datios nndertaken by fliese women. The Greek and Bo- 
man phyiticiaus were not ignorunt of midwifery, for Hippocrates refers to the neces- 
sity of tamlugtlie child in certain cases, althongh his doctrines on this point, ns 
aliM) on the management of the placenta, are repTftc with danger; nud Celsns, nearly 
fonr ceutarics Inter, treats of the mechanism of lal>or witli great clearness. A grad- 
nal increase in the knowledge of this subject uiny be traced In the writings of AGtins 
and Panlns .^gincto, who advocates the operation of craniotomy in c«.>rtain cat<c8. 
Khazes seems to have been the first to advocate the rupture of tiie mcmbrnncf , when, 
by their toaghuew, they im{)e<le labor; and Avicenna gave the first description of 
au instnimeut partially resembling the more modern forceps. 

At the commencement of the Idih c, Encbnrius Rhodion pnblislicd a liitio book, 
which soon acquired a great celebritv. It was translated from ttie original Higli- 
Gemian into Latin, French, nud EngliBii, and is remarkable us being tlie first book 
pnblishod on this subject iu Englnnci. Its title it*, **Thc Bvrth of Mnnkyndo, otlier- 
viite named the Woman's Book," by Tliomns Uaynold, I'hysiciau (Ix)ndou, 1640), 
and it contidns no external evidence that it is a mere trauslntiou. In 157S> AnibroFo 
Yuri published a small work, iu which he shewed that foot-prescntutious were not 
daugerons, nud that in mal-prt.>scutatiou8 it was better to deliver by the feet thau to 
attempt to bring down the head. 

In the early part of the nth c, the fage-fevime (the French term corresponding 
tooor English midwife) of Mnrie de Medicis published a collection of observations 
on midwuery. About this time (probnblv about 1640), Dr Paul Chamberlcn, an 
English physician, invented* the forceps with separate bladi'fi, such as nre now used. 
The Chaniberleu family (the father and three Font>) did.not, however, publish tlieir 
discoTcry ; considering thnt they had a right to use tlie* secret in tlie way rao*t to 
tlieir own advantage ; and the exact nature of their in»trnments was not known till 
1815, when the tenant of a house near Maldou, iu Essex, wiiere Dr Peter Chamber- 
ku, one of tlie sous, had resided more than a ctntuij previously, nccldcnially dis- 
covered a concealed space, in which were, inter aiia, a collection of obstetric instru- 
ments, inclndiue a dooble-blnded forceps and a vcctip, which are now in the pos- 
session of the London Medico-Chirureical Society. Although Chnmberlen's cele- 
brated arennuvh was doubtless the donnle-blfld( d forceps, he teems, therefore, also 
to have been the discoverer of the vectis or lever. In 16«8, Mnnricean's Treatise 
appeared, which ran through eeven editions, and wns for a long time the standard 
work on ilie subject. He gives a very fall account of the process of labor ; and his 
book having been translated hito English, in 1672, by Hugh C'haml)erlen, became 
widely known in this country. This seems to have been the time when men began 
lo engage generally in the practice of midwifery; Harvey, the Chamberlens, and 
others, taking it up iu England ; while La Valli^re, the mistress of Louis XIV., did 
much to establish the prnciicc in France, by employing Julian Clement, a surgeon 
of high repntation, in^her first confinement in 1663. 

The last point requiring notice in the history of midwifery hi the 17th c, is the 
discovery of the use of ergot of rye in accelerating parturition. In 1688, Camer- 
arios stated that midwives in sonic parts of Germany were in the habit of employ- 
ing it for this purpose ; but it is not till 1774 that we find any further reference to tlie 
use of this drug. 

In the early part of the 18th c. different varieties of forceps, closely resembling 
Cliamberlen's iustmment, were invented by Giffard, Chapman, and others; Chap- 
man being, as it is believed, the first public teacher of midwifery in London. About 
the middle of this century, lived Sir Itichard Manningham, who devoted himself to 
this branch of the profession, and establishcil :i small hospital for the reception of 
partnrieot women, which was the first of the kind in the British dominions. It is 
scarcely necessary to enter into further historical details, as midwifery was by this 
time fully ifco^niBctl as a branch — althongh then and long subsequently, considered 
aitUe lo A- >t bi and 1— of medicine. The names of SmeUie, William Hunter, Den- 
uiaii, and Hhtud iu KngUind, and of Astrnc and Buudelocque in France, are well- 

* The exact date of this important invention is not known, but in 1647, Dr Peter 
Chamb-^rlen piibliwhed a pamphlet entitled ** A Voice in Rhama/' in which he speaks 
of hfs father'.** (Dr Paul Chamberlen) discovery for the saving of infantile life. 
fleuce the forceps miiHt have been iuveuted iu the first half of the 17th century. 




Minions 66 

known lut promotcret of varions dcpartraonts of the art of midwifery towards tlie 
close of this centoiy. 

lu tlie present century, tlie art of midwifery has ateadily progressed. The hy- 
laws pn-cliidinc practitioners in midwifery from tlie Fellowship or t!ie London Col- 
lege of riiysicfans, and other eqnally offensive rnlcs in other itistitation!*. have been 
reiK-nltMl ; there nro professors of, or lecturers on midwifery in all onr medical schools 
(excepljug at tlie niiiversirlea of Oj^ord and Cambridge)} and a knowledge of this 
dfpnrtmeht of metUciDc is now reqnired from every candidate for the medical pro- 
fession. And not only are tlie niemlMM-s of the medical profession compelled to be 
as well versed in midwifery ns in medicine or surgery, but the ignorant midwives of 
pt\»»t times arc now replaced by comparatively well-educated nurses, with dlpFomas, 
certifying that they have regularly attended lectures on midwifery, nnd have taken 
personal charge of a certain number of labors, under the superiutuudence of a qnal- 
ifled teacher. And that nroperly educated women are c.ipable of undertaking aft the 
responsibilities of this aepartnient of practice, is shewn by snch cases ns tliose of 
Mcsdumes Boiviu and Lachiipelle, who (to use the words of Professor Velpeau), 
"although the pupils of Baudelocque, were not afraid to shake off, to a certani cx- 
tcntt the yoke of his scientific nuthority, and whose high position and dignity form 
the starting-point of a new era for the science of obstetrics in Paris.** 

MIGNET, Franc^ois Auguste Alexis, a French historian, was bom 8lh May 
1796, at Aix in Provence, studied law in his native citv along with Thiers, and went 
to Paris in 1821, to devote himself to a liteniry life. He found employment la 
writing for the public journals, and having given lectures on Modem History, 
wlilch wei-e received with great approbation, he was induced to write hl» *' Histoiro 
de la K^volntion Frausaise (2 vols. Par. 1824 ; 10th edition, 1840), a work In which 
tliat great event is regarded less in its moral than its philosophical aspects. It has 
therefore been reproaclied with icaditig to fatalism. His style is brilliant, but 
academic After the revolution of 1830, he became a Cuunnellor of State, and 
Keeper of the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ; but lost these offices iu 
1348, since which time he has lived iu retirement. He lias edited ** N6gociatiout 
relatives & hi Succession d'Espague sons Loais XIV.** (4 vols. Pur. 183G— 1S43), to 
which he prefixed a masterly historic introduction. Among ills later works aro 

♦» Histoiro de Mario Stuart "(2 vols. Par. 18 -. . ^ 

son Stijonr et sa Mort an Monastdre do 

(1804) ; and '* Uivalite <ie Fran9ois I. et dc 

forme, de la Llgnc et du R&gno de Henri IV.," he is said to have collected hundreds 

of voiumos of manuscript correspondence. 

MIONONE'TTE (Reaeda odorata)y a plant of the natural order Rettedaeea, a native 
of the north of Africa, in universal cultivation on account of the delicious fragrance 
of its flowers. It is, according to circumstances and the mode of cultivation, an 
annual or a perennial, and even half-slirabby plant, with lanceolate entire or trifid 
leaves, and erect terminal racemes of small wnitisli flowers, which have the calyx 
6-p:irted, and as long as the corolla ; the capsules 8-toothed. It is to l>e seen during 
Slimmer iu almost every garden, and during winter in almost every greeu-lionse lu 
Briiuin ; it is often cultivated in flower-pots in apartments, and no flower isso con\- 
moii In tlie boxes which arc placed outside of windows in towns. Yet it was first 
introduced Into England by Lord Bateman, who brought it from the Uojral Garden 
at Paris in 1752; nor had it then been long known iu France. It rapidly became a 
universal favorite thronglinnt Ean>pe. The French name M., now its popular name 
everywhere, signifies Little Darling. What is called Tree M. is not even a dis- 
tinct variety, but merely the common kind trained iu an erect fonn, and prevented 
from early flowering by pinching off the ends of the shoots.— Weld (q. v.) belongs to 
tlie same genus. 

MIGHA'TIONS OF ANIMALS, which must not be confounded with their 
diffusion over a more or less extended area, are apparently always gnided by an In- 
stinct o|>eratiiig on all, or neorly all, the individuals of a species, and leading them 
to move in a definite direction lu searcli of food or (iu the case of fishes) of a fit 
position for spawning. 

Among nuimmals, snch migratlous are comparatively rare. The roost remark- 
able iuatauce is that of the Lemmlui^ which at uo defiuite epochs, but geuerally - 

innxKiuciion. Among ins laier worics aro 
. 1851), and ^^ Chnrles Quint, son Abdication. 
deYnstc" (1854): ♦•Eloges Illstorlqoes »> 
; de Charles V." For a '* Histoire de la RA- 


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A7 Mignet 

^ ' Migrat.oos 

once or twice in a qaarter of a century, trnveree Nordlnnd and Finroark In vast 
boAls, cndiug their career iii the WeMerii Ocean, into which they enter, nud con»o 
to a sairidal end ; or, takine a direction tlirongh Swedish Lnpluiid, are drowned in 
the Oalf of Bothnia. M. Martins^ who was a member of 1 lie grcnt ecicutific Scan- 
dinavian cxi)cditiou, accms to donbt the generally eutertnined view of thcBc ani- 
mals casting themeelvee into the Western Oc.Mni, and I)elievc9 thatnio^t of tluni 
perish from the cold in crorsini; Ihe riverp, while uniny nre killed by doge, foxe:*, 
and a vpecies of Horned Owl {iitrix brachj/otos) which in lurgu numbers always ac- 
companlee tliese emigrntioue. 

According to Gmelin, the Arctic Fox (Vufpfs lagofnu) nlwaya accompftniee Ihe 
lemniingB in E>nch numbers that, on this gruand, it is entitled to bo connidered a 
migratory animal; but independently of theme special migrations, it isstattnl by 
Sir James Ross that *' the young eenerally micrato to the nonth ward late in the 
antunm, and collect in vast mni til odes on the pliores of Hudson's Bay; i hey re- 
turn early the following spring to the northward, and seldom again leave the spot 
they select aa a breeding-place." 

The Spring-bok (Antulorcas EueJiare) is nccustomed to make pilgrimages from one 
spot to another in the vast plains of Sonthcni Africa. Herds ot many thousands 
arc led by their chiefs In these migrations, and the wonderful density of the mov- 
ing mays may be imagined from the fact, that a flock of sheep has been inextricably 
tangled and carried along without the possibility of escape. Want of water Ih said 
to lie the cause of these migratious, but Dr Livingstone thinks that them mur^t be 
other causes. 

The occasional iucnrsions of wolves, in very severe winters, Into districts in 
which they are not commonly found, and the long txcursicnsof large groups of 
monkeys [Uniellus and Rhcmjui), hartlly fall within the scope of this article. 

Many of the cctacea are probably migratory. ** The mi^'nitions of Ihe Por- 
poise {Pkoecnia eontmunis) appear — says MTirccI do Serres in his prize-essay, *' Den 
Causes des Migrations des divers Animaux,"p. 63 — to be as periouicas those of cer- 
tain species of birds. Durlngthc winter, they constantly proceed fromnorth to soutii ; 
and when they feel the warmth of summer, they turn north wanls. Thus they are 
common in summer in Greenland, while they are rare on our own coasts, wlicro 
tbev abound in winter. " 

Ttie number of species of birds that periodically migrate is so great that It Is im- 
poc>sible to find space for a list of them. Marcel de Serres, in the work already 
quoted, gives a ** Tableau do TEpoque des Passages des Oiseaux," which extends 
over nearly 100 pages. See Bibds or Passage. The desire for a suitable tenttHM-a- 
tare, and the search for their pj-oper food, are the apparent causes stimulating birds 
to these migrations; and in most instances, especially in tito cu:>e of insectivorous 
birds, the food is intimately associated with the temperature. 

The migrations of many siK'cies of fishes are as remarkable for their regular 
periodicity as those of birds. In some cases, fishes that are produced in 
streams migrate to the ocean, atd after spendinjj some time in salt water, return 
(generally, with singular instinct, to their own birthplace) to fresh water to proi)a- 
gatc their species. Some of these fishes— as, for example, the Lamprey {Petroviy- 
ton nuiriniis) — s|)end mo8t«f their lives at sea, and otiiers, as tlie salmon, in fivsli 
water. The remarkable migrations formerly, but erroneously supposed to l>o mado 
by licrrings, are noticed in tlic article on that fish. Many fishes of the same fandly 
a» the herring, the C/Mpetrf«e— as, for example, the sprat and pilchard — leave the 
deep sea for shallow water during the spawning period, when they approach onr 
coaats in rust shoals. All such migrations as these seein mainly due to a reproduc- 
tive impulse. Sec Fishes, Land-orab. 

Amongst insects, the Locust (LocuHta migratoria) is most remarkable for its 
ml^jrationa. The'=^e Insects are probably produced much more abundiintly some 
year* than olliors, ;ind as in such ycare their birthplace cannot afford them sufficient 
vcgi I.J inn, lliey ar*i Ifd to migrate In search of food. Some Idea of the occasional 
cxU III (t tht'ir waiidtrings may be formed from the fact that, in the early part of 
ISIO, tnv rinds of locnr^ts appeared In Bengal, from whence they proceede<l westward 
compl<*it Iv across tin* Jreat Indian peninsula to Guzenit and tho neighboring j)ro- 
Thice-, from wli'iHt" they pnrsue<l their course southwards towanls Bombay, tho 
whole period of their migration extending over between two and three years ; while, 

^-■^ Digitized by CjOOQIC j 


iS!S?' 68 

in relntioii to tlie^r uumbere. Captain Benufort calculated a swarm that appeared at 
Sttidie, in Asia Minor, in ISll, nt iipwnnla of 168,000,000,000,000. 

MIOUBL. Dom Maria EvuriBt, bont at IJ8l>on ^h October 1802. was tbe third 
son of Jolni VI. of Ponngal. He spent his early yeiirs In BrnziL nnrefttmined and 
nucdacntctl. When lie returue*! with the royal family to Portagal in 1821, he conld 
neither read nor write, and showed no taleut for anything but fencing. He joined 
his mother, Charlotte Joachime of Spain, iu her plots for tlie overthrow of ihe con- 
stitution and the establisliment ot a despotic government ; part of the scheme belns:* 
that ilia weak fatiier nhonld be either formally deposed, or virtually deprived of all 
power. The aeed Marquis of Loulu, the faithful servant of the king, liaving been re- 
moved out of the way by assassination, M., as Infnut-generali^simo. caused the miuis- 
ters to be arrested, 30th April 1824, and his father to be closely watche<l iu his palace j 
but the plot failed, and M. and his mother were banislicd. He led for sonic time a 
remarkably wild and profligato life in foreign countries. After the death of his 
father in 1826, the queen's party set forth a dalni to tlie throne on his behalf, aa 
his elder brother, Doni Pedro, was emperor of Brazil ; and on 2d May 1826, Pedro 
resigned the crown of Portugal iu favor of his eldest daughief, Donna Maria dn 
Gloria, proposing that her uncle Miguel should he her husbimd, and regent of the 
kingdom till her majority, to all which M. agreed. But Quoeu JohachTme's party 
had everything prepared for the restoration of absolutism. M. was declared king of 
Portugal'. War ensued, and at first M. was victorious. He carried into full effect 
the principles of his party by a system of the most severe repression of all liberal- 
ism, and bigiialiscd himself by tiie most extreme tvraniiv of evenr kind, whilst his 
own life was one of tlie wildest excess. In 1832, Dom Pedro took Oporto, and hhs 
arms gradually prevailing, M. was obliged to sign a capitulation at Bvorn, on 
26th May 1834, by which he resigned all claim to the throne of Portugal, and agreed 
to retire altogetlier from the country. But scarcely hod he been conveyed to Genoa, 
when he protested against this deed, and consequently all his estates iu Portugal 
were confiscated, and an annual pension which tiaa 1)een secured to him was 
stopped. He went to Rome, where the papal government acknowledged him as 
rightful king of Portugal, solely liecause he had petted the Portuguese priesthood in 
his war agaiiist the national liberties. Latterly he lived at the castle of Brounbach, 
iu Baden, where he died Nov. 1S66. 

MIKLOSICH. Franz, the most learned living Slavist, was bom nl Liittenbcrg, In 
the Slavic part of Styria, 20th November 1813. After studying law at the university 
of Gratz, he went, in 1838, to Vienna to pnictise as an advocate; but In iai4 ol>- 
tfilned a situation in tlie Imperial Library. In 1860, ho was appointed Professor of 
Slavic in Vienna. His principal works are — •* Kadices Lingnse PulieoslovenlctJp " 
(Leip. 1S45); *♦ Lexicon Lingua Palaeoslovenic® " (Vienna, 1850) ; *• Vorglelchciide 
Grainmatlk dcr Slaw. Sprachen " (1862—1871), a work which lias done for Slavic 
what the works of Grimm and Diez have done for German and Romanic. *^ Die 
Bildung der Slaw. Personennamen " was published in 1860 ; and '* Die ZIgenner Ku- 
ropas »Mn 1872—77. 

MIKA'NIA, a genus of plants of the natural order compositce, nearly allied to 
Eupatoriuvi (a. v.). The heads of flowers are 4-flowea'd, and have four Involucral 
leaves. M» ofieituUia is a Brazilian species, with erect stem, and heart-shaped 
leaves, abounding in a bitter principle and an aromatic oil, and valuable as a tonic 
and febrifuge. M. Oxiaco ana M. vpifera^ also natives of the warm parts of South 
America, are among the plants which have ocquired a high reputation— deserved or 
uiideserted— for the cure of snake-bites. They are twinnig herbaceous plants. M. 
Guaco is remarkable for the large Indigo-blne spots on the under side of its ovate 
leaves. The mode of using this plan^ which is one of those called Guaco, or 
HuAco, by the Indians, is by dropping the juice of the fresh leaves into the wound 
made by a serpent ; or little cakes are formed of the bruised plautH, which are said 
to retain tlieir power for a long time. The whole subject requh'es investigation. 

MrKIX>S (St) TOROK, a town of Hungary, in the county of Heves, near tlio 
Theiss, about 70 miles south-east of Pesth, wftn which it is connected by railway. 
Pop. (1669) 18,024, chiefly employed in rearing horses and cattle, and in fishing. 

MIKNAS, Me'qninez, or Meknaza, a town in the province of Fez, in Morocco, 
83 miles west-by -south from the town of Fez, stands in a fertile valley near tbe SobiL 


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It \» sarroanded by triple walls and a moat, is neat and well bnHc, and contains iho 
finest imperial palace In Morocco. This vas-t pile, erected by tlio Snltiin Muley Ismail, 
Is bnilt of marble, and the surrounding grounds are Inid oat in gardens, stiid to bo 
Uie most bcautlfoi in Morocco, and Iiere and there adorned with fountains. M. is 
the sainmer residence of the sultan. Pop. estimated nt from 15,000 to 55,000, wlio 
carry on an extensive trade in native produce. Thechiefmanufncturcsnre of painted 
earthenware and leather. In the vicinity are large plantations of olives. 

Ml'LAN (Itai. Milano). the chief city of Lombnnly, stnnds on the river Oiona, in 
the C4intre of the great plain of Lonibardy. Pop. (18T2j of city, 199,009 ; of snrround- 
luj^ district, called Con>i Santi, 62,976. From its i>osition on the line of the chief 
routes of the central Alps, it derives great commercial advantages, while its fine 
canal system opens for ft commnuication with the principal rivers of Italy. The 
XoHgiio Grande, or Grand Canal, connects M. with the IMcino, and the Mar- 
tesana Canal with the Adda. The city, which is almost circnlar, is encompassed on 
thrfe sides by walls and low rampnrts ; it has a circuit of about IX miles, and is 
entered br 10 gates. Notwithstanding its great antiquity, M. possesses but few re- 
mains of its early splendid struct iirop, In consequence of the mnny calamitous wars 
bj which It has been ravaged. Modem M. is one of the most opulent and populous 
cities of Italy; ita best streets are regular, wide, and well paved, and kept with 
scrnpnlous care ; the dwellings arc commodious ;ind ta?tcful, though of a less iin- 
posiug character tlian tiie sreat feudal Tuscan houses. M. abounds In churches 
worthy of note : of these, the principal is the famous Gothic cathedral, the Duomo, 
which, with the exception of St Peter's in Rome, is the most magniflceirt ecelesias- 
tical stmctnre of Italy. It has a faoade of white Carrara marble, and is adorned by 
106 piniiACles, and 4600 statues, I>e8ides a voriety of carvings of unsurpassable 
beauty. In fonn, it is a Latin cross, with a length of 486. and a breadth of 252 feet. 
Ttie height of the dome is 855 feet. Its foundation wos laid in 1386 by Gian Galc- 
azzo Vifecontl, and clnriug Its erection, many of the greatest European architccls 
contributed designs for its embellishment. Within it, rfapoleon was crowned king 
of Italy in 1S05. Besides the Duomo, may be mentioned the church of 8t Ambi-ose 
(foDuded by that saint in the 4th c), the most ancient in M., containing inscriptions, 
sairophagi, and monuments full of antiquarian interest, and the one in which the 
German emperors were crowned kings of Italy; the Dominican church of iSanta 
Maria delU Grazie^ which contains in Its refectory the famous "Cenacolo," or "Last 
Supper." bv Leonardo da Vinci ; and that of San Carlo Borromeo (1847) ; of St Na- 
zoro, wrbicii possesses several master-pieces of the best schools of Italian art ; and 
of St Sebastiaoo, once a Roman temple. 

Among the secular buildings of M., the most noteworthy is the magnificent Brera 
Pilace, formerly a Jesuit college, and now used for public schools of the fine arts, 
with the official name of Palace of Arts and Sciences. Within its vast precincts, 
this nuique institution includes an academy of art a choice gallery of paintings, oi 
the Bcdognese and Lombard schools, a flue collection of c:ists for modelling pur- 
poses, a splendid public library, containing 140,000 volumes, and a rare collection of 
manascripts, medals,»aud aniiqulties ; it has also attached to it an observatory and a 
botanical garden. Besides the Ambroslan (q. v.), there arc several largo private 
libraries. Among the sclentiflc and artistic institutions of M., ore the Museum of 
Kalnral History, the schools of surgery and medicine, especially that of veterinary 
practice, the celebrated Conservatoi'y or school of mnsic, and a military geo- 
graphical institute, well known for the excellence cf tlie maps it has issued, 
llie educational establishments Include four g}'mnasia, besides normal schools, 
technical schools, conventual schools, and n seminary. The charitable 
InsiitutiODS are numerous and splendidly endowed, liaving an aggregate prop- 
erty of upwards of jC7,000,000 sterling ; the Oitpcdale Maggiore, or Great Hospital 
founded by the ducal house of Sforzaln 1466, accommodates 2000 patients, and aii- 
nnaDy admits upwards of 20,000. The Trivulzi Hospital, endowed by the Trivulzio 
fsmiiy, maintains and clothes 600 aged pensioners. The Milanese places of amuse- 
ment are on as grand a scale as the other public buildings of the city, the first in 
point of celebrity being the theatre of La ScaUtf which can accommodate 8600 spec- 
tators. The Corm, or chief street of M., is the universal fashionable promenade of 
the inbabltants ; and the Diinmis arcade, or Gaieria di CristoforUy with its brilliant 
ibopt and cafds, is also a favorite place of evening resort, and on account of its gay 


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MilaSZO hrr\ 

Mjlfbrd i V 

appcnrauce baa been called '^LllUe Paris." M. carries on an Immense inland trade 
iu siik, grain, rice, aud che«»e, and has considerable mannfactnres of silk goode, 
ribbonis cutlery, and porcelain. 

M. (Lat Mediolanxtm) was originally a town or village of the lusnbrian Oanls^. 
It \ra8 conqncred by the Romans 228 B.C., received the Lai in franchise about 89 B.C., 
aud the full Koman fnuichiee 49 n.c. Under the Romans, it lx!came a couspicnons 
centre of wealth and civic influence ; its citizens were noted for their refined man- 
ners and litcnuy tastes, and the public buildings for their l>eanty and elegance. In 
the betduniug of the 4th c, it was selected as the residence of the imperial court 
by Maximinn. M. was sacked by the JELuns (under Attila) in 452, by the Qoths (un- 
der the brother of Vitiges) iu 539, and passed to tlie LongolHirds and Franks previ- 
ous to its subjection by the German empire. After 961, it was longgoverue<l by 
dukes in the name of the emperors. The fends of the Quelphs and Qhibeilincs dis- 
tracted M., like all the other Italian cities. Supremo power became eventually 
vested in the Qliibelline Visconti, by whom the ascendency of M. was extended over 
the whole of Lombardy. From 1545 to 1714, M. submitted to the successive pre- 
dominance of France and Austria. Under Bonaparte, it was declared the capital 
of the Cisalpine liepublic, of the Italian Republic, and, finally, of the Kingdom of 
Italy. In 1S15, >L was restored to Austria, aud continued the capital of the Austro- 
Italian kingdom uutil the aunexution of Lombai'dy to Piedmont, in 1S59, by the 
peace of Villafranca. 

MILA'ZZO (anc. Mvlce)^ fortified seaport on the north coast of the island of 
Sicily, 18 n^lcs west of Messina. Pop. (1872) 7744. Its situation Is unhealthy. The 
chief exports are tunny, wine, pilk, fruits, corn, oil, and liqueurs. The town is 
irregularly built, and is considered almost impre^able, owing to the great natural 
-strength of its position and the extent of its military works and citadel. Garibaldi, 
with 2600 men, defeated 7000 Neapolitans here on the 20th of July 18(J0, aud com- 
pelled the garrison to evacuate the foriress. 

MI'LDEW (Gcr. Mehlthau, meal-dew), a term of somewhat vague application to 
certain diseased states of plants caused or characterised by the growth oc small par^ 
asrtical fungi, and also lo spots on cloth, paper, &c, and even on the surface of 

flas« and other inorganic substances, produced by the growth of minute fungi, 
'he mildew fungi are numerous, and the name mildew is often given to many 
that are also known by other names, as Blight, Bbakd, Bunt, Rust, &c.; sec 
these heads ; see al^o Botbttis and Oidium. Different species or families of plants 
have their own peculiar parasites ; several kinds of parasitic fungus l>einfi;, however, 
often known to infest one plant. Probably, the name mildew origlualTyl)clongcd 
to those moulds which form whit(! mealy patches on leaves. Some of these belong 
to the genus Erysiplie^ which exhibits flesh)r somewhat gelatinous masses, Iwcomlug 
globose itporangia^ filled with spore-containing asci^ and surrounded by ailockv my- 
eelium, often spreading widely over the leaves and other [parts of plants. MnpK'S 
are sometimes covered with a mildew of this kind, so as to be quite hoary. Similar 
mildews are often seen on pease and other Icgnminou? plants; also on nmi>ellifer- 
ous plants. Sulphur has neen found effectual in curing some of these mildews.— 
Many of the most destructive mildews are of a red or brown cdlor, as the inilde%v of 
the pear, Aecidium cancellatuni^ that of the barberry, Aecidium Berberiditt, &c.; 
whilst some are almost black, as the corn mildew, Pxicdnia gramrnis, by which the 
crops are in some years greatly injured. 

Wliether mildew is the consequence of unfavorable weatlier and of fungi attack- 
ing an already weakened plant, or is the consequence of infection l)y spores of 
faugi brought through the air or soil to a plant previously healthy, is not yet 
wellascertained ; aucTprobably the one may be sometimes the case, and sometimes 
the other. There is no doubt that many kinds of mildew appear chiefly townnls the 
close of summer on leaves in which vegetable life has already in a great nieasure 
lost its power. 

MILE, the largest terrestrial measure of lengtii In common use among the 
British and most continental nation.^, is derived from the Roman witV/farf, which 
contained 1000 paces (mille paimium) of 5 Roman feet each, the pace l)eing the 
lengtli of the step made by one foot. The Roman foot l)elng between 11'63 and 
11*62 English lucaes, tbo Roman mile was thus Ic&s than the present English milo 


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by from 148 to 144 yards. The length of tho modem mile in different countries ex- 
hibits ;i remnrkabie diversity, not satisfactorily acconntcd for. Before tlie time of 
KUsabeth, scieutific writers made qm of a mile of 5000 Euglisli feet, from the 
ooUou that this was the Roman mile, forgetting the difference in vahie between tlio 
English aud^man foot. The present statute mile was incidentally defined by an 
act t»sscd in the S5th year of the reign of Elizabeth to be ** 8 furlongs of 4P perches 
of 163^ feet ^ich "— i. e., 1T60 yards of 3 feet each ; and it has since retained this 
-value. The fftoaraphical or nautical mile is tl»e 601 h part of a degree of th^ equator, 
and » emphsyed l^ the mariners of all nations; but in Germany, tho geographical 
mihs denotes l-15th part of a degree of the equator, or 4 nautical miles. Tlie follow- 
ing table gives tbe length, in English statute miles, of the various miles tliut have 
been or are commonly used : 

Eng. Miles 

EngKsb geographical mile — 1*163 

German geographkol mile — 4-011 

Tuscan mile — 1-027 

Ancient Scotch mile — 1 -127 

♦'Irish mile « 1-273 

German short mile — 3-897 

PrusBiau mile - 4-680 

Danish mile - 4-684 

Hongarian mile — 5-178 

SwiMmile , - 5.201 

German long mile — 5-753 

Hanoverian mile — 6*568 

Swedish mile - 6C4S 

TheFnmch kilom^lre » 0621 

and 29 kil. = IS English statute miles nearly. 

MILE'TUS, nndenth*, the grcntest and most flonrishlng cify of Ionia, In Asia 
Ifhior. It was situated at the mouth of tlie Mseander, and vvr.s fnmous for its 
woollen mannfacturcHj and for its extensive trade with the north. Before being forci- 
Wy colonised by the iouians, it appears to have been inhabited by Cnriane. M. 
early founded a number of colonics on tbe Black Sea and in the Crin>ra, possessed 
a iJeef, which sailed to every part of the Medlten-anenn, and even ventni-od into tho 
Atlantic, and maintalue<l long and expensive Mars with the Lydion Kings. 1 ho 
** Milesians" were believed to be ll»e pnre»»t representatives of the loninns in Asia. 
After the conquest of Lydia by 11)c elder Cyrus, it was suMiied with the whole of 
iDoia. It continued, however, to flourish ilil it wns excited to rel)ellion «cain?t 
the Feraians in the Ionian war, and w:«s destroyed 404 B.C. It was i-ebnilr, bnt 
never reacquired its former importance. M. has an bouorublc plnco in tbe history of 
Greek literature, being tho birthplace of the philosophers '1 hales, Anuximandcr, 
and Anaximcnes, and of the historians Cadmus and Uecataeus. 

MI'LFORD, a parliamentary borough (contributory to Pembroke) and seajwrt of 
Sontii Wales, in the c6nnty of Pembroke, on the north shore of the Haven of tho 
same name, 7 miles east-north-east of St Ann's Head. The Haven is said to bo 

'i: rr::i1%^d ns a Imrbor by any other in the world. It Is formed by an estuary run- 
;ki ^ iulaiid forirmiles to Lauj^win (which is easily reached by vessels of 2000 tons). 
Linl varying frf^ni 1 to 2 r.iilea in brondlh. It is protprtctl frmn winds by e^itlle or 
niidniatinfr hills, is deep (from 15 to 19 fathoms in iii> * while the spring-tides 

rise 25 feet), en^^y of access, and cnpablo of ancliorii le fleet of England in 

Mifety. Its distance, however, fromthe Channol, til' of British commerce, 

is a ftcrions disiul vantage. Tim merits of the Ilavcii iiavr m ti) recomiised from tho 
eariicst timet*; bnt the ri^c of tho town of M. may bo said to have oegun with tho 
present century, when docks and quays, together with a mail-packet station for Ire- 
itiMl, II docicyard, ship-bnilding slips, and an arsenal, wor.- r&tnbliJ^hed here, only, 
hi. ^v;•V('^. to 1>e removed in 1814. Since that lime, with on y cccns'onid gleams of 
nrr^pcrUy, M. has been in a declinin": condition; but Ihf t ;»ening of the Milford 
Uni!wav,*aiid the construction of docks and wlinrf^, hav«; given an impetus to its 
pro^rrfs'ft; though tin; trade of the place is little deveIopt;d us corapart-d with tho 
capabUiUes of the haven and the mincrai resources in tlic neighborhood. In 1875, 


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M^Uord 79 

Military * ^ 

12«2 vessels, of a bnnlen of 268,804 tons, entered the port, and llTB, of 288,030 tons, 
cleared. Pop. (ISTl) 2S86. 

MILFORD, A village of Mossachasetts, United States of America, 84 miles sontb- 
west of Boston, liaving 6 chnrclics, a manufactory of mactiiuery, and large boot and 
shoe mannfactnres. Pop. (1870) 9800 ; (1880) 9,810. 

MILHAU, or Millan, a town of France, in the department of Aveyron, in a rich 
and fertile dale on the right bank of llie Tftni, 65 miles north-west of Montpellier. 
During the l«th and 17th centuries, it was one of the strongholds of the Calvinists. 
Leather and gloves are maunfactured, and there is a good trade in wool, timber, 
bides, cheese, and wine. Pop. (1876) 14,482. 

MIUTARY ACADEMY, Boyal, an cstabJishment at Woolwich, through which 
must pass all candidates for the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. The age for 
entrance is 17, and the vacnnrics are open to public competition. The pupils are 
denominated military cadets, and the parents or tniardians have to make a consid- 
erable payment in regard to each, so long as they remain at the Academy : the an- 
nual charge for the son of a civilian being jCISO, that for the son of a naval or mili- 
tary officer less, according to the rank oi the father. When the term of instruc- 
tion—which comprises the subjects of a thorough general education, the higher 
mathematics, fortification, guuuery, and mlUury duty—is completed, the cadets 
compete tor the vacancies in the Engineers and Artillery, those who pass the best 
examination being allowed the refusal of the former corps. Those who obtain 
commissions in the Engineers proceed to Chatham for further instruction (with mil- 
itary pay. however) in their professional functions. Tlie Artillery cadets at onco 
]oiu tue Koyal Artillery as lieutenants. The voto for the Royal Military Academy 
for the year 1S76— 1877 was £80,825, of which sum about three-fourths would be 
made up to the Exchequer by the payments for pupils and a contribution from tho 
Indian government. 

MILITARY ASYLUM, Royal, an educational covemmcnt Institution at Cbel- 
sen, near, but wholly distinct from, tho Royal Hospital for Pensioned Soldiers. Its 
object is the suitable education tor trade. &c, of 500 male children— generally 
orphaus— of British soldiers. For these, tucre arc a model school and an infant 
school, and the boys liave a completely military organisation, with scarlet tmlfonn, 
baud, Ac As a result of their training, a lar^ proportion oc the pupils ultimately 
volunteer into the army. The school was originally established In 18(tt by the late 
Duke of York, whence it Is still commonly known as the '* Duke of York's Scliool.** 
Originally a similar school for soldiers' daughters was included, but was not fonnd 
to answer, and has been discontinued. Attached to the school is straining estab- 
lishment for military school mosters, known as the Normal ScbooL The total cost 
of tho whole institution is about jeu,500 per annum. 

MILITARY FRO'NTIER (Gcr. Militaroreme), the former name of a narrow 
strip ot land along the Turkish frontier of the Anstro-Uuugarian Empire. It had a 
si>eciul military constitution, and formed a separate ^* crowuland." Of late, how- 
ever, the peculiar constitutions of the M. F. have been abolished; portions of tiio 
territory have been lucorporated with adjoining provinces; and since 1878 
the remainder of tlie M. F., now officially termed the Croato-Slavouic 
Border-land, forms, along with Slavonia and Croatia, a dep^dence of tho Hun- 
garian Crown. The constitution, civil and military, is now accordingly similar to that 
of the other provinces of tho Hungarian part of the Empire. Tho area of tlie M. F. 
was about 7500 square miles, and its pop. iu 186i) was 699.800. Tho breadth of the 
territory olco under tliis name is considerable towards the western extremity, 
but diuunishes to only a few miles at the eastern. The surface has an average 
elevation of upwards of 2000 feet All the important rivers flow eastward. The 
climate is severe iu tho liighlands in tlie west, init mild iu the lower districts towards 
SUivonia. Maize, wheat, oats, fruits, and vegetables are the piiucipal productions. 

The M. F. owes its origin as a crown-laud to the necessity of having a permanent 
body of defenders on the borders during former wars, and especially during wars 
with the Turks. In the 15th c, the Anstrians hiul gained from the ^furks certain 
tracts of territory on the banks of the Save and Danube. These tracts they colon- 
isedi making it, however, a condition that the colonists must render military aeniCs 


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no Milford 

• *> Mllitarf 

asafnet the Tarks. Thus originated the Capitaoftte of ZeDsg, dnriug tbo reign of 
3Utbia9 Conrinns. The Waraadiu Frontier originated in the same manner in ilio 
16(b. and the Banat Frontier in the ITth c. The constitntion oC the M. F., oa It ex- 
isted till 1873, boa l)een tlins described: ''The military stations along the frontier 
scnre a threefold pnrpose— the defence of tlie coojitry, the prevention of smuggling, 
and the prevention of the rprend of contagions disease into the territories of the 
Anstrian empire. The inhabitants of this crown-land enjoy peculiar privileges. 
Their immigrant ancestors received oulv the temporary nse of lands consigned to 
them; bat in 1^0, a law was passed making over the laud to the occupiers as their 
own property. This riglit of property does not belong, however, to individuals, but 
to tlie family in a united sense. The oldest member oil a family (ciiiled the Hauava' 
tar) i# intrusted with the management of the land : his partner (tlie Uautmutter) ranks 
equal with him, and they each receive a double share of the profits for the year, as 
rttompense for the management of the estate. A family of this sort Is called a 
Bordcr-honse (Cfrenzhaus), All who are able to bear arms arc sworn to the service 
bom their 90th year, l^e soldier of the frontier, who is clothed as well as armed 
and supplied with ammunition by government, finds it his dnty not only to watcli 
and protect the frontier, but to pre^srve peace and order In the Interior, and to go 
OD forei^ service wlieu reauired. Only the smaller portion of the forces of tiic M. 
P. is retained In readiness for active service, while the remainder pursue their ordi- 
nary eniployment& To facilitate the accomplishment of the pnrposes aimed at by 
the M. F.. the cordon, a series of snard-houses along the whole iroutier, affording 
accommoaation to from four to eight men, as well as larger ones, accommodating 
twelve men and a junior officer, has been instituted. Within this line are the offi- 
cers' posts. WMhout announcing himself at the posts, no one is allowed to pass the 
boonoary ; and after permission is ^ven, the passenger must remain a longer or 
shorter time at the quarantine establishment, iu order that all Introduction of dis- 
ease may be prevented. 

MIUTABY OBDER8, religions associations which arose from a mixture of the 
rel^ous euihusiosm and the chivalrons love of arms which almost equally foi-med 
the characteristics of medieval society. The first origin of such associations may 
be traced to the necessities of the Christian residents of the Holy Land, in which 
the monks, whose first duty had been to serve the pilgrims in the hospital at Jeru- 
salem, were compelled, by the necessity of seif-defencc, to assume the character of « 
soldiers as well as of monks. See John (St), Knights of. Tlie order of the Tem- 
plars (q. V.) was of similar origin. Those of Alcantara and Calatrava in Spain had 
lor their immediate object the defence of their country against the Moors. These 
orders, as well as that of Avis in Portugal, which was Instituted with a similar 
view, followed the Cistercian rule, and all three differed from the Templars and the 
Kuijchts of St John In being permitted by their institute to marry once. The same 
privOegc was enjoved in tlie Savoyard order of Knights of St Maurice and tlic Flem- 
ish oroer of St Hubert. On the contrary, the Teutonic Knights, who had their 
origin iu the Crusades (see Grand Master), were bound by an absolute vow of 
chastity. With the varylug conditions of society, these religious associations have 
at various tiroes been abolished or fallen into disuse ; but most of them still snbsiHt 
hi the form of orders of knighthood, and in some of them, attempts have recently 
been made to revive, with certain modifications, the monastic character which they 
originally possessed. 

MILITAKY SCHOOLS, as regards the British army, are divisible into several 
da«M« : 1. Those for the cdncation of officers already in the service ; of the8e, 
t*. .. ^ ,.-«..« ^-,.-_- ._ -x _ , ..^ "•' 1 1 men t at Chatham for training 
Ki.^.. , . ^:;. ... -. i. i. ... -^:.Lu. ;i>.,.;.jii to officers and men will be 
fuuud nudcr Gunk Kit Y, HcuooL. ol. luid Mii^^^k hi thy, Schools of. 8. Schools for 
the pTOfcseionuI education of cindldntes for cninmissions; for these, reference 
should be made to Military Academy, Kotal, and to Sandhurst Military 
CoLL£GE. 4- The schools for men In the ranks and for their children are described 
under Hcuoolu;, Keoimental; while the instruction provided for theh: sons or 
orpiians is Phcwn under Military Asylum, Hoyai* 

The Miliiaiy Schools of foreign countries dLsorve considerable attention, eepe- 
daUy those of France, where a military commiaaion is one of the best sclio- 


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lostic prices looked forward to. In France, no attempt is made to impart 
general edncatioa at the milltarr seminaries ; a boy is required to haTo a 
thorough general knowledge before he can be admitted to these iustlta- 
tious. Being open to universal competition, and being tlie only channel— 
or nearly so— to the best employment nnder the state, the great military sehools, by 
the high standard reqoircd for them, give great impetus to general education tbrongh- 
out the empire, and toe Lyc^es, or public schools, adapt their coarse of iustmctron 
to the anticipated competition. In tlie army, two-thirds of the line commissions, 
and one-third of those for the scientific corps, are given to non-commissioned officers, 
but verv few of these rise beyond the rank of captain ; the remaining commissions 
in the line and scientific corps, and all appointments to the staff, are eiven by com- 
petition, after a careful conrse of professional education. The candidates in open 
competition are placed according to merit eitlier in the Infantry School uf St Cyr. 
or the celebrated Polytcchniqne ; at boili colleges, they have the ricrbt, if 
they need it, to partial or entire state support From the School of St Cyf, 
the more promising pupils pass to the Staff School, and thence, after a thorongli 
conrse, to the Etat Majeur ol the army ; the reoiainiug students pass as snbaltems 
into the line. Tt)e pnpils of the Polytechnique, which is entered after the age of 17 
years, have annually aoont 160 valuaole prizes open to them. The first 80 to 40 can- 
didates usuallir select civil employment under the state, snch as the " Fonts et Cbaus- 
sdes ; *' those next in merit choose the Artillery and Engineers, and pass tbroush a 
technical course at the School of Application. The remafning students either fan to 
qualify, and leave the school, or have to content themselves with commissions in the 
Inie, subordinate situations in the govcmmeut, civil or colonial service, or they retire 
into civil life altogether. 

In actual service, there are schools for the men, who are also taught trades and 
singing. The standard of education among French soldiers is far higher than 
among their English brethren, as the conscriptiou draws the men from all classes of 

The Prussian system of military education differs from that of Franco In that 
competition is but sparingly resorted to ; and the object is to give a good general and 
professional education to all the ofllcers. rather than a specially excellent training to 
u selected few. Aspirants for commissions must enter in the ranks, and within six 
months pass a good examination In general and liberal knowledge : if, howerer. the 
' candidate has been educated In a cadet-hoose— which is a semi-military school for 
youths— and has passed properly out of it, this examination is dispensed with. 
After some further service, the aspimnt goes for nine months to one of three ** Di- 
Tision Schools," where he completes his professional education. If he pass the 
standard here required, he is eligible for the next vacancy, but cannot be comrois* 
sioned, unless the ofllcers of the corps are willing to accept him as a comrade. Tlie 
Arlillerr and Engineer schools do for those services what the Division schools do 
for the line. The culmination of Prussian military education is the Staff School, 
open to competition for alt the ofllcers of the army, and presenting the highest 
prizes in the profession. In ail tlie schools, the candidates study at the expense of 
the state, or receive great auxiliary grants. 

Tlie Anstrian system is very elaborate, and commences at an early age— boys in- 
tended for military service beginning their professional, almost contemporaueonsly 
with tlielr general education. There are schools for training for non-commissioned 
officers and for officers; and senior departments for impartiug more extended in- 
struction to both classes. Candidates for appointment as non-commissioned oin- 
cers pass by competition through the lower houses, where they remain till 11 years 
old ; the upper houses, which detain them till 16 ; and the school companies, 
whence, after actual apprenticeship to service, a few pupils pass to the academies 
for aspirants for commtssions, and the others are dranghted Into the service as uou- 
commissioned officers. For officers, boys are pledged to the service by their parents 
at the age of 11, when they are placed in cadet-schools; after which, the state takes 
charge of them. At al)oat 16, the boys pass, according to qualification, to the line or 
scientific corps academies; and four years later, into those services themselves. 
The young officer's cliance of entering the Staff School— and therefore the staiff — 
depends upon his place at the final academic examination. The competition ob- 
served throughout the course of military education is said to impart groat vigor to 
the tuition. 


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yjK Militarr 

' ^ Militia 

In the Ifalian armj, the system so nearly flpproaclies that of France, that a eci>- 
arate descriptiou is unnecessary. It need only oe stated that the educational status 
of tlic Italian officers Is considered high. 

MILITAltT SECRBTART, an officer on the personal staff of generals In high 
commauU. Ilia daties are to conduct the coiTcupondeuce of his chief, and to trans- 
act a great amount of confidential business, which would dangerously occupy the 
time of (hccenerai himself. The military secretary to the officer commandiiis-in- 
chief at the War Office receiros jCISOO per annum, and is usually a ceneral officer. 
The military secretary to a commander-in-chief in the field is for the most part be- 
low that rauk, and rcceiTes only ttie staff pay of X34(^ 15«. ; while to a general com- 
manding a division only, an AsHelant Military Secretary^ at jCITS, 7«. 6a, perauiium, 
19 ailow^d. This staff pay is of course additional to the officer's regimental or un- 
attached pay. 

MILITARY TRAIN, formerly a highly important corps of the army, of which the 
function was to transport the provisions, ammunition, and all other materiel, 
together with the wounded in time of battle. It was formed after the Crimean war, 
on thedissolntion of the Land-Transport Corps (q. v.). It.conipris<cd six batUjIionw, 
in all IMO officers and men: and its annual cost fo;- pay, &c., was about £71,000. 
The corps ranked after the Royal Engineers, and was classed as Mounted Infantry, 
the officers receiving* infantry rate^. and the men cavalry rates of pay. The com- 
misnions were purchasable, as in the line. The men were armed with carbine and 
sword, bat rather for defensive than aggressive purposes. Attached to each bat- 
talion wore 166 horses, with p.oportionatu wngons and ambniances. 

It ia proper to ob.%rve that the Military Train constituted only the nucleus of a 
transport service for a large army, and that in time of war it would be expanded 
by the addition of thons-auds of horses or mules, and the incorporation or maiiv 
handn^ drivers, Ac, The advantage of pospcssiug even a few men ready trained, 
and capable of directing the movements of othera, was ampiv demonstrated by the 
foilaree of the Crimea in 1S54— 1860; so that parliament voted ungrudgingly the ex- 
pense of this corpSj although in time of peace it was comparatively without em- 
ployment. The Military Train was disbanded in 1870, as being too military in its 
formation. Its functions were transferred to the Transport section of the Army 
Service Corps, a purely non-combatant organisation. 

MILITEXLO, a city of Sicily, in the province of Catania, and 21 miles soiith- 
irest of the town of that name. Pop. (1872) 9978. Ii stands on a mountain in a 
•omewtiat unhealthy situation. In its vicinity there are important salt lagoons. 

MILI'TIA (Lat. miUa, a soldier) has now tlie acquired meaning of the domestic 
force for the defence of a nation, as distinguished from the reeular army, which 
can be eniploved at home or abroad in either aggressive or defensive operations. 
Every nation has a reserve, nnder its law military, upon which its defence would 
fall, on the discomfiture of the regular army: but the system differs in each conn- 
try, and with the exception perhaps of the United States during peace, none are 
formed on tlte model of the British militia. 

The militia is a constitntional force raised under the sanction of parliament. 
In which the people— in theory, at least— wage their own bodies for the defence of 
their own soil, and in which they depute the solo leadership and command to the 
■overeiOT and tiie crown nominees. Organised fty counties and cities, it is essen- 
tially alocal force : the selection of candidates for first commissions by the lord-lieu- 
tenant of the county connects it witli the mnd, while the command of the sovereimi 
effeciaally combines in it the Interests of tho three estates. Under the Anglo- 
Haxons, all men were reqnlreil to boar arms, as a sort of body-rent for the land tney 
heiU ; but no special organisation being adopted, efficiency was rarely attained in the 
nse of amuu This the iiaiion found to its cost when the Danes overran it during's reign. That great kingfto prevent a similar occuiTence, established the mililia 
or/yrd, making Jaiiathe basis of numliers, but the family system that of discipline : 
•o many famit^ were a tything, ten tythlngs a hundred, and hnndre<ls were united 
into cotmtr powers, each under its heretoch, dux, or duke. Each section of the com- 
mnnityhau not only to furnish its quota in time of war, but also to provide arms, keep 
them in repair, and to undergo so many days' tralningevery year. This arrangement 
!sabeisted m more or lees vigor until the Conquest; theu tho feudal troops at fii'st 


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rendered the mflitia nnnecesMiry ; bnt it never ccoMd wholly to exist. When the 
crown began to couteud with the Normau barons, it naturally found its most povrer- 
fnl instrument in reviving tiie Saxon militin. and the English veomanry became 
tlienceforth the fear of England's eucmietsaud a guarantee for the gradual enfran- 
chisement of tlie people. Henry ML established ^* an assize of arms," at which every 
holder of land was bound to produce one or more men fully equipped, and capable of 
fighting in the national defence. The arms were annually inspected, and it was il- 
legal to sell, lend, or pawn them. This annual assembly of the fyrd or militia is 
first recorded after the Conquest in 1181 ; by the statute of Winchester in 1SH5, 
Edward L revised the scale of arms for the several ranks. Further alterations to 
suit the advances in the art of war took place In 1558 (4 and 6 Ph. and M. c S). 
In 16H James I. (1 Jac c. 25) abolished the fyrd. and substituted ^* Trained (com- 
monly called Train) Bands," to the number of ICO.OOO men— a force partaking of 
the nature of militia and volunteers, but deficient in discipline and drill. Dnriug 
the civil war of Charles I., the train bands or militia mostly sided readily with the 
parliament. Up to this time, the command had never by any law boeu definitely 
assigned to the crown or to any other body. After the liestoration, the loyal par- 
liament of Charles II. immediately reor^ranised the militia— essentially on its pro- 
sent footing— and detlared as law that ** the sole supreme government, command, 
and disposition of the law is, and by the hiws of England ever was, the nndouhted 
right of his majesty and his royal predecessors." As, liowever, the crown from this 
time began to depend for its support upon a mercenar>- army, and as tlie local status 
of the militia oCRcers mnst always render the militia a force dependent on parlia- 
mentary influence and ties, the militUi was much neglected until 1767, when a larce 
portion of the regular army being absent in the Seven Years' War, it was carefully 
organised for the defence of the Kingdom. Several militia acts have been subse- 
quently passed, but rather with a view to consolidating the militia laws of England, 
fc*cotlaua, and Ireland, and to effect minor changes necessary for the growth of Iho 
institution, than to remodel in any esfeutiul degree the constitution of the forc<*. 
The acts under which the militia is now organised are the 42 Qco. III. c 90 nnd 
91 ; 49 Geo. III. c. 120; 15 and 16 Vict. c. 60; 17 and 18 VicU c. 18, 105 and 100; 
18 and 19 Vict, c 67, 100, and 106; and ii3 and 39 Vict, c 69, consolidating previous 
acts. The present law stands thus: The sovereign appoints lord»-lieuieuaul of 
counties, who nominate to fixti commissions in their county regiments. Ttic 
general commanding in the military district commands the militia force through 
the colonels of the sub-districts in wliich the regiments respectively are. 

The force to be provided by each county— known as its ^* quota "—is fixed by 
government in proportion to the population, Ac The numbers must be provided 
In some way. In practice, they are raised by voluntary recruitment ; iMit should 
volunteering fail, a levy by ballot would be made upon all the inhabitants of the 
locality between the ages of 18 and 86. The power of making this ballot always 
exists, and would have by law to bo enforced, but for the Militia Ballot Suspension 
Act, which, when the measure is unnecessary, is passed from year to year. Many 
classes are exempt from the ballot, an peers, soldiers, volunteers, yeomanry, resi- 
dent members of universities, clergymen, parish scliool masters, articled dcrks, ap- 
prentices, seafaring men, crown employ^, free watermen of the Thames ; in En- 
gland, any poor man with more than one child born In wedlock; in Scotland, any 
man with more than two lawful children, and not itossessed of property to the 
value of X50 ; in Ireland, any poof man not worth £10, or who does not pay J£& per 
annunufor rent, and has more than throe lawful children under the age of 14. 

The militia are bound, when called np6n by the crown, to assemble annually for 
any period not exceeding throe montiis, for training purposes ; and the government 
can embody the whole, or part of the force, at any national crisis. The regiments 
were embodied, almost without exception, during the Russian war of 1864—1866, 
and to a considerable extent at the time of the Indian mutiny, 1857—1860. Tite 

Suota of the United Kingdom is 200,000 men, but not above two-thirds of that nnm- 
er can be considered as effective. They may not be sent out of the kingdom, 
except they volunteer, and then only by special permission of parliament. As a 
defensive or garrison force, setting free ttie regular army for aggressive operations, 
the militia is a most valuable institution ; and in times of war, it lias ever been 
found an admirable traiulng-scbool whence soldiers volooteer into the permaneut 






A mflitlA Tolnnteer receives bocnty^ayable partly on joining, and partly in in- 
stalments after each training period. When ont for training, or embodied for per- 
manent duty, liie officers and men receive the same pay as regular troops of corres- 
ponding arms of the service, and are nudcr the Muuuy Act and Articles of War, 
except that no pnnisUmcnt can extend to life or limb. The officers rank with, bnt 
mnior to, their brethren of the regolar army ; tlio great distinction in appearance 
between regular and militia troops being, that in the former the appointments are 
all of goM-mcG, and in the latter, of silver ; the buttons being similarly distinguished. 
The force is divldctl into Heavy. Light, Kifles, and Ilighland Infantry, and into Ar- 
tillery, the latler being generally lanited to coast counties, and being very highly 
esteeined by the authorities. 

Tbe celebrated Local Militia was Inftitntcd in England and Scotland in 1808, 
and suspended in 1818. It consisted of a force for each county six times as nn- 
meroua as the proper militia quota, comprising, of course, many classes, which, 
from age or other circumstances, were ineligible lor thc'militin. These troo])8 coula 
only be marched beyond their respective counties in the event of actual Invasion. 
Their numbers rencned, in ISll, to 213,000 men. 

The cost of the militia for the year 1876— 18TT amounted to XI, 168,708 for eflfect- 
ire services, and jC37,401 for uon-effectivu services. As a constitutional precaution, 
the estimates were formerly prepared— at least nominally— by a cdTumittee of the 
House of Commons ; bnt as the chock was of no real advantage, it was abolished by 
a resolution of the House in 1863, and thenceforward the Minister of War includes 
tlie charge among tbe many services provided for in his department. 

MILK it an opaque white fluid socretcd by the mammary glands of the females 
of tbe clam Mofmnuuia^ after they have brought forth their young, ami during the 
period in which their offii«pring are too Immature to live upon ordinarr food. It la 
devoid of odor, except for a short time after its extraction ; Is of a slightlv street 
taste, most commonly of a slightly alkaline reaction (except in the Camtvora^ in 
which it is acid) ; and its average specific gravity (in the case of human milk) is 

When milk has been allowed to stand for some time, a thick, fatty, yellowish- 
white stratum (the cream) forms upon its surface. When this is removed, the fluid 
betow (popnhirly known as *• skim-milk") Is found to be of greater specific gravity, 
and of a more blnlsb-wbite tint. Milk does not coagulate on boiling, bnt a mem- 
brane or film of coagulated caselne, containing fat corpuscles, forms upon Its pur- 
facu. If milk be allowed to stand for some days exposed to air at the ordinarv tem- 
peratare, it gradually begins to exhibit an increasing acid reaction, from the forma- 
tion of ^tic add from tne milk-sugar ; while the caselne becoming coagulated by 
tile action of tbe lacdc acid, is separated in the form of *' curds," ana the fiuid 
gradnaUy assumes tbe form of a thickish pulp. The ordinary means of obtaining 
the caserne (which exists hi solution in tiie milk) in the form of ciu^ is by tbe ad- 
ditiou of a piece of rennet (the dried stomach of the calf), which acts as powerfully 
as any acid, llie curds thus separated form the basis of cheese, while the fluid por- 
tion left after their removal Is known as the ** whey." 

Tlie following table, which is based on the researches of Yemols and Becquerel, 
represents the density and composition of 1000 parts of milk in various animals: 

Caseine & 



Solid Con- 










889 OS 

no 92 








135 94 







































n2 03 






When examined under the microscope, the milk appeors as a clear fluid, con- 
tahUng fat globules (the milk globules, as they are usually called) in suspension. 


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Milk »7Q 

Mtikwoit f O 

They comuiODly vary from *0012 to '0013 of a line in Ctinmeter. They arc each In- 
vented with a delicate coat of caselue, witich prevents their rimning together. By 
cAumin^, the sarronnding envelopes become raptured, and the contents are made 
to miile, forming }miUr. In addition to millc globnles, colostrum globules (see Col- 
OSTBUK), which arc irregular conglomerations of very small fat globules, occur to 
the milk for three or four days after delivery. 

The actual caseine which in the preceding analyses is associated with the nndefiuod 
group of substances termed extraetim matters^ ranges from 27 to 36 in 1000 parts of 
fiealtny human milk, while in the colostrum it amonnts to 40* ; in the milk of the 
cow it is somewhat higher ; while in that of the bitch, and probably of all carnivor- 
ous animals, it is more than trebled. Ii is found in the case of women that the 
quantity of the caseine luca'iu»es with the free use of animal food, and dimhilshes 
upon vegetable diet. 

The fatty matters range from 25 to 43 in 1000 parts of women's milk, while in 
cows' milk they average, according to Lehmann, 45; and in bitches' milk, rise to 110. 
These fatty matters, which collecuvely form butter, consist of an admixture of «8 
per cent, of margarine, 80 per cent, of oleine, and 2 per cent, of nu admixture of fata, 
which, on saponiflcalion, yield butyric, caproic, capryliCj and capric acids. The 
milk which is last yielded is much richer In fi\t than that which Is fli-st drawn. 

The sugar, 4^r lactine, whose properties are described in the article Sugabof 
Milk, varies in human milk from 32 to 02 in 1000 parts, and in cows' milk from 84 
to 43. The milk of bitches, when fed on a purely animal diet, often contains no 
tmcesof sugar; but if they are fed on vegetable or mixed food, a considerable quan- 
tity of sugar id found. The salts in women's milk range from 0*6 to 2-5 in 1000 parts, 
and in cows' milk from 3-6 to 8*6. That a peculiar selective power is exerted by the 
mammary glaud, is shewn by the following table, which shews the comparative 
analysis of the ashes of cows' milk and of cows* biood, each reckoned for 100 parts : 

Ash of Milk. Ash of Blood. 

Chloride of potassium 14*18 none 

Chloride of sodium 4*74 88-82 

Potash 23*46 U-44 

Soda 6-96 89-09 

Phosphoric acid 28*40 7*74 

Lime 17*34 1-W 

Magnesia 2*20 0*75 

Wliy the potassium and sodium compounds stand in this Inverse relation to one 
another iu these two fluids, is not accurately known. The abundant supply of phos- 
phoric acid, lime, and magnesia in the milk, is doubtless for tbo purpose of building 
up the infant skeleton. 

Tlie milk is liable to tolerably regular changes at different periods of lactation ; 
for example, the sugar is deficient during the first month, and is in excess fron\ the 
eighth to the tenth month ; the caseine is in excess during the first two months, and 
is most deficient between the tenth and eleventh mouth ; the butter Is considerably 
In excess during the first month, and slightly sO for the next two months ; while the 
salt« are most abundant daring the first month, bnt present no regular law of do- 
crease. Ileucc*, it will readily be seen that in the selection of a wct-unrse, one of 
the leading requirements should 1>o, that her milk should be of the same age as tbat 
of the motlier's. Various medicines, as, for example, iodide of potassium, iodide of 
mercury, and qniulue, have been detected In the mUk, after being taken by the 
mother; and many cases are on record In which strong mental Impressions, as fear 
or anger, acting on the mother, have so far poisoned the milk as to cause immediate 
convulsions in the infant. 

The daily quantity of milk Is dependent npon vaiious conditions, such oa bodily 
constitution, food, &c. Lamp^rlcrre determined the quantity of milk secreted in 
definite times by a large number of women, ai^d fonnd as a mean for each breast 
between fifty ond sixty grammes (the gramme being 15*4 grains) in tne course of 
two hours, assuming that the secretion continues at a uniform rate. 

In those cases in which a wet-nurse cannot be obtained, it Is expedient to modify 
cows' milk, so as to make it resemble that of women. The main differencea are, 
that the former contains more caseine, and less sugar and water than the latter. By 


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expoBioff cows' milk to a gentle heat in a wide open yesael. we obtfun a film of ca- 
teiiie woich may be removed (more than once. !£ necessary) ; on then ndding sugar 
(sogar of milk, if procurable) and water, we obtain a good imitation of the human 

In the article on Digestion, the uses of the leadius: ingredients of the milk 
in relation to nutrition are sufficiently noticed. The milk of cows is extensively 
used aa an article of diet both for healthy persons and invalids, and It enters lai-gcly 
into all hospital, prison, and workhouse oiet^irics. In patients with a tendency to 
consomptiou, or lu whom that disease has already mauifested itself in its carlv 
form, cream is often of great service, especially when the stomach cannot bear coa- 
lirer oil. 

The adnltcrations to which milk is often subjected arc noticed In the article 
Food, and the instruments used for testing the purity of this flnld are briefly re- 
ferred to in the article Qalactohsteb. Water is by far the commonest adulter- 
ation, and if it has been added in large quantity, the fraud may be detected by 
evaporating a small weighed quantity of the milk (say 500 grains) to dryness, and 
ucertainiug whether the due proportion of solid constituents is left. 

Various methods have been proposed for tlie prceervatiou of milk for sea-voy- 
ages, Bk, Moore's Essence of Milk is prepaied by the addition of a little sugar and 
the evaporation of the fluid, at a temperature of 110° to oue-fonrth of Iw bulk, 
when it is put in smnll tin-cases, solacre<l down, steeped In boiling water for a 
time, and talsen out to cool. This preparation keeps good for a long time. Blatch- 
ford's Solidified Milk is prepared by mixing 112 lbs. of milk wllh% lbs. of white 
sugar and a little bicarbonate of eoda. The mixture is evaporated under certain 
conditions, till It assumes the form of a creamy powder, which is cooled, weighed 
Into parceLs of 1 lb. eoch, and compressed into brick-6hai>cd masses, which muet be 
triturated and mixed with warm water When required lor nse. Grimwade*8 De- 
siccated Milk is prepared by mixing the fluid wltli a little sugar and alkali, and 
evaporating it till it is as thick as doagh ; It is then dried, crashed and bottled. At 
ttie meeting of the British Association in 1660 Abb6 Molguo described four meth- 
ods employed in France for the preservation of milk, of which the most valuable 
•eemedf those of Maber and Do Pierre. For details regarding these methods, we 
must refer to the abba's paper. He found milk prepared by Maber^s process per- 
fectly good after having been kept between five and six years. The milk prepared 
by Dc Pierre's process, unlike the other preparation, is liquid. A speci- 
men of it, the age of which was not stated, which the abb6 brought to 
Aberdeen, was found to be perfectly fresh. The preparation of condense milk is 
now conducted on a large scale in Switzerland. 

MILK-FEVER, in tho lower animals, comes on within a few days after partu- 
Titiou. One variety, common to mO!*t animals, consists in iuflantraatiou of the 
membranes of the womb and bowels, and is produced by exposure to cold, overdriv- 
ing, or Injury during labor; it is best treated by oil and landanniii, tincture of 
aconite, and hot fomentations to the belly. The other variety, alsnoBt peculiar to 
lUe cow, attacks animals in high condition, that arc good milkers, and have already 
borne several calves ; it con9ii>ts in congestion and uiflammation of the brain and 
large nervous centres, and impairs all the vital functions, leading to dnlness, loss of 
aeneation and motion, and stupor. Blood must be drawn early, whilst the cow is 
f till Btamling and sensible. Later, it only hastens death. A lui^e dose of physic, 
such as a ponnd each of salts and treacle, a drachm of calomel, an ounce of gam- 
b<^, and two ounces of ginger, should ai once be given, solid food withheld, 
chi4ers of soap, salt, and water thrown up every hour, cloths wrung out of boiling 
water applied along the eplne, the tents drawn several times daily, and the animal 
frequently turned. Although treatment Is uncertain, prevention Is easily insured 
by mUking the cow regularly for ten days before calving, feeding sparingly on lax- 
ative UQslimnlatiug food, giving several doses of physic before, and one imme- 
diately after calving ; and when the animal is in veiy high condition, and prone to 
iQiik-ze\'cr, bleeding her a day or two before calving. 

MILK VPTCH. See Astbaqalus. 

MILKT-WAY. See Gai.axt. 

MILKWORT. See Poltqala. 


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HILL. ThiB word is now need in a general way as a namo for almost all kinds 
of maiinfnctories, as well as for erindlug machlnerr ; but wo shall oulv describe 
liere the arrangements of an ordinary flonr-mill, adahig a brief notice of the cdgo- 
mill in use for grinding oil-seeds and some other sabetances. 

fVom time immemorial, com has been ground bT a pair of stones. The earliest 
and rodest handmills were no doubt somewhat like one sent home by Dr LiTing- 
stone, the African traveller, from the banks of the Shire, in Sonth Africa. He do- 
scribes it as ** a mill sncb as Sarah used, when told by her lord to do the thing hand- 
somely and in a hnrrr for the strangers— i. c, a ble stone worn hollow by the opera- 
tions of grinding. 1 he upper stone is eraspcd by noth hands, and the weight of the 

body brought down on it as it is shOTea to the lower part The meal is made 

very fine." The next step iu advance of tbls was the qncru or haudmiU, still in use 
in the Shetland Isles, the Fardes, and other places. The old quern scarcely differs 
from a pair of modem millstones, except in the stones being small enough to allow 
of the upper one being turned by tjie hand, instead of by wina, water or sream power. 

The millstones which are now all but universally used for grinding com are 
made from buhr-stoue, a form of silica like fliut in hardness, but not so brittle. 
This rock is only found in abundance In the mineral basin of Paris and some ad- 
joining districts, and belongs to the Tertiary formation. It is of a cellular texture, 
and is frequently full of siliclfled slicUs and other fossils. Millftones are usually 
from four to six feet in diameter, and are each made up of a number of pieces 
rtrongly cemented and bound together with iron hoops. One six feet in diameter, 
of flue qualitv, will cost about £50. The grinding surface of each stone is furrowed 
or grooved, the grooves being cut perpenaicnlarly on the one side, and with a slope 
on the other. A pair of stones are used together, and both being furrowed exactly 
alike, the sharp edges of the grooves on the one como against t£oeo ou the other, 
and so cut the gndn to pieces. 

The figure shews a section of a floor-mill reduced to its simplest elemeots. The 
millston^ are at a. the lower of which is firmly fixed, it being a matter of iiiitx>r- 
tance to have this done securely ; and the upper hi made to revolve, on a shaft wMch 
passes up through the lower one, at a speed of one hundred revolntioiiB per mjnnte 


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more or lc«8. Hotlon is commnDicated by the spnr-wheel 6, wliicli ia driven by a 
wateF-whcd or other power. The corn, previoiiBly cleuiictl, iBsnpplied to the mill- 
Ktones by nieaus of the hopper «, conuected with which there is n valve, d, for regu- 
lating tM supply. PasslDg through a hole in the centre of the npper millBtono, H 
comcfi in between the two, where it is ground, and thrown out on all sides by means 
of ttie centrifugal force. The millstones ore, of course, enclosed, and the floDi* 
passes down through the spont e, to the worm at/, which, while it cools thegronnd 
com, carries it along to elevators a. These rnise it up to the floor, on which the 
sHk-drcsslug maclilne, A, is placed. This is a cylinder, which was formerly made of 
wiredoth of various degrees of fineness, and conscqucntiy separated the flour 
into different qualities — ^the finest passing through the first portion, the 
second passing through the next, and so on ; but no part of it large 
enoogta in tit« openings to let through the bnin, which passed out at the end. 
Silk is DOW preferred to wirecloth for dressing the flour. Hoppers, f, are 
placed below the dressiug-machine, by means of which the flour and bran 
are filled into sacks; No. 1, being flue flour; No. 2. seconds ; and No. 3, bran. 

One of the largest flour-mills m Grent Britain is the one belonging to Messrs 
Tod at Leitb. It is nbout 160 feet long, 60 feet broad, and 65 feet higli. At one end 
of it is placed a steam-engine of 850 horse-power, which works all the machinery 
of the inilL This communicates motion to a series of shafts and wheels occupyinc 
the gronud-floor, belts being used as much as possible for driving the wheels instead 
of spnr-gear, so as to avoid a shaking motion. On the second floor are placed 30 
pairs of millstones, arranged In two Tines along tiic ruom, the wltcat being supplied 
sileotly to tbem by centritugal feedera. On the third floor are situated the ho)>per8 
for feeding the mfllstoues. The fourth floor contains iron rollers for partially crash- 
ing the wheat before being supplied to the millstones. This floor also contains silk 
and wire dressing-machines. On the fifth fioor are placed the first silk drcssiug- 
macbiiie, and also smut-machines for cleaning the wheat previous to grinding, 
which arc somewhat similar to tbrashing-maclnces. The sixth and highest floor 
alfo contains smut-machines. All these machines are connected in the most skil- 
f at manner by means of elevators ascending through all the floors ; and along each, 
where necessary, there runs, in a horizontal direction, an Archimedean screw, so 
that the grain or the floor can be conveyed to any of the machines without the as- 
sistance of hand- labor. 

TliSs mill converis wheat into flour at the rate of about 500 sacks a day of 24 
hours — a Quantity nearly sufficient to supply bread for the entire poi)ulatIon of a 
city like Edinburgh. [The above description applies to Messrs Tods' mill as it stood 
in j8<B. Ii was subsequently greatly extended ; and, after being destroyetl by flre 
III 1S74, has been completely refitted.] The great government mill of St Maur is the 
most remarkable mill in France. 

There is a form of mill In use for some purposes whcro the millstones arc 
vertical, and called the edge-stone mill. It Is t?oraetinic», though rarely, used for 
grinding com ; but is much employed for crushing oil-seeds and for grinding dye- 
stuffs, sugar, chemicals, and a multitude of other substances. Tlie stones are 
generally of some bard rock, such as granite or sandstone, and from 5 to 7 feet In 
diameter. For such purposes as grinding cloy or loam, they are usually made 
of cast iron, aiid of a smaller size. The stones revolve in opposite direc- 
tions, sometimes upon a fixed stone or metal bed, and at other limes it is the 
bed-plate itself which revolves, and in so doing tunis the edge stones which rest 
upon it. 

Among tlic recent improvements in our flour-mills which have attracted con- 
siderable attention are : 1. The patent process of dressing the grinding surface of 
the millstones by means of a peculiar kind of diamond, which rapidly covers it with 
lice grooves. This is still, however, more largely, and perhaps more efficiently, 
done py the slower process with the nidging hammer ; 2. The keepin? down of the 
temperutiirc of the millstones by means of a current of cold air; and, 3. The Iuti*o- 
duction of Carr*s Patent Dislntegrater, which grinds wheat and other substances 
by means of two vertical iron discs about five feet in diameter, and a few 
locbes apart, in each of which are several concentric rows of steel pegs, so 
arranged that those on the one disc overlap without touching those on the other. 
The discs are made to revolvo rapidly in opposito diroctious, so as to grind the 
wbcat by percnssioo. 


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Mill QO 

Mlllennlam ^^ 

MILL, in Law. The owner of a mill sitoated on the bank of a Btream is entitled 
to Lave the nsc of the Btream ODdiminished In volame; and if the other riparian 
owners above interfere with the stream by diminishing its volame, thereby causing 
iujnry to the mill, the mill-owner has a right of action ngoinst the party ao 

MILL, James, was tlie son of a Rmull farmer, and was l}orn In the DeIghl>orhood 
of Montrose, Scotland, 6th April 1778. He studied, with a view to tlie charcb, at the 
university of E41iibargb, where he dlstiugnished himself in Greek and in Moral and 
Metaphysical Pliilosopby. He was licensed to preach in 1798 ; but instead of follow- 
ing out tlie ministry, he went to London in ISOO, where lie settled as a literary man. 
He became editor of the •• Literary Journal," which after a time was discontinued; 
nnd wrote for various periodicals, including the ** Eclectic** aud the ** Edinburgh 
Keview." In 1806, ho commenced iiis *' History of Briiish India," which tie carried 
on along with other literary work, and published in the winter of 1817 — 1818. The 
impression produced by this masterly history on the Indian authorities was sach, 
that, in 1819, the Court of Directors of the Company at>pointed him to the high poM 
of Assistant^xaminerof Indian Correspondence, notwithstanding the then unpopu- 
larity of his well-known radical opinions. The business assigned to iiis care watu the 
Revenue department, which he continued to superintend till four years before hia 
death, when he was appointed head of the Examiner's office, where he had the con- 
trol of uU the departments of Indian administration— political, judicial, aud financial 
—managed by the Secret Committee of the Court of Directors. Shortly after hia 
appointment to tlin India House, he contributed the articles on Government, Educa- 
ion, Jurisprudence, Law of Nations, Liberty of the Press, Colonies, and Prison 
Discipline to the '* Encyclopaedia Britunuica." These essays were reprinted in a 
separate form, aud became widely known. The nowers of analysis, of clear stato- 
mont, and of the thorough-going application of principles, exhibited in these articles, 
hatl probably never before oeen brought to bear on that class of subjects. In 1881 
— 182«, ho published his »• Elements of Political Economy," a work prepared pri- 
marily with a view to the education of his eldest son, John Slnart MiU. In 18i^ his 
** Analysis of the Human Mind " appeared. His last nablished book was the ** Frag- 
ment on Mackintosh," brouglit out in 1835. He was also a contributor to the " West- 
minster Keview " and to the ** London Review," which merged in the " London and 
Westminster." • 

Not long after he settled in London, he made the acquaintance of Jeremy Ben- 
tham, and for a number of yeard lived during the summer In Bentham's conntiy- 
house. Although he must have derived mucii benefit from his intercourse with the 
great law-reformer, he was not a mere disciple of Bentham, but a man of profound 
aud original thought, as well as of exeat reading, in all the departments of moral, 
mental, aud political philosophy. His conversation was impressive to a remarka- 
blu degree, and he gave a powerful intellectual stimulus to a number of young men, 
some of whom (Including hw own son. and Mr Grote, the historian of Greece) have 
since risen to eminence. He took a leading part in the founding of UniversI^ Col- 
lege, London. He died at Kensington. ZSdJnne 1836. See Autobiography of J. S. 
Mill, and an Interettiug Biography by Professor Bain In "Mind," 1876—78. 

MILL, John Stnart, son of the preceding, was bom in London on the SOth of 
May 1806. He was educated at home by his father. In 1820, he went to France, 
where he lived for upwards of a year, making himself master of the French lan- 
guoge, and occasionally attending public lectures on science. He lived for some 
time at Paris, In the house of the French economist, Jean Baptistc Say, where he 
made the acquaintance of many men distinguished then, or afterwards, in letters 
nud in po!itic». He spent part of his time in the south of France, in the house of 
Sir SamnelBentliam,Drotber to Jeremy Bentham. During this stay in France, he 
laid the foundation of his grcol familiarity with, and Interest in, the politics as well 
as the literature of the French nation. In 1883, he entered the India House, and 
became a clerk in the Examiner's office, where his father was Assistant-examiner. 
For tiilrty-three years he continued to oe occupied in the department of the office 
named the Political, or the transactions of the Company with the native sUtes. In 
I83L he was appointed Assistant-examiner, and in 1866 he was placed at the head 
of the department. He energetically opposed the transfer of the India govemment 


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to the crown ffi 1868. On the score of failing health he declined a seat at tiie new 
lodian Council, and retired from office in October of the saiuc year, on a compeu- 
iatinf allowance. At the general election of 18(t5, M. was returned to parliament 
for WeatmiuKter ; and lill lie lost bis seat at the election of 186S, ho acted with the 
Adtanced Liberate. He died. May 8 1878, at Avigiiou, where he had spent most 
part of the last years of his life. 

Mr Mill became an author at a sevy early age. and may be looked upon as oue of 
the foremost thinkers of his time. His first publications consisted of uriicles in the 
** Westminster Review.'' He look an active part iu the poliiical discussious that 
followed the rwolntion of 1830 iu France, anci tlie liefonu-Bill movement iu Enj;- 
knd ; and from 1835 to 1840 Mrase<litor, and along with Sir W. Mult^sworth, proprietor 
of the *• Loudon and Westminster Review," wliere many articlee of hie own anpenrid. 
In 1843, he published his ** System of Logic; " in 1844, "Ei^savs on fomc Unsettled 
Qaestious of Political ficouomy ; " hi 1843, the " Priucipleu of Political Economy ; " 
iu 1^9, an essay on *' Liberty ; " in 1SG0, ** Dii>cu88ions aud Dissertations ; " iu 1863, 
a small work on *- Utililariauism ; " iu 1865, '* Comtc aud Positivism,*' and the *^ Ex- 
amination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy ; " In 1667 (when M. was rector of 
St Andrews University), his ^' Inanzaral Address ; " iu 1868, *' England and Ireland ; " 
aad iu 186©, ** The Snbiection of Women." After his death appeared his *• Antobio- 
grnphy " (1978), read with intense hitercst ; '* Three Es$ay« ou Itellgion " (1874) ; and 
a KGond volume of '* Discussions and Dissertations " (1875). 

MILLAIS, John Everett, R,A.. a celebrated English nainter, was bom at Sonth- 
ampton iu 18*^, entered the Royal Academy at the aze of elevcu, and iu 1847 carried 
off the gokl medal for his picture of •* The Tribes of Benjamin seizing the Daugh- 
ters of Sbiloh," exhibited, in the following year, at the British Institution. Before 
this period, he had acquired a considerable repntaliou among younger pahiters by 
bi» avowed antipathy to the principles of art which then prevailed, lli? view? wer<r 
shared in br other students, such as Uolman Hunt (q. v.), Dante Kossetti (q. v.), and 
Charles Collins, aud a sort of artistic fratcrnitv was formed, which obtained tlio 
name of the Pre-JlaphaelUe SchooL M.'s principal paintings are : " Our Saviour " 
(1860), "Mariana iu the Moated Grange" (1851), ♦'The llucgucnot" aud "Ophelia" 
(1854), "The Order of Release" and ♦•The Proscribed Royalist" (1863), '•'ilio 
Rescue •» (1856), "Autumn Leaves" (1866), " Tlie Heretic " (1868), *' Spring FlowerH " 
(1860), »* The Black Brunswicker " (186!), "My First Sermon " (1863), »'My Seeond 
Sermon " (1864), " Joan of Arc " (1865), " Sleeping," *♦ Waking," '♦ Jephlba " (IStiT), 
••Most^" (1871), "CbiP. October^ (ISH), "Day Dreams " (1874), "Sound of Many 
Waters" (1877), &c Whatever opinions maybe held of M. as an artist, no rcsperi- 
aUe critic denies the subtlety of his imagination and depth of sentiment. He is pro- 
foundly poetical, and has probably never 1)eeu surj^os^ed iu representing intense 
feeling and thought by means of color and composition ; but his perverse affecta- 
tion, and contempt for ♦' conventionalism," have marred his finest productions. 

MI'LLEDOEVILLB, the former capital of Georgia, United States of America, on 
the wci^t bank of the Oconee River, 160 miles north-west of Savannah, in a rich cot- 
ton country. Amoue its edifices are tiie former governor's residence and stato 
bni]ding^ and several churches. Pop. (1870) 2750; (1880) 8.800. 

MILLE'NNIUM (Lit, a thousand years' time) designates a certain period iu tbo 
history of the world, lasting for a long indefinite space (vaguely a thousand years), 
daring which the kingdom of Messiah will, according to tradition, be visibly estal>- 
Hab<*d on the eanli. The idea originated proximately in (he Ale^sianic expoctntions 
of the Jews; but more remotely, it has been conjectured, in the Zoroastrian doc- 
trine of the final triumph of Onnunl over Ahriiuan, and was connected by the 
Cfaristlans with the ParottsiOj or Second Coming of CluiHt. The notion of a Golden 
Age, preserved by the converts from heathenism to Christianity, as well as the op- 
preinon and persecutions to which they were long subjected by the state autliori- 
tiea, were naturally calculated to develop aud strengthen such hopes. The chief 
bosis of the miiienarian idea in Judaism as well as iu Christianity, however, is the 
ardent hope for a visible divine rule upon earth, and the identification of the church 
with that of which it is merely a symboL In the 1st c of the church, niillcnariaiiiam 
(tlie Greek equivalent of wiiicb, chUiaanif from chilioi^ a thousand, is the t4.-rm cni« 


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ployed by the Fathers) was n widespread belief, to which the book of Dsnlel, nnd 
more purticalarly the pictorial predictions of the Apocalypse (chnps. xx. aud xxL), 
gave an apostolical aathority ; while certain prophetical writings, compoi<cd at tho 
end of Ihe Ist aud the beginning of I lie 8d c. — snch as the '* Testament of theTwelvo 
Pniriarchs," the »♦ Fourth Book of Esdras," the ** Revelation of Saint Pct^r," Ac : 
also the " Christian Sibylline Books," the »* Epistle of Barnabas," the "Shepherd 
of the Psondo-Herraas," several Midrashiin, Targtims, and other works of a partly 
legendary character embodied in the ** Talmud "—lent It a more vivid colorin(f 
aud imagery. The nnanimity which the eariy Christian teachers exhibit In rcgnrd 
to millcuarlanism, proves how strongly it had laid hold of theimnginntion of tiM 
church, to which, In this early stage, Immortality and future Rewards were to 
a great extent things of this world as yet. Not only the Iteretic Ccrinthue, but 
even the orthodox doctors— such as Papias, Bishop of Hicrapolis, Ire: reus, Jus- 
tin Martyr, &c— delighted themselves witli dreams of the glory and maguifl- 
cence of the millennial kingdom. The "Sibylline Books," for instuncc. 
hold that the earth will bo cultivated thronghool its length and breadth, tliat 
tfhero will bo no more seas, no more winters, no more nights: everlasting 
wells will mu hoaey. milk, and wine, Ac. &c. Paplas, in his collection of tradn 
tional sayings of Christ ( " Knriakdn Logiiin BxGgoseis "), indulges in tho most mon- 
strous representations of the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and the colossal vines and 
f rapes of the millennial reign. Every vine will bear 10,000 brauches, every branch 
0,000 shoots, every shoot 10,000 sprigs, every sprig 10,000 bunciies, every bunch 
10.000 berries, every berry 86 times 25 gallons of wine ; and If a Saint come to pluck 
aoerry, they will all cry out: **Plu3c me, O Saint, I am better, and praise tho 
Lord through me," The Talmud calculates the height of tho men of tho millen- 
nium to be, as before the Fall, of SOO— 900 yards ; tho moon shall be, according to 
a prophetical dictum, like the sun ; the sun sliall be increased 843 times ; aud every 
Israelite will beget as manv children as there were Israelites gohig out from Egypt— 
60,000. Each grape will oe hirgo enough to fill the biggest ship. Above allTnow- 
ever, the land of Israel will be free asafu, and the primitive worship restored with 
unheard-of splendor. **Siich a chillasm." Neauder justly remarks, could only 
** promote a fleshly endaimouism ;" aud indeed ere long it called into more ener« 
gctic actlvitv the opposition of Qnostic spiritualism. According to the eenerul 
opinion, which was as much Christian as Jewish, the millennium was to be pre- 
ceded by great calamities, reminding us lu some aegroc of the Scandinavian Kag- 
narOk (or" • Twilight of tlie Gods "). The personlllctitlou of evil appeared iu Ar^i' 
Christy the precursor of Christ Hdentifled aiiringthelst c, with Nero), who would 
provoke a frightful war in tho land of Magog (Ezek. chaps, xxxviil, and xxxix.) 
against the people Gog, after which the M^isiah— some say a double Messiah, one 
the son of Joseph, vanquished in the strife; the otiier, the victorious son of David 
—would appear, heralded by Ellas, or Moses, or Melchizedek, or Isaiah, or Jere- 
miah, and would bind Satan for a thousand years, aiinihilate the godless heathen, 
or make them slaves of the believers, overturn tho Roman empire, from the ruins 
of which a new order of things would spring forth, in which the *' dead in Christ " 
would arise, and along with tne surviving sriints enjoy an incomparable felicity iu 
the city of the "New Jemvalem," which was expected to descend literally from 
heaven. To the innocence which was tho state of man in Paradise, there was as- 
sociated, in the prevalent notions of the mllleonlnm, the finest physical and intel- 
lectual pleasures. 

In tiie Mosaic account of creation, we find the primitive ground for making the 
victorious era of the church last a thousand years. That account was regarded by 
the Jews and by the Judaic Christians as a type of the destinies of creation. Now. 
by a strictly literal interpretation of the 4th verse of the 90th Psalm, it was supposed 
that a day of God was arithmetically equal to a thousand years ; hence the six days 
of creation were understood to indicate that the earth would pass through 0000 
years of labor and suffering, to be followed by a seventh day— that is. 1000 years 
of rest and happiness. In the Book of Revelation (chap, xx.) this view Is pre- 
sented. Still, the rabbinical traditions differ widely among themselves as to the 
duration of the happy period. Instead of 1000 years, some of tbem count 40, 70, 
90, 365, 400, 600, 2000, or 7000, or so many years as have elapsed from the creation 
of the worid or the flood. The gospel of Nicodemus roakee it 500 yeors, Ac. la 


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fact, the systems of apocaJjptic chronology were of n varied and eomewliat arbi- 
trary cast ; according ua tlieir ori^'natora laid greater Btresa upon the Apocal>))8e, 
tJie Book of Duiiiel, the Song of Songs, the Jewish **Gonmtria," or Computation of 
Lidters — ^a very pliable art iu Itself— or on astonomj, astrology, •*u«turiil pbeno- 
mcna," and tlie like. 

Tiie lapacof time chilling the ardor of the primitive Christian belief in the near- 
ness of the Parousta, had vrithoat donbt al^o the tendency to give a more shadowy, 
and therefore u more spiritnal a.«pcct to the kingdom over which the expected Mes- 
siah was to reign. The influence of the Alexandrian philosophy contrilMited to pro- 
daco the &ime resnlt. Origen, for exami)ie, first started the idea, that instead of a 
|)erpetnal opposition of Pa^auit<m to Christianity— iusiead of a final and desperate 
conflict between the two— nistcad of an insolent trinmph on the part of the saints, 
and a servile- submission on the part of tl«e unbelievers, the real progress and vic- 
tory of Christianiry would consist in the gradual spread of the truth thronghout 
the world, and iu the voluntary homage paid to it bv all secular powers. 
Thia was au immense advance on the views previously entertained. It is 
owing largely to Origen and his disciple Dionysius that more spiritual con- 
ceplious of the miileunium finally established ihemselves In the church; at 
all events, they famished the Fathers with the majority of tluir arguments. 
Tet even Id tlie B^pto-Alexandriau Church, millcnarianism, In its most literal 
form, was widely di£niscd, and was only eradicated by the great wisdom and moder- 
ation of Dionysius. The Montanists (q. v.) generally, as mi^ht be exi>ectcd from 
the cDthusiastlc tcndcgcies of the sect, were extreme iniUcnnrians or chiliasts, and 
being considered a heretical seel, contributed largely to bring Chilioam into discredit, 
or. at all events, tiieirown carnal form of Chifiasm, whicu Tcrtullian himself at- 
tacked. Cains, the Presbyter, in his ** Disputation " against the MontanistProclns, 
traces its-origin to the hated heretic Cerinthus, whom he accuses of for^Hug a cer- 
tain revelation, which he passed off as the work of an apostle. From his dcscrip- 
tioD of this revelation, it is almost certain— strange as it may appear— that he aliudcs 
to the canonical Apocalypse, Lactantins, in the begiuhing of the 4th c, was the 
hist important church Father'who indulged iu chiliastic dreams, wliileamonje its ear- 
lier advocates may l)e mentioned chiefly Nepr.p, Methodius, Korakion, ApoUinarius, 
VictorinuB, Ac In the 6th c, St Jerome and St Augustine expressly %:ombated cer- 
tain fanatics who stUl hoped for the advent of a millennial kingdom whose pleasures 
iocloded those of the flesh. But from this time, the church formally rejected mil- 
leuariauism iu its sensuous "visible" form, although the doctrine every now and 
tJicD made its reappearance, especially as a general popular belief, iu the most sn<l- 
den and obstinate manner. Thus the expectation of tlic Last Day in the year lOOO 
A.i>. ro-invested the doctruic with a transitory Importance ; but it lost all crcnlit 
again when the hopes, so keenly excited by the Crusades, faded away before the 
alcru reality of Saracenic succef^s, and the predictions of the ^* £verlastiug Gosj>c'l," 
a work of Joachim deFloris, a Franciscan abbot (died 1212), remained unfulfilled. 

At the period of tlie lieformation, millenartanism once more experienced a i)ar- 
tial revival, because it was not a difficult matter to apply some of iis symbolism to 
the papacy. The Pope, for example, was ArUichriat—fi belief still adhered to by 
some extreme Protestants. Yet the doctrine was not adopted by the great body of 
*"--■"-'— — . Vjt by FO-:- fr.i, :.::.-.'. r. ctr, r;.c" ,..s tliC Anabaptists and by the 
'1 1 '>L the liih century. Bunny the civil nud religious wars in Fnmco 

r.N . when great excitomeut prevailed, it wasi also prominent, 'i^he Fifth 

}i^.;.^.i\.i.:j J/<7i of Cromwell's time were niillciiariane oC the most exaggerated and 
dangerous sort. Their pecnliar tenet was, that the niilleiniium had come, and thqt 
thtf were the saints who were to inherit thu earth. The excesses of the French 
Roman Catholic Mystics and Qniotists terminated in chiliastic views. Among the 
Protestoms, it was during the Thirty Years' War Ihnt the most enthusiastic and 
leanicd chiliasts flonrishotf. 'I'hcse may— broadly— bo lirought under the three chief 
heads of Bxeffrticat CMVimt», who, by some biljlical dates, endeavored to compute 
the predicted time; A ichemwtic or Kabbatiittic Cb'iVintiU, \v Up endeavored to hasten 
the iK-riod by yomc mystical disco verj* ; and roWieo-theocraticChiUa&Ui^ who wished 
to redttce tho govpmments of the world to a I)il)lica] standard. Sec Anabap- 
tist!?, Mf^zEB. The awCnl snfleriug and widespread desolation of that time, 
led jffions hearts to solace themselves with the hope of a peaceful and 


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Millet ^^ 

glorions futnre. Since tnen the penchant which has sprnug np for expounding 
the prophetical booka of the Bible, aud particularly the ApocalTpee, wilh a 
view to present events, lias given the doctrine a faiut semi-theological life, very 
different^ however, from the earnest, practical faith of the first Christians. Auioue 
the foremost chiliastic teachers of modem centuries are to bo mentioned Ezechld 
Heth, Paul Felgenhauer, Bishop Coinenius (*' Lux in Tenebris." 1657); Professor 
Jurien ("L'acconipllssement desPropb^ties,-' 1«S6) • Serarius (»* Assertion dn Uegne 
do Mille Aup^' &c, ab. 1070); Polret ("Economie Divine," 1697); J. Mode ("ClaT. 
Apocal." 1627); wlillo Thomas Bnruet and W. Whlston endeavored to give cbillasm 
a geologfcoi foundation, but without finding much favor. Spener, on account of 
his •* Uoffuung besserer Zeiten," has been accused of chiliasm : no less Joachim 
Lange ("LIcht und llccht '0 ; and Swedenbore employed apocalyptic images to set 
forth the transfigured world of the senses. Latterly, especially since the rise and 
extension of mipslouanr enterprise, the opinion has obtained a wide currency, that 
after the conversion of the whole world to Christianity, a blissful and glorious era 
will ensue ; but not much stress— except by extreme lUeralists— is now laid on the 
nature or duration of this far-off felicity. In fact, the common Christian concep- 
tion of a millennium without a visibly present Chnst, as held at the present day, is 
little different, so far as results are concerned, from the belief of philosophers in the 
perfectibility of the race. The essence of l>oth conceptions is the cessation of sin 
aud sorrow, the prevalence of holiness and happiness. But this departs widely from 
the ^* ancient hope of the cliurch "—a kingdom of visible majesty, witii Jesus and 
the saints ruling the world from Jerusalem, the central city of the earth ! 

Great eagerness and not a little ingenuity have been exhibited by many persons 
in fixing a date for the commencement of the millennium. The celebratea theo- 
logian, Johann Albrecht Bengel (i?rit/drte Offenbaning; Reden/iir^a Fo/I^f who, in 
the ISih c, revived an earnest Interest in the subject among orthodox Protestants, 
asserted from a study of the prophecies that the millennium would b^^ in 1886. 
lliis date was long popular. Bengel's general millenariauism was adopted by 
Oetinger ^d. 1782), and widely spread throughout Germany in a more or less noetic 
fonn by Uahn, Crusius, Jung Stilling, Lavater, and Hess {Briefe &ber dis Ofenb, 
JoK), Some of the greatest of the more I'eccnt German theologians are millena- 
rlaus, such as Kothe, Delitxscb, Hoffmann, Kurtz, Uebart. Th^rsch, Nitssch, P. 
Lange, and Ebrard. Sweden borg, to whom reference has already been made, held 
that the last judgment took place in 1767, and that the New Church, or ** Church of 
the New Jerusalem," as his followers designate themselves— in other words, the 
millennial era^ then b^an. In America, considerable agitation was excited by the 

ireacblug of one William Miller, who fixed the second advent of Christ about 1S48. 

^f late years, the most noted Bnglish miilenarian is Dr John Cummlug, who 
originally placed the end of the-present dispenaation in 1866 or 1867 ; bnt as that 
time drew near without any millennial symptoms^ he was understood to have modi- 
fled his original views considerably, and now conjectures that the beginning of the 
millennium will not differ so much after all from the years immedlatdy preceding 
it, as people commonly suppose. See Corrodl's '^ Kntische Geschichte des Chili- 
asmus "(Zurich, 1794, 4 vols.): Calixtus, **De Chiiiasmo cum antiqno tum pridem 
renato Uelmst." (1692, 4to); Klee, **Teutam Hist. criL de Chil. prim, soec Hcr- 
bip." (1825) ; Mfinter, ♦♦ Dogmengeischichte," Ac A really good history of Chiliasm, 
however, is as yet a desideratum. 

MI'LLEPEDE, a popular name of many kinds of Mmiapoda^ of the order ChUoQ' 
nathat and chiefly of the families Julidct (see Julus) and Polvdeamidce, In the 
latter family, the feet are arranged in numerous groups along both sides ; otherwise, 
they much resemble the Julida. The largest species ore found iu warm climates, 
and some of them are brightly colored ; but small species of both families arc com- 
mon iu Britain; and some of them, as Polydemtvus complanatxis — which Is lilac- 
colored, flattened, aud from a quarter to half an inch in length — are very dostruo- 
tivo to the roots of plants. Doubt has been expressed If they attack roots perfectly 
healthv; but, at all events, they take advantage of incipient decay, and greatly 
extend and accelerate it.. The application of salt, lime, nitrate of soda, d^, has 
been often recommended as apreventive of their ravagni.— The name Fnx JL ia 
often given to those shorter Chilognatha, of the family GlomeridoB, which, when di»- 
turbed, roll themselves up into an almost globular form, like the crustacean called 



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87 • J^'r^ 

frmadilln. Glameris marginata ie common in Britain, under stones and among 
moes. Some of the tropical species are lai^ and finely colored. 

MILLER, Tlngb, a dlAtiogoighed geologist, was bom in Cromarty, in the north 
of Sootlaud, October 10, 1808. Ho was descended from a family of sailors, and lost 
his own father bv a storm at sea when he was only five years of age. In conse- 
qnence of this mlsfortaue. he was brought up chiefly under the care of two of his 
mother's uncles, one of whom (** Uncle Sandy ") imbued him with a taste for nat- 
nral, and the other (** Uncle James ") for traditional histoiy. Ue acquired a good 
koowledgei of Bngllsh at the Cromarty grammar-school. Before his 11th year, he 
bad read tbose glorious romances of childhood,*^ Jack the Giant-killer/' ^* Jack and 
the Bean-stalk," *• Slnbad the Sailor," ''The Yellow Dwarf," and "Aladdin and 
the Wonderful Lamp," besides several other works of higher literary pretensions. 
As tie grew older, be became extremely fond of the greaf English poets and proste 
writers. From his 17th to his 34th year, he worked as a common stone.maf on, de- 
voting his leisure hours to independent researches in natural hhstory, and to the ex- 
tansion cf his literary knowledge. In 1889, he published a Tolume, entitled '* Poems 
written iu the Leisure Hoars of a Journeyman Mason," which was followed, a few 
years of terwards, by ** Scenes and L^ends of the North of Scotland." His atten- 
tion was soon drawn to the ecclesiast^al controversies which were agitating Scot- 
land, and his famous *^ Letter to Lord Brougham " on the *^ Anchtcrarder Case," 
brooght bira prominently into notice. In 1840, he went to Edinburgh as e<litor of 
the ** Witness," a newspaper started in the interest of the Non-intrnsTon party in the 
Church of Scotland ; and, in the course of the asime year, published in Its columns a 
series of geological articles, which were afterwards collected nnder the title of "The 
Oki Red Sandstone, or New Walks In an Old Field." These articles were 
Tery remarkable, both iu a scientific and literary point of view. They 
contained a minute account of the author's discovery of fossils in a for- 
mation believed, uniil then, to be destitute of them, and written in a 
style which was a harmonious combination of streueth, beauty, and polish. 
At the meetii:g of the British Association in the same year (1840), he was 
warmly praised ny Murchison and Bnckhiud, aud, in fact, his discoveries were the 
principal topic of discussion among the eavans. His editorial labors during the 
beat o€ the Diaruntlon stinggle were immense, and so seriously iujnred his health, 
that for some time be haa to give up all literary activity. About 184«, he re- 
sumed hia pen, and became the most vigorous and eloquent writer in the service of 

Mth December 1866. M.'s principal works, besides tiiose already mentioned, are: 
^ First Impressions of England and iu People;" Footprints of the Creator, or the 
Asterolepis of Stronmess," designed as a reply to the "Vestiges of the Natural Hi»- 
toTv of Creation ;" '* My Schools and School masters, or the Story of my Education ;" 

of the SQCcessive periods of creation, but only the time occupied by God in unrolling 
a panoramk; vision of these periods before the eyes of Moses. 

M.*s senrlces to science have nndoubtedly been great, but he is even more dis 
tingniahed as a man tlian as a savant Honest, high-minded, earnest, and liugely 
iwuistrioas, a tme Scot, a hearty but not a sour Presbyterian (for he loved Bums as 
mocb aa he revered Knox), there are few of whom Scotland has better reason to be 
proud than " the stone-mason of Cromarty." BesideB his autobiography quoted 
above, see Life by Peter Bayne (S vols. 1871). 

MILLER'S THUMB. See Buij.H£ai>. 

MILLET, a grain, of which there are several kinds, the produce of species of 
Pameuvu Sitaria^ and allied genera. The genus Paniewn contains many species, 
natives of tropical and warm temperate countries, and some of which, as Guinea 
^^^fi** <q> v.), are amongst the largest fodder grasses. The' flowers are in spikes, 
tacemes. or panicles ; the glumes veiy uneaual, one of them often very minute ; 
each spikekjt containing two florets, one of which is often barren. The genus 


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Millrlnd , OQ 

Milner OO 

Stiaria bas a spikelike pnnlclc, with two or Qiorc brUUes under the glomes of ench 
ftpikeleL— CoHifON M. {Panieum miliaeeuvi) is au aunnal grass, three or foar feet 
high, remarkably covered with louf; hairs, which stand out at right angles. It has a 
much-branched nodding nauiclc : the spikelels are oval, and contain only one seed. 
It is a native of the East Indies, hut is extensively cultivated in the warmer parts of 
Europe and other quarters of the world. It succeeds only in those climates in which 
wlue can be produced. It is called Warree, Cheena^ and Kadukane in India. The 
grain, which is verr nutritious, is only about one-eighth of an inch in length. It is 
used in the form of groats, or in flour mixed with wtieat-flour, which makes a good 
kind of bread; but bread made of M. alone is brittle and full of cracks. Poultry are ex- 
tremely fond of millet. The straw is used for feeding cattle. —Other species, P. miliarB 
P.frumentaceurtu, and P. pilominiy arc cultivated in different parts of IndUi, chiefly on 
liuht and rather dry soils, yielding very abundant crops.— Gbbman M., or Mooas 
{Setaria Germanica), and Italian M. {S. Italica), regarded by many as varieties of 
one species, and probably originally from the East, although now naturalised in the 
south of Europe, are cultivated in many of the warmer ])aris of Europe, in India, 
and other countries. Italian M. is three or four feet in height; German M. much 
dwarfer, and its apikc comparativulv short, compact, and erect; and less valuable 
as a corn-plant. The grains of both are ycty small, only abont half as long as that 
of Common M. ; but they are extremely prolific, one root producing many stalks, 
and one spike of Italian M. often yielding two ounces of grain. The produce Is es- 
timated as five times that of wheat Italwu M. is called Koongootiie^ KaUk-hutO' 
nee, and Kora-kana in India. The grain of these millets is imported into Britam 
for feeding cage-birds, and for use as a light and pleasant article of food, although 
for this purpose it Is little used in Britain, whilst it is very extensively used in soups, 
&c, in the south of Europe. It does not make good bread. To the same tribe of 
grasses belong the genera Pamalum^ Penniaetuin, PetiieUlaria^ Digitaricij and Mili- 
um— species of which are cultivated in different parts of the world for their grain. 
Paspalum exile Is the Fundi (q. v.) of Africa; and P. •erobieulatum is the Koda ot 
India, where It is cultivated chiefly on poor soils. Penieillaria apieaUu or Penni- 
aetum, typ/undeumy is very extensively cultivated in Africa, and to a considerable ex- 
tent in India. Its cultivation has been introduced into the south of Europe. It 
succeeds best on light soils. Its Indian name is J!?ain^ It often receives the names 
£o YPTiAN M. and Guihea Corn. It has a somewhat spiked cylindrical panicle.— 
Peiinisetum dtstichum abounds In Central Africa, on the southern borders of the 
Great Desert, where it is called Uzak, and Is described by Barth as causing much in- 
convenience to the traveller, the little bristles which are attached to its seeds making 
them stick lYku burs to the doUies ; they also pierce the skin, and cause sores, so 
that It is necessary to be nrovided >vith small pincers for their extraction, and none 
even of the wild roving natives is ever without such an instrument. But its seed is 
a common and pleasant article of food, in some places the principal food of the peo* 
pie, and a pleasant beverage is made from it^Digitaria BanffvineUia is called Polish 
M.. being cultivated in cottage-gardens in Poland, where the grain is used like rice. 
It Is a common grass In many parts of Baropc, although very rare In Britain. The 
spikes in this genus arc compNonnd, and from their appearance give It the names 
JHgitaria tLn^Finger-ffroM.—'lhQ M. Gbabs (Milium effu8um) of Britain, occasion- 
ally found in shad}r woods, is a very beautiful grass, throe or four feet high, with a 
spreading pale panicle of small flowers ; and has been much recommended for culti- 
vation as a forage gi-ass, and for the sake of its very abundant small seeds, au excel- 
lent food for game. Another species of the same genus (Jf. nigrieans) is the M<tUt 
de Guinea of Peru, where Its seeds, after being dried by heat, are converted Into a 
very white flour, a pleasant article of food ; and a beverage called ullpu Is made 
from them.— The name Indian M. is sometimes given to Durra (q. v.), but It be- 
longs to a different tribe of grasses from the true millets. ^ 

MILLRIND, or Fer de Moulin, in Heraldry, a charge meant to represent a mlU- 
iron, originally a mere variety In designating the cross moline, but accounted a 
distinct charge by some heralds. 

MILMAN, Henry Hart, D.D.. an English poet and ecclesiastical historian, was 
the youngest son of Sir Francis Milman, phymciau to George III., and was bom In 
London, 10th February 1791. He was educated at Eton, and afterwards at Braseuose 



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CoTkH:«ev Oxford, where be took tlie degree of M.A., obtained the Newdcgate Prize 
is WIS, pablirbed ^ Fwsio, a 'JYagedy " (which was succespfully brought upon the 
rtOj^at Coveot Garden), in 1815; (4>ok orders \\x 1817, and, shortly after, was t.\>- 
poihted vicar of St Mai-y's, Reading. In the following year apncarwS his " Samor," 
**LoiTlof the Bright Cily," **aii ll«.Toic Pocin," whidi was followed in 1820 by the 
*' Fall of JcrwuilcnV' ^ beantiCal dranintic poem, with some flue sacred lyrics intcr- 
speraed. In 1821, M. was clkoscn Pit>fc?«)r of Poetry at Oxford, and pnbli!>hed 
tiiree other poems iu I he course of the same year—" The Martyr of Autioch," ** Bol- 
vbaEsar," wid ** Anne Boleyii." llis *' Sermons at the Baim)loii Lectnrc " appeared 
In 1827, aud his •* History of the Jews " <3 vols.) in 182». TIjc last of these works 
did not bear the aatlsor'H name ; it was written in so lil)crai and tolerant a spirit, 
that ecclesiastics of the stricter sort could hardly fail to be offended. Its wejik point 
was a want of adt^aatc learning, especijilly In thctii^iirtment of biblical criticism. 
A new edition, greatly fmpro^reid, and more critical, yet still far from \ye\ne very 
accorat'*, or Imflt on solid foundations, with an interesting preface, "was pnblJshed iu 
18a. In 1S40 appeared a collected edition of his " Poetical Works,'' containing 
eome other pieces l)eside8 thof>e already mentioned. The same year witneesed the 
pnbllcation of his "History of Christianity from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition 
of Pfigauinm fn tlie lioman Empire" (S vols.). In 1849 he was made Dean of St 
Paul's ; and iu 1854 published his waster-piece, ** TLwUivr of Latin Christianity, in- 
chidiugthat of the Popes to the Pontificate of Nicholas V." (3 vols.). It is a work 
of great learning, liberality, and chastened eloquenc^: it displays a broad gitisp of 
human nature in Its religious workings ; besides a pnSlosopbic and poetical sym- 
pathy witii the different men and opinions which it reviews. The work secured for 
»8 author a poeitiou in the first rank of Ei^lish historians. M. edited Gibbon, aud 
contributed extensively to the ^'Quarterly Kevlew." Ho died in 1868. A postiiu- 
moos work contains IHs ** Beeays on 8t Paul," ** Savonarola," ** Erasmus, Ac" 

MILNB-ED WARDS, Henri, tlie most eminent living representative of the French 
Khool of natural hbtorr, was born at Bruges in 1800. His father was an Engllsl>- 
man. M. stndieil medicine nt Paris, where he took his degree of H.B. in 1828, but 
abandoned medicine to devote himself to natural history. He was first appointed 
Professor of Natural History In connection witli the Lyce6 Henri Quatre, and afti r- 
wards to the Mnoeum aud the Faculte6 des Sciences, of which ho Is now President, 
In 1888 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences (section of Anatomy 
and Zoolt^y) : and hi 1854 was chosen a member of the Academic do M6decine. He 
is also a member of many other societies, French and foreign, and a commander of 
the Legion of Honor. M. is dlstincufshed for his extensive knowledge of compara- 
tive anatomy and physiology, as well as of aooloey. Passing over some of his early 
worlQt, which, though valuahie, are thrown into tne shade by his later ones, we come 
to his '* Monograph on the Crustacea" (1837—1841), which is universally regarded as 
of pre-eminent merit, not Only for its richness of detail, but also for the value of (l»e 
general doctrines relating to homologies, development, geograhlcal distribution, and 
otiier poifits of the highest physiological interest. In 1840, an improved edition of 
his **Henient8 of Zoology," a work in 4 vols., and containing 600 illustrations, bcgau 
to appear. In 1841 he published his researches on the Compount Ascidian MoUusca, 
vttich have led to an entirely fresh appreclatiou of some of the most important points 
in the history of that group, such as, that prf^mgalum bygemmalion^ wlilcb had been 
previously supposed to bo^ a eoophytic character, is equally true of the lower mol- 
losca. Iu other departments of science, M. has been equally successful ; but it is to 
the invertebrate anlroala that bis chief attention haa been given, and in each of the 
three Cuvierian sub-kingdoms, ArUcHlatOt Molluwa, and JRadiaia, his researches 
have been so imjHjrtant, that what he has accomplished for either alone would 
•ufllcc to establish for him a high scientific reputation. In 1856 M. ob- 
tained the Copley Medal of the iloyal Society of London. His later works 
hicJnde ** Lectures on Physiology," ana on the •* Comparative Anatomy of Men 
aad Aiiimah} " (1865—1867) ; •* History of the Mammalia " (1872, et eeq.) ; &c. 

MILNER, Joseph, an ecclesiastical historian who once occupied a respecta- 
ble place iu literature, was bom near the town of Leeds, in Yorkshire, Janu- 
ary 8, 1744. He studied at Catliarine Hall, Cambridge, wliere he took the de- 
gree of B.A. iu 1766y aud after\vard8 became head-master of tho grammar-school 


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Milton yv 

at HaU. In this capacity, his saccess iras Tery great Shortly after, he was op- 
poiuted lecturer in the priucipal chorch of the town, and iu 1797, vicar of Holv 
Trinity Charcb. He died November 16lh of the same year. M.'8 principal work 
is his ^* History of the Cbnrch of Christ,** of which he lived to complete 8 vols.* 
reaching to the 18th c. (17M) ; a foarth rolnme, reaching to tlie 16th c, was 
edited from his MSS. by his brother, Db. Isaac Milnbb, Dean of Carlisle, who 
also pabllsbed a complete edition of his brother's works in 8 vols., 1810. The prin- 
ciples on which ^* The History of the Chnrch of Christ ** is written are of the nar- 
rowest kind ; the scholarship is poor, the literary merit still poorer, and the critical 
insight poorest of all. It deserves mention only for the estimation In which it wan 
formerly hekl, at a time when the Buglish Chtirch seemed sank iu ignorance and 

MILNES, Richard Monckton, Bnron Hoaghton, English poet and politician, 
descended from an old Yorkshire family, was bom in ISW, and edncatvd at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He entered parliament as M.P. for Pont4^ract in 1887, and 
continued to represent that borough nutil the close of the parliamentary session of 
1883, when he was called to the Upi>er House by the title oC Bnron Houshton. In 
the House of Commons he began life as a Conservative, hut afterwards allied him- 
self to the liberal party, and was a faithful follower of Lord Pulmerstou, when his 
foreign policy and high-handod dealings at the Foreign Office led to the temporatj 
estrangement of that statesman from the Whigs. H. has distiugnlshed himself, 
however, rather \n his phila^tropliic Ial>ors, and bis speeches on behalf of the 
Italians, Poles, and other oppressed nations, than by his devotion to party poli- 
tics. He has been the advocate of pnblic odncation and relieions eqaalily. He 
carried, in 1848, a biU for establishing Itcformatorles, and has t&en a great interest 
in tlie reform of the criminal classes, M. has also cultivated the mnses with grace 
and soccessb He has travelled much in oriental countries, and is the author of 
** Memorials of a Tour in Greece," and also of poems called " Palm Leaves," In 
which a poetical halo is thrown around the manners and domestic institutions of 
the East. His ** Poems of Many Tears/* and ** Poems, Historical and Legeudanr," 
contain man^ simple and elo;;nnt effusions. In 1849, he edited tiie '^Llfe, 
Letters, and literary Remains of John Keats. ** He has olso written *' Thoughts on 
Purity of Election r " Monographs, Personal and Social *' (1878-8) ; Ac. His " Col- 
lected Poetical Works " appeared iu 1878. 

MILO, of Croton, in Magna Orsecla (q. v.X ftn athlete famous for bis great 
strength, who lived, according to Hei-odotns, In the time of Darius Hystaspes, about 
690 B.a Among other displays of his strength, ho is said to have on one occasion 
carried a live ox upon his shoulders through tlie stndinm of Olympia, and afterwards 
to have oaten the whole of it in one da;^ \ und on another (reversing the story of the 
Hebrew Samson), to have upheld the pillars of a house in which Pythagoras and bis 
scholars were assembled, so as to give them time to make their escape when the 
house was falling. He is said to have lost his life through too great 6oufideuco in 
bis own strength, when he was getting old, in attempting to sput np a tree, which 
closed upon his bands, and held him fast nutU he was devoured by wolves. 

MILRBE', Milrel, or Mllrea. a Portuguese silver coin and money of acconut, 
contains 1000 rces, and is valued at 4s. 8>fd. sterling. The coin Is commonlv known 
in Portugal as the eoroa, or *' crown," and is (since Mth April 1835) the nnft of the 
money-system in that country. It Is used in Brasil. The nalf-coroa, or half-mllrei, 
of 600 rees, is also used In both countries. The name " milrel " was used in Porto- 
gacse accounts long before any coin representing Its value existed. 

MILTI'ADES, acclebrnted Athenian general, " tyrant of the Chersonese,** yet, 
as Byron sings, " freedom's best and bravest friend. ** Forced by Darius to flee 
from his dominions, he took ref u^re at Athens, nnd on the second Persian invasion 
of Greece, his military talents being of a high order, he was chosen one of the ten 
generals. He particularlv distinguished tiimself by the great victory which he 
gained at Marathon (q. v.) with a small l)Ody of Athenians and 1000 Platse&ns (S9th 
3cpt4!mber, 490 B.O.) over the Persian host, nnder Datis and Artaphemes. By this 
victory, the Greeks were emboldened for the heroic struggle which they made in 
defence of their country and their liberty. M. being lulrnsied with the command of 
an armament for the porpose of retaliating on the Persians, made an attack on the 


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faitiid of ParoB In order to gratify a private enmity ; bnt foiling io tbo attempt, be 
was, OD liis reinm to Atbena, coudeuiDcd to pay h beavy flue as an iudemutficatiou 
for the ezpcusea ot the expeditioo. Being nnublc to do tliia, bo was thrown into 
pricou, wliere be died of a woand received at Paros. The Hue waa exacted after bis 
deaiii/ruiu bin sou Cimou (q. v.). 

MUTTON, John, an Englinh poet, was bom in Bread Street, London, on the 9tb 
Dccembt-r 1«(^ His fiitber was of an ancient Cntbolic family, but was aisiuherifcd 
OQ becoming Prote»taut He followed the occnpation of a scrivener, by which, ac- 
cording to Anbrey, **he got a plentifal estate," nnd wrfe a man of great musical ac- 
a>njpl&bment, Ming the composer, among other things, of the two well-known 
pealm-tanes •* Norwich " and "York.'* From him his son derived bis matchlera car, 
and that strict integrity of character for which be is as famons as for bis verse. 

M. was carefnlly nurtured and educated. He was first placed under the care of a 
inlvate tutor namra Young, a Scotchman by birth and education ; nnd at tlie aee of 
twelve, was sent to St Pnnl's School, London, and afterwards to Chrlet'e Gollege, 
Onmbridgc According to the University Register, he was admitted 12th February 
1684—1625. He took bfs degree of M. A.; end having relinquished tlic idea of follow- 
ing diviniiy or law, be left Can)brid};e in 1G82, and went to live at his father's house 
at iiorton. In Bnckiugiiamshire. There, in percuity of mind and passion, he lived 
five years, reading the Greek and Latin poets, and composing " Comns," "Lycidas," 
"Arcadea." ** L'AHegro,'* and "II Penseroso." Ou the death of his mother in 163T, 
be went abroad, visitrug the chief Italian cities, and making the acquaintance of Gro- 
tios aod G«liIeo. Whue traveUing, l>eiug made awaro that clouds were gathering in 
tlie political atmosphere at home, be returned in 1639, and emragcd himself witli tbo 
taitioii of his uepbewa—ou which portlou of M.'s life, Dr Johnson could not help 
k>oking with ^ some degree of merriment." In 1641, be engaged in the controversies 
of the timefl, and in the course of that and the following year, he issued the treatises 
**0f Reformation," ** The Reason of Church Goverment urged against Prelacy," 
''Prelaticid Episcopacy," and "An Apology for Smectymnuus." In le43, 
be married rather suddenly Harv, dtiugbter of Richard Powell, an Oxfordshire 
rojraliBi, but the union did not at first prove happy. His wife, who had l)ecu accns- 
tOBied to '* dance with the king's officers at home," found her husband's society too 
aastcFc and philosophic for her guy tastes. After the pevero honeymoon was over, 
sheobtaiQedptirmissiou to visit bor relatives till Michaelmas; but when Hiclmd- 
mas canoe, she refused to retuni. Stern and proud, M. repudiated her at once ; and 
the matrimonial disagreement made the world the riciier by four *• Treatises on Di- 
vorce." A reconciliation, however, took place, which, we have no rcnsou to donbt, 
was both genuine and permanent. Mary Powell died in 1652—1653, leaving him 
three daogntera, Ann, Mary, and Deborah, of whose nndutifulnoes and Ingrntitudo 
we have latterly many complaints. In 1644 lie produced his **Tractnte ou Educa- 
tion "and bia ** Areopagitica "— a flame of eloquence at wliich one may warm one's 
hands yet. After the execution of Charles, lie was appointed I^iln secretary to the 
CoQocil of State, with a salary of £290. In his new position, his pen was as terri- 
ble as Cromwell's sword. In " Eik(»noklaf tes." he raatlo a savage but effective re- 
ply to tlie famous "Eikon Basilikc ;" ar.d in his *• Pro Populo Anglicono Defenslo " 
lie assailed bis opponent, Claude do ^nuniMlro. better known as Salmasius, with 
rach a storm of eloquence and abuse, lii. t the latter, who died at Spu in 1653, Is bc- 
lie\^ to have lost bis life through chngi'in. M. at least flattered himself with hav- 
ing "killed bia man." His second wife, whom Ijc married 12th November 1656, wna 
a dangliterof Captain Woodcock of Hackney. She died in childbed in February 
16^ and bcr busiwiud has enshrined her memoiy In an exquisitely pure and tender 

Unceasing study Imd affected bis cycsigijt, nnd about 1654, M. became totally 
blind. After the Restoration, he retired from affaire; ho was obnoxiona to the 
reigning power, and it is said that he was once in custody of the scr«;cant-at-anns. 
On the Publication of the Act of Oblivion, ho married his third wife, Elizabeth Min- 
ihall, and ihortiy after removed to n honse in Artillery Walk, when ho was bus-y 
with ** Paradise Lost." Tlds great poem was originally planned as a mystery, tiieu 
lome idea of treating It as a drama liauntod the antlior's mind ; finally, liowevcr. ho 
rei>olved to write au epic poem on tlie Fall of Man. The poem was piibliphea In 
1667. He received flvo pounds from his publisher, ami a promise of other five 


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MilwavJtM A A 

Mina *f ^ 

IKMiuds when 1300 copies ihonld have been nold. In 1670, he poblished his '' III0- 
tory of England." Next year, he prhit«d ** Panidiee Regained and Samson A(roni8- 
te9." He died on Snnday, the 8th NOTcmber 1674, and was buried next his father, 
in the chancel of St Giles, at Cripplegate. He left property to the yalne of jCISOO. 

M. wiis, above ail English poets, stately and grandiose, lie arrived early at tb« 
knowledge oi his powers, and did not scruplp, in one of his prose tracts, to.iofonu 
his readers that he purposed to write a poem which woald be cousidcnfd one of tho 
glories of his country. Drawn awity for a time by the heats of coiilroversy and br 
official tasks, he never forgot his pledge, and redeemed it at last in old age, blind- 
ness, and neglect. In comparison, other poets are like sailing-ships, ai tlie mercy 
of the winds of Passion ana Circumstance ; he resembled the ocean- steamer, which, 
by dint of internal energy, can pierce right through the hurricane. Never, perhnps, 
was a mind more richly funiishod. His careless 'Margess'' is greater than the for- 
tnncs of other men. His ^* Comus 'Ms the very moniiug-Iight of poetry ; while in 
his great epic tiiere is a massivcness of tlioufrht, a sublimity of imagery, a pomp of 
sound— as of rolliog organs aud the outbursting of cathedral choirs— which can be 
found nowhere else. His great passages echo m tho mind as if loth to die. Of all 
great writers, lie is perhaps the one for whom we are conscious of the least personal 
affection, and this arises trom a certain liauteur and severity which awes— which ro 
pols some natures ; yet he infects bis reader with his own seriousness. A most 
serviceable edition of his poetical worlcs is that by Professor Massoxi, 8 Yols. 1874. 
See also Massou's ''Life and Timea of M." (5 vols. 1868—79). 

MILWAU'KBR, a city of Wisconsin, United States of America, on the western 
shore of Lake Bftichigan, at the month of Milwaukee Kivcr or Creek, which 
forms its harbor. The town, beantifally built with light yellow bricks, crowns a 
high bluff on the lake, and contains county bniUIIngs, custom-house, and post-olttce, 
60 churches, public schools, female college, banks, insurance compauios, asrlnms, 
hospital, and many dailv aud weekly papers. Several railwavs connect the city with 
a conn try of great fertility. In extent of marine commerce, M. ranks fourth among 
tlie cities of trie union ; and it has great advantages as a manufacturing centre. Ttie 
gniin received at M. in 1878 amounted to 83,9^816 bushels. Pop. (1800)46,964: 
(1870) 71,440 ; (1880) 115,587. 

MtMANSA (from the Sanscrit mdn^ to investigate ; hence, literally, investfg»- 
tlon) is the collective name of two of the six divisions of orthodox Hindu philoso- 
pliy. See Sanscrit Literaturb. It is distinguished as Pdrva and Uttara- 
mlmdwA, the litter l>eing more commonly called VmSuu (q. v.), wliile the former is 
briefly styled Mimdnad. Though tiie M. is ranked, by all native writers, with the 
five other philosophical systems, tho term philosophy— as understood in a Buro|>ean 
sense — can scarcely be applied to It; for the M. is neither concerned with the nature 
of the absolute or of the human inlud, nor with the various categories of existence 
III general— topics dealt with more or less by tho other Ave philosophies; its object 
is merely to lay down a correct iiitcrpretatiou of such Vedic passages as refer to the 
firfthmiin'ic ritual, to solve doubts whenever they may exist on matters concerning 
secrifichil acts, and to recoucilo discrepancies— according to the M., always apparent 
only— of Vedic texts. The foundation of this s}-stem Is therefore precedea bya 
codification of the three principal Vedas— the R'ik, Black-Tnjus, and S&man— and 
by the existence of schools and theories which, by their different interpretations 
of the Vedic rites, had begun to endanger, or, in reality, had endangered a correct, 
or at least authoritative understanding of the Vedic texts. It is tlie method, 
however, adopted by the M. which imparted to it a higher character than that of a 
mere commentary, and allowed it to be looked upon as a philosophy ; for, in the 
first place, the topics explained by this system do not follow the order in which they 
occur in the Vedfc writings, especially in the Brfthm.n'na portion of the Vedas (q.v.>: 
they arc arranged according to certain categories, such as anthoritatlveness, indirect 
precept, concurrent cflUcacy, co-ordinate effect, Ac. : and secondly, each topic or 
ca^ i'* discussed according to a regular scheme, which comprises the proposition of 
the subject-matter, the doubt or qne(>tiou arising upon it, the primd-faeie or wrong 
argument applied to it, the correct argument In refutation of the latter, aud the con- 
clusion devolving from it. Some subjects treated of in the M., incidentally as it 
were, aud merely for the sake of ac^^ment, belong likewise more to the apbereof pihl- 


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93 SJIS"*" 

beopblc thought th&u to thnt of commetitatorlal critidsin, snch, for instaDCC, as the &b- 
«odation of articolate sound with neuBC, the similarity of words \n difforcnt laneuaces, 
the iu<pimtton or eternity of the Veda, the invisible or S|)iritaal operation of pmiis 
ictg, Ac. The reputed founder of this system is Jaimini— of unknown date — who 
iM'jlit it in twelve books, cticli snbiliyided into four chapters, exceitt the third, sixth, 
and tenth books, which coulain clfjht chapters each ; the chanters, again, are di- 
Tid^ into sections, generally comprising several 8(^lraf or aphorisms, but sometimes 
only one. The extant commentary on this obscure work is the " Bhtohya " of 'Saba- 
ra-ewimin, which was critically annotated by tlie great M. authority, Enm&rila- 
twAmin. Oat of these works, which, in their turn, quote several othens, apparently 
lost, has ariaeu a great uamber of other writings, explaining and elucidating their 
predecessors. The best compendium, amongst i hose modern worlts, is the ** Jaiuti- 
Biya-nyiya-mftlA-Tistara," by tlie celebrated MfldhavflchArya <q. v.). 

KIMES. tlie name glreu by the ancients to certain dramatic performances. In 
which, with little attempt at art, scenes of actual life were rcnrcsented, pometlntes 
hi ItnproTi^ed dialogue The Greek mines nppear to have oceu invented by llio 
Greeks of Sicily ana Southern Italy. They wore a favorite anmscment of convi- 
vial parties, the f^aeets themselves being generally the performers. Sophron of 8y ra- 
case, about 420 B.O., composed many iu the Doric dialect, which were much ad- 
nired, and which Plato was aoco&tomed to read.— The Roman mimce were not 
borrowed from the Greek, but were of native Italic growth. They wero not only 
far ruder and coarser, but in some respects they were essentlMlly differcnt—tho 
dtalogoe occupying a smaller place, and mere gesture and mimicry predominating. 
The humor and entire, however, were often genuine, though rough, and even in- 
decent, and they we're greatly relished by all classes; even the patrtciuu Suilawus 
foud of them. 

ilIM<yS&<S, a sub-order of Leait/mitiosaB^ one of .the largest uatund orders of 
exogenous plants; distinguished by regular flowers and petals valvate iu bud. 
AboDt 1000 specli^-s are known, alluativett of warm climates, a few only extending 
bejoudf^ub- tropical regions iu the southern hemisphere. The genera Acacia (q. v.) 
and JfvBUMaarc the best known. To the latter genus belong the Bensitivc Plants 
(q. v.). Some of the hirger species of M. arc valuable timber trees. The Tajlha. 
(kinnMA frrru^iua^ is one of the most common trees of Central Africa. They are 
al«o trees of great beauty. Some spt^ies of the genus /Vo4opi«, natives of the 
wc»tem narts of Soatb America, ore remarkable for tho abundance of tauulu iu 

MIHULUS, a genes of pkmts of the natural order SerophtUariaeetp^ having a'pris- 
natic 6-tootb«(l calyx, a somcwiiat bell-sha)K<d corolla, of which the upper lip Is billd 
tod the lower lip tnfld, tiic lobes not very unequal, two long and two Htort stamcnt*, 
sod a ttiguui of two lamelle, which close together upon irritation. The species are 
mostly herbaceous plants, natives of America. Some of them arc very frequent in 
flovf'r-gsrdeDtf, and many fine varieties tmve resulted from cultivation. They some- 
times receive tbo name of Monkty-Aovoer. One species, M. luteus, a native of Pern 
and Chili, Itas become natnrallsea in many parts of Britain. The little yellow- 
^Inwerrd MusK Plakt. dow so common in gardens and on window-sills In Britain, 
is Jf. moeehatUM^ a uative of Oregon and other north-western paru of America. 

Ml'NA, or Mna, tlie name of a Greek weight and money denomination, derived 
from an crtieutal word manehy signifying ** weight." The niina containe<l 100 
Dracbnise (q. v.), and was the sixtieth part of a talent; consequently, as a weighty it 
was cquivuieot to about IK of a pound avoirdupois, varying in different diPtricts to 
tbc extent of one-third of a pound more or less, following the fluctuations of the 
taicnt it^cl(. As a money (\f account, it preserved tho same relation to the talent, 
and was worth jC4, U. id. See Talkmt. 

MINA BIRD (Snlabes Tndicun or Graeula Tndica\ a species of Grnklo (q. v.), or 
of a aeariy allied genoe, a native of many parts of tlie East Indies, about the shse of 
acoannou thrush, of a deep velvety block color, witli a white mark on the base of 
the qofll-featbers of the wings, yellow bill and feet, and two largo bright yellow 
wattles at the back of the bead. The bill Is large, conical; the upper mandible a 
IJUIB curved, and aliarp-poiuted. The food of the M. B. ooiiaista of fmlts and iu- 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 


Minaret n a 

Mineral ^4 

•ects. It is verr lively and intellig^cnt, and possessefl a power of imitating: hnman 
epeecli, excelled'by ooue of tbo parrut8. It tia? soinetiiues bi'cii truiued to repeat 
Beuteuces of couniderable leugtti. It is therefore lu great nqoeet, and is often 
brought to Europe.— Auoihcr uud lar}(er species is fdtind in Suiimlra and suine uf 
the other euaiern iifi lauds, possessiug the same power of urliculatioii. It is highly 
prlz ?d by I lie Juviinese. 

Ml'NARET, Minar, a tall turret, nsed in Saraccuic architecture. It contains a 
staircaite, and is divided into several stories, Avith balconies from which th<; priests 
summon the Mohammedans to prayer— bells not lH;in^ permitted in tlieir nligiun^ 
and is terminated wiili a spire or onmuieutal finial. The minarets are amougc^t ttie 
most I>eaatifui features of Mojiammcdnn architecture, and are an invai'iabic accom- 
paniment of the MoMiues (q. v.). In India, Minars, or pillars of victorv, are fre- 
quently erected in connection with mosques; some of these are lofty and splendid 
monuments, that of Kootnb, at old Delhi, being 48 feet 4 inches in diameter at itane, 
and al)Out 860 feet high. Thev are often built on a plan of a star-lilLe form, and are 
divided into stories by projecting balconies, like the minarets. 

MINCH, the channel which separates tlie island of Lewes from the counties of 
Cromarty and lioss, in the north-west of Scotland. Its shores are exceedingly ir- 
regular, and its average width is ahout 2S mites. The lAUle Minch, which separates 
the it^laud of Skye from that of North Uiot and the neighboring islands in the Outer 
Hebrides, is upwards of 15 milL-s in width. 

MI'NCIO (anc. Mincius), a river of Northern Italv, a continnntlon of the Tyrol- 
ese stream, the Sarca, emerges from Lake Qanla at Peschiera, and after a course of 
abtmt 38 miles through the province of Mantua, which it separates from Verona, 
falls into the Po, 8 miles below the city of Mantna. The M. has constituted an im- 
portant basis of operation during the wars b^'tween Italy and Austria. 

MIND. Having adverted in various other articles— Kmotiok, Intbllbct, Wiix, 
^^— to the chief component psrts of our mental constitution, all that is necessary 
under the pro;»ent head Is to consider the definition or precise demircjition of mind 
as a whole. In this sutiject, we cannot resort to the common method of defining, 
which is to assign something more simple and fundamental than the thing to be 
defined ; as when we define gravity to be an attractive force, the notions of force 
and attraction being supposed to be more intelligible than gravity. Mind can be 
resolved into nothing more fundamental than itself ; and therefore our plan must 
be, to call attention to those individual facts or experiences that are pointed at by 
the name, and to circumscribe, in some way or other, the whole field of such expe- 
riences. For an example of mind, wo should probably refer each person to his 
pleasures and pains, which are a class of things quite apart and peculiar : we should 
also indicate tlionghti or ideas, as mental elements ; also exercises of will or volun- 
tary action. There Is a sufllcient community of nature in tho^e various elements 
to cause them to be classed by themselves, under a common designation, namely, 
mind. If au;r one could be made aware of all the phenomena that have received 
this designation, he would of course know the meaning in the detail ; bnt this is 
not enough. Mind being a general or comprehensive name, we ouj^lit to see dis- 
tinctly the common character or attribute pervading all those particular phenom- 
ena; the recognition of this common character is the knowledge of mind 
In general, or the determination of its defining attribute. For the settling of this 
common attribute, we have another great resource, besides comparing the Indi- 
vidufd facts, that is, to determine the opposite, or contrast of mind. Now tlie 
usually assigmed contrast is matter; but more precisely. It is extension, or the 
extetuud, including both Inert matter and empty space. When we are conscious of 
anytliing as having the property of Extension, our consciousness Is occupied with 
the object world, or something that Is not mind. When we .ire feeling pleasure or 
imln, rememl)ering, or willing, we are not conscious of anythinir extended ; we are 
said to be in a state of subjective consciousness, or to be exhibitihg a phenomenon 
of mind proper. Hence, philosophers are accustomed to speak of the inaUetuUd 
tnt'nd, as distinguished from the outer or object world. In one sense, everything 
that we can take cognizance of is mind or self; we cannot by any possibility tran- 
scend our o>vn mental sphere ; whatever we know, is our own mind; hence the 
Sdealism of Berkeley, which seemed to annihilate the whole external universe. Bat 


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n K Minaret 

^0 Mineral 

tliif \xi^ sense of mincl Is not what Is usaally meant, and whatever view we take of 
therealitj of the extenial world, we inast uever merge the distinctiou between the 
couKiOQSueMi of the Extended— which is also couplul witli other truly object |)r(){>- 
ctiie:*, as Inertia, for matter— and the conscionsness of tlie Inextended, osconeii- 
tatiug oar feelings and thoajclits. This opposition is f iiudanientui and iuernsabltv, 
am] Is expressed in language by a variety of designations; mind and not mind, 8iil>- 
ject and object, internal and external. The laws and ptienonieuu of the Kxtt'iidc<l 
are ttet forth in the sciences of the external world— Mathcmniici*, Mechanics, Clicin- 
iftry, Ac^\ tlie laws of the Mind proper, or the Subject consciousness, ure quite di^- 
tiuctiu their nature, and are emboaied iu a separate science, called Meut;d Phil. 
06O]>hy, Psychology. &c 

MINI>ANA'0. See Phiuppius Isi^hds. 

MI'NDEN, oPnis.'«Ian town, in the province of Westphalia, lies on the Wesor, 
Is a pro»*pen)u«, rlosely built city, witii a popnlatlon of (1675) 17,0S8. It wat* till 
lately a fort ri'SB of the second class. M., which ranks as one of the oldest towns 
iuOcnnany, has a stone bridge across the river, originally erected in 1518, and poj*- 
icsses 8<»veral ancient chnrches, the most noteworthy of which are the present 
Roman Catholic churcb. Built in the second half of the 11th century, it was till 
1811 ati episcopal cathedral. A battle was fought near M. in 1760, in which the 
French were defeated by an ormy of Anglo-Hanoverian troops. 

The Hanoverian town of M. or MUnaen is situated in the district of Hlldeshelm, 
within the proviucw of G5ttingen, and at the confluence of the Fulda and Werra. 
Pop. (18^) 5*1^. M. lies in one of the most piciuresquc and fruitful parts of llun- 
orer. It has S brcwCTies and manufactories of china, eaitheuware, sugar, tobacco, 
and linen, with a noted linen-marker. There arc alum-works and good coal-mines 
in the immediate neighl)orhood ; and It has an extensive river transport -trade iu 
millstones, corn, and timber. M. poractses several architectural remulus, indicative 
of its former more prosperous condition. 

MrNDSZENT, a town of Hungary, ia the county of Csongrad, near the left 
bank of the Theiss, and just below the month of the Saros, 19 miles north from 
ase^edln. Pop. (lB4i9) 9414. 

MINB'O, a town of the island of Sicily, in the province of Catania, 82 miles 
Booth-we>*t of Messina. It is supposed to occupy tho site of the oucieut Uenct, 
fuonded by Docetine, 469 b.c. Pop. 9500. 


MINERAL KINGDOM, tlie inorganic portion of nature. Under this term, how- 
ever, are not included the inorganic products of organic beings, as sugar^ resins, 
Ac^ aJtboagh substances more remotely of vegetable or even animal origin arc 
Rckoued among minerals, as coal, fossils, i&c. To the Mineral Kingdom oelong 
liquid and gaseous, as well as solid substances; water, atmospheric air. ACj arc in- 
cluded in if. All the chemical elements are found In the Mineral Kingdom, from 
which vegetable and animal organisms derive them ; but many of the compounds 
wbicliex&tiji nature belong entirely tp the vegetable and animal kingdoms, and 
are produeed by tho wooderful chemistry of life. 


MINERAL TALLO\T, or Hatcbetfnc, a remarkable substance fonnd In pe%*eral 
places In Britain, Germany, Siberia, Ac, soft and flexible, yellowifh white, or yel- 
low, resembling wax or tallow, often flaky like spermaceti, inodorous, melting at 
1U^^170<' F., and composed of about 86 carbon and 14 hydrogen. 

MINERAL WATKIia This term is usually applied to all spring waters which 
poasees qualities in relation to the animal iMXly different from those of ordiiiurv 
water. '* I waters liave been used us remedial agents from a very early p<;riod. 

Tlie old* )-i ' <^ physicianB had ^eat faith in their curative power, and the ti ni^)lcs 
erected i. ' " ...... ^ , 

recourse t' 
still oacit ) 

J.-<:iUapius were asuallv in close proximitv to mineral epriugs; they hod 
< Uw iuiphnroos thermal springs of Tiberias (now Tabareah)i which are 

y ] ntieuts from ull ports of Syria in cases of painful tumor, rhcumatiHm, 

goot, pt1-v. A:r., and to the warm baths of Calirrhoc, n«mr the Dead Seu, which are 
mention td liy Joaephos aa liaviug been tried by Herod iu his sickuesa. We are in- 


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dobted to the Romans for t?io discovery not only of IBe mlneraT thermic sprfsgei in 
Italy, but of some of the most important in other parts of Enrope, amongst which 
may l)e named Aix-la-Chnpelle, Bndeii-Baden, Bath, Spa iuBelginm, and manyoth* 
ers; and Pliny, in his " Natnral History,** mentions a very large namber of muieral 
sprnigs in almost all parts of Baropc. 

Tlie thempeutic action of mineral waters, or of spas, as they are freqnentfy 
tentied, depends chiefly upon tlieir chemical compocitiou nnd their tern peratnre, 
Mltlioagh a variety of other circamstances, as sitnattoii, elevation, climate, geologi- 
c:il formation, mean temperutarc, Ak:., have an important bearing upon the snccesB 
of the treatment. 

The best time for nndenroinff a conrso of mineral wat«^ is. In the majority of 
cases, the months of June, Jmy, August, and September. Tliere are, however, 
exceptions depending npon dinuite; for example, at Gastein, celebrated fur its 
thermal springs, the weather fas changeal)Ie and stonnv in Jnne and July, bat pleas- 
ant in May, Aogust, and September. Early rising is usually advisable dnnng a 
course of mineral waters, and, as a general mle. the water should be drunk before 
breakfast, at intervals of about n quarter of an hour between each tumbler, mode* 
rate exercise being taken in the intervals. In many cases, Ixithiug is of even greater 
importance as a remedial agent than drinking. Baths are generally taken between 
breakfast and dinner ; and should never l)e taken soon after a full meal. The time 
diiih»g which thepatieut should remain in the bath varies very much at different i*pas, 
and the directions of the local phyt«ician should be strictly attended to on this point. 
It is impossible to determine beforehand how long a course oC mineral waters slionld 
be continued, as this entirely dt peods upou the sy mpsoius observed during treatment. 
As a general rule, the treatment shonld not be proirucled beyond the space of six 
weeks or two months, bat on tlifs point the paliunt most be solely guided by the 
physician resident at the spa. It cannot be too forcibly impressed npon thepatieut, 
that indulgence in the pleasures of the tabic, and excesses of any kn)d, frequently 
counteract the salutary effects of the waters, while perfect mental rehixatiou is au 
important auxiliary to the treatment. It will be seen from remarks on the nature 
of the cases likely to receive benefit from ilie various kinds of mineral waters, that 
spas are only suitable for patients suffering from cArtniie diaarden. 

No classification of mineral waters b(lM^d npon their chemical compositicMi can 
be strictly exact, tjecaose many springs are, as it were, iutenoediate between tolerw 
ably well characterised groans. The following claasiflcatlon, which is adopted by 
Br Althans, in his **Spa8 of Europe '' (Loud. 1862), is perhaps the most convenient : 
1. Alkaline Waters; a. Bitter Waters; 3. Muriatcd Waters; 4. Earthy Wateis; S 
ludififerent Thermal Waters ; «. Chalybeates ; T. Sulphurous Waters. 

1. The Alkaline Waters are divisible into: (a) Simple AlbaHne Aeidtdom Wmters^ 
of which the chief contents are carbonic acid and bicarbonate of soda. The most 
important spas of this class are tite thermal springs of Vichy and the cold springs of 
Fachingen, Qeilnaa, and Billn. These waters are useful in certain forms of iudlges- 
tion, in jaundice arisiug from catarrh of the hepatic ducts, in gall-stones, in renal 
calculi and gravel, in gout, in chronic catarrh of the resjrfmtory oi^ns, and In ab- 
dominal plethora. Vichy (q. v.) may be taken as the representative of this class of 
springs, (b) Muriated Alkaline Aciauloue VTaUrey which differ from the precedii»g 

catarrhal affections of the bronchial tubes, the stomach, and the intestines, and the 
larynx ; and tlie Ems waters possess n hlffli reputation in certain chronic diseases of 
tlie womb and adj:icent oi^ans. (e) Athcuine Salirte WcUer$t of which the chief con- 
tents are salphate and bicarbonate of soda. Ttie most frequented of these spas are 
the warm springs of Carlsbad and the cold springs of Marlenbad. Patients suffering 
from abdominal plethora are those most freqnentiy sent to iliese spas, which often 
prove of great service, if the stagnation of the biMid is owing to bal>ltual conaUpa- 
tion, pressnre from accamnhited faeces, or congestion of the Hvcr, nneonneetcd with 
diseases of tIte heart or longs. These waters, especially those of Carlsbad* afford aa 
excellent remedy for the habitim] constipstion which so frequently arises from Beden>- 
lary occupations ; the result being mach more permant than, tliat produced by stroD|( 
purgative waters. 






1 The chief cootenta of the Bitter Waters are the aninbatcs of magnesia and 
poda : and the best known spas of this class are those of P&lhia, Saidsch&is, SeUHtz, 
Friedrlchshall, and Kifsiugeu ; although there are two English spas — namely, the 
Wiier water of C Ijerry Kock, near Kinp:8wood, in Gloucef»ter»liinf, and the Pni ton 
Spa, near Swindon, in Wiltshire — which " ore, by their chemical conipoHitioii, ad- 
nihubly salted for the treatment of many cuFes of disease, and may perhups even 
prove superior to the conliueutai spas of this class."— Althans, oj). ciL p. 860. 
These waters act both as puripatives and diuretics, and may thereforu be nsed ad- 
Tajitac;eoasIv in tlie numerous cases iu which it is advisable to excite the action both 
of the bowels and kidneys. 

3. The Murlated Waters are divisible Into : (a) Simple Muriated WaUrSy of which 
the chief cooteuts are a mo<lerate quantity of chloricfe of sodium or common salt. 
Tlie chief spas of this class ar« Wiesbaden and Baden-Budeu, which are hot ; those 
of S.jden (in Nassau), of Moudorf (near Luxembourg), and of Canstatt (near 
Sroiteort), which are tepid; and those of Kissingcn, Ilombnrg, and Chelieuiiani, 
which nre cold. They are chiefly employed In cases of pour, rlu'uniatism. scrofula, 
and abdominal plethora. (6) Muriated Lithia Waters, of which the chief contents 
arc the chlorides of sodium and lithium. Tiie discovery of liihia in Bome of the 
Bart^m-Baden springs is so recent that there is as yet no sufficient experience con- 
eeraiDo' their therapeutic action. In gout, they first oj^gmvate the pain, but tlien 
glre rdief ; and iu periodic headache, they have l>een found serviceable, (c) Brine^ 
whose chief contenu are a large amount of chloride of f^odinm. Amongst the spns 
of this kind, those of Rehme, in Westphalia, and Nauheim, in II esse, hove the 
p*alc«t reputation. Th^ are mostly employed for bathing, and arc often of much 
service In e^rofula, anaemia, rheumatisni, certain forms of pnraly^it*, and catarrh of 
the mucous membranes, id) lodo-bromaUd Muriated Watera, in which, bs'sides ;i 
moderate qnantlty of chloride of sodium, the iodides and bromides of sodium and 
magnesium are contained in an appreciomc quantitv. Kreuznuch is tiie mo»t cele- 
brated of the snas of this class. Its waters utc used both fur drinking and bathing, 
and are of service iu scrofulous iuflltratlons of the glands, in scrofulous ulcers, in 
cfaroutc inflamnimtion of the uterus and ovaries. Ac The waters of Unll, in 
ioftria Proper, arc also of this class, and have a high reputation in cases of brou- 
djocde or goitre. 

4. Earthy Waters, of which the chief contents nre sulphate and carbonate of 
Hrae. The most Important waters of this class occur at Wildungen, Leuk, Bath, 
LocoL and Pisa. The Wildnngen water, which is exported in largo quantities. Is, 
according to Dr Althaus, ** a copital diuretic, and not only promotes the elimination 
ot gravel and renal calcall, but oy its tonic action on the mucous membrane of the 
Drinary passages, serves to prevent the formation of fresh concretions. It is also 
moch used for chronic catarrh of the bladder, nouralgla of the urethra and neck 
of the bhuider, dysuria, and Incontinence of urine." The baths of I^nk, iu which 
many patients remain nine hours daily (viz., from 4 a.m. to 10 a.x.. and from 2 p.x. 
to 5 P.M.), until an emption appears, are chiefly used in chronic skin diseases. The 
wmtPTs of Bath, Pisa, and Luccn, which are thermal, arc useful in chronic skin dis- 
eases, scrofula, gout, rheumatism. &c 

5. Indifferent Tliermal Waters, which usually contain a small amount of saline 
coDstituentB. Of the spas of this class, the most important are Oastein (95o to 11B°), 
TflpJHa 0200), Wlldbad (W*^, Warmbrunn (tOO«), Clifton (S«o), and Buxton (82°). 
Thdr most atriklog effects are to stlnmiate the skiu and excite the nervous system. 
**TiH7 are especially used in chronic rheumatism and atonic gout ; in diseases of 
&e Mdn, snch as prurigo, psoriasis, lichen ; in iieoralgia and paralysis due to 
rheumatic and gouty exudations, to parturition, or to severe diseases, such an 
typtKiid fever and dtiphtheria ; in hysteria ; and in general weakness and muras* 
mns."— Aitbaos, op. cit p. 4«1. 

ft. Chalybeate Waters, which are divisible iuto : (a) Simple Acidulous Chalybeates. 
whose chief contents are carbonic acid aud bicarbonate of protoxide of iron ; and 
(b) Saline AeidtUouB ChatyhetUeM^ whoso chief contents are sulphate of FOda and 
mcarbooate c^ protoxide of Iron. These waters are considered in a special article^ 
See Chaltbkate Watebs. 

T. Sulphurous Waters, which contain sulplmretfcd hydrogen or metallic sulphidee 
(sQlphorets), or botli. The roost Important sulphurous ihenuals arc those of Alz* 


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Mineralogy QQ 

Mln«nra ^^ 

la-Chnpelle, Baden (near Vieima), Bar6geii,Eaax-Clinndes, and Bagn^^resde Lnchon: 
whilst ninougst the cold sulpharone spriu^, thoj^e of Neundorf (in Uferoii-NuWHa) 
Rnd Urtrrogate are of great iniportaiiCL'. 'I'hey are extensively nsfd hi chronic 
dlRea»t*8 of ihe t-khi, and nre of m:rvice In many cases in which cxiulntions require 
to be ahsorbt d, as in swflllugs of the joints, in old ^ninchot woauds. and in chronic 
gout an«l rheiiumtisin. In chronic laryngeal and bronchial catarrh, tlu*y frequently 
give rulief. and In ch'^nic poisoning by lead or mt-rcury, tlh'y favor the eliniinutiou 
of the poison, altliough to a tar ir^s degree than iodldi; of pouissinm taken intenially. 
ThH sniphnrotis waten* arc eniployt^ ezlcmally and iniernally, and mineral nmd- 
baiha arc believed by many physicians to form a valuable auxiliary to this treat- 

For farther Information on this BnbjecL the render Is referred lo the work of Dr 
Althrtuft (of which free u^o has hevtw ma^le in lliis ariicle), and to tlie *• Dlctlonnairo 
G^n6ral de« Eaux Min6rale*i et d'hydrologle M6dlCiilo " of MM. Duraud-Fardel, Le 
Bret, and Lefort 

MINERA'LOGY (Fr. miner^ to dig, mine ; Gael, meinn; Wei. mtrn, ore. mine), 
the science which treats of minerals. But it dues not embrace all that relatea to 
the mineral kingdom. Simple mineraU alone, or honvogeneons mineral i^nbstances. 
are rcgiirdi'd as the subjects of mineralogy; rocks funned by i he aggregation of 
Bimple mineral'', and their rclaliona to each other, are the Hiibjects of Geology 
(q. V,). This limitation of the term minerHlogy Is comparatively recent. Geology 
or geouno-y was formerly Included in it. The arrangement and description of sim- 
ple minerals according to their external characters, Tian been called by Wemeraud 
others Oryctogno$y, but Ihe term has fortunately fallen into disuse. Nor is the study 
of mere ext<.Tnal ciiaracters sufficient in mineralog;^'. Tite chemical composition of 
minerals equally demand-* attention. In the clas^ificiitlou of minerals, some miu- 
er.ilogista. :ifi Mohs and Jameson, have regarded only the external characters, and 
some, as Berzelios, only the chemical oomponiiion ; but the results have been nn- 
satidfactory, and the present tendency Is in favor of a system which seeks to con- 
Blitnle natural groups by having regard to both. 

Some minemlM being of great use, and others highlv valued for their beauty, Imve 
received much attention from the earliest aees. But the ancient naturalists desorit>e 
few nunerals. The fln»t attempt at fcientinc mineralogy was by Qeoree Agricola In 
the 16tli century. The systems of the Swedes Wallerius and Cronstedt, In U»e latter 
half of the 18th c were the fln't worthy of the name. Tliat of Werner followed, 
and was extensively adopted. The discoveries of Ilany In crj'siallography, and the 
progress of chemistry, gave mineralogy a now character ; and then sprung up two 
scliools of mineralogists, one resting chiefly on external characters, and the other 
on chemical composition. 

The cliemical clasiiificatlon of minerals Is rendered difficult by the endless variety 
of combination and proportion In tite elements of which they are composed, tito 
prewjnce of substances not essential to the mineral, and yet more or les:* affecting 
\ii characiera. and the frequent impossibility of delermiuing what Is to bo deemed 
eHscutial, and what accidental. Cliemical purity Is almost never found in nature. 
Even tlie purest diamond, when burned, leaves some traces of ash; and the v^ous 
colors or diumoui, quartz, and other minerals arc due to the presence of substances 
which are often in so small quantity as not to affect their crystalline forms or other 
nhysical properties*. Again, some minerals of identical chemical composition differ 
In their crystallisation, so that an arrangement found<xl upon it would separate them 
too widely. There are also many minerals which are often found in an nucrystallised 
state, and others which are always so. In the amingemeut of mini-rals into natural 
^oups, their chemical composition, although not alone to be regarded, Is of the flr»tt 
importance, hO that the place of a new mineral In tlic system can never be deter- 
mined without analysis; and in determining the nature of a mineral, chemical tests, 
Mich as the application of acids, are continually resorted to. It Is also necessary to 
know Its specific gravity, and how it is acted upon both by a moderate heat and by the 
blowpipe. An exuminution of the crystalline forms, with nieai«uremeut of the an- 
gles of the crystals, is often sufficient to distinguish minerals which have otbei wiso 
much resemblance. The cleavage of crystals Is also Important, a rtadiness to sp itiu 
planes parallel to certain of their faces only, by which the primitioe form of the crys- 


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QQ Minera'ogy 

^^ Minerva 

tal may be aKertmned. Minerals not cr3rBtalll8ed exhibit Important vnricties r f 
Urueture^ as laminated, fibrxms^ granular^ &c. Certiiln peciiliurltles of form in^x 
al«ofrt<|nei]tly clmracierl^Hc of micrystallisu'd minerals', as mamUlary,lH>tryoita\ 
Ac Hiueniiri exhibit, when broken, very differcLt kinds ot fracture, jis even, con- 
cbtddat^ splintery, &c. Opaquenesn, traiishtcenci/, and trnnspareucy, are niort; or 
kTs chRraclerii»tic of different kinds ; electric and •niagrutic proi>erlicB demand «l- 
t4-iJtiou ; and very Iniportiint chaniciers are derived from lustre, wliicl» in Fome min- 
erals i» ntttaHiCy in other:* semi-metallie, in othi^is pear Iv, vitreoun, Ac Color in not 
gtiicraliy of much importance, bni in some niinoralsll is veiy chaructenetic. Hani- 
nexiiiud tenacity are very important, and are of all varions dtgreps. A few fln;d, 
and even afewgapeons anb^t^tnceH, arc included in mineraloglc^TpyFtema. Uncttton- 
itff and other peculiuritief to be af«certaincd by tlie toucli, are very characteristic of 
some miiieralft; pccnliaritiea of taste and srtiell bt>Ioug to otiicn*. 

Mineraiotjy has very lm|>ort;uit relations with geology, wliicli cannot be Bfn- 
dicdvrithoat ri^nrd to then)h)eralcon8tilne:itaof nx-ks. The mineral composition of 
■oitegn ntly affects ve^retatiou and agriculture. Tlie economical nses of minerals are 
abo very important and various. It is enough merely to allude to coal, lime, salt, 
and Uio metallic ores. Naphtha, petroleum, bitumen, asplialt, &c., are of well- 
knoivn utility; and a high value haa always beeu attached to gems and other orna- 
meuial stones. 

MINK'RVA, the name of a Boroan coddcss. Identified by the later GrsDcising 
Komans with tht; Greek Athene, whom she greatly resenible(f, tliough, hke all tlie 
old Lntiu divinities, there wa.-* nothing anthropomorphic in what was told concerning 
her. Her name is thought to spring from tlie snme root as mens (the mind), 
and mcnere (to warn or advise) ; and the ancient Latin scholar and critic, Vnrro, 
rsgarded her as the impeivonation of divine thoughtr-the plan of the material uni- 
verse of which Japiter was the creator, and Juno the n*pn!sent alive. Hence all 
that poes on among men, ull that consti'^ntes the developmt* nt of human destiny 
(wlitch is bat the expression of the divine idea or Intention), is under her rare. 8lie 
is the patroness of uris and trades, and was invoked alike \ry poets, painters, teach- 
ers, phyeiciaus. and all kinds of craftsmen. Siie also gnidep heroes in war; and, 
in fact, every wise idea, every bold act, and every useful design, owes sometliing 
to Uie high inspiration of this viKjrin goddess. Her oldest temple at Home was that 
on the Capitol, hot she had anotlier on the Aventlne. Her festival was held in 
Hatch, and lasted five days, from the 19th to the 23il inclusive. 

Atiuwb, or Pallas Athene, the Greek goddet^s corresponding, as we have 
said, to tlie Roman Minerva, was one of the few truly grand c^AtVo/ divinities of 
Greek mytbo!o}fy. Differeiit acconnts are given of her origin and pnrcnUme, pro- 
Uibly from the jumbling together of local legends; but the Ijest known, and In an- 
cient time*:, ttie most orthodox version of the myth represented her as the daughter 
of Zens an j Metis. Zens, wc are told, when he had attained supreme power after 
liift victory over the Titans, chose for his first wife Metis (Wisdom); but being ad- 
vfcsttl by both Uranos and Gtta (Heaven and Kjirth), he swallowed her, when she was 
negnwit with Athene. When the time came that Athene should have Ijein bom, 
LKVs felt great nalns in his liead, and caused Hcphsestus (Vnlcan) to split it up with 
an axe, when the goddess sprang forth—fnily armed, according to the inter ntories. 
Throwing aside tlie thick veil of authropomornhism whicli conceals the sitrniflcnnco 
of the myth, we may see in this account of Athene's parentage an effort ro set forth 
a divine symbol of the combination of power and wisdom. Her futher was the 
greatest, her mother tlie wisest of the gods. She is literally born of both, and f o 
their qualities harmoniously blend in her. It is possible that the constant represen- 
tation of her as a strictly maiden goddess, who Inid a real, and not a merely pnidinh 
anlipstfay to marriage, was mennt to indicate ihat qualities like here could not bo 
mated, and that, because she was inrfect, she was doomed to virginity. She was 
not, however, a cold nnfeehng divinity; on the contrarj*, she warmly and actively 
interested lierseJf in the tiffairs of both gods and men. She sat at the ri^ht 
bondofZeas, assisting him with her counsels; she helped him hi hi:^ wai-s, and 
conquered Pallas and Kncelados in the bnttles of the giants. Hlie w^tsthepalroneas 
of agricnltrre, invented the plough and rake, introdncwl the olive into Attica, and 
(in banxuiny with her character as the personification of active wisdom) taughi men 


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Mtajrvln. 100 

the use of alinoi't: all the implements of Indnetry aiid ait ; and Is said to have dcvisea 
nonrly all feminine crapIoymentB. Pliilosophy, poetry, aud oratoiy were also nuder 
lier care. She was the protocf ress of the Athenian state, was believed to have insti- 
tuted the conrt of justice on Mara' Hill (ll»o Areiopapus). As u warlike divinity, she 
was thought to approve of those wars only which wore audertaken for the public 
jood, ana conducted with prudence; aud thus site was regarded as the protectrew 
n l):iitli' of those itcroes who wore distinguislied as well for their wisdom as their 
valor, lu the Trojan wars, she favored the Greeks— who, in point of fact, wens in 
tlio right. Her worelilp was universal in Greece, and representations of her in 
flat ncs, busta, coins, reliefs, and vase-paintings were aud are nnmerons. She is 
ulwjiys dressed, generally in a Spartan tanlc, with a cloak over it, and wears a hel- 
met, beautifully adorned with figures of different animals, the aegis, the round 
Ar<;olic Hliield, a lance, &c Iler countenance ifj beautiful, earnest, and thoughtful, 
and the whole figure majestic. 

MINERVI'NO, a town of Southern Italy, ii> tlie province of Bari, called the 
Balcony nf Puglici, from the extensive view it comnuuide of several cities. It stands 
on a fine liill, and enjoys excellent air. Pop. 13,800. 

MINES, in Law. In England and Ireland, the crown has the right to all mines 
of gold and silver; but where these metals are found in mines of tin, copper, iron, 
or other baser metal, then the crown has only the right to take the ore nt a price 
fixod by statute. As a general rule, whoever is the owuer of freehold laud, has a 
right to all (he mines underneath the snrface, for bis absolute ownership extends to 
the centre of the earth. When the land is given by will or otherwise to a tenant for 
life, while a third party has the reversion, then the tenant for life is held to be enti- 
tled not to open mines which Imve never before been opened, but to carry on 
such as have been opened, and are going mines. So in the case of a lease of Mods 
for agricultural purposes, if nothing is said as to mines, the tenant is not entitled to 
open any mines, for that would be committing waste. It is not uncommon for one 

Iterson to be owuer of the surface of the land, aud anotlier to be owuer of the mine* 
beneath ; or several persons may be owners of different kinds of mines lying above 
each other in the different strata. Mauy questions have been raised lately l>etweoti 

railway companies and miue-owners as to their respective rights and liabilities. 
When a railway passes through a raining country, it is generally ontional with the 
owner to sell to the company merely the snrface of the lands, reserving to himself 
the mines beneath ; and it is usually provided lliat, if ever tlio owner work his mines 
so near to the railway as to endanger its statnlity, the company must have notice of 
that fact, and then, if necessary, may pnrcliase tlie mines inmiediately nnder the 
railway. Bat the courts have determined that even though the owner of Uie land 
reserve his riglit to minerals, he is nevertheless prevented, by common law, from 
working the mines immediately nnder the railway, so as to endanger the use of Uie 
railway. In thc^ matters the law of Scotland docs not at ail differ, though, as to 
other points of the common law, some differencen of no great impf>rtauce occur. 
See Paterson's "Compendium of English and Scottieli Law." 

The practical working of mines and collieries in any part of Great Britain has 
been controlled by certain recent acts of parliament, witli a view to insure the 
greater safety of the persons working tliem. and to prevent the employment of 
women and children. Thus, the owners of mines are prohibited, by tiie Mines Keg- 
nlatiou Acts. 1872 (repealing prior acts), from employing any female or boy under 10 
underground. Boys under 16 can only be so employed ten hours ner dav, aud boys 
under 12 must attend school at certain times. No owner or worker of a mine or 
colliery is allowed to pay the wages of the men at any tavern, pablio-honse, l)eer- 
shop, or place of entertainment, or any ofllce or oothonse connected therewith. 
No person under 18 is to be employed at the entrance of any mine, to have charge 
of the steam-engine or windlass, or other macliinery and tackle for letting down aud 
bringing uf} the men. Inspectors are appointed by government tor the express pur- 
pose of visiting mines, and seeing that the statutes are complied with. The stat- 
utes in Question now apply not only to coal-mines and collieries, but to metalliferous 
mines of all kijids. whenever an inspector, on examination, finds anything dan- 
gerous or defective in the mine, he is i)onud to give notice to the owner, so Oiat Ik 
may be amended. In case of accidents occurring in the mine, caused by explosion, 


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aisd resulting In loss of life or bodily injanr, tlio owner !« bonnd, within twenty-fonr 
boors thereafter, lo ncnd notice to the Secretnry of State, imd to the diii'trict iu- 
Fpcctor of iniues, specifying the probable canse of the nccldent. 

MINES, Mllitiiry, constitute at once one of the mos^t important departments in 
military enptneering, and n very fonuidabl^e accOTsory both in the attack nnd defence 
of fortre««e«. A military mine consists of a gallery of greater or less length, rnn from 
some point of safety under an opposing worlt, or nuder an area over whicli an 
attacJcing force winM pass, and terminating in a ciiambcr wliich, being stored with 
CTwpowder. ciin be exploded at the critical moment. Mines are of grral nse to the 
D«i1«'geTs ill the overthrow of ramparts and formation of a hreoch ; tlie eminterviiueB 
of the besieged in nndermining the glacis over M'liich tlie afsaulling colnmn must 
charge, oad blowing them into the air, or in destroying batteries erecle<l for hreach- 
hi^, are equally serviceable. But far above tlic actual mischief wronght by the 
mme— often verygreal— is Its moral influence on the troopp, and especinlly on the 
nMilantn. The bravest soldiers, who advance withonl flinching to the very month 
of the cannon whieh they see, will hesitate to cross ground whkh they suppose to 
be undermined, and on wliich they mfly be dashed lo destm(tion in a moment, 
withont the power of avening the twuw^n danger. The flrst employment of mines 
was very ancient, and merely consisted in obtaining an entrance lo the interior of 
towns by passing l)eneath the defetices; but this soon fell into disnse, the chances 
of «icc«»e being merely those of introducing a body of men l)efore the besieged dis- 
covered the mine. The next ose occurred during the middle ages, and was more 
destmctive. The miners went no further than beneath the wall, then diverged to 
either side, and undermined the wall, say for about 100 feet. During the process, 
the wall WB8 sostained by timber-props ; and these being nltimately set on fire, the 
wail fell; and the besiegers, who had awnited the opportunity, rushed in at the 
breach. This use of mines of attaek necej^sitaled those of defenre^ which obtained 
in medieval times, and have ci'er shice kept, the name of '* cmintermineB,"^ The 
earlieftt subterranean defence consisted of a gallery surrounding the fort In advance 
of the foot of the wall, and tt'rnied an "envelope-gallery." From this the garrison 
would posh forward small branches or tributary galleries', whence they could obtain 
warning of tb© approach of hostile miners, and by which they succeeded, at times, 
In overthrowing the battering-rams or towers of the besiegers. 

Twocenlnnes appear to have elapsed between the introduction of ginipowder 
into Koropean warfare and Its application to subterranean operntions. 'i'lie flrsi in- 
Manoe of this occurred In 1503, at the shge c : the Castello clel* Uovo, in the Bay of 
Kaplee, which a French garrison had succeeded in holding for three yenrs agninft 
the combined 8piiiii9h and Neapolitan forces. At length, a Spaninh captiiin, Peilro 
Navarro, devised a gallery into the reck, which he stored wlih powder, whereof the 
explosion, hnrling portions of the rock and many of the besieged into the sea, cause d 
Ihe immediate capture of the place. At once the use of mines of attack spread 
throughout Europe; and so irresistible were they soon considered, that it w:i8 not 
nuQsnal for the besieger, after preparing bis mine, lo invite the besieged lo insj)ect 
it, whh the view of Inducing the latter at once to surrender. Defence soon availed 
ib>e1f of the new cower, and retaining the envelope-gallery as a base, ran small 
coontermines in many directions, to ascertain by hearing the nppronch of tiie ene- 
my's sopperw— his work being anclible, to a practised ear, at a horizontal distance of 
WfeeL Small charges were then exploded, wliich, without creating puitace dis- 
torbonce, b'cw In the approaching gallery, and buried the sappers In Its ruins. Thus 
tommcnced a system of subterranean warfare, requiring the greatest risk and cour- 
sge. in which the operator was In constant danger of being snffocated. Of course, 
iu such a system, the balance of advantage lay with the besieged, who had amj)!© 
opv»ortunltic«, lieiore the siege commenced, of completing his nimiflcations in every 
dmeetloo, and, If desirable, of revetting them with masonry, which much diminished 
the charce of l>elng blo^i-n in : while the assailant, no longer able to cross the glacis 
by an open xigs£«>g trench, was compelled to engage iu a most uncerUiin subterranean 
advaace. The Frcncli engineer Belidor, iu the 18th c, restored the advantage to the 
attack, by demoBStrating that the explosion of a very large mass of powder In a 
mine which bad not yet entered the labyrinth of defensive mines, effected the de- 
traction of the latter for a great space ronnd, clearing the way with certainty for 
the hostile advance. Although tlie primary purpose of a mine is the explosion of a 


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MInghetto 1 AO 

Mloiature iUZ 

chnrgo of powder, they are often nscd as a means of common icatioii between dif- 
ferent works, or between different parts of the same work, poinu l>ein}r^cou8t meted 
of size sufficient lo permit the passage of four men abreast, of Uoraes, and of ar- 

It is. of course, imposislble, in such a work as this, to give even an outline of the 
professional part of military mining; bnt i he article would bo incomplete withoat 
sume allusion to the main {irinciples. 

Mines aro citlier vertical— when Ihc^ are called «A<^/lto— horfisontal, or inclined. In 
either of which cases, they are *• galleries," the word ** ascending" or ** descending " 
being add -d, If there bo inclinatTon. The dimensions range from the " f^- 
lery," six feet eix Indies by seven feet, to the *• small branch"— the last dlniinotive 
of the galery— which has but two feet six inches height, with a breadth of two feet. 
The most frequent work is the ♦* common ;;allery," fotir feet six inches Dy three 
feet, which i« considered the eiislcst for the miner. 

The sapper's tools are numerous, but most in request arc his shovel, pickaxe, and 
above all, his ** pu:»h-plck ;" he has besides a barrow, a small wagon, a lamp, and 
other accessories. As he advances, it is necessary to line his gallery, always at the 
top, and almost always at the sides. This he doeseitlier by frames — which resemble 
door-frames, and serve to retain horizontal planks or ** sheeting " in uosition against 
the earth— or by cases somewhat resenil>ling packing-cases, of little depth, which 
are used to form the sides and ton. With cases, galleries are supposed to advance 
one foot and a half per hour; while with frames, the progress is barely more than 
half that amount 

When a mine is exploded, the circular opening on the surface is called the 
crater; the line of least remstanee Is tlie peri>endicular from the charge to the sur- 
face ; the imlf-tliameter of the crater is its radius ; and the radiu» of explogion is a 
line from the charge to the edge of the crater, on the hypothenuse of the triangle, 
the revolution of which would form the cone. When the diameter equals the fiue 
of least rcsi^^tance, llie crater is called a one-lined crater; when it doubles that 
lino, a two-lined crater; and so on. The common mine for ordinary o|>eration8 in 
the two-lined crater; and for this the charge of |>owder should— in ground of av- 
erige wei*;ht and tenacity— bo in pounds a number equal to one-tenth of the cube of 
the -lluc of least resistance in feet; for example, at a depth of 18 feet, the charge 
should consist of 6S3 pounds. In sur-charged mines, or globes of compression, as 
introduced by Belidur, vastly greater charges are employ^, and craters of six lines 
are sometimes produced. The rules. In these ca8<.>s, for computing the cliarges vanr 
exceedingly, according to different engineers, and in every cas« arc very compli- 
cated. Previous to tbe explosion, the gallery is filled up behind the charge, or 
tamped, with earth, sand-bags, &c, to prevent tlio force of the powder wasting 
itself in the mine. This t;imping must extend backwards for one and a half or 
twice the length of the line of least resistance. The mine is commonly fired by 
means of a powder-hose, composed of strong linen, enclosed in a wooden pipe laid 
carefully through the tamping, or by wires from u voltaic battery. 

Modem engineers ol)iect to the envelope-gallery, as affording too good a base to 

the eneniy, should he obtain possession of it; and either dispense with it altogether, 
or merely retain it in short sections. At suitable points among the mines, small 
magazines for tools and powder are formed ; and at al>out every 80 yards, loopholed 
doors of great strength are made, to stop the advance of an enemy, should he break 
Into ttie galleries. 

In the course of their excavations, hostile miners frequently meet, or approach 
williin a few feet. It becomes, then, merely a question of tune which shall destroy 
the other; shells, picttols, pikes, and petards, as well us small mines, being used 
vrilh nmrderous effect. 

Provision is made for pumping foul air out of mines ; bnt such military works 
aro in general badly ventilated. 

MINUHETTI. Cnvaliere Marco, a distingaishcd Italian writer and statesman, 
and for n time prime minister of Italy, was bom at Bologna, on the 8ih November 
1S19. He belonged to an opnient commercial family, ana on the termination of his 
Biiulies, entered on an extensive continental tour, with the object of closely Investi- 
gating the political, socitil, and economical institntions of France. Qermany, and 
more especially of Britain. On his retoru from travelling, be publisiied his maiden 


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1 OQ M nghetlo 

^^^ Mlnlattiro 

emay, incnlcarlng the great coinmerdiil advuntages of free trndo. nn eii!«!fiig In Eug- 
laod, and eeponsiog with wurmth the ecouomicul \\q\\» of Kiclmrd Colnleii. la 
1S46, M. opeued his political cnreer by Pttirtlns? a jonrnal of lll>eral lendencie^ soon 
after the advent of Pioa IX. to power; in 1847, he was elected rucmbi^r of the Coti~ 
iuita deiie Finatue^ and iu 1848 became mluieter of pobiic works. Having speedily 
lo»t faith in papnl progression, M. with withdrew from oiSce, r.nd joined tlie army 
of Cbaries Albert in Lombardy. wliere he was warmly received by the kmg,and ap- 
pointed captain. After the battle of Goito, he was promoted major ; and for Ids 
bravery iu the engngemeut of Custoza, he received from the king the cross of the 
Knights of St Maarizlo. On tlic conclnsiou of the war, M. resumed his stndv of 

Solitica] economy, and caiiied the confidence of Cavour, by whom ho wat* consalted 
oring the conferences of Paris. He suljseqneutly became secretary for foreign 
affairs, and only resigned with Cavour on the peace of Villafranca. M. became 
minister of the interior in 1860, and premier In 1888. On leaving the yiinistry, he 
went as ambassador to London in 1868, and subsequently, for a short time, min- 
ister of agricnHnre. In 1873 he l)eciime premier of a new ministry. His chief work 
is ** Delia JScouomla pobblit^ e delle sue Attiucuzc con la morale, c Col diritto " (1859). 
MI'NHO. See Entbe Doueo e Mimqo. 

MINHO (Span. MUlo, anc ifiniiw), a river of Spain and Portngnl, rises In the 
north-east of Galicia. in lat. about 4SP W n., long, alioiit 7° 15' w. Its course is 
sootlt-west through the modern Spanish provinces of Lugo and Oreuse, after whicli, 
continniuK its course, and forming the northern boundary of (he Portngiu'se pro- 
vince of Miuho, it falls into the Atlantic Ocean. Its length, exclusive of windings, 
is 180 mile^, and it is navigable for small craft £8 miles a1x)vc its mouth. 

MlTnATURE-PAINTING. or the painting of portraits on a small scale, origi- 
nated in the practice of embellishing manuscript books. See Manuscripts, Illu- 
MIXATXOH or. As the Initial letters were written witli re<l lead (Lat. miniuvi), the 
art of illumination was expressed by the Low Lot. verb wi<niare, and the term witn- 
iahera was applied to the small pictures introduced. After the invention of print- 
ing and engraving, this delicate art entered on a new phase ; copies, in small dimen- 
siona, of celebrated pictures came to be In considernblc request^ and. In partlciHar, 
there arose such a demand for miniature portraits, that a nuuiature, in popular lan- 
gnage, is held to signify "a very small portrait." Soon after their introduction, 
mlnlatnrc -portraits were executed with very great ?»kiil In England. Holbein (b^ 
MW. d- 1664) painted exquisite miniatures, and having settled in London, his work" 
had great Influence iu calling forth native tjilent. The works of Nicholas Hiliiurd 
(b. at Bxeter 1547, d. 1619) arc justly held in high estimation. Isaac X)liver (b. 1556, 
d. Ifl7) was employed by Queen Elizabeth and most of the distinguished ciiarnc- 
ters of the time: bis works are remnrkablo for careful and elaborate execution; 
and his son^^Peter Oliver, achieved even a higher reputation. Tliomaa 
Flatman (b. 1^, d. 1688) painted good miniatures. Samuel Cooper (b. London 
1609, d. 167S), who was, with his brother Alexander, a pupil of his uncle, Hos- 
ta'ns, an artist of reputation, carried miniature-painting to high excellence. 
CromweJi and Milton sat to him— he was employed by Charles II.— and obtained 
the highest patronage at the courts of France and In Holland. Till within these 
few Tears, miniature-painting continued to be successfully cultivated in Britain; 
bat ft has received a severe check since photography was invented, and most of the 
artlataof the present time, who exercised their Clients in ibis exquisite art, have 
left it for other branches of painting. As to technical details, tr.e early artists 
painted on vellum, and nsed body-colors, tlmt is, colors mixed with white or other 
opaque pig^ments, and this practice was continued till a comparatively late period, 
when thin leaves of Ivory, fixed on card-board with gum, were substituted. Many 
of the old miniature-painters worked with oil-colors on small plntcs of cop- 
per or silver. After Ivory was substituted for vellum, transparent colors were em- 
ployed on faces, hands, and other deJiCiite portion? of the picture, the opaque colors 
i»eing only nsed In draperies and the like ; but during the present century, iu which 
Vttf. art lias been brougnt to the highest excellence, the practice bus been to execute 
the entire work, with the exception of tlie highlights In white drajKry, with transpa- 
rent colors. In working, the general practice is to draw the picture very faintly and 
deUicately with a rable hair-pei^dl, tisiug a neutral tint composed of cobalt and burned 


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Minim '\C\A 

Mining iU4: 

Bienna. The features are carefally made ont In that way, and then the cartiationii, 
or fle«h*tii)t«, compofted of nink, madder, and raw sicuna, gradually introduced. 
Tho drapery and background Bhonld be freelv washed In, and the whole work Ib 
then l>ronght out by huiching, that i&t, by painting with lines or strokett, which t4ie 
artist must accommodate to the forms, and which are dlmlDlshed iu sice as tho 
work progresses. Stippiiugf or dotting, was a method mnch employed, particularly 
In early times ; but the latest masters of the art preferred hatching, and there are 
spL'cimeufl by old masters, Pemgino, for Instance, executed in that manner. 

MI'NIM, tiie name of one of the notes In modem music, the value of which is 
the half of a semibreve. 

MINIMS (Lat. Fratre$ Minimi, Least Brethren), so called, iu token of still 
greater humilitv, by contrast with the Fralt'es Minores^ or Lesser Brethren of 8t 
Francis of Assist (q. v.), an order of the Romau Catholic Clmrch, fonudud by an- 
other 8t Francis, a native of Paula, a small town of Caiai)ria, about the middle of 
the 15th century. Francis had, as a boy, entered the Frauciscan order; but Uie 
austerities of that rule failed to satisfy his ardor, and on his return from a pilgrLm- 
Agc to Rome and Assisi, he founded, in 1453, an association of Hermits oC St Fran- 
ci.^, who first lived in separate cells, but eventually were united in the c6nventual 
life in 1474. and established in several places in Calabria and Sicily. Francis was 
also invitea into France by Louis XL, and founded houses of liis order at AmlK>!ee 
and at Plessis-lcs-Toui's. In Spain, the brethren took tho name of '* Fathers of 
Victory," in memory of the recovery of Malaga from the Moors, which was ascribed 
to tliuir prayers. It was not till very near tho close of the life of Francis that lie 
drew up the rule of bis order. It is exceedingly austere, tlie brethren being debarred 
tlie use oot only of meat, but of eggs, butter, cheese, and milk. Notwithstanding its 
severity, this institnte attaiued considerable success ; its house?, soon after the death 
of Francis (1502), numbering no fewer than 460. It lias reckoned several distin- 

Suishod scholars among its members; but in latter times, the order has fallen into 
ecay, being now limited to a few houses in Italy, the chief of which Is at Home. 
The superiors of convents In tlil« order are called by the curious name of Corrector, 
the general being styled Oeiteralis Corrector. A corresponding order of females liad 
its Origin about the same time, but this order also has lallcu into disuse. 

MINING is a general term for the underground operations by which the variotn 
metals and other minerals are procured. It lias been practised to some extent from 
^lie remotest times, as is proved l)y the reference to it in the «8th chapter of the lK>ok 
of Job. In its proper sense, the art was acriainly known to the ancient PiKBuicians 
and Egyptians, ana also to the Greeks uud Romans. Miningoperatioos were carried 
r»n in Britain by the latter at tiie time of the Roman Conquest. Atter the Norman 
Conquest, Jews, and, at a later time, Germans were hugely employed In our miuca. 
The introduction of gunpowder as a blasting muteriul iu 1620, led the way to many 
improvements iu mining; so altto did the inlroductiou of powerful engines for 
pumping water, about the beginning of the IStli c 

There are two principal methods of mining : one of which is adopted where the 
mineral occurs iu veins or lodes, as copper and lead ore ; and the other where the 
mineral occurs in more or less parallel beds, as coal. Mining in alluvial deposits Is 
a third method, largely practised iu the gold regions of California aud Australia, and 
includes the novel process of "hydraulic mining." 

Iu mines like those of Cornwall and Devonslilre, where most of the copper and 
tin of Great Britaiu, and also some of the lead, are obtained, the ores occur In veins 
flUiug crack or Assures in the rocks. Such veins are termed lodes, to distinguish 
them from veins of quarts and other nou -metallic minerals. Lodes are ve^y Irro* 

guiar in size, aud iu the directions they take, though they usually follow one general 
Mineral veins sometimes extend for several miles through a country ; but they 
expand and contract so much, and split up into so many branches, that it is per- 
haps uncertain whether the same lode has ever been trace<l for more than a mile. 
Veins seldom deviate more than 45 degrees from a perpendicular line, and descend 
to unknown depths. They penetrate alike stratified and uiistratlfled rocks. Those 
vein5 which run east and west have bor^n observed to be the most productive. 

The adit, or d:iy*level, hs a long passage to which the water of the mine is pumped 


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Bp oimI conveyed awny. Some ndita ore made to traverse peveral mines. Tlie ejeat 
adit whicli drains the iniiiet« of Glennap and Rcdnitli, in Cornwall, ifi SOmilee long. 

Levels are generally about ten fjitlioms (CO feel) apart. They are rarely perpei]^- 
dicalar above each other, as tliey follow the inclination of the vein. In the sectlOD, 
tiie richer portions of ttie lode, termed ** l)anclief>," are aliewn shaded ; and where 
these have i>een removed, and their place filled with rubbish, angular fragments are 
represented. This is ueccssarv to prevent the sides of workings from falling in. 
The bottom of the engine shaft is the lowest portion of the mine. It is called the 
tump, aud Is the place where tlie water from tlio various levels and workings col- 
lects, in order to bk pumped up to tiie adit. Tlie galleries nnd shafts in an extensive 
mine are very nomerons, uiuking it altogetiier a very complicated affair. Tlie shafts, 
however, have all distinct names, aud the levels are known by their depth in fathoms, 
so that particular places are as easily found as streets iu a town. Tlic underground 
workings of the Consolidated Mines, whicliare the largest in Cornwall, being a con- 
junction of four mines, are 65,000 fiitboms, or 63 miles, iu extent. In working out • 
the )ode Iietween one level and another, the miner nsualiy goes upwards, it being 
easier to throw down the ore than to raise it up. He works with the light of u 
candle, stuck with clay to the side of the mine. His tooli are few— namely, a pick, 
a tuunmer, and some wedges wlieru the vein is soft and friable ; but it is generally 
hard enough to require blasting, in which case he uses a borer or jumper^ and some 
smaller tools for cleaning and stemming tlio hole whicli is made. Tlie ore is filled 
into wagons, aud then drawn along the gallery to the shaft, to be raised to the sur- 
face in tibblet, 

A vein may be 30 or 40 feet thick, and so poor in ore as not to be worth working; 
aniii. It may be oulv a few inches thick, and yet its ricliness may amply repay the 
Iai)or of extracting it. Three or four feet may be taken as the average of several 
Idods of veins. In eztensivo mines, portions of the ore are here and there left iu 
tbe lode, so as to furnish a steady supply wiien otiier parts are unproductive. These 
are called €»», and when tiicy are afterwards removed, tiie operation is termed 
picking out the eye* of the mine. 

The old plan of a!«ceuding and descending the mines by ladders, so destructive to 
the he:iUh of the miners, is ?till largely in use. The ladders are now about 25 foot 
lone, aod set wlih a s!ope. There is a p)atforui4>t the bottom of each called a dollar, 
witL a man-bole in it leading to tlio next ladder beneath. Some of the Cornish miiM h 
are half a mile deep, so that it takes the miner an hour to reacli the surface after lie 
is done with his work ; mo»t of the journey being accomplished on wet, slippery 
ladders. The bad effects of the fatigue so prodiictd is anginonted by the fact tiiat 
the men come from a constant temptratnre of 80° or90<3 p,T>elow, to one of perhaps 
80° or 40© on the surface. Dr J. B, Sanderson states as tlie result of recent inquiries^ 
thAt90^F. ia the highest limit of temperature consistent with healthy labor in a 

A great improvement on the ladder system is uow in operation iu several of tlie 
deep Cori.iah mines. It is a method first introdnce<l into tlie deep mines of the Harz, 
and called the Fahr-kurut. The plan of this ** man-engine " is this. Two rods de- 
scend through tiie depth of tite shaft, and upon these bracket-steps are fixed every 
12 feeL The rods move up aud down alternately througli this distance by means of 
a reciprocating motion. 

£k>me of tlie Cornish pumplng-engines age very large and powerful. The cylin- 
der of one of the largest is 7 feet 6 fuches m diameter, With the expenditme of 
oue bttt^liel of coal. It can raise 100,000,000 lbs. weight one foot high ; this is culled 
its **daty.*' It lifts nearly 80O gallons of water per minute, aud Its cost was about 

In Cornwall, tbe miners are divided into two classes; one of them called trib- 
uttrn^ who take a two months' contract of a portion of the lode ; the other called 
Uttmeny who are employed in sinking shafts, driving levels, &c. 

A detJiiled analysis of one of the largest Cornish copper mines, pnblisiied poine 
years ago, shews that in that year It produced, in round numbers, 16,000 tons of ore, 
rfallsing jC90,000, and yielding a net profit of about jCI 6,000. It employed alnint 700 
miners, 300 laborers, 300 boys, and 30O women and girls. The coyt for coul \\i\& 
XtSOO; for malleable iron aud steel, jEISOO: for foundry castintrs, X2000; for ropts, 
/lOOO; for candles, jC 1800; for gunpowder, £20G0; and for timber, nearly X3000. 


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The last Mines Regalfttlon Acts were passed !q 1878 (amended in 1875). See Mikes 

mining for Coo/.— The minerals of the carboiiiferons furmalion, at least those 
which occur iu beds or strata, as coul and clar ironstone, are mined, a» has been 
already said, in u different way from metallic veins. Orisiually deposited in a 
horizontal position, they have been so altered by niovuinenttt in cite luirth'a crust, , 
that they are rarely fonnd so now. They are more generallT fonod lying in a 
kind of iMSin or irougii, with many minor nndnlations and dislocations Bat 
however much twisted out of their original po!*itipn, the different seams, more 
or lead, preserve their ponillelism, a fact of great strvico to the miner, sinco 
beds of sbale, or other minomls, of a known distance from a coal seam, arc 
often exposed when the cnal itself is not. and so indicate where it may be fonnd. 

The great progress made of late years in tlie science of {^eoloey has made ns so 
minntely acquainted with all the rock formations above and below ibe coal- 
measares, that it is now a comparatively ea*<y matter to determine whether, in any 
given spot, coal may or may not be found. Nevertheless, large sums are still oc- 
casionally, as tliey have in past times been verv frtqnently, wasted in the fmitless 
search for coal, where the character of the rocks indicates formations far removed 
from eoal-beariDg strata. 

When there are eood gronndn for snppaMnjr that cool is likely to be fonnd In any 
parlicnlar locality, before a pit is sunk, the preliminary process of ** Boring" <q. v.) 
18 resorted to, in order to determine whettfi* it actually does exist there, and if in 
quantity saflcient to make tlio mining of It profitable. The luual mode of "win- 
ning ** or reaching the coal Is to sink a perpendicular shaft, but sometimes a levoj 
or cross-cut mine, and at other times, an inclined plane or ^*dook*' is adopte<l. 
Before the introduction of pnmping-ciigiiies, all coal-workings were drained by 
means of a level mine called n day-level^ ^iveii from the lowest available point on 
the surface, and no coal conid be wrous^ht at a lower depth than this, because there 
were no means of removing the water. 

When the shaft has been sunk to the necessjiiy depth, a level passage, called the 
dip-head, or main-levelt is first driven on cncli side, which acts as a ro:idwny or 

Kissage, and, at the same time, ns a drain to conduct the water, which nccnmnlatcs 
the workings, by means of a gnticr on one side, to the lodgment at the bottom of 
the shaft. Tins level is the lowest limit of the workings in the direction of the dip, 
and from it the coal is worked ont as f:tr as is practicable aloii^ the rise of the 
strata. There are two principal method-* of mining the coal. One is termed tlie 
"post-aud-stall" or '^sioop-and-roum" system, and is nsed for thick seams; the 
other is called the " long-wall " system, and is adopted for seams mider four feet iu 

The lonn-^xetUl system consists in extracting the entire scam of coal at the first 
worklnir, the overlving stnita Ixiing supi>orte(t by the waste rock from the roof of 
the workings. It is necessary, however, to luave large stoops at the bottom of the 
shaft for its snpport, as in the stoop-and-ruom method. In long-wall working's, 
roads of a proper height and width require to be mode for communication with the 
different parts of the mine. 

The collier's usual mode of cxtrncling the coal from its bod is this : With a light 
pick, he undercuts the coal-seam, technically termed *' holing," for two or three 
feet Inwards, and then, by driving in wedges at tiie tofLot the scam, he breaks away 
the portion which has been tiolecL Blastnig is occasionally, but not often resorted 
ta For the post ten years, maclilnes, so:ne for *' holing " only, and others for Iwth 
'* holin? " and hewing down coal-si'um.^, have boen more or less in use. Tlwy usu- 
ally work with compressed air, bttt sometitnes with steam or water. Il is still pre- 
mature, however, to express any decideci opinion as to their efiiclency as compared 
with hand-labor. The coal, when si^parated from its bed, is put on tubs or hntcties, 
which are generally drawn by horses, but somftimt*s by en^ine-ixjwer, along the 
roads to the bottom of the shaft, and hoisted to the snrlace. 

The shaft Is perliaps the most important portion of a coal-pit, and the principal 
parts of one are shewn In the figure. The upper imrt shews the pii-licad arrangements, 
the central part shewa the force-pnmp, Ac., and the lower part slwnvs tlie pit-bottom 
arrangements. To make the section com))lete, the render must inia<;inc a great 
depth to intervene at the gups A and B. There are four divisions in this sliaft : the 


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Digitized b 


Mining 1 AQ 

two centre ones, a, a, nre nsed for sending np and down the men and the coal ; the 
one on Ihe rl}jbt Bide, 6, contains the pomps; and the remaining one on the left, r, 
is for withdrawing the vitiated air from tlje mhie, and has n»nally a furnace at the 
hottom of iu In some pits a special shaft is applied to the ventilation, for which 
mechanical contrivances, snch «s v^ntiiaiing fans, are now also partijilly inlrodnced. 
Since the dreadful accident at the Hartley Colliery, in January 1862, cnnN^ hy the 
heam of the eu<:inc hreaking and closing up the shaft, an act of parliament has 
heen passed making it imperative to have two shafts, or at least two nulleis, to every 
coiil-mine, as a means of escape, in case of an accident to one of them. 

The cages d, cf, by which the colliers ascend and descend, are also used for raising the 
coal. They are merely square plats of timber, with rails across itiem, for the con- 
venience of running off and on the coal-hutches, e, and witli a light iron frame, by 
which they are suspended to a flat wlre-rope. On each cage tliere are iron clas|>s, 
which slide np and down on guide-rods. Jn the figure, two miners are shewn stand- 
ing on one cage at the boitom of the shaft, and the other is at the top, with a coal- 
hutch upon it The accidents resulting from the raising and lowering of tlie cages 
are nnmerons ; many of them happen by the carelessness of the eujjiue-man In not 
stopping the cage when it reaches the mouth of the pit, and so allowing it to be up- 
set by over-winding. Many accidents also happen from the rope breaking. To pre- 
vent this, numerous "safety-cages" have been Invented, most of whicli depend on 
the action of a spring, which Is held in a certain position while the cage is sus- 
pended by the rojic ; but should the latter snap, the spring is suddenly relieve<l, and 
then grasping the guide-rods, prevents the cage from fulling. Other safcty-cagos 
act by levers and cfntcbefi, but It is still disputed whether there is, on the whole* a 
decided advantage in using any of them, since they are all liable to get out of or- 
der. The man-engine, although not used in British collieries, istadopted in several 
on the continent, and is certainty the safest way of putting up and down nieu 
In a pit. 

The steam-engine, E. woAs the pumps, in tiiis case bv a diixx;t action, Jho 
pump- rods being attached to the piston-rod. The engine also winds up the cages, 
one of which ascends wliile the other descends— the barrel and other arrangements 
for which are shewn In the figure. 

The proper ventilation of any mine, but especially of a coal-mine, is of verr 
great importance. It clears the mine of the dangerous gases, fire-damp and fouf- 
oamp, dries the subterranean roadways, and furnishes the miners with a supply of 
pure air. Some Idea of the general mode of ventilating a mine will be obtained by 
referring to the figure, where the arrows pointing downwards Indicate the dmeneagt 
shofr, and the arrows pointing upwards, the upcast one; and to the plan, 
where the atmospheric air, entering by the downcast shaft, passes rlong the road- 
wavs, as Indicated by arrows. A number of doors and stops secure the travelling of 
the' current in a proper direction, so as to reach the furihest recesses of the mine. 
It then riMurns by the upcast shaft, where, as has been already stated. It Is nsual to 
keep a furnace I)iimiufirt to aid in withdrawing the impure air. It is very diiBciilt, 
however, to secure eflOcieut vei>tllatiou through all the zigsug windings of a mine; 
hence the frequent, and sometimes terrible explosions of fire-damp, or light carbu- 
rctted hydrogen, which explodes when mixed with a certain proportion of atmos- 
pheric air ; lience, also, the occasional accumulation of foul-damp (carbonic acid) in 
some pits, which suffocates any one breathing It. Tills deadly gas is always pro- 
dnced In large quantity by an explosion of fire-damp, and chokes many who have 
survived the violence of the explosion. Many collieries are so free of fire-damp, 
that the miners work with naked lights, but in others it is necessary to use the Safety 
Lamp (a. v.). 

Besides the already mentioned sources of accident, there Is the sudden fatllng-in 
of pieces from the roof of the workings. The following summary, made vpfrom 
H.M. inspector's returns, shews the number of lives lost, In proportion to the quan- 
tity of coal raided : 

Total tons of mineral raised In Great Britain for the year 1876. . . .148,989,385 

Total number of lives lost in 1876 933 

Average tons of mineral raised to each life lost 159,688 

To shew the magnitude of some of the large coal-mines, It may be stated that the 


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109 5SS:s5, 

Hetton CoHierr, in Dnrham, yields 800,000 tons In the year, employs sbont 1000 
mea and 300 boys anderzronud. nnd 800 people at the surface. The Moukwear- 
moath pit. near Newcastle, Is 1000 feet deep, uud its face-workings are two miles 
from the bottom of the shaft Rosebridee Colliery, near Wigan, has the deepest 
shaft lu EoKland, being nearly 2600 feet deep. The sinking of some of the more 
dHncalt shi^U has costf rom £60,000 to XIOO^OOO eacli. 

HTNISTBR, a public functionary who has the chief direction of any department 
in a state. Sec Mikibtrt. AI«o the del<^te or representative of a sovereign at a 
forei^ court to treat of affairs of state. Every independent stite has a right to send 
public ministers to, and receive them from, any other sovereign state with which it 
dircires to preserve relations of amity. Semi-sovereign states have generally been 
considered not to possess the ^ Ugation1$, unless when delegated to them by the 
state on which they are dependent The right of confederal^ states to scud public 
ministers to each other, or to foreign 8tatci>, depends on the nature and constitution 
of the anion by which they are liound together. The constitution of the United 
Provinces of the Low Countries and of the old German Empire preserved this riglit 
to the individual states or princes, as do the present constitatiuns of the German 
Brapireavid Swiss Confederation. The constitution of the United Slates either greatly 
modifies or entirely takes away the jus Ugatitynis of each individual state. Every 
sovereign state has a right to receive public ministers from other powers, unless 
where ot^Iigations to the contrary have been entered into by treaty, 'ilie diplomatic 
n»agc at Europe recognises three orders of minister?. Ministers of the first order 
possess the representative character in the highest degree, repretientiug the state or 
K)Tercis:n sending them not only In the particular affairs with which they are charged, 
but in other matters : they may claim the same honors as would belong to their con- 
stituent, if present This first class of diplomatic agents Includes papal legates and 
nuncioB. and ambassadoi-s ordinary and extraordinary. A principle of reciprocity is 
recognised in the class of diplomatic agents sent States enjoying the honors of 
royalty send to each other ministt rs of the first class ; so also in some cases do ihopo 
states w^hich do not enjoy tlicm ; but it is said that no state enjoying such honors 
can nccive ministers of the first class from those who are not possessed of them. 

Ministers of the second and third order have not the same strictly representative 
character; their representation is not held to go beyond the affairs with which they 
are charged. They are, however, the uatoral protectors of the subjects of the state 
or country sending them in the country to which they are sent ministers of the 
second class include envoys, whether these are simply so styled, or denominated 
envors extraordiuarv, and also ministers plenipoteutiary. The third class of minis- 
ters docs not differ from the second in the degree of their representative character, 
but only in the diversity of their dignity, and the ceremonial with which they arc 
recHved. This class comprehends ministers, ml ulsters resident ministers charges 
d'affaires, such consuls as are possessed of a diplomatic character, and those charges 
d'affaires who are sent to courts to which it is not wished to send agents with the 
title of minister. Ministers of the third class have, for the most part, no letters- 
credential from the sovereign, and are accredited only by letters to tue foreign min- 
ttter or secretary of the country to which they are sent. 

Besides these orders of ministers, there arc other diplomatic ogents occasionally 
recognised — as deputies sent to a congress or confederacy of states, and commis- 
slouers sent to settle territorial limits or disputes concerning iurisaictlon. These 
arc generally considered to enjoy the privileges of ministers of the second and third 
order. Ministers-mediators are ministers sent by two powers, l)etween which a dis- 
pute has arisen, to a foreign court or congress, where a third power, or several 
powen«, have, with the consent of the two powers at variance, offered to mediate 
bettTcen them. 

Diplonuntic agents, except as already mentioned, those of the third class, arc ac- 
credited by a letter to the sovereign of the country to which they arc sent The let- 
ter of credence is usnally despatched under a cachet volant— \. e., a seal which does 
not close the letter ; or else, in addition to the principal letter, an authenticated 
copy is sent, which the diplomatic agent on his arrival presents to the Minister or 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, as his right to demand an audience of tlic Eovereign : 
Uie original is presented to the sovereign. Ministers scut to a congress or diet 
hare nsaally no credentials, but merely a foil power, of which an authenticated 


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5S!ir' 110 " 

copy ie deliTercd into the haods of a dircctlog miniAer. or mlnisteivmedfator. A 
miuister of the first class is received to both public ana private audiences by tlie 
sovereigu to wliom he is accredited ; a minister of tite second class generally to 
private audienocs only. Diplomatic agents are entitled to conduct negotiatioos 
either directly with the sovereign, or with the minister or secretaiy for foreign af- 
fairs. The latter course is the more usual, and generally the more convenieiiL 

The title ^' Excellency " has, since the peace of Westphalia, been accorded to all 
diplomatic agents of the first class ; and in some courts ii is extended to uiinistera 
of the secoud class, or at least to those sent by the f^reat powers. See Ambassadob, 
Envoy, Consul. Under Ambas8AJ>oii, the immunities and privii^ea enjoyed by 
diplomatic agents arc explained. 

MINISTRY, the body of ministers of state, or persons to whom the sovereign 
or chief magistrate of a country commits the executive governracut. 

It is a principle of the constitution of Qreat Britain, that ** the king can do no 
wrong;" that is to say, the sovereign personally is irresponsible for bis nets, the 
roiil resnonslbillty resting with the administrative government. The ** King's 
Conncli," or Privy CouNCiii, were the earliest advisers of the sovereign in matters 
of stiite ; bnt when this body came, in course of time, to be found too large for the 
dispatch of business, its duties were transferred to a small committee of privy coun- 
ci!Ioi*s selected by the king. As late as in Charles I.'s time, all the more important 
rt'Bolutious of tlie crown were taken after dcli1>eration and ussent of the Privy Coun- 
cil. An unsuccessful attempt was made in the reign of Charles II. to restore the 
council to Its original fauctfons. Its numbers were limited to thirty ; and It wan 
iijlendcd that this limited council should liavc the control of the whole executive 
lulministration, sopt^rseding any interior cabinet. But the council was found too 
I'Xtonslve for an effectively working ministry, and the former arrangement was re- 
Ftorcd. The Cabinet or Ministry is now but a committee of the Privy Council ; 
and its exclusive right to discuss and determine the plans and business of the gov- 
c:nmcnt hns been often said not to be recognised by the law, a position which, how- 
ever, was disputed by Lord Campbell, who maintained that, "by our constilntiou, it 
is in practice a defined and acknowledged body for carnring on the executive govem- 
inout of the country." Proclamations and ordcra still Ipsue from the Privy Coun- 
cil ; and it is occasionally nssomblcd to deliberate on jnibllc aifairs, when only those 
couuclllors who are summoned attend. The cabinet i^ a merely deliberative body; 
its members collectively have no power to issue warrants or proclamations; 
but all importjint measures which engage the attention of the eovem- 
ment, whether regarding matters domestic, foreign, or colonial, and all plans of 
action, whether purely administrative, or to be Ciirrled out in parllameutf 
most be proposed, considered, and adopted by the aibinot. The sovereign Intrusts 
the formation of a ministry to a siatcsman, who selects for the members of his cabi- 
net those who are attached to his political views. He generally places himself at 
the head of the government as Flii«t Lord of tlie Treasury, and in popular language, 
he is called the Pi-emler, or Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor, the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, the Scci-etaries of State for Houie, Foreign, Colonial, and Indiau 
affairs, the Secretary at War, and the President of the Council, are necessarily 
members of the cabinet; and with them are associated the heads of various other 
Important departments of goveniinent, including generally the Flrnt Lonl of the 
Admiralty, the President ol the Board of Trade, the Postmaster-general, the President 
of the Poor-law Board, the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and occasionally the 
Chief Secretary for Ireland. The Premier has sometimes held the office of Chancellor 
of the Exchequer in conjunction with that of First Lord of the Treasury. A privy 
councillor of great political weight is sometimes called into the cabinet without office, 
and lakes the pOst of Lord Privy Seal. Her Majesty's ministers include the follow- 

in?, wlio have usually no seat in the cabinet: the Chief Secretary for Ireland, the 
First Commissioner of Works, the Vice-president of the Board of Trade, the Vice- 
president of the Committee on Kdncation. the Commander-in-chief, the Lord Cham* 
Derlain, the Steward, the Master of the Horse, the Master of tlie JSuckhouuds, the 
Comptroller of tlie Household, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Attorney-general 
and SoUcltor-scueral of England, the Lord Advocate and Solicitor-general of Scot- 
land, and the Attorney-general and Solicitor-general of In*land. Occasionally, but 
exceptionally, the Commauder-iu-chicf, and the Lord Chief Justice of England, have 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ill Mtnltrr 

been members of the cabinet. A miuUtry Is often spoken of as the ministry of the 
person who is at its head. 

MeeCiuffs of the cabinet are held on the snmmons of any one of its members, 
Dsnaily at tbe Foreign OfDce. Its proceedings are secret aud confidential, aud no 
record \& kept of its resolatlons, which are carried into effect by those of its mem- 
bers to wliose departments they severally belong. As the acts of a ministry arc at 
fill times liable to l>e called in question In parliament, it is necessary tliat tlie heads 
of tbe chief departmeutu should have seats in either House, in order to l>e able, 
wbeo required, to give prompt explanations. 

A goverunient exists ouly so ious: as it can command the confidence of par^ 
liameuL ITic sovereign bos ihc power to dismiss his ministers whenever they cease 
to possess his confidence, but such a chanee wonid be useless without the support 
of the Uoose of Commons, who, by withholding their support, could paralyse all the 
foDctJous of government. A sovereign has sometimes got rid of a ministry with 
wboM policy be was dissatisfied, by dissolving parliament, nnd appealing to the 
coautry. Where a ministry cannot commtmd the confidence of parliament, they re- 
sign^aud a statesman of some other politic^U party is sent for by the sovereign, and 
amdorised to form a new cabinet. Ail the adherents of a ministry filling political 
offices resisn along with ft, as also the great officers of the court, aud those oflScera 
of tbe royal hooseliold who have seats in either house of parliament. Sometimes 
officers holding lucrative appointments which do not nccessiate resignation, have 
retired, ns a manifestation of adherence to their political friends. In addition to the 
ministers already named, the following adherents of the ministry go out of office on 
a change of government: tbe three junior Lords of the Treasunr, the two Secretaries 
of tbe Treasury, the four parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State, the Paymaster- 
general, the Master-general of the Ordnance, the Surveyor-general of the Ordnance, 
the five jnuior Lonls of tbe Admiralty, the first Secretary of the Admiralty, the 
Cbief Comniisi^ioner of Greenwhich llosnital, tlie President and Parliamentary 
Secretary of the Poor-law Board, the President of the Board of Health, the Vice- 
cbamberlain. tlie Captain of the Gentlemen-at-arms, tl>« Captain of the Teomen of 
the Guard, tbe Lords in Waiting, the Mistress of the Kobes, the Treasurer of tite 
HoosehoIcL the Chief Bqnerry, or Clerk Marshal, the Judge Advocote-general, ond 
the Lord Chancellor for Ireland. The private secretary to a minlniter loses office on 
a change, his appointment l)eing a purely personal one ; and some changes arc gen- 
erally, Ihong^h not alwajrs made In amt)a»sttdors extraordinary. 

In 1839. when Viscount Melbourne's minl»>try resigned, Sir Ro1>ert Peel, who was 
introsted ny the Queen with the formation of a now ministry, propoi«ed that, in 
order to give public proof of her JLajesty^ confidence, the change should include the 
chief appoiutn^ents held by the iadie of Qer Muj->.'stv's household. The Queen, 
coansehwl by Lord Melbourne, refused ber consenl to this proposal, on the ground 
of its beini; contrary to the latest precedents of the relcm of Queen Anne. Sir 
Hoherl, however (with whose opinion the Duke of Wellmt?ton expressed coucur- 
r«uce), cooFidered the change a nec<*s9ary one ; and as ho refused to undertake the 
formation of a government without its being a<lopted, the re^nlt was that Ixnxl Mel- 
bourne and his colleagues were relnstatcil. At a c<mncil hold on their resuming 
office, it was n*solved, "That for the purpose of giving to the administration the 
character of efflcicucy and stability, and those marks of the constitutional suppoi-t 
of the crown that are requisite to enable it to act usefully to the public service, it Is 
reasonable that the great officers of the court, and situations in the household held 
by members of parliament, should be included in the political aiT-angementa made 
in a change of the admhilstratlon. Bnt they are not of opinion that a similar prin- 
ciple should be applied or extended to the offices held by ladies in her Majesty's 

HI'NIUM (Lat red-lcod). See Lead. 

MINK {Miutda luireola), a species of weasel, inhabiting the northern parts of 
Earope and Asia ; very similar to wliich in characters and habits is another bpecies, 
by some regarded as only a variety of the same, the M. or Vison (AT. vUon) of North 
America, aonodaiit in almost every part of that continent. Both inhabit tlie neii;h- 
borbood of streams, lakes, and marslies ; have semi-palmated feet, are expert swim- 
mers and divers, and prey on fishes, frogs, aud other aquatic animals, as well as on 
birds* rau, mice, &c. They are covered with a downy fur, interspersed with longer 


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Minor 11^ 

and fltrouKer hairs : tbe color is brown, with more or less of whito on the uuder 
parts. The American M. is generally lai-ger than that of the Old World, beiug oft«u 
more than dghtoen inches from the nose to tbe root of the tail, wliilet the lutter is 
seldom more than twelve. It iias also n more bnshy tail. It is very active and bold^ 
and often commits great depredations in ponltry-yards, carrying off a fowl with 
great ease. Unlike most of its congeners, it is easily tamed, and becomes much at« 
tached to those who caress it In domestication, it ceases to regard the inmates of 
the ponltry-yard as prev. Tt emits an unpleasant odor only when Instated or alarmed. 
Tbe for of the M. is valuable. 

MI'NN£SINGERS, a designation applied to the earliest lyric poets of Germany 
In tbe 12th and 18th centuries, and derived from the word Minney or love, wliich was 
at first tbe predominating, and slmoet sole subject treated of in their productions. 
The works of the M. are for the most part superior to those of their more generally 
known contemporaries, the tronl>adours, both in regard to delicacy of senli men i, 
elegance and variety of rhythmical strncture, and grace of diction. Henry of Vel- 
dig, who flourished in the beginning of tbe 12tU c at I he court of the Swa- 
biau, Frederick Barluirossa, Bmperor of Germany, is regarded as tbe father 
of tbe M., and Walther von der Weide, who was bom about 1170, of the 
last of this great vocal band, which included emperors, princes, nobles, and 
knights. Many of their productions have of course perished, although, in tul- 
dition to a very large coileetion of poems by anonymous M., we still possess some 
remains of the songs of more than 160 known composers. Among the most cele> 
brated of these, special notice is due to Wolfram von E^heiibacn (q. v.), Henry 
von Ofterdingeu, Hagenaue, Hartmann von der Auo <q. v.), Gottf riea von Stras- 
I^Q^g (q. v.), Otto von uotenlanl>ei), Truchsess von 8t GhII. and Ulrich von Lichteu- 
stein— men of noble honses, who, althongh they belonged to every part of Germany, 
wrote almost exclusively in tlie Swahian dialect, which, dnring the brilliant days or 
the Fredericks and Conrads of the House of Swabia, was the iancniage of tiie court 
in Germany. Among the few other forms of German employed by the M., the one 
next in favor was the Thurlngian, adopted in compliment to Hermann, Landgraf of 
Thuringia, who, next to the princes of the Swabian dynasty, was the most munifi- 
cent patron of tbe M. dnring the period of their renown, in tbe early part of the 
18th century. Besides POngs in praise of women, the M. composed odos on public 
or private occasions of lament or joy, distiches or axioms, and *^ Wachtlieder," 
or watch-songs, in which tbe lover was represented as expostulating witli Uie watch> 
man, who kept guard at tbe gate of the castle wiibin which his lady-love was im- 
prisoned, and trying to persuade him to grant him admittance to bur presence 
Tliese songs and odes were recited by tbe composer, to his own accompaniment on 
the viol ; and as few of the M. could write, their compositions were preserved mostly 
by verbal tradition only, and carried by wandering minstrels from castle to castle 
(brougbout Germany, and even beyond its borders. As the variety of rbytlim and 
complicated forms of ycrsiflcation affected by the M., moi-e especially towards tbe 
decline of their art, rendered it difficult to retain by memory the mass of Miunc- 
song which had been gradually accumulated, these ilmerant musicians finally made 
use of written collections, a practice to whlcii olone we are indebted for the many 
beautiful specimens of early German lyrical poetry which wo yet possess. Tlie 
glory of the H. may bo said to have perished with the downfall of the Swabian dy- 
nasty, under which greater liberty of thought nud word was allowed among Gemians 
than they again enjoyed for many ages; and in proportion as the churcli f'uccceded 
in re-assertfiig its sway over the minds of men, which it had lost under the rule of 
tbe chivalric Frederidu, freedom of speech and action was trammelled, and song 
and poetry contemned. Paraphrases of Scripture, hymns, and monkish legends, 
took the place of the chivalric songs of the nooly bom M., and German poetry was 
for a time almost annihilated. 

In the 14th c, the art of Minncsong was partially revived, nlthongh under a rude 
and clumsily elaborated form, by the Meutttr-Hngtra^ a body of men belonging to the 
burgher and peasant classes, who. In accordance with their artisan habiia, formed 
themselves into guilds or companies, which bound themselves to olwerve certain or- 
bitrary laws of rhythm. Nuremberg was the focus of their guilds, which rapidly 
spread over the whole of Germany, and gained so firm a footing in the land, that the 
last of them was not dissolved at Ulm till 1839. As tbe title of Master was only 

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awtrded to a memDer who invented a new form of verso, nnd the compaiiirs coii- 
viKtcd almost cxclasively of uuedncated perBoiis of -ite workiiijj-clnsfes, it may easily 
be conceived (hat cxtravneances and abeordities of every k)ud speedily Ton nod a 
leading cb&racterii*tic of their modes of versification; attention to qiinntity wns, 
moreover, not deemed necessary, regard being had merely to the number of the syl- 
lables, and the rehitive position and order of the verses and rliymes. Tlieir songs 
were lyrical, and sung to music ; and although, as ')efore reirrarkcd, each master u ns 
bound to devise a special stoU gt order of rhymes for each of his coniposltions, thisc 
stoles were subjected to a seviM"c code of criticism, enacted by the Tabulatur, or rules 
of the song-«chools. Among the few Masters who exhibited any genuine poetic 
feeling, the most noted were Heinrich MCigeln, Michael Behaim, and llic Nuremberg 
elioemaker. Hans Sachs, who prided himself on having composed 4275 *• Bar " or 
Master Songs. See Tleck's "Minnelieder" (1803); Tavlor's »* Lays of the Miiine 
and MaMer Singers (Loud. 1826) ; and Vou der Hagen's **"kinnesanger " (4 vols. 1838). 

MINNESO'l'A, one of the United States of America, lies in lat. 43° 30'— 49° n., 
and long. Sd° 29'— 97° 6' w. It is 380 miles in extreme length from north to south, 
and from 1S3 lo 337 from east to west, contJiiuing au area of 83,R31 square miles. 
It is bonnded on tiSe n. by the British possessions, trom which it is separated by the 
ch&in of lakes and rivers connecting the Lake of the Woods will) Ltike Superior, 
and by the 49th parallel of Lititude; e. by Lake Superior and Wiseonsiu ; s. by 
Iowa; and w. by Dakota Territory (q. v.), from which it is partly divided by the 
Ked River of the North. It contains 75 counties, and its chief towns are St Paul, 
the capital, Hed Wing, Winona, Hastings, Minneapolis, &c. M. contains the sum- 
mit of the central tabie-land of the Nort^ American continent, where, within a few 
miles of each other, are the sources of rivers which find their outlets in Hudson's 
Bay, the Gulf of St Lawrence, and the Gulf of Mexico. The staK is nbundnutly 
watered bv the Mississippi, Minnesota, Red River of the North, Rainy Lake Itiver, 
and their branches, and has more than 1500 miles of navigable rivers. The country 
aboandfl also In lakes and ponds. The sources of the great rivers are 16S0 feel 
above the level of the sea. '1 hough the most northerly state iu the Union. M. is one 
of ttie moat beautiful, fertile, aud salubrious. The winters arc Ions and cold, hut 
equable, aud the country is rich in fertile lands and forests. The clear waters are 
stored with ilsb, and game is abundant. The scc-ucry is varied and beautiful. The 
Falls of St AnCbouy ou the Mississippi afford abundant water-power. Near these 
Is the bt^utifal cas<-adu of the Minnehaha, or Laughiu|c Water, 45 feet perpendicu- 
lar, and a cavern, explored to the depth of 1000 feet. M. began to be seti led in 1S45, 
though It vras explored by the Frencn, and trading-posts established, in 1660. The 
chief ronte to the British settlements of the Red River of the North lies throujjh 
Minnesota. The state hos plenty of good timber, and Is rich iu minerals, including 
goidL iron, copper, coal, and lead. In 1870, its agricultuml products were valnetl at 
133,446,400. In the same year it had 6 universities and colleges, aud 2424 pub.ic 
ecboola. In January 1876, 1940 miles of railway were completed, and about 1000 
more projected, towanls which grants of laud have been made to the extent of 
nearly $4,500,000. Powerful Indian tribes occupy portions of the state. The stale 
government was organised in 1858. Pop. iu 1860, 172,023 ; in 1880, 780,773. 

MINNESOTA, or St Peter's River, rises near the eastern boundary of Dakota 
Tcrriior}', United States of Ameiica, runs south-east 300 miles, to South Bend, then 
nortli-cast 120 miles, aud falls Into the Mississippi nt Mendota. It is navigable for 
40 miles by steam-boats. 

HI'NNOW iLeuciseu8p?u>ximts),&BmQ\] fish of the same gen us with the roacfa,daco, 
cbab, Ac, of a more rounded form than most of its congeners, a common native of 
fitreams with gruvellv bottoms in most parts of Britain. It seldom exceeds three 
inches iu JengtTi, the head and back of a dusky olive color, the sides lighter and mot- 
Up*!, f" 1 ; /hltc, or, in summer, pink. Minnows swim iu shoals, feed readily 
eitli r :i i: J or vegetable substances, if sufficiently soft, and are said to be veiy 
defetruclivG Id t lie spawn of salmon and of trout. Very young auglers generally be- 
gin their Bpoft Irf catching minnow. The M. is a fish of very pleasant flavor. A 
ca^rli)L''iiet affords the means of taking it iu sufficient abundance. It is a favorite 
ba nke and large trout or perch. 

MINOR, a term in Moslc. 1. In the nomenclature of intervals. The interval 


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Mint 114 

between nny note and another Is named according to tlie nnmber of degrees between 
them ou the sculc, both notep iilcladcd. The interval between C and E is called a 
third ; (hut between £ and G is also a third : bnt these intervals are Qucqnal, the uno 
consi!«tin;^ of four semitones, the other of three; the former is therefore dlj«lin- 
gulsltedoda major, the latter as a minor interval. 2. The term Is ul!>o applied to 
one of the two modes in which a mn:«Ical passage may be com|K>9ed. The scale of 
the minor mode differs from th:it of the major mode in the third of its key-note be- 
ing a minor instead of a major third. See Music, Mode. 

MINOR is, in Scotcli Law, the term describing a person who, if a male, is 1ms 
tween the iiges of 14 and 21 ; and if a female, is between 13 and 21. lu the prec«d- 
iug period, ho or slic is called a Pupil. In England, the technical term Is an Infant 
(q. v.), which Includes all persons, male and lemale, ander the age of 21. In Scot- 
hmd, a minor is for nniuy purposes suijuris^ and can marry without anvbody^s con- 
sent, and can also make a will of movable property. For the purpose, however, of 
managUi'^ his reiil propeity and making contracts, curators are often necessar}'. 
See Infant, Restitution, Guardian. 

MINOR BARONS. The word baron, in the earliest period of fendalism, sipid- 
fled one who held lands of a superior by military tenure. The superior mi^hi be tho 
sovereign, or he ntight be an earl or other eminent person, who held of the sov- 
ereign. According as he was the one or the other, the baron was, in the earliest sense 
of the distinction, a greater or les-^er baron. At the Conquest, a large part of the 
soil of Eughind was parcelled by William the Norman among his military retainers, 
who wereT)OUud in return to perform ser^iiccs, to do homage, and to assist hi ad- 
ministering ju!4tice, and in transacting the other bnslness done in the court of tho 
king. 400 of these tenants-in-chlcf of the crown are enumerated in Dorneeduy (q. v.). 
Including among them " vicecomites " and "comites," who together constituted the 
body of men called the Barons of Rngland. As the sovereign was entitled to demand 
from the barons military service, homage, and attendance In tho courts, so, many of 
the principal barons, particuhirly such of them as were earls, bad military tenants, 
from whom they in turn received homage and assistnnce in administering justice ta 
thcdr baronial courts. These tenants were barons of the barons, or, In the earliest 
sense, minor barons ; bnt by the nsn^e of England, from tlie Conquest downwards, 
they were seldom called barons, that term having been generally restricted to the for- 
mer class, the holders of land direct from the crown, who were next to the king in 
diguity, formed his army and his legislative assembly, and obtained the Great Cliar- 
ter from King John. The subiufendatlon which produced the minor barons was 
checke<l by a statute of Ed^vard I., directing that all persons acquiring lauds from a 
subject should hold, not of that subject, bnt of his snperlor. 

Out of the '^ commune concilium " of the king, at which aU Ids b^trons were bound 
to attend, arose the parliament. It is not till the close of Henry III.'s, or 1)egiunhig 
of Edward I.'s reisrn that w«) And a select number instead of the whole barons at tenci- 
Ing. The exact period of the change, and the way in wliich It was made, are still 
among the obscure points of English history ; it has been thought that after the 
roh»llion which was crusiied at the battle of Evesham, Henry III. summoned only 
those barons who were most devoted to bhi inteirst. From this period, a new dis- 
tinction between major and minor barons arose, the latter term being no longer 
appplied to the barons of the barons, but lo those barons of the crown who were no 
Ii):ii;er summoned by writ to parliament. The woi-d baron was more and inon; nseU 
in the restricted sense of a baron of parliament, and the right or duly of attendance 
cume in process of time to be fonndc<l, not on the tenure, but on the writ. 

In Scotland, the barons for hiirdrt) were such persons as held their lands directly 
of the crown. They were tlic king's advisers, wltnefscd his charters, and possessed 
a civil and criminal jurlsdiciion. All had to give attcodanco in the Scottish parlia- 
ment, which consisted of the earls and barons pitting together. After the reign of 
James I., some of tlie more powerful liarons appear more exclusively as lords of par- 
liament, those whose incomes were below a certain amount obtaining a disi>ensatiou 
from attendance : yet all po»8c8i«ed a rigiit to attend parliam^^it till 1587, when tho 
barons not specially created lords of parliament were required, in place ot personally 
attending, to send representatives of their order from each sheriffdom. The term 
baron, however, still continued in Scotkind to be applied to tho whole body of tenants 


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J.10 Mint 

^ cofdte^ inch of them as were lords of parliament heini: distinctively mnior, nnd 
the others minor barons; bat a]] continnlag up to 1747 to possess an extensive civil 
jariadictioo, and a crimiual jurisdiction, from which only treason and the four pleas 
of the crown were excluded. The representative mluor barons sat in the f>aiuo 
Boose with tbe major iMirons. and their votes contiuned down to the onion to l)e 
recorded as tboae of the ** Small Barrounis.'' 

MINCRC A. the largest of the Balearic Isles (q. v.), after Majorca, from whicii it 
is distant 85 miles nortti-ea^t. It is 81 miles loiii;. and 13 miles in greatest breudih, 
with an area of a!)OUt 300 square miles. Pop. 37,2««. Its coa«t, broken into numor- 
oos bays and inlets, is fringed with telcts and shoals, and its snrface, less monntaiii- 
onstban tliat of M2ijorca,Ts nndnlatiug, rising to its higliest point in MonntToro, 
47P3 feet above sca-lifvel. Its prodactioiis ure similar to tliose of the lar^for island, 
atthoo^^ it is neither so fertile In soil nor so well watered as Majorca. The cTilt-f towns 
are Port Maiioii (q. v.), and Ciadadela. The annual exports are worth £1 10.000 ; the 
Importf, XlOOjOOO. 

MFXORITIES, a name of the Franciscan order (q. v.), derived from the original 
later dcnominution adopted by tlielr founder, Fratren Minore*. This name lias left 
'*» trace in the popular designation of several localities both in English and foreign 

MI'NOS, the name of two mythological kincs of Crete. The flrst is said to have 
'sen the sou of Jupiter and Bnropa. the brother of Rhadamanthns, the father of 
^>eticaliou and Ariadne, and, after his death, a jndge in tlie infernal regions.— Tiio 
second of the same name was grandson of the former, and son of Lycastns and Ida. 
To him the celebrated"** Laws of Minos" are ascribed, in which he is said to have re- 
eeived instruction from Jupiter. lie was the husband of that Posiphad who cnvo 
birih to lite Minotanr (q. v.). Homer and Hesiod know of ouly one Minos, the king 
of Cuoeeos, and sou and friend of Jupiter. 

^ITsOTAUR 0* «• the Bull of Minos), one of the most repulsive conceptions of 
Orecian My Uiolo^y, is represented as the son of Pasiphad ana a bull, for which she 
Iiad eoi>ccived a paanion. It was half>man half-bull, a man with a bull's liead. Mi- 
nos, the husband of PasiphuS, shut him un in the CnossUm Labyrinth, and there fed 
iaim with yooths and maidens, whom Athens was obliged to supply as on annual 
tritMite, tin Tlieseus, with the lielpof Ariadne, slew the monster. Tlie M. is, with 
some probability, regarded as a symbol of the Plicenician sun-god. 

MD<8K« a government and province of Western or Wliite Russia, lies south- 
east of Wilna, and contains 34,860 Bq. m., with a population (1870) of 1,182,880, 
composed chiefly of Russians, Lithuauiuuf*, Poles, and Jew?, with a small per- 
centage of Tartars and gipsies. Five-pcvenths of the population profess tlie Greek 
religion. The chief articles of export ure timber, salt, and corn, which are broujjht 
by river-carrlage to the Baltic and Black Sea jiorts. The principal manufactures 
arc fine clotlis, linen, and sugar. The soil is not fertile, and is covered to a largo 
extent with woods and marshctt, while in many other places it is a (•audy waf to, 
bot In general the native products snfflco for the wants of the inhabitants. 'I'be 
dimate is very severe in winter. Cittle and sliccp breeding are pursued with toler- 
abl(* success. Tlie inhabitants of the south or marshy portion of the province arc 
subject to that dreadf al disease, the Plica Polonica (q. v.). 

MINSK, the chief town of the government of the same name, i8 situated on the 
8vfsk)cz,an afflacnt of the Beresfna. It is nioi>t1y built of wood, but has ninny 
handsome stone edifices, among which arc theOrceic and Roman Catholic cathedrals 
«Bd semiuaries, the churcli of »t Catharine, a number of educational and philan- 
thropic establishments, a public library, and a theatre. The chief manufactures 
are woollen cloth and Icatlter. Pop. (1367) 36,277, many of whom are Jews. 


MINT (Mentha)»a genus of plants, of the natural order Lah'atce; with email, 
fanael-Bbaped, 4-fia, generally red corolla, and four straight stamens. The ppecies 
are perennui] herbaceous plants, varying considerably in appearance, but all with 
creeping root-stocks. The flowers are whorled, the whorls often grouped in spil;es 
or beads. The species arc widely distributed over the world. Some of them are 






Tenr common in Britain, as Watbr M. (Jf. wnuLtieaX \rhich grow fu wet ffronnda 
and (Utcliefl, and Corn M. (Jf. arvensU)^ whicu abonnds hb a weed in conifleids and 
gardoiiP. Theae and most of the other species have erect stems. AH the species 
coutfliii an aromatic esseutiul oil, in virlne of which they are more or less mediciual. 
The most importnnt siiecies are Spearmint, Peppbumint, and Pennt-rotal. — 
Spearmint or Green M. {M. viridis), is a native of almost all the temperate parts 
of the i^lobe ; it has erect smooth stems, from one foot to two feet high, with the 
whorls of flowers in looso cylindrical or oblong spikes at the top; the letivea lanceo- 
late, acute, smooth, serrated, destltule of stalk, or nearly sa It has a very agree- 
able odor.— Peppermint f Jf. Piperita), a plaut of equally wide distrlbntion in the 
temperate parts of the world, is very similar to spearmint, but has the leaves stallced, 
and the flowers in short spikes, the lower whorls somewhat distant from the rcsL 
It )S very readily recojrnised by the peculiar puncency of Its odor and of its taste.— 
Pennt-rotal <Jf. pulegiuin), also very cosmopolitan, has a mnch-braiiched prostrate 
stem, which sends dowu new roots as it extends iu length ; the leaves ovate, stalked ; 
the flowers in distant globose whorls. Its smell reseuibles that of the other mints. 
All these species, in a wild state, grow iu ditches or wet places. All of them are 
cultivated m gardens ; and pci)pennlnt largely for medicinal use and for 
flavoring lozenges. Mint Sauee is generally made of spearmint ; which is also used 
for flavoring sjups, «St;c. A kind of M. with lemou-scented leaves, called Ber<>amot 
M. (Jf. eitrata), is found in some parts of Europe, and is cultivated in gardens. Va- 
rieties of peppermint and liorse-mint (Jf. aylvestria)^ with cri*prd or Inflato-rugoso 
leaves, are much cnltlvatod in Germany under the name of Curled M. {Kraust' 
mime); the leaves being dried and used as a domestic medicin*-, and in poultices 
and bath*. All kind* of M. are easily propocTited by parting the roots or by cut- 
tings. It is said that mico have a great aversiou to M., and that a few leaves of it 
will keep them at a distance. 

Peppermint, Penny-royal ond Spearmint, are used in medicine. Tlie pharma- 
copoeias contain au aqua^ nriritiis^ and oleum of each of them ; the ot&ciual ftart 
b«:ing the herb, which should be collected when In flower. Peppermint is a powerful 
diffuMilile stimnlnut, and, as such, i^ antispasmodic and stomachic, and is much 
employed in the treatment of gaslrodynia and flatulent colic It is also extensively 
u^(i in mixtures, for covering tlu tai»to of druffs. Peiiny-roycU and 9pearmint are 
similar In their action, but InfiMior for all purposes to jxippermint. The onli nary 
di)seH arc from one to two ouucei of the aqua, a drachm of the apiritus (in a wiiie- 
glassful of water), and from three to five drops of the oleum (ou a lump of Bugar). 

MINT (Lat. moneta), an establishmeut for making coins or metallic money (see 
Monet). Tlie early history of the art being traced under the head Numismatics, 
the present article is mo:«iry confloed to a sketch of the constitution of the British 
miut, and of the modem processes of coining as there followed. 

The earliest regulations regarding; the JBugllsh mint belong to Anglo-Saxon 
times. Au oflScer called a reeve is reforrod to in the laws of Canute as having some 
jarisdiction over it, and certain names which, in addition to that of the sovereigo, 
appear on the Anglo-Saxon coins, seem to have been those of the mouevers, or 
principal officers of the mint, U'l recently, an important class of fanctlouarfes, who 
were responsible for the integrity of the coin. Besides the sovereign, barons, bish- 
ops, and the greater niouNSteries had their respective mints, where they exercised 
the right of coinage, a privilege enjoyed by the archbishops of Canterbury as late as 
the relgu of Henry YIII., and by Woolsey as Bishop of Durham, aud Archbishop of 

After the Norman Conquest, the ofllcers of the royal mint became to a certain 
extent subject to the authority of the exchequer. Both In Saxon and Nonium times, 
there existed, under control of the principal mint in London, a number of provincial 
mints in different towns of England; there were no fewer than 88 In the time of 
Ethelred, aud the last of them, were only <lone away with in the reign of William 
III. The officers of the miut wore formetl into a corporation by a charter of 
Eilward II. ; they consisted of the warden, master, comptroller, ossay-master, work- 
ers, coiners, and subordinates. 

The seignorage for coming at one time formed no inconsiderable item in the 
rev<M)ni>s of the crown. It was a deduction made from the bniliou coined, and 
coaiprehundod both a charge for defraying the expense of coinage, and the sot* 


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erefju'a profit in virtue of liia prerocotlve. In the reign of Henry VI., the Bcignoruffo 
aiiio'.iiitol ID 6d. in the jWHud ; in the reign of Edward I., 1«. iJ^d. By IS Car. fl. 
c 6. the scignorage on gold \vji3 nboh'shed, and hu8 never pince been exacted. 'J'ho 
p}H*re, or remedy, as it li now called, was an allowanco for the uuavoidablo imper- 
fvcrion of the coin. 

The fnnction of the mint 1» in tlicory to receive gold in Ingots from indivldunlp, 
and retani an equal weight In Fovereigns; but, in pr»int of fact, gold it» now excln- 
civtjly coined for the BtmV, of England; for, tliongh auy one has still the right to 
coiij gold at tbe mint, the inerclniut or dealer has ceusetl to obt-jiiu any ju'oflt for feo 
doiog, as Uie Bank is compelled to purchase all gold tendered to it at the tlxed price 
of £3, 17a. %l. an ouace. The increment on the Assay (q. v.), or on the fineness of 
tlie metal, which an^nents the sUnidai'd weight, and thcrrfore the value of the gold, 
la a more considerable source of profit to the imnorter of gold. The ordinary tnulc 
a^ay, on which the importer purchases the bullion, does not by iis^ige come closer 
than }4\}\ of a carat grain or 7^ grains per lb. troy. Before being coined, tlie gold 
is f-nbj<rcled to a serond and more delicate assay at the mint, and the imiH)rier re- 
ceives the l>eueflt of the difference, amounting to about l-16th of a carat gniin = Z% 
troy grains, or nearly Sd, per lb. weight. 

SiTrer, wliich was formerly, concurrently with gold, a legal tender to any amount, 
has, by 5«"Geo. III. c 63, ceased to be so. There is n 6eignonig;e on lK)tli silver 
and copper money, amounting in silver to 10 per cent., when the price of silver is h». 
per ounce, which, however, from the tear and wear of the coin, brings small profit 
to the crown. On the copper coinage, tiie seignorage is no Ices than 100 per cent. 
on llieavcracc i>rlce of copper. The profits of the seignorage, formerly retained hy 
the master oi the mint, to defray tho expense of coinage, have, since 1837, been paid 
into the bank, to the credit of the Consolidated l''nud. 

A new roint was erected on Towerhill in ISIO. In 1815, some alterations were 
made in Its constitution ; and in 1851 a complete change was introduced in the whole 
system of administration. Tho control of the mint was vested in a master and a 
deputy-master, and comptroller. Tho mastership, whicli liad, in the early part of 
the preneut century, become a political appointment held bv an adherent of the gov- 
emnieiit- was restored to the position of a permanent office, the master being tho 
ostensible executive head of the establishment. The operative department was in- 
trosled to the aseayer, the melter. and the refiner. The moneyei-s, who had from 
t*arly times enjoyed extensive privileges and exemptions, and were contractors with 
the crown for the execution of the coinage, were abolished, and the contracts with 
the crown were entered into by the master of the mint, who al?o made subordinate 
contracts for the actual manufacture of the coin. Farther changes were made on 
the administration of the mint in 1869. The mastership was added to the dnties of 
the Chancellor of tho Exchequer, without any addition of salary, and the offices of 
deputy-master and comptroller were amalgamated. A yearly saving, of .CIO, 000 is 
l>efl€ved to have been effected by the changes of 1851, and a further £8000 by those 
of 1869, with an increase of efficiency. It is at present in contemplation to remove 
tlj6 mint from Towerhill to the rear of the Thames Embankment at Whitefriars, 
with new and Improved machinery. Mints have lately t)cen established at Sydney 
and Melboame to coin the gold so largely fonnd in Australia. 

Procet^es of coining.— Down to the middle of the 16th c, little or no improve- 
ment seems to have been made in the art of coining from the time of its inven- 
tion. The metal was simply hammered into slips, which were afterwards cut np 
into aqoares of one sltce, and then forged round. The required impression was given 
to these by placing them In turn between two dies, and striking thim with annm- 
mcr. As It was not easy by this method to place tho dies exactly above each other, 
or to apply proper force, coins so made were always faulty, and had the edges nn- 
flntshed, which rendered them liable to be clipped, 'i he first great step was the ap- 
pUcation of the screw, invented in 1563 by a French engraver of the name of Bru- 
cbcr. The plan was found expensive at first, and it was not till 1662 that It alto- 
gptlier superseded the hammer in the English mint The chief steps in coining as 
now practised arc as follows : The gold or silver to be coined is sent to the mini in 
the form of ingoU (Ger. et'wfTiMam, Du. ingitten^ to pour in, to cast), or castings; 
those of goki weighing each about 180 oz., while the silver 'ngots are much hirpjor. 
Bcdbwe maltiDf^ each ioKOt is tested as to its purity by Assaying (q. v.), and Uieu 


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Minnet 1 1 fi 

Miocene f X 1 

weighed, aud the results carefnlly recorded. For moiring tho pold, pots or crnciblos 
of pliiiubiigo are used, made to coiitniu each aliout 1)200 oz. The pote beiug heated 
Willie, ill fnriiaces, the charge of gold is introduced with the proper amount 
of copp-r (depending upon ihe state of purity of the gold ae oscertniueti by tho as- 
say), to bring it lo the standard, which is 22 parts of pure gold to 2 of copper (seo 
Allot). Tiie metal when melted is poured into iron moulds, which form it into 
bars 21 Inches long. \}i inch broad, and 1 inch thick, if for sovereigns; aud some- 
what narrower, if for half-sovereigns. For melti)«g silver (tho affoy of which is 
adjusted to l!ic standard of 222 parts of sliver lo 13 of copiwr). malleable iron pola 
arc u?ed. and the metal Is cast into bars similar to those of gold. 

The new copper, or rather bronze coinage, issued In 1860, is an alloy consisting 
of 95 parts of copper, 4 of tin. and 1 of zinc. The coins arc only about half iho 
weight of their old copper represen tit Ives. The processes of casting aud coining 
thenronze are easentizilly the t^ame as in the case of ^old aud silver. 

The operation of rolling follows that of aistiug. ft consists in repeatedly pass- 
ing the burs between pairs of rollers with hanlenwl steel surface:*, driven by steam- 
potver ; the rollers b.Mug !)rought closer and closer us the thickness Itecomes reduced. 
At a certain stage, as the bars become longer, they are cut into several lengths ; and 
to remove the hardness indaced by the pressure, they are annealed. The fluishiug 
rollers are so exqni-itely adjusted thattheytWcfc<(asthe thinned bars arc culled) du not 
vary in thickness In any part more than the ten-Uiousandth part of an inch. Tho 
slips are still further reduced In the British mint at what is called the "draw-bench," 
where they are drawn between sled dies, as in wire-drawing, aud are then exactly 
of the necessary thickness for the coin ii)tende<L 

The fllleis thus prepared are passed to the Iryer, who. with a baud-punch, cuts a 
trial-blank from each, and weighs it in a balance ; and if it vary more than ^th of a 
grain, tho whole fillet is rcj^led. 

For cutting out the blanks of which tho coins arc to be made, there aro in Ibo 
British mint twelve presses arranged In a circle, so that one wheel with driving 
cams, placed In the centre, works the whole. The punches descend by pneumatic 
pressure, and the fillets are fed into the presses by boys, each punch cutting out 
about 60 blanks a minute. The scrap left alter the blanks are cut out, called scinael, 
is s»e!:t back to be rem^ Ited. 

Each blank Is afterwards weighed by the automaton balance— a beantif nl -and 
mo:»t accurate instrument, which was added to the mint «b:)Ut twenty years ago. It 
weighs 23 l»lank» per minute, and each to the 0-01 of a grain. The stindard weight 
of a soverei^ is 123-274 grams, but the mint can Issue them above or below this to 
tl«e extent of 0'2568 of a grain, which is called the remedy. Blanks which come 
within this limit are dropped by the machine into a " medium" 1>ox, and pass on to 
be coined. Those below the required weight are pushed into another box to be re- 
melted, but those above it.iuto anotlH r, and are reduced by fllinu:. Ttie correct 
blanks are ufti^-rwanls rung on a sounding iron, and those which douot give a clear 
sound are rej 'cted as dumb. 

To insure their being properly milled on the edge, the blanks are pressed edge- 
ways tu a machine between two circular steel-plates, which raises the edges, nudat 
the same time secures their being perfectly round. After this they are annealed to 
soften them, before they can be struck with dies; they are al^o put into a boiling 
pot of dilute sulphuric acid, to remove any oxide of copper from the surface. Sub- 
scquenllv, they are washed with water, and dried with great cjire in liot sawdust, 
and finally in an oven at a teini»erature slightly above boiling water. WiUiout these 
precautious, the beautiful bloom upon new coin could not l)e secured. 

We now come to the press-room, whore the blanks receive the impression which 
m-tkes them |»erfect coins. Tho colning-pivsses, eight In all, are ranged in a row 
upon a strong foundation of masoiny. Tliere is the massive iron frame into which 
tho screw works, the upper part being perforated to receive It. On the bottom of 
this i-crew the upp«'r steel die is fixed by a l)ox. the lower die being fixed in another 
box attached to tho base of the pre8<«. The dies have, of course, the obverwjand 
reverse of the coin nptju them. See Dik-simkino. Tho blank coin is placed on the 
lower die, and receives the Impression when the screw is tnnied round so as to presf 
the two dies forcibly towards each other. A steel ring or collar contains the coin 
while It is being stamped, which preserves its chxulur form, aud also effects tlM 


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mflliofi on the edge. In cases where letters are pnt on the edge of a coin, a collar 
dividM into segments working ou centre-pins, is used. On the proper pressure bo- 
^t\^ applied, the segments close round, and impress the letters on the edge of the 

The screw of the press is worked by machinery driven by steam-power, and sit- 
nated in an apartment above tlie coining-room. The steam-engine exhausts an nlr- 
ctuunber, and from, the vacuum pn^duced, an nir-cuglne works a series of air- 
pomps, which coramnulczito a more exact and regular motion to the machinery of 
the 8lamping-pn>88es than by the ordtnaiy condensing engine. The loaded arms 
strike against blocks of wood, whereby they are prevented from moving too far, 
and mu the risk of breaking tlie hard stt-el dies by bringing them in contact. Th« 
press brings down the die on the coin with a twisting motion, but if it were to rise 
Qp in tlie same -way, it would abrade the coin ; there Is, in consequence, an arrange- 
mrut which, by menus of a wide notch in the ring, allows the die to be raised up a 
certain distance before it begins to turn round >vith the screw. 

Ou the iefr, is an arranfcmeut for feeding tlie blanks and removing the coins as 
they are stauiped. A lever, moving on n fulcrum, is supported by a bar 
ixed to the side of the press. The top of this lever is guided by a sector fixed upon 
the screw. In this sector there is a spiral groove, wliich, as the screw turns round, 
moves tlie end of the lever to or from the screw, the oiher end l>eing moved at the 
same time either towards or away from the centre of the press. The lower end of 
the lever moves a slider, wlilch is directed exactly to the centre of the press, nnd on 
a level with the upper surface of tlie die. The slider is a thin ftefl-plale in two 
pieces united by a joint, and having a circular cavity at the end, which, wlien lis 
limbs are shot, grasps a piece of coin by the edge. This piece drapsout on tbelira^ s 
separating. There is a tnl)e which an attendant keeps filled with ulank pieces ; it is 
open at the bottom, so that the pieces rest on Ihe slicler. Wtien the press is screwed 
down, the slider is drawn back to its fart best extent, and its circular end comt's ex- 
actly bcneatli the tube. A blank piece of coin now drops in. and Is carried, when 
tim rcrew ri»e*, to the collar which fits over the lower die. Tlie slider then returns 
for another blank, wliile the upper die de^cend8 to give the impression lo the coin. 
Kach time llie slider brings a new blank to the die, n at the same time pubhes off the 
piece lat«C strnck. An arrangement of springs lifts the milled collar to enclose the 
coin while It is being struck. 

It is found on examining the coins that about 1 In VOO is imperfectly finished ; 
tteae being rejected, the rest are finally weighed into bugs, and subjected to the pro- 
cess of pixing. This consists in taking from cacli l>ag a certain number of sovt-r- 
^m or otlier coins, iind subieciing them to a final exainiualiou by weight and as- 
lay, befure they are delivered to tlie public. 

MI'NUET, the air of a most gi-aceful dance, ori^lnallj from Poltou, In Prance. 
It is performed in a slow tempo. 'Ihe first minuft is fnid to have been composed 
by Lally tlie Elder, and was danced by LouIh XIV. in 1653. at Versailles, with liis 
in:»tre». The music of the minuet is in }i time, and is still well known in Ki:g- 
ItDd by the celebrated Minuet de la Ccmr, which is frequently introduced in stage 

iU'XUTE, a rough draft of any proceed iiijr or iBstrument; so called from being 
taken down shortly and hi minute ov small wiTllng, to be afterwards iiigrossed. See 
Ikoboss. — Minute, in Law, isn memorandum or record of some act of a court or of 
piirti<:s; In the latter sense, it i» used chiefly in Scotland, as in the case of minute 
of agreement, minute of sale, &c. 

MINUTE, the 60th part of an hour; also the 60th part of a degree of a circle. 
See Sexaocsiiial Arithmetic.— Minute, in Architecture, is the 6O1I1 part of liie 
diaini'ter of the shaft of a classic column, measured at the base. It is used as a 
measure to determine the proportions of the order. 

MI'OCENE (Qr. Iet?s recent), a term introduced by Lyell to characterise tlie Middle 
Tertiary strata, which he supposes to conlaiu a smaller proportion of recent species 
of moll usca than the newer Plioceoe, and more than the older Eocene. He esli- 
mates tlie proportion of living to fossil speci«'siii the Miocene at 26 per cent. 

Strata of this age occur in Britain in two limlied and far separated localities— In 
the iilaod of Mall, and ut Dartmoor in the south-east of England. In this last dis- 


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Mirabean 1 9A 

Miracle ^^^ 

irict, ihey exist at Bovey Tniccy, in a flat area of ten miles lon^r by two miles 
broad, and cou«i»t of clay luter?traliflcd with beds of Imperfect lignites. Penjfclly 
iind Ilecr have recently examined the atrata of this small basin, and have found 
that all the plants are of Miocene age, and belonjf to the pame ppecles as I hose 
fonnd in similar deposits, noi only on the continent, bnt in Iceland, Oret* niaud, and 
Arctic America. Tlieir/ocuM* Indicates a warmer climate tinm the present, and tlie 
eographical range of the species Is miexamph'd In the exi.oting flora. The Mull 
jeds are sitnnted at the headland of Anltun, and consist of iuten*t ratified basalts 
ashes, and lignites. They are three leaf-bed?, varying In thickness from 1^ to 2)4 
feet, separated by two beds of aJ'h, the whole rcs»tmg on, and covered by strata of 
ba«alt. The whole thickness Is 131 feet. It is PuppO"»ed thai the leaf-beds wire de- 
)08ited In a shallow lake or marsh, in the vicinity of uu active volcano. One of the 
beds consists of a nmss of compressed leaves wit bout stems, and accompanied with 
abundant rcumlns of an eqni^eiuin, which grew in the marsh into which the 
leaves were blown. The leaves belong to dicotyledons and coniferas, and ore of 
species fiimilar to those of Bovey Tracey. 

The Fahlnns of France are of this a^e, as are also part of theMoUassI of Swltxer- 
land, and the Mayence and Vienna basins. Of the same |>eriod are the hi^rhly fo«- 
sillferons deposits in the Sowallk Illlis, India, containing the remains of several 
elephants, a mammoth, hippopotamus, giraffe, and large ostrich, besides several car- 
nivora, monlceyp, and crocodiles, and a large tortoise, whose shell measured 80 feet 
across. The European beds contain the remains of the Dinotncrium (q. v.). 

MIRABEAU, Honors Gabriel Rlqnetti. Comte de, was bom »th March 1749, at 
BignoD, near Nemours. Ho was descended, by his own account, from the ancient 
Florentinefamily of Arrlghettl, who being expe!le<l from their native city in 12<B, 
on account of Qhlbelllne politics, settled in Provence, Jean de Riqnetti or Arri- 
ghetti purchased the estate of Mirabeau in 1562; IiIh graudbou, Thomas, bap|tened 
to entertain here, in 16C0, Louis XIV. and Cardinal Muzurin, ou which occasion ho 
received from the monarch the title of Marquis Victor Kiqnetii. Marquis do Mira- 
bean (bom 1715, died 1TS9). the father of Uonord, was a vain and foolish man, 
wasted his patrimony, wrote books of philanthropy and philosophy, as *' L'Ami des 
Hommes " (6 vols. Pur. 1755), and was a cruel hrraut in his own house. He procured 
uo fewer than fifty-four Uttrti de cachet at different times against his wife and his 
children. Honote, his eldest son, was endowed with an at liletic frame and extra- 
ordinary mental ubilities, but was of a flerv temper, and disposed to every kind of 
excess. He became a lieutenant in a cavalrv regiment ; but continued to prosecute 
various branches of studv with great eagerness, whilst outrunning his compaulona 
in a career of vice. An fntrigno with the youthful wife of an aged marquis Drought 
him into danger, and he fled with her to Switzerland, and thence to Holland, whero 
he subsisted by ids pen, amongst other productions of which, his " Essal snr le Des- 
pot Isme*' attracted great atteiiDon. Meanwhile, sentence of death was prouonncM 
against him; and the French minister, at his father's Instigation, demand- 
ing that he should be delivered up to justice, ho and his paramour were 
apprehended at Amsterdam, and he was brought to the dungeon at VlnccnucR, and 
there closely I mprisone<l for 4S months. During this time he was often in great 
want, bnt employed himself in literary labors, willing an ** Eswii snr les Lett res do 
Cacliet et les Prisons d'etat," which was published at Hamburg (8 vols. 1782), and a 
number of obscene tales, by which he disgraced his g«'nins, although their sale snp- 
l>lied his necessities. After his liberation from piit^on, he subsisted chiefly by lit- 
erai-y labor, and still led a veiy profligate life, lie wrote many effective political 
pamphlets, particularly against the financial adininistratlou of Calonne, receiving 
pecuniary assistance, it was said, from some of the great bankers of Paris; and bo- 
camo one of the leaders of the Liberal party. When the Siates-gencral were con- 
vened, he sought to be elected as a repreeentative of the nobles of Provence, but 
was rejected by them on the ground of his want of property ; and left them with the 
threat that, like Marlns, he would overthrow the aristocracy. He purchased a dra- 
l)er's shop, offered himself as a candidate to the Third Estate, and was enthusiasti- 
cally returned both at Alx and Marseille. He chose to represent Marseille, and by 
his talents and admirable oratorical powers soon acquired great influence in the 
States-general and National Assemblv. Baniave well characterised him as ** tho 
ShakBpeore of eloquence.** He stood forth as the opponent of the court and of tho 


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•<k)-| Mirabeaa 

• "^i- Mirada 

atlBtocniCT, bat rvgarded the connlnr as bj oo means ripe for the extreme cUaugca 
proposed by political theorists, and labored, not for the overthrow of Die mouarcby, 
Sal for the abolition of despotism, and the establishment of a constitiitiounl throne. 
To Mipprctts insarrection, he effected, on 8th Jnlv 1789, tlie iu^titntion of the 
Naiiouai Guard. In some of the contests which followcdf he sacrificed hispopn- 
larlty to maintain the throne. The more that anarchy and revolutionary frenzy 

Em'ailcd, the more decided did lid become in his resistauce to tiieir progress; 
at it was not easy to maintain the cause of constimtioual liberty at once 
aeainst the sapporters of the ancient deepolism and the extreme revolutionists. 
^le king and his friends were long nn will hig to enter into any relations with one so 
disreputable, bat at last, under tne i>rei«sare of necessity, it was resolved that M. 
slioold be invited lo l)ccome minister. No sooner wns this known, titan a combina- 
tion of the most opposite parties, by a decree of 7th November 178^, forbnde the np- 
pointmeut of a deputy as minister. From this time forth, M. strove in vain in favor 
of the xnOHt indispensable prerogatives of the crown, and in so doing exposed him- 
self to popnlar indignation. He still continued the struggle, however, with wonder- 
ful atMUtv, and sought to reconcile the court nnd the Kcvolntion. In December 1790, 
he was elected president of the Club of the Jacobins, and in February 1701, of tlie 
National Assembly. Both in the Club and in the Assembly, he di^nlayed great 
ho»dne«8 and enei^; but soon after bis apuointmcnt as president of the latter, ho 
sank into a state of bodily and mental wcaKuc?s, consequent upon his great exer- 
tions and his continued debaucheries, and died Sd April 1791. He wiis interred with 
great pomp in the church of Saint Genevieve, the *^ Pantheon ;" but his body was 
aftcnrards removed, to make room for that of Marat. A complete edition of iiis 
works was published at Paris in 9 vols, in 1826—1827. His natural son, Lucas 
Monticny, published "M^raolres Biographiques, Litroraires et Politiques do Mira- 
beou"(M edit. 8 vols. Par. 1841), the most complete account which we have of his 
life. See also Carlyle's sketch of Mirabeau in his ** Miscellaneous^Essays," and his 
** French Kcvolution." 

MIRACLE, a term commonly applied to certain marvellous works (healing the 
sick, raising the dead, changing ot water into wine, ic^) ascribed in the Bible to 
some of the ancient prophets, aud to Jesus Christ, and one or two of his followers. 
It hignlfies .«imply that which Is wonderful — a thing or a deed to be wondered at, 
being derive<l directly from tlie Latin miracMlnm^ a thing unusual— an object of 
wonder or surprise. The same meaning is the governing Idea In the term applied in 
the New Testament to the Christian miracles, fera«, a marvel, u portent ; besides 
which, we also And them designated dunamti»^ powers, with a reference to the power 
residing in the miracle-worker ; and tknveia^ signs, with a reference to the charac- 
ter aud pretensions of which they were assumed to be the wilueifses or guarantees. 
Tinier these different names, the one fact recognised is a deed done by a man, and 
acknowlodged by the common judgment of men to exceed man's oixliuary powers ; 
In other words, a deed ^upematuToi^ above or beyond the common powers of nature, 
as these arc understood by men. 

In the oJder speculations on the subject, a miracle was generally deflued to bo a 
Tioiatioii or suspension of the order of nature. While, on the one hand, it was argued 
<as by Uanie), that such a violation or suspcnsio)! was absolutely impossible and in- 
credible ; it was maintained, on the other, that the Almightv, eitlier by his own imme- 
diate agency, or by the agency of ot hei-s, could interfere witli tlie o|>eration of the laws 
of nature, in order lo secure certain ends, which, without that interlorence, could not 
have been secured, and that there was nothing incredible in the idea of a law being 
soAxmded by the Person by whom it had been made. The laws of nature and the 
wilt or providence of God were, in this view, thus placed in u certain aspect of oppo- 
sition to each other, at points here aud there clashing, and the stronger arbitrarily 
ascertiug its superiority. Hnch a view has, with the advatice of philoi*ophical opin- 
ion, appeared to many to be Inadequate as a theory, and to give an unworthy con- 
ception of the Divine character. The great principle of Law, as the highest concep- 
tion not oulv of nature, hut of Divliie Providence, in all its manifestations, has 
averted itself more dominantly In the realm of thought, and led to the rejection of 
tl»e apparently conflicting idea of " interference," Implied in the old notion of 
mirade. Order in nature, aud a just and uncaprlcious will in God, were felt lo be 
first and abecdately necessary prloclplea. The idea of miracle, accordingly, which 


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Miracle \ Cic\ 

Mirfleld J- -^^ 

Beenis to be now most readily accepted by the advocates of tho Christian reIlgl0D» 
bos its root in this recognised ncce»>8ity. 

All law is regarded as tlie ezpresctiou, not of a lifcleRS force, but of a perfectly- 
wise and jnst wiIL All law must develop itself tlirougU natural pheuomeDa ; but ft 
is not ideutiflod with or bound down to any uece»i>ary scries of ihesc. If we admit 
the mainspring oC tlie universe to be a liviui; will, tlien wo may admit that ttie 
phenomena through which tliat will, acting in the form of law. expre&*M>s itself, maj 
vanr without the will varying or the law being broken. We know absoIuMily 
sotbing of the mode of operation in any recorded miracle ; we only see certain re- 
sults. To affirm that these results are either impossible in themselves, or neces- 
sarily violations of natural law, is to pronounce a judgment on imperfect data. We 
can Only say that, under an impulse whicli we must believe proceeds from the Divine 
will, in which all law exii^ts, the phenomena which wo have been nccu^tomed to 
expect have not followed on their ordinary conditions. But from our point of view 
we cannot affirm that the question as to hoxio tills happens is one of interference or 
Tiolation ; it is rather, probably, one of higher and lower action. The miracle may 
be but the expression of one Divine order and beneficent will in a new ahape — 
the law of a greater freedom, to use the words of Trench, swallowing up the 
law of a leaser. 

Nature being but the plastic medium through which Qod's will is ever manifested 
to us, and the design of that will being, as it necessarily must be, the good of his 
creatures, tbat thcorv of mirncle is certainly most rational which does not represent 
the ideas of laws and of the will of God as separate and opposing forces, but wliich 
represents the Divine will as working out its highest moral ends, not against, but 
thronsh law and order, and evolving from those a new ii«ue, when it has a special 
benel^ut purpose to serve. And thus, too, we are enabled to sec in miracle not 
only a wonder tnd a i)Ower, bnt a sign — a revelation of Divine character, never ar- 
bitrary, always generous and loviug, the character of one who seeks through all the 
ordinary courses of nature and operation of law to further Ilia creatures' good, 
and whose will, when that end is to be served, is not restricted to any one neceeeary 
mode or order of expression. Rightly interpreted, miracle is not the mere assertion 
of power, or a mere device to impress nn impressible mind ; it is the revelation of 
a will whicli. while leaving nature as a whole to its established course, can yet wit- 
ness to itself as above nature, when, by doing so, it can help man's moral and 
spiritual beiug to grow into a liigher perfection. 

The evidence for the Christian miracles \% of a twofold kind— external and inter- 
nal. As alleged facts, they are supposed to rrst upon competent teslimony, the 
testimony of eye-witnesses, who were neither deceived themselves, nor had any 
motive to deceive others. They occurred not in privacy, like the alleged super- 
natural visions of Mohammed, but for the mosfpart in the open light of qav, amidst 
the professed enemies of Christ. They were not Isolated facts, nor wrought tenfa- 
tlvefy, or with difficulty; but the repeated, the overflowing expression, as it were, 
of an apparently supernatural life. It seems impossible to conceive, therefore, that 
the apostles could have been deceived as to their character. They had itll the racaua 
of scrutinising and formius a judgment regarding them tliot they could well have 
possessed ; and if not deceived themselves, they were certainly not deceivers. There 
Is no historical criticism that would now maintain such a theory; even the most 
positive unbelief has rejected it. The career of tlie anostles forms throughout an 
irrefragable proof of the deep-hearted and Incorruptible sincerity that animated 
them. The gospel miracles, moreover, are supposed in themselves to bo cf an 
obviously Divine character. They are, in the main, miracles of healing, of benefi- 
cence, in which the light equally of the Divine mojesty and of the Divine love shines 
—witnessing to the eternal life which underlies all the manifestations of decay, and 
all the traces of sorrow In the lower world, and lifting the mind directly to the con- 
templation of his life. 

MIRACLE PLAYS. See Mtstebxis. 

MIRA'GE, tt phenomenon extremely common In certain localities, and as simple 
in Its origin as astonishing in lis effects. Under it are classed the appearance of dis- 
tant objects as double, or as If suspended in the air, erect or Inverted, Ac. Ona 
cauBC of mirage la a dlmiuation of the deuaity of the air near the surface of the 


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190 Miracle 

etrtk, prodaced by itie trannnissioti of heat from the earth, or !n pomo other waj ; 
the deiuKr atnitam beint; thus placed above, iimtcad of. as 1b ntinally the case, beUm 
the Hirer. Now, raya of light from a distant object, Bitnated lu the denser roedlnm 
(L e,. a Uttle n1x>vc the earth's level), comiog Jn a direction nearly parallel to tbe 
earth's 8orfacc, meet the rarer medium at a very obtuse angle, and (sec Kepraction) 
instead of pasning Into It, are reflected back to the dense medium ; the conimou sur- 
farc of the two media acting as a mirror. SupposK?, then, a spectator to be Bituated 
00 an emfoence, and looking at an object situated like bimself in tbe denser atratum 
of air, he will see Uie object by means of directly tranamitted rays ; bat besides tliis, 
rtys from tbe object will be reflected from tiie upper surface of the rarer stratum of 
air beneatli to hia eye. The image prodnced by tlie reflected rays will appear Inver- 
ted, and below the real object, just as an image reflected in water appears when ob- 
served from a distance. If the object is a cloud or portion of sky, it will appear by 
tbe reflected rayn as lying on the surface of the earth, and bearing a strong resem- 
blacce to a sheet of water ; also, as tlie reflectnig surTacc is irregnfar, and constantly 
T»1««itB posltlot), owing to the constant communication of lieat to the upper stratum, 
the reflected Image will be constantly varying, and will present the appearance of a 
water surface mflSed by the wind. This form of mirage, which even experienced 
travellem liaTe foaud to bo completely deceptive, Is of common occurrence lu the 
•rid desetla of Lower Egypt, Persia, Tartary, Ac. 

In particular states ol the atmosphere, reflection of a portion only of the rays 
takes place at tbe enrface of the dense medium, and thns doiible images are formed, 
00c by reflection, and the other by refraction — the flrst inverted, and the second 
encL Tbe phenomena of mirage arc frequently much more strange and compli- 
cated, the images being often much distorted and magulfled, and in some instances 
occurring at a considerable distance from the object, as in the case of a tower or 
chDreh seen over the sea, or a vessel over dry land, Ac The particular form of 
ffllnge known as looming, la very frequently observed at sea. and consists lu an ex- 
cessive apparent elevation of the object. A most remarkable case of this sort oc- 
caned on the S8th of July 1796. at Hastings. From this place the French coast la 
Uly miles distant : yet, from the sea-aide tno whole coast of France from Calais to 
Bear Diqppe was distinctly visible, and continued so for threo houra. In the Arctic 
regions it is do uncommon occurrence for whale-fishers to discover the proximity of 
other ships by means of tlieir images seen elevated in the air. though the ships 
themselves may be below the horizon. Onnerallv, when the ship Is above the lio- 
liaoD, only one image, and that inverted, ia found ; but when it ia wholly or in great 
pan below the horizon, doable Images, one erect and the other Inverted, are f re- 
Qoenlly seen. Tbe faithfulness and distinctness of these imagcB at times may be 
mta^acd from tbe fact, that Captain Scorcsby, while eniising on the coast of Green- 
land in 1832, discovered the propinquity of his father's shiplrom its inverted imago 
ia the sky. Another remarkable instance of M. occurred In May 1854, when, from 
tbe deck of H. M. screw-steamer. Archer, then cruising off Oesel, in the Baltic, the 
whole En^ish fleet of nineteen sail, then nearly thirty miles distant, was seen as if 
NBpendea In the air npslde down. Beside such phenomena as these, tbe celebrated 
Fata Morgana (q. v.) of the Btralts of Messina sinks into insigniftcance. The 
Sptetn ojthe Broeken^ in Hanover, is another celebrated Instance of mirage. Its 
varieties arc indeed numberless, and we refer those who wifh for further informa- 
Uon to Brewster's "Optics," Blot's **Trait6 de Physique," and for the mathe- 
matical theory of the mirage to tbe worka of Blot, Monge, and Wollastou. See also 
Beflxxion and Bbfbaotion. 

MIBA'NDOLA, a town of Northern Italy, in the province of Modena, and 20 miles 
iJorth-north-eaat of the city of that name. It stands in the midst of a low-lying and 
•orocwhat unhealthy flat, and contains numerous churches, a cathedral, and a cita- 
dcL Rice Is much cultivated in the vicinity, and the breeding of silk-worms is an 
important branch of industry. Pop. of town (1871), S059 ; of commnne,18,170. 

MIKECOURT, a town of France in the department of Vosges, In a picturesque 
district, 20 miles sooth of Nancy. It Is famous for Its manufactures of lace, and of 
ciinrcfa-organs and stringed musical mstruments. Pop. (1876) 5162. 

ICI'BFIELD, a manufacturing village of tlie West Riding of Yorkshire, England* 
Itueo mHea eaxt of Dewsbory. The mauufaetores are fancy and other wooUuu 


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SSS.. 124 

fnbrfcii, and cotton goods. It In one of the chief mllway cenires In the comatrT. 
Pop. (1871) 12,8«9. 

MIBPU'R, a ftoarisblug town of India, in Sindo, on the left bank of the Pliiiarl, 
45 miles south of Hyderabad. It coutulus a fort capable of accommodating 200 men, 
and which commands the roiito from Ilyderabad to Cutch. The sorroanding d1»- 
trict iB fertile and well caltivated. Pop. 8000. 

MIRROR, a reflecting enrface, nsaally made of glass, lined at the back with a 
brilliant metal, so as strongly to reflect Uie image of any object placed t>efore it. 
• When mirrors were Invented, is not known, hut Uie use of a reflecting surface would 
become apparent to the first person who saw his own image i-eflcctcd from water: 
and probanly for ages after the civilisation of man commenced, tlie still waters of 
ponds and lakes were the only mirrors ; but we read in the Pentateuch of mirrors of 
brass being used by the Hebrews. Mirrors of brouise were in very common use 
amongst the ancient Es^pthms, Greeks, and Romans, of which many specimens are 
preserved \\\ mnsenmn. Praxiteles taught the use of silver in tlic manufacture of 
mirrors in the year 328 b.o. Mirrors of glass were first made at Venice In 1800 ; and 

Judging from tliose still in existence— of which one may be seen at Holyrood Paltuce, 
n the apartments of i^ueen Maiy— tlicy were very rude contrivances, compared with 
modern ones. It was not until i6T8 that the making of mirrors was introduced into 
England. It is now a verr Important manufacture; and mirrors can be produced of 
any size to which nlate-glass can be cast.)* After the plate of glass is polished ou 
botli sides. It Is lain ou a pcrrcclly level table of great strength and solioity, osoally 
of amootli stone, made like a billiard-table with raised edges; aslieetor sheets ck 
tinfoil sufficient to cover the upper surface of the glass are then put on. and rubbed 
down smooth, after wtiicli the whole is covered with quicksilver, which immediately 
forms an amalgam with the tin. The superfluous mercury is tlien rnu ofl».and a 
woollen cloth is spread over the whole surface, and square Iron weights are applied. 
After tills pressure has been continue<l adayand night, the weishts and the cloth are ro- 
moved, and the glass is removed to another table of wood, wiUi a movable top, which 
admits of gradually increasing iuclination until the unamalgamated quicksilver has 
perfectly drained away, and only the surface of perfect lamalgam remaiua coating 
the glass, and perfectly adherent to it. 

Heat IS reflected like light; so that a concave M. may be used to bring ruya of 
heat to a focus. In this way combustible substances may be set on fire at a distance 
from tiie reflector whence they receive their heat Thus used, a M. is called a .0tim- 
ingU. ' 

MI'RTA, a town of India, in tlic Rajpoot state of Jodlipnr, st^uids on Idgh ground 
near the source of a tributary of the LunI, 280 miles south-west of Delhi. M. ia 
supplied with good water from three largo tanks. Pop. estimated at 26,950. 

MI'ltZA, a contraction of Emir Zadah, '^son of the prince," is, when preffx^d 
to tiie surname of the individual, the common title of honor among the Persians; 
but wlieu annexe to the surname, it designates a prince or a male of tho blood- 

MIRZAPU'R, a town of British India, capital of the district of the same name* 
on the right bank of the Ganges, which is here half a mile wide, and crossed by a 
ferry, 40 miles south-west of BtMiarcs. It has some mannfnctnres of carpets, cot- 
tons, and slllts, and is the greatest cotton-mart in India. Pop. (1872) 67,274. The 
district of M., in tho North-xcent ProcineeA^ is watered by the Ganges and the 
Sone. Lat. 23'^ 60'— 2oO 30' n.; long. 82° 11'— 88° 89' e. Area, 6286 square miles. 
Pop. (1S72) almost all Hindus. 1,064,413. The chief productions, beside the usual 
cereals, are cotton, indigo, and sugar. The climate is, on the whole, unhealthy for 

MISDEMEA'NOR is one of the technical divisions of crimes, by the law of Eng- 
land and Ireland. The usual division of crimes Is into treason (which generally 
stands by itself, though, strictly speaking, inclnded in), felony, nnd misdemeanor. 
The off once of gn-atest enormity is treason, and the least is misdemeanor. The 
original distinction between felony and misdemeanor consisted in the consequences 
of a conviction. A party convicted of felony, if capital, forfeits both his real and 
personal estate ; if not capital, his personal estate only. A party convicted of mla- 


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125 jjias^ 

demetnor forfeits notic of his property. The distinction Is not k»pt up between the 
two cImscs of crimes by nny greater severity of punishment in felony, for many 
miHtemeanors arc pnnisUcd as severely as some felonies. But it has bt^u the prac- 
tice of the ie^islntare, when creating new offences, to say wliollier they are to be 
rlasaedwith felony or ini^enieanor ; und when this is done, the above incidents 
stitch to the conviction iiccardingly. 

MISJB'NO, a promontory of the province of Nnplis, 9 miles sonth-west of tl»e 
cily o( Naples. Ou the outskirts of the promontory are the extensive ruins of the 
ancicut city of Misenom, including a vast cliurch and tlieatrc. M. is much visited 
ou account of its wonderful grotto Draconnra, and a curious euhtemiuean building 
or labrriDtfa, called the Hundred Chambers, supposed to have been ancfently cm- 
ployed as duui^eons. 

MISER£'K£, the name l)y which, in Catholic usage, tlie 60th ppalm of the 
Tdgote (51st in authorlhed version) is commonly known. It is one of the so- 
called **Penitcnt1nl Pwlms," and is commonly understood to have Ixien composed 
b; David in tlie depth of his remorse for the double crime which the prophet Nnihau 
tebski:d in the weU-knowu parable (2 Sum. xii.). Another opmion, however, at- 
tribntes this psalm to Mannsses, or to some of the psalm-wrlters of the Captivity. 
The Miserere is of frequent occurrence in the services of the Koman Church ; and 
in tiie celebrated service of Tcnebre, ns performed in the Sixtlue Chapel at 
Rome, it forms, as chanted by pope's choir, one of the most striking and im- 
prwiiTe chants in the entire range of $acrcd music It is snug on each of the threo 
nights in Holy Week (q. v.) on which the office of Tenebne is held, with different 
mnsic ou each of the three occasions, tlie three composers being Bal, Baiui, and 
the still more celebrated Allegri.— Miserere is also the name of one of the evening 
terrices in Lent, which is so called from the singing of that psalm, and wfiich in- 
dodes a sermon, commonly on the duty of sorrow for sin. 

MISEREKR, n projection on the under side of the seats of the stalls of medieval 
chorebes and chapels, Ac They are usually ornamented with Ciirved work, and oro 
•0 shaped, that when the seats-proper are folded up, they form a small seat at a 
bl|ber level, sofflcient to afford some support to a person resting upon it. Aged and 
ialrm ecclesiastics were allowed to use tlieso during long services. 

MISFEA'SANCB, in Legal Language, means the doing of a positive wrong, In 
contradistinction to nonfeasance, which means a mere omission. Acts arc some- 
thnes followed with different legal consequences, according as they fall under the 
bead of rolsfeasaoce or nonfeasance. 

Jil'SHSA (from Heb. sAano, to learn ; erroneously held to designate Repetition) 
comprisca the body of the "Oral Law," or the iuridico-politlcal, civil, and religious 
code of the Jews; and forms, as such, a kind of complement to the Mosaic cr 
Written Law, which it explains, amplifies and immutably fixes. It was not, how- 
ever, the sole aothority of the schools, and the masters, on which these explnim- 
tlons and the new ordinances to which they gave rise depended, but rather ci'rtain 
dbtinct and well-authenticated traditions, traced to Mount Sinai itself. No less 
vero certain special letters and signs in the Wiltten Law appealed to in some 
cases, OS containing an iadicatlon to the special, newly Issued, or fixed prohibitions 
or mica. See Hax^cha. The Mishna (to which the Toseftas and Boraithas form 
*Bpplements> was finally redacted, after some earlier incomplete collections, by 
iefaodah Haniissf, In 220 a.d., at Tiberias. It is mostiv written in pure Hebrew, 
tnd is divided into six portions (Sednrim) : 1. Zeraim (Seed?), on Agriculture ; 2. 
Moed (Feast), on the Sabhatli. Festivals and Fasts; 8. Nashim (women), ou 
Marriaee, Divorce, Ac. (embracing also the laws on the Naisirshlp and Vows) : 
4. Nezikiu (Damages), chiefly civil and penal law (also containing the ethical 
treatise Abctb) ; 5. Kodashim (Sacred Things), Sacrifices, Ac. ; description of tlio 
Temple of Jcmsalcm, Ac. ; 0. TehoroMi (Purifications), on pure and impure things 
and persons. See also Talmud. 

MI'SHMEB BITTER, the root of Coptia Teeta (see Corns), a plant found in 
the moantatnona regions on the borders of India and China; of the same 
eenoi with the Qolden Thread of the northern parts of the world, and not un> 
Uke it The root is in much use and esteem in some parts of the East as a 


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Mlsilmert 126 


Btomactiic nnd tonic, nnd bns begun to be known in Enrope.— The root of C. trif^ 
liata is uIbo used as a bitter. 

MISILME'RI (corrupted from MaiziUiUAmiry Villaj»e't)f the Emirs), a town 
of the isluud of Sicily, in tlic province of Palermo,! miles south-east of Palermo 
city. It is a straggling, poverty-stricken town. It was at M. that GarilMildi, 
in May 1860, joined Ihe Sicilian insurgent*; and it was by a sliort cut from M. 
to Palermo, llirough the Pass of Mezzagiui, that he advanced on the latter city 
and took it by a coup de viain. M. used to Ikj a notorious harbor of banditti. 
Pop. 7250. 

MISKO'LCZ, the principal town ni the county of Borsod, Hunjrary, situated at 
the extremity of a benniiful valley, 25 miles north-east of Erlau. It is connected 
with Debreczin l>y railway, and contains unmcrous chnrclics, two eyninasia, and 
otiier cd'.ic.itionai iustitutiouK Wine and melons are cxtcusively cultivated. From 
tlie iron obtained in the vicinity, the best steel in Hungary is made. The chief 
trade is in wine. Pop. (ISTU) 21,119. 

MISNO'MER is the giving of a wrong name to a parly In a suit. Formerly, the 
ol^ection of misnomer was of some Importance, but now is of none, as it is easily 
cured by amendment. 

MISPRI'SION is, in English Law, a clerical error made in <lrawing up a record 
qf a court of law. 

MISREPRESENTA'TION, In point of law, or, as it is most frequently termed, 
fraudulent misrepresentation, Is that kind of lie for which courts of law will give 
redress.. It consists in a wilful fnlsehood as to some material thing connected or 
not with some contract ; tl»e object being that the party deceived should act upon 
it as true. The legal result is, tinit if the party so relying on its truth and acting 
on it suffer damnge, he can sue the deceiver for such damage. It lias eometimea 
been supposed that the deceit or misrepresentation must have refercnco to some 
contract, or arise out of some confidential relation between the parties, and that the 
party making it should have some private interest to serve; but this is a mistake; 
and recent cases have established, that if a person wilfully— i. e., cither not know- 
ing anything at all one wav or tlie other about the matter, or knowing the real 
truths misrepresent something, with the intention that a stranger should acton such 
mlsreprusentation, and such stranger docs so act on it, and suffer damage, then the 
right of action accrues to tlie dcceiv(>d party. One remarkable exception to this doc< 
trine, however, occurs In the case of the contract of marriage, where either party has 
in general no remedy whatever against the other for misrepresentations as to bis or 
her property, connections, &c. It is not necessary tliat the misrepresentation should 
be made in writing, in orcter to give rise to the action, except in cases where the party 
gives representations as to the conduct, credit, ability, trade, or dealings of a third 
party. In order that such third party slmll obtain credit, money, or goods iherebr. 
The aoctriue of misrepresentntlon has acquired great consequence of late, owing to 
the extension of the system of joint-stock comimnie?, and the practice of the dircc* 
tors and ofilcers publishing, or 1>eing parties to fraudulent reports, accounts, and cir- 
culars as to the credit and stabilltv of such undertakings. It is now settled, that not 
onlv every director, but every clerk In the service of the directors, who knowingly 
and Avilfnlly concurs and lakes a part in publishing or circulating such false reportSi 
whereby strangers are led to believe and act on them, and thpreby euffer pecuniary 
loss, is liable to an action of damages at the suit of such strangers. It is also a 
general rule affecting contracta (other than marriage), that m^reprceentation in 
some material point bearing on the contract, and likely to Induce the party to enter 
into such contract, will render the contnict void ; bnt in order to make a trifling 
misreprcjientation have the snme effect, the party must warrant such representa- 
tion to be true : In which cixse, whether trifling or not, or whether wilful or not, a 
mifreprenentatlon avoids the contract ; and this is generally the case in contracts of 
life and fire insurance. Against such a practice. Lord St Leonards lately rcmon* 
strated, as one Involving great hardship to the class o( insurers, who, after pay* 
ing premiums for years, find at last their security gone. Another class of 
fraudulent misrepresentations, of great consequence, and now brought within the 


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crimfnal law to a large extent, is that of coanterfeiting trade- marks, aa to whicli. 
Me Tbju>b-xabks. 

MI'SSA DI VCyCE, a term used in the art of Binglng, meaning the gradual 
RweUing and again diminishing of the sound of the voice on a note of long dura- 

HI'SSAL, the volome containing the prayers nsed in the celebration of 
the Jfase. Anciently, considerable variety in minor details prevailed among 
the books in use in different countries, and even in diffei-ent churches 
of the same conntry. With the view of restoring uniformity, the pope, in 
Tirtoe of a decree of the Coancil af Trent, in 16TQ, ordered tliat all churches 
which liad uoL for a clearly ascertained period of 200 years, enjoyed an nniu- 
termptcd nse of a pecnllar service-lx)ok of their own, siionld thenceforth adopt 
tile Iu)man Missal. Of this exemption, several churclics in Germany, France, and 
rveo iu Italy, availed themselves; but hi later times, the great majority have con- 
formed to ttio Roman nse. The Roman Missal has twice since that dale been sub- 
jected to revision and correction—in 1604 by Clement VIII., and in 1634 by Urbon 
VlJI. Tiie latter recension still continues in nse. The missals of the oriental rites 
differ from that of the Roman Chnrch, each having for the most part its own proper 
form. See Litubigt. 

KISSIONS, enterprises of the Christian Chnrch for the conversion of thenatious 
to Christianity, by sending to them teachers called viiaaionaries. 

The first Christians displayed great zeal in preaching the gospel to the heathen; 
Christian teachers continued to go fordi for this purpose into heatlien countries 
mitil about tiie 9th c, and although other and less worthy means were too often 
employed, the labors of Palladius iu Ireland, of Columba in Scotland, of Augustine 
ht Soeland, of Oollus and Emmeran in Alemannia, of Kilian in Bavuria, or Willi- 
brod in Francouia, of Swidvirt in Fiiesland, of Siegfried In Sweden, of lionlfuce in 
Tharin^ia and Saxony, of Adalbert in Prussia, of Cyril and Methodius amongst the 
SbiToniao.ii, and of many such early niissionurics, were unquestionably very in- 
stromeutal in the extension of Christianity in Europe. After the Hcforniatiou, the 
Roman Catholic Chnrch, roused to activity by its losses and dangers, not only rent 
forth missionaries to confirm its adherents iii Protestant countries, and to 
via back Protestants, but also sought to repair its losses by new acquisitipns 
trom the vast domain of heathenism. With tliia view, the '' Coufzregatffl de 
Propaganda Fide *' was constituted by Gregory XV, in 1622, and the ** Collegium 
dcPropa^andA Fide" (see Propaoanda) by Urban VIII. in 1627, and in a num- 
ber of placesi, institutions, called seniuiarieay were establlslied for the train- 
iog of missionaries. Jesuit missioimries earnestly prosecuted their work- 
amoDgst the Indians of South America, from the midale of the 16th c. to the 
mWdle of the ISth, when they were expelled by the Portugucee and Spanieli gov- 
ernments, because their political i>ower had become too formidable. They are ac- 
cused of administering baptism with too great readiness; but they were certainly 
SBcccssful in extending civilisation amongst the Indiana, pai*ticn1arly of Paraguay. 
, Jeeait missions to India and Japan were founded l)y Francis Xuvier (q. v.) m the 
middle of tlic 16th century. In Japan, tlie missionaries made great progress at first; 
sod in 1582 they boasted of 150,000 converts, 200 churches, and 69 religious iiouses of 
tijcir order in that empire ; bnt ere the middle ot the 16th c, the whole work had 
-" - I, :iiu1 (H't rv iiiisslonaiy expelled. In Ctilna, similar rapid success 
\v:i^ <j:ijojL!(i, and \v:is follow id by a fjlmihir i)eriod of persecution, although the de- 
rtmctjou" effected was more partial than iu Japan, and the Ciiurch of Rome con- 
tinae^l to snUsi^t in China, its nii^iHioiiarica and raembci-s enduring great hardships, 
and many of them evincinj; their sincerity even by their death. Tliere are not a few 
Roman Catholics in China at the present time. In Abyssinia also, the Jesuits made 
cat progr«?e iu ilie 17th ct^iturv, and for a time attained great power in the coun- 
try ; hot tlieir inttrfercncc in political matters led to their complete expulsion. In 
the 17th c, llic Jesulta boasted of t ho vast success of tlieir mission in Madura, a 
proviuce of Soulhem IndJn ; but it was found to be rather apparent than real, 
and to have Ijeirn attiiined by a cnnipromise of Christianity and tlio employment of 
Qtnrorthy means, so that, after ion;,' contests in the papal court, a decision was pro- 


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Miflslons 1 0Q 

MiniMlppl ^^" 

noiinced a^aitirt the Jeenite, and their coDDCCtion with Madnra was dissolTed in the 
middle of the ISth centnry. 

For n long period after the Reformation, the Protestant Church seeniB to.liave 
been little eeiiBible of the duty of luborine for the propagation of Christiaiiity ; nor 
was It until the present centnry tliat nilssTonary ucal begjin to l>e largely developed. 
In the middle of the ITtli c (1(M7), indeed, an act of the Knglisli parliament e8tat>- 
lished the Societft for Propagating the Oo«pel in Foreign Parts^ and at the clora of 
the centnry (1698), the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was established. 
A few missionaries labored with zeal and success among the North American 
Indians, in which field the names of Bliot and Mayliew are particularly distinguished 
In the 17th c, and that of Braiucrd in the 18th ; but the commencement of more 
systematic and continuous missionary enterprise may l)e reckoned from the cstab- 
lushmeut of the first Protestant mission to India, which did not take place till the 
banning of the iSlh c, when Bartholomew Ziegenbalg and anotlier were sent 
thither by Frederick IV. of Denmark, and settled In a small territorv then belonging 
to Denmark on the coast of Coromandcl. The mission in tlic south of India soon 
receiveil the snpport of the Engllsli Society for Promoting Christian Knowledpe, and 
was maintained and extended chiefly by that Society during tlie whole of the 18th 
century. Amongst the missionaries who labored in this field, the name of Swarts 
is parlicularlv distinguished ; and tlie sncccsa which attended his exertions, and the 
inflneuce whlcli he acquired in tlie country, were equally remarkable. Ho died In 
179S. Since that time, tlie missionary work In the south of India has been carried 
on with continued succtss, and by the missionaries of a numljer of societies. Greater 
progress hns been made there than in any other pait of India, nor, indeed, was 
the work commenced in any other part of India till almdit a century hiter. — 
The Moravian Church early entered upon missionary enteiprise, and was 
the first Protestant Clinrch which did bo in its united or corporate char- 
acter; and very successful missions of the United Brethren were planted 
in the ISih c. at the C.ipo of Good Hope, in the West Indies, and in Lab- 
rador. Greenland had previously been made the field of similar enter- 
prisolw missionaries from Norway. The mission to Greenland was founded by 
Hnns Esede (q. v.), in 1721, and has been maintained to ttie present day. Its suc- 
cess has been such, that the greater portion of the Greenlauaers have now been con- 
verted to Christianity, and much of the rudeness of their former manner of life has 
di8a%»cared.— Towards the close of the IStli c, some of the great missionary so- 
rietios still existing in England were formed— the Baptist MissUmary Society in 1T98, 
the London Mtstionary Society in 1795. Almiit tlicsame time, the British and For- 
eign Bible Society^ and the Religioxts Tract Society ^ were formed, which have co-opcr- 
nted with all the missionary societies as most important anxilirles. Tlie Baptist 
MiHsionary Society ^ immediately after Its formation, sent missionaries to the north Of 
India. Dr Caruy was one of its first, and also one of its most eminent missionaries. 
India is now a field of labor for many missionary societies, not onlv of Britain, Imt 
also of America and of the continent of Europe. The London Missionary Society 
sent lis first missionaries to tiie South Sea Islands, and the mission was maintained 
for a1)Out 16 years, amidst many difficulties, without any apparent success ; but its 
snccess was aftenvards great and rapid, first in Tahiti, and afterwards in other 
islands, so that now many of the ishmds of the South Seas are entirely Christian. 
The London Missionary Society soon entered also upon other fields of labor, and 
now maintains mis.'^ions to many parts of the world. It was at first composed 
of members of almost ail Protestant denominations; but tlie formation of 
other societies, and the engagement of churches as such in missionary enterprise 
—as the Wesleyan Melhodint Church— have left this society now in a great 
measure to the English Independents. One of the most imi>ortant socit'ties 
founded during the present century, the Church Missionary Society^ formed by mem- 
bers of the Churcli of England, has sent forth inissiunaries to many fields. 
They have been particularly successful In New Zealand, the west of Africa, and 
aboat Hudson's Bay ; and they recently entered Abyssinia. The various churches 
in Scotland also snpport vigorous mission agencies. The late Dr Livingstone, of the 
London Mifsionary Society, explored vast regions in Central Africa. Fired by his 
example, the friends of missions iu Scotland subscrllKJd X12,000 to fonnd Living' 
ttonia, a memorial mission station on Lake Nyassa, under the management of the 


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FreeChnrcb Foref^ni Misn'one Committee ; and an expedition arrived tliero and estab- 
llahcd Itself in 1876. Various other mlccfonary Boclcllfa, Cutholic and ProteBtnnt, 
have selected stations in the ret^on ot the great hikes. The Weelcynu Mctliodi»^t« 
have missions in many parts of the world. Tliey have been particularly sncct'«»ful 
jn the Fiji Islands, and in parts of the west of Africa.— The Avieriean Board of 
Cmitmiiutionera /€»• Foreign MUsions was formed in 1810. and wap soon followed hy 
other missiouary societies iu America, pomc of which rival tho?e of Urituin in mat:- 
oiiode and importance. One of tlie first enterprises of the American Bonrd was the 
mission to the Sandwich It^laud^, founded in 1819, which has resulted in the frenernl 
Christian isat Ion of these islands, and in their civilisation to a degree which, con- 
sidering the shortness of the time, may well bt* regarded with fcdmimtion. The 
American Baptist Misttionarff Society has occupied Bnrmah and the Rintern Penlu- 
Mila as one of its principal spheres of labor, and there its missionurie? have enjovcd 
renurkable anccesa in the Christian isation and civilisation of the people calle<l 
Karens. Protestant mission^iry societies have also been formed on the continent 
of Europe, of which the first was that of Basel, in 1S16, and the next was thai of 
Berlin, in 1dS3 ; and some of theso. have also maintained successful missions in 
heathen conuiries. The lustancee of most marked and extensive success of mis- 
tions arc tho«e which have been already noticed, and that of Madagascar, wlicre 
missionaries of the London Missionary Society enjoyed tl:e protection and favor of 
KingRadania I., and ttie church planted hy them continued to exist, notwithstand- 
ing severe persecution, and the martyrdom of not a few of its memljcrs. during the 
Bext rei^cD, and is a wonderfully flourishing church at the present day. Iu the south 
of Africa, also, important resnlts have been attained. Access has recently been 
obtained to China, aiKl a nuralx-r of Protestant churches and societies have entered 
euerKelicailv upon that field. Preparation had been previously mado for this, hy 
BissioDBry lalx>rs amongst the Chinese iu the Euptern Peninsula, and hy the study 
of the language, the compilation of grammars and dictiouarics. and the translation 
of tli« Bible into the Chinese language. Indeed, it mui*t be reckoned as among tlio 
senrtoes rendered to mankind by Christian missionaries in modern limes, that they 
have not only translated the Bible and other religions books into many languages, 
bat have reduced many barbarous tongues to writing, and have prepared gnininnirs 
•Dd dictionaiieff, thereby contributing not a little, independently of their highest 
aim, to the promotion of knowledge, civilisation, and the welfare of the humiwi rnco. 
n»« protrress of Christian missions to Mohammedan countries has hitherto been 
▼ery small, although numerous converts from Mohammedanism, as well as from 
lieatheuisni, have been made in India. Of late, some have thought they ohsci-ved a 
movement among the Mohammedans of Iudia,'apparently tending towards Chi is- 
tianlty; but at the same time there has been a new awakening of Mohammedanism 
Itself in the Eastern Peninsula and the islands of the Malayan Archipelago. Mis- 
mons to the Jews have for several years engaged not a little of the attention of some 

Krtious of the Christian Church, particularly iu England and Scotland. Missions 
ve been planted iu places where Jews are numerous, and already with considera- 
ble saccese. 

MISSISSrPPI, one of the south-western United States of America, lies in lat. 
ao^ 13'-4»«> n., and long. 88«> T'— 91° 41' w. It is 839 miles from north to south, and 
from 78 to 118 miles from east to west, containing an area of 47,156 square miles. 
Iti-* V.iinded ii. by Tmitt -- , . . by Alabuma, s. by the Gulf of Mexico and East 
I..r;;-r iiri, find w. hy the ii\. - J'earl and Mississippi. The state also includes a 
1 i.-Iamlt* in ilic (i nil, oi which the principal are Horn, Deer, and Ship Islands*. 
73 coiintji'r'. '1 he in-incipal towns are Jnckson (the capital), Natcher., Vicks- 
'i Colunibiij*. There nie S8 miles of sea-coast, but no good harbors. Thcsnr- 
fnc*j 15 undril:itiijj(, and peiierally very fertile, with river-hottoms of great produc< 
tivenets. The sen-coaJ?t Is* Himify, but well timbered with live oak, mugnolla, and 
pine, and is cnnrtidei-ed one of the most healthy dlstiicts In the world. The state 
DordcfH for 50*> miles on ilie Mississippi, and Is drained hy its tributaries, the Ya- 
«oo. Bhick, Sunflower, &c., and by the Pearl and Pascagoula, flowing into the 
Gulf of Mexico. The country is of the Tertiary and Upper Secondary formations, 
with great allnviul valleyw;; ihe climate semi-tropicsil ; th^^tief productions, cot- 
tun, t^n^r, maise. whcnt. Bwi^t potatoes, peaches, flgs, crcRges, &c. In Its forests 
are found tlio deer, puina, bear, wolf, wild-cat, paroquets, wild itnrkeys, and pi- 




Miss'ssippi 1 QA 

Missouri AOU 

gcons, with fish and alUjjators In the rivers. The state la well proTlded with nrfl- 
wnys, and has imnionsc wealth and rt'soiirccs. In 1870, with a population of 1,131,- 
597, it prodaccd 963,111 Iba. of coitou, and 21,340,800 bushels of Indian corn. In 
1874, there were 1 university, 4 colleges, an agricultural college, an iustitatiou for 
deaf-mutes and the blind, also a lunatic asvlnra. This region was traversed by De 
Soto in 1542. La Salle descended the Mississippi In 16S2, and claimed tlie country 
for France ; iu 1G9S, M. d'Iberviile formed settlements on the coast at Ship Island 
and Biloxi. Natchez was settled in 1700 ; but in 1728 this settlement was destroyed by 
the Natchez tribe of Indians, who were afterwards defeated, and the survivors sold 
into slavei-y hi St Domlnso. M. was admitted to the Union in 181T; it seceded in 
1861, and joined the Southern Confederacy. In 1869, M. agreed to the now consti- 
tution, and was restored to its place in the Union. In 1663, the city of Vicksbuiig, 
after a long and gallant defence, was forced, by famine, to surrender to General 
Grant; and Jackson, the capital, was taken, and partially destroyed by the Feder- 
als, and some of the finest regions of the state laid waste. 

MISSISSIPPI (Indian, JlfwAe fifepe. Great River, literally. Father of Waters), a 
river of the United Stat«s of America, tlie principal river of North America, and, In- 
cluding its chief branch, the Missouri, the longest in the worid, rises in the high- 
lands of Minnesota, in a cluster of small lakes, and near the sources of the Red River 
of the North, and the rivers which flow into Lake Superior, in iat 47° 10' u., long. 
940 54' ^ff^ ite sources are 1680 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, into which it enters. 
Its general course is southerly, wiUi numerous windings, giving it a length of S988 
miles to its mouths, in Iat. 29<> u., long. 90° w., from which, to the source of tho 
Missibari, is 4506 miles. The M. and its branches drain an area of 1,826,600 square 
miles. It is navigable to the Falls of St Anthony, 2200 miles, and by smaller ooatu 
above the falls ; or by the Missouri, 3950 miles, and has 1600 uavignble branches, the 
chief of wldch are the Red River, 840 miles from its mouth ; the Yazoo, 684 miles; 
the Arkansas, 700 miles; the Ohio, 1058 miles; the Missouri, 1253 miles. The M. 
River forms a portion of the boundaries of ten states, having the southern part of 
Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and most of Louisiana on the H-est 
bank; and Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi on 
the cast The chief towns situated on its bnnks are New Orleans, Natchez, 
Vicksburg, Memphis, St Louis, Qnincy, Keokuk, Galena, St Paul. The 
Upper M., above the junction of the Missouri, flows throngi) a picturesque and 
beautiful country. The great lower valley is 600 miles long, and from 80 to 60 wide. 
The delta, through which flow its numerous bayons, is 150 miles wide. The alluvial 
plain through which tlie river winds has an area of 81,200 squara miles; ai»d the 
delta, 14,000 square miles, all of which, except a few binflts, Is protected by levees, 
or embankments, from frequeqt inundations. The descent of the plain is 820 feet, 
or 8 inches per mile. The river, at hish water, is higher than the plain, and the 
banks higher than the swamps of the interior. The great floods rise 40 feet al>ove 
low water at the head of the plain, and 20 feet at New OHeans, and for the whole 
distance the river averages 3000 feet wide, and Is from 75 to 120 dee|). There is no 
apparent increase from the largest branches, and it is estimated that 40 per cent, of 
the floods are lost iu the great marshes. Thousands of acres of land upon the bank* 
are annually carried away by the current, with their growth of timber. 

MISSISSIPPI SCHEME. The gigantic commercial scheme commonly known 
by this name was projected In Franceljy the celebrated Jolin Law (q. v.) of Lanris- 
toH, in 1717, and collapsed iu 1720. Its primary object was to develop the resources 
of the province of Louisiana and the country bordering on the Mis5(issippi, a tract 
at that time believed to abound in the precious metals. The company was iucor^ 
poratcd In August, 1717, under the designation of the Company hf tM HVst, and 
startetl with a capital of 200,000 siiares of 600 livres each. They obtained the ex- 
clusive privilege of trading to the Mississippi, farming tlio taxes, and coiuinf 
money. The prospectus was so inviting, that shares were eagerly bought ; and 
when, in 1719, the company obtained the monopoly of trading to the East Indies, 
China, the South Seas, and all the possessions or the Prencli East India Company, 
the brilliant vision opeuad up to the public gaze was irresistible. The Company 
of th4 Indies, as it was t^r called, created 60,000 additional shares, but a rage for 
speculation nad seized all classes, and there were at least is00,000 applicants tot the 


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new shares, which conseqncntfy rose to an enorraons premlnuj. Law, as dlrector- 
geucral, promiBed au aiinnul dividend of 200 llvres per share, which, as the shares 
were paid for in the depreciated Irillets d^itat, amonDted to an aunnal return of 120 
percent. The public euthnsiasm now rose to absolute frenisy, and Law's house, 
and the street in front of It, were daily crowded with npplicants of both sexes and 
of all ranks, who were content to wnit for hours, nay, for days tojjcther, in order to 
obtain on interview with the modern Plutns. While confldence lastetl, a factitious 
impols«c was ^vcn to trade in Pjiris ; the value of manufactures was increased four- 
fold, and the demand far exceeded the supply. The population is said to have been in- 
ca*as«i by huodrede of thousands, many of whom were glad to take shelter in gar- 
rets, kitchens, and stables. But the regent had meanwhile caused tlic paper circu- 
lation of the national bank to be increased as the M. S. stock rose in value, and 
many wary »i>eculator9, foreseeing a crisis, had secretly converted their paper and 
than-s into gold, which they transmitted to England or Belgium for security. Tho 
\ucn»t\tx^ scarcity of gold and silver becoming felt, a general nm was made on tho 
bank. The M. S. stock now fell considerably, and despite sundry desperate efforts, 
which were attended with momentary success, to keep up its credit, it continued to 
fall steadily and rapidly. In February 1720. the National Bank and the Conipany*o£ 
the Indies were amalgamated, but though this gave an upward turn to the share- 
market, ft ftdled to put the public credit on a sound basis. Several useless attempts 
were made to mend matters; and those suspected of having more than a limited 
imoont (fixed by a law passed at the time) of gold and silver in theh: i>OBsessiou. or 
of having removctl it from the country, were punished with the utmost rigor. The 
crisis came at last. In July 17S0, the bank stopped payment, and Law was com- 
pelled to flee the country. A share in the M. S. now with difficulty brotigtit iwouty- 
loor livres. Au examination into tho state of the accountb of the company was or- 
dered by govemmsnt ; much of the paper in circulation was cancelled ; and the 
rest was converted into " rentes" at an enormous sacrifice. 

HI'SSIVEf-in Scotch Law, la a memorandum. See Mikutb ; Letters. 

IHSSOLO'NGHI, also Mesolonghi, a small town of Greece, In the government 
of ^tolia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Patras, 24 miles west of Lepanto. 
It is chiefly memorable for the two sieges which It underwent during the war of in- 
dependence in the early part of the present centnry. In 1822, it was invested by land 
and sea by tiie Turks, who, after a siege of two months, were compelled to with- 
draw. In 1826, it was again besieged by an overwhelming Ottoman force; 
sod after ten montlis of resistance and suffering, its garrison, reduced from 5000 
to 8000 fighting-men, cot their way through the raulcs of the enemy, carryinfi" 
with them a great number of the women aud children. The Turks then entered 
thetowo, which woa all but totally destroyed. Here Lord Byron died in 1S24. Pop. 
about 4000. 

MSSOUTIT. one of the United States of America, in lat. 86o 80'— 40© 80' n., and 
long. 89^ 2' — 95° Si* w., being 277 miles from north to soutli, and from 200 to 81S 
Hjlles from east to west, having an area of 07,880 square miles, or 48,123,200 acres. 
It Is bounded n. by Iowa; c. by the Mississippi River; s. by Arkansas; and w. by 
Nebraska Territory, Kansas, and the Indian Territory. M. has 114 counties. 
Its chief towns arc Jefferson City (the capital), St Louis, Kansas City, Hannibal, 
8t Joseph, Lexington. Its chief rivers are the Mississippi, which borders 
the state for 470 miles; the Missonrl, which forms a portion of its western 
boondary, and passes through it from west to east; and its afllnents, the 
Osage, Gasconaae, &c. The country south of the Missouri Elver is nndulat- 
iog, rising Into mountains toward the border^f Arkansas ; the northern portion of 
the state Is level prairie-land, with rich bottoms, and high picturesque bluffs on the 
rivers. The geological formations range between tho Lower Silurian and Uppec 
Coal. There are porphyritic rocks in the south ; in the centre, coal-measures, with 
veins of an aggregate thickness of 500 feet, highly bituminous, and immense de- 
posits of Iron, with lead and iron in limestone formations. The winters are long aud 
severe, the summers hot, with sudden changes. Much of the land is very fertile, 
producing maize, wheat, hemp, tobacco, the peach, nectarine, grape, &c. Cotton 
is grown in the sonthern counties. A large German population has introduced 
wiDe-makiog. The chief maanf act ores are ironworks, distilleries, and breweries. 


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MiMonri 1 09 

Mltakahara -"-^-^ 

8t Loala has a large trade, and the wcsteru towns supply caravADS or trains to New 
Mexico, UtuU, and Culif oinia. The counties and cities have appropriated $46,000,000 
to railways, and in 1875 there wore 3086 miles complcteil, and several handred 
under con««tmction. Tliere are 39 universities and colleges, several inedlcal and 
ecclesiastical H^minarict*, SOOO public schools with 370,000 pupils, and above 9000 
churches. M. was formerly a part of Up|>er Louisiana. St Genevieve was settled in 
1753, by emigrants from' Canada and Spain. St Louis, a French trading-post, iu 
1775, had 800 Inhabltauta. The country was purcliased by President Jefferson in 
1803; and in 1321, after a great cout^^st, was admitted into the Union as a slave 
state, under what was called the Missouri Compromise, which admitted M.,but pro- 
hibited Blavei^ north of the northern boundary of Arkansan, 30<3 30' n. lat In 1861. 
M. juiued with llio Seceded Stjitet*. and became a scene or civil war and violent 
partiBan conaicts. Pop. in 1820, 66,586 ; and in 1840, 3S3,702 ; in 1800, 1,182,817 ; 
in 1870, 1,716,000 ; in 1880,2,168,880. 

MISSOURI (Mud River), a river of the United States of America, and chief af- 
fluent of the Mississippi, rises in two forks, tlie Jefferson and Gallatin, In the R0CI7 
Moputains, Dakota Territory, Int. A^° n., long., al>out 112° w. its course is first 
northerly for 500 miles, then easterly 1200, thim south-easterly to the mouth of the 
Kansas, and easterly to its junction with tlie Mississippi. Its icngth from its source 
to the Mississippi is 3006 miles ; to tiic Gulf of Mexico, 4506. It is unvigable at high 
water to the Great Fulls, 2540 miles from the Mit«is8ip)ii. It Is a turbid, ra|nd 
Btrearo, with a vast number of tributaries, the chief of which am the Osage, the 
Kansas, the Platte, the Cheyenne, the Yellowstone. 'Hie Upper M. is remarkable 
for Its scenei7 ; at 411 miles from its source. It enters the Gates of tlie Rooky Moun- 
tains, a gorge of 6^( miles, between pen>endicular walls 1200 feet high, and 450 feet 
apart. At the Great Falls, 145 miles below, the river falls 857 feet in a series of 
rapids and capcadcs, 16)^ miles long. The largest fall is 87 foct,^nd the scenery is 
full of grandeur. 

MISTAKE is a ground in law for having a contract reformed, and may be set up 
In some cases as a defence ; but a mere nustake as to the legnl effect of a deed or 
contract is In general not regarded as a ground for redress. When money has been 
paid by a mistake as to some important fact, it may be recovered back from (ho 
parly to whom it was so paid by an action for money had and received; but If the 
mistake was made In a matter of law, it caunot be recovered back. 

MI'STLETOE (Anglo-Sax. mUMtan, Ger. mUtel; the tan of the Anglo-Saxon 
name means a tine or prong, n shoot of n tree ; mUm is cf uncertain etymology, 
but probably the same. In meaning at least, as the Latin viscus), a genus (K<sct<m) 
of small parasitical shrubs of the natural order Loranthaeem, This order is exo- 
genous, and contains more than 400 known species, mostly tropical and pnrasitM. 
The leaves are entire, almost nerveless, thick and fleshy, and without sUpulesu The 
flowers of many species arc showy. The calyx arises from a tnl>e or rim, whkh 
sometimes assumeM the appearance of a calyx, and Is so regarded by many botanists ; 
what others deem the colored calyx being viewed by them as a corolla of 4 or 8 petals 
or segments. Within this are the stamens, as numerous as Its divisions, and oppo- 
site to them. The ovary is one-celled, with a solitary ovule ; the fruit one-seeded, 
generally succulent.— The only British species of this order is the Common M. 
(F. a^frtim)* tt native also of the greater part of Europe, growing on many kinds of 
trees, particularly on the apple, and others botanically allied to it, as the pear, ser- 
vice, and hawthorn ; sometimes, also, on sycamores, limes, poplai-s, locust-trees, 
and flrs, but very rarely on oaks (contrary to the common belief). It is very plenti- 
ful in some parts of the south of E%Iand, its evergreen leaves giving a peculiar 
appearance to the orchards In winter, when the bushes of M. are very conspicuous 
among the naked branches of the trees ; but it is very local. It is not a native 
of Scotland, though found naturalised in various places. The stems are 
diehoUrmotm (i. e., divide by forking) : the leaves are o])posite, of a ycllowlsb-grcea 
color, obovate-lanceolate, obtuse. The flowers are inconspicuous, and crow In 
small heads at the ends and in the divisions of the branches, tlie male and female 
flowers on separate plants. Tlie berries are about the sixe of currants, white, 
translucent, and full of a very viscid juice, which serves to attach the seeds to 
branches, where they take root when they germinate, the radicle always turning 


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toirards the brnoch, whether on Its upper or nnder ride. The M. deriTcs Its iiourlah- 
meiit from the living tlrane of the tree on which it grows, and from which it eecms 
to spring as if it were one of its own brandies. The benies ure a favorite food of 
thrnrhes. Bird-lime is made from them and from tlie harlc. The M. mus iutimatcly 
counected with many of tlie snpofBtltions of the ancient Germans and of the Britisli 
Draids. In the northern mytlvoki^y, Balder is said to have been slain with u spear 
of mistletoe. Among the Celts, the M. which grew on tlic oak was in pecuh'ar 
esteem for mafical virtues. Traces of lljo ancient regard for the M. still remain in 
some old English and Glerman cnetoms, as kissing nuder the M. at Christmas. The 
M. was at one time in hish repnte ns a remedy for epilepsy and convalsious, but it 
:iaed medicinal * properties.— Loran</tiM EuropmuSfU \ 

! to possess no decided medicinal * properties.— Loran</tiM EuroptruSf a sUnib 
very similar to the M., hnt with flowers in nicemes, is plentiful in some parts of the 
soQth of Enropo, and very frequently grows on oaks.— L. odorattiSf a Nepauleso 
tpcdes, has very fragrant flowers. 

MISTRAL, Mistraou, or Maestral, the FroveiiQal designation of the Caurus 
or Corua of the Romans, is a north-west wind which at certain seasons of the year 
prevails ou the sooth coast of France. Its approach is heralded by a sudden change 
of tlie temperature, from the most genial warmth to piercing cold ; the air U felt to 
be purer, and more easily inhaled, ihe azure of the sky Is nudimmcd by cloud, and 
tlte s!ars ^hine by night with extraordinary and sparkling brightness ; this last ap- 
pearance is an infallible prognostic. The Mistral then comes in sudden gusts, strug- 
gling wHli the local atrial currents, but its fast increasing violence soon overcomes 
all opposition. In a few hours it has dried up the soil, dispersed the vapors of the 
atmosphere, and ntised a dangerous tumult among the waters of the Mediterranean. 
The Ikustral blows with its greatest force from the end of autumn to the beginning 
spring, uDd causes much damage to the fruit-trees in blossom, and often to the fleld- 
crope- It is a terror to the mariners of the gulfs of Lyon and ValeucCj and even the 
roost liardy seaman makes all liastc to a harbor of refuge. The mont probable cauc>c 
of the Mistral is the derangement of atmospheric cquifibrium produced by the cold 
condensed air of tlie Alps and Cevenues rushing in to supply the vacuum produced 
by the expansion of the air in the warm southern provinces of France, and qy the 
sarfacc of the Mediterranean. This wind is very ai>propriateIy denominated by the 
Italians Maestro. 

MISTRE'lTA, a town of the island of Sicily, 6T miles west-soutii-west of Mes- 
siua, capital of a district. Pop. (18TI) 11,218. It occupies a healthy situation near 
the northern coast, in the vicinity of , the river Nebroden. 

MITAKSHARA is the name of several commcjitatorial works in Sanscrit^ for 
instance, of a commentary on the text Iwok of the Ved&nta philosophy, of a com- 
' mentary on the Mlm^e& work of Kum&rila, of a commcntarv on the Br'ihad&ran'- 
yaka (sec Teda), &c. The most renowned work, however, oearing tiiis title is a 
detailed commentary by Viinaues'wara (also called Vijnauanfitha), ou the law-book 
of Yiioavalkya (q. v.) ; and its authority and influence are so great that •* it is re- 
ceived in all tlie schools of Hindu law from Benares to the southern extrcmitf of 
the peninsula of India as the chief groundwork of the doctrines which they follow, 
and as an authority from which they' rarely dissent " (cf. two treatises on the Hindu 
Law of inheritance, trane^lated by H. T. Colebrooke, Calcutta, 1810). Most of the 
other renowned law-books of recent date, sncli as the Smr'iti-Chandrikft, uliicli 
prevails in the south of India, the Chintftman'i, Vtramltrodaya, and Mayftklia, which 
are authoritative severhlly in Mitliilft, Benares, and with the Mahrattas, generally 
defer to the decisions of tlicM. ; the J)&yah\\&ga of JimatavAhana alone, whieli is 
adopted l»y the Bengal school, differs on almost every disputed point from tlie M., 
and does not ac^iowledee its authority. The M., following the arrangement of its 
text-worlc, the code of Yfijnavalkya, treats in its first part of duties in general ; in 
its second, of private and administrative law ; in its third, of purification, penance, 
devotion, and so forth ; but, since it frequently quotes other legislators, expound- 
ing tbelr texts, and contrasting them with tliose of YAjnavalkya, it is not merely a 
commentary, bat supplies the place of a regular dicest. The text of the M. has 
been edited several times in India. An excellent translation of its chapter ** On In- 
heritance " was published by Colebrooke in the work above referred to ; and its ex- 
planatioii of TAjnavalkya is followed by the same celebrated scholar in hia *' Digest 


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Mite 104. 

of HiDda Law " (3 vols. Colcatta and Londoo, 18OI), when translating passages from 
tbis ancient author. 

MITE, a name sometirafis given to the Acarides generally (geo Aoabds) ; sorao- 
timea only to thow of them wnich liave tbo feet formed for walking, and tbe mouth 
not faraishcd with a Rnckcr formed of laucet-liko plates, as in the Ticks (q. v.X 
hut with mandible?. All of them are small crcatdrss; the species are very numer- 
ous ; they feed cliiefly on decaviug animal and vegetable substances, or are parasiti- 
cal on qnndrnpeds, birds, and insects. Tlie Cheese M. {AearxM dometttctUy see 
article Acarus) is one of the best known species ; another is the FiouR M. (A. 
/arince)y too common among flour, in both of which the body is covered with hairs 
very large in proportion to its sisse, and capable of a considerable amonut of motion. 
Tlio SuoAB M. {A. saecharinus) BWRrina in almost all «o/f sugar ; but refined and 
crystallised sugar seems to defy its mandibles, and is free of it. The surface of 
jelly and prcserv^. when it has begun to become dry, is often covered with molti- 
tudos of very small mites. A species of M. is the cause of Itch (q. v.) ; and many 
of the lower animals are infested by parasites of this tnbe. Beetfes may of ten be 
seen absolutely loaded by a species which preys on them : and bird-faucfers regard 
with the utmost horror the Red M., wliich lurks in crevices of cages and aviaries, 
and sucks the blood, and eats the feathers of their inmates. 

MITFORD, Mary Rnsscll, a well-known English authoress, was the only child of 
a physician, and was born at Alresford, Hants, December 16, 1TS6. At tbe age of 
ten, she was sent to a boardiuff-school at Chelsea, and also placed under the guid- 
ance and tuition of a Miss Rowueu. n lady of a literary turn, who had already educated 
Lady Cnroliue Lamb, and was destined to be the instructress of MissLandou and of 
Fanny Komble. During the five yeare she spent hei-e, she read with avidity, study- 
ing the tragic authors of France, Shukspeare, and the early dramatists of Enr:Iaud. 
At the age of fifteen, she returned home, and before alio was twenty, she published 
throe volumes of poetry. These having been severely castigated by the ** Quarterly 
Review." she applied herself to writing tales and sketches tor the magasdues. The 
profession she had adopted from taste she was obliged to continue from uccossily, 
for jhe spendthrift habits of her father, a grood-natured but careless gentleman, had 
exhausted a competent fortune, and left mm dependent on his daughter. Tbe first 
volume of "Our Villngc" appeared in 18544, and the series of five volumes was com- 
pleted in 1882. Of the more important of her dramatic works, ** Julian" was first 
performed in 1823; the " Foscari "in 1826; and "Rienxi" in 1S28— all of them, and 
especially the last, with success. Among her other important works, are "Recol- 
lections of a Literary Life " (3 vols. 1352) ; "Atheriou" (a novel, 3 vols. 18M) and other 
tales; and In 1864, she also publisiied a collected edition of her Dramatic Works, 
in two volumes. In 1838, she received a pension from government, but neither this 
nor the growing ill-health of her later years, induced her to relax her literary indns- ' 
try. She died at her residence, Swallowfleld Cotlnffe, near Reading, January 10, 1856. 

Succeattful both as a compiler and aw author. Miss M. h:is prriduced many inter- 
esting volumes; but her fame— if the admiring respect for an amiable lady and a 
woman of graceful literary genius mav be so called— rests chiefly on tlie sketches 
of country life which compose " Our Village." These sketches are chiefly memora- 
ble for their style, which, if not willy, is vivacious, genial, and humorous; the ont- 
coiue at ouco of a good heart, an active brain, and a fine fancy. 

MITFORD, William, wjis bom in London, Februnry 10, 1744, and studied nt 
Queen's College, Oxford, but left the university without Uikinj^ his degree. In 1T61, 
he succeeded to the family estate ; and in 1769, became a captam in the South Hamp- 
sliirc Militia, in which capacity he made the acquaintauce of Gibbon, then a major 
of the same, by whose auvlce and encourasemeul he was induced to undertake a 
history of Greece. M.'s flrf«t work, entitled "An Inquiry into the Principles of Har- 
mony in Languages, and of the Mechanism of Verse, Modern and Ancient," np- 
pmred in 1774; but by far hie most important publication was his "History of 
Greece," the first volume of Which appeared in 17S4. and the last in 1818. It is a 
puji'uacious, opinionutive, one-sided, and even fanatical production. The author is 
an Intense hat(*r of democracy, ond can see in Philip uf Macedon nothing but a 
great statesman, and in Demo»thenes, nothing but an oratorical demagogue. Yet 
his zeal, which so often led him astray, also urged him, for the very purpose of sub- 


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■tantiatln^ Ills yfewis to eearch more miontely and critically than bis prednccssors 
iuto cenain i>ortIon8 of Oreek hL8tory, and the cousequeuce was that M/s work held 
the iiigbest place lu the opinion of scholars until the appearance of Thirlwall and 
Ofolc He died Febmary 8, 1S27. 

MITHRAS (cf. Snnecrit JfiYram, friend), the highest of the twenty-cislit second- 
daas diviuities of the ancient Persian Pantheon, the Ized (Zend. Yazata) or Qeuins 
of tbu Snn, and mter of the nnlverse. Protector and supporter of man in this 
Hfe, be watches over his eonl in the next, defending u against the impure 
spirits, and transferring it into the realms of etcruar bliss. He is all-seeing 
and all-bearing, and, armed with a club— his weapoa against Ahrimnn nud tlie evu 
Zte»c#— he unceasingly "runs his course" between heaven and carlh. The ancient 
moDoments represent him as a beauiiful youth, di'essed in Phr>*gian garb, kneeling 
opon au ox, iuto whose neck he plunges a knife; several minor, varying, allegoilcal 
emblems of the snn and'his course, surrounding the group. At limes, he is 
also represented as a lion, or the he:id of a liou. The most important of his 
many festivals was his birthday, celebrated on tlie 26th of December, the day 
NibMqaently fixed— against all evidence — as the Inrthday of Ciirist. TIjo worship 
of M. early found its way into Rome, and the mysteries of M. {Uierocoracied, Cora- 
ciea&ia'a), wliich fell in the spring equinox, were famous even among the many 
Boman festfruls. The ceremonies observed in the initiation to tljcse mysteries — 
rfmbolical of the struggle between Ahriman and Ormuzd (the Good and the Evil) — 
were of the most extraordinary and to a certain degree even dangerous character. 
Baptism and the partaking of a mystical liquid, consisting of flour and water, to be 
drank with the utterance of sacred formulas, were among the inaugurntive acts. 
The seven degrees — according to the number of the planets — were, 1. Soldiers: 2. 
lions (in tlie case of men), or Hysenas (in tliat of women): 3. Ravens : 4. Degree of 
Bene*: 5. of Oronii4>$: 6w of Ueliwt: 7. of Fatliers— the highest— who wore also 
called Eagles and Hawks. At first, of a merry character— thus the king of Persia 
was allowed to get drunk onlv on the Pcast of the Mysteries— tlie solemnities grad- 
ually assunoed a severe and rigorous aspect. Prom Persia, the cultus of M. and the 
mysteries were Imported into Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, &c., and it is not un- 
liktiy that in some parts human sacrifices were connectid with tliis worsliip. 
Through Rome, where this worship, after many vain endeavors, was finally sup- 
Fessed in 3T8 A.D., it may be presumed that it found its way into the weet and north 
of Europe; and many tokens of its former existence in Germany, for instance, arc 
■tiB to be foond, such as the M, monuments at Hedernheim, near t'raukfurt- on- 1 he- 
Maine, and at otiier places. Among the chief autliorlties on this subject are Anquetll 
^B Perron, Crenzer, Silvestre de Sacy, Lajard, O. Mailer {Denkmatcr d. alien Kumt). 
See GcnsBREs, Parsees, Zendavesta. 

MITHRIDA'TES (more properly, Mithbadates, a name formed from the Per- 
•ian Mithras, or J/iYAro, ** the sun," and an Aryan root da, to give ; hence ** sun-given", 
or "sun-boru " prince), tlie name of several kings of Pontus^ Armenia, Comniagene, 
Partbia, and the Bosporus, all of whom have sunk into insignificance, with ttie ex- 
ception of H. VI. of Pontns, sumamcd Eupatob and Dionysus, but more geuer- 
slly known as M. the Qbbat. Little is known of liis early career. He i^ucceedcd 
bi« father, probably about 120 B.O., while under 13 years of age. and soon after i^ub- 
doed the tribes who bordert-d on the Enxine, as for as the Chersouesus Tanrica 
(Crintea), and after the death of Pari'satis. incorporated the kingdom of the Bos- 
Pornswith bis dominiomh The jei\lous beliavior Qt the Romans, and the prompt- 
ings of his own ambitions spirit, now incited him to invade Cappadocia and Bithy- 
nia, but a wholesome fear of the power of the Great Republic induced him to re- 
store bis conquests. The First Mithridatio War was commenced by the king of 
Bitbynia (S8 B.C.), who, at the instigation of the Romans, invaded Pontus. M. sent 
an ambassador to Rome to complam of this treatment, but he was sent back with 
an evasive reply. M. immediately commeuce<l hostilities, and his generals repeat- 
edly defeated the Asiatic levies of the Romans, and he himself took possession of 
Bithynia, Cappadocin, Phryeia, and the Roman possessions in Asia Minor, the in- 
habitants of which last hailed him as a deliverer. By his orders, n great massacre 
of tbc Romans took place, in which, according to one account, 80,000, 
and iccording to onotuer, 160,000 wero slain, uc also sent tbreo pow- 


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M.ty]6iic *-^^ 

crfnl nnnicB to aid the Greeks in tli^ir rebellion, but the disafttroue iKit- 
ties of Clioeronea nnd Orchomenus broke hi» power In tliat country. He ww, 
tiowevcr, driven from Pergamns (S5 b.c.) by Ffavins Fimbria, and reduced to tlic 
necessity of making peace with Sulla, rclinqnlshiiig all his conquests in Asia, giving 
up 70 war-galleys to the Romans, and paying 2000 laleuts. The wanton nggrersione 
or Murena, the Honian legate, gave rise to the Second MithrUaUc ITar, in 83 b.c. 
M. was wholly successful in this war, but i>eacc was concluded on tlie istatxu qxto^ 81 
B.O. M. felt, however, that this was merely a truce, and lost no time in preparing 
for a third contest, in alliance with Tigrancs, king of Armenia, the next most pow- 
erful monarch of Asia. Tigranes seized Cappndocia. 76 B.C., and M., in the follow- 
ing year, invaded Bitliynia, commencing the Third Mithridatic War. M. formed nn 
alliance with Sertorius (a. v.), and obtained the services of Roman officers of the 
Mtirian party, who trainea his army after the Roman manner. The arms of M. 
were at first successful ; but afterwards the Roman consul Lucullus (q. v.) compiled 
bim to take refujge with Tigranes, 72 b.c. Lucullus then couauered Pontes, de- 
feated Tigranes, C» b.c, at Tigranocerta, and l)oth Tigranes and M. at Artaxata, 68 
B.C. M., liowevep, recovered possession of Poutus. After the war had lingered for 
some time, CneUis Pompeius (see Pompet), completed the work of Lucullus, 66 
B.C., defeatiuc M. on tlie Euphrates, and compelling him to flee to the Bosporus. 
IIc*re his inc^mitabie spirit prompted iiim to form a new scheme of vengeance, 
which was, liowcver, frustrated by the rebellion of his sou, Phamaces, who be- 
sieged him in PauticnpaoDum. Deeming his cause ho|>eles.«, M. put an end to his 
own life, 68 n.o. M. was a specimen of the true eastern despot, but he possessed 
great ability, and extraordinary energy and persuverauco. Uis want of success was 
owing not to his defects as a general, out to the impossibility of raising and training 
an army capable of cophig with the Roman legions, and his system of tactics daring 
the tliird Mithridatic war, plainly sliews his thorough conviction of this fact. Ilo 
had received a Qroek education at Siuopo, could speak no less than 26 different lan- 
guages and dialects, and possessed considerable love for the arts, of which his niag- 
niflceut collection of pictures, statues, and engraved gems were a proof. In the cs- 
tinuiUon tf Uie Romans, he was the most formidable opponent they ever encoun- 
tered, and occasional reports of ids various successes spread the utmost terror among 

MITRE, the point or line of oniOD of mouldings meeting at an angle. 

MITRE (Lat. m^tra, al-^o infula), the liead-dress worn in solemn church services 
by bishops, abbots, and certain other prelates in the Western Church. The name, 
as probably the ornament iisidf, is borrowed from tlio orientals, altliough, in its 
present form, it is not in use in the Greek Church, or in any other of the cburch(*s 
of the various enntern ritt^:*. The Wi-stern mitre is a tall, tongne-t-haped cap, termi- 
nating in a twofold point, whieh is supposed to symbolise the *' cloven tongues,*' in 
the form of which the Holy Gliosl was im|>arted to the ^postles, and Is fnrninliod 
witli two flap?, which fall liehind over the shoulders. Opinion is much divided as to 
the date at whicli the mitre first came into use. Ensebius, Gregory of NaEianisns, 
Epiphanius. and others speak of an oniamen tod hernl- dress, worn in the church; 
but there is no very early monument or pictorial representation which exhibits any 
liead-coverlug at all resembling the modern mitre. From the 9th c, howevt?r, it is 
found in u<(e, although not universally ; nnd instances are recorded in which the 
iMjpes grant pennission to certain bishop? to wear the mitre; as, for example, Leo 
iV. to Anschar. Bishop of Hamburg, in the 9th century. Tiie material nsc»d in the 
mannfuctnre of the mitre is vary various, often consistiat; of most costly stidf«>, 
studded with gold and precious stones. The color and nniterial differ according to 
the festival or the service in which tlie mltro is used, and there is a special prayer in 
the consecration service of bishop.*, used in investing the new bishop with his mitre. 
The mitre of the pope is of peculiar form, nnd Is called by the name Tiara (q. v.). 
Although the mitre properly iwlongs to bishops only, its use is also iierniltted by 
s|)ecial privilege to certain abbots, to provosts of home distinguished cathedral chap- 
ter^ and to a Tew other dlguitiries. See Binterim, ** DenkwQrdigkeiten derKirche," 
1 B. 2 Th., p. 348. * 

The mitre, as an ornament, seems to have descended in the earliest times from 
bishop to bishop. Among the Cotton Ian MSS., is an order, dated Ist July, 4 Heiir7 



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m Mitre 


VL, for the deliYenr^ Archbishop Chichely of tlie mitre which had been worn by 
bin predecessor. It wftB iu some coses a very costly omameut. Archbishop Pcche- 
itam's Dew mitre, iu 1288, cost X173, 4^ Id. In Englaud, siDce the the Reformation, 
tiie mitre is no longer a part of the episcopal costume, bnt it is p!nccd over ilie 
shield of an archbishop or bishop, instead of a crest. The mitre of n bishop has its 
lower rim sorroauded with a flUet of gold ; bat the Archbishops of Canterbury and 
York are in the practice of encircling theirs with a dncal coronet, a usage of late 
dole and doubtful propriety. The Bishop of Durham surrounds his mitre with an 
earl's coronet, in consequence of being titular Count Palatine of Durham, and Earl 
of Sedburgh. Before toe custom was introduced of bishops impaling the insignia 
of their aees with their family arms, they sometimes differenced their paternal 
cost by the addition of a mitre. Mitres are rare as a charge iu heraldry, bnt arc 
•ometimes borne as a crest, particularly iu Germany, to indicate that the bearers wero 
ieodatori^^ or dependencies of ancient abbeys. 

MTSCHERLICH, Eilhard, a distinguished Prussian chemist, was bom nt 
Neueude, near Jena, iu 1794, and died at Berlin in 1863. In 1811, he proceeded to 
the Duiversity of Heidelberg, where he devoted himself to history, philology, and 
oriental lausuagcs; and he continued the study of these eubjccts at Pans and 
GCttingen. it seems to have been at the Uist-uumcd university that (1814 or 1815) 
lie first turned his attention to geology and mineralogy, cbcmistrjr and physics, 
and it was not till 1818, when he was nt Berlin, that he selected chemistry as his 
special study. His observations on the striking similarity l>etwcen the crystalline 
form and the chemical composition of the arseuiates and the phosphates, led to 
his discoverv of the law of Isomorphism (q. v.), the importance of which was so 
fnlly BerRelins, that he invited the young chemist, in 1819, to Stock- 
bolin, where bo studied till 1821, when, on the death of Klaproth, he was, on the 
strong recomroendation of Bcrzelius, appointed to the vacant chair of chomlstiy at 
Berlin. One of his earliest discoveries after his appointment was that of the double 
crygtalliuc form of sulphur, the first observed case of Dimorphism. SeeDiMOB- 
]*Hous. Els investigations regarding the formation of artificial minerals, and his 
memoirs on Benzine and on the Formation of Ether must be classed amongst his 
XD4W(t important contributions to chemistry; but it is mainly on the discovery of 
laomorpbism and Dimorphism that his reputation will fluallv rest. His principal 
work is his ** Lehrhuch der Chemie," begun in 1829, and concluded in 1841. It has 
psflsed through five editions, and is especially valuable for the clear and simple 
way in which lie has brought mathematics and physics to bear upon the subiect. 
lie was an honorary member of almost all the great scientific societies, and re- 
ceived the gold medal from the Koyal Society of London for his discovery of tho 
law of Isomorphism. 

MI'TTAU, or Mitao, tho chief town of tho government of Conrlaud, in European 
fiasBia, ift situated on the right bank of the Aa, 25 miles south-west of Kign, and 
was founded iu 1871 by tho grand master of the Teutonic Knights. It was annexed 
to Rossia Iu 1795. Pop. (18^ 28,100, the majority of whom are Germans by birth 
or descent, 1000 are Jews, and ou/^ia few Russians. The town is indifferently 
bail!, the bouses being chiefly of wAdfAud painted of a green or brown color. The 
most important buildings are the dm c^istle — now the scat of the governor of the 
province — ^fonr churches, an astronomical observatory, a public library, a museum, 
sod a number of educational and charitable institutions. As regards commerce and 
iudnstrr, the town occupies only the third place iu the government, its principal 
product Deiug articles of japanned iron and tin ; there is an export trade in hemp, 
flax, and corn. M. is the winter residence of the gentry of the surrounding country, 
and was for some time the abode of Xouis XVIllI 

MITTIMUS, an English hiw>tenn for a writ by which a record is transferred out 
of one court into another. 

MI'TTW'^rDA, a town of Saxony, iu the circle of Zwickau, 85 miles south-east of 
Leipzig. For centuries, M. has been noted for its industry. The principal branches 
of industry are spinning, cottpn- weaving, manufacture of fustian, &c., together ^^1th 
dyeworks and bleach-fields. Pop. (1876) 9098. 



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MIXED MARRIAGES. In varlons conntries of Earope, marriages between 
persous of different religions belief hare cither been prohibited or pnt under ro- 
slrlctioiis. The canon law forbade marriages between Christians and non-Chris- 
tians ; at one time, it merely disconraged, at another altogether prohibited the mar- 
riage of orthodox Christians with heretics. Snbseqnently to tijc Reformation, pa- 
pal dispensations were in nso to be granted for marriages between Catholics and 
Protestants, with the condition annexed, that the children should Ije bronght np in 
the Catholic faith. During the latter part of the 17th c, parent* seem to have been 
left at liberty to make what agreement they pleasefl on this head ; and in default of 
their making any, it was presumed that the children wonid follow the religion of 
their father. In the midoio of the IStli c, the validity of mixed marriages, even 
when celebrated by the dvii magistrate, was recognised by the papal court; and un- 
der Napoleon's rule, they became common, without stipulations as to the children. 
The events of 1815 restored sufficient influence to the Roman Catholic Church, to 
enable the clergy to put in force a rule by which they could refuse to celebrate Mch 
marriages without an assurance that the children would be brought up Catholics. 
By a law of many of the German states, the clergymen of the bride was the only 
person who could competently officiate, and an engagement of this kind was often 
not only repugnant to the father as a Protestant, but illegal. Conflicts f oUowod be- 
tween the civil and ecclesiastical authorities, which have sometimes been obviated 
by the priest, on whom the law imposes the celebration of the marriage, not pro- 
nouncing the nuptial benediction, but giving his presence as a witness along with 
two other witnesses when the parties declared themselves husband and wife — a kind 
6f marriage whose^alldity is perfectly recognised by the canon law. In Spain, mar- 
riages l)et ween Catholics and Protestants have sometimes taken place in this way, 
avoiding the stipulations otherwise necessary regnnliug the children. 

There was, till lately, a great diversity in the stat^ of the law of mixed marriages 
in different parts of Germany. Prussia was the first state to do awuy the former 
restrictions by the recognition of a civil ceremony alone as that which constitute 
marriage in the eye of the law. Until that change, the letter of the law provided 
that the children should be brought up in the faith of their father, and no compacts 
to the contrary were allowed. Practically, however, the law was largely evuded, no 
one having a recognised interest to object to tlio fulfilment of such agreementa. In 
Bavaria, mixed marriages lul^ht be performed either by Protestant or Catholic clcr- 

Egymen ; and the spouses had it In their power to make what arrangements they 
leased regarding the children before or after marriage ; but if no such arrangements 
appened to have been made, the children were brought up in the religion of their 
father. In Saxony, and various other Grerraan states, the spouses might, before 
marriage, make what arrangements they liked as to the religion of their children ; 
but if tuey had made none, the law obliged them to be bronght np in tiie faith of 
their father. A bill for rendering civil marringe obligatory throughout the empire 
was brought l)efore the Reichstag in 1874, and pas^ in 1876, thus extending the 
system otPrussia to all otiier German states. This bill enables men and women to 
be married iudependentiy of the consent of tlic clergy (not always easily obtained In 
Catholic districts), or of the difference of thetv relTglous beliefs. It also allows of 
children being left unbaptlsed, and brought Mb without being assigned to any rell- 

60US denoniiuaUon whatsoever. In Austria, the interposition of the Catholic priest 
required in nmrrlages between Catholics and Protestants. He need not, however, 
give the sacerdotal oenediction ; his pa»8iv<! assistance only is required, either In 
taking the declaration of the parties, which is followed by a Protestant ceremony, or 
by being present as a witness at the Protestant ceremony. Wlien the husband is 
Oatholic, all the children must l)e brought up Catholic : when the husband is Prot- 
estant and the wife Catholic, the sons follow the father and the daughters the 
mother. In Denmark, stipulations may be made l>efore or after marriage, and can 
be altered by mutual comment of the parents, or, in some cases, oven after the death 
of one of them. Mixed marriages %vere, till lately, altogether prohibited in some of 
the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, bat they are now auihorlKcd in all the cantons 
by the federal laws. It is generally the clergyman of the husband's creed who offi- 
ciates, but at Zarich the ceremony is performed in both churches. In most cases, 
the children are required to be educated In the religion of their father. 

In most Gerioau states, marriages l>etweeu Christians .and Jews or Mohammc- 


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dans used to be interdicted ; bnt after 1849, the prohibiten b were in indivldnnl cnscs 
dispoised with. In Denmark, snch marriages have been permitted, on condition 
of the children being brought np Proteptauts. In Russia, the memlxjrs of both 
Greek and lioman comrauniona are prohibited from iutermarning with non-ChrlF- 
tiana: members of the orthodox Greek Church cannot marry Greek sectaries ; but 
wlien an orthodox Rnssiun marries a Protestant or Catholic, the benediction mnst 
be given in the Greek Church, and the children baptized in the Greek communion. 
When the parents are of dlifferent religious, buf neither liclongs to the Greek 
Cliurch, 'ante-nuptial stipulations will be given cflfect to ; if noueliave been made, 
the sous follow the father's faitli, tlic daugliters tlio mother's. 

lu France, U»c law regards maniage as a purely civil contract, and recognises 
only the civil celebration, which is completely separated from the religions rite. As 
the faith of tlie parents is not taken coguiisancc of, questions regarding the religious 
location of the children cannot arise before the civil tribunals. 

The only restriction to which mixed marriages are now subjected in any part of 
the United Kingdom is imposed by act 19 Geo. IL c. 13, applicable to Ireland only, 
that a marriage celebrated by a Catholic priest between a Roman Catholic and a Pro- 
testant, or a person who within twelve months has been or professed to be a Protes- 
tant, or between two Protestants, Is null. 

MIXED UACE8. The subject of tnixed rate* Is ono intimately connected with 
an eDlarged study of ethnology. It involves a consideration of the phenomena 
attendant apon the sexnal onlonbetweeu individuals belonging to diiTorcnt varieties 
^ the honmu race ; a.% for instance— adopting the classincatTou of Blumcnbacli — 
Wtveen the Eorc^an and the negro or the American Indian ; or between the 
Aroerfcan Indian and the negro ; or between nnjr of these three and individuals be- 
longing to tlie Malay and Mongolian varieties. It is well understood that such 
imioo&arein general prolific; and not onlv so, but that their offspring is likewise 
prolific; and this fact is much relied upon by some etlinologiBts, as an argument in 
favor of the nnity of the human race. They reason thus : Were the different varie- 
ties of mankind distinct speciee, as has been frequently alleged, then it would neces- 
sarily follow that the offspring of such unions would prove as unfruitful as those 
between the horse and tiieass, the goat and the sheep, the wolf and the dog ; and 
eimilariy with respect to the hybrid^ among birds, insects, and plants. To sum up. 
in the words of Dr Prichard, the best exponent of this school of ethnology : " It 
Beeme to be the well-established result of inquiries into the various tribes of oi^an- 
ised beings, that the perpetuation of hybrids, whether of plants or animals, so as to 
prodoce new and intermediate tribes, is impossible. Now, unless all these ob- 
servations are erroneous, or capable of some explanation that bus not yet been 
pointed oat, they load, with tlie strongest force of analogical reasoning, to tho 
coudosiou, tliat a number of different tribes, such as the various races of 
men, mnst either be incapable of intermixing their slock, and thu9 
tlirays fated to remain separate from each other, or. If the contrary 
should be the fact, that all the races to wliom tho remark applies, are proved by 
it to belong to tho same species." Dr Prichard further observes, that so fai* from 
soch nnious l>etween members of different varieties of the liuman race proving un- 
fruitful, or their offspring unfrnitful, the very opposite is the case, as, for instance, 
io uuiooB between the n^o and the £uroi>ean, the most strongly marked varieties 
of our race. ** If we inquire," ho says, *' into the facts whicli relate to the intermlx- 
tare of n^roes and Europeans, it will be impossible to doubt the tendency of the 
io-term«d Mulattoes to increase. The men of color, or the mixed race between tiio 
Creoles and the heroes, are in many of the West India Islands a i-apidly increasing 
people, and It wooTd be very probable tliat lliey will eventually become the perma- 
nent masteni of those islands, were it not for tho great numerical superiority of tlie 
genuine n^roen. In many parts of America, they are also venr numerous." It is 
to Amcri(», indeed, both north and soutli, that we must chiefly look for the numer- 
oos and varied phenomena resulting from this intermixture of races ; for there we 
itave not only the negro and the European mingling their blood, but the negro and 
the American Indian, the European and tho Indian, and the offspring of each of 
theik; with tho offspring of the other, or with meml)er« of either of the parent stocks ; 
added to which, of late years, the Chinese (of Mongolian race or variety) have ap- 
peared lapou the scene, thus contributing greatly to the number of what are termed 




Miztm-M 1 >iA 

Mobi'0 •'■^v 

human hybrid*. All these, however, are not equally fertile ; and with rcspocf evem 
to the Mulatto^ it is alleged by writers of the Morton school of ethnology that they 
do not pcr])ctnato themwilves for many generations. ** Nature,*' says Sqnler, rather 
dogmatically, " perpetuates no human hvbrids— as, for instance, a permanent mco 
of Mulattoes." And Dr Nott, adopting the classiflcation of species laid down by Dr 
Morton— namely. Remote Species^ in which hybrids arc never produced; Allied Svecietf 
whlcli produce, inter «e, nu unfertile ofEsprfng; and Froximate Speeiea^ which pro- 
duce with each other a fertile ofbpring— is of opinion that it is only bv tlic anion of 
southern or dark-slcinned Europeans with n^ocs that thoronghly prolific Malattoes 
are engendered, which Is not the case in unions occurring between individnala of 
the Anglo-Saxon nnd negro races. In arriving at ttiis conclusion, we cannot help 
thinking that the author has been helped forward by the strong prejndice existing 
In the Southern Stales against all taint of negro blood. A more impartial writer, 
Professor Wilson, in his ** Prehistoric Man," observes: ** There arc upwards of four 
millions of people of African blood in the United States, and certainly not less than 
ten millions throughout the continent and islands of I^orth and South America, and 
of these the larger proportion consists of hvbrids It is impossible to de- 
termine with certainty how far the hybrid colored population of the United States Is 
capable of permanency, either by the development of a fixed hybrid type, or by con- 
tinuous fertility, until the predominant primary type reasserts its power, by their 
return to that of the original white or black parent, so long as the mixf^i breed is 
constantly augmented in the Southern States ny means at variance with the natural 
and moral rcmtions of social life." As it is, the weight of evidence appears to be In 
favor of Dr Prichard's view ; but until tlio doctrine of bybrldity is better under- 
stood, and a more satisfactory answer to the vexed question, ** What is species?" 
has been supplied to us, we must deem it idle to pronouuce dogmatically on the snb- 

Set. See Hybrid and Spboibs. We conclude with a list of half-caslw given by 
r Tschndi, **• with a few additions from other sources," printed in the appendix to 
Professor Wilson's valuable work just mentioned. 

Father. Mother. Half-caste. 

White Negro Mulatto. 

White Indian Mestizo. 

Indian Negro Chiuo. 

White Mmatta Curateron. 

(Creole, only distingnished from 

White Mestlza -l the white by a pale brown 

( complexion. 

White Chinese Chlno-blauco. 

White Cnarterona Qnlntera 

White Quintera White. 

Negro, N. A. Indian Zambo or Caril>oco. 

Nogro, S. A Indian Mamcluco. 

Negro Mnlatta Zambo-negro or Cobra. 

Negro Mesthea Mulatto-oMiuro. 

Negro Chinese Zambo-Chiuo. 

Negro Zamba Zambo-negro (perfectly black). 

Negro Cnarterona. •••* Mulatto (rather dark). 

NeCTO Qulnterona ••*• Pardoc. 

Indian Mnlatta Chiuo-oscnro. 

Indian Mestlza {^SJInU^u?)? ^'"^"^"^ ""^"^ 

Indian China Cliiuo-cholo. 

Indian Zumba Zumbo-cluro. 

Indian China-cholo Indian (with short frizzly hair), 

Indian Cuarteroua Mestizo (rather brown). 

Indian Quintera Mestizo. 

Mulatto Zamba Zam1x>. 

Mulatto Mestiza {^^pte^out "^ "^"^ "^"^ 

Mnhitto China Chiuo (rather daik). 


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ICnCTURES are offldnal proparattons, extempore In their nntnrts eome of 
which— OB, for example, Mistura CamphorcB. Mmura Cretce^ aud MMura Ferri 
Comjmiita=BTe very extensively need in medical practice, citlier as vebicles for 
more actiTe remedicfl, or for their intriuaic valne. 

MI'ZEN, or Mizzen, the ptemmost of the masts In n three-masted vessel, 
and also the smallcpt of the three. Above it ore the mlJsen-topmnBt« tlie mizen-toi)- 
gallant-mast. aud the miacn-royal. It snpports the usual yai-ds. and, in addition, 
the gaff and boom of the Spanker (q. v). A rear-admiral hoists his pendant at the 

Although the word mizcn is now applied adjectively to the several parts, it &\>- 
pears formerly to have been the name of a largo triangular sail carrietl in the stern, 
and thence to ha^e become the distinguishing title of the mast whicli boro that sail. 
The name is probably from It. meziatto^ mean, in the middle ; in opposition to a 
sqoare sail, tvhich Ilea across the vefltfeL 

MNEMO'NICS. See Mexobt. 

MNEMCSYNE, in Classical Mythology, the goddess of Memory, aud the mother 
of the nine mnacs (q. v.>, whom she bore to Jupiter. The priucipw seat of her wor- 
ehip was at Blouthene, in Boetia. 

MOA, the name given by the New Zealandera to the large wingless or strnthious 
birds (see Bbstipekkbs) of which the bones are found imbedded in the sands of 
the seashore, in swamps, forests, river-beds, aud limestone cave?, and of which 
tnditions subsist among ttkem as birds living in their country. The larcest bones 
twlong to the genua Dinomia (q. v.), others to Palapteryx (q. v.) ; and wilh them nre 
fofiDd bonea of a large bird {AptomU) resembling a swan, supposed to be now ex- 
tinct, also of the exutiug species of Apteryx (q. v.) aud of Mtomia (q. v.), much 
smaller birds. It is generally supposed thnt no largo moas have been seen alive 
Bioce about 1660 ; but it iiaa recently been again alleged that some have been scon, 
and rewards have been offered for tlie capture of them. They are represented by 
the New Zealanders as stupid, fat, indolent birds, living in forests, mountain fast- 
Dcsses, Ac., and feeding on vegetable food. Their feet are said to liave been adapted 
for digging. They seem to have been extirpated for the snke of their flesh, feathers, 
aad bonee. The eggs were eaten. The leg-bone? of the moas were filled with 
marrow, and not with air, as those of otlier birds. 

MO'ABITES, a pastoral people, who inhabited the mountainous country east of 
the lower part of the Jordan and of the Dead Sea. Their eultua was characteri?cd 
by many very odious rites, among which was human sacrifice. In the time of the 
Jadges, the Jews were for eighteen years under the yoke of the M., who were 
■fterwards made tributary by David, but, about 900 B.C., shook off their allegia«ce 
10 the Jewish Idngs, and afterwards took part witli the Chaldeans agahist the Jews. 
Tbdr name no longer exists, and the remnants of the people have long been 
indnded among the Arabs. 

MOABITE STONE. The, a stone bearing a long iuscription In Hebrew-Plioeni- 
dw lettera|. discovered at DlbAn In Moab iu 1868. It appeai-s to have been erected 
I7 Mesha, king of Moab, mentioned in 2 Kings vii.. and the inscription refers to his 
wars wilh Israel (In the 10th c. b.o.). Tlie negotiations set on foot for its purchapo 
led to quarrels among the Arab tribes claiming an Interest In It, and the memorial 
was uofortuiately broken to pieces. The fragments, however, wero, with gi-eat 
difflcaU^ collected, and are now preserved in the Louvbe. 

MOAT, the ditch round the ramparts of a fortress, may be either wet— I. e., full 
of water— or dry. In the latter, which is the commoner case, the deptli should not 
be less than 12 feet, nor the width under 24. The more perpendicular the walls, so 
morhthe greater will be the obstruction to the enemy. In regular works, the walls 
are nsnally rev6ted with masonry, that at the foot of the rampart being the scarp or 
escarp, and that below the covered way the counterscarp. See Ditch aud FoBTm- 


MOBI'LB, the principal city and only seaport of Alabama, United States of 
America, is aituatea on the west side of Mobile Kiver, aud at tlic head of Mobile Bay, 
whkh opens into the Gulf of Mexico. It is built with broad shaded sti-eeta on a 


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sandy plain, rleins gradnaU^F from the river, with a floe cnstom-bonse and poet- 
office, city hall and market-house, theatre, Odd Fellows' Hall, cathedral, 80 churches, 
4 orphan asylums, several hospitals, a roedical college, St Joseph's College (a Jesuit 
institiitiou), a convent of the visitation, and academy for young ladies. M. hoa 
several ship-yards, foundries, and cottou-prcsscs. Its chief business is ihc export of 
cotton. The averaKO export for live years preceding the Civil War was te2,S0S 
bales ; in 1S74-6, 131,842 bales, value 9.054,110 dollars, were exported. There \^ al»o 
a large exportation of turpentine, rosin, and tar. Its hnrl>or is defended by Fort 
Morgan. M. was wjtilcd by the French in 1702. Pop. in 1870, 32,034 ; 1880, 28,132. 

MOBILE, a river and bay of Alabama, Ur.ited States of America. Tlie river 
is fonno<l by tlic confluence of the Alabama and Tomblgl)ec, 60 ra. above Mobile, 
which lies at Us month. It is a sluggish stream, with low bnnks and several chau- 
nels. The bay Is 80 m. from north to south, and 10 or 12 from e. to w. The eu- 
tnince from the Qulf of Mexico, 3 hl wide. Is defended by Fort Morgau and Fori 

MO'BILE, Mobili'so, an adjective and verb, used respectively in regard to con* 
tiuental armies, to desiguate a state of readiness for taklu}{ the field, and the act of 
making ready for such an operation. The procens consists in angmeutiug a regi' 
meut from its peace to its war complement, In calling in men on furlough, in or^U" 
ising the staff of divisions and brigades, constituting the commissariat, medical 
artillery, and transport services, and in accumulating provisions and munitions. As 
the work of nmbilii^ing an army causes great and inevitable expense, it is only re- 
sorted to when hostilities appear imminent. 

MOBILIER, Cr6dit. On the 18th November 1858, the French government sanc- 
tioned tlic statutes of a now bank under the name of the SocUU Ginir<U de Cridit 
Mobitier. The name was lntcndc<l as a contrast to the Soeiitis d» Cridit Fonder^ 
which are of the nature of land banks, and advance money on the security of real 
or immovable property ; wiillc the Credit MobUier proposed to give similar aid totlt« 
owners of movable property. The declared object of this hank is es|>ecially to pro- 
mote iudu.-«trinl enterprises of all kinds, such as the construction of railways, siuk- 
iugof mines, &c. Various privileges were conferred upon it under its charter; in 
es])ec]al, It was allowed to acquire shares in public companies, and to pay the calls 
made upon it in rePi>oct of ench shares, by its own notes or oblieations; also to sell 
or give in security all sliares thus acquired. Tl»e operations of the society were con- 
ducted ui>on a very extensive scale. In 1854. it subscribi'd lar^elv to the goveru- 
mont loan on account of the Kussian Wnr. to the Grand Central Hailway Company, 
to the General Omnibus Company of Paris, and to various other important nnder- 
taMngs. The dividend for this year was 12 per cent. In lSo5, it lent two sums to 
the government— the one of 250, and the other of 376 millions of francs. Its o|>erA- 
tions were vast during this year, and the dividends declared amounted to 40 per cent. 
The directors Lad not hitherto availed themselves of their privilege of Issuing their 
own obligations, but tliis they now resolved on doing. Tiiey proposed to issue two 
klndft— the one at short dates; the other at long dates, and i-edeemable by iitstal- 
meuis. The pniposed issue was to amounl to 240 millions of franca, but the public 
became alarmed at the prospect of so vast an issue of paper-money, i^o that, in March 
1866, the French government deemed it necessary to prohibit the cari-ylng out of the 
proposed scheme. This was a pevere blow to the Institution. In 1856, its dividends 
did not exceed 22 per cent, ; hi 1S57, tlicy were only 6 per cent. ; in 1860, they were 
10 ix?r cent. In 1867, stock fell greatly, and the company had to go into liquidation. 
The manager;*, however, retired with large fortunes. The shares are 600 francs, and 
the market price in January 1876 was IW francs. The Credit Moblller has nndonbl- 
edly been highly useful in developing the industrial power of France, bnt Its opera- 
tions have been h:i2ardous, and had they not been checked in time, they would m all 
probability have ended in disaster. 

MO'CIIA, tlie most strongly fortified seaport, and once the capital, of the pro- 
vince of Yemen, in Arabhi. It is situated on the Ked Sea, at the head of a little bar 
near the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and 130 miles west-north-west of Aden (q. v.). All 
round the shore is a hot sandy waste. The principal trade is lo coffee, of which 
10,000 tons (of the finest quality) are annuallv exported to Jiddah, Sues, and Bora- 
bay. Other exports arc dates, gums, balm, ivory, senna, &c Pop. 6000. 


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MOCHA STONES are pieces of agate or of chalcedony, coiitalulpg dendritic In- 
flltratioos, often nMnmlur appearances rery like finely rammed confervjc, &c They 
receiTe tlieiiameltfocha Stone because, when they first became known iu Bnrope, 
they were brought from Mocha. Of the same nature with M. S. are Moea Agahs, 
The reeemblance of the euclosed iufiltruttonii to plants is often merely accidental, 
bat it appears to be sometimes really due to plants, which were enclosed iu the 
cavity in which the silicioua mineral itself was tormed. 

MO'CKING-BIRD, or Mocking-Thrush (Jf^rw or Orpheus), a eenns of blnls of 
the family Mcrulidce, having a more elongated fonn than the true thmsbcs, a longer 
tail, shorter wings, and the upper mandible more curved at the tip. They are all 
American. The l)cst known species, the M. of the Uuitwl States \M. polpglottvs), 
n abont the size of the song-thrash ; the upper parts of a dark brownish ash color, 
the wings aod tail nearly black, tlje under parts brownish white. The M. is common 
Id almost all parts of America, from the south of New England to Brazil ; north of 
the Delaware, it is only a summer visitant, but in more southern regions it is 
found at all seasons. It is one of the most common birds of the West 
Indies, and ita exquisite song fills their groves with melody by night, for 
which reason it is there very generally known as the Nightingale. By day, the 
M. is generally imitative, excelling all birds in its power of Imitation, now 
taking up the song of one bird, and now of another, and often deceiving the 
most practised ear l)y its perfect performance. By night, its song is for the most 
part natural. It does not confine itself, however, to musical strains ; it seems to 
take equal pleasure in repeating the harshest cries of tiie feathered tribes; nudin 
domesiication readily adds to Its accomi)li8linicnts the imitatioii of almost any 
»)and which it is accustomed to hear, passing from one to another with great rapid- 
ity, so as to produce an incomparable medley. The M. readily leanis to whistle a 
tune, cvcii of considerable length, but there is no well authenticated instance of its 
imitating the human voice. The barking ut a dog, the mowing of a cat, the crowing 
of a cock, the cackling of a hen, the creaking of a wheel-barrow, are all within the 
compass o£ its powers. During its performances, it spreads its wings*, ciqpands its 
tail, and throws Itself about, as If nill of euthusmsm and enjoyment. The M. is 
vocal at all seasons of the year. It enjoys almost evoi'y\vliere the protection of man, 
and often makes its nest In a tree or bush close beside a house. TSvo or three broods 
ire produced in a year. The mule is extremely attentive to his mate, and manifests 
extraordniary courage in driving away enemies from the nest. Mocking-birds often 
assemble on such occasions, and birds of prey, far snpei-ior to them iu size and 
strength, are compelled to retreat. Snakes are killed by reiterated blows on the 
head, and cats learn to consider the vicinity of a mocking-bird's nest unsafe. The 
food of the M. consists chiefiy of berries and insects. Another 8|)ecies of M. is 
found In the Rocky Mountains, and species of the same genus ure among the finest 
song-birds of the temperate parts of South America. 

M^DE, in Music Every musical passage is referrible to and forms part of a 
raccessiou of sounds liaving some appreciable relation to one another. This suc- 
cetmon of sounds is called the Scale, and is a series of steps leading from a given 
note called the Key-note^ or Tonic (q. v.), to its octave. The steps or degrees of 
the scale .ire of unequal size, and on the x>lace of the smaller ones or semitones de- 
pends the mode of the music Taking our naturol scale, there are only two notes in 
It which can satisfy the ear as key-notes— viz., C and A. In the major mode, with 
C as key-note, the semitone or small interval falls Ixstween the tliird and fourth 
Bounds; in the minor mode, with A as key-note, it falls between the second and 
third soDuds ; in the former case, the third of the key-note is a major third, in the 
latleraminor third. The minor mode further requires to be modified by occasionally 
sharpening its sixth and seventh. In order to be pleasing to modern ears. The scale 
of the major mode is derived from simpler harmonic proportions than that of the 
minor. Melodies composed in the hitter mode have generally more or less of a plain- 
tive or melancholy character. For the theory of these modes, see Music. Ancient 
mnsicianB admitted of a greater vftriety of modes. The Greeks hud six, designated 
the Dorian^ Phrygian, Lydian, Mixo-LydUn, Ionic and JSoliau. The Ionic is the 
modem major, llic JGolian the minor mode ; the others are more or less intolerable 
to a modem ear. They are used to a limited extent iu the mHsic of the Greek 
Church, and in the Am}>ro0iau Chant. 


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HCDELLING is the process of preparing' the original pattern or design from 
which a work in scalpture is to be cast or carved : the technical details will be 
found nuder Scdlpturs. Modelling is also practised bv medallists ; the bead or 
figure intended to l)e cnt in the die being first modelled in relief with wax on a 
piece of slate. Goldsmiths, silversraiths, and jewellers also model intricate and 
artistic forms and ornaments of pieces of plate, to be cast and chased bv them, or 
in which jewels are to be set. Wax is the substance nscd wlicn delicacy and 
roinntencss are required. Modelling is also a branch of the potter's trade. Flnxman 
modolU»d for Wedgwood numerous figures and groups in wax. For large models, 
the material employed is potter's clny, which, when used by sculptors, is mixed 
with a portion of sandstone, finely pulverised to mulco it woric freely. 

HO'DENA (anc Mutxna)^ capital of the former duchy of same name, a fortified 
city of Northern Italy, 24 miles west-north-west of Bologna. Pop. (1871) 80,854. It 
stands between the rivers Secchla and Punaro, In a pleasant plain, noted for its rich 
soil and salubrious air, and from its BurronudlnK ramparts comniunds fine views of 
the Apennines. Although the sochd life of M. Sa nomewhat stagnant, it Is neverthe- 
less a most agreeable city. It lies on the famous Via -Emilia (&ee Exilian Pro- 
yiNCES), by which it is divided into the old and new city, ajid is connected by a 
uaviffable canal witii the rivers Seccbia and Panaro. Amongst the public buildings, 
may DC noted the cathedral of St Gerainianus, the patron of tlio city, a structure of 
the purely Lombard style. Tlie campanile or liclfrv is one of the great lowers of 
Italy ; it fe a square turretcd structure, 815 feet in height, its entire facade being in 
white marble. The ducal palace, a picturesque structure of the 17th c, is ndon>cd 
with an infinity of galleries, courts, and marble arches; it contains the splendid 
Blblioteca Estense, nuinlMsriug 100,000 volumes, and 3000 rare MSS. ; also the valu- 
able Este archives, a mo»t important collection of medieval records, collections of 
coins and medals of great antiquity, and an observatorv. Schools of theology, law, 
medicine, and mathematics have replaced the university, suppressed in 1821; there 
are also flue museums of natural history, alwtanic garcfcu, theatres, and good public 
baths. The trade of M. is unimportant : the manufactured products are confined to 
linen and woollen fabrics, leather, hats, paper, gloss, and pottery, besides silk mann- 
factured to a much less extent tiian lormerly. M. is the birthplace of the great 
anatomist Fallopius, and the antiquary Sigonlo. 

The ancient history of M. afiords evidence that it enjoyed at on early period a 
considerable degree of prosperity; the splendor, wealth, and arts of the city of M. 
being mentioned by Cicero, Pliny, and Hiraoo. In modern times, M. has shared 
more or less the various vicissitudes which befell Italy, and participated in the great 
Internecine fends of the country. In 960, a member of the great House of Este was 
proclaimed Marqnis of Moden^ and in 1458 the then relgnhig marquis was created 
duke by the Emperor Frederick III. In 1796, M. forincuport of the Cisalpine Re- 
public, but was restored in 1814 by the congress of Vienna to tlie reigning foniily. 
Tiie duchy had at that time an area of 2810 square miles, and a population of<6S6,- 
000. In 184S the Duke of Modena was temnoraiily deprived of liis rights ; and in 
1860, the population definitively expelled their unpopular ruler, who cunied off ail 
tlic property and valuables-wiihln his reacli, including the silver handles of the 
palace door^. M. is now a province of tlie kingdom of Italy : area 960 so. m. ; pop. 
(1871)278,231. -^ . t~K 

MO'DERATOR, a term used In Scotch ecclesiastical law to describe the chair- 
man or president ox a Presbyterian church-court. 

MO'DICA, the Mohac of the Saracens, a city of the Island of Sicily, in the pro- 
vince of Val dl Nota, 80 m. from Syracuse. Pop. (18T2) 88,169. The city, wnlcli 
stands perched amidst rocks, contains several fine buiklings, and, notwithstandiofif 
tlie humidity of the climate^ the sanitarv condition of the inhabitants seems satis- 
factory. The soil of the surrounding district is the most productive of Sicily, and 
yields vast quantities of corn, tobacco, oil, wine, hemp, wnlch, with cheese, wool, 
soda, and butter, form tlie chief export trade of tiTe place. The valley of Ipsica, or 
Ispica, In the vicinity of M., contains remarkable rocks, in which numerous dwell- 
ings are excavated. 

HODI'LLION. an ornamental bracket, mnch used in classic architecture, eepe« 
dally in the comicoa of the Corlnthhm and Composite styles. 


by Google 


145 5J^'»* 

XODULATION. in Music. When in the conree of a melody the key -note is 
changed, and the onginftl scale altered by the iutrodnctlon of a uew sharp or flat, 
nch change is called modnlation. Mnch of the pleasure of music i8 detivcd from 
a judicious use of modulation. The nrt of good modulation from one key to an- 
otber consists in the proper choice oi intermediate chords. Sudden transitions, 
without mtermediate chords, should l>o employed but sparingly, and in peculiar cir- 
CBiDEtanceii. Every piece of music is composed in a particular key, In which it 
b^fis and ends, which generally predominates over any other keys that may be in- 
iroaoced iu the course of the composition. 

MO'DULE, in Classlc,Arcliitecture, an arbitrary measure for determining the 
proportiotts of the various members of the onlcrs. The diameter, semi-dianictcr, 
orone-ihird of the diameter are most frequently used; the fli-st i)eliig nsuully 
divided into 60 parts (or minutes), the second into 80 parts, nud the third into 20 

MOTJULUS, ft constant coefficient or multiplier : by means of which one series 
or syetem of qnaniitles can he reduced to nnotner similar series or sytem. Thus we 
haw tlie modulus of Elasticity (q. v.). of Friction (q. v.), and of systems of logur- 
ithms (q. v.). Th« system of loj^urithnis which is nnlversally accepted as the pri- 
mary is riapier's, and from it all other systems are deduced in the following man- 
ner : Lot ^j t)e a nnmber of which the Napierian logarithm is t, e being the Napierian 
base, it i« required to find the logarithm of N to some other base a. Let a; be this 
lopirithm, then (see Looauthmb) N = eb = az, and taking the Napierian logarithms 
ocboth sides of this equation, h log.ef = x log.oo, or (since log. «e = 1) d — a; log.ea, 
b log. oN 1 

thecefore » — ; L e., log.WN — — x log.«N. This multiplier, or 

log. oa log. «a log.aa 

** modnlns," , is independent of N, and is therefore constant for the reduction 

o( all Napierian logarithms to the system whose base is a. If a = 10, the multiplier 

becomes ^ the modulus of Briggs's, or the common system of logarithms, and 


ii equal to S3-4342W4.... 


MODUS, In Englisli Law, means a peculiar custom bv which lands become ex- 
enptedfrom payment of tithes on paymg some composition or equivalent. 

^'EN. a Banish island in the Baltic Sea, separated from Secland on the north< 
west hy the Ulfaund^ and from Falster on the soulli-west by tlie Ordnsund, It is 19 
Biiles long, by about 6 miles in average breadth. Area, S4 square miles. Pop. about 
15.000, who are supported by agriculture, fisheries, and conmierce. It has been 
called the Switzerland of Denmark, and is remarkable for the iiTOj?ularlty of its 
sarface. The soil is fruitful. Its chief town and seaport, Stege, has a population 
of (ISIO) iseo. t' > fa » y^v 

MCB'RIS, Lake, the ancient name of a sheet of water in Egypt, now known as 
loftet'^Keran^ or Bl-Kom ('* The Lake of the Promontory % is eiluated in the 
province of FayAm, about 60 miles south-west of Cairo ; extreme length from 
aonh^east to soulhr-west, 80 miles ; breadth, 6 miles ; it was formerly much hirger. 
Its average depth is 12, and its greatest awertained depth 28 feet. On the north and 
we«, lis Bliores arc rocky, but on the south, flat and sandy. It is connected with the 
J*|» by a canal called Bahr-Jusuf (*• The Biver of Joseph '0- The waters are brack- 
»a. on account of their being impregnated with the alkaline satts of the desert, and 
With the muriato-of-Ilme depositions of the surrounding hills. In the time of the 
*««oh8, the revenue derived from the fisheries was applied to the maintenance of 
the queen's wardrobe and perfumes. Under the Persians, they were let (during the 
*«a«oa of the hiundations. when the canal fed the lake) at £160 a day. At present, 
■owevcr, they only yield about jC84 a year. 

H<FSIA, an ancient Boman province, bounded by the I>ana1)e on the n.« the 


by Google 


Mohammed *■*" 

Black Sea on the c, the inooDtain-chatas of JBievmtu (Balkan) and OrMut on the 
B., that of Scnrdns nnci tho rivers Drinus (Driua) and Sotnw (Saro) on the w. The 
river Ciabnts (Cinriz) divided it into two ports, of which the Eastern (Mcuia Inf^ 
Hor) is the present liulgaria, and tho Western {Mcfma Superior) is Sorvin. Its orig- 
inal inhabitants were mostly of Tlirncian race. Ganlish or Celtic invaders settled 
in WVs^tern Mopsi.i about 277 B.C., under the name of Soordiaci, Tho Romans first 
rame in contact with the tribes of M. after the conquest of Macedonia, when C 
Soriboniua Curio forced lils way as far north as the Daunbc, and ^ned a victory 
over the Mceslans (75 B.C.), but the country was not completely snbjn^ted till S9 B. 
o. It was made a Uoman province in the reign of Augustus, and flourished for 
moi-e than two centuries, but as a frontier province it warf much exposed to" hostile 
invasions, and required a line of fortresses and stations all along tlie south bank of 
the Danube. In 250 a.d., the Gutha made an irruption into the country, and de- 
feated and slew the Uoman emperor, Decins. In the following year, and about the 
end of the 4th c, it was given up to them by the Bmperor Theodosius L Slavonian 
tribes settled in M. in the 61I1 and 7th centuries. 

MCESO-QOTUS, tiie name given to the Gotiis who in the 8d c settled iu Lower 
Mcesia at the month of the Danube. Ulfllas (q. v.) was a Mceso-Qoth. Tlie name, 
however, became of more general ni^e to designate those who remained iu Mcesia 
after the great migration in tho 1)egiiming of llio 6th century. 

MOFFAT, Robert, ft distinguished missionary, was born at Ormlston, East Lo- 
thian, on the 21sr of DcciMnber 1795. Having resolved to become a missionary to 
tiic heathen, he offered his soi-vices to the London Missionary Society, was accepted, 
and sent by tliein to South Africa. Arriving at Cape Town in 1817, lie immediately 
proceeded i)oyond tlu; boundaries of Cape Colony to Namaqualand, where he entered 
upon hid hiboiH at the kraal of Africaner, a chief whoso name l»ad long been a terror 
to the people uf (he neighboring district;} of the colony, on account of the audacious 
raids which he made among their settlements, and his ferocious character,bat who 
had lately become a convert to Christianity, and now shewed a warm desire for its 
promotion. Here M. Ial>orcd for three or fonr years wltii great success, ChrlstiaBitj 
and civilisation advancing together. But tho situation, on account of the drought 
and sterility of tho country', nud its very thinly scattered population, being iioeiiu»- 
ble for a principal mission-station, he set out in search of a better locality, and la- 
bored at several stations in succession in the countries to the north and north-east 
of Cape Colony. Wherever lie went, the gospel was gladly received by some of those 
wlio heard it, and in sonie places by many. In every place he also guided the people 
in the arts of civillHed life. He mode ecvorul missionary tours, and his adventoroe 
were very remarkable, and are ^mpliic;diy described In his work, *' Missionary 
Lalwrs and Scenes in Southern Atrica" (Lond. 1842), which he wrote and published 
during a visit of several years to Britain, rendered necessoryby the state of hit 
health. In 1842, M. returned to his laliors In that country, and came back Xa 'Bx^ 
land in 1870. His daughter was the wife of tho celebrated Dr Livingstone. In 187$ 
ho was presented with a sura of £5800 in recognition of his great services. He lec- 
tured on African missions in the nave of Westminster Abbey in 1875. 

MO'FFAT, a market-town and favorite wateHng-placo of Scotland, In the county 
of Dumfries, stands in tho npiMjr part of the broad and beautiful valley of tho 
Annan, and is surrounded by hills of moderate elevation. It Is two miles from tho 
Bfattock station, on the Cnledonian Railway, and 1» miles north-north-east of Dam* 
fries. Among other public cdiflces are tho baths and the reading and assembly 
rooms. Tho minend springs, the principal of which, like that of Harrogate, is saline 
and sulphurous, arc highly celebrated ; bnt perhaps tho greatest attractiomi of the 

f>lacc arc its salubrious air and exquisite environs. During the season, the town la 
ncreased In population by from 800 to 1000 visitors, to suit whose conTenienco 
great numbers of elegant villas, commanding fine views of the neighboring coanUry, 
have been erected. Pop, (1871) 1780.— The Moffat Hills extend between the counties 
of Lanark and Peebles in tlie north, and Dnmfries in tho south ; higbost sammit 
Uartfell, 2650 feet. See Black's " Guide to Moflfat." 

MOGADO'RE, or Suc'rra, a fortified town, and the principal seaport of Marocco, 
130 miles west-south-west of tho city of that name, on the Atlantic Ocean. Popw 
about 80,000. II' la tho port of the capital, and was f oouded in 1700, on the site o( 


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147 MOMO 

A**! Mohammed 

■n old Porta£i]e«c fort. It stands on n rocky promontory, oppoeite an Island of tho 
same name, long a baiint of pirates, which forms the harbor, and is said to be the 
beet built towii of the kingdom. Its streets nre regnlar, though narrow, and it con- 
stots of two part«, each stirronuded by water. The quarter called the Fortress con- 
tains the custom-house, and the treasury, and is tlie residence of the pnsha, thevice- 
oou9ul8, and the Christ iiiu merchants. The town is defended by four batteries on 
the island, aud by a fort on the laud-»ldc ; the walls arc olso defensible. Jtf . is the 
seat of couBideniblc trade ; it ezixjrts olive-oil, wool, gum, hides, featlion*. gold-<lnst. 
and almonds. In 1878, 114 vessels, of 28,907 tons, entered, and 211 of S7,913 
tons, cleared the port. Tho value of the cargo of those cntoriuff was jG268,718 ; 
of those clearin{7, i:259,930. The imports are woollens, cotton, hardware. Ac 

MOGUE'R (Arab, ••caves," of which there arc many in the neighborhood), a 
town of Spain, in the province of Huelva, 43 miles west-south-west ot Seville, rises 
gently al>ove the Rio Tinto, near the month of which is its port, Palos. The streets 
»re gcnenilly bro«l and straight, but botli the town and castle are much dilapidated. 
Tbe old Franciscan convent was ordered in 1846 to be preserved as a national memo- 
rial, but It is now fast gointr to ruin, and tlic wood of the cells stripped off. It was 
herr, In 1484, that Columbus, craving cluirity, was reccivetl by the prior, Juan Perez 
deMarchena, by whose influence he was enabled to prosecute his discoveries, set- 
tiug out from the port of Palos on August 3, 1492. It was to this port also that ho 
retonnnl, March 15, 1493, after having accomplished Uic great end of his expetlition. 
Here likewise did Cortes laud in May 1528, after the conquest of Mexico, and lodged 
in the same convent which gave shelter to Columlms. Palos is now a poor decayed 
fiahiug-port. M. has some trade in wine and fruit. Pop. 6600. 

MOGU'L, Great, the popular designation of th^ emperor of Dolhi, as the imper- 
■ouatiou of the powerfnl empire cstaolished in Hindustan by the Mongols (q. v.), 
who were called 3fo^« by the Persians. Tlic first Great Mogul was Baber, tho 
great-grandfion of llmtir, who founded the Mongnl empire in Uindostan in 1626. In 
1803, the Great Mogul was deprived of his ttirone; In 1827, of even the appearance 
of authority, becoming a mere pensioner of tho British; and in 1858, Mohammed 
BthadCir, tho last of the dynasty, was condemned, and transported for complicity 
in tbe Indian mutiny. 

MOHA'CS, a market-town of Hungary, 110 miles 8.-8.-W of Pcsth, on the wcst- 
jm arm of the Daunbe. It contains a gymnasium, has an important cattle-marker, 
b a station for steamboats on the Danube, and the seat of considernhle trade in 
wine, cOal, timber, and agricaltui*al products. Pop. (1SG9) 12,140. It owes its his- 
torical importance to tlie great battle fought here, 29th August 1526, between Lewis 
I(. of Haugary, with 26,d00 Hungarians, and the Sultan Soliman, at tho head of 
about 200,000 Turks. The battle resulted in the dii^astrous defeat of the Huugnrians. 
who tost tbehr king, 7 bishops, many nobles and dignitaries, and upwnnls of 22,000 
men. A second battle was fought here on Aug. 12, 1687, when the Turks in their 
tarn were defeated by an Austro-Hungarlau army under Charles of Lorraine. 

MCHAIR, the wool of the Angora Goat (see Goat and Akgora), a native of 
Asia Minor. Few animals have so beautiful a covering as the fine, soft, i>>ilky, Jon<;. 
aud always pure white >^'ool of this goat. £ach animal, at the annual clip in Ainil 
or May, yields from 2 lbs. to 4 lbs. of wool. It is only within the last 30 years that 
M. baa wxn in great request in Britain, but its development as an article of trade 
has been simultaneous with that of alpaca. In 1876 the amount of mohair and 
other go.its* hair imported was 6,848,199 lbs.; tlie value £711,717. SeeWooiXBN 


MOHA'MMED (Arab. tft« Praised*), the name taken, at a later period, by the 
fouoder of Islam. He was originally called Halabi. He was bom about the yeai- 670 a. 
D., at Mecca, and was the son of AbdallAh, of the family of the HAshini ; and of Amina, 
of thefamily of Zuhra, both of the powerful tribe of I lie Horeish, bntof asidf-hranch 
only, and therefore of little or no influence. His father, a poor ni'-rchant, died eitlu r 

• Or, according to Dentsch, whose view is fully corroborntod and adopted hy 
Spreoger in his •* Leben mid Lehre Mohammads," in allusion to Hag. ii. 7, the pre- 
^^cted Xettiah, 


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before or shortly after M.'s birth, whom hte mother then (according to a doabtfnl 
tradition) isnnpposed to have haudod over, after the fasli ion of her tribe, to a Bedaln 
M'omnn, that hIiu might nurse him in tlic salabrlous air of the desert In consequence 
of the repeated fits of the child, however, which were ascribed to demons, the nnrsc 
sent liim buck in his third year. Wi»eu six years old, he also lost his mother. His 

grandfather, Abd-AUMatallib. adopted the boy ; and when, two years later, he too 
ioti, M.'s uncle, Abu Talib. though poor himself, took him Into his house, and re« 
maincd his best friend and protector tliroughout his whole life. The acconuts 
which have survived of the lime of his yuuth are of too legendary a natare 
to deserve credit; certain, however, it seems to bo that he at flr^t gained a scanty 
livelihood by tending the AocIlb of the Meccans, and that he once or twice accom- 
panied his uncle on his journeys to Southern Arabia and Syria. In liis 26th year, he 
entered the service of a rich widow, named Chadtdjn, likewise descended from the 
Koreisli,and accompanied her caravans— in an inferior capacity, perhaps ms a camel- 
driver— to th« fairs. Up to tliat time, his circumstances were very poor. Suddenly 
his fortune changed. The wealthy, but much older, and twice widowed Chadldja 
offered him her hand, which be accepted. She bore him a son. Al-Kftsim — whence 
M. adopted the name Abu Al-KtUim— and four daughters: Zainab, Kukaiia, Umm 
Knlthftm, and Ffttima ; and af terwnrds a second son, whom ho called Aba ManAf, 
after an idol worshipped among his tribe. Both his sons, however, died early. M. 
continued his merchant's trade at Mecca, but without much energy, spending ntost 
of his time in solitary contemplations. In his 85th year, he is said to have, by chance 
only, been chosen arbiter in a quarrel about the replacing of the sacred b4ack stone 
in the Kaaba (q. v.) ; but not before his 40th year is there anytliing really important 
to be told of life life. 

Before, however, entering onilhe weighty events of the subsequent period, it is 
by no means unimportant to advert to snch traits of M.'s outward appearance as 
are yet recoverable. lie was of middle height, rather lean, but broad shouldered, 
and altogether of strong build : slightly curled black hair flowed round his strouely 
develop^ head ; his eyes, overhung with thick eyelashes, were large and coal-black ; 
his nose, large and slightly bent, was well formed. A long beard added to the die- 
Dity of his appearance. A black mole between his shoulders became afterwards 
among the faithful *' iho seal of prophecy." In his walk, he moved his whole body 
violently, "iU9 if descending a mountain." His gait and presence were altogether 
of an extremely Imposing nature. In his 40th year M. received his flrrt " revela- 
tion," or. In other words, l»ecarae first aware that ho had a ** mission.** About the 
year 600 ▲.D., Christianity hadpeuetmted into the heart of Arabia, through Syria 
on the one, and Abyssinia on the other hand. Judaism no less played a prominent 

Sart in the peulusulo, chiefly in its northern parts, which were dotted over with 
ewish colonics, fonuded by cmlijrants, after the destrnctlon of Jerusalem; and 
round about Yathrib (Medina). Besides these two all-important religions elemeuts, 
several sects, remnants of the numerous ancient sects which had sprung up every- 
where during the first Chrl&tlan centuries : Sabians, Mandicans, &c., on the frou- 
tiers of Syria and Babylonia, heightened the religious ferment which, shortly before 
tlie time of M., had begun to move the minds oFlhc thoughtful. At that time there 
arose, uccordlng to nudonbted historical accounts, severalmon In the Hedjas (War- 
aka, Obeid Allan, Othman, Zayd, &c), who preached the futility of the ancient pa- 
gan creed, with its star-worship, its pilgrimages, and festive ceremonies, its temples 
and fetiches. It had in reality long ceased to bo a living faith, and only the great 
mass of the people clung to it as to a sacred inheritance from times immemoriaL 
The unity of God, the ** ancient religion of Abraham," was the doctrine promalgsp 
ted by these forerunners of M., and many of those who, roused by their words, be- 
gan to search for a form of religion which should embody both the traditions of 
their forefathers and a purer doctrine of the Divinity, turned either to Judaism or to 
Christianity. The principal scene of these missionary labors was Mecca, then the 
centre of the prilgrimages of most of the Arabian tribes, and where, from times im- 
memorial, long anterior to the city Itself, the Kaaba (a. v.). Mount Arafat, the Valley 
of Mina, &c., were held sacred— the Koreish, M.'s tribe, having the supreme care 
over these sanctuaries, ever since the 6ili century. It was under these circnmstances 
that M. felt " moved " to teach a new faith, which should dispense with idolatry on 
the one, as with Judaism and Christianity on the other hand. He was 40 years of 


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•ge. as wc said, when he received the flret "divine" communication iu tlio eolitado 
o( tbe monntalD HIrft, near Mecca. Gabriel appeai'cd to him, aiid in theuameof 
God com mail ded 111 m to "read"— that is, to preach the tnie religion, and to spread 
it abroad by committing it to wriUu^ (Sur. xcvl.). How farM. was a •' propliet," iu 
the common Bensc of the word, has Ixjcu theaabjectof endlens and utterly futile dis- 
cnaeione In the Christian world- That be was no vulgar impostor, is now as geuer- 
^ly recognlMMl a« that other once popular doctrine, that he was In league wRIj the 
dcTii, la rejected by thinking men. what part his epilepsy had m his ** visions " wo 
are not able to determine. Certain it is that^ after long and paijiful solitary brood- 
iugs- a something— not clearly kuown to himself— at times moved him with such 
feartnlly rapturous vehemence, that, during Ills revelations, he Is said to have roared 
like a cameL and to have streamed with pei-spiration ; his eyes turned red. and the 
foam stood before his mouth. The voices he heard were sonietimes those of a Ijell, 
BomeUmee of a man, sometimes they came In his dreams, or thoy were laid in his 
heart. Waraka, one of his wife's relatives, who had embraced Judaism, spoke to 
him of tUe Jewish doctrine, and told him the story of tin; patriarchs and Israel ; not 
sumach vm it is told in the Bible, but in the Midrash ; and the gorgeous hues of the 
legendary poetry of the latter seem to have made as deep an impression on M.'s 
pMiical mind as the doctrine of the unitv of God and the inoro/e— in its broad out- 
lines— of the Old Testament, together with those civil and religious laws, scriptural 
and oral, which are either contained as germs or fully developed iu this record. 
Christianity exercised a minor Influence upon him and his spiritual offspring. All 
bis knowledge of the New Testament was confined to a few apocryphal books, and 
with all the deep reverence before Jesup, whom, together with Moses, ho calls llie 
greatest prophet, next to himself, his uotious of the Christian religion and its 
foonderwere excessively vogue. For some details on these points, however, we 
most refer to Koran and Mohammedamish. 

His first revelation he communicated to no one, !t would appear, except to Cha- 
dWja, to his daughters, his stepson All, his favorite slave Zaid— whom he had pro- 
bably freed and adopted by this time— and to his friend the prudent and honest Abu 
Bekr. His other relatives rejected his teachings with scorn. Abu Lahab, bis uncle, 
called him a fool ; and Abu 1'alib, his adoptive father, although he never ceased, for 
the tiouor of his family, to protect him, yet never professed any belief in M.'s words. 
In the fourth year of his mission, however, he had made forty proselytes, chiefly 
tbves and people from the lower ranks ; and now first some verses were revealed to 
liim, commanding him to come forward publicly as a preacher, and to defy the scorn 
of the nnt^llevers. With all his power, he now inveighed against the primeval 
■uperstition of tho Meccans, and exhorted tliem to a pious and moral life, and to the 
belief in an all-mighty, all-wise, everlasting, indivisible, all-just, but merciful God, 
who bad chosen him as he had chosen the prophets of the Bibie before him, so to 
teach mankind that they should escape the punishments of hell, and inherit ever- 
lastbg life. God's mercy— this wasHi primitive doctrine, common to the whole East 
—was principally to be obtalneil by prayer, fastiug, and almsgiving. Tlie belief in 
the sacredneas of the Kaaba and the ceremonies of the pilgrimage was too firmly 
rooted in his and the people's minds not to be received into the new creed ; but cer- 
tah] barbarous habits of the Beduins, such as the killing of their new-bom daughters, 
were ruthlessly condemned by Mohammed. The prohibition of certain kinds of food 
abo belongs to this first period, when tic as yet entirely stood under the influence of 
Judaism ; the prohibition of gaml)ling, USU17, &c., probably being of a somewhat 
later date. Whether he did or did not understand the art of writing and rending at 
the commencement of his career, is not quite clear ; certain it is that he pretended not 
to know ir, and employed the services of an amanuenses for his Koranic diet a, which 
at first consisted merely of brief, rhymed sentences in the manner of the ancient Arabic 
aooihsayers. [Kobak.] The Meccans did not object to his doings ; they considered 
hhn a common ** poet" or '* soothsayer," who, moreover, was not iu his right senses, 
or simply a liar. Gradually, however, as the number 6f his converts increased, 
tbey b^u to pay more and more attention to his proceedings ; and finnlly, fearing 
mostly for the sacredness of Mee^a, which the new doctrine might abolish, thus de- 
priving fhcm of their cldef glory and the ample revenues of the pilgriniajfos, they 
roi>e in fierce opposition i^^nst the new prophet and his adherents, who dared " to 
call their audeut gods idols, and thoir ancestors fools." Many of the converted 


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slaves aiid frcedmcn had to undergo terrible pnniBhmcnts ; and others snffercd so 
mnch nt the hunds of their own relatives, tbiit tbey were faiu to revoke their creed ; 
BO that tlic prophet himself advised iiis followers to eiuigrute to Abyssinia. M. 
himself, althoneh protected by the strong arm of Abu TaUb, was yet at that time so 
low-spirited and fearfal, that he even raised the idols, which hitlierto he had repre- 
sented as nonght, to intermediate l>eings between God and man — a dictum, how- 
ever, which he soon revoked, as an inspiration of Satnn, tliereby IncreaHine the 
hatred of his adversaries, at whoso head stood two members of the family of Mach- 
zQm, Al-Walid and Abulhakam A mr (called by Mohammed "Father of Foolish- 
ness''), and who in every way tried to throw ridicule on him. At last it became 
necosMury that he slionld Ihj put beyond the reacli of his |)ersecutor8, and Abu Talib 
hid him in a fortified castle of his own in the country. Ilumza, liIs uncle, and Omar, 
formerly a bitter enemy of BiL, and who af tei-wards, with M. ond Abu Bekr, becnme 
the third liead of Islam, continued in the meantime to spread the nt:w doctrine. The 
Koreish now demanded that M. should do delivered into their hands; but Abu Talib 
steadfastly refused t > comply witli their wishes ; a feud thereupon broke out between 
their family and that of the Uashemites, and M. and all the members of his family, ex- 
cept, pcrhap?, Aim Luliab. wei-e exconimunicate<i. After the space of tlirec years, 
however, the "i>eace party" in Mecca brought about a reconciliation, and M. was 
allowed to return. A great grief befell him at this time— ids faithful wifeChadldja 
died, and, siiortly afterwards, his uncle Abu Talib, and, to add to his miser>', the 
vicissitudes of liis career liud reduced him by this time to poverty. An emigratiou 
to Taif. where he sought to improve his position, proved a failure; It was with 
great difficulty that lie e!«capcd with his bare Ufe. During this e{>ochf he had the 
well-known dream of his journey to Jerusalem and in tlie heavens on llic back of 
the Borak (Miraj), the relation of which c;iusod even his stanchest adherents to smile 
at bis hallncination. Shortly after his return from Talf, he married Saud.i, and 
afterwards so increased the uaiftl)er of his wives, tliat at liis death he still left nine, 
of whom Ayishah. the daughter of Abu Bekr, and Uafs:i, the dangliter of Omar, 
are best known. In the midst of his vain endeavors to find a hearing in his own 
city, and those near it, be succeeded, during a pilgrimage, in converting several 
men from Medina, whose inhabitants had long been accustomed to iiear from the 
mouths of the numerons Jews living in the city and its neighborliood the words 
Kevelatlon, Prophecy, Ood's Word, Messiah : to the Meccans mere sounds without 
any meaning. The seed sown into tlic minds of these men bore a fruitful harvest. 
Tlie next pilgrimage brought, twelve, and the third more than seventy adherents to 
the new faith from Medina, and with these he entered into a close alliance. M. uow 
conceived the plan to seek refuge in the friendly city of Medina, and about CW 
(ten, thirteen, or fifteen years— according to the different traditions— after his first 
ussnming the sacred ofiice) lie fled tliitlier, about one hundred families of his faith- 
ful flock tiavinjj nreceded him some time before, accomimuied by Abu Bekr, nnd 
reacbe<l, not without danger, the town, called thence Medinat Annabi (City of the 
Prophet), or Medina ♦* City," by way of eminence; and from this flight or rather 
from the first month of the next Arabic year, dates 1 lie Mohamme<lau Era [Iledjrah]. 
Now everything was clianged to tlie advantage of the prophet and his religion; 
and if formerly the incidents of his life are slirouded in comparative 
olracnrity, they are, from this date, known often to tlieir most insigniflcant details. 
Formerly a despised ** madman or impostor," lie now assumed at once the position 
of hlghcMl judge, iawtjiver, and ruler of the ciiy and two jDOSt powerful Arabic 
tribes, liis first ciire was directed towards tlie consolidation of the new worship, 
and the inner arrangements in tlie congregation of his flock; his next chief en- 
deavor was to proselytise the numerous Jews who inhabited the city, to whom, he- 
sides iiaving received their principal dogmas into his religion, he made many im- 
portant concrssions also in the outer obser\'ances of Islam, acd concluded alliances 
with many of their tribes; but he was sorely disappointed in his hopes to convert 
them. They ridiculed his pretension to be the Me4>siali, and so enraged him by their 
constant taunts, that he soon abrogated his concessions, and became their bitterest 
adversary up to the hour of his deatii. The most important act in tlie first year of 
the nedjroh was his permission to go to war witli the enemies of Islam in the name 
of God— a kind of manifesto chiefiy directed against tlie Meccans. Not being able 
at first to fight his cuemies iu open field, he endeavored to weaken their power by 


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8ttsck!ng the caraTAOB of the Eorciab on their way to Syria. Being encccwfal 
etioagh to disturb tiicir trade, nnd, nt the same time, to conclude alhancoR with the 
adjolDiii^ Bcdnin tribce, lie nt last dared to break even the peace of the ancred nmutli 
of Kadj&D, nnd with this the slgiinl to open warfare was ^iven. A battle, the first, 
between 314 Mooliins and about 600 Meccuns was fonght at Badr, in the second year 
of the Hedjrah ; the former gained the victory, and made many prisoners, A great 
immber of adventurers now flocked to M.'s colors, and he pucces^ftilly continued 
his expeditions against the Koreish and the Jewish tribes, chiefly the Beui Keiuukfi, 
vbose fortified custles he took after a long siege. Notwitiistanding a severe Iocs 
which he suffered in the battle near Otiod, in which he himself was dangerously 
woauded, his power increased so rapidly ttat in the sixth year of the Hedjrah 
thready he was able to proclaim a public pilgrimage to Mecca. Although 
tt.e Meccans did not allow this to be carried out, he gained the stiH 
greater advanti^e, that tliey concluded a fonual peace with him, and 
thns recognised him os an equal power and belligerent He was now allowed to 
send his missionaries all over Arabia, and even beyond the frontiers, without any 
liindraDce; sod !n the following year he had the satisfaction of celebrating the pi(< 
grimage for three daj's undif<turbed at Mecca. Shortly afterwards, during his expe- 
ditious agninBt the Jews of Cliuibar and Fadak, M. very nearly lost his life : a Jew- 
ess, Zoiuab by name, a relative of wtiom had fallen in the fight against him, placed 
a poisoned piece of roast meat before him, and although he merely tasted if, be yet, 
Dp to his aeath, suffered from tho effects of the poison. His missionaries at this 
tunc b^an to carry his doctrines abroad, to Chosroos 11., to Ilernclins, to the king 
of Abyrainlo, the Viceroy of Egypt, and the chiefs of several Arabic provinces. 
Some received the new gospel ; but Ohosrd Parvis, the king of Persia, audAmru the 
Ghaseauide, rejected his proposals witli scorn, aud the latter had the messenger ex- 
ecuted. ITiis was the cause of the first war between the Christians and tho Mus- 
Uros, in which the latter were beaten with great loss by Amru. Tbe Meccaus now 
thoiu^t the long-desired moment of rcveneo at hand, aud broke the peace by com- 
mitting several acts of violence against the Chnzaites, the allies of Mohartimed. 
Tbe latter, however, marched at tbe head of 10,000 men against Mecca, before its 
intimbitauts bad had time to prepare for the siege, took it, and was publicly recog- 
uiised by them as chief and prophet. With this the victory of the new religion was 
secured in Arabia. While, however, employed In destroying all traces of idolatry 
in ttic besieged city, and fixing the yiinor laws and ceremonies of tiie true faith, M. 
lieard of new armies which several warlike Arabic tribes marched against bhn, and 
which were concentrated near Talf (630). Again he was victorious, aud his do- 
minion aud creed extended further oud further every doy. From all parts 
flocked the deputations to do homage to him in tho name of the various tribes, cither 
as the messenger of God, or at leost as the Prince of Arabia, and the year 8 of tho 
Hedjnh was therefore called the year of the Deputations. Once more iie made most 
extensile preparations for awor against the Byzantines; but. not being able to 
bring tt^iher asufllcicnt army, be had to be satistlud with the homage of a few 
minor princes on his way to tho frontiers, and to retuiH without having carried out 
his infentiou. Towaras the end of the 10th year of tbe Hedjrah be undertook, at 
the bead of at least 40,000 Muslims, his last solemn pilgrimage to Mecca, and there 
(on the Mount Arafat) instructed them in oil tbe important laws and ordinances, 
chiefly of 1 be pilgrimage; and the ceremonies observed by him on that occasion 
were fixed for all times. [Hajj.] He again solemnly exhorted his believers to 
riglileousuess and piety, and cbiefiy recommended them* to protect the weak, the 
poor, and the women, and to abstain from usury. 

Betorued from Mocco, he occupied himself again with the carrying out of his 
expedition against Syria, but fell dangerously ill very soon after bis retuni. One 
ui^t, while suffering from an attack of fever, he went to the cemetery of Medina, 
aim! prayed and wept upon the tombs, praising the dead, and wishing that he himself 
Diifflit soon be deliverea from the storms of this world. For a few more days he went 
Ahonl; at last, too weak further to visit his wives, he chose tbe house of Ayesbah, 
Kitnated near a mosque, as his abode during his sicl^ness. He continued to take part 
in the public prayers as loue as he could ; until at )a»t^ feeling tbut bis hour had 
come, bo once more preached to the people, recommending Abu Bekr and Usma, 
file sou of Zaid, as the generals whom he hud chosen for the army. He then asked, 





Mohammed 1 r 9 

Ifke Moses, wbethcr he hnd wronged any one, and read to tbem passasee from the 
Komu, preparing the minds of his lieorcre for his death, nud exhorting them to 
pence among themselves, and to strict ol>edicncc to the tenets of the faitli. A few 
dajrs oftenvurds, lie asked for writing materinls, prohahly in order to fix a sncceseor 
to his office as chief of tlie fuithfui ; oat Omnr, fearing lie might chose All, wltilc ho 
himself inclined to Abu Bekr, wonld not allow him to be furnished with them. lu 
his last wanderings he only spoke of angels and heaven. lie died in the lap of Aye- 
slinh, nt)oiit noon of Monday the ISth (lltli) of the third month, in the year 11 oC ttie 
Hedjrah (Sth of Jane 68^). liis death caused an immense excitement and distress 
among the faithful, and Omar, who himself would not believe in it, tried to persuade 
tlie people of his still l)eiug alive. But Abu Bekr said to the assembled mnltitude : 
** Whoever among you has served Moliammed, let him know that Mohammed la 
dead ; but he who has senr'ed the God of Mohammed, let him continue in his service, 
for ho is still alive, and never dies." While his con)se was yet nnburied, tlie qcar-^ 
rels about his successor, whom he liad not deflniiely been able to appoint, com- 
menced; and finally, Abu Bekr received the homage of the principal Mnslima at 
Medina. M. was then buried In the night from tiie9th to the 10th of June, iUCter 
long discuj>Hions., in the house of Ayesbah, where he had died, and wliich aftcrwarda 
became part of tiie adjoining mosque. 

This, in briefest outline, is l^L's career. We have not been able to dwell, as wo 
could have wished to do, with anv length, elllier on the peculiar circumstances of 
his inner life, which preceded aim accompanied his ^^ prophetic " coarse, nor on the 
;>art which Idolatry, Judnlsm, Christianity, and his own reflect ion respectively, boro 
n the formation of his religion; nor have wo been able to trace the process by 
which hia ** mission" grew npon him, as it were, and he, from a simple admonli>her 
of his family, l)ecaine the founder of a faltii to which now above 130 millions are 
said to adiierc. The articles Koran and MonAUXEDANisM contain some 
farther details on his doctrine and its history. Wo have, in addition to the 
few observations on the points indicated at the beginning, only to reit<»-* 
ate, that a man of Mohammed's extraordinary powers and gifts is not to bo 
Judged by a modern common- place standard; and timt the manners and morals 
of his own lime and country must also be taken Into consideration. We arc far 
from overrating his character. Ho was at times deceitful, cunning, even 
revengeful and cowardly; and generally addicted beyond limit to sensu- 
ality. But all this docs not justify the savage and silly abuse which has 
been heaped upon his name for centuries by-ignorance and fanaticism. Not only 
his public station as prophet, pre4icher, and prince, but also his private character, 
bisamiability, bis faithfulness towards friends, his tenderness towards his family, 
and the frequent readiness to forgive an enemy ; besides the extreme simplicity of 
his domestic life (he lived, when already in full power, in a miserable hut, mendvd 
his own clothes, and freed alibis slavej^), must betaken into consideration ; and, to 
do lilm full justice, his melancholic temperament, his nervousness, often bordering 
on frenzy, and which brought him to the brink of suicide, and his being a poet of 
the highest order, with all Hie weaknesses of a poet developed to excess, must not 
bo forgotten. Altogether, his mind contained the strangest mixture of rlelit ai»d 
wrong, of truth and error. Although hia seU-chosen mission was the abolition of 
superstition, he yet believed in Jins, omens, charms, and droaius, and this is an ad- 
ditional reason against the, as we said, now generally abandoned notion, that he wns 
A vulgar designer, who by no means deceived himself about those revelations which 
he pretended to have received. And however much the religion ot I^lam may, 
rightly or wrongly, be considered the bane and prime canseof the rottenness of east- 
ern states and nations in our day, it must, in the first place, not I>e fora^otten that it 
is not necessarily Islam which lias caused tlic corruption, as indee<l Its ethics are 
for the most part of the highest order; and in the second place, that Mohammed is 
not to be made responsible for all the errors of his successors. Take him all in all, 
the history of humanity has seen few more earnest, noble, and sincere *• prophets" — 
nsing the word prophet in the broad human sense of one irresistlblv Impelled by an 
inner power to admonish, and to teach, and to niter austere and suDlime tmtha, tke 
fullpurport of which is often unknown to himself. 

TMie most important European blograpliles of M. arc those of Sprcnger, Wei^ 
Mnlr, NOIdcke, lieinaad. See also Kobam, MoHAiouDANiax, Suhha. 


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MOHAMMED, the name of fpar RnlUiTifl of Tnrkey, of wliom the raost noted I« 
MoBAXiaD IT., surnamed Bvjuk or the The Great, the conqueror of Coni^tnnti- 
ooDle. He WD» bom at Adrianople In 1430. and sacceeded his father, Amurath II., in 
1450. Hb fln»t acts were the murder of his two brotliers, and the suppression of a 
rebellion in Karanian. Having thus secured himseif on the throne, he lient all liis 
energies to the acconiplislinient of th« great project which had always been kipt 
prominently lu view by bis predecessors — the captnrc of Constantinople. This city 
was now the sole remnant of the once mighty empire of the Csesars ; and nf ter more 
than ayeor spent In prcparatloDs, M. commenced the siege, 6tli April 1453, with an 
army of S6S,000 men, and a fleet of 880 vessels. The Greeks, aided by a gallant baud 
of JOOO strangers, under Giun Justiuiani, a noble Genoese, long mnintalr.ed an ob- 
stiaate resistance. On the rooming of the 29th Mav, a combined attack was made 
by land and sea without success ; but tlie retirement from the rampart:? of Jnstiniani, 
who had bcm severely wounded : and despaired of a successful defence, caused aj)anic 
among bis followers, and the simultaneous charge of a chosen body of janizaries, 
with M. himself nt their head, was irresistible. Conetantine XIII. died in the breacli, 
and tbe I'nrks poured In over his corpse to plunder and devastate his capital. M. 
DOW transferred the seat of his government to Constantinople, and sought to win 
back the inhabitants by promismg them the free exercise of their religion. He next 
redoced the kingdoms of Morea and Trebizond, oflEshools of the Grctk empire, 
obtained possession of Servia on the death of its last prince, and made formidable 
praantious for the invasion of Hungary. Belgrade was the first point of attack ; 
and wiih 100,000 men, supported by a fleet of 200 ships on the Danube. M. sat down 
before its walls. The enormous ordnance which had done such good service nt 
Coostantinople, were employed to batter the ramparts; but the valor, skill, and ac- 
tivity of the defenders foiled his utmost efforts. John Hunyady (q. v), wlio, with 
MOO chosen troops, had reinforced the gnirifon, destroyed or captured all his ves- 
Bda, and soon afier. by a sudden sally, defeated his army, and earned off the bat- 
tertog-traln, conipelling him to raise the siege. 6th Angufit. 1456. His next enter- 
priw was the iiiTastou of Epirus, where Scanderbeghad hilliciio successfully defied 
the snltan> power. Three 'I'urkish nrraies were destroye<l in raj>id succession, and 
afoorth and fifth under M. himself met with no greater success; but tlic death of 
tbe gallant Bplrote, in 1467, removed the only obstacle to the success of the sultan's 
I^is, and Epinis was forthwith annexed to Turkey. Tbe latter half of MV reign 
was also fruitful in important aciiievements, but onr space will permit only a cnr- 
tory notice of them. He reduced the Khan of the Crimea to the condition of a vas- 
taL deprived the Genoese of Caffa. and the Venetians of Friuli, Istria, Negropont, 
and Lemnos; but the Knights of 8t John repelled him from Rhodes, and the Vene- 
tians from Scodra. He carried his arms into Italv, and took Otranto, but dlo<l in 
14S1 at Nicomedia, while on the way to join his son Bajazet, wIk) was warring 
with the Persians and Egyptians. His frequent contests with the former of theso 
nations had always interfered very much with the successful prosecution of his de- 
eigosofconqneetiu Europe. M. was possessed of great abilities; he was brave, 
enterprising, and sagacious ; nor was he deficient in leaniing, for he spoke four lan- 
guages fluently, was well versed in geography, ancient history, and the natural 
ideuces, and was practically acquainted with the fine arts. lint the brillinncv 
of bid carr-cr, and the occasional generosity and even magnanimity which he shewed, 
ciinnot obliterate the recollection of those acts of cruelty and treachery which have 
jotly branded him as the most ruthless tyrant of the Houfc of Osman. As the founder 
of the Turkish power lu Europe, his memory has always been revered by the Turks. 

MOHA'MMEDANISM, the religion founded by Mohammed, or, according to 
Wm, the only orthodox crt-ed existing from the begiiming of the world, and prcaclied 
byaU tlie prophets ever since Adam. It is also called 7«^m, Resignation, entire 
^braission to the will and precepts of God. In its exclusively dogmatical or the- 
oretical part. It is Imun^ Faith ; iu its practical, Din. Religion (by way of emi- 
Bence). The fundamental principles of tbe former arc contained iu the two 
articles of belief: ** There Is no God biit God; and Mohammed is God's Apos- 
tle." The Mohammedan doclrijie of God's nature and attributes coincides 
with the Christian, in so far as he is by both taught to be the Creator of all 
things in heaven and cirth, who rules and preseiTCS all things, without begin- 
ning, OQiuipoteiitf omniscieut, omuipreaeut, and full of mercy. Tet, according to 


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IVf/ih ^nmifi^i^ii|f w ^ 


tho Mohammedan belief, he bM no ofEBi>ring:: *' He'Defsnttetb not, nor is be begot- 
ten." Nor is Jesus called auythiu^ bat n propliet and apostle, althonffh his birth 
Is puid to have bocu dae to a mirucnioas diviuo oiMiration ; nud as the Koran soper- 
si'ded the Gospel, so Mohammed, Ciirist. The cruciflziou is suid to have \\e^t\ ex<v 
cnted upon aiiotUcr person, Christ having been taken up unto God t)efore the decree 
was carried out. He will come again upon the earth, to eetalilish everywhere the 
Moslem religion, and to be a sign uC the coming of the day of judgment. Next to 
the bt>licf iu God, that in augcl^ forms a prominent doi^ma. Creati'd of fire, and en- 
dowed with a kind of uncorporoal body, they stand l>etween God and man, adorini^ 
or waiting upon the former, or intercedins^ for and guarding tho latter. The four 
chief angels are the *• Holv Spirit," or ** Angel of K<'velation8"— Gabriel ; the special 
protector and guardian of the Jews — Michael ; the *• Angel of Death" — AKraer<Rft- 
piiuel, in the apocryphal gospol of Banmbis), and I-^rafil — Uriel, whoso office It will 
be to stmnd the tmmpet tit the Resurrection. It wiil hai-dly be necessary, nfter wtiat 
we said under Mohammed, to point out, in every individual instance, how most of 
his ** religious " notions were taken almost bodily from the Jewish logciids; his an* 
gelology, however, the Jews had bon-owed thi'niselves from the Persians, only alter- 
ing the names, and, in a few cases, tho offices of the chief angelic dignitaries. 
Besides angels, there are good and evil genii, tho chief of the latter being 
Iblis (Despair), once called Azuzil, who, refusing to pay homage to Adnm. was re- 
jected by God. These Jin are of a grosser fabric than angels, and snbiect to death. 
They, too, have different names and offices (Perl, Falri«>s ; Div, Qiauts ; Takrins, 
Fates, Ac), and are, in almost every respect, liko the Sh^liin m the Talmud and 
Midrash. A further point of belief is that in certain Gr>d-given Scriptures, revealed 
successively to the diflterent prophets. Four only of the original one hundred and 
four sacred books: viz., the Pentatcnch, the Psalms, the Gospel, and (he Koran, 
are said to have snrvivtHl ; the three former, however, in a mulilated and falsifled 
condition. Besides these, a certain apocryphal gospel attributed to St Barnabas, 
and the writings of Daniel, together with those of a few other prophets, are taken 
notice of by the Moslems, but not as canonical books. The nnmtter of prophets 
sent at various times, is staied variously at between two and three hnndred ihoa- 
sand, among whom 813 were apostles, and six were specially commissioned to pro* 
claim new lawn mid disp-.^nsations, which abrogatetl the preceding ones. Theso 
were Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed— tho loi^t greatest of 
them all, and the propagator of the final dispensation. The l)clicf In the resurrec- 
tion and the final judgment is the next article of faith. Ttie dead are received iu 
their graves by an angel announcing tho coming of the t^vo examiners. Monker, and 
Naklr, who put questions to tho corpse respecting his belief in God and Mohammed, 
and who, in accordance with the answero, either torture or comfort him. This, 
affaiii, is tlie Jewish "Chlbhut hakkeber," the Beating of the Grave, a hyperbolical 
description of the sufferings during tho intermediate sUite after death (punrutory). 
The soul, awaiting the general resnrrection, enters according to its rank, 
either immediately into paradise (prophets), or pa^take^ in tlic shape of a 
green bird, of the delights of the abode of bliss (inartys), or— in the case of 
common wlievers— is supposed either to stay near the erave. or to be with 
Adam in the lowei^t heaven, or to remain cither iu the well of Zein-Zem, or in 
tho trumpet of the resurrection. Accordijig to others, it rests In the shape of auiilte 
bird under the throne of God. The souls of the infidels dwell In a ctrlaln well iu 
the province of Hndramant <Heb. Chambers of Death), or, being first offered to 
heaven, then offered to earth, and rejected by either, subject to unspeakable tortures 
nntil the day of resurrection. Concerning tho latter, great discrep;incv retgnsamoug 
the Mohammedan theologians. Mohammed himself seems to have held that both 
l>ody and soul will be raised, and the ** Bono Lub " of the Jewish Haggadah was by 
liiin transformed Into the bono Al Ajb, the rump-bone, which will remain uncor- 
ruptcd till the last day, and Irora which the whole body will spring anew, after a 
forty days' rnin. Among the signs by which the approach of the last day may bo 
known — nearly all taken fruin the legendary part ot the Talmud and Midrash, whero 
the signs of the coming of the Messiah ai-e enumerated— are the decay of faith amonsr 
men, thu advancing of the meanest persons to highest dignities, wars, seditions, and 
tumults, and consequent dire distress, so that a man passing another's gnive shall 
say : ** Would to God I were in his place I " Certain provinces shall revolt, and tbe 

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Mobumtni* ^**'**"! 

boOdin/^ of Medina nhaTl rvftch to Tnh&b. Again : the eiin will rise In the west, the 
Beart will appear, CousUulf nople will be taken by the descendants of Isaac, the 
Autl-Christ will come, and he killed by Jesos at Lnd. lliere will further tnke ))lnce 
a war wfiU the Jews, Gojj and MagogV (Jujng and Mnjaj'!«) eruption, a great i^nioko. 
ao ecliwe, the Mohammedans willretnrn to Tdolalry, a great treosnre will be fouucl 
in the Eaphratee, the Kaab.t will lie des^troyed by the Ethlopiiins, bea9t8 and iuuui- 
male tbiD» will apeak, and Anally, a wind will sweep awuy the sonls of those 
vboliareaitli, even if equal oulv to a grain of innstnrd set-d, so that the world 
ilMll be left in ignorance. The time of the resurrection, even Mohammed conid 
not learn from Gubriel ; it ia a mystery. Three blasts will announce It: that of 
cousierijation, of such terrible jwwers. that mothen* shall neglect the babes on their 
br«a»tH, and that heaven and earth will melt ; that of cxaniniation, which will aniii- 
faiiate /ill tliinga and beings, even the angel of death, save paradit^ aud hell, and 
their uhabitonta ; and forty years later, that of resurrection, when all men, M«v 
Itannned flri^t, shall have their seals breathetl ioto their restored l>odies, and will 
fleep hi their sepnlchres nntil the flntd doom has been passed upon them. The d.-iy 
of ^od^ment. lastiog from one to fifty thonsnnd years, will call up angels, genii, 
neb, aiid animal?. The trial over, the righteous will enter paradise, to the right 
hand, and the wicked will pass to the left, into hell ; both, however, have first to go 
over the bridge Al Sir&t laid over the midst of hell, and finer than a hair, and slmrpet 
tban the edge of a aword. and beset with thorns on cither side. The righteous will 

S«d on their path with ease and swiftness, bnt the wicked will fall down heud- 
to bell below— a nlace divided into seven stories or apartments, respectively 
aed to Mohammeoans, Jews, Christians, Sabians, Magians, idolaters, and— the 
lowest of all— to the hypocrites, who, ont^frardly professing a religion, In reality lind 
wme. The degreea of pain— chiefly consisting in iutenee heat and cold— vary ; but 
ti»e Mohammedans, and all those who proiessed the nnliy of God, will finally 
be released, while nnbelievera and idolaters will bo condemned to eter- 
nal ponishmcnt Paradise Is divided from hell by a partition (OrQ, la 
wfaldi a certain nnmber of half-sain^a will find place. The blefsed, destined for tho 
abodes of eternal delight (Jannat Aden, Hcb. Gan Eden)— of which it is, however. 
Bot qoite certain whether it is created already — will first drink of the Pond of 
^ rrophet, which ia supplied from the rivers of paradise, whiter than milk, and 
nore odonferoaB than mask. Arrived at one of the eight gates, they will be met by 
beamifal youths and angels; and their degree of righteonMicss (prophets, religious 
teachers, roarryrs, believers) will procure for them the corresponding degree of hnp- 
P^aeaa. It may, however, not be snperflnons to add, that, according to the Moham- 
nedaa doctrine, it ia not a person's good worlcs or merits which gain his admittance, 
bat tolely God's mercy; also that the poor will enter paradise five hundred years 
before ttic rich ; and that the majority of the inhabitants of hell are women. As to 
the varioos felicities which await the pious (and of which there are about a hundred 
d^'grees), they are a wild conglomeration of Jewish, Christian, Maglan, and other 
faacies oo the aabject. to which the Prophet's own exceedingly sensual imagination 
bas added veiy considerably. Feasting in the most gorgeous and delicious variety, 
the moit costly and brilliant garments, odors and mnsic of the most ravishing no- 
tare, and above all, the enjoyment of the Hfir Al Oyfln, tho black-eyed daughters of 
pandlae, created of imre musk, and free from all the bodily weaknesses of ihe female 
in, are held out aa a reward lo tho commonest inhabitants of paradise, who will 
ihrkys remain in tlie fnll vigor of their youth ond mnnhood.* For those deserving a 
blgfaffl" degree of recompense, rewards will bo prepared of a purely spiritual kind— 
i. e., the ^beholding of God's face" (Shechlnah) by night and by day. A separate 
abode of happinem will also be reserve<l for women, but there Is conhldenible doubt 
■• to tlie manner of tbelr enjoyment. That they are not of a prominently spiritual 

*^Tbe whole earth will be as one loaf of bread, which God will rcncli to ihem like 
a cake; for meat they will have the ox BalAm and the fish Nfin, the lobes of whoso 
Bwrs win saflSce acveoty thousand men. Every believer will have eighty thouwmd 
■'-rvanta and seventy* two girls of paradise, besides his own former wives, if he 
»ho«!d wish for these, ana a large tent of pearls, jacinths, and emeralds : three 
bradred dishes of gold shall be set before each guest at once, and the last mon>el 
^til be as gratefol as the firsL Wine will l>e permitted, and will flow copiously, 


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Moha min>danl«g 156 

nature, Is clear from the story of the Prophet aud the old womao. The tetter io- 
llclled Mohammed to Jutercede with God that uhe might be admitted into paradise, 
whi'reiipon he replied that old womeu were not allowed 1» paradtto, which diclum— 
cansiug her to weep— he further explained by saying that ihey would ftrst l)e made 
young again. The last of the precepts of pure faith taught by Moliamraedanism ia 
the full aud uucoudillonal submission to God's decree [Islam], and the predestlua- 
tion of good and evil, which is found from the begiuuiug inscribed ou a ** preserved" 
table." Not only a man's fortunes, bat his deeds, aud cousequently his fntare re- 
ward or punishmeut, are Irrevocably, and thus uuavoidabty, pre-ordained (Fate) : a 
doctrine which Is not, however, taken literallv by aU Moslems, but which has no 
doubt contributed largely to the success of Islam, by inspiring its champions with 
the greatest iuiifference aud contempt for the daugcrs of warfare ; thek deatinf 
being immutably fixed under any circumstances. 

Thus far, briefly, the Iman, dogmatical or theoretic*! part of Islam. The Din. 
or practical part, which coutains the ritual and moral laws, inculcates as the chief 
duties the following four: prayer, alms-giving, fasting, aud pilgrimage. 

Pmyer, ** the key of paradisi-," comprises also certain rcliKions purifications, a« 
the most necessary prepurathms to the former. They are of two kinds: the Ohutl, 
or total Immersion of the body, required as a religious ceremony, on some special 
occasions ; and the Wadu, a imrtial ablution, to be performed Immediatelr before 
the prayer. This Is of primary importance, and consists of the washlne of hands, 
face, ears, and feet up to the ankU*— a proceeding generally accompauled at each 
stage by corresiwnding pious sentences, and concluded by the recital of the VltXx 
chapter of the Koran. In tlie case of wat«r being beyond reach, dry dust or sand 
may supply Its place. " The practice of religion being founded on cleanliness," It 
is not sufficient that the believer himsolf should bo purified, but even the sroand or 
the carpet upon which he prays must be as clean as possible, and the oseof a special 
prayeix^arpet (Soggad6h) is therefore recommended. Every Mohammedan b obliged 
to pray five timesiu the space of every twenty-four hours. The prayer (Salah) itself 
consists imrtly of extracu from the Revealed Book, the Koran (Fard), partly of 
pieces oitlaincd by the Prophet without allegation of a divine order (Sunnah). The 
firi<t time of prayer commences at the Maglirib. or about sunset; the second at the 
KshtS. or nightfall ; the third, at the Subh, or daybreak; the fourth, at tlie Dnbr, or 
about noon ; the fifth, at the Asr, or afternoon. The believers are not to commence 
their prayers exactly at sanrise, or noon, or sunset, lest tJiey might be coufonuded 
with the infidel Sun-worshippers. These several times of prayer are announced by 
the Mudddius (q. ▼.) from the minai-ets or madnehs of the mosques. Their chant, 
sung to a very simple but solemn melody, sounds harmoniously and sonoroatlTdown 
thehoichtof the mosque, through the mid-day din and roar of the citiefl, ont its 
impression Is one of the most strikingly poetical In the stillness of night ; so much 
so, that even many Enro))eanB cannot help congratulating the Prophet on his pr»- 
ferrlngthe human voice to cither the Jewish tmmnet-call of the time of tlie Tcre- 
ple, or the Christian church-bells. The day-call (the Adnn) consists chiefly of the 
confession of faith (God is most great— Mohammed is Ood*8 apostle— oome to 

grayer, come to security) repeated several times; the night-calls (iTla, the first ; 
;i)ed, the second), destined for persons who desire to perform snpere- 
rogatory acta of devotion, are much longer. The bdlever often chfuiges 
his posture during his prayers, and a certain number of such IncHna* 
tions of head ana knees, prostrations, Ac., is called a Rekah. It Is also 
necessary that the face of the worshipper should bo turned towards the Kibleb, in 
the direction of Mecca (q. v.), the exterior wall of the mosque marking that direo- 
tion being distinguished bv a niche (Mehrab). All sumptuous and pompons apnard 
Is laid aside before^ the believer approaches the sacred place; and the extreme soiem- 

withont inebriating. The righteous will be clothed in the most precious silks aad 

fold, and will be crowned with crowns of the most resplendent pearls and Jewels. 
f they desire children, they shall beget them, and see them grow ap within an hoar. 
Besides the ravishing songs of the angel Israfll and the danirhters of paradise, the 
very trees will, by the rustling of their boughs, the clanging of bells suspended from 
them, and the clastiiog of their fruits, which are pearls ana emeraldB, makesweetoat 


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oity and deconinu the noaffected hamility, the real and olI-absorblDg devotion which 
pervMles It, have been unaiiimonsly held tip as an example tool her cn'cds. Women, 
altiiougli uot strictly forbidden to cnttr the mo^qnCf yet are not praciicaliv allowed 
to pmy there, lest their presence might be horttul to true demotion. BesIdeA ihe^o 
prajeru, there arc others ordained for special occasions, as on a pilgrimage, bt fore 
a balUe, at fouomli', daring an eclipse, &c. That the Moslems clo not pmy to Mo- 
hammed, but simply Improro his iiitercessiou, as they do that of the numerous 
Mints, the relatives of the Prophet, and the first propagators of Islam, netd. afler 
what we said under Mohaxkbd, not be dwelt upon here. For the particulars of the 
feorice In the Mosque, the reader Is referred to that hcadiug. It nniy Iw remarked 
Id naa^iuK, that Mohammedanism has no clergy in onr sense of the word, the civil 
ana religious law being bound up in one. See also Mollah, Mufti. 

Next in importance stands the duty of giving alms. Thet^e are twofold— leenl 
(Eeluili) aod volnutAry (Sndakah ; Iltrb.'ZedaKah, nlcty, righteousness) ; but the for- 
mer, once collected by the sovereign, and applied to pions uses, has now been 
praa^cidiy abrogated. The Sadakab is. occording to ihe law, to be given onco every 
year, of cartlc, money, corn, fruits, and wares sold, at about the rate of from two and 
a half up to twenty per cent Besides these, it Is usual to bestow a measure of pro* 
virions upon the poor, at ihe end of the sacred month o( Ramadan. 

The duty of fasting follows. [Fasts.] During the whole month of Ramadftn, 
the Moslem is commanded to refrain from eating, drluiclng, smoking, smelling per- 
fomes, bathing, and every tmneccssanr indulgence in worldly pleasure, from day- 
break until sunset. From that period till the morning, he Is allowed to eat. drink, 
and cnioy himself. The Arabian years being limar, it often happens that the 
Bamadin falla in midsummer, when the fasting, more especially the abstaining 
from drinking, ifl excessively mortifying. Nouo are exempt from tliis duty save 
the sick, travellers, and soldiers in time of war : but they are bound to fast an equal 
number of days during some other months. I^urses and proynant women are en- 
tirely free from tasting. It is Mohammed's special and express desire, that no one 
»bonklfast who Is not quite equal to it, lest he might injure Ms health, and dis- 
noalify himself for necce:sanr labor. Of the the other commendable fast-doys, the 
A.«hara, on the 10th of Moharram (the Jewish Jom Kippur), deserves special 
loenllou. Tliere arc very few Moslems who do not keep the Ramaddn, even 
if Uiey neglect their other religious duties; at all events, they ail pretend to keep 
It most strictly, fasting being considered ** one- fourth part of the faith," nay, *' the 
gate of rdlgion." 

Of tlie fourth paramount duty of the Mohammedan— viz., the pllfrrlmage to 
Mecca— we liave spoken both nnder that heading, and, more fully, In the article 
Ha«. SufUccIt here briefly to recapitulate, that the Kaaba (q. v.) is to be cncom- 
PAsaed seven times, the celebrated black stone being kissed at each round, that 
Jloont Arafat is to be visited, the sacrifice El-Fida (the Ransom, In memory of 
IstoaeTs sacrifice) to be performed, and a number of minor ceremonies to be gone 
throuifh by the pilgrim, and that he who neglects to perform the sacred pilgrlmuge, 
"mhfht as well die a Jew or a Christian." 

To the ** positive" ordinances of Islam may also he reckoned the ** Sapblr." or 
minor, and ** Kebir." or great festivalai [Festivals.] The flret (Al-Fetr, or break- 
ing the fast), following immediately upon the Ramad&n, begins on the first day of 
the month of ShawAl, and lasts three oays, Tlie second (Eed Al-Kurban, or hacrl- 
fic?) heghis on the lOtli of Dsn'I Hejnifeb, when the pilgrims |»eiform their sacrifice, 
and lasts three or four days. Yet, aUhough intended to be the moj^t important ot 
ibe two, the people have In most places changed the order, and by way of compen- 
sation for Ihe previous fast, they make the lesser festival which follows the Rama- 
dan the nioft jojrful and the longest of the two. The day set aside for the weekly 
d.iT of rest is tlie Friday— not, as is generally snnposcd, Wciupe l>oth the Jewisti 
oabhaih and the Chri?tlan Sundny were to be avoided, hut l>ecanfio, from times long 
before Mohammed, the people used to hold public assemblies for civil as well as re- 
figioas purposes on that day. The celebration of the Moslem days of religious 
K^mnSty Is far le^B strict than is the custom with the other Shemitic rclidons. 
Senrioe being over, the people are allowed to return to their worldly affairs. If they 
cannot afford to glvethemselTea ap entirely to pleasure or devotion for the rest of 
tbe sacred period. 




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Thns far, briefly, the princfpal positive laws of Islam relating to faith and prac- 
tice. Wo aball uo\r toach upon the fondameDtal prohibitury laws contained in the 

First of all, the drinking of wine, which includes all strong and inebriating H- 
jnors, as giving ripe to ** more evil than good," Is rigorously forbidden ; and al- 
tliotigti of late, chiefly ttiroagh European influence, very many Moslems nave lost 
ilieir religions scruples on Umt score, and not only secretly, but openly indulge in 
spirits, yet the great bulk of the faithful refuse even to make nso of the proceeds of 
tim sole of wine or gropes. Some over-scrnpulons believers even include opium, 
coffee, and tobacco in the pi-ohibition ; but general practice has decided dtffcreutiy. 
The prohibitory laws respeciiu); food resemble closely those of Judaism : blood, the 
flc»li of swiue, farther, animals which have died from disease or age, or on which 
tlie name of Pome idol has been invoked, or which have been sacrificed unto an idol, 
or which have beeir strangled or killed by a iilow, a fall, or by some other t)east,are 
strictly forbidden. '* Pure '* animals mnst be slaughtered according to certain fixed 
rules, and the name of Qod is to be invoked before the operation, without, however, 
the usual addition oi the benevolent epithets, since these would ill befit tlie enfZer- 
ings of a fellow-creature. Fish, birds, game are mostly allowed for food, yet there 
are in nearly all cases certain religfbus ceremonies to be observed, before I hey ijo- 
comc fit for the believer's table. 

All ffames subject to chance (" casting lots by arrows '0 — snch as dice, cards, 
tables, bets, Ac — are considered so wicked, that a gambler's testimony is Invalid in 
a court of law. (The Talmud only rejects the testimony of the habitual "dies- [Kn- 
bia, 1. e.. Cube] gambler and better upondoves,^ Chess and other games depending 
on skill— provided hey do not interfere with the regular performance of religlona 
duties, and that they are played without any slakes whotsoever— are allowed by the 
majority of Moslem theologians. Ubury is strictly prohibited. Taking interest npon 
any loan, however large or small, or profiting in trade through any questionable 
means, save by buying and selling, is severely condemned. 

To prevent the faitliful from ever falling back into idolatry, the laws relating to 
images and pictures have be«ai made very stringent. Whosoever makes an imita- 
tion of any living being in stone, wood, or any other material, shall, on the day of 
indsmcnt, be a<»Ked to endow his creation with life and soul, and, on his protesting 
hisTnabilitv of doing so, shall undergo the punishment of hell for a certain period. 

The civil and criminal laws of Monamniedanism, founded both on the Koran and 
the Traditions (Sunna), are, in some instances, where the letter of the written or 
oral precept allows of various explanations, or where ^the casein question is not 
foreseen, interpreted according to the opinion of one of tlie four great masters of 
Is>]am : Abu Iltinifa, Malec Ibn Ans, SltifeT, Ibn Hanbal, within the pale of thelr 
respoctive sects. The principal points, however, npon which all MohammedaiM 
agree are the following : Polygamy is allowed, not, as is commonly supposed, witli- 
out any restriction, but : "Take in marriage of the women who please von, two, 
three, or four ; but if ye fear that ye cannot act equitably, one ; or those whom vour 
right hands liave acquired "—1. e., your slaves. These are the explicit words of ti»o 
Koran (iv. 8), so tliat four w Ives, and a certain numlier of concubine slaves, is the 
whole extent to which a Moslem may legally go. The Prophet's example proves 
uotliing to the contrary, since he was endowed with special privileges, and not snt>- 
ject to the common law in many respects. It is, moreover, added, as an advice, that 
to maiTv one or two is quite sufficient for a man. If he apprehend any inconvenience 
from a larger number of wives. A Moslem may. If urged by excessive love, or If 
unable to obtain a wife of his own creed, marry a Christian woman or a Jewess, bat 
a Mohammedan woman is not, under any circumstances, to marry an anbcliever. 
In all cases, however, the child bom of a Moslem, whatever the mother's faith, 
is a Moslem ; nor does the wife, who is an nnl>eliever, inherit at her hos- 
bands' death. Forbidden degrees are : the mother, daughter, sister, half- 
sister, aunt, niece, foster-mother, or a woman related to the faithful ^bj 
milk in any of the degrees wliich would preclude his marriage witb be«, 
if she were similarly related to him by consanguinity ;" the mother of his wife, 
even if he be not proper! v married to the latter yet : the daughter of his wife, if tbe^ 
latter still be Ills legal wife : his father's wife and his son's wife; or two sisters at 
the aame time ; or wives who stand to each oUmt in the rdotion of aont and nleoe; 







or the 'nDemanclpated Blare, or another man's slave, If he hnve nircndy ft free wife. 
A simple declaration of a mnu and woman at the Bj^o of puhHi-ty, hefore two wit- 
oeases, of their intention to marry eacli oilier, and the payment of part of tlie dowry 
(wbicb is indispensable, and must amount to at least ten dirhems, or about five shil- 
liogs), ia snfflcient for a leeal marrluge. A girl under a^e is ((iven away by lier 
natorai or appointed gaardian, with or without lier consent. To see the face of any 
woman who Is ueitlier his wife nor his concuhiue, nor belongs to any of tiic forbld- 
, deu decrees, is strictly forbidden to the l>ellever. Divorce is a comparatively liaht 
matter with the Mohammedans. Twice, a man may send away his wife and take 
I lu^ back again without any ceremony; the thlnl lime, however— if he unite tlie 
triple divorce in one sentence at once — he dure not receive her a;;nin in wedlock 
niitil she havo been married properly to another man in the nionntime. Merc dislike 
I is Boffidcnt reason for a man to dissolve tlie conjugal ties, tind his saying: **Thoa 
•rt divorced," or ** I divorce thee,'* together with the p.iyment of part of the wife's 
dowry, is ail that is required from Inm by tlie law. A wife, on the other band, ia 
boand to her hnsbund for ever, unless she can prove some flagrant ill-usage or ne- 
glect of conjugal duty on his part ; and even then, she forfeits part, or the wliole of 
Her dowry. A divorced woman is obliged to wait, like a widow, for a ceilain period 
before marrying again : if pregnant, until delivery ; three months, or four mbntha 
aod ten days, according to circumstances. If she have a young child, she is to 
: suckle it until It be two years old, and the father is to bear all the expenses of tho 
I maintenance of mother and child. A woman provimr disobedient to her husband, 
' may be declared by the kadi '* nAshizeh," 1. e., rebellions, and the husband is no 
kmger bound to maintain her. Yet, be cannot be forced to divorce her under these 
drcumstances, so that the woman is generally in so sore a plight that she ia 
\ oblige^ to promise good-lH^lunvior for the future, and the husband has then 
I either to take her back to- his house, or to set her free by a formal divorce. 
: On tlie other hand, it often happens that a woman prefers a mere separa- 
tion, to continuing to live with her husband ; in which case she gets herself, of her 
I own Mx>ord, inscribed a »*nashi«eh." If a slave becomes a moUier by her master, 
I tnd be acknowledges the child to be his own, the latter is free, and the mother is to 
; be emaiK:ipated at the master's death, and may not be given away, or otherwise di»- 
I posed of by him, dnrine bis lifetime. A free person, wishing to marry his or her 
i slave, must flrrt emancipate this slave ; and if the slave of another person has been 
married by a free man or woman, and afterwards becomes the latter's property, 
the inaniage becomes illegal, and can only be renewed by a legal contract and emun- 

The pri\i1^eof primogeniture does not exist In the Mohammedan law, but males 

geaerally receive ft double share. A person may not bequeath more than one-third 

of his property, unless there be no legal heirs. Children, whether l>e^otten with the 

j legal wife, or slave, or concubine: orouly adopted, and their descendants, are the first 

I hHre; next come tlie claims of wive^ parents, brothci-s, sisters, in their order. 

I When there is no legal heir, the property falls to the crown. 

I I1ie law ia very lenient towards debtors, the Koran recommending the creditor to 

I remit a debt ** as alms.^ Insolvency and inability to work for the discharge of tho 
I claim, solve all further obligations. The most conscienliousperformance uf all pri- 
vate contracts, however, ia constantly recommended in the ETortm. 
; Murder is either punished with death, or by the payment of a flne to the 

I family of the deceased, according to their own pleasure. There must, however, be 
palliating circumstances in the latter case. The Bedawis, however, have expanded 
the law of blood-revenge In a terrible manner, and np to this day the •* vendetta " 
often rages not only between family and family, but between whole trlbts, villages, 
and proviuces. Unintentional homicide is expiated by freeing a believer trum 
I slavery, and paying to the family a certain sum in proportion to the rank and sex 
of the'deceascd. He who has not the means of freeing a believer, is to f:i8t for two 
months, by way of penance. According to the strict letter of the kiw, a man is not 
I liable to capital punishment for killing his own child or an infidel ; but, practically, 
no difference is generally made by the Mohammedan governments (chiefly the Turk- 
ish) in our dar. Murder is punished with death, and no flne frees the culprit. 
j The Mosaic law of retaliation, in case of intentional wounds and mutilation, 

holds good also for Islam ; that ia (not, as has ignoroutly been supposed, that the 


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ACohsmintfduiisiiiJ "X (*{\ 

corre»pODd!ng limb of the offt>i)der is to be cnt off), a certain proporUonafe fine tn 
money Is to be paid to the injured. The payment for any of tlic elugle limlw of Ilia 
hnmon body — e. g.. ttie nose— in the full price of blood, as for a homicide; for a limb 
whicli is found twice, like hand or foot, linif : for a flncer or toe, the tenth part, 
&c. Women and slaves have emallor claims. Injuries of a dungerona, or olhcr\i-iee 
grievous nature, pay the full price; those of an inferior kind, liowcvcr, bring the 
jKjrpetrator within the province of the lusli or cudgel, which Is supposed to nave 
** come down from heaven, to be used by the judge for the promotiou of virtue and 

The Koran orders theft— of no less than tbe value of half •a-crown— to be pun- 
ished by cnttiug off the ciiief offending limb : the right hand ; the second theft is 
punishable by (tie loss of the left foot ; the third, of the left hand ; the fourth, of 
tbe right foot, A;c ; but the ordinary punishments of imprisonment, hard labor, and 
the bastinado, have been substituted in our davs. Th.c property stolen must not, 
however, have been of easv access to tlie thief, nor must it have consisted of food, 
since he may have taken this to satisfy the craving of his hunger. 

Unchostlty on the part of a woman was, in the commencement of Islam, pun- 
ished by Imprisonment for life, for which afterwards, however, stoning was Milwti- 
tuted in the case of a married woman ; and a hundred stripes and a Year's exile In 
the case of an unroarrie<l free woman ; a shivc to undei^ onlv half of tliat punish- 
ment. Yet, it is necessary tliat he who accnses a •* woman of reputation " of adul- 
tery or fornication, shall produce four (male) witnesses, and if lie be not able to do 
so, he is to receive fourscore stripes, nor is his testimony ever after to be received, 
for he is considered an "infamous prevaricator"— uniesu he swear four times ttial 
he speaks the truth, and the fifth time Imprecate God's vengeance if he speak false. 
Yet, even this testimony may be overthrown by tiie wife's swearing four times that 
he is a liar, and imnrecatiug the fifth lime tbe wrutli of God upon herself, if bespeak 
the truth. In the latter case, she is fn-e from pnnisliment ; the marriage, however, 
is to be dissolved. Fornication in either sex is, oy the hiw of the Ko(au, to be visited 
with a hundred stripes. 

Infldelitv, or apostasy from Islam, Is a crime to bo visited by the donth of tbe 
offender, If he have been warned lliricc without recanting. Severer still, that is, not 
to l>e averted by rei)eutance or revocation of any kind, is the punishment inflicted 
for blasplieniy — asuiust God, Mohammed. Christ, Moses, pr any other prophet. In- 
stantaneous death Is the doom of the offender: for if apostasy may do caused bv 
error and misguidance, ** blasphemy is the sign of complete wickedneasond thorough 
corruption of the soul." 

A further injnnctioii of the Koran, for the carrying out of which, however, tbe 
time has well-nigh gone by, is that of making war against the Infidels. He wiio ia 
slain while flslitfng in defence and for the propagation of Islam, is reckoned a mar' 
tyr ; while a deserter from the holy war Is held up as an object of exccrution. and 
has forfeited his life in iliis world as well os in the world to come. At first, all the 
eneinies taken in battle were ruthlessly slnin ; later, however, it became tlie law to 
give the people of a different faith against whom war was declared the choice of 
three thines: either to <Mnbraco Islam— in which case tliey became Moslems at ouoe, 
free in their persons and fortunes, and entitled to all the privileges of Moslems ; or 
to submit to pay tribute— in which case they were allowed to continue in their reli- 
gion, if it did not imply gross idolatry or otherwise offended against the moral law : 
or to decide tbe quarrel by the fortune of war— in which case the captive women and 
children were made slave, and the men either slain, unless they became converts at 
the last moment, or otherwise disposed of by the prince. The fifth part of the spoil 
beionjrs *'to God,*" that Is, the Sanctuary (Kaaba, Jbc), to the apostle and his 
kindred, to the orphans, the poor, and the traveller. 

We need hardly urge, that the Koran is not a systematically arranged code, and 
that all the laws and regulations hitherto enumerated, although contained In it, cither 
bodily, or. as It were. In germs— further developed bv the Sunna (q. v.) — are to a great 
extent only mentioned in an incidental manner, thrown togetlier and mixed up. 
often in tbe strangest manner, with the roost heterogeneous dicta, dogmas, moral 
exhortations, civil and criminal laws, &c, and are principally to be considered as 
supplementary to the existing laws and regulations which they either abrogated, 
confirmed or extended, according to the pressing demand of circumstances anring 


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AS Profdiet'p Iffe. In cases for which BabMqnent ages foand no written rules laid 
down by the Prophet, tmdtlioun! oral dicta were taken as Ihe norm, and later Htlll, 
prMed«ut8 of the Khalifa were bludiiiz. Hence coiirnidfctions in theory and prac- 
tice bare crt-ptlu, accordiuE to the dlffereut traditions and decisions of tlic Iniaius 
or cxpoduders of tbu Law, besides the vurloos interpretations pot nppu the book 
itadf within the pale of the different Mohaininedau sects. Th^- secular tribunals, 
therefore, not unfrcqnently differ in their decisions from tlie judicial tribunals : and 
the distinction between tlie written civil Law of the ecclesiastical courts and the 
commoD Law. aided br tite executive power, is, fortunately for the cuufc of human 
coltare, and tne spread of civilisation, getting clearer and clearer every duy. 

That part of IsUiin, however, which lias undergone (I>ecan8e not to be clr- 
camscribed and defined by doctors) the least ctinnges in tlie course of time, and 
whjdi most distinctly reveals the mind of Its author, is also its most complete and 
its most shining part— we^ean the ethics of tlie Koran. They are not found, any 
iiiore than the other laws, brought together in one, or two. or three Surahs, bat 
"like golden threads" they are woven into the hnge fabric ot the religious constltu- • 
tion otllohammed. Injustice, falsehood, pride, reveniref nlness, calamny, mockery, 
mrice, prodigality, debauchery, mistrust, and suspicion are invelgliccl ajjalust as 
on^odty and kicked ; while benevolence, liberality, modesty, forbearance, patience 
tm endarance, fmeality, sincerity, straightforwardness, decency, love of pi &ce and 
tratli, aud above alC trusting In Qud, and submitting to his will, are considered as 
the pillars of truepieiy, and t lie principal sicnis of u true believer. Nor must we 
omit to point out expressly thut Hohainined never laid down that doctrine of ab- 
wlote predestination and ** fatality" which destroys all human will and freedom, 
■ioce the individual's deeds cannot alter one iota in his destiny either in this world 
or in the next. So far from it, foolhnrd1nej«s is dlstinctiy prohibited in the Koniu 
(1L196). Caution is recommended. Prayer, tlie highest ceremonial law of Islam, 
Is modified in case of danger. It is legal to earn one*s livelihood on Friday after 
prayer, and to shorteu the readings In the Ko^un for the sake of attending to busf. 
nets. All of which Is enough to shew that the Moslem id not to expect to lie fed 
pOfHoant to a Divine decree whether he be Idle or not. On the other hand, a glance at 
the wtiole system of faith, built on hope and fear, rewards ond pnnlshnients, para- 
dise and liefl, both to be man's portion according to his acts in this life, and the inces- 
Mat ezhortatioHS to virtue, and denunciations of vice, are sufflcient lo prove that 
aboriginal predestination, such as St Augustine taught it is not in the Koran, wlutre 
ook sobmisslon to the Lord's will, hope during misfortune, modesty in ]>roj«periiy, 
•nd entire confidence in the Divine plans, are 8np]>orted by the argunuMit, iliat 
everythhig is in the liands of the Highest Being, and tliat there Is no appeal against 
His absolute decrees. 

And this is one instance of the way in which most of Mohammed's dicta have 
b-'en developed and explained— both by sectarians and enemies within and without 
Warn— in such a manner that he lias oftt-n been mode to teach the very reverse of 
wbtt he really did teach ; and thus monstrosities now found in his creed, if caix*- 
ftiDy traced back to their original sources, will, in most cases, be seen to Imj the 
growth of later generations, or the very things ho abrogated. That, agoiii, ihe 
worst ride of his character, the often wanton cruelty with which lie pursued his 
peat niissiOD, the propagation of his faith, should by liis successors havo been 
nkcii as a thing to l>e principally imitated, is not to be wondered ut. considering 
bow brlllUmt the results of the policy of the bloody sword hud proved. Scarctly a 
Cf^tnry had elapsed after Mohammed's death, and Islam reigned supreme over 
Armhia, 8>Tia, Persia, Egypt, the whole of the northern coast of Africa, even as far as 
epain; and notwithstanding the subsequent strifes and divisions in the interior of 
tills gigantic realm, It grew aud grew outwardly, until the Crescent was made to 
l^m from the spires of StSopfilaat Constantinople, mid the war-cry "Allah 11 

Anahr'rMu^niWlnH h^kfrtiv fh<k mir«>arkr ViAiiitii. TTrnin thnt ttmn. hnwpvf^r. tllttfinlendnr 

"resounded before the gates of Vienna. From that time, however, the splendor 
•ndtlte power of Mohammedanism began to wane. Although there nre counted about 

Allah r 

*ndtl»t ^ _ „..„ 

190 millious this day nil over the globe who profess I^lam, and althongli it is, es- 
pecially at this present juncture, making great progress among the African races, 
y^^tbe number of real and thorough believers is infinitely small; and since it has 
left off couqoering, it has lost also that energy and elasticity which promises great 
thUigs. Ita future fate will depend chiefly, we should say, on the progress of En- 


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ropean conquest In the Eont, aod the araoantof WeBtern dVTTiflation whlckU will, 
for good or evil, import into those parts. 

We cannot consider In this place what Islam has done for the cause of all ha« 
inanity, or, more exnctly, what was his precise share in the development of science 
and art in Europo. Wc refer to the special articles which treat of these snbjectis 
and particuluriv toMIto bio<;raphies foand in the coarse of this work of men eminent 
in every brnnch of tinman knowledge who birve issued from the ranks of Islam. 
Broadly spanking, ttiu Moltammednns mny l>e said to buvc been the enlightened 
teachers of barbarous Europe from the »tli to the 13lh century. It is from the glo- 
rious days of tlie Abbuside rulers that the real renaissance of Greek spirit and 
Greek culture is to be dated. Classical literature would have been irredeemably 
lost, had it not been for the home it found in the schools of tlie ** unbelievers" of 
the "dark ages.'' Arabic philosophy, medicine, natuijil history, geography, his- 
tory, grammar, rhetoric, and the •' golden art of poetry," schooled by the o!d Hel- 
lenic masters, brought forth an abundant harvest of works, many of which will live 
and teach as long as there will be generations to be taught. 

Besides the Koran, the Sunna, and the native (Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Jkc) 
writers on the foregoing subject, wc mention as further references the works of the 
Euroi»ean scholars Maracci, Hyde. Prideaux, Chardin, Du Ryer, Rcland. D'Herbelot, 
Siile, De Sacy, Hammer. Bnrckhardt, Sprenger, Burton. Muir. Garcln de Tassy, 
Lnnc, Weil, Gciger, NOIdeke. See Ko&AN, Mahommsd, Suiites, SiLimTES, 


MOHAMMEDAN SECTS. *♦ My community," Mohammed is reported to kave 
raid, *' will separate itself into scveuty-ihree sects; one onlv will be saved, all the 
others shall perish." This prophecy has been largely fulfllled. Even during the ill- 
uess, and immediately after the death of the founder, many differences of opinion 
arose among his earliest adherents. We have endeavored to shew both under KoRAir 
and Mohammedanism, how the fundamental book of Islam left certain p«>iuls un- 
decided by the very fact of Its poetidil wording, and how, further, the peculiarity of 
the Arabic idiom at times allowed many interpretations to l>e pnt upon one cardinal 
and dogmatic sentence. To add to this uncertainty, a vast number of oral tradltioua 
sprang up aud circulated as an expansive corollary to the Koran. Political causes 
soon came to assbt the confusion and contest, and religion was made the pretext 
for faction- fights, which in reality had their origin In the ambiiiou of certaiu men 
of influence. Thus *' sects '' increased in far larger number even than the Prophet 
bad foretold, and though their existence was but bhort-livcd in most instances, tbej 
vet deserve attentiou. were It only as signs and tokens of the ever-fresh life of the 
human spirit, which, though fettered a thousand times by narrow and hard formulas. 
will break these fetters as often, and prove its everlasting right to freedom of 
thotight and action. 

Tae bewildering mass of these cnrrents of controversy, has by the Arabic historians 
been brought under four chief heads or f niidamental bases. The first of these relates 
to the diviiie attributes and unity. Which of these attributes are essential or eter- 
nal 7 Is the onmipottmce of Ood absolute 7 If not, what are its limits t Further, 
as to the doctrine of God's predestination and man's libertv — a question of no stnall 
purport, and one which has been controverted in nearly all ** revealed " religions- 
How far is God's decree influenced by man's own will 7 How far can God counte- 
nance evil 7 and questions of a similar kind belonging to this province. The third Is 
perhaps the most comprehensive '* basis," and the one that l>ears most directly npou 
practical doctrines— vir.. the promises and threats, and the names of God, together 
with various other queMtious chiefly relating to faith, repentance, infidelity, and error. 
The fourth is the one that concerns itself with the inflaence of reason and history 
upon the transcendental realm of faith. To this chapter belong the mission of 
prophets, the ofllce of Imam, or Head of the Church, and such intricate subtleties as 
to what constitutes gooclness and badness; how far actions are to be condemned on 
the ground of reason or the " Law ; " Ac. 

One broad line, however, came to be drawn, in the course of lime, among theao 
innumerable religious divisions, u line that separated them ail into orthodox sect* 
and heterodox se^Ms; orthodox bebig Uiose only who adopted the onU traditions^ 
or Suuua (sec Summitbs). 


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Mach more Dnmeronn than the orthodox dWisfons are the heterodox onea. Im- 
mediately after Mohnmined'a death, and dnring the etirly conqneata, ihe contest waa 
chiefly coufincd to the qnedtion of the Imamat. Bnt no sooner were the first days of 
warfare orer, than thiukiuff minds began to direct themselves to a closer exutuhm- 
tion o( Ihi; faith it.«cir, lor which and throuffh which the world was to be con- 
qoered, and to the t>ootc which preached it. the Koran. The earliest germs of a re- 
llgiona di^sensioij are found in the revolt of the Kharcjites against AH. in the S7th 
year of the Hedjrah ; and several doctors shortly afterwards bi-OHChed heterudux 
opinions aboot predestination and the good and evil to be ascribed to God. The* e 
Dew doctrines were boldly, and in a vei-y advanced form, openly preached by W&s«il 
Ibn Ati, who, for ntteriu^ a modenite opinion in the mntter of the " Mnuer,'* had 
been expelled from the rigorons school of Basra. He then formed a scliool of his 
own— that of the Separatbts or Motazilites (q. v.), who, together with a nnmber of 
oUier *' heretical ** groaps, are variously counted as one, four, or seven pects. 

We now come to the second great heretic group, the Sefntiuns. The Sefatians 
(attributiouistB) held a precisely contrary view to that of the Motnzilites. With 
them, God's attributes, whether essential or operative, or what they afterwards 
called declarative or historical, i. e., used in liistoricnl narration (eyes, face, hand), 
authroponiorpliisnis, in fact, wei*o considered eternal. Bnt here, again, hiy the 
germs for more dissensions and more B<^cts in tlieirown midst. Some taking this 
notion of God*^ attributes in a strictly literal sense, assumed a likeness bt^tweeu 
God and created things; others giving it a more allegorical interpretation, without, 
however, entering Into any particniiirs lieyoiii^il the renernted doctrine, thiit God had 
DO oompnnioo or similitude. The different sCcts info which they split were, firt<t, tlie 
Asliarians, so chilled from Abnl Hasan nl Asbarl, who, at first a Motazilite. disagreed 
wiUi bis masters on the point of God's bein^ bound to do always that which Is bcft. 
He became the founder of a new school, whicli held (1) that God's attributes are to 
be held distinct from his essence, and that any literal understanding of the words 
that stand for God's limbs in the Koran is reprtthensible. (2) Thdt predestination 
must be taken In its most literal meaning, 1. e., that God preordains everytliinjr. 
The opinions on this point of man's free wUl are, however, much divided, as indeed 
to combine a predestination which ordains every act with man's fi*ee choice in not 
easy ; and the older authors bold it as well not to inquire too minutely Into these 
things, lest all precepts, both positive and negative, bo argued away. The middle 
path, adopted by the greatcrnumber of the doctors, If< expix'sse<l in this formnla: 
Tliere is neither compulsion nor free lilK*rty, bnt ti^e wny lirs between the two; 
ti»e power and will being both crewted by God, thouirh the merit or gnilt be 
imputed to man. Regarding mortal ^(in, it was held by this sect, that if a oeliever 
die guilty of it without repentance, he will not. for all that, always remain a denize?! 
of helL God will either panlon him, or the Prophet will intercede on his behalf, 
ss he says in the Koran : ** My intercession shall be employed for those among my 
people who shall have been guilty of grievous crimes;'' ond' further, that ho in 
wboeo heart there is faith but of the weiKht of an unt, shall be delivered from hcU- 
ftre. From this more nhijosophical opinion, however, departed a nnmber of other 
Kefatlan s-Bcts, who, taKing the Koranic words more literally, transformed God's 
attributes into grossly corporeal things, like the Mosshabehitcs, or Asshnllotoi-s, 
who conceived God to be a figure composed of limbs like those of created Iwings, 
either of a bodily or spiritual nature, capable of local motion, ascent, or descent, 
Ac. The Lotions of some actually went so far as to declare God to be '* hollow 
from the crown of the he:id to the breast, and solid from the breast downward ; ho 
alK> had block curled hair." Another sub-division of this sect were the Jabarljins, 
who deny to man all free agency, and m«k<« all his dee<ls dependent on God. Their 
name indicates their rcligioas tendency sufflcieutlj', meaning "Necessitarians." 

The ihird principal division of ** heretical sects" is formtd by the Kharejires, or 
i > jiuii ihe lawful Prince — i.e., Ali — the first of whom were the 12,000 men 
^vitfj i« ii ftu;iy from him after having fought under hlin at tlie battle of Seffein, 
t&kiD^^ offence .:t his submitting the deci.«ion of his right to the cnlifate (agnliist 
MonwfTTfih) tq :rblt ration. Their ** heresy " consisted, first, in their holding that 
Mi\ ni i ii.;n e called to the Imamat though he did not belong to the Koreish, 
nor was even a freeman, provided he wua a just and pious man, ai.d fit in every 
other respect. ItlHso followed that au unrighteous Imam might be deposed, ur 


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Mohawk 'KPlA 

Moh'er J- 04 

even put to death ; and farther, that there was no absolnte necessity for any Imam 
in thu world. 

Of the fourth principal wjct, the ShiitcB, or ** Sectaries,** the followers of All Ibn 
Abi Tfileb, we have spol^cn nnder tiiut special heading. 

It remains only lo mention a few of tlie many pseudo-propiiets who arose from 
time to time in tlie bosom of Islam, drawing a certain miml)er of adherents around 
tliem, nud threateuiue to undermine the ciiurch founded by Moliammed, by eitlief 
declaring themselves his legal successors, or completely rcnonuciu!; bis doctrines. 
The flrst and most prominent amoncr these, was Mosuylima (q. v.). Next to him 
stands AI-Aswad, originally called Ailuila, of the tril)e of Ana, of wliich, as well as 
of tlmt of a number of other tribes, he was governor. He pretended to receive cer- 
tain revelations from two angels, Solinik and Shoraik. Certain feats of legerdemain, 
and a natural eloquence, procured him a unuiber of followen^, by whose aid he 
made himself master of several provinces. A counter-revolution, however, broke 
out the night before Mohammed's death, and Al-Aswad's head waiicnt off : whereby 
an cud was put to a rebelliou of exactly four months' duration, but alreaay assum- 
ing largo proportions. lu the same year (11 HedjralOt but after Mohammed's death, 
a man uamea Toleiha set up as propliet, but with very little success. He, bis tribe, 
and followers were met in open battle by Ehalid, at the head of the troops of the 
Faitlifui, and being beaten, had all ftually to submit t^ Islam. ^ 

A few words ought also to be said regarding the " Veiled Prophet," At-Mokanna, 
or Borkai, whose real name was Hakcm Ibn Uashem, at the time of Al-Mohdi, tiie 
third Abbaside calif. He used to hide tlie deformity of his face (he had also but one 
eye) by a gilded mask, a circumstance which his followers explained by the splendor 
ot liis countenance being too brillhmt (like that of Moses) to l>e borne by ordinary 
mortals. Being a proficient ia jnggleiy besides, which went for the power of work- 
ing miracles, he soon drew many disciples ana followera around hiin. At last he 
arretted the ofRge of the Deity itself, which by continual transmigrations from 
Adam downwards, had at last resided in tlte body of Abu M<>slem, the governor of 
Khorassim, whose secretary this new prophet had been. The calif, flndiug him 
growing more and more formidable every day, sent a force against him, which finally 
drove Inm back into one of his strongest fortresses, where he first poisoned and 
then burned all his family ; after whicli he thi'ew himself into the flames, which con- 
sumed him completely, except his hair. He had left a message, however, to the 
effect that he would reappear in the shape of a gray man riding on a gray beast, and 
many of his followers for many years after expected his reappearance. They wore, 
as a distinguishing mark, nothing but white garments. He died about the middle 
of the ad c. Hedjnih. 

Of the Karmathians and the IsmaTlis, we have spoken under these special head- 
ings. We can scarcely enumerate among the proph(>ts Abul Teycb Ahmed Al- 
Motanebbi, one of the most celebrated Arabic poets, who mistook, or pretended to 
mistake, his poetical inspirations for the divine afllatus, aud caused several tribes to 
style him prophet, as his surname indicates, aud to acknoK'ledge his missiou. The 
governor of hisproviuco, Llilfi, look the promptest steps to stifle any such preten- 
sions in the bud, by imprisoning him. una making him fonnally renounce all absurd 
pretensions to a prophetical office. The poet did so with all speed. He was richly 
rewarded by the court and many princes for his minstrelsy, to which henceforth he 
clung exclusively ; but the riches ne thus accunmlated became the cause of his death. 
Kobbei-B attacked him while he was returning to his home iu Knfa, there to live upon 
the treasure bestowed upon him by Adado'ddawla, Sultim of Persia. — llie last of 
these new prophets to bt? mentioned is Babu, who appeared in Amasia, iu Natolla, 
in 63SHedjrah, and who had immense success, chiefly with the Turkmftus, his own 
nut Ion, so that at last he fonnd himself at the head uf nearly a million men, horse 
and foot. Their war-cry was, God is God, and Bal)a— not Mohammed— is his pro- 
phot. It was not until iK)th Christians and Mohammedans combined for the par- 
pose of self-defence, tlmt this new and most fonnldable power was annihilated, its 
armies being routed and put to the sword, while the two chiefs were decapitated by 
the executioner. 

MO'HAWK, a river of New York, United States, named from a tribe of Indian*. 
It rises i«t Oneida county, 20 miles north of Bome, and runs east-south-east into the 


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Hudson fit Waterford, 10 milea abore Allmny. It is 185 mliefl ]ong, nod has nnmer- 
ons and pictnreeqne waterfalls, eepeciallj at Little Falls, CohoeOf niid Waterfurd, 
aflfordlng nbaudact water-power. lu Its populous valley are the Erie Cuual and I^ew 
YurkCeotral Railway. 

MOHICAT7S, Mohegans, or Malilcannl, oiicc a powerful and warlike pun-trfhe of 
Kortli American Indian?, of the great Algonquin fnmily, which iu tiie ITlh c. iniwd)- 
ited the territory nortb-uorth-wcst of Long Islund Honud. and ca^t of the river Hud- 
000, DOW included iu the slates of New York, Connecticut, nnd Massucliusctts. 
Behig compelled to givo way to the conquering Iroquois confederacy, they retired 
to the valley of the Houantonlc R^verin Connecticut, and were consequently one of 
Uieftrat tribes who cnme into colHslon with, and wore dispossedsrd of their tcrritoiy 
bytheeariy British settlers. They subsequently lived dispersed among the oiher 
tribes, and all traces of them hare now nearly disappeared. Their name has become 
widely known through Mr J. Feuimore Cooler's celebrated novel, ** The Last of the 

MOHIXEV, or Mogilev, a government of European Russia, lying l>ctween Minsk 
tod Smolennk, contains 18,500 English square milen, with a pop. (18«0) of 947,625. The 
inhabitants are mostly Rusuiaks, though there are Also many Russians, Germans, 
Jews, and even Bohemians. The country is genornlly a phiiu, with here and there hu 
occasioual uudulatiou ; the soil is very fertile, and tlie climate most agreeablv mild. 
Agriculture has here readied a high degree of perfection, and the siune may be said 
ti arboriculture and horticulture. The natural pai-turagc is of fine quality, and af- 
fords abundant nourishment to iinmousu I>erd8 of cattle. The foret>ts are extensive. 
ITiC country is watered by the Dulei>er and its numerous affluents, which form the 
mcaua of communication with the Black Sea ports, and of the tninsit of com, 
timber, and masts, of whicli last large qunntities arc annually floated down to 
Kherson. Bog Irou-ore is found in abundance. The inhabitants are celebrated for 
their activity and industry ; and M., from its great natural advautages, has now be- 
eome one of the richest provinces of Russia. 

In early timca, M. belonged to the territory of the Russian prince of Smolensk, 
but was subsequently couquered by the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and was, along 
with Lithuania, united to the kingdom of Poland. In 1779. it was seized by Russia 
at the first oartitiou of Poland ; and iu 1796, was joined lo the government of 
Vitebsk, under the name of White Jitusia ; but siuce 1802, it has foruicd a <!eparate 
govern meut. 

MOHILEV, or Mogilev, the capital of the government of the same name In Eu- 
rope^iD Russia, and one of the finest towns of Russia, is situated iu the centre of the 
sovemroetit, on the right bank of the Dnieper, 100 miles south-west of Smolensk. 
It is the seat of a Greek archbishop, nnd of the Roman Catholic primate of Russia and 
Poland, besides being the favorite residence of many of tlie Russiau nobllit v. It 
Ppsteases a fine Greek cathedral, built in 1780, 20 Greek, one Lutheran, and four 
Bomau Catholic churches, several synagogues, and a variety of religious, educational, 
snd charitable institutions. Its streets are wide, straight, and well paved, and there 
i« a fine promenade bordered with trees, whence a beautiful view of the valley of 
the Dnieper is obtained. Pop. (1667) 88,992, of whom one-third are Jews, ^'liere 
is a laige export trade to the chief ports of the Baltic and Black Seas. 

MOBILKV, or Mogilow, a district town od^ the south-west frontier of the gov- 
cnimrutof Podolia, Suropean Russia, is situated on the left bank of the Dniester, 
M miles east-by-south from Kamlnetz. Pop. (1867) 9756. It carries on an active 
tndewith the adjacent Russiau provinces, and with the Turkish principalities of 
Moldavia and Walachia. The climate is so mild, that allk and other products of 
warm cliroatea are extensively produced. 

MOHLER, Jobann Adams, one of the most distinguished modem polemical d1- 
Jiws of the Roman Catholic Church, was bom of humble parentage, at Igersheim. 
in Wtlrtemberg, May 6, 1796. He received his e;irly eduaition at the gymnasium of 
Jterxeothelm, whence, in his 17th year, he was transferred, for the higher studies, 
to the Lyceum of Ellwangen ; and soon afterwards entered upon the theological 
eouBe in the ouivenity of TfLblugeu. He received priests' orders iu 1919 ; aud for 


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Moidore 1 ftft 

Moldavia ^^^ 

a short time was employed In miwionary dnty ; bnt In 1820. he retnrned to eollegty 
l:f(', for two years was eDgaj^ed as classical lator ; but, in 1822^ the offer ctf a tbeolo^- 
iral appointment in the university of T&bingeu, finally dt^ded his cbolco to tho 
stndy of divinity. He was permitted, before entering on liis studies, to spend some 
lime in makintr himself acauaintcd with tlie roaUnc of the theological connies of 
other nni vers! tied— as GOttiiigen, Berlin, Prague, Viennu, and Land^hut; and ia 
1823. he entered upon his new position. In 1828, iu which year he wtis also ad- 
mitted to the degree of Doctor of Divinity, lie was appointed ordinary professor of 
theolo'.'y. His earliest publlciition wtus a treatise "On ihe Unity of llieClnirch " (18S5), 
which WMS f (allowed, in ISiST, by a liistorico-theolo^ical essay ou " Alhanasinsond the 
Church of his Time, in Conflict with Anauisni.'' But his reputation, both postbumous 
and amon^ his own contemporaries, rests mainly on his well-lcnowu "Symbolism;" 
or, the Doctrinal Differences l>eiween Catholics and Protestants, as represented by 
their Public Confessions of Faith" (1832). This remarkable book at once fixed the at- 
tention of the theological world. It passed through five large editions in six years. 
It was translated into all the leading languages of Europe, and drew forth iinmer- 
ons criticisms and rejoinders, the most considerable of which is that of Dr F. C, 
B;uir(q. v.), 1933. To this M. j-eplicd In 1S34, by a work entitled, "Further Re- 
searches into the Doctrinal Differences of Catholics and Protestants." The polem- 
ical bitterness evoked by these controversies made it desirable that M. should leave 
the university of Tubingen. He w:ia Invited to Breslan, and also to Bonn, but ulti- 
mately selected (1836) the university of Munich, then in the first flush of its ofB- 
cienry, under Kiui^ Louis. His first appointment was nominally the chair of Bibli- 
cjil Exeo:e.«is, but he really devoted himself to the department of Church History, ia 
which his opening course was eminently successful; bnt, unhappily, a natnrnllr 
delicate constitution began to give way under the constant fatigues of a students 
life; and although he continued, under all these disadvantages, to maintain and to 
add to his reputation, and although, in 1887, the invitation to the Bonn professor- 
ship was renewed in t>till more flattering terms, be gradually sunk under consump- 
tion, and died April 12, 1833. His miscellaneous works were collected and published 
fmsthumonsly, in 2 vols. 8vo (1839—1840), by his friend, the now celebrated Dr D6I- 
inger. M. may be regarded as at onc4^ the most acute and tlie most philosophical of 
the modern controversialists of his church. He deals more, however, with the ex- 
position of the points and the grounds of the doctrinal differences of modem sects, 
than with the discusslou of the scriptural or traditional evidences of tUc peculiar 
doctrines of any among them. 

MO'IDORE. a former gold coin of Portugal, of the value of 4800 reis, or nearly 
27a. sterling. It was also called Lisbanine, 

MOIRE, the French name (formerly moMre^ and supposed to be taken from the 
Eug. mohair^ which is itself probably of Eiistern origin) ap|>]ied to silks figured by 
the |>cculiar process cjilled watering. The silks for this purpose must bo broad and 
of a good substantial make; thin and narrow pieces will not do; they arc wetted« 
and then folded with particular care, to insure the threads of the fabric lying all ia 
the same direction, and not crossing each other, except as in tho usufd way of the 
web and the warn. The lolded pieces of silk are then submitted to au cnormooB 
pressure, generally in a hydraulic machine. By this pressure, the air is slowly cx- 
jielled, and in escaping, draws the molsiuro Into curious waved lines, which iea\e 
the permanent marking called watering. The finest kinds of watered silks are known 
as Molrds antiques.— The same process him been atiplied to woollen fabrics caU&d. 
Moreen, which Is only an alteration of the word moire. 

MOIR^E MCTALLIQUE, a French term applied to tin-plate upon which a pc- 
enliur figuring like that caused by frost on whitlows is produced by dipping plates, 
in a heated state, into nitro-muriatic acid, and then washing with water, to remove 
the acid. When dry, the plates are varnished or lacquered, and have a pretty effect. 
The cheapness and ease of tho process have made it very coramou for inferior ar- 
ticles in tin. 

MOISSAC, a town of France, In the department of Tam-et- Garonne, on tho river 
Tarn, 18 miles north-west of Montanban. The church of St Pierre dates from the 
year 1100, and contjiins some excellent carvings and curious fantastic scalptaree* 
M. is the centre of au importaut trade in grain. Pop. (1878) 4887. 


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M(yLA, a city and seaport of the Italian proriiice of Barf, dellghtfnlly eUnatcd 
among gardens atid olire crove^f oi. the Adnatic, 13 miles from Buri. It coiitahis 
toe diorcbes and other edffices, aud excellent titrcets. From all accoants, it seems 
to hare csceediugly little trade oC auy kiud. Pop. 12,181. 


MOLD (uieicDtly MovUe Alto ; Weleli, Wyddi^rug), a pjirllnmentary boronjrli iu the 
cooiity of Flint, situated on llie Altiu, 12 imies west-soiuh-west of CUesier. Though 
Flliit in the coanty towu, the assixes and qiiarter-sesalouj* for tlie county nre held 
Iiertf. The town possesses a good market, u flue old eburch, and several dissentinc 
ehapeU. It is conDected with England by a branch of the Chester and Holyheud 
Bfliltray. The neighborhood al)0Und8 witli mineral wealth, coal and letid being the 

Cicijial prudoce; It liaa also numerous interesting relics of aiitiquitv—e. g., so-called 
idle circles, Roman roads and encampments, Sazou earthworks, nn eminence 
csiled Dryn Jteili (fonnerly surmounted by a castie). and a castellated building 
knofru as the Tower of Rheinalltab Oruffydd, the two latter having been scenes of 
frirqimit contentions Itetween the English and Welsh. Many old families have man- 
sfofw In the neighborhood, whose jneasing variety of Bceuory renders it attractive. 
Popk of parliamentary Iwrongh (1871), 4534. 

MO'LDACr (Bohemian, Kttora), the chief river of Bohemln. and nn fmportnnt 
tributary of the Elbe, rises in the B5hmerwn1d Mountains, on the south-west fron- 
tier, at an elevation of 3750 ft. above the level of the sea, and flows s. e. to Ilohen- 
farUi, where it bends northward, and pursues that direction to its confluence with 
the £3be opposite Melnik, after a course of 276 miles. It^ course to the point of 
eoofloence is longer than that of the Elbe, and the navigation of that river is greatly 
fiKflltated by the body of water which it contributes. It receives on the left, the 
Wotawa and the Beraun ; and on the right, the Luschnitz aud tiie Sazawa. The 
chief towns ou its banks are Erumau, Bndwcis, and Prague. It becomes navigable 
from Bodweia. 

MOLD-VVIA AND WALA'CHIA, two states forming the FO-called Danubian 
PrindpaliUeSy which, since 23d December 1861, have been uniled under one prince 
and oueadmistrntion, and ofRclully bear the single name of Koumamia or Rumai«ia. 
Their poiiticnl relations have alwas been so close, that it has been considered best 
to de9cril)e them together. Reliable statistics as to the Dobrudscha (q. v.) granted 
aitlie Berlin Congress of 1878 In return for Rumanian Bessarabia (q. v.) ceded to 
Hoiieia, are not yet fortlicomiug. 

1. Moldavia (Qer. Moldau^ Turk. Bogdam) is bounded on the n. and e. by Russia, 
on the 8. Ijy Walachia, and the w. by Unngiiry. Area, since the cession of I3essap- 
rnbla, about 15,000 sq. miles. Tlie country forms, geogruphlcally, part of the great 
plain of South Russia, except towards the west, where there are spurti from the Car- 
palbiaus. It is watered by the Pruth, the Sereth, and the Danube, and is almost 
everywhere fertile, producing considerable quantities of grain, fruit, and wine. But 
the riches of the country coitsist mainly In its cattle and horses, of which immense 
nmnbersare reared on its splendid and far-stretching pastures; swine and sheep 
arc al«o numerous ; aud the rearing of bees, owing to The multitude of lime-treep, is 
ncteuHv-ely carried on. The great plagues of the land are locusts aud enrlhquakes. 
Minerals and precious metals are said to be abundant, but they have not as yet been 
worked. Therv are only a few salt-pits near Okna, in the Cnr|>nthian Mountuins. 
Trade is almost exclusively in the hands of the numerous Jews, Germans, Greeks, 
imd RasAiaiis who have settled in the country. The capital of M. Is Jassy (q. v.), 
b^lho grent centre of trade is Oalaca (q. v.), where, of late, several British mer- 
chants have established bouses. Tiie principal exports arc grain, wool, lambs' skins, 
hidca, feathers, maize, tar, tallow, honey, leeches, cattle, and sail (in blocks*) ; tlielm- 
ports are chiefly the manufactured products of Western Europe. M. is divided into 
13 districts, each of which has a prefect or governor, a receiver-general of taxes, 
and a civil tribunal, consisting of a president and Iwo other indces. 

2. WjiLLAcniA, the larger of the United Danubian Princlpaiities, is bounded on 
the n. by the Austrian empire and Moldavia, on the e. and s. by the Danube, and ou 
the w. by tlie Austrian empire aud the Danu1)e. Length from the western frontier 
joCapeKaBakra on the Black Sea, 805 miles ; greatest breadth, ISO miles; area, 
27,600 aquare mUea. The greater part of W. la quite flat ; but in the north, where it 


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bonlere on Hniigary and TraosjIvADin, !tgrnclually liMs np Into a groat monntaln- 
wallt iinpae^iible Have In five places, it is destitute of wood ilirougbont atroost ita 
whole extent ; niid C6}>cctally alonsc the banks oC the Danul)c, is covered witli marshy 
BwamiMi, miles u)x)u miles in breadth. The principal river flowing tkroughXhe. cotiu- 
try Is the Alnta, wliicli joins the Daunbe at Nikopol. The climate is extreme t the 
summer heats are intense ; while in winter, the land lies under deep snow for four 
months. Tiic principal prodncta are corn, maize, millet, wine, flax, tobacco, and 
olive-oii. The vast treeless heaths afford snetenance to great herds or cattle, sheep, 
and horses. As In Moldavia, agriculture is an important branch of industry; ana 
the swampy districts of the south are haunted by immense numbers of wild water- 
fowl. In minerals— especially pold, silver, copper, and rock-salt — the soil is rich, 
but only the last of these is extensively workea. Bucharest is the capital of Wal- 
achia and of Rumania. Tho nop. of Rumania, tbongh the loss of Bessarabia was 
not balanced by the gain of the Dobrudscho, was still estimated iu 1878 at near 5 

Adminittration, — The ruler of the Principalitica— styled by thoRumans Domnu 
or Domnitor; oiBcially called by the Sublime Porte, Woiwod (Prince) ; by the Turks 
generally, Ijauer-Effendi (Lord of the Unbelievers) ; and by tlie Russians, Hospodar 
or Oosvodarj (Prince) — receives his Investiture from the sultan, but is otherwise in- 
dependent. By the treaty of Paris (1856) and the Convention (185S), M. and W. were 
politically united under one prince, with a special ministry for each country, two 
elective assemblies, and a central commission, which had Ita seat at Fokshoni. But 
in Nov. 1861^ the sultan sanctioned the administrative union of tho two slates; and 
hi the foUowint; month, it was publicly proclaimed at Bucharest and Jassv. The 
first ruler of Rnmanla, Prince Alexander John Conwi, was forced to abdicate in 
1866, when Earl I., sou of the prince of Uohenzollern-Sigmaringcn, was choson bis 
successor. At the same time, a new and more popular constitution wa-<f adopted by 
a constituent assembly elected by universal suffrage. The legislative power is vepted 
in two houses, a senate and a chamber of deputies. The former consists of 7C, and 
the latter of 157 members, of whom S2 are for W. and 76 for Moldavia. The mem- 
bers of both houses arc chosen by indirect election— i. e., the fli-st voters nominate 
electors, who chose tho members. All citizens who have reached their )t5tk year, 
and who can read and write, are voters in the first instance, and everv Ruman who 
possesses a small yearly income Is eliprlble for a seat in parliament. The prince has 
a suspensive veto over all laws passed by l>uth chambei-s. He i« also chief of tb« 
executive, which is compo!>ed of a council of seven ministers, beads of the depart- 
ments of the Interior, of Foreign Affairs, of War, of Finance, of Justice, of Com- 
merce and Agriculture, and of Keligion and Public Instruction. Judges are remov- 
able at the pleasure of the snptnlor authorities. The legal codes are founded upon Ute 
civil law and the customs of the Principalities; but toon^h the system of jurisnm- 
dence has been much amended, many reforms remain to l>o effected, cspcciaUy in 
the administration of the laws, which is said to be most corrupt. 

Reliffion,-—Tiie established religion of Rumania is that of the Greek Chnrch, to 
which nearly the whole population belong; but all forms of Christianity arw tolera- 
ted, and their professors enjoy equal political rights. At the hea<l of tho Greek 
clergy stand the metropolitan archulshops of M. and W., the latter of whom is pri- 
mate of Rumania. Every bishop is assisted by a council of clergy, and has a semi- 
nary for priests; the superintendent of the preaching clergy Is the Proto-papa of tli« 
diocese. The ecclesiastical wealth of the country was formerly ycry great, but the 
increased expenditure that followed the union of the two states rendered a echeme 
of S()oliation the only moans left to the government to extricate itself from itn diffi- 
culties — in a word, the convent- properties were wrested from the hands of the Oreek 
monk9, and placed under the administration of tho state. It hod been the hiabioa 
to establish such convents in Turkey as supports to the orthodox faith, and tlie In- 
stitutions in the Principality itself were richly endowed in land and other ways: It 
was resolved to ai>p1y the revenues to tlie relief of national needs, such as schools, 
hospit lis, the support of the poor, &c, and to give only tho overplus to the derjjy. 
This has considerably increased the revenue of the state. Too administrutJoUy 
however, is nowput upon a better footing. 

Education,— There are upwards of 2000 elemenlary schools, besides normal schools, 
gymnasia, private schools, &c., in all about 2600 schools. There are two uuiTenb 


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tJca. Edocation Is gratuitous aod compnlsory. There are nnmeroDS French bonrd- 
iDgHKhoola, and French is now th« langnageof (he educated circles, especinlly lodies 
^ Greek used to be), bat the etate langaage and the proper national tongue is the 

Armjf. — ^Tlie military force of Rumania is ors^nised on the plan of the Bnssian 
irinr, and the rtaff officers are principally Hnssian. The militia is formed by the 
peasantry in the proportion of two men for every 100 families ; but along the banks 
of the Danube, all the inhabitants capable of 1)eariug arms are organiae<l into amili- 
toiT force. Bytlielawof 1872, all natives of Rnmauia from twenty to forty are 
liaote to military «enrice in tlie ttandine army, four years active and four in the 
reserve. The militia is composed of allwho have been in the standing army at any 
age between twenty and tlnrty-f ix. In 1877 the entire Rumanian military force 
Dombered 144,088 men, but of these only 4S,449 belonged to the regular or " pernia- 
licot " army. 

Commerce, — ^The total value of the imports of Rnmania in 1874 amounted to 
98,000,000 te» (=: a franc), or al)Out ie3,700,000 ; and of the exports, 158.000,000 lei, or 
aboat £6,820,000. The principal article of export is grain, especially wheat and 
maize. Kuroonian industry has larpely profited by the construction in recent yeare 
of several lines of railway. In I860, the first line, 42 English miles in letigth, was 
opened from Bnciiarest to Giurgevo on the Danube, and in subsequent years a net- 
W<»rkof railvrays was completed, comicctingtbe capital with Western Europe through 
tbe towns of Pivesti, Bnzeo, Brailo, Tekutcb, Roman, and Sncenva, and from thence 
to Lemberg, in Austria. lu 1675 there were also 2S60 miles of telegraph In the Prin- 
dpolilica; The estimated revenue in 1876 was X3,916,000 ; the ei^unuiture, ^£4,050,- 
WO: the poblic debt was in 1877 alK>ve je24,000,000. 

Baet, Latufuage^ and LiUratwr^^—The great majority of the Inhabitants are 
known in Western Bnrctpe as Walachs, but they call themselves Rom^ni. The 
Walnchs, however, are not confined to the Principalities, but inhabit also tlie sonlh- 
ern part of Bnkowina, the grcat^-r part of Transylvania, Eastern Hungary, a part 
of the Bauat, Bessarabia, some districts in Podolia and Kherson, and portions of 
Eastern Servia. They are also found in Macedonia, Albania, and Thefsaly. They 
are a mixed race, produced by the amalgamation of the Emperor Trnjan*8 Roman 
a4oai«ts with the original Dacian popuTatlon, and subsequently modified by Gre- 
cian, Qothic, Slavic, and Turkish elements. This mixluro is seen In their language, 
three-fourths of the words of which are Latin (the Dacian has disappeared), while 
the remaining fourth is made up of words from the other four languages. Wala- 
«bi*n literature is rich in popular songs ; since the 16th c, many works In prose 
and verse have been printed, and of late years, two political journals in the Wala- 
chian tongne have been establislied, one at Bucharest, and another at Jassy. A 
•'Grammatica Daco-Romana" was publinh'-d by Johann. Alcxi (Vienna. 1826); 
and a"HU?tori.i Linguae Daco-Ronmnee '* by Lanrianus (Vienna, 1849). A large 
lAthj-Ronianic-Hunsrstrian Dictionary was carefully executed by the bishop of Fo- 
garasch, Job. Bob (3" vols. Klauseubnrg, 1889). 

Sodal condithfu—YcTy recent Ptatlstics on this point are not attainable. In M., 
there are rather less, In W., considerablv more than 8000 bojnrs, beaides whom 
there la an extensive Inferior nobility. In W.,everyt\venty-flghtli man Is a nobleman ; 
every one hundred and thirty-third, a merchant ; and in the capital, every twentlih 
is t roorcbant. The free peasaiits, or yeomen, called Resetichg, are not numerous — 
fa) ill W., there are under 5000. Gipsy 'communities arc an imporlanl element in the 
population; upwards of 160,000 of this mysterious race are or were serfs belonging 
to the rich hojare and the monasteries. In 1844, about 80,000 were emancipated, 
sad settled In colonies in different parts of the land : they call themselves Romnit- 
•cW or Bomni. The common people are on the whole good-humored, frugal, 
•oher, nnd cleanly; murder aTid larceny are almost unknown. Their dwellings. 
however, are, aa may be supposed, of the most wretched description; composed 
cbieflr of interlaced willow- withes, coverd with mud, cano, and straw. 

Hiitorp.— In ancient tim^, M. and W. formed an Important part of Dacia (q. v.), 
tad the two conntries have in general experienced the same vicissitudes. At the 
P^iod of tlie migration of nations, and in the following centuries, they were the 
■oeoe of the struggles between the Gothic, Hunnic, Bulgarian, and Slavic races— 
the Avari, Chasare, Petacbenegi, Uzi, and Magyars, who alternately ruled or were 


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expelled from the conntry. Th^M peoples all left some traces (more or les^ of 
tbemsetves amoug the Romaiiiwd Daciau inhabltaDta, and tboa helped to form that 
composite people, the modem Walnchs, who, in the 11th c., were courerted to the 
Chriatiaiiity of the Bastera orGreik Church. Their incursions, however, frfffhtfully 
devastated the country. lu the 11th c, the Knmaiis, a Turkish race, established in 
M. a klogdom of their own. Two centuries later, the great storm of Mongols broke 
over the land. It now fell into the bauds of the Nogui Tartars, who left ft ntterly 
wasted, sn that oulv In the forests aud moantiilns was nny trace left of the native 
Walachian jpopnlution. In the latter half of the tSth c. a petty Walach chief of 
Transylvauia, Kado Negm of Fugantsch, entered W., took possession of a portion 
of tlie country, divided it among liis bojars (noble followers), founded a senate of 
ia members, and an elective monarchy ; and gradually conquered the whole of 
Walachia. liather less than a century later (1854), a similar attempt, also success- 
ful, was made bv a Walaoh chief of the Unn^riun Marmarosb, of the name of Bog- 
dan, to re-people Moldavia. In the beginning of the 16th c, both Principalities 
placed themselves under the |tfotection of the rorte, and gradually tlie bojars lost 
the right of electing their own ruler, whose office was bought in Ck>n8tantiuople. 
After 1711, the Turks governed the couuiriee by Fanariot pnuccs (see Fanariots), 
who in reality only farmed the revenues, cnricbed themselves, and impoverished tlie 
land. In 1802, the Russians wrested from Turkey the right of surveillance over tlie 
Principalities. A great number of the nobles— through family marriages with the 
Fauariots— were now of Qreek descent, the court-tongue was Greek, and the reli- 
gious aud political sympathies of the country were the same. Hence the effort of 
the Principalities in 1S21 to emancipate themselves from Turkish autiiorlty, whic^i 
was only the prelude to the greater and more successful struggle In Oreece itself. 
In 1822, Russia forced Turkey to choose the princes or hospodars of W. and M. 
from natives, and not from the corrupt Greeks of Constautinople ; and after 1829, 
to allow them to hold their diguity for life. The Princlnnltlies, united miderone 
ruler in 1868, were brought under one admiuLstratiou in IsOl. Fur subsequent tiis- 
tory, see Ruxahia. 

MOLf^ Louis Hatthieu, Comte, a French statesman, and a descendant of the 
famous French statesmau and magistrate, Motthlen Mol6 (h. 1684; d. 1663), was 
bom at Paris, 24lh January 1781. His father. President of the Parliament of Pads, 
died by the guillotine lu 1794 Uls mother was a daughter of Malesherbes. M. was 
for the most part bis own preceptor, and displayed a wonderfullv precocious love of 
hard work and Independent reflcciiou. In 1805, he published **Easals de Morale et 
dti Poliiiqne," in which he vindicated the government of Napoleon on the ground 
of necessity. The attention of the emperor was drawn to him ; he w%s appointed 
to various offices in succession, and raised to the dignity of a count, and to a place 
in the cabinet. After Napoleon's return from Elba, he refused to subscribe the 
declaration of the Council of Slate bauisliing the Uourbons for ever from France, 
and declined to take his seat in the Chainl>er of Peers. In 1815, Louis XVIIL made 
liiiu a peer, and he votxl for the death of Ney. In 1817, he was for a short tiuM 
Minister of Marine, but afterwards acted independently of party, and was one of the 
principal orators in the Chaml>er of Peers. In 1880, he became Minister of Foreign 
Affairs in Louis Philippe's first cabinet, but only for a sliort time. In 1886, he suc- 
ceeded Thiers as prime minister ; bnt in the eyes of the liberal party, he displayed 
too entire a devoteduess to the wislies of the king, and thus reudei^ his uimistry 
very unpopular, so that in 1889 he felt it necessary to resign. In 1840, he was 
choAen a member of the Aeadimie Francaim. From that time he took little part Ih 
political affairs, but after the rcvolnlion of 1848 exerted himself, but in vain, to rally 
aud unite the party of order in the assoinbly to which he had been elected. He di^ 
at Champl&treuz, S8d November, 1855. M. was fiercely attacked aud abused in the 
latter part of his political career, but it is not now believed that he was servile to- 
wards the court He detested anarchy, and believed in the necessity of a strong ffov- 
eminent; but he loved genuine liberty, and always placed the constitution above 
the king. When Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat extinguished the republic, M. proudly 
said, that henceforth he could have nothing to do wTth politics. 

MOLB {Talpa), a genus of quadrupeds of the order ItiseetivorOj and famHy 3W- 
pidof. Ail XheTalpidcB live chiefly nudei^gronnd, aud their strnctaro is addled U> 


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toeir mode of life. In their <reneral form, the character of their fnr, the shortncu 
of tbdr limbs, the great iua«colnr strength of thu fore-p:irt9, nud great breadth of 
the fore-pa W0, ttie eloiienleil hearL the eloDgated aud flexible euont, the smullue^s of 
thefrer, aiid the coiQph;teconcuuIineut of the ears, thuy all reeemble the CoiixoN 
M. {f. Europcea), with whJch also they pretty uearly agree in the nature of their 
food, tbeir mode of seekiug it, their deuiitiou, aud the Bhortueea of Uieiraiiinen- 
tary ciuaL — ^Tlie Common M. is abnudaiit in mo^t purta of Europe, except tlie nt- 
ioo»t north and utraoBt .«ionth. In Britaiu, it is very plentiful, except in the north of 
tirotlaQd ; bat ia not foaad in Ireland nor in some of the Scottish islands. Instead 
of its ordinary aniform black color, it is occasionally found yellowish white, or gray, 
aud cTew orange. Its silky or velvety fur lies smoothly in eveiy direction, the short 
hairs growing perpendicularly from the skin ; a i)eculiarity which preserves it cJenn 
IS the ■nimaJ moves cither backwards or forwards in its subterranean galleries. Tl.e 
fore-paws are not only very broad, but are turned outwards, for the better throwing 
ImcIc of the earth in harrowing. They are terminated by five long and strong claws. 
The phalangeal bmes are remarkable for breadtii, and an elongated bone of tho 
carpus gives additional strength to the lower edge of the paw. Tho two bones of tho 
fore-ana arc fastened tojrether. The shoulder-blades and the clavicles are very large ; 
iud the sternum has an elevated ridge as in birds and buts, for the attachment of 
poverfo) mnscles. Tho muscles which move the head are also very powerful, siid 
the cervical ligament is even strengthened br a peculiar bpne; the M. niakiiiff 
WBch use of lis flexible snout in burrowing. The hinder limbs are comparatively 
feei>le, aud U»e feet small, with five toes. The eyes are black aud very ^mall, ca- 
pable (tf being partially retracted and exserte<l. Tiie senses of hearing, taste, and 
smell are very strongly developed in the mole, llie cutting-teeth are very small 
ftod sharp: the camucs long and sharp; the true molars broad, with nmuy sharp 
coukad elevations. Tliis dentition adapia tho animal for feeding not onl^ on 
ironnsaud grubs, but also on frogs, birds, and small quadrupeds, which accordntgly 
are its occasionul proy, although earthworms are its chief food. The M. is an ex- 
cessively voracious .inimal ; digestion is rapid, audiio long interval can be endured 
between meals, hunger soon ending in death. Wlftn pressed by hunger it will at- 
tack and devour even one of its own kind ; and its practice is i'mmediately to tear 
open the belly of any bird or quadruped wh'ch it has killed, aud, Inserting its head, 
to satiate itself with the blood. In eating earthworms, It skins them with rennirk- 
ible dexterity. Inquest of them, it works its way underground, throwing up the 
earth in mole-hills ; more rarely in the fine nighta of summer it seeks for them on 
the larfacc of the ground, when it is itself apt to be picked up by an owl rqtially in 
want of food. The tiabitation of the M. is of very remarkable construction : a hll- 
kxk of e,arth inrger than an ordinary mole-hill, and containing two circular galleries, 
oue above the other, with five connecting passages, and a central chamber which has 
access to tlie upper gallery by three iiassages ; whilst about nine pnssngeii lend away 
from the lower gallery in different directions. The end of a passage entering a gallery 
on one side is never opposite to the end of a passage entering on the other. To 
afford all facility of escape in case of any alarm, a pas^sage leads at flr&t downwards 
from the central chamber, and then upwards again till it joins oue of the high roads 
which the M. keeps always open, which are formed by pressing the earth till it be- 
comes smooth and compact, and are not marked by any mole-hills thrown up, aud 
which not only serve for escape when necessary, hot lead to those ports of the crea- 
tare's appropnated domain where the ordinary mining for worms is to be prosecuted. 
TIte nentiti which the female M. produces her young is not this habitation, l)ut is 
formed generally under a mole-hill rather larger than usual, where two or three runs 
meet, and is lined with leaves and other warm materials. The M. breeds both in 
spring and autumn, and generally produces four or five young at a birth. The 
atachmeut of the parent moles seems to be strong, but transitory. 

It has beeu sometimes alh^ged that moles eat vegetable as well as animal food, 
a^d that tltcy are injurious to farmers, by devouring carrots and otlier roots; but 
it appears rather that they only gnaw roots when in the wav of their mining opcra- 
tiowi, or pertiaps, also, In quest of grubs which they contain. Moles are generally 
r<^rded as a pest by farmers and gardeners, owing to tho injury which mole-hiils 
do to lawns and pastures, the burying up of young plants, and the disturbance of 
theirzoott. But they are certainly of use in the economy of nature in preventing the 


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MoI« • 1 79 

Molo«worth ^ ' ^ 

excppslvc lucrewe of some other creatares ; and probably alio contrlbate to tbe 
£«rtillty of some imjitnres. by the contlnaal tillage which they carry on. Mole- 
traps of various kinds arc In une. which are planted, if ihe mole-catcher Is skilfol, 
in the often-traversed roads of the animals. Mole-catching lias long been a distinct 
trade in Britain. 

The name M. is abbreviated from the old Enplish name MtouMwarpy or JfouMfteorp, 
still provlnciully nscd, and which is derived from the Anglo-Saxon molde, mould, 
and weorpan, to throw up. 

Another species of M. (71 eceea) Is fonnd In the most southern parts of Bnrope ; 
very similar to the Common M., but raiher smallert and havlujr the eye always 
covered by the eyelid, so as to jnstlfy Aristotle'n statement, that the M. is blind.— A 
species, also very similar to the Common M., is fonnd in North America. 

Among the other Talpidce are the Changeable M., or Cape M. {ChrysochlorU 
Capensia) of Sontb Africa, which is remarkable us the only one of the mammalia 
that exhibits the splendid metallic reflections so frequently seen in some other 
classes of animals ; the Shrew M. (q. v.) and the Stab-nose (q. ▼.) of [North 

HOLE. See Naetus. 
^ MOLE-CRICKET {OryUotalpa\ a genus of inserts of the Cricket (q. t.) ftunflr 
^eheUdm or OryUidte), remarkable for burrowing habitSf and for the great strength 
and breadth of the fore-Iugn. The other legs are lilso large and strong, but of the 
form usual in the family. — The best known species ((?. ru^arf*)— common in many 
parts of Europe, and pretty abundant in some places in England, but very local — i9 
aimo&t two inches long; of a velvety brown color; the wings, when folded, do not 

cover much moce than one-half of the abdomen, although larse when expanded. It 
nses its f ore-legs not onlv for digging burrows in earth, but lor cutting through or 
tearing off the roots of plants which come in its way. The M. feeds b<Hh on animal 
and vegetable substances, and often does no small injury to crops. The chirping, 
and somewhat musical call of t^ M., produced in the same way as that of the com- 
mon cricket, is heard chiefly in me end of spring and boelnnlug of summer, and only 
in the evening or at night. In some part« of England, tnis sound has gained it tw 
name of Chur-teorm. Another local English name is Croaker, — ^The female M. pro> 

f>ares a cnrions nest, a rounded subterranean cell, about as largo as a ben's egg, hav- 
ng a complicated system of winding passages around it, and commnnfcating with it. 
In this cell, she deposits from 100 to 400 eggs. The young live for some time in 
society. They run actively, both in the liirva and pupa states. The M. is very com- 
bative, and the victor generally eats the vanqnished.— A spedes of M. (G'. didae^la) 
does great Injury to the plantations of sngar>cunes in the West Indies. — A cnrioua 
Indian Infect, of a closely allied genus {SehizodaetyltM num«£romw).iias prodigioasly 
long wings, which, as well as the wing-covers, are rolled into spinil coils afthe tips. 
MOLE-RAT (Spatax or Aepalcue)^ a genus of rodent quadrupeds of the family 
Muridce^ having teeth almost like those of rata, but in many respocts resembling 
moles, as in general form, shortness of limb^, concealment of ears, smallness or 
even rudimentary condition of eyes, and burrowing habits — although their food is 
altogether different, consisting wholly of vegetable substances, and chiefly of 
roots. One species {S. typhlus) inhabits the sontli of Russia and some parts of 
Asia. It is also known, as the Podolian Marmot^ Blind Rat, 'Slepez^ Zemni, &c 

The M. makes tunnels and throws up hillocks like the mole, hut its hillocks are 
much larger.— Another species, found in the Malayan Archipelago, is aa large as a 
rabbits— Nearly allied is the Coast Rat or Sand Mole of S. Africa {Bathj/ergut 

maritimuA\ also as large as a rabbit, with other species of the some genns, also 
natives of S. Africa, \vbich drive tunnels through the sandy soil, ana Uirow up 
large hillocks. 

MO'LESKTN and CO'RDUROY are varieties of Fustian (a. v.), a term which Is 
used in a generic sense to Include also velveteen, vclveret, thick-eet, thick-set cord, 
beaverteen, and other stout cotton cloths for men's apparel— a class of goods I.*tii|;ely 
manufactured in Lancastiire. The general structure of these fabrics is dcscnbed 
under Fustian and Velvet. They are, in point of fact, all of the nature of velvet, 
with a nap or pile on the surface, and most of them are twilled. 

When cloth of this kind leavt^ the loom, its earfacc is covered with loops like 


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Bnis0^ carpet, nnd f heee are then cnt open with a ripping-knife of a pecnlinr 
shape, wbScb the operathrefl learn to ase with greotj dexterity. The hairy nnd nn- 
even appearance wliich the cloth acquires lu this operation is eubieqaently im- 
proved oj the shearing process. The cloth is next steeped in hot water, to get rid 
of the paste used iu dreraiiig the yam, and is then ready to be passed through the 
brnahiDg or teaseling niachiue, which consists of blocks of wood with concave snr- 
facea covered with card-bmshes, worlving backwards and forwards in a lateral di- 
rection against vroodeu rollers, encased 1o tiu-phite. over which the cloth passes. 
The tin-plate is made rongh with the bars of punched holes. Iu the next operation, 
Uic fustian hi singed by paasiug the nap side quickly over a red-hot metal cyliuder. 
TbebrnsbingancTsingeiug arc repeated three tind occasionally four times to give the 
doth a smooth appearance. It is then washed, bleached with chloride of lime, and 
dyed— nsnally of some shade of olive, slate, or other quiet color. 

The different names given to fustian cloths depend upon their degree of fine- 
new, and the manner in which they are woveu and finished. Thus, smootli kinds. 
of a strong twilled texture, are called moleakiriH wlien shorn before dyeinp, and 
leaeertetn$ when cropped after dyeing. Corduroy, or king's cord, is produced by a 
peculiar disposition of the pile-threads. In all fustians, tliere is a warp and weft- 
thread. Independent of the additional weft-thread forming the pile; but iu cordu- 
roys, the pile-thread is only ** thrown in " where the corded portions are, and is 
absent in the narrow spaces between them. 

Until a comparativenr recent period, the quantity of fustian doths annually con- 
sumed Jn the British Islands must have been very iarge, but the increased price of 
cotton, and the introduction of che^p woollen fabrics, have now very much curtailed 
ttie tise of them. They are stiU, however, largely worn by certain classes of me- 
chanics and laborers. 

MOL.ESTA'T10N, in Scotch Law, means disturbing the possession of heritage, 
and an action of molestation is a remedy for the trespass. i*' 

MOLESWORTH, Sir William, Right Honorable (eighth baronet), English states- 
man, was bom in 1610. Lineally descended from an old Cornish family of large 
possessionsCthe first baronet was president of the Council in Jamaica in the time 
of Charies IL, and snbseqneutly governor of tliat island), he early shewed promise 
of distinction. His university career at Cambridge was, however, cut short by his 
sending (nnder circumstances of great provocation) a challenge to his tutor to fight 
a due). He continued his education at the university of Bdinburgli, and subse- 
quently at a German nniversity. After making the usual tour of Europe, he returned 
home, and threw himself, iu 18S1, into the movement for parliamentary reform. 
Next year, although only just of age, he was elected member of parliament for 
Cornwall (Bast). He sat for Leeds from 1837 to 1641, and then remained out of par 
liament four years, during which interval he used to say he gave himself a second 
and sounder political education. He was the intimate friend of Bentiiam and James 
HiU, and was regarded as the parliamentary representative of the " philosophical 
Radicals." Having been a great admirer of Hobbes, he accumulated ma- 
terials for a life of the "Philosopher of Malmcsbury," which remains 
in MS. uncompleted. In 18S9, he commenced and carried to completion, at 
a cost of many thousand pounds, a reprint of the entire mlscelhuicons and 
voluminous writings of that eminent author. The publication was a valuable 
contribution to the republic of letters, and the works of Hob1>cB were placed by M.'s 
munificence in most of our university and provincial public libraries. The publica- 
tion, however, did him great disservice in public life, his opponents endeavoring to 
identify him with the froethiuking opinions of Hobbes in religion, as well as with 
the gr^ philosopher's conclusions in favor of despotic government. In 1646, he was 
elected for Southwark (which he continued to represent until his death), and entered 
upon a parliamentary career of the greatest energy and usefulness. He was the first 
to caU attention to the abuses connected with the transportation of criminals, and as 
chairman of a parliamentary committee brought to liKhtall the horrors of the con- 
vict system. He pointed out the maladministration of the colonial office, explained 
the true principles of colonial self-government, prepared draught constitutions for 
remote depeudenclea, nnd investigated the true and natural relations between the im- 
perial government and itscoloniafempire. M.'s views, although at first unpalatable to 
the legialatore, have l>eeD adopted by .successive administrations, and are now part 


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Molietta "X^r A 

Mo isa 1 I 4 

and parcel of the coloiiitil policy of Qreat Britain. In dannary 1858, he accepted the 
office of Fii-Bt Coinuiimioiier of Pablic Works, In the udiniuibtratlou of the Barl of 
Abrdeeii; and in 1855, the post of Secretary of Stjite for the Colonies, in that of 
Vie*count pMlinerstou. This appointment gave great eatisfaction to oar dependen- 
cies; hut before he conid give proof of his administrative capacity, he was (October 
22, 1S58) Brruck by the hand of death, while yet in the fnll vigor of life and intellett, 
lie e^tal)li8hed the "London Review," a new qoarterly, in 1^; and afterwards pur- 
chased tlie *• Westminster Keview," the organ of the •* philosophical Hadlculs.'^ The 
two qunrterlies being then merged into one, under the title of the ** London and 
Wcr'tinins'ter," M. contributed to it many able articles on politics and political 

MOLFE'lTA, a city of Southern Italy, In the province of Bari, situated on tha 
Adrinlic, 18 miles n. w. of Bari ; pop. (1872) 26,829. The neighborhood yields ex- 
cellent fruit-*, especially almonds and oranges, and has extensive olive plantations. 
Fish abound along the coast. The city contains a magnificent catheoral, and is 
partly enclosed by walls ; it is conjectured that it occupies the site of some ejirly 
for);otten town, from the numerous vases, urns, and other relics of antiquity found 
in Its vicinity. 

MOLI&RB, Jean Baptiste (properlv, Jean DaptisU Poqtulin—ihQ nnme of MoIiAre 
not having been assumed till lie hud commenced anthorsliip), was born at Paris, 
15tii January 1622. Uls father, Jean Poqnelin, was tlien an upholsterer, but Bnb.<<e- 
quontly became a valet-de-chainbre to the king. Regarding the boyhood of M., 
almost nothing is known, but his credulous biographers have put together whatever 
traditionary gossip they could find floating on tlie breath of s6ciety. Voltaire, while 
recording UxesQxoTxUa pomilaires^ us he cidls them, pronounces them tr^-faux. All 
that wjtreaily are certain of is, that in his 14th year he was sent to the Jestdt 
Coll/mJ^flermont in Paris, where he had for a fellow-student Prince Armaud do 
CoulT, and that, on leaving the College, he attended for some time the lectures oi 
Gassendi. He was charmed, we are told, by the freedom of thought permitted 
in speculative science, and, in particular, conceived a great admiration for 
Lucretius, llio Roman poel-philosopher, whom ho undertook to translate. 
Of this translation, only a eiugle passage remains, intercalated in the ** Mis- 
anthrope" (act ii. scene 4.}. About 1641, he commenced the study of law, 
and appears to have even passed as an advocntc; but the statement of 
Tallemeut des Rdaux that he actually ventured into the precincts of theology. Is 
generallv rejected. M. detested priests. So gny, humorous, and sharp-cved a hu- 
manitarian would liave felt quite miserable under the restraints of a monkish life. 
In 1645, he suddenly appeared upon the stage as a member of a company of strolling 
-jlayers, which took the name of the Illustre ThidtrCf and t>erformod at first in the 
Jaulwnrgs of Paris, and afterwards in the provinces. For the next 19 years we can 
only catch a'.i occasional glimpse of him. He was playing; at Nuntcs and Bordeaux 
in 1643, iUNarbonne and Toulouse in 1649, at Lyon In 1&3 (where his first piece, 
♦'L'Etourdi," a comedy of intrigue, was brought out), at Lyon and Narbonne again 
in 1655. at Grenoble during the carnival, and also at Rouen in 1668. During these 
now obscure i>eregrinations, he seems, althongh an industrious actor, to have been 
also a diligent student. He read Pluutus, Terence, Rabelais, and the Italian and 
Spanish comedies, besides— without which, indeed, all the rest would have been of 
little avail — ^making a constant use of as quick eyes as ever glittered in a French- 
man's liend. At Paris, by the powerful recommendation of his old schoolfellow, 
the Prince de Conti, M.'s company got permission to act before the king, who was 
so highly pleased, that he allowed them to establish themselves In the city under 
the title ot the Troupe de Monaieur. In 1659, M. brought out **Le8 Pr^ieuses 
Ridicules," the flue satire of which— lapsing at times, however. Into cari- 
cature—was lustiintly perceived and relished. ** Coiiragf, Moliere I " cried 
an old man on its flrst representation; "roi/d la veritable eonUdie.^ The 
old man was a prophet. Veritable comedy dated In Fmnce from that night. 
Manage, the critic, is reported to have said to Cha|>elain the poet, as they wcro 
going out of the the/itre: '* Henceforth (as St Reml said to Clovip), we must 
[)urn wlint we have won^hipped, and worship what we have burned." In 1650 ap- 
peared '^Sgauarelle, on le Cocu Imaginaire ;" and in 1661, ** L'£coIe des Maris "— 








partly founded on the ** Adclphl " of Terence, !n which M. completely passes oat of 
ttie r^on of fnrce iuto that of pure comic satire — ^aud " Les Fflcheux." In the 
followlug year, M. married Armaiide-Gr6siude B^jart, eitlier the sister or daugl^ter 
(for it is »X\\\ andetennliicd) of Madeleine B6jart, an actres»8 of his troupe, with whom 
be had former!;^ lived hi what the French politely call ** intimate relatione." That, 
however, there is the slightest ground for supposing that the great comedian inccM- 
noa^ married his own daugtiter, nobody now oelieves, tliongh the revolting 
Calumny was freely circolatcd even In M.*« lifetime. Hi» litcraiy activity continued 
as bri^k ds before. Among several pieces belonging to tliis year, the mo*»t celebrated 
is " L'Ecole des Fcmmes," which excited, not without reason, tlie most violent in- 
d:guatioii among the clergy and the devout, for there was an excessive indecency in 
the expression, and the author indulged in a caricature of i-eligions mysteries lliat 
coQkl not bnt be offensive. M. defended himself with incrfdible auuMcity in his 
•*Imprompta de Versailles." " Le Tartufo," written in 1664, was prohibited from 
being broaght upon the stage; but M. was Invited by his literary friends, Boileau 
and others, to read it in a semi-nablic manner, which he did with the greatest 
approbntiuu. In 1665, Louis XIV. bestowed a pension of 7000 llvres on M/s 
company, which now called itself the Troupe du Rot Next year appeared 
•*Le Misanthrope," the most artistic of all his comedies; shortly after lollowcd 
by **Le MMucin Malgr^ Lui.'' When "Tartafe" was at Inst bi^onght upon the 
M^ge iu 1669, it obtained a superb success, llie truth, the variety, the con- 
trast of ttie characters, the exquisite art shewn in the mnnagenient of the 
incideDTs, the abundance of the sentiments, and t^ie wonderful alternations of feel- 
fug— lauehter, auger, indigoation, tendeniess. make this, In the opinion of most 
cntics, M.'s master-piece. To the same year belongs " L'Avare.'' In 1670 appeared 
** Le Bourgeois Oeutilhomme," a very pleasant satire on a very prevalent vice among 
wealthy tridesmcn-— viz., the vulgar ambition to pass for flue gentlemen, ^lien 
cari>e •* Lea Fourberies de Scapin " (1671), followed by ** Les FemmM JSavantes " 
(1673), fall of admirable passages; and *'LeMalade Imaginaire" (16t8), the most 
popular, if not the best of all M.'s comedies. While actmg in this piece, he was 
aeteed with severe pains, whicli, however, ho managed to conceal from the audience ; 
bat ott being carried home, hemorrhage ensued, and he expired at ten o'clock ut 
Bight (ITth February 167S). As M. had died in a stale of excommnuic:ition, and 
ii^hout having havmg received the last aids of religion— which, however, he liad 
Implored — the Archbishop of Paris refused to let him be buried in consecrated 
groand ; but the king interfered— a compromise was effected, and he was privately 
loterred in the cemetery of St Joseph, being followed to the tomb by a hundred of 
Ids friends with lighted torches. In 1792, his remains were transferretl to the Museum 
of French Mounmeuts, ^rom which they were removed to Pdre Lachiise in 1817. M. 
ranks as the greatest Fi*ench comic dramatist— perhaps the grcutcst of all comic 
dramatists. Among the best editions of M.'s works are those of Auger (1819—1825), 
Aira6-Martin (1833-6). Moland (1871), and Despois (1874 et sen.). A complete Eng- 
lish traualatiou of M.'s works is that by Van I>ann, in 6 vols. (Ediii. 1875-6). Tlie 
best biofrmphics are by Taschcrcau (1825-7), and Bazin-(1S51). The books devoted 
to M. and his works would themselves form a large library. 

MOLINA, Louis, a celebrated Spanish Jesuit theologian, was bom at Cnen^a, in 
Kew Castile, in the year 1535; and having entered the Jesuit Society in his 18th 

J car, stodied at Ck>imhni, and was appointed Professor of Theology at Evora, where 
e continued to tench for 20 years. He died at Madrid in 1600, in the 65th year of 
his oge. M.'s celcl>rity Is mainly confined to the theological cchools. His principal 
writings are a commentary on the *' Siiinmn" of St Thomas (Cucii^a, 2 vols. 1698) ; 
a roinnto and comprehen!«ive treatise '^On Justice and Hight" (Citer^a, 6 vols. 
150S; reprinted at Mainz in 1659); and the celebratc;d treatise on "• The KtH:oucilla- 
lion of Grace and Free-wlU," which was printed at Lisbon in 1588. with an appen- 
dix, prinrcd in the iollowing ye-'ir. Although it is to the hist-nanied work that M.'s 
celebrity ia mainly due, we must bo content with a very brief notice of it, 1'he 
problem which it is meant to resolve is almost as old as the origin of human thought 
Itself, and had already led, in the 4th c, to the well-known Pelagian Contko- 
TKBST (q. v.). In reconciling witii the freedom of man's will the predestination of 
tlie elect to happiness, and of the reprobate to punishment, M. asserts that the pre- 
destiuaiioa ia coiiscqueut on God's foreknowledge of the free dotermiuatiou of 


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Molinism 1 *7A 

Mollaaca -L • ^ 

mail's will, and, therefore, that It in no way affects the freedom of the ptrticalar 
acli'iUH, in requital of which mau is predeatined whether to pnubhrneut or to 
r^'wanl. God» in M.'b view, gives lo all men sufficient grace whereby to live virtn- 
ouSly, and merit happiness. Certain Individuals fredy co-operate with tliis 
grace ; certain others resist it God foresees both courses, and this foreknow!- 
edge Is the foundation of one or of the other decree. This exposition was 
at once assailed In the schools on two grounds — ^flrst as a revival of the 
Pelagian heresy, Inasmuch as it appears to place the efficacy ol' grace in the consent 
of man's will, and thus to recognise a natural power in mau to elicit superDntnral 
nets : second, as seitimj; aside altogether what the Scriptures represent as the special 
election of the predestined, by making each individual, according as he freely accepts 
or refuses the gn^ace offered to all in common, the arbiter of his own predesthiatlckD 
or reprobation. Hence arose the celebrated dispute bt'tween the Molimists and the 
Thomists. It was flr»t brought under the cognizance of the Inqnisitor-geueral of 
Spain, by whom it was referred to Pope Clement VIII. This potitiflc, in 169T, 
appointed the celebrated congregation, Z)e AuxiliUA^ consider the entire question ; 
but notwithstanding uinny lengthened discussions, no decision was arrived at daring 
the lifetime of Clement; and although tlie congregation was continued nnder Paul 
v., the only result was a decree in 1607. permitting both opinions to be taught by 
th«*ir respective advocates, and prohibiting each party from accuning Uie adversaries 
of heresy. The dispute, in some of Its leadiug features, was revived in the Jausen- 
i«t controversy (see Jansen); but with this striking difference, that whereas the 
rigorous Junscuists denied the freedom of tlie wllfwhen acted on by efficacious 
grace, all the dispulant<) In the scholnstlc conlroven«y — even the Thomists — mantalu 
That, in all circumstances, the will remains free, although they may fail to explain 
how this freedom is secured under the action of efficacious grace. See A<)DINas. 

MO'LINISM, the name given to the system of grace and election taught by Lools 
Molina (q. v.)* 1'bis system has l)een commonly taught in the Jesuit schools; bat 
a modification of It was introduced by the celebraterl Spanish divine Snarcz (q. ▼.). 
in order to save the doctrine of (tpeeicU election. Snarez held, that although Goa 
gives to all grace absolutely sufficient for their salvation, yet ho gives to the elect a 
grace which is not alone in itself sufficient, but which is so attempered to their dis- 
position, iheir opi>ortanities, and other circumstances, that they Infallibly, althongh 
yet quite freely, yield to its influence. This modification of Molina's system u 
called CoNORUisx. Molinism must not bo confounded either with Pelagianism or 
semi-Pelagian ism, inasmuch as Molinism distinctly supposes the inability of man to 
do any supernatural act without Grace (q. v.). 

MOLINOS, Michael de, was bom of noble parentage at Paticlna, In the kingdom 
of Aragon, Decemlwr 21, 1627. He received holv orders and was educated at Para- 
ptlnna, and afterwards at Coimbra, at which nnfversiiv he obtained his theological 
degree. After a career of considenible distinction in his native country, Ml went to 
Home, where he soon acouired a high reputation as a director of conscience, and a 
master of the spiritual life, ills private character was in keeping with this public 
reputation. He steadily declined all ecclcsinstical preferment, and confined himself 
entirety to his duties in the confessional, and In the direction of souls. An oscetical 
treatise which he published, niider the title of " The Spiritual Guide," added largely 
to the popularity which he had acquired in his personal relations : but there were 
not wanting many who. in the specious, but visionary principles of thisjitork, di»> 
covered the seeds of a dangerous and seductive error. Among these, the celebrated 
preacher, P. Segneri, was the first who ventured publicly to call them into qnes- 
tion ; but his strictures were by the friends of M. usoril)ed to jealousy of the iufln- 
ence which M. had acquired with the people. By degrees, however, reports 
unfavorable to the practical results of this teaching, and even to the personal 
conduct and character of M., or of his followers, began to find circulation ; and 
eventually. In the year 1685, he was cited before the Holy Office, and submitted to 
close imprisonment and examination. In addition to the opinions contained In his 
book, a prodigious mass of papers and lettei-s, to the nnniber, it is said, of 20,000, 
found in 1118 litiuse, were produced against him, and be was himself rigorously ex- 
amined as to his opinions. The result of the trial was a solemn condemnation of 
sixty-eight propositions, partly extracted from his ** Spiritual Guide," partly, it 
would appear, drawn from his papers or his personal profesaions. These doctrines 


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M. wu reoafred publiclr to abjure, aad he was himaelf aenfenoed to close Imprison- 
iiieut, in wufcli be was aetaiiied nntil bis death in 1696, wIk-q ho had entered ou hi^ 
70th year. The opiuions impated to M. maybe dci^cribod as an eziiirgerulton of 
the worst aud most objectiouuble priuciples of Quietism (q. v.). Acconling to 
tbe proposIlioDS which were condemned by the Inquii^ition, M. pn»hed to snch an 
extreme tbe contemplative ri'pose which is tlie common cliuracteristic of QuIetiBni, 
as 10 teach the otter indifference of the soul, iu a state of perfect conlcmpliitiou, to 
all exterual thiugs, and its entire independence of the outer world, eveu of the ac- 
tiotis of tlie very body which it animates; insomuch that this intenial pcrfeclion is 
compatible with the worrt exterual excef>ses. 'i'liesc conseqnenccs are by no moans 
opeiily avowed in the ** Spiritual Gnide," but tlicy appear to follow almost neces- 
sarily from some of its maxims, aud they are said to iiave been plainly contnincd in ' 
iiie papers of M., which were proclncetl at liis trial, and to hove l>een admiltrd by 
hiinsdf. After the death of M., no further trace of his teaching appears in Italy, 
hot it was revived iu more tlian ouo forui iu Fruuce. 

MCKLLAH, among tbe Tnrics, Is the title of a superior JDd{;e. The Hollabs are 
divided into two classes: the first of these— four iu number, from whom the Mol- 
labs at tbe coort of the Padishah are elected, possesses inri^diction over the more 
important pashaliks (Adriunople, Brusa, Damascus, Cairo) ; and tlie S(>cond, who 
otily bold their office for the space of a lunar month at a time, and tbe lowest rank 
o( wbom is formed by tbe uaibe. over the inferior provinces, towns, aud villa:,'e8. 
The MolUh Ih au expounder of civil and criminal law, and of the reliirion of tlie 
state: be is therefore uecessarily both a lawyer aud au (ecclesiastic Under him is 
the C«di or judge, who admiuisters the law, and sufwrior to him are tbe Kadliinsker 
and the Mufti (q. v.). They nil ore, however, subject to tbe Sheikh Al I.«Iam or 
topreme Mofti. In Persia, the office of mollnh is similar to wbat it is in Turkey ; 
bat his saperior ii» there the **Sadr," or chief of tlie Mollabs. Iu the slates of 
Turkestan, the Mollabs have the whole goveniment in their hands. 

MOLLASSE, an extensive Miocene or Middle Tertiary deposit, occupying the 
central Inke-regiou of Switzerland between the Alps and the Jnrn. It consists 
diiefly of a loose sand, but at tbe foot of the Alps it usually takes the form of a 
cooe^inerAte callod ** Nagel-flne," which is said to attain tbe astonishing thickness 
oC from 6000 to 8000 feet in tbe Bighi, near Luccnie, and in the Speer, near Wesen. 
Tlie nioiUtsse contains a few shelb and some vegetable rcmaius, amoug which are 
several pahns. 

MOLLU'SCA, one of tho great animal snb-klngdoms, including so wide a range 
of distinct forms, that it is duBcult to frame a dcSnition that Hball be applicable to 
all of thetn. The lowest forms, termed Polyzoa (q. v.) or Bryozoa, present so ntrong 
a rewmblance to zoophytes, tliat until recently ttiey wt re ast>ocialed %vith tbe bitter; 
whilirt, on the other band, m some of the most highly organised of this sub-king- 
dom, tbe Cephalopoda, there is a decided approximation towards the vertebra ted 
■eriM,as i^ shewn by tbe presence of a rudimentary cartilaginous skeletou, and by 
a prcnllarity in the devclopmeut of the embryo. The bilateral symmetry of ex- 
ternal form which is almost universal in articulated and vertebrated animals, is iieru 
■eidom met wttb ; and taking them as a whole, tiie M. arc characterised bv the ab- 
sence rather than by the prei«ence of any definite form. The bodies of these aul- 
nials are always of a soft consistence— a property to which they owe their name, 
which was devised for them by Cuvier, before whoso time tbey were included in the 
Yerma of'Linnasos's arrangement. The »heU^ when it exists, is not to be regarded 
a» an exo-skeleton giving attachment to muscles, and regulating the form of the ani- 
mal, hat merely as an appendage designed for tbe protection of the bo<ly from which 
it derives its shape; indeed, it is only where tbe iMxIy is uncovered by a ;shell, or 
vbere the locomotive organs can be projected beyond it, that any active move« 
mrat cio be effected. The whole fabric Is enclosed iu a thick, soft, flexible skin, 
ctUed tbe wanUi^ and it is on tbe surface of this envelope that the i^hell is formed by 
the development and subsequent calcification of epithelial ceils. In many of the M., 
tbe shell is composed of a single piece, whicii Is usually a spiral tnlns, closed at one 
cod, and grndnally increasing in size towards the open extremity, from which the 
animal is able to protrude Itself. Shells of this descdption are called univalves. In 
Otben, the shell is composed of two pieces or valves, attached to each other at one 


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point by a hinge, which is famished with era elastic ligament that aerres to 
opoii the valvt^ts, when it Is not opposed by the action of the adductor mnscles, whose 
office it is to Icoep the shell cloBcd. Shells of this Iciud are termed bivalves. There 
ditf^MeiiCPs iu tliecliaracteruf the shell correspond with differences in the ionfor- 
matioii of the uuimals inhabiting tliem. Tlic bivalve M. exhibit no traces of a head, 
and lience are termed AeephtUous M. ; while the univalves have a distinct lieml, pro- 
vided with organs of the special sensen, and hence, by way of distinction, some 
writers have termed them Cephalophora (or head-bearing). Many M. are altogether 
nnpr >vided with a £>hcll, or have only a small calcareons plate eml)eddcd within the 
mantle. Those are termed Tiaked mollnsca. It is worthy of notice that the yonng 
mollusc, while still in the egg, is almost always fnrnished with a delicate pellnctd 
shell, oven when it is nitinnitely to be naked, in which case the eml)ryon{c shell is 
cast off soon after the animal makes its escape from ttie egg. For the mode ol for- 
mation, &c, of the shell, see Shell. 

The movements of many of the M. arc executed bv means of a muscular struct- 
ure concentrated iu some particular part or parts of the mantle, and termed tlie 
foot. In some (the Gasteropoda), tlie foot forms a sort of flattened disc, by the al- 
ternate contraction and expansion of different parte of which the animal can slowly 
crawl forwards; whilHt In others (the free-moving bivalves) it is a tongue-like or- 
gan, which can be protruded between the valves, and by its sudden extension, 
after being previonsly bent upon itself, can enable its possessor (the common 
cucKl«>. for example) to take considerable leaps. The foot is also the a^eut by means 
of which certain species Imrrow in the sand or mud^ and others bore Into the solid 
rock. Many M., however, are flrmly attached to a single spot, except during their 
larvul state; and as iliey do not require afoot, we find it either altogcthor 
nndeveloned (us in the oyster), or serving to support a glandular organ, 
from which filaments of silky or horny matter (called the bpMnta) are fecreied, 
which serve to attach the animal (the "common mussel, for cxaianle) fo 
rocks, stones, Ac., beneath the water. Many of the subdivisions of the M. pre- 
sent modes of locomotion altogether iudeiiendent of afoot, as, for example, tha 
Bipkora, which are described iu the article 'I'unicata ; those bivalves which pos- 
sess a branchial or respiratory chamber, into which water is drawn, und again ex- 
pelled by muscular action, a recoil being thus product^ which serves to drive the 
animal through the water; the Pteropoaa 0\. v.), which are furnished with a pair 
of broad flattened fins (which mav possibly bo regarded a^ a modified foot) at tite 
sides of (he head, by means of which they swim with tolerable rapidity; and the 
Cephalopoday in which the month is surrounded by a number of arm?*, which serve 
not only as organs of motion, but for the cjiplure of prey. 

The nervous system in the M. is developed in accordance with two distinct types. 
In the lowest group of this sub*kingdom (the Molluscoids), there Is only a single 
ganglion with afferent und efferent fibres radiating in esery direction ; while in tlie 
lighor groups there are several ganglia lying somewhat irregularly in different parts 
of the body, and communicating by nervous threads with a larger mass placed in 
the head, or in the neighborhood of the oesophagus. This mass consists of scTeral 

ganglia, which from their position are termed siipracesophageal^ and is united by 
laments with other ganglia lying below the oesophagus, su as to form a ring or 
collar around that organ. The supraoe^^opha^eal gnnglia fnmisii the uervos to the 
R|>ecial organs of the senses. Most of the M. possess special organs o/ totteh in 
the form of lips or of spt^cial lobes around the month : of tentacles or nrmn upon 
the head, or of cirrhi upmi other parts of the body; and in addition to these special 
organs, the skin appears to possess consld'^rable sensibility. When tentacU-s ar« 
present, they are either two or four in number ; and they can be protnided aud re- 
tracied at pleasure, as every one must have noticed in the case of theseorgiius (popu- 
larly known as honu) in the snail. Organs of sight nro not universally pn»«cnt. In 
many M., there Is only a single nidimentary eye, while in others there is a large 
mimbei- of Imperfect eyes (termed ocelli)^ which do not of necessity lie in the rt^iuu 
of I he liead. In the higher M., there are two eyes, sometimes placed directly on the 
head, and sometimes on the tentacles ; and in the hlgliest group (the Cephalopodi-), 
the eyes are as fully developed as in fishes. 

Organs of liearingj in a simphj form, are almost always present They nsaally 
coualsL of round vesicles iu the neighborhood of the (esophageal riog^ from whicL 



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fliey reoeiTB a neirons flluneiit Tbey contaiD a clear flnid and a small concretion 
of carbonate of lime, which is sometimen roundish, and soraetiiuesof acrystuilino 
form, atid is in a perjpetoal state of vibration, iu couseqaence of ciliary aciioii in ilio 
interior o€ the vesicle. Whether there are any special organs of stMli and taste in 
the M., is still undecided. 

Tbe organs of vegetative life (of digestion, circulation, Ac) uro ranch more fully 
dereioped in the M. thun those of animal life. The aliineutury cunal, wliicli presents 
almost every variety of form from a pimple cavity to a coaiplicnted intetftine, is 
tlwajs provided with two distinct openin|^, a mouth and an anus, tlic latter bring 
often situated (as in tbe Gasteropoda and JPtcropoda) on the right side of tlie anterior 
ittTt of the body. The liver is always present, eziftiug iu a mere rudimentary form 
la tbePoijrzoa, constituting a larpe part of the body In the ncephnlons bivalvo M. 
(13 the mussel and cockle), and a still larger part in the Gasteropoda (as tlie snuil), 
while in tl>e Cephalopoda it is constructed upon nearly the E>ame plan ns iu flslies. 
(Hlier scoreting organs, such as salivary glands, pancrsas, and unnory organs, are 
also present in tbe more highly developed mollusca. 

The circulation of the blood is effected (except in the Polysoa) by means of a 
£6tinct heart, which usually communicates with a regular, closotl vaseular system ; 
but iu some cases the venbus system is imperfect, and the blood which has been 
trausmltted by the arteries to tlie system in general is not confined within distinct 
vesseift, but meanders through sinuses or passages excavated iu the tissues, and 
throQgh them it rau:hes the respiratory apparatus, whence it is transmitted hy closed 
vesKto (veins)^ the heart. The blood i» nearly colorless (^metimes of light blue 
or green tint), and contains but few floating corpuscles. In all but tlie very lowest 
M., there is a distinct respiratory apparatus, which, excepting in the case of the 
terrestrial Gasteropoda (as, for exriraple, the snail), is constructed with a view to 
ftcqnatic respiration, and is composed of branehicPf or gills. These brauchis; 
usually consist of a series of membranous plates (arranged Tike the leaves bf a book 
or tbe teeth of a comb), over^hich tlie water flows, liiey are sometimes atlaclied 
totheinrfaceof thebody, but are most commonly enclosed within tbe mantle, or 
placed in a cavity <n its interior called the bnincbial or respiratoiy chamber. In 
many of the bivalves, tbe openings for the in&ress and egress of water are pro- 
longed into tnbeeor syphons, which are sometimes of considerable length ; the tube 
through wliich the water enters being termed the oro^ syphon, while that tlirou^h 
which it scapes is termed the antU syphou. In all the aquatic H. except the 
Cephalopoda, the renewal of the water in contact with the surface of the gills 
b mainly due to ciliary action. In the air-breathing gastcropodous M. (of 
wbich the susils and slugs are well-known examples), there is u nnimonary cac 
or hag, into which the air penetrates by an opening on the right side of the body 
near the neck. 

There are considerable differences in the modes of propagation of the mollusca. 
lo the Mollnscoids— the Poiyzoa and Tunicata— there is both propagation by gem- 
mation (tike that of Zoophytes, q. v.) and sexual reproduction, tiie sexes being dis- 
tinct in the Poiyzoa, anel united in the same individual (constituting Hennuphro- 
ditJ8m,q. V.) in the Tnuicata. In the Lamellibranchiuto, or bivalve M., and in the 
Cephalopoda, the sexes are separate; wliile in the Gasteropoda the sexes are most 
comroouly separate, although a considerable number are hermaphrodites, which, 
however, require mutual impregnation to fertilize the ova. The eggs vary grwatly 
in form; in some cases, they are laid separately, but mont commonly thoy are ng« 

Sotinated together in a mass ; while in some murine species many eggs are enclosed 
a leatliery capsule, while numerous cipsulea are united to form a large masH. A 
compflRitively tew II. pro<1uce living offspring, the ova being retained iu the oviduct 
huiil the extrusion of the young animals. 

The M. are widely diffused through time and space. They were amongst the 
earliett animal inhabitants of our globe, ond are every where found iu fresh and snlt 
^^er (except at gi«it depths), ana in every latitude of the earth. Tlie great ma* 
ipriry are marine animals, and it is in the tropical regions that the largest iind most 
oeauliful forms are developed. It is impossible to furm even an approximate estii 
mate of tlie nnml>er of mollusca. Accortling to Lcuuis ('* Synopsis der diei Natur. 
feicbc; erBterTheil,»*18«0. p. 77), there are 16,788 living, and 4580 fot=sil species, 
exdiuive of Poiyzoa ; and it is probable that only a small proportion of the naked 
or ahdl-iets M. la yet known. 




Moloch ^^^ 

The nMS of many species of M. for food are too well known to require notice; 
and as bait for flsliiiig, mnssels and some other M. are of great vaYno. 

The uuiintils of this sulx-kiugdom are divisible into the Mollu9e<nda and the trae 
Molltuea, the former being disdoeashed from the latter by the very low derelop- 
meut of the nervous syetcm, which is composed of only a single ganglioni giving off 
nerves in different directions; and by their propagating by eemmatiou. The Mol- 
lnt>coids are divisible into : Class 1. Poltssoa or Bbtozoa. Examples—P/umote/to, 
Fhiatra, Class 2. Tvnioata. Examples— J seidui, Saipa. The trne Mollnsca are 
divisible into: Chiss 3. Braohiopoda or Palliob&anohiata. Rznmple — Ten- 
bratuUL Class 4. Lamkt.t.ibranohiata. Bxamples— Qv«ter, Mtusel. CoekU, Class 
6. Gasteropoda. Examples— iS'naii, Cowry^ Lrnpetj DorU, Class 6b Pteropoda. 
Examples— C/i'o, HycUea. Class 7. Cspbalopoda. Exiamples — CtitUe-fi»hy Aom- 
tilu». Tiie distinctive characters of these classes are given in separate articles. 

The literature of this subject is very extensive. Amongst the most important 
works on the M. generally may be meniioued Cuvier, *•' M^inoh^poar servli a THis- 
toire et & TAuatoniie des Mollusqnes avec S5pl.'' ^Paris, 1817, 4to) ; Lamarck, ** Hlat. 
Nat. des Auimanx sansVertdl^rcs," 2d edit., par BeHhayesetMllue-BdwardsCll vols. 
8vo) ; Woodward, '* Manual of the Mollnsca ;" and the third volume of Bronu'sgreat 
work, published at Leipeic in 1864, entitled ** Classen ncd Orduuugen des l^ier- 
crichs ;" while for information on the M. of Qreat Britain, the reader is especially 
referred to Forbes and Hunloy, ** Molluscous Animals and their Shells '' (4 vols. 8vo); 
Gosse, **A Manual of Marine Zoology for the British isles ;'* and Alder and Hancock^ 
•* Nudibranchiate Mollusc:i " (publisliod by the Kay Society). 

FomU Molltuea.—'VUe hard shells of most M. nt them for long preservation, and 
make them the most frequent organic remains in tlie foBsillferoiis rocks from tile 
Silurian upwards. The tunicata and the nudibranchiate gnsteropods, having no 
hard parts that could be preserved, are without fossil representatives ; the gbssy 
and translucent fragile shell of the pteropoda is only known fossil from a tew 
species in the Tertiary strata ; unless, iudeed, the comparatively large forms \Comut- 
laria and Theca) from the older rocks have been rightly referred to this order. The 
reniuiuing four orders— the Cephalopoda, Qosteropoda, Brachiopoda, and Laroelli> 
branchiata— have existed together from the earliest period. The tetrabranchiate 
Oeplinlopoda were developed in great profusion and variety in tlie Palaeozoic and 
Secondary periods; and as they decreased, the dibranchiate group took their place, 
and continued to iucrease in numbers until it reached its greatest development iu 
the seas of our own day. Of the chambered shells tike the pearly nautilus, it la 
estimated that over 1400 species are known, of which only five or six exist In the 
ocean now ; tlie cuttlo-fl»hes and sqnids, on the other hand, are represented iu the 
Secondary and Tertiary rocks by about 100 species, while at least twice tm many 
are known as living species. 

f* Tlie living Gasteropoda exceed the fosail in the proportion of 4 to 3. Tliis dis- 
proportion will appear greater when we remember that 'the fauna of the preaeat 
. soas is set against the faunas of some thirty different periods, yet it must not be 
forgotten that we can never l>e acquainted with more than a fraction of the entire 
niiiuial life of any bypast age. Almost contemporaneous with the first living 
organisms, this group has gone on increasing to iho present time, when the unra- 
bers ara so great that more than 8000 living species have been recorded. A genus 
ot air-breathing univalves has been described by Lvell, from the coal-measures of 
Nova Scotia. A single species — a modern-looking Phyua — has been obtained from 
the Pnrl>eck limestone, the newest of the Secondary rocks. They arc more fre- 
quent iu Tertiary beds. 

Tlie Brachiopoda, or Ijamp-shells, like the nautilus group, have tlieir history 
ciiiefly written in the rocky tablets of the earth. Of 1800 known species, only TO 
are livhig, and thc.«e are comparatively rare, or are at least found in inaccessible lo- 
Cjilities, whereas, in some periods of the earth's historv, as when the chalk and 
nioni'.taiu limestone ImhIs were being formed, aud especially during the Devonian 
period, tlie individuals abounded to an enormous extent The genus LingiUa. seven 
species of whicli live in the modem seas, can he traced through the interveDtne 
strata, down to the first fossltirerons bed, to which, indeed, it gives the name (^ 
'* Ungula Bed ;" but this species, though externally not to i>e distinguished from 
the existing shell, has a pedicle groove in the ventral valve— a diaracter sufficient, 








perhtpB, for the establishment of n different genns. Indeed, none of the fi^onrrn of 

tbe PklasQZOic rock^ atlll exist; tbewanr ofexiict Information is the ouTy cicui»e 

' for the coutiooed application of tlie names of recent genera to tiie ancient iniiabi- 

taati of the globe. 
I The Conctiifera have been jn^nally increneing in numbers and Importance from 

[ the earliest period, and they att'iin their inaximnm development in the ozif^ting 
•ets. The more simple forms, wilii an ot>eii niaulle, are* common in the Palscozoic 
•trata; the siphooated families, nuknown in the older rocko, appear in considerable 
oomberln the Secondary strata, and coiitinne to increase npwards. The recent 
fpedes namber aboat 8000, while the fossil are nearly twice as many. 

MOXLWITZ, a villiige of Prussian Silesia, in the government of Breslau, seven 
miles west of Briec. Pop. 619. To the aast of It lies the celebrated butUe-flfld 
wb«e Frederick II. of Prussia gained his first victory over the Au^trians nnder 
Msishal Neipncrg. April 10, 1741. According to the usual account, Frederick, on 
leeiog his right wing and centre thrown into coufnsion and routed, put spurs to his 
cbsr^, and fled from the field ; hut the advance of three battulions of Prussian iu- 
ftotnr stopped the Anstrians, while by this time Marshal Schweriu, who com- 
manded oil thePmssian left, routed the Austrian right wins, and compelled (he 
Wilde to retnmL The Anstrians suffered immense loss in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners. The Immediate result of this victory wju« an alliance between France 
and Prussia, to dissolve which Austria was compelled to surrender the province of 
Sikwa to Frederick, in 1742. 

MOLO, a city of the Philippine Islands, on an island of the same name, four 
mBes from Boila Sec Philifpimes. In ancient times, It was a Chinese colony, 
and is now occnpied by Mestizos and their descendants, most of them huviug a 
mixture of Chinese blood. Pop, 10,000. 

MOLOCH (more correctly Molboh), also Milkov, Maucox (pieir king), from 
Beb. Melech^ king, the chief Ammonite deity (the Cheinosh of the Moabices), wliose 
worship consisted chiefly of human sacridces, purifications, and ordeals by fire, 
moCilatioB, perpetual vimulty. and the like; practices specially inveighed against 
In the Mosaic records. Even the stranger who shonld devote his offspring to this 
idol was to be pot to death by stonin?. It is not quite certain which was the particu- 
lar manner of this sacrifice. Rabbiiiical tradition represents Moloch as a liiinnn 
Ignre of brass or dnv, with a crowned bull's head, upon whose extended arnn* ^^e^e 
Wd the doomed children. A fire withhi the hollow statue poon scorched them to 
death, while their shrieks of agony where deadened by a loud noise made by the 
priests upon various instruments. But altiiongh this description nearly coincides 
with that of the statue of the Carthaginian Kronos, and although so late a traveller 
even as Benjamin de Tndela siieaks of having seen tlie remains of au ancient 
Ammonite temple at Gehal, with the fragments of an idol somewhat corresponding 
to thf above representation, yet nothing certain is known about this point at pre- 
sent; nay, even the burning of the chiUlreu itself has been questioned; and it Is 
cimtended^ yet without much show of reason, tliat the victims were merclv carried 
tbroub two pyres of fire by way of solemn purification or baptism. It seem?, however, 
certam that the worship of M., in whatever shape it may have been, was coininnn 
tfaroi^oot the Cooaanite nations. The Carihaginians, through whom it was probably 
^>nad over the whole East, worshipped Kronos In rites of fire and bloodshed ; 
tbd human beings, children or grown-up pers^ons, priponen* or virgins, were either on 
certain periodical festivals, or on sudden emergencies, offered up throucbout almost 
*U tlie lands and ishuids which the merchant-people of antiquity may ne supposed 
to have touched at. The description of the Kronian statue, a» given byclafsicnl 
writers, differs only In that small respect from the one given above, that the child 
fell, according to the former, from the hands of the god Into a burning fire below, 
matead of being slowly burned to death. On fire-worship in general, which is tiie 
B»in idea of "Moloch "—-probably worshipped orijjinally as the symbol of the suit 
--we have spoken under GuBBRSS. The name itself gives no clue to its special 
oatore, nor does any comparison with connate roots lead any farther. Molech, or 
Helecb, is the supreme king or deity of the poople, who have enthroned him as their 
(ludfliy god. Naturally, the princes of Amnion are the princes of Malcham -■ their 
(the Ammonites') king or goa, and his priests were high in social rank. 


by Google 


Moloch 182 

Molaocas -^"^ 

Kespecting the ppechl bietoiy of this worship nmong the Isnelltea, \re can only 
say that, althongh wc do not eeo any iiioru reuson to prcsappose Its wide spread at 
early times (ou nccouut of the frequent occnrrcuce of the word *» king" In doubtful 

Sipsages), than tlicrc is the riightest ground for aspuming (as has t)ceii doue by 
uuiucr uud others) that the whole Mosaic religion originated In a Moloch-seryice 
(a notion which hardly required a serious refutatiou for its iut*taut explosion)— yet 
there is no doulil that It bad Its secret, althongh few adhereuts. even before the 
Canaanittt women in Solomon's liarcm reintroduced it publicly. ITie Valley of BUu- 
nom and the Mount of Olives were the chief places of thetHs abominable ntes ; the 
former being afterwards adopted as the name lor Uell. eveu In Islam. Not until the 
time of Jositth was it rooted out from among the people. The word has uow b*^ome 
adeM^rnatioD forakiud of Irresistible dread influence, at wnose shrine everything 
would be sacriflccd, even as the deluded father offered his own child to the >nible 

MO'LOCH, a genus of saurian reptiles, of the family Agamidm (see Agaxa). Jf. 
horriduSt uu Australian species, is |>erhn[is the moft u<^ly and repulsive m appear- 
ance of all the saurian tribes. The whole snrfacu of the body is covered with irregu- 
lar plates and strong sharp spines* : the upper surface of the head Is crowned with 
two very large spines ; and on the back ol the ueck arc large rounded protuberance^ 
covered with grauuhur sailes and spines. The M. is, however, a pcfcctly Inoffensive 

. MOLO'OA, a district town In the west of the government of Jaroslay, in Baro- 
peau Russia, is situated near the confluence of the Mologaaud Volga, 68 mi lea west- 
north-west of Jaroslav. It is a town of great antiquity, and first belonged to tho 
principalitj of Hostof, afterwards lo Yaroslaf, but from 1321 till 1471, It liad ita own 
I>rinces. There wom formerly an extensive fair at Mologa. The timber-trade, and 
the carriage of good;* by river-bonts and raft", uow occupy the mMJorily of the in- 
habitants. Pop. (\S61) S715.— The river Mologa is one of the liuka oetwceu the 
Volga and the Neva. 

HOLTKB, Hellmuth, Count von, Field-Marshal of the German empire, and 
chief of the general staff, who planned the Pru»siaircnmi>aign of 1806 against Aus- 
tria, and the German campaign of 1870—1871 against France. He belongs to an oid 
family, who had their seat for centuries in Mecklenburg, where M. was boni, 26th 
October 1800. Soon after his birth, his father, a military officer, left Mecldeijburg, 
and acquired an esttte in Holstein. He and his brother were sent to the military 
academy in Copenhagen, where iron discipline and military frugality laid the fonu- 
dation of his later character. In 1822, ho entered the Prussian army as comet, nis 
parents having by this time lost all their fortune, ho was left without any meaua 
wimtever, and had to undergo many hard»hi(is to maintain himself In his position, 
from the very modest nay the Prussian ofllccrs receive; yet ho managed I o savo 
enough to lake lessons in modern languages, which afterwards proved of great ad- 
vantage to him. His eminent abilities soon procured lilm a plaice in the general 
stiff. The time between 1835 and 1839, he spent in Turkey and Af«ia Minor, whither 
he was Sent by the Prusslau government to rejiort on the war between that country 
and Mehemet All. Several anonymous }>nblicalions of his, descriptive of the conn- 
try and the war, are worthy of notice. After liis return, he rapidly advanced through 
the different stages to the rank of eeueral. contiuniug, however, on the general staff. 
His wonderful striiteglcal powers were of immense service in the wars with Den- 
mark (1868—1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870—1871) ; bringing them all to tri- 
umphant issues. At the end of the Austrian war he was rewanled with the order of 
the Black £}igle, in 1870 ho was created a count, and in 1871 ho was raised to th« 
rank of field-marshal. He nubllshed a work on tlie Franco-German War. M. is a 
man of great modesty and slmnlicity ; he is reserved, and so little given to talk, that 
he has acquired the surname of **the Silent." Ttie same composure and eqiianiuiity 
that he possesses in couucil, he also preserves in tkie heat of battle. See GsiuiAxnr. 

MOLU'CCAS, or Royal Islands, properly so called are Temate, Tidore, Maklan, 
Motir, and Batjnu, lying to the west of Gilolo, and washed by the Motnccns Strait or 
Passage, which sepamtes Gilo'.o from Celel»ea.— Temate, the most important, 1« a vol- 
canic mountain with planes at its base. The top is in (P 48' 80" n. lat., and 127o ^ 


by Google 





W* t, long. Area, 88^ eq. m. Pop. 86M, of whom 109 are EaropeaoB. The town 
fioo tbeeMt side and coutains the eoltau's palace, the Dutch residency, Prote{«taiit 
ctaorth. goTemmeut achool, ^kc Tlie islana ia fertile aud well watered ; the natives 
peicpfaL They ciiltiYnte rice, cotton, tuhacco, &c., trade with tlie udjuceut islauda. 
•fid baild resaeLs, from the light »kifi and tlie tent-hout to the war-gulley ol 60 or 80 
rwrera, canjiuK two or more piecea of light artillery.— Tidore is pouth of Teronte, 
Its north poiut being 1° 11' n. lat., and 126<3 V e. lone. Area, 83 sq. m. Pop. 6157. 
The island ia a volcano, 5533 feet hish, aud fertile for 3000 feet. The natives are 
leas gentle, iHit more iiHluatrions than those of Temate, aud diligeotly cultivate the 
Foil, weave, and flsh. They are Mobainincdaus, and have many uioraaes. The sal- 
tans of Teniate and Tidore are subsidised by and subject to the Nelherlands, rx( r- 
ci*h»g their authority under the snrveillaucc of the Ke^ideui.— Makian lies in 0© 18' 
W a. lot, and 127" 24' e. long., fa very fertile, yields much Pago, rice, tobacco, 
caoaij-oll, Ac, aud baa Important flahiugs. Pop. 6000. Tlie nativea are in- 
dBBTnooB, make good nets, t>pin yarns, and weave coai-se striped fabrics.— Fur- 
ther north, fu 0° 28' n. Int., and 127° i»' 80" o long., is Motir, which formerly yielded 
a coiunderable quantity of cloves, and later, aeut much earthenware to all the Spice 

Batian. the only remaining Hoyal Is^land, lies between 0° 18'— 0° C5' s. Int., and 
IfP Sir- 128^ e. Ion?., ia 50 miles in length, and 18 in breadth, has roanv mountain 
peaks from 1500 to 4000 feet in height, the sources of nnuieruns rivers. 'i\\e fireutest 
part of this beautiful island is covered with ebony, satin-wood, and other valuable 
thaber trees, which give shelter to numerous beautifnl-plumuged birds, deer, wild 
boes. aud reptiles. Sago, rice, cocoaunts, cloves, fish, and fowls arc plentiful, and 
a iFuie oofee ia cnltlvated. Coal ia abundant, gold and oop})er in small quantities. 
Tbe tobabitanta, 1800, who are lazy and sensunH are a mixed race of Portuguese, 
8paniarda, Dutch, and natives. These islands are all volcanic, Temate being a 
nosnlaiu sloping upwards to 6563 feet, to which Tidore benrs a striking resemblance. 
Makian is an active volcano, which, so late as December 1661, threw foi-th immense 
(pumtities of lava aud ashes, by which 326 lives were lust and 16 villages in part or 
la whole destroyed. Motir is a trachyte mountain, 2296 feet in height ; and Batjan, 
aahain with several lofiy peaks. Total population of the M. Proper, 23,551. 

To tbe sonth-weet of Batjan lie the Obi group, consisting of Obi Mnior, Obi 
Hiuor, Typha, Gonoma, Pisan^, and Maya, of which Obi Major, in 1^ 85^^ s. lat., 
and from 127° to 128° e. long., is by far the largest, havinjg: an area of 698 square 
laileai It is hilly aud fertile, being covered, like the smaller islands of the group, 
mth sago and nutmeg trees. They are uninhabited, and serve as lurking-plncea for 
pirates aud escaped convicts. In 1671 the Dutch built a block-house called the Bril ; 
and a few yeara later, the Snitau of Batjan sold the ijroup to them for 800 doUuia ; 
bat the statiou being found unhealthy, the company abandoned ii in 1738. 

Tub Moluccas, or Spiob IsiiANDS, in the broad use of the term, lie to the east 
of Celebes, scattered over nearly eleven degrees of lat. and long., between 3° s. — 
8° 0. lat, and 126° — 186® e. long., including all the territories formerly ruled over by 
the raltaas of Temate and Tidore. They are divided into the reeidencies of Anv- 
boyua (q. v.), Banda (q. v.)^ and Temate ; a fourth residency being Menado (q. v). 
Over tbe northern groups of the Spice Islands, the Netherlands exercise ait indirect 
goverament, the sultans of Temate and Tidore requiring to have all their appoint- 
aunts of native oflcials ratified by the Resident. The southern groups are directly 
under Snropean rule. Tbe residency of Amboyna contains that island, sometimes 
called Ley-Timor, or Hitu, from the two peuiusniaa of which it is formed. Burn, 
tbe UliasserB group, and tbe west part of Cerani. That of Banda includes the 
Btfida. Keffing. Key, Arrn, and other islands, also the eastern portioiaof Ccram. 

tToocr the residency of Tcrnate are pl.-iced the M. Proper, Qilolo, the neigh- 
boring Hands, and the north-west of Papua. lu 1871, pop. of the M. auddcpend- 
eudea, 4214 EuropeauA aud 796^ nativ<!8. 

Amboyoa, the Banda and Ulias^r Islands, chiefly supply the cloves, nutmegs, 
luid mace which form the staple exports. The Banda Islands are Neiru or Banda- 
Ncira, Qreat Banda, Ay or Way, Rliun, Roaingain.aud Goeuong-Api, containing an 
vea of 588 square miles. lu 1857, pop. 6101, of whom 400 were Europeans ; that of 
tbe whole residency, 110.802, including the eastern part of Ce.rom. The princi^ml 
- i of the group ia Neiro, south-east from Amboyna, iu 4° 38' s. lat., aud 130^ e. 


by Google 



Moment "-O* 

long., sepnrated by narrow 'rtmitB from Goenone-Api on the west, find Great Banda 
on tlieeast. The const is iteen, and aormonutcd hy aereral foruiaud batt«rie8, wliidi • 
comthaud the-etraits and roade>tead. The town of Neira,on the south side of the 
isl»nd» Is tho ctipital ot the Dntch residency of Bauda, has a Protestant chorch, 
pcbool, and hospituL The BaudA Islands liavo a rich soil, and are planted with nut- 
uieg-trees, prodacing, in 1860, upwards of a mtUion lbs. of nnt^, snd 876,586 Iba. cl 
mace. The enlture has nearly doubled aiiice 185k Pine-apples, the vine. b«niiua. 
cocoa-nnr, and other fruit treca thrive, and are abondnnt. Ay Is the pretUeet and 
mwt productive of the group. Goenong-Apl Is a lofty volcano. Tliere are wild 
. cows, liogs, and deer; sea-<arp and mackerel, which last are dried, and form with 
BAgo the food of the slaves. Tlie eiist nioiisooii begins in May, and the we^t In De- 
ceinl)or, and are accompanied with ruin and storms. The climate is not particalarly 
healthy. x 

llie Ullassers, which with Araboyna. prodnce the eloves of commerce, are Sap- 
arona, Onia or uaroukou, and Nousa-Lnut. They lie to the east of Arobojrua m 
8° 40^ 8. lat., and \W^ 83' e. longitude, and have an area of 107^ sauare miles. Sa- 
paroua is the largest, and is formed of two mountainous peninsuliis, joined In the 
middle by a narrow strip of undulating graasy laud. Recently there were about 
100,000 trees, producing 185,000 lbs. of cloves. The population amounts to 11,665, of 
whom 7340 are Christiune, and have 12 schools, with a very large attendance ot 
sctiolars.— Oma, separated from Saparoua by a strait of a league In width, has eleren 
villages, of which Haroulca and Oma are the chief. It is mountnlnons In the south. 
and has several rivers and sulphurous springs. The prodnce of cloves has amonnted 
in one year to 40,000 Ihs. ; and the villagiers possess 50,000 cocoa palms, besides other 
f rnif-trfes. The woods abound with deer and wild hog«>, the rivers witl» fish. Sago 
is grown, but not in sufficient quantities to nieetlthe wants of the people, who draw 
further supplies from Oram. The beanttfal village of Harouka, on the weal coast, 
irt the residence of the Dutch- Post holder, who Ispresideut of the council of chiefs. 
Here is the head office of the clove-produce. There are two forts on Oma, several 
churches, and six schools, with 700 pupils. Pop. 7188, one-half Christians, the other 
Mohammedans — ^Noosa-Laut lies to the south-east of Saparooa. It is planted with 
clove-trees, which in one year produced 120,000 lbs. Thero arenpwardsof 80,000 
cocon-nut trees. The inhabitants, who formerly were pirates and cannibals, amoaut 
to 8479 souls, are all Christians, and have schools lu every village — in 1859, tliey 
were attended by 870 pupils. 

The dove-tree and the nutmeg are indigenous to nil the Spice Islands, but the 
clove-cultivation is confined to Amboyna and the Ullassers, the unlmeg to the 
Banda Islands. Till 1834. the Dntch prohibited tho planting of these trees in other 
parts, and caused tho:*e of native growth to bo rooted out. In order to prevent 
smuggling, and to retain the supply of these spices to the Bnropean market. The 
Spice Islands are generally healthy both for Europeans and Asiatics; and though 
the plains are sometimes very liot, mountains are always near, where It Is pleasantly 
cool In the mornings and evenings. Besides tho spice-trees, the brend-fmit, saso, 
cocoa-nnr, banana, orange, gnava, papaw. also ebony. Iron-wood, and other vala- 
ablo timlter-trees, are abundant. The natives of some of the islands are Aifoers, of 
others, Malays on the coasts, and Alfoers in the interior. In Ceram are also Papuan 
negroes, brought originally from Ball and Papua as slaves. 

The Reaident and other Dutch ofllcials reside in the city of Amboyna. the streets 
of which are broad, planted with rows of beautiful trees, and cut eacli other as 
right angles. There are two Protestant churches, a town-house, orphanage, hospi- 
tal, and theatre, besides a useful Institution for training nntive teachers, with whIcU 
1« connecte<f a printing-press. Near the city are beautiful promenades and cooutry- 
seats. Pop. 10,500. 

In 1S54, the clove-produce amounted to 580,592 lbs., the nnmber of trees planted 
being 405,639, of which one-third port were frnlr-bearing; nutmegs. 687,861 11m., and 
mace, 188,986 lbs. ; the trees planted being 424,673, of which 897,272 were bearing. 
The total cost of the nutmegs and mace delivennl in the Nctherhmds that year was 
£80,768 sterling, realising £94,466. In 1859, the M. sent to Java for the account of 
government, 2012 picols of mace (the picol = 188 lbs.), 81,101 of cloves. 6686 of nut- 
megs, and 28 of co«oa^nut soap ; the value being £69,416. Theproduce of nntmcHrs, 
in 1861, was 463,809 lbs. ; lu 1669, it bad risen to 832,684, au0 in 186?, to 1,044,^! 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1 QC MolybdeniUB 

J-OO Moment 

Hie dovtp-crop yaiies mnch, as the following tabic will shew: 1856, 617,260 lbs.; 
MST, 187,(W3i ; 1868, n8,618; 1859, 890,888; 1860, 268,117. Amboyitft uud Bauda 
baTe been free porta since 1864; bat aa trovemment monopolises the labor, there is 
DO fair corop«>tition, and the people are slaves of the soil, their chiefs being paid iu 
propoitioa to the prodnce delivered. 

In 1521, Antouio de Brlto flrct appeared to take posMSsion of the M. in the name 

of the king of Porttigal; and after a long period of violence, inlrigae and perfidy, 
tlie Portagneae were driven ont by the Dutch and nntlvcs, nt the thinning of llie 
ITih century. Tlie change WttS of no advantaee to the natives, for the Datch, hav- 

liig obtained the exclusive right of buying ull the cloves, at a nominal value, a series 
(rf warn ensued, whidi resulted iu the subjugation of the Spice Islands. Recently, 
- new Suitaos of Temate and Tidore have been appointed, with \e»% power than their 
pcedeceasorB ; and the wars with the Alfoera of Ceram, iu 1859 and 1S60, have 
broosbt ihem more fully under Dutch rule. 

MOLYBDE'NUM («yra. Mc ; equiv. 4S— new system, 96 ; sp. grav. 8*68) is a rare 
metal, which. In a state of purity, is of a silvery white color, has a strongly inetellic 
Imtre, ia brittle, and vcnr diflkiAt of fusion. It never occurs untive, and Us prin- 
dpal ore ta the blaulpliide, wliich mnch resembles graphite. It is also occacioually 
foond ozidiaed, in molybdate of lead. The metal may be obtained by roasting the 
bisolpblde In a free current of air, when the sulphur goes off oxidised as sulphurous 
aeld, and the M. to also oxidised into Molybdic Acid (MoOt), and remains in the 
vessel. By the action of charcoal, the reduced metal is then obtained from the acid. 

M. forma three compounds with oxygen— the protoxide (MoO), the biuoxide 
(MoO^, and molybdic acid (MoOg). Of these three, the last alone has any practical 
i^Be. Molybdic acid is a white, tfiist^ins, crystalline powder, wliich is almost in- 
idrable in water, fusea at a red neat, and unites with bases to form well-marked 
■ahs, the molTbdates, which are either colorlcfiB or yellow. A solution of molybdate 
of ammonia to one of the most delicate tests for phosphoric acid. 

M. forms various compounds with sulphur, chlorfue, Ac., none of which are of 
any practical importance, except the native bisulphide. 

MOMBA'SSA, or Mombaz, a seaport town of Enst Africa, in the territory of the 
Sultan <rf Zanzibar, on a small coralline island off the coast, in the middle of an 
estnary formed bv two small rivers, in lat. 4^ 4' s., and long. 89<> 4S' e., about 150 
lojles north of Zanzibar island. The ahores of the islaiia are rocky and abrupt ; 
tod although tlie channel may be forded ut low water, the attempt is attended with 
danser. Tne town has the usual Arab characteristics of ruin, neglect, and filth in a 
striking degree. The only object of interest is an extensive fort, built on a rock, 
cm perpenoiculariy, lit 1596, by the Portuguese, and restored by them In 1686, as an 
hifoiption over the principal gateway indicates. It is a work of considerable pre- 
tension, with upwards of one nnudrcMi guns in position, but in a ruinous condition. 
The inhabitants, the majority of whom arc snnk in abject poverty, mostly live in 
wretched hovels, scatten'd among what remains of the once magnificent buildings. 
The town and island of M., as well as the surrounding district, is inhabited by the 
Wsnika tribe. The liarbor is still good, and is commodious and safe. M. wan 
visited by Vasco da Gama in 1497, when he found it to be a larpe and very prosiKTOus 
town. It waj» held bv the Portuguese during the greoter part of the period from 
1589 to 1720, when ft appears to have become independent. The English held it 
from 1884 to 1886, when they resigned it. Since then, It appears to liave Iwen ])0(*- 
sesied by the Sultan of Znnidbar, and apparently is considered a place of some lin- 
Ppctance. Burton says that the inhabitants of M. **arc justly taxed with pride, 
bigotry, evil-si)eakiug, insolence, turbulence, and treachery by other Arabs." Pop. 
M^OOO to 15,000. 

MOMENT, of any pbvsical agency, is ita importance with reference to some spfi- 

tti point of opplicatlon from the fulcrum. The moment of a force about any axis 
<to which its direction is perpendicular) is the product of the force by its least dis- 
tanoe from the axis ; and a similar definition is laid down for moment of velocity 
and moment of momeutiwu It to easy to see (see Momentitx) that iu any system 







of mntoally acting bodies the moment of moroentum abont any axis, remains con- 
Btnnt, aiuce the equal mntaal forces measure the momentum transferred from oue 
body to another, and the moments of these forces ore in pairs equal and opposite. 
A particular cuse of this is Kepler's law, that each planet describes equal areas iu 
equal times about the sun. 

Moment €f Inertia.-^lu the rotation of bodies round an axis, the moment of in- 
ertia is the sum of the products of each particle of the body into the rauure of its 
distance from the axis; or if M be the body, m|, m^. mg, Ac, the particles compos- 
ing it, and rj, r^, r,. &c., their corre)»ponding diniances irom the axis, then the 
moment of inertia of M = f)t|r|t + m^r^t + vi^r^i + , &c ; and if a quantity, k. be 
found such that Mir* = miVit + m^r^» + m^r^v +, «fcc., then k is calked the radiu$ 
of gyration. See Cemtbb or Gtbation. 

MOME'NTUM, or Qnautity of Motion, is defined by Newton as proportional to* 
the mass moving, and Its velocity, conjointly. If wo afisnmo unit of moraeninin 
to be that of unit of nniss moving with unit of Telocity, we shall evidently havo, 
for the momentum of a mass M, moving with velocity V, the expression MY. 
And such is the unit generally adopted. 

It is shewn by experiment that, when force produces motion in any body, tbe 
momentum produced in one second is proportional to the force — and, in fact, jToros 
U meamtred bu the momentum it U capable of producing in unit of time. Tlius, tbd 
same force, if acting for one second on each of a number of bodies, prodnces in 
them velocities whicli are inversely as their masses. Also when, as in Uie case of 
fulling bodies, the velocities produced in one second are tiie same in all, we conclado 
that tlic forces are proportiotuU to the masses; and. in fact, this Is tlie physical 
proof that tlie weight of a t>ody is proportional to its mass. Again, if aiffen-nt 
forces act. each for a second, on the same maj^ the velocities prodfuced are propqr- 
tional to the forces. AH these are but different modes of staremeut of tlto expd||- 
mental fact, that force is proportional to the momentnm it produces in miit of timo ; 
which forms a part of Newton's second Law of Motion. 

When two masses act on each otlier, Newton's tliird Law of tfotion (see Motion, 
Laws of) shews that the forces they mutually exert are equal and opposite. The 
momenta' produced by these must therefore lie equal and oppoe^ite. Tims, in attrac- 
tion or impact of two musses, no momentum ia lost ; since what is lost by ouc is 
gained by the other. 

The momentum of a system of lK>dies can l>o resolvetl (as velocity is resolved) 
into components iu any assigned direciiuns, and tlie mutual forces of the system 
may be thus Iikewis«e resolvi'd. Applying tbe previous result, we see at once that iu 
any system of mutually acting bodies (such, for instance, as the sohir system), no 
moiQentum is, on the whole, either gained or lost in any particuUur direction. It ia 
merely transferred from one pai*t of the system to another. 

This fact^ calletl the Conservation of Momentum, has caused great confusion in 
the mindi* of pscudo-physicipts, who constantly confound it with C^o&servatioQ ot 
Woric or Energy, a totnllv different thing. 

The momentnm produced by a force in any period of timo Is measured by tho 

Eroduct of the force and the tim« during whichit haw actedr—ihe energy or work done 
y a force is measured by the product of the force and the epa^ce through Vfhichithas 
acted. Momentum Is propoHiunul to the simple velocity of a body, and can never, dy 
any known process^ be transformed into anytJiing elite. Energy, when depending^ on 
velocity (see Fobcb, Conservation of). i»* proportional to the o^tiar^ of the velocity, 
and is in the natural world constantly being transformed from it* actual or kineti9 
form to it» potential fonn^ and bcwk again, or to some other ktjteticform euch as heat, 
andfinaMy mutit become heaL Momentum, ou the contrary, is never altered, either 
iu kind or in amount. 

In knocking down a wall, or In staving In the whole side of a ship, the battering- 
rani of the ancients (when constructed of sufficient mass, and worlced by the proper 
number of men or animalf*) was probably nearly as eflfcctive as the best modern ar« 
tillery. But in making a breach in a wall, or in punching a hole In the armor of au 
iron-clad, mert» massive shot with low velocities (^uch as those of the Dahlgreu grnini) 
are comparatively ineffective, however great their momentnm; while an Armetron? 
or Whltworth projectile, with u fraction of the momentum, hut with greater veloci^^ 
aod, for its sbsc, much greater kinetic energy, effects the object with ease. 


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In many erery-day phenomena, wo see most distinctly the difference between 
ttwBe two affections of mntter. Tlins, a blow delivered from tlie »hoalder by a heavu 
pngiii^t, even 1' it be slaggishly given, ceuerally floors its man, witliout dome nincU 
oHitriDJary; bat a sharp stroke adiuiuTstered by a lij<ht weight, wliilo hardly diB- 
tarblog the adversary's equilibriara, iiiflicta serious pnnishmeut. 

MOlOiSEN, Tbeodor, n distinguished writer on the history and polity orniicieut 

Bonip, was born in 18t7 at Gurdlug, in Slesvig, wiierc liis father was u pnstor in the 

I Latberan Church. M. studied ftrsc at Altona, and subs<'qneutly at the univen>ilj( 

of Kiel, where he graduated hi arts iu 184^. Having obtuiiiud some aasistunco 

froai tti^Academy ol Berlin to defray Uic expenses of a prolonged coarse of travels, 

I M. spent three yfears iu investigating Roman inscriptions iu France and Italy, ana 

I from time to time publit^hed the result of his investigations in tlie Annals of the 

I Arehcological Institute of Rome and the Herculaneau Academy of Naples. The 

Klitical distnrbanccs of 1S18 diverted M. from his favorite pursuits ; and for a time 
devoted himself to politics, taking upon himself the editorship of the leading 
Slarig-Holstein paper, for which he wrote the leading articles in the summer of lS4d. 

{ K. beu for a short time a chair in the university of Leipsic, but his appoiutmcnt 
VIS cancelled on account of hiH strong political tendencies. Ue was made Titular 
Professor of Law at Zurich iu 1S52, and at Breslau in 1864; while, since 1858, he 

I has filled the chair of Roman Law ut Berlin. His attention has long been devoted 

I to tbos* branches of archffiology and ancient history with which his name is 
DOW so honorably associated. Among his most valnable contributions to the^e de- 
partoients of knowledge, special mention must be made of the following : ^* Die Un- 
i^talischen Dialekte" (Lelp. 1850), ** Corpus Inscriptlonnm Neapolitamirum " 
(Leip. 185 1 ); his monographs on ** The Chronography of the year " 364, and " lioman 

' Owns " (Lelp. 1850) ; the edict of Diocletian, *' De Pretiis Rernm Vonalium " a, 801 

I (Uip. 1661) ; " loscriptiones Regni Neflpolit.-Latiuae," 1862 •* Die Rechtsfragc zwis- 
eben Cieear and d. Senat,"lS67; his great work on Roman History, *'ROra. 
Gesciiichte," 5Ui edition, 1868—1870 (ably iranslatod into English by W. P. Dickson); 
'*Bonii»che Forschungen," articles on special points of Roman antiqnitlcs (1st vol., 
Berlin, 1864) ; *< ROmischcs Stoatsrecht *' (Ist voL, Leip. 1871) ; *' Die Erzahlung 
von Cams Martias Coriolanos ; " and his '* Digesta Justiuiani August! " (Berlin, 

3I0M0'RDICA. A genus of plants of the natural order Cwnirbitaeea^ having lat- 
tn\ tendrils, and the fruit splitting when ripe. M, BaUamina, a nntivo of the south 
o( Europe and of the East, produces a curious, oblong, much-warted fruit, calletl 
the Balsam Apfus, which, when green, is infused in on, to form a vulnerary much 

\ esteemed in Syria and some other countries. The ripe fruit is a dangerous iK>!Son. 

> The plant is used to form arbors. — Ttie large, red, tliorny fruit of Jf. mixta, called 
GoUuikra in India, is there used for food.— Jf. echiiuUa is called the Qooseberry 
Ovardj because its froit, which is covered with bristles, is al)ont the size and shape 

; o( a«re goo6e>)erry. The nnriiie fruit is used for pickling, and is sometimes to be 
fteea in Covent Garden market. 

MOMPCKX, a town of the United States of Colombia, on the Magdalenn, 110 

miles snnili-east of Cartagena. Here the Macdalemi, during Its peri(^ical floods, 

) riKfl IS or 16 feet above lis asunl level ; and the quay and custom-house of M. are 

I IwJIi Quusaally high, in order to provide against this emergency. All the foreign goods 

I destined (or tlie coi»9nmptiou of the YuUey of the Magdaleua pa%» through this town. 

I'op. estimated at lO.Obo. 

MO^ACOISM (Gr. monaehos^ a monk, from 7n<wi(v», nlonc) may in general be 

1 described as a state of religious retirement, more or leas complete, acconipanic*d by 

cootemplation, and by various devotional, ascctical, and peniteniial practices. It 

I to. hi truth. Asceticism (q. v.), with the element of religious solitude superadded. 

Tiie histitution of monachism has, under different forms, entered into several reli- 

j gioiis ^sterns, ancient and modern. That it was known among the Jews l)efore the 

' coming of our Lord, appears from the example of the prophet Elias. and 

J^om that of the Easeninns; and it is probable that religious seclusion 

formed part of the practice of the Nazarites (q. v.}, at least in the 

utcr periods of Jewish history. In the Brahmanicai religion, it has a promii- 


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Deot placo; and even to the fyresent day, the lam(uen»« of TTs^ may 
he said to rival in unmber ADd extent the mouaateries uf Italy or cfpain. 
The Christian advocates of mouachlsm find In the sosnel ezhortatfone to 
volantary poverty (Matt. x\x. 21) and to celibacy (1 Cor. viT. 87), at once the joslUI- 
catiou and the origin of tbe primitive iiietitntion. Its first form appears in the 
practice of ascetlciem, of which we find frequent mention In the e«rly jmrt of the 
9d century. The primitive oeceUcs, however, lived amon^ tlie brethren, and ills 
'only in the following century that the peculiar characteristic of monucbism begins 
to appear. The earliest form of Chrifitian mounchism is also the mo»t compitfto— 
that already described under the head Anchorites (q. v.) ; and is comfhouly be- 
lieved to have in part originated in the pen^ecntlons, trom which Christians were 
forced to retire Into de.<erts and solitary places. The anchorets maintained from 
choice, after the cessation of the persecutions, the seclaslon to which they had origi- 
nally resorted as an expedient of security ; and a later development of tlie same 
principle is found in the still more remarkable psychological phenomenon of the 
^lebraled PiujkR-SAiNTS (q. v.). After a time, liowever, the necessities of the re- 
ligions life itself— as tbe attendance at public worship, the participation of the sacra- 
meuts, the desire for mutual Instruction and edification— led to modifications of the 
degree and of the nature of the solitude. First came the simplest form of coromoii 
life, which songht to combine the personal seclusion of individuals with tlie 
common exercise of all the public duties; an ngeregallon of separate cdla 
into the same district, called by the name Laura, with n common church, in 
which all assembled for prayer and public worship. From the union of the common 
life with personal solitude is derived the name eenobiU (Or. fotnos Mm, commou 
life), by which this class of monks is distingnlshed from the strict solitaries, as 
the anchorets or eremites, and in which is involved, in addition to the obligationa of 

Soverty and chastity, which were vowed by the anchorets, a third obligation of obe- 
icncu to a snperior, which. In conjunction with the two former, has ever since be»n 
held to constitute the essence of the religions or monastic life. The first origin of 
the strictly cenobltical or monastic life has been detailed under the name of 8t Ax- 
THONT (q. v.), who may bo regarded as its founder in the East, cither by himself or 
by his disciples. So rapid was its progress, tlial his first disciple, Paohoious 
(q. v.), lived to find himself the snperior of 7000. In the single district of Nitria, 
there were no fewer than 60 monasteries (Sosonien, '* Eccles. History," tI. 81), and 
before long, the civil authorities judged it expedient to place restrictions on tlieir 
pxccsHive multiplication. It se«^mslo be admitted, that, in the E;ist, where asceti- 
cism has always 1)ecn held in high estimation, the example of Christian niouaetl- 
cism had a powerful influence in forwardios the progress of Christianity; althongh 
It is also certAin that the admiration which 7t excited occasionally led lo its natnral 
consequence among the members, by eliciting a spirit of pride and ostentation, and by 
provoking, sometimes to fanatical excenses of austerity, sometimes to hypocriticnl 
simulations of rigor. The abuses which arose, even In the early stages of mouachinn, 
aro deplored by the very Fathers who are most eloquent in their praises of the instil o- 
tion Itself. These abuses prevailed chiefly in a class of monks called Sarahm'Ue, who 
lived in small communities of three or four, and sometimes led a wanderini^ and Irrcv- 
ular life. On the other hand, a most extraordinary picture Is drawn by Theodoret, fa 
bis *'Iiellgioa8 Histories," of the rigor and mortification practised in some of t4ie 
crrcater monasteries. The monks were commonly xealots in religion ; and innch of 
the bitterness of th# religions controversies of the Bast was due to that nnroetraincd 
Eoal ; and It may be added that tbe opinions which led to these controversies ori|;in- 
ated for the most part among the tlieoloffinns of the cloisters. Most famous among 
these were an order called Aecemela (Qr. sleepless), from their maintalnln); the 
public servicos of the church day and night wlttiout interruption. See Momopbt- 


It was in the cenobitic rather than the eremitic form that monachism wai« first 
introduced into the West, at Rome and In Northern Italy by Athanaalus. in Africa 
by St Augustine, and afterwards in Gaul by St Martin of Tours. Here also the in- 
stitute spread rapidly under the same general forms in which it is found in tbe Kast- 
erii Church ; but considerate relaxations were gradually introduced, and it was not 
nntil the thorough reformation, and, as it may be called, religious rei>'ival effected by 
the celebrated St Benedict (q. v.), hi the beginning of the 6th c., that western 
taonochism assumed its peculiar and permanent form. In some of tbe more isolated 


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cfaorclKS, as, for iDstance, that of Britaio, it would eeem that the reformations of St 
Benedict were not Introdoced nuUl a late period ; aud hi that church, as well as lii 
thecharcb of Ireland, they were aaabject of considerable coutroversv. One of the 
most iropo«taot inodiflcailoiis of inouachism iu the Wvnr, r^rded the natnre of 
tite occnpation Iu which the monks were to be eueaged dnrlug ttie times not directJy 
deroced to praver, meditation, or other spiritual exercises. In the Bast, maunal 
labor formed the chief, if not the sole external occnpation prescribed to the monks ; 
it being held as a fandameutal principle, that for eitch ludividUHl tiie main business 
of life was the sauctiflcatiou of his own BonL In the West, besides the labor of tho 
baudp, mental occnpation was also prescribed, not, it is true for all, but for those for 
whom it was especially calculated. Prom an early period, therefore, the monaste- 
ries of the West, and particularly those of Ireland, or of the colonies, founded by 
Irish monks, as loua aud Lindisfnrne, became schools of leamiufr, aud training- 
booses for the clergy. At a later period, most monasteries possessed a ecriptoriumj 
or wridng-room, in which the monks were employed in the transcription of MSS. ; 
aud tHhoogh a great proportion of the work so done was, as might naturally be ex- 
pected, iu tiie department of sacred learning, yet it cannot be doubted that it is to 
the scholars of the cloister we owe the preservation of most of those among the 
master-pieces of classic literature which liave reached our age. 

In the remarkable religious movement whici) characterised the church of the 
19th c (see Francis of Assissi, Fbahcisoans), the principle of mouachism un- 
derwent a further modification. The apiritttcU egotism^ so to speak, of the early 
monacbism, which in some sense limited the work of the cloister to the sauctificu- 
tioo of the Individual, pave place to the more coniprehpuslve range of spiritual 
doly, which. In the institute of the various bodies of Friars (q. v.) which that age 
produced, made the spiritual and even the temporal necessities of one's neighbor 
equally with, if not more than, one*s own, the object of the work of the cloister. 
The progress of these various bodies, both in the 18th c and since that age, is de- 
tailed nnder their several titles. It only remains to detail the later hbtory of 
monachism, properly so called. The monastic Institutes of the West are almost all 
offshoots or moaificatlons of the Benxdictinbs (q. v.) ; of these, the most reraark- 
ible are the Carthusians, Cistbroiahs, OrandmoHtines, Cluomiacs, Premon- 
■TRAnnrsiAjrs, and above all Mauribts, or Benedictines (q. v.) of St Maur. In 
more modem times, other institutes have been founded for the service of the sick, 
for the education of the poor, and other simlUur worlcs of mercy, which are also 
classed nnder ttie denomination of monks. The most important of these are de- 
scribfd under their several heads. 

The eoclosnre within which a community of monks reside is called a Moras- 
TKBT (a. V.)— Or. 'monasttrion^ Lat mtnuuteriwn. By the strict law of the church, 
called the law of cloister or enclosure, it is forbidden to all except members of the 
order to eater a monastery : and In almost all the orders, this prohibition is rigidly 
enforced as regards the admission of females to the monasteries of men. To such a 
kn^h is this carried In the Greek Church, that in the celebrated enclosure of Mount 
Athos, not only women, but all tnimals of the female sex are rigorously excluded. 
The flnit condition of admission to a monastic order is the approval of tho superior, 
after which the candidates remain for a short time as postulants. After this pre- 
liminary trial, they enter on what is called the novitiate^ the length of which in dif- 
f^^rent orders varies from one to three years ; and at its close tliey are admitted to 
the professton, at which the solemn vows are taken. The age for profession has 
taried at different times snd in different orders ; the Council of Trent, however, has 
fixed U as the mtoimam age. Originally, all monies were laymen ; but after a time, 
the superiors, and bj degrees other more meritorious members, were admitted to 
holy orden. The dwtinctioti of priest-monks and lay-brothers has been already ex- 
pUined nnder the head Friar; but in botli alike, where the order is one of those 
solemnly approved by the church, the engagement taken at the final profession is 
Mfe-long and Irrevocable. 

The monastic Institute, from the verv earliest time, embraced women as well as 
■en. Ttie former were called In Greek by the name nonis or lumna^ and is Latin 
**mui (from wlilch the English nun), as also aaiietimonialis, Tho cloistered resi- 
oeuce of nuns is called by various names, as Numnert, Convent, a name also ap- 
pUd to the liOQses Of men. The general characteristics of the monastic institute for 
KBiles are rabataotially ideutkal with those of the male orders ; and as the princi- 


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Monaco 1 Qf\ 

Monaghan ^^^ 

pU varieties of iostltnte ftre detailed nodsr their respectlTO beads. It is Deedkas to 
parlicularl««e them hei-e. 

It is hardly iiecetii^iry to s^iy that the refomied churches in the 16th c. discarded 
til " practice uf monucliiBm, mid sappressed tJie monastic bonscs. Id some of the 
<; ranii s*trtte:*. the tomporalilies of the 8appre»»ed mouast*.Tie« were retained, and 
wri' grHute<l at pleasure bytlie sovercigu, to l>e enjoyed together with the titular 
<lii:iilty. Soiii.? of the (ieniitin chnrches, nowerer, in later lime*, have revived the 
iti^'iitute both for tneii mid for women, as lias aleohocii doneiu the AugMcaii Chorch 
botii iti the tim*^ of Laud and in our own d:iy. In all these Protestjint revi>'n)s of 
monirlii.<*m, however, tlie eus.ipement is revocible at the will of Uie individaal. At 
th* French R-jvolulion, the monastic e*tJiblishment«» of France were ntterly sop- 

trtfwed; and In most of the otlit-r Catholic co-iutries of Europe, tlie example has 
ivii followed to a greater or Ifss extent. In England and Ireland and Auienca, on 
theconiriry, the iimti Mile has* m.itie rapid progre**s Mrithln the last 26 years. Most 
of I he onlers, however, introduced into these countries are of the active rattier thau 
of tlie coiiteinplitive clasd. 

MO'XACO, a aiu:ill priiicipirtty of Italy, on the corrst of tlie Mediterranean 
S»*a, a few miles north-e;u.t of the city of Nice. The climate !« line, so that 
oranges, lemou:». &c are productMi In abandanct,*. Population (^IS73) 6741. Fn>ra 
tlie 10th to the I8:h c, M. was bed by the Genoest* family of Gnnialdi. Jn 1915, it 
was coded to Sardiniji, which, however, recognised its ludepend^'uce, bnt reserved 
to itself the rijrht of carrifionini; ilie town ot Monaco. At this pericxi, it consisted 
of three communes— Monaco. Mcutoiie, and Ro<.'cnbrunn, with an au'a of 62 square 
miles, and a population of aliout TO.H). In 1S48, Meiitoiie a«d Rcicc/ibnina were 
annexetl to Sanhnia, in spite of a protest by his ** Serene Highness,'' Curio Uonorio, 
third prince of Monaco. The Italian war uf 1S59 placed the whole territory for a 
brief periiHl onder Viitor Etnmannel; but Carlo Ilunorio having sold Menioiie and 
Rocca!)rHna \^\ Fel>. IS51) to the French emp Tor for 4,00J.U00 francs, Sanllniu was 
obliged to renouneo her hold upou theiii. The sovereign pniice of M. now po^sesKes 
nothing but thecitv and a small patch of territory, with a to'al area of 6 sq. xn.' 
pop. <1S73) 5741. The town i§ a oeautifnl place on a rocky promontory, with S687 

MO'NAD (Gr. tnotuM, unity), a term Iwrrowed from the Pcripatellc philosophy, 
although employed bymoilerns in a sense dilferent from that of the Peripatetics,. 
who used It to designate the nuiver*e, understood in the pantheistic seuse. By mod- 
ems, and by Leibnitz (q. v.), from whoso system alone the name has de- 
rived import^iQce, it is used to describe the primary elenieuts of all matter. Ttie 
monads are siinnle nncompouud^ substaitces. withont fl<nire, without extcusSoii, 
without divisibility, br the aggrtHr^itioii of which all bodies are formed, and into 
which all compounded things may ultimately be resolv^. The monads are created 
things, but as beiiijs nncomponnded, are indestructible; and although stibject to 
change, the changi' is but external or relative. They are of two classes — the first 
are destitute of consciousness, although possessing an internal activity which is 
called by the name of perception ; the second i>088ess, in atlditiou to perception, a cer- 
tnio coiiscioosneifs, which is CAUed by the name of *' apperception " or coiu>cions- 
perception. The mouads of this class are souls, and according to the degree of 
their consciousness is the distinction lictween tlK> souls of the higher and those of 
the lower iutelligeDces. The Dei: y Is the PmxMB Monad, or Monad of M0NAO6. 
The theory of monads enters lurgiely Into the philosophic system of Leibiiitx, aod 
Indeed fumislies the key to much lu that ajstem which is otherwise obscure. 

MONAD {pumt%^^ the generic name of many kinds of mieroscopic organisiits, 
rery minute, and 8upr»o«etl also to be of very simple orgauisnlloii. They ai>fiesr, 
even under a powerful microscope, as mrre points, moving rapidly through the fluid 
In which tliey exist, and often becoming ajrgn-ghted In dusters ; or they are seen to 
be gelatinous and globular, or nearly so. with a tail or thong-like fliameiit, by ths 
vibrations of which they move. When tlie fluid is tinted by means of some harm- 
less coloring ma'ter, the existence of sev<»ral cells or vesicV* is discerned within the 
minute body. Khreiiberg therefore classed them among Polygastrlc Iiifnsoria (see 
Inpusoria). and no n.ituralist doubted their right to a place, although one of th« 
lowest, iu the animal kingdom. They arc uow ouiTersally r^mrded aa T^etahiei 


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1 1 Monaco 

21 onaghan 

tnd are ratiked among: alose. The on^ftDismff formerly known avOlobc Aiiimalcnles • 
(Fo/rox) a red uhters of monads produced by I'emmutiou from one, and Invested 
with a common eovelooe. MoDudssreof vanona colors. Their geinmatfon takes 
place accordiue to fixed laws, so that the gronpe assume particular fornix, chamcter- 
irtic of the difiereut kinds. Thus. !n the ** Bi-east-plata Auimalcnle " {Oonium. pec- 
toraU), so called from the form wiilch the group frequently pretM}nt8, a division tjikcs 
place into four, aud the nmnber in a group is always either four or sixteen, a group 
of sixteen always dividing into four pans, each of which contains four monads.— 
The minote moving {loints oft«u seen under the microscope are probably often not 
monads, bat spores or germs. 

MONA'DNOCK, Grand, a mountain in the south- west' comer of New Hamp- 
shire, United States of America, which from a base of 6 by 3 miles, ri*e8 to a 
height of 3450 feet. It is composed of talc, mica, aud slate, can be e>een from the 
Srate Ilon.^* nt Boston^ and is a landmark at sea. Thirty lakes, some containing 
namcrootf ishiuds, can be seen from its summit. 

MO'NAGHAN, an Inland county of the province of Ulster, Ireland, situated 
between Tyrone on the n., Armagh and Louth on the e., Moath and C.ivan on the 
s., and Fermanagh on the w. Ifs greatest length from noiih to south Is 87 miles; 
Its greatest breudlh. east and west, is 28 ; the total area being 600 pqnare miles, or 
319,757 acre*, of which 285,886 aro amble. The popniation, wliicli In 1861 was 
126,340, had fallen in 1871 to 114,070. The general sni-facc Is undnlntorv, the hills, 
except in the nortli-west and east, being of small elevation, although often abrupt ; 
the liighe«t point does not exceed 12M feet above the w?a. It is interspen^ed witli 
lakes of small ext'ut, aud fur the most pait of little depth, and although the streams 
are nnmcronH, there is no navigable river M'ithin its bonndarics. In its geological 
rtmctnre, the level conntiy belongs to the great central limestone district; the rest 
is of the same transition formation which ft met with In the northern tract of L.ein- 
sier. No mluernls are found in a remnncrutivo quantity ; there is a small coal- 
field iu the soathem border, but it haa not l>eeu found profitable to work, 
llie soil Is very varied In its, character, and for the most part i* wet aud im- 
perfectly draiued, although commonly capable of mncli improvement; but iu 
general' it is found suitable for the production of cereal crops (with the 
excision of wheat, which is little cultivated), and of flax. The total 
area under crops In 1816 was 139.789 acres. Tliere were 60,669 acres nnder 
oaia, aud 12,204 acres under flax. 1 ho cattle in the same year nnmberod 86,569; 
•hecrp, 15.999 ; pig^, 82,066. The annual valuation of property in 1874 was jC262.432. 
)L is well snpplira with good roads, and is connected bv railway with Dublin, Bel- 
tn»t, and Galway, and directiv with the coast; at Dundalk. The'Ulster Canal passes 
ttirongh the county. The principal towns of this county areMonaghan (q. v.), Cnr- 
rickmacrosff. Clones, and Castie-Blaynev. It returns two members to tiarHament, 
tbH conatitoency b'^ing, at the enumeration of 1873, 6608. M., at the invasion, formed 
part of the craut of Henry II. to De Conrcey, and was partially occupied i>y him ; 
mu it speedily fell back Into the hands of the native chiefs of the fept MacMaiion, 
by whom (with some alternations of re-conquest) it was held *ill the reign of Elisa- 
betli, when It was erecte<l into a shire. Even still, howevei. the autlioiity of tho 
Eiiglifeb was in many places little more than nominal, especially in the north ; and 
in the risingof IMl, the MacMahons again resumed the territorial sovereignty. The 
historical autiqniUes of the connty are of little interest or importance. It poi^sefst'S 
two roond towers, one very complete, at Clones, the other at Innlskecn ; and there 
•PC niany remalna of the ancient earthworks commonly referred to the ante-Kngli^h 
period. Th« total number of children attending the Hn|>enor and primary schools 
in the cooniy of M. during 1^71 was 12,749, of whom 8686 were Koman Catholics. 

MONAGHAN, chief town of the connty of the same name, is situated on the 
grvot north line from Dublin to Londonderry, distant from the former 76 niiles north- 
north-west Pop. In 1871,8682. M., before the Union, wns a town of some itn- 
portance, having a charter from JamcA I., and returning two members to the Iripli 
parliament. It is still (ho centre of an active Inland trode, and can lK)ast some pub- 
lic bolldhigs of considerable pretenpions, among which are the jail, market-houpc, 
and coon-hoate. A Bomaa Catholic college aud a cathedral dedicated to St Mac 


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Monarchr .1 Q9 

Mondovi ^^^ 

CurtUaln, also deserve special notice. The general market fs ou Monday ; 8 markets 
for ugricaltarul produce are held weekly, uiid tliere U abo a monlhly fiur. 

MCKNAKCHY (Gr. momarehia^ from monot, alone, and areftd, to govern'; liter- 
ally, the government of a single iudividnal) is that form of government In a com- 
nwiiity by whicli one per»ou exercises the sovereign aatliorily. Il is only when 
ttie king, or chief magistrute of the commnnity, pofwesscs the entire ruling power, 
tliat he Is In the proper uccepuition of the term a monarch. Mo!>t of the oriental 
governments past and present, Knssia at present, and Spain and France as they 
were in the last century, are in this strict sense monarchies. Th^ degenerate form 
of monarchy is tyranny, or government for the exclusive benefit of the ruler. When 
the head of the state, still posses^'Ing the status and dignity of royalty, shares tlie 
supreme power with a class of nobles, with a popular l^y, or with both, aa In our 
own country, the government, thoush no longer In strictness monarchical, Is called 
III popular lungnage a mixed or limited monarchy, tlic term absolute motiarchy l>e- 
lug applied to a government properly monarchicoLl. The liiglicst ideal of government 
woula perhaps be attained by an alMOlute monarchy, if there were any security for 
always possessing a thoroughly wi»e and good mouarcli ; but this condition is obvi- 
ously unattainable, and a bad despot has it in his power to inflict Infiniit; evil. Ik 
therefore becomes desirable that a governing class, composed, If possible, of tbo 
wisest and most enlightened in the country, should fliare the supreme power with 
the sovereign. A limited monarchy lias this advantage over an aristocratic repub- 
lic, that in difficult crises of the nation's existence, royally bi>coines a neutral and 
guiding power, raised above the accidents and strncgles of political life. 

Motiarchy, most usually hereditary, has sometitnes been elective, a condition 
generally attended with feuds and distractions, us was the case in Poland. The 
elective system Is still followed in the choice of the pope. Constitutional monarchy 
may be in Its origin elective, or combine boih systems, as when one family is disiu* 
heritod, and the sceptre declared hereditary in the hands of another under certaio 
cunditiuns. SeeKiKo, Kbpitblio. 

MO'NASTERT has been described under the head of Monachibx (q. v.) as the 
' generic name of the residence of any body of men,. or even, though more rarely, of 
women, bound by monastic vows. It may be useful, however, to detail tlie various 
classes of monastic establishments of the Western Church, and to point oat the 
leading characteristics of each. The name. In Its most strict accepntion, is con- 
flued to the residences of monks, properly so called, or of nuns of the cognate orders 
(as the Benedictine), and as such, it comprises two great classes, the il6bfy and 
the Priory, The former name was given only to establishments of the highest 
rank, governed by an abl>ot, who was commonly nAsIstcd by a prior, sub-prior, and 
other minor functionaries. An abbey always included a church, and the English 
word MifuttTj although like the cognate Otrman M&nster It has now lost Its spt^iflc 
application, has Its origin In the Latin mona$tertHin, A Friory supposed a less ex- 
tensive and less numerous commnnity. It was governed by a Prior, and was 
originally, although by no means nniformly, at least in later times, subject to the 
jurTsdlction of an abbey. Many priories possessed extensive territorial domains, 
and of these, not a few became entirely independent. The distinction of abbey and 
priory Is found equally among the Benedictine nuns. In the military orders, the 
name of Commander^ and /Veoeptory corresponded with those of abbey and priory 
in the monastic order. The establishments of tlie Mendicant, and. In general, of 
tlie modem orders, are sometimes, though less properly, called monasteries. Their 
more characteristic appellation is Friary or Convent, and tliey are commonly di»- 
tingnlshed into Proifysaed H<mm9 ^called also Jteaidenee9)j HovituUm^ and CoUeg^ or 
ScKolasiie Hou»ea, The names of the superiors of sucli bonses differ in the dif- 
ferent orders. The common name Is Reetor. but in some orders the superior la 
called Guardian (as In the Franciscan), or Matter^ Uajor^ Father Superior^ &c. 
The houses of females— except In the Benedictine or Cistercian orders— are called 
Indifferently Convent and Sunnerp^ the head of which Is styled Mother Superior or 
Reverend Mother, The name CUnster properly means the enclosure; but it is 
popularly used to designate, sometimes thearcaded ambulatory which runs around 
the Inner court of the oullding. sometimes, in the more general sense of the entire 
building, when it may bo considered as synonymous wItA Convent, 


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193 Monarohr 


VONASTTR (ToIi-MoDaetIr, or BitoUa). a town of Enropean Turkey, capital of 

the Tilajret Dnmed after U, is Bitaated In a broad valley of tlie Nijl Mountaliia, 90 

miles iiortb-nortb-east of Janinn, nud aboat the some dlatmice wet<t-nortli- west of 

Rjlonikl. Itisau importaut place, is the rcsideDce of ihegoveruor-geueral, and 

' comtnaiida tlie rontea between Macedonia ami Northern A]l)un1a. Tiie inhabitanta 

! sre mostly Greeks and Bai^rinns. )!. has 11 mo^qnes, and curries on a large trade 

with Constantinople, Saloniki. Vienna, and Trieste. From Constantinople alone It 

j lunuAlly bnys goods to tlio vain« of jC 1,500,000. Irs bazaars, containing more tliaii 

HW shops, are well stocked with the prtxlncts of Western Bnropu and the colonies, 

tn al'O irlth native manafactnres. Yet it Is one of the worst bnilt and most 

tMttleas towns In all Turkey. Pop. 84.000. 

I MONASTI'R, a seaport town of North Africa, In the dominion of Tunis, SO mnos 

wmb-sonih-east of the city of that name, on tlie Gulf of SIdra. Woollen and 

I camlet fabrics arc manufactured, and there Is some maritime trade. Pop. 12,000. 

MONBODDO, James Bumct, Lord, a Scottish lawyer and author, was born at 

I Mouboddo, In Klncnrdineslilre, in 1714, ednaiied at Marisclial College, Aberdeen, 

I vhere he displayed a great fondness for the Greek phllosopliers, and afterwards 

itodied law for three years at Oronlngen, lu Holland. In 1787, Ik; became a mem- 

t bor of tiie Scottish bar, and soon obtained considerable practice ; but the flrst thing 

UuU brought him prominently into notice was his connection with the celebrated 

BoogUa case, iu which Mr Burnet acted as counsel for Mr Douglas. In 1767, he was 

1 ntlMtothebcuchby the title of Lord Monboddo. lie died 86ih May 1799. M.'s 

I tret work, on the ** Origin and Progress of Language " (1771—1776), is a very learned, 

kcrelical, and eccentric production; yet In the midst of its grotesque crotchets there 

oceviohdiy flashes out u wondei-fulfy acute obsei-vation, that maVes one regixjt tho 

distorted and misapplied talent of the author. The notion that men have sprung 

from monkeys, is perhaps that which Is most commonly a.«sociate<1 with tho name ot' 

M.. trlio ffraveiy asserted that tho orang-outangs are members of the human sncciep, 

Slid that Tn the Bay of Bengal there exists a nation of human creatures with tails, 

tad tlmt wd have only worn away ours by sitting on them, but that tho stumps may 

uili be felu M. wrote another work, entitled "Ancient Metaphysics," which was 

poWsbcd only a few weeks before bis death. 

MONCADA, Don Francisco dc, Conde de Osono, an historian, and one of tho 
Sptnlsh claMics, born 29th December 158«, at .Valencia, where bis grandfather was 
taeu viceroy. Descended from one of the greatest families of Catalonia, he rapidly 
n>K to the hlfl^hest offices In the state, was aml)assador to Vienna, and latterly gov- 
emorof the Netberland*. and commander-in-chief of tho 8panis)i troops there. He 
distiugulshed tdmself both ixa a statesman and a soldier. He fell at the siege of 
6ocb, a fortreM In the duchy of Cloves, in 1635. His '*IIistorhi de la Expecticiou do 
Cttakines y Amgoneses contra Tnrcoe y Gricgos " (Barcelona, 1628, and frequently 
reprinted), is a inaster^piece In liveliness and elegance of stylo. 

MONCALXE'RIj a town of Italy In the province of Turin, situated finely on tho 
•fcpe of a hill, on the riglit bank of the Po, Ave miles al»ovc Turin. Pop. 8030. M. 
^thefinit railway station between Turin and Genoa, and rommnnicates daily with 
Turin by freqaeut omnibu;«*s; It has flue buildings, includini; a palace lately emlu'l- 
fi*«d for Wxtt residence of King Victor Emmanuel. The annual cattle-fair held in 
October, at M., is the most important of the north of Italy. 

MONDCVI, an episcopal town in Cuneo. one of the northern provinces of Italv, 
ntaated on the summit and shoulder of an Alpine bill, 60 miles south of Turin. It 
iadivided Into four sections: the PiuKza — encircled by walls, and con tain iiig the 
chief bnildiugs of tho place, and the suburbs, Carassone, Breo, and Piano del valle. 
Is the neighborhood, considerable activity exists in cloth, silk, and bonnet-straw 
■tnnfactorles ; but in spite of vineyards and cliestnut woods, the unmerous re- 
Bttinsof rolned buildings in Itsvlciultjr imi|itirtan air of desolation to the locality. 
Tbe Piazza contains a fine cathe<lra], with rich paintings ; an episcopal palace with 
iaoble gallery of portraits ; and the various judicial and educational halls. Pop. 
11300. At the battle of M., on tho 22d ApVil 1796, the SardinlHUs were totally de- 
^ed l^ Bonaparte, and the entrance into IMedmont secured t9 the French army. 
TWe proTince of M. is Intersected by spurs of the Alps, and contains rich marble 
ViuTies Olid Yilnable mineral prodncta. 


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Mone«!a 1 Ql 

Mongs ^^^ 

MONE'SIA BARE, the bark of a tree {Chf^toph^lumglyeyphUmm^ or C. Airon- 
hBim.)^ of the f>aine jxeiius with the Star Apple {a. v.)« a nativi* of the South of Brazil. 
The bark id lactescent ; bat when dried, il is tliiclc, flit, compact, heavy, brown, nud 
hnnl, with a taste at first sweet, aftci-wards astringent and 1)itter. A Rnbstai.ce 
called Moiwsia is extracted from It, which is almost black, at first sweet, tbeu astrin- 
ffcnt, nnd finally acdd. It is used as astoraachic and alterative in lencorrlwea, chronic 
diarriicea &c. It cuntaius, in small quantity, a principle called Honesin, 

MONEY, ill Political Economy. This Is a word in continual use all over the 
civilised world, and perhaps there is none the meauin? of whicli in connection with 
the bni«incM8 they have in hand is more distinctly nuderstood bv those who uph it; 
and yet, on the other hand, there is none of which il is more difflcnlt to give a cora- 
prcliensive account or a strict dc*flnitiou. Prfsnmlng, then, that every one kuuws 
the practical use of the word in the affairs of common life, the iH'ht thini; to be done 
here will be to point out a few distinctions which may tend to obviate coufubion in 
the comprehensive use of the term as an element m economic science. 

Montjy is ofttni spoken of loosely as the same thing with capital ; but they are 
different. Before anything is money, it must be such that you can go info the 
market and immediately use it in purchasing commodities or paying debts. Tlie 
plant of a railway and the machlnet^ of a mill, so lou|C as they are in full nsc, are 
CJipital, and are capiul which probably has once been money— but they are money 
no longer, becjiuse you cannot use them in making payments, thoiigti they have 
perhaps become more valuable than ever they were. The confusion of capital with 
money was the mistake made in issuing the French assignata on the security of the 
forfeited landed estates. Each assi^jnnt w is a promise to pay; Imt when payment 
was d<>manded. it could not be made, because land was not a medium for making iU 
It is of the essence of money, then, that it is capable of making immediate pay- 
ment cither to satisfy a seller or a creditor. But an article may be money though 
it will not satisfy everybody ; and articles available as money — even those most iml- 
versaily accepted as such— are available for other pnrposet*. What wo are familiar 
with as the most approvetl form of money— as the thing that will be most certainly 
received in payment all over the world— is coin of the precious metals. Th© reaf(oa 
why the claim of thew is so universally acceptetl is, that tbcy do not merely repr»-. 
§erU value, as we shall find other kinds of money do, but they really are valne. If 
the dealer sells a hat for a BOverei*;n, he knows that the sovereign docs not depend, 
like a pound-note, on the solvency of the issuer, but tliat it has got value pat luto 
it by costing about as much labor and skill in bringing it into existence aa tli« hat 
he gives for it. But even all coins perfectly available for money are not of the 
Intrinsic value of their denomination. Tlio silver for making 40 ah\lllng8 Is a good 
deal h^H valuable as a commodity than the gold in a sovert* igu , and in the aaine 
way, 240 pence, which are as money equal to a sovereign ; only make a perceutago 
of it in value as merchandise. 'I he convenience of tiieii' use for small traiiSACtiona 
makes up for depreciation in value of coins of the inferior metals, when gold is a 
standard ; and to prevent incidental abuses, the law limits the extent to which ikxej 
are a legal tender as good money. 

Money transactions are disiingulshed from barter, in whicn one commodity is 
transferred for another, as where the shepherd, in primitive t!n;es, may be Bn|>> - 
pO!*ed to have elven the agiiculturist a sheep for a measure of corn. ThU diatiiic- 
tion Is extremely useful, sujcelhe invention of a circulating medium, which 8np*'r- 
Bcdes the narrow, cumbrous process of barter, by facilitating transactions of every 
variety of im|>ortance anion*; all sorts of people, Is a grand tjije of advance in civi- 
lisation. Like m:'.ny other distinctions, however, it has not an absolute line of de- 
mircation. The precious metals hold their value by their being comnioditic%«i ks 
well as being mouev, and coins are frequently usetl up for plate and jewellery. 
Where money is only available within one narrow region, its use verges on hftrtrr. 
In Central Alrica purchases are made and debts paid liy strings of beads or coils 
of bniHs wire. An ivory merchant or a traveller will Iny in a stock of thcs^, juf^t as 
hi Europe he would carry gold or circular notes. They ai*e commodities, being 
us4'd as ornaments by the inhabitants. But they are distributed to an extent far 
lK>yond the demand in this shape, and that they absolutely constitute money is 
shewn by this peculiarity in the case of beads, that a particular colo" will pas» car* 
rent, and another will not; so tliat the merchant who chooses tuo viTOug kiud^ 


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1 0/5 Mo-esfa 

thoogh be have fall yolne !n merchaodise, has DOt taken with him a supply of avail* 
able c^&h. 

rnder the bead of BcnjjoN, ft ia shewn how the precioas metals are an expongivo 
form of money, which there Js a temptulioii to snperwMle by puiKT-money. For tlio 
Ttrions opluions .idopte<l by difCereut cinoffes of ecouomi«tM on paper-money, nnd 
the d'Ticea* f or getting over tlie great diflicnlty of rendering tliis kind of nionoy 
•ecare, and equal In valne to bnUlon, reference is made to the article Currency. 
It uiny here be proi>er to state, that pnper-money, or money foniided on credit— one 
cf the resonrces oi advancid civilitiation and complicated commerce — introduce^* n 
chM of moucys so exteu&ivcand various, that it it) im|>088ible to mark, the Iimit>^ of 
Its cxt#Qt, or enainernte tlie shai>cs it may take. An attempt has been made to get 
rid uf all d!fflculties by saying that a promise to pay is only the representative of 
nionry. But if it serve tlie purpose of bnving or paying debt, it really is money. 
Ko one Iiesitatea in counting a X5 Bank of England note as monoy. But a cheqnc 
by a person known to have a balance or credit at a solvent bank, is equally money ; 
andilioiigh it is an order to pay, no actual bullion need ever be given for ft, for the 
payment may be in notes, or the holder may hand it over to m*^ own banker, in 
wl>09e ncconuts it will be credited to the holder, and debited against tlic banker on 
whom it is drawn. The special difficulty as to paj)er-money is, that it may bo mis- 
tflken for money when It is none, as in the case of a cheque not honored by nay- 
ment; or, that it may be of lessintriuslc value than it prolesses to be, as wlien there 
ia what Is called an over-issne (see Currbmct). There are thn8 great risks attached 
to the Rse of paper-money ; but there are also risks specially applicable to bullion- 
mioner, as light weight, base coin, and the al>sence of those fuciliiies for detection in 
theft or fraud, which are among the advanta^^es of papei^nioney. Tlie special risks 
ftttendi'jgthe nse of paper have been shewn in practice to be so capable of reme<ly 
by legislative precantionn, that at present, in Scollund, one-pound notes are taken 
with less sas]iicioo than sovereigns. On transactions in general, the chau 'e of loss 
from forgery or insolvency Ih deeme<1 less than the chances from light weight, even 
tt the risK of liase coinage should not come into coneideration. 

Making allowance for coins sent abroad or used as metal, the money of Britain fa 
cnlcniated at : gold, sevcntjr-flve millions; silver and co])i)er, thirteen millions; and 
Doiey, forty-t\>o millions— in all. one hundred and tliirtv mill'ions. But ho lar^e is 
the extent of paper-money, in the shape of drafts and bills, that of thef>e payments, 
to the extent of more than two thqn«and millions in a vear are settled at the London 
cteirinp-honscs, or the establishments where the London banks, and those dealing 
with them, clear off their mntoal obligations by paying over the balances. 

MONGE, Gaspard, Comte dcP6lusc, a French mathematician and nljyplrl-t, was 
boni of humble porculiige atBeaune, in the department of COte d'Or, 10th May, IT46. 
"When only fifteen, he went to study natural philosophy at the Oratorian College of 
L70U, and afterwards obtained admission Into the famous artilleiy school at M6zi- 
weis where be Invented the method known as *' Descriptive Oeometry," which was 
at dm received with hicrednlity, but afterwards with avidity, and, for a time, jeol- 
oualy kept secret by the mililary authorities. In 3772 M. became tutor and profes- 
sor at McxiAres; in ITSO, he was chosen a meml)er of the French Academy, and in 
the MTOc year, was called to Paris as Professor of Hydrodynamics at the Louvre. 
As a 1( cturer, lie was precise, clear, and brief ; his style was a model of scientific 
lizor, if not of literary elegance. During tlie heat of the Revolution, he became 
Minister of Marine, but after a few months resigned the office. He did not, how- 
ever, retire into obscnrity, but took charge of the great mapufactories Improvised 
lor supplying the million of soldiers whom republican France had launched apiinft 
her enemies, with arms and gunpowder. At this critical perio<l, lie shewed himself 
po*t«8sed of a genimi equ^l to the occasion. Ho was everywhere^ animating, or- 
dering, counselling, ana directing the patriotic artisans. Yet it is characteristic 
of the in«iane fanaticism that, for a time, got the npper hand In Frniico, that H. 
faim^elf only cscjiped the guillotine on account of his Bervices being absolutely In- 
di>p«nsal>le. After he had founded the Ecole J'olj/techniqiie, he was s<nt by the Di- 
>*ctory to Italy, and intrusted with the transport of the a'-tistio spoils of the repub- 
lican armitt* Here he formed a close friendship with Bonaparte, whom he followed 
to Egypt. He now undertook the management of the Egyptian Institute. During 
tlieejq>edItioii to Syria, he performed the greatest services to the government cstab- 


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Monitorial ""-^^ 

lished at Alexandria. On his retarii to France, he reBamed hla fnncUone aa Pro- 
fi^sor in the Ecole Polytechniqoe, uud, thoagh hU reverence for Napoleon coniluned 
uniibated, he hotly oppG««d liia ansttocraUc and dynastic Tiews. TUe ttile of Comte 
dtf Pelnsc (Pelnsiuin) was conferred ou lilm by Napoleon, in memory of the Egnrptiou 
expedition. Ue died 28lh Jnly 1818. M.* a principal works are: *^ Traill Elemfn- 
talro de Statlqne " (7th edit. Parlx, 1834) ; ♦* Lemons de Geom^trlo Descriptive " («th 
edit. Pitris, (1837); and ^'Application de TAnuly^e jk la (Mumdtriedes Sprfuces da I 
et du 2 DdgTb " (4Ui edit. Paris, 1800). See Dupin's '* £»sai Uisloriqae sor lea Ser- 
vices et lea Travaax Scieutiflqaes de Monge " (Paris, 1819). 

MONGHY'R, a city of India, capital of a district of the same name, is dtnated 
on tliu rielit bank of tlie Ganges, 30 miles west-uorth->vest of Bhaffulpar. It is a 
largo ana tlirivhig town, and carries on extensive mnnufuctnres of hardware and 
flrearuis, which, however, are of very inferior quality. Owing to the salnbrity of iff 
climule. it is a favorite residence of invalided military men and their families. Popi 
(1872) 5d,098. The district has an area of 3918 square miles, with a pop. of l,81S,9di| 
M. is on the line of the Ea»t Indian Railway. 

MO'NGOLS, tlie name of a nomeroos and widely spread branch of the hamat 
family^the second In the classiflcntion of BIninenbach.and cotTespondIng in almost 
every respect witli the branch designated as Turanian by more recent ethnologists. 
See TURANIANS. Uudcr tlie designation of M. arc indnded not only the Mongols 
Proper, but the Clilneso and Indo-Chinese, Tibetans, Tartars of all kinds, Burmese, 
Sinuie^, Japanese, B<<qaimaux, Samoicds, Fiinis, Lapps, I'urks, and even Magyars. 
Collectively, they arc the ureat nomadic people of the earth, as distiusuished^roin 
the Aryans, Semites, and IIumiteH; and arc the same who. In remote autlqnitv, 
founded what is called the *' Median Empire " in Lower CliMldiStt, an empire, accord- 
Intf to Rawiiuson, that flourished and fell between al)Out 8458 and 8834 B.O. ; that Is, 
lieforo Nineveh became known as a great city. Thus early did some of tiiese nomA- 
die tribes, forsaking their original ptistoral habits, assume the character of a nation. 
Another great offshoot from this stock founded an empire in China, the earliest date 
of which it is inipOHfible to trace, but which certainly had reached a state of high 
civili»ition at least SOOOveurs B.C. In early Greek history, they fltfure as Scythians, 
and in late Roman, hs Huns, corryini; terror and desolation over the civilised world. 
In the middle ages, they appear as Mongols, Tartars, and 'l^rks. In the ba^nning 
of the 18th c, Genghis-Khan (q. v.), originally tlie chief of a small Mongoiborde, 
conquered almost the whole of central and eastern Asia. His sons and grandsoua 
were equally successful, and In 1240—1241, the Mongol empire extended from tlie 
sea-hoard of China to the frontiers of Germany and Poland, Including Russia and 
Hnncary, and the whole of Asia, with the exception of Asia Minor, Arabia, India, 
and the Indo-Chinese states, and northern Siberia. This vast eniutre soon broke 
up Into a number of independent kingdoms, from one of which, Turkestan, aroee 
another tide of Mongol invasion mider the guidance of Tlintlr or Tamerlane, wbo^ 
in the latter part of the 14th c, reduced Turkestan, Persia, Hindustan, Asia MiDor, 
and Georgia, under his sway, and broke, for a time, the Turkish power. On the 
death of his son Shah Rokh, tlie Mongol empire was subdivided, and flnallv obsorbed 
by the Persians and Usbeks, but an olbhoot of Timtlr's family founded, In the Iftth 
c, the great Mogul empire of DclhL After the decline of Timor's empire, the 'nirk> 
i^h branch maintained the gloiy of the race, and spread terror to the veiy heart o< 
Western Europe. In tlie 9th «., tlie Magyars, a tribe of Ugrians, also of Mongol ex- 
traction, under tlieir leader Arpad, established themselves In Hungary, wiierc, in 
process of time, they became converted to Christianity, and founded a kingdom 
famous In European history. See I'unKs and IIunoabt. 

The physical characteristics of tlie M. in their primitive state are thns described 
by Dr Latham in ills '* Descriptive Ethnology :" *'Tiid face of the Mongolian is 
brood and flat. 1'his is because the cheek-bones stand out Uiteraliy, and tiie uaeal 
bones are depressed. The cheek-bones stand out laterallv. They are not merely 
projecting, for this they might be without giving much breadth to the face, inaamnca 

as they miglit stand forward The distance between the eyes is great, 

the eyes themselves being oblique, and their camuculfe being concealed. The eye- 
brows form a low and Imperfect arch, black and scanty. The Iris is dark, the cor- 
nea yellow. The coniplexiou' Is Uwuy, the stature low. The ears are large, ataod* 


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197 Monghrr 

**" Monitorial 

log oat from fhe bead ; th« lips thick and fleshy rather than thin, the teeth some- 
what obliqae in their Insertloo, the forehead lovr and flat, aod the hair lunk niid 
tblu." Of conrsc, sacli a description as this caonot be nuderstood as applying to 
the more ctTilised uatious of Mongol origin, snch as the Tories and Majors, eope- 
dall/ the latter, who, in physical appearance, diifcr but little, if at all, from other 
European nations. 

In religion, the M. are, for the most part, Bnddhists. There are among them, 
however, according to the different countries In wliich they reside, vurioos oilier re- 
ligious^ as Confocionlsm, Taooism, fli^e-worship, paganism of different kinds, Ho- 
liaointedanlsm. and Christianity. The Mongol langanges, which are Tery numer- 
oas,are described by Dr Latham as being '* aptotic uud ngglntinate, rarely with 
tmo amalgamate inflection.'* In 1859, acconiing to on estimate formed by Professor 
Dieterici. the M. of all kinds amoauted in number to as many as 528,000,000, or 
tboot half of the hnmau race. 

MONIMIA'CEiB, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees and 
shmbe, with opposite leaves destitute of stipules; tne bnrk and leaves having au 
aromatic fragrance. The flowers arc pniscxnaL Tlie perianth is somewhat globose, 
dinded at the border sometimes into more rows thun one. The stamens are nnnier< 
cos, and arise from and cover the whole interior ot the tube of the perianth. There 
are several ovaries, each with one ovglo. Tlie fruit consists of several acbsenin, en- 
closed within the enlarged calyx. There are about 40 known species, natives chiefly 
of South America. A few are found in New Zealand and Australia. The frnit of 
the BoLOU {Boldoafragrans\ a shrub or small tree, a native of Chili, is eaten. It is 
a little drape, about the siee of a currant, extremely fragrant when dried. 

XONTTEUR, Le, a celebrated French journal, started by the publisher, Charles 
Joseph Panckouckel 6th May 1789, under the title of the " Onzctte Rationale, ou le 
Moniteur Univoisel." After the crisis of the 10th August 1799, its importance as a 
daily register of the events which occurred during the dark days of the Kcvolution, 
immensely increased. Whoever wishes to obtain a complete view of the phenomena 
of the Beign of Terror, should consnlt Thuau-Orandville*s ** Gazette Nationaie. on 
le Moniteur Universel, commence le 6lh Mai 1789, pi-6c6d6 d'uue Introduction his- 
tori(tue contenaut nn Abr^g^ des auciens Etats-g6u6ruux, des Assemblies des Not- 
al^ea, et des principaux Evonement qui ont amen6 In Kcvolution " (1796). In 1800 
it altered its form so far as to divide itself into two halves, of wliich the first con- 
tained the ** Actes du Oouvemement." This change imparted to the jonmal some- 
thing of au oflScial character. After January 1, 1811, it dropped the title of •* Gazetl e 
Kat^ale," retaining only that of " Moniteur tJuiversel." After the Restoration it 
became the government organ, which it continued to be until 1869, when ita ofliclul 
coonection was discontinued. 

MONITOR, a name given to many species of saurian reptiles, nearly ollled to the 
\T9t lizards, from which they differ in having no teeth ou the palate. Among thorn 
are some of large size, the largest of existing saurians except tho$>e of the crocodile 
tribe. The tall of the greater number is laterally compressed, the better to adapt 
tbem to aquatic habits. They receive the name M. from a notion that they give 
^^Arnhig by a hlssios sound of the approach of a crocodile or alligator. For the 
aamereason, some of the American species receive the French name Sauvegarde. 
Those of the Old World form the family Monitoridm, and those of America the fam- 
ily TtHdm of some naturalists. There are several genera of both.— The M. or Varan 
or TBI Nile (H. HUcHeutt) is of a rather slender form, and has a long tnil. It is 
oUwrny, mottled with black. It attains a length of five or six feet. Crocodiles* 
^ZS^ form part of its food. The I'bousxin (TWus Tegwxin) of Brazil and Guiana 
la of similar size. It preys on aquatic animals. Other large species are pleutif nl in 
almost all tropical countries. They are powerful animals, have strong teeth, and 
dcfeod themselves vigorously If attacked. Some comparatively small species, feed- 
ing chiefly on insects, are found iu dry situatioDS. Some of the large South Amer- 
KU species are used for food. . 

MONITOR. See Turret-Ship. 

MONITO'RIAL system, or Mutual Instruction. It first occurred to Dr Bell 
%y-)t when superintendent of the Orphan Hospital, Madras, in 1795, to make use of 


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Monk lOQ 

Moukef iyo 

the more ndvanced boys in the school to Instrnct the younger paplls. TbcM rootfa- 
fill teachers were colled Monitorn. The method was eagerly adopted by Joseph 
Lniiciifter (q. v.) who, iu the flrsi vears of this century, did so much for the exten- 
sion of popninr educutloii ; uiid from him and the orljjlnator, the system waa 
called iiidiffereutiv the Mndrns and the Lancastrian, as well as tlie Monitorial or 
IdiUnal System. The moniloriul system Is not, as is commonly supposed, a method 
ot teaching ; it is simply a method of organising (tchools, and of providing the nece»- 
sjiry ti'nchnig i>owi'r. At a time whon the whole qnestiou of primary education was 
in its infancy, the state refusin); lo promote it on the ground that it was daueerons 
to society, and the pobllc little di>|>osed to contribute towards its extension, Tt was 
of great importance that a syt'tcm should be adopted which should recommand if!»elf 
nM at once effectual and cconomicnL It was manifest that even with the most skilful 
arnm^'cment of classes, u single teacher could not undertake the tuition of more than 
80 or 90 pupils ; while, by tlie judicious employment of the cleverer boys under tha 
generui direclioa of the muster, the school might be made almost self-working, and 
SOU to 400 children taught wiiere there was only one adult superiuteudcuL Tbo 
novelty and economy of this plan, and wo may add also, Its temporary soccesa, 
gained for it a large and enthusiastic support both in Britain and in Germany. But 
Uie importance of the system us an educational agency was universally over-rated, for 
although it is to l>e admitted tliut, under an able and euthnsiastfc mas- 
ter, boys may be inspired to teach well all technical and rote tub- 
jects. (as, for example, in the Latin and Greek classes under Dr Pilhuis of 
the Edinburgh High School), yet it Is manifest that ciiildren so instmctod aro not 
in any sense of tlie word educated. Their monitor neceasorliy lacks the maturity ot 
mind which is indispensable to the instructor, whose business it is to arouse in the 
child those mental operations which have taken place within himself, and so lead 
him to an intellig«>ut and rational grasp of inteflectnal and moral and physical 
truths. No amount of private instruction from the master, no enthusiasm could 
ever enable a iioy to do this, and consequently the system broke down, after having 
done its work by bHng ihe engine whereby a largo Interest was stirred up in the 
education of the masses, and whereby the requisites of a primary teacher were 
brought into view. The reaction against the system, however, was not so violent 
in Great Britain or in Holland and France, as in Germany. In England, the moni- 
torial svsteu) was modified in such a way us to secure for tiie master tlic aid of the 
more clever boys in teaching rote subjects, in revising lessons, keeping rwristers, 
and su|K*rvislng the work of tliose classes not diiectly umier the master's tuition. 
In this way were afforded Ihe means of training for tiie teaching profession boys 
who sei'uied fitted by natural endowment for the work. Hence the prevalent em- 
ployment ill this country of paid monitors and pupil-teachers (male ana femuh;^. who 
are regularly apprenticed to school managers and teachers, and go forward to be 
trained iu the normal schools now so numerous. 

MONK, George, Duke of Albemarle, was the son of Sir Thomas Monk of Polli- 
eridge, in Devonshire, and was bom at his father's ivsidence, 6tli Decemlier ItWS. 
He spent some of his earlier years in the service of Holland, returned to England 
wlien aliout the age of 80, and served In the king's army against the Scots in l«8»t, 
attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel. On the breaking out of the Irish rebellion. 
In IMS, lie was appointed colonel of Lord Leicester's troops, sent to crush it. Wlicii 
the civil war began, these troops were recalled, and M. was imprisoned on account 
of l>eing supposed to favor the cause of tlvj Parliament, but was soon after rclcas^-d. 
In 1644, he was defeated and taken prisoner by Fairfax, and imprisoned in the 
Tower, from which he was liberated, after two years, on his swearing theCo^enniit. 
Clarendon hints tliathcsold himself for money. He was now intnistixl with the 
command in the north of Ireland. Cromwell had a high opinion of Ids militniy 
talents, and made him liis lieutenant-general and commandant of artiileiy ; and the 
service which he rendered at the battle of Dunbar was so great, that he was in- 
trusted with the chief command in Scotland. In 1653, lie was joined with Admiral 
Blake In an expedition against the Dutch, ond with his division of the fleet, consi'st- 
iiig of 100 ships, defeated Admiral Van Troinp off Nieiiwpoort, and fouglit another 
buttle with him oft Katwijk, in whicli the victonr was doubtful, but VanTlYonip lo«t 
his life. In April 1664, Cromwell sent him lo Scotland as governor, iu wiiich difll- 
cult ofllce he conducted himself with vigor, moderation, and equity. Even the hi|(b- 


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1QQ Monk 

-*-*^^ Monkey 

£idf^ thorn immemoria] ** sanctuaries of pinuder." w GnUsot cnlls tbcm, Mere re- 
duced to order. His principal residence was DuUceitli, wliere he spent l>!s leisure 
hours In gardening, of wliicli he was very fond. When, after Cromwell's death. 
be r>Aw everything in coufusiou, and felt liis own position perilons, he croi«sea 
tlieEuflish border, Ist January 1660, with 6000 men, united his troops witli those 
irliicb Fairfax hiul collected for Charles II., and entered London unopposed, 
although as yet he kept his views profoundly t-ecret. His powers of diesiniulaiion 
■ud r^cence were immense. Everybody felt that the decision lay with •* Old 
George," as his soldiers need to call him; every party courted iiim ; be was even 
offered the protectorate; but while lie offended nobody, he declined to connect him- 
self with auT of the sectaries, and waited patiently the course of events. His own 
wish (thoojcu it did not proceed from any very high-minded motive) was to bring 
badk the Stuarts ; and betorc long, be saw that the nation in general was thoron{;hly 
vith him. On the 21st of February he called together the remaining members of 
the parliament whicli had been violently driven out twelve years before, and Charles 
II. was prei^utly recalled. M. was now made Duke of Albemarle, loaded with 
boi.ora, and intruated witli the iiighest offices in tlie state. But be soon retired from 
political affairs. In 1665, when the plague ravaged London, and every one fled that 
coald, '*Old Geoi^go," as governor of the Clfv, bravely stuck to his post, and did 
wluU he could to allay the terror and confusion. Next year, he wasemploved as 
second in command of tlie Jleet sent under the Duke of York against the Dutch ; 
and was defeated by Von Ruyter in u sea-fight off Dunkirk, but soon after gained a 
bloody victory over bim off North Foreland. He died 8d January 1670. Guizot de- 
^rib*^ him as a ** man capable of great things, though he bad no greatness of soul.*' 
nke Guizot's **Monlf( Chute de la Kepnbllquej'* Skinner's *' Life of Monk," Hailum's 
**CousiitntiouaI History," and Macaulay's •• History of Engluud." 

MONKEY fS^ta), a Llnniean genua of JlfamTno/ia, of the Llunsran order Pri-' 
notes, and of Cnvier^B order Quadrnmana, now constituting the fvi\n\\y Simiadce, 
Tbo word M. was formerly of almost, if not altogether, the same simiification with 
Apt; bat the name ape is now more generally applied to those Simi(idcB which 
have no tail, and no cheek-pouches; the name M. to those which have check- 
pooclies and long tails, prehensile or not prehensile ; wliilst the name Baboon 
(q. v.) is applied to creatures considerably different from both. The smaller tailless 
ShniadtB are, however, still not unfrequeutly Bt)oken of ob monkeys, and the term 
ia also sometimes used to comprehend all the Simiadce. 

Of all animals, the SimiVufor exhibit the greatest i-esemblance to man, both iu 
their general form and their anatomical structure. This is particularly the case 
withsome of the larger apes. In none of them, however, is there a natural adap- 
tation for the erect ]X)sit1on so cliaracteristic of man, which is assumed rarely, and 
iu general only by captive individuals, as the result of training and constraint, all 
of the M. tribe preferring to wiUk on four feet rather than on two, but all of tlicm 
bdug adapted tor liviifg chioflv among the brunches of trees, or — according to the 
habits of a comparatively sranll numl)er of species — among biishv cliffs, where they 
BQflko use of th3 four extremities for prehension, as hands. Moht of them leap 
from branch to bnmch with wonderful agility, and some also swine tiieniselves 
from a bmucb by their long prehensile tail, till they can seizo hold of another 
bmnch. llie thumb, in all tlie four extremities, is opposable to the fingers, which 
are long and flexible ; but there are some monkeys which want the thumb of tho 
fore-limlw, or have it merely rudimentary^ whilst tho hind-limbs are always 
famished with perfect hands. In attemptnig to walk erect, an ape iieces- 
•criiy Treads, not on tho soles, but on the sides of its feet, wliicli 
are turned inwards, and the muscles of the lejjs do not enable it to main- 
tain an erect position long or easily. This difRcuTty is inci-eased by the way iu 
which the bead is affixed to tho vertebral column, the occipital foraynenhQ'mg further 
bark than in man, so tli4l the wei!»ht of the head is thrown forward.— Tho face of 
aJL exiiibits a grotesque resemblance to that of man : but the lower forehead, the 
k»e perfect uoee, ond the more jirojecting jaws, give it a brutal character. The 
dentition of monkeys is so similar to that of in.m, that the dental formula for very 
Jutny hi the ssiine, altliongh many others have an additional molar on each side 
of each jaw; but in mauy, the great siise of the canine teeth is a marked brutal 
characteuatic-^Tbo dlgesi^ivo organs arc KCueroUy very Bimilur to those of man. 


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Moxuo^atb 200 

but In some of the Simiadte, more exclndiTelj confined to vegetable food, there to 
a i-cmarkable diflferencelu n peculiar and very complicated structure of the etomacU. 
—The food of liaoukeys consiBts chiefly of fruits, com, aod other vegetable sub- 
stances : but most of them oIpo catch and eat Insects, and even birds, of the eggs 
of which they ore also very fond. In captivity, they leum to esit and drink almost 
everything that is used by man, and shew a groat fondness for sweet things, and 
for alcoholic liquors.— Tiie skin of monkeys is generally covered in all purls wttU 
hair, but some have the fuce partially naked, nnd many have unked calfoeities on 
the buttocks.— Many have capacious cheek-pouches, in which they slow away food 
which they cannot consume with sufflcieut expedition. They are mostly grega- 
rious, although to this there are some exceptions. Many of the species display strong 
atbiclimunts to their mates and to their offspring. One or two young are generally 
produced at a birth. They display a remarkable propensity and talent for imita- 
tion ; and this, with their extreme agility, their curious prying disposition, and 
their love of trick or mischief, makes thom verr amusing, whether in a wild or a 
captive stale. Many of the stories told of monkeys manifest also a high degree of 
intelligence, although it may be doubted if the intelligence of any of the species 
exceeds that of the dog or the elephant Notwithstanding their resemblance lo tlio 
human form, their imitative propcnsitv, and their intelligence, none of the mon- 
keys shew the smallest capacity for imitating the human voice; and their ** chat- 
tering" is very unlike articulate speech. 

The species of this family are very numerous, but are all confined to the warm 
parts of the world ; Australia, however, and the South Sea Islands being destitute of 
them. They are divided into a number of genera, some of whidi belong cxclusivol]% 
to particular portions of the world. But Tn this respect, the most remarkable cir- 
cumstance is tiie difference l)ctween those of the Old World and those of America, 
the geographical distribution corresponding with the division of the family into two 
principal groups— the monketfi of the Old World {CcUarrkini of some naturalists), to 
which alone the name Simiada is sometimes restricted, having the nostrils separated 
only by a narrow septum jind the tail wanting, short, or long, but never prehensile : 
the monkeys of the Mew World (PUUyrrhini), the family Celrtdai of some uatnraUsts, 
Iiaving the nostrils widely separated, the tail always long, and often prehensile, most 
of them having also the four additional molar teeth already noticed, which none of 
the monkeys of the Old World possess ; bnt none of them having cheek-ponchet>, 
which many of the monkeys of the Old World have, llie most interesting geuem 
and species of M. are noticed in separate articles. 

MONBLEV POTS. See Leotthidacka 

MONK'S-HOOD. See Aconite. 


MO'NMOUTH, a parliamentary an* municipal borongh and market-town of Eng- 
land, capital of the county of the same name, stands, amid beautiful scenery, at the 
confluence of the Monnow and the Wye, 21 miles west-south-west of Gloucester. 
It's church, dating from the 14th c, is surmounted by a lofty spire. Of its castle, 
the favorite residence of John of Gaunt, and the birthplace of Henry V., the mins 
only remain. A building, said to be the study of Geoffry of Monmouth, is all that 

her 10 parliament. 

MONMOUTH, a maritime county in the west of England, bounded on the p. by 
the estuary of the Severn, on the w. by Ghimorgan, and on the e. byOloncester»hire. 
Area, M8.899 acres. Pop. (tSTl) 195,443. The chief rivers are the Usk, the Wye on 
the eastern border, and the Rumney on the western borde»-alI of which flow soath 
into the estuary of the Severn. The coast-line, «2 miles iu length, is indented only 
at the mouth of the Usk (which is navigable for vessels of the largest size to New^ 
port), and at the mouth of the Wye, which vessels ascend to Chepstow. The sur- 
face is elevated in the north and north-west (the Sugar-loaf is 18M feet high), bot 
the coast districts, comprising the WenUoog and the Caldecot Levels, ar« tow and 
rich, and are protected from the wash of the sea by sea-walls and earthworks. In 




OAl Monkey 

^^^ MomnoDth 

the fertile ralleys of the tTok and Wye. wheat Is the principal crop ; but In tlie lc«i 
fsTored locAliticff, baiiev and cato chiefly are grown. Coal, limeslouc, and ironslono 
aboQnd In the miuernl dtotrict of M., in the north-west of the count v. This district, 
coinprijthiff 89,000 acres, abomidsln collieries and ironworks, and la a perfect not- 
work of railways. M. was a Welsh county until the rolfni of Ileury VIII., bat the 
aiici*nt langnagc is now hc«rd only in a few western districts. The pceuery of thi« 
conDtj Is niinsnallT beaut ifnl ; and in uo part of England are 1o be found so many 
remains of fendHl castles as in the cnstem districts of this county. The chief 
remains are Uaelau, Caldecot. and Chepstow castles; and Llantbony and IMntcni 
abU7i(q. t). Koman antiquities are numerous. The county sends two members 
to pariifiinnut. * 

MONMOUTH, James, Dnke of. natural son of Charles IT., was bom at Rottci^ 
dam in 1649. Hla mother, Lucy Walters, according to Evelyn, a "brownc, l>eauti- 
ial, bolde, but insipid creature," came to England with her son in 1C5C, during the 
Commonwealth. She is said to have been treated as though she had been the king's 
wife, and was committed to the Tower ; but was soon allowed to retire to France, 
where she died. Charles souglit out the boy, and committed him to the care of 
Lord Croft^ who gave him his own name. On the Restoration, M., then '*Mr 
James Crotts," came to Engkind with the queeu-dowager, and was handsomely 
lodged at Hampton Court and Whitehall. These honors were, in after-years, re- 
ferred to by Ilia foltowers as justifying their belief that he was indeed the king's 
legitimate son. A wealthy lielress, Anno, daughter of the Earl of Bnccleuch, was 
■dected iar his wife ; and oefore he liad completed his 16th year, he was married to 
1^, and was created Duke of Monmouth. About the year 1«70, Shaftesbury put M. 
forward as the head of the popular party, and rival of the Duke of York (ufterwardn 
James 11.). At the period of the Titns Dates' plot (1678), rumors that the ** Protest- 
ant Dake ^ was indeed the kine's legitlnuite son spread far and wide; The Dnke of 
York was comi>cUe<l to quit the khigdom ; and parliament brought forward a bill 
for excluding him from the succession, when Charles suddenly dist^olved it A doc- 
oment was at the time issued by the king, solemnly declaring that he had never be<!n 
Burricd to Lacy Walters. M. was sentTnto Scotland, in 16T9, to quell the rebellion. 
Be defeated ttie Covenanters at Boihwell Bridge; but his humanity to the fleeing 
and wounded was so conspicuous, and his recummeudations to pardon the prison- 
e(* were so nrgcDt, as to bring upon hiiii the violent censures of tlie king and Laud- 
erdale. He thus became the idol of the English Nou conformists. The return of 
the Dnke of York, and the exile of M., soon followed. In Holland, he allied him- 
self to ttie leaders of the Noncouformiat paity, exiled like himself ; and when he was 
snowed to return to London, he was received with snch demonstrations of joy, tliat 
M. felt that lie was the people's choice. In 1680, he made a semi-royal progress 
tbroiwh the west of Englana, with tlie design, probably, of couriing the i^oncon- 
furmlsts, who were more immerous there than in any other part of the country, ex- 
cept London and Essex. In 1682, he traversed some ottho northern conutios. 

The king and his brother were alarmed ; and M. was arrested at Stafford^nd bound 
over to keep the peace. He meanly confessed his participation in the Kye-Honse 
plot, accosiug himself and others of a design to seise the king's person, and subvert 
iiis govemnieut. The king pardoned him, on his solemn promise to be a loyal sn)>- 
ject to the DuJce of York, in case the latter should survive the king. In 1684, M. fled 
to Antwerp, and remained abroad until ttie death of the king, when he resolved to 
embark for England. He landed (Jimo 11,' 1686) at Lyme-Kegls, and issned a mani- 
festo declaring James to be a murderer and usurper, charging him with introducing 
popery snd arbitrary power, and asserting his own legitimacy and right by bloo<i to 
be luDg of England. He was received with great acclamations at Tannton, when) 
he was proclaimed as James IL At Froroe, he heard the news of the defeat of 
Argy!e, who, at the head of the Scottish exiles, had attempted to raise an insunec- 
tkni in Scotland. Money and men were now abundant; out arms were wanting, 
and thousands went home for want of them. On the 5tli July, he was persuaded. 
With only 9600 foot and 600 horse, to attack the king's forces, which, under the com- 
Bumd of the Earl of Fnvershuui, were encamped at Sedgemoor, near Bridgewater. 
M.^ troops were unable to cross a running stream or wide ditch which protected tiic 
camp, aiul were mowed down by the king's artillery. Their ammunition soon 
£iiledf; aud M. baviog set a cowardly example of flight, his troops were slaughtered 


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like slieep. About 300 of M.'b followers fell fn the battle ; bnt 1000 were massacred 
in tiic pursuit. M. was fonud concealed in a ditch, and was bronght to London. He 
made the most hunillintiu^ Bubmiesioos, and obtained u personal interview with 
James. ** Ue cliii!C," says Macaulay, *' in agooieft of eupplicalione round llie kueet 
of the atem uncle he had wrou^'cd. nnd tost^ a bittemehs worse than that of death, 
the bitterness of knowin^r that ne bad humbled himself in vatn." Even his prayer 
for ♦•one day more," that he might "go out of the world as a Christian oncht," was 
brutally refused. On the 15tb (Mine, he was bron<!ht to the scaffold, and beheaded 
on Tower llill ; the executioner performing his office so unskilfully that five blows 
were struck before the head was severed. The •* Bloody Assize " afterwards com- 
mt'uzed under Judge Jeffreys, when M.'s adherents ]mid a fearf uhpeually ior tbelr 
participation in his rash and ill-advised rebellion. 

MO'NOCUORD, an apparatus constructed to exhibit the mathematical propor- 
tions of nnisical intervals. It consists of aflat board of four or eight feet long, 
better 16 feet, where space can be spared. Tlio breadth of the board is accordini^ 
to the number of the strings, which are from two to six. Tlie board is covered with 
fine white paper. A straight line is drawn from end to end below each string, and 
each line is accurately divided into tiie different propoitlons into which the full 
length of the string, as a fuudamental sound, harnionically divides itself. See 
Habmomios. The string is fixed at one end, and rests on a bridj^e; while at the 
other end, where it also rests on a bridge, it is stretched by a tnnuig-pes, or by * 
weight. The sounds from the atringi arc produced by a viuiin-bow. 'I'he mono* 
chord is chiefly used in illustrating acoustical experimeuta iu the proportlou of 
intervals and temperament. 

MONOCOTYLE'DONOUS PLANTS, plants in which the embryo has one and 
only one Cotyledon (q. v.). The cotyledon In these plants varies cxt:emely ia 
form, and is often comnaratiTcly of great size, but has always a slit, from which, 
OS germination takes place, the gemmule sprouts. The gemmule in elongating 
assumes on acuminated shape. Monocotyledon ous plants are all Endogenous (q. v); 
except the Dictyogens (q. v.). in which the endogenous structure is not perfectly 
exhibited. Ther are also endorkizal (Gr. endorij within, rhiza^ a root) ; that is. the 
radicle Is covered with a cellular sheath, and gives rise to fibrils similar to itself in 
structure. The leaves are generally sheathing at the base, and there embrace the 
stem ; tbev also generally have simple parallel nerves connected by cross veins, the 
leaves of dictyogens alone l>e!ng reticulated. The number of the parts of the flower 
Is generally three, or a multiple of three. The floral envelopes, oftbn splendid, as 
\n lilies, tulius, &c— nro generally united as a Perianth (q. v.), instead of 
forming a distinct calyx and corolla. The principal nntnral orders of monocoty- 
VHlonoiis plants are Orasses, Cj/peraeem^ Palms, Orchids, Scitaminecey Musaee^B, 
fjihaeetr^ and Iridacetr. The general appearance of inonocotyleUouous plants dia- 
liugnislies them almost as penectiy as any structHnd characters. 

Of (he fossil remains of the vegetable kingdom, the smallest portion consists ctf 
monocotyle<lonous plants, bothacotyledonousand dicotyledonous plants being much 
more abundant. 

MO'NODON. See Narwhal. 

MON(£ CIOUS (Gr. monoSy one, and oikion^ a habitation), the term used in bet* 
any to describe those plants which have the male and fennile parts of fructification 
(stamens and piatiia) in different flowers, bnt npon the same plant. The flowers of 
such plants are also said to be vumtycious. Monoecious plants torm one of the classes 
of the Linnsan artificial system, but many occasional insmnces of monoecious species 
are to l)e found in ^iiera belonging to other classes. Monoecious plants often have 
the fiowers in catkins, sometimes the m.nle fiowers only ; and often in spike**, the 
inalf. flowers sometimes occupying the upper, and sometimes the under part or the 
same spike with the female flowers, and sometimes distinct spikes n(ioii the SAme 
plant. Common examples of monoecious plants are the hop, box, birch, beech, alder, 
oak, and hazeL 

MO'NOQRAM (Or. tnoiws, alone, and flrraTnwio, letter), a character composed of 
two or more letters of the alphabet, often interlaced with other lines, and used ns a 
cipher or abbreviation of a name. A perfect monogram is oue iu which all tlie letters 


by Google 


90^ Monoohord 

^^^ Monoman a 

of the word are to be traced. The U8e of monograms began at a very cnrly date. 
Iliey arc found on Greek coins, medals and scaln, und arc purticnlurly unmerons on 
the coins of Macedoniti and Sicily. Both on coins and in aISS., It was the practice 
to reprrwMit the names of states and cities by monograms, of whicli above 500 are 
known, bnt some have not been deciphered. Monogmma occur on tlie family coins 
of Rome, but not on the coins of the earlier Roman emperors. Coupt^ntine placed 
00 bis coins one of the earliest of Christian monogram?, which is to be traced \tj^ 
the recesses of the catacombs, composed of the first and second letters of XPzc^ro^ 
(ChrifttD^), a monogram wbicli alt>o appeared on the Laburum (q. v.), and was con- 
tinned on the coins of the sncceeding emperors of the East down to Alexander Coui- 
Denns and Tlieodoms Lascaris. ^Ve often find it combined with the first tiLd hist 
letters of the Greek alphabet (Rev. i. 8). Another well known jnonogram is tiiat of 
tbe name of Jesos, IHS^from the first three letters of IH^ of ?. 

Popec, emperons and kings of Franco daring the middle ages were in tbe prac- 
tice of using a monogram instead of signing their names. Almost all the coins of 
the French kingi* of tlie Curlovingiau race bear their resoective monograms, as also 
do those of Alfred and some of the other Saxon kings of England. 

Painters and engravers in Germany and Italy have used monograms to a lairge 
ezteat as a meftus of difttingnishing their works. In these, the initial letters of their 
uaines were often interwoven with figures of a symbolical character, so as to form a 
relnis, on tbe artist's name. The first typographers dfstingnisbed their publications 
by wood-cut v:ruettes, whose invention is at^cribed to the eldci* Aldus ; bnt besides 
these, eadi made ase of a monogram or cipher, a scries of whicli, well known to th« 
bibliographer, fixes the identity of the ancient editions, German, Italian, and Eng- 
Kah, from the invention of printing down to the middle or end of the 16tli century. 
For a detailed account of the monograms of early printers and others, see Brulliot, 
"Di^tiounairedes Monogrammes" (Munich, 183^1834); Home's "Introduction 
to Bibliography," voL ii.) ; and Herbert's and Ames's *• Typographical Antiquiiiet." 

MO'NOGRAPH, a work in which a particular subject in any science is treated 
by itself, and forms the whole subject ot the work. Monograi»h8 are entirely of re- 
cent date, and have contributed much to the progress of science. In bot^iny espe- 
ciiOy, monoigniphs of orders and genera are very numerous ; and some of tiiem 
are among th« inofft splendid and sumptuous of scientific works. 

MCNOLITH, a monument, column, obelisk, statue, or other strncture formed 
of a single stooe. In India, there are examples of monolithic temples, the whole 
being cut out of the solid rock. 

MONOMArSIA has loosely been made to represent every form of partial insan- 
ity; but lias been more rigidly defined as that mentiil condition hi which a single 
faculty, or cla»s of faculties or associations, become diseased, the mind generally 
remillttng healthy. Slight and solitary aberrations, such as where a savage autli>a- 
thy to Cat* coexista with a love for human kind ; where there appears to be an in- 
cuutroUable teodeucy to steal, to squander, to drink, to destroy, are of common oc- 
currence, and are supposed to be compatible with the exercise of intelligence, and 
«itb thediocbargc oi many of the ordinary duties of life. Bv n more stnct limiia- 
tjon, tbe term has been confined to such affections as involve tbe emotions and 
propensities alone. It is, however, held that, uotwith&tanding its apparent integ- 
rliy, the whole mind is involved or iufiirenced by the prepcnce of such morbid con- 
illtiou?, at least while they are predominant. It is undoubtedly difficult to point 
wit in what manner the t)elief, e. g., that a particular organ has been trnnsmntud 
UitoghtAS, can Interfere with or render the memory, or the power of instituting 
comparisons, defective and unlrnstworthy ; yet it is legitimate to receive with cau- 
tion etery manifestation of powers so constituted that they full to detect the incon- 
gruities and absurdities with which they are af^sociated ; or, having detected the 
rod character of these errors, are unable or unwilling to cast them out, or 
to disregard them. There is much countenance given to thin theory 
by fact# wblcb* indicate that even trivial forms of mental obliquity are 
connected with an unsound organi£>ation ; and that particular and rarely recognised 
OMmomanlas are invariably as.*«ociated with the same structural alteration. Tlie un- 
healthy elevation of the fteiiiinent of cautiousness', for example, especially where it 
amoumB to fear of death, panic, or panphobia, is a symptom of disease or the heart 


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Monongahela 9 Hi. 

and lar}^ Mood- vessels; while the moDonuroia of ambltioi], or optiintsin, as it hM 
b'ten siyled, is the coiicomitaut of the geueral paralyab of the iusaue. It will be 
obvious, from tlie deflnitious previously iutrodoced, that the species or varieties of 
monoinaiiiti mast correspoud to the fncultles or phases of the nnraan mlDd, aud to 
their combinations. Several great divisions, however, have been signalised, both on 
^account of their frequency and of their influence upon the individual aud upon so- 
ciety. 1. Monomania of Suspicion, comprehending doubts in the fidelity aud honesty 
of friends and tho*>e around, belief in plots and conspiracies, the dread of poison ; 
and where, as is often the case, it is conjoined with cunning, the propensity to con- 
cenl. mystify, and deceive. Tliis maludy has frequently been observed in intimate 
connection with cancer and malignant growths. 2. Monomania of Superstition and 
Unseen Agencies, where credulity, mingled with religious awe, peoples the external 
world with spectres, omens, mysteries, magnetism ; and tlie imagination \>-ith hor- 
rors or ecstatic reveries. Insensibility to pain, or indiflference to external injuries, 
has been observed as a characteristic of individuals affected with this disease. 8. 
Monomania of Vanity, or Euphoria, where display and ostentation are induleed, 
without reference to the position and means of the patient 4. Monomania of Fear. 
5. Monomania of Pride and Ambition. 6. Kleptomania (q. v.). 7. Dipsomania 
(q. v.). If it can be proved that such morbid tendencies, as have been here mentionecL 
and others still less prominent, are merely salient points of a great breadth and 
Icpth of mental disease, the plea of insanity may justifiably be employed mors 


Bnyle, *• Maladies da Cerveau;" Stephens's »» Criminal Law of BngUind," p. W. 

MONONGAHE'LA, a river which rises in the Alleghany Monntnins in Vli^nia, 
Unltetl States of America, and flowing north into Pennsylvania, unites with the Al- 
legiitmy at Pittsburg to form the Ohio. Its whole length is 800 miles. It is navi- 
gHl)le for steam-lK)ats to Brownsville, 00 miles, with dams and locks for low water. 
Vast seams of coal open in its high banks, from which flat boats are loaded, aud 
flouted down with the current through the Ohio and Mississippi. 

MONOPE'TR AL, a temple formed of an open circle of columns carrying a roof, 
and without a celL 

MONO'PHYSITES, the name given to a widely ramified sect of Christians who 
hold that Christ hns only one nature (Or. monos, one ; physU^ natnre), a human 
nature become divine. Monophyslte views were first decidedly put forward in the 
controversy against Nestorius. Cyril having expressed the opinion that the flesh of 
the Logos was essential to his personality, the archimandrite Entyches (q. v.) went 
on to assert a deiflcntion or apotheosis of the flesh of Christ, and obtained tlie con- 
sent of a synod at Ephesus, in 449, commonly called the ** Synod of Robbers," to 
this doctrine ; but he and his adherents (at flrst called after him ButtchiariO were 
condemned as heretics by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. It was after this eOuncIl 
that the name Mtmophyaites began to be used. The decision of the coaucil, how- 
ever—viz., that in Christ turn natures, neither interfused, changed, nor divided, were 
united in (m« person, and constituted one hypostasis— wns not calculated to allay, 
but rather to increase discord. Accordlnglv. the strife grew hotter. The AsiaUc 
and Egyptian clergy, strongly opposed to westorian ism, were generally Inclined to 
Monophysite views, and received countenance from tlie Emperor BaslUscus. After 
long, and often bloody contests between the supporters of the opposite opinions, the 
M. formally Beparat«d from the orthodox chnrcii. This separation took place in the 
first half of the 6th c, when the imperial protection hitherto bestowed npon them 
was lost by the alliance of the emperors Justin and Justinian with the Latin 
Church. Besides, they had not maintain^ unity among themselves. Aa 
early as 4S2, when the Emperor Zeno published his famous •* Henotlcon." 
or formula of concord, it was accepted by several of the more moo- 
erate Monophysltes. This roused the indignation of the cxtremer sec- 
taries; they renounced fellowship wlih their laxer brethren, and. formed a sect of 
their own. They were called AkephdUn^ and formed the uWriM among the Mono- 
physites. Controversies arose also in 519 on the question, whether or not the body 
of Christ was corruptible. The Severians— adherents of Sevenis, a deposed bishop 
of Antioch^afilrmed that it was : the Jnlianists, or Gajanites, followers of Bishop 
Jolianus or Gajanus, denied it. The former were consequently called (Gr.) Phthar 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


^^^ Monopoly 

tobttri/iis, (Lat.) CorruptieoleB (Wonbfppera of the corrupt) : the latter, Aphtkarto- 
doeetm (Believers or Teacbeni of Tucormptioii), nnd eometiroes — as au incorruptible 
bodj coa'd only be apparent* and not reai—PharUaHcufU. The Aphtfiartodocetee split 
az»lu ou this other point^whether or not Christ's body was created : the Aktitttvtoi 
<6r. ktiza, to create) assorting that It was not creuted, and the KtUMatrisU^ that it 
was. The Scveriaiis, called also, after one of their biMhops, Theodosiaru, finally got 
the upper haud, and excommnuicated their opponents, iuclading another sect, the 
AgitoeUd^ who denied ttiat Christ as a man was omnittcieut Ahoat 660, the Mouo- 
physite Asknsnages, snd after htm the Christian nbile»onher Philoponus, ventured 
to spesk of tlie Three Persons in the Godhead as Tiiree Gods. This, however, was 
reckoned heretical even by tlie M. themselves, nnd was tlie occasion of a large recoi^ 
•ion toibe bosom of the Catholic Chnrch. Monophypite commnnitien contJnued 
•troDge^t in Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia, where they maintained a regular eccle- 
•iasiical order under llieir own jpatriarclis of Alexandria and Antloch ; and after llie 
Syrian, Jak<tb Baradienus (Al-Baradai, died about 578), had drawn up for them an 
ecclesiastical coustitntion, they formed the 'independent churches of Wxe JaeobiU* 
(q, V.) and Armenian*. See Armekian Chubch. The Coptic and Abyssinian 
churches are also Monophysitc in doctrine. 

MONO'POLT, a town of Southern Italy In the*province of Barl, pltuated on the 
Adriatic shore, in a pleasant and healthy plaiii, 88 miles cast-couth-east of Bari. 
Pop. about tO,000. It is supposed to be of Grecian origin, the name in Greek 
signifying the solitary city. It is snrrounded by walls, and has a fortress conatnicted 
In 1668 by Charles VT liie neighboring territory yields an Immcuee quantity of 
ohve oil. 

IfONOTOLT, from the Qroek, signifies sole selling or individual selling, and 
lias always been used to express a limitation to one or more tiersons of the right or 
power to conduct business as a trader. It is ^ncrally used in a bad sense to ex- 
press something Injurious, but economic science has lately very much narrowed 
the field over which its injurious character is supposed to extend. In the first 
place, it must he created by force: if it come in the natural course of trade, it is 
generailv beneficial. Thus, to a village where three or four traders have conducted 
a small faxy business, drawing lai-ge profits, there comes a capitalist, wlio sets up 
a large concern on the ready-money system, and, by selling good articles at a low 
rate, absorbs all tlie business. He is of course abused as a monopolist by the in- 
effective persons be has superseded ; but bis presence is a blessing to the community 
geuerally. If, however, he had gone to the village, not to compete with others, but 
with a royal patent In bis pocket securing to him the exclusive trade of the village. 
as he conid sell at his own price, and make a fortune without trouble, he would of 
course be, like the old royal monopolists, a calamity to the people. 

A careful distinction must be preserved between monopoly and property— that Is 
to say. an exclusive right to trade must be separated from an cxclu^ive right \opc^ 
Mas— for, while the law of property exists, possession will always bo exclusive. If, 
then, a trade can only be conducted with large capital, it must fall to those wiio 
eitberidngly, or by co-operation, can command that capital; and the answer to ail 
comulaiDU on the part of others is, that since capitalists can best serve the public, 
it is nest for the public that capitalists should be allowed to do so. The olu corn- 
laws and hioded property conjoined to produce one of the best illnstratious of the 
dtstinr4iou. The power of producing grain witliin Britain has always been of neces- 
sity limited to those who have, either as owners or tenants, the command of the 
' Isitd. Forfeit all the land in the country to-morrow, and proclaim the production 
of grain to he free, the result would only l>e a change of ownership; for those wlio 
l»y their good-luck, or more probably by tlieir power, got hold of rich old wlicnt- 
lands, would produce their grahi much cneaper than those who got the poor lands, 
and. selling the produce at the same price, would pocket the difference, which 
would, in tact, just be rent gained by them as the new landloi-ds. tint when dealers 
offerea the people grain from abroad, and the corn-laws rendered It impossible to 
sell that grain in this counti^, then there was a monopoly in favor of the home- 
producer, having the effect of artificially raising prices, and otherwise disturbing 

A deal of legislation was wasted by our ancestors in enactments to prohibit peo- 


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Monro ^^^ 

pie from creating mouopollesbv that fair compctinon which Is now considered the 
trne healthy development of trade. Some account of them and of their repeal will 
l>e found In Uie article EMOBOsstNO. When British trade was Incr