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Full text of "The charities of London. Comprehending the benevolent, educational, and religious institutions. Their origin and design, progress, and present position"

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THE 



.CliarituH nf Innimu; 



COUPBEHEMDINO THE 



BENEVOLENT, EDUCATIONAL, AND RELIGIOUS 
INSTITUTIONS. 



THEIB ORIGIN AND DESIGN, PBOGBESS, AND 
PRESENT POSITION. 



SAMPSON LOW, Junior. 



That renown our city." 



"These are the memorials 



DKDICATBO, BT SrKCIAI. rEBHIBSIOIf, TO 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE ALBERT. 



LONDON : 
SAMPSON LOW, 169, FLEET STREET. 



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l.o.^j>oN : 

BlCHAaOS, FBtXT&B, 100, ST. XAKTI^c's LANS. 



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i.E.i. ftrB IrintB Cnnsnrt, 

WHOSE MUNIFICENT PATBONAQE OF BRITISH CHABITISS 
ADDS LUSTRE TO THE DIGNITY OP HIS EXALTED STATION, 
THIS VOLUME, WITH HIS ROYAL HIGHNESSES GRACIOUS 
PERMISSION, IS RESPECTFULLY AND MOST GRATEFULLY 
INSCRIBED, 

BY HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS'S FAITHFUL 

AND VERY OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

8AMP80N LOW, JuN«. 



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An attempt has been made in the following pages to 
afford an impartial and comprehensive statement of 
the charities in our great metropolis and its vicinity, 
with the two-fold purpose and hope, of assisting the 
benevolent to apply the benefits required by the necessi- 
tous, — and of presenting, by a concise exposition of ob- 
jects, operations, and means of support of each institution, 
their corresponding claims to individual cooperation : and 
should the work be favoured with anything of a circula- 
tion, the author looks forward with some degree of hope 
to its being recognized by the liberal, as an interesting 
and judicious companion in the arrangement of their 
benefactions ; and by the inquirer on behalf of the un- 
fortunate and afflicted, as a serviceable and trustworthy 
guide. 

A lengthened table of contents, and its essential auxi- 
liary, a copious index, being given, and each chapter 
preceded by remarks on the general character of the 
institutions thereiu contained, accompanied by what he 
hopes will prove useful as well as interesting statistics, 
but little is left for the author to notice, except refer- 
ence to, or explanation of, one or two points for which 
a prefjEu^e is generally, if at all, consulted. 

First, in regard to the general character of the hook, 
and the information it affords ; as some guarantee may 
be expected of its authenticity and pretiensions to cor- 
rectness, it may be well to state, that it has chiefly been 
gleaned from the publications of the institutions them- / 
selves, from personal inquiry and investigation thereon, 



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and from communications with the persons who take 
active interest in the administration of their funds and 
general management. The endeavour has been to render, 
under each institution, a distinct and full account, ab- 
stracted from the general connexion running throughout, 
so as for all purposes of reference to require the perusal 
of such account alone. On the one hand, this variety of 
sources from whence the information is obtained, num- 
bering, in publications alone, five hundred, all requiring 
careful consideration, will secure some allowance for 
inadvertent errors and omissions ; and on the other, the 
desire to render the information distinct, will account 
for much of the desultory character of the work as a 
composition. 

Beyond these sources from whence the materials of 
the work have been derived, the author's acknowledg- 
ments are specially due to the assistance he has had 
rendered him in the course of his inquiries by personal 
friends, and by the secretaries of several of the societies : 
and it is gratifying to be able to recur to the rarity of 
instances he has met with of disinclination to afford the 
required particulars. The plan of the present work, it is 
well to add, has been chiefly founded upon two little pub- 
lications, which may be well termed its pioneers. The 
first, compiled in 1836, with the assistance of John 
Brownlow, Esq., entitled, A Pocket Guide to the Chari- 
ties of London. — The second, an enlargement of the 
same work, and published in 1844, under the title of 
The Metropolitan Charities^ compiled by the present 
writer. Amongst other works consulted for the purpose, 
and to which, in each case where quotations have been 
made, reference has been given, are Highmore's Chari- 
ties of London; various papers in Knighfs London, 
by Messrs. Piatt, Saunders, and others ; Report of the 
Commissioners on Endowed Charities — (Sherwood) ; 
Parliamentary Returns and Reports of the latest date ; 
Mr. P. Cunningham's London; Mr. H, Dixon's Pri- 
sons of London; Mr. Haydn's valuable Dictionary of 



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Dates ; Dr. Hoole's History of Missions ; Liber Scholas- 
ticus, and other works, the omission of particular refer- 
ence to which is anything hut intentional. 

Secondly, as regards arrangement of detail, the de- 
sire having been to show no preference in order of 
arrangement, or otherwise, wherever there are two or 
more institutions of the same character, the date of 
organization has invariably decided the point of prece- 
dence. The titles of each institution have had particular 
attention paid to them, with a view of the work being 
useful, amongst other purposes, as a legal reference ; 
and for this end, as well as to avoid confusion with 
recently defunct societies, a list of such will be found 
appended at the end. With respect to the amount of 
income of each society, and other statistics relating 
thereto, it was the desire, in accordance with repeated 
suggestions, to have afforded a more definite and com- 
parative-tabular view of such details respectively, but 
qualifying causes could not then have been given ; and, 
in some few instances, it was found such information, 
however interesting, might tell injuriously. The author, 
therefore, has contented himself with presenting a con- 
densed summary of such statistics at the commencement 
of each chapter ; and under the account of the various 
institutions respectively, the same in detail. His simple 
object, as before stated, has been, without fear or favour, 
fairly to represent every London charity ; but not for 
the purpose of satisfying mere curiosity; and much 
would he regret to prejudice unnecessarily the judgment 
against any one, even by inference. 

Lastiy, much extraneous information will be found, not 
strictly within the pretensions of the work ; and perhaps 
sevewd institutions may be inserted, which cannot, by any 
construction, be termed charities. But it is hoped the 
desire to render perfect, by affording the collateral and 
additional information where it was d&fl&cult to draw the 
distinction, will not obtain for it the character of omit- 
ting others between which a greater affinity may appear 



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VUl 

to exist, — ^the author undertaking to render complete 
such only as come within the description of London 
charities. In his desire to prevent this volume from 
extending to an unnecessary length, he has also been 
compelled, in many instances, to limit his notice, and to 
withhold secondary information which he has acquired 
in the course of his investigations ; but he takes this 
opportunity of stating that he shall at all times be happy 
to answer inquiries respecting matters connected there- 
with, or to render any assistance in his power to those 
who are either desirous of assisting the institutions 
themselves,! or of obtaining the benefit of their opera- 
tions for their fellow-creatures. 

The publication is now committed to the public in the 
earnest hope that the labour bestowed upon it has not 
been in vain. Whatever its shortcomings and imper- 
fections, it must, to a certain extent, be deemed valu- 
able, as presenting not only a condensed view of what 
is effected, but because it will have the tendency of 
stimulating to further efforts, by developing what is 
left undone. As a whole, it cannot fail to be recog- 
nized as a splendid memorial of our city's wealth and 
liberality, and it will serve to illustrate, to an important 
extent, that Christianity is the actuating principle of 
our social usefulness no less than individual virtue ; for 
the constraining influence of the love of Christ is, and 
ever must be, the grand motive which prompts to admi- 
nister help in destitution and relief in suffering. To 
this fostering principle, it is to be hoped, may be traced 
the chief portion of this machinery of benevolence, no 
less than our own sympathies in its behalf, and our own 
contributions and exertions for its support, — for "the 
end of the commandment is charity," and " love is the 

^ With a view of rendering such infonnation complete, as well as 
securing correct accounts of each society for future editions of our work, 
it is particularly requested of the secretaries or other managers, that a 
copy of every new report of their institutions he forwarded to the puh- 
lisher ; as also intimation of vacancies, appointments, alterations of rules, 
etc. 



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IX 

fulfilling of the law"; without Christian charity, we are 
assured that '* all our doings are nothing worth". No 
words, perhaps, can better serve as a conclusion to these 
few prefatory remarks, than the beautiful collect of the 
English Church, the spirit of which ought to encom- 
pass all our charitable eflforts, and peculiarly applicable, 
in its comprehensive words, to the present volume : — 
" Lord, who has taught us that all our doings without 
" Charity are nothing worth, send thy Holy Ghost, and 
" pour into our hearts that most excellent gift of Charity , 
" the very hand of peace and of all virtues ; without 
" which, whosoever liveth is counted dead before thee. 
" Grant this for thine only Son Jesus Christ's sake. 
" Amen." 

S. L. 



Great James-streetj Bedford-row. 
June 1, 1850. 



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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

CHARITIES FOR AFFOEDINO MEDICAL TREATMENT AMD RELIEF. 

The five Boyal Hospitals enumerated and referred to. — Remarks upon 
Hospital accommodation. — The General Hospitals: — St. Bar- 
tholomew's. — St. Thomas's.— Westminster.— Guy's. — St George's. 
— ^London. — Middlesex. — Charing Cross. — Royal Free. — King's 
College. — University. — Marylebone . . . . .1 

CHAPTER II. 

HOSPITALS, infirmaries, AND OTHER MEDICAL INSTITU- 
TIONS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES. 

Seaman's HospitsJ. — Spanish and Portuguese Jews'. — German Hos- 
pitaL — London Fever. — Hospitals and Infirmaries for Consumj)- 
tion.— Sanatorium for Madeira,— Royal Sea-bathing Infirmary.— 
Lying-In Charities. — Hospitals for Women and Children. — Small- 
pox Hospital and Vaccination Institutions. — Ophthalmic.— Diseases 
of the Ear.- Orthopoedic Hospital. — Spinal Institutions. — Lock 
Hospital.— Fistula and Truss Societies.— Glandular and Skin Dis- 
eases. — Convalescent and Invalid Asylums.— Lunatic and Idiot 
Asylums. — ^Training Institutions for Nurses . . . .19 



CHAPTER III. 

DISPENSARIES FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. 

General remarks. — Central districts. — Northern districts. — Southern 
districts. — ^Eastern districts. — ^Western districts. — Homoeopathic . 61 



CHAPTER IV. 

FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HUMAN LIFE, HEALTH, AND 
PUBLIC MORALS. 

The Humane Societies. — Sanitary Improvement Measures. — Model 
Buildings for Poor. — Establishments for Baths and Washhouses. — 
Early Closing. — Temperance Societies. — Prevention of Vice . 18 



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CONTBNTS. XI 

CHAPTER V. 

CHABITIRS FOB BECLAIM1N6 THE FALLEN, THE BBFOBMATIOW 
OF CBIMINALS, AKD STATING THE PBOOBESg OF CBIME. 

The Foimdlmg, Magdalen, and Lock Hospitals. — Female Peniten- 
tiaries. — Philanthropic Societies for Females, and Reformation of 
Young Offenders.— Schools of Reform and Occiqiation.— General ^ ^ 
Penitentiaries . ....... 05 



CHAPTER VI. 

CHARITIES FOB THE BELIEF OF THE DB8TITUTB AND 
DISTRESSED. 

Institutions affording immediate Food and Shelter.— The Mendicity. 
— The Nightly Shelters for the Houseless.— The contemplated Sa- 
maritan Society. — Coal, Bread, and Soup Societies.— Institutions 
for visiting, investigating, and relieving the Necessitous. — The 
Strangers' Friend.— The Oeneral District Visiting Society. — The 
New Oeneral Association.— Local Visiting Societies . .116 



CHAPTER VII. 

SOCIETIES FOR THE BELIEF OF THE DISTBESS OF PABTICULAB 
CLASSES. 

"Widows.— Prisoners for Debt.— Destitute Sailors.— Distressed Scotch. 
— Foreigners in Distress — French — Germans — Poles — and Jews. 
— Summary of Jewish Charities for the Poor . . . .134 



CHAPTER VII L 

FOB DIHIMISHINO DISTRESS, AND AIDING THE BES0UBCE8 
OF THE INDUSTRIOUS. 

National Philanthropic Association for the Employment of Able- 
bodied Paupers. — Plan for Church of England Self-supporting YtI- 
lage Institution. — Emigration : the Societies for its Promotion. — V 
Scale of Reduced Payments for Colonial Emigration. — Emigration 
to Port Natal.— The Canterbury Settiement— Female Emigration. 
— ^Funds for Promoting the Social and Religious Improvement of 
the Emigrants. — ^Distressed Needlewomen's Society.— Dressmakers' 
and Milliners' Association. — Homes, and other Institutions, for 
Female Servants. — Deferred Aimuities rendered available to Fe- 
male Servants. — Servants' Benevolent Society. — Loan Societies: 
the Difficulty of their Existence upon Benevolent Principles. — Par- 
ticnlars of those now in Existence. — ^Apprenticeship Societies. — 
Bequests for Loans— Fees — and Marriage Portions. — Savings' 
Banks : their Origin, — Summary of those in London, with the Rate 
of Interest allowed by each, and the Amount of Deposits, &c. — 
Savings' Working Banks, and Penny Banks . . . .148 



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XU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 
CHARITIBf FOB THE BLIND, AND DBAP, AND DtTMB. 

Visiting the Indigent Blind— Teaching the Blind to read.— School 
for the Indigent Blind. — ^Annuities for the Necessitous Blind. — 
Asylum for the Education and Support of the Indigent Deaf and 
Dumb.— Charitable and ProridentFund forthe Deaf and Dumb.— 
Employment and Beligious Instruction of the Adult Deaf and 
Dumb . • ..*.... 179 

CHAPTER X. 

CHARITABLE GIFTS ABI8INO FBOM ENDOWMENTS AND GIFTS. 

The Companies of the City of London in their Charitable Character. 
— Their origin. — The extent of their Trusts for Gifts and other cha- 
ritable purposes.- A Summary of the principal charitably endowed. 
—Parochial and other Trusts referred to. —The Patriotic Fund.— 
Cholmondeley Charity.— The Maundy Oifts.- The Flood Distribu- 
tion .... ..... 190 

CHAPTER XI. 

A87LUMS FOB THE AGED. 

General Remarks upon their Number, Value, and Annual Endow, 
ment — Comparative decrease of Foundations, with gradual rise 
of Workhouses, and increased Poor's-Rate. — General Summary of 
present condition, &c— St. Katharine's Hospital, Whittington's 
College, and other similar Establishments, arranged according to 
date of original foundation. — Stafford's Almshouses, and general 
condensed Account of the Endowed Almshouses connected with the 
Metropolis.— Licensed Victuallers', and Asylums of more recent 
establishment . . . . . . . .203 

CHAPTER XII. 

CHABITABLE AND BENEVOLENT PENSION SOCIETIES. 

The peculiar recommendation of Charitable Pension Societies; their 
modem Establishment and present Extent— General Summary of 
Incomes, Number of Pensioners, etc. — The National Benevolent — 
Plan of Polling Votes ; the Aggregate, and the Year's Polls. — City 
of London. — Royal General, and other Pension Societies. — The new 
institution. The British Beneficent.— Weekly Pensions for Poorer 
Classes. — For Roman Catholics.— Fund for Natives of Cumberland, 
and for Masons .... ... 

CHAPTER XIII. 

CHARITABLE AND PBOVIDENT BENEFIT SOCIETIES. 

Their general Character, Objects, and Operation, and relative Extent, 
considered.— The three classes of Charitable, Provident and Bene- 
volent, and Provident— Queen Anne's Bounty, and other Funds, 
for Clei^Tmen and Ministers. — The Literary Fund, and Societies 



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CONTENTS. XUl 

for Artists.— Schoolmasters and GoTemesses. — Naral and Mili- 
tary. — ChoraL— Law. — MedioaL — Booksellers* and other Profea- 
sion and Trade Funds.— Fnnds for the Distressed amongst old 
Etonians and Blues ; also, Foimdiings in old age . . 947 

CHAPTEB XIV. 

EDUCATIONAL CHARITIES FOR OBPHAKS AVD OTHBB 
NECBSSIT0U8 CHILDBEK. 

General Statement of Asylums : their Number, Income, and Extent. 
Orphan Asylums : The Clergy. — Female OrphazL — Orphan Woi^« 
ing.— London. — British-— Adult.— Infants'.— Cholera. — Agrloultn- 
ral — ^And Soldiers' and Sailors* Orphans. General Asylums : St. 
Anne's. — Bancroft's. — Raine's. — The Ladies'. — For Training Ser- 
vants. — French Protestant— Welsh.7-Caledonian-— St Patrick's. — 
Westmoreland.— York8hire.—Masonic— Travellcrs'.-Victuallers*. 
—And Naval and Marine. Parochial Schools : their Origin, Bene- 
fits, and present Extent — Examples afforded. Schools of Local 
Character, or specified objects : Germans. — ^Associated Catholic — 
Irish Schools.— And Jewish Charities . . * . 991 

CHAPTER XV. 

EDUCATIONAL rOUNDATIONS, C0LLEOB8, AND OBAMMAB 
SCHOOLS. 

Extent of the Endowments for Classical and Grammar Schools. — 
Their Value to the Middle Classes.— Their Origin and Progress.— 
Value of London Endowments : of Rugby and Tunbridge Schools. 
— Summary of Educational Endowments in London, Classical 
Foundation Schools : St Paul's and Mercers' Schools. — Christ's 
Hospital.— Merchant Taylors'.- Westminster.- Charter House,— 
and others. — Summary of Schools originally Grammar and Classi- 
cal.- Collegiate Lectures, etc.— Colleges and Modem Schools : 
Stepney. — Highbury. — Homerton. — St John's Wood, etc— Unirer- 
sity College and King's College.— Queen's CoUege.— City of Lon- 
don.— Islington. — Philological School,— and others.^ — Royal Aca- 
demy of Music— And Royal Naval and Female Schools. . . 395 

CHAPTER XVI. 

INSTITUTIONS FOB AIDING AND IMPBOTINO NATIONAL EDUCATION. 

The Object of promoting Christian Knowledge closely identified with -. 
that of educating the Poor^— The Necessity for Extension of Na- 
tional Education recognized. — The Difference of Opinion as to its 
Character. — Secular and Religious Education. — ^Views of the pre- 
sent Government and their Measures — Summary of the Institu- 
tions contained in this Chapter, with their Aggregate Amount of 
Income, etc. — Committee of Privy Council. — Kneller HalL— Bell 
and Lancaster's First Efforts.— The British, National, Infont, and 
other School Societies.— Metropolitan School Statistics.— Metropo. 



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XIV CONTENTS. 

litan and Cheltenham Training Schools. — Educational Boards.— 
Institutions for the Difiluion of Christian Knowledge and Influence. 
—Lord's "Day Society.— Protestant and Reformation Societies.— 
Church Extension and Clerical Aid Fund.— Christian Visiting, by 
Pastoral and Lay Agents. — Ragged Schools.— Cottage Schools.— 
Sunday Schools.— Institute for Teachers.— Toung Men's Societi< 

CHAPTER XVII. 

BIBLE AND MIS8IONABT SOCIETIES. 

The Missionary Cause. — Its comparatively feeble Agencies. — Total 
Amount expended through the Metropolitan Societies. — ^A General 
Summary of their present Resources and Extent. — Bible Societies: 
The British and Foreign.— The Trinitarian, — and Naval and Mili- 
tary. — Missionary Societies of General Operations, arranged accord- 
ing to Date of Organization : The Gospel. — ^The Baptist — The 
London. — The Church. — The Wesleyan. — Female Education in the 
East — The Scotch Church. — Continental : The Foreign Aid. — Co- 
lonial : The Negro Conversion. — The Mico Fund.— Newfoundland. 
—The Ladies'.— Negro Society.— Colonial Church.— Bishoprics* 
Fund. — ^The Colonial, with other Fimds connected with the Baptist 
and Congregational Unions. — Mission and School Societies for Ire- 
land and Scotland: London Hibernian. — Ladies' ditto. — Sunday 
School.— Religions Tract.— Scripture Reader.— Irish Society.— 
Irish Church Missions. — Royal Highland School. — Scottish Epis- 
copal — Jewish Missions, etc. : The London— The British. — The 
Operative Convert — Moral Improvement and Training of Jews : 
The Ladies' Society. — The Industrial Society. — The Syrian Educa- 
tion,— and German Mission . . . . . .403 

CHAPTER XVin. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Institutions not comprehended under previous subjects.— Evangelical 
Alliance. — Peace Society. — Aborigines Society. — Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety. — Blockade of the African Coast — Petition of the Church 
Missionary Society. — African Civilization.— Temporary Funds for 
Irish Distress, and British Workpeople in France. — Irish Amelio- 
ration Society. —List of Societies ceased to exist, within the last few 
years.— Forin of Charitable Bequest— Congregational Associations 
and Collections : Examples afforded of Amounts in aid for one 
year, with usual Local Charities attached to Parish Churches, and 
District and Dissenting Chapels. — General Summary and Review. 
—Concluding Remarks. ...... 432 

Index ••••..,,. 454 

Errata •••...... 473 



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CHAPTER I. 



CHARITIES FOR AFFORDING MEDICAL 
TREATMENT AND RELIEF. 



Thb five Royal Hospitals enumerated and referred to. — Remarks upon 
Hospital accommodation. 

The Gbnebal Hospitals : — St Bartholomew's. — St Thomas's. — 
Westminster. — G uy's. — St George's. — London. — Middlesex. — Char- 
ing Cross. — Royal Free. — King's College. — University. — Marylehoue. 



The Fiye Royal Hospitals, commoDly known as such, 
and designated ''The Koyal Hospitals of the City of London, 
under the pious care of the Right Honourable the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Governors thereof", are referred to 
here, because often erroneously spoken of as Medioal Hos- 
pitals; particular accounts thereof will be found in their 
respective divisions in this work ; they are, — St. Bartho- 
lomew's; Christ's Hospital; St. Thomas's; Beidbwell; 
and Bethlehem. 

These establishments were first united for purposes of 
administration in 1557, and their affairs were managed by 
one General Board until 1782, when, by an Act passed 22nd 
George III, cap. 77, it was provided, that they should be 
under the care of the Corporation, but each placed on its 
present footing under distinct internal government, with 
the exception of Bethlehem and Bridewell, which were re- 
tained under one and the same management. 

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The GBNERAJi Medical Hospitals are twelve ; and, with 
two exceptions, have all been established within the last one 
hundred and twenty years, five of them within the last 
thirty-five years ; so that in this respect, at least, we must not 
give all the credit to a past age. True it is, that the increased 
value of property has enabled the two old foundations to 
render one-third of the whole benefits of these hospitals ; 
but that forms no evidence of a greater exercise of charity 
than in our own day : and encouraging is it to see the exten- 
sive and generous exertions daily made for the relief of our 
fellow-creatures, both medically, pecuniarily, and spiritually. 
Indeed, upon a review of the different charities iu London, 
since our inquiry of 184^, we are led to the directly opposite 
conclusion of Sir Robert Peel's; who stated, two years back, 
whilst advocating the claims of King's College Hospital, 
that " there was reason to deplore, as regarded the founda- 
tion of Hospitals, that charity had waxed cold, and we had 
much degenerated from the piety of our forefathers. Out of 
the ten general hospitals of London, seven were in existence 
one himdred years since. From that time there had only 
been the addition of three Hospitals, and those on the most 
limited scale." Now, apart from the false inference respect- 
ing piety, this statement is at variance with facts, as will at 
once be seen by comparison with the remark we commenced 
with and the statistics of our work generally. The right 
honourable baronet's assertion would not have been quoted 
here, but for its having apparently been preserved, like many 
of his dicta, to use as future authority ; and thus it was this 
portion of a speech of 1847, acquired sufiicient prominence 
in 1860 to merit notice and refutation. Many grounds of 
abateiment to the force of his remarks occur to us ; specially 
noting, first, the small value of the original foundation of 
St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas's Hospitals. The former, 
Stowe informs us, was, previous to 1544, dependant on an 
annual income of £371, about £290 of which was derived 
from London rents, (now producing, with recent additions, 
£17,000 per annum); and it has been by modem benefactors 
that the funded property has so greatly increased, that the 
present total income reaches £32,000. The latter hospital, 
we learn from a similar source, had likewise its early strug- 
gles; so much so, that in 1564, the treasurer for the time 
was compelled to advance its funds a loan of £100, and, five 
years afterwards, half that sum was raised by pawning a 



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EXTENT OP ACCOMMODATION. 



lease. So that the present rich endowment of this hos- 
pital, of some j£25,000 a-jear, must be traced more to the 
same causes, of greatly increased value of rents, and ac- 
cumulation of benevolent donations of centuries, than to 
the generosity of any particular age. On the other hand, 
we can cite signal instances, nearer our own time, of princely 
generosity, concentrated, singularly enough, on one esta- 
blishment ; viz., the buUding and endowment of Guy*s by 
one individual, at an actual cost of .£220,000, in 1724, 
and a similar bequest of £200,000 from another, only in 
1829 (vide page 9). 

The special hospitals too, such as the Hospital for Con- 
sumption, and many others referred to in the following 
pages, with the valuable labours of some thirty or forty 
modem dispensaries and infirmaries, must all be taken into 
consideration as developing the exercise of present charitable 
support towards institutions for medical relief : not to men- 
tion the recent establishment of the promising Hospital for 
Marylebone, the exertions on behalf of an extension of 
the benefits of King's College Hospital, the enlargement of 
the Middlesex, and the University, and the now, it is to be 
hoped, really efficient operations of the Royal Free Hospital. 

There are persons also who draw disparaging comparisons 
as regards the hospital accommodation of other countries, as 
well as that of other times. Paris is instanced as affording a 
more perfect system, and upon a more extensive scale. This 
is in part true ; and we do not for one moment attempt to 
maintain that the hospital accommodation for this great 
metropolis is nearly sufficient: we much wish to see it 
augmented ; but would hesitate before advocating this to 
the extent that it is in some of the cities of Europe ; for 
much of a social question is involved in this difference, and 
from the very habits of Englishmen, it would be difficult 
even to create a demand for hospitals, beyond what is re- 
quired for the extreme necessities of the poor, or emergent 
casualties of the wealthier. We are nationally adverse 
to the publicity contingent on hospital treatment, and too 
much accustomed to the privacy of home and the comforts of 
domestic arrangements : this may be in part prejudice ; but 
it is the same feeling actuates the middle and upper classes 
in this respect, as amongst the poorer orders renders the 
workhouse a dreaded and last resource. 

In Paris, thirty in every hundred deaths occur within the 



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§mtsi J&Mtsi insritalj. 



hospitals ; but in London, only five in every hundred : and 
much as the limited extent of our hospitals accounts for this 
difference, sure we are that the grounds we have advanced 
do so more, or the present demand and consequent exertions 
would bear a closer proportion to the deficiency existing. 

But, however we may admit an inferiority in extent of 
hospital accommodation, their efficiency as regards skilful 
treatment and medical science is not to be surpassed ; and 
as schools for medicine and surgery, their influence for 
universal ultimate benefit is freely acknowledged. Indeed, 
were our London hospitals viewed only in this light, they 
would have sufficient claim on public gratitude to merit 
adequate and liberal support. By them the skill of the most 
eminent practitioners of the day is made subservient to 
general benefit; and thus it may well be said of these 
institutions, that 'Hheir beneficial effects are visible on 
thousands, and their indirect advantages felt by tens of 
thousands." 

We have treated of the respective particulars relating to 
each hospital, under their several titles ; but it may not be 
uninteresting to conclude these few remarks with their ag- 
gregate statistics : — 

Present number of General Hospitals : two 
founded before 1500, five between 1718 
and 1745, and five between 1818 and 1850 12 

Sum total of annual incomes . . ^142,906 

Of which the voluntary contributions com- 
prise ..... £31,265 
Making up beds to the number of . . 3,326 

Capable of affording additional room by a 

slight increase of receipts . . , 796 

Total number of persons under treatment 
as In and Out-patients during twelve 
months, 1848-9 . . . . 329,608 



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ST. BABTHOLOMBW'S. JHftoHl SOSptElS. A.D. 1122 

ST. BARTHOLOMEWS HOSPITAL, Smithfield. 
Founded 1102. This establishment was founded by Rahere, 
the minstrel of King Henry I, who, having founded the 
Priory of St. Bartholomew in the year 1102, connected with 
it, about the year 1 122, this hospital '' for the continued relief 
and help of an hundred sore and diseased.'* At the sup- 
pression of monasteries in 1537, the Priory and Hospital, 
and their revenues, came into the possession of Henry VIII ; 
who, in 1547,1 refounded the hospital by royal charter. 

From this, its second foundation, St. ^Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital has increased in three hundred years to more than five 
times its original extent ; and the Governors have removed 
within the last seven years valuable property on the North 
side of the principal entrance in Smitnfield, and have erected 
on the site thereof a spacious Surgery, which is open at all 
hours of the day and night for persons requiring medical or 
surgical assistance, with additional wards, and a theatre for 
operations adjoining. 

All fees on the admission of patients have been abolished ; 
and the accommodation for the in-patients is so extended as 
to admit 580 beds. In the year 1848, 71,573 patients were 
relieved ; including 5,826 in-patients, 19,149 out-patients, 
and 46,598 casualty. 

The present number of Governors is 339, and the qualifi^ 
cation of a Governor^ is a benefaction of £100. 

Accidents, and all cases of emergency, are admitted im- 
mediately ; ordinary cases of disease are admitted by pre- 
senting themselves at the hospital on Thursdays by 11 
o'clock. 

Four Scholarships, each tenable for three years, of the 
annual value of £46 and £50, are available to students, who 
have likewise the use of the valuable museums of anatomy, 

^ The greatest indiridaal benefactor to the Hospital, since the founder, 
was Dr. RadcliflEe, vrho left a foundation of j£500 a-year " towards mend- 
ing the diet," and jSlOO a-year for purchase of iinen." Hogarth was 
made a Governor for gratuitously painting the grand staircase. 

» By an act of parliament of 1782 (22nd George III, Chapter 77), 
the control and management of the Hospital was vested in the President, 
Treasurer, and Governors, who should be chosen at the General Courts, 
together with the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the city of London, and 
twelve members of the Court of Common Council, appointed by their 
own body. 



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ST. TH0MA8\ MtUui H^US^BIS. A.T>. 1553 

materia medica, and botany, and a convenient reading-room, 
adapted exclusively to the purpose of study ; these form 
part of the same building as the Medical Tlieatre (built 
in 1835), to which the library has been also removed. The 
Governors have, since 1843, admitted pupils to residence 
within the walls of the hospitals ; such are termed Collegiate 
Pupils. 

The income of this hospital averages £32,000 per annum, 
not more than £500 of which is derived from present bene- 
factors ; the chief portion comprising rents of estates in 
town and country ; the remainder, dividends on stock and 
annuities. 

A Samaritan Fund was formed in the year 1846, for the 
purpose of alleviating the wants of poor industrious patients, 
upon their quitting the hospital, with money, clothes, etc. 
This fund is dependent upon the voluntary contributions of 
the Governors and the public, and is altogether distinct from 
the revenues of the hospital. It is under the management of 
a committee of the Governors. Since its formation, upwards 
of 2,000 persons have been partakers of its benefits. 

President, John Kinnersley Hooper, Esq., Alderman. — ^Trea- 
surer, James Bentley, Esq. — Vicar and Hospitaler, Rev. Samuel 
Wix, M.A. — ^Assistant Hospitaler, Rev. Walter Mitchell, M.A. — 
Physicians, Clement Hue, M.D., George Leith Roupell, M.D., 
George Burrows, M.D. — Assistsait Physicians, Frederick Farre, 
M.D., Henry Jeaflfreson, M.D., Patrick Black, M.D., — Surgeons, 
William Lawrence, Esq., Edward Stanley, Esq., Eusebius A. 
Lloyd, Esq. — ^Assistant Surgeons, Frederick C. Skey, Esq., Thomas 
Wormald, Esq., James Paget, Esq. — Clerk, William Wix, Esq. — ^ 
Solicitor, Edward Archer Wilde, Esq. — Surveyor, Philip Hard- 
wick, Esq. — Renter, Mr. Thomas Wilby. — Steward, Mr. Robert 
Harry Sparkes. — Matron, Miss Charlotte Baker. 

ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL, Southwark. Founded 
1553,1 for sick and diseased poor persons ; and is one of the 
five royal foundations. 

During the past year there have been cured and dis- 
charged from this hospital, of sick, wounded, maimed, and 
diseased persons, 4,340 in-patients, and 51,996 medical and 
surgical out-patients, including casualties, some of whom 

^ Originally a religions establishment ; founded by the" Prior of Ber- 
tnondseye" in 1213 ; the estate was surrendered to the king in 1^3P, and 
purchased by the city of London, and a charter obtained, in 1551. 



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VESTMijysTER. %gMrgi 8lI5tritElg« A.D. 1719 

have been relieved with money and necessaries at their de« 
parture, to accommodate and support them in their journeys 
to their several habitations. Buried from thence, 276. Bie- 
maining under cure, in-patients, 398 ; out-patients and casu- 
alties, 2,700 : Total, 59,710. The hospital has accommoda- 
tion for 42a beds. The two wings were rebuilt upon Uie 
formation of the approaches to London Bridge ; and they 
alone afford room for 160. 

Patients for admission, stating their complaints, may re- 
ceive a petition at the steward's office, to be signed by a 
housekeeper, who must engage to remove the patient on dis- 
charge or death, or pay j£l. Is', for funeral. Day of admis- 
sion, Tuesday morning at ten. 

Surgical accidents are received into the hospital at all 
hours of the day and night. Very urgent cases of fever and 
inflammation are also received whenever there is an empty 
bed. 

The qualification of a Governor is a donation of £50. 
** Special Governors" consist chiefly of elected retired officers, 
and the executors of benefactors. Like the other large hos- 
pitals, the funds are in a satisfactory condition. The present 
income averages £25,000, very little if any of which depends 
on the fluctuation of public contributions. The rents of 
London and country estates alone realize 24,000 a-year, and 
the dividends about £l,OOO.i 

Precddent, Sir John Pine, Bart. — ^Treasurer, Richard Baggallay, 
Esq. — Hospitaler, Rev. John Teeson, M.A. — Rector, Rev. W. 
Deey. — Physicians, T. A. Barker, M.D., H. B. Leeson, M.D., 
J. R. Bennett, M.D. — ^Assistant Physicians, R. H. Goolden, M.D., 
D. W. Cohen, M.D., T. B. Peacock, M.D.— Surgeons, Joseph H. 
Green, John F. South, G. W. M'Murdo, Esqrs. — ^Assistant Sur- 

feons, S. Solly, J. Dixon, F. Le Ghros Clark, Esqrs. — ^Apothecary, 
[r. G. R. Whitfield.— Clerk, Robert A. Wainewright, Esq.— 
Steward, Mr. Frederick Walker. 

THE WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, Broad Sanctuary, 
opposite Westminster Abbey. Founded 1719. Incorporated 
1836. It is scarcely credible, so much as is done to provide 
additional hospital accommodation, tbat there should remain 
in this building as many as three wards unfumislt^d and 

^ In 1569 the funds were at so low an ebb that a lease was pawned 
for je50. 



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WESTMINSTER. 3JljMral SflUfTftalS. A.D. 1719 

unoccupied, containing space for as many as fifty beds ; yet 
80 it is, and has been for some years -^ and the committee 
state in their present report, that in order to render the in- 
creased benefits ayailable, biU £1500 a-year additional is 
required. Does it not strike every person who is cognizant 
of the poverty and distress of the neighbourhood, how pre- 
ferable it would be at once to aid in extending the useful- 
ness of a long tried institution, to establishing new ones — so 
long as the former is capable of being extended 1 It is very 
desirable that the committee should make the fact more 
known, and that exertion should at once be made. 

The hospital at the present time receives during the year, 
1,891 in-patients, and treats 13,479 out ; and makes up 174 
beds : these are always full, and, in consequence, admission 
is often refused to even urgent cases : two-thirds of the cases 
received have been without letters of recommendation. The 
committee meet at the hospital every Tuesday at one o'clock. 

Subscribers are entitled to recommend one in-patient and 
two out-patients for every guinea annual or £10 donation. 
Three guineas annual, or £30 donation, constitutes a Gover- 
nor. As before intimated, the funds are greatly below the 
needful extent of the hospital ; its present amount of income 
is but £4,000, nearly half of which arises from dividendi/of 
what is now rapidly decreasing stock. It is the oldest hos- 
pital supported by voluntary contributions. 

Lithotripttc Fund — lately handed over to this hospital, was 
raised for the express purpose of founding an institution for 
special treatment of patients. Sufiicient, however, not 
being collected, it is in immediate contemplation to open 
one of the unoccupied wards for the purpose. The amount 
in hand for this is as vet, however, only £1,319. 

Incurable Patients.^ Attached to this hospital is likewise a 
fund, consisting of the dividends of about £17,000, disbursed 
" for the maintenance, clothing, etc., of seven incurable pa- 
tients for one year," at an annual cost of £503, including 
wages and board of one nurse for them. 

President, the Duke of Northumberland. — Treasurers: the 
Hon. Philip Pl^dell Bouverie ; Charles Hoare, Esq. — Consult- 
ing Physician, «fohn Bright, M.D. — Physicians : G. Hamilton 

1 The present building was erected in 1834. The old Hospital had 
accommodation for 00 beds only. 
' Incurable Patients — Tide note at foot of Middlesex Hospital. 



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QUY^s. JSMtSi MdSfMs. A.D. 1724 

Roe, M.D., P. Nugent Kingston, MD., W. R. Basham, M.D. 
— Consulting Surgeon, G. J. Guthrie, Esq. — Surgeons: W. B. 
Lynn, Esq., F. Hale Thomson, Esq., B. Phillips, Esq., Barnard 
W. Holt, Esq. — ^Dentist, J. ChittjClendon, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Hoare, Fleet-street. — Chaplain, Rev. William Henry Cope, M.A. 
— ^Apothecary, Mr. F. W. Barlow. — Cupper and Collector, Mr. G. 
F. Enox. — Matron, Miss Elizabeth Eager. — Secretary, Mr. F. J. 
Wilson. 

GUrS HOSPITAL, Southwark. Founded 1724. For 
sick and diseased poor persons, both as in and out*patient8, 
making up 680 beds. The average number of in-patients at 
one time is 500, and the entire annual average of patients, 
50,000. The admission is on Wednesday at ten o'clock. 
Accidents are taken in at all times. Physicians' out-patients 
must apply at ten o'clock on Friday mornings. Surgeons' 
out-patients at ten o'clock on Thursday mornings. Attend- 
ance at the Surgery every day from eleven till two o'clock. 
The recommendation of a Governor is not requisite. 

27ie Lunatic House is a department peculiar to this hos- 
pital. The usual number of patients is from twenty to thirty, 
as provided for by the founder. They have a spacious air- 
ing ground and garden appropriated for their use and recre- 
ation at the rear of the building. 

This hospital was founded at the sole cost and charges of 
Thomas Guy, Esq.,i who not only spent upwards of £18,000 
on the building during his life-time, but endowed it with the 
sum of j£219,429 ; the largest sum that has ever been left 
by an individual to charitable purposes. 

The annual income is now between ^£26,000 and £30,000, 
arising chiefly from estates purchased with the valuable be- 
quests of Guy and Himt, in the counties of Essex, Hereford, 

^ A bookseller in Lombard street, who amassed a large fortune by 
the sale of bibles, purchasiag seamen's tickets, and transfer of South Sea 
stock, etc. Mr. Gny was a native of Tamworth, in Staffordshire, and 
died, at the age of eif^hty, December 27, 1724, having lived to see his 
hospital covered with the roof; and on the 24th of January following, 60 
padents were recdved into the hospital. Previous to his conceiving the 
design of this institution, he had been a large contributor to the funds of 
St. ThonuMt, His noble example, extensive as was its practice, singa« 
larly enough has been followed by Mr. Hunt, a gentleman residing at 
Petersham, who, in 1829, left a sum of ;£200,000 to this same hospital, 
stipulating for the provision of additional accommodation for 100 patients. 



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10 

ST. GEORGE'S. J&MlSi ^n^SJB. A.D. 1733 

and Lincoln. The affairs of the hospital are directed by « 
committee of (Governors. The usual number of Governors is 
sixty, who are self-elective. The office cannot be constituted 
by any contribution, and there is no published list of them. 

President, Charles Barclay, Esq. — Treasurer, Bonamy Dobree, 
Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. T. H. Bullock, M.A. — Physicians : Richd. 
Bright, M.D. (Consulting Physician) ; Thomas Addison, M.D. ; 
Benjamin G. Babington, M.D. ; Geo. H. Barlow, M.D. — Assist- 
ant Physicians : Henry M. Hughes, M.D. ; G. O. Rees, M.D. ; 
Golding Bird, M.D. — Surgeons : Bransby B. Cooper, Edw. Cock, 
and John Hilton, Esqrs. — Assistant Surgeons : Mr. Birkett, Mr. 
Poland. — Apothecary, Mr. J. Stocker. — Steward, Mr. J. Browell, 
— Accountant, Mr. William R. Arnold. — Clerk Reg., Mr. Wm. 
Taylor. 

ST. GEORGES HOSPITAL, near Hyde Park-comer. 
Instituted 1733. Incorporated 1824. !N^o patient is admitted 
(except in cases of accident) without the recommendation of 
a Governor or Subscriber, that he or she is a proper object 
of charity. Such recommendations must be delivered on 
Wednesday morning by half-past eleven o'clock. 

A benefaction of £60^ or 5 guineas annually, constitutes a 
(Sovemor, entitled to have one in-patient and two out-pa- 
tients always on the books. 2 guineas annually entitle 
to recommend two in-patients annually, and have two out- 
patients always on the books. 

St. George^ 8 Charity for ConvUlescents is a fund attached 
to this hospital, similar to the '^ Samaritan Fund'' of the other 
hospitals, and is subject to .the rules established for the hos- 
pital. The business is transacted at the meetings of the 
Weekly Boards and General Courts. One guinea annually, 
or 10 guineas donation, constitutes a Governor of this fund. 

In consequence of the extensive demands on this charity, 
the expenditure has so far increased over the receipts, as to 
cause the necessity of selling out as much as £5,000 stock in 
the past year alone. The annual amount of subscriptions is 
under ^4,500, and the dividends under £3,000. The ex- 
penses, on the other hand, exceed these amounts by nearly 
£3,000. 

The number of patients experiencing the benefits during 
the past year "was — inrpatients, 3,643 ; half of whom were 
from accidents, without recommendations. Of these, 305 
remained in the hospital at the beginning of the year, 1673 



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11 

THE LoypoN. aigMrai JBgyitak a.d. 1740 

were discharged cured, and 836 made out-patients. ChU-> 
patients^ 7943 ; of whom 6421 were discharged cured, and 
797 remained on the hooks at the close of the year.* 

Patron and President, The Queen. — Treasurer, C. Drummond, 
J. V; Thompson, £sqrs. — Physicians : Dr. Wilson, Dr. Naime, 
Dr. Page, Dr. Bence Jones. — Assistant Physicians : Dr. Pitman, 
Dr. Fuller. — Suigeons : Robert Keate, Esq. ; Caesar Hawkins, Esq. ; 
Edward Cutler, Esq.; Thomas Tatum, Esq. — ^Assistant Surgeons: 
Henry Charles Johnson, Esq. ; Prescott Hewett, Esq. — Visiting 
Apothecaries : H. P. Fuller, Esq. ; E. Tegart, Esq. ; E. D. Moore, 
Esq. ; J. Merriman, Esq. — Surveyor, Arthur Mee, Esq. — Kesident 
Chaplain, Rev. J. B. Morewood, M.A. — Apothecary, Mr. Ham* 
merton. — Secretary, Mr. Gunning. — Assist. Apothecary, Mr. Pot- 
ter. — Curator, Mr. Henry Gray. — Matron, Mrs. Hains. — House 
Steward, Mr. Newns. — Collector, Mr. liewns. 

TEB LONDOJ}^ HOSPITAL, WlAtechA^Uoad. Insti- 
tuted 1740. Incorporated 1759. Poor objects, recommended 
as in-patients, are gratuitously supplied with advice, medi- 
cine, diet, washing, lodging, and other comfortable support, 
and, in case of death, they are buried at the expense of the 
charity, if not removed by their friends. But parish poor, or 
soldiers, cannot be admitted, until the Governors recom- 
mending them, or the churchwardens and overseers of the 
parish of such poor, have engaged to pay for them respect- 
ively 9d. per day. Out-patients have advice and medicines 
administered daily. All cases which require immediate aid, 
are admitted at any hour of the day or night, without re- 
commendation. 

The number of in-patients admitted during the past year 
was 4186 ;2 of whom 2442 were cases of accident ; and the 
number of out-patients treated, was 28,614. The total num- 
ber of poor relieved since the foundation of the hospital is 
estimated at 904,710. The number of in-patients at one time 
varies from 312 to 340 ; but the recent extension of the east 
wing will increase the accommodation as funds will permit. 

The necessanr expenditure having for some few years 
generally exceeded the income, a decrease of funded property 
has been the result. This decrease, in the ten years ending 

^ This hospital took its rise from a party of the Governors of West* 
minster Hospital dissenting therefrom. They first established it at Lanes- 
borough House, 1733. 

* Each for an average period of one month. 



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12 

MIDDLESEX. MtJOtBi inSjIltglS^ A.D. 1745 

January 1849, amounted to upwards of £5,000; whilst, dur- 
ing the same period, the number of patients annually treated 
luS increased from 12,816 to 24,799. The present annual in- 
come averages j£l 3,000, only j£2,000 of which is from volun- 
tary sources, and tixe expenditure exceeds this amount by 
;ei,980. 

Five guineas annual, or 30 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to recommend one in-patient and four 
out-patients at a time. Subscribers of one guinea annually 
may send out-patients. 

A Samaritan Society^ is appended to this hospital, for the 
benefit of those who have been recovered within the institu- 
tion, and have no home or asylum to receive them ; to aid in 
removing others whose friends reside at distant paxts of the 
country : and, where necessary, for affording sea-air to the 
convalescent, by sending them to the Sea-Bathing Infirmary 
at Margate. One guinea annually, or 5 guineas at one time, 
constitutes a Member. 

President, His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge. — 
Treasurer, Leonard (Jurrie, Esq. — Physicians : Frederick Cobb, 
M.D. ; Algernon Frampton, M.D. ; William John Little, M.D. — 
Assistant Physicians : Jonathan Pereira, M.D. ; Patrick Fraser, 
M.D. ; Herbert Davies, M.D. — Surgeons : James Luke, Esq. ; 
John Adams, Esq. ; Thomas Blizard Ourling, Esq. — Assistiuit 
Surgeons : George CWtchett, Esq. ; Nathaniel Ward, Esq. ; John 
Cawood Wordsworth, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. Thomas Ward, M.A. 
— ^House Coroner, Robert John Hill, Esq. — Apothecary, Samuel 
Jesup Burch, Esq. — ^Dispensers : Messrs. Williaun T. Fewtrell, and 
Thomas Henry Tustin. — Matron, Mrs. Nelson. — Clerk, Mr. Cappe. 
— Collector, Mr. Wm. Eddrup. — Secretary, Wm. J. Nixon, Eisq. 

MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL, estabHshed about 1745, 
incorporated 1836, Goodge-street, Tottenham-court-road, 
facing Bemers-street. By recent enlargement of the wings 
of this building, and various additions arising from some 
late bequests, &e hospital contains now 285 beds. The 
annual average number of patients relieved during the past 
five years has been — ^in-patients, 2,206, and out-patients, 
9,316. Cases of accident or emergency are admitted at all 
hours, others by a Governor's recommendation. This, like 
the Westminster, is more dependent upon voluntary support, 

^ The first Samaritau fund, founded 1791, at a suggestion of the late 
Sir William Blizzard. 



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13 

cHABiira-oEoss. MtWsi SnsptalS. ^'^' 1S16 

its annual income averaging ^9,000 or ^£10,000^ of which, 
above ^£3,000 depends upon subscriptions. 

The Cancer Ward is a special feature in this hospitaL It 
was added through the generous interference of the late 
Mr. Whitbread, who provided that patients so aflUcted 
might remain here for life if they wish.^ 

The Samaritan Fund is similar to that at St. Bartholo- 
mew's, for the benefit of those patients requiring funds to 
convey them to their homes, or to afford them the relief of 
change of air by a stay at the Invalids' Asylum at Carshalton 
or otherwise. 

Three guineas annual, or 30 guineas at one time, consti- 
tute a Governor ; 2 guineas annual entitle to recommend 
one in-patient and 3 out. The Board of Governors meet 
every Tuesday at 12 o'clock, when every Governor is enti- 
tled to attend. 

President, The Duke of Northumberland. — ^Treasarers : Wm. 
Tooke, Esq. ; John Labouchere, Esq. — Chairman, Thomas W. 
Burke, Esq. — Chaplain,»J. D. Hare, M.A. — Physicians : Francis 
Hawkins, M.D. ; M. Crawford, M.D. ; Seth Thompson, M.D.— 
Physician Accoucheur, Dr. Cliarles West. — ^Assistant Physician, 
Drs. R. G. Latham and A. P. Stewart. — Surgeons : C. De Mor- 
gan, Esq. ; C. H. Moore, Esq.; Alexander Shaw, Esq. — ^Assist. 
Surgeon, M. Henry, Esq. — ^Apothecary, Mr. G. Corfe. — House Sur- 
geons, Mr. Bousfield and Mr. Harding. — Secretary, Mr. Alexander 
Shedden.— Matron, Miss Cookesley. — Collector, Mr. H. O. Knight. 

CHARINO-CROSS HOSPITAL, King WiUiam-street. 
Founded 1818.2 Comprises the two-fold intention of a 
Dispensary for the relief of the sick poor at their own 
homes, and of an Hospital for the reception of the more 
severely afllicted sufferers. None are received as in-patients 
whose cases may be treated with equal efBcacy as out-pa- 

^ We bare made conftiderable search for a distinct charity, iaid to 
be existing under the designation of " Society for the Relief of Incur- 
ables"; and, after well considering the scope of this excellent department 
of the Middlesex Hospital, — the ward, for somewhat similar purposes, 
in Westminster Hospital, — and the olject of a large portion of the opera- 
tions of the Bethlehem Hospital, nnder Mr. Barkham's will, — we have 
little hesitation in applying this comprehensive designation where so 
mach of its exercise is developed, failing to discover it more nearlj, else- 
where. 

> Present building erected in 1831. 



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14 

EOYAL FREE. Jfiftol JBlISptalS* A.D. 1828 

tients. The under-mentioned medical officers prescribe for, 
and relieve, the patients of their respective departments, 
between 12 and 1 o'clock daily, at the hospital ; and those 
patients (residing within the visiting distance) who are too 
ill to attend at the institution, are visited at their own 
abodes. 

Patients with midwifery letters are to attend on Tuesdays 
and Fridays. The admission-day for in-patients is Monday, 
at half-past 12 o'clock, when patients are to attend to be 
examined. Dangerous accidents are at all times imme- 
diately admitted. The parents of children with contagious 
complaints are to request the attendance of the Visiting 
Medical Officer at their own houses. 149,000 patients have 
been treated, and for the most part cured, by this charity, 
since its foundation. During the past year 1,1 16 in-patients 
were received, and 17,384 out ; 13,902 of these were ad- 
mitted without any recommendation. The number of pa- 
tients under treatment at one time is: in-patients, 118; out, 
283. The annual average cost of thecstablishment is stated 
to be only ^2,506, and this is for the most part met by vo- 
luntary contributions. 

A donation of 40 guineas constitutes a Life Governor, 
and 20 guineas a Life Supporter. Two, four, or more guineas 
annually constitutes an Annual Subscriber, with the privi- 
lege of recommending in-patients. One guinea annuaUy, or 
10 guineas at one time, entitle the contributors to recom- 
mend three out-patients annually. 

Treasurers : The Rev. G. H. Bowers, B.D. ; A. M. Drummond, 
Esq.- — ^Bankers, Messrs. Drummonds. — ^Director, B. Golding, M.D. 
— Honorary Secretary, J. Robertson, Esq. — Clerk, Mr. W. Cappe. 
— Collector, Mr. Cappe. — Medical Officers : Physicians, Dr. Shear- 
man, Dr. Golding, Dr. Chowne. — Surgeons : Henry Hancock, 
Esq. ; John Avery, Esq. — Dentist and Cupper, Mr. A. Canton. — 
Anatomical Machuust, Mr. Taylor. — Dispenser of Medicines, Mr. 
G. Birkett.— Collector, Mr. W. H. Everist. 

ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL, Gray's Inn-road. Ori- 
ginally founded 1828, in Greville-street, Hatton Garden, 
by Mr. W. Marsden. In 1832 upwards of 700 cholera pa- 
tients were admitted into it, when other hospitals were 
closed against them. This demonstration of the principle 
of the institution gained for it much support, and in 1843 
the Committee took the present extensive and suitable pre- 



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^ 15 

kudo's college. 3fijittCHl SoSptelS. a.d. 1839 

mises in the Gra^s Inn-road, incurring thereby a heayy 
debt, which, although nearly liquidated, must have proved 
a heavy drawback to the institution, and limited the full 
advantage of the " free admission,'' as the Committee state 
"there are at the present time two large wards perfectly 
furnished, ready for patients, but from want of funds 
empty." ^ Two years back there existed great complaint of 
the management of this hospital ; whether there was ground 
for such complaint matters not now, as it is evident the 
greatest zeal and attention is being paid to its efficiency 
and increased operations. The business is conducted by a 
Weekly Board of eleven gentlemen, of whom the Rev. Dr. 
Bice is chairman. 

The number of in-patients admitted to the Hospital 
during the past year was 667 ; and the nmnber of out- 
patients, 27,944 ; 856 of these cases were the result of acci- 
dent. The receipts for the past few years average nearly 
£5,000 per annum ; and, were it not for outstanding liabili- 
ties, judging by the pit>portionate operations of other hos- 
pitals, tMs would, if continued, be sufficient to enable the 
Committee to double their present number of in-patients. 
The whole of this amount, however, depends on voluntary 
contributions. One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, 
constitutes a governor, with one vote for every such amount. 
Attendance at the Hospital daily, from 11 to 1, for the pur- 
pose of affi>rding information, &c* 

President, Duke of Buccleuch and Queensbury. — Treasurer 

and Banker, John Masterman, Esq., M.P. Physician, Dr. T. 

B. Peacock. — Surgeons : W. Marsden, Esq., M.D. ; John Gb,j, 
Esq. ; Thomas H. Wakley, Esq. ; T. W. Cooke, Esq.— Dentist, 
James Robinson, Esq. — Chairman of the Weekly Board, the Rev. 
Edward Rice, D.D. — Cupper, John Atkinson, Esq, 

KING'S COLLEGE HOSPITAL, Portugal-street, Lin- 
coln's-inn. Instituted 1839. Patients are admitted either 
by Subscribers' letters, or, if urgent, on application. Situ- 
ated, as it is, in so populous a neighbourhood, there is a 
daily accession of patients ; but the income is veiy insuffi- 
cient for the number who might be relieved by this Hospital, 

^ Since the above was written, these two wards have been thrown open, 
and the hospital is now represented as ready for the reception of 134 
inmates, and space in the building for extending it to 500. 



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16 

king's college. :SlBtol SUSptalS. A.D. 1839 

and it is greatly to be lamented does not coyer the present 
expenditure ; conse(]^uently an annual amount of debt is now 
accruing, small, it is true, at present, but still sufficient to 
impede the extension of use^ness desired, and to cause 
alarm for the future. 

This Hospital is one which, both for its extensive benefits 
to the poor, its connection with King's College, and its field 
of usefulness to the theological as well as medical students 
of that institution, we feel great interest for, believing it to 
be well directed, and under the surveillance of not only 
the skilful but the good ; and as some charitable persons, 
otherwise well disposed to contribute, have objected that 
this is not a free hospital, — we here think the following 
return, as made up from the books, cannot fail to be satis- 
factory : — The number of in-patients during the year was 
1,253, and out-patients, 19,383, including 419 cases of mid- 
wifery attended at their own habitations. Total number of 
in-patients admitted since the foundation of the hospital, 
10,486 ; out-patients, 117,400 ; and of these no less a num- 
ber than 6,437 in, and 116,113 out-patients were received 
without any recommendation beyond that afforded by their 
own urgency and need. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas at one time, entitles to 
recommend 1 in and 2 out-patients annually. 3 guineas 
annual, or 30 guineas at one time, constitute a Governor, 
with increased privileges in proportion. 

The present income averages ^4,000, with the exception 
of about ^200 only, all dependant on public contributions ; 
but from exertions about to be made, and appeals lately 
put forth, we expect that these resources will, ere long, be 
doubled, and that if the new building plan is carried out 
the openltions will be doubled too. The present number of 
beds made up is but 110 to 120, the contemplated number 200. 

President, The Duke of Sutherland. — Treasurer, "W. T. Cope- 
land, Esq., M.P. — Chaplain, Rev. Michael Biggs, M.A. — Con- 
sulting Physicians : Thomas Watson, M.D. ; Robert Ferguson, 
M.D.— Physicians : George Budd, M.D. ; R. B. Todd, M.D.— 
Physician-Accoucheur, Arthur Farre, M.D. — Physicians to the 
Out-patients : W. A. Guy, M.D. ; George Johnson, M.D. — Sur. 
geons : W. Fergusson, Esq. ; R. Partridge, Esq. — Assistant Sur- 
geons : W. Bowman, Esq. ; Henry Lee, Esq.— Surgeon-Dentist, 
Samuel Cartwright, Jun., Esq. — Secretary, Mr. John Lyon. — 
Matron, Mrs. Rice. — ^Dispenser, Mr. Francis Blackburn. 



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17 

fTNIVEBfilTY, A.D. 1833. JKjiUtKl. MAETLBBONB, A.1). 1850 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE BOJSPITAZ,Vp^T Gower- 
street* Founded 1833. Gases of emergency admitted at all 
hours ; otherwise, in-patients daily at eleyen o'clock. Out- 
patients, physicians' cases, attended on Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, at twelve o'clock ; surgical cases, 
ait twelve o'clock daily. Diseases of the eye, Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, at one ; urgent cases, daily. Dental 
patients attended to, Saturdays at nine. 

During the past year, there were received 1 634 in-patients ; 
638 midwifery cases, attended at their own habitations, and 
414 ophthalmic patients ; and upwards of 18,000 cases vari- 
ously relieved as out-patients. The number of patients in 
the hospital at a time averages 112; the number of beds, 
120; and the building capable of extending accommodation 
to 200. 

The annual income averages ^5,000, two-thirds of which 
is dependant upon voluntai^ contributions. The expenses 
are just covered by this amount. 

Subscribers of 1 guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one 
time, are entitled to recommend four out-patients ; and sub- 
scribers of 3 guineas, or donors of 30, are entitled to recom- 
mend three in, and six out-patients, yearly. 

President, Lord Brougham. — Treasurer, the Baron de Goldsmid. 
—Chaplain, Rev. H. Stabbing, D.D.— Physicians : W. H. Walshe, 
M.D., and E. Parkas, M.D. — Assistant Physician, Dr. Janner. — 
ObstetricPhysician, Edward W. Murphy, M.D. — Surgeons : James 
M. Amott, Esq., and R. Quain, Esq. — ^Assistant Surgeons: J. E. 
Erichsen, Esq., and John Marshall, Esq. — Dental Surgeon, J. 
Duranc^ George, Esq. — ^Apothecary, Mr. Joseph T. Clover. — Cup- 
per, Mr. Henry Charles Batts. — Matron, Mrs. Stable. — Clerk to 
the Committee, Mr. J. W. Goodiflf.— Collector, Mr. C. B. Buck, 
1, Merrow-street, Walworth. 

MARYLEBONE AND P ALDINGTON HOSPITAL, 

Cambridge-place, Paddington. Proposal for establishing. 
1843. Opened, 1850. Is now being opened, after seven years 
extreme exertion to raise the necessary funds. The want of 
a hospital has long been felt in the north-west part of the 
metropolis, which, of late years, has much increased in popu- 
lation, without any adequate means of relief for the poorer 
classes. The number of inhabitants is reckoned at 150,000, 
and the demand for hospital-beds, 376 ; but it is proposed to 
commence with 160. The cost of erecting a hospital with 

2 

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18 

MAETLEBOKB. JEBteCEl ISHBptKlS. A.D. 1850 

such accommodation, was onginally estimated at ^£6,000 ; 
and maintaining the same, ^4,500 per annum. This amount, 
however, we always considered as estimated much too low ; 
and to this may much of the delay occasioned, be traced. 
The building, at length erected, and ready for part habita- 
tion, is a substantial and elegant^ staructure, forming as great 
an ornament to the appearance of the district, as it must, 
ere long, prove of value to the inhabitants. 

That portion of the hospital now erected, will not only have 
the 150 beds for patients, but also contain the board-room, 
the chapel, the operating theatre, and other principal depart- 
ments reauired in a latge hospital ; the design being in- . 
tended, when fully carried out, to have beds for nearly 400 
patients. 

The amount contributed to the present time by voluntary 
subscriptions reaches some ;£30,000, which will cover all ex- 
penses contingent on the building, but leaves little or nothing 
for continuance of operations. That the requisite amoimt, 
however, for carrying out the objects to the fullest extent, 
will be raised, cannot for a moment be questioned; but 
whether it be by the support of the many, or, as in the 
case of Guy's and St. Thomas's, by the bequests of a few, 
remains to be developed. 

30 Guineas at one time, or 3 guineas annual, constitutes a 
governor. 

Honorary Secretary, William Tatham, Esq., 61, Oxford Ter- 
race. — Bankers, Sir Samuel Scott and Co. 

^ The design was farnished by the honorary architect, Mr. Hopper. 
The present foundation comprehends three-fourths of his whole plan. 



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19 

FOB SPECIAL %gtogi ClUtrifeS 



CHAPTER IL 



CHARITIES FOR AFFORDING MEDICAL 
TREATMENT AND RELIEF {continued). 

Hospitals, Infirm abibs, and othbb Institutions fob spbciai. 
pcBPOSBs: — Seaman's Hospital. — Spanish and Portuguese Jews'. — 
Gennan Hospital. — London Fever. — Hospitals and Infirmaries for 
Consumption — Sanatorium forMadeira. — Rojal Sea-bathing Infirmarj. 
L3ring.In Charities. — Hospitals for Women and Cbildren.—Small-pox 
Ho^ital and Vaccination Institutions. — Ophthalmic. — Diseases of the 
Ear. — Orthopoedic Ho^ital. — Spinal Institutions. — Lock Hospital — 
Vistula and Truss Societies. — Glandular and Skin Diseases. — Conva^ 
lescent and Invalid Asylums. — Lunatic and Idiot Asylums. — Train- 
ing Institutions for Nurses. 

In chapter second we find it advisable to comprehend the 
remainder of the metropolitan medical hospitals, and all other 
institutions deyoted to special objects of medic^ treatment. 
Amongst these may be found some few dispensaries, which, 
from their being of immediately kindred design to the insti- 
tutions precedmg, it has been deemed inexpedient to sepa- 
rate from them ; so that our third division will consist 
wholly of dispensaries for general patients. 

With this arrangement in view, the following summary is 
subjoined, the consideration of which fully bears out the 
truth of our previous remarks, and even more satisfactorily 
evidences the extent of operations in our own time, and the 
anxious desire manifested to afford a relief for every ill. 

It only remains for us to premise, that institutions of a 
minor character, but kindred in design to the following, are 
constantly making their appearance before the public, under 
slight variations of title and claims to support ; proving 
often, however, to be the attempts only of individuals, either 
for the development of peculiar systems of treatment, or for 
the extension of fame and practice. With this before us, 

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ao| 

SEAMAK^B. MMbI Cljgrilfeg far A.D. 1833 

therefore, we have endeavoured to confine ourselves to such 
as are of a public description ; although some few even of 
these, may perchance merit much of this same definition. 

SUMMABY OF THE SPECIAL MEDICAL CHABITIE8 : 

1 Seamen — 2 Foreigners and Jews — 1 Fever — 4 Consmnption, etc. — 1 
Madeira— 1 Sea-Bathing — 9 Lying-in — 8 Women and Children — 8 
Small Pox and Vaccination — 5 Ophthalmic — 8 Ear and Voice — 3 De- 
formities — 3 Internal Disease— 3 Skin and Glandular— 4 Maniac and 
Idiots. — 4 Convalescent and Invalid. Total 50 

23 institutions receiving in-patients, and making up beds to the 
number of .-.--. 1,105 

Four Lunatic Asylums, ditto , . - . 1,670 

In all, 50 Charities granting medical relief, for special objects, 
annually to ..---. 105,007 
(exclusive of the Madeira Sanatorium, and another only just 
formed, and two from which there are no returns). 

Of these, 1 was founded in the sixteenth century ; 11 in the eighteenth; 
and 38 in the present century. 

The aggregate amount of annual receipts averages at present time d096,664 

Of which amount, contributed by voluntary contributions, is £27,974 



SJSAMAJV'S HOSPITAL SOCIETY, for Sick and 
Diseased Seamen, of aU Nations, in the Port of London. 
Office, 74, King WiUiam-street, City. Established 1821. 
Incorporated 1833. This hospital is commonly knoTm as 
" Tha Seamen's Hospital," on board the " Dreadnought," 
three-decker, moored off Greenwich, and is of the greatest 
importance, as it is a well-known fact, that, sooner than 
enter a land hospital, many a poor sailor will perish afloat^ 
although a prospect of returning health is held out to him 
by proper medical treatment. Since its first institution, 
56,430 patients have been admitted, and medical stores dis- 
pensed to 27,808 out-patients. The annual number ayer- 
ages 2,500 in-patients, and 2,153 out, of whom upwards of 
100, when discharged, are completely clothed, and to others 
are given various articles. The usufd number of in-patients 
at one time is 200. 

Supported partly by voluntary contributions to an extent 
of ;£ 3,000 per annum, and in part by the penalties and for- 
feitures under the 7th and 8th Vict., cap. 112, averaging 
j£600, and by 5 per cent, of the amount collected from the 
merchant service vessels, ''for the relief of maimed and 
disabled seamen, their wives, and children," amounting to 



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21 

BPANisH JEWS', 1847. ^yBrial ^Crp5g5> qjRMAirHosp.l846 

Bear £500 per annum. Qualification of a GoTomor, 1 guinea 
annually ; Life GoyernOT, 10 guineas donation.^ 

Prefddent, Lord Yiscoiint Melville. — ^Treasurer, John Labou- 
chere, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. David Jones, B.D. — ^Tnistoes : John 
Deao^ Esq. ; John Labonchere, Esq. ; Bear- Admiral W. Bowles, 
C.B.— Hon. Coonsel, G. W. Lydekker, Bsq^.—Consulting Ph™- 
cians : Dr. Edward Seymour, Dr. George Leith Ronpell, Dr. Geo. 
Badd.— Visitmg Physidans : Dr. Bkck, and Dr. BlackaU. — 
Ck>nsultrQg Surgeon, Sir Riohard Dobson, M.D. — Superintendent^ 
Lieatenant John Saunders, R.N. — First Surgeon, Mr. George 
Busk. — Second Surgeon, Dr. Rooke. — Assistant-Surgeon and Apo- 
thecary, Mr. J. H. Lakin. — Secretary, Mr. S. Kemball Cook. 

THE SPAI^ISB AND PORTUGESE JEWS' HOS- 
PITAL, Mile End-Foad. EstaUished by the Congregation 
of Spanish and Portugese Jews in 1747, as an ho8|Htal for 
their sick poor, and affording advice and medicine to out- 
patients ; abo for the reception of lying-in women, and for 
granting an asylum to the aged. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas at one time, entitles to 
one vote, and the privilege of having one in and two out- 
patients, on ^e establishment. 

The last printed r^>ort of this institution bears date 
1837, and no later information can be given of the extent 
of its operations. At that time the income was about £1,000 
per annum, j£600 of which went for the nudntenance of the 
inmates. The funded property is now upwards of £10,000. 
The following are the Office-bearers at the present time : — 

Treasurer, David A. lindo, Esq. — ^Warden, Michael De Pass, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Soloman Almosnino. 

GERMAN HOSPITAL, Dalston.* Opened 1845. Fw 
the reception and treatment of natives of Germany and 
others speaking the German language.^ Medical advice is 

^ During the late cholera, GoTemmeot granted the ute of a second 
vessel, the " Iphigene," late the Marine Society's ship. 

' The building is that for many years occupied by the In&nt Orphan 
Society, previous to removing to Wanstead. It is well adapted for its pre- 
wot purpose, and contains forty beds for patients ; a sepantte wing for 
the Sanatorium ; a chapel; and every other accommodation for a good 
and comjdete hoipitaL 

3 Among the number of iOTeignera living in London, it is estimated 
that six-sevenths are natives of Oermany,or of German provinces subject 
to other states. 



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FEYEB HOSPITAL. WMlBJ ClTgrifeg fat A.D. 1803 

likewise afforded to out-patients at the Dispensaries in 
London. The number of in-patients during the past year 
was 419, and out-patients 1,728, of whom 1,176 attended 
the Hospital, 504 the Eastern PispensaiT, and 48 the West. 
Applicants for admission to the tiospital must attend at two 
o'clock, p.m. Urgent cases are admitted at all hours. 

A ConvalescerU Fund is attached, similar to that of other 
Hospitals, for the bestowal of clothing, pecuniary aid, &c. 
to those in need on quitting the house. 

The Chaplain, as weU as the establishment generally, is 
protestant. 

Ten guineas at one time, or one guinea annual, consti- 
tutes a Goyemor, entitled to have 2 out-patients on the 
books at a time. 

The Sanatorium is for the reception of such patients as 
can afford to pay a moderate sum of from one to two pounds 
per week, the latter sum if they wish a room entirely to 
themselyes. This branch of the operations is being greatly 
appreciated by the middle class of patients, and is now 
proving a small source of income, under £100 a-year. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — Chaplain, Rev. Adolphus 
Walbamn. — ^Treasurer, Frederick Huth, Esq. — Sub-Treasurer, C. 
A. Preller, Esq. — ^Hon. Solicitors, Messrs. Baxendale, Tatham, 
Upton, and Co. — Hon. Secretaries : Rev. Charles Wedey, D.D. ; 
Rev. Adolphus Walbaum. — Assistant Secretary and Collector, 
Mr. G. H. Lilie.— Physicians : S. Sutro, M.D.; W. E. Swaine, 
M.D.— burgeon, L. E. Straube, M.D. — ^House Surgeon, W. Beneke, 
M.D. — ^Dispenser at the hospital, Mr. Sophus Seidelin. 

Medical Officers of the Dispensaries : for the east of London, 
J. H. Steinau, M.D., 17> Broad-street Buildings ; sees the out- 
patients at his residence on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and 
Saturdays, between 8 and 10 o'clock, a.m. — Chemist, Mr. Theo- 
dore Erantz, 2, Devonshire-st., Bishopsgate-street. 

For the west of London : vacant. 

LONDON FEVER HOSPITAL, Liverpool-road, Is- 
lington, (late Pancras-road).i Instituted 1803. All poor 
persons affected with fever are admitted gratuitously, except 
they are parochial paupers or domestic servants, in which 
case one guinea is charged to the parish, or to the master in 
whose house the illness oegan. The domestics of subscribers 

^ The new buildiiig was opened last year. Its total cost of erection 
was jC19,438 2s. 9d.,— defrayed by the compensation vote of 4^20,000, 
paid by the Great Northern Railway Company, who now occupy the site 
of the old establishment. 

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23 

CONSUMPTION. ^Pliil SnrpS^S* A.D. 1841 

are admitted at all times, in any number, without this fee. 
The number of beds varies from 100 to 130. In-patients 
received during last year, onlv 714; and the average of 
inmates, 64. An appropriate vehicle is kept on the premises 
for the conveyance of the patients to the hon>ital. The ex- 
penses amount to about £2300 per annum; defrayed mostly 
by parochial payments ; by £450 voluntary contributions ; 
and j£450 dividends and miscellaneous receipts. 

All subscribers of one guinea annually, or of 10 guineas 
in one donation, are Govemon. 

Fresidenty the Earl of Devon. — Treasurer, T. Comey, Eeq.— 
Physicians : Alexander Tweedie, M.D., F.B.S. ; Southwood Smith, 
M.D. — Aflfflstant Physician, Adaii Crawford, M.D. — Resident 
Medical Officer, W. H. O. Sankey, M.B.— Secretary, C. Hyde, 
Esq. — Matron, Mrs. Hansard. 

HOSPITAL FOR CONSUMPTION A DISEASES 
OF THE CHESTy Brompton.^ Instituted 1841. Incor- 
porated 1849. This Hospital is especially devoted to that 
most frequent and destructive complaint, consumption. 
There is scarcely a disease which does notjfind ready admis- 
sion into the wards of our general hospitals ; but against this 
the doors of all are closed, the plea on which it is refused 
admission being its lingering nature. 

The present receipts average ^^,000 a-y ear, arising wholly 
from voluntary contributions, and are insufficient for the 
needful expenses, which exceed by nearly ;£400 per annum. 

Owing to the active exertions of the Committee of this 
hospital, seconded by the liberality of the benevolent, its 
operations these last few years have been very much in- 
creased. The number of in-patients received since 1846 is 
676 ; of whom 81 are remaimng in the house. The annual 
admissions now average 282, and the number of out-patients 
2,805, most of whom attend for a considerable period. The 
daily average attendance is 115. 

Persons having letters of recommendation from Governors, 
as in-patients, must attend for examination by the physician 

^ The present building was opened in 1846; the original hospital was 
at Chelsea, near the Royal Hospital. In their present Report, the Com- 
mittee notice one gratifying fact, — ^viz., in that building, the deaths of 
the in-patients were 72 in 207, or 1 in 4 ; whilst, in the new hospital, 
they have never exceeded 1 death in every 6 patients, as 127 in 686. 



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24 

CHBST DISEASES. WMtld C^flrifeg far A.D. 1814 

in attendance, any day at two o^clock, when, if proper cases, 
their names will be entered for admission in rotation. If 
t^e patient lives at a distance, an authenticated medical cer- 
tificate will serve. Out-patients can be seen by the physi- 
cians every day, at one o clock precisely. 

The Rose Charity Fund^ resembles the Samaritan Funds 
of St. George's and other hospitals ; out of it are afforded 
g^ts of clothes and small pecuniary assistance, to the pa- 
tients leaving the hospitaL 

(Governors of 30 guineas donation, or 3 guineas annually, 
have the privilege of recommending one in, and eight out- 
patients in the year. Subscribers of 1 guinea annually, may 
recommend four out-patients.^ 

President, the Duke of Richmond. — ^Treasurer, John Labou- 
chere, Esq. — ^Hon. Secretary, Philip Rose, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. 
Henry Du Puy, B. A. — Consulting Physicians : John Forbes, Esq., 
M.D.; C. J. B. Williams, Esq., M.D.; W. H. Walshe, Esq., M.D. 
—Physicians : G. H. Roe, Esq., M.D.; T. Thompson, Esq., M.D.; 
George Cursham, Esq., M.D. — ^Assistant Physicians: Richard 
P. Cotton, Esq., M.D.; Richard Quain, Esq., M.D.; John J. 
Bowie, Esq., M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, William Fergusson, Esq. 
^^cretary, Osbofn P. Cross, Esq., at the Hospital. — ^Assistant 
Secretary and Collector, Mr. W. H. Harden. — Matron, Miss HaU. 
— ^Dispenser, Mr. Hardy, at the Hospital. 

ROYAL INFIRMARY for Asthma, Consumption, and 
other Diseases of the Imngs, City-road. Estabhshed 1814. 
For the purpose of affording relief to the poor afflicted with 
diseases of the chest, by medical advice and dispensing m^ 
dicine ; also for the reception of in-patients with the early 
symptoms of disease. 

At the time of the formation of this institution, and until 
very lately, it was the only one of its kind ; and the import 

^ This fund was raised out of respect to the honorary Secretary, Mr. 
Rose, and to denote the appreciation the Committee held his exertions 
in. The original design was to obtain a portrait of that gentleman ; but, 
at his earnest request, the amount raised for tiiat purpose was devoted 
to the foundation of this fund. 

' The benefit accruing to this hospital by the talents and benevolence 
of one individual, deserves a record here. MUe. Lind, in July 1848, 
presented no less a sum than j^l,606 : 16 : 0, — the proceeds of the con- 
cert held by her for its aid. The whole of this was set apart for the 
extension fund. 



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25 

OHSST DiSBASBS. ^iftsisi '^^WiJ^B, AD. 1847 and 1848 

iita4;es, ^ tliat its benefits have been distributed to upwards 
of 30,000 patients" ; but its present condition seems lan- 
guid, and its operations limited. This may arise in part 
firom the decreased number of its supporters, and the exten- 
flive nature of ^e last mentioned hospital. The amount ci 
annual subscriptions appear to be under il50, and the recep- 
tion of inmate* to have been discontinued. 

It is greatly to be desired that a helping hand i^ould be 
rendered to an institution of this description. It is for a 
dass of «uffering poor that can ill spare such assistance. 

Treasurer, John Travers, Esq. — Consulting Physicians, Charles 
I. Fox, M.D. — ^Physicians: Herbert Davies, Esq., M.D.; Wm. 
Munk, Esq., M.D.; Bankers, Messrs. Drummond and Co. — ^Apo- 
thecary, Mr. William Herring. — Hon. Secretary, Samuel Amory, 
Esq., 25, Throgmorton-street. — ^Assistant Secretary and Collec- 
tor, Mr. John Smith, 3, Crosby-square, Bishopsgate-street. 

DI8PEN8ART FOR CONSUMPTION and Diseases 
of the Chest, 26, Margaret-street, Regent-street. Instituted 
1847. For the benefit of patients, either at the Dispensary 
or at their own habitations. Although only established two 
years, in that time it is stated that 8,000 have been reUeyed 
upon application, and visits paid to 1013 at their own homes. 
TLe present number of patients on the books is 476. No 
cash statement is afforded in the last report. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes a 
Governor, with one vote. The reports are published quarterly. 

Treasurer, A. B. Johnson, Esq., 2, Old Broad-street. — ^Hon. 
Secretary, W. T. Hudson, Esq., 61, South Audley-street. — Audi- 
tors: A. Howard, Esq.; W. Nelson, Esq. — Physicians; Dr. Hast- 
ings, Dr. Burslem. — Consulting Surgeon, Thomas Tatum, Esq. — 
Surgeon, W. T. Hudson,E8q. — ^Assist. Secretary and Dispenser, 
Mr. S. FowelL — Collector, Mr. Thomas Hooman. 

CITY OF LONDON HOSPITAL for Diseases of the 
Chest, 6, lAverpool-street, Finsbury. Established 1848. Is 
open daily, for the admission of patients, on the recom- 
mendation of 6k>vemor8, at nine o'clock in the morning. 

An average of 100 patients receive advice and medicine 
daily. The total number of patients relieved since the open- 
ing of the institution, on the 13th June 1848, has been 1,405. 

Anangements, it is stated, are now in progress for the 
erection of a hospital for the reception of in-patients. Q^ie 



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26 

MADEIRA, 1849. 3Jljiiiral Cjianfes fiir mabgate, i796 

present income, however, is quite insufficient for this pur- 
pose, amounting to not more than ;£1,000 per annum. 

Two Guineas annually, or 20 guineas at one time, consti- 
tute a Cbvemor, entitled to recommend one in-patient and 
six out-patients. One guinea annually, or 10 guineas at 
one time, to six out-patients only. 

President, the Earl of Carlisle. — Consulting Physicians : B. G. 
Babington, M.D. ; Henry Jeaffireson, M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, 
C. Aston Key, Esq. — Physicians : Thomas B. Peacock, M.D. ; 
Edward Bentley, M.D. ; Allen Williams, M.B. — Surgeon, John 
E. Erichsen, Esq. — ^Treasurer, H. Edmund Gumey, Esq. — ^Bankers, 
Messrs. Barclay & Co. — Honorary Secretary, David Henry Stone, 
Esq., 33, Poultry — ^Assistant Secretary, Mr. William S. Brown. 

SANATORIUM in the Idartd of Madeira, for the ^^cm^ 
tion of Persons labouring under Pulmonary Disorders, 4, St. 
Martm's-place. Projected 1849. This institution is scarcely 
more thaii a projected one ; but its design is so good, and 
the names attached to its prospectus aJBTord so jpromising a 
scale of future operations, that we readily give it publicity. 
It is intended to enable patients of the middle class, of 
straitened circumstance, to try the effects of a residence in 
Madeira, in such cases as the medical staff of the institution 
here consider there is a fair probability of health being 
restored thereby. 

The expenses of the voyage to be defrayed, or afforded at 
a lower rate. 

The best medical attendance to be rendered on arriving 
at the island, and comfortable lodging, free of any charge, 
and suitable board, upon fixed moderate t&rms. 

Ten guineas at one time, or 2 guineas annually, constitute 
the privilege of placing one candidate on the list — but sub- 
ject to the medical opinion. 

As this movement has the co-operation of the authorities 
of Madeira, and the Committee here are selecting patients, 
there is no question of a very fair trial being given to the 
plan. 

Chairman of Committee, Lord R. Grosvenor, M.P. — Bankers, 
Messrs. Jones, Loyd, & Co. — Hon. Secretary, W. T. Haly, Esq. 

ROYAL SEA'BATHINQ INFIRMARY. Office, 36 
Cannon-street. Instituted 1796. This infirmary is situate 
on a very healthy part of the coast, — at Westbrook, near 



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SEA-BATHPro. ^MJ '^VXpStB. A.D. 1796 

Margate. From yarious extensions of the building of late 
years, the operations of the charity have attained a national 
character ; whilst the general medical opinion entertained 
of its management and usefulness, justifies us in alluding to 
it as one fully deserving the liberal support of the beneyo- 
lent, and one to which those needing its benefits may safely 
apply. 

At the present time there are 230 beds in the establish- 
ment, and the annual ayerage of patients is 700 ; the entire 
number of inmates since it was founded, is 20,466,' besides 
outHpatients. It is the only hospital in the kingdom exdr^ 
sivdy deyoted to the reception of scroMous patients ; and 
when it is considered that large numbers of young persons 
are annually restored to health by its means, its benefits 
may fiEurly be termed incalculable. 

Eyery patient must be recommended by a governor, and 
subject to approval, as a proper object, by the medical board. 
The admissions are regulated according to vacancies, and 
order of recommendation. Patients are boarded at the rate 
of 48. per week, under 10 years of age ; and above that age, 
at 58. per week. When admissions cannot be granted, for 
want of room, or particular circumstances^ proper objects are 
allowed sea-bathmg, and the medical assistance of the cha- 
rity, as out-patients. 

Patients in the country, who cannot attend the medical 
board, are required to have their diseases described by the 
surseon or apothecary where they reside, and transmitted 
to uie secret^. During the season, attendance is given by 
several members of the medical board, to examine patients. 
The time and place of attendance may be known by apply- 
ing to the secretary, 35, Gannon-street, where all communi- 
cations must be addressed. 

Ten guineas, or upwards, at one payment, constitute a 
governor ; or one guinea, or upwards, an annual governor, 
entitled, upon paying a second subscription, or of two years 
in one payment, to the same privilege of recommending pa- 
tients. Ten guineas, annually, entitle to recommend one 
patient, free of any charge for board, &c. 

President, the Earl of Winchelsea. — ^Treasurer, Michael Gibbe, 
Esq., Aldn. — Physicians to the Infirmary : Joseph Canham, M.D. ; 
Aiclmrd B. Dennison, M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, Joshua Wad- 
dii^ton, Esq. — ^Resident Surgeon, A. G. Field, Esq. — Secretaries: 
in London, Mr. John Paul ; at Ramsgate, Mr. W. A. Hunt. 



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LYiif crnr IN8T8- %Btoal Cjraiifeg to a.d. 1749 



The reports of the various 'Lying-in Charities develope 
one very interesting fact, as the beneficial result accruing 
from the large scope thus offered for the display of medical 
science and attention, yiz., — that the deaths have decreased 
in average, amongst their patients, from 1 in 50, to 1 in 300, 
with mothers ; and from 1 in 20, to 1 in 80, amongst the 
children, during the last eighty or ninety years, to the pre- 
sent time. 

The first of this valuable description of charities, of a 
public and general kind, was established in Dublin, by Dr. 
Bartholomew Mosse, an eminent physician ; who, notwith- 
standing he had to contend against the strongest prejudices, 
avowed opposition, and great public clamor, pushed bis bene- 
volent purpose to success, by building the fine hospital in 
Dublin, under this name. It was first opened in 1745, 
and was quickly followed by the establishment of those we 
have now in our metropolis ; all of which, it will be seen, 
belong, consequently, to the last hundred years. The long- 
est established is — 

THE BRITISH LTING-IN HOSPITAL for Married 
Women, Endellrstreet, Long Acre. Instituted 1749. For 
relieving the pregnant wives or widows of persons reduced 
from affluent or easy, to indigent circumstances, of distressed 
housekeepers, and of ihe industrious poor, by either receiv- 
ing them wholly into the hospital, or by providing suc^ as 
'prefer remaining at their own habitations during their con- 
finement, with skilful midwives, professional advice, and 
with medicines free of all expense. The present building 
has been erected at a cost of about ;£6,000, and is capable of 
receiving the number of 40 patients ; but the expenses 
thereof, the Committee state, render it necessary that the 
number should be regulated wholly by the support afforded 
by the public ; the cash statement is not appended to the 
report, neither is any clue afforded to the number of pa- 
tients annually treated, beyond the information that ^' since 
the foundation, upwards of 40,000 persons have participated 

^ Institaited, in Brownlow-street, Long Acn, 1749, and rebuilt, in 
Endell-street, 1849. It claims to be the first established in London fbt 
this purpose ; and is ezclusiTely for the reception, or treatment, of mar- 
ried i 



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LYiNG-m iNST»- ^pg rifll ^ myiHttg* a-i>. 1750 and 1752 

in its benefits." The Committee meet weekly (on Thnnday 
at one o'clock) to transact the business of the institution. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Gbvemor, entitled to recommend three out-patients annu- 
ally. Double that amount, the addition of one in-patient 
annually. 

President, the Duke of Portland. — ^TreasurerSy Messrs. Hoars 
and Co. — Consulting Physician, Dr. Heniy Dayies. — Physician, 
Dr. Robt. Lee. — Surgeons : Benj. Brookes, Esq. ; John Claike, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. R. S. Davies. — Matron, Mrs. ICargaret 
Sunson. — Collector, Mr. Wm. Price, 6, Allsop-pl. Upper Baker-st. 

CITY OF LONDON LTINO-IN HOSPITAL, comer 
of Old-street, City-road. Instituted 1750.^ For the recep- 
tion and delivery of the pregnant wives of seamen and sol- 
diers, also those of industrious mechanics, and of laborious 
poor, and pregnant widows of poor persons recently deceased. 
The annual number of women delivered at this Hospital is 
about 550, and the whole number since the establishment of 
the hospital, has been upwards of 39,000. The Conmdttee 
meet every Wednesday, for the purpose of addressing pa- 
tients about to leave the hospital, and those considered eli- 
fible to be admitted. Patients allowed to reside forty-eight 
ours previous to their confinement, without any charge ; 
after that at the rate of 1^. 6c^. a day till their delivery. 

The state of the funds cannot be given, no cadi statement 
being appended to the report. 

Twenty guineas donation constitutes a Qovemor, entitled 
to recommend five patients annually. Subscribers are en- 
titled to recommend one patient for every guinea subscribed. 

Bankers, Messrs. Glyn and Co. — ^Treasurer, Abraham Wilday 
Bobarts, Esq. — Secretary, James Clifk, Esq., 30, Bloomsbury-sq. 
— Matron, Mrs. Mary Wigden. — Chaplain, Rev. James Carver, 
A.M. — Physician, John T. Conquest, M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, 
W. Coulson, Esq. — Surgeon Accoucheur, Henry Jame^ Esq. — 
Collector, Mr. J. H. Smith, 12, Crutched Friars. 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S LYINO-IN HOSPITAL, 
Manor House, Lisson Green, Marylebone. Instituted 175&. 
This charity, besides affording an asylum for indigent females 

^ At Shaftesbury House, Aldersgate-street, and removed from thence 
to the comer of Old-street First stone laid 1770 ; opened for the recep- 
tion of patients 1773. 



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30 

BOYAL MATERNITY. 3iljfol CljarffeS fU J^'^' 1767 

during the period of child-birth, extends its aid also to the 
habitations of those who prefer remaining with their fami- 
lies, or cannot conveniently be removed. Also, " with a view 
to facilitate repentance, and remove every motive to act 
which conscious guilt excites in the minds of many unlaw- 
ful mothers, it admits penitent patients once ;" but in no 
instance are they received a second time. Nearly 67,000 
women have partaken of its benefits, and the average annual 
number under treatment, is 240 women within the Hospital, 
and 400 at their own homes. 

One guinea annual entitles to recommend two out-patients 
and one in-patient every third year. 

The Committee meet at the Hospital every Monday, at 
one o'clock. The Hospital may be inspected, and the books 
seen by those who are inclined to support the charity, but 
no printed report is published of the funds. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — ^Treasurer, B. B. Cabbell, 
Esq. — Consulting Physicians : Dr. P. M. Roget, Dr. Joseph Moore. 
Fhysician-Accoucheur, Dr. B. Brown. — Surgeon-Accoucheur, G. 
Thompson Gream, Esq. — ^Assistant Surgeon -Accoucheur, Joseph 
Oiolmondeley, Esq.— ^licitor, Lawrence Walker, Esq. — Secre- 
tary, Mr. A. U. Thiselton, 7, Bloomsbury-pl. Bloomsbury-sq. — Col- 
lector, Mr. C. W. Chapman, 10, Charrington-st. Somers Town. 

ROYAL MATERNITY CHARITY. Office, 17, Little 
Knight Rider-street, Doctors' Commons. Instituted 1767. 
For delivering poor married women at their own habitations 
in the Eastern districts of London and the suburbs, within 
three miles of St. Paul's.^ An average of nearly 3,600 cases 
are annually attended at the expense of this charity, the 
best of advice and good nurses being provided. The 
finances appear in a satisfactory condition, the income ave- 
raging annually, from dividends and voluntary contribu- 
tions, about i£l,830, and the expenses under that amount. 
The Committee meet at the George and Vulture Tavern, 
Comhill, on the first Tuesday of the month. Patients, with 

^ Tbis charity was originally instituted, as the " Lying-in Charity " in 
1708. The Prince of Wales, when but five years old, being nominated 
president, a donation of j£500 was made in his name ; and he subse- 
quently became an annual contributor of ^20. From this time the charity 
has always been an especial favourite with royalty ; and, in 1804, re- 
cdved its present designation. George IV became the president in 1818 ; 
and, from the time of his regency to his death, contributed no less a sum 
than ;£1,800. 

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31 

GENERAL LYING-IN ^^ttdal 3BttrpiB5. HOSPITAL, A.D. 1765 

recommendatory tickets, are received at the office from 8 to 
10 o'clock every morning except Sunday. 

An annual subscription of one guinea, or a life subscrip- 
tion of 10 guineas, entitles the subscriber to the recom- 
mendation of eight patients within the year. 

President, the Duke of "Wellington. — Treasurer, Sir J. W. 
Lubbock. — Consulting Physician, Dr. John Bamsbotham. — 
Physicians: Dr. Francis H. Bamsbotham; Dr. Thomas Leigh 
Blundell ; Dr. H. Davies. — Surgeons Accoucheurs : Dr. Williun 
Griffith ; Walter Ghriffith, Esq. ; William Hughes, Esq. ; J. L. 
Pulling, Esq., M.D. ; George Sawyer, Esq. ; and others. — Secre- 
tary, T. O. Bayner, Esq., M.D.— Collector, Mr. C. Buck, 31, Mer- 
row-street, Walworth. 

GENERAL L TING-IN HOSPITAL, York-road, Lam- 
beth. Instituted 1765. Incorporated 1830. For the recep- 
tion of in-patients from all parts of the kingdom, and for 
the delivery of out-patients at their own habitations in the 
metropolis and its environs. The benefits of the charity are 
extended to such poor married women as may prefer re- 
maining at their own habitations ; and are not withheld 
&om such single women as can produce satisfactory testi- 
monials of previous good conduct, and who, on dUigent en- 
quiry, appear to the Committee to be objects of r^ com- 
miseration ; such indulgence is, however, strictly confined 
to the first instance of misconduct. The Committee meet 
every Monday for admitting patients, &c. The state of the 
funds cannot be arrived at, from the cash statement not 
being printed, neither is any return given of the number of 
patients admitted or relieved — information, moreover, which 
the Secretary states he cannot afford. 

Three guineas annual, or 30 guineas at one time, consti- 
tute a Governor, entitled to recommend yearly three in- 
patients, and three to be delivered at their own habitations. 
A subscription of one guinea entitles to one in, and one out- 
patient. 

President, Earl of Shaftesbury. — ^Treasurer, Thos. Somers Cocks, 
Jun.,£8q., M.P. — Chaplain, Bev. Abraham Peat, M.A. — Consult- 
ing Physician, Charles Locock, M.D. — Physicians Accoucheur : 
Edward Bigby, M.D. ; Lawson Cape, M.D. — Physician to the Out- 
patients, James Beid, M.D. — Surgeon, John P. South, Esq. — 
Secretaiy, Mr. W. W. Hastings, Southampton-st. Bloomsbury-sq. 
— Solicitors, Messrs. Hastings and Best. — Matron, Mrs. Arnold. 
Besident Midwife, Mrs. Fountain. — Collector, Mr. W. Davis, 17, 
Canterbury-place, Lambeth. 

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LYING-IN INST«- SlBfel C^arffeS fe A.D. 1824 and 1829 

QUEEN ADELAIDE'S LYING-IN HOSPITAL, 
Queen- street, Golden-square. Established 1824,i Furnishes 
poor lying-in women with assistance and medicine at their 
own homes, but those who may be totally destitute are ad- 
mitted into the Hospital after die due investigation of their 
cases. This Hospital reports a yeiy satis£a,ctory result at- 
tending the practice of its usefulness, and specially during 
the past year, when, in 1,000 cases, not one terminated 
fatally. The annual average of cases is about that number. 

A subscription of one guinea annually, or 10 guineas at 
one time, constitutes a Governor, who is entitled to recom- 
mend one in-patient every second year, and three out- 
patients annually. 

Consulting Physician, James Arthur Wilson, M.D. — Consulting 
Surgeon, Samuel Lane, Esq. — Consulting Physician- Accoucheur, 
Henry Davies, M.D. — Resident Medical Officer, William Henry 
Tell, Esq. — Apothecary, Thomas Stillman, Esq. — ^House Surgeon, 
Walter Rochfort, Esq. — Cupper, John Mapleson, Esq. — Bankers, 
Messrs. Hopkinson and Co. — ^Honorary Secretary, Thomas Still- 
man, Esq. — ^Collector, Mr. George Churchman, Marshall-street, 
Golden-square. 

QUEEN ADELAIDE AND BRITISH LADIES' 
INSTITUTION, 13, Chapel-place, Cavendish-square. Es- 
tablished 1829. For attendance upon poor married women 
at their own habitations, and for providing them with medi- 
cine and use of linen during their confinement, upon a 
subscriber's recommendation; which entitles them to the 
attendance of a skilful and experienced midwife, or in cases 
of difficulty or danger, to that of one of the medical gen- 
tlemen, and all necessary medicine for one month, free of 
all charges. The district through which the benefits of this 
charity extends, comprises the parish of St. George, Han- 
over-square, the parishes in the City and Liberties of West- 
minster, the Borough of Mary-le-bone, including St. Pancras 
and Paddington, Chelsea, Brompton, and Kensington. 

Subscribers of one guinea have a right to recommend two 
objects annually for medical attendance, or four for the use 
of linen during the month of confinement. 

^ Founded, in 1824, as the Middlesex Dispensary, afterwards* in 183.5, 
as a lying-in hospital. It is stated to be the only one in London, wheie 
no midwiyes are employed. 



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33 

LYiHG-iN INST». ^mUSi l^UmStS, A.D. 1778 <fc 1787 



Medical Officers : John Moody, Esq. ; Thomas Davis^ Esq. ; 
H. St. John Bullen, Esq.— Treasurer and Secretary, B. G. Beale, 
Esq.— Clerk, Mr. T. Dean.— Collector, Mr. J. Pateman. 

THE CHARLOTTE STREET GENERAL LYING- 
IN AND SICK DISPENSARY, 10, Russell-place, Rath- 
bone-place. Instituted 1778. For the delivery and support 
of poor married women, each patient when confined receiv- 
ing four shillings ; and also for the relief of poor sick men, 
women, children, and servants, at their own habitations, in 
aU parts of London and Westminster, by medical and sur- 
gical attendance. Recommendatory tickets from the sub- 
scribers are received at the Dispensary between 9 and 11 
o'clock every morning (Sundays excepted). The annual 
number of patients attended and relieved is generally 600. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, entitles to 
recommend two patients. 

Surgeon- Accoucheur and Secretary, John Robinson "Wells, Esq., 
Wimpole-street. — Consulting Surgeon, B. Phillips, Esq. — Collec- 
tor, Mr. Guynette, 11, Upper Cleveland-street, Fitzroy-square. 

NEWMAN STREET LYING-IN INSTITUTION, 
90, Newman-street. Established 1787. For delivering and 
assisting poor married women, during their confinement at 
tbeir own habitations. In addition to the medical attend- 
ance, it afibrds a gratuity of five shillings to each poor pa- 
tient requiring it. The average number annually thus 
attended is upwards of 300. One guinea annual, or 10 
guineas donation, entitles to recommend two patients. 

President, Lord Kenyon. — Treasurer, W. Churton, Esq., 91, 
Oxford-street. — Consulting Physician, R. Lee, M.D. — Surgeon- 
Accoucheur, Mr. Tucker, 38, Bemers-street. — Honorary Secre- 
tary, Mr. B. W. Gurdiner, Princes-street, Cavendish-square. — 
Secretary, Mr. Woolmer, 90, Newman-street. 

Tbe other Maternity Charities partake more of the 
general character of district visiting and distress-relieving 
associations, such as enable poor married women to obtain 
gratuitous attendance, including the loan of a box of linen, 
&c,, and are attached to most of the visiting societies and 
congregational charities, and generally superintended by a 
committee of ladies, who personally visit each case : the 
subscriptions are from 6 to 21 shillings, and every subscriber 

3 



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34 

WOMEN <fe CHiLD>^' J&tWsi C^HIlfeg fot A.D, 1843 & 1847 

can recommend cases according to the sum subscribed. — 
Vide " Mother and Infant's Friend Society," &c. 

HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN, Red Lion Square, Blooms- 
bury. Instituted 1843. Exclusively for the reception and 
treatment of females who are afiiicted with diseases peculiar 
to the sex. The number of patients admitted during a year 
is from 50 to 60 ; lasfc year 53 — 39 married and 14 single. Of 
these, 23 were discharged cured, and 26 greatly benefited ; 
4 only were found incurable. 

The objects of this Hospital must not be confounded with 
lying-in charities or others. It is the only institution of the 
kind where medical attention is afforded exclusively for fe- 
male suffering. Cases are, of course, received by the general 
hospitals ; but here, skill and care are directed alone to them, 
and, as the returns exhibit, with great success in the most 
difficult and baffling cases. The annual expenses are fairly 
met by the receipts, of about ;£l,000, but as these arise wholly 
from voluntary sources, they are precarious, and, more than 
that, are derived, for the most part, from donations. 

Three guineas annual, or thirty guineas donation, entitle 
to recommend one in-patient and t«n out-patients during 
the year. One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, to 
recommend out-patients only. 

President, the Duke of Rutland. — Treasurer, John Dean Paul, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Edward Futvoye, Esq., 23, John- 
street — Medical Officers : Consulting Physician, Robert Fergusson, 
Esq., M.D. — ^Physicians: Edward Rigby, Esq., M.D.; Protheroe 
Smith, Esq., M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, F. C. Skey, Esq. — 
Bankers, Messrs. Strahan, Paul, Paul, and Bates. — Collector, Mr. 
Robert Watkins, 19, Clarence-road, Kentish Town. 

FREE HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, 

and Samaritan Institution, 7, North Audley-street. Formed 
1847. This institution is made likewise to bear the title of 
" the Gynepathic Hospital ;^ but more properly speaking, it 
is simply a dispensary. Its plan appears to comprehend 
primarily, the same objects as the Hospital for Women last 
mentioned, but confined in treatment to out-patients ; and 
secondly, the operations of a maternity charity : the state- 
ment issued by its Directors, represents 13,345 cases as having 
been treated since its formation, and considerable assistance 

^ Described as founded by Dr. Jones, first, in Graj-street, Manchester^ 
square ; afterwards, 4, Orchard-street, Portman-square. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



35 

IKFIBMABY FOB ^JUtiEl ^HrpSBS. CHILDREN, A J). 1816 

afforded as a Samaritan Institution, in supplying medicines 
and other requisites to servants and the sick poor generally, 
from whom no recommendation is required. 

The medical officers are in daily attendance at twelve 
o'clock. One pound annually, or ten pounds donatio]), is re- 
quired to constitute a Governor. The support afforded to 
the institution appears to be increasing. 

President, Lord D. C. Stewart. — Consultiiig Physician, R. Lee, 
Esq., M.D.— -Surgeon, C. Gt. Guthrie, Esq. — Treasurer, Grattan 
Cooke, Esq., 37, AUsop-terrace, New-road. — Assistant Secretary, 
Mr. J. W. Mountain, 2, Albert-terrace. — Physicians : W. Jones, 
Esq., M.D.; H. Savage, Esq., M.D.— Dental Surgeon, D. J. Bren- 
neis, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, A. H. Moore, Esq., 10, Glou- 
cester-road, Regent's-pk. — Collector, Mr. J. Gardner, 68, Leather- 
lane. — ^Bankers, Sir Claude Scott, Bart., and Co. 

ROYAL INFIRMARY FOR CHILDREN, Waterloo 
Bridge-road. Instituted 1816. For affording prompt medical 
aid to the children of the necessitous poor in all parts of the 
metropolis and its vicinity, from the period of their birth to 
the age of fourteen years, and is open in all cases to a first 
application for relief without recommendation, daily from 
nine o'clock till eight a.m. Medicines and attendance are 
likewise afforded to the sick mothers of the patients. Since 
the beginning of 1848, it has relieved more than 10,000 pa- 
tients. Its funds are represented as in a falling state, owing 
to an accumulating debt of about £500, for drugs. They 
are entirely dependant on voluntary support. A subscrip- 
tion of one guinea annually, constitutes a Governor, with the 
right of a vote at all elections. 

Patron, the Queen.— President, the Lord Mayor for the time 
being. — Treasurer, Arthur Kett Barclay, Esq., Southwark. — 
Bankers, Messrs. Fuller and Co., Lothbury. — Consulting Physi- 
cian, James Copland, M.D. — Physicians: H. WiUshire, M.D.; 
C. Hutton, M.D.; and S. W. J. Merriman, M.D. — Surgeons: 
Walter C. Denby, Esq.; W. B. Hawes, Esq.; and E. Canton, Eaq. 
— Surgeon Dentist, S. Cartwright, Esq. — House Surgeon and Apo- 
thecary, Robert Westley, M.B., who resides at the infirmary. — 
Secretary, Mr. E. Meymott, 34, Stamford- street. — Collector, Lieut. 
Flint, 87, Great Portland-street, Cavendish-square. 

Note. A HOSPITAL FOB CHILDREN is now designed, for the 
reception of in-patients. The prelimiuary prospectus proposes 100 beds ; 
and age of patients, from two to twelve years. The responsible names to 
this charitable project are Joseph Hoare, Esq., as Treasurer, and H. A. 
Bathurst, Esq., 1 Devonshire-place, as Honorary Secretary. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



36 

8MALL-P0X HOS. JSMlBJ Cfjatifeg fOI A.D. 1746 

Vaccination is now practised at all our hospitals, but the 
three following institutions are almost exclusively for its 

Sromotion. The discovery was made first in 1796, by Dr. 
enner ; in 1798-91 the cure became public, and its prac- 
tice, in some considerable degree, began to supersede the old 
plan pursued by the Small Pox Hospital, which was, in fact, 
founded with the system of Inoculation^ for one of its chief 
objects. The two systems were each pursued until 1808, 
when the governors appeared to be convinced that the public 
verdict in favour of vaccination was a right one, and deter- 
mined to discontinue the other. Their hesitation, however, 
to adopt suddenly the new method, led to the establishment 
of the Royal Jennerian Institution, in 1803. In 1809, the 
government establishment was formed ; and firom that time 
to 1820, it became the recognized method throughout all 
Europe. The Vaccination Act was passed 3 and 4 Victoria, 
1840. 

SMALL FOX AND VACCINATION HOSPITAL, 
Upper HoUoway, Highgate-hill. Instituted 1746.8 The de- 
sign of this institution is two-fold ; first, to shelter and relieve 
those who are attacked by natural small-pox ; and, secondly, 
to prevent that dreadful malady by vaccination. 

Every poor person, of five years old or upwards, labouring 
under casual small-pox, is deemed a proper object as an in- 
patient. Children imder that age are admitted, with their 
mothers or nurses, on the payment of 1«. 66?. per day for 
their board. Admission every day, and at any hour, upon 
the recommendation of a Governor. The accommodation of 
the hospital has been increased, by the new building, from 35 
to 70 beds. The number of in-patients admitted during 1847 
was 461, of whom 81 died ; the number of out-patients, 3,230 

Vaccination is given daily, from ten till one o'clock ; and 

^ Dr. Jenner's first work upon the subject was published (by Sampson 
Low, of Berwick-street, Soho), 1798; and in 1802 he received a grant of 
;eiO,000 or jgl 2,000 for his discovery. 

* Inoculation was introduced into this country, from Turkey, by Lady 
Montague, who was allowed to have it tried for the first time on seven 
condemned criminals, 1721. 

^ The building, at Battle-bridge, St Pancras. was not opened until 
1767. This was purchased, with the land, by the Great Northern Rail- 
way Company, and the present building erected, at a cost of ;£20,000, out 
of compensation thereby obtained. It opens for the reception of patients 
at Midsummer. 

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37 

BOYAL VACCINE. ^prifil ^Er|ni5B5« A.D. 1806 

vaccine lymph is gratuitously distributed to physicians and 
surgeons who may apply for the same ; and the hospital is 
open for the instruction of medical pupils, who may learn, 
within its walls, the appearance of small-pox, and of cow- 
pox, &c. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Qovemor. The funds of the hospital are supported in 
part also by parochial contributions for the treatment of 
pauper patients. 

Treasurer^ Florance Thomas Toung, Esq., 9, Great Cumberland- 
place. — Chaplain, Rev. W. S. Rowe, M.A. — Physician, G^rge 
Gr^ory, M.D. — Resident Surgeon, etc., James Fumess Marson, 
Esq. — Secretary, Samuel Clift, Esq., 30, Bloomsbury-square. — 
Matron, Mrs. Elizabeth Deeble. 

THE ROTAL JENNERIAN AND LONDON VAC- 
CINE INSTITUTION, 18, ProTidence-row, Finsbury- 
square. Founded 1806. Stations for vaccination, free of 
expense, on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thurs- 
days, at two o'clock, No. 1, Union-court, opposite St. An- 
drew's Church, Holbom-hiU ; at half-past two o'clock; head 
vaccine house, No. 18, Providence-row, Finsbury-square, 
where vaccine matter is delivered any time between nine 
and five. 

The returns for 1848 exhibit the number of persons vac- 
cinated as 7,051, and supplies of vaccine transmitted to va- 
rious parts of the world to the extent of 30 or 40,000. The 
Board of Ordnance, and many other public bodies, receive 
their supplies here. 

This Institution is supported at a cost of little more than 
JC300 per annum; an amount but barely covered by its 
voluntary contributions, upon which it wholly depends. 

Bankers, Messrs. Barclay and Co. — Secretary, Charles Chantry, 
Esq. — Medical Director, John Epps, M.D., 89, Great Russell-st. 
— Collector, Mr. David Hine, 16, Gresham-place. 

NATIONAL VACCINE ESTABLISHMENT, 8^ Rus- 
sell-place, Fitzroy-square. Established 1809. The board, 
appointed by government to regulate the affairs of this esta- 
blishment for gratuitous vaccination, etc., is constituted of 
the president aud senior censor of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, and the president of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Medical practitioners, in all parts of the empire, may be 
supplied with vaccine lymph, without any expense, provided 

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38 ^ 

OPHTHALMIC. JMM Cljarifeg far A.D. 1804 

they report the number vaccinated from the former supply. 
By the last annual return, ordered by parliament, it appears 
that during the year, 174,291 charges of lymph have been 
distributed, and 11,790 children vaccinated by the surgeons 
appointed for the London districts. Letters of application 
to be addressed to the Registrar, and enveloped thus : — " To 
the Bight Hon. the Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment, WhitehaU. Nat. Vaccine Estab.** Vaccination days, 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from ten till eleven o'clock. 

Begistrar, Clement Hue, M.D. — Inspector of Vaccinators and 
Vaccinator, J. Newton Tomkins, Esq. — Stationary Vaccinators : 
Frederick Agar, Esq. ; Charles Arthur Aikin, Esq. ; A. Buchanan, 
Esq. ; George Cooper, Esq. ; William H. Freeman, Esq. ; W. J. 
Gaye, Esq. ; G. M. Leese, Esq. ; W. J. Lewis, Esq. ; R. H. Ro- 
bertson, Esq. ; Robert Semple, Esq. ; George Simpson, Esq. ; S. 
H. Sterry, Esq. ; Nowell Stowers, Esq. ; Robert Wade, Esq. ; N. 
B. Ward, Esq. ; Erasmus Wren, Esq, 

ROYAL LONDON OPHTHALMIC HOSPITAL, 
Moorfields. Founded 1804. For the cure of diseases of the 
eye, and for advancing the science of ophthalmic medicine 
and surgery. It was the first institution of the kind ever 
established in England, and nearly 200,000 patients have 
been under the care of its medical officers, and within the 
last two years, 16,054 out-patients, and 445 in-patients. 

The annual income is about £800, half of which arises 
from dividends ; the remainder depends on voluntary support. 

Patients are admitted daily, without recommendation, 
from eight to ten, and cases of emergency at all hours. 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas and upwards at one 
time, constitutes a Governor. 

President, Earl Fitzwilliam — ^Treasurer, John Labouchere, 
Esq. — ^Trustees : John Labouchere, Esq. ; Joseph Gumey Bar- 
clay, Esq. ; Sir Charles Rugge Price, Bart. — Consulting PhyBi- 
cian, John Richard Farre, M.D. — Physician, Frederick J. Farre, 
M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, John Dalrymple, Esq. — Surgeons: 
Gilbert Mackmurdo, Esq. ; James Dixon, Esq. ; George Critchett, 
Esq. — Assistant Surgeons : William Bowman, Esq. ; Alfred Po- 
land, Esq. — Cuppers, Messrs. T. W. Foster and Co. — Resident 
Apothecary, Mr. W. Ledger. — Secretary, Mr. F. A. Curling, 
Winchester House, 54, Old Broad-street. — Collector, Mr. W. 
Eddrup, 51, Hoxmdsditch. 



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OPHTHALMIC. ^IftMl ^lUpSIl A.D. 1804 <fe 1816 

BO YAL INFIRM AR Y, for the Relief of the Poor afflicted 
vdth Diseases of the EyCy Cork-street, Burlington-gardens. 
Instituted 1804.1 Every person applying as an out-patient^ 
is relieved and placed upon the list of a governor, taken in 
rotation from the list of subscribers ; but this does not inter- 
fere with the governor's privilege of sending the number of 
patients to which his subscription entitles Mm. A governor 
is entitled to have three out-patients constantly on the books. 

The Committee meet the first Tuesday after each quarter 
day, at eleven o'clock. During the past year 2,671 patients 
were treated, of whom only 89 were found incurable. 58 
operations were performed for cataract, 53 of which were 
successful. Since the first year, the total number has been 
86,792 patients cured, 2,743 found incurable, and 2,527 suc- 
cessful operations for cataract performed, 183 of which were 
upon persons bom blind. 

The present income is represented as insufiicient, and as 
limiting the number of in-patients. Such are now only ad- 
mitted in cataract cases, whilst requiring operation. The 
whole amount of receipts is under ^300 per annum, two- 
thirds of which depends on subscriptions. The expenditure 
exceeds the income by more than ilOO a-year. 

A donation of 20 guineas and upwards, or a subscription 
of 2 guineas and upwards annually, constitutes a €k)vemor. 

President, The Duke of Somerset. — Operating Surgeon and 
Surgeon in Ordinary, Henry Alexander, Esq. — ^Assistant Surgeon, 
Charles Revans Alexander, Esq. — Visiting Apothecary, E. A. 
Brande, Esq. — Treasurer, Frank Milne, l£q. — Honorary Secre- 
tary, John Savory, Esq., 143, New Bond-street. — Collector, Mr. 
Scaiman, 17, Maddox-street. 

THE ROYAL WESTMINSTER OPHTHALMIC 
HOSPITALy Chandos-street, Charing-cross. Instituted 
1816. For the relief of the poor of every description, labour- 
ing under diseases of the eye, on their own application, with- 
out letters of recommendation from governors. Persons in 
the country will be received after a previous application made 
by the clergyman of the parish. 

1 Founded by Sir Wathen Waller laying a proposal before their Ma- 
jesties, for the formation of an infirmary, incident upon tbe extent of suf- 
fering he was then endeavouring to relieve amongst the soldiers and 
sailors who had returned from the Egyptian expedition. 



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V, L. OPHTHALMIC. JUtJOtSi CjrarifeS far A.1>. 1841 

During the past year, 187 in-patients have been iinder 
treatment, and 4,205 out-patients. The number of operations 
of an important character average 100 annually. The days 
of admission for in-patients and advice for out-patients are 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, from half-past twelve 
to half-past one. Since its formation, 1705 cases have been 
restored to sight by the operation for cataract. 

The income averages £600 per annum, £150 of which 
arises from dividends. The expenditure is under this amount 
at present. 

Subscribers are entitled at all elections to a vote for each 
^inea paid annually, or for each 20 guineas paid at once as 
fife- governors. 

President, The Duke of Wellington. — Chairman, Sir J. E. 
Swinburne. — Honorary Chaplain, Rev. James Murray, M.A. — 
Treasurers : Colonel Wood ; Colonel Thomas Wood.— Surgeons : 
G. J. Guthrie, Esq. ; Charles Gardiner Guthrie, Esq. ; Henry 
Hancock, Esq. — ^Assistant Surgeon, Edwin Canton, Esq. — House 
Surgeon, Mr. R. Hamilton. — Secretary, Thomas R. Fowler, R.N., 
10, iBrook-street, Lambeth. — Cupper, Mr. G. F.Elnox. — Cupper, 
Mr. Boutell. — Housekeeper, Mrs. Silver. 

THE NORTH LONDON OPHTHALMIC INSTI- 
TUTION, 31, Charlotte-street, Portland-place. Instituted 
1841. For the relief of all poor with diseases of the eye. 
Open daily (Sundays excepted), from ten till eleven in the 
morning. Urgent cases are seen at all times, at the resi- 
dences of the medical officers, and if requisite, admitted into 
the house. 

The number of patients during the past year has been 
1,134, ; of whom 834 have recovered, 74 materially bene- 
fited, 29 incurable, and 397 are under treatment. The ex- 
penses appear very moderate, being under £130, and are 
dependant for the requisite amount from voluntaJT^ contri- 
butions. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to one vote at all elections of medical 
officers, and to recommend cases. 

Consulting Surgeon, John Dalrymple, Esq. — Surgeons: W. 
White Cooper, Esq. ; George Pollock, Esq. ; John Pyle, Esq. ; 
H. B. Norman, Esq. — ^Apothecary, Mr. Burcham. — Matron, Mrs. 
Darling. — Treasurer, R. Twining, Jun., Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Twining. — Collector, Mr. Walter, 2, Riding-house-lane, Port* 
land-place. 

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41 

OPHTHALMIC, 1843. ^^HEI ^HtpSPS* EAB DISEASES, 1816 

CENTRAL LONDON OPHTHALMIC HOSPITAL, 
\, Calthorpe-street (comer of Gray's Inn-road. Established 
1843. First opened as a Dispensary, of rather restricted be- 
nefits, but during the last two or three years considerably 
extended ; and at the present time the annual number of 
patients relieved is upwards of 2,000, and last year 700 serious 
operations were performed. This charity appears to be ma- 
naged at a yeiy little expense, and much more usefulness 
effected by it than could be reasonably expected, from its 
limited receipts. 

Attendance is given daily at two o'clock ; on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, by Mr. Walton, and the alternate 
days by Mr. Smee. No letter of recommendation is requisite 
to procure relief and medicine. Extreme cases only, and 
those requiring operation, are admitted as in-patients, for 
which the recommendation of a governor is indispensable, 
and generally the repayment of patient's board. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor. 

President, Lord Calthorpe. — ^Treasurer, William Smee, Esq. — 
Bankers, Messrs. Smith, Fayne, and &niths. — Surgeons: H. 
Haynes Walton, Esq. ; Alfred Smee, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, 
Robert J. Child, Esq., 25, Blandford-square. — Collector, Mr. 
James Gye, Hall of Commerce, City. 

ROTAL DISPENSARY for Dueases of the Ear, 10, 
'Dean-street, Soho-square.i Established 1816. Such patients 
as require acoustic instruments, are supplied with them gn^- 
tuitously. Accidents, and also cases of deaf and dumb, are 
admitted without letters of recommendation. The report of 
this dispensary states, that the means of support are totally 
inadequate to meet the numerous appeals for relief. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, entitles to 
have one patient always on the books. 

President, The Duke of Buccleugh. — Physician, J. Tattersall, 
Esq. — ^Treasm:«r, John Masterman, Esq. — Secretary and Collec- 
tor, Mr. Henry S. Smith. 

METROPOLITAN ETE AND EAR INFIRMARY, 
25, Sackville-street.3 Established 1838. The reports of this 

^ For many years under the direction of Mr. J. H. Curtis. 
3 Late the Metropolitan Institution for Diseases of the Ear, Throat, 
etc., 32, Sackville-street. 



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42 

oETHopjBDio Hos. SlBtoHl CljanfeB fur a. p. isae 

institution represent an annual average of patients of nearly 
800. The days for their attendance are Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday, from ten to eleven. 

Five guineas donation, or one guinea annually, entitle to 
recommend cases. Patients coming without recommendsr 
tions have to obtain their own medicines. 

President, Lord Demnan. — ^Treasurer, H. T. Clack, Esq., Union 
Bank, 12, Argyle-place. — Sui^eon, James Yearsley, Esq., 16, 
Saville-row. — Secretary, Mr. G. J. Soper. 

THE ORTHOPONIC INSTITUTION appears to be 
formed for the purpose of advancing and giving publicity to 
the method pursued by Mr. Yearsley, the aurist to the last- 
mentioned establishment, in the treatment of persons afflicted 
with stammering, aphonia, and other impediments of speech, 
or diseases of the throat. It is described as an institution of 
a private character, and without any published report. Open 
for the reception of patients on Thursday mornings, from 
ten till eleven. 

Surgeon, James Yearsley, Esq., 16, Saville-row. — Conductor of 
the Elocutionary Treatment, Rev. Henry Butterfield, M.A. 

ROTAL ORTHOPEDIC HOSPITAL, 6, Bloomsbury- 
square. Founded 1838 ; commenced operations, 1840 ; re- 
ceived the first six in-patients, 1841. For the cure of club- 
foot and other contractions, lateral curvature of the spine, etc. 
This very excellent charity provides successful treatment for 
those distortions of the human body so deplorable to witness, 
and, until lately, believed incurable ; recent operations, how- 
ever, have been very successful in discovering a most impor- 
tant method by which even extreme adult cases of contraction 
and deformity may be cured in a few weeks or months, ob- 
viating the slow and uncertain progress of cure imder the old 
mechanical plan of treatment.^ These deformities being of 
more frequent occurrence amongst the poor, and the expense 
attending their relief great, are amongst the reasons why 
this institution should be supported by the benevolent. 

The Secretary states, that the number of applications for 

^ Dr. little, of Finsbnrj-squaxe, and Mr. Henry T. Chapman, of 
Lower Seymour-street, were amongst the first to introduce in this country, 
and have proved mainly instrumental in perfecting, the present system 
(dividing the tendons, etc.), carried out upon the principle discovered by 
Delpech, and further developed by Dr. Stromeyer, of Hanover. Both the 
above gentlemen are deserving of great credit for their careful study of 
the pathology of this important subject. 

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43 

THE VERBAL, &C. ^WA '^UXMBU. A.D. 1836 



relief, averages 30 to 40 per week, from all parts of the kiog- 
dom, and that many distressing cases are excluded from the 
hospital solely for want of accommodation. The wards con- 
tain 36 beds. The number of patients benefited during last 
year was upwards of 1,200, and the present daUy average of 
out-patients, 100. 

One guinea annually, or 5 guineas donation, constituting 
a member for ten years, or 10 guineas a life member — entitled 
to recommend one in and two out-patients annually. The 
payment of £10 entitles a patient to be received a^onc« into 
an " extra bed." The annual expenditure amoimts to about 
£1,600 per annum ; and voluntary contributions constitute, 
with a trifling exception, its entire support. 

President, Duke of Cambridge. — Treasurers : Mr. Sargeant 
Adams, and others. — Surgeon, R. W. Tamplin, Esq., 29, Great 
Queen-street. — Assistant Surgeons : E. F. Lonsdale, Esq. ; E. J. 
Chance, Esq. — Chaplain and Honorary Secretary, Rev. George 
Kemp, M.A., 13, Bloomsbury-square. — Bankers, Messrs. Martin, 
Stones, and Martins. — Secretary, Mr. B. MaskeU, 7, Bloomsbury- 
sqUare. 

TEU VERBAL CHARITABLE SOCIETY, 84, Nor- 
tonrstreet. Great Portland-street. Established 1836. For 
the reception and treatment of poor persons, afflicted with 
diseases and distortions of the spine, chest, hips, etc. Sub- 
scribers of 1 guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one time, are 
entitled to have one patient always under treatment. It is 
expected that the out-patients nominated shall be unable to 
defray their own expenses. In-patients or their friends have 
to pay a monthly amount for board. The medical officers 
may be consulted gratuitously by the poor at the office, on 
Tuesdays, between the hours of eleven and one. 

The Asylum, Eastbourne, Sussex, is for the benefit of such 
patients as require sea air to perfect their treatment. They 
must have the recommendation of a subscriber, and pay a 
moderate weekly amount for board, etc. It is under the 
management of a local ladies* committee. 

Treasurer, Mrs. Henry Ogle.^ — Surgeons; W. C. Hugman, 
Esq. ; Charles Verrall, Esq. ; Henry Day, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Hanbuiy and Co. — Honorary Secretary, C. Verrall, Esq. — Agents, 
Houlston and Stoneman, Paternoster-row. — Collector, Mr. James 
Bumingham, 13, Liverpool-place, New-road. 

^ This Society was founded, by Mrs. Ogle, in 1836, conjointly with 
the late Dr. Verral, father of the present surgeon. 

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44 

FISTULA iNFiRMT. jEjiiirjl Cjianfes fur a.d. i835 

HARRISON'S SPINAL INSTITUTION, 2, Middlesex- 
place, New-road, Paddington. Founded by the late Dr. 
Harruon ; and receives six in-door patients, whom it pro- 
Tides with food and every comfort besides medical treatment. 

Twenty guineas donation constitutes a Life Governor, 
who has the right to recommend a patient. 

President, R. W. Sievier, Esq. — Physician, Dr. Semy. — Sur- 
geon, George N. Epps, Esq. — Consulting Plw^sician, Dr. Epps, 
— ^Bsinkers, Coutts and Co. — Secretary, Mr. Charles Musgrave, 
94, Chancery-lane. — Collector, Mr. Robert Simpson, 19, Brook- 
street, Grosvenor-square. 

HOSPITAL for SPINAL DEFORMITIES, 26, Judd- 

§ lace-west, is an. institution of a private character, for the 
evelopment of the mode of treatment pursued by Mr. Joseph 
Amesbury; until lately held at 31, Queen-square, Blooms- 
bury. 

Surgeon, Mr. Amesbury. — Secretary, Mr. James Clements. 

THE FISTULA INFIRMARY, 38, Charter House- 
square. Instituted 1835. An infirmaiy for the relief of the 
poor, afflicted with fistula, and other diseases of the rectum. 
It has restored, within a few years, many hundreds of the 
poorer order from pain and misery to health and enjoyment. 
The regular day of admission for males is Tuesday, at half- 
past eight ; for females, Friday, at the same time. No pa- 
tient is refused to be placed under treatment who applies 
at the Infirmary. To give them as little trouble as pos- 
sible, they are accepted upon account of the governor who 
resides nearest to them, or of such in the country as may not 
have used their privileges. 

In consequence of a recent munificent gift of a piece of 
groimd, on the east of Saffron-hill, by Mr. Bond Cabbell, 
valued at between £4,000 and £5,000, it has been determined 
to proceed forthwith in raising a sufficient building fund for 
the erection of a suitable hospital. It is expected to be 
nearly five years before ready ; and it will then, in pursuance 
of the wishes of Mr. Cabbell, be termed, " St. Andrew's Hos- 
pital for Diseases of the Lower Intestines.'* This title, how- 
ever, it is distinctly understood, is not to be used previous to 
that period. 

The number of patients treated last year was 520 ; of 
whom 105 remained on the books at the end of the year, 68 



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45 

TEuss SOCIETIES. ^JftUBl ^HipSBS. A.D. 1786 «fe 1807 

awaiting their turn for admission, being cases requiring the 
assistance of operative surgery, with in-door comforts. The 
want of hospital room has alone retarded hitherto the bene- 
fits of this excellent institution, and limited its extent ; the 
number of in-patients must be limited, from the &ct of only 
^264 being charged last year for maintenance. The pre- 
sent amount of annual income is about ^£800, including the 
interest of i£3,000, forming part of building fund referred to. 
The expenses are economical, and the whole disbursements 
at present well covered. 

Subscribers of one guinea annual, or donors of 10, are en- 
titled to recommend two out-patients annually ; and double 
that amount, two in-patients and four out. 

Treasurer, John Masterman, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Master- 
man and Co. — Honorary Chaplain, Rev. G. Taylor, M.A. — Hono- 
rary Physician, John James Fumivall, Esq., M.D. — Honorary 
Surgeon, Frederick Salmon, Esq. — House Surgeon, Henry R. 
Burton, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Thomas Leslie. — Matron, Mrs. 
Wilson. — Collector, Mr. W. Harben, 64, Camden-road-villas, 
Camden Town. 

NATIONAL TRUSS SOCIETY, 74, King William- 
street. City. Instituted 1786. For the purpose of amelio- 
rating the pitiable state of such among the working classes 
as are afflicted with hernia, more commonly known as rup- 
ture ; for the relief of both sexes. 

The cases are more than temporally relieved, as each poor 
suflferer is supplied with a truss, or other instrument neces- 
sary for the complaint, as long as the want for it is felt. 

Contributors may recommend three cases in the year. 

Treasurer, Charles Francis, Esq. — Trustees: Sir John Rae 
Reid, Bart. ; Arthur Kett Barclay, Esq. ; and the Treasurer. — 
Bankers, Sir Charles Price, Bart, and Co. — Surgeon, Samuel 
Solly, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Henry Swift. 

CITY OF LONDON TRUSS SOCIETY, 76, Queen- 
street, Cheapside. Instituted 1807. Similar to the preceding, 
to provide trusses, furnish bandages and other necessary in- 
struments, adminster surgical aid promptly, and to supply 
medicines and attendance during the cure of the patient. 
No persons but those who are reaDy indigent can receive the 
benefit of this charity. The number of patients relieved 
since the formation of the society is nearly 150,000, and the 
annual average of patients at the present time is stated to 
be 5,000. 

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46 

BUPTUEB,AJ).1804 JEt&al CIrErifefi flirALDIs's, A.D. 1820 

One guinea annually constitutes a €k>yemor^ entitled to 
recommend four patients within the year. The Surgeon 
attends on Wednesdays and Saturdays^ at one o'clock, to ex- 
amine the cases recommended ; or the patients may apply 
at his house, 48, Hatton-garden, any morning before nine 
o'clock. 

President, The Earl of Eldon. — ^Treasurer, Samuel Cartwright, 
Esq.— Surgeon, John C. Taimton, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Thomas 
I^linton, 89, King-street, Cheapside. 

RUPTURE SOCIETY^ 22, Lincoln's-inn-fields.i Insti- 
tuted 1804. For the relief of the poor of both sexes. The 
benefits extended to all parts of the kingdom. 1,047 par 
tients were relieved by its means last year, and 40,000, it is 
stated, since its formation, at an annual expense of between 
i£3,000 and ^£4,000, raised by voluntary contributions. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one payment, en- 
titles to recommend three patients annually, who will be sup- 
plied with either single or double truss, and necessary advice, 
ratients must attend before nine o'clock, with their recom- 
mendations, at the Surgeon's residence, 26, Qrosvenor-street. 

Treasurer, Henry Merrick Hoare, Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. 
Hoare. — Surgeon, Caesar A. Hawkins, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. John 
Porter, 22, Lmcoln's-inn-fields. — Collector, Mr. Jeflfery, 3, Pound- 
ling-terrace. 

THE LOCK HOSPITAL, although in one sense a me- 
dical charity, partakes more of the character of a '* refuge" ; 
therefore the account, in full, will be foimd given hereafter. 

INSTITUTION FOR THE CURE AND RELIEF 
OF GLANDULAR DISEASES, especiaUy those denomir 
noted Cancer, Scrofula, etc, 20, Clifford-street, Bond-street. 
Established 1820. The founder states that for ten years 
prior to the establishment of this institution, he had, entirely 
at his own expense, by advice and medicines, given assistance 
to about 5,000 poor patients : since its establishment, up- 
wards of 2,000 afliicted poor have been relieved and cured 
from glandular complaints, for which the institution is ex- 
clusively appropriated. Patients are to attend daily (Sundays 
excepted), between the hours of nine and twelve in the 
morning ; but, if unable, they will be visited at the distance 
of one mile and a half. 

^ For some years held at 26, Golden-sqaare. 

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47 

LONDON INFIRMARY ^^Urial ^tttpSBH. FOR BKIN, A J). 1841 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one time, consti- 
tutes a Goyemor, entitled to have one patient on the books 
at a time. 

President, The Marquis of Salisbuiy. — ^Treasurer, B. Bond Cab- 
bell, Esq., M.P. — Surgeon and Founder of the Institution, Sir 
Charles Aldis, 13, Old Burlington-street, St. James's, to whom all 
letters, relative to the business of the establishment, are to be 
addressed. — Honorary Secretary, F. K. Jones, Esq., 10, Bruns- 
wick-square. — Collecting Clerk, Mr. J. White, 68, Lamb's-Con- 
duit-street. 

LONDON INFIRMARY for the Treatmmt of Diseases 
of the Shin, 25, New Bridge-street, Blackfriars. Instituted 
1841. This Infirmary was originally at 84, London-wall. 
Patients must be recommended by a subscriber's ticket, and 
apply on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, between the 
hours of two and four. Patients, if not discharged before, 
must renew their recommendatory tickets every two months. 
Tickets of admission may be obtained daily between one 
and three, at the dispensary, but will require a Governor's 
signature. 

One guinea annual constitutes a Governor, with power to 
recommend patients as often he wishes ; ^\q guineas dona- 
tion the same privilege for six years, and ten guineas dona- 
tion the same for life. Between 4,000 and 5,000 patients are 
relieved annually. The amount of " The Voluntary Conva^- 
lescent Contributions " for the past year was ^322 ; a fact 
telling much for the benefits conferred by the institution. 

President, Samuel Gumey, Esq. — ^Treasiwer, J. G. Barclay, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Boyes Thornton, Esq. — Consulting 
Physicians : T. Southwood Smith, Esq., M.D. ; Thomas Hodgkin, 
Esq., M.D. — Surgeon, James Startin, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. 
Charles Nash. — Dispenser and Assistant Secretary, Mr. T. Bowen. 
— Matron, Mrs. T. Bowen. 

A DISPENSARY FOR DISEASES OF THE SKIN, 
7 A, Hampstead-street, is open for the Treatment of Skin 
Diseases and Cutaneous Affections. All poor afflicted per- 
sons, it is stated, may receive both medicine and advice gra- 
tuitously every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from ten 
until one o'clock, and also that an annual subscriber of one 
guinea is entitled to have the names of two patients always 
on the books. 

Physician, Dr. Innis. 

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48 

INTALID ASYLUMS. 3fijtol CjiarifeS fU A.D. 1825 & 1843 

The benefit of country air, and the limited number of 
patients, render the following Invalid Asylums peculiarly 
advantageous for the recovery of health. Their benefits are 
not, however, available to such as are decidedly in con- 
sumption, suffering under infectious diseases, subject to fits, 
or are incurable, the object being to restore health, if pos- 
sible, by care and quietness, or at least to alleviate suffering. 

INVALID ASYLUM for Respectable Females in Lon- 
don and its Vicinity^ High-street, Stoke Newington. Esta- 
blished 1825. The objects of this institution are respectable 
females, employed in shops and other dependent situations, 
and servants obliged by illness to quit their places. To 
such it affords a temporary asylum, widely differing from 
the crowded receptacles for the sick in our metropolis. One 
of its most striking peculiarities is the discrimination made of 
character, no patient being admitted without a certificate 
of good moral conduct, signed by two respectable house- 
keepers, or by her employer, if the applicant has been in 
service. 

A subscription of one guinea annually, or ten guineas 
donation, constitutes a Governor, with the privilege of re- 
commending one patient in the year, who is entitled to 
board, lodging, and medical attendance, for a time not ex- 
ceeding one month ; the patient herself paying £\ on en- 
trance, for which the institution finds tea and sugar. 

Patroness, The Queen. — President, Vicoimtess Mandeville. — 
Treasurer, Mrs. M. Lister. — Consulting Physician, Dr. Cobb. — 
Physicians : Dr. Cohen; Dr. Duesbury. — Consulting Surgeon, Wil- 
liam Kingdon, Esq. — Surgeons : Samuel Reynolds, Esq. ; Frede- 
rick Touhnin, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : Mrs. Reynolds ; Miss 
L. Bradshaw. — Honorary Collector, Miss E. Boyer, at Mrs. 
M'Listers's, Paradise- row. Stoke Newington. 

METROPOLITAN CONVALESCENT INSTITU- 
TION, Office, 32, Sackville-street. Established 1843. All 
who are acquainted with hospitals know how many patients 
return home to die, for want of an asylum where convalescence 
may be matured into health — ^where pure air and whole- 
some food may complete what the surgeon and the physician 
have begun. To relieve such invalids, the asylum near the 
healthy village of Carshalton, Surrey, has been opened. 
The present funds of the charity, although gradually in- 



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OONFIBMEB FEMALE ^flBnEl ^UnilUJBB* INVALIDS' INST. 1842 



creasing, and apparently made the most of, are still yenr 
inefficient. The return of extent of usefulness last year is 
very satisfactory : thus, 568 patients were received, of whom 
401 were discharged " quite recovered." This shews an in- 
crease of 117 inmates over the previous year. 

This institution is rendering most essential service to the 
debilitated and convalescent poor, who are admitted into the 
asylum ; but more by the illustration it affords of the exist- 
ing necessity for an establishment upon a more extended 
scale, hefore our system of hospitals can in any way be consi- 
dered perfect ; and it is to carry out this design that the 
committee are now appealing for public support.^ 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to send one patient, also extra patients 
upon a weekly payment with each, of 12s. The committee 
meet at 32, SackviUe-street, Piccadilly, every Friday even- 
ing, at 4 o^clock. Candidates for admission to attend with 
their recommendations at 3 o'clock, at 25, Sackville-street, 
to be examined by the medical officers. 

Chairman, The Hon. W. H. Percy. — ^Treasurer, W. Money, 
Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Strahan and Co. — Honorary Physicians : 
Dr. Mac Intyre ; Dr. BeU. — ^Honorary Surgeons : W. S. Lucas, 
Esq. ; James T. Ware, Esq. — Medical Officer at Carshalton, Ed- 
ward WaUaoe, Esq. — Honorary Solicitors, Messrs. T. J. and E. S. 
Clarke. — Secretary, Mr. John Johnston, 32, Sackville-street, Pic- 
cadilly. — ^Assistant Secretary and Collector, Mr. James Gye, 82, 
Sackville-street, Piccadilly. 

HOME FOR CONFIRMED FEMALE INVALIDS, 
Birdcage-fields, Stamford-hill. Established 1842. Office, 
64, Old Broad-street. Somewhat similar in objects to the 
last — an asylum for invalids whose friends are in some de- 
gree able to assist them, but not to afford all the neces- 
sary comforts to protracted indisposition. This institution 
is supported by monthly payments of 6«., 7«., or 8«. per week 
from the patients, according to their degree of illness, and 
by subscriptions from the benevolent. Each applicant must 
oDtain a recommendation from a subscriber, bearing testi- 
mony to her good character, and an undertaking from a 

^ The report of this instittition cites an instance of a lady bequeathing 
j£20,000 for establishing a convalescent institution on a commensurate 
scale ;'but by an informality in the will, the same could not be carried 
out. 

4 



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50 

INVALID LADIES. 31B&EI CjlEnfeS fOt ESTAB. A.D. 1850 

housekeeper that her payments shall be regular, and en- 
gaging her remoyal in 48 hours, if required, or in case of 
death. The inmates are encouraged to attend public wor- 
ship when their health will permit, and expected to assemble 
for family devotion when able. Under the management of 
a Committee of Ladies. 

Donors of ^10, or subscribers of £l, entitled to recom- 
mend cases. Communications may be made either to the 
treasurer, Mrs. James Foster, Stamford-hill, or to the matron, 
Mrs. Jefieries, at the institution. Contributions received by 
Messrs. Seeley, Fleet-street ; and Messrs. Foster and Braith- 
waite, 64, Old Broad-street. 

ESTABLISHMENT FOR GENTLEWOMEN DUR- 
ING ILLNESS, 76, Harley-street. Forming 1850. This 
institution is intended for gentlewomen of moderate or re- 
duced means ; their privations during illness often equal, if 
not exceed, the suffering of the actual poor, whose claims 
upon the public are more patent, and their wants more pro- 
vided for : prevented by their position from entering the hos- 
pitals, deterred by delicacy and the feeling of independence 
from obtruding their distress when overtaken by illness, those 
who have been brought up from infancy amid the comforts 
of life too often pass from temporary illness into premature 
and hopeless decay, for the want of that relief which this 
establishment proposes to afford. 

This object, therefore, it is greatly to be hoped, will be 
carried into operation early during the present year. The 
amount received, as yet, only reaches, we are informed, 
somewhat about £2,000 ; but as this has been mostly the 

Note.— THE iS^^^rOi2J?73f was an establishment somewhat simi- 
lar to this in design ; it opened in 1842, in the New-road, and appeared 
to lis at the time as a specially interesting institution, and calculated to 
he of great service to the particular class comprehended in its objects, as 
goveroesses, clerks, and other persons of respectable station, who might 
be taken ill, without Mends, in London ; as there, by small weekly pay- 
ments, the first medical advice and treatment might be obtained. An- 
nounced as it was, under the patronage of the Prince Consort, and full of 
promise as its early operations appeared to be, it must be regretted that 
our inquiries have failed to trace it ; and can only conclude it was one of 
the numerous projects deficient in the energy and perseverance required 
by every charity to stand the trying test of early struggles. The plan, 
however, was decidedly an excellent one. 



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61 

Lmf ATicB AjffD ^yiriEl ^inyitfiEg^ idiots. 

result of priyate solicitadoii^ there appears every probabilitj 
of ultimate success. The yicinitj of Oayendish-square is 
contemplated ; but an asylum, oiU of London, somewhat of 
a similar chantcter to the foregoing, would appear the most 
desirable, as country air would enhance its benefit, whilst the 
choice of a locality of easy railway access would equally serve 
for prompt medical attendsmce : the scale of comfort afforded, 
and extent to which it may be rendered available, must 
wholly depend on the activity of its committee, as then this 
much needed charity wiU be one the public will support. 

President, Earl of Carlisle. — ^Vice-President, Hon. E. Spring 
Rice. — ^Treasurer, E. Majoribanks, jun., Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. 
Coutts &. Co. — ^Hon. Sec., Wm. Ihrnsey, Esq., 77, Harley-street. 

The Public Hospitals for Lunatics^ and Idiots, must come 
imder the head of charities for medical relief, although, 
correctly speaking, they partake more of the character of 
asylums and homes, inasmuch as the treatment required 
and afforded to those so afflicted, is care and attention 
rather than medical skill. 

The four institutions for this purpose deserve the especial 
r^^d of the benevolent and philanthropic, embracing as 
they do an efficient provision for protection and reli^ to 
perhaps the most afflicted of our fellow creatures. The last 
mentioned appears a particularly valuable one, or rather pro- 
mises to be so : it ^s a space long felt in the charitable 
resources of our city, and, moreover, is the only one of the 
four that depends on voluntary assistance. 

By comparison of the returns made by the Metropolitan 
Lunatic Commissioners with the information now before us, 
there appears to be within their limits about 3,350 lunatics 2 

1 Luna/ic*.— Statutes regarding the care and property of lunatics were 
passed 17 Edward II, 1323, etseq.; statutes of George II, 1731 and 1741, 
by the latter of which the marriages of lunatics were declared void ; 
statutes, George III, 1770-1773, et seq. Statutes regarding treatment : 
9 and 10 George IV, July 1828, and May 1829 ; Richmond Lunatic 
Asylum Act, 1 William IV, 1831.— Hayrfn. 

' The total number of lunatics and idiots in England is as follows : — 
lunatics, 6,800 : tdiott, 5741 ; taken together, allowing for defective re- 
turns, about 14,000 — or an average of one to every thousand : in Wales, 
about 1,000, or one in eight hundred: in Scotland, 3,652, or about one 
in seven hundred : in Ireland the number exceeds 8,000, as shown by re- 
turns, but as yet these are not completed. Within twenty years insanity 
has more than tripled. — Sir Andrew Halliday. 



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52 

BETHLEHEM 3JlftoI CjianfeS fnr HOSP. A.D. 1646 

and idiots under confinement, one half of whom are the in- 
mates of some thirty or forty licensed private asylums, 400 
at Bethlehem, 200 at St. Luke's, about 1,000 at Hanwell, 
and, as has been already stated, 25 in the wards of Guy's 
Hospital. 

BETHLEHEM JB[OSPITAL,Umheth. Bounded 1546.1 
All poor lunatics who are not disqualified by the following 
regulations may be admitted throughout the year, and will 
be provided with everything necessary for their complete 
recovery, provided the same can be effected within twelve 
months from the time of their admission : — Those lunatics 
are inadmissible, who are possessed of property sufficient for 
their decent support in a private asylum, or who have been 
insane for more than twelve months: discharged uncured 
from any other hospital for the reception of lunatics : female 
lunatics who are with child : lunatics who are in a state of 
idiotcy, or afflicted with any disease threatening death, or in 
a state requiring the attendance of a nurse : so lame as to re- 
quire a stick: blind: or who are enfeebled by age. — The admis- 
sion of patients is effected by petition to the governors, from 
a near relation or friend, accompanied by a certificate of the 
minister and parish officers of the district where the lunatic 
may reside, forms of which may be obtained at the hospital.^ 

^ Founded originally as a convent, in 1247, by Simon Fitzmary; in 
1330 this establishment had acquired the designation of a hospital ; 1403 
is the earliest record, however, of lunatics being confined therein. In 
1546 it was purchased by the City corporation, and founded under its 
present arrangements, which were confirmed by Act of Parliament, 1782. 
The present building was opened in 1815, after designs by Lewis ; its 
total cost was ^122,500. The wings are appropriated to criminal luna- 
tics, whose support is paid for by Government, and a grant of ^25,144 
was voted towards the building in 1820. 

^ An author, recently visiting the hospital, writes : " The way in which 
the comfort of the patients is studied by every person connected with the 
hospital, cannot be too highly commended. The women have pianos, 
and the men bagatelle- tables, &;c. There ai'e, indeed, few things to re- 
mind you that you are in a mad -house, beyond the bone-knives in use, 
and a few cells lined and floored with cork and India-rubber." The im- 
provement in the system pursued at Bethlem, commenced 1816. Admis- 
sion days, to view the hospital, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays, by a Governor's order. Until the end of last century, Bethlem 
formed a public exhibition, and a common promenade, like the middle 
aisle of old Saint Paul's. 



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53 

ST. L PKE's LUHATIO ^y^rial ^flipggg, HOSPITAL, A.l>. 1751 

The committee meet every Friday, to take in and dis- 
charge patients from all parts of Uie United Kingdom, 
without expense to their Mends. The number of patients 
admitted duriog a year generally arerages 330, and the 
number of inmates at one time 400 ; of these one half are now 
r^[>orted as '' curable" ; 76 " incurable", and the remainder 
are criminals confined during Her Maj^ty's pleasure. The 
number of patients discharged "cured" in the past year 
was 167 ; and "incurable", 125. The annual income is at 
present between ^16,000 and ^16,000, two-thirds of which 
arises firom rents, the other third fiK>m diyidends ; applicable 
to general objects, with the exception of the bequests under 
the will of Mr. Barkham (1733), devoted exclusively to the 
maintenance and care of " incurable" patients.^ This is ond 
of the five royal hospitals ; is united to that of Bridewell, 
and conducted by the same €k)vemors. 

President^ Sir Peter Laurie. — ^Treasorer^ John E. Johnson, 
Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. J. (Jarrett, B.D. — FhysiciaEis: E. T. Monro, 
M.D., and Sir Alexander Morison, M.D. — Surgeon, W. Law- 
rence, Esq. — Clerk, B. Welton, Esq. — ^Apothecary and Superin- 
twident, William Wood, Esq.— Steward, Mr. N. Nicholls.— 
Matron, Mrs. H. Hunter. 

JST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL FOR LUNATICS, Old- 
street. Instituted 1751.^ Ko person is knowingly received 
as a patient into this Hospital, who is in possession of means 
for decent support in a private asylum ; or who has been a 
lunatic more than twelve calendar months ; or discharged 
uncured from any other hospital for the reception of lunatics ; 
troubled with epileptic or convulsive fits ; paralytic ; or 
otherwise disqualified, as described in the above stipulations 
for inmates to Bethlehem. 

When the certificates have been signed and attested, the 
petition must be recommended by a Governor, and, with the 
certificates, left with the secretary, at the Hospital. The 
Committee meet evenr Friday morning at 11 o'clock. The 
qualifications for a Governor are the payment of 30 gui- 

1 In 436 Unions of England and Wales, the number of pauper luna- 
tics deemed incurable is stated at 33^1 ; of pauper idiots, 5,269 — of whom 
2,602 have been so from birth. — Haydn. 

' Founded at a time when Old Bethlehem Hospital was crowded and 
required extension, for the reception of such as were unable to obtain 
admission there. 



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54 ; 

HANWBLL LUNATIC 3JlBMral CjlHTifeS fSX ASYLUM, A.D. 1831 

neas, or 7 guineas annually for five years. Tte annual in- 
come ayerages from j68,000 to £9,000, deriyable from pre- 
sent donations and bequests, together with dividends from 
past amounts invested in the funds, amounting to nearly 
jgl 70,000. Pauper lunatics are received on payment of £4 
with each, and incurable patients re-admitted under certain 
conditions, and payment of 7s.'per week. There is accom- 
modation for as many as 260 inmates. The number is gene- 
rally above 200; of whom, at the present time, 101 are 
incurable lunatics. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — ^Treasurer, Henry Francis 
Shaw Lefevre, Esq. — Consulting Physician, Alexander R. Suther- 
land, Esq., M.D. — Physicians : Alexander John Sutherland, M.D. ; 
Francis Richard Phelp, Esq., M.D. — Surgeon, James Luke, Esq. — 
Resident Medical Superintendent, Joseph Nash, Esq. — Chaplain, 
Rev. R. L. Hill, M.A. — Secretary, George Mence, Esq., 5, Billiter' 
street. City,— Steward and Matron, Mr. and Mrs. Walker. 

LUNATIC ASYLUM FOR THE COUNTY OF 
Middlesex y Hanwell.^ Established 1631. This asylum was 
erected, and is maintained, under the provisions of the 
statute of 9 George IV, cap. 40, from funds provided by the 
magistrates out of the county rate, and a weekly charge 
upon several parishes for the maintenance of their respect- 
ive inmates. The building was commenced in 1828 ; and 
by the sums expended up to 1831, amounting to ^6124,440, 
accommodation was obtained for 600 patients. By the simis 
since expended, amoimting to upwards of £42,000, addi- 
tional room has been provided for 384 more patients, so that 
the number of beds may now (1850) be reckoned, in the 
women's ward 570, and in the men's ward 424 ; the weekly 
cost of maintenance for each patient was, last year, 8s. 9a. 
Too much praise cannot be given to the officers and visiting 
justices for the humane and enlightened system of manage* 
ment pursued in this establishment. Mecnanical restraints 
are entirely abandoned, and watchfulness, kindness, and 
forbearance substituted. The happy effects may be daily 
witnessed by a visit to the asylum, where may be seen 

^ Aboat nine miles from London, on the left of the Great Western 
Railway. It forms a most attractive object to the traveller, and a com- 
plete view of it is afforded. The bnUding itself occupies nearly foar acres 
of ground; the airing grounds and courts, nineteen acres ; and the farm, 
orchard, garden, and shrubbery, fifty^tbree acres. 



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HANWBLL LUNATIC ^pri fll ^grpSBH, A SYLUM, A.D. 1831 

nearly 1,000 lunatics, either occupied in household or agri- 
cultural pursuits, or peacefully amusing themselyes in the 
delightful grounds of the asylum. The care and manage- 
ment of this noble institution is entrusted by Act of Par- 
liam^it to fifteen magistrates, appointed annually at the 
January Sessions, termed the Visiting Justices of the 
County Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell. Some idea of the 
extent^ of the establishment may be inferred from the re- 
quisite staff and number of attendants ; there are 104 ser- 
Yants and 20 officers, whose aggregate wages and salaries 
lunount to ^5,192 annually. The principal officers are — 

Beffldent Physician, Dr. J. Conolly. — ^House Surgeons : (Male 
fflde) Dr. Begley; (Finale side) Dr. Hitchman. — Matron, Mrs. 
Macfie. — Clerk of the Asylum, Mr. J. Morrison. — Clerk to the 
Visitors, Mr Charles Wright.— Storekeeper, Mr. Edward Clift. 

For the relief of the destitute insane, on their discharge 
from the asylum, is the Queen Adelaide Fund. 

The beneyolent minds which planned and primarily su- 
perintended the management of the Hanwell Asylum soon 
found their work to be incomplete. It is true that the pa- 
tients in this establishment are paupers ; but it is also true, 
that in a Tast number of cases their pauperism has been the 
sad consequence of their malady ; that the first symptoms 
of returning reason have been accompanied by the first 
knowledge of their destitute state, and its full restoration 
by their fi/rt^ entrance into the parish workhouse. It was 
considered absolutely necessary to establish a permanent 
fund (similar to the Samaritan funds attached to other hos- 
pitals) for the relief of patients of this class when discharged 
from the asylum. The respected chairman of the yisiting 
justices (the late Colonel Clitherow, whose delight was in 
the exercise of benevolence and the promotion of the best 
interests of humanity), availing himself of an opportunity 
of communicating with Queen Adelaide in the year 1834, 
obtained Her Majesty's most gracious consent to be the 
patron of the charity, and authorized him to style it the 

^ A second Asylnm is now in course of building, and near completion, 
for the pauper lunatics of Middlesex, at Colney Hatch, by which means 
a classification of the inmates, long in anticipation, is hoped to be carried 
oat, to a very desirable extent and successful issue, and the county re- 
lieved the increased amount hitherto paid for the thousand lunatics and 
idiots in private asylums. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



56 

ASYLUM POB JK^fel CljarifeS for idiots, A.D. 1847 

Queen Adelaide Fund. Since the death of Colonel Clithe- 
Tow the funds have been greatly augmented by the exertions 
of the treasurer, Mr. Serjeant Adams, Henry Pownall, Esq., 
and other magistrates. By the last published account, it 
appears there were j65,300. Three per Cent. Consols, stand- 
ing in the names of Henry Pownall, Esq. ; E. Halswell, 
Esq. ; J. Adams, Serjeant-at-law ; W. B. France, Esq. ; and 
John Wilks, Esq. : since this was published the fund has 
been augmented by a munificent bequest from the late Miss 
Phillipps, of Great Russell-street, of ^62,136 6s. 2d., Three 
per Cent. Annuities, and j£6,644 17s. 2d., Three per Cent. 
Consols, which sums have been transferred into the account 
of the trustees by the Accountant-General of the Court of 
Chancery. 

ASYLUM FOR IDIOTS, Office, 29, Poultry. Insti- 
tuted 1847. For the maintenance, education, and general 
treatment of idiots, either upon payment of a moderate 
amount, or upon election by the subscribers at the half-yearly 
ballots. Candidates for election must neither be pauper, 
nor payment cases. 

Age unlimited ; but childhood and infancy considered 
most fayourable for treatment, and the usual limit for con- 
tinuance is five years. 

The Asylwriy Park House, Highgate, is well adapted for 
its purpose, and most healthily situated : the present number 
of its inmates is 60 ; its first report (an admirable exposition, 
both of object and operations) presents a gratifying detail of 
the progress already made ; and it may be safely asserted 
from what is there furnished, that seldom has an infant cha- 
rity achieved more, a committee undertaken greater responsi- 
bilities, or the public sympathy and support been more cor- 
dially afforded. The benefits of the charity, without doubt, will 
extend far beyond the sphere of its own exertions ; and, as 
a model institution, it will exercise immense influence in 
favour of the hitherto too often scorned idiot. We cannot 
do better than recommend a perusal of the report referred 
to. The motto the institution has adopted is sufficient to 

3 It may not be amiss to recount here the particulars of the following 
society, which, except as a note, would be out of place, and elsewhere 
would be less applicable. 

THE ALLEGED LUNATICS FRIEND SOCIETY, 44, Cra- 
ren- street. Strand. Established 184d. Formed for the protection of 



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67 

HOSPITAL ^^HHEI %lir{niS(S. nttbsbs akd bistbbs. 

claim consideration for it — " We plead for those who cannot 
plead for themsdves,^^ 

The exact extent of public support or general idea of 
annual expense cannot be giyen, no cash statement being 
yet published. 10s. 6d. annual, or 5 guineas donation, con- 
stitutes a Goyemor, who is entitled to one vote at all elec- 
tions. 

PresidentB: Lord Pahnerston, and others. — ^Treasurer, Martin 
Tucker Smith, ^^^> ^'^^ — Secretaries: James HoUoway, D.D. ; 
Andrew Beed, D.D. — Physicians: John ConoUy, M.D.; William 
Little, M.D.— Surgeon, Thomas Callaway, Esq.— -Surgeon-Dentist, 
Edwin Saunders, Esq. — ^Resident Physician and Superintendent, 
R. C. Foreman, M.D. — ^Bankers, Smith, Payne, and Smiths. — 
Sub-Secretary, Mr. William Nicholas, Office, 29, Poultry. 

JSisterg and Nurses for medical hospitals. The two fol- 
lowing institutions are for a purpose so intimately con- 
nected with an important feature in hospital arrangements 
— that of efficient attendance and careful nursing — that we 
. are induced to include them in the present chapter. 

Judging by our larger hospitals, the plan pursued is, that 
each ward is presided oyer by a " Sister". In St. Bartho- 
lomew's there are 29 such, and one for the superintendence 
€i the casualty patients. They are selected generally from 
amongst the most actiye of the nurses, preference being 
giyen to such as haye receiyed some education, and are of 
superior character. Their remuneration appears to yary 
from 148. to 20s., or, in some few cases, 3()s.*a-week ; and 
their duties comprehend the carrying into effect the medi- 
cal instructions, administering the medicines, reporting 
change of symptoms in patients, ordering their diet, and 
general superintendence of the ward. Each '^ sister" has 

,the Brititli sulrject from unjust confinement, on the grounds of mental 
derangement, and for the redress of persons so confined ; also for the pro- 
tection of all persons confined as lunatic patients from cruel and improper 
treatment. The society receives applications from persons complaining 
of being uqjustlj treated, or from their friends, aids them in obtaining 
l^al advice, and otherwise assists and affords them all proper protection. 
Attendance at the office daily, from ten till four. Five guineas at one 
payment, constitutes a Governor for life ; and ten shillings annually, a 
yearly Governor. 

Honorary Secretary, John T. Perceval. — ^Honorary Solicitor, G. 
Bolden. — ^Assistant Secretary, W. Bailey. 



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TBAIKIlfO IKSTS. JfiftoHl C^flnfeS fill FOB NUB8BS, 1840 

either two or three nurses under her, according to the size 
of the ward. In St. Bartholomew's there are 76 nurses in 
all ; their duties comprise the usual matters of general 
sendee in attending on the patients, and their pay ayerages 
5s. or 78. per week, with part maintenance. 
^ This bnef sketch will suBkientlj pre^M^e the class of 
persons for whom the following institutions are designed 
to supply training ; — 

TffB INSTITUTION OF NURSING SISTERS, 
16, Broad-street-buildings, Bishopsgate. Established 1840. 
Applications will be received from widows or unmarried 
persons, fr^m the age of 28 to 40, whose character will bear 
the strictest investigation, and who are willing to devote 
themselves to nursing the sick, or those suffering \mder 
mental affliction ; and it is the object of this institution to 
train such persons for a certain tune in one of the hospitals, 
and otherwise so qualify them for their vocation, as to re- 
commend them when wanted either by those who can pay 
for their services, or othenr to whom their assistance must 
be afforded as charity. After thorough training, the nurses 
are admitted as sisters, at an annual stipend of ^20 ; after 
three yeurs raised to £23 ; they are maintained at the 
home during the intervals of their engagements, and em- 
plov their time in visiting the poor of its vicinity. 

About 28 nurses are employ^ ; and during the past three 
years 366 cases of sickness have been attended ; 30 gra- 
tuitously, 90 partly so, and the remainder benefiting the 
institution. 

President, ladj Inglis. — Treasarer, Mrs. Samuel Gumey, jun. 
— ^Honoraiy Secretary, Miss Wilson. — Secretaiy, Miss Gumey. 

TRAINING INSTITUTION FOR NURSES for 
Hospitals, Families, and the Poor, St. John's House, 34, 
Fitzroy-square. Under this title, and for these objects, 
the foundation for an institution was laid at a public meet- 
ing on the 1st of July, 1848, presided over hj the Duke of 
Cambridge, and advocated by the Bishops of London, Salis- 
bury, Lichfield, <fec. Since then, the " CouncU,^^ comprising 
the Bishop of Idchfield, two noble earls, and twenty other 
gentlemen, have issued their prospectus, which assumes for 
the proposed establishment somewhat of a character akin to 



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TaAii mfa iysT«- ^ygngl ^ ttipSKL fob nubsbb, 1848 

the monaateries of olden time, as in addition to the object of 
providing good nurses, improyinff their qualifications, and 
systematic^j training them, protessionallj and religiously, 
for their future sphere of action, we have the following, to 
which we merely premise, that after details provide thatg 
the ^'engagement'' of the '^ sisters" shall upon their part be 
for two years only, but renewable from time to time. 

" With a view to the better securing of these results, it 
has been thought advisable to offer in this institution a 
legitimate field of labour for ladies, who, being sufl&ciently 
disengaged from more urgent claims of natural and social 
duty, and desirous of findmg the most satisfactory employ- 
ment for the time and talents which God has given tnem, 
may, without regard to worldly motives, be inclined to de- 
vote themselves to a work of Christian love, such as this is, 
and capable, as it is, of being combined with other suitable 
and congenial exercises of piety and charity. 

" It is believed that there will not be found wanting in 
our church, devout women, of high and holy aspirations, 
ready to embrace and hold feust an opportunity like this, 
of imitating the example of their divine Lord and Master, 
by endeavouring to do the work of Him who first loved us, 
and from whom, and through whom, and by whom, are all 
things." 

There can be no doubt the institution will be conducted 
upon really Christian and Church principles, so long as Br. 
Bloomfield remains bishop of our diocese, or president of the 
institution ; but who can tell the germ of future evil herein 
contained, if this scheme obtains as its promoters and direc- 
tors those who may be desirous of engrafting upon it por- 
tions of an exploded and signally erroneous system ? The 
objects comprehended in the title are unexceptionable 
enough ; and the only regret is, their appearing to be subor- 
dinate to what is not expressed. 

The establishment is now, we are informed, " suitably 
fitted and furnished, and the following members have been 
admitted : — One lady superintendent, three sisters, two pro- 
bationers, seven nurses, also a master (a clergyman)," and 
its designation is " St. John's House." It is contemplated 
by the council that the whole annual amount of contribu- 
tions required from the benevolent is j6400, as each sister is 
requirea to pay £50 per annum for her own maintenance. 



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60 

TBAINING INST*- ^BittTHl C^atltfeS. I'OB NUESBS, 1848 

The " probationers" are the nurses on trial and in training, 
and it is for these principally that contributions are solicited. 

One guinea annual, or 5 guineas at one time, constitutes 
the privilege of recommending candidates for such position ; 
^ 3 guineas annual, or 30 guineas at one time, constitutes a 
governor ; entitled to nominate one probationer. 

Master, Bev. F. W. Twist, M.A. 



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61 

GENERAL J&ttUSl ClTgrifeS. DISPIUrSARIES. 



CHAPTER III. 



CHARITIES FOR AFFORDING MEDICAL 
TREATMENT AND RELIEF {cotiHnued). 

Dispensaries fob gbnbbai. pubposbs : — General remarks. — Central 
districts. — Northern districts. — Southern districts. — Eastern districts. 
— Western districts. — Homoeopathic. 

The establishment of Dispensaxies for the medical relief of 
the poor, either on application or at their own homes, is 
peculiarly adapted to our crowded localities ; and their ope- 
rations, both by their extent and efficiency, effect a larse 
amount of benefit, and prove a valuable auxiliary to the 
means of the General Hospitals. 

The first established in London appears to have been that 
now known as the " Royal Dispensary," in Aldersgate-street, 
1770, so that the system is but a recent one. That it works 
well, and is greatly on the increase, may fairly be inferred 
from the following summary ; and, beyond the extract given 
below from Bishop Butler,^ and the strong evidence in favour 
of their continued extension adduced by the Report of* the 
Sanitary Commission, little can remain to preface the ac- 
count of those now existing in our metropolis. 

1 « Medicine, and every other relief, under the calamity of bodily dis- 
eases, no less than the daily necessaries of life, are natural provisions 
which God has made for our present indigent state, and which He has 
granted in common to the children of men, whether they be rich or poor : 
to the rich, by inheritance or acquisition ; and by their hands, to the dis- 
abled poor. Nor can there be any doubt that Public Dispbnsabibs are 
the most effectual means of administering such reMet"— Bishop Butler. 

" In addition to our former recommendations we recommend that pre- 



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62 

MABTLEBONB OBNKKAL JfiBMrEl DISPBNSAEY, AJ). l786 

In taMng a comparative yiew of the number of patients 
treated by Dispensaries as a whole, it must not be lost sight 
of, that, although they bear so slight a proportion to what 
is effected by the larger Hospitals, yet the peculiarity of 
operations, and the economy of their cost, enhance their 
benefits — being spread over the whole of London, and 
offering relief to the sick poor, as it were, at their own doors, 
in however remote localities they may reside. 

The number supported in London at the end of 1849, in 
any way partaking of a public character, may thus be briefly 
summed up : — 8 central, 4 northern, 3 southern, 12 eastern, 
8 western. — 35. 

13 founded from 1770 to 1799 ; 6 from 1800 to 1829 ; 
and 16 from 1830 to 1850.— 35. 

Total General Dispensaries in London . 35 

Affording medical aid throughout London 

annually to as many patients as . 140,869 

The annual incomes amount^ to . . £14,424 

Of which amount voluntary contributions 

comprise ..... 11,470 
The remainder arises from dividends, etc. (in 

a few cases by members' payments). 
The number of Homoeopathic Dispensaries 

not included in the above is . . 4 

ST. MARY^LE-BONE GENERAL DISPENSARY, 
77, Welbeck-street. Instituted 1785. Open daily at half- 
past eleven o'clock, for patients bringing recommendations. 
Irrespective of district of residence. 2142 cases were treated 
last year, of whom 163 were midwifery patients. 

One g^uinea annual, or 10 guineas at one time, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to have one medical or surgical patient 
constantly on the books, and one midwifery patient annually. 

paration be made for what appears to us to be one of the most important 
measures of alleviation, — the establishmeut of local dispensaries, where 
persons affected with the first stage of the disease, as manifested by the 
premonitory symptoms, may be immediately placed tinder the proper 
treatment for arresting the further progress of the malady." — Second 
Report of the Metropolitan Sanitary Commissioners. 

^ To be exact, it is as well to state, that in 8 or 4 instances, the requi- 
site information having been withheld, the average has been necessarily 
taken, based upon contingent circumstances. With this reservation, the 
above summary is compiled from positive data. 



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^ 

PBOYIDEHT, A.P. 1834. SlfiltniSEn^S* BLOOMSBURT, AJ>. 1801 



The cash statement shows an excess of expenditure oyer 
receipts. The latter amounts to above £500 p^ annum 
however, and arises, all but £50, from 8ubscripti<m8 and 
donations. 

President, the Duke of Portland. — Treasurers: E. S. Bailey, 
Esq.; George Pitt, Esq.— Physicians : C. J. Hare, M.D.; William 
Francis Chorley, M.D. — Physician-Accoucheur, Henry Davies, 
M.D. — Surgeons : C. Beevor, Esq. ; H. B. Norman, Esq. — ^Apothe- 
cary, Mr. Bertie Pardee Matthews. — Cupper, Mr. Betts. — ^Secre- 
tary, Mr. Matthews, 15, High-street, St. Marylebone.— Collector, 
Mr. W. Price, 6, Allsc^place, Upper Baker-street. 

ST.MART'LE-BONEPRO VIDENT DISPENSARY, 
6, Charlotte-street, Portland-place. Established 1834. Dif- 
fers from the ordinary dispensaries in this respect, that its 
intention is to enable individuals of small income, by their 
own payments, to ensure efficient medical advice and medi- 
cines during illness. Every member above fourteen years 
of age paying one penny, and under that age one half-penny 
a-week, except in a family with more than two children, 
when one penny a-week is considered sufficient for all 
under fourteen years of age ; female servants paying five 
shillings aryear, and male servants seven shillings, in not 
less than half-yearly payments, are entitled to its benefits. 
Persons wishing to become members must apply to the 
Secretary, who will enter the name, age, residence, and occu- 
pation ; the application will then be taken into consideration 
by the house-visitor, and if found eligible, the applicant will 
be admitt*ed, and receive a ticket on paying one month's 
subscription. The last report states that ^^ the members have 
increased, during the last year, from 632 to 792, and that 
there has been a total number of patients under treatment 
of 2,407." The amount of members' payments was i>li4, 
and the amount of voluntary contributions JC91. 

Donors of 10 guineas at one time, or annual subscribers 
of 1 guinea, are Governors, and may recommend two patients 
in the course of the year, who are unable to contribute 
themselves. 

President, Bishop of London. — Treasurer, Douglass Finney, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretary, J. Roberts, Esq., 23, Edward-street, 
Langham-place. — Bankers, Sir Samuel Scott, Bart., and Co. — 
Consulting Physician, Dr. George Burrows. — Consulting Surgeons: 
Alexander Shaw, Esq. ; Frederick C. Skey, Esq. — Consulting 
Accoucheur, Joseph Cholmondeley, Esq. — Medical Officers in 



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64 

BLOOMSBUBT, A.D. 1801 3HBMrfil ST. GEOBGE's, A.D. 1817 

Ordinary : Alfred Elkins, Esq. ; John Gayleard, Esq. — ^Dispenser, 
Mr. J. McKechnie. — Collector, Mr. H. R. Arthur, 16, Notting- 
ham-street. 

BLOOMSBURT DISPENSARY, 62, Great RusseU- 
street. Instituted 1801. Open for the relief of patients, 
every day, Sundays excepted, at twelve o'clock. In cases of 
emergency, persons are permitted to apply for relief without 
a letter of recommendation ; but they are required to bring 
one upon their second attendance. For each guinea annu- 
ally, the subscriber is entitled to have one patient constantly 
on the books. During the past year, 3,408 patients were at- 
tended to, and variously relieved, 593 of whom remain under 
treatment. The funds are half dependant on voluntary aid. 
The annual expenditure, from the last statement, appears 
to be £100, and the cash funded, £7100. 

President, the Duke of Bedford. — ^Treasurers: Andrew Spot- 
tiswoode, Esq. ; E. Hawkins, Esq. — Physician, Dr. Rowland. — 
Surgeon, G. L. Cooper, Esq. — Resident Medicsil Officer, Mr. W. 
W. Lloyd. — Secretary, Mr. George Stone. — Collector, Mr. Bloxam. 

ST, GEORGE'S AND ST. JAMESS GENERAL 
DISPENSARY, 60, King-street. Established 1817. Con- 
sists of two branches, the second being lately opened for the 
northern districts, at 3, Chapel-place-north, South Audley- 
street. During the past year, 3,698 patients were cured or 
relieved, besides 211 midwifery cases, and 26 under attend- 
ance. The expenditure is from j£600 to £700 per annum ; 
but, judging from last year's statement, is not covered by 
the receipts, which wholly depend on voluntary contributions. 

Subscribers of 1 guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one 
payment, are entitled to recommend one lying-in woman in 
the year, and one other patient at a time. 

A Samaritan Fund is attached to the Dispensary, for the 
purpose of supplying "ventilators" to the poor ; also flannel, 
soup, milk, etc., to those in distress. 

President, Duke of Norfolk. — Treasurers: George Gregory, 
M.D. ; William Yool, Esq. — ^Consulting Physician : John Web- 
ster, M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, John Bacot, Esq. — ^Physicians : 
Frederick Weber, M.D. ; Richard Quain, M.D. — Physician- Ac- 
coucheurs : Sir James Eyre, M.D. : C. Blakely Brown, M.D. — 
Surgeons: Joseph Toynbee, Esq.,. Hon. Sec. to the Samaritan 
Fund ; George Augustus Davis, Esq. — Honorary Cupper, John 
Watkins, Esq. — Honorary Dentist, Thomas Underwood, Esq. — 



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65 

BLENHEIM-BT4A.P.1834 I^IfiJttJISHTO* BISHOP'S-C. A.©. 1782 

Resident Medical Officer, Mr. Edward Heniy Malton. — Secretary, 
Mr. J, H. York ; and Collector, Mr. J. York, 16, Marshall-street, 
Golden-square. 

BLENHEIM STREET FREE DISPENSARY AND 
INFIRMARY, 1, Blenheim-street, Oxford-street, neax the 
Pantheon. Establbhed 1834. All applicants, without the 
necessity of obtaining letters of admission, are here attended 
to, and efficient relief granted. During the last fifteen 
months, upwards of 6,000 patients have been relieved ; but 
the funds of the institution are represented as no longer 
able to maintain so extensive a sphere of usefulness, imless 
increased. 

Physicians: Dr. Burslem; Dr. Markham; Dr. Downing. — 
Consulting Surgeon, J. G. Guthrie, Esq. — Surgeons : H. J. San- 
derson, T. M. Girdlestone, J. B. Carlill, Esqrs. — Physician- Ac- 
coucheur, Dr. Charles James Cox. — Surgeon- Accoucheur, G. F. 
Whidbome, Esq. — Surgeon Dentist, J. Drew, Esq. — Cuppers, 
Messrs. Betts and Son. — ^Treasurer, Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart. — 
Bankers, Messrs. Herries, Farquhar, and Co. — Sub-Treasurer, 
H. J. Sanderson, Esq. — Honorary Seijretaiy, N. Bennett, Esq., 
7, Fumival's-inn. 

PUBLIC DISPENSARY for the Rdiefof the Sick Poor, 
Bishop's-court, Lincoln's-inn. Instituted 1782. Patients 
from any quarter are received. Those residing in the adja- 
cent parishes are attended at their own habitations when re- 
quisite. Total number of patients admitted from 1782 is 
210,265 ; of these, 42,250 were visited at their own homes. 
The present annual number of patients is above 6,000, having 
greatly increased the last few years ; and the funds of the 
dispensary are represented as necessarily seriously affected. 
6577 patients were relieved last year ; of whom, 1,184 were 
visited at their own homes. 

This is one of the oldest established dispensaries in Lon- 
don, and, together with the next mentioned, forms a valua- 
ble adjunct to King's College Hospital. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one payment, con- 
stitutes a Governor, entitled to recommend fifteen patients 
in each year. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — Treasurer, Bichard Twin- 
ing, Esq. — Consulting Physicians : H. S. Roots, M.D. ; Thomas 
Waterfield, M.D. — Physicians : George Johnson, M.D. ; Allen 
Williams, M.D.— Surgeon, Arsten Holthouse, Esq. — ^Apothecary, 

5 



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METROPOLITAN, A.D. 1836 JEBtoil ST. PANORAS, A.D. 1837 

Mr. W. Fullford.— Secretary, Mr. J. S. Phillips, 5, Biahop's- 
coiirt. — Collector, Mr. Paradice, 47, Princes-roa4, Kennington. 

METROPOLITAN FREE HOSPITAL, 29, Caxey- 
street, Lincoln's-inn-fields ; and Branch Establishment, De- 
vonshire-square, City. Instituted 1836. Although termed 
an Hospital, is in effect and operations a Dispensary, for the 
gratuitous relief of the sick poor, and is the second in extent 
of operations in London. It affords medical and surgical 
aid, with medicines, to every afllicted applicant, daily, with- 
out any other recommendation than their own diseased and 
destitute condition. 10,063 out-patients have been relieved 
during the past year, making a total of 100,800 since the 
opening of the hospital. The expenses are between JB500 
and jC600 per annum, and barely defrayed by the receipts, 
which consist entirely of voluntary contributions. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor. 

Patrons: The Prince Albert, and the Duke of Cambridge. — 
Physicians : Frederic Bird, Esq., M.D. ; C. J. B. Aldis, Esq., 
M.D. ; G. F. D. Evans, Esq., M.D.— Surgeons : E. J. Chance, 
Esq.; J. U. Easson, Esq.; G. Brooke, Esq. — Dentist, S. Ghrimes, 
Esq. — Cupper, J. Atkinson. — Dispenser, Mr. E. Johnson. — Col- 
lector, Mr. G. Stancliff, 35, Havering-street, Commercial-road. — 
Bankers, Messrs. Bamett, Hoare, and Co. — Treasurer, John 
Gumey Hoare, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, E. J. Chance, Esq., 
69, Old Broad-street, City. 

ST PANCRAS ROYAL GENERAL DISPENSARY, 
26, Burton-crescent. Instituted 1837. A physician is in 
attendance at twelve o'clock each day, except Wednesday 
and Saturday, and on those days a surgeon. Patients are 
likewise attended at their own homes. Emergent cases do 
not require a recommendation the first time. The number 
of patients under treatment during last year was 2336 ; of 
whom, 1,779 were recovered, 185 relieved, and 232 continu- 
ing in attendance. The necessary expenditure varies from 
jC300 to jG350 annually, and is generally covered by the re- 
ceipts, which depend, however, all but JG30, on voluntary 
contributions. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, with one vote at all elections, and power to re- 
commend ten sick cases and one midwifery annually. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — Treasurer, R. S. Cox, 



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67 

NORTHSiur, AJ>. 1810 JiiSftBHSflniS. cakdbn towk, a.d.I 848 

Esq. — Hcmorary Secretaiy, T. E. Baker, Esq., 61, Burton-cresoent. 
GoDSulting PhyBi<naiig : Heniy Alfred Pitmaik, M.D. ; Cfaarlee 
ColUer, M.D.— Physidaiu: C. H. F. Routh, M.D. jKobert Taylor, 
Esq. — Clonsultiiig PhysiciHi- Accoucheur, Henry Davies, M.I). — 
Surgeon-Accoucheur, Robert Greenhalgh, Esq.— Consulting Sur- 
geon, Bransby B. Cooper, Esq.— Surgewi, H. Haynes Walton, 
Esq. — Cuppers, Messrs. Ford and Jones. — Resident Medical 
Officer, Mr. John R. Diamond. — Collector, Mr. John Jeffery, 8, 
Foundling-^rrace. 

NORTHERN DISPENSARY, 9, Somers-place West, 
near St. Paneras Church. Instituted 1810. 1,269 patients 
have been treated during the year, 1,132 of whom are re- 
ported as cured, 56 relieved, and 26 died. The expenses 
for last year were ^260, defrayed entirely by voluntary con- 
tributions. Annual subscribers are entitl^ to the admis- 
sion of one patient for every guinea subscribed. Mechanics 
and workmen subscribing five shillings annually, are allowed 
the benefits oi the Dispensary for <^eir families. 

President, Marquis Camden. — ^Treasurer, John Salt, Esq. — 
Hon. Secretaiy, John Casley, Esq., 31, Guilford-street. — ^Trustees : 
William Hort<Hi Lloyd, James Bird, Greorge Phillips Foster 
Gregory, Esqrs. — Physicians : F. R. Manson, M.D. ; E. Sieveking, 
M.D.— -Consulting Physician, Peter M. Roget, M.D. — Surgeons : 
John Bishop, Esq. ; Frederidc Davies, Esq. — Resident Medical 
Officer, W. B. Dolton, Esq. — Clipper and Dentist, Mr. Hewett. — 
Collector, Mr. R. Watkins, 19, Clarence-road, Kentish Town. 

CAMDEN TOWN DISPENSARY for the Rdief of 
the Sick Poor, 8, Pratt-street. Established 1848. Has only 
lately opened. The necessary expenditure, it is anticipated, 
will average from £150 to 200 per annum. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas at one time, entitles to 
vote and six letters of recommendation for patients. 

President, Rev. Thomas Dale, M.A. — ^Treasurer, William Col- 
lisson, Esq. — Secretary, N. Bailey, Esq., 5, Camden-street. — 
Consulting Physicians : Dr. Wilton ; Dr. Davis. — Consulting 
Surgeon, William Ferguson, Esq. — Surgeon in Ordinary, George 
BOTmingham, Esq. — Collector, Mr. Taylor, 87, CoUege-st. West. 

ISLINGTON DISPENSARY, Upper-street. Insti- 
tuted 1821. All persons paying one guinea or more annu- 
ally, are Governors, with the right of having one patient 
npon the books at a time, for each guinea subscribed. The 
number of patients under treatment last year was 4,618^ 
and the number on the books at a time about 600 or 700. 



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HOLLOWAT, A.D. 1840 JfiBhltEl ST.JOHN's WOOD,A.D.1845 

President, Rev. Daniel Wilson, A.M., Vicar. — Treasurer, 
Richard P^rcival, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Bredy. — ^Apothecary, Mr. 
John Bragge. 

HOLLOWAY AND NORTH ISLINGTON Du- 

pensar^ and Convalescent Fund, Francis-place, Holloway. 
Established 1840. There are three dispensing houses — 
viz., at Francis-place, Lower Holloway ; Elizabeth-place, 
Upper Holloway ; and Park-place, Highbury Vale. Medical 
relief is afforded to all applicants, without regard to place 
of abode, and medical attendance to such as reside within 
the districts of the Chapel of Ease, St. James', St. John's, 
and Highbury. 

The Convalescent Fund is supported by a separate sub- 
scription of 6s. and upwards, for the purpose of supplying 
proper food and nourishment to those requiring it, accord- 
ing to the opinion of the medical man attending, and of the 
Committee disbursing the fund. 

The number of patients cured or relieved during the 
past year was 3,837, remaining under treatment, 424 ; total 
number relieved since its establishment, 20,176. The annual 
receipts, judging from the last cash statement, amount to 
upwards of £400, arising from voluntary contributions ; but 
this is barely sufficient to meet the necessary expenses. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor. 

President, Lieut. -Col. Thomas Wood. — Treasurer, Samuel 
Lewes, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, George Jeffkins, Esq., 10, 
Loraine-place ; and of the Convalescent Fund, Samuel Lewis, Jun., 
Esq., 19, Compton-terrace. — Consulting Physicians : G. L. Roupell, 
Esq., M.D.; Henry Jeaffreson, Esq., M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, 
F. C. Skey, Esq.— Surgeons : T. W. Mann, Esq. ; C. Caswall, Esq. ; 
Walter Gill, Esq. ; Thomas Graham, Esq. ; Edward Drewery, Esq. 
— Dental Surgeon, W. A. N. Cattlin, Esq. — Resident Medical 
Officer, B. Carrington, Esq., M.D. — Assist. Medical Officer, Mr. O. 
J. Berry. — Collector, Mr. Turner, 34, Victoria-road, Holloway. 

ST. JOHNS WOOD AND PORTLAND TOWN 
Provident Dispensary, 98, St. John's Wood-terrace. Esta- 
blished 1845. The funds of this institution consist of 
payments of one penny a-week from reduced tradesmen, 
mechanics, and servants, who are termed ordinary members, 
and the contributions of 10«. M, annually, or 5 guineas 
donation from honorary members and Governors ; the former 
only are entitled to medical attendance and relief. The last 



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SUEEBT,A.D. 1777 JBlBjttllSHrfeS. SOUTH LOHDOIT, 1821 

year's cash account presents afair statement, of receipts cover- 
ing expenditure, amounting to j£237, two-thirds of which 
consisted of voluntary contributions. Number of members 
enrolled since establishment, 1,136 ; present annual average 
of cases of iUness attended, 1,000, either at their homes or 
at the Dispensary. 

President^ Colonel Eyre. — ^Honorary Secretary, C. Coupland, 
Esq. — ^Treasurer, W. Collins, Esq. — ^^mkers. Sir Samuel Scott, 
Bart., and Co.— Consulting Physician, Peter Nugent Kingston, 
Esq.--Consulting Surgeon, Henry James Johnson, Esq.— Sur- 
geons : R. P. Bickerton, Esq. ; G. Murton Tracy, Esq. ; J. Bluett, 
Esq. — ^Dispenser, Mr. J. M. Cansick. 

8URREY DISPENSARY, ^reat Dover-street, South- 
wark. Instituted 1777. For attending lying-in women, 
and administering advice and medicines to the necessitous 
poor of the Borough of Southwark and places adjacent, at 
the Dispensary or at their own habitations. 5,103 patients 
have been relieved during the past year, 3,905 of whom were 
cured, and 683 remain under cure. Total number of pa- 
tients since the establishment, 253,689, nearly half of whom 
have been attended at their own homes, and 1 in 7 were 
midwifery cases. This is the oldest Dispensary but one in 
London, and amongst the most liberaUy supported: its 
annual income is j£960, £100 of which arises from volun- 
tary contributions. The last cash statement represents, 
however, a necessity for selling j£200 worth of stock to de- 
fray an excess of expenditure. One guinea per annum en- 
titles to have one patient always on the medical list, and 
one lying-in patient in the year. 

President, The Earl of Egremont. — ^Treasurer, Charles Allen 
Toung, Esq. — Physicians : Dr. C. J. Aldis ; Dr. Archibald Bor- 
land: Dr. W. H. Willshire; Dr. Burslem.— Consulting Sur- 
geons : George Pilcher, Esq. ; W. T. Dalby, Esq. ; J. C. Forster, 
Esq. — ^Apothecary, Mr. Edward Marshall. — Secretary, Mr. Robert 
Meggy, 33, Trinity-square — Collector, Mr. Benjamin Marsland. 

ROYAL SOUTH LONDON DISPENSARY, St. 
George's Cross (opposite Bethlem Hospital). Established 
1821. For affording additional medical relief to the poor 
of the south side of the Thames. Since its establishment 
37,000 patients have been relieved ; the largest number in 
one year being 4,904. The cash account appears satisfac- 
tory : the amount of receipts is less than of the last men- 
tioned, but covers the expenditure, which last year was J681 . 



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70 

EASTERN, A.D. 1782 ' 3115^^1 QUEEN ADELAIDE'S, 1849 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to have one patient constantly under 
medical or chirurgical care, and a vote at all elections. The 
Committee meet on the first Tuesday in every month. 

Treasurer, J. H. Capper, Esq. — Consulting Physicians: Dr. 
Thomas Addison ; Dr. Clutterbuck ; Dr. Alexander Sutherland. 
— Surgeons : F. C. Jones, Esq. ; T. C. Lewis, Esq. ; ^. H. Wat- 
son, Esq. — Apothecary, Mr. William Hentsch. — Bankers, The 
Southwark Branch of London and Westminster. — Secretary, Mr. 
James Hooker, Walcot Cottage, Lambeth. — Collector, Mr. George 
Hentsch, 17, New Boswell-court, Lincoln's-inn. 

THE ROYAL KENT DISPENSARY can scarcely be 
considered within the range of London dispensaries, being 
situated in the Broadway, Deptford ; moreover, to repeated 
applications no report has been forwarded. 

The House Surgeon is Mr. Thomas J. Byder. — The Secretary, 
Mr. Charles J. Carttar. 

EASTERN DISPENSARY, Great Alie-street, Good- 
man's Fields. Instituted 1782. Open daily for the recep- 
tion of patients* recommendations, from nine to ten. A 
Samaritan Fund is attached, available to such patients as 
require it, for wine and other nourishment. A fund is now 
being raised for the purchase of land, and future building 
of a suitable establishment. 

During the year ending March 1849, 3,005 patients have 
been treated, of whom 2,660 are reported as cured or re- 
lieved, and 231 were midwifery patients ; the number re- 
maining under cure was 279 ; giving a total of 116,200 
patients since its establishment. The expenditure averages 
between j£400 and ;^500 a-year, and the receipts, last year, 
.£479; half from dividends, the remainder from subscriptions. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to have one patient on the list at a time, 
and one midwifery patient annually. 

President, the Duke of Wellington. — ^Treasurer, Benjamin Cot- 
ton, Esq., Trinity House, Tower-hill. — Physician, William Munk, 
JI.D. — Physician Accoucheur, F. H. Ramsbotham, M.D. — Sur- 
geon, Henry Reynolds, Esq. — ^Apothecary, Mr. J. Comley, at the 
Dispensary. — Secretary, Mr. G. H. Simmonds, 7, Great Alie-st. 
Collector, Mr. WiUiam Eddrup, at the Dispensary. 

Q UEEN ADELAIDE'S DISPENSARY for the Sieh 
Poor of BethnaJrgreen, 189, Church-atreet. Established 1849. 



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71 

TOWER HAMLBTS', 1792. l9i5|IFII5SnB5. 45 rOE CHILDBIK, 1845 

Perhaps no division of London presents a greater scope for 
the exercise of benevolence than Bethnal Green and its sur- 
rounding districts ; and, doubtless, the benefits of an efficient 
Dispensary will be ap^-eciated by its poorer inhabitants to 
& much greats extent than would any other remedial mear- 
sure ; one of the last acts of her lamented Majesty, Queen 
Adelaide, was the gift of j£100 towards the objects contem- 
plated by the promoters of this Dispensary, and, in con- 
nexion with the parochial clergy ; it was fairly founded 23rd 
November, 1849. 

lOs. 6d. annually, or five guineas at one time, constitutes a 
Governor, entitled to six tid^ets recommending patients. 

President; the Bishop of London. — ^Treasurer, Robert Hanbmy, 
Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Hanburys, Taylor, and Lloyd. — Consult- 
ing Physician, Br. A. Frampton, 29, New Broad-street. — Con- 
ffolting Surgeon, James Luke, Esq., 39, Broad-street Buildings. 
— Honorary Secretaries : Rev. Thomas Peckston, M. A., and Thos. 
Snowdon Peckston, R.N., 1, Gloucester-terrace, Cambridge-heath. 

TOWER HAMLETS' DISPENSARY, 40, Commercial- 
road-east. Instituted 1792. The dispensary is open daily at 
twelve, for patients able to attend, on presenting a Gover- 
nor's recommendation ; urgent cases rdieved wiUiout. The 
average number of patients annually relieved is about 2,000 ; 
the number remaining under treatment, 230 ; and the total 
number since the foundation, 71,802. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a Governor, entitled to recommend one midwifery patient 
within the year, and have one other case always on the books. 

President, The Earl of Glengall. — ^Treasurer, George Frederick 
Young, Esq. — Consulting Physicians : Dr. Cobb ; Dr. C. J. Fox. 
— Physician- Accoucheur, Dr. Ramsbotham. — Physician, Dr. 
Munk. — Consulting Surgeon, John Adams, Esq. —7 Surgeon, 
Robert Wilson, Esq. — Resident and Visiting Surgeon, Vertue 
Edwards, Esq. — Secretary and Sub-Treasurer, Mr. 'fiiomas Stone^ 
6, Wellclose-square. — Collector, Mr. Cooke, 23, Prince's-square. 

TOWER HAMLETS <& GENERAL DISPENSARY 
for ChUd/ren, 60, Worship-street, Shoreditch. Formed 1846 ; 
since which, the printed statement issued by the Directors 
states, 18,370 children have been under treatment ; and the 
present daily average of patients, 90. 

Treasurer, Robert Davies, Esq. — Surgeon, Mr. Gteorge A. Rees. 
—Hon. Secretary, Mr. John Watson, 16, Worship-st., Finsbury. 



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THE LONDOir, A.D. 1777. SlBtoHl PORB-STBBBT, A.D. 1779 

LONDON DISPENSARY, 21, Vine-street, Spitalfields. 
Instituted 1777. Patients from any distance, with a letter 
of recommendation, will receive medicines, and the advice of 
a physician or surgeon, as their cases may require. Indi- 
gent persons, having suffered from accidents, are received 
without any recommendation. All persons paying one guinea 
or upwards annually, are Governors, with a right of having 
one patient on the books at a time for each guinea subscribed. 

Consulting Physician, Dr. F. Cobb. — Physicians : Dr. C. J. B. 
Aldis ; Dr. P. Praser.— -Surgeon, Thomas Blizard Curling, Esq. — 
Resident Apothecary, Mr. William GJayton. — Secretary, Mr. Tho- 
mas Butts Tanqueray Wlllaume. — CoUector, Mr. J. Baker. 

FINSBURT DISPENSARY, 16, Woodbridge-street, 
Clerkenwell. Established 1780.^ Cbvemors may have one 
patient constantly on the books for every guinea annually 
subscribed ; and life governors one for every donation of 
10 guineas. Governors are allowed to recommend their 
domestic servants as patients. 

President, The Marquis of Northampton. — ^Treasurer, Bichard 
Martineau, Esq. — ^Trustees : Charles Biggs, Esq. ; Philip Bedwell^ 
Esq. ; R. Martineau, Esq. — Physicians : Dr. Thomson ; Dr. J. 
W. Griffith.— Surgeon, J. T. Ware, Esq. —Resident Medical 
Officer, Mr. Edmund Meek. — Secretary, Mr. R. Saywell, — Col- 
lector, Mr. Thomas Eglington, Old Jewry. 

METROPOLITAN DISPENSARY S CHARITABLE 
Fund, 9, Fore-street, Cripplegate. Established 1779.^ For 
the relief of the sick poor at their own habitations, by 
providing medical and surgical advice, and affording pecu- 
niary aid in cases of extreme distress, the value of the 
same being enhanced by its being accompanied by the con- 
solations of religion. There are nearly 10,000 cases an-- 
nually relieved by this charity medically, besides the pecu- 
niary aid, and the maternity attendance afforded. One gui- 
nea annual entitles to recommend one patient at a time, 
and one vote at all elections. 

The cash statement represents an income of about j£500, 
with the exception of £90 dividends, derivable from volun- 
tary contributions. The requisite expenses, according to 
present extent of usefulness, exceed this by about j£100. 

^ Founded originallj in St John's-sqnare. 

' This dispensarj originallj bore the title of '* Charitable Fund and 
Dispensary,'* and has saccessivolj been held at 6, lilypot-lane ; 138, 
London-wall; and 13, Fore-street; now, as above. 



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73 

CITY OF LONDON^ 1849. JBi5)t(lt5Eli0J. BOTAL OEirBKAL,1770 

Patron, The Duke of Cambridge. — ^President and Treasurer, 
Thomas Ohallis, Esq. — ^Physicians : Dr. Waller ; Dr. Crisp. — Sur- 
geon, Luther Holden, Esq. — Resident Surgeon and Apothecanr, 
Mr. Southwood. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. Benjamin Smith, 
London-wall. — Collector, Wr. D. Freeman, 41, Gee-street, Gos- 
well-street. 

THE CITY OF LONDON AND EAST LONDON 
Dispensary and Benevolent Institution, 13, Wilson-street, 
Finsbury-sqnare. Founded 1849. For the purpose of af-* 
fording medical advice, medicines, and nounshment, to the 
destitute sick poor, and in cases of urgent necessity smiJl 
pecuniary aid. 

Having only just been matured, there is no extent of 
operations to record. Contributors of 1 guinea annual, and 
donors of 10 guineas at one time, will have the privilege of 
keeping two patients on the books at a time. Tne commit- 
tee meet every Wednesday at 1. 

Treasurer, Charles Curling, Esq. — ^Honorary Secretary, Qeorge 
Smith, Esq. — ^Physician, Henry Oldham, Esq., M.D. — Surgeons : 
W. G. Carpenter, Esq. ; Henry Shaw, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Barclay, Bevan, and Co. — ^Resident Apothecary, Mr. C. Law, Jun. 

CIT7 DISPENSARY, 76, Queen-street, Cheapside. 
Instituted 1789. Open for the reception of recommenda- 
tory letters, and the admission of patients, every day (Sun- 
days excepted) at 11 o'clock. The physicians attend at 
8J every morning except Wednesday and Saturday, when 
the surgeon attends at 1. The number of patients cured 
or relieved during last year was 8,891, and 935 remained 
under treatment. One guinea annual constitutes a governor, 
with the privilege of having three patients on the books. 

President, the Lord Mayor. — ^Treasurer, Thomson Hankey, Jun., 
Esq. — Physicians : W. Jones, M.D. ; E. Bentley, M.D. — Surgeon, 
J. C. Taunton, Esq. — ^Apothecary, Mr. Middleton. — Secretary, 
C. F. Robinson, Esq., 7, Queen-st. -place. 

THE ROYAL GENERAL DISPENSARY, 36, Al- 
dersgate-street. Instituted 1770. This institution is the 
parent one of its kind.^ Its objects are to afford medical 
and surgical relief, gratuitously, to the sick poor, without 
regard to their places of abode ; and to visit, at their own 

1 Strennously supported in its early struggles by Dn. Hulme (its first 
physician) and Lettsom. 



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74 

FAKRUf 0]>OH aENEBAL ^HI^MTHI DISPENSARY, A.B. 1828 

habitations, poor persons residing within the limits or 
liberties of the city, who may not be able, from the nature 
of their diseases, to attend at the dispensary house. The 
last report represents the inadequacy of the fiinds for the 
relief of applicants ; but the cash statement is not ap- 
pended. The returns for 1849 show a total of 14,591 pa- 
tients during the year, of whom 1,892 remained under treat- 
ment : the annual average of patients is 12,000. Sub- 
scribers of 1 guinea annually, or donors of 10 guineas at 
one time, are entitled to have two patients constantly on the 
books. The printed letters, for the recommendation of pa- 
tients, may be had of the collector, and at the dispensary. 

President, Lord Carrington. — ^Treasurer, Thrower Buckle Her- 
ring, Esq., 40, Aldersgate-street. — Physicians : Dr. Yates (Con- 
sulting), Dr. Lloyd, Dr. Goodfellow, Dr. Lewis, Dr. C. Brodie 
Sewell (Assistant).— Surgeons : Samuel S<dly, Esq. (Consulting), 
Alfred Smee, Esq. ; Jolm James Pumell, Esq. ; William Scovdl 
Savory, Esq. — Resident Apothecary, Mr. T. B. Stott, at the Dis- 
pensary. — Secretary, John Wood, Esq., 8, Falcon-street, Alders- 
gate-street. — Collector, Mr. George Mence, 5, BiUiter-street. 

FARRINODON GENERAL DISPENSARY and 
Jjying-in Charity, 17, BartlettVbuildings, Holbom. Es- 
tablished 1828. The dispensary is open daily (Sundays 
excepted) for patients and letters of reconmiendation, from 
half-past 11 till 1 o'clock. Accidents, and cases of emer- 
gency, are attended to at all hours. Patients residing 
within a mile of the institution, who, from severe illness, 
cannot attend, are visited at their homes. Patients who 
are visited at home must send for their medicines at the 
hours of 12 and 8. One guinea annually entitles to have 
two patients on the books, and one vote at elections. The 
annual average of cases relieved is above 4,000. The funds 
are now in a more prosperous position than for some years 
past, great exertions having been used last year to free them 
from debt. The annual amount required is about j£300, 
j£220 of which is met by subscriptions and donations. 

President, Lord Denman. — ^Treasurer, R. Williams, Esq., 44, 
Ludgate-hill. — Honorary Secretary, J. Galsworthy, Esq., 2, Char- 
lotte-row, Mansion House. — Physicians : Dr. Tanner, Dr. Tilt, 
Dr. Thos. Snow Beck. — Surgeons : John Chippendale, Esq. ; W. 
A. HiUman, Esq. — Surgeon- Accoucheur, S. GriflBth, Esq.,— Sur- 
geon-Dentist, T. E. Eden, Esq. — Resident Medical Officer, Mr. 
Lowne, at the Dispensary. — Collector, Mr. Coles, Church Porch, 
Skinner-street. 

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75 

WESTERN CITY, 1830 8i5|ttII5flriMi. WBSTEBN aENERAL,1830 

WESTERN CITY DISPENSARY, 18, Lincoln's-iim. 
fields. Established 1830. The districts of this dispensaiy 
extend from Temple-bar to Old Change and Lambeth-hill, 
including the densely-populated parts from Holbom and 
Newgate-street, to the river. The system pursued for the 
relief of its patients is peculiar to itself, ana economical in 
the working, dispensing with either rent or salaries. Each 
of the seven medical officers attends to the poor of his 
own district, and the medicines prescribed are supplied 
under contract by the Society's druggists at 2s. for each 
patient, and 5s. each midwifery case, however long under 
treatment. The dispensary thus relieves upwards of 2,000 
cases annually, at a cost of £250. 

One guinea annually constitutes a governor, who may 
recommend 15 patients. 

Presidenty W. Thompson, Esq., Alderman, M.P. — ^Treasurer, 
T. G. Conyers, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, J. M. Dale, Esq., 18, 
Lincoln'g-um-fields. — Consulting Phyacian, Dr. Clutterbuck. — 
C(«salting Accoucheur, Dr. Ramsbottom. — Consultii^ Surgeon, 
Fred.C. Skey. Esq. — Consulting Dentist, G. E. Alexander, Esq. — 
Druggists : Mr. Nason ; Messrs. Orridge. — Midwives : Mrs. Paint- 
ing ; Mrs. Clark. — Collector, Mr. J. H. Jewell, 22, Bride-lane, 
Fleet-street. 

WESTERN GENERAL DISPENSARY ^UsBon-gtK^ey 
New-road. Instituted 1830. For the relief of the sick and 
maimed poor of the north-western parts of St, Marylebone, 
and the parish of Paddington, at their own habitations, 
and at the dispensary, where beds are provided for the re- 
ception of sufferers from severe accidents ; and to supply 
poor women with attendance and necessary medicines ' 
during their confinement at their own homes. Subscribers 
axe entitled to recommend six cases for every guinea sub- 
scribed annually, or a donation of 10 guineas. Attendance 
at the dispensary every morning at 1 o'clock ; patients who 
require it are visited at their own houses if within one mile 
of the institution. Admission as in-patients is granted only 
in extreme cases, but this is not to a greater extent than 12 
cases in the course of the year ; the annual average of pa- 
tients under treatment is about 6,000. 

The funds appear in a favourable state, and average, in 
amount of income, ;£1,100, which arises wholly from volun- 
tary contributions, ana covers the expenses. The secretary 



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76 

WESTERN, A.D. 1789. ^Hlfiltal WE8TMINSTEE, A.D. 1774 

attends at the dispensary Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
from 12 to 3. 

President, Lord Portman. — ^Treasurer, Edgar Barker, Esq. — 
Honoraiy Secretary, Frederick J. Prescott, '^q., 13, Orford-ter- 
race. — Consalting Physicians : Marshall HaU, M.D. ; Anthony 
Todd Thompson, M.D. — Consulting Surgeons: Bransby B. Cooper, 
Esq. ; F. Le Gros Clarke, Esc^— Physicians : Dr. W. Maclntyre ; 
Dr. Markham ; Dr. Hennen ; Dr. Miller. — Physician- Accoucheur, 
Dr. Henry Bennet. — Surgeons : A. Anderson, Esq. ; J. G. Forbes, 
Esq. — Resident Surgeon and Apothecary, Mr. Thomas Palmer. — 
Kesident Assistant Surgeon and Apothecary, Mr. Joseph H. Bux- 
ton. — Secretary, Mr. James Martin. — Collector, Mr. E. Herbert, 
83, Lisson-grove North. 

WESTERN DISPENSARY, Charles-street, Westmins- 
ter. Instituted 1789. For gratuitously administering ad- 
vice, medicines, and for the delivery of needy lying-in 
married women at their abodes, in the City of Westminster, 
and other places adjacent. 

6,762 Patients were cured or relieved, according to the 
books of this institution, during the past year, of whom 416 
were midwifery cases : the total of patients relieved since 
its foundation is stated to be above 164,000, and the number 
remaining under treatment at one time 325. 

The fimds appear to be well supported, judging from the 
receipts of last year, amounting to j£713 from contributions^ 
and £154 from dividends. 

Open from 11 to 4 (Sundays excepted). Subscribers 
entitled to have one patient constantly on the books, and 
recommend two midwifery cases, for each guinea subscribed. 
Each midwifery case has to pay a fee of Is. to the charity ; 
this item, in the last year's account, amounts to £19. 

President, The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. — ^Trea- 
surer, William Page Wood, Esq., M.P. — Consulting Physicians: 
Donald Mackinnon, M.D. ; Robert Bentley Todd, M.D.— Attend- 
ing Physicians : C. J. B. Aldis, M.D. ; G. T. Fincham, M.D.— 
Consulting Accoucheur, Frederick Bird, Esq. — Consulting Sur- 
geon, Jolm Malyn, Esq. — Surgeon, T. W. Nunn, Esc^-— Apothe- 
cary, Mr. William Henry Firth. — Secretary, Mr. G. Western, 4, 
Great Vine-street, Regent's Quadrant. — Collector, Mr. J. P. 
Phillips, 6, Stamford-terrace, Swan-street, Dover-road. — Bankers, 
Messrs. HaUett and Robinson. 

WESTMINSTER GENERAL DISPENSARY, Ger- 
rard-street, Soho. Founded 1774. To dispense medicines, 



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77 

OHELSBA, A.D. 1812. JBiS|in5KnBS. BOYAL PIHLICO, 1831 

&c,y and to deliver poor women at their own habitations. 
A subscriber of 1 guinea per annum is entitled to have con- 
stantly one patient on the books ; about 4,000 patients re- 
lieved annually. 

President, the Buke of Northumberland. — Treasurers : John 
Squire, Esq. ; Thomas De Vear, Esq. — Physician, Dr. Henry 
Long. — Consulting Physicians: Dr. Child, Dr. Roscoe; Dr. S. 
W. Merriman. — Consiilting Physician-Accoucheur, Dr. Gran- 
ville. — Surgeons: Robert Wade, Esq.; Alexander Ure, Esq. — 
Consulting Surgeon, Thomas Copeland, Esq. — Resident Medical 
Officer, G. Smith, Esq., at the Dispensary, Q«rrard-street, Soho. — 
Secretary, W. J. Wills, Esq. 

CHELSEA, BROMPTON, AND BELORAVE DIS- 
PENSARY, 41, Sloane-square. Established 1812. The 
annual number of patients about 4,000, of whom 90 are 
under treatment at a time : total number £rom date of in- 
stitution, 93,117. 

The annual expenditure is about j£360, which is well 
met by the voluntary contributions, assisted by £Z0 divi- 
dends. 

A subscriber of 1 guinea is entitled to recommend one 
midwifery case in the year, and to have one medical or 
surgical patient at a time, on the books of the institution. 

Treasurer, Charles Hopkinson, Esq. — Consulting Physician, 
Dr. Anthony Todd Thompson.— Siu*geon8 : Messrs. Whitmore, 
Seaton, Woolley, and Leggatt. — Physicians : Dr. Barclay, Dr. C. 
Handfield Jones. — ^Apothecary, Mr. T. Taylor, residing at the 
Dispensary. — Secretary, Mr. C. Wilson, at the Dispensary. — Col- 
lector, Mr. J. H. Ollive. 

ROTAL PIMLICO DISPENSARY, Belgrave-terrace. 
Founded 1831. Subscribers of one or more guineas per an- 
num are entitled to have one patient constantly on the 
books, to recommend one lying-in woman during the year. 
Open for the reception of recommendatory letters every day 
at 12. 

During last year 6,162 patients were cured or relieved : 
total number since the foundation, 23,772. 

The necessary expenditure exceeds ^£600 per annum— an 
amount, that the present receipts appear barely sufficient 
for, and there is no funded property. 

President, The Marquis of Westminster, Treasurer, C. L. Hare, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretary, G. W. Forster, Esq., 12, Charlwood- 



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KENSINGTON, A.D. 1840. ^SlBiiTHl PADDINOTON, A.D. 1838 

place. — Bankers, Messrs. Drummond. < — Consulting Physician 
James Ajthor Wilson, Esq., M.D. — Oonsolting Surgeon, Henry 
Charles Johnson, Esq. — Consulting Accoucheur, Jo£i Ince, Esq. 
— ^Attending Physician, Edwin Ljmkester, Esq., M.D. — Attend- 
ing Sureeon, W. V. Pettigrew, Esq., M.D. — ^Attending Accou- 
cheur, Frederick Rol>ert Manson, .Esq., M.D. — Surgeon Dentist, 
John littlewood, Esq. — ^Resident Medical Officer. Richard Stan- 
ing, Esq. — Collector, Mr. William Blackboume, 69, Ebury-street. 

KENSINGTON DISPENSARY, Church-street. Es- 
tablished 1840. A suitable dispensary house is completed 
in Church-street, more adapted to the increasing extent of 
operation of the charity. The present annual average of 
patients is about 1,500 or 2,000 ; last year the number dis- 
charged cured was 974 ; the annual income is about £AO0^ 
which fully defrays all the necessary expenses. One gui- 
nea annually, or 10 guineas at one time, constitutes a go- 
yemor ; entitled to recommend three patients at a time. 

The dispensary is open fox the reception of patients at 
10 o'clock daily. 

President, Archdeacon Sinclair, — Treasurer, Right Hon. Wil- 
liam Lascelles, M.P. — Honorary Secretary, Edward Sheppard, 
Esq. — Honorary Solicitor, James Weston, Esq. — Consulting Phy- 
sician, James Arthur Wilson, Esq., M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, 
Caesar Hawkins, Esq. — Resident Apothecary, Mr. E. J. New- 
comb. — Collector, Mr. John Manchester, 2, Pembroke-square. 

PADDINGTON PROVIDENT DISPENSARY, 104, 
Star-street, Cambridge Terrace. Established 1838. Is 
ehiefly for the benefit of the poor of the district, who are 
able to contribute their own trifle towards their medical 
attendance ; the payments range from Id. to 1^ weekly, 
according to the number of the family ; and the funds are 
assisted by the contributions of the more wealthy : the 
total amount required is about £300 per annum, half of 
which is met by the payments of members. The number 
of patients attending varies from 2,000 to 2,600 annually. 

President, Rev. A. M. CampbeU. — Treasurer, Charles Beach- 
croft, Esq. — Secretary, Frederick Ouviy, Esq. — Consulting Phy- 
sician, Dr. W. O. Markham. — Consulting Surgeon, Samuel 
Lane, Esq. — Consulting Accoucheur, Dr. J. Henry Bonnet.— 
Medical Officers in Ordinary : C. Langmore, Esq. ; Thomas 
Hill, Esq. ; C. E. Goodman, Esq. — House Suj^eon, Mr. William 
Smith. — Collector, Mr. Robert Watkins, 19, CSarence-road, Ken- 
tish-town. 



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79 

PADBIl^aTON FB££,1848. JBiSjmifiKnBf. HOM<EOPATHI0 1840. 

F ALDINGTON FREE DI8FENSART FOR THE 

Diseases of Wornen and Children^ 8, Market-street, Edg- 
ware-road. Established 1848. 300 patients now under 
treatment. A fundamental rule of the institution is, that 
^' there shall be no paid officers, medical or otherwise ; 
that all contributions may be devoted exclusively to the 
relief of the poor." No recommendations required. A cash 
statement not yet rendered, the institution being only lately 
formed. One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, consti- 
tutes a life governor. 

President, Lord Dudley C. Stuart. — Consulting Physician, 
Edward W. Murphy, A.M., M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, William 
Fergusson, Esq. — Physician, Edward John Tilt, M.D. — Surgeon, 
Thomas Moore, Esq. — Dentist, Robert Ghuithony, Esq. — ^Bonkers, 
The Union Bank of London. — ^Honorary Secretary, Mr. WiUiam 
Dickinson, 16, Cambridge-street, Hyde-park. 

LONDON HOM(EOPATHIC MELICAL INSTITU- 
TION, 17, Hanover-square. Established 1840. For ex- 
tending as widely as possible a knowledge of the merits and 
advantages of homoeopathy, for enabling the afflicted poor 
to partake of the benefits of that treatment, and enabling 
the profession to test, by personal observation, the action 
and results of the remedies employed : 820 cases were 
under treatment in 1849 ; partly self-supported, made up 
by the treasurer's and other contributions. 

A donor of 1 guinea is entitled to recommend one patient. 

President, The Earl of Wilton.—Treasurer, William Leaf, Esq. 
— Physician, P. F. Curie, M.D. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. W. 
Wame, 9, Gresham-street-west. — Chemist, Mr. W. Headland. 
Collector, Mr. Middleton, 20, Pall Mall. 

WEST LONDON HOMCEOPATHIC LISPENSART. 
2, London-street, Fitzroy-square. Established 1841.* 
Founded with a view to afford the sick poor the advantages 
of treatment on homoeopathic principles, and also to enable 
medical men and students to ascertain, by personal obser- 
vation, the benefit of that mode of practice. Open daily, 
from 9 to 10, for the reception of patients ; Wednesdays, 
specially for treatment of the eye and ear ; Saturdays, for 
females. 

2,200 patients, it is stated, were treated from 1841 to 

^ At 67, Newman-street, Oxford-street ; reconstituted, 1848. 

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80 

FOE HOM<EOPATHIC JfiBiirKl SljSplISElfeS* TEBATMENT. 

1848 ; and 2,006 from June, 1848, to October, 1849 ; evi- 
dencing a great increase for the system. One guinea an- 
nually entides to haye one patient on the books. 

Honorary Secretary, W. T. T. Elliott, Esq.— Physician, B. E. 
Dudgeon, M.D.— Surgeon, T. Engall, Esq.— Chemist, Mr. W. 
Headland. — Collector, Mr. Watkins. 

THE BOMCEOFATEIG INSTITUTION, 63, Edg- 
ware-road, has a dispensary attached ; open to the poor 
gratuitously. Attendance is giyen daily at 12 o'clock. 

Honorary Secretary, Mr. B. Buchan. 

WESTMINSTER AND ST GEORGE'S EOMCEO- 
PATHIC Free Dispensary , 22, Davies-mews, Lower Brook- 
street, Grosvenor-square, is especially for the treatment of 
consumption and other diseases of the chest. Patients free 
upon a recommendation of any person of known respecta- 
buity. Time of admission Mondays, Wednesdays, Thurs- 
days, and Saturdays, from 8 to 10. 

Medical Officer, Mr. Wilson. 



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CHAPTER IV. 



FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HUMAN LIFE, 
HEALTH, AND PUBLIC MORALS. 

The Hamane Societies. — Sanitary Improrement Measures. — Model 
Baildiogs for Poor. — Establishments for Baths and Washhooses. — 
£arly Closing. — Temperance Societies. — Prevention of Vice. 

The Institutions comprehended in this chapter are, for the 
most part, of a preyentive character, and follow here, from a 
consideration oi the causes of a vast deal of the suffering and 
disease designed to be relieved by the charities already de- 
scribed. Very many of the ills of human life, no one can deny, 
are incident to want of care and common precautionary mea- 
sures. That such is pretty well recognized, may be in- 
ferred from the following institutions having been called 
into existence by practical experience of their need. That 
much may be done, under the blessing of God, for the saving 
of human life from the casualties of domestic and every-day 
life, is abundantly evidenced by the details of such as have 
had years to test their usefulness ; and that much will be 
effected, both for the safety and comfort of the lower classes 
especially, there is great reason to hope. Very cheering and 
animating is the announcement of one or two of these con- 
templated new institutions, and satisfactory the progress of 
those already formed in the cause of public health and 
morals : it shows, at the least, that public attention is evteT- 
geticaUy directed to the subject, if not, as yet, thoroughly and 
systematically ; and there cannot be a doubt but that such 
efforts will exercise a powerful influence and effect a great 
social improvement throughout the metropolis, to the benefit 



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____^ 82 

SOYAL HUMANE ^nSBHIKtUItt Ilf SOCIETY, A.D. 1774 

of our crowded localities of courts and alleys clustering with 
human beings. 

It may occur to the reader, that some of the institutions 
detuled in this and the following chapters, appear, at first 
sight, rather strangely diverse in design and operation, and 
embrace more of social than charitable details ; but, upon a 
closer consideration, it will be seen there is a link running 
through all— illustrative of an anxious desire to render sub- 
servient to general humanity the benefit of every fresh sug- 
gestion for the common weal, immediately upon a need or 
necessity manifesting itself — ^and the endeavour to supply it 
upon benevolent and liberal principles.^ 

The institutions here treated of may thus be classed : — 
Preservation of Human Life, 3 ; Prevention of Cruelty, 1 ; 
Improvement of Dwellings, 1 ; Promoting Cleanliness, Com- 
fort, etc., 3 ; Limiting Hours of Business, 1 ; Promoting 
Temperance, 2 ; Suppression of Immoral Books, 1 ; Total, 12. 
Although reckoned as but twelve institutions, it must be 
borne in mind that each has its local operations ; and in 
some cases, such as Baths, etc., they result in separate esta- 
blishments. 

With one exception, these are all the product 
of the present century ; and those in full 
operation are conducted at an annual ex- 
pense of ..... £11,503 
To defray which, the voluntary contributions 

amount to .... ;£8,730 

This is exclusive of those now self-support- 
ing, or nearly so, but founded originally 
at a first cost, raised by voluntary contri- 
butions, of .... je72,000 

TffB ROYAL HUMANE SOCIETY, 3, Trafalgar- 
square, Charing-cross. Instituted 1774.* For collecting and 
circulating the most approved and efiectual methods for re- 

^ " Of the different ingredients in the cap of misery drained to the dregs 
bj so man J of our poorer brethren, it would be difficult to saj which 
are the most deleterious ; but if we devote exclusively the resources of 
our charity to remedy evils which affect the mind, the task of improving 
the condition of the poorer classes wiU be very difficult, if not altogether 
hopeless." — Bishop o} London. 

' This institution must not be, as is too often the case, associated 
exclusively with one of its objects, viz., Uie saving peraoos from drown- 



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83 

ROYAL HTTXAITE SHItflll Utt* 800IETT, A.B. 1774 

coyering persons apparently drowned or dead ; and for sug- 
gesting and proyidUng suitable apparatus for, and bestowing 
rewards on, those who assist in the preservation and restora- 
tion of life. 

Since the establishment of this society, many hundreds of 
individuals have been rescued by its direct agency, in the 
neighbourhood of the metropolis alone, from premature 
death. The following summary of operations during the 
past year, may be considered as a fair average of what is 
effected by the direct exertions of its own officers : fourteen 
persons were prevented from effecting suicide ; twenty res- 
cued, whilst in danger of drowning, from cramp or getting 
beyond their depth whilst swimming ; and, during the ice 
season, thirty-four rescued from various degrees of danger 
whilst skating. The number of rewards voted in cases of 
meritorious exertion or prompt remedial measures, extending 
over the world: one gold, sixteen silver, and twenty-one 
bronze medallions ; and pecuniary amounts to 125 indivi- 
duals. The principal receiving house of the society is on 
the north baii of the Serpentine in Hyde-park. The me- 
thods of treatment under emergent circumstfuices, published 
by this society, are very excellent, and may be obtained gra- 
tuitously on application. The annual amount spent for re- 
wards, salaries, wages, advertisements, etc., is £1,620, and for 
receiving house and mar(juees, ;£200. This is defrayed by 
an income of j61,800, arising from voluntary contributions 

ing. It owes its chief claims to the present high position it occupies, to 
the impetus it has given to the investigation of the subject of Suspended 
Animation, and to the valuable directions it has circulated for observ- 
ance upon emergencies. The principle established bj its first founder 
(in idea). Dr. Fothergill, was, ** the possibility of saving many lives with- 
out risMng anything ;" and, by this quiet, indirect system of operations, 
it has doubtless exercised a vast influence in recovering the apparently 
dead. The design of the Honorary Medallion is very appropriate, fully 
representing the humane character of the institution by the figure of a 
child endeavouring to sustain the light of a torch, with the classical ahd 
significant motto, — ** Lateat scintillula forsan," — a small spark may lurk 
unseen. 

We have referred to Dr. Fothergill as the originator, at least in idea, 
of this institution ; but the credit of the organization and matured plan 
rests with Drs. Hawes and Cogan, who brought to demonstration the 
truths propounded by Fothergill some years previously *, and by their 
personal exertions, eventually aided by some thirty friends, the establish- 
ment of this now great society was effected. 



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84 

BOYAL SOCIETY. ^nSHUlting Ilf ^ROM FI RE, A.B. 1843 

and dividends. The items are not more minutely specified 
in cash statement. 

A subscription of one guinea annually constitutes a Go- 
vernor ; 2 guineas annually, a Director ; 10 guineas, a Life 
Qovemor ; 20 guineas, a Life Director. Persons claiming 
rewards, must produce testimonials within one month to the 
Secretary, signed by three housekeepers acquainted with the 
particulars. 

Presideiit, The Duke of Norfolk. — Treasurer, Benjamin Hawes, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Joseph Charlier, at the Society's office, 
8, TraBeklgar-square. — Collector, Mr. Abbot, 2, A^-street, 
Strand. 

THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROTECTION 
of Life from Fire, 169, Fleet-street. Re-established 184^1 
The principal object endeavoured to be attained by the So- 
ciety is the establishment of Fire Escape Stations, half-a-mile 
distant from each other throughout the metropolis, and main- 
taining a body of Conductors, well instructed in the use of 
the '^ Escapes," one at each station throughout iJie night. 
It also seeks to stimulate to intrepid exertions, in the pre- 
servation of human life at fires, by presentation of silver 
medals and pecuniary rewards. The Society's honorary sil- 
ver medallion can only be obtained by such as have personally 
rescued human life from the flames. 

The number of Fire Escape Stations at present maintained 
by the Society is twenty-seven. The average annual cost of 
each is £80, and first expenses, for '^ Escape,^' etc., £70. It is 
the duty of every conductor to attend the fires in his district 
at the very first alarm, whether actually required or not ; and 
the promptitude with which they attend is always to be re- 
marked, generally arriving before fire engines. The gra^ 
dually decreasing number of fatal fires in London, clearly 
demonstrates the benefit of such an institution. 

The following extract from the present annual report, 
shows at one view what has been effected by the Society 
during five years and three months, the time the present 
Committee lutve had the management of its affairs. 

^ First established in 1836 ; bnt, from some imperfection in its early 
management, its objects were not fnllj developed, or its (^rations car- 
ried to any extent, until the year 1843, when the necessitr for such an 
institution became so evident, that at a public meeting couv^ied for that 
purpose, the society was reorganized. 



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85 

ROYAL If ATIOKAL. SOIItSlI £& VBOM SHIPWBIOK, 1824 

SUttiomM, Urtt^itd. MAttttUMJl 

In 15 mos. ending Mar. 1845 - 8 increased to 11 • 116 - 13 

In 12 mos. ending Mar. 1846 -11 „ 15-96-7 

•* 1847 - 15 „ 31-180-11 

1848 - 21 „ 25 - 197 - 17 

,, » 1849 - 25 „ 26-228-31 

771 79 

The expenses of maintaming the conducton and stations, 
with inspectors, amount to ;£l,900 per anmim, and the ma- 
nagement expenses only £ 180 ; the whole defrayed by yolnn- 
tad^ subscriptions, of from 5«. to 2 guineas annually, assisted 
by about £4fdO or jfdOO a-year, voted by the vestries of some 
80 parishes.^ 

Patron, The Queen. — Treasurer, John Dean Paul, Esq., 217, 
Strand. — Secretary, Mr. Sampson Lowj Jun., 14, Great James- 
street, Bedford-row. — Bankers, Messrs. Strahan, Pauls, and Bates. 
— Inspectors of Stations : East District, Mr. William Baddeley, 
29, Am^-street, Islington ; West District, Mr. Spencer, 7, Great 
Portland-street. 

ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTION for the Preser- 
vation of Life from Shipwreck, 20, Austin Friars. Found- 
ed 1824. For the estaolishment of life-boats, and other 
apparatus, in the most eligible situations of the British Isles, 
and rewarding persons who may have assisted in saving 
lives from shipwreck. For carrying these good intentions 
into effect, local associations have been formed in various 
parts of the united kingdom, by the instrumentality of which 
many hundreds of persons have been saved from snipwreck. 
The cash statement presents an account of about £700 per 
annum, arising, half from dividends, and half from voluntary 
contributions ; £400 spent for the objects of the institution, 
and £350 for expenses of management : but no report has 
been issued by the Society, we are informed, since 1842. 

Ten guineas at one time, or one guinea annuaUy, consti- 
tutes a governor, with one vote at a!u general meetings. 

Treasurer, Bl(^ard Perdval, Jun., Esq. — ^Trustees: Thomas 
Wilson, Esq. ; John Cazenove, Esq. ; John Clark Powell, Esq. — 
Auditors : Timothy A. Curtis, Esq. ; Mr. Aid. ThMnpson, M.P. 

^ The contributions from parochial bodies hare, for the most part, only 
as yet afforded a fostering cooperation to the otherwise roluntarj charac- 
ter of this essentially required institution. Such contributions vary from 
£2 to 25 guineas annually, and are Toted by the several vestries, under 
the provisions of the building act of 14 George III, cap. 78. 



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86 

FOE PREVENTION SHIHKIIB ^HtfefeS. OP CBXTBLTT, 1821 

ROTAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF 
Crvdtv to Animals ; office, 12, Pall MaU. Established 1824. 
The object of this Society is to prevent the cruel and impro- 
per treatment of animals. Much of the cruelly committed 
by coachmen, carters, drovers, and others, might be pre- 
vented by the mild and kind interference of hiimane indi- 
viduals, by the police, and by the parochial authorities, 
whom the committee solicit to unite with them in the 
above object. Amongst the results of the Society's opera- 
tions, mav be summed up—" the prosecution to conviction 
of more than 3,000 cases of aggravated cruelty ; the obtain- 
ing, in 1835, an amendment of Mr. Martin's Act, whereby 
more extensive legislative powers were granted ; in 1839, 
the insertion of a clause in the New Police Act, prohibiting 
the use of dogs in carts and trucks ; in 1844, an amendment 
of the law relative to knackers' yards ; and, in 1849, a new 
and much improved act for the more effectual prevention of 
cruelty to animals." The annual average of cases proceeded 
against appears to be 150, either by the direct or indirect 
operations of the Society. The disbursements consist of office 
expenses, salaries, prosecution, and incidental, to the amount 
of £900 annually. The income is derived, from voluntary 
sources, £820, and from dividends, £200; and the cash 
statement for 1849 presents the finances in a most satisfac- 
to^ position. 

Ten guineas donation, or one guinea annual, constitutes a 
Governor. The Committee meet at the office every second 
monday in the month ; and the Secretary attends daily, be- 
tween eleven and four. 

President, vacant. — Treasurer, Samuel Qumey, Esq.— Sub- 
Treasurer, Lewis Pooock, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Henry Thomas. — 
Collector, Mr. George Middleton. 

LABOURERS' FRIEND SOCIETY, for improvimthe 
condition of the Lahowring Classea; Office, 21, Exeter Hall. 
Established 1831. Is actively engaged in endeavouring to 
ameliorate the condition of the workmg classes, in the three 
important points of dwellings,^ land, and money. It has built 

^ The operations of the Society heing at the present time, more espe- 
cially directed to the improvement of dwellings, and carrying out of 
sanitary measures, is the motive for classing it in the present chapter ; 
otherwise, its general objects are of a kindred character to those compre- 
hended in chapter VIII. 



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87 

iiABouBEBs' Unnnnittiiuiit nf finirlliitp* feibitd, a.©. 1845 



a range of dwellings for the industrious classes, on sanitary 
principles, at Bagnigge-wells, Gray's-inn-lane. Here 23 
families and 30 single women are accommodated. Also, in 
G^rge-street, St. Giles's, a model lodging-house for working 
men, where 104 persons of this class Snd a comfortable habi- 
tation. It has repaired and rendered fit for healthy occupa- 
tion four houses in King-street and Charles-street, Drury- 
lane, wherein 108 working men are accommodated, for four- 
pence per night. Also, at No. 76, Hatton-garden, a house 
for the accommodation of 58 females of the working classes. 

It is now building, in Streatham-street, Bloomsbury, a 
range of dwellings for mechanics and their families, wherein 
about 48 such families will find good and healthy habita- 
tions. At Tunbridge-wells it is aiding to raise a series of 
cottages for agricultural labourers, of which six, and a lodg- 
ing-house for single men, are already completed and occu- 
pied. It is also in constant correspondence with a great 
nimiber of benevolent persons in all parts of the kingdom, 
who apply for its aid in the building or improvement of cot- 
tages, or the setting out of cottage allotments. In these 
various works it has expended, or now is expending, more 
than J23,000. 

The income of the Society wholly depends on the contri* 
butions of the benevolent ; and the extent of its operations is 
entirely contingent upon the amount entrusted to it. Thus, 
by a simultaneous movement amongst the metropolitan 
clergy at the last general " Thanksgiving," a very large col- 
lection was placed at the disposal of the Committee— nearly 
£4:000, This, with additional donations, enabled them forth- 
with to develope corresponding efforts to establish upon a 
large scale a fresh '* model buUding," for the improvement 
of the lodgings of the labouring classes generally. For the 
purpose of increasing the comfort and promoting the health 
of the poor, the benevolently inclined will find no better 
opportunity for exertion than that afforded by this institu- 
tion, or fairer probability of the same being attended with 
success. 

An annual subscription of one guinea, or more, constitutes 
a Member of the Society, and donors of JGIO and upwards 
are Governors for life. Donations of j£50 and upwards may 
be paid immediately, or by four yearly payments. 

President, Prince Albert. — Chairman of Committee, Lord Ash- 
ley. — Treasurer, John Labouchere, Esq. — Secretary, John Wood, 
Esq. — Collector, Mr. W. B. Emmery. — Agent, Mr. Henry Martin. 

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88 

METROPOLITAN ^EHitETII ASSOCIATION, A.D. 1850 

METROPOLITAN ASSOCIATION, for Improving 
the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes, 19, Coleman-street, 
City. Incorporated 1845. The object of this association 
is to enable the labouring classes to procure a comfortable, 
cleanly, and healthy habitation, at a less expense than is at 
present paid for yery inferior and unhealthy accommoda- 
tion, arising from want of yentilation, bad drainage, and the 
crowded state of the apartments. 

Their operations during the past four years haye resulted 
in the erection of a commodious pile of buildings in the 
Pancras-road, at a total cost of about £17,000, affording 
accommodation for 110 families, in sets of two or three 
rooms each, with a separate scullery, water-closet, ample 
supply of water, and other conyeniences, at rents far below 
the amounts usually paid in unhealthy and inconyenient 
abodes. A piece of land has likewise been recently pur- 
chased by the association, in Spicer-street, Brick-lane, for 
the establishment of a model lodging-house for single men : 
both establishments, it is computed, will be self-supporting 
and remuneratiye as soon as in full action. 

The funds haye been raised in shares of £25, and liabili- 
ties of joint-stock ayoided, by obtaining letters patent under 
the 1st Victoria, c. 73, sees. 2 and 4, which limits the re- 
sponsibility of shareholders ; £5 per share is required to be 
paid into the bankers' hands. Communications and appli- 
cations for shares to be addressed to Mr. C. Gatliff, Honorary 
Secretary, 19, Coleman-street. 

Chairman, Sir Balph Howard. — Auditors : John Finlaison, 
Esq. ; Edward Hurry, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Barclay, Bevan, 
Tritton, and Co. — Architect, William Beck, Esq. — Honorary 
Secretwy, Charles Gatliff Esq., 19, Coleman-street. 

THE METROPOLITAN SANITARY ASSOCIA- 
TION ,12, St. James's-square, is now forming under the pre- 
sidency of the Bishop of London, with the exertions of seyeral 
influential friends to the cause of the labouring poor ; at 
its foundation meeting recently held (February 6, 1850,) 
the adyantages of efficiently conducted sanitary measures 
\ were folly and powerfully urged by Lord Ashley, Mr. Dickens, 
and other gentlemen. Their arguments were to the effect, 
that the imperatiye necessity of health measures, adequate 
to the wants of the 2,000,000 inhabiting this great metropolis, 
has been incontroyertibly established by the disclosures 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



^ 

K.W. BATHS AND SlItptnBinflltS* WA8H-H01]r8B8,A.D.1846 

made during the late ^idemic, and the i^palling sacrifice 
of life, amounting in all to a loss of 18,423 lives, demon- 
strate that a time has arrived when the people are entitled 
urgently to demand firom the letdslature efficient and com- 
prehensive enactments, in order to prevent recurrent ravaeee 
of pestilence and attendant misery. The clergy of 3ie 
metropolis were particularly called upon to assist the asso- 
ciation to the utmost of their power hy the formation of 
branch associations in every district and parish. With these 
the parent association, it was stated, will gladly cooperate. 

The zealous support of all classes may, in short, be 8<h 
licited in this work of prevention, the benefits of which must 
extend to all, though they will be most apparent in the 
improved state of the dwellings of the poor and of the la- 
bouring classes, and in the elevated social condition of the 
people, in greatly reduced local burdens, and in the dimi- 
nished amount of widowhood and orphanage. 

An annual subscription of 1 guinea, and a donation of five 
guineas, constitutes a member. 

Messrs. Glyn and Co. ; Messrs. Barclay, Bevan, and Co. ; 
Messrs. Williams, Deacon, and Co. ; and the London and West- 
minster Bank, receive contributions. — Honorary Secretaries : M. 
W. Lusignan, M.A. ; Hector Gavin, M.D. ; Adolphus Bamett, 
M.B., 12, St. James's-square, and Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate. 

BATHS AND WASH-HOUSES for the Labouring 
ClasseSy in the North-West District of the Metropolis, George- 
street, Euston-square. Established 1846. Tne first qsXa- 
h^%\im&ai practically tried in the metropolis .^ It was founded 
by voluntary contributions, at a total cost of about £6,000 ; 
but is now, with continuation of slight assistance, self- 
supporting, and will doubtless be soon entirely so. The 
benefits conferred on the surrounding districts have been 
substantial, and are increasingly displayed. 

Thus, in 1847, 110,940 persons bathed, and 137,672 in- 
dividuals had iiieir clothes washed, dried, <fec. ; while, 
during 1848, notwithstanding the unusuaUy cold and wet 
season, 111,788 bathed, and 246,760 were washed for: be- 
sides this, 1,433 rooms, closets, areas, <fec., have been cleansed 
and purified. 

President, Lord Southampton. — ^Bankers, Sir Claude Scott and 
Co. — Honoraiy Secretary, T. H. Smith, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. 
John Bell. 

^ The first establitbment of this character was at Glasgow. 

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90 

BATHS <fe WASH ^HlUtEni SlUpinittlllBIliS, HOUSES, A.D.184lr 

COMMITTEE for Promoting the Establishment of Baths 
and Wash-Hottses for the Labouring Classes, 5, Exeter 
Hall, and Qoulston-Bquare, Whitechapel, London. 

The first operations to promote this purpose were in 1844, 
but yarious difficulties, occupying much time and consider- 
ably greater expense than was calculated upon, retarded the 
object, and it was not until July 1847, that the first half of 
the baths and wash-houses, at the model establishment, were 
opened. The total cost, under the peculiar expenses, of 
experiments, <&c., swelled the amount to £26,000 ; but the 
purpose served both to afford to a wretchedly poor district 
the benefits of cheap cleanliness, and at the same time pre- 
sented data to ground application for legislative measures, 
authorizing such establishments in every parish, and offer a 
model for future operations. 

At the present establishment 20,000 people can bathe 
weekly, and accommodation be afforded for 42 women to wash 
at one time, with tubs, dr3ring closets, and every requisite. 

There are 96 baths and 84 pairs of tubs ; and the com- 
mittee are of opinion that similar extensive establishments 
may now be completed, after the model, for about ;£1 2,000 •? 
also that this, as well as others, when in full operation, will 
not only be self-supporting, but remunerative ; thus, it is 
computed, JC2,000 aryear will be the continued receipts, at 
the present charges of Id. for cold baths, and 2d., or 6d., 
for warm baths ; and ^£400 a-year from the washers at Id. 
per hour : whilst the continued working exi)enses cannot 
exceed Jl,400 annually. 

President, The Lord Bishop of London. — Chairman, Rev. Sir 
Henry R. Dukinfield, Bart. — ^Deputy Chairman, Williain Hawes, 
Esq.— Trustees : Samuel Jones Loyd, Esq ; Sir William Magnay, 
Bart. ; Sir A. De Rothschild, Bart.; Abel Smith, Esq. — Honorary 
Secretaries : James Farish, Esq. ; John Bullar, Esq. — ^Assistant 
Secretary, Mr. George "Woolcott. 

St, Martin in the Fidds EstaJtlishmervt has now 72 baths 
oi)en, and during the past nine months upwards of 160,000 
bathers have availed themselves of the benefit, paying from 
Id. to 3d. for cold baths, and 3d. or 6d. for warm baths : this 
is the first establishment opened under Sir Henry Dukin- 
field's " Public Bath and Wash-House Act." 2 

^ Mr. Balj, the dvil engineer to the committee, states he has heen 
ahle greatly to reduce the cost for Preston, as well as for other places, 
s 9th and 10th acts of Victoria, cap. 74, hy which aU the boroughs or 



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91 

METROPOLITAN (KitIi} ClUOTg. ASB0CIATI0N,A.1).1842 

The following parishes have likewise adopted^ or are 
about doing so, the proyisions of the same act : — 

St, MaryUboTU establishment, in the New-road, opposite 
Lisson-grove. Superintendent, Mr. James Grafter. 

St, Giles and St, Qeorge^ Bloomsbuir. 

St, Jameses, Piccadilly : site secured near Messrs. Broad- 
wood's Brewery. 

St, Maraaret and St, John, Westminster, and 

Lamhetfi ; 

And the cities and boroughs of Hull, Liverpool, Bristol, 
Plymouth, Preston, Worcester, Birmingham, <fec. 

THE METROPOLITAN EARLY CLOSING ASSO- 
CIA TION, 32, Ludgate-hill. Established 1842.1 Its ob- 
ject is, by means of argument and persuasion, with em- 
ployers, and public co-operation, so to abridge the hours 
of business as to extend to assistants opportunity for re- 
creation, and for physical, intellectual, and moral improve- 
ment. 

As some of the earliest results of this society in the ad- 
vancement of these latter objects, may be instanced, the 
establishment of '^ The Church of England's Toung Men 
Society," " The Young Men's Christian Association," and 
others, each full of promise for the spread of Christian 
principles, and all more or less promotea by the pioneering 
operations and earnest exertions of the promoters of this 
society. 

President, Sir James Emerson Tennent. — Trustees: George 
Hitchcock, Esq. ; Ambrose Moore, Esq. ; T. Winkworth, Esq. — 
Treasurer, W. D. Owen, Esq.— -Collectors : Mr. Butts; Mr. J. 
HMike8.--Secretaiy, Mr. John Lilwall, 82, Ludgate-hiU. 

NATIONAL TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 11, Token- 
house-yard. Established 1842. For the purpose of assist- 
ing efforts for the cause of temperance in every part of the 
country, by encouraging and assisting the formation of 
county and other district associations, ascertaining the cha- 

paxisbes in England and Wales are enabled to establish sucb institutions 
oat of tbe rates, if tbe resolution to adopt them is carried by a certain 
majority. 

^ Tmi established in 1 842, under the title of the ** Metropolitan Drapers* 
Association," but was so altered in 1846, both in constitution and name, 
as to embrace all trades, as at present 



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92 

BBITISH AND ^rfllttfltnig ^111^15111^ FOREIGN, A.B. 1830 

racter and qualifications of adyocates, recommending agents, 
and assisting in their exchange from one association to 
another ; by collecting and di£ising statistical and other 
valuable information bearing on the subject of intemper- 
ance, and by watching the proceedings of Parliament in 
questions connected with intemperance, and taking every 
suitable opportunity of bringing the subject \mder the 
notice of the legislature. 

Connected with, and promoted by this society, was the 
great " World's Temperance Convention," held in London, 
August 4, 1846, and following days, brought together £rom 
all parts of the world : the society consists of annual sub- 
scribers of 1 guinea and upwards, and of donors of not less 
than 10 guineas, who have signed a declaration involving 
total abstinence from intoxicating liquors. 

The cash statement appended to last report shows an in- 
come of about £1,000 annually, with the exception of about 
j£50 supplied by voluntary contributions, and expended 
chiefly m printing pamphlets, expenses of meetings, tra- 
velling, lecturing, <fec. 

Treasurer, G. W. Alexander, Esq., 40, Lombard-street. — 
Secretary, Mr. Isaac Doxsey. — Missionaries, Mr. James Balfour; 
Mr. Richard Hodgson. 

BRITISH <& FOREIGN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 
Aldine Chambers, Paternoster-row. Established 1830. Con- 
sists of such persons as subscribe to the following declara- 
tion : — ^^ We agree to abstain from distilled spirits, except 
for medicinal purposes, and to discountenance the causes 
and practice of intemperance." The members promote the 
circulation of publications which have received the sanction 
of the committee. The society recognizes as members those 
who adopt its general declaration ; while those who show 
their good will, by contributing to the funds of the society, 
without adopting the declaration, are considered as honorary 
members. 

The last report of the institution represents a continued 
- increase of drunkenness ; also an increasing consumption 
of spirits throughout the British empire, and presents alto- 
gether anything but a gratifying account of the society's 
influence. 

There are some veiy good tracts and other papers published 
by the society, which are worthy an extended circulation ; but 



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93 

SOCIETY EOB ^tPpfXtSSWH VJ ^Ut* AJ). 1802 

the present funds at its disposal appear totally inadequate 
to carry out efficiently the great object it attempts to effect, 
ihe whole amount being under jC250 per annum. 

President, the Bishop of London. — Honorary Secretary, Rev. 
H. Hughes, A.M. — Secretary, Rev. Owen Clarke, 6, Northamp- 
ton-square. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Barclay, Bevan, and Co. — Col- 
lector, Mr. Shrewsbury, 8, King's-row, Walworth. — ^Agent, Mr. 
James Simpson. 

SOCIETY FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF VICE, 

57, Lincoln's-inn-fields. Established 1802. Established 
chiefly at the instance, and by the exertions, of the late 
William Wilberforce,i Esq. About four or five years back 
its operations were obliged to be suspended, from increasing 
debts and generally disarranged funds. Latterly, however, 
by a successful appeal to the public, it has been enabled to 
resume active measures against the promoters of infidelity 
and vice ; and the last report represents an extent of consi- 
derable usefulness achieved by it in two years, chiefly con- 
sisting in the suppression of infidel lectures and discussions,* 
and the destruction of immoral books, and punishment by 
law of their venders. It is the axiom of daily experience 
that a bad man's influence can, in some measure, be traced 
and counteracted ; but that that of a bad book can never be 
known, and is incalculable ; with this conviction it is that 

^ The present society, more correctlj speaking, was hosed upon that 
fotmded by Wilberforce, which had for its chief purpose the religious in- 
fluencing of the tone of English society, and its operations confined to 
that time of lax morals, — the closing of the last century. It was organized 
1787 ; and concerning it Mr. Wilberforce thus writes to Mr. Hey of 
Leeds, in May of that year : — ^" Tou will shortly hear of a proclamation 
issued for the discouragement of vice ; of letters written by the State Secre- 
tary to the Lords Lieutenants, expressing the pleasure of His Majesty,, 
that they should be active in putting in force the laws against immorality ; 
aUo, of a Society being formed in London, to carry out such purposes. 
The objects to which the Committer will direct their attention are the 
offences specified in the proclamation, — profanation of the Sabbath, 
swearing, drunkenness, licentious publications, etc." — Life of Wilberforce. 
His biographers add, — " the society was soon in active and useful opera- 
tion : the Duke of Montague opened his house for its reception, and pre- 
sided over its meetings ; a post which was filled «fler his death by the 
late Lord Bathurst, who was followed by Bishop Porteus : and before 
its dissolution, it had obtained many valuable Acts of Parliament, and had 
greatly checked the spread of blaspheniMis and indecent publications." 



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94 

SOCIETY FOB ^g|iyrggsintt nf %m. a.d. 1802 

we hail, with pleasure, the information afforded by the com- 
mittee of the very large number of villanous publications 
annually destroyed by their means, which would otherwise 
have been spreading their poisoning influence over the 
country, corrupting the minds of the young, and disturbing 
peace and order wherever introduced. 

The object and operations of this society, demand for it 
the support and cooperation of every advocate for extending 
the influence of moral and religious principles ; its funds 
appear to require increasing, and its genersd management 
strengthening. 

Treasurer, Charles Hoare, Esq., Fleet-street. — Secretary, Mr. 
Henry Prichard, 57^ Idncoln's-inn-fields. 



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95 



CHAPTER V. 



CHARITIES FOR RECLAIMING THE FALLEN; 
THE REFORMATION OF CRIMINALS; and 
STAYING THE PROGRESS OF CRIME. 

The Foimdling, Magdalen, and Look Hospitals. — Female Penitentiaries. 
— Philanthropic Societies for Females, and Reformation of Young 
Offenders. — Schools of Reform and Occupation. — General Peniten- 
tiaries. 

" It is lamentable," observed, some years back, the excellent 
chaplain to Parkhurst, " to observe how large a majority of 
the prisoners here, consists of destitute or otherwise unfortu- 
nate children, suffering either from the loss, the negligence, 
or the vice of their relatives" ; and this is a fact borne evi- 
dence to by every inquirer into the subject. Sad and stem 
truth ! It is, however, one of the most redeeming points of 
the time we live in, that not onlv is the fact ascertained and 
recognized, that vice is as much the source of these evils 
as distress, but it is being acted upon ; — let the nume- 
rous fences and protections described in the following pages, 
and further details of educational and ragged school pro- 
visions for the destitute classes, — ^testify to what an extent ; 
evidencing, at least, that whatever there may be deficient in 
the system of our charities, there is no deficiency either 
in the spirit that prompts, or the energy which establishes 
them. Our part, however, is now to describe in detail what 
exists, — not to speculate upon what remains to be done. 
The subject involved under the title of the present chap- 
ter is too important an one to be treated of briefly ; too com- 



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96 

FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. CljErifeS fUt A.D. 1739 

prehensive eyen to attempt as a subsidiary matter, there- 
fore we do not interfere with the subject of prisons and 
prisoners further than serves to illustrate the charitable in- 

rstitutions for their improvement and decrease. Bridewell 
Hospital wiU be found to claim a short account, associated 
, so much as it is, in the minds of most, as a London charity. 
' The Model and Penitentiary Prisons are likewise appended 
in notes, partaking too much of a similar character to be 
excluded, whilst too decidedly for the punishment of offenders 
to be classed as charities. Mr. Hepworth Dixon's recent 
work on this subject, will be found likewise to afford every 
information upon the prisons of London ; therefore to it th^ 
reader is referred, for any information not comprehended by 
the design of " the Charities of London." 
Summary of Listitutions described in this Chapter : — 

1, for reception of Foundlings, to the num- 
ber of . . . , . 500 

10, for affording a Shelter and Home (one 
treating disea^) to Unfortunate Females, 
maintaining at one time . . . 674 

3, for Female and Juvenile Criminals, to the 
number, at one time, of . . . 168 

1, House of Occupation (connected with 
Bridewell) .... 200 

2, Benefiting Prisoners ; and 

1, Amending Laws for the Protection of 
Females. 

In all, 18 Institutions, 17 of which come 
under the designation of London Chari- 
ties, conducted at an annual cost of . .£35,036 

And of this amount, the sum received from 
Voluntary Contributions realizes annually ;£l 6,299 

4 Institutions were founded in the 18th cen- 
tury, and the remaining 13 in the present 
century (10 since 1820). 

FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, Guildford-street. Incor- 
porated 1739. Founded by Thomas Coram,^ as an hospital for 
" exposed and deserted children." In 1760, this was altered 

1 h. benevolently inclined seaman, the master of a vessel trading to the 
colonies. The Hospital was inc<Mrp<nrated by charter from George II, in 
Oct. 1739. It must not be snppoaed that Captain Coram's resources were 



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; 97 

FOUNDLING H08P. EBtlgJllimg tlTB fiUjU. A.D. 1739 

for " poor illegitimate children whose mothers are known." 
The hje-laws for the admission of children may be thus con- 
densed : — Ko application for admission received previous to 
the birth of a child, nor after the child is twelve months old. 
The Committee must be satisfied of the previous good charac- ^ 
ter and present necessity of the mother ; and that the father (if 
living) has deserted her ; also, that the reception of the child 
will, in all probability, be the means of replacing the mother 
in the course of virtue and the way of an honest livelihood. 
No money or other gift, under any pretence whatever, will 
be received by the hospital for the admission of a child or 
children ; nor by any officer or servant of the hospital, on 
pain of immediate dismissal. 

The revenues of the Hospital are very large ; proceeding 
mainly from what is known as the '^ Foundling Estate," in- 
cluding portions of Mecklenburgh-square, GuSdford-street, 
Brunswick-square, and several immediately neighbouring 

sufficient for the endowment of this institution : what little property he 
possessed was speedily engrossed in his charitable projects ; and, for the 
last two years of his life, he became himself a recipient of charity. The 
extent <^ its endowment and present fortunate position, must be attributed, 
as is justly due, to the judicious policy of the governors for the time ; by 
their provident caro, the voluntary contributions of the benevolent in- 
trusted to them.were invested in the purchase of the present site and sur- 
rounding ground,then consisting of fieldsknown as Lamb's Conduit Fields,^ 
belonging to the Earl of Salisbury, who finally sold it to the charity for 
£5^00. It must not, however, be concealed, that the purchase of more 
than they wanted for building, was not so much the result of their pene- 
tration, as Lord Salisbury's refusing to sell a fractional part 

The hospital wasbuUtby Theodore Jacobson, the architect of the Oos- 
port Royal Hospital, Among its most liberal benefactors, Handel and 
Hogarth deserve mention. It is recorded of the great composer, that, 
at a performance of his "Messiah" in the hospital chapel, he invariably 
engaged al^ the performers to render their assistance gratuitously, and 
cmce cleared for its benefit as much as ^1 ,000 by one performance. There 
are several paintings of the great artist in the hospital, including the 
•* March to Finchley." 

The chapel of this hospital is a source of great attraction with the 
public, owing to the efficient services of the choir, aided by the admirable 
singing of the children. The Chaplain is the Rev. J. Forshall, M.A. 
Morning preacher, the Rev. J.W. Gleadall, M.A.; and Afternoon preacher, 
the Rev. Edward Scobell, M.A. There is no service of an evening. A 
contribution is expected irom strangers on entering, for the benefit of the 
Hospital funds. 

7 



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98 ; 

liOOK HOSPITAL. C^EltfoS fSt ^'^' 1746 

streets, to the extent of about 50 acres. Most of this pro- 
perty was let upon long building leases, haying now about 
40 years to expire : as t£ey fall in, should the neighbourhood 
retain its present character in any degree, the revenues of 
the Hospitol must benefit to a vast extent by the reversion. 
The present annual income may thus be summed up : Rents 
of estates, £5,620 ; interest on £108,388 stock, £3,307 ; 
benefactions, on an average of three years, £241 ; net pro* 
duce of Chapel ditto, £687 :— total, £9,755. 

The number of children succour^ by the Hospital ave- 
rages 500, who are placed out to nurse in the country whilst 
inSints, and afterwards brought to the Hospital in London, 
where they are maintained until fifteen years of age. The 
average annual admissions are 44. The qualification of a 
Governor is a donation of £50. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — ^Treasurer, Charles Pott, 
Esq. — Physicians : John ^urgin, M.D.; A. Tweedie, M.D. — Sur- 
geon, Thomas Wormald, Esq. — ^Apothecary, W. B. Hutchinson, 
Esq. — Secretary, J. Brownlow> Esq. — Schoolmaster, Mr. Beine. 

LOCK HOSPITAL ASYLUM ANB CHAPEL, West- 
bourne-green, Paddington (formerly Grosvenor-place). In- 
stituted 1746.1 

This excellent establishment consists of a Hospital for 
the treatment of the peculiar disease incident to the destitute 
class of women leadmg a life of vice and abandonment ^ — 
an AsTLUM for their reception immediate upon their cure, 
where they are treated with all kindness and gentleness, and 
every effort is made to lead them into virtuous habits, and 
restore them to society ; also a Chapel, which, besides con- 
stituting a source of revenue to the institution of about 
£200 a-year, after paying all its own expenses, affords the 
valuable aid of a chaplain, devoted to the ministration and 
instruction of the unfortunate patients and inmates. 

^ Derives its name from the Loke, or Lock, in Kent-street, Sonthwark, 
which was a lazar house from a Tery early period. The asylum was 
founded, in ITST.bj the venerable commentator, the Rev. Thomas Scott ; 
it then occupied a building in immediate connexion with the old hospital, 
in Grosvenor-place. In 1842, on the expiration of the lease, it was re- 
moved to its present site, and in 1848-49, enlarged as at present 

' Nor is it to the profligate alone that the hospital opens its doors : 
the most pitiable objects of its care, are those who are " wholly free from 
criminali^ in contracting the disease for which thej sedc relief. Dur- 
ing the past year, thirty-three married women, and many helpless chil- 
dren, have received cure."— ISepor^ 1849. 



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LOOK HOSPITAL. EniaJlgigg t\ft fjlijlL A.D. 1746 

VTaluable as are the operations of each <^ these, the intti- 
tation mart be taken as a whole, before the full extent of its 
excellenee can be realized ; and it mnst be borne in mind, 
that althongh many similar '^a^lums" are described in these 
pages, th^e is not one other in connexion with a hospital ; 
but for this charity, therefore, such unfortunates as are suf- 
fering from disease must lose all advantages offered to them 
by any asylum or penitentiary ; these are necessarily shut 
against the sick and dying outcast ; and for such there is no 
c(Hnplete refuge save *Hhe Lock Hospital.'* 

Both the hospital and asylum have recently been greatly 
enlarged ; the governors had for many years maintuned a 
severe struggle to effect an extension of operations ; but 
straightened means had hitherto proved an effectual draw- 
back : endowment there is none— volimtary contributions 
did not keep pace with their wishes. Early last year, how- 
ever, the T>!ikfi nf Oambridgfl^ gavft the benefit of an auto- 
graph appeal (m its behalf, others joined cordially in the 
effort, and the success att^dant thereon enabled the go- 
vernors to admit double the number of inmates. The 
stsylum is now rendered capable of permanently accommo- 
dsiing 100, and the hospital about 60. 

The following is a brief summaiy of the past year's 
operations : — Hospital in-patients discharged cured, 330 ; 
remaining in the hospital, 52 ; out-patients cured, 378 ; out- 
patients under treatment, 65. Number of inmates in the 
asylum but 35, the extended accommodation being only just 
available. 

The cash statement shows a total reliance for support 
ujwn voluntary contributions for £2,000 per annum, as, with 
the exception of about £160 arising from the chapel, there 
is no other available amoimt. 

The qualification for a governor is jC50 in one payment, 
or 5 guineas annually, entitled to recommend and nave one 
patient in the house at a time ; 2 guineas annual, or 20 
guineas donation, may recommend one in-patient and three 
out annually. 

So long as there is room in the hospital, no person abso- 
lutely requiring admission is refused ; but none by any re- 
commendation will be received a second time. y 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — ^Treasurers, Charles Hoare, 
Esq. ; Benjamin Bond Cabbell, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. Thomas 
Gsmiier. — Physician, Augustin Sayer, Esq., M.D. — Surgeons, 



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100 

MAGDALEN HOSPITAL. CttHnfeS fSX A.D. 1758 

Edward Cutler, Esq. ; Samuel Lane, Esq. — ^Assistant-Surgeon, 
Henry Lee, Esq. — Secretary, W. Irving Hare, Esq. — Matron, 
Mrs. Clarkson. — Collector, Mr. James Bumingham, 13, Liver- 
pool-street, King's-cross. 

MAGDALEN HOSPITAL, St. George's-fields. Insti- 
tuted 1758 — incorporated 1769. Fortke relief and reform- 
ation of unfortunate females and penitent prostitutes^ who 
must apply for admission to the committee, between nine 
and eleven, on the first Thursday in every month, by peti- 
tion, furnished gratis to every woman who applies for it. 
Admission is not granted during pregnancy or disease, 
such being considered objects for other hospitals, and none 
can be re-admitted who have once been dismissed for ill 
conduct. The chaplain ^ is resident with his family at the 
hospital, so that the inmates have the benefit of his undi- 
vided care and attention ; every means are tried to recon- 
cile the friends of those who have been deceived only, and 
those also who promise amendment, and all who have be- 
haved well in the house are discharged provided for. 

The number of inmates at one time averages above 100 ; 
admitted during the year, 115 ; total number admitted 
since the hospital was established, 7,405 ; of whom 4,977 
were restored to their friends, placed in service, or other 
reputable and industrious situations ; 216 died, or were 
afioicted with fits and other incurable disorders ; 1,236 left 
at their own request ; 752 discharged from ill conduct ; 
and 111 remain under care. 

Three guineas per annum for %yQ succeasive years, or ten 
guineas at one tmie, constitute a governor. The state of 
the funds is not published, but they are believed to be in a 
prosperous position, and the funded property of considerable 
extent.2 

^ The chapel of the Magdalen Hospital is well attended : morning 
service at 11^ ; evening, 7. A collection is made upon entering, for the 
benefit of the hospital funds. Morning preacher, Rev. Joseph Soper, 
B.A.; evening ditto, Rev. Thomas MarlgiU. 

' Amongst the names of the earliest benefactors, occurs that of Omy- 
chund, the blaclt merchant of Calcutta. He bequeathed, between this and 
the Foundling Bospitals, 37,500 current rupees, to be equally divided- 
Unfortunately, however, " a portion only of this munificent legacy could 
be extracted from the grasp of Huzzorimal, bis executor, notwithstanding 
the zealous interference of the Governor General (Warren Hastings) and 
other eminent functionaries. — Brownlow's Memoranda," 



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101 

LOHPON FEMALE iRwlSIIIling t^ ^iUjlLPBiriTENTIAET,1807 

President, Lord Skelmersdale. — ^Treasurer, Richard Baggallay, 
Esq. — Chaplain and Secretary, Rev. Joseph Brackenbniy. — ^Phy- 
sician, Dr. Barlow. — Surgeons : William Ooulson, Esq. ; John 
Flint South, Esq. — ^Apothecary, William Perrin Brodribb, Esq. — 
Solicitors : Henry Wordsworth, Esq. ; Thomas Dunn, Esq. — Ma- 
tron, Mrs. Ann Champion Bourhill. 

LONDON FEMALE PENITENTIARY} Pentonyille- 
hill. Established 1807. An asylum for females, who, haying 
deviated firom the path of yirtue, are desirous of being re- 
stored, by religious instruction, and the formation of moral 
and industrious habits, to a reputable condition in society. 

The ladies' committee meet every Wednesday at eleven 
o'clock, and receive personal applications. Previous to ad- 
mission, it is required that a friend should undertake to 
receive the female at the request of the committee, if she 
become in any way disqualified to be an inmate. A person 
firom the country should bring such an undertaking with 
her, and also a certificate of her parish settlement. 

The average number of inmates is 98^ at the present 
time 100 ; 50 or 60 change during the year : thus, last year, 
19 entered into service, 12 returned to their friends, 17 left 
firom unwillingness to stay longer, 5 removed to their pa- 
rishes, and 3 died, or left m. 

Nearly half the amoimt necessary for their support is 
met by the proceeds of the industry of the inmates in needle- 
work and washing, amounting to £1,049 per annum. The 
dividends exceed j£400, and the remainder depends upon 
voluntary support, amounting last year to £905. 

President, Earl of Chichester.— Treasurer, William Alers Han- 
key, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : Rev. Edward Craig, M.A., 
Bamsbury Park. — Apsley Pellatt, Esq., Falcon Glass Works, 
Blackfriars'-road. — Physician, J. T. Conquest, M.D. — Oculist, 
Martin Ware, Esq. — Consulting Surgeon, G. G. Babington, Esq. 
— Apothecary and Surgeon, Mr. W^ter Griffith. — Matron, Mrs. 
Cooper. — ^Assist. Secretary, Mr. James Leach, 12, President-street 
East.— Collector, Mr. T. Htts, 8, Melina-plaoe, St. John's-wood. 

GUARDIAN SOCIETY, Asylum, 12, North Side, 
Bethnal-green. Established 1824. For the preservation of 

1 Female penitentiariet. " All the remedial institiitions of this class, 
in the metropolis, taken together, provide for but 441 cases ; while the / 
instances of prostitution are at least 80,000." — QvMrUfly jBrnew, 1848. - ' 
Vide extent ofpretent provirioii, page 96. 



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102 

OUARDIAN, A.D. 1824. C|flnfeg fill FEMALE BBFU6E, 1829 

public morals, bj proYiding a tempoiaiy asylum, with suit> 
able employment, for females who haye deriateid from the 
paths of yirtue, and who have either been remoyed, by the 
operation of the laws, £rom the public streets, or been awak- 
ened by conscience to a sense of their guilt and danger. 

The total number of females who haye partaken of the 
benefits of the institution is 2,090 ; of whom 588 haye been 
restored to their friends ; 494 placed in seryice, or satisfax;* 
torUy proyided for; and 34 are now undw the care of the 



The annual expenses are under £1,000, which are indif- 
ferently met by yoluntair contributions, the work done by 
inmates realises nearly jC400, so that a slight increase of 
subscriptions would be sufficient, with what is now obtained ; 
there is no funded property beyond a small amount of j£300. 

One guinea or upwards per annum, or 10 guineas in one 
year, constitutes a member. The house committee meet 
eyery Monday, at half-jpaet 5 o*clock, at the asylum ; Hm 
ladies' committee on Fridays, at 11 o'clock. 

Presidait, The Lord Mayor. — ^Treasurer, John Laboachere, 
Esq. — Physician, J. T. Conouest, M.D. — Surgeon, Samuel Byles, 
Ssq. — ^Honoiaiy Chaplain, Key. J. £. Keene, M.A. — Honoraiy 
Secretary, Thomas Natt, Esq. — Secretaiy, Mr. James Brown, 29, 
Southampton-street, Strand. — Collector, Mr. B. Q. Burrows, 34, 
Ezmouth-street^ Spafidds. 

BRITISH PENITENT FEMALE REFUGE, Cam- 
bridge-heath, Hackney. Instituted 1829.. The design of 
this society is to afford protection to innocent females who 
may be exposed to imminent temptation and danger, as well 
as others who haye fallen ; who are admitted into the insti- 
tution, and suitably employed and religiously instructed, 
mth a yiew to fit them for useful seryice. 

This asylum accommodates aboye 40 inmates at a time ; 
during the course of a year, 80 partake of its ben^ts : 
thus, in the past twelye months, 14 haye be^i placed in 
seryice, 15 restored to ^heir friends, 3 left from ill health, 
and 3 from inclination, and 45 are now in the asylum. From 
the last cash statement, there appears to be an income of 
£\fiOO per annum, whicdi, with tne exception of diyidends 
j£6, and work done by inmates £264, is deriyed from yolun- 
tarr contributions; this amount is sufficieiit to ooTer all 
disbursements. 



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103 

FSMALE AID iR^Brlailllillg t^ fsAktl* sooieties, 1835-6 

One pound annually or upwards, or 10 guineas donation, 
constitutes a member. 

President, Earl Moimtcashel. — Physician, Dr. Duesbury. — 
Consulting Surgeon, H. Cravin, Esq. — Surveyor, George Mali- 
phant, Esq. — Banker, Robert Davies, Esq. — Treasurer, John 
Dobie, Esq., 2, Raymond-buildings. — Secretary, Rev. J. Glanville, 
Cambridge-heath, Hackney. — Collector, Mr. G. Cordelier, 8, 
Assembly-row, MUe-end-road. — Matron, Miss Harris. 

LONDON SOCIETY FOR THE PROTECTION OF 
Tomig Femcdes ; office, ^^ew Broad-street ; asylum, 
Tottenham. Established 1835/ This charity has for its 
objects the suppressing, by law:, those houses which en- 
courage juvenile prostitution, the punishing procurers and 
procuresses, and the protecting tbeir unhappy victims. Since 
the society was established, 326 infamous nouses have been 
suppressed, and 472 females, under 15 years of age, rescued 
from destruction, most of whom have bieen restored to their 
friends, or placed in respectable service. A large house has 
been tskken at Tottenham, at which 70 young females, under 
15 years of age, are now clothed, boarded, and educated, and 
there is room for 30 more, so soon as funds will allow. 

Strenuous efforts are made from time to time, in con- 
nexion with kindred societies, to obtain acts of parliament 
to facilitate the means of suppressing so great an abomina- 
tion as is trading in prostitution, and secure the just punish- 
ment of the offender. It may fairly be presumed that, as by 
degrees, these desirable measures are obtained from the legis- 
lature, an effectual check will be opposed to the crime, and 
many of its atteitdant ramifications of evil. 

The expenses exceed £2,000 a-year ; but the whole amount 
18 defrayed bv the voluntary receipts, upon which the insti- 
tution entirely depends. 

Bankers, Messrs. Hankeys. — Treasurer, J. Laurfiton, Esq. — 
Honoraiy Physician, Richard Bright, Esq., M.D. — ^Honorary Sur- 
geons : J. G. Sparke, Esq. ; Henry Hammond, Esq. — Secretary, 
Sir. J. B, Talbot. — Honoraiy Surveyor, P. Barlow, Esq. 

FEMALE AID SOCIETY,^ 20, Red Lion-square. Es- 
tablished 1836, under the title of the " London Female 

^ Originally, the main object was the leclamatkm and restoration of 
the faUen ; and, subsidiarj to that, the protection of the friendless but 
virtuous : now, however, the objects are reversed, and the operations are 
directed in extent conrespoDding to the relative claims of the two classes, and 
the proportionate usefulness that may reasonably be hoped to be effected. 



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104 

FEMALE AID SOCIETY, CtfEtlfeS fe A.D. 1836 

Mission," by which designation it has long been known. 
The labours of the society now embrace two distinct and 
important objects— ;/?r«^, the protection of young females of 
good character ; and secondly, the reformation of poor out- 
casts, who evince a sincere desire to forsake their miserable 
course of life. To carry out these objects the following esta- 
' blishments haye been founded, which are under the direc- 
tion and support of this society, and must not be mistaken, 
by similarity of title, for kindred but distinct institutions : 

Home for Friendless Toung Females of Good Character, 
17, New Ormond-street. Here about 30 inmates are ad- 
mitted at a moderate charge weekly, carefully instructed, 
and trained for service suitable for each : in the course of 
last year 98 were thus cared for, and provided with situa- 
tions. Matron, Mrs. Stephens. 

Home and Registry for Femode Servants, 5, MiUman-street, 
Bedfordnrow. A similar institution, for servants out of place, 
where they may have all the benefits of a good home for a 
like payment ; the number of servants admitted as lodgers 
during the year is 180, and the number supplied with situa- 
tions 297. Superintendent, Miss Knight. 

Home for Penitent Females, 57, White Lion-street. Admits 
any penitent destitute case : the number of inmates at one 
time, averages 56 ; admitted in the course of a year, 198. 
Of these, the report does not give a very favourable account 
for the past year ; it appears that " 39 left at their own re- 
quest, 49 were dismissed, 43 remained only a few days, 30 
were restored to their Mends, 27 sent to hospitals, <&c., and 
1 married." Matron, Mrs. Kemp. 

The last-mentioned is described in the report " as free 
and open to the most friendless" ; but there is an item in 
tlfe cash account of " cash received for paid cases, £74 19s." 
The other homes are also, in part, supported by payments 
as before stated, also by the produce of needle and laundry 
work; the total amount from these several sources was, 
last year, £940, and voluntary contributions to the support 
of the society generally £1,950. 

Treasurer, Henry Pownall, Esq. — Honorary Chaplains of the 
Home for Penitent Females : Rev. W. Short, M. A. ; Rev. W. L. 
Faulkner, M. A. — ^Assistant Chaplain, Rev. J. G. Heisch. — ^Hono- 
raiT Physician, Isaac Pidduck, Esq., M.D. — Honorary Secretary 
and Sub-Treasurer, W. G. M'Kellar, Esq.— Secretary, Mr. Theo- 



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105 

JEMALBPBNITBWT jRgrtHtlUmg tiff fulhrL ASYLUMS, 1837>8 

philuB Smith, 20, Red-lion-square. — Collector, Mr. A. W. Stone, 
1, Fitzroy-street, Fitzroy-square. — Bankers, Messrs. Bamett, 
Hoares, and Co. 

*»* For Institutioru offering HomeB to Servants, vide 
chapter YII. 

WESTMINSTER AND NORTHWEST LONDON 

Penitent Female Asylum^ Weston House, Weston-street, St. 
Pancras. Established 1837. For the reception of a limited 
number of penitent females, who are instructed in religious 
truths, and in the usual branches of a domestic service, 
with a view to restoration to their friends, or placed out in 
respectable situations. Since its establishment 237 inmates 
have been received, 76 of whom have been provided with 
situations and 36 restored to their friends; the present num- 
ber in the asylum is 36. 

The annual income exceeds £700 a-year ; arising from 
voluntary contributions, with the exception of jG200 realised 
by work ; the expenses are within this amount, but increased 
funds are required. 

President, Sir W. F. Farqiihar, Bart.— Treasurer, Mr. J. Brew- 
ster. — Honorary Secretaries : Lieutenant Blackmore, R.N. ; Mr. 
J. R. Kilpin. — ^Assistant Secretary and Collector, Mr. B. Butler, 
262, Oxford-street. 

ST. MAR7LEB0NE FEMALE PENITENTIARY 

Society, asylum, 11, Queen Charlotte-row, New Road. In- 
stituted 1838. Its object is to promote the spiritual and 
temporal interests of unhappy females who have deviated 
from the paths of virtue, by providing a temporary refuge, 
with suitable instruction and employment, in order to their 
ultimate restoration to society. This society can receive 
into its asylum 21 women, but, it is represented, contemplates 
more extended usefulness, if funds can be obtained for that 
purpose. Its internal affairs are managed by a committee 
of Vjifllij and it is also under the direction of a gentlemen's 
\ committee, who meet monthly, or oftener if required ; no 
printed report, it is stated, has been published for two or 
three years, the funds being in a depressed state. 

Treasurer, John Deacon, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. C. 
Haselden. — Honorary Physician, John Gibbs, Esq. — Honorary 
Surgeon, A. A. H. Lattey, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Tisoum, 9, Grove- 
street, Lisson-grove. — Sisuikers, Sir Claude Scott and Co. 



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106 

FEMALE PBOTSGTIOir C|HntllS fSt SOCIETIES, A.B. 1841-43 

THE SOUTH LONDON INSTITUTION for the Pro- 
tection and Reformation of Females^ and for the Suppres- 
sion and Prevention of Vice, Gloucester House, Lock's-fields, 
Walworth. Established 1841. Affords, primarily, an asylum 
for females who may be desirous of al^doning a course of 
vice ; training them in habits of religion and virtue ; and 
has also for its objects the employing measures for the sup- 

Eression of vice and incitements to immorality, the esto- 
lishing of homes and registries for female servants of good 
character, and affording the means to deserving females of« 
procuring situations ; also, of employing agents in the seve- 
ral localities, under the direction of the clergy and local 
committee : it being a distinct principle of the society, that 
the religious instruction, which it is their q^ain object to 
impart, shall be in strict accordance with the doctrines and 
discipline of the Established Church. 
The laundry labour of the inmates, by the last report, 

S'elded more than £400 a-year ; notwithstanding which the 
nds are so depressed, that the committee have been obliged 
to sell their stock, and reduce their inmates from 34 to 24, 
until their income improves ; the present amount is under 
£900 altogether. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas or upwards at one 
payment, constitutes members of the society. 

President, Bishop <rf Winchester.' — Honorary Chaplain, Rev. 0. 
Mackenzie, A.M. — Honorary Physician, H. M. Hughes, M.D. — 
Honorary Surgeon, C. CollainbeU, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Wil- 
liams and DcAcon. — Honorary Secretaries: Rev. C. Mackenzie, 
Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, St. Olave's, Southwark ; 
David Couty, Esq., 10, Newington-causeway, Southwark. — Col- 
lector, Mr. L. SmiUi, 9, Broad-street, Horaleydown. 

THE ASSOCIATE INSTITUTION for Improving 
and Enforcing the Laws for the Protection of Women, 6, 
Upper Charles-street, Parliament-street. Instituted 1843. 
Formed by the co-operation of the different institutions for 
the protection and reformation of women before referred to, 
in order to obtain a stringent act of parliament upon the 
subject. 

The society has met with much opposition both within 
and out of parliament, upon the plea that the object aimed 
at should be accomplished rather by moral than by legal 
means, and a great deal from those who maintain that the 
evils endeavoured to be overcome are necessary evils. The 

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107 

BBiDEwfiLL ^^fjomtntg Crhniiiflls* hospital, 1553 

«odety also, in their last report, assert " the system of pro- 
curation, ^c^ is shielded hj invisible patronage ; which has 
hitherto baffled all their em>rt8 and all the energies of their 
friends in both houses of Parliament". During last year, 
the society was, however, enabled to achiere their object, in 
part, by the passing of tihe act in July — " To protect women 
from fraudulent practices for procuring tiieir ruin"; and 
this act it is their present aim to enforce and. carry out.^ 

The present income arises wholly firom voluntary contri- 
butions^ and amounts to nearly jCl,000 per annum. 

^' Bankers, Messrs. Oouttsand Co. — Treasurer^ B. Bond Cabbell, 
Esq., M.P. — ^Honoraiy Solicitors, Messrs. Dean, Leeks, and Red- 
ptttii, 13, St. Swithin's-hme. — Secretary, Mr. H. J. Newman. — 
Traveling Secretaiy, Mr. J. Harding. — ^Agent, Mr. J. Evenden. 

BRIDEWELL HOSPITAL, Bridge-street, Blackfiiars. 
Founded by Edward YI.^ The charter of this hospital was 
granted to bestow on the city a prison, for the purpose of 
confining prisoners sentenced by the Lord Mayor or City 
Aldermen ; the other object of the charter was tne institu- 
tion of arts* masters and their apprentices ; but when me- 
chanics were spread over the kingdom, the utility of this 
part of the institution became of less value, and the go- 
vernors, as far as was consistent with the charter, made that 
instituticm a school of general education : this is now termed 
the House of Occupation, and is situated in St. George's- 
fields, near Bethlem Hospital, where the honest and indus- 
trious poor, and especially the young, are being instructed in 
useful trades; and the great objects of moral reform, as con- 
templated by the original charter, are provided for on an 
barged scale. 

The number of persons remainiag in the ^' house" at one 
time, is generally about 200; and the number discharged in 
tiie course of the year, averages 70, of whom the most satis- 
factonr accoimts, as represented by the governors, are re- 
ceived, respectiDg their future progress and conduct.^ 

1 Act 12 and 18 Victoria, cap. 76.>-36th July, 1849. 

Bridewell Hospital. Vide remarki at commenceBieiit of chapter p. 96. 

' Bridewell was originally the name of a royal palace of iUng John, 
near Fleet-ditch; it was hnilt anew by Henry VIII in 1563, and bestowed 
•n the City by Edward VI, in 1553. ** It derives its name from the ori- 
ginal foundation being adjacent to Bride's Well." — Haydn, 

' Mr. Dixon, in his recent woric apoa the London prisons, speaks of 



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BRIDEWELL Cj^HlifeS fill HOSPITAL, A.D. 1553 

The affiurs of the hospital are goyemed by the same com- 
mittee that manage Bethlem Hospital, to which it is united, 
as one of the royil hospitals of the city of London. The 
committee meet every Friday. The returns for the past year 
are as follow : — Commitments by the Lord Mayor and Alder- 
men as criminal or disorderly persons, 1,016 ; apprentices 
sent by the Chamberlain for sohtary confinement, 28 ; poor 
persons committed for wandering abroad and begging, 274 ; 
total, 1,318. 

President, Sir Peter Laurie. — Treasurer, John E. Johnsom 
Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. Frederick Poynder, M.A.— Surgeon, Wil- 
liam Lawrence, Esq. — Superintendent, Captain Adams. — Clerk, 
B. Welton, Esq.— Solicitor, R. Still, Esq.— Superintendent to House 
of Occupation, Mr. Joseph Myall. — Steward, Mr. N. Nicholls. — 
Matron of the Hospital, Mrs. r . Holland. — Matron of the House 
of Occupation, Mrs. E. Simpson. 

Bridewell prison in terms of unqualified disapprobation as a prison for 
criminals ; and affords another testimony to Howard's assertion, even in 
this our own day, that (such) prisons are but universities of crime ; he 
sums up by exclaiming : ** Three months' imprisonment here is enough 
to ruin any child for life; the boy must have powerful elements of 
good in him, who can leave it no worse for ninety days* contact with its 
contaminations." How refreshing then is it, when giving the results of 
an examination of this " House of Occupation," he thus describes its de- 
tails ; — and as the evidence of an impartial visitor, it cannot be deemed 
out of place here : — ** If anything could atone for the faults of the City 
Bridewell, it would be this institution. The minority of its scholars 
have not been in prison, the minority have, — ^in the Bridewell. Children 
who are idle, unruly, disposed to be troublesome to the community, are 
educated and instructed in a trade, and are placed in situations, or per- 
mitted to go home to their parents, on the latter making proper applica- 
tion. The instruction given to them is sound and practical ; the disci- 
pline enforced, strict, but not rigid; and the general results, highly 
tuccessfuL The boys are taught trades ; at present there is one or more 
learning each of these useful employments — engineering, painting, tailor- 
ing, shoemaking, masonry, brewii^, baking, carpentery, ragmaking, rope- 
making. The girls are being taught every species of domestic art, and 
great care taken with their minds; they are said to make admirable 
domestic servants, and very rarely indeed does one turn out ill. They are 
in great request, there bdng usually from twelve to twen^ applications 
for servants on the books of the institution." 

The mt^strates have the power of removing from Bridewell to this 
House of Occupation ; and by this change of scene, this removal frt)m old 
haunts, old comrades, and old temptations, hundreds of poor boys are 
placed in a position for becoming usefril and productive, instead of dan- 



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PHILANTHBOPIO jRB&IlIlillg ClhllillElS. BOCIBTT, A.D. 1788 

PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY, Redstone-hiU,' near 
Beigate, Surrey. Instituted 1788. lacorporated 1806. 
The object of this society, when existing in St. GeorgeV 
fields, was to preyent and diminish crime, by receiving 
within its walls, and instructingan the knowledge of Chris- 
tianity and the practice of a useful branch of industry, 
the destitute offspring of convicted felons who have be^ 
sentenced to death or transportation ; and boys, themselves 

gerous and expensiye members of society. We agree with Mr. Dixon, 
.— " would that we had more such institutions !" 

Strictly speaking, these two establishments are not comprehended in 
the intention of our work ; but, desirous of avoiding the omission of any- 
thing that it may with reason be consulted for, they are inserted, partak- 
ing so much as they do of the character of ** Penitentiaries and Schools 
of Reform." 

MILLBANK PRISON {late) GENERAL PENITENTIABr, 
Millbank. Established 1816. An establishment originally for the reforma- 
tion and employment of persons convicted of minor offences, but now 
used as a temporary depdt for convicts, previous to their consignment to 
the various government penitentiaries and dock yards. In the course of 
the year^ from 4 to 5,000 prisoners pass through, and the average num- 
ber of inmates at one time is 1,500 The outer wall encloses no less 
than 18 acres of ground ; and the corridors in which the cells are ntuate, 
are nearly three miles in length ; it is fitted up with a chapel, infir- 
mary, etc. The whole is under the superintendence of a committee 
appointed by government An order from the secretary of state is requi- 
site to see the interior. 

Secretary, R. C. Dawson, Esq. — Gov^nor, Captain John R. Groves. 
— Chaplain, Rev. J. Penney. — Assistant Chaplain, Rev. Richard Yer- 
bu^h. — Medical Superintendent, William Baly, M.D. — Resident Sur- 
geon, James D. Rendle, Esq. — Steward, Mr. Thomas Rickfbrd. — Chief 
Clerk, Mr. Charles Forster. — Clerk to Manufactories, Mr. M. Day. 

MODEL PRISON, Peutonville. Established 184a. For the de- 
tention of persons remanded from police ofiices, and awaiting trials. The 
prison contains 1,000 separate cells, for the purpose of keeping prisoners 
entirely apart The inmates are taught useful trades ; and the cost of 
each person is about 15«. a-week. The total expense of the building was 
£8^08 12s. 2d. The first stone was laid April 10, 1840. 

Ccnnmissioners : Duke of Richmond ; Earl of Devon ; Earl of Chi- 
chester; Sir W. Molesworth; B. Hawes, Esq.; Lieut Col. W. Jebb; 
Capt O'Brien ; H. P. Voules, Esq.— Secretary, W. H. Weaver, Esq. — 
Governor, Robert Hosking, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. Joseph KingsmilL-- 
Steward and Manufacturer, Mr. W. Gibbs. 

^ For upwards of 60 years in St. George's-fields, where it was insti- 
tuted 1788 ; incorporated 1806. The farewell anniversary meeting was 
held at the old institution, October 28, 1849. 



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BRITISH IiADIBS' Ct|IEntiB2 fSt SOOIBTT, A.B. 1821 

ij of offMnding the laws. These same objects are still 



Eeld in view, but carried out by employing the lads at 
the Farm School, Red-hill. T^ ddef purpose in this 
change appears to be to afford them a training more adapted 
for useful and acceptable emigrants. The committee state, 
in their fiurewell address to the London establishment : "they 
had to choose between the gradual extinction of the charity, 
and the remodelling or establishing it upon a different sys- 
tem ; they have felt, therefore, they should best carry out 
the views of its founders, by instituting the important ex- 
periment now attempted." 

Juyenile offenders who are eligible as to health, age, ^c, 
can be placed in the Society's Reform School on paym^it of 
£16 per annum, or of a donation of J21, from parties in- 
terested in their reformation, if there is no vacancy on the 
free list. 

Twenty guineas paid at one time, or a subscription of 
1 guinea or more annually, constitutes the subscriber a 
member. 

President, the Duke of Biclimond. — Treasurer, William Glad- 
stone, Esq., 7, Austin Friars. — ^Resident Chaplain and Secretary, 
Rev. Sidney Turner. — Physician, Dr. G. H. Barlow. — Consulting 
Surgeon, Edward Cock, Esq. — Steward, Mr. James Dingle. — Col- 
lector, Mr. & G. Watson. 

SOCIETY FOR THE IMPRO VEMENT OF PRISON 
Discipline and Reformation of Juvenile Offenders. Founded 
1815. The main objects of this society have long since been 
attained ; it was the organ of much of the exertions of Mr. 
Buxton, Mrs. Fry, and others ; and many of the improve- 
ments in prison discipline, over the abuses existing at the 
commencement of the century, may be justly traced to its 
operation. 

Until within the past few years it was still in operation, 
to a limited extent, with an office at 27, Surrey-street, Strand. 
This address is still retained, but no information whatever is 
afforded, or the slightest clue where the same may be ob- 
tained ; consequentiy the inference must be drawn, that vir- 
tually, at least, its operations are suspended. 

THE BRITISH LADIES' SOCIETY, Friends' Meet- 
ing-house, St. Martin's-lane, Charing-cross. Established 
1821. i For promoting the reformation of female prisoners. 

^ How sadly the need must have been felt for institutions uf this cha- 
racter, about the time of its establishment, may be gathered from the fol- 
lowing extract of a Parliamentary report of 1814, respecting the ful- 

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111 

BSriTOE FOB THE lRlf(mf?f??H CUllUlUdS. I>E8TITnTB, 1838 

This is attempted by the ladies frequently yisiting them whilst 
in prison, and imparting to them moral and religions instrue- 
tion. In connexion with this society there are many local 
associations, in various parts of the kingdom, all communi- 
cating with the parent society ; and very much good is 
doubtless effected by these means, in a quiet unostentatious 
manner, and at little expense, being effected mostly by the 
devoted exertions of the ladies engaged. Cases holding out 
a prospect of reformation, have it often confirmed by their 
removal, at the instance of the sulMSommittee, to the " Refuge 
for the Destitute," or other schools of reform. The whde 
amount of expenses scarcely exceed ^£300, and depend on 
voluntary contributions, wiUi Hke exception of about £60 
dividends. 

Treasurers : Lady Buxton ; Miss Wood. — Bankers : Messrs. ^ 
Williams and Co. ; Messrs. Cou^g. and Co. — Secretaries : Miss ^ 
Fry, Plashet, Essex; Miss Bobarts, Burnet, Herts ; MissForster, 
Tottenbam.---Collector, Mr. C. Gordelier, 92^ Fenchurch-street. 

REFUGE FOR THE DESTITUTE,^ Manor House, 
Dalston. Founded 1804 ; incorporated 1838.. For the moral 
and religious reformation of female criminals ; until lately 
in the Hackney-road.' By combining kindness of treat- 
ment with strictness of discipline, and habits of unremitting 
industry with constant moral and religious instruction, the 
committee of management have produced the happiest results 
amongst the yoimg women who are the objects of their care ; 
and as many as 2100 have experienced its benefits. Since 
the removal of the establishment here, buildings have be^i 
erected for carrying on the industrial occupations. The house 
is arranged to accommodate 40 inmates, and it is proposed 

filment of the chaplain's duties, in return for an income of jfSOO a-jear. 
They are thus described : — ** Bejond his attendance in chapel and on 

those who are sentenced to death. Dr. feels but few duties attached 

to hit oflSice ; he knowM nothing of the state of moraU in the prison ; he 
never «air any of the prisoners in private ; though 14 boys and girls, 
from 9 to 18 years old, were there on an average in April last ; he does not 
consider attention to them as part of his duty ; he never knows that any 
have been sick till he gets a warning to attend their funeral; and does 
not go to the infirmary, for it is not in his instructions." 

^ Until within the past year consisted of two distinct establishments, 
the male refuge at Hoxton, the female at Hackney. In oonsequenoe of 
the withdrawal of the government grant of £SfiGO per annum, the former 
has been abandoned, and the latter removed as above. 

The following interesting returns, fbmished by the nipective chap- 
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112 

FEMALE PHILANTHBOPIO Cj^HlifeH fiH A.D. 1822 

soon to extend this for 50 or 60 more. In the present state 
of the establishment, it is difficult to arriye at the income ; 
but the whole amount required for the extended operations, 
to be raised from voluntary contributions, may be stated at 
j£l,000 ; the remaining expenses being met by the present 
diyidends and the work of the inmates. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas at one time, or within 
a year, constitutes a Governor. 

President, the Marquis of Lansdowne. — Treasurer, Edward 
Forster, Esq. — Chaplaon and Secretary, Rev. Samuel Cutler 
Hooley. — Physician, Frederick Cobb, M.D. — Surgeon, William 
Jones Lewis, Esq.— Solicitors, Messrs. Dunn and Wordsworth. — 
Mistress Superintendent, Mrs. Francis. 

ROYAL FEMALE PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY,'^ 
Manor Hall, Little Chelsea, Fulham-road. Instituted 1822. 
Office, 19, Lincoln^s-inn-fields. For the reformation of female 
prisoners, and to afford protection to those who, destitute of 
a home on being released from confinement, and without a 
refuge, are in danger of adopting their old courses. 

The asylum is divided into three wards : the first is for 
young persons who have committed their first act of disho- 
nesty, but are not otherwise depraved ; the second, an inter- 
mediate class, who have been (fischarged for dishonesty from 
their situations, but have not undergone the ordeal of a 
gaol ; the third class is for the ignorant and destitute who 

lains of the following metropolitan prisons, show that no less than 7,000 
% females are annually discharged from them alone. What an eridence in 
favour of the continuance, upon an extended scale, of the henefits of this 
excellent Refuge, as well as of the succeeding Philanthropic Society. 
House of Correction, Cold-hath-fields • . . 2078 
„ „ Westminster .... 2446 

„ „ Brixton 970 

Giltspur-street Compter 811 

Horsemonger>lane Gaol 437 

Bridewell Hospital .451 

7193 
^ This institution was originated under the title of" The Westminster 
Asylum," founded hy Miss Neave, aided by the late Mrs. Fry ; in 1887 
it was removed to the present asylum, as " The Royal Asylum for Desti- 
tute Females," and last year altered to its present designation. The fund 
lately attached to this institution as the " Elizabeth Fry memorial," con- 
templates, when brought into operation, "the temporary reception of 
every destitute discharged female prisoner.** 



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113 

siiEBiFPs' FUND. MnHHing CrimniHl5« a.d. isqb 

have never been amenable to the laws. These several classes 
are placed under the care of a matron and four assistants, 
by whom they are taught and actively employed in needle- 
work, washing, cooking, and other household work. The time 
of detaining the inmates depends on circumstances ; the 
usual time allowed for probation is two years. The establish- 
ment is capable of accommodating 50 inmates ; and since its 
establishment, 749 females have been received: and now 
that the Philanthropic Society has removed from St. QeorgeV 
fields, there is but one institution of the same character in 
the neighbourhood of the metropolis. The whole amount of 
expenditure is £1,200 per annum, and the present income 
about £900, of which jG360 is raised by the labour of the 
inmates. Through the exertions of a few individuals, the 
recent debt of about £600 has been discharged ; and £400 
further has been collected as the nucleus of the larger fund 
required to secure the permanence of the institution. Kon- 
subscribers may recommend an inmate on payment of one 
guinea, and the friends of the young person, if able, are ex- 
pected to contribute a small sum weekly for her support. 

Patron, the Queen. — ^Treasurer, Miss Neave, Thurlow-lodge, 
Clapham. — Hon. Secretary, James Beaumont, Esq., 19, Lincoln's- 
ion-fields. — ^Hon. Chaplain, Eev. Wm. Cadman. 

SHERIFFS' FUND, Sessions House, Old Bailey. 
Founded 1808. Chiefly for the assistance of those persons 
who, urged by distress, have erred from the paths of honesty, 
and are discharged at the end of each session, or after short 
terms of imprisonment ; when, without some aid, they would 
be driven to the commission of fresh crimes; — ^to afford to 
others who have conducted themselves well during their 
confinement a conveyance home to their relatives and friends 
at a distance, and thereby enable them to quit the metro- 
polis before they are again tempted to commit crime ; — also 
to supply female convicts, sent abroad, with a few necessaries, 
and some means of employment during the voyage. 

Considerable assistance to emigrate has been rendered to 
young female prisoners upon their release, and, from fre- ^ 
quent information received, with the happiest results ; these 
facilities are likewise extended to debtors. The fund, which 
is distributed imder the fostering care of the sheriffs for the 
time being, is mainly supported by the benevolent ; and in 
consequence of the jurisdiction of the Central Criminal Court 

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114 

Cjiarifeg far rgfumtmg Crinrigflig. 



over the populous parts of the counties of Essex, Kent, and 
Surrey, in addition to the city of London and the county of 
Middlesex, the claims upon its bounty are materially in- 
creased. 

A subscription of 1 guinea annually, or 10 guineas in one 
donation, constitutes a member. The committee meet the 
first Monday of every sessions. 

Presidents, the Sheriflfe for the time being. — Treasurer, J. K. 
Hooper, Esq., Alderman. — Honorary Secretary, Rev. J. Davis. — 
Bankers, Bsink of England. 



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115 

Htlmmig tiff fi^stifaite. remarks. 



CHAPTER VI. 



CHARITIES FOR THE RELIEF OF THE 
DESTITUTE AND DISTRESSED. 

Institutions affording immediate Food and Shelter. — The Mendicity. — 
The Nightly Shelters for the Houseless. — The contemplated Sama- 
ritan Society. — Coal, Bread, and Soup Societies. — Institutions for 
Tisiting, investigating, and relieving the Necessitous. — The Strangers' 
Friend. — The General District Visiting Society. — The New General 
Association.— Local Visiting Societies. 

A 8TRAK0EB to London destitution— one ignorant of the ex- 
tent of its poor, the importunity of its mendicants, and the 
variety of their impositions, would gaze ahnost with astonish- 
ment at the comprehensive character of the institutions 
whose objects and operations are detailed in this chapter. 
But, on ihe other hand, suited as they are to the peculiar 
necessities of this great city, and successfully as many of 
them undoubtedly cope with a large measure of its distress, 
yet their very existence must often appear as apocryphal, to 
those who have the daily evidence of our streets before them. 
The exertions to relieve metropolitan distress, and to detect 
the undeserving, are, in truth, very extensive, and their ope- 
rations beneficial : but if the supply is good, so, exceedmg 
great is the need. 

The Ji/rst doss of these institutions have respect to the 
immediate relief of the casual destitute ; they who meet you 
with such tales of misery and want, that you feel it hardly 
human to pass without your modicum of alms, and yet who 
excite within you such a feeling of mistrust, that you doubt, 
when bestowing the solicited gratuity, whether you are not 

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116 

ClfErifeg fat BEMABKS. 



assisting to maintain a relief, as injurious in its system as it 
is demoralizing in its results : in fact, deep as the distress of 
many of those whom we daily meet undoubtedly is, yet the 
disclosures of imposition occur so constantly, that there must 
exist in the mind of every man the hesitation, when relieving 
a beggar, " whether he is performina an act of mercy, or per- 
petrating a crime^'' : and there would be a far larger amount 
given in casual relief — ^few indeed would, we believe, be 
solicited in vain — but for this reluctance to be deceived, 
this hesitation to afford premiums to idleness. Whilst draw- 
ing attention to the charitable objects of these institutions, 
we can scarcely be accused by the most enthusiastic advo- 
cate of eleemosynary relief, of being indifferent to distress 
or opposed to the exercise of charity; and it is with the 
simple desire of representing how adapted they are to be the 
almoners of even casual bounty, that these few remarks are 
premised ; and it is to afford their details a practical bearing 
upon the distress to be relieved, that we thus divide them. 

The second doss will be found to consist of such as investi- 
gate and relieve the distressed at their own homes, according 
to their relative merits. 

The assistance of charities of the^^ class, forms the de- 
sirable resource of the destitute ; the second c\b&Sy of those suf- 
fering under the temporary pressures of misfortune. The 
former cases of distress are chiefly casual, wandering, and 
mixed with more or less of the character of mendicancy ; the 
latter local, uncomplaining, and oftener deserving. 

Both classes of institutions are equally deserving the sup- 
port of the benevolent : the former represented by such as 
the Mendicity Society, and the various depdts for food and 
shelter ; the latter, by the Steangebs' Fbiend, and the com- 
bined Associations for promoting parochial and local dis- 
trict visiting. 

1st. Respecting the Mendicity Society, it will be seen 
that its objects are two-fold — ^the immediate relief with food 
of every person applying to them holding a ticket, which is 
far better to give to the really distressed than alms ; also 
the investigation of every case of distress sent to them for 
inquiry by subscribers, and reporting on its merits. As re- 
gards this provision for the casual distressed, can any plan 
be conceived more systematic and comprehensive ? We com- 
mend it, as well as the kindred societies for affording shelter 
and food, to the best consideration of the charitable. 



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117 

Uriimnrg tiff S^stitete, 



2nd. Thb Stbahobbb* Fbibnd Sooibtt, the oldest institu- 
tion of the kind, the local tisituto socibties, and the excel- 
lent Association, of later date, for combining their operations 
and enhancing their efficiency, next come under considera- 
tion ; and whether they are regarded as distinct and separate 
efforts upon behalf of the distressed of their respective locar 
Uties, or whether as parts of a valuable system, based upon 
our parochial organization, they equally demand general 
support. Oertaimy they have this peculiar claim upon us 
over others, that, instead of assisting the more obtrusiye and 
clamorous, and leaying the sensitive and retiring to their 
&te, these seek out, in the spirit of the Church of England 
Liturgy, 'Ho succour, help, and comfort, aU that are in 
danger, necessity, or tribulation**; and this in the true 
spirit of charity, irrespective of creed or sect ; upon the 
large catholic principle of Christian hve. 

In affording contributions to funds of this character, the 
benevolent will do well to draw one distinction between the 
claims of parent societies, like the ^'Stbanobas' Friend" and 
the "DiSTBiCT Visiting Association" — and that of local so- 
cieties : in the latter case, such districts as are densely popu- 
lated and require aid should be selected for assistance ; for, 
although as a general rule it may be argued that each indi- 
vidual should contribute to his own local society, it will not 
always be just implicitly to adhere to it, unless the relative 
proportions of wealth and poverty were the same in all dis- 
tricts ; and it being notoriously the reverse, the charitable 
of Belgravia must help the funds of Bethnal-green. This, in 
our humble opinion, is a great constituent motive for gene- 
rously supporting the parent societies ; as they, in their turn, 
assist the local funds according to proportionate need. 

The charities described in this chapter may thus be sum- 
med up : — 

14 of a general character, with three excep- 
tions all established within the last forty 
years ; 12 of which are in active open^ 
tion, with an aggregate annual income of j£23,880 
Including from voluntary contributions . ^20,646 
Besides which, 7 are selected merely as ex- 
amples of local charities for similar pur- 
poses. 



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118 

THE MENDICITY ClfHrifeS fSX SOCIETY, A.D. 1818 

SOCIETY FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF MEN- 
DICITT, 13, Red Lion-square. Established 1818. For the 
purpose of checkiug the practice of public mendicity, by 
putting the laws in force against impostors who adopt it as 
a trade, and affording immediate assistance to those who are 
in real distress. The plan of the institution consists in the 
issue of printed tickets, to be given to street-beggars instead 
of money ; which tickets refer them to the society's office, 
where their cases are inyestigated,^ and such immediate relief 
granted as may appear desirable. One guinea annually, 
constitutes a member, entitled to one hundred tickets for 
distribution in the course of the year. 

A system of inquiry into the merits of persons who are in 
the habit of begging by letter, has been incorporated with 
the society's proceedings; and subscriptions of 2 guineas 
per annum, or donations of 20 guineas and upwards at one 
time, entitle to refer such letters to the office for inyestiga- 
tion, it being understood that the eventual grant of relief 
rests with the subscriber sending the case. 

The annual expenditure in relief is between ^2,000 and 
;£3,000. The number of cases of mendicancy investigated last 
year was 1,161, about the average ; the number of vagrants 
committed, 979 ; the number of begging letters investigated 
and reported upon, 5,747, under the average ; and the num- 
ber of meals given, 148,661. The whole amount of income is 
imder £6fiO0 a-year, derived from voluntary contributions, 
with the exception of £10 dividends, and about £130 from 
work. 

President, the Maquis of Westminster. — ^Treasurer, Samuel 
Boeanquet, Esq. — ^Assistant Manager, Capt. J. F. L. Wood, R.N., at 
the Society's house, Red Lion-square.' — Hon. Solicitor, William 
Tooke, Esq. — Collector, Mr. Bumingham. — Chief Constable, Mr. 
WiQiain Horsford. — Chief Clerk, Mr. J. Henmient. 

^ From the great and increasing number of applicants for the relief of 
this charitj, the Committee have found it necessary recently to pass a law 
limiting it to snch as have been in London at least six months ; the im- 
mediate effect of this being to prevent an accession of beggars from Ireland 
and the provinces. 

' Capt Wood's predecessor, Mr. T. L. Enevitt, lost his life in the ser- 
vice of the Society, in 1848, from typhus fever, together with five other 
officers of the Society ; as mentioned in last report 



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THE NIGHTLY UriJmgg ti|B fi^BtJfalte, BHELTBB8, 1822 

THE NIGHTLY SHELTER TO THE HOUSELESS, 
75, Old Broad-street. Established 1822. The object of this 
charity is to afford nightly shelter to the houseless, and tem- 
porary relief to the destitute during the winter. The central 
asylum for the houseless poor is in Playhouse-yard, White- 
cross-street ; the eastern asylum, in Glasshouse-street, East 
Smithfield.^ These asylums are generally open for reception 
early in January to the end of March : during that time last 
season, 27,987 nights' lodgings, and 89.933 rations of bread, 
wtf e afforded to 7,584 indiYiauals, in tne central asylum, at 
a cost of about £770 : 22,772 lodgings, and 94,100 rations, to 
7,292 persons, at the second asylum, costing about j£600. 
Qlie late western asylimi, in Ogle-street, Marylebone, was 
not opened last season.^ On Sundays, there is Diyine Service 
at each asylum twice, and every attention is paid to the com- 
fort of the poor inmates, as fur as practicable. The funds, 
however, are represented as in a failing state, the funded 
stock having fallen £rom;£lO,000 to j£3,500. The amount of 
voluntary contributions average at the present time j£l,500 
per annum. 

President; the Lord Mayor. — Treasurer, John Labouchere, Esq. 
—Chairmen of the different Boards : C. W. Hicks, Wm. Edwards, 
Thomas Roberts, and Nathaniel Qould, Esqrs. 

WEST-END NIOHTLT REFUOE for the HOUSE- 
LESS, 60, Market-street, Paddington. Commenced, 1838, as 
a private speculation ; but by the energy of its management 
and extent of usefulness, has attained considerable claims 
upon the benevolent, and is now under the direction of a 
committee. The refuge remains open throughout the winter, 
commencing each 1st of December, and is nominally for the 
accommodation of 200 ; but during great part of the season 
this is increased to nearly 300, it being impossible some niehts 
to limit the number without rejecting many, at a risk of their 

^ The East London Model Lodging-house is nnconneoted in manage- 
ment with this society, but consists of this asylum when " closed for the 
season"; women and children are then received at the charge of Id. 
nightly. Mr. Robert Bowie, jun., manager. Office for tickets, 6, Wine- 
office-court, Fleet-street. 

' The parochial authorities having opened such an asylum under the 
pronsions of the Act 7th and 8th Victoria, c. 101, by which they are 
** empowered to establish, within the metropolis and its environs, district 
asylums for the temporary relief, and setting to work of, the destitute, 
houseless poor.** 

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120 

HOUSE OF CHARITY. Clj^IlfeS fill A.D. 1846 

perishing. The relief afforded, is : for supper, half a pound of 
bread and a pint and a half of soup, bedding in well-warmed 
dormitories, and a breakfast of half a pound of bread and a 
pint of warm milk ; hot water and soap are also supplied 
night and morning. A ward for the sick has also been fitted 
up. During the past season 21,033 destitute persons, it is 
stoted, have received the full benefits of the institution. 

The funds are supported wholly by voluntary contribu- 
tions, which amounted last year to upwards of £700 ; half 
of this was spent in food ; £270 for rent, repairs, beds, coals, 
and attendance, and the remainder for management. 

A subscriber of 1 guinea is entitled to 42 tickets ; each 
ticket to admit one person, applying from 5 till 8 o'clock ; 
after which hour, any poor person will be immediately ad- 
mitted without. 

Treasurer, Edward Brashier, Esq. — Surgeon, John Robinson, 
Esq. — Manager, Mr. Gteorge Guyenette, 60, Market-street, Edg- 
ware-road. 

HOUSE OF CHARITY FOR DISTRESSED PER- 
SONS in London, 9, Rose-street, Soho. Established 1846, 
for the following purposes : — First, to afford temporary 
relief to deserving persons specially recommended ; as, for 
example, patients (Uscharged from hospitals, unable to do 
full work, or to obtain, without assistance, the necessaries 
of life. Such as have, by no fault of their own, been thrown 
out of work ; also such as are dependent upon them. Females, 
who require a respite from work, having no friends in Lon- 
don, and waiting either for the means or the opportunity 
to emigrate, can be received on probation. "Secondly, 
to enable persons whose time is much occupied, as well as 
those who have more leisure, to cooperate in works of charity 
under fixed regulations." 

Those persons only are admitted for relief who bring with 
them satisfactory recommendations, or are ascertained to be 
fit objects. The relief given consists of food and lodging, 
and other needful assistance, personal kindness, advice, and 
instruction, as each individual case may require. The 
number of inmates is necessarily limited to 40 ; but, since 
the opening of the house, in January 1847, it is stated, 
there nave been admitted more than 40 persons, including 
25 families and 58 children. Of these the greater part, on 
leaving the house, have obtained employment ; others sent 
home, or, requiring medical aid, transferred to the London 



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121 

A CONTEMPLATED Jljfeinilg tljB S JStitUbt SAMARITAN 800^- 

hospitals, Bath Hospital, or Infirmary at Margate. Some 
few discharged for misconduct or irregularity, and 100 en- 
abled to emigrate to the colonies, aided by funds of money 
and clothing, raised through the medium of the house. 
There is a chapel in the house, with daily service. 

Visitor, the Bishop of London. — Warden, the Rev. G. C. White, 
B.A. — Honorary Secretary, Lieut. -Col. Short, 1, Albert-terrace, 
Knightsbridge. — ^Treasurer, J. R. Kenyon, Esq., 11, New-square, 
Lincoln's-inn. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Hoare and Messrs. Cocks and 
Biddulph. 

THE SAMARITAN SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. It 

is to be regretted is at present only such in design. From 
the prospectus issued, it endeavours to comprehend in its 
object the following extensive and desirable measures : — 

<' To establish cheap lodging-houses and dormitories for the 
necessitous poor, ana refuges for the destitute, under the 
arches of the Metropolitan Railway Viaducts, and in other 
localities, open to all, at all seasons. 

"To form committees in the metropolis, and in every county 
town in the kingdom, to be in communication with clergy- 
men of every village, and with all charitable institutions, 
which will enable the society to detect impostors, and check 
vagrancy. 

" To shelter and reclaim discharged felons." 

We fear this must be deemed almost too large an attempt 
to end practically, unless fostered by Government aid ; it 
may be, nowever, by thus drawing attention to it, we shall 
contribute our co-operation to the object ; it has our best 
wishes. The first and, to us, the most immediately feasible 
operations are such as may thus be reduced into detail : 
and it would be certainly worth the trial — to rent, say four 
or five — arches of the various railway companies ; Lambeth, 
Southwark, Minories, and Bethnal-green. The arches in 
each district might be formed into compartments for men 
and women ; warmed with hot water, lighted with gas, well 
ventilated, and under the supervision of the police. 

The First Class furnished with iron bedsteads, flock mat- 
tresses, blankets ; and the charge 2d. per night, or Is. per 
week. Second Class fitted up with slanting-boards, such as 
are used by soldiers in their guard-rooms, with pillows and 
warm rugs, and the charge Id. per night. And a Third 
Class merely furnished with clean straw, and accessible to 



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122 

CITY ASSOCIATION CljaiifeS fe A.D. 1798 

all in the winter. Each district might thus furnish 120 beds, 
and would, after the first expense, undoubtedly prove self- 
supporting ; 100 persons sheltered nightly would realise 
nearly j£200 per annum. This rough outline would be soon 
improTed upon, and the details for moral and religious influ- 
ences carried out to a considerable extent. 

Some of the Second Class Arches might, in the day time, 
be converted into schools. Their capability for such piir- 
poses has been tested by the Rev. Mr. Queckett, who has 
leased three arches of the Blackwall Railway, at the small 
rent of ^20 per annum, in which nearly 600 children re- 
ceive daily instruction. 

The only name to the prospectus bearing the above desig* 
nation is that of Mr. Noel H. Robinson, 18, Holland-street, 
North Brixton, to whom such as are interested in the plan, 
or desirous of carrying it out, are thereby requested to com- 
municate. 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE RELIEF OF THE POOR 
of the City of London and Parts adjacent. Office, 43, Bow- 
lane, Cheapside. Instituted 1798. Familiarly known as " The 
City Kitchen." This institution was formed at the end of 
the last century, during a season of much destitution, by 
the exertions of Mr. Farrand, of Cheapside ; Mr. Phipps, of 
Weavers' Hall ; Mr. Lott, the father of the present secretary; 
and the late Rev. W. Goode, the amiable and respected pas- 
tor of St. Anne, Blackfriars. 

During the^^ season as much as JC2,614 were expended 
in providing relief to near 20,000 poor, supplying each with 
soup, cod-fish, potatoes or rice, and coals. In after years the 
relief was confined to coals and potatoes ; and now, in conse- 
auence of the failure of the latter, to coah ordy. The mode of 
distribution is by means of tickets, which are delivered to 
applicants by subscribers, who thereby become their own 
almoners. 

That the boon may be duly appreciated, the recipients 
of it have to contribute a portion of the expense themselves, 
so that they are assisted as needy, rather than relieved as 
paupers. Every poor person presenting a ticket, obtains one 
cwt. of best coaJs for 6d., the same being delivered free 
within the city. 22,979 cwt. were thus distributed during 
last winter, costing the recipients £574 9s. 6d., and of sub- 
scriptions and donations about jCl,200. 



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LEICESTBB SQ. HgfemUg tiff SggtJtllfe^ KITCHEIT, 1844 

The number of tickets depends on the subscription, two 
dozen for each guinea. 

President, the Lord Mayor. — ^Treasurer, Thomas Kelly, Esq., 
Alderman. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Barclay and Co. — Secretary, Thos, 
Lott, 43, Bow-lane.— Collector, Mr. Samuel Skelton, 21, Old Fish- 
street. 

ST, MARYLEBONE ASSOCIATION y 15, High-street, 
Marylebone. Established 1830. For the relief of unem- 
ployed and industrious poor during the winter months ; sup- 
plymg the poor gratuitously with coals and bread, on pre- 
sentiiyg tickets for that purpose from subscribers. 

Durmg last season the distribution consisted of 780 tons 
of coals, and 62,4561bs. of bread, to 31,228 tickets, at a 
total cost of ^1,648, defrayed wholly by voluntary contri- 
butions. Of this only £147 is charged for working expenses. 

Subscribers of 1 guinea or more are members, and entitled 
to tickets. 

Treasurer, Mr. Benham, 19, Wigmore-street. — ^Honorary Secre- 
tary, John Gomm, Esq., 31, Edward-street, Portman-square. — 
Assistant Secretary and Collector, Mr. Matthews, 15, High-street. 

THE MOUNT ST. BERNARD HOSPICE, or Leice^^ 

ter-9quare Soup Kitchen, is one of the benevolent schemes of 
Mr. Cochrane. It consists of an establishment in Ham-yard, 
St. James's, and 40 Leicester-square, affording two dormi- 
tories for women and three for men, with lavatories, etc., ad- 
joining, in the most perfect convenience ; also a registry and 
library. The soup kitchen was the first established in Lon- 
don, on a distinct and extensive plan. The relief afforded 
consists of a good meal of soup and bread, which the poor 
recipients are permitted to eat on the premises, with proper 
accommodation ; whilst others carry away sufficient quanti- 
ties for the temporary support of their families ; the distri- 
bution of which is regulated by tickets. Some idea may be 
formed of the boon- thus afforded in the inclement seasons to 
the otherwise destitute, by the returns extracted from the 
recent report. It appears that during the month of January, 
3,542 men and women were fed in the kitchen, and 35,089 
men, women, and children, at their own homes ; and 26 per- 
sons are accommodated nightly, who, before leaving in the 
morning, partake of a breakfast of coffee and bread. The 
society is supported by contributions to a considerable ex- 
tent, both of provisions and money ; and the report furnishes 



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124 

FOB ESTABLISHMENT CjlHXifeS fSt OP SOUP KITCHENS, 1848 

the particulars of much beneyolence from the various hotel 
keepers, etc. The society is, however, we believe, greatly 
indebted for its continued existence to the liberal charity 
of its founder and president. Tickets for distribution are 
granted to contributors of any amount. 

This institution is connected with the National Philan- 
thropic Association, or Poor Man's Friend Society, for the 
employment of the poor (vide chapter 8). 

Secretary, Mr. John Jones, 40, Leicester-square. — Collector, 
Mr. John Smart. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Bansom and Co. 

LONDON PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY, 17, Camo- 
mile-street. Established 1847. For providing the poor with 
bread and coals, free of expense, to all parts of the metro- 
polis and its suburbs. 

The distribution is carried on by tickets, similar to the 
plan of the preceding societies, through the instrumentality 
of the subscribers. Also, by personal visits to applicants, 
from members of the committee and secretary. 

The report states that 10,000 tickets were bestowed last 
winter for 41b. loaves and half cwts. of coals. 

Honorary Secretary, John Henry Heeps, Esq. — ^Treasurer, J. 
C. W. Lever, Esq., M.D.— Sub-Treasurer, Thomas West, Esq.— 
Bankers, Messrs. Prescott, Grote, and Co. — Secretary, Mr. Stol- 
worthy. — Collector, Mr. Bowles, 77, Cannon-street. 

SOCIETY for ESTABLISHING SOUP KITCHENS 
for the Poor, in the Northr-West District of the Metropolis, 
28, Bath-place, New-road, near Tottenham-court-road. Es- 
tablished 1848. From January to July last 36,335 quarts 
of nutritious beef soup, and 49,147 loaves of bread, were 
distributed at this kitchen to 89,515 poor persons, at a cost 
of £572 ; and during the past month of January alone, 9,566 
quarts of soup, 10,020 loaves of bread, and 4,001 pounds of 
boiled rice, were distributed amongst 14,051 persons. Those 
who present a ticket have both soup and bread gratis, other- 
wise upon payment of Id. 

Other kitchens are intended to be opened by the society 
as soon as funds will allow. 

The tickets may be obtained in packets at 2s. and 4s. 
each. In addition to which the society is dependent on the 
contributions of the benevolent. The income last year was 
above ;£350 from donations, and <£200 payment for tickets. 



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126 

THE BTBANGKBS' HBliMTfllg tiff SlStoSSji. FBIEND, A.D.I 786 

Treasurer, J. N. Jakins, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. C. T. Clark, at 
the Soup Kitchen, 28, Bath-place, New-road; six doors firom 
Tottenham Court-road. 

THE STRANGERS' FRIEND SOCIETY, 7, Exeter 
Hall, Strand. Instituted 1785. For the purpose of visiting 
and reUeying sick and distressed strangers^ and other poor, 
at their respective habitations, in London and its vicinity, 
without regard of sect or country ; but chiefly such as have 
no parochial relief, and are "strangers." 

It is deeply to be regretted that this excellent society is 
not rendered the almoner of public benevolence to a greater 
extent, in the relief of metropolitan destitution and distress ; 
for none are established on better principles, few indeed with 
less working expenses, or more wide spread in their scope of 
usefulness ; the society requires only that more funds should 
be at its disposal ; for were they ten times the present 
amount, it would find, in this great metropolis, objects of 
wretchedness and want to relieve. Suffice it to say, it is one 
of the oldest "visiting societies" of London ; it acts in unison 
with all ; and forms a valuable pioneer to the Scriptiire reader 
or city missionary. 

The metropolis is divided into twenty-one districts, in 
each of which the undermentioned visitors, who are chiefly 
householders, respectively reside; so that by their local 
knowledge, and personal inquiries, they at once detect im- 
posture, and ensure the due administration of the society's 
funds. Cases of distress, forwarded to that visitor in the 
list, residing nearest the object to be visited, will be attended 
to with the least possible delay. On no account should the 
persons applying for relief be sent, as it only teaches them 
to beg, and to send others. If merely their address is for- 
warded, their distress will be ascertained and relieved. 

DISTBICT.^ TREASUREE. 

City-road... Mr. G. Mackie, 31, City-road, 
Holbom...Mr. Rich. Chaffer, 46, Lisle-st., Leicester-sq. 
Maiylebone...Mr. "W. Ford, 10, HoUes-st., Cavendish-sq. 
Chelsea. . .Mr. Solomon Hilbert, 67, Ebuiy-st., Pimlico. 
Lambeth... Mr. J. Corderoy, 1, Chester-pl., Kennington. 
St. George's East... Mr. J. Nicholls, 14, Catherine-street. 
Southwark...Mr. John Collins Wilkes, 20, Bridge-street. 

^ Each district has two secretaries ; but letters addressed to the re- 
spectire treasurers will be sure to meet attention. 



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126 

ASSOCIATION FOR ^Ortttll fe DISTRICT VISITINO, 1844 

Walworth... Mr. Cornelius Carley, 7, Bolinbroke-row. 
Spitalfields. . .Mr. 0. W. Cornelius, 1, Cottage-la., Com.-rd. 
Westminster... Mr. John Tout, 44, Medway-street. 
Limehouse...Mr. WiUiam Paul, 11, York-ter., Salmon-lane. 
Mile-end &Beth.-gr... Mr. J. Hills, 10, Park-ter., OldFord-rd. 
Botherhithe...Mr. J. Jones, Prospect-cot., L. Deptford.-rd 
Hackney... Mr. James Griffin, Church-street, Hackney. 
King's-c. & St.Pancras.-.Mr. R. Ford, 6, Platt-ter,, Kmg'a-cr. 
Islington... Mr. C. King, 11, Mount-row, Islington. 
Poplar... Mr. H. C. Smith, 3, East India bdgs.. Poplar. 
Hadaiey-road...Mr. W.Williams, 5,Durham-pl., Hack.-rd. 
Hoxton...Mr. T. Painter, 67, Nicholas-st., N. North-rd. 
Kent-road... Mr. John Cramp, 3, Trinity-street, Borough. 
City of London... Mr. John l^rsop, 105, Fore-street. 

During the past year, an amount of £2556 was distri- 
buted amongst 8646 cases. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes a 
member. 

Treasurer, Thomas Fanner, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. 
Christopher Walton, 24, Ludgate-street. — ^Aseostant Secretary. 
Mr. J. Yatman, 4, Grove-terrace, Peckham. — Canvassing Agent 
and Collector, Mr. Benjamin Dacosta, 46a, Pall Mall. 

GENERAL SOCIETY for PROMOTING DISTRICT^ 
VISITING, 19, Exeter Hall. Instituted 1828. Was designed 
for much the same purposes as the next mentioned — ^the 
promoting of local societies, increasing their efficiency, and 
giving an uniform and svstematic working to the whole ; 
arising, however, out of their connection with this, in 1831, 
the committee established another institution as an addi- 
tionid means of benefiting the labouring poor, termed the 
Laboubbbs' Friend Society, and that valuable establishment 
which has been treated of at length in a previous chapter, 
appears year by year to have developed such extensive means 
of usefulness, as to divert and lately to engross the energies 
and resources of its directors ; and at the present time the 
operations of this society appear virtually to be resigned 
to the new "association"; its name, however, is as yet re- 
tained. 

Treasurer, John Labouchere, Esq. — Secretary, John Wood, 
Esq. — Collector, Mr. W. B. Emmens. 

ASSOCIATION FOR PROMOTING THE RELIEF 
of DestittUion in the MetropdiSy and for Improving the Con- 
dition of the Poor, hy meaim of Parochial and District Visit- 
xng, under the superintendence and direction of the Bishop 



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127 

THB A880CIATIOK, Htlfegmg ti|B filgtoggefe, A.D. 1844 

arid Clergy, 4, St. Martin's-place. Established 1844. The 
operations of the association are directed to the originating 
or supporting local efforts. By this means the various paro- 
chial district visiting societies are maintained on a connected 
system, imder the guidance of a central board, and the 
establishment of additional ones often effected ; likewise the 
formation of provident, clothing, and coal funds. 

Since its establishment, it has distributed to such district 
and provident funds, nearly £40,000. The provident funds 
are described by the annual reports, to have proved of 
considerable benefit, as may be gathered from the fskct, that, 
during the last four years, they have enabled the poor to 
save, from their own resources, *15,000. 

All grants of money are voted in answer to applications 
from the incumbent or curate of the parish. Visitors* jour- 
nals, ticket books, depositors and report papers, are supplied 
to district societies, by this association, gratuitously. — The 
annual income from voluntary contributions exceeds j^OOO 
per annum, and the dividends from funds £150; the stock 
IS rapidly diminishing, from this amount being insufficient 
to cover the usual expenditure ; but there has never been a 
lack of funds when really required, and in p^ods of extra- 
ordinary distress the income much exceeds uiis amount ; and 
fr-om various causes, will this year, it is anticipated, realize 
jei2,000. 

President, Bishop of London.— Trustees : Rt. Hon. W. E. Glad- 
stone, M.P. ; Sir Walter R. Farquhar, Bart. ; Sir R. H. Inglis, 
Bart., M.P. ; Henry Kingscote, Esq.— Secretary, W. T. Haly, Esq. 

Local visiting and relief societies are attached to almost 
every parish and district in London. To show how systematic 
or general this is, the following list embraces all such pa- 
rishes as have noTie : 

AUhallows, London-waU. St. Catherine Coleman-street. 

„ Staining. St. Clement, Eastcheap. 

„ Lombard-street. St. Ethelburga. 

„ Bread-street. St. Gkbriel, Fenchurch-street. 

St. Alban, Wood-street. St. Lawrence Jewry. 

St. Andrew Undershaft. St. Magnus, London-bridge. 

St. Ann, St. Agnes, &;St. John. St. Mary Aldermary. 

St. Augustin and St. Faith. St. Mary-le-bow, Cheapside. 

St. Bartholomew the Less. St. Mary-at-Hill, U. Thames-st. 

St. Bennet Gracechurch. St. Mary Woolnoth. 

St. Bennet and St. Paul. St, Mathew, Friday-street. 

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128 

ST. GEOBGE-MAETYR's CtffiriiiBS ffil ASSOCIATION, A.D. 1843 

St. Michael, "Wood-street. St. Peter, Comhill. 

St. Michael, Bassishaw. St. Peter-le-Poor, Broad-st. 

St. Mildred, Bread-street. St. Sepulchre, Snow-hill. 

St. Mildred, Poultry. St. Stephen, Walbrook. 

St. Olive, Hart-street. Holy Trinity. 

St. Olive, Old Jewry. St. Vedast, Foster-lane. 

St. Peter-ad- Vincula. The Savoy, Strand. 

And these are all, with the exception of St. Sepulchre, small 
parishes ; so limited in extent as to be within the range of the 
clergyman's personal visitation ; inhabited by a large propor- 
tion of wealthy people, or consisting of warehouses ; and sup- 
plied, from the produce of bequests, trusts, and sacramental 
offerings, with ample funds for the relief of the few residents ; 
and St. Sepulchre's parish, though an exception as regards 
population and the number of its poor, the incumbent re- 
ports to be so well endowed with charitable gifts, that no 
funds from other sources are needed for the relief of the 
poorer inhabitants. 

Besides the district and parochial visiting societies, are 
those more restricted in their operations, attached to the 
various congregations, for the relief of their respective poor. 
It has been found impossible to afford a complete list of 
them, neither indeed would it serve any present practical 
purpose to attempt it. The following are selected either as 
examples of general character for their peculiar interest, or 
their more than local usefulness ; the first mentioned comes 
under our personal knowledge, and affords an excellent spe- 
cimen of the working of a parochial association, when under 
earnest and devoted pastor jd supervision, aided by an efficient 
and painstaking Scripture-reader. 

ST, GEOROE'THE-MARTTR BENEVOLENT AS- 
SOCIATION for Visiting, Edievinff, and Improving the 
Condition of the Poor. Established 1843. Is supported by 
voluntary subscriptions, donations, and collections, amount- 
ing to £250 per annum, together with about £50, a portion 
of sacramental money ; this amount is disbursed — in affording 
relief — ^in stipend to Scripture-reader — interest on deposits, 
<fec. ; the principles upon which the association are formed 
are so well developed in the following rules, that it will 
serve many purposes to append them, besides affording a 
model for the management clauses of similar institutions : — 
Rules. 1. — ^That this association be called the St. Georoe- 

thb-Maetyr Benevolent Association, and consist of a preei- 



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129 

ST. gboege's Rrfonitlg tjlB fiistoSSji. association,! 843 

d^it (the rector of the parish for the time being), treasurer, 
secretary, visitors, and subscribers. 

" 2. — That the objects of this association shall be to endeavour 
to benefit the poor in the parish, by extending to them our 
CShristian sympathy and assistance, by evidencing our concern 
and interest in their temporal and spiritual wemire, and by 
promoting those habits of piety and order which will tend to 
the improvement of their religious, moral, and social condition. 

" 3. — ^That the association be under the direction of a com- 
mittee, consisting of the President, Treasurer, Secretary, the 
Churchwardens, Curate, Honorary Visitors, and Fifteen Mem- 
bers chosen annually from the Subscribers. 

"4. — That an annual General Meeting of the Subscribers be 
held on the second Friday in January, when the Treasurer, 
Secretary, and Committee shall be elected ; and a Report of 
the proceedings of the past year, and a statement of the ac- 
counts to December 31st, shall be made, printed, and circulated. 

" 6. — That the Committee meet monthly at the Vestry, on 
the second Wednesday evening, at eight o'clock, from the 
second Wednesday in November to the second Wednesday in 
March, and at such other times as they deem necessary during 
the remainder of the year, at which meetings three shall be a 
quorum ; they shall be empowered to fill up vacancies and call 
special general meetings. 

" 6. — ^That the President may appoint a paid Visitor, with 
power of removal ; such Visitor to act under the direction of 
the President, and of the Committee, by whom the amount of 
salary shall be fixed. 

'*7. — That the parish be divided into districts, to each of 
which the Committee shall nominate one or more Honorary 
Visitors, who shall visit and make themselves acquainted with 
■ the circumstances of the poor inhabitants in their district. 

" 8. — ^That the relief shall in general be given by tickets, for 
coals, food, and clothing : relief in money being confined to 
peculiar or urgent cases, which shall be first reported to the 
Committee ; but should any such case occur between the meet- 
ings of the Committee, the President shall be empowered to 
afford assistance, and report the same. 

"9. — ^That the Bibles, Testaments, tracts, and other publi- 
cations (being first approved by the President) shall be distri- 
buted by the Visitor, or District Visitors ; but those left on 
loan, shall be through the medium of the paid Visitor only, who 
shall be responsible for the same." 

The Hon. Secretary to the association, is Mr. F. Warr, 63, 
High Holbom. 

9 



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EXAMPLES OP C^ElitlBS fSX DISTRICT S00IETIS8 

8T,MARrS,80UTHWARK,CnARIT ABLE FUND, 
Established 1844. Is a district charity as yet of a yeiy 
limited extent ; but its objects are comprehensive and weU 
arranged, so as not to fiedl affording considerable service to 
the poorer classes. It consists of a Visitina Society , Provi- 
dent Clothing Bank, and a Lying-in CharUy ; exdusive of 
deposits, the receipts do not amount to ^£100 per annum at 
present. 

Treasurer, Rev. Christopher Bower. — Secretary, Mrs. KuUand. 

ST, JOHN'S CHAPEL DISTRICT SOCIETY, Bed- 
ford-row. Instituted 1812. For visiting and relieving the 
sick and distressed poor at their own l^bitations. Every 
subscriber of half-arguinea or upwards annually, or £5 or 
upwards at one time, is a member. 

The district within which relief is administered by this 
society, and by the Ladies' Fund, is bounded as follows : — 
On the east, by the west side of Leath^-lane ; on the south, 
by the north side of Holbom ; on the west, by the parish of 
St. George-the-Martyr ; on the north, by the south side of 
the New-road. 

The object of the " Ladies' Fimd" is to assist the bene- 
volent designs of the District Society ; and it is primarily 
applied to the relief of deserving, but distressed, married 
women during their confinement. 

Every subscriber of half-a^-guinea or upwards annually, 
or £6 or upwards at one time, is a member of it. Any lady 
who contributes a box of linen is a member for life. 

The District Society is managed by a gentleman's com- 
mittee of ten visitors ; the fund by a committee of ladies. 
Since their formation, in their joint operations, 26,877 cases 
have been visited and relieved, at an annual cost of nearly 
^300, raised by subscriptions, donations, and collections 
after sermons. 

President, Rev. Thomas Nolan. — ^Treasurer, John Bridges, Esq. 
— Secretary, Rev. S. Garrard. 

Ladies' Fund: Treasurer, Mrs. Bannister. — Secretary, Miss 
Grane, 23, Bedford-row. 

LONDON-STONE DISTRICT VISITING SOCIETY, 
Cannon-street. Instituted 1830. Like the last mentioned, 
is not nominally a parochial association, but supported by 
the voluntary contributions of the district, yet is sufficient 



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SXAMPLB8 OF jJ^BUnUSg t^ fiiStTBfiSBit. DI8TBI0T BOC>* 

for the wants of the entire parishes of St. Edmund the King ; 
St. James Garlick H jthe ; St. Mary Somerset ', St. Michael, 
Queenhi^e ; and St. Swithin, London-Stone. 

The boundary of the district is a line including the west 
side of Fish-street-hill and Gracechurch-street, the south 
side of Gomhill and Oheapside, the east side of Bread-street 
and Bread-street-hill, and the north bank of the river 
Thames, back to Fish-street-hill ; and all the labouring and 
poor population within this line. This district is divided, 
at the discretion of the committee, into suitable sections. 

The annual amount contributed in food and necessaries is 
under £60 annusdly ; and considerable assistance is rendered 
by securing the benefits of kindred charities to the poor of 
the districts. 

Half-arguinea annual, or 5 guineas at one time, consti* 
tutes a member, with the pri^olege of recommending any 
deserving object. 

President, the Lord Mayor. — Treasurer, Mr. Ford Hale. — Secre- 
tary and Collector, Mr. J. C. Bowles, 77 Cannon-street. 

TBJS FRIEND-IN-NEED SOCIETY, for Visiting and 
Bdievin^ the Sick Poor at their own Habitations, Hoxton. 
Instituted' 1809. Its principal scene of labour is in the dis- 
tricts of Shoreditch, Bethnal-green, and Spitalfields, though 
it is not locally boimded, but extends its aid to all parts of 
the metropolis. Its object is to visit poor and afflicted fami* 
lies, and,' by a personal investigation of their necessities to 
afford such temporal aid and spiritual consolation as may be 
required. The funds are dispensed irrespective of religious 
creed, and on the committee are memb^ of different Pro* 
testant denominations. In the winter, coals are distributed 
to destitute funilies. Since its formation, upwards of 55,000 
yidts have been made, to about 12,000 cases, and relief 
granted, at the cost of nearly jC8,000. The committee-meet* 
ings, for the consideration of cases, are held every Tuesday 
evening, at the school-rooms, Hoxton Old Town. 

Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Hoxton ; Rev. C. J. Daniell, M. A. 

SPITALFIELDS BENEVOLENT SOCIETY, 19, 
CSiurch-street. Instituted 1811. For visiting and relieving 
cases of distress, chiefly among the numerous poor of Spital- 
fidds and its vicinity. Every person subscribing half-a-gui- 



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ACCIDENT EBLIBP ClfHlifeS fiH SOCIETY, A.D. 1836 

nea or upwards annuallj, or five pounds or upwards at one 
time, is considered a member. 

Applications respecting -Ijing-in cases may be sent to 19, 
Church-street, Spitalfields. 

President, Rev. Josiah Pratt, B.D. — Treasurer, Samuel Hoare, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. E. Suter, 18, Cheapside. — Bankers, Messrs. 
Hoare and Co. — Collector, Mr. G. J. Townsend. 

THE MOTHER S INFANTS FRIEND SOCIETY, 
Parish of St. Swithin, London-stone. Instituted 1812. For 
the relief of poor married women during their confinement. 
Every case must be within one mile and a half of St. Swi- 
thin's Church, be recommended by a subscriber, and procure 
the undertaking of a housekeeper to be responsible for the 
safe return of the articles which may be lent. 10s. 6d. an- 
nually entitles to recommend one case. The income of this 
excellent little local charity does not exceed jC60 annually. 
Treasurer, Mrs. William Hale, 7, Cannon-street. 

The next is a charity of a general character, but its bene- 
fits are conferred in like manner, by visiting at their own 
abodes those in need of relief. 

ACCIDENT RELIEF SOCIETY, 11, Great Winches- 
ter-street, City. Established 1836. To rdieve the families 
of those who are inmates of accident wards, in any of the 
metropolitan hospitals or elsewhere. The relief afforded to 
each case consists of bread, meat, coals, and potatoes, to the 
extent of six sliillings per week, according to the discretion 
of the visitor, imtil the next meeting of the committee ; 
and whenever an afflicted person has so far recovered as to 
be able to resume his employment, in cases of extreme dis- 
tress the visitor is empowered to grant an amount, not ex- 
ceeding ten shillings ; and the committee, if they think the 
case requires it, and the funds will allow, extend the gift to 
thirty shillings. During the past year, about jG500 was dis- 
tributed amongst some hundred families ; but the funds are 
very far beneath the claims of real distress, the institution 
being but slightly known. 

President, the Duke of Bedford. — Treasurer, Mr. Wm. Abseil. 
— ^Bankers, Messrs. Drummond and Co. — Secretary, Mr. John 
Goodman. — Honorary Chaplain, Rev. Henry Cole. 

From its excellent destgn, and the large scope for its exercise in this 

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133 

ACCIDENT BELIEF jRBteHIIIg tjl^ SlStOTSBi. SOCIETY, A.I).1843 

metropolis, we think its usefuluess might be greatly extended^ as it appears 
a most desirable meditim for dispensing public bocmtj on a large scale. 
The hospital returns represent no less than 85,000 accidents as hap- 
pening annually in London. None so need sympathy and relief, as the 
ftunilies of those suffering sudden and unforseen afflictions ; and to none 
is it more freely afforded, whenever such cases of distress are made 
known, as the newspaper police columns freely testify; therefore, all that 
appears requisite, is, that this society should be extensiTely known, and 
that the promoters of it should be active and devoted in forthering its 
objects. 



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#Htife8 fur 



CHAPTER VII. 



CHARITIES FOR THE RELIEF OF THE 
DISTRESSED {continued). 

Societies for the Relief of the Distress of particular Classes. — Widows. — 
Prisoners for Debt. — Destitute Sailors — Distressed Scotch. — Foreign- 
ers in Distress — French — Germans — Poles — and Jews. — Sommary of 
Jewish Charities for the Poor. 

The Charities detailed in this chapter are of a similar cha- 
racter to those described in the last ; differing only as to the 
objects for whom they are designed. The distress contem- 
pkted for relief by these institutions, it will be seen, is such 
as arises either from special causes, or is suffered by such as 
haye peculiar claims on persons of kindred connexions or 
sympathies with themselves. 

They may be thus briefly summed up : — For the Relief of 
Widows in Distress, 2 ; I^isoliers for Debt, etc., 2 ; Desti- 
tute and Shipwrecked Seamen, 2 ; Sailors' Home, 1 ; Dis- 
tressed Scotchmen, 1 ; Distressed Foreigners, 1 ; Distressed 
French, 2 (one an Asylum); Disti'essed Germans, 1 ; Poles, 
1 ; total, 12. 
Aggregate annual amount of income . JC29,881 

Of which, voluntary contributions amount to ^19,473 
One of these was founded in the seventeenth century, two 
in the eighteenth, and nine in the nineteenth (six within the 
last thirty years). 

The Jewish charities will be found very numerous, although 
not of extensive operations ; they number about twenty-five 
institutions, with an aggregate income of nearly^ jC4,500 ; 
of which, voluntary contributions amount to £2,754. 

^ The Spanish Jews* Hospital, page 21, and the various Jewish sdiools 
hereafter mentioned, not included in this. 



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widows' relief JUlilflillg tJFB J0isto8Sfil[.8ociETiBS,18O8-23 

SOCIETY FOR THE BELIEF OF DISTRESSED 
WIDOWS ; amlyiifig wUhin the first month of their mdow- 
hood, 32, SacKYiUe-street. Instituted 1823. One guinea 
and upwards annually, constitutes a member of the society, 
entitled to recommend one case annually for every sudi 
amount ; the cases recommended must be within four miles 
of Sackville-street, and their relief subject to the visitor's in- 
vestigation and report. 10 guineas at one time constitutes a 
member for life, entitled to recommend two cases annually. 
The lettters of recommendation must be brought by the 
widows for whom the subscriber is interested, to the office, on 
Wednesdays, between 12 and 4 o'clock. The meetings of the 
committee are held on the second Thursday in each month. 
The present income of the society averages £700 per annum : 
about £2 is given in money to each case recommended, and 
found to be satisfactory. Articles of mourning, for bestowal 
upon deserving cases, are especially solicited of persons de- 
sirous of assisting the charity. 

Presidfflit, the Marquis of Chclmcmdeley. — ^Treasurer, John 
Labouchere, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Dr. Thomas Cluunben, 
1, Hill-street, Berkley-square. — ^Visitor and Secretary to Ladies' 
Committee, Mrs. Flood, 32, Sackville-street, and 66, St. Paul's 
Churchyard. — Collector, Mr. Pitts, 8, Melina-place, St. John's- 
wood. 

TEE WIDOWS FRIEND AND BENEVOLENT SO- 
CIETY, 21, Old Fish-street, Doctors' Commons. Instituted 
1808. The object of this society is to visit and relieve, at 
their own habitations, such poor widows and other distressed 
persons as may be recommended by the subscribers and be- 
ne&ctors as proper objects of relief. 91 cases were relieved 
during the past year, with sums varying from £\ to £2 each, 
besides six pensions of £6 each: but the whole income 
amounts only to £167, of which £140 is dependant on volun- 
tary contributions. Half-a-guinea or upwards annually, or 
10 guineas or upwards at one time, constitutes a member, 
entitled to recommend to the attention of the committee 
such cases as may be considered objects worthy of relief. 
The committee meet during the summer on the first Monday 
in every month, and in the winter on the first and third 
Mondays. 

President, Rev. Henry Budd, A.M. — Treasurer, J. Labou- 
chere, Esq,-^Se(Tetary, Mr. H. Matthews. — Collector, Mr. J. C. 



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BELIEF OP PRISONERS ClffllifeS fill FOR SMALL DBBTS,1 772 

Bowlea, Cannon-street. — Beceiving-liouse for applications^ 21, Old 
Fish-street, Doctors' Commons. 

SOCIETY FOR TEE DISCHARGE AND RELIEF 

of Persons Impriso^ned for SnvaU Debts ihroughovJt England 
and Wales, 7, Craven Street, Strand. Instituted 1772. The 
mode of application is by printed petitions/ to be had of the 
respective keepers gratis. Each petitioner must name two 
reputable house-keepers as vouchers for his integrity, so- 
briety, and industry ; and, if applying for the Insolvent Act, 
to a clergyman or magistrate. The society will not grant 
relief to any debtor who has already employed an attorney 
to act in his behalf. If the debts exceed ^400, or any one 
debt exceed ,£90, or the balance between the debts and 
credits exceed ^200, the petition is inadmissable, and will 
not be noticed by the society. It never pays more than 
a composition of £30 for debts of any amount. In cases of 
great deserving, a small donation is made to the individuals^ 
over and above the amount paid for their release. 

Two guineas or upwards annual, or twenty guineas or 
upwards, in one sum, constitute a member eligible to be 
elected a governor of the society. The annual number of 
debtors released by this society, until the last six or seven 
years, averaged 1,200, at a cost of nearly £6,000 ; but the 
altered law, respecting imprisonment for small debts,^ has 
now greatly diminished the number of applicants, and the 
society has considerably extended its limits of admission, as 
to amoimt of debt ; but, even imder this extension, the whole 
number that were released last year amounted only to 142, 
at a cost of £1824. Since its first establishment, to the pre- 
sent time, 68,783 debtors have been relieved at a total cost 
of £219,422. 

President, the Earl of Romney. — Treasurer, Benjamin Bond 
Cabbell, Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Bnunmond. — Secretary, Joseph 
Lunn, Esq., 7, Craven-street, Strand. 

PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY, l^ew Globe Tavem,Mile 
End Road. EstabUshed 1803. For the temporary relief of 

1 The relief afforded bj this society is only available to such as are 
actually in prison at the time of application. 

> 6th Vict, 1842 ; amended 8th Vict, 1844. The largest number of 
prisoners released by the Society in one year, was during its jubilee year 
(1810), when 1,626 were discharged, at a cost of 1010,206 128. Id. 



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DESTITUTE SAILOBS' EgtogJllg tiff ^JSJCtiStJ, ASYLUM, 1827 

the deserying poor of London and its vicinity, not receiving 
parochial aid ; also for compounding with the creditors of 
pei^ns who are imprisoned for small debts. Since its com- 
mencement, it has extended its aid to 37,500 persons in dis- 
tress, at an expense of JC 18,750. The directors hold their 
meetings at the above tavern, every Thursday evening, at 
8 o'clock precisely, for the purpose of considering and re- 
lieving petitions. 

One guinea per annum, or 10 guineas at one time, entitles 
to recommend for relief, three cases annually ; 12«, annually, 
or 5 guineas at one time, two cases. Forms of petition may 
be obtained of the secretary. 

President, Viscount Torrington. — ^Treasurers: Alfred Head, 
Esq. ; George Lee, Esq. ; John Stayner, Esq. — Sub-Treasurer, 
Mr. George Gold. — ^Honorary Secretary, Mr. tfames Sadgrove, 2, 
Sidney-square, Mile-end. — Collector, Mr. J. J. Mayall, 81, Totton- 
street. Stepney. 

DESTITUTE SAILORS' ASYLUM, 23, WeU Street, 
London Docks, instituted 1827. The object of this insti- 
tution, is to supply shelter, and temporarily relieve, with 
food and clothmg, distressed seamen of all nations, and to 
keep them, when necessary, until they can obtain employ- 
ment. The objects for relief consist of such as are in extreme 
misery or want, and who have not left their last ship more 
than twelve months. A discharge-ticket from the Pread^ 
nou^t Hospital Ship at Deptford, is a passport for a man 
into the asylum without a Question being asked. Many get 
into employment through the means of this institution, and 
recover themselves so far as not to require its assistance 
when they return to port. The old and infirm have their 
passages paid for them to their own homes, and the sick 
often get into the hospitals and infirmaries of London through 
its medium. Morning and evening prayers, and the Scrip- 
tures, are regularly ret^ ; and every evenmg,at seven o'clock, 
a minister preaches. On Sunday, tne men attend ^'St. Paul's 
CSiurch for seamen". The annual average nimiber of those 
who benefit by this asylimi is 1500. Supported wholly by 
voluntary contributions, amounting to about £600 per an- 
num, which well covers the expenses. 

President, Admiral William Bowles, M.P. — ^Treasurer, Felix 
Ladbroke, Esq.— Chaplain, Rev. C. B. Gribble, M.A.— Secretary, 
Captain George Pierce, B.N. — Superintendent, Mr. William Part- 
ridge. — Cashier, Mr. William Bateman. — Collector, Mr. Thomas 
Pitts, 8, Melina-plaoe, St. John's- wood. 

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THE SAILORS' HOME. C^Eli&S fSt A.D. 1835 

THE SAILORS* HOME-, OR BRUNSWICK MARI- 
TIME EOaUishmeiU, Well Street,! London Docks. Insti- 
tuted 1835. This establishment affords a comfortable and 
cheap board and lodging house for seamen and apprentices, 
during the time they must unavoidably remain on shore 
between their voyages. The domestic worship is conducted 
by a clergyman of the Church of England, nominated by 
the directors, subject to the approval of the Bishop of Lon- 
don ; and every means are taken to raise the chaiacter and 
improve the habits of the inmates. It does not, strictly 
speaking, come under the same designation as the previously 
mentioned ; but follows here from its connexion therewith. 

The number the building is calculated to accommodate at 
one time, is 250, and the whole number who avail them- 
selves of it in the course of a year, averages 4000 to 5000 ; 
each seaman is provided with a separate berth, and pays 
at the rate of 2«. a day, including all charges ; apprentices 
l9. 6cf, a day, and other lads 12«. a week ; those who desire 
it have nautical and other instruction afforded them without 
further payment. The directors of the establishment, in 
acting as the bankers of those who return with their hard 
savings, and affordine their advice thereon, render the in- 
mates another great kindness ; as much as JC30,000 of the 
seamen's money passes through their hands in the course of 
the year. 

One pound or upwards annually, or £\0 or more at one 
time, constitute a life-member, entitled to one vote at the 
annual or general meetings. The cash statement for the 
past year, shows an annual expenditure of jC6,500, and 
receipts of JB2000 voluntary contributions, £5000 payments 
from seamen, and jC78 dividends ; presenting a satisfactory 
appearance of expenses well covered. 

President, Admiral Bowles, M.P. — Treasurer, John Labouchere, 
Esq. — Honorary Solicitor, H. E. Stables, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. 
Charles B. Gribble, M. A. — Superintendent, Mr. James Laughton. 
— Cashier, Mr. William Bateman. — Secretary, Captain George 
Pierce, R.N. — Accountant, Mr. Samuel L'Eschauzier. — Collector, 
Mr. Thomas Pitts, 8, Melina-place, St. John*s-wood. 

^ Erected on the site of the Bnmswick theatre, within six months after 
the fklling in of that huilding. 

' For notice of St. Paul's church, in connexion with this estahlishment, 
see note to the London Episcopal Floating Church Society. 



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SHIPWBXOKBD Eriimhtg tjlt ^iSttSfSti. FIBBBE]a9,lS39 

SHIPWRECKED FISHERMEN AND MARINERS* 
Benevolent Society, 26, Bucklersbuiy. Instituted 1839, for 
relieying, 'with temporary grants and small annuities, the 
widows and orphans of fishermen, mariners, pilots, and boat- 
men ; for boarding, lodging, clothing, and forwarding home 
all destitute shipwrecked persons ; and for assisting mariners, 
fishermen, and boatmen, to replace their clothes, boats, or 
nets, when lost by storm or other accident. 

To meet in some measure the destitution of poor ship- 
wrecked persons cast helpless on our shores, the committee 
have obtained the services of nearly six hundred gentlemen, 
who benevolently act as honorair agents in their several 
localities ; so that from the LancTs End to John o' Groat's 
House, as well as on the shores of Ireland, and the other 
British Isles, shipwrecked mariners of all nations find friends 
to whom their destitution is a full recommendation. Thus 
providing the public ^ectudUy against the necessity of being 
importuned by persons travelling the country, under the 
pretence of havmg been shipwrecked, as, by it, all ship- 
wrecked persons are relieved and conveyed to their homes. 

Annual subscriptions 2«. %d. ; donations ad libitum. The 
cash statement for the past year shows an amount of £2700 
spent in relieving ; the expenses are very heavy, however, 
for operations so extensive as these are, so as altogether to 
require an amount of re<ceipts to nearly 4,500 a year; it is 
gjratifying to find that, at present, the voluntary contribu- 
tions alone exceed that amount^ besides ^£600 a year from 
dividends ; the funded property is above £14,000. 

President, Sir Geo^|e Cockbum. — Chairman, Admiral Hope. 
— Trustees : Thomas Hankey, jun. Esq. ; Thomas Hankey, Esq. ; 
Bei\jamin Williams, Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Williams, Deacon, 
and Co. — ^Treasurer, Jonn Deacon, Esq. — Honorary Solicitor, 
J. J. Hubbard, Esq. — Secretary, Francis Lean, Esq., R.N. — 
Travelling Secretary, Lieut. W. H. Symon, R.N.--€ollector, Mr. 
Charles H. Parrott. 

SCOTTISH HOSPITAL AND CORPORATION IN 
ZOAri>Oir,Crane-oourt,Fleet-street. Incorporated 1665-76 ;i 

^ This institution derives its origin from a society founded a short tima 
after the accession of James I, " for relieving the less fortunate individuals 
of the Scottish nation/* under the designation of " The Scottish Box,** 
which pursued its henevolent operations until the reign of Charles II, 
when an act of incorporation was granted (16dtf). 



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SCOTTISH HOSPITAL. ClfHrifefi flit A.D. 1665 

re-incorporated 1776. The charity of the Scottish Hospital 
is applicahle to the poor mechanic, the artisan, and labourer, 
natives of Scotland, with their wives, widows, and children, 
resident in the metropolis and its immediate neighbourhood, 
who, not having acquired any parochial settlement in this 
country, must otherwise be exposed to the utmost wretched- 
ness or beggary. 

About j£2,300 is spent annually in casual relief to some 
300 persons monthly; and £1,250 in annual pensions of <£8 
or JIO to about 130 aged persons. The payment of 1 gui- 
nea annual, or 10 guineas at one time, constitutes a gover- 
nor ; entitled to recommend one poor person monthly. 

Every case recommended by a petition, and signed by a 
governor, is visited by an officer of the corporation, and the 
report is submitted to the standing committee for relief. 
Petitions when filled up and certified must be delivered at 
the office on or before the first Wednesday in each month. 
The entrance for the poor to the hall is at the chapel, Fleur- 
de-Lis-court, 17, Fetter-lane. Relief days, second Wed- 
nesday in each month. Recipients of relief to attend at 1 
p.m., and petitioners at 4 p.m. 

The Kinlock Bequest, — William Kinlock, Esq., bequeathed 
the residue of his estate for the relief of 500 " poor and 
disabled Scotchmen in distress, who may have lost their 
legs or arms, eyesight, or otherwise wounded, in the army 
or navy, in the service of their country," which bequest is 
applied to such candidates whose income does not exceed 
J20 per annum under distinct regulations, by a committee 
of governors of the Scottish Hospital. 

According to instructions from the Court of Chancery, the 
relief afforded by this fund consists of pensions of £4 per 
annum ; the fund decreases annually, and the number of 
pensioners accordingly. When the principal is reduced to 
£2^000 the same wifl have to be divided 2 pursuant to pro- 
visions of the will. 

Presidentjthe Duke of Montrose. — ^Treasurer, the Chisholm. — 
GhaplainB: Rev. John Camming, D.D.; the Venerable Archdea- 
con Sinclair, M.A. — Pl^sicians : John Webster, Esq., M.D.; Gteo. 
Darling, Esq., M.D. ; Robert Dickson, Esq., M.D. ; John Scott, 
Esq., M.D. — Surgeons : John liddle, Esq.; Professor Fergusson ; 

^ The present amount of funds exceeds jf 54,000 and the annual in- 
come therefrom j^,01d, causing a present reduction of the principal at 
the rate of £400 per annum. 



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FOBEIQNEBS, lUtoJllg tiff f JStogggt AJ). 1806 

B. H. Mackenzie, Esq., M.D. — Secretary, James Adair, Esq. — 
Solicitor, W. M. Webster, Esq. — Collector, and Visitor of the Poor, 
Mr. George Anderson. — ^Beskdle, Mr. Laurance John Wishart. 

THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS OF FOREIGNERS 

in Distress. 10, Finsbury Chambers. Instituted 1806. All 
foreigners nere, of whatever nation or religion, being in dis- 
tress, and recommended by a governor, are entitled to such 
relief as the Board of Directory may think proper. The 
recommending governor must set forth the place of nativity, 
age, and circumstances, and profession of the applicant, who 
must confirm the same by oath or affirmation, if required. 
A certain number of aged or infirm foreigners are elected 
at a general court, and allowed weekly pensions to an 
amount fixed on by the Board of Directors. 

The weekly meetings of the directors are held on Wednes- 
day at half-past 11 precisely at the society's offices, and 
attendance is given every day between the hours of 2 and 4 
o'clock, except on Saturdays and Sundays. 

The relief afforded by the society during the past year 
comprehended, 5s. per week to 80 pensioners ; regular allow- 
ance to 93 aged persons ; £1,091 in casual relief, passage 
money, and returning to their own countries, and clothing 
for 236 persons ; and minor assistance to unsuccessful can- 
didates, <fec. 

The amoimt of income is under £3,000 aryear, which, 
with the exception of £300, is derived from voluntary contri- 
butions, and IS all expended upon the objects of its bounty, 
exclusive of about £400 for necessary expenses ; the funded 
property is under £10,000. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes a 
governor, with one vote for pensioners, &c. 

President, the Duke of Wellington. — Treasurer, John Labou- 

^ An iostitntion for the relief of distressed foreigners of all natioDS, 
under the name of " The Society of Universa] Good Will/' was established 
about fifty years since at Norwich, under the fostering care of the late Dr. 
John Murray of that city. Dr. Murray took great pains to extend the 
plan, upon a comprehensive scale, to the metropolis : hut this was, how- 
ever, only partially effected. Although his efforts were then unavailing, 
it may be said, with justice, that the idea of the present excellent and 
increanng establishment had its origin in the plan of the Norwich Society. 
Upon being discontinued, part of its remaining fund was appropriated to 
this socie^. Her Majes^ contributes j^lOO annually to the funds. 



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HOSPITAL FOB FRENCH ChHIltiBS fill PBOTBSTAHTS, A.D.I 718 

chere, Esq. — Secretary, Fred. E. Homeman, Esq., 10, Finsbury- 
diambers, London-wall. — Colleotor, Mr. J^ery, 8, Foondlingo 
terrace, Gray's Inn-road. 

HOSPITA L FOR POOR FRENCH PROTESTANTS 
and their DeacendanU redding in Great Britain, Bath-street, 
City-road. Incorporated 1718.^ Founded for the French Pro- 
testants taking refuge in this country for the sake of religion* 
At one time it afforded an asylum to 230 refugees : since 
1760, howeyer, it has suffered successiye limitations, and at 
the present time there are but 54 ; the goyemors moreoyer 
represent, that eyen this number must be reduced, as the 
income exceeds the expenditure. 

The poor who desire to be admitted must appear before 
the quarterly committee at their meetings, or obtain on the 
first Saturdays in April, July, and October, and second in 
January, a certificate from the surgeon, or three directors, 
setting forth their distemper and age, when their cases will 
be registered until a yacancy occurs. Forms of the petition 
may be obtained of the steward at the hospital. 

Ko other poor can be receiyed into this hospital, or be 
relieyed, but such French Protestants, or their descendants, 
as haye been residing in Great Britain for the space of six 
months at least. All persons are ineligible who are married, 
unless bedridden through disease, and then only for such 
time as they be bedridden. All persons with contagious 
diseases are ineligible. 

The cash statement is not published, as the receipts arise 
only from such contributions as are raised by its elected go- 
yemors and directors, and collection after annual sermon in 
May : this is suggestiye, that if published statements were 
made, the state of the funds, at present regretted by the 
goyemors, might be improyed. 

Governor, Earl of Badnor. — Sub-Governor, Peter Levesque, 
Esq. — Treasurer, G Guillonneau, Esq. — Secretary, R. Herv6 

^ Owes its origin to M. de GasUgny, a French gentleman, master of 
the hoands to King William III, when Prince of Orange; who bequeathed, 
in 1708, the sum of j^lOOO towards a fund fiir this purpose, which fund 
was increased in 1716, when the present site was purchased, for a term 
of nine hundred and ninety years, of the Ironmongers' Company, and the 
chapel dedicated in the following year; and in 1718 was incorporated, 
by permission of George I, under the title of" The Governor and Direc- 
tors of the Hospital for poor French Protestants, and their Descendants, 
reading in Great Britain." 



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BociETjfe DE Erlfemgg tiff JBigtog5gtBiEyyAi8AWCE,1842 

Giraud, Esq., 7, Furnival's Inn. — Chaplain, Rev. B. T. Nurse. — 
Surgeon, Mr. Samuel Byles. — Steward, Mr. Richard Hunt. 

SOCIETE FRANCAISE DE B1ENFAI8ANCE, 10, 
Duke-street, Portland-Place. Established 1842. For the 
purpose of assisting poor French persons, who haye not the 
means of support, in this country. Any such may apply at 
the office, where their circumstances will be inquired into, 
and relieved temporarily with food, 4&c., until means are 
afforded them either to obtain employment, or to return to 
their native country. When considered necessary, small 
loans are made, to be returned without interest. The great 
object of the society is thus expressed ; — " Preventing the 
possibility of any poor French being entirely destitute." 
The office is open daily from 10 till 4 o'clock (Sundays and 
holidays excepted). 

One guinea annual, or £10 donation, constitutes a gover- 
nor, wim one vote at the annual election of the weekly reci- 
pients of four shillings. 

The income averages £650 per annum ; with the exception 
of £Z0 from dividends, depending wholly on voluntary con- 
tributions : frmded property not exceeding XI, 000. 

President, M. P. Vouillon. — Bankers, Sir Samuel Scott and Co. 
— ^Treasurers : M. Horeau (Ch.), M. Boura (A.), M. Salanson. — 
Honorary Secretary, M. Givry, 23, Old Bond-street. 

GERMAN SOCIETY OF BENEVOLENCE AND 
CONCORD, Office, 48, Greek-street, Soho. Founded 1817 
by M. G. Fraas. For the relief of distressed Germans in 
London : during the past year <£180 was raised amongst the 
members and contributors, of which J146 was distributed 
amongst 302 natives of Germany, who were in distress in 
London. The funded property is but £1,033. 

Auditors, Messrs. Baur and Duv6. — Secretaiy, M. H. Schiif^es, 
89, Conduit-street. 

LITERARY ASSOCIATION OF THE FRIEND^ 
OF POLAND, Sussex Chambers, Duke-street, St. James's. 
Listituted 1833. For the purpose of diffusing information 
respecting the literature, history, and present condition of 
Poland ; '* exposing the system of policy to which she has 
been the victim ; and exciting in her jBa,vour the sympathy 
of the British nation." Its earliest attention was directed 
to the destitute condition of the Polish patriots, who had 



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JEWS' HOSPITAL. CljKritlJS fill ^•^' 1807 

taken refuge in this country. The association relieved their 
sufferings to the best of its ability until the year 1834, when, 
through the exertions of some of its leading members (Lord 
Dudley C. Stuart, Thomas Campbell the poet, and Prince 
Ozartoryski) the GoTemment commenced an annual grant 
for the support of the refugees.^ The association devotes a 
portion of its funds to the education of the children of the 
Poles resident here.^ 

It has hitherto derived its principal income, from the 
public balls and concerts given under its superintendence ; 
also from subscriptions and donations ; last year, the former 
source yielded £963 ; the latter, £278. Two guineas an- 
nually constitutes a member. 

This society, it is stated, will afford every facility to detect 
impostors, and is anxious to discourage mendicancy. 

President, Lord D. C. Stuart. — Hon. Secretary, William Loyd 
Birkbeck, Esq. — Resident Secretary and Paymaster, Lieut. Charles 
Szulczewaki. — Hon. Surgeon, T. Yoimg, Esq., 31, fewkville-street. 

JEWS HOSPITAL, Mile-end. Founded 1807.8 Affords 
both an asylum for age ; and a place of refuge for youth, 
where they are taught the modes of procuring a regular 
maintenance by the acquirement of trades, in order to be- 
come good and useful members of society. The present 
number of inmates comprise twelve aged persons, fifty- 
five boys, and twenty girls ; the total number who have 

1 THE POLISH REFUGEE OFFICE, 2, Middle Scotland- 
yard. Is for dispensing the Parliamentary grants in behalf of the unfor- 
tunate Poles in this country: first voted in the year 1834. The amount 
of grant is being gradually reduced; that for the present year is but 
d£8,700 — an amount agreed to in committee, ** on the understanding that 
the list of refugees should be revised, and relief continued only to those 
unable to support themselves." The number of Polish refugees now in 
England rather exceeds 400, of whom 828 receive assistance. Pay- 
master, J. S. Tebbs, Esq. 

' The Polish Economical and Clothing Association, for some years 
carried on in connexion with this, is now extinct. 

3 Founded by the exertions of the late Messrs. Abraham and Benja- 
min Goldsmid, who, about 1709, commenced collecting donations from 
their friends for the purpose, of which not one was above d£'400, and but 
one under j£50 ; and, upon February 17, 1806, having accumulated to 
£20fi00. it was applied to the foundation. The hospital was purchased 
for j£8,800, and has subsequently been considerably enlarged ; the amount 
of present funded property, is £4S,143. 



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145 

JEWS* SOCIETIES, Udmiigg H^ SJSJttSBt A.D. 1827-1844 

been received in the house, 463. The funded property of 
this establishment is near £50,000, but the dividends there- 
from appear to be insufficient for its support, although aided 
by jC750 from annual contributions. The last cash statement 
represents a sale of stock of £600, and the annual expenses 
amounting to as much as £2,464. One guinea annually 
constitutes a subscriber, with one vote ; 25 guineas at one 
time a life governor, with three votes. 

President, F. H. Groldsmid, Esq. — Treasurers: Aaron Joseph, 
Esq.; Lawrence Myers, Esq. — Physician, Dr. Southwood Smith. 
— Surgeon, Thos. Blizard Curling, Esq. — Apothecary, Mr. Joseph 
Kisch. — Solicitor, Mr. Sampson Samuel. — Superintendent and 
Sub-Secretary, Mr. Samuel Howe. — House-Steward and Matron, 
Mr. and Mrs. Myers. — Governess, Miss Hanbury. — Bankers, Lon- 
don and Westminster Bank. — Secretary, Mr. Samuel Solomon, 
5, Hounsditch. 

EANBIN'EANB CHARITABLE INSTITUTION; 
Asylum, St. James's-place, Aldgate. Established 1840. For 
maintaining, clothing, and providing an asylum for aged 
men of the Hebrew nation ; supported by contributions and 
subscriptions. This charity is very limited in extent, only 
dispensing its benefits to seven individuals, waiting for an 
increase of funds before it enlarges the number. Visiting 
days, Saturday and Sunday, from 2 till 5 o'clock. 

Treasurer, Mr. Moses Lazarus, 34, Duke-street, Aldgate — Medi- 
cal Attendant, Dr. J. Kisch. — Secretary, Mr. F. D. Soares. — Col- 
lector, Mr. Ellis. — Matron, Mrs. Jonas. 

WESTERN JEWISH PHILANTHROPIC and Perir- 
sion Society, 4, Manor-street, Chelsea. Established 1827. 
For the purpose of granting relief, by permanent pensions, 
gifts, and loans without interest, to indigent and worthy 
persons of the Jewish religion, resident in the county of 
Middlesex, west and northward of Temple Bar, in the district 
of Clerkenwell, and city of Westminster. Subscribers of six 
shillings per annum entitled to one vote ; of one guinea, to 
three votes. 

President, Mr. Samuel Ellis. — ^Treasurer, Mr. M. Marks. — Secre- 
tary, Mr. M. L. Lazarus. — Collector, Mr. L. Resner. 

JEWISH LADIES' BENEVOLENT LOAN AND 

VUiting Society, 31, Nottingham-place, Whitechapel-road. 
Established 1844. For promoting the visits of Jewish 

10 

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146 

JEWISH BLIND, A.D.1819. CjlEnfeS fOT JEWISH WIDOWS, 1825. 

ladies amongst their own poor, and advocating habits of 
prudence and economy amongst them, and where desirable, 
advancing small sums of money as loans, without interest. 
These loans are paid by weekly instalments. During the 

East ^ye years, about £2,000 has been repaid in this way, 
aving been granted to 334 persons. A relief fund also, and 
a savings bank, are attached to the association. The volun- 
tary contributions do not much exceed £100 annually. Five 
shillings annually constitutes a subscriber. 

President, Mrs. Joseph Josephs, 29, High-street, Whitechapel. 
— Vice-President, Mrs. Sampson Samuel, 11, North-buildings, 
Finsbury-circus. — Treasurer, Mrs. Bamet Joseph, 26, Finsbury- 
place. — Honorary Secretary, Mrs. A. L. Harris, 30, Steward-st., 
Spitalfields. — ^Assistant Secretary and Collector, Mr. A. G. Isaac, 
37) Nottingham-place, Whitechapel-road. 

INSTITUTION FOR THE RELIEF OF THE IN- 
DIGENT BLIND, of the Jewish Persuasion, Bevis-marks. 
Established 1819. For granting pensions of 6s. per week 
to the Jewish blind, not relieved by any other charity. 
Candidates must present a petition to the committee, who 
meet in the months of March, June, September, and D.ecem- 
ber, signed by three Governors, and accompanied with a 
surgeon's certificate of their total blindness. 10s. annually, 
or 5 guineas at one time, constitute a Governor, with one vote 
for every such subscription. The present number of pen- 
sioners is twelve, receiving about £200 annuaUy, which is 
met by voluntary contributions and £74 from dividends, 
the income exceeding the expenditure. 

President, A. Soloman, Esq., 23, Bevis-marks. — Treasurer, 
J. Lazarus, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Henry Dyte, Esq., 2, Hare- 
court, Temple. — Secretary, Mr. S. Soloman, 5, Hounsditch. — 
Collector, Mr. Marks. 

PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY, for Relieving Distressed 
Widows and Families of the Jewish Perstiasion, 5, Houns- 
ditch. Established 1825. To afford relief to widows, by 
allowing them a weekly stipend of five shillings for the pe- 
riod of fifty-two weeks ; and distressed families, by a distri- 
bution of certain sums of money at the Passover and New 
Year. Subscribers, entitled to one vote in the distribution of 
the funds, for every four shillings subscribed. The income is 
about £150, derived from voluntary contributions, except £8. 

President, Mr. John Jonas. — ^Treasurer, Mr. M. Samuel. — Secre« 
taries : Mr. S. Soloman, 5, Hounsditch ; and Mr. C. Joel. 

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147 

jews' societies, HBfemng t^ liilteggBit^ tariops. 

The Jewish Schools and Orphan Asylums will be found in 
detail under Educational Charities ; and 

Societies for the Bene^ of Converts and Christian iTUtmc- 
twny under Missionary and Religious Societies. 

There are various other charities for the relief of the 
Jewish poor, of a limited character ; by subjoining the fol- 
lowing brief summary of which, every purpose will be served. 

Society for HelpiTig the Fallen ; Mr. D. Davis, Sec. 

For Bdieving the Poor in Confined Mourning ; Master 
Hyams, Sec. 

Of Independent Friends; Mr. J. Braxo, Sec. 

For Distributing Bread and Coals ; Mr. D. Joseph, Sec. 

For Distributing Bread, Meat, and Coals, during the 
Winter; Mr. J. Levy, Sec. 

For Distributing Five Shillings per Week during the 
Winter; Mr. J. B. Lindenhall, Sec. 

For Bdieving Distressed Persons (Holborn) ; Mr. S. 
Cohen, Sec. 

For Clothing Poor Jewish Boys; Mr. A. G. Isaacs, Sec. 

For Clothing and Apprenticing Boys ; Mr. J. H. Joseph, 
Sec. 

Asylum for Aged and Infirm Widows ; Mr. R. Cardoza, Sec. 

Widows Pension Society ; Mr. R. Cardoza, Sec. 

Widows' Friendly Society ; Mr. S. Aloof, Sec. 

Ladies^ Charity, Burton-crescent ; Miss Toledano, Sec. 

Ladies' Benevolent Association for Clothing Female Chil- 
dren ; Miss Clara Nathan, Sec. 

Society for Cheering the Needy at Festivals; Mr. M. 
Samuels, Sec. 

For Allowing Weekly Stipend to the Needy; Mr. J. 
Jacobs, Sec. 

Lying-in Charity for Indigent Wom^n ; Mrs. Lucas, Sec. 

Society for Relieving the Indigent Poor in the Holy Land ; 
Sir Moses Montefiore, Treas. 

The Linu^arian's Benevolent Loan Society is primarily a 
Jewish institution ; but being open to all classes of the 
labouring poor, will be referred to under Charities for 
Aiding the Resources of the Lidustrious. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 



FOR DIMIKISHING DISTRESS, AND AIDING 
THE RESOURCES OF THE INDUSTRIOUS. 

National Philanthropic Association for the Employment of Able-bodied 
Paupers. — Plan for Church of England Self-supporting Village Insti- 
tution. — Emigration : the Societies for its Promotion. — Scale of Re- 
duced Payments for Colonial Emigration. — Emigration to Port Natal. 
— The Canterbury Settiement — Female Emigration. — Funds for pro- 
moting the Social and Religious Improvement of the Emigrants. — 
Distressed Needlewomen's Society. — Dressmakers' and Milliners' Asso- 
ciation. — Homes, and other Institutions, for Female Servants. — Deferred 
Annuities rendered available to Female Servants. — Servants' Benevo- 
lent Society. — Loan Societies : the Difficulty of their Existence upon 
Benevolent Principles. — Particulars of those now in Existence. —Ap- 
prenticeship Societies. — Bequests for Loans — Fees — and Marriage 
Portions. — Savings' Banks : their Origin. — Summary of those in Lon- 
don, with the Rate of Interest allowed by each, and the Amount of 
Deposits, &c. — Savings' Working Banks, and Penny Banks. 

It is not the mere application of a " Charity" to the poor 
and needy that always helps them most, either as a class, or 
in individual cases ; the benevolent will as often confer sub- 
stantial service on them by affording information respecting 
the savings banks, loan funds, and other provident institu- 
tions brought together in this chapter, as ever they may do by 
securing for them direct pecuniary benefits or presentations. 
And, conflicting as the character, and questionable the 
results of some of these plans may be, for the end in view 
expressed by their titles, still it appears right that each 
should be fully represented as far as practicable. It has been 
well said, '' the poor must be ihade Mends" : and an outlay 



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149 

THE KATIOKAL flngmigtpgg iBJSktSB. PHILANTHROPIC, 

of charitable subscriptions is not all that is requisite for the 
purpose ; food and money is but a part of what they require ; 
there must be an outlay of care, of kind attention, of bro* 
therly feeling, a manifestation of man^ desires to help them ; 
— and all this appears to form the actuating motiye of the 
promoters of all these yarious schemes ; and for this reason 
as well, we conceive them entitled to our impartial consi- 
deration. 

The following summary affords briefly a sketch of the ex- 
tent of what is comprehended in the present chapter : — 

Of the societies in operation, there are — For the Em- 

Sloyment of the Able-bodied Pauper, 1 ; Assistance of Poor 
feedlewomen, 1 ; Dressmakers and MiUiners, 1 ; Institutions 
and Homes for Female Servants, 7 ; Apprenticeship Fee 
Funds, available for the Poor of Special Counties, 4. Total, 14. 

Of these, the aggregate annual income 
amounts to .... jC7,246 

Of which, there is derived from voluntary 

contributions .... je4,677 

All but one established during the present century. 

Of the societies and plans in contemplation, or in opera- 
tion for less than a year, may be included — For Promoting 
Emigration, 6 ; For Improving the Social and Moral Com- 
fort of the Emigrant, 2 ; Plan for Self-Supporting Villages, 1 . 

Of Loan Societies there are full particulars of 39 ; of Sav- 
ings Banks, 26 ; Examples of Working Banks, 1 ; and of 
Penny Banks, 1. 

Examples are also afforded of such charitable bequests, in 
the gift of parochial or other trustees, as are applicable to 
the present subject (a more general epitome of such trusts 
forming a future chapter). 

TRE NATIONAL PHILANTHROPIC ASSOCIA- 
TION, 40, Leicester-square ;i founded 1842 ; appears to 
claim first attention, from the large scope of its purposes, 
and the peculiar affinity of part of them to the present sub- 
ject. The avowed objects of the association are very exten- 
sive, to judge from the publications and addresses emanating 
from it ; and aim so much at theoretical questions, that, but 
for the practical turn given to a portion of them, it would 
scarcely be within our scope, benevolent and charitable as 
its views and objects are. These are thus expressed: — 

1 Originally designated " The Poor Man's Friend Society." 

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150 

PLAN FOB A SELF- CfrEnfeS flir SUPPORTINO TILLAGE. 

'' For the promotion of social and salutiferous improyements ; 
street cleanliness ; and the employment of the poor ; so that 
able-bodied men may be preyented from burthening the 
parish rates, and preseryed independent of workhouse alms 
and degradation.'' All this is excellent in theory, and un- 
exceptionable ; and we shall gladly see further operations 
as practically carried out as the " street-orderly system," 
originated and promoted by this association. Its president, 
Mr. Cochrane, deseryes great credit for the liberal support 
and perseyering energy with which he has promoted the 
system. It was first tested during the winter of 1843-4, in 
the neighbourhood of Regent and Oxford-streets ; afterwards 
extended oyer other parts of London. At one time, upwards 
of one hundred of these orderlies were employed, at a weekly 
payment of 12s. each, under inspectors, the whole cost being 
borne by the association, in order to induce the parochial 
authorities of the seyeral metropolitan parishes to support 
such employment of the able-bodied paupers out of ike 
rates. Seyeral of the leading parishes, it is satisfiEtctory to 
see, haye profited by the demonstration ; and there appears 
eyery prospect of this really wise and desirable arrangement 
being generally adopted tbioughout London. 

In the mean time, by reference to the balance sheet of the 
last published report of this association, we find that it is 
very deeply in debt to its president ; and its means of sup- 
port for future operations, as well as continuing present use- 
fulness, entirely depend upon yoluntary contributions. 

The association has published seyeral works relating to the 
yarious subjects inyolyed in its title, mostly adyocating and 
explaining its own proceedings. The report is an interesting 
document, and afibrds results of personal inquiries into some 
of the worst localities in London, bringing together much 
useful information for the philanthropist and social reformer .1 

President, Charles Cochrane, Esq. — Treasurer, B. B. Cabbell, 
Esq., M.P.— Secretary, Mr. C. Mackenzie.— Collector, Mr. Wil- 
liam Qooch. 

TSB CHURCH OF EJSOLANB SELF-SUPPORT- 
ING ViUage Institution.'^ OflSce, 32, Sackyille-street. Ori- 
ginated in 1843. Formed for the purpose of collecting and 

1 " Sanitary Progress," 2nd edition, 28. 6d. ; 8vo., pp. 251. Hatchard 
and Son: 1850. 
' This design would appear somewhat parallel to the recent land- 



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161 

4 ^ , 

SBLF-SUPPOBTINO Jlitlrfllisllillg filStofiS, TILLAGE INST. 

imparting information upon the subject of promoting the 
jreligious, moral, and general improvement of the working 
classes, by founding establishments of three hundred families 
on the land, and combining agricultural and manufacturing 
employment for their own benefit. The estimated expense 
of each establishment is stated at j^5,800 ; and the balance 
left from annual returns by labour and produce, about j£4,000| 
after paying interest on outlay, and eyery other expense. 

In the arrangements, the reasonable comforts of all parties 
will be considered ; involving thereby a larger outlay than 
would be required if the object were merely commercial. 
It is proposed that the required fimds shall be raised by do- 
nations, shares, or loans, at five per cent., until repaid by the 
industry of the inmates, when the establishment wiU belong 
to themselves and to theb successors for ever. In the mean- 
time, the management to be vested in Directors. 

schemes of Feargas O'Connor ; and, although promising Tery different 
management, and upon higher principles, jet the details of the late trial 
connected therewith, present so total a failure, and develope so many diffi- 
culties in the way of self-supporting communities, that it must he much 
doubted whether the benevotent promoters even of this scheme will be 
enabled to carry it out. 

The Labourer's Friend Society, an institution already detailed under 
the head of another of its objects, presents the most gratifying detaUs and 
prospects of further success, its efforts being well directed, and practically 
exemplified. The agent in Kent and the southern counties, who is em- 
ployed in obtaining land and setting it out in allotments, in any parish 
where his services may be required, has reported more than fifty parishes 
in one county, in which there are now above 8000 allotments. The ex- 
tension of this field-garden, or cottager allotment system, advocated by 
that society, appears free from the evils and troubles incident to exclu- 
sive supporting communities, and to be highly desirable. It was warmly 
recommended in a late parliamentary report ; and it is only to be regret- 
ted, that, to many districts, it proves of impracticable application, for 
want of an agency of sufficient powers. 

As far back as 1818, we find a society was formed, advocating the allot- 
ment system, but on different principles, entitled" Society for the Encou- 
ragement of Industry," which sets forth in the prospectus, " that an 
eminent means of improving the condition of the labouring class, would 
be, to afford the labouring poor small portions of land on easy terms." This 
appears, however, to have degenerated more into a political organ, and to 
hiave resulted in no practical effort, or model establishment. Some uf the 
sections of the Act of 1819, " to amend the laws for the relief of the poor," 
authorising overseers, dec. to purchase land for the employment of pau- 
pers, may be traced to its influences. 



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152 

SOCIETY FOB PaOMOTINO CjjTOtfeS f fit COLONIZATION, A.D.I 838 

1^0 member is considered as individually sanctioning, or 
identifying himself with the general principle, unless he has 
consented to become a shareholder, or authorized the use of 
his name. 

All communications to be addressed to the Honorary Se- 
cretary, J. M. Morgan, Esq., 12, Stratton-street ; also to the 
Bey. R. Larken, Burton Rectory, near Lincoln ; and the 
Rev. Joseph Brown, Christchurch, Blackfriars. 

Colonization and Emigration. As before stated, inser- 
tion is given to the following emigration schemes, not so 
much on account of any abstract characteristic of charity 
about them, as with the view of affording some little infor- 
mation to such as may be seeking it in connexion with plans 
for assisting the poorer classes. Emigration is now recog- 
nized to such an extent, as the panacea for destitution and 
distress, both by those requiring assistance as well as those 
desiring to assist, that no opportunity is lost of advertising 
into notoriety various schemes of private interest, and advo- 
cating peculiar measures, all claiming to be for the same 
purpose, namely, alleviating the wants of an over-populated 
country. Mixed with such, however, are institutions that 
owe their origin wholly, and their present support in part, 
to the exertions of the disinterested and charitable ; and it 
has been the endeavour to select such only as have a title to, 
and require the same. 

THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF COLO- 
NIZA TION, 7, Charing-cross ; established 1848 ; appears 
to possess this claim in a special degree, its object being to 
advance emigration in quarters where it is both desirable for 
the classes who emigrate, for the government under whose 
sway they continue, and for the combined welfare, both of 
qur country and her large dependencies ; in short, whatever 
can be urged in favour of emigration, comes with double 
power and force for colonization. 

Until recently, the only contribution to colonial society 
was crime — and taxation to control the crime — ^which our 
country engendered and imposed upon her colonies. The 
effect has long been, that honest industry sought its way to 
foreign shores ;^ destitution was preserved at home untU it 

^ To 1847, of 268^270 persons who emigrated, 142,154 proceeded direct 
to the United States, and it is computed that 87,000 more went hy the 



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COLONIZATION Sinttllishittll fiiStrBSS, socibty,a.d.1848 



produced dishonesty ; and the British convict was then con- 
verted into a British colonist. It is to be hoped that no 
future government will revert to a system so destructive in 
its consequences. 

This association was originally designated, ^^The Labourers' 
Relief Emigration Committee." Its objects now are rather 
expanded ; and involve assistance by information, loans, and 
reduction of passage monies, to all persons desiring it, ac- 
cording to certain regulations, that may be had at the office. 

The revenue by which emigration t-o Australia and the 
Cape of Good Hope is supported, is derived from the rent 
and sale of crown lands within these colonies. Before the 
establishment of this society, the whole expense was borne 
from such revenue ; but under the new regulation, which 
prescribes mutual payments, the colonial funds are econo- 
mized, and consequently rendered applicable to a larger 
number: the principle involves no imposition of a fresh 
charge ; but a different application of existing payments.^ 
Whilst upon this subject, it is satisfactory to perceive, from 
a late report of the emigration commissioners, that as a con- 
sequence of the adoption of the suggestions of this society 
by the government, about 3,000 emigrants to the colonies had 
contributed, in part payment of their passages, upwards of 
j£l0,300. Also, a number of young women from the Union 
workhouses had been despatched, on payment by the parishes 
of £4 per head towards their passages. 

The following scale of payments toward passages to the 
Australian colonies and the Cape of Good Hope, has been 
adopted by the commissioners of emigration, and is now in 
force. 

''AusTBAUA. — 1st. Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, Herds- 

St. Lawrence : making, in all, aboat 180,000 ; or, in one year, a nnmber 
equal to the whole population of Australia. An increasing current of 
wealth and enterprise thus flowed to foreigners, absorbing capital and 
population, while scarcely more than a few hundred persons, during 
several years, found their way to the British possessions in the southern 
hemisphere. 

^ The goyemment emigration plans are under the direction of Thb 
Colonial Land and Emigration Board, established for the purpose 
of superintending the sale and settlement of the waste lands of the crown 
in the British colonies, and the conveyance of emigrants thither. Office, 
0, Park-street, Westminster. Commissioners : T. W. C. Murdock, C. A. 
Wood, T. Refers, Esqrs.-^Secretaiy, S. Walcott, Esq.— London Port 
Agent, Lieut Lean. 

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154 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CjlHtlfeS fill COLONIZATION, A.D.I 848 

men, and Female Domestic and Farm Servants, imder40, 21.^, 40 
and imder 50, 61. ; 50 and imder 60, 11?. ; 60 and upwards, 15/. 

2nd. " Country Mechanics — such as Blacksmiths, bricklayers. 
Carpenters, Masons, Miners, Wheelwrights, Qardeners, and 
Feinales of the Working Class, not being Domestic or Farm 
Servants, under 40, 51. ; 40 and under 50, 8Z. ; 50 and imder 60, 
121. ; 60 and upwards, 151. 

3rd. " Other persons of the Labouring Class, if deemed by the 
Commissioners desirable for the Colony, under 40, 71. ; 40 and 
under 60, 101. ; 50 and under 60, IZl. ; 60 and upwards, 151. 

4th. *' All children under 14 years of age pay 11. each; and if 
the fiunily contains more than two children at the time of em- 
barkation under 10 years of age, for each child 51. additional 
must be paid. 

''Yoimg men under 18 not accompanying their parents, are 
admissible only on payment of the sum m the 3rd class of the scale. 

*' The emigrants must consist principally of married couples, 
not above 40 years of age. The candidates most acceptable are 
young married couples without children. The separation of pa- 
rents from children imder 16 will in no case be allowed. Single 
women under 18 are not eligible, imless they are emigrating with 
their parents, or under the immediate care of some near married 
relatives. Out of these payments, the beddings and mess utensils 
required on the voyage, are provided by the Commissioners. 

"Capk op Qood Hope. — Agricultural Labourers, etc. (as before), 
14 and under 40, nil; 40 and under 50, il. ; 50 and upwards, 91. 

Mechanics, etc., 14 and imder 40, Zl. ; 40 and under 50, 61. ; 
50 and upwards, 91. 

" All other persons of the Labouring Classes, 14 and under 40, 
51. ; 40 and under 50, 71. ; 50 and upwards, 9^. 

" For Children — i.e. persons under 14 years of age : — ^Two chil- 
dren of persons assisted to emigrate on the above terms will be 
conveyed free. 51. will be required for each child in excess of 
this number. A deposit of 11. has also to be paid for every per- 
son above 14, and 10«.- for every child above one and under 14 
years of age ; which is retained to meet the expense of bedding 
and mess utensils supplied by the Commissioners, and as some 
security that the people will come forward to embark." 

It will be well to add, as a caution, that this society now 
under consideration, employs no agents ; but transacts its 
business throughout the country by means of branch societies. 

One pound annually constitutes a member, entitled to re- 
ceive publications, and having the privilege of recommend- 
ing candidates for emigration on reduced fares. 

Chairman of Committee, Earl of Harrowby. — IVeasurer, Capt. 
H. G. Hamilton, R.N.— Secretary, John Whelan, Esq.— Bankers, 
Messrs. Ransom and Co. 

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155 

coLowizATioN fijlltigiglrnig Jllftogg^ society, 1848 

The School Fund in connexion with the Colonization Society, 
consistsof a fund for sending out religious teachers and school* 
master on board each emigrant ship bound for the colonies, 
with the more immediate view of improving the period of the 
voyage (ordinarily lasting four or five months), to the young 
and ignorant. The importance of such a provision may be ga- 
thered from the fact of nearly half a million of emigrants hav- 
ing left our shores in the past two years alone ; and in many 
cases, reports, too well authenticated, have been received, as 
to the low moral tone prevailing on board the vessels convey- 
ing them ; the evil results of which do not end with the 
voyage, but affect the after-life of the emigrants, and per- 
haps the best interests of the colonies of which they become 
citizens. This fund is under the management of a sub- 
committee of the society. A free passage and a gratuity are 
given to such persons, but no guarantee of support or em- 
ployment after their arrival, for which they have to depend 
on their own exertions. They have to undergo an examina- 
tion, and testimoniab to their religious and moral character 
are required. 

Chairman of the Sub-Committee, the Earl of Harrowby. — Trea- 
surer of the Fund, Arthur Mills, Esq. — Honorary Secretary of 
Sub-Committee, William H. G. Kingston, Esq. 

Since the formation of the last named society, the Act 11 
and 12 Vict., c. 110, has been passed, empowering Unions 
and Parishes to levy an emigration rate for the passage- 
monev of the settled and unsettled poor: the means of 
effectmg the purpose being little known, parishes have not 
availed themselves of it to any great extent,^ but documents 
explanatory of the course of proceeding are supplied to 
boards of guardians on application to the Colonization So- 
ciety ;(Sd^ there is every reason to suppose, that 1860 will 
see an extraordinay amount spent for the purpose, and an 
unequaUed number of emigrants leave our shores; there 
can be little doubt of this in the face of much agricultural 
distress at home, and the glowing representations of what is 
offered in other lands, besides the pecuniary advantages pre- 
sented to the heavily-taxed ratepayer, by getting quit of the 

* By the Poor-Law Board returas for the jear ending Lady-day 184T, 
there appears to have heen only i^,456 spent, from the rates, towards 
snch purposes; and for the year ending Lady-day 1848, j£ 12,301. The 
amomit for the present year will, perhaps, more than double this. 



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EMIGRATION ClfanfeS fUT SOCIETIES. 

able-bodied and burdensome paup^ And thus argues a 
powerful organ of public opinion, in a recent article upon 
the subject ; after premising there are in England and Wfdes, 
or were in July last, 997,796 paupers maintained at an ex- 
pense of £5,792,963 from the rates ; the writer thus con- 
tinues : '^ Such is the case at home. A million paupers costing 
the country at the rate of £5 : 16». a year. From this 
prospect look across the Atlantic, and sail round the Cape 
to the Antipodes. Everywhere we possess, without dispute, 
without let or hindrance, as fully and as freely as our own 
paddocks and lawns, land enough not only for one million, 
but for a hundred millions. The inhabitants of these 
regions clamour for our labourers ; the cattle ask to be 
rnHked, the sheep to be eaten, the harvest to be reaped, and 
all nature to be occupied and enjoyed. The woods and 
dales are vocal with invitation. Then, as for the means of 
conveyance, it is not a barren wilderness that separates our 
land of promise from our house of bondage, but the ocean 
— an ocean in which we are ever at home, filled with our 
merchantmen and protected by our fleets — an ocean the 
greatest perils of which are those which a vessel escapes 
from when it loses sight of our own shores— an ocean which, 
so far from being any real obstacle, is, in fact, the readiest, 
easiest, safest, and cheapest means of communication be- 
tween the extremes of poverty and abundance described. 
Only one other link in the chain is wanting, and that is the 
expense. It is supplied by the simple fact that one million 
paupers cost us annually about 5^. 16«. a head. One year's 
maintenance of one million paupers would place them with 
a sovereign each in their pockets in Upper Canada. Two 
years' maintenance would laud them at Cape Town or Port 
ifatal. Three years' maintenance would distribute them 
over Australia, Van Diemen's Land, and New Zealand. 
Buch are the broad features of a case, such the simple con- 
ditions of a problem, without a parallel for interest and im- 
portance." 

Writing like this, however varied the feeling it may occa- 
sion, must cause the conviction that emigration is and will 
be greatly on the increase ; it presents an evident and pecu- 
liar feature of the times, and one of the many means to- 
wards the accomplishment of the great and certain predic- 
tion that " the knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth 
as the waters cover the sea"; as its associations bring to 

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157 

EMIGBATIOW f imifliBlling fliStegg^ SOCTKTIES . 

mind the fulfilment of promises, so do thej present the 
opportunities of obeying precepts, to " preach the Gbspel to 
every creature"; and, however, the benevolent may differ as 
regards the desirableness of aiding emigration, to the na- 
tional extent referred to, the Christian will only see the 
fresh opportunities it presents of spreading abroad the 
knowledge of the Great Redeemer. But not further to 
anticipate institutions founded for thus influencing the 
operations of emigration societies, it will be well to draw 
attention to the others on our list. 

THE NATIONAL BENEVOLENT EMIGRATION 
SOCIETY,^ George-yard, Lombard-street, is only now form- 
ing, but it is so with names of such guarantee as to its disin- 
terested future management, that no hesitation can be enter- 
tained to briefly stating its objects. They appear first of all to 
be, to give system to the internal efforts of parishes for pro- 
moting the emigration of their own poor, and to aid, by the 
funds placed at their disposal from voluntary contributions, 
such parishes, in proportion to the amount from their respec- 
tive rates. The committee state their first desire to be this : 
cooperating with parishes from the belief that "they form the 
best machinery for canyiDg out emigration" to the extent 
we have been contemplating : and the remaining portion of 
the fund which may be raised, it is designed to apply 
for providing a free passage and necessaries for such poor 
persoQS as have no direct settlement, selected from the house 
of the society for affording skelter to the housdesSy and re- 
fuge for the destitutey <fec., and from personal applicants at 
the society's ofiices. Also in providing passages for such 
poor persons as may be able to provide a portion of the ne> 
cessary funds, but unable to raise the whole amount required 
for their passage. 

The chief and peculiar benefit of such a society as this 
depends entirely on the efficient carrying out of the follow- 
ing details of the design, as set forth in the preliminary 
prospectus : " In all cases where persons are selected for 
emigration, they will be received at the society's depot^ 
in the metropolis, where they will receive a short probation, 
in order that they may be brought to a fit state, both ot 
body and mind, to undertake the voyage, under the superin- 
tendence of a competent medical man and a clergyman ; and, 
on their arrival in the colony, they will be received by the 

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158 

EMIGRATION TO CljaiitifS fU PORT NATAL. 

agents of the society, and placed under proper management 
for their protection and distribution. 

In order to remove the chief objections at present raised 
against emigration, the society proposes to pay the greatest 
attention to the arrangements on board ships despatched 
under their auspices, and they have for that object several 
plans under consideration. \A schoolmaster, matron, and a 
surgeon, will be provided by^he society to carry out regula- 
tions on bo^d, also a suitable selection of moral and reli- 
gious booksTi 

The operations of the society must of course be entirely 
controUed by the extent of its receipts, and will depend 
upon voluntary contributions for its support ; one excellent 
arrangement promised by the committee, is a quarterly state- 
ment of the receipts, disbursements, and entire working of 
the society. The published list of the committee comprises 
six clergymen and eight other gentlemen, and as the re- 
sponsible officers, the following : 

Treasurer, John Dean Paul, Esq. — Auditors : John Petrie Mac- 
killop, Esq. ; Thos. Gibbs, Esq. — Manager, Charles W. Parsons, 
Esq.— Solicitors, Messrs. Wadeson and Malleson, 11, Austinfriars. 
— Surgeon, Robert Bowie, Esq. — Surveyor of Shipping, Captain 
J. W. Douglas. — ^Bankers: Messrs. Strahan, Paul, Paul, and 
Bates, 217, Strand ; Messrs. Bosanquet, Franks, and Whatman, 
73, Lombard-street. — Secretary, Frederick F. Hilder, Esq. 

£/inigration to Port Natal, SotUh Africa, appears to 
afford peculiar inducements to those who are a remove above 
absolute want, and have some resources of their own to avail 
themselves of. And a company recently formed, under the 
direction of Messrs. J. C. Byrne <fe Co., presents apparently 
a fair and desirable mode of employing these to the best 
advantages : the scheme can claim no credit on account of 
any peculiar benevolent design in its formation ; it is purely 
a commercial affair, but one of character, and under the 
sanction of government, fostered for the special purpose of 
promoting colonization at this port. 

A steerage passage, with provisions, is afforded, and twenty 
acres of land granted, for the sum of jGlO ; provided the in- 
tending emigrant is either a labourer, mechanic, farmer, 
tradesman, or of small capital ; proceeding to occupy and 
cultivate land in the colony. 

Forms have to be filled up by the intending emigrant, 
fully specifying particulars ; and testimonials are required 



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159 

guMALB fitmiiiifiltnig I9i5tog5« emigration. 

as to honesty, general good character, and non-likelihood of 
becoming a burden to the colony. The necessary forms may 
be obtained at the office, as well as other particulars. 

Similar care appears to be taken, as by the last-mentioned 
Society, for securing good vessels and promoting comfort on 
board ; and pursuant to government requisites, a clergyman 
and surgeon sail with each. 

Agents and General Superintendents, Messrs. J. 0. Byrne and 
Co., 12, Pall Mall East. 

The new Colony of Canterbury, in New Zealand, is a 
settlement founded exclusively on Christian principles ; con- 
nected with the Church of England, and enjoys the personal 
superintendence and residence of Bishop Selwyn. 

There is no permanent association for assisting persons 
desirous of joining the colony, but arrangements are made 
from time to time, by independent bodies of colonists and 
intending emigrants ; thus, at the present time, there is a 
daily meeting of such advertised as assembling atlA, Adelphi 
Terrace. 

Full and detailed information, concerning the principles, 
objects, plans, and proceedings, of the founders of this 
settlement, will be found in "the Canterbury Papers," pub- 
lished by Mr. J. W. Parker, West Strand. 

FUND for PROMOTING FEMALE EMIORA TION, 
4, St. Martin's-place. Now being established under the main 
instrumentality of Mr. Sidney Herbert, with the view, if pos- 
sible, of abating two existing evils : one the inequality of the 
number of females to males in the Colonies ;^ the other the 
extreme destitution and suffering amongstthe working women 
in our own land,2 by promoting emigration on an extensive 
scale. It is proposed at once to open a register for such as 

1 In 1847 there were, in New South Wales, only 41,000 females to 
83,000 males ; in South Australia, 13,000 females to 17,000 males ; and 
similar disproportions exist in Van Diemen's Land, and other colonial 
dependencies. In G^eat Britain, on the contrary, the present estimated 
excess of the female popalation, is stated to be half a million. — Hon. 
Sidney Herbert's Letter to the Timei. 

' In the metropolis, above 33,500 women are engaged in the single 
business of apparel making. It is estimated that 28,500 of them are 
under twenty years of age ; and that of these, a large portion are subsist- 
ing, or attempting to subsist, on sums varying from 44d. to S^d. a day.— 
Horace Maj/hew. 



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160 

FEMALE EMIGRANT CljHritfeS fUT SOCIETY, A.D. 1849 

desire to avail themselves of the fund, and in the first in- 
stance to extend its assistance to that class which, as the 
poorest and most helpless, has a reasonable claim to early 
consideration, — the needlewomen and slopwoi'kers. The as- 
sistance will either be by gift or loan, according to the scale 
of public support given to the measure, and regulated by 
the circumstances of each case. Care and comfort will be 
secured for the passage out, and facilities afforded at the 
colonies for obtaining respectable positions. 

Donations can, if it be desired, be paid in four annual 
instalments. 

Chairman of Committee, Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, M.P. — 
Secretary (pro tern.), W. T. Haly, Esq. 

The St. Marvlebone Parochial Association, is under the 
direction of a local committee, appointed to aid the same 
object, and has been formed in the hope that other parishes 
of the kingdom will foUow the example, and thus render 
this great national plan the assistance it so well merits. 

The committee meet at the court-house every Wednesday 
at 11, and the attendance and support of the parishioners of 
Marylebone is earnestly solicited. 

Treasurer, Capt. Holland, R.N., 8, Upper Wimpole-street. — 
Hon. Secretary, Henry C. Wilson, Esq. 

\_The next institution is one formed for the personal benefit 
of the female emigrants themselves ; it appears a measure 
in the right direction, and its design has our best sympa- 
thies and wishes-^ 

TEE BRITISH LADIES' FEMALE EMIGRANT 
SOCIETY, 26, Red Lion-square. Has only recently been 
established ; but it promises to form as valuable an adjunct 
to the preceding benevolent fund, as its operations ought 
to prove inseparable from every emigration scheme. The 
plan has been in active trial at Plymouth and Deptford since 
March 1849 : its object is to promote the moral and spiritual 
well-being of female emigrants, and to counteract the dan- 
gers of the mixed association among so many during the long 
period of undisciplined idleness, by providing visitation at 
the ports, whereby books and materisds for employment are 
supplied, industrial classes formed, and friendly counsel and 
assistance afforded to female emigrants. 

For the furtherance of these views, it especially endea- 



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161 

needlewomen's ^iMlIg tJTB UntaSitriiniS. society^.d.1843 

yours to promote the appointment of judicious and efficient 
matrons to superintend the young women. Should the funds 
allow, the committee announce their intention also to pro- 
vide some previous training for these matrons, and to assist 
in the formation of homes in the colonies for the protection 
of friendless female emigrants. 

Treasurers : the Hon. Arthur Einnaird, 86, Hyde-park-gardens ; 
Kobert Benson, Esq., 32, Hyde-park-gardens. — Hon. Secretaries : 
Mrs. Margaret Benson, 6, Sussex-sq., Hyde-park ; Miss Bridges, 
23, Red Lion-square ; Mrs. Christmas, 11, Spring-gardens. — 
Bajikers, Messrs. Ransom and Co., 1, Pall Mall East. — ^Assistant 
Secretary, Mr. Charles Gwillim, 25, Red Ldqn-square. 

L Leaving the subject of Emigration, which has unavoidably 
occupied greater space than was intended, -^ 

THE SOCIETY FOR TEE PROTECTION AND 

EmphyTrverU of Distressed Needlewomen appears, by right of 
association with the objects of the two last, next to claim 
attention. The office is 5 Rathbone-place, Oxford-street. It 
was formed at the Mansion House, in 1843; having its imme- 
diate rise from the sympathy created amongst all classes, by 
the ever memorable appeal in favour of the poor needle- 
woman, ** the Song of the Shirt". 

Much good, from time to time, has doubtless accrued from 
the advocacy by the society of the claims of this ill-paid but 
industrious class of women ; but its operations have not 
taken apparently any practical turn, beyond a slight amount 
distributed as pecuniary assistance in last balance sheet, 
amounting to £20 only, and an amount paid for work of rai- 
ment for the destitute, £180 ; and at the present time its re- 
sources appear so limited, as to threaten virtiial suspension. 
The measure now adopted of registering the names of deserv- 
ing needlewomen, promises, if persevered in, to be of consi- 
derable benefit, and one that cannot be too extensively 
known, both for the workwomen and those who occasionally 
feel the need of such as can be well recommended. 

The last public measure attempted by the society was a 
meeting, convened by it six weeks since (presided over by 
Mr. Alderman Fairbrother),to draw attention to the injurious 
tendency of prison labour upon the employment and remu- 
neration of honest and industrious workwomen : this was 
proved to demonstration, and warmly dwelt upon, by several 
friends of the society. 

11 

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162 

DEBSSMAKERS' AND CtjfilitirS fe MILLINEES', A.D. 1843 

The last published cash statement of the society shows an 
income considerably under ^500, arising from voluntary 
contributions. 

President, Mr. Alderman Fairbrother. — Chairman, Luke James 
Hansard, Esq. — Hon. Secretary, George Fyson Roper, Esq., 7, 
Eastbourne-terrace, Hyde-park. — Clerk, Mr. Flint, 78, Great 
Portland-street. 

Contemporary in its establishment with the last men- 
tioned, and somewhat similar in character, is the 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE AID AND PROTEC- 
TION of Dress-makers and Milliners, 13, Clifford -street. 
Established 1843. Its principal objects are — ^to induce the 
principals of dress-making and millinery establishments to 
limit the hours of actual work to twelve per diem, and to 
abolish in all cases working on Sundays ; to promote an im- 
proved system of ventilation ; to aid in obviating the evils 
connected with the present system, by inducing ladies to 
allow sufficient time for the execution of orders and to en- 
courage those establishments which zealously cooperate in 
carrying out the objects of the association ; to afford pecu- 
niary assistance to deserving young persons in cases of tem- 
porary distress or difficulty, and medical advice, change of 
air, and other assistance, in cases of sickness, at a moderate 
cost. To realize these objects, a book has been opened at 
the office, in which the names and addresses of young per- 
sons of good character and capacity are entered free of ex- 
pense, to meet the inquiries of employers seeking additional 
assistants, especially in the busy season. During the past 
year, 1,273 young women availed themselves of this, and 
obtained comfortable assistance. 

A Provident Fund has also been established, in which 
young persons engaged in the business can deposit their 
savings on Mondays, from 10 to 11 a.m. 

President, Lord Ashley. — ^Treasurer, Sir "Walter Farqxihar, Bart. 
— ^Hon. Secretary, R. D. Grainger, Esq. — Consulting Actuary, 
Adolphus W. Barnes, Esq. — Physicians : Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. 
M'lntyre, Dr. J. R. Bennett. — Consulting Surgeons: J. Dal- 

riple, Esq. ; S. Solly, Esq. ; R. D. Grainger, Esq. — Surgeons : 
P. Wall, Esq. ; M. Beale, Esq.— Collector, Mr. Gale, 107, 
Great Portland-street. — Manager at the Office, Miss Newton. 

THE DRESS-MAKERS' AND MILLINERS' PRO- 
VIDENT and Benevolent InstittUion, 32, Sackville-street. 



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163 

FEMALE servants' ^iMUg tljB SlAllStrinilfi. HOME, 1813-36 

Established 1848. Arising out of the foregoing society, it 
is fostered and promoted by it. Although distinct in its 
management and means of support, some of the objects are 
conmion to both; but it is considered by the managers 
thereof that the interests of each are best consulted by con- 
tinuing separate. B. Moore, Esq., Honorary Secretaiy. 

Of the various institutions for the benefit of Female Ser- 
vants, the first established in London was in 1813, which for 
many years, it must be believed, exercised a most important 
influence amongst those who came within its benefits. The 
peculiar value of its operations appears to have consisted in 
the continuous system of its rewards for long and faithful 
service, increasing in value from year to year ; also the con- 
nexion maintained through future life between such as ob- 
tained certificates, and the society, insuring for them relief 
and counsel under any kind of trouble. This distinctive 
part of the operation of the society has ceased to exist, and 
its main objects merged into the following, which takes the 
precedence of the other kindred societies, from its compre- 
hending in its management what remained of the first society, 
the original establishment of which is still maintained by it. 

TEE FEMALE SERVANTS' HOME SOCIETY, 21, 
Kutford-place, and 110, Hatton-garden.i Established 1836. 
For the encoiiragement of faithful female servants, and their 
protection when out of place, by establishing homes in dif- 
ferent parts of the metropolis and its immediate neighbour- 
hood, where servants of good character are lodged at one 
shilling per week, being provided with a separate bed, coals, 
candles, house linen, a well furnished kitchen, and wash- 
house, but boarded at their own expense. They are expected 
to attend Divine Service twice on the Sabbath, seats at 
church being provided for that purpose. Servants who have 
been inmates of the "home", and can have a three years' cha- 
racter as "a faithful servant," from a subscriber, are entitled 
to participate in an annual distribution of rewards by the so- 
ciety. Two "homes" are now established, as above, and others 
are contemplated. During the past year, 489 servants have 
been inmates, and 4,300 availed themselves of the registry. 

One pound annually constitutes a member, entitled to 
printed letters for admitting inmates to the home. The an- 

^ The original institution, at 110, Hatton-garden," for the imprOTe- 
ment and encouragement of female servants," was founded 1813. 



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FEMALE servants' CtjEIlfeS fSX SOCIETIES, A.D. 1818-35 

nual income is under ;£500, of which £70 is derived from 
fees for registering, £80 from servants' payments, and the 
remainder from voluntary contributions. The expenses are 
within this amount, judging from last year's cash statement. 
Non-subscribers may obtain servants from the registry on a 
payment of 2s. 6d. 

Treasurer, R. C. L. Bevan, Esq. — Chairman, Rev. Joseph Brown. 
— Secretanr, Rev. J. H. Simpson, M.A. — Honorary Solicitor, St. 
Pierre B. Hook, Esq., Tokenhouse-yard, Bank. — Honorary Phy- 
sicians, Dr. Dickson and Sir James Eyre. — Honorary Surgeons, 
E. Barker, Esq., and J. Paul, Esq.— Matrons, Mrs. Butcher, 21, 
Nutford-place, and Mrs. Peake, 110, Hatton-garden. — Assistant 
Secretary, Mr. J. Seabrooke. — Collector, Mr. Buck. 

PROVISIONAL PROTECTION SOCIETY, 92, Fen- 
church-street. Instituted 1818. Is for the purpose of assist- 
ing indigent female servants of good character, when out of 
place and in indigent circumstances, by supplying them with 
food, lodging, clothing, medical aid, or a small loan of money, 
according to the necessity of the case, the merits of which is 
personally investigated before any assistance is granted. 

Half-a-guinea annually, or £6 donation, entitles to recom- 
mend one case. 1,700 females have been assisted by the 
fiinds since the formation of the society. 

Treasurer, Mrs. Cornelius Hanbury, Plough-court, Lombard- 
street. — Honorary Secretary, Mrs. Joseph T. Foster, Stamford- 
hill. — Assist. Secretary, Mr. C. Gordelier, 92, Fenchurch-street. 
— Bankers, Messrs. Drewett and Fowler. 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN INSTITUTION, 46, Bed- 
ford-row. Established 1826. For the purpose of protecting 
the public from the evils arising in giving false characters 
ta bad servants ; and for the encouragement of those whose 
characters bear the test of strict inquiry, providing them 
with situations, granting relief in ^sickness or distress, and 
permanent provision in old age. The alms-houses of the in- 
stitution are in Raven-row, Mile-end-road ; and accommo- 
date eleven persons, who receive each four shillings per week. 

Ten guineas donation, or one guinea annual, constitute 
governors, with the following privileges : to apply for ser- 
vants for their own establishments ; to recommend such as 
are in want of employ for gratuitous admission on the books 
of the institution ; and in sickness or distress, for medical or 
pecuniary relief ; or as candidates when vacancies occur in 



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• 165 

SEBYAKTS, gj^JU^ j^ gflimgtriimg^ A.D. 1847-9 

the alms houses belonging to the institution ; and to vote 
pensions for life, or permanent provision in old age, to the 
infirm and destitute. The income is derived chiefly from 
voluntary contributions, the funded property not exceeding 
;£700 : the account books, it is represented, are open, for the 
satisfaction of those desiring to support the society, but no 
statement of funds is appended to the published report. 

Treasurer, William Tooke, Esq., 39, Bedford-row. — Secretary, 
Mr. Thomas Butt. — Bankers, London and Westminster Bank, 214, 
High Holboni.^-Inve8tigator and Collector, Mr. A. M'Kenzie. 

THE CHRISTIAN FEMALE SERVANTS RE- 
GISTER, 4, College Terrace, Camden Town. Established 
1849. For the like purpose as the foregoing institutions ; 
endeavouring to obtain sitiiations of a Christian character 
for female servants ; to impart instruction to the incompe- 
tent ; and to afford temporary assistance when needed. 

Time of application, both from servants and families, be- 
tween 11 and 1 every day, except Saturday and Sunday, at 
the office. 

Treasurer, Lieut. John Blackmore, R.N., 27, Gloucester-place. 
— Secretary, Mrs. A. E. Ferry. 

HOME AND REGISTRY FOR FEMALE SER- 
VANTS, 5, Millman Street, Bedford Row. Vide Female 
Aid Society, p. 104. 

Benevolent benefit funds for servants, have recently occupied 
much consideration on the part of the highest in the land, 
and the last few years have served to develope the peculiar 
advantages attending their operations, and afford reasons for 
their extension ; — so long back as 1834, 

THE SERVANT'S INSTITUTION, 42, Great Mary- 
bone Place, was established ; embracing to a limited extent 
the features now presented in all their comprehensiveness, 
by the institution of 1847 ; with this, apparently (vide note), 
it is now amalgamated, upon terms satisfactory to the mem- 
bers of the latter institution, and very beneficial to the cause 
mutually advocated. 

THE SERVANTS PROVIDENT AND BENEVO- 
LENT Society, 8, Cork Street, Established 1847,^ thus re- 

1 Originally at 5, Argyll-street, and amalgamated, 1849, with the " Ser- 
rants' Institution", of Great Marjlebone-street The Prince Consort 



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166 

SEBYANTS ' PROVIDENT Ctiaiifeg fHI SOCIETY, A.D. 1847 

ferred to, may be safely described as originated on a most 
comprehensive plan, and is well calculated to afford the 
security, relief, and provision to this class described in the 
words of the report, " as the largest of all classes of Her 
Majesty's subjects,"^ on a scale commensurate with their de- 
pendance and necessities. 

The directors — considering that as the large majority of 
such a class will necessarily come to the workhouse, or re- 
quire other relief in their old age, no sufficient provision for 
their necessities can be met by small payments, or the even- 
tual probability of some few being elected annuitants to a 
benevolent fund — have determined, as their principal objects, 
to arrange for servants the security of government deferred 
annuities ; to explain the nature of these annuities ; and to 
assist occasionally in the payment of the annual premiums — 
saving all preliminary expenses. Also to secure endowments 
for their children, of from £10 to £50, upon arriving at 14 
or 21 years of age ; and the payment of ;£10 at death for 
funeral expenses. 

The payments from members, to secure these provisions, 
vary accordincr to age ; tables of which, and every explana- 
tion, is afforded at the office (from nine till five). Members 
must not be under 15 years old, and are required to make 
payments to one of the provident objects of the society, and 
to subscribe to its rules : but no admission fee is required. 

Contributions from the benevolent, consist of annual sub- 
scriptions of 1 guinea, or donations of 10 guineas, constitut- 
ing governors. 

Annexed to the other objects of the benevolent fund, is 
the establishment of a home for female servants out of place: 
a lodging house for male servants, a registry of situations, a 
library, and dispensary ; but these, after the first expenses, 
are intended to be self-supporting. 

took the chair at the public meetiDg of this institution in May last, and 
expounded its objects, and system of operation, in a yery lucid and de- 
taUed speech. Its amalgamation, at the time, was apparently to general 
satisfaction ; but a late announcement has appeared, purporting to ema- 
nate from the latter society, stating that, in consequence of the conditions 
agreed upon not being Ailfilled,the society contemplates resuming its old 
operations. 

^ By the census of 1841 there were, in the metropolis alone, of domes- 
tic servants, 89^00 males, and 129,400 females : total, 168,700. Nearly 
one to eleven of the whole population. 



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167 

SBBVAWTs' ^iMlIJ tl)t SiridlStrinM. institution,! 846 

Patron, the Prince Albert. — President, the Bishop of London. 
— ^Treasurers : Harry Chester, Esq. ; T. Clarke, Esq. — Auditors : 
E. Lawrance, Esq. ; J. J. Miles, Esq. — Honorary Physician, 
E,. G. Tjatham, Esq., M.D. — Honorary Surgeon, J. Alexander, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. George Grant. — Bankers, Messrs. Hoare, 
Fleet-street. 

TEE GENERAL DOMESTIC SERVANTS' BENE- 
VOLENT Institution, 32, Sackville-street, Piccadilly. Es- 
tablished 1846. For the purpose of granting pensions of 
from 15 to 25 pounds to members, and temporary assistance 
at the discretion of the committee— who are guided especially 
in their selection by the character and necessities, Hkewise 
the duration and amount of membership of each applicant. 

The payments yary from 3«. to 10«. per annum, according 
to age and sex ; the society numbers 4000 such members, 
and the permanent fund amounts to between 3 and 4 thou- 
sand pounds. £\ annually, or £6 donation, constitute a 
governor ; with four votes at all elections. 

A registry for servants out of place has recently been added. 
The present number of pensions granted, consists of two at 
j£20 each per annum to men, and four at £15 each to women. 

President, Lord Robert Grosvenor. — Treasurer, Thomson Han- 
key, jun., Esq. — ^Bankers, Sir WiUiam P. CaJl, Bart., and Co. — 
Secretary, Mr. Thomas Douesberry. 

The Charitable Bequests in trust with the various city 
companies and parochml officers, comprehend to a large ex- 
tent, in some instances, amounts available for — 

Loans, with and withovi interest, to young men beginning 
business, &c. Also marriage portions — apprerUiceship fees — 
4S?c. : they are for the most part of special or local applicar 
tion ; and a brief summary of such, will be included m the 
chapter on Charities in the trust of the City Companies, (fee. 
The following wiU serve as examples merely of what more 
immediately are associated with the present subject. The 
first is a loan trust : — 

ARNEWAT CHARITY, consists of funds vested in 
trustees, who are enabled to grant loans thereof at interest, 
to "Poor occupiers or traders resident within the city and 
liberty of Westminster, that is to say, within the parishes of 
Saint Margaret, and Saint John the Evangelist ; Saint Anne, 
Soho ; Saint Clement Danes ; Saint George, Hanover-square ; 
Saint James ; Saint Martin-in-the-fields ; Saint Mary-le- 
Strand ; and Saint Paul Covent-garden. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



168 

APPRENTICESHIP PEE CljEnfeS fOT AND OTHER FUNDS. 

The loans granted under this trust, consist of sums from as 
much as £50 to ^100. The repayment is not usually required 
under two years, and the rate of interest 3 per cent. Printed 
forms of application to be had of the clerk to the trustees, 
which must be filled up and sent in, one clear week before 
the first of the month, when the trustees meet to determine 
loans. Hours of attendance, from 10 until 3 o^clock. Clerk, 
and Solicitor to the Trustees, Mr. E. S. Stephenson, 12, Great 
Queen Street. The second is for 

MARRIAGE PORTIONS, Founded 1781, by will of 
Edward Dickenson, Esq., who left £6000 stock ; the inte- 
rest of which to be divided on the first month after Easter 
day, between three new married couples from each parish of 
St. Margaret ; St. John the Evangelist, Westminster ; and 
of Acton. Each distribution with the approbation of the 
Bishop of London for the time being. 

Petitions for this charity are taken into consideration by 
the trustees on the Wednesday in Easter week, and they 
decide on the nine couples to receive the bounty, which con- 
sists of £16 each. The third consists of trust for appren- 
tice fees : — 

FELLOWE^ CHARITY FOR APPRENTICING 
Poor Children, lately extended in its benefits by authority of 
the Court of Chancery, who direct the trustees thereof for the 
time being to apply the funds " for and towards placing out 
and apprenticing such and so many poor children, male or 
female, bom within the parish of St. Martin Vintry, to honest 
trades and employments, as the said trustees shall think fit, 
and judge to be proper objects of charity ;" and if at Christ- 
mas in any year the said funds, or any paxt thereof, shall re- 
main undisposed of, the trustees are authorized, in the course 
of the three following months, to apply the same in appren- 
ticing poor children bom within the parish of St. Michael 
Paternoster Royal ; and if any of such funds still remain after 
such three months, then to apply the same in apprenticing 
poor children bom within the Ward of Vintry. The necessary 
forms of application, and any further information, may be 
obtained of Mr. Hubbard, 18, Bucklersbury. 

The following are funds arising from voluntary contribu- 
tions for the same purpose, but applicable only for children 
bom of parents of specified counties. 



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169 

SOMBESBT, 1811 3-iMlIg t^ SllillStriimfi* WOBCESTEB, 1815 

HEREFORDSHIRE SOCIETY, 11, GrayVinn-square. 
Instituted 1710. For clothing and apprenticing the poor 
children of Herefordshire parents, and other usefiu purposes, 
consistent with the intent of the society, as may be approved 
and ordered at a committee or general meeting. Apprentice 
fees available only to children of 13 years of age or upwards, 
one of whose parents must be a native of the county. Ap- 
plication to be made by petition, obtainable of the Secretaiy, 
and must be recommended by two governors ; apprentice 
fee not to exceed £25 in London or £\6 in Hereford. 

Supported chiefly by subscriptions and donations, the 
funded property not exceeding ;tl400. 

One guinea per annum, or ten guineas donation, constitutes 
a governor with two votes ; persons connected with the 
county can subscribe 12<. annually, which entitles; them to 
one vote. 

President; the Lord Lieutenant of the County. — ^Treasurer, Ro- 
bert Biddulph, Esq., Charmg-cross.— Honorary Secretaiy, Charles 
GwiUim Jones, Esq., 11, Gray's Inn-square. — Collector, Mr. Ed- 
win Day, Broad-street, Hereford. 

SOMERSETSHIRE SOCIETY, 14, Red Lion-square. 
Established 1811, for the purpose of apprenticing the chil- 
dren of poor Somersetshire parents resident in London, and 
also for lending to such as shall be so apprenticed, if their 
conduct shall have been meritorious, a certain sum of money 
without interest at the expiration of their apprenticeships, 
to establish them in business. The apprentice fee not to 
exceed £'2,5, The loans, for four years without interest, not 
to exceed ^60. 160 children have been apprenticed since 
the formation of the fund. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas at one time, constitutes 
a governor with one vote. The amount of funded property 
is about ^2000, but it chiefly depends on the contributions of 
its members. 

President, Earl of Burlington. — Treasurer, John Jenkyns, Esq. 
14, Red lion-square. — Honorary Secretary, Alfred Bayard Shep- 
pard, Esq., 18, Lincoln's-Inn-fields. — Collector, Mr. Henry Tris- 
tram. — Bankers, Messrs. Hoare and Co. 

WORCESTERSHIRE SOCIETY. Established 1815, for 
apprenticing children of necessitous persons, natives of the 
county, resident in London and its vicinity, and also for 
lending them a sum of money at the expiration of their 



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170 

WILTBHIBB SOCIBTY. C^HllfeS fill A.D. 1817 

apprenticeship, to establish them in business, if their con- 
duct shall have been meritorious. 

From 8 to 12 boys are elected to its benefits annually; the 
amount of premiums paid in each case, averaging .£25. 
164 have been thus apprenticed since the society's establish- 
ment. The annual income arises chiefly firom subscriptions 
and donations of its members, amounting last year to £202, 
and from dividends £29. 

One guinea annual constitutes a governor, entitled to one 
vote ; 10 guineas a life-governor. 

President, J. H. H. Foley, Esq., M. P.— Treasurer, R. L. Jones, 
Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Robarts and Curtis. — Honorary Secretary, 
J. M. Knott, Esq., York Hotel, New Bridge-street.— Collector, 
Mr. D. W. Nash, 7, Foregate-street. 

WILTSmRE S0CIETY,'2.6yKvi%im'Ervfix&, EstabUshed 
1817, for apprenticing the children of poor persons from 
Wiltshire, resident in London, with premiums of not more 
than £20 ; and also for lending them, if deserving, a sum of 
inoney, without interest, not exceeding £60, at the expira- 
tion of their apprenticeship, to establ^h them in business. 
The number of apprentices now placed out at the society's 
expense is 51. 

Ten guineas at a single payment, or one guinea annually, 
constitutes a governor. The funded property is nearly 
£5000, and the annual income from the dividends and volun- 
tary contributions of its members, exceeds £300. 

President, Robert Parry Nisbet, Esq.— Treasurer, John Hul- 
bert, Esq. — ^Honorary Secretary, John Vincent, Esq. — Collector, 
Mr. Heniy Tristram, 12, Bankside, Southwark. 

Loan funds for assisting the temporarily distressed but in- 
dustrious, to a small extent, are attached to many parishes, 
either in connexion with the visiting societies, or under other 
local management ; but the assistance afforded is very limited, 
and the requisite restrictions with which the loans are gene- 
rally fettered, do much to neutralize their benefit. The 
great want appears to be a general comprehensive plan, based 
simply on Christian benevolence, depending for support on 
voluntarv contributions, and not, as in the case of " loan 
societies , by profit derived from the fees and fines of 
the unfortunate borrower, besides interest : it would seem 
very desirable such a society should exist, where the poor 
but industrious mechimic or labourer mignt, under certain 



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171 

iK)Ay liMgg tig gntostrimii 8ocietie8. 

conditions, be able to obtain a seasonable loan ; often may 
independence be thus sustained, and the ruin of a deserving 
£Eimily be averted, whilst far greater and more lasting benefit 
is conferred than by any mere pecuniary gift. 

The Friendly Loan Society; established 1836; for the 
first years of itp management at 20, Exeter Hall, and after- 
wards at 60, Leicester Square, was conducted much upon 
these principles ; but whether it were deficient in energy 
of direction, or its operations lacked that spirit of benevo- 
lence stipulated for, remains imknown — certain it is that 
the plan failed.^ And it is urged by those who knew much 
of its working, that the difficulties to be encountered from 
cases of intentional imposition and firaud, — of desire to 
avoid repayment, even in bona fide cases, — and the expe- 
dients often resorted to, in consequence of its charitable 
character, will prevent a similar scheme being tried with the 
prospect of mccestfvl restdt : that the habits of the great 
mass of the London poor are, at present, against the appre- 
ciation of such an institution : that it woiUd be abused by 
the designing borrower and his surety, leaguing together to 
share the spoil, baffling detection in sufficient number of in- 
stances to ruin the whole plan, or force it to such stringent 
stipulations, and eventually to adopt the very procee&igs 
that now constitute the evils complained of in existing 
" loan societies'*. 

There is doubtless much of truth in all this, yet it is so 
desirable that the deserving but hard-pressed mechanic 
should benefit by a loan, without the fear of extreme mea- 
sures being adopted by those who grant it, as developed in 
late "palace-court cases", that it is to be hoped an attempt 
like the Linusarian Fund, limited in extent though it be, 
may meet with support, and serve to prove that it is possible, 
by judicious but merciful rules, to confer the benefit mthotU 
entailing a loss. 

^ The Charitable Corporation, which was established as early as 1780, 
for assbting the industrious poor with small sums upon pledges, at legal 
interest, met with a similar fate. " During the first three years of its 
management," Mr. Highmore states, " the funds were so misapplied, that 
Parliament interfered, and out of the wreck of the capital, a small sum 
was saved, and accumulated, with the view of reopening the society for the 
original purposes of its foundation." This prospect, however, has not been 
realized, as its final termination was determined upon at a meeting of the 
remaining members of the Corporation, held at the Chamberlain's ofiBce, 
Guildhall, the early part of the present year (1860). 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



172 



Cljaiifeg fur 



TEE LINUSARIAN'S BENEVOLENT LOAN SO- 
CIETY, 26, Mansell-street, is but of recent establishment, 
but its purposes are represented as being yery much of the 
character described. It is for the object ^' of granting loans 
to the industrious poor, free of all charge or interest, irre- 
spective of creed or country." (Perhaps, a charge of mode- 
rate interest, say 4 per cent., would be a desirable restriction). 

The prospectus states, that the books of the society ar6 
to be open for inspection every Tuesday and Wednesday even- 
ing, from 8 o'clock until 10 ; and that its patron is Mr. 
Alderman Humphrey, M.P., and its Honorary Secretary, 
S. G. Tucker, Esq., 48, Great Prescot-st., Qoodman's-fields. 

The introduction of such funds, when wisely superintended, 
have been found to work excellently well in many provincial 
localities, both in England^ and Ireland^, producing the most 

^ At Tunbridge Wells, Hastings, and Brighton, there are loan soci- 
ties of this character; the present condition and fatore prospects of which 
entirely agree with the views expressed, and justify the conclusion as to 
their results. At the former place, especially, one was founded some years 
since by Miss Challoner, upon benevolent grounds : she commenced with 
£5 ; and what with the punctual repayment of loans, and the contribu- 
tions of friends, there is now above £500 afloat The present working of 
this, we are informed, afibrds the greatest satisfaction, and its benefits 
now extend over no less than fifteen parishes, in the whole extent of 
which there is not an eventual defaulter. 

' Until the last great distress in Ireland, to no country have loan funds 
proved a greater benefit amongst the labouring poor, or their mode of sup- 
port been more honourable and liberal ; reflecting credit alike on all classes 
for the regularity with which the system was worked, the $fnaU loss in- 
curred, and the punctuality ioith which the payments were made. Since 
1843, it is to be deeply regretted that increasing distress has reduced, 
and almost annihilated this power of peculiar usefulness. Whilst upon 
the subject, it may prove useful, and certainly interesting, to observe how 
thoroughly the state of these funds indicates the state of the country, at 
the same time that the earlier returns bear out our previous remarks. 
The following is compiled from the reports, 7th to 11th, of the Commis- 
sioners of the loan fund board of Ireland, pursuant to Acts 6th and 7th 
Vict., cap. 98, for the years 1843 to 1849 :— 



No.of loan ftmds & 
Monts de Pi6t6 
Amount circulated 
No. of loans raised 
Net profits applied 
to charities .... 



1843. 



305 
£1,681,841 



14,149 



1844. 



1,708,719 
530,839 

9,047 



1845. 



960 
1,870,337 
592,658 

9,762 



1846. 



255 

1,778,691 

51,983 

8,404 



1847. 



867,115 
252,651 



184& 



178 
719,134 
201,355 



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173 



LOAN 



Iftmg tiff giAggtringg^ 



SOOIETIES. 



beneficial results — ^banishing pauperism, and elevating the 
character of the people ; and therefore a trial of them may 
be eyen re-attempted in London. 

The following are the Loan Societies of the metropolis, 
sanctioned by act of parliament ; supported each by its own 
profits. The statistics are taken from the Parliamentary 
Report of April 1846. 









Gross 






No.ofIotti8 


Amoont 


Profits 


Expense 


Name of Society, and place where held. 


granted in 


circulated 


by Inte- 


ofnum- 




couneof 


in ditto. 


rest and 


agement. 




year. 




fees,&c 








£ 


£ 


£ 


Loan Society, Swallow-si, Piccadilly 


17 


100 


7 


2 


Friendly Loan Society, Black Bull, 










UoDcr Thames-street 


86 


177 


11 


3 


Anchor, the, 104f , Leadenhall street 


312 


1,780 


796 


39 


Loan Society, 39, Wilstead-street, 










Somers Town 


175 


416 


30 


28 


Loan Society, 8, Willi am-street. 




HartVLane, Bethnal Green .... 


100 


250 


22 


14 


Loan Society, Pitt's Head, Tyssen- 










street. Bethnal Green 


258 


1,037 


65 


20 


New Imperial Loan Society, 224, 








Tottenham-Court-Road 


1,896 


12,295 


917 


406 


Loan Society, Bed Lion, Spicer-st, 










Mile-end New-town .......... 


871 
176 


796 
384 


95 
13 




Loan Society, 8, Brick-lane 


16 


New Sun Loan Society, 224, Tot- 










tenham-Court Road 


1,957 


12,630 


909 


409 


New Globe Loan Society, 524, Tot- 










tenham Court Road 


920 


5,470 


396 


187 


Hope Loan Society, Thomas street, 










Bethnal Green 


128 


299 


9 


12 


Hand-in-Hand Loan Society, 177, 










Church-street, Shoreditch 


210 


560 


38 


22 


Sons of True Temperance Loan So- 










ciety, 177, Church-8t., Shoreditch 


258 


612 


53 


17 


Equitable Loan Society, Hayfield, 










Mile-end-road 


726 


3,443 


235 


110 


Friend in Need Loan Society, 1, 










Mape-street, Bethnal Green .... 


416 


1,553 


88 


29 


Loan Society, Globe Coffee-house, 










Union-street, Spitalfields 


15 


39 


3 


4 


British Loan Society, 26, Brown's- 










lane, Spitalfields 


342 


1,277 


77 


39 



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174 



LOAir 



Cjjgrifeg far 



Imperial, the, Jacob's Well, Well- 
street, Mile-end 

Equitable, (the), the 'S^Tiittington, 
Church-row, Bethnal Green-road 

East London, the Woodman Tavern, 
White-street, Bethnal Green .... 

Albion Loan Society, 83, Bunhill- 
row, St Luke's 

Stebonheath Loan Society, 18, Went- 
worth-place. Mile-end-road .... 

Cannon Loan Society, 6, Canning- 
street, Old-street 

Albion Loan Society, 95, Milton-st., 
Finsbury 

Rock Loan Society, Boyed Oak Ta- 
vern, Abbey-8t., Bethned Green. . 

Good Samaritan Loan Society, 177, 
Church-street, Bethnal Green . . 

Bee Hive Loan Society, the Peacock 
Tavern, Bethnal Green 

Amicable Loan Society, 80, King- 
street, Long-acre 

Hand-in-Hand, Gold Beaters' Arms, 
Hunt-street, Mile-end New-town 

Friendly Brothers,George the Fourth, 
Green-street, Bethnal-green .... 

Helping Hand (The), Well and 
Bucket, Church-street, Bethnal 
Green 

New Loan Society, the George, 
George-street, Chelsea 

Benevolent Loan Society, 51,« Man- 
sell-street, Goodman's>fields .... 

Temperance Loan Society, 16, 
Queen's-place, Islington 

Provident Loan Society, 3, Church- 
street, Bethned Green 

Working Man's Loan Society, 177, 
Church-street, Shoreditch 

East London Loan Society, 177, 
Church-street, Shoreditch 

Victoria Loan Society, 84, Friar- 
street, Southwark 

Total, 39 Loan Societies. 





£ 


£ 


470 


1,669 


110 


229 


759 


49 


8 


37 


2 


287 


1,732 


1648 


238 


543 


36 


205 


657 


43 


220 


580 


38 


168 


682 


56 


64 


165 


12 


133 


630 


42 


160 


400 


38 


24 


95 


6 


52 


199 


14 


314 


1,240 


100 


74 


370 


31 


66 


96 


22 


89 


285 


.. 


245 


615 


43 


84 


248 


9 


249 


680 


46 


168 




75 


11,860 


56,012 


6,179 



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175 



^jMcg i)^ girimstrimrs. 



Savings hanks may justly be considered within the scope 
of the present chapter, as institutions beneficial to the pro- 
vident and industrious. 

They took their rise firom the accumulation of stock of 
benefit societies for various progressive purposes, requiring a 
plan to identify their funds with the public debt of the 
country. An extra rate of interest was held out as an in- 
ducement : hence, ^^ savings banks to receive small sums, 
returnable, with interest, on demand," were formed.' They 
were brought under regulation of parliament in 1816 ; and 
the act to consolidate and amend previous laws relating 
thereto was passed, 9 George I Y, 1828 ; and extended to Scot- 
land, 6 William lY, September 9, 1835. The savings banks 
and depositors in Great Britain and Ireland at the present 
time may be thus stated (according to the Parliamentary 
Returns of June 1849) : — 





No. of 
SavingBBMiln 


No. of 
Aeoonnta. 


ATengeBate 
oflntewjrt. 


Amoontof 
Depoaite. 


England fmd Wales.. 
Scotland 


481 

40 

61 

2 


909.336 

85,472 

50.119 

9,736 


je 8. d. 
2 18 6 
2 16 9 

2 17 3 

3 


£ 

25,371,176 

1^0,191 

1,358,062 

236,710 


Ireland 


British Islands 


Total 


584 


1.054,663 


2 18 1 


28046J39 







The following affords at one view every useful particular 
respecting the savings banks in London and immediate vici- 
nity, compiled from the same returns, with the name of the 
senior stipendiary officer to each, as the most actively con- 
versant with its affairs. 

[savings banks. 



^ The idea was first given birth to by Mr. Bentham, in 1797, under 
the designation of " Frugality Banks"; but the first bank actually insti. 
tnted for the benefit of the poor, was established, in 1803, at Tottenham, 
by Mrs. Elizabeth Wakefield ; the first in Edinburgh, in 1814 ; and, in 
1816, they became general throughout England, under Parliamentary 
regulations. 



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176 



CItanfeg fnr 



SaTinga Banka. 



Rate of 
Interest. 



Amonnt 

ofpreaent 
No. of depoaita. 
Depoai- invested 

with Nat 
Debt 

Commias. 



tors. 



Amt.of 

salariesft 

other 
manaipng 



Bloomfield-street (The), Moorfields, 
late Bishopsgate-street David 
Martin, Esq., Comptroller and 
Secretary 

Bloomsbury (The), Montague-street 
Thomas Thomson, Esq., Actuary. 

Camden Town. Henry Bartlett, Esq., 
Actuary 

Chelsea. Thomas Jeflrie, Esq., Se- 
cretary 

Covent Garden. Mr. William Cribb, 
Secretary 

Farringdon Street William Under- 
bill, Esq., Actuary 

Finsbury. W. N. Wortley, Esq., 
Actuary 

Fitzroy-square,50, Upper Charlotte- 
street J. Mahon Muston, Esq., 
Secretary , 

Fnlham. Mr. William Harvey, Se- 
cretary , 

Hoxton. Mr. G. E. Honychurch, 
Secretary 

Islington. Robert Oldershaw, Esq., 
Secretary and Agent 

Kensington. Mr. John Lane, Ac- 
tuary 

Lambeth. W.Davies, Esq., Actuary. 

St John's. W. Davies, Esq., 

Secretary 

Limehouse. John Ingns, Esq., Ac- 
tuary 

Faddington. F. J. Fuller, Esq., Se- 
cretary 

Rotherhithe. Mr. W. Akam, Clerk... 

St. Clement Danes, Strand 

St. Giles without, Cripplegate. Messrs. 
John and Charles Ellis, Sectrs... 

St Martin's Place. Edward Boodle, 
Esq. , Secretary and Comptroller. . 



2 17 6 

2 18 4 

3 
3 
2 15 

2 18 4 

3 

3 10 

3 10 

2 17 6 

2 16 6 

2 18 4 
2 15 6 

2 15 6 

2 18 4 

2 15 6 
2 16 3 
2 18 4 

2 17 

2 18 4 



41,351 
18,408 
1,139 
7,787 
1,421 
4,783 
7,502 

5,579 

22] 

1,004 

2,443 

1,578 
2,978 

1,180 

2,669 

4,2 67 

553 

4,037 

3,156 

37,214 



726,410 

460,612 
13,325 

127,069 
25,455 
77,527 

182,389 

118,257 

8,526 

6,287 

48,077 

82,490 
54,980 

20,676 

39,474 

46,463 

6,276 

83,690 

67,877 

1,113,484 



3,896 
1,909 
79 
591 
154 
526 
836 



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177 



litog ttjg gntostringg. 



St. Marylebone. Douglas Fleming, 

Esq., Secretary and Actuary 

Southwark. Thomas Day Esq., Sec. 
Stoke Newington. Archer Simons. 

Actuary 

Wandsworth Mr. J. P. Hemhert, 

Actuary 

Westminster Sessions House. Mr. 

Henry Poole, Actuary 

Whitehapel. J. I. Holey, Esq., Sec... 



2 17 4 

2 18 4 



2 18 6 
2 15 6 



2 18 4 
2 17 6 



19,109 
12,730 

712 

354 

2,544 
7,198 



291,386 
256,711 

11,783 

6,458 

43,976 
145,355 



2.164 
1,020 

57 

40 

228 
582 



Total,26 Metropolitan Savings' Banks 2 18 149,465 4,004,913 20473 

Savings' working hanks, and banks for small provident 
sayings, are attached to all well managed and complete dis- 
trict visiting societies ; and few measures are of more gene- 
rally acknowledged value to the industrious of each locality. 

THE PARENT PENNY SAVINGS' WORKING 
BANK, 75, Red Lion-street, High Holbom. Instituted 
1818. Is the FIRST of this class ; and forms a fair example 
of others of the same design ; well deserving of additional 
support. The bank is conducted by ladies, every Thursday, 
from 12 to 2 o'clock, at Mrs. Bardon's, 75, Red Lion-street, 
Holbom. Supported by subscriptions : — For every seven 
shillings, one recommendation. Every depositor, paying 
one penny per week, causes an expense to the bank of one 
shilling, for making up the clothing ; every child recom- 
mended, four shillings and four-pence ; making up clothes 
for recommendation, one shilling ; total advantage, six shil- 
lings and four-pence. Girls, according to their abilities, can 
earn from four shillings and sixpence to fourteen shillings, 
by steady best work. Only depositors can share these ad- 
vantages. Treasurers, Mrs. Short, 43, Great Ormond-street, 
and Mrs. Carr. 

THE LONDON PENNY BANK, St. Jude's School- 
room, Commercial-street, Whitechapel. Appears to be a 
local experiment of a scheme, designed by its founder^ to be as 

^ Mr. James M. Scott, the founder of this and two other institutions, 
estahlished on the same general principle, at Greenock and Hull, repre- 
sents that he is prepared to negociate for the formation of Penny Bonks 
in any part of London. Each hank to he under the general superin- 
tendence of Mr. Scott, suhject to the direction and control of any three 
trustees, twelve directors, and one treasurer, of undoubted character, resi- 
dent in each locality. 

12 



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178 

Cjlgrifeg to gjitfgg tiff giiitmrtrmgs^ 



national as Mr. Rowland Hill's penny post. This district bank 
is open from 5 to 7 o'clock every evening (Sundays excepted), 
for the deposit of any sum of money not less than one penny 
or more than five shillings at one time, repayable at the end 
of the year with interest, or upon demand previously without 
interest. On the last Wednesday in January 1851, when aU 
the deposits are repaid, interest, it is stated, will be allowed 
to every depositor as under : — One shilling for every twenty 
shillings, lodged in not less than fifty weekly payments ; 
sixpence for every twenty shillings, lodged in not less than 
thirty weekly payments. No interest on smaller sums or on 
any fractions. The result of the last fortnigkCi operations 
(ending February 20, 1850),* will afford an idea that it may 
reasonably be expected to confer a benefit on the working 
classes, if but efficiently directed,— deposits, 4724; depositors, 
1517 ; amount deposited, j£145 : 10s. 

Copy of the rules, with list of trustees, directors, etc., may 
be obtained on application at the bank. 

^ The return from the Hull Fenny Bank exhibits, for the six months 
ending February 28, 1850, 5,541 depositors ; and the amount collected 
in pence, ^£1,207 lis. 2d. 

NoU. — Canterbury Settlement, New Zealand, referred to page 159. 
Since the remarks were printed, our attention has been drawn to an 
association lately formed to advance the interests of the settlement, and 
aid emigration thereto. The Archbishop of Canterbury is announced as 
the president, John Hutt, Esq., as the chairman of the committee of 
management, and J. R. Godley, Esq., the resident chief agent in New 
Zealand. Information respecting the plans and progress of the associa* 
tion, may be obtained upon application to the secretary, Mr. H. F. 
Alston, at the office, 41, Charing Cross. 



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179 

Cjlgrifeg far Itff %\mt 



CHAPTEK IX. 



CHARITIES FOR THE BLIND AND THE 
DEAF AND DUMB. 

Visitiag the Indigent Blind. — Teaching the Blind to read. — School for 
the Indigent Blind. — Annuities for the Necessitous Blind. — Asylum 
for the Education and Support of the Indigent Deaf and Dumb. — 
Charitable and Provident Fund for the Deaf and Dumb.— Employment 
and Religious Instruction of the Adult Deaf and Dumb. 

The great importance of the objects aimed at by these cha- 
rities, together with the peculiar claims of the classes for 
whom they are designed, form full and sufficient reasons for 
devoting a chapter to their exclusive consideration. The 
assertion of Dr. Lettsom, at the commencement of his hu- 
mane advocacy of the indigent blind charities, is sufficiently 
confirmed by every experience of the working of the two 
great asylums,— for instructing the blind, and the deaf 
and dumb — that " he who enables a blind person, without 
any excess of labour, to earn his own livelihood, does him more 
real service than if he had pensioned him for Ufe." This, we 
repeat, is equally true as applied to the instruction rendered 
the deaf and diunb ; and may be recognized without in any 
degree detracting from the value of the assistance afforded 
them by pension societies, which are designed to give the 
needful support that increasing age or infirmities render 
them otherwise unable to procure. The peculiar benefit 
attached to the charities for instructing these afflicted classes 
is, that such training and instruction call into action other 
powers of body and mind, which they may hitherto have 
been unable to exercise ; afford active and useful employ- 
ment for hours which would otherwise be spent only in 



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180 

INDIGENT BLIND CljflntlBS Ut TISITINQ, A.D. 1834 

gloom and despondency; and prevent that aggravation of 
suffering which those who endure such peculiar deprivations 
often experience, viz., the humiliating idea that they are 
useless in themselves, and a burden to others. 

Thus these various societies, whether for instructing, assist- 
ing, or supporting the blind and deaf and dumb, appear to 
claim particular commendation, and, where need be, are en- 
titled to cordial support. They are instrumental in affording 
the means of present comfort and happiness to a very large 
class of suffering humanity, elevating them from a dark and 
dreary state of ignorance to a participation of much active 
and useful employment, and to the pleasures of social and 
intellectual intercourse ; and if some few of the ordinary 
enjoyments of the life that now is, be, by the will of God's 
inscrutable wisdom, still withheld from them, yet are they, 
by means of these same institutions, permitted to learn the 
nature and foundation of a hope full of immortality, and 
that fadeth not away. 

The institutions thus referred to consist of, — 
For visiting, relieving, and instructing the 
blind, 3 ; for granting annuities to the 
blind, 5 ; for support and instruction of 
the deaf and dumb, 2 ; provident fund 
for deaf and dumb, 1. Total . . II 

Aggregate annual income . . . £34,762 

Derived from voluntary contributions, in- 
clusive ..... £11,965 

INDIGENT BLIND VISITING SOCIETY, 20, Red 
Lion-square. Instituted 1834. This is one of the many in- 
stitutions in London struggling to occupy a sphere of useful- 
ness for which its receipts scarcely qualify it, and yet effj^ct- 
ing very much, if not by what it actually accomplishes, by 
quietly developing a valuable means of good ; with a hope 
of diverting such an amount of benevolent support to the 
cause, as shall eventually place its operations beyond the 
precariousness of a fluctuating income. Such, in their earliest 
years, were the finest and most flourishing charities of the 
present day — even the Deaf and Dumb Institution, the Blind 
Asylum, etc. ; so that there exists every reason for the pro- 
moters of really good institutions to persevere ; and it re- 
mains only for a discriminating benevolence occasionally to 
cheer them on by a helping hand. The object is to assist 



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181 

TEAGHINQ THE J/jj^ jBUnil* BLIND TO BEAD, A.D. 1839 

and ameliorate the condition of the blind poor, resident in 
London and its yicinitj, by providing them with testaments 
of the raised print, with daily readers of the scriptures, and 
with conductors to church. The present number of blind 
poor on the list is 200 : these are regularly visited by the 
scripture-readers, of whom there are five, and from time to 
time are afforded temporary relief. The income depends 
wholly on voluntary contributions, and realized last year only 
£670, being nearly £200 less than the expenditure. 

Ten shillings or upwards per annum, or donations of £6 or 
upwards, constitute members, with the privilege of having 
one blind person on the society^s books. 

President, Lord Ashley. — Treasurer, John Labouchere, Esq. — 
Chairman of the Committee, J. D. Paul, Esq. — Honorary Secre- 
tary, Wm. Way, Esq.— Collector, Mr Stone, 250, Blackfriars- 
road. 

LONDON SOCIETY for TEACHING the BLIND to 
READ, 1, Avenue-road, St. John's Wood. Instituted 1839. 
This society is instrumental in imparting both secular know- 
ledge and sound fundamental doctrines of Christianity -to 
those afliicted by blindness : teaching them reading by Mr. 
Lucases method of raised print. 

Boarders are received into the institution upon the ad- 
vanced payment, either by themselves or any benevolent in- 
dividuals, of £1 10s., if under ten years of age ; or, if above 
that age, £10 for every six months, and so on in proportion, 
that period having been found, by experience, sufficient for 
a person of moderate abilities, not only to read, but to instruct 
omers. The present number of inmates is 27 male, and 28 
female boarders. For the convenience of such as are unable 
to obtain an entrance, an evening school is supported, in the 
vicinity of Gray's-inn-lane ; and it is in contemplation to 
increase the Society's usefulness, by opening similar schools 
in other parts of London. The annual income from voluntary 
sources amounts to about £750; from payments for boarders, 
£450 : these together cover the expenditure. G^ie school at 
the Avenue-road is open for the inspection of visitors, any 
day except Saturday, from 2 till 5 o'clock. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitute 
a member entitled to send one child annually. 

President, the Bishop of London. — ^Treasurer, Thomas Hankey, 
Esq., 7, Fenchurch-street. — Honorary Secretary, Rev. E. Grarbett. 



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182 

SCHOOL FOR INDIGENT ChEIlfo fflT BLIND, A.D. 1799 

— Ladies' Secretary, Mrs. Percival Johnson, 88, Mecklenburgfa« 
square. — Honorary Physician, Theophilus Thompson, Esq., M.D. 
— Honorary Surgeon, W. W. Cooper, Esq. — ^As^stant Secretaiy 
and Collector, Mr. Harben, 64, Camden-road villas. 

THE SCHOOL FOR THE INDIGENT BLIND, 

St. George's-fields, Surrey. Instituted 1799.1 The object of 
this institution is the education of the blind— the imparting 
to them that religious knowledge which shall set before them 
their duty to Gbd and man, and render them wise imto sal- 
yation ; and the instructing them in a trade, by which they 
may be able to provide, either whoUy or in part, for their 
future subsistence. The benefits are extended to both sexes, 
who, when admitted, are clothed, boarded, lodged, and in- 
structed. All applicants under ten or above twenty-five 
years of age, or who have a greater degree of sight than will 
enable them to distinguish light from darkness, cannot be 

E laced on the list of candidates. The committee state, they 
ave found that pupils between the age of twelve and 
eighteen have derived the greatest benefit from the instruc- 
tion received at the school. 

The pupils may be seen at work between the hours of ten 
and twelve in the forenoon, and two and five in the after- 
noon, on every day except Saturdays and Sundays. Any 
person desirous for the admission of a pupil, may obtain 
printed papers of questions and engagements at the school; 
to which answers in writing will be required, attested in 
the manner therein specified. The number of pupils has 
been gradually increased from 15 males to 85 males and 86 
females ; and a manufactory has been established, where 
articles made entirely by them were sold last year for 
JC1291. lis. 2d. Exclusive of those who have been placed on 
the permanent establishment or died in the institution, as 
many as 393 persons have returned to their families, able, 

^ The example was first set at Liverpool, for the formation of this 
charity. It was one quickly followed, and mainly tbroagb the exertions 
of Messrs. Thomas Boddington, Samuel Bosanquet, James Ware, and 
William Honlston. Under their zeal and liberality this promising 
school surmounted every difficulty, and quickly obtained a large measure 
<rf public support. The Society's operations were at first conducted 
at Uie '* Dog and Duck," in St. George's-fields ; but this, and subsequently 
even more commodious premises, becoming too limited, n^^ociations were 
opened with the Governors of the Foundling Hospital, for a long lease of 
part of their lands adjoining to GrayVInn-road ; the purchase of which 



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183 

EST.W.HETHEBII^GTON'S J/hj 5BlillJ[» CHARITY, A.D. 1774 

in many instances, to earn a livelihood, according to their 
abilities.^ 

The annual cost of this establishment averages £8,000, 
which is well covered by the receipts, derived from voluntary 
contributions to an extent of £5,476; from dividends to nearly 
£2,000, and from payments and sale of goods to £1,300. 

Annual subscribers have the privilege of one vote, appli- 
cable to each vacancy, for every guinea they subscribe ; and 
each member for life one vote, for every 10 guineas. 

President, Archbishop of Canterbury. — Treasurer, Samuel 
Richard Bosanquet, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. J. R. Foot, A.M. — 
Secretary and Solicitor, Mr. Thomas Grueber, 5, Billiter-street. 
— Physician, Dr. Back. — Consulting Surgeon, M. Ware, Esq. — 
Surgeons and Apothecaries, Messrs. Sterry and Son. — Superin- 
tendent of the School, Mr. Robert Sharp. — Housekeeper, Mrs. 
Hannaford. — Matron of the Female School, Mrs. Grove. — Col- 
lectors : Mr. William Davis, 17, Canterbury Place, Lambeth ; 
Mr. John Williams, 36, Norfolk-square, Brighton. 

THE REV, W. HETHERINOTON'S CHARITY 
TO THE BLIND. Established 1774.« This gentleman, 
in his life-time, enabled the governors of Christ's Hospital to 
pay annuities of £10 each to fifty blind persons,^ in the 

was finally completed for ^1000 8 per cents. Soon after, howeyer, the 
GoTemors were led to see the injndicious part they were taking, in remoT- 
ing so far from the locality of their original foundation, and were induced 
to apply to the Corporation of London for a lease of the present nte. So 
impressed were they with the fovourable reception met with at their first 
interview with the Court, that they immediately treated with the Found- 
ling Hospital for a surrender of their late purchase. This was finally 
agreed to ; and after arrangements with the City Corporation enabled 
the Governors to obtain two acres near the Obelisk, occupied by the pre> 
sent commodious building. 

^ Two of the male pupils, and one female, recently obtained the ap- 
p<Hntments of organist to churches, at the salaries of jf50, j^SO, and ;^20, 
per annum, in the most gratifying manner. 

' The original deed, dated 20th March, 1774, mentions the transfer of 
^dOjOOO, old South-Sea annuities, to certain trustees, for the purpose of 
** paying into the treasury of Christ's Hospital j01OO per annum" (one- 
sixth of the dividend), to defray the expenses of distributing the remain- 
ing ^£500. 

' Mr. Hetherington's expectations were fully realized, for within eight 
years his example was followed by Thomas Coventry, Esq., making a 
similar provision for thirty more pensioners ; and in the year 1800, by 
Varions gifts, the fund produced sufiicient for 400, — Dr. George Harris' 
bequest alone providing for 96 (j£l,000 per annum). The present num- 
ber of pensioners is 615. 



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184 

THE BLIKD MAN'S CtjEHfefi for FRIEND, A.D. 1836 

hope that his example would be followed by other benevolent 
characters, and the governors have recently given public 
notice, that from the very munificent additions made to Mr. 
Hetherington's original fund, by deed of gift and by will, 
they are now enabled to extend the annuity to upwards of 
600 persons. 

Forms of application may be obtained by personal appli- 
cation, or that of a friend, (not by post) at the counting 
house of the hospital. The elections take place half yearly, 
in February and November. 

The leading qualifications are as follow : and unless the 
parties can respectively prove themselves strictly within 
them, the applications in their behalf will be entirely fruit- 
less, — Birth and residence in England, to the exclusion of 
Wales and Berwick-upon-Tweed. — Age sixty-one years, and 
upwards. Residence, three years in their present abode ; and 
total blindness during that period. Income, if any, under £20 
per annum : those who have ever begged, received alms, or 
are deemed objects for parish relief, day labourers of every 
denomination, soldiers and sailors, servants, and journeymen 
in any handicrafts, or persons living by turning a mangle, 
are excluded from the benefit of these charities, which are in- 
tended "for those who have been reputably brought up, and 
who need some addition to what they have, to make life 
more comfortable under the misfortune of blindness." 

The annual number of eligible applicants is nearly 220, 
and from these, 80 or 90 (100 has been attained) are selected. 
The committee of almoners, the electors, always choose a large 
proportion of the oldest applicants, although on their first 
petition only ; consequently, petitioners of 61 have, not un- 
frequently, to repeat their application six or seven years. 
Clerk, (Jeorge Trollope, Esq. 

THE BLIND MAN'S FRIEND, 29, Saville Row. Under 
this expressive and well-deserved title, is a second charity of 
similar extensive usefulness to the last ; which, by the judi- 
cious liberality of one individual,^ has been saved all necessity 

^ There is no doubt, however, that a large additional amount could be 
annually well distributed, judging from the extraordinary number of 
applicants, both for this and the preceding funds ; and we know not how 
any better almoners could be found to dbtribute the liberality of such 
as desire to benefit the distressed blind in a similar manner ; than the 
trustees of these Ainds. 



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i, 



185 

stock's charities, in %\tt Slinit. GIFT OF PAINTBRS' COMP. 

for obtruding itself upon public notice, and yet annually 
diffuses its benefits to the poor objects contemplated by the 
benevolent founder, to an extent of ^4000, without occasion 
to solicit the slightest additional assistance. 

The late Mr. Charles Day, of the well-known firm of Day 
and Martin, died towards the end of 1836, leaving the 
princely sum of ^100,000, for the benefit of distressed per- 
sons suffering under a similar affliction to that which he had 
experienced himself, the deprivation of sight ; during 1838, 
a scheme was determined upon in chancery, whereby the 
design could be best carried out, and this was effected in 
strict accordance with his will, and the whole details of 
management vested in the trustees as named therein. 

In 1839 the fund commenced its operations with the past 
two years' accrued interest, and at the present time, no less 
than 271 blind persons are in thereceipt of pensions, as under, 
viz., 63 at £20 each per annum ; 75 at £16 ; 136 at £\% 

The election of pensioners rests exclusively with the trea- 
surer and three trustees, who meet every quarter to con- 
sider petitions and select the most deserving ; they are sub- 
jected to searching inquiry, and when approved of and elected, 
each pension is dependant on a satisfactory renewal of the 
necessary certificates every quarter ; each payment is made 
quarterly in advance ; the amount of pension is regulated 
by the resources of each case respectively. 

Applicants must be wholly blind, objects for benevolent 
relief, and residents in England, Wales, or Scotland : no form 
of application is required, but a petition must be sent stating 
in full the particular details of the case : name, residence, 
age^ employment, amount of income, length of blindness, <S?c.; 
the same to be signed by the clergyman and churchwarden 
of the parish, as certifying their belief in general correct- 
ness, also by at least two housekeepers to whom the petitioner 
is personally known. Treasurer, John Simpson, Esq. 29, 
Saville Row, Old Burlington Street. 

PAINTERS' CHARITIES TO THE BLIND, V^mt^t^' 
Hall, Queenhithe, consists of pensions of £10, provided by 
the wills of John Stock and others, and distributed by the 
Painters' Company. The number of pensioners is 173, whose 
ages vary from 61 to 100 years ; and although the ndes are 
most strmgent, the funds are not adequate to relieve one half 
of the number of qualified applicants. Petitions are issued 



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186 

PAINT£RS' CHARITIES (j/jlKrifeS fot FOR THE BLIND, «fec. 

from the clerk's pffice, between the hours of 11 and 3, from 
the 25th Octobeir until the 30th November, but no petition 
will be given unless the applicants come within the following 
qualifications : — Birth in England ; totally blind for three 
years; unable to support themselves ; have no income above 
;£10 per annum ; have never received alms, or been com- 
mon beggars ; of sober habits and conversation ; and sixty- 
one years of age. The election takes place every second 
week in December. The pensions are paid in advance on the 
second Wednesday in January and first Wednesday in each 
succeeding months. 

John Stock's Charity to Poor Lame Painters^ is also in the 
gift of the Painters' Company, and although only of a local 
character, is inserted here in order to call the attention of 
the benevolent to a class of persons, who, from their occupa- 
tion, are subject to diseases which exclude them from the 
generality of benefit clubs, <kc. Such are partially but quite 
inadequately relieved by this fund. It is more especially for 
those who are employed in the business of house and ship 
painting, and in consequence of its pernicious effects, hurt 
in health, lame, <fec., and are freemen of the company ; in 
default of a sufficient niunber, then those who are not free- 
men. 

Forms of petition may be had on the 20th December, and 
following days, and must be returned filled up before the 
first Wednesday in January, by eleven o'clock. The present 
number of pensioners is 10. 

Master, Jeremiah Hodgson, Esq., Court of Commissioners of 
Bankrupts. — Treasurers: David Allan, Esq., 4, Lothbury; Sir 
W. H. Poland, Qoak-lane, Queen-street.— Beadle, Mr. W. H. 
Mam, 4, Little Trinity-lane.— Clerk, P. N. Tomlms, Esq. 

Cami% Charity to the Blind, arises from a similar fund in- 
vested according to the will of Mr. Came, in the Cordwainer's 
Company, for blind men of 46 years of age, and blind wo- 
men of 40 years of age ; applications for which are to be 
made by petition before 10th of November in each year. 

A Charity to the Deaf and Dumh^ is likewise derived from 
this same fund, consisting of pensions available to deaf and 
dumb men of not less than 40 years of age, and women of 
not less than 25 years of age, resident within 100 miles of 
London, and not receiving parochial relief. Applications 
must be sent in before the first of June. 



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187 

ASYLUM FOR DEAF ^Ht fiUit SffHtlt* AND DUMB, A.D. 1792 

Forms and other information afforded by Mr. Jamet 
Josiah Millard, at the Company's Hall, 17, Great Distaff 
Lane. 

ASYLUM for the SUPPORT and EDUCATION of 
DEAF and DUMB CHILDREN, Old Kent Road, Surrey. 
Instituted I792,i for the benefit of such children only as are 
deaf and dumb, not being deficient in intellect, '^o child is 
eligible under the age of eight years and a half, nor above 
eleyen and a half ; and before any can be admitted as can- 
didates, the proper form must be filled up and signed. If 
the child is of sufficient age to be admitted, the paper must 
be returned to the secretary, on or before the first Monday 
in April or October. Parents or friends, not in indigent cir- 
cumstances, may, by paying £20 annually for board, get 
their children in on the pay list. Private pupils are also re- 
ceived by the principal. The asylum is open to inspection 
daily, Sundays excepted. The most convenient time is from 
eleven till one o'clock. Two hundred and ninety is the pre- 
sent number of children wholly maintained by the charity. 

Ten guineas at one payment, or one guinea per annum, 
constitute a governor, who is entitled to one vote at the 
elections of children into the asylum. Two elections take 

^ The present bailding was completed, and opened for the reception 
of inmates, Oct 6, 1809 ; the Society celebrated the erent bj a pnblie 
thanksgiving at the church of St. Marj Magdalen, Bermondsej, the . 
Rev. Samnel Crowther delivering the sermon. 

' Amongst the earliest founders and promoters of this charity, must be 
mentioned the Revs. John Townsend and H. C. Mason, who indeed 
were the first to call public attention to the distresses of the indigent 
deaf and dumb in England ; in connexion, however, with their humane 
efforts, must also be included those of their contemporaries, Mr. Braid- 
wood of Edinburgh, the Abbes de I'Epee and Sicard of Paris, Mr. Baker 
of London, and Mr. Orpen of Dublin. The Edinburgh asylum was the 
first opened in Great Britain 1773; and the Claremont Asylum, at 
Dublin, was opened in 1816. In France, the treatment pursued and 
recommended by the Abbe TEp^e has been most successful ; and there 
are, at the present time, several institutions developing the success of the 
treatment he established. There are some well authenticated instances 
of the successful education of the deaf and dumb, by Pedro de Ponce and 
others, even so far back as the sixteenth century ; and doubtless such 
facts served greatly to stimulate the benevolent efforts since devoted to 
the same purpose, — especially the case of the two children educated by 
Dr. Pereira. They were born deaf and dumb ; but, under his treatment, 
were enabled to astonish the Academy of Sciences at Paris, 1748, by their 
acquirements. 



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188 

CHARITABLE AND CtjElifeS ffit PROTIDBBTT, A.D. 1836 

Slace each year ; on the second Mondays in July and 
annary. The fiinds are in a most prosperous state, the in^ 
come being nearly £10,000 per annimi, a sum considerably 
more than covering the expenditure, according to last year s 
cash statement ; iSns amount is derived £rom subscriptions, 
donations, and legacies, to the extent of jC4,500 ; from pay- 
ments for children's board, <&c., £372 ; and from dividends 
and rent,£4d61. The funded stock is little under £150,000. 

President, the Duke of Buccleuch. — Treasurer, "William Not- 
tidge, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Rev. William Curling, A.M. — 
SeCTetary, Mr. Charles Nottidge, to whom all communications are 
requested to be addressed, at the asylum. — Principal, Thomas 
James Watson, Esq. — Physician, Benjamin Guy Babington, Esq., 
M.D. — Suigeon, Edward Cock, Esq.— -Oculist, Martin Ware, Esq. 
— ^Apothecaries, Messrs. Castle and Turner. — Collector, Mr. J. 
R. Hanbuiy, 83, Gracechurch-street. 

The foUowing may be regarded in the light of useful ad^ 
juncts to the operations of the Asyliun, the Governors of 
which have given their unqualified approval to their chari- 
table and provident design. 

CHARITABLE S PROVIDENT SOCIETY for the 
DEAF iSb D UMB, Radley's Hotel, New Bridge-street, Black- 
firiars. Established 1836. The object of this society is to grant 
small annual pensions to those persons among the poor, who 
were either bom deaf, or lost their hearing before the age of 
ten years, and who have attained the age of sixty, or become 
so infirm as to be incapable of obtaining their livelihood by 
following their occupations ; also to encourage industrious 
and provident habits among deaf and dumb workmen, by con- 
ferring further advantages on those who contribute periodical 
sums in support of this society, such as the right of priority 
in receiving pensions, and the benefit of some yearly allowance 
upon their contributions, should the income of the society 
permit. Five pounds in one payment, or 10s. 6d. annually, 
constitutes a member, with one vote for every such payment. 
The present number of pensioners is eighteen, receiving from 
£6 to £7 each annually, which is to be increased as the funds 
will allow. The committee record it as a gratifying fact, 
that not one case coming within the scope of the society's 
rules and regulations, has hitherto been rejected. The an- 
nual income is about j£l20, half derived from voluntary con- 



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189 

EMPLOYMENT AND $^ ^tsU SV^ fiUHlll* INSTRUCTION, 1841 

tributions, and half from members' contributions and divi- 
dends. The amount of funds is under £500. 

Treasurer, Henry Johnson, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. 
John Hamilton. — ^Assistant Secretary, Mr. Margetts, Mr. Low's, 
3, Elm-court, Temple. — Bankers, Messrs. Goslii^ and Co. 

INSTITUTION for the EMPLOYMENT, RELIEF, 
& RELIQIO US INSTRUCTION of the ADULT DEAF 
and DUMBy 26, Red Lion-square. Instituted 1841. This 
unpretending, but very praiseworthy society, at a moderate 
annual cost, accomplishes considerable benefit for those who, 
upon leaving school, are otherwise unprovided for ; there are 
at present eighteen such persons in the institution, learning 
tailoring, shoemaking, dressmaking, etc. ; and, during the 
past year, upwards of thirty have been maintained or relieved 
weekly: a shop has just been taken at 21, Theobald's-road, 
for effecting a sale of the articles made by the deaf and dumb, 
for their further benefit. The committee represent a great 
want of funds, and inability to continue present limited ope- 
rations, unless increased assistance be immediately afforded. 
By the cash statement of last year, a requisite loan appears 
to have been effected, as the receipts amounted to £60^ only, 
£50 of which was for work done by inmates, and £452 from 
contributions ; whilst the disbursements exceeded £800 : 
viz., for objects of the society, £529 ; and for management, 
etc., £310. 

President, Duke of Cambridge. — ^Treasurer, Sir C. Price, Bart. 
— Secretary, Mr. J. G. Simpson, 26, Red Lion-square. 



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THE CITY 



ClraritafalB §iHt 



COMPANIES. 



CHAPTER X. 



CHARITABLE GIFTS ARISING FROM 
ENDOWMENTS AND TRUSTS. 



The Companies of the City of London in their Charitahle Character. — 
Their origin. — The extent of their Trusts for Gifts and other chari- 
tahle purposes. — A Snmmarj of the principal charitably endowed. — 
Parochial and other Trusts referred to. — The Patriotic Fund. — Chd- 
mondelej Charity. — The Maundy Gifts. — The Flood Distribution. 

Of the origin and rise of the yarious liyerj companies of the 
metropolis—their once great influence, privileges, and wealth 
-^retained by but very few of them now,^ it comes not within 

^ The number of City Companies is ninety-one. The following is a 
complete list, in the order of precedence, with the dates of their institu- 
tion, or incorporation by charter or Act of Parliament. Ten or twelve 
of these are virtually extinct, retaining the name only ; and very many 
of them have fallen from their original high estate, since the interference 
with their privileges by Charles II, — the reaction in their favour, at the 
Great Rebellion ia 1688, only availing, practically, to such as are above 
mentioned, from their large charitable possessions, or to such as exercised 
peculiar control over their respective trades, as the Gunmakers, Founders, 
etc The first twelve are the chief, and are styled ** The Honorable:" — 

Mercers . a.d.1393 
Grocers . . 1345 
Drapers . . 1439 
Fishmongers . 1284 
Goldsmiths . 1327 
Skinners . . 1327 
Merch. Taylors 1416 
Haberdashers 1447 
Salters . . . 1658 



Ironmongers.A.D.1464 


Bakers. . a.d.1307 


Vintners . . 


1437 


Waxchandlers 1484 


Clothworkers . 


1482 




Dyers . . . 


1469 


Armourers . 1468 


Brewers . . 


1438 


Girdlers . . 1448 


Leathersellers 


1442 


Butchers . . 1604 


Pewterers . . 


1474 


Saddlers . . 1280 


Barber-Surgeons 1 308 




Cutlers . . . 


1417 


Cordwainers . 1410 




Dig 


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191 



GENERAL 



^rnm (BninrntnBiitsi^ 



REMARKS. 



the scope of the present work to dwell upon. The report of 
the Parliamentary Corporation Commission, speaks of them at 
the present day as '' mere trustees for charitable purposes, or 
chartered festivals ; the freemen and liverymen whereof, 
are persons entitled to partake of the feasts of the companv 
and qualified to be promoted to the office of trustees"; with 
the pleasantry almost implied in the former designation, we 
have nothing to do ; however it may be considered to neu- 
tralize the high character of the latter ; and it is only as 
trustees in the distribution of charitable gifts, in some in- 
stances to very large amounts, that they appear to demand 
notice in a work treating on the charities of London. 

The information afforded respecting them, must necessa- 
rily partake rather of a brief summary of their general cha- 
racter than a detailed description of each. And this, not only 
from the difficulty of gleaning imiform intelligence respect- 
ing them, as from the bulk of the volume that it would 
require, to enter more minutely into particulars ; and when 
it is remembered that most of these charities are of limited 
application, restricted to freemen, <&c., additional reason wil^ 
be seen why a point is made of as much as possible dwelL 



Paper Stainers 


1580 


Musicians 


1604 


TinplateWorkersl670 


Caniers . . 


1605 


Turners . . 


1604 


Wheelwrights 1670 


Masons . . 


1677 


Basket Makers 




Distillers . . 


Flmnben . . 


1611 


Glaziers . . 


1637 


Hatband Makers 1638 


Inn Holders . 


1615 


Homers . . 


1638 


Patten Makers 1670 


Founders . . 


1614 


Farriers . . 


1673 


Glass Sellers . 1664 


Poulterers . . 


1503 


Paviers . . 




Tobaccopipe Ma. 


Cooks . . . 


1481 


Lorrimers . . 


1488 


kers . . 1668 


Coopers . . 


1501 


Apothecaries . 


1617 


Harness Makers 1677 


Tilers . . . 


1568 


Shipwrights . 


1610 


Gunmakers . 1688 


Bowyers . . 


1620 


SpectacleMakersl630 


Wire Drawers 1623 


Fletchers . . 


1536 


Clock Makers 


1632 


BowstringMakrs 


Blacksmiths . 


1577 


Glovers . . 


1556 


Card Makers. 1629 


Joiners . . 


1564 


Comb Makers 


1650 


Fan Makers . 1709 


Weavers , . 


1164 


Felt Makers . 


1604 


Woodmongers 


Woolmen . . 




Framewk.Knitr8.1664 


Starch Makers 1632 




1616 


Silk Throwsters 1629 


Pishennen . 1687 


Fruiterers 


1604 


Silkmen . . 


1608 


Parish Clerks 1282 


Flaisterers . 


1500 


Pin Makers . 


1636 


Carmen . • 


Stationers . . 


1556 


Needle Makers 


1656 


Porters . . 


Embroiderers 


1591 


Gardeners . 


1616 


Watermen . 1559 


Upholders 


1627 


Soap Makers* 


1638 


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192 

CITY COMPANIES. Clffiritfllllj ^iftfi GENERAL REMARKS. 

ing only upon such as are more general in their opera^ 
tions.^ 

Respecting the origin of these bequests, and the trustee- 
ships hereof being invested in what originally were trading 
companies, "it is worthy of observation," observes Mr. Knight, 
^that one of the earliest objects sought by the guild, in 
some instances apparently their primary one, was the found- 
ation of a common stock for the relief of poor or decayed 
members ; large funds were established in course of time, 
and the charitable character thus attached to the company, 
led to their being chosen as trustees for the care and manage- 
ment of a variety of other charities foimded hj benevolent 
persons, who, in the early periods of metropolitan history, 
were so numerous, that Stowe devotes some five-and-twenty 
folio pages of his Survey to the mere enumeration of their 
acts, under the appropriate and characteristic title of * The 
Honour of Citizens and Worthiness of Men,' a noble chapter 
in the * History of London.' "2 

These charitable bequests embrace a vast comprehensive- 
ness of benevolent design, as remarkable as the amount of 
their entire must be magnificent, and if it could be arrived 
at, as interesting to detail : they comprise pensions to decayed 
members ; gifts of money, bread, meat, <fec., to the poor ; 
loans of various amoimts to young beginners in business ; 
funds for the benefit of hospitels, schools, exhibitors at the 
universities, for lectures and sermons, prisoners in the city 
gaols, &c. Two illustrations may suffice to afibrd some idea 
of the magnitude of these charities in the aggregate : the 
Goldsmiths' Company pay annually, to their poor alone, up- 
wards of £5000 : whilst the Fishmongers', we learn from the 
report of the Corporation Commissioners before referred to, 
disburse annually in charity between £9,000 and £10,000, in 
different parts of England and Ireland ; their gross income 
realizing little short of £20,000 per annum.s 

*4* Persons desirous of obtaining the benefit of these 
gifts, must, in the first instance, apply to the respective 
clerks, at their companies' halls, for the necessary forms of 
application, etc. ; for this purpose, in each instance, the 
situation of the hall and name of the clerk is furnished. 

^ For a more detailed account, see the Report of the Commissioners on 
Endowed Charities, published in county parts by Parker, West Strand. 

' Messrs. Flatt and Saunders* Paper on the Endowed Charities. — 
Knight's London. Vol. 6. 

3 It is impossible certainly to arrive at anything like the exact amount 

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193 

PITY fUU €UtSiWMVXS. C0MPANIK8. 

Apothecaries. — Hall, Water-lane. A widow's fund, for the 
benefit of the poor of the company. Clerk, Bobt. Brother- 
son Upton, Esq. 

Armourers and Braziers. — Hall, 81, Coleman Street. 
Almshouses ; and several gifts to poor of company. Clerk, 
John Pontifex, Esq., 6, St. Andrew's-court, Holbom-hill. 

Bakers. — Hsdl, 16, Harp Lane, Tower Street. Several 
pensions to poor of Company ; and a fund for support of 
Almshouses. Clerk, Henley Smith, Esq., 4, Wamford Court. 

Barbers. — Hall, 33, Monkwell Street. One hundred pounds 
annually to be divided among twenty-five widows of decayed 
Liverymen. Clerk, Henlev Smith, Esq., 4, Wamford Court. 

Brewers. — Hall, 18, Addle Street, Wood Street. See Owen's 
Almshouses ; also Hickson's Grammar School. They have 
likewise in their trust a considerable bequest for granting 
annuities to decayed master-brewers, and other objects of re- 
lief, at discretion of Comply, by Samuel Whitbread^ Esq. 
Clerk, Charles Vines, Esq. 

BtUchers. — Hall, between 5 and 6, Eastcheap. Several 
small bequests for the relief of poor freemen and their wives. 
Clerk, Joseph Daw, Esq., Sewers Ofiice, Guildhall. 

Bowyers. — James Wood's eight exhibitions of ^£10 each 
to Oxford or Cambridge, for seven years ; preference given 
to Bowyers' sons, or scholars from Christ's Hospital. Clerk, 
Thomas Jones, Esq., 1, King's-arms Yard, Coleman Street. 

Carpenters. — Hall, 68, London Wall. Several gifts to poor 
freemen and their widows. One exhibition to Cambridge, 
bequeathed by John Bead, of £4, for three years. Clerk, 
Edward Basil Jupp, Esq. 

Clochmakers. — ^kelton's pensions to the " Honestest and 
neediest poor of Company" ; and others to poor of Company, 
at discretion of master and wardens. Clerx, Samuel Elliott 
Atkins, Esq., 6, Cowper's Court, Comhill. 

Chthworkers. — Hall, 41, Mincing Lane. See Heather's 
Trust, consisting of a fund for the widows of decayed house- 
keepers, to the amount of £8 each ; forms of petition may 
be had at the hall. Amongst other trusts, are the Countess 
of Kent's Almshouses ; Sir John Bobinson's gifts to ditto ; 
Heath's Almshouses, and clothing to thirty poor of Company. 

bat upon a careful comparison of their relative extent, and having the 
amonnts pretty accnrate for above twenty of the principal companies, we 
may safely compute the aggregate annual amount distributed by them in 
charitable gifts at j£37,000. 

13 



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194 

CITY ClrantHlilB #iftg [unm) cqmpahibb. 

Gamp*8 Almshouses, at Friem Bamet, and Packington's 
Almshouses. J. and F. West's charities are very numerous 
and valuable ; for clothing forty freemen of the Company ; 
the maintaining many artisan clothworkers ; and charities 
to the blind. Seven exhibitions to students at the Universi- 
ties, varying from £5 to £10 each ; and fees for apprenticing 
orphans, and children of clergymen. Cleric, Robert Beckwitn 
Towse, Esq. 

Cooks.— No hall. Corbett's Charity to the poor, and officers 
of Company, decayed ministers and their widows. Davis's to 
four poor women of St. AJban, Wood Street ; two presentations 
to Christ's Hospital ; and apprentice fees for children of 8t. 
Catherine Cree Church, and of freemen of Company, from 
bequests of Mr. John Phillips and Mr. John Davis. Clerk, 
John Beckwith Towse, Esq., 24, Lawrence Pountney Lane. 

Coopers. — Hall, 71, Basinghall Street. Wood's Almshouses 
at Ratcliffe. Loans with and without interest ; Strode's School 
and Almshouses at Egham, Surrey. Clerk, James Boyer, Esq. 

Cordwainera. — HaJl, 17, Ghreat Distaff Lane, have a con- 
siderable estate, out of which a large sum is annually paid to 
the poor. Also Came's bequests for the blind, and d^ and 
dumb (page 186), also a small fund from same bequest for the 
benefit of widows of clergymen of London, or within 26 
miles thereof, above forty years or age, or if with children 
unprovided for, above 35 years of age. Various bequests to 
pensioners and other poor of Company. Two exhibitions of 
small value for five years, at approbation of Vicar and 
Warden of St. Sepulchre. Clerk, James Josiah Millard, Esq. 

Curriers. — Hall, between 6 and 7, London Wall. Dawe s 
Charity to ten master curriers. Clerk, Edward Burkitt, Esa., 
at the Hall. 

CuUers. — Hall, 6, Cloak Lane. Bucke's Charity to St. 
John's College, Cambridge, for a scholar qualified by name 
and kin, according to will ; this amount luts been accruing 
since 1793, as no claimant has appeared. And Caythome's 
Charity to poor of St. Bride's. Clerk, James Beaumont, Esq,, 
19, Lincoln's-inn-fields. 

Drapers.— R^iXi, 27 y Throgmorton Street, are trustees to 
many munificent bequests, amongst which may be mentioned 
the following : A bequest of Howell's for marriage portions 
to maidens next of kin to donor, ditto of Pennoyers, for ap- 
prenticing ; Boyley, to poor men of Company, and appren- 
ticing ; Dixon, for apprenticing ; Granger s pensions of JBIO 
to the blind, and for apprenticing alternately ; pensions for 

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195 

CITY fxmn (BniDBrmmti, companies- 

the relief and release of pnBoners in the Compters. Stocker's 
bequest of bread to Tarious prisons ; and a presentation to 
iChrist's Hospital. Thomas Russell's bequest of two payments 
of six poimcb to students for six years, one at each Uniyersity . 
Also trustees to the ancieoit establislunent on the Lewisham 
Eoady called Queen Elizabeth's Oolite, for the maintenance 
of twenty poor persons, said to be the first hospital founded 
by a Fr(^tant In 1768, acc(»rding to Maitland, this Com- 
pany was in the habit of distributing annually to their poor, 
tts much as jC4000. Clei^, Edward Lawford, Esq. 

jD^ers.-^EsJly 3, College Street, Dowgate Hill. Alms- 
houses founded by West; various bequests to inmates of 
ditto ; and others for poor of Company. Clerk, Beaumont 
XSiaxles Luttly, Esq. 

Embroiderers, — ^Nohall. Bequests from Smith and others to 
almswQmen,and poor of St. Benet Paul's Wharf; from Howae, 
fer poor and officers of Company, and parishes of St. Thomas 
flfid St. Sayioiur. Cleric, James Burra, Esq., 19, Bread-street, 
Cheapside. 

Fe&makerg. — ^No hall. Bequests of £2 each, to six poor master 
fidlt jnaken ; of £5 eadi to six poor widows of ditto ; and of 
iSOs. each, to twenty-fire decayed master hatters. Clerk, 
James Peachey, Esq., 17, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street. 

Fishmonefer^ — Hall, Adelaide Place, London Bridge. St. 
Pete's Hospital (see Almshouses, which number altogether 
04) ; various bequests for the inmates of ditto, also for in- 
isseaAing them ; coals and other benefactions to po<^ of com* 
pany. Sir Thomas Eneseworth's bequests, and Sergeant 
JUmdolph's, now yielding twelve exhibitions, value £20 each 
for seven years ; exhibitors are nominated by court of as- 
flistants in rotation, and elected by the court ; they have 
likewise the nominaticm of a fellowship of Sidney Sussex 
CSollege, Cambridge, termed Smith's scholarship — worth 
JCIOO a year. A Free Grammar School at Holt, founded by 
Sir T. Gresham ; six presaitations to Christ's Hospital ; 
several loans bearing interest, &c. Clerk, William Beckwith 
Towse, Esq., at the hall. 

Frarnework Knitters, — No haU. See Bourne's Almshouses. 
Clerk, Robert Anderson, Esq., 10, Langbome Chambers, Fen- 
-dburch-street. 

i^<wmfe»».-**Hall, Founder's Court, Lothbury, have a fund 
for the relief of cteoayed liverymen and wieir widows : 
termed " The Founders' Charitable Fund," fr<Mn which pen- 
sions are granted. Clerk^ John Gray, Jun., Esq. 

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196 

CITY C^gritato iifts (Mrimrg) companies. 

Oirdler8.—H9My 39, Basinghall Street. See Girdlers* Alms- 
houses ; Tarious bequests to poor of Company ; of St. Bride's ; 
and poor of St. James's, Olerkenwell ; also to clergyman and 
poor of Burwash, Surrev. Clerk, William Walton, Esq. 

Glass Sellers. — No hall. Hayes and others,poor of company. 
Clerk, James Clift, Esq., 30, Bloomsbury Square. 

Glaziers. — No hall. Wall and others, to aged females, 
widows, and other poor of company. Clerk, Charles Henry 
Lovell, Esq., 14, South Square, Gray's Inn. 

Gold (& silver Wire Dratwrs.— No hall. Russell, five poor 
widows of freemen 20s. each. Clerk, S. Lepard, 9, Cloak-fane. 

Goldsmiths. — Hall, Foster Lane. Almshouses, see list. 
This opident company's charities are very numerous : besides 
their idmshouses, they grant pensions, l>oth settled and un- 
settled, the former to one hundred freemen, and one hundred 
and ten widows of ditto ; the latter consist of non-permanent 
pensions, and are made to one hundred freemen, and fifty 
widows ; it is estimated that the company distributes to the 
poor as much as £5000 per annum. The bequests for their 
support have been most uberal ; the principal donors' names 
are, Atte Hay, £760 annually, Walton, £477 annually ; Sir 
M. Bowes and others, £1,911 annually, towards almshouses 
at Woolwich, poor of company, and various other items ; Sir 
H. Middleton, £180 annually ; Sir J. Wollaston, £139 an- 
nually ; and, amongst many others, an extensive bequest of 
John Perryn, Esq., of East Acton, 1656, which has been 
made available for the fine almshouses there, and other 
charitable uses, at the discretion of Company. Under Mr. 
Perryn's will, the company have also founded no less than 
twenty-two exhibitions, eleven at each University, of £30 
value, each for four years ; these are open without restriction 
to all candidates. A distribution is also made to ten blind 
men or women, pursuant to Farmer's bequest. Qerk, John 
Lane, Esq., at the hall. 

Grocers. — Hall, Grocers'-hall Court, 35, Poultry, have also 
very valuable bequests in their trust, but no almshouses, ex- 
cept for seven poor, attached to Sir W. Saxton's gift of £269 
per annum, in support of Free Grammar School at Oundle, 
Northampton ; two other schools are also in their trust, one 
from Walwyn's gift, at Colwall, Hereford, which the com- 
pany has much enlarged ; and the other at Witney, Oxford, 
founded by Henry !^x. Esq, ; several gifts to lend out as 
loans ; and Lady Slaney's fimds for apprenticing in West 



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197 

CITY ^rniE ^gtopntntg^ compawib8. 

Wickham, and for the purchase of adyowsons, &c. ; also 
large bequests from Lady Conway, Sir Thomas and Lady 
Middleton, to poor of Company, poor of Acton, St. Dunstan 
in the East, release of prisoners, and to Christ's Hospital ; 
from T. Enowles, Sir H. Eebyll, and Sir W. Butler, bequests 
to poor of company ; and various small exhibitions to Uni- 
yersity students, varying from £5 to £7, held until taking 
degree of A.B. The amount annually distributed by this 
company to the poor, may be stated at £1200. Clerk, Henry 
Bicknell, Esq., at the hall. 

. Haherdaskers, — Hall, 8, Gresham-street-west, City. Alms- 
houses, see list. Bequests to poor of Company y^ consi- 
derable : the princip«d are from Himtlowe, Sir S. Feacock, 
Sir N. Rainton, and Jones ; also large sums for loans to 
young members ; gifts to prisoners in Newgate and other 
places ; nine bequests, value from £5 to £\0 each, for exhi- 
bitions, to students at the Universities ; Hammond's bequest 
for purchase of advowsons ; also trustees to Free Grammar 
Schools at Banbury, Chester, RoUeston, Stafford, and at 
Hoxton. 

Jones Lectureship, a bequest to such '' learned and faith- 
ful preacher as the Company of Haberdashers shall appoint." 
This lecture is preached every Tuesday morning, at the 
church of St. Margaret, Lothbury ; and the whole of the 
funds accruing from the property of the testator is devoted 
to the benefit of the lecturer : it now amounts to between 
j£400 and £500 a-year. The present lecturer is the Rev. 
Henry Melville, B.B. 

Likewise, Trotman's Lectureship, at St. Giles's, Cripple- 
gate, ^' of a Sunday morning at six o'clock, and once in the 
wedc besides; value, £40 per annum;" and chaplaincy of 
Aske's Hospital ; value, £50 per annum. 

The amount annually distributed in charitable uses by 
this Company exceeds £4,000 per annum. Clerk, John 
Ourtis, Esq. 

Iwnkolders, — Hall, 6, College-street, Dowgate-hill. Hinde 
and Lewis's bequests to poor of Company ; and Bayley's to 
yicar, churchwardens, and poor of St. Lawrence Jewry. 
Olerx, Charles Dtuccl Esq., 10, Billiter-square. 

/ronmow^erA— Hall, 118, Fenchurch-street. See JeflTery's 
Almshouses ; besides which, very large bequests are in their 
trust, especially that of Thomas Bettons, a Turkey merchant, 
consisting of an annual amount of, it is stated, £5,672 ; one 
half to redeem slaves in Turkey, one fourth to schools, the 

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^ 198 

CITY C lfgritHto (Kftg itSMM) 0OMPANIE8. 

Other fourth to Minister and decayed Freemen of Gom^ 
pany ; also Handson's gifts to school and poor of St. Savionr^i, 
Southwark, Christ's and other Hospitals, or poor of Company^ 
at discretion; several sums for exhiMtions, to Uniyersity 
students, of small amoimts, Tarying from £Z to £5 per 
annum ; privilege of sending two sons of Freemen to Ohrist'i 
Hospital ; and various others. Clerk, Simon Adams Beck, Esq. 

Leatkersdlers.^^^BXl, St. Helen Vplace. Almshouses, see 
list. Roger's bequest of jC466, '^ to be employed in kukb, 
the best pennyworth they could get," for the benefit of poot 
students. Now yielding four exhibitions, of £16 per annum 
each, for fonr years. Blliot's, Sudboiy's, Mosel^'s, and 
others, for poor of Company, are of considerable amount ; 
and portions for exhibitions to poor students, varying from 
£4 to £5 each ; various sums for poor of almshouses ; also 
Calfe's Free Grammar School at Lewisham ; and others* 
Clerk, Charles Richards Vines, Esq. 

Mercers — Hall, 4, Ironmonger-lane-*»are trustees to veiy 
valuable and extensive charities. Norfolk College, aoid 
other almshouses, see index ; see also St. Paul's and Mercers* 
schools ; besides which, are Terr nmnerous bequests for ex- 
hibitions to scholars in their scnools. Viscount Campdeu'd 
gift produces jf 1,000 annually for that purpose ; several 
sums to be lent, with and without interest. Sixteen exhi* 
bitions to poor students at the Universities, varying from £7 
to £M per annum for seven years ; bequeathed by North, 
Robinson, and others. Sir T. Gresham's extensive bequesti 
produce £3,040 annually, see Gresham College, and are in 
the Company's management ; likewise a large amoimt left 
by Sir T. Bennett, for poor of Wallingford, Berks ; release 
of prisoners ; and Company's officers. Richard Fishbome's 
bequests for several preacherships and lectures, including 
one at Mercers' Chapel, St Bartholomew's, by the Exchange, 
etc. Lady Campden's bequests for loans gratis, impropria* 
tions, etc., are very large ; and Sir R. Whittington*s bequests 
produce ^4,868 annually. Clerk, H. Eugene Barnes, Esq. 

Merchant Taylors. — Hall, 27 and 34 Threadneedlenstreet* 
Pay between je3,000 and £4,000 yearly by bequests, besides 
Almshouses and sdiool. The principal gifts are those stand- 
ing in the names of Holland, Sutton, Tressawdl, Spencer, 
Hyde, Sir W. Craven, and Vernon, which are of considerable 
amount, and are mostly for benefit of poor of company, re- 
lease of prisoners, etc.; sevend bequests to Christ's Hospital; 



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199 

CITY ^rimi f iitoigiiinitg, companies . 

schools at Great Crosby, Andlen^ Chester, and at Ashwell, 
Herts. Also several exmbitions, including Dr. Andrew's six, 
of £50 each per annum ; Dr. Stuart's two, ditto ; Mr. Par- 
kins's six of £40; and others of smaller amount. These are 
mostly rendered available for students proceeding to college 
from the Company's school. Lady Wdd's beouest for puT« 
chuing advowsons, etc. Megg's Almshouses, Whitechapel, 
are in the gift of Companv ; also Dame James Maynard's 
bequest of j&XO each to suen sons of freemen as may serve 
out their appr^iticeship. Clerk, Samuel Fisher, Esq. 

PairUeryOrFoMifer Stainers, — Hall, 9, Little IWni^-lane. 
Have several bequests in their trust. See Mrs. Shank's dis- 
tributions; also Stock's charity to the lame: under Mr. 
Stock's wUl, jClOO is divided annually amongst ten poor 
curates, through the clergy, or their corporation ; besides 
which, are Evans and Chamberlain's gifts to poor of St. Mi- 
chael, Bassishaw, and of St. Alphage ; and distributions from 
a poor*box of the court, for poor freemen. Clerk, Philip Nel- 
son Tomlins, Esq. 

Parish Clerks^ — Hall, 83, Wood-street, Cheapside. Roper's 
gifts of bread and coals to poor prisoners and others, at dis- 
cretion of company. Clerk, Joseph Wheeler, Esq. 

Patten Makers, — No hall. Scrimshaw's bequest towards 
expenses of company, and to four poor patten makers, or 
their widows. Clerk, James Francis Firth, Esq., Town Clerk's 
office, Guildhall. 

Pewterers, — HaU, 17, Lime-street. Several bequests for 
the poor of company, amounting to j£lOO annually. Clerk, 
William Dadley, Esq.. 1, Anchor-terrace, Southwark. 

Plasterers, — No hall. Thirty pounds annuaUv to widows 
of freemen. Clerk, H. Mott, Esq., 2, King's-road, Bedford-row. 

Plvmbers, — Hall, 12, Great Bush-lane. A small bequest 
for widows and children of freemen. John Beckwith Towse, 
Esq., 24, Lawrence Pountney-lane. 

Poulterers, — No hall. School in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, 
and £30 annually, in various gifts, to distribute to noor of 
company. Clerk, Wm. Henry Tadgrove, Esq., 52, Mark-lane. 

Sadcuers. — Hall, 143, Cheapside. Bequests for apprentic- 
ing : for smaU pensions to poor saddlers, and other poor of 
company. Clerk, Giles Clarke, Esq. 

SaUers. — HaU, St. Swithin's-lane. Have considerable sums 
at their disposal (see almshouses), for their almsmen and 
other poor ; and several bequests, to be used as loans, bear- 



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^0 

CITY C^aritalilg dgjftg juxms) companies. 

ing interest, and mostly for tlie benefit of company's officers ; 
also four exhibitions, of £5 each per annum, to poor scholars 
at St. John's, Cambridge, and Jesus College, OidPbrd. Clerk^ 
Edward Thompson, Esq. 

Scriveners. — No hall. Ten pounds per annum for poor of 
company. Clerk, Park Nelson, Esq., 11, Essex-street, Strand. 

skinners. — Hall,8,Dowgate-hill. Have several Almshouses 
(see Judd, Holies, Skinners), and large pensions for poor of 
company, amounting to more than j£ 1,000 annually; and 
four exhibitions to poor students, of £15 per annum ; and 
two, £5 per anniun ; the principal donors of which have 
been, Sir T. Smith, T^^o^ias Hunt, Lewis Newberry, Sir 
James Lancaster, and Lawrence Attwell, etc. Clerk^ Thos. 
Glover Eensit, Esq. 

Stationers. — Hall, Stationers' Hall Court. Are trustees to 
several excellent charities, among which are William Bow- 
yer's, consisting of £180 annually, which is divided. among 
eight or ten poor printers (compositors or pressmen) ; and 
£30 to one other compositor, qualified according to will ; 
aJso William Strahan's, consisting of sums to be divided 
between five poor compositors of England, and five of Scot- 
land, — those of England to be free of company ; and several 
others, for poor journeymen and others. Forms of petition 
may be obtained as the annuities fall in. A gift of A. Stra- 
han, to be divided among six of the pensioners of William 
Strahan ; also several distributions of bibles and prayers to 
children of Christ's Hospital, and to freemen of company 
and others ; and last, though not least, nearly £50 annually 
for the poor, from bequests left by Mr. Guy, the founder of 
the hospital.! Clerk, C. Rivington, Esq., 1, Fenchurch-build. 

Tallow Chandlers. — Hall, 5, Dowgate-hill. Trustees to 
very trifling bequests, and those only for poor of company ; 
amongst which may be mentioned Mr. Banks' pensions of 
£20 per annum to poor liverymen, or widows thereof. Clerk, 
Horatio Nelson Fisher, Esq., 60, Fenchurch-street, 

Upholders. — No hall. Twenty poor freemen £1 each, by 
will of Miers. Clerk, Timothy Tyrrell, Esq., Remembrancer's 
ofiice, Guildhall. 

^ Became a member of the company in 1688, and " commenced busi- 
ness, as a printer, in the house that till of late years formed the angle 
between Comhill and Lombard-street. There he laid the foundation of 
his mighty fortune by contracting with the Universities for the printing 
of bibles." — The Stationers' Company, by J. Saunders. 



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. 201 

CITY fxm intomBgtg. companies. 

VirUners. — Hall, 68i Upper Thames-street. See Alms- 
houses ; also several small bequests to poor ; and sums for 
loans,amounting,inall,toj£l50aimuallj. Clerk, O.Martin,Esq. 

Wax Chandlers. — Hall,Gresham-street West, City. Thomp- 
son's bequest, of £S4 annually, and a few others, for widows 
and other poor of company. Clerk, Mark Henry Gregory, Esq. 

Weavers. — Hall, 22, Basinghall-street. See Almshouses ; 
several bequests from Hosea, Morton, Saunders, and others, 
for providing and clothing poor of company, etc. Clerk, 
Benjamin Hardwick, Esq. 

Parochial Chabities. Bequests similar to those in 
trust of the foregoing companies, of a greater or less ex- 
tent, are attached to most of the metropolitan parishes, under 
the management of special trustees, the respective vestries, 
or the churchwardens for the time being ; the aggregate value 
of which, connected with the parishes of London and West- 
minster, and immediate vicinity, amounts to .£40,000 per 
annum. Examples of their ordinary character have already 
been furnished, page 167. Any attempt at a complete account 
of such miscellaneous charitable bequests or endowments, 
would only occupy much valuable space, without serving any 
useful purpose; but wc cannot close this chapter wimout 
noticing the following two or three, as of more than local 
interest, and respecting which inquiries are often heard. 

PATRIOTIC FUND, 61, Thrfeadneedle-street. Esta- 
blished 1803. Originally for the encouragement and relief 
of those engaged in defending this country during the war, 
from 1803 to 1816, and was set on foot by the subscribers to 
Lloyd's Coflfee House, who voted a sum of £20,000 for the 
purpose, and has been augmented at intervals by them and 
the public at large '} the benefit at present is limited to the 
affording relief to such in her Majesty's service as may be 
disabled by wounds received in action, and to the widows 
and children, and dependant relatives, of those killed, need- 
ing assistance. 

Trustees^ George Shedden, Esq. ; G. R. Smith, Esq. ; William 
G. Shedden, Esq. ; William Thompson, Esq. ; Abel Smith, Esq. 
Chairman, George Shedden, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. J. P. Lines. 

THE CHOLMONDELET TRUST consists of property 
left by the late Mr. George James Choknondeley, of Great 

* 1 The subscribers to Lloyd's voted X20,000 in 1803, ^^5,000 in 1809, 
and again ^£1 0,000 in 1812. No report is published of either the present 
disbursements, or state of the fund generally. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



^ 

Ctjaritalilg jiftg (turriims) ftmn f triroigmtctg^ 

(kimberland-street, for charitable purposes, at the discretion 
of the trustees ; of whom are the two Archbishops, and the 
Bishop ci London. The amount of fund is believed to be 
upwards of £150,000, and comprehended the bulk of the 
testator's property. It is rendered available chiefly for dis- 
tressed clergymen ; also for the education of their children 
for the church, etc. There exists no published account of 
it^ neither are particidars furnished to individuals ; but such 
as are desirous of making application for its benefits must 
do so by petition to the trustees, to their Seeretury, Joseph 
Hanby, ^sq., of the Almonry, Scotland-yard, Whitehall. 

THE MA UNLTQIFTS.^ This, strictly speaking, comm 
not within our limits ; but, as a charitable custom, annually 
brought under notice, it appears necessary to explain its 
origin and nature. It is the remains of an old custom of 
royal alms-giving, upon the Thursday preceding Good Friday, 
commenced by Edimd III, at a jubilee held by him when 
he was fifty years of age, 1363. The ceremony now consists 
in giving food, clothing, and pieces of silver miHiey, to as 
many persons as there are years in the queoii's age : may 
tiie number of recipients long be on the increase. The di»> 
tribution is generaUy conducted, at the Chapel Royal, by the 
Bishop of Oxford, as ahnoner, or, in his absence, by the Bey. 
Dr. Jelf, sub-almoner. The ceremony is preceded by Divine 
Service, commencing at 2 p.m. Admission can only be ob- 
tained by tickets issued at the Almonry Office, WhHehall. 

FLOOD'S CHARITABLE DISTRIBUTION r-^sAsw 
ftom the dividends of £2,500, left by Mr. Luke Thomas 
Flood, an old and respectable magistrate and inhabitant of 
Chelsea. According to Mr. Flood's will, the same are distri- 
buted every 13th <£by of January, in the following manner: 
— To two deserving housekeepers of Chelsea, j£30 ; to two 
hundred and eighty distressed parishioners, one quartern loaf 
each ; to two of the most deserving children in the parish 
charitv school, £28, for apprenticeship fees ; to forty of the 
next best children, £4; to the clergyman examining them, 
£2 ; and to the organist, for playing on the occasion, £1. 10s. 

^ " The word ' Maundy* it derived from ' mande,' a handbaaket. in 
which the king was accustomed to give the alms." — Spelman. Bat Bishop 
Wheailj affords a more significant meaning, giving its origin as " man^ 
dati dieSf" the day on which our Saviour gave his mandate that we should ' 
love one another. 



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2^ 

qEyEBAL IgUlmitg far t^ %t REMARKS. 



CHAPTER XL 



ASYLUMS AND ALMSHOUSES FOR 
THE AGED. 

Asylmns ftv Ibe Aged.— ^C^eneftl Remarks upon their Number, Value, 
and Anonal Endowment. — ComparatiTe decrease of Foundations, with 
gradual rise of Workhouses, and increased Fbor's- Rate.— General 
Snmmarj of present Condition, &c. — St Eatberine's Hospital, Wbit- 
tington's Collie, and other similar Establishments, arranged according 
to date of original foundation. — Stafford's Almshouses, and general 
condensed Account of the Endowed Almshouses connected with the 
Metropolis. — licensed Victuallers', and Asylums of more recent esta- 
blishment. 

Bevobb considering the Ctoeral Beneyolent and Benefit 
Funds, proyided against age or reverse of fortune, it appears 
desirable to giye me various Colleges, Horoitals, and Alms- 
houses ; because, not only do they albrd asylums for the aged^ 
but, in most instances, the entire maintenance of the inmates 
is provided for by annual pensions and other allowances. 

Colleges consist of entire establishments, upon more en- 
larged plans than Almshouses ; and are governed by a Master 
and other incorporateofficers, meeting generally at one board ; 
the benefits of the foundation being chiefly, indeed, for such 
persons, with the addition of other poorer brethren, as may 
be provided for. In some of these, such as Charter House, 
Sion College, and Dulwich College, the intentions of their 
foimders have been carried out by the increased value of, and 
subsequent additions to, the original bequest, — so to include 
the education of youth, the advancement and benefit of lite- 
rature and art, etc. ; but, under the present heading, it has 
been the endeavour to consider them only as regards " cha- 



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204 

CItarifeg flir BEMABK8. 



rities for the aged" ; but many of them will be referred to 
in future chapters for their other contingent benefits. 
. The Almshouses, endowed, and left in the trust of com- 
panies and local trustees, will be found by the annexed sum- 
mary to be very numerous. A system of arrangement has 
been pursued, to afford a clear view of their relative details ; 
and attention has been directed to ascertain their present 
actual condition. This, however, must in some measure, in 
a few instances, fail. The difficulty of identifying existing 
establishments with the accounts gleaned from historians of 
London of the past century has been great, — ^inasmuch as 
many are no longer in existence as distinct institutions ; of 
others the names have been altered ; the endowments of two 
orthree are often merged into one; and the buildings removed 
to more appropriate localities. Amongst other results of our 
inquiries, they have tended to reduce the number of alms- 
houses as set down by many modem authors ; and even in 
the present carefully examined account, we are aware that 
one or two abatements must be made for the dubiousness 
attending the actual existence of a few in the environs ; 
but consideration has induced us to give insertion to them, 
deeming it not imlikely, — or undesirable, should they not 
now be in existence, — that further steps be taken by the 
persons locally interested to trace the appropriation of the 
original endowment. 

The third class of these Asylums comprehend the more 
modem institutions, depending wholly or in part upon the 
charitable support of the present age ; under this head there 
will be found but comparatively few. Almshouses have not 
increased in our own day in the same proportion as other 
diarities. This may be accoimted for by other causes than 
the rise of workhouses, and increase of poor's-rates.^ The 
diaritably inclined of the present time are not so satisfied 
with leaving endowments, but recognize, it is to be hoped, the 
requirements that real charity demand ; such as active con- 

^ No compulsory law for the maintenance of the poor was enacted until 
the 27th Henrj VIII, 1535. The origin of the present system of poor- 
laws is referred to the 43rd Elizabeth, 1 600. The Poor- Law Amendment 
Bill was passed 4th and 5th William IV, Aug. 1834. In 1580, the rates 
for the relief of the poor amounted to j£ 188,811 ; in 1680, to X665,563; 
in 1608. to je819,000; in 1760, to ;£], 556,804; in 1785, to ^£2,184.950; 
in 1802, to j£4,953,421 ; in 1880, to ^£8,1 11,422 ; in 1840, to ^5,468,699 ; 
in 1845, to ^^5,548,650; in 1849, to ^5,792,968. 



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205 

ST. KATHBRINB's 4'tff ^g^it. HOSPITAL, A.D. 1145 

sideration and judgment, united with personal exertions ; 
and it may be inferred by a glance at the dates of the founda- 
tion of these endowed asylums, that their origin partook of 
much of the *^ charity by death necessitate," peculiar to the 
times. 

Priortoieth 
centoiy. I6tli. 17th. ISth. TMaL 

Colleges, Hospitals, and 

superior Foundations 2 ... 2 ... 7 ... — ... 11 

Almshouses 1 ... 20 ... 37 ... 24 ... 82 

Those in the eighteenth century, nearly all preyi- 

ous to 1750 

The former 11 afford residence, with yarious pensions 

and necessaries, as detailed under each account, to 

brethren, almsmen, and others, to the niunber of 343 

The latter 82 to 1074 

The aggregate annual amount (endowed), as nearly 

as carefid calculation can arrive at, of the former,i8 j£40,e00 
Of the latter ^£36,590 

This is exclusive of the two Royal Hospitals of Chelsea 
and Greenwich, which are of a different character, and will 
be found treated of at length in this chapter. 

The Asylums and Almshouses, depending on voluntary 
contributions, it will be seen, have all arisen between 1811 
and the present time. Of these, there are 10 establishments 
of a distinct constitution ; few, if any, of them affording pen- 
sions, consequently, their benefits are available to a larger 
number, in proportion to the amount of income. 

The number of inmates is 493 

The aggregate amount of annual income £5,857 

Besides these, are nine establishments in connexion with 
Provident Institutions, which will be found detailed in the 
succeeding chapter. 

ST. KATHERINK8 HOSPITAL, Regent's Park. 
Founded about 1145. This establishment is collegiate, and 
is under the management of the Queen Consort as visitor ; 
if no such, the Queen Dowager; and if none, then the 
king.^ The ancient hospital was founded upon the site of 

^ The word " Idng" is now read " reiguing soyereign," a8,bj the lamented 
death of the late Queen Dowager, a contingency occurred not otherwise 
proyided against. In Queen Eleanor's charter, the object of her founda- 
tion is stated to be '* for the health of the soul of her late husband, and 
of the souls of the preceding and succeeding kings and queens." One of 



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2^ 

8T. kathsbine's C^^HntUl fnr hospital, a.d. 1145 

ike present St. Katherine's Bocks, bj Matilda, queen of 
Kin^ Stephen, as a priory, for her son l^dwin and daughter 
Matildi^ and f<»r the maintenance of a master, three brokers, 
and tluree sisters, ten poor women, called bedeswomen, and 
six poof scholars, and other persons. It was augmented, 
or rather refounded, by Queen Sileanor, widow of Henry III, 
in 1273, and subsequently by other queens of England, 
in whom the patronage has always remained. Su(m pa- 
tronage, as may be imagined, has always served to secure 
for the hospitu the interest of ^ a friend at court" ; and 
in 1442, in consequence of the special representation of 
its master of the insufficiency of its funds, this interest 
was exerted to procure for it the grant bf priyil^es 
of no ordinaiy kind or Yalue ; they consisted of no less than 
a diarter of exemption for the unmediate district of the 
hospital, from all ecdesiattical and secular jurisdiction, 
except that of the Lord CShancellor and tiie master of the 
hospitaL The precinct thus granted, with the various con- 
tingent advantages at the same time secured to it, soon be- 
came a valuable one, and it was only by the watchful guar- 
dianship of Queen Anne Boleyn and other queen consorts, 
that these privileges were still respected. Their value may 
be conceived from the fact, that in 1824, when by act of 
parliament it was determined to build the present St. 
Katherine's Docks, the compensation made to the hospital, 
under the direction of Lord Eldon, amounted to no less a 
sum than ^£125,000, as the value of the precinct estate, 
je36,000 for building a new hospital, ;£2,000 for the pui^ 
chase of a site, and several smaller sums to those whose in- 
terests suffered by the removal. The present building, 
erected 1827, consists of a very handsome chapel, whidi 
contains the curious pulpit, monuments, etc., brought from 

the priests -vvas daily required to sing a mass ; another to " celebrate daily 
divine service, solemnly and devoutly, for the foresaid souls." She or- 
dained, moreover, tiiat on the return of each Edmund the Confessor's 
day, there should be bestowed one halfpenny, in form aforesaid, upon ooe 
thousand poor men. 

^ Mr. IB^iight states : ** The precinct possessed, at this time, both a spiri> 
tual and temporal court ; the former was a royal jurisdiction for all eccle- 
siastical causes within the precinct, probate of wills, etc. ; in the temporal 
court the high steward of the jurisdiction of St Katherine presided. In 
1661, the number of houses within the precinct was 731 ; in 1708, 850; 
and in 1821 had decreased to 427, which were inhabited by 685 families." 



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207 ^___ 

WHITTIN€^T0N'S COLLEGE, flttff ^-JEJI. J^'^' 1421 

the ancient hospital ; dwellings for the brethren and sisters, 
and a handsome villa and pleasure grounds, on the oppo- 
site side, for the master. The reyenues of the hospital 
may be applied for such good and charitable purposes, as 
directed by the royal patroness for the time being: and 
The School, now attached, consists of thirty boys and twenty 
girls, who are educated, for the most part clothed, and aft^ 
the age of fourteen apprenticed. The affairs of the hospital 
are managed by the Ohi^ter, which consists of the bretnreii 
and sisters before-mentioned. The brothers are in orders, 
but not restricted from marrying, the sisters unmarried or 
widows. The appointment of bedesmen and women rests 
with the Chapter ; they are non-resident, and receive ^0 
per annum for life. The income of the hospital is not much 
less than J6,000 per annum, and the expenditure between 
£4,000 and £5,000. The appointment of the master and 
brethren and sisters is now Md by her Majesty the Queen^ 
and are of considerable value. 

Visitor, the Lord Chancellor. — Master, Hon. William Ashley, 
— ^Brethren, Rev. John Wightman ; and Rev. G^eoig« Townshend 
Hudson.— Sisters, Miss Wuson ; Miss Northey ; l^y Taylor. — 
Receiver, John Seeker, Esq. — Schoolmaster, Mr. Flicker. — 
Schoolmistress, Miss West. 

WHITTINQTOJ^'S COLLEGE OR ALMSHOUSES, 
Highgate, otherwise " God^s House", so called by his execu- 
tors, was founded originally on College Hill, 1421,^ by Sir 
B. Whittington, and demands especial notice for its present 
superiority of establishment, handsome building, and gene- 
ral asociation with all that is magnificently liberal in cha- 
ritable citizenship : as is well known, this stands as a me- 
morial of the benevolence of the thrice mayor of London : 
^ for perpetual sustentation of needy and poor people.*' The 
*' Tutor", who is the head of the college, is in holy orders ; 
and his duties, besides performing Divine service, consist in 
^< overseeing the husbandry of the house, and nourishing 
charity and peace amongst his fellows." Each inmate must 
be ''meek of spirit, destitute of temporal goods in other 
places by which he might competently live, chf^te and of good 

^ The present establishment is an elegant jet substantial strocture, 
bailt of stone, in the collegiate style of architecture, situated near H%h- 
gate Archway. It was erected in the year 1822, at a total cost <^ litde 
less than ;£20.000. 



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EMANUEL COLLEGE, Ct^flTltitS AH A.D. 1594 

conversation*'; and to be select-ed, must be thus qualified ; 
above fifty-five years of age, with no freehold property worth 
;£20, or other property to the amount of £S0 annually. 

The inmates receive £30 annually from the college funds, 
besides the enjoyment of various gifts, the advantages of 
medical attendance, assistance of nurses, etc. Besides 
this amount to the inmates, there is £1000 per annum dis- 
tributed to about thirty or forty out-pensioners. The funds 
for the entire support of the hospital are said to exceed 
£5000 per anniun. 

The establishment is under the sole management of the 
Mercers' Company, to whom applications for vacancies must 
be addressed ; they are of course available more especially 
to livery or freemen of the company. 

QUEEN ELIZABETHS COLLEGE, Lewisham-road, 
to the southwest of the town of Greenwich, is a very ancient 
establishment, the management of which is vested in theDiia- 
pers' Oompany ; it consists of twenty small tenements with gar- 
dens attached ; it was founded and endowed 1 576, bv William 
Lambard, author of the Peramhvlation of Kent, " for twenty 
poor persons"; he committed the direction of it to the Mas- 
ter ofthe Rolls for the time being and the Drapers' Company. 
Highmore mentions this as << the first hospital founded by 
a Protestant." The appointment of the pensioners is thus 
arranged : one by the Master of the RoUs, one by the two 
elder wardens of the company, one by the steward of the 
manor of Greenwich, one by the drapers of Greenwich, six 
by the vicar and parish officers of Greenwich — three of 
liewisham, three of Eltham, and one of each of the follow- 
ing places : Charlton, Kedbrook, Woolwich, and Lee : they 
must be '* poor, honest, and godly persons "; and preference 
is given to certain qualifications, if more applicants than 
vacancies. The value of the pension, which at the first was 
about six shillings per month, is now about £15 per annum. 

Senior Warden, Mr. A. Dudman. — Clerk and Solicitor to the" 
Trustees, Edward Iiawford, Esq. 

EMANUEL COLLEGE, James Street, Westminster. 
Instituted 1594. Incorporated 1660. This institution was 
founded by Lady Dacre,* for ten poor men, ten poor women, 

* The original design was that of Gregory Lord Dacre's, who appropri- 
ated £4Si a year in lands, for ever, " towards the relief of aged people. 



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EMANUEL, A.D. 1594. ^)^ ^^ji, CHABTEB-HOUS B, 1611 

ten poor boys, and ten poor girls ; one of each from the 
pari^es of Chelsea, Hayes, in Middlesex, City of London, 
and Brainsbnrton,^ in Yorkshire, and the rest from the pa- 
rish of Westminster ; each pensioner to have a house and 
garden, jC20 a year, and two chaldron of coals. This num- 
ber has been from time to time extended, and now there is 
double the original number, besides sixty children ; and the 
payment to pensioners increased to £24 per annum. 

Supported by the manor of Brainsburton, in Yorkshire, 
which, at first, was let for less than £300, but now for nearly 
j£3,000 per annum, and placed under the guardianship of 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London for the 
time being ; for ever, — ^this has been since confirmed to them 
by Act of Parliament. 

Applications for yacancies to be made to the Town Clerk's 
Office, Guildhall. 

Trustees, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London. — Master, 
Rev. R. J. Waters, D.D. 

THE CEA RTER HO USB, Charter-house-square, Alders- 
gate Street. Instituted 1611. Comprehends in one, a col- 
legiate asylum for the aged, and an educational establishment 
for the young ; and forms together one of the chief charita- 
ble foundations of the metropolis. The ground on which it 
stands, was anciently part of the estate of the master and 
brethren-of St. Bartholomew's Spital,^ and was purchased, in 
1349, hj Sir Walter de Manny, who, assisted by bequests 
from Michael de Northburg, Bishop of London, built on it 
a convent for Monks of the Order of Carthusians, or Char- 
treux, so called from Chartreuse in Dauphiny, where the 
Order was first established, — ^whence also, the name of the 
present Hospital. This building, after changing into many 
hands, was purchased in 1611 by Thomas Sutton, the wealthy 

and bringing up children in yirtue and good and laudable acts." In this 
plan, his lady, Annie Baroness Dacre, concurred. His lordship dying 
before his intentions were executed, his lady took up with the plan, and 
carried it into effect. Lady D acre's will bears date December 20, 1504." 
— Highmore*8 Charities, 

^ Besides the income from rents, there is now an increasing amount 
derived from dividends on stock ; so that, at the present time, the whole 
amount cannot be less than j£4,000 per annum. 

3 Strype and Bearcroft agree in this account, but, according to Mal- 
colm, it was anciently part of the estate of the Hospital of St John of 
Jerusalem. 

14 

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210 

THE CHABTBK-HOUSB. CljKrifeS fill ^..D. 1611 

merchant of London ;i who, immediately after his purchase, 
instituted the present establishment, for which he obtained 
a charter from James I. In the same year, the beneyolent 
founder died, and hb remains now rest under the chapel of 
the establishment. 

Eighty aged men are maintained by this foundation, called 
pensioners or poor brethren ; they are admissible at fifty years 
of age, and must be natives of Great Britain and Protestants 
of the Church of England, preference being given to those 
who have experienced better days. They live together in 
coUegiate style, provided with handsome apartments, and all 
necessaries except apparel, in lieu of which they are allowed 
£14 a year and a gown each. They are nominated in the 
same manner as the scholars ; of whom there are at present 

^ Thomas Sutton, Esq., the founder of the modem Charterhouse, was 
horn at Knaith, Lincolnshire, in 1533, and educated at Eton. In 1562 
he hecame secretary to the Earl of Leicester ; and afterwards, as Master 
of the Ordnance at Berwick, so distinguished himself upon the breaking 
out of the Northern Rebellion, as to obtain special commendation of 
Queen Elizabeth, who rewarded him with a pension of j£3 : 4 : 8. In 
1580, by the purchase of estates producing coal mines, he was reputed 
to have been worth j£50,000, and soon afterwards became a merchant, 
with thirty agents abroad ; was appointed, successively, chief victualler 
to the navy, and commissioner for prizes, under Charles Howard; in 
1602 he retired from public life, and having purchased this mansion from 
the Howards, within a few years devoted his property to its endowment 
as a charitable establishment, notwithstanding the endeavour to divert 
him from his purpose by the Court, — by the offer of a peerage, condi- 
tional on his making the Duke of York (afterwards James I) his heir. 
Mr. Sutton was, however, free from ambition; and, being much advanced 
in life, the lustre of a coronet had but little charm for him ; and June 
22nd, 1611, by permission of the King, he obtained his deed of incorpo- 
ration, which sets forth that he shall endow the hospital with fifteen 
manors and other lands, of the value of j£4,499 : 10 : 10. He then pro- 
ceeded to fit up the house and buildings, at an expense (according to 
Str3rpe) of j£7,000. He had entertained a wish to have filled the office of 
first master himself; but his health suffered considerably by a slow 
fever, and therefore he appointed the Rev. John Hutton, A.M., vicar of 
Littlebury, on the 30th of October 1611 ; made his will on the 28th of 
November, and died on the 10th of December in the same year, not living 
to see the fruits of his benevolent exertions. Stowe speaks of this foun- 
dation, " as the greatest gift in England, either in Protestant or Catholic 
times, ever bestowed by any individual ;'* and until we come down to 
that of Guy's Hospital, it may be so considered. The property consisted 
of about £5,000 per annum, and £60,000 ready money. 



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211 

HORFOLK COLLEGE. %^ ^^i, A.D. 1613 

* forty-four, termed " on the foundation", supported free of 
expense ; they are presented by the governors in rotation, 
and are admitted at any age between ten and fourteen years. 
There are several exhibitions to the universities, available 
for foundation scholars only ; these vary in value from £20 to 

;eioo. 

The Charter House is now in a very flourishing condition, 
and has given education to some of the first scholars of the 
day. Here both Addison and Steele received their educa- 
tion. From the date of its establishment to 1673, the income 
fluctuated considerably, through political changes ; it then 
reached J5391. Since that period, however, it has not in- 
creased in proportion to the improved revenues of other 
estates, as, according to Maitland, in his time the revenue 
amounted only to JG6000. 

The Governors, who present to this foundation in rotation, are 
the Queen, the Prince Albert, Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Lord Chancellor, Archbishop of York, Duike of Buccleuch and 
Queensberry, Duke of Wellington, Earl of Devon, Earl of Liver- 
pool, Lord Howe, Earl of Ripon, Lord John Russell, Bishop of 
London, Lord Denman, Lord Lyndhuret, Sir R. Peel, and Arch- 
deacon Hale. 

Master, Archdeacon Hale, M.A. — Preacher, Rev. (Jeorge 
Currey, M.A. — School : Head Master, Rev. Augustus P. Saun- 
ders, D.D. — Usher, Rev. Oliver Walford, M.A. — Assistants: 
Rev. H. W. Phillott, M.A., Rev. C. G. Curtis, B.A., Leonard 
Burrows, M.A. — French Master, Mons. Brasseur. — Writing 
Master, Mr. Edward Maxwell. — Registrar and Receiver and 
Steward of Courts, Archdeacon Keightly, Esq. — Reader and Li- 
brarian, Rev. Charles R. Dicken, M.A. — Resident Medical Officer, 
John Miles, Esq. — Physician, Dr. Babington. — Consulting Sur- 
geon, F. C. Skey, Esq. — Organist, W. Horsley, Esq. — Assistant 
Receiver, Mr. Charles Gatty. — Manciple, Mr. Tucker. 

NORFOLK COLLEGE, otherwise Trinity Hospital, 
Greenwich, was founded, 1613, by letters patent of James I, 
pursuant to the will of Henry, Earl of Northampton. He 
endowed it with lands and revenues for the support of a 
warden and seventy pension ots, twelve of whom are to be of 
the parish of Greenwich and eight of the parish of Shotis- 
ham, in Norfolk ; they must have been inhabitants of the 
parish four years, unmarried, fifty-six years of age, at the 
least, and not possessing property to the amount of JGI per 
annum. The amount they receive is at the discretion of the 



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212 

ST. petbb's hospital, CfrEXifefi fill A.D. 1618 



Mercers' Company, in whose management the whole endow- * 
ment is Tested : the funds are belieyed to be in a flourish- 
ing condition, and it is estimated the income is about j£l200 
per annum. Applications must be made bj petition to the 
Court of Assistants, addressed to H. E. Barnes, Esq., the 
clerk of the company. 

ST. PETER'S HOSPITAL,^ opposite the Elephant and 
Castle, Newington ; the original building was founded by 
letters patent of James I, 1618, and composed what was 
termed the old building, for twenty-two inmates ; and the 
new, endowed by James Hulbert, Esq., for twenty inmates. 
The present hospital consists of three courts with gardens 
behind ; and a dming-hall forms part of the establishment : 
the inmates still consist of forty-two poor men and women 
free of the company, or widows of freemen. The married 
people receive 12«. a week, the single 7«. or 8«., and 10«. ac- 
cording to their age and infirmities ; and those who require 
a nurse have an extra 2«. The almspeople also receive gifts 
in money and clothing during the year. Service is per- 
formed daily in the chapel, and the chaplain and a medical 
man engaged by the company visit the almspeople when ill. 
The expenditure is estimated to average under £2,000 per 
annum. This may be considered a fair sample of the best 
of the Companies almshouses, of which a summanr is ap- 
pended further on, as a more detailed account wouI4 form 
in many respects a repetition only of particulars. There are 
other almshouses of this Company (the Fishmongers'), at 
Mile-end. Vide page 223. 

DULWIGH COLLEGE^ Dulwich. Founded 1619. 
Called " God's gift college in Dulwich." The establishment 
consists of a chapel, school-house, and twelve almshouses : it 
was founded by Edward Alleyne ;* and, in 1810, Sir Francis 

1 Under management of the Fishmongers' Company, to whom appli- 
cations from freemen of the Company must he addressed, to the care of 
the clerk, W. B. Towse, Esq. 

8 The founder was the son of Edward Alleyne, of Willyn, horn 15i56, 
in the parish of Allhallows, Lomhard-street ; descrihed hy the old histo- 
rians as an actor ; but his general occupation, or that by which he made 
most money, appears to have been proprietor of bear-gardens ; he w^ 
some long time also proprietor of the '' Fortune" playhouse. His second 
wife was supposed to be a daughter of Dr. Donne. The letters patent date 
June 21, 1619 (James I): "to Edward Alleyne, Esq., chief master, ruler, 
and overseer, of the game of bears, &c., to found a college at Dulwich, in 



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213 

DITLWICH COLLEOE,1619 ®tff 3^gjJ[. SIGN COLLKaB,A.D. 1631 

Bourgeois, R.A., left the whole of his collection of pictures, 
<&c. There are six poor brethren and six poor sisters on 
the foundation, elected &om the parishes of St. Saviour, 
Si. Luke, St. Botolph, and Camberwell. The school main- 
tains, clothes, and educates twelve scholars from the above 
^Irishes ; and educates eighty children of inhabitants of 
Dulwich. The education given is such as to qualify the 
boys for tradesmen. The present gallery was completed and 
opened in 1817, to which the public are admitted oy tickets, 
obtainable at most printsellers in London. The statutes of 
the college require that the master and warden should bear 
the name of AUeyne or Allen. 

The Governors are, the Master, Warden, and Fellows of the 
College, who are : Master, George John Allen, Esq. — "Warden, 
J. G. Newton Alleyne, Esq. — Fellows, Rev. Charles Howe, M. A. ; 
Rev. W. Fellowes, M.A. ; Rev. William L. Chafy, M. A. j Rev. 
Edward A. Giraud, M.A. 

8I0N COLLEGE AND LIBRARY, Aldermanbury. 
Incorporated 1 631 . This collegiate establishment was founded 
by Dr. Thomas White, Vicar of St. Dunstan in the West, 
who left £3,000 to purchase the ground and build the col- 

Surrej, to endure and reroiun for ever, and to consist of a roaster, warden, 
fonr fellows, six poor brothers, six poor sisters, and twelve poor scholars ; 
to be sustained, educated, guided, governed, and ruled, according to such 
statutes as he in his life time shall establish and direct," &c. The statutes 
of the College were signed bj him September 39th, 1626, 2 Car. I. About 
1614 this same founder erected almshouses at the west end of Bishop^ate 
parish, in Petty France, for ten poor men and women ; in 1730, the street 
being altered to the present New Broad-street, these were taken down, and 
others erected in Lamb-allej. He aho built similar houses in Pest Hoase- 
lane,01d-street,in 1616 : and a third lot in Deadman'splace, Southwark. 
See Alleyne's almshouses. 

^ According to Camd^, Malcolm, and others, the ancient site of thia 
building was a nunnery, which, having fallen to decay, was purchased 
by William Elsynge, citizen. It was for some time termed Elsynge 
Spital, and maintained a warden, four priests, and one hundred sick per- 
sons ; soon after it was changed into a priory, of which Elsynge became 
prior. It continued a priory until the time ef Henry VIII, when it was 
partially destroyed by fire ; the site was rescued from oblivion by Dr. 
White, whose bequest, as above, bears date October 1, 1693. It is held 
by two charters of incorporation, dated July 8, 6 Charles I; and June 
20, 16 Charles II. By these authorities, a president, two deans, and four 
assistants, with all the rectors and vicars, lecturers and curates, of the 
city and suburbs, were constituted to be a corporation. Their seal is the 
good Samaritan, with the motto—" Vade, fiic similiter." 



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214 

BBOMLEY COLLEGE. CjjflritlBS fOT A.D. 1668 

lege, with almshouses for ten poor men and ten poor women, 
and endowed it with £160 a-year for ever. The corporation 
of Bristol, the birthplace of Dr. White, have the nomination 
of four of the inmates, the parish of St. Dunstan, Fleet-street, 
where he officiated nearly fifty years, six ; the parish of St. 
Gregory, where he resided for about twenty years, two ; 
and the Merchant Taylors' Company, eight ; the amount of 
pension is worth £15 per annum, and each person upon ad- 
mission has to afford security against becoming chargeable 
to the parish of St. Alphage or to the college. 

The library and other purposes of the foundation come 
not within our limits, but it is as well to add, that the former 
is celebrated for its ecclesiastical literature of the earliest 
centuries. It was incorporated in the sixth year of Charles 
I, by which the Bishop of London was appointed visitor. 
In 1666, the original building was destroyed by fire, but 
afterwards rebuilt as at present and the new library greatly 
added to, particularly by a part of the Jesuit library, seized 
in 1670, and by various donations. All incumbents of 
parishes within the city and liberties of London, are fellows. 

Visitor, the Lord Bishop of London. — President, J. Lupton, 
M.A.— Deans, J. A. Roberts, M.A.; R. Roxley, M.A. ; R. Rud- 
dock, M.A. ; T. H. Home, M.A. ; W. Blunt, B. A. ; H. J. New- 
berry, M.A. — Librarian and Secretary, Rev. Henry Christmas^ 
M.A. — Solicitor, Thomas Wilson, Esq. 

BROMLEY COLLEGE is an establishment at the en- 
trance of the town from the London-road. It was endowed 
and founded by John Warner, D.D., Bishop of Rochester, in 
1668, " for the benefit of twenty poor widows of loyal and 
orthodox clergymen." The funds have been subsequently 
largely increased, by the benefactions from Bishop Pearce, 
Jeffery Hetherington, Esq., of North Clay ; his brother and 
heir, the Rev. William Hetherington (the great benefactor 
to the blind) ; William Pearse, Esq., the bishop's brother ; 
and Mrs. Betenson : so that forty widows have now each an 
allowance of £S8 per annum and a separate and commodious 
residence. Mrs. Sheppard founded and endowed another 
charity in connexion with this, for the benefit of five unmar- 
ried daughters of widows, who have resided here ; with a 
liberal allowance, and separate and agreeable dwelHngs ad- 
joining the college. 

This excellent establishment is under the government of 
trustees, " part of whom are elective, the remainder ex officio^ 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



216 

CHELSEA HOSP. 1692 ^^t ^pit* GREENWICH HOSP.1694 

of the latter are the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop 
of Rochester, the Archdeacon and the Chancellor of the dio- 
cese, the Dean of St. Paul, and Dean of the Arches. 

THE ROYAL HOSPITAL AT CHELSEA. Estsr 
blished 1692. This national establishment owes its origin 
to the beneyolent exertions of Sir Stephen Fox, who pur- 
chased the ancient building from the Royal Society, and 
persuaded King Charles II to settle £5,000 per annum upon 
it, and erect a buildinff of the value of £20,000 ; continmng 
an actiye friend in behalf of the institution. The building 
was erected from the designs, and under the superintendence 
of Sir Christopher Wren, and completed about the year 1692, 
in the reign of William and Mary, at a total cost, it is said, 
of about £150,000. It is under the management of commis- 
sioners and military officers ; and is for the admission of in- 
pensioners who have claims on the public for services per- 
formed in the army, not receiving any out-pension during 
the time they are on the in-pension. The funds to defray 
the charges, both of the out and in-pensions, are voted by 
Parliament, and the rates of pension are regulated by royal 
warrants ; the discharged soldiers, after certain periods of 
service, having a vested interest in their pensions. 

The present number of out-pensioners is nearly 70,000, 
who receive 6d., 9d., or Is. per diem ; and the number of in- 
pensioners is. 539, who are well clothed and fed, and are 
allowed Id. a-day for tobacco, which is called " her majesty's 
bounty." The ages of these pensioners vary from 60 to 90 
years, and two veterans have attained the age of 104. 

CommiBsioners, the great Officers of State. — Military Officers 
— Qt)vemor, General Sir Colin Halkett. — Lieutenant Govemor, 
Bt a. F. Barnard. — Major, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Le Blanc. 
— Adjutant, Colonel Sir Morillyon Wilson. — Chaplain, Rev. Geo. 
Mathias. — Secretary, Lieutenant-Colonel Alderson, R.E. — Deputy 
Surgeon, T. C. Ghndter, M.D. — Physician and Surgeon, Daniel 
Maclachlan, M.D. — Assist. Surgeon, A. A. Prout, Esq. — Steward 
and Storekeeper, Captain Sutherland. 

THE RO TAL HOSPITA L AT GREENWICH Esta- 
blished 1694.^ Stands unrivalled both as a specimen of 
Grecian architecture, and as a charitable institution. It 
consists of five distinct buildings, erected at intervals, but 
mostly under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren, to whom 

^ 1695 is the more generally recognized date of its establishment; but 



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216 

GREENWICH HOSPITAL. CjjflritlBS filT A.D. 1694 

the credit of the general plan must be awarded. In different 
parts of the institution, apartments are provided for the go- 
vernor and principal officers, and a sufficient number of 
wards are fitted up for the comfortable accommodation of 
2,710 in-pensioners, and 71 nurses, widows of seamen, who 
must be 45 years of age at the time of admission, and are 
allowed from ;£ll to £20 per annum. 

The pensioners must be aged and maimed seamen of the 
navy or the marines. The boatswains are allowed 3s. 6d., 
mates, 2s. 6d., and privates, Is. p^ week, in addition to 
maintenance and clothing. The vacancies are filled up twice 
in each month. The number of out-patients varies from 
13,000 to 14,000. 

The revenue of the hospital was, until lately, supported 
in part by a monthly deduction from the wages of merchant 
seaman ; but, by the 4th and 5th William iV, cap. 34, the 
sums thus collected were made over to the Merchant Sea- 
men^s Corporation, and the deficiency caused to the hospital's 
revenue niade good by an annual grant of £20,000, charged 
upon the Consolidated Fund. This grant, the annual pro- 
ceeds of valuable estates bequeathed to the hospital in 
Northumberland, Durham, and Cumberland, parliamentary 
benefactions, and the interest of money in the public funds, 
form in the aggregate an income of near £130,000 per an- 
num. The management is vested in commissioners, who, 
as well as the Governor and Lieut. Governor, are appointed 
by royal patent.^ 

Commissioners : Earls of Grenville and of Carlisle ; George 
Tiemey, Esq. ; Admiral Sir Henry Hart ; Admiral Sir W. O.'Pell. 
Secretary, John A. Lethbridge, Esq. — Assist. Secretary, John L. 
Jay, Esq. — Second ditto, T. B, Stow, Esq. — Governor, Admiral 
Sir Charles Adam. — Lieutenant Governor, Rear Admiral Sir James 
A. Gordon. — Captains: George Mowbray, Thomas Dickinson, 
Thomas L. P. Laugharne, and William Cuppage. — Commanders, 
Charles Robinson, W. C. C. Dalyell, Joseph Corbyn, Edward W. 
Garrett. — Lieutenants, Frederick Bedford, Wm. Rivers, Michael 
Fitton, John Wood Rouse, D. O'B. Casey, Bassett J. Loveless, 

the first letters patent bear date October 26, 1694, — three months previ- 
ous to the death of Queen Marj ; and we are told by Boyer, in his his- 
tory of William and Mary, " the last great project that her thoughts 
were working upon, with relation to this noble and royal provision for 
disabled seamen, was, that it should be so constituted, as to put them in 
a probable way of ending their days in the fear of God.** 
^ Under the Act, 10 Geo. IV, cap. 25. 



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217 

MOBDEK COLLEGE. ^tjB ^gllit* J^*^* 1695 

Josiah Domford, George M. Monk. — Superintendent of the halls 
and kitchens, Mr. Joseph Allen, R.N. — Chaplains, John K. Gt>ld- 
ney, M.A. ; Edward Ritson, M.A. — Surgeon and Inspector, Sir 
John Liddell. — First Assistant Surgeon and Deputy In^>ector, 
Alexander Nisbet, M. D. — Second Assist . Surgeon, James M'Teman. 
— ^Dispenser, John Whitmarsh, Esq. — Cashier, "Wm. Paine, Esq. 
—Chief Clerk, William H. Knowlden, Esq.— Steward, Thoe. P. 
Jessop, Esq.— Chief Clerk, George Hank, Esq.— Clerk of Check, 
John W. Nicholls, Esq. — Chief Clerk, John J. Langley, Esq. — 
Inspectors of Works, C. Lee ; W. Sivell, Esq. — Solicitor, J. C. 
Lethbridge, Esq. — ^Estates in Northumberland, Cumberland, and 
Durham : Receiver, John Grey, Esq. — General Inspector of Mines, 
John Taylor, Esq. 

For account of the *' Royal Hospital Schools"^ see chapter 
on Educational Charities. 

MORDEN COLLEGE, Bla<jkheath. Founded 1695, 
for the reception of decayed merchants, who are members 
of the Established Church, and widowers or bachelors, of 
the age of fifty years or upwards. The present number of 
pensioners is forty. They have £72 a-year, medical attend- 
ance, coals, candles, and washing, and the use of a library. 
The College is of the institution of Sir John Morden, Elnight- 
banneret, who was himself a considerable merchant, trading 
particularly with the Levant, and built the college in his 
me-time. He died in the year 1705, bequeathing all his 
freehold and personal property (amounting at that time to 
about J1200 a-year), after the decease of fiidy Morden, for 
the endowment of the charity, designed, as the deed states, 
'' for poor, honest, sober, and discreet merchants, of the age of 
50 at the least, who may have lost their estates by accidents, 
ways, or means, in their honest endeavour to get their living 
by way of merchandize." The chapel, which is constructed 
with great taste, and contains some choice wood carvings, 
especially over the communion table and in and about the 
porch, from the chisel of Gibbons, was consecrated by Arch- 
bishop Tennison. A handsome dining hall, baths, etc., were 
added in the year 1845, when the fields about the college 
were laid out in pleasure grounds, for the use of the pen- 
sioners. 

Elections vested in the trustees.^ They are, C. Bosanquet, 

* The Turkey Compan j selected the inmates eo long as it was in exist- 
ence ; but they are now appointed by the East India Company (by tnu- 
tees, as above), according to the provision made by the founder's will," in 
the event of brealdng up of saide Companie." " The total income of the 



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218 

laiDOWBD CljErifeS fm ALMSHOUSES. 

T. A. Curtis, T. Baring, Esqrs.; Sir W. Lubbock, Bart.; 
Hon. J. T. L. MelviUe ; J. B. Heath, Esq.; and K. D. Hodg- 
son, Esq. 

Treasurer, Henry Smyth, Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. William 
Marsh, M.A. 

The following will be found in a previous chapter, under 
another subject : — 

The Scottish Hospital and Corporation, page 139. 

The French Protestant Hospital, page 142. 

The Jews' Hospital, page 144. 

Almshouses and other asylums whoUy, or for the most 
part, endowed, claim next attention. It will be found they 
are for the benefit of the aged and infirm, chiefly of specified 
localities, or other claims ; and their management conse- 
quently vested in parochial trustees, or the various city 
companies treated of in the last chapter. The first mentioned 
is inserted in longer detail than the succeeding summary, 
from its forming an admirable sample of what it must be 
desired all should be, and, it is gratifying to add, a fedr spe- 
cimen of what the chief of them actually are. 

STAFFORD'S ALMSHO USES, at the north-east end of 
Gray's Inn-lane, Holbom. Founded 1638. For the reception 
of decayed housekeepers, who have paid rates and taxes in 
St. Andrew, Holbom-above-Bars, and St. George the Martyr, 
Queen-square. There are at present nine women and five men 
in this comfortable retreat. The will of the founder^ provides 

College is about X5,800 a year. The chaplain has a stipend of ;£800 a 
year, £116 being derived from an estate left for his special benefit" — 
Knight's London, p. 6, 344. 

^ The founder was Alexander Stafford, Esq., born at Froome Selwood, 
in Somersetshire ; resident, for man j years, in High Holbom In the year 
1613 he allotted half an acre of Liquorpond Field " for the purpose of 
erecting an almshouse for ten poor unmarried persons, inhabitants of the 
parish of St. Andrew, Holbom "; and by his will, bearing date May 10, 
1651, he names ten trustees, as above stated, whom he calls " his beloved 
friends in Christ, and his good neighbours." Mr. Stafford devised the 
rents of two houses in Basing-lane and Broad-street ; also property at 
Froome Selwood for other charitable purposes, and the residue of his 
property to one Mr. John Wright of Holborn, appointing him sole execu- 
tor. This gentleman proved the will September 29th, and afterwards 
himself greatly contributed to the increasing comfort of the poor alms- 
people. The parish of St Andrew, Holbom, is one particularly distin- 
guished for the charitable memorials of the liberalitj of the inhabitants ; 
and, were it not for the fear of speedily outrunning our limits, we might 



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219 

J^IU S^ph. ALMSHOUSES. 



only for four men and six women as inmates, who should be 
of " honest life and conversation," and " frequent the church 
ordinarily every Sabbath day." Some years back, the Court 
of Chancery granted leave to the trustees to extend the ob- 
jects of the benevolent foxmder to fourteen inmates, with 
power, from time to time as they might think fit, to increase 
that number. The charity is governed by a self-elective body 
of ten trustees, six from St. Andrew Holbom, and four from 
St. George the Martyr. The will of the founder only enjoins 
six trustees from St. Andrew's ; but St. George the Martyr 
having been originally part of St. Andrew's, the addition 
was foimd desirable. The funds of the charity are husbanded 
with care ; the collection of the rents and all other required 
duties being fulfilled gratuitously for one year by eacJh trustee 
in succession undertaking the onerous duties of treasurer, 
collector, and manager. The accounts of the year are audited 
on his retiring from office (St. Andrew's day) by the rector 
and churchwardens of the parish, and usually by a full at- 
tendance of his co-trustees. The income now realizes £520 
per annum. The almspeople are paid quarterly, £24 per 
annum each, with an ample supply of the best coals ; also 
gowns for the females, and over or great coats for the men 
every alternate year. 

The trustees are selected from the principal inhabitants ; 
and personal knowledge enables us to add, that much time 
and attention are devoted by them to the best interests of 
the charity. They are at the present time as follows : — 
Francis Wigg, Richard Ramsden, John Hooper, William 
Joseph Booth, Charles Griffith, John Robert Taylor, James 
Mansfield, Luke Hopkinson, James Burchell, and Christo- 
pher Crouch, Esqrs. 

Applications of candidates for admission to the almshouses 
shoiild be made by petition, under cover, to Luke Hopkin- 
son, Esq., 10, Bedford-row, the treasurer for the present year; 
vouched, as to the eligibility of the candidates, and the 
truthfulness of their petition, by the signatures of respect- 
able inhabitants, who know them to be deserving persons. 

Ayre^s Alrmhousea, for deserving poor, White's-juley, Cole- 
man-street ; founded in 1617, by Mr. Christopher Ayre ; in 
the gift of the Leathersellers' Company ; for six poor men 

recount details of much interest connected with the Thavies' estate, Ladj 
Hatton's, Bloorofield's, Morton's, and other bequests, amounting, in the 
aggregate, to nearljr ^63,000 per annum ; but deem it preferable to be 
satisfied with the general reference already given to parochial charities. 



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ENDOWED ClfHri&5 fer ALMSHOUSES. 

and their wives, housekeepers of the parish, who have been 
better off, and of good conduct. The houses were rebuilt at 
the expense of the parish under the direction of the fee offi- 
cers, 1789. 

AUeyrCs Almshouses, LambValley, Bishopsgate-street ; 
founded in 1614, in Petty France, by Edward ^eyn, Esq., 
founder of Dulwich College, and is for ten men and women, 
each of whom were to have £2 per year : also, in Park-street, 
Borough Market, late in Soap-yard, Deadman's-place, South- 
wark, similar ten houses for the same number, each to have 
6d. per week, and every other year a coat or gown. See also 
Dulwich Almshouses, Bath-street. 

Amyas's Almshouses, George-yard, between 108 and 109, 
Old-street ; founded in 1666, by Susannah Amyas, for eight 
poor persons. 

ArTnourers^ and Braziers' Almshouses ; for poor of Com- 
pany ; situate in Britannia^place, next to 184 Bishopsgate- 
street-without ; founded 1664, by Lady Elizabeth Morrice's 
endowment, and others. 

Aslc^s Homital, see Haberdashers, page 224. 

Badger's Aimf^uses, Hoxton Old Town ; founded in 1698, 
by Mrs. Allen Badger; for six women, who are also allowed 
20s. a-year. 

-fiawTo/if'* ^?7W«Aow<e«, Mile-end-road ; founded 1736, by 
F. Bancroft, Esq., for thirty poor old members of the Dra- 
pers' Company ;^ £26 per annum, and a chaldron and a half 
of coals, allowed to each. In the presentation of the Drapers' 
Company, the master warden and court of assistants of which 
present in rotation. 

Barem^ere's Alm^hotLseSfB-Oxton ; founded 1701, by Rev. Mr. 
Baremere, a Presbyterian clergyman, for eight poor women. 

Bethnal Green Almshouses ; founded by Mr. Thomas Par- 
mitter and others, in the year 1722, and maintains six poor 
men, who are provided with coals, and £,b annually ; fifty 
boys are likewise educated, and supplied with shoes, stock- 
ings, and books. 

^ Francis Bancroft was the grandson of Archbishop Bancroft. Bis 
early circumstances were much reduced, and he was engaged for many 
years as one of the Lord Major's officers, during which time he acquired 
a fortune of j£21,000, in real and personal estate, which he bequeathed 
bj win, March 18, 1727, to the Company of Drapers, for the above pur- 
poses, and a chapel and schoolroom for a hundred boys. For account of 
school, see chapter on educational charities. 



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221 

ENDOWED J^lf^ 3.pll[* ALMSHOUSES. 

Boon^s Almshouses; founded in 1623, by Charles Boone, 
Esq., for six poor persons, a schoolmistress, and schoolhouse. 
Situate at Lee, near Blackheath, and in the gift of Merchant 
Tailors' Company. 

Binder's AlmshotiseSy Little Chapel-street, Westminster, 
was founded 1675, by Mr. Nicholas Butler, for two poor men 
and their wives. 

Bakers' Company Almshouses, at Hackney ; for freemen 
and liverymen. • 

Brewers' AlTnshouseSy Oxford-street, Whitechapel-road. 
For almshouses vested likewise in trust of Company, see 
Lady Owen's endowment. 

damden and Kentish Town Almshouses, Little Randolph- 
street, Camden Town ; for twenty-four aged and deserving 
women ; preference given to those who have seen better days, 
and inhabitants of the neighbourhood. Vested in trustees, 
members of foundress's family, and minister of Camden and 
Kentish Town Chapels for the time being. 

Cam^p's Almshouses, Endowment was provided by L. 
Camp, Esq., 1612, for the relief of six poor people of the 
parish of Allhallows, London-wall, and twelve ditto in houses 
at Frier Barnet. 

Ca/ron's Almshouses, Yauxhall, founded 1622, by Noel, 
Baron of Caron, ambassador in this country from the States 
Qeneral, in the thirty-second year of his embassy, for seven 
poor women of the parish of Lambeth, of 60 years of age 
and upwards. 

Captain Cook's Almshouses, Mile-end. 

Coopers' Almshouses, Schoolhouse-lane, Ratcliffe, founded 
by Tobias Wood, Esq., in 1616, for six poor members of the 
Company, not having received parochial relief. 

Cure's Almshouses, Park-street, formerly at College-yard, 
Counter-street, Southwark, founded in 1584, for sixteen poor 
men and women, by Thomas Cure, Esq. 

CtUler's Almshouses, Ball's-pond-road, Islington ; consist 
of twelve houses for twenty-four inmates, imder the manage- 
ment of the Court of Assistants of the Cutlers. 

Dulwich Almshouses, 1 to 10 Bath-street (formerly Pest- 
house-row), St. Luke's, founded by Edward Alleyn, Esq., for 
ten poor men or women. The first brick was laid by Alleyn 
himself, 1620, and in the following year he records, " placed 
three men and seven women in the ten houses." They were 
rebuilt 1707. The founder provided that each poor inmate 



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ENDOWED ClfflrifeS fur ALMSHOITSBS. 

" should receive 6d. per week, and every other year a coat or 
gown." 

Dyers^ Almshouses, City-road, erected by Company, in 1775, 
for sixteen poor persons, free of the same, and widows. Ori- 
ginally founded in White-alley, Holbom. The present 
building consists of three sides of a quadrangle, containing 
eight houses of two rooms each. The almspeople receive an 
annual pension and coals. The Company have likewise 
another almshouse for ten decayed •members, in St. John- 
street, near Brick-lane, Spitalfields. 

Drapers^ Company have the trust of management of Ban- 
croft's, Pemell's, three of Walter's, Edmonson's, Harman's, 
and Melbourne's ; also Queen Elizabeth's College. 

Davids Almshouses, Queen's Head-lane, Islington ; erected 
and endowed 1793, for eight aged and poor widows, by Mrs. 
Jane Davis, in accordance with the will of her husband, late 
of the parish. The inmates have £10 a-year each, and three 
sacks of coals. Management vested in local trustees. 

Dutch Almshouses, Crown-street, Finsbury ; erected and 
endowed by wealthy Dutch merchants at different periods ; 
consisting of a handsome and commodious building, now ac- 
commodating twenty inmates. Fourteen tenements are for 
the poor of the Dutch in Austin Friars, with the deacons of 
which the trust is invested. The inmates must be above 60 
years of age, and are provided with every comfort, with a 
pension of 8s. each person. The endowment is a valuable 
one, derived from property at Highgate, Hammersmith, etc. 
One of the principal testators thereof i*as Egbert Gent, Esq., 
of Overyssel, Holland, who died at Highgate, 1733. 

East iTidia Almshouses, Poplar, were originally esta- 
blished as early as the date of their first charter, for the 
relief of the widows of mates and seamen who have died in 
the service. The present building was erected about forty 
years back. It consists of two quadrangles, comprehending 
residences for thirty-nine petty officers, receiving each about 
£9 or £10 per annum, besides coals and meat in the winter. 
An upper square consists of eighteen houses with gardens, 
appropriated as the residence of the widows of captains, re- 
ceiving pensions of from £30 to £80 annually, according to 
rank of their husbands. Sir Charles Cotterell likewise be- 
queathed an -endowment for six sailors' widows : some years 
back these almshouses were in Chapel-yard, Soho. 
Udmondson's, Bromley, founded in 1706, by John Edmond- 



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ENDOWED %^ ^g^it* ALMSHOTTSES. 

Bon, Esq., for twelve poor persons, inyested with the Diapers' 
Company. 

JSawartJls's, founded in 1717, by Mr. Edward Edwards, 
situate in Church-street, Blackfriars-road, for such decayed 
housekeepers or widows of the parish, who receive no aims 
&om that or any other parish ; under the direction of the 
rector and parish officers of Christ Church, Surrey. 

Fishmongers^ AlmshouseSy are ninety-four in number ; 
viz., an extensive building at Kewington, for poor mem- 
bers of company above &ty years of age and free five 
years ; foimded by letters patent of James I, and called St. 
Peter's hospital. Vide page 212. The others consist of 
almshouses in* distant parts of the country, not within our 
limits to give an extended notice of ; viz., as Jesus' Hospital, 
at Bray, Berks, founded by William Goddard, Esq., with ac- 
commodation for forty pensioners ; also twelve almshouses at 
Harriesham, in Kent, founded by Mark Quested, Esq., six 
for poor freemen of the company, and six for parishioners. 

French Protestant Almshottses, established 1733, situate 
in Spitalfields, for supplying poor French Protestants wiUi 
soup, meat, and bread ; also, in Black Eagle-street, is 
another establishment, giving residence and allowance to 
forty-five poor men and women. It belongs to, and is sup- 
ported by, the French congregation of the Episcopal church 
in the neighbourhood. 

Ftdler^s, Mile-end-road, founded and endowed by Judge 
Fuller, 1602, for twelve ancient poor men of the parish of 
Stepney ; also others in Old Gloucester-street, Hoxton, for 
twelve poor women. 

Framework Knitters^ Almshouses, Kingsland-road, comer 
of Pearson -street, for the benefit of twelve poor freemen of 
company, in the direction of whom the management is 
vested. Founded and endowed, 1727, by Thomas Brown, 
or Bourne. 

GiriRers\ Bath-street, Cld-street-road (formerly Pest- 
house-row), founded and endowed by George Palyn, in 1609, 
for six poor members of the company, in whose trust the 
endowment is vested. 

0old8miths\ Hackney, founded, 1703, by R. Morell, Esq., 
for six aged liverymen, who receive £21 annually, two 
chaldrons of coals, and a new gown of the value of ^2 \0s. ; 
also, at Woolwich, endowed by Sir Martin Bowes, 1666, for 
five poor widows, inhabitants and parishioners of Woolwich, 



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ENDOWED CiFHIlfoS fnr ALMSHOUSES. 

of the age of fifty-five years and upwards, who receive j625 
per annum, besides co^s ; and others at Acton, founded by 
John Perryn, Esq., which were rebuilt in the present hand- 
some manner in 1812. 

The two following are old foundations, from endowments 
now not easily recognized, being in all probability merged 
into some recent establishment. 

GrahaTrCs, founded 1686, in Crown-street, Soho-square, 
by Mrs. Graham, for decayed clergymen's widows or un- 
married daughters, — and Gresham's, City Green-yard, White- 
cross-street, founded by Sir Thomas Gresham, in 1575, for 
eight poor persons. 

Haberdashers^ Hoxton, founded by Robert Aske, Esq., in 
1692, by bequest of j£31,905, for twenty poor men of the com- 
pany, each to be allowed about £30 per annum ; and for 
twenty poor boys, to be maintained, clothed, and educated, as 
much as would cost £20 each. Boys are admitted at the age 
of nine, and remain untU fourteen, and are afterwards appren- 
ticed : they must be sons of freemen of company. Pensioners 
are admitted at age of fifty, must also be freemen of company, 
and unmarried. The nomination of scholars, pensioners, 
and officers of the establishment is in the gift of court of 
assistants : preference is always given to candidates who have 
borne charge of warden assistant, or liveryman, or their chil- 
dren. Chaplaincy value £50 per annum, house, and coals. 
The original edifice was built by Dr. Hooke, the mathema- 
tician, and the present hospital from the designs of D. R. 
Roper. There is also an asylum at Monmouth, Wales, 
founded by will of W. Jones, 1614, for twenty poor diseased, 
as blind, or lame, at discretion of company. 

Hammr's, founded in 1 713, by Mr. Samuel Harmar, for 
twelve single men and women ; six to be nominated by St. 
Leonard's parish, Shoreditch, and the others by the Draper's 
company. 

Heath's, Frog-lane, Tibberton-square, Islington, and at 
26, Monkwell-street, City, founded by John Heath, Esq., 
1648, and others, for ten poor freemen of the Clothworkers' 
Company, in whose gift the presentation is. 

H^s, Old Rochester-row, Tothill-fields, founded in 1708, 
by Emery Hill, Esq., for six poor men and their wives, and 
six poor widows ; in 1677, he founded houses for three men 
and their wives, in Petty France, Westminster. 

Hiirs (Rev, Rowland) see Surrey chapel almshouses. 



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ALMSHOirSES. 



HintorCs, Plough-alley, Barbican, founded in 1732, by 
Mrs. Alice Hinton, for twelve poor widows of the parish of 
St. Giles, Cripplegate. 

EoUe8\ Great St. Helen's, founded in 1639, by Lady 
Holies, and Mrs. Alice Smith, widow, for six poor men and 
women ; in the gift of the Skinners' Company, who are 
trustees. 

Hopton^a, Greenwalk, Christchurch, founded by C. Hop- 
ton, Esq., 1730, for twenty-six poor men, who have been 
housekeepers, with £10 and a chaldron of coab annually to 
each ; vested in the parish officers. 

HiUier's Almshomes, are between 119 and 120 in the 
Curtain-road. Secretary, Mr. H. Weymouth. 

Jefertf's Almshottses, Kingsland-road, founded 1703, by 
Sir Kobert Jeffery, consists of about fourteen houses, with a 
chapel in the centre, for fifty-six poor persons, either his re- 
lations, or freemen of the Ironmongers Company, in whom 
the trust is vested. 

JiuicTSf Great St. Helen's, founded by Sir Andrew Judd, 
Lord Mayor of London in 1551, for six poor men of the 
company, and vested in the Skinners' Company, by whom 
they were rebuilt in 1729. 

Leathersdlers' Asvlumy ClarkVplace, 58 and 59, Bishops- 
gate-street, founded by John Hasilwood, in 1544, for four 
men and three women, decayed merchants free of company, 
or others ; also by Christopher Lyre, in White's-alley, 1617, 
for six poor men and their wives, and Robert Rogers, in 
Hart- street, Cripplegate, founded in 1612, for six poor men 
and their wives. 

Lumle^/^s, City-road, next to 6, Eagle-terrace (formerly in 
Pesthouse-fields), founded by Viscoimtess Lumley, in 1672, 
for six poor men of the parishes of Bishopsgate and Aldgate. 

MeggB\ next to 232, Whitechapel-road, founded 1568, for 
the support of twelve poor widows, by WHliam Meggs, Esq.. 

Meloov/me's, Crutched-friars, founded in 1636, by Sir John 
Melbourne, Lord Mayor of London in 1621, for thirteen poor 
women of the Drapers' Company. 

Mercers' Comparw are entrusted with the management of 
the following : 1, Whittington's Almshouses, page 207; 2, 
West Lavington, Wilts, founded by Alderman W. Daimtsay, 
for the poor of that place; 3, Gresham's, page 224; 4, Trinity 
Hospit^, Greenwich, known likewise as Norfolk College, page 
210 ; and 5, Lady Mice's, Stepney Churchyard, founded by 

15 



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ENDOWED CJFHlifeB fill ALMSHOUSES. 

Jane, relict of Sir Samuel Mico, 1670, for twelve poor widows, 
each to receive £12 per annum. 

Merchant Tailors^ Convpany are invested with almshouses 
in Princes-street, Rosemary-lane, for twenty-six poor widows 
of deceased members ; others were erected on Tower-hill, 
founded by Richard Hills, once master of the company, 
1593, for fourteen poor widows, since then enlarged (1637) 
for twelve more, and, in 1835, in consequence of the delapi- 
dated state of the old buildings and tiieir confined situa- 
tion, the company erected new almshouses at Lee, in Kent, 
at a cost of JC9,480 ; the present number of almswomen is 
between thirty and forty. And by Dr. White's will, they send 
eight pensioners to Sion College Almshouses ; — ^and have the 
trust of Boone's. 

Monox*8 Almshouses, Walthamstow, founded 1686, by 
(George Monox, Alderman, for eight poor men and five women, 
with a schoolhouse and apartments for children ; vested in 
the management of the parish officers. 

Nicholas\ see Salters' Almshouses. 

OwefrCs Almshoiises, Owen's-row, Gk>swell-street-road ; 
founded by Lady Owen, in 1609,^ for ten poor women, now 
thirteen ; under the management, partly of the Leather- 
sellers' and partly of the Brewers' Company. 

Overman's Alm>shouses, Montague-close, Southwark, were 
founded by Mrs. Alice Shaw Overman, of Newington, for 
eight single women, of whom four are to be widows, and four 
maidens, of fifty years of age or upwards, members of the 
Church of England ; without any preference as to parish or 
place of birth or residence. Their pensions are £1 per 
month, and 10s. each New Year's Day. The management 
is vested in three trustees, who nominate as pensioners occur. 

FachingtorCs, Whitefriars, were founded by Lady Ann 
Packington, 1560, for eight poor women, and left to the 
charge of the Clothworkers' Company. 

Palm/er's, Palmer's-passage, Westminster, founded in 1654, 
by the Rev. James Palmer, B.D., for twelve poor persons, 
and a school for twenty boys. 

PetrieWs, founded 1698, Whitechapel-road, for four poor 

^ Originallj designated as of « the south end of Islington,** erected by 
Lady Owen to commemorate her escape from death in Islington fields, 
where a chance arrow from the how of an archer pierced through her 
ladyship's high-crowned hat. The almshouses are erected on the spot 
where this occurred. 



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ENDOWXD J^jlB 3^g|i. ALMSHOUSES. 

drapers' widows, and four widows of East India Company's 
seamen, belonging to Stepney parish, to receive pensions of 
£4 each, £1 for a gown, and J^l for coals. 

Rogers^ s A Imshouses, Hart-street, Wood-street, erected and 
endowed 1612, by will of Robert Rogers, Esq., merchant 
adyentorer, of London, who died 1601 ; for six poor couples, 
free of city, haying no charge of children. The pension is 
not aboye £4: per annum to each. The election is yested with 
the corporation and the Leathersellers' Company. 

RipporCs Almshouses, are situated in New Park-street, 
Southwark. Samuel Qale, Esq., Treasurer. 

SaUers\ Monkwell-street, founded in 1775, by Sir Ambrose 
Nicholas, for seyen poor men and five poor widows of the 
company, in whose guardianship the whole is vested. 

SUpney Meeting Almshouses, for the benefit of the poor of 
the chapel ; the management yested in the chapel deacons. 
Situated in Salmon-lane. Secretary, Mr. Thomas Freelove. 

• Scdlmaker^ Almshouses, Mile-end-road. 

• Scdnt BefydCs Almshouses, next to 4, Peter's Hill, Doctors 
Commons. 

Saint Clement Danes Almshouses, Foregate, St. Clement's. 

Saint Giles and Saint George Bloonmury Almshot^es, 
Smart's Buildings ; for the residence of twenty poor widows 
of these parishes, who have 7s. a^week, and found in coals, 
candles, and bread, under the direction of the parochial offi- 
cers ; present building erected 1790. Endowed by bequest, 
as far back as 1656. by the Earl of Southampton, and 1674^ 
by Henry Carter, Esq. 

St, Leonard's Ahnshouses, Shoreditch, between 21 and 22 
Hackney-road. 

Saint Martiru s-in-ihe-Fidds Almshouses are situated in 
Bayham-street, Camden Town ; consist of thirty houses, ac- 
conmiodating seventy almswomen on the parish foundation, 
and thirty-five out-door-pensioners. Candidates must be sixty 
years of age, and have been resident householders. The elec- 
tion rests with the vestry. 

Skinners', Mile-end-road, founded by Lewis Newbury, in 
1698, for twelve poor widows, who receive ^16. 16s. annually, 
and a chaplain, at ^0 annually. The company also have 
the trust of Lady HoUes's and Sir Andrew Judd*s. 

Smithes, were founded in 1584, by Mr. D. Smith, St. Peter's 
Hill, Doctors Commons, for six poor widows, turned of fifty- 
six, under the management of Christ's Hospital. 



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ENDOWED Ct(Hn&5 for ALMSHOUSES. 

Stafford's Almshoutea, GrayVinn-lane^ demised bj will, 
1651, vide page 218. 

Tabemade Almshouses, Tabemacle-row, City-road, consist' 
of twelve houses, in the gift of the trustees of the Tabernacle. 

Trinity Hospital'^ consists of two buildings ; the one, 
founded in the reign of Henry VIII, 1537, rebuilt 1788, 
adjoins the churchyard of St. Nicholas, Deptford ; the other 
is in Church-street, founded during the revolution, by be- 
quests of Sir Richard Browne, Captain William Maples, «fec. 
The pensioners of both hospitals consist of decayed pilots 
and masters of ships or their widows. The single men and 
widows receive about j£12 per annum ; the married men 
about £\S. — ^The dtmshoibses are situated on the north side 
of the Mile-end-road, on ground given for the purpose by 
Captain Henry Mudd, an elder brother, in 1695, and have 
been endowed by bequests of Captain Fisher, in 1711, for 
the widows of shipmasters, and several others, and now 
numbers altogether twenty-eight ; devoted to the residence 
of decayed commanders of ships, or mates, or pilots, and 
their wives or widows. Their pensions are £18 per annum, 
and a chaldron and a half of coals. 

Vi7Uners\ Mile-end-road, next to 21 Park-place ; origi- 
nally founded in 1446, by Guy Shuldam, but have been 
much added to by the company ; for the benefit of twelve 
widows of deceased members, who receive 5s. 3d. weekly 
each, and a chaldron of coals, and about 40s. at certain times 
annually. 

Van DmCs, York-street, originally in Petty France, West- 
minster, founded 1577, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by 
Cornelius Van Dun, a native of Brabant, for twenty poor 
widows. 

^ The Corporation of the Trinity House was founded by Sir Thomas 
Sperl, comptroller of the navy to Henry VIII, at Deptford ; and incor- 
porated on the 20th of May, 1 61 6, by the name of the *• Master, Wardens, 
and Assistants, of the Guild, or Fraternity, of the most glorious and an. 
divided Trinity ; and of St. Clement, in the parish of Deptford, Stroud, 
in the county of Kent." By their charter, they have the power of 
examining, licensing, and regulating pilots, and of erecting beacons and 
lighthouses, and placing bnoys in channels and rivers. Their powers 
and privileges have been greatly augmented since the first charter ; and 
their revenue, which arises from tonnage, ballastage, and IVom contingent 
benefactions, etc., is applied, after defraying the general purposes of the 
foundation, towards the relief of decayed seamen, their wives, and widows, 
and orphans ; of whom they annually relieve a large number by pensions, 
etc., in addition to those in their almshouses above mentioned. 

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229 

SURREY CHAPEL J^jjB ^IplK. ALMSHOUSES, A.I). 1811 

Weaver^, Old-street-road, erected by Mr. William Watson, 
for the widows of twelve poor weavers. There is an endow- 
ment also for others in Blossom-street, Norton-folgate, called 
Porter's-fields Almshouses, by Nicholas Garret, 1725, for six 
decayed members of the company, in whom the trust is 
invested. 

Westh^^s, Hoxton, founded in 1749, by Mrs. Mary Westby, 
of Booking, Essex, for ten poor women. 

WhittingtovCa, Highgate-hill, originally founded in 1421, 
by Richard WMttington, Esq., and considerably added to 
since by various gifts ; vide page 207. 

WalUr's, are tmree buildings founded by John Walter, in 
1651, for sixteen poor men and women, situate in Cross-street, 
Newington ; and for four poor men and eight poor women, 
situate in Blackman-street, Southwark ; and the third, 
founded in 1658, in Old-street, for eight poor widows ; all 
in the trust of the Drapers* Company. 

The next class of institutions are such as in design and 
establishment are of a similar character, but later date, and 
more or less dependant upon voluntary contributions ; 
but many of these are now gradually advancing to the posi- 
tion of endowed establishments. 

A more detailed account of each appears desirable, both 
from their part dependance on public support, and their 
benefits not being so restricted in application. 

SURREY CBAP EL ALMSHOUSES, Hill-street, Wel- 
lington-street. Erected 1811. Founded and principaUy en- 
dowed by the late Rev. Rowland Hill, for the accommodation 
of twenty-three destitute females, who have been at least 
seven years members of some Christian Church, preference 
being given to those of Surrey Chapel. The candidates are 
elected by a committee, of which the trustees of the chapel for 
the time being form a part : each almswoman receives 4«. a 
week, and coals. The endowments of the charity will, it is 
considered, eventually yield an income equal to the annual 
expenses ; but at present £60 annually has to be supplied 
by contributions. 

Treasurer, Mr. G. Downing. — Secretary, Mr. S. Carter. 

LICENSED VICTUALLERS' ASYLUM, Old Kent- 
road. Institutedl827 ; incorporated 1842. For the reception 
and maintenance of decayed aged licensed victuallers, and 
their wives or widows. The establishment of the society of 



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LIOENSBD YIOTUALLEBS' CtTEtttlBS fOT ASYLUM, A.P. 1842 

licensed victuallers, originated in the efforts of a few licensed 
victuallers in publishing a daily newspaper, the Morning 
AdvertiseTy the profits of which they set apart for the relief of 
their distressed brethren ; and thus, together with other sub- 
scriptions and donations, a sum of nearly £5,000 per annum 
is paid towards relieving their distress.^ The asylum, a most 
splendid building, in the Old Kent-road, including the recent 
addition of 'Hhe ladies' wing," contains one hundred and twen- 
ty-six distinct habitations, and accommodates one hundred 
and forty-three inmates, including the wives of those elected ; 
each dwelling consists of three rooms. Twenty-five thousand 
pounds we^e collected within six years, and expended on this 
asylum, which, to the honour of the present age of licensed 
victuallers be it recorded, has no rival in extent, it being such 
an establishment as no other branch of trade can boast of. 

At the present time a subscription is being raised for the 
building and endowment of a chapel, which, judging from 
the cordial cooperation immediately afforded to the plan 
so soon as made public, will be efficiently carried out : in- 
deed, the only wonder is. that the benevolence of the direc- 
tors of the institution, nas not been earlier awakened to 
this deficiency hitherto existing in the most essential de- 
partment of the establishment. The amount annually dis- 
tributed towards support of inmates, and medical attendance, 
coals, etc., averages from j£l,200 to £1,400. The annufd 
income is nearly £2,500, of which about £2,000 is derived 
from voluntary contributions, and the remainder from inter- 
est, dividends, etc. The amoimt of stock deposited at interest 
is imder £10,000. An annual subscriber is entitled to one 
vote, and so on in proportion for every guinea annually 
subscribed. 

Chairman, Mr. R. B. Hughes, 23, Charles-street, Chelsea. — 
Bankers, Messrs. Barclay, Sevan, Tritton, and Co. — ^Architect, 
Henry Rose, Esq., 100, Great Guildford-street. — Surgeons, 
Messrs. Inwood and Clifton, 5, Southampton-street, £uston- 
square. — Secretary and Solicitor, Mr. Thomas Jones, 1, King's 
Arms-yard, Coleman-street. 

AGED PILGRIMS' ASYLUM, CAmheTveU, Instituted 
1826. Founded by the managers of " The Ag^ Pilgrims' 
Friend Society", and is under their control. It consists of 
almshouses, erected at Camberwell, for the reception of forty- 

^ For this Pension Fund, vide chapter xiii. 

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CHRISTIAN TTNION J^ljJ^lplK* ALMSHOUSES, A.D.I 832 

two of the pensioners on the parent society. Every donor to 
the Aged Pilgrims' Friend Society, or to the Aged Pilgrims' 
Asylum, of five guineas, or an annual subscriber of 7«., is 
entitled, upon each election, to one vote for each vacancy. 
For officers, etc., see page 244. 

CHRISTIAN UNION ALMSHOUSES, John-street, 
Bdgware-road. Established 1832. "For poor and aged 
believers of every Protestant denomination, of sixty years of 
age and upwards, who have resided for the last preceding 
three years in the north-west district of London ; viz., on the 
north of Oxford-street and Bayswater-road, and West of 
Tottenham-court and Hampstead-roads. There are thirty- 
six inmates at the present time, who have a permanent in- 
come of 48, 6d. per week. — Ten shillings and sixpence annu- 
ally, or £5 donation, constitutes a governor, entitled to one 
vote at aU vacancies. 

President, the Kight Hon. the Earl of Chichester. — Treasurer, 
John Labouchere, Esq. — Sub-Treasurer, Mr. Bissill, 26, Earl- 
street West, Edgware-road. — ^Phjrsicians, C. J. B. Williams, M.D. 
— Surgeon, W. J. Byam, Esq. — Secretaries, Mr. Pitts, 8, Melina- 
place ; Mr. W. Skinner, 14, Fulham-place, Paddington. 

PARISH CLERKS' ALMSHOUSE INSTITUTION, 
Camberwell. Established 1831, for the residence of widows 
of such parochial and other clerks of the Established Church, 
as have been subscribers to the time of their decease, and 
have conformed to the rules and regulations made for the 
government of this institution. But if no subscriber's widow 
make application, then the widow of any parochial or chapel 
clerk of the Established Church is eligible to become a can- 
didate. One guinea annually, or ten guineas at one payment, 
constitutes a member, entitled to one vote. Candidates must 
apply by petition, within fourteen days of any vacancy, stat- 
ing age and circumstances, and leave the same at the Hall, 
83, Wood-street, Cheapside. 

Treasurer, Mr. William Amott, 89, St. Andrew's-hill. — Col- 
lector, Mr. T. Bullard, 9, Grooers'-hall-oourt, Poultxy. 

ASYLUM FOR WORTHY AGED AND DEC A YED 
FREEMASONS, Croydon, Surrey, designed and commenced, 
1836, by the late Dr. R. T. Crucifix, a distinguished Free- 
mason and philanthropist ; for worthy aged and decayed 
Freemas(»is. It was originally intended granting pensions 
to objects worthy of admission, but after the first election of 

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232 

LOJfDON ALMSHOUSES. CljEritiUS ffll A.D. 1832 

seven pensioners, it was resolved to drop it for the future, as 
interfering too much with the charity mentioned in next 
chapter ; consequently the funds have been since devoted for 
the asylum only. Although so long since first contemplated, 
the building is not yet completed ; it promises to form a 
pleasing specimen of the Gothic style, after a design by Mr. 
Dankes, contracted to be built for £4,700, and will accommo- 
date thirty-six inmates. One guinea annual constitutes a 
subscriber, with one vote ; two guineas a governor, with two 
votes ; and a donation of ten guineas two votes for life. 

Trustees, Lord Southampton ; Colonel Anson, M.P. ; B. B. 
Cabbell, Esq., M.P., and others. — Secretary, Mr. J. Whitmore, 
125, Oxford-street. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Grote, Prescott, and Go. 

INSTITUTION of the LONDON ALMSHOUSES, 
Park-hill,Brixton, was established, 1832, in lieu of an illumi- 
nation to commemorate reform in parliament, for aged and 
decayed freemen and householders of London, and their wives 
or widows, of good character and repute, in reduced circum- 
stances through casualties of fortune, or visitations of Pro- 
vidence. Candidates for admission must be free of the city, 
inhabitants of the same ward two years, and in receipt of 
^12 per annum if single, or iC20 if married ; the age at the 
time of admission must be of males above sixty, and females 
fifty-five, except they be wives of those elected, and each 
case must be recommended by at least three subscribers. 
Donors of JS5, or subscribers of one guinea annual, entitled 
to one vote at all elections, and more in proportion. 

President, Sir John Key, Bart. — ^Treasurer, Sir John Pirie, 
Bart. — Bankers, Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Co. — Secretary, Mr. 
Welton, Town Clerk's Office, Guildhall, where the necessary 
forms for applicants may be obtained. 

STMARYLEBONEALMSHOUSESINSTITUTION, 
Ofiice, 2, Orchard-street. Established 1836.^ Affording an 
asylum and support to aged and decayed parishioners of St. 
Marylebone, above sixty years of age, and their widows, 
above fifty-five, of good character, who have paid ten years' 
rates in the parish, and received no parochial relief. The 
election of inmates vested in the subscribers ; 10s. annual, or 
£6 at one donation, constitutes a subscriber, with one vote 

^ Originated by a legacy of j£dOO, left by Count Woronzow, 1833 : 
" bequeathed to the poor of the parish." This, under certain conditioos, 
was transferred to the vestry to carry out 



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BENEFIT societies' ^^ ^gfi. ASYLUM, A.D. 1829 

on all vacancies. The present number of inmates is sixty- 
three, whose average age is seventy ; they are allowed, each 
person, 2s. if single, and Is. 6d. if married, and found in wood, 
coals, and bread. 

Treasurer, B. B. Cabbell, Esq., M.P. — Bankers, Sir Claude 
Scott and Co. — ^Hon. Secretary, C. Flood, Esq., Court-house, St. 
Marylebone. — Assistant Secretanr and Collector, Mr. John Wil- 
liam Knight, 2, Orchard-street, rortman-square, and 2, Welling- 
ton-place, St. John's-wood. — Superintendent, Mr. R. A. Watkins. 

METROPOLITAN BENEFIT SOCIETIES' AST- 
LUM, Balls' Pond, Islington. Founded 1829, erected 1836. 
Candidates for admission must have been members of a benefit 
society, established within ten miles of St. Paul's, for ten years 
or upwards, of good character, and have attained the age of 
fifty-five years, or otherwise incapacitated from following any 
occupation. Candidates must send a statement to the com- 
mittee, three months previous to each election, with particu- 
lars of name, address, age, societies they may have belonged 
to, and number of years members, etc.; such statement to be 
si^ed by the secretaries, or persons qualified, accompanied 
with a testimonial of character, and recommendation Dy two 
subscribers. They must also attend personally at the next 
meeting of the conmiittee, when they will be informed of 
their efigibility or rejection. No subscriber to recommend 
more than one candidate at each election. Forms of petition 
may be had on application to the secretary. The present 
number of inmates is fifty, part of whom are resident in 
houses rented for the purpose, until the wings of the asylum 
are completed ; besides the asylum, they are provided with 
coals and candles and medicsd attendance, etc. Five shil- 
lings annually entitles to one vote, £2 donation one vote 
for life. Benefit societies contributing £\ annually, or £10 
donation, are entitled to recommend one of their own mem- 
bers once in three years. 

President, W. T. Copeland, Esq., Alderman. — ^Treasurer, John 
Masterman, Esq.— ^ub-Treasurer, Mr. J. C. Bowles, 77, Cannon- 
street. — Chairman, Mr. R. M'Craight. — Seoretaiy pro tern., Mr. 
W. J. Cole.— Collector, Mr. W. J. Gilbert, 6, Great Smith-street, 
Westminster. 

FREE WATERMANSS LIOHTERMANS ALMS- 
HOUSESfFengejSuirej, Established 1839. This fine range 
of almshouses owe their erection, in the first instance, to the 



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234 

waterman's alms ClfHritlKI fst tiff ^gji. houses, a.d.183». 

liberality of the present president, who gave nearly jC2,000 for 
the purpose, and of the late Alderman Lucas and others of 
the court, who likewise contributed large sums : they now 
consist of forty houses, occupied by about sixty inmates, 
who consist of poor aged, decayed, and maimed freemen of 
the company of Watermen and Lightermen of the river 
Thames, and their wives or widows, under the control of the 
company, who have the power to elect all officers of the in- 
stitution. All candidates for the benefits of the institution 
must be approved of by the court ; and must apply to the 
secretary by petition, with reference to two or more respon- 
sible persons. Males must have completed their sixties 
year, and females their fifty-fifth. With the exception of 
six of the houses set apart for the presentments of the court, 
the elections are vested in the subscribers ; annual sub- 
scribers of one guinea are entitled to one, and donors of ten 
guineas to two votes. A church has lately been opened in 
the vicinity mainly for the benefit of the inmates. 

The R(yycH Addaide Fundy connected with the asylum, 
is to assist in providing a decent and proper funeral for the 
inmates thereof, who shall have been members, which they 
can do by making very small payments, assisted as the fund 
is by the benevolent. 

President, John Dudin Brown, Esq. — ^Treasurers, Messrs. 
Brown, Addis, Young, and Thompson. — Chaplain, Rev. Mar- 
shall Hall Vine. — Surgeon, Arthur Hammond, Esq. — ^Architect, 
Mr. George Porter. — Bankers, the Bank of England. — Honorary 
Secretary, John Clark, Esq. — Clerk to the Company, H. Hum- 



The following will be found detailed in Chapter xiii» in connexion with, 
or emanating from the respective charitable and prorident societies :-~ 



Booksellers' Frovident Retreat 
Bookbinders' Provident A^liim 
Butchers* Almshouses 
Fishmongers and Poulterers' Alms- 
bouses 



Grovemesses' Asylum for Aged 
I/)ndon Maritime Asylum 
Printers' Almshouses 
Journeyman Tailors' Asylum 
Pawnbrokers' Almshouses 



also &e National Guardian Institution, page 165. 



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235 

GBHEBAL l^tUSm 



CHAPTER XII. 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT 
PENSION SOCIETIES. 

The pecnliar recommendation of Charitable Pension Societies; Uieir mo- 
dem Establishment and present Extent — General Summary of Incranes, 
Number of Pensioners, etc. — The National Benevolent — Plan of poll- 
ing Votes; the aggregate, and the Year's Polls — City of Londcm, 
Rojal General, and other Pension Societies. — The new institution, 
The British Beneficent — Weekly Pensions for the Poorer Classes. — 
For Roman Catholics. — Fund for Natives of Cumberland, and for 
Masons. 

OuB Charitable Pension, and other Benevolent and Provident 
Funds, form the advocates of their own cause ; they need 
little or no art to point out their benefits or urge their claims 
eflTectively upon general benevolence. They constitute, per- 
haps, the most important provision that benevolence has 
suggested, being for the chief part directed to the needs of 
the aged and distressed of the middle classes. The broken- 
down merchant ; the aged governess ; the distressed, and, it 
may be. starving, artist or man of letters — all have the relief 
of their necessities contemplated by the institutions detailed 
in this and the following chapter. As the establishment of 
almshouses and other asylums has been, as we have seen, 
more peculiarly the work of a past age, so are the numerous 
Pension and !Benefit Funds the productions of our own ; 
observation of the recent date of almost the whole of them 
cannot fail to prove interesting, especially as their general 
prosperity can vie with the most liberally endowed charities 
that have passed under our review. 

These institutions may be divided into two classes ; the 
present chapter comprehending such as are of more general 
application in their operations, or offering other reasons for 



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236 

KATIONAL BENEVOLENT CtjflritHtlB INSTITUTION, A.D. 1821 

separation from the great bulk of Benevolent Funds detailed 
in the succeeding, which contains, it will be found, such as 
for the most are devoted to the b^efit of particular profes- 
sions, trades, and classes. 

These now under consideration, like the " National Bene- 
volent,*' appeal strongly to our sympathies and support, not 
only on account of their genend excellence of object, but 
for their catholicity of regulations ; — presenting peculiar 
claims on the philanthropists of all persuasions and of every 
land. Under this head are included the following : — 

Six of general character, granting pensions, varying from 
£12 to £30 per annum ; 2 of a limited extent, now virtually 
suspended ; 2 lately formed, not yet in active operation ; 1 
for natives of Cumberland ; and 1 for Freemasons ; 4 grant- 
ing weekly pensions to a poorer class (1 Roman OathoUc). 

Total number of institutions . . . 16 

Granting annual, monthly, and weekly amounts 
to pensioners to the number of . . 1,051 

Total amount of income (exclusive of those not 

in operation) .... jG18,989 

Of which there is derived from voluntary con- 
tributions ..... £15,790 

THE NA TIONAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION, 
comer of Southampton-row and Bloomsbury-place. Founded 
1812.1 For granting pensions to indigent gentry, professional 
persons, tutors and governesses, decayed merchants, and 
others who have been engaged in the higher departments of 
trade, without distinction of religion, sect, or country ; and 
is supported by voluntary contributions. 

Petitioners, to be eligible, must have completed their 
sixtieth year, and are required to produce a recommendation, 
signed by the clergyman of the parish (or by the minister 
whose religious tenets have been adopted), and by eight sub- 
scribers, four of whom must be housekeepers. A certificate of 
baptism, and, in the case of a widow, certificates of marriage 
and of the burial of the husband, must accompany the peti- 
tion, a proper form of which can ovdy be obtained at the 

1 Founded by Peter Herve, Esq., an artist, who devbted much of his 
time and talents, and suffered both in health and fortune, in effecting the 
establishment of the institution. He died in 1827, at Chateaudun, in 
France, declining, to the last, to accept any compensation out of the soci- 
ety's funds. 



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237 

NATIONAL ^gttgiini ^nrigfeg* BENEVOLENT, 1821 

office, on the personal or written application of a subscriber. 
Petitioners must have been resident in London, or its imme- 
diate environs, for at least twelve months prior to the date of 
their applications, and must not, during that time, have been 
in the receipt of any parochial relief. An election takes place 
annually on the last Thursday in November, when about 
twenty pensioners are chosen, by the votes of the life-gover- 
nors and subscribers. 
The pensions are awarded by the following scale : — 

£20 per annum from the age of 60 to 68. 

£26 per annum from ... 68 to 73. 

j£30 per annum from ... 73 upwards, 
and the amount of the pension is regulated by the age of 
the candidate when dected, and is not subsequently in- 
creased. The usual number of pensioners is about 230. The 
total amount distributed in pensions, since the establishment 
of the institution, is upwards of £121,000 ; the average an- 
nual amount, £5,000. The funds appear in a satisfactory 
condition : the amount of stock is about £40,000 and the 
annual income exceeds £7,000, viz., £1,400 from dividends, 
and £6,600 from voluntary contributions. 

This institution may be well termed a " national" one, for 
both in its object and liberality of operations, it fairly repre- 
sents the essentials of British benevolence. Of late years, 
the committee have greatly improved upon the old system 
pursued in regulating the subscribers' votes for particular 
candidates. An unsuccessful candidate used to have all the 
ground to go over again ; but now the votes polled at one 
election go to his credit at the next, upon another poll, 
termed *' the aggregate," upon which poll there are usueJly 
some two or three candidates elected. This is a great boon 
to those candidates whose friends are few, as, in four or five 
years, with ordinary exertion, they must be elected. 

^ Experience at these elections, however, teaches that the more speedy 
method is not to poll at all the first year, hut to lend the votes until the 
second year, and, if need be, till a third ; because a far less number is 
required to insure election on the day's poll, than on the ** aggr^^te." In 
this respect,the present plan appears defective, as, besides its complication, 
it offers a great premium to lending and borrowing. The remedy appears 
clear and desirable, viz., that the present two polls be merged into one. By 
this, the grabd motive for lending will be destroyed, and an inducement 
afforded to every candidate to poll his utmost, — a result that must prove 
as favourable to the Amds as the tendency of the present system is detri- 
mental. 

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238 

CPTT OP LONDON, 181 8. C^ gljtflto BAST LONDON, A.D. 1824 

Contributors are entitled to ten votes for eveiy 58. annual, 
and to twenty votes for ever^ £6 donation. Two hundrea 
guineas in one payment entitles the donor to nominate a 
pensioner immediatelv ; but the person nominated must 
present a petition, and produce the same proofs of eligibility 
as an ordmary candidate. The office of the institution is 
open from ten till five daily. 

President, the Duke of Devonshire. — Solicitor, Samuel Robert 
Topping, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Frederic Latreille. — Collector, Mr. 
John Courtney, 6, Sydney-place, Clapham-road. 

CITY OF LONDON GENERAL PENSION SOCI- 

-£'^F,5, Billiter-street. Founded 1818. For providing per- 
manent relief, by means of monthly pensions, to decayed 
artizans, mechanics, manufacturers, tradesmen, and their 
widows. The amounts granted are at the discretion of the 
board, but must not exceed 31s. to males, and 27s. to females, 
monthly. The present number of pensioners is 58, and the 
pensions granted, 2l8. and 18s. respectively, "the funds not 
justifying the committee to extend the same to the full 
amount permitted." The present income is under jG 1,500 
a-year, of which £1^200 is derived from voluntary contribu- 
tions, and the remamder from dividends. 

The elections are half-yearly, and the number of pensioners 
elected at each is generally four. Candidates must be ac- 
cepted by the committee, and be qualified by age or infirmi- 
ties, similar to Uie last ; but the female pensioners are not 
to exceed the number of males. 

In the polling of votes, this society has pursued for the last 
four years, we perceive, the plan recommended in the pre- 
vious note, viz., the unconditional carrying on of votes polled 
by an unsuccessful candidate to his credit at the next elec- 
tion ; the committee being assured, they state, "in a bene- 
volent institution like this, as the measure of its philanthropy 
is extended and perfected^ its increasing claims will be gene- 
rously and warmly responded to." 

Prudent, the Duke of Bedford. — Secretary, Mr. (Jeo. Menoe. 
— ^Auditors, Messrs. William Kendle and Jolm Morrison. 

EAST LONDON GENERAL PENSION SOCIETY, 
Tyssen-street, Bethnal-green. Instituted 1824. For the per- 
manent relief of the aged and afflicted poor of both sexes, of 
good character, by allowing a pension of 2s. 6d. per week to 
the males, and to the females, 2s. per week. Such candidates 



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239 

liAMBETH^ A.D. 1826 ^(UStHlt ^Iin(&B*BOYALGENEBAL,18S7 

for the pension as have been members of the fond, are 
allowed a certain nimiber of votes, proportioned to the time 
they haye been such members. The income is \mder jC150 
per annum, but devoted to the objects of the institution. 

Every person paying 5s. per annum, becomes a member ; 
and a donation of £2 at one payment^ constitutes a mem* 
ber for life. 

President, Sir William Clay, Bart. — Chairman, John Parker, 
Esq. — Treasurer, Mr. William Tumell. — Honorary Secretaries : 
Mr. GteoTge Kirby, Orchard-street, Hackney ; Mr. Jacob Goullee, 
Club-row, Bethnal-green. — Collector, Mr. H. D. Clements, 6, 
Artichoke-row, Mile-end-road. 

EAST LONDON PENSION SOCIETY, established 
in the neighbourhood of Aldgate, 1826; should scarcely 
obtain insertion, being upon the eve of extinction. The 8^ 
cretary represents there are but three aged pensioners, receiv- 
ing 5s. per week; and, upon their death, the Society will be 
dissolved. 

Secretary, Mr. Gbo. Henderson, 28, Mansel-street, Goodman's- 
fields. 

LAMBETH PENSION SOCIETY, UmhML. Estab- 
lished 1826. Candidates must have attained the age of 
sixty-five ; never have received parochial relief ; have been 
rated to the poor, for a house in the parish of Lambeth, at 
£20 per annum, during ten years immediately prior to be- 
coming candidates, and have paid all the rates during that 
period. The pensioners, male and female, are chosen in equal 
numbers : the former receive 7s.; the latter, 5s. per week, 
payable monthly. The present number of pensioners is 
eighteen men, and twenty-four women ; and their aggregate 
amount of pensions is £498 : the total income is but £528, 
derived, all but £22, from voluntary contributions. 

Five shillings annually, or five guineas at one payment, 
constitute a governor. 

President, Rev. C. B. Dalton, M.A., Rector. — ^Treasurer, Wm. 
Rogers, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. N. H. Rowsell, 9, Milfbrd-place. — 
Tr^tees : the Rector ; William Rogers, Esq. ; Charles Evans, Esq. ; 
and J. B. Clark, Esq. — Collector, Mr. James Cole, 7, York-row, 
Kennington-road. 

ROYAL GENERAL ANNUITY SOCIETY, 18a, 
Basinghall-street. Established 1827. Similar in objects to 
the National Benevolent ; viz., for granting pensions "to 



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240 

ROYAL OBlfEBAL,1827 CtjEritilllB BRITISH PHIL. A.D. 1838 

decayed merchants, bankers, professional men, mastermanu- 
facturers, tradesmen, and clerks, their widows and daughters, 
firom all parts of the united kingdom"; but at present it is 
more confined in its operations and amount of pensions 
granted, — ^in fact, until within the last two or three years, 
this chaxity was a very obscure one, so much so, as to escape 
all mention in our previous work. Great efforts, however, 
have lately been exerted in its behalf, and its management 
characterized by a most liberal and earnest spirit ; the con- 
sequence is, it now bids fair to rank second only to the insti- 
tution referred to. The points of difference in its operations 
besides their extent, is that candidates for this institution 
may be imder sixty years of age, if totally incapacitated ; 
the unsuccessful votes polled at one election, are carried to 
the candidate's credit at the next, for three successive elec- 
tions ; and the amount of pension is limited to £2 5^. per 
month for males, and £1 lOs. for females. Two elections 
take place every year, unless the second is deemed inexpe- 
dient by the durectors, and are decided by the subscribers' 
votes. The usual number elected each time is six or eight : 
the present number of pensioners on the society's funds is 
forty. The income averages £1,600 a year ; but, judging 
firom the exertions being made by its directors, there is every 
reason to believe this will speedily be more than doubled. In 
addition to granting annuities, it is now proposed to build 
an asylum to contain an equal number of male and female 
applicants, to be chosen likewise by ballot at the usual elec- 
tions when vacancies occur. 

Ten shillings annually, or £5 donation, constitute a mem- 
ber, entitled to two votes for every such subscription. Forms 
of recommendation and petition for applicants, to be obtained 
of the secretary. 

President, A. W. Robarts, Esq. — Treasurer, Mr. Alderman 
Thompson, M.P. — ^Treasurer of the Building Fund, A. G. Robarts, 
Esq. — ^Trustees : Mr. Alderman Copeland, M.P. ; John Abel Smith, 
Esq., M.P. ; George Carr Glyn, Esq., M. P.— Chaplain, Rev. Wil- 
liam Henry Jones, M.A. — Secretary, Mr. Stephen J. Aldrich. — 
Bankers, Bank of England. — Collector, Mr. Benjamin Butler, 262, 
Oxford-street. 

BRITISH PHILANTHROPIC PENSION SO- 
CIETY, 146, Fenchurch-street. Established 1838, for 
" the permanent relief of aged and distressed poor of both 
sexes, by an allowance of bs. per week for life"; foimed upon 



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241 

ROYAL GENBBAL. ^BESIIIE ^UXitim. A.D. 1839 

similax principles to the preceding, but for a more humble 
class, and providing a less scale of pension. Up to 1843, the 
society mamtained twelve pensioners, at 28. Ge^.per week, and 
the total number to the present time has only been eighteen, 
of whom but five are now living ; these, however, now re- 
ceive 5«. Two guineas at one time constitute a life, and 
58. a year an annual, governor, with the right of nominating 
a candidate, and voting at all elections, a privilege not exer- 
cised, apparently, for some ti^ie back. 

President, Peter Morrison, Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Martin, 
Stones, and Martin8.= — ^Treasurer, Mr. John Titchiner, 145, Fen- 
chnrch-street. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. Heniy Jenkins, 40, Lime- 
street. City. 

ROYAL GENERAL PENSION SOCIETY, 7, Chapl- 
place. Cavendish-square. Instituted 1839. This society 
was formed to relieve the urgent distress and destitution of 
those, hitherto pensioners to the Union Pension Society, 
but who, in consequence of its disastrous failure, were left 
totally unprovided for. Seventy-eight persons, formerly re- 
cipients of that society, were, in 1842, elected on the pension 
list of this society, with an allowance of 5s. to 7«. per week. 
The extent to which the society's benefits are at present 
afforded cannot be positively stated, in consequence of the 
report being represented as "under revision"; but it would 
appear that it continues to grant pensions to nearly fifty 
persons in necessitous circumstances ; the men having 3s. 6a. 
and the women 2s. 6d. weekly. Subscriptions of one guinea 
per annum, or a donation of ten guineas, constitute a sub- 
scriber, with one vote at all elections. 

Secretary, Mr. John Morris, 7, Chapel-place. — Collector, Mr. 
Benjamin Butler. — Bankers, Messrs. Coutts and Co., Strand. 

NORTH and EAST LONDON BENEVOLENT IN- 
STITUTIONy 7, Lawrence Pountney-lane. Commenced, 
1849, under the title of the Finsbury and Shoreditch 
Benevolent Institution, for affording permanent relief by 
annuities similar to the last mentioned. The amounts of 
pensions contemplated, are 268. per month to males, and 
20s. to females, with an additional weekly sum in case of 
sickness ; as yet the society has made but little progress, 
but the second election of pensioners is announced for the 
ensuing spring. Five shillings annual, or five guineas dona- 
tion, constitute a governor, with one vote. Attendance at 
the office every Wednesday, from deven until four. 

16 

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242 

BRITISH BENEFICENT ClfHritEtlB INSTITUTION, A.D. 1860 

Treasurer, Joseph Davies, Esq. — Consulting Physician, Henry 
Jea£Greson, Esq., M.D. — Surgeon, WiUiam Guest Carpenter, Esq. 
Bankers, Messrs. Davies and Co. — Secretary, Mr. James Vine. — 
Collector, Mr. William Shepherd. 

THE BRITISH BENEFICENT INSTITUTION, 
9, Lincoln's-inn-fields ; establishing 1850 ; appears to b© 
an attempt, on a large and comprehensive scale, to form a 
charitable annuity society similar to the best of the fore- 
going, divested of such features as in the idea of many ap- 
pear objectionable ; such as the usual mode of electing 
annuitants,— of canvassing for votes, etc. The plan of this 
projected institution may thus be summed up : the afford- 
ing pensions of ;£30 per annum, to be paid monthly, to "the 
widows and unmarried daughters of military and naval 
ofl&cers, clergymen, members of the learned professions, pro- 
fessors of the fine arts, gentlemen engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, and others having moved in a superior station 
in society, resident in Great Britain or Ireland, who, by 
reverses, are exposed to want :" also, the erection of alms- 
houses, to which the recipients of the society's bounty wiU 
have the privilege of becoming candidates, as vacancies occur. 
The elections to be held yearly or half-yearly, according to the 
state of the funds ; they are to be decided by ballot of the di- 
rectors, upon the recommendation of the subscribers, it being 
conceived that the choice would more generally be the result 
of judgment, instead, as now, depending on the activity of 
the canvas. However this may be, we much doubt whether 
the old plan pursued by the National Benevolent Institu- 
tion will not continue the favourite with the public, secur- 
ing the power, as it does, of electing the candidates in the 
hands of the subscribers. The present institution is full of 
promise as regards the number and quality of its supporters ; 
the list already exhibits a vast array of influential names, 
and tBere is evidently much energy and perseverance de- 
voted to its interests on the part of the active secretary, who 
for many years, we believe, directed the management of the 
City, of London General Pension Society. The first selection 
of candidates is advertised to take place next July. Printed 
forms of applicatiojii may be now obtained for this. Candi- 
.dates are eligible at the age of fifty-five, or if wholly inca- 
pacitated, at the^discretion of the directors, under that age. 
Twenty guineas at one payment constitute a life governor, 
ten guineas a governor for ten years, and five guineas for five 
years : £\ annually a subscriber. 

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243 

AGED POOR, 1699. ^HtSillll ^nriPte* pbiendlt, a.d. 1802 

President, the Earl of Cardigan. — Trustees : the Marquis Clan- 
ricarde, the Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Aylmer, Lord De Mauley. 
— Honorary Secretary, Henry Francis Richardson, Esq. — Collec- 
tor and Visitor, Mr. Henry Perry, — Bankers, Messrs. Sir Charles 
Price and Co. 

AQEB POOR SOCIETY, 30, Leicester-square. Insti- 
tuted 1699, for affording permanent relief to the aged or 
infirm poor of both sexes, professing the Roman Catholic faith. 
Candidates for its aid must be above sixty years of age. The 
allowance made to males, 4^. per week ; females, Zs. ; in the 
eyent of a pensioner entering the workhouse, the pension 
will be reduced to 1«. per week. At Christmas there is an 
annual distribution of meat, bread, coals, and potatoes to pen- 
sioners. One guinea annually for three years, or £20 at one 
time, constitute a governor, with one vote. This society is en- 
deavouring to raise sufficient funds for the erection of alms- 
houses, and the amount already in hand is nearly £3,000. 

President, Right Rev. Dr. Wiseman. — Treasurer, H. Robinson, 
Esq. — Honorary Surgeon, Edward White, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. 
Pagliano. — Collector, Mr. Thomas Blount, 2, Leicester-place. 

FRIENDLY FEMALE SOCIETY, 10, George-yard, 
Lombard-street. Instituted 1802. Poor women of good 
character, who have seen better days, not under the age of 
sixty years, and living within five miles of St. Paul's, are 
considered proper objects of this charity. The relief granted 
is in money, fuel, clothing, or otherwise, as the case may 
require. The annuitants at the present time number one 
hundred and thirty- nine, and are of three classes ; fifty above 
eighty years of age, who have six guineas per annum ; forty 
above seventy years of age, who have four guineas per annum ; 
and forty in the asylum, who have eight guineas per annum. 
The election of the annuitants is decided by the votes of 
the subscribers. Candidates for annuities must have been 
twelve months on the books of the society for relief. The 
number of the annuitants is increased as the funds of the 
society may permit. Ten guineas donation, or one guinea 
annually, constitutes a member entitled to recommend an 
object for relief for six months. Half-a-guinea entitles only 
to recommend one for three months. 

President, the Marchioness of Chohnondeley.— ^Treasurer, Mrs, 
John Courthope, Rotherhithe. — Hon. Secretary, Mrs. Richard- 
son, 3, Grordon-street, Gordon-square. — Secretary and Collector, 
Miss Stennett, 14, Brixton-rise. 



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AGED pilgrims', 1807. ClfEIltHilte LONDON CHEISTIAN,1826 

AQEB PILGRIMS' FRIEND SOCIETY, 60, Pater- 
noster-row. Instituted 1807. This society is for the purpose 
of giving life-pensions of ten guineas and five guineas to 
poor, aged, and infirm Protestant Christians, of l^th sexes, 
and of every religious denomination. It is required of can- 
didates, that they can afford testimony of heing real Chris- 
tians ; above threescore years old ; their income, from evei^^ 
source, under 7s. per week, if a single person ; or 10s. 6a. 
per week, if married. There are generally between two and 
three hundred annuitants, receiving five or ten guineas 
per annum. Last vear's amount of pensions was £1,692 ; 
the total amount of income, £1,800; all but £160 derived 
from voluntary contributions ; the funded property is under 
£6,000 ; the expenses for conducting the Society are very 
small. 

Every subscriber of one guinea per annum is entitled to 
recommend one candidate, after having paid two years' sub- 
scription ; seven shillings per annum, or five guineas doni^ 
tion, entitle to one vote. 

Forms of recommendation may be had of either of the 
Secretaries. Committee meet on the last Monday in every 
month, at 60, Paternoster-row, City. 

For account of almshouses to this charity, see the preced- 
ing chapter. 

Treasurers : Mr. Alderman Kelly, Paternoster-row ; Mr. Wil- 
liam Allan, 16, Bnmswick-crescent, Camberwell. — Hon. Secre- 
taries : Mr. James Bisset, Stevenage, Herts ; Mr. John Box, 13, 
Northampton-square. — Bankers, Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Smith. 
— Collector, Mr. Edward Shrewsbury, 16, King's-row, Walworth. 

LONDON AGED CHRISTIAN SOCIETY 32, SsKik- 
ville-street, Piccadilly. Instituted 1826. For tne perma- 
nent relief of the decidedly Christian poor, of both sexes, 
who have attained the age of sixty-five years, and who reside 
within five miles of St. Paul's cathedral. The sum granted 
to each never exceeds 10s. per month, and is so regulated 
that the certain income of the pensioner from the society, 
and other sources, does not exceed 7s. per week. 

One pound annually, or £10 at one time, or £10 or up- 
wards from a minister on behalf of his congregation, consti- 
tute members entitled to have pensioners on the books, subject 
to the rules. The present number of pensioners is 120; the 
annual income is under £1,200, of which £1,145 is derived 



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cuMBERLA]!n),1749. ^BUSHIE ^mbfeS. eoyalmasonic,1842 

from voluntary contributions, and the remainder from divi- 
dends. The amount expended in pensions is £6S0 annually. 
President, the Marquis of Cholmondeley. — Bankers, Messrs. 
Dmmmond and Co., Cliaring-cross. — ^Treasurer, Mr. W. Adeney, 
16, Sackville-street. — Honorary Secretaries : Rev. Edward Auriol ; 
F. S. W. Sheppard, Esq. — Assistant Secretary and Collector, Mr. 
A. W. Stone. — Honorary Secretaries to the Ladies' Committee : 
Miss Lemon, 8, Upper Brook-street ; Mrs. Maberly, 28, Grove 
End-road ; Mrs. Tarn, 20, Brunswick-square. 

CUMBERLAND BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION, 
London Tavern. Instituted 1749. For the relief of indi- 

fent natives, and their widows, residing in the metropolis, 
y permanent pensions of 20s. per month. The present 
number of annuitants is forty-seven, and the amount distri- 
buted annually, ;C479. The receipts, however, are insuffi- 
cient for this, being last year only jC431, depending almost 
wholly on voluntai^ contributions. Applications must be 
signed by the petitioner and two governors, accompanied by 
a certificate of baptism, before the first Tuesday in January. 
No person is eligible who has not resided within the bills of 
mortality three years, or receives parochial relief, or not at- 
tained the age of sixty-five years^ except in cases satisfactory 
to the committee. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas at one time, constitutes 
a governor, entitled to one vote. The committee meet 
monthly at the London Tavern. 

President, Earl of Lonsdale, Lord Lieutenant of the County. — 
Treasurer, John Reay, jun., Esq. — Hon. Secretary, F. B. Birkett, 
Esq. — Chaplain, Rev. Jonathan Cape. — Suiveon, Thomas Porter, 
Esq. — Collector and Assistant Secretary, Mr. John Smith, 8, 
Crosby-square. 

THE ROYAL MASONIC BENEVOLENT ANNU- 
ITY FUND, Yreeinaisojia' RBXi,QTe&t(i\xeen-Btreet Insti- 
tuted 1842. For the benefit of Masons, who must have been 
registered for fifteen years, and subscribers to a lod^e for ten 
of that period ; imless in instances of signal affliction, none 
are eligible to receive pensions \mder sixty years of age. 
The pension varies, according to age, from £20 to £Z0 per 
annum. The present number of pensioners is forty-three, 
receiving £861 annually. 

Five shillings annual, or £5 at one payment, constitutes 
a subscriber, with one vote in the first case, and two in the 
second, for every such amount. 



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MAsoNio Cliaritahl? '^mmu ^nmto. societies. 

President, Earl of Zetland. — ^Treasurer, Richard Percival, Esq. 
Secretary, Mr. William Famfield, Freemasons* Hall. — Collector, 
Mr. John Nicholls, 46, Chiswell-street. 

TBB MASONIC PROVIDENT SOCIETY, Insti- 
tuted 1843. Lately held at the " Prince's Head," Prince's- 
street, Westminster, somewliat similar in design to the above; 
is now extinct. 



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CHAPTEE XIIL 



CHARITABLE AND PROVIDENT BENEFIT 
SOCIETIES. 

Their general Character, Objects, and Operation, and relative Extent, 
conndered. — The three classes of Charitable, Provident, and Benevo- 
lent—Queen Anne's Bountj, and other Funds, for Clergymen and 
Ministers. — The Literary Fund, and Societies for Artists. — School- 
masters and Governesses. — Naval and Military. — Choral. — Law. — 
Medical. — Booksellers' and other Profession and Trade Funds. — 
Funds for the Distressed amongst old Etonians and Blues; also, Found- 
lings in old age. 

Veby difficult is it to draw a line between a charity, pro- 
perly so called, and a fund conducted for the benefit only 
of its own members mid contributors ; and many of those in 
this chapter partake more of the characteristics of mutual 
insurance, than warrants their recognition in our present 
volimie, were it not for the close connexion between such, and 
some of our noblest charities ; and also that their support 
may, to a considerable extent, be traced to much of the 
same spirit of love and desire to benefit theu* class as per- 
vade the founders and promoters of those of more general 
application. 

In considering the institutions of the following pages, we 
have endeavoured to limit the details as much as possible to 
such features as may be peculiar to each, noticing such as may 
be desirable for consideration, and perchance imitation, by 
others, taking the opportunity of calling special attention to 
the claims of charity to non-members, as recognized by a few 
honorable exceptions to what appears the more general plan. 
Such exceptions clearly evince the facility with which a cha- 
ritable distribution may accompany the most provident and 
scrupulous regard to the interests of their members ; whilst 



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GENERAL Cljgritahl^ Jllit ^ntgftBllt BEMABKB. 

the present satisfactory stateof their finances affords testimony 
to thetruth, that "there is that scattereth and yetincreaseth. 

The following affords a clear summary of the institutions 
thus considered. They may be designated and classed as — 
Charitable, Provident and Benevolent, and Provident. 

7 Charitable Corporations and other societies, 
for the benefit of the clergy and Protestant 
dissenting ministers. 

With an aggregate amount of annual in- 
come of . . . . . £23,350 

Of which amount, present voluntary contri- 
butions comprise .... 8,600 

Besides these, are 4 funds, not strictly chari- 
ties, such as Queen Anne's, Ashton's, and 
two insurance funds, of irregular and un- 
certain benefit. 

8 for literary persons, artists, schoolmasters, and 
governesses. 

6 for general assistance. 
2 restricted to members. 

Entire income (1 only now forming) . 16,053 

Including voluntary contributions . . 11,305 

6 for naval and military persons and merchant 
service (exclusive of Greenwich and Chelsea 
Hospitals, before considered), for the most 
part restricted to assisting members: their 
annual income, arising from members' pay- 
ments and dividends, amounts, as near as can 
be reckoned, to . . . . 30,000 

49 for lawyers, medical men, musicians, booksel- 
lers, and other professions and trades. 

7 for the general benefit of their respec- 
tive trades, with an annual income of 5,076 

17 partially relieving non-members, with 

an annual income of . . . 8,781 

25 restricted in affording relief to their 
own members, with an annual income, 
as near as can be ascertained, of . 18,467 

The 3 last are funds for the relief of the dis- 
tressed amongst old Etonians, Blues, and 
Foundlings, income of the former not being 
ascertained, the amount, to a certain extent, 
must be doubtful, but may be stated at nearly 1,500 



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QUEEN ANNB's 5B Misfit ^Hrfefe* BOUNTY, A.D. 1704 

Ten of the Funds have asylums or almshouses either 
erected or in course of being so, as referred to in a previous 
chapter : these, it will be seen, are supported in one or two 
instances by distinct funds. 

QUEEN ANNE'S BOUNTY OFFICE, and FIRST 
FRUITS and TENTHS OFFICES, 3, Dean's Yard, West- 
minster. This office belongs to a corporation, established 
by Act of Parliament of the 3rd of Queen Anne,' February, 
1704, for the better maintenance of the poor clergy, by the 
augmentation of small livings. The consolidation of the 
offices of First Fruits and Tenths with the Bounty was 
effected by Act of Parliament, 1 Victoria, 1838. 

The first fruits are payable by every new incumbent, at 
the Bounty office, within three months after his admission. 
The yearly tenths become due on the 25th December, and 
must be paid early in each year. Hours of attendance, from 
10 till four o'clock. Secretary's and First Fruits and Tenths 
department; and from 10 till 2, Treasurer's department. 
The annual account of the fund shows that during the year 
ending the 31st December, 1848, the total receipts amounted 
to j£183,934. 4s. Id., and the total disbursements to 
jei 78,707. 14s. 6d. The amount of first fruits in arrear, 
£100. 4s. lOd., and the amount of yearly tenths, £138. 7s. 6d. 

Secretaiy and Treasurer, C. Hodgson, Esq. — Clerks : Mr. J. 
Holford, and Mr. A. Sharpe. — Treasurer's Department : Clerks : 
Mr. G. Aston ; Mr. B. R. Aston ; Mr. I. K. Aston ; Mr. C. La- 
vender ; Mr. W. H. White. — Counsel, Samuel P. Cockerell, Esq. 
— Solicitor, John Border, Esq., 27, Pai'liament-street. — Auditor, 
Charles Ansell, Esq. — First Fruits' Department : Clerk, Mr. John 
R. Geesin. — Tenths' Department : Clerk, Mr. Wm. Bridges. 

THE CLERGY ORPHAN AND WIDOW CORPO- 
RATION, 2, Bloomsbury-place. Incorporated 1678. Con- 
sists of three distinct and entirely independent charities, 
for the benefit of the indigent clergy, their widows, and 
their children. The benefits to be derived from these chari- 
ties are in no respect confined to the inhabitants of London, 
or its neighbourhood, but are equally extended to all parts 
of the kingdom, and may justly be characterized as National 
Charities. 

^ There were 5,597 clerical livings under J05O per annum, reported 
by the Commissioners under the act of Anne, capable of augmentation. — 
Chalmert. 



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250 

SONS OF THE CLERGY. CjlflrilHillB CORPORATION, A.D. 1678 

Of these we must consider first, 

THE ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL of the SONS of 
the CLERGY^ because, although now termed a branch of 
the operations of the said Corporation, it was virtually the 
foundation source of the whole. It was originally instituted 
about 1655 ; and now consists in an annual assemblage of 
the clergy and laity, in the month of May, under the auspices 
of the highest authorities in Church and State, when Divine 
service is held, and a sermon preached in the cathedral 
church of St. Paul's. With a view to facilitate their distri- 
bution amongst the most deserving objects of the charity, 
the contributions at this festival are placed at the disposal 
of the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy ; and are accord- 
ingly devoted to the apprenticing of the sons and daughters 
of necessitous clergymen in situations of credit and respect- 
ability, and to such other analogous purposes as the com- 
mittee may from time to time approve. Such stewards of 
the festival as contribute a simi of not less than 30 guineas 
towards the expenses of the festival, are subsequently elected 
governors of the corporation. 

Patron, the Queen. — President, the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
— ^Treasurer of the Festival of the Sons of the Clergy, Charles J. 
Baker, Esq., 2, Bloomsbmy-place. — Bankers, Messrs. Goslings 
and Sharpe, Fleet-street. — Collector, Mr. E. R. Fayerman, 7, 
Shaftesbury-crescent, Pimlico. 

The second charity is that for the relief of clergymen, 
their widows, and children ; commonly called the 

CORPORA TION OF THE SONS OF THE CLERGY. 
Established by charter of King Charles II, 1 678. It emanated 
from the " Festival of the Sons of the Clergy," as, when that 
had lasted some years, cases of distress were continually pre- 
sented to the notice of the public, which it was not within 
the scope and means of this festival to relieve. Its revenues 
are distributed by a court of assistants, elected out of the 
body of governors: 1st. In pensions and benefactions to the 
widows of necessitous clergymen, and to such maiden daugh- 
ters of deceased clergymen whose age exceeds forty-five 
years. Those who participate in these benefactions are so 
numerous, that the sum given to each individual does not 
exceed jGlO. 2nd. In benefactions of jGlO to jG20, given 
annually to curates with small incomes, and poor clergymen 
with large families. 3rd. Granting exhibitions to the uni- • 



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BELIEF OP POOR SflUfit ^flriUtijfi. CLBBGTMEN, A.D.I 778 

versities, to sons of poor clergymen, varying in amount 
according to circumstances, and apprenticing others, and 
assisting them subsequently to settle in business. 4th. In 
extending relief to cases of distress amongst the clergy and 
their families, not coming within any of the foregoing pro- 
yisions, from a special fund, which has, within the last few 
years, been vested in the corporation. This fund includes 
the extensive benefactions of Dr. Taylour, Mr. Myddelton, 
and Mrs. Ann Cam,^ " for poor clergymen with good charac- 
ters and large famflies." The election of recipients of the 
benefits of this fund takes place annually, soon after Easter. 
Blank petitions are issued at the Corporation House, 2, 
Bloomsbury-place, between the hours of 10 and 4. Donors 
of thirty guineas at one time to the Anniversary are consti- 
tuted governors of this Corporation. 

President, the Archbishop of Canterbury. — ^Treasurers : Sir 
Robert H. IngHs, Bart., M.P., W. T. Copeland, Eki., M.P., Alder- 
man, and J. W. Freshfield, Esq. — Registrar, C. J. Baker, Esq. 

The third charity is for the maintenance and instruction 
of the orphan children of clergymen, and will be found 
under Educational Charities, chapter xiv. It is termed the 
Incorporated Clergy Orphan Society, 

SOCIETY for the RELIEF of POOR PIOUS CLER- 
GYMEN of the Established Churchy residing in the Country, 
77, Cannon-street, City. Instituted 1778. The persons to be 
relieved by this society, are poor, pious, active clergymen in 
the establishment ; of unexceptionable character, residing 
in the country ; the tenor of whose preaching is, literally and 
faithfully, according to the Articles of the Church of England. 

Clergymen eligible to receive relief, if single, their income 
must not exceed, from every source, jG80 per annum in 
England, or ^£50 in Wales ; if married, £100 in England, or 
£io in Wales, and not more than jG7. 10s. for each child. 
The assistance afibrded depends on the committee. During 
the sixty-one years the society has existed, it has distributed 

^ Mrs. Ana Cam's bequest alone amounted to nearly j£30,000, the 
interest of which is devoted mainly to poor clergymen : and Dr. Taylour's 
and Mr. Middleton's amounted to as much more. Some portion of these 
▼aluable benefactions, and others, of Lady Grant's, Mrs. Sutton's, and 
Mr. Farmer's, have been granted by the Corporation to the assistance of 
the Clergy Orphan Charity. 



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LONDON CLERGY WIDOW CjUIltHte FUND, A.D. 1791 

3,016 grants, amounting in the whole to i>92,431 : the pre- 
sent amount distributed averages from £1,200 to £1,400 
annually ; and the income, about £1,600, of which £600 is 
derived from dividends, and the remainder from voluntary 
contributions. 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas at one payment, 
constitutes a member; two guineas annually, or twenty 
guineas at one payment, a governor for life. 

Treasurer, Samuel Tomkins, Esq., 76, Lombard-street. — Secre- 
tary, Rev. William Goode, 31, Charterhouse-square.-t-Assistant 
Secretary and Collector, Mr. J. C. Bowles, 77, Cannon-st. City. 

Soon after the establishment of the last mentioned, the fol- 
lowing was commenced, for the relief, more especially, of 
widows and children of clergymen within the Archdeaconries 
of London and Middlesex ;^ commonly known as 

TEE LONDON CLERG Y WIDO W FUND, Founded 
1791. Amongst the first donations appears one of £62. lOs. 
from Thomas Bonar, Esq. ; and in 1810, a more substantial 
benefaction confirmed its establishment, consisting of £200 
aryear, by will of A. M. Stafford. By its constitution, the 
Bishop of London is the president, and the ofi&cers and other 
members of Sion College its vice-presidents and directors. 

The committee meet at Sion College, on the third Thurs- 
day in March, at 12 o'clock, to deliver in an account of sub- 
scriptions, and to receive petitions ; and on the third Thurs- 
day in April, to distribute the collections. The objects of 
the charity are declared to be " the widows and children of 
incumbents, curates, lecturers, and licensed preachers." In 
cases of extreme necessity, relief is extended to the clergy 
themselves, at the discretion of the committee. No widow 
or child is considered eligible for relief if possessing a cer- 
tain income of £60 per annum, and no child between the 
ages of fourteen and forty-five, unless incapable of obtain- 
ing a livelihood, from mental or bodily infirmity. The 
amount of relief afforded appears to vary from £10 to £40 
each case, and the annual aggregate amount distributed, 
about £800. The income averages £1,000, of which one 
half is derived from dividends, and the other from voluntary 
contributions. 

1 Similar institations were contemporary in their foundation with this, 
or immediately preceded it, in the counties of Essex and Herts, for the 
benefit of such portions of those counties as are in the diocese of London. 



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BISHOP POBTEUS' SfUBfit ^HtfefeS* FUND, A.D. 1805 

Treasurer, the Rev. John Abbiss, M. A., 6, Northampton-square. 
— Secretary, the Rev. Henry Christmas, M.A., Sion College. 

An appeal has lately been made upon behalf of this cha- 
rity2 by a " lay committee," of which Lord Robert Grosvenor 
became chairman ; but it was not responded to sufficiently 
to enable them to increase the operations, and, consequently, 
the plans they had formed have been relinquished. The 
Honorary Secretary to this committee was S. G. Grady, Esq. 

BISHOP PORTEUS' ANNUAL DONATIONS TO 
POOR CLERGYMEN, Established 1805. Beilby Porteus, 
Lord Bishop of London in the year 1805, executed a deed, 
giving to the Archdeacons of the Diocese of London for the 
time being ;£6,700, three per cent, consols, the interest of 
which is to be distributed by them in the month of February 
in each year, amongst such of the clergy then resident in 
the Diocese of London, as they shall deem poor and of good 
character. The ordinary payment is limited to £\0, The 
fund now consists of £7,000 consols. The Lord Bishop of 
London is constituted the Visitor of the charity by the trust 
deed, which directs that an annual account of the distribu- 
tion shall be rendered by the Archdeacons to the Bishop of 
London. 

ASHTONS CHARITY ^or the Relief of Poor Clergy- 
men and Poor Cl€rgym£n^8 Widows, This trust consists of 
funds in Chancery, the bequeathed property of a lady named 
Ashton, and is for the benefit of thirty poor clergymen, and 
thirty poor clergymen's widows. A distribution is shortly 
expected, of about j£lO to each successful applicant. As 
such are contemplated from time to time, they will be adver- 
tised in the Tirnea newspaper, when all parties seeking relief 
must apply by petition, a form of which will be furnished on 
application, personally or by letter, to the Receiver. The 
lUceiver and Clerk to the Trustees is J. Sewell, Esq., 61, Old 
Broad-street. 

♦^^ Bromley College, for widows and daughters of clergy- 
men, see page 214. 

• " There are upwards of 500 clergymen in the diocese of London, 
whose average incomes do not exceed jflOO a year. Any provision fat 
their families, in case of their removal by death, is utterly impossible ; 
and the most distressing cases of widows and orphans of clergymen are 
annually brought before this society, to be but inadequately relieved, if 
at all, from lack of funds."— i?ar<rac/ /row Appeal 



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DISSENTING ministers' ClfaritaillB WIDOWS* FUND, A.D.I 733 

For Came'a Charityy for widows of clergymen, see Cord- 
wainers' Company, page 194. 

CLERGY FUND of the Church of England Life and 
Fire Assurance Institution, Lothbury. C)ffice established 1840. 
The fund is formed by the setting apart of one clear tenth 
of the profits of the office, and is applied to the relief of dis- 
tressed clergymen and the widows and orphans of clergymen ; 
also for granting aid to enable clergymen with limited in- 
comes to provide for their families by assuring their lives at 
reduced premiums. The directors determine once annually 
upon the amount, and proceed to the selection of as many 
applications for assistance from the fund, as the amount at 
their disposal for the year admits. The necessary forms for 
applicants may be obtained at the office, generally in the 
month of July, when information will be afforded of the time 
by which they must be sent in. 

Chairman, Major J. Oliphant. — Secretary, W. Emmens, Esq. 

SOCIETY for the RELIEF to the NECESSITOUS 
WIDOWS and CHILDREN of PROTESTANT DIS- 
SENTING MINISTERS, generaUy denominated the 
Widows' Fund, King's Head, Poultry ; instituted 1733 ; for 
the relief of the necessitous widows and children of Protes- 
tant Dissenting ministers, who, at their death, stood accepted 
and approved as such by the body of ministers of the deno- 
mination to which they respectively belonged, and died so 
poor as not to leave their widows and children a sufficient 
subsistence. Previous to their being relieved, the above 
must be attested to by one or more ministers, and the petition 
signed by a member of the institution. The present number 
of pensioners is two hundred and forty-six, receiving amounts 
varying from £9 to £12 per annum, amounting in the aggre- 
gate to £2,500 annually distributed in relief. The expenses 
are very small, nearly the full amount of income being thus 
disbursed ; it is derived chiefly from dividends, and between 
£300 and £400 from voluntary contributions. The com- 
mittee meet for considering petitions, etc., at the King's 
Head, Poultry, on the first Tuesday in every month, from 
October to May inclusive. Forms of petition may be had 
upon application to the Secretary, One guinea annually 
for two years, or ten guineas at one time, and from a minis- 
ter five guineas, constitutes a member, entitled to recom- 
mend objects deserving of assistance. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



255 

EVANG. FUND, 1793 ^BBHBflt ^UriBfo* PROTESTANT, 1798 

Treasurer, Stephen Olding, Esq., Clement 's-lane, Lombard-st. 
— Secretary, Mr. H. K. Smithers, 3, Brabant-court, Philpot-Iane. 

EVANGELICAL MA QAZINE FUND, for the widows 
of ministers, 27, Patemoster-row. Established 1793. The 
Evangelical Magazine was first established by a body of dis- 
senting ministers, and a few episcopal clergymen. From the 
first, its sale was large, so that the projectors of the work had 
considerable funds at their disposal. They resolved on de- 
voting the profits of the work to the relief of the widows of 
evangelical ministers, whether churchmen or dissenters. In 
this way, the trustees of the work have distributed upwards 
of j£30,0()0. The number of widows now receiving annual 
gratuities from its profits, is one hundred and fifty. The 
sum distributed amongst them about £1,250. 

Treasurer, H. F. Burder, D.D., Hackney. — ^Editor, John Mor- 
rison, D.D., Brompton. 

PROTESTANT UNION, for the benefit of the widows 
and children of Protestant ministers of all denominations, 7, 
Bloomfield-street. Instituted 1798. Originally combined 
a benevolent fund, with a legal provision for its members ; 
now, exclusively a benefit society, conducted on the prin- 
ciples of assurance.! The annuities may be secured, from 
jGIO to jG50, upon payment of proportionate premiums, ac- 
cording to age, etc. The board also arrange annuities to 
ministers, from congregational collections, etc. Attendance 
at the office every Tuesday morning, from eleven to one. 

Secretary, Rev. John Hunt, 14, Brixton-rise, Surrey. 

MINISTERS' FRIEND OR ASSOCIA TE FUND, 25, 
Manchester-terrace, Islington ; established 1 823 ; for assist- 
ing evangelical dissenting ministers, whose incomes are 
inadequate to their support. The ministers of the congre- 
gations to be assisted, must be of unexceptionable charac- 
ter, exercising their ministry in England, maintaining the 
sentiments of the Assembly's Catechism, both as to faith 
and practice, and whose total income, from every source, 

^ The above brief notice is inserted in consequence of its character 
often being mistaken for a charitable fund ; otherwise insurance offices 
come not within our limits. Of such, there are several formed, adapted 
to the clerical as well as other professions, as " The Clergy Mutual," " The 
Clerical," " The Church of England," &c. 



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BOYAL LITEBART C^KlitElllB FUND, A. D. 1790 

does not exceed the following limit : — Unmarried ministers, 
£50 per annum ; married ministers, having no children, ^C70 
per annnm ; not having less than two children dependent 
upon them for support, £90 per annum; not having less 
than four children under similar circumstances, JG1,200 per 
annum. 

The annual income averages about ;6l,200, derived from 
dividends to the extent of j£750, and the remainder from 
voluntary contributions and sacramental collections. With 
the exception of about £70 expenses, the whole amount is paid 
in grants for relief, varying from £5 to £25 each case. Sub- 
scribers of one guinea annually are members, or ten guineas 
at one time, life members. 

Treasurer, William Hunter, Esq. — Honbrary Secretaries, Rev. 
Thomas Lewis ; Rev. John Yockney. — Corresponding Secretary, 
Rev. Charles Gilbert, 25, Manchester- terrace, Islington. — Col- 
lector, Mr. John Bull, 3, Sydney-terrace, Kilbum. 

ROYAL LITERARY FUND, 73, Great Russell-street; 
instituted 1790;^ incorporated 1818; for affording assist- 
ance to authof s, of genius and learning, who may be reduced 
to distress by unavoidable calamities, or deprived by en- 
feebled faculties, or declining life, of the power of literary 
exertion. This assistance is renewed as often as the com- 
mittee consider necessary, and is extended at the death of 
an author to his widow and children. 

To entitle persons to come under the consideration of the 
general committee for relief, sufficient proof of their having 
written and published books, of a respectable character, must 
be produced, to the exclusion of those whose writings are con- 
trary to morals or religion, and whose personal character is 
not proved by satisfactory testimony to be beyond suspi- 
cion. The grants vary in amount, from £10 to ;£100, in 
proportion to the literary claim. The total nimiber of grants 
to the end of 1848 was 2,279 ; the amount thereof, ;£36,540. 
A donation of ten guineas and upwards, or subscription 
of one guinea annually, constitute a member of the corpo- 
ration. 

^ Particular details of the receipts and disbursements cannot be flir- 
nished, such matters being considered of a priyate nature ; and a pecu- 
liar sensitiveness is invariably observed in preserving secresy in every 
thing connected with the recipients of its bounty, and the amounts 
awarded in each case, &c. 



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artists' BENEVOLENT ^BMI^fit ^UTIBfeS, FUND, A.D. 1827 

— President, Marquis of Lansdowne. — Treasurers : John Griffin, 
Esq., 21, Bedford-place ; Sir Henry Ellis, British Museum ; 
William Tooke, Esq., 12, Russell-square. — Secretaiy, Octavian 
Blewitt, Esq. 

THE ARTISTS' BENEVOLENT FUND, 7, Blooms- 
bury-place. Instituted 1810. Incorporated 1827. Consists 
of two separate and distinct branches : the Artists' Annuity 
Fund, and the Artists' Benevolent Fund. The first is sup- 

gorted by the contributions of its members, for their own re- 
ef in sickness or superannuation. All artistsof merit in paint- 
ing, sculpture, architecture, and engraving, are digible to 
become members, the annual payments to which are regulated 
bv the age of the member, increasing a small sum every year. 
The present amount of funded property is j£l4,900, exclu- 
sively the property of the members themselves. The second 
is supported by the patrons of the Fine Arts, for the relief 
of the widows and orphans of the members of the Annuity 
Fund. And the whole is under the direction of the presi- 
dent, and ten subscribers to the Benevolent Fund, annually 
elected by the subscribers, and five members of the Annuity 
Fund, annually elected by its members. Every artist pro- 
posed as a member of the Annuity Fund, must be biJloted 
for, and approved by the committee of the Benevolent 
Fund, in order to entitle his widow and children to its 
benefits. The benefits of this fund are extended to about 
40 widows and 22 orphans, the former receiving £18, and 
the latter £6 annually. The income for this purpose is 
about £1,200 per annum, derived half from dividends, and 
the other half from present voluntary contributions. One 
guinea annual and upwards, or 10 guineas donation and up- 
wards, constitute a governor of the Benevolent Fund, entitled 
to vote at all elections, and eligible for the committee. 

President, Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bart. — Trustees, Sir 
Thomas Baring, Bart ; Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bart ; B. B. 
Cabbell, Esq.; C. E. Scott, Esq.—Treasurer, Sir C. E. Scott.*- 
Secretary, A. A. Thistleton, Esq., 7, Bloomsbury-place. — 
Bankers, Sir C. Scott, Bart., and Co. — Collector, Mr. Charles 
"WoodfiJl, 11, Lorimer-road, Walworth. — President of {he An- 
nuity Fund, J. D. Harding, Esq. — Secretary, B. R. Green, Esq., 
62,(^iarlotte-street, Portland-place. — Bankers, Messrs. Coutts and 
Co. — Honorary Physician, Theophilus Thomson, M.D., Bedford- 
square. — Surgeons, J. C. Taunton, Esq., Hatfbn-garden ; 'James 
Part, Esq. — Medical Inspector (a recent stipendary office), Mr. 
G. Cockbum Hyde, 5, Montpelier-square, Brompton. 

17 

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258 

artists' obnebal C^Hlitsbl^ bensyolent, aj>. 1814 

ARTISTS' GENERAL BENEVOLENT INSTITU- 
TIONy 45, Ghreat Coram-street. Instituted 1814. Incor- 
porated 1842. Differs from the last-mentioned excellent 
mstitution in the extent and general application of its 
benevolent benefits, the plaii of this being to extend relief 
to all distressed meritorious artists, whether subscribers to its 
fund or not, " whose works are known and esteemed by the 
public"; as well as to their widows and orphans, merit and 
distress constituting the claims to its benevolence. 

One guinea annual, or 5 guineas donation, constitutes a 
member, entitled to vote at all general meetings, eli^ble to 
be a director, and recommend annually two applicants for 
relief. Applications for relief must be addressed and trans- 
mitted to the Secretary, on or before the 1st of June, or the 
1st of December, and must be certified by two subscribers, 
one of whom shall state his knowledge of the case by letter. 

Upwards of ^C 12, 000 has been distributed since the esta- 
blishment of the institution in annual donations amongst 
300 cases of distress and need, in many instances bemg 
continued from year to year. The annual income is derived 
half from voluntary contributions and half from dividends, 
amounting together to about £1,000. The annual amount 
expended in relief is nearly £700 ; frinded property at 
present time under £13,000. 

Bankers, Messrs. Ransom and Co. — Treasurer, C. B. Cockerell, 
Esq., 29, Saville-row. — H(moraiy Secretary, William Nicol, Esq. 
— ^Assistant Secretary, Mr. W. J. Roper. — President, Sir Martm 
Archer Shee, President of the Royal Academy. — Collector, Mr. 
John Peter Wildsmith, 14, Alfred-street, Bedford-square. 

SOCIETY OF SCHOOLMASTERS, Queen's Arms 
Tavern, Newgate-street. Instituted 1710. For the purpose 
of alleviating the distress of its sick members, by an allow- 
ance of one guinea per week ; or to a member wno becomes 
entirely incapacitated from following his avocation, the 
sum of half-a-guinea per week permanently ; and at the 
decease of a member a sum of from £\6 Ui ;£60 to the 
family, varying according to the time he had been a member. 
Each member pays a quarterly contribution of half-a-guinea. 
The qualifications for admission are — ^that each person pro- 
posed, be a member of some denomination of Protestant 
Christians, and the master of a school, or private teacher, 
having acted on his own account for at least twelve months 



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269 

schoolmasters' ^BjHBfit ^nrfjfeS. PFNDS,1710<fel798 

immediately preceding the time of being proposed, and 
under the age of forty-five years. The quarterly meetings 
are held at the Queen's Anns Tavern, Newgate-street, on 
the second Friday in January, April, July, and October, at 
7 p.m. There is no published account of this fund, it par- 
taking more of the character of a private benefit fund. The 
amount of funded property is about £1,300. 

Stewaords for 1850 : T. Collins, Free School, Primrose^treet, 
Bishopsgate; J. A. Dotchen, 13, Crescent-pl. Momington-crescent. 

SOCIETY OF SCHOOLMASTERS, 73, Great Russell- 
street. Instituted 1798. For the relief of distressed school- 
masters and ushers, their widows and orphans. Benefactors 
of 5 guineas at one payment, or one guinea annually, are 
members ; of 20 guineas in one sum, or 3 guineas annually, 
are entitled to act as members of the committee. The 
committee meet, by permission of the committee of the 
Royal Literary Fund, at 73, Great Russell-street, on the 
first Saturday of February, April, October, and December, 
at 2 o'clock. Schoolmasters, who have been subscribers, 
and their families, are regarded as having the first daim^ to 
consideration; aad no small portion of me society's income 
is expended in annual grants to widows, and in either ap- 
prenticing their orphans, or partially defraying the charges 
of their education. Forms of petition for relief may be ob- 
tained from the Secretary. 

^ The following interesting letter appears on the hooks of this institu- 
tion. Its associations present a remarkahle picture of the uncertaintj of 
hnmaii greatness, — ^the lights and shades even more strongly contrasted 
by past events : — 

** Twickenham, December 10, 1816. 

*^ The Duke of Orleans presents his compliments to Dr. Kellj, and is 
very sorry that his note remained so long unanswered. It was his inten- 
tion to have expressed sooner how much he was flattered by Dr. K.'s 
YBTj obliging intimation of the motives for which the Duke of Orleans 
ought to feel a particular interest for the schoolmasters. The Duke of 
Orleans has, in fact, more motives for being attached to that useful and 
respectable class of men than, he believes, Dr. Kellj can be aware of ; 
since it is not probable that he should know that, among the many vicis- 
situdes of fortune which fell to the lot of the Duke of Orleans, is to be 
found that of having been a schoolmaster. It is, however, a matter of 
fact, that, at a time of severe distress and persecution, the Duke of Orleans 
had the good luck of being admitted as a teacher in a collie, where he 
gave lessons regularly during the space of eight months. The Duke of 
Orleans hopes, therefore, that the society for the relief of distressed school- 
masters will permit him to tender his mite as a fellow schoolmaster." 

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260 

GOYEENKSSES' C^HntHlllB INSTITUTION, A.D. 1843 

President, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. — Treasurer, Rev. 
Dr. Russell, Devonshire-square, Bishopsgate. — Secretary, Octa- 
vian Blewitt, Esq., 73, Great Russell-street. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Child and Co., Temple-bar. 

GOVERNESSES' BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION, 

32, Sackville-street. Established 1843. Incorporated 1847. 
Consists of four distinct establishments, where its objects 
are carried out much as developed in the following sum- 
mary of present operations : — 

1. The General Office, 32, Sackville-street, where every 
information will be afforded from 12 till 5. This office 
effects for governesses, free of every expense — 

Provident Annuities upon (Government Securities, accord- 
ing to Act of Parliament, and on a scale of either annual 
payments, or amounts in one sum to come due at any age. 
The amounts already invested for ladies reach £50,0CM). 

Temporary relief is administered privately by a ladies' 
committee. The amount thus disbursed is from ^700 to 
£800 annually. 

The Elective Annuities are secured on a large amount of 
funded donations, independent of the prosperity of the 
institution. The elections are held in May and November, 
the number to be elected depending on the vacancies that 
occur. Some few are filled up by the nominations of the 
benevolent founding the annuity .i One annuity lately 
formed is supported wholly by collections of one shilling 
subscriptions. Persons eligible for these annuities are go- 
vernesses only (not keepers of schools), above 60 years of 
age, and single or widows. 10«. M. annually, or 5 guineas 
donation, entitles to one vote at all elections. 

Savings' Bank Accounts may be effected by governesses 
through this office, with increased facilities for obtaining 
the withdrawal of amounts at any time. The institution 
thus affords the aid of a General Banker, whilst at the same 
time no deposits are in its own power. 

2. The Home, 66, Harley-street, where a system of regis- 
tration is effected, firee of all expense, and open to every 
goyemess, upon her forwarding a written application, ac- 

^ The present number of annuities is thirty-two, most of which have 
been founded by individual benefactions. It is a lamentable fact, that, at 
a recent election of three annuitants, for £\6 per annum each, there 
were no less than eighty-four candidates ! 



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261 

aOYBBNESSBS' 5BBllBfit ^MtUtt HOMES, A.D. 1842-3 

companied by two sealed letters of testimonial from respon- 
sible persons. The necessary particulars to be entered in 
the register by the lady herself or friend acting for her. 
Governesses desiring to be inmates must apply in like 
manner " to the Ladies' Committee," (who meet every Tues- 
day at half-past two). The charge for board and lodging is 
15^. a-week, and admission granted for one month, and, if 
necessary, extended to three months. 

3. The A&ylumfor Aged Governesses, Prince of Wales'- 
road, Haverstock Hill. The provision for the inmates in- 
cludes everything but dress, and persons eligible are such 
as are so for the "Elective Annuities", and subject to same 
regulations, but must be above 60 years of age. Any of the 
present annuitants above that age have the option of resign- 
ing and entering the Asylum. 

4. The College, termed Queen's College (vide chapter xv). 
The inmates of the Home have access to the lectures, and 
other benefits. 

Judging from last year's cash statement, the income of 
the whole establishment would appear to amount in total 
to above £10,000 — viz. £8,826 from voluntary contributions, 
£815 from the Home and other payments, and £426 from 
dividends; but this includes many special sums, as likewise 
in the total amount of £8,123 for disbursements there are 
several items of more than ordinary expenditure; upon 
the whole the institution is well supported, and is in a satis- 
factory and promising position. One guinea annual, or 10 
guineas donation, constitutes a member of the institution ; 
every 10^. 6d. annual, or 5 guineas donation, entitles to one 
vote at elections for Annuitants, and inmates of Asylum. 

President, Earl of Harrowby. — ^Treasurer, Benjamin Bond Cab- 
bell, Esq., M.P. — ^Honorary Secretary, Rev. David Laing, M.A., 
62, Momington-road, Regent's-park. — Honorary Surgeon, Henry 
Hewlett, Esq. — Honorary Surgeons for the Aged Asylum, Jose^ 
Baly, Esq. ; George Bermingham, Esq. —Honorary Solicitor, P. 
Patey Chappell, Esq. — ^Bankers, Sir C. Scott and Co.; Messrs. 
Strahan and Co. — Secretary, Mr. Charles William Klugh, 32, 
Sackville-street. — Secretary to the Provident Fund, Mr. Parker. 
— Collector, Mr. Peter Mattam, 67, Harley- street. 

THU TEMPORARY RESIDENCE for GOVER- 
NESSES, 19a, Osnaburgh-street,^ Regents-park, insti- 

1 For some years in Swinton-street, Gray's Inn-road. 

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INDUSTRIAL HOMB FOB Ji/nHntElllB GENTLEWOMEN, A.D.I 849 

tuted 1842, offers, upon moderate terms, a comfortable 
Christian home. It is a similar institution to the Gover- 
nesses' Home, in Harley-street, but upon a smaller scale ; 
everj facility is afforded for obtaining situations, and the 
inmates receive the same treatment as if in a private 
family. The terms for residence and board, are Ss. 6d,y or 
10«. 6d, per week, or with a separate bedroom 128, 6d, These 
charges are insufficient to render the institution a self- 
supporting one ; therefore each boarder, on such terms, must 
be recommended by a new subscriber of £1 Is. Testimonials 
of respectability are also required on entering, one of which 
must be from the last fainily in which the governess re- 
sided. Annual income about £350, more than half depend- 
ing upon voluntary contributions, which at present are 
insufficient to cover the necessary expenditure. 

Honorary Secretary, Mrs. H. BuU. — ^Treasurer and Honoraiy 
Superintendent, Miss Welch. — ^Honorary Physioian, Dr. Pidduck. 
— Surgeons, Messrs. Eyre and Weston. — Bankers, Messrs. Ran- 
som and Co. 

INDUSTRIAL HOME for INDIGENT GENTLE- 
WOMEN, 6, Harper-street, Queen-square, Bloomsbury; 
established 1849 ; for providing a home, employment, and 
support for widows and daughters of gentlemen, professional 
men, and merchants, suffering under the reverses of fortune, 
and either incapable of tuition or unable to procure engage- 
ments. The nnancud management of the institution is 
vested in a gentlemen's committee, ^nd the management of 
the home devolves upon a ladies' committee. The home, 
furnished from the funds of the society, is a spacious and 
commodious house, capable of accommodating thirty-six 
ladies ; this, it is contemplated, will ultimately be, as 
nearly as possible, self-supporting, by means of employment 
given to tne inmates, for which payment must be made to 
the lady superintendent of the institution upon delivery, 
and by her to the ladies employed, deducting the average 
weekly expense of each individual. Candidates for admis« 
sion must be either widows or single, and have two respon- 
sible referees, who will certify her recent position in society 
— her moral character, and necessitous circumstances, <fec. 
Donors and subscribers have the privilege of recommending 
candidates. The power of selection w3l be vested in the 
ladies' committee, who will meet weekly to supervise the 
arrangements of th% Homey and examine the applications of 



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263 

CHOBAL, A.D. 1791 ^BBUBfit ^HrfefeS, MUSICIANS, A.D. 1738 

fresh candidates. The charge for each lady^s board and 
lodging is Is, 6d. per week ; in special instances relief of 
cases of extreme distress is dispensed by the ladies' com- 
mittee. Forms of application, terms, and all particulars 
supplied by the Secretary, Miss Smith, at the Home. 

Treasurer, Hon. Arthur Kinnatrd. — Sub-Treasurer, the Rev. 
Michael W. Luaignan, M.A., AllhaUows, Ci^. — Honorary Phy- 
sicians, Dr. Aldis : Dr. Joseph Williams. — Honorary Secretary, 
Jonathan Jones, Esq., 35, Great Coram-street. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Kansom and Co. 

CHORAL FUND, 38, Dean-street, Soho ; established 
1791 ; for two essential purposes : first, to unite the choral 
performers in and near London as one society, for profes- 
sional purposes ; and secondly, that by contributing to a 
common fund, aided by the proceeds of an annual concert, 
and the subscriptions and donations of the lovers of the 
sublime works of Handel, Mozart, etc., some provision might 
be made against the sickness and decay of its members, as 
well as insure to their widows and orphans assistance in 
distress. Any musician, instrumental or vocal, who is pro- 
perly qualified, ma^ become a member, upon being proposed 
at one of the monthly meetings. An account of payments 
to widows, orphans, and pensioners, may be seen upon ap- 
plication to the secretary. One guinea annually, or a dona- 
tion of ten guineas at one time, entitles the subscriber to 
tickets for the annual concert, to the full amount of sub- 
scription. The finances are represented as in a satisfactory 
condition, and the funded property as increasing. 

President, Duke of Manchester. — Treasurer, Mr. Southgate. 
— Physicians, Drs. Golding and Roberts. — Surgeon, James 
Yeardey, Esq. — Secretary and Collector, Mr. Charles Tett, 38, 
Dean-street, Soho. 

RO TAL SOCIETY of MUSICIANS of^ ORE A T BRI- 
TAIN, 12, Lisle-street, Leicester-square : instituted 1738, 
incorporated 1790 ; for the support of decayed musicians 
and their families. Ten guineas donation, or one guinea 
annual, constitutes a subscriber entitled to two tickets ; one 
for the rehearsal, and one for the concert, given for the 
benefit of the charity, at the Hanover-square ftooms. 

Bankers, Messrs. Drummond. — Honorary Solicitors, Messrs. 
Burgoyne and Thrupp, 160, Oxford-street. — Secretary, Mr. Wood, 
12, Lisle-street. — Collector, Mr. J. Watts, 24, London-street, 
Fitzroy-square, 

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264 

PEMALBMUSIOIANSjlSSO. (CjfKritKilte AEMT MEDICAL, 1820 

The ROYAL SOCIETY of FEMALE MUSICIANS, 
Hanover-square Rooms ; established 1839 ; for affording, 
by means of contributions from members, as well as honorary 
subscribers, such occasional or annual relief as shall be • 
found compatible with the means in its power, to those 
female musicians, being members, whom misfortune or ill 
health may have reduced to a state of indigence. An hono- 
rary subscriber of one guinea annually, or ten guineas at 
one payment, is entitled to two tickets of admission, or one 
for a reserved seat, for every benefit concert given by the 
society. 

Patron, the Queen. — Honorary Treasurer, Miss Masson. — 
Bankers^ Sir Claude Scott, Bart., and Co. — Secretary, Mr. J. W. 
Holland, 13, Macclesfield-street, Soho. 

ARMY MEDICAL OFFICERS BENEVOLENT SO- 
(77^2^7,1 13, St. James's-place. Instituted 1820. Associated 
with a view of affording relief to those orphans of commis- 
sioned officers of the medical department of the army, who 
may be left under circumstances of peculiar distress ; or, 
who may be enabled, by a small addition of income, at a 
certain period of their lives, to procure \ better education 
than their limited means would otherwise admit ; or who 
may require some assistance on their first establishment in 
life. Orphan children of officers -vdiose mothers are still 
living, will be admitted to participate in the benefits of the 
fund, provided the mother's income be inadequate to their 
education ; but orphans who have lost both parents, will, if 
otherwise destitute, be considered to have a claim superior 
to those whose mothers are still living. Where there is an 
equality of claim, the preference is shown to those orphans 
whose fathers contributed to the fund. The nature of the 
claims which may be made being very indefinite, the reli^ 
afforded by the fund is not limited by any specification of 
age, or otherwise ; but the objects of its bounty are selected 
from among those whose claims are the strongest. 

President, Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke, Bart. — ^Vice-President, 
Sir James M'Gregor, Bart., Director-General. — Inspectors- 
General, John Warren, Esq.; Sir James Fellowes. — Trustees^ 
George James Guthrie, Esq., F.R.S., Deputy Inspector-General; 

^ The Army Medical Friendly Society, instituted 1816, conducted at 
this same office, is merely an insurance department, conducted on the 
usual mutual benefit system. 



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266 

WAVAL FUNDS, ^imU ^mtHti. A.D. 1823 <fe 38 

Dr. Greorge Gregory ; Dr. A. Stewart, Deputy Inspector-C^eraJ, 
-—Treasurer, C. R. M'Grigor, Esq., 17, Charlefl-street, St. 
James's. — Secretary, G. S. Ciaxke, Esq., 13, St. James's-place. 

EOYAL NA VT ANNUITANT SOCIETY, Devonport. 
London Branch Office, 3, Clifford's Inn. Established 1823. 
For the benefit of members, consisting of flag-officers, cap- 
tains, commanders, lieutenants, masters, secretaries to the 
same, inspectors of fleets and hospitals, chaplains, surgeons, 

Eursers, naval instructors, mates, second masters, clerks who 
ave passed, etc., and marine officers ; also the wives of any 
such, whose husbands, from age or infirmity, cannot be ad- 
mitted. 

Tables of subscription, rules, etc., may be obtained at the 
Office, as above. Secretary, Purser Francis Lean. 

TEE EOYAL NAVY BENEVOLENT SOCIETY,^ 
18, Adam-street, Adelphi. Incorporated 1838. For affording 
relief to officers of the royal navy, and to their widows and 
fomilies, under circumstances of misfortune and consequent 
distress. Supported by voluntary subscriptions and dona- 
tions of naval officers, and others. The subscriptions of offi- 
cers, according to their respective ranks, to secure for them- 
selves, their widows and families, the benefit of this institution, 
axe as follows : — ^Admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admir&Ls, 
j£20 at one payment, or £3, 3s., £2. 2s., and £1, Is. annu- 
ally, according to rank ; captains, commanders, and physi- 
cians, JlO at one payment, or 10s. 6d. annually ; lieutenants, 
masters, surgeons, pursers, and chaplains, £6 at one pay- 
ment, or 5s. annually. 

The Court meet on the third Monday in January, April, 
July, and October, to investigate applications for rdief, 
which must be addressed to the secretary, on or prior to the 
25th March, June, September, and December. 

Patroness, her Majesty the Queen. — President, Bear- Admiral 
Lord Radstock. — Honorary Solicitor, W. Dickson, Esq., 4, Fre- 
derick's-place, Old Jewry. — Secretary, Commander W. H. Dick- 
son, Esq., R.N., Adam-street, Adelphi. 

MERCHANT SEAMEN S CORPORA TION, 26, Birch- 
in-lane. Was incorporated 1747, by an Act of 20th George 
II, cap. 38, intituled an " Act for the relief and support of 

^ This society was originally instituted in 1789, under the title of the 
** Royal Naval Amicable Society," and continued to 1888 under that of 
the ** Boyal Nayal Charitable Society." 

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MEBCHAItT seamen's ClfErftKilte CORPORATION, A.D. 1747 

maimed and disabled seamen, and the widows and children 
of such as shall be killed, slain, or drowned, in the merchant 
service", and amended according to its present constitution, 
by an act of 4 and 5 William IV, cap. 32. 

It is supported by deductions from the wages of seamen, 
and by donations. All masters and owners paying 2s., and 
seamen or other persons serving on board. Is. per month, 
which sums are collected by the owners, and remitted to the 
receivers of the several ports. Maimed seamen to be pro- 
vided for at the port where the accident happens. Disabled 
seamen, having paid five years, to be provided for where 
they have contributed most. 

By a clause in the same act, it is enacted, that if any person 
shall, bv one or more payments, give the sum of £50, such 
person shall be a governor. The annual election of committee 
and officers is appointed to take place within five days of 
Midsummer-day, notice of which is given in the London 
Gazette ten days previous to the meeting. The annual 
amount distributed in relief, according to kst year's state- 
ment, was J20,000, a sum apparently quite inadequate for 
providing, with any degree of comfort, or in proportion to 
the need of those who have been contributors on the faith 
of its being sufficient ; and yet a sum not defrayed by the 
receipts : last year, the amount from London vessels was 
;£10,000, and out-port vessels, J6,700 ; the remaining re- 
ceipts from a small amount of dividends and voluntary con- 
tributions falling far short of the deficiency. This virtual 
insolvency of the fund having met the best consideration of 
Government, it is hoped, that by a measure now before Par- 
liament,^ provision will be made for the merchant seaman 
in distress and old age, as effectual and permanent as that 
for the navy and marine. 

President, George Lyall, Esq. — Secretary and Receiver for the 
Port of London, Mr. Wm. Watson. — Surgeon, Mr. J. G. Sparke. 

^ The original amount paid by seamen was 6d. a month; and by cap- 
tains, Is. This proving insufficient, was raised, by Act of Parliament, to 
Is. and 2s. This also failing, and the fund at the present time being un- 
able to honour the claims upon it, to the extent they are justly liable, 
Mr. Labouchere proposes an annual grant of J03O^OOO from the Consoli- 
dated Fund, and having the amount of payments raised from Is. to Is. 6d. 
This will enable the Corporation to increase the present scale of pensions, 
and render the assistance granted more commensurate with what is re- 
quired. 



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267 

MAEITIMB, A.D.I 790. ^BjIUfit ^HriBfeS. MARINBR9',A.D.1835 

THE LONDON MARITIME INSTITUTION, for the 
benefit of decayed McLster Mariners and their Families. Is 
held at the office of the last mentioned Corporation, and was 
instituted in 1790. Its design is to afford relief to life-mem- 
bers, their widows, and children. It consists of honorary 
members and of members for life, who must be in the com- 
mand of a ship at the time of their admission ; not be above 
forty-five years of age ; be recommended by a member, and 
approved of by the committee. 

One guinea annually, or five guineas in one payment, con- 
stitute an honorary member. Life members must pay an 
admission fee of fifteen guineas, and one guinea annually. 
The Society's Almshouses are situated on "Sow Common. 

President, George Lindsay, Esq. — ^Treasurer, Robert Barclay, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. WilliMn Watson. 

MASTER MARINERS' BENEVOLENT SOCIETY, 
49, Qracechurch-street. Established 1836. For the purpose 
of relieving master mariners and their families in cases of 
shipwreck and death ; and is supported by the subscriptions 
of members and honorary members, the former only deriving 
benefit. The assistance granted is by awards of from ;filO 
to £60, according to discretion of directors, and averages in 
the aggregate from ;fil,700 to £2,000 per annum; distributed 
last year to various cases, in the following proportion ; £755 
amongst the families of those meeting death by casualties or 
natural causes ; £200, from loss of life at sea ; £650 amongst 
shipwrecked members ; and £114 to those sustaining losses. 
The expenses of management are most creditably moderate, 
being under £100 a-year. The amoimt of funded property 
is nearly £6,000, the dividends from which it is in contem- 
plation to devote in granting annuities. 

Members must be in actual command of a decked vessel, 
employed in the foreign or coasting trade, with their names 
on the ship's register at the time of election, and under fifty 
years of age. The entrance fee three guineas, and annual 
subscription, £1. 6s., increasing accordmg to age. The sub- 
scription of two guineas, at the least, at one time, or one 
guinea annual, constitutes an honorary member. 

Treasurer, George Scovell, Esq. — ^Chairman, Thomas Dare, Esq. 
— Secretary, Mr. (Jeorge J. Sharp, 49, Gracechurch-street. 



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268 

LAW ASSOCIATION, ClfEtttHllb A.I>. 1817 

United Service Benevolent Institution, lately held at 76a, 
Basinghall-street, is represented by the Secretary as having 
suspended its operations. Communications may still be ad- 
dressed to Henry Tommey, jun., Esq., Honorary Secretary, 
Gresham Booms, Basinghall-street. 

ROTAL NAVAL MEDICAL SUPPLEMENTAL 
FUND SOCIETY, 14, Great George-street, Westminster. 
Is connected with the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth. 
For granting an additional pension to the widows of medical 
officers in her Majesty's navy. 

President, John Parker, Esq. — ^Treasurers, Messrs. Hallett and 
Bolnnson, 14, Gbeat George-street, Westminster. — Secretary, 
John Whitmarsh, Esq. 

LA WASSOCIA TION Held at the office of Incorporated 
Law Society, Chancery-lane. Instituted 1817. Consists of 
attorneys and solicitors residing and practising in the me- 
tropolis, or within the bills of mortality, with tiie following 
objects ; — To grant relief to the widow and children, or other 
dependant relatives, of any member dying in distressed cir- 
cumstances, either by an annual payment, or, with a view 
to an establishment in business or employment, a sum of 
money in lieu thereof. To promote the interests of such, by 
patronage and recommendation. To allow assistance to any 
member who may be involved in pecuniary difficulties, in 
consequence of inability to conduct his business, or other 
involuntarv calamity. And, occasionally, to grant assistance 
to tiie families of professioiuJ men, not being members ; the 
amount devoted to which purpose being determined upon at 
a general court for a year ensuing, according to the state of 
the funds : last year the amount of this vote was £\60, The 
income of the society averages £1,300 per annum ; derived, 
half from dividends (stock now amounting to £20,000), and 
half &om subscriptions. The amount expended in relief, 
£1,100 per annum, and the expenses, £140. The whole 
appears excellently well managed ; and as a benefit fund, 
much may be learnt from it by those that consider them- 
selves by their constitution prevented from affording chari- 
table assistance to the distresses of non-members : this, 
although a limited, is a very gratifying feature. 

Two guineas per annum, or donation of twenty guineas at 
one time, constitutes a member. Applications for relief to 
be sent to the secretary, of whom proper forms may be had. 



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UNITED LAW CLBEKS' ^BjHjfit ^fltfefeS, ASSOC. A.D. 1832 

President, Lord Lyndhurst. — ^Treasurers, George Herbert Kin- 
derley, Esq. ; Augustus Warren, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. J. Murray, 
7, Whitehall. — Collector, Mr. Thomas Pemeller, 20, Hemingford- 
villas, Islington. 

UNITED LAW CLERKS' SOCIETY. 119, Chancery- 
lane. Established 1832, as a general benefit fund ; render- 
ing assistance, in sickness, to the extent of one guinea per 
week ; during inability to earn the means of subsistence 
through age or infirmity, from 10s. to 14s. a-week ; and on 
the death of a member or a member's wife, from J25 to £bO. 
Also a casual fund, to afford assistance, by loans and gifts, 
to law clerks, whether members or not, and their widows 
and families in temporary distress; to procure situations 
for law clerks generally, and to provide the profession with 
efficient and respectable clerks; and to form a library of 
useful legal works. Meetings of the committee, the first 
Monday in every month, at Freemasons' Tavern, Great 
Queen-street. 

In all its essential features this fund is similar to the last 
mentioned, and is supported by donations from the profes- 
sion and pavments of members, varying from 38. to 5s. 
a-month, and entrance, according to age. The amoimt ex- 
pended last year in assisting members, non-members, their 
wives and families, was £1,329. The present amount of 
funded property is nearly £12,000. 

Patron, the Lord Chancellor and Lord Lyndhurst. — ^Treasurer, 
Mr. J. C. Worman, 29, Felix-terrace, Islington. — Secretary, Mr. H. 
G. Rogers, 9, Liverpool-street, Walworth. — Collector and Re- 
gistrar of Situations, Mr. L. lAidman, 119, Chancery-lane. 

THE LAW WRITERS] PROVIDENT INSTITU- 
TIONf 14, Serle's-place, Lincoln's-inn, is represented as 
strictly of a private character, for the benefit of members 
only, and its support confined to them. Secretary, Mr. 
Thomas Peters, 14, Serle's-place, Lincoln's-inn. 

THE PROVIDENT CLERKS' BENEVOLENT AS- 
SOCIATION, ^^UooT^t^^tseQi. Established 1840. Con- 
sists of a benevolent fund attached to ^' The Mutual Benefit 
Association,"^ for granting pensions, and affording relief to 

^ Apart from the Beoevolent Fond, the association is merely an insur- 
ance office for securing a proyision iii old age, and at death ; endowment 
for children, &c. One-tUird of the net profits is devoted to the Benevo- 
lent Fund. Vide note ante, page 255. 



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270 

WIDOWS &i ORPHANS OF CbElitEbb MEDICAL MEN, A.D. 1788 

afflicted and distressed clerks, their wires and families. By 
effecting an assurance with the association, it entitles the 
assurer, without any further payment, to the advantages 
both of the benefit department and benevolent fund ; or a 
subscription of one guinea annually constitutes a member 
not assuring. Three clerks, and seven widows of clerks, are 
at' present annuitants, receiving each from £15 to £25 
annually. 

Chairman, Bichard Heniy Jones, Esq. — ^Treasurer, John Abel 
Smith, M.P. 

SOCIETY FOR RELIEF OF WIDOWS AND OR- 
PHANS OF MEDICAL MEN in London and Us Vici- 
nity, A^, Half-moon-street. Instituted 1788. For the benefit 
of the widows and orphans of members ordy} All physicians, 
surgeons, and apothecaries residing witmn seven miles of 
the Royal Exchange, and in any part of the county of Mid- 
dlesex, are eligible to be elected members of the society. 

Life subscribers pay twenty guineas ; annual subscribers 
two guineas as entrance money, and two guineas a-year for 
twenty years. 

Widows of members, without children, who have a less 
annual income than £50; widows who have children under 
fourteen years of age, and who have not £50 a-year for 
themselves, and J12 a-year also for each child, are, as well 
as their children, eligible to receive assistance : also orphans 
under fourteen years of age, who have not £25 a-year. 

Widows, at present, have an allowance of £35 a-year, 
children £ 1 2 a-year each, and orphans £25 a-year. Orphans 
above fourteen years of age also receive assistance, if through 
mental or bodily infirmity they are incapacitated to assist 
themselves. 

The funds are in a most prosperous condition, the amount 
invested being nearly J50,000, and the annual income con- 
tinuing to exceed the calls upon it. Last year the former 
amounted to £2,500 (£1,700 from dividends), and the latter 
only to £1,408, inclusive, it is but right to add, of the 
moderate amount for expenses of £141 . 

President, Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke, M.D., Bart. — ^Trea- 
surer, Dr. S. W. J. Merriman. — Trustees, Dr. Southey; Dr. 

^ The institution that used to afford assistance to the distressed of the 
profession generally, was the " Medical Benevolent Society", established 
in 1816, but now defunct. 



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271 

BOOKSBLLBBS' $Jlttfit ^ntfefeS. PaOVIDBirT,A.D.1837 

Turner ; A. Stone, Esq.— Secretaiy, Charies R. Walsh, Esq., 48, 
Half Moon-street. — Collector, Mr. Joseph White^ 68, Lamb's 
Conduit-street. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Vere and Co. 

BOOKSELLERS' PROVIDENT INSTITUTION^ 
60, Paternoster-row. Established 1837. A fund for the 
benefit of members only, and their widows and children, 
when in necessitous circumstances. 

A person eligible to be a member must be under fifty 
years of age, have kept a shop or warehouse for twelve 
months, or been assistant two years immediately preceding 
application for membership, one year in the same employ; 
he must be proposed by two members ; sign a form of decla- 
ration as to age, state of health, <S;c.; and be balloted for: 
and when so qualified and approved, a subscription of two 
guineas annually, or twenty guineas at one time, constitutes 
him member. If above thirty years of age at the time of 
admission, he wiU have to pay a fine to the institution, 
according to age. 

No member is eligible for permanent relief until he has 
attained the age of fefty-five years, the assistance in no case 
to exceed £60 a-year. No member is eligible to ^receive 
temporary relief until he has been a member three years, 
and such assistance must not exceed 30s. per week. 

The meetings of the committee are held at 60, Paternoster- 
row, on the third Thursday in each month, at seven o'clock. 

The funds are in a very prosperous condition, the amount 
of funded property, now nearly £20,000, being annually 
added to, as the dividends and annual contributions fie 
exceed the amount disbursed. The disbursements for manage- 
ment expenses likewise, are less, perhaps, than any other 
kindred institution : last year under £10, 

The Booksellers' Provident Retreat, was commenced 1843 ; 
for affording a comfortable habitation for such aged reci- 
pients of annuities from the institution as require such a 
residence : the Retreat forms an elegant structure, of the 
Elizabethan style, situated close to the King's Langley 
Station, on the Birmingham BaUway, upon ground presented 
to the committee by John Dickinson, Esq., and in every 
respect stands a fit model for such buildings. The archi- 
tect was Mr. W. H. Cooper. There is commodious accom- 
modation for seven inmates, and capable of considerable 
extension, when found requisite. The first stone was laid 



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272 

BOOKSELLBBS'PBOYIDENT CtfETltEtlb BETBEAT, A.D. 1843 

in September 1846, and the building opened in July 1846. 
The prosperity of the " retreat" is fostered by the directors 
of the parent fund, to which it is a valuable accession, but 
the management is quite distinct, and under another com- 
mittee. 

President, James Nisbet, Esq. — Treasurer, Thomas Brown, 
Esq. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Co. — Hon. Secretary, 
W. Meyrick, Esq., 16, Parliament-street. — Honorary Medici 
Officers : Dr. Darling, Russell-square ; A. M. M'Whinnie, Esq., 
5, Crescent, Bridge-street; Dr. A. P. Stewart, 74, Grosvenor- 
street. 

Chairman of the B«treat Committee, Edmund Hodgson, Esq. 
Honorary Secretary to the B>etreat, Mr. S. Ives. 

It would appear very desirable that Funds of this nature, 
especially instancing the two last mentioned (the Medical 
and the Booksellers*^ as of a high character and propor- 
tionate finances, should be rendered a little more serviceable 
to the distressed at large, of their various trades and pro- 
fessions respectively ; that a discretionary power should be 
held by the committees to afford relief, if only of a secondary 
or temporary kind, in special cases of need and desert, 
amongst those, who, from improvidence, or, it may be, from 
inabiUty throughout, have never become members of the 
Fund. Often is it, that the very prerequisites to mem- 
bership preclude those from loining who otherwise would 
wish to have done so ; and these restrictions are without 
doubt, well ; but surely such should not be entirely debarred 
from benefit of the relief when distress comes upon them. 
Charity certainly forbids it, if not justice ; for the great dif- 
ference between no rdief—asid £50 a-year for lifcy is more 
than is warranted by the claim of a mere contribution of two 
guineas annually. The worst effect that can result from 
such a measure of liberality is a slight decrease in the 
amount awarded to members ; as, after all, it is not much 
we are stipulating for, — ^not so much the amount as it is the 
spirit : £200 per annum, or less, would go far in relieving 
such cases as might be selected. The Law Association sets 
the example in this respect ; and many other funds, it will 
be seen, go farther still, and make aeneral rdief a funda- 
mental purpose.^ In fact, to oppose all admixture of charity 
in the distribution of such funds, can only be attributed to 
an 02;«r-provident feeling, amounting almost to selfishness. 
^ Vide Pawnbrokers* Charitable Fund, and others. 



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?73 

VIRTUOSI, A.D. 1842 5B Jttjfit ^niiBtiBB. stationers', A.D. 1840 

The remaining Provident and Professional Benefit Funds 
on our list, are so numerous, that we are reluctantly obliged 
in many cases to abridge the notice ; a matter, however, to 
be the less regretted, inasmuch as the details of their ma- 
nagement have been developed in others more fully de- 
scribed : and it seems preferable to exhibit as perfect a 
summary of all the funds that can be ascertained, than to 
occupy space with unnecessary repetitions of particulars. 

VIRTUOSI PROVIDENT FUND, and Dealers in the 
Fine Art£ Benevolent Institution^ 12, Great Newport-street. 
Established 1842. For the assistance of members, their 
widows and children. Consisting of masters in the above 
trade, who shall have kept shop, showroom, or gallery, prin- 
cipally for the sale of works of art, for three years ; assist- 
ants of six years standing. The immediate purpose is to 
raise the present fund of £700, to £1,000; before which, 
no relief can be granted. The subscription consists of one 
guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation. 

Treasurer, W. Smith, Esq. — HonoraiT Secretary, Mr. R. C. 
Lambe, Gracechurch-street. — ^Assistant Secretary, Mr. H. Bodd, 
Great Newport-street. — Bankers, London and Westminster Bank. 
— Collector, Mr. Dimcan Rymer, Princes-street, Soho. 

STATIONERS' and PAPER MANUFACTURERS' 
Provident Society y Gerard's Hall, Basing-lane. Established 
1840. For the assistance of members only, being stationers, 
stationers' assistants, paper manufacturers, their clerks, fore- 
men, and such others connected with the stationery trade as 
the committee think proper, and their widows and orphans, 
when in necessitous circumstances. 

Two guineas annually, or 20 guineas at one time, from 
such persons under twenty-five, constitutes a member, and 
above that age, on payment of an entrance fee. In their 
last report, the committee congratulate the members upon 
the completion of the funded amount they have been aiming 
at, viz., j&10,000. The assistance granted will now consist of 
pensions not exceeding twenty-five guineas per annum to 
applicants above sixty, and of twenty shillings a-week to 
those requiring casual relief. 

President, John Dickinson, Esq. — Treasurer, Alderman Sir 
William Magnay, Bart. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. Charles Gardi- 
ner, 10, Old Jewry-chambers — Collector, Mr. W. J. C. Bowles, 
77, Cannon-street, City. 

18 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



274 

BOOKBINDERS* CJFgritato SUJ l^WW^tVA AND PBnTTEBS'. 

BOOKBINDERS* Pension Society, Mechanics' Institute, 
22, Southampton Buildings. Established 1830. For the 
benefit of members only, reduced to indigence by old age 
or infirmity, or their widows. The present number of pen- 
sioners is nineteen, receiving conjointly the sum of j£320 
annually. Five shillings per annum constitutes a member, 
entitled to one vote for every such amount. 

Bookbinders^ Provident Asylum Society, Established 183^. 
Is under the management of the same committee and officers 
as the Pension Society. Candidates, to be elected inmates of 
the asylum, must have worked at the business ten years, and 
have subscribed to the funds one pound, and be in the weekly 
receipt of from two shillings and sixpence to fifteen shillings. 
Subscribers have one vote at elections for every five shillings. 

President the Duke of Bedford. — Bankers^ Messrs. Williams, 
Deacon, and Co. — Treasurer, James Smith, Jim., Esq. — Secre- 
tary and Collector, Mr. James England. 

VELLVM BINDERS' and MACHINE RULERS 
Pension Society, Established 1842. Is likewise held at the 
Mechanics' Institution. For the benefit of members who 
may be rendered incapable of following their employment, 
from old age or other bodily infirmity, and their widows. 
At present, the whole amount of fimds is under ^1,000. 
The relief afforded is limited to one pensioner, at £18 per 
annum. Five shillings annually constitutes a member ; two 
guineas at one time a life member, who have one vote for 
every such subscription. 

Treasurer, John Smith, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. E. Tarranton, 
16, New Compton-street, Soho. — Collector, Mr. W. J. Gilbert, 
6, Gbeat Smith-street, Westmmster. 

PRINTERS' Pension Society, London Tavern, Bishops- 
gate Street. Established 1827. The object of this Society 
is to relieve aged and infirm workmen in the several 
branches of the printing business,^ and their widows, by 
granting a pension of £14 per annum to the men, and j£9 
per annum to the women. 

^ A meeting of compoeitors connected with the morning paper press 

generally, has recently been held, for the purpose of considering ^* pro< 

posals for the establishment of a Typographical Widow and Orphan 

Fund," Mr. Hartnell in the chair; and a provisional committee appointed 

. for the purpose of carrying out the objects. 

The Newspaper Press Benevolent Fund is now broken up. 



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275 

printers' AITD ^BWIBfit ^nrfefeS, NEWSVBimORS'. 

The annual subscription is 58, which entitles the subscriber 
to one vote at all elections, and an extra vote for every 5s, 
The payment of 2 guineas at one time constitutes a life sub- 
scriber wil^ one vote, and every 5 guineas entitles to three 
votes. 

Printers' AlmshouseSy Woodgreen, Tottenham^ Middlesex, 
nearly adjoining the Fishmongers' and Poulterers' Insti- 
tution. First stone laid by Lord Mahon, June 1849. Esta- 
blished chiefly by the journeymen, aided by the master 
printers ; the main front (at present all contnicted for) has 
just been opened, and is for the reception of twelve inmates 
and their wives ; the proposed age for admission is 60 years, 
but an alteration is contemplated. 

Subscribers have one vote for each annual contribution of 
5«.; the immediate object of the committee is to obtain an 
endowment fund, and for this they are now appealing. The 
whole amount of the building fiind collected (in 7 years) to 
the present time is £2000, half of which remains for build- 
ing expenses. 

Treasurer, Richard Taylor^ Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Kogers, 
Olding, and Co. — Secretary, Mr. J. S. Hodson, 2, ClifEbrd's-inn- 
passage. Fleet-street. 

Separate Officers for the Almshouses are: Bankers, Messrs. 
Praed and Co., Fleet-street. — Secretary, Mr. J. Parkin, 2, 
Cloudesley-street, Islington. 

NEWSVENDERS* Benevolent and Provident Institu- 
tion, 7, St. John's Square. Established 1839, for granting 
temporary relief and permanent assistance of masters and 
servants engaged as venders of newspapers, who, from age, 
infirmity, or distress, may require the aid of the benevolent. 
Candidates for permanent relief must be above fifty years of 
age, have subscribed for five years to the fund, and not be 
in receipt of 16s. a week. Temporary relief, it is gratify- 
ing to see, will be afibrded, when the funds will permit, 
to non-subscribers, provided they have been in the business 
ten years. The present amount of funds does not exceed 
;£1000, and the annual income is under jClOO. 

Three guineas at one time, or 58, annually, constitutes a 
member, with the privilege of one vote for every such sub- 
scription. 

President, James Harmer, Esq. — Treasurer, Mr. Thomas Mer- 



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276 

THEATBiCAL Cjlgntgto ul l^XWS^VJ FTrgps,! 765-1839 

rett, 7, St. John's-square. — Bankers, Messrs. Gosling and Co. — 
Secretary, Mr. E. W. Cole, 41, Deverell-street, New Kent-road. 

CO VENT GARDEN THE A TRIGAL FUND, 2, Princes 
Place, Covent Garden Theatre. Instituted 1765. Con- 
firmed by Parliament 1776. For the support of such per-r 
formers only of the Theatre Royal Covent Glarden, as are 
members of the fund, and who, through age, infirmity, or acci- 
dent, are obliged to retire from the stage ; also the widows 
and children of such. Performers cannot become members 
until they hare passed a certain number of years at the 
theatre. The amount of members' payment was originally 
fixed in proportion to the salary received ; but now it i& 
understood to have " no reference to their position in Covent 
Garden"; the number of members and extent of charity 
generally appears very limited, and, at the present time, 
partakes more of a private provident fund. The cash state- 
ment is not published. 

Honorary Physician, John Forbes, M.D. — Honorary Solicitor, 
W. D. Haverfield, Esq. — Treasurer, G. Bartley, Esq.— Secretary, 
Mr. Drinkwater Meadows, Michael's Grove^ Brompton. 

DRURYLANE THEATRICAL FUND, Office, Stag^ 
Door, Drury-lane Theatre. Founded 1776. IncorporatSi 
1777. Established by the late Pavid Garrick, is for the re- 
lief and support of such aged and decayed persons belonging 
to Her Majesty's Company of Comedians in the Theatre 
Royal, Drury-lane, as are members of the fund, their widows 
and children. It is managed by a master and directors. 

President, the Duke of Cambridge. — Master and Treasurer, Mr. 
J. P. Harley. — ^Directors, Messrs. C. Kean, J. P. Harley, and others. 
— Bankers, Messrs. Hoare, Fleet-st. — Secretary, Mr. W. Bennett. 

THE GENERAL THEATRICAL FUND AsaociaUon, 
English Opera House. Established 1839. For the relief 
of its members in sickness and old age, their widows, 
orphans, or nominees. Persons eligible for membership 
must have practised for five years in one or more of the 
theatres in the list of the society, the art of dancing, sing- 
ing, or acting. The subscriptions are of three classes, vary- 
ing in amount according to age ; the relief and pensions 
granted depend on the class the pensioner subscribed to. No 
relief is granted until such person has belonged to the 
society seven years, funeral expenses, and return of half 
payments to npminees, widows, and orphans alone excepted. 



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277 

DANOEBS', A.D. 1842. ^BEtfit ^OTfefeS. ORGAN BUILDBBS'. 

Donors of £10^ and subscriben of £1, ore considered 
honorary members. The amount of funded property is 
about £5,000, and annual income £750, derived from divi- 
dends, members' payments, and about £170 from voluntary 
contributions. 

Trustees: Charles Dickens, Esq.; B. B. Cabbell, Esq.— Trea- 
surer, J. B. Buckstone, Esq. — Honorary Physician, Dr. Roberts, 
Bridge-street, Blackfriars. — Secretary, Mr. W. Gullenford. 

DANCERS' Provident Society, 96, St. Martin's-lane. 
Established 1843. For the benefit of its own members only, 
who must have practised either as public dancers or private 
teachersforthe term of seven years, and bomeagood character. 

Such members to pay stated admission fee, according to 
age, and an annual amount of as many shillings as they are 
years old at the time of election. The relief afforded to be 
in accordance with circumstances of the member requiring, 
and state of the funds. The permanent pension to average 
£25. The secretary and all office expenses met bv an annual 
extra amount of 6s. from each member. One gumea annual 
constitutes an honorary member. 

President, Sir Charles Shakerley. — Chairman of Committee, 
Mr. James Bym.-^Treasurer, William Delferier, Esq. — Secretary, 
Mr. Law. 

ORGAN BUILDERS' Benevolent Institution,' Lisson- 
grove, South. Established 1842. For the relief of the dis- 
tress of poor, aged, and infirm persons, of good character, 
who have been occupied in any of the branches of organ 
building, during a continued period of not less than two 
years, and likewise to afford relief to their widows, with an 
increased benefit to such as may have been members. 

Ten guineas at one time, or one guinea annually, consti- 
tutes a vice-president, with four votes at all elections ; half 
that amount, a governor, with two votes ; and a fourth, a 
subscriber, with one vote. 

Applicants for the pension must be above fifty-five years 
of age, have subscribed to the funds for at least five years, 
and not in the receipt of 12s. per week ; or in case of 
widows, 8s. ; the former to receive £15, the latter £12, per 
annum, with an additional 12s. 6d. per annum for each pay- 
ment of 5s., being made double, treble, etc. for every period 
of five years that such payment has been made. 

Patron, Earl of Cawdor. — President, J. C. Bishop, Esq., Lisson 



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278 • 

VATCH MAKKB8*, C^aritflMl JiA ^nmfittflt QOLDSMITHS*,<fec. 

Grove South. — ^Treasurer and Secretary, Mr. Edmond Woods, 94, 
Liliington-street, Belgrave-road. 

WATCH and CLOCK-MAKERS* Benevolent Institvr 
tionj 5y Green-terrace, Olerkenwell. Established 1815. For 
the relief of aged workmen, unable to support themselves, 
by an annual pension of ten guineas, and their widows by 
a pension of six guineas. No one caji be admitted a candi- 
date under the age of sixty years, cases of total incapacity 
only excepted. 

Every person who subscribes one guinea aryear is a go- 
vernor, and a donation of ten guineas constitutes a governor 
for life. 

Treasurer, William Cozens, Esq., 10, Bunhill-row. — Honorary 
Secretary, Mr. William Webb, 5, Green-terrace, Olerkenwell. 

GOLDSMITHS' Benevolent Institution, 27, Hatton- 
garden. Established 1833. For the relief of the distress of 
poor, aged, or infirm persons, of good character, occupied in 
any of the branches of the goldsmiths' or jewellery business, 
during a continued period of not less than seven years, 
whether members of the fund or not, and their widows. 

Ten guineas at one payment, or one guinea annually, con- 
stitutes a governor, who has four votes, and the same in 
proportion for less simis, as low as 5s. annually. 

The amount of pensions granted are similar to those of 
the Organ-builders Society, increasing in like manner to 
such as have been memb^. Annual income, j£650, and 
amount of funded property, j£2,300. 

President, John Wm. Thomas, Esq. — Treasurer, J. H. Wather- 
fton, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Edward Barton, 27, Hatton Garden. 

SILVER TRADE Pension Society, Queen's Arms Tavern, 
Newgate-street. Established 1836. For the relief of de- 
cayed members of the silver trade, including traders, work 
men, clerks,andshopmen,or any connected with the trade, who 
have been employed as such for a continued period of seven 
years, and their widows. Candidates for the pension must 
be above fifty-five years of age when elected. The annuity 
is twelve guineas to males, and eight to females, with, an 
addition of ten per cent, on the amount they may nave sub- 
scribed. The present number of annuitants is ten; the 
annual income £175, and the amoimt of funded property 
under £1,000. 



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279 

METAL TRADES*. %tjM ^UUt^tS. BBA88F0UWI)B B8\ 

An annual subscription of 5s. constitutes a subscriber ; 
and two guineas paid at any one time^ a life subscriber. 

Treasurer, G. C. Glynn, Esq.— Secretary, Mr. E. Hig^s, 14, 
Half-Moon-street, White Condmt-field8.--Collector, MrTwilliam 
Easterbrook, 62, Whiakin-street^ Clerkenwell. 

moy, HARDWARE, dk METAL TRADES* Pennoti 
Society y 67, Upper Thames-street ; established 1843 ; for the 
purpose of granting permanent relieJ^ to deservinff and neces- 
sitous menu>ers of the trades and their widows, oy pensions 
or otherwise. Applicants for the pensions must be recom- 
mended by two subscribers, fill up the required form (to be 
obtained of the Secretary), and be approved of by the com- 
mittee. Such candidates as may have been members of this 
society, or their widows, have the benefit of ten votes added 
to their poll for every guinea they may have subscribed, pro- 
vided not paid for that immediate object. The pensions are 
granted at the discretion of the committee, but not to exceed 
25 guineas per annum. Present number of pensioners, 25. 
The annual income is nearly £1,000, derived, all but £96, 
&om voluntary contributions. The amount of funded pro- 
perty is £4500. Ten guineas in one sum, or one guinea annual, 
entitles to two votes, and two others for every additional five 
guineas ; twenty guineas render eligible for Vice-President. 

President, W. Thompson, Esq., Aid., M.P. — ^Treasurer, Thomas 
B. Simpson, Esq. — ^Honoraiy Secretary, Mr. Thomas Hawkins, 
67, Upper Thames-street. — ^Honoraiy Solicitor, R. G. Matthews, 
Esq., 1, Bury Court, St. Mary Axe. 

BRA8SF0UNDERS, BRAZIERS, and Coppervmiifu" 
Pension Institution, 8, Shoe-lane ; established 1831 ; for the 
benefit of members of the above trades generally, whether 
traders, workmen, clerks, or shopmen. Candidates for the 
pension must be at least sixty years of age, not in the receipt 
of more than 12«. per week, and have been in the trade seven 
years ; if clerks or shopmen, must have subscribed to the fiind 
seven years. The amount of pensions are, to males £12 per 
annum, and to females £8 per annum, with 10 per cent in 
addition on the amount they may have subscribed. Six 
shillings annually, or £3 in one payment, constitutes a mem- 
ber, with one vote for every such subscription. 

Trustees : the Treasurer, Mr. W. Devey, 8, Shoe-lane ; Mr. 
Thomas Mears, Canterbury ; and Mr. David Boolbyer, Stanhope- 
street, Claremarket. — Secretary and Collector, Mr. W. Handley, 
2, Windsor-place, City-road. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



PAWNBBOKBBS^ C^flritalllB glrft ^1010^111 A.D. 1823 

PAWNBROKERS* Charitahle Institviion, 40, Duke- 
street, Manchester-square ; founded 1823 ;^ for the tempo- 
rary relief of distressed pawnbrokers, or their journeymen, 
their widows and children, and the granting of pen- 
sions in old age, preference being given to those who have 
been members of the fund. One guinea annually, or 10«. 6^. 
from journeymen, entitles to recommend objects for tempo- 
rary relief, and to one '^ote for each pensioner to be elected. 
The conmiittee meet on the first Thursday in every month, 
at eleven o'clock. At the present time only one pensioner 
is on the funds, receiving ^20 annually, and twenty-three 
receiving casual relief. The annual income is about £400, 
of which jG265 is distributed in relief. The amount of 
funded property is jG3,500. Printed forms of petition may 
be obtained of the treasurer, secretary, or any governor, and 
wh^n filled up, must be forwarded to the secretary ten days 
before the meeeting. 

The AlmshoitseSy erecting by means of a building fund 
attached to this society, are nearly ready for the inmates : 
the building is a very substantial one, in the Elizabethan 
style, situated at West Ham, at a cost of £4,000. 

Treasurer, Mr. John Thomas Neate. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. 
W. A. Hows. — Collector and Assistant Secretary, Mr. Parr, 22, 
Bridge-street, Southwark. 

FURNITURE BROKERS' Benevolent Institution, 101, 
Wardour-street ; established 1839 ; for the relief of decayed 
and distressed furniture brokers, and the widows and orphan 
children of members of the institution, being members of the 
trade. The committee meet at the treasurer's, every last Tues- 
day in each second month. Applicants for pension must have 
the recommendation of four subscribers. Candidates must 
either have kept a shop ten years in the trade, or been a member 
of the society three years and kept a shop five years, and be 
incapacitated from work or above fiffcy years of age ; widows 
above forty-five, and children under fourteen. Ten guineas 
donation and upwards entitles to two votes at all elections 
of candidates ; five guineas at one time, or one guinea annual, 
to one vote. 

Treasurer, Mr. James Winter, 101, Wardour-street. — ^Bankers, 

^ Stated to be the first of the trade funds established for the general 
benefit of all members of such trade. 



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281 

grocers', A.D. 1837. ^BUBfit ^nriBfel butchers', a.d. 1828 

London and "Westminster Bank. — Secretary and Collector, Mr. 
Daniel Buckle, jun., 4, Upper Baker-street, Pentonville. 

GROCERS and TEA-DEALERS* BmevoUrU ProUction 
Society, 29, St. Swithin's-lane ; established 1837 ; for grant- 
ing permanent annuities to the decayed members of the tea 
and grocery trade, East and West India merchants, brokers, 
sugar refiners, and importers of, and dealers in, colonial or 
other foreign produce, whose principal business is connected 
with the trade of a grocer and tea-dealer, and their widows. 
Persons who have carried on such business within twelve 
miles of London, for seven years, in an honourable manner, 
are eligible for its benefits. Elections of pensioners take 
place in January and July. Pensions vary in amount, from 
£18 to ^24 females, and from £M to jG30 males. Such as 
have been members of the society receive the larger amount. 
The number of pensioners on the funds varies from thirfy to 
forty, at an annual amount of from jG700 to £800. The 
amount of annual income is nearly £1,800 ; £378 derived 
from dividends, and the remainder from subscriptions. The 
funded property exceeds £12,000. 

President, Henry Kemble, Esq. — ^Treasurers : Edward Abso- 
lom, Esq.; James Peek, Esq.; John Townend, Esq.; — ^Honorary 
Secretaries : Mr. C. B. Kelham, Mr. William H. Partridge, Mr, 
George Ashley. — ^Acting Secretary, Mr. George Garraway ; Office, 
29, St. Swithin's-lane. 

BUTCHERS' Charitable Institution, 4, Dyers'-buildings, 
Holbom ; founded 1828 ; for afibrding relief to distressed 
master-butchers, and salesmen, etc., and their widows and 
children. The annual allowance to male pensioners is to the 
extent of twenty guineas, to widows fifteen guineas, and a 
further allowance in proportion to the number of their chil- 
dren. The present number of pensioners is forty-four, receiv- 
ing in the aggregate about £900. The amount of annual 
income is nearly £1,700 ; viz., £1,382 from contributions^ 
and £299 from dividends. The frmded property exceeds 
£10,000. One guinea annual, or ten guineas at one time, con- 
stitutes a governor, entitled to one vote at all elections for 
candidates ; votes polled for unsuccessful candidates are 
accumulative. Members of this fund ever requiring its aid, 
and becoming candidates, have the privilege of one vote 
being added to their poll, for every guinea they may have 
conkibuted. 



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s\C^aritato mA ^nmitefll 



OHBESEMONGBBS .(tnflniSIUB SM lOlfSMStVX FISHMONGERS . 



The Almshouses^ at Walham-green, Fulham, attached to 
this society, are for pensioners only, who have the addition 
of one cwt. of coals weekly : the election of them is vested in 
the donors and subscribers to the building fund. 

President^ John Sharp, Esq., 8, Alpha-cottage, Saint John's- 
wood. — ^Treasurer, Francis Healey, Esq., Euston-grove, Euston- 
square. — Bankers, Sir Claude Scott and Co., CavendiEh-square. 
•—Secretary, Mr. James Ness, 4, Dyer's-buildings, Holbom. — 
Collectors, Mr. Benjamin Hill, 7, Oxford-market; Mr. C^rge 
Butler, 19, Saint John-street, Clerkenwell. 

CHEESEMONGERS BenevoUnt Institution, 8, Bath- 
street, Newgate-street; established 1835; for the relief 
of necessitous master-cheesemongers and their widows, 
by granting pensions of £24 to males, and £16 to females. 
Thirty-one pensioners are receiving relief, to the amount 
of j£600 per annum. The annual income is about j£700 
per annum, and the funded property now amounts to 
£7,010. One guinea constitutes an annual subscriber, and 
ten guineas a life subscriber ; each subscriber to be entitled 
to one vote at all elections. 

President, Joseph Anderson, Esq. — ^Treasurer, R. Davies, Esq. 
—Secretary, Mr. George Simpson, 8, Bath-street, Newgate-street. 
— Collector, Mr. Samuel Abbot. 

FISHMONGERS' and POULTERERS' Instimion, 
124, Lower Thames-street. Instituted 1835. One of the 
primary objects for which the institution was established, 
has been, to a certain extent, accomplished, namely, the 
completion, and partial occupation, of an asylum for the 
aged. This has, however, so impaired the funds, as to leave 
a debt of some amount, in connexion with the building, 
unliquidated^ and to limit the immediate usefulness of the 
chanty. The asylum is situated at Wood Green. The other 
purposes are, to afford occasional and permanent relief to 
aged and infirm persons engaged in the fish or poultry trades, 
and their wives or widows ; also, occasional relief to their 
necessitous orphans. 

The total number of cases relieved has been nineteen, but 
the annual amount at present distributed, is necessarily 
limited to about £60 ; the amount of income is but £500, 
the which, at present, is absorbed by the expenses of the 
asylum. There is no funded property. 

A subscription of 10s. 6d. per annum constitutes a mem- 



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283 

HOTEL KBBPBBS. ^Bjlttfit ^HnBtlBS/MCENSBI) VICTUALLERS 

ber, and entitles to one vote ; a donation of three guineas 
equivalent. 

Presideiit, M. Wolverley Attwood, Eaq. — ^Treasurer, Mr. 
Christopher Grove, 150, New Bond-street. — H!onoTa]y Secretaries, 
Mr. Robert Milestone, Swallow-place, R^;ent-street (Fish Trade) ; 
Mr. John Surman, LesidenhaU-market (Poultry Trade). — Secretary 
and Collector, Mr. D. S. Becknell, 126, Lower Thames-street. 

HOTEL and TA VERN KEEPERS' PromderU Insti- 
tution^ for the relief of necessitous and aged members^ Cra- 
ven Hotel, Craven-street, Strand. EstabHshed 1839. This 
society assists members only, constituted either by an annual 
subscription of one guinea, or an equivalent donation of ten 
guineas ; the same subscription constituting honorary mem- 
bers, with a vote at all meetings. 

The annual income amounts to jG417 ; and the expendi- 
ture, £410, including £272 distributed, in various sums, to 
twenty-eight aged and necessitous members. 

President, Mr. Thomas Ellis, St. James's-street, Pall MalL — 
Treasurer, Mr. Thomas M. Bacon, Freemason's Tavern, Great 
Queen-street. — Honorary Secretary, Lieutenant S. E. Tapster, 
<>aven Hotel. — ^Assistant Secretary, Mr. G. W. Newborn, (>aven 
Hotel, Craven-street, Strand. 

PERMANENT FUND of the Society of LICENSED 
VICTUALLERS, 127, Fleet-street. Established 1794 ; in- 
corporated 1836. Grants weekly allowances, at the present 
time, to 295 persons, amounting, in the aggregate, to £3,978 
per annum ; the amount distributed in this manner, since the 
society's establishment, is no less a sum than ;£125,000.^ 

For the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum, see page 229 ; and 
School, Chapter xiv. 

Governor, Mr. Jones, St. John-street, Smithfield. — Secretary, 
Mr. William Smalley. 

AGED and INFIRM JOURNEYMEN TAILORS 
{Benevolent Infstitution for t?ie Relief of). Office, 32, Sack- 
ville-street ; Asylum, Haverstock-hill. Established 1837. 

^ Ditto for the maintenance and education of children in the School, 
^^30,163. Ditto from subscription fund for ditto, j^l 23,991. Ditto from 
charity box, j£5,420. Total amount distributed, ^^275,000. Thisftind 
is derived mainly from the licensed victuallers* newspaper, the Morning 
Advertiser. Members of the fund have to pay an admission fee of three 
guineas, and take in the newspaper daily, so long as they remain in the 
busine88,and upon giving up business to pay 22s. per annum in lieu thereof. 



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284 

TAiL0B8\ Ctrantato ggh ^nmfliigirt linbndbapeb8\ 

Consisting of funds for the relief of members only, and an 
asylum for the reception of pensioners. Members eligible 
for relief are journeymen, foremen, and porters, having been 
journeymen and members for three years, being incapaci^ 
tated from work by age, debility, or blindness. Application 
for relief to be made by letter to the secretary. No journey- 
man can become a member as eligible to future relief if 
more than thirty-five years of age. Subscriptions of 7s. per 
annum from journeymen, or one guinea annual from other 
members, entitle to five votes at all elections. 

The asylum at Haverstock-hill affords accommodation 
for forty pensioners, and their wives. An infirmary, and 
« neat well-built chapel, with an endowment by the pre- 
sident for a chaplain, have been added to the building. 
Each inmate receives £20 16s. per annum, with coals and 
medical attendance. The annual income is about jG2,500, 
derived from jG800 dividends, and the remainder voluntary 
contributions. The amount distributed according to the 
objects is £1,474, and for management expenses £239. 
Present amount of funded property, £13,474. 

Honorary Physician, Dr. Baly, Spring-gardens. — Honorary 
Surgeons, Miles Murley, Esq., Cork-street; H. Bird, Esq., 
Hampstead-road. — Chaplain, the Rev. John Haines, A.M. — 
Bimkers, Sir Claude Scott, Bart., and Co. — Secretary, Mr. H. H. 
HaU, 82, Sackville-street. 

LlNEJIf DRAPERS', SILK MERCERS', Zacemen's, 
Haberdashers*, and Hosiers' Institution, 24, Surrey-street, 
Strand ; instituted 1831 ; for relieving members only, in sick- 
ness and destitution. Supported by honorary and life sub- 
scribers often guineas and upwards, at one time, or one guinea 
annually ; persons above 25 pay increased amounts. The funds 
of this institution are in a most prosperous state, having re- 
alized a funded amount of £31,000. In 1848, nearly £1,100 
was expended in relieving upwards of fifty cases, exclusive 
of medical attendance, and last year (1849), the amount in- 
creased. In nine cases £40 per annum were awarded. The 
management expenses appear, however, to be heavy, the 
item for last year being above £600, most probably the 
result of some special proceedings. 

President, John Pearce, Esq. — Chairman, P. Palmer, Esq. — 
Secretary, Mr. George Brace, 24, Surrey-street, Strand. — Collec- 
tor, Mr. Robinson, Budge-row, Cannon-street. 



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285 

BOOTMAKEBS. 5B^fit ^HTfefeS* TBAVBLLBBS*. 

MASTER BOOT and SHOE-MAKERS' Benevolent 
Institution^ 77, Cannon-street, City, Established 1836. 
For aflfording relief, by way of annuity, to aged mem- 
bers, their widows, and orphans. Any person carrying on 
the boot and shoe business as a bespoke-master, wholesale 
manufacturer, agent, or retail salesman, at the time of com- 
mencing his subscription, is eligible as a member. 

Subscriptions, annual, one guinea; life, ten g^iineas. 
Tune of election of members, second Monday in January. 
Candidates must haye attained the age of ftfty-six years ; 
if females, the age of fifty years ; the former receiving £30 
per annum, the latter jG20 ; and each orphan (duly elected) 
j£20, until fourteen years of age, and a fee on being appren- 
ticed. 

The funded property is nearly dG6,000, including the 
building fund. An asylum has recently been erected, which 
is just ready for the reception of inmates, at Mortlake, in 
Surrey. The annual amount of present annuities is about 

jeiao. 

President, Robert Saylor, Escl — Treasurer, Mr. William Berrall, 
Marylebone-lane. — Secretary, Mr. J. C. Bowles, 77, Camion-st. 

COMMERCIAL TRA TELLERS' Society, 38, Ludgate- 
hill. Established 1800. For the relief of sick and dis- 
tressed members only, their widows, and children. 

Persons desirous of being members must be recommended 
by a member of the committee, or two members of the so- 
ciety, and be balloted for by the general committee. The 
subscription depends upon the age of the member. 

J^umber of claimants relieyed by the society firom the 
commencement, 437 members, 368 widows, 402 children, 
53 orphans ; total, 1,260 claimants, to whom £80,690 has 
been paid. 

The funded property now exceeds £20,000, and the an- 
nual income £1,280. 

President, Sir Chapman Marshall, Alderman. — ^Treasurer, John 
Barnard, Esq. — ^Trustees, Sir Charles R. Price, Bart. ; John 
Barnard, Esq. ; Sir Chapman Marshall, Alderman ; Joseph 
Thompson, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. John B. Jackson.— -Surgeon, 
Alfred Poland, Esq. 

INSTITUTION FOR NECESSITOUS COMMER- 
CIAL TRAVELLERS, 23, Phillpot-lane. Establishing 
1849. Under this designation a society is now being or- 



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286 

BREWEBS' clerks'. CbElitEUt ^ ^tOlliitBltt LETT. CARRIERS'. 

ganized, whether intended for the benefit of the trade gene- 
rally, or only of members, is not yet developed ; but 
considering the stability of the original society as a provident 
fund, it must be presumed that this will be a generally bene- 
Tolent one. 

Hononuy Secretary pro tern., Thomas Smith, Esq. — Secretary, 
pro tern., Mr. Carter. 

BREWERS' and DISTILLERS' CLERKS Annuity 
Pwnd for their Widows and Orphans, New Com Exchange 
Coffee House, Mark-lane. Established 1840. For the benefit 
of the widows and orphans of members only, consisting of 
the clerks of such brewers and distillers whose premises are 
situate within fourteen miles of the Post-office, upon pay- 
ment of entrance fee, and other annual contributions accord- 
ing to age, etc. 

A donation of five guineas constitutes a governor. 

Present number of annuitants, eight widows and their 
children. 

President, J. H. Wynne, Esq. —Treasurer, Osgood Hanbury, 
Esq., Jun. — ^Physician, Dr. Francis Cobb.— Solicitor, T. B. Tan- 
queray, Esq. — Sub-Treasurer, Mr. Charles H. Pawley. — Secretary, 
Mr. J. Bowles, 77, Cannon-street, City. 

THE GENERAL PO&T-OFFICE SUB-SORTERS% 
and Letter-Carriers' Widows <& Orphans Pension Institution, 
87, Wood-street. Established 1840. Is for the benefit of 
members only, and, at the present time, distributes about 
£100 annually in pensions to such as have been elected 
annuitants on account of old age or distress. Funded pro- 
perty, £3,000, and the annual income varies from £600 to 
£1(X), supported to a considerable extent by voluntary con- 
tributions of the benevolent. 

Treasurer, Mr. Philip Webster. — Secretary, Mr. Richard 
Langley, Post-office, St. Martin's-le-Grand. 

THE JOB S POST MASTERS, COACH PROPRI- 
ETORS, Horse Dealers', and Livery StahU Keepers', of 
England, Provident Fund, 30, Great James-street. Esta- 
blished 1839. For the temporary and permanent relief of 
members only, their widows and children. Members, to de- 
rive such advantage, must be recognized by the directors to 
have been engaged in one of the above trades, and have 
taken out a license as such. 



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287 

JOB <k POST masters'. %BKBflt ^On^ttBS* omnibus sebt arts'. 

Two guineas annually, or 20 guineas at one time, or paid 
within two years, constitutes a governor, with one vote ; and 
the same payments, with an entrance fee according to age, 
constitutes a member. Fire pensioners at present on the 
permanent fund, receiving conjointly £94 ; funded property, 
J8000 ; income above -^700. 

President, Duke of Richmond. — ^Treasurer, Mr. Richard Tat- 
tersall, Hyde Park-comer. — ^Honorary Surgeon^ Mr. John Vincent 
Hawkins, 61, G^oige-street, Portman-square. — Secretary, Mr. 
William Tredway CSarke, 30, Great James-street, Bedford-row. 

BAILWAT GUARDS' Friendly Fund. Formed only 
last year. Promises to prove of great benefit to a very de- 
serving class of men, than whom few require such an insti- 
tution more, firom the various risks to which their duties 
expose them. The objects aimed at are — ^to provide a weekly 
allowance in sickness, or in case of accident ; a deferred 
annuity ; a certain sum to be paid at death ; weekly allow- 
ance to orphans and children ; a home in old age. The asso- 
ciation is under the sanction of the chairman and directors 
of the London and North Western Railway Company. Within 
six months upwards of 500 men have entered.^ 

Treasurer, G. C. Glynn, Esq. — Ghainnan of Conunittee, Mr. 
George GJray. 

METROPOLITAN OMNIBUS SERVANTS Provi- 
dent Society, 4, Portman-place, Edgware-road. Established 
1848. For the benefit of that large body of men connected 
with omnibuses, — as drivers, conductors, time-keepers, and 
clerks, — ^numbering in all about ten thousand. It proposes 
to assist the disabled and infirm, their widows and orphans ; 
to found an asylum for the aged and feeble ; the estoblish- 
ment of a school for the children of members, and to adopt 
measures by which the members may be enabled to im- 
prove themselves mentally, morally, and religiously. The 
subscription is fixed at sixpence a-week ; and, to secure 
its respectability, none but men of unimpeachable character 
are to be admitted members. It will be dependent as well 
on public contributions, which are solicited to aid it, on the 
ground that thus improving and raising the character of 
this class of men wUl greatly benefit society at large. 

^ At the present time, upwards of 2,000 Railway Onardt are in con- 
stant employ in Great Britain. 



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288 

gAia DBB88BB8' dlHlitallb k l^XW^tA BUILDEBS'. 

President James Wyld, EscuM. P.— Treasurer, Mr. S. Pierce, 
Warwick-road, Maida-hill.--Honorary Secretaiy, R. Morgan, 
Esq., 6, Warwick-villas, Paddington. — Manager, Mr. J. Scully, 
Oamden-town. — Bankers, Union Bank, London. 

BRITISH HAIR-DRESSERS Benevohmt and Provi- 
dent InstittUion, Hercules* Pillars, Great Queen-street. Esta- 
blidied 1831. For the benefit of members only, elected, 
and paying an annual subscription of £1, or a donation of 
£10. The relief afforded consists of pensions of ;£10 annu- 
ally to members above the age of fifty years, on being 
elected to the same. 

President, S. Chrange, Esq., Saint John*8-wood-road. — ^Treasurer, 
W. G. Bentley, Esq., 220, High Holbom.— Secretary and Collector, 
Mr. John Swain, Edward's-yard, Regent-street. 

THE TALLOW CHANDLERS* Benevolent Society, 8, 
Artillery-place West, Bunhill-row. Established 1843. For 
the relief of indigent and incapacitated tallow chandlers, 
their widows, and others connected with the trade. Can- 
didates for relief must be above sixty, unless totally inca- 
pacitated, and not in the receipt of more than £Z0 (males), 
and iso (females), and must be recommended by subscribers ; 
if approved of, their election is decided by ballot, at ap- 
pointed periods. One guinea annual, or ten guineas dona- 
tion, constitutes a governor, with privilege of voting. 

This institution, young as it is, presents much for imita- 
tion to wealthier and old-established funds of a similar 
nature ; its relief U not restricted to rnembers, and already 
has distributed j£916 amongst its objects of charity. There 
are about forty pensioners on its funds. 

President, John Cattley, Esq. — ^Treasurer, Thomas Famcomb, 
Esq., Alderman. — Bankers, Bank of England. — Secretary and 
Collector, Mr. Joseph North, 8, Artillery-place West, Bunhill-row. 

BUILDERS* Benevolent Institution, 13, Broad-street, 
Golden-square. Established 1847.^ Is acccumulating a fund, 
now amounting to £1,000 for the purpose of granting pen- 
sions of £24 per annum to males, and £20 to females, being 
members of any of the branches of the building trade, or 
their widows. Also temporary relief to workmen in case of 

1 The first instituted was iu 1843, managed by Mr. Barber, late of 
New Bridge street. 



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ETON FUND, A.D. 1848 ^BjttBftt ^Hrilfefi. BLUBS FUND, A.D. 1824 

accident. A separate fund is likewise raising, for the erec- 
tion of an asylum. Candidates who have been subscribers, 
are entitled to a proportionately extra number of votes. 

President, Hugh Biers, Esq. — ^Treasurer, Mr. Geoige Bird, 38, 
Edgware-road.— Secretaiy, Mr. Alfred G. Harris. — Bankers, Sir 
Samuel Soottand Co. — Collector, Mr. Edward Herbert, 48, Ll^on- 
grove North. 

A Provident InstittUion for builders' foremen has lately 
been instituted. Secretary, Mr. \f, Allard. 

THE GARDENERS' Benevolent Institution, 97, Farring- 
don-street. Commenced 1843. Is for the benefit of its mem- 
bers and others belonging to the trade, similar in its details 
to previous funds of the same character. 

Patrons, Earl of EUesmere ; Lord Brackley. — Secretaiy, Mr. 
Edward R. Cutler, 97, Farringdon-street. Also ; 

THE CURRIERS' Benevolent InstittUion, 39, Great 
Bland-street, Dover B^ad, Borough. Commenced 1848. 
Patron, Lord Robert Grosvenor. — Secretary, Mr. H. H. Tapscott. 

ETON BENEVOLENT FUND, 16, Hanover-street. 
Established 1848. Is for the support and assistance of old 
Etonians, whom ill health or misfortune has deprived of the 
means of livelihood. The Conmiittee of Management meet at 
the Office of the Etonian and General Life Assurance and 
Endowment Society, 16, Hanover-street, Hanover-square, 
every Wednesday, at half-past three, when claims for relief 
will be received and investigated. And as one of the ob- 
jects of the institution is the investigation of cases, old 
Etonians, whether supporters of the fund or not, may refer 
claimants for charity to the committee, who will take all care 
that relief is properly administered. 

Bankers, Messrs. Bouverie, 11, Haymarket. — Honorary Secre- 
tary, W. Rckering, Esq. 

BENEVOLENT SOCIETY OF BLUES, Newgate- 
street. Instituted 1824. For the relief of persons educated 
at Christ's Hospital, their widows and orphans, by pensions, 
or weekly allowances, to the aged, infirm, and distressed ; 
also small loans, to be returned by fixed instalments, as the 
funds of the society may allow. 

Since its commencement, 600 applicants have experienced 
the Society's aid ; £900 having been advanced in loans, 
£3000 in gifts, and £2500 in pensions ; these latter are 

19 



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290 

THflFopypLiirQ C^arilato %mfA ^gmfeg. guwD, a.d. i84o 

permanent, being limited to the amount of dividends ; the 
present number of pensioners is 18. 

Ten guineas donation from govemors of the hospital, or 
others approved of by the directors, constitutes a life go- 
yemor with two votes at elections. 

Patron, the Queen. — President, Charles Few, Esq. — ^Treasurer, 
John Smith, Esq., 49, Long- Acre. — Hon. Secretary, J. A. L. Bar- 
nard, Esq. — Collector, Mr. Francis Jesse, South Sea House, 
Thr^kdneedle-street. — ^Bankers, Messrs. Bobarts, Curtis, and Co. 

FOUNDLING BENEVOLENT FUND, HospUaly 
Guildford-street. Established 1840. It must be obvious, that 
if such societies have been beneficial, as connected with 
other charitable institutions, a similar fund must be pecu- 
liarly useful at the Foundling Hospital ; for, as the objects 
of its care are destitute of all natural ties, it is only to such 
honourable assistance that the deserving foundling can look 
in the hour of trial or trouble, to rescue him from the work- 
house, or from actual want. The objects of the fund are to 
grant annual pensions or weekly allowances, to such aged 
and infirm persons as are considered deserving of assistance ; 
to afford temporary relief to the distressed ; to grant small 
loans, to be returned by instalments; and to relieve the 
widows and orphans of such as the funds of the society will 
allow. A preference at all times is given to those who have 
subscribed to the fund. The present income is little above 
£200 ; and this is distributed amongst the most deserving 
of the applicants. The funded property is -C2,100 : with 
this exception, it entirely depends upon volimtary contribu- 
tions. Honorary Secretary, John Brownlow, Esq. 



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291 

GENERAL jgtaratJimai Cjiarifes^ 



CHAPTER XIV. 



EDUCATIONAL CHARITIES FOR ORPHANS 
AND OTHER NECESSITOUS CHILDREN. 

General Statement of Asjlums; their Number, Income, and Extent. 
Orphan AgylutM ;~'The Clergy. — Female Orphan. — Orphan Work- 
ing. — London. — Britbh. — ^Adult — Infants. — Cholera. — Agricultural. 
— ^And Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans. Chneral Asylums : St. Anne's. — 
. BaQCToft's. — Raine's. — The Ladies'. — For training Servants. — French 
Protestant— Welsh.— Caledonian.— St Patrick's.— Westmoreland.— 
Yorkshire. — Masonic— Travellers'. — ^Victuallers'. — And Naval and 
Marine. Parochial Schools : their Origin* Benefits, and present Ex- 
tent — Examples afforded. Schools of Iiocal Character , or specified 
objects : Germans. — Associated Catholic. — Irish Schools, — and Jewish 
Charities. 

TSo instance of suffering, and no extremity of human need, 
is more calculated to excite the best sympathies of our na- 
ture, or meet with a readier response of benevolent exer- 
tion, than the claim of '^ the fatherless, and them that have 
no helper." Upon the claims of orphanhood, a popular 
modem writer observes — "An infant without friends is of all 
created things the most helpless : it has a positive claim upon 
all Christendom ; it was one of our Lord s great commands, 
that little children should come imto Him ; and why ? Be- 
cause, ^ of such is the kingdom of Heaven.* Surely there 
are none who profess His faith who could turn from a little 
child in the hour of its bereavement... was there ever a child 
bom — ^no matter how humble — around which hope did not 
cling 1 Who can tell what may be, or may not be, the des- 
tiny of the poorest orphan that gropes its way through a 
bitter world 1 — and whatever sphere it may move in, whe- 
ther high or low, it must have duties to perform, a crucified 



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GEWEBAL jgtofltjmial C^anfeg, BEMABKS. 

Saviour to believe in, a God to glorify, a Heaven to gain. I 
can hardly look upon the case of an orphan as a chanty ; it 
is a duty ! we can all spare something to lead these bereaved 
children through time, and prepare them for eternity." 

And great are the opportunities of usefulness developed by 
the operations of our orphan asylums, and great is the privi- 
lege of supporting them. It appears a matter of much thank- 
fiuness, tnat, amidst all our other schemes of charity and 
mercy, and many measures for extending national education, 
that cause which is especially commended to us by Christian 
precept, and annexed to which there are so many gracious 
promises, has prospered and advanced in an eminent degree. 

Out of the fifteen orphan asylums that now adorn our city, 
no less than ten have been founded since the commencement 
of the present century, and these the largest and most libe- 
rally supported. The other asylums, for maintaining chil- 
dren of reduced and necessitous parents, will likewise be 
found to have increased in a similar proportion. 

Gratifjring as this fact is as an aggregate one, there is a 
source of stSl greater satisfaction to be derived u'om a care- 
ful consideration of their respective details : a perusal of the 
various reports cannot fail to impart the conviction, that the 
plans pursued, in almost every instance, prove them to be 
not only beneficial to the immediate objects of their bounty, 
but to society at large. 

The following is the summary of Orphan Asylums : — 

One for orphan children of clergymen ; 3 for 
female children ; 2 for infants ; 3 for general 
age of eight years ; 1 for adults ; 1 for cho- 
lera orphans ; 4 for orphans of soldiers and 
sailors. — Total . . . . 15 

Also 1 in contemplation for the poorer classes 
(the agricultural), 
of these, 14 are supported by an aggregate 

income of ... . ;£39,926 

including amoimt derived from voluntary 

contributions, of . . . ;^28,623 

maintaining orphan children, at present 
time, to the number of 1,811, besides 
350 at the Military Asylum (the annual 
income of which is not included in the 
above).— Total . . . 2,161 



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293 

CLBBQT OBPHAN ((biJllfEtt SlSljlUlllS* SOCIBTT, A.D. 1749 

Afljlums for necessitous children, whether or- 
phans or not : — 
Three for general objects ; 1 for girls ; 2 for 
training servants ; 7 for children of specified 
parentage ; 2 for navy and marine; 1 French 
fcrotestant.— Total .... 16 

the aggregate annual income of 16 of 
which (excepting the Royal Naval 
Schools) amounts to . . . £41,089 

including voluntary contributions . £26,843 

maintaining children at present time to 
the number of 1,439 ; besides Royal 
Naval Schools, 800.— Total . . 2,239 

The foregoing includes only such institutions as afford 
maintenance, clothing, and education ; and are exclusive of 
parochial and merely local establishments : of such, how- 
ever, it will be seen, several are described, also a complete 
account of Jewish charity schools. 

INCORPORATED CLERGY ORPHAN SOCIETY, 
St John's-wood, Marylebone. Formed 1749, and incorporated 
1809, under the title of " The Governors of the Society for 
clothing, maintaining, and educating poor Orphans of Oler- 
grmen of the Established Church, in that part of the United 
Kingdom called England, until of age to be put apprentice." 
The number of children upon the establishment has been 
gradually increasing from eighty to about one hundred and 
forty — seventy boys and seventy girls. The funds of the 
chanty, although dependent to some extent on public sup- 
port, have been augmented by valuable bequests from time 
to time, until they had attamed a satisfsu^tory condition : 
the largest benefactors were Mrs. Cam, Lady Grant, Mrs. 
Oswald, Mrs. Sutton, and others. Of late years, however, 
the expenditure has exceeded the income; and increased 
support, it is to be regretted, is much needed. Two elec- 
tions ti^e place annually, one on the last Thursday in 

1 The educatioii of the bojs was at first conducted at Thirsk, in Tork- 
sbire, where the henefits were limited, and the whole management appears 
to have been otherwise objectionable. In 1805 the Corporation made an 
advantageous purchase of property at Acton, where the establishment for 
boys was long carried on ; but subsequently removed, in connexion with 
the schools for girls, to the present dearable situation. 



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^4 

FEMALE j^alingal Clfaritfes. obphan,a.d.i758 

FebruaiT, and the other in May. Candidates must be be- 
tween the ages of seven and twelve. 

A special fund was established in the year 1826, called 
the Clergy Orphan Apprenticing Fund, for the purpose of 
assisting the children, when they leave the schools, in ob- 
taining suitable situations. It is placed under the manage- 
ment of the genera] committee : the treasurers of the society 
being also the treasurers of this special fund. 

President, Bishop of London. — Physicians : Drs. Macleod, Gibbs, 
and Burrows. — Surgeon, Thomas Copland, Esq. — Master, Rev. 
Daniel Butler, M.A, — Mistress, Mrs. Jones. — ^Treasurers: Rev. 
J. Russell, D.D., and J. H. Canceller, Esq.— Collector, Mr. H. 
Stretton, 67, Lincoln's Inn-fields. 

ASYLUM for the Reception of FRIENDLESS and 
DESERTED ORPHAN GIRLS, Bridge-road, Lambeth. 
Instituted 1758 ; incorporated 1800. Is generally known as 
" The Female Orphan Asylum"; and the children peculiarly 
its objects are orphan girls, the settlements of whose parents 
cannot be ascertained. No child can be admitted who is 
under the age of eight, or above the age of ten years ; nor, 
as the children are to be constantly employed in the several 
offices of good housewifery, in order to qualify them for do- 
mestic servants, any diseased, deformed, or infirm child. 
The necessary certificates and declarations are to be procured 
by application at the asylum. Since its establishment, nearly 
2,600 children have been wholly maintained, and appren- 
ticed out or placed in service. The number usually in the 
asylum is 150: they are well taught, and in accordance 
with the principles of the Church of England ; also trained 
in strict habits of economy and cleanliness ; and the asylum 
derives an annual amount of about £50 for needlework done 
by them. The annual expenditure is about £3,500, which 
is well covered by the receipts, derived from dividends and 
volimtary contributions, the former amounting to nearly 
£2,000 per annum. 

The elections are half-yearly, in June and December, and 
decided by the balloting papers of the governors; who are so 
constituted by a contribution of one guinea annual, or ten 
guineas at one time, and entitled to one vote. One hundred 
guineas entitles to present one child, otherwise eligible. 
President, the Duke of Cambridge, K.G. — ^Treasurer, Sir John 

^ This mstitation owes its establishment to the late Sir John Fielding. 

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295 

SCHOOL FOB d^rpj^gg ^5nlflm5«^ggMALE8,1 786>1839 

Dean Paul, Bart. — Morning Preacher, Rev. J. Jessop, M.A. — 
Evening Preacher, Rev. W. Curling, M.A. — Chaplain, Rev. S. R. 
Cattley. — Physicians: Dr. Locock, Dr. Cursham. — Secretary, Mr. 
WiUiajn Davies. — Messenger and Collector, Mr. James Cole, 1, 
York-row, Kennington-road. 

SCHOOL of INDUSTRY for FEMALE ORPHANS, 
9, Church-street, Paddingtc^n-green. Instituted 1786. For 
the entire maintenance of bereaved and destitute orphans 
between the ages of nine and twelve, preference being given 
to tibose descended from respectable parents. The elections 
lure r^resented as taking place twice annually, in Januai^ 
and tfuly. Ten guineas donation, or one guinea annual, 
constituting a governor, with one vote. But, although so 
old an establishment, its operations appear restricted, and 
partake more of a local character. 

Treasurer, Thomas Cahusac, Esq., 5, Maida-hill. — Collector, 
Mr. W. Whitehead, bQ, High-street, Portland-town. — ^Matron, 
Mrs. Clarke. 

BAYSWATER EPISCOPAL CHAPEL FEMALE 
ORPHAN SCHOOL. Established 1839. For the main- 
tenance and instruction of from fifteen to twenty female or- 
phans, who have completed their ninth year. Candidates 
must be approred of by the conmiittee, chosen by election, 
upon declared vacancies. The expenditure is under j6250 
per annum, the charity being a liioited one, and its benefits 
local. The income depends on voluntary contributions, ex- 
ceeding the expenditure. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes a 
governor, with one vote. 

President, Rev. C. Smalley, M.A. — Honorary Secretaries: 
Rev. C. Small^, jun., 12, Orme-square ; F. Crafer, Esq., 85, 
Bedford-place, Kensington. — Honorary Surgeons, John and James 
Merriman, Esqrs., Kensington-sq. — Matron, Mrs. Ann Manger. — 
Collector, Mr. Edward Oliver, 40, Queen's-road. 

ORPHAN WORKING SCHOOL, Haverstock HiU;i 
office, 19, Qresham-street, City. Instituted 1758 ; incorpo- 

^ This institution, almost the first of its kind in England, was ori- 
g^ated at the George Tavern, Ironmonger-lane ; founded at Hozton, 
removed to City-road, and enlarged in 1773 ; further enlarged in sue- 
ceeding years, until removed to the present commodious establishment in 
1846, erected at a total cost of about ;£30,000. To the present time the 
charity has extended itself tenfold since its first formation. Much of its 
present prosperity can be traced to the persevering exertions of the pre- 
sent secretary on its behalf. 



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296 

OBPHAN WORKING |0JlBXatni1IHl CjlflllfeS* SCHOOL, A.D. 1758 

rated 1848. This charity was founded for the reception of 
twenty orphan and other necessitous children of both sexes, 
of every religious denomination, and from all parts of the 
United Kingdom. There are now upwards of two hundred 
children in the schools, and there is accommodation altoge- 
ther for two hundred and fifty, when the funds will admit of 
their reception. The amount of income required for present 
disbursements is nearly £4,000 ; £1,800 of which is derived 
from dividends and rents, the remainder depending on volun- 
tary contributions, which as yet appear to require consider- 
able increase. 

Candidates are eligible between seven and eleven years of 
age, provided they are in good health, and "have neither been 
prisoners nor paupers." The children are educated, clothed, 
and wholly maintained until they are fourteen, the girls, in 
some cases, until they are fifteen years of age, when they are 
apprenticed or placed out in some service, with a premium 
or outfit of the value, to the boys of £5, to the girls of 
£3. 3s. ; and further, to encourage them to persevere in good 
conduct, they are annually rewarded in sums varying from 
5s. to 21s., according to the length of service. 

The education of the children combines portions of the 
British and National Schools systems, with such improve- 
ments as the committee can introduce. The girls, in addi- 
tion to the usual routine of education, make most of their 
own clothing, and a portion of that of the boys, and take 
their part in the domestic duties of the house, so as to fit 
them for service when they leave the school. The elections 
occur during the last week in the months of April and No- 
vember. If unsuccessful at one election, the votes are car- 
ried forward to the credit of the candidate. Printed forms 
of petition are supplied, with lists of the governors, to aU 
who are interested in elections. 

The annual subscription of a governor is one guinea and 
upwards ; for life, 10 guineas and upwards : of a subscriber, 
10s. 6d. ; for life, 5 guineas. The subscriber has the right 
to vote only at elections ; the governor, to vote at all general 
courts of governors, to nominate candidates, and to visit the 
institution and introduce visitors any day he pleases ; but 
an order for visiting is granted to any respectable person who 
desires to see the institution. 

President; John Remington Mills, Esq., Englefield-green, Surrey. 
— ^Treasurer, Thomas Merriman Coombs, Esq., Ludgate-street. — 



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297 

THE LONDON (J^IJltlHtt S^SljlUtllfi. ASTLFM, A.D. 1813 

Secretary, Joseph Soul, Esq., Boxworth-grove, Islington.— Col- 
lector, Mr. James Harrison, 21, Doris-street, Kennington-cross. 
— Bankers, London Joint Stock Bank, Princes-street. 

LONDON ORPHAN ASYL UM, Gapton ; office, 10, St. 
Mary Axe. Instituted, 1813, for the maintenance, clothing, 
and education of destitute orphan children of either sex, 
from every part of the kingdom. Children whose parents 
have been in respectable circumstances, and children whose 
parents lost their lives in the army, navy, or marine service 
in general, and whose parish settlement cannot be ascer- 
tained, are highly eligible to receive the aid of this charity. 
A child having a father-in-law, is not eligible, neither are 
those who have been inmates of the workhouse, except under 
very peculiar circumstances. No child can be admitted, 
who, on the day of election, is under the age of seven, or 
above the age of eleven. 

The number of children reported at the last meeting, was 
397 ;i and 1,764 is the total number that have been admitted 
and provided for. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas as a life subscription, 
constitutes a member, with one vote at elections of children. 

The elections are half-yearly, — the fourth Mondays in 
January and Jime. Votes of unsuccessful candidates are 
carried on to the two subsequent elections. About three 
hundred votes generally secure an election. 

The total amoimt of annual expenditure is above £8,000, 
mainly depending on voluntary contributions ; which 
amounted, last ^ear, to £6,508 ; and the remainder is de- 
frayed by the dividends, <fec.; the funded property is under 
£20,000. 

Treasurer, William Thompson, Esq., Alderman, M.P.— Hono- 
rary Secretaries : Rev. T. P. Wright, M.A.; Rev. 0. Mackenzie, 
M.A. — Chaplain and Master, Rev. Robert Heath, M.A. — Physi- 
sian, John T. Conquest, M.D., F.L.S. — Surgeon, Hector Gavin, 
M.D., F.R.C.S.E., Hackney-road.— Sub-Secretary, Mr. James 
Rogers. — ^Collector, Mr. C. H. Smart. 

^ A detailed statement has lately been published by the Society, ap- 
pmided to the last report, shoeing the average annual amount per head 
of the various expenses, for several years past ; and the expenses of last 
year, for 378 children, averaged as follows : Provision, Aiel, and washing, 
£\0 18s. 6d.; clothing, ^3 10s. 6d.; salaries and wages, ^3 2s. 2d.; re- 
pairs and all other expenses, £Z Ids. 4d.; outfit and rewards on leaving, 
£1 9s. lOd.: total, per each chUd, £n 14s. 4d. 



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THE BRITISH ftotgtnmgt CjlHrtfol ORPHAN, A.D. 1827 

BRITISH ORPHAN ASYLUM; Asylum, Clapham- 
rise; office, 11, Abchurch-lane. Established 1827. Main- 
tains and educates destitute children of both sexes, who 
are really or virtually orphans, descended from resp^ptable 
parents ; '^ training them in habits of industry and frugaliij^, 
and in the principles of Christianity and virtue." No child 
can be a candidate for this institution, whose father is not 
dead, or paralytic, totally blind, or an incurable lunatic; 
and whose mother, if living, is able to provide for it. No 
child is admitted, who will be, on the ensuing day of elec- 
tion, under seven or above twelve years of age ; or who has 
been, at any time, an inmate of a parish workhouse. 

The average number of children imder training is 94, — 
57 boys and 34 girls. The total amount of expenses slightly 
exceed *£2,000 a year, depending on voluntary contributions, 
with the exception only of about £\Q0 from dividends; the 
whole of the frmded property being imder £4,500. 

One guinea per annum, or ten guineas donation, constitute 
a governor, with one vote for every such subscription, at all 
elections. Two elections take place in the course of the 
year, — on the third Mondays in January and July. 

Attendance is given at the office every day but Saturday, 
from 11 to 3 o'clock. 

Treasurer, John Deacon, Esq. — Physicians : Thomas Hodgkin, 
M.D. ; Robert Dickson, M.D. — Consulting Surgeon, Alfred M. 
Bandsdl, Esq. — Surgeon, Benjamin Swete, Esq. — Architect, Thos. 
Marsh Nelson, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries: Rev. John Davis, 
A.B., Lee Hill, Lewisham ; Rev. Charles Kemble, A.M., Mon- 
tague-place, Cla^ham-road ; Rev. Robert Bickersteth, A.M., 
Clapham-rise. — Secretary of the^Ladies' Committee, Mrs. Richard 
Smith, Palatine House, Stoke Newington. — ^Assistant Secretanr, 
Mr. Francis Crew, 60, Lamb's Conduit-street. — Collector, m*. 
James Leach, 12, President-street East, Goswell-road. 

ADULT ORPHAN INSTITUTION, St. Andrew's- 
place, Regent's-park ; instituted 1818.^ Founded for the 

^ Founded by Mrs. Sophia Williams, the originator of" The Old School 
of Indostrj," Cheltenham ; and its first design, in 1818, was " in memory 
of her late Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales and Saze 
Cobnrg." It was not then, however, carried out on the extensiye'scale in- 
tended, and the plan was only in part effected by the commencement of 
the present school, June 1820, at 32 and 38 Momington-place. In 1823, 
from the foyourable opinion entertained of it by King George IV, a royal 
subscription was commenced, of one hundred guineas a year ; and the 
erection of the present establishment commenced, from Nash's designs. 

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ADFLT, A.1). 1818. ^tf^m ^S^hnilS. infant, AJ). 1827 

relief and education of the friendless and unprovided 
orphan daughters of clergymen of the Established Church, 
and of military and naval officers ; in the words of the 
report, " formed not to educate children, but to finish the 
educjiition of young women, and to forward them in their 
way through life.'' It receives and educates for situatipna 
as governesses in private families, or assistants in schools, 
such a number of wards, of the abovementioned description, 
as its circumstances and resources will permit ; of whom a 
portion are received gratuitously, and the remainder con- 
tribute a certain small sum annually, towards defraying the 
expenses of the establishment. No young person is admitted 
under the age of fourteen, or above seventeen ; and none 
remain after nineteen. The number generally averages from 
seventy to eighty, divided into senior and junior wards. 

The annual income is inadequate for the present expenses, 
and has been so for some few years, leading to the alternative 
of sacrificing a portion of the funded property each year ; 
the total amount required is but little more than «^,000 
per annum, and of that ^500 is derived from the wards' 
payments and dividends ; so that it is to be hoped that the 
remaining £1,500 will be met bv increased voluntary con- 
tributions, the funded amount being reduced to j^,000. 
Contributors to the funds of the institution are entitled to a 
certain number of votes for the election of wards, according 
to the following scale, viz. : — Donors of £5, and annuM 
subscribers of one guinea, to one vote ; £10, two votes ; and 
an additional vote for every additionsl j£10. Applications 
for governesses from the institution, and communications 
respecting the admission of candidates and election of 
wards, are to he addressed to Mr. Jesse, at the house of the 
institution. 

Patron, the Queen. — ^Visitor, Bishop of London. — ^Trustee, Lord 
Kenyon. — Treasurer, Bear-Admiral Bowles. — Clerical Superin- 
tendents: Rev. J. E. Tyler, B.D. ; Rev. J. S. Anderson .—Hon. 
Secretary, Rev. R. S. B. Sandilands, A.M. — Secretary, Mr. John 
Jesse, South Sea House. 

INFANT ORPHAN ASYLUM, Asylum, Wanstead ; 
office, 46, Ludffate-hill ; instituted 1827 ; incorporated 1843. 
The purpose ofthis charity is, to board, clothe, nurse, and edu- 
cate m accordancewith the principles of the Church of England, 
destitute children who are fatherless ; and receive them (if 
necessary) from the very birth untU completing their eighth 



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300 

INFANT OEPHAN dKUHfltlfittEl d/jlErifeS* ASYLUM, A.D. 1827 

year, sustaining all the responsibilities of the parent until 
they are eligible to enjoy the aid of those institutions which 
receiye the orphan at a more advanced age ; such as 
the London Orphan Asylum, Clergy Orphan School, Orphan 
Working School, Asylum for Female Orphans, Bancroft's, 
St. Ann s School, and many others ; open to orphans after 
seyen years old : this, \mtil the establishment of the next 
named institution, was the only asylum open to them until 
they have attained that age, and its protection has already 
been extended to upwards of nine hundred children. No 
case can be entertained which has been at any time in a 
workhouse, except it has been there for temporary relief, 
and has had respectable connexions ; every case is consi- 
dered to have an especial claim on the friends of this charity, 
in proportion as the former circumstances of the parents 
have been respectable. No child can stand on the list which, 
on the day of election, is less than three months, or more 
than six years old. 

The election of the children is vested in the subscribers, 
and the elections are held half-yearly, on the last Mondays 
in April and October. The votes polled by the unsuccessml 
candidates are carried on to the next election, so that no 
case, however friendless, can fail of ultimate success. The 
new asylum lately erected at Wanstead,^ reflects great credit 
on the committee, and is worthy of its purpose. It is in- 
tended for the occupation of 420 children, and provides in 
every way for their wants in sickness and in health. It has, 
however, rarely contained more than three hundred, the 
income of the charity having hitherto but too much fet- 
tered its utility (the funded property is only about £2,000) ; 
the earnestness, however, with which the benefits of the insti- 
tution have of late been sought — ^the increasing lists of can- 
didates for admission — and the consideration that a large 
proportion of the current expenses will sustain no material 
addition when the asylum is wholly filled, have encouraged 
the committee to determine on an efibrt for immediately ex- 
tending the benefits of the asylum, and trust to public libe- 
rality to support them.3 The annual expenditure, according 

^ Wanstead is about six miles from London ; and tickets may be had, 
to view the Asylum, for any Monday, upon application at the office. 

^ This determination has been confirmed by the recent sad addition to 
the number of candidates, from the desolations of the cholera; and the 
committee have judiciously and humanely carried their intention into 
effect, by holding an extra election for the present year (virtually that 

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301 

KEW ASYLUM FOE (JlrpllHll ^-BljllllllB. INFANTS, A.D. 1844 

to last year's statement, is nearly £8,000, an amount entirely 
dependent on volimtaiy contributions, as the present divi- 
dends are under jfilOO Sryear. 

Every half-guinea annually, or five guineas life-subscrip- 
tion, entitles to one vote at each election for children, and 
at the general meeting for business. Forms for nominating 
candidates may be obtained at the office, where all commu- 
nications must be addressed. 

President, Archbishop of Canterbury. — ^Treasurer, John Deacon, 
Esq.— Sub-Treasurer, B. B. Cabbell, Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Wil- 
liams, Deacon, and Co. — ChaplaiQ and Pastoral Superintendent, 
Rev. W. P. Wigram, M. A. —Physician, Dr. Little, 10, Finsbury- 
quare. — Consulting Surgeons : E. A. Lloyd, Esq., 14, Bedford- 
row ; Francis Toulmin, Esq., Hackney. — ^Examining Surgeon, 
Miles Beale, Esq., 41, Bishopsgate-within. — Surgeon, William 
Henry Cary, Esq., Woodford. — Secretary, John Buckler, Esq. — 
Collector, Mr. Bobert Charlton. 

NEW ASYLUM for INFANT ORPHANS, Stamford- 
hill. Office, 32, Poultry. Foimded 1844 ; for the same 
objects as the last-named institution ; but, as a fundamental 
principle of that is, that Church of England doctrines shall 
DC inculcated in the school, so this, to quote the words of its 
rules, asserts that, '^ it shall be a rule absolute, beyond the 
control of any future general meeting, or any act of incor- 
poration, that while the education of the infant family 
shall be strictly religious and scriptural, no denominational 
catechism whatever shall be introduced, and that no par- 
ticular forms whatever shall be imposed on any child, con- 
trary to the religious convictions of the surviving parent or 
guardian of such child." This institution likewise keeps the 
children until eight years of age. The present number of 
inmates is eighty-six ; the elections take place twice annu- 
ally, — the third Mondays in January and June. The pre- 
sent expenditure is under £2,000 a -year, but dependent on 
voluntary contributions, the funded property being only 
£1,300. Five guineas donation, or 10«. ^, annually, entitles 
to one vote at each election. 

held in February last), so as to receive as many as 120 children in the 
course of the year, — an instance of well-directed energy in the exercise 
of charity, eventuating, as might be expected, in a large immediate acces- 
sion to the faods, — besides extension of friends and subscribers. The ad- 
dresses, issued at the time of the general thanksgiving, conveying the 
notification of this contemplated step, together with pulpit exhortation, 
brought in no less a sum than j£8,000 ! 
t 

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302 

OHOLEBA HOME. (jKHTEtiHIIEl ClfKrifeS* AND OTHEES. 

Treasurer, Baron Lionel De Rothschild. — Sub-Treasurer, An- 
drew Reed, D.D. — Honorary Secretaries : David D. Wire, Esq. ; 
Rev. T. Aveling. — Bankers, Messrs. Barclay, Sevan, Tritton, and 
Co. — Sub-Secretary and Collector, Mr. W. Strudwicke. 

CHOLERA ORPHAN HOME, Ham, Richmond ; esta- 
blished 1849. The occasion for this institution has been 
caused by the lamentable course of the cholera in the past 
autumn, — making many desolate ; and it will perhaps 
scarcely last beyond the immediate necessity for it. (See 
note to the Infant Orphan Asylum, page 300.) The premises 
taken have been met with at a moderate cost, through the 
benevolence of one individual, and will accommodate one 
himdred. It is intended, for the present, for the reception 
of orphan girls who have lost both parents, and for boys, 
when funds will allow. One child will be supported for every 
additional amount of £10 10s. annually. 

Should the attempt meet with public support, it will be 
continued under the title of " The National Orphan Home." 

Treasurer, J. M. Morgan, Esq., 12, Stratton-street. — Secretary, 
Rev. Joseph Brown, Christchurch, Blackfiriars-road. 

THE AGRICULTURAL ORPHAN SCHOOL is a con- 
templated institution, purposing the industrial training of 
orphan children "of the poorest class" in agricultural occu- 
pations, providing for them, in after life, the means of emi- 
gration, <fec. It will have been observed, that most of the 
preceding asylums exclude the very 'poorest, or such as have 
been the inmates of a workhouse. The scheme has the 
approval of the Bishop of London ; and an influential list 
of directors has been already formed. Prospectuses, and 
other information, may be obtained of the Honorary Secre- 
tary, Rev. W. Denton, Vicarage, Hoxton-square. 

ROYAL MILITARY ASYLUM, Chelsea. EstabHshed. 
1801. For the orphan children of soldiers of the regular 
army of Great Britain, of whom three-hundred and fifty are 
maintained, and instructed on the National Education Sys- 
tem. Consists of three departments : the normal school, for 
training schoolmasters for the army; the model, and the 
infant schools. The school is often known by the name of 
the " Duke of York's." The present building, which was 
erected by Mr. Copeland, had its first stone laid by his late 
Royal Highness. The establishment is conducted strictly 
according to military discipline. Friday is the best day for 



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^3 

MILITARY, A.D. 1801 (ftrpjjKH SSljtemi seamen's, A.D. 1827 

yiewing the children parade, with their military band. Open 
from ten o'clock till four; dinner hour, one. Under the 
superintendence of a military commission, of whom the Oom- 
mander-in-Chief is the president. 
Chelsea College, see page 215. 

Commandant, Colonel P. Brown. — ^Adjutant and Secretary, 
Lieut. J. E. Addison, 70th foot. — Quartermaster, Mr. W. Cousins. 
Surgeon, T. Graham Balfour, M.D.— ^Chaplain, Rev. W. S. O. 
Dusautoy. 

MERCHANT SEAMEN'S ORPHAN ASYLUM, New 
Grove, Bow-road. Instituted 1827, Office, 98, Gracechurch- 
street. For providing clothing, maintenance, and education 
for the destitute orphan children of seamen in the merchant 
service ; — ^ultimately placing them in situations, either at sea 
or on shore ; as far as may be practicable, where their princi- 
ples may not be endangered, and the prospect of an honest 
Hvelihood secured. Age of admission, seven to eleven years, 
and continue until fourteen. One hundred and ten children 
now in the asylum ; their religious training is according to 
the Established Church. The annual disbursements for the 
support of the institution amount to ^2,000 per annum, 
depending, all but £150, upon voluntary contributions, 
which appear at present to be only just sufficient for the 
purpose. The funded property is only £5,416. 

Ten guineas at one time, or one guinea annually, consti- 
tutes a governor, entitled to one vote at general meetings, 
and election of children into the asylum, which takes place 
on the last Monday in February and August. Every owner 
or master of a ship, collecting from the crew to the amount of 
one guinea annuiJly, is entitled to the same privilege. Each 
child, to be elected, must obtain 250 votes at the least, and 
unsuccessful votes are carried on to the three following 
elections. 

President, Sir J. Graham, Bart., M.P. — Treasurer, Captain 
Henry Nelson. — Chaplain, Rev. Henry Rendall, M.A. — Hon. 
Secretary, George S. Clarke, Esq. — Secretary and Collector, Mr. 
Richard Geddes. — Bankers, Bank of England. — Matron, Mrs. 
Bailey. — Schoolmaster, Mr. Price. — Schoohaistress, Miss Abbott. 

SAILORS' ORPHAN GIRLS' EPISCOPAL SCHOOL 
and ASYLUM, 29, Cannon-street-road, St. George's, East. 
Instituted 1829. Forty orphans are daily instructed and 
clothed, whilst twenty of them are in the house, and wholly 



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SAILOBS' ORPHAN. ^itHTfltinilSi CttHntlBS. ST. Ann's ASYLUM. 

provided for ; which benefit, it is represented, would be most 
ffhidly extended to all, were adequate means placed in the 
hands of the managers. The instruction given is purely 
scriptural, the Bible being the basis of all ; the children are 
trained in the principles of the Established Church, and, as 
hi as possible, in such moral and domestic habits as are 
likely to fit them for respectable service. Ten shillings and 
sixpence annual, or five guineas donation, constitute a go- 
vernor. The expenditure is very little above £500 per an- 
num, but is entirely dependent on voluntary contributions. 

Treasurer, Robert 0. L. Bevan, Esq., Lombard-street. — Hono- 
rary Secretary, Robert Sweeting, Esq., 29, Lombard-street. — 
Ladies' Secretary, Miss Toimg, Denmark-hill, Surrey. — Governess, 
Mrs. Ssurgent. — Collector, Mr. William John Hayden, 74, Great 
Cambridge-street, Hackney-road. 

• TEE SAILORS' FEMALE ORPHAN HOME, Sidney- 
place, Cambridge-road. Instituted 1829. Is another school 
for the same objects ; conducted, it would appear, on exactly 
similar principles. The elections are half-yearly ; but the 
number of orphans to be elected depends on the state of the 
funds, which at present appear to be very limited. The total 
amount of receipts last year was under ^250, a sum very 
inadequate to the requisite extension of the number to be 
maintained. Ten shillings annually, or £6 at one time, 
constitutes a member, entitled to two votes for every such 
subscription. 

Treasurer, Robert Hanbury, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries: Rev. 
John Tagg, M.A.; J. K. Arthur, Esq.— Collector, Mr. Edward 
Cooke, 23, Princes-square, St. George's East. 

ROYAL ASYLUM OF ST. ANJTS SOCIETY, 
Streatham, Surrey, and Aldersgate, London. Office, 2, 
Charlotte-row, Mansion House. Instituted 1709.^ Educates 
and wholly provides for the legitimate children of necessi- 
tous parents, whether orphans or not ; more especially the 
descendants of parents who have seen better days. The 
present number of children in the asylum is 151 boys, and 
76 girls, and 30 boys and 32 girls at the day-school, in 
London : at the latter school they are only educated and 

* Originally founded by the aid of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, in 1700, as a day-school. It was not until the year 180O, 
that the country asylum was opened, and the addition made of maintain- 
ing children. 



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bancroft's,a.d.1758 §mXK[ SsljllIinS^ RAine's, a.d. 1780 

clothed. The annual expenditure exceeds £5,000 per an- 
num ; and the receipts, from all sources, last year, as much 
as ^6,400. The dividends realise ^750, otherwise the whole 
is dependent on the yoluntary contributions. 

One guinea or more annually, or 10 guineas or more in 
one payment, constitutes a governor, entitled to votes at 
each election of children into the asylum, and, in rotation, 
to present a child into the day-school in town. Every go- 
vernor has the right to nominate a candidate, boy or girl, 
at each election, either from the children in the day-school, 
cff not ; but all children are required to be between the ages 
of seven and eleven years. 

A contribution of JC120. 15s., when the child is between 
the ages of seven and nine years, or £105 when the child is 
between nine and eleven years, entitles the donor imme- 
diately to place a child on the foundation at Brixton. The 
elections are half-yearly, viz., on the second Thursday in 
February and August, when, in addition to those elected on 
the day's poll, two are elected with the highest number of 
Aggregate votes. 

President, the Archbishop of Canterbury. — Ladies' President, 
the Duchess of Northumberland. — Treasurer, Matthias Attwood, 
Esq., M.P., 27, Gracechurch-street. — Secretary, Edward Frede- 
rick Leeks, Esq., 2, Charlotte-row, Mansion House.-^Collector, 
Mr. George Bleaden, 2, Charlotte-row. 

BANCROFTS HOSPITAL SCHOOL, Mile-end-road. 
Founded 1768. For affording board, clothing, and educa- 
tion to one hundred boys, from the age of seven to fourteen, 
who are appointed upon presentation, in turn, of the mem- 
bers of the court of assistants of the Drapers' Company, and, 
at the close of their education, are apprenticed or put to 
service. Forms for obtaining a boy's admission, and other 
information, can be obtained at Drapers' Hall, Throgmorton- 
street. For Almshouses and general account of ^'Hospital," 
see page 220. 

Head Master and Chaplain, Rev. Richard Thomas, M.A. — 
Second Master, C. Dinham, Esq. — Matron, Mrs. Dinham. 

RAINESS CHARITY.Bi. George's-in-the-east. Fo 
1736 ; incorporated 1780. Fifty boys are taught, frc 
age of nine years, to read, write, and cast accounts, til 
are put out apprentices. And fifty girls are taken xe 
school, at the age of eight years, forty of whom, whe 

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306 

THE LADIES*, 1702. jgtogtntnal (Cljanfos. haws Towy,i804 

have continued therein four jeaxs, are removed into the 
asylum, where they remain the same space of time, are en- 
tirely maintained, and trained up for service ; and, after 
the age of twenty-two years, six of them, producing certifi- 
cates of their good behaviour during their servitude, conti- 
nuing unmarried, and members of die Church of EngUuid, 
draw lots twice a-year, for a marriage portion of £100, to 
settle them in the world, with such honest and industrious 
persons as the majority of the trustees shall approve of, who 
must be inhabitants of this parish, St. John of Wapping, or 
St. Paul Shadwell, and members of the Church of England ; 
otherwise, Mr. Rainess will is, they should not receive the 
£100. These charity schools have been the happy means of 
making many children beneficial, who would otnerwise have 
been burthensome to society ; several reputable tradesmen, 
and many honest faithful servants, have received their edu- 
cation therein. Under the management of the Rector and 
Lecturer of the parish, and other persons incorporated. 

Chairman of the Board of Trustees, M. J. Perppingham, Esq.^ 
17, Great Prescott-street. —Treasurer, James Richardson, Esq., 
Wapping High-street. — Schoolmaster and Collector, Mr. Verradl. 

THE LADIES' CHARITY SCHOOL, 30, John-street, 
Bedford-row. Instituted 1702. For educating, clothing, 
and wholly maintaining fifty-one poor girls, from all parts 
of the United Kingdom, whether orphans or not ; and espe- 
cially designed for those whose parents have moved in a re- 
spectable sphere. Children are received between the ages of 
eight and ten, and remain until the age of fourteen. Each 
candidate must be recommended by a subscriber of at least 
one year's standing ; have a medical certificate from the 
surgeon ; and be furnished with certificate of baptism and 
of parents' marriage. 

The election U^es place half-yearly, when all life sub- 
scribers of 10 guineas, or annual subscribers of one guinea, 
can vote. 

Treasurer, John Masterman, Esq., M.P., 35, Nicholas-lane. — 
Honorary Surgeon, Mr. Fisher, 15, John-street, who grants cer- 
tificates on Tuesdays and Fridays, between 8 and 9. — Honorary 
Secretary, Mr. George Hoby, 123, Mount-street, Berkdey-square. 
— Collector, Mr. Cookworthy, 24, Castle-street, Falcon-square. 

HAIiS TOWN SCHOOL of INDUSTRY, 103, Sloane- 
street. Established 1804. For the purpose of training fe- 



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ST. John's, a.d. 1842. ^SljlnillS* French, a.d. 1747 

male seryants. Has just been removed to the present ^gible 
premises, where fifty boarders are maintained. Girls are 
received from the ages of eight to sixteen, and are carefully 
trained in the principles of the Church of England, and in- 
structed in reading, writing, arithmetic, needlework, and 
the various branches of domestic service. The income is 
derived from volimtary contributions, payments on behalf 
of children, and a small amount of dividends, amounting 
together to £650 ; the expenditure within that amount. 

Annual subscribers of 6 guineas, or donors of £50, paying 
one guinea annually, have the privilege of nomination. A 
child thus named pays £1. 5s. per quarter, for which sum 
she is boarded and instructed, and places ultimately found 
for those whose conduct is satisfactory. 

Treasurer, George Carr Glyn, Esq. — Honorary Secretary, Mrs. 
Carey, 44, Cadogan-place. — ^Hon. Medical Attendant, R. Ellis, 
Esq. — ^Matron, Mrs. West. — ^Collector, Mr. Troughton. 

ST. JOHN'S SER VANTS SCHOOL, 22, Kew Ormond- 
street. Established 1842. Boards, clothes, and educates one 
hundred and thirteen female children, chiefly of the age of 
fourteen or fifteen. The main object is to train them for good 
and efficient household servants, by two or three years' care- 
ful instruction. Some few are admitted as young as four or 
five years of age, and some remain until eighteen. The 
establishment is supported principally by payments from the 
friends of the children, or by the benevolent on their behalf, 
viz., for children above ten years, £12 a-year; under ten, 
jei4 10s. a-year; or graduated payments, from £60 to £100, at 
one time, according to age. The present successful position of 
the school is owing to the exertions of its treasurer, who has 
been a large donor to its funds, and makes up its annual de- 
ficiency of receipts. The school has been twice enlarged, 
and it is now proposed that a house shall be engaged at the 
seaside, for the benefit of the inmates in turn. 

Applications for admission to be made to the Hon. Mrs. 
Baptist Noel, Homsey ; the Hon. Mrs. Arthur Kinnaird, 35, 
Hyde Park Gardens ; or to Mrs. Saxby, the matron. 

Bankers, Messrs. Ransom and Co., 1, Pall Mall East. — Trea- 
surer, the Hon. Arthur Kinnaird, 1, Pall Mall East. 

WESTMINSTER FRENCH PROTESTANT ChaHty 
School, Bloomsbury. Founded 1747. This establishment 



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WELSH SCHOOL, jgtofltJmiEl tftrmfeg^ A.D.1715 

provides clotiiing, mamtenance, and education, for a certain 
number of girls, descendants of the French reftigees. They 
are taught to read and write French and EngHsh, and are 
instructed in the principles of religion according to the doc- 
trine of the Church of England. They are also taught the 
elements of arithmetic, as well as the principal works of 
their sex ; they make their own linen, and are by turns oc- 
cupied in the house work. The children must have attained 
the age of seven years before they are registered, and are not 
eligible after the age of twelve years. 

Twenty pounds paid in the course of a year, or one guinea 
annually, constitutes a director, and gives the power of 
always having one child on the list of admission. 

President, the Earl of Radnor. — ^Treasurer, J. R. Vincent, Esq., 
24, Norland-square, Notting-hill. — Secretary, Rev. J. Mudry, 21, 
Abbey-place, St. John's-wocMd, Minister of the Church of England 
French Protestant Church. 

WELSH CHARITY SCff00L,Gi9.fahm'TosA. Founded 
1715 1 This charity is imder the management and support 
of '^ The Most Honourable and Loyal Society of Ancient 
Britons." It entirely supports two hundred boys and girlSjS 
educating them in sul the branches of good and pious learn- 
ing, and training the boys in military exercises, thus calcu- 
lating them for national as well as individual benefit. The 
conditions of admittance are, that the parents must be bom 
in Wales or Monmouthshire, and produce evidence of the 
legality of their marriage ; and the child bom within ten 
mUes of the Royal Exchange. Forms of application, to be 
signed by at least two subscribers, and filled up with requi- 
site particulars, can be obtained of the secretary. A board 
of governors meet the first Thursday of every month, at the 
school-house, at three o'clock in the afternoon, to consider 
such applications. The age for admission is from eight to 

^ Incorporated 1846 ; originated 1714, in honour of the first birthday 
of Caroline Princess of Wales, after coming to the title : the same being 
St David's day. 

'^Two hundred is the r^folar number, but during the past two years 
the committee have determined to fill up only half the vacancies, in con- 
sequence of the embarrassed state of the funds ; firom the same cause, no 
late report is supplied. The contemplated plan for leaving London baa, 
for the present, been abandoned. 



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BOTAL CALEDONIAN, 5lfit{telll5» A.D. 1816 

ten years. 1,974 boys, and 553 girls, have been admitted 
on the establishment, and wholly maintained. 

President; Earl Powis. — Treasurer, Colonel Wood, of Littleton. 
— Secretary, Mr. John James, School House, Gray*s Inn-road. 

ROYAL CALEDOJ!^IAN ASYLUIfyCoi^nhAgejiAeldB, 
Islington. Incorporated 1816.1 For the children of soldiers, 
sailors, and marines, natives of Scotland, who haye served in 
her Majesty's fleet or army, and died or been disabled while 
in such service ; also of indigent Scotch parents, of whom 
the father must have been born in Scotland, and have resided 
in London not less than one year, or died during such resi- 
dence. The children must have been bom in wedlock, and 
be perfectly free from any mental or bodily disease or infir- 
mity ; at the time of election must not be under seven, nor 
above ten years of age at the time application is made for 
admission. They are wholly maintained until fourteen, 
when they are apprenticed or otherwise provided for. The 
Sections take place twice annually, on the first Thursdays 
in June and December, and are decided by the votes of sub- 
scribers. 

The funded property has been, within the last four years, 
reduced upwards of j£8,000, by quarterly sales of stock, from 
the yearly increase of expenditure, in consequence of the 
extension of the building for female children. The present 
number in the asylum is seventy-two boys and forty-seven 
girls ; and perhaps no set of children are calculated to afford 
a more favourable opinion of the charity that maintains 
them : the national dress and vigorous appearance of the boys 
generally, greatly conduces to &is. The boys' military band 
is a justly admired one, and is often rendered available for 
the festivals of kindred institutions. 

One guinea annual, or 10 guineas donation, entitles to one 
vote ; 100 guineas, for one child to be placed in the asylum. 

President, the Duke of Buccleuch. — ^Treasurers : Chas. Forbes, 
Esq. ; Captain James Lament ; J. A. Simpson, Esq. — Physicians : 
Alex. Tweedie, M.D. ; George Owen Rees, M.D. — Consulting 
Surgeons : J. M. Amott, Esq. ; Alexander Bain Chisholm, M.D. 
—Surgeon, J. R. Ede, Esq.— -Surgeon-Dentist, William A. N. 

^ This institution was founded, and originally managed, by tfae High* 
land Socie^ of London, 1808, but transferred to the subscribers in 1814. 
Opened, in 1819, in Cross-street, Hatton Garden; and removed to the 
present building in 1828. 



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ST. Patrick's d^rHthlMl ClfHritlBfi. socibtt,aj).1784 

Oatlin, Esq. — Saperintendent and Secretaiy^ Charles Benton, 
Esq.— -Collector, Mr. A. M'K^izie, 8, Clayton-place, Caledonian- 
road. 

THE BENEVOLENT SOCIETY of ST. PATRICK, 
Stamford-street, Blackfiriars-road. Instituted 1784.^ Two 
hundred girls, and three hundred bojs, bom of Irish parents, 
in London and its vicinity, are entirely clothed and educated, 
but not, as in the case of the Welsh and Scotch schools, main- 
tained. Several of those of good character, however, are ap- 
prenticed out. They are educated in the religion they have 
been brought up in, and no religious controversv is allowed. 
No child unless bom in London, or its immediate vicinity, 
and of Irish parents or parent, and not imder seven or above 
ten years of age, can be admitted. Recommendations must 
be signed by uuree governors. The committee meet the first 
Wednesday in each month, at the establishment. The finances 
appear in a prosperous condition : the funded property 
;&30,800 ; and the annual disbursements, of about j£l,500, 
fairly covered by the dividends therefrom, assisted by volun- 
tary contributions of about j£600, on tne continuation of 
which, however, this prosperity depends. 

Twenty guineas constitute a governor for life, and three 
guineas a governor for one year. 

President, Prince C^rge of Cambridge. — ^Treasurer, Edward 
Thomas Bainbridge, Esq^-— Inspectora of Schools and Apprentices : 
T. H. Burke, Esq.; C. H. La Touche, Esq.— Physician, Dr. Bab- 
bington. — Surgeon, Francis Kierman, Esq., Beamnont-street. — 
Apothecary, Lionel P. Kell, Esq. — Secretary, Edw. Hastings, Esq. 

The accounts of Hie East London English db Irish Schoolsy 
and The Associated Catholic Charities, occur towards the end 
of this chapter. 

WESTMORELAND SOCIETY, 18, Bread-street, Cheap- 
side. Established 1746. The object of this societv is the 
clothing, maintaining, and educating of children, bom in 

^ By amalgamation with a more ancient society, founded 1704, termed 
the Irish Charitable Society, which distributed its charities undl 175^, 
and then suspended operations, leaving j£l,091 South Sea annuities stand- 
ing in the names of the old trustees. This formed the nucleus of the 
present institution. George IV contributed no less a sum than £ZJQO 
to this charity in his lifetime; and her present Mi^etty upwards of j^l ,900 
to the present time. 



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TOBKSHIBE ^51(1111115. SOGIETT, A.I>. 1812 

London, oi within twelve miles of the Royal Exchange, 
whose parents, or either of them, were bom in the county of 
Westmoreland. None are eligible under eight or above 
eleven years of age, continuing with the society until four- 
teen, and, on leaving, a sum of £5 is applied for their benefit. 
Twenty-six such children are wholly provided for by the 
dociel^, at an annual expense of £600, The whole num- 
ber who have been maintained is two hundred and sixty- 
nine. The funds appear to be fairly supported, and are 
dependent on voluntary contributions to an extent of j£200 
per annum. The funded property is about jei2,000. 

Ten guineas in one sum, or one guinea annual, constitutes 
a governor, with one vote for every such subscription. Va- 
cancies are generally declared at a meeting of the committee, 
on the first Tuesday in January. Application must be made 
to the Secretary for the form of petition, which is to be deli- 
vered to him, with all required documents, before the end of 
February. 

President, Earl of Lonsdale. — ^Treasurer, Robert Addison, Esq., 
Begent's-park. — Honorary Ohaplam, Rev. John Miles, B.D. — 
Honorary Surgeon, John Hunter, Esq., 19, Trinity-square. — Secre- 
tary, Mr. James Burra, 19, Bread-street.— Collector, Mr. John 
Thompson, 6, Clare Hall Cottages, Jamaica Level, Bermondsey. 

THE YORKSHIRE JSOCIETrjS SCffOOZyWestrxm- 
ster-road. Established 1812, for the education and entire 
maintenance of boys, one of whose parents must have been 
bom in Yorkshire ; have been in a respectable line of life, 
reduced by misfortune, and resided for the period of three 
years at least, within five miles of the Royal Exchange. Ko 
boy is eligible whose parents have received parochial relief, 
preference being always given to those whose fathers have 
been members of the society. All applications for admission 
into the school to be made to the Secretary. Age of admis- 
sion, from eight to eleven; and time taken care of, until 
fourteen years old. The number of children at present in the 
school, is, thirteen girls, and thirty-four boys ; from hence- 
forth the former will be excluded from the benefits of the 
charity, by an alteration in the regulations, which provides 
for boys only. The expenditure has lately exceeded the 
income ; the funded propertjr being under jb8,000, and the 
voluntary contributions proving inadequate ; last year the 
amount was jg808, and the dividends £314, — leaving a defi- 
ciency of nearly ^^200 imder the regular expenditure. 



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BOTAL MASONIC, ij^ffTatiinial €llKriti05. a.d. 1788 <fe 1798 

One guinea annual constitutes a governor, with one vote 
at all elections; ten guineas at one time, a life governor, 
with two votes. 

Presidents : Earl Fitzwilliam, Earl Harewood. — ^Treasurer and 
Consulting Physician, James &uier, M.D., 36, Finsbury-square. 
— Hon. Secretary, Heniy Tristram, Esq., 12, Bankside, South- 
wark-bridge. 

ROYAL FREEMASONS' SCHOOL forFemdeChildreny 
near the Obelisk, Westminster-road. Instituted 1788. En- 
tirely maintains, clothes, and educates the female children 
and orphans of reduced brethren. Ko child can be admitted 
under eight, or above eleven, years of age, nor remain therein 
after having attained the age of fifteen years ; and no peti- 
tion can be received in behalf of a child who is under seven 
and a half, or above ten and a half, years of age, except in 
the case of a child whose parents are both deceased, in whose 
behalf a petition may be received at six and a half vears of 
age, and who may be admitted at seven. No candidate can 
be placed on the list for election, unless the petition has 
been approved at least three months prior to the day ap- 
pointed for the election, and the child have been religiously 
instructed, and able to read the Scriptures. Six hundred 
and sixteen children have been brought up by this charity, 
and have conducted themselves to the satisfaction of the 
governors in after life. 

A subscription of one guinea per annum constitutes the 
subscriber a governor, with the privilege of one vote. 

President, Earl of Zetland, Pro. Q.M. — Honorary Solicitor, 
R. H. Giraud, Esq., 7, Fumival's-inn. — Secretary, Mr. Francis 
Crew. — Matron, Mrs. Cook. — Collector, Mr. John NichoUs, 14, 
WeUs-street, Jewin-street, Cripplegate. 

THE ROYAL MASONIC INSTITUTION for ^oys; 

office, 7. Bloomsbury-place, Bloomsbury-square. Instituted 
1798; clothes and educates the sons of indigent and deceased 
brethren, according to the situation in iSe they are most 
probably destined to occupy, and inculcates such religious 
instructions as may be conformable to the tenets of their 
^ents, and ultimately apprentices them to suitable trades. 
Children of all religious denominations, and wherever resi- 
dent, are eligible to be admitted candidates, from the age of 
seven to ten, provided the fathers have been Masons three 
years, duly registered in the Grand Lodge books, and con- 



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313 

victuallers', AD. 1803. £5t{tolIlS» travellers', a.d. 1847 

tinued subscribing members to a Lodge for two years. Seven 
hundred and one boys have been clothed and educated, and 
seventy are now on the establishment. The expenditure is 
about j£700 per annum, which is fsdrly covered by the volun- 
tary contributions, judging from last year's statement, — 
besides the dividends from frmded property, realising, at 
present time, about £300 per annum. 

One guinea constitutes an annual subscriber, with privi- 
lege of being elected on the committee. Ten guineas dona- 
tion entitles to two votes at all elections of the children. 

President, Earl of Zetland. — Treasurer, Benjamin Bond OabbeU^ 
Esq., M.P.—Honorary Solicitor, R. H. Qiraud, Esq. — Honorary 
Svungeon, W. G. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., 23, Sackville-street'.— 
Secretaiy, Mr. Augustus Union Thiselton, 7, Bloomsbury-place, 
Bloomsbury-square ; where attendance is given eveiy Saturday, 
between the hours of ten and two. — Collector, Mr. G. Paradise, 
44, Princes-road, Kennington. 

LICENSED VICTUALLERS* SCHOOL, Kennington- 
lane, Lambeth ; office, 127, Fleet-street. Instituted 1803, 
for children of deceased and decayed licensed victuallers; 
wholly maintaining an average number of 117 children, 
and an entire niunber, since its establishment, of 1,143. 
The total expenditure averages ;£3,000 per annum ; j£2,600 
of which was last year derived from subscriptions, and the 
remainder from a small amount of dividends, assisted by 
the profits of fetes, etc. The funded prepay is under 
jG5,000. Applications from the parents, relations, or friends 
of children, properly qualified, will be received by the com- 
mittee, at the school-house, in Eennington-lane, Lambeth, 
and at the office. Subscribers are entitled to one vote for 
the admission of children, for each guinea subscribed. 

Governor, Mr. Long, Old Bailey. — Secretary, Mr. William 
Smalley, 127, Fleet-street. — Solicitors, Messrs. Wire and Child, 
9, St. Swithm's-lane. — Bankers, Messrs. Gosling and Sharpe. — 
Consulting Physician, William W. Gull, Esq. — Surgeon, George 
Olding, iSq., 159, High-st. Borough. — Shooimaster, Mr. Beece. 
—Schoolmistress, Miss Davies. 

COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS' SCHOOLS for Or- 
phan and Necessitous ChUd/ren^ Wanstead ; office, 60, Bread- 
street, Cheapside. Established 1847. Have only been in 
existence for three years, yet in that short time the benefits 
of education and entire maintenance have been extended to 



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314 

MABINBSOCIBTY, ^JlBXatimial ClfStifeS. A.D. 1766 

seventy orphans and necessitous children ; while the number 
of subscribers and donors is upwards of four thousand. Fif^ 
teen additional boys have lately been admitted into the 
schools ; the purchase of freehold property for an extensive 
building, is contemplated ; and it is expected that the bene- 
fits of the institution will eventually be extended to three 
hundred boys and girls; but for this purpose a sum of 
^12,000 is stated to be required. Last year's cash statement 
presents a most satisfactory prospect of the funds being well 
supported : the expenditure, including many extra items, 
was under j£3,500; whilst the receipts were, from volun- 
taiy contributions, j£5,244, and from dividends oli property 
already funded, £345. The education afforded is essentially 
on Church of England principles ; but the friends of children 
have the option of requiring that the Assembly's catechism 
be taught, if they prefer it. 

The elections of the children are by ballot, in June and 
December. They must be nominated by a governor on one 
of the printed forms, and be between the ages of seven and 
eleven ; and, when elected, remain until fourteen. Kot more 
than two cMIdren of the same father can be admitted, and 
only one be elected at a time. An unsuccessful candidate 
has the votes carried to his credit for the two next elections 
only. One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, consti- 
tutes a governor, entitled to one vote at all elections. 

President, John Mastenuan, Esq., M.P. — ^Treasurer, George 
Moore, Esq., Bow Church-yard. — Physician, Dr. Jeaffi:«8on, Fins- 
hury-square. — ^Honorary Surgeon, Charles Bay, Esq., Gracechurch- 
street. — House Surgeon, W. H. Carey, Esq., Woodford. — Hono- 
rary Secretary, George Lawrence, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Alfred 
Lench Saul, 60, Bread-street, Cheapside. — ^Bankers, the Bank of 
England. 

MARINE SOCIETY', office, 54, Bishopsgate-street. In- 
stituted 1756;! incorporated 1772. For the equipment, 
maintenance, and instruction of distressed boys for the ro^al 
navy, the Indian navy, merchants' service, and the fisheries. 
The society places out annually from two to three hundred 
boys, chiefly in the merchant's service, after qualifying them 

^ Owes its Qrigin to Sir John FieldiDg, the Duke of Bolton, and Jonas 
Hanwaj, who, in 1756, collected a number of distressed boys, who were 
clothed at the Duke's expense, and sent to serve on board H.M. ship 
Barfleur, then under his grace's command. 



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315 

BOTAL NAYT, IfitlllllM. A.D. 1821 



for the sea-service by a suitable education on board the soci- 
ety's ship, the Venus, off Woolwich, from whence the masters 
of yessels readily take them, as immediately useful on board 
ship. Boys of a hardy, daring disposition are selected ; must 
never have been guilty of theft, be received with the consent 
of their parents, be between the ages of thirteen and seven- 
teen, and stand four feet nine inches without shoes. Parish 
boys, with such qualifications, received on payment of three 
guineas. During the past year, 40 boys have been equipped 
for the Indian navy, 209 for the merchant seavice, and 100 
remain under training ; total number fitted out and pro- 
vided for from first establishment to end of 1848, 48,350. 
The support and continued prosperity of the society is well 
provided for by its funded property, producing j£5,415 annu- 
ally, besides which, j£730 is derived from duties and rents, 
and above jglOOO from voluntary contributions. The dis- 
bursements, according to the last cash statement, do not 
exceed £5,500. 

The society have also funds at their disposal to be applied, 
in time of peace, to the apprenticing of poor girls ; bounty- 
mone^ for the relief of forty-three widows of navy captains 
and lieutenants, elected annually ; and annuities to the suf- 
ferers in the engagement under Lord Duncan, 1797. Appli^ 
cants to these funds must apply, either by lett^ or personally, 
in the month of April, to tibie secretary, who will nimish the 
requisite forms. 

Qualification for a governor : a subscription of two guineas 
annually ; or twelve guineas at one time. The annu^ court 
is held in the month of February. Quarterly courts, Janu- 
ary, April, July, and October. The committee meet every 
Thursday at one o'clock, at the office. 

President; Earl of Bomney. — Treasurer, Heniy Sykes Thorn- 
ton, Esq., 20, Birchin-lane. — Chaplain, Rev. David Jones, B.D. 
Honorary Physician, Dr. Black, 13, Bedford-square. — Hon. (Con- 
sulting Surgeon, James Luke, Esq. — Honorary Surgeon, George 
Busk, EBq.---Surgeon, William Stuart, Esq. — TgyaniiTiiTig Surgeon, 
James Sherwin, Esq. — Solicitor, John Young, Esq., 6, Sise-lane, 
Bucklersbury. — Secretary, Mr. Thomas Plimurtiead Rust. — ^Assist. 
Secretary, Mr. Samuel King. — Superintendent, Lieutenant Tho- 
mas Eyton, R.N. — Schoolmaster, Mr. John Martin. 

ROYAL NAYT ASYLUM, Greenwich. Instituted 
1801. Incorporated with the Hospital, 1821. Occupies one 
of the five pUes of building constituting the Royal Hospital, 



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316 

PAROCHIAL (KtflTgtnmal Clraritfeg^ schools. 

and consists of an upper and lower school,^ with four hundred 
boys in each; the former being the sons of officers and seamen 
in the royal navy and marines, and in the merchant service, 
— receiving a practical education in navigation and nautical 
astronomy ; the latter consisting of the sons of seamen in 
the royal navy, or of non-commissioned officers and privates 
of the royal marines, — ^who are instructed in reading, writings 
and arithmetic, and other useful information. 
For account of Oreenwich Hospitaly vide page 216. 

Chaplain, Bev. George Fisher, M. A.- -Master of the Nautical 
School, Mr. Edw. Riddle. — Head Master, Upper School, Rev. 
James Hill. — ^Head Master, Lower School, Mr. tkiward Hughes. 

Before bringing the present chapter to a close, reference 
must of necessity be made to the numerous parochial and 
local schools ; but we cannot do so with any attempt at 
{fording information respecting them as complete and 
particular as, from the data before us, inclination would 
prompt: limits forbid it, — especially as the usefulness of 
such information may be deemed questionable, confined, as 
the benefits of the schools are, to the immediate neighbour- 
hood where they are known. In every parish there are one 
or more schools known as the '' parochial schools," founded, 
and often endowed, by the liberality of individual inhabi- 
tants : their dates are very generally about the middle of 
the seventeenth century ; and, according to Rapin, derived 
their institution from the desire of '^ preventing the seduction 
of the infant poor into Roman Catholic seminaries ; 3 James 
II, 1687."* The original design, in most instances, was, appa- 

^ The Lower School was removed from Paddington to Greenwich, in 
1807. It originated bj an attempted fraud, in 1797, under the name of 
** The British Endeayour," which ultimately resulted in the punishment 
of its author by the defrauded subscribers, and the actual carrying out 
of the plan under proper management. 

' As Grammar Schools, many are of a much earlier date, as will be 
seen in the next chapter : some, in course of time, becoming merely parish 
schools; and others, by an accession of property, and concurrent advan- 
tages, proving the future foundations of such establishments as Mercers', 
Merchant Tailors', &c. 

" Originally," Mr. Piatt states, " it must be supposed the schools of 
London were exclnsiyely dependent upon the religions houses to which 
they were attached. A proof of the r^ular nature of the connexion ia 
to be found in the circumstances attending the gradual dissolution of the 



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317 

THE SOCIETY OF ^gmtlfial ^itmOlS* PATR0K8, A.D. 170i 

rentljyto furnish not only instruction, but clothing and main- 
tenance : these latter purposes have been, for manj years 
past, much encroached upon. In the general desire to extend 
education, sad havoc has been made with the blue and green 
parochial symbols of olden days ; in few institutions are 
they now retained, and in fewer still is maintenance afforded, 
and these only to a limited number. But there are excep- 
tions ; and the more immediate purpose of the present chap- 
ter being an account of school asylv/ms for the necessitous, 
it may be useful to include some of the principal of such 
establishments, leaving further reference to sucn local and 
district operations as are purely for educational purposes to 
be comprehended under *' Institutions for the General Ad- 
vancement of National Instruction" — ^vide Chapter xvi. 

Under the same subject will likewise be included Ragged 
Schools, and London City Mission operations. 

An account must first, however, be given of an institution 
we had almost omitted to refer to, viz. — 

THE PATRONS of the ANNIVERSARY of the Charity 
Schools J established upon a very ancient foundation, 1704. 
It comprises an association of treasurers, trustees, and sub- 
scribers to charity schools, for the purpose of perpetuating 
the anniversary meeting of the children of the charity schook 

latter, from the time of Henry V ." Stow, referring to the effect this pro- 
duced upon education, points out that Henry II, to remedy the evil, 
appointed that there should he Grammar iScAoob at St. Martin's-le-Grand, 
St. Maiylehone, Cheapside, St Dunstan's in the West, and St Anthony's 
Hospital. The year following this ordinance, or in 1446, four other 
Grammar Schools were added hy Parliament, namely, in the parishes of 
St Andrew's, Holhom; Allhallows the Great : St. Peter's, Comhill ; and 
St Thomas-of-Acon's Hospital, Cheapside. It may he douhted whether 
this last measure proceeded heyond the stage of enactment; certain it is, 
that, ten years later, we find four clergymen of the City petitioning Par- 
liament for the power of providing each a Grammar School," to teach all 
that will come.'* One of these was John Neal, the Master of St. Thomaa- 
of-Acon's. The petitioners complained, at the same time, that teaching 
had become a monopoly, and observed : ** Mliere there is a great number 
of learners and few teachers, and aU the learners are compelled to go to 
the few teachers, and to none others, the roasters vrax rich in money, and 
the learners poor in learning ; as experience openly showeth, against all 
virtue and order of public weal." Mr. Piatt thinks that the school from 
thence founded by Mr. Neil and his associates, formed the first founda- 
tion of the present Mercers' School. 



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318 

WESTMINSTER f iHrKtinttal ClfarifeS. schools, 1633-91 

of London, Westminster, Southwaxk, and environs ; and 
" thereby encouraging and maintaining these schools, they 
being a great support to the Protestant religion and estab- 
lished Church of England." 

The anniversary is held annually at St. Paul*s Cathedral, 
and the amount collected is equally divided between the 
Clergy Orphan School and the necessitous charity schools 
attending.^ The committee meet, at seven o'clock in the 
evening, on the first Tuesday in February, March, April, and 
May, at the London Coffeehouse, Ludgate-hill, to manage 
the affairs of the society. 

Two guineas or upwards constitute a patron for life, from 
such as are subscribers to some one charity school ; and no 
person can be a patron of the Anniversary unless he sub- 
scribes to a charity school. Each patron has a church-ticket 
for the Anniversary by applying to the Secretary for the 
same, either personally or by an order in writing. 

President, Marquis of Westminster. — ^Treasurers : Wm. Gilpin, 
Esq., Northumberland-street, Strand ; and Samuel Fisher, i^., 
Merchant Taylor's Hall, Threadneedle-street. — ^Bankers, Messrs. 
Glyn, Halifskz, Mills, and Co., Lombard-street. — Secretary, Mr. 
Wm. Comwell, 81, Basinghall-street. 

ST. MARQARETS HOSPITAL, Tothill Fields, West- 
minster. Established and endowed 1633, by various benefac- 
tors, and incorporated by charter of Charles I ; commonly 
known as the *' Green Coat School." The management is 
vested in twenty governors, and is maintained for the benefit 
of twenty-five chUdren of St. Margaret's, Westminster, who 
are educated, clothed, and wholly maintained by it. Appli- 
cations to be made to the master of the school. 

Treasurer, J. Burder, Esq. — Schoolmaster, Mr. J. G. Bruckner. 

BLUE COAT SCHOOL, WESTMINSTER, Tothill 
Fields, Westminster. Instituted 1688. No child can be 

^ The sum taken at the doors of St. Paul's last year, was £6^7 ; and 
the expenses of the anniversary, including the scaffolding, repairs, etc., 
£474. The subscriptions and donations, including £\Q itom the Presi- 
dent, ten guineas from the Lord Mayor, and £^Q from the Christian 
Knowledge Society, amounted to J0142 ; the amount from dividends, 
j£192 ; which, after defraying the various expenses contingent on the 
Society's management, etc., is about the amount generally divided : last 
year, thus, — j£45 to the Clergy Orphan School ; and £\6Q between ten 
schools, in sums from £6 to twenty guineas each. 



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319 

ORBT COAT, 1 698. ^antllflEl ^llni nig« burmnoton, 1699 

admitted whose parents have not been resident either in the 
parish of St. Margaret or St. John the Evangelist, one year 
previous to the time of presentation, and residing therem at 
the time of admission. No child can be admitted under the 
age of seven, or above the age of ten years. Only one of a 
family can be admitted at the same time. Two guineas an- 
nually, or upwards, entitles to present a child for admission 
into the school in rotation, as vacancies arise. 

Trustees : C. W. Hallett, Joseph Carter Wood, J. L. Elliot, and 
James Lys Seager, Esqrs. — Treasurer, J. L. Elliot, Esq. — Physi- 
cian, Dr. Todd. — Surgeon, J. White, Esq. — Master, Mr. William 
Steains. — ^Matron, Mrs. Steains. 

THE GREY COAT HOSPITAL, TothUl Fields, West- 
minster. Founded 1698, and reconstituted 1706. Educates 
and maintains sixty-seven boys and thirty-three girls, whose 
parents must have had a legal settlement in the united pa- 
rishes of St. Margaret and St. John the Evangelist, West- 
minster, for a period of seven years next preceding the ad- 
mission of such child. No child is admitted unless it be of 
the full age of seven years, and imder ten. Three guineas 
or upwards annually, or 30 guineas at one time, constitutes 
the right of presenting or recommending children in rotation, 
subject to the regulations, which may be obtained at the 
hospital between the hours of 9 and 10 a.m. 

President, Archbishop of Canterbury. — ^Treasurer, J. C. Wood, 
Esq. — ^Head Master, Mr. Edmund J. Grove. — Secretary, Mr. G. 
Vincent. 

THE BURLINGTON CHARITY SCHOOL, Burling- 
ton School-house, Boyle-street. Instituted 1699, for teaching 
60 girls belonging to, or residing in the parish of St. James, 
Westminster ; and in 1725 extended, by the opening of the 
present building, for the entire maintenance of 35 : this 
number, by the great benevolence of the worthy inhabitants, 
the trustees have been enabled, from time to time, to aug- 
ment to one hundred and ten. Children are admitted into 
this school from eight to ten years of age, and continue 
therein to the age of fifteen ; during which time they are 
taught to read, write, and cast accounts ; sew, mark, mend, 
and make ; and do household, kitchen, and laundry work ; 
being entirely maintained at the expense of the charity. 
The income is derived from dividends, to the amount of 
£554; and from contributions, collections, and children's 



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320 

MARYLBBONE,1750(|^irratninal ClfHrife Middlesex, 1781 

work, nearly j£800, an amount but barely coyering the ex- 
penditure. 

Applications for admission to be made at the school-house, 
every Monday, at one o'clock. Admission is restricted to 
the children of parishioners, or such as have resided in the 
parish seven years, who can be recommended bv subscribers, 
preference being given to such as were married in the Esta- 
blished Church, and the children baptised within one year of 
birth. 

Treasurer, William Aldous, Esq., 28, Argyll-street. —Secretary 
and Collector, Mr. William Hewer, 22, Warwick-street. 

CHARITY SCHOOL of the whole Parish of St. Mary4e' 
honey Devonshire-place North, New-road. Established 1750. 
Maintains, clothes, educates, and qualifies for useful servants 
one hundred and thirty-five girls, children of poor parishio- 
ners, till the age of fifteen years, when they are placed out 
to service. They then receive a bible and prayer-book ; and 
a reward of two guineas is given, on bringing a testimonial 
from their master or mistress of a two years' mithful service. 
The committee of management meet the first Monday in 
each month, at eleven o^lock. General meetings for the 
election of girls on the 12th of May and 10th of November. 
All subscribers have a vote for each guinea annual subscrip- 
tion. 

Treasurer, J. H. Pope, Esq., 39, Tork-place, Portman-square. 
— ^Bankers, Sir S. Scott, Bart., and Co. — Secretary, Mr. John 
Tweddell, School-house, New-road. — Mistress, Miss Cana. 

The following are a few institutions that, notwithstanding 
their partly local character, claim notice, either from their 
position or distinctive features ; and including, as they 
mostly do, the clothing of the objects of their charity, they 
may legitimately be inserted under the present subject. 

MIDDLESEX SOCIETY Jor Educating Poor Children 
in the Protestant Bdigion, and for Clothing theniy — although 
termed a Society, consists of a boys' and girls' schools omj, 
in Cannon-street-road, St. George s, instituted 1781, where 
about 100 orphans, or other necessitous and destitute chil- 
dren, who have no ^ochial settlement, are received, and 
carefully icstructed in the principles of the Protestant reli- 
gion. About 4,000 children have been thus educated ; the 
present number in the schools, is 70 girls and 30 boys, half 
of whom are annually clothed. 



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321 

aSKMAN SCHOOL. IMSI ^I^MIM, ASSOC. CATHOLIC. 

One guinea annually, cft ten guineas at one time, consti- 
tutes a governor, who is entitled to nominate a child. 

Treasurer; Rev. W. Archer. — Trustee, Rev. W. Quedtett, M.A. 
— Collector, Mr. Bowka^ X09, Upper Thames-street. 

THE GERMAN SCHOOL, Savoy, Strand. Founded 
1743. Is attached to the German Lutheran Church in the 
Savoy, and afbrds education and clothing only to the chil- 
dren of poor Germans, the numher of whom varies from forty 
to ei^ty. It consists of an estahlishment for boys, and one 
for girls ; the former being instructed in German and Eng^- 
lish, in reading, writing, and arithmetic ; the giiis in the 
same, with the addition of needlework, particular attenti<» 
being paid to their religious instruction. Under the super- 
intendence of the minister and churchwardens, for liie time 
being, of the Gbrman Lutheran Churdi, Savoy, Strand. It 
is supported wholly by contributions ; and, as is represented, 
stands greatly in need of support* 

THE ASSOCIATED CATHOLIC CHARITIES, 16, 
Great Windmill-street Under this title is combined the 
management and direction of the various charities for edu- 
cating, olothing, and apprenticing the children of poor 
Roman Catholics ; also one for orphans. Situated in various 
parts of the metropolis, these cluurities, it is stated, educate, 
and in part clothe, 1,500 children of both sexes. Applica- 
tions for the benefits of any of iJie establishments must be 
addressed to the committee, to the care of the secretaries. 
The general committee meet quarterly; the rotary and 
finance, monthly. 

Preeident, Duke of Norfolk.— Honorary Goieral Secretftiy, 
C. J. PagUano, Esq., 28, Golden-sq.— Treasurer, Sir R. Throck- 
morton, Bart. — Assistant Secretaries : Mr. T. Blount, 2, Leicest^- 
place ; Mr. Walker, 9, Castle^street, Holbom. 

EAST LONDON ENGLISH and IRISH SCHOOLS, 
€kK>dmanVyard, Minories. Established 1817. For the edu- 
cation of the children of the English and Irish poor of both 
sexes. All children of five years of age and upwards are 
admissible, on the recommendation of a subscriber. Appli« 
cations for admission must be made to the master, and con- 
firmed bv the committee, who meet for business tJie third 
Wednesday of every month. 

Every annual subscribe of one guinea, or donor of five 
suiiMaSjiji entitled to have one ehUd oonstanUy in the sehooL 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



3^ 

jews' o&phav, &c. f itsratntHal C^antitsu a j>. leei, &«. 

Presidents : Bight Hon. Lord Brougham ; Bight Hon. Henry 
Cbulboum, M.P. — ^Treasurer, T. C. Haywood, E^., 95, Minories. 
-^^Secretary, Mr. Charles Brace. — Collector, Mr. W. Eddrup. 

The following comprehends the various educational asy- 
lums connected with the Jewish persuasion, including those 
associated with the synagogues, for instruction only ; with 
the view of presenting the whole together for facility of 
reference. 

JEWS* ORPHAN ASYLUM, 69, Leman-street, Good- 
man's-fields. Established 1831. For maintaining, clothing, 
educating, and apprenticing Jewish children destitute of 
both parents. Supported by voluntary contributions. 

President, Frederick Hart, Esq. — Chairman of the House Com- 
mittee, Mr. Dias, 11, Duke-street. — ^Treasurer, Samuel Moses, Esq. 
— ^Master of the Asylum, Mr. Franklin. — Secretary, Mr. A. Saqui, 
at the Asylum. — Collector, Mr. Emanuel. 

GA TBS OF HOPE, and other Charity Schools, 11, Bevis- 
marks. The following have been instituted in the congre- 
gation of Jews, denominated "Spanish and Portuguese Jews," 
the first who settled in this country during the protectorate 
of Cromwell ; their synagogue, the most ancient, and the 
only one they have in England — except one, erected and 
supported at his own expense by Sir Moses Montefiore, at 
Bamsgate — ^is situate in Bevis-marks, St. Mary- Axe. 

The National School, Founded 1664. Called " Sheare 
Ticksa" in Hebrew, or "Gates of Hope", situate on the 
synagogue premises, in Heneage-lane, Bevis-marks ; consists 
of a preparatory school ; open to all the male children of the 
poor, from the age of five years, who, on the recommenda- 
tion of a subscriber, or the wardens of the synagogue, are 
immediately admitted, without any election. They are edu- 
cated and partially clothed ; also 

An Upper School, limited to forty boys, who are elected 
half-yearly from the preparatory school ; these are wholly 
clothed, and, on leaving the school, are apprenticed to useful 
trades. The institution is supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, which being inadequate, it receives an annual grant 
from the elders of the congregation, from the synagogue 
funds. 

Ten shillings annually, or £5 donation, entitles to a yearly 
presentation of one pupil to the preparatory school ; one 
guinea annually, or ten guineas donation, to vote at all elec- 



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323 

SYNAGOGUE, SMUifilf ^II/HDIS. SOHOOM, &C. 

tions for the upper school. Subscription to the two schools, 
£1. 6s. annually, or ^£15. 10s. for life. 

President, Nathaniel Montefiore, Esq. — ^Treasurer, Joseph Se> 
bag, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. Judah Azuelos. 

The Natiorud and Infant School, or " The Path of Truth", 
situate also on these premises, which admits children from 
the age of two years, both boys and girls. This is also sup- 
ported by an annual grant nrom the elders. There are at 
present one hundred and fifty children on this establishment, 
and it is managed by a committee of ladies. Secretary, 
Mrs. S. Almosino. 

The Orphan School, situate on the synagogue premiseF, 
founded in 1703. This institution boards, clouies, and edu- 
cates fatherless children, who, on leaving the school, are ap- 
prenticed to useful trades. * It is supported by voluntary 
contributions, and by the interest on its endowment funds 
bequeathed by the late Moses Lamego, Esq. 

President, Daniel Depass, Esq. — Treasurer, Haim Guedalla, Esq. 
— Secretary, Mr. Judah Azuelos. 

JEWS' FREE SCHOOL, Bell-lane, Spitalfields. Insti- 
tuted 1817. For the education of 600 boys and 300 girls 
(now near 400). The boys are taught Hebrew, English, and 
arithmetic ; the girls are taught reading, writing, and 
needlework. The system of education pursued partakes of 
parts both of Lancaster's and Bell's. Twenty or thirty of 
the boys (who must be elected for the purpose) are educated 
at the ^' Talmud Torah", a superior school, where instruction 
is afforded of a more advanced character. The number of 
children who have benefited by this institution may be 
stated as follows : — boys, 3,292 left, 555 present ; girls, 
1,420 left, 400 present. The whole of the children are an- 
nually clothed, through the liberality of one individual, who 
has continued the same ever since 1822 (Baroness Rothschild). 

President, Sir Anthony De Rothschild, Bart. — Treasurers : 
S. L. De Symons, Esq., 9, Cumberland-street, Portman-square ; 
A. Davis, Esq., 60, Hounsditch. — Secretary, Mr. S. Solomon, 5, 
Hounsditch. 

WESTERN JEWISH GIRLS' FREE SCHOOL, 20, 
Dean-street, Soho. Instituted 1846. Affords good secular 
and Jewish religious education to sixty-three girls, gratui- 
tously. Supported by contributions, and promoted by the 
chief rabbi and most influential Jews. The Duke of Cam- 



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824 



bridge ifl patron, and generally presides ^t ibie annual «xa*> 
mination. President, Mr. J. M. Johnson. 

WESTERN JEWISH FREE SCHOOL for Boy%, 59a, 
Greek-street, Soho, provides like instruction for about sixty 
boys. It is in immediate contemplation uniting these two 
scnools under one management. Present officers are : Mr. 
H. L. Keeling, President ; Mr. A. Eisch, Western Synagogue 
Chambers, St. Alban*s-place. The present income for each 
school is about £200 per annum. 

WEST METROPOLITAN JEWISH SCHOOL Boys' 
school, 256, High Holbom ; opened 1845 ^ sixty-five boys, 
tiirls* school, 13, Little Queen-street ; opened 1846 ; thif^ 
girls. 

Chairman, F. D. Goldsmid, Esq. — ^Treasurer and Hon. Secre- 
tary^ Jacob L. Elkin, Bsq., 20, Upper Bedford-place, Russell-sq. 



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S25 



CHAPTER XV. 



EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, COLLEGES, 
AND GRAMMAR SCHOOLS- 

Extent of the Endowments for Classiaal and Graaimar Sohooh. — Tkeir 
Value to tbe Middle ClaaBe8.--Tbeir Origin uid Progreas.-*- Value of 
London £ndowB«ita ; of Rugbj and TuaWi^e Schools.— Summarj 
of Educational Endowments in London, Classical Foundation Schools ; 
8t Paul's and Mercers* Schools^ — Christ's Hospital. — Merchant Taj- 
lors*. — Westminster. — Charter Hou8e,andother8.— Summary of Schools 
originally Grammar and Classical. — Collegiate Lectures, etc. — Colleges 
and Modem Schools : Stepney. — Highbury. — Hommerton. — St. John's 
Wood, etc. — UniTersity College and King's College. — Queen's College. 
—City of London.^- Islington.'^Philok^cal School, and others.-— 
Royal Academy of Music, and Royal Natal and Fmale Schods. 

Bbiorb entering upon ih» yast machinery of operations f<^ 
extending education in its broad and comprehensiye mean* 
ing^ religious and secular, it will be well to deyote a chapter 
to the consideration of those establishments in the metro- 
]X)l]s, that render to the youth of the middle classes services 
similar to those bestowed on the necessitous, as menticmed in 
oui last chapter. The charitable and liberal character of the 
latter enshnne them^ with an interest, in the mind of the 
phUanthropisi and the Christian, only to be equalled by the 
important considerations inyolved in the right direction and 
continued well-being of the former. No thoughtful persons^ 
indeed, can close their minds to the conviction of the exten- 
sive indfluence these strongholds of education must exercise 
over the welfare of the present and future generations ; and 
this feeling of powerful mterest that a contemplation of them 
engenders, is greatly increased by the reflection, that th^ 
are^ for the most part, so amply endowed as to require no 



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326 



extraneous aid, and that their means of usefulness rest en- 
tirely on the internal direction of their affairs and the indi- 
yidual application of their benefits. 

It is a significant circumstance, strongly connective of 
Education and Christianity, that the earliest schools in Eng- 
land were founded at Canterbury, by the bishop to whom we 
owe the introduction of the faith. These, according to the 
yenerable Bede, were greatly improved and enlarged by 
Theodore, the successor to the arohbishopric, who, with his 
friend Adrian, personally instructed crowds of pupils in divi- 
nity, astronomy, medicine, etc., and the Qreek and Latin 
languages. The impulse then given spread ; schools multi- 
plied, until, in a very short time, they were generally to be 
found connected with monasteries, and, more particularly, at 
the different seats of the bishops. There appears every 
reason to believe, that in the seventh century London had 
various schools, most probably the original foundations of 
such as afterwards constituted our present establishments of 
St. Paul's and Westminster. 

After the Danish deluge, scarcely a single school of the 
higher class appears to have preserved its integrity. Some 
idea of this may be conceived from the well known fact that 
King Alfred, in the second half of the ninth century, could 
find no masters to instruct him in the higher branches of 
knowledge. Under the auspices, however, of that truly great 
monarch, the schools were soon restored and reanimated. 
His biographer, Asser, expressly mentions one he founded 
for the sons of the nobility ; and for the support of which he 
devoted the enormous amount of one-eighth of his kingly 
revenue. Further records of early education present many 
fluctuations of prosperity and decline, until the fourteenth 
century, when, as represented by Messrs. Piatt and Saunders 
in their paper on " Ancient Education in London" (from 
which we have derived much information), the almost incre- 
dible record appears, that there were as many as thirty thou- 
sand students at Oxford, and probably still more at Paris,— 
looking somewhat like an universal diffusion of education. 

In the Reformation may be traced the great impetus im- 
mediately given to the progress of metropolitan educational 
establishments. At first it appears as if the effect were two- 
fold ; by breaking up the religious houses, it destroyed nearly 
all the schools : but, on the other hand, the dormant intel- 
lect awakened about the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries^ 



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327 

oKCTBAL d^gtatiintai ^mnrintfog^ bbmabkb. 

producing that Reformation, acted in the highest degree 
mvourablj to the inculcation of knowledge. The Greek ver- 
sion of the New Testament becoming the universal standard 
of autiiority, as appealed to by the reformers in all their 
religious contests, peculiarly acted upon and induced the 
desire for classical learning. New colleges at the universities 
sprang into existence with startling rapidity ; new schools 
were established, almost as fast as the reforming king had 
destroyed them ; and the foundation was laid for that effi- 
cient and permanent establishment of solid educational in- 
stitutions, the fuU blessing and benefit of which we enjoy to 
the present day.^ Hence it is, that of the exceedingly nu- 
merous body of grammar schools scattered over every part 
of the country, nearly the whole were founded in the six- 
teenth and the seventeenth centuries ; and hence, it will be 
seen by the following chapter, that the whole of the older 

^ Tbdr present floorisbing condition, it will be well to bear in mind, 
does not always afford an evidence of tbe liberality of the age : mach 
mast, as before referred to with regard to other charitable foundaticms, 
be attributable, to some extent, to the increased value of property through- 
out London. This is especially developed in the instances of the Rugby 
and Tunbridge schools, — institutions which have obtained an importance 
their founders could have had no conception of. Thus wo read, that 
when " Lawrence Sheriffe, grocer and citizen of London, left the third 
part of a field of twenty-four acres, in the parish of Holbom, for the en- 
dowment of a grammar-school at Rugby, it produced only £8 a year. 
This field was called the Conduit Close, and was nearly half-a-mile from 
any house. It is now covered with buildings, and the rental exceeds 
j^l 0,000 a year. In the same way, and about the same time. Sir Andrew 
Judd founded the grammar-school at Tunbridge, endowing it with pro- 
perty in the City, and also with his ' croft of pasture, with the appurte- 
nances,called the Sandhills,situate and being on the back side of Holbom, 
in the parish of St. Pancras,* and then valued at j£13 6s. This property 
is situated on each side of the New-road, and now forms a part of Judd- 
place and Burton-crescent It was let, in 1807, on a lease of ninety-nine 
years, at ;^2,700 a year. The property in Gracechurcli street, which, in 
1558, produced only ^23 ids. 4d. a year, was let, in 1822, for X490. 
Other property in St. Mary Axe, the rental of which was £6 a year in 
1558, was let, in 1822, for ^€160 ; at which time the yearly rents of the 
property bequeathed by Sir Andrew, amounted to j£4,306. By the ad- 
vance of the country in wealth, such charities have become, in many 
instances, truly splendid and munificent. Sir Andrew Judd's school now 
enjoys sixteen exhibitions of j^lOO each, payable out of the founder's 
endowment, and tenable at any college out of either University." 



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328 

ST. PATTL'g ii^iitHttoiud ^mtntfltiinis* school, A.i>.id09 

schools of the metropolis, with the single exe^tioti of the 
Charter House, in the early part of the serentee&th (detailed 
in a prerioas chapter), date their establishment, on the pre- 
sent basis, from the same period. 

There are ten institutions of what may be 
termed a first class character, affording a clas- 
sical education at one time to the number of 2,995 
of these, 1,660 are wholly maintained (at 

three schools only), 
the aggregate amount of annual income 
of these establishments, as near as can 
be arrived at, amounts to - - ^93,112 

arising chiefly from endowments ; with 
the exception of about £15,000, de- 
rived from present contributions, and 
payments of pupils, <fec. 
Besides these establishments, are many con- 
ducted now as non-classical schools, and 
others of a purely local character. 
This chapter likewise affords accounts of seve- 
ral modem colleges and schools, which, from 
the close similarity of character they more 
or less partake of with the old foundations, 
it has been thought well to include : such 
are mostly self-supporting, and their in- 
eomes consequently devoid of interest. 
Lastly, are four establishments, supported in 
part by the benevolent, in order to impart 
education, and, in some instances, afford 
maintenance, to the children of distressed 
professional persons. 

educating - - _ - 4^3 

(maintaining 283). 
conducted at an annual cost of - - £13,300 

of which, there is derived from voluntary 
contributions, nearly - - - 4,000 

ST, PA UrS SCHOOL, St.Paul's Church-yard. Founded 
1509, and endowed by Br. John Colet, Bean of St. Paul's, 
the friend of More and Erasmus ;^ for the education of one 

* *' This one diyine, master Colet, wns more than a maldi for tis aH ; 
he seemed to be filled with a divine spirit, and to be somewhat abn^e a 
man. He spoke not only with his voice, but with his eyes> his eotmte- 
nance, and Ms whole demeanour."'~£ra«mtt*. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



3» ^_ 

8T. pApL'g tocatingal ^mmtatoi 8ohool,aji>i509 

hundred and fifty-three^ boys, of all conntries indiffer- 
entlv. 

The excellent founder devoted, we leam, nearly the whole 
of his priyate estate to the foundation, endowing it with 
houses and lands of the present value of above .£5,000 per 
annum, but producing at the time less than £200. The first 
head master was his own appointment, devolving upon Wil- 
liam Lily, the eminent grammarian, and ^the most deac 
companion" of Sir Thcmias More. Lily, it is stated, was the 
first teacher of Greek in the metropons after the revi^ of 
letters ; and the success of the school under his direction 
proved the deim's choice a good one : during the twelve > 
years he conducted it, a host of excellent scholars were sent 
forth into the different departments of public life, amongst 
whom may be mentioned Sir Anthony Penny, Lehmd, and 
L(»'d North : of the eminent men since Leland's time, spaoe 
will not admit enumeration, beyond John Milton, Scar- 
borou^ (the i)hysician), Pepys, Calamy, and Marlborough. 

The sduxd is under the entire management of the Mer> 
cers* Company : the master of the company, as *' senior sur- 
veyor", holds the right of nomination ; but it is generally 
exercised by all the members^ to a certain extent, in rota^ 
tion. The founder's views in thus stepping out of his class 
to find trustees among laymen, is thus explained in a letter 
by his friend Erasmus to Jonas : — '^ After he had finished 
all, he left the perpetual care and oversight of the estate, 
not to the clergy, not to the bishop, not to the chapter, nor 
to any great minister at court, but amongst the married lay- 
men, — to the Company of Mercers, men of property and 
reputation ; and when he was asked the reason of so com- 
mitting the tri}st, he answered to this effect,— that there was 
no absolute certainty in human affairs, but, for his part, he 
found less corruption in such a body of citizens than in any 
other order or degree of mankind." "Words," justly re- 
marks Mr. Piatt, 'Hhat surely should animate with the best 
possible spirit the trustees thus called upon to discharge 
their duties with fidelity."^ 

1 The conceit for this ntimber was deriTed frmn the l«xt,— " Simon 
Peter went up, an*) drew the net to land Aill of great finfaes, ui hnndred 
and fifty and three ; and for all there were so manj, yet was not the net 
broken." (John xxi, 11 ) 

' Lily died of the plapnie in 1633, nix years after his friend and patron. 

3 Knight's Lvnion, toI. vi, p. 10. 



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5?2 ^ 

X£RCSB8' <0ilnitfltnniEl ^MV^bUmB* 80hool,a.d.1522 

The school at present consists of eight forms or classes ; 
the first receiving the pupil, instructing him in the rudi- 
ments, the last dismissing him with a sound mathematical 
and classical education, including Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. 
The age of scholars at admission must not exceed fifteen. 
The only expense is that for books. There are seyend very 
valuable exhibitions held for the benefit of the scholars who 
have been four years on the foundation, and admitted under 
twelve years of age ; nine of them are of the annual value of 
jG] 00 for five years, arising from bequests of Viscount Oamp- 
den, 1685, and the munificent endowment of the founder; 
nine others, for ^ye years, of jG50, and several more of less 
value. The exhibitors are chosen by the trustees, after a 
strict examination of the whole school, occupying the first 
three days of the fourth week after Easter, when it is usual 
to commemorate the founder, by an oration composed by the 
senior boy, and several valuable prizes are presented from 
the governors. The first school was destroyed in the fire of 
1666. The present building was erected in 1824, under the 
superintendence of Qeorge Smith, Esq. 

High Master, Rev. H. Kynaston, D.D. — Second Master, Rev. 
J. P. Bean, M.A.— Third Master, Rev. J. Cooper, M.A.— Fourth 
Master, Rev. C. C. Roberts, M.A. — Mathematiod Master, Qeo. 
Lambert, Esq.— Exammers : Rev. T. H. Steel, M.A.; Rev. R. W, 
Brown, M.A. 

MERCERS' GRAMMAR ^S^CJETOOX, College-hill. Founded 
1622 ; but erected previously, as part of the ancient hospital 
of St. Thomas of Acors,^ and in 1531 was purchased by the 
Mercers' Company of Henry VIII, for je969 17s. 6d., who 
undertook, at their cost and charge, to keep a grammar 
school, and educate twenty-five children for ever, with a suf- 
ficient master.2 In 1804, the Company departed from the 
strictly classical system pursued, by including the other 
branches of a sound general education ; in 1809 increasing 
the number of scholars to thirty-five ; and since then again, 
to seventy. As at St. Paul's, the instruction is perfectly 

^ The foundation of the original school as a part of the hospital* may 
he traced to the petition of John Neil, sometime the master of tli^ hospital. 
Vide note, pi^ 817. 

^ This was a rare exception as regards the stipulation ; and owing to 
the instrumentality (according to 8trjpe) of Sir Thomas Gresham iu 
making the arrangement, rather than to royal precaution. 



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331 

chbist's hosp. iitaatiinial ^nniihatifliis^ a.d. 1553 

free. There are no restrictions as to age or place of resi- 
dence of scholars, but a certain proficiency is deemed indis- 
pensable. The boys are selected in tnm by the master and 
three wardens of the company ; two exhibitions, of the value 
of about £50 each, are held by the will of T. Rich, Esq., 
1672, who further endowed the school. It may be interest- 
ing to mention, that Dr. Oolet was a member of the original 
school ; also Sir Thomas Gresham, Sir Lionel, afterwards 
Lord Cranfield, and Bishop Wren. The present building was 
erected within the last few years, from the designs of George 
Smith, Esq. 

Head Master, Rev. John Smith, M.A. — Classical Master, Rev. 
T. Hill, M.A.— Writing Master, Mr, W. Patrickson.— French 
Master, Mr. Wattez. 

CHRIST S HOSPITAL, Kewgate-street. Is one of the 
five Royal Hospitals of the city of London, having been 
founded by letters patent of King Edward VI, dated 26 
June 1553, at the same time as St. Thomas's and Bridewell 
Hospitals.^ 

Besides the Lord Mayor, and Court of Aldermen, and 
twelve members of the Common Council, who are governors 
ex officio, there are between four and five hundred noblemen 
and gentlemen, who have been elected governors by reason of 
their donations to the institution, at the head of whom are 
Her Majesty and H.R.H. Prince Albert, with their R.H. the 
Prince of Wales and Prince Alfred, and Prince George of 
Cambridge. The number of children on the foundation, 
who are wholly maintained and educated, varies from 1,400 
to 1,500, including those at the branch establishment at 
Hertford (founded 1683). About two hundred are admitted 
annually, always going first to Hertford. The age of ad- 
mission is from seven to ten years ; and the mode of admis- 
sion is by presentation of a governor. Her Majesty, the Lord 
Mayor, and Court of Aldermen present annually, and the 
other governors have presentations in rotation, as far as the 
number of children to be admitted in each year will extend ; 
so that they have the privilege about once in three or four 

^ Large portions of the building having fallen into decay, have been 
rebuilt. In 1822 the new infirmary was completed ; and \pril 1825, the 
first stone of the present magnificent hall was laid bv the Duke of York. 
The building is of the Tudor style of architecture, and one of the noblest 
in the metropolis. It was built from designs by John Shaw, Esq. 



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^82 , 

cHBisT'a HOBP. ittocitthniai ^gtiiritgtnigg, a.p. isca 

yeass. The chief quaJifioatien for obtaimDg » presentation 
rests in their pam&ts not possessing a larger income than 
£260 per annum ; but, in cases of krge fmilies, this r^u- 
lation is often extended. A list of the governors having 
appointments is published annuaUj in March, and is to be 
IumI at the counting-house of the hospital. 

The education of the boys consists of reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, French, the classics, and mathematics. Th^re 
are sixteen exhibitions for scholars at the universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge : those at Oxford being ^£100, and 
those at Cambridge, ^£80 per annum ; besides a "Pitt Scho- 
larship", also a " Time» Scholarship" (value £S0 for four 
years), established by the merchants and traders of the citv, 
as a testimonial of their appreciation of the indefatigable 
perseverance with which that powerful journal exposed an 
extensive mercantile fraud. The "Grecians'* are the sixteen 
senior boys, who alone remain at the school after fifteen 
years of age : they remain until nineteen or twenty, and 
four go on every year to Oxford or Cambridge, upon the 
above-menti(med exhibitions : mostly entering at Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, in consequence of the advantages held 
out by the will of Mr. Serjeant Moses. 

Forty of the boys are instructed in navigation, on the 
foundation of King Charles II, ten of whom are required to 
pass out annually to sea-service, having undergone an exa- 
mination previously at the Trinity House* 

The annual income of the hospital is necessarily a very 
large one, and includes an average of the following items : 
from rents of estates, ;£2d,000 ; dividends on stock and an- 
nuities, J10,600 ; from governors' contributions, ^£9,000 to 
;£ 10,000 ; and the remainder from special endowment tiinds^ 
to mathematical boys, etc., casual receipts, legacies, etc. ; 
amounting, from all sources, to £60,600, from which, about 
£9,000 being deducted for rent and other charges, a clear 
net amount for general purposes of maintenance, education, 
and establishment is left, of upwards of £60,000. The dis- 
bursements, in ordinary years, do not exceed £48,000; and 
legacies, as far as expenses will allow, are funded. 

Amongst the separate trusts held by the governors of the 
hospital, is Mrs. Bowerman's, from which about £600 per 
annum is distributed to poor widows, at £6 each. " Hether^ 
ington's Charities to the Blind", augmented by others, is 
very extensive, as detailed page 163 ; and, induded in the 



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fitatement of inoome, as already ffiven, are the endowments 
of Pennoyer's Trayers^ Holditch s, and others, for yarious 
purposes connected with the hospital, such as apprenticing 
boys, etc. ; Mrs. West's, maintaining alone forty-one boys 
in the establishment, at a cost of ^1,400 per annum. 

President, William Thompson, Esq., Aid., M.P. — ^Treasurer, 
William Gilpin, Esq. — Physician, Clement Hue, M.D. — Surgeon, 
Eusebius A. Uoyd, Esq. — Chief Clerk, George Trollope, Esq.— r 
Receiver, Mr. luJph Peacock. — ^Wardrobe Keeper, Mr. M. S. S. 
Dipnall. — Assist. Clerks, Mr. C. T. B. Keep, and Mr. J. Morris. 
—Head Master, Bey. Edward Rice, D.D. — ^Assistant ditto, Rey. 
J. T. White, M.A. — Second Masters : Ret. Chas. Cheyne, M.A. ; 
Biey. Robert South, M.A. — ^Third Mtolers : Rey. James Thomson, 
M.A. ; Rey. John CoUingwood, M.A. — Head Mathematical Master, 
Rey. William Webster, M.A.— S^iond ditto, Rey. Thos. W. H, 
Gumey, B.A. ; and Mr. F. W. Goldsmith. — ^Drawing Master, 
Mr. Wm. Henry Back. — Prench Master, Mr. C. J. Lelile. — ^Musie 
Master, Mr. George Cooper. — Resident Surgeon and Apothecaiy^ 
T.Stone, Esq.— Steward, Mr. Geo. Brooks. — Matron, Mrs. Oliyer. 

At Hertford : Granunar Master and Catechist, Rey. Nathaniel 
Keymer, M.A. — Steward, Mr. George Ludlow. — Matron, Mrs. 
Moore. 

MERCHANT TA YLORS* SCHOOL, Suffolk4ane, Can- 
non-street. Established 1561. For the education of chUdrem 
of all nations and countries indiifertntly, to the extent of 
no less than two hundred and fifty scholars, by modeiate 
payment. 

This is one of the most eminest establishments in Engfamd, 
and was founded by the gift of j£500 ^om Richard Hilles, 
some time master of the Merchant Taylors* Company, and 
other subscriptions from members of the court, amons whom 
was Sir Thomas White, the founder of St. John's College, 
Oxford. With tliese fimds the Company purchased a large 
portion of a palace, originally built in the reign of Edward 
ill, and whidi had successiyely belonged to the De la Poles 
Dukes of Suffolk (whence the name, Suffolk-lane), and the 
i>ukes of Buckingham. It was called the Manor of the 
Rose. This edifice was destroyed by the great fire in 1666. 
Soon afterwards the present buildings were erected, from 
the designs of Sir C. Wren, whose father had been educated 
at the sSiool.^ 

^ Amongst other eminent scholars here educated, may he named Bishops 
Andrelres, Dove, and Tompson,— three of the translators if the Bihle; 
Edwin Sandys, the traveller; Archbishop Juxon, who Lttended the 



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334 

8T. SAViouB*8 ftorHttOUfll ^DlHltlatiagg^ school,a.d.1562 

The college of St. John the Baptist, at Oxford, is con- 
nected, principally, with Merchant Taylors* School ; the boys 
of which are entitled to thirty-seven, out of the fifty, fellow- 
ships with which it is endowed. The school possesses, also, 
a large number of exhibitions at both the universities, 
averaging from £30 to J80 per annum, each. 

As the school is supported by the Merchant Taylors' 
Company, the statutes for instruction, terms, and mode of 
admission, have varied from time to time, according to the 
will of the governors ; but Hebrew, Greek, and Latin have 
been taught since its foundation ; mathematics, writing, 
and arithmetic were introduced in 1829 ; and French, and 
the study of modern history, in 1846. The present terms 
are ten guineas per annum. Boys are admitted on the nomi- 
nation of the forty members of the Court of Assistants of 
the Merchant Taylors' Company, in rotation. 

For the better inquiry into the proficiency of-the scholars, * 
there are two probations in the year, in December, and on 
the 11th of June. On the latter of these occasions, liberal 
prizes are awarded, and scholars elected to St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

Head Master, Rev. James Augustus Hessey, D.C.L. — Under 
Masters : Rev. J. B. Deane, M.A. ; Rev. T. H. Russell, B.D., 
Rev. E. West, M.A. — Mathematical Masters : Rev. J. B. Deane, 
M.A.; Rev. J. A. L. Airey, M.A.; Mr. S. H. Russell.— French 
Masters : Mens. C. J. Delille, Mons. W. Chapman. — Writing 
Masters : Mr. R. F. Clarke, Mr. L. Barlow. 

ST. SAVIOUR'S GRAMMAR SCHOOL, Southwark. 
Established 1562. This establishment was founded by the 
parish,^ and confirmed by letters patent of Queen Elizabeth, 

unfortunate Charles 1 to the scaffold ; Bishop Hopkins, of Londonderry ; 
Archbishops Sir William Dawes, Gilbert, and Boulter; Bishop Van 
Mildert ; Bishop Nixon, of Tasmania ; and twelve other prelates ; Shirley 
the poet; Charles Wheatley, the ritualist ; LordClive; Lieut-Col. Den- 
ham, the African traveller ; and many shining characters of modem times. 
^ Founded at the instance of Thomas Cure. Amongst the practical 
rules provided by the founders, the following occurs for observance in 
the choice of a master : " The master to be a man of a wise, sociable, and 
loving disposition, not hasty or furious, nor of any ill example ; he shall 
be wise and of good experience, to discern the nature of every several 
child ; to work upon the disposition for the greatest advantage, benefit, 
and comfort of the child ; to learn with the love of his book." It was 
necessary then, as now, to add — *' if such an one may be got." — Carlisle. 



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335 

HIGHGATE ftoatJllggl ^Bimtatiinig* SCH00L,A.D.1565 

and is under the management of six governors. For chil- 
dren of the poor of the parish ; number not to exceed one 
hundred. The scholars pay £1 per annum to the classical, 
and the like to the writing classes. 

Visitor, the Bishop of Winchester. — Gt)vemor8 : William Pott, 
Esq. (Treasurer); G. Perkins, Charles Pott, F. Perkins, Charles 
James Bevan, A. Clark, Esqrs. — Head Master, Rev. Alfred Povah. 
—Under Master, W. R. Blunt, Esq., B.A.— Writing Master, Mr. 
Samuel Spiller. 

HIQHQATE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, Founded 1565; 
reconstituted 1826, until when, the school was conducted 
only for teaching writing and arithmetic ; but it was then 
declared, by decree of Chancery, to be in strict accordance 
with the will of the founder, Sir Roger Cholmley, that it 
should be maintained as a free grammar school. A new 
scheme was ordered, aud, after reference to the masters, the 
present regulations finally agreed to. 

Forty scholars out of the towns of Highgate, Holloway, 
Homsey, etc., are to be educated free, in conformitv with 
the doctrines of the Church of England, and taught the 
Latin and Greek languages. 

Each boy must be eight years old on admission ; be able 
to read and write ; and acquainted with the two first rules 
of arithmetic ; and pay £1 Is. entrance fee to library. 

The master^s salary is fixed at j£400 per annum, with the 
privilege of taking as many scholars as he conveniently can, 
after the free number, at £'12 12s. per annum each. 

The estates of the school produce about £1,500 a year ; 
the governors have appropriated a portion for founding 
exhibitions of £60 each per annum, for four years. Master, 
Rev. J. B. Dyne. 

ST, OLA VE'S & ST. JOHJTS GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 
Bermondsey-street, Southwark. Founded 1571, by letters 
patent, 13th Elizabeth,^ incorporated under sixteen gover- 
nors, for " children and younglings, as well of rich as the 
poor, being inhabitants of these parishes." Instruction 
prescribed is, the Latin and English tongues, writing, and 
accounts. The classical school consists of 320 boys ; the 

^ '' The Queen conseutedjt appears, to become the patron, and it was 
consequently called her school ; but her name, and a legal status, seems 
to have been all she gave to it." — Knight's London. 



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^6 

wMTMiiisTEB (Biinratiimiil ^mpitomm a.d. 1590 

bnuich school of 250 boys ; instroeted in writixig, reading, 
and accounts. Children are admitted to both schools by 
presentations, signed by a governor, and easily attainable 
by any residents within the limits of the two ptuishes. The 
age of admittance is six or seven, a^d the boys remain, 
generally, until fourteen, when thos^of humbler condition 
are apprenticed ; others, who are studying for the learned 
fMTofessions, may remain aknost an unlimited time. The 
court have power to award four presentations to Oxford or 
Cambridge, value ^m i650 to £80 each ; also ten yearly 
apprentice fees, of £10 each. This is, we believe, now con- 
sidered one of the most valuable of metropolitan schools, 
the funds having of late years greatly increased, and amount 
at present time to nearly£3,900 per annum. Mr. Piatt, in 
referring to this^ says: "with the enlargement of the means 
the ends have been pursued in a corresponding liberal spint. 
The sdiool is exclusively for the pansh, or rather the two 
parishes, into which the old St. 01ave*s has been divided, 
and is only the more efficient for that exclusiveness, since 
the number of children taught is so large that undue pre- 
ferencet, whether of persons or of classes, become alike 
unnecessary, and impracticable to anv important extent. 
The parish, therefore, is, and must be, done justice to.*' 

Visitor, Bishop of Winchester. — Warden, John Ledger, Esq. 
— Head Master, Ilev. C. Mackenzie, M.A. — Mathematical, Rev. 
R. B. Gibson, M.A. 

ST. PETER'S COLLEGE, WESTMINSTER, South 
side of Westminster Abbey. Founded 1590, by Queen Eliza- 
beth, for the classical education and maintenance of forty 
bovs, who are prepared for the university, and called Queen s 
Scnolars. They wear a cap and gown, and pay lor education 
about ^16 per annum, including private le8son8,and lectures 
on mathematics ; but there are several charges, in the way 
of extras, that amount in the aggregate to a considerable 
sum for each scholar to pay. Thero are likewise four boys, 
educated free, termed Bishop's Boys, who wear a purple 
gown, and have £60 annually divided amongst them, under 
a bequest from Br. Williams, Bishop of Lincoln (1628), who 
likewise founded four scholarships at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, for the boys on this foundation, value a)x>ut£20 
each for four years. Besides these, a great number of the 
sons of the nobility and gentry axe educated here, which has 



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rendered it one of the most celebrated schools of the king- 
dom. Amongst the great men educated here, it will be 
interesting to enumerate Pryden, Locke, Smith, Prior, Rowe, 
Settle, Bishop Newton, Churchill, Lloyd, Warren Hastings, 
etc. 

From six to eight scholars go off annually, either to Christ 
Church, Oxford, or Trinity College, Cambridge, according 
to vacancies (value of scholarships, about £60 a-year), and 
their places, and other vacancies that occu^, are again filled 
up, by competition amongst the scholars from the fourth 
and fifth forms. The candidates having been decided upon, 
they are left to contend with each other in Latin, Greek, 
and grammatical questions. This sometimes lasts many 
days, the head master acting as umpire, and the eight head 
boys are finally chosen as " on the foundation." 

There are several other funds, varying in amount, from 
which benefit is available to those scholars elected off who 
are in need of it. The whole control of the foundation 
and its possessions, as well as the general management of the 
school, belongs to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 

The prosperity of the school, which latterly had somewhat 
declined, received, some few years back, considerable stimu- 
lant by the liberal bequests of Dr. Carey. This, we believe, 
was chiefly rendered available for augmenting the university 
endowments for the benefit of the scholars. 

Dean, W. Buckland, D.D.— Head Master, H. G. LiddeD, M.A. 
— Second Master, T. W. Weare, M.A. — ^Assistant Masters : S. J. 
Rigaud, M.A.; J. Marshall, M.A.; B. F. James, M.A. —Writing 
Master, Mr. T. Steward. — French Master, Mons. Tourrier. 

THE CHARTER HO USE, generally known as a founda- 
tion school, is even more distinguished for the asylum it 
offers to the aged, and will be found described amongst simi- 
lar institutions. Chapter XI. 

CAMBERWELL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, Cam. 
berwell. Established 1615. Founded and endowed by the 
Rev. Edward Wilson, vicar of Camberwell, in the reign of 
James I, who granted him letters patent in the thirteenth 
year of his reign. The patronage is vested in governors. 
The number of free boys is limited to twelve. 

The present official Governors are : Rev. J. Williams, M.A. ; 
Arthur Kenney, D.D.; Rev. A. Cyril Onslow, M.A.; Rev. W. H. 
Vemon, M.A. \ and the Churchwardens of Camberwell for the 
time bdnfr. 

22 



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OLD GRAMMAR (StarfltlflURl ^MIllilHtillllll* SCHOOLS. 

The following schools, although founded as classical, and 
bearing the name of grammar schools, for the most part 
afford but a common education for the poorer classes : — 

Ste^j^y Free School^'^^i(^i&^. Est{«blishedl540. Founded 
by will of N. Gibson, in the goyemment of the Coopers* 
Company, and educates thirty boys on the foundation. The 
instruction prescribed is grammatical science, but is not 
acted up to, and the school is made available only to the 
poorer class. 

Lady Alice OwetCs School, Islington. Established 1613. 
Founded by will of Lady A. Owen, and is in the trust of the 
Brewers' Company. It educates thirty poor children from 
Islington and Clerkenwell, to whom the master must teach 
Latin, if required. Also twenty-five pay scholars receive a 
more classical education. 

Palmer and HUVs Orammar School, Tothill-fields. Estab- 
lished 1655. Endowed by wills of Revs. J. Palmer and E. 
Hill, for forty poor children bom in Westminster, twenty of 
whom must be of the parish of St. Margaret, to be clothed 
and apprenticed, and educated in English and Latin gram- 
mar, writing, and accounts, and principles of religion. 
Under government of trustees. 

Rich's Orammar School, Lambeth. Established 1672. 
Founded by T. Rich, Esq, and is in the trust of the Mer- 
cers' Company, for the benefit of poor men's children bom in 
Lambeth parish. Instruction prescribed is Latin, writing, 
cyphering, and reading. 

Hickson's Orammar School, Allhallows, Barking. Estab- 
lished 1686. Endowed by the will of Alderman James 
Hickson, for the teaching of children of the parish in the 
Latin and Greek tongues, and purity of life, manners, and 
religion. Under the management of the Brewers' Company, 
who appoint the masters, etc. 

Smith's Orammar School, St. Lawrence Jewry, Milk^ 
street. Established 1693. Endowed by the will of E. Smith, 
Esq., for teaching boys of the parish Latin, writing, and 
arithmetic, and is under the management of the church- 
wardens and vestry. The instruction in Latin discontinued 
since 1784, and the present system adopted, the scholars 
being all children of poor parents. 

TrotmjavCs School, Bunhill-row. Founded by will of J. 
Trotman, 1663. For teaching youths of the original parish 



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ORE8HAM0OLL. (BteatiflttEl ^flUHtonittfi. LECTURES. 1681 

of St. Giles, Cripplegate (now comprising St. Luke's, Old- 
street), reading, writing, and the classics. The latter has 
been discontinued since 1740. The report of the Commis- 
sioners states of this : — " At the present time, scarcely twelve 
children attend, and the school is not made ayaUable for the 
wants of the parish, although the Talue of the original be- 
quest is now estimated at over £30,000." 

GRE8HAM COLLEGE LECTURES, BasinghaU-street. 
Founded 1681. These lectures were instituted by Sir Thomas 
Gresham, who bequeathed his mansion in Broad-street, in 
trust to the Corporation of London, and the Mercers' Com- 
pany, as a college, in which lectures on the seven liberal 
sciences should be gratuitously delivered to the public, 
endowing it with the rents and profits of the Royal Exchange. 
Until the year 1768, the professors (among whom were Dr. 
Isaac Barrow, Hooke, Briggs, Gunter, Sir Christopher Wren, 
and Sir William Petty) continued to reside, and lecture in 
Gresham College, when the government of that time pro- 
cured an Act of Parliament, compelling the trustees to 
expend £1,800 in pulling it down, on part of the site of 
which the government erected the present Excise Office. 

The site of Gresham College, which extended from Broad- 
street to Bishopsgate, was as large as that of the present 
Bank of England ; for this the government paid, and still does 
pay, ;£500 per annum, receiving back, however, the greater 
portion of this sum, in ground rent, for such portions of the 
land as they had no need to occupy. The professors were 
then driven to a small room in the Royal Exchange, and 
the intention of Sir Thomas Gresham was thereby frustrated. 
After the Exchange was burnt down, in 1835, the lectures 
were delivered in the theatre of the City of London School, 
Milk-street, until the trustees, in accordance with the design 
of its founder, rebuilt Gresham College, in Basinghall-street; 
it was opened November 2nd, 1843. The lectures are de- 
livered during the four law terms, at twelve o'clock at noon 
in Latin, and at one o'clock in English, except those on 
geometry and music, which are delivered at seven o'clock 
in the evening. The aggregate number of hearers in 1843, 
was 9,800, and last year (1849) it nearly reached 12,000. 

For the other Gresham bequests, see Mercers' Company 
(page 198), and Gresham Almshouses (page 224). 

The Professors are : Divinity, Rev. H. J. Parker, A.M.; Astro- 



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tenison's,1687. f togtmgfli ^MV^StiSM. bbdcboss-st. 

nomy, Rev. Joseph Pullen, A.M. ; Muflic, Edward Taylor, Esq. ; 
Geometry, W. P. Edkins, Esq., A.M. ; all appointed by the Corpo- 
ration. — and Law, William Palmer, Esq., A.M.; Physic, H. H. 
*Southey, Esq., M.D. ; Rhetoric, Rev. Edward Owen, A.M., ap- 
pointed by the Mercers' Company. 

JSion College and Library, founded 1631, vide page 213. 

ARCHBISHOP TENISON'S GRAMMAR SCHOOL 
and LIBRARY, Castle -street, Leicester-square. Founded 
1687, as a parochial establishment, for the benefit of the 
parish of St. Martin-in-the-fields.^ The library was for the 
use of the public, but especially the clergy of the precincts 
of old St. Martin's parish. Of late it 1ms fallen iradly into 
decay, and is greatly in want of donations of books. Thirty 
boys are educated, upon free presentations from the trustees, 
and others upon payment of eight guineas a-year. 

Visitor, Archbishop of Canterbury. — Trustees : Rev. Henry 
Mackenzie, M.A. (Vicar) ; Hon. P. P. Bouverie ; Hon. Sir E. 
Oust ; H. Pouncey, Esq. ; James Haward, Esq. ; Robert Taylor, 
Esq.; M. Staunton, Esq.; and the Churchwardens of St. Martin's 
for the time being. — Head Master and Librarian, Rev. Philip 
Hale. — Second Master, Mr. Robert Nares. 

REDCR0S8-STREET LIBRARY, Redcross-street. 
Founded 1711. This literary establishment is for the 
benefit of dissenting clergymen, and was founded by Daniel 
Williams, D.D., who bequeathed his valuable library of 
books and manuscripts for the purpose, with suitable salaries 
for a librarian and a keeper. It is under the management 
of twenty-four trustees. 

Librarian, Mr. Richard Cogan. — Secretary, Mr. S. Cotton, 7, 
Lothbury-street. — ^Receiver, Mr. R. W. Jupp. 

DR. BRAT'S INSTITUTION, 62, Hatton Garden. 
Established 1 733. For founding parochial and lending libra- 
ries in England and Wales, and negro schools in British 
America.* Every application for a library, must be made 
through the bishop of the diocese, and the books are for the 

^ Founded by Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury, a learned 
and pious prelate, formerly vicar of St Martin's, who greatly distinguished 
himself for his zeal in favour of Protestantism, both before and after the 
Revolution. 

* Dr. Bray, the founder of this institution, was likewise the originator 
of the plan of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts (vide chapter xvii); also two other societies, now not in existence, 
known as the " Society for the Reformation of Manners," and " Society 
for the Relief of Poor Proselytes." 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



341 

ST. John's wood, ^Rlotoni CnUjgJS. a.d. 1850 

use of the clergy exclusively. Lending libraries must be 
applied for by petition, signed by six clergymen, undertaking 
to provide a librarian, five trustees, and a proper book- case, 
the petitioning incumbent being responsible for the safe cus- 
tody of the library. 

Associates meet the first Tuesday, at eleven o'clock, in 
every month, at the office, except January, August, Septem- 
ber, and October. One guinea, at least, is paid by every asso- 
ciate annually, or twenty guineas at one time. The income, 
about £500 per annum, is derived, one-fifbh from voluntary 
contributions, the remainder from dividends, etc. The ex- 
penditure, including about ;£50 for management, is within 
this amount. 

Books for the purposes of the association, may be sent to 
the care of Dr. Wesley, at the office. 

President, the Archbishop of Canterbury. — Treasurer, Rev. 
C. B. Dalton, M. A., Ldncoln's-mn. — Secretary, Rev. Chas. Wesley, 
D.D. — Collector, Mr. H. Stretton, 67, lincoln's-inn-fields. 

J}^EW COLLEGE, St. John's Wood-road. For the edu- 
cation of young men for the ministry, in the Congregational 
Churches. Founded a.i>. 1850, on the basis of the trusts of 
Highbury College and Homerton CoUege, and Mr. Coward's 
trust. 

I. Faculty of Theology : Systematic and Pastoral Theology and 
Homiletics, the Rev. John Harris, D.D. — Criticism and Interpre- 
tation of the Greek Testament, Rev. John H. Godwin. — Ecclesi- 
astical History, Rev. Philip Smith, B.A. — Hebrew and Oriental 
Languages, Criticism and Interpretation of the Old Testament, 
Rev. Maurice Neuner. 

n. Faculty of Arts : Greek and Latin Languages, William 
Smith, Esq., LL.D. — Pure and Mixed Mathematics, Rev. Philip 
Smith, B.A. — Mental and Moral Philosophy, Logic, and Rhetoric, 
Rev. John H. Godwin. — Natural Sciences, Edwin Lankester, M.D. 
— German Language, Rev. Maurice Neuner. 

All communications to be addressed to the Chairman of 
the Educational Committee, Rev. H. F. Burder, D.D., Con- 
gregational Library, Blomfield-street, Finsbury. 

The institutions which merge in this New College are : — 

I. Homerton CoUege, Homerton. Instituted a.d. 1730. 
For educating young men for the ministry. 

Tutors: theRev. John Pye Smith, D.D. ; William Smith, Esq., 
LL.D.; Professor Wallace, M.A.; Rev. Maurice Neimer. 

Congregational Board of Education, see next chapter. 

n. Highbury CoUege, Highbury. Instituted 1783. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



342^ 

STEPNEY COLL. ^imratiniial l^iraiiiuitniiis. a.©, isio 

This building has been disposed of to the Committee of 
the Church of England Training Institution, and greatly 
extended (vide next chapter). 

Tutors : Rev. Ebenezer Henderson, D.D. ; Bev. John H. God- 
win ; W. Smith, Esq , LL.D. 

III. Coward CoU&ae^ Torrington-square. Founded on the 
trust of William Coward, Esq., in 1738. Removed from 
Wymondley House, Herts, to Torrington-square in 1838. 
Theological President, Rev. Thomas J^ikjns, D.D. For the 
other branches of study, the students attend the classes of 
the professors of University CoUege. 

BAPTIST COLLEGE, Stepney. Established 1810. 
Candidates for admission as students must apply to the com- 
mittee by letter, briefly stating, in their own words, " the 
means of their conversion, and views of the leading articles 
of Christianity." Each must be recommended by two minis- 
ters, to whom he is well known, and by the church to which 
he belongs. On being accepted as a probationer, if the 
tutors report favoiirably at the expiration of three months, 
or sooner, and the committee be satisfied, he is then admitted 
for the remainder of four years. The present number of 
students is twenty-one. 

All recommendations from ministers and churches are to 
be forwarded direct to the Secretaries ;~as80ciated with the 
London University, for granting degrees to its students. 

President, Rev. Joseph Angus, M.A. — Mathematical Tutor, 
Professor Wallace, M.A. — Professor of German and Syriac, Pro- 
fessor Neuner. — Treasurer, George T. Kemp, Esq. — Secretaries : 
Rev. James Holy, D.D., and Rev. Samuel Green. — Consulting 
Surge<Hi, William Cooke, Esq., M.D. 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, Upper Gower-street, Bed- 
ford-square. Founded 1825.^ Incorporated 1836. A pro- 
prietary institution, *' for the general advancement of litera- 

^ The first stone of the bailding was laid by the Dolce of Sussex on 
the 80th of April 1837. The handsome collegiate bailding koown as Uni- 
versity Hall is of more recent erection, and ooly jint opened: the coftt 
of the works, designed by Professor Donaldson, and executed by Mr. John 
Jay, was about j£10,000, exclusive of the houses intended to appear as 
wings. It forms the centre of the west side of Gordon-square, and is 
intended for the reception of students generally, now tenanted by a prin- 
cipal, vice-principal, and a moderate number of students of Umv^rsity 
College. We are informed that theology, excluded by the rules of the 
College, will here form the subject of lectures and other means of in- 
struction. 



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uwiTERsiTY fturratinggl ^nnflktoi coll.,a.d.i825 

ture and science, by affording to young men adequate oppor- 
tunities for obtaining literary and scientific education at a 
moderate expense." The education includes all branches 
except theology. The plan comprehends public lectures, 
with examinations by the various professors, who derive 
their incomes principally from the fees paid by the students. 

The summer term commences May 1, and ends July 31 ; 
the winter, from October I to April 15. 

The amount of annual payment is regulated by the num- 
ber of classes attended ; but students not nominated by pro- 
prietors pay 5s. additional on every pound, until such addi- 
tional sums amount to £4. 10s. ; and the matriculation fee 
of £2 releases the student during the whole course of his 
study firom the university fee. The ofBce for the payment 
of fees, etc., is at the College, and open from nine o'clock till 
four ; on Saturdays closes at two. 

The Flaherty and Andrews Scholarships, value about ^650 
per annum, are tenable for four years, for which candidates 
must either be matriculated students, or pupils in the junior 
school. 

President, Lord Brougham. — Vice-President, Earl Fortescue. 
—Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq. — Chairman of the Committee of 
Management, John Wood, Esq.— Dean, and Professor of Eng- 
lish Language and Literature, Alexander J. Scott, A.M. — Ancient 
and Modem History, Edward S. Creasy, A.M.-t- Mathematics, 
Augustus De Morgan, Esq. — ^Architecture, Thomas L. Donaldson, 
Esq. — Chemistry, Thomas Graham, Esq. — ^Zoology, Robt. Edmond 
Grant, M.D. — Italian, Signor A. GaUenga. — German, Adolph 
Heimann, Ph. D. — Mechanical Principles of Engineering, Eaton 
Hodgkinson, Esq. — Philosophy of Mmd, and Logic, Rev. John 
H<^U8, Ph. D. — Comparative Grammar, Thomas Hewitt Key, 
A.M. — Civil Engineering, Harman Lewis, A.M. — Botany, John 
Lindley, Ph. D. — Greek, Henry Maiden, A.M. — English Law, 
Joshua Ryland Marshman, A.M. — French, P. F. Merlet, Esq. — 
Latin, Francis W. Newman, Esq. — Natural Philosophy and Astro- 
ncwny, Richd. Potter, A.M. — Cfeology, Andrew C. Ramsay, Esq. 
— Praictical Chemistry, Alexander W. Williamson, Ph. D. — Ma- 
chinery, Bennet Woodcroft, Esq. — Oriental Languages, vacant. — 
Jurisprudence, Charles James Foster, Esq. — Dean, and Professor 
of Medicine and Clinical Medicine, W. H. Walshe, M.D. — Surgery 
and Clinical Surgery, James M. Arnott, Esq. — Forensic Medicine, 
William Carpenter, M.D. — Anatomy (Junior Professor), George 
V. Ellis, Esq. — Chemistry, Thomas Graham, Esq. — Comparative 
Anatomy, Robert Edmond Grant, M.D. ; William Jenner, M.D. 
Bptany> John lindley, Ph. D. — Obstetric Medicine, Edward W. 



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KiNG% f toratinflal l^imiritHtnittg. a.d, 1829 

Murphy, M.D. — Clinical Medicine, Edmund A. Parkes, M.D. — 
Anatomy and Clinical Surgery, Kichard Quain, Esq. — Anatomy 
and Physiology, William Sharpey, M.D. — Practical Chemistry, 
Alexander W. Williamson, Ph. D. — Materia Medica, Alfred (Jar- 
rod, M.D. — Secretary, Charles C. Atkinson, Esq. 

University College School^ under the GovernmerU of the 
Council of the CoUege, and conducted on the some principles. 
For pupils at any age under fifteen, if they are competent to 
enter the lowest class. When a boy has attained his six- 
teenth year, he will not be allowed to remain in the school 
beyond the end of the current session. 

The school session is divided into three terms: — from 
September 26 to Christmas ; from Christmas to Easter ; and 
from Easter to 4th August. Payment for each term is £Q, 
The hours of attendance are from a quarter past nine to a 
quarter before four, in which time one hour and a quarter 
is allowed for recreation. A fixed charge of 3s. 6d. is made 
for stationery, and books are supplied as required, charge 
being made accordingly. 

The HoUoway School Fund, consists of a bequest from the 
late Mr. HoUoway, the interest of which is appropriated to 
pay the school fees of boys in the school distinguished for 
their merit, and needing pecuniary assistance for their edu- 
cation ; such assistance is granted for three terms, and re- 
newable at the pleasure of the Council. 

Head Masters : Thomas Hewitt Key, M. A. ; Heniy Maiden, 
M.A. — Secretary, Charles C. Atkinson, Esq. 

KINO'S COLLEGE, Somerset House, Strand.i Incor- 
porated 1829. Founded on this fundamental principle, — 
*^ that every system of general education for the youth of a 
Christian community, ought* to comprise instruction in the 
Christian religion as an indispensable part ; without which 
the acquisition of other branches of knowledge will be con- 
ducive neither to the happiness of the individual nor the 
welfare of the state." The students received into the col- 
lege are matriculated students and occasional students. The 
number of students varies considerably, at present time being, 
matriculated, 623 ; and occasional students, 159. The pre- 
scribed course of education comprises religious instruction, 

^ Forms the east wing of Somerset House, Strand, with an entrance 
from the Strand: erected from designs by Sir Robert Smirke. The 
opening of the University College, then called London UiUTecsitj, gave 
rise to this college. 



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34fl 

%ntortt Cnltgp. a.d. 1829 



according to the principles of the Established Church ; the 
Greek and Latin classics, mathematics, English literature, and 
modem history. A military department has recently been 
added, open to youths between fifteen and the date of their 
commission ; the full course to last not less than two years.^ 

Proprietors, or donors of £50, have the privilege of one 
nomination both to the college and school, at reduced rates. 
Except in cases of remarkable proficiency, pupils are not ad- 
mitted under sixteen. The matriculation fee, paid by every 
student on his admission, is £1. Is. Information as to the 
fees for the different departments, lectures, <i;c., may be ob- 
tained of the secretary. 

There are libraries attached to the several departments ; 
the books in which may be used by the students either at 
the college, or at their own homes. The library fee is £2. 2b, 

Apartments have been fitted up in the college for students 
not under the age of eighteen years. The terms vary, accord- 
ing to the position of the rooms, from £50 to £66, in which 
amount is included every expense during term time. Any 
student may dine in the college hall at a fixed rate. Resi- 
dent students are required to dine in hall. 

Principal, Rev. R. W. Jelf, D.D.— Professors.— Divinity : Rev. 
A. M'Caul, D.D., and Hebrew ; Rev. F. D. Maurice, M.A.; Rev. 
R. C. Trench, M.A.; Rev. W. Biggs, M.A. ; Rev. E. H. Plump- 
tree, M. A., and Lecturer. — Practice of Physic, George Budd, Esq., 
M.D. — Midwifery, &c., Arthur Farre, E8<]l, M.A. — Anatomy, 
T. Rymer Jones, Esq. — Forensic Medicine, W. A. Ghiy, M.D. — 
Classical Literature, Rev. R. W. Browne. — Mathematics, Rev. 
T. G. Hall. — English Literature and Modem History, Rev. F. D. 
Maurice ; J. J. Stutzer, Esq. — Oriental Languages, Duncan Forbes, 
Esq. — Fi'ench Language, M. Isidore Brasseur . — German Language, 
Dr. Bemays. — ItaSan Language, M. V. Pistrucci. — Spanish Lmi- 
guage, R. Lott, Esq. — Chinese Language, S. J. Fearon, Esq. — 
VomJ Music, John Hullah, Esq. — Drawing and Perspective, M. E. 
Cotman, Esq. — Fencing, H. Angelo, Esq. — Law, Edward Bullock, 

1 It should be stated, that the officers for whose education this depart- 
ment is designed, are the Cavalry, the Guards, the Line, and East India 
Company's service. The Council have been led to this addition by dis- 
covering that it was not the intention of Government to extend Sand- 
hurst College, or to found any ft«sh one; and therefore, that it was 
desirable to give parents an opportunity of choosing between the objec- 
tions to foreign education, a private and imperfect one at home, or educa- 
tion at a collie possessed of all the resources of instruction, conducted 
upon principles harmonizing with the institutions of the country. 



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346 

king's colleqe (EiiratiiniHl ^inmitatiiiiis. school, a.d.i829 

Esq., M.A.— Theory of the Fine Arts, William Dyce, M.A.— 
Zoology, Thomas Bell, Esq. — Political Economy, Rev. R. Jones, 
M.A.— Fortification and Military Tactics, W. Walker, Esq., late 
Captain of H.M.'s 69th Foot.--Surv^ring, H. J. Castle, 1^.— 
Military Drawing, Thomas Bradley, ^sq. — Fencing, H. Angelo» 
Esq. — ^Botany, Edward Forbes, Esq. — Mineralo^, James Tennant, 
Esq.— Geolocjr, D. T. Ansted, Esq., M.A.— Chemistry, W. A. 
Miller, Esq., M.D. — Treasurers : W. Thompson, Esq., Aldertnan, 
M.P. — Secretary, J. W. Cimningham, Esq. — Librarian, Rev. C* 
G. Nicolay. — Medical ditto, T. Stephen, Esq. 

King^s CoUege School. This institution is well adapted, 
from its central situation, to afford to the inhabitants of the 
metropolis the advantage of a public grammar school, with 
the satisfaction and economy arising from domestic care and 
superintendence. The course of education partakes of a 
liberal and useful character, adapted equally to professional 
and commercial pursuits. The general age of admission is 
nine years. The number of scholars in the school during 
last year was 609 ; at present time, 463. 

The terms for the course of tuition are 18 guineas, with 
one guinea as an entrance fee. These payments include 
every charge, except for books and stationery. The school 
year is divided into three terms : Christmas, Midsummer, 
and 1st of May. Proprietors of the college have the privilege 
of nominating pupDs at 15 guineas. 

Head Master, Rev. J. R. Major, D.D.- -Second Master, Rev. 
J. Edwards, M. A.— Thu-d Master, Rev. J. Feamley, M.A.— Trea- 
surer, Alderman William Thompson, M.P. 

In consequence of the wrong impression frequently re- 
ceived respectiDg the present title of University College, it 
may be useful here to state, that — 

THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, Somerset House, 
instituted 1837, is for the examination of candidates, and 
the granting of degrees to students educated at institutions 
in connexion with the University,' — as University College, 
King's College, Stepney College, and others situate in various 

^ Incorporated, by letters patent, in the Mv«[ith year of the reign of 
William IV, and the fir»t year of the reign of Queen Victoria, 18S7, — 
^ to hold fOTth to all classes and denomioatioDs of Her Majestjr's fiuthful 
subjects, without any distinction whatsoever, an encouragement for pur- 
suing a regular and liberal course of education "; and, '* conndering that 
numy persons do prosecute or complete their studies, both in the metro- 
polis and in other parts of the United Kingdom, to whom it is ezpedaeat 



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queekX Muhm Cnllrps. a.d. i848 

parts of the kingdom. Regulations of the Senate respecting 
age, proficiency, fees, etc., may be obtained at R. and J. E. 
Taylor's, printers to the University, Red Lion-court. Certi- 
ficates of studentship must be forwarded to the Registrar 
fourteen days before each examination. 

Supported partly by fees, and partly by Government grant ; 
the latter amounting, for the present year, to £4fi00 ; the 
former estimated at jG 1,000, — devoted to the following ex- 
penditure, viz., X3,000 in salaries to the various examiners, 
registrar, etc.; £1.070 in scholarships and exhibitions; and 
about £500 in miscellaneous disbursements and wages, &c. 

Chancellor, Earl of Burlington, — Vice-Chancellor, J. G. Shaw 
Lefevre, Esq. — Registrar, R. W. Rothman, M.D. — Clerk te the 
Senate, Mr. H. Moore. 

QUEEJf^'S COLLEGE, LONDON, 67, Harley-street. 
Established, 1848, for general female education, and for 
granting to governesses certificates of qualification. It is an 
offshoot of the Governesses' Benevolent Institution (see page 
260); and arose from the conductors of that institution 
being led to a plan of examining into the attainments of 
governesses in quest of situations, and granting certificates 
of approval to those who could stand the test. For this 
purpose it was found necessary to establish a committee of 
gentlemen, — to use the language of their introductory lec- 
ture, — "competent, individually, to examine in every branch 
of Imowledge." This committee appears to have consisted 
chiefly, if not entirely, of professors of King's College, who, 
" one by one came forward, offering the assistance of their 

that there should be offered such facilities, and on whom it is jost that 
there shoukl be such distinctions and rewards as may incline them to 
pursue these their laudable pursuits : We do, by virtue of oiu: preroga- 
tive royal, etc., etc., constitute William Earl of Burlington, etc., one 
body politic and corporate, by the name of the University ol" London ; for 
the purpose of ascertaining, by means of examination, the persons who 
have acquired proficiency in literature, science, and art, by the pursuit 
of such course of education, and of rewarding them by academical de. 
grees, as evidence of their respective attainments, and marks of honour 
proportioned thereunto." The Charter provides, that not only University 
College and King's College, Londcm, shall issue certificates to candidates 
for degrees in arts or laws, but " also all other institutions, corporate or 
unincorporated, established for the purpose of education, whether in the 
metropolis or elsewhere, which the Sovereign, under her sign manual, 
shall authorise to issue >uch certificates." 



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_^ 348 

queen's coll. (Bimrgtincat l^ngcktiBgg a.d. i848 

practised skill and acknowledged learning. These gentle- 
men soon discovered, that to do any real good, they must 
go further ; they must fit the governesses for their examin- 
ation, and provide an education for female teachers ; finally 
coming to the conclusion that it was expedient to extend 
that instruction beyond the governess in fact and the gover- 
ness in prospect, — ^to all who might choose to avail them- 
selves of it." The result has been the present establishment. 

The instruction is chiefly given in courses of lectures, 
delivered by gentlemen connected with King*s College, and 
other professors of celebrity ; and classes meet, in the various 
branches of education, twice a week, both preparatory and 
advanced, according to the enlarged requirements of the 
present day, in classes open to all ladies, of twelve years old 
and upwards, on payment of a moderate fee per quarter.^ 
About 250 are understood to be now on the list of pupils ; 
the number in each class averaging about twenty, and the 
number of classes which each individual attends, varying at 
pleasure. In addition to these, there are preparatory classes 
for young ladies from nine to twelve ; and evening classes 
for governesses at other times engaged in the duties of their 
profession, — the latter gratuitous. The whole is under the 
watchful superintendence of the Ladies Visitors. 

Further particulars may be ascertained at the College, or 
from the Secretary to the parent Society, 32, Sackville-street; 
or the Deputy Chairman at the College, every Wednesday 
before two o'clock. 

To such as are desirous of arriving at the full plan and 
principles of this institution, we cordially recommend the 
perusid of a late article in the Quarterly Review (No. 172). 
The writer very fully and fairly discusses the merits and 
deficiencies of the institution ; and his views are well deserv- 
ing the consideration of all who are desirous of availing 
themselves of the advantages it offers. It comes not within 
our province to enter into the same particulars, nor can we 
afford the space, but we entirely agree in the views of the 
article referred to. 

Chairman of the Committee of Education, the Rev. F. D. Mau- 
rice, M.A. — Deputy Chairman, the Rev. C. G. Nicolay. 

^ The fees are jfl 128. 6d. for those classes which meet twice in the 
week ; and £\ Is. for those which meet once ; and a composition of £9 9s. 
may he made for dghteen lectures a week per term. 



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349 

ISLINGTON, 1830 gflir HniiBrtt ^rlinnlB, a.d. i837 

QUEEN'S COLLEGE (City branch), has been just 
formed at No. 4, Artillery-place, Finsbury-sqnare. The course 
of instruction is under the superintendence of the Committee 
of Education in Harley-street, and the domestic arrange- 
ments superintended by a committee of ladies. The terms, 
and other details, appear to be similar to those of the parent 
establishment. 

Honorary Secretaries : J. R. Thomson, M.A.; John Lyon, Esq. 

ISLINGTON PROPRIETARY SCHOOL, Islington. 
Established 1830. Combining instruction with domestic 
habits, the whole being based on Christian principles. The 
course of instruction includes the Greek, Latin, French, and 
English languages. Pupils must be sons of proprietors, or 
nominated by them. In the latter case, two respectable 
references are required, and a ballot is taken by the directors 
on the nomination. A meeting of the directors is held on 
the second Tuesday in every month. Notices of nomina- 
tions are to be sent to the Secretary five days previous to 
such meeting. 

Terms, according to the proficiency of the pupils, in the 
Upper School, sixteen guineas per annum ; in the Second 
School, fourteen guineas per annum ; in the Third School, 
twelve guineas per annum. Two scholarships are attached 
to the school, value ;£30 each, for four years. 

President, Rev. Daniel Wilson. — Secretary, Mr. Oldershaw, 
Mansion House, Lower-street. — Head Master, Rev. Robert Wheler 
Bush, M.A. 

CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL, Milk-street, Cheapside, 
based upon an old endowment, but is a modem school, 
established 1837, "for the sons of respectable persons who 
are engaged in professional, commercial, or trading pursuits, 
between the ages of seven and fifteen." The general plan 
of instruction includes the English, Latin, Greek, French, 
and German languages. The hours of attendance are from 
nine till twelve, and from two to four, in the winter months ; 
and from two to five for the remainder of the year. The 
school year is divided into three terms ; the charge being, 
for each pupU, £2 15s. a term ; drawing extra, 14s. a term. 
A printed application (obtainable of the Secretary) is re- 
quired to be filled up by the parent or guardian, and signed 
by some member of the Corporation of London, previous to 
admission. In addition^ to the fees from pupils, the school. 



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350 

PHILOLOGICAL (i^flnrgtiBmii jPnuntomug a.d. 1792 

i8 supported by an income of £900 a year from estates left 
for that purpose by John Carpenter, Town Clerk to the City 
in the time of Henry YI. Eight free scholarships, on the 
foundation, are attached to this school as rewards of merit, 
to be determined by an examination at Midsummer, and 
seyeral have since been added by the liberality of individual 
citizens ; amongst w hich is one known as the " Times Scho- 
larship" (vide Christ's Hospital); others by Mr. Thomas 
Tegg's "Sheriff fine"; by Henry Beaufoy, Esq.; D. Salomans, 
Esq.; J. Travers, Esq., etc. The prizes and medals awarded 
are likewise very numerous and valuable. The candidates 
must be between eleven and fifteen years of age, and have 
been at least three years at the school. The advantages of 
each scholarship are equal to from £35 to £50 per annum, 
besides a premium of £50 on the successful candidate leav- 
ing school. Attendance given at the ofiice daily, between 
the hours of ten and four. 

Head Master, Rev. George F. W. Mortimer, D.D., of Queen's 
College, Oxford. — Second Master, Mr. Robert Pitt Edkins, M.A., 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. — Professor of Geometry in Gresham 
College ; and seventeen others. — Secretary, Mr. Thomas Brewer. 

London (City) School for Orphains of Freenven. It is con- 
sidered advisable to give a short notice of this contemplated 
school, as it is more than probable that its omission would 
cause some misapprehension with the preceding, as mention 
of this will doubtless be brought before the public during 
the next session of Parliament, when it is intended "to make 
application for an Act establishing a school for the mainte- 
nance and education of orphans of freemen of the City of 
London ; and for power to appropriate to the purpose the 
property and funds of the London Workhouse, and the un- 
applied portions of fines received from persons nominated 
as Sheriffs, and also the freedom-fees payable to the Corpo- 
ration." 

Notice has been given of this application, by public adver- 
tisement, of the City Remembrancer, Edward Tyrrell, Esq. 
The management of the school, and appointment of the 
masters, will most likely be vested in the Corporation. 

PHILOLOGICAL SCHOOL, Gloucester-place, near 
Lisson-grove, New-road. Founded 1792. In union with 
King's College, and offers first-class education, gratuitously, 
for the sons of clergymen, naval ^d military officers, pro- 



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361 

CONGREGATIONAL £ttJ|[ Jttoimi ^r^HHlS. A.D. 1811 

fessiooal men, merchants, manufacturers, clerks in public 
offices, the higher order of tradesmen, and other persons of 
an equally respectable class of society, whose families have 
been in better circumstances, and are reduced. There are 
also contributory scholars, who pay an annual sum for their 
instruction. 

Five guineas annually, or fifty guineas at one time, con- 
stitutes a governor, entitled to have one boy always in the 
school, with immediate admission. Three guineas annually, 
or thirty guineas at one time, entitles to have one boy of 
nine years of age, to continue till the age of fourteen, always 
in the school. Two guineas annually, or twenty guineas at 
one time, entitles to present a boy of ten years of age, to be 
admitted in rotation, as vacancies occur. One guinea 
per annum, or ten guineas at one time, after the expiration 
of three years, or by the additional payment of three guineas, 
entitles to present a boy of ten years of age, for admission 
in rotation, as vacancies occur. 

The following is a summary of the scholars in the insti- 
tution at the commencement of the year : — 

Of the sons of naval and military officers, 4 ; of profes- 
sional men, 29 ; of clerks in public offices, 11 ; of merchants, 
manufacturers, and the higher order of tradesmen, 26; 
total, 70 : Contributory scholars, 68.— Total, 128. 

The annual expenses are about ;^1,300, defrayed by divi- 
dends on stock, to the amount of £430 per annum ; payments 
from pupils, ;£620 ; and the remainder depending on volun- 
tary contributions. 

Visitor, Bishop of London. — President, Lord Portman. — ^Trea- 
surer, John Turner, Esq. — Solicitors, Messrs. Jupp, Carpenter's 
Hall. — Secretary and Head Master, Mr. Edwin Abbott. — Senior 
Assistant, Mr. Horatio J. Ward. — French Master, Mr. Stanislas 
Bard. — Collector, Mr. Henry Manwell, 100, Milton-st. Dorset-sq. 

COJSGREQATIONAL SCHOOL, Lewisham, Kent. 
Instituted 1811. For boarding and educating the sons of 
ministers of the congregational or independent denomina- 
tions of England and Wales. Candidates must be of the 
age of nine years, and under twelve ; and, on election, re- 
main five years. The elections take place each half-year, 
and all annual subscribers of one, or donors of ten guineas, 
have as tbany votes as there are children to be elected. The 
committee tuive the power of occasionally taking in a few 
pupils, at the rate of £16 per annum. The course of educa- 



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352 

ACADEMY OP ((Einitatniiial ^nunitHtniiis music, a.d. 1822 

tion consists of English, Latin, Greek, etc., and especially 
the principles of the Christian religion. Number of youths 
at present educated, forty-three, nine of whom are paid with, 
as above. The expenses, generally, are met by an income 
of about ;^1,100 per annum, derived from voluntary con- 
tributions. 

Classical Master, Rev. W. J. Hope. — Resident Master, Mr. 
G. Cox. — ^Treasurer, W. A. Hankey, Esq. — Secretary, Rev. G. 
Rose.— Collector, Mr. E. Shrewsbury, 16, King's-row, Walworth. 

ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC, Tenterden-street, 
Hanover-square. Instituted 1822 ; incorporated 1830, — to 
promote the cultivation of the science of music, and afford 
facilities for attaining perfection in it, by assisting, with 
general instruction, the natives of this country ; and to pro- 
vide for them the means of an honourable and comfortable 
livelihood. 769 pupils have been instructed since the foun- 
dation ; of whom 60 have been gratuitous, and 189 at re- 
duced payments. The amount required for the institution 
is only half met by the payments ; the rest by subscriptions ^ 
and dividends. Four scholarships are attached to the insti- 
tution ; two competed for each Christmas, open to all com- 
petitors from the age of twelve to eighteen. Candidates for 
admission must attend for examination on Thursdays, at 
two o'clock, with a subscriber's recommendation. The full 
payments are, for in-students, fifty guineas per annum, and 
ten guineas entrance ; out-students, thirty guineas per an- 
num, and five guineas entrance. The funds are in part 
supported by dividends from stock, amounting, at present 
time, to about £10,000. Students, in after life, have a claim 
on the institution, at the discretion of the committee, for 
assistance in their professional career. 

President, Earl of Westmoreland. — General Superintendent, 
Charles J. Lyon, Esq. — Governess, Mrs. Wise. — Secretary, Mr. 
J. Gimson. — Librarian, Mr. G. I. Baker. — Bankers, Messrs. 
Coutts and Co. — Principal of the Musical Department, Mr. Cipriani 
Potter. 

ROYAL NA VAL SCHOOL, New Cross,Deptford. Esta- 
blished 1833; incorporated 1840. To enable the less affluent 
of naval and marine officers, of not lower than ward-room 
rank, to give their sons a sound general education, combined 

^ Her Majesty the Queen has contributed j01O5 annually since the 
commencement of her reign. 



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353 

&OYAL NAYAL f toatJutial ^niighatiniig. female,a.d.i84o 

with moral and religious instruction, at the lowest possible 
expense consistent with the further object of bestowing the 
same education gratuitously, or at a very reduced charge, to 
a limited number of the sons of such officers in necessitous 
circumstances, — ^giving a preference to the orphans of those 
who may have fallen in the country's service. 

The present building is most favourably situated, at New 
Cross, commanding a view of Greenwich Hospital ;i it will 
afford accommodation for about 200 pupils ; a proportion of 
these pay either £25 or £31 per annum, medical attendance, 
books, stationery, washing, etc. included. Some are admitted 
on the annual payment of one month's half-pay of the 
father ; or, if dead, one month's amount of the widow's pen- 
sion ; and others are received gratuitously. No pupils are 
admitted under the age of eight, or above the age of four- 
teen ; and none are allowed to remain after eighteen years. 
Forms of application for the gratuitous and reduced scholar- 
ships may be obtained of the Secretary. 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas at once, constitute 
members; and all naval and marine officers, by paying annu- 
ally one day's half -pay of their respective ranks. Donors of 
£100 enjoy the privilege of nominating pupils ; of £500, of 
always having one pupil in the school for gratuitous board 
and education. The funds are supported by voluntary con, 
tributions to the extent of £1,100 annually; and by pupils' 
payments, £4,000 annually ; but the disbursements rather 
exceed the total income. The funded property is under 
£4,000. 

President, Admiral Bowles, Esq. — Treasurer, Andrew Robert 
Drummond, Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Drummond and Co., Charing- 
cross ; Messrs. Hoare and Co., Fleet-street. — Mr. Alfred Eames. 
— Head Master, Rev. Thomas Chambers, M,A. — Matron, Mrs. 
M. A. Jones. 

ROYAL NA VAL FEMALE SCHOOL -, office,32,Sack- 
ville-street. Founded, 1840, by the late admiral Sir Thomas 
Williams, to bestow upon the daughters of necessitous naval 
and marine officers, of and above ward-room rank, at the 
lowest reduction of cost practicable, a good, virtuous, and 
religious education, in conformity with the principles and 
doctrines of the Church of England. The ages for admission 
are from ten to fifteen ; but no pupil can remain longer than 

^ Upon land the property of Christ's Hospital. 

23 



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354 

»OYAL NAVAL ^htttHtiflMl ^nUldlatiintS. FEMALB,A.D.1840 

five years, nor after the a^e of eighteen, unless under special 
circumstances. The claims for admission to be founded 
upon the services of the father and circumstances of the 
funily. After the case is adjudged by the committee to be 
a proper one, it is submitted to the subscribers, who decide 
on the admittance of a pupil by vote. Every subscriber is 
entitled to four votes for each guinea. The election takes 
place at the annual meeting in April. The committee meet 
the last Wednesday in every month, at twelve o'clock. 

The establishment is situated at Richmond, Surrey ;i and 
at present there are eighty-three daughters of naval and 
marine officers ; twenty-seven of whom are received on the 
annual payment of tlurty or thirty-five guineas, and fifty- 
six at £12 per annum ; the establishment defraying the 
larger amount of actual cost through the means of voluntary 
contributions. Of the nxmiber of pupils on the reduced scale 
of payment, five have lost both parents, and thirty-four 
others have lost their fathers. 

The total annufd expenditure is under £4,000 ; defrayed, 
by pupils* payments, to the extent of £1,600 ; interest, and 
other property, £540 ; and the remainder depending upon 
voluntary contributions, last year realizing £1,753. 

Preddent, Earl Manvers. — ^Treasurer, F. Alleyne M'Qeachy, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretaries, Commander Hon. F. Maude, R.N. ; 
Commander G^rge Hope> B.N. — ^Lady Governess, Miss Clifton. 
—Clerical Visitor, Rev. T. W. D. Hales. — Hon. Consulting 
Physician, Dr. Julius, Richmond. — Honorary Surgeon, F. Julius, 
Esq. — Bankers, Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co. — Managing 
Seoretary, Mr. Arthur Ellis, Purser R.N. — Honorary Solicitor, 
Thomas Gbaham, Esq. 

1 The founder liberally and judicionsly bequeathed, besides j01,OOO, 
the pajroent of j^'lOO per annum, for seven years, to pay the rent of this 
Mtttblishment ; " to meet the usual difficulties of a newly-formed institute." 



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356 

gnBttfartijns far yrgmirtigg Ms^msi i^utd^mi 



CHAPTER XVL 



INSTITUTIONS FOR AIDING AND IMPROV- 
ING NATIONAL EDUCATION. 

The object of promoting Christian Knowledge closelj identified with that 
of educating the Poor. — The necessity for Extension of National Edu. 
cation recognized. — The difference of Opinion as to its Character. — 
Secular and Religious Education. — Views of the present Government, 
and their Measures. — Summary of the Institutions contained in this 
Chapttf , with their Aggregate Amount of Income, &c.— Committee of 
Privy Council— Kneller Hall. — Bell and Lancaster's first efforts.-*- 
The British, National, Infant, and other School Societies — Metropolitan 
School Statistics. — Metropolitan and Cheltenham Training Schools. — 
Educational Boards. — Institutions for theDiffbsion of Christian Know- 
ledge and Influence.— Lord's Day Society. — Protestant and Reforma- 
tion Societies. — Church Extension and Clerical Aid Fund. — Christian 
Visiting, by Pastoral and Lay Agents. — Ragged Schools. — Cottage 
Schools. — Sunday Schools. — Institute for Teachers. — Young Men's 
Societies. 

With the various institutions for improying and extending 
national education, we have connected such as aid in pro- 
moting Christian knowledge ; including in the present chap- 
ter those haying a more immediate reference to instruction 
at home, and devoting the next chapter to those more spe- 
cially engaged in propagating the same abroad. 

We have thus classed JVaticnal Edtbcation and Christian 
Knowledge Societies together, from a conviction that their 
objects are too intimately connected for the separation of 
their operations to be effectual ; and at the present day, 
when the claims of the poorer classes to liberal and general 
education are so readily acknowledged, and at times even 
extravagantly met, it appears desirable that no opportunity 
should be omitted, by even the most humble advocate of 
Christian instruction, of advancing its claims to equal, or 



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356 

^ftigg k itnprjimig bemarkb. 



rather prior, consideration with secular knowledge — ^in all 
provisions for national instruction. The ^' Knowledge is 
power" of one, is now aptly echoed by the "Ignorance is vice 
in action" of another ; both are taken up and acted upon 
with energy and prompt philanthropy by the generous and 
the influential, whilst the falsity attached to each proposition 
is, in a measure, overlooked or forgotten. Daily experience 
proves, that mere human knowledge is a "power" of evil as 
well as good ; and that crime is more the product of abused 
knowledge than "active ignorance": what does this teach, 
but that a higher and more enduring principle requires im- 
planting ? — in the mind of the young especially; thus much is 
man^s work ; the Christian's duty — and privilege — to promote 
and assist ; and it is Qod^s promise, and his certain power and 
will, to render the same effective. It is a matter of astonish- 
ment, that so many can join in the cry of educate ! educate ! 
with the object in view of " secular knowledge only, and 
that propositions can be entertained of authorizing and 
encouraging schools where Holy Scripture is avowedly ex- 
cluded : such can only, one would think, be influenced by 
one of two principles — either that secular or non-religious 
education is better than religious ; or, that it will lead to, 
and promote religion. As the first of these positions can 
only be seriously entertained by the infidel ; so does all 
human experience rise up to controvert the second. The 
tendency of training for the present life, is only to confirm 
the bent of man s natural aflections and material pursuits : 
he requires a counteracting influence, and that knowledge 
that maketh wise unto salvation, imparted in early years, 
when, as the good king of Prussia once forcibly expressed it, 
" the mind receives impressions with the flexibility of wax, 
and retains them with the durability of bronze."^ 

Whatever be the arguments used by the advocates of this 
svstem of " non-religious" education, and however specious 
the pretext under which they may be introduced, it is 
ardently to be desired they may be opposed as eflectually, 
as upon occasion of a recent debate. Amongst other oppo- 
nents of such a measure for national adoption, it was grati- 
fying to observe the first minister, in a speech, qualified in 
parts it might be, and temperate throughout, express firm 

^ ** Scratch the rhind of the tender sapling, and the gnarled oak vi\\\ 
tell of it for centuries." — Tupper. 



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357 

QENEBAL jBfltillgal d^lUgtijIl^ REMARKS. 

determination to retain Holy Scripture in all government 
enactments for the education of the people.^ 

In thus advocating the claims of the poor to Scriptural in- 
8truction,we would not be misunderstood, or thought to under- 
value the present gratifying movement for promoting general 
education : the amount of moral and int^lectual destitution, 
daily developed through the length and breadth of the land, 
demands it ; but it must not be supplied to the neglect of 
the still worse and more appalling extent of spiritual desti- 
tution. This requires, and likewise demands, our utmost 
efforts and strenuous advocacy ; that, not only in voluntary, 
but, what is much more important, in government provision, 
the religious wants of the people may be recognized, and, as 
far as practicable, supplied. Neither can we join in the ob- 
jections raised to the government plan as at present deve- 
loped ; or sympathize with those who refuse to receive its 
assistance and facilities, as offered by the " Committee of 
Council," — deeming it neither wise nor desirable to scru- 
tinize for defects in that which, taken as a whole, must be 
characterized as comprehensive, and calculated to secure a 
system of education adapted to the necessities of the people; 
with the peculiar recommendation, moreover, that it offers 
an unprecedented stimulant to the corresponding exertions 
of all friends of Christian instruction. 

The following summary of institutions contained in this 
chapter, affords a condensed view of the metropolitan re- 
sources devoted to the purposes referred to. 

11 school societies, boards and unions (exclu. 
sive of the Privy Council Committee), 
the annual income of which amounts in 

the aggregate,! to . . . ^£353269 

! *' Nothing but the most absolute necessity should oblige Parliament 
to establish an education for the children of this country, in which reli- 
gion should be entirely excluded, — in which the immortal part of man 
should be altogether forgotten. It would be a great fault, when you are 
providing a law for the instruction of the people of this country, not to 
inform them of the great and leading truths of religion ; and, I think, 
when you are teaching moral doctrines, you lose nine-tenths of the force 
with which they might be inculcated, if you omit to tell the pupils that 
these are the precepts which are given by divine authority, which have 
received divine sanction, and upon which their eternal welfare or misery 
is to depend."— Z/ord J. RusselVs Speech, April 17, 1850, on Mr. J. W. 
Fox's Education Bill. 

' These amounts are, of course, independent of all local operations, 



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358 

COMMITTEE OP StflttDg k WfXfBlU^ PRIVY COUNCIL. 

of which, there is derived from voluntary 
contributions . . . . ^£28,291 

12 book and tract societies, for promoting Chris- 
tian knowledge and influence, 
with an aggregate income of, — 

firom sale of publications . £il3,2S0 
voluntary contributions . j^5,825 
funded and other sources . £7,672 

Total £166,777 

17 societies for church and chi^l extension, 
clerical aid, pastoral and lay visiting, &c. 
with an aggregate income of, — 
from voluntfury contributions £83,737 
funded and other sources . £30,406 
Total £114,143 

COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON ED V CATION 
Privy Council Office, Downing-street. Committee of Her 
Majesty^s Most Honourable Privy Council, appointed to su- 
perintend the application of all monies voted by Parliament 
for the promotion of public education in Great Britain.^ 

All communications to this department are to be addressed 
to^" The Secretary, Committee of Council on Education, 
Privy Council Office, Downing-street." 

Members of Cconmittee : Marquis of Lansdowne (Lord Pre- 
sident) ; Karl of Minto ; Earl of Carlisle ; Earl of Clarendon ; 
Lord John Russell, M.P. ; Bight Hon. Sir Oeorge Grey, Bart., 
M.P.; Right Hon. Thomas Babington Macaulay ; Right Hon. Sir 
Charles Wood, Bart., M.P. ; Sir J. P. Kay Shuttleworth, Bart. 
— Assistant Secretarjr, R. R. W. Lingen, Esq. — Examiner, F. 

as the anDOfiil amount expended for educational purposes !n the metro- 
polis alone, including schools of all denominations, cannot be less than 
^190,000. 

1 The amount of rote for the year ending April 5, 1860, was £l%5fi^, 
disbursed much in the following manner :— for the erecti<m of school 
buildings, j£30,000 ; school books, maps, and improved apparatus, j£10,000 ; 
stipends and gratuities to teachers, and augmentation of schoolmasters* 
salaries, j£50,408 ; erection of training schools, ^ 1 5,000, and education of 
students therein, ^4,000 ; towards Kneller Hall (half-a-year), ^£1,760; for 
salaries and travelling expenses of inspectors, ^17,000 ; salaries in the 
grant department, j&l,800 ; annual grant to the National Society's train- 
ing schools, ^1.000 ; ditto British, j075O; ditto Education Committee of 
the Scotch Church, MOO ; and sundries, about j£l,300. 

The Commissioners of Ni^onal Education, Ireland, is a separate board 
(in Dublin); and the grant placed 9t their disposal last year was j0 120,000. 



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359 

KNELLER HALL SHtllllial fiHrEtlllll. A.D. 1850 

R. Sandford, Esq. — Counsel, W. G. Lumley, Esq. — ^Architect, 
W. Weetmacott, Esq. 

Her Majes^s Inspectors of Schools : Bev. Heniy Moseley, 
M.A. ; Rev. Frederick Charles Cook, M.A. ; Rev. H. Walford 
Bellairs ; Rev. Frederick Watson ; Joseph Fletcher, Esq. ; John 
Gordon, Esq. ; Rev. J. J. Blandford ; Rev. Edward Douglas 
Tinling ; Rev. Muirhead Mitchell ; Edward Carleton Tufiiell, 
Esq.; Joshua Festin Ruddock, Esq. ; Henry George Bowyer, Esq.; 
Thomas Browne Browne, Esq. ; Rev. Wifliam Henry Brookfield, 
M.A.; John Daniell MoreU, Esq.; Jelinger C. Symons, Esq.— 
John Gibson, Esq. ; Rev. William James Kennedy, M.A, ; Rev. 
Harry Longueville Jones, M.A. ; Thomas William Marshall, Esq.; 
Rev. John Pilkington Norris, M.A. 

Principal of the Training School for Schoolmaster at Enellar- 
Hall, Rev. Frederick Temple. 

The last named establishment has just been completed, and 
the following forms an outline of its objects, plan, and regula- 
tions : The school has already opened, and is intended to be 
filled gradually. Candidates must not be under seventeen years 
of age, and must be free from any bodily infirmity tending to 
impair their usefulness as schoolmasters ; produce certificates 
of moral character and conduct, and of attention to religious 
duties ; and pass such an examination as it prescribed for 
pupil teachers at the close of the third year of their appren- 
ticeship. Pupil teachers who have been examined for the 
close of their third year will be admissible to this examina- 
tion on fulfilment of the conditions, provided they obtain 

* This haDdsome new edifice, just completed, and opened for the train- 
ing of male teachers, is situated at Whitton, a small village between 
Hoonslow and Twickenham. The estate, consisting of about for^^five 
acres of land, with the mansion originally known as Kneller Hall, was 
formerly in the possession of Sir Godfrey Kneller, the celebrated state 
painter, (Charles II, to George I) ; and, about twenty years sincd.the pro- 
per^ of Mr. Calvert the brewer. The propeity was purchased a short 
time since by the Committee of Privy Council on Education, and the 
house, a plain, square brick dwelling-house, two stories in height, begun 
in 1709, taken down, and the space covered by the Principal's residence, 
the library, and class*rooms, etc. Kneller Hall School, as now arranged, 
will afford aceouunodation for about one-hundred pupils, with apartments 
for three masters, and a separate residence for the principal master. The 
chapel is oyer the school library, and occupies the entire remaining height 
of the building. The interior accommodation is rendered as complete as 
modem science and ingenuity can render it The building erected from 
the designs, and under the superintendence of, Mr. George Mair. archi- 
tect. Mr. John i^elk, builder. The total post of the establishment has 
^e^ afyom ^80,000. 



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360 

bell's and ^itog k i^ttpIHillg Lancaster's 

the consent of the managers and of the other parties to their 
indentures. The payment required of students is £30 
a-year, to he paid half-yearly in advance, excepting of such 
as ohtain presentations ; as, among the advantages availahle, 
are five exhibitions, of £S0 each for one year ; six of £25 
each for one year ; and ten of iJ20 each for one year. 

Fuller information on the subject, together with the re- 
maining conditions to be fulfilled for admission and for ob- 
taining exhibitions, may be had on application to the Secre- 
tary, Committee of Council on Education, Whitehall, to 
whom the names of candidates, with their certificates, have 
to be sent. 

Before entering upon a statement of the general plan and 
operations, of the societies called into existence by the vast 
impulse given to education, at the commencement of this 
century, it may serve many useful purposes, and certainly 
not be devoid of interest briefiy to detail the origin of the 
two institutions that come first on our list. 

The merit of originating the system pursued by these two 
institutions, is attributed to the friends respectively of Mr. 
Joseph Lancaster and Dr. Bell, and, as in most similar 
claims, there is much of justice in attributing to each the 
merit of being founder ; the exertions of the former developed 
and made public a system which was at the time being pur- 
sued by the latter : to Lancaster, is due the great public 
attention first devoted to the subject ; but to Dr. Bell, the 
first adoption of its principles. 

Whilst superintendent of the Military Orphan Asylum at 
Madras, in 1791, Dr. BelP one day observed a boy, belonging 
to a Msilabar school, writing in the sand ; thinking that me* 
thod of writing very convenient, both as regards cheapness 
and facility, he introduced it in the school of the asylum, 
and as the usher refused to teach by that method, he em- 
ployed one of the cleverest boys to teach the rest. The 
experiment of teaching by a boy was so remarkably success- 
ful, that he extended it to the other branches of instruction, 
and soon organized the whole school under boy teachers, 
who were themselves instructed by the doctor. On his re- 
turn to England, he published a report of the Madras Orphan 
Asylum, in which he particularly pointed out the new mode 
of school organization, as far more efficient than the old. 

1 Mr. Bell received his diploma of M.D. in 1787, and of D.D. in 1812. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



361 

PIBST EFFORTS. ^KKtlllMl il^tarKtillll* A.D. 1791-1811 

This publication took place in 1797, and in the following 
year Dr. Bell introduced the system into the school of St. 
Botolph's, Aldgate, London. He afterwards introduced it 
at Kendal, and made attempts with small success to obtain 
its adoption in Edinburgh. Settling down soon after as 
rector of Swanage in Dorsetshire, he was secluded from 
the world for some years ; yet he retained his strong opinion 
of the value of the new system of education, and had the 
school at Swanage conducted on that system. 

In the meanwhile Joseph Lancaster, son of a Chelsea 
pensioner, in the Borough-road, London, opened a school in 
his father's house, in the year 1798, at the early age of 
eighteen. He had been usher in schools, and being of an 
original, enterprising, and ardent character, he had himself 
made improvements in tuition. Dr. Bell's pamphlet hav- 
ing fallen in his way, he adopted the Madras system with 
eagerness, making various alterations in its details. In the 
year 1802, he had brought his school into a very perfect state 
of organization, and found himself as well able to teach 250 
boys with the aid of the senior boys as teachers, as before to 
teach 80. His enthusiasm and benevolence led him to con- 
ceive the practicability of bringing all the children of the 
poor under education by the new system, which was not only 
so attractive as to make learning a pleasure to the children, 
but was so cheap as exceedingly to facilitate the establish- 
ment and support of schools for great numbers of the poor. 
He published pamphlets recommending the plan, and in one 
of them ascribes the chief merit of the system to Dr. Bell, 
whom he afterwards visited at Swanage. His own school he 
made free, and obtained subscriptions from friends of edu- 
cation for its support.^ The Duke of Bedford, having been 
invited to visit it, became a warm and liberal patron of the 
system. Lancaster pushed his plan with the ceaseless energy 
of an enthusiast ; nothing daunted or discouraged him ; he 
asked subscriptions for new schools from every quarter ; 
and at length he was admitted to an interview with the 
king (at Weymouth in 1805). Being charmed with what 
he heard of his large designs, the admirable order and effi- 
ciency of his schools, and also with the simplicity and 
overflowing benevolence of the man, his majesty subscribed 
£100 a year, the queen £50, and the princesses £25 each, 

^ Lancaster was a member of the Society of Friends ; and he received 
much encouragement and assistance from them. 



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362 

THE MADRAS ^tlMlIg k VSSfXJiWl^ SYSTEM. 

to the extension of the '^ Lancasterian system." The king 
also declared himself to be the patron of the society which 
was soon afterwards formed to promote education on this 
system. 

Such was the origin of the '' British and Foreign School 
Society."! 

Dr. Beirs method thus publicly brought forward and ad- 
vocated, in process of time was adopted in the Lambeth 
schools, by the Archbishop of Canterbury : and in the Royal 
Military School, by the Duke of York's authority ; niunerous 
schools forthwith springing into existence upon what is 
known to this day as the Madras system; the distinctive fea- 
tures between these and such as were founded by Lancaster's 
party, consisting in the extent to which the religious instruc- 
tion should be mixed with the secular ; the former, as a cler- 
gyman of the Established Church, advocating the inculcation 
of the truths of Christianity as held in the Church articles 
and formularies ; the latter, representing the dissenting in- 
terests, admitted the reception of the Bible as the foundation 
of all instruction, but withovi any note or eommervt. This 
still remains the essential difference between the two socie- 
ties and the schools conducted on their principles. Li 1808, 
Dr. Bell endeavoured to induce the government to take up 
his plans, and to establish ^^ A National Board" of Educa- 
tion, with schools placed under the management of the 
parochial clergy. In this he failed, but friends of the Estab. 
lished Church rallied round him, and, through their efforts 
and under the patronage of the bishops and clergy, the 
National Society was eventually formed in 1811. 

In addition to these great societies, and the rising estab- ^ 
lishment of the Home and Colonial Infant schools, efforts are 
being made on a large scale by the Wesleyans for building 
schools in different parts of the country ; the original scheme 
being, it was stated, to build 700 in seven years ; the Con- 
gregationalists also, it will be seen, are about commenc- 
ing an extension of their training and model establish- 

^ Originally designated ** The Rojal Lancasterian Institution for pro- 
moting the Education of the Children of the Poor." In 1808, Lancaster 
resigning his affairs into the hands of trustees, it assumed more of the 
character of a public institution. 

' Mr. Lancaster died in 1838, supported, in his later days, solely by 
an aanui^ purchased for him by a few old and attached fHends. Dr. 
Bell died in 1832, leaving the princely sum of j£120,000 for the encou- 
ragement of literature and the advancement of education. 



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363 

BRIT. <fc FOREIGN jlHtUIlIHl (BJlDIBlnill. SCHOOL, A.D. 1805 

ment in the metropolis, with the view of increasing and im- 
proving their schools. Most of the local schools in the 
metropolis, indeed with few if any exceptions, are connected 
either directly or indirectly with one of the principal socie- 
ties or other unions and boards detailed in this chapter ; 
consequently, we are enabled, with some little trouble, to 
afford statistics respecting them, trustworthy under each, if 
not as a whole, satisfactory. The British Society, being the 
oldest established, appears entitled to first consideration. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY. 
Borough-road. Established 1805. For the promotion of the 
daily instruction of the children of the labouring poor, and 
for the training of teachers ; differing from the National 
Society, by the following fundamental principle : *' that no 
catechism, or chvA'ch formvlary, thaU he taught in any school 
connected therewith or assisted thereby, and that every child 
shall be expected to attend the Sabbath school, or place of 
worship, which its parents prefer*'* — the desire being to unite 
every denomination of dissenters for the purpose of Chris- 
tian education." The selection and training of suitable 
young persons as teachers with the same views, is a great 
object of the society, and for that purpose it maintains 
model schools and normal seminaries for both sexes. 

The Model Boyi School numbers nearly 700 children in 
daily attendance ; the girls' school, 300. Since their estab- 
lishment, 52,828 children have been received. 

The Normal Seminaries are for instructing teachers, to fit 
them for the right performance of their duties. Since the 
formation of the society, nearly 3,000 teachers have thus 
been selected and trained. 

Local schools, although conducted on the plan and prin- 
ciples of the society, are governed by independent local 
committees ; the schools in the immediate neighbourhood of 
London, are regularly inspected once in three months, under 
the direction of the Parent Society, and those in the country 
receive visits as frequently as is practicable : 167 schools, 
containing 23,823 scholars, are under the supervision of the 
London inspector: and 58 distinct country schools, with 
7,205 scholars, within 10 miles of London. 

^ Here the most improyed methods of instruction may he seen in 
actual operation. The Schools are open to visitors eyerj day (Sundays 
excepted) from 10 to 12 o'clock, and from 2 to 4. 



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364 

THE NATIONAL ^fillUg ^ nnptllltfllg SOCIETT, A.B. 1811 

The society likewise extends its operations in establishing 
schools in the colonies, France, Spain, and South America. 

In consequence of the increase during the last five years 
of 660 in the number of schools, and of 7000 children, the 
society has lately issued an appeal for the extension of 
normal schools, and is about establishing one on a large 
scale, to commence with at Bristol. 

The gross receipts are about £11,560 annually, derived 
nearly half from the sale of publications, and the remainder 
fipom voluntary contributions. One guinea annual or ten 
guineas donation, constitutes a tnember entitled to school 
books and stationery at reduced prices. 

President, Duke of Bedford. — Treasurer, Samuel Gumey, Esq. 
— Secretary, Henry Dunn, Esq. — Collector, Mr. Thomas Boulton, 
81, Westmorland-place, City-road. 

THE NA TIONAL SOCIETY, Sanctuary, Westminster. 
Established 1811 ; incorporated 1817. For promoting the 
education of the poor in the principles of the Established 
Church throughout England and Wales. By its constitution, 
it includes among its directors all the higher ecclesiastical 
authorities throughout the kingdom, together with ten tem- 
poral peers or privy councillors, and sixteen other members 
of committee, six of whom are clergymen. 

Connected with the central institution, in Westminster, 
various boards of education, throughout the country, have 
been established in furtherance of the same objects, although, 
perhaps, differing slightly in their internal arrangements. 
Dioceses are variously organized for educational purposes ; 
but every diocesan board bears the same relation to the 
rest, and to the central institution. Each board is formed 
and presided over by its own bishop ; and, with the ex- 
ception of a few special grants to the parent institution, 
every diocese spends its own funds within its own limits. 
Thus constituted, the National Society, together with these 
its affiliated associations, may be regarded as an accredited 
organ or agent of the Church, in the all-important duty of 
instilling Christian principles into the children of the poor ; 
to provide, if possible, for every parish in the kingdom, the 
means of daily instruction in sound Christian principles ; and 
to realize the hope expressed with so much feeling by the 
venerable George III, " that a time might come when every 
poor man in his dominions would be able to read his Bible.*'^ 



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365 

THE NATIONAL JBeKIIIIHI (KUltEtnnifil SOCIETY, A.D. 1811 

The operations of this society have now been carried on 
for nearly forty years, with the greatest success. During the 
last five years, the society has expended in aid of building, 
enlarging, and otherwise improving school-rooms and teachers* 
residences, the sum of £139,197, to 1,940 cases of applica- 
tion ; thereby affording accommodation for 265,542 children, 
at a total outlay of .£767,980 ; and, during the same period, 
has sent out 1,042 trained masters and mistresses, to schools 
in various parts of the country. 

The general result of the exertions made by the society is, 
that the number of schools formally in union with the soci- 
ety, and in which, consequently, the children are instructed 
in the Holy Scriptures, and in the liturgy and catechism, 
and are regularly brought, if possible, to the parish church 
on the Lord's day, was, in 1847, as follows, and has since 
been materially increased : — Sunday and daily (including 
infant schools), 6,798, with 526,754 scholars ; Sunday and 
not daily, 1,597, with 237,848 scholars. Total number of 
schools in union, 8,395, with 764,602 children. 

The total number of schools under the direction of the 
clergy throughout England and Wales, including the above, 
was, according to returns obtained two years ago by the so- 
ciety :— Simday and daily schools, 17,015, with 955,865 
scholars ; Sunday schools, 5,230, with 466,794 scholars. 
Total Church schools, 22,245, with 1,422,659 scholars. « 

With a view to the improvement, as well as extension of 
education, the following institutions are wholly supported 

^ An expression of his Miigestj duriiig the aadience he granted to 
Lancaster in 1805, before referred to. 

' Metropolitan Statiitics of Church Schooh. — The returns being made 
np in counties, — anj attempt to break into this for the sake of giving the 
metropolis proper, and adding Southwark, might prove at the cost of 
accuracy, without presenting the advantage of definite limits, — we there- 
fore give the summary as enabled to compile it. The county, it will be 
borne in mind, includes the City of Loudon and Westminster ; is in the 
diocese of London, and contains 313 parishes, or ecclesiastical parishes, 
with a population of nearly 1,600,000. There are 767 schools ; 414 either 
directly or indirectly connected with the National Society, of which 
there are 340 in connexion with the Diocesan Board. 

Sunday and weekday, 488 ; weekday only, 168 ; Sunday only, or 
additional on Sunday, 91 ; Sunday and week day evening, 14 ; week-day 
evening only, 6. 

Amount of instruction. — Total number of scholars receiving both Sun- 



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366 

THE NATIONAL £itog k tWftmU^ SOCIETY, A.D. 1811 

by the society, the c^oitral schools affording not only instruc- 
tion to the scholars, but exhibiting the working of the na- 
tional system, on a large scale, to the young persons in 
the training establishments, and affording them means of 
practising as instructors. 

IngCittUion for Educating Youths to he Schoolmmters^ 
Stanley-grove, KingVroad, Chelsea. Principal, Rev. Der- 
went Coleridge, M.A. 

Institution for Educating Young Women to be Sc?ioolmis- 
tressee, Whitefand's House, KingVroad, Chelsea. Chaplain, 
Rev. H. Baber, M.A.; Treasurer, John Shephard, Esq., Doc- 
liors' Commons ; Managers, Mrs. Field and Miss Lowman. 

Institution for Educating AduU Schx>plma8ter8, Terrace 
House, Battersea. Principal, Rev. Thonuts Jackson, M.A. 

Boarding House for Adult SchoolmasterSy 10 and 11, Man- 
chester-buildings, Westminster. Superintendent, Rev. Alex. 
Wilson. Boarding House for Schoolmistresses, Smith's-square, 
Westminster, Matron, Mrs. Barber. 

The Central Schools: — Boys' School, Sanctuary, West- 
minster. Master, Mr. Richards. Girls' School, Sanctuary, 
Westminster. Mistress, Miss Heyes. Infants' School, TidT- 
ton-street, Westminster. Mistress, Miss Clarke. 

The special fund for the establishment of Schools in the 
Manufacturing and Mining Districts, This fund, raised in 
1843 and 3, amounting to ^150,000, is now exhausted, hav- 
ing been mainly devoted to building school-rooms and teach- 

day and week-day instructioD, boys, 23,382 ; girls, 18,684 : Week-day 
instraction only, boys, 11,352; girls, 10,817, — total, 64,235,or about 1 in 
25 of the population : Sunday instruction only .boys. 7,207 ; girl8,8,623, — 
total, 15,830 : Sunday and week-day evening instruction, boys, 81 1 ; girls , 
177, — total, 488 : Week-day evening instruction only, boys, 245 ; girls, 
179,— total, 424. Total under instruction, boys, 44,078 ; girls, 40,279,— 
80,977. 

In the Sunday schools there are 2,707 gratuitous teachers, — 1,089 
males, and 1,018 females. There are 1,836 paid teachers employed in 
this county, viz., 248 masters, 446 mistresses, 34 assistant masters, and 
89 assistant mistresses, and 278 male and 241 female pud monitors. 
Total amount of salaries, ^37,611 12s. Od. 

Total expense of maintaining Church Schools in the county .j^89,698 lis. 

Supported in the following manner: — Endowment only, 35 ; subscrip- 
tion only, 145 ; endowment and subscription, 94 : total Free Schools, 274. 
Payments from the children only, 49 ; endowments and payments, 6 ; 
endowments, subscriptions, and payments, 87; subscription and pay- 
ments, 351 : total of Pay Schools, 493. 



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367 

HOME <fe COLONIAL jlatliniHl (StoHtlini. INFANT, A.D. 1836 

ers' houses, among the mining and manufacturing part of the 
population : but the demand for further aid upon the funds 
of the society^ &om all parts of the country, are still most 
urgent. 

The funds of the society are entirely supported by volun- 
tary contributions, and vary in amount from £10 to .£15,000; 
from time to time (about once in eveiy three years) a " Queen's 
letter" is granted, for the purpose of enabling the committee 
to extend their grants towards local operations; the sum 
realized thereby is ordinarily about £35,000.^ 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas in one sum, consti- 
tutes a member, and entitles to vote at the annual general 
meeting. 

President of the Society, Archbishop of Canterbury. — ^Treasurer, 
Rev. Archdeacon Sinclair. — Secretary, Rev. John G. Lonsdale. 
—Chief Clerk, Mr. F. W. Stretton.— Receiver, Mr. H. Stretton, 
77, Great Queen-street. 

HOME ANJ) COLONIAL INFANT School Society, 
Grays-inn-road. Established 1836. For the general im- 
provement and extension of the Infant School system, and 
education generally, on Christian principles, as set forth and 
embodied in the articles of the Church of England. 

This excellent establishment consists of two schools, where 
near 500 children are instructed upon a graduated course ; in 
the lower school, the infant faculties are endeavoured to be 
developed ; and in the upper, where they are generally kept 
until ten years of age, the children are taught to exercise 
and improve those faculties." These schools are supported 

^ The amounts collected by "Queen's Letter" are now paid over direct 
to the Treasurer of the cbaritj for which they are ^minted ; and not, as 
formerly, subject to fees and otfier abatements. The old " Church Briefs," 
in spite of the provisions of the act of Anne, 4, c. xiv, for their improve- 
ment, constituted a much abused system, by their being farmed by bankers 
and others ; and the patent charges were very heavy. They were virtually 
abolished by the 0th George IV, c. zlii. " Queen's letters" are generally 
for the benefit of one of the three societies, — The National ; The Incor- 
porated Church ; and The Gospel, — one each third year. 

' The Model Schools are open during the usual school hours for the 
inspection of the public ; but Tuesdays, from half-past two to four, is a 
time when the complete working of the Institution may be seen, from the 
first to the last step, under the direction of their own teachers, when 
lessons likely to be interesting to visitors will be given ; and a more inter- 
esting, and at the same time instructive, afternoon can be scarcely spent, 
— ^it will well repay the experiment. 



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THE MBTBOPOLITAN StMlIg ^ IHlfirnirfllg TRAININa,A.D.1849 

for the further and chief piurpose of the Institution, viz., that 
of trainifig teachers ; qualifying them by practical instruc- 
tion for masters and mistresses, and thereby enabling them 
to be recommended to schools as occasion may offer. Eighty- 
four teachers can be in training at one time in the Institu- 
tion, they are required to remain six months at least, and 
pay the sum of seven shillings per week for board and lodging, 
the remaining expenses being defrayed by the Society's funds; 
those who remain twelve months pay £15, and such have 
the opportunity of obtaining the government certificate, after 
examination by Her Majesty's Inspectors ; in that case, they 
have to pay only £\0. Nearly 1200 teachers have been 
already sent out for Home, Colonial, and Foreign service, 
experiencing those advantages. Teachers may be readmitted 
for further training at any time they feel their deficiences, 
for a few weeks, at five shillings per week. The remaining 
objects of the Institution are, to circulate information, cor- 
respond with the friends of infant tuition, print and publish 
lessons, provide school materials, <&c , and appoint inspectors 
to visit schools, and places where schools may be required. 

The Society's publications may be obtained at 169, Fleet- 
street, or at the Institution. Application for teachers, or to 
be admitted for training, etc., to be addressed to the Secre- 
tary. The funds are deservedly well supported ; the whole 
expenditure is about £3500, from which must be deducted 
from £1200 to £1500, received by payments for publica- 
tions and teachers' fees : the balance must, however, con- 
tinue entirely dependent on voluntary contributions. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes a 
member. 

Treasurer, John Bridges, Esq. — Hon. Secretary, J. S. Reynolds, 
Esq. — ^Travelling Secretary, Mr. Prince. 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND METROPOLITA N Train- 
ing Institution, Highbury.^ Instituted 1849. The object 
of this Institution is to train pious persons as masters and 
mistresses of juvenile schools, connected with theJEstablished 
Church, " upon principles scriptural, evangelical, and pro- 

' Long known as " Highbury Coll^^," purchased hj the committee 
for ^12,500; a purchase, which involved ^5,000 more to render it 
available for training masters, and model-school inclusive ; to meet which, 
the amount of subscriptions to time of purchase was only j£8,000, and a 
promise of j£4,000 more in aid thereof from the Committee of Council ; 



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MBTBOPOLITAK ^EtfaUtHi iStdirEthllL TRAINING, A.D. 1849 

testant".^ It is quite distinct in its operations from any 
other society, and originates in the Tiew, that the existing 
provision is far short even of present requirements, besides 
the prospect of future demands that will necessarily ensue, 
when the present pupil teachers in the goyemment schools 
will be looking for higher religious training : it is calculated 
that in about three years, one thousand such young persons 
will be terminating their periods of apprenticeship, an 
accession of numbers, one half of which the existing esta- 
blishments will not be capable of accommodating. 

This Institution proposes, therefore, proyidmg suitable 
reception for eighty masters and eighty mistresses, in distinct 
and separate establishments, under a committee composed 
exclusiyely of clerical and lay members of the Church of 
England, to be elected annually by the subscribers ; and in 
furtherance of these objects, this committee have been 
fortunate enough to meet with the present handsome and 
commodious bmlding.^ The establishment for training 
masters will consequently be shortly opened, but that for 
mistresses, requiring additional builcung and outlay, will be 
deferred for increase of funds. 

satu&ctoiy as the purchase is in ereiy respect, jet the immediate large 
ondaj preclades the whole of the projected purposes from heiog carried 
out, until warranted hj an increase of funds. 

^ The plan of this training institution is very mmilar in priociples to, 
and in entire unison with, the Cheltenham training schools. The closing 
paragraph in the constitutional deeds of which is worthy insertion here,for 
the purpose of illustration: "And lastly, it is hereby declared and agreed 
by and between the said parties to these presents, that while it is desired 
that tile particular mode, plan, and scheme of education in the said 
schools shall be left freely in the hands of the committee of the said in- 
stitution, and their successors, for erer ; and that it shall be left to them 
to adopt, in coi^unction with the principal, such modifications of existing 
systems of conveying instruction, or such new plans to be subsequently 
recommended, as to them may seem expedient, — it is solemnly intended 
and purposed, that the religions education to be conveyed in the said 
schools, shall always be strictly Scriptural, Evangelical, and Protestant, 
and in strict accordance with the articles and liturgy of the Church of 
England, as by law established, in their literal and grammatical sense. 
And that these principles should for ever be preserved, as a most sacred 
trust, at any sacrifice of pecuniary loss, or temporal interests. And this 
will and purpose is hereby recorded and affirmed, in dependence on the 
•id and blessing of Almighty God, and in sole reliance upon the teaching 
of the Holy Ghost, throi^ the only Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" 

24 



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370 

LONDON DIOCESAN ^littUg k IWpSWl^ BOAED, A.D. 1839 

It is intended to reduce the payments required from 
students, to the smallest possible sum, but it will finally all 
depend on the amount of funds at the Society's disposal. 
The following are the terms contemplated : general ages of 
admission 18 to 30; candidates to satisfy the clerical referees 
as to the soundness of their views, etc., and their fitness for 
admission ; the charges for males j£25 for the first year, and 
£20 for succeeding years ; and for females, jC20 the first 
year, and ^16 for succeeding years. A " certificate of 
merit'* entitles to one year without charge, after the first 
year ; and a government exhibition in lieu of payment for 
the first year. The length of residence to depend on age, 
acquirements, and pecuniary means, but in no case less then 
one year. One pound annual, or from clergymen, 10s., or 
j£10 at one time, constitutes a governor, entitled to one vote. 

Chairman of Committee, Lord Ashley, M.P. — ^Treasurer, Hon. 
Arthur Kinnaird. — Honorary Secretaries: Rev. J. "Wilson, 9, 
Bamsbury Park, Islington ; John Martin, Esq., 23, Chanoery-lane. 

LONDON DIOCESAN BOARD OF EDUCATION, 
79, Pall Mall. Instituted 1 839. For the purpose of forming 
a medium of communication and mutual suggestions between 
the clergy and other persons of the diocese interested in the 
cause of religious and general education, in accordance with 
the doctrine and discipline of the Established Church ; to 
collect and circulate information as to the state of education 
in the diocese, and the obstacles which impede its progress 
or efficiency ; take measures for the extension and improve- 
ment of education in connexion with the Church of England 
throughout the diocese ; bring into union with itself as 
many as possible of the schools existing in the diocese, on 
the terms adopted by the National Society ; and establish 
an effectual system of inspection and periodical examination 
of the schools in union with the board, with the concurrence 
of the managers of such schools, and under the sanction of 
the bishops. It also assists in establishing and supporting, 
by means of grants. Ragged Schools in populous districts. 
The whole number of schools in union directly or indirectly 
with the National Society in London and Westminster, is 
414, of which 340 are in union likewise with this board. 
The expenses of maintaining this board are under £^60 per 
annum, and are defrayed by volimtary contributions of its 
members. Vide National Society, page 364. 



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371 

CONGBBaATIONAL jEtiflllEl (J^HrEtllllL BOARD, A.D. 1 843 

General Meetings, on the third Tuesday in February, 
May, and November, respectively. The annual meeting of 
the subscribers, in May. 

President, Bishop of London. — Treasurer, Sir Walter R. Far- 
quhar, Bart. — Honorary Secretary, Rev. R. Burgess. — ^Auditors : 
Rev. H. Howarth, and John Martm, Esq. — ^Assistant Secretary, 
Mr. G. C. Silk. -Collector, Mr. J. Bumingham. 

CONGREGATIONAL BOARD OF EDUCATION 

Established 1843. Consists of Normal Schools, at 10, 
Liverpool-street, Finsbury ; and of model schools at 2, €k>lds- 
worthy-place, Ritherhithe. 

The former for the training of young persons firom 18 to 
30, who are ''of decided piety, possessing suitable qualifica- 
tions, and who are decidedly opposed to government aid in 
education": payment for males, 5s. a week, females, 4s. a week. 

The latter is at present conducted in the building formerly 
known as the Jewin-street Chapel,and contains 170 children. 

The balance sheet for 1848-9, exhibits the gross receipts 
to be ;£2,152, and expenditure, £2,083. It is in immediate 
contemplation to remove the whole establishment to Homer- 
ton College, the purchase of which for the purpose having 
just been determined upon by the board. Application for 
.admission to be addressed to the Secretary of the Congrega- 
tional Board of Education, Liverpool-street, Finsbury. 

Principal, Rev. W. J. Unwin, M.A. — Treasurer, Samuel Mor- 
ley, Esq. — Secretary, William Rutt, Esq. — Mistress, Miss Whit- 
more. 

VOLUNTARY SCHOOL ASSOCIATION, 26, New 
Broad-street, City. Established 1849. Founded on the 
principle of "repudiation of state assistance", affording 
secular instruction ; combined with religious only to those 
whose parents do not object to it. The committee announce 
their having taken premises, 30, Surrey-place, Old Kent-road, 
and readiness to accept applications from pupils for the 
Normal schools. 

Treasurer, George W. Alexander, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : 
Messrs. Henry Richard, Joseph Barrett, Chas. Theodore Jones. 

SOCIETY for PROMOTING CHRISTIAN Knowledae. 
67, Lincoln's-inn-fields. Founded 1698. The operations by 
which this Institution is more generally known, consist of 
publishing cheap religious works, approved of by a commit- 



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372 

cHBisTiAK ^iitiiig k isxfxwnu^ knowledge 

tee of members of the Church of England, and circulating 
them at a low charge ; also, purchasing works of a good and 
instructive tendency in large numbers, and disposing of them 
to ** members" at reduced prices : but, great as the good pro- 
bably effected by these means, and amazing as the extent to 
which the system is carried, it partakes too much of a com- 
mercial character— conducted though it be on Christian 
principles — ^to entitle the society to be recognized, in our 
Tolume, as a '' Charity", were it not for the miportance of 
its collateral operations in carrying out the objects conyeyed 
by the title. 

The profits of the establishment, together with the large 
annual amount of legacies and donations to its funds, are de- 
Toted to the spreading of Christian knowledge and general 
education of the poor. It is thereby enabled to ma£e grar 
tuitous grants of its publications to parochial and ouier 
lending libraries throughout England and Wales ; and by 
means of its numerous district committees, to collect and 
transmit information respecting the best mode of promoting 
Christian education abroad : — to establish, enlarge, or super- 
intend schools' — ^to supply natives and settlers with its 
books^-effect translations, when necessary — and lastly, to 
render aid in behalf of our colonies and dependencies, and 
contribute to the endowment of bishopric and collegiate 
establishments. Many of our present missions^ owe their 
formation to the instrumentality of this institution, and the 
assistance rendered by it to the cause, generally, entitles it to 
cordial support. 

A brief summary of recent operations will serve to convey 
in the most satisfaictory maimer the present working of the 
society. 

A grant of ^2,000 in 1848 towards the endowment of the 
bishopric of Hong Kong, and in 1849, a like amount towards 
the coUegiate establishment: also during the two years, 
£2,000 to each of the following dioceses, for the purpose of 

^ As lately as the year 1811, the Society's operations were mainly de- 
voted to this great branch of usefulness ; but as their extent of labour 
increased, it was found desirable to transfer it to an institution then fos- 
tered by the Society, and now known as " The National Society." 

' The well-known and devoted missionary, Schwartz, was appointed 
by the Society ; and the missions in Southern India were maintained by it 
lor many years, until, in 1824, transferred to *• The Society for the Rro- 
pbgation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." 



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373 

SOCIETIES, Jatnnral (tocittnni. a.d. i698 to 1750 

colleges and schools, tIz., New Zealand, Adelaide, Melbourne, 
Newcastle, and Cape Town. The sum of ^£44,000 has been 
granted by the society towards church building in the Colo- 
nies, since 1822. In 1846, £1,000 was set apart for the spi- 
ritual wants of emigrants, and to the present time the society 
supports an agent at Portsmouth and Liyerpool, to visit and 
conuert those about to leave their native laiid. 

During the past year the following number of publica- 
tions were issued : — ^bibles, 129,242 ; new testaments,90,880 ; 
prayer-books, 287,272 : other books and tracts, 3,646,934. 
And the amount of sale of books and tracts in the retail de- 
partment alone realized ;£16,226. From the year 1733, when 
the society first began to report its annual issues of publica- 
tions, to 1840, it has distributed upwards oi ninety-four mil- 
liona of books and tracts. Of these there have been, bibles and 
new testaments, 6,559,810 ; common prayer-books, 7,253,265. 
The subscription for membership is one guinea per annum ; 
and benefactions are received for the general designs, or 
any particular branch of them, to any amount. 

This extensive establishment, besides its annual returns 
for publications, amounting to between £50,000 and £60,000^ 
is supported by an income, derived from voluntary contribu- 
tions and legacies, of £27,000; and from dividends, etc., of 
between £5,000 and ;£6,000. 

President, Archbishop of Canterbmy. — ^Treasurers : Bev. J. 
Endell Tyler, B.D. ; William Cotton, Esq. ; Edward Hawkuis, 
Esq. ; James Wigram, Esq. — Secretaries : Rev. T. B. Murray, 
M.A. ; Rev. Jo^ Evans, M.A. ; Rev. J. D. Glennie, M.A. — : 
Bankers, Messrs. Goslings and Sharpe, 19, Fleet-street. — Super- 
intendent of Depository, Mr. Cox. — Collector, Mr. Stretton. 

BOOK SOCIETY f<yr promotiruf BdigiouB Knowledge 
among the Poor, Depository, 19, Paternoster-row. Insti- 
tuted 1750. For the gratuitous distribution of bibles and 
testaments, and other books of established excellence, adapted 
to the instruction of the poor. No books of a controversial 
nature are distributed ; and no new book introduced for dis- 
tribution, or being already approved, rejected, unless with 
the consent of seven-eighths of the members present at a 
special meeting of the committee, after having been first 
proposed at a former meeting ; and in the summonses for 
such meeting, the books proposed for approval or rejection, 
to be expressly mentioned. Besides its profits on sales, 
amounting last year to j£253, the funds are supported by 



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CHRISTIAN ^iiittg k itupniniig knowledge 

Toluntarj contributions of about the same amount, and diyi- 
dends about £90. 

One guinea annually, or j£20 at one time, constitutes a 
member ; who is entitled to a nomination of books, of the 
yalue of 20s. annually ; 10s. 6d. annually entitles to the 
yalue of 7s. 6d. only, in books. Such nominations to be dis- 
tributed monthly to the members in rotation, according to the 
time of their becoming subscribers ; the number issued in 
each month being at the discretion of the committee. 

Treasurer, Thomas Challis, Esq., Alderman. — Honorary Secre- 
taries : Rev. J. Barber, D.D.; Rev. R. H. Shepherd ; Rev. E. A. 
Dunn. — ^Assistant Secretary and Collector, Mr. James Pahner, 
19, Patemoster-row. — ^Depository, Mr. George Harbidge, 19, Pa- 
temoster-row. 

RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY, 56, Patemoster-row. 
Instituted 1799. For circulating religious works of its own 
publication in the British dominions and foreign countries, 
under the direction of a committee, composed of an equalpor- 
tion of Churchmen and I^otestant dissenters : on all other 
points, it partakes of the same characteristics as the previous 
Institutions, and the same remark applies to this and several 
other kindred societies, that their system strictly speaking is 
commercial; but the profits arising from their trade, together 
with the benefactions of members, enable them to devote 
large sums for the furtherance of Religion, to supply their 
publications at very low prices, and make grants gratuitously 
of portions of their stock, as may appear desirable. The 
amount of usefulness achieved by the society in these opera- 
tions, and the extensive influence exercised by them for fifby 
years throughout the known world, entitle it to Christian 
consideration and support. Assisted by the labours of the 
missionaries of different Christian denominations, it has 
printed important books and tracts in about 110 languages ; 
its annual circulation, from the Depository in London, and 
from various foreign societies, exceeds 22,000,000, and its 
total distribution to March 1849, has been nearly 500,000,000 
of copies of its publications. The gross income of this institu- 
tion, judging by last year's cash statement, is nearly j£6(),000 
per annum ; but this includes £44,972, arising from the sale 
of publications, which are so arranged, as to defray all busi- 
ness expenses : the voluntary contributions and subscriptions 
last year amounted to <£12,638 (exceeding the ordinary 
amount by nearly £7,000, in consequence of the jubilee 
fund); and the dividends to £215. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



376 

fiooiETiEs, jidiaiial (Btortim a.d.i799to1847 

Ten shillings and sixpence annually, or ten guineas dona- 
tion, constitutes a member, who is entitled to purchase 
the publications of the society, to any extent, at reduc^ 
prices. 

Treasurer, John Ghimey Hoare, Esq. — ^Honoraiy Secretaries : 
Bev. Robert Monro, M.A. ; Rev. Ebenezer Henderson, D.D. — 
Correspondmg Secretary and Superintendent, Mr. William Jones. 
— ^AssKBtant Secretary and Cashier, Mr. William Tam.-^Bankers : 
Messrs. Bamett, Hoares, and Co., Lombard-st.; Messrs. Hankey, 
Fenchurch-street. — Collector, Mr. Edward Marriott, 5^, Pater- 
noster-row. 

ENGLISH MONTHLY TRACT SOCIETY, 20, Red 
Lion-square. Established 1637. The object of this society 
is to forward a religious tract ^tuitously each month, to 
families whose names are supplied by subscribers, and in 
other quarters ; the number thus circulated by the society 
during the past year, was 140,000. being an increase of 
20,000 oyer the preceding ^ear. The funds are supported 
entirely by voluntary contributions, and amounted last year 
to £1410. 

Treasurer, M. Poole, Esq., 4, Old-square.— Honorary Secre- 
taries : Rev. Henry Hughes, M.A.; Rev. John Leifchild, D.D. — 
Secretary, Mr. Jolm Stabb, 20, Redlion-square. — Collector, Mr. 
Wade, 14, Swinton-street, Gray's Inn-road. 

WEEKLY TRACT SOCIETY, 8, St. Ann's-lane, St. 
MartinVle-Grand. Established 1847. The tracts are pub- 
lished weekly, and contain the simple truths of the gospel, 
without regard to controversial points. These are circulated 
by auxiliaries, subscribers, and others, many of whom receive 
weekly, monthly, and quarterly parcels, and cause them to 
be distributed in such districts, both in town and country as 
peculiarly require it. Seventy thousand tracts have been 
issued during the past year, with several thousand hand 
bills for distribution at the doors of theatres, etc. 

Treasurer, William Gkurlick, Esq., 88, C^reat James-streets — 
Secretary, Rev. W. H. Elliott, 12, Wharton-street, Lloyd-square. 

SOCIETY for PROMOTING the DUE OBSER VANCE 
of the LORD'S DA Y, 12, Exeter-hall. Established 1831. 
<' By diffusing information as widely as possible on the sub- 
ject, by the publication and circulation of books and tracts on 
the divine authority of its institution ; adopting all such mea- 
sures, consistent with scriptural principles, as may appear 



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376 

CHRISTIAN ^iiUHg k inqinnting iirFLU£N0B,i843 

best adapted to lead to a due obseryance of the Lord's-day ; 
opening coirespondence throughout the British empire, and, 
it possible, on the continent of Europe, for the purpose of 
forming local associations ; promoting, by all proper mea- 
sures, petitions to the legislature, throughout the country, 
for the enactment of such laws as may be necessary for re- 
pressing the open yiolation of the Lord's-day : and generally 
to form a pomt of union for similar efforts that may be 
made in every part of the world." The operations of the 
society haye, for the last two years, been more specially di- 
rected to the obtaining a better obseryance of the Sabbath 
by railway companies and the Post-office. The late addition 
of London duties in the latter office, caused great exer^ 
tions to be used by the society, and it is much to be desired 
that the same wiU eyentually terminate in a total abolition 
of all transmission of mails during the Sunday, both in town 
and country. But we cannot help expressing our regret, 
that so much of its first energies in tne struggle, were limitea 
to the attempting an alteration in a matter of detail, for 
the carrying out of which goyemment certainly presented 
hii reasons, sufficient, inde^, to justify their determination 
to adhere to it. 

The expenditure is scarcely aboye £600 per annum, but 
depends entirely on yoluntary contributions to be defirayed, 
with the exception of £30 or £40, deriyed from the sale of 
its publications. Half-a-guinea annually, or 5 guineas at 
one time, constitutes a member for life. 

Treasurer, T. Hankey, Esq. — Hon. Secretary, Joseph Wilson, 
Esq. — Clerical Secretaiy, Rey. J. T. Baylee. — Collector, Mr. Geo. 
Eagleton, 14, Chatham-place, Blackfriars. 

CHRISTIAN INFL UENCE SOCIETY, 57, Old Broad- 
street. Instituted 1843. For the purpose of promoting 
the cause of Christianity ; ^^ urging the necessary measures 
for its adyancement, on Her Majes^'s ministers for the time 
being, on the bishops, and on the legislature ; bringing the 
same under the notice of pious and reflecting men tnrough-> 
out the kingdom, and influencing the public mind, by means 
of the press, in a right direction, on the subject of religion 
and morals." Its management is yested in a committee of 
six gentlemen; and to them eyery member of the society has 
the priyilege of proposing what he may deem worthy to 
be tiiken under their consideration : and, in the eyent of the 
committee determining to entertain the subject so proposed^ 



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377 

PBATEB BOOK AND HEtJUtlHl ^iHlTtEtinn* HOMILT, A.D.1812 

the member proposing it is inyited to attend, and take part 
in it. The annual amount of contributions, upon which the 
society depends, does not exceed j£lOO ; and an accumulating 
amount adyanced by the committee (j£856) stands against 
the funds. 

All persons subscribing one guinea per annum, or giving 
a donation of ten guineas, are members of the society. 

Honoraiy Secretary^ Alexander (Gordon, I^>> Old Broad-stpeet. 
— Gonmiittee : John Bridges, Alexander (Gordon, R. B. Seeley, 
J. J. Cummins, J. D. Paul, and F. Sandoz, Esqrs. 

PRA TER BOOK AND HOMILT SOCIETY, 1, Exe- 
ter Hall. Established 1812. The object of this society is 
to distribute gratis, and to circulate at reduced prices, both 
at home and abroad, the Book of Common Prayer, and the 
Homilies, in separate sermons, or in the entire yolume. All 
copies of the Book of Common Prayer issued by this society, 
contain the thirty-nine articles of reli^on, the ordination 
services, and other offices complete : this regulation applies 
only to the Book of Common Prayer in English, not inter- 
fering with the issue of Psalters at home, or selections from 
the Prayer Book in other languages. Since the sociei^'s 
establishment, it has distributed 433,318 Prayer Books, 
53,929 Services, Family Prayer Books, and volumes of Ho- 
milies ; and 2,864,038 tracts from Homilies, and selection of 
Services, <fec. 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas donation, constitute 
a member, entitled to the society's publications at reduced 
prices, to three times the amount of subscription. Every 
clergyman subscribing half-a-guinea annually, is a member ; 
and if contributing a congregational collection, is entitled to 
receive two-thirds of the amount in books at cost prices. 

The income is derived chiefly from voluntary contribu- 
tions, amounting last year to ibl,192, besides wnich, ;£492 
was derived from sale of publications. 

President, Rt. Hon. Lord Bexley. — Treasurer, Joseph Wilson, 
Esq. — Secretaiy, Rev. Comwidl Smalley, jun., M.A. — Visiting 
Secretary and Accountant, Mr. Thomas Seaward. — ^Depo£(itory, 
Mr. John Corfield. — Collector, Mr. J. C. Bowles. 

BRITISH SOCIETY for Promoting the Rdigious Pririr- 
cipUs of the ReformaJtion, 8, Exeter Hall, Strand. Institu- 
ted 1827. ^' To assist clergymen in their efforts, in their pa- 
rishes, to promote and perpetuate the principles of the 



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378 

PROTESTANT SflUHg k illl|tnninig associations, 1835 

Refonnation, in their scriptural purity and power ; by in- 
ducing Protestants, either in person or by deputy, through 
missionaries, Scripture-readers, tracts, and associations of 
young men, to engage in weekly and daily labours to convert 
Koman Catholics in their neighbourhood ; to yisit, give 
them tracts, enter into discussion when it is desirable, read 
the Scriptures to them, and adopt such other means as may 
appear desirable." The income varies from £2,800 to ;£3,500, 
including £1,600 derived from sale of publications ; the re- 
mainder from voluntary contributions. 

One guinea per annum, or ten guineas donation, consti- 
tutes a member of the society. ' 

Treasurers : Williams, Deacon, and Co. — Honorary Secretary, 
G. Pinch, Esq. — Secretaries : Eastern District, Rev. W. Foye, 
M.A. ; Midland District, Rev. R. P. Blakeney, M.A.— Scotland, 
Rev. J. dimming, M.A. — ^Assist. Secretary, Mr. James Miller. 

FR0TE8TANT ASSOCIATION, 11, Exeter Hall. 
Established 1835. For the purpose of upholding the Pro- 
testant faith, and the fact of its being essentially the religion 
of the Scriptures ; ''to maintain and increase sound Protestant 
feeling ; and enforce, both on the legislature and the people," 
the great principle of its forming an essential charactenstic 
of the constitution. 

The Protestant Magazine is conducted by this association ; 
and^ its other operations consist in holding meetings, pub- 
lishing tracts, and assisting in the preparation of petitions^ 
as events call forth interference to advance the objects 
advocated. The frmds of this society, judging from last 
cash statement, require assistance ; the expenditure exceed- 
ing the income, which depends, with slight exceptions, upon 
contributions, last year amounting only to j£656. 

Annual subscri1>ers of ten shillings and upwards, and 
donors of five guineas and upwards, assenting to the frmda- 
mental resolutions, are members of the association. 

Chairman, James Lord, Esq. — ^Treasurer, John Dean Paul, Esq. 
— ^Honorary Secretary, Rev. A. S. Thelwall. — ^Assistant Secretary, 
Elmer Henry Owen. — ^Collector, Mr. Arthur William Stone, 1, 
Fitzroy-street, Fitzroy-square. 

Idififfton Protestant Institute, Islington Green. Instituted 
1847. A local institution, established on similar principles 
to the last, for the purpose of advocating Protestantism by 
publications, lectures, and public meetings. 



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379 

CHUBCH BUILDING jlHtiOlIHl if^UtEtilllL SOCIETIES, A.D. 1818 

Five shillings annual, constitutes a member, entitled to 
the publications. 

President, Rev. D. Wilson, M.A. — ^Treasurer, Gfeorge Friend, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : Rev. J. Sandys, M.A., and others. — 
Collector, Mr. Liddle, Parochial Schools, Church-street. — Pub- 
lisher, Mr. J. H. Jackson, Islington-green. 

INCORPORATED SOCIETY for Promoting the En- 
largement, Building, and Repairing of Churches and Chapek, 
7, Whitehall. Since its formation, in 1818,^ it has assisted 
in the erection of 763 additional churches and chapels ; and 
otherwise, by enlarging and rebuilding, has provided addi- 
tional church room for 760,000 persons, of which number 
the free and unappropriated sittings for the use of the poor 
are for 566,000 persons : 2,735 parishes have thus been ena- 
bled, by its help, to effect their objects ; and it has expended 
for the increase of church accommodation, £439,698 ; during 
the last year, nearly £13,000. 

The committee grant funds towards the enlargement or 
building of churches or chapels ; having regard, in their 
selection of parishes or districts, to the amount of the popu- 
lation, present accommodation for attendance, and pecuniary 
ability of the inhabitants thereof to raise the greatest pro- 
portion of the expense required for the enlargement or 
building. The committee likewise grant aid towards tfhe 
repairs of churches and chapels, which have fallen into dila- 
pidation without the neglect of the existing parishioners, 
and the entire expense of repairing which they are unable 
to defray ; reference being had to the amount of money 
raised by the parishioners, and to the proposed accommodar 
tion for the poor. 

Forms of application for assistance, with suggestions and 
instructions to persons engaged in enlarging or building 
churches or chapels, may be obtained on appUcation. The 
committee meet the thrrd Monday in each month, except 
August, September, and October. The last cash statement 
exhibits an income of ;6l 7,000, derived from voluntary con- 

^ This society was incorporated by act 9th Geo. IV, cap. 42, intituled 
" an act to abolish church briefs, and to provide for the better collection 
and application of voluntary contributions for the purpose of enlarging 
and building churches and chapels." Dated 15th July, 1838. Queen's 
letters are granted every third year on behalf of iti funds; vide note to 
the National Society, page 367. 



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380 

CHUBCH EXTENSION ^lidllg k llUJtrfllUlIJ SOCIETIES. 

tributions, £7,692, and dividends, £9,544; an amount, 
however, more than engrossed by the distribution, in grants 
and requisite expenses, kst year exceeding the receipts by 
£400. 

One guinea annually, or ten guineas donation, constitutes 
a member. 

President, the Archbishop of Canterbury. — ^Trustees : Lord 
Kenyon ; Charles Hoare, Esq. ; Joshua Watson, Esq.^ D.C.L. ; 
Wiluam Cotton, Esq. — Treasurer, Newell Connop, Esq. — Secre- 
tary, Rev. Thomas Bowdler.— aerk, Mr. W. H. Pitohen—Col- 
leotor, Mr. Henry Stretton, 67, Lincoln's Inn-fields. 

COMMISSIONERS UNDER THE ACT 6^ GEO, III, 

c. 45 f for Building additiorud Churches inPoptiloiu Parishes, 
13, Gt. George-street, Westminster. Established 1820. For the 
purpose of granting aid from funds placed at their disposal 
towards the erecting or completing tne erection of churches 
in populous parishes ; particularly mmishing accommodation 
for the poor by appropriating a large portion of seats to their 
use. Thus, since the commission was established, 449 churches 
have been completed, affording seats for 483,273 persons, 
including 281,076 free seats : besides which, 21 churches 
are now in course of building, and plans for 22 approved of, 
in various parts of the country. They also determine the 
division of large parishes and the assignment of ecclesiastical 
districts, and afford facilities under the Church-building Acts 
for obtaining additional burying-groimds, etc. The power 
of declaring the patronage of chapels is also vested m the 
Commissioners. 

•All applications, whether for Parliamentary grants, or 
perpetustl patronages, must be accompanied with full parti- 
culars of site, building, and proposed endowment, etc., and 
set forth in a petition to '^ The Kiffht Hon. the Lords Com- 
missioners for Building additional Churches in populous 
places," addressed to George Jelf, Esq., Treasurer and Se- 
cretary.^ 

Commissioners : Archbishop of Canterbury ; Archbishop of 
York ; Bishops of London, Winchester, Lincoln, Chester, Lichfield, 
Bipon ; Dean of St. Paul's ; Dean of Westminster ; Archdeacons 
Hale, Harrison, Headlam, and Sinclair; Principal of King's 
College ; together with the Lord Chancellor ; Lord President 
of the Council; Speaker of the House of Commons; First 

^ The twenty-ninth report of this commission was presented to Par- 
liament 28th of July 1849, and is now puhlished. 



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. 381 

A.D. 1820 MBJxfml itoatim toi844 

Lord of the Treasury ; Home Secretary ; Chanoellor of the Ex- 
ohequer ; Chancellor of the Duchy or Lsuicaster ; First Com- 
missioner of Woods and Forests ; Master of the Faculties ; Dean 
of the Arches ; and Judge of the Consistory Court,— «U for the 
time being. Also, Earl of Harrowby ; Bishop of Worcester ; Bishop 
of Ely ; Lord Kenyon ; Lord Bexley ; Eight Hon. W. E. Glad- 
stone, M.P. ; Sir Robert Harry Loglis, Bart., M.P. ; Joshua 
Watson, Esq. — ^Treasurer and Secretary, George Jelf, Esq. — Sur- 
veyor, J. H. Good, Esq.—Chief Clerk, ITiomas Beachcroft, Esq. 

METROPOLIS CHURCHES FUND, 79, Pall MaU. 
Established 1836. This fund was raised in the first instance 
for the immediate ^'building of fifty new churches and 
chapels in the metropolis"; much of the original design has 
been carried out, but there still remains a scope for extensive 
additional operations. No report, it is stated, has been 
issued by the committee since 1846, and that being returned 
as " out of print", no detailed statement of late progress can 
be given. But up to April, 1845, thirty-eight new churches 
and one new chapel had been erected, at a cost of nearly a 
quarter of a million ; averaging an increase of five new 
churches each year. 

President, Bishop of London. — Vice-President, Bishop of Win- 
chester. — SecretaiT, B»ev. William Dodsworth. — Assistant Secre- 
tary, Mr. C. G. Silk. 

CHURCH EXTENSION FUND, for new Churchy, 
the patronage of which shall he vested in Trustees, Instituted 
18M. 18, Sergeant's-inn, Fleet-street. The distinguishing 
characteristics of this fund — ^its leading aim and object — 
are, 'Hhat in providing churches, the appointment of faithful 
and zealous ministers shall be secured, so far as human in* 
strumentality ma^ avail, both in the present and all future 
generations. With a view to the attainment of this object, 
the patronage of the churches, to the erection of which the 
committee contribute, is vested in trustees — ^men of piety 
and judgment — the survivors of whom, upon the death of 
any of their number, may reasonably be expected to nomi- 
nate to the trust individuals like-minded with themselves. 
No arrangement so effectual as this perhaps can be devised 
for securing, under the Divine blessing, a pure and conscien- 
tious exercise of church patronage. 

The following statement shews the funds at the disposal of 
the committee, and their engagements : — 



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CHURCH EXTENSION ^iMlIg k WfWDSl^ AND CLERICAL 

CoDtribations receiTed from 1 4th Febraarjr, 1845, to Slat £ s. d. 

May, 1849 ..... 20,556 2 6 

Ezpectedoftheinstalmentsof donations jet outstaudiog 1,000 



Expended,— 21,556 2 6 

On acctHint of grants . 10,769 8 8 

For rent, and expenses of management, 

for four years 1,686 11 4 



12,355 15 



LiahilUk$r- 9,200 7 6 

For second church in Southwark 3,000 

For two churches at Nottingham . 4,500 

For completion of church in Castle Hall 2,000 



9,500 

From this statement it will be obyious that the associa- 
tion is in want of large additional funds, at a time when there 
is a cry through the length and breadth of our land for an 
increase of church accommodation. There are, we are in- 
formed, about ninety districts constituted by the Ecclesias- 
tical Commissioners, under the Act commonly called ^' Sir 
Robert Peel's Act", for which no churches have yet been 
proyided. The population of those districts is about 320,000. 

The direction of the fund is under a committee of thirty 
lay members of the Established Church. Applications for 
assistance from the fund must be addressed to the committee, 
accompanied with full and accurate information as regards 
destitution, church accommodation of the district,andamount 
of local contributions that can be secured towards the object 
in view ; extra seats for the poor, are made a special point 
with the committee, in all churches aided by the fund. 

Chairman of Committee, Lord Ashley. — ^Treasurer, John Dean 
Paul, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries: Alexander Gordon, Esq.; 
6. J. Philip Smith, Esq. — Assistant Secretary, Rev. A. R. Pen- 
nington, M.A. 

THE LONDON CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL 
Building Fund, 4, Bloomfield-street, was established 1848, 
for the purpose of erecting, or assisting in the erection o^ 
fifty new chapels, in the metropolis and its vicinity, <' in the 
course of twenty years or less." Two are already opened ; 
one is near completion, in the City-road ; and a fourth in 
contemplation, in Somers Town. 



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^ 383 ;__ 

AID FUNDS, 3latiniial itexElinii. a.d. isae 

Treasurer, John Remington Mills, Esq. — Secretary, Rev. J. C. 
Galloway, M.A. 

Southwark Fvmdfor Schools and Churches, 4, St. Martin's- 
place, — a local fun(i,in order to supply the deficiency of spiri- 
tual instruction in the borough, discoyered, in 1846, to be 
truly alarming t thus, in Lambeth and Southwark, with a 
population of 135,000, there was church room only for one- 
eighth, and educational provision, in connexion with the 
Church, for one only in fifty-five. £30,000 has been soon 
collected, and mostly appropriated as under :— -five new dis- 
tricts have been legally constituted ; sixteen schools erected, 
or in course of satisfactory progress ; two new churches 
erected, and five more determine<jl upon, as funds will allow. 

It is open to subscribers to direct, if they think fit, that 
their contributions shall be applied to the erection of churches 
or schools, as they may individually prefer ; or to particular 
parishes or districts. Payments may also be made, if desired, 
by five several instalments. 

President, Bishop of Winchester. — Hon. Secretaries : Henry 
Elingscote, Esq. j Rev. Jeffery Foot. — Treasurer, Heniy Sykes 
Thornton, Esq. 

CHVRGHPA8T0RAL-A1D SOCIETY, Temple-cham- 
bers, Falcon-court, Fleet-street. Instituted 1836. Such aid 
is rendered to the clergy in the discharge of their duties as 
they may be desirous to accept, and the society has in its 
power to render ; no aid being given except so far as local 
exertions are imequal to the necessities of the case. In des- 
titute places, where no other sufficient means are available, 
the society assists, in appropriating as places of worship 
buildings already erected, or in erecting churches or chapels 
for that end, and contributing help to the support of addi- 
tional clergymen, who may zeaJously and faithmlly cooperate 
with the incumbent. The society maintains also, or assists 
in the support of, lay agents, whether candidates for holy 
Orders, or others, to act under the direction of the incum- 
bent, and subject to removal at his pleasure, ^o grant from 
the society's funds is made, unless the Incumbent apply, or 
sanction the application, and furnish sufficient proof of the 
exigencies of the case. The nomination of an assistant is 
left with the clergyman to whom the grant is given, the 
committee claiming only full satisfaction as to the qualifica- 
tion of ^his nominee, who, when approved, will be under en- 



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;; 384 

CLERICAL AID, ^DUUg k SWfXSSWit^ PASTORAL & LAY 

gagement only to the clergyman by whom he is employed, 
and solely responsible to him. Such grants are voted only 
for one year. 

The following is a brief summary of the society's present 
operations : — It aids 289 incumbents, whose average care of 
souls is 7,247, and their incomes, £203 ; 160 of whom have 
no parsonage house. The aid afforded comprehends 238 ad- 
ditional curates, and 76 lay assistants, for popular parishes ; 
4 chaplains, and 2 assistants, for railway labourers, boat and 
canal men ; and the incomes of 32 incumbents supplied or 
improved. — ^And, the immediate results are, 505 <iaditi<mal 
full services, 209 Bible classes, <S^c. The annual income 
amounts to j£32,000, derived, with the exception of about 
;£518, from voluntary contributions, and is sufficient to de- 
fray the present expenditure. The funded property is under 
£12,000. 

Annual subscribers of one guinea and upwards, and if 
dersymen, half-a-guinea^ with collectors of 52s. and up- 
wards, donors of ten guineas or upwards, clergymen making 
con^egational collections of twenty guineas, and executors 
paying to the amount of jC50, are members. 

President, Lord Ashley, M.P. — ^Treasurer, John Labouchere, 
Esq. — ^Honorary Secretary, Bev, Charles Clayton, M.A. — Secre- 
tary, Rev. John Hutton PoUexfen, M. A. — ^Association Secretaries : 
Northern District, Rev. A. P. Irwine, M.A., Richmond, York- 
diire ; North Midland, Rev. John Lees, B. A., Kenilworth ; South 
Midland, Rev. Edw. Walker, M. A., Cheltenham.— South Western, 
Rev. J. G. Kelly, B.A., Bristol ; South Eastern, Rev. J. N. Green 
Armytage, M.A., Society's offices. — Assistant Secretary, Thomas 
Atcluson, Esq. — Collector, Mr. Robt. Watkins. — Bankers, Messrs. 
Williams and Co. 

SOCIETY for PROMOTING the EMPLOYMENT 
of ADDITIONAL CURATES in PojmUyus Places, 7, 
Whitehall. Instituted 1837. To increase the present means 
of pastoral instruction and superintendence, and contribute 
to the maintenance of additional clergrmen, in parishes 
where their services are most required. This society r^re- 
sent that they are prepared to grant, by way of endowment, 
a sum not exceeding one-half of the amount raised for the 
same purpose by load contributions, and under j£500: such 
local contributions to be actually raised or secured under 
the trusteeship of the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty. 
Applications received oiSy through thd bishop of the (liocese, 



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385 

VISITING SOCIETIES JJattlllHl (KteHtlDlI* A.D. 1837-1844 

or with his sanction ; and no paymsnt can be made to in- 
cumbents except for curates approved by the diocesan^ and 
duly licensed. 

This society, with the aid of its five affiliated diocesan 
associations, disburses about ^35,000 annually, for the main- 
tenance of additional curates. The present number of an- 
nual grants, supporting an equal number of clergymen, is 
three himdred and tbMy-three ; besides forty-one endow- 
ment grants, effected since its formation. The annual in- 
come of this fund amounts to £21fiO0, derived, with the 
trifling exception of £962, entirely from benevolent contri- 
butions. The funds appear in a satisfactory condition, and 
the expenditure well covered. 

Presidents, Archbishops of Canterbury and York. — ^Trustees ; 
Sir R. H. Inglis, Bart., M.P. ; and the Treasurers : Joshua Watson, 

Esq., D.C.L.; Benjamin Harrison, Esq. Secretary, Rev. J. M. 

lloawell, M. A. — ^Assistant Secretary, Rev. George Ainslie, M. A. 

CHURCH of ENGLAND SCRIPTURE READERS' 
Association, 4, Trafalgar^square. Instituted 1844. For pro- 
viding assistants to the clergy of populous parishes in the 
metropolis, to supply the people with such private ministra- 
tions and reading of God's word, as the clergy themselves 
are unable adequately to afford. Its operations include 
grants to seventy-two incumbents, whose parochial popula- 
tion amounts to 996,992, being a population of 13,847 to 
each incumbent ; and support ninety-seven scripture-readers, 
by whose labours not less than 118,000 families are visited 
and instructed in the Holy Scriptures. The readers are 
selected by the clergy of the respective districts, or by the 
committee ; and in no case are continued in any district 
against the wiU of the incumbent. The sanction of the 
bishop is likewise required to each appointment. The en- 
gagement with each reader is to give tmrty-six hours a-week 
to reading the Scriptures from house to house ; keeping ac- 
count of the portions read, <&c. ; urging upon parents and 
others the duty of attending church, and of sending children 
to school. No Other work but the Scriptures and the Praver 
Book is allowed ; and no preaching, either in houses or else- 
where. The readers going from house to house through 
their allotted districts, the proportion in which these visits 
have been divided among different denominations, may fairly 
be taken to represent the general religious profession of the 
population visited. During the past year the visits have 

25 



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386 

CLEBIOAL AID, ^ijlinig ^ tlKpiiniillg FA8T0BAL & LAY, 

been made as follows : to members of the Church of England^ 
200,280; Dissenters, 34,840; Roman Catholics, 23,850; 
those of no religious profession, and who frequent no place 
of worship, 96,314. 

The cash statement for the past year presents some little 
improvement oyer former years. The committee had been 
seriously considering the expediency of withdrawing a large 
number of their readers ; but now, although nine haye be^ 
withdrawn, they haye been enabled to place them in other 
localities ; and to prevent a recurrence of embarrassment, 
they have determined to require a small contribution, for 
the future, from each district in which the reader is placed. 
The funded property realizes ^£5,000 per annum, leaving 
;£2,600 depending upon voluntary aid. 

Patron, Archbishop of Canterbury. — Clerical Secretary, Rev. 
Edward Garbett, M. A.— Lay Secretary, J. R. Tate, Esq.— Bankers : 
Messrs. Herries, Farquhar, & Co. — Collector, Mr. R. S. Hartnell. 

CLERICAL ED UCA TION AID FUND, 18, Sergeant's 
Inn. Instituted 1845, To increase the efficiency of the 
Established Church, by adding to the number of its ordained 
ministers, the inadequacy of which is shown by the difficulty 
too often experienced by incumbents in obtaining curates^ 
as testified in the working of the Church Pastoral Aid Soci- 
ety. In seeking out and selecting such young persons as 
may be deserving of aid, and whose views it would be desi- 
rable to advance, ^'a decision of Christian character, and a 
devotedness to the cause of Christ, with a clear and heart- 
felt perception of the distinguishing truths of the Gospel, to 
form the basis of proceedings — ^full evidence of which must 
be produced to warrant the advancement of any one proposed 
as candidate for aid." During the four years in which the 
committee have been engaged in carrying out this object, 
the education of nine young men has been completed, out of 
twenty-three, whose education has been undertaken at an 
expense of upwards of ^3,000. 

The present income is little better than j£l,000 per annum, 
and apparently very insufficient for the purpose, the last 
cash statement presenting to excess of expenoiture over re- 
ceipts. It is entirely dependent on voluntary contributions. 

Treasurer, John Dean Paul, Esq. — Secretary, Rev. Thomas 
Rochford Redwar, M. A. — Honorary Physician, Dr. Chapman, 27, 
Lower Grosvenor-street. 



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387 

VISIT ING sociETtES, jgatilllial f torHtmH, a.d. 1825 -1834 

THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN 
INSTRUCTION in London and its Vtcinitv, 60, Pateraos- 
ter-row. Founded 1825. About one hundred chapels of the 
metropolis, chiefly Independent or Congregational, are asso- 
ciated witn this institution in carrying out its objects, which 
are thus defined in the words of its report : — " To adTance 
eyanffelical religion, by promoting the observance of the 
Lord s Day, preaching of the Gospel, establishment of prayer 
meetings and schools, circulation of religious tracts, and the 
establishment of gratuitous circulating libraries, with every 
oUier legitimate method which the committee may from time 
to time approve, for the accomplishment of the great object 
contemplated by the society. For these purposes, above 
2,000 gratuitous agents are systematically employed in the 
yisitation of the poor. The income, which amounts to about 
j£500 per annum, is derived, half from voluntary contribu- 
tions, and half from sale of publications, and exceeds the 
expenditure. 

Agents and ministers rendering personal service, and per- 
sons subscribing ten shillings and sixpence per annum, are 
•members. 

Treasurer, Thomas Challis, Esq., Alderman, 82, Wilson-square, 
Finsbury. — Secretaries : Rev. Robert Ashton, Putney, Surrey ; 
Mr. Jolm Pittman, 9, Grove-place, Hackney. — Collector, Mr. J. 
Ridler, 8, Normandy-place, Brixton. 

LONDON DOMESTIC MISSION SOCIETY, 45, Lin- 
coln's-inn-fields. Established 1834. To advance the im- 
provement of the moral and religious character of the poor, 
pud the amelioration of their condition : *'by employing mis- 
sionaries to visit and assemble them at appointed stations 
for the purpose of worship and instruction ; establishing 
day, Sunday, and evening schools, and other means of im- 
provement ; and by the gratuitous distribution, sale, or loan, 
of copies of the Scriptures, books, and tracts." The whole 
amoimt of expenditure is about £1,000, defrayed by volun- 
tary contributions of about j£l,200, and £105 dividends; but 
these receipts include a provision for a special building fund. 

Five shillings annually, or five guineas donation, consti- 
tutes a member. 

Treasurer, P. Worsley, Esq., Brewery, CTiiswell-street. — Mis- 
sionaries : Rev. W. Vidler, Chapel-street, Milton-street ; Charles 
L. Corkran, Spicer-street, Brick-lane, Spitalfields. — Hon. Secre- 
tary, Henry Enfield, Esq., 45, Jjincoln's-inn-fields. — Collector, 
Mr. Wiche, 5, New King-street, Deptford. 

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S88 

PASTORAL <fe LAY Iftiflg k JW/XmU^ YISITINq 

LONDON CITY MISSION, 7, Red Lion-<quare. Insti- 
tuted 1835. For the purpose of affording Christian instruc- 
tion, on a large and comprehensive scale, throughout Lon- 
don, especially amongst the lower classes. This society em- 
ploys missionaries of approved character and qualifications, 
who give themselves entirely to the work, visiting from house 
to house, in the respective districts assigned to them, read- 
ing the Scriptures, engaging in religious conversation, and 
urging those who are living in the neglect of religion, to ob- 
serve the Sabbath and to attend public worship. They also 
see that persons possess the Scriptures,^ distribute approved 
religious tracts, and aid in obtaining Scriptural education 
for the children of the poor. From the catholic Christian 
principles of the constitution of this society, its zealous and 
successful operations, the funds are supported very generally 
by both Churchmen and Dissenters. The receipts, during the 
past year were the largest it has yet had, viz., jCl9,069, and 
the present number of its agents is 235. The average num- 
ber of families under their constant visitation is 120,000, or 
nearly half a million of human beings. Candidates for mis- 
sionary labour must be between twenty-four and forty-five 
years of age, and each has to pass an examination by the 
committee. 

One guinea annually, or j£10 donation, or the payment of 
a legacy of £50 and upwards as an executor, constitutes a 
member ; also clergymen and Dissenting ministers, who 
collect for the mission £5 annually, are members. 

Treasurer, Sh* Edward North Buxton, Bart., M.P.. — Sub- 
Treasurer, Mr. J. J. Marks. — Secretaries : Rev. J. Crarwood, 
M.A. ; and Rev. John Robinson. 

BRITISH <& FOREIGN TO WN MISSION SOCIETY, 
20, Red Lion-square. Fstablished 1837. To employ mission- 
aries, scripture-readers, and colporteurs, in the cities, towns, 
villages, and agricultural districts of England and Wales. 
To select and qualify, by suitable training, men of approved 
character, as scripture-readers, and town or city missionaries, 
without reference to any denominational distinction. In 

^ " In the year 1838, every family in the metropolis found destitate o 
the Scriptures, was supplied, through the t^ondon City Mission, by the 
generosity of the British and Foreign Bible Society."— Ex/rac/ from the 
Heport. 



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389 

SOCIETIES, jBatmnal f toratiim, a.d. 18I8-1849 

connexion with this society are about fifty missions, in which 
are employed above one hundred agents, Scripture-readers, 
&c., at a cost of jC4,000 per annum. 

IVeasurer, J. Dean Paul, Esq. — ^Honorary Secretaries : Rev, 
R. W. Dibdin ; Rev. J. A. Miller.— Secretary, Mr. Thomas Gel- 
dart, 20, Red Lion-square. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SAILORS' SOCIETY, 

2, Jeffreys'-square, St. Mary-axe. Instituted 1818. For 
the promotion of tho religious and moral welfare of British 
and Foreign seamen, by the distribution of Bibles, tracts, 
preaching, domiciliary and ship visitation, by model lodging 
houses, retreat for aged seamen, a registry office, and savings' 
bank. This society has only recently been reorganized ; the 
annual report consequently not being completed, the present 
extent of operations cannot be arrive<^t. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes a 
member; also being an office-bearer of an affiliated institution. 

President, Earl of Ducie. — Treasurer, Sir John Pirie, Bart. — 
Secretaries : Rev. Edward Muscutt ; Mr. T. A. Fieldwick. 

THE MARINERS' FRIEND SOCIETY, 58,^ Fen- 
church-street. Established in 1849. Somewhat similar in 
designation to the Shipwrecked Fishermen's Society (p. 139), 
but that attempts to provide more against destitution after 
shipwreck. But this, now in its infancy, is formed ^' to pro- 
mote the spiritual, moral, and social improvement of seamen, 
fishermen, and others connected with maritime affairs, and 
to prevent loss of life, and other exigencies, arising from 
wrecks, fires, and various disasters incidental to seafaring 
life." Their moral improvement it is proposed to accomplish 
by establishing day and evening schools, delivering lectures, 
holding religious services, distributing tracts, len<Sng books, 
&c. ; their safety is to be provided for by establishing wreck 
brigade stations on the most dangerous parts of our coasts, 
and furnishing them with all the well ^own appliances to 
be used in case of shipwreck, <&c. 

Treasurer, Henry Francis, Esq. — Superintendent, Mr. William 
Bradford. — Secretary, Mr. John Arnold. — Office, 94, St. George- 
street, London Docks, and 58, Fenchurch-street. 

THE THAMES CHURCH MISSION SOCIETY, 74, 
King William-street. Instituted 1844. For promoting the 
spiritual welfare of the seamen remaining on board the ves- 



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390 

THAMES CHUROH ^filing k MfXmH^ MISSION, A.D. 1844 

sels which lie at the different sections in the River Thames, 
between the pools in London and the anchorage at Grayesend, 
awaiting their turn to go up and deliyer their cargoes in the 
metropolis. The admindty have granted the " Severn" cut- 
ter, for the service ; it is fitted up as a church for 120 men. 
The chaplain resides on board,and conducts two full services, 
at one station or other, every Sunday ; in the afternoon an 
Adult Bible Class is held ; and throughout the week he is 
engaged in holding evening services on board the Mission 
vessel, in visiting from ship to ship, becoming acquainted 
with the crews of the colliers, imparting to them religious 
instruction, and seeing that they are provided with bibles, 
prayer-books, and religious tracts ; he has also a lending 
library on board. This Thames church is generally to be seen 
moored of a Sunday alongside the largest collection of ships, 
with her boats engaged in conveying seamen to and nro 
to each service.^ Suitable signals are made to denote the 
hours, and the bell rings for half an hour previous. 4028 
vessels have been visited, 1730 English bibles, 460 prayer- 
books, etc., have been sold, and 196 public services held 
during the past year. The annual income realizes about 
jG600, derived entirely from voluntary contributions ; but 
this is exceeded by the present expenditure to an extent of 
nearly £100. 

One pound annual, or 10s. from a clergyman, or j£10 do- 
nation, constitutes a member of the society. 

Patron, Archbishop of Canterbury. — Treasurer, Capt. Frederick 
Madan. — Honorary Secretary, Capt. W. E. Farrer. — Chaplain, 
Rev. William Holdemeas.— Collector, Mr. W. Maltby, 41, Tre- 
degar-square, Mile-end-road. 

RAoaEB Schools had their origin in the early operations, 
it is believed, of the London City Mission; the first school 
formed of the character, being in 1837, in Westminster, by 
a Mr. Walker, an agent of that society, under the title of the 

^ The London Episcopal Floating Church Society is no longer in 
existence, its necessity having been superseded by the establishment 
of " St. Paul's Church for seamen of the port of London", Dock-street, 
consecrated July 10, 1847 ; supported in part by contributions. In 
the course of a year, it is computed that above 7,000 seamen come to 
this church ; a field of usefulness that can scarcely be overrated. (See 
" Sailors' Maritime Establishment", page 138). Treasurer, Andrew John- 
son, Esq., 11, Great Tower-street— Incumbent, Rev. C. B Gribble, MA. 

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391 

RAGGED SCHOOLS. ^B^lilUlEi d^HrStUIIt* THEIR TALUB. 

" Ragged School, or School of Industry" : the plan was improv- 
ed upon in 1843, by Sheriff Watson and others in Aberdeen : 
the design of its authors being '' to reach the very depths of 
ignorance, vice, and destitution, by drawing the mendicanl 
and ragged children out of the streets."^ The class compre- 
hended by the object of ragged schools, it must be borne in 
mind, are debarred, by their abject and sadly demoralized 
condition, from all other means of instruction and improYe- 
ment ; no existing schools preyious to this scheme, could 
admit them within its walls : sunk as they were in ignorance 
and vice, they were considered unfit to mix with any other 
part of our juvenile population : children, with none of the 
happiness, and little of the innocency of childhood — with 
frames stunted by hunger and filth — with hearts ignorant 
of the first rudiments of Christian knowledge, yet whose 
hands are perhaps skilfal in the intricate mysteries of theft : 
a class large enough to occupy all our efforts without intes- 
fering with those otherwise provided for ; — ^it comprehends 
the children of convicts and thieves not in custody ; of 
mendicants and tramps ; of worthless drunken parents ; and 
others too numerous to mention — varying in age from two 
to twenty, and occasionally much older. 

Ragged schools, with all their acknowledged imperfections, 
have done much to improve this class. Whether we look at the 
benefits conferred on the children themselves (who are many 
of them from time to time drafted off to better schools, or 
placed in situations to earn an honest livelihood), or at the 
influence for good exerted on the parents and neighbourhood, 
of which some remarkable cases might be adduced ; whether 
we regard the amount of Christian benevolence such institu- 
tions have called forth in feivour of the destitute poor, or 
the information they have tended to diffuse respecting their 
forlorn condition — whether we dwell upon the blessings they 
produce, or on the evils they prevent, there can be no doubt 
that a vast amount of good has been effected through their 
instrumentality within the last few years ; and it is pleasing 
to observe that this good is daily spreading, not only from 
the increase in the number of schools, but from the improve- 
ment everywhere visible in their discipline, order, and 
usefulness ; so that parents are thus becoming alive to the 
benefits conferred on their children, and the teachers in- 
creasingly interested in the work. 

1 Vide note, page 394. 

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BAGGED SCHOOL ^ftiflg ^ hnpininig UNIOH, A.D. 1844 

We cannot close this necessarily brief testimony to their 
value, without noticing the series of papers lately published,^ 
not only calling in question the usefulness of ragged schools, 
but stigxnatiziug them as the promoters of that which it is 
their design to suppress, terming them " nurseries for cri- 
minals, and houses of call for thieyes.*' From the general 
tone of philanthropy running through the previous letters, 
and the usual character of the author*s other works, we 
were led to think that in the first instance this attack was 
an inadvertance ; but when it is seen how pertinaciously 
these statements are adhered to, and laboured inferences 
endeavoured to be drawn from ingenious statistics, we can 
only come to the conclusion, that it is an intentional effort 
to write them down, and to influence the public against their 
support. It appears chiefly grounded on the fact of ragged 
schools having failed to accomplish — ^that which never could 
be, and never was, expected of them by their promoters — 
the regeneration of the community we have already de- 
scribed ; to be grounded on a total ignorance of the thorough 
corruption of the heart of man, expecting even a moral 
influence from the education of the worst ; contrary to the 
school-day experience recorded in the memory of die very 
best amongst us ; and from confusing the effects to be 
expected from imparting knowledge, and explaining means, 
with that which ailone is the work of the grace of (Jod. 

We only notice the attack here, with a view of drawing 
attention to the complete refutation published by the Union, 
in their magazine for May 1850 : the perusal of this we re- 
commend to all likely to be swayed by the arguments of the 
writer referred to ; entirely agreeing with the conclusion 
come to by the editor, that '' the friends of ragged schools 
have nothmg to fear," and almost to believe, with him, that 

" charges so monstrous as Mr. M has brought against 

them, can only be believed 6y such as wish them to be true.^^^ 

THE RAGGED SCHOOL UNION, established for the 
support of free schools, for the destitute poor of London and 
its suburbs, 1844. 15, Exeter-hall. ''To encourage and 
assist those who teach in Bagged Schools, to help such by 
small grants of money, where advisable \ to collect and dif- 

^ Letters on the Labouring Classes, by the Special Metropolitan Com- 
missioner of the Morning Chronicle, during April 1850. 



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BAOOED S0HOOL8. 



393 

3gatimial f htatiira. 



EXAMPLES. 



fuse information respecting schools now in existence, and 
promote the formation of new ones ; to suggest plans for the 
more efficient management of such schools, and for the in- 
struction of the children of the poor in general ; to visit the 
Tarious schools occasionally, and observe their progress ; to 
encourage teachers* meetings and Bible classes ; and to assist 
the old as well as the young in the study of the Word of God." 
The annual receipts of the union vary in amount from 
jC3,000 to ;fi4,000, derived wholly from voluntary contribu- 
tions ; and the expenditure and aid afforded to the various 
schools in imion, is necessarily regulated by it. Amongst 
other means of usefulness effected by the fund, is the publi- 
cation of a monthly magazine, devoted to the cause, affording 
every information of its progress. Members, teachers, and 
superintendents representing ragged schools, and all Sub- 
scribers of ten shillings per annum and upwards, have the 
privilege of attending its meetings. 

Chairman of Committee, Lord Ashley, M.P. — ^Treasurer, R. L. 
Bevan, Esq., Lombard-street. — Honoraiy Secretary, Mr. William 
Locke, 127, Begent-street. — Secretary, Mr. Joseph George Gent, 
15, Exeter Hall. — Assistant Secretary, Mr. Alexander Anderson. 
— ^Bankers, Messrs. Barclav, Bevan, and Co., 54, Lombard-street. 
— Collector, Mr. W. A. Blake, 4, Southampton-row, New-road. 

The following is a summary of the ragged schools in Lon- 
don and its suburbs ; arranged in districts : — 1st. Eastern 
Districts ; 2nd. CentnJ and Northern ; 3rd. Western ; and 
4th. Southern. They are all under the management of local 
independent committees, but are in connexion with the 
"Union", and from time to time receive pecuniary assistance 
from its funds. 



Diitiict. 


Schools. 


Attendance of Scholars. 


Attend, of Teachert. 


AcSSSS... 


Sunday. 


Weekday. 


Evening. 


Voluntary. 


Paid. 


3rd . 
4Ui . 


16 
S4 
90 
28 


1866 


1084 
413 


981 

IS? 

1316 


210 
333 
269 
387 


30 
89 
43 
22 


9046 
8386 
8090 
8840 


83 


siao 


4S96 


4834 


939 


184 


11710 



The number of children partaking more or less of the 
benefits of these schools might be stated at 16,000; but the 
average of numbers, in actual attendance, cannot be safely 
estimated at more than 9,600. This is adding the evening 



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394 

BAQOBJ) SCHOOLS. ^iMlIg k nil)ttIIIliEg EXAMPLES. 

scholars to the day scholars, as they are almost in every case 
a distinct and dif^ent class, but aoes not include Sunday 
scholars, who are many of them the same as those who attend 
the day or eyening schools. The number of these in attend- 
ance is nearly 9,000.^ 

It would proye an unnecessary occupation of space, to giye 
a full list of these local schools, although possessing the 
material ; but the under-mentioned, as one of the longest 
established, will, with what has already been said, and the 
examples giyen of yarious collateral operations arising out of 
the system, serye for all practical purposes, to illustrate the 
objects aimed at, mode of operations, extent and yalue of 
this great work as a whole. 

Fiddrlane Baaqtd Schooly comer of West-street, Victoria- 
street, Holbom-hill. Instituted 1841. This school, situate in 
one of the most wretched and demoralized localities in the 
metropolis, is not only one of the first that was establishedjbut 
is now one of the largest of its kind in London. In the language 
of its last report " this school receiyes those whom eyery one 
else refuses' , either from their extreme poyerty, or their 
filthy and ragged condition ; and is free of any expense to 
all who attend. The school is open daily, mommg and 
afternoon, for children under 12 years of age. On Monday, 

^ The foIlowiDg deacription, two yean since, of the neighbourhood of 
one of these schools, taken from the report, strikingly demonstrates the 
peculiar sphere of operations of Bagged Schools : *' The degraded condition 
of the Seven Dials, St. Giles', is notorioos, — ^Tagrants,thieTes,shnrper8,gam- 
bler8,begKar8,costermongers. scavengers, ba8ketwomen,charwomen,anny- 
seamstresses, and pro6titutes,composeits mass: infidel8,chartists,80ciali8ta, 
and blasphemers, exist there as in head-quarters. Sabbath desecration 
there is awfiil ; and, in addition to the street traffic, there are not less than 
one hnndred and fifty shops open, in these sti eets, upon that sacred day : 
the laws of God and of man are alike defied; all social order is set at 
naught; the passenger is more or less molested and insulted ; and even the 
members of their own d^aded fellowship and fraternity are often forcibly 
deprived, by their companions, of any little property which they may 
happen to possess. Lodging-houses of the lowest and dirtiest description, 
thickly studded in these streets, alleys, and yards, afford temporary shel- 
ter to the vagrant and the criminal. It is in the very heart of this de- 
based and debasing locality, that our school is situate ; its entrance-door 
is in the extreme angle of an irr^ular, three-cornered yard, — a spot so 
exceedingly uninviting, that few respectable persons have courage to ven- 
ture through it." 



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BAOaED 80HOOLS. jJltlOltfll (fitlTEtinfl* EXAMPLES. 

Wednesday, and Thursday evenings, there is an adult school 
for males ; and on Tuesday evenings, an adult school and 
industrial class is held for females. 

On Friday evening, and on Sunday afternoon, and Sunday 
evening, the school is open for religious instruction exclu- 
sivelv. Upwards of 1200 children and adults have been 
admitted in a year. The large number of poor and utterly 
destitute orphan boys attending the school has led the com- 
mittee to open a refuge for a few of the most necessitous. 
The Refuge, (No. 11, John's-court, West-street), is now full. 
Here, the boys' industrial classes, of tailors and shoe- 
makers, are held on Monday and Wednesday evenings. 
There are now under instruction upwards of 700 men, women, 
and children weekly. It is entirely supported by voluntary 
contributions, which amount to nearly J300 per annum, and 
the necessary disbursements to within a few pounds of that 
sum. 

Treasurer, Mrs. Stuart, 46, Old Change. — Superintendent, Mrs. 
Mounstephen, 72, West Sinithfield. — Honorary Secretary, Mr. 
J. T. M. Ware, 84, Upper North-place, Gray's-inn-road. 

Tht Wegtminster Ragged Dormitory , is in connexion with 
the New Pye-street Bagged School, and only for the benefit 
of such as attend thereat from nine till five. For the first 
fortnight, each inmate is admitted only to the probationary 
room, and allowed one pound of bread daily. After giving 
satis&ctory evidence of earnestness, they are taken into the 
dormitory, where they undergo a regular course of training, 
both educational and industrial. The number at present in 
the dormitory is but thirteen, who are maintained at a cost 
of jC3 per week, including rent. The plan deserves to be 
more fully carried out than the present^ receipt}^ allow of, 
and the more so, as there is plenty of room to accommodate 
more scholars. Master, Charles Nash. 

Somewhat similar to this local existing refuge, the com- 
mittee of the union have now in view, on a larger scale, the 
establishment of a central refuge^ or industrial echooly where 
destitute boys and girls, from the various ragged schools, 

^ The promoter and superinteDdent of the plan writes: ''A beneyolent 
lady, who has been my chief support in this matter, has promised I shall 
not want for the means for the present inmates, if I cannot obtain them 
from any other source. The greatest difficulty is^ how I am to dispose 
of them all ; several have been with me for months, and all wish, eventU' 
ally, to leave England." 



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396 

COTTAGE SCHOOL StftiHg k illl|iniinilg SOCIETY, A.D. 1848 

may, for a certain time previous to qualifying for emigra- 
tion, be lodged, trained, and taught some usefid trade ; uius 
being made, in many respects, " more fit for the duties of a 
colonial life than mose who have just gone out." With 
this view, a public meeting was held in June last, at the 
Guildhall, presided over by the Lord Mayor, when the sum 
of £S60 was subscribed towards such an establishment ; but 
the committee have not yet succeeded in obtaining suitable 
premises, or a suitable site for building. 

The Ragged School Emigrant Fund, originated with the 
government grants to the promoters of ragged schools, for 
the purpose of trying the effect of the plan. It doubtless 
would have been persevered in to a much greater extent, but 
for the many applications all over the country, upon behalf 
of the industrious and deserving poor artizan or labourer, for 
similar facilities and assistance ; and the selection of the 
ragged and degraded portion of the community, however 
deserving, in preference to the more respectable, but equally 
destitute, presented so many difficulties, that government 
signified they were not prepared to grant any further 
amounts to the purpose. The committee are now, therefore, 
restricted to such funds as are supplied by the chari- 
table ; and the assistance to emigrate is offered only in the 
shape of extras prizes to the most diligent and deserving of 
the scholars.^ — (For Emigration Societies vide chapter viii.) 

Contributions for this purpose are received by the secretary 
of the Union, as before. 

THE COTTAGE SCHOOL SOCIETY, EstabUshed 
1848. For the training of mistresses, and for otherwise aid- 
ing the formation of small private schools for the poor. 
Thus describes the principles and objects aimed at : — " The 
Cottage School Society hopes to make schools in rural loca- 
lities a very feasible scheme, to introduce into dame schools 

^ Conditions required of every candidate for emigration from the Rag- 
ged Schools : — Sound health ; regular attendance, for at least six months, 
in a Ragged School ; the ability to write a single sentence from dictation ; 
to work the four simple rules of arithmetic ; to read fluently ; to repeat 
the Lord's Prayer and Ten Commandments, showing a comprehension 
of their meaning, and answer a few simple questions on the life of our 
Saviour. To these must be added a certificate of regular attendance in 
some industrial class, for at least four months ; or a competent knowledge 
of some haudicraft, or practical occupation, which would serve as an equi- 
valent for such industrial training. 



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SUNDAY SCHOOLS. jJfllinMl (0tefltinil. OEIQIN, A.D. 1785 

a more intellectual tone, and to meet the wants of half a 
million untaught children in an exceedingly economical 
manner. The system of this society is based upon the pure 
and simple principles of eyangelical truth, as set forth in the 
Articles and Formularies of the Church of England ; and it 
will require, that in all schools connected with it, the religi- 
ous teaching shall be governed by the same principles. A 
training and model school will, it is hoped, shortly be opened, 
where the peculiar system of the society may be seen in ope- 
ration. Pious steady females will be receiyed, and trained 
for six weeks in the clear and simple method of the Cottage 
School Society^ From this institution it is hoped to send 
out about three hundred mistresses every year. The expense 
of supporting a cottage school in rural localities is very 
slight. There ar6 already nearly thirty such schools in ope- 
ration, and the children's pence are generally sufficient for 
the support of the mistress. The cottage forms the school- 
room, and only a trifling sum is needed for the school requi- 
sites, &c. The London Training Institution will be nearly 
self-supporting, but funds are much needed for the prelimi- 
nary expenses, and also to enable the society to make grants 
to very necessitous localities." 

The Metropolitan Training School not being opened, there 
is no report yet ready. The temporary training school is at 
High Wycombe, where forty mistresses have now been 
trained. 

Additional particulars may be obtained of the Rev. W. 
Meynell Whittemore, St. Stephen's, Coleman-street, London, 
to whom applications for the training institution should be 
addressed. The books for cottage schools, already published, 
may be had of the Society's publishers, Wertheim and Co., 
24, Paternoster-row. 

Sun BAT SoHooLS. Inadvertently placed last in our educa- 
tional chapter, but not least in estimation, come '^ Our 
Sabbath Schools," blessed in their operations and their re- 
sults at all times ; but especially when connected, as they 
generally are in London, with the schools for week-day 
instruction. Then, indeed, there is good hope afforded that 
the secular duties and instruction pursued during the week 
may be sanctified by the privileges of the Sabbath, with 
the tendency at least, both to pupil and teacher, of making 
the week, like the Sabbath, more and more consecrated to 
the service of God. 



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398 ' 

BTNDAY SCHOOL Stlilllg k iVXftWU^ SOCIETIES, 1785-43 

It is now about seventy years since, we believe in 1781, 
when the first Sunday school was collected by Mr. Robert 
Baikes, in Gloucester. Nothing can be more simple than 
the history of the institution ; it soon commanded universal 
approbation and eventually adoption. The seed that was 
then sown, like the handful of com on the top of the moun- 
tains, has shaken like Lebanon, and now there is scarcely to 
be found a locality unblessed with its Sabbath school ; alike 
clustering in the city and isolated in the village,^ they 
exist in every Christian country under heaven, and millions 
of children and youth are thus brought to the pure fountain 
of God*s truth and permitted to drink freely of its life 
giving waters.' 

SOCIETY for the SUPPORT and Encour<wement of 
SUNDA T SCHOOLS, ihroughovi the BriUeh JDominions, 
60, Paternoster Bow. Instituted 1785. The means em- 
ployed are the gratuitous supply of Bibles, Testaments, and 
elementary lesson books, to all schools requiring aid, It 
does not furnish catechisms of any kind, but supplies such 
books as are used by Wesleyans, Presbyterians, Baptists, and 
Congregationalists, as well as by schools in connexion with 
the Established Church. Number of schools stated to have 
been assisted during the year, 118 ; containing scholars, 
9,506. The income appears very limited, under jClOO per 
anniun, and the funded amount not to exceed £500. 

The committee meet on the third Wednesday in every 
month, to consider applications. Forms of the queries to 
be answered by applicants may be had of the assistant 
secretary. 

President, Marquis Cholmondeley. — Treasurer, D. Borsley, 
Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : Mr. Joseph Eke ; Mr. W. H. Bruce. 
— Collector, Mr. James Brown, Exeter Hall. 

^ The present namber of Sunday schools throughout England and 
Wales, is computed to exceed 20,000 ; and the number of scholars, in 
1849, above 2,000,000 ; but no parliamentary returns on the subject have 
been made since 183S, when the former was 16,828, and the latter, 
1,548^90. Judging fh>m the returns of the Sunday School Union, the 
Sunday scholars in the metropolis were as 1 in 19. 

' " The mainstay of religious education is to be found in our Sunday 
Schools, — the most earnest, the most devoted, the most pious, of our seve- 
ral congregations, are accustomed, with meritorious zeal, to dedicate them- 
selves to this great work." — Dr, Hook's Letter to the Bishop of St. David^s, 



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399 

SUNDAY SCHOOL jjEttmiHl d^HTfltiHtl* SOCIETIES. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, 60, Paternoster Row. 
Established 1806. It aids in the formation of Sunday 
schools, and encourages the exertiouB of teachers at home 
and abroad ; it consists of the members of the auxiliary 
unions in London, and subscribers. 

ThQ following are the numbers of schools, teachers, and 
scholars, within a circle of five miles from the General Post 
Office, as reported last year : Schools 623 ; teachers 12,642; 
scholars 123,949. Average attendance 82,675, or rather 
more than two-thirds. 

Supported by subscribers of 10s. 6d. annually and up- 
wards, who are entitled to purchase, at reduced prices, books 
to five times the amount of their subscriptions. 

The annual income is about £1256, deriyed, £460 from 
voluntary contributions and £781 from net profits on sale 
of publications. The annual amount of sales averages 
about £9000. 

President, Earl of Boden. — ^Treasurer, W. Brodie Qumey, 
Esq. — Secretaries : Messrs. W. H. Watson, Peter Jackson, Robt. 
Latter, and W. Qroper.— Collector, Mr. C. T. Howshall, 34, Mar- 
garet-street. 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND SUNDAY SCHOOL IN- 
STITUTE, 169, Fleet Street. Established 1843. The 
object of this very excellent institution is not only to assist 
in the formation of Sunday schools throughout the country, 
but also to form a central point of union where the teachers 
may gain such information as may enable them faithfully 
to discharge the duties they undertake ; there is also a 
library for circulation of good works in general literature, 
and lectures are given to the members, from time to time, 
by clergymen. Conversational meetings are also held on 
matters of Sunday school discipline. 

Members must be recommended by a clergyman, or a 
member of the committee, or the superintendant of a Sun- 
day school ; and contribute to the funds either by a donation 
of five guineas and upwards, or, if Sunday school teachers, 
pay 5s. per annum or Is. 6d. per quarter. Also the teachers 
of schools in union with the institution, that contribute one 
guinea annually. The present number of schools connected 
with it are 57; and of teachers, 1642. 

The funds are supported by such subscriptions and dona- 
tions to a present extent of £360 per annum ; the receipts 



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400 • 

INSTITUTIONS FOR ^iMjlJ k 1111)111111115 YOUNG MEN. 

for publications now average between jC600 and jC700 per 
annum ; this can afford no exact estimate, however, of the 
society's operations for a future year : as the zeal and devoted 
earnestness characterizing its promoters and immediate direc- 
tors, promises for it a much larger scope of action and the 
exercise of a more powerful influence than its present limited 
means would seem to justify. A quarterly publication issued 
by this society, termed the Church Sunday School Quartertv 
Magazine, is replete with interesting matter connected with 
the great cause of Christian education, is conducted upon 
excellent principles^ and evidences much singleness of pur- 
pose aided by talent. 

Treasurer, John Labouchere, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : Cor- 
responding, Mr. J. G. Fleet, 141, Fenchurch-street ; Finance, Mr. 
C. H. Charlton, 28, New Bridge-street, Blackfriars ; Minute, Mr. 
T. M. Ball, 10, Albion-terrace, Canonbury. — Depositary and 
Collector, Mr. Thomas Geo. Broadstock, 169, Fleet-street. 

Hie Church of England SchoolTnasters and Mistresses 
Mutual Provident Society partakes of the usual charac- 
teristics of a mutual assurance fund. It is not within our 
limits to do more than refer to it, as available and apparently 
desirable for teachers and assistants. The office is at 10, 
Exeter-hall, but detailed information can be obtained at 
this institution. Secretary, Mr. S^ J. J. Hind. 

The chief effects aimed at by the two next institutions, 
being the exercise and extension of Christian influence upon 
a class, they appear closely associated in object with many 
of the foregoing, and therefore comprehended in the present 
chapter. ^ 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND TO UNO MEN'S SOCIETY 
foraiding missions athomeandabroad,10,St.Bride's-pas8age, 
Fleet-street. Established 1844. For promoting a missionary 
spirit among young men, by the dissemination of information, 
<&c., respecting missions. There are twelve branch associa- 
tions in London, and thirteen in the country. Weekly meet- 
ings are held for prayer and reading scripture; also monthly 
lectures on missionary topics. Various reading-rooms and 
libraries are supported for the use of members, furnished with 
good works in biography, history, travels, etc. 

The funds, after deducting Expenses, are paid in equal 
proportions to the Church Pastoral-Aid Society ; the Colo- 



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401 

INSTITUTIONS FOR ^BfitlHIIEl (KtatHlhlll^ YOUNG MEN. 

nial Church Society; the London Society for promoting 
Christianity among the Jews ; and the Church Missionaiy 
Society for Africa and the East ; except where donations 
or subscriptions are given for either of them in parti- 
cxilar. The whole expenses of the institution are under 
ilOO per annum, and about £400 is contributed by it to 
the purposes above mentioned : of course regulated each 
year by the amount of income, which depends entirely on 
the volutary contributions of its members. Young men under 
thirty-five years of age, subscribing one penny per week or 
upwards, or collecting to the amount of two pounds per 
annum or upwards, are members of the society. 

The aggregate increase of members during last year was 
700,maUng a total, at present time, of 2,700; and the num- 
ber of the Branch Associations is twenty-eight. 

President, Sir R. H. Inglis, Bart., M. P.— Treasurer, Henry 
Kingscote, Esq. — Honorary Secretaries : Mr. Edwin Hough, 5, 
Exeter Hall ; and Mr. Charles Reeves, 102, Guildford-street. — 
Secretary, Mr. R. Lockhart, Handyside. 

YOTJNG MEJTS CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, 7, 
Gresham-street, City. Instituted 1844. Somewhat similar 
in its objects to the last institution, as far as it aims at the 
moral and intellectual improvement of a class ; but the funds 
of this are devoted to the extension and further development 
of its own purposes, whilst in the former instance, they are 
devoted to the cause of missions. Strictly speaking, this 
partakes more of the character and benefits of a Chnstian 
club, and comprehends the following advantages : — a first- 
class library and reading-room, with a selection of good 
standard works ; meetings for Biblical instruction, and mu- 
tual improvement ; evening classes under the superintendence 
of efiicient masters, for the acquirement of the French, He- 
brew, Greek, German, and other languages, English litera- 
ture, etc. A room provided with tea, coffee, etc. 

Terms for membership, one guinea annually ; or 10s. 6d. 
under the age of 18 ; the classes for languages extra. The 
income averages from £500 to £600 per annum ; but £160 
of this is derived from sale of tickets and publications. The 
expenditure, judging from last year's statement, exceeding 
this amount by £30. 

The entire management of the institution is in the hands 
of the committee ; and the selection of books, etc., regulated 
by the examiners. An annual course of twelve lectures at 

26 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



402 

TOUNQ MEN*B CHRISTIAN A88O0IATIOH. 

Exeter-hall, is promoted by the funds of this society, upon 
intellectual and Christian subjects ; generaUy in December 
and January, conducted by clergymen and gentlemen of 
acknowledged talent and oratory. Admission to these lec- 
tures is extra, 2s. 6d. the course, and they obtain a crowded 
audience. 

Chairman, B. C. L. Bevan, Esq. — ^Treasurer, George Hitchcock, 
Esq. — Secretary, Mr. T. Henry Tarlton. — Examiners of Books : 
Hon. and Bev. H. M. Villiers, A.M. ; Bev. John Harris, D.D. ; 
Bev. J. Farrar ; Bev. T. Hartwell Kosme, B.D. ; Bev. J. Howard 
Hinton, A.M. — Bev. James Hamilton, D.D. 



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QBKBBAL ^jtb ^ Higsmgari} |nmfe5> remarks. 



CHAPTER XVIL 



BIBLE AND MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

TheMissionaryCause. — Its comparatively feebleAgencies. — Total Amount 
expended through the Metropolitan Societies. — A General Summary 
of their present Resources and Extent. — Bible Societies : The British 
and Foreign. — The Trinitarian. — And Naval and Military. — Miuion- 
ary Societies of General Operations yBxraaged according to Date of Or- 
ganization': 'llie 6ospel. — The Baptist — The London. — The Church. 
— The Westeyanf.— Female Education in the East. — The Scotch 
ChmcK—CorUiriental: The Foreign Aid.— CofoniaJ ; TheNegro Con- 
version.— The Mico Fnnd.->Newfonnd]and.— The Ladies' Negro So- 
ciety. — ^Colonial Church. — Bishoprics' Fund. — The Colonial, with 
oiheir. Funds connected with the Baptist and Congregational Unicms. 
-^Jffimon and School Societies for Ireland and Scotland: London 
Hibernian, Ladies*,etc. — Sunday School. — Religious Tract. — Scripture 
Reader. — Irish Society. — Irish Church Missions. — Royal Highland 
School. — Scottish Episcopal. — Jewish Missions^ S^c. : The London. — 
The British. — The Operative Convert. — Moral Improvement and Train, 
ing of Jews : The Ladies* Society. — The Industrial Society. — The Syrian 
Education^ — and German Mission. 

AocoBDiNQ to the arrangement of the last chapter, we have 
now to consider all those institutions whose operations extend 
more especially or exclusiyelj to foreign lands, our colonial 
dependencies, and united kingdoms. When the magnitude 
and value of the cause advocated is considered, and the vi- 
tality depending upon the promulgation and right reception 
of the great truths embodied therein, we instinctively look 
with dismay upon the feebleness of the attempt, and the 
means devoted to its accomplishment: for, however impos- 
ing and gratifying the present machinery of missionary 
effort may appear, aa, one by one, each compartment is per- 



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404 



sented to yiew, and even as a whole, when viewed abstract- 
edly, — yet, taken in connexion with what is professedly 
aimed at — with what the whole is designed to effect — ^the 
merely intelligent will exclaim : Any extent of good is im- 
possible—But the Christian is constrained to add, " with 
God all things are possible", and to derive comfort and en- 
couragement from the very peculiarity attending the feeble- 
ness of the means : for he knows that it is by little and 
little the Almighty has declared that He works ; and that, 
as certain as His word, *Hhou rnayest not do it ai once^"* has 
its wisdom, so certain will be the nnal accomplishment, that 
the '' earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as 
the waters cover the sea." And it is this conviction that 
makes him deem it a privilege to be instrumental, in ever so 
slight a degree, in bringing to pass that which needs not his 
assistance, except as an evidence of his obedience to Divine 
command, and as an earnest of his own faith and love. 

It is, then, more on account of the evidence the support 
of the cause affords, than for any impediment to the accom- 
plishment of the great purpose its contrary can effect, that, 
both as a nation and individuals, we have to regret more has 
not been attempted during the past, and that the operations 
of the present do not excite more general interest, more 
devoted zeal, and more liberal support. It has been well 
said, and often quoted by the Christian advocate, that " it is 
England's privilege to teach other nations the way of life"; 
but this was never recognized imtil the eighteenth century ; 
and even now, our search over the records of the one hundi^ 
and fifty years of the history of missions, discovers to us that 
the whole amounts devoted to the purpose of propagating 
in heathen lands the knowledge of the Gospel of Christ may 
be thus summed up : — 
Total amount of the incomes of three Bible Societies, £ 



from 1780 to 1850 

& Missionary Societies, 1701 to 1850 

8 Colonial ditto, 1705 to 1850 (exclusive of the opera- 
tions comprehended in the preceding Societies) 

11 Irish and Scotch ditto, 1806 to 1850 

2 Jews' ditto, 1808 to 1850 . 



8,670,000 
10376,344 

805,000 
296,880 
640,147 



Total 15^7^71 

Present annual aggregate income (1849-50) J056 1,552 

, It comes not within our present purpose to do more than 



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405 

THE B. & F. BIBLE JBlSSinMn); ^UnjfeS* society, A.D. 1804 

record this siunmary : it may be depended upon, so far as 
honest investigation can arrive at the truth ; and we trust it 
may be found useful in preventing anything like exultation 
for the past ; serve, at the same time, to add a stimulant to 
renewed exertions for the future ; and prove a reason for con- 
firmed trust that He, who has declared ''not by might nor 
by power, but by my Spirit", will abundantly bless every 
effort made to extend His kingdom ; making it subservient 
to His own glory, and the sanctification of those who engage 
in it in His name. 

The following statement affords a concise summary of the 
number and present resources of our missionary societies, as 
detailed in this chapter : — 

3 Bible societies, with an a>ggregate income of — 
from contributions . . ^54,900 

from sales . . . £44,203 

from funds, <&c. . . £840 

Total £99,943 

8 general mission societies to foreign parts ; 
with a present aggregate income o>— 
from voluntary sources . £376,531 

from dividends, rents, <Src. . £15,486 

Total £392,017 

8 societies for promoting Christianity in the 
colonies ; with an aggregate income of — 
from voluntary contributions . £15,810 
dividends, &c, . . £6,129 

Total . . . . £21,939 

11 for promoting Christianity in Ireland and 
Scotland, 
with an aggregate income of . . £13,263 

arising from voluntary contributions, ex- 
cept about £400, sale of publications. 
2 for promoting Christianity amongst the Jews. 

with an aggregate income of . . £34^390 

Besides these, will be found in this chapter, 2 
for improvement of Jews ; 1 for Germans ; 
1 for Syrians. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY, 10, 
Earl-street, Blackfriars. Exclusively for the promotion of 
the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without note or com- 
ment, both at home and abroad (the authorized version only. 



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406 

BRITISH <Sr FOREIGN, $tllli ^Ithfof * A.D. 1804 

excluding the Apocrypha). Established 1804, nearly 25 
years after the Naval and Military Society ; but we cannot 
so fur recognize the arrang^nent of dates, as to place it any- 
where but first : it appears to claim this position, as the 
most catholic in its operations and supporters of any reli- 
gious society. On the twelfth of March, in 1804, when the 
committee met to complete th^ final organization, the 
appointment of secretary met with much opposition, on ihe 
ground of impolicy in constituting, as was proposed, a Dis- 
senting minister (Key. Joseph Clarke), the manager of an 
institution which proposed to unit« the whole body of CSiris- 
tians. '^ This led at last to an arrangement, Uie princix>le of 
which was at once so judicious and liberal, that it has con- 
stituted one of the chief pillars of the society*s stability and 
success. Three secretaries were appointed, — a clergyman, 
a Dissenting minister, and a foreign secretary, in order that 
the foreign churches might be represented. And thus, the 
progress of an hour carried the committee on from the hasty 
suggestions of a shortsighted attachment, to the wise deter- 
mination of a liberal policy.''^ At the same time, it would 
appear, the future proportion of Churchmen, Dissenters, and 
Foreigners in the body of directors was laid down, as ob- 
served to the present time ; the business of the socie^ being 
conducted by a committee, consisting of thirty-six laymen, 
six of whom are foreigners residing in London, fifteen mem- 
bers of the Ohurdi of England, and fifteen of other denomi- 
nations of Christians. Every clergyman and Dissenting 
minister, who is a member of the society, is entitled to attend 
and vote at all meetings of the committee. The funds of 
the society are supported by volimtary contributions, ex- 
ceediaig £50,000 per annum ; amount of sales, from JC40,000 
to £45,000 ; and dividends, under £1,000. The income 
last year amoimted to £91,634. 

The centre of this institution is in London ; and its aux- 
iliary sodeties, branch societies and associations, extend 
throughout the British dominions in every quarter of the 
globe, amounting, in Ghreat Britain, auxiliaries, to 416 ; 
branches, 344 ; associations, 2,457 ; total, 3,217. Of these 
associations, the far greater part of them are conducted by 
ladies. In the colonies and other dependencies, auxiliaries, 
68 ; branches, 267 ; associations, 190 ; total, 525. Extensm 

1 Owen'a ffitteiy of Ibe BM# Socie^. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



407 

THE TBINITARIAN, %Mi ^HthfeB. A.D. 1831 

correspondence has been opened with the clergy and laity 
of dmerent nations ; and powerful coadjutors are actively 
employed in circulating copies of the sacred Scriptures 
among men " of every nation under heaven. "^ During the 
forty-five years that the society has existed, it has ciroiuated 
more than twentv-three millions of copies of the Scriptures, 
and promoted, directly or indirectly, the distribution, print- 
ing, or translation of the sacred volume into one hundred 
and forty different languages or dialects, and expended 
nearly three millions and a half sterling. 

One guinea annual, or ten guineas donation, constitutes a 
member ; five guineas annual, or ^50 at one time, constitutes 
a governor, entitled to attend and vote at all meetings of the 
committee. At the last annual meeting, it was announced 
that Prince Albert had become a life) governor. Members 
are entitled to purchase Bibles and Testaments at reduced 
prices, to five times the amount of their annual subscription; 
Auxiliary societies are allowed to purchase Bibles and Tes* 
taments at prime cost ; their members having the same 
privileges at the local depositories as the members of the 
parent society enjoy in London. 

All letters on the business of the societv, to be addressed 
to the officers respectively, at the society s house, 10, Earl- 
street, Blackfiriars, London. 

President, Lord Bexley. — ^Treasurer, John Thornton, Esq. — 
Secretaries : Rev. Andrew Brandram, A.M., Rector of Beckenham, 
Kent ; Rev. George Browne, Olapham. — Superintendent of the 
Editorial Department, Rev. Iliomas Meller, A.M., Rector ofWood- 
bridge. — Hon. Solicitors, Messrs. Marten, Thomas, and Hollams, 
Mincin£f-lane, London. — Accountant and Assistaiit Secretary, 
Mr. William Hitohin. — Assistant Foreign Secretary, Mr. Henry 
Knoleke. — Depository, Mr. Richard Cockle. — Collector, Mr. 
William Davies. 

THE TRINITARIAN BIBLE SOCIETY, 151, Strand. 
Instituted 1831. This institution in its object is identical 
with the preceding society, of which, indeed, it is an off- 
shoot. It IS composed of members of all Protestant denomi- 

^ There is a difficalty in ascertaining correctly the grand total, in« 
cladii^ those issoed from the Continented and American Societies, com- 
plete reports not being given in some few instances ; but, from the list 
before ns, we may safely pat down the number as forty millions of copies 
of the entire Bible, or New Testament, or integral portions thereof, in 
di^erent lai^ages, U» ^ epd of Ji^y 1849. 



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408 

KAVAL & MILITARY, ^BiUB ^HrfefeS. A J). 1780 

nations, holding the doctrine of the Holy Trinity ; whilst 
the other stipulates for no test for membership, but the de- 
sire manifested to circulate the Scriptures : this requires so 
much, at least, of uniformity of faith in essentials, as is im- 
pli^ by the recognition of the Divinity of the Father, of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

The Bible adopted is the authorized edition, without note, 
comment, or Apocrypha ; the number of copies annually cir- 
culated averages 6,000 Bibles, 3,000 Testaments, beisides 
" portions." Also translations in the Spanish, Portuguese, 
and Italian languages : of these, the circulation appears to 
vary ; in 1847-8 being 2,102, in 1848-9 only 270. The cii^ 
culation of portions of Scripture in Ireland, consisting of 
Matthew, Acts, Bomans, and John, has, the last two years, 
been extensively promoted, to the number of 65,000 copies. 
The mode employed for circulation is by agents, disposing 
of them, either by gift or for weekly reduced payments, to 
such poor in their districts as require them. 

The subscription constituting membership is one guinea 
annual, or ten guineas donation. The funds are supported 
by voluntary contributions, to an extent of £1,100 per aiw 
num ; and the amount of payments for Bibles, from £400 
to £600. The committee meet once in every month, and 
oftener, as business may require. Attendance is given at 
the depository from ten to five o'clock. The weekly sub- 
committee meet every Friday evening at half-past five, ex- 
cept the Friday succeeding the meeting of the general com- 
mittee, which takes place monthly. 

Treasurer* John Labouchere, Esq. — Hon. Clerical Secretaiy, 
Rev. G. Washington Phillips. — Hon. Lay Secretary, J. J. Cum- 
mins, Esq. — Secretary, Mr. William Henry Johnson. — ^Collector, 
Mr. R. Gr. Burrows, 34, Exmouth-street. 

NAVAL AND MILITARY BIBLE SOCIETY, 32, 
Sackville-street. Instituted 1780. For promoting a wide 
circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment, 
to sailors and soldiers. The annual average number of Bibles 
and Testaments circulated by the society is about 20,000 ; 
and a total of 617,691 since the establishment of the soci- 
ety. The following analvsis of last year's distribution shows 
at one view the vsJue of the society's operations, and affords 
a true conception of the large classes to be benefited thereby. 

To Her Majesty's ships and vessels, Haslar Hospital, <trc., 
781 Bibles, 676 Testaments ; soldiers, barracks, guard rooms, 



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409 

PBOPAGATION OF JKlfiBnTOHn} ^nrijfeS^ the 008PBL, 1701 

hospitals, military schools, <&c., 1 ,485 hibles, 56 test. ; troops, 
Hon. East India Company, 500 bibles ; royal marines, bar- 
racks, <fec., 291 bibles, 60 test. ; pensioners, 79 bibles, 19 test ; 
boatmen, bargemen, fishermen, etc. on canals and rivers, 
1,747 bibles, 1,206 test.; merchant seamen, fishermen, schools, 
<&c.,in grants, and by sale at reduced prices, 9,657 bibles, 
6,619 testaments. 

A subscription of one guinea per annum or donation of ten 
guineas, constitutes a member ; a subscription of five guineas 
per annum, or donation of £50, a governor. All governors 
are entitled to attend and vote at the meetings of the com- 
mittee. The annual income does not exceed j£2,000 per an- 
num from contributions, and about ;£500 from payments for 
Bibles, <trc. 

President, the Marquis of Cholmondeley . — ^Treasurer, Mr. T. P. 
Piatt. — Sub-Treasurer, Mr. James Nisbet. — Honorary Secretary, 
Major F. S. Sotheby. — ^Travelling Agent, lieut. G. V. Sinunonds, 
R.N. — ^Assist. Secretary, lieut. W. Skinner. — ^Distributing Agent, 
Mr. John Je£fery. — Ck>llector, Mr. Thomas Pitts. 

SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE 
GOSPEL in Foreign Parts. 79, Pall-Mall. Incorporated 
1701.1 For the " receiving, managing, and disposing of such 
funds as mav be contributed for the religious instruction of 
her Majesty s subjects beyond the seas ; for the maintenance 
of clergymen in the plantations, colonies, and factories of 
Great Britain ; and for the propagation of the Gospel in those 
parts." The corporation consists of the Bishops of the United 
Church of England and Ireland, the members appointed 
by charter, and of three hundred other members. Every 
incorporated member contributes not less than 2 guineas 
annually, or not less than 20 guineas in one sum. All sub- 
scribers of one guinea annually, or 10 guineas in one sum^ 
and clergymen subscribing half-a-guinea annually, are asso- 
ciated members, and from them the incorporated members 
are chosen, by ballot. 

The tetal number of missionaries maintained, in whole or 

1 Amongst its founders and earliest supporters were Archbishops Teni- 
son. Sharp, Wake, Potter; Bishops Compton, Patrick, Bnmet, Beveridge; 
Dean Prideanz, Robert Nelson, William Melmoth, John Eveljm, etc. 
The Rev. John Wesl^ was originallj a missionary of this society, and 
in that character proceeded to America in 173d, returning to Ei^and, 
178a 



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410 

THE BAPTIST, Mmtmsxtj ^nriife a.d. 1793 

in part, bj the society, is 355 ; besides 46 in Canada, sup- 
ported by the interest of the Clergy reserve fund ; and 17 
in NoYa Scotia, by a parliamentary grant, limited to the 
lives of the present missionaries ; total 413. These are chiefly 
engaged in the Canadas, Newfoundland, India, Australia^ 
Kew Zealand, etc. 

The following summary of the amounts expended last 
year in different portions of the world, will best illustrate in 
what proportion. In British N. America, £27,464 ; West 
Indies, ^5,912 ; East Indies, £23,528 ; Australia and New 
Zealand, £9,991 ; Cape, Mauritius and Seychelles, £3,929. 
The ordinary annual income of the Society from voluntary 
sources, (including special funds and legacies), averages 
£61,000 ; from rents, annuities, and dividends, £8,825 : 
this amount is aided from time to time by the grant of a 
** Queen's letter",^ which for this purpose realizes, we believe, 
now somewhat under £40,000. The present annual amount 
of ezp^iditure averages £79,000. 

Upper Canada Committee of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Qospd in Foreign Parts. Established 1 837. Formerly 
entitled "Upper Canada Clergy Society." Is now compre- 
hended in, and its missions supported by, the parent society ; 
the Rev. Septimus Ramsay, for some years the secretary in 
London of this committee, is now engaged in Upper Canada 
as one of the society's missionaries. All sums destined for 
the Upper Canada committee, may be therefore correctly 
appropriated to the society. 

Treasurers : Rev. John Russell, D.D.; Charles John Manning, 
Esq. — Consulting Physician, R. B. Todd, Esq. — Secretary, Rev. 
Ernest Hawkins, B.D. — Assistant Secretaries : Rev. Henry John 
Vemon, B. A. ; Rev. H. Hvndman Jones, M. A. — ^Treasurer's Clerk, 
Mr. Edmund Reynolds Fayerman. 

THE BA PTI8T MISSION SOCIETY, formed in 1792. 
Is entitled to be next mentioned, as being the first that 
sprang up in London after an interval of nearly a century 
from the establishment of ^e last-named venerable institu- 
tion. The present number of stations maintained by it are 
232, of which 79 are represented as being in the Island 
of Jamaica.^ The number of European missionaries main- 

^ Onoe every third year. "Hde note, page 367. 

' By the report of the Baptut Mission, it appears that the stated uvm- 
ber of their members in the island of Jamaica comprehends one ninth ot 
the whole population. * 



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4U 

THE LONDON %ig5iimgn|; ^nrfefeg> A.D.1795 

tained bj it was 48, and the number of native teachers 120, 
and gratuitous agents 180. The income varies from £18,000 
to £26,000 per annum ; last year (1849) ^19,736, wholly 
dependant on voluntary contributions. The funds are now 
r^resented to be in debt about £6,000. 

The management of this society is connected with the Bap- 
tist Union hereafter referred to, and all communications are 
to be addressed to the house, 33, Moorgate-street. 

Treasurers : W. B. Guraey, Esq. ; S. M. Peto^ Esq. — Secretary, 
Bev. Joseph Angus, A.M. 

THE MISSIONARY SOCIETY, umaUt/ called THE 
LONDON Misdonary Society. Mission-house, 8,Bloomfield- 
street, Finsbury, was established 1795. Upon the fundamental 
principle, " not to send any form of Church order and govern- 
ment, (about which there may be difference of opinion among 
serious persons), but left to persons to assume for themselves 
such form of Church government as to them shall appear most 
agreeable to the Word of Gk>d.*' The number of European mis- 
sionaries maintained by the society isl71 ; and native agents 
about 700. The annual expenditure for the purposes of the 
society, is between £60,000 and £70,000 ; the income de- 
pending on voluntary contributions, except about £700 
derived from dividends. 

One guinea annually, or 10 guineas donation, constitutes 
a member ; also, a collection of £5 by a minister or other 
representative of a congregation. The committee meet the 
second and fourth monday in every month. 

The Boys' and Girls' Mission Schools, established 1838 
and 1842, at Walthamstow, are conducted for the children 
of missionaries. The former now under the care of Dr. Bell 
of Stockwell-green. The terms to the parents are in each 
case £15 per annum, for maintenance. iTumber of boys, 17; 
girls, 31. Annual income of the former establishment £380, 
the latter, £1765. 

Trustees : William Alers Hankey, Esq.; Thomas ChaUis, Esq., 
Alderman ; Thomas Merriman Coombs, Esq. — ^Treasurer, Sir Gul- 
ling Eardley Eardley, Bart. — Foreign Secret