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Full text of "Charlotte in picture and prose : an historical and descriptive sketch of Charlotte, North Carolina"

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VERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 
00032761583 



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STEPHEN B. WEEKS 

CUSS OF 1886; PHD THE JOHNS HOPKINS IMVERSJTY 

LMBIRA1RY 

OF THE 

UMVERSIHY OF N«I CAROLINA 
HE WEEKS COLLECTION 

OF 

CAJROLINMNA 




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MISS ALEXANDER'S BOOKLET. 

Charlotte in PlctuWi ami Prose 
Is a Most Attractive Publication 
— Miss Julia Alexander Has Issued 
a Booklet that Will Interest Every 
Native of This City. 
"GftarLottte in Picture and Prose," 
by Mtss Julia M. Alexander, is a hand- 
some booklet, giving "an historical 
and descriptive sketch of Charlotte." 
In sending bill this publication, 
which is from the Blanchard Press, 
of New York, Miss Alexander does 
herself and -her town credit. The 
printing', the writing and the pictures 
are excellent. In general appearance 
the booklet is not unlike Burr-Mcln- 
tosh the beautiful and attractive 
magazine published by the Blanenard 
Press The cover leaf is decorated 
witta hornets' nests and pine cones. 
The frontispiece is a picture of 
Queen Charlotte, of Mecklenburg, for 
whom Charlotte is named. 

Among the views given are: Sugar 
Creek Cemetery, Sugar Creek Church, 
Alexander Rock House, built by Heze- 
kiah Alexander: East Avenue. The 
Osborne Oaks, The Old Cemetery, 
First Presbyterian Church, Views of 
First Presbyterian Church-Yard, 
Views of Latta Park. Monument Com- 
memorating Mclntyre Skirmish, Mon- 
ument Marking Birthplace of Presi- 
dent James K. Polk, the Old Court 
House North Tryon Street, the Set- 
wyn Hotel, United States Assay Of- | 
rice. Views of Vance Park. Lake at j 
Country Club, and many other pretty 
views and scones. „ 

In her story of Charlotte Miss 
I Alexander has used historical facts. 
I Her style is attractive and forceful. 
I No woman of the county is better 
1 prepared to do such work. She is ed- 
| ucated, cultured and well informed. 
Her people have helped to make the 
countv what it is. 

Charlotte in Picture and Prose will 
be put on sale at Stone &. Barringer's 
book store. The first issue is 5,000 
copies, which will sell for 50 cents 
each. One. could not select a more 
acceptable present to a native of 
Charlotte than Miss Alexander's book- 
let. The Greater Charlotte Club could 
not send out more attractive reading 
matter. 

Miss Alexander deserves the thanks, 
as well as the patronage, of the entire 
community. She has devoted time 
and expended money to produce this 
meritorious booklet. 



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QUEEN CHARLOTTE 

Wife of George III, King of England. In honor of Queen Charlotte and her former 

home, Mecklenburg-Strelitr in Germany, the City of Charlotte and 

County of Mecklenburg, North Carolina, were named. 



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CHARLOTTE 
IN PICTURE AND PROSE 



AN HISTORICAL and DESCRIPTIVE 

SKETCH of 
CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA 

By JULIA M. ALEXANDER 



With Illustrations of Places of Interest and 
Scenes in and About Charlotte 







"Those who do not treasure up the memory of their ancestors 
do not deserve to be remembered by posterity." 

— Sir Edmund Burke 



"Scenes must be beautiful which daily viewed 
Please daily, and whose novelty survives 
Long knowledge and the scrutiny of years." 

— Cowper 



Copyright, 1906. 
by Julia M. Alexander. Charlotte. N. C. 



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CHARLOTTE 
IN PICTURE AND PROSE 




T 



HE Pi ea- 
rn out Re- 
gion of 
North Carolina 
bears an interesting 
relation to the Old 
World; through the 
veins of its people 
flow the same strains 
of blood that course 
in the veins of Euro- 
pean nations, and 
the very names re- 
echoing- throughout 
its borders link it 
with more than one 
country of Europe. 

Italy has given the 
name Piedmont to 

I our mountainous re- 

gion because of its 
likeness to her own 
sunny slopes. The 
principality of Pied- 
^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ Northern 

Italy, lying along the 
foot of the Alps, is a country of unusual beauty, and was included 
among the possessions of Amadeus V, surnamed the Great, Count 
of Savoy. By him it was granted to his brother, Thomas II, whose 
son Thomas III became founder of the line bearing the titles, Lords 
of Piedmont. The foot-hills of the lower Appalachian system so 
closely resemble this portion of Italy in contour and climate that it 
has been given the name of the Piedmont Region. 

The climate has also been frequently likened to that of Southern 
France; and this comparison is doubly appropriate since the Caro- 
linas were so-called, in 1563, by French settlers of the eastern 
borders, in honor of their king, Charles (Carolus) IX. 

Germany and England divide honors in having bestowed upon 
county and town the names Mecklenburg and Charlotte. In the 
year 1761, the German Princess, Charlotte of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz, became the wife of George III, King of England; this 
marriage, which caused much rejoicing throughout the British do- 
main, took place about the time a new county was being formed 
in the state of North Carolina, and as compliment to the young 
queen the county received the name of Mecklenburg for her 




Sugar Creek Cemetery 
Sugar Creek Church 



home in Germany, and the county-seat was called Charlotte, be- 
ing also frequently known as the "Queen City." This expression 
of loyalty to the mother-country, from subjects so far distant, 
was doubtless pleasing to the king who little dreamed that within 
a few years their allegiance would be boldly withdrawn. 

This change in sentiment was due to the fact that Scotland's 
sons had found in this same Piedmont region a country whose 
rugged beauty, bore a strong resemblance to their former home; 
and here amid its hills and forests they sought that freedom of 
thought and action which in Scotland had been denied them. To 
this section of America, about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, came many settlers, who were Scotch by birth, and from a 
temporary residence in Ireland, designated Scctch-Irish. From 
New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, following the 
mountains and valleys of the Appalachian Range, they moved south- 
ward, and settled in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Caro- 
lina. 

The county of 
M'ecklenburg 
w h i c h originally 
embraced Cabar- 
rus, Lincoln, Gas- 
ton, and a part of 
Union, in addition 
to all of the pres- 
ent county, occu- 
pies a position in 
the southwestern 
part of North Car- 
olina ; it now con- 
tains 680 square 
miles, and is divid- 
ed into fifteen 
townships. The 
city and county 
combine a popula- 
tion of 70,000. 

Cultivation of 
cotton is the lead- 
i n g agricultural 
pursuit, though 
corn, wheat, and 

other small grains are raised successfully. Fruits of almost every 
kind flourish, adding materially to the income of the farmer ; while 
truck-farming, dairying and poultry-raising are among the most 
profitable industries. In Mecklenburg County conditions of climate 
and soil are such that anything may be grown that is raised between 
Southern Alabama and Canada. The northern line of cotton-raising 
in the United States passes about fifty miles north of Charlotte. 




Alexander RocK House. Built by HezeKiah Alexander 
(Five miles from Charlotte) 



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The Souti- contains 400 millions of acres in the cotton 
belt proper, of which 300 millions are especially suitable for cotton- 
raising. The climate of this section of country is greatly modified 
by the Gulf Stream, which has much to do with the success of cotton- 
growing. The rains coming from the Gulf of Mexico in the spring 
and summer aid in the raising of the crop ; while in the fall the winds 
change to the west and north, giving usually a dry season for the 
harvest. A rainy season, drought, or single severe frost, would tend 
to greatly decrease the production. At present 32 million acres are 
in cultivation of cotton in the United States, and produce three- 
fourths of the crop of the world. 

With an elevation of 760 feet above sea-level, free from marked 
extremes of heat or cold, and sheltered by the guardian peaks of 
the Alleghany Mountains from severe storms, that visit the interior. 
Charlotte, judged from a climatic standpoint, occupies a most favor- 
able position. Throughout 

as ^■HHHHHHM| 

shown by the United States 
Weather Bureau, is generally 
mild and equable, with an an- 
nual mean temperature of 60 
degrees, and prevailing 
southwesterly winds. Pe- 
riods of severe cold in win- 
ter are of short duration ; 
spring generally opens early, 
and killing frosts are rarely 
known before November. 
The spring and autumn es- 
pecially are seasons of rare 
beauty in Charlotte ; flowers, 
shrubs, and trees in number- 
less variety and abundance 
add to the attractiveness of 
scenery and give unceasing 

pleasure to the lover of nature. With manifold advantages of 
climate and location, Charlotte enjoys an atmosphere at once bracing, 
temperate, and healthful. 

The topography of the surrounding country shows a broken and 
picturesque land whose forest-crowned hills, fertile lowlands, and 
winding streams present scenes of ever-changing interest. To this 
genial clime with its fertile soil came the early settlers of the 18th 
century to find a land of plenty but not, however, one of peace. The 
story of the pioneers in Mecklenburg County is similar to that of the 
first settlers in other sections of this New World, whose inviting hand 
beckoned so alluringly across the waters and drew to its shores from 
the Old World stalwart sons and courageous daughters — men and 
women who were to become the founders of a mighty nation. In dense 
virgin forests lurked the Indian, resentful of the white man's intrusion 




The Osborne OaK 

(More than 100 years old) 



and ever ready to surprise and destroy the colonist in hi> newly-made 
home. Dark deeds of bloodshed and death were wreaked in cruel 
vengeance upon the whites in these primitive days of settlement : and 
in return the strong hand of the settler dealt death and destruction, 
gradually forcing the red man westward until the land was freed 
from Indian depredation. The early settlers of Charlotte and its 
vicinity were principally Scotch-Irish, who came with broad-ax and 
sword to open the way for liberty and civilization, bringing also that 
indomitable love for civic and religious freedom which still remains 
preeminent among the characteristics of their descendants. Colonial 
life was by no means luxurious nor exempt from toil; land was to 
be cleared and tilled ; homes, churches, and schools to be established, 
and all the while unceasing vigilance was necessary to ward off 




attacks from the Indians. Such conditions necessitated years of toil 
and hardship, of continued activity, and patient endurance. To-day 
a prosperous and happy land bears witness to their zeal ; and where 
the fathers toiled so earnestly, the children have entered upon the 
fruitage of their labors. 

Years passed and the country became more thickly populated ; the 
village of Charlotte being in 1768 legally incorporated; in 1774 it 



was made the permanent county-seat of Mecklenburg". Though the 
population was small, and its homes of a primitive order with con- 
veniences and luxuries almost unknown, Charlotte, as the central 
point of a large 
section of country, 
was even at this 
early date a place 
of no small impor- 
tance. The cross- 
ing of two county 
roads formed the 
center of the vil- 
lage, and at their 
intersection stood 
the court-house. 
These cross-roads 
were dignified by 
the names of Trade 
and Tyron streets 
— the former ob- 
viously from the 
amount of business 
transacted along 
its way, the latter 
in honor of Wil- 
liam Tyron a Colo- 
nial Governor of North Carolina. To-day these avenues extend for 
several miles and are the city's most prominent thoroughfares^ their 




First Presbyterian Church 




View of First Presbyterian Churchyard 




Views of Latta ParK 



intersection, which is known as "Independence Square," ranks among 
the most historic spots in America. 

The coming storm of the American Revolution was foreshadowed 
throughout the country for some time before its actual culmination. 
Oppressive taxation, unjust administration of laws, and an increas- 
ingly tyrannical government, all tended to arouse within a liberty- 
loving and fearless people that spirit which in the Old World had 
made martyrs of their kind for religion's sake — which in the Xew 
World had nerved them to face untold dangers and even death for the 
preservation of home and family. The people of Charlotte and 
Mecklenburg, known as a law-abiding and conservative people, were 




Monument commemorating Mclntyre SKirmish. Seven miles from Charlotte 

(Erected by Daughters of the American Revolution) 



deeply aggrieved by the oppression of English rule, and realized 
that their dearly-earned rights were fast being infringed. The 
Battle af Alamance on May 17, 1771, and other events of a like 
character, gave rapid development to independence of thought, which 
finally resulted in the bold action taken by the citizens of Mecklen- 
burg County, in May, 1775. 

Pursuant to the order of Col. Thomas Polk, who was a leader in 
military and civic affairs, a convention consisting of two delegates 
to be elected from each militia district of the county, was called to 
meet in the court-house of Charlotte on the 19th day of May, 1775. 
At previous meetings of the militia companies the sentiment of the 
people had been voiced with no uncertainty in opposition to the 
tyranny of England ; and it was in accordance with the wishes of 
the community that this gathering of representative men was called 



C 



in order that the existing state of affairs might be fully discussed; 
and if it were found advisable, to take action in regard thereto. 

Abraham Alexander W a S 



elected chairman of the con- 
vention and John McKnitt 

Alexander, secretary. I ireat 
interest was manifested in 
the meeting for it was evi- 
dent thai recent proclama- 
tions issued by tile King ami 
Governor g a v e sufficient 
grounds to the people for the 
assertion of their rights. Ad- 
dresses were made by prom- 
inent citizens before the dele- 
gates and also a large num- 
ber of Other persons who had 
gathered to witness the pro- 
ceeding. A committee was 
appointed to prepare resolu- 
tions to submit to the dele- 
gates. Before matters had 
reached a crisis, however, a 
courier rode into the village 
with tidings of the battle of 
Lexington, which had oc- 
curred just one month pre- 
vious. Excitement was in- 
tense and only one course of 
procedure was now to be 
considered. After lengthy 
discussion and argument, 
when the night had worn 
away into the morning of 
the 20th, Dr. Ephraim Bre- 
vard, a member of the committee, presented the amended resolu- 
tions, which were forthwith adopted. These resolutions couched in 
terse, emphatic language, are as follows : 

I. Resolved, That whosoever directly or indirectly abets, or in 
any way, form or manner countenances the invasion of our rights, 
as attempted by the Parliament of Great Britain, is an enemy to 
his country, to America, and to the rights of man. 

II. Resolved, That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do 
herebv dissolve the political bonds that have connected us with the 
mother country, and absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the 
British Crown, adjuring all political connection with the nation that 
has wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties and inhumanly 
shed innocent blood of Americans at Lexington 




nument marking Birthplace of President James K. Polk 
Eleven miles from Charlotte 
(Erected by Daughters of the American Revolution) 



III. Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and 
independent people ; that we are, and of right ought to be, a sover- 
eign and self-governing people under the power of God and the 
general Congress ; to the maintenance of which independence we 
solemnly pledge to each other our mutual cooperation, our lives, 
our fortunes and our most sacred honor. 

IV. Resolved, That we hereby ordain and adopt as rules of con- 
duct all and each of our former laws, and that the crown of Great 
Britain can not be considered hereafter as holding any rights, privi- 
leges, or immunities amongst us. 

V. Resolved, That all officers, both civil and military in this 
county, be entitled to exercise the same powers and authorities as 
heretofore; that every member of this delegation shall henceforth 
be a civil officer and exercise the powers of a justice of the peace, 
issue process, hear and determine controversies according to law. 
preserve peace, union and harmony in the county, and use every 
exertion to spread the love of liberty and of country until a more 
general and better organized system of government be established. 

VI. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted by 
express to the President of the Continental Congress assembled in 
Philadelphia, to be laid before that body. 




The Old Court House 
(Shortly before it was torn away to give place to the Selwyn Hotel) 









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The Selwyn Hotel 



(Signatures) 



Abraham Alexander, Chairman, 
John McKnitt Alexander, Secretary. 

John Davidson, 
Robert Irwin, 
Ezra Alexander, 
Thomas Polk Sr. 



Ephraim Brevard 
Zaccheus Wilson, 
James Harris, 
Matthew McClure, 
Richard Barry, 
John Flennegin, 
William Grails m . 
Richard Harris, 
Adam Alexander, 
Charles Alexander, 
John Phifer, 
Benjamin Patton, 
John Ford, 

Thus was taken the first decisive step on American soil toward 
throwing off the English yoke and publicly making a firm and de- 



Hezekiah Alexander, 
Hezekiah J. Balch, 
Waightstill Avery, 
William Kennon, 
Neil Morrison, 
Henry Downe, 
David Reese, 
John Queary. 



stand for independence. Immediately upon its adoption, a 
of the Declaration was sent in care of Captain James 
to the Continental Congress then in session at Philadel- 
This august body was just at that time preparing an address 
to the King, wherein was repudiated a desire for independence, and 
therefore declined to act upon the Mecklenburg Declaration, deem- 
ing it premature., 



cided 
copy 
Jack 
phia. 



The National Declaration of Independence adopted one year later 
shows most conclusively how closely the initiative steps of Mecklen- 
burg were followed. An adjourned meeting of the Mecklenburg 
Convention was held in Charlotte on the 31st of May, and twenty res- 
olutions, which have been styled the "Thirty-first Resolves," were 
adopted for the purpose as set forth in an introductory clause, "To 
provide in some degree for the exigencies of this county in the 
present alarming period." 

Though failing to receive support from the Congress in Philadel- 
phia, such a document as the Mecklenburg Declaration, bearing 
signatures of representative men of the county, and of the State 
of North Carolina, could not fail to be regarded with significance. 
These bold resolutions proved to be a source of much uneasiness to 
the royal governor of North Carolina, Josiah Martin, who, disap- 
proving the violent measures pursued by his predecessor, Governor 
Tryon, was attempting to restore harmony in the state. His trepi- 
dation on learning of the independent action at Charlotte is fully 
portrayed in an address by Governor Martin to the Executive Coun- 
cil on June 25, 1775 ; also in a letter written by him to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, on June 30, 1775, referring to proceedings published in 
the Cape Fear Mercury, and in a proclamation issued on August 8th 
of the same year.* On the night of June 14, 1775, Governor Martin 
left his home in New Bern, going first to Fort Johnson, thence to an 
English ship lying near by. Here for one year he nominally held the 
office of Governor, and with his departure royal rule forever ended 
in the state of North Carolina. 



'See Volume 10, Colonial Records of North Caroli 



■nip in whfo*" 




United States Assay Office 




Views of Vance Park 



In April of the year 1800 the home of John McKnitt Alexander 
was burned and in it the original copy of the Declaration, together 
with other valuable papers. The fact that the original manuscript 
was destroyed, while an unfortunate occurrence, did not affect the 
historical truth that independence was declared in Charlotte on 
Mav 20, 1775 ; but, however, did give occasion to some persons not 
thoroughly conversant with the history of Mecklenburg to circulate 
a report fifty years later, that since the original copy was not in 
existence, there had been no such action taken. Contemporaneous 
history confutes all reports of this tendency ; some persons in 
this enlightened age would likely doubt the authenticity of the 
Scriptures, since the original copy is not in hand. Deeds in the 
Mecklenburg county court-house date from the Mecklenburg 




The Post Office Building 

Declaration; for example, "This indenture made the 13th day of 
February, 1779, and in the fourth year of our independence." The 
Moravian Church at Salem, N. C, has carefully preserved in Ger- 
man script an annual record called the "Bethania Records," from 
the year 1755 to the present time. On one of its pages is recorded 
the following paragraph: "At the end of the year 1775 I cannot 
omit to mention that already in the summer of the same year — that 
is to say in May, June or Jul}- — the County of Mecklenburg, in 
North Carolina, did declare itself free and independent from Eng- 
land, and did make such disposition of the administration of law 
as later on the Continental Congress established for the whole. But 
this proceeding Congress looked upon as too premature." 

The History of North Carolina by Martin, written during the 
period 1791-1809, gives reliable authority for its account of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration. 



Lafayette, when entertained at a public dinner at the governor's 
mansion in Raleigh, X. C, March 2, 1825, offered th« following 
toast: "The state of North Carolina, its metropolis, and the 20th of 
May, 1775, when a generous people called for freedom, of which 
may they more and more forever cherish the principles and enjoy the 
blessings." 




MecKlenburg County Court House 

lg Monument to Signers of Mecklenburg Declaration ot Independence) 



Previous to the burning of his residence, with its many valuable 
records and documents, John McKnitt Alexander had made several 
copies of the Declaration ; he now made two others from memory, 
one of these he gave to General William R. Davie, which is known 
as the "Davie copy," and is preserved in the archives of the Xorth 
Carolina University. It, however, was not an exact reproduction, 
which the writer acknowledged on the back of the document, 
in the following words : "The foregoing statement, though funda- 
mentally correct, may not literally correspond with the original record 
of the transactions of said delegation." The National Declaration 
of Independence bears such a marked resemblance to the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration, that Thomas Jefferson was accused by some of 
plagiarism. Among others, the aged John Adams was of this 
opinion, and received a sharp rebuke from Jefferson, who naturally 
did not favor such a belief. The Reverend Arnold W. Miller, an 



ardent supporter of the Mecklenburg Declaration, in his Centen- 
nial Sermon of May 16, 1875, traces the origin of American In- 
dependence back to the "Scottish Bands and Covenants" and says : 
"These Bands and Covenants educated the Scotch and Irish sett- 
lers of this country in the principles of liberty and prepared them 
for the work to which Providence called them, the achievement Of 
American Independence. To the Rev. Alexander Craighead, a 
Presbyterian minister of Ireland who settled in Mecklenburg in 
1759, the people of this county are indebted for that training which 
placed them in the forefront of American patriots and heroes. It 
was at this fountain that Dr. Ephraim Brevard and his associates 
drew their inspirations of liberty. It was from these 'Scottish 
Bands and Covenants,' as embraced in ■Rushworth's Collections, 
we find that Mr. Jefferson drew largely both sentiments 
and phrases, as he himself admits. The Hon. Julian C. 
Verplanck, of New York, in an address delivered over forty years 
ago, traced the origin of the Declaration of Independence to the 
National Covenants of Scotland. And Chief-Justice Tilghman stated 
that the framers of the American Constitution were greatly indebted 




Charlotte during a Twentieth of May Celebration 

to the standards of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland." Hon. 
George Bancroft, the historian, after careful investigation, as- 
serted the authenticity of the Mecklenburg Declaration and says : 
"The first voice publicly raised in America to dissolve all connec- 
tion with Great Britain, came, not from the Puritans of New En- 
gland, nor the Dutch of New York, nor the planters of Virginia, 



but from the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians of North Carolina." Gene- 
ral Joseph Graham and Rev. Humphrej Hunter, who were present 
at the convention of Ma) 20, 1775. both state in written records that 
a great throng was gathered on that occasion and intense inter- 
est was manifested. 




View of Entrance lo Post Office 
Showing Shipp Monument 



In the stirring days of the American Revolution. Charlotte and 
Mecklenburg upheld with distinction the pledges of 1775. I heir 
citizens were prominent in both state and military affairs, and proved 
themselves valiant defenders of home and country. It was during 
the year 1780 that the British entered western North Carolina, after 
over-running Georgia and South Carolina. As Tarleton's forces 
advanced on Charlotte they were harassed by Major Davie and 
General Davidson with a small troop of cavalrymen : and at mid- 
night, September 25. 1780. Davie* rode into the town, where he was 
joined by Major (afterwards General) Joseph Graham, and together 
they made preparation to meet the oncoming foe. Outnumbered by 
the enemy fifteen to one, the North Carolinians were nevertheless 
undaunted, and determined to make a bold stand. On the morning 
of the 26th of September, they posted their men as advantageously 
as possible under cover of a stone wall about the court-house, and 
also stationed a number along East Trade Street. Tarleton's 
cavalrv. commanded by Major Hanger, formed a line within three 
hundred yards of the court-house, and was supported by solid ranks 



of infantry. Three times during the day, they charged, and justf 
so often were met by a steady firing that put their troops in great 
confusion, besides causing much loss of life. Cornwallis was sur- 
prised and chagrined to meet this unexpected repulse, and riding to 
the front, rebuked his men for cowardice. As nightfall approached, 
Graham and Davie deemed it more prudent, on account of their small 
force, to seek a position of greater safety. Taking an eastward 
course, they were vigorously pursued by the British, but succeeded in 
reaching a safe distance with slight loss of life. Among the 
severely wounded, was Major Joseph Graham, who received nine 
serious wounds and was left on the field, supposed to be dead. He, 
however, recovered and rendered further valuable service in the 
Revolutionary War. This engagement, known as the ''Battle of 
Charlotte," is not numbered among the important battles 
of Revolutionary history; but it undoubtedly served to 
show the British with what manner of men they had to 
deal in Mecklenburg; and might also have given a fore- 
warning as to the outcome at King's Mountain and other battles in 
this vicinity. Cornwallis remained in Charlotte sixteen davs, but his' 




Lahe at Country Club 



stay was not permitted to be a peaceful one. At Mclntyre's farm, 
seven miles to the north, his foraging forces were attacked by 
a small party of North Carolina soldiers, and after a sharp encounter 
the British were forced to retreat. This, and other bold onslaughts of 
the Carolinians, gave the enemy a thoroughly uncomfortable time, 






■ ^ ■' ' J»*»'. • ,.. ». -.Ill & 



and caused Cornwallis to dub the brave little town "The Hornet's 
Nest," which historic appellation it still retains. The battle of 
King's Mountain, only thirty-three miles distant, occurred on Oc- 
tober jth of the same year, and was an overwhelming defeat for 
the men under the command of Major Ferguson, a favorite officer of 
Cornwallis. He at once resolved to take his departure, declaring 




Mecklenburg to be "the most rebellious and ill-disposed county in 
all America." On October 12th, the British resumed the line of 
march, leaving behind many spoils collected on foraging tours. 
Davie and Davidson followed closely for a time and captured a 
part of the enemy's baggage. Charlotte was not again molested by 
the British ; the men of Mecklenburg had proven their ability to cope 
with the enemy, and throughout the war thev rendered effective 



assistance to the American cause and upheld most ardently the prin- 
ciples of independence. 

When peace again reigned in the land. Charlotte having laid aside 
the habiliments of war, resumed the life of quietude and industry 
which it had formerly maintained. At this time, although number- 
ing less than three hundred inhabitant-, it was nevertheless a place 
of much importance. Here the people of the surrounding country 
came to sell or exchange farm produce; and to obtain the necessi- 
ties of life, which in that day were deemed few in number, as living 
was on a very frugal basis. Here, also, they came to receive the 
infrequent and irregular mails; or occasionally, from some traveler. 




Presbyterian College 



to obtain tidings from the outside world. A time of great interest 
was the convening of the county court. The county was divided 
into militia districts, and assemblies met in the districts, sep- 
parately, or at Charlotte, when the entire county would be repre- 
sented. These muster days, as they were termed, were held for the 
purpose of discussing political questions of the day, but were also 
seasons of general social intercourse : as local newspapers had not 
then been instituted, gatherings of this kind served in a measure 
for the dissemination of news. Public meetings afforded the prin- 
cipal diversion for the men of this period, but the women and chil- 
dren remained closely at home and knew little of social pleasures. 

Charlotte in these early days, when the absence of railroads and 
telegraph made difficult all communication with the outside world, 
was not, however, entirely cut off from other sections of the country. 
Trips, on horseback or by private conveyance, were made to Charles- 
ton, Philadelphia, and other distant points, from which the trav- 
elers returned bringing stores of purchases, and also newspapers or 
other publications available. Until the introduction of the railroad, 
the stage-coach was the usual method of travel, and its coming was 



heralded by the blowing of a horn by the driver— a signal for the 
gathering of a crowd about the tavern door, and a forewarning that 
the monotony of village life was, for a short while, to be broken by 
the arrival of the stage-coach with its passengers. Petersburg, 
Favetteville, Charleston, Camden, and Cheraw were favorite places 
for trading, the goods being hauled by wagons to Charlotte from 
these points. 

Closely following the establishment of homes in this new land was 
the building of school-houses and churches. Religious and indus- 
trial training was considered of chief importance, and all instruc- 
tion was of a practical nature ; necessary school books were difficult 
to obtain, so the elementary branches were principally taught; 
occasionally the children of affluent parents were sent North to be 
educated. In January, 1771, a bill was passed by the Assembly of 
North Carolina, establishing and endowing in Charlotte a college 
to meet the increasing need for more advanced learning than was 



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South Graded School 



then supplied by the schools of the state. This institution, chartered 
by the King, was called Queen's College, and opened under most 
encouraging auspices. Owing, however, to dissensions in the country 
at this time, the charter was disallowed by the King in 1773. The 
people, being anxious to have in their midst a high grade school, con- 
tinued the institution without a charter, under the name of Queen's 
Museum. In 1777 other changes were made, the school being incor- 
porated as Liberty Hall Academy. With the invasion of Cornwallis, 
the academy was compelled to suspend, and was not again opened. 
The site on which it stood is now occupied by the' court-house. 

On May 25, 1791, there was entertained in Charlotte a distin- 
guished guest, General George Washington, who being on a tour 
through the South, stopped to visit the little town which won such a 
notable reputation for bravery in Revolutionary days. 



Owing to its settlement chiefly by the Scotch-Irish, Charlotte has 
always been known as a stronghold of Presbyterianism, though 
churches of many other denominations flourish: "Among the min- 
isters of the Presbyterian 
faith who exerted great 
influence throughout this 
section during its forma- 
tive period was the Rev. 
Alexander Craighead, 
who in the year 1750 be- 
gan his pastorate at 
Rocky River and Sugar 
Creek churches. There 
being at that time no 
church in the town, the 
people worshipped at 
Sugar ( "reck Church. 
Mr Craighead was a 
man of fearless and in- 
trepid Spirit. Of Unflinch- Carnegie Library 

ing principles, and im- 
bued with great patriotic zeal. Mis influence in guiding the | 

aright at a time when the country's fate was wavering cannot be 
overestimated. 





Residence on South Tryon Street 

(Under one of these large oaks Aaron Burr and guards are said to have rested while i 



ite to Richmond) 



In 1792 the local officers of Charlotte first took the oath of alle- 
giance to the Federal Government; shortly afterwards a United 
States post-office was established, and the village began to assume 
the semblance of a town. The wealthiest class of people, however, 
resided in the country, and their large estates were cultivated by 
slaves. 

Tidings of renewed difficulties with the British Government in 
1812 aroused again the spirit of patriotism in Mecklenburg; five 
companies were sent to join the United States forces and served 
until peace was restored. 




Phifer Avenue 



An epoch in town history was reached when the first local news- 
paper made its appearance in 1824, edited by Thomas J. Holton, 
under the name of "The North Carolina Whig" ; later it was changed 
to "The Charlotte Journal." 

One company from Charlotte participated in the Mexican war ; 
Captain Green W. Caldwell was in command. From April, 1847 
this company served until mustered out at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 
July 31, 1848. 

On October 21, 1852, the first passenger train entered Charlotte 
amid cheers from an enthusiastic throng; this event marked a new 
era in the development of the town and added materially to its 
growth. 

In the war between the States. 1861-65, soldiers from Charlotte 
and Mecklenburg were among the first to volunteer for the Con- 



or, with recruits, -'.713 soldiers. The) sus- 
a reputation for valor throughout the war. 



federate cause, participating in the battle of Bethel, June 6, [861. 

During the four years of tin- war. the town and county furnished 

twenty-one companies, 

tained mosl worthily 

Among those t\ 

w 11 distinction 

w e r e Lieut-< len- 

eral D. II. Mill. 

Brig.-( General Jas. 

Lane, Brig.-( !en- 

eral Rufus l'.ar- 

ringcx, Col. C. C. 

Lee, Col. John A. 

Young, I !ol. Edwin 

A. ( teborne, Col. 

John E. Brown. 

Col. McKinney, 

Col. W. A. Owens 

Col. J. T. Tayl-.r. 

M a j or Thomas 

McG. Smith and 

Major Egbert 

Ross. Charlotte, 




The Charlotte Drum Corps 



although spared 
many of the hor- 
rors of war, and terrible destruction visited upon other sections 
of the country, suffered keenly from the effects of this fratricidal 
conflict, and many homes were darkened by the loss of those 
who had gone forth to battle for their country's rights. While 
the 'men were fighting at the front, the women banded together, 
and with untiring labor furnished garments and needed supplies 
of every kind, adding no little to the physical comfort of the 
soldiers, and by their loyal and patriotic spirit giving inspiration and 
encouragement President Jefferson Davis and the Confederate Cab- 
inet, accompanied by a thousand cavalrymen, had just reached Char- 
lotte on die 15th of April. 1865, when a telegram announcing the 
assassination of President Lincoln was handed President Davis. The 
Confederate officials remained for several days awaiting farther de- 
velopments in this crucial period. ( >n the 20th of April tin. last meet- 
ing of the Confederate Cabinet, before it permanently dissolved, was 
held at the home of Mr. William Phifer, on North Tryon Street. 
This historic residence is now the property of Col. William E. Holt. 
During the war it was considered advisable to remove the Con- 
federate navy yard from Norfolk. Virginia, to a place of greater 
safety. No point on the coast seeming to be sufficiently protected, 
Charlotte was selected as being far enough inland to be comparativelv 
safe. and the navy yard was accordingly moved here. Tt was used, 
however, chiefly for the making of cannon balls, repairing of guns, 
etc. The Mint building served as headquarters for the naval offi- 



cers. Some of the former employes of the navy yard are among the 
residents of Charlotte at the present time. 

Among the prominent men who chose Charlotte as their home 
after the war were Brig.-General R. D. Drayton, Brig.-General R. 
D. Johnston, and Col. Hamilton C. Jones. A noted citizen and 
prominent lawyer of the town for several years was Zebulon Baird 
Vance, North Carolina's distinguished war-governor, who later 
served for fifteen years in the United States Senate. One of the 
most honored residents to-day is Mrs. Stonewall Jackson, who 
is esteemed not only for the name she bears, but also for her own 
true worth and charming personality. 

The period of reconstruction was to this section, as elsewhere 
throughout the South, a season of gloom and depression — of unset- 
tled conditions and re-adjustment to a changed state of affairs. Over 
those unhappy years we would draw the veil of silence — their gloom 
has left a shadow on history's page which the passing of time cannot 
dispel. In 1870 the population of the town, including suburbs, num- 
bered about five thousand people. Stunned for a while by the great 
blow which had fallen so heavily upon the South, Charlotte remained 
apparently, at a stand-still, except for the dull routine of business. 
With the freeing of the slaves it was evident that a great change 
must take place throughout a country distinctively agricultural, and 
depending largely upon slaves for cultivation. By degrees, however. 




View of South Tr 



recuperative power began to assert itself : the town commenced to 
turn attention to manufacturing interests, and henceforth a new life 
began to throb. Prior to the Revolutionary war a rifle factory had 
been established, and was one of three such factories in the 
United States ; but not until the latter half of the 19th century 
were there many manufacturing establishments to be found in 



this vicinity. In 1881 the first cotton mill was built in the town ; 
it was owned by the Messrs. Oates and was called the Charlotte 
Cotton Mill. To-day this city is the recognized center of the great 
cotton-mill district of the South. Within a radius of one hundred 
miles of Charlotte there are more than three hundred cotton mills, 
containing over one-half the spindles and looms in the South. 
These mills represent approximately a capital of $130,000,000 
and operate about four million spindles and 100,000 looms. In 
Charlotte and in its suburbs there are twenty cotton mills and three 
cotton-seed mills. The cotton-seed oil industry has developed 
largely, not only in the manufacture of oil for varied purposes, 
but of the meal for fertilizers, and the meal and hull for cattle 
food. As a supplementary food-product, cotton-seed oil finds ready 
sale, and is shipped to the North and West, as well as to foreign coun- 




The Vance Residence 
of Zebulon Baird Vance, Governor of North Carolina 



tries. The manufacture of cotton into yarns and cloth represent a 
large amount of capital annually. Instead of selling raw cotton at 
six or seven cents per pound, as formerly, it has risen in value, 
through manufacture into salable goods, to many times that amount, 
China and other foreign countries being among the consumers. 

For years an obstacle to manufacturing interests in the South was 
the lack of mechanical knowledge ; by degrees this want is being 
supplied and has opened a large field of industry to young men. 
Charlotte is now independent in regard to the establishment of 
cotton-mills from the fact that without outside assistance, a cotton- 
mill can be designed, built, equipped throughout, and put in operation 
while the cotton is growing at its door. While the manufacture of 
cotton is the leading industry there are other enterprises which 



^\UiW4< . .Awl 




I ^& 





are aiding- very materially in the industrial progress of the 
community. A number of machine shops are occupied in the 
construction of all kinds of machinery necessary for preparing cotton 
for the market, cotton-seed oil machinery, cotton mill machinery, and 
mining machinery. The Mecklenburg Iron Works and the Liddell 
Company are the oldest industries of this kind in Charlotte. The 
machine shops of the D. A. Tompkins Company are widely known 
as a most successful plant for the manufacture of machinery. Sev- 
eral large supply houses also find an active field for furnishing sup- 
plies to the manufacturer. Among flourishing industries are clothing 
factories which give employment to many hundreds of people. A 
diversity of minor enterprises adds to the city's increasing wealth 
and progressiveness. A marked expansion of the banking business 



Home of Mrs. Stonewall JacKson 

gives unmistakable evidence of prosperity. Four National Banks, 
several State Banks, Trust Companies, and Building and Loan As- 
sociations, are on a sound basis, and proclaim the increasing strength 
of Charlotte's business interests. The Charlotte Consolidated Con- 
struction Company owns the electric car plant and is constantly ex- 
tending its lines in every direction, adding greatly to the upbuild- 
ing of the city, and especially the suburban development. This com- 
pany also furnishes gas and electricity for lighting purposes. More 
recent organizations are the Southern Power Company and the 
Catawba Power Company, which are developing the water power 
of the Catawba river. The Catawba Power Company furnishes 
electricity for lighting the streets of Charlotte. Both of these 



companies own valuable water .sites on the Catawba river, and the 
development of this magnificent water power and its distribution 
through the Piedmont region mean untold possibilities for this 
tion of North Carolina. Mr. I). A. Tompkins, of Charlotte, who is 
thoroughly conversant with the manufacturing interest- and elec- 
trical development of the South, has made a cartful estimate of the 
water power available within sixty miles of Charlotte. Giving a 
map showing the main streams and tributaries within this distance, 
Mr. Tompkins says: "Any estimate in figures based upon the cubic 
feet of water and the fall, makes 1,000,000 horse power vcr\ conserv- 
ative as being available within sixty miles of ( liarlotte. The number 
of spindles which 1.000,000 horse power would run would vary ac- 
cording to the fineness or coarseness of the yarns. Taking the aver- 
age of what is already being made in this territory. 1,000,000 would 
run 30,000,000 spindles and 1 ,000,000 looms. In other words the water 
power available within sixty miles of Charlotte has been made by 
the introduction of electrical development available to be economi- 
cally used to run as many spindles as are in all England." 

Charlotte occupies a central location in the mining district of the 
Piedmont region, and since the latter part of the 18th centurj 
mining has been carried on in the neighboring localities with oft- 
times much success. In 1835 tnc Charlotte Mint, a branch of the 
United States Mint at Philadelphia, was established, and in Decem- 
ber. 1837. opened for business. Fifty thousand dollars was appro- 
priated by the government for the site and building. ( In July 27. 
1844, the Mint was burned: after some months an appropriation of 
$35,000.00 was obtained, a new building erected, and the necessary 




Scene in Wilmoore Woodland 




Heathcote," at Piedmont ParK 



machinery purchased. On the secession of North Carolina, Ma)' 20, 
1861, operations at the Mint ceased, and the building- was used by 
the Confederate authorities during the war. The total coinage of 
gold from 1838 to 1861 amounted to $5,059,188.00. At the close 
of the war the Mint was seized by Federal forces, and occupied by 
their officials until the summer of 1867 ; during that year it was re- 
opened as an assay office, and as such is continued at the present 
time. 

The Gold Bullion deposited at the U. S. Assay Office 
in Charlotte, N. C, during the five years ended 
July 1, 1906, amounted to $1,233,147.58 

The amount of Silver Bullion contained in above de- 
posit of Gold, same period 3,834.06 

Total $1,236,981.64 

St. Catherine's and the Rudisill gold mines near the city are the 
largest mines in operation in this vicinity. The large patronage 
which the Mint has received, both for the coinage of gold and later 
only for the assaying of the metal, is evidence that Charlotte was 
judiciously selected for this purpose. In the Mint may be seen a 
large and valuable collection of North Carolina stones, many speci- 
mens being rare and beautiful. 

An important factor in the development and material progress of 
Charlotte has been the good roads for which Mecklenburg county is 




*' Kilmichtel " 
A Country Road 



far-famed. Radiating from Charlotte as a center, these splendid ma- 
cadam highways extend in all directions through the county, render- 
ing travel easy and comfortable under all conditions of weather, con- 
tributing greatly to the pleasure of the people and enhancing the value 
of property. By a system of special taxation and convict labor, one 
hundred and fifty miles of roadway have been built in the past 
twenty years. A pioneer in the movement for good roads was 
Capt. S. B. Alexander, who, as a member of the North Carolina 
State Senate of 1879, drew up and secured the enactment of a bill 
providing for the improvement of roads in Mecklenburg county, 
authorizing the people to levy a special road tax, and to employ con- 
vict labor. This measure, being little understood, met with disfavor 






29 *£ 



LMjjtUttllf.l^ 



A North Tryon Slree Residence 



from the people, and at their request was repealed by the Legislature 
of 1881. In spite of the discouraging outlook, Captain Alexander 
continued his efforts in the interests of good roads, and in 1883 was 
returned to the State Senate for the express purpose of securing the 
re-enactment of the road-law. The bill passed the Senate but was 
defeated in the House. In 1885, however, Captain Alexander as- 
sisted by Captain W. E. Ardrey, was successful in securing the pas- 
sage of his bill an-d from that time good roads were assured. The 
work of road-construction has been necessarily slow ; but steadily 
carried on has fully demonstrated the wisdom of such methods, and 
recompensed for all labor and expenditure of funds. 




■M 



While progressing in other ways, Charlotte has not been unmind- 
ful of the educational needs of its people. Among the schools of 
earlier days was the Charlotte Female Institute, opened in 1857 under 
charge of Rev. and Mrs. Robert Burwell. This school, with several 
changes of name and ownership, is still continued as The Presby- 
terian College for Young Women ; occupying a handsome and com- 
modious building, it offers exceptional advantages. Another leading 
school of ante-bellum days was the Charlotte Military Academy, 
which opened in 1859 under the direction of Major D. H. Hill 
and an able corps of teachers. During the war of 1861-65, 
the school building was used by the Confederate Government 
as a medical dispensary. After the war ended it was reopened 
as a school by Col. J. P. Thomas, and finally passed into the 
hands of the city for use as a public school, and is now known 
as the South Graded School. Gen. D. H. Hill, who won distinc- 
tion as a Confederate officer, was a man of decided literary talent. 




The 

Liddell 
Yard 



and during his residence in Charlotte edited a magazine called "The 
Land We Love," and also a newspaper entitled "The Southern 
Home." Elizabeth College, a large Lutheran institution for young 
women, is beautifully situated on the Eastern heights overlooking 
the city, and enjoys a wide patronage. Two large graded schools 
for white children, and one for negroes, are conducted on modern 
and most approved plans under the superintendency of Prof. Alex- 
ander Graham, who has ably filled this position for a number of years. 
Between three and four thousand children are instructed annually, 
and the curriculum affords a liberal education. Other institu- 
tions are : The Charlotte University School for Boys, King's 



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Business College, St. Mary's Seminary, 
which is a Roman Catholic institution, 
special schools of music and art, kinder- 
gartens, and various private schools. 
Just west of Charlotte, beyond the sub- 
urb Seversville, is located Biddle Uni- 
versity, a college for negroes under the 
care of the Northern Presbyterian 
Church; it is named for Airs. Mary D. 
Biddle, of Philadelphia, who contributed 
largely to its erection. The Piedmont 
Industrial School, at the Chadwick and 
Hoskins cotton-mills, near the city, is 
meeting with much sucess in the educa- 
tion and industrial training of mill 

people. Twenty miles distant, in the northern part of the county, 
is Davidson College which for three-quarters of a century has oc- 
cupied a prominent position as a College of Liberal Arts and Scien- 
ces. Many of its alumni are among the country's distinguished 
citizens ; and though not a school of theology, it has furnished 400 
ministers to the Southern Presbyterian Church. 

The religious life of Charlotte is well known ; it is a city of 
churches. Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Episcopal, Lutheran, 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic congrega- 
tions occupy handsome church buildings, with large and increas- 
ing membership. In point of numbers, the Second Presbyterian 
Church leads, with more than twelve hundred members. In 1815 a 
large lot was set apart by the town for religious purposes, and a 
square just to the rear of this property was made a public burying 
ground. The citizens of the town united in erecting a church build- 
ing, which for a 
number of years 
was used by all 
di'e n o ruinations. 
The people of 
this section be- 
i n g principally 
Scotch-Irish, and 
therefore Presby- 
terians, outnum- 
bered by far any 
other denomina- 
tion ; and in 1835 
t h e y obtained 
possession of this 
property on which 
they erected a 
larger house of 
w or s h i p The 




Cotton Weighing 



beautiful and imposing edifice, known as the First Pres- 
byterian Church, now stands upon this site, its grounds 
occupying" a block in the heart of the city. This mag- 
nificent property, carpeted with rich green grass and shaded 
by ancient oaks, is justly an object of admiration to every passer-by. 
Prominent among its ministers of an earlier period was the Rev. 
Arnold W. Miller, a man whose rigid adherence to right, wide 
learning, and fearless utterances, during a pastorate of twenty-nine 
years, made his influence deeply felt throughout the community. 
The burying ground, known as "the old cemetery," has for many 
years been unused ; the present cemetery, Elmwood, occupies a natu- 
rally beautiful location to the northwest of the city. In the old 







VFfi 



'tt<m 



^S*-2ro 



When (he Market Goes Up 

(Forty-eight bales of cotton produced on one farm, and which the advanc 



in price has brought to market) 



cemetery are the graves of Col. Thomas Polk, General George Gra- 
ham, Gov. Nathaniel Alexander, Hon. William Davidson, and many 
others prominent in the early history of the town and county. 

The Young Men's Christian Association occupies an impor- 
tant place in the life of young men. Centrally located, with a 
well-equipped building, and numbering 750 members, it is actively 
engaged in a great work. The Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, though a more recent institution, affords to young women many 
and varied advantages. A number of hospitals alleviate the suf- 
fering of humanity: St. Peter's, the Presbyterian, the Mercy 
General, the Good Samaritan (for negroes), and others for 
the treatment of special diseases. Many charitable organizations 
provide for the needy and homeless. The Thompson Orphanage, 
under the care of the Episcopal Church ; the Alexander Home, a 
Presbyterian institution ; and the Day Nursery, which is supported 
bv all denominations, are actively engaged in benevolent work for 



children, while the Charlotte Crittenton Home is doing- noble work. 
A handsome Carnegie Library finds abundant patronage from a 
book-loving community; and Charlotte has also (which is rarely 
found), a free library for negroes. Literary, musical, and patriotic 
organizations flourish. Three daily papers, the Charlotte Observer, 
the Charlotte Chronicle and The Charlotte News, besides other pub- 
lications, semi- weekly, weekly, and monthly, have large circulation. 
Fraternal and Benevolent Associations represent almost every order 
known in the United States. Among club- organized for br- 
and social purposes the leading ones are the Southern Manufacturers' 
and the Colonial, both of which occupy elegant apartments and num- 
ber many member-. Handsome public buildings add greatly to tin- 
attractiveness of Charlotte. Notable among these are, the United 
States Assay Office, bearing upon it- front a large gilded American 
eagle with outspread wings; the government building of red pressed 
brick with granite trimmings, constructed at a cost of $85,000.00, and 
containing the Post-Office, Federal Court room-, and Weather Bu- 
reau : the City Hall, built of North Carolina brown -tone, a bandsnme 
and commodioii- structure; and the county court bouse of terra-cotta 
and brick, of picturesque architecture and beautifully situated. The 
Academy of Music, a theater of artistic plan, and with a large 
seating capacity, affords much diversion throughout the theatrical 
season. Among many handsome office buildings, those owned by 
the Piedmont Fire Insurance Company, the Southern State- Trust 
Company and the Charlotte Consolidated Construction Company, 
are of large proportions, and elegant in design and ornamentation. 

The spirit of militarism has always been a prominent feature of 
Charlotte life. Three organizations of this nature existing in the 
city are the Hornet's Nest Riflemen. First Field Artillery, and the 
Charlotte Drum Corps. During the Spanish-American war two 
companies of white soldiers and one of negroes en- 
listed from Charlotte 

A liberty-loving and history-reverencing people, 
the people of Charlotte ami the community around 
unite in commemorating the anniversaries of great 
events. On May 20, 1875, tne Centennial Celebra- 
tion of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence 




Highland ParK Mfg. Co. Louise Cotton Mill. No. 1 



was held and was a noteworthy occasion. Man} prominent speakers 
from North Carolina, and also from other states, had a place on the 
program; the attendance was record-breaking- and patriotism was 
kindled anew. On May 20, 1898, the handsome monument which 
stands in front of the county court-house, and erected to the memory 
of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration, was unveiled by 
eight of their descendants, in the presence of a great crowd which 
had gathered from many sections of the country to do honor to the 
day. Ex- Vice-President Adlai Ewing Stevenson, himself of Meck- 
lenburg- ancestry, was orator on this occasion. The 20th of May 
was celebrated most elaborately in 1906, four days being given over 
to a gala season. The city was resplendent in decorations of 
flags and tri-colored bunting, many large government flags 
adding no little to the effect and attractiveness. By night the beauty 
of scene was enhanced by hundreds of tiny electric lights. The 
Marine band of Washington, D. C, one company of United States 
cavalry, two of infantry, and one of marines, were sent by President 
Roosevelt to take part in the celebration, and evidenced the official 
recognition of the Mecklenburg Declaration by the United. States 
Government. This, however was not the first recognition of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration by President Roosevelt; in a speech de- 
livered in Vance Park on the evening of October 19, 1905, referring 
to North Carolina's achievements in the past, he said: "I congratu- 
late you even more upon the great historic memories of your state. 
It is not so very far from' here that the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence was made— the declaration that pointed out the path 
on which the thirteen United Colonies trod a few months later." 
In May, 1902, there was unveiled, with appropriate exercises, 
a monument erected on the grounds of the government build- 
ing, in memory of Lieutenant William E. Shipp, at one time a 
citizen of Charlotte, who fell in battle at San Juan during the 
Spanish-American war. A monument to the Confederate dead in Elm- 
wood Cemetery stands in the midst of a square where lie 
buried many Confederate soldiers. On every 10th or May, 
which is observed as Memorial Day, appropriate exercises 
are held, and a great concourse of people, including Meck- 
lenburg Camp of Confederate Veterans, the Stonewall 




Highland Park Mfg. Co. Louise Cotton Mill. No. 2 



[ackson ( hapter of Daughters of the Confederacy, Sons of Vete- 
rans, and Julia Jackson Chapter of Children of the Confederacy, 
gather to pay tribute to the dead, and to place offerings of flowers 
upon their graves 

Iron tablets mark various historic places in the cit) : namely, the 
center of Independence Square, where stood the old court-house in 
which was signed the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence; the 
place where st 1 the house in which Cornwallis had his headquar- 
ters; the site of the inn at which General Washington was enter- 
tained; and the spot wlurr President Davis was standing when 
handed a telegram which announced the assassination of Lincoln, 
The Mecklenburg (hapter. Daughters of the American Revolution, 
has placed a monument at the Mclntyre farm, in commemoration of 
the bravery of Mecklenburg men in the skirmish which took place 
there during the Revolution. This (hapter has erected a monument 
marking the site of the house, eleven miles south of Charlotte, in 
which Presidenl James K. Polk was horn: and has also marked tin 
birth-place of President Andrew Jackson — it was originall) in the 
southeastern part of Mecklenburg, though now included in Union 
Countw 

A period of general interest is the Mecklenburg County Fair, held 
annually, in ( )ctober, at the grounds of the Mecklenhunj Fair Asso- 
ciation south of the city. 

The city is governed by a mayor and a hoard of aldermen ; it has 
also a hoard of school commissioners, police, fire, and health commis- 
sioners, a tree and park commission, a recorder who presides over 
the municipal court, and other hoards and committees looking to the 
best interests of .he community. The Fire Department and water 
works are owned hv the cit v. 




Cotlon PicKers Returning Home 



The leading- hotels are the Central, Buford, and Selwyn; the last 
named, which is an exceedingly handsome structure and up-to-date 
in every respect, derived its name from Lord George A. Selwyn, a 
Lord Proprietor, in Colonial times, of this part of North Carolina. 
The Southern and Seaboard Air Line railway systems afford 
good railroad facilities, and are important factors in the develop- 
ment of Charlotte. 




Scenes at 
Springdale Dairy Farm 



From Independence Square, electric lines are reaching out in every 
direction along wide avenues lined on either side with beautiful shade 
trees, and over well-kept streets. Suburban sections, through the 
instrumentality of these electric lines which give greater accessibility, 
are rapidly building up, and the city is continually extending. Dil- 
worth, Elizabeth Heights, Piedmont Park, and Myers Park, are 
especially attractive as residence localities. Belmont, Highland 
Park, Atherton, and Chadwick. are among the most progressive sub- 
urban mill settlements. 

Dilworth and Latta Park are named in honor of the President of 
the Charlotte Consolidated Construction Company, Mr. Edward Dil- 
worth Latta, a public-spirited citizen, whose broad ideas and pro- 
gressiveness have clone much for the advancement of Charlotte. 

Latta Park, which is quite extensive in size and affords a variety 
of entertainment, is an exceedingly attractive pleasure-ground: 



Vance Park, centrally located and easy of access is especially adapted 
for open-air gatherings ; and Independence Park, to the east of the 
city, has much natural beauty and charm of landscape. 

The Charlotte Consolidated Construction Company, by extending 
its electric lines westward to Chadwick, and thence to the Catawba 
river, has opened up a beautiful portion of country. "Lakeview," 
with its picturesque woodlands, winding driveways and large lake, 
bids fair to out-rival all other sections in beauty of scenery. 

The population of Charlotte is about 40,000. The increasing 
numbers of cotton mills and factories of various kinds are causing 
settlements to spring up as if by magic all around the city's borders, 
while many residents are armaally drawn thither by the varied, 
favorable business interests that are presented, as well as on account 
of the many advantages of climate and location. 

Life in Charlotte blends most happily the peaceful spirit of the 
old South with the progressive ideas of a later period. Attractive 
homes embowered in fragrant flowers, with wide-spreading lawns 
shaded by oaks and magnolias, give a sense of space and restfulness ; 
while here and there handsome apartment houses bespeak the intro- 
duction of city life and ways. Out-door pastimes with all their 
attendant delights and benefits may be fully enjoyed — driving, rid- 
ing, automobiling, golfing, and other pleasures of like kind may 
be indulged in all the year with but little interruption from severe 



H 




T 




Catawba River at Mountain Island 
(Twelve miles from Charlotte) 



winter weather. The salubrity of climate has brought many health- 
seekers who have found here renewed strength and protection from 
a more rigorous climate. 

Situated midway between New York and \ew < >rleans, with line 
railroad facilities, and favored with many natural advantages, Char- 
lotte occupies an important position in the manufacturing and com- 
mercial world. The most substantial and healthful growth must 
necessarily be slow; and in pursuing this plan in its upbuilding, a 
foundation strong and lasting has been established, upon which to- 
day it builds with a steadily increasing growth. 

For Charlotte great things may be predicted. Historic memories 
preside over a worthy past : to-day it is ruled by the consciousness of 
assured power and prosperity: while to-morrow bears in its hand 
the promise of greater opportunities and unlimited possibilities. 




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