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Full text of "Changing the beat : a study of the worklife of jazz musicians"

A Study of the Worklife of Jazz Musicians 



by the Research Center for Arts and Culture under a cooperative agreement 
with the National Endowment for the Arts and the San Francisco Study Center 




\ 





Volume 



NEA Research Division Report #43 
Respondent Driven Sampling: Survey Results 



NATIONAL 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/changingbeatstud03jeff 



Changing the Beat 

A Study of the Worklife of Jazz Musicians 



VOLUME III: 
RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING 



A Study by Joan Jeffri 



*» 



.SGR^ 



NATIONAL 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS 




*c3£7<* 



TZqac 



NEA Research Division Report #43 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE 




SPONSORS AND FUNDERS 


Dr. Billy Taylor, Chairman 


The National Endowment for the Arts 






The David and Lucile Packard Foundation 


David Baker 


Alvin Batiste 


The Grammy Foundation 


Jessie Bermudez 


Tom Carter 


American Federation of Musicians 


Geraldine DeHass 


Jon Faddis 


American Federation of Musicians Local 802 


Delfayeo Marsalis 


Dan Morgenstern 


New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation 


Jimmy Owens 


Patrice Rushen 


The Nathan Cummings Foundation 



Project Director: 

Joan Jeffri, Director, Research Center for Arts and Culture 
Teachers College Columbia University 

Consultants: 

Dr. Douglas Heckathorn, Cornell University 
Dr. Robert Greenblatt 

Project coordinators: 
Adina Williams 

Phillip Harvey 

Project researchers: 
Judith Hellman 
Janine Okmin 

Data consultants: 

Oscar Torres 
Judith Rosenstein 

City Coordinators: 

Detroit 

Dr. Bernard Brock 

Dr. David Magidson 

Center for the Study of Art and Public Policy 

Wayne State University 

New Orleans 

Philip Dobard, Director 

Graduate Program in Arts Administration 

University of New Orleans 

New York 

Dr. Martin Mueller, Director 

Jazz and Contemporary Music Program 

New School University 

San Francisco 

Dr. Dee Spencer. Director of Education 

SF Jazz Organization 

San Francisco State University 



Library of Congress info here from Executive Summary 
Cover: 



Copyright of Photo 



n 



Table of Contents 



Introduction 1 

Purpose 1 

Findings 2 

Survey Background and Method 3 

Organization of Report 4 

Chapter I. Demographics 5 

Chapter II. Employment and Income 1 1 

Chapter III. Other Issues 21 

Chapter IV. Social Networks 48 

Chapter V. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 62 

Appendices 68 

A. Metropolitan Areas Used in the Study 68 

B. Metropolitan Areas Context 69 

C. Distribution of Responses 77 

D. Using the Capture-Recapture Method to Estimate 

the Number of Jazz Musicians 140 

E. Resource Directory 142 



in 



IV 



Introduction 



Purpose 

Deemed a national treasure by the United States 
Congress, jazz is a unique American art form, and its 
musicians, the keepers and producers of this 
treasure, are recognized the world over as America's 
cultural ambassadors. Yet artists who make a living 
as jazz musicians face numerous challenges. Despite 
high-profile projects and activities, such as Jazz at 
Lincoln Center's Essentially Ellington high school 
band competition, the Monterey and other jazz 
festivals, or the Jazz documentary by Ken Burns, jazz 
music does not reach as vast an audience as other 
music forms, making it challenging to maintain and 
continue this treasure. 

Recognizing the importance of jazz and its 
artists, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) 
in 2000 commissioned a study of jazz musicians in 
four U.S. metropolitan areas — Detroit, New Orleans, 
New York, and San Francisco. The statistical 
information gathered in the study will be used to 
help devise strategic ways to further the work of jazz 
artists. These four cities were chosen for their 
geographic diversity and their historical and current 
relationships with jazz. The NEA had two purposes: 

• To understand the environment for jazz in 
each of the study cities by documenting both the 
jazz artists and their resources and support systems. 

• To develop a detailed needs assessment from 
jazz artists themselves by collecting data 
documenting their professional lives and most 
pressing needs. 

This study provided an opportunity to examine 
the working lives of jazz musicians in a systematic 
way and to produce quantitative and qualitative 
information about the jazz community, the 
professional lives of jazz musicians, and jazz's place 
in the music industry. 

Jazz musician and educator Dr. Billy Taylor 
formed and chaired an advisory board to guide the 
project as it developed. The study also created a 
focus group of artists, managers, and educators, and 
numerous jazz practitioners generously gave their 
time to help advise this project. The study was 
conducted in two parts: a survey of musicians 
belonging to the American Federation of Musicians 
(AFM) and a Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) 



survey of jazz musicians. This volume focuses on the 
RDS survey of jazz musicians in three cities. The 
results of the AFM survey can be found in Volume 
II, which focuses on jazz musicians in all four study 
cities. 

This study aims to support the continuing 
growth and development of jazz and the musicians 
who create it. Jazz musicians as a group, however, do 
not constitute an easy subject for formal study. 
Indeed, the word "jazz" itself proves difficult to 
define. "It cannot safely be categorized as folk, 
popular or art music," states the New Grove 
Dictionary of Jazz, "though it shares aspects of all 
three." This study relied on the musicians themselves 
to indicate that they played jazz music. 

To study jazz musicians, it is important to 
understand the idiosyncratic nature of the music. As 
A.B. Spellman indicated in his introduction to the 
NEA publication, American Jazz Masters Fellowships 
1982-2002, jazz was "built on the discipline of 
collective improvisation... which allowed for 
maximum expression of the individual within the 
context of the group." The group, however, is often 
an ever-changing one. Unlike classical music, with 
orchestral members staying together for decades, or 
even rock, where more often than not musicians 
make their music as a group, jazz musicians often 
look for jams or gigs as individuals rather than in 
groups. Indeed, a jazz group like the Modern Jazz 
Quartet is remarkable for its longevity as much as its 
music. 

Working as an individual musician can be more 
trying financially, in many ways, than working as a 
group. This seems especially true in a musical form 
that, while critically acclaimed as a national treasure, 
does not sell many tickets or CDs. In fact, jazz 
accounts for only four percent of annual recording 
sales in the United States. It can be even more 
difficult for emerging jazz artists to make a living 
with their music; reissues of classic jazz recordings 
have consistently outsold all but the most popular 
contemporary jazz artists. Even that amount is 
somewhat inflated by the inclusion of pop artists in 
the jazz category. 

Institutional support for jazz exists but is small. 
A few state and regional arts agencies and some 



nonprofit foundations offer grants to individual 
musicians, but often at low amounts; in this study, 
of the musicians who received grants, more than 90 
percent received $5,000 or less. The Lila Wallace- 
Readers Digest Fund and the Doris Duke Charitable 
Foundation have shored up institutions and 
endowments of jazz presenters, created networks in 
the jazz community, and provided venues for jazz 
performance. The National Endowment for the Arts 
has assisted these organizations with some of their 
programs — such as the joint program with the Doris 
Duke Charitable Foundation called JazzNet, which 
furthers jazz creation, presentation, and education 
with 14 regional jazz presenters. This program 
ended in 1996, when Congress prohibited awarding 
direct grants to individual artists, except for creative 
writing and honorary awards in the folk and 
traditional arts and jazz. The honorary award in 
jazz, the American Jazz Masters Fellowship, 
specifically sponsors jazz musicians who are 
established and have achieved mastery of their art. 
Emerging artists have little access to such support. 
The data obtained through this study are crucial 



to a better understanding of the environment in 
which jazz musicians operate. By presenting a clearer 
picture of the working life of the jazz artist, this 
study will help the NEA develop and fund programs 
that address the concerns and challenges jazz 
musicians face in creating and playing their music. 

Musicians' Response 

The total of 733 responses yielded 300 in San 
Francisco, 264 in New York, 1 10 in New Orleans and 
59 in Detroit. The Detroit figures were too small to 
analyze here, but a companion volume (Volume II) 
reports on a parallel survey of 1,963 jazz musicians 
in the musicians union in all four metro areas. Also, 
in Volume I, the Executive Summary, only three 
cities are analyzed: New Orleans, New York and San 
Francisco. 



Findings 

-> The top instruments played by jazz musicians are piano/keyboard, drums, bass and voice. 

-> 51.5 percent of the respondents earned their major income as musicians in the last 12 months and 

for 70 percent, this income came from work as a jazz musician in 2000. 
-> While 92.1 percent of the respondents played jazz for money during the last 12 months, 91.2 of the 

respondents earned $40,000 or less as a musician in 2001. No one earned over $100,000. 
-* 63 percent have more than one job, 24 percent of those as music teachers. 
-> 79.5 percent play 10 different musical jobs per month and 41.2 percent play with more than four 

different groups 
-> 37.5 percent have a college degree and another 18.3 percent have a graduate degree. 
-> 27.7 percent like the exposure from people downloading their music from the Internet; 24 percent 

think they should be paid for this. 
-> 69.9 percent of these respondents do not belong to the AFM; 19.4 percent of this group belonged at 

a previous time. 
-> 80.8 percent received music-related training in the city or region where they now reside. The highest 

was New York (83.1 percent) 
-> 63.3 percent have health or medical coverage; this is lower than the national average of 87 percent. 
-> 33.3 percent have life insurance with a high of 43.9 percent in New York. 
-> 43 percent have retirement plans with a high of 47.6 percent in New Orleans. 
-> 73.1 percent are satisfied or very satisfied with their music at this point, but only 52.5 percent feel 

their career aspirations have been realized. 
-> 80.2 percent are male; 59.8 percent are white; 27.8 percent are black. 



SURVEY BACKGROUND AND 
METHOD 

How to identify jazz musicians? 

There are a wide variety of interpretations as to 
what constitutes a jazz artist. Stanley Crouch in 
"Blues to Be Constitutional" defined jazz artists this 
way: 

No matter what class or sex or religion or race or 
shape or height, if you can cut the mustard you should 
be up there playing or singing or having your 
compositions performed. (In O'Meally, R., The Jazz 
Cadence of American Culture, 164-5.) 

Researchers who study artists, as much as they 
might enjoy it, would be hard pressed to locate and 
identify them by the criterion of cutting the 
mustard. And indeed, as Paul Berliner tells us in 
Thinking in Jazz: 

Art worlds consist not only of their most seasoned 
and single-minded members, but of a large support 
system made up of individuals with different interests 
and varying degrees of talent and knowledge, (p. 7) 

Normally, independent studies of artists rely on 
information from the U.S. Census or organizational 
lists. The census, while it provides systematic 
information over time, has limitations on the ways it 
defines artists and, thus, is often not useful for the 
arts community. Neither the census nor the Current 
Population Survey (Bureau of Labor Statistics) can 
provide any breakdown of the broad category of 
"musicians and composers." 

Organizational lists were seen as unrealistic for 
the most part, since large numbers of jazz musicians 
do not tend to join organizations. AdditionaDy, jazz 
musicians perform substantial work in the for-profit 
sector, perhaps more than the non-profit sector, for 
organizations not often willing or able to generate 
lists of artists. 

With the help of a focus group of jazz artists, 
educators and managers, we created this set of 
definitional criteria: 

Do you consider yourself a jazz musician? 

Did you earn more than 50 percent of your 
personal income in the last six months as a jazz 
musician or in jazz-related activities? 

Have you been engaged in your art/jazz more 
than 50 percent of the time during the last year? 



Have you performed in/with a jazz band at least 
10 times in the last year? 

Have you performed with or without a jazz 
band for pay at least 10 times during the last year? 

Have you produced a documented body of work 
(documented output = performances, compositions, 
collaborations, arrangements, recordings) that is 
considered (self or externally) jazz? 

We also asked several different definitional 
questions in the body of the survey. 

We used a method called respondent-driven 
sampling (RDS), which was created by sociologist 
Douglas Heckathorn from Cornell University to 
identify hard-to-find populations. Our study sample 
was composed of 733 musicians in Detroit, New 
Orleans, New York and San Francisco. This method 
requires a high contact pattern among participants, 
and offered a modest financial incentive for jazz 
musicians to recruit each other for personal, one-to- 
one interviews. City coordinators and their staff in 
the four study cities spent eight months interviewing 
jazz musicians, recording their answers onto 
questionnaires, and entering the data into a 
specially-created computer program. Both the 
questions and the survey design allowed us to learn 
about the network patterns of jazz musicians and 
answer questions about their social relationships 
with each other. 

Respondent Driven Sampling 

Respondent driven Sampling (RDS) is a new 
form of chain-referral sampling developed to 
overcome the biases traditionally associated with 
this method. It has also served as the recruitment 
mechanism for an intervention that targets active 
injection drug users for HIV prevention and 
services, and has been adapted to a variety of other 
populations including young gay Latinos in Chicago 
and Vietnam draft dodgers in Canada. This is the 
first time it has been used for artists. Perhaps the 
greatest benefit of this method is that instead of 
reaching only the most visible, vocal, loudest artists, 
RDS gets deep into the community, like the 
spreading roots of a tree. 

Also, RDS, by following the pattern of coupon 
redemption, can discover the networking aspects of 
jazz musicians — who hangs out with whom, and 
whether they do so by musical type, geography, 



training, family dynasties, etc. Finally, for the first 
time in artist surveys, using the capture-recapture 
statistical analysis, we have been able to answer the 
question "How many artists?" in three of the four 
study cities. (See Appendix for the capture-recapture 
method used to achieve this.) 

RDS is a method based on peer recruitment. In 
each of the four metropolitan areas. (See Appendix 
for metro areas), a city coordinator began the study 
by inviting six to eight jazz musicians to help start 
the project. These musicians were well-connected in 
the community, not necessarily famous or very 
visible, but with many contacts since RDS depends 
on a high contact pattern of the subjects studied. 
Each of these musicians was interviewed in person 
with questions on an identification sheet which 
included the selection criteria mentioned above, 
followed by a 116-question questionnaire. The 
interviews took place in a friendly environment 
sometimes donated by a jazz venue (in New York, 
interviews were held at Sam Ash Music; in San 
Francisco at SF JAZZ; in Detroit and New Orleans, 
at university facilities). Following the interview, each 
of these six to eight "seeds" was given four coupons 
with which to recruit additional jazz musicians. 
Three coupons (colored green) could be used for 
any jazz musician; one of the four coupons (pink) 
was to be used only for a female jazz musician. (We 
took this approach because we were concerned that 
too few women would be represented in the study. 
Any skewing was accounted for in statistical 
weighting when the data were analyzed. 
Interestingly, in New York, an organization called 
International Women in Jazz took advantage of this 
opportunity and championed the study and its 
recruitment efforts.) 

We paid the initial "seeds" a modest $10 and for 
each coupon the seed gave out, another $15 each 
time one of the four coupons was redeemed. Any 
single jazz musician had the possibility to earn a 
total of $70. This limit on both coupons and 
payment incentives was to avoid over- representing 
one particular group of musicians to the exclusion 
of others. This incentive had two purposes: first, to 
recruit other musicians and, second, as an 
indication to the subjects that their time and their 



stories were valued. 

Traditionally in RDS studies, it takes only four 
"waves" of coupons to reach deep into the 
community. In this study, we found some behavior 
unique to jazz musicians and to each community. 
First, our assumption that jazz musicians have a 
high contact pattern because they "hang out 
together" is only partially true — they DO hang out 
together, but as the data show, it is often by musical 
style that they do so. This pattern was also revealed 
in a study from the mid-1990s in France called, Les 
Musiciens de Jazz en France by Philippe Coulangeon 
(L'Harmattan), which showed that both geography 
and differences in style tended to separate French 
jazz musicians. 

Second, the "lone wolf" syndrome often adopted 
by jazz musicians makes them somewhat leery of 
collaboration since it is such a hard scramble for 
their next gig. Some of our city coordinators were 
extremely inventive in this regard — going to jazz 
clubs, festivals and events, speaking about the study 
at jazz gatherings, instrument and record stores, at 
jazz schools and programs — and were vigilant at 
reminding subjects about interview appointments, 
rescheduling people who had out-of-town gigs, etc. 
Third, some reacted negatively to the small payment 
incentives. Fourth, coupons were sometimes lost or 
forgotten, often despite the best intentions of the 
musicians. But perhaps the most interesting finding 
was the musicians' deep desire to tell their stories 
and to be heard. 

Organization of Report 

The report is organized in five sections, 
presenting findings on demographics, employment 
and income, a variety of professional issues, and 
social networks. It also contains a summary, with 
conclusions and recommendations. Appendices 
include definitions and contexts for each metro area 
studied, a distribution of responses, the respondent 
identification form, an explanation of the method 
used to estimate the number of jazz musicians and a 
directory of resources for jazz musicians in each 
metro area. 



Chapter I. Demographics 



Gender, Age, Race 

Eighty percent of jazz musicians are male and 
20 percent are female. The m4ean total age is 43; the 
median is 42. New York musicians are a little older: 
46 is the mean and 47 the median. Surprisingly, in 
New Orleans 73 percent of the jazz musicians are 
white. 

The racial breakdown for jazz musicians in the 
three cities is 60 percent white, 28 percent black, 3 
percent Latino and 3 percent Asian. In New Orleans, 
the findings are a bit surprising with 73 percent 
white, 23 percent black, 3 percent Asian and no 
Latino jazz musicians in this study. In New York, 55 
percent are white, 33 percent are black, 3 percent 
Latino and 1 percent Asian; and in San Francisco, 59 
percent are white, 25 percent are black, 3 percent are 
Latino and 4 percent are Asian. 

When age is broken out by groups, both the 25- 
34 age group and the 45-54 age group seem to 
account for about half the musicians in total, 
corresponding mostly to Gen-X-ers and Baby 

Where did you first get inspired by music? 



Boomers. 

Forty-two percent are single; 26 percent are 
married. In San Francisco over half (51 percent) are 
single. 

Education 

To help us follow the early musical development 
of survey respondents, a number of questions 
regarding their early education and training were 
asked. When asked where they were first inspired by 
music, 37 percent of total musicians said they 
received their initial inspiration at home. This 
reached a high of 47 percent for New York 
musicians. Forty-one percent of the total 
respondents received most of their encouragement 
from their families. This was true of 35 percent in 
New York, possibly indicating the commonality of 
extended families. While 38 percent of the total 
respondents received encouragement from other 
musicians, 50 percent of New Orleans area 
musicians did. 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


Church 


Percent 


106% 


182% 


5.4% 


124% 




Number 


71 


20 


14 


37 


Community center 


Percent 


03% 


00% 


00% 


0.7% 




Number 


2 








2 


Festival 


Percent 


1fl% 


27% 


08% 


"20% 




Number 


11 


3 


2 


6 


Rim 


Percent 


03% 


27% 


00% 


10% 




Number 


6 


3 





3 


Friends 


Percent 


9.7% 


118% 


38% 


14.1% 




Number 


65 


13 


10 


42 


Home 


Percent 


37.1% 


29.1% 


47.1% 


312% 



The confidence level for this survey is 95 percent with a 5 percent margin of error. Figures do not necessarily add up to 100 
percent due to multiple answers and don't know/refused. In the New Orleans metro area, the majority of respondents resided 
in Orleans Parish; in Detroit in Wayne and Oakland Counties does this apply to this volume?; in San Francisco, San Francisco 
and Alameda counties, followed by San Mateo, Contra Costa and San Mateo Counties; and in the New York Metro area, New 
York County (includes Manhattan) and Kings County (includes Brooklyn). (See Appendix C) 

**Please refer to Appendix C for the distribution of responses in New Orleans, New York and San Francisco. 





Number 


248 


32 


123 


93 


Internet 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














Live performance 


Percent 


61% 


6.4% 


61% 


6.0% 




Number 


41 


7 


16 


18 


Private music teacher 


Percent 


21% 


18% 


1.1% 


30% 




Number 


14 


2 


3 


9 


Rado 


Percent 


79% 


73% 


73% 


8.7% 




Number 


53 


8 


19 


26 


Recordings 


Percent 


75% 


6.4% 


92% 


6.4% 




Number 


50 


7 


24 


19 


Relatives 


Percent 


3,0% 


36% 


08% 


4.7% 




Number 


20 


4 


2 


14 


School 


Percent 


75% 


82% 


7.7% 


6.7% 




Number 


49 


9 


20 


20 


Television 


Percent 


09% 


0.0% 


15% 


0.7% 




Number 


6 





4 


2 


Workshop 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Nurber 


1 





1 





Other 


Percent 


4.8% 


18% 


88% 


23% 




Number 


32 


2 


23 


7 


Mssing 




5 





3 


2 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


669 


110 


261 


298 



What experiences provided you with early encouragement for your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


apprenticeship/internship 


Percent 


31% 


27% 


08% 


53% 




Number 


21 


3 


2 


16 


Award 


Percent 


5.6% 


127% 


19% 


63% 




Number 


38 


14 


5 


19 


critical review 


Percent 


39% 


55% 


1.1% 


5.7% 




Number 


26 


6 


3 


17 


family attention 


Percent 


41.1% 


45.5% 


34.8% 


45.0% 




Number 


277 


50 


92 


135 


financial support 


Percent 


33% 


3.6% 


0.4% 


5.7% 




Number 


22 


4 


1 


17 


influence of other musicians' work 


Percent 


37.5% 


50.0% 


216% 


47.0% 




Number 


253 


55 


57 


141 


my music was recorded 


Percent 


31% 


55% 


0.4% 


4.7% 




Number 


21 


6 


1 


14 



Mentor 


Percent 


123% 


182% 


3:0% 


183% 




Number 


83 


20 


8 


55 


peer approval 


Percent 


27.0% 


29.1% 


14.8% 


37.0% 




Number 


182 


32 


39 


111 


playing in the streets 


Percent 


89% 


73% 


38% 


14.0% 




Number 


60 


8 


10 


42 


public performance 


Percent 


228% 


355% 


27% 


36.0% 




Number 


154 


39 


7 


108 


sale of my music 


Percent 


25% 


4.5% 


0.0% 


4.0% 




Number 


17 


5 





12 


teacher(s) 


Percent 


30.9% 


42.7% 


121% 


43.0% 




Number 


208 


47 


32 


129 


winning competitions(s) 


Percent 


7.1% 


155% 


08% 


9.7% 




Number 


48 


17 


2 


29 


Other 


Percent 


175% 


9.1% 


26.1% 


130% 




Number 


118 


10 


69 


39 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



Teaching and mentoring are different aspects of 
a musician's education. The major motivation for 
aggregate musicians who teach or have taught music 
over the course of their career is the importance of 



passing on their knowledge and experiences. Fifty 
percent of artists recognized that mentoring is very 
important to their own artistic development. 



If you taught music or currently teach music during your career, what was your major motivation for 
teaching? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


earring money 


Percent 


24.8% 


327% 


186% 


27.3% 




Number 


167 


36 


49 


82 


bve to teach 


Percent 


20.8% 


191% 


129% 


28.3% 




Number 


140 


21 


34 


85 


importance of passing on my knowledge and 
experiences 


Percent 


252% 


29.1% 


24.2% 


24.7% 




Number 


170 


32 


64 


74 


importance of leaving a legacy 


Percent 


3.4% 


3.6% 


0.0% 


63% 




Number 


23 


4 





19 


benefits (hearth insurance, etc.) 


Percent 


15>/o 


27% 


08% 


1.7% 




Number 


10 


3 


2 


5 


facilities for making music 


Percent 


18% 


27% 


03% 


23% 




Number 


12 


3 


2 


7 


staying in touch with people and ideas 


Percent 


83% 


173% 


42% 


100% 




Number 


60 


19 


tl 


30 


Other 


Percent 


14.8% 


55% 


30.3% 


4.7% 





Njrber 


100 


6 


80 


14 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


3CO 



If you have been a mentor to another musician or artist, how important is mentoring to your ongoing 
artistic development? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


very important 


Percent 


49.7% 


52.4% 


47.3% 


51.4% 




NjTfcer 


245 


44 


107 


94 


somewhat important 


Percent 


112% 


190% 


7.1% 


126% 




Njrber 


55 


16 


16 


23 


Important 


Percent 


20.1% 


155% 


252% 


158% 




Mrrter 


99 


13 


57 


29 


not important 


Percent 


28% 


4.8% 


22% 


27% 




Umber 


14 


4 


5 


5 


Meanin^ess 


Percent 


08% 


12% 


0.4% 


1.1% 




NuTter 


4 


1 


1 


2 


I have never been a mentor 


Percent 


15.4% 


7.1% 


17.7% 


16.4% 




Nurber 


76 


6 


40 


30 


fvfesrtj 




181 


26 


38 


117 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


493 


84 


226 


183 



Respondents from the three cities combined and 
the New Orleans area showed a good amount of 
differentiation in the experiences that helped 
prepare them for their work in the arts. New 
Orleans-area artists had more community-based arts 
experience than total musicians (22 percent to 18 
percent) and included more musicians who were 
self-taught (55 percent to 38 percent). 

A large percentage of artists learned from 
listening to music (75 percent total) and performing 



(69 percent total). 

Respondents from the three cities combined 
showed a good amount of differentiation in the 
experiences that helped prepare them for their work 
in the arts. San Francisco area artists had more 
community-based arts experience than aggregate 
musicians (29 percent to 18 percent) and included 
more musicians who were self-taught (51 percent to 
38 percent). 



What other experiences have you had in preparation for your work in the arts? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


alternative schooling experience 


Percent 


120% 


191% 


53% 


153% 




Number 


81 


21 


14 


46 


attending performances 


Percent 


61.1% 


72.7% 


47.0% 


693% 




Njrber 


412 


80 


124 


208 


conrnunity-based arts experience 


Percent 


17.7% 


213% 


27% 


293% 




NLnter 


119 


24 


7 


88 


experience as a mentor 


Percent 


123% 


20.9% 


38% 


167% 




Umber 


83 


23 


10 


50 



8 



experience as an apprentice 


Percent 


228% 


25.5% 


205% 


24.0% 




Number 


154 


28 


54 


72 


jazz workshop, clinic, master class 


Percent 


415% 


527% 


273% 


50.0% 




Number 


280 


58 


72 


150 


listening to muse 


Percent 


75.1% 


89.1% 


665% 


77.7% 




Mrrber 


506 


98 


175 


233 


Performing 


Percent 


68.7% 


882% 


48.9% 


79.0% 




Number 


463 


97 


129 


237 


rehearsal band 


Percent 


33.7% 


42.7% 


11.7% 


49.7% 




Number 


227 


47 


31 


149 


self-taught 


Percent 


38.0% 


54.5% 


163% 


510% 




Number 


256 


60 


43 


153 


Other 


Percent 


168% 


55% 


36.0% 


4.0% 




Number 


113 


6 


95 


12 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



Formal Education 

Thirty-four percent of total musicians have 
Please indicate your highest level of formal education 



some college; 38 percent have a college degree; an 
additional 18 percent of the total respondents have a 
graduate degree. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


i elementary school, through grade 8 


Percent 


0.0% 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














some high school 


Percent 


2.4% 


18% 


1S% 


31% 




Number 


16 


2 


5 


9 


1 2th grade, but did not graduate 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


10% 




Number 


4 





1 


3 


12th grade, got GED 


Percent 


1.4% 


4.6% 


0.4% 


10% 




Number 


9 


5 


1 


3 


1 2th grade, graduated from high school 


Percent 


53% 


4.6% 


42% 


6.4% 




Nurber 


35 


5 


11 


19 


somecolege 


Percent 


335% 


39.4% 


302% 


342% 




Number 


223 


43 


79 


101 


college degree 


Percent 


375% 


26.6% 


42.0% 


37.6% 




Number 


250 


29 


110 


111 


graduate degree 


Percent 


183% 


22.9% 


210% 


142% 




Nurber 


122 


25 


55 


42 


Mssrg 




8 


1 


2 


5 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


666 


109 


262 


295 



Additional Educational Experiences 

Nineteen percent of the musicians from the 
three cities combined had conservatory or 
professional school training that did not grant a 



degree. This was very high in New York at 29 
percent. Sixty-two percent of all jazz musicians 
studied with private teachers, again highest in New 
York at 73 percent. 



Did you receive technical or professional training in the arts? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


in conservatory or professional school not granting a 
degree 


Percent 


19.4% 


127% 


292% 


133% 




Nurrter 


131 


14 


77 


40 


certificate program in the arts 


Percent 


63% 


145% 


38% 


67% 




Nurrter 


46 


16 


10 


20 


private teachers 


Percent 


620% 


61 a% 


73.1% 


523% 




MiTter 


418 


68 


193 


157 


did not receive technical or professional training in 
the arts 


Percent 


163% 


ai% 


72% 


273% 




Njrter 


111 


10 


19 


82 


other 


Percent 


104% 


73% 


102% 


11.7% 




Mrrter 


70 


8 


27 


35 


total # of respondents who answered this question 




674 


110 


264 


300 



10 



Chapter II. Employment and Income 



EMPLOYMENT 

To assess the employment situation of jazz 
musicians, a number of questions were asked to 
clarify the nature of their working habits. At present, 
28 percent of all musicians are employed full-time in 
the music business, 27 percent are employed full- 
time as freelancers in the music business, and 13 

At present, what is your employment situation? 



percent are part-time freelancers in the music 
business. For New Orleans-area musicians, 66 
percent are employed full-time in the music 
business, and only 1 7 percent are employed full time 
in New York. 

Respondents play a mean of 10 different musical 
jobs a month; in San Francisco the mean is seven 
jobs a month. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


1 am empbyed full time in the music business 


Percent 


28.0% 


65.5% 


170% 


24.0% 




Nurrber 


189 


72 


45 


72 


1 am empbyed full-time NOT in the music business 


Percent 


131% 


4.5% 


63% 


21.7% 




Nurrber 


88 


5 


18 


65 


1 am empbyed part-time in the muse business 


Percent 


62% 


27% 


15% 


11.7% 




Number 


42 


3 


4 


35 


1 am empbyed full-time as a freelancer in the musb 
busress 


Percent 


27.3% 


30.0% 


49.6% 


67% 




Nurrber 


184 


33 


131 


20 


1 am empbyed part-time as a freelancer in the musb 
busress 


Percent 


128% 


3.6% 


123% 


160% 




Nurrber 


86 


4 


34 


48 


lam unemployed 


Percent 


52% 


0.0% 


13% 


100% 




Nurrber 


35 





5 


30 


1 am retired 


Percent 


33% 


18% 


23% 


4.7% 




Nurrber 


22 


2 


6 


14 


other (other]_ 


Percent 


11fJP/o 


27% 


106% 


143% 




Number 


74 


3 


28 


43 


Mbstq 












total # of respondents who answered this question 
(including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



Note: These percentages add up to more than 100 percent, indicating that some respondents gave multiple 
answers, possibly selecting "other" as well as a defined category. 



Sixty- three percent of the total musicians have 
more than one job. For New York musicians, the 
figure is 80 percent; for San Francisco, 54 percent. 
For the majority of musicians, music teacher was the 
most cited secondary job (24 percent in New 
Orleans, 35 percent in New York and only 15 percent 



in San Francisco). 

There seems to be a greater synergy between 
music and outside employment in New Orleans and 
New York. Of the total musicians who are currently 
working more than one job, 55 percent believe that 
their alternate employment and their music 



11 



reinforce each other. In comparison, 73 percent of 
New Orleans-area musicians, and 66 percent of New 
York musicians and only 37 percent of San Francisco 
musicians feel that their employment reinforces 



their music. Forty-four percent of San Francisco 
musicians, 30 percent of New Yorkers and only 18 
percent in New Orleans feel that their other 
employment pays to support their music. 



If you have other employment, which one of the following statements best describes your feelings about 
the relationship between your music and your other employment at this point in your career? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


My other employment pays to support my music 


Percent 


34.1% 


182% 


30.1% 


43.7% 




Number 


129 


8 


55 


66 


My other employment and my music reinforce each 
other 


Percent 


553% 


72.7% 


661% 


37.1% 




Nurber 


209 


32 


121 


56 


My other employment and my music have no relation 
tDeachother 


Percent 


10j6% 


91% 


33% 


192% 




Number 


40 


4 


7 


29 


Mssrig 




296 


66 


81 


149 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


378 


44 


183 


151 



Thirty-three percent of all musicians and 48 
percent of New York-area musicians spend over 40 
hours a week on their music or music-related 



activities. Thirty-nine percent of the total musicians 
spend between 10 or fewer hours per week on their 
supplementary employment. 



Approximately how many hours per week do you spend on your music or music-related activities 
(including performing, looking for work, marketing etc.) 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


0-10 hours per week 


Percent 


109% 


75% 


3.4% 


18.4% 




Umber 


67 


8 


8 


51 


11 -20 hours per week 


Percent 


160% 


178% 


86% 


21.7% 




Number 


99 


19 


20 


60 


21 -30 hours per week 


Percent 


182% 


159% 


133% 


231% 




Number 


112 


V 


31 


64 


31 -40 hours per week 


Percent 


21.7% 


23.4% 


27.0% 


166% 




Number 


134 


25 


63 


46 


over 40 hours per week 


Percent 


332% 


355% 


47.6% 


202% 




Number 


205 


38 


111 


56 


Mssrig 




57 


3 


31 


23 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


617 


107 


233 


277 



INCOME 

Fifty-two percent of all jazz musician 
respondents earned their major income in the last 
12 months as musicians, 24 percent in non-music 
related occupations, another 1 1 percent as music 
teachers and 7 percent as jazz teachers. A high of 83 



percent of the New Orleans- area musicians earned 
their major income in the last 12 months as 
musicians. Fifty-six percent of the New York-area 
musicians earned their major income in the last 12 
months as musicians, 19 percent in non-music 
related occupations, 8 percent as music teachers, and 
7 percent as jazz teachers. 



12 



Thirty-six percent of the San Francisco-area 
musicians earned their major income in the last 12 
months as musicians, 36 percent in non-music 
related occupations, 13 percent as music teachers, 
and 7 percent as jazz teachers. 

In a late- 1990s study of 400 jazz musicians in 
the Netherlands (a place often invoked for its 
government subsidy of artists) researcher Teunis 
IJdens found the main sources of income were 
performing (35 percent) and teaching (25 percent). 
Other work as a musician, including composing, 



made up almost 10 percent of total income, and 
other non-musical work accounted for 15 percent. 
Only one out often jazz musicians can make a 
living out of performing, teaching, and composing jazz 
and improvised music. Almost half of them can make 
a living as a musician (jazz and other music) while 
other (non-musical) sources of income are required by 
well over 50 percent of the musicians. ( "Scattered and 
Skewed, Artistic Work Between Market and 
Organization," p. 225). 



From which occupation did you earn your major income in the last 12 months? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


Musician 


Percent 


515% 


827% 


564% 


35.7% 




Number 


347 


91 


149 


107 


music teacher 


Percent 


11.1% 


13B% 


8.0% 


13D% 




Number 


75 


15 


21 


39 


jazz teacher 


Percent 


65% 


45% 


6.8% 


7.0% 




Number 


44 


5 


18 


21 


arts manager or administrator 


Percent 


1C% 


0.0% 


0B% 


1.7% 




Number 


7 





2 


5 


other music-related occupation 


Percent 


75% 


4.5% 


37% 


83% 




Number 


53 


5 


23 


25 


non-music related occupation 


Percent 


24.2% 


36% 


189% 


363% 




Number 


163 


4 


50 


109 


: Other 


Percent 


10.7% 


64% 


53% 


170% 




Number 


72 


7 


14 


51 


Msshg 












total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


'300 



The extremes of income from music are evident: 
as noted above, 52 percent of all musicians and 56 
percent of New York-area musicians earned their 
major income in the last 12 months as musicians. 

Nine percent of all jazz musicians and 1 1 



percent of New York-area jazz musicians earned over 
$40,000 from their work as musicians in 2000. 
Fourteen percent of all musicians and 8 percent of 
New York-area jazz musicians earned $500 or less as 
musicians in 2000. 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total income as an individual from all sources in 2000 before taxes, including your work as a musician. 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


$0- $500 


Percent 


7.7% 


20% 


4.9% 


125% 




Number 


45 


2 


12 


32 


$501 -$3000 


Percent 


11.7% 


5.0% 


123% 


137% 




Number 


70 


5 


30 


35 



13 



$3001 -$7000 


Percent 


252% 


29.0% 


23.4% 


255% 




Number 


151 


29 


57 


65 


$7001 -$12,000 


Percent 


20.0% 


26.0% 


20.9% 


169% 




Number 


120 


26 


51 


43 


$12,001 -$20,000 


Percent 


127% 


170% 


16.4% 


75% 




Number 


76 


17 


40 


19 


$20,001 -$40,000 


Percent 


95% 


110% 


9.4% 


9.0% 




Number 


57 


11 


23 


23 


$40,001 -$60,000 


Percent 


62% 


60% 


53% 


7.1% 




Number 


37 


6 


13 


18 


$60,001 -$80,000 


Percent 


7.0% 


4.0% 


7.4% 


78% 




Number 


42 


4 


18 


20 


$80,001 -$100,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














more than $100,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














Mm 




$16,269 


$15,833 


$16,660 


$16,066 


Medan 




$9,501 


$9,501 


$9,501 


$5,001 


Mssrg 




75 


10 


20 


45 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


599 


100 


244 


255 



Only nine percent of all jazz artists earned over 
$40,000 in total income as musicians, with a low of 



six percent in San Francisco. 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total income from work as a musician from all sources for 2000 before taxes. 



- 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


$0-$500 


Percent 


138% 


19% 


7.9% 


24.1% 




Number 


85 


2 


20 


63 


$501 -$3000 


Percent 


160% 


58% 


123% 


23.8% 




Number 


99 


6 


31 


62 


$3001 -$7000 


Percent 


139% 


29% 


142% 


180% 




Number 


86 


3 


36 


47 


$7001 -$12,000 


Percent 


130% 


136% 


150% 


10.7% 




Number 


80 


14 


38 


28 


$12,001 -$20,000 


Percent 


14.7% 


252% 


17.4% 


8.0% 




Number 


91 


26 


44 


21 


$20,001 -$40,000 


Percent 


198% 


40.8% 


225% 


88% 




Number 


122 


42 


57 


23 


$40,001 -$60,000 


Percent 


55% 


78% 


7.1% 


31% 




IMjTber 


34 


8 


18 


8 



14 



$60,001 -$80,000 


Percent 


32% 


19% 


3.6% 


3.4% 




Number 


20 


2 


9 


9 


$80,001 -$100,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














i more than $100,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














Ivtei 




$15,560 


$23,059 


$17,962 


$10,273 


Madan 




$9,501 


$30,001 


$16,001 


$5,001 


Mssrg 




57 


7 


11 


39 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


617 


103 


253 


261 



For 70 percent of all and 81 percent of New 
York-area musicians, musician income came from 
work AS jazz musicians, in other words, not playing 
weddings, bar mitzvahs and all the other musical 



jobs jazz musicians do to survive. 

This was true of 78 percent of New Orleans-area 
musicians, 56 percent of San Francisco musicians. 



What percentage of this income came from your work as a jazz musician in 2000? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


mean 


70 


78 


81 


56 


Marian 


90 


98 


100 


50 


std.dev. 


35 


30 


30 


38 


Mre 




100 


100 


100 


100 


valid cases 


587 


104 


247 


236 


Mssing 


87 


6 


17 


64 



Respondents play a mean of 10 different musical 
jobs a month; in New Orleans the mean is 17 jobs a 
month. 



Just over half of the RDS and union musicians 
earned their major income in the last 12 
months as musicians (see Volume II). Forty- 
three percent of union jazz musicians and 28 
percent of RDS musicians are employed full- 
time in the music business. And 5 percent or 
less of both groups are unemployed. 



For 63 percent of all musicians and 89 percent 
of New Orleans area musicians, the income earned 
from their work as jazz musicians covered their 
music-related costs. For over three-quarters of all 
musicians, costs of music-related supplies, 
equipment, capital improvements, publicity and 
marketing, travel and cartage, recording and 
management costs, and instrument insurance are 
under $2,500. 

The information below includes findings from 
our union survey (AFM) on jazz and non-jazz 
musicians, our RDS survey, and the NEA's 1990 
census figures for musicians and composers (the 
census does not separate these or distinguish 
between types of music.) 



15 



In the RDS study, the mean total household gross income in 2000 before taxes for 
aggregate jazz musicians is $24,504, the median is $9,501. For New Orleans-area 
musicians the mean is $23,589 and the median is $16,001. 

The mean total income as an individual from ALL sources including work as a musician 
in 2000 before taxes for aggregate musicians is $16,269, the median is $9,501. For New 
Orleans-area musicians the mean is $15,833, the median is $9,501. 

In the AFM study, the mean total household gross income in 2000 before taxes for jazz 
musicians is $63,496; the median is $70,000. For non-jazz musicians the mean is 
$70,493 and the median is $70,000. 

The mean total income as an individual from ALL sources including work as a musician 
in 2000 before taxes for jazz musicians is $49,847; the median is $50,000. For non-jazz 
musicians the mean is $50,894 and the median is $50,000. 

According to the 1990 census as reported by the National Endowment for the Arts, the 
median earnings for all musicians and composers was $22,988 for men and $18,653 for 
women. Median household income was $36,653. 

In the RDS study the mean income as an individual from work AS A MUSICIAN in 
2000 before taxes for aggregate jazz musicians is $15,560; the median is $9,501. For New 
Orleans area musicians the mean is $23,059; the median is $17,692. 

The mean AFM income as an individual from work AS A MUSICIAN in 2000 before 
taxes for jazz musicians is $33,486; the median is $30,000. For non-jazz musicians the 
mean is $36,516 and the median is $30,000. 



Eighteen percent of aggregate and only 10 
percent of New Orleans-area musicians earned over 
$60,000 in total gross household income in 2000; no 
musicians from any group earned over $100,000. 



Conversely, 4 percent of aggregate musicians and 2 
percent of New Orleans area musicians earned $500 
or less. 



I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes your 
total household gross income in 2000 before taxes. 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


$0- $500 


Percent 


4.3% 


21% 


50% 


4.6% 




Urrber 


25 


2 


12 


11 


$501 -$3000 


Percent 


83% 


21% 


83% 


10.4% 




Nrrter 


43 


2 


21 


25 


$3001 -$7000 


Percent 


225% 


219% 


213% 


24.1% 




NiTber 


130 


21 


51 


58 


$7001 -$12,000 


Percent 


151% 


17.7% 


133% 


158% 




Nurber 


87 


17 


32 


38 


$12,001- $20,000 


Percent 


133% 


198% 


14.6% 


95% 




Urrber 


77 


19 


35 


23 


$20,001 -$40,000 


Percent 


10j6% 


135% 


83% 


112% 



16 





Number 


61 


13 


21 


27 


$40,001 -$60,000 


Percent 


ao% 


125% 


75% 


66% 




Number 


45 


12 


18 


16 


$60,001 -$80,000 


Percent 


173% 


104% 


208% 


178% 




Number 


103 


10 


50 


43 


$80,001 -$100,000 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


Oj0% 


00% 




Number 














more than $100,000 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


0.0% 


0O% 




Number 














Ivtei 




$24,504 


$23,589 


$25,787 


$23,592 


Ivtefan 




$9,501 


$16,001 


$16,001 


$9,501 


Mssrg_ 




97 


14 


24 


59 


total # of respondents win answered this question 


577 


96 


240 


241 



Thirty-two percent of total area respondents 
applied for a grant as a jazz or aspiring musician; the 
highest percentage of applicants came from New 
York with 57 percent. Nine percent or 62 jazz artists 
received grants from the National Endowment for 



the Arts. Forty-six of these artists came from the 
New York metro area. None received foundation 
grants and 2 percent received state agency grants in 
2000. 



If you received grants or fellowships as a jazz or aspiring musician, from what sources did you receive them? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


I never received 


Percent 


365% 


418% 


20.1% 


49.0% 




Number 


246 


45 


53 


147 


National Endowment for the Arts 


Percent 


92% 


18% 


17.4% 


4.7% 




Number 


62 


2 


45 


14 


other federal agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


10% 


00% 


15% 


10% 




Number 


7 





4 


3 


regional agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


10% 


0.0% 


1.1% 


13% 




Number 


7 





3 


4 


state agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


4.3% 


18% 


61% 


3.7% 




Number 


29 


2 


16 


11 


local agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


27% 


09% 


4.5% 


1.7% 




Number 


18 


1 


12 


5 


foundation (specify foundation) 


Percent 


38% 


00% 


53% 


27% 




Number 


22 





14 


8 


educational institution (specify 
institution) 


Percent 


7.7% 


73% 


11.7% 


4.3% 




Number 


52 


8 


31 


13 


corporate sponsor (specify sponsor) 


Percent 


10% 


00% 


19% 


0.7% 




Number 


7 





5 


2 


Other 


Percent 


73% 


00% 


16.7% 


13% 



17 





Number 


49 


1 


44 


4 


MSSITCJ 




428 


64 


211 


153 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



Almost all jazz musicians received under $5,000 
from music-related grants or fellowships, royalties or 
residuals, public assistance (welfare) and/or 
unemployment benefits in the year 2000. Of those 
who applied for grants or fellowships, 3 percent 



received between $25,001 and $50,000. Almost all 
jazz musicians received under $5,000 from music 
royalties or residuals, public assistance (welfare) 
and/or unemployment benefits in the year 2000. 



How much did you receive in 2000 before taxes in each of the following areas? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


music-related grants 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.8% 


932% 


93.7% 


962% 




Number 


452 


55 


192 


205 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


15% 


0.0% 


20% 


1.4% 




Number 


7 





4 


3 


C$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


21% 


3.4% 


29% 


09% 




Number 


10 


2 


6 


2 


d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


15% 


3.4% 


15% 


09% 




Number 


7 


2 


3 


2 


e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Nurber 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


05% 




Number 


1 








1 




mam 


3,412 


4,195 


3,549 


3,063 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


music-related fellowships 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


96.7% 


94.5% 


95.9% 


981% 




Number 


441 


52 


187 


202 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.0% 


26% 


0.0% 




Number 


5 





5 





c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


15% 


86% 


10% 


15% 




Number 


7 


2 


2 


3 


d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


0.7% 


18% 


05% 


05% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 


1 


e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Mrrber 















18 



f over $75,000 


Percent 


OjOP/o 


0.0% 


03% 


03% 




Number 
















rreai 


3,015 


3,682 


2,962 


2,888 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


music royalties/residuals 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


96.0% 


94.0% 


95.9% 


96.6% 




Nurrber 


453 


63 


189 


201 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


28% 


60% 


20% 


2.4% 




Number 


13 


4 


4 


5 


c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.0% 


15% 


13% 




Number 


5 





3 


2 


d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


02% 


00% 


05% 


00% 




Number 


1 





1 





e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


03% 


03% 


0.0% 




Number 
















mem 


2371 


2,799 


3,008 


2,764 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


public assistance (welfare) 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


98.0% 


100.0% 


97.4% 


98.0% 




Number 


437 


53 


186 


198 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


18% 


0.0% 


21% 


20% 




Number 


8 





4 


4 


c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


05% 


03% 




Number 


1 





1 





d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


03% 


0.0% 


00% 


0.0% 




Number 














e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


00% 


03% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


03% 


03% 




Number 
















mem 


2,623 


2,500 


2,683 


2,599 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


unemployment benefits 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


993% 


961% 


995% 


995% 




Number 


446 


53 


191 


202 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


0.4% 


19% 


05% 


05% 




Number 


2 


1 


1 


1 



19 



C$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


02% 


0jCP/o 


0.0% 


00% 




Mjrber 


1 











d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


,0.0% 




Njrber 














e $50.001 -$75,000 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Nurber 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


O0% 


ao% 


0j0% 




Nirrber 
















mean 


2,556 


2,593 


2526 


2,525 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2500 


2,500 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



20 



Chapter III. Other Issues 



PROFESSIONALISM 
Selection Criteria 

As described earlier, the musicians interviewed 
for this study were asked to select one or more of the 
following criteria to define their status as jazz 
musicians. These include self-definition, a 
marketplace definition (getting paid), the extent of 
jazz work performed, engagement with jazz, and the 
production of a documented body of work. The 
criteria were determined from work with a focus 
group of jazz representatives. 

1. Do you consider yourself a jazz musician? 

2. Did you earn more than 50 percent of your 
personal income in the last six months as a 
jazz musician or in jazz-related activities? 

3. Have you been engaged in your art/jazz more 
than 50 percent of the time during the last 
year? 

4. Have you performed in/with a jazz band at 
least 10 times during the last year? 



5. Have you performed with or without a jazz 
band for pay at least 10 times during the last 
year? 

6. Have you produced a documented body of 
work that is considered (self or externally) 
jazz? (documented output = performances, 
compositions, collaborations, arrangements, 
recordings) 

As is well known in the field itself, there are 
musicians who are uncomfortable with calling 
themselves "professional," musicians who do not 
play or define themselves solely by jazz, musicians 
who refuse to acknowledge the term "jazz." And 
some musicians were uncomfortable being asked to 
refer to themselves in these ways. 

In a review of a book called Academic Instincts 
(Times Literary Supplement, May 25, 2001, p. 24). 
Author Marjorie Garber is quoted as saying, 
Not only are (the terms "amateur" and 
"professional") mutually interconnected. Part of 
their power comes from the disavowal of the close 
affinity between them. ...If, at the beginning of 
any discipline's self-definition, it undertakes to 



Ninety-nine percent of all jazz artists play or sing jazz music. 

Ninety-five percent of aggregate respondents and 92 percent in San Francisco, consider 
themselves jazz musicians. 

Fifty-three percent of the total jazz artists earned more than 50 percent of their personal 
income in the last six months as jazz musicians or in jazz-related activities. There was a 
low of 35 percent in San Francisco and a high of 92 percent in New Orleans. 

Forty-eight percent of all respondents, 92 percent of New Orleans musicians and only 19 
percent of New York jazz musicians were engaged in their art/jazz more than 50 percent 
of the time during the last year. 

Fifty- three percent of all musicians — and 98 percent of New Orleans, 17 percent of New 
York and 67 percent of San Francisco musicians performed in/with a jazz band at least 
10 times during the last year. 

Forty-two percent of aggregate respondents; 95 percent of New Orleans and only 2 
percent of New York and 58 percent of San Francisco musicians performed with or 
without a jazz band for pay at least 10 times during the last year. 

Forty-six percent all and 98 percent of New Orleans musicians, but only 10 percent of 
New York and 57 percent of San Francisco musicians have produced a documented body 
of work that is considered jazz. 



21 



distinguish itself from another, "false," version of 

itself, that difference is always going to come hack 

to haunt it.... 

The changing, sometimes multi-layered, 
meaning of the word "professional" gives us no 
common definition for the arts. Indeed, the root of 
the word amateur is "to love" and most jazz 
musicians would probably agree they play jazz, first 
and foremost, because they love it. 

Whether jazz musicians consider themselves 
professional or not, they are included in this study 



since 99.2 percent of them play or sing jazz music. 
Using the selection criteria listed above, the 
following statistics help characterize the professional 
lives of jazz musicians. 

Due to the targeted nature of the RDS study, 
most of the musicians surveyed have established a 
history of performing jazz music. While 99 percent 
of all musicians play or sing jazz music, of the 
musicians who have never played or sung jazz 
music, 37 percent play classical music and 63 
percent play or sing other kinds of music. 



Do you ever play or sing jazz music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Yes 


Percent 


992% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


9813% 




NjTfcer 


638 


109 


243 


286 


No 


Percent 


08% 


0.0% 


0j0P/o 


1.7% 




Nutter 


5 








5 


Msshg 




31 


1 


21 


9 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


643 


109 


243 


291 



If no, do you play or sing any other kind of music? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Classical 


Percent 


37.0% 


333% 


46.2% 


333% 




Number 


17 


4 


6 


7 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


63.0% 


66.7% 


53.8% 


66.7% 




Nurrber 


29 


8 


7 


14 


Mssrtj 




628 


98 


251 


279 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


46 


12 


13 


21 



In fact, only 81 percent consider themselves 
professional jazz musicians, with a high of 96 



percent in New York. 



Do you consider yourself a professional jazz musician? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


81.4% 


93.6% 


95.7% 


655% 




Nurrber 


513 


103 


220 


190 


no 


Percent 


186% 


6.4% 


4.3% 


34.5% 




Number 


117 


7 


10 


100 






44 





34 


10 


mssrig 


total # of respondents who answered the 
question 


630 


110 


230 


290 



22 



In addition to the selection criteria, we asked the 
musicians which were the top three reasons they 
considered themselves professional jazz musicians. 
Among all first choices, in New York and New 
Orleans, making a living as a jazz musician was the 



top choice; in San Francisco it was inner drive. In 
New Orleans, making a living was also the second 
choice, while New York and San Francisco focused 
on peer recognition, which also became the highest 
third choice for all. 



If yes, of these statements, which do you consider the three most important reasons as they apply to you? 



Choice 1 




Total 


New 

Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


I make my living as a musician 


Percent 


32.3% 


40.8% 


39.9% 


20.8% 




Number 


172 


40 


87 


45 


I receive some income tan my work as a musician 


Percent 


122% 


0.0% 


1Q1% 


199% 




Number 


65 





22 


43 


I intend to make my Irving as a musician 


Percent 


6.0% 


4.1% 


18% 


11.1% 




Number 


32 


4 


4 


24 


I belong to a musicians' association 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














I belong to a musicians' union or guild 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














I have been formally educated in music 


Percent 


26% 


20% 


18% 


87% 




Number 


14 


2 


4 


8 


I am recognized by my peers as an musician 


Percent 


11.1% 


14.3% 


87% 


120% 




Number 


59 


14 


19 


26 


I consider myself to be a musician 


Percent 


6.6% 


92% 


78% 


42% 




Number 


35 


9 


17 


9 


I spend a considerable amount of lime working as a 
musician 


Percent 


1.7% 


10% 


28% 


0.9% 




Number 


9 


1 


6 


2 


1 have a special talent 


Percent 


4.5% 


61% 


32% 


51% 




Number 


24 


6 


7 


t 


1 have an inner drive to make music 


Percent 


160% 


21.4% 


88% 


213% 




Number 


85 


2t 


18 


46 


1 receive some public recognition for my music 


Percent 


23% 


0.0% 


5.5% 


00% 




Number 


12 





12 





Other 


Percent 


4.7% 


10% 


10.1% 


0.9% 




Number 


25 


1 


22 


2 


Msshg 




142 


12 


45 


84 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


532 


98 


218 


216 



Choice 2 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


1 make my fiving as a musician 


Percent 


105% 


188% 


11.1% 


62% 




Number 


54 


18 


23 


13 



23 



1 receive some hoome from my wok as a musician 


Percent 


72% 


115% 


4.3% 


81% 




Number 


37 


11 


9 


17 


1 intend to make my IK/hg as a musician 


Percent 


53% 


52% 


3.4% 


72% 




NUrber 


27 


5 


7 


15 


1 belong to a musicians' association 


Percent 


12% 


31% 


00% 


1.4% 




htirber 


6 


3 





3 


1 belong to a musicians' union or guild 


Percent 


20% 


63% 


10% 


1D% 




Number 


10 


6 


2 


2 


1 have been formally educated in music 


Percent 


82% 


10.4% 


4.8% 


105% 




Number 


42 


10 


10 


22 


1 am recognized by my peers as an musician 


Percent 


252% 


125% 


285% 


275% 




Number 


129 


12 


59 


58 


1 consider myself to be a musician 


Percent 


119% 


52% 


58% 


21.1% 




Number 


a 


5 


12 


44 


1 spend a considerable amount of time working as a 
muscian 


Percent 


45% 


52% 


3.4% 


53% 




Number 


23 


5 


7 


11 


1 have a special talent 


Percent 


55% 


83% 


63% 


33% 




Number 


28 


8 


13 


7 


1 have an inner drive to make music 


Percent 


85% 


135% 


9.7% 


53% 




NjTter 


44 


13 


20 


11 


1 receive some pubfc recognition for my music 


Percent 


4.7% 


Oj0% 


9.7% 


19% 




Number 


24 





20 


4 


Other 


Percent 


53% 


0:0% 


121% 


1C% 




Number 


27 





25 


2 


fvfesrx) 




162 


14 


57 


91 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


512 


96 


207 


209 



Choice 3 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


Sen 

Francisco 


1 make my IK/hg as a musician 


Percent 


6.4% 


93% 


62% 


5.4% 




Number 


32 


9 


12 


11 


I receive some hcome from my woik as a musician 


Percent 


35% 


21% 


21% 


59% 




Number 


18 


2 


4 


12 


1 rtend to make my living as a musician 


Percent 


52% 


52% 


31% 


73% 




Number 


26 


5 


6 


15 


1 belong to a musicians' association 


Percent 


05% 


05% 


00% 


15% 




Number 


3 








3 


1 belong to a musicians' union or guild 


Percent 


32% 


72% 


15% 


29% 




Number 


16 


7 


3 


6 


1 have been formally educated in music 


Percent 


d7% 


103% 


55% 


107% 




Number 


43 


10 


11 


22 



24 



1 am recognized by my peers as an musician 


Percent 


215% 


26.8% 


24.1% 


166% 




Nurrber 


107 


26 


47 


34 


1 consider myself to be a musician 


Percent 


acp/o 


72% 


82% 


83% 




Nurrber 


40 


7 


16 


17 


1 spend a considerable amount of tme working as a 
musician 


Percent 


56% 


82% 


51% 


4.9% 




Nurrber 


28 


8 


10 


10 


1 have a special talent 


Percent 


4.8% 


62% 


4.6% 


4.4% 




Nurrber 


24 


6 


9 


9 


1 have an inner drive to make music 


Percent 


14.7% 


52% 


103% 


23.4% 




Nurrber 


73 


5 


20 


48 


1 receive some public recognition for my music 


Percent 


99% 


72% 


16.4% 


4.9% 




Nurrber 


49 


7 


32 


10 


Other 


Percent 


76% 


52% 


128% 


39% 




Nurrber 


38 


5 


25 


8 


Mssrtj 




177 


13 


69 


95 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


497 


97 


195 


205 



Ninety-two percent of the aggregate jazz 
respondents and 100 percent of the New Orleans 
respondents played jazz for money in the six months 
prior to the survey. The average number of jobs per 
month for New Orleans musicians totaled 17, which 
was higher than the aggregate average of 10 jobs a 



month. Of these musicians, 41 percent of the artists 
from the three test cities combined and 64 percent 
of the New Orleans-area musicians play with four or 
more different groups. Eighty percent of all 
respondents regularly play with a specific group of 



musicians. 



Have you played jazz for money during the last 12 months? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Male 


Percent 


802% 


83.6% 


73.7% 


84.5% 




Nurrber 


534 


92 


191 


251 


Female 


Percent 


198% 


16.4% 


26.3% 


155% 




Nurrber 


132 


18 


68 


46 


Mssrg 




8 





5 


3 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


666 


110 


259 


297 



If you currently play with a group, how many different groups do you play with? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


None 


Percent 


87% 


6.4% 


8.4% 


99% 




Nurrber 


53 


7 


20 


26 


One 


Percent 


116% 


37% 


13.4% 


133% 




Nurrber 


71 


4 


32 


35 


Two 


Percent 


160% 


6.4% 


176% 


186% 




Nurrber 


98 


7 


42 


49 



25 



Three 


Percent 


22.4% 


193% 


255% 


20.9% 




Nurrber 


137 


21 


61 


55 


four or more 


Percent 


412% 


642% 


35.1% 


373% 




Nurber 


252 


70 


84 


98 






63 


1 


25 


37 


msshg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


611 


103 


239 


263 



Do you work regularly with a specific group of musicians? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


795% 


89.1% 


76.8% 


783% 




Number 


524 


98 


199 


227 


no 


Percent 


205% 


109% 


232% 


21.7% 




Nurber 


135 


12 


60 


63 


mssrig 




15 





5 


10 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


659 


110 


259 


290 



Approximately how many different musical jobs do you play a month? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


rrean 


10 


17 


9 


7 


rrBdan 


8 


16 


7 


5 


std.dev. 


8 


9 


7 


6 


rrrxe 


20 


20 


4 


2 


valid cases 


620 


109 


250 


261 


missrig 


54 


1 


14 


39 



Thirty-three percent (and 48 percent in New 
York) spend over 40 hours a week on music or 
music-related activities, including performing, 
looking for work, and marketing. Seventy-three 
percent (and 88 percent in New York) spend over 20 
hours a week on this. 

Jazz musicians spend an average of three hours 



Over a third of jazz musicians spend over 40 
hours per week on music-related activities. 
Almost half of New York musicians spend this 
same time. 



a week practicing and five hours a week writing 



music. 



About how many hours per day do you spend practicing music? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


rrem 


3 


3 


3 


3 




2 


2 


2 


2 


iifcttai 


std.dev. 


4 


3 


4 


5 


rroce 


2 


2 


2 


2 


vaid cases 


590 


103 


209 


278 




84 


7 


55 


22 


mssncj 



26 



How many hours per week do you spend writing music? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


rrem 


5 


6 


6 


4 




3 


3 


4 


2 


(TBCfan 


std.dev. 


7 


10 


7 


6 


mrfe 








2 





vafd cases 


503 


89 


159 


255 


nisshq 


171 


21 


105 


45 



The study queried musicians on what guided 
their decision to make music. The most popular 
factor that prompted respondents from the three 
cities combined and the New Orleans area to pursue 



music was an inner drive to make music. Twenty- 
nine percent of musicians chose this as their most 
important factor. 



If you were to isolate the one most important factor prompting you to pursue music, what would it be? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


diversion from daily routine 


Percent 


1.7% 


19% 


16% 


18% 




Number 


11 


2 


4 


5 


family tradition 


Percent 


4.7% 


8.4% 


4.0% 


39% 




Number 


30 


9 


10 


11 


higher calling/sense of purpose 


Percent 


151% 


159% 


79% 


21.4% 




Number 


97 


17 


20 


60 


inner drive to make music 


Percent 


28.9% 


383% 


190% 


342% 




Number 


185 


41 


48 


96 


lifestyle 


Percent 


16% 


09% 


32% 


0.4% 




Number 


10 


1 


8 


1 


bve of the process 


Percent 


64% 


4.7% 


4.0% 


93% 




Number 


41 


5 


10 


26 


personal expression 


Percent 


84% 


103% 


79% 


82% 




Number 


54 


11 


20 


23 


problem solving 


Percent 


05% 


0.0% 


12% 


09% 




Number 


3 





3 





recognition of my special talent 


Percent 


4.8% 


3.7% 


67% 


36% 




Number 


31 


4 


17 


10 


source of great personal satisfaction 


Percent 


129% 


112% 


15.4% 


11.4% 




Number 


83 


12 


39 


32 


source of income 


Percent 


05% 


09% 


12% 


06% 




Number 


3 





3 





other 


Percent 


137% 


4.7% 


281% 


43% 




Number 


88 


5 


71 


12 


rrissrig 




33 


3 


11 


19 


total # of respondents who answered the question 




641 


107 


253 


281 



27 



Recognition and Grants and 
Fellowships 

For 43 percent of all jazz musicians, their first 
professional recognition was their first paid job. This 
was considerably lower in New York (32 percent). 
Seventeen percent chose to fill in the blank for 
"other" to this question and responses varied from "I 
passed an audition" to high school and community 
recognition, festivals, writing a song for a major 



artist, scholarships, recommendations from teachers, 
joining the musicians union, to "just playing." 

The percentages of respondents in New Orleans 
and San Francisco feel generally that their talent has 
been recognized locally (46 percent total; 67 percent 
in New Orleans, 57 percent in San Francisco), while 
those in New Orleans and New York feel their talent 
has been recognized internationally (35 percent 
aggregate; 52 percent in New Orleans and 50 percent 
in New York). 



Through what venue did your first professional recognition occur? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


award or honor 


Percent 


75% 


120% 


32% 


96% 




Number 


46 


13 


8 


25 


feature article 


Percent 


58% 


65% 


7.7% 


36% 




Number 


36 


7 


19 


10 


first paid job 


Percent 


42.7% 


54.6% 


315% 


48.5% 




Number 


263 


59 


78 


126 


grant 


Percent 


05% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


06% 




Number 


3 





1 


2 


job with a known band 


Percent 


iao% 


130% 


9.7% 


162% 




Number 


80 


14 


24 


42 


played with a major artist 


Percent 


105% 


56% 


17.7% 


65% 




Number 


67 


6 


44 


17 


winning a competition 


Percent 


2.4% 


28% 


06% 


36% 




Nmber 


15 


3 


2 


10 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


172% 


56% 


29.0% 


106% 




Number 


106 


6 


72 


28 






58 


2 


16 


40 


mssirg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


616 


103 


248 


260 



Has your talent been recognized. . . 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


locally 


Percent 


46.3% 


676% 


25.0% 


576% 




Nrrber 


312 


74 


66 


172 


nationally 


Percent 


191% 


41.8% 


178% 


120% 




Number 


129 


46 


47 


36 


internationally 


Percent 


356% 


516% 


49.6% 


' 167% 




Mrrber 


238 


57 


131 


50 


talent not recognized 


Percent 


96% 


27% 


61% 


157% 



28 





Nurber 


66 


3 


16 


47 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


55% 


00% 


11.4% 


23% 




Mrrber 


37 





30 


7 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



Almost three quarters of all jazz musicians are 
satisfied or very satisfied with their music at this 

How satisfied are you with your music at this point? 



point. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


very satisfied 


Percent 


161% 


19.4% 


163% 


145% 




Mrrber 


102 


21 


39 


42 


satisfied 


Percent 


57.0% 


593% 


56.7% 


563% 




Nurber 


350 


64 


136 


160 


dissatisfied 


Percent 


242% 


19.4% 


242% 


261% 




Nurber 


153 


2! 


58 


74 


very dissatisfied 


Percent 


27% 


19% 


23% 


28% 




Mrrber 


V 


2 


7 


8 


rrissrig 




42 


2 


24 


16 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


632 


106 


240 


284 



Copyright Protection and Airplay 

Questions about protecting one's work through 
copyright, having adequate representation, and 
being affiliated with a union, a performing rights 
society, or a jazz-related organization elicited mixed 
responses. 

Sixty-two percent of the respondents hold 
copyright in some artistic work of their own 
creation (compositions, books, etc) and 22 percent 



of them have given their copyright to a recording 
company. Thirty percent of all the musicians have 
had their work recorded by a professional recording 
company (27 percent for New Orleans area 
musicians and 43 for New York musicians), but New 
Orleans musicians show a greater propensity to 
record their own work. Sixty-four percent of New 
Orleans-area musicians have recorded their own 
work, a full 8 percentage points more than aggregate 
musicians, 56 percent of whom have done so. 



Do you hold a copyright in some artistic work of your own creation? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


602% 


60.7% 


73.0% 


47.6% 




Mrrber 


388 


65 


192 


131 


no 


Percent 


375% 


37.4% 


24.7% 


49.8% 




Nurrber 


242 


40 


65 


137 


dontknow 


Percent 


23% 


19% 


23% 


25% 






15 


2 


6 


7 


mssrrj 




29 


3 


1 


25 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


645 


107 


263 


275 



29 



Have you ever given your copyright to a recording company? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


221% 


24.1% 


25.9% 


173% 




Number 


114 


21 


57 


36 


ro 


Percent 


74.0% 


75.9% 


682% 


79.3% 




Number 


331 


66 


150 


165 


dontknow 


Percent 


35% 


0.0% 


53% 


3.4% 




Number 


20 





13 


7 


rrissrg 




159 


23 


44 


92 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


515 


87 


220 


208 



Has your work ever been recorded? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes, by me 


Percent 


56.4% 


64.2% 


46.3% 


62.9% 




Number 


359 


68 


118 


173 


yes, by a professional recording company 


Percent 


29.7% 


27.4% 


42.7% 


185% 




Number 


189 


29 


109 


51 


ro 


Percent 


102% 


75% 


63% 


14.9% 




Number 


65 


8 


16 


41 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


3.6% 


09% 


4.7% 


36% 




Number 


23 


1 


12 


10 


nissrg 




38 


4 


9 


25 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




636 


106 


255 


275 



For 70 percent of aggregate jazz musicians and 
82 percent of New Orleans-area jazz musicians, their 
music has received airplay. Almost no one paid to 
get airplay and 19 percent of all musicians had help 
from a promotional person. The musicians' 
comments offered us insight into this, explaining 
many different routes to airplay including: 



Has your music received airplay? 



radio stations featuring local artists, some of 
which contact the artists 
college radio stations 

work with orchestras, chamber music groups 
playing on different artists' records, in movies, 
commercials, theater companies 
record companies, advertising agencies 
live performance broadcasts 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


70.4% 


82.4% 


822% 


55.0% 




Number 


450 


89 


208 


153 


no 


Percent 


29.6% 


17.6% 


173% 


45.0% 




Number 


189 


19 


45 


125 



30 



missing 




35 


2 


11 


22 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


639 


108 


253 


278 



If yes, how did you get this airplay? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


had help from a promotional person 


Percent 


19.4% 


34.5% 


11.4% 


2lJC% 




Nurber 


131 


38 


30 


63 


sent recordings out myself 


Percent 


19.7% 


27.3% 


189% 


17.7% 




NlLrrber 


133 


30 


50 


53 


paid to get airplay 


Percent 


2.4% 


4.5% 


15% 


23% 




Njrber 


16 


5 


4 


7 


knew some of the disc jockeys 


Percent 


181% 


33.6% 


136% 


163% 




Number 


122 


37 


36 


49 


knew producer 


Percent 


85% 


14.5% 


42% 


106% 




Number 


57 


16 


11 


30 


other 


Percent 


27.3% 


16.4% 


47.3% 


137% 




Number 


184 


18 


125 


41 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



Forty-seven percent of all jazz musicians and a 
high of 64 percent of New Orleans-area jazz 
musicians have played music that was broadcast over 
the Internet. Sixteen percent of the total and 10 
percent New Orleans-area jazz musicians object 
when their music is downloaded without payment — 



much lower than the 53 percent of union jazz 
musicians — and 24 percent of all respondents think 
they should be paid for this. Twenty-eight percent of 
all respondents say they do not mind their music 
being downloaded and 28 percent like the exposure. 



Have you played music that was broadcast over the Internet? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


47.2% 


63.6% 


542% 


342% 




Number 


296 


68 


136 


92 


no 


Percent 


402% 


ia7% 


34.7% 


53.9% 




Number 


252 


20 


87 


145 


dont know 


Percent 


126% 


178% 


112% 


119% 




Nurber 


79 


19 


28 


32 






47 


3 


13 


31 


rnssJTg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


627 


107 


251 


269 



31 



If yes, how do you feel about people downloading this music without paying for your work? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Idonotnind 


Percent 


iai% 


25.0% 


95% 


227% 




Nurber 


75 


22 


16 


37 


like the exposure 


Percent 


27.7% 


273% 


235% 


313% 




Nurber 


115 


24 


39 


52 


object 


Percent 


1&6% 


102% 


293% 


7.4% 




Nurber 


69 


9 


48 


12 


think 1 should be paid 


Percent 


24.1% 


227% 


323% 


166% 




Nurber 


100 


20 


53 


27 


nooprion 


Percent 


133% 


145% 


4.9% 


215% 




Nurber 


56 


13 


8 


35 






259 


22 


100 


137 


nissix) 


total # of respondents who answered 
this question (including refusals & dont 
knows) 




415 


88 


164 


163 



Only 24 percent of jazz musicians and 13 
percent of the San Francisco-area respondents have 
steady managers, agents or representatives for their 



work. Of those who stated that they had 
representation, half identified themselves as their 
primary representatives. 



Do you currently have a steady manager, agent or representative for your work? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


235% 


33.0% 


31j0% 


129% 




Number 


152 


36 


80 


36 


no 


Percent 


765% 


67.0% 


69.0% 


87.1% 




Nurber 


494 


73 


178 


243 


nissrig 




28 


1 


6 


21 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


646 


109 


258 


279 



Thirty percent of aggregate and 51 percent of 
New Orleans, 40 percent of New York, and 13 
percent of San Francisco-area respondents belong to 
the American Federation of Musicians. (Louisiana is 
a right-to-work state.) Of the respondents who are 
not currently AFM members, 29 percent of all and 
43 percent of New Orleans-area jazz musicians 
previously belonged to the union. Reasons for not 
joining the AFM varied: 15 percent of total 
respondents believe that belonging to the union will 



not increase their work opportunities, while 17 
percent feel that the AFM does not represent the 
interests of jazz musicians. Additionally, 89 percent 
do not belong to any other union. 

Forty- three percent of all jazz musicians are 
members of a performing rights society (ASCAP, 
BMI, SESAC). Seventeen percent of the respondents 
from the three cities combined are members of a 
jazz-related organization such as the International 
Association of Jazz Education. 



32 



Do you belong to the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) union? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


30.1% 


51.4% 


39.9% 


13j0% 




N/rber 


197 


55 


106 


37 


no 


Percent 


69.9% 


43.6% 


60.1% 


87.0% 




Nurter 


458 


52 


153 


243 






19 


3 


1 


15 


missing 


total # of respondents who answered this 

question 


655 


107 


263 


285 



If no, did you belong at a previous time? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


29.4% 


42.6% 


40.4% 


193% 




Muter 


121 


20 


59 


42 


no 


Percent 


70.6% 


57.4% 


59.6% 


80.7% 




Number 


290 


27 


87 


176 


rrisshg 




263 


63 


118 


82 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


411 


47 


145 


218 



If you do not belong to the AFM, why not? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


does not represent the interests of jazz 
rrusaans 


vaid% 


17.4% 


155% 


23.9% 


123% 




frequency 


117 


17 


63 


37 


does not provide enough benefits 


vaid% 


122% 


127% 


155% 


90% 




frequency 


82 


14 


41 


27 


too expensive 


vab% 


91% 


82% 


91% 


93% 




frequency 


61 


9 


24 


28 


too difficult to join 


vafd% 


16% 


09% 


0.4% 


30% 




frequency 


11 


1 


1 


9 


will not help me get work 


vafd% 


145% 


20.9% 


7j6% 


183% 




frequency 


98 


23 


20 


55 


will prevent me from getting work 


vab% 


21% 


3.6% 


1.1% 


23% 




frequency 


14 


4 


3 


7 


all of the above 


vaU% 


6.4% 


91% 


08% 


103% 




frequency 


43 


10 


2 


31 


other 


vab% 


24.3% 


91% 


25.4% 


29.0% 




frequency 


164 


10 


67 


87 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



33 



Forty-six percent of all musicians use electronic 
media in the creation of their music, 49 percent use 
this media in the production of their music and 64 



percent use the Internet, with 33 percent using the 
Internet to do research, and 27 percent using it to 
promote their music. 



Do you use electronic media in the creation of your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


45.7% 


44.9% 


442% 


47.3% 




Nurrber 


295 


48 


115 


132 


no 


Percent 


54.3% 


551% 


558% 


527% 




Nurrber 


351 


59 


145 


147 


rrissrg 




28 


3 


4 


21 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


646 


107 


260 


279 



Do you use electronic media in the production of your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


49.4% 


53.8% 


333% 


615% 




Number 


307 


55 


83 


168 


no 


Percent 


40.4% 


42.3% 


518% 


293% 




Njrrber 


251 


44 


127 


80 


mssrig 




52 


6 


19 


27 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


622 


104 


245 


273 



Do you use the Internet for your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


63.7% 


552% 


86.9% 


46.6% 




Urrber 


362 


53 


192 


117 


no 


Percent 


363% 


44.8% 


131% 


53.4% 




Njrber 


206 


43 


29 


134 


mssrig 




106 


14 


43 


49 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


558 


96 


221 


251 



How do you use it? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


to communicate with people in the industry 


Percent 


49.0% 


39.1% 


76.9% 


28.0% 




Njrrber 


330 


43 


203 


84 


to compose music 


Percent 


6.7% 


82% 


45% 


80% 




Nurrber 


45 


9 


12 


24 


tocopy music 


Percent 


95% 


173% 


3j0% 


123% 




Number 


64 


19 


8 


37 


to disseminate music 


Percent 


7.4% 


100% 


4.5% 


9.0% 



34 





Nurrber 


50 


11 


12 


27 


to listen to music 


Percent 


20.9% 


23.6% 


19.7% 


210% 




Number 


141 


26 


52 


63 


to promote music 


Percent 


273% 


255% 


41.3% 


157% 




Nurrber 


184 


28 


109 


47 


todo research 


Percent 


32.6% 


32.7% 


36.4% 


29.3% 




Nurrber 


220 


36 


96 


88 


to sell music 


Percent 


153% 


23.6% 


20.5% 


90% 




Nurrber 


107 


26 


54 


27 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



Retirement, Life and Health Coverage 

For routine health care 23 percent of the total 
respondents go to private physicians, 33 percent go 

Where do you go to obtain routine health care? 



to an HMO. Roughly one-third of all respondents 
have received injuries from occupational hazards in 
their music-related work (for example, carpal tunnel 
syndrome, hearing problems, etc.). 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


private physician 


Percent 


23.0% 


255% 


22.3% 


22.7% 




Number 


155 


28 


59 


68 


HMO (health maintenance organization) or PPO 


Percent 


331% 


26.4% 


28.0% 


40.0% 




Nurrber 


223 


29 


74 


120 


clinic 


Percent 


73% 


155% 


5.7% 


7.0% 




Nurrber 


53 


17 


15 


21 


hospital outpatient department 


Percent 


3.6% 


18% 


3.4% 


4.3% 




Nurrber 


24 


2 


9 


13 


emergency room 


Percent 


22% 


27% 


0.4% 


3.7% 




Nurrber 


15 


3 


1 


11 


I do not obtain routine health care 


Percent 


252% 


20.9% 


27.3% 


25.0% 




Nurrber 


170 


23 


72 


75 


arts-related medical facility (please specify) 


Percent 


42% 


155% 


23% 


1.7% 




Number 


28 


17 


6 


5 


other 


Percent 


73% 


4.5% 


91% 


6.7% 




Nurrber 


49 


5 


24 


20 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



35 



Have occupational hazards in your music-related work caused you any injuries? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


vaid% 


313>/o 


37.4% 


36.4% 


24.8% 




frequency 


200 


40 


91 


69 


no 


vaid% 


685% 


626% 


63.6% 


752% 




Frequency 


435 


67 


159 


209 






39 


3 


14 


22 


msshg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


635 


107 


250 


278 



Sixty-three percent of the musicians have some 
health or medical coverage, 43 percent of them 
receive insurance from an HMO, 16 percent from a 
PPO, 13 percent from a personal policy through a 
private insurance company (some respondents have 
more than one type of coverage). This compares to 
1999 figures cited by the New York Times on 
September 29, 2000 (p. A16) citing 84.5 percent of 
Americans with health insurance (The change in the 

Do you have health or medical coverage? 



economy has undoubtedly brought this figure, 
which was climbing, down again). 

Nine percent of all jazz musicians have disability 
coverage for loss of income; 1 1 percent have some 
other group insurance policy and 13 percent have 
some other kind of health insurance. These include: 
Medicare, the military, national health care from 
other countries, and the American Association of 
Retired Persons. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


633% 


583% 


58.7% 


692% 




Mrrter 


398 


63 


142 


193 


no 


Percent 


36.7% 


41.7% 


413% 


30.8% 




Nurber 


231 


45 


100 


86 






45 


2 


22 


21 


rrisshg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


629 


108 


242 


279 



If yes, which type do you have? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


hMO 


Percent 


43.1% 


42.9% 


353% 


492% 




Number 


175 


27 


53 


95 


PPO 


Percent 


160% 


175% 


37% 


212% 




Number 


65 


11 


13 


41 


personal policy through private insurance company 


Percent 


131% 


127% 


167% 


10.4% 




Number 


53 


8 


25 


20 


disability coverage for loss of income 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


00% 


0.0% 




Nurber 














group insurance policy through arts'arts service 
orgamzation 


Percent 


4.4% 


79% 


4.0% 


36% 




Number 


18 


5 


6 


7 


other group insurance policy 


Percent 


76% 


79% 


ao% 


73% 



36 





Number 


31 


5 


12 


14 


other 


Percent 


158% 


11.1% 


273% 


83% 




Number 


64 


7 


41 


16 


msshg 




268 


47 


114 


107 


total # of respondents who answered this question 
(including refusals & don't knows) 




406 


63 


150 


193 



Forty percent of the respondents obtained their 
health coverage themselves. Nine percent coverage 
through their mates. Thirty-six percent obtained this 

How was this health coverage obtained? 



coverage through their employers. Only 4 percent 
obtained their coverage through their musicians' 
union. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


40.3% 


54.1% 


42.7% 


34.1% 




Mrrber 


145 


33 


50 


62 


mate 


Percent 


89% 


82% 


6j0% 


110% 




Number 


32 


5 


7 


20 


employer 


Percent 


361% 


262% 


34.2% 


40.7% 




Number 


130 


16 


40 


74 


mymusicians , union 


Percent 


42% 


16% 


6.0% 


38% 




Number 


15 


1 


7 


7 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


6.4% 


66% 


11.1% 


33% 




Number 


23 


4 


13 


6 


private company 


Percent 


42% 


33% 


00% 


7.1% 




Number 


15 


2 





13 


rrissho. 




314 


49 


147 


118 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & don't knows) 


frequency 


360 


61 


117 


182 



The chart below represents the answers to the 
questions, "Who pays for this insurance and what 
percentage do they pay?" Please note that since there 



is obviously a combination of payment sources, 
figures do not always add up to 100 percent. 



WHO PAYS 












Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


Self 


25% 


28% 


24% 


26% 


Mate 


3% 


5% 


2% 


4% 


Employer 


16% 


11% 


14% 


19% 


Musicians' union 


2% 


1% 


4% 


1% 


Mate's union or employer 


3% 


1% 


6% 


1% 


Private company 


1% 


0% 


.4% 


1% 


Arts/arts service 
organization 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Other 


6% 


5% 


10% 


4% 



37 



PERCENTAGE THEY PAY 












Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


Self 


78% 


80% 


83% 


74% 


Mate 


65% 


54% 


54% 


73% 


Employer 


86% 


81% 


90% 


85% 


Musician's union 


74% 


80% 


73% 


75% 


Mate's union or employer 


96% 


100% 


100% 


73% 


Private company 


97% 


0% 


100% 


96% 


Arts/arts service 
organization 


100% 


0% 


0% 


100% 


Other 


95% 


100% 


96% 


93% 



These charts tell us that approximately a quarter 
of all jazz musicians pay for their health insurance 
mostly themselves with under one-fifth getting 
payments from their employers. Fewer than two 
percent receive payment for health insurance by the 
musicians' union. For the small percentage for 
whom the union does pay, it covers about three- 
quarters of the cost. By contrast, in the Research 
Center for Arts and Culture study Information on 
Artists, actors received some payment for health 
insurance from the Actors' Equity Association. 

A September 2001 report by the Urban Institute 
(http://www.urbaninstitute.org/) "Workers Without 
Health Insurance: Who Are They and How Can 

Do you have life insurance? 



Policy Reach Them?," reports that, of the 16 million 
uninsured workers in the United States, those most 
likely to lack health insurance include workers in 
small firms, low- wage earners, part-time workers 
and those employed for a short tenure. Many 
musicians fit into these categories. 

Thirty- three percent of all respondents have life 
insurance. Sixty-one percent obtained it themselves; 
for 25 percent, life insurance was obtained through 
employers and for 3 percent, they obtained it 
through their musicians' union. Seventy percent pay 
for this life insurance themselves; for 21 percent, 
employers help pay for this, and, for 2 percent, of 
their musicians' union does. 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


333% 


43.9% 


31.8% 


30.6% 




Number 


213 


47 


83 


83 


no 


Percent 


66.7% 


56.1% 


682% 


69.4% 




Urrber 


426 


60 


178 


188 






35 


3 


3 


29 


msshg 



How was this insurance obtained? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


613% 


813% 


672% 


46.0% 




Number 


122 


39 


43 


40 


mate 


Percent 


4.0% 


21% 


0.0% 


80% 




Number 


8 


1 





7 


employer 


Percent 


25.1% 


63% 


23.4% 


36.8% 




Nurber 


50 


3 


15 


32 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


25% 


0.0% 


4.7% 


23% 




Nirrber 


5 





3 


2 


mate's union or employer 


Percent 


30% 


42% 


4.7% 


1.1% 



38 





Number 


6 


2 


3 


1 


private oompany 


Percent 


4.0% 


63% 


00% 


5.7% 




Number 


8 


3 





5 


rrisang 




475 


62 


200 


213 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


199 


48 


64 


87 



Forty-three percent of aggregate have at least 
one retirement plan. Twenty- two percent obtained it 
themselves; 8 percent obtained this through the 

Do you have at least one retirement plan? 



musicians' union; an employer pays for 23 percent; 
and the musicians' union pays for 8 percent. 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


43.0% 


47.6% 


44.0% 


40.4% 




Number 


272 


49 


113 


110 


no 


Percent 


57.0% 


52.4% 


56.0% 


59.6% 




NLmber 


360 


54 


144 


162 


msshg 




42 


7 


7 


28 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


632 


103 


257 


272 



If yes, how was the retirement plan obtained? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


213% 


22.7% 


265% 


167% 




Nurber 


145 


25 


70 


50 


employer 


Percent 


159% 


145% 


98% 


21.7% 




Number 


107 


16 


26 


65 


! my irusicians' union 


Percent 


75% 


16.4% 


95% 


33% 




Number 


53 


18 


25 


10 


arts/arts service organization (specify 
organization) 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


10% 




Number 


4 





1 


3 


other 


Percent 


25% 


27% 


27% 


23% 




Number 


17 


3 


7 


7 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



Who pays for this retirement plan? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


63.6% 


792% 


63.4% 


55.9% 




Number 


171 


38 


71 


62 


mate 


Percent 


26% 


21% 


09% 


4.6% 




Nurber 


7 


1 


1 


5 


employer 


Percent 


23.4% 


10.4% 


179% 


34.9% 




Number 


63 


5 


20 


38 



39 



my musaans' union 


Percent 


78% 


85% 


152% 


00% 




Number 


21 


4 


17 





arts service organization (specify organization) 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 


0.0% 




Number 














other 


Percent 


26% 


0.0% 


27% 


37% 




Nirter 


7 





3 


4 


mssrg 




405 


62 


152 


191 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


269 


48 


112 


109 



Migration and Touring 

As in all other studies of the Research Center, 
artists seem to have a greater allegiance to their 
homesites, especially in relation to training. With an 



even higher response than the RCAC's other studies, 
81 percent of the jazz survey respondents (compared 
to 62 percent in our other studies) received music- 
related training in the area or region. 



How many years have you lived in the country of your current residence? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


under 1 year 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














2-3 years 


Percent 


12% 


18% 


12% 


10% 




Number 


8 


2 


3 


3 


4-5 years 


Percent 


1.4% 


18% 


08% 


1.7% 




Number 


9 


2 


2 


5 


6-10 years 


Percent 


2.4% 


37% 


23% 


21% 




Number 


16 


4 


6 


6 


more than 10 years 


Percent 


942% 


89.9% 


955% 


94.4% 




Number 


616 


98 


248 


270 


mai 




3 


17 


5 


73 


iTBda'i 




2 


16 


5 


100 


rnssrtj 




20 


1 


5 


14 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


654 


109 


259 


286 



Did you receive any music-related training in this city or region? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


80B% 


738% 


831% 


81.4% 




Number 


514 


79 


207 


228 


no 


Percent 


192% 


262% 


169% 


186% 




Number 


122 


28 


42 


52 






38 


3 


15 


20 


mssrg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


636 


107 


249 


280 



40 



Musicians are famous for touring, and these 
respondents are no exception, with almost a third 
(33 percent) working or performing away from their 



main residences between one and five times in the 
previous 12 months. 



Approximately how many times during the last 12 months did you work or perform away from home? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


zero 


Percent 


14.6% 


75% 


76% 


25.6% 




Number 


79 


8 


17 


54 


1-5 times 


Percent 


328% 


355% 


233% 


412% 




Number 


177 


38 


52 


87 


6-1 5 times 


Percent 


219% 


20.8% 


265% 


175% 




Number 


118 


22 


59 


37 


16-30 times 


Percent 


14.6% 


132% 


215% 


ai% 




Number 


79 


14 


48 


17 


over 30 times 


Percent 


161% 


226% 


21.1% 


76% 




Number 


87 


24 


47 


16 


missing 




134 


4 


41 


89 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


540 


106 


223 


211 



Jazz Styles and Instruments 

While the piano and the drums are the 
instruments of choice for the aggregate respondents, 
the bass and the guitar are most popular in the New 
Orleans area. In New York, piano, voice and 
saxophone are the top choices, and in San Francisco, 

What is your primary instrument? 



piano, drums and bass. 

Jazz musicians play in many styles and our 
respondents are no exception. In New Orleans, the 
ones mentioned most frequently are traditional, 
swing, rhythm and blues, and bop; in New York, 
traditional, avant-garde, free jazz and bop; in San 
Francisco, bop, traditional, Latin, swing and blues. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Alto sax 


Percent 


61% 


4.5% 


72% 


5.7% 




Number 


41 


5 


19 


17 


Banjo 


Percent 


0.7% 


36% 


0.0% 


03% 




Number 


5 


4 





1 


i Baritonesax 


Percent 


0.6% 


1ff/o 


0.4% 


03% 




Number 


4 


2 


1 


1 


Bass 


Percent 


11.4% 


136% 


110% 


110% 




Number 


77 


15 


29 


33 


Bass clarinet 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


00% 




Number 


1 





1 





Celb 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 





1 





Clarinet 


Percent 


19% 


55% 


19% 


0.7% 




Number 


13 


6 


5 


2 


Cornet 


Percent 


09% 


36% 


00% 


0.7% 



41 





Number 


6 


4 





2 


Drums 


Percent 


123% 


109% 


110% 


143% 




Number 


84 


12 


29 


43 


Effects ( washboard, whistles, etc.) 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


' 0.0% 




Number 














Rugelhorn 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


10% 




Number 


3 








3 


Flute 


Percent 


ie% 


0.0% 


27% 


13% 




Number 


ti 





7 


4 


Guitar 


Percent 


ai% 


118% 


4.9% 


11.7% 




Number 


61 


13 


13 


35 


Harmonica 


Percent 


03% 


09% 


0.0% 


03% 




Number 


2 


1 





1 


Percussion 


Percent 


13% 


09% 


15% 


13% 




Number 


9 


1 


4 


4 


Piano/ keyboard 


Percent 


14.4% 


109% 


152% 


150% 




Number 


97 


12 


40 


45 


Saxophone 


Percent 


11.1% 


91% 


125% 


1Q7% 




Number 


75 


10 


33 


32 


Trombone 


Percent 


4.5% 


18% 


4.9% 


50% 




Number 


30 


2 


13 


15 


Trumpet 


Percent 


63% 


73% 


61% 


73% 




Number 


45 


8 


16 


22 


Tuba 


Percent 


03% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


03% 




Number 


2 





1 


1 


Vbraphone 


Percent 


0.1% 


00% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 





1 





Violin 


Percent 


12% 


18% 


1.1% 


10% 




Number 


8 


2 


3 


3 


Voice 


Percent 


113% 


100% 


14.4% 


9.0% 




Number 


76 


ti 


38 


27 


Xylophone 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














other (please specify) 


Percent 


31% 


18% 


38% 


30% 




Number 


21 


2 


10 


9 


















msshg 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



Future Goals and Qualities needed for 
a Career in Jazz 

Musicians were asked about the three most 
important qualities someone needs who wishes to 
pursue a career in jazz. While talent (22 percent for 



all; 38 percent in New Orleans) was the most 
important quality for being a jazz musician, a 
number of the respondents chose the 'Other' 
category. Although the responses musicians gave in 
the 'Other" category for questions about both 
qualities and goals were much like the choices 



42 



presented to them in the questionnaire, clearly this 
was a question where they did not wish to be placed 
in pre-determined categories. Some of their 
comments for the most important quality for being 



a jazz musician were: Creativity, drive, musicality, 
faith, confidence, punctuality, appearance, 
dedication, versatility, Overall Good Attitude. 



In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs who wishes to pursue a career 
in jazz? 



Choice 1 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


business sawy 


Percent 


108% 


7.1% 


4.8% 


169% 




Number 


62 


7 


10 


45 


axnectbns 


Percent 


73>/o 


61% 


05% 


135% 




Number 


43 


6 


1 


36 


curiosity 


Percent 


33% 


3.0% 


05% 


5.6% 




Number 


19 


3 


1 


15 


energy 


Percent 


35% 


51% 


05% 


52% 




Number 


20 


5 


1 


14 


intelligence 


Percent 


31% 


51% 


0.0% 


4.9% 




Number 


18 


5 





13 


luck 


Percent 


03% 


10% 


0.0% 


0.4% 




Number 


2 


1 





1 


perception 


Percent 


1.4% 


10% 


0O% 


26% 




Number 


8 


1 





7 


performing ability 


Percent 


122%, 


192% 


4.8% 


15.4% 




Number 


70 


19 


10 


41 


physical stamina 


Percent 


1.4% 


0.0% 


1.4% 


19% 




Number 


8 





3 


5 


talent 


Percent 


222% 


38.4% 


110% 


251% 




Number 


128 


33 


23 


67 


technique 


Percent 


10% 


20% 


05% 


1.1% 




Number 


6 


2 


1 


3 


other 


Percent 


333% 


121% 


762% 


75% 




Number 


192 


12 


160 


20 


missing 




98 


11 


54 


33 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


576 


99 


210 


267 



Choice 2 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


business sawy 


Percent 


7.7% 


121% 


92% 


4.9% 




Number 


42 


12 


17 


13 


cxxnecfons 


Percent 


91% 


121% 


1.1% 


137% 



43 





Number 


50 


12 


2 


36 


curiosity 


Percent 


20% 


10% 


16% 


27% 




Number 


11 


1 


3 


7 


energy 


Percent 


5.7% 


30% 


1.1% 


93% 




Number 


31 


3 


2 


26 


intelligence 


Percent 


7.1% 


101% 


16% 


93% 




Number 


39 


10 


3 


26 


luck 


Percent 


4.4% 


30% 


1.1% 


72% 




Number 


24 


3 


2 


19 


perception 


Percent 


22% 


4.0% 


05% 


27% 




Number 


12 


4 


1 


7 


performing ability 


Percent 


143% 


253% 


4.3% 


17.1% 




Number 


78 


25 


8 


45 


physical stamina 


Percent 


1flP/o 


00% 


1.1% 


27% 




Number 


9 





2 


7 


talent 


Percent 


157% 


212% 


70% 


193% 




Number 


86 


2 


13 


52 


technique 


Percent 


4.4% 


51% 


05% 


6B% 




Number 


24 


5 


1 


18 


other 


Percent 


255% 


30% 


70.8% 


27% 




Number 


141 


3 


131 


7 






127 


11 


79 


37 


mssrg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


547 


99 


185 


263 




Choice 3 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


business sawy 


Percent 


113% 


124% 


122% 


10.4% 




Number 


57 


12 


18 


27 


connections 


Percent 


72% 


4.1% 


4.1% 


100% 




Number 


36 


4 


6 


26 


curiosity 


Percent 


24% 


21% 


1.4% 


31% 




Number 


12 


2 


2 


8 


energy 


Percent 


53% 


82% 


0.7% 


7.7% 




Number 


29 


8 


1 


20 


intelligence 


Percent 


50% 


72% 


0.7% 


66% 




Number 


25 


7 


1 


17 


luck 


Percent 


7.6% 


103% 


4.8% 


81% 




Mmber 


38 


10 


7 


2 


perception 


Percent 


3.4% 


93% 


00% 


31% 




Number 


V 


9 





8 


performing ability 


Percent 


113% 


165% 


5.4% 


127% 



44 





Number 


57 


16 


8 


33 


physical stamina 


Percent 


26% 


4.1% 


00% 


35% 




Number 


13 


4 





9 


talent 


Percent 


15Sy 


155% 


109% 


181% 




Nurrber 


78 


15 





47 


technique 


Percent 


56% 


72% 


0.0% 


ai% 




Number 


28 


7 


16 


21 


other 


Percent 


225% 


31% 


59.9% 


85% 




Number 


113 


3 


88 


22 


rnssrrg 




171 


13 


117 


41 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


503 


97 


147 


259 



Reaching a higher level of artistic expression/ 
achievement (27 percent) was the most important 



goal for the next five years,. 



What are your three most important goals for the next five years as a musician? 



Choice 1 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 

Francisco 


develop artistic competence 


Percent 


118% 


119% 


15% 


198% 




Number 


67 


12 


3 


52 


get a record deal 


Percent 


105% 


59% 


175% 


6S% 




Nurrber 


60 


6 


36 


18 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


91% 


79% 


9.7% 


91% 




Number 


52 


8 


20 


24 


make a living from my music 


Percent 


112% 


14.9% 


68% 


133% 




Number 


64 


15 


14 


35 


make money from my muse 


Percent 


35% 


30% 


3.4% 


38% 




Nurrber 


20 


3 


7 


10 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


05% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1.1% 




Nurrber 


3 








3 


participate in major concerts 


Percent 


4.0% 


30% 


58% 


30% 




Nurrber 


23 


3 


12 


8 


play with well-known groups 


Percent 


23% 


20% 


2.4% 


23% 




Number 


13 


2 


5 


6 


reach higher level of artistic expression/ 
achievement 


Percent 


26.8% 


46.5% 


126% 


30.4% 




Nurrber 


153 


47 


26 


80 


spend more time on music 


Percent 


4.0% 


3.0% 


3.4% 


4.9% 




Nurrber 


23 


3 


7 


13 


win recognition/award 


Percent 


12% 


10% 


29% 


0.0% 




Nurrber 


7 


1 


6 






45 



other 


Percent 


14.9% 


10% 


34.0% 


53% 




Nirber 


85 


1 


70 


14 


mssrg 




104 


9 


58 


37 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


570 


101 


206 


263 



Choice 2 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


develop artistic competence 


Percent 


62% 


7.1% 


28% 


81% 




Mrrber 


33 


7 


5 


2 


get a record deal 


Percent 


7.1% 


51% 


124% 


4.3% 




Njrber 


33 


5 


22 


11 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


92% 


1Q1% 


62% 


105% 




Number 


49 


10 


11 


28 


make a Iving from my music 


Percent 


107% 


11.1% 


8.4% 


120% 




Number 


57 


11 


15 


31 


make money from my_musc 


Percent 


4.9% 


30% 


39% 


62% 




Nurber 


26 


3 


7 


16 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


21%, 


4.0% 


1.7% 


16% 




NLrrber 


11 


4 


3 


4 


participate in major concerts 


Percent 


65% 


121% 


56% 


58% 




Number 


37 


2 


10 


15 


play with well-known groups 


Percent 


73% 


91% 


5.6% 


85% 




Njrber 


42 


9 


10 


23 


reach higher level ofartjstjc - 


Percent 


191% 


182% 


8.4% 


26.7% 




Number 


102 


18 


15 


69 


spend more fme on muse 


Percent 


93% 


162% 


1.1% 


124% 




Njmber 


50 


16 


2 


32 


win recognifonaward 


Percent 


28% 


20% 


4.5% 


15% 




Number 


15 


2 


8 


5 


other 


Percent 


14.0% 


20% 


393% 


12% 




Mrrber 


75 


2 


70 


3 






139 


11 


86 


42 


mSETD 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


535 


99 


178 


258 



Choice 3 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


develop artistic competence 


Percent 


4.3% 


63% 


1.4% 


53% 




Nurber 


2 


6 


2 


13 


get a record deal 


Percent 


68% 


8.4% 


78% 


57% 




Nurber 


33 


8 


11 


14 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


72% 


63% 


9.7% 


61% 




Number 


35 


6 


14 


15 



46 



make a living from my music 


Percent 


8.7% 


8.4% 


7.6% 


9.4% 




Number 


42 


8 


11 


23 


irate money from my muse 


Percent 


6.0% 


63% 


5.6% 


61% 




Number 


29 


6 


8 


15 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


08% 


21% 


0.0% 


03% 




Number 


4 


2 





2 


participate in major concerts 


Percent 


8.7% 


63% 


132% 


69% 




Number 


42 


6 


19 


17 


play with well-known groups 


Percent 


89% 


126% 


5.6% 


9.4% 




Number 


43 


12 


8 


23 


reach higher level of artistic 
expressbrVachievernent 


Percent 


136% 


116% 


69% 


18.4% 




Number 


66 


11 


10 


45 


spend more time on music 


Percent 


13.4% 


137% 


69% 


17.1% 




Number 


65 


13 


10 


42 


win recognition/award 


Percent 


79% 


105% 


35% 


9.4% 




Number 


38 


10 


5 


23 


other 


Percent 


136% 


7.4% 


319% 


53% 




Number 


66 


7 


46 


13 


rrissrt) 




190 


15 


120 


55 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


484 


95 


144 


245 



47 



Chapter IV. Social Networks of Jazz Musicians 



BY DOUGLAS D. HECKATHORN 
AND JOAN JEFFRI 

Social Networks of Jazz Musicians 

The structure of a community is defined by 
affiliation patterns — that is, the social relationships 
that link members of the community. These 
relationships vary in strength, from the 
extraordinarily strong bonds within families to the 
weaker links connecting friends and acquaintances. 
In combination, these relationships define the 
community's social network. Such relationships are 
reciprocal: your family members consider you a 
family member, and your friends and acquaintances 
consider you a friend or acquaintance. Merely 
knowing about people, such as Hollywood 
celebrities or political personalities, does not make 
them a part of the social network, however. Rather, 
social networks are created by the social 
relationships that bind together families and 
communities. 

Social relationships serve as conduits through 
which resources flow. These take many forms, from 
assistance when help is needed to the exchange of 
pleasantries during informal interaction. For policy 
makers as well as scholars and observers, one 
indication of the resources potentially available to an 
individual is the number of others to whom that 
individual is linked. This defines the size of the 
individual's personal network, and it serves as an 
indicator of social status. An indication of the 
cohesiveness of a community is the density of social 
ties within that network. The mean personal 
network size of community members also serves as 
an indicator of social capital. 

Social relationships can be structured in many 
different ways. Some communities are divided into 
independent and isolated racial or ethnic groups. In 
Robert Putnam's terms, these are communities based 
on bonding social capital — that is, group solidarity 
based on dense within-group social ties. Other 
communities are more integrated, with abundant 
cross-group ties — in Putnam's terms, communities 
with bridging social capital. These structural features 



are important for understanding community 
dynamics. For example, when cross-group ties are 
sparse, the potential for conflict is great. Inequality 
also affects affiliation patterns. Some communities 
are highly stratified, with most interactions 
occurring among those of equal income, social 
status, and education. Others are more egalitarian, 
with abundant cross-status ties. Therefore, social 
networks may both reflect patterns of social 
inequality and determine the manner in which it is 
structured. 

.Some social ties are based on similarity. This 
tendency of similar persons to form social bonds 
was described by Galton more than a century ago 
and is termed homophily. Other bonds are based not 
on similarity but on difference. This is heterophily. 
Though opposites, homophily and heterophily can 
coexist. For example, musicians may form bonds 
based on the style of music in which they both 
specialize (homophily) while also forming groups 
with musicians who play different instruments 
(heterophily). Studying affiliation patterns provides 
a means for understanding both social 
differentiation (i.e., separate but equal) and social 
inequality (i.e., separate and unequal). 

This chapter focuses on affiliation patterns 
revealed by our study of jazz musicians in two 
metropolitan areas, New York City and San 
Francisco. The study initially included New Orleans 
and Detroit as well, but owing to delays in the 
beginning of the study, less data on network 
structures were gathered from those two cities. The 
aims were to determine the organizing principles of 
the community of jazz musicians, including an 
assessment of the extent to which these differ from 
those of other social groups. 

Creating an Appropriate Study Sample 

The Respondent-Driven Sampling Method 

This is the first time respondent-driven 
sampling (RDS) has been used to study artists. The 
recognition of this sampling method's potential as a 
means for studying artists grew out of a symposium 
supported by the Princeton University Center for 



48 



Arts and Cultural Policy, the Columbia University 
Teachers College Research Center for Arts and 
Culture, and the National Endowment for the Arts 
Research Division. Previously, the RDS method had 
been used to study "hidden populations," so-called 
because 1 ) no list of population members is 
available from which samples can be drawn, making 
the size, location, and boundaries of the population 
unknown, 2) members have privacy concerns and 
create informal networks that outsiders find hard to 
penetrate, and 3) the population is small relative to 
the general population. (Please see Poetics 28(4), 
"Finding the Beat: Using Respondent-Driven 
Sampling to Study Jazz Musicians," by Douglas 
Heckathorn and Joan Jeffri, for more detail). For 
nearly a decade RDS has been used as part of AIDS- 
prevention projects to find injection drug users and 
other groups at risk of HIV infection. The initial 
applications were in several small cities in 
Connecticut. Its use has now expanded to most 
major U.S. cities, as well as Amsterdam, Marseilles, 
Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and China. RDS has also 
been employed to study other groups, including 
Vietnam War-era draft resisters who left the United 
States for Canada and urban Native Americans. The 
advantages of the RDS method become apparent 
when it is compared with the more traditional ways 
hidden populations have been studied. 

General population surveys: A very large sample 
would be required to ensure that even a small 
number of jazz musicians were included. For 
example, based on population estimates calculated 
as part of this project (see the appendix), in San 
Francisco more than 350 individuals would have to 
be contacted to locate one jazz musician, and in 
New York more than 550 would have to be 
contacted. General population surveys are also 
unable to reach those with unstable living 
arrangements (several families living in one 
apartment even though one name appears on the 
lease, for example). Finally, data from the U.S. 
Census are limited and do not separate jazz 
musicians from other types of musicians or 
composers. 

Location sampling: Identifying locations where 
members of the desired population can be found 
and then deploying interviewers requires that the 
population cluster in large, public places. For a 
group such as jazz musicians, this precludes a 



representative sample, because not all jazz musicians 
attend jazz clubs and festivals. 

Institutional samples: Using institutions such as 
artists' unions is the traditional method for studying 
artist populations. However, jazz musicians lack a 
consistent institutional affiliation. In New York fewer 
than one-quarter of jazz musicians are members of 
the American Federation of Musicians (AFM), and 
in San Francisco the figure is less than 10 percent. 
Furthermore, the two groups are significantly 
different. Compared with nonunion members, 
union members have substantially higher incomes 
(51 percent more income in New York, 17.2 percent 
more in San Francisco), are much older (6.6 years 
older in New York, 10.3 years older in San 
Francisco), and have higher levels of professional 
activity. Therefore, a sample drawn from union 
members would overrepresent the most experienced 
and accomplished members of the jazz musician 
community at the expense of those who are 
beginning their careers or whose work has received 
less recognition. 

Chain-referral sampling: A small number of 
initial subjects, called seeds, are identified and asked 
to refer researchers to other members of the 
population; the sample expands during subsequent 
referrals or recruitment waves. This has traditionally 
been viewed as a form of convenience sampling 
about which no claims of representativeness can be 
made because the initial subjects from a hidden 
population cannot be selected randomly, and other 
biases are added as the sample expands from wave to 
wave. For example, individuals who know many 
other people (i.e., those with larger networks) tend 
to be oversampled because the number of 
recruitment paths leading to them is greater. 

The perception of chain-referral methods 
changed with the advent of a new class of sampling 
methods termed adaptive/link-tracing designs. 
Whereas in traditional approaches, the sampling 
plan is fixed before sampling begins, in adaptive 
sampling, the plan changes as information 
accumulates during the sampling process. These 
approaches are more computationally demanding 
than traditional methods, but they are also generally 
more efficient, especially for sampling clustered 
populations. 

Respondent-driven sampling is a form of chain 
referral sampling that extends this emerging body of 



49 



theory. RDS was designed using a statistical theory 
of the chain-referral sampling process to restructure 
this process to eliminate biases resulting from the 
choice of initial subjects, and to weight the sample 
to compensate for the effects of differences in 
network sizes and other remaining sources of bias. 
In this way, RDS produces statistically valid 
estimates of population size and network 
characteristics from samples of hidden populations, 



including estimates of the variability of these 
estimates. (Please see Social Problems 49, 
"Respondent-Driven Sampling II: Deriving 
Statistically Valid Population Estimates from 
Samples of Hidden Populations," by Douglas 
Heckathorn for a description of the procedures 
employed for calculating estimates of population 
size and homophily.) 



Figure 1: 



Recruitment Network for jazz musicians in New York. 




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16 


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19 



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KEY 


Primary Instrument 


13 gunar 




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14 narmonica 


Race "Ethnicity 


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ib percussion 




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lb piano / Keyooaro 


B Black 


4 bass 


17 saxophone 


H Hispantc 


b oass ciannet 


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i clannei 


20 tuba 


Gender 


B cornet 


iii viDrapnone 


M Male 


a drums 


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11 flugelhom 


24 xylophone 




12 flute 


25 other 



WF 




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Figure 1 shows the largest single recruitment 
chain from our study of New York jazz musicians. It 
began when a black female bass player recruited a 
white female keyboard player, a white female singer, 
and a female alto saxophone player of "other" race 
or ethnicity. Over the course of 10 waves, the chain 
expanded from the single seed to include more than 
100 respondents. As is apparent, this chain 
penetrated deeply into the New York jazz musician 
network. It also has considerable geographic range: 
the seed lived near Times Square, the first-wave 
recruits were separated by 3.5 miles, and the distance 



increased to 40 miles for wave two and 55 miles for 
wave three. Thus distant parts of the metropolitan 
area were reached after only a few waves. 

Conditions for RDS 

For RDS to work effectively, the population 
under study must be linked by a contact pattern: 
members of the community under study must know 
one another. Jazz musicians fulfill this requirement 
because they generally perform together and develop 
their skills working together, so even those who do 



50 



not join unions or attend jazz festivals are 
nonetheless linked to the jazz musician community 
through their relationships with other musicians. 

The RDS method requires enlisting the help of 
the musicians themselves and therefore involves 
them directly in the study. Since the method is based 
on a peer-referral system, motivating peer 
recruitment is critical. In this study each jazz 
musician who was interviewed was given four 
coupons to pass along to fellow jazz musicians 
whom she recruited for interviews; the recruiter was 
given $10 for being interviewed, plus $15 each for 
up to four recruits who showed up to be 
interviewed. 

Advantages of RDS 

In addition to targeting a more representative 
group of jazz musicians than traditional methods 
allow, RDS is a community-based method that 
requires jazz musicians to refer one another. This 
prevents the sample from becoming filled with the 
most marketable, famous, or visible jazz musicians 
or only those who join particular organizations. 

A comparison of the findings of jazz musicians 
in the RDS study with those of the AFM union 
study revealed major differences. For example, as 
noted above, the income of union jazz musicians is 
vastly different from that of musicians in the RDS 
sample. This information has policy implications 
and can help the jazz community decide where to 
invest future attention and resources. 

The RDS method allows us to analyze the social 
networks of jazz musicians — that is, who hangs out 
with whom, including the degree to which this 
depends on ethnicity, musical style, or other factors. 
Also, by using a method of analysis based on 
capture-recapture in comparing the AFM and RDS 
responses, we have been able to project the actual 
size of the jazz universe in three of the study cities. 
The AFM union survey told us what proportion of 
union members were jazz musicians in each city. 
Combined with information on the total number of 
union members in each city (New Orleans = 1,014, 
New York = 10,499; San Francisco = 2,217), this 
allowed us to estimate the number of union 
members who were jazz musicians. Finally, the RDS 
survey told us what proportion of all jazz musicians 
in each city were union members. We then 



calculated the estimated size of the jazz universe in 
these cities as follows: 

New Orleans = 1,723 jazz musicians . 
New York = 33,003 jazz musicians 
San Francisco = 18,733 jazz musicians 
These numbers tell us that a large proportion of 
jazz musicians are not members of the union and 
reinforces the appropriateness of using the RDS 
method to locate these musicians (see appendix). 

Implementation Issues and Challenges 

To begin to understand the differences as 
well as the commonalities among jazz musician 
communities, we initiated the study in four 
metropolitan areas: New York, San Francisco, New 
Orleans, and Detroit. City coordinators were chosen 
in each city to run the project locally. Six to eight 
well-connected jazz musicians — the seeds — were 
invited to start the process by being interviewed. 
During the interviews they were told in detail about 
the project and enlisted to distribute four coupons. 

Because we were concerned that not enough 
female jazz musicians would be recruited, three 
coupons could be given to any jazz musician, but 
one had to be given only to a female jazz musician. 
(Any skewing was accounted for statistically after the 
data were analyzed.) 

Delay in timetable: Because of procedures in the 
government, the timetable for the study was delayed 
by several months, putting some of our city 
coordinators at a disadvantage. Detroit, in particular, 
had already hired its staff yet could not start on 
time, so when the study began, some resources were 
depleted. The September 1 1 disaster caused further 
delays. These factors substantially reduced the 
resources and time available for the study. 

Contact pattern and use of coupons: In most RDS 
studies done to date, it takes only four waves of 
recruitment to reach deep into the community. 
When the community lacks cohesion, however, 
recruitment chains have difficulty crossing group 
boundaries; so more waves may be required. This 
was a special problem in Detroit, where jazz venues 
have been declining for a number of years; the jazz 
community is locally strong but very fragmented 
into jazz old-timers, established jazz artists, women 
jazz artists, and young emerging jazz artists. 
Although some people might appear in more than 



51 



one category, there was little communication among 
the four groups, and jazz musicians neglected to 
pass out coupons, especially across groups. 

Scheduling Interviews: Given the demands on . 
musicians' time, scheduling interviews proved 
challenging. Some city coordinators enlisted the help 
of jazz musicians in "talking up" the study. In San 
Francisco, the city coordinator found that many 
individuals needed further explanation about how 
studies are conducted and the rationale for the RDS 
method, so she hired jazz artists as public relations 
representatives to go out into the jazz community 
and promote the study. She and her staff also 
promoted the study personally at jazz clubs, bars, 
and festivals. In New York, several presentations 
were made to jazz groups to inform them of the 
study and ask for their help. We found that 
community acceptance was important for a peer- 
recruitment method to be effective. 

In each city, an interview venue was chosen that 
would be accessible to jazz musicians, but in all 
cities (and especially Detroit), musicians often lived 
as much as one or even two hours away. Often, 
transportation was a problem. Although 
interviewers were flexible and went to locations 
where jazz musicians congregate, this was more 
difficult in Detroit, where there are fewer such 
locations; weather, poor transportation, and a 
difficult economy were further complications. In 
addition, musicians would book appointments for 
interviews and then cancel three, four, even five 
times, or simply not show up, despite phone call 
reminders from city coordinators. Therefore, jazz 
musicians are a population for which arranging 
face-to-face interviews is especially challenging. 

Incentives: The financial incentives were 
extremely modest. For his own interview and the 
redeemed coupons of musicians he recruited, a jazz 
musician could make $70: $10 for his interview and 
$15 for each of his four recruits. Most earned less, 
however; our total cost per musician interviewed 
was $25, consisting of $10 for the interview and $15 
for that musician's recruiter. The incentives were . 
nevertheless important as a token of appreciation. In 
Detroit, the money was appreciated. In San 
Francisco, some musicians said the money wouldn't 
even pay for gas and donated it back to the study. In 
New York, some complained that we should have 
paid union minimum for their time (the interviews 



took an average of one to one and one-half hours 
each). 

Management of the project: The four city 
coordinators were brought to New York for an 
intensive two-day training session to learn the 
method, master the necessary computer programs, 
ask questions, and begin to use each other as 
resources. Several conference calls were held 
throughout the study period to share information 
and get peer support and advice. 

The project was management-heavy, partly 
because this was a first-time methodology for artists, 
but also because it required separate checking 
accounts and tracking for coupons, constant 
scheduling and rescheduling of interviews, and 
substantial outreach. It was also an expensive study 
for the arts. The cost per musician was $25, with a 
target of 1,200 musicians for all four cities. 

Responses: The initial plan for the study was to 
interview 300 jazz musicians in each metropolitan 
area. Because of the delay in starting the study and 
the time and resource constraints, only 59 responses 
were obtained in Detroit — not enough for analysis. 
(Information on Detroit musicians who are 
members of the AFM appears in Changing the Beat, 
Volume II.) In New Orleans, only 110 jazz musicians 
were interviewed — again, an insufficient number. 
The following report on jazz musician networks is 
therefore based on interviews with 264 New York 
jazz musicians and 300 San Francisco jazz 
musicians. Musicians from all cities were also 
interviewed by phone in the AFM union study. 

Differentiation and Stratification 
in Jazz Musician Networks 

Network size has been intensively studied 
because it serves as an indicator for individual 
characteristics, including social status, prestige, and 
integration into the community. Therefore, 
examining clustering by network size provides a 
sense of the overall structure of that community. 

Respondents were divided into three groups 
based on network sizes. Average network sizes were 
much larger in New York, averaging 223.8, than in 
San Francisco, where they averaged 65.8. The ranges 
were also divergent. In New York, the middle half of 
respondents had network sizes between 100 and 300. 
The corresponding figure for San Francisco was 20 



52 



to 90. Therefore, different breakpoints were used to 
differentiate network sizes. A small network was 
defined as 200 or fewer in New York, and 20 or fewer 
in San Francisco. A large network was defined as 300 
or more in New York, and 50 or more in San 
Francisco. 

The measure for network clustering, homophily, 
is defined as follows. The homophily index is 
positive when social relationships within the group 
are favored. For example, it is 100 percent if all ties 
are within the group (clustering is maximal), and 50 
percent if half the ties are formed within the group, 
and the other half are formed through random 
mixing (that is, ties form as though group 
membership does not matter). A positive index 
value indicates that the group is cohesive. Factors 
such as race, ethnicity, education, income, and age 
generally serve as important sources of cohesion. In 
this study we determine the extent to which this is 
also the case for jazz musicians. 

The homophily index is zero for categories that 
are socially irrelevant, such as whether one was born 
in an odd or an even month. With respect to such 
categories, social ties are formed exclusively through 
random mixing. Therefore, zero index values serve 



to identify factors that the community does not 
consider relevant. 

The homophily index is negative if ties tend to 
form with those outside rather than inside the 
group, such as sexual relationships among 
heterosexuals. The index is -100 percent if all ties 
are outside the category — that is, if there are no 
within-group ties. 

The analyses of clustering by network size reveal 
that network size strongly affects affiliation. (See 
Table I.) In New York, those with the largest 
networks are the most homophilous, forming 
networks as though 23 percent of the time they form 
a tie to another large-network person, and the rest of 
the time they form ties through random mixing. 
The medium-network persons are less homophilous. 
Musicians in the large group with the smallest 
networks have strong heterophily, forming ties as 
though 48 percent of the time they form a tie 
outside their group, and the rest of the time they 
form ties randomly. Thus, those with smaller 
networks do not associate primarily with one 
another, but rather form ties to those with larger 
networks. 



Table I: Affiliation by Network Size 





New York 


San Francisco 




Homophily 
(percent) 


Mean 

Network 

Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Homophily 
(percent) 


Mean 

Network 

Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 














Small 


-48.1 


73 


63.6 


-31.1 


13 


74.6 


Medium 


15.2 


214 


29.8 


14.4 


37 


21.1 


Large 


23.1 


511 


6.6 


35.4 


162 


4.4 



The same pattern exists in San Francisco. Even 
though average network sizes are much smaller than 
in New York, the pattern of relationships based on 
relative network sizes is strikingly similar. Those 
with small networks are strongly heterophilous, 
those with medium networks are mildly 
homophilous, and those with large networks are 
more strongly homophilous. 



A more refined examination of the community 
structure involves examining not merely each 
group's strength of affiliation to itself (i.e., 
homophily) but also each group's strength of 
affiliation to each other group. In essence, the 
affiliation index is a measure of social distance that 
varies from 100 percent (maximally close) to -100 
percent (maximally distant). (See Table II.) 



53 



Table II: Affiliation Index by Network Size 





Recipient of Tie 


jy Network Size 




New York 


San Francisco . 


Source of Tie bv Network 


Small 


Medium 


Large 


Small 


Medium 


Large 


Size 


Small 


-48.1 


31.1 


9.3 


-31.14 


9.77 


16.25 


Medium 


-52.9 


15.2 


24.5 


-52.34 


14.36 


29.02 


Large 


-39.9 


5.4 


23.1 


-62.96 


16.68 


35.4 



In New York, though the small-network group is 
strongly negatively affiliated to itself (-48.1 percent), 
it has a substantial positive affiliation to the middle- 
network group (31.3 percent). That is, it has formed 
ties with the middle-network group as though 31.3 
percent of the time it formed a tie to that group, and 
the other 68.7 percent of the time it formed a tie 
through random mixing. The small-network group 
also has a modest but positive affiliation to the 
large-network group (9.3 percent). Thus, those with 
small networks form ties as though their principal 
orientation is toward the middle-network group. 

The middle-network group has a different 
affiliation pattern. It affiliates most strongly toward 
the large-network group (24.5 percent) and more 
weakly to itself (15.2 percent), and it is strongly 
negatively affiliated toward those with small 
networks (-52.9 percent). Thus, the affiliation 
between the small- and middle-network groups is 
inconsistent: positive from the small- to middle- 
network groups, and negative in the opposite 
direction. This may reflect a process in which poorly 
connected musicians seek ties with those who are 
better connected but avoid others who are poorly 
connected and seldom succeed in forming ties to 
well-connected peers. The middle-network group 
exhibits a similar orientation toward the large- 
network group but is more successful in forming ties 
to this group. Finally, the large-network group has a 
substantial self-affiliation (23 percent), with a near- 
zero affiliation to the middle group (5.4 percent), 
and a strong negative affiliation toward the small- 
network group. 

Affiliation patterns in San Francisco are again 
similar. All three groups have negative affiliations 
toward the small-network group, and the medium- 
and large-network groups affiliate more strongly 
with the large- than with the medium-network 



group. The most significant difference is that in San 
Francisco, the small-network group affiliates more 
strongly with the large- than with the medium- 
network group, indicating that the least well 
connected San Francisco musicians may have greater 
access to those who are very well connected. 
Nevertheless, the difference — only about 6 
percent — is not large and cannot outweigh the very 
strong negative affiliation (-63 percent) of the large- 
network group to the small-network group. 

These patterns of affiliations suggest that the 
overall network structure of these jazz musician 
communities resembles a tree: leaves represent those 
with small networks, branches represent those with 
middle-size networks, and the trunk represents 
those with large networks. Leaves are seldom 
connected either directly to one another or to the 
tree's trunk; rather, the branches serve as the 
intermediaries both between leaves and from the 
leaves to the trunk system. So too are musicians with 
small networks seldom connected either directly to 
one anther or to those with large networks, but 
instead are most strongly connected to those with 
medium networks. This reflects a core-periphery 
structure, in which an elite that is densely networked 
with itself is linked to peripheral actors who are less 
well connected. The term used to describe an actor 
in the periphery is sycophant, and this is a structure 
that reflects social inequality. 

In contrast to a caste system, in which cross- 
status ties are infrequent, the core-periphery 
structure has a more egalitarian character, because 
lower-status members affiliate with higher-status 
members. However, it also has an elitist structure, 
because the highest-status members are insulated 
from contact with the lowest-status members. 
Therefore, it can be described as moderately 
egalitarian. In comparison with many other sectors 



54 



of U.S. society, this represents an unusual degree of 
egalitarianism and suggests that the reputation for 
egalitarianism of jazz musicians may not be 
undeserved. 

Affiliation by Demographic Factors 

Overall in U.S. society, level of education is 
strongly correlated with social status and income, so 
it serves as an important determinant of affiliation 
patterns. This is not the case in the New York City 
jazz musician community, however. Although 
college graduates account for 65.8 percent of this 
community, and noncollege graduates 34.2 percent, 
education was found to have no significant effect on 



affiliations. (See Table III.) That is, the homophily 
levels for college graduates and nongraduates are 
-3.9 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively. This 
means that college graduates form their social 
networks as though 3.9 percent of the time they seek 
out a noncollege graduate, and the other 96. 1 
percent they form a tie irrespective of education 
level. Thus education has almost no effect on 
affiliation. Similarly, nongraduates form networks as 
though 4.7 percent of the time they form a tie to 
another noncollege graduate, and the other 95.3 
percent of the time, they form a tie irrespective of 
education. For both groups, then, level of education 
is virtually irrelevant. 



Table III: Affiliation by Demographic Terms 





New York 


San Francisco 




Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent 


Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Level of 
Education 














College Graduate 


-3.9 


219 


65.8 


22.5 


78 


40 


Nongraduate 


4.7 


232 


34.2 


-11.6 


52 


60 
















Race 














White 


26.9 


234 


58.1 


-13.3 


53 


63.6 


Black 


19.9 


211 


33 


26.5 


85 


23.1 


Other 


-16.6 


209 


8.9 


7.0 


90 


13.3 














- 


Gender 














Male 


31.3 


223 


58.3 


-0.1 


66 


85.9 


Female 


34 


232 


41.7 


-33.6 


66 


14.1 
















Age 














18-34 


14.8 


147 


18.7 


-16.4 


35 


75.8 


35 or older 


49.5 


248 


81.3 


43.7 


94 


24.2 



In San Francisco the pattern is different. College 
graduates are moderately homophilous, at 22.5 
percent, and noncollege graduates are heterophilous, 
at -11.6 percent, so they differentially form ties with 
those whose education level is higher. This 



contradicts the customary pattern in which 
associations tend to form among those with equal 
levels of education. Compared with network size, 
however, education is not a substantial determinant 
of affiliation in the jazz musician community. 



55 



For the analysis of affiliation by race and 
ethnicity, respondents were divided into three 
categories: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, 
and "other," including Hispanics, Asian Americans, 
Native Americans, and other groups. Hispanics were 
not treated as a separate category because of their 
small numbers — only 2.8 in New York and 4.1 
percent in San Francisco. In New York, race and 
ethnicity have a substantial effect on affiliation, with 
homophily levels of 26.9 percent for whites, 19.9 
percent for blacks, and -16.6 percent for the small 
"other" category. In contrast, in San Francisco, 
whites are heterophilous, at -13.3 percent, while 
blacks are somewhat more homophilous, at 26.5 



percent, than in New York, and the "other" group 
has a mild homophily of 6.9 percent. 

When affiliation by race and ethnicity is 
examined, the contrast between New York and San 
Francisco becomes more apparent. (See Table IV.) 
Racial and ethnic boundaries between blacks and 
whites have been maintained in New York; with each 
group having positive affiliation toward itself 
(homophily) and negative affiliation toward the 
other. In contrast, boundaries for whites have 
dissolved in San Francisco, with whites having 
negative self-affiliation and mildly positive affiliation 
toward other groups. 



Table IV: Affiliation Index by Race 





Recipient of Tie by Race 




New York 


San Francisco 


Source of Tie bv 


White 


Black 


Other 


White 


Black 


Other 


Race 


White 


26.9 


-31.6 


-9.3 


-13.3 


1.9 


8.1 


Black 


-25.2 


19.9 


1.4 


-35 


26.5 


2.2 


Other 


11.6 


10.2 


-16.6 


-8.7 


2.4 


6.9 



Race- and ethnicity-based homophily is lower 
among jazz musicians than among other 
populations that have been studied using RDS. For 
example, in a study of network structure in several 
small cities in Connecticut, homophily levels for 
whites varied from 27 percent to 37 percent, with a 
median of 36 percent, and for blacks they varied 
from 30 percent to 50 percent. Therefore, despite the 
presence of a moderate level of race-based 
homophily for some groups in some cities, the 
overall results support the view that jazz musicians 
are a racially inclusive group. 

Like race, gender has complex effects on 
affiliations among jazz musicians. In New York, 
homophily levels are 33.9 percent for female 
musicians and 31.2 percent for male musicians. In 
contrast, in San Francisco, females are heterophilous, 
at -33.6 percent, but males have near-zero 
homophily, at 0.1 percent. Therefore, whereas in 
New York there are independent male and female 
music scenes, in San Francisco females interact 
indirectly, through males. This suggests that female 



jazz musicians have higher status in New York, a 
factor that may be related to their proportion within 
the community, 41.7 percent in New York versus 
only 14.1 percent in San Francisco. 

Age is also a significant factor affecting 
affiliation among jazz musicians. In New York, the 
homophily of musicians aged 18 to 34 is 14.8 
percent, and that of musicians 35 or older is a 
very substantial 49.5 percent, so both groups are 
homophilous. This is consistent with a cohort 
structure, in which individuals associate with 
those of similar age. The homophily of older 
musicians is greater, so older musicians exclude 
younger ones to a rather substantial degree, 
whereas younger musicians are more inclusive of 
older musicians. 

The pattern is different in San Francisco, where 
the homophily of older musicians is comparable to 
that in New York but younger musicians have 
negative homophily: they tend to interact indirectly 
through older musicians. This imbalance results, in 
part, because older musicians tend to have 69 



56 



percent larger networks in New York, and 169 
percent larger networks in San Francisco. The larger 
networks of older musicians reflect their greater 
professional experience and recognition. Therefore, 
whereas the age network in New York corresponds 
to a cohort structure, in San Francisco it fits a core- 
periphery structure, with younger musicians in the 
subordinate position. Thus the social position of 
both women and younger musicians is better in 
New York. 



Income and Affiliation 

Income is a variable that generally has powerful 
effects on affiliation patterns, with individuals 
associating primarily with those within their own 
income category. However, among jazz musicians 
the pattern is different. First, consider income 
derived from music, including performing or 
teaching. Respondents were divided into two income 
groups, based on whether they earned less or more 
than $12,000 from music. (See Table V.) 



Table V: Affiliation by Financial Factors 





New York City 


San Francisco 




Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Income from Music 














$0-$12,000 


-4.5 


159 


63 


-15 


46 


86.7 


$12,001 or more 


39.9 


284 


37 


27.5 


126 


13.3 
















Personal Income from All 
Sources 














$0-$30,000 


-7.2 


193 


65.1 


-4 


53 


76.2 


$30,001 or more 


19.4 


272 


34.9 


37.4 


87 


23.8 
















Household Income 














$0-$30,000 


-2.6 


184 


55.3 


-4.5 


49 


70.7 


$30,001 or more 


25.6 


255 


44.7 


26.7 


73 


29.3 



In both cities, the pattern is similar. Consistent 
with expectations, homophily for the higher-income 
group ($12,001 or more in earnings from music) is 
substantial and positive: 39.9 percent in New York, 
and 27.5 percent in San Francisco. However, 
contrary to the usual pattern, the lower-income 
group is not homophilous; instead, it is mildly 
heterophilous: -4.5 percent in New York, and -15 
percent in San Francisco. Therefore, the lower- 
income group orients not toward its own members 
but rather to the higher-income group. 

The failure of lower-income jazz musicians to 
form a cohesive group may reflect unfulfilled 
aspirations. For example, in New York, an estimated 
73 percent reported they were satisfied or somewhat 



satisfied with their music, and only 3 percent were 
not satisfied. In contrast, fulfillment of career 
aspirations was lower: 47 percent said that their 
aspirations had been satisfied or somewhat satisfied, 
and fully 48 percent said they had not been satisfied. 
This reflects the low average income for jazz 
musicians. For example, in New York City, the mean 
personal income for jazz musicians in the RDS 
sample is $17,400 for college graduates and $10,000 
for noncollege graduates; and in San Francisco the 
corresponding figures are $15,800 and $9,700. In 
contrast, according to the 2000 census, the mean 
personal income for those with bachelor's degrees is 
$51,600, and for high school graduates, $24,300. 
Personal incomes among jazz musicians are 



57 



comparable to those of members of the general 
population with far lower levels of education. For 
example, on average, those in the general population 
with less than a ninth-grade education earn more 
($18,400) than do jazz musicians who are college 
graduates in either New York or San Francisco. 
Furthermore, fewer than 10 percent of college- 
educated jazz musicians earn as much as the average 
college graduate. Only a minority of respondents, 



8.6 percent in New York, and 7.3 percent in San 
Francisco, reported personal incomes in excess of 
$60,000. Therefore, as with other artist groups, 
choice of jazz as a career often involves considerable 
financial sacrifice. 

Affiliation and Professional Activity 

Affiliations are also affected by the form and 
level of professional activity. (See Table VI.) 



Table VI: Affiliation by Professional Activity 





New York 


San Francisco 




Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Possessing a Recognized 
Body of Work 














Yes 


18.2 


140 


18.7 


36.4 


76 


45.9 


No 


50.1 


232 


81.3 


3.1 


50 


54.1 
















Music-Related Travel 














Yes 


41.3 


231 


80.1 


43.8 


89 


39 


No 


3.1 


140 


19.9 


-21.4 


37 


61 
















Union Member (AFM) 














Yes 


35.2 


298 


22.3 


11.0 


113 


8.1 


No 


-3 


175 


77.7 


-6.2 


58 91.9 



When respondents in New York were asked 
whether they had produced a recognized body of 
work, about one in five (18.7 percent) answered in 
the affirmative, and this group exhibited modest 
homophily. Those who said no exhibited stronger 
homophily, 50.1 percent. This may reflect 
competition to establish ties to the small number of 
musicians whose work has been recognized, thereby 
producing exclusion homophily. In contrast, in San 
Francisco nearly one-half (45.9 percent) reported 
having produced a recognized body of work. This 
group of recognized musicians was homophilous, at 
36.4 percent. The nonrecognized group had near- 
zero homophily, perhaps reflecting greater success in 
establishing ties to those in the recognized group. 

Affiliation is also affected by music-related 



travel. Homophily among travelers is 41.3 percent in 
New York and 43.8 percent in San Francisco, 
suggesting that traveling provides the opportunity to 
form social bonds. 

Finally, union membership is a basis for 
affiliation. In New York, where union membership is 
more common (22.3 percent), union members 
exhibit considerable homophily, 35.2 percent, 
whereas nonunion members exhibit none, -3 
percent. This may reflect the higher degree of 
professional activity of union members. It may also 
reflect other factors associated with union 
membership. For example, none of the New York 
respondents aged 18-24 were union members, and 
only 21 percent of those aged 25-34 were union 
members, but union membership climbed to 41 



58 



percent for those 35-44, 47 percent for those 45-54, 
41 percent for those 55-64, and 67 percent for those 
over 65. Therefore, affiliation by union membership 
may reflect, in part, affiliation by age. Union 
members also have substantially larger networks, 
which, as we have seen, also affects affiliation. Union 
membership had weaker effects on affiliation in San 
Francisco, where union membership is less common. 

Affiliation by Style of Music and 
Principal Instrument 

The effect of style of music on affiliation 



patterns is substantial, though in general slightly 
weaker than factors associated with professional 
activity. We present results for the six most popular 
of the 21 styles of music identified in the 
questionnaire. (See Table VII.) Those who play in a 
style are consistently more homophilous than those 
who do not because playing in a style is a basis for 
affiliation, whereas those who do not play in the 
style are a heterogeneous mix of those playing in 
other styles. In San Francisco, homophily by musical 
style varies from 8.7 percent for those who play funk 
to 38 percent for those who play bop. 



Table VII: Affiliation by Style of Music (Yes = Plays in Style) 





New York City 


San Francisco 




Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Bop 














Yes 


19.3 


244 


15.9 


38 


77 


45.4 


No 


9.6 


218 


84.1 


-0.8 


47 


54.6 
















Cool 














Yes 


15.6 


286 


3.1 


31.7 


75 


39.3 


No 


-0.3 


221 


96.9 


12.5 


59 


60.7 
















Mainstream 














Yes 


25.1 


270 


18.9 


13.3 


92 


19.9 


No 


4.5 


212 


81.1 


-14.6 


50 


80.1 
















Swing 














Yes 


16 


255 


6.7 


17.1 


77 


32.1 


No 


1.8 


218 


93.3 


-9.1 


53 


67.9 
















Funk 














Yes 


19.8 


263 


5 


8.7 


71 


35.3 


No 


4.2 


220 


95 


-2.7 


62 


64.7 
















Fusion 














Yes 


13.6 


333 


3.6 


21.4 


76 


28.3 


No 


-1.2 


217 


96.4 


1 


61 


71.7 



59 



The percentage who play in each style is greater 
in San Francisco than in New York: San Francisco 
musicians are less specialized, playing in an average 
of 7.1 styles, compared with 2.3 styles for New York 
musicians. Therefore, the level of specialization by 
style is greater in New York. 

Affiliation can also be based on a musician's 
principal instrument (See Table VIII). In fact, 
principal instrument sometimes has greater effects 
on affiliation than does style, as measured by 
homophily The patterns are explicable. Because 
usually only one person in an ensemble plays 
keyboards, bass, or drums, to the extent that 
associations are based on performing together, one 
would expect these musicians' associations to be 



weak. Indeed, all three groups are heterophilous, 
though to varying degrees, from -4.8 percent for 
drummers to -61.4 percent for keyboard players in 
San Francisco. Bass players are strongly' 
heterophilous in both cities. Conversely, because 
singers and saxophone players commonly perform 
together, one would expect them to be more 
homophilous, and indeed both groups are 
homophilous in both cities, with the exception of 
singers in San Francisco, who are mildly 
heterophilous. It is also notable that nonsingers are 
homophilous in both cities, perhaps indicating the 
presence of an independent instrumental music 
scene. 



Table VIII: Affiliation by Principal Instrument (Yes = Plays Instrument) 





New York City 


San Francisco 




Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Homophily 
(percent) 


Network 
Size 


Population 
(percent) 


Voice 














Yes 


31.7 


201 


28.7 


-8.9 


51 


11 


No 


39.8 


228 


71.3 


22.9 


67 


89 
















Saxophone 














Yes 


6.6 


220 


14.3 


16.4 


122 


5.1 


No 


8.3 


224 


85.7 


-3.9 


59 


94.9 
















Keyboards 














Yes 


-5.6 


248 


13.6 


-61.4 


64 


8.6 


No 


-2.2 


219 


86.4 


-0.3 


66 


91.4 
















Bass 














Yes 


-35.1 


248 


11.4 


-57.5 


88 


9.4 


No 


-2.2 


221 


88.6 


-4.8 


63 


90.6 
















Drums 














Yes 


-48 


217 


7.1 


-4.8 


66 


10.5 


No 





225 


92.9 


0.3 


66 


89.5 



60 



Conclusion 

This analysis reveals the complexity of the social 
structure of the community of jazz musicians. It 
examines stratification by connections within the 
community (network size), level of professional 
activity, and financial stability. This population lacks 
the powerful stratification based on income and 
education that is found elsewhere in U.S. society. 
The structure of associations is also affected by 
strictly musical factors, such as musical style, in a 



complex manner that varies from style to style. 
What the RDS method shows, or perhaps 
underscores, is the egalitarianism of jazz musicians: 
they are a racially inclusive group for whom 
affiliation patterns are strongly affected by travel and 
touring and union membership, and less affected by 
education and income levels. One final conclusion 
should be emphasized: the strength of connections 
among jazz musicians reveals that this is a 
community of considerable cohesion. 



61 



Chapter V. Summary, Conclusions 
and Recommendations 



For the last two questions on the survey we 
asked musicians to describe their greatest 
disappointments and satisfactions in their careers. In 
some locations, this was the beginning of a much 
longer conversation and these comments humanize 
the data. A handful of these remarks appear below 
and while they cannot do justice to the breadth of 
comments, they give a hint of the challenges and 
frustrations jazz musicians face on a daily basis and 
throughout a lifetime. A summary of the musicians' 
recommendations appears at the end. 

""No money" and "good music" 

. . .greatest satisfaction and greatest disappointment 

Not selling, not playing and poor or no 
management are common problems, but another 
obstacle is overcoming the assumption that jazz 
musicians are "smokers, drinkers and druggies." The 
lack of affordable rehearsal space (NYC) and the lack 
of benefits — health insurance and coverage, life 
insurance, retirement plans, even when musicians are 
employed in jobs like university teaching — changing 
politics of music and "living in the balance between 
optimism and fear" are some common conditions. 
One musician said that her greatest disappointment 
is that by the time she's earned enough money as a 
musician to have children, she may be too old to pick 
them up. Musicians also regretted not starting their 
careers earlier and disliked being categorized as "only 
a musician" as well as not getting paid ("being 46 
years old and still broke"). 

Artists mentioned racial discrimination, a topic 
of intense interest in this diverse field, as well as 
gender-based discrimination, something one female 
artist called "babe-ism." Forty-six percent of the jazz 
musicians said they had been discriminated against 
when seeking employment as a jazz musician — the 
major reason they gave was race (46 percent) 
followed by "other" (28 percent and then gender (19 
percent). There seems to be a lack of interest in 
American culture to hear jazz music, and especially a 
concern over the fading of tradition in jazz. 

Artists are continually frustrated by a lack of 
control over their own artistic destinies. 



"Playing. . .the fastest ride in town." 

...greatest satisfaction, a NY jazz musician 

Great performance, great compositions, 
regaining one's health after a music injury, playing 
with extremely competent musicians selling their 
work, "recognizing one's musical plight," getting 
paid, making a living from jazz, and playing the 
music they love were all things that greatly satisfied 
the musicians. One said the greatest satisfaction was 
whenever "the music is able to travel out of your 
body", another, "giving back to young musicians." 
One musician commented that "My music is where 
God lives in me." 

Another musician hoped the survey will "help 
the children in New Orleans inner city schools get 
workable instruments and good teachers." 

"Either you're a young lion 
or an 85-year old legend." 

Not only are jazz greats dying off, the lack of 
jazz in the schools contributes to decreased opportu- 
nities in the field. The apprenticeship system that 
once fed new blood into jazz is also virtually dead. 



Over half the RDS jazz musicians earned 

their livelihoods in the last 12 months as 

musicians. This was highest in New 

Orleans at 83 percent. 

Eighty percent of the RDS musicians are 

white males. 

Thirty-eight percent of RDS musicians 

have college degrees and another 18 have 

graduate degrees; 62 percent study with 

private teachers. 



"First thing, and you can write this down, tell 
them to quit stallin' and give us the money and 
exposure we need." 



62 



Grants and the grassroots 

More equity and attention to less visible jazz 
musicians, and a feeling that "you can't get a grant 
unless you've already had one" has produced 
dissatisfaction with the grant-giving world. More 
funding for public concerts and a requirement for 
artists who get public funding to engage with the 
public, not hide away and "work anonymously," is 
something some hinders like the New York 
Foundation for the Arts have stood behind for years. 

One musician said, "We need to quit the genius 
grant sanctification and make smaller grants more 
widespread." Another asked for money for "concept 
development," not just the final product. 

Models like the CETA Program in the 1970s and 
Chamber Music America's jazz ensemble grants were 
invoked as ways to get money to the grassroots. 
CMA's grants also allowed artists to get health 
insurance. Access to such insurance might be one 
benefit the NEA or other funding agencies may offer 
when they confer grants. 

"The instruments don't stand up 
and play themselves." 

. . .RDS study jazz musician 

Restoration of NEA grants to individual artists 
is mandatory for the health of artists' futures. 
Government backing for big initiatives for artists, 
such as health insurance and education would help 
foster both an appropriate attitude towards the arts 
in this country, and a more livable environment for 
artists. 

In addition to grants 

For some time funding agencies have looked at 
ways of helping individual artists beyond the grant 
or cash gift or award. The New Orleans Jazz & 
Heritage Foundation sponsors a Musicians' Housing 
Initiative which, in cooperation with two savings 
banks, assists home buyers with closing costs (up to 
$2,500) and helps to get the artist certified by the 
city of New Orleans. The program also arranges for 
a homeowner training course to assist musicians in 
renovating or building their own homes. 

An Internet-based resource that lists grants, 
services and opportunities for jazz musicians in a 
comprehensive way would provide additional help. 



Grant-giving organizations may create subsidies 
for presenters who book a diverse array of music 
and who have rotating curators to ensure equity. 
Travel subsidies can help musicians get their work 
out to other places. The creation of a national 
network of smaller venues could foster exchange 
between communities. 

Artists versus Institutions 

In a 1999 Dutch study, Teunis IJdens discusses 
the difficult financial environment for jazz 
musicians and how that has implications for 
government support and other subsidy: 

Artistic work, as done by jazz musicians, cabaret 
artists and other performing artists outside the 
restricted area of heavily subsidized institutions 
lourdes in the cultural field, is clearly burdened 
with financial risks. In precarious and flexible 
markets for occasional labor such as these, the 
community of performances and short-term 
contracts may be easily broken. The risks of 
stumbling on shorter or longer spells of no work 
and no income have to be met by individual 
artists, but also by society (or by the industry) 
which pays for unemployment benefits and social 
welfare benefits. This holds especially for artists 
who have absolved an (expensive) formal training 
at an institution of higher education in the arts, 
an investment, which is hard to legitimize if 
returns are below zero. ("Scattered and skewed: 
Artistic work between market and organization, p. 
229.) 

Networks 

While the jazz profession spawns many 
relationships by word-of-mouth, it can be quite 
difficult to find work as a musician in another city 
due to the lack of national networks and band 
leaders who have already filled their slates. In a 1976 
study of 112 professional trumpet playing members 
of Nashville's Local 257 of the American Federation 
of Musicians, sociologists Richard A. Peterson and 
Howard G. White found that only four of these 
players garnered almost all the work, "thus earning 
upward of $100,000 a year, while none outside the 
top five earned over $15,000 from professional 



63 



trumpet playing." (From Art and Society., "The 
Simplex Located in Art Worlds") Peterson and 
White found that many studio musician groups 
develop an interpersonal association among 
themselves (the 'simplex' of their title) and that 
entrepreneurs coordinate the linked craft 
arrangements under which they operate. 

Aside from technical competence, the authors 
state, social reliability, craftsmanlike bearing, and a 
willingness to do work that is technically illegal 
(technologically manipulating sound so that the 
work of a few musicians sounds like an orchestra, 
for example) are all characteristics or perhaps 
prerequisites for being in that working musician 
camp. 

In a number of our interviews, we noted the 
jazz musician's lone wolf syndrome, which seems 
like a bit of an anomaly since jazz musicians often 
hang out together, jam, and form their own highly 
sociable social networks. Yet often they feel they 
must "go it alone," especially since so much work is 
through personal recommendation (or personal 
favors). 

All this indicates a difficulty for certain 
newcomers to penetrate particular jazz groups — 
Peterson and White describe both rookies 
(mentored by a more established player, the rookie 
plays, but never outplays, his peers, and waits his . 
turn to enter the group more permanently) and 
rivals (those who go above musicians' heads to 
convince agents and clubs that they are better than 
more well-heeled performers). 

The short-term nature of jazz work (32 percent 
of our jazz respondents played with more than 16 
different groups a month) and the monopoly of 
work by a few players (and not necessarily the most 
competent ones) make any linear career path 
extremely difficult. 

The Musicians' Union 

The American Federation of Musicians, like all 
protective collective bargaining agencies, seeks to 
protect its members. There are a number of areas of 
ambivalence from the jazz musicians we surveyed, 
some of which are similar to all performing arts 
unions, especially the issue of supply and demand 
and pay scale. Jazz musicians who play non-union 
don't have the union as an advocate for a higher pay 



scale, but many cannot get enough work being 
union members, so multiple non-union jobs at a 
lower scale may yield them more money. On the one 
hand, musicians advocate the union stepping in to 
stop low-paying jobs; on the other, they worry that 
electronic media will replace live musicians as a 
result of union intervention. 

While the union has both hard and soft referral 
systems for jazz musicians, in some cities bookings 
are hard to come by and an artist on a normal career 
trajectory may saturate his market fairly quickly. In 
San Francisco, local 6 acts as a booking agent for 
musicians, trying to find them union-paying gigs. 

In some cities, the union has suffered from 
musicians using their city's union local to gain 
access to a higher-paying one in a city such as New 
York and then quitting their original local. It is 
somewhat unusual for a worker to be a member of 
two union locals at the same time; this can have the 
effect of depleting the original locaTs membership 
ranks. 

There was a call for revitalization of the union, 
especially those policies that would allow jazz 
musicians to get pensions. And, while 89 percent of 
jazz musicians in the AFM survey had health 
insurance, few obtained it through the union. 

Market saturation 

Available work depends partly on the critical 
mass of musicians, and also by the attitude towards 
those musicians' local growth. There is also a feeling 
that a musician coming to New Orleans, for 
example, takes three years to break in and then is 
able to secure premium jobs. After about seven 
years, however, the market is saturated, and he gets 
replaced by someone else. 

Education 

This leads to a common discussion in the jazz 
community about standards. If, as Peterson and 
White (and others) claim, frequent employment as a 
jazz musician has more to do with factors that are 
not musical, there is a concomitant confusion about 
standards for musical quality. Additionally, since 
formal music education has eroded in the public 
school system, there is concern that the field is not 
aspiring to standards for the future. Clearly, with 62 



64 



percent studying with private teachers, jazz 
musicians continue to pursue their musical 
education and training. Nevertheless, standards 
without certification are difficult. 

The musicians promoted education, not just in 
the schools, but of the audience. More programs to 
educate audiences about the music will give the 
experience more meaning and more stature. 

In schools, jazz education could take place not 
only in the classroom, but through in-school 
workshops, concerts every week, and constant 
exposure. Wynton Marsalis's jazz curriculum for the 
schools is a major start but he believes in education, 
education and education. 

Mentoring 

Apprenticeships and mentoring are very 
important in the jazz field. The loss of the NEA 
study grant had a huge effect on this. Jam sessions, 
places for jazz to explode spontaneously, are critical 
to its growth. 

More vehicles and money for mentoring and 
apprentices are crucial. 

Affordable rehearsal space 

Space is at a premium in large urban centers. A 
model like the Wein dance building in New York 
City which provides dance rehearsal space on a 
rotating basis is a good one for jazz. 

Audience Development 

For the most part, development of the jazz 
audience has been left to individuals in lesser- 
funded institutions or commercial concerns who 
take the initiative upon themselves. There are no 
coordinated audience development programs from 
the recording industry, jazz educational institutions, 
jazz venues or other facets of the jazz community. 
While these initiatives would be most effective on a 
local level, both national and local attention to this 
challenge are warranted. 

The view by some musicians who work in 
avant-garde, experimental work was that these 
musicians need to engage more with their public; 
some musicians who play less experimental work 
argue the opposite — that their audience attends a 
concert for prestige reasons, but not to listen. 



"Get jazz out of the basement." 



Venues 



Especially in New York, musicians say they lose 
money performing there, and make more on the 
road. More economically viable gigs could help this 
situation. 

Time and again, musicians, even those who 
thought the music itself was thriving, complained of 
fewer and fewer places to play. They also wanted 
more inviting performance spaces, in contrast to 
bars, clubs, and basements. Expansion of venues to 
community centers, hospitals and other public 
venues and more attention by the media would get 
the word out. 

"No one's trying to get rich; we're trying to survive 
while doing something valuable for our culture." 

Status of the Artist 

Particularly from artists who play in Europe, 
there was a plea for a "Status of the Artist" recognition 
category by the government, which exists in 
countries like France and Canada, so that artists can 
receive social and other benefits when out of work. 



Sixty-three percent of these musicians have 
health coverage (much lower than the 89 
percent of musicians in the union survey) and 
the musicians' union pays for 13 percent of 
this; only 3 percent obtained life insurance 
through their musicians' union. Eight percent 
obtained retirement plans through the 
musicians' union and, for 8 percent, the union 
pays for this. 



Health and Medical Coverage and 
Prevention 

While 63 percent of responding jazz musicians 
have some health or medical coverage, this is much 
lower than the 89 percent of jazz musicians in our 
union survey. Almost a third of the respondents 
have suffered injuries from occupational hazards in 
their music-related work (for example, carpal tunnel 
syndrome and hearing problems). 



65 



While there are a number of performing arts 
medicine clinics around the U.S. (and one that 
specifically targets jazz musicians in Louisiana) 
frequently musicians do not like to admit health 
problems received on the job for fear of the effect on 
future employment. There are some emergency relief 
agencies like Music Cares and the Musicians 
Emergency Fund that offer financial support to 
musicians who have fallen prey to illness. These 
agencies have proven themselves to be invaluable to 
a number of artists who have used their services to 
weather emergency conditions and more are needed. 

A report by the Urban Institute for the W. K. 
KELLOGG Foundation in 2001, "Workers Without 
Health Insurance: Who Are They and How Can 
Policy Reach Them?", gives a detailed picture of the 
more than 16 million uninsured workers. Among 
the most likely to lack health insurance are workers 
in small firms, service workers, low- wage workers, 
part time and short-tenure workers and workers 
who live in low-income housing, all categories into 
which many jazz and other artists fit. The report 
compares the merits of two vehicles to expand 
coverage: tax credits or public programs. 
(http://www.communityvoices.org) 

The Business of Music 

Quoting Ornette Coleman, one artist said, 
"There's music, and then there's the music business." 
The dearth of programs helping artists to help 
themselves in terms of management skills is a 
problem. 

Some artists do not think of their work on a 
career track; careers, in fact, are a fairly modern 
phenomenon — in the 1930s and 1940s people just 
played music. Some feel they've been "kept out of 
the market" and overlooked for younger talent. 
Additionally, trepidation at using computers and 
other tools of the trade disadvantages older 
musicians. 

Programs in music schools teaching jazz 
musicians about the business side of their career . 
would help them survive tough competition. 



JAZZ MUSICIAN RESPONDENT 
SUGGESTIONS 

Basics 

Affordable rehearsal space 

Access to affordable health and medical care 

Grassroots performance opportunities 

Revitalization of the union, especially those policies 
that would allow jazz musicians to get pensions 

More emergency relief agencies, like the Musicians 
Emergency Fund, for musicians who have fallen prey 
to illness and age 

Education and Audience Development 

Education of schoolchildren and communities, 
mentoring and apprenticeships to help pass on the 
legacy of jazz 

Programs to help jazz musicians learn to manage 
their own careers 

AFM sponsorship of school gigs to bring jazz to 
younger audiences 

Coordinated audience development programs from 
the recording industry, jazz educational institutions, 
jazz venues, and other facets of the jazz community 

Creation of local arts newspapers run by artists, 
where musicians could place free ads, and develop 
audiences and awareness 

Philanthropy 

Restoration of grant awards to the individual jazz 
artists from the NEA 

Grants going toward grassroots efforts: models like 
the CETA Program in the 1970s and Chamber Music 
America's jazz ensemble grants were invoked as ways 
to get money to the grassroots 

Money for "concept development," not just final 
product 

Grants to make records and to cover promotional 
costs 

More foundations like Music Cares, dedicated to 
promoting the future of the music 

Beyond grants: helping individual artists beyond the 



66 



grant or cash gift or award. (The New Orleans Jazz 
& Heritage Foundation has the Musicians Housing 
Initiative, which assists musicians in their efforts to 
become homeowners) 

Business 

A nonprofit independent music distribution 
company for artists' recordings 

Standardized club fees, with cost-of-living 
adjustments 



Tax breaks for performing in public for free or in 
nursing homes, prisons, or hospitals 

Creation of local arts newspapers where musicians 
could place free ads and develop audiences 

Subsidies for presenters to encourage diverse 
programming 

More Internet-based resources for jazz musicians 

National network of venues, including a circuit of 
smaller places across the country for community 
exchange 



67 



appendix A. Counties/Parishes 
in Four Metro Areas 



DETROIT METROPOLITAN AREA* 

Detroit- Ann Arbor- Flint 

Ann Arbor 

Lenawee County 
Livingston County 
Washtenaw County 

Detroit 

Lapeer County 
Macomb County 
Monroe County 
Oakland County 
St. Clair County 
Wayne County 

Flint 

NEW ORLEANS METROPOLITAN AREA 

Jefferson Parish 
Orleans Parish 
Plaquemines Parish 
St. Bernard Parish 
St. Charles Parish 
St. James Parish 
St. John the Baptist Parish 
St. Tammany Parish 

NEW YORK METROPOLITAN AREA 

Portions of New York State- New Jersey- Connecticut 
surveyed 

New York State 
Bronx County 
Kings County 
New York County 
Putnam County 
Queens County 
Richmond County 
Rockland County 
Westchester County 
Nassau County 
Suffolk County 
Orange County 



New Jersey 

Essex County 
Morris County 
Sussex County 
Union County 
Warren County 
Middlesex County 
Somerset County 
Monmouth County 
Bergen County 
Passaic County 
Hudson County 

Connecticut 

Darien (Town) 
Greenwich (Town) 
New Canaan (Town) 
Norwalk (City) 
Stamford (City) 
Weston (Town) 
Westport (Town) 
Wilton (Town) 

SAN FRANCISCO METROPOLITAN AREA 

Portions of San Francisco- Oakland- San Jose- Santa 
Rosa- Vallejo/Fairfield/Napa surveyed 

Oakland 

Alameda County 
Contra Costa County 

San Francisco 

Marin County 

San Francisco County 

San Mateo County 

San Jose 

Santa Clara County 

Santa Rosa 

Sonoma County 

Vallejo- Fairfield- Napa 
Napa County 
Solano County 



*Even though RDS does not cover statistical information in Detroit, we have included information on counties, context and 
resources. 



68 



Appendix B. Metropolitan Areas Context 



In order to implement policies and programs 
from the data gathered on jazz musicians, it is 
important to understand the context in which these 
musicians live. This section presents some brief 
background of venues, distribution mechanisms, 
education, supporters and flinders, and media 
outlets in each metro area. An additional section 
provides actual resources in each location where jazz 
musicians can go for assistance.* 

There are literally hundreds of jazz related 
venues that showcase this music all over the United 
States. Festivals, nightclubs, community centers, 
churches and national performing arts organizations 
all offer musicians the opportunity to be heard. 
Long a key part of the lore and personal experience 
of every jazz musician, young or old, is the 
mentoring of master to apprentice and the oral 
transmission of musical artistry and knowledge 
formally and informally, through these venues and 
through inventions of their own. Resilience is key. 
The description that follows only touches on the 
fabric of the geographic locations that produces, 
displays, advertises, sells and supports these 
musicians. It does not pretend to illuminate the deep 
and substantial history of the players or the places. 

While jazz exists largely in the for-profit sector, 
within the past decade there have been two major 
grantmaking initiatives devoted to jazz that have had 
major national significance: The Lila Wallace- 
Reader's Digest $24 million National Jazz Network 
and the $6.7 million Doris Duke Charitable 
Foundation jazz initiative. The National Jazz 
Network and affiliated programs was launched in 
1990 after a year-long study of jazz in the United 
States conducted by the New England Foundation 
for the Arts and the now defunct National Jazz 
Service Organization. The study resulted in the 
funding of jazz presenters and programming 
administered by regional arts agencies, the 
Smithsonian's traveling jazz exhibitions, and jazz 
programming at National Public Radio. The 
programs continued until 1998 when the foundation 
decided to move away from discipline specific 
funding. 

Associations that work to track the progress of 
the jazz form are dominated nationally by the 



International Association of Jazz Education (IAJE), 
The National Association of Recording Arts and 
Sciences (NARAS), The Recording Industry 
Association of America (RIAA), Broadcast Music, 
Inc. (BMI), and the American Society of Composers, 
Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). 

There are a number of organizations that 
endeavor to meet the less ostensible needs of the 
national jazz community. These include The 
American Federation of Jazz Societies (AFJS), which 
acts as a kind of watchdog organization. It monitors 
Washington legislation and current societal trends 
that affect the jazz community. 

National media coverage for jazz is spearheaded 
by the following organizations: National Public 
Radio (NPR), Public Broadcasting Service, Inc., 
Americans for the Arts and Black Entertainment 
Television (BET). National Public Radio is arguably 
the key national provider of jazz programming. 
Among the jazz-oriented programs produced by 
NPR are Jazz Profiles hosted by Nancy Wilson, 
JazzSet with Dee Dee Bridgewater and Marian 
McPartland's Piano Jazz. 

DETROIT 

Though the Detroit jazz scene has seen a sharp 
decline in popularity since the 1970s, many 
members of the jazz community compare today's 
offering of venues to that of the 1950s. Instead of 
large scale concerts in many different venues, only a 
few major venues remain and the majority of jazz is 
performed by small groups in restaurants and small 
clubs. Few clubs are able to obtain big name 
performers, therefore most headliners appear at the 
Ford-Detroit Festival or at Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra Hall. Ann Arbor is home to a few high- 
quality jazz venues but there is not enough of a 
demand to support multiple site performances on 
one evening. While there has been hardship, the 
Detroit metro area fortunately boasts a number of 
venues that still draw a good crowd and keep the 
area jazz scene alive. Among these venues are the 
above-mentioned Ford-Detroit Jazz Festival, Detroit 
Symphony Orchestra Hall, University Music Society, 
SereNegeti Ballroom, Baker's Keyboard Lounge and 



69 



Bomac's Lounge. 

The Ford-Detroit Jazz Festival, produced by 
Music Hall Detroit, is the largest free jazz festival in 
the country. Formerly known as the Ford-Montreux 
Jazz Festival, it is held every Labor Day weekend, the 
festival attracts around 750,000 people a year. The 
festival typically features 20 nationally recognized 
headliners and places a great deal of emphasis on 
local artists as well. Along with area professional 
musicians, the festival includes performances by 
high school and college groups. 

The SereNgeti Ballroom holds concerts 
produced by the presenting organization, the 
Jazznetwork. The concerts generally feature big 
headliners but a local big band takes the stage once a 
month and educational workshops are held every 
Thursday night. Baker's Keyboard Lounge has been 
in operation since 1934. It has hosted jazz giants 
such as Miles Davis, John Coltrane and Cab 
Calloway, and now features both local and nationally 
known artists. The venue is not unionized so both 
union and non-union artists perform there and both 
verbal and written contracts are used. 

Jazz specialty stores are scarce in the Detroit 
area and the large chains that carry jazz selections 
such as Sam Goody, Borders Books and Music and 
the Detroit-area chain Harmony House do not offer 
a large stock. The independent record store Street 
Corner Music is a major player in the area jazz scene 
due to its efforts at promoting local and national 
recording artists. 

The only record labels that deal exclusively with 
jazz are labels that musicians themselves have 
formed for the sole purpose of recording their work. 
AACE is owned by drummer Francisco Mora, Jazz 
Workshop was started by University of Michigan 
professor Donald Walden, and saxophonist Wendel 
Harrison operates Wenha. School Kids, a label 
affiliated with the record store of the same name, 
went bankrupt and thus ended the only operating 
non-musician-owned label in the Detroit area. 

There are a number of formal jazz education 
programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. Wayne 
State University, Eastern Michigan University, 
Oakland University, the University of Michigan, the 
Jazz Network Foundation Education Programs, the 
Education Department of Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra and the Southeastern Michigan Jazz 
Association all offer jazz- related programs. 



Additionally, the Detroit School District Jazz 
Education Program oversees jazz programs in 10 
area high schools. 

Wayne State University has a separate jazz 
division within its Department of Music. The 
University of Michigan School of Music houses the 
Department of Jazz and Improvisational Studies and 
offers Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees in Jazz, and 
Contemporary Improvisation and Jazz Studies. The 
Education Department at the Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra sponsors the Ameritech Jazz Youth 
Initiative, a program that provides instructional 
classes, jam sessions and lectures with legendary jazz 
artists for students and local musicians. 

Most of the current mentors in Detroit are 
musicians in their 60s, most of them the direct 
successors of the original architects of the area jazz 
scene. Marcus Belgrave, who serves on the faculty of 
Wayne State University, is regularly cited as an 
integral member of the Detroit-area jazz 
community. Belgrave has repeatedly leveraged his 
national contacts to bring out-of-town artists to area 
venues. Donald Walden has also established himself 
as an important source of mentoring through his 
dual role as University of Michigan Jazz Studies 
professor and record label owner. Musician and 
educator James Tatum plays a similar role by 
spearheading the James Tatum Foundation for the 
Arts, a foundation dedicated to the development of 
young musicians. Other important figures include 
pianists Harold McKinney and Dr. Teddy Harris, 
and drummer Roy Brooks. 

The Ford Motor Company Fund is extremely 
active in area philanthropy with a great portion of 
its giving earmarked for the arts, culture and 
education. In its effort to communicate the 
importance of jazz music, Ford sponsors the Ford- 
Detroit Jazz Festival, the largest free-admission jazz 
festival in the United States. 

Detroit Jazz Online links to the Web pages of 
local musicians, has an online CD store, and 
publishes jazz-related articles. The feature most 
helpful to local musicians, however, is the "Need a 
Musician" musician request center, which helps area 
artists find work in the local region. 

The major jazz-oriented publications in the 
region are the SEMJA Update, JAM Newsletter, Jazz 
Quarterly, and the jazz calendar and listings of the 
Detroit Metro Times. 



70 



The two major jazz-oriented radio programs in 
the Detroit metro area are WDET FM 101.9 and 
WEMU FM 89.1. WDET FM 101.9 is the local NPR 
affiliate of Wayne State University. 

The Jazz Alliance of Michigan was created to 
provide for the growth of Michigan's jazz 
community. The Alliance's Web site contains a list of 
media resources for jazz, including publications, 
radio and newspapers, links to recording studios, 
sound equipment/engineers, venues for jazz, and 
links to musicians. 

NEW ORLEANS 

New Orleans is known for its music festivals and 
the Jazz & Heritage Festival is the grandest of the 
choices the city has to offer. The New Orleans 
community recognizes the many benefits of this 
popular event and the business community joins 
ranks with the public sector to ensure the festival's 
success. Jazz specific nightclubs aren't as plentiful as 
one would expect in the New Orleans area. Of the 
four major sites, Snug Harbor is the most respected 
and well received. Ellis Marsalis regularly performs 
at Snug Harbor with new talent from the area jazz 
community. The other area mainstays are the Funky 
Butt, Sweet Lorraine's and Tipitina's, which has 
gravitated toward presenting more R&B-oriented 
acts at its three locations. Other venues that present 
jazz acts are the New Orleans Convention Center, 
the Mahalia Jackson Theater for the Performing 
Arts, the Masonic Temple Theater, Theater 13, 
Orpheum Theatre, the Sandbar and the local 
universities. 

There are currently over 200 record labels 
operating in the city of New Orleans. Of those 
labels, only a handful are considered true players in 
the jazz market. The best known of these labels are 
All for One Records (AFO), Basin Street Records, 
Louisiana Red Hot Records, and STR Digital 
Records, all of which are independents. 

The New Orleans metropolitan area is home to 
over 100 record stores with the largest of these stores 
coming in clusters. Barnes and Noble and Borders 
Books and Records are both located in 
unincorporated Jefferson Parish, an area 15 minutes 
outside of New Orleans, while Tower Records and 
Virgin Megastore stand within blocks of each other 
in the French Quarter. 



Many of the post-secondary institutions in the 
New Orleans metropolitan area have developed solid 
reputations for their music departments. The 
University of New Orleans, Southern University, 
Loyola University and Tulane University all have 
music education programs that have distinguished 
themselves in some manner. The Jazz Studies 
Division within the Department of Music at The 
University of New Orleans is led by legendary jazz 
mentor Ellis Marsalis and is widely considered to be 
one of the best university jazz programs in the 
country. Similarly, Southern University's Division of 
Visual and Performing Arts is the professional home 
of reed master Alvin Batiste, who has mentored 
many of today's leading jazz artists. Loyola 
University's jazz program is considered a close 
second to that of the University of New Orleans. 
Loyola has an esteemed music business program 
that is directed in part by STR record label chief 
Sanford Hinderlie and features Dr. Scott 
Fredrickson, the recent appointee of the Conrad N. 
Hilton Eminent Scholar in Music Industry Studies 
award. Although Tulane University offers a jazz 
studies program through its Department of Music at 
Newcomb College, the school has received its 
greatest acclaim from the jazz community for its 
music library and archive. The William Ransom 
Hogan Jazz Archive is curated by music historian 
and musician Dr. Bruce B. Raeburn. The archive 
contains material as diverse as transcribed oral 
histories, historical manuscripts and sheet music, 
and local union 174-496 records. The archive 
attracts roughly 2,200 users a year and is primarily 
funded through a "Friends of the Hogan Jazz 
Archive" membership fund. 

The New Orleans Center for the Creative Arts is 
a New Orleans area performing arts high school 
with a jazz division developed by Ellis Marsalis. 

New Orleans has a healthy tradition of 
mentoring that traces back to Louis Armstrong's 
work in developing young jazz artists. Today's 
mentors include Ellis Marsalis, patriarch of the 
world famous Marsalis dynasty, Doc Pullian, Alvin 
Batiste, the late Danny Barker and Jerry Brock. Aside 
from the Marsalis dynasty, other family dynasties 
include the Batistes and the Jordans. 

The New Orleans jazz community receives a 
good deal of financial support due in large part to a 
concentrated effort on the part of local and national 



71 



agencies to preserve the romanticized history of the 
port city. Local agencies include the Louisiana Music 
Commission, the New Orleans Jazz Centennial, and 
the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation. 

The state and national agencies that work to 
support the New Orleans area jazz community are 
the Preservation Resource Center of New Orleans, 
the New Orleans Jazz National Resource Park, and 
the Louisiana Division of the Arts. New Orleans 
talent agencies and work referral agencies are Jazz 
Film & Video, the Louisiana Department of Labor/ 
Louisiana Job Service and Summer Stage. Union 
Local 174-496 supports New Orleans-area musicians 
with a number of services including legal assistance 
and health care. 

Jazz and other forms of local music are 
commonly used for the purpose of tourism in New 
Orleans. The national tourism commercial for New 
Orleans, "Come Join the Parade," features a relative 
of the New Orleans-based group The Neville 
Brothers seated at a bar while jazz is playing. In 
addition, there are 10 advertising agencies in the 
area that specialize in music. 

The two top major jazz and jazz-related music 
stations in the area are WWOZ 90.7 FM and 
WWNO 89.9 FM. WWOZ 90.7 is a listener 
supported and volunteer-operated station that 
reaches the entire New Orleans metro area and 
beyond. The station offers award winning 
programming that includes jazz, blues, Cajun, 
zydeco, gospel, Brazilian and Caribbean music on its 
play list. In addition to the awards the station has 
garnered, WWOZ 90.7 was named "Best Medium 
Market Jazz Station of the Year" by the Gavin 
Report, the major radio-industry programming 
magazine. 

Since jazz and other local music traditions are 
integral to the image of New Orleans, it is of the first 
priority that the city is able to cultivate an audience 
for its musicians. However, with tourism being the 
biggest crutch for an ailing economy, much of the 
city's audience development efforts are not centered 
on area residents or concerned with fostering new 
generations of local musicians. There are still storied 
mentors and institutions that carry on local 



traditions and keep the New Orleans jazz legacy 
alive but, for many, jazz is tied to a nostalgia for a 
day long past. 

NEW YORK 1 

The New York metro area, and its other four 
boroughs and tri-state (New York-New Jersey- 
Connecticut) region, has the greatest concentration 
of premiere jazz venues in the United States. It also 
has a plethora of lower echelon venues, which may 
present jazz irregularly, but remain significant to the 
larger picture of potential employment for 
musicians who identify themselves with "jazz." New 
York City's venues range from Jazz at Lincoln 
Center, the world's leading not-for-profit 
institutional producer of jazz concerts, dances, 
lectures, films, multi-arts collaborations and 
educational initiatives, to historic commercial 
nightclubs such as the Village Vanguard. There are 
innumerable larger and smaller, better and lesser- 
known, established or fleeting, jazz-dedicated or 
jazz-tolerant stages. 

Jazz at Lincoln Center presented 450 jazz- 
oriented events in the 2000-2001 season alone, and 
plans to expand programming further upon moving 
into an innovative multi-use building under 
construction at Columbus Circle, scheduled for 
completion by the end of 2003. Led by artistic 
director Wynton Marsalis, Jazz at Lincoln Center 
promotes a canon founded on the work of such 
artists as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, 
concentrating as well on early New Orleans jazz, 
black swing traditions of the 1930s and '40s, bebop 
and post-bop modernism, and Latin jazz; it also 
presents a variety of traditional and modern jazz 
sub-genres. Jazz at Lincoln Center often features 
artists challenging jazz conventions in smaller 
settings and/or auxiliary events. 

Carnegie Hall, unlike Jazz at Lincoln Center, is 
not a jazz producer-presenter, although it may be 
New York City's most famous concert facility. The 
concert hall's staff has worked in conjunction with 
Fleet Bank to produce the Neighborhood Concert 
series, has held jazz workshops for teachers, and the 



This section of this report was prepared with the help of the four City Coordinators and Project Coordinator, Phillip Harvey. In 
New York, contributors include Howard Mandel (primary author), Martin Mueller. Bethany Ryker, James Browne, Wendy 
Oxenhorn, Reverend Dale Lind, Natasha Jackson and Jeff Levinson. 



72 



facility has hosted jazz concerts initiated by 
independent, outside producers. George Wein is the 
most prominent among these producers, active 
internationally though based in New York City. His 
Festival Productions is responsible for the annual 
JVC Jazz Festival, Saratoga Jazz Festival, Verizon Jazz 
Festival, and the Newport Jazz Festival (which he 
founded in 1954); Festival Productions also 
produces the Carnegie Hall Jazz Orchestra, led by 
trumpeter Jon Faddis, which presented four 
evening-long programs at Carnegie Hall during 
2000-2001. 

Jazzmobile, Inc., founded in 1964 by Dr. Billy 
Taylor to "provide arts education programs of the 
highest quality via workshops, master classes, lecture 
demonstrations, arts enrichment programs, outdoor 
summer mobile concerts, special indoor concerts 
and special projects," is a not-for-profit organization 
without a performance home base, estimating 
outreach to over 250,000 people in and around New 
York City's boroughs, with approximately 600 artists 
participating annually. Jazz at Flushing Town Hall, in 
Flushing, Queens, is a relatively new not-for-profit 
institution presenting high quality mainstream jazz 
in an active schedule of events at an outer-borough 
(non-Manhattan) cultural center. 651 Arts is a not- 
for-profit organization staging jazz events on an 
occasional basis at Brooklyn Academy of Music and 
BAM's Majestic Theater. Henry Street Settlement is a 
smaller yet well-established, not-for-profit jazz 
performance and education center on Manhattan's 
lower east side. New Jersey Performing Arts Center 
(Newark) is a newly built major concert hall, hosting 
a regular season of jazz and world-music 
performances. John Harms Center is another New 
Jersey concert venue that serves as a rental for 
outside producers presenting some jazz. 

Other not-for-profit arts institutions presenting 
jazz on various regular schedules include the Jazz 
Gallery, the Kitchen Center for Music Video and 
Dance, Aaron Davis Hall at City College of New 
York, the Studio Museum of Harlem, the 
Guggenheim Museum, and the Tillis Center on the 
C.W. Post campus of Long Island University. 

Not-for-profit jazz festivals and series in New 
York City parks and public spaces include the Vision 
Festival (two weeks of concerts curated by a 
volunteer artist-musician-choreographer board); the 
Charlie Parker Jazz Festival (two afternoon-long free 



bebop concerts, in Harlem and East Village 
Manhattan public parks); the City-produced Central 
Park Summerstage series; the free Brooklyn Prospect 
Park Bandshell series; free Lincoln Center Out of 
Doors concerts and Midsummer's Night Swing 
(plaza dancing, some tickets sold); and the Music 
Under New York program in the subways, 
administered by the Metropolitan Transportation 
Authority. 

Profit-oriented or privately-subsidized festivals 
include the Verizon Music Festival, J&R Music World 
Jazz Festival, the Caramoor Jazz Festival 
(Westchester County), the Cape May Jazz Festival, 
the New Jersey Jazz Society festival (mostly 
traditional jazz) in Stanhope, NJ, the Blues Cruise 
(concerts on boats on the Hudson River), and Mark 
Morganelli's series of jazz concerts — usually 
promoted under the banner JazzForum Arts — 
mostly in suburban New York City and surrounding 
towns. 

Saint Peter's Church has been recognized by the 
Lutheran Synod of New York since 1956 for its jazz 
ministry, including presentation of jazz in a spiritual 
setting. St. Peters helped found International 
Women in Jazz, a 200-member organization 
presenting monthly concerts and occasional 
workshops. 

Of New York City's famed nightclub scene: The 
Blue Note opened in New York in 1981 and has 
franchise outlets in Japan. The Village Vanguard was 
established in 1935 by Max Gordon, late husband of 
current owner Lorraine Gordon, and has been 
renowned for booking jazz giants since the 1950s. 
The Knitting Factory has presented jazz amid a 
range of cutting edge ("downtown") music for more 
than a decade, currently at a bustling three-stage and 
multi-media performance/recording facility with 
multiple bars (it also has a restaurant-performance 
center branch in Los Angeles). Iridium and Birdland 
are major midtown Manhattan jazz clubs, with 
week-long schedules presenting first rank jazz 
musicians. 

The Musician's Union Local 802 is a source of 
information on some aspects of venue- related 
activities. An important distinction exists between 
venues that offer "steady" as opposed to "occasional" 
employment for jazz musicians. Corporate functions 
such as noontime summer plaza concerts, and 
uncounted "club dates," private parties, weddings, 



73 



performances in hospitals, retirement centers, parks, 
libraries, community centers and churches also serve 
to employ jazz-identified musicians. 

New York City (specifically, Manhattan) is the. 
site of major offices for all five of the world's major 
recording companies (Japan's Sony, Germany's 
BMG, France's Universal Music Group, America's 
Warner Bros., the UK's Capitol/EMI), and the city 
has a number of subsidiary labels that specialize in 
signing jazz musicians. The creative and receptive 
energy of the community of musicians and listeners 
most deeply involved with jazz has also given rise, 
out of vague necessity, to at least a dozen smaller, 
independent record labels. There are uncounted 
artist-owned and -operated labels, too. New York 
City is also a longtime center of music businesses 
including but not limited to music publishing, 
artists' services (such as licensing organizations 
ASCAP and BMI), copyist work, record retailers, 
instrument repair shops and retailers. 

An incredible concentration of institutions of 
higher education and status as the jazz capital of the 
world make New York City the mecca for those 
seeking an education in jazz. The New School 
University employs 72 jazz artists as 
educators/mentors in a bachelor's degree model 
intended to pass down oral and playing traditions to 
students, preparing them for the technical, artistic 
and professional demands of a performance career 
in jazz. The program's part-time faculty are 
unionized through Local 802, American Federation 
of Musicians, a unique and unprecedented example 
of collective rights organizing on behalf of 
musicians in education. 

The Manhattan School of Music offers a jazz 
curriculum that focuses on the students as 
performers, composers and educators in the present- 
day jazz market. The Juilliard School, in conjunction 
with Jazz at Lincoln Center, has established an Artist 
Diploma jazz education program that will feature a 
broad jazz and classical music-based curriculum. 

Young artists are also supported through the 
important work of the major cultural institutions 
that specialize in the preservation of jazz. Jazz at 
Lincoln Center is a leader in presenting numerous 
programs for young people, including the Essentially 
Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition and 
Festival, and in creating a Jazz for Young People 
Curriculum, which will be distributed nationally. 



The New Jersey Performing Arts Center also 
supports young people's jazz programs, including 
Jazz For Teens, an annual 10-week seminar for 
musicians and singers learning jazz. 

Several professional firms offer an array of 
support services to jazz musicians but it should be 
noted that most professional support services 
represent an overhead cost to jazz musicians, and 
the majority of them do not employ a professional 
support staff. 

The New York State Council on the Arts 
(NYSCA) is one of the best-funded of all states arts 
agencies and has given both direct and indirect 
support to jazz-related projects. Recent recipients 
include Jazzmobile, Jazz at Lincoln Center, Sixteen as 
One, Inc. (Vanguard Jazz Orchestra) and the 92nd 
Street YMHA, among others. 

However, in comparison with the situation 10 
years ago, there are at present few fellowships 
awarded directly to jazz musicians — either from 
NYSCA, the New York Foundation for the Arts 
(NYFA), Meet the Composer, the Rockefeller 
Foundation, the Lila Wallace/Readers Digest 
Foundation or the National Endowment for the Arts 
(NEA). An important fellowship program available 
to jazz musicians directly in 2000-2001 was a one- 
time award of financial assistance and career 
development consultation from the Doris Duke 
Foundation to some two dozen musicians, 
administered by Chamber Music America. 

Lack of public and/or private funding has not 
stopped musicians themselves from banding 
together to improve their prospects and raise their 
profiles in a crowded, competitive market, or address 
urgent, immediate needs. The Musicians Union 
(Local 802) has both MAP — Musician's Assistance 
Program, for union members in dire emergencies — 
and MPTF, the Music Performer's Trust Fund, which 
matches 50/50 funds from qualified (mostly social 
service) organizations hiring jazz musicians. The 
Association for the Advancement of Creative 
Musicians (AACM) is a not-for-profit musicians' 
organization of approximately 200 members, 
founded in Chicago in 1964, with an active New 
York City chapter since the mid-1980s. Art Attack!, a 
Website run by Margaret Davis, provides a breadth 
of information about work, housing, insurance, food 
and other necessities to anyone who finds it online. 
The Jazz Foundation of America, run from offices at 



74 



the Musicians' Union Local 802, is a private not-for- 
profit providing emergency care, including housing, 
health and dental care and career counseling to 
musicians in crisis. 

WBGO-FM is the area's lone 24-hour radio 
station featuring straight-ahead jazz programming, 
though there is also extensive jazz broadcasting on 
WKCR-FM (Columbia University), WFMU-FM 
(Jersey City, NJ), WHRT (Hartford, CT) and 
National Public Radio broadcasts heard on WNYC- 
FM and AM (NYC), among other affiliates. There is 
also CD101.9-FM, a popular, commercially 
supported 24-hour "jazz lite" station. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

In addition to the nationally recognized SF Jazz 
presenting organization, the San Francisco area is 
home to a plethora of venues for jazz. These outlets 
run the gamut from restaurants and festivals to 
street fairs and churches. Yoshi's, a nationally known 
jazz venue, pulls double duty as a highly regarded 
Japanese restaurant and sushi bar and soundstage 
for local and big-name jazz musicians. 

The Monterey Jazz Festival is one of the largest 
jazz- based festivals in existence. It features over 600 
artists who perform at seven different venues across 
the Bay Area. Programming for the festival is 
characterized by a variety of jazz styles and idioms 
from local and internationally well known artists 

The Church of St. John Coltrane is an African 
Orthodox Church that incorporates jazz into its 
Sunday worship services and recognizes saxophone 
legend John Coltrane as a saint. The church features 
a five-piece house band that sets the liturgy to 
selections from Coltrane's musical canon. 

The Kuumba Jazz Center is a non-profit 
presenting organization that has been hosting 
weekly jazz performances for 25 years. It operates its 
own venue and offers big name performers on 
Monday nights and local musicians on Friday 
nights. In addition, the center operates music 
workshops and a camp for young people and rents 
its space to other community cultural organizations. 

The San Francisco Bay Area is home to a variety 
of small and independent record labels, several of 
which specialize in jazz. Of the independent labels 
that deal primarily with the jazz idiom, Noir Records 
and Concord Records are the most active. In 



addition to ubiquitous retail giants Tower Records, 
Virgin Megastore and Borders Books and Music, the 
San Francisco area is home to a number of jazz 
specialty stores. Many of these specialty stores sell 
new and classic releases as well as collectible vinyl. A 
few work with major distributors and some carry 
the work of local artists on a consignment basis. Of 
the independent specialty stores, Berigan's, The Jazz 
Quarter, and the SF Jazz store are the most 
prominent. Berigan's deals mainly with record 
companies that buy from major distributors and 
then sell to small record stores. The store is a strong 
supporter of local artists. Charles Hamilton directs 
the highly regarded Berkeley High School Jazz 
Program, which has established itself as a valuable 
resource for the continuation of the jazz legacy. At 
the university level, San Francisco State University 
boasts a strong reputation for attracting up-and- 
coming musicians. The JazzSchool is a community 
school that was founded by its current director, 
Susan Muscarella. Course offerings are intended for 
students of all ages, levels of expertise and 
instrument preference. There are also a number of 
individuals who are regarded as important resources 
for the jazz community. These mentors include 
Professor Bill Bell, John Handy, Earl Watkins, Ed 
Kelly, E.W. Wainwright, Khalil, Yancey Taylor, Jules 
Broussard, Eddie Marshall and Harley White. 

Some of the major hinders who are active in the 
San Francisco area are the California Arts Council, 
See's Candy, the Infiniti Division of Nissan North 
America, Tower Records and the San Francisco 
Traditional Jazz Foundation. Another important 
support entity for the jazz community in Northern 
California is The David and Lucile Packard 
Foundation. Created in 1964 by David Packard and 
Lucile Salter Packard, the Foundation supports 
performing and visual arts institutions along with its 
many other philanthropic concerns. 

Due in large part to its proximity to Silicon 
Valley, San Francisco area musicians are unusually 
savvy in regard to the creation and maintenance of 
jazz -related Web sites and online publications. 
Eighty-five percent of local musicians, including 
students in jazz studies programs, have personal 
Web sites. Additionally, nearly every jazz-oriented 
venue and festival has a Web site. In addition to the 
online publication Jazzwest.com, Jazz Now and the 
Palo Alto Jazz Alliance Newsletter are area-based 



75 



publications that cater to a jazz audience. Radio 
station KCSM FM 91.1 is the major jazz radio 
station in the San Francisco metropolitan area, 
having received this designation due to the fact that 
it is the only station that has a 24-hour jazz format. 
Other stations that feature jazz in their playlists 
include KPFA, KUSF, KKSF, and KBLX. KKSF and 
KBLX concentrate on appealing to the 
contemporary jazz market. The nationally broadcast 



cable television channel BET-on-Jazz is available to 
viewers in the Bay Area as well. 

SF Jazz presents a film series entitled Jazz on 
Film during the San Francisco Jazz Festival and the 
SF Jazz spring season. The series features archival 
footage of legendary performers, concerts and events 
that have contributed to the development of the 
music. 



76 



1. Do you ever play or sing jazz music? 



Appendix C 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


992% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


963% 




Number 


638 


109 


243 


286 


no 


Percent 


08% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1.7% 




Number 


5 








5 


mjssng 




31 


1 


21 


9 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


643 


109 


243 


291 



2. If no, do you play or sing any other kind of music 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


classical 


Percent 


37.0% 


333% 


46.2% 


33.3% 




Number 


17 


4 


6 


7 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


63.0% 


66.7% 


53.8% 


65.7% 




Number 


29 


8 


7 


14 


nissrg 




628 


98 


251 


279 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


46 


12 


13 


21 



3. What is your primary instrument? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


alto sax 


Percent 


61% 


4.5% 


72% 


5.7% 




Number 


41 


5 


19 


17 


banjo 


Percent 


0.7% 


36% 


0.0% 


03% 




Number 


5 


4 





1 


baritone sax 


Percent 


0.6% 


18% 


0.4% 


03% 




Number 


4 


2 


1 


1 


bass 


Percent 


11.4% 


136% 


11)0% 


119% 




Number 


77 


15 


29 


33 


bass clarinet 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 





1 





cello 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 





1 





clarinet 


Percent 


19% 


55% 


19% 


0.7% 




Number 


13 


6 


5 


2 


cornet 


Percent 


0.9% 


36% 


0.0% 


0.7% 




Number 


6 


4 





2 


! drums 


Percent 


125% 


109% 


119% 


143% 




Number 


84 


12 


29 


43 


effects ( washboard, whistles, etc.) 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














flugelhom 


Percent 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


19% 




Number 


3 








3 



77 



flute 


Percent 


18% 


00% 


27% 


13% 




Number 


11 





7 


4 


guitar 


Percent 


ai% 


113% 


4.9% 


11.7% 




Number 


61 


13 


13 


' 35 


harmonica 


Percent 


03% 


09% 


00% 


03% 




Nurber 


2 


1 





1 


percussion 


Percent 


13% 


03% 


15% 


13% 




Nurber 


9 


1 


4 


4 


piano' keyboard 


Percent 


14.4% 


109% 


152% 


150% 




Nurber 


97 


12 


40 


45 


saxophone 


Percent 


11.1% 


91% 


125% 


107% 




Number 


75 


10 


33 


32 


trombone 


Percent 


4.5% 


13% 


4.9% 


50% 




Mrrber 


30 


2 


13 


15 


trumpet 


Percent 


63% 


73% 


61% 


73% 




Number 


45 


8 


16 


22 


tuba 


Percent 


03% 


00% 


0.4% 


03% 




Nurber 


2 





1 


1 


vbraphone 


Percent 


Q1% 


00% 


0.4% 


00% 




Number 


1 





1 





violin 


Percent 


12% 


13% 


1.1% 


10% 




Number 


8 


2 


3 


3 


voice 


Percent 


113% 


100% 


14.4% 


90% 




Number 


76 


11 


38 


27 


xylophone 


Percent 


0.0% 


00% 


0O% 


00% 




Number 














other (please specify) 


Percent 


31% 


18% 


33% 


30% 




Urrber 


21 


2 


10 


9 


rrissrt) 
















total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



4. In what style do you play this instrument?* 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


avant-garde 


Percent 


30.0% 


273% 


25.0% 


353% 




Number 


202 


30 


66 


106 


add jazz 


Percent 


15.7% 


182% 


27% 


263% 




Number 


106 


20 


7 


79 


blues 


Percent 


355% 


52.7% 


95% 


520% 




Mrrber 


239 


58 


25 


156 


rxogie-wcogierxxiky-tonk 


Percent 


93% 


20.9% 


23% 


113% 




Number 


63 


23 


6 


34 


bop 


Percent 


44.4% 


50.9% 


223% 


613% 




Number 


299 


56 


59 


184 


oonternporary 


Percent 


33.7% 


46.4% 


155% 


45.0% 




Number 


227 


51 


41 


135 



78 



ood 


Percent 


26.3% 


34.5% 


4.2% 


42.7% 




Number 


177 


38 


11 


128 


free jazz 


Percent 


34.6% 


373% 


25.0% 


. 42.0% 




Number 


233 


41 


66 


126 


funk 


Percent 


32.9% 


54.5% 


8.0% 


47.0% 




Number 


222 


60 


21 


141 


fusion 


Percent 


22.4% 


32.7% 


63% 


32.3% 




Number 


151 


36 


18 


97 


hard bop 


Percent 


29.4% 


30.9% 


8.7% 


47.0% 




Number 


196 


34 


23 


141 


Latin 


Percent 


36.5% 


43.6% 


11.7% 


55.7% 




Number 


246 


48 


31 


167 


mainstream 


Percent 


31 0% 


40.0% 


205% 


37.0% 




Number 


209 


44 


54 


111 


regional style (please specify) 


Percent 


11.1% 


34.5% 


63% 


63% 




Number 


75 


38 


18 


19 


rhythm and blues 


Percent 


27.6% 


51 3% 


61% 


37.7% 




Number 


186 


57 


16 


113 


scat 


Percent 


82% 


82% 


23% 


133% 




Number 


55 


9 


6 


40 


ragtime/stride piano 


Percent 


65% 


10:9% 


3.0% 


8.0% 




Number 


44 


12 


8 


24 


swing 


Percent 


39.5% 


64.5% 


14.8% 


52.0% 




Number 


266 


71 


39 


156 


traditional 


Percent 


40.1% 


655% 


352% 


35.0% 




Number 


270 


72 


93 


105 


word music 


Percent 


ia7% 


16.4% 


93% 


27.3% 




Number 


126 


18 


26 


82 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


30.6% 


155% 


52.7% 


16.7% 




Number 


206 


17 


139 


50 


total # of respondents who answered the question 




110 


264 


300 



5. What other instruments do you also play? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


alto sax 


Percent 


7.7% 


127% 


42% 


9.0% 




Number 


52 


14 


11 


27 


banjo 


Percent 


16% 


3.6% 


03% 


1.7% 




Number 


11 


4 


2 


5 


baritone sax 


Percent 


5.6% 


82% 


23% 


7.7% 




Number 


38 


9 


6 


23 


bass 


Percent 


10.7% 


10.0% 


63% 


14.3% 




Number 


72 


11 


18 


43 


bassdarinet 


Percent 


4.0% 


6.4% 


33% 


33% 




Number 


27 


7 


10 


10 


celb 


Percent 


16% 


3.6% 


03% 


1.7% 



79 





Number 


11 


4 


2 


5 


clarinet 


Percent 


ai% 


103% 


11.7% 


6.0% 




Number 


61 


12 


31 


18 


cornet 


Percent 


25% 


36% 


0.0% 


4.3% 




Number 


17 


4 





13 


drums 


Percent 


10.4% 


100% 


72% 


133% 




Number 


70 


11 


19 


40 


effects ( washboard, whistles, etc.) 


Percent 


2.4% 


36% 


08% 


33% 




Number 


16 


4 


2 


10 


flugelhom 


Percent 


3.6% 


27% 


23% 


50% 




Number 


24 


3 


6 


15 


flute 


Percent 


113% 


103% 


16.7% 


8.0% 




Number 


80 


12 


44 


24 


guitar 


Percent 


145% 


155% 


68% 


210% 




Number 


98 


17 


18 


63 


harmonica 


Percent 


ao% 


36% 


1.1% 


4.3% 




Number 


20 


4 


3 


13 


percussion 


Percent 


123% 


145% 


98% 


137% 




Number 


83 


16 


26 


41 


piano/ keyboard 


Percent 


335% 


355% 


303% 


35.7% 




Number 


226 


39 


80 


107 


saxophone 


Percent 


6.4% 


91% 


53% 


63% 




Number 


43 


10 


14 


19 


trombone 


Percent 


30% 


27% 


23% 


37% 




Number 


20 


3 


6 


11 


trumpet 


Percent 


42% 


27% 


27% 


60% 




Number 


28 


3 


7 


18 


tuba 


Percent 


21% 


36% 


23% 


13% 




Number 


14 


4 


6 


4 


vibraphone 


Percent 


22% 


27% 


15% 


27% 




Number 


15 


3 


4 


8 


violin 


Percent 


0.7% 


18% 


08% 


03% 




Number 


5 


2 


2 


1 


voice 


Percent 


108% 


100% 


91% 


127% 




Number 


73 


11 


24 


38 


xylophone 


Percent 


0.7% 


03% 


0.0% 


13% 




Number 


5 


1 





4 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


14.1% 


91% 


22.7% 


83% 




Number 


95 


10 


60 


25 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



80 



6. How many jazz musicians do you know by name in this metro area who also know you? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


nwn 


134 


106 


224 


66 


msdan 


100 


100 


150 


30 


std. dev. 


150 


86 


176 


93 


rrrxe 


100 


100 


100 


100 


vaid cases 


623 


104 


243 


276 




51 


6 


21 


24 


mssrt) 



7. Of these jazz musicians you know by name in this metro area who also know you, how many are: 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


25 years cryouncjer 














rrean 


31 


44 


38 


20 






15 


20 


20 


10 


medan 




std. dev. 


78 


153 


47 


50 




mrxe 


10 


20 


10 


5 




valid cases 


549 


94 


219 


236 




msshg 


125 


16 


45 


64 


Wjthi 














mean 


25 


10 


45 


tl 




ITBCfen 


10 


8 


25 


5 




std. dev. 


49 


13 


65 


30 




mrxe 


5 


5 


10 


5 




vaBd cases 


585 


96 


241 


248 




mssrtj 


89 


14 


23 


52 


American Indian or Alaska Native 












mem 


2 


1 


2 


1 




mecferi 
















std. dev. 


4 


1 


5 


4 




rrrxe 
















vaBd cases 


225 


46 


79 


100 






449 


64 


185 


200 


mssng 


Asian 














mean 


11 


4 


18 


5 




rrBdan 


5 


3 


10 


3 




std. dev. 


18 


4 


24 


7 




rrrxe 


10 


2 


10 


2 




vafid cases 


494 


74 


227 


193 




mjssrg 


180 


36 


37 


107 


Black or African American 












mam 












medan 


64 


50 


107 


28 




std. dev. 


30 


40 


60 


10 




model 


104 


35 


132 


72 




mcde2 


50 


50 


100 


5 



81 





valid cases 


580 


93 


235 


252 




mBshg 


94 


17 


29 


48 


Hispanic or Latino 














rreai 


22 


8 


35 


■ 13 




mecfen 


10 


5 


20 


5 




std. cev. 


43 


7 


57 


23 




rrnte 


5 


10 


5 


5 




valid cases 


471 


72 


221 


178 




rnsshg 


203 


38 


43 


122 


Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 












rTEB"l 


2 


1 


1 


2 




t 











1 


mBdan 




std. dev. 


4 


5 


3 


3 




rrrxe 
















vaSd cases 


192 


38 


56 


98 




rnsshg 


482 


72 


208 


202 


White 














msm 


67 


60 


106 


33 




rredan 


37 


40 


63 


16 




std. dev. 


105 


135 


111 


66 




mxel 


50 


50 


50 


10 




mxe2 












vafcl cases 


568 


91 


232 


245 




msshg 


106 


19 


32 


55 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



8. If you consider yourself a jazz musician, do you also play or sing at non-jazz events? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 

Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


100.0% 


100.0% 


921% 


1000% 




Mrrber 


508 


108 


116 


274 


no 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


73% 


00% 




Number 


166 


2 


10 


26 


msshg 




166 


2 


138 


26 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


508 


108 


264 


274 



9. If yes, what kind 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


barmitzvahs 


Percent 


136% 


20.9% 


53% 


183% 




NLrrber 


92 


23 


14 


55 


Broadway 


Percent 


11.4% 


182% 


57% 


14.0% 




NLrrber 


77 


20 


6 


42 


cafes restaurants 


Percent 


542% 


673% 


402% 


61.7% 




Nirrter 


365 


74 


106 


185 


celebrations 


Percent 


34.9% 


50.0% 


7.6% 


533% 



82 





Number 


235 


55 


20 


160 


church events 


Percent 


32.0% 


582% 


163% 


363% 




Number 


216 


64 


43 


109 


dubs 


Percent 


53.7% 


755% 


33.0% 


64.0% 




Number 


362 


83 


87 


192 


concerts 


Percent 


48.1% 


75.5% 


29.9% 


54.0% 




Number 


324 


83 


79 


162 


educational workshops 


Percent 


298% 


518% 


11.7% 


37.7% 




Nurber 


201 


57 


31 


113 


family events 


Percent 


24.0% 


40.0% 


27% 


37.0% 




Number 


162 


44 


7 


1tl 


festivals 


Percent 


395% 


70.9% 


17.4% 


47.3% 




Number 


266 


78 


46 


142 


funerals 


Percent 


17.1% 


43.6% 


4.9% 


180% 




Number 


115 


48 


13 


54 


industrials 


Percent 


131% 


227% 


68% 


150% 




Number 


88 


25 


18 


45 


parties 


Percent 


47.5% 


76.4% 


24.6% 


57.0% 




Number 


320 


84 


65 


171 


private functions (benefits, corporate) 


Percent 


472% 


755% 


23.9% 


573% 




Number 


318 


83 


63 


172 


promotional events'showcases 


Percent 


23.4% 


45.5% 


4.9% 


31.7% 




Number 


158 


50 


13 


95 


record deals 


Percent 


135% 


40.0% 


23% 


14.7% 




Number 


94 


44 


6 


44 


movies 


Percent 


120% 


26.4% 


3.4% 


143% 




Number 


81 


29 


9 


43 


theatres 


Percent 


181% 


30.9% 


83% 


220% 




Number 


122 


34 


22 


66 


weddings 


Percent 


43.3% 


76.4% 


155% 


55.7% 




Number 


292 


84 


41 


167 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


272% 


10j0% 


54.5% 


93% 




Number 


183 


11 


144 


28 


total # of respondents who answered the question 




110 


264 


300 



10. How many hours per day do you spend practicing music? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


mem 


3 


3 


3 


3 




2 


2 


2 


2 


medan 


std. dev. 


4 


3 


4 


5 


mace 


2 


2 


2 


2 


vaid cases 


590 


103 


209 


278 


nissro, 


84 


7 


55 


22 



83 



1 1 . How many hours per week do you spend writing music? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


rreai 


5 


6 


6 


4 




3 


3 


4 


2 


rrBdan 


std. dsv. 


7 


10 


7 


6 


rrrxe 








2 





valid cases 


503 


89 


159 


255 


rTBshg 


171 


21 


105 


45 



12. From which occupation did you earn your major income in the last 12 months? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


musician 


Percent 


515% 


827% 


564% 


35.7% 




Number 


347 


91 


149 


107 


music teacher 


Percent 


11.1% 


136% 


80% 


130% 




Number 


75 


15 


21 


39 


jazz teacher 


Percent 


65% 


4.5% 


68% 


70% 




Nurber 


44 


5 


18 


21 


arts manager or administrator 


Percent 


10% 


00% 


08% 


17% 




Number 


7 





2 


5 


other music-related occupation 


Percent 


7S% 


4.5% 


87% 


83% 




Number 


53 


5 


23 


25 


non-music related occupation 


Percent 


242% 


36% 


185% 


363% 




Number 


163 


4 


50 


109 


other 


Percent 


107% 


6.4% 


53% 


170% 




Nrrber 


72 


7 


14 


51 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



13. At present, what is your employment situation? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


1 am employed full time in the music business 


Percent 


28.0% 


655% 


170% 


24.0% 




Nurber 


189 


72 


45 


72 


1 am employed full-time NOT in the music business 


Percent 


131% 


4.5% 


68% 


21.7% 




Number 


88 


5 


18 


65 


1 am employed part-time in the music business 


Percent 


62% 


27% 


15% 


117% 




Nurber 


42 


3 


4 


35 


1 am employed full-time as a freelancer in the music 
bushess 


Percent 


273% 


30.0% 


49.6% 


a7% 




Number 


184 


33 


131 


20 


1 am employed part-time as a freelancer in the music 
bushess 


Percent 


128% 


36% 


129% 


160% 




Number 


86 


4 


34 


48 



84 





Percent 


52% 


00% 


19% 


100% 


laninerrpbyed 




Mmber 


35 





5 


30 


1 am retired 


Percent 


33% 


18% 


23% 


4.7% 




Nurber 


22 


2 


6 


14 


other (other) 


Percent 


110% 


27% 


10.6% 


143% 




Nurrber 


74 


3 


28 


43 


total # of respondents who answered the question 
(including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



14. Do you work regularly with a specific group of musicians? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


795% 


89.1% 


76.8% 


783% 




Nurter 


524 


98 


199 


227 


no 


Percent 


205% 


109% 


232% 


21.7% 




Nurber 


135 


12 


60 


63 


msshcj 




15 





5 


X) 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


659 


110 


259 


290 



15. Approximately how many different musical jobs do you play a month? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


[real 


10 


V 


9 


7 




8 


16 


7 


5 


medan 


std. dev. 


8 


9 


7 


6 


mode 


20 


20 


4 


2 


vaid cases 


620 


109 


250 


261 


msshg 


54 


1 


14 


39 



16. What percentage of your income comes from your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


rone 


Percent 


81% 


00% 


23% 


163% 




Number 


53 





6 


47 


25% a less 


Percent 


24.3% 


6.4% 


219% 


333% 




Mirber 


159 


7 


56 


96 


between 26% and 50% 


Percent 


119% 


6.4% 


133% 


128% 




Number 


78 


7 


34 


37 


between 51 % and 75% 


Percent 


87% 


101% 


66% 


1Q1% 




NLrrber 


57 


11 


V 


29 


between 76% and 99% 


Percent 


106% 


193% 


86% 


90% 



85 





Mnfcer 


69 


21 


22 


26 


100% 


Percent 


363% 


57.8% 


47.3% 


18.4% 




Number 


237 


63 


121 


• 53 


rrissrg 




21 


1 


8 


12 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


653 


109 


256 


288 



17. Do you have more than one job? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


63.0% 


49.5% 


803% 


535% 




Mrrber 


391 


52 


188 


151 


no 


Percent 


37.0% 


505% 


19.7% 


46.5% 




Number 


230 


53 


45 


131 


rrissrg 




53 


5 


30 


18 


total # of respondents who answered the 
question 


621 


105 


234 


282 



18. If yes, what are the other jobs? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 

Francisco 


musician 


Percent 


39.8% 


191% 


655% 


24.7% 




Nurber 


268 


21 


173 


74 


music teacher 


Percent 


24.0% 


218% 


352% 


150% 




Njrber 


162 


24 


93 


45 


jazz teacher 


Percent 


14.1% 


73% 


20.1% 


113% 




Nurber 


95 


8 


53 


34 


arts manager or administrator 


Percent 


13% 


27% 


1.1% 


10% 




Number 


9 


3 


3 


3 


other music-related occupation 


Percent 


142% 


136% 


231% 


6.7% 




Number 


96 


15 


61 


20 


non-music related occupation 


Percent 


16JG% 


91% 


212% 


14.0% 




NjTtier 


106 


10 


55 


42 


other 


Percent 


55% 


36% 


30% 


93% 




Nurber 


40 


4 


8 


28 


mssrig 












total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



19. If you have other employment, which one of the following statements best describes your feelings 
about the relationship between your music and your other employment at this point in your career. 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


63.0% 


49.5% 


803% 


535% 




Number 


391 


52 


188 


151 


no 


Percent 


37.0% 


505% 


19.7% 


46.5% 



86 





Number 


230 


53 


46 


131 


missing 




53 


5 


30 


18 


total # of respondents who answered the 
question 


621 


105 


234 


282 



20. Approximately how many hours per week do you spend on your music or music-related activities 
(including performing, looking for work, marketing etc.) 










Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


0-10 hours per week 


vald% 


109% 


75% 


3.4% 


18.4% 




frequency 


67 


8 


8 


51 


11 -20 hours per week 


vald% 


160% 


178% 


8.6% 


21.7% 




frequency 


99 


19 


20 


60 


21-30 hours per week 


vald% 


182% 


159% 


133% 


231% 




frequency 


112 


17 


31 


64 


31 -40 hours per week 


vaid% 


21.7% 


23.4% 


27.0% 


168% 




frequency 


134 


25 


63 


46 


over 40 hours per week 


vaid% 


332% 


355% 


47.6% 


202% 




frequency 


205 


38 


111 


56 


rnssrcj 




57 


3 


31 


23 


total # of respondents who answered this qi, 


estjon 


617 


107 


233 


277 



21. Approximately how many hours per week do you spend in your other or supplementary employment? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


0-10 hours per week 


Percent 


38.3% 


59.7% 


318% 


36.3% 




Number 


165 


37 


41 


87 


1 1 -20 hours per week 


Percent 


153% 


129% 


19.4% 


138% 




Number 


66 


8 


25 


33 


21 -30 hours per week 


Percent 


17.4% 


9.7% 


21.7% 


17.1% 




Number 


75 


6 


28 


41 


31 -40 hours per week 


Percent 


17.4% 


113% 


19.4% 


179% 




Number 


75 


7 


25 


43 


over 40 hours per week 


Percent 


116% 


65% 


78% 


150% 




Number 


50 


4 


10 


36 


rrjsaxj 




243 


48 


135 


60 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


431 


62 


129 


240 



22. Where did you first get inspired by music? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


church 


Percent 


10.6% 


182% 


5.4% 


12.4% 




Nurrber 


71 


20 


14 


37 



87 



community center 


Percent 


03% 


03% 


03% 


0.7% 




Number 


2 








2 


festival 


Percent 


13% 


27% 


08% 


. 23% 




Number 


11 


3 


2 


6 


film 


Percent 


03% 


27% 


03% 


10% 




Number 


6 


3 





3 


friends 


Percent 


9.7% 


118% 


38% 


14.1% 




Number 


65 


13 


10 


42 


heme 


Percent 


37.1% 


29.1% 


47.1% 


312% 




Number 


248 


32 


123 


93 


Internet 


Percent 


00% 


03% 


03% 


03% 




Nurber 














five performance 


Percent 


61% 


6.4% 


61% 


63% 




Mrrber 


41 


7 


16 


18 


private music teacher 


Percent 


21% 


18% 


1.1% 


33% 




Number 


14 


2 


3 


9 


rado 


Percent 


73% 


73% 


73% 


87% 




Nurber 


53 


8 


19 


26 


recordincjs 


Percent 


75% 


6.4% 


92% 


6.4% 




Number 


50 


7 


24 


19 


relatives 


Percent 


33% 


33% 


08% 


4.7% 




Nurber 


20 


4 


2 


14 


sched 


Percent 


73% 


82% 


7.7% 


37% 




Nurber 


49 


9 


20 


20 


television 


Percent 


03% 


03% 


15% 


0.7% 




Number 


6 





4 


2 


workshop 


Percent 


Q1% 


03% 


0.4% 


03% 




Nurber 


1 





1 





other 


Percent 


4.8% 


18% 


88% 


23% 




Number 


32 


2 


23 


7 






5 





3 


2 


msarg 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


669 


110 


261 


298 



23. What experiences provided you with early encouragement for your music? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


. apprenticeship/internship 


Percent 


31% 


27% 


08% 


53% 




Number 


21 


3 


2 


16 


award 


Percent 


53% 


127% 


13% 


63% 




Number 


38 


14 


5 


19 



88 






critical review 


Percent 


33% 


55% 


1.1% 


5.7% 




Number 


26 


6 


3 


17 


family attention 


Percent 


41.1% 


45.5% 


34.8% 


' 45.0% 




Number 


277 


50 


92 


135 


financial support 


Percent 


33% 


3.6% 


0.4% 


5.7% 




Number 


22 


4 


1 


17 


influence of other musicians' work 


Percent 


37.5% 


50.0% 


216% 


47.0% 




Number 


253 


55 


57 


141 


my music was recorded 


Percent 


31% 


55% 


0.4% 


4.7% 




Number 


21 


6 


1 


14 


mentor 


Percent 


123% 


182% 


3.0% 


183% 




Number 


83 


20 


8 


55 


peer approval 


Percent 


27.0% 


29.1% 


14.8% 


37.0% 




Number 


182 


32 


39 


111 


playing in the streets 


Percent 


83% 


73% 


38% 


14.0% 




Number 


60 


8 


10 


42 


public performance 


Percent 


22.8% 


35.5% 


27% 


36.0% 




Number 


154 


39 


7 


108 


sale of my muse 


Percent 


25% 


4.5% 


0.0% 


4.0% 




Number 


17 


5 





12 


teacher(s) 


Percent 


30.9% 


42.7% 


121% 


43.0% 




Number 


208 


47 


32 


129 


winning competitions(s) 


Percent 


7.1% 


155% 


08% 


9.7% 




Number 


48 


17 


2 


29 


other 


Percent 


175% 


ai% 


261% 


130% 




Number 


118 


10 


69 


39 


msshg 












total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



24. If you taught music or currently teach music during your career, what was your major motivation for 
teaching? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


earning money 


Percent 


24.8% 


32.7% 


186% 


27.3% 




Number 


167 


36 


49 


82 


love to teach 


Percent 


20.8% 


191% 


123% 


28.3% 




Number 


140 


21 


34 


85 


importance of passing on my knowledge and 
experiences 


Percent 


252% 


29.1% 


24.2% 


24.7% 




Number 


170 


32 


64 


74 


importance of leaving a legacy 


Percent 


3.4% 


3.6% 


0.0% 


63% 




Number 


23 


4 





19 



89 



benefits (health insurance, etc.) 


Percent 


15% 


27% 


08% 


17% 




Number 


10 


3 


2 


5 


facilities ofr making music 


Percent 


18% 


27% 


08% 


. 23% 




Number 


12 


3 


2 


7 


staying in touch with people and ideas 


Percent 


89% 


173% 


42% 


100% 




Number 


60 


19 


11 


30 


other 


Percent 


14.8% 


55% 


303% 


4.7% 




Number 


100 


6 


80 


14 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



25. If you have been a mentor to another musician or artist, how important is mentoring to your ongoing 
artistic development? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


very important 


Percent 


49.7% 


52.4% 


47.3% 


51.4% 




Nurber 


245 


44 


107 


94 


somewhat important 


Percent 


112% 


190% 


7.1% 


126% 




Number 


55 


16 


16 


23 


important 


Percent 


20.1% 


155% 


252% 


158% 




Number 


99 


13 


57 


29 


not important 


Percent 


28% 


4.8% 


22% 


27%> 




Number 


14 


4 


5 


5 


meanhgjess 


Percent 


08% 


12% 


0.4% 


1.1% 




Number 


4 


1 


1 


2 


I have never been a mentor 


Percent 


15.4% 


7.1% 


17.7% 


16.4% 




Number 


/R 


5 


40 


30 


mssrg 




181 


26 


38 


117 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


493 


84 


226 


183 



26. Please indicate your highest level of formal education 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


elementary school, through grade 8 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














some high school 


Percent 


2.4% 


18% 


19% 


31% 




Number 


16 


2 


5 


9 


1 2th grade, but did not graduate 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


10% 




Number 


4 





1 


3 


' 12th grade, got GED 


Percent 


1.4% 


4.6% 


0.4% 


10% 




Number 


9 


5 


1 


3 


1 2th grade, graduated from high school 


Percent 


53% 


4.6% 


42% 


6.4% 




Number 


35 


5 


11 


19 



90 



somecolege 


Percent 


335% 


39.4% 


302% 


34.2% 




Number 


223 


43 


79 


101 


oollege degree 


Percent 


375% 


26.6% 


42.0% 


' 37.6% 




Number 


250 


29 


110 


111 


graduate degree 


Percent 


183% 


22.9% 


210% 


142% 




Number 


122 


25 


55 


42 






8 


1 


2 


5 


mssrg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


666 


109 


262 


295 



27. If you have college, graduate school or conservatory experience, what institutions have you attended? 

28. What is your highest formal degree? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


AA 


Percent 


93% 


31% 


19% 


18.4% 




Number 


41 


2 


3 


36 


BA 


Percent 


43.6% 


281% 


49.4% 


43.9% 




Number 


183 


18 


79 


86 


BFA 


Percent 


26% 


10% 


4.4% 


15% 




Number 


11 


1 


7 


3 


BS 


Percent 


57% 


63% 


4.4% 


6.6% 




Number 


24 


4 


7 


13 


MA 


Percent 


136% 


125% 


20.6% 


82% 




Number 


57 


8 


33 


16 


MFA 


Percent 


1.4% 


31% 


19% 


05% 




Number 


6 


2 


3 


1 


MS 


Percent 


10% 


0.0% 


06% 


15% 




Nun-ber 


4 





1 


3 


EdD 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


05% 




Nurrber 


1 








1 


PhD 


Percent 


26% 


16% 


38% 


20% 




Number 


11 


1 


6 


4 


other 


Percent 


195% 


43.8% 


131% 


163% 




Number 


82 


28 


21 


33 






254 


46 


104 


104 


mssrig 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


420 


64 


160 


196 



91 



29. Was this degree. . 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


in jazz? 


Percent 


188% 


333% 


21.4% 


.116% 




Number 


79 


21 


36 


22 


in music? 


Percent 


32.8% 


333% 


393% 


26.8% 




Number 


133 


21 


66 


51 


other 


Percent 


48.5% 


333% 


393% 


616% 


- 


Number 


204 


21 


65 


117 


nissiTg 




253 


47 


96 


110 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


421 


63 


168 


190 



30. Did you receive technical or professional training in the arts? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


in conservatory or professional school not 
granting a degree 


Percent 


19.4% 


127% 


292% 


133% 




Number 


131 


14 


77 


40 


certificate program in the arts 


Percent 


68% 


145% 


33% 


6.7% 




Number 


46 


16 


10 


20 


private teachers 


Percent 


620% 


613% 


731% 


523% 




Umber 


418 


68 


193 


157 


did not receive technical or professional training 
in the arts 


Percent 


165% 


91% 


72% 


27.3% 




Number 


111 


10 


19 


82 


other 


Percent 


10.4% 


73% 


102% 


11.7% 




Number 


70 


8 


27 


35 


total # of respondents who answered this question 




674 


110 


264 


300 



31. What other experiences have you had in preparation for your work in the arts? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


alternative schooling experience 


Percent 


120% 


191% 


53% 


153% 




Number 


81 


2 


14 


46 


attending performances 


Percent 


61.1% 


727% 


470% 


693% 




Number 


412 


80 


124 


208 


community-based arts experience 


Percent 


17.7% 


213% 


27% 


293% 




Number 


119 


24 


7 


88 


experience as a mentor 


Percent 


123% 


20.9% 


38% 


167% 




Number 


83 


23 


10 


50 


experience as an apprentice 


Percent 


223% 


255% 


20.5% 


24.0% 




Number 


154 


28 


54 


72 


jazz workshop, dine, master dass 


Percent 


415% 


527% 


273% 


50.0% 



92 





Number 


280 


58 


72 


150 


listening to music 


Percent 


75.1% 


89.1% 


65.3% 


77.7% 




Number 


506 


98 


175 


233 


performing 


Percent 


68.7% 


882% 


48.9% 


79.0% 




Number 


463 


97 


129 


237 


rehearsal band 


Percent 


33.7% 


42.7% 


11.7% 


49.7% 




Number 


227 


47 


31 


149 


self-taught 


Percent 


38.0% 


54.5% 


163% 


510% 




Number 


256 


60 


43 


153 


other 


Percent 


168% 


55% 


35.0% 


4.0% 




Number 


113 


6 


95 


12 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



32. At what age did you begin playing your first instrument? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


nwi 


9 


9 


9 


10 


(redan 


9 


9 


9 


9 


std. dev. 


4 


3 


4 


5 


mxe 


10 


10 


9 


8 


vaOd cases 


661 


109 


259 


293 




13 


1 


5 


7 


mssing 



33. Do you consider yourself a professional jazz musician? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


81.4% 


93.6% 


95.7% 


65.5% 




Number 


513 


103 


220 


190 


no 


Percent 


186% 


6.4% 


4.3% 


34.5% 




Number 


117 


7 


10 


100 


mssng 




44 





34 


10 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


630 


110 


230 


290 



34. If yes, of these statements, which do you consider the three most important reasons as they apply to you? 



Choice 1 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


I make my fivhg as a musician 


Percent 


323% 


40.8% 


39.9% 


20.8% 




Number 


172 


40 


87 


45 


I receive some income from my work as a musician 


Percent 


122% 


00% 


1Q1% 


193% 




Number 


65 





22 


43 


I intend to make my living as a musician 


Percent 


6.0% 


4.1% 


1S% 


11.1% 




Number 


32 


4 


4 


24 



93 



1 belong to a musicians association 


Percent 


00% 


03% 


00% 


0.0% 




Number 














1 belong to a musicians union or guild 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














1 haws been formally educated in music 


Percent 


26% 


20% 


18% 


3.7% 




Number 


14 


2 


4 


8 


1 am recognized by my peers as an musician 


Percent 


11.1% 


143% 


87% 


120% 




Number 


59 


14 


19 


26 


1 consider myself to be a musician 


Percent 


6.6% 


92% 


78% 


42% 




Mrmber 


35 


9 


17 


9 


1 spend a considerable amount of time v\orkingasa 
rascan 


Percent 


17% 


1D% 


28% 


03% 




Njrter 


9 


1 


6 


2 


1 have a special talent 


Percerrt 


4.5% 


61% 


32% 


51% 




Number 


24 


6 


7 


11 


1 have an inner drive to make music 


Percent 


160% 


21.4% 


83% 


213% 




Number 


85 


21 


18 


45 


1 receive some public recognition for my music 


Percent 


23% 


03% 


55% 


0.0% 




Number 


12 


o 


12 





other 


Percent 


4.7% 


10% 


1Q1% 


03% 




Number 


25 


1 


22 


2 


msshg 




142 


V. 


45 


84 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


532 


98 


218 


216 



Choice 2 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


fer. 
Francisco 


1 make my King as a musician 


Percent 


103% 


188% 


11.1% 


62% 




Number 


54 


18 


23 


13 


1 receive some rcome from my wsrk as a musician 


Percent 


72% 


115% 


4.3% 


81% 




Number 


37 


11 


9 


V 


1 intend to make my living as a musician 


Percent 


53% 


52% 


3.4% 


72% 




Mirber 


27 


5 


7 


15 


1 belong to a musicians association 


Percent 


12% 


31% 


0.0% 


1.4% 




Number 


6 


3 





3 


1 belong to a musicians union or gu5d 


Percent 


2C% 


63% 


10% 


10% 




Number 


10 


fi 


2 


2 


1 have been formally educated in music 


Percent 


82% 


104% 


4.8% 


105% 




Number 


42 


10 


10 


22 


1 am recognized by my peers as an musician 


Percerrt 


252% 


125% 


285% 


27.8% 




Number 


129 


12 


59 


58 


1 consder myself to be a musician 


Percent 


113% 


52% 


58% 


21.1% 




rsUTter 


61 


5 


12 


44 



94 



1 spend a considerable amount of time working as a 
musban 


Percent 


4.5% 


52% 


3.4% 


53% 




Number 


23 


5 


7 


11 


1 have a special talent 


Percent 


55% 


83% 


63% 


' 33% 




Nurrber 


28 


8 


13 


7 


1 have an inner drive to make music 


Percent 


8.6% 


135% 


9.7% 


53% 




Number 


44 


13 


20 


11 


1 receive some public recognition tor my music 


Percent 


4.7% 


0.0% 


9.7% 


19% 




Number 


24 





20 


4 


other 


Percent 


53% 


00% 


121% 


1C% 




Nurrber 


27 





25 


2 


rrissrg 




162 


14 


57 


91 


total # ot respondents who answered the question 


512 


96 


207 


209 



Choice 3 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


1 make my living as a musician 


Percent 


6.4% 


93% 


62% 


5.4% 




Number 


32 


9 


12 


11 


1 receive some income from my work as a musician 


Percent 


36% 


21% 


21% 


59% 




Nurrber 


18 


2 


4 


12 


1 intend to make my living as a musician 


Percent 


52% 


52% 


31% 


73% 




Nurrber 


26 


5 


6 


15 


1 belong to a musicians association 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


15% 




Nurrber 


3 








3 


1 belong to a musicians union or guild 


Percent 


32% 


72% 


15% 


29% 




Number 


16 


7 


3 


6 


1 have been formally educated in music 


Percent 


37% 


103% 


56% 


10.7% 




Number 


43 


10 


11 


22 


1 am recognized by my peers as an musician 


Percent 


215% 


26.8% 


24.1% 


163% 




Number 


107 


26 


47 


34 


1 consider myself to be a musician 


Percent 


30% 


72% 


82% 


83% 




Number 


40 


7 


16 


17 


1 spend a considerable amount of time working as a 
musoan 


Percent 


5.6% 


82% 


51% 


4.9% 




Number 


28 


8 


10 


10 


1 have a special talent 


Percent 


4.8% 


62% 


4.6% 


4.4% 




Number 


24 


6 


9 


9 


1 have an inner drive to make music 


Percent 


14.7% 


52% 


103% 


23.4% 




Nurrber 


73 


5 


20 


48 


1 receive some public recognition for my music 


Percent 


9.9% 


72% 


16.4% 


4.9% 




Number 


49 


7 


32 


10 


other 


Percent 


7.6% 


52% 


128% 


39% 




Nurrber 


38 


5 


25 


8 



95 







177 


13 


69 


95 


rrisErg 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


497 


97 


195 


205 



35. How do you prepare yourself to be a better musician? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


attend performances 


Percent 


50.0% 


682% 


155% 


73.7% 




Number 


337 


75 


41 


221 


attend workshops 


Percent 


332% 


382% 


102% 


51.7% 




Number 


224 


42 


27 


155 


learn from my environment 


Percent 


39.6% 


59.1% 


83% 


60.0% 




Number 


267 


65 


22 


180 


listen to music 


Percent 


682% 


815% 


51.1% 


785% 




Nurber 


460 


90 


135 


235 


play music with other people 


Percent 


620% 


86.4% 


33.0% 


78.7% 




Number 


418 


95 


87 


236 


practice on my own 


Percent 


685% 


76.4% 


50.4% 


81.7% 




Number 


462 


84 


133 


245 


read 


Percent 


38.7% 


47.3% 


145% 


56.7% 




Number 


261 


52 


39 


170 


read scores 


Percent 


165% 


227% 


4.9% 


24.3% 




Number 


111 


25 


13 


73 


self teaching 


Percent 


35.6% 


49.1% 


42% 


585% 




Number 


240 


54 


11 


175 


spirituality 


Percent 


328% 


46.4% 


135% 


44.7% 




Number 


221 


51 


36 


134 


study music 


Percent 


47.5% 


555% 


28.4% 


613% 




Number 


320 


61 


75 


184 


work with a mentor 


Percent 


165% 


24.5% 


42% 


24.3% 




Number 


Ttl 


27 


11 


73 


other 


Percent 


24.0% 


75% 


49.6% 


7.7% 




Number 


162 


8 


131 


23 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



36. If members of the household where you grew up were supportive of your explorations in music, which 
member was the most supportive? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


diversion from daily routine 


Percent 


1.7% 


19% 


16% 


18% 




Number 


11 


2 


4 


5 


family tradition 


Percent 


4.7% 


8.4% 


4.0% 


39% 




Number 


30 


9 


10 


11 



96 



higher calling/sense of purpose 


Percent 


151% 


159% 


79% 


21.4% 




Number 


97 


17 


20 


60 


inner drive to make music 


Percent 


28.9% 


383% 


190% 


' 342% 




Nurber 


185 


41 


48 


96 


life style 


Percent 


1flP/o 


09% 


32% 


0.4% 




Nurber 


10 


1 


8 


1 


bveoftheprocess 


Percent 


6.4% 


4.7% 


4.0% 


93% 




Number 


41 


5 


10 


26 


jDersonal expression 


Percent 


8.4% 


103% 


79% 


82% 




Nurber 


54 


11 


20 


23 


problem solving 


Percent 


05% 


09% 


12% 


0.0% 




Nurrber 


3 





3 





recognition of my special talent 


Percent 


4.8% 


3.7% 


6.7% 


3.6% 




Nurber 


31 


4 


17 


10 


source of great personal satisfaction 


Percent 


129% 


112% 


15.4% 


11.4% 




Nurrber 


83 


12 


39 


32 


source of income 


Percent 


05% 


0.0% 


12% 


0.0% 




Nurber 


3 





3 





other 


Percent 


137% 


4.7% 


281% 


4.3% 




Nurber 


88 


5 


71 


12 


mssrtj 




33 


3 


11 


19 


total # of respondents who answered the questj 


Dn 


641 


107 


253 


281 



37. Do you hold a copyright in some artistic work of your own creation? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


602% 


60.7% 


73.0% 


47.6% 




Number 


388 


65 


192 


131 


no 


Percent 


375% 


37.4% 


24.7% 


49.8% 




Number 


242 


40 


65 


137 


dontknow 


Percent 


23% 


19% 


23% 


25% 






15 


2 


6 


7 


mssrig 




29 


3 


1 


25 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


645 


107 


263 


275 



38. Have you ever given your copyright to a recording company? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


22.1% 


24.1% 


25.9% 


173% 




Nurber 


114 


21 


57 


36 


no 


Percent 


74.0% 


75.9% 


682% 


793% 




Nurber 


381 


66 


150 


165 



97 



dontknow 


Percent 


35% 


0.0% 


55% 


34% 




Mrrber 


20 





13 


7 






159 


23 


44 


92 


I'lTsaig 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


515 


87 


220 


208 



39. Has your work ever been recorded? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes. by me 


Percent 


56.4% 


64.2% 


46.3% 


62.9% 




Number 


359 


68 


118 


173 


yes. by a professional recording company 


Percent 


29.7% 


27.4% 


42.7% 


185% 




NuTber 


189 


29 


109 


51 


no 


Percent • 


102% 


75% 


63% 


14.9% 




Number 


65 


8 


16 


41 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


36% 


05% 


4.7% 


35% 




Mrrber 


23 


1 


12 


10 


nisshg 




38 


4 


9 


25 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




636 


106 


255 


275 



40. How has this work been marketed/ distributed? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


advertised in publications 


Percent 


194% 


305% 


20.1% 


14.7% 




NLrrber 


131 


34 


53 


44 


marketed on the internet 


Percent 


23.7% 


30.9% 


26.9% 


183% 




Nurber 


160 


34 


71 


55 


sold from my performance site 


Percent 


315% 


432% 


35.6% 


223% 




Mrrber 


214 


53 


94 


67 


given away to prospective employers 


Percent 


24.0% 


30.9% 


a7% 


35.0% 




Nurber 


162 


34 


23 


105 


all of the above 


Percent 


172=4 


40.9% 


51% 


157% 




Number 


116 


45 


24 


47 


other 


Percent 


282% 


105% 


48.1% 


173% 




Urrter 


190 


11 


127 


52 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



98 



41. Do you have a Web site? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


365% 


355% 


45.3% 


29.0% 




Nirrber 


239 


39 


117 


83 


no 


Percent 


635% 


645% 


54.7% 


710% 




Number 


415 


71 


141 


203 


rnssrg 




20 





6 


14 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


654 


110 


258 


286 



42. Has your music received airplay? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


70.4% 


82.4% 


822% 


55.0% 




Number 


450 


89 


208 


153 


no 


Percent 


29.6% 


176% 


178% 


45.0% 




Nurrber 


189 


19 


45 


125 


rrissrig 




35 


2 


11 


22 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


639 


108 


253 


278 



43. If yes, in what media? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


cable television 


Percent 


iai% 


30.0% 


148% 


167% 




Number 


122 


33 


39 


50 


film 


Percent 


153% 


23.6% 


133% 


14.0% 




Nurrber 


103 


26 


35 


42 


radio 


Percent 


62.6% 


778% 


758% 


45.7% 




Number 


422 


85 


200 


137 


stage 


Percent 


125% 


26.4% 


68% 


123% 




Number 


84 


29 


18 


37 


television 


Percent 


39% 


27% 


3.4% 


4.7% 




Nurber 


26 


3 


9 


14 


other 


Percent 


39% 


27% 


3.4% 


4.7% 




Number 


26 


3 


9 


14 


total # of respondents who 
answered this question 
(including refusals & dont 

kTOAS) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



99 



44. If yes, how did you get this airplay? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


had help from a promotional person 


Percent 


19.4% 


34.5% 


11.4% 


210% 




Number 


131 


38 


30 


63 


sent recordings out myself 


Percent 


19.7% 


273% 


189% 


17.7% 




Nmber 


133 


30 


50 


53 


paid to get airplay 


Percent 


2.4% 


4.5% 


15% 


23% 




Number 


16 


5 


4 


7 


knew some of the dec jockeys 


Percent 


181% 


33.6% 


136% 


163% 




Number 


122 


37 


35 


49 


knew producer 


Percent 


83% 


145% 


42% 


100% 




Nurrber 


57 


16 


11 


30 


Other 


Percent 


273% 


16.4% 


47.3% 


137% 




Njrber 


184 


18 


125 


41 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



45. Have you played music that was broadcast over the Internet? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


472% 


63.6% 


542% 


342% 




Umber 


296 


68 


135 


92 


no 


Percent 


402% 


187% 


34.7% 


53.9% 




Number 


252 


20 


87 


145 


dont know 


Percent 


126% 


178% 


112% 


119% 




Number 


79 


19 


28 


32 


mssrig 




47 


3 


13 


31 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


627 


107 


251 


269 



46. If yes, how do you feel about people downloading this music without paying for your work? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


1 do not mind 


Percent 


181% 


25.0% 


98% 


227% 




Number 


75 


22 


16 


37 


like the exposure 


Percent 


27.7% 


273% 


238% 


319% 




Number 


115 


24 


39 


52 


object 


Percent 


166% 


102% 


293% 


7.4% 




Nurber 


69 


9 


48 


12 


think 1 should be paid 


Percent 


24.1% 


227% 


323% 


166% 



100 





Nirrber 


100 


20 


53 


27 


rx) option 


Percent 


139% 


148% 


4.9% 


215% 




Number 


56 


13 


8 


35 


nisaig 




259 


22 


100 


137 


total # of respondents who answered 
this question (including refusals & don't 
knows) 




415 


88 


164 


163 



47. Do you currently have a steady manager, agent or representative for your work? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


23.5% 


33.0% 


31 EP/e 


129% 




Njrber 


152 


35 


80 


36 


no 


Percent 


765% 


67.0% 


69.0% 


87.1% 




Number 


494 


73 


178 


243 


rrissng 




28 


1 


6 


21 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


646 


109 


258 


279 



48. If yes, who is it? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


503% 


51.4% 


55.6% 


39.0% 




Number 


80 


19 


45 


16 


spouse 


Percent 


25% 


0fJ% 


37% 


2.4% 




Nurber 


4 





3 


1 


relative 


Percent 


13% 


27% 


00% 


2.4% 




Number 


2 


1 





1 


booking agent 


Percent 


20.8% 


32.4% 


136% 


24.4% 




Nurrber 


33 


12 


11 


10 


manager 


Percent 


126% 


108% 


136% 


122% 




Number 


20 


4 


11 


5 


friend 


Percent 


38% 


0fJ% 


4.9% 


4.9% 




Number 


6 





4 


2 


other 


Percent 


88% 


27% 


86% 


14.6% 




NLrrber 


14 


1 


7 


6 






515 


73 


183 


259 


mssrg 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


159 


37 


81 


41 



101 



49. If yes, how has s/he helped or hindered your career? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


1 am my cwn manager 


Percent. 


11SP/o 


191% 


159% 


.5.7% 




Number 


80 


21 


42 


V 


hefcedmegetwork 


Percent 


9.9% 


182% 


95% 


73% 




Number 


67 


20 


25 


22 


hindered me from getting work 


Percent 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 





1 





helped me get media exposure 


Percent 


56% 


127% 


42% 


4.3% 




Number 


38 


14 


11 


13 


hindered me from getting media exposure 


Percent 


0.4% 


03% 


0.4% 


03% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 


1 


helped determine career direction 


Percent 


18% 


4.5% 


0.4% 


20% 




Number 


12 


5 


1 


6 


hindered career direction 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














negotiated contracts/deals 


Percent 


50% 


118% 


23% 


5.0% 




Number 


34 


13 


6 


15 


hindered contracts/deals 


Percent 


03% 


09% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


2 


1 


1 





helped in conflict resolution 


Percent 


19% 


4.5% 


0.4% 


23% 




Number 


13 


5 


1 


7 


hindered conflict resolution 


Percent 


0.1% 


03% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 








helped obtain organizational support 


Percent 


27% 


4.5% 


1.1% 


33% 




Nurrber 


18 


5 


3 


10 


hindered obtaining organizational support 


Percent 


03% 


18% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Mrrber 


2 


2 








helped advise career 


Percent 


3.0% 


91% 


08% 


27% 




Number 


20 


10 


2 


8 


little/no career advice 


Percent 


12% 


18% 


08% 


13% 




Number 


8 


2 


2 


4 


msshg 












total # of respondents who answered the question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



50. Do you belong to the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) union? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


30.1% 


51.4% 


39.9% 


130% 




Number 


197 


55 


105 


37 



102 



no 


Percent 


69.9% 


48.6% 


60.1% 


87.0% 




Number 


458 


52 


158 


248 


rrissrc) 




19 


3 


1 


15 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question 


655 


107 


263 


285 



51. If no, did you belong at a previous time? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


29.4% 


42.6% 


40.4% 


193% 




Number 


121 


20 


59 


42 


no 


Percent 


70.6% 


57.4% 


59.6% 


80.7% 




Number 


290 


27 


87 


176 


mssrcj 




263 


63 


118 


82 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


411 


47 


146 


218 



52. If you do not belong to the AFM, why not? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


does not represent the interests of jazz 
muadans 


Percent 


17.4% 


155% 


23.9% 


123% 




Nurrter 


117 


17 


63 


37 


does not provide enough benefits 


Percent 


122% 


127% 


155% 


9.0% 




Number 


82 


14 


41 


27 


too expensive 


Percent 


9.1% 


82% 


9.1% 


93% 




Number 


61 


9 


24 


28 


too difficult to join 


Percent 


16% 


03% 


0.4% 


3.0% 




Number 


11 


1 


1 


9 


will not help me get work 


Percent 


145% 


20.9% 


7.6% 


183% 




Number 


98 


23 


20 


55 


will prevent me from getting work 


Percent 


21% 


3.6% 


1.1% 


23% 




Number 


14 


4 


3 


7 


all of the above 


Percent 


6.4% 


9.1% 


08% 


103% 




Number 


43 


10 


2 


31 


other 


Percent 


24.3% 


9.1% 


25.4% 


29.0% 




Number 


164 


10 


67 


87 


total # of respondents who answered the ques 


bon 


674 


110 


264 


300 



53. Do you belong to any other unions? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


vaid% 


102% 


10% 


137% 


115% 




frequency 


54 


1 


22 


31 


no 


vafcl% 


89.8% 


99.0% 


86.3% 


88.5% 



103 





frequency 


478 


100 


139 


239 


rrissricj 




142 


9 


103 


30 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


532 


101 


161 


270 



54. If yes, please list: 



55. Are you a member of a performing rights society (ASCAP, BMI, SESAC)? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


434% 


452% 


626% 


24.5% 




Number 


278 


49 


161 


68 


rc> 


Percent 


56.6% 


53.8% 


37.4% 


755% 




Nurber 


363 


57 


96 


210 






33 


4 


7 


22 


mssrtj 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


641 


106 


257 


278 



56. Are you a member of any other jazz-related organization (IAJE, JAF)s 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


173% 


92% 


25.7% 


13.4% 




Number 


101 


9 


56 


36 


no 


Percent 


827% 


90.8% 


74.3% 


86.6% 




Number 


484 


89 


162 


233 


rnsshcj 




89 


12 


45 


31 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


585 


98 


218 


269 



57. If yes, please specify: 



58. Do you have at least one credit card (not a debit card)? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


783% 


80.9% 


78.4% 


772% 




Number 


512 


89 


203 


220 


no 


Percent 


2.7% 


191% 


26% 


228% 




Number 


142 


2 


56 


65 


mssng 




20 





5 


15 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


654 


110 


259 


285 



104 



59. Have you ever applied as an individual for a bank loan, a line of credit, or a mortgage? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 

Francisco 


bank ban 


Percent 


383% 


605% 


293% 


40.5% 




Number 


212 


46 


72 


94 


line of credit 


Percent 


40.8% 


60.0% 


198% 


57.0% 




Number 


223 


45 


48 


130 


mortgage 


Percent 


308% 


513% 


213% 


33.3% 




Number 


168 


40 


53 


75 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


603 


131 


173 


299 



60. Did you ever have an application turned down? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


bank ban 


Percent 


23.4% 


25.4% 


24.7% 


220% 




Number 


83 


18 


23 


42 


line of credit 


Percent 


313% 


282% 


26.4% 


34.2% 




Number 


108 


20 


19 


69 


mortgage 


Percent 


12.4% 


14.7% 


160% 


9.9% 




Number 


39 


10 


12 


17 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


230 


48 


54 


128 



61. Do you feel you have been discriminated against when seeking employment as a jazz musician? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


45.7% 


45.3% 


66.7% 


27.0% 




Nirrber 


283 


48 


162 


73 


no 


Percent 


54.3% 


54.7% 


333% 


73.0% 




Number 


336 


53 


81 


197 






55 


4 


21 


30 


irisi'ig 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


619 


106 


243 


270 



62. If yes, what was the major reason? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


age 


Percent 


130% 


14.0% 


8.6% 


21 S% 




Number 


37 


7 


14 


16 


gender 


Percent 


186% 


20.0% 


185% 


178% 




Number 


53 


10 


30 


13 


nationality 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


4.1% 




Number 


3 








3 


race 


Percent 


38.9% 


55.0% 


36.4% 


32.9% 




Number 


111 


28 


59 


24 



105 



other 


Percent 


28.4% 


100% 


36.4% 


233% 




Nurber 


81 


5 


59 


17 


nisshg 




389 


60 


102 


227 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


285 


50 


162 


73 



63. Do you use electric media in the creation of your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


45.7% 


44.9% 


442% 


47.3% 




Mjrber 


295 


48 


115 


132 


no 


Percent 


54.3% 


551% 


55.8% 


527% 




Number 


351 


59 


145 


147 






28 


3 


4 


21 


mssrg 


total # of respondents who answered the question 


645 


107 


260 


279 



64. Do you use electronic media in the production of your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


vafcj% 


494% 


53.8% 


33.9% 


615% 




frequency 


307 


55 


83 


168 


ro 


vafcJ% 


40.4% 


42.3% 


518% 


29.3% 




frequency 


251 


44 


127 


80 


rrissrig 




52 


6 


19 


27 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


622 


104 


245 


273 



65. Do you own or regularly use a computer? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


vafd% 


803% 


75.9% 


83.9% 


78.7% 




frequency 


523 


82 


219 


222 


no 


vaid% 


19.7% 


241% 


161% 


213% 




frequency 


123 


26 


42 


60 


rrBsrg 




23 


2 


3 


18 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


651 


108 


261 


282 



66. How many hours a week do you use it in relation to your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


1-5 hours 


Percent 


50.4% 


50.0% 


413% 


59.1% 




Mrrber 


256 


40 


89 


127 


6-10 hours 


Percent 


232% 


188% 


32.4% 


158% 




NLrrter 


118 


15 


69 


34 


11-20 hours 


Percent 


173% 


213% 


178% 


153% 



106 





Number 


88 


17 


38 


33 


21 -40 hours 


Percent 


63% 


75% 


4.7% 


7.4% 




Number 


32 


6 


10 


16 


more than 40 hours 


Percent 


28% 


25% 


33% 


23% 




Number 


14 


2 


7 


5 


mssra. 




166 


30 


51 


85 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


508 


80 


213 


215 



67. Do you use the Internet for your music? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


63.7% 


552% 


86.9% 


46.6% 




Number 


362 


53 


192 


117 


no 


Percent 


36.3% 


44.8% 


131% 


53.4% 




Number 


206 


43 


29 


134 


missing 




106 


14 


43 


49 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


568 


96 


221 


251 



68. How do you use it? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


to communicate with people in the industry 


Percent 


49.0% 


39.1% 


76.9% 


28.0% 




Number 


330 


43 


203 


84 


to compose music 


Percent 


6.7% 


82% 


4.5% 


8.0% 




Number 


45 


9 


12 


24 


to copy music 


Percent 


95% 


173% 


3.0% 


123% 




Number 


64 


19 


8 


37 


to disseminate music 


Percent 


7.4% 


10.0% 


45% 


9.0% 




Number 


50 


11 


12 


27 


to listen to music 


Percent 


20.9% 


23.6% 


19.7% 


210% 




Number 


141 


26 


52 


63 


to promote music 


Percent 


27.3% 


255% 


413% 


157% 




Number 


184 


28 


109 


47 


to do research 


Percent 


326% 


327% 


36.4% 


29.3% 




Number 


220 


35 


96 


88 


to sell music 


Percent 


159% 


23.6% 


205% 


9.0% 




Number 


107 


26 


54 


27 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



107 



69. For how many years have you lived in the country of your current residence? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


under 1 year 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


.-00% 




Number 














2-3 years 


Percent 


12% 


18% 


12% 


10% 




Nurber 


8 


2 


3 


3 


4-5 years 


Percent 


1.4% 


18% 


08% 


1.7% 




Urrber 


9 


2 


2 


5 


6-10 years 


Percent 


2.4% 


37% 


23% 


21% 




Urrber 


16 


4 


6 


6 


more than 10 years 


Percent 


94.2% 


89.9% 


95.8% 


94.4% 




Nurrber 


616 


98 


248 


270 


rrean 




3 


17 


5 


73 


rredan 




2 


16 


5 


100 






20 


1 


5 


14 


rnssrt] 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


654 


109 


259 


286 



70. Did you receive any music- related training in the city or region? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


80.8% 


73.8% 


831% 


81.4% 




Nurrber 


514 


79 


207 


228 


TO 


Percent 


192% 


262% 


169% 


186% 




Number 


122 


28 


42 


52 


msshg 




38 


3 


15 


20 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


636 


107 


249 


280 



71. What is your most important reason for staying in this area to live and/or work? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


personalties 


vaid% 


21.4% 


315% 


39% 


335% 




frequency 


138 


34 


10 


94 


support systems for my music 


vaid% 


120% 


19.4% 


27% 


17.4% 




frequency 


77 


2 


7 


49 


family members 


vald% 


57% 


56% 


2.4% 


89% 




frequency 


37 


6 


6 


25 


bom here 


vafcJ% 


53% 


4.6% 


a?% 


4.3% 




frequency 


34 


5 


17 


12 


non music-related employment 


vafcl% 


20% 


09% 


0.4% 


39% 




frequency 


13 


1 


1 


11 


good place to perform 


vafcl% 


65% 


20.4% 


20% 


53% 



108 





frequency 


42 


22 


5 


15 


educational opportunities 


vaJd% 


19>/o 


0.9% 


0.4% 


3.6% 




frequency 


12 


1 


1 


10 


available work space 


vaid% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




frequency 














affordable work space 


vaid% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




frequency 














available living space 


vaid% 


03% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.4% 




frequency 


2 





1 


1 


affordable living space 


vaid% 


03% 


28% 


03% 


0.4% 




frequency 


6 


3 


2 


1 


access to equipment and supplies 


vaid% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




frequency 














access to management expertise 


vald% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




frequency 














cultural activity 


vafd% 


6.4% 


4.6% 


51% 


82% 




frequency 


41 


5 


13 


23 


environmental quality 


vaid% 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


25% 




frequency 


7 








7 


meda responsiveness 


vaid% 


02% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 




frequency 


1 








1 


network of peers 


vaid% 


56% 


37% 


51% 


63% 




frequency 


36 


4 


13 


19 


mentors 


vaid% 


02% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




frequency 


1 





1 





teachers 


vaid% 


03% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.7% 




frequency 


2 








2 


group members 


vaJd% 


03% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.4% 




frequency 


2 





1 


1 


other 


vald% 


30.0% 


56% 


69.4% 


36% 




frequency 


193 


6 


177 


10 


rnssrg 




30 


2 


9 


19 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


644 


106 


255 


231 



72. Does your music-related work require you to travel? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


73.7% 


873% 


84.9% 


58.6% 




Nurter 


462 


96 


203 


163 


no 


Percent 


26.3% 


127% 


151% 


41.4% 



109 





NuTter 


165 


14 


36 


115 


misaig 




47 





25 


22 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question 


627 


110 


239 


278 



73. If yes, approximately what portion of the year are you away from home? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Fewer than 2 weeks 


Percent 


33.1% 


198% 


27.8% 


47.9% 




Mrrfcer 


161 


19 


62 


80 


2-4 weeks 


Percent 


24.7% 


281% 


193% 


29.9% 




Number 


120 


27 


43 


50 


1-3 months 


Percent 


282% 


323% 


332% 


192% 




Member 


137 


31 


74 


32 


over3months 


Percent 


14.0% 


198% 


19.7% 


ao% 




Number 


68 


19 


44 


5 


mssrg 




183 


14 


41 


133 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


486 


96 


223 


167 



74. Approximately how many times during the last 12 months did you work or perform away from home? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


zero 


Percent 


14.6% 


75% 


7.6% 


25.6% 




Nurber 


79 


8 


17 


54 


1-5 times 


Percent 


328% 


35.8% 


233% 


412% 




Mrrter 


177 


38 


52 


87 


6-1 5 times 


Percent 


21.9% 


20.8% 


265% 


175% 




NjTber 


118 


22 


59 


37 


16-30 times 


Percent 


14.6% 


132% 


215% 


81% 




Mrrter 


79 


14 


48 


17 


over 30 times 


Percent 


161% 


226% 


21.1% 


7.6% 




Umber 


87 


24 


47 


16 


mssrg 




134 


4 


41 


89 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


540 


106 


223 


211 



75. EXCLUDING operational costs of your work space, please list approximate ANNUAL COSTS for the 
following music-related work expenses: 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


music-related supplies/services (sheet music, etc.) 










a$0-$500 


Percent 


68.9% 


65.7% 


67.5% 


715% 




Nurber 


416 


65 


168 


183 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


263% 


29.3% 


293% 


223% 



110 





Number 


159 


29 


73 


57 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


35% 


4.0% 


20% 


4.7% 




Number 


21 


4 


5 


12 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


0.7% 


10% 


0.0% 


12% 




Number 


4 


1 





3 


e over $7500 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.0% 


12% 


0.4% 




Number 


4 





3 


1 


2 equipment 












a $0- $500 


Percent 


27.8% 


23.8% 


19.4% 


37.9% 




Number 


169 


24 


49 


96 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


58.0% 


56.4% 


68.8% 


47.8% 




Number 


352 


57 


174 


121 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


102% 


109% 


103% 


9.9% 




Number 


62 


11 


26 


25 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


21% 


4.0% 


12% 


2.4% 




Number 


13 


4 


3 


6 


e over $7500 


Percent 


UBP/o 


50% 


0.4% 


20% 




Number 


11 


5 


1 


5 


3 capital improvements 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


765% 


63.5% 


84.9% 


723% 




Number 


416 


54 


203 


159 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


158% 


24.7% 


92% 


19.5% 




Number 


86 


21 


22 


43 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


4.8% 


9.4% 


33% 


4.5% 




Number 


26 


8 


8 


10 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


15% 


0.0% 


1.7% 


13% 




Number 


8 





4 


4 


e over $7500 


Percent 


15% 


24% 


03% 


18% 




Number 


8 


2 


2 


4 


4 training/maintaining music 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


75.9% 


70.6% 


828% 


70.8% 




Number 


432 


60 


202 


170 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


195% 


25.9% 


11.1% 


25.8% 




Number 


111 


22 


27 


62 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


33% 


24% 


4.1% 


29% 




Number 


19 


2 


10 


7 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


05% 


12% 


0.4% 


0.4% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 


1 


e over $7500 


Percent 


0.7% 


0.0% 


16% 


0.0% 




Number 


4 





4 






111 



5 publicity/marketing 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


68.9% 


64.8% 


635% 


762% 




Mrrber 


385 


59 


153 


173 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


23.4% 


242% 


26.6% 


193% 




NUrber 


131 


22 


64 


45 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


59% 


38% 


75% 


31% 




Nuiter 


33 


8 


18 


7 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


05% 


1.1% 


12% 


0.4% 




rlrrber 


5 


1 


3 


1 


e over $7500 


Percent 


05% 


1.1% 


12% 


0.4% 




Mrrber 


5 


1 


3 


1 


6 travel^cartage 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


472% 


43.6% 


35.9% 


59.7% 




NuTter 


271 


41 


92 


138 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


39.4% 


39.4% 


442% 


342% 




NLrrber 


226 


37 


110 


79 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


105% 


117% 


153% 


4.8% 




NLmbe- 


60 


11 


38 


11 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


1.4% 


21% 


20% 


0.4% 




Nurte- 


8 


2 


5 


1 


e over $7500 


Percent 


ie% 


32% 


1B% 


05% 




Hrrbsr 


9 


3 


4 


2 


7 recording costs 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


551% 


420% 


50.8% 


64.8% 




Nuiter 


310 


37 


126 


147 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


25.6% 


336% 


23.4% 


229% 




Nuiter 


144 


34 


58 


52 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


112% 


91% 


165% 


62% 




Nurber 


63 


8 


41 


14 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


4.1% 


57% 


4.0% 


35% 




Mirber 


23 


5 


10 


8 


e over $7500 


Percent 


4.1% 


4.5% 


52% 


26% 




Njrber 


23 


4 


13 


6 


8 management costs 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


89.7% 


77.9% 


913% 


923% 




Njrber 


471 


60 


219 


192 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


B7% 


156% 


5.4% 


4.8% 




Nurber 


35 


12 


13 


10 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


1.7% 


35% 


13% 


1.4% 




Nurber 


9 


3 


3 


3 



112 



d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


05% 


0.0% 


05% 


10% 




Umber 


4 





2 


2 


e over $7500 


Percent 


1.1% 


26% 


13% 


05% 




Number 


6 


2 


3 


1 


9 musical instrument insurance 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


921% 


84.0% 


95.8% 


90.9% 




Number 


490 


63 


228 


199 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


7.1% 


133% 


33% 


37% 




Number 


38 


10 


9 


19 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


05% 




Number 


1 








1 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


04% 


13% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


2 


1 


1 





e over $7500 


Percent 


02% 


13% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 








lOother 












a$0-$500 


Percent 


65.6% 


65.7% 


70.9% 


57.4% 




Number 


233 


18 


141 


74 


b $501 -$2500 


Percent 


262% 


222% 


21.1% 


34.9% 




Number 


93 


6 


42 


45 


C$2501 -$5000 


Percent 


68% 


7.4% 


65% 


7.0% 




Number 


24 


2 


13 


9 


d $5001 -$7500 


Percent 


03% 


37% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 


1 








e over $7500 


Percent 


1.1% 


0.0% 


15% 


05% 




Number 


4 





3 


1 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



76. Where do you go to obtain routine health care? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


private physician 


Percent 


23.0% 


25.5% 


223% 


227% 




Number 


155 


28 


59 


68 


HMO (health maintenance organization) or PPO 


Percent 


331% 


26.4% 


230% 


40.0% 




Number 


223 


29 


74 


120 


clinic 


Percent 


7S% 


155% 


57% 


7.0% 




Number 


53 


17 


15 


21 


hospital outpatient department 


Percent 


36% 


15% 


3.4% 


4.3% 



113 





Mrrber 


24 


2 


9 


13 


emergency room 


Percent 


22% 


27% 


04% 


37% 




Number 


15 


3 


1 


11 


1 do not obtain routine health care 


Percent 


252% 


20.9% 


27.3% 


25.0% 




Nrrber 


170 


23 


72 


75 


arts-related medical facility (please specify) 


Percent 


42% 


155% 


23% 


1.7% 




Number 


28 


17 


6 


5 


other 


Percent 


75% 


45% 


91% 


67% 




Number 


49 


5 


24 


20 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



77. Have occupational hazards in your music-related work caused you any injuries? 









Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


315% 


37.4% 


36.4% 


24.8% 




Urrber 


200 


40 


91 


69 


ro 


Percent 


635% 


626% 


63.6% 


752% 




Mrrber 


435 


67 


159 


209 


missing 




39 


3 


14 


22 


total # of respondents w 
question 


iho answered this 


635 


107 


250 


278 



78. If yes, how frequently has this occurred in the last five years? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


fewer than 3 times 


Percent 


40.3% 


42.9% 


338% 


40.5% 




Nurber 


81 


18 


33 


30 


3 or more times 


Percent 


229% 


262% 


27.1% 


162% 




Number 


45 


11 


23 


2 


ongoing condition 


Percent 


36.8% 


31.0% 


34.1% 


432% 




Number 


74 


13 


29 


32 


rrissrg 




473 


68 


179 


226 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


201 


42 


85 


74 



79. Do you engage in preventive medical care in relation to your music-related work? (counseling, injury 
prevention, etc.)? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


40.1% 


352% 


47.1% 


35.9% 




Nurter 


248 


37 


113 


98 


no 


Percent 


59.9% 


64.8% 


529% 


64.1% 



114 





Number 


370 


68 


127 


175 


missing 




56 


5 


24 


27 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question 


618 


105 


240 


273 



80. Do you have health or medical coverage? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


63.3% 


58.3% 


58.7% 


692% 




Number 


398 


63 


142 


193 


no 


Percent 


36.7% 


41.7% 


41.3% 


30.8% 




Number 


231 


45 


100 


86 


rnsshg 




45 


2 


22 


21 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question 


629 


108 


242 


279 



81 . If yes, which type do you have? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


I-MO 


Percent 


43.1% 


42.9% 


35.3% 


49.2% 




Number 


175 


27 


53 


95 


PPO 


Percent 


160% 


175% 


87% 


212% 




Number 


65 


11 


13 


41 


personal policy through private insurance 
ccrrpsry 


Percent 


131% 


127% 


167% 


10.4% 




Number 


53 


8 


25 


20 


disability coverage for loss of income 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














group insurance policy through arts/arts service 
organization 


Percent 


4.4% 


7.9% 


40% 


36% 




Number 


18 


5 


6 


7 


other group insurance policy 


Percent 


7.6% 


73% 


80% 


73% 




Number 


31 


5 


12 


14 


other 


Percent 


158% 


11.1% 


27.3% 


83% 




Number 


64 


7 


41 


16 


rnsshg 




268 


47 


114 


107 


total # of respondents who answered this question 
(including refusals & dont knows) 




406 


63 


150 


193 



82. How was this health coverage obtained? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


40.3% 


54.1% 


42.7% 


34.1% 




Number 


145 


33 


50 


62 



115 



mate 


Percent 


a9% 


82% 


60% 


110% 




Nurber 


32 


5 


7 


20 


employer 


Percent 


361% 


262% 


342% 


40.7% 




Nurber 


130 


16 


40 


74 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


42% 


16% 


60% 


38% 




Nurber 


15 


1 


7 


7 


mate's union a employer 


Percent 


6.4% 


66% 


11.1% 


33% 




Nurber 


23 


4 


13 


6 


private company 


Percent 


42% 


33% 


0.0% 


7.1% 




Nurber 


15 


2 





13 


mssrrj 




314 


49 


147 


118 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




360 


61 


117 


182 



83a Who pays for this coverage? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


170 


31 


62 


77 




Nurber 


252% 


282% 


235% 


25.7% 


mate 


Percent 


22 


5 


4 


13 




Number 


33% 


4.5% 


15% 


4.3% 


employer 


Percent 


107 


12 


37 


58 




Nrrber 


159% 


109% 


14.0% 


193% 


employer under contract 


Percent 












Nurber 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


my musicians' union (specify union) 


Percent 


13 


1 


10 


2 




Nurber 


13% 


0.9% 


38% 


0.7% 


mate's unon a employer 


Percent 


19 


1 


15 


3 




Nurber 


28% 


0.9% 


57% 


10% 


private company 


Percent 


5 





1 


4 




Urrber 


0.7% 


0.0% 


04% 


13% 


arts/arts service organization (specify 
organization) 


Percent 


2 








2 




Nurber 


03% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


other 


Percent 


43 


5 


25 


13 




Nurber 


6.4% 


4.5% 


95% 


4.3% 


total # of respondents who answered this question 
(including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



116 



83b. What percentage do they pay? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 














rrem 


78 


80 


83 


74 






100 


100 


100 


100 


medan 




std. dev. 


34 


34 


31 


37 




mxe 


100 


100 


100 


100 




vald cases 


170 


31 


62 


77 






504 


79 


202 


223 


mssrg 


mate 














man 


65 


54 


54 


73 




medan 


64 


50 


59 


100 




std. dev. 


35 


45 


34 


33 




mxe 


100 


10 


10 


100 




valid cases 


22 


5 


4 


13 




mssrg 


652 


105 


260 


287 


employer 














rrean 


86 


81 


90 


85 






95 


90 


100 


90 


medan 




std. dev. 


20 


20 


20 


19 




mxe 


100 


100 


100 


100 




vaid cases 


107 


12 


37 


58 




mssrg 


567 


98 


227 


242 


my musicians' union (specify union) 














rrexi 


74 


80 


73 


75 




madan 


80 


80 


80 


75 




std. dev. 


27 





29 


35 




mxe 


100 


80 


100 


50 




vald cases 


13 


1 


rj 


2 






661 


109 


254 


298 


rresng 


mate's union or employer 














rrean 


96 


100 


100 


73 




medan 


100 


100 


100 


80 




std. dev. 


14 








31 




mxe 


100 


100 


100 


40 




vaid cases 


19 


1 


15 


3 




mssrg 


655 


109 


249 


297 


private company 














mBBTl 


97 





100 


96 



117 





medan 


100 





100 


100 




std. dev. 


7 








8 




mxe 


100 





100 


100 




vafcl cases 


5 





1 


4 




mssng 


669 


110 


263 


296 


arts/arts service organization (specify 
organization) 












rrcan 


100 








100 






100 








100 


medan 




std. da/. 
















mrfe 


100 








100 




vaid cases 


2 








2 




mssng 


672 


110 


264 


298 


other 














rTEBTI 


95 


100 


96 


93 




madan 


100 


100 


100 


100 




std. dev. 


V 





15 


23 




mxe 


100 


100 


100 


100 




vaid cases 


43 


5 


25 


13 




mssng 


631 


105 


239 


287 



84. Do you have life insurance? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


vaid% 


333% 


43.9% 


318% 


30.6% 




frequency 


213 


47 


83 


83 


no 


vaid% 


66.7% 


561% 


682% 


69.4% 




frequency 


426 


60 


178 


188 


mssng 




35 


3 


3 


29 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question 


639 


107 


261 


271 



85. How was the insurance obtained? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


613% 


813% 


672% 


46.0% 




Number 


122 


39 


43 


40 


Mate 


Percent 


4.0% 


21% 


00% 


80% 




Number 


8 


1 





7 


employer 


Percent 


25.1% 


63% 


23.4% 


36.8% 




Number 


50 


3 


15 


32 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


25% 


00% 


4.7% 


23% 




Number 


5 





3 


2 



118 



mate's union or empbyer 


Percent 


3.0% 


42% 


4.7% 


1.1% 




Number 


6 


2 


3 


1 


private company 


Percent 


4.0% 


63% 


0.0% 


5.7% 




Number 


8 


3 





5 


mssrg 




475 


62 


200 


213 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


199 


48 


64 


87 



86. Who pays for this coverage? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


Percent 


70.1% 


85.4% 


710% 


60.9% 




Number 


138 


41 


44 


53 


mate 


Percent 


3.0% 


21% 


0.0% 


5.7% 




Nurber 


6 


1 





5 


employer 


Percent 


213% 


63% 


24.2% 


27.6% 




Number 


42 


3 


15 


24 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


15% 


0.0% 


32% 


1.1% 




Number 


3 





2 


1 


mate's union or empbyer 


Percent 


25% 


63% 


16% 


1.1% 




Number 


5 


3 


1 


1 


private company 


Percent 


15% 


00% 


0.0% 


3.4% 




Number 


3 








3 


arts/arts service organization 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














other 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














rrissrg 




477 


62 


202 


213 


total # of respondents who answered this qi 


jestion 


197 


43 


62 


87 



87. Do you have at least one retirement plan? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


_yes 


Percent 


43.0% 


47.6% 


44.0% 


40.4% 




Number 


272 


49 


113 


110 


no 


Percent 


57.0% 


524% 


56.0% 


59.6% 




Number 


360 


54 


144 


162 


msshg 




42 


7 


7 


28 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


632 


103 


257 


272 



119 



88. If yes, how obtained? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


setf 


Percent 


215% 


22.7% 


265% 


167% 




NiiTber 


145 


25 


70 


50 


employer 


Percent 


159% 


145% 


93% 


21.7% 




Number 


107 


16 


26 


65 


my musicians' union 


Percent 


7.9% 


16.4% 


95% 


33% 




Number 


53 


18 


25 


10 


arts/arts service organization (specify 
organization) 


Percent 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


10% 




Njrber 


4 





1 


3 


other 


Percent 


25% 


27% 


27% 


23% 




Number 


17 


3 


7 


7 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



89. Is this a personal or an employee retirement plan? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


personal 


Percent 


56.5% 


592% 


773% 


34.5% 




Number 


152 


29 


85 


38 


employee 


Percent 


29.0% 


22.4% 


20.0% 


40.9% 




Number 


78 


11 


22 


45 


both 


Percent 


145% 


18.4% 


27% 


24.5% 




Nurber 


39 


9 


3 


27 






405 


61 


154 


190 


mssrig 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


269 


49 


110 


110 



90. Who pays for this retirement plan? 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


self 


vald% 


63.6% 


792% 


63.4% 


56.9% 




frequency 


171 


38 


71 


62 


mate 


vafcl% 


26% 


21% 


09% 


4.6% 




frequency 


7 


1 


1 


5 


employer 


vafcl% 


23.4% 


10.4% 


179% 


34.9% 




frequency 


63 


5 


20 


38 


my musicians' union 


vald% 


73% 


83% 


152% 


0XP/o 




frequency 


21 


4 


17 





arts service organization (specify 
organization) 


valid % 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




frequency 














other 


vald% 


26% 


0X3% 


27% 


3.7% 




frequency 


7 





3 


4 



120 



missrTQ 




405 


62 


152 


191 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


269 


48 


112 


109 






91. Have you made provisions for your death (will, burial plan, etc. ) 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


173% 


216% 


167% 


162% 




Nurber 


104 


22 


42 


40 


no 


Percent 


827% 


78.4% 


833% 


83.8% 




Nurber 


497 


80 


210 


207 


rrisshg 




73 


8 


12 


53 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


601 


102 


252 


247 



92. At what age did you achieve your first professional recognition? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


rrem 


96 





21 


1 




100 





20 


1 


rrecfen 


std.dev. 


14 





8 





mxe 


100 





19 


1 


valid cases 


19 





253 


206 


missing 


655 


110 


11 


94 



93. Through what venue did this professional recognition occur? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


award or honor 


Percent 


75% 


120% 


32% 


96% 




Nurber 


45 


13 


8 


25 


feature article 


Percent 


55% 


65% 


7.7% 


36% 




Number 


36 


7 


19 


10 


first paid job 


Percent 


42.7% 


54.6% 


315% 


48.5% 




Number 


263 


59 


78 


126 


grant 


Percent 


05% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


06% 




Number 


3 





1 


2 


job with a known band 


Percent 


130% 


130% 


9.7% 


162% 




Number 


80 


14 


24 


42 


played with a major artist 


Percent 


109% 


5.6% 


17.7% 


65% 




Number 


67 


6 


44 


V 


winning a competition 


Percent 


2.4% 


28% 


06% 


36% 




Number 


15 


3 


2 


10 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


172% 


5.6% 


29.0% 


106% 



121 





Nurrber 


106 


6 


72 


28 






58 


2 


16 


40 


rnssrn 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


616 


108 


248 


.260 



94. Has your talent been recognized? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


locally 


Percent 


46.3% 


67.3% 


25.0% 


573% 




Number 


312 


74 


65 


172 


nationally 


Percent 


iai% 


41.8% 


17J8% 


12C% 




Number 


129 


46 


47 


36 


internationally 


Percent 


353% 


51fl% 


49.6% 


167% 




Nirtier 


238 


57 


131 


50 


talent not recognized 


Percent 


9.8% 


27% 


61% 


157% 




Nurrter 


66 


3 


16 


47 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


55% 


0.0% 


11.4% 


23% 




Number 


37 





30 


7 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



95. If yes, how? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


newspaper articles 


Percent 


43.3% 


64.5% 


48.1% 


313% 




Nurrber 


292 


71 


127 


94 


magazine articles 


Percent 


33.8% 


50.0% 


503% 


130% 




Number 


228 


55 


134 


39 


television coverage 


Percent 


26.0% 


413% 


28.0% 


183% 




Number 


175 


46 


74 


55 


radio coverage 


Percent 


43.9% 


555% 


59.8% 


25.7% 




Nurrber 


296 


61 


158 


77 


record with the major record label 


Percent 


175% 


282% 


23.9% 


8.0% 




Nurrber 


118 


31 


63 


24 


perform widely 


Percent 


623% 


70.9% 


753% 


47.3% 




Number 


420 


78 


200 


142 


other (please specify) 


Percent 


17.4% 


36% 


27.7% 


133% 




Nurrber 


117 


4 


73 


40 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



122 



96. How satisfied are you with your music at this point? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 

Francisco 


very satisfied 


Percent 


161% 


194% 


163% 


143% 




NLmber 


102 


21 


39 


42 


satisfied 


Percent 


57.0% 


593% 


56.7% 


563% 




Mrrber 


360 


64 


133 


160 


dissatisfied 


Percent 


242% 


194% 


242% 


261% 




Njrber 


153 


21 


58 


74 


very dissatisfied 


Percent 


2.7% 


19% 


29% 


23% 




Nurrber 


17 


2 


7 


8 


nisshg 




42 


2 


24 


16 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


632 


108 


240 


284 



97. Do you feel that up to this point your career aspirations have been realized? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


153% 


23.1% 


17.1% 


109% 




Mrrber 


97 


25 


41 


31 


9omewhatyes 


Percent 


372% 


48.1% 


283% 


40.5% 




Mrrber 


235 


52 


68 


115 


somewhat no 


Percent 


103% 


176% 


75% 


109% 




Nurrber 


68 


19 


18 


31 


I no 


Percent 


36.7% 


11.1% 


47.1% 


37.7% 




Mrrber 


232 


12 


113 


107 


nissrg 




42 


2 


24 


16 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


632 


108 


240 


284 



98. If no, what is the major area that has not been fulfilled according to your expectations? 



99. Have you applied for a grant or fellowship as a jazz or aspiring jazz musician? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


316% 


121% 


56.9% 


163% 




Mrrber 


207 


13 


148 


46 


no 


Percent 


682% 


87.9% 


43.1% 


83.7% 




Mrrber 


443 


94 


112 


237 


nissrig 




24 


3 


4 


17 


total # of respondents who answered this 

question 


650 


107 


260 


283 



123 



100. How much did you receive in 2000 before taxes in each of the following areas? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


music-related grants 










t 


a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


94.8% 


932% 


93.7% 


952% 




Number 


452 


55 


192 


205 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


15% 


00% 


20% 


1.4% 




Number 


7 





4 


3 


c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


21% 


3.4% 


29% 


09% 




Mrrfaer 


10 


2 


6 


2 


d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


15% 


3.4% 


15% 


09% 




Number 


7 


2 


3 


2 


e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


0O% 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


02% 


00% 


0.0% 


05% 




Number 


1 








1 




rnsai 


3,412 


4,195 


3,549 


3,063 




nnjai 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


music-related fellowships 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


96.7% 


94.5% 


95.9% 


961% 




Number 


441 


52 


187 


202 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


1.1% 


00% 


26% 


00% 




Number 


5 





5 





c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


15% 


36% 


10% 


15% 




Number 


7 


2 


2 


3 


d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


0.7% 


18% 


05% 


05% 




Number 


3 


1 


1 


1 


e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


Oj0% 


00% 


Q0% 


00% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


0j0P/o 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Mrrber 
















rrean 


3,015 


3,682 


2,952 


2,888 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2500 


2,500 


music royalties/residuals 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


96.0% 


94.0% 


95.9% 


96.6% 




Nurrber 


453 


63 


189 


201 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


28% 


60% 


20% 


2.4% 




Number 


13 


4 


4 


5 


c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


1.1% 


00% 


15% 


10% 




Mirber 


5 





3 


2 



124 



d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


05% 


00% 




Number 


1 





1 





e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 


00% 




Number 
















rren 


2871 


2,799 


3,008 


2,764 




medan 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


public assistance (welfare) 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


98.0% 


100.0% 


97.4% 


98.0% 




Number 


437 


53 


186 


198 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


1ff/o 


0O% 


21% 


20% 




Number 


8 





4 


4 


c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


05% 


00% 




Number 


1 





1 





d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


00% 


00% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
















rren 


2,623 


2,500 


2,683 


2,599 




rrecfen 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


unemployment benefits 












a $0- $5,000 


Percent 


993% 


961% 


995% 


995% 




Number 


446 


53 


191 


202 


b $5,001 -$10,000 


Percent 


0.4% 


19% 


05% 


05% 




Number 


2 


1 


1 


1 


c$1 0,001 -$25,000 


Percent 


02% 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 


1 











d $25,001 -$50,000 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














e $50,001 -$75,000 


Percent 


00% 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 




Number 














f over $75,000 


Percent 


00% 


0O% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 
















man 


2,556 


2,593 


2,526 


2,525 




madai 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



125 



101. If you received grants or fellowships as a jazz or aspiring musician, from what sources did you receive 
them? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


1 never received 


Percent 


365% 


415% 


20.1% 


49.0% 




Number 


246 


46 


53 


147 


National Endowment for the Arts 


Percent 


92% 


18% 


17.4% 


4.7% 




Number 


62 


2 


46 


14 


other federal agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


10>/o 


00% 


15% 


10% 




Mirber 


7 





4 


3 


regional agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


1£P/o 


00% 


1.1% 


13% 




Nirber 


7 





3 


4 


state agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


4.3% 


18% 


61% 


37% 




Number 


29 


2 


16 


11 


local agency (specify agency) 


Percent 


27% 


09% 


4.5% 


1.7% 




Nurter 


18 


1 


12 


5 


foundation (specify foundation) 


Percent 


33% 


00% 


53% 


27% 




Number 


22 





14 


8 


educational institution (specify 
institution^ 


Percent 


7.7% 


73% 


11.7% 


4.3% 




Number 


52 


8 


3) 


13 


corporate sponsor (specify sponsor) 


Percent 


10% 


00% 


19% 


0.7% 




Number 


7 





5 


2 


other 


Percent 


73% 


09% 


167% 


13% 




Number 


49 


1 


44 


4 


rrisshg 




428 


64 


211 


153 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question (including refusals & dont knows) 




674 


110 


264 


300 



102. 1 am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes 
your total income from work as musician from all sources for 2000 before taxes. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


$0-$500 


Percent 


133% 


19% 


79% 


24.1% 




Number 


85 


2 


20 


63 


$501 -$3000 


Percent 


160% 


58% 


123% 


235% 




Number 


99 


6 


31 


62 


$3001 -$7000 


Percent 


139% 


29% 


142% 


180% 




Number 


86 


3 


36 


47 


$7001 -$12,000 


Percent 


130% 


136% 


150% 


107% 




Number 


80 


14 


38 


28 



126 



$12,001 -$20,000 


Percent 


14.7% 


252% 


17.4% 


80% 




Numbe: 


91 


26 


44 


21 


$20,001 -$40,000 


Percent 


198% 


40.8% 


225% 


• 88% 




Number 


122 


42 


57 


23 


$40,001 -$60,000 


Percent 


55% 


78% 


7.1% 


31% 




Number 


34 


8 


18 


8 


$60,001 -$80,000 


Percent 


32% 


19% 


36% 


3.4% 




Number 


20 


2 


9 


9 


$80,001 -$100,000 


Percent 


00% 


00P/o 


00% 


0.0% 




Number 














more than $100,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Nurber 














rrem 




$15,560 


$23,059 


$17,962 


$10273 


nail i 




$9,501 


$30,001 


$16,001 


$5,001 






57 


7 


11 


39 


mssrg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


617 


103 


253 


261 



103. Did this money cover your music-related costs in 2000? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


625% 


89.1% 


653% 


48.6% 




Number 


373 


90 


164 


119 


no 


Percent 


375% 


109% 


34.7% 


51.4% 




Njrber 


224 


11 


87 


126 


rrissra 




77 


9 


13 


55 


total # of respondents who answered this 
question 


597 


101 


251 


245 



104. What percentage of this income came from your work as a jazz musician in 2000? 





Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


man 


70 


78 


81 


56 


rredari 


90 


98 


100 


50 


std.dev. 


35 


30 


30 


38 


rrrxe 


100 


100 


100 


100 


vaid cases 


587 


104 


247 


236 


mssrtj 


87 


6 


17 


64 



127 



105. 1 am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes 
your total income as an individual from all sources in 2000 before taxes including your 
work as a musician. 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


$0- $500 


Percent 


7.7% 


20% 


4.9% 


125% 




Number 


46 


2 


12 


32 


$501 -$3000 


Percent 


117% 


50% 


123% 


137% 




NLrrber 


70 


5 


30 


35 


$3001- $7000 


Percent 


252% 


29.0% 


23.4% 


25.5% 




Number 


151 


29 


57 


65 


$7001 -$12,000 


Percent 


20.0% 


26.0% 


20.9% 


163% 




Number 


120 


26 


51 


43 


$12,001 -$20,000 


Percent 


127% 


170% 


16.4% 


75% 




Number 


76 


V 


40 


19 


$20,001 -$40,000 


Percent 


95% 


110% 


9.4% 


9.0% 




Number 


57 


11 


23 


23 


$40,001 -$60,000 


Percent 


62% 


6.0% 


53% 


7.1% 




Number 


37 


6 


13 


18 


$60,001 -$80,000 


Percent 


70% 


4.0% 


7.4% 


75% 




Number 


42 


4 


18 


20 


$80,001 -$100,000 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


00% 


0.0% 




Number 














more than $100,000 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Nurber 














mEm 




$16269 


$15,833 


$16,660 


$16,066 


rredan 




$9,501 


$9,501 


$9,501 


$5,001 


nisshg 




75 


10 


20 


45 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


599 


100 


244 


255 



106. I am going to read a list of income ranges. Please let me know when I get to the category that describes 
your total household gross income in 2000 before taxes. 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


$0- $500 


Percent 


4.3% 


21% 


5.0% 


4.6% 




Number 


25 


2 


12 


11 


$501- $3000 


Percent 


83% 


21% 


88% 


10.4% 




Number 


48 


2 


2 


25 


$3001 -$7000 


Percent 


225% 


213% 


213% 


24.1% 




Number 


130 


21 


51 


58 


$7001 -$12,000 


Percent 


151% 


17.7% 


133% 


158% 




Number 


87 


17 


32 


38 



128 



$12,001 -$20,000 


Percent 


133% 


198% 


146% 


95% 




Number 


77 


19 


35 


23 


$20,001 -$40,000 


Percent 


108% 


135% 


88% 


• 112% 




Number 


61 


13 


21 


27 


$40,001 -$60,000 


Percent 


80% 


125% 


75% 


6.6% 




Number 


46 


12 


18 


16 


$60,001- $80,000 


Percent 


179% 


104% 


20.8% 


178% 




Number 


103 


10 


50 


43 


$80,001 -$100,000 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














more than $100,000 


Percent 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0O% 




Number 














rreai 




$24,504 


$23,589 


$25,787 


$23,592 


medan 




$9,501 


$16,001 


$16,001 


$9,501 


mssrg 




97 


14 


24 


59 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


577 


96 


240 


241 



107. What is the number of dependents you and your household are responsible for (include yourself 
as one)? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


1 (self only) 


Percent 


64.2% 


510% 


66.3% 


67.4% 




Number 


395 


52 


169 


174 


2 


Percent 


202% 


29.4% 


20.8% 


159% 




Number 


124 


30 


53 


41 


3-4 


Percent 


143% 


178% 


118% 


155% 




Number 


88 


18 


30 


40 


5-7 


Percent 


1.1% 


20% 


08% 


12% 




Number 


7 


2 


2 


3 


8-10 


Percent 


0O% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 




Number 














morethanlO 


Percent 


02% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.0% 




Number 


1 





1 





mean 




4 


4 


1 


7 


medan 




4 


4 


1 


5 


mssrg 




59 


8 


9 


42 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


615 


102 


255 


258 



129 



108. What is your current marital status? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


single, never married 


Percent 


41 fl% 


31 B% 


36.0% 


51.1% 




Number 


266 


35 


90 


141 


living with significant other 


Percent 


75% 


6.4% 


105% 


65% 




Number 


50 


7 


25 


18 


married 


Percent 


25.6% 


355% 


252% 


221% 




Number 


163 


39 


63 


61 


separated 


Percent 


35% 


36% 


4.4% 


25% 




Number 


22 


4 


11 


7 


divorced 


Percent 


178% 


213% 


212% 


135% 




Number 


113 


24 


53 


36 


widowed 


Percent 


05% 


05% 


12% 


0.7% 




Number 


6 


1 


3 


2 


living with parents and/or siblings 


Percent 


1.7% 


05% 


05% 


33% 




Number 


11 





2 


9 


other 


Percent 


03% 


0.0% 


12% 


0.7% 




Number 


5 





3 


2 


mfeshg 




38 





14 


24 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


636 


110 


250 


276 



109. Have you played jazz for money during the last 12 months? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


yes 


Percent 


921% 


1005% 


965% 


855% 




Number 


563 


109 


218 


236 


rc> 


Percent 


75% 


05% 


35% 


145% 




Number 


48 





8 


40 






63 


1 


38 


24 


mssrtj 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


611 





226 


276 



110. If you currently play with a group, how many different groups do you play with? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


none 


Percent 


57% 


6.4% 


8.4% 


95% 




Number 


53 


7 


20 


26 


one 


Percent 


116% 


a7% 


13.4% 


133% 




Number 


71 


4 


32 


35 


two 


Percent 


165% 


6.4% 


175% 


185% 




Number 


98 


7 


42 


49 


three 


Percent 


22.4% 


193% 


255% 


20.9% 



130 





Nurrber 


137 


21 


61 


55 


four or more 


Percent 


412% 


642% 


35.1% 


375% 




Nurber 


252 


70 


84 


98 


rrissrxj 




63 


1 


25 


37 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


611 


109 


239 


263 



111. How large is each, including yourself? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San Francisco 


first group 


mean 


6 


6 


5 


6 




medan 


4 


5 


4 


4 




std. dev. 


6 


8 


4 


6 




mxe 


4 


4 


4 


4 




vaid cases 


546 


98 


226 


222 




nrtssrg 


128 


12 


38 


78 


secondgroup 


rrem 


6 


6 


6 


7 




medan 


4 


5 


4 


5 




std. dev. 


6 


3 


4 


7 




mxe 


4 


4 


4 


4 




vaid cases 


470 


90 


189 


191 




rrissrig 


204 


20 


75 


109 


third group 


man 


6 


5 


6 


7 




medan 


5 


5 


4 


5 




std. dev. 


7 


3 


4 


10 




mxe 


4 


5 


4 


4 




vaBd cases 


368 


82 


147 


139 




rrissrig 


306 


28 


117 


161 


fourth group 


maai 


7 


7 


7 


8 




medan 


5 


6 


5 


5 




std. dev. 


7 


5 


5 


9 




mxe 


4 


4 


4 


4 




vafd cases 


233 


59 


85 


89 




mssrg 


441 


51 


179 


211 



112. In your opinion, what are the three most important qualities someone needs to pursue a career in jazz? 



Choice 1 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


business savvy 


Percent 


108% 


7.1% 


4.8% 


163% 




Number 


62 


7 


10 


45 


connections 


Percent 


75% 


61% 


05% 


135% 




Nurber 


43 


6 


1 


36 



131 



curiosity 


Percent 


33% 


30% 


05% 


50% 




Number 


19 


3 


1 


15 


energy 


Percent 


35% 


51% 


05% 


52% 




Mrrber 


20 


5 


1 


14 


intelligence 


Percent 


31% 


51% 


00% 


4.9% 




Number 


18 


5 





13 


bck 


Percent 


03% 


10% 


0.0% 


0.4% 




Number 


2 


1 





1 


perception 


Percent 


1.4% 


10% 


00% 


20% 




Number 


8 


1 





7 


performing ability 


Percent 


122% 


192% 


4.8% 


15.4% 




Number 


70 


19 


10 


41 


physical stamina 


Percent 


1.4% 


00% 


1.4% 


19% 




Number 


8 





3 


5 


talent 


Percent 


222% 


38.4% 


110% 


25.1% 




Njrber 


128 


38 


23 


67 


technique 


Percent 


10% 


20% 


05% 


1.1% 




Number 


6 


2 


1 


3 


other 


Percent 


333% 


121% 


762% 


75% 




Nurber 


192 


12 


160 


20 






98 


11 


54 


33 


msshg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


576 


99 


210 


267 



Choice 2 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


busresssaw/ 


Percent 


7.7% 


121% 


92% 


4.9% 




Number 


42 


12 


17 


13 


connections 


Percent 


91% 


121% 


1.1% 


137% 




Number 


50 


12 


2 


36 


curiosity 


Percent 


20% 


10% 


1B% 


27% 




Nurber 


11 


1 


3 


7 


energy 


Percent 


57% 


30% 


1.1% 


99% 




NUrber 


31 


3 


2 


26 


intelligence 


Percent 


7.1% 


101% 


10% 


93% 




Number 


39 


10 


3 


26 


kxk 


Percent 


4.4% 


30% 


1.1% 


72% 




Number 


24 


3 


2 


19 


perception 


Percent 


22% 


4.0% 


05% 


27% 




Nurber 


12 


4 


1 


7 


performing ability 


Percent 


14.3% 


253% 


4.3% 


17.1% 




Number 


78 


25 


8 


45 



132 



physical stamina 


Percent 


1ff/o 


0.0% 


1.1% 


27% 




Number 


9 





2 


7 


talent 


Percent 


157% 


212% 


; 70% 


193% 




Number 


86 


21 


13 


52 


technique 


Percent 


4.4% 


51% 


05% 


63% 




Number 


24 


5 


1 


18 


other 


Percent 


25.8% 


3.0% 


703% 


27% 




Number 


141 


3 


131 


7 


missing 




127 


11 


79 


37 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


547 


99 


185 


263 




Choice 3 




Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


business sawy 


Percent 


113% 


124% 


122% 


10.4% 




Number 


57 


12 


18 


27 


connections 


Percent 


72% 


4.1% 


4.1% 


100% 




Number 


36 


4 


6 


26 


curiosity 


Percent 


2.4% 


21% 


1.4% 


31% 




Number 


12 


2 


2 


8 


energy 


Percent 


53% 


82% 


0.7% 


7.7% 




Number 


29 


8 


1 


20 


intelligence 


Percent 


5.0% 


72% 


0.7% 


6.6% 




Number 


25 


7 


1 


17 


luck 


Percent 


7.6% 


103% 


4.8% 


81% 




Number 


38 


10 


7 


21 


perception 


Percent 


3.4% 


93% 


0.0% 


31% 




Number 


17 


9 





8 


performing ability 


Percent 


113% 


165% 


5.4% 


127% 




Number 


57 


16 


8 


33 


physical stamina 


Percent 


26% 


4.1% 


0.0% 


35% 




Number 


13 


4 





9 


talent 


Percent 


155% 


155% 


109% 


181% 




Number 


78 


15 





47 


technique 


Percent 


5.6% 


72% 


0.0% 


ai% 




Number 


28 


7 


16 


2I 


other 


Percent 


225% 


31% 


59.9% 


85% 




Number 


113 


3 


88 


22 


nisshg 




171 


13 


117 


41 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


503 


97 


147 


259 



133 



113. What are your three most important goals for the next five years as a musician? 



Choice 1 




Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


develop artistic competence 


Percent 


11854, 


119% 


15% 


193% 




Mrrber 


67 


12 


3 


52 


get a record deal 


Percent 


103% 


55% 


175% 


63% 




Mrrber 


60 


6 


36 


18 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


ai% 


75% 


97% 


91% 




Mrrber 


52 


8 


20 


24 


make a King from my music 


Percent 


112% 


14.9% 


08% 


133% 




Mrrber 


64 


15 


14 


35 


make money tan my muse 


Percent 


35% 


30% 


3.4% 


33% 




Mrrber 


20 


3 


7 


10 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


05% 


00% 


00% 


11% 




Mrrber 


3 








3 


parrjepate in major concerts 


Percent 


4.0% 


ao% 


58% 


30% 




Mrrber 


23 


3 


12 


8 


play wfth well-known groups 


Percent 


23% 


20% 


2.4% 


23% 




Mrrber 


13 


2 


5 


6 


reach higher level of artistic expression^ 
achievement 


Percent 


265% 


46.5% 


126% 


30.4% 




Mrrber 


153 


47 


26 


80 


spend more trne on music 


Percent 


4.0% 


35% 


3.4% 


4.9% 




Mrrber 


23 


3 


7 


13 


win recognrforVaward 


Percent 


12% 


10% 


25% 


00% 




Mrrber 


7 


1 


6 





other 


Percent 


145% 


10% 


34.0% 


53% 




Mrrber 


85 


1 


70 


14 


msshg 




104 


9 


58 


37 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


570 


101 


206 


263 



Choice 2 




Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


develop artistic competence 


Percent 


62% 


7.1% 


28% 


81% 




Mrrber 


33 


7 


5 


21 


get a record deal 


Percent 


71% 


51% 


124% 


43% 




Mrrber 


38 


5 


22 


11 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


92% 


101% 


62% 


105% 




Mmber 


49 


10 


11 


28 


make a Ktig from my music 


Percent 


1Q7% 


11.1% 


8.4% 


120% 




Mrrber 


57 


-n 


15 


31 


make money tan my muse 


Percent 


4.9% 


30% 


39% 


62% 



134 





Nurber 


26 


3 


7 


16 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


21% 


4.0% 


1.7% 


18% 




Number 


11 


4 


3 


4 


participate in major concerts 


Percent 


6.9% 


121% 


5.6% 


5B% 




Number 


37 


12 


10 


15 


play with well-known groups 


Percent 


7.9% 


9.1% 


5.6% 


83% 




Number 


42 


9 


10 


23 


reach higher level of artistic 
expressbrVachievement 


Percent 


19.1% 


182% 


8.4% 


26.7% 




Number 


102 


18 


15 


69 


spend more time on music 


Percent 


93% 


162% 


1.1% 


124% 




Number 


50 


16 


2 


32 


win recognition/award 


Percent 


2B% 


20% 


4.5% 


19% 




Number 


15 


2 


8 


5 


other 


Percent 


14.0% 


20% 


393% 


12% 




Number 


75 


2 


70 


3 


missrig 




139 


11 


86 


42 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


535 


99 


178 


258 



Choice 3 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


develop artistic competence 


Percent 


4.3% 


63% 


1.4% 


53% 




Number 


21 


6 


2 


13 


get a record deal 


Percent 


63% 


8.4% 


7.6% 


5.7% 




Number 


33 


8 


11 


14 


lead my own groups 


Percent 


72% 


63% 


9.7% 


61% 




Number 


35 


6 


14 


15 


make a living from my muse 


Percent 


8.7% 


8.4% 


7.6% 


9.4% 




Number 


42 


8 


11 


23 


make money from my muse 


Percent 


60% 


63% 


5.6% 


61% 




Number 


29 


6 


8 


15 


obtain critical reviews 


Percent 


08% 


21% 


0.0% 


03% 




Number 


4 


2 





2 


participate in major concerts 


Percent 


87% 


63% 


132% 


69% 




Number 


42 


6 


19 


17 


play with well-known groups 


Percent 


89% 


126% 


5.6% 


9.4% 




Number 


43 


12 


8 


23 


reach higher level of artistic 
expressbrVachievernent 


Percent 


136% 


116% 


69% 


18.4% 




Number 


66 


11 


10 


45 


spend more frne on muse 


Percent 


13.4% 


137% 


69% 


17.1% 




Number 


65 


13 


10 


42 


win recognition/award 


Percent 


79% 


105% 


35% 


9.4% 



135 





Number 


38 


10 


5 


23 


other 


Percent 


136% 


74% 


313% 


53% 




Number 


66 


7 


46 


13 


rrissna, 




190 


15 


120 


55 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


484 


95 


144 


245 



114. What is your gender? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


mde 


Percent 


802% 


83.6% 


73.7% 


84.5% 




Number 


534 


92 


191 


251 


female 


Percent 


193% 


164% 


263% 


155% 




Number 


132 


18 


68 


45 






8 





5 


3 


msshg 


total # of respondents who answered this question 




666 


110 


259 


297 



115. What is your race? 







Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


White 


Percent 


59.8% 


731% 


54.8% 


59.4% 




Number 


389 


79 


142 


168 


Black or African American 


Percent 


27.8% 


231% 


328% 


251% 




Number 


181 


25 


85 


71 


Hispanic or Latino 


Percent 


26% 


0.0% 


31% 


32% 




Number 


17 





8 


9 


American Indian or Alaska Native 


Percent 


22% 


0.0% 


23% 


28% 




Number 


14 





6 


8 


Asian 


Percent 


26% 


28% 


12% 


33% 




Number 


17 


3 


3 


11 


Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 




0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 






o 











other 




4.9% 


03% 


5.8% 


5.7% 






32 


1 


15 


16 


msshg 




24 


2 


5 


17 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


650 


108 


259 


283 



136 



Selection Criteria 







Total 


New 

Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Al Do you consider yourself a jazz musician? 












Yes 


Percent 


94.7% 


973% 


962% 


923% 




Nurrber 


638 


107 


254 


277 


N> 


Percent 


53% 


27% 


3B% 


7.7% 




Number 


36 


3 


10 


23 


Total 




674 


110 


264 


300 


A2 Did you earn more than 50 percent of your personal income in the last six months as a jazz musician or in jazz related act activities? 


Yes 


Percent 


53.3% 


918% 


57.6% 


35.3% 




Nuxber 


359 


101 


152 


106 


N> 


Percent 


46.7% 


82% 


42.4% 


64.7% 




Nurrber 


315 


9 


112 


194 


Total 




674 


110 


264 


300 


A3 Have you been engaged in your art/jazz more than 50 percent of the time during the last year? 


Yes 


Percent 


47.8% 


918% 


186% 


573% 




NjTber 


322 


101 


49 


172 


N> 


Percent 


522% 


82% 


81.4% 


42.7% 




Nurber 


352 


9 


215 


128 


Total 




674 


110 


264 


300 


A4 Have you performed in/with a jazz band at least 1 times in the last year? 


Yes 


Percent 


527% 


982% 


17.4% 


67.0% 




Number 


355 


108 


45 


201 


N) 


Percent 


47.3% 


18% 


826% 


33.0% 




Number 


319 


2 


218 


99 


Total 




674 


110 


264 


300 


A5 Have you performed with or without a jazz band for pay at least 1 times during the last year? 


Yes 


Percent 


421% 


94.5% 


23% 


58.0% 




Nurber 


284 


104 


6 


174 


N) 


Percent 


57.9% 


55% 


97.7% 


42.0% 




Number 


390 


6 


258 


126 


Total 




674 


110 


264 


300 


A6 Have you produced a documented body of work that is considered jazz? 


Yes 


Percent 


45.5% 


982% 


102% 


57.3% 




Nurrber 


307 


108 


27 


172 


N) 


Percent 


54.5% 


18% 


89.8% 


42.7% 




Number 


367 


2 


237 


128 


Total 




674 


110 


264 


300 



137 



Network Questions — BI Who gave you the coupon? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


AjazzmusoanT 


Percent 


73.0% 


613%, 


701% 


79.7% 




Number 


492 


68 


185 


239 


A current employer? 


Percent 


31% 


91% 


30% 


19% 




Mrrber 


21 


V 


8 


3 


A former employer? 


Percent 


19b 


6.4% 


08% 


03% 




NuTber 


10 


7 


2 


1 


A potential employer? 


Percent 


03% 


0.0% 


09% 


0.7% 




Number 


2 








2 


Your husband or wife? 


Percent 


10% 


27% 


1.1% 


03% 




Mrrter 


7 


3 


3 


1 


Your significant other? 


Percent 


03% 


09% 


09% 


03% 




Number 


2 


' 





1 


A friend? 


Percent 


193% 


327% 


19.7% 


14.0% 




Number 


130 


36 


52 


42 


An acquaintance? 


Percent 


19% 


ouqp/o 


39% 


1.7% 




Number 


13 


— 


8 


5 


A stranger? 


Percent 


19b 


00% 


00% 


33% 




Number 


10 








10 


Other 


Percent 


21% 


ac% 


27% 


23% 




Number 


14 





7 


7 


N A - respondent did not have a coupon 


Percent 


28=o 


982% 


962% 


97.9% 




Number 


19 


108 


254 


291 


DK refused 


Percent 


00% 


0.0% 


09% 


09% 




Numbs- 








o 





total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300 



Age by groups 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


18-24 


Percent 


81% 


7.4% 


23% 


145% 




Number 


50 


8 


6 


35 


25-34 


Percent 


26.6% 


333% 


202% 


305% 




Number 


165 


36 


53 


76 


35-44 


Percent 


19.4% 


222% 


22.4% 


14.9% 




Number 


120 


24 


59 


37 


45-54 


Percent 


25.6% 


23,1% 


285% 


23.7% 




Mrrber 


159 


25 


75 


59 


55-64 


Percent 


13.4% 


7.4% 


186% 


10.4% 




Number 


83 


8 


49 


26 


65+ 


Percent 


69% 


65% 


80=0 


69% 



138 





Number 


43 


7 


21 


15 


missing 




54 


2 


1 


51 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


620 


108 


263 


249 




Age by generations 




Total 


New 
Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Gen Y (18-23) 


Percent 


63% 


4.6% 


19% 


116% 




Mrrber 


39 


5 


5 


29 


Gen X (24-36) 


Percent 


30.6% 


361% 


24.3% 


34.9% 




Number 


190 


39 


64 


87 


Boomerang (3742) 


Percent 


127% 


157% 


137% 


10.4% 




Number 


79 


17 


36 


26 


Boomers (43-56) 


Percent 


337% 


29.6% 


38.4% 


305% 




Number 


209 


32 


101 


76 


Silent Generation (57-72) 


Percent 


14.0% 


11.1% 


183% 


108% 




Number 


87 


12 


48 


27 


New Deal (73+) 


Percent 


26% 


28% 


3.4% 


16% 




Number 


16 


3 


9 


4 


misspg 




54 


2 


1 


51 


total # of respondents who answered this question 


620 


108 


263 


249 



How many people refused to take a coupon? 







Total 


New Orleans 


New York 


San 
Francisco 


Nib 


Percent 


97.9% 


100.0% 


94.7% 


100£% 




Number 


660 


110 


250 


300 


More than one 


Percent 


21% 


0jC% 


53% 


00% 




Number 


14 





14 





total # of respondents who answered this question 


674 


110 


264 


300- 



139 



Appendix D 



Using the Capture-Recapture Method to Estimate 
the Number of Jazz Musicians 

The capture-recapture method is used to estimate 
the number of jazz artists by comparing the overlap 
between the union and RDS-identified jazz artists. 
Specifically, in order to calculate the universe of jazz 
musicians in each city, the number of jazz artists 
identified in the union study (capture) is divided by 
the proportion of jazz artists who are determined to 
be union members based on the RDS survey results 
(recapture). The steps taken to estimate the number 
of jazz musicians in each metro area are described 
below: 

New York 

Capture: 

The proportion of New York area musician union 
members who identified themselves as jazz 
musicians (in response to the union member 
survey) is .701 (415/592). 

The number of musician union members in the 
New York metropolitan area, according to union 
records, is 10,499. 

Therefore, the estimated number of union jazz 
musicians is 7,360 (10,499 x .701). 

Recapture: 

The proportion of all New York jazz musicians who 
are union members is estimated based on the RDS 
sample using the following formula for Pa, the 
proportion of union members: 

Pa = (Sba * Nb)/(Sba * Nb + Sab * Na) 

Na is the mean network size of union members = 
298.2 

Nb is the mean network size of nonunion members 
= 175.2 

Sab is the proportion of nonunion members 
recruited by union members = .512 

Sba is the proportion of union members recruited 
by nonunion members = .252 

Which yields Pa = .22301 



Therefore, based on the estimate of both the number 
of New York union jazz musicians (7,360) and the 
estimate of the portion of all New York jazz 
musicians who are union members (.223), the size 
of the New York jazz musician universe is estimated 
using the following formula: 

7,360/.223 = 33,003 

San Francisco 

Capture: 

The proportion of San Francisco area musician 
union members who identified themselves as jazz 
musicians (in response to the union member 
survey) is .681. 

The number of musician union members in the San 
Francisco metropolitan area, according to union 
records is 2,217. 

Therefore, the estimated number of union jazz 
musicians is 1,509 (2,217 x .681). 

Recapture: 

The proportion of all San Francisco jazz musicians 
who are union members is estimated based on the 
RDS sample using the following formula for Pa, the 
proportion of union members: 

Pa = (Sba * Nb)/(Sba * Nb + Sab * Na) 

Pa = .0806 

Therefore, based on the estimate of both the number 
of San Francisco union jazz musicians (1,509) and 
the estimate of the portion of all San Francisco jazz 
musicians who are union members (.0806), the size 
of the San Francisco jazz musician universe is 
estimated using the following formula: 

l,509/.0806 = 18,733 

New Orleans 

Capture: 

The proportion of New Orleans area musician 
union members who identified themselves as jazz 
musicians (in response to the union member 
survey) is .873. 



140 



The number of musician union members in the 
New Orleans metropolitan area, according to union 
records, is 1,014. 

Therefore, the estimated number of union jazz 
musicians is 885 (1,014 x .873). 

Recapture: 

The proportion of all New Orleans jazz musicians 
who are union members is estimated based on the 
RDS sample as .514. * 

Therefore, based on the estimate of both the number 
of New Orleans union jazz musicians (885) and the 
estimate of the portion of all New Orleans jazz 



musicians who are union members (.514), the size 
of the New Orleans jazz musician universe is 
estimated using the following formula: 

885/.514 =1,723 

The number of documented referrals in New 
Orleans was too small for a meaningful analysis of 
referral patterns. Therefore, it was not possible to 
use the equation to compute the proportion of 
union members in New Orleans (i.e., no data for 
the terms Sab and Sba). Therefore, the proportion 
of union members in the RDS sample (i.e., .514) 
was used instead. 



141 



Appendix E. Resource Directory 



FOUNDATIONS 
National 

Arkansas Jazz Heritage Foundation 

P.O. Box 251187 

Little Rock, AR 72225-1187 

(P) 501.663.5264 (F) 501.225.2133 

info@arjazz.org 

www.arjazz.org 

Arts Alive Foundation 
P.O. Box 1746 

Beverly Hills, CA 90213-1746 
(P) 310.276.5951 

Beyond Baroque Foundation 

681 Venice Blvd. 

P.O. Box 806 

Venice, CA 90291 

(P) 213.822.3006 

www.beyondbaroque.org 

Butch Berman Charitable Music Foundation 

4500 Kirkwood Drive 

Lincoln, NE 68516 

(P) 402.476.3112 (F) 402.483.6939 

Centrum Foundation 

P.O. Box 1158 

Port Townsend, WA 98368 

(P) 360.385.3102 (F) 360.385.2470 

Grammy Foundation 

3402 Pico Boulevard 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(P) 310.392.3777 

grammyfoundation@grammy.com 

www.grammy.com/academy/foundation/index.html 

Herb Alpert Foundation 
1414 Sixth St. 
Santa Monica, CA 90401 
(P) 310.393.8500 

Jazz Heritage Foundation 
P.O. Box 19070 
Los Angeles, CA 90019 
(P) 213.649.2722 



Music For Hope Foundation 
1351 S. Riverview 
Gardenville, NV 89410 
775.265.4372 (F) 775.265.4512 
www.musicforhope.org 

Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation 
22 Light St., Suite 330 
Baltimore, MD 21202 
410.539.6656 (F) 410.837.5517 
info@midadanticarts.org 
www. midatlanticarts. org 

National Foundation for Advancement In The Arts 

800.970.ARTS 

www.ARTSawards.org 

National Music Foundation 

245 7 A South Hiawassee Rd., Suite 244 

Orlando, FL 32835 

(P) 1.800.USA.MUSIC 

info@usamusic.org 

www.nmc.org 

New England Foundation For The Arts 
266 Summer St. 2nd FL 
Boston, MA 02210-1216 
617.951.0010 (F) 617.951.0016 
www.neta.org 

The Vail Jazz Foundation, Inc. 

P.O. Box 3035 

Vail,. CO 81658 

(P) 970.479.6146 (F) 970.477.0866 

vjf@vailjazz.org 

www.vailjazz.org 

Detroit 

James Tatum Foundation for the Arts 

PO Box 32240 

Detroit, MI 48232 

(P) 313.255.9015 

jtfa@detroit.net 



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New Orleans 

New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation 

1205 N. Rampart St. 

New Orleans, LA 70116 

(P) 504.522.4786 

www.nojhf.org 

New York 

Jazz Foundation of America 

322 W. 48th Street 

New York, NY 10036 

(P) 800.532.5267/ 212.245.3999 

jazzfoundation@rcn.com 

www.jazzfoundation.org 

Music For Youth Foundation 

130 E. 59th Street, Suite 844 

New York, NY 10022 

(P) 212.836.1320 (F) 212.836.1820 

www.musicforyouth.org 

Music Performance Trust Funds 
MPTF 1501 Broadway 
New York, NY 10036 
(P) 212.391.3950 
www.mptf.org 

VH1 Save The Music Foundation 

1515 Broadway 

New York, NY 10036 

(P) 212.846.5364 (F) 212.846.1827 

laurie.schopp@vh 1 staff.com 

www.vhl.com 



ASSOCIATIONS 
National 

American Federation of Jazz Societies 
P.O. Box 84063 
Phoenix, AZ 85071-4063 
info@jazzfederation.com 
www. j azzfederation. com 

American Composers Alliance 

73 Spring St. Rm. 505 

New York, NY 10023 

(P) 212.362.8900 (F) 212.925.6798 

info@composers.com 

www.composers.com 



American Pianists Association 

4600 Sunset Ave. 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

(P) 317.940.9945 (F) 317.940.9010 

apainfo@americanpianists.org 

www.americanpianists.org 

Boston Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 178 

Boston, MA 02134 

(P) 617.445.2811 (F) 617.445.2811 

Cultural Alliance Of Greater Washington 
410 Eighth St., NW, Suite 600 
Washington, DC 20004 
(P) 202.638.2406 

Fort Worth Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 14533 

Fort Worth, TX 76 1 1 9-3 1 20 

Friends of the Arts 

P.O. Box 702 

Locust Valley, NY 11560 

(P) 516.922.0061 (F) 516.922.0770 

artsfriend@aol.com 

International Association for Jazz Education 
2803 Claflin Road, P.O. Box 724 
Manhattan, KS 66505-0724 
785.776.8744 (F) 785.776.6190 
www.iaje.org 

Jazz Club of Sarasota, Inc. 

330 S. Pineapple Ave., Ste. 1 1 1 

Sarasota, FL 34236 

(P) 813.366.1552 

mail@j azzclubsarasota. com 

www.jazzclubsarasota.com 

Meet the Composer 

2112 Broadway, Suite 505 

New York, NY 10023 

(P) 212.787.3601 (F) 212.787.3745 

lklein@meetthecomposer.org 

www.meetthecomposer.org 

Mid American Arts Alliance 
912 Baltimore Ave., Suite 700 
Kansas City, MO 64105 
816.421.1388 (F) 816.421.3918 



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National Association Of Composers 

P.O. Box 49652 

Barrington Station 

Los Angeles, CA 90049 

(P) 310.541.8213 (F) 310.373.3244 

nacusa@music-usa.org 

www.music-usa.org/nacusa 

National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences 

(NAPAS) 

3402 Pico Boulevard 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(P) 310.392.3777 (F) 310.392.9262 

National Association of School Music Dealers 

(NASMD) 

4020 McEwen, Ste. 105 

Dallas, TX 75244-5019 

National Jazz Service Organization 
P.O. Box 50152 
Washington, DC 20004-0152 

Pennsylvania Performing Arts On Tour 
1811 Chestnut Street, Suite 301 
Philadelphia, PA 19103 
(P) 215.496.9424 (F) 215.496.9585 

Potomac River Jazz Club 
5537 Belle Pond Dr. 
Centreville, VA 22020 
(P) 703.698.PRJC 
prjcweb@prjc.org 
www.prjc.org 

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) 
1330 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 300 
Washington, DC 20036 
202.775.0101 (F) 202.775.7253 
www.riaa.com 

Sedona Jazz on the Rocks 

P.O. Box 889 

Sedona, AZ 86339-0089 

(P) 520.282.1985 

lori@sedonajazz.com 

www.sedonajazz.com 

Southern Arts Federation 

181 14th St., Ste. 400 

Atlanta, GA 30309-7603 

(P) 404.874.7244 (F) 404.873.2148 

josephg@southarts.org 

www.southarts.org 



Tucson Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 1069 

Tucson, AZ 85702-1069 

(P) 520.903.1265 (F) 520.903.1266 

tjsmail@tucsonjazz.org 

www.tucsonjazz.org 

Western Jazz Presenters Network 
P.O. Box 3162 
LaJolla, CA 92038 

(P) 858.454.5872 

World Music Association 

P.O. Box 37725 

Honolulu, HI 96837 

(P) 808.941.9974 (F) 808.943.0224 

Detroit 

Southeastern Michigan Jazz Association 

2385 W Huron River Drive 

Ann Arbor, MI 48103-2241 

(P) 734.662.8514 

semja@semja.org 

www.semja.org 

New Orleans 

Jazz Centennial Celebration 
628 Frenchman St. 
New Orleans, LA 701 16 
(P) 504.835.5277 
jazzcentennial@aol.com 
www.louisianamusic.org 

Louisiana Division of the Arts 

P.O. Box 44247 

Baton Rouge, LA 70804 

225.342.8180 (F) 225.342.8173 

arts@crt.state.la.us 

www.crt.state.la.us/arts 

New York 

American Society of Composers, Authors & 

Publishers (ASCAP) 

ASCAP Building 

One Lincoln Plaza 

New York, NY 10023 

(P) 212.621.6000/ 800.95.ASCAP 

info@ascap.com 

www.ascap.com 



144 



Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) 

320 W. 57th Street 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.586.2000 (F) 212.262.2824 

jazz@bmi.com 

http://bmi.com 

Chamber Music America 
305 Seventh Ave., 5th Floor 
New York, NY 10001-6008 
(P) 212.242.2022 
info@chamber-music.org 
www.chamber-music.org 

International Women in Jazz 

C.S. 9030 

Hicksville, NY 11802-9030 

www.internationalwomeninjazz.com 

San Francisco 

San Jose Jazz Society 

P.O. Box 1770 

San Jose, CA 95109-1770 

(P) 408.288.7557 (F) 408.288.7598 

jazzmaster@sanjosejazz.org 

www.sanjosejazz.org 



SUPPORT SERVICE 
ORGANIZATIONS 

National 

ACIS/ Encore Tours 

19 Bay State Road 

Boston, MA 02215 

(P) 1.877.460.3801 (F) 1.617.236.8623 

encoretours@acis.com 

www.encoretours.com 

Services: Customizing tours for performing artists 

Acoustics First 

2247 Tomlyn Street 

Richmond, VA 23230-3334 

(P) 888.765.2900 (F) 804.342.1107 

www.acousticsfirst.com 

Services: Noise control solutions 



American Music Therapy Association 

8455 Colesville Road, Suite 1000 

Silver Spring, MD 20910 

(P) 301.589.3300 (F) 301.589.5175 

www.musictherapy.org 

Services: Application of music therapy for medical 

use 

Cleveland Clinic Foundation 

Medical Center for the Performing Arts 

9500 Euclid Ave. 

Cleveland, OH 44106 

(P) 216.444.3903 

www.clevelandclinic.org 

Services: Performing Arts Medicine 

Colorado Lawyers for the Arts 

P.O. Box 48148 

Denver, CO 80204 

(P) 303.722.7994 

cola@artstozoo.org 

Services: Legal Representation 

Georgia Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts 

Bureau of Cultural Affairs 

675 Ponce de Leon Ave. 

Atlanta, GA 30308 

(P) 404.873.3911 

www.gvla.org 

International Arts Medicine Association 
19 S. 22nd St. 
Philadelphia, PA 19103 
http://members-aol.com/iamoaorg 
Services: Medical Services 

Lawyers for the Creative Arts 

213 W. Institute PL, Suite 401 

Chicago, IL 60610 

(P) 312.649.4111 (F) 312.944.2195 

wrattner@law-arts.org 

www.law-arts.org 

Services: Legal Representation 

Music Cares Foundation 

3402 Pico Boulevard 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(P) East: 1.877.303.6962 

Central: 1.877.626.2748 

West: 1.800.687.4227 

www.grammy.com/academy/musiccares/index.html 

Services: Emergency Relief Funds 



145 



National Center On Arts And Aging 

National Council on the Aging 

600 Maryland Ave., SW, West Wing 100 

Washington DC 20024 

(P) 202.479.1200 

www.center-for-creative-aging.org 

Services: Counseling, Publications 

Ocean St. Lawyers for the Arts 

P.O. Box 19 

Saunderstown, RI 02874-0019 

dspatt@artslaw.org 

www.artslaw.org 

Support Services Alliance (SSA) 

P.O. Box 130 

Schoharie, NY 12157 

(P) 518.295.7966 

comments@ssainfo.com 

www.ssainfo.com 

Services: Financial and Medical Services 

Texas Accountants and Lawyers for the Arts 

1540 Sul Ross 

Houston, TX 77006 

(P) 713.526.4876 (F) 713.526.1299 

info@talarts.org 

www.talarts.org 

Services: Legal Representation and Accounting 

Services 

Washington Lawyers for the Arts 

1634 Eleventh Ave. 

Seattle, WA 98122 

(P) 206.328.7053 (F) 206.568.3306 

Washington Area Lawyers for the Arts 

815 15th St. NW 

Washington DC 20005 

(F) 202.393.4444 

legalservices@thewala.org 

www.thewala.org 

Services: Legal Representation 

Detroit 

Legal Aid 8c Defender Association Of Detroit 

645 Griswold St., Suite 2400 

Detroit, MI 48226-4201 

(P) 313.964.4111 (F) 313.964.1932 

www. mlan . net/ladal/ 

Services: Legal Services 



New Orleans 

Arts Council Of New Orleans 

225 Baronne St. Suite 1712 

New Orleans, LA 70112-1712 

(P) 504.523.1465 (F) 504.529.2430 

www.louisiana-arts.com 

Services: Bookkeeping, Planning- Budgeting, 

Financial Aid, Career Counseling 

Louisiana Volunteer Lawyers For The Arts 

1010 Common St., Suite 1500 

New Orleans, LA 701 12 

(P) 504.581.9444 

Services: Legal Representation 

New Orleans Speech and Hearing Organization 

New Orleans Musicians Clinic 

(P) 504.412.1111 

www.nojhf.org 

Services: Medical Services 

New York 

Doctors For Artists 
105 W 78th St. 
New York, NY 10024 
(P) 212.496.5172 
Services: Medical Services 

Institute For The Performing Artist 

Postgraduate Center For Mental Health 

124 E. 28th St. 

New York, NY 10016 

(P) 212.689.7700 ext. 290, 291 

Services: Mental Health Services 

Miller Health Care Institute For Performing Artists 

St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center 

425 W 59th St. 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.523.6200 

www.ifpam.org 

Services: Medical Services, Performing Arts 

Medicine 

Musicians Emergency Fund, Inc. 

16 E. 64th St. 

New York, NY 10021 

(P) 212.578.2450 

Services: Emergency Funds 



146 



Pentacle 

104 Franklin St. 

New York, NY 10013-2910 

(P) 212.226.2000 

www.pentacle.org 

Services: Financial Services 

Performing Arts Center For Health 

357 W. 55th St. 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.247.1650 

Services: Medical Services, Dental Services 

Volunteer Lawyers For The Arts 

1285 Ave. of the Americas, 3rd floor 

New York, NY 10019 

(P) 212.977.9273 

Services: Legal Representation 



San Francisco 

California Lawyers For The Arts 

Fort Mason Center 

San Francisco, CA 94123 

(P) 415.775.7200 

cla@calawyersforthearts.org 

www.calawyersforthearts.org 

Services: Legal Representation, Contracts, 

Copyright, Taxation 

Kuumba Jazz Center 

320-2 Cedar Street 

Santa Cruz, CA 95060 

831.427.2227 (F) 831.427.3342 

kuumbwa@cruzio.com 

www. kuumb waj azz. com 

Services: Presenting and Educational services 

Rhythmic Concepts, Inc. 
765 61st Street 
Oakland, CA 94609 
(P) 510.287.8880 



147 



148 



For more information, please contact: 

Research Center for Arts and Culture 

Teachers College Columbia University 

525 West 1 20 Street, Box 78 

New York, NY 10027 

Tel: (212)678-8184 

Fax:(212)678-8084 

Rcac@columbia.edu 

or 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Research Division 

1 1 00 Pennsylvania Avenue NW 

Washington, DC 20506-0001 

Tel: (202) 682-5400 

www.arts.gov