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Full text of "Changing the beat : a study of the worklife of jazz musicians"

A Study of the Worklife of Jazz Musicians 



by the Research Center for Arts and Culture under a cooperative agreement 
with the National Endowment for the Arts and the San Francisco Study Center 




... 






Volume II: 



NEA Research Division Report #43 
American Federation of Musicians: Survey Results 



NATIONAL 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/changingbeatstud02jeff 



Changing the Beat 

A Study of the Worklife of Jazz Musicians 



VOLUME II: 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF MUSICIANS: 

SURVEY RESULTS 



A Study by Joan Jeff ri 



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NATIONAL 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS 



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NEA Research Division Report #43 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE 




SPONSORS AND FUNDERS 


Dr. Billy Taylor, Chairman 


The National Endowment for the Arts 






The David and Lucile Packard Foundation 


David Baker 


Alvin Batiste 


The Grammy Foundation 


Jessie Bermudez 


Tom Carter 


American Federation of Musicians 


Geraldine DeHass 


Jon Faddis 


American Federation of Musicians Local 802 


Delfayeo Marsalis 


Dan Morgenstern 


New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation 


Jimmy Owens 


Patrice Rushen 


The Nathan Cummings Foundation 



Project Director: 

Joan Jeffri, Director, Research Center for Arts and Culture 
Teachers College Columbia University 

Consultants: 

Dr. Douglas Heckathorn, Cornell University 
Dr. Robert Greenblatt 

Project coordinators: 
Adina Williams 
Phillip Harvey 

Project researchers: 

Judith Hellman 
Janine Okmin 

Data consultants: 

Oscar Torres 
Judith Rosenstein 

City Coordinators: 

Detroit 

Dr. Bernard Brock 

Dr. David Magidson 

Center for the Study of Art and Public Policy 

Wayne State University 

New Orleans 

Philip Dobard, Director 

Graduate Program in Arts Administration 

University of New Orleans 

New York 

Dr. Martin Mueller, Director 

Jazz and Contemporary Music Program 

New School University 

San Francisco 

Dr. Dee Spencer, Director of Education 

SF Jazz Organization 

San Francisco State University 



Library of Congress info here from Executive Summary 

Cover: Copyright of Photo 



11 



Table of Contents 



Introduction 1 

Purpose 1 

Findings 2 

Survey Background and Method 2 

Organization of Report 3 

Chapter I. Demographics 4 

Chapter II. Employment and Income 6 

Chapter III. Other Issues 14 

Chapter IV. Summary and Conclusions 32 

Appendices 

A. Metropolitan Areas Used in the Study 34 

B. Metropolitan Areas Context 35 

C. Distribution of Responses 43 

D. Survey Advance Letter 80 

E. Response by Metro Area 81 

F. Using the Capture- Recapture Method to Estimate 

the Number of Jazz Musicians 82 

G. Resource Directory 84 



in 



IV 



Introduction 



Purpose 

Deemed a national treasure by the United States 
Congress, jazz is a unique American art form, and its 
musicians, the keepers and producers of this 
treasure, are recognized the world over as America's 
cultural ambassadors. Yet, artists who make a living 
as jazz musicians face numerous challenges. Despite 
high-profile projects and activities, such as Jazz at 
Lincoln Center's Essentially Ellington high school 
band competition, the Monterey and other jazz 
festivals, or the Jazz documentary by Ken Burns, jazz 
music does not reach as vast an audience as other 
music forms, making it challenging to maintain and 
continue this treasure. 

Recognizing the importance of jazz and its 
artists, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) 
in 2000 commissioned a study of jazz musicians in 
four U.S. metropolitan areas — Detroit, New Orleans, 
New York, and San Francisco. The statistical 
information gathered in the study, will be used to 
help devise strategic ways to further the work of jazz 
artists. These four cities were chosen for their 
geographic diversity and their historical and current 
relationships with jazz. The NEA had two purposes: 

• To understand the environment for jazz in 
each of the study cities by documenting both 
the jazz artists and their resources and 
support systems. 

• To develop a detailed needs assessment from 
jazz artists themselves by collecting data 
documenting their professional lives and 
most pressing needs. 

This study provided an opportunity to examine 
the working lives of jazz musicians in a systematic 
way and to produce quantitative and qualitative 
information about the jazz community, the 
professional lives of jazz musicians, and jazz's place 
in the music industry. 

Jazz musician and educator Dr. Billy Taylor 
formed and chaired an advisory board to guide the 
project as it developed. The study also created a 
focus group of artists, managers, and educators, and 
numerous jazz practitioners generously gave their 
time to help advise this project. The study was 
conducted in two parts: a survey of musicians 
belonging to the American Federation of Musicians 



(AFM) and a Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) 
survey of jazz musicians. This volume focuses on the 
AFM survey of jazz musicians in four cities. The 
results of the RDS survey can be found in Volume 
III. Both it and the Executive Summary, Volume I, 
include results from three cities — New Orleans, New 
York and San Francisco. 

This study aims to support the continuing growth 
and development of jazz and the musicians who create 
it. Jazz musicians as a group, however, do not 
constitute an easy subject for formal study. Indeed, for 
decades it has been difficult simply to define the word 
"jazz" itself. "It cannot safely be categorized as folk, 
popular or art music," states the New Grove Dictionary 
of Jazz, "though it shares aspects of all three." This 
study relied on the musicians themselves to indicate 
that they played jazz music. 

To study jazz musicians, it is important to 
understand the idiosyncratic nature of the music. As 
A.B. Spellman indicated in his introduction to the 
NEA publication, American Jazz Masters Fellowships 
1982-2002, jazz was "built on the discipline of 
collective improvisation... which allowed for 
maximum expression of the individual within the 
context of the group." The group, however, is often 
an ever-changing one. Unlike classical music, with 
orchestral members staying together for decades, or 
even rock, where more often than not musicians 
make their music as a group, jazz musicians often 
look for jams or gigs as individuals rather than as 
part of a group. Indeed, a jazz group like the 
Modern Jazz Quartet is remarkable for its longevity 
as much as its music. 

Working as an individual musician can be more 
trying financially, in many ways, than working as a 
group. This seems especially true in a musical form 
that, while critically acclaimed as a national treasure, 
does not sell many tickets or CDs. In fact, jazz 
accounts for only four percent of annual recording 
sales in the United States. It can be even more 
difficult for emerging jazz artists to make a living 
with their music; reissues of classic jazz recordings 
have consistently outsold all but the most popular 
contemporary jazz artists. Even that amount is 
somewhat inflated by the inclusion of pop artists in 
the jazz category. 



Institutional support for jazz exists but is small. 
A few state and regional arts agencies and some 
nonprofit foundations offer grants to individual 
musicians, but often at low amounts; in this study, 
of the musicians who received grants, more than 90 
percent received $5,000 or less. The Lila Wallace- 
Readers Digest Fund and the Doris Duke Charitable 
Foundation have shored up institutions and 
endowments of jazz presenters, created networks in 
the jazz community, and provided venues for jazz 
performance. The National Endowment for the Arts 
has assisted these organizations with some of their 
programs — such as the joint program with the Doris 
Duke Charitable Foundation called JazzNet, which 
furthers jazz creation, presentation, and education 
with 14 regional jazz presenters. This program 
ended in 1996, when Congress prohibited awarding 
direct grants to individual artists, except for creative 
writing and honorary awards in the folk and 
traditional arts and jazz. The honorary award in 
jazz, the American Jazz Masters Fellowship, 
specifically sponsors jazz musicians who are 
established and have achieved mastery of their art. 
Emerging artists have little access to such support. 

The data obtained through this study are crucial 
to a better understanding of the environment in 



which jazz musicians operate. By presenting a clearer 
picture of the working life of the jazz artist, this 
study will help the NEA develop and fund programs 
that address the concerns and challenges jazz 
musicians face in creating and playing their music. 

Survey Background and Method 

In an occupational sense, jazz musicians are 
difficult to identify. While national-based surveys 
such as the Current Population Survey, conducted 
by the U.S. Census Bureau, are used to estimate the 
labor force by occupation, the occupation categories 
are not detailed enough to distinguish jazz 
musicians from the larger classification of arts, 
design, entertainment, and media occupations, or 
even from the more specific category of musicians 
and composers. In addition, the national-based 
surveys do not cover detailed questions or subjects 
germane to the study of jazz musicians. 

Given these shortcomings, the National 
Endowment for the Arts and the Research Center for 
Arts and Culture partnered with the American 
Federation of Musicians, AFM Local 802, the David 
and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Grammy 
Foundation, the American Federation of Musicians, 
the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation, and 



Findings 

-> The top instruments played by jazz musicians are piano/keyboard, trumpet and drums. 

-* 58.4 percent of the respondents earned their major income as musicians in the last 12 months and 

53 percent earned all their income from their music. On average, 43.9 percent of this income came 

from work as a jazz musician. For Detroit, only 35.3 percent came from jazz work and in New 

Orleans, 57 percent. 
-> 36.3 percent have a college degree and another 28.7 percent have a graduate degree. 
-* 64.7 percent think they should be paid for people downloading their music on the Internet. 
-> 74.9 percent received music-related training in the city or region where they now reside. This is 

highest in Detroit (80.3 percent). 
-> 89 percent have health coverage; this is highest in Detroit at 92.1 percent. Only 18 percent obtained 

it from the musicians union, only 7.8 percent in Detroit. 
-> 63.1 percent have life insurance, a high of 80.3 percent in Detroit and a low of 52.3 percent in San 

Francisco. 
-> 77.3 percent have a retirement plan; 82.3 percent of San Francisco musicians have such a plan. 
-* 61.0 percent earned $40,000 or less as a musician in 2001. 7 percent earned over $100,000. 
-> 31.7 percent played over sixteen jobs a month and 40.7 percent play with more than four different 

groups. 
-> 84.1 percent are male; 71.9 percent are white. 



the Nathan Cummings Foundation to study and 
report findings on jazz musicians. Since a national- 
based survey was beyond the means of the NEA and 
its partners, the study was restricted to four 
metropolitan areas 1 : Detroit, New Orleans, New York 
and San Francisco. 

We selected a random sample of approximately 
15 percent of the membership of each local of the 
American Federation of Musicians in each of the 
metropolitan areas under study. Since the union 
does not distinguish between jazz and non-jazz 
musicians, both types of members participated in 
the survey. After sending an advance letter telling 
musicians about the survey, we administered a 68- 
question telephone questionnaire on a total of 2,500 
musicians and received a 78.5 percent response 
(1,963). 

The union locals gave full participation to this 
project: Detroit (local 5), New Orleans (local 174- 
496), New York (local 802), and San Francisco (local 
6). There is a long history of union involvement 
with jazz musicians, not all of it easy. While union 
participation in all professions is declining, the 
musicians' locals are contemplating methods for 
their own survival. This is sometimes complicated 
by the fact that union musicians in one city can join 
another union local (New York, for example) with a 
higher established minimum wage and then quit 
their original local. 

Characteristics 

Some characteristics of the larger jazz 
community made the isolation of four cities 
particularly important since they represent different 
geographic sections of the country, histories for jazz 
musicians, levels of resources for jazz musicians, racial 
and ethnic balances, and social and economic 
environments. By studying jazz artists in such diverse 
locations, we hope to represent more accurately the 
range of-situations for U.S. jazz musicians. 

• The diversity in styles of jazz — musicians 
often play to different audiences, venues, and 
media with different levels of exposure 

• Commercial (record companies and 
recordings, venues, radio, television and 
technology in jazz vs. non-commercial 



support systems (foundations, corporations, 
government) as well as the impact of 
tourism, festivals and heritage 

• The mobility of jazz musicians who tour, 
both nationally and internationally 

• The tendency of jazz musicians to play in 
many different performance groups 

• Four very different social and economic 
environments with very different responsibili- 
ties and resources of union locals, jazz-related 
foundations, and community organizations 

Organization of Report 

The report is organized in four sections, 
presenting findings on demographics, income and 
employment-related information, other issues 
including professionalism, copyright, health and 
welfare protection, musical styles and future goals of 
jazz musicians, and a summary and conclusions. 
Appendices include definitions and contexts for each 
metro area studied, the distribution of responses by 
metro area, the advance letter, the response by metro 
area, an explanation of the method used to estimate 
the number of jazz musicians and a directory of 
resources for jazz musicians in each metro area. 

Since the union does not distinguish between 
jazz and non-jazz musicians, both were included in 
the survey. The charts in this report show the 
aggregate results of all four cities combined, plus 
each city's results, separated into jazz and non-jazz 
musicians. 

Jazz artists exist in a kind of no-man's land 
where earning a living from jazz is almost 
impossible, and where even individual support such 
as the American Jazz Master Fellowship awards from 
the National Endowment for the Arts are not enough 
to offset the hand-to-mouth existence of many jazz 
musicians. Neither has jazz been the recipient of 
significant philanthropic giving, although major 
initiatives by the Lila Wallace -Readers Digest Fund 
and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation are 
happy exceptions. These programs have shored up 
institutions and endowments of jazz presenters, 
created networks in the jazz community, and 
provided money for more venues, performances and 
jazz compositions. 



See Appendix A for definitions and background descriptions of the metropolitan areas used and Appendix B for a context of 
each of the cities. 



Chapter I. Demographics 



Age, Gender, Marital Status 

Eighty- four percent of jazz musicians are male 
and 16 percent are female; 53 percent of non-jazz 
musicians are male and 47 percent are female. The 
mean age for jazz musicians is 53; the median is 50. 
For non-jazz musicians the mean age is 50 and the 
median 47. These ages are somewhat older than 
those for other union performers we have studied. 
Almost three quarters of the respondents are white 
(72 percent jazz and 85 percent non-jazz), 18 
percent jazz and 5 percent non-jazz are African- 
American and about 2 percent jazz and 1 percent 
non-jazz are Hispanic or Latino. 

The age range for jazz musicians was from 16 to 
92; the age of non-jazz musicians ranged from 23-90. 

It is also interesting to note that almost half the 
respondents (46 percent jazz and 50 percent non- 
jazz) claim only themselves as dependents with 
another 29 percent jazz and 26 percent non-jazz 
claiming two dependents. 

Twenty percent of jazz and 23 percent non-jazz 
musicians are single; 62 percent (jazz) and 60 
percent (non-jazz) are married. 



Eighty-four percent of the jazz musicians 
who are members of the American Federation of 
Musicians are male, 72 percent are white, and 
their networks consist primarily of other white 
jazz musicians, followed by African-American 
jazz artists. 



Education 

Twenty-three percent of jazz and 12 percent of 
non-jazz respondents have some college; 36 percent 
of jazz and 37 percent of non-jazz musicians have a 
college degree and an additional 29 percent of jazz 
and 43 percent of non-jazz musicians have a 
graduate degree. In 1997 in the Research Center's 
Information on Artists study, union actors in ten 
U.S. cities were among the artists studied. Of the 
AEA actors who responded: 

>18 percent had some college 
>45 percent had a college degree 
>29 percent had a graduate degree. 



Please indicate your highest level of formal education 

Total Detroit New New York San 

Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


elementary school, through 
grade 8 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 


2 





1 








4 


1 








some high school 


Percent 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


2.0% 


1 .2% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


19 


3 


6 


1 


6 


1 


4 


1 


3 





12th grade, but did not 
graduate 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


13 


2 


3 





3 





6 


1 


1 


1 


12th grade, got GED 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


9 


1 


2 


1 


1 





5 





1 





12th grade, graduated from 
high school 


Percent 


6.9% 


3.7% 


8.5% 


3.5% 


8.1% 


5.6% 


6.5% 


3.6% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


105 


16 


26 


3 


20 


2 


48 


7 


11 


4 


some college 


Percent 


22.6% 


1 1 .5% 


29.5% 


9.4% 


25.0% 


16.7% 


19.8% 


10.7% 


19.8% 


12.6% 




Number 


346 


49 


90 


8 


62 


6 


147 


21 


47 


14 



The confidence level for this survey is 95 percent with a 5 percent margin of error. Figures do not necessarily add up to 100 
percent due to multiple answers and don't know/refused. In the New Orleans metro area, the majority of respondents resided 
in Orleans Parish; in Detroit in Wayne and Oakland Counties; in San Francisco, San Francisco and Alameda counties, followed 
by San Mateo, Contra Costa and San Mateo Counties; and in the New York Metro area, New York County (includes 
Manhattan) and Kings County (includes Brooklyn). (See Appendix). 



college degree 


Percent 


36.3% 


37.4% 


27.9% 


34.1% 


33.1% 


33.3% 


39.0% 


39.3% 


42.2% 


37.8% 




Number 


556 


160 


85 


29 


82 


12 


289 


77 


100 


42 


graduate degree 


Percent 


28.7% 


43.2% 


26.9% 


49.4% 


26.2% 


41 .7% 


30.7% 


43.4% 


27.0% 


38.7% 




Number 


439 


185 


82 


42 


65 


15 


228 


85 


64 


43 


other 


Percent 


2.5% 


2.3% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


3.6% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


1 .5% 


3.8% 


6.3% 




Number 


38 


10 


10 





9 


— 


10 


3 


9 


7 


missing 




3 





1 











1 





1 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



While the number of union musicians that have college degrees is about 10 percent lower than for union 
actors, 28.7 percent of union jazz musicians, like union actors, and 43.2 percent of union non-jazz musicians 
have graduate degrees. 



Twenty-six percent of both kinds of musicians 
had conservatory or professional school training 
which did not grant a degree and 79 percent of jazz 



and 78 percent of non-jazz musicians studied with 
private teachers. 



Did you receive technical or professional training in the arts? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


no 


Percent 


21 .9% 


23.8% 


23.9% 


22.4% 


30.2% 


19.4% 


18.9% 


25.0% 


20.3% 


24.3% 




Number 


336 


102 


73 


19 


75 


7 


140 


49 


48 


27 


conservatory or professional 
school not granting a degree 


Percent 


25.7% 


26.4% 


25.9% 


16.7% 


24.3% 


27.6% 


25.8% 


25.2% 


26.5% 


35.7% 




Number 


307 


86 


60 


11 


42 


8 


155 


37 


50 


30 


certificate program in the arts 


Percent 


1 1 .5% 


12.0% 


10.8% 


18.2% 


14.5% 


1 0.3% 


1 1 .0% 


10.2% 


11.1% 


1 0.7% 




Number 


137 


39 


25 


12 


25 


3 


66 


15 


21 


9 


private teachers 


Percent 


78.9% 


78.2% 


77.6% 


72.7% 


79.2% 


82.8% 


79.2% 


83.0% 


78.8% 


72.6% 




Number 


943 


255 


180 


48 


137 


24 


477 


122 


149 


61 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


15.1% 


13.2% 


1 7.2% 


12.1% 


20.2% 


13.8% 


13.1% 


1 1 .6% 


14.3% 


16.7% 




Number 


181 


43 


40 


8 


35 


4 


79 


17 


27 


14 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 

























Chapter II. 
Employment and Income-Related Findings 



Employment 

Fifty-eight percent of the jazz musician 
respondents earned their major income in the last 
12 months as musicians, 12 percent in non-music 
related occupations and another 10 percent as music 
teachers and 1 percent as jazz teachers. Fifty-seven 
percent of the non-jazz musicians earned their 
major income in the last 12 months as musicians, 11 
percent in non-music related occupations, 12 
percent as music teachers. 



Just over half of the union musicians earned 
their major income in the last 12 months as 
musicians. Forty- three percent of jazz and 48 
percent of non-jazz musicians are employed 
full-time in the music business. And no one is 
unemployed. 



Forty-three percent of jazz and 48 percent of 
non-jazz musicians are employed full-time in the 



music business; 36 percent jazz) and 23 percent 
(non-jazz) respectively are employed as full-time 
freelancers in the music business and 22 percent 
(jazz) and 28 percent (non-jazz) as part-time 
freelancers in the music business. No one is 
unemployed and 14 percent (jazz) and 9 percent 
(non-jazz) are retired. 

Thirty-two percent of jazz and 20 percent of 
non-jazz respondents play more than 16 different 
musical jobs per month. 

Income 

The extremes of income from music are evident. 
As noted above, 58 percent of jazz respondents and 
57 percent of non-jazz respondents earned their 
major income in the last 12 months as musicians, 
with New York (68 percent) being the highest for 
jazz musicians, and New York (63 percent) and San 
Francisco (62 percent) ranking the highest for non- 
jazz musicians. 



From which occupation did you earn your major income in the last 12 months? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Musician 


Percent 


58.4% 


56.8% 


37.1% 


42.4% 


56.1% 


41.7% 


68.1% 


62.8% 


57.8% 


62.2% 




Number 


894 


243 


113 


36 


139 


15 


505 


123 


137 


69 


music teacher 


Percent 


8.9% 


1 1 .7% 


12.5% 


1 1 .8% 


6.1% 


16.7% 


8.1% 


1 1 .7% 


9.7% 


9.9% 




Number 


136 


50 


38 


10 


15 


6 


60 


23 


23 


11 


jazz teacher 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


15 











1 





13 





1 





arts manager or administrator 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.9% 


0.3% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


2.8% 


0.3% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


4 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 





other music-related 
occupation 


Percent 


6.5% 


7.5% 


5.9% 


5.9% 


4.4% 


5.6% 


7.4% 


10.2% 


6.3% 


4.5% 




Number 


99 


32 


18 


5 


11 


2 


55 


20 


15 


5 


non-music related occupation 


Percent 


1 1 .7% 


1 1 .2% 


23.6% 


15.3% 


19.0% 


22.2% 


4.2% 


6.6% 


12.2% 


12.6% 




Number 


179 


48 


72 


13 


47 


8 


31 


13 


29 


14 


Other 


Percent 


12.9% 


1 1 .7% 


20.0% 


23.5% 


12.9% 


11.1% 


1 0.0% 


7.1% 


12.7% 


10.8% 




Number 


197 


50 


61 


20 


32 


4 


74 


14 


30 


12 


Missing 




5 


1 


2 





1 





2 


1 








total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 1 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Thirty percent of jazz and 34 percent of non- 
jazz musicians earned over $40,000 from their work 
as musicians in 2000. Incomes were highest in New 
York (43 percent of jazz and 47 percent of non-jazz) 
with 12 percent of New York jazz and non-jazz 
musicians earning over $100,000. Twenty-two 



percent of jazz and 26 percent of non-jazz musicians 
earned $7,000 or less as musicians in 2000. Twenty- 
two percent of the jazz and 19 percent of the non- 
jazz respondents earned between $20,001 and 
$40,000 as total income from work as a musician in 
2000. 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total income from work as a musician from all sources for 2000 before taxes. 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans 



New York San Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


$0- $500 


Percent 


7.5% 


8.4% 


15.4% 


12.9% 


8.9% 


5.6% 


3.2% 


8.7% 


9.3% 


5.4% 




Number 


115 


36 


47 


11 


22 


2 


24 


17 


22 


6 


$501- $3000 


Percent 


8.4% 


9.6% 


14.1% 


1 1 .8% 


14.1% 


13.9% 


3.2% 


5.6% 


1 1 .0% 


13.5% 




Number 


128 


41 


43 


10 


35 


5 


24 


11 


26 


15 


$3001- $7000 


Percent 


6.5% 


8.4% 


12.8% 


9.4% 


8.5% 


13.9% 


2.6% 


6.1% 


8.4% 


9.9% 




Number 


99 


36 


39 


8 


21 


5 


19 


12 


20 


11 


$7001- 

$12,000 


Percent 


6.6% 


7.0% 


10.2% 


10.6% 


7.3% 


16.7% 


4.3% 


4.1% 


8.4% 


6.3% 




Number 


101 


30 


31 


9 


18 


6 


32 


8 


20 


7 


$12,001- 
$20,000 


Percent 


10.2% 


6.8% 


1 1 .2% 


8.2% 


13.3% 


8.3% 


8.6% 


5.6% 


10.6% 


7.2% 




Number 


156 


29 


34 


7 


33 


3 


64 


11 


25 


8 


$20,001- 
$40,000 


Percent 


22.2% 


18.7% 


15.4% 


21.2% 


23.8% 


33.3% 


25.6% 


1 1 .7% 


18.6% 


24.3% 




Number 


340 


80 


47 


18 


59 


12 


190 


23 


44 


27 


$40,001- 
$60,000 


Percent 


13.1% 


1 0.8% 


3.0% 


2.4% 


10.1% 


0.0% 


1 7.7% 


16.8% 


14.8% 


9.9% 




Number 


200 


46 


9 


2 


25 





131 


33 


35 


11 


$60,001- 
$80,000 


Percent 


5.9% 


7.5% 


2.0% 


4.7% 


1 .6% 


2.8% 


8.8% 


8.7% 


6.3% 


9.0% 




Number 


90 


32 


6 


4 


4 


1 


65 


17 


15 


10 


$80,001- 
$100,000 


Percent 


3.9% 


6.5% 


4.9% 


8.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


4.7% 


10.2% 


3.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


59 


28 


15 


7 








35 


20 


9 


1 


more than 
$100,000 


Percent 


7.0% 


9.6% 


2.0% 


5.9% 


1 .6% 


2.8% 


1 1 .9% 


1 1 .7% 


3.8% 


10.8% 




Number 


107 


41 


6 


5 


4 


1 


88 


23 


9 


12 


mean 


Dollars 


33,487 


36,516 


19,316 


28,491 


20,683 


19,122 


44,972 


45.518 


29.205 


33,586 


median 


Dollars 


30,000 


30,000 


9,500 


16,000 


16,000 


9,500 


30,000 


50,000 


16.000 


30,000 


missing 




137 


29 


28 


4 


27 


1 


70 


21 


12 


3 


total # of 
respondents who 
answered this 
question 




1395 


399 


277 


81 


221 


35 


672 


175 


225 


108 



For almost half of the jazz musicians income 
(44 percent) came from work as jazz musicians, in 
other words, not playing weddings, bar mitzvahs 
and all the other musical jobs jazz musicians do to 
survive. 

For 85 percent, these earnings covered music- 
related costs. For three-quarters of all musicians, 



costs of music-related supplies, equipment, capital 
improvements, publicity and marketing, travel and 
cartage, recording and management costs, and 
instrument insurance are less than $2,500. Thirty- 
four percent spend $500-2,500 annually and another 
14 percent spend $2,500-5,000 annually on their 
instruments. 



Did this money cover your music-related costs in 2000? 

Total Detroit 



New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Yes 


Percent 


84.6% 


84.6% 


79.0% 


80.0% 


87.1% 


88.9% 


87.2% 


86.2% 


81 .0% 


83.8% 




Number 


1296 


362 


241 


68 


216 


32 


647 


169 


192 


93 


No 


Percent 


12.0% 


13.1% 


16.4% 


18.8% 


9.7% 


11.1% 


9.6% 


10.7% 


16.5% 


13.5% 




Number 


184 


56 


50 


16 


24 


4 


71 


21 


39 


15 


Missing 




52 


10 


14 


1 


8 





24 


6 


6 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



What percentage of this income came from your work as a jazz musician in 2000? 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans New York San Francisco 





Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 

Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Mean 


43.9 


6.0 


35.3 


5.1 


57.0 


18.3 


44.6 


4.2 


39.0 


5.6 


Median 


30 





10 





75 





30 





25 





std. dev. 


42.2 


23.0 


40.2 


20.9 


43.4 


37.5 


42.1 


19.7 


40.5 


22.9 


Mode 


100 











100 





100 











# answering this question 


1440 


416 


284 


83 


230 


36 


697 


188 


229 


109 


missing 


92 


12 


21 


2 


18 





45 


8 


8 


2 



Almost half (49 percent) the jazz and over half 
(52 percent) of non-jazz musicians earned over 
$40,000 total gross income as individuals from all 
sources including their work as musicians in 2000, 



with 11 percent (jazz) and 12 percent (non-jazz) 
earning over $100,000. Six and 10 percent of jazz 
and non-jazz musicians, respectively, earned under 
$12,000 as individuals from all sources in 2000. 



The mean total household gross income in 2000 before taxes for jazz musicians is $63,496; the median is 
$70,000. For non-jazz musicians the mean is $70,493 and the median is $70,000. 

The mean total income as an individual from all sources including work as a musician in 2000 before 
taxes for jazz musicians is $49,847; the median is $50,000. For non-jazz musicians the mean is $50,894 
and the median is $50,000. 

The mean income as an individual from work as a musician in 2000 before taxes for jazz musicians is 
$33,486; the median is $30,000. For non-jazz musicians the mean is $36,516 and the median is $30,000. 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total income as an individual from all sources in 2000 before taxes, including your work as a musician. 

Total Detroit New Orleans New York San Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


$0- $500 


Percent 


0.9% 


1 .9% 


1 .0% 


3.5% 


0.8% 


2.8% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


13 


8 


3 


3 


2 


1 


5 


3 


3 


1 


$501- 
$3000 


Percent 


1.1% 


1 .9% 


2.3% 


2.4% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


2.7% 




Number 


17 


8 


7 


2 


2 





5 


3 


3 


3 


$3001- 
$7000 


Percent 


1.1% 


2.1% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


0.3% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


1 .8% 



8 





Number 


17 


9 


7 


3 


5 


1 


2 


3 


3 


2 


$7001- 
$12,000 


Percent 


2.4% 


4.0% 


3.9% 


3.5% 


4.0% 


11.1% 


1 .6% 


3.1% 


0.8% 


3.6% 




Number 


36 


17 


12 


3 


10 


4 


12 


6 


2 


4 


$12,001- 
$20,000 


Percent 


7.1% 


6.1% 


7.2% 


7.1% 


1 1 .3% 


11.1% 


4.6% 


5.1% 


10.6% 


5.4% 




Number 


109 


26 


22 


6 


28 


4 


34 


10 


25 


6 


$20,001- 
$40,000 


Percent 


27.1% 


24.5% 


26.2% 


29.4% 


35.5% 


50.0% 


24.4% 


15.8% 


27.9% 


27.9% 




Number 


415 


105 


80 


25 


88 


18 


181 


31 


66 


31 


$40,001- 
$60,000 


Percent 


19.8% 


17.8% 


1 6.4% 


14.1% 


17.3% 


8.3% 


20.6% 


18.4% 


24.5% 


22.5% 




Number 


304 


76 


50 


12 


43 


3 


153 


36 


58 


25 


$60,001- 
$80,000 


Percent 


1 1 .5% 


1 1 .2% 


12.5% 


10.6% 


7.3% 


5.6% 


13.3% 


12.2% 


8.9% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


176 


48 


38 


9 


18 


2 


99 


24 


21 


13 


$80,001- 
$100,000 


Percent 


6.4% 


9.4% 


8.9% 


9.4% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


7.0% 


13.8% 


6.8% 


4.5% 




Number 


98 


40 


27 


8 


3 





52 


27 


16 


5 


more 
than 
$100,000 


Percent 


10.5% 


1 2.4% 


6.9% 


9.4% 


5.7% 


2.8% 


14.2% 


13.8% 


8.9% 


15.3% 




Number 


161 


53 


21 


8 


14 


1 


105 


27 


21 


17 


Mean 


dollars 


49,847 


50,894 


47,206 


46,123 


38,930 


30,508 


55,352 


57,518 


47,386 


50,370 


Median 


dollars 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


30,000 


30,000 


30,000 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


Missing 




186 


38 


38 


6 


35 


2 


94 


26 


19 


4 


total # of 
respondents 
who 

answered 
this question 




1346 


390 


267 


79 


213 


34 


648 


170 


218 


107 



Forty-seven percent of jazz and 55 percent of 
non-jazz musicians earned over $60,000 in total 
gross household income in 2000, with 22 percent 
(jazz) and 31 percent (non-jazz) earning over 
$100,000. Eight percent of jazz and six percent of 
non-jazz musicians earned under $20,000. Seventeen 



percent of jazz and 13 percent of non-jazz musicians 
earned between $20,001 and $40,000 in total gross 
household income in 2000 before taxes; 15 percent 
(jazz) and 14 percent (non-jazz) between $40,001 
and $60,000. 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total household gross income in 2000 before taxes. 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


$0- $500 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.9% 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


8 


4 


3 


1 





1 


4 


2 


1 





$501- $3000 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


9 


3 


3 


1 








4 


1 


2 


1 


$3001 -$7000 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


11 





4 





5 





1 





1 





$7001- $12,000 


Percent 


1 .9% 


0.5% 


3.0% 


1 .2% 


3.2% 


2.8% 


1 .5% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


29 


2 


9 


1 


8 


1 


11 





1 





$12,001- 
$20,000 


Percent 


3.9% 


3.5% 


4.6% 


5.9% 


6.9% 


5.6% 


2.6% 


3.6% 


4.2% 


0.9% 




Number 


60 


15 


14 


5 


17 


2 


19 


7 


10 


1 


$20,001- 
$40,000 


Percent 


17.2% 


13.1% 


18.7% 


14.1% 


24.6% 


30.6% 


13.3% 


7.7% 


19.8% 


16.2% 



9 





Number 


264 


56 


57 


12 


61 


11 


99 


15 


47 


18 


$40,001- 
$60,000 


Percent 


15.0% 


13.8% 


14.8% 


9.4% 


16.9% 


16.7% 


14.4% 


1 1 .2% 


15.2% 


20.7% 




Number 


230 


59 


45 


8 


42 


6 


107 


22 


36 


23 


$60,001- 

$80,000 


Percent 


13.9% 


12.2% 


1 1 .5% 


16.5% 


12.9% 


16.7% 


15.1% 


9.2% 


14.4% 


12.6% 




Number 


213 


52 


35 


14 


32 


6 


112 


18 


34 


14 


$80,001- 
$100,000 


Percent 


1 0.3% 


12.4% 


10.2% 


1 0.6% 


8.1% 


2.8% 


10.4% 


13.8% 


1 2.2% 


14.4% 




Number 


157 


53 


31 


9 


20 


1 


77 


27 


29 


16 


more than 
$100,000 


Percent 


22.4% 


30.8% 


18.7% 


25.9% 


9.3% 


13.9% 


28.0% 


37.8% 


23.2% 


27.9% 




Number 


343 


132 


57 


22 


23 


5 


208 


74 


55 


31 


mean 


Dollars 


63,496 


70,493 


59,053 


66,322 


51,169 


50,963 


69,021 


76,833 


64,252 


69,498 


median 


Dollars 


70,000 


70,000 


50,000 


70,000 


50,000 


50,000 


70,000 


90,000 


70,000 


70,000 


missing 




208 


52 


47 


12 


40 


3 


100 


30 


21 


7 


total # of 
respondents who 
answered this 
question 




1324 


376 


258 


73 


208 


33 


642 


166 


216 


104 



Music-Related Grants and Fellowships 

Only 17 percent of jazz and 2 percent of non-jazz 
musicians applied for a grant as a jazz or aspiring 
musician; the highest percentage of applicants came 
from New York with 25 percent of jazz respondents. 

Have you applied for a grant or fellowship as a jazz or 

Total 



Of 268 respondents, 36 percent or 97 jazz artists 
received grants from the NEA; 8 percent (3) of non- 
jazz artists did. Fourteen percent of both kinds of 
musicians received foundation grants and 12 percent 
(3) of jazz and 8 percent (3) of non-jazz respondents 
received state agency grants in 2000. 

aspiring musician? 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


16.5% 


2.1% 


7.2% 


1 .2% 


13.3% 


2.8% 


24.7% 


3.1% 


5.9% 


0.9% 




Number 


252 


9 


22 


1 


33 


1 


183 


6 


14 


1 


no 


Percent 


83.2% 


97.4% 


92.5% 


98.8% 


85.9% 


97.2% 


75.1% 


95.9% 


94.1% 


99.1% 




Number 


1275 


417 


282 


84 


213 


35 


557 


188 


223 


110 


missing 




5 


2 


1 





2 





2 


2 








total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If you received grants or fellowships as a jazz or aspiring musician, from what sources did you receive them? 





Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Never Received 


Percent 


81.8% 


91 .4% 


87.2% 


90.6% 


81.1% 


88.9% 


78.3% 


93.9% 


86.5% 


88.3% 




Number 


1253 


391 


266 


77 


201 


32 


581 


184 


205 


98 


National Endowment for 
the Arts 


Percent 


36.2% 


8.3% 


11.1% 


0.0% 


22.7% 


0.0% 


50.0% 


16.7% 


15.6% 


7.7% 




Number 


97 


3 


4 





10 





78 


2 


5 


1 


other federal agency 
(specify agency) 


Percent 


5.2% 


2.8% 


11.1% 


0.0% 


6.8% 


0.0% 


3.9% 


0.0% 


3.1% 


7.7% 




Number 


14 


1 


4 





3 





6 





1 


1 


regional agency (specify 
agency) 


Percent 


6.3% 


0.0% 


8.3% 


0.0% 


4.6% 


0.0% 


6.4% 


0.0% 


6.3% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 





3 





2 





10 





2 





state agency (specify 
agency) 


Percent 


12.3% 


8.3% 


8.3% 


0.0% 


15.9% 


0.0% 


14.1% 


16.7% 


3.1% 


7.7% 




Number 


33 


3 


3 





7 





22 


2 


1 


1 



10 



local agency (specify 
agency) 


Percent 


8.2% 


5.6% 


8.3% 


14.3% 


1 1 .4% 


0.0% 


8.3% 


8.3% 


3.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


22 


2 


3 


1 


5 





13 


1 


1 





foundation (specify 
foundation) 


Percent 


13.8% 


13.9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 1 .4% 


0.0% 


17.3% 


41 .7% 


15.6% 


0.0% 




Number 


37 


5 








5 





27 


5 


5 





educational institution 
(specify institution) 


Percent 


9.7% 


8.3% 


13.9% 


0.0% 


1 1 .4% 


25.0% 


9.0% 


8.3% 


6.3% 


7.7% 




Number 


26 


3 


5 





5 


1 


14 


1 


2 


1 


corporate sponsor 
(specify sponsor) 


Percent 


1 .5% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


3.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 





1 











2 





1 





other 


Percent 


1 1 .2% 


2.8% 


8.3% 


0.0% 


1 1 .4% 


0.0% 


1 2.2% 


0.0% 


9.4% 


7.7% 




Number 


30 


1 


3 





5 





19 





3 


1 


Missing 




11 


1 














5 





— 9 





# respondents 




1532 


428 


36 


7 


44 


4 


742 


196 


237 


111 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




268 


36 


36 


7 


44 


4 


156 


12 


32 


13 



Of the 16 percent who received grants or 
fellowships (it would appear that not all who 
received grants applied for them), 93 percent 
received between $0 and $5,000. This range was the 

How much did you receive in 2000 before taxes in each of the following areas? 



same for over 85 percent of those who received 
music royalties or residuals, public assistance 
(welfare) and/or unemployment benefits in the 
year 2000. 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


music-related 
grants 
























A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


93.0% 


93.7% 


92.8% 


94.1% 


91.9% 


88.9% 


93.1% 


92.4% 


93.7% 


97.3% 




Number 


1424 


401 


283 


80 


228 


32 


691 


181 


222 


108 


B $5,001 - 
$10,000 


Percent 


3.6% 


3.7% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


4.4% 


8.3% 


3.4% 


3.6% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


55 


16 


9 


3 


11 


3 


25 


7 


10 


3 


C$10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.9% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


1 .5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


11 


4 


2 


1 


1 





6 


3 


2 





D $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 


1 














4 


1 








E $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


































mean 


2,888 


2,915 


2,755 


2,857 


2,792 


2,929 


2,989 


3,099 


2,842 


2,635 




median 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


music-related 
fellowships 
























A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.2% 


94.9% 


93.8% 


94.1% 


93.6% 


88.9% 


94.5% 


94.9% 


94.5% 


97.3% 




Number 


1443 


406 


286 


80 


232 


32 


701 


186 


224 


108 


B $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


3.1% 


3.7% 


3.3% 


4.7% 


3.2% 


8.3% 


2.7% 


3.1% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


48 


16 


10 


4 


8 


3 


20 


6 


10 


3 


c$10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 

















1 











d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 



11 





Number 


4 

















4 








o 


e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


































mean 


2.764 


2,689 


2.668 


2,738 


2,667 


2,929 


2,851 


2.656 


2,714 


2.635 




median 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2,500 


2.500 


2.500 


2,500 


2.500 


2.500 


music 
royalties/residuals 


















a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


84.7% 


88.1% 


91 .8% 


92.9% 


92.3% 


86.1% 


77.1% 


83.2% 


91.1% 


93.7% 




Number 


1297 


377 


280 


79 


229 


31 


572 


163 


216 


104 


b $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


4.7% 


6.5% 


2.6% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


11.1% 


6.7% 


9.7% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


72 


28 


8 


2 


4 


4 


50 


19 


10 


3 


c$10.001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


3.4% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


5.5% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 


Number 


52 


2 


3 





3 





41 


2 


5 





d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


16 


2 


3 











13 


1 





1 


e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


3 


3 





1 








3 


1 





1 


f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 





























o' 




mean 


2,764 


2.689 


2.668 


2,738 


2.667 


2,929 


2,851 


2.656 


2,714 


2,635 




median 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


music 
royalties residuals 
















a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


84.7% 


88.1% 


91 .8% 


92.9% 


92.3% 


86.1% 


77.1% 


83.2% 


91.1% 93.7% 




Number 


1297 


377 


280 


79 


229 


31 


572 


163 


216 


104 


b $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


4.7% 


6.5% 


2.6% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


11.1% 


6.7% 


9.7% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


72 


28 


8 


2 


4 


4 


50 


19 


10 


3 


c$10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


3.4% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


5.5% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


52 


2 


3 





3 





41 


2 


5 





d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


16 


2 


3 











13 


1 





1 


e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


3 


3 





1 








3 


1 





1 


f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


14 


2 














13 


2 


1 







mean 


4.491 


3.865 


3,146 


3.354 


2,775 


3.071 


6,030 


4.442 


3.351 


3.509 




median 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2,500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


public assistance 
(welfare) 








a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.9% 


96.3% 


95.1% 


95.3% 


95.6% 


88.9% 


95.0% 


97.5% 


93.7% 


97.3% 




Number 


1454 


412 


290 


81 


237 


32 


705 


191 


222 


108 


b $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


2.6% 


2.8% 


2.0% 


3.5% 


1 .6% 


8.3% 


2.3% 


1 .5% 


5.1% 


2.7% 




Number 


39 


12 


6 


3 


4 


3 


17 


3 


12 


3 


c$10.001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 

































12 



e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




frequency 


































mean 


2,631 


2,642 


2,601 


2,679 


2,583 


2,929 


2,618 


2,577 


2,756 


2,635 




median 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


unemployment 
benefits 
























a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.5% 


94.9% 


94.4% 


95.3% 


94.4% 


91 .7% 


94.6% 


94.9% 


94.1% 


95.5% 




Number 


1447 


406 


288 


81 


234 


33 


702 


186 


223 


106 


b $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


2.9% 


4.0% 


2.6% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


8.3% 


2.7% 


3.6% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


44 


17 


8 


3 


5 


3 


20 


7 


11 


4 


c$10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 








1 








1 








d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


































mean 


2,658 


2,736 


2,635 


2,679 


2,667 


2,917 


2,639 


2,758 


2,735 


2,682 




median 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


missing 






















total # of respondents who 
answered this question 
(including refusals & don't 
knows) 


1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



13 



Chapter III. Other Issues 



Professionalism 

Seventy-eight percent of the respondents play or 
Do you ever play or sing jazz music? 



sing jazz music. Of the non-jazz playing 
respondents, 74 percent play or sing classical music 
and 26 percent play other kinds of music. 





Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1532 





305 





248 





742 





237 





no 


Percent 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 




Number 





428 





85 





36 





196 





111 


missing 


































total # of 
respondents who 
answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


- 305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 


* There are two respondents 
who said they were neither 
jazz nor non-jazz 























If no, do you play or sing any other kind of music? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


- 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


classical 


Percent 


0.0% 


74.3% 


0.0% 


77.7% 


0.0% 


72.2% 


0.0% 


69.4% 


0.0% 


81.1% 




Number 





318 





66 





26 





136 





90 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


0.0% 


25.7% 


0.0% 


22.4% 


0.0% 


27.8% 


0.0% 


30.6% 


0.0% 


1 8.9% 




Number 





110 





19 





10 





60 





21 


missing 


































total # of respondents who 
answered the question 







428 





85 





36 





196 





111 



Sixty-three percent of those who play or sing 
jazz music consider themselves professional jazz 
musicians. This is highest in New Orleans (73 
percent) and New York (64 percent) and lowest in 

Do you consider yourself a professional jazz musician? 



Detroit and San Francisco (57 percent). In our 1997 
Information on Artists study, 96 percent of the 
Actors' Equity Association ( AEA) union member 
respondents considered themselves professionals. 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


63.3 
% 


0.0% 


57.4 
% 


0.0% 


73.0 
% 


0.0% 


64.4 
% 


0.0% 


57.0 
% 


0.0% 




Number 


969 





175 





181 





478 





135 





no 


Percent 


30.0 
% 


0.0% 


35.4 
% 


0.0% 


22.6 
% 


0.0% 


29.0 
% 


0.0% 


34.2 
% 


0.0% 




Number 


460 





108 





56 





215 





81 





3 other 


Percent 


6.4% 


0.0% 


7.2% 


0.0% 


4.4% 


0.0% 


6.1% 


0.0% 


8.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


98 





22 





11 





45 





20 





missing 




5 

















4 





1 





total # of respondents who 
answered the question 




1532 





305 





248 





742 





742 






14 



Seventy-six percent of the jazz respondents (and money in the prior 12 months. 
7 percent of the non-jazz musicians) played jazz for 

Have you played jazz for money during the last 12 months? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


76.3% 


7.0% 


67.9% 


8.2% 


82.7% 


11.1% 


79.1% 


7.7% 


71 .7% 


3.6% 




Number 


1169 


30 


207 


7 


205 


4 


587 


15 


170 


4 


no 


Percent 


23.1% 


93.0% 


31.5% 


91 .8% 


16.5% 


88.9% 


20.2% 


92.4% 


28.3% 


96.4% 




Number 


354 


398 


96 


78 


41 


32 


150 


181 


67 


107 


missing 




9 


— 


2 





2 





5 











total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Initially, we separated the data for those jazz 
musicians who said they considered themselves 
professionals and those who said they did not, even 
though in our own definition we considered union 
membership a sign of professional status. There was 
no significant difference between the two data sets, 
so we combined them for analytical purposes. 



Retirement, Health Coverage 

For routine health care 55 percent of the 
musicians surveyed go to private physicians, 45 
percent of jazz and 48 percent of non-jazz musicians 
go to an HMO, and 12 percent (jazz) and 8 percent 
(non -jazz) receive routine health care from a 
hospital outpatient department. Roughly one-third 
of all respondents have received injuries from 
occupational hazards in their music-related work 
(for example, carpal tunnel syndrome, hearing 
problems, etc.). 



Where do you go to obtain routine health care? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 

Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


private physician 


Percent 


54.4% 


55.4% 


60.0% 


71.8% 


42.3% 


27.8% 


63.9% 


62.2% 


30.0% 


39.6% 




Number 


833 


237 


183 


61 


105 


10 


474 


122 


71 


44 


HMO (health maintenance 
organization) or PPO 


Percent 


44.7% 


48.1% 


40.3% 


37.7% 


48.4% 


75.0% 


37.7% 


37.2% 


67.9% 


66.7% 




Number 


684 


206 


123 


32 


120 


27 


280 


73 


161 


74 


hospital outpatient 
department 


Percent 


1 1 .6% 


8.2% 


16.7% 


16.5% 


19.4% 


13.9% 


5.0% 


5.1% 


17.7% 


5.4% 




Number 


178 


35 


51 


14 


48 


5 


37 


10 


42 


6 


emergency room 


Percent 


6.4% 


4.7% 


8.5% 


8.2% 


12.5% 


5.6% 


3.2% 


3.6% 


7.2% 


3.6% 




Number 


98 


20 


26 


7 


31 


2 


24 


7 


17 


4 


1 do not obtain routine health 
care 


Percent 


6.9% 


3.7% 


7.2% 


0.0% 


7.7% 


2.8% 


6.9% 


4.6% 


5.5% 


5.4% 




Number 


105 


16 


22 


— 0* 


19 


1 


51 


9 


13 


6 


arts-related medical facility 
(please specify) 


Percent 


3.3% 


2.6% 


1 .3% 


2.4% 


9.7% 


8.3% 


2.4% 


1 .5% 


2.1% 


2.7% 




Number 


51 


11 


4 


2 


24 


3 


18 


3 


5 


3 


other 


Percent 


7.5% 


7.5% 


9.2% 


8.2% 


9.7% 


5.6% 


6.2% 


8.2% 


7.2% 


6.3% 




Number 


115 


32 


28 


7 


24 


2 


46 


16 


17 


7 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



15 



Have occupational hazards in your music-related work caused you any injuries? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


31.9% 


33.6% 


25.9% 


31 .8% 


26.6% 


19.4% 


33.3% 


36.2% 


40.9% 


35.1% 




Number 


489 


144 


79 


27 


66 


7 


247 


71 


97 


39 


no 


Percent 


67.6% 


65.7% 


73.8% 


68.2% 


73.0% 


80.6% 


66.2% 


62.2% 


58.7% 


64.9% 




Number 


1036 


281 


225 


58 


181 


29 


491 


122 


139 


72 


missing 




7 


3 


1 





1 





5 


3 


1 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Eighty-nine percent of jazz musicians and 93 
percent of non-jazz musician respondents have 
some health or medical coverage: 43 percent of the 
jazz and 41 percent of the non-jazz musicians from 
an HMO, 18 percent of jazz and 25 percent of non- 
jazz respondents from a PPO, 19 percent of jazz and 
16 percent non-jazz musicians from a personal 
policy through a private insurance company (some 



respondents have more than one type of coverage). 
Nine percent have disability coverage for loss of 
income; 1 1 percent have some other group 
insurance policy and 13 percent have some other 
kind of health insurance. These include: Medicare, 
the military, national health care from other 
countries. (American Association of Retured 
Persons). 



Do you have health or medical 
coverage? 

No 
11% 



• 



Yes 

89% 



Do you have health or medical coverage? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


89.0% 


92.8% 


92.1% 


97.7% 


81 .9% 


91 .7% 


89.5% 


90.8% 


91.1% 


92.8% 




Number 


1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 


no 


Percent 


10.8% 


7.2% 


7.5% 


2.4% 


18.2% 


8.3% 


10.2% 


9.2% 


8.9% 


7.2% 




Number 


165 


31 


23 


2 


45 


3 


76 


18 


21 


8 


missing 




3 





1 











2 











total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If yes, which type do you have? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


HMO 


Percent 


43.0% 


40.8% 


27.8% 


31.3% 


49.3% 


72.7% 


40.8% 


30.9% 


63.4% 


55.3% 




Number 


586 


162 


78 


26 


100 


24 


271 


55 


137 


57 


PPO 


Percent 


18.2% 


25.2% 


24.2% 


24.1% 


21.2% 


18.2% 


14.0% 


25.3% 


20.4% 


28.2% 



16 





Number 


248 


100 


68 


20 


43 


6 


93 


45 


44 


29 


personal policy through 
private insurance company 


Percent 


1 9.4% 


16.4% 


22.8% 


24.1% 


20.7% 


9.1% 


19.9% 


18.5% 


12.0% 


8.7% 




Number 


264 


65 


64 


20 


42 


3 


132 


33 


26 


9 


disability coverage for loss 
of income 


Percent 


9.4% 


10.3% 


12.8% 


9.6% 


8.4% 


12.1% 


8.0% 


1 1 .8% 


10.2% 


7.8% 




Number 


128 


41 


36 


8 


17 


4 


53 


21 


22 


8 


group insurance policy 
through arts/arts service 
organization (specify 
organizations) 


Percent 


10.9% 


12.1% 


8.5% 


6.0% 


4.9% 


21.2% 


15.8% 


17.4% 


4.6% 


4.9% 




Number 


149 


48 


24 


5 


10 


7 


105 


31 


10 


5 


other group insurance policy 
(specify organization) 


Percent 


13.2% 


10.6% 


22.4% 


15.7% 


10.8% 


9.1% 


10.5% 


1 1 .8% 


1 1 .6% 


4.9% 




Number 


180 


42 


63 


13 


22 


3 


70 


21 


25 


5 


other 


Percent 


14.7% 


12.3% 


19.6% 


16.9% 


10.8% 


0.0% 


15.7% 


12.4% 


9.3% 


12.6% 




Number 


201 


49 


55 


14 


22 





104 


22 


20 


13 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 



Thirty- seven percent of the jazz musicians 
obtained their health coverage themselves, as did 30 
percent of the non-jazz musicians. Fourteen percent 
obtained it through their mates. Thirty-six percent 
of the jazz musicians and 44 percent of the non-jazz 
musicians, obtained this coverage through their 
employers. 

Only 18 percent of jazz and 14 percent of non- 
jazz musicians obtained health coverage through 



their musicians' union. For jazz musicians this 
ranged from a low of 4 percent in New Orleans to a 
high of 29 percent in New York. For non-jazz 
musicians this ranged from a low of 1 percent in 
Detroit, to a high of 27 percent in New York. In the 
1997 RCAC Study of Actor's Equity Association 
members, forty- three percent of our 1997 AEA 
actors obtained their health coverage through 



unions. 



How was this health coverage obtained? 

mate's union 

or employer 

10% 

private company 

6% 



self 
37% 




employer 
36% 



musician s union 
18% 



17 



How was this health coverage obtained? 



Total Detroit New New York San 

Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


37.1% 


29.7% 


30.6% 


21.7% 


41 .4% 


33.3% 


37.2% 


29.8% 


41 .2% 


35.0% 




Number 


506 


118 


86 


18 


84 


11 


247 


53 


89 


36 


mate 


Percent 


13.6% 


13.4% 


1 1 .4% 


1 6.9% 


1 1 .8% 


15.2% 


13.3% 


10.7% 


19.0% 


14.6% 




Number 


185 


53 


32 


14 


24 


5 


88 


19 


41 


15 


employer 


Percent 


35.5% 


44.3% 


52.3% 


54.2% 


44.3% 


54.6% 


25.5% 


38.2% 


36.1% 


43.7% 




Number 


484 


176 


147 


45 


90 


18 


169 


68 


78 


45 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


18.0% 


13.6% 


9.6% 


1 .2% 


3.9% 


3.0% 


28.9% 


27.0% 


8.8% 


3.9% 




Number 


246 


54 


27 


1 


8 


1 


192 


48 


19 


4 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


1 0.3% 


1 1 .6% 


7.8% 


12.1% 


9.4% 


12.1% 


1 1 .3% 


12.4% 


1 1 .6% 


9.7% 




Number 


141 


46 


22 


10 


19 


4 


75 


22 


25 


10 


private company 


Percent 


6.4% 


3.8% 


6.4% 


6.0% 


5.4% 


9.1% 


6.9% 


2.8% 


5.6% 


1 .9% 




Number 


87 


15 


18 


5 


11 


3 


46 


5 


12 


2 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 



The chart below represents the answers to the 
questions, "Who pays for this insurance and what 
percentage do they pay?" Please note that there is 



obviously a combination of payment sources, so 
figures add up to much more than 100%. 



WHO PAYS 








PERCENTAGE 
THEY PAY 




Jazz 


Non-jazz 


Jazz 


Non-Jazz 


Self 


50.6% 


44.8% 


62.9% 


59.8% 












Mate 


19.8% 


6.8% 


50.7% 


35.7% 












Employer 


29.8% 


34.8% 


82.6% 


88.8% 












Employer under contract 


4.8% 


4.7% 


62.7% 


74.6% 












Musicians' union 


6.8% 


4.7% 


61.8% 


81.7% 












Mate's union or employer 


8.7% 


10.8% 


74.7% 


88.6% 












Private company 


2.6% 


1.8% 


48.6% 


45.8% 












Arts/arts service organization 


1.6% 


.8% 


30.9% 


48.6% 












Other 


8.7% 


7.9% 


68.8% 


73.7% 



This chart tells us that half of the jazz and close 
to half of the non-jazz musicians pay for their health 
insurance mostly themselves with a third getting 
payments from their employers. Fewer than 7 



percent receive payment for health insurance by the 
musicians' union. For this small percentage, the 
union covers at least 62 percent of the cost. 

By contrast, 18 percent of the union actors in the 



18 



RCAC's 1997 study received some payment for health 
insurance from the Actors' Equity Association (AEA). 
A September 2001 report by the Urban Institute 
(http://www.urbaninstitute.org/), "Workers Without 
Health Insurance: Who Are They and How Can 
Policy Reach Them?, reports that, of the 16 million 
uninsured workers in the United States, those most 
likely to lack health insurance include workers in 
small firms, low-wage earners, part-time workers 
and those employed for a short-tenure. Many 
musicians fit into these categories. Access to health 
insurance is easier for whites through their spouses 
and workers in large firms more likely to offer and 

Do you have life insurance? 



enroll them in employer-sponsored health 
insurance. Since jazz musicians report working 
many gigs with many different groups, it is likely 
they are denied such access. 

Sixty- three percent of jazz and 60 percent of 
non-jazz respondents have life insurance, much 
higher than the 1997 AEA actors (38 percent). Sixty- 
nine percent of jazz and 61 percent of non-jazz 
musicians obtained it themselves; for 22 percent 
(jazz) and 30 percent (non-jazz) life insurance was 
obtained through employers and 17 percent of jazz 
and 16 percent of non-jazz musicians, obtained it 
through their musicians' union. 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


63.1% 


59.6% 


80.3% 


81 .2% 


69.4% 


52.8% 


57.4% 


55.6% 


52.3% 


52.3% 




Number 


967 


255 


245 


69 


172 


19 


426 


109 


124 


58 


no 


Percent 


35.8% 


39.5% 


19.0% 


18.8% 


30.2% 


47.2% 


41.1% 


43.9% 


46.4% 


45.1% 




Number 


548 


169 


58 


16 


75 


17 


305 


86 


110 


50 


missing 




17 


4 


2 





1 





11 


1 


3 


3 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



How was this insurance obtained? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


68.5% 


61 .2% 


54.3% 


55.1% 


68.6% 


63.2% 


77.7% 


67.0% 


64.5% 


56.9% 




Number 


662 


156 


133 


38 


118 


12 


331 


73 


80 


33 


mate 


Percent 


7.6% 


6.7% 


6.1% 


5.8% 


10.5% 


0.0% 


5.9% 


8.3% 


12.1% 


6.9% 




Number 


73 


17 


15 


4 


18 





25 


9 


15 


4 


employer 


Percent 


21 .5% 


30.2% 


38.4% 


36.2% 


22.1% 


31 .6% 


10.8% 


28.4% 


24.2% 


25.9% 




Number 


208 


77 


94 


25 


38 


6 


46 


31 


30 


15 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


17.2% 


15.7% 


34.7% 


20.3% 


9.9% 


10.5% 


10.1% 


1 1 .9% 


16.9% 


19.0% 




Number 


166 


40 


85 


14 


17 


2 


43 


13 


21 


11 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


2.4% 


2.4% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


3.5% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


3.7% 


2.4% 


3.5% 




Number 


23 


6 


8 





6 





6 


4 


3 


2 


private company 


Percent 


15.5% 


12.6% 


17.1% 


20.3% 


14.5% 


15.8% 


1 5.0% 


10.1% 


15.3% 


6.9% 




Number 


150 


32 


42 


14 


25 


3 


64 


11 


19 


4 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




967 


255 


245 


69 


172 


19 


426 


109 


124 


58 



Seventy-seven percent of jazz and 79 percent of 
non-jazz musicians have at least one retirement plan 
(67% of the actors in the 1997 AEA study had this). 
53 percent (jazz) and 50 percent (non-jazz) obtained 
it themselves; 36 percent (jazz) and 33 percent (non- 



jazz) obtained this through the musicians' union. 
For 44 percent (jazz) and 51 percent (non-jazz) their 
employer pays, and for 23 percent (jazz) and 20 
percent (non-jazz) the musicians' union pays. 



19 



Do you have at least one retirement plan? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


77.3% 


79.2% 


76.1% 


74.1% 


77.8% 


72.2% 


76.0% 


81.1% 


82.3% 


82.0% 




Number 


1184 


339 


232 


63 


193 


26 


564 


159 


195 


91 


no 


Percent 


21 .8% 


1 9.9% 


23.0% 


25.9% 


22.2% 


25.0% 


22.6% 


17.9% 


17.3% 


17.1% 




Number 


334 


85 


70 


22 


55 


9 


168 


35 


41 


19 


missing 




14 


4 


3 








1 


10 


2 


1 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If yes, how was the retirement plan obtained? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


52.6% 


50.4% 


41 .8% 


47.6% 


48.2% 


42.3% 


59.8% 


52.2% 


49.2% 


51.7% 




Number 


623 


171 


97 


30 


93 


11 


337 


83 


96 


47 


employer 


Percent 


36.7% 


47.8% 


61 .6% 


60.3% 


44.0% 


50.0% 


22.0% 


41 .5% 


42.6% 


49.5% 




Number 


435 


162 


143 


38 


85 


13 


124 


66 


83 


45 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


36.3% 


32.7% 


18.1% 


22.2% 


37.8% 


34.6% 


43.3% 


38.4% 


36.4% 


29.7% 






430 


111 


42 


14 


73 


9 


244 


61 


71 


27 


arts/arts service 
organization (specify 
organization) 


Percent 


2.4% 


0.6% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 


2.7% 


1 .3% 


3.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


28 


2 


3 





4 





15 


2 


6 





other 


Percent 


8.5% 


8.0% 


10.3% 


6.4% 


4.2% 


3.9% 


8.2% 


9.4% 


1 1 .3% 


7.7% 




Number 


100 


27 


24 


4 


8 


1 


46 


15 


22 


7 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1184 


339 


232 


63 


193 


26 


564 


159 


195 


91 



Who pays for this retirement plan? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


72.1% 


69.0% 


69.4% 


68.3% 


75.7% 


73.1% 


72.2% 


69.8% 


71 .8% 


67.0% 




Number 


854 


234 


161 


43 


146 


19 


407 


111 


140 


61 


mate 


Percent 


5.4% 


7.1% 


6.5% 


1 .6% 


2.6% 


0.0% 


4.3% 


8.2% 


10.3% 


1 1 .0% 




Number 


64 


24 


15 


1 


5 





24 


13 


20 


10 


employer 


Percent 


44.2% 


50.7% 


57.3% 


65.1% 


46.1% 


46.2% 


36.9% 


47.2% 


47.7% 


48.4% 




Number 


523 


172 


133 


41 


89 


12 


208 


75 


93 


44 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


22.6% 


20.1% 


1 1 .6% 


1 5.9% 


27.5% 


23.1% 


25.9% 


22.0% 


21 .5% 


18.7% 




Number 


268 


68 


27 


10 


53 


6 


146 


35 


42 


17 


arts service organization 
(specify organization) 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.3% 


0.9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


3.9% 


1 .8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


1 


2 








1 


10 











other 


Percent 


4.0% 


2.4% 


5.6% 


1 .6% 


3.6% 


3.9% 


3.4% 


3.8% 


4.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


47 


8 


13 


1 


7 


1 


19 


6 


8 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1184 


339 


232 


63 


193 


26 


564 


159 


195 


91 



20 



Recognition 

For 35 percent of jazz and 37 percent of non- 
jazz musicians, their first professional recognition 
was their first paid job. Over a quarter of the 
respondents chose to fill in the blank for "other" to 
this question and responses varied from "I passed an 
audition" to high school and community 



recognition, festivals, writing a song for a major 
artist, scholarships, recommendations from teachers, 
joining the musicians' union, to "just playing." These 
respondents feel generally that their talent has been 
recognized locally (93 percent jazz; 90 percent non- 
jazz), nationally (58 percent jazz, 44 percent non- 
jazz), and internationally (51 percent jazz, 35 
percent non-jazz). 



Through what venue did your first professional recognition occur? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


award or honor 


Percent 


3.1% 


6.1% 


3.6% 


5.9% 


4.0% 


11.1% 


2.4% 


6.1% 


3.4% 


4.5% 




Number 


47 


26 


11 


5 


10 


4 


18 


12 


8 


5 


feature article 


Percent 


2.8% 


1 .6% 


2.6% 


1 .2% 


4.0% 


0.0% 


2.7% 


1 .5% 


2.1% 


2.7% 




Number 


43 


7 


8 


1 


10 





20 


3 


5 


3 


first paid job 


Percent 


34.5% 


37.2% 


34.4% 


38.8% 


32.7% 


41 .7% 


34.6% 


34.2% 


36.3% 


39.6% 




Number 


529 


159 


105 


33 


81 


15 


257 


67 


86 


44 


grant 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 




Number 


14 


1 


1 











9 


1 


4 





job with a known band 


Percent 


16.3% 


8.4% 


1 5.7% 


8.2% 


20.6% 


11.1% 


1 5.0% 


7.1% 


16.5% 


9.9% 




Number 


249 


36 


48 


7 


51 


4 


111 


14 


39 


11 


played with a major artist 


Percent 


8.8% 


3.7% 


7.2% 


2.4% 


3.6% 


2.8% 


1 1 .9% 


5.1% 


6.8% 


2.7% 




Number 


135 


16 


22 


2 


9 


1 


88 


10 


16 


3 


winning a competition 


Percent 


3.3% 


8.6% 


3.9% 


14.1% 


3.6% 


5.6% 


2.3% 


8.7% 


5.1% 


5.4% 




Number 


50 


37 


12 


12 


9 


2 


17 


17 


12 


6 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


26.2% 


29.0% 


28.9% 


28.2% 


27.0% 


25.0% 


25.6% 


29.6% 


24.1% 


29.7% 




Number 


402 


124 


88 


24 


67 


9 


190 


58 


57 


33 


missing 




63 


22 


10 


1 


11 


1 


32 


14 


10 


6 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Has your talent been recognized: 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


locally 


Percent 


93.4% 


90.0% 


92.5% 


91 .8% 


94.0% 


80.6% 


94.1% 


90.3% 


92.0% 


91 .0% 




Number 


1431 


385 


282 


78 


233 


29 


698 


177 


218 


101 


nationally 


Percent 


58.4% 


43.7% 


41 .0% 


41 .2% 


52.4% 


27.8% 


72.0% 


53.1% 


44.3% 


34.2% 




Number 


894 


187 


125 


35 


130 


10 


534 


104 


105 


38 


internationally 


Percent 


50.7% 


34.6% 


29.2% 


27.1% 


44.8% 


13.9% 


65.5% 


42.9% 


38.0% 


32.4% 




Number 


776 


148 


89 


23 


111 


5 


486 


84 


90 


36 


talent not recognized 


Percent 


2.2% 


3.3% 


3.9% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


13.9% 


1 .4% 


2.6% 


1 .7% 


1 .8% 




Number 


33 


14 


12 


2 


7 


5 


10 


5 


4 


2 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


1 .5% 


1 .4% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


3.2% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


2.6% 


2.1% 


0.9% 




Number 


23 


6 


4 





8 





6 


5 


5 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



21 



Eighty- five percent of jazz and 87 percent of 
non-jazz musicians are satisfied or very satisfied 

How satisfied are you with your music at this point? 

Total 



with their music at this point. 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


very satisfied 


Percent 


32.8% 


35.8% 


34.1% 


38.8% 


32.7% 


30.6% 


33.2% 


35.7% 


30.0% 


35.1% 




Number 


502 


153 


104 


33 


81 


11 


246 


70 


71 


39 


satisfied 


Percent 


52.0% 


51 .2% 


50.8% 


50.6% 


52.4% 


52.8% 


51.9% 


51.0% 


53.6% 


51 .4% 




Number 


797 


219 


155 


43 


130 


19 


385 


100 


127 


57 


dissatisfied 


Percent 


1 0.6% 


9.8% 


1 0.2% 


8.2% 


10.9% 


16.7% 


10.1% 


8.7% 


12.7% 


10.8% 




Number 


163 


42 


31 


7 


27 


6 


75 


17 


30 


12 


very dissatisfied 


Percent 


1 .6% 


1 .6% 


2.0% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


1 .5% 


2.5% 


2.7% 




Number 


24 


7 


6 


1 


2 





10 


3 


~ ^ 


3 


missing 




46 


7 


9 


1 


8 





26 


6 


3 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 






Copyright and Airplay 



their own creation (compositions, books, etc). Sixty 
percent have recorded their own work (40 percent of 
the non-jazz), 75 percent (jazz) and 73 (percent) 
non-jazz musicians have had their works recorded 
by a professional company. 

Do you hold a copyright in some artistic work of your own creation? 



Just over half (55 percent) of the jazz musician 
respondents and only 24 percent of the non-jazz 
respondents hold copyright in some artistic work of 







To 


tal 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


54.6% 


23.6% 


33.1% 


1 7.7% 


46.8% 


16.7% 


68.5% 


30.6% 


46.8% 


18.0% 




Number 


836 


101 


101 


15 


116 


6 


508 


60 


111 


20 


no 


Percent 


45.0% 


75.7% 


66.2% 


82.4% 


52.4% 


83.3% 


31.1% 


68.9% 


53.2% 


80.2% 




Number 


689 


324 


202 


70 


130 


30 


231 


135 


126 


89 


don't know 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.7% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


6 


3 


1 





2 





3 


1 





2 


missing 




1 





1 























total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Has your work ever been recorded? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 






Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes, by me 


Percent 


59.5% 


39.5% 


54.4% 


31.8% 


54.0% 


27.8% 


65.6% 


49.5% 


52.7% 


31 .5% 




Number 


912 


169 


166 


27 


134 


10 


487 


97 


125 


35 


yes, by a professional 
recording company 


Percent 


74.6% 


73.1% 


64.9% 


62.4% 


68.6% 


66.7% 


Data 


Missing 


74.3% 


74.8% 




Number 


1143 


313 


198 


53 


170 


24 


Data 


Missing 


176 


83 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


9.0% 


7.7% 


8.2% 


1 1 .8% 


9.7% 


8.3% 


80.7% 


78.1% 


7.2% 


8.1% 






138 


33 


25 


10 


24 


3 


599 


153 


17 


9 


missing 
























total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



22 



For 81 percent of jazz and 72 percent of non- 
jazz musicians, their music has received airplay. 
Almost no one paid to get airplay and 3 1 percent 
(jazz) and 24 percent (non-jazz) musicians had help 
from a promotional person. The musicians' 
comments offered us insight into this, explaining 
many different routes to airplay including: 

Has your music received airplay? 



• radio stations featuring local artists, some of 
which contact the artists 

• college radio stations 

• work with orchestras, chamber music groups 

• playing on different artists' records, in movies, 
commercials, theater companies 

• record companies, advertising agencies 

• live performance broadcasts 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


81.1% 


72.0% 


73.8% 


64.7% 


79.8% 


69.4% 


84.8% 


75.0% 


80.6% 


73.0% 




Number 


1243 


308 


225 


55 


198 


25 


629 


147 


191 


81 


no 


Percent 


1 7.2% 


24.3% 


23.9% 


34.1% 


18.2% 


27.8% 


13.9% 


20.4% 


18.1% 


22.5% 




Number 


264 


104 


73 


29 


45 


10 


103 


40 


43 


25 


missing 




25 


16 


7 


1 


5 


1 


10 


9 


3 


5 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If yes, how did you get this airplay? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


had help from a promotional 
person 


Percent 


31.1% 


24.4% 


28.4% 


18.2% 


30.3% 


8.0% 


33.2% 


28.6% 


28.3% 


25.9% 




Number 


387 


75 


64 


10 


60 


2 


209 


42 


54 


21 


sent recordings out myself 


Percent 


21.9% 


9.1% 


16.0% 


3.6% 


27.8% 


8.0% 


21.1% 


10.2% 


25.1% 


11.1% 




Number 


272 


28 


36 


2 


55 


2 


133 


15 


48 


9 


paid to get airplay 


Percent 


2.8% 


1 .3% 


2.2% 


0.0% 


3.0% 


4.0% 


2.5% 


0.7% 


4.2% 


2.5% 




Number 


35 


4 


5 





6 


1 


16 


1 


8 


2 


knew some of the disc 
jockeys 


Percent 


19.2% 


7.1% 


21 .8% 


9.1% 


30.3% 


4.0% 


14.3% 


6.8% 


20.9% 


7.4% 




Number 


239 


22 


49 


5 


60 


1 


90 


10 


40 


6 


knew producer 


Percent 


15.8% 


9.1% 


1 1 .6% 


7.3% 


23.2% 


20.0% 


12.9% 


10.2% 


22.5% 


4.9% 




Number 


196 


28 


26 


4 


46 


5 


81 


15 


43 


4 


other 


Percent 


55.3% 


67.9% 


60.0% 


70.9% 


46.5% 


72.0% 


58.7% 


67.4% 


47.6% 


65.4% 




Number 


687 


209 


135 


39 


92 


18 


369 


99 


91 


53 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1243 


308 


225 


55 


198 


25 


629 


147 


191 


81 



Forty percent of jazz musicians and 21 percent 
of non-jazz musicians have played music that was 
broadcast over the Internet. New York jazz musicians 
are highest with 50 percent. Fifty-three percent of 
jazz and 47 percent non-jazz musicians object when 



this music is downloaded without payment and 65 
percent of jazz and 50 percent of non-jazz musicians 
think they should be paid. But 28 percent (jazz) and 
32 percent (non-jazz) say they do not mind, and 37 
percent like the exposure. 



23 



Have you played music that was broadcast over the Internet? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


39.4% 


20.6% 


20.7% 


1 7.7% 


36.3% 


13.9% 


50.0% 


20.4% 


33.8% 


25.2% 




Number 


604 


88 


63 


15 


90 


5 


371 


40 


80 


28 


no 


Percent 


42.4% 


59.1% 


63.9% 


70.6% 


43.6% 


69.4% 


31.1% 


50.0% 


48.5% 


63.1% 




Number 


649 


253 


195 


60 


108 


25 


231 


98 


115 


70 


don't know 


Percent 


18.2% 


20.3% 


15.4% 


1 1 .8% 


20.2% 


16.7% 


18.9% 


29.6% 


17.7% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


279 


87 


47 


10 


50 


6 


140 


58 


42 


13 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 1 


111 



If yes, how do you feel about people downloading this music without paying for your work? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


I do not mind 


Percent 


28.2% 


31.8% 


36.5% 


26.7% 


28.9% 


60.0% 


26.4% 


30.0% 


28.8% 


32.1% 




Number 


170 


28 


23 


4 


26 


3 


98 


12 


23 


9 


like the exposure 


Percent 


36.9% 


36.4% 


34.9% 


26.7% 


37.8% 


40.0% 


35.9% 


37.5% 


42.5% 


39.3% 




Number 


223 


32 


22 


4 


34 


2 


133 


15 


34 


11 


object 


Percent 


53.0% 


46.6% 


52.4% 


40.0% 


48.9% 


0.0% 


55.8% 


50.0% 


45.0% 


53.6% 




Number 


320 


41 


33 


6 


44 





207 


20 


36 


15 


think I should be paid 


Percent 


64.7% 


50.0% 


61.9% 


40.0% 


64.4% 


60.0% 


65.0% 


50.0% 


66.3% 


53.6% 




Number 


391 


44 


39 


6 


58 


3 


241 


20 


53 


15 


no opinion 


Percent 


5.8% 


9.1% 


4.8% 


1 3.3% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


7.0% 


15.0% 


3.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


35 


8 


3 


2 


3 





26 


6 


3 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




604 


88 


63 


15 


90 


5 


371 


40 


80 


28 



Migration and Touring 

As in all other studies of the Research Center, 
artists seem to have a greater allegiance to their 
home sites - 73 percent of jazz and 63 percent of 
non-jazz responding musicians have lived in the 



county or parish of their current residence for more 
than 10 years. With an even higher response than 
the RCAC's other studies, 75 percent of the jazz and 
66 percent of the non-jazz respondents (compared 
to 62 percent in our other studies) received music- 
related training in the area or region. 



For how many years have you lived in the county or parish of your current residence? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


under 1 year 


Percent 


1 .6% 


4.0% 


0.3% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


1 .9% 


3.1% 


1 .7% 


6.3% 




Number 


24 


17 


1 


3 


5 


1 


14 


6 


4 


7 


2-3 years 


Percent 


5.9% 


1 1 .5% 


3.6% 


9.4% 


4.8% 


19.4% 


5.8% 


1 1 .7% 


10.1% 


9.9% 




Number 


90 


49 


11 


8 


12 


7 


43 


23 


24 


11 


4-5 years 


Percent 


5.0% 


5.8% 


3.0% 


2.4% 


4.8% 


5.6% 


6.3% 


6.6% 


3.4% 


7.2% 




Number 


76 


25 


9 


2 


12 


2 


47 


13 


8 


8 


6-10 years 


Percent 


14.5% 


15.9% 


8.5% 


15.3%, 


12.1% 


13.9% 


18.3% 


15.8% 


12.7% 


17.1% 




Number 


222 


68 


26 


13 


30 


5 


136 


31 


30 


19 


more than 10 years 


Percent 


73.1% 


62.9% 


84.6% 


69.4% 


76.2% 


58.3% 


67.7% 


62.8% 


72.2% 


59.5% 



24 





Number 


1120 


269 


258 


59 


189 


21 


502 


123 


171 


66 


mean 




4.5 


4.2 


4.7 


4.4 


4.6 


4.1 


4.4 


4.2 


4.4 


4.1 


median 




5 


— 5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


~5 


missing 


































total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


m 



Did you receive any music-related training in this city or region? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


74.9% 


66.1% 


80.3% 


68.2% 


65.3% 


33.3% 


78.2% 


76.0% 


67.5% 


57.7% 




Number 


1147 


283 


245 


58 


162 


12 


580 


149 


160 


64 


no 


Percent 


25.1% 


33.9% 


19.7% 


31 .8% 


34.7% 


66.7% 


21 .8% 


24.0% 


32.5% 


42.3% 




Number 


385 


145 


60 


27 


86 


24 


162 


47 


77 


47 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Musicians are famous for touring, and these 
respondents are no exception. Almost a quarter (25 
percent jazz and 16 percent non-jazz) worked or 



performed away from their main residences over 30 
times in the previous 12 months. 



Approximately how many times during the last 12 months did you work or perform away from home? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


zero 


Percent 


25.1% 


35.5% 


37.1% 


42.4% 


23.0% 


16.7% 


19.3% 


35.2% 


30.0% 


36.9% 




Number 


384 


152 


113 


36 


57 


6 


143 


69 


71 


41 


1-5 times 


Percent 


21 .4% 


25.2% 


25.6% 


22.4% 


24.6% 


41 .7% 


17.7% 


22.5% 


24.5% 


27.0% 




Number 


328 


108 


78 


19 


61 


15 


131 


44 


58 


30 


6-15 times 


Percent 


1 8.5% 


12.9% 


17.1% 


1 1 .8% 


20.6% 


16.7% 


17.9% 


1 1 .2% 


19.8% 


1 5.3% 




Number 


283 


55 


52 


10 


51 


6 


133 


22 


47 


17 


16-30 times 


Percent 


9.3% 


9.6% 


8.2% 


7.1% 


8.5% 


11.1% 


10.9% 


10.2% 


6.3% 


9.9% 




Number 


142 


41 


25 


6 


21 


4 


81 


20 


15 


11 


over 30 times 


Percent 


24.7% 


1 5.9% 


10.5% 


1 6.5% 


22.2% 


13.9% 


33.3% 


19.9% 


1 9.0% 


9.0% 




Number 


379 


68 


32 


14 


55 


5 


247 


39 


45 


10 


missing 




16 


4 


5 





3 





7 


2 


1 


2 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Playing in Bands 

If you currently play with a group, how many different groups do you play with? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


none, play solo only 


Percent 


14.6% 


16.6% 


17.4% 


1 1 .8% 


9.7% 


13.9% 


15.1% 


21 .4% 


14.8% 


12.6% 




Number 


224 


71 


53 


10 


24 


5 


112 


42 


35 


14 


one 


Percent 


12.5% 


19.4% 


14.4% 


21 .2% 


17.3% 


25.0% 


10.2% 


1 6.8% 


12.2% 


20.7% 




Number 


192 


83 


44 


18 


43 


9 


76 


33 


29 


23 



25 



two 


Percent 


9.7% 


1 2.2% 


1 1 .2% 


12.9% 


10.9% 


27.8% 


7.8% 


9.2% 


12.2% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


148 


52 


34 


11 


27 


10 


58 


18 


29 


13 


three 


Percent 


1 1 .2% 


1 1 .9% 


14.4% 


12.9% 


13.7% 


1 3.9% 


9.0% 


9.7% 


1 1 .0% 


14.4% 




Number 


171 


51 


44 


11 


34 


5 


67 


19 


26 


16 


four 


Percent 


8.4% 


6.8% 


6.9% 


10.6% 


7.3% 


8.3% 


8.0% 


4.6% 


12.7% 


7.2% 




Number 


128 


29 


21 


9 


18 


3 


59 


9 


30 


8 


more than four 


Percent 


40.7% 


30.1% 


33.4% 


27.1% 


38.3% 


11.1% 


46.0% 


34.7% 


35.9% 


30.6% 




Number 


623 


129 


102 


23 


95 


4 


341 


68 


85 


34 


missing 




46 


13 


7 


3 


7 





29 


7 


3 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Jazz Styles and Instruments 

While all kinds of instruments are played, 16 
percent of the jazz musicians play piano/keyboard 
and 1 1 percent play trumpet; 23 percent of the non- 
jazz musicians play violin and 11 percent play 



What is your primary instrument? 



Total 



piano/keyboard. 

On average, jazz respondents spend 2.7 hours a 
day practicing their music; non-jazz musicians 
spend 2.5 hours a day; the median for both is 2 
hours a day and the mode (the number that appears 
most often) is 1 hour a day. 



Detroit New New York San 

Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


alto sax 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 





2 





5 





10 











banjo 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


5 





1 





2 





1 





1 





baritone sax 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.2% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


11 


1 


4 





3 





3 





1 


1 


bass 


Percent 


8.4% 


2.1% 


5.9% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


8.4% 


2.6% 


8.9% 


2.7% 




Number 


128 


9 


18 


1 


27 





62 


5 


21 


3 


bass clarinet 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


10.9% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 











2 


1 








cello 


Percent 


2.4% 


9.1% 


1 .6% 


9.4% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


2.7% 


9.2% 


3.0% 


9.9% 




Number 


36 


39 


5 


8 


4 


2 


20 


18 


7 


11 


clarinet 


Percent 


3.2% 


4.9% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


4.8% 


2.8% 


2.4% 


6.6% 


4.2% 


3.6% 




Number 


49 


21 


9 


3 


12 


1 


18 


13 


10 


4 


cornet 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 





1 





1 











1 





drums 


Percent 


9.3% 


0.9% 


10.5% 


0.0% 


10.9% 


0.0% 


8.9% 


1 .5% 


7.6% 


0.9% 




Number 


143 


4 


32 





27 





66 


3 


18 


1 


effects ( washboard, 
whistles, etc.) 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































flugelhorn 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 























1 





flute 


Percent 


1 .8% 


6.1% 


2.6% 


7.1% 


0.4% 


5.6% 


1 .2% 


4.6% 


4.2% 


8.1% 




Number 


28 


26 


8 


6 


1 


2 


9 


9 


10 


9 



26 



guitar 


Percent 


7.3% 


5.8% 


6.2% 


7.1% 


10.5% 


8.3% 


7.6% 


6.1% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


112 


25 


19 


6 


26 


3 


56 


12 


11 


4 


harmonica 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


2 














1 


1 





percussion 


Percent 


2.4% 


1 .2% 


3.0% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


2.0% 


1 .0% 


3.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


37 


5 


9 





6 


1 


15 


2 


7 


2 


piano/ keyboard 


Percent 


16.1% 


1 1 .2% 


15.1% 


7.1% 


10.9% 


8.3% 


18.7% 


16.8% 


14.4% 


5.4% 




Number 


246 


48 


46 


6 


27 


3 


139 


33 


34 


6 


saxophone 


Percent 


8.7% 


0.9% 


9.2% 


3.5% 


6.9% 


0.0% 


9.0% 


0.0% 


8.9% 


0.9% 




Number 


133 


4 


28 


3 


17 





67 





21 


1 


trombone 


Percent 


6.5% 


1 .9% 


3.0% 


1 .2% 


9.7% 


5.6% 


6.7% 


2.0% 


7.2% 


0.9% 




Number 


100 


8 


9 


1 


24 


2 


50 


4 


17 


1 


trumpet 


Percent 


10.9% 


3.0% 


15.1% 


3.5% 


12.1% 


8.3% 


9.4% 


3.1% 


8.9% 


0.9% 




Number 


167 


13 


46 


3 


30 


3 


70 


6 


21 


1 


tuba 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


8 


3 





1 


3 





5 








2 


vibraphone 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


5 





— s 











2 





3 





violin 


Percent 


5.3% 


22.9% 


5.9% 


23.5% 


4.0% 


27.8% 


4.7% 


20.4% 


7.6% 


25.2% 




Number 


81 


98 


18 


20 


10 


10 


35 


40 


18 


28 


voice 


Percent 


2.4% 


2.6% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


2.0% 


2.1% 


4.5% 




Number 


37 


11 


10 


2 


4 





18 


4 


5 


5 


xylophone 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































other 


Percent 


1 1 .5% 


25.9% 


1 1 .8% 


29.4% 


7.7% 


25.0% 


12.4% 


23.0% 


1 2.2% 


28.8% 




Number 


176 


111 


36 


25 


19 


9 


92 


45 


29 


32 


missing 




3 





1 











2 











total # of respondents who 
answered the question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



About how many hours per day do you spend practicing music? 





Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Mean 


2.7 


2.5 


2.2 


2.5 


2.7 


2.4 


2.9 


2.6 


2.4 


2.3 


Median 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


std. dev. 


2.2 


1.7 


1.7 


1.9 


2.3 


1.5 


2.5 


1.8 


1.8 


1.3 


Mode 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


valid cases 


1268 


366 


261 


68 


175 


32 


633 


167 


199 


99 


Missing 


55 


15 


5 


2 


9 


1 


33 


11 


8 


1 



Thirty-eight percent (jazz) and 28 percent (non- 
jazz) spend over 40 hours a week on music or 
music-related activities, including performing, 
looking for work, and marketing; in New York this 
reaches 50 percent for jazz musicians. Sixty-nine 
percent (jazz) and 63 percent (non-Jazz) spend over 



20 hours a week on this. 

Jazz musicians play in many styles and our 
respondents are no exception. The ones mentioned 
most frequentiy are contemporary, swing, 
traditional, mainstream, Latin and rhythm and 
blues. 



27 



Over a third of jazz musicians spend over 40 hours per week on music-related activities; in New York 
this is as high as 50 percent. 



Future Goals and Qualities Needed for 
a Career in Jazz 

Musicians were asked about the three most 
important qualities needed to pursue a career in 
jazz. While talent (23 percent) was the most 
important quality for being a jazz musician, over 67 
percent of the respondents chose the 'Other' 
category. Although the responses musicians gave in 



the 'Other' category for questions about both 
qualities and goals were much like the choices 
presented to them in the questionnaire, clearly this 
was a question where they did not wish to be placed 
in pre-determined categories. Some of their 
responses were: creativity, drive, musicality, faith, 
confidence, punctuality, appearance, dedication, 
versatility, overall good attitude. 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 1 
























business savvy 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .4% 


1 .3% 


2.4% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


0.8% 


1 .0% 


1 .7% 


0.9% 




Number 


19 


6 


4 


2 


5 


1 


6 


2 


4 


1 


connections 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.2% 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


6 


1 


3 


1 


2 











1 





curiosity 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


6 





2 





2 





2 











energy 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


12 


3 


3 


2 


6 





3 








1 


intelligence 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


3.5% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.9% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


18 


5 


3 


3 


6 


1 


7 


1 


2 





luck 


Percent 


0.5% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


3.5% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


5 


2 


3 


3 





2 


2 








perception 


Percent, 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 





1 








1 


1 





performing ability 


Percent 


1 .8% 


1 .6% 


1 .6% 


1 .2% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


2.5% 


2.7% 




Number 


27 


7 


5 


1 


7 


1 


9 


2 


6 


3 


physical stamina 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.7% 


1 .3% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


5.6% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


2.5% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 


3 


4 


1 


1 


2 


6 





6 





talent 


Percent 


23.1% 


30.8% 


24.6% 


24.7% 


21.8% 


38.9% 


23.5% 


34.7% 


21.5% 


26.1% 




Number 


354 


132 


75 


21 


54 


14 


174 


68 


51 


29 


technique 


Percent 


1 .3% 


0.2% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


20 


1 


5 





7 





5 


1 


3 





other 


Percent 


67.3% 


61.2% 


63.9% 


57.7% 


60.9% 


47.2% 


70.6% 


60.7% 


67.9% 


69.4% 




Number 


1031 


262 


195 


49 


151 


17 


524 


119 


161 


77 


missing 




12 


2 


3 


2 


3 





4 





2 





total # ot respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



28 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 2 
























business savvy 


Percent 


4.2% 


1 .6% 


3.6% 


3.5% 


6.1% 


2.8% 


4.0% 


1 .5% 


3.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


65 


7 


11 


3 


15 


1 


30 


3 


— 3 





connections 


Percent 


1 .3% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


20 


5 


2 


2 


6 





9 


2 


3 


1 


curiosity 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


1 


2 





2 





5 


1 


~i 





energy 


Percent 


1 .3% 


1 .4% 


2.3% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


20 


6 


7 


2 


4 


2 


4 


2 


~ 5 





intelligence 


Percent 


1.1% 


1 .2% 


1 .3% 


3.5% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 


5 


4 


3 


6 





5 


2 


2 





luck 


Percent 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


1 .5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


10 


5 


2 


1 


3 





3 


3 


2 


1 


perception 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


2.8%, 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


2 


1 


~ 5 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 





performing ability 


Percent 


2.3% 


1 .4% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


4.4% 


5.6% 


1 .5% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


35 


6 


10 


2 


11 


2 


11 


1 


3 


1 


physical stamina 


Percent 


2.1% 


1 .4% 


2.0% 


3.5% 


3.6% 


2.8% 


1 .9% 


1 .0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


32 


6 


6 


~s 


9 


1 


14 


2 


3 





talent 


Percent 


9.9% 


14.0% 


9.8% 


14.1% 


9.7% 


11.1% 


9.7% 


14.8% 


10.6% 


1 3.5% 




Number 


151 


60 


30 


12 


24 


4 


72 


29 


25 


15 


technique 


Percent 


1 .4% 


1 .6% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


3.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


21 


7 


7 


3 


4 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1 


other 


Percent 


70.6% 


71 .3% 


69.8% 


57.7% 


60.5% 


63.9% 


74.9% 


73.5% 


68.4% 


80.2% 




Number 


1081 


305 


213 


49 


150 


23 


556 


144 


162 


89 


missing 




61 


13 


10 


5 


12 





28 


5 


11 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 3 
























business savvy 


Percent 


3.5% 


2.8% 


3.9% 


3.5% 


4.0% 


0.0% 


3.2% 


3.6% 


3.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


53 


12 


12 


3 


10 





24 


7 


7 


2 


connections 


Percent 


1.1% 


2.3% 


1 .6% 


2.4% 


0.4% 


2.8% 


0.8% 


2.6% 


2.1% 


1 .8% 




Number 


17 


10 


5 


2 


1 


1 


— 3 


5 


5 


2 


curiosity 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


9 


2 





1 


2 





6 





1 


1 


energy 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


1 .3% 


1 .2% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 




Number 


18 


5 


4 


1 


5 


1 


5 


3 


4 





intelligence 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


18 


5 


3 


2 


4 





9 


1 


2 


2 



29 



luck 


Percent 


2.3% 


4.0% 


2.0% 


1 .2% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


2.6% 


6.6% 


1 .7% 


2.7% 




Number 


35 


17 


6 


1 


6 





19 


13 


4 


3 


perception 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.0% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


8 





3 





1 





2 





2 





performing ability 


Percent 


2.0% 


1 .4% 


2.3% 


2.4% 


4.4% 


2.8% 


0.9% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.9% 




Number 


30 


6 


7 


2 


11 


1 


7 


2 


5 


1 


physical stamina 


Percent 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.3% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


16 


5 


1 


2 


7 


1 


5 


1 


3 


1 


talent 


Percent 


7.4% 


6.8% 


7.2% 


3.5% 


6.9% 


5.6% 


8.8% 


7.7% 


3.8% 


8.1% 




Number 


113 


29 


22 


3 


17 


2 


65 


15 


9 


9 


technique 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .4% 


1 .6% 


1 .2% 


1 .6% 


2.8% 


0.4% 


1 .0% 


3.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


19 


6 


5 


1 


4 


1 


3 


2 


7 


2 


other 


Percent 


68.7% 


69.2% 


68.2% 


67.1% 


60.9% 


75.0% 


70.2% 


66.8% 


73.0% 


73.0% 




Number 


1053 


296 


208 


57 


151 


27 


521 


131 


173 


81 


missing 




143 


35 


29 


10 


29 


2 


70 


16 


15 


7 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



While reaching a higher level of artistic 
expression/achievement (11 percent) was the most 
important goal for the next five years, 62 percent of 
the jazz musicians chose 'Other.' Comments here 
included getting out of music, creating a gold 



record, making more money, appearing in world 
premieres by international orchestras, obtaining 
local, national, international recognition, making a 
cd, to "Wow, no one ever asked me this before." 



What are your three most important goals for the next five years as a musician? 

Total Detroit New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 1 
























develop artistic 
competence 


Percent 


3.7% 


2.3% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


4.0% 


5.6% 


3.6% 


1 .0% 


4.6% 


2.7% 




Number 


57 


10 


9 


3 


10 


2 


27 


2 


11 


3 


get a record deal 


Percent 


5.8% 


3.3% 


4.3% 


2.4% 


4.8% 


5.6% 


7.1% 


3.1% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


89 


14 


13 


2 


12 


2 


53 


6 


11 


4 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


19 


2 


3 





4 





10 


1 


2 


1 


make a living from 
my music 


Percent 


4.5% 


3.5% 


3.3% 


1 .2% 


7.3% 


0.0% 


4.0% 


5.6% 


4.6% 


2.7% 




Number 


69 


15 


10 


1 


18 





30 


11 


11 


3 


make money from 
my music 


Percent 


3.3% 


3.3% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


7.7% 


5.6% 


2.2% 


2.6% 


3.8% 


3.6% 




Number 


51 


14 


7 


3 


19 


2 


16 


5 


9 


4 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


2 

















1 





1 





participate in major 
concerts 


Percent 


0.9% 


1 .6% 


0.7% 


3.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


1.1% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


13 


7 


2 


3 


1 





8 


2 


2 


2 


play with well-known 
groups 


Percent 


0.9% 


2.6% 


1 .0% 


4.7% 


1 .2% 


11.1% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


14 


11 


3 


4 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 






30 



reach higher level of 
artistic expression/ 
achievement 


Percent 


1 1 .0% 


10.8% 


11.5% 


1 1 .8% 


12.5% 


13.9% 


10.0% 


1 0.2% 


1 1 .8% 


9.9% 




Number 


168 


46 


35 


io 


31 


5 


74 


20 


28 


11 


spend more time on 
music 


Percent 


2.0% 


2.6% 


1 .6% 


4.7% 


3.6% 


0.0% 


0.9% 


2.0% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


31 


11 


5 


4 


9 





7 


4 


10 


3 


win 
recognition/award 


Percent 


1 .4% 


0.2% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


21 


1 


3 





6 





9 


1 


3 





other 


Percent 


62.3% 


64.0% 


66.9% 


54.1% 


49.6% 


52.8% 


65.8% 


68.9% 


59.1% 


66.7% 




Number 


955 


274 


204 


46 


123 


19 


488 


135 


140 


74 


missing 




43 


23 


11 


9 


12 


2 


14 


6 


6 


6 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



31 



Chapter IV. Summary and Conclusions 



Over half the union jazz musicians earned their livelihoods in the last 12 months as musicians. Over 
three-quarters of them are white males. While in New York and San Francisco, the white and black 
proportions of jazz musicians tend to be similar to each other in numbers, in New Orleans where 60.8 
percent of the area's population over age 18 was white, 66.5 percent of the AFM jazz musicians were 
white. Of all the jazz musicians surveyed, 29 percent have graduate degrees, and 78.9 percent study with 
private teachers. Seventy-three percent have lived in the county or parish of their residence for 10 or 
more years, and 74.9 percent received training there. Eighty-nine percent of these musicians obtained 
health insurance, only 18 percent of them through the union and the union pays for 7 percent; only 
17.2 percent obtained life insurance through their musicians' union and the union pays for 13 percent. 
Thirty-six percent obtained retirement plans through the musicians' union and for 22.6 percent the 
union pays for their plans. 



The American Federation of Musicians, like all 
protective collective bargaining agencies, seeks to 
protect its members and ensure them adequate 
compensation for their work. The major income of 
57 percent of the jazz musicians we surveyed was 
from their music; for 53 percent, all of their income 
came from work as a musician. No one, in fact, is 
unemployed. Grants and fellowships play a minor 
role, with 82 percent of the jazz musicians never 
having received either. 

While 100 percent of the respondents play or 
sing jazz music, only 63.3 percent of them consider 
themselves professional jazz musicians. This is 
highest in New Orleans where 73 percent consider 
themselves professionals and where 76.3 percent 
played jazz for money during the last 12 months. 
The usual corollary between professionalism and 
income, or between professionalism and union 
membership, does not seem applicable here. 

There are a number of areas of ambivalence 
from the jazz musicians we surveyed, some of which 
are similar to all performing arts unions, especially 
the issue of supply and demand and pay scale. 

lazz musicians who play non-union don't have 
the union as an advocate for a higher pay scale, but 
many cannot get enough work being union 
members, so multiple non-union jobs at a lower 
scale may yield them more money. On the one hand, 
musicians advocate the union stepping in to stop 
low-paying jobs; on the other; they worry that, as a 
result of union intervention, electronic media will 
replace live musicians. And 64 percent think they 



should be paid for people downloading their music 
off the Internet. 

While the union has both hard and soft referral 
systems for jazz musicians, in some cities bookings 
are hard to come by and an artist on a normal career 
trajectory may saturate his market fairly quickly. In 
some cities like San Francisco, the local union acts as 
a booking agent, trying to find actual work for the 
musicians. In New Orleans, where the black 
musicians' local and the white musicians' local 
combined, the locals used to own clubs on Bourbon 
Street, but the costs of doing this became exorbitant. 
Available work depends partly on the critical mass of 
musicians, and also by the attitude towards those 
musicians' local growth. There is also a feeling that a 
musician coming to New Orleans, for example, takes 
three years to break in, then is able to secure 
premium jobs and after about seven years, the 
market is saturated, and he gets replaced by younger, 
emerging musicians. And many musicians are 
required to travel — 24. 1 percent performed away 
from home over thirty times in the preceding year. 
Especially in New York, musicians say they lose 
money performing there, and make more on the 
road. More economically viable gigs could help this 
situation. Time and again, musicians, even those 
who thought the music itself was thriving, 
complained of fewer and fewer places to play. They 
also wanted more inviting performance spaces, in 
contrast to bars, clubs, and basements. Expansion of 
venues to community centers, hospitals and other 
public venues and more attention by the media 



32 



would get the word out. 

In some cities, the union has been weakened by 
the fact that musicians can belong to more than one 
local and can, for example, go to New York where a 
higher union minimum has been established, and 
then quit their original union local. In New York, 
too, the union had a profound effect on the 
development of jazz. Intimately tied up with the 
licensing of jazz clubs, the union often found itself 
caught between being a champion of freedom of 
expression, minimum wage and royalty payments 
and the more pragmatic aims of developing 
legitimate venues to play in. 

But jazz musicians in this study are highly 
educated, with 73.1 percent living in the same 
county for over ten years, much higher than the 
general population, and 79 percent having studied 
with private teachers. In this primarily white, 
primarily male union membership, 89 percent have 
health care, 61 percent of those through an HMO or 
a PPO. In this population, 31.9 percent have suffered 
injuries from occupational hazards in music-related 
work. While there are a number of performing arts 
medicine clinics around the U.S. (and one that 
specifically targets jazz musicians in Louisiana) 
frequently musicians do not like to admit health 
problems received on the job for fear of the effect on 
future employment. There are some emergency relief 
agencies like Music Cares and the Musicians 
Emergency Fund that offer financial support to 
musicians who have fallen prey to illness. These 
agencies have proven themselves to be invaluable to 
a number of artists who have used their services to 



weather emergency conditions and more are needed. 

Only 18 percent obtained health and medical 
coverage through the union and the union pays for 
only 7 percent of the health coverage. This compares 
negatively with our 1997 figures for Actors' Equity 
Association, where the union paid for 18 percent of 
the actors' coverage. A much larger percent of the 
musicians have life insurance (63.1 percent) and 
retirement plans (77.3 percent), with 13 and 22.6 
percent, respectively, paid by the union. 

Even with the challenges described above, 93.4 
percent of jazz musicians feel their talent has been 
recognized locally, and over half feel that it has been 
recognized nationally and internationally. A 
majority of respondents, 84.8 percent, are satisfied 
or very satisfied with their careers. Some artists do 
not think of their work on a career track; careers, in 
fact, are a fairly modern phenomenon — in the 1930s 
and '40s people just played music. Some feel they've 
been "kept out of the market" and overlooked for 
younger talent. Additionally, trepidation at using 
computers and other tools of the trade 
disadvantages older musicians. Programs in music 
schools teaching jazz musicians about the business 
side of their career would help them survive tough 
competition. 

The most important quality identified for 
pursuit of that career is talent. Future goals for the 
next five years include reaching a higher level of 
artistic achievement and making a living from jazz, 
and answers ranged from seeking more recognition 
to making a gold record to wanting to be heard by 
the public, the jazz community, and the union. 



33 



Appendix A. Metro Areas Used in Study 



Detroit Metropolitan Area 

Detroit- Ann Arbor- Flint 

Ann Arbor 

Lenawee County 
Livingston County 
Washtenaw County 

Detroit 

Lapeer County 
Macomb County 
Monroe County 
Oakland County 
St. Clair County 
Wayne County 

Flint 

New Orleans Metropolitan Area 

Jefferson Parish 
Orleans Parish 
Plaquemines Parish 
St. Bernard Parish 
St. Charles Parish 
St. James Parish 
St. John the Baptist Parish 
St. Tammany Parish 

New York Metropolitan Area 

Portions of New York State- New Jersey- 
Connecticut surveyed 
New York State 

Bronx County 

Kings County 

New York County 

Putnam County 

Queens County 

Richmond County 

Rockland County 

Westchester County 

Nassau County 

Suffolk County 

Orange County 



New Jersey 

Essex County 
Morris County 
Sussex County 
Union County 
Warren County 
Middlesex County 
Somerset County 
Monmouth County 
Bergen County 
Passaic County 
Hudson County 

Connecticut 

Darien (Town) 
Greenwich (Town) 
New Canaan (Town) 
Norwalk (City) 
Stamford (City) 
Weston (Town) 
Westport (Town) 
Wilton (Town) 

San Francisco Metropolitan Area 

Portions of San Francisco- Oakland- San Jose- 
Santa Rosa- Vallejo/Fairfield/Napa surveyed 

Oakland 

Alameda County 
Contra Costa County 

San Francisco 

Marin County 

San Francisco County 

San Mateo County 

San Jose 

Santa Clara County 

Santa Rosa 

Sonoma County 

Vallejo- Fairfield- Napa 
Napa County 
Solano County 



34 



Appendix B. Metropolitan Areas Context 



In order to implement policies and programs 
from the data gathered on jazz musicians, it is 
important to understand the context in which these 
musicians live. This section presents some brief 
background of venues, distribution mechanisms, 
education, supporters and hinders, and media 
outlets in each metro area. An additional section 
provides actual resources in each location where jazz 
musicians can go for assistance.* 

There are literally hundreds of jazz related 
venues that showcase this music all over the United 
States. Festivals, nightclubs, community centers, 
churches and national performing arts organizations 
all offer musicians the opportunity to be heard. 
Long a key part of the lore and personal experience 
of every jazz musician, young or old, is the 
mentoring of master to apprentice and the oral 
transmission of musical artistry and knowledge 
formally and informally, through these venues and 
through inventions of their own. Resilience is key. 
The description that follows only touches on the 
fabric of the geographic locations that produces, 
displays, advertises, sells and supports these 
musicians. It does not pretend to illuminate the deep 
and substantial history of the players or the places. 

While jazz exists largely in the profit sector, 
within the past decade there have been two major 
grantmaking initiatives devoted to jazz that have had 
major national significance: The Lila Wallace- 
Reader's Digest $24 million National Jazz Network 
and the $6.7 million Doris Duke Charitable 
Foundation jazz initiative. The National Jazz 
Network and affiliated programs was launched in 
1990 after a year long study of jazz in the United 
States conducted by the New England Foundation 
for the Arts and, the now defunct National Jazz 
Service Organization. The study resulted in the 
funding of jazz presenters and programming 
administered by regional arts agencies, the 
Smithsonian's traveling jazz exhibitions, and jazz 
programming at National Public Radio. The 
programs continued until 1998 when the foundation 
decided to move away from discipline specific 
funding. 

Associations that work to track the progress of 
the jazz form are dominated nationally by the 



International Association of Jazz Education (IAJE), 
The National Association of Recording Arts and 
Sciences (NARAS), The Recording Industry 
Association of America (RIAA), Broadcast Music, 
Inc. (BMI), and the American Society of Composers, 
Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). 

There are a number of organizations that 
endeavor to meet the less ostensible needs of the 
national jazz community. These include The 
American Federation of Jazz Societies (AFJS), which 
acts as a kind of watchdog organization. It monitors 
Washington legislation and current societal trends 
that affect the jazz community. 

National media coverage for jazz is spearheaded 
by the following organizations: National Public 
Radio (NPR), Public Broadcasting Service, Inc., 
Americans for the Arts, and Black Entertainment 
Television (BET). National Public Radio is arguably 
the key national provider of jazz programming. 
Among the jazz oriented programs produced by 
NPR are Jazz Profiles hosted by Nancy Wilson, 
JazzSet with Dee Dee Bridgewater and Marian 
McPartland's Piano Jazz. 

Detroit 

Though the Detroit jazz scene has seen a sharp 
decline in popularity since the 1970s, many 
members of the jazz community compare today's 
offering of venues to that of the 1950s. Instead of 
large scale concerts in many different venues, only a 
few major venues remain and the majority of jazz is 
performed by small groups in restaurants and small 
clubs. Few clubs are able to obtain big name 
performers, therefore most headliners appear at the 
Ford-Detroit Festival or at Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra Hall. Ann Arbor is home to a few high- 
quality jazz venues but there is not enough of a 
demand to support multiple site performances on 
one evening. While there has been hardship, the 
Detroit metro area fortunately boasts a number of 
venues that still draw a good crowd and keep the 
area jazz scene alive. Among these venues are the 
above-mentioned Ford-Detroit Jazz Festival, Detroit 
Symphony Orchestra Hall, University Music Society, 
SereNegeti Ballroom, Baker's Keyboard Lounge and 



35 



Bomac's Lounge. 

The Ford-Detroit Jazz Festival, produced by 
Music Hall Detroit, is the largest free jazz festival in 
the country. Formerly known as the Ford-Montreux 
Jazz Festival, it is held every Labor Day weekend, the 
festival attracts around 750,000 people a year. The 
festival typically features 20 nationally recognized 
headliners and places a great deal of emphasis on 
local artists as well. Along with area professional 
musicians, the festival includes performances by 
high school and college groups. 

The SereNgeti Ballroom holds concerts 
produced by the presenting organization, the 
Jazznetwork. The concerts generally feature big 
headliners but a local big band takes the stage once a 
month and educational workshops are held every 
Thursday night. Baker's Keyboard Lounge has been 
in operation since 1934. It has hosted jazz giants 
such as Miles Davis, John Coltrane and Cab 
Calloway, and now features both local and nationally 
known artists. The venue is not unionized so both 
union and non-union artists perform there and both 
verbal and written contracts are used. 

Jazz specialty stores are scarce in the Detroit 
area and the large chains that carry jazz selections 
such as Sam Goody, Borders Books and Music and 
Detroit area chain Harmony House do not offer a 
large stock. The independent record store Street 
Corner Music is a major player in the area jazz scene 
due to its efforts at promoting local and national 
recording artists. 

The only record labels that deal exclusively with 
jazz are labels that musicians themselves have 
formed for the sole purpose of recording their work. 
AACE is owned by drummer Francisco Mora, Jazz 
Workshop was started by University of Michigan 
professor Donald Walden and saxophonist Wendel 
Harrison operates Wenha. School Kids, a label 
affiliated with the record store of the same name, 
went bankrupt and thus ended the only operating 
non-musician owned label in the Detroit area. 

There are a number of formal jazz education 
programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. Wayne 
State University, Eastern Michigan University, 
Oakland University, the University of Michigan, the 
Jazz Network Foundation Education Programs, the 
Education Department of Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra and the Southeastern Michigan Jazz 
Association all offer jazz related programs. 



Additionally, the Detroit School District Jazz 
Education Program oversees jazz programs in 10 
area high schools. 

Wayne State University has a separate jazz 
division within its Department of Music. The 
University of Michigan School of Music houses the 
Department of Jazz and Improvisational Studies and 
offers Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees in Jazz, and 
Contemporary Improvisation and Jazz Studies. The 
Education Department at the Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra sponsors the Ameritech Jazz Youth 
Initiative, a program that provides instructional 
classes, jam sessions and lectures with legendary jazz 
artists for students and local musicians. 

Most of the current mentors in Detroit are 
musicians in their 60s, most of them the direct 
successors of the original architects of the area jazz 
scene. Marcus Belgrave, who serves on the faculty of 
Wayne State University, is regularly cited as an 
integral member of the Detroit area jazz community. 
Belgrave has repeatedly leveraged his national 
contacts to bring out of town artists to area venues. 
Donald Walden has also established himself as an 
important source of mentoring through his dual 
role as University of Michigan Jazz Studies professor 
and record label owner. Musician and educator 
James Tatum plays a similar role by spearheading the 
James Tatum Foundation for the Arts, a foundation 
dedicated to the development of young musicians. 
Other important figures include pianists Harold 
McKinney and Dr. Teddy Harris, and drummer Roy 
Brooks. 

The Ford Motor Company Fund is extremely 
active in area philanthropy with a great portion of 
its giving earmarked for the arts, culture and 
education. In its effort to communicate the 
importance of jazz music, Ford sponsors the Ford- 
Detroit Jazz Festival, the largest free admission jazz 
festival in the United States. 

Detroit Jazz Online links to the web pages of 
local musicians, and has an online CD store, and 
jazz-related articles. The feature most helpful to 
local musicians, however, is the "Need a Musician" 
musician request center, which helps area artists find 
work in the local region. 

The major jazz oriented publications in the 
region are the SEMJA Update, JAM Newsletter, Jazz 
Quarterly, and the jazz calendar and listings of the 
Detroit Metro Times. 



36 



The two major jazz oriented radio programs in 
the Detroit metro area are WDET FM 101.9 and 
WEMU FM 89.1. WDET FM 101.9 is the local NPR 
affiliate of Wayne State University. 

The Jazz Alliance of Michigan was created to 
provide for the growth of Michigan's jazz 
community. The Alliance's website contains a list of 
media resources for jazz, including publications, 
radio and newspapers, links to recording studios, 
sound equipment/engineers, venues for jazz, and 
links to musicians. 

New Orleans 

New Orleans is known for its music festivals and 
the Jazz & Heritage Festival is the grandest of the 
choices the city has to offer. The New Orleans 
community recognizes the many benefits of this 
popular event and the business community joins 
ranks with the public sector to ensure the festival's 
success. Jazz specific nightclubs aren't as plentiful as 
one would expect in the New Orleans area. Of the 
four major sites, Snug Harbor is the most respected 
and well received. Ellis Marsalis regularly performs 
at Snug Harbor with new talent from the area jazz 
community. The other area mainstays are the Funky 
Butt, Sweet Lorraine's and Tipitina's, which has 
gravitated toward presenting more R&B oriented 
acts at its three locations. Other venues that present 
jazz acts are the New Orleans Convention Center, 
the Mahalia Jackson Theater for the Performing 
Arts, the Masonic Temple Theater, Theater 13, 
Orpheum Theatre, the Sandbar and the local 
universities. 

There are currently over 200 record labels 
operating in the city of New Orleans. Of those 
labels, only a handful are considered true players in 
the jazz market. The best known of these labels are 
All for One Records (AFO), Basin Street Records, 
Louisiana Red Hot Records, and STR Digital 
Records, all of which are independents. 

The New Orleans metropolitan area is home to 
over 100 record stores with the largest of these stores 
coming in clusters. Barnes and Noble and Borders 
Books and Records are both located in 
unincorporated Jefferson Parish, an area 15 minutes 
outside of New Orleans, while Tower Records and 
Virgin Megastore stand within blocks of each other 
in the French Quarter. 



Many of the post-secondary institutions in the 
New Orleans metropolitan area have developed solid 
reputations for their music departments. The 
University of New Orleans, Southern University, 
Loyola University and Tulane University all have 
music education programs that have distinguished 
themselves in some manner. The Jazz Studies 
Division within the Department of Music at The 
University of New Orleans is led by legendary jazz 
mentor Ellis Marsalis and is widely considered to be 
one of the best university jazz programs in the 
country. Similarly, Southern University's Division of 
Visual and Performing Arts is the professional home 
of reed master Alvin Batiste who has mentored 
many of today's leading jazz artists. Loyola 
University's jazz program is considered a close 
second to that of the University of New Orleans. 
Loyola has an esteemed music business program 
that is directed in part by STR record label chief, 
Sanford Hinderlie and features Dr. Scott 
Fredrickson, the recent appointee of the Conrad N. 
Hilton Eminent Scholar in Music Industry Studies 
award. Although Tulane University offers a jazz 
studies program through its Department of Music at 
Newcomb College, the school has received its 
greatest acclaim from the jazz community for its 
music library and archive. The William Ransom 
Hogan Jazz Archive is curated by music historian 
and musician Dr. Bruce B. Raeburn. The archive 
contains material as diverse as transcribed oral 
histories, historical manuscripts and sheet music, 
and local union 174-496 records. The archive 
attracts roughly 2,200 users a year and is primarily 
funded through a "Friends of the Hogan Jazz 
Archive" membership fund. 

The New Orleans Center for the Creative Arts is 
a New Orleans area performing arts high school 
with a jazz division developed by Ellis Marsalis. 

New Orleans has a healthy tradition of 
mentoring that traces back to Louis Armstrong's 
work in developing young jazz artists. Today's 
mentors include Ellis Marsalis, patriarch of the 
world famous Marsalis dynasty, Doc Pullian, Alvin 
Batiste, the late Danny Barker and Jerry Brock. Aside 
from the Marsalis dynasty, other family dynasties 
include the Batistes and the Jordans. 

The New Orleans' jazz community receives a 
good deal of financial support due in large part to a 
concentrated effort on the part of local and national 



37 



agencies to preserve the romanticized history of the 
port city. Local agencies include the Louisiana Music 
Commission, the New Orleans Jazz Centennial, and 
the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation. 

The state and national agencies that work to 
support the New Orleans area jazz community are 
the Preservation Resource Center of New Orleans, 
the New Orleans Jazz National Resource Park, and 
the Louisiana Division of the Arts. New Orleans 
talent agencies and work referral agencies are Jazz 
Film & Video, the Louisiana Department of Labor/ 
Louisiana Job Service and Summer Stage. Union 
Local 174-496 supports New Orleans area musicians 
with a number of services including legal assistance 
and health care. 

Jazz and other forms of local music are 
commonly used for the purpose of tourism in New 
Orleans. The national tourism commercial for New 
Orleans, "Come Join the Parade," features a relative 
of the New Orleans based group The Neville 
Brothers seated at a bar while jazz is playing. In 
addition, there are 10 advertising agencies in the 
area that specialize in music. 

The two top major jazz and jazz-related music 
stations in the area are WWOZ 90.7 FM and 
WWNO 89.9 FM. WWOZ 90.7 is a listener 
supported and volunteer-operated station that 
reaches the entire New Orleans metro area and 
beyond. The station offers award winning 
programming that includes jazz, blues, Cajun, 
zydeco, gospel, Brazilian and Caribbean music on its 
play list. In addition to the awards the station has 
garnered, WWOZ 90.7 was named "Best Medium 
Market Jazz Station of the Year" by the Gavin 
Report, the major radio-industry programming 
magazine. 

Since jazz and other local music traditions are 
integral to the image of New Orleans, it is of the first 
priority that the city is able to cultivate an audience 
for its musicians. However, with tourism being the 
biggest crutch for an ailing economy, much of the 
city's audience development efforts are not centered 
on area residents or concerned with fostering new 
generations of local musicians. There are still storied 
mentors and institutions that carry on local 



traditions and keep the New Orleans jazz legacy 
alive but, for many, jazz is tied to a nostalgia for a 
day long past. 

New York* 

The New York metro area, and its other four 
boroughs and tri-state (New York-New Jersey- 
Connecticut) region, has the greatest concentration 
of premiere jazz venues in the United States. It also 
has a plethora of lower echelon venues, which may 
present jazz irregularly, but remain significant to the 
larger picture of potential employment for 
musicians who identify themselves with "jazz." New 
York City's venues range from Jazz at Lincoln 
Center, the world's leading not-for-profit 
institutional producer of jazz concerts, dances, 
lectures, films, multi-arts collaborations and 
educational initiatives, to historic commercial 
nightclubs such as the Village Vanguard. There are 
innumerable larger and smaller, better and lesser- 
known, established or fleeting, jazz- dedicated or 
jazz-tolerant stages. 

Jazz at Lincoln Center presented 450 jazz- 
oriented events in the 2000-2001 season alone, and 
plans to expand programming further upon moving 
into an innovative multi-use building under 
construction at Columbus Circle, scheduled for 
completion by the end of 2003. Led by artistic 
director Wynton Marsalis, Jazz at Lincoln Center 
promotes a canon founded on the work of such 
artists as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, 
concentrating as well on early New Orleans jazz, 
black swing traditions of the 1930s and '40s, bebop 
and post-bop modernism, and Latin jazz; it also 
presents a variety of traditional and modern jazz 
sub-genres. Jazz at Lincoln Center often features 
artists challenging jazz conventions in smaller 
settings and/or auxiliary events. 

Carnegie Hall, unlike Jazz at Lincoln Center, is 
not a jazz producer-presenter, although it may be 
New York City's most famous concert facility. The 
concert hall's staff has worked in conjunction with 
Fleet Bank to produce the Neighborhood Concert 
series, has held jazz workshops for teachers and the 
facility has hosted jazz concerts initiated by 



"This section of this report was prepared with the help of the four city coordinators and project coordinator Phillip Harvey. In 
New York, contributors include Howard Mandel (primary author), Martin Mueller. Bethany Ryker, James Browne, Wendy 
Oxenhorn, Reverend Dale Lind, Natasha Jackson and Jeff Levinson. 



38 



independent, outside producers. George Wein is the 
most prominent among these producers, active 
internationally though based in New York City. His 
Festival Productions is responsible for the annual 
JVC Jazz Festival, Saratoga Jazz Festival, Verizon Jazz 
Festival, and the Newport Jazz Festival (which he 
founded in 1954); Festival Productions also 
produces the Carnegie Hall Jazz Orchestra, led by 
trumpeter Jon Faddis, which presented four 
evening-long programs at Carnegie Hall during 
2000-2001. 

Jazzmobile, Inc., founded in 1964 by Dr. Billy 
Taylor to "provide arts education programs of the 
highest quality via workshops, master classes, lecture 
demonstrations, arts enrichment programs, outdoor 
summer mobile concerts, special indoor concerts 
and special projects," is a not-for-profit organization 
without a performance home base, estimating 
outreach to over 250,000 people in and around New 
York City's boroughs, with approximately 600 artists 
participating annually. Jazz at Flushing Town Hall, in 
Flushing, Queens, is a relatively new not-for-profit 
institution presenting high quality mainstream jazz 
in an active schedule of events at an outer-borough 
(non-Manhattan) cultural center. 651 Arts is a not- 
for-profit organization staging jazz events on an 
occasional basis at Brooklyn Academy of Music and 
BAM's Majestic Theater. Henry Street Settlement is a 
smaller yet well-established not-for-profit jazz 
performance and education center on Manhattan's 
lower east side. New Jersey Performing Arts Center 
(Newark) is a newly built major concert hall, hosting 
a regular season of jazz and world-music 
performances. John Harms Center is another New 
Jersey concert venue that serves as a rental for 
outside producers presenting some jazz. 

Other not-for-profit arts institutions presenting 
jazz on various regular schedules include the Jazz 
Gallery, the Kitchen Center for Music, Video and 
Dance, Aaron Davis Hall at City College of New 
York, the Studio Museum of Harlem, the 
Guggenheim Museum, the Tillis Center on the C.W. 
Post campus of Long Island University. 

Not-for-profit jazz festivals and series in New 
York City parks and public spaces include the Vision 
Festival (two weeks of concerts curated by a 
volunteer artist-musician-choreographer board); the 
Charlie Parker Jazz Festival (two afternoon-long free 
bebop concerts, in Harlem and East Village 



Manhattan public parks); the City-produced Central 
Park Summerstage series; the free Brooklyn Prospect 
Park Bandshell series; free Lincoln Center Out of 
Doors concerts and Midsummer's Night Swing 
(plaza dancing, some tickets sold); and the Music 
Under New York program in the subways, 
administered by the Metropolitan Transportation 
Authority. 

Profit-oriented or privately-subsidized festivals 
include the Verizon Music Festival, J&R. Music World 
Jazz Festival, the Caramoor Jazz Festival 
(Westchester County), the Cape May Jazz Festival, 
the New Jersey Jazz Society festival (mostly 
traditional jazz) in Stanhope, NJ, the Blues Cruise 
(concerts on boats on the Hudson River), and Mark 
Morganelli's series of jazz concerts — usually 
promoted under the banner JazzForum Arts — 
mostly in suburban New York City and surrounding 
towns. 

Saint Peter's Church has been recognized by the 
Lutheran Synod of New York since 1956 for its jazz 
ministry, including presentation of jazz in a spiritual 
setting. St. Peters helped found International 
Women in Jazz, a 200-member organization 
presenting monthly concerts and occasional 
workshops. 

Of New York City's famed nightclub scene: The 
Blue Note opened in New York in 1981 and has 
franchise outlets in Japan. The Village Vanguard was 
established in 1935 by Max Gordon, late husband of 
current owner Lorraine Gordon, and has been 
renowned for booking jazz giants since the 1950s. 
The Knitting Factory has presented jazz amid a 
range of cutting edge ("downtown") music for more 
than a decade, currently at a bustling three-stage and 
multi-media performance/recording facility with 
multiple bars (it also has a restaurant-performance 
center branch in Los Angeles). Iridium and Birdland 
are major midtown Manhattan jazz clubs, with 
week-long schedules presenting first rank jazz 
musicians. 

The Musician's Union Local 802 is a source of 
information on some aspects of venue-related 
activities. An important distinction exists between 
venues that offer "steady" as opposed to "occasional" 
employment for jazz musicians. Corporate functions 
such as noontime summer plaza concerts, and 
uncounted "club dates," private parties, weddings, 
performances in hospitals, retirement centers, parks, 



39 



libraries, community centers and churches also serve 
to employ jazz-identified musicians. 

New York City (specifically, Manhattan) is the 
site of major offices for all five of the world's major 
recording companies (Japan's Sony, Germany's 
BMG, France's Universal Music Group, America's 
Warner Bros., the UK's Capitol/EMI), and the city 
has a number of subsidiary labels that specialize in 
signing jazz musicians. The creative and receptive 
energy of the community of musicians and listeners 
most deeply involved with jazz has also given rise, 
out of vague necessity, to at least a dozen smaller, 
independent record labels. There are uncounted 
artist-owned and operated labels, too. New York City 
is also a longtime center of music businesses 
including but not limited to music publishing, 
artists' services (such as licensing organizations ' 
ASCAP and BMI), copyist work, record retailers, 
instrument repair shops and retailers. 

An incredible concentration of institutions of 
higher education and status as the jazz capital of the 
world make New York City the mecca for those 
seeking an education in jazz. The New School 
University employs 72 jazz artists as 
educators/mentors in a bachelor's degree model 
intended to pass down oral and playing traditions to 
students, preparing them for the technical, artistic 
and professional demands of a performance career 
in jazz. The program's part-time faculty are 
unionized through Local 802, American Federation 
of Musicians, a unique and unprecedented example 
of collective rights organizing on behalf of 
musicians in education. 

The Manhattan School of Music offers a jazz 
curriculum that focuses on the students as 
performers, composers and educators in the present 
day jazz market. The Juilliard School, in conjunction 
with Jazz at Lincoln Center, has established an Artist 
Diploma jazz education program that will feature a 
broad jazz and classical music-based curriculum. 

Young artists are also supported through the 
important work of the major cultural institutions 
that specialize in the preservation of jazz. Jazz at 
Lincoln Center is a leader in presenting numerous 
programs for young people, including the Essentially 
Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition and 
Festival, and in creating a Jazz for Young People 
Curriculum, which will be distributed nationally. 
The New Jersey Performing Arts Center also 



supports young people's jazz programs, including 
Jazz For Teens, an annual 10- week seminar for 
musicians and singers learning jazz. 

Several professional firms offer an array of 
support services to jazz musicians but it should be 
noted that most professional support services 
represent an overhead cost to jazz musicians, and 
the majority of them do not employ a professional 
support staff. 

The New York State Council on the Arts 
(NYSCA) is one of the best-funded of all states arts 
agencies and has given both direct and indirect 
support to jazz-related projects. Recent recipients 
include Jazzmobile, Jazz at Lincoln Center, Sixteen as 
One, Inc. (Vanguard Jazz Orchestra) and the 92nd 
Street YMHA, among others. 

However, in comparison with the situation 10 
years ago, there are at present few fellowships 
awarded directly to jazz musicians — either from 
NYSCA, the New York Foundation for the Arts 
(NYFA), Meet the Composer, the Rockefeller 
Foundation, the Lila Wallace/Readers Digest 
Foundation or the National Endowment for the Arts 
(NEA). An important fellowship program available 
to jazz musicians directly in 2000-2001 was a one- 
time award of financial assistance and career 
development consultation from the Doris Duke 
Foundation to some two dozen musicians, 
administered by Chamber Music America. 

Lack of public and/or private funding has not 
stopped musicians themselves from banding 
together to improve their prospects and raise their 
profiles in a crowded, competitive market, or address 
urgent, immediate needs. The Musicians Union 
(Local 802) has both MAP - Musician's Assistance 
Program, for union members in dire emergencies — 
and MPTF, the Music Performer's Trust Fund, which 
matches 50/50 funds from qualified (mostly social 
service) organizations hiring jazz musicians. The 
Association for the Advancement of Creative 
Musicians (AACM) is a not-for-profit musicians' 
organization of approximately 200 members, 
founded in Chicago in 1964, with an active New 
York City chapter since the mid-1980s. Art Attack!, a 
Website run by Margaret Davis, provides a breadth 
of information about work, housing, insurance, food 
and other necessities to anyone who finds it online. 
The Jazz Foundation of America, run from offices at 
the Musicians' Union Local 802, is a private not-for- 



40 



profit providing emergency care, including housing, 
health and dental care and career counseling to 
musicians in crisis. 

WBGO-FM is the area's lone 24-hour radio 
station featuring straight-ahead jazz programming, 
though there is also extensive jazz broadcasting on 
WKCR-FM (Columbia University), WFMU-FM 
(Jersey City, NJ), WHRT (Hartford, CT) and 
National Public Radio broadcasts heard on WNYC- 
FM and AM (NYC), among other affiliates. There is 
also CD101.9-FM, a popular, commercially 
supported 24-hour "jazz lite" station. 

San Francisco 

In addition to the nationally recognized SF Jazz 
presenting organization, the San Francisco area is 
home to a plethora of venues for jazz. These outlets 
run the gamut from restaurants and festivals to 
street fairs and churches. Yoshi's, a nationally known 
jazz venue, pulls double duty as a highly regarded 
Japanese restaurant and sushi bar and soundstage 
for local and big-name jazz musicians. 

The Monterey Jazz Festival is one of the largest 
jazz-based festivals in existence. It features over 600 
artists who perform at seven different venues across 
the Bay Area. Programming for the festival is 
characterized by a variety of jazz styles and idioms 
from local and internationally well known artists 

The Church of St. John Coltrane is an African 
Orthodox Church that incorporates jazz into its 
Sunday worship services and recognizes saxophone 
legend John Coltrane as a saint. The church features 
a five-piece house band that sets the liturgy to 
selections from Coltrane's musical canon. 

The Kuumba Jazz Center is a non-profit 
presenting organization that has been hosting 
weekly jazz performances for 25 years. It operates its 
own venue and offers big name performers on 
Monday nights and local musicians on Friday 
nights. In addition, the center operates music 
workshops and a camp for young people and rents 
its space to other community cultural organizations. 

The San Francisco Bay Area is home to a variety 
of small and independent record labels, several of 
which specialize in jazz. Of the independent labels 
that deal primarily with the jazz idiom, Noir Records 
and Concord Records are the most active. In 
addition to ubiquitous retail giants Tower Records, 



Virgin Megastore and Borders Books and Music, the 
San Francisco area is home to a number of jazz 
specialty stores. Many of these specialty stores sell 
new and classic releases as well as collectible vinyl. A 
few work with major distributors and some carry 
the work of local artists on a consignment basis. Of 
the independent specialty stores, Berigan's, The Jazz 
Quarter, and the SF Jazz store are the most 
prominent. Berigan's deals mainly with record 
companies that buy from major distributors and 
then sell to small record stores. The store is a strong 
supporter of local artists. Charles Hamilton directs 
the highly regarded Berkeley High School Jazz 
Program, which has established itself as a valuable 
resource for the continuation of the jazz legacy. 

At the university level, San Francisco State 
University boasts a strong reputation for attracting 
up-and-coming musicians. The JazzSchool is a 
community school that was founded by its current 
director, Susan Muscarella. Course offerings are 
intended for students of all ages, levels of expertise 
and instrument preference. There are also a number 
of individuals who are regarded as important 
resources for the jazz community. These mentors 
include Professor Bill Bell, John Handy, Earl 
Watkins, Ed Kelly, E.W. Wainwright, Khalil, Yancey 
Taylor, Jules Broussard, Eddie Marshall and Harley 
White. 

Some of the major flinders who are active in the 
San Francisco area are the California Arts Council, 
See's Candy, the Infiniti Division of Nissan North 
America, Tower Records and the San Francisco 
Traditional Jazz Foundation. Another important 
support entity for the jazz community in Northern 
California is The David and Lucile Packard 
Foundation. Created in 1964 by David Packard and 
Lucile Salter Packard, the Foundation supports 
performing and visual arts institutions along with its 
many other philanthropic concerns. 

Due in large part to its proximity to Silicon 
Valley, San Francisco features musicians who are 
unusually savvy in regard to the creation and 
maintenance of jazz-related Web sites and online 
publications. Eighty-five percent of local musicians, 
including students in jazz studies programs, have 
personal Web sites. Additionally, nearly every jazz- 
oriented venue and festival has a Web site. In 
addition to the online publication Jazzwest.com, Jazz 
Now and the Palo Alto Jazz Alliance Newsletter are 



41 



area-based publications that cater to a jazz audience. 
Radio station KCSM FM 91.1 is the major jazz radio 
station in the San Francisco metropolitan area, 
having received this designation due to the fact that 
it is the only station that has a 24-hour jazz format. 
Other stations that feature jazz in their playlists 
include KPFA, KUSF, KKSF, and KBLX. KKSF and 
KBLX concentrate on appealing to the 
contemporary jazz market. The nationally broadcast 



cable television channel BET-on-Jazz is available to 
viewers in the Bay Area as well. 

SF Jazz presents a film series entitled Jazz on 
Film during the San Francisco Jazz Festival and the 
SF Jazz spring season. The series features archival 
footage of legendary performers, concerts and events 
that have contributed to the development of the 
music. 



42 



Appendix C. Distribution of Responses to the 
American Federation of Musicians Survey 



NOTE: In the charts below, numbers are listed as valid percent (or the percent of people answering the 
question) and frequency (sometimes called the count, or the actual number of people who answered 
the question). The mean is the average; the median is the number where 50 percent are above and 50 
percent are below; the mode is the figure that appears most often. 



Do you ever play or sing jazz music? 





Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1532 





305 





248 





742 





237 





no 


Percent 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 


0.0% 


100.0% 




Number 





428 





85 





36 





196 





111 


missing 


































total # of 
respondents who 
answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 


* There are two respondents 
who said they were neither 
jazz nor non-jazz 























If no, do you play or sing any other kind of music? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


classical 


Percent 


0.0% 


74.3% 


0.0% 


77.7% 


0.0% 


72.2% 


0.0% 


69.4% 


0.0% 


81.1% 




Number 





318 





66 





26 





136 





90 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


0.0% 


25.7% 


0.0% 


22.4% 


0.0% 


27.8% 


0.0% 


30.6% 


0.0% 


18.9% 




Number 





110 





19 





10 





60 





21 


missing 


































total # of respondents who 
answered the question 







428 





85 





36 





196 





111 



Do you consider yourself a professional jazz musician? 





Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


63.0% 


0.0% 


57.4% 


0.0% 


73.0% 


0.0% 


64.4% 


0.0% 


57.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


969 





175 





181 





478 





135 





no 


Percent 


30.0% 


0.0% 


35.4% 


0.0% 


22.6% 


0.0% 


29.0% 


0.0% 


34.2% 


0.0% 




Number 


460 





108 





56 





215 





81 





other 


Percent 


6.4% 


0.0% 


7.2% 


0.0% 


4.4% 


0.0% 


6.1% 


0.0% 


8.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


98 





22 





11 





45 





20 





missing 




5 

















4 





1 





total # of respondents who 
answered the question 




1532 





305 





248 





742 





742 






43 



What is your primary instrument? 



Total Detroit New New York San 
Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


alto sax 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 





2 





5 





10 











banjo 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


5 





1 





2 





1 





1 





baritone sax 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.2% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


11 


1 


4 





^3 





3 





1 


1 


bass 


Percent 


8.4% 


2.1% 


5.9% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


8.4% 


2.6% 


8.9% 


2.7% 




Number 


128 


9 


18 


1 


27 





62 


5 


21 


3 


bass clarinet 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


10.9% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 











2 


1 








cello 


Percent 


2.4% 


9.1% 


1 .6% 


9.4% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


2.7% 


9.2% 


3.0% 


9.9% 




Number 


36 


39 


~B 


~E 


4 


2 


20 


18 


7 


11 


clarinet 


Percent 


3.2% 


4.9% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


4.8% 


2.8% 


2.4% 


6.6% 


4.2% 


3.6% 




Number 


49 


21 


9 


3 


12 


1 


18 


13 


10 


4 


cornet 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 





1 





1 











1 





drums 


Percent 


9.3% 


0.9% 


10.5% 


0.0% 


10.9% 


0.0% 


8.9% 


1 .5% 


7.6% 


0.9% 




Number 


143 


4 


32 





27 





66 


3 


18 


1 


effects ( washboard, 
whistles, etc.) 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































flugelhorn 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 























1 





flute 


Percent 


1 .8% 


6.1% 


2.6% 


7.1% 


0.4% 


5.6% 


1 .2% 


4.6% 


4.2% 


8.1% 




Number 


28 


26 


8 


6 


1 


2 


9 


9 


10 


9 


guitar 


Percent 


7.3% 


5.8% 


6.2% 


7.1% 


1 0.5% 


8.3% 


7.6% 


6.1% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


112 


25 


19 


6 


26 


3 


56 


12 


11 


4 


harmonica 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


2 














1 


1 





percussion 


Percent 


2.4% 


1 .2% 


3.0% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


2.0% 


1 .0% 


3.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


37 


5 


9 





6 


1 


15 


2 


7 


2 


piano/keyboard 


Percent 


16.1% 


1 1 .2% 


15.1% 


7.1% 


10.9% 


8.3% 


18.7% 


16.8% 


14.4% 


5.4% 




Number 


246 


48 


46 


6 


27 


3 


139 


33 


34 


6 


saxophone 


Percent 


8.7% 


0.9% 


9.2% 


3.5% 


6.9% 


0.0% 


9.0% 


0.0% 


8.9% 


0.9% 




Number 


133 


4 


28 


3 


17 





67 





21 


1 


trombone 


Percent 


6.5% 


1 .9% 


3.0% 


1 .2% 


9.7% 


5.6% 


6.7% 


2.0% 


7.2% 


0.9% 




Number 


100 


8 


9 


1 


24 


2 


50 


4 


17 


1 


trumpet 


Percent 


10.9% 


3.0% 


15.1% 


3.5% 


12.1% 


8.3% 


9.4% 


3.1% 


8.9% 


0.9% 




Number 


167 


13 


46 


3 


30 


3 


70 


6 


21 


1 


tuba 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


8 


3 





1 


3 





5 








2 


vibraphone 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


5 

















2 





3 





violin 


Percent 


5.3% 


22.9% 


5.9% 


23.5% 


4.0% 


27.8% 


4.7% 


20.4% 


7.6% 


25.2% 



44 





Number 


81 


98 


18 


20 


10 


10 


35 


40 


18 


28 


voice 


Percent 


2.4% 


2.6% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


2.0% 


2.1% 


4.5% 




Number 


37 


11 


10 


2 


4 





18 


4 


5 


5 


xylophone 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


— 





"~ 5 























other 


Percent 


1 1 .5% 


25.9% 


1 1 .8% 


29.4% 


7.7% 


25.0% 


12.4% 


23.0% 


12.2% 


28.8% 




Number 


176 


111 


36 


25 


19 


9 


92 


45 


29 


32 


missing 




3 


— 


1 











2 











total # of respondents who 
answered the question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



In what style do you play this instrument?* 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


avant-garde 


Percent 


36.2% 


23.8% 


27.9% 


16.5% 


27.0% 


8.3% 


43.4% 


26.5% 


34.2% 


29.7% 




Number 


555 


102 


85 


14 


67 


3 


322 


52 


81 


33 


acid jazz 


Percent 


18.2% 


0.9% 


16.1% 


1 .2% 


12.9% 


0.0% 


21.0% 


1 .5% 


17.3% 


0.0% 




Number 


278 


4 


49 


1 


32 





156 


3 


41 





blues 


Percent 


71 .0% 


1 4.5% 


74.4% 


15.3% 


71 .0% 


19.4% 


71 .3% 


19.4% 


65.4% 


3.6% 




Number 


1087 


62 


227 


13 


176 


7 


529 


38 


155 


4 


boogie-woogie/honky-tonk 


Percent 


38.8% 


8.9% 


45.6% 


8.2% 


46.0% 


8.3% 


34.9% 


12.8% 


35.0% 


2.7% 




Number 


595 


38 


139 


7 


114 


3 


259 


25 


83 


3 


bop 


Percent 


63.0% 


5.4% 


61 .0% 


4.7% 


51 .2% 


5.6% 


69.8% 


4.6% 


56.5% 


7.2% 




Number 


965 


23 


186 


4 


127 


2 


518 


9 


134 


8 


contemporary 


Percent 


67.0% 


40.2% 


65.9% 


31.8% 


60.1% 


50.0% 


72.5% 


43.9% 


58.7% 


36.9% 




Number 


1027 


172 


201 


27 


149 


18 


538 


86 


139 


41 


cool 


Percent 


56.8% 


5.6% 


54.8% 


4.7% 


51 .2% 


8.3% 


60.7% 


7.7% 


53.2% 


1 .8% 




Number 


870 


24 


167 


4 


127 


3 


450 


15 


126 


2 


free jazz 


Percent 


40.7% 


2.8% 


36.7% 


0.0% 


37.1% 


8.3% 


45.8% 


3.1% 


33.3% 


2.7% 




Number 


623 


12 


112 





92 


3 


340 


6 


79 


3 


funk 


Percent 


52.0% 


6.8% 


43.0% 


2.4% 


50.0% 


8.3% 


58.4% 


9.7% 


46.0% 


4.5% 




Number 


797 


29 


131 


2 


124 


3 


433 


19 


109 


5 


fusion 


Percent 


41 .9% 


3.5% 


36.7% 


0.0% 


36.3% 


2.8% 


46.6% 


6.1% 


39.7% 


1 .8% 




Number 


642 


15 


112 





90 


1 


346 


12 


94 


2 


hard bop 


Percent 


45.6% 


1 .2% 


37.7% 


0.0% 


33.5% 


0.0% 


54.3% 


1 .5% 


41.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


699 


5 


115 





83 





403 


3 


98 


2 


Latin 


Percent 


65.5% 


12.6% 


67.2% 


14.1% 


59.7% 


13.9% 


66.9% 


13.3% 


65.4% 


9.9% 




Number 


1004 


54 


205 


12 


148 


5 


496 


26 


155 


11 


mainstream 


Percent 


67.5% 


1 4.5% 


65.9% 


1 1 .8% 


56.1% 


11.1% 


73.3% 


18.4% 


63.3% 


10.8% 




Number 


1034 


62 


201 


10 


139 


4 


544 


36 


150 


12 


regional style 


Percent 


32.4% 


7.5% 


25.6% 


8.2% 


64.5% 


22.2% 


25.9% 


5.1% 


27.9% 


6.3% 




Number 


496 


32 


78 


7 


160 


8 


192 


10 


66 


7 


rhythm and blues 


Percent 


63.0% 


14.7% 


66.9% 


17.7% 


66.9% 


19.4% 


61.2% 


1 7.9% 


59.5% 


5.4% 




Number 


965 


63 


204 


15 


166 


7 


454 


35 


141 


6 


scat 


Percent 


22.9% 


1 .2% 


23.3% 


0.0% 


28.6% 


0.0% 


22.2% 


2.0% 


18.6% 


0.9% 




Number 


351 


5 


71 





71 





165 


4 


44 


1 


ragtime/stride piano 


Percent 


39.0% 


1 6.6% 


36.7% 


1 5.3% 


51 .6% 


25.0% 


37.7% 


19.9% 


32.5% 


9.0% 



45 





Number 


597 


71 


112 


13 


128 


9 


280 


39 


77 


10 


swing 


Percent 


75.7% 


21.3% 


73.1% 


18.8% 


78.2% 


30.6% 


76.6% 


26.5% 


73.4% 


10.8% 




Number 


1159 


91 


223 


16 


194 


11 


568 


52 


174 


12 


traditional 


Percent 


72.6% 


27.1% 


76.7% 


29.4% 


85.1% 


36.1% 


68.7% 


28.1% 


66.2% 


20.7% 




Number 


1112 


116 


234 


25 


211 


13 


510 


55 


157 


23 


world music 


Percent 


42.0% 


17.3% 


32.8% 


10.6% 


33.5% 


13.9% 


49.2% 


22.5% 


40.1% 


14.4% 




Number 


643 


74 


100 


9 


83 


5 


365 


44 


95 


16 


other 


Percent 


48.9% 


75.7% 


43.3% 


75.3% 


44.4% 


63.9% 


51 .4% 


76.5% 


53.2% 


78.4% 




Number 


749 


324 


132 


64 


110 


23 


381 


150 


126 


87 


























total # of respondents who 
answered the question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 


'Does not total 100% due to 
multiple response 
























This list is not exhaustive, but gives a 
flavor for the variety of styles 























About how many hours per day do you spend practicing music? 





Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


mean 


2.7 


2.5 


2.2 


2.5 


2.7 


2.4 


2.9 


2.6 


2.4 


2.3 


median 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


std. dev. 


2.2 


1.7 


1.7 


1.9 


2.3 


1.5 


2.5 


1.8 


1.8 


1.3 


mode 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


valid cases 


1268 


366 


261 


68 


175 


32 


633 


167 


199 


99 


missing 


55 


15 


5 


2 


9 


1 


33 


11 


8 


1 



How many jazz musicians do you know by name in this metro area who also know you? 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans 



New York San Francisco 





Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


mean 


123.2 


15.3 


70.5 


11.7 


121.8 


33.3 


161.2 


17.7 


81.2 


8.1 


median 


50 


5 


30 


4 


75 


6 


100 


6 


40 


3 


std. dev. 


146.7 


38.6 


98.7 


26.4 


133.6 


75.0 


167.0 


41.1 


111.9 


17.7 


mode 


100 





100 





100 





500 





100 





valid cases 


1407 


407 


291 


81 


230 


35 


660 


181 


226 


110 


missing 


125 


21 


14 


4 


18 


1 


82 


15 


11 


1 



Of these jazz musicians you know by name in this metro area who also know you, how many are: 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


25 years or younger 


























mean 


18.6 


1.9 


14.0 


2.3 


19.1 


4.5 


24.5 


1.6 


7.1 


1.2 




median 


5 





2 





7 





10 





1 







std. dev. 


40.9 


5.8 


43.3 


7.5 


33.9 


10.0 


47.1 


4.2 


13.2 


4.2 




mode 


































valid 
cases 


1314 


297 


274 


58 


217 


30 


608 


134 


215 


75 



46 





missing 


50 


1 


3 


1 


8 





35 





4 





Women 


























mean 


15.4 


2.7 


8.8 


3.3 


10.8 


1.4 


21.9 


3.1 


10.0 


1.9 




median 


5 


1 


3 


1 


4 





10 


1 


5 







std. dev. 


30.7 


8.2 


17.4 


10.7 


18.3 


2.4 


40.0 


9.5 


16.5 


3.7 




mode 




















20 













valid 
cases 


1345 


297 


277 


58 


225 


30 


624 


134 


219 


75 




missing 


19 


1 





1 








19 











American Indian or Alaska Native 


























mean 


0.6 


0.1 


0.5 


0.1 


0.7 


0.0 


0.5 


0.1 


0.5 


0.1 




median 


































std. dev. 


2.5 


0.5 


2.6 


0.5 


3.4 


0.0 


2.0 


0.6 


2.4 


0.2 




mode 


































valid 
cases 


1227 


290 


257 


57 


206 


28 


562 


130 


202 


75 




missing 


137 


8 


20 


2 


19 


2 


81 


4 


17 





Asian 


























mean 


7.1 


0.7 


2.2 


0.7 


3.6 


0.3 


11.4 


1.0 


4.7 


0.4 




median 


2 











2 





5 





2 







std. dev. 


20.8 


3.0 


5.2 


2.9 


8.2 


1.0 


29.1 


3.8 


7.8 


1.3 




mode 


































valid 
cases 


1296 


292 


272 


57 


219 


29 


595 


131 


210 


75 




missing 


68 


6 


5 


2 


6 


1 


48 


3 


9 





Black or African American 


























mean 


53.1 


7.0 


35.4 


5.2 


60.2 


9.6 


69.6 


9.2 


21.5 


3.6 




median 


20 


2 


15 


2 


30 


3 


30 


3 


8 


1 




std. dev. 


77.3 


18.6 


57.4 


7.4 


83.5 


18.5 


87.9 


24.8 


35.2 


9.1 




mode 1 


50 





5 


1 


20 





100 













mode 2 










50 














valid 
cases 


1310 


295 


272 


58 


223 


30 


603 


132 


212 


75 




missing 


54 


3 


5 


1 


2 





40 


2 


7 





Hispanic or Latino 


























mean 


15.6 


1.7 


6.2 


1.2 


8.6 


1.3 


24.2 


2.4 


10.3 


1.1 




median 


5 





2 





2 





10 





4 







std. dev. 


29.1 


4.3 


16.1 


2.6 


15.7 


4.1 


37.2 


5.4 


17.9 


3.0 




mode 


































valid 
cases 


1279 


289 


265 


57 


214 


29 


589 


129 


211 


74 




missing 


85 


9 


12 


2 


11 


1 


54 


5 


8 


1 


Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 


























mean 


0.8 


0.1 


0.5 


0.0 


0.5 


0.0 


0.8 


0.1 


1.7 


0.1 




median 


































std. dev. 


4.1 


0.6 


3.4 


0.0 


3.6 


0.0 


3.2 


0.7 


6.8 


0.6 




mode 


































valid 
cases 


1252 


292 


265 


57 


213 


30 


571 


130 


203 


75 




missing 


112 


6 


12 


2 


12 





72 


4 


16 





White 

























47 





mean 


57.4 


11.4 


35.2 


9.0 


58.8 


21.7 


72.5 12.6 41.9 


7.1 




median 


25 


4 


15 


3.0 


30 


7.5 


40 


6 


20 


3 




std. dev. 


77.0 


27.7 


57.7 


21.1 


73.2 


61.4 


87.0 


24.1 


61.1 


11.0 




mode 1 


20 


2 


5 


0.0 


3 


1 


100 


2 


20 


2 




mode 2 








2.0 
















valid 
cases 


1295 


294 


270 


58.0 


220 


30 


594 


132 


211 


74 




missing 


69 


4 


7 


1.0 


5 





-? 


2 


8 


1 



From which occupation did you earn your major income in the last 12 months? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 

Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


musician 


Percent 


58.4% 


56.8% 


37.1% 


42.4% 


56.1% 


41 .7% 


68.1% 


62.8% 


57.8% 


62.2% 




Number 


894 


243 


113 


36 


139 


15 


505 


123 


137 


69 


~_5 : :eac"e r 


Percent 


8.9% 


1 1 .7% 


12.5% 


1 1 .8% 


6.1% 


16.7% 


8.1% 


1 1 .7% 


9.7% 


9.9% 




Number 


136 


50 


38 


10 


15 


6 


60 


23 


23 


11 


jazz teacner 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


15 











1 





13 





1 





arts ~anager or administrator 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.9% 


0.3% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


2.8% 


0.3% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


4 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 





other music-related 
occupation 


Percent 


6.5% 


7.5% 


5.9% 


5.9% 


4.4% 


5.6% 


7.4% 


10.2% 


6.3% 


4.5% 




Number 


99 


32 


18 


5 


11 


2 


55 


20 


15 


5 


non-music related occupation 


Percent 


1 1 .7% 


1 1 .2% 


23.6% 


15.3% 


19.0% 


22.2% 


4.2% 


6.6% 


12.2% 


12.6% 




Number 


-~ 


48 


72 


13 


47 


8 


31 


13 


29 


14 


other 


Percent 


12.9% 


1 1 .7% 


20.0% 


23.5% 


12.9% 


11.1% 


10.0% 


7.1% 


12.7% 


10.8% 




Number 


197 


50 


61 


20 


32 


4 


74 


14 


30 


12 


missing 




5 


1 


2 





1 





2 


1 








total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


3C5 


85 


248 


36 


--1 


"56 


237 


111 



At present, what is your employment situation? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
^Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 

Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


1 I am employed full time in 
tie music business 


Percent 


43.3% 


48.4% 


31 .5% 


41.2% 


43.6% 


55.6% 


47.8% 


55.6% 


43.9% 


38.7% 




Number 


663 


207 


96 


35 


108 


20 


355 


109 


104 


43 


2 I am employed full-time 
NOT in the music business 


Percent 


10.1% 


10.1% 


20.3% 


1 1 .8% 


15.7% 


22.2% 


4.2% 


4.6% 


9.7% 


14.4% 




Number 


155 


43 


62 


10 


39 


8 


31 


9 


23 


16 


I am employed part-time in 
tie music business 


Percent 


15.4% 


14.3% 


28.5% 


17.7% 


17.7% 


1 9.4% 


8.4% 


9.7% 


18.1% 


18.0% 




Number 


236 


61 


87 


15 


44 


7 


62 


19 


43 


20 


1 a^ e-^c eyed full-time as a 
freelancer in the music 
Dusiness 


Percent 


35.9% 


22.7% 


1 8.7% 


15.3% 


23.8% 


2.8% 


50.4% 


30.6% 


25.3% 


20.7% 




Number 


550 


97 


57 


13 


59 


1 


374 


60 


60 


23 


1 am employed part-time as 
a freelancer in the music 

Dusiness 


Percent 


22.3% 


28.0% 


30.8% 


25.9% 


26.2% 


25.0% 


16.7% 


28.6% 


24.5% 


29.7% 




Number 


341 


120 


94 


22 


65 


9 


124 


56 


58 


33 


1 am unempioyec 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 



48 





Number 


























C 





1 am retired 


Percent 


1 4.2% 


9.4% 


27.5% 


20.0% 


16.1% 


5.6% 


6.9% 


5.6% 


18.1% 


9.0% 




Number 


218, 


40 


84 


17 


40 


2 


51 


11 


43 


10 


other (other) 


Percent 


6.5% 


7.1% 


7.9% 


3.5% 


8.5% 


8.3% 


6.7% 


8.2% 


5.9% 


5.4% 




Number 


28 


109 


24 


3 


21 


3 


50 


16 


14 


6 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Approximately how many different musical jobs do you play a month? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


1-5 


Percent 


29.3% 


49.5% 


44.7% 


48.6% 


23.5% 


58.8% 


25.0% 


48.2% 


31.0% 


49.5% 




Number 


414 


197 


117 


35 


53 


20 


178 


91 


66 


51 


6-10 


Percent 


18.5% 


17.8% 


22.9% 


18.1% 


14.6% 


20.6% 


17.0% 


16.4% 


22.5% 


19.4% 




Number 


262 


71 


60 


13 


33 


7 


121 


31 


48 


20 


11-15 


Percent 


1 6.6% 


9.8% 


12.2% 


11.1% 


1 7.7% 


17.7% 


17.8% 


9.0% 


16.4% 


7.8% 




Number 


234 


39 


32 


~~ 5 


40 


6 


127 


17 


35 


8 


16+ 


Percent 


31.7% 


'9.5'--. 


19.1% 


2:. = % 


4' .6% 


2.9% 


34.4% 


21 .7% 


27.7% 


21 .4% 




Number 


448 


79 


50 


15 


94 




245 


41 


59 


22 


missing 




56 


12 


3 


1 


6 





42 


9 


5 


2 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1414 


398 


262 


72 


226 


34 


713 


189 


213 


103 



What percentage of your income comes from your music? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


none 


Percent 


2.6% 


2.8% 


4.6% 


2.8% 


2.7% 


2.9% 


1 .3% 


2.1% 


4.2% 


3.9% 




Number 


36 


11 


12 


2 


6 


1 


9 


4 


9 


4 


25% or less 


Percent 


20.9% 


20.4% 


42.4% 


27.8% 


29.7% 


35.3% 


9.5% 


14.3% 


23.5% 


21.4% 




Number 


296 


81 


111 


20 


67 


12 


68 


27 


50 


22 


between 26% and 50% 


Percent 


8.4% 


6.3% 


9.2% 


9.7% 


11.1% 


5.9% 


7.6% 


5.3% 


7.0% 


5.8% 




Number 


118 


25 


24 


7 


25 


2 


54 


10 


15 


6 


between 51% and 75% 


Percent 


4.6% 


4.0% 


6.9% 


2.8% 


4.0% 


2.9% 


3.9% 


4.2% 


4.7% 


4.9% 




Number 


65 


16 


18 


2 


9 


1 


28 


8 


10 


5 


between 76% and 99% 


Percent 


9.1% 


6.5% 


6.5% 


5.6% 


11.1% 


0.0% 


8.3% 


6.9% 


12.7% 


8.7% 




Number 


128 


26 


17 


4 


25 





59 


13 


27 


9 


1 00% 


Percent 


53.0% 


58.5% 


29.0% 


50.0% 


40.7% 


52.9% 


67.6% 


65.1% 


47.0% 


54.4% 




Number 


750 


233 


76 


36 


92 


18 


482 


123 


100 


56 


missing 




21 


6 


4 


1 


2 





13 


4 


2 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1414 


398 


262 


72 


226 


34 


713 


189 


213 


103 



49 



Approximately how many hours per week do you spend on your music or music-related activities 
(including performing, looking for work, marketing, etc.) 



Total Detroit New New York San 
Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


0-10 hours per week 


Percent 


15.6% 


20.1% 


30.5% 


22.2% 


23.0% 


35.3% 


8.0% 


16.9% 


15.0% 


19.4% 




Number 


221 


80 


80 


16 


52 


12 


57 


32 


32 


20 


11-20 hours per week 


Percent 


15.2% 


17.3% 


22.5% 


22.2% 


15.5% 


1 1 .8% 


10.8% 


14.3% 


20.7% 


21 .4% 




Number 


215 


69 


59 


16 


35 


4 


77 


27 


44 


22 


21-30 hours per week 


Percent 


15.3% 


17.6% 


15.3% 


18.1% 


15.9% 


17.7% 


13.3% 


15.3% 


21.1% 


21 .4% 




Number 


216 


70 


40 


13 


36 


6 


95 


29 


45 


22 


31 -40 hours per week 


Percent 


12.7% 


15.3% 


8.0% 


13.9% 


14.2% 


23.5% 


13.7% 


15.9% 


13.6% 


12.6% 




Number 


180 


61 


21 


10 


32 


8 


98 


30 


29 


13 


over 40 hours per week 


Percent 


38.2% 


27.6% 


22.1% 


20.8% 


29.7% 


1 1 .8% 


50.2% 


36.0% 


26.8% 


22.3% 




Number 


540 


110 


58 


15 


67 


4 


358 


68 


57 


23 


missing 




4 


2 


4 





28 


3 


6 


3 








total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1414 


398 


262 


72 


226 


34 


713 


189 


213 


103 



Education, Training, and Preparation 

Please indicate your highest level of formal education 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


elementary school, through 
grade 8 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 


2 





1 








4 


1 








some high school 


Percent 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


2.0% 


1 .2% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


19 


3 


6 


1 


6 


1 


4 


1 


3 





12th grade, but did not 
graduate 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


13 


2 


3 





3 





6 


1 


1 


1 


12th grade, got GED 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


9 


1 


2 


1 


1 





5 





1 





12th grade, graduated from 
high school 


Percent 


6.9% 


3.7% 


8.5% 


3.5% 


8.1% 


5.6% 


6.5% 


3.6% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


105 


16 


26 


3 


20 


2 


48 


7 


11 


4 


some college 


Percent 


22.6% 


1 1 .5% 


29.5% 


9.4% 


25.0% 


1 6.7% 


19.8% 


10.7% 


1 9.8% 


12.6% 




Number 


346 


49 


90 


8 


62 


6 


147 


21 


47 


14 


college degree 


Percent 


36.3% 


37.4% 


27.9% 


34.1% 


33.1% 


33.3% 


39.0% 


39.3% 


42.2% 


37.8% 




Number 


556 


160 


85 


29 


82 


12 


289 


77 


100 


42 


graduate degree 


Percent 


28.7% 


43.2% 


26.9% 


49.4% 


26.2% 


41 .7% 


30.7% 


43.4% 


27.0% 


38.7% 




Number 


439 


185 


82 


42 


65 


15 


228 


85 


64 


43 


other 


Percent 


2.5% 


2.3% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


3.6% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


1 .5% 


3.8% 


6.3% 




Number 


38 


10 


10 





9 





10 


3 


9 


7 


missing 




3 





1 











1 





1 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



50 



What is your highest formal degree? 





Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


AA 


Percent 


2.0% 


0.9% 


1 .7% 


1 .4% 


2.5% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


4.1% 


2.2% 




Number 


21 


3 


3 


1 


4 





7 





7 


2 


BA 


Percent 


20.5% 


14.1% 


14.6% 


9.9% 


20.6% 


3.7% 


20.3% 


15.2% 


27.2% 


18.5% 




Number 


213 


50 


26 


7 


33 


1 


107 


25 


47 


17 


BFA 


Percent 


10.7% 


9.9% 


7.3% 


9.9% 


9.4% 


14.8% 


13.7% 


9.1% 


6.4% 


9.8% 




Number 


111 


35 


13 


7 


15 


4 


72 


15 


11 


9 


BS 


Percent 


5.8% 


4.5% 


1 1 .8% 


7.0% 


7.5% 


3.7% 


3.2% 


4.2% 


5.8% 


3.3% 




Number 


60 


16 


21 


5 


12 


1 


17 


7 


10 


3 


MA 


Percent 


12.0% 


14.1% 


15.2% 


14.1% 


1 1 .9% 


18.5% 


9.9% 


13.3% 


15.0% 


14.1% 




Number 


124 


50 


27 


10 


19 


5 


52 


22 


26 


13 


MFA 


Percent 


9.3% 


13.8% 


1 1 .2% 


12.7% 


6.3% 


11.1% 


9.9% 


14.6% 


8.7% 


14.1% 




Number 


97 


49 


20 


9 


10 


3 


52 


24 


15 


13 


MS 


Percent 


2.7% 


2.8% 


4.5% 


4.2% 


4.4% 


7.4% 


1 .9% 


3.0% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 




Number 


28 


10 


8 


3 


7 


2 


10 


5 


3 





EdD 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.3% 


0.6% 


1 .4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 


1 





~6 


2 











PhD 


Percent 


3.0% 


3.1% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


6.3% 


0.0% 


2.1% 


3.6% 


2.9% 


3.3% 




Number 


31 


11 


5 


2 


10 





11 


6 


5 


3 


other 


Percent 


33.3% 


36.1% 


30.3% 


36.6% 


31.3% 


40.7% 


36.6% 


35.8% 


28.3% 


34.8% 




Number 


346 


128 


54 


26 


50 


11 


193 


59 


49 


32 


missing 




4 


2 














4 


2 








total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1038 


355 


178 


71 


160 


27 


527 


165 


173 


92 



Did you receive technical or professional training in the arts? 





Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


no 


Percent 


21.9% 


23.8% 


23.9% 


22.4% 


30.2% 


1 9.4% 


18.9% 


25.0% 


20.3% 


24.3% 




Number 


336 


102 


73 


19 


75 


7 


140 


49 


48 


27 


conservatory or professional 
school not granting a degree 


Percent 


25.7% 


26.4% 


25.9% 


16.7% 


24.3% 


27.6% 


25.8% 


25.2% 


26.5% 


35.7% 




Number 


307 


86 


60 


11 


42 


~~ § 


155 


37 


50 


30 


certificate program in the arts 


Percent 


1 1 .5% 


12.0% 


10.8% 


18.2% 


14.5% 


10.3% 


1 1 .0% 


10.2% 


11.1% 


10.7% 




Number 


137 


39 


25 


12 


25 


3 


66 


15 


21 


9 


private teachers 


Percent 


78.9% 


78.2% 


77.6% 


72.7% 


79.2% 


82.8% 


79.2% 


83.0% 


78.8% 


72.6% 




Number 


943 


255 


180 


48 


137 


24 


477 


122 


149 


61 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


15.1% 


13.2% 


17.2% 


12.1% 


20.2% 


13.8% 


13.1% 


1 1 .6% 


14.3% 


1 6.7% 




Number 


181 


43 


40 


8 


35 


4 


79 


17 


27 


14 



51 



Protection 

Do you hold a copyright in some artistic work of your own creation? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


54.6% 


23.6% 


33.1% 


17.7% 


46.8% 


16.7% 


68.5% 


30.6% 


46.8% 


18.0% 




Number 


836 


101 


101 


15 


116 


6 


508 


60 


111 


20 


no 


Percent 


45.0% 


75.7% 


66.2% 


82.4% 


52.4% 


83.3% 


31.1% 


68.9% 


53.2% 


80.2% 




Number 


689 


324 


202 


70 


130 


30 


231 


135 


126 


89 


don't know 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.7% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 




Number 


6 


3 


1 





2 





3 


1 





2 


missing 




1 





1 























total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Has your work ever been recorded? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes, by me 


Percent 


59.5% 


39.5% 


54.4% 


31.8% 


54.0% 


27.8% 


65.6% 


49.5% 


52.7% 


31.5% 




Number 


912 


169 


166 


27 


134 


10 


487 


97 


125 


35 


yes, by a professional 
recording company 


Percent 


74.6% 


73.1% 


64.9% 


62.4% 


68.6% 


66.7% 


Data 


Missing 


74.3% 


74.8% 




Number 


1143 


313 


198 


53 


170 


24 


Data 


Missing 


176 


83 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


9.0% 


7.7% 


8.2% 


1 1 .8% 


9.7% 


8.3% 


80.7% 


78.1% 


7.2% 


8.1% 




Number 


138 


33 


25 


10 


24 


3 


599 


153 


17 


9 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Has your music received airplay? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


81.1% 


72.0% 


73.8% 


64.7% 


79.8% 


69.4% 


84.8% 


75.0% 


80.6% 


73.0% 




Number 


1243 


308 


225 


55 


198 


25 


629 


147 


191 


81 


no 


Percent 


17.2% 


24.3% 


23.9% 


34.1% 


1 8.2% 


27.8% 


13.9% 


20.4% 


18.1% 


22.5% 




Number 


264 


104 


73 


29 


45 


10 


103 


40 


43 


25 


missing 




25 


16 


7 


1 


5 


1 


10 


9 


3 


5 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If yes, how did you get this airplay? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


had help from a promotional 
person 


Percent 


31.1% 


24.4% 


28.4% 


18.2% 


30.3% 


8.0% 


33.2% 


28.6% 


28.3% 


25.9% 




Number 


387 


75 


64 


10 


60 


2 


209 


42 


54 


21 


sent recordings out myself 


Percent 


21 .9% 


9.1% 


16.0% 


3.6% 


27.8% 


8.0% 


21.1% 


10.2% 


25.1% 


11.1% 




Number 


272 


28 


36 


2 


55 


2 


133 


15 


48 


9 



52 



paid to get airplay 


Percent 


2.8% 


1 .3% 


2.2% 


0.0% 


3.0% 


4.0% 


2.5% 


0.7%, 


4.2% 


2.5% 




Number 


35 


4 


"" ^ 





6 


1 


16 


1 


8 


2 


knew some of the disc 
jockeys 


Percent 


1 9.2% 


7.1% 


21 .8% 


9.1% 


30.3% 


4.0% 


14.3% 


6.8% 


20.9% 


7.4% 




Number 


239 


22 


49 


5 


60 


1 


90 


10 


40 


6 


knew producer 


Percent 


15.8% 


9.1% 


1 1 .6% 


7.3% 


23.2% 


20.0% 


12.9% 


10.2% 


22.5% 


4.9% 




Number 


196 


28 


26 


4 


46 


~~ i 


81 


15 


43 


4 


other 


Percent 


55.3% 


67.9% 


60.0% 


70.9% 


46.5% 


72.0% 


58.7% 


67.4% 


47.6% 


65.4% 




Number 


687 


209 


135 


39 


92 


18 


369 


99 


91 


53 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1243 


308 


225 


55 


198 


25 


629 


147 


191 


81 



Have you played music that was broadcast over the Internet? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


39.4% 


20.6% 


20.7% 


1 7.7% 


36.3% 


13.9% 


50.0% 


20.4% 


33.8% 


25.2% 




Number 


604 


88 


63 


15 


90 


5 


371 


40 


80 


28 


no 


Percent 


42.4% 


59.1% 


63.9% 


70.6% 


43.6% 


69.4% 


31.1% 


50.0% 


48.5% 


63.1% 




Number 


649 


253 


195 


60 


108 


25 


231 


98 


115 


70 


don't know 


Percent 


18.2% 


20.3% 


15.4% 


1 1 .8% 


20.2% 


16.7% 


18.9% 


29.6% 


1 7.7% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


279 


87 


47 


10 


50 


6 


140 


58 


42 


13 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If yes, how do you feel about people downloading this music without paying for your work? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


I do not mind 


Percent 


28.2% 


31.8% 


36.5% 


26.7% 


28.9% 


60.0% 


26.4% 


30.0% 


28.8% 


32.1% 




Number 


170 


28 


23 


4 


26 


3 


98 


12 


23 


9 


like the exposure 


Percent 


36.9% 


36.4% 


34.9% 


26.7% 


37.8% 


40.0% 


35.9% 


37.5% 


42.5% 


39.3% 




Number 


223 


32 


22 


4 


34 


2 


133 


15 


34 


11 


object 


Percent 


53.0% 


46.6% 


52.4% 


40.0% 


48.9% 


0.0% 


55.8% 


50.0% 


45.0% 


53.6% 




Number 


320 


41 


33 


6 


44 





207 


20 


36 


15 


think I should be paid 


Percent 


64.7% 


50.0% 


61.9% 


40.0% 


64.4% 


60.0% 


65.0% 


50.0% 


66.3% 


53.6% 




Number 


391 


44 


39 


6 


58 


3 


241 


20 


53 


15 


no opinion 


Percent 


5.8% 


9.1% 


4.8% 


13.3% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


7.0% 


15.0% 


3.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


35 


8 


3 


2 


3 





26 


6 


3 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




604 


88 


63 


15 


90 


5 


371 


40 


80 


28 



Do you currently have a steady manager, agent or representative for your work? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


16.6% 


12.9% 


12.1% 


1 1 .8% 


19.0% 


13.9% 


19.0% 


15.8% 


12.2% 


8.1% 




Number 


254 


55 


37 1 


10 


47 


5 


141 


31 


29 


9 


no 


Percent 


83.3% 


87.2% 


87.9% 


88.2% 


81.1% 


86.1% 


80.7% 


84.2% 


87.8% 


91.9% 






1276 


373 


268 


75 


201 


31 


599 


165 


208 


102 


missing 




2 

















2 











total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



53 



Technology 

Do you use electronic media in the creation of your music? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


41 .6% 


21 .7% 


33.8% 


17.7% 


35.5% 


8.3% 


48.1% 


28.1% 


38.0% 


18.0% 




Number 


638 


93 


103 


15 


88 


3 


357 


55 


90 


20 


no 


Percent 


56.9% 


77.6% 


64.3% 


82.4% 


64.1% 


88.9% 


50.5% 


71 .4% 


59.9% 


81.1% 




Number 


872 


332 


196 


70 


159 


32 


375 


140 


142 


90 


missing 




22 


3 


6 





1 


1 


10 


1 


5 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Do you use electronic media in the production of your music? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


47.7% 


27.6% 


40.0% 


17.7% 


40.7% 


16.7% 


55.4% 


34.2% 


40.9% 


27.0% 




Number 


731 


118 


122 


15 


101 


6 


411 


67 


97 


30 


no 


Percent 


47.9%, 


68.5% 


55.4% 


77.7% 


57.3% 


72.2% 


40.6% 


62.8% 


51.1% 


70.3% 




Number 


733 


293 


169 


66 


142 


26 


301 


123 


121 


78 


my music is not produced 


Percent 


2.3% 


1 .9% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


1 .6% 


1 .0% 


3.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


35 


8 


10 


2 


4 


2 


12 


2 


9 


2 


missing 




33 


9 


4 


2 


1 


2 


18 


4 


10 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Did you use the Internet for your music? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


41.1% 


26.9% 


25.6% 


14.1% 


36.7% 


19.4% 


47.4% 


31.1% 


46.0% 


31.5% 




Number 


630 


115 


78 


12 


91 


7 


352 


61 


109 


35 


no 


Percent 


58.8% 


72.9% 


74.4% 


85.9% 


62.5% 


80.6% 


52.6% 


68.9% 


54.0% 


67.6% 




Number 


900 


312 


227 


73 


155 


29 


390 


135 


128 


75 


missing 




2 


1 








2 














1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



How do you use it? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


to communicate with people 
in the industry 


Percent 


84.8% 


84.4% 


74.4% 


75.0% 


84.6% 


85.7% 


87.8% 


83.6% 


82.6% 


88.6% 




Number 


534 


97 


58 


9 


77 


6 


309 


51 


90 


31 


to compose music 


Percent 


13.7% 


7.0% 


12.8% 


8.3% 


13.2% 


0.0% 


13.9% 


4.9% 


13.8% 


1 1 .4% 




Number 


86 


8 


10 


1 


12 





49 


3 


15 


4 


to copy music 


Percent 


24.3% 


1 6.5% 


23.1% 


33.3% 


25.3% 


14.3% 


25.3% 


14.8% 


21.1% 


14.3% 



54 





Number 


153 


19 


18 


4 


23 


1 


89 


9 


23 


5 


to disseminate music 


Percent 


39.7% 


27.0% 


34.6% 


16.7% 


30.8% 


14.3% 


41 .8% 


32.8% 


44.0% 


22.9% 




Number 


250 


31 


27 


2 


28 


1 


147 


20 


48 


8 


to listen to music 


Percent 


49.1% 


40.0% 


56.4% 


58.3% 


52.8% 


42.9% 


45.5% 


39.3% 


52.3% 


34.3% 




Number 


309 


46 


44 


7 


48 


3 


160 


24 


57 


12 


to promote music 


Percent 


64.6% 


59.1% 


56.4% 


41 .7% 


56.0% 


71 .4% 


69.0% 


55.7% 


63.3% 


68.6% 




Number 


407 


68 


44 


5 


51 


5 


243 


34 


69 


24 


to do research 


Percent 


79.1% 


78.3% 


75.6% 


91 .7% 


68.1% 


71 .4% 


82.4% 


77.1% 


79.8% 


77.1% 




Number 


498 


90 


59 


11 


62 


5 


290 


47 


87 


27 


to sell music 


Percent 


43.8% 


22.6% 


33.3% 


0.0% 


36.3% 


14.3% 


47.7% 


23.0% 


45.0% 


31.4% 




Number 


276 


26 


26 





33 


1 


168 


14 


49 


11 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




630 


115 


78 


12 


91 


7 


352 


61 


109 


35 



Living, Working, and Making Art 

For how many years have you lived in the county or parish of your current residence? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


under 1 year 


Percent 


1 .6% 


4.0% 


0.3% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


1 .9% 


3.1% 


1 .7% 


6.3% 




Number 


24 


17 


1 


3 


5 


1 


14 


6 


4 


7 


2-3 years 


Percent 


5.9% 


1 1 .5% 


3.6% 


9.4% 


4.8% 


19.4% 


5.8% 


1 1 .7% 


10.1% 


9.9% 




Number 


90 


49 


11 


8 


12 


7 


43 


23 


24 


11 


4-5 years 


Percent 


5.0% 


5.8% 


3.0% 


2.4% 


4.8% 


5.6% 


6.3% 


6.6% 


3.4% 


7.2% 




Number 


76 


25 


9 


2 


12 


2 


47 


13 


8 


8 


6-10 years 


Percent 


14.5% 


15.9% 


8.5% 


15.3% 


12.1% 


13.9% 


18.3% 


15.8% 


12.7% 


17.1% 




Number 


222 


68 


26 


13 


30 


5 


136 


31 


30 


19 


more than 10 years 


Percent 


73.1% 


62.9% 


84.6% 


69.4% 


76.2% 


58.3% 


67.7% 


62.8% 


72.2% 


59.5% 




Number 


1120 


269 


258 


59 


189 


21 


502 


123 


171 


66 


mean 




4.5 


4.2 


4.7 


4.4 


4.6 


4.1 


4.4 


4.2 


4.4 


4.1 


median 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


missing 


































total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Did you receive any music-related training in this city or region? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


74.9% 


66.1% 


80.3% 


68.2% 


65.3% 


33.3% 


78.2% 


76.0% 


67.5% 


57.7% 




Number 


1147 


283 


245 


58 


162 


12 


580 


149 


160 


64 


no 


Percent 


25.1% 


33.9% 


19.7% 


31 .8% 


34.7% 


66.7% 


21 .8% 


24.0% 


32.5% 


42.3% 




Number 


385 


145 


60 


27 


86 


24 


162 


47 


77 


47 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



55 



Approximately how many times during the last 12 months did you work or perform away from home? 



Total Detroit New New York San 
Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


zero 


Percent 


25.1% 


35.5% 


37.1% 


42.4% 


23.0% 


16.7% 


1 9.3% 


35.2% 


30.0% 


36.9% 




Number 


384 


152 


113 


36 


57 


6 


143 


69 


71 


41 


1-5 times 


Percent 


21.4% 


25.2% 


25.6% 


22.4% 


24.6% 


41 .7% 


17.7% 


22.5% 


24.5% 


27.0% 




Number 


328 


108 


78 


19 


61 


15 


131 


44 


58 


30 


6-15 times 


Percent 


18.5% 


12.9% 


17.1% 


1 1 .8% 


20.6% 


16.7% 


17.9% 


1 1 .2% 


19.8% 


15.3% 




Number 


283 


55 


52 


10 


51 


6 


133 


22 


47 


17 


16-30 times 


Percent 


9.3% 


9.6% 


8.2% 


7.1% 


8.5% 


11.1% 


10.9% 


10.2% 


6.3% 


9.9% 




Number 


142 


41 


25 


6 


21 


4 


81 


20 


15 


11 


over 30 times 


Percent 


24.7% 


15.9% 


1 0.5% 


16.5% 


22.2% 


13.9% 


33.3% 


19.9% 


19.0% 


9.0% 




Number 


379 


68 


32 


14 


55 


5 


247 


39 


45 


10 


missing 




16 


4 


5 





3 





7 


2 


1 


2 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Excluding operational costs of your workspace, please list approximate annual costs for the following 
music-related work expenses: 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


music-related 
supplies/services (sheet 
music, etc.) 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


62.8% 


70.1% 


71 .5% 


82.4% 


71 .8% 


77.8% 


54.5% 


63.8% 


68.4% 


69.4% 




Number 


962 


300 


218 


70 


178 


28 


404 


125 


162 


77 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


23.4% 


18.9% 


18.0% 


11.8% 


18.2% 


19.4% 


26.8% 


21 .4% 


25.3% 


1 9.8% 




Number 


359 


81 


55 


10 


45 


7 


199 


42 


60 


22 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


4.3% 


3.0% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


5.8% 


4.1% 


2.5% 


2.7% 




Number 


66 


13 


10 


2 


7 





43 


8 


6 


3 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


1 .2% 


2.1% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


1 .9% 


3.1% 


0.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


18 


9 


2 


1 


1 





14 


6 


1 


2 


e over $7500 


Percent 


1 .5% 


0.9% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


2.7% 




Number 


23 


4 


3 





4 





15 


1 


1 


3 


equipment 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


36.0% 


46.0% 


48.9% 


56.5% 


46.8% 


72.2% 


26.3% 


38.3% 


38.4% 


43.2% 




Number 


551 


197 


149 


48 


116 


26 


195 


75 


91 


48 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


32.5% 


27.1% 


27.5% 


24.7% 


31.5% 


16.7% 


35.2% 


32.1% 


31 .7%! 


23.4% 




Number 


498 


116 


84 


21 


78 


6 


261 


63 


75 


26 


C$2501- $5000 


Percent 


13.8% 


8.6% 


9.8% 


4.7% 


8.5% 


5.6% 


1 6.3% 


8.2% 


16.9% 


13.5% 




Number 


212 


37 


30 


4 


21 


2 


121 


16 


40 


15 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


4.6% 


4.4% 


2.6% 


4.7% 


3.2% 


0.0% 


6.2% 


5.1% 


3.4% 


4.5% 




Number 


70 


19 


8 


4 


8 





46 


10 


8 


5 


e over $7500 


Percent 


6.5% 


7.9% 


5.6% 


7.1% 


4.8% 


2.8% 


7.7% 


8.2% 


5.5% 


9.9% 




Number 


99 


34 


17 


6 


12 


1 


57 


16 


13 


11 


capital improvements ■ 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


71 .0% 


82.0% 


78.7% 


87.1% 


77.4% 


94.4% 


65.0% 


77.6% 


73.0% 


82.0% 



56 





Number 


1087 


351 


240 


74 


192 


34 


482 


152 


173 


91 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


13.4% 


8.2% 


9.8% 


4.7% 


7.7% 


2.8% 


16.6% 


10.7% 


13.9% 


8.1% 




Number 


205 


35 


30 


4 


19 


1 


123 


21 


33 


9 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


4.3% 


0.9% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


6.9% 


0.0% 


4.3% 


2.0% 


3.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


66 


4 


10 





17 





32 


4 


7 





d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


1 .9% 


0.5% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


0.5% 


1 .7% 


0.9% 




Number 


29 


2 


2 





5 





18 


1 


4 


1 


e over $7500 


Percent 


2.5% 


3.0% 


1 .6% 


4.7% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


2.0% 


3.8% 


4.5% 




Number 


38 


13 


5 


4 


3 





21 


4 


9 


5 


training/maintaining music 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 





54.0% 


36.0% 


8.0% 


23.0% 


4.0% 


104.0 

% 


28.0% 


34.0% 


14.0% 




































b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


40.0% 


12.0% 


5.0% 


1 .0% 


3.0% 


0.0% 


27.0% 


8.0% 


5.0% 


3.0% 




Number 


76.44 


78.5 


79.02 


87.06 


83.87 


86.11 


71.83 


72.96 


79.75 


79.28 


C$2501- $5000 


Percent 


9.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


8.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


12.86 


12.62 


11.8 


9.41 


9.27 


11.11 


14.02 


14.29 


14.35 


12.61 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


3.0% 


1 .0% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .0% 




Number 


2.61 


2.8 


1.64 


1.18 


1.21 





3.64 


4.08 


2.11 


2.7 


e over $7500 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


0.59 


0.47 








0.4 





1.08 


1.02 








publicity/marketing 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


72.7% 


83.2% 


84.6% 


85.9% 


76.6% 


94.4% 


65.0% 


78.1% 


77.2% 


86.5% 




Number 


1113 


356 


258 


73 


190 


34 


482 


153 


183 


96 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


15.1% 


8.9% 


8.5% 


7.1% 


12.9% 


2.8% 


18.7% 


1 1 .2% 


14.8% 


8.1% 




Number 


232 


38 


26 


6 


32 


1 


139 


22 


35 


9 


C$2501- $5000 


Percent 


3.7% 


1 .6% 


0.7% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


5.0% 


2.6% 


4.6% 


0.0% 




Number 


57 


7 


2 


2 


7 





37 


5 


11 





d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


1 .4% 


1 .2% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


1 .5% 


0.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


22 


5 


4 





4 





13 


3 


"1 


2 


e over $7500 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


1 .5% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


15 


2 


1 


1 


2 





11 


1 


1 





travel/cartage 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


49.9% 


55.8% 


62.3% 


57.7% 


60.5% 


66.7% 


40.8% 


50.5% 


51.1% 


60.4% 




Number 


764 


239 


190 


49 


150 


24 


303 


99 


121 


67 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


26.4% 


26.4% 


22.0% 


28.2% 


21.0% 


25.0% 


29.8% 


27.6% 


27.0% 


23.4% 




Number 


404 


113 


67 


24 


52 


~§ 


221 


54 


64 


26 


C$2501- $5000 


Percent 


9.9% 


8.4% 


5.9% 


7.1% 


8.9% 


2.8% 


1 1 .2% 


10.2% 


1 1 .8% 


8.1% 




Number 


151 


36 


18 


6 


22 


1 


83 


20 


28 


9 


d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


2.0% 


2.1% 


0.3% 


3.5% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


2.0% 


3.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


30 


9 


1 


3 


3 





18 


4 


8 


2 


e over $7500 


Percent 


4.2% 


2.1% 


1 .3% 


2.4% 


4.0% 


0.0% 


6.1% 


3.1% 


2.5% 


0.9% 




Number 


65 


9 


4 


2 


10 





45 


6 


6 


1 


recording costs 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


69.3% 


84.6% 


81 .3% 


92.9% 


75.0% 


94.4% 


59.7% 


79.6% 


77.6% 


83.8% 




Number 


1061 


362 


248 


79 


186 


34 


443 


156 


184 


93 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


14.0% 


6.1% 


8.5% 


3.5% 


13.7% 


0.0% 


1 7.4% 


8.2% 


10.6% 


6.3% 




Number 


214 


26 


26 


3 


34 





129 


16 


25 


7 



57 



C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


4.1% 


2.1% 


3.0% 


0.0% 


4.0% 


2.8% 


4.9% 


2.6% 


3.4% 


2.7% 




Number 


63 


9 


9 





10 


1 


36 


5 


8 


3 


d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


2.4% 


0.7% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


3.6% 


0.5% 


1 .7% 


1 .8% 




Number 


36 


3 


4 





1 





27 


1 


4 


2 


e over $7500 


Percent 


4.5% 


1 .9% 


1 .6% 


1 .2% 


3.2% 


0.0% 


6.3% 


2.6% 


3.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


69 


8 


5 


1 


8 





47 


5 


9 


2 


management costs 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


86.0% 


89.7% 


94.4% 


96.5% 


85.5% 


94.4% 


81.0% 


84.2% 


91.6% 


92.8% 




Number 


1318 


384 


288 


82 


212 


34 


601 


165 


217 


103 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


3.1% 


2.1% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


4.4% 


2.8% 


3.5% 


3.1% 


3.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


47 


9 


1 





11 


1 


26 


6 


9 


2 


C$2501- $5000 


Percent 


1 .7% 


1 .4% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


2.6% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


26 


6 


2 


- b 


7 





15 


5 


2 


1 


d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.9% 


0.3% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


1.1% 


1 .5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


4 


1 


1 


2 





8 


3 


1 





e over $7500 


Percent 


2.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


3.6% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


34 


3 





■~d 


5 





27 


2 


2 


1 


musical instrument 
insurance 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


84.5% 


83.4% 


85.3% 


88.2% 


88.7% 


88.9% 


81.5% 


78.6% 


88.6% 


86.5% 




Number 


1295 


357 


260 


75 


220 


32 


605 


154 


210 


96 


b $501- $2500 


Percent 


8.3% 


8.6% 


7.5% 


7.1% 


6.1% 


2.8% 


9.7% 


12.2% 


7.2% 


5.4% 




Number 


127 


37 


23 


6 


15 


1 


72 


24 


17 


6 


C$2501- $5000 


Percent 


0.9% 


2.1% 


0.7% 


2.4% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


2.0% 


0.8% 


2.7% 




Number 


13 


9 


2 


2 


3 





6 


4 


2 


3 


d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 


1 


~ d 











1 








e over $7500 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 


1 


1 




















other 
























a $0- $500 


Percent 


13.1% 


14.0% 


12.5% 


14.1% 


14.5% 


11.1% 


12.0% 


14.8% 


15.6% 


13.5% 




Number 


200 


60 


38 


12 


36 


4 


89 


29 


37 


15 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


7.2% 


8.4% 


3.9% 


7.1% 


7.7% 


2.8% 


8.4% 


1 1 .2% 


7.2% 


6.3% 




Number 


110 


36 


12 


6 


19 


1 


62 


22 


17 


7 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


1 .5% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 




Number 


19 


3 


3 





2 





10 


3 


4 





d $5001- $7500 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 

















4 











e over $7500 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.9% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


8 


1 














7 





1 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



58 



Health, Pension and Welfare 

Where do you go to obtain routine health care? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


private physician 


Percent 


54.4% 


55.4% 


60.0% 


71 .8% 


42.3% 


27.8% 


63.9% 


62.2% 


30.0% 


39.6% 




Number 


833 


237 


183 


61 


105 


10 


474 


122 


71 


44 


HMO (health maintenance 
organization) or PPO 


Percent 


44.7% 


48.1% 


40.3% 


37.7% 


48.4% 


75.0% 


37.7% 


37.2% 


67.9% 


66.7% 




Number 


684 


206 


123 


32 


120 


27 


280 


73 


161 


74 


hospital outpatient 
department 


Percent 


1 1 .6% 


8.2% 


16.7% 


16.5% 


1 9.4% 


13.9% 


5.0% 


5.1% 


17.7% 


5.4% 




Number 


178 


35 


51 


14 


48 


5 


37 


10 


42 


6 


emergency room 


Percent 


6.4% 


4.7% 


8.5% 


8.2% 


12.5% 


5.6% 


3.2% 


3.6% 


7.2% 


3.6% 




Number 


98 


20 


26 


7 


31 


2 


24 


7 


17 


4 


1 do not obtain routine health 
care 


Percent 


6.9% 


3.7% 


7.2% 


0.0% 


7.7% 


2.8% 


6.9% 


4.6% 


5.5% 


5.4% 




Number 


105 


16 


22 





19 


1 


51 


9 


13 


6 


arts-related medical facility 
(please specify) 


Percent 


3.3% 


2.6% 


1 .3% 


2.4% 


9.7% 


8.3% 


2.4% 


1 .5% 


2.1% 


2.7% 




Number 


51 


11 


4 


2 


24 


3 


18 


3 


5 


3 


other 


Percent 


7.5% 


7.5% 


9.2% 


8.2% 


9.7% 


5.6% 


6.2% 


8.2% 


7.2% 


6.3% 




Number 


115 


32 


28 


7 


24 


2 


46 


16 


17 


7 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Have occupational hazards in your music-related work caused you any injuries? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


31.9% 


33.6% 


25.9% 


31 .8% 


26.6% 


1 9.4% 


33.3% 


36.2% 


40.9% 


35.1% 




Number 


489 


144 


79 


27 


66 


7 


247 


71 


97 


39 


no 


Percent 


67.6% 


65.7% 


73.8% 


68.2% 


73.0% 


80.6% 


66.2% 


62.2% 


58.7% 


64.9% 




Number 


1036 


281 


225 


58 


181 


29 


491 


122 


139 


72 


missing 




7 


3 


1 





1 





5 


3 


1 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Do you have health or medical coverage? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


89.0% 


92.8% 


92.1% 


97.7% 


81 .9% 


91 .7% 


89.5% 


90.8% 


91.1% 


92.8% 




Number 


1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 


no 


Percent 


10.8% 


7.2% 


7.5% 


2.4% 


18.2% 


8.3% 


10.2% 


9.2% 


8.9% 


7.2% 




Number 


165 


31 


23 


2 


45 


3 


76 


18 


21 


8 


missing 




— 3 





1 











2 











total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



59 



If yes, which type do you have? 



Total Detroit New New York San 

Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


HMO 


Percent 


43.0% 


40.8% 


27.8% 


31.3% 


49.3% 


72.7% 


40.8% 


30.9% 


63.4% 


55.3% 




Number 


586 


162 


78 


26 


100 


24 


271 


55 


137 


57 


PPO 


Percent 


1 8.2% 


25.2% 


24.2% 


24.1% 


21.2% 


1 8.2% 


14.0% 


25.3% 


20.4% 


28.2% 




Number 


248 


100 


68 


20 


43 


6 


93 


45 


44 


29 


personal policy through 
private insurance company 


Percent 


19.4% 


16.4% 


22.8% 


24.1% 


20.7% 


9.1% 


19.9% 


18.5% 


12.0% 


8.7% 




Number 


264 


65 


64 


20 


42 


3 


132 


33 


26 


9 


disability coverage for loss 
of income 


Percent 


9.4% 


10.3% 


12.8% 


9.6% 


8.4% 


12.1% 


8.0% 


1 1 .8% 


10.2% 


7.8% 




Number 


128 


41 


36 


8 


17 


4 


53 


21 


22 


8 


group insurance policy 
through arts/arts service 
organization (specify 
organization) 


Percent 


10.9% 


12.1% 


8.5% 


6.0% 


4.9% 


21 .2% 


15.8% 


17.4% 


4.6% 


4.9% 




Number 


149 


48 


24 


5 


10 


7 


105 


31 


10 


5 


other group insurance policy 
(specify organization) 


Percent 


13.2% 


10.6% 


22.4% 


15.7% 


10.8% 


9.1% 


10.5% 


1 1 .8% 


1 1 .6% 


4.9% 




Number 


180 


42 


63 


13 


22 


3 


70 


21 


25 


5 


other 


Percent 


14.7% 


12.3% 


19.6% 


16.9% 


10.8% 


0.0% 


15.7% 


12.4% 


9.3% 


12.6% 




Number 


201 


49 


55 


14 


22 





104 


22 


20 


13 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 



How was this health coverage obtained? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


37.1% 


29.7% 


30.6% 


21 .7% 


41 .4% 


33.3% 


37.2% 


29.8% 


41 .2% 


35.0% 




Number 


506 


118 


86 


18 


84 


11 


247 


53 


89 


36 


mate 


Percent 


13.6% 


13.4% 


1 1 .4% 


16.9% 


1 1 .8% 


15.2% 


13.3% 


1 0.7% 


19.0% 


14.6% 




Number 


185 


53 


32 


14 


24 


5 


88 


19 


41 


15 


employer 


Percent 


35.5% 


44.3% 


52.3% 


54.2% 


44.3% 


54.6% 


25.5% 


38.2% 


36.1% 


43.7% 




Number 


484 


176 


147 


45 


90 


18 


169 


68 


78 


45 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


18.0% 


13.6% 


9.6% 


1 .2% 


3.9% 


3.0% 


28.9% 


27.0% 


8.8% 


3.9% 




Number 


246 


54 


27 


1 


8 


1 


192 


48 


19 


4 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


10.3% 


1 1 .6% 


7.8% 


12.1% 


9.4% 


12.1% 


1 1 .3% 


12.4% 


1 1 .6% 


9.7% 




Number 


141 


46 


22 


10 


19 


4 


75 


22 


25 


10 


private company 


Percent 


6.4% 


3.8% 


6.4% 


6.0% 


5.4% 


9.1% 


6.9% 


2.8% 


5.6% 


1 .9% 




Number 


87 


15 


18 


5 


11 


3 


46 


5 


12 


2 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 



60 



Who pays for this coverage? 





Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


50.9% 


44.6% 


45.9% 


44.6% 


59.6% 


42.4% 


50.8% 


45.5% 


49.5% 


43.7% 




Number 


694 


177 


129 


37 


121 


14 


337 


81 


107 


45 


mate 


Percent 


9.8% 


7.1% 


9.3% 


10.8% 


13.8% 


6.1% 


7.7% 


5.1% 


13.4% 


7.8% 




Number 


134 


28 


26 


9 


28 


2 


51 


9 


29 


8 


employer 


Percent 


29.9% 


35.5% 


44.1% 


42.2% 


36.5% 


48.5% 


22.3% 


30.3% 


28.7% 


35.0% 




Number 


408 


141 


124 


35 


74 


16 


148 


54 


62 


36 


employer under contract 


Percent 


5.4% 


4.5% 


3.6% 


4.8% 


3.9% 


0.0% 


7.5% 


6.7% 


2.3% 


1 .9% 




Number 


73 


18 


10 


4 


8 





50 


12 


5 


2 


my musicians' union (specify 
union) 


Percent 


7.0% 


4.5% 


2.1% 


1 .2% 


3.5% 


0.0% 


1 1 .6% 


9.0% 


2.8% 


1 .0% 




Number 


96 


18 


6 


1 


7 





77 


16 


6 


1 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


8.9% 


10.8% 


8.5% 


13.3% 


7.9% 


9.1% 


9.3% 


9.6% 


8.8% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


121 


43 


24 


11 


16 


3 


62 


17 


19 


12 


private company 


Percent 


2.6% 


1 .5% 


1 .8% 


2.4% 


7.4% 


0.0% 


1 .7% 


1 .7% 


1 .9% 


1 .0% 




Number 


35 


6 


5 


2 


15 





11 


3 


4 


1 


arts/arts service organization 
(specify organization) 


Percent 


1 .5% 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


2.4% 


3.0%l 


0.0% 


2.0% 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


20 


4 


1 


2 


6 





13 


2 








other 


Percent 


8.5% 


7.8% 


8.5% 


9.6% 


12.3% 


3.0% 


8.3% 


8.4% 


5.6% 


6.8% 




Number 


116 


31 


24 


8 


25 


1 


55 


15 


12 


7 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1364 


397 


281 


83 


203 


33 


664 


178 


216 


103 



What percentage do they pay? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


1 self 


























mean 


62.6 


60.0 


51.6 


50.5 


60.9 


70.9 


65.0 


54.7 


70.2 


74.0 




median 


80.0 


50.0 


30.0 


40.0 


50.0 


100.0 


100.0 


50.0 


100.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


39.1 


40.6 


40.9 


41.1 


37.2 


41.9 


38.4 


40.4 


38.4 


36.9 




mode 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


694.0 


177.0 


129.0 


37.0 


121.0 


14.0 


337.0 


81.0 


107.0 


45.0 




missing 


670.0 


220.0 


152.0 


46.0 


82.0 


19.0 


327.0 


97.0 


109.0 


58.0 


2 mate 


























mean 


50.6 


35.8 


41.6 


29.3 


52.9 


50.0 


56.5 


21.3 


46.4 


55.6 




median 


50.0 


20.0 


20.0 


10.0 


50.0 


50.0 


50.0 


20.0 


50.0 


50.0 




std. dev. 


37.7 


33.1 


41.0 


40.6 


37.6 


0.0 


38.9 


17.5 


31.8 


34.0 




mode 1 


100.0 


20.0 


100.0 


2.0 


50.0 


50.0 


100.0 


20.0 


50.0 


20.0 




mode 2 


— 


~ 


— 


5.0 


100.0 


— 


-- 


-- 


— 


50.0 




mode 3 


— 


— 


— 


20.0 


-- 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


100.0 




mode 4 


— 


— 


— 


100.0 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




valid 
cases 


134.0 


28.0 


26.0 


9.0 


28.0 


2.0 


51.0 


9.0 


29.0 


8.0 




missing 


1230.0 


369.0 


255.0 


74.0 


175.0 


31.0 


613.0 


169.0 


187.0 


95.0 


3 employer 

























61 





mean 


82.6 


88.5 


85.7 


80.8 


74.2 


94.3 


80.4 


88.6 


91.8 


93.2 




median 


100.0 


100.0 


99.5 


100.0 


82.5 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


26.1 


21.5 


22.7 


28.3 


29.4 


13.1 


28.1 


21.1 


19.4 


14.8 




mode 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


408.0 


141.0 


124.0 


35.0 


74.0 


16.0 


148.0 


54.0 


62.0 


36.0 




missing 


956.0 


256.0 


157.0 


48.0 


129.0 


17.0 


516.0 


124.0 


154.0 


67.0 


4 employer under contract 


























mean 


62.9 


74.7 


60.3 


73.5 


28.8 


— 


66.1 


70.8 


90.0 


100.0 




median 


80.0 


97.5 


80.0 


96.0 


2.0 


— 


80.0 


86.5 


100.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


38.7 


35.5 


42.7 


47.7 


38.6 


— 


36.5 


34.6 


22.4 


0.0 




mode 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


— 


2.0 


— 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


73.0 


18.0 


10.0 


4.0 


8.0 


— 


50.0 


12.0 


5.0 


2.0 




missing 


1291.0 


379.0 


271.0 


79.0 


195.0 


33.0 


614.0 


166.0 


211.0 


101.0 


5 my musicians' union (specify 
union) 


























mean 


61.7 


81.9 


24.0 


2.0 


30.0 


— 


65.4 


85.8 


89.2 


100.0 




median 


80.0 


92.5 


15.0 


2.0 


2.0 


-- 


80.0 


92.5 


95.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


36.6 


30.2 


26.7 




47.8 


— 


34.0 


24.0 


13.6 


— 




mode 


100.0 


100.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


— 


80.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


96.0 


18.0 


6.0 


1.0 


7.0 




77.0 


16.0 


6.0 


1.0 




missing 


1268.0 


379.0 


275.0 


82.0 


196.0 


33.0 


587.0 


162.0 


210.0 


102.0 


6 mate's union or employer 


























mean 


75.4 


88.8 


84.7 


86.1 


54.9 


100.0 


73.4 


86.6 


87.4 


91.7 




median 


90.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


65.0 


100.0 


90.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


32.6 


22.4 


23.6 


29.0 


40.5 


0.0 


33.8 


25.9 


21.8 


10.9 




mode 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


2.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


121.0 


43.0 


24.0 


11.0 


16.0 


3.0 


62.0 


17.0 


19.0 


12.0 




missing 


1243.0 


354.0 


257.0 


72.0 


187.0 


30.0 


602.0 


161.0 


197.0 


91.0 


7 private company 


























mean 


48.5 


45.7 


64.0 


31.0 


48.7 


— 


29.9 


37.3 


79.8 


100.0 




median 


50.0 


40.0 


98.0 


31.0 


40.0 


— 


2.0 


20.0 


85.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


42.5 


43.8 


48.8 


41.0 


43.3 


-- 


39.0 


46.5 


21.3 


-- 




mode 


2.0 


2.0 


100.0 


-- 


2.0 


— 


2.0 


— 


— 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


35.0 


6.0 


5.0 


2.0 


15.0 


~~ 


11.0 


3.0 


4.0 


1.0 




missing 


1329.0 


391.0 


276.0 


81.0 


188.0 


33.0 


653.0 


175.0 


212.0 


102.0 


8 arts/arts service organization 
(specify organization) 


























mean 


31.1 


48.5 


2.0 


46.0 


18.3 


— 


39.2 


51.0 


"- 


-- 




median 


2.0 


46.0 


2.0 


46.0 


2.0 


-- 


2.0 


51.0 


"- 


~ 




std. dev. 


44.4 


53.8 


— 


62.2 


40.0 


-- 


47.2 


69.3 


"- 


-- 




mode 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


— 


2.0 


— 


2.0 


-- 


"- 


-- 




valid 
cases 


20.0 


4.0 


1.0 


2.0 


6.0 


— 


13.0 


2.0 


— 






missing 


1344.0 


393.0 


280.0 


81.0 


197.0 


33.0 


651.0 


176.0 


216.0 


103.0 


9 other 


























mean 


69.2 


73.6 


63.8 


71.5 


56.5 


1.0 


72.1 


75.1 


93.3 


83.0 




median 


92.5 


100.0 


90.0 


95.0 


75.0 


1.0 


100.0 


85.0 


100.0 


100.0 




std. dev. 


40.0 


38.3 


43.1 


40.0 


44.7 


"- 


38.5 


36.4 


8.9 


36.9 



62 





mode 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


1.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




valid 
cases 


116.0 


31.0 


24.0 


8.0 


25.0 


1.0 


55.0 


15.0 


12.0 


7.0 




missing 


1248.0 


366.0 


257.0 


75.0 


178.0 


32.0 


609.0 


163.0 


204.0 


96.0 



Do you have life insurance? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


yes 


Percent 


63.1% 


59.6% 


80.3% 


81.2% 


69.4% 


52.8% 


57.4% 


55.6% 


52.3% 


52.3% 




Number 


967 


255 


245 


69 


172 


19 


426 


109 


124 


58 


No 


Percent 


35.8% 


39.5% 


19.0% 


18.8% 


30.2% 


47.2% 


41.1% 


43.9% 


46.4% 


45.1% 




Number 


548 


169 


58 


16 


75 


17 


305 


86 


110 


50 


Missing 




17 


4 


2 





1 





11 


1 


3 


3 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



How was this insurance obtained? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


68.5% 


61 .2% 


54.3% 


55.1% 


68.6% 


63.2% 


77.7% 


67.0% 


64.5% 


56.9% 




Number 


662 


156 


133 


38 


118 


12 


331 


73 


80 


33 


Mate 


Percent 


7.6% 


6.7% 


6.1% 


5.8% 


10.5% 


0.0% 


5.9% 


8.3% 


12.1% 


6.9% 




Number 


73 


17 


15 


4 


18 





25 


9 


15 


4 


Employer 


Percent 


21.5% 


30.2% 


38.4% 


36.2% 


22.1% 


31.6% 


10.8% 


28.4% 


24.2% 


25.9% 




Number 


208 


77 


94 


25 


38 


6 


46 


31 


30 


15 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


17.2% 


15.7% 


34.7% 


20.3% 


9.9% 


10.5% 


10.1% 


1 1 .9% 


16.9% 


19.0% 




Number 


166 


40 


85 


14 


17 


2 


43 


13 


21 


11 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


2.4% 


2.4% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


3.5% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


3.7% 


2.4% 


3.5% 




Number 


23 


6 


8 





6 





6 


4 


3 


2 


private company 


Percent 


15.5% 


12.6% 


17.1% 


20.3% 


14.5% 


15.8% 


15.0% 


10.1% 


15.3% 


6.9% 




Number 


150 


32 


42 


14 


25 


3 


64 


11 


19 


4 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




967 


255 


245 


69 


172 


19 


426 


109 


124 


58 



Who pays for this coverage? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


self 


Percent 


80.4% 


71 .4% 


71 .8% 


75.4% 


81.4% 


79.0% 


85.2% 


75.2% 


79.0% 


56.9% 




Number 


777 


182 


176 


52 


140 


15 


363 


82 


98 


33 


Mate 


Percent 


10.0% 


1 1 .0% 


10.2% 


7.3% 


12.8% 


5.3% 


7.5% 


12.8% 


1 4.5% 


13.8% 




Number 


97 


28 


25 


5 


22 


1 


32 


14 


18 


8 


Employer 


Percent 


19.1% 


29.4% 


33.1% 


34.8% 


19.8% 


21.1% 


10.1% 


30.3% 


21 .8% 


24.1% 




Number 


185 


75 


81 


24 


34 


4 


43 


33 


27 


14 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


13.0% 


1 1 .4% 


27.4% 


15.9% 


8.7% 


5.3% 


7.0% 


7.3% 


1 1 .3% 


15.5% 




Number 


126 


29 


67 


11 


15 


1 


30 


8 


14 


9 


Mate's union or employer 


Percent 


1.1% 


1 .2% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


1 .8% 


1 .6% 


1 .7% 




Number 


11 


3 


5 





2 





2 


2 


2 


1 



63 



private company 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.8% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.9% 


2.4% 


1 .7% 




Number 


11 


2 


4 





1 





2 


1 


3 


1 


arts/arts service organization 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.4% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


1 .7% 




Number 


4 


1 


3 

















1 


1 


Other 


Percent 


2.8% 


1 .2% 


2.0% 


1 .5% 


2.3% 


0.0% 


3.3% 


0.9% 


3.2% 


1 .7% 




Number 


27 


3 


5 


1 


4 





14 


1 


4 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




967 


255 


245 


69 


172 


19 


426 


109 


124 


58 



Do you have at least one retirement plan? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Yes 


Percent 


77.3% 


79.2% 


76.1% 


74.1% 


77.8% 


72.2% 


76.0% 


81.1% 


82.3% 


82.0% 




Number 


1184 


339 


232 


63 


193 


26 


564 


159 


195 


91 


No 


Percent 


21.8% 


19.9% 


23.0% 


25.9% 


22.2% 


25.0% 


22.6% 


17.9% 


17.3% 


17.1% 




Number 


334 


85 


70 


22 


55 


9 


168 


35 


41 


19 


Missing 




14 


4 


3 








1 


10 


2 


1 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If yes, how was the retirement plan obtained? 



Total Detroit New New York San 

Orleans Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Self 


Percent 


52.6% 


50.4% 


41 .8% 


47.6% 


48.2% 


42.3% 


59.8% 


52.2% 


49.2% 


51 .7% 




Number 


623 


171 


97 


30 


93 


11 


337 


83 


96 


47 


Employer 


Percent 


36.7% 


47.8% 


61 .6% 


60.3% 


44.0% 


50.0% 


22.0% 


41 .5% 


42.6% 


49.5% 




Number 


435 


162 


143 


38 


85 


13 


124 


66 


83 


45 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


36.3% 


32.7% 


18.1% 


22.2% 


37.8% 


34.6% 


43.3% 


38.4% 


36.4% 


29.7% 




Number 


430 


111 


42 


14 


73 


9 


244 


61 


71 


27 


arts/arts service 
organization (specify 
organization) 


Percent 


2.4% 


0.6% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 


2.7% 


1 .3% 


3.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


28 


2 


3 





4 





15 


2 


6 





Other 


Percent 


8.5% 


8.0% 


10.3% 


6.4% 


4.2% 


3.9% 


8.2% 


9.4% 


1 1 .3% 


7.7% 




Number 


100 


27 


24 


4 


8 


1 


46 


15 


22 


7 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1184 


339 


232 


63 


193 


26 


564 


159 


195 


91 



Who pays for this retirement plan? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Self 


Percent 


72.1% 


69.0% 


69.4% 


68.3% 


75.7% 


73.1% 


72.2% 


69.8% 


71.8% 


67.0% 




Number 


854 


234 


161 


43 


146 


19 


407 


111 


140 


61 


Mate 


Percent 


5.4% 


7.1% 


6.5% 


1 .6% 


2.6% 


0.0% 


4.3% 


8.2% 


10.3% 


1 1 .0% 




Number 


64 


24 


15 


1 


5 





24 


13 


20 


10 


Employer 


Percent 


44.2% 


50.7% 


57.3% 


65.1% 


46.1% 


46.2% 


36.9% 


47.2% 


47.7% 


48.4% 




Number 


523 


172 


133 


41 


89 


12 


208 


75 


93 


44 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


22.6% 


20.1% 


1 1 .6% 


15.9% 


27.5% 


23.1% 


25.9% 


22.0% 


21.5% 


18.7% 



64 





Number 


268 


68 


27 


10 


53 


6 


146 


35 


42 


17 


arts service organization 
(specify organization) 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.3% 


0.9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


3.9% 


1 .8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


1 


2 








1 


10 











Other 


Percent 


4.0% 


2.4% 


5.6% 


1 .6% 


3.6% 


3.9% 


3.4% 


3.8% 


4.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


47 


~d 


13 


1 


7 


1 


19 


6 


8 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1184 


339 


232 


63 


193 


26 


564 


159 


195 


91 



Critical Review and Satisfaction 

Through what venue did your first professional recognition occur? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


award or honor 


Percent 


3.1% 


6.1% 


3.6% 


5.9% 


4.0% 


11.1% 


2.4% 


6.1% 


3.4% 


4.5% 




Number 


47 


26 


11 


5 


10 


4 


18 


12 


8 


5 


feature article 


Percent 


2.8% 


1 .6% 


2.6% 


1 .2% 


4.0% 


0.0% 


2.7% 


1 .5% 


2.1% 


2.7% 




Number 


43 


7 


8 


1 


10 





20 


3 


— 5 


3 


first paid job 


Percent 


34.5% 


37.2% 


34.4% 


38.8% 


32.7% 


41 .7% 


34.6% 


34.2% 


36.3% 


39.6% 




Number 


529 


159 


105 


33 


81 


15 


257 


67 


86 


44 


Grant 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 




Number 


14 


1 


1 











9 


1 


4 





job with a known band 


Percent 


16.3% 


8.4% 


1 5.7% 


8.2% 


20.6% 


11.1% 


15.0% 


7.1% 


16.5% 


9.9% 




Number 


249 


36 


48 


7 


51 


4 


111 


14 


39 


11 


played with a major artist 


Percent 


8.8% 


3.7% 


7.2% 


2.4% 


3.6% 


2.8% 


1 1 .9% 


5.1% 


6.8% 


2.7% 




Number 


135 


16 


22 


2 


9 


1 


88 


10 


16 


3 


winning a competition 


Percent 


3.3% 


8.6% 


3.9% 


14.1% 


3.6% 


5.6% 


2.3% 


8.7% 


5.1% 


5.4% 




Number 


50 


37 


12 


12 


9 


2 


17 


17 


12 


6 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


26.2% 


29.0% 


28.9% 


28.2% 


27.0% 


25.0% 


25.6% 


29.6% 


24.1% 


29.7% 




Number 


402 


124 


88 


24 


67 


9 


190 


58 


57 


33 


Missing 




63 


22 


10 


1 


11 


1 


32 


14 


10 


6 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Has your talent been recognized: 



Total 



Detroit 



New 
Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Locally 


Percent 


93.4% 


90.0% 


92.5% 


91.8% 


94.0% 


80.6% 


94.1% 


90.3% 


92.0% 


91 .0% 




Number 


1431 


385 


282 


78 


233 


29 


698 


177 


218 


101 


Nationally 


Percent 


58.4% 


43.7% 


41 .0% 


41 .2% 


52.4% 


27.8% 


72.0% 


53.1% 


44.3% 


34.2% 




Number 


894 


187 


125 


35 


130 


10 


534 


104 


105 


38 


Internationally 


Percent 


50.7% 


34.6% 


29.2% 


27.1% 


44.8% 


13.9% 


65.5% 


42.9% 


38.0% 


32.4% 




Number 


776 


148 


89 


23 


111 


5 


486 


84 


90 


36 


talent not recognized 


Percent 


2.2% 


3.3% 


3.9% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


13.9% 


1 .4% 


2.6% 


1 .7% 


1 .8% 




Number 


33 


14 


12 


2 


7 


5 


10 


5 


4 


2 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


1 .5% 


1 .4% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


3.2% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


2.6% 


2.1% 


0.9% 




Number 


23 


6 


4 


1$ 


8 





6 


5 


5 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


195 


237 


111 



65 



How satisfied are you with your music at this point? 



Total 



Detroit 



New 

Orleans 



New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


very satisfied 


Percent 


32.8% 


35.8% 


34.1% 


38.8% 


32.7% 


30.6% 


33.2% 


35.7% 


30.0% 


35.1% 




Number 


502 


153 


104 


33 


81 


11 


246 


70 


71 


39 


Satisfied 


Percent 


52.0% 


51.2% 


50.8% 


50.6% 


52.4% 


52.8% 


51.9% 


51 .0% 


53.6% 


51 .4% 




Number 


797 


219 


155 


43 


130 


19 


385 


100 


127 


57 


Dissatisfied 


Percent 


10.6% 


9.8% 


10.2% 


8.2% 


10.9% 


16.7% 


10.1% 


8.7% 


12.7% 


10.8% 




Number 


163 


42 


31 


7 


27 


6 


75 


17 


30 


12 


Very dissatisfied 


Percent 


1 .6% 


1 .6% 


2.0% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


1 .5% 


2.5% 


2.7% 




Number 


24 


7 


6 


1 


2 





10 


3 


6 


3 


Missing 




46 


7 


9 


1 


8 





26 


6 


3 





total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Income 

Have you applied for a grant or fellowship as a jazz or aspiring musician? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Yes 


Percent 


16.5% 


2.1% 


7.2% 


1 .2% 


13.3% 


2.8% 


24.7% 


3.1% 


5.9% 


0.9% 




Number 


252 


9 


22 


1 


33 


1 


183 


6 


14 


1 


No 


Percent 


83.2% 


97.4% 


92.5% 


98.8% 


85.9% 


97.2% 


75.1% 


95.9% 


94.1% 


99.1% 




Number 


1275 


417 


282 


84 


213 


35 


557 


188 


223 


110 


Missing 




5 


2 


1 





2 





2 


2 








total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



How much did you receive in 2000 before taxes in each of the following areas? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


music-related 
grants 
























A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


93.0% 


93.7% 


92.8% 


94.1% 


91 .9% 


88.9% 


93.1% 


92.4% 


93.7% 


97.3% 




Number 


1424 


401 


283 


80 


228 


32 


691 


181 


222 


108 


B $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


3.6% 


3.7% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


4.4% 


8.3% 


3.4% 


3.6% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


55 


16 


9 


3 


11 


3 


25 


■7 


10 


3 


C$10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.9% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


1 .5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


11 


4 


2 


1 


1 





6 


3 


2 





D $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 


1 














4 


1 








b $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


































mean 


2,888 


2,915 


2,755 


2,857 


2,792 


2,929 


2,989 


3,099 


2,842 


2,635 






66 





median 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


music-related 
fellowships 
























A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.2% 


94.9% 


93.8% 


94.1% 


93.6% 


88.9% 


94.5% 


94.9% 


94.5% 


97.3% 




Number 


1443 


406 


286 


80 


232 


32 


701 


186 


224 


108 


B $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


3.1% 


3.7% 


3.3% 


4.7% 


3.2% 


8.3% 


2.7% 


3.1% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


48 


16 


10 


4 


8 


3 


20 


6 


10 


3 


c$10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 

















1 











d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 

















4 











e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


































mean 


2,764 


2,689 


2,668 


2,738 


2,667 


2,929 


2,851 


2,656 


2,714 


2,635 




median 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


Music 
royalties/residuals 
























A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


84.7% 


88.1% 


91 .8% 


92.9% 


92.3% 


86.1% 


77.1% 


83.2% 


91.1% 


93.7% 




Number 


1297 


377 


280 


79 


229 


31 


572 


163 


216 


104 


b $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


4.7% 


6.5% 


2.6% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


11.1% 


6.7% 


9.7% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


72 


28 


8 


2 


4 


4 


50 


19 


10 


3 


c $10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


3.4% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


5.5% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


52 


2 


3 





3 





41 


2 


5 





d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


1 .0% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


16 


2 


3 











13 


1 





1 


e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


3 


3 





1 








3 


1 





1 


f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


14 


2 














13 


2 


1 







mean 


4,491 


3,865 


3,146 


3,354 


2,775 


3,071 


6,030 


4,442 


3,351 


3,509 




median 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


public assistance 
(welfare) 
























A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.9% 


96.3% 


95.1% 


95.3% 


95.6% 


88.9% 


95.0% 


97.5% 


93.7% 


97.3% 




Number 


1454 


412 


290 


81 


237 


32 


705 


191 


222 


108 


b $5,001 - 
$10,000 


Percent 


2.6% 


2.8% 


2.0% 


3.5% 


1 .6% 


8.3% 


2.3% 


1 .5% 


5.1% 


2.7% 




Number 


39 


12 


6 


3 


4 


3 


17 


3 


12 


3 


c $10,001- 
$25,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


































mean 


2,631 


2,642 


2,601 


2,679 


2,583 


2,929 


2,618 


2,577 


2,756 


2,635 



67 





median 


2,500 


2,500 


2.500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2.500 


2,500 


Unemployment 
benefits 






















A $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.5% 


94.9% 


94.4% 


95.3% 


94.4% 


91 .7% 


94.6% 


94.9% 


94.1% 


95.5% 




Number 


1447 


406 


288 


81 


234 


33 


702 


186 


223 


106 


b $5,001- 
$10,000 


Percent 


2.9% 


4.0% 


2.6% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


8.3% 


2.7% 


3.6% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


44 


17 


8 


3 


5 


3 


20 


7 


11 


4 


C$10,001- 

$25,000 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 








1 





o 


1 








d $25,001- 
$50,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


Number 
































e $50,001- 
$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
































f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


i Number 


































mean 


2,658 


2,736 


2,635 


2,679 


2,667 


2,917 


2,639 


2,758 


2,735 


2,682 




median 


2.500 


2.500 


2.500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2.500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


Missing 


















total # of respondents 
answered this questio 
(including refusals 8 
knows) 


who 

n 

< don't 


1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



If you received grants or fellowships as a jazz or aspiring musician, from what sources did you receive them? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Never received 


Percent 


81 .8% 


91.4% 


87.2% 


90.6% 


81.1% 


88.9% 


78.3% 


93.9% 


86.5% 


88.3% 




Number 


1253 


391 


266 


77 


201 


32 


581 


184 


205 


98 




missing 


11 


1 














5 













# 
respondents 


1532 


428 


36 


7 


44 


4 


742 


196 


237 


111 


National Endowment for 
the Arts 


Percent 


36.2% 


8.3% 


11.1% 


0.0% 


22.7% 


0.0% 


50.0% 


1 6.7% 


15.6% 


7.7% 




Number 


97 


3 


4 





10 





78 


2 


5 


1 


other federal agency 
(specify agency) 


Percent 


5.2% 


2.8% 


11.1% 


0.0% 


6.8% 


0.0% 


3.9% 


0.0% 


3.1% 


7.7% 




Number 


14 


1 


4 





3 





6 





1 


1 


regional agency (specify 
agency) 


Percent 


6.3% 


0.0% 


8.3% 


0.0% 


4.6% 


0.0% 


6.4% 


0.0% 


6.3% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 





3 





2 





10 





2 





state agency (specify 
agency) 


Percent 


1 2.3% 


8.3% 


8.3% 


0.0% 


15.9% 


0.0% 


14.1% 


16.7% 


3.1% 


7.7% 




Number 


33 


3 


3 





7 





22 


2 


1 


1 


local agency (specify 
agency) 


Percent 


8.2% 


5.6% 


8.3% 


14.3% 


1 1 .4% 


0.0% 


8.3% 


8.3% 


3.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


22 


2 


3 


1 


5 





13 


1 


1 





foundation (specify 
foundation) 


Percent 


13.8% 


13.9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 1 .4% 


0.0% 


17.3% 


41 .7% 


15.6% 


0.0% 




Number 


37 


5 








5 





27 


5 


5 





educational institution 
(specify institution) 


Percent 


9.7% 


8.3% 


13.9% 


0.0% 


1 1 .4% 


25.0% 


9.0% 


8.3% 


6.3% 


7.7% 




Number 


26 


3 


5 





5 


1 


14 


1 


2 


1 


corporate sponsor 
(specify sponsor) 


Percent 


1 .5% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


3.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 





1 











2 





1 






68 



Other 


Percent 


1 1 .2% 


2.8% 


8.3% 


0.0% 


1 1 .4% 


0.0% 


12.2% 


0.0% 


9.4% 


7.7% 




Number 


30 


1 


3 





5 





19 





— 3 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




268 


36 


36 


7 


44 


4 


156 


12 


32 


13 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total income from work as a musician from all sources for 2000 before taxes. 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans 



New York San Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


$0- $500 


Percent 


7.5% 


8.4% 


1 5.4% 


12.9% 


8.9% 


5.6% 


3.2% 


8.7% 


9.3% 


5.4% 




Number 


115 


36 


47 


11 


22 


2 


24 


17 


22 


6 


$501- $3000 


Percent 


8.4% 


9.6% 


14.1% 


1 1 .8% 


14.1% 


13.9% 


3.2% 


5.6% 


1 1 .0% 


13.5% 




Number 


128 


41 


43 


10 


35 


5 


24 


11 


26 


15 


$3001- $7000 


Percent 


6.5% 


8.4% 


12.8% 


9.4% 


8.5% 


13.9% 


2.6% 


6.1% 


8.4% 


9.9% 




Number 


99 


36 


39 


8 


21 


5 


19 


12 


20 


11 


$7001- 
$12,000 


Percent 


6.6% 


7.0% 


10.2% 


10.6% 


7.3% 


16.7% 


4.3% 


4.1% 


8.4% 


6.3% 




Number 


101 


30 


31 


9 


18 


6 


32 


8 


20 


7 


$12,001- 
$20,000 


Percent 


10.2% 


6.8% 


1 1 .2% 


8.2% 


13.3% 


8.3% 


8.6% 


5.6% 


10.6% 


7.2% 




Number 


156 


29 


34 


7 


33 


3 


64 


11 


25 


8 


$20,001- 
$40,000 


Percent 


22.2% 


18.7% 


15.4% 


21 .2% 


23.8% 


33.3% 


25.6% 


1 1 .7% 


18.6% 


24.3% 




Number 


340 


80 


47 


18 


59 


12 


190 


23 


44 


27 


$40,001- 
$60,000 


Percent 


13.1% 


10.8% 


3.0% 


2.4% 


10.1% 


0.0% 


17.7% 


16.8% 


14.8% 


9.9% 




Number 


200 


46 


9 


2 


25 





131 


33 


35 


11 


$60,001- 

$80,000 


Percent 


5.9% 


7.5% 


2.0% 


4.7% 


1 .6% 


2.8% 


8.8% 


8.7% 


6.3% 


9.0% 




Number 


90 


32 


6 


4 


4 


1 


65 


17 


15 


10 


$80,001- 
$100,000 


Percent 


3.9% 


6.5% 


4.9% 


8.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


4.7% 


10.2% 


3.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


59 


28 


15 


7 








35 


20 


9 


1 


more than 
$100,000 


Percent 


7.0% 


9.6% 


2.0% 


5.9% 


1 .6% 


2.8% 


1 1 .9% 


1 1 .7% 


3.8% 


10.8% 




Number 


107 


41 


6 


5 


4 


1 


88 


23 


9 


12 


Mean 


dollars 


33,487 


36,516 


19,316 


28,491 


20,683 


19,122 


44,972 


45,518 


29,205 


33,586 


Median 


dollars 


30,000 


30,000 


9,500 


16,000 


16,000 


9,500 


30,000 


50,000 


16,000 


30,000 


Missing 




137 


29 


28 


4 


27 


1 


70 


21 


12 


3 


total # of 
respondents who 
answered this 
question 




1395 


399 


277 


81 


221 


35 


672 


175 


225 


108 



Did this money cover your music-related costs in 2000? 

Total Detroit 



New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Yes 


Percent 


84.6% 


84.6% 


79.0% 


80.0% 


87.1% 


88.9% 


87.2% 


86.2% 


81 .0% 


83.8% 




Number 


1296 


362 


241 


68 


216 


32 


647 


169 


192 


93 


No 


Percent 


12.0% 


13.1% 


1 6.4% 


18.8% 


9.7% 


11.1% 


9.6% 


10.7% 


16.5% 


13.5% 




Number 


184 


56 


50 


16 


24 


4 


71 


21 


39 


15 


Missing 




52 


10 


14 


1 


8 





24 


6 


6 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



69 



What percentage of this income came from your work as a jazz musician in 2000? 

Total Detroit New Orleans New York San Francisco 





Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Mean 


43.9 


6.0 


35.3 


5.1 


57.0 


18.3 


44.6 


4.2 


39.0 


5.6 


Median 


30 





10 





75 





30 





25 





std. dev. 


42.2 


23.0 


40.2 


20.9 


43.4 


37.5 


42.1 


19.7 


40.5 


22.9 


Mode 


100 











100 





100 











valid cases 


1440 


416 


284 


83 


230 


36 


697 


188 


229 


109 


Missing 


92 


12 


21 


2 


18 





45 


8 


8 


2 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total income as an individual from all sources in 2000 before taxes including your work as a musician. 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans 



New York 



San Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


$0- $500 


Percent 


0.9% 


1 .9% 


1 .0% 


3.5% 


0.8% 


2.8% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


13 


8 


3 


3 


2 


1 


5 


3 


3 


1 


$501- 
$3000 


Percent 


1.1% 


1 .9% 


2.3% 


2.4% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


2.7% 




Number 


17 


8 


7 


2 


2 





5 


3 


3 


3 


$3001- 
$7000 


Percent 


1.1% 


2.1% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


0.3% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


1 .8% 




Number 


17 


9 


7 


3 


5 


1 


2 


3 


3 


2 


$7001- 
$12,000 


Percent 


2.4% 


4.0% 


3.9% 


3.5% 


4.0% 


11.1% 


1 .6% 


3.1% 


0.8% 


3.6% 




Number 


36 


17 


12 


3 


10 


4 


12 


6 


2 


4 


$12,001- 
$20,000 


Percent 


7.1% 


6.1% 


7.2% 


7.1% 


1 1 .3% 


11.1% 


4.6% 


5.1% 


10.6% 


5.4% 




Number 


109 


26 


22 


6 


28 


4 


34 


10 


25 


6 


$20,001- 
$40,000 


Percent 


27.1% 


24.5% 


26.2% 


29.4% 


35.5% 


50.0% 


24.4% 


15.8% 


27.9% 


27.9% 




Number 


415 


105 


80 


25 


88 


18 


181 


31 


66 


31 


$40,001- 
$60,000 


Percent 


19.8% 


17.8% 


16.4% 


14.1% 


17.3% 


8.3% 


20.6% 


18.4% 


24.5% 


22.5% 




Number 


304 


76 


50 


12 


43 


3 


153 


36 


58 


25 


$60,001- 
$80,000 


Percent 


1 1 .5% 


1 1 .2% 


1 2.5% 


10.6% 


7.3% 


5.6% 


13.3% 


12.2% 


8.9% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


176 


48 


38 


9 


18 


2 


99 


24 


21 


13 


$80,001- 
$100,000 


Percent 


6.4% 


9.4% 


8.9% 


9.4% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


7.0% 


13.8% 


6.8% 


4.5% 




Number 


98 


40 


27 


8 


3 





52 


27 


16 


5 


More 
than 
$100,000 


Percent 


10.5% 


12.4% 


6.9% 


9.4% 


5.7% 


2.8% 


14.2% 


13.8% 


8.9% 


15.3% 




Number 


161 


53 


21 


8 


14 


1 


105 


27 


21 


17 


Mean 


dollars 


49,847 


50,894 


47,206 


46,123 


38,930 


30,508 


55,352 


57,518 


47,386 


50,370 


Median 


dollars 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


30,000 


30,000 


30,000 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


Missing 




186 


38 


38 


6 


35 


2 


94 


26 


19 


4 


total # of 
respondents 
who 

answered 
this question 




1346 


390 


267 


79 


213 


34 


648 


170 


218 


107 



70 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total household gross income in 2000 before taxes. 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


$0- $500 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.9% 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


8 


4 


3 


1 





1 


4 


2 


1 





$501- $3000 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


9 


3 


3 


1 








4 


1 


2 


1 


$3001- $7000 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


11 





4 





5 





1 





1 





$7001- $12,000 


Percent 


1 .9% 


0.5% 


3.0% 


1 .2% 


3.2% 


2.8% 


1 .5% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


29 


2 


9 


1 


8 


1 


11 





1 





$12,001- 
$20,000 


Percent 


3.9% 


3.5% 


4.6% 


5.9% 


6.9% 


5.6% 


2.6% 


3.6% 


4.2% 


0.9% 




Number 


60 


15 


14 


5 


17 


2 


19 


7 


10 


1 


$20,001- 
$40,000 


Percent 


17.2% 


13.1% 


18.7% 


14.1% 


24.6% 


30.6% 


13.3% 


7.7% 


19.8% 


16.2% 




Number 


264 


56 


57 


12 


61 


11 


99 


15 


47 


18 


$40,001- 
$60,000 


Percent 


15.0% 


13.8% 


14.8% 


9.4% 


16.9% 


16.7% 


14.4% 


1 1 .2% 


15.2% 


20.7% 




Number 


230 


59 


45 


8 


42 


6 


107 


22 


36 


23 


$60,001- 
$80,000 


Percent 


13.9% 


12.2% 


1 1 .5% 


1 6.5% 


12.9% 


1 6.7% 


15.1% 


9.2% 


14.4% 


12.6% 




Number 


213 


52 


35 


14 


32 


6 


112 


18 


34 


14 


$80,001- 
$100,000 


Percent 


10.3% 


12.4% 


10.2% 


10.6% 


8.1% 


2.8% 


10.4% 


13.8% 


12.2% 


14.4% 




Number 


157 


53 


31 


9 


20 


1 


77 


27 


29 


16 


more than 
$100,000 


Percent 


22.4% 


30.8% 


1 8.7% 


25.9% 


9.3% 


13.9% 


28.0% 


37.8% 


23.2% 


27.9% 




Number 


343 


132 


57 


22 


23 


5 


208 


74 


55 


31 


Mean 


dollars 


63,496 


70,493 


59,053 


66,322 


51,169 


50,963 


69,021 


76,833 


64,252 


69,498 


Median 


dollars 


70,000 


70,000 


50,000 


70,000 


50,000 


50,000 


70,000 


90,000 


70,000 


70,000 


Missing 




208 


52 


47 


12 


40 


3 


100 


30 


21 


7 


total # of 
respondents who 
answered this 
question 




1324 


376 


258 


73 


208 


33 


642 


166 


216 


104 



What is the number of dependents you and your household are responsible for (include yourself as 1)? 







Total 


Detroit 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


1 self only 


Percent 


46.0% 


49.5% 


40.0% 


48.2% 


39.5% 


52.8% 


47.8% 


50.0% 


54.4% 


48.7% 




Number 


704 


212 


122 


41 


98 


19 


355 


98 


129 


54 


2 


Percent 


29.0% 


25.5% 


35.4% 


23.5% 


30.7% 


33.3% 


27.6% 


24.5% 


23.2% 


26.1% 




Number 


444 


109 


108 


20 


76 


12 


205 


48 


55 


29 


3-4 


Percent 


20.5% 


20.3% 


20.7% 


23.5% 


23.0% 


13.9% 


20.1% 


20.4% 


19.0% 


1 9.8% 




Number 


314 


87 


63 


20 


57 


5 


149 


40 


45 


22 


5-7 


Percent 


3.1% 


4.0% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


5.2% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


4.6% 


3.0% 


4.5% 




Number 


48 


17 


7 


3 


13 





21 


9 


7 


5 


8-10 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 


1 


2 





1 





1 


1 








more than 10 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 

































71 



Mean 




1.8 


1.8 


1.9 


1.8 


2.0 


1.6 


1.8 


1.8 


1.7 


1.8 


Median 




2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


1.0 


2.0 


1.5 


1.0 


2.0 


Missing 




18 


2 


3 


1 


3 





11 





1 


1 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



What is your current marital status? 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Single, never 
married 


Percent 


20.1% 


23.4% 


1 4.4% 


12.9% 


16.1% 


25.0% 


22.9% 


24.5% 


22.8% 


28.8% 




Number 


308 


100 


44 


11 


40 


9 


170 


48 


54 


32 


living with significant 
other 


Percent 


1 .9% 


3.0% 


1 .0% 


3.5% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


2.3% 


4.1% 


1 .7% 


1 .8% 




Number 


29 


13 


3 


3 


5 





17 


8 


4 


2 


married 


Percent 


62.1% 


60.1% 


69.5% 


68.2% 


62.5% 


61.1% 


60.0% 


58.2% 


59.1% 


56.8% 




Number 


952 


257 


212 


58 


155 


22 


445 


114 


140 


63 


separated 


Percent 


1 .4% 


1 .4% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


1 .8% 


2.0% 


1 .3% 


1 .8% 




Number 


22 


6 


3 





3 





13 


4 


3 


2 


divorced 


Percent 


10.1% 


9.1% 


8.5% 


10.6% 


13.7% 


8.3% 


9.4% 


8.2% 


10.1% 


9.9% 




Number 


154 


39 


26 


9 


34 


3 


70 


16 


24 


11 


widowed 


Percent 


3.3% 


2.1% 


4.9% 


2.4% 


3.2% 


5.6% 


2.3% 


2.0% 


4.6% 


0.9% 




Number 


51 


9 


15 


2 


8 


2 


17 


4 


11 


1 


living with parents 
and/or siblings 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


2 


1 








1 





1 


1 








Other 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


2 











1 











1 





Missing 




12 


3 


2 


2 


1 





9 


1 








total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Current Activity 

Have you played jazz for money during the last 12 months? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Yes 


Percent 


76.3% 


7.0% 


67.9% 


8.2% 


82.7% 


11.1% 


79.1% 


7.7% 


71 .7% 


3.6% 




Number 


1169 


30 


207 


7 


205 


4 


587 


15 


170 


4 


No 


Percent 


23.1% 


93.0% 


31.5% 


91 .8% 


1 6.5% 


88.9% 


20.2% 


92.4% 


28.3% 


96.4% 




Number 


354 


398 


96 


78 


41 


32 


150 


181 


67 


107 


Missing 




9 





2 





2 





5 











total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



72 



If you currently play with a group, how many different groups do you play with? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


none, play solo only 


Percent 


14.6% 


16.6% 


17.4% 


1 1 .8% 


9.7% 


13.9% 


15.1% 


21 .4% 


14.8% 


12.6% 




Number 


224 


71 


53 


10 


24 


5 


112 


42 


35 


14 


One 


Percent 


12.5% 


19.4% 


14.4% 


21 .2% 


17.3% 


25.0% 


10.2% 


16.8% 


12.2% 


20.7% 




Number 


192 


83 


44 


18 


43 


9 


76 


33 


29 


23 


Two 


Percent 


9.7% 


12.2% 


1 1 .2% 


12.9% 


10.9% 


27.8% 


7.8% 


9.2% 


12.2% 


1 1 .7% 




Number 


148 


52 


34 


11 


27 


10 


58 


18 


29 


13 


Three 


Percent 


1 1 .2% 


1 1 .9% 


14.4% 


12.9% 


13.7% 


13.9% 


9.0% 


9.7% 


1 1 .0% 


14.4% 




Number 


171 


51 


44 


11 


34 


5 


67 


19 


26 


16 


Four 


Percent 


8.4% 


6.8% 


6.9% 


10.6% 


7.3% 


8.3% 


8.0% 


4.6% 


12.7% 


7.2% 




Number 


128 


29 


21 


9 


18 


3 


59 


9 


30 


8 


more than four 


Percent 


40.7% 


30.1% 


33.4% 


27.1% 


38.3% 


11.1% 


46.0% 


34.7% 


35.9% 


30.6% 




Number 


623 


129 


102 


23 


95 


4 


341 


68 


85 


34 


Missing 




46 


13 


7 


3 


7 





29 


7 


3 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 1 
























business savvy 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .4% 


1 .3% 


2.4% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


0.8% 


1 .0% 


1 .7% 


0.9% 




Number 


19 


— § 


4 


2 


5 


1 


6 


2 


4 


1 


connections 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.2% 


1 .0% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


6 


1 


3 


1 


2 











1 





curiosity 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


6 


— 


2 





2 





2 











energy 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


12 


3 


3 


2 


6 





3 








1 


intelligence 


Percent 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


3.5% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.9% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


18 


5 


3 


3 


6 


1 


7 


1 


2 





Luck 


Percent 


0.5% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


3.5% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


5 


2 


3 


3 





2 


2 








perception 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 





1 








1 


1 





performing ability 


Percent 


1 .8% 


1 .6% 


1 .6% 


1 .2% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


2.5% 


2.7% 




Number 


27 


7 


5 


1 


7 


1 


9 


2 


6 


3 


physical stamina 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.7% 


1 .3% 


1 .2% 


0.4% 


5.6% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


2.5% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 


3 


4 


1 


1 


2 


6 





6 





Talent 


Percent 


23.1% 


30.8% 


24.6% 


24.7% 


21 .8% 


38.9% 


23.5% 


34.7% 


21.5% 


26.1% 




Number 


354 


132 


75 


21 


54 


14 


174 


68 


51 


29 


technique 


Percent 


1 .3% 


0.2% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


20 


1 


5 





7 





5 


1 


3 






73 



Other 


Percent 


67.3% 


61 .2% 


63.9% 


57.7% 


60.9% 


47.2% 


70.6% 


60.7% 


67.9% 


69.4% 




Number 


1031 


262 


195 


49 


151 


17 


524 


119 


161 


77 


Missing 




12 


2 


3 


2 


3 





4 





2 





total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 



Total Detroit New Orleans New York San 

Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 2 
























business savvy 


Percent 


4.2% 


1 .6% 


3.6% 


3.5% 


6.1% 


2.8% 


4.0% 


1 .5% 


3.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


65 


7 


11 


3 


15 


1 


30 


3 


9 





connections 


Percent 


1 .3% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


20 


5 


2 


2 


6 





9 


2 


3 


1 


curiosity 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


1 


2 





2 





5 


1 


3 





energy 


Percent 


1 .3% 


1 .4% 


2.3% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


20 


6 


7 


2 


4 


2 


4 


2 


5 





intelligence 


Percent 


1.1% 


1 .2% 


1 .3% 


3.5% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 


5 


4 


3 


6 


— 3 


5 


2 


2 





Luck 


Percent 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


1 .5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


10 


5 


2 


1 


3 





3 


3 


2 


1 


perception 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


2.8% 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


2 


1 





2 


1 


2 


1 


2 





performing ability 


Percent 


2.3% 


1 .4% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


4.4% 


5.6% 


1 .5% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


35 


6 


10 


2 


11 


2 


11 


1 


3 


1 


physical stamina 


Percent 


2.1% 


1 .4% 


2.0% 


3.5% 


3.6% 


2.8% 


1.9% 


1 .0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


32 


6 


6 


3 


9 


1 


14 


2 


3 





Talent 


Percent 


9.9% 


14.0% 


9.8% 


14.1% 


9.7% 


11.1% 


9.7% 


14.8% 


10.6% 


13.5% 




Number 


151 


60 


30 


12 


24 


4 


72 


29 


25 


15 


technique 


Percent 


1 .4% 


1 .6% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


3.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


21 


7 


7 


3 


4 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1 


Other 


Percent 


70.6% 


71 .3% 


69.8% 


57.7% 


60.5% 


63.9% 


74.9% 


73.5% 


68.4% 


80,2% 




Number 


1081 


305 


213 


49 


150 


23 


556 


144 


162 


89 


Missing 




61 


13 


10 


5 


12 





28 


5 


11 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 2 
























business savvy 


Percent 


4.2% 


1 .6% 


3.6% 


3.5% 


6.1% 


2.8% 


4.0% 


1 .5% 


3.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


65 


7 


11 


3 


15 


1 


30 


3 


9 





connections 


Percent 


1 .3% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


20 


5 


2 


2 


6 





9 


2 


3 


1 



74 



curiosity 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


1 


2 





2 





5 


1 


3 





energy 


Percent 


1 .3% 


1 .4% 


2.3% 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


2.1% 


0.0% 




Number 


20 


6 


7 


2 


4 


2 


4 


2 


5 





intelligence 


Percent 


1.1% 


1 .2% 


1 .3% 


3.5% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


17 


5 


4 


3 


6 





5 


2 


2 





Luck 


Percent 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


1 .5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


10 


~B 


2 


1 


3 





3 


3 


2 


1 


perception 


Percent 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


2.8% 


0.3% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


7 


2 


1 





2 


1 


2 


1 


2 





performing ability 


Percent 


2.3% 


1 .4% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


4.4% 


5.6% 


1 .5% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.9% 




Number 


35 


6 


10 


2 


11 


2 


11 


1 


3 


1 


physical stamina 


Percent 


2.1% 


1 .4% 


2.0% 


3.5% 


3.6% 


2.8% 


1 .9% 


1 .0% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


32 


6 


6 


3 


9 


1 


14 


2 


3 





Talent 


Percent 


9.9% 


14.0% 


9.8% 


14.1% 


9.7% 


11.1% 


9.7% 


14.8% 


10.6% 


13.5% 




Number 


151 


60 


30 


12 


24 


4 


72 


29 


25 


15 


technique 


Percent 


1 .4% 


1 .6% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


1 .6% 


5.6% 


0.4% 


0.5% 


3.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


21 


7 


7 


3 


4 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1 


Other 


Percent 


70.6% 


71 .3% 


69.8% 


57.7% 


60.5% 


63.9% 


74.9% 


73.5% 


68.4% 


80.2% 




Number 


1081 


305 


213 


49 


150 


23 


556 


144 


162 


89 


Missing 




61 


13 


10 


5 


12 





28 


5 


11 


3 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



What are your three most important goals for the 

Total 



next five years as a musician? 

Detroit New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 1 
























develop artistic 
competence 


Percent 


3.7% 


2.3% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


4.0% 


5.6% 


3.6% 


1 .0% 


4.6% 


2.7% 




Number 


57 


10 


9 


3 


10 


2 


27 


2 


11 


3 


get a record deal 


Percent 


5.8% 


3.3% 


4.3% 


2.4% 


4.8% 


5.6% 


7.1% 


3.1% 


4.6% 


3.6% 




Number 


89 


14 


13 


2 


12 


2 


53 


6 


11 


4 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


1 .4% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


0.9% 




Number 


19 


2 


3 





4 





10 


1 


2 


1 


make a living from 
my music 


Percent 


4.5% 


3.5% 


3.3% 


1 .2% 


7.3% 


0.0% 


4.0% 


5.6% 


4.6% 


2.7% 




Number 


69 


15 


10 


1 


18 





30 


11 


11 


3 


make money from 
my music 


Percent 


3.3% 


3.3% 


2.3% 


3.5% 


7.7% 


5.6% 


2.2% 


2.6% 


3.8% 


3.6% 




Number 


51 


14 


7 


3 


19 


2 


16 


5 


9 


4 


Obtain critical 
reviews 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


2 

















1 





1 





participate in major 
concerts 


Percent 


0.9% 


1 .6% 


0.7% 


3.5% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


1.1% 


1 .0% 


0.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


13 


7 


2 


3 


1 





8 


2 


2 


2 


play with well-known 
groups 


Percent 


0.9% 


2.6% 


1 .0% 


4.7% 


1 .2% 


11.1% 


0.7% 


1 .5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


14 


11 


3 


4 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 






75 



reach higher level of 
artistic 
expression/ Achievement 


Percent 


1 1 .0% 


10.8% 


1 1 .5% 


1 1 .8% 


12.5% 


13.9% 


10.0% 


10.2% 


1 1 .8% 


9.9% 




Number 


168 


46 


35 


10 


31 


5 


74 


20 


28 


11 


Spend more time on 
music 


Percent 


2.0% 


2.6% 


1 .6% 


4.7% 


3.6% 


0.0% 


0.9% 


2.0% 


4.2% 


2.7% 




Number 


31 


11 


5 


4 


9 


— 


7 


4 


10 


3 


Win 
recognition/award 


Percent 


1 .4% 


0.2% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


21 


1 


3 





~E 





9 


1 


3 





Other 


Percent 


62.3% 


64.0% 


66.9% 


54.1% 


49.6% 


52.8% 


65.8% 


68.9% 


59.1% 


66.7% 




Number 


955 


274 


204 


46 


123 


19 


488 


135 


140 


74 


Missing 




43 


23 


11 


9 


12 


2 


14 


6 


6 


6 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



What are your three most important goals for the next five years as a musician? 

Total Detroit New Orleans New 



York San 

Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 2 
























develop artistic 
competence 


Percent 


3.4% 


2.3% 


3.9% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


3.1% 


2.0% 


4.2% 


3.6% 




Number 


52 


10 


12 


2 


7 





23 


4 


10 


4 


get a record deal 


Percent 


3.2% 


2.1% 


3.9% 


2.4% 


4.0% 


2.8% 


3.5% 


2.6% 


0.4% 


0.9% 




Number 


49 


9 


12 


2 


10 


1 


26 


5 


1 


1 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


1 .3% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


1 .2% 


3.2% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


2.1% 


0.9% 




Number 


20 


2 


1 


1 


8 





— B 





5 


1 


make a living from my 
music 


Percent 


3.5% 


3.0% 


2.0% 


2.4% 


4.8% 


11.1% 


3.6% 


2.6% 


3.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


53 


13 


6 


2 


12 


4 


27 


5 


8 


2 


make money from my 
music 


Percent 


4.4% 


3.3% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


6.1% 


0.0% 


4.0% 


4.1% 


5.9% 


2.7% 




Number 


68 


14 


9 


3 


15 


~~ d 


30 


8 


14 


3 


Obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 





2 





2 

















participate in major 
concerts 


Percent 


1 .3% 


0.7% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


0.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


20 


3 


2 





7 





9 


1 


2 


2 


play with well-known 
groups 


Percent 


1 .4% 


1 .4% 


1 .6% 


2.4% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


1 .0% 


2.5% 


1 .8% 




Number 


22 


6 


5 


2 


2 





9 


2 


6 


2 


Reach higher level of 
artistic 
expression/achievement 


Percent 


7.3% 


8.6% 


9.5% 


9.4% 


6.9% 


8.3% 


6.2% 


8.7% 


8.4% 


8.1% 




Number 


112 


37 


29 


8 


17 


3 


46 


17 


20 


9 


Spend more time on 
music 


Percent 


2.2% 


1 .4% 


3.0% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


5.6% 


1 .5% 


0.5% 


3.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


33 


6 


9 


2 


6 


2 


11 


1 


7 


1 


win recognition/award 


Percent 


1 .5% 


0.2% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


1 .3% 


0.0% 




Number 


23 


1 


5 





6 





9 


1 


3 





Other 


Percent 


59.9% 


61.5% 


56.7% 


50.6% 


49.2% 


55.6% 


64.7% 


64.3% 


59.9% 


66.7% 




Number 


917 


263 


173 


43 


122 


20 


480 


126 


142 


74 


Missing 




159 


64 


40 


20 


34 


6 


66 


26 


19 


12 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



76 



What are your three most important goals for the next five years as a musician? 

Total Detroit New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Choice 3 
























develop artistic 
competence 


Percent 


1 .9% 


2.3% 


2.0% 


2.4% 


2.4% 


2.8% 


1.1% 


2.6% 


3.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


29 


10 


6 


2 


6 


1 


8 


5 


9 


2 


get a record deal 


Percent 


2.2% 


0.9% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


1 .5% 


2.5% 


0.9% 




Number 


34 


4 


3 





4 





21 


3 


6 


1 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


0.8% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.9% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


1 .8% 




Number 


12 


2 


1 





2 





7 





2 


2 


make a living from my 
music 


Percent 


1 .8% 


0.7% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


1 .0% 


1 .7% 


0.9% 




Number 


28 


3 


5 





7 





12 


2 


4 


1 


make money from my 
music 


Percent 


3.0% 


2.8% 


3.3% 


4.7% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


2.6% 


3.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


46 


12 


10 


4 


7 


1 


21 


5 


8 


2 


Obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 


1 


1 





2 





1 


1 








participate in major 
concerts 


Percent 


0.9% 


0.9% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.9% 


0.5% 


2.1% 


1 .8% 




Number 


14 


4 


2 


1 








7 


1 


5 


2 


play with well-known 
groups 


Percent 


1 .2% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


2.8% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.5% 


2.1% 


0.9% 




Number 


19 


2 


1 





7 





6 


1 


5 


1 


Reach higher level of 
artistic 
expression/achievement 


Percent 


5.4% 


4.0% 


3.3% 


4.7% 


8.1% 


13.9% 


5.3% 


2.0% 


5.9% 


3.6% 




Number 


83 


17 


10 


4 


20 


5 


39 


4 


14 


4 


Spend more time on 
music 


Percent 


2.2% 


1 .6% 


3.0% 


3.5% 


2.4% 


0.0% 


1 .6% 


2.0% 


2.5% 


0.0% 




Number 


33 


7 


9 


3 


6 





12 


4 


6 





win recognition/award 


Percent 


1 .6% 


1 .4% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


2.8% 


2.3% 


1 .5% 


0.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


25 


6 


2 





5 


1 


17 


3 


1 


2 


Other 


Percent 


61.2% 


59.4% 


62.6% 


49.4% 


52.4% 


58.3% 


63.9% 


59.7% 


59.9% 


66.7% 




Number 


937 


254 


191 


42 


130 


21 


474 


117 


142 


74 


Missing 




268 


106 


64 


29 


52 


7 


117 


50 


35 


20 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



Background Information 



What is your date of birth? 



Total 



Detroit 



New Orleans 



New York 



San Francisco 





Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Mean 


53.2 


49.6 


57.6 


51.6 


53.2 


48.2 


51.1 


49.1 


53.8 


49.4 


Median 


50 


47 


57 


48.5 


52.5 


46.5 


48 


48 


50.5 


46 


std. dev. 


14.2 


13.8 


14.7 


14.8 


14.1 


15.3 


13.5 


13.1 


14.7 


13.6 


Mode 1 


49 


48 


44 


35 


49 


27 


49 


42 


49 


46 


Mode 2 


— 


— 


72 


38 


54 


34 


— 


48 


50 


-- 


Mode 3 


— 


— 


— 


46 


— 


38 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mode 4 


— 


-- 


-- 


— 


-- 


42 


-- 


— 


-- 


-- 



77 



Mode 5 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


-- 


46 


~ 


- 


-- 


- 


Mode 6 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


50 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mode 7 


— 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


56 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mode 8 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


58 


— 


— 


— 


-- 


Mode 9 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


60 


— 


-- 


— 


-- 


Min 


16 


23 


22 


26 


16 


25 


20 


23 


25 


24 


Max 


92 


90 


91 


82 


92 


90 


89 


89 


88 


82 


Valid cases 


1494 


407 


296 


82 


242 


36 


722 


184 


234 


105 


Missing 


38 


21 


9 


3 


6 





20 


12 


3 


6 



What is your race? 



Total 



Detroit New Orleans New York 



San 
Francisco 







Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


American Indian or 
Alaska Native 


Percent 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.9% 




Number 


3 


'1 


2 


~6 


1 














1 


Asian 


Percent 


1 .0% 


3.7% 


0.7% 


1 .2% 


0.8% 


5.6% 


0.9% 


4.1% 


2.1% 


4.5% 




Number 


16 


16 


2 


1 


2 


2 


7 


8 


5 


5 


Black or African 
American 


Percent 


18.3% 


4.7% 


22.6% 


10.6% 


25.4% 


2.8% 


17.3% 


3.6% 


8.9% 


2.7% 




Number 


281 


20 


69 


9 


63 


1 


128 


7 


21 


3 


Hispanic or Latino 


Percent 


1 .6% 


1 .2% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


2.0% 


1 .5% 


3.4% 


1 .8% 




Number 


24 


5 


1 











15 


3 


8 


2 


Native Hawaiian or 
Other Pacific Islander 


Percent 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 

















2 





2 





White 


Percent 


71 .9% 


84.8% 


71 .5% 


85.9% 


66.5% 


88.9% 


71 .3% 


83.2% 


80.2% 


85.6% 




Number 


1102 


363 


218 


73 


165 


32 


529 


163 


190 


95 


Other 


Percent 


3.7% 


3.7% 


2.0% 


1 .2% 


4.0% 


2.8% 


4.6% 


5.6% 


3.0% 


2.7% 




Number 


57 


16 


6 


1 


10 


1 


34 


11 


7 


3 


Missing 




45 


7 


7 


1 


7 





27 


4 


4 


2 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 


- 


1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



What is your gender? 





Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 

Jazz 


Male 


Percent 


84.1% 


53.3% 


83.3% 


44.7% 


88.7% 


47.2% 


84.8% 


61.7% 


78.1% 


46.9% 




Number 


1288 


228 


254 


38 


220 


17 


629 


121 


185 


52 


Female 


Percent 


15.9% 


46.5% 


1 6.7% 


55.3% 


1 1 .3% 


52.8% 


15.1% 


37.8% 


21 .9% 


53.2% 




Number 


243 


199 


51 


47 


28 


19 


112 


74 


52 


59 


Missing 




1 


1 














1 


1 








total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1532 


428 


305 


85 


248 


36 


742 


196 


237 


111 



78 



Are you. 







Total 


Detroit 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 




Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


Jazz 


Non 
Jazz 


1 Hispanic or Latino 


Percent 


2.7% 


1 .2% 


1 .6% 


1 .2% 


2.8% 


2.8% 


3.2% 


0.5% 


2.2% 


1 .8% 




Number 


40 


5 


5 


1 


7 


1 


23 


1 


5 


2 


2 Not Hispanic or 
Latino 


Percent 


94.6% 


97.4% 


96.1% 


98.8% 


94.8% 


97.2% 


93.8% 


97.4% 


95.2% 


96.3% 




Number 


1427 


412 


292 


84 


235 


35 


682 


188 


218 


105 


Missing 




41 


6 


7 





6 





22 


4 


6 


2 


total # of respondents 
who answered this 
question 




1508 


423 


304 


85 


248 


36 


727 


193 


229 


109 


# respondents not 
answering question 




29 


' 







18 


10 



79 



Appendix D. Union Survey Letter 



w 



NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS 



The Nancy Hanks Cencer 
1 100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW 
Washington DC 20506-0001 
202/682-5400 



Dear Colleague, 

Please accept this letter as an official note of gratitude for your participation in the first 
in-depth study of jazz artists. Without your gracious support, we would never have been 
able to complete the study or meet our goal of enhancing the argument for increasing 
support for jazz music and the artists who create it. 

The study validated many previously held assumptions about the problems jazz 
musicians face. Chief among these findings were the high incidence of jazz musicians 
who do not own the copyright to at least one of their musical creations and the woefully 
low income the majority of jazz artists receive for their work. Because of your 
involvement and generosity, we now have statistical information that funders can use to 
help create new grant programs for artists, and public school arts educators can 
incorporate into their ongoing efforts to reinstate arts into the curriculum. 

The executive summary, which provides a detailed synopsis of the study's findings, is 
included in this package. It is our sincere hope that you will find that it reflects the hard 
work that has been put into its completion and has been worth the time, energy and 
resources you have contributed. 

Thank you again for all you have done to help see this project through and if you have 
questions or concerns please feel free to contact us. 



Sincerely, 

A.B. Spellman, Deputy Chairman 
Wayne Brown, Director of Music 
and Opera 

Tom Bradshaw, Director of Research 
National Endowment for the Arts 



Joan Jeffri 
Research Director, 
Jazz Study 
Director, 

Research Center for 
Arts & Culture 



Geoffrey Link 
Executive Director 
San Francisco 
Study Center 



80 



Appendix E. Response Rate 





Complete 


Bad 

Number 


Unable 

to 

Contact 


Too 111/ 
Deceased 


Language 
Problem 


Not 
Musician 


Refused 


Wrong 
City 


Pending 


Total 


New 
Orleans 


284 

(includes 
8 pilot 
surveys) 


82 


3 


19 


2 


8 


58 


34 


151 


641 


Detroit 


393 

(includes 
6 pilot 
surveys) 


112 


1 


22 





26 


111 


18 


206 


889 


San 
Francisco 


348 

(includes 
6 pilot 
surveys) 


56 





23 


1 


10 


62 


56 


183 


739 


New 
York 


593 

(includes 
5 pilot 
surveys) 


135 


1 


28 


3 


48 


151 


50 


501 


1,510 


NY-Jazz 


345 


19 


2 


6 





7 


42 


19 


72 


512 


Total 


1,963 


404 


7 


98 


6 


99 


424 


177 


1,113 


4,291 





New Orleans 


Detroit 


San Francisco 


New York 


NY-Jazz 


Total 


Jazz Musician 


181 


175 


135 


202 


276 


969 


Non-Jazz 
Musician 


92 


194 


192 


358 


53 


889 


Other 


11 


24 


21 


33 


16 


105 


Total 


284 


393 


348 


593 


345 


1,938 



81 



Appendix F. 



Using the Capture -Recapture Method to Estimate 
the Number of Jazz Musicians* 

The capture-recapture method is used to estimate 
the number of jazz artists by comparing the overlap 
between the union and RDS-identified jazz artists. 
Specifically, in order to calculate the universe of jazz 
musicians in each city, the number of jazz artists 
identified in the union study (capture) is divided by 
the proportion of jazz artists who are determined to 
be union members based on the RDS survey results 
(recapture). The steps taken to estimate the number 
of jazz musicians in each metro area are described 
below: 

New York 

Capture: 

The proportion of New York area musician union 
members who identified themselves as jazz 
musicians (in response to the union member 
survey) is .701 (415/592). 

The number of musician union members in the 
New York metropolitan area, according to union 
records, is 10,499. 

Therefore, the estimated number of union jazz 
musicians is 7,360 (10,499 x .701). 

Recapture: 

The proportion of all New York jazz musicians who 
are union members is estimated based on the RDS 
sample using the following formula for Pa, the 
proportion of union members: 

Pa = (Sba * Nb)/(Sba * Nb + Sab * Na) 

Na is the mean network size of union members = 
298.2 

Nb is the mean network size of nonunion members 

= 175.2 

Sab is the proportion of nonunion members 
recruited by union members = .512 

Sba is the proportion of union members recruited 
by nonunion members = .252 

Which yields Pa=. 22301 



Therefore, based on the estimate of both the number 
of New York union jazz musicians (7,360) and the 
estimate of the portion of all New York jazz 
musicians who are union members (.223), the size 
of the New York jazz musician universe is estimated 
using the following formula: 

7,360/.223 = 33,003 

San Francisco 

Capture: 

The proportion of San Francisco area musician 
union members who identified themselves as jazz 
musicians (in response to the union member 
survey) is .681. 

The number of musician union members in the San 
Francisco metropolitan area, according to union 
records is 2,217. 

Therefore, the estimated number of union jazz 
musicians is 1 ,509 (2,21 7 x .681 ). 

Recapture: 

The proportion of all San Francisco jazz musicians 
who are union members is estimated based on the 
RDS sample using the following formula for Pa, the 
proportion of union members: 

Pa = (Sba * Nb)/(Sba * Nb + Sab * Na) 

Pa = .0806 

Therefore, based on the estimate of both the number 
of San Francisco union jazz musicians (1,509) and 
the estimate of the portion of all San Francisco jazz 
musicians who are union members (.0806), the size 
of the San Francisco jazz musician universe is 
estimated using the following formula: 

l,509/.0806 = 18,733 

New Orleans 

Capture: 

The proportion of New Orleans area musician 
union members who identified themselves as jazz 
musicians (in response to the union member 
survey) is .873. 



82 



The number of musician union members in the 
New Orleans metropolitan area, according to union 
records, is 1,014. 

Therefore, the estimated number of union jazz 
musicians is 885 (1,014 x .873). 

Recapture: 

The proportion of all New Orleans jazz musicians 
who are union members is estimated based on the 
RDS sample as .514. * 

Therefore, based on the estimate of both the number 
of New Orleans union jazz musicians (885) and the 
estimate of the portion of all New Orleans jazz 



musicians who are union members (.514), the size 
of the New Orleans jazz musician universe is 
estimated using the following formula: 

885/.514 =1,723 

* The number of documented referrals in New 
Orleans was too small for a meaningful analysis of 
referral patterns. Therefore, it was not possible to 
use the equation to compute the proportion of 
union members in New Orleans (i.e., no data for the 
terms Sab and Sba). Therefore, the proportion of 
union members in the RDS sample (i.e., .514) was 
used instead. 



'Detroit did not have enough responses in the RDS survey to do this calculation. 



83 



Appendix G. Resource Library 



FOUNDATIONS 
National 

Arkansas Jazz Heritage Foundation 

P.O. Box 251187 

Little Rock, AR 72225-1 187 

(P) 501.663.5264 (F) 501.225.2133 

info@arjazz.org 

www.arjazz.org 

Arts Alive Foundation 
P.O. Box 1746 

Beverly Hills, CA 902 1 3 - 1 746 
(P) 310.276.5951 

Beyond Baroque Foundation 

681 Venice Blvd. 

P.O. Box 806 

Venice, CA 90291 

(P) 213.822.3006 

www.beyondbaroque.org 

Butch Berman Charitable Music Foundation 

4500 Kirkwood Drive 

Lincoln, NE 68516 

(P) 402.476.3112 (F) 402.483.6939 

Centrum Foundation 

P.O. Box 1158 

Port Townsend, WA 98368 

(P) 360.385.3102 (F) 360.385.2470 

Grammy Foundation 

3402 Pico Boulevard 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(P) 310.392.3777 

grammyfoundation@grammy.com 

www.grammy.com/academy/foundation/index.html 

Herb Alpert Foundation 

1414 Sixth St. 

Santa Monica, CA 90401 

(P) 310.393.8500 

Jazz Heritage Foundation 

P.O.Box 19070 

Los Angeles, CA 90019 

(P) 213.649.2722 



Music For Hope Foundation 
1351 S. River view 
Gardenville, NV 89410 
775.265.4372 (F) 775.265.4512 
www.musicforhope.org 

Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation 
22 Light St., Suite 330 
Baltimore, MD 21202 
410.539.6656 (F) 410.837.5517 
info@midatlanticarts.org 
www.midatlanticarts.org 

National Foundation for Advancement In The Arts 

800.970.ARTS 

www.ARTSawards.org 

National Music Foundation 

2457A South Hiawassee Rd., Suite 244 

Orlando, FL 32835 

(P) 1.800.USA.MUSIC 

info@usamusic.org 

www.nmc.org 

New England Foundation For The Arts 
266 Summer St. 2nd FL 
Boston, MA 02210-1216 
617.951.0010 (F) 617.951.0016 
www.neta.org 

The Vail Jazz Foundation, Inc. 

P.O. Box 3035 

Vail, CO 81658 

(P) 970.479.6146 (F) 970.477.0866 

vjf@vailjazz.org 

www.vailjazz.org 

Detroit 

James Tatum Foundation for the Arts 

PO Box 32240 

Detroit, MI 48232 

(P) 313.255.9015 

jtfa@detroit.net 



84 



New Orleans 

New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation 

1205 N. Rampart St. 

New Orleans, LA 70116 

(P) 504.522.4786 

www.nojhf.org 

New York 

Jazz Foundation of America 

322 W. 48th Street 

New York, NY 10036 

(P) 800.532.5267/ 212.245.3999 

jazzfoundation@rcn.com 

www.jazzfoundation.org 

Music For Youth Foundation 

130 E. 59th Street, Suite 844 

New York, NY 10022 

(P) 212.836.1320 (F) 212.836.1820 

www.musicforyouth.org 

Music Performance Trust Funds 
MPTF 1501 Broadway 
New York, NY 10036 
(P) 212.391.3950 
www.mptf.org 

VH1 Save The Music Foundation 

1515 Broadway 

New York, NY 10036 

(P) 212.846.5364 (F) 212.846.1827 

laurie.schopp@vhlstaff.com 

www.vhl.com 



ASSOCIATIONS 
National 

American Federation of Jazz Societies 
P.O. Box 84063 
Phoenix, AZ 85071-4063 
info@jazzfederation.com 
www. j azzfederation .com 



American Composers Alliance 

73 Spring St. Rm. 505 

New York, NY 10023 

(P) 212.362.8900 (F) 212.925.6798 

info@composers.com 

www.composers.com 

American Pianists Association 

4600 Sunset Ave. 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

(P) 317.940.9945 (F) 317.940.9010 

apainfo@americanpianists.org 

www.americanpianists.org 

Boston Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 178 

Boston, MA 02134 

(P) 617.445.2811 (F) 617.445.2811 

Cultural Alliance Of Greater Washington 
410 Eighth St., NW, Suite 600 
Washington, DC 20004 
(P) 202.638.2406 

Fort Worth Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 14533 

Fort Worth, TX 76119-3120 

Friends of the Arts 

P.O. Box 702 

Locust Valley, NY 11560 

(P) 516.922.0061 (F) 516.922.0770 

artsfriend@aol.com 

International Association for Jazz Education 
2803 Claflin Road, P.O. Box 724 
Manhattan, KS 66505-0724 
785.776.8744 (F) 785.776.6190 
www.iaje.org 

Jazz Club of Sarasota, Inc. 
330 S. Pineapple Ave., Ste. 1 1 1 
Sarasota, FL 34236 
(P) 813.366.1552 
mail@jazzclubsarasota.com 
www.jazzclubsarasota.com 

Meet the Composer 

2112 Broadway, Suite 505 

New York, NY 10023 

(P) 212.787.3601 (F) 212.787.3745 

lklein@meetthecomposer.org 

www.meetthecomposer.org 



85 



Mid American Arts Alliance 
912 Baltimore Ave., Suite 700 
Kansas City, MO 64105 
816.421.1388 (F) 816.421.3918 

National Association Of Composers 

P.O. Box 49652 

Barrington Station 

Los Angeles, CA 90049 

(P) 310.541.8213 (F) 310.373.3244 

nacusa@music-usa.org 

www.music-usa.org/nacusa 

National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences 

(NARAS) 

3402 Pico Boulevard 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(P) 310.392.3777 (F) 310.392.9262 

National Association of School Music Dealers 

(NASMD) 

4020 McEwen, Ste. 105 

Dallas, TX 75244-5019 

National Jazz Service Organization 
P.O. Box 50152 
Washington, DC 20004-0152 

Pennsylvania Performing Arts On Tour 
1811 Chestnut Street, Suite 301 
Philadelphia, PA 19103 
(P) 215.496.9424 (F) 215.496.9585 

Potomac River Jazz Club 
5537 Belle Pond Dr. 
Centreville, VA 22020 
(P) 703.698.PRJC 
prjcweb@prjc.org 
www.prjc.org 

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) 
1330 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 300 
Washington, DC 20036 
202.775.0101 (F) 202.775.7253 
www.riaa.com 

Sedona Jazz on the Rocks 

P.O. Box 889 

Sedona, AZ 86339-0089 

(P) 520.282.1985 

lori@sedonajazz.com 

www.sedonajazz.com 



Southern Arts Federation 

181 14th St., Ste. 400 

Atlanta, GA 30309-7603 

(P) 404.874.7244 (F) 404.873.2148 

josephg@southarts.org 

www.southarts.org 

Tucson Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 1069 

Tucson, AZ 85702-1069 

(P) 520.903.1265 (F) 520.903.1266 

tjsmail@tucsonjazz.org 

www.tucsonjazz.org 

Western Jazz Presenters Network 
P.O. Box 3162 
Lajolla, CA 92038 
(P) 858.454.5872 

World Music Association 

P.O. Box 37725 

Honolulu, HI 96837 

(P) 808.941.9974 (F) 808.943.0224 

Detroit 

Southeastern Michigan Jazz Association 

2385 W Huron River Drive 

Ann Arbor, MI 48103-2241 

(P) 734.662.8514 

semja@semja.org 

www.semja.org 

New Orleans 

Jazz Centennial Celebration 
628 Frenchman St. 
New Orleans, LA 70116 
(P) 504.835.5277 
jazzcentennial@aol.com 
www.louisianamusic.org 

Louisiana Division of the Arts 

P.O. Box 44247 

Baton Rouge, LA 70804 

225.342.8180 (F) 225.342.8173 

arts@crt.state.la.us 

www.crt.state.la.us/arts 






86 



New York 

American Society of Composers, Authors & 

Publishers (ASCAP) 

ASCAP Building 

One Lincoln Plaza 

New York, NY 10023 

(P) 212.621.6000/ 800.95.ASCAP 

info@ascap.com 

www.ascap.com 

Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) 

320 W. 57th Street 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.586.2000 (F) 212.262.2824 

jazz@bmi.com 

http://bmi.com 

Chamber Music America 
305 Seventh Ave., 5th Floor 
New York, NY 10001-6008 
(P) 212.242.2022 
info@chamber-music.org 
www.chamber-music.org 

International Women in Jazz 

C.S. 9030 

Hicksville, NY 11802-9030 

www.internationalwomeninjazz.com 

San Francisco 

San Jose Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 1770 

San Jose, CA 95109-1770 

(P) 408.288.7557 (F) 408.288.7598 

j azzmaster@sanj osej azz.org 

www. sanj osej azz. org 



SUPPORT SERVICE 
ORGANIZATIONS 

National 

ACIS/ Encore Tours 

19 Bay State Road 

Boston, MA 02215 

(P) 1.877.460.3801 (F) 1.617.236.8623 

encoretours@acis.com 

www.encoretours.com 

Services: Customizing tours for performing artists 

Acoustics First 

2247 Tomlyn Street 

Richmond, VA 23230-3334 

(P) 888.765.2900 (F) 804.342.1107 

www.acousticsfirst.com 

Services: Noise control solutions 

American Music Therapy Association 

8455 Colesville Road, Suite 1000 

Silver Spring, MD 20910 

(P) 301.589.3300 (F) 301.589.5175 

www. musictherapy. org 

Services: Application of music therapy for medical 

use 

Cleveland Clinic Foundation 

Medical Center for the Performing Arts 

9500 Euclid Ave. 

Cleveland, OH 44106 

(P) 216.444.3903 

www.clevelandclinic.org 

Services: Performing Arts Medicine 

Colorado Lawyers for the Arts 

P.O. Box 48148 

Denver, CO 80204 

(P) 303.722.7994 

cola@artstozoo.org 

Services: Legal Representation 

Georgia Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts 

Bureau of Cultural Affairs 

675 Ponce de Leon Ave. 

Atlanta, GA 30308 

(P) 404.873.3911 

www.gvla.org 



87 



International Arts Medicine Association 
19 S. 22nd St. 
Philadelphia, PA 19103 
http://members-aol.com/iamoaorg 
Services: Medical Services 

Lawyers for the Creative Arts 

213 W. Institute PL, Suite 401 

Chicago, IL 60610 

(P) 312.649.4111 (F) 312.944.2195 

wrattner@law-arts.org 

www.law-arts.org 

Services: Legal Representation 

Music Cares Foundation 

3402 Pico Boulevard 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(P) East: 1.877.303.6962 

Central: 1.877.626.2748 

West: 1.800.687.4227 

www.grammy.com/academy/musiccares/index.html 

Services: Emergency Relief Funds 

National Center On Arts And Aging 

National Council on the Aging 

600 Maryland Ave., SW, West Wing 100 

Washington DC 20024 

(P) 202.479.1200 

www.center-for-creative-aging.org 

Services: Counseling, Publications 

Ocean St. Lawyers for the Arts 

P.O. Box 19 

Saunderstown, RI 02874-0019 

dspatt@artslaw.org 

www.artslaw.org 

Support Services Alliance (SSA) 

P.O. Box 130 

Schoharie, NY 12157 

(P) 518.295.7966 

comments@ssainfo.com 

www.ssainfo.com 

Services: Financial and Medical Services 



Texas Accountants and Lawyers for the Arts 

1540 Sul Ross 

Houston, TX 77006 

(P) 713.526.4876 (F) 713.526.1299 

info@talarts.org 

www.talarts.org 

Services: Legal Representation and Accounting 

Services 

Washington Lawyers for the Arts 

1634 Eleventh Ave. 

Seattle, WA 98122 

(P) 206.328.7053 (F) 206.568.3306 

Washington Area Lawyers for the Arts 

815 15th St. NW 

Washington DC 20005 

(F) 202.393.4444 

legalservices@thewala.org 

www.thewala.org 

Services: Legal Representation 

Detroit 

Legal Aid & Defender Association Of Detroit 

645 Griswold St., Suite 2400 

Detroit, MI 48226-4201 

(P) 313.964.4111 (F) 313.964.1932 

www.mlan . net/ladal/ 

Services: Legal Services 

New Orleans 

Arts Council Of New Orleans 

225 Baronne St. Suite 1712 

New Orleans, LA 70112-1712 

(P) 504.523.1465 (F) 504.529.2430 

www.louisiana-arts.com 

Services: Bookkeeping, Planning-Budgeting, 

Financial Aid, Career Counseling 

Louisiana Volunteer Lawyers For The Arts 

1010 Common St., Suite 1500 

New Orleans, LA 70112 

(P) 504.581.9444 

Services: Legal Representation 

New Orleans Musicians Clinic 

(P) 504.412.1111 

www.nojhf.org 

Services: Medical Services 



88 



New York 

Doctors For Artists 
105 W. 78th St. 
New York, NY 10024 
(P) 212.496.5172 
Services: Medical Services 

Institute For The Performing Artist 

Postgraduate Center For Mental Health 

124 E. 28th St. 

New York, NY 10016 

(P) 212.689.7700 ext. 290, 291 

Services: Mental Health Services 

Miller Health Care Institute For Performing Artists 

St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center 

425 W. 59th St. 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.523.6200 

www.ifpam.org 

Services: Medical Services, Performing Arts 

Medicine 

Musicians Emergency Fund, Inc. 

16 E. 64th St. 

New York, NY 10021 

(P) 212.578.2450 

Services: Emergency Funds 

Pentacle 

104 Franklin St. 

New York, NY 10013-2910 

(P) 212.226.2000 

www.pentacle.org 

Services: Financial Services 



Performing Arts Center For Health 

357 W. 55th St. 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.247.1650 

Services: Medical Services, Dental Services 

Volunteer Lawyers For The Arts 

1285 Ave. of the Americas, 3rd floor 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.977.9273 

Services: Legal Representation 

San Francisco 

California Lawyers For The Arts 

Fort Mason Center 

San Francisco, CA 94123 

(P) 415.775.7200 

cla@calawyersforthearts.org 

www.calawyersforthearts.org 

Services: Legal Representation, Contracts, 

Copyright, Taxation 

Kuumba Jazz Center 

320-2 Cedar Street 

Santa Cruz, CA 95060 

831.427.2227 (F) 831.427.3342 

kuumbwa@cruzio.com 

www.kuumbwaj azz. com 

Services: Presenting and Educational services 

Rhythmic Concepts, Inc. 
765 61st Street 
Oakland, CA 94609 
(P) 510.287.8880 



89 



For more information, please contact: 

Research Center for Arts and Culture 

Teachers College Columbia University 

525 West 1 20 Street, Box 78 

New York, NY 10027 

Tel: (212)678-8184 

Fax:(212)678-8084 

Rcac@columbia.edu 

or 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Research Division 

1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW 

Washington, DC 20506-0001 

Tel: (202) 682-5400 

www.arts.gov