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TRANSFERRED TO 



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HARVARD COLLEGE 
__. LIBRARY 



:x.\ 



.32AV S137E30?iOW 
.mjn^i-M lisdIA bnK BiiolDiV srfl ni 



WORCESTER VASE. 

=rom the Collection of Ihe lale Lady Charlotte Schrieber 

in the Victoria and Allrert Museum. 



Chats on 

English China 

ARTHUR HAVDEN 



SEW yoKK 
KHKDKKICi; A. STOKKS COMPANY 
PUBLISHEKS 

1904 










HARVARD COLLEliE LIBRARY 

FROM THE LIBRARY OF 

MBS, MAHY M. BARCLAY 

OCTOBER 14, 1926 



TO 

JOSEPHINE HAMILTON 



This little volume has been primarily written with 
a view to enable the possessors of old china to 
determine the factories at which their ware was 
produced. A modest attempt has been made to 
show that the china - shelf is a record of men's 
triumphs and failures, and the fantastic shepherds 
and shepherdesses, lustrous bowls, queer printed 
dishes, and bizarre decorated jugs, may be regarded 
by a reflective mind as so many symbols representing 
something less perishable than the clay of the 
potter. 

These " Chats " originally appeared in the pages 
of Our Home. In collecting them in volume form 
I trust that they will appeal to a wider circle of 
readers. 



VI n PREFACE 

Never was a greater interest taken in Art, and 
the growth of popular literature has developed a taste 
for objects of art in the home. The china-shelf 
is now regarded as worthy of keen and discriminating 
study. Its treasures, often heirlooms, have been 
brought into the light of day, and amateur collectors 
can now be numbered by thousands. 

I am enabled to include a useful feature in the 
list of prices obtained at recent sales, by kind 
permission of the proprietors of the Connoisseur, 
whose " Sale Prices," published monthly, is most 
valuable to the collector. 

It is hoped that the Bibliography of works on 
china and pottery may be of use to those who wish to 
study the subject more deeply, and a copious Index 
will prove useful for ready reference. 

The " Chats " relating to Lustre Ware, Old 
English Mugs, and Wedgwood are not upon English 
china, but deal with earthenware ; they are included 
in the volume in order to increase its scope and 
usefulness. 

My thanks are due to Mr. W. G. Honey, of Cork, 
for kindly allowing me to reproduce specilnens from 
his collection which was exhibited at the Cork 
Exhibition. I am indebted to Mr. J. U. Yallop, Fine 
Art Dealer, of Lowestoft, for information concerning 
the recent unearthing of moulds and fragments of 
china on the site of the old factory at Lowestoft, 
a discovery of very great value. By permission 
of the Coalport Company I am giving specimens of 
their modern productions and some of their marks 
not before published. 



PREFACE IX 

To Miss Patterson, Editor of Our Home, I owe a 
debt for kind encouragement during the appearance 
of the " Chats " in serial form ; and I also wish to 
thank the many readers who sent kind letters, 
drawings, or photographs, and hope that this little 
book will remind them of the pleasant pilgrimage 
we made together. There is camaraderie even in 
cracked china. 

ARTHUR HAYDEN. 



Mr, C™™ yut 16 .W. h 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE .... 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

BIBLIOGRAPHV 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED 

I. OLD DERBY . 

n. CHELSEA CHINA 

IIL THE BOW CHINA FACTORY . 

IV. OLD WORCESTER 

V. PLYMOUTH AND i 

VI. THE LOWESTOFT F 

VII. COALPORT . 



Xll CONT/tXTS 

CHAT PAGE 

VIII. SPODE AND HIS SUCCESSORS . . -149 

IX. NANTGARW AND SWANSEA . . . 1 63 

X. MINTON . . . .179 

XI. OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE . . I9I 

XII. LUSTRE WARE . . . . . 219 

m 

XIII. LIVERPOOL WARE .... 235 

XIV. WEDGWOOD . . . . . 247 

INDEX ...... 279 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Worcester Vase. From the Collection of the late Lady 
Charlotte Schrieber in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. 

Chat I.— Old Dekbv. 

Bloor Derby Teapot ..... 

Early Crown Derby Cup and Saucer 

Old Derby Marks ..... 

Crown Derby Vase ...... 

Crown Derby Pastille- burner .... 

Crown Derby Mug and Saucer .... 

Bloor Derby Marks ..... 

Bloor Derby Vase ...... 

Later Derby Marks ..... 

Chat II.— Chelsea China. 

Figure of Gtrpenlcr . . . , , 

Chelsea Vast: in British Aluseum .... 
Chelsea Marks ...... 

Dillo 

" Foundling" Vase ..... 

Derby-Chelsea Mark- 

Chelsea Vast 



XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Chat III.— The Bow China Factoky. 

PAGE 

Inkstand -49 

Bow Figure ...... 50 

Bow Marks . .53 

Ditto ...... 54 

Fragments of Old Bow China dug up on site of Factory 56 

Ditto ditto ditto * . 57 

Bow Marks ...... 60 

Ditto .... . . 61 



Chat IV. — Old Worcester. 

Old Worcester Transfer-printed Mug . xiii 

Old Worcester Transfer-printed Group . (yj 

Old Worcester Marks . . 70 

Old Worcester, King of Prussia Mug -73 

Worcester Dish ...... 77 

Flight and Barr Marks .78 

Chamberlain Marks ..... 78 

Kerr and Binns Marks . -79 

Grainger, Lee and Co. Marks .... 79 

Scent-bottle (Chamberlain) .80 

Grainger, Lee and Co. Vases 81 

Chat V. — Plymouth and Bristol China. 

Salt-cellar, Plymouth .... 

White Porcelain Dish, Plymouth 

Vase, Plymouth ..... 

Plymouth Marks ..... 

Bristol Porcelain ..... 

Bristol Marks ...... 

Bristol Cup and Saucer from Edmund Burke's Service 
Bristol Vase ...... 

Chat VI. — The Lowestoft Factory. 

Lowestoft Sauce-boats, with Fragment of Mould. . 113 

Blue and White Delft Marriage Plate . 114 



91 

94 

95 
96 

97 
100 
102 
103 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XV 

Chat VI. — The Lowestoft Factory [contimuuf) 

PAGE 

Old Lowestoft Cups and Saucers .117 

Dated Lowestoft Mug . .118 

Interior of Old Lowestoft Factory ( Digging for Moulds) 1 22 
Toy Teapot and Cream Jug .123 

Dated Lowestoft Mug 125 

Lowestoft Blue and White Jug .128 

Inkstand ....... 129 

Chat VII.— Coalport. 

Old Willow Pattern Plate (Caughley) . . . i 

Old Coalport, Two-handled Cup and Saucer 135 

Caughley, Old Blue Mug . . . • I37 

Early Marks . .139 

Coalport Vase .141 
Coalport Marks ...... 142 

Latest ditto .143 

Modern Coalport Plate . , . • H5 

Chat VIII. — Spode and his Successors. 

Spode Plates .151 

Spode Pastille-burner 152 

Spode Marks ...... 154 

Spode Plate ....... i55 

Copeland Marks . .156 

Copeland Plates .157 

• 

Chat IX.— Nantgarw and Swansea. 

Nantgarw Dish ...... 167 

Swansea Figures (Blue and White) vii 

Swansea Marks -171 

Swansea Plate . .172 

Swansea Vase (Dillwyn's Etruscan Ware) .173 



XVI UST OF ILLUSTHATIONS 

Chat X.— Mixtox. 

I'AtiE 

Minton Marks .182 

Minton Vase . .183 

Later Minton Marks .184 

Lion Ewer (Henri II. Ware). .185 

Minton Candelabrum .186 

Majolica Plaque .189 

Chat XI.— Old Exglish Eakthexwake. 

Old Staffordshire Cream Jug . xi 

Mason's Ironstone China Mug . . • xvii 

Sunderland Jug ...... 193 

Old Jug— John Bull .198 

The Vicar and Moses ..... 199 

Sunderland Frog Mug ..... 203 

Old Delft Mug (dated 1631) . .206 

Group of Old English dated Ware 209 

Old Puzzle Jug ...... 212 

Marks on Mason's Ware . .216 

Group of Mason's Jugs . .217 

Chat XII.— Lustre Ware. 

Copper Lustre Jugs . . .221 

Group of Copper Lustre Ware 222 

Copper Lustre Bust ...... 223 

Copper Lustre Jugs ..... 225 

Copper Lustre Jug ...... 226 

Silver Lustre Sugar-bowl .... 227 

Silver Lustre Jugs ...... 228 

Silver Lustre Teapot . 229 

Silver Lustre Jug (White Decoration) . .231 

Gold Lustre Jug . . 232 

Chat XIII. — Liverpool Ware. 

Old Liverpool Tiles ..... 237 
Early Liverpool Marks ..... 240 



^ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Chat XIII.— Liverpool Ware {cont'mueA)— 

Liverpool Marks ..... 

Old Liverpool Mug ..... 
Old Liverpool Jug (Ivvo positions) 
LEverpool Mug ..... 

Chat X I V.-^ Wedgwood. 

Wedgwood. Jasper Cup .... 

Whieldon Tortoiseshell Ware .... 

Wedgwood Teira-colta Vases 

Wedgwood. Jasper Vase . , , , 

Blue Jasper Vase and Pedestal 

Plaque designed by Ftaxman. Mereury uniting t 

hands of England and France 
Portland Vase ..... 

Wedgwood and Bentley Mark . , , , 

Old Wedgwood Teapot .... 
Wedgwood Plaque. Designed b)- Lad)' Dia 

Beauclerk ...... 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



General. — Catalogue of Specimens of British Pottery and Porce- 
lain in the Museum of Practical Geology. 1876. (Out of print.) 
(This Collection is now at the Bethnal Green Museum.) 

Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain. William 
Chaffers. £2 2s. 

(The last edition, 1901, contains over 3,500 Potters' 

marks of all the well-known European and Oriental 

factories.) 

Ceramic Art of Great Britain. 2 vols. Llewellyn- Jewitt. 1878. 

The China Collector's Pocket Companion. Mrs. Bury Palliser. 5s. 

(Containing marks only — arranged in order.) 

Old English Pottery. Mr. and Mrs. Frank Freeth. (Morgan, 

Thompson, & Jamison.) £2 12s. 6d. net. 

English Porcelain. A. H. Church. 1885. 

English Earthenware. A. H. Church. 1884. 

Art of the Old English Potter. By M. L. Solon. los. 6d. 

History of Old English Porcelain. By M. L. Solon. 1903. £2 2s. net. 

History and Description of English Porcelain. By Wm. Burton. 

Cassell & Co. 1902. £2 2s. net. 

Examples of Early English Pottery. John Eliot Hodgkin, F.S.A., 

and Edith Hodgkin. 1891. 

Pre-Wedgwood English Pottery (Solon Collection). Conttoisscuff 

December, 1901 ; February, 1902. 

Pottery and Porcelain, A Guide to Collectors. F. Litchfield. 1900. 



Particular. — Bow, Chelsea, and Derby Porcelain. William 

Bemrose. 1898. £3 3s. net. 

Bristol, Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in. Hugh Owen. 1873. 

Chelsea China. Connoisseur^ March, 1903. 

xix 



XX BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Old Derby China Factory. John Haslem. 1876. 
Liverpool, The Art of Pottery in. Joseph Mayer. 1855. 
Lowestoft. Connoisseur, April, 1903 ; October, 1903. Queen, 

Christmas number, 1903. 
Lustre Ware. Connoisseur, November, 1902. 
Saltglaze Teapots, Old English. Connoisseur, February, 1903. 
Staffordshire Potteries, History of the. S. Shaw. 1829. 
Swansea and Nantgarw, The Ceramics of. William Turner. 1897. 
Wedgwood, Life of Josiah. Miss Meteyard. 1865. 

Memorials of. Miss Meteyard. 1874. 

Connoisseur, May, 1903. 

A. H. Church. (Portfolio Monograph.) 

Worcester China. A Century of Potting in the City of Worcester. 

R. W. Binns. 1877. 
Worcester China. A Record of the Work of Forty-five Years 

(1852-1897). R.W. Binns. 1898. 
Old Worcester. Connoisseur, October, 1902. 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED 



Biscuit — The first stage of china after being fired. 
It is white and porous, and ready for decoration. 
Its -surface resembles that of an ordinary clay 
pipe. 

China. — A term used to include all porcelains. 

Earthenware. — All ware that is not translucent. 
Wedgwood is earthenware. 

Glaze, — The glassy substance applied to the surface 
of pottery and porcelain. 

Lead Glaze, — The porcelains of Bow, Chelsea, 
and other early factories contained as much 
as 40 per cent, of oxide of lead. Modern 
chinas contain less than half that, and some 
glazes are " leadless." As to the terrible 
results of the use of this glaze on the health 
of the potters, see Report of Professors 
Thorpe and Oliver to Home Office on 
subject (C. 9207, 1899). 



XXI 



XXll GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED 

Glaze (continued) — 

Over-Glaze Decoration, — Decoration after the 
surface has received its transparent glaze. 
This decoration admits of a wider range of 
colours. On hard paste, such as Plymouth, 
it stands flat on the surface ; on soft paste, 
such as Bow, it is partly incorporated. 

Under-Glaze Decoration, — Decoration applied to 
the unglazed surface when in biscuit state ; 
the whole is then covered with transparent 
glaze and refired. 

Ironstone China, — A term invented by Mason, who 
took out a patent for his ware. It is not china, 
but IS a heavy class of earthenware highly deco- 
rated. It was generally adopted by other 
Staffordshire makers. 

Moulds, — The models from which china is made. 
These are of plaster of Paris. 

Opaque, — Incapable of transmitting light. This dis- 
tinguishes pottery from porcelain. 

Paste, — The body or material of which porcelain is 
made. 

Hard, — China which, on being broken, shows a 
sparkling surface like that of a flint stone, 
and is impervious to any staining by colour 
applied to it. Plymouth and Bristol and 
New Hall are the only true hard-paste 
porcelains of this country. 

Soft, — China which, on being broken, shows a 
porous surface capable of absorbing colour. 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED XXlll 

Porce/ain,— Commonly called china ; is distinguished 
from pottery by being translucent. 

True Porcelain is made from a mixture of two 
mAXi^x^s— petuntse, or "china stone," and 
kaolin^ or " china clay," with nothing arti- 
ficially added ; e,g,, Chinese, Dresden, Ply- 
mouth, and Bristol chinas. 

Glassy Porcelain, containing an artificial admix- 
ture of glass to give the paste translucency ; 
e,g,, Chelsea, Bow, Nantg^rw, Pinxton. 

Bone-ash Porcelain, of which Spode's china is an 
example. 

Pottery, — A term used to include all the earthen- 
wares. 

Printing, — Formerly, in old chinas, all the coloured 
decorations were painted. Now, by use of 
various mechanical devices, women and girls 
are employed to transfer printed patterns on 
modern china. 

Transfer-printing, — A process used at Liverpool by 
Sadler and Green, and at Worcester, in which 
the design from an engraved copper plate was 
transferred to specially prepared paper and 
applied to the ware. Black and brown were 
the main colours used (see Illustrations, pp. 
244-s). 

Translucent, — Transparent. All porcelains, when held 
up to a strong light, are translucent, in varying 
degree, according to thickness of paste. 



I 



OLD DERBY 



la Bethnal Gru 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 



OLD DERBY 

It is not too much to hope that the eyes of some 
reader will stray into these pages as a wanderer in a 
strange land, one whose interest in china has never 
been awakened. We hope to lure such a wight with 
sweet cajolery. If perchance we can get him to 
examine one or two dainty specimens of old blue 
china we shall have him enmeshed in our toils. If 
he be an artist he will not escape from the enchant- 
ment of Derby and of Worcester. If he be a mere 



4 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

business man, here is an item from Messrs. Christie's 
catalogue of a sale on January 14, 1902 : " Coffee-pot 
and cover, Worcester. Painted with figures, birds, 
and flowers, in colours in Chinese taste, and with 
alternate dark-blue scale-pattern panels — £2% 7s." 
And this, mark you, is an ordinary item selected 
at random, a business sample, if you will. 

Mr. Andrew Lang, in one of his " Ballades in Blue 
China," has cunningly put into rhyme a poet's reason 
for his love of china : — 

"There's a joy without canker or cark, -^ 

There's a pleasure eternally new ; >^ 
'Tis to gloat on the glaze and the mark ^ 

Of china that's ancient and blue, v 
Unchipped all the centuries through,^ 

It has passed, since the chime of it rang, ■ 
And they fashioned it, figure and hue, ^ 

In the reign of the Emperor Hwang." 

We should be less than human if we did not point 
the moral by quoting the delicious sentences of a 
City man (one can hardly imagine Charles Lamb 
a City man journeying daily to Leadenhall Street !) 
concerning — 

"Those little, lawless, azure-tinctured grotesques 
that, under the notion of men and women, float 
about, uncircumscribed by any element, in that 
world before perspective — a china teacup. . . . Here 
is a young and courtly mandarin handing tea to a 
lady from a salver — two miles off. See how distance 
seems to set off respect. And here the same lady. 



OLD DERBY 5 

or another — for likeness is identity on teacups — is 
stepping into a little fairy boat, moored on the 
hither side of this calm garden river, with a 
dainty, mincing foot, which, in a right angle of 
incidence (as angles go in our world), must infal- 
libly land her in the midst of a flowery mead — a 
furlong off on the other side of the same strange 
stream ! " 

And now, having brought you thus far, reader, 
will you not journey with us and learn something 
of the magic and the mysteries of old china? We 
are a goodly company, and if you have a fine eye, 
a pretty fancy for your own taste, and a keen zest 
for a bargain, join hands with us. 

Derby holds a high place in the history of British 
porcelain, inasmuch as it was here that its manu- 
facture was matured, and the ability and perseverance 
of three generations of the Duesbury family raised 
the productions to the level of those of the great 
European factories. 

It is generally believed that the manufacture of 
china first sprang into existence at Derby in 1750, 
about a year or so before the works at Worcester 
were established. There is a tradition that the first 
maker was a Frenchman, who lived in a small house 
in Lodge Lane, and who modelled and made small 
articles in china, principally animals — cats, dogs, 
lambs, sheep, &c. — which he fired in a pipemaker's 
oven in the neighbourhood. 

About this time there were some pot works on 
Cockpit Hill belonging to Alderman Heath, a 
banker, and the productions of the Frenchman, 



6 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

probably a refugee, having attracted notice, an 
arrangement was made between him and Heath and 
Duesbury by which the manufacture of porcelain 
would be carried on jointly. This man's name, to 
whom the absolute honour of commencing the 
Derby China Works belongs, was Andrew Planche. 
A deed exists by which a partnership for ten years 
was entered into by the three above named. 
Planch^ found the skill and secret knowledge. Heath 
the money (;£"!, coo), and Duesbury the ability to 
carry out the scheme. 

Besides this deed there is no other record of the 
Frenchman, as the firm became known as " Dues- 
bury and Heath," and apparently the usual fate of 
the poor inventor overtook Planch^. 

William Duesbury was of Longton Hall, in Staf- 
fordshire, and was the son of a currier. By trade 
he was an enameller. Entries in the family Bible, 
in the possession of the Duesburys, prove that in 
1755 he removed to Derby to carry on the newly- 
acquired business " in ye art of making English 
china, as also in buying and selling all sorts of 
wares belonging to ye art of making china." 

Records of the kinds of china manufactured and 
sent to London are interesting. There were blue 
fluted boats, mosaic boats, sage-leaf boats, fig-leaf 
sauce-boats, octagon fruit plates, vine-leaf plates 
coffee cups, flower vases, blue strawberry pots, 
standing sheep, cats, honeycomb jars, coffee-pots, 
butter-tubs, Chelsea jars, teapots, figures of Mars, 
Minerva, &c., Spanish shepherds, candlesticks, and, 
of course, many varieties of plates and dishes, and 
cups and saucers. 



OLD DERBY 



7 



Once or twice the name of the firm appears as 
" Duesbury and Co.," but it is more usually " Dues- 
bury and Heath." Finally, it became Duesbury 
only. 



^ 


•750. 
XarliesV ft\&rK . 

(In. ffJil). 




'773. 




«y^g2 ^ I830. 

^ bUck. 



OLD DERBY MARKS. 



Coming to the marks which were used, in our 
illustration we have arranged them in chronological 
order, the earliest being at the top. 

The mark used in the earliest days is not certain, 



8 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

but in all probability the letter D, when in gold, 
is one of the first used. It is, however, exceedingly 
rare to find a piece thus ^marked. This letter D 
may equally stand for Derby or for Duesbury. 

From 1770 to 1773, the script initial ii) and the 
anchor known as the Derby-Chelsea or the Duesbury- 
Chelsea mark was introduced, as William Duesbury 
had purchased " the Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, 
and its appurtenances and lease thereof," on 
February 5, 1770, and made this addition to the 
Chelsea anchor. This mark of the Derby-Chelsea 
period is usually in gold, and was used both at the 
factory at Chelsea and at Derby. Examples of 
this period are of comparative rarity, and are eagerly 
sought after by collectors. 

The Derby-Chelsea marks are given in the " Chat " 
on Chelsea (p. 39). 

The works at Chelsea were not finally discontinued 
till 1784, when they were destroyed by Duesbury, 
the kilns and every part of the factory pulled down, 
and what was available sent off to Derby. About 
the year 1773, a .® and a crown were used. This 
mark is mostly in blue, but sometimes in puce, light 
red, or green. This crown was added by Royal 
permission, because the factory had been honoured 
by Royal patronage. 

Will my readers note that in the earlier pieces 
of Derby and Crown-Derby china the crown is 
carefully jewelled ; in the later productions of the 
Duesbury period the mark was rudely executed, and 
the crown was hastily pencilled. 

Of the introduction of the cross daggers and six 



CBOWN DERBY VASE (6^ I-J. HIOh), WITH MAR 
Fi-ani Ike Collection of Mr. W. G. Homy. 



OLD DERBY 



spots, about the year 1783, there is the tradition 
that it was a defiance to all manufactories except 
three, viz., those of Sevres, Dresden, and Berlin. 
We give as a headpiece a typical example of 



early Crown-Derby. It represents a two-handled 
covered cup and saucer decorated with the well- 
known rich blue and gold border and festoons in 
pink. It is marked in puce with jewelled crown. 



12 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

This Specimen is from the national collection now 
at the Bethnal Green Museum. 

The vase we reproduce is 6J in. high and has 
the crown and crossed batons and dots, which mark 
has been photographed and appears in the illus- 
tration (p. 9). It is richly decorated and a good 
specimen, as is the smaller vase, or pastille-burner, 
with masks, and similarly marked (p. 11). 

These two specimens, together with the Crown- 
Derby mug and saucer, decorated in tomato red 
and gold, are from the collection of Mr. W. G. 
Honey, which was on view at the Cork Exhibition. 

The first William Duesbury died in 1785. His 
son, William, who had for the last few years been 
in partnership with him under the firm of Duesbury 
and Son, succeeded him. This second William 
Duesbury increased the fortunes of Derby china 
with astonishing rapidity. The King and Queen, 
and the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.), 
and the leaders of fashionable society were among 
his customers. There was a craze for a time, and 
titled ladies painted flowers and other pictures on 
the porcelain supplied to them by the Derby factory. 
It was afterwards fired and finished for their own 
special use. 

Of these ladies. Lady Margaret Fordyce, Lady 
Plymouth, and Lady Aubrey executed some 
beautiful drawings, which probably still remain in 
their families. Lord Lonsdale had twenty-four 
plates painted with landscapes in Cumberland after 
his own sketches, and many other noblemen and 
gentlemen did the same. 



OLD DERBY I 5 

On the death of Duesbury the second, his widow 
married his late partner, a Mr. Michael Kean, an 
Irishman, and clever artist. This was in 1798. But 
Kean hastily withdrew from the concern when the 
third William Duesbury came of age, who for a time 
carried on the factory under the firm of " Duesbury 
and Sheffield." In 1815 the premises passed into 
the hands of Mr. Robert Bloor. 

It was in the year of Waterloo that the third 
William Duesbury, and last of the great family of 
potters who had established the factory, leased the 
premises to Mr. Robert Bloor, who had been a clerk 
to his father, and had carried on the business during 
Mr. Duesbury's minority. Ultimately the entire 
business passed into the hands of Mr. Bloor, and 
the name of Duesbury disappears from Derby 
records. 

For some years up till about 1825 or 1830, Mr. 
Bloor used the Old Derby mark, the crown, cross 
daggers with dots, and D beneath, but about that 
period he discontinued it, and adopted instead a 
mark with his own name. It is well for readers 
to note that down to the discontinuance of the old 
mark, it had invariably been done with a pencil, but 
those adopted by Mr. Bloor were printed. 

In our illustrations of the other marks used at 
Derby we place them in chronological order. The 
first printed mark used under the Bloor regime was 
the circle enclosing the crown, and the words "Bloor, 
Derby," printed around. In some specimens, of a 
little later date, the mark is a trifle larger, and the 
crown more carefully designed. Another mark used 



i6 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 




4^ 




occasionally about the year 1830 was the word 
" Derby " enclosed in a scroll; while on some other 
specimens of about the same date, or a little later, 
an old English D, surmounted by a crown, is marked, 
or the word " Derby " in Roman capitals on a ribbon, 
appears beneath the usual crown. 

We now come to a 
rather painful chapter in 
the history of the Old 
Derby, practically a series 
of misdoings, which termi- 
. nated the glorious career 
of so famous a manu- 
factory. It is interesting 
to see when trade, with 
its somewhat ruthless 
methods, comes into con- 
flict with art, with her 
finer susceptibilities, how 
art has to go to the wall. 
It was the same story at 
Derby. 

Before Bloor's time it 
had been the unvarying 
plan of the Duesburys — 
so particularly jealous were 
they of their reputation, and of maintaining the highest 
possible character of the Derby ware — to allow only 
perfect goods to leave the premises. However trivial 
the fault, the articles were not considered good 
enough to send out in the name of Derby. These 
damaged w^ares had accumulated to a very large 





BLOOR DERBY MARKS. 



1 of Mr. iV. G- Homy. 

3 



*>*' 



\' 



OLD DERBY 1 9 

extent at the manufactory. Mr. Bloor, who was not 
a rich man, and who was filled with the very laudable 
desire to make the Derby concern successful, and 
who, moreover, had to pay off his purchase money by 
instalments, caught at the chance of disposing of 
this accumulation of Old Derby stock. Here it 
was that his trade instincts overcame his love of 
the fine arts. Better far had it been if the whole 
buildings had been consumed by fire, and the old 
stock destroyed, than that the damaged goods should 
have been foisted upon the public. But it fell about 
otherwise, and Mr. Bloor disposed . of the Derby 
failures by auction at the different large towns. By 
this means he amassed great sums of money, which 
brought him immediate capital, but which was the 
death-blow to Derby ware. The old Derby was 
eagerly bought, but this temporary success resulted 
in permanent and never-to-be-remedied evil. Seeing 
how readily the public bought up the Derby ware, 
the temptation arose to produce large quantities of 
the ware specially for the auction rooms. The 
Duesburys would have risen in their graves had they 
known of these proceedings ; but Fate avenged them, 
for the decline of the Derby factory commenced from 
this moment. 

We give, also from Mr. W. G. Honey's collection, a 
fine example of Bloor Derby china ; it is five inches 
in height, and is marked with a crown and the words 
" Bloor, Derby," in circle around (p. 17). 

In 1845 Mr. Robert Bloor died, followed in the 
next year by his brother Joseph, who had assisted 
him for many years. For a little while the works 



20 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 




were in the hands of a Mr. Clarke, who finally 
discontinued them and sold most of the models to 

the Staffordshire manufacturers. The 
end came in 1848, when a number of 
the workmen left Derby for ever 
and . migrated into Staffordshire and 
Worcester. Here, then, is the end of 
the Old Derby works. 

Old Derby china will, therefore, be 
seen to be divided into two periods 
— the great Duesbury period and the 
declining period when Bloor became 
a factor. 

A word or two to readers who 
possess specimens of later Derby 
may be of interest. Among our 
marks will be seen several other 
names connected with Derby. In 
1848, when the works were closed, 
a number of the old hands were 
actuated by the desire to continue 
the making of china at Derby. 
They, therefore, under the name of 
Locker and Co., started a little 
manufactory, and adopted the design 
we give. 

Mr. Locker died in 1859, ^^^ ^he 

works were then carried on in the 

name of Stevenson and Co. Finally 

we have the name of Courtney, who appears to have 

been one of Bloor's agents. Messrs. Stevenson and 

Hancock adopted the last mark for their wares, after 




LATER 
DERBY MARKS. 



OLD DERBY 21 

persuasion by connoisseurs, who objected to the use 
on modern Derby of the old mark of the crown, 
cross daggers, and S), The legacy which the Bloors 
and some of the modern successors left to the name 
of Derby is not a very happy one. The tampering 
with the marks, or the bartering of modern as old, or 
the disposal of damaged stock, all go to lessen the 
faith of the public. As the years go on, the china 
buyer becomes more discerning, and is not that 
blind monster which manufacturers too often imagine 
him to be. 

In the hurried sketch we have given of the decline 
of Old Derby we have little to say of the wonderful 
biscuit ware which was one of the secrets of Derby, 
which secret has now been lost. The biscuit figures 
produced in the best days of Derby are unsurpassed 
for fineness of modelling and beauty of finish. It 
was in experimenting to find how Derby produced 
this biscuit that Copeland discovered his celebrated 
Parian ware. 

There is a peculiar pleasure to the lover of 
things old and things true in the unravelling of the 
complicated chain which environs an old factory 
such as Derby. The lives and ambitions of men, 
fathers, sons, and grandsons, are bound up with 
the traditions of the firm. Then trade had somewhat 
the air about it of the old mediaeval guilds. There 
were secrets which no money could buy. All this 
lies on the china shelf for you to read, if you care to. 
Perhaps when your erring maid drops your Derby 
cup and saucer you will philosophically remember 
that it is not a cup and saucer, but only as the 



22 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

autumn leaves that are strewn on the grave of 
Duesbury, the potter — ^just a symbol to remind you 
that man's creations, after all, turn to dust and 
ashes. But all that is very mournful, and mayhap 
one shall find you later busy with fish-glue and 
brush, at which pastime you will need to be a 
philosopher too. 

Characteristics of Old Derby China. 

With a history such as that of Derby, general 
characteristics cannot be laid down, but certain 
typical patterns were made at Derby. A favourite 
pattern was the " French sprig " or ** Chantilly," 
technically termed "129 sprig" at the Derby works, 
being an imitation of the Angouleme china, painted 
with a forget-me-not or small blue cornflower, and 
a gold sprig laid on the white. This is of frequent 
occurrence on fluted cups. Deep blue borders with 
gold leafage and simple festoons in pink was a 
characteristic decoration of early Crown Derby. 
The "Japan" patterns of Derby during the last 
years of the eighteenth century and early years of 
the nineteenth, were profusely decorated with blue 
and red, and often richly gilded. 



OLD DERBY 23 

RECENT SALE PRICES.' 
Crown Derby. £ s. d. 

Bowl, circular and pierced cover, gilt 
ram's head handles, on tripod, deco- 
rated with flowers in Oriental taste 
on alternate red and green panels, 
10 in. high. Christie, January 30, 
1902 . . . . . .990 

Pastille-burners and covers, pair, gilt claw 
feet and with masks round the rims, 
painted with flowers in the Oriental 
taste and with dark blue and gold 
panels. Christie, January 30, 1902 . 7 17 6 

Figure, a girl with a basket of fruit carry- 
ing a bunch of grapes, j\ in. high. 
Christie, February 5, 1902 . . . 11 11 o 

Peacock, with flowers in relief, on plinth, 
decorated, 6 in. high. Foster, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1902 . . . II II o 

Cup, cover and saucer, two-handled (from 
Nelson service). Debenham, Storr & 
Sons, April 14, 1902 . . . .700 

Tea and coffee set, chintz pattern decora- 
tions in scarlet, blue, and gold, com- 
prising 40 pieces. Brady & Sons, 
Perth, September i, 1902 . . 20 o o 

Vases, pair, decorated with flowers, on 
blue and white ground and embel- 

• By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur 
these items are given from their useful monthly publication, 
"Sale Prices." 



24 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Hshed gold handles, supported by £ s. d. 

head, 17 in. high. Euston & Son, 

Hull, November 12, 1902 . 36 o o 

Vases, set of three, with beaker-shaped 
necks, painted with landscapes in 
panels on dark blue ground richly 
gilt-with arabesque foliage, and with 
white and gold handles, 10 J in. and 
12^ in. high. Christie, April 6, 1903 30 9 o 

Figures, pair, shepherd and shepherdess. 

Sotheby, May 4, 1903 . 63 o o 

Tea set, of red, blue, and gold design, 
comprising 45 pieces. Alexander 
Daniel & Co., Bristol, May 26, 1903 . 20 o o 

Vases, pair, campana-shaped, with satyr's 
mask handles, painted with roses, 
poppies and other flowers in colours 
on a gold ground, 18 in. high. 
Christie, May 28, 1903 . . 38 17 o 

Vases, pair, large, with goat mask heads 
and horns as handles, with painted 
landscape panels on both sides. 
Brady & Sons, Perth, September 2, 
1903 10 o o 

Bloor Derby. 
Vases, pair, shaped, decorated in gold 
and painted continuous landscapes, 
scroll handles and gilt mask terminals, 
1 1 J in. high (marked " Bloor, Derby "). 
Edwards, Son & Bigwood, Birming- 
ham, May 13, 1902 . . . . 9 19 6 



OLD DERBY 2$ 

Dessert service, painted with flowers in the £ s. d. 
Oriental taste, in red, blue, and gold, 
by Bloor, consisting of centre-dish, 
on foot, sugar-tureen, cover and 
stand, and nine shaped dishes. 
Christie, July 21, 1902 . . 65 2 o 

Vase, large, by Bloor, painted with a view 
of Temple Bar and a group of 
flowers, in two large panels, on dark 
blue and gold ground, 21 in. high. 
Christie, December 5, 1902 . 21 o o 



II 



CHELSEA CHINA 



Bethnal Green Museum. 



CHELSEA CHINA 



The origin of Chelsea china is like that of the 
celebrated Charles James Harrington Fitzroy 
Yellowplush, " wropped in mystry." The south- 
western corner of London has always been connected 
with the making of pottery in some form or another. 
To-day Messrs" Doulton carry on the tradition of 
Lambeth and Vauxhall. Battersea was famed for 
its enamelled ware, and Fulham had a factory 
established by John Dwight, M.A., of Christ Church, 
Oxford, the inventor of porcelain in England, to 
whom a patent was granted in 1671 for his manu- 
facture of porcelain and stone ware. 



30 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Tradition, with a light heart, circulated the fable 
that the origin of the Chelsea works was owing to 
the clay that was brought as ballast in ships from 
Chinese ports. In a " Life of Nollekens " this 
absurdity finds its way into print, but for all that 
it is utterly without foundation. " The cunning 
rogues produced very white and delicate ware, but 
then they had their clay from China, which, when 
the Chinese found out, they would not let the 
captains have any more for ballast, and the con- 
sequence was that the whole concern failed." 

Equally foolish and erroneous statements have 
been made about other of the English factories, and 
the difficulty of sifting real facts from a mass of chaff 
in such factories as Bow or Lowestoft is very great. 

In the early days of Chelsea, and, by the way, the 
exact date of the establishment of the factory is not 
known, the clay was obtained from Cornwall. Dr. 
Martin Lister, in a work published in 1699, mentions 
the fact that an inferior kind of porcelain was made 
at Chelsea, probably little better than opaque glass. 
It is known that a manufactory of glass was set up 
at Chelsea by some Venetians under the auspices of 
the Duke of Buckingham. It is interesting to note 
that the Chelsea mark of an anchor is identical with 
that of Venice. In 1745 the works at Chelsea had 
attained a Continental fame, inasmuch as the French 
company, in petitioning for the establishment of a 
factory at Vincennes, urged that its aim was to 
counteract the importation of English and German 
ware. 

1745 is a very convenient date, as we then come 



King the Dealh o[ CIl 
; British Mmsai'i. 



\ 



CHELSEA CHINA 33 

on surer ground. The earliest dated example of 
English porcelain known has the word, "Chelsea, 
1745," scratched on it under the glaze, and is also 
marked with a triangle. We reproduce this mark 
in our list of Chelsea marks. 

Life was given to the Chelsea factory by the 
patronage of George II., who did much to encourage 
its work. He procured workmen, models, and 
materials from Saxony and Brunswick, and thus 
enabled Chelsea to enter into competition with 
the best designs and productions of Dresden and 
Sevres. The Duke of Cumberland took a warm 
interest in the factory,^ and contributed an annual 
sum to its revenue. In 1750 we find the Chelsea 
works in the hands of Nicholas Sprimont, a foreigner 
of considerable artistic taste, who established the 
reputation of Chelsea. The best period of Chelsea 
ware is from this date till the year 1765. Porcelain 
made between these two dates is always much sought 
after, and brings considerable sums under the 
hammer. For instance, in February, 1902, at 
Christie's, a Chelsea teapot, painted with birds and 
trees in colours, in spiral panels, with borders of gilt 
flowers, fetched £g^ 12s., and a pair of vases, 
iij inches in height, square shaped, the four panels 
painted with male and female Chinese figures, 
sold for ^588. In July, 1902, a figure of a Chelsea 
shepherdess, brought ;^33 12s. 

There is little doubt that at this time there were 
being manufactured at Chelsea some very fine 
specimens of porcelain. Horace Walpole writes^ 
in 1763, "I saw yesterday a magnificent service of 

4 



34 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 




Chelsea china, which the King and Queen are send- 
ing tQ the Duke of Mecklenburg. There are dishes 
and plates without number, an epergne, candlestick, 
salt-cellars, sauce-boats, tea and coffee equipages, et 
cetera. In short, it is complete, and cost j^ 1,200." 

One pleasing feature is the 
fact that Mr. Sprimont made a 
handsome fortune by his skill 
and industry as a director. 
During his time, it is said that 
" the china was in such repute 
as to be sold by auction, and 
as a set was purchased as soon 
as baked, dealers were surround- 
ing the doors for that purpose." 
This fanciful scene of competing 
dealers striving to secure a speci- 
men of Chelsea almost before it 
was cooled from the furnace is 
too picturesque to be literally 
true. 

We reproduce a figure of a 
carpenter, eight inches high, 
coloured, marked with anchor 
in red (p. 29). This specimen of 
Chelsea is now at the Bethnal 
Green Museum. We give an illustration of a beauti- 
fully decorated vase in the collection at the British 
Museum, representing the Death of Cleopatra. The 
French style of design is singularly evident in this 
example (p. 32). 

Of the marks on Chelsea china, it may be observed 






^ 



(anckor^ cable) ■ 



rClyeUea BJarks 1 




CHELSEA CHINA 35 

that the earlier specimens, in the days when they 
imitated blue and white Oriental models, are un- 
marked. Later the anchor appears, embossed in a 
raised oval, impressed on the bottom of the piece, 
and bearing the anchor in relief. Various forms of 
the anchor are used, and in 
varying colours, apparently 
according to the caprice of ^ ^^ 
the workman, who drew it '^^ 
with his hair-pencil. Red is 
the colour most commonly used, 
and the best pieces are mostly 
marked in gold, with the anchor 
more carefully drawn. rutf^ia «» V«»t fleets). 

Specimens with the double 
anchors are very valuable, as this /V 

was a mark only used on very , 

high-class pieces. i, ^^ .^ ^{^ . 

The triangle is one of the 
marks of Bow, and the little ^^^ 

milk-jugs in the form of a goat, (^kefte^ (7^5^ 
decorated with raised flowers, /,-..,* i , \ 

., , _ (tarlitst' <Ued «*AmbJe). 

were attributed to Bow, on ^ 

account of this mark, but the 

last mark we give shows beyond IChelsea lyarksl . 

dispute that the triangle was 

also used as a Chelsea mark. 

Having told of the rise and progress of Chelsea, 
we have regretfully to chronicle its fall. The 
following contemporary advertisement is mournful 
reading : " To be sold by auction, by Mr. Burnsall, 
on the premises, some time in March next (1764), 



36 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

at the Chelsea Porcelain Factory, everything in 
general belonging to it, and all the remaining un- 
finished pieces, glazed and unglazed ; some imperfect 
enamelled ditto, of the useful and ornamental ; all 
the materials ; the valuable and extensive variety 
of fine models in wax, in brass, and in lead ; all 
the plaster moulds, and others ; the mills, kilns, 
and iron presses ; together with all the fixtures of 
the different warehouses ; likewise all the out- 
buildings, etc., etc. And, as Mr. Sprimont, the 
sole possessor of this rare porcelain secret, is advised 
to go to the German spaw, all his genuine houshold 
furniture, etc., will be sold at the same time. 

"N.B. — Soon after, when everything is sold 
belonging to the manufactory and the large ware- 
house cleared, there will be some most beautiful 
pieces of the truly inimitable Mazarine blue, 
crimson, and gold, that Mr. Sprimont has thought 
deserving finishing ; that will be sold at Chelsea, 
as the whole remaining and the last produce 
of that once most magnificent porcelain manu- 
factory." 

This was in 1764, but no purchaser came forward, 
and the factory lingered on till 1769, when again 
we find it advertised, and the end of Chelsea china is 
very near, Mr. Sprimont having entirely left off 
making the same. Josiah Wedgwood had some 
idea of purchasing some of the Chelsea china : 
* There's an immense amount of fine things," he 
writes to Bentley. But at this date, Mr. William 
Duesbury, of the Derby manufactory, took over the 
Chelsea works as he had previously taken over those 



CHELSEA CHINA 37 

of Bow, and carried them on for some years until 
1784, when he pulled down the buildings, and re- 
moved all that was useful to his factory at Derby, 
and thus the manufacture of Chelsea china came 
to an end. 

The earliest examples of Chelsea china were in 
imitation of the ordinary blue Delft patterns, but 
later, Oriental patterns were very successfully copied, 
both in blue and white, and in mixed colours. Both 
Sevres and Dresden were then adopted as models, 
and with very fine results. The colours were 
remarkably vivid, and only skilful artists were 
employed, the specimens they turned out being 
exquisitely decorated and finely conceived. The 
fine vases in the French style in imitation of Sevres, 
with gros bleu^ crimson, turquoise, and apple-green 
were made from 1760 to 1765. 

Later, debased French forms were copied and an 
over elaboration was employed which marked the 
decadence of Chelsea. This over elaboration in 
art often marks the period of its decline. When 
wood engraving attempted to copy the refinements 
and delicacy of steel engraving it exceeded its 
limitations. To-day the glass-blower of Venice 
commits the same blunder when he, with false art 
puts lace patterns on his glass ware. 

The two most important specimens of Chelsea 
china, both from their size and quality, are un- 
doubtedly the *' Chesterfield " vase, and the " Found- 
ling " vase. They are two feet high, with bold 
rococo scroll handles, surmounted by dome-shaped 
covers ; they are painted with pastoral subjects on 



3» CHATS ON ENGUSH CHINA 

white medallions. The reverse sides are painted 
with exotic birds of rich plumage, and the body 



THE "KOUNDLINO " VASE. 

In the Colltclim of the Earl of Dudky. 

or ground of the vase is of a rich gros bleu colour. 
The former was bought for ^2,000 by the Earl 
of Dudley, and the latter, which was a gift to the 



CHELSEA CHINA 



39 



J) 




Foundling Hospital, was sold by the Governors to 
the same nobleman, and they are now both at Dudley 
House. We give an illustration of the celebrated 
"Foundling" vase. 

The raised flowers arranged in vases and orna- 
mental figures were a feature of 
Chelsea ware ; butterflies, bees, and 
other insects were introduced 
among the leaves, and the model- 
ling was always well done. We 
reproduce a characteristic piece 
of Chelsea with open-work rim, 
and exhibiting many of the indi- 
vidualities of Chelsea design (p. 45). 

As the earliest specimens of 
Chelsea were unmarked they can 
only be judged by the body, the 
general style of workmanship, and 
the glaze. The ordinary Chelsea 
marks we have already given, but 
we now give the marks which 
were used by Mr. Duesbury for a 
time when he was proprietor both 
of the Derby works and those of 
Chelsea. This ware is known as 
" Derby-Chelsea " ware, and is 
very much sought after. There are some finely 
enamelled plates in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
with the mark we give. They are magnificent speci- 
mens of the Derby-Chelsea and are scarcely distin- 
guishable from their Oriental prototypes except in 
the softness of the paste. 



%m 



t- 



3)erty- CKeisea 







40 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

It is interesting to remember that Dr. Johnson 
thought he could discover a means of further per- 
fecting the Chelsea china. He applied to the pro- 
prietors, who allowed him to fire his compositions 
in their ovens at Chelsea. The worthy lexicographer 
attended there about twice a week and stayed all 
day, accompanied by his housekeeper, who brought a 
basket of provisions with her. Nothing, however, 
came of the experiments. 

In taking leave of Chelsea we must remember 
that its success was an encouragement for the 
formation of manufactories in other parts of the 
country during the closing years of the eighteenth 
century. The workmen trained there under Spri- 
mont found their way to Derby and to Worcester, 
and to parts of Staffordshire, and carried their 
experience with them. If for nothing else Chelsea 
deserves to be remembered as an art centre ; and 
although Sprimont broke down in health and had 
to go to the " German spaw," and leave his pictures to 
be sold at Christie's, for all that, Chelsea spelt 
success. 



Characteristics of Chelsea China. 

The glaze is a softer milky white, and is not so 
thick as that on Bow pieces. It is carefully finished 
in every detail. The figure subjects are not so 
crudely painted as those of Bow. Three spots un- 
glazed are sometimes found on Chelsea plates and 
dishes, caused by the three points on which pieces 
have rested. Chelsea china is remarkable for its 



CHELSEA CHINA 4 1 

great weight. The bases and rims, particularly of 
smaller pieces, are. ground quite smooth. Just above 
the rim black specks and small tears of the coagu- 
lated glaze are noticeable. As in Bow, an insect or 
spray was sometimes cleverly painted over flaws and 
defects. 

RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 
Chelsea. £ s. d. 

Figure, Shylock. Phillips, Son & Neale, 

January 7, 1902 800 

Group, Spring and Summer, with emblem 
plinth encrusted with flowers, 8J in. 
high. Christie, January 24, 1902 . IS 15 o 

Vase and cover, with mottled dark blue 
ground, gilt with birds, on tripod 
support formed as three terminal 
figures, loj in. high. Christie, April 
25, 1902 30 9 o 

Figure of a fisher boy with net and fishes, 
8 in. high, eind a figure of a fruit- 
seller, 7j in. high. Christie, April 
25, 1902 27 6 o 

Vases, pair, oviform, of tall, slender form, 
slightly fluted, with mottled dark 
blue ground, richly gilt with pheasants 
and other birds and foliage, and with 
white and gold scroll handles, en- 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur 
these items are given from their useful monthly publication, 
" Sale Prices." 



42 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

twined with groups of fruit and flowers, £ s. d. 

painted in rich colours, i6J in. high. 

Christie, May 2, 1902 . . . 756 o o 

Vase and cover, with white and gold 
handles encrusted with flowers, 
painted on one side with a river 
scene with a youth and girl fishing, 
on the other with exotic birds in 
large panels in borders of gilt foliage 
on mottled dark blue ground, 11 in. 
high, on Louis XV. ormolu stand ; and 
a pair of smaller vases, en suite^ 6f in. 
high. Christie, May 2, 1902 . . 252 o o 

Candlesticks, pair, large, for two lights 
each, with figures of children and 
arbour backgrounds. Foster, May 
15, 1902 42 o o 

Bottles, two pear-shaped, each painted 
with exotic birds in a heart-shaped 
medallion in richly gilt foliage 
borders, 6 in. high. Christie, July 
2, 1902 33 12 o 

Vase and stopper, oviform, with ram's- 
head handles, the upper part de- 
corated with white and gold flutings 
on pink ground, with a classical frieze 
of masks and lions in relief below ; 
the body of the vase painted with 
a large subject of infant Bacchantes, 
with gilt festoons of foliage in low 
relief, \6\ in. high. Christie, July 
2, 1902 94 10 o 



CHELSEA CHINA 



43 



Tea-cup and saucer, painted with exotic 
birds and fruit, and with alternate 
mottled dark blue panels with gilt 
borders. Christie, July i8, 1902 

Dessert plates, set of four, leaf pattern, 
and two shaped ditto, painted in 
exotic birds. Tooth & Tooth, Sep- 
tember 17, 1902 

Inkstand, with sand vase and pen-box, 
dark blue ground, gilt with flowers, 
surmounted by a figure of a lamb. 
Christie, November 14, 1902 

Plates, twelve, with turquoise and gilt 
scroll borders, each painted with 
exotic birds and foliage in three com- 
partments, in claret-coloured riband 
borders, butterflies and other insects 
in the centre ; gold anchor mark 
Christie, January 23, 1903 . 

Boar*s-head dish, forming a bowl, cover 
and stand, painted in natural colours 
the dish moulded with an oak branch 
rushes, and knife in relief, on a maroon 
and gold ground, lof in. high, 22 in 
long. Christie, May 8, 1903 

Vases, pair, flat-shaped hexagonal, with 
small necks, spreading lips, and 
white and gold scroll handles, each 
vase painted with a group of Bac- 
chantes and Satyrs in a landscape, 
in upright panel on maroon ground, 
and gilt with birds, festoons of flowers 



£ s. d. 



23 2 o 



26 5 o 



26 5 o 



65 2 o 



94 10 o 



44 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

and scrolls, ^\ in. high. Formerly £ s. d. 
the property of Sir Robert and 
Horace Walpole. From Lord 
Cadogan's Collection, 1865 (;^IS5). 
Christie, February 27, 1903 . 304 10 o 

Figures, the Continents : a set of four, 
emblematic, of children with attri- 
butes, 9j in. high. Christie, June 19, 
1903 18 18 o 

Scent-bottle, formed as a lady playing a 
hurdygurdy ; and one formed as a 
girl and dog. Christie, June 19, 1903 30 9 o 

Candlesticks, pair. Robinson and Fisher, 

November 6, 1903 . . . 35 14 o 

Figure of an old man with basket and 
flowers. Robinson and Fisher, No- 
vember 6, 1903 . , . 23 2 o 

Groups, pair, figures with baskets and 
dogs, floral decorations. Robinson 
and Fisher, November 6, 1903 54 12 o 

Derby-Chelsea. 

Dessert service, each piece painted with a 
vase in grisaille festooned with 
flowers, and with festoons of flowers 
and foliage round the borders, con- 
sisting of two square-shaped dishes, 
three oval dishes, one circular dish, 
eleven plates. Christie, January 23, 
1903 50 8 o 

Coffee-cups and saucers, pair, painted in 
green and gold festoons and Cupids 



CHELSEA CHINA 

in lake ; gold mark. Sotheby, May £ 
4. 1903 25 I 

Group of children playing musical instru- 
ments beneath a tree, 14 in. high. 
Christie, June 19, 1903 . . .21 

Tea-cups and saucers, pair, fluted and 
painted with sprays of flowers in 
green, with alternate crimson panels, 
gilt, with foliage. Christie, June 16, 
1903 . . ■ . . _. . 52 I 



m 



THE BOW CHINA FACTORY 



)W INKSTANU (dIAMETKR 4 IN.)- 
■' Made a( Stvi Canton, 1751." 
i/( Belhital Green Museum. 



THE BOW CHINA FACTORY 

In this "Chat" we shall treat of the wonderful 
porcelain made at Bow, or " New Canton," as the 
makers called their factory on the banks of the 
Lea, It was established about 1730, and it ceased 
about 1776. That is to say, it commenced with the 
reign of George II. and continued for a short time 
during the reign of George III. Pope was not 
dead. Fielding was writing his novels, Burke was 
electrifying the country with his gfnius, the great 
Doctor Johnson was in the midst of his Dictionary, 
David Garrick was holding the town iri a spell by 
his art, and Sir Joshua Reynolds was, with his 
brush, perpetuating the beauties of his day, while 
Bums and Scott, Wordsworth and Coleridge, and 



so CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Byron, Thackeray, and Dickens were then in the 
unborn future. 

So this porcelain of Bow comes to us direct from 
the eighteenth century. We have been taught to 
regard the eighteenth century as a period of lace- 



Woman playing the pashrella. 
Al Beikual Greea Museum. 

ruffles and wigs, of powder and of patches, of dull, 
insipid ladies, of hard-drinking squires, of rough 
soldiers^ — a century with little or no love of art, 
when Shakespeare had been almost forgotten. Of 
its china, certainly, we call up only a picture of 
ugly grinning monsters, and little meaningless 
gee-gaws — snuff-boxes and patch-boxes, and china 



THE BOW CHINA FACTORY SI 

handles for walking-sticks ; but a glaqce at what 
Bow produced dispels so crude an idea at once, and, 
let us hope, for ever. Bow, in its own field, is worthy 
to stand by the side of what Sir Joshua has left us, 
and what Gainsborough bequeathed to posterity as 
poetic memories in paint and canvas of "dead 
women, loved and gone." 

As in our other " Chats " on Derby and Worcester 
and Chelsea, so with Bow, we shall have to tell of 
the human lives that have gone to the making of 
these fragile porcelain figures, all that is left to us 
of dead men's life-work — which Polly or Molly or 
Elizabeth Ann may demolish by a fatal twist of the 
feather-brush. A patent was taken out by Edward 
Heylin, in the parish of Bow, and Thomas Frye, 
of the parish of West Ham, in 1744, for a new 
method of manufacturing " a certain mineral, equal 
to, if not exceeding in goodness and beauty, china 
or porcelain ware imported from abroad. The 
material is an earth, the produce of the Cherokee 
nation in America, called by the natives unakerJ' 
In 1749, Thomas Frye took out, alone, a second 
patent " for a new method of making a certain ware, 
which is not inferior in beauty and fineness, and is 
rather superior in strength, than the earthenware 
that is brought from the East Indies, and is 
commonly known by the name of China, Japan, or 
Porcelain Ware." 

A word or two concerning Frye. Our Irish 
readers will be glad to learn that he was born at 
Dublin, in 1710. He came to London in 1738, when 
he painted a portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 



52 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

for Saddlers' Hall. At the establishment of the 
Bow factory he took the management To bring 
the china to perfection, he spent fifteen years of his 
life ^mong furnaces, which had so bad an effect 
upon his health that his constitution nearly broke 
down. In 1759 he had to go to Wales for a change 
of air, and in 1760 he returned to London, and we 
find him taking a house at Hatton Garden, where 
he executed some important mezzotint engravings — 
which, as Mr. Rudyard Kipling observes, " is another 
story." He died of consumption in 1762. Perhaps 
Oliver Goldsmith had him in mind (who knows ?) 
when he wrote his line — 

" There the pale artist plies his sickly trade." 

To ladies it will be especially interesting to read that 
Frye had two daughters, who assisted him in.painting 
the china at Bow. 

Readers will, before now, have come to the 
conclusion that the study of old china is not 
superlatively easy, and that the question of marks 
is at the best a vexed one. Should there be any 
who have any lingering doubts on this point, they 
will speedily join the majority when they come to 
consider the bewildering marks of the Bow factory. 
These same marks, be it said, have puzzled experts 
who have denied each other's conclusions, though 
with hardly as much vehemence as the late Mr. 
Bret Harte's learned society " Upon the Stanislaus," 
who engaged in conflict "with the remnants of a 
palaeozoic age" in 'shameful manner — 





THE BOW CHINA FACTORY S3 

" And the way they heaved those fossils in their 
anger was a sin, 
Till the skull of an old mammoth caved the head 
of Thompson in." 

We give one set of the known marks of the 
Bow factory, later we shall give 
another set no less puzzling. 
It is difficult to attempt to ^p^ 

offer any definite conclusions, 
or to do more in the space 
at our disposal than to state 
that these are marks known to 
have been used at Bow, ;ind 
are upon specimens in the ^ 

national or well-known private U 

collections. The letter B and ^-X . 

the drawn bow, of course, ex- 
plain themselves. The crescent 
in blue and the sword and 
anchor in red occur together 
on a china figure of a sports- T Q ^ 

man with a gun. It is con- 
jectured that the introduction 
of a dagger may have been 
due to the fact that both pro- 
prietors were freemen of the 
City of London, and the dagger, 3QWyAcrorir- ttjarks 
as is well known, is part of the 
City arms. The triple mark 

of the anchor with the vertical and horizontal 
daggers, by some collectors is ascribed to early 





3 




54 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Chelsea, by others to Worcester; it is a disputed 
point. 

The little figure we reproduce (on p. 50) is of a 
woman playing the pastorella. It is one of a pair of 

figures. The other represents 

a man singing. Each figure 

is marked in red with both 

t/ • anchor and dagger. The 

/ i^T^ pastorella represented in the 

figure was a musical instru- 
ment in general use previously 
to the introduction of the spinet. 
It may be remarked that at 
the back of each of these 
. figures, near the base, a square 

I dl \ ^^'^ ^^^ been pierced before 

*1 ^^ glazing, for the purpose of 

receiving a metal stem sup- 

^J porting nozzles for candles. 

i^ ^ As this square hole is said 

^^^ never to be found on similar 

Chelsea pieces, it has come to 
be regarded as a distinctive 
feature of old Bow figures. 

Among the various articles 
made at the Bow factory may 
BOW FACTORY MARKS, be enumerated the following, 

which have been taken from 
the account-books of the factory : Shepherds and 
shepherdesses, cupids, fluter, fiddler, harlequin, col- 
umbine, pierrot or clown, tambourine player, Dutch 
dancer, woman with chicken, birds on pedestals, 




THE BOW CHINA FACTORY 55 

swans, boars, squirrels, goats, as well as many 
miscellaneous articles for general use, such as salt- 
boxes, candlesticks, mugs, pickle-stands, &c. We 
reproduce an inkstand, four inches in diameter, of 
white glazed porcelain decorated with flowers, 
which decoration we call attention to as being 
characteristic of Bow. An inscription appears at 
the top: "Made at New Canton, I75i"(p. 49). 

Since Chaucer's day, Stratford-le-Bow has come 
down to us in rhyme, for the poet playfully pokes 
fun at the good nun in his " Canterbury Tales " : — 

" And Frenche she spake ful fay re and fetishly 
After the scole of Stratford-atte-Bow, 
For Frenche of Paris was to her unknowe." 

But should china collectors who travel down the 
Great Eastern Railway wish a further fillip to remind 
them of Bow, sundry soap and candle factories, with 
stench so strong that it knocks at the railway 
windows, will arrest their straying thoughts. The 
literary reader may, when he catches glimpses of 
the brown and oily ooze of the River Lea, think of 
Coleridge's lines to Cologne — 

"The River Rhine, it is well known. 
Doth wash your city of Cologne ; 
But tell me, nymphs ! what power divine 
Shall henceforth wash the River Rhine?" 

And here at Bow linger still the memories of the 
old factory — a century old — where Quin as Falstaff 
was turned out in porcelain, and Garrick posed as 



5D CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Richard III. in a china figure. It is true that the 
match factory of Messrs. Bell & Black stands on the 
old site of the Bow China Factory, but there is still 




FRAGMENTS O 



I and Albert Museum. 



a China Row to remind him who will of the old days 
of " New Canton " and its wares. 

Our readers will be interested in the account of 
the discovery made of fragments of old Bow porce- 



THE BOW CHINA FACTORY 



57 



Iain, and portions of " saggers " on the site of one of 
the kilns while digging a drain from the match 
factory. 

The children of the neighbourhood were observed 





FRAGMENTS OF OLD BOW WHITE CHINA WITH RAISED PATTERN. 

Victoria and Albert Museum. 



to have as playthings bits of broken china of a high- 
class and delicate ware, never emanating from the 
china shops of Bow, and Mr. Higgins, attached to 
the match factory, henceforth kept strict watch over 
the excavations, and careful examination unearthed 
a number of broken specimens of the Bow ware. 



58 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

He and his sister carefully arranged the broken 
pieces, and they form an excellent authority, these 
trays of broken china, for determining the paste and 
glaze, and identifying the decoration and designs of 
Bow. By means of this find it was possible to 
classify many doubtful pieces of china in well-known 
collections hitherto wrongly attributed to other 
factories. We reproduce a few specimens for our 
readers' information., 

It is interesting to note that among the fragments 
fou«d, not a single piece is of Delft or common 
earthenware, but all are of porcelain. The designs 
of many of them are of Chinese landscapes, with 
flowers, figures, and birds. Their general character 
may be gathered from our first four examples. They 
are all painted in blue, with the exception of a cup 
painted with green leaves and crimson-lake flowers. 
None of the pieces are printed, but all are painted 
with a brush. The other two illustrations we give 
are of china ornamented in relief, the favourite 
pattern being the mayflower. Illustration No. v., 
is a typical example. The design stands out very 
sharply, and is raised from the surface of the china. 
No. vi., is a design of two roses on a stalk. 

Among the debris were found many pieces of an 
ornamental character, a salt-cellar beautifully 
modelled, formed of three shells, with smaller shells 
and seaweed between, but the upper shell to hold 
the salt is missing. Pieces of dishes, evidently 
intended to hold sweetmeats, were unearthed from 
this sewer hole, with finely designed corals and shells 
and seaweeds. Some natural shells were also found. 



^ THE BOW CHINA FACTORY 59 

which had evidently served the artists as models. 
Two china pug-dogs were discovered with collars 
bearing roses on them. 

Bow paste is exceedingly hard, and the fracture 
when it is broken is close and compact. The pieces 
as a rule are very heavy for their size, but many of 
the cups and saucers are almost of egg-shell thinness. 
The colour is milky white. Should any of our 
readers be possessed of Bow china, they may ratify 
its origin by carefully examining it, if possible, 
under a magnifying glass. On scrutinising the blue 
pieces it will be found there is a peculiarity in the 
glaze, which arises in this manner. At that time blue 
was the only known colour that would bear the 
intense heat of the kiln. It was always painted on the 
biscuit before being dipped in the glaze. It is found 
that certain portions of the blue, however slight, are 
apt, while the glaze is in a fluid state, to spread 
over the surface, giving it a blue tinge. The other 
colours as well as the gold were painted over the 
glaze, and set in a kiln of lower temperature. Hence 
the blue, being under the glaze ^ is imperishable, and 
the other colours from frequent use get rubbed off. 

We have given a number of marks used at Bow ; 
we supplement that list by two others, one of 
which is exclusively composed of signatures actually 
used by Thomas Frye himself 

Although none of the ware unearthed at Bow was 
printed, yet printed ware did come from there. In 
all probability it was sent to Liverpool to have the 
transfer engravings, so much in vogue when Bow 
flourished, put on the china. As early as the year 



6o CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

1756 this was done, for certain entries appear in the 
Bow books : " One pint printed mug : a sett com- 
pleat of the second printed teas." Or it is possible 
that they were sent to Battersea to be printed. It is 
not a far cry from Bow to Battersea. Transfer print- 
ing on enamel was in vogue at Battersea before 1755. 
Horace Walpole, writing to a friend in 1755, says, " I 

send you a trifling snuff-box, 

^ ^^^ only as a sample of the new 

^ O ^ ^ manufacture at Battersea, which 

^^ is done with copper-plates." 

"^^ O^ jL But Battersea and Battersea 

Xyj 1^ enamel — that is another story. 

^ "^ It is to be hoped that this 

r *- t\ "Chat" on old Bow china will 
^t*<, ^ y have helped readers, to whom 

7— Bow is a name, to form some 

^ T*4) idea of what went on there 

more than a century ago. The 

3ow lActoTy china cabinet holds more mys- 

/- ^ teries within it than many a 

Varia5i5 si^aWtes ^^^j housewife dreams of It 

«5>i«as'pyf. ^ju be seen that the difficulties 

of china-collecting are legion. 
At the modern find at Bow, lovers of china ought 
to be grateful, for it enabled many vexed ques- 
tions to be settled, but what is Bow and what is 
Chelsea still puzzles experts. In all probability 
Bow, Bristol, and another very much debated 
factory, Lowestoft, will continue to offer traps and 
snares and pitfalls for the unwary collector (or 
misshapen falsities attributed to them) till connois- 




THE BOW CHINA FACTORY 6 1 

seiirs are no more and collecting days are done. 
The recent find at Lowestoft is as important as the 
find at Bow, but it is exceedingly unlikely that 
any more facts will ever come to light respecting 
these old factories ; every available source of in- 
formation has been tapped and all 
that can be known concerning 
them is known. The potters who 
made the exquisite shapes, the 
artists who painted the roses on 
bowl and beaker, have long since \y 

departed with the roses of yester- • 

years. Their life-work is scattered. 
Much of it, perhaps most of it, is 9 

gone for ever. Each cup and each ^ 

dish of the long-dead artist ^is like 
" a good deed in a naughty world." 
To-day, with a handful of facts, 
collectors and connoisseurs wrangle 
together over theories. 

Characteristics of Bow 
China. 

Body and glaze often defective, ^ov^yacW- tfj^rk 
pattern so arranged as to cover flaw. C 

Insects often introduced for this 
purpose to hide imperfections. Coarse, chalky white 
ware, covered with glaze much pitted and speckled. 
The bottom often shows three marks representing 
points on which piece rested in kiln. The glaze is 
thickly applied, and fills up interstices of raised 



% 





5, 



62 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

patterns. The body and glaze varied ; the earlier 
pieces have a yellow tinge in the glaze. The 
bottoms of some basins and dishes are often twice 
as thick as the sides. The ware, owing to large 
amount of lead used, is discoloured. 



RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 

Bow. £ s. d. 

Cream-jug, white, modelled with bee and 
goats in relief Christie, January 24, 
1902 . . . . -330 

Figure of a lady, with basket of flowers, 
5j in. high. Christie, January 24, 
1902 350 

Figures, pair, emblematical of Autumn 
and Winter, 7J in. high. Christie, 
February 4, 1902 . 16 16 o 

Groups, pair, a drummer and piper, 10 in. 

high. Christie, February 4, 1902 . 48 6 o 

Figures, pair, of a girl and youth, with 
bagpipes, a dog and flowers, 7J in. 
high. Christie, April 25, 1902 . . 16 5 6 

Figures, pair, man with pipe and tam- 
bourine, woman with triangle, on 
scroll perforated bases covered with 
flowers, early period, 8J in. high, 
marked with anchor and dagger in 
red. Sotheby, May 16, 1902 . 10 10 o 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur ihQSQ 
are given from their useful monthly publication, ''Sale Prices." 



THE BOW CHINA FACTORY' 63 

Groups, pair, with figures of a Chinaman, £ s. d. 
child, and monkey ; and the com- 
panion, on scroll plinths, g\ in. high ; 
rare mark, B, intertwined with the 
anchor and dagger. Christie, June 
20, 1902 42 o o 

Cream-jug, with flowers in relief, coloured ; 
impressed triangle mark. Christie, 
June 24, 1902 . . 25 4 o 

Ink-stand, with ink-vase, sand-box, 
candlestick, and pen-tray, painted 
with landscapes and insects, the pen- 
tray surmounted by a group of a 
goat and two children, 9J in. wide. 
Christie, July 2, 1902 .1766 

Cream-jugs, two, with goats and bee in 

relief. Christie, November 28, 1902 16 16 o 

Figures of parrots, pair, holding fruit and 
perched upon stumps of trees, rest- 
ing on tripod scroll, bases encrusted 
with flowers, the birds are painted in 
natural colours, height 7J in. and 6J 
in. Sotheby, November 11, 1902 . 33 o o 

Statuette, on scroll base, of a boy playing 
a drum, painted in colours, with gild- 
ing and encrusted with jasmine at 
sides, modelled by Tebo, height 10 in. 
Sotheby, November 11, 1902 . . 16 10 o 

Vase, oviform fluted, and dome cover, 
surmounted by a figure of a bird, the 
vase painted with a subject of a girl 
and youth in a landscape, in two large 



■' 



64 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

panels, and eight smaller panels on £ s. d. 
the vase and cover, with groups of 
flowers in gilt borders on a mottled 
dark blue ground, the shoulders 
pierced, 12J in. high; mark, dagger 
and anchor in red. Christie, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1903 64 I o 

Candlesticks,, pair, with cupids, dogs, 
birds, and flowers in high relief; mark, 
anchor and sword in red. William 
and Douglas, Middlesbrough, July 
24, 1903 . . . ..700 

Figure, female, of " Flora," 1 1 in. Foster, 

October 15, 1903 . . 10 o o 



IV 



OLD WORCESTER 



^»,/n,j & %«. Na>- Oxford SIml. 
(ll.n WORCESTER S 



OLD WORCESTER 

In old Worcester china there lies a magic that 
appeals to the collector of fine copies and adapta- 
tion from Nankin and other Chinese porcelain. 
The real old blue colouring of Worcester has a 
charm about it which cannot be reproduced nowa- 
days. There is something personal about the pro- 
ductions of the old factories ; the workman was 
proud to make his mark at the bottom of the plate 
or bowl he had created, much in the same manner as 
the masons who built Fountains Abbey lefleach man 
his mystic sign on each stone he carved. 

If the reader chooses to weave a romance of airy 
nothingness on an old cracked bowl of Worcester 
blue there is substance enough, if he has the mind to 
do so. Mr. Austin Dobson, in one of his charming 



68 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

villanelles, has taught us how much lies in the dreamy 
depths of a plate with queer Chinese blue figures on 
it:— 

" * Ah, me ! but it might have been ! 
Was there ever so dismal a fate ? ' 
Quoth the little blue mandarin. 

' Such a maid as was never seen ? 

She passed, though I cried to her, "Wait." 
Ah, me! but it might have been ! 

I cried, "O my Flower, my Queen, 

Be ip.ine ! " Twas precipitate,' 
Quoth the little blue mandarin. 

* But then ... she was just sixteen. 

Long-eyed — as a lily straight — 
Ah, me ! but it might have been ! 

As it was, from her palankeen, 

She laughed — " You're a week too late ! " 
Quoth the little blue mandarin. 

' That is why, in a mist of spleen, 
I mourn on this old blue plate. 
Ah, me ! but it might have been ! ' 
Quoth the little blue mandarin." 

We have already given the story of old Derby 
china, and when Derby and Chelsea and Bow were 
establishing for themselves a reputation, Worcester 
was engaged in experimenting in the same direction 
in the person of one Dr. John Wall, a physician of 



OLD WORCESTER 69 

that city. He was a man of considerable taste, 
and besides being a clever practitioner, he was a 
practical chemist, and an artist of some ability. 
One of his paintings hangs in the hall of Merton 
College, Oxford, of which he was a Fellow. He 
was an etcher, and designed stained-glass windows ; 
one of his windows is at Oriel College. What 
William Duesbury was to Derby and the foun- 
dation of the china factory there, and what Josiah 
Wedgwood was to Staffordshire, that was Dr. John 
Wall to Worcester. His was the guiding intellect of 
the Worcester enterprise, which culminated in 175 1, 
about a year after Derby had been established, in the 
establishment of a manufactory of porcelain in the 
" faithful city." 

Those were restless times, more troublesome then 
to domestic England than was the recent Transvaal 
War. Only six years prior to this the Pretender had 
invaded England with an armed force, and had pene- 
trated as far as Derby. Party feeling ran very high. 
It has been asserted that the industry was introduced 
to Worcester for political reasons, so that the Georgian 
party might gain votes in the county against the 
Jacobites, who were strong in Worcester. It seems 
certain enough that Dr. Wall began his experiments 
merely for the love of the study, but whether he was 
used by politicians, or whether he used them, is of no 
moment to us ; suffice it to say that the Worcester • 
Porcelain Company was founded in 1751, and among 
the prominent co-operators with Dr. Wall were 
William Davies, an apothecary, and Edward Cave, 
the founder of the Gentleman's Magazine, This 



70 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

latter was of inestimable use to the factory for 
advertising their wares. 

The earliest Worcester productions were based 
entirely on Chinese models. Small cups, without 

c c C 

Old Wofcwfer Mar<<8. 
1751 - 1776. 






5-^ 3 





5 a ^ 

Old Worcester Marks. 



handles, of Oriental design were decorated under the 
glaze in blue. All the characteristics of the Nankin 
ware became those of Worcester. Slowly and surely 
they attempted with complete success some of the 



OLD WORCESTER /I 

more brilliant colours of Eastern ceramic ware, 
notably from the Japanese. 

The early ware of Worcester may be known by 
a peculiar greenness of hue in the body of the china. 
The first mark used was the letter W in some form 
or another. This letter may stand either for Wall or 
for Worcester, as D marked on Derby china may 
stand either for Duesbury, the founder, or for Derby. 
We reproduce several of the earliest Worcester 
marks. About the same time a crescent was used, 
which is believed to have been adopted from the 
arms of the Warmstrey family, in whose ancient 
mansion the factory was first started. 

The first two letters, ^ in script, were used when 
the factory was under the direction of Dr. Wall, who 
died in 1776. The capital W was marked in blue 
on early printed china. The crescent in outline was 
one of the earliest marks, while the second crescent, 
filled in with blue, under the glaze, occurs on 
blue-printed china, which was invented about 

I75S-. 

Among other early Worcester marks are assimila- 
tions and variations of certain Chinese characters, 
probably from the models which the Worcester 
potters copied. Of the square marks, it may be 
observed that they do not always occur on Chinese 
patterns. Occasionally, too, a crescent in red is 
found with one of these squares in blue. Of the 
other ornate and curiously Eastern adaptations, it 
may be that they were workmen's signatures, but 
they are only found on old Worcester. The love for 
Oriental flourishes is shown by a series of numbers. 



72 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Examples from i to 9 are known. We reproduce the 
numbers 1,4, 5, 7. 

In 1756 the important invention of transferring 
printed impressions from copper plates was intro- 
duced at Worcester. It is debatable ground whether 
Battersea, Liverpool, or Worcester invented it. But 
in 1757 it had arrived at a wonderful state of per- 
fection at Worcester. The engraver, Robert Han- 
cock, was employed. Valentine Green, the great 
mezzotint engraver, was his pupil. A mug bearing 
the head of the King of Prussia, and dated 1757, 
is held to be one of the most characteristic pieces of 
this period. 

Thomas Carlyle has a graphic description of one 
of these King of Prussia mugs, which piece of prose 
is worth giving in full, for we do not often see the 
historian of the French Revolution in the character of 
a china connoisseur : — 

" There stands on this mantelpiece," says one of 
my correspondents, the amiable Smel fungus, in 
short, whom readers are acquainted with, " a small 
china mug, not of bad shape, declaring itself, in 
one obscure corner, to be made at Worcester, 
' R. I., Worcester, 1757' (late in the season, I 
presume, demand being brisk) ; which exhibits all 
round it a diligent potter's apotheosis of Friedrich, 
hastily got up to meet the general enthusiasm of 
English mankind. Worth, while it lasts unbroken, 
a moment's inspection from you in a hurrying 
along. 

" Front side, when you take our mug by the 
handle for drinking from it, offers a poor, well- 



.Rcprodaied by kimlniss 
.•/ Mr. S. G. teatmi. 
Craubounn SIrat, IT. 

MUG. (HEIGHT 5i IN.) 

-ick Ihe Great, King of PrussI: 
als of Robert Hancock), 
d Anchor. 



OLD WORCESTER 75 

meant china portrait, labelled, King of Prussia : 
copy of Friedrich's portrait by Pesne, twenty years 
too young for the time, smiling out nobly upon you ; 
upon whom there descends with rapidity a small 
Genius more like Cupid, who had hastily forgotten 
his bow, and goes headforemost on another errand, 
to drop a wreath far too small for ever getting on 
(owing to distance, let us hope), though the artless 
painter makes no sign ; and indeed both Genius 
and wreath, as he gives them, look almost like 
a big insect, which the King will be apt to treat 
harshly if he notice it. On the opposite side, again, 
separated from Friedrich's back by the handle, is 
an enormous image of Fame, with wings, filling half 
the mug, with two trumpets going at once (a bass, 
probably, and a treble), who flies with great ease ; 
and between her eager face and the unexpectant 
one of Friedrich (who is i8o deg. off, and knows 
nothing of it) stands a circular trophy, or imbroglio 
of drums, pikes, muskets, canons, field flags, and 
the like ; very slightly tied together, the knot, if 
there is one, being hidden by some fantastic bit. of 
scroll or escutcheon, with a Fame and one trumpet 
scratched on it ; and high out of the imbroglio rise 
three standards inscribed with names, which we 
perceive are intended to be names of Friedrich*s 
victories ; standards notable at this day, with names 
which I will punctually give you. 

" Standard first, which lies to the westward or 
leftward, has * Reisberg ' (no such place on this 
distracted globe, but meaning Bevern's Reichenberg, 
perhaps), * Reisberg,' * Prague,' ' Collin.' Middle 



'j(> CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

standard curves beautifully round its staff, and 
gives us to read * Welham ' (non-extant, too ; may 
mean Welmina or Lobositz), * Rosbach ' (very 
good), * Breslau ' (poor Bevern's, thought a victory 
in Worcester at this time !). Standard third, which 
flies to eastward or right hand, has * Newmark * 
(that is, Neuniarkt and the Austrian bread -ovens, 
December 4th) ; * Lissa ' (not yet Leuthen in 
English nomenclature) ; and Breslau again, which 
means the capture of Breslau city this time, 
and is a real success, December 7th to 19th; 
giving as the approximate date, Christmas, 1757, to 
this hasty mug. A mug got up for a temporary 
English enthusiasm, and for the accidental instruc- 
tion of posterity. It is of tolerable china, holds a 
good pint, * to the Protestant hero with all the 
honours,' and offers, in little, a curious eyehole into 
the then England, with its then lights and notions, 
which is now so deep-hidden from us, under volcanic 
ashes, French revolutions, and the wrecks of a 
hundred very decadent years." 

This mug bears the letters " R. H." on it, the initials 
of the engraver. 

In addition to this portrait of Frederick the Great, 
there were others engraved of George II., George III., 
Queen Charlotte, the Marquis of Granby, and William 
Pitt. The full signature of Robert Hancock is 
often found on garden scenes and Watteau-like 
subjects. 

We illustrate as a headpiece a group of two cream- 
jugs and a sugar-basin with black Worcester transfer- 
\ printed subjects on them. 



OLD WORCESTER 77 

Leaving poetry and coming to fact, we arrive at 
the beginning of the second period in the history of 
the Worcester factory. Dr. Wall, the originator of 
the works, had died in 1776, and it must be borne in 
mind by the collector that from about the year 1764, 
when the Chelsea works became disorganised, up to 



III ColUdiott of Mr. W. G. Homy. 

the death of Dr. Wall, some of the most exquisite 
creations of Worcester were produced. Several of 
the Chelsea artists had come to Worcester, and mugs 
of a choice apple-green were made in imitation of the 
Sevres ware, but none of these bear the Worcester 
mark. Vases with rich bieu-de-roi ground and 



^d^k 



78 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

salmon-scale markings, with exotic birds of rich 
plumage, of varied and elegant design, belong to this 
period, and command at the present day very high 
prices. Donaldson and O'Neale were two of the best 
painters, and painted some of . the finest Worcester 
vases so much sought after. At the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, in the collection of the late Lady 

Charlotte Schrieber, there 
are some particularly fine 
'7 ""^ examples. 

jL We reproduce a fine 

tSa Worcester dishj(io| in. by 

^^*^ 8| in.) from the collection 

^ of Mr. W. G. Honey, re- 

cently at the Cork Exhibi- 
^^^ /# I / tion. This specimen is an 

J'liaht ^ %ay'T'. excellent example of the 

best period, and is marked 
CkamU^Umi. with a blue crescent. 

l^^yx^t^itT- In 1783 the works passed 

into the hands of Mr. 
Thomas Flight, who, to- 
gether with his two sons, 
Joseph and John, raised 
the manufactory to some 
eminence. In 1788, George 
III., with Queen Charlotte, visited the works, and 
the title " Royal " was added to the mark, above the 
word "Flight." Later on, in 1791, Mr. Martin Barr 
joined the concern, the firm becoming " Flight and 
Barr." It should be noted that Mr. Chamberlain, the 
head of the decorating department of the old factory. 







OLD WORCESTER 



79 





never came under the Flight regime, but estabh'shed 
a factory of his own at Worcester. We give in order 
of date the various marks used both by his factory 
and that of the Flights. 

These two factories continued as rivals until 1840, 
when they amalgamated, and the two firms formed 
one company. The name of Flight and. Barr 
disappears, and the business being carried on at 
Messrs. Chamberlain's premises, the new Worcester 
mark became " Cham- 
berlain & Co." In 
1850 Mr. W. H. Kerr 
joined the company, 
and for a little while 
the firm was known as 
" Chamberlain, Lilley, & 
Kerr." In 1852 another 
change took place, Mr. 
Chamberlain and Mr. 
Lilley retired, and Mr. 
R. W. Binns entered 
into partnership with 
Mr. Kerr. From that 

time the manufactory, under the management of 
Kerr & Binns was known as " W. H. Kerr & Co." 
It is important that the collector should know all 
these transitions in the ownership and management 
of the Worcester works, which has a continuous 
history of nearly a hundred and fifty years, a record 
not reached by any other English factory. 

Besides the above-mentioned two main streams of 
Worcester porcelain manufacture, there is yet another 



Grainact* Lea 

TkCO 




8o CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

firm which was established in 1800 by Thomas 
Grainger, nephew to Mr. Chamberlain, The firm 
became Grainger, Lee & Co., and afterwards 
G. Grainger & Co. We give their marks, together 
with the other Worcester marks, to enable our 
readers to identify any specimens they may possess. 
One of the marks in the Kerr & Binns period 
requires explanation. The circle with the letter W 
i^diating from the centre was espe- 
cially designed for solely marking the 
productions of the factory made for 
the use of Queen Victoria and the 
Royal household. 

The scent-bottle which we give as 
illustration has double sides, the outer 
being ornamented with perforated 
work, painted and gilt. The neck is 
beautifully decorated with flowers on 
a yellow ground. It is marked 
SCENT- BOTTi.B. " ChambeHain's Worcester." It is an 
elegant piece, and very characteris- 
tically shows, for instance, in the 
Greeii Maseuai. double sides and perforated work, 
the influence of Chinese models. This 
specimen is at the Bethnal Green Museum. 

A pair of fine vases (loj in, high), marked "Grainger, 
Lee, & Co., Worcester," in Mr. W. G. Honey's 
collection, have views on them of Camden Place, 
Bath, and St. Vincent's Rock, Bristol. 

About the time of the Exhibition of 1851 there 
was great energy displayed by the Worcester factory. 
Especially noticeable were the enamelled vases. 



OLD WORCESTER 83 

dishes, and ewers. This Worcester enamel is a 
variety of Limoges work (the Limoges being on 
copper and the Worcester wholly porcelain), which 
consists of applying semi-opaque white enamel of 
varying strength, produced by superimposing more 
or fewer layers in gradation upon a deep rich ground 
of blue. These enamels were designed to copy the 
fifteenth and sixteenth century work, and succeeded 
very well in their object. Later, Worcester essayed 
to produce jewelled porcelain, in which Berlin and 
Vienna had excelled a century before. It won 
especial praise at Paris in the 1867 Exhibition, and 
became a great financial success. 

Whether it be with the Limoges ivory or with the 
newer Japanese designs which entered into the later 
Worcester productions, the Royal manufactory of 
the " faithful city " has always held its own with the 
foreign rivals and competitors at international 
exhibitions. At Berlin, Paris, Vienna, at Phila- 
delphia, at Chicago, the success of modern Worcester 
is evidence enough of its vitality. 

Characteristics of Old Worcester China. 

In the early period a simplicity characterised the 
productions. "Mandarin" designs from Chinese 
models prevailed. These old Worcester under-glaze 
blue pieces have a tone unlike any other English 
factory, and more nearly approach the Oriental 
quality of depth. Bkie and white dishes with 
pierced borders, and open basket-work dishes were 
a feature. 



84 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Transfer printing over the glaze is one of the 
characteristics of the factory. 

In the second period of Worcester were produced 
the elaborate vases in the style of Dresden and of 
Sevres, the finest examples of Worcester. 

The third period of over-elaboration in decoration 
marks the decline of Worcester. 

The porcelain is thin and of very beautiful quality, 
having an ivory-like texture. There is a greenish 
tint in the paste when subjected to a strong light. 

The varieties of bodies used at Worcester from 
time to time make any generalisation obviously 
impossible. It is only by handling specimens that 
the true feeling of Worcester may become instinct in 
a collector. 

RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 
Worcester. ;^ s. d. 

Coffee-pot and cover, painted with figures, 
birds and flowers in colours in Chinese 
taste, and with alternate dark blue 
scale-pattern panels. Christie, Janu- 
ary 14, 1902 28 7 o 

Cups, two, with saucers and covers ; square 
mark. H. Stacey, Reigate, January, 
1902 91 o o 

Soup-plates, pair, painted with nymphs in 
landscapes, in dark blue and gold 
borders. Christie, January 24, 1902 . 15 15 o 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur 
these items are given from their useful monthly publication, 
"vSale Prices," 



OLD WORCESTER 8 5 

Plate, turquoise, red and gold panels, £ s. d. 
flowers and dragons in the Oriental 
taste ; and three octagonal plates, 
with a tiger and flowers in the style 
of old Hysen. Christie, January 30, 
1902 4 10 o 

Dish, circular, the centre painted with 
butterflies, the border with exotic 
birds in panels, and butterflies in 
medallions in borders of dark blue 
and gold, 10 in. diameter. Christie, 
February 4, 1902 . . . . 54 12 o 

Cups and saucers, pair two-handled, with 
exotic birds and insects in medallions, 
in gilt foliage borders on dark blue 
scale ground. Christie, February 4, 
1902 . . . . . . 90 6 o 

Milk-jug, painted with birds and insects 
in colours in gilt scroll borders on 
dark blue scale-pattern ground ; 
square mark. Christie, February 18, 
1902 . . . . . 24 3 o 

Dishes, pair, kidney-shaped, painted with 
a bouquet and festoons of flowers in 
colours in the centre, in wide dark blue 
borders, gilt with interlaced bands 
and flower sprays, 1 1 in. wide. Christie, 
February 28, 1902 . . 26 5 o 

Dishes, oval, pair, painted with Lady 
Hamilton as " Hope " on the sea- 
shore, by Flight, ii in. wide. 
Christie, April 25, 1902 . . . 22 i o 



86 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Another pair, similar, by Barr, Flight, & ;^ s. d. 
Barr. Christie, April 25, 1902 . . 25 o o 

Teapot and cover, oviform, and a canister 
and cover, dark blue ground, painted 
with exotic birds in medallions in 
gilt scroll borders. Christie, May 2, 
1902 189 o o 

Bowl, the exterior painted with exotic 
birds, flowering trees and insects in 
scroll panels, with gilt borders on 
dark blue scale-pattern ground, gilt, 
with foliage, the interior painted 
with birds on white ground ; 1 1 in. 
diameter; square mark. Christie, 
May 2, 1902 . . . . . 152 5 o 

Spill-vases, set of three, heavily gilt with 
coloured flowers in compartments, by 
Flight, Barr & Flight, one 5 in. and 
two 4 in. Garrad, Turner & Son, 
Ipswich, June 19, 1902 . . . 12 10 o 

Plates, pair, painted with groups of 
flowers and fruit in the centre in rich 
crimson scroll-pattern borders gilt 
with flowers and foliage, 9 in. 
diameter. Christie, June 20, 1902 . 35 14 o 

Cup and saucer, two-handled, painted 
with birds and insects in shaped 
panels, on pale canary scale-pattern 
ground. Christie, July 9, 1902 . . 22 11 6 

Dessert dish, centre, scale-blue ground, 
painted with exotic birds, foliage and 
flowers in white panels of unusual 



OLD WORCESTER 8/ 

shape, and surrounded by festoons of £ s. d. 
flowers and lattice designs in chased 
gold, also painted with flowers in 
colours at back. From the service 
made for Lady Mary Wortley Mon- 
tague. Sotheby, November ii, 1902 101 00 

Tea-service, of the Dr. Wall period, 
mazarin blue ground, painted in 
oviform panels in exotic birds and 
foliage, with landscapes in back- 
grounds, also small flying birds and 
bouquets of fruit, each panel sur- 
rounded by gilding, crescent mark, 
consisting of teapot and cover, teapot 
stand, tea canister and cover, cake 
plate, five tea-cups unmarked. For- 
merly the property of H.R.H. Duchess 
of Kent. Sotheby, November II, 1902 345 10 o 

Mug, small " King of Prussia," marked 
with " W" in red. Andrew Orr, Scar- 
borough, November 11, 1902 . -950 

Plates, pair, painted with festoons and 
sprays of flowers in panels with gilt 
scroll borders on dark blue scale- 
pattern ground. Christie, Novem- 
ber 28, 1902 35 14 o 

Cups, two-handled, covers and saucers, 
pair, painted with festoons of flowers 
in colours, in dark blue and gold 
borders ; crescent mark. Christie, 
February 6, 1903 . . . 37 16 o 

Teapot and cover, scale-blue ground, 



;^i 



88 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

painted in panels of exotic birds ; £ s. d. 
square mark. Sotheby, May 4, 1903 33 00 

Dish, large circular, painted with exotic 
birds, branches and insects in scroll 
panels with gilt borders, 13 in. 
diameter, with dark blue scale- 
pattern ground. Christie, May 28, 1903 132 16 o 

Teapot and cover, with nearly similar 
decoration, with dark blue scale- 
pattern ground. Christie, May 28, 
1903 27 6 o 

Jug, large, moulded with foliage in low 
relief, and bearded mask under the 
spout, and painted with exotic birds 
and foliage, butterflies and other 
insects in colours in two large and 
three smaller panels, in gilt scroll 
borders on a dark blue scale-pattern 
ground, pink flowers in panels on the 
neck iijin. high. Christie, May 8, 
1903 147 o o 

Jug, oviform, painted with birds and in- 
sects in scroll panels with gilt borders, 
7 in. high. Christie, June 10, 1903 . 79 16 o 

Plates, pair of, painted with birds and 
insects in shaped panels, with gilt 
borders. Christie, June 10, 1903 . 34 13 o 

Plates, pair of, painted with landscapes, 
groups of flowers and birds, in dark 
blue borders, richly gilt. From Lord 
Henry Thynne's collection. Chris- 
tie, June 10, 1903 . . . . 24 3 o 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA 



t the Btthnal Gra 



I'LY MOUTH 



The name of Plymouth stands high in the records 
of English china factories. Its porcelain was the 
first hard porcelain produced in this country. Other 
English chinas melted when placed inside the pieces 
in the Plymouth kilns. 

Not so well known as Josiah Wedgwood, of 
the Staffordshire potteries, William Cookworthy, 
of Plymouth, Quaker, chemist, porcelain maker, is 
worthy of a niche in the gallery of dead princes of 
ceramic art, and his is a name that will never be 
forgotten by those who know the history behind 
the old Plymouth vases and mugs and statues. 

It is true the enterprise was a failure. It only 
ran fourteen years, and was, in 1774, transferred to 
Bristol. It is true that Lord Camelford, one of 
his partners, laments the three thousand pounds ex- 
pended on it. But it is more than true that the 



92 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

results of William Cookworthy's efforts were no 
failure. 

The brief life history of the Quaker dreamer (we 
know he must have been a dreamer, for he translated 
some of Swedenborg*s works into English) is re- 
markable. At the age of fourteen, the eldest of a 
family of six fatherless children, he tramped from 
Plymouth up to London and commenced his 
apprenticeship to a chemist. His mother battled 
on, eking out her slender means by dressmaking. 
Later on, when William Cookwdrthy came home, 
his mother lived under his roof and became a leading 
favourite with the great people he knew. The poor 
Devon lad who wearily tramped to London over 
down and dale, dreaming golden dreams, came home 
to entertain Dr. Wolcot, the famous " Peter Pindar " 
of vitriolic pen, Sir Joseph Banks, Captain Cook, and 
the fighting Earl St. Vincent, who remarked, " who- 
ever was in Mr. Cook worthy's company was the 
wiser and better for having been in it " ; while 
Smeaton, the builder of the Eddystone Lighthouse, 
was an inmate of his house during the erection 
of the lighthouse. 

In an early letter of Cookworthy's we find him 
speaking of a certain unnamed, strange individual 
who came to him with some china earth. "Twas 
found in the back of Virginia, where he was in quest 
of mines ; and having read Duhalde, discovered 
both the petuntse and kaolin. Tis the latter earth 
he says, is the essential thing towards the success 
of the manufacture. He is gone for a cargo of it, 
having bought the whole country of the Indians 



^ PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA 93 

where it rises." We hear no more of this mys- 
terious individual ; but we do hear of extensive 
and painstaking researches by Cookworthy, till at 
length he is rewarded by discovering the very earth 
he wanted, in Cornwall, on the estate of Lord 
Camelford. 

He established himself at Coxside, at the extreme 
angle which juts into the water at Sutton Pool. The 
buildings subsequently became a shipwright's yard, 
and even then bore the name China House. We 
wonder, do they exist now ? 

The early examples of Plymouth are clumsy, 
sometimes very coarse and rough. Experience was 
wanting in firing. Most of the pieces were disfigured 
by fire-cracks. Of those decorated in blue the 
colour had run into the glazing. But Cookworthy 
did one thing — he was the first to produce cobalt blue 
direct from the ore. 

The white ware of Plymouth, in which is intro- 
duced as ornament shells and seaweed and coral, 
is very artistic, and is one of the features of 
Plymouth, although none of this ware is marked. 
They mostly consist of salt-cellars, pickle-cups, and 
what would now be used to put roses in. The 
salt-cellar we illustrate is one of a pair in the Bethnal 
Green Museum ; it has a plain, white body and cloudy 
glaze, and is unmarked. Similar shapes are believed 
to have been made at Bow. We reproduce a dainty 
piece, a shell dish of beautiful design, and ask — 
was Cookworthy a failure? 

During the latter part of the fourteen years that 
Plymouth produced her china, Cookworthy, then 



94 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

nearing his seventieth year, thought to emulate 
Sevres and Dresden, and employed several artists 
for decoration. He engaged the services of a 
French artist named Soqui from Sevres, and he 
and Henry Bone, of Plymouth — one of his own 



apprentices — produced some finely-painted birds and 

flowers. 

The mark of the I'lymoiith china is blue on tlie 
early clumsy pieces, and later was neatly drawn 
in red, sometimes blue. It is the chemical symbol 
for tin, being doubtless adopte{l by Cookworthy 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA 95 

to denote that his materials came from the tin 



hi /lie Fry Coliedhii a( Brhlol. 

district. It i.s.like the figure four, with a little 
curved loop at the beginning, 



96 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

We reproduce a fine specimen of a splendid vase, 
hexagonal shape, sixteen inches high, in the 
possession of the Fry family at Bristol. It is richly 
decorated with festoons of finely modelled raised 
flowers, with painted butterflies and borders. This 
was the forerunner of the exquisite Bristol vase 
made by the firm which bought Cookworthy's 
life secrets. 

Devon and Plymouth suggest Elizabethan days, 
and one man's name flashes uppermost, but — 

" Drake he's in his hammock, but a thousand mile 
away 
(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay, 
An' dreamin' arl the time o' Plymouth Hoe." 

But there are heroes of peace and the arts of peace, 
and that art of all arts, the art of self-effacement, 
and William Cookworthy is one. 



2|-2f j^ ^ 




PLYMOUTH MARKS. 



BRISTOL. 

For several centuries earthenware was made at 
Bristol, and a. very fair quality of blue delft was pro- 
duced there, but it is not of the old potteries of 
Bristol that we shall speak, but of the manufacture 
which was transplanted from Plymouth to Bristol. 
We have related the struggles of William Cookworthy 
to establish Plymouth porcelain. The strenuous 
efforts to perfect the china were carried on by Richard 
Champion, of Bristol, merchant, who bought Cook- 
worthy's patent, and established the manufactory 
of hard porcelain at Bristol. Champion had, it 
appears, been associated with Cookworthy as partner 
when the works were at Plymouth. 

In '775i when Champion presented a petition to 
the Mouse of Commons to be granted the patent 
right for a further period of fourteen years to him- 
self, he was vigorously opposed b)- Josiah Wedg- 
wood, who represented that by granting a patent 



98 CHATS OS ESGLISH CHINA 

to Champion, it would be detrimental to trade and 
injurious to the public, urging, among other 
grounds, that "the use of the natural productions 
of the soil ought to be the right of all." W^edgwood 
presented a memorial to Parliament, and a fierce 
controversy ensued. " Much might be said on both 
sides," as Sir Roger De Coverley observes, and much 
was said on both sides. 

At first blush it seems hard that Cookworthy and 
Champion, who found the earth and worked hard 
at developing the manufactory in the West, should 
have no protection given to their secret But Wedg- 
wood, who speaks with authority, urged that when 
he invented his Queen's Ware he did not apply for a 
patent, which would have limited its public utility. 
" Instead of one hundred manufactories of Queen's 
Ware, there would have been one ; and instead of an 
exportation to all quarters of the world, a few pretty 
things would have been made for the amusement 
of the people of fashion in England." 

Without going further into the details of a con- 
troversy which trenches upon questions of political 
economy two facts stand out, and the reader can 
judge of them as he will. The patent was granted 
by Parliament to Richard Champion, who was 
subsequently ruined, and left England to die in 
South Carolina ; and secondly, hard paste was made 
at Plymouth and Bristol (never before or since in 
England), while the manufacture of the less difficult 
soft-paste porcelain and of pottery was carried on 
by the Staffordshire factories and Wedgwood. 

During the struggle between Wedgwood and 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA 99 

Champion one curious incident occurred. When the 
. Bill was before the House of Lords for discussion, 
one of Champion's witnesses left London for Bristol 
without permission. As it was necessary to brin^ 
him back at once, as the end of the session was at 
hand, he was recalled by an "express," which travelled 
the 240 miles to Bristol in twenty-seven hours ! 

In 1775 was passed (15 George III., cap 52) "an 
Act for enlarging the term of Letters Patent granted 
by his present Majesty to William Cookworthy, of 
Plymouth, Chymist, for the sole use and exercise of a 
discovery of certain materials for making Porcelain, 
in order to enable Richard Champion, of Bristol, 
merchant (to whom the said Letters Patent have 
been assigned), to carry the said discovery into 
effectual execution for the benefit of the public." 

So we shortly find the Bristol factory in full 
swing. The stock of Plymouth, and the tried 
workmen, were transferred to Bristol. First of all, 
attention was paid to common blue and white ware 
as likely to demand a ready sale, and to be profitable. 
As in the case of Worcester and other factories, 
Champion took Oriental models, and some of his 
ware is confounded with other makers who used 
the same models. The blue was of good colour, and 
dinner, tea, and coffee services, as well as jugs and 
mugs, were turned out, sometimes marked with the 
Bristol cross, but oftentimes without any dis- 
tinguishing mark at all, to the confound ment of the 
latter-day collectors. 

Bristol was very successful in imitating the 
commoner forms of Chinese ware. We reproduce a 



■^n. 



lOO CHATS 0\ EXGUSH CH/XA 

teajwt and cup and saucer. It will be observed that 
the cup follows the original model, and has no 
handle. 

The usual mark of Bristol was a plain cross, some- 
times in blue, sometimes in 
y^ red, and often in neutral tint, 

ll^ or slatey-grey. The crossed 

1 swords of Dresden, accom- 

panied by the Bristol cross 
^ and the figures lo, appear on 

one specimen. 
B Some of the following 

marks which we give have 

been assigned to Bristol. 

j\ Figures sometimes occur as 

^^Y^ well as the cross ; these are 

I believed to denote the painters 

•" engaged on the piece, and are 

often marked in red. On one 

known Bristol piece, a date 

occurs. But to colle.ctors of 

Bristol porcelain there is one 

y^ test which also applies in 

LT-> . . 1 HI I 1 more marked degree to the 
±>Tisto ii larks ^i ^.u ^u- • «.u 

^ J Plymouth ware ; this is the 

series of spiral ridges which 
may often be observed on the surface of the ware 
when held in reflected light. 

We have alluded to the somewhat heated con- 
troversy between Josiah Wedgwood and Richard 
Champion, who had transferred the plant from 
Plymouth and had applied for an extension of 



X 



.._ A w» 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA lOI 

Cookvvorthy's patent to himself. Josiah Wedgwood, 
we think somewhat unfairly, alleged that both 
Plymouth and Bristol factories were still in an 
experimental stage ; he belittles their art, which 
'' neither the ingenious discoverer nor the purchaser, 
for want, perhaps, of skill and experience in this 
particular business, have been able, during the space 
of seven years already elapsed, to bring to any useful 
degree of perfection." 

This is not the place to enter into the merits of 
a dead conflict between Staffordshire and Bristol. 
That Bristol was not merely an experimental 
factory is more than proved by the specimens which 
have come down to us, specimens, be it said, that 
are more eagerly sought after than many of Wedg- 
wood's productions, since they are of hard porcelain 
which Staffordshire never made, and which hard 
paste has never again been made in England, with 
the exception of Lowestoft. 

One of the choicest examples of the highest art of 
Bristol is preserved in the national collection at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. It is stated to have 
been " the best that the manufactory could produce.'* 
It was made in 1774-5, within a few months of the 
establishment of the works at Bristol. This example 
is interesting too, as being one of the few examples 
of the Bristol works, of which the exact date can 
be ascertained. 

In the year 1774 Edmund Burke was nominated 
for Bristol, the capital and richest city of the west. 
A fierce election contest followed, in which Burke 
was returned as one of the members. During this 



I02 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

election he was the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Smith, of 
Bristol, and it was then that Burke ordered a splendid 
set of china from Champion. We reproduce the cup 
and saucer of this service. It is profusedly and 
massively gilt in dead and burnished gold, the 
wreaths of laurel being in green, which was Burke's 
electioneering colour. 



From iimice erdered hy Edmund Burke. 

Each piece, as will be seen, bears the monogram 
of Mrs. Smith, "S. S." interlaced, formed of wreaths 
of roses in pink and gold, and also the arms of the 
family. This service is marked with the usual 
Bristol cross. 

It is obviously absurd to have asserted that such 
china was merely experimental. The collector of 
to-day has more than hall-marked Bristol porcelain. 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA IO3 

Recently, at Christie's Auction Rooms, £,\6% was 
paid for two small cups and a tea tray, and, alas ! 
Cookworthy and Champion died unsuccessful men. 



In Iki Fry Collection. 

If they are recognised to-day as martyrs to the 
ceramic art, their own generation were somewhat 
stiff-necked to their genius and enterprise. 
The vase which we reproduce shows to what 



I04 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

perfection the manufacturers had reached. Among 
the decorators of Bristol was Henry Bone, afterwards 
an R.A., and miniature enameller to the Royal 
Family. Bone was apprenticed to Champion for 
seven years, dating from January, 1772. 

This vase, in the possession of the Fry family of 
Bristol, is of hexagonal shape and is 12J inches in 
height. The landscapes are excellently painted, and 
it has well-modelled female busts on two of its 
sides, from which hang festoons of raised flowers 
in white. This vase and the other splendid and 
almost priceless vases in the possession of the same 
family are not marked. It appears that although 
only Champion's name appears on the documents in 
connection with the Bristol factory, he had partners 
who assisted him financially, one of whom was 
Joseph Fry, whose only return, when the factory was 
discontinued, for the money he had sunk into the 
concern, was the set of vases now in the hands of his 
descendants. 

We now come to the last act of Bristol. Wedg- 
wood writes to Bentley in a letter, dated August 24, 
1778, concerning Champion's failure: "Poor Cham- 
pion, you may have heard, is quite demolished ; it 
was never likely to be otherwise, as he had neither 
professional knowledge, sufficient capital, nor scarcely 
any real acquaintance with the materials he was 
working upon. I suppose we might buy some 
Growan Stone and Growan Clay now upon easy 
terms, for they have prepared a large quantity this 
last year." 

His patent right was sold by Champion to a 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA IO5 

company of Staffordshire potters, who continued the 
manufacture at New Hall for some little time until 
the ordinary soft paste was allowed to supersede 
Champion's hard paste. So ended the triumphs of 
Bristol and Plymouth. It appears that from 
November, 1781, to April, 1782, Champion left his 
native city to superintend the works of the china 
company who had purchased his rights. But Edmund 
Burke came to his rescue, and, conjointly with Burke's 
son Richard, Champion was appointed deputy pay- 
master-general. Champion occupied official apart- 
ments in Chelsea Hospital. In July a change of 
ministry lost him his post, but in April, 1783, he 
regained it, only to resign on the fall of the famous 
Coalition Ministry in January, 1784. In October, 
1784, he left England for South Carolina, where he 
became a planter. Seven years after leaving Eng- 
land he died of fever, and lies buried in the New 
World. 

There is nothing to be said — his fate was the fate 
of so many enthusiasts and workers in the field of 
art. Nobody has ever unveiled a monument to 
Champion's memory or to Cookworthy's memory. 
Nobody has designed a stained-glass window to 
record their ceramic triumphs. Their monument — 
and it is a lasting one — lies on the china shelf; 
the votaries of Plymouth and of Bristol porcelain 
need no spark to quicken their fire. 

We know Browning's "Waring" and his unfulfilled 
promise of greatness, and how the friend who has 
lost him, " like a ghost at break of day," wishes him 
back — 



I06 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

" Oh, could I have him back once more, 
This Waring, but one half-day more! 
Back, with the quiet face of yore, 
So hungry for acknowledgment 
Like mine, Td fool him to his bent. 
Feed, should not he, to heart's content ? 
rd say, * To only have conceived, 
Planned your great works, apart from progress. 
Surpasses little works achieved.'" 

And the world would call back its neglected and 
unrequited men of genius if it could, and herein lies 
the principle that makes china command high prices 
— these conscience-prickings are the tribute posterity 
pays. 

Characteristics of Plymouth and Bristol 

Porcelain. 

• 

Among special features of Plymouth and Bristol 
china, spiral ridges are to be seen, though often barely 
noticeable, running from the base transversely around 
the body of piece, more noticeable in basins and tea- 
pots, at an angle of 45°. The china of these factories 
is often untrue owing to imperfect firing, and is fre- 
quently cracked at base. The Bristol decorators had 
a partiality for wreaths and festoons of laurel in green, 
interspersed with detached bouquets of flowers. The 
Bristol glaze is rich and creamy white, and upon ex- 
amination a series of minute depressions, somewhat 
similar to the bubbles on Oriental glaze, may be 
discovered. 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA IO7 

RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 
Plymouth. £ s. d. 

Bowls and covers, pair, formed as doves 
on their nests. Christie, February S, 
1902 770 

Shell sweetmeat-dishes, two, painted with 
flowers in colours in the Chinese 
taste, and encrusted with coloured 
shells and seaweed ; and a smaller 
white ditto. Christie, February 5, 
1902 550 

Tankards, pair, painted with birds, trees 
and flowers in colours. Christie, 
February 5, 1902 . . . . 46 4 o 

Mug, bell-shaped, 5J in. high, painted 
exotic birds and continuous land- 
scape in brilliant colours (marked 
with Plymouth mark). Edwards, 
Son & Bigwood, Birmingham, May 
13, 1902 12 o o 

Bristol. 

Tea-cups and saucers, two, and a small 
tray, painted with medallion heads in 
gilt borders and festoons of green 
laurel-wreaths between ; and a bowl 
and cream-jug nearly similar. Christie, 
February 4, 1902 . . . . 168 o o 

' By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur 
these are given from their useful monthly publication, " Sale 
Prices." 



I08 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Teapot and cover and bowl, painted with £ s. d. 
bouquets or flowers. Christie, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1902 7150 

Dishes, oval-shaped pair, painted with 
festoons and sprays of flowers, in 
colours, gilt edges. Christie, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1902 16 16 o 

Bowls, pair, fluted, painted with bouquets 
of flowers, 1 1 J in. diameter. Christie, 
July 2, 1902 28 7 o 

Cabaret, decorated with festoons of foliage 
in green and horizontal gilt lines, 
consisting of oval plateau, teapot, 
sucrier and covers, milk-jug, and cup 
and saucer ; mark, Dresden crossed 
swords. Christie, July 2, 1902 . . 27 6 o 

Figures, pair, of a lady with tambourine, 
and a gentleman with a lyre, 1 1 in. 
high. Christie, June 10, 1902 . . 52 10 o 

Figures, Mars and Minerva, 13J in. high. 

Christie, June 20, 1902 . . . 19 19 o 

Figure of a nymph, allegorical of " Water," 

loj in. high. Christie, July 2, 1902 10 10 o 

Tea-service, Bristol, painted with bouquets 
and sprays of flowers in colours, and 
with gilt edges and handles, consist- 
ing of teapot, cover and hexagonal 
stand, milk-jug, eight tea-cups, six 
coffee-cups, and eight saucers, and a 
Plymouth cup and saucer, with 
flowers and red bands. Christie, 
November 21, 1902 . . . . 39 18 o 



PLYMOUTH AND BRISTOL CHINA IO9 

Service, painted in flowers, comprising £. s. • d. 
four tureens, covers, stands and two 
ladles, sixteen dishes of various sizes 
and twelve plates (42 pieces). E. J. 
Carter, Tunbridge Wells, January 20, 
1902 76 o o 

Tea-cup and saucer, painted with portrait 
medallions, green laurel festoons, gilt 
lines, and the interlaced initials R S. 
Part of service made by Champion for 
Sir Robert Smyth. From the Edkins 
Collection. Christie, June 16, 1903 37 16 o 



VI 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 



LOWESTOFT SAUCE-BOATS (BLUE AND WHI 
(Wilh fragnuni of Mould from whkh the; were ma 
In CotUaion of Mr. J. V. Yallep. 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 

We have dealt with Worcester and with Derby, with 
Chelsea and with Bow. Of the latter, we told of the 
difficulty of determining the marks, and of accurately 
naming the china ; but what are we to think of a 
factory, which we may term the "Mrs. Harris" among 
china factories, inasmuch as some people with no less ■ 
scepticism than Sairey Gamp's friend, believe it did 
not exist at all. The legends of Lowestoft are many 
and varied, but we think we shall succeed in presenting 
some sort of rational account of the factory to our 
readers, which may dispel many notions, perhaps 
wrongly, held by those to whom " Lowestoft " is a 
9 "3 



114 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

myth and the collecting of it a snare and a 
delusion. 

It is stated that a Dutch sailor, wrecked on the 
coast, in return for the hospitality of a gentleman who 
brought him to his house, was instrumental in point- 
ing out the value of the white earth which he dis- 



covered on the gentleman's estate. It is certain that 
the sand on the coast of Suffolk at Lowestoft is of 
great purity, as compared with that of other parts of 
the country, and, when the Lowestoft works were 
closed, the Worcester factory availed themselves of it 
in making their best porcelain. 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY US 

There are certain plates of reputed Lowestoft 
manufacture, dated 1752 and thereabouts, bearing 
the names of Quinton, of Yarmouth, Parrish, of Nor- 
wich, and other local farnilies. These plates are of 
earthenware body, with coarse decorations in blue, 
and having a yellow rim. They were made to cele- 
brate the marriage of the persons named on them. 
In the one we reproduce, specially photographed for 
this volume, the inscription runs : " Henry and Mary 
Quinton, Yarmouth, nor f f: oik. 1755." This lettering, 
with the two dots over the letters y, and the peculiar 
placing of the commas over the letters u, is conclusive 
evidence that it was written by a foreigner, and pre- 
sumably plates such as these were made in Holland 
to order of some shipmaster. 

One of the owners of the original factory was 
Robert Browne, who died in 1771, when the manage- 
ment was undertaken by his son — also Robert Browne 
— who made great experiments in pastes. There is 
a story of how Robert Browne the second paid a visit 
to London disguised as a workman, and by secreting 
himself in a barrel, was enabled to watch the mixing 
of the ingredients forming the paste of Chelsea or of 
Bow. 

The presence of coats of arms upon genuine known 
pieces of Lowestoft may have caused some confusion, 
which has continued to the present day. At the end 
of the last century a great deal of Oriental china was 
made having coats of arms of English families upon 
it. Although Lowestoft bore no resemblance in its 
body to Oriental ware, people came to suppose that, 
in some way or another, the ware was brought in its 



Il6 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

unfinished state from the East, and then decorated 
• and re-fired at Lowestoft. With the exception of 
Plymouth and Bristol, Lowestoft is the only factory 
in England which is credited with producing the true 
hard-paste porcelain, as made in the East ; all other 
old English chinas are of soft paste, and a great deal 
of our wares are earthenware, for instance, Wedgwood. 
But the claim thatT Lowestoft made hard paste has 
never been substantiated by facts. 

Lowestoft may be divided into two parts, the first 
dealing with the early period when blue and white ware 
was made, and the second period, when a finer and 
higher class of goods, with heraldic designs and floral 
intricacies, were introduced. At one period of its 
history the paste of Lowestoft appears to have been 
harder than that of Bow or Chelsea. Roughly, just 
a half of a century saw the rise and fall of Lowestoft. 
It was established from 1756, and in 1802 the factory 
had ceased. 

Many families in the Eastern Counties to this day 
possess specimens of the Lowestoft china with names 
and dates painted on them. This china with names 
or initials upon it, or bearing a date, in addition to its 
personal value is of historic interest in determining 
periods of manufacture. We give a highly interest- 
ing and very rare pair of dated cups and saucers, with 
unusual decorations, vine leaves in gold, clusters of 
grapes in red, and tablet in centre with inscription, 
**M. and E. Calder, Norwich, 1776," rich blue glaze 
and gold bands. 

Among other dated specimens of Lowestoft white 
and blue ware is a fine bowl, with Chinese figures of 






THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 117 

mandarins painted in blue, and inscribed at the 
bottom with the name, "Elizabeth Buckle, 1768." 
This Elizabeth Buckle is known to have been an 
eccentric old dame, and the service, of which this 
bowl is a remnant, was made for her by her nephew, 
Robert Allen. This Allen was one of the worthies of 
Lowestoft. In 1819, in his seventy-fourth year, he 
executed a design for the East window of the Parish 



Church (we know not whether it is still in existence 
at Lowestoft). In acknowledgment of this service, a 
silver cup was presented to him, with the inscription: 
" A token of respect to Mr. Robert Allen from his 
fellow -townsmen of Lowestoft, for having, at the 
advanced age of seventy- four, gratuitously and 
elegantly ornamented the East window of their 
Parish Church. Ann. Dom. 1819." 



Il8 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

After the closing of the Lowestoft works, Allen put 
up a small kiln at his own house, where he carried on 
operations on a limited scale. He bought the un- 
finished ware from Mr. Brameld, of the Rockingham 
factory, and painted it and refined it, selling it himself 
afterwards. 

We reproduce a design of a mug painted by 
Thomas Curtis for his father and mother, whose 




names appear on it. It is said that Curtis was formerly 
employed at Dresden, and that he was a " silent 
partner " in the Lowestoft works. Many other 
examples of blue and white exist with dates and 
names upon them, and there is more than enough 
evidence to show that, short as was the history of the 
Lowestoft factory, it did good work. 

We shall now proceed to give an account of the 
wonderful decorative qualities of a great artist in 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY UQ 

Lowestoft china, whose works now are worth many 
pounds, but whose latter days, when he was blind, 
were spent in poverty. 

We have dealt with the earlier ware made 
there — of the blue and white porcelain and of the 
delft ware probably made in Holland ; we now 
come to the higher and finer products of Lowestoft, 
over which so many debates have taken place. 
It has been held that this ware was decorated at 
Lowestoft, but that it was real Oriental body imported 
in its half-finished state from the East, and only 
painted and re-fired in this country. However, on 
the signed testimony of one of the workmen, it is 
positively stated that no Oriental porcelain ever came 
into the factory at Lowestoft to be decorated. " No 
manufactured articles were brought there to be 
painted, and every article painted in the factory had 
been previously made there." 

The question, too, of hard paste being made at 
Lowestoft is not yet proved ; among all the recently 
discovered fragments is nothing of hard paste. 

The theory that porcelain came over from China 
through Holland to Lowestoft, if it be examined, 
does not hold water. First, it would not have paid, 
especially as then a large duty existed on china im- 
ported, whereas Lowestoft china was produced at a 
fairly cheap cost, and supplied to the public to com- 
pete with Worcester, and Derby, and the Staffordshire 
makers. Again, when the Lowestoft factory broke 
up, there would naturally have been a lot of unfinished 
Oriental porcelain in its white state, prior to the 
decoration, thrown on the market. What became of 



I20 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

it all in 1802 ? Nobody ever seems to have seen any 
white china bowls, or white tea services, or white 
vases. 

But there is a certain amount of mystery about 
Lowestoft, and a great quantity of ware exists both 
in this country and abroad, which is classed as Lowe- 
stoft china, but which is really Oriental porcelain with 
British armorial bearings. 

To account for the frequency of the rose on Lowe- 
stoft ware, it has been remarked, to those given to 
speculation, that the arms of the borough are a 
Tudor rose. We prefer to believe that the French 
refugee of the name of Rose, who came to Lowestoft 
during the great Revolution, became the principal 
and one of the best of the porcelain painters at the 
factory, and introduced much of the delicacy of 
touch and taste into the china made there. Under- 
neath some of thie handles will be found a small rose, 
which is said to denote that the work was done by 
him. 

Perhaps some of our readers will look under the 
rose and read a story, sad enough, but true of many 
a man and many a maid. The French artist who, 
by your leave, ladies, painted red roses and twined 
chains of rosy wreaths, who put smiles and sunshine 
with his artful brush on to your tea serviceSj had 
a very aching heart at the end of the journey. Fate 
herself twined a chain of grey roses for him. He 
was blind and poor. In his old age, he laboured, a 
broken-down old man, in the heat of the sun. A 
couple of donkeys given to him out of charity 
enabled him to bring water into Lowestoft. A 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 121 

beggar, he would slake a beggar's thirst. " Wreaths 
of roses " — there is something gruesome in the sound 
of the words. Handle your china cups with more 
tenderness : human lives have gone to the making of 
them. The white-hot furnace and the minute brush- 
mark of your rose petal turned a man's day to dark 
night. Roses and wreaths of roses, and behind 
them all — tears. 

The writer is able to confirm the above statements 
respecting Lowestoft by information which has been 
courteously supplied by a kinswoman of the celebrated 
designer of the bouquets of roses on the Lowestoft 
porcelain. The first clay was discovered by Mr. 
Luson of Gunter Hall in 1756 (now the estate of 
Miss Fowler), who sent a small quantity to London 
to ascertain its quality. Upon trial it was found to 
be excellent, and Mr. Hewlin Luson procured work- 
men and erected a temporary kiln on his estate near 
the old Warren Houses on the Dunes north of 
Lowestoft. A good deal of jealousy was aroused 
and trade rivals attempted to wreck the scheme and 
tampered with the workmen engaged. After a 
year's struggle a company was formed who purchased 
some houses in Bell Lane, now Crown Street, and 
established a factory. 

In December, 1902, an interesting discovery was 
made on the site of the old Lowestoft factory. The 
,kiln for drying malt of Messrs. Morse, brewers, is 
actually the old kiln in which the Lowestoft ware was 
fired, and upon the flooring of this being removed to 
make a drain, several moulds and fragments of china 
were found. I am especially indebted to Mr. J. U. 



132 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Yallop, Fine Art Dealer, of Lowestoft, for much in- 
teresting information concerning this find, he being 
present while the digging operations were going on. 
This important discovery led to a complete inves- 
tigation of the old site, and, lai^ely owing to the 



enterprise of Mr. A. Merrington Smith, of Lowestoft, 
steps were taken to commence excavations. These 
resulted, in July, 1903, in the further find of several 
bushels of broken moulds and fragments ef china. 
We give an illustration of the scene when the moulds 
and fragments had been discovered. 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 123 

Among these fragments are some decorated pieces 
ready for glazing, which cannot be washed, as the 
colours, of course, come off. There are glazed frag- 
ments in blue and other colours. There is quite a 
variety of handles for cups, mugs, &c., and there are 
cups made without handles. There are some birth- 
day tablets, and some clay pipes with heraldic devices 



made for William Harvey, pf Yarmouth. One small 
piece, evidently part of the bottom of a cup, has a 
crescent marked in blue; but this does not prove 
that Lowestoft used the crescent as a mark ; in all 
probability it is the fragment of some Worcester 
piece they had for purposes of copying. 

There are also unglazed fragments for basket-work, 



124 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

and Lowestoft figures, unglazed, ready for firing. 
There are ribbed tea-cups and cups with cornflower 
decoration. Among other fragments are a great 
number of toy teapots and toy cups only an inch or 
two in height, decorated in blue. We give an illus- 
tration of this toy ware painted under-glaze in blue. 
The bulk of these moulds and fragments are in the 
possession of W. Rix Spelman, Esq., of Norwich, and 
it is to be hoped that careful study and research will, 
by means of these indisputable facts, re-establish the 
reputation of Lowestoft — 

"Defamed by every charlatan 
And soil'd with all ignoble use." 

Mr. Crisp, of Denmark Hill, London, possesses 
some of the moulds which were disinterred at the 
first discovery on the Lowestoft site. He has had 
china made in them and baked, and has presented 
the results to the British Museum, where they are 
now exhibited. They seem too poorly made to show 
to advantage the delicate patterns in relief. 

The headpiece (p. 113) shows two sauce-boats, 
blue and white, with raised decoration. It will be 
seen from the fragment of mould, photographed with 
them, how exactly this newly discovered mould helps 
to identify the pieces. 

Among the fragments is part of a teapot mould, 
on which is the date 1761. Chaffers, in his authorita- 
tive work on china, remarks of Lowestoft that some 
of the larger pieces bear traces of having been " made 
in a mould," and here, just a hundred years after the 
factory ceased, comes corroborative evidence. 



'■John Cooper. 176I 
B of Mr. J. U. 1 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 127 

There is an interesting mould for an oval per- 
forated basket, such as Bow and Chelsea produced, 
with diamond spaces to be cut out ; and upon one of 
the fragments of a mould for a sugar basin appears 
the most delicate tracery and exquisite designs in 
leaves and scrolls, and prominent among the decora- 
tion is the Japanese chrysanthemum. 

All East Anglians and lovers of old Lowestoft 
will be pleased at this piece of new evidence in 
favour of the theories held concerning the old factory, 
whose reputation has been well-nigh blasted* by 
thousands ^f spurious imitations made in France — 
literally covered by vulgar .design and more vulgar 
coats of arms. 

We are able to reproduce some genuine old Lowe- 
stoft. A remarkable piece is the old mug, about 6 in. 
high, depicting an old fishwife with bellows under 
her arm, and holding a spit of herrings. This is deco- 
rated in blue and white. On the reverse side of mug 
is a fishing boat. At the bottom it bears the name 
"John Cooper, 1768." Under the scroll of the 
handle are the letters " R. P.," probably signifying that 
it is the work of Richard Philips,, a painter at the 
Lowestoft factory. Unfortunately it is damaged, as 
will be seen by the illustration, but for all that it is a 
specimen of considerable value. The jug we illus- 
trate, having the " Mandarin " decoration common to 
Worcester and Bristol, is a fine example of Lowestoft 
under-glaze blue painting. It bears the figure 5 upon 
it as a mark. It may be observed that many of the 
Lowestoft pieces of blue and white bear a striking 
resemblance to old Worcester. At first blush one is 



128 CHATS Of/ ENGLISH CHINA 

inclined to believe them to be Worcester, but the blue 
is not quite the Worcester blue, and the glaze tells its 
own story. There are pits and dimples, and little 



III CoUtclien of Mr. J. U. Vallof. 

raised surfaces here and there, particularly under the 
bases of cups, that are characteristic of Lowestoft. 
" A Trifle from Lowestoft," a legend which is a 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 129 

familiar one on Lowestoft ware, is an inkstand, with 
floral design in that shade of red peculiar to Lowe- 
stoft but so difficult to describe in words. The 
decoration on this piece is especially characteristic of 
the factory, and we ask readers to make a note of it. 
There are certain marks on undoubted Lowestoft 



pieces which the writer has examined. The letter 
" R," which might be the signature of Redgrave the 
painter. On another piece the letter " H " appears 
under the rim, which may stand for Hughes. The 
letters " R. P." on the mug we illustrate (p. 135) may 
equally stand for Richard Powles or Richard Philips. 



I30 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

On one piece two Us appear back to back (JL). Is 
this Luson, Lowestoft? While on other pieces 
appear the mark X in red and in blue. 

Characteristics of Lowestoft China. 

The china is soft paste, and is often very badly 
potted. The blue is inclined to run. There is a 
gritty appearance in places on the glaze, which is 
spotted as if by sand. In some of the blue decorated 
pieces, where a flight of birds is introduced, the 
crescent moon (like the Worcester crescent mark) 
has been put in almost as a challenge to Worcester. 
One especial feature is the green hue of the glaze 
settled under the rims of saucers and basins and cups. 
The paste often has little bumps on it, and a mound 
in the centre of base under rim. ftoses, set back to 
back, appear on Lowestoft pieces. The red of Lowe- 
stoft is of a peculiar quality, approaching puce in 
some specimens, and varying from mauve pink to 
carmine. 



RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 
Lowestoft. £ s. d. 

Vases, pair, 12 in., melon shape, in blue, 
white, and colours, with covers. 
Maddison, Miles & Maddison, Great 
Yarmouth, February 4, 1902 3 10 o 

' By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur these 
are given from their useful monthly publication, " Sale Prices." 



THE LOWESTOFT FACTORY 



131 



Two-handled bowl, cover and stand, 
painted with bouquets of flowers, and 
with branches of foliage in low relief, 
slightly gilt, 6 in. high. Christie, 
May 12, 1902 

Bowl, loj in., painted in flowers, with 
trees and cattle. S. Mealing Mills, 
Norwich, December 3, 1902 

Vases and covers, set of three, and a pair 
of beakers, painted with baskets of 
flowers in colours, and encrusted with 
coloured vine branches and squirrels 
vases \2\ in. high, beakers 13! in 
high. Christie, March 20, 1903 

Vases and covers, pair, large pear-shaped 
en suite, 19 in. high. Christie 
March 20, 1903 

Dinner-service, the borders painted in 
flowers and the centre decorated with 
ornate armorial bearings, &c., con- 
sisting of 38 pieces, 9 pieces of which 
are either cracked or repaired. Jenner 
& Dell, Brighton, May 19, 1903 

Old mug, soft paste, decorated in blue 
and white, with figure holding spit of 
herrings. Fishing boats on reverse 
side, at bottom, name " John Cooper, 
1768." Signed "R. P." — Richard 
Philips, a painter at Lowestoft. 
Messrs. Notley, Lowestoft, July, 1903 



s. 



d. 



16 o o 



7 5 o 



32 II 



23 o o 



50 o o 



HOG 



vn 



COALPORT 



COAI.PORT 

The history of Coalport porcelain manufactured in 
Shropshire on the banks of the Severn is worth the 
telling, and those readers who are possessed of 
specimens of the older ware issuing from this factory 
will be glad to hear of its first beginnings. 

Unlike some of the other great manufactories; 
Coalport, we are happy to say, is still in existence. 
Bow and Chelsea, Nantgarw and Swansea, Bristol 
and Plymouth have disappeared. The potter's wheel 
is silent, and the brush of the artist has been laid 
aside for ever. Long since the potters have turned 
into clay themselves. At Bow, where the exquisite 
ware was produced on the banks of the Lea (" New 
Canton," as the manufactory styled itself), a match 
factory stands on the old foundation. Instead of 



136 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

delicate and fragile cupids they now make nnatches, 
but of the kind more associated with Lucifer than 
with Cupid. 

With Derby and with Worcester, Coalport can 
boast that it was established in the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Indeed, there is evidence that 
the Salopian china made in Colebrookdale is taken 
from the same beds of clay which fifteen hundred 
years ago supplied the Romans with material for 
their white ware, for their jugs, their mortaria, and 
their bowls, which -are constantly being unearthed 
at various spots in the valley of the Severn. 

The site of the first works was at Caughley, where 
a small pottery was begun about 1754. Early in its 
history the names of Brown, Gallimore, and Turner 
occur. In my "Chat" on the great Worcester 
factory I showed that Dr. Wall was the leading spirit 
who infused life into the concern, and it would appear 
that Thomas Turner was in some measure induced 
to emulate him, and it is seen on comparison that 
the early examples of Caughley were very similar to 
those of contemporary Worcester. The patterns 
were principally confined to blue flowers and 
decorations on a white ground. From 1756 to 1776 
the manufactory attained a great excellence. There 
exists a mug bearing the date 1776, and the name 
" Francis Benbow." There is a nautical ring about 
the name. One recollects Admiral Benbow and his 
gallant deeds ; our Francis Benbow was a bargeman, 
for whom the mug was made, but his name will go 
down tQ posterity on this Caughley mug, as it is the 
most perfect specimen of its kind. 



COALPORT 



137 



We give a reproduction of this mug, and readers 
will observe the anchor marked over the name, and 
we would call especial attention to the nature of the 
decoration upon the mug. Dated chinas of old 
manufacture are specimens very worthy of notice, as 
they are much sought after, and in many cases are 
being reproduced with the old dates upon them. 

The excellence of Turner's porcelain and the 
invention of the beautiful dark blue of the Caughley 




CAUGHLEY. OLD BLUE MUG. 
(Inscribed and Dated 1776.) 



china, attributed to him, brought the factory into 
great prominence. But great secrecy was employed 
in its manufacture, and the place hidden away in the 
hills was an ideal spot for a manufactory wishing to 
be self-contained and free from prying strangers. 
In 1780 was produced the celebrated "Willow 
Pattern," which is in demand even at the present 
day, and has been copied by all the other manu- 



138 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

factories. The " Blue Dragon," another favourite 
pattern, originated at Caughley, and it was here 
that the first blue-printed table service was made in 
England. It was made for Thomas Whitmore, Esq., 
of Apley Park, near Bridgnorth, the pattern was 
called the " Nankin." It is interesting to note that 
Thomas Minton, of Stoke, assisted in the completion 
of this service, being articled as an engraver there. 

Until the end of 1790 Messrs. Chamberlain, of 
Worcester, had their porcelain in the white from 
Thomas Turner, of Caughley. As an instance of 
the great secrecy employed by Turner, we may say 
that he used to mix all the bodies himself, but after- 
wards instructed his sister how to do it. It may 
add an additional zest to your old white and blue 
Caughley ware to know that a woman who could 
keep a secret was intimately associated with its 
manufacture. 

In 1780 Turner, who had paid a visit to France to 
study the foreign methods, brought back with him a 
number of skilled artists and workmen. About this 
time, too, Mr. John Rose, who had learned the art of 
pottery under Turner, left him to establish a factory 
of his own at Jackfield. Jackfield, it may be noticed 
in passing, is one of the oldest potteries in the 
country. As early as 1560 entries occur in the 
parish registers of Stoke-upon-Trent of potters 
" from Jackfield." In a disused coal mine here, some 
years ago, a brown mug was found which bore the 
date 1634. Jackfield was noted for some of its black 
decanters of superior glaze, and up to quite a modern 
date made a yellow glazed earthenware. 



CO ALPORT 139 

Finally, the competition between Mr. Rose and 
the old Caughley works became so great that the 
old factory was swallowed up by the new one, and 
Coalport became the headquarters and the name of 
the firm became John Rose and Company, Mr. 
Turner withdrawing from the business. 

The exact dates are as follows : Between 1780 to 
1790 John Rose established his works at Coalport 
(he was only at Jackfield for a few years). He 
carried on these and the Caughley, which he pur- 
chased in 1799, up till 1 8 14, when Caughley was 
finally discontinued. 

Salopian SALOFiAI^' 

X 



i 



s Sr i So S 



All these are very dry facts which you must 
master in order to understand the specimens on 
your china shelf There is an additional interest, it 
always seems to me, in knowing of the men and 
women who gave their lives to the perfection of an 
industry. There are in existence portraits of 
Thomas Turner and his wife, and we should 
particularly like to see the likeness of the lady who 
secretly mixed the chinas. Perhaps some of our 
readers may come across some family in Shropshire 
who may possess them. 



I40 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

With regard to marks, unfortunately not all the 
specimens of Caughley were marked. The above 
are some of the varieties of the crescent occurring 
on some of the ware, and show pretty clearly the 
transition from a half-moon to the engraved C. The 
word " Salopian " is sometimes impressed, and on 
one known specimen is the name " Turner." Various 
forms of the letter "S," sometimes with a cross, are 
used. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the 
written name " Coalport " was used, though not 
extensively, and another mark, the letters *' C. D.," 
standing for Colebrookdale, was also used, but some- 
what sparingly. 

In 1820 both Swansea and Nantgarw factories 
were incorporated with Coalport, and Messrs. 
Billingsley and Walker, well-known names in the 
history of English china manufacture, came to 
Coalport. In 1820 Mr. Rose received the gold medal 
of the Society of Arts for his Felspar porcelain, and 
this date is a turning point in the history of Coalport. 

At this time Coalport began to establish a reputa- 
tion for its excellence, which placed it on a level with 
the other great manufactories — a reputation, be it 
said, that has increased as time has gone on. We 
reproduce a handsome vase of Coalport manufacture, 
richly decorated with pink and gold, on a blue 
ground. Its elegant form is typical of the ware at 
its best period. 

At the present moment the productions of Coal- 
port, both old and modern, are unequalled in their 
domain. The old traditions of the firm are still 



COALPORT 141 

maintained, and the ware of to-day is of the highest 
possible artistic merit and excellence. 

By the kindness of the proprietors of the Coalport 
manufactory, we are enabled to give some further 



account of the modern ware, and to reproduce illus- 
trations of the later marks used and of the sumptuous 
plates turned out at the present day from Iron 
Bridge, in Shropshire. 



142 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 



Gooi^lh/crit 

G2J 



In the year 1820, the first year of the reign of 
George IV., Mr. JcAn Rose obtained the gold medal 
of the Society of Arts for his " improved "glaze for 
porcelain." At this time a mark was adopted on 
some of the ware, "Coalport Improved Felspar 
Porcelain," enclosed in a wreath of laurel. Surroun- 
ding the wreath are the words "Patronised by the 

Society of Arts." The name " I. Rose 
and Co." is marked underneath. If 
any of our readers have any porcelain 
having this mark, they will notice how 
good is the paste and how excellent 
^^ the glaze. 

Q^\ Just prior to the mark above alluded 

to, the word Coalport was used and 
sometimes the letters " C. D." — 
standing for Cole-Brook-Dale. Other 
marks of a later date are a monogram 
formed of the letters " C. B. D.," and 
the same enclosed in a circle with the 
word " Daniell, London," an eminent 
firm acting as agents and connected 
with the sale of the ware in London. 
This firm had depots in Bond Street 
and in Wigmore Street, and there is 
in the national collection a plate with bleu-de-roi 
ground, enriched with gilding, one of a service 
executed by command of Her Majesty the late 
Queen Victoria for presentation to the Emperor of 
Russia. This service was exhibited at the Great 
Exhibition of 1851. In the centre of the plate is 
painted ,the Order of St. Andrew, while the body 





COALPORT 



143 




is ornamented with Russian orders painted on ivory- 
coloured ground in six compartments. 

We now come to a very curious mark which may 
have puzzled some of our readers, 
but which is easily explained. It 
is a scroll somewhat like that which 
stands for the word " and " — &. 
Within its curves appear the three 
letters " C. S. N." Upon examina- 
tion it will be found that the afore- 
said curves really make two letters, 
viz., "C. and S.," which stand for 
Coalport and Salopian^ while the 
other three letters stand for Caughley, 
Szvansea, and Nantganv — the whole 
emblematical of the development of 
the manufactory and its absorption 
of the smaller factories. 

We give an illustration of the 
various marks placed in order of date 
used, up to and including the one 
now in use by the firm. Our readers 
may be able to form some idea by 
comparision of the dates of their 
specimens. 

It must be observed that much of 
the earlier Coalport was unmarked, 
while — we blush to have to print 
it — some of the ware imitated the double " L " mark 
of Sevres, and the " C " and anchor of Chelsea arid the 
crossed swords of Dresden, so successfully as to 
delude the unwary collector. The celebrated ^^'g- 










A.O. 1750. 



LATEST 

COALPORT 

MARKS. 



144 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

shell porcelain of Coalport ranks among the most 
marvellous china ever produced in this country. It is 
rarely marked with any letters or signs, but it carries 
upon it a signature of perfection of manufacture and 
exquisite symmetry of design such as no other factory 
dared emulate, and no other factory has since ap- 
proached. These tiny cups and saucers (the cup 
follows Chinese models by having no handle) are gems 
of ceramic art, and happy is the collector who can 
number one or two good specimens in his china 
cabinet. 

The well-known *' Willow Pattern," first manufac- 
tured here, is from a Chinese model. It is still 
manufactured by the Coalport Company, and is one 
of their stock patterns. It appears on a list of 
some forty patterns, which can be and are manu- 
factured without the use of lead. 

Readers may find the words " Leadless Glaze " on 
some of their quite recent purchases in modern 
china. The terrible effects of lead on the workpeople 
in china factories is a subject which has received the 
attention of Parliament (see p. xxi). But in passing it 
is highly satisfactory to find that the Coalport 
Company turn out, without special order, forty 
patterns entirely " leadless." Any one who is 
specially desirous of having "leadless glaze" on 
any other of the Coalport ware may do so by 
ordering it. 

To come down to the very latest marks, there are 
three that have been in use. The first in the seventies, 
the second in the eighties, and the last, now solely 
used, was adopted some twelve years ago with the 



COALPOST 14s 

addition of the word " England " to meet the require- 
ments of the American Tariff Act, which made it 
compulsory for foreign goods to be thus stamped. 

The first has the words " Salopian, Coalport," in 
a scroll, which has within it the old mark of Caughley, 



{By courtesy of the CoalpOFi Co.) 

a crescent with "A,D. 1750" beneath it, and in 
addition the letters "C. S. N.," in scroll as before 
alluded to, and having the date, " A.D. 1790," under- 
neath. This is a very complicated mark, and is not 
generally known. 



146 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

The second is a crown with the word " Coalport, 
A.D. 1750," underneath. The third is the same with 
the addition of the word " England." 

In conclusion we may quote the fact, to give our 
readers some idea of the quality of the ware now being 
exported by the Coalport Company, that some of the 
dinner ware sent to America costs no less a sum than 
£$ per plate, while there are even more sumptuous 
and magnificent specimens of their manufacture 
which cost £1$ each plate. One of these we repro- 
duce ; it is a plate with a coloured design painted 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds' celebrated portrait of Mrs. 
Robinson. Our illustration can give little other than 
a faint idea of the beauty of colour and of the wealth 
of decorative design — a triumph of the potter's art 
which has almost the grace and delicacy of an 
old-world miniature. 

Characteristics of Caughley and Coalport 

China. 

Caughley. — The early pieces, printed in under-glaze 
blue, resemble the early Worcester blue and white ; 
but Caughley is whiter in appearance, and the blue 
has not the mellowness of old Worcester. Introduc- 
tion of "Willow pattern," and similar designs, and the 
" Broseley dragon." 

Coalport, — " Chantilly sprig," " Tournay sprig," 
" Worm sprig," introduced by Billingsley from 
Pinxton. A maroon ground, introduced by Walker 
from Nantgarw about 1822. The deep mazarine blue 
of Derby, reproduced at Coalport, is quite equal to 
Derby pieces in tone. The rich ground colours of 



CO ALPORT 147 

old Sevres porcelain were copied with great success 
at Coalport, particularly the turquoise blue and the 
rose-du-Barri, 



RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 

Caughley. £ s. d. 

Tea and coffee service, fluted, flowers in 
blue and gold and dark blue and 
gold borders, 31 pieces. Christie, 
January 30, 1902 . . . .770 

Vases, pair, 14 in., decorated with raised 
flowers and gilt, and choicely painted 
in birds and Watteau subjects. Gud- 
geon & Sons, Winchester, April 3, 
1902 15 10 o 

Ecuelle, cover and stand, with rustic 
handles and flowers in relief, pierced 
cover, blue decoration, mark "C" in 
blue. Willman & Douglas, Middles- 
brough, July 27, 1903 . . 4 10 o 

Coalport. 

Tureens, oval, pair and covers, with panels 
of flowers on crimson ground, gilt. 
Christie, January 24, 1902 . .15150 

Plates, set of twelve, with shaped borders, 
variously painted in the centre with 
named views by Birbeck, birds by 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur these 
are given from their useful monthly publication, " Sale Prices." 



148 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Randall, fruit, flowers, and foliage £ s. d. 
by Cook, in coloured gilt and 
jewelled borders. Christie, February 
18, 1902 II II o 

Vases, set of three, with beaker-shaped 
necks and escalloped lips, painted 
with flowers, on dark blue and gold 
ground, and with white and gold 
acanthus leaves in relief, 8 in. and 
9 in. high. Christie, February 21, 
1902 4 15 o 

Bowl and cover, two-handled, encrusted 
with branches of coloured flowers and 
foliage, 1 1 in. high. Christie, April 
4, IQ02 16 5 6 



vin 



SPODE AND HIS SUCCESSORS 



SPODE AND HIS SUCCESSORS 

The chain of potters is complete from the day on 
which Josiah Spode was apprenticed to Whieldon in 
1749. The entry in the old account book runs : 
" 1749, April 9th. Hired Siah Spode, to give him 
from this time to Martelmas next 2s. 3d., or 2s. 6d. if 
he deserves it, 2iid year 2s. gd., 3rd year 3s. 3d." The 
successors to Spode, Messrs. Copeland, have done 
much to develop the manufacture of English por- 
celain in the nineteenth century, and at the present 
day they are producing china of the highest excellence. 
The first Josiah Spode established a factory at 
S to ke-upon -Trent about 1770. Some of his earliest 
productions bear the name " Spode " impressed in the 
paste. These of my readers who have blue willow- 



152 CHATS ON ENCLISH CHINA 

pattern plates with this mark upon them are the 
possessors of some of the first plates of that pattern 
made. About 1780 the willow pattern was intro- 
duced by Turner at Caughley, and very shortly after- 
wards, in i784,Josiah Spodewas turning out at Stoke 
his blue printed plates. Some of his china is printed 
in black, and pieces of this black printing are much 



Al Belknal Green Museum. 

sought after by collectors, but they must bear the 
word " Spode " impressed on them. 

The vase which we reproduce from the collection 
at the Bethnal Green Museum is a pastille-burner 
having perforated cover ; it is mounted on tripod 
stand formed by three dolphins on triangular base ; 
it is red in colour and ornamented in black in relief. 
It has the impressed mark "Spode," and is earthen- 



SPODE AND HIS SUCCESSORS 1 53 

ware, but we give it here on account of its fine 
form. 

On the death of old Josiah Spode, in 1798, his son 
Josiah continued the business, and commenced the 
manufacture of porcelain, which he improved by the 
addition of bone-ash and of felspar. He died in 1827, 
and was succeeded by his cousin, Josiah Spode. 
This third Josiah Spode died a few years afterwards, 
at which date the name Spode practically disappears 
from the firm. 

Josiah - Spode the second was the most successful 
potter of his day. It is pleasing to be able to record 
that he acquired a considerable fortune — a lot not 
often within the reach of potters, successful or 
otherwise. 

About the year 1805 he introduced a fine ware 
which he termed opaque porcelain. This ware be- 
came very popular and was of excellent manufacture. 
While Nelson was fighting the French at Trafalgar, 
and breaking their naval pretensions, Josiah Spode 
was inflicting a commercial blow upon that unhappy 
country. Spode — and in his wake came other 
Staffordshire manufacturers —inundated France and 
other countries on the Continent with this new stone 
china of his, which entirely superseded their fayence. 
This injury was a very real one to the poor potters of 
France, inasmuch as a great number of them had to 
abandon the manufacture. 

We have already alluded to the impressed mark 
Spode or SPODE. On some of the finer pieces the 
name is painted in red, and sometimes it is written in 
gold, as in our third mark in an angular hand, run- 



154 



CHATS ON ENGLISN CHINA 



SPODJET 



ning upwards. The stamped mark usually in red, 
"Spode's New Fayence" and "Spode Stone China," 
appears on the ironstone ware. Oftentimes the mark 
is not stamped on the middle of the plate underneath, 
but at the side, while sometimes the name is both 

stamped and impressed. Be- 
sides the marks we give there 
are more than half a dozen 
other forms used by the factory, 
but all of them containing the 
^ ^^ word"Spode," and therefore not 

\y presenting difficulties to the 

collector. 

Of three marked Spode plates 
in possession of the writer, 
of typical Spode decoration, 
which was largely influenced by 
Japanese art, we give two as a 
headpiece. It will be observed 
that the left-hand plate in the 
headpiece, which has a vivid 
blue background, is fretted with 
a geometric pattern as a design. 
This is intended to represent 
ice, and the may-flowers of the 
covering decoration are in- 
tended to convey, by the Chinese artist who invented 
it, the symbolic meaning of young love being chilled 
by adversity. The other plate in the same illus- 
tration is of a brilliant canary-coloured ground, 
covered with a gossamer-like network of cobwebs, 
above which bird and flowers are painted. 





Stone-Chmei 



SOME SPODE MARKS. 



SPODF. AND HIS SUCCESSORS 1 55 

The third plate shows very strongly the influence of 
the East in its method of decoration; but instead of 
pagoda and delicate curves, the English artist has 
almost brutally placed a piece of European architec- 



ture on the other half of the plate, which by its 
incongruity mars the remainder. 

We must turn aside from Spode, and introduce our 
readers to his successors, the Copelands. One word 
in passing. Those who have specimens of Spode 
ware will do well to remember that his was a great 
factory, not so well known as Derby and Worcester, 



156 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 



Copeland, late 
Spode. 

-JLATF^ 
gl SPODES 



Oh V 



C. and G. 




but a formidable rival of theirs. Not many months 
ago at Christie's a pair of Spode vases, square shaped, 

decorated with landscapes, birds and 
flowers in the Chinese style, forty- 
two inches, brought ;£^2i. 

The list of marks used by Messrs. 
Copeland will show at a glance the 
changes in the title of the firm. In 
1833 the firm became Copeland, late 
Spode, and the china was marked 
accordingly. 

There are a good many other 
marks besides those we give, but all 
are more or less similar, with slight 
variation to those we produce. A 
word of explanation is necessary as 
to the mark "C and G.'' This is fre- 
quently accompanied by the words, 
"New Blanche," "Royal Opal," 
'' Saxon Blue," or " New Japan Stone," 
according to the composition or 
decoration of the ware. 

The two plates we give as illus- 
trations are very good examples of 
the purely English productions of 
Messrs. Copeland. They are about 
the date of the International Exhi- 
bition of 1 86 1. Nobody could pos- 
sibly mistake the homely robin or 
the holly-wreath decoration for that 
of any other country than ours. There is a sugges- 
tion of roast beef and plum-pudding and Christmas 





COfClANO 

MARKS OF 
MESSRS. COPE- 
LAND. 



SPODE AND H/S SUCCBSSOKS 1 57 

fare. All purely English art is homely, whether it 




be the Staffordshire potter's farmyard quadrupeds 
that adorn the cottage mantelshelf, or the old blue 



158 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

dinner services of our great grandmothers. It is a 
debatable point if that is the highest art, but there it 
is. Ruskin would have had some hard things to say 
about it, and maybe William Morris preferred the 
potsherd of an Italian shepherd. The fact remains 
that it is our art, and whatever we may in our inner- 
most hearts wish it to be, we have to take it and study 
it as we find it. 

Before leaving the subject of these later and more 
modern chinas we may say, in passing, that the firm 
of Messrs. Copeland have done more than any other 
existing firm to maintain the traditions of a great 
factory. They have adhered to early designs, and 
all through the nineteenth century their record has 
been an exceedingly high one. It was Messrs. Cope- 
land who first introduced, in 1845, their Parian ware, 
a very near approach to true porcelain. The writer 
has seen a Copeland and Garrett plate which in 
appearance was fully equal to Derby at its best 
period. 

Much of modern china is beautiful, and a great 
deal more of it is execrable. To help the reader to 
distinguish between what is good and what is not 
has been the aim of these " Chats." The overloaded 
ornamentation of the early Victorian chinas and the 
flaming and . grotesque attempts to arrive at a rich 
effect are very sad studies to the real lover of the 
beautiful. 

Characteristics of Spode China. 

Spode ware is well potted, and feels to the touch 
like turned ivory. It can readily be distinguished 



SPODE AND HIS SUCCESSORS 159 

from any of the glassy porcelains. It is light in 
weight. In design it follows Japanese . more than 
Chinese models. The glaze is very even and smooth. 

RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 

Spode. £ s. d. 

Breakfast service, printed with flowers in 
colours in Chinese taste, 35 pieces. 
Christie, January 30, 1902 . . . 5 15 6 

Tea service, painted in red, blue, and 
gold, 39 pieces. Christie, January 17, 
1902 12 I 6 

Vase and cover, octagonal -shape, deco- 
rated with flowers in Oriental taste 
in colours and gold, 24 in. high. 
Christie, January 14, 1902 . . 5156 

Vases, five, purple, crimson, and gilt 

decoration. Foster, January 9, 1902 9 5 o 

Vases, three small, decorated. Puttick, 

January 17, 1902 . . . .0110 

Basket and cover, dark blue and gold 
ground, and painted with bouquets 
of flowers. Sotheby, February 24, 
1902 626 

Dishes, two, oblong shaped, decorated in 
the Japanese taste, blue, red, and gold. 
Hepper & Sons, Leeds, February 5, 
1902 • 3 15, o 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur ihQ^c 
items are given from their useful monthly publication, " Sale 
Prices." 



l60 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Spill-vases, pair, gold ground, painted in £ s. d. 
flowers. Hepper & Sons, Leeds, 
February 5, 1902 . .200 

Cake-plates, three, gilt and painted land- 
scapes, "The Church and Castle of 
Scurlogstown, Co. of East Meath," 
" The Remains of Wolvesey Castle," 
and "The Bridge and Priory, New- 
town, Co. of East Meath" (marked 
" Spode "). Edwards, Son & Bigwood, 
Birmingham, May 13, 1902 . . 10 10 o 

Dessert service, apple-green border, gilt, 
each piece painted in flowers and 
fruit, consisting of one tall compote, 
seven oval dishes, four leaf-shaped 
ditto, two sauce-tureens, covers and 
stands, and seventeen plates. Ben- 
nett & Son, Dublin, June 18, 1902 27 10 o 

Supper ser.vice, willow pattern, blue and 
white, of ten pieces, with mahogany 
circular tray for same. E. J. Carter, 
Tunbridge Wells, August 13, 1902 . 13 o o 

Dessert service, decorated in Oriental 
colourings, 37 pieces. Brady & Sons, 
Perth, September i, 1902 . . . 16 16 o 

Dinner set, decorated with sprays, leaves, 
and flowers, comprising 119 pieces. 
Brady & Sons, Perth, September i, 
1902 25 o o 

Dinner set, decorated in scarlet, blue, 
green, and gold, comprising 133 
pieces. Brady & Sons, Perth, Sep- 
tember I, 1902 45 o o 



SPODE AND H/S SUCCESSORS l6l 

Tea service, gilt and decorated, 45 pieces. £ s. d. 
Jabez Jones & Sons, Preston, De- 
. cember 15, 1902 . . . 28 7 o 

Vases and covers, pair, large square shaped, 
decorated with landscapes, birds and 
flowers in the Chinese taste in sunk 
panels on dark-blue ground, gilt with 
foliage, and with dragon handles in 
high relief and figures on the covers, 
42 in. high, on wood pedestals, 
painted white. Christie, December 
19, 1902 21 o o 

COPELAND. 

Vases, set of three, rich blue, gilt, white 
scroll handles, and painted in colours, 
with wild flowers, centre vase 15 in. 
high, side vases 1 3 J in. high (marked 
" Copeland & Garrett, Felspar Porce- 
lain, late Spode "). Edwards, Son & 
Bigwood, Birmingham, May 13, 1902 26 o o 

Dessert service of 24 pieces, pink ground, 
decorated with gold, the centres 
painted in panels of hunting and 
other sporting scenes, each different, 
marked " Copeland and Garrett," 
centre compdte, 2 oblong, 2 oval, and 
4 circular side dishes, and 1 5 plates. 
De Rome & Son, Kendal, May 13, 

1903 18 o o 

12 



IX 

NANTGARW AND SWANSEA 

The history of these two factories in Wales is 
bound up together. Billingsley, the chief flower- 
painter of Derby, was the founder of the little factory 
at Nantgarw, a small village a few miles north of 
Cardiff. 

His was a restless, roving career. In other 
" Chats " we have alluded to him. Apprenticed 
at Derby under Duesbury, he left there in 1796, 
to commence the manufacture of porcelain at 
Pinxton. In 1801 we find he had left Pinxton and 
was engaged upon the decoration of Staffordshire 
porcelain at Mansfield, in Nottinghamshire. He 
is next described as "of Torksey," which is near 
Gainsborough. At Worcester he engaged himself 
under Messrs. Flight and Barr, and was employed on 
flower-painting from 1808 to 181 1. 

Billingsley was known as " Beeley " at this time. 
Monetary difficulties had compelled him to take 
precautions against his arrest for debt. About this 
time, too, together with his son-in-law, Samuel 

Walker, he appears to have visited the Coalport 

165 



1 66 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Factory and erected a new kiln, the invention of 
Walker. 

Of late, a considerable interest has been shown in 
the porcelain of Nantgarw and Swansea. Collectors 
have ascribed to it artistic qualities greater than 
those of Worcester or Derby. The lovers of 
Nantgarw, and those connoisseurs who collect this 
and no other porcelain, will not admit that it is 
in any way inferior to the greatest factories that 
have existed in this country, and compare it to 
Sevres. 

Recently at Christie's Auction Rooms a dessert 
service of Nantgarw manufacture brought ;^I28 2s. 
Each piece was painted with a bouquet of flowers in 
the centre, the borders with raised white scrolls, 
painted with birds and flowers. This service con- 
sisted of centre dish, on feet, four square-shaped 
dishes, two-leaf shaped dishes, seventeen plates and 
two small plates. This works out at nearly £^ 15s. 
each piece. 

At another London auction room, seven Nantgarw 
plates, painted with birds and bouquets of flowers 
in border, all with impressed mark, in December last 
brought under the hammer, £g7y which is nearly £1^ 
each plate! After this it is useless to deny that 
Nantgarw is a factory which must be reckoned with 
from a collector's point of view. 

Great stress has been laid by those who affect 
the collecting of Nantgarw on its whiteness and 
transparency. By its detractors this is said to be its 
fault — that it is too white and too cold to compete 
with the older productions of the better-known 









I % II 



NANTGARW AND SWANSEA 1 69 

factories. Of course only Experts come to blows 
on this matter. Whether it is too glassy and too 
cold, and lacking the mellow warmth of the older 
glassy porcelains, matters little to the modest 
collector who desires to have Nantgarw represented 
in his or her scanty collection. 

It may be observed in passing that the distinguish- 
ing feature of Nantgarw is the elaborate painting 
of flowers and fruit on the pieces manufactured there. 
We reproduce a beautiful Nantgarw dish, marked 
'' NANTGARW. C. W.," with pink ground, having 
garlands of raised white flowers bound with a knot, 
and encircled with richly gilded scrolls. The centre 
is white, with a handsome floral piece from the brush 
of Billingsley. The roses are exquisitely drawn, 
such as no other ceramic artist ever drew them ; and 
the pear, of a warm, luscious brown, has all the bloom 
of the natural fruit upon it. 

Mr. Dillwyn, of the Swansea works, has left us 
an interesting memorandum concerning the pro- 
prietors of Nantgarw. He says : — 

" My friend Sir Joseph Banks informed me that 
two persons, named Walker and Beeley, had sent 
to Government, from a small manufactory at 
Nantgarw (ten or twelve miles north of Cardiff^, 
a specimen of beautiful china, with a petition for 
their patronage, and that, as one of the Board of 
Trade, he requested me to examine and report upon 
that manufactory. Upon witnessing the firing of a 
kiln at Nantgarw, I found much reason for con- 
sidering that the body used was too nearly allied to 
glass to bear the necessary heat, and observed that 



I/O CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

nine-tenths of the articles were either shivered, or 
more or less injured in shape by the firing. The 
parties, however, succeeded in making me believe 
that the defects in their porcelain arose entirely from 
imperfections in their small trial-kiln, and I agreed 
with them for a removal to the Cambrian Pottery, at 
which two new kilns under their direction were 
prepared. While endeavouring to strengthen and 
improve this beautiful body, I was surprised at 
receiving a notice from Messrs. Flight & Barr, of 
Worcester, charging the parties calling themselves 
Walker and Beeley with having clandestinely left an 
engagement at their works, and forbidding me to 
employ them." This was in 1814, and it was in 
the same year that Billingsley and Walker entered 
the service of Mr. Dillwyn at Swansea and com- 
menced to make the beautiful china, highly decorated 
and of exquisite finish. 

In concluding our remarks on Nantgarw we may 
observe that this factory was not finally abandoned 
till 1820. From 181 2 to 18 14 is its firsfperiod, when 
Billingsley and Walker and Young (of whom we 
shall have more to say later) were all at Nantgarw. 
Its second period is when the trio appear there again 
from 1 817 to 1 8 19. Billingsley and Walker then 
left for Coalport, and Young carried on the works till 
their close. 

The only marks that appear on the china are 
the word " Nantgarw " with the letters " C. W." 
underneath, which in all probability meant China 
Works, but which by some collectors are said to 
denote the name of the artist. This is impressed 



NANTGARW AND SWANSEA 



171 



V^ 



DILLWYN & COMPANY 



tl^ 



CAMBRIAN POTTERY 



SWANSEA 



DILLWYN & CO 



] 



in the china. Sometimes the word " Nantgarw " is 

found in red, but this must be 

regarded with suspicion, as a SWANSEA 

great many forgeries have been 

perpetrated in this china owing 

to its rarity and the favour 

which it finds with collectors. 
Swansea has a more extended 

history. In the middle of the 

eighteenth century a small 

manufactory of earthenware ex- 
isted here. This gradually grew 

into the " Cambrian Pottery," 

which, at the beginning of the 

nineteenth century, passed into 

the hands of Mr. Lewis Weston Dillwyn, a Fellow of 

the Linnaean Society and author of works on 

botany. 

Before Mr. Dillwyn's 
day a fine opaque china 
was produced at Swansea, 
but under his management 
and guidance the china 
assumed a more artistic 
appearance. 

W. W. Young, whom 
we spoke of as having 
come over from Nantgarw, 
was especially skilful at 
painting flowers and birds, 
butterflies and insects, and 

sometimes shells. Some of the pieces of Swansea 




I BVVANSl 



BVVANSEA 



ATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 



bear his name upon them. Young was also em- 
ployed by Mr. Dillwyn to illustrate his works on 

botany and natural history. 



Besides Young and the two Nantgarw flower 
painters and decorators, there was at Swansea 
Baxter, who was considered one of the cleverest 
painters on china of his day. He came originally 



NANTGARW AND SWANSEA 



from Worcester and eventually returned there 
Some of the subjects from the canvases of Sir Joshua 



Stamprd ■' DHlwyn's Elruscan Ware." 
'« Collection of My. W. G. Homy. 



Reynolds were successfully copied by him. Baxter 
was at Swansea for three years, and while there 



174 CHATS 0\ ENGUSH CHJXA 

decorated a service with garden scenery in the style 
peculiarly his own. There was Morris, a clever 
fruit painter, and Beddoes, a noted heraldic painter, 
and, above all, Billingsley, the first flower painter 
of his day. 

About the year 1820 the Swansea factory was 
discontinued and the whole of the moulds and 
appliances were transferred by Mr. John Rose to 
Coalport Since that date no china has been made 
at Swansea, Some of the marks that we give are 
of a later date than 1820, and are upon earthen- 
ware. 

Among the marks of Swansea will be seen the 
oblong mark stamped on " Dillwyn's Etruscan 
Ware." This ware was introduced in 1848, and 
was of a fine rich red body. On this was printed, 
in black outline, Etruscan figures, borders, and other 
details. The general surface was then painted over, 
with the exception of the figures and designs within 
the black outlines. The result was that the figures 
were left the original red of the body and the effect 
was extremely good. The illustration we give is of 
a specimen in Mr. W. G. Honey's collection, late at 
the Cork Exhibition. 

The older pieces stamped with the above-men- 
tioned mark are sought after. Later the name and 
title of the firm changed and passed into the hands 
of Messrs. Evans & Co. Besides the manufacture 
of white, and blue and white china, they supplied 
Ireland and the West of England with agate earthen- 
ware, and a good deal of it found its way to America. 
No trade-mark was used by them. 



NANTGARW AND SWANSEA 1 75 

Characteristics of Nantgarw and Swansea 

China. 

Nantgarw porcelain is of very fine texture ; it has 
a glassy appearance, and when held up to a strong- 
light, such as an incandescent electric globe, it 
exhibits a number of small bubbles, like pin-holes, in 
the body. It is inclined to have the glaze cracked 
in parts with a network almost like Chinese crackle 
ware. Some of the thinner pieces will be found to 
be not quite true, being slightly warped or bent, 
owing to its uncertainty in the kiln. 

Swansea china is frequently decorated with birds, 
butterflies, and shells, drawn from nature by. W. W. 
Young. Much of it is of a glassy nature like Nant- 
garw; but later the Swansea ware was of a duller, 
heavier nature, and having a hard white appearance. 



RECENT SALE PRICES.^ 

Nantgarw. £ s. d. 

Dessert service, consisting of twenty-four 
plates, twelve dishes, centre piece, 
two sugar bowls, with covers and 
stands decorated in fruit and flowers. 
Debenham, Storr & Son, January 6, 
1903 33 12 o 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur these 
items are given from their useful monthly publication, '' Sale 
Prices.'" 



176 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Plates, seven, painted with birds, bouquets £ s. d. 
of flowers in border, all with impressed 
mark. Foster, December 4, 1902 . 97 o o 

Dessert service, each piece painted with a 
bouquet of flowers in the centre, the 
borders with raised white scrolls 
painted with birds and flowers, con- 
sisting of centre dish, on foot, four 
square-shaped dishes, two leaf-shaped 
dishes, seventeen plates, two small 
plates. Christie, January 23, 1903 . 128 2 o 

Plate, painted with border of stippled 
gold and roses, the centre painted 
with a pastoral landscape, figures and 
sheep, exhibited at the 185 1 Ex- 
hibition. De Rome & Son, Kendal, 
May 13, 1903 27 16 6 

Plates, pair, painted with groups of flowers, 
in gilt borders, and birds in centre ; 
impressed mark. Sotheby, May 4, 
1903 33 o o 

Swansea. 

Dessert service, painted with roses and 
with bands of green, red, and gold 
dotted ornament round the borders; 
31 pieces. Christie, January 30, 
1902 28 7 o 

Tea and coffee service, painted with bands 
of flowers in colours and gilt ; 44 
pieces. Christie, January 30, 1902 . 27 6 o 



NANTGARW AND SWANSEA IJJ 

Basket, painted with bouquets of flowers £ s. d. 
and encrusted with coloured flowers 
and foh'age. Christie, February 21, 
1902 3 10 o 

Dish, shaped, white and gold border, finely 
painted in the centre with a vase of 
flowers and fruit on a slab, a land- 
scape in the background. Sotheby, 
February 24, 1902 . -350 

Jug, painted with bouquets and wreaths 
of flowers and gilt, and with a shield 
of arms, 10 in. high ; and a pair of 
plates with a wreath of flowers ; im- 
pressed mark. Christie, February 
18, 1902 17 6 6 

Jug, moulded with leaves, and with 
flowers and butterflies in green and 
colours, I of in. high. Christie, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1902 . . . . .880 

Dessert service, painted with cornflowers 
and with gilt edges, consisting of centre 
dish, on foot ; eight oblong, four 
shell-shaped and four octagonal 
dishes ; pair of sugar tureens, covers 
and stands ; thirty plates ; eighteen 
small . plates. Christie, November 
21, 1902 65 2 o 

Tea service, painted with flowers on 
salmon-covered ground in panels on 
dark- blue ground gilt with foliage, 
consisting of sugar basin, two plates, 
seven tea-cups, nine coffee-cups, and 

13 



178 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

eighteen saucers. Christie, Nov- £ s. d. 
ember 21, 1902 38 17 o 

Tea service, painted with sprays of various 
flowers, the borders gilt with sprays 
of foliage and scroll ornaments, con- 
sisting of 38 pieces. Christie, De- 
cember 5, 1902 45 3 o 

Vases, set of three, Empire design, gilt, 
and painted with panels of flowers. 
Knight, Frank & Rutley, October 
9, 1903 12 12 o 



X 



MINTON 



X 

MINTON 

Messrs. Minton, of Stoke, in Staffordshire, manu- 
facture pottery, porcelain, and majolica. By this 
latter, that massive ware, of bold design and bolder 
ornamentation and positive colours, principally blues, 
yellows, and greens, Minton's at the Paris Exhibition 
of 1855 created quite a sensation, and won universal 
admiration. In many examples of Minton's Faience 
the figures introduced are of .parian, whose whiteness, 
in juxtaposition with the brilliant colours of the other 
parts, renders the whole most effective. 

Ten years before the commencement of the nine- 
teenth century Thomas Minton established his factory 
at Stoke-upon-Trent. He was an apprentice of 
Thomas Turner, of Caughley, and had worked for 
Spode at his London establishment. Only earthen- 
ware was manufactured at Stoke Works up till 1798, 
chiefly ordinary white ware, ornamented with blue, in 
imitation of Nankin china. From about 1799 down 
to 181 1 a semi-transparent china was also made, but 
was abandoned as unprofitable. In 1 817 Mr. Minton's 

two sons entered the firm. In 1821 the manufacture 

181 



I82 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 









of china was again resumed ; about this time, too, a 
very marked improvement was noticeable in Minton's 
printed earthenware; the body was whiter, and the 
glaze was more highly finished. 

We give the two early marks of the firm down to 

1837. These were usually in 
blue, and very often had a number 
underneath. In these earlier 
-'V* examples the flowers and other 

/\ decorations were painted. They 

very shortly became mostly 
printed designs, except in elabo- 
rate pieces, and the personal 
character of the ordinary china 
grew, in consequence, of less 
interest. 

Sometimes " M. and C." (the 

C. standing for Company), with 

an impressed stamp " BB." or 

" BB. New Stone," occurs. BB. 

#t« signifies " best body." A design 

J^ of passion-flowers printed in blue 

^^^ is a favourite subject. 

[»«5:|.] In 1836 Mr. John Boyle was 

admitted a partner, on the death 
of Thomas Minton ; the firm became then Minton 
and Boyle, and the marks were accordingly changed. 
After continuing for five years Mr. Boyle went over 
to the Wedgwoods. 

Mr. Minton was subsequently joined by his 
nephews, M. D. Ho'llins and Colin Minton-Campbell. 
The second Minton seems to have been of consider- 



M. V- B 
TeU^ar CUina . 

L »837 J 



y 



MINTON 183 

able business ability. In his father's dky fifty hands 
were employed at Stoke, but in his time the factory 



[Exhibiled at Paris Exhibition, 1867.) 



employed no less than i.scx). The various branches 
he developed were earthenware, and ordinary soft 



1 84 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 



^T^ 



[^iimr^i 




porcelain, hard porcelain, parian. coloured and ena- 
melled tiles, mosaics, Delia Robbia ware, majolica, 
and Palissy ware. 

It will be seen from the accompanying illustrations 
how highly decorative Minton porcelain is. The vase 
we reproduce was one of the most admired specimens 
of China in the Paris Exhibition of 1867. 

What is known as the ermine mark (the dark 

trefoil with the three dots), either 
indented or painted in gold and 
colours, has been used on porce- 
lain since 1851, and since 1865 
fUscA Since I86«"l. the word " MiNTON," impressed, 

has been used for both china and 
earthenware. 

In 1868 the globe, with the 
word " Minton " across it, was 
first used, and all the firm's works 
subsequent to that date are so 
stamped. In 1872 the design was 
registered, and frequently a rhom- 
boidal stamp occurs either with- 
out or in addition to the globe 
mark, which has the letter R in the centre, denoting 
that the particular pattern of china is " Registered " 
as a design. This rhomboidal mark occurs on chinas 
other than Minton's, and is a feature of modern china. 
" Minton, Hollins & Co." are a firm at Stoke largely 
engaged in manufacturing encaustic and majolica 
tiles. They are an offshoot of the main branch. 

The illustration we give of the lion ewer is a fine 
example of Minton's reproduction of the celebrated 




l^.lkCo. 



Henri II. faience. This wonderful ware is of distinct 
character and ornamentation, differing from every 
other kind of pottery. It was made at Oiron, in 
France, from 152410 1550. There are less than one 
hundred known pieces. Five pieces are in the 



Victoria and Albert Museum. Two are in the Louvre. 
Some of the pieces are valued at over ;^3,ooo each. 
Who shall say that there is no romance in old china 
and pottery when vases and ewers, tazzas and salt- 
cellars, have pedigrees as long as a race-horse's, and 
whose whereabouts are as well known as that of a 
reigning prince ? 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

The plaque of painted 
majolica is a good specimen 
of what Minton can do. It was 
made about 1865, as was the lion 
ewer alluded to on p. 184, and the 
candelabrum is also of the same 
period. There is a fine fountain 
executed in Minton majolica ; it 
is 36 feet high and 39 feet in 
diameter. At the summit there 
is a group, larger than life size, 
of St. George and the Dragon. 
It was one of the features of 
the International Exhibition of 
1863 ; it now embellishes the 
[;elain scanty grass plot in front of the 
UM. Bethnal Green Museum. 



MINTON 1 87 

RECENT SALE PRICES.' 

MiNTON. £ s. d. 

Vases, pair, gold wreath handles, with 
panels of Cupids in gold and pink 
on an ivory ground, 16J in. high ; 
and a vase nearly similar, by A. 
Birks. Christie, January, 1902. . 42 o o 

( These first twelve items were from 
the Colin Minton- Campbell Collection^ 

Vases, pair, large., with winged terminal 
figure handles and festoons of fruit in 
relief, painted with panels of figures 
in blue and white in the style of 
majolica, 23 in. high, on triangular 
pedestals with rams' heads and laurel 
wreaths in relief. Christie, January, 
1902 19 8 6 

Vases, pair, large, and covers, with gilt 
riband handles, painted with lilies on 
pale green ground, by Mussill ; 42 in. 
high. Christie, January, 1902 . . 12 12 o 

Vases, pair, and covers, nearly similar, 
with fruit in the Oriental taste on 
brown ground, by A. Green ; 46 in. 
high. Christie, January, 1902 . . 15 4 6 

Vases, pair, beaker-shaped, painted with 
lilies and grasses in colours and gold 
on dark-blue ground, richly gilt, by 
Leroi ; 33 in. high. Christie, January, 
1902 . . . . . . . 33 12 o 

* By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur these 
are given from their useful monthly publication, '*Sale Prices." 



1 88 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Vases, pair, with Cupids and flowers in £ s. d 
white and colours on black ground, 
m coloured and gilt borders, by L. 
Birks ; 33 in. high. Christie, January, 
1902 63 o o 

Vases, pair, oviform and covers, the bodies 
encircled by four shaped medallions 
in relief, suspended by gilt cords and 
oak foliage, alternately painted with 
camp scenes in the Moran School and 
trophies-of-arms, apple-green borders; 
the ground of the vase gros bleu with 
marble decoration in gold, the whole 
executed in the style of old Sevres, 
by Boullemin and Leroi; 21 in. high. 
Christie, January, 1902 . . 162 15 o 

Cup and saucer, with panels of figures, 
va.ses and festoons of drapery in 
white on a sage-green ground, by 
Solon. Christie, January, 1902 . 11 o 6 

Candlesticks, pair, decorated in grisaille 
and gold in the taste of Limoges 
enamel, 1 2 in. high. Christie, January, 
1902 . ■ . . . . .660 

Dish, on pedestal, with a figure of Fortune 
in white on sage-green ground, by 
Solon; iij in. diameter. Christie, 
January, 1902 17 6 6 

Jardiqi^res, pair, fan-shaped, with panels 
of figures and exotic flowers in 
colours on a Rose-du-Barry ground, 
painted in the taste of old Sevres, by 



Leroi ; 7 in. high. Christie, January, £ 

1903 . 63 

Vases and covers, pair, Solon ware, 
by Minton, with Classical figures 
and Cupids in arabesque borders, in 
white on a sage-green ground, richly 
gilt, 1510. high. Christie, April 17, 
1903 22 



XI 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 

It requires a word of apology for including the 
following " Ciiats " on earthenware in a volume bear- 
ing the title "Chats on English China," but as the 
chief end of this little volume is to render to the 
beginner such aid as may be useful in the deter- 
mination of the various classes of china, it was 
thought desirable in his interest to treat somewhat 
generally of earthenware in this and the succeeding 
chapters. 

Earthenware suggests pots and pans, and the word 
is redolent of kitchen smells, but a Wedgwood tea- 
14 'w 



194 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

pot or a Toby jug, though earthenware they be, are 
worth the having. Pottery is the poor relation of 
porcelain. The one comes in silks and satins, in 
purple and fine linen ; the other in cotton gown, like 
Phyllis at the fair. 

The following remarks may lend a zest to dusting 
days, and, mayhap, the poor relation may be invited 
to come down from the top shelf in the kitchen to 
occupy a niche in the drawing-room. 

It is to be hoped that what has already been said 
on china may have created a taste in the reader for 
the inventions of the potter. A blue bowl may 
convey a world of meaning, and may be fragrant 
with memories of the eighteenth century, if one cares 
to peer beneath the surface. To the uninitiated it will 
be a blue bowl — and ugly maybe at that. To some 
the potter's art is as dead a thing as was Nature's 
message to Wordsworth's insensate : — 

" A primrose by a river's brim 
A yellow primrose was to him. 
And it was nothing more." 

That it is not always easy to determine where a 
piece of china may have come from we have already 
shown, even if it be " A Present from the Crystal 
Palace." The ordinary mind may possibly imagine 
some hitherto unknown factory away at Sydenham, 
but the legend " Made in Germany " underneath 
instantly dispels that illusion. 

It is necessary here to state that the world of brie- 
d-brac is divided into two parts — earthenware or 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 1 95 

pottery, and china or porcelain. All that is not 
earthenware is porcelain, and all that is not porcelain 
is earthenware. One may liken it to prose and 
poetry ; what is not one must be the other, as 
Monsieur Jourdain discovered after he had spoken 
prose for forty years without knowing it. To con- 
tinue the simile, some of Ruskin's prose writings 
approach as near to poetry as do Wedgwood's finer 
wares to porcelain. 

Porcelain is produced by the artificial mixture of 
certain minerals known by their Chinese names of 
kaolin and petuntse, or their English ones of china- 
clay and felspar. The former is infusible under the 
greatest heat, the latter is not, but unites in a state 
of fusion with the china-clay, making a paste or 
" body," which is hard, and, when broken, shows a 
smooth, vitreous fracture. Those who have attempted 
to mend old china must have noticed how different 
the broken surface is from that of pottery with its 
rougher edges. 

Strictly speaking these " Chats " on earthenware 
ought to have appeared at the commencement of the 
volume, for earthenware comes first chronologically. 
In passing we will glance for a moment as to how 
porcelain came into Europe. 

Porcelain was first invented by the Chinese some 
two centuries before Christ. It reached Europe as 
the Eastern civilisation penetrated to the west, and 
for hundreds of years vain attempts were made by 
potters to reproduce the fineness of porcelain with its 
beautiful glaze and hard paste. At -Venice, at 
Florence, in France, and in Spain, during the six- 



196 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

teenth and seventeenth centuries, an approximate 
success had been arrived at; soft paste had been 
developed to its furthest limit, but the real ingredients 
of the Chinese hard paste were unknown. 

Accident, however, completed what centuries of 
industry had attempted. From perruque to porce- 
lain seems a far cry, but the story is worth telling. 

John Schnorr, an ironmaster, riding near Aue, 
observed that a soft earth adhered strongly to his 
horse's hoofs. Considering that this earth might be 
used as a substitute for wheat flour as hair powder, 
he carried some away with him, and it was sub- 
sequently sold in large quantities for this purpose 
at Dresden, Leipsic, and other places. This kaolin 
(the base of hard paste) continued to be known as 
" Schnorr's white earth." 

Johann Friedrich Bottcher, chemist to the Elector 
of Saxony and King of Poland, discovered the secret 
about 1709. One morning, on taking up his wig, he 
noticed it was much heavier than usual. He was 
informed by his valet that a new kind of hair-powder 
had been used. This was the ironmaster's white 
earth. Bottcher was convinced that he had dis- 
covered at last the base of porcelain. 

This was the foundation of the manufacture of 
porcelain at Meissen, and the factory then established 
has supplied the world with Dresden china ever since. 

So great was the secrecy at first, that Bottcher and 
his assistants, when Charles XII. of Sweden invaded 
Saxony, were removed by the Elector for greater 
safety to the castle at Konigstein, where they were 
practically imprisoned. Even the clay was sealed up 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 197 

in barrels by dumb persons, and every workman was 
required to take a solemn oath not to reveal the 
secret. " Be silent unto death " was the motto of the 
establishment. 

How the method of manufacture and the secrets 
of Meissen finally became known to other countries, 
and how manufactories came to be set up at Vienna 
and Petersburg, is one of the romances of trade. 

So much for the early history of porcelain in 
Europe. During this period the art of the potter 
had not made very great progress in England. These 
" Chats " have shown of the heroic attempts to 
emulate the success of Meissen, but it was slow, 
uphill work to reach the heights of Worcester and of 
Derby in porcelain and of Wedgwood in earthenware. 

Stoneware mugs were more in accordance with the 
taste of our forefathers than pewter pots for dripking 
purposes, a comparatively modern prejudice. A 
variety of mugs called Longbeards, largely imported 
from Low Countries, were in general use during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries at inns for 
serving all the customers. The name " Bellarmine " 
was sarcastically given them in reference to the 
cardinal most conspicuous in opposing the Reformed 
faith in the Netherlands, the potter representing, 
with grotesque art, his Eminence with short stature 
and rotund figure. 

It is but a short step from the ware imported from 
the Low Countries to the pottery of Staffordshire. 
The celebrated pattern of the Toby jug is well known. 
Dickens, in "Barnaby Rudge," makes Gabriel Varden 
ask Dolly to " put Toby this way." Uncle Toby 



^ 



CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 



himself might have suggested the design, but it is 
said to be derived from one Toby Philpot, " a thirsty 
old soul as e'er drank a bottle or fathomed a bowl." 



JOHN BULL JUG. 

Blue and uhlle (lo^ in. faigh). 

From Colkciion of Mr. IV. G. Heiiey. 

We give, from Mr. W, G. Honey's collection at Cork, 
two fine specimens— one an old Staffordshire jug 
(ic^ in. high), representing John Bull, and marked 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE I99 

" I, W. " ; the other, the well-known pattern of the 
Vicar and Moses (9J in. high). This latter is the 
work of Ralph Wood, of Burslem, and was frequently 



Biue ind white (^ in. high). 

reproduced by later potters. Both these pieces are 
blue and white. 

Of Josiah Wedgwood, the English Palissy, we 
deal in a separate "Chat." 



200 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

A whole volume could be written about him and 
his work. His busts, magnificently produced in black 
basalt, his cameos and gems, with which the name of 
Flaxman must be coupled, his white terra-cotta, and 
his cream-coloured earthenware, known as Queen's 
ware (first made for Queen Charlotte), may be ranked 
among the most important factors m the history and 
development of the potter's art in England. 

Of the most important of the other Staffordshire 
potters, perhaps the name of Spode is the best 
known. After 1798, Spode the younger commenced 
to make porcelain. 

Concerning Liverpool, to which we devote a 
separate " Chat," it seems remarkable to read that in 
1754 the making of pottery was the staple manu- 
facture of the city. " The blue and white earthenware 
almost vie with china," so says an eighteenth-century 
journal. 

John Sadler conceived the idea of transferring 
prints from copper on to pottery, and struck out a 
new line in printing on earthenware. 

Another factory, called the " Herculaneum Pottery," 
was started on the Mersey side by Messrs. Abbey 
and Graham in 1794. The making of china was 
started here in 1800. 

About the end of the eighteenth century, a potter 
named Absolon had works at a place called " The 
Ovens " at Yarmouth. The work consisted of 
decorating the articles which were manufactured 
elsewhere, and very little more is known about it. 

At Swansea both pottery and porcelain were 
made. In 1750 works were established, and in 1790 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 20I 

"Cambrian Pottery" became quite well known. In 
the early part of the next century a superior kind of 
ware, called " Opaque China," was made. 

Leeds pottery is well known. At one time it had 
quite an extensive Continental trade, and the pattern- 
book of the pottery was issued in several languages. 
Alas ! now it is the French and the German and the 
Japanese pottery books that are issued in several 
languages. 

It is largely cream-coloured ware and such articles 
as candlesticks, teapots, mustard-pots, cruet-stands, 
tea-canisters, and sugar-basins, with covers, together 
with the usual dinner and tea services, that were 
manufactured. 

Bristol claims to have made pottery at a period as 
remote as Edward I. Wherever excavations have 
been made in the city, along the north bank of the 
river from Bristol Bridge to Redcliffe Pit, remains of 
pottery and shard heaps have been discovered. 

Joseph Ring, in 1787, successfully imitated the 
Queen's ware of Wedgwood and the best Stafford- 
shire pottery. Ring's cream-ware is thin and well 
made, the edges being remarkably sharp, and the 
fluted pieces very regular and well defined. It is 
generally yellower than either Wedgwood's cream- 
ware or the Leeds pottery. Both of these have 
coloured bodies, but Ring's Bristol ware has a white 
body, the yellow surface tint being obtained by 
means of a glaze. 

The mugs and jugs of Newcastle and Sunderland 
are much sought after on account of their quaint 
inscriptions. 



202 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

By kind permission, we reproduce some fine 
specimens of this ware from the collection of Mr. 
W. G. Honey, of Cork, which were on view at the 
Cork Exhibition. Many of these jugs have a frog .in 
the interior of the vessel. As the liquor is drunk the 
creature appears to be leaping into the drinker's 
mouth. 

The mug in commemoration of the cast - iron 
bridge across tlie Wear bears the date 1793. We 
give three positions of the mug, and in the inverted 
one the frog can be plainly seen. On the reverse 
side are the following lines ; — 

The Sailor's Tear. 

" He leap'd into the boat 
As it lay upon the strand, 

But, oh, his heart was far away 
With friends upon the land, j 

He thought of those he lov'd the best 
A wife and infant dear: 

And feeling fill'd the sailor's breast 
The sailor's eye — a tear." 

Nottingham, too, has produced some excellent 
earthenware. Wrotham, in Kent, had an old- 
established factory. A dish in the British Museum 
is dated "Wrotham, 1699." 

London and its environs has given birth to several 
celebrated potteries. Fulham pottery has a worthy 
history. Letters patent were granted in 1671 to 
John Dwight, for the "misterie of transparent 



(Two portions.) 
I ColUcUsn of Mr. W. G. Hoiuy. 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 205 

earthenware, commonly knowne by the names of 
porcelain or China and Persian ware, as alsoe the 
misterie of the stone ware, vulgarly called Cologne 
ware." There was, too, a pottery at Mortlake. 
"Kishere, Mortlake," is the mark generally used. 
Isleworth had a small factory at Railshead Creek, 
Isleworth. Much of the coarse pottery made here 
was known as " Welsh ware." 

Lambeth pottery is well known, the art productions 
of Messrs. Doulton having done much to popularise 
their ware. In the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury certain Dutch potters settled at Lambeth, and 
made pottery tiles. Lambeth delft ware had quite 
a reputation in the eighteenth century. 

Some particularly quaint devices appear on the old 
English jugs and mugs during the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. They were used by the com- 
mon people who could not afford silver and for whom 
glass was too expensive a luxury. They succeeded 
the old leathern jacks and leathern bottles, and played 
no inconspicuous part in social gatherings both at 
home and in alehouses. Many of the mugs have two 
(and sometimes as many as four) handles, which were 
made to supply the needs of several drinkers. 

These English mugs possess little artistic merit, 
but they come as a very interesting link in the history 
of the manufacture of pottery in this country. One 
would have thought that the conquering Roman who 
settled in various colonies in our islands would have 
left some permanent mark on our pottery ; that the Nor- 
man, who possessed some artistic skill, or peradven- 
ture the Spaniard who settled in the West in Armada 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 207 

and was dated 1650, which conjures up pictures of 
crop-eared 'prentice lads and mercers of busy Chepe, 
and junketings at the fair by London Bridge in days 
when train-bands and Ironsides were as integral a 
part of City history as were the C.I.V/s of a year or 
so ago. 

Brown and chocolate-coloured body with yellow 
dotted decorations is a very common form of this old 
English W^re. A Posset Mug, dated 1697, bears the 
inscription : " The best is not too good for you " — 
evidently a present of some sort, although much of 
this class of ware was in common use in taverns, as 
the inscriptions go to show. We reproduce this 
dated Posset Mug in the accompanying illustration ; 
next to it, on the lowest shelf, is an old 'Fuddling Cup. 
On the top shelf is a Cradle with incised decoration. 
The other cradle has slip decoration by Joseph 
Glass, 1703; while beside it is an old Posset Pot 
inscribed " God bless Queen Ann." These specimens 
are reproduced by the kindness of Mr. S. G. Fenton, 
of Cranbourne Street, W. 

Puzzle jugs were known in the time of Henry 
VIII. There is a puzzle jug at the Bethnal Green 
Museum, which was made by Mr. John Wedgwood, 
great-uncle to Joshua Wedgwood, and is dated 1691. 
The principle of the puzzle is that there are three 
spouts, each projecting from a tube which runs round 
the rim and down the handle to the bottom of the 
vessel. The top of the neck being perforated, it 
seems impossible to obtain any of the liquor without 
spilling it. The secret is to stop two of the spouts 
with the fingers while drinking at the third. 



208 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Other forms are the Tyg, a tall cup, with two or 
more handles, and decorated either with names or 
initials ; and the Piggin, a small shallow vessel some 
few inches high, provided with a long handle, and 
used for ladling out the liquor brewed in the tyg. 
The doubled-handled tygs are generally called 
" parting-cups,'* while those with more than two 
handles pass under the name of " loving-cups." The 
word tyg comes from the Anglo-Saxon " tigel," or 
tile, and survives in the word " tilewright " and other 
corruptions common in Staffordshire. 

Some of the puzzle jugs bear interesting doggerel 
lines upon them. One runs — 

" What though I'm common and well known 
To almost every one in town? 
My purse to sixpence if you will 
That if you drink you some do spill. 

Not a very good recommendation for a jug, but a 
very profitable alehouse amusement from mine host's 
point of view. 

Another bears the lines — 

" In this jug there is good liquor, 
Fit for either priest or vicar ; 
But to drink and not to spill 
Will try the utmost of your skill." 

There is a very quaint inscription on a four-handled 
goblet, possibly a christening cup. It is dated 1692, 
and has the sides decorated with rough devices. 



By nmrto)! sf M 
Cranhnirnc Slna 



. OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 211 

Attached to one of the sides is a whistle ; the mug 
has written upon it in atrocious spelling — 

" Here is the geste of the barley corne ; 
Glad ham I the child is born." 

The orthography of potters in the age before School 
Boards is something to marvel at. Apparently the 
following is the gift of an amorous potter to his lady- 
love. I. W. has gone the way of all lovers, but the 
little mug he made for his sweetheart lies on the 
museum shelf, an object-lesson to all "golden lads 
and lasses " who, as Herrick's fair daffodils, " haste 
away so soon." 

" Ann Draper, this cup I made for you, and so 
no more. — I. W." 

Dated 1707, in the days of the great Marlborough. 
Some mugs have the precept, " Obeay the King," 
while others bear the superscription, " Come let us 
drink to the pious memory of Good Queen Anne." 
One or two utter the toast, "God Save King 
George." A Gossip's Bowl, dated 1726, has the 
couplet — 

" I drink to you with all m)' hart, 
Mery met and mery part." 

Another old mug, doubtless sent as a present, has the 
words — 

" As a ring is round 

And hath no end. 

So is my love 

Unto my friend." 



212 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

There is one quaint piece of advice given to all 
lovers who wish for success in their love affairs. It 
is on a level with the Shakesperian methods adopted 
in the conquest of Kate in the " Taming of the 
Shrew " — 

" Brisk be to the maide you desire, 
As her love you may require." 

— Some of the pronunci- 

ation is as curious as the 
I spelling. We know Pope 
' makes " tea " rhyme with 

" day," as does the modern 
Irishman ; but in the fol- 
lowing lines "join" is 
evidently pronounced 
" jine"— 

" Come, brother, shall we 

Give me your two pence 
oLi) PUZZLE jur.. — here is mine" 

(DA(cd 1691 ) 

At B,ih.,ai Crie,, M.,s«m,. ^ »" invitation issued to 
■ the frequenters of some inn 
where the brown jug bearing the inscription had an 
abiding place. 

Another mug es-says to point a moral while the 
toper is draining its contents. The potter who would 
strew his moral lessons in stoneware had about as 
much sense of the ludicrous as the gentleman who 
used to mark the London pavements with the text 
" Watch and Pray," which he had printed in reverse 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 21 3 

on the soles of indiarubber shoes he would wear. 
On the bottom of a drinking mug the notion is quaint 
enough — 

"When this you see, 
Remember me — 

Obeay God's Word." 

For our part, we prefer the following, which has a 
truer ring about it — 

" Drink faire. 
Don't sware." 

A large bowl of Bristol delft bears on it " Success 
to the British Arms." 

A fine breezy inscription, dated 1724, smacks of 
the hunting field. One can hear the rollicking voices of 
the eighteenth-century squires such as Randolph 
Caldecott loved to depict. Only two lines, but they 
ring in one's ears as a message from the good old 
times — 

"On Bansted Down a hare was found. 
Which .led us all a-smoaking round." 

Not classical English, perhaps, any more than that of 
the ladies from town who declare in the family circle 
of the Vicar of Wakefield that they are in a " muck- 
sweat." 

A set of five plates bear a line of the following 
inscription on each — 



214 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

"What is the merry man 
To entertain his guest 
With? Wine and merry jest. 
But if his wife does frown 
All merriment goes doune." 

There is an exceedingly interesting Fulham ware 
flip mug, which bears an inscription on it showing 
that it once belonged to Alexander Selkirk, from 
whose adventures Defoe built up his story of "Robin- 
son Crusoe." Doubtless this mug accompanied the 
Scots sailor to the lonely island of Juan Fernandez 
when he set sail with the Cinque Ports galley — 

"Alexander Selkirke. This is my one. 
When you take me on board of ship, 
Pray fill me full with punch or flipp. — 1703," 

which suggests that it may have been a parting present 
from one of his friends. 

Jugs and mugs with portraits of Nelson are not un- 
common. A quart jug in white ware with crimson 
border has a man-of-war in full sail on one side, and 
on the other a copy of West's picture of the " Death 
of General Wolfe," probably made by Thomas Wolfe, 
of Stoke-on-Trent, who was related to the general. 
On one mug is a view of the Thames Tunnel and a 
portrait of the engineer Brunei, to commemorate the 
opening in 1843. ^^ S^^e as a headpiece a Sunder- 
land jug from Mr. Honey's collection, having floral 
decorations in purple lustre, and having on one side 
a picture of the " Columbus y the largest ship ever 



OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 215 

built." On the reverse side arq two jolly tars, and 
the inscription runs — 

"Thus sailing at peril at sea or on shore, 
We box the old compass right cheerly ; 
Toss the grog boys about, iand a song or two 

more 
Then we'll drink to the girls we love dearly." 

Mugs seem to have in former days been manufac- 
tured to celebrate some political event or great 
victory. There were the coronation mugs of the 
present Czar of Russia, at the distribution of which so 
many peasants lost their lives. The Transvaal War 
produced no china mementoes. Mafeking buttons 
and ticklers are more representative of modern 
feeling. 

To us these old English mugs are as the dry bones 
which, if one is only skilful enough magician, resolve 
themselves into dream-pictures, historically accurate 
enough, of our forbears of the eighteenth century. 
Our children's children, when they come to examine 
our everyday ware, will find little else to observe save 
the legend " Made in Germany." 

The field of English earthenware is very large 
and very diverse. We have been prohibited by 
space from saying anything of salt-glaze ware, of 
Elers, or of Astbury, and we regretfully have to 
pass on without touching Leeds ware. But we 
give an interesting illustration of a group of Mason's 
jugs of the celebrated " Patent Ironstone China." 
The largest of these jugs is 9J in. high. This is not 



2l6 



CHATS ON EXGL/SH CHINA 



a complete set, as the writer knows of the existence 
of a jug of smaller size, making a set to which one 
might appropriately adopt Wordsworth's line, " We 



are seven. 



» 



MILS S 

1 

MASOK 

Mason's 

CAHBRmN-aRGft 
Later iWayW^T. 



We give, too, a set of 
marks used by the firm 
of Mason, from the early 
days till the factory 
ceased. In the adver- 

^^tVusV '«i«rk' O&ol. tisement mentioned below 

he says, "The articles are 
stamped on the bottom 
of the large pieces to 
prevent imposition.'* 

Miles Mason established 

VL at e r IK AY W 6 J . his pottery at Lane Delph, 

in Staffordshire, about 
1780. " Miles Mason, late 
of Fenchurch St., London," 
so runs his advertisement 
in the Morning Herald, 
October i, 1804, "having 
been a principal purchaser 

TsVambeA iH Wue^ IS13L ^^ ^^^^^n porcelain, till 

^ the prohibition of that 

MARKS ON MASON'S WARE. ^^^{^1^ ^y hcavy duties, 

has established a manu- 
factory at Lane Delph, near Newcastle-under- 
Lyme." The " Ironstone China " was patented 
by Charles James Mason in 1813. It consisted in 
using the slag of ironstone pounded with water 
together with flint, Cornwall stone, and clay, and 




OLD ENGLISH EARTHENWARE 217 

blue oxide of cobalt. The ware is usually outlined 
with flowers in transfer printing, and painted and 
gilded by hand. Some of Mason's blue plates are in 
colour equal to old blue Delft. On account of its 
handsome decorative effect it is rapidly rising in 
value. 



In Collection of Mr. IV. G. Honey. 



2l8 CHATS OX EXGLISH CHINA 

RECENT SALE PRICES.' 
Staffordshire. £ s. d. 

Jug, Bacchanalian, 13 in. high, figures in 
bold relief of " Bacchus " and " Pan " 
supported by a barrel with grotesque 
animal handle and dolphin spout, in 
rare colours and highly glazed by £ s. d. 
Voyez, Cobridge, 1788. Edwards, 
Son & Bigwood, Birmingham, May 
13, 1902 15 o o 

Vase, Etruscan, 18 in. high, snake-and- 
mask handles, marked S. .A.. & Co. 
(Alcock & Co). Edwards, Son & 
Bigwood, Birmingham, May 13, 1902 10 o o 

Mason's Ware. 
Vase, 27 in., decorated with flowers and 
gilt, and ornamented with' gilded 
head handles supporting a cornu- 
copia and mermaid. Gudgeon & 
Sons, Winchester, April 3, 1902 850 

' By the kindness of the proprietors of the Connoisseur these 
are given from their useful monthly publication, " Sale Prices." 



XII 



LUSTRE WARE 



J5TRE JUGS. 
I., 7j in, high.) 



LUSTRE WARE 



The old Spanish golden red and canary coloured 
lustrous dishes with Moorish ornamentation, and the 
wonderful Italian majolica, with its copper and purple 
and amber surfaces [^lowing like beaten metal, are 
probably the early masters from which our English 
potters took the idea which they adapted to the 
decoration of their pottery. 

In this chapter we shall treat solely of English 
lustre ware. It is roughly divided into three classes 
— copper, silver, and gold. 

The copper or brown lustre was made at Brisling- 
ton, near Bristol, as early as 1770. Compared with 
the Spanish lustre dishes, it is more rudely orna- 



222 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

mented and poor and inartistic in form compared 
with their Arabic designs. Our English copper lustre, 
or " gilty " ware, as it is called in some parts of the 
country and in (reland, may be sub-divided into two 
classes. The plain copper lustre, in which the jug, or 
dish, or teapot is entirely covered with the copper 



lustre; and secondly, the partially lustrous ware, in 
which some portions of the pottery are in relief and 
are coloured with some bright pigments, or left white. 
In the group of lustre ware, which we reproduce, 
with the exception of the centre dish, all the pieces 
are copper lustre. The three fine jugs are decorated 
with turquoise blue, as are also the two cream jugs 



■I the ColUction of Mr. W. G. Horny. 



LUSTRE WARE 225 

This blue, though it comes out white in our illustra- 
tion, is of a deep turquoise. On the top shelf, the 
Jug to the right is decorated with red as well as blue. 
It will be observed that the spouts of the jugs are 
in the form of a man's head with long beard, and the 
handle is the figure of a man's body. The scenes 
depicted on them are'typically English in treatment. 



A castle in background and a shepherd with hi.s flock 
in foreground. The small lustre cup has simply a 
rough -surfaced band of white running round it. The 
whole form a representative group of this class of 

The best period in the copper lustre is in the first 
years of the nineteenth century, before the introduc- 
tion of colours in conjunction with the coppered 
surface. It may be observed in passing that the art 



226 CHAT Si OS ENGLISH CHINA 

of producing copper lustre has continued in a 
spasmodic manner down to the present day, the 
latter specimens being of a rougher exterior and of 
a coarser finish. 



Froai the ColkcHon of Mr. W. G. Honey. 

By the kindness of Mr. W. G. Honey we are 
enabled to reproduce some fine examples of lustre 
ware from his collection on view last year at the 



I.USTKB WARE 227 

Cork Exhibition. The copper lustre bust, 15J in. 
high, is a perfect example of lustre ware at its highest 
level. This specimen has no equal in any of the 
public collections. Two other illustrations, one of 
which appears as a headpiece, giving half a dozen 
forms of copper lustre jugs, are from the same collec- 



tion. While the copper lustre jug, 8^ in. high, is a 
beautiful specimen of fine modelling. 

With regard to silver and gold lustre, that in all 
probability became extinct for a little time, but in 
recent years the great demand for silver lustre 
has produced a corresponding supply, manufactured 
abroad for the English collector, but it is very inferior 



228 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

and easily detected from the early examples by its 
coarse and dull surface and slovenly finish. 

The places where lustre ware is known to have 
been manufactured are at BrisHngton, by R. Frank, 
about 1770; at Etruria, by Wedgwood, in 1780 ; and 
by Wilson, in Staffordshire, in 1785 ; also by 
Moore & Co, and Dixon & Co., at Sunderland, 
about 1820. 

Swansea, at the Dillwyn pottery (of whi^ we 



spoke in our "Chat" on Swansea), also, about 1800, 
is known to have produced lustre ware. 

Different processes were employed in producing 

the lustre, but they all consist in reducing the metal 
from a state of combination, by dissolving it in some 
chemical, and depositing it in a particularly thin 
layer on the surface of the pottery, so that it exhibits 
its characteristic lustre without burnishing. As may 
readily be supposed, the amount of platinum used for 



LUSTRE WASB 229 

the silver ware, and gold for the purple or gold lustre, 
is extremely small. 

Of the silver or platinum lustre very many fine 
examples exist, and it is extremely popular owing to 



its similitude to old English silver or plate. The 
sugar bowl we reproduce, with beaded pattern and 
fluted design, is quite in the style of the Sheffield 
plate of the Georgian period. Of the three silver 
lustre cream jugs, that in the extreme right is of the 
same design, while the other two show at a glance 



230 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

the beauty of form that silver lustre in its best 
period reached. 

Other varieties of this silver lustre are quite plain, 
as in the teapot we reproduce (p. 229), which is an 
example of a slightly later period. This is a fine 
specimen of the unornamented variety of silver lustre 
which is undistinguishable from silver. In fact the 
highly burnished surface of such a teapot as this 
cannot be obtained on silver, the lustre is of a richer 
and deeper quality. Alas ! it possesses the dangerous 
property of dissolving, like a fairy gift, into nothing- 
ness. Elfin gold will turn into a circle of whirring, 
dancing, mocking leaves, and if your wondrous lustre 
teapot slips to the ground, it lies a heap of brown 
earthenware fragments. 

One word in passing to collectors of this ware. 
Do not wash your specimens any more than you can 
help, as warm water has a deleterious effect on the 
lustre, and tends to make it less brilliant ; we recom- 
mend our readers to polish their lustre ware with a 
soft cloth, and we wish them absolute and entire 
freedom from all mishaps. Treat the ware lovingly 
and kindly, it will never come again ; the potters who 
made it are dead, the modern imitator is but a poor 
imitator, fraudulent at heart and feeble in result ; if 
cunning lie in his heart it is not in his finger-tips, for, 
of a truth, his hand has lost its cunning. 

Besides the plain silver lustre, there is a decorated 
variety which is very handsome, and much sought 
after. Sometimes the ground is of silver lustre 
decorated in white, and sometimes the ground is 
white with an elaborate pattern of foliage, of fruit, 



LUSTRE WARE 



or of birds, woven in silver thread. The rarest of 

this variety is the silver pattern on a canary ground. 

The first method, with the design left in white, was 

produced in handsome and highly artistic styles, and 



Sn.VER I.USTEB JUG (5 IN. HIOH). 

(White Dcairalion,> 

Frovt Ike ColUition of Mr. W. G. Honey. 

there is a pattern known as the "Resist" pattern, 
which is much sought after. 

From Mr. W. G. Honey's collection we have 
selected a very good example of this silver lustre 



232 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

with design in white. Though not the " Resist " 
pattern, its artistic excellence speaks for itself. 

With r^ard to gold or purple lustre, the middle 
dish in the group in our illustration is gold lustre ware, 



From the ColktHon of Mr. IV. G. Horny. 

and is probably of Swansea manufacture. Wedgwood 
produced a gold lustre of remarkable brilliancy. The 
dish above alluded to is decorated with stags and 
staghounds, but in some of the gold undecorated 
examples, such as Wedgwood's, covered witli a 



LUSTRE WARE 233 

mottled ruby-gold lustre, the effect was due entirely 
to the shape and to the lustre. 

The reason that this variety is called gold or purple 
lustre is that in the lights it shines like gold, and the 
rest of the pattern in those pieces decorated with 
flowers and floral pattern, glows with a rich purple. 

This purple lustre shows more signs of the hand of 
time than any of the other lustres, and it is nearly 
always found to be partially worn off. We give an 
interesting example of a jug with gold lustre ground 
and raised coloured flowers from Mr. W. G. Honey's 
collection. 



xm 



LIVERPOOL WARE 



LIVERPOOL WARE 

It is the hope of the writer of these " Chats" that 
Worcester and Derby, Bristol and Plymouth, Bow 
and Chelsea have become something more than 
mere names to the readers who have followed our 
joiirneyings. The china-shelf has been shown to 
hold the monuments of men's lives. Behind the 
delicate pencillings and the shower of rose-leaves 
lies many a tragic story. Liverpool and its ware 
is not the least of the great landmarks in the history 
of English ceramic art 

In entering on the threshold of the history of 
Liverpool, and of the printed ware stated to have 
been first produced there, we find ourselves in the 
midst of a controversy. If discussions upon points 
of china-collecting were waged physically, the 



238 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

opponents in their heat would have demolished each 
other long ago with their own china collections, but 
luckily, they have confined themselves to hurling 
opinions and nothing more tangible. Philosophic- 
ally, they have agreed to differ, and have parted 
good friends, to renew the argument another day, 
or they have each gone to his last home and the 
echoes of the conflict have come down to us, and 
fresh battles are fought over the theories of dead 
collectors. At the present moment a wordy war is 
being waged over Lowestoft, and the laurels of that 
much-disputed factory are in great danger of being 
snatched away. 

To John Sadler, of Liverpool, is generally ascribed 
the honour of having discovered the useful art of 
printing on pottery from copper-plate engravings. 
He was the son of Adam Sadler, a printer, in 
Liverpool, who had formerly served as a soldier 
under the Duke of Marlborough in the wars in 
the Low Countries. John Sadler carried on the 
business of an engraver in Harrington Street, and 
having noticed that some of his waste prints were 
used by children to stick on to fragments of earthen- 
ware obtained from the potteries, he commenced 
experiments with a view of extending this applica- 
tion to the purposes of decoration. 

He associated himself about the year 1750 with 
Guy Green, who had succeeded to the printing 
business of Adam Sadler. 

The jsecret of the manner in which an engraving 
was transferred from a copper-plate to the rounded 
surface of a bowl or a teapot, was well kept, but it 



LIVERPOOL WARE 239 

was fairly obvious that in some way or another the 
design was transferred to paper and then retransferred 
to the china object to be decorated. 

Sadler and Green, after working at the discovery, 
applied for a patent. The value of the invention can 
best be understood by the following affidavit made by 
John Sadler and Guy Green, in 1756. 

" I, John Sadler, of Liverpoole, in the county of 
Lancaster, printer, and Guy Green, of Liverpoole 
aforesaid, printer, severally maketh oath, that on 
Tuesday, the 27th July, inst, they, these deponents, 
without the aid or assistance of any other person or 
persons, did, within the space of six hours, to wit, 
betwixt the hours of nine in the morning and three 
in the afternoon of the same day, print upwards of 
1,200 earthenware tiles of different patterns, at Liver- 
poole aforesaid, and which, as these deponents have 
heard and believe, were more in number, and better, 
and neater than 100 skilful pot painters could have 
painted in the like space of time in the common and 
usual way of painting with a pencil ; and these 
deponents say that they have been upwards of seven 
years in finding out the method of printing tiles, and 
in making tryals and experiments for that purpose, 
which they have, now, through great pains and 
expense, brought to perfection." 

Two printers doing the work of a hundred tile 
painters ! The stupendous nature of the invention is 
seen in the light of this statement. Caxton never 
made a greater discovery when he set his type 
moving, and the illuminated manuscripts of the 
monks became the printed page in the hands of the 



240 



(HATS 0\ ENGLISH CHINA 



**^ 



1769 



n5 



common people. Josiah Wedgwood, with character- 
istic foresight, saw the value of the work of Sadler 
and Green, and his waggons made weekly journeys 
from Staffordshire up to Liverpool laden with his 
Queen's ware to be decorated in the new style. 

To come back to the 
controversy for a mo- 
ment, it is claimed that 
Worcester was first to 
produce printed china. 
There is at the Bethnal 
Green Museum a printed 
mug of Worcester, dated 
1757. It will be re- 
membered that the date 
of Sadler and Green's 
affidavit was 1756. But 
a claim is made for a 
third factory — Batter- 
sea. There is a letter 
from Horace Walpole to 
Bent ley, dated 1755, in 
which he says : " I shall 
send you, too, a trifling 
snuff-box, only as a 
sample of the new 
manufacture of Battersea, which is done from copper- 
plates." There are also dated pieces of this Battersea 
enamel with the design printed upon them, dated 
as early as 1753 and 1754. In all probability Wor- 
cester derived the secret from Battersea, as Robert 
Hancock, of Worcester fame, who signed some of 



Shaw 

Sapler 

75b. 

SavLSR \ CSZSK 






756 



D J 



KARLY LIVERPOOL MARKS. 



J 




Thomas 

Samuel Shaw; 

John Penning- 
ton, celebrated for his punch- 
bowls and for a very fine blue 
ware, are all well known to 
collectors of Liverpool ware. 
We give the marks of these 
factories, and of other Liver- 
pool makers : Philip Christian 
(i76o-i7;5), W. Reid & Co. 
(1756-1760), Herculaneum Pot- 
tery ( 1 790-1 841 ), Staffordshire 
had its Etriiria and- Lancashire 
its Herculaneum. In the 
earlier days of the potter 



LIVERPOOL WARE 24I 

the older pieces, was formerly an en- 
graver at Battersea. 

In spite of this fact there is 
every reason for believing that at 
Liverpool, Sadler and Green in- 
dependently discovered the art of 
printing on china, as their affidavit 
declares them to have been engaged 
upon it for seven years, which takes 
them back to 1749. 

Of the earlier potters of Liver- 
pool, we have little space to deal in 
this "Chat," Chaffers, a contem- 
porary of Josiah Wedgwood, and a 
formidable rival of the Stafford- 
shire potter; 

and HERCULANEUM. 






242 CHATS 0\ ESGUSH CHINA 

classic names were much in vogue. A favourite 
pattern in Herculaneum china was a series of the 
towns of England printed on the pieces, with the 
name in a medallion at the bottom of the piece. 
The bird is the liver, being the crest of the city of 
Liverpool, and was used at Herculaneum by Messrs. 
Case, Mort & Co. in 1833. The anchor mark is 
between this date and 1841, when the factory 
ceased. 

When it is remembered that Wedgwood had his 
ware printed by Sadler and Green and that Bow sent 
to Liverpool to have the Liverpool designs transferred 
to the Bow china, it is easy to understand how com- 
plicated it becomes to determine with exactitude how 
little or how much was actually printed at Liverpool, 
because there came a time when the secret leaked 
out and when other factories besides Liverpool and 
Worcester began to print their own wares. 

We reproduce a Liverpool mug, printed in brownish 
red colour, representing a lover and his lass. It is 
typically English in treatment and design, and it is 
this quality which makes Liverpool printed ware so 
interesting. There is nothing like it in any of the 
Continental wares. The quaint and delicate English 
pastoral scene breathes of the eighteenth century. 
The refrain might run : — 

" Phyllida, my PhylHda ! 

She takes her buckled shoon, 
When we go out a-courting 
Beneath the harvest moon. 



UVERPOOL WARE 

The ladies of St. James's ! 

You scarce can understand 
The half of all their speeches, 

Their phrases are so grand : 



sid'i of Ur. 
inic Slrea. 



But Phyllida, my Phyllida! 

Her shy and simple words 
Are clear as after rain-drops 

The music of the birds." 



244 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Or take the old Liverpool jug with the landscape 
printed in black on one side, and the humorous 
heads, entitled " Courtship and Matrimony," on the 
other; which heads, by the way, will our readers 
kindly turn upside down to gather what the acid 
doggerel written underneath alludes to. It is a pity 
the jug is not perfect, but the top has a metal 



5 LIVERPOOL JUG (7j 11 



From tht Cothction of Caft. H. F. Mackan. 

band which remedies the broken spout. The lines 

underneath the heads run: — ■ 

" When two fond fools together meet. 

Each look gives Joy, each kiss is sweet. 

But wed, how crabb'd and cross they grow 

Turn upside down and you will know." 

We reproduce as a headpiece two exquisitely black 



LIVERPOOL WARE 245 

printed Liverpool tiles. It is true they are badly 
damaged, but their quaint designs were worth the 
preserving. The one with the gallant sportsman 
firing at a deer at very close range is queerly out of 



(Traiialer-priiiled and partly coloured allcr gLuInj;.) 
Fivm Ihf CoUtctiott of Capl. H. F. Maclean. 

perspective. The other tile is a typically English 

rural scene, and pity it is that more of our rustic 

scenery has not found its way to our national china. 

Another of our illustrations is that of a Liverpool 



246 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

mug with subject entitled " The Tithe Pig," in which 
the vicar appears to have come off worst in a wordy 
encounter with two of his parishioners. There is a 
grim humour about many of the eighteenth-century 
decorated mugs ajid jugs which are a record in 
ceramics of party strifes and of long-forgotten social 
enmities. 

It will be seen that the Liverpool printed ware has 
in it an element of decoration which some of the 
other wares do not possess. Many of our readers 
doubtless possess specimens of this black or brown 
printed ware, mugs, or tiles, or teapots with old-world 
scenes upon them like the landscapes of our illustra- 
tion. Shepherds and herds, fifers and fiddlers and 
dancers, village-green sports, lads and lasses "dancing 
the hays " — these are the homely scenes transferred 
from the old copper- plates. 

RECENT SALE PRICES. 

Liverpool bowl, large, painted in blue, £ s. d. 
orange-brown edge, decorated with 
Hogarth's *' Midnight Conversation." 
Dated 1748. Sotheby, December, 1903 16 10 o 

Liverpool transfer-printed tiles, " ^sop*s 
Fables." Sotheby, December, 1903 

From I OS. each to i i o 

Liverpool transfer-printed tiles. Milkman 
asleep aroused by Dairymaid ; signed, 
"J.Sadler." Sotheby, December, 1903 i 4 o 

Small bowl, painted in blue; subject, Man 
with an Axe ; initials inside bowl, 
"B. A. E." Dated 1769. Sotheby, 
December, 1903 ... . .500 



XIV 



WEDGWOOD 



WEDGWOOD JASPER C 



WEDGWOOD 



The pottery made in England did not exhibit any 
marked characteristic, nor was it of much artistic 
value until Josiah Wedgwood, by his genius, raised 
Staffordshire ware to such a degree of perfection 
that it was universally used on the Continent of 
Europe. 

Josiah Wedgwood, the youngest of a family of 
thirteen, was born in 1730, and came of a race of 
potters. There were Wedgwoods, potters, at 
Burslem, in the seventeenth century. We give an 
illustration of a puzzle jug having the inscription, 
" John Wedg Wood, 1691 " (see p. 212). 

Young Josiah left school at the age of nine and 
was apprenticed to his brother. At eleven, he had a 
most virulent attack of small-pox, which left him 
a weakling. Later on in life, he had to have one 
of his legs amputated owing to a weakness which he 



250 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

always had after his first terrible illness. Physically 
handicapped from the start, Josiah Wedgwood — 
wooden-legged though he was for over a quarter 
of a century — was the prince of English potters. 
His genius was coupled with great business capa- 
bility. His inventions were eminently successful. 
Starting with ;£^20, which his father left him, he died 
worth over half a million. 

Thoroughness seems to have been his policy, and 
prosperity always attended him. He interested 
himself in getting an Act of Parliament for better 
roads in the vicinity of the Staffordshire potteries. 
He cut the first sod of the Grand Trunk Canal. 

His aim was a glorious one. " Let us make all 
the good, fine, and new things we can," he said to 
his partner Bentley once, "and so far from being 
afraid of other people getting our patterns, we 
should glory in it, and throw out all the hints we 
can, and, if possible, have all the artists in Europe 
working after our models." 

He allowed no imperfect thing to leave his factory. 
It is a quaint scene one conjures up of the potter 
who, when going through his works, used to lift 
the stick he leant on and smash to pieces some 
offending dish or vase, saying, " This won't do for 
Josiah Wedgwood." 

The beginnings of Wedgwood ware were simple 
enough. In 1752, Josiah left Burslem to go to 
Stoke, where he was engaged in manufacturing 
knife-handles and like objects in imitation of agate 
and tortoiseshell. Subsequently he entered into 
partnership with John Harrison, of Newcastle, and 



V WEDGIVOOD. 251 

their wares were made at Stoke. In 1/54, Wedg- 
wood and Harrison entered into partnership with 
Thomas Whieldon at Little Fenton, the most eminent 
potter of his day. Shortly after Harrison dis- 
appears from the partnership. This connection 
between Whieldon and Wedgwood was a most 
important one. Their principal manufactures were 
tortoiseshell plates and dishes, cauliflower jugs, tea- 
pots with crabstock handles, and agate knife-handles. 



While with Whieldon, Wedgwood produced a new 
green earthenware, highly glazed and decorated with 
flowers and fruit, which was mainly used for dessert 
services. 

The tortoiseshell ware now known by Whieldon's 
name is very beautifully made. Usually the plates 
and dishes are hexagonal or octagonal in shape, with 
very finely moulded edges, and having a mottled and 
variegated arrangement in colour, which more re- 
sembles marble than tortoiseshell. 



252 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Wedgwood made snuff-boxes, and various trinkets 
intended to be mounted in metal. These productions 
of his were coloured to represent precious stones. 
When the jewellers of London and Bath were shown 
these wares, they considered them a valuable dis- 
covery, the secret of which they could not discover. 
But learning the low price at which Wedgwood was 
intending to sell them they grew less favourable, 
probably from thinking the imitation would ruin the 
sale of genuine jewels. 

We learn, too, that Wedgwood at this time was so 
incapacitated from attending to his business, owing 
to the remains of his old complaint, that he was 
obliged to communicate the secret of the method 
and proportions of his mixtures to a workman. 

The ware manufactured by Whieldon, both during 
his partnership with Wedgwood and afterwards, 
are of good quality, and are highly prized by 
collectors. A tortoiseshell plate costs a sovereign 
to-day. 

Of course none of these early wares of Wedgwood 
are marked. We shall show how he laid the foun- 
dation of his manufactory, which he called " Etruria," 
after the Italian home of the famous Etruscans, 
whose work he admired and imitated. 

What Wedgwood did for Staffordshire is shown 
best in the fojlowing sentence by M. Faujas de 
Saint Font in his "Travels," who says, speaking 
of the Wedgwood ware : "Its excellent workmanship, 
its solidity, the advantage which it possesses of 
sustaining the action of fire, its fine glaze, im- 
penetrable to acids, the beauty and convenience of 



IVBDG WOOD 253 

its form, and the cheapness of its price, have given 
rise to a commerce so active and so universal 
that in travelling from Paris to Petersburg, from 
Amsterdam to the furthest part of Sweden, and 
from Dunkirk to the extremity of the South of 
France, one is served at every inn with English ware. 
Spain, Portugal, and Italy are supplied, and vessels 
are loaded with it for the East and West Indies and 
the continent of America." 

Leaving the biographical side of the subject, we 
come to the actual productions of Josiah Wedgwood. 
We left him in partnership with Whieldon. That 
partnership ended, he commenced manufacturing 
on his own behalf. He speedly found that one 
pottery was not enough to satisfy his tireless 
energies. He became the owner of two. In 1762, 
he presented Queen Charlotte with a breakfast 
service of cream-coloured earthenware. In return 
he received the title of "Potter to her Majesty," 
and his Queen's Ware became a great success. Every 
fortnight a waggon left Burslem for Liverpool with 
a freight of this ware, to be decorated by Messrs. 
Sadler and Green by their transfer process at 
Liverpool. 

About this time he took his cousin, Thomas 
Wedgwood, into partnership, and later Thomas 
Bentley, of Liverpool, a man of great taste, vyho 
exercised no inconsiderable influence upon the style 
of design of the new pottery at Etruria. A man 
of wide reading and culture, it was he who supple- 
mented Wedgwood's practical efforts by his theories. 
It was always Wedgwood first, but Bentley was 



254 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

an ideal second. He took no part in what Wedg- 
wood termed the ** useful " side of the manufactory, 
such as, for example, the manufacture of Queen's 
Ware and other articles for everyday use. Bentley's 
partnership was only concerned with the "orna- 
mental " side of the pottery, such as the manufacture 
of vases and works of art. 

In 1769 Ktruria was opened, and Josiah Wedgwood 
might have been seen at the potter's bench arid Thomas 
Bentley at the wheel, and their united labours pro- 
duced the first vase, having an inscription which 
runs: — 

JUNE XIII., MDCCLXIX. 
ONE OF THE FIRST DAY'S PRODUCTIONS 

AT 
KTRURIA IN STAFFORDSHIRE, 

BY 

WEDGWOOD AND BENTLEY. 

ARTES ETRURI^ RENASCUNTER. 

The subject of decoration is Hercules in the 
Garden of the Hesperides, and was a forerunner 
of those classical pieces which have made Wedgwood 
as honoured a name in Europe as that of Palissy 
the Frenchman, of Lucca del Robbia the Italian, 
or of Bottcher the German. 

The range of the Wedgwood ware may be gathered 
from the fact that in one of the catalogues the pro- 
ductions are divided into twenty distinct classes. 
It is not our intention to enumerate these, but they 
comprised series of medals and medallions of the 



WEDGWOOD 255 

Caesars, the Roman emperors, the heads of the Popes 
(consisting of no less than two hundred and fifty- 
three medallions), a hundred heads of the kings 
of England and France, together with "heads of 
illustrious moderns." In addition to these there 
were admirable busts, some being twenty-five inches 
in height, of Lord Chatham, Cornelius De Witt, John 
De Witt, Plato, and many more. These were in 
black basaltes, durable as marble. Lamps and 
candelabra of antique forms were produced from 
" two shillings apiece to five guineas." 

In passing, we may refer to the above fact to show 
why Wedgwood or any other ware varies in value so 
much at the present day. Obviously a two-shilling 
lamp will not be as valuable as a five-guinea one. 
Readers learn that certain china has fetched a large 
price in the auction-room. Sometimes they erro- 
neously infer that other china they possess, which 
bears the mark of the same factory, is equally 
valuable. The above will point the moral of the 
story. It is. a fact that cannot be too often insisted 
upon that the great factories turned out productions 
by the ton, many of them intended for ordinary every- 
day use, and though bearing their mark, yet not 
valuable from the collector's point of view. 

There are, of course, other reasons why china is or 
is not valuable, but this is a very solid reason too 
often overlooked. To be able to differentiate the 
good from the bad, " that is the question." To know 
that a specimen is good is one thing, to give the 
reason why is another. When the reader begins to 
do this he or she is already a connoisseur. 



256 CHATS O.V ENGLISH CHINA 

In order to give a fairly proportionate idea of 
what Wedgwood ware is, we quote a list and 
description of six different kinds of ware in his 
own words : — 

" I. "A tirra-cotta; resembling porphyry, granite, 
Egyptian, pebble, and other beautiful stones of the 
silicious or crystalline order. 



WEDGWOOD 1 



" 2. Basaltes or black ware ; a black porcelain 
biscuit of nearly the same properties with the natural 
stone; striking fire with steel, receiving a high polish, 
serving as a touchstone for metals, resisting all the 
acids, and bearing without injury a strong fire ; 
stronger, indeed, than the basaltes itself 



WEDGWOOD 257 

" 3. White porcelain biscuit^ of a smooth, wax-like 
surface, of the same properties with the preceding, 
except in what depends upon colour. 

" 4. Jasper ; a white porcelain biscuit of exquisite 
beauty and delicacy, possessing the general properties 
of the basaltes, together with the singular one of 
receiving through its whole substance, from the 
admixture of metallic calces with the other materials, 
the same colours which those calces- communicate 
to glass or enamels in fusion — a property which 
no other porcelain or earthenware body of ancient 
or modern composition has been found to possess. 
This renders it peculiarly fit for making cameos, 
portraits, and all subjects in bas-relief, as the ground 
may be of any particular colour, while the raised 
figures are of a pure white. 

" 5. Bamboo, or cane-coloured biscuit porcelain, of 
the same nature as No. 3. 

"6. A porcelain biscuit, remarkable for great 
hardness, little inferior to that of agate. This pro- 
perty, together with its resistance to the strongest 
acids and corrosives, and its impenetrability by 
every known liquid, adapts it for mortars and many 
different kinds of chemical vessels. 

" These six distinct species, with the Queen's Ware 
already mentioned, expanded by the industry and 
ingenuity of the different manufacturers into an 
infinity of forms for ornament and use, variously 
painted and embellished, constitute nearly the whole 
of the present fine English earthenwares and porce- 
lain which are now become the source of a very 
extensive trade, and which, considered as an object 

18 



258 CHATS OX EyuUSfi CHINA 

of national art, industry, and commerce, may be 
ranked amongst the most important manufactures of 
the kingdom." 

Of these various wares we give illustrations. The 
three vases we reproduce are fine examples in imi- 
tation of porphyry and other precious stones (see 
p. 256). The material is so hard that it can be 
worked upon by the lapidary, and takes as fine a 
polish as the real stone it resembles. 



Of the celebrated basaltes or black ware, some- 
times called Egyptian ware, the vase we reproduce 
as the first made at Etruria was of this class, and we 
give two other examples. 

We give two very beautiful specimens of the 
Jasper ware. This wonderful ware was made in 
seven colours: blue, lilac, pink, sage-green, olive- 
green, black, and yellow. Specimens of this last 
colour are very rare. 



WEDGWOOD 259 

We reproduce a blue jasper Wedgwood vase and 

pedestal from Mr. W. G. Honey's collection ex- 
hibited at the Cork Exhibition. 



WEDGWOOD. BLUE VASE AND PEBESTAL. 

(14 la. hifih.) 
/« Celltciion of Mr W. G. Honey. 

" Future ages may view the productions of the age 
of George III. with the same veneration that we now 
behold those of Alexander and Augustus," writes 



26o CHATS 0\ ESGUSH CHISA 

Wedgwood of his cameo portraits, with fine 
enthusiasm. 

Having dealt with the bic^raphic side of 
Wedgwood ware, and of the genius of the great 



profrittors 0/ "Cormoisi-rir." 

WEDGWOOD pi.A(jUE {designed by Flaxman). 



Hereurjr uniling the hands of EnEland Md France. 

Josiah Wedgwood, and having enumerated the 
various classes of ware originated by him, we come 
now to the consideration of his classic wares, of 
which the wonderful replica of the Portland Vase 
stands as the most notable example. 



C BARBESINI C 

(Copied by Josiah Wedgwood.) 
/« British Museum. 



WEDG WOOD 263 

In passing, we mention the celebrated service of 
Wedgwood made for the Empress Catherine II. of 
Russia, which took eight years to complete. It. 
consisted of 952 pieces, of which the cost was 
about ;^3,ooo. This splendid service had upwards 
of 1,200 views of the seats of noblemen and gentle- 
men in various parts of England. A large service 
for Queen Charlotte of views in black enamel of 
palaces and seats of the nobility took three years to 
execute. 

To his celebrated " Jasper " ware, Wedgwood 
devoted immense and never-ending skill to bring it 
to its final perfection. 

The use to which he put this jasper is well illus- 
trated in fiis series of beautiful portrait medallions. 
We reproduce a design of a plaque by Flaxman, 
representing the hands of France and England being 
joined together by the god Mercury. 

Wedgwood was enabled, by the patronage of 
noblemen who possessed fine classic examples and 
gladly lent them to the great potter, to copy some of 
the finest specimens of the old art of the Greeks. 
He was thus enabled to produce the celebrated 
" Dancing Nymphs " and the " Head of Medusa " 
from Sir William Hamilton's collection ; and to other 
great collections he was similarly indebted. 

In 1787, the collection of the Duchess of Portland 
came under the hammer. The sale included the 
celebrated Barberini Vase, which was dug up by 
order of the Pope Barberini, named Urban VIII., 
about the first quarter of the seventeenth century. 
This urn contained the ashes of the Roman Emperor 



264 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

Alexander Severus and his mother, and had been 
deposited in the earth about the year 235 A.D. 

The body of this vase, now known as the Portland 
Vase, which was composed of glass, is a rich dark 
blue, approaching black. The snow-white figures 
which appear on it are in bas-relief. It is a 
magnificent example of ancient art 

At the sale above alluded to, the Duke of Portland 
and Wedgwood were contesting hotly for possession 
of the vase. The price had reached a thousand 
guineas. At this moment the Duke, crossing to 
Wedgwood, asked him why he wished to possess the 
vase, to which the potter replied that he was desirous 
of copying it. The Duke immediately offered the 
loan of the piece, and the vase was thus knocked 
down to the Duke of Portland, and Wedgwood 
borrowed it from the owner for a twelvemonth. 

The subsequent history of the vase is interesting. 
The Duke of Portland, as one of the trustees of the 
British Museum, allowed it to be exhibited there. 
In 1845 a fanatic dashed this priceless gem to pieces 
with a stone. Owing to the defective state of the 
law he escaped with a very slight punishment. But 
so great a sensation did the affair cause that an Act 
was at once passed by Parliament making similar 
offences punishable by terms of imprisonment The 
pieces of the vase were skilfully joined, but the 
fractures are still visible, as will be seen from our 
illustration. It is now in the " Gold medals room " 
of the British Museum, and by its side is one of the 
fifty copies which Wedgwood made for subscribers 
at fifty guineas apiece. The vase itself once changed 



WEDGWQOD 265 

hands for eighteen hundred guineas, and one .of 
Wedgwood's copies fetched two hundred and fifteen 
guineas in 1892. 

The body used for this vase was black jasper, a 
body used on but three other occasions. The figures 
on it were worked up and cut to the utmost degree 
of sharpness and finish, by the seal and gem engraver 
— a striking piece of reproduction. The original 
moulds are still in existence, and Messrs. Wedgwood 
still produce copies both in black and in a deep blue 
ground. But the price is in shillings and not in 
guineas nowadays. 

Among the various catalogues issued by Wedg- 
wood, some were issued in Dutch and in French. 
There is one, dated 1775, which contains a perfect 
little essay to the possible buyer of his ware. From 
the point of view of the potter and artist, he. gives 
reasons for the genuine work of art costing more 
money than an unworthy and feeble imitation. 

Wedgwood writes so simply and naturally that it 
is worth the perusal of all who love china for china's 
sake, to ponder over what the master potter says : — 

** The proprietors of this manufactory hope it will 
appear to all those who may have been pleased to 
attend to its progress, that ever since its establish- 
ment it has been continually improving both in the 
variety and in the perfection of its productions. 

" A competition for cheapness^ and not for excellence 
of workmanships is the most frequent and certain 
cause of the rapid decay and entire destruction of 
arts and manufactures. 

" The desire of selling much in a little time without 



266 CHATS ON ENGUSH CHINA 

respect to the taste or quality of the goods, leads 
manufacturers and merchants to ruin the reputation 
of the articles which they manufacture and deal in ; 
and whilst those who buy, for the sake of a fallacious 
saving, prefer mediocrity to excellence, it will be 
impossible for manufacturers either to improve or 
keep up the quality of their works. 

" This observation is equally applicable to manu- 
facturers and to the productions of the Fine Arts ; 
but the degradation is more fatal to the latter than 
the former, for though an ordinary piece of goods, 
for common use, is always dearer than the best of the 
kind, yet an ordifiary and tasteless piece of ornament 
is not only dear at any price, but absolutely useless 
and ridiculous, 

" All works of art must bear a price in proportion to 
the skill, the taste, the time, the expense, and the 
risk attending the invention and the execution of 
them. Those pieces that for these reasons bear the 
highest price and, which those who are not accus- 
tomed to consider the real difficulty and expense of 
making fine things are apt to call dear, are, when 
justly estimated, the cheapest articles that can be 
purchased ; and such as are generally attended with 
much less profit to the artist than those that every- 
body calls cheap, 

"There is another mistake that gentlemen who 
are not acquainted with the particular difficulties of 
an art are apt to fall into. They frequently observe 
that a handsome thing may be made as cheap as an 
ugly one. A moment's reflection would rectify this 
opinion. 



WEDG WOOD 267 

" The most successful artists know that they can 
turn out ten ugly and defective things for one that is 
beautiful and perfect in its kind. Even suppose the 
artist has the true idea of the kind of beauty at 
which he aims, how many lame and unsuccessful 
efforts does he make in his design, and every part of 
it, before he can please himself? And suppose one 
piece is well-composed and tolerably finished, as in 
vases and encaustic paintings, for instance, where 
every succeeding vase, and every picture, is made not 
in a mould or by a stamp, but separately by the 
hand, with the same attention and diligence as the 
first, how difficult must it be to preserve the beauty 
of the first model. 

" It is so difficult that without the constant atten- 
tion of the master's eye, such variations are frequently 
made in the form and taste of the work, even while 
the model is before the workman, as totally to change 
and degrade the character of the piece. 

^^ Beautiful forms and compositions are not to be 
made by chance ; and they never were made nor 
can be made in any kind at a small expense ; but 
the proprietors of this manufactory have the satis- 
faction of knowing, by a careful comparison, that 
the prices of many of their ornaments are much 
lower, and of all of them as low as those of any 
other ornamental works in Europe, of equal quality 
and bisqu^ notwithstanding the high price of labour 
in England, and they are determined rather to give 
up the making of any article than to degrade it. 
They do not manufacture for those who estimate 
works of ornament by their magnitude, and who 



268 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

would buy pictures at so muck a foot. They have 
been happy in the encouragement and support of 
many illustrious persons who judge of the works of 
Art by better principles ; and so long as they have 
the honour of being thus patronised, they will 
endeavour to support and improve the quality and 
taste of their manufactures." 

Such were Wedgwood's ideals, and he raised the 
making of pottery in England into a fine art. The 
inscription on his monument at Stoke-upon-Trent 
shows the esteem with which his contemporaries 
held him. 



Sacred to the Memory of 

JOSIAH WEDGWOOD, F.R.S. & S.A., 

Of Etruria, in this County, 
Born in August, 1730, died January 3rd, 1795, 
Who converted a rude and inconsiderable manufac- 
ture into an elegant art and an important 
* part of national Commerce. 
By these services to his country he acquired an 

ample fortune. 

Which he blamelessly and reasonably enjoyed. 

And generously dispensed for the reward of merit 

and the relief of misfortune. 
His mind was inventive and original, yet perfectly 

sober and well regulated ; 
His character was decisive and commanding, with- 
out rashness or arrogance ; 
His probity was inflexible, his kindness unwearied ; 



WEDG WOOD 269 

His manners simple and dignified, and the cheerful- 
ness of his temper was the natural reward of the 

activity of his pure and useful life. 

He was most loved by those who knew him best, 

And he has left indelible impressions of affection 

and veneration on the minds of his family, who 

have erected this monument to his memory. 

The marks used by the Wedgwoods have been 
few. It is usually the name Wedgwood, occurring in 
various sized type from time to time. In passing, we 
may say that the manufacture of china was never 
attempted by the great Josiah. His work was 
earthenware and not porcelain. But some of it had 
many of the qualities of china, the more delicate 
ware being nearly semi-transparent, as is china. 
About the year 1808, and only for a few years, was 
china made at Etruria, and then not to any extent ; 




consequently specimens are very scarce. The mark 
on this china is the name WEDGWOOD in small 
capitals printed in red or blue. 

On all other wares the name WEDGWOOD is 
impressed, in some specimens in large capitals, in 
others in small capitals, wedgwood. 



270 (MATS ON EyCUSH CHINA 

Sometimes, though rarely, the name occurs in 
ordinary type, Wedgwood. On other pieces the 
name occurs thus : — 

WEDGWOOD 
ETRURIA. 

During the period when Bentley was associated with 
Ktruria the following were impressed : — 

WEDGWOOD Wedgwood 

& BENTLEY. ^^ & Bentley. 

The general mark used during this period was a 
circular one, the letters on which were raised and 
not sunk as in the others. 

The marks WEDGWOOD & CO., or simply 
the word WEDGEWOOD, are both spurious, and 
were used by Messrs. William Smith and others of 
Stockton, against whom the firm at Etruria obtained 
an injunction restraining the imitators from iisin^ 
the name " Wedgwood," or ** Wedgewood " with an 
additional t. This was in 1848. 

Of the \*ar}'ing vicissitudes of the Wedgwoods 
since the days of the great Josiah, i^-e have had no 
space to allude. But it is sufficient proof that he 
laid a very sure foundation to a fine business, inas- 
much as the firm is in flourishing condition at the 
present day. 

His Queen's ware, which he made for the Queen 
Consort of George III., was the prototj-pe of the 
oniinar\- dinner ware of to-day. We reproduce a 



H'A-DGIVOUD 271 

quaint old Wedgwood teapot with queer design 
upon it, representing the mill to grind old folks 
young. 

It is a far cry from Queen Charlotte to President 
Roosevelt, but it is surely a singular record of a 
great firm that the Wedgwoods made the new 
service of china to be used on State occasions at the 
White House. The design has been copyrighted, 
thus ensuring its exclusive use. It is of simple gold 
pattern, bearing the great seal of the United States 
enamelled in colours upon it. The set consists of 
over a thousand pieces, and was ready early last year. 

In the conclusion of the journey round the china 
shelf in this series of "Chats," the writer trusts that 
they have stimulated the interest of the readers in 
their old china and have helped to solve certain dark 
riddles, and to give pedigree to " family jars." 



> .Tiin T^i^ ;"n:.^-h rarely, th 

WEDGWr 
ETRUP 

V.-r.g the penod when R 
Kt-^Kj the i";.".-.«ing were 

WEDGWOOD 
X HENTLEV. 

T.1S ptneril mark n 
c.tcS.js one, the Icr 
:;,X s-nk 25 in the 
The niArks Wl 
:he «\vd WEDG 
"i?re Used by M' 

■»:i iii;unction r 
the name - \V< 
«i'«iitionaI £. ^ 



WEDGWOOD 273 

Wedgwood. £ ^. d. 

Bust, black basalt, nearly life size, David 

Garrick. Christie, February 4, 1902. 37 16 o 

Cabaret, blue jasper, with reliefs of 
Nymphs and Cupids, consisting of 
teapot and cover, two basins, cup 
and saucer and oval plateau ; and a 
black basalt copy of a lamp. 
Christie, February 4, 1902 . .660 

Chatelaines, three old English cut steel 
and seven ditto clasps, set with blue 
and white Wedgwood plaques, in 
oval frame. Christie, February 4, 
1902 . . . . . . . 81 18 o 

Jardinieres, pair, blue jasper, with panels 
of Cupids and acanthus foliage. 
Christie, February 4, 1902. . . 7 17 6 

Pendants and clasps, nine, cut steel, set 
withWedgwood plaques, with Nymphs 
and Cupids ; and one other piece. 
Christie, February 4, 1902. . . 36 15 o 

Plaque, oblong, blue jasper, with figures 
sacrificing at an altar, festoons of 
flowers above, 4J in. by loj in., in 
gilt frame. Christie, February 4, 
1902 8 18 6 

Portrait medallions, eight, of Addison, 
Hon. W. Hastings, &c., in octagonal 
frame, and eight smaller plaques 
with classical subjects. Christie, 
February 4, 1902 . . . . 71 8 o 

Teapot and cover, light blue jasper 

19 



274 CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA 

ground, with white relief subjects. £ s. d. 
Sotheby, February 24, 1902 .440 

Vase, of classical design, the front orna- 
mented with a group of Cupids danc- 
ing, in relief ; Wedgwood & Bentley. 
Sotheby, February 24, 1902 . 15 10 o 

Dinner set, white ground with gold and 
terra-cotta decorations, consisting of 
145 pieces. J. A. Maclean, Dundee, 
May 9, 1902 32 o o 

Medallions, set of nine, blue and white, 
comprising portraits of Priestley, 
Gibbon, Elers, Bentley, Cromwell, 
Johnson, J. Reynolds, Capt Cook, 
and Franklin, in black and gold 
glazed case. Alexander, Daniel & 
Co., Bristol, May 7, 1902 . . -750 

Vases and covers, pair, two-handled, light 
blue and white, with raised figures 
and other emblems, representing 
Music and Dancing, having mask- 
head handles, 18 in. high. Alexander, 
Daniel & Co., Bristol, May 7, 1902 .13 00 

Vase, the Portland, or Barberini, a fine 
example, and one of the earliest, in a 
dark slate-blue body, the reliefs 
harmonising in tone with the field, 
on revolving stand, with metal tripod, 
mirror, &c. Christie, June 11, 1902 . 399 o o 

Vase and pedestal, the vase of granulated 
ground, with reliefs of Flaxman^s 
Muses, leafage, &c., scroll handles, 



WEDGWOOD 27 s 

a figure of Pegasus on cover ; the £ s. d. 

pedestal of square form, fluted, with 

reliefs of the Four Seasons ; vase 

15 in., pedestal 8f in. high. Christie, 

June II, 1902 33 12 o 

Vase, on triangular base, supported by 
three Atlas figures, reliefs of ara- 
besque scroll, festoons, &c., figure of 
Cupid on cover, 1 3 in. high. Christie, 
June II, 1902 63 o o 

Medallions, three, Venus and Adonis, and 
Cupid riding upon a swan ; black 
ground, white relief; Wedgwood & 
Bentley. Christie, June 11, 1902 . 54 12 o 

Medallion, large oval tri-coloured : The 
Triumph of Achilles at Troy, green 
ground, border on black. Christie, 
June II, 1902 . . . . 24 3 o 

Portraits or Heads of Illustrious Moderns. 
Portraits, framed singly: — Hippo- 
crates and Terence, Wedgwood & 
Bentley, metal frames ; Frederick 
the Great, Wedgwood & Bentley ; 
and Prince Charles Stuart, metal 
frames ; Marie Antoinette, Prince 
Paul of Russia, and Mrs. Barbauld, 
one Wedgwood & Bentley, metal 
frames ; Inigo Jones, black basalt, 
high relief, and Alexander, an early 
terra-cotta portrait, in colour ; Joseph 
n., and Dr. Benjamin Franklin, in 
white biscuit ; Sir Isaac Newton, 



276 CHATS ON RNGLISH CHINA 

Admiral Keppel, and a male portrait, £ s. d. 

looking left, in white jasper, &c., one 

Wedgwood & Bentley ; General 

Eliott (Lord Heathfield), circular, 

white, and J. P. Elers, in a copper- 

lustred frame ; Joseph Priestley, 

Unitarian Minister, a portrait, in 

glazed pottery, and Dr. Black, in blue 

and white. Christie, June 11, 1902 ^ i,500 o o 

Figures, pair, large black. Foster, Decem- 
ber 23, 1902 1986 

Teapot and cover, sage-green, and basin, 
with groups of classical figures, 
Nymphs, Cupids, and foliage in 
relief. Christie, December, 1902 .16 5 6 

Vase and cover, oviform, blue jasper, 
decorated with rams' heads in relief, 
and cameo figured panels, on plinth, 
13J in. Foster, November 27, 1902 . 7 10 o 

Vase and cover, campana-shaped, blue 
jasper, with a frieze of Cupids sacri- 
ficing, masks, laurel-branches, and a 
wreath of vines under the lip ; on 
octagonal-shaped pedestal, with figures 
of griffons at the corners, with 
classical frieze ; 20 in. high. Christie, 
July 10, 1903 210 o o 

' This collection of portraits, by Josiah Wedgwood, is 

undoubtedly the most important one ever gathered together. 

Many are unique — all are of interest, as i2i\\\\i\3\ facsitniles in 

a permanent material that cannot be affected by time or 

climate. 



:lai. . Hr. F. RathbMe"" 

PLAQUE. THE YOUNG PAN. 



INDEX 



Abbey & Graham, ** Hercula- 
neum " (Liverpool), 200 

Absolon, potter, Yarmouth, 200 

Allen, Robert (Lowestoft), 117 

America, clay from, used at Bow, 
51 ; Plymouth, 92 

*' Amherst, Japan," as a mark, 182 

Anchor as a mark — Bow, 54 ; 
Caughley, 137; Chelsea, 34, 
35 ; Liverpool, 241 ; Venice, 
30 ; Worcester, 73 

Angouleme sprig pattern imitated 
by Derby, 22 

Arms, coats of, on china, Lowe- 
stoft, 115 ; Oriental china, 115, 
120 

Arrow as a mark, 61 

Aubrey, Lady, designs on Derby 
painted by, 12 



B 



" B " as a mark, 53 

" B. A. E.," initials on Liverpool 
bowl, 246 

*' Ballades in Blue China," 
quoted, 4 

Bamboo ware (Wedgwood), 257 

Banks, Sir Joseph, friend of 
Cookworthy, 92 

letter concerning Billings- 
ley and Walker, 169 

Barberini Vase (Wedgwood), 260, 
261, 263 



Basaltes (Wedgwood), 256 
Bath, Camden Place, view on 

Worcester vase, 80 
Batons, crossed, as a mark, 7 
Battersea, 29 
printing, Horace Walpole 

on, 240 
Baxter (painter), Swansea, 172 
** B B " as a mark, 182 
Beauclerk, Lady Diana, design 

for Wedgwood plaque, 277 
Beddoes (painter), Swansea, 174 
Bee and goats jug (Bow), 62, 63 ; 

Chelsea, 35 
Bellarmine — mugs thus named 

(Low Countries), 197 
'* Benbow, Francis," name on 

Caughley mug, 137 
Bentley, Thomas, partner with 

We<^wood, 253 
Bethnal Green Museum, pieces 

reproduced from collection at. 

Bow, 49, 50 ; Chelsea, 29 ; 

Crown Derby, 3 ; Plymouth, 

91 ; Spode, 152 ; Staffordshire 

delft mug, 206 ; Wedgwood 

Puzzle-jug, 212 ; Worcester, 

80 
Minton majolica fountain 

at, 186 
Billingsley, flower painter, 140, 

165 ; at Nantgarw, 169 ; at 

Swansea, 170 
Bird (as a mark), Liverpool, 241 
Biscuit, definition of, xxi. 
Biscuit ware (Derby), 21 



279 



28o 



INDEX 



Biscuit, white porcelain (VVedg- 

wcx>d), 257 
Bloor, Robert (Derby), 15 
Bloor-Derby marks, 16 ; Recent 

Sale Prices, 24 
illustrations of, tea-pot, 

iii. ; vase, 17. 
Blue dragon, introduced at Caugh- 

Jey, 138 
Blue-printed table service, the 

first made in England, 138 
Bone- ash porcelain, definition of, 

xxiii. 
Bone, Henry (Plymouth), 94 
Bottcher, J. V. (Dresden), 196 
Bow, 10-64 ; characteristics of 

Bow china, 61 ; discovery of 

fragments of china, 56 ; marks, 

S3; 54» 60, 61 ; paste, 59 ; 

printed wares at, 60 ; Recent 

Sale Prices, 62 
china, illustrations of, 

figure, 50 ; fragments of, 56, 

57 ; ink -stand, 49 
Boyle, John (Minton), 182 
Brameld (Rockingham), 118 
Brislington, copper lustre at, 221 
Bristol, 97-109 ; blue delft, 97 ; 

characteristics of, 106 ; end of 

factory, 104 ; Recent Sale 

Prices, 107 
china, illustrations of, cup 

and saucer, 102 ; ** Mandarin " 

decorated, 97 ; vase, 103 

delft bowl, 213 

pottery, 201 

St. Vincent's Rock, view 



on Worcester vase, 80 
British Museum, specimen repro- 
duced from collection at (Chel- 
sea), 32 ; recent Lowestoft 
acquisitions at, 124 ; Portland 
vase, 264 
Browne, Robert (Lowestoft), 115 
Brunei, portrait of, on mug, 214 
Buckingham, Duke of, connection 

with Chelsea, 30 
" Buckle, Elizabeth," name on 

Lowestoft china, 1 1 7 
** Burges, William and Elizabeth,'' 
names on delft mug, 206 



Burke, Edmund, cup and saucer 
from service ordered by, 102 

encouragement of Richard 

Champion by, 105 

Bust, copper lustre, 227 



C 



" C " as a mark (Caughley), 140 
"Calder, M. and E., Norwich," 

names on Lowestoft, 116 
Camelford, Lord, clay on estate of 

(Plymouth china), 91 
" Cambrian " as a mark, 171 
"Cambrian- Argil" as a mark, 216 
Cambrian Pottery (Swansea), 170, 

171 
" C and G " as a mark, 156 

Carlyle quoted on Worcester 
china, 72 

Carpenter, with tools, figure of 
(Chelsea), 29 

Case, Mort & Co. (Liverpool), 242 

Catherine II. of Russia, Wedg- 
wood's service for, 263 

Caughley, 135-8; Marks, 140, 
143 ; old blue mug, 137 ; 
Recent Sale Prices, 147 

Cave, Edward, of Worcester, 69 

♦*C. B. D." as a mark, 142 

" C. D." as a mark, 140 

Chaffers, Richard, Liverpool, 240; 
mark of, 240 

Chamberlain, Worcester, 78 ; 
marks of, 78 ; scent-bottle, 80 

Chamberlain, Lilley & Kerr, 
Worcester, 79 

Champion, Richard, Bristol, 97- 
106 ; his death in America, 
105 ; Wedgwood's opinion of, 
104 

Chantilly sprig pattern (Derby), 
22 

Charlotte, Queen, Wedgwood's 
service for, 253, 263 

Chelsea 29-45 ; best period of, 
33 ; characteristics of china, 40 ; 
decline of, 35 ; illustrations of 
— figure of carpenter, 29 ; 
'* Foundling " Vase, 38 ; open- 
work vase, 45 ; Vase in British 



INDEX 



281 



Museum, 31 ; marks, 34, 35, 
39 ; Chelsea marks imitated at 
Coalport, 143; Recent Sale 
Prices, 41 

Cherokee Indians, clay from, used 
at Bow, 51 

'♦ Chesterfield " Vase (Chelsea), 37 

China, definition of, xxi. 

Christening cup, 2oi8 

Christian, Liverpool, 241 

Clay from Virginia (Plymouth), 
92 ; from the Cherokee Indians, 
(Bow), 51 ; 

Lowestoft used at Wor- 
cester, 114 

Cleopatra, death ot (Chelsea 
vase), 32 

Coalport, 135-148 ; Billingsley 
at, 165 ; Chelsea, Dresden, 
Sevres marks imitated at, 143 ; 
illustrations — plate (modern), 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 145 ; 
two-handled cup and saucer, 
135 ; vase, 141 ; marks, 140, 142, 
143 ; Nantgarw and Swansea 
incorporated with, 140 ; Recent 
Sale Prices, 147 ; service made 
for Emperor of Russia, 142 

Colebrookdale, 136-8 

Cook, Captain, friend of Cook- 
worthy, 92 

Cookworthy, William (Plymouth), 
91-96 

" Cooper, John," name on I^we- 
stoft china, 127 

Copeland, discovery of Parian 
ware by, 21, 156^158; excel- 
lence of ware of 151, 158; 
illustration, plates, 1 57 ; marks, 
156 ; Recent Sale Prices, 161 

Copeland & Garrett, marks of, 

156 

Copeland, W. T. & Sons, marks 

of, 156 
Copper Lustre Ware, best period 

of, 225 ; illustrations of, 221, 222, 

223, 225, 226 
Courtney (late Bloor), Derby 

china, 20 
Cradle, old English earthenware, 

207 



Crescent as a mark, Bow, 54 ; 
Caughley, 140, 143 ; Lowe- 
stoft, 1 30 ; Worcester, 70, 71, 

78 
Cross as a mark. Bow, 53, 60 ; 

Bristol, 100 ; Caughley, 140 ; 

Lowestoft, 130 
Crossed daggers, Derby mark, 8, 

9, II 
Crown-Derby, illustrations of, 3, 

9, II, 13 ; marks, 7, 8, 16,20; 

peculiarities in crown mark, 8 ; 

Recent Sale Prices, 23 
"C. S. N." as a mark, 142, 143 
Cumberland, Duke of, contributes 

annual sum to Chelsea, 33 
" Curtis, James and Mary," names 

on Lowestoft mug, 118 
Curtis, Thomas (Lowestoft), 118 
"C. W."asa mark, 169 



D 



"D" asa mark, 7, 8, 39 

Dagger as a mark, 54 

** Daniell " as a mark, 142 

Da vies, William (of Worcester), 69 

Delft, blue (Bristol), 97; Lowe- 
stoft, 115; illustration of (Old 
Staffordshire), 206 

Delia Robbia ware copied by 
Minton, 184 

Derby, 3-25; biscuit ware, 21 ; 
cause of decline of, 16 ; charac- 
teristics of, 22 ; illustrations of, 
Bloor-Derby, Hi., 17; Crown- 
Derby, 3, 9, II, 13 ; marks— 
Bloor-Derby, 16 ; Crown- 
Derby, 7 ; Recent Sale Prices — 
Bloor-Derby, 24 ; Crown- 
Derby, 23 ; Derby-Chelsea, 44 

Derby-Chelsea, 8, 39 ; marks, 39, 
Recent Sale Prices, 44 

De Witt, Cornelius, portrait of 
(Wedgwood), 255 

John, f)ortrait of (Wedg- 
wood), 255 

Dillwyn (Swansea), Etruscan 
ware, 171^ 174; illustration of, 
173 ; lustre ware made by, 228 ; 
marks of, 171 



282 



INDEX 



Dixon & Co. (lustre ware), 
Sunderland, 228 

Dobson, Mr. Austin, quoted, 68 

Donaldson, painter, Worcester, 78 

Doulton, Messrs., Lambeth, 29, 
205 

Dragon blue, introduced at 
Caughley, 138 

Dresden, copied, at Chelsea, 37 ; 
at Worcester, 84 

marks imitated at Coal- 
port, 143 

origin of factory at, 196 



Dudley House, Chelsea vases at, 

39 
Duesbury, William (the first), 6, 
8 ; the second, 12 ; the third, 

Duesbur)' & Sheffield (Derby), 15 
Dwight, John, 202 ; the inventor 
of porcelain in England, 29 



Earl St. Vincent, friend of Cook- 
worthy, 92 

Earthenware, definition of xxi. ; 
old English, 193-218 

Egyptian ware (Wedgwood), 258 

" England," use of word on 
modern china, 144 

English ware universal on Con- 
tinent, 253 

slip ware, 208 

Etruria, 253; first vase produced 
at, 254 

Etruscan ware, Dillwyn (Swan- 
sea), 171, 174 ; illustration of, 

J73 
Evans & Co. , Swansea, 1 74 



*' F" as a mark, 53 
Falstaff, Quin as. Bow figure, 55 
" Fayence, Spode's new," 154 
Felspar porcelain (Coal port), 140 ; 

Minton & Boyle, 182 
Flaxman, design on Wedgwood 

(France and England), 260, 

263 



I Flight, Thomas (Worcester), 78 ; 

marks of, 78 
Flight & Barr, 78 ; Billingsley, 

painter, with, 165 ; marks, 78 
Flora, Bow figure of, 64 
Fordyce, Lady Mai^ret, designs 

on china painted by, 12 
" Foundling " Vase (Chelsea), 37, 

38 
Frank, R., Brislington, 228 

Frederick, Prince of Wales, por- 
trait of, painted by Frye, 51 

Frederick the Great (Worcester 
mug), Carlyle's description of, 
72 ; illustration of, xiii., 73 

French sprig pattern (Derby), 22 

Frc^ mug, Sunderland, 203 

Frye Thomas(ofWest Ham), 51 ; 
as a mezzotint engraver, 52 ; 
various signatures of, 60 

Fuddling cup, 207 

Fulham pottery, 202 

fiip-mug, Alexander Sel- 



kirk, 214 



G 



Garrick, as Richard HI., Bow 

figure, 55 
George H., patron of Chelsea, 33 
German workmen brought to 

Chelsea by George IL, 33 
Glass, Joseph, potter, 207 
Glassy porcelain, definition of, 

xxiii. 
Glaze, definition of, xxi. ; leadless, 

144 
Globe as a mark, 184 
Goats and bee jug (Bow), 62, 63 ; 

Chelsea, 35 
Gold Lustre Ware, 232, 233 ; jug, 

232 
Grainger, Lee & Co., Worcester, 

81 ; marks, 79 
Green, Guy, Liverpool, 238 

H 

" H " as a mark, Lowestoft, 129 
Hancock, Robert, engraver, 72 
76 



INDEX 



283 



Hard paste, definition of, xxii. 

Hard porcelain, first manufacture 
of, in England, 91 ; made at 
Bristol, 97, 98 ; at New Hall, 
105 ; at Plymouth, 91 

Harrison, John, 250 

** Harvey, William," name on 
Lowestoft, 123 

Henri II. faience, copied by 
Minton, 185 

Herculaneum Pottery (Liverpool), 
200, 241 

Heylin, Edward (of Bow), 51 

Hogarth, '* Midnight Conversa- 
tion" of, Liverpool bowl, 246 

Hughes, Lowestoft, 129 



Ironstone china, Mason, xxii., 

216 ; illustrated, xvii., 217 
Isleworth, 205 
** I. W." as a mark, 199, 211 



J 



Tackfield, factory at, 138 

japan patterns used at Derby, 22 

Japanese influence on Spode, 1 55 ; 

Derby, 22 
Jasper ware (Wedgwood), 257 ; 

illustrations of, 249, 258, 259 
Johnson, Dr., experiments of, at 

Chelsea factory, 40 



K 



'* K & B, Worcester," as a mark, 

79. 
Kaolin, xxiii., 195 

Kean, Michael (Derby), 15 

Kerr & Binns (Worcester), 79 

King of Prussia mug, Carlyle's 

description of, 72 ; Sale Prices, 

87 

Kishere, Mortlake, 205 



*' L," two letters, mark on 
Lowestoft, 130 



Lamb, Charles, on Old China, 4 

Lambeth, Dutch potters at, in 
seventeenth century, 205 

Lane, Delph, 216 

Lang, Mr. Andrew, verse quoted, 4 

Laurel wreath on Bristol china, 
106, 107 

Lead glaze, definition of, xxi. 

Lead, large amount used in Bow 
glaze, 62 

Leadless Glaze, xxi., 144 

Leeds pottery, 201 

Limoges enamel, copied at Wor- 
cester, 83 

Lister, Dr. Martin, 30 

Liverpool, pottery once its staple 
manufacture, 200 

Queen's Ware (Wedg- 
wood), decorated at, 253 

Liverpool ware, 237-246 ; illus- 
trations of, 237, 243, 244, 245 ; 
Marks, 240, 241 ; tiles, 245 ; 
Recent Sale Prices, 246 

Locker & Co. (late Bloor) (Derby), 
20 

Longbeards, mugs thus named 
(Low Countries), 197 

Lonsdale, Lord, Derby service, 
sketches made by, 1 2 

Lowestoft, 113-131 ; birthday tab- 
lets, 123 ; Bow & Chelsea copied 
by, 127 ; characteristics of, 
130; coats of arms on, 115; 
delft, old, attributed to, 115; 
errors concerning, 115, 119; 
illustrations of, 113, 117, 118, 
122, 123, 125, 128, 129; marks, 
127, 129, 130; moulds and frag- 
ments "recently discovered, 122 ; 
old factory, site of, 121 ; Oriental 
influence on, 127 ; origin of, 
114; Sale Prices, 130 ; spurious 
imitations made in France, 127 ; 
Worcester, its resemblance to, 
127 

Luson, Hewlin (Lowestoft), 121 

Lustre ware, copper, 221-227 ; 
gold, 232, 233 ; silver, 227-232 ; 
illustrations of— copper, 221, 
222, 223, 225, 226 ; gold, 232 ; 
silver, 227, 228, 229, 231 



284 



INDEX 



M 



"M "as a mark, 182 
*'M & Co." as a mark, 184 
"M & B'^ as a mark, 182 
Mandarin decorated porcelain, 

Bristol, 97, 99 ; Lowestoft, 1 16, 

1 27 ; Worcester, 83 
Marriage plates, 114, 115 
Mason, Miles, mark of, 216 

Charles, James, 216 

Patent Ironstone China, 

xxii.,215, 216; illustrated, xvii., 

217 ; marks, 216; Sale Prices, 

218 
Mayflower, in relief, Bow pattern, 

58 

Meissen, origin of factory at, 196 
Mill to grind old folks young, 271 
Minton, Thomas, 181-2 
Minton ware, 181-189 ; faience, 
181 ; illustrations, 183, 185, 
186, 189; majolica, 186 ; marks, 
182, 184 ; reproduction of Henri 
II. ware, 185; Sale Prices, 187 
Minton & Boyle, mark of, 182 
Minton-Campbell, Colin, 182 ; 
Sale Prices of his china col- 
lection, 187 
Minton, Hollins & Co., 184 
Moore & Co., Lustre ware, 

Sunderland, 228 
Morris, painter, Swansea, 174 
Mortlake, pottery at, 205 
Mottoes on earthenware, 206, 

208, 211-214 
Moulds, xxii. ; disinterment of, at 
Lowestoft, 122; illustration of, 

"3 

N 

Nankin pattern, Caughley, 138 
Nantgarw, 166-171 ; characteris- 
tics of, 175 ; founders of, solicit 
government patronage, 169 ; 
glassy nature of, 169 ; illus- 
tration of, 166 ; marks, 169, 
170, 171 ; Sale Prices, 175 
Nelson, portraits of, on jugs, 214 
New Canton, title of Bow 
Factory, 49 



Newcastle mugs and jugs, 201 
*' New Fayence, Spode," 154 
Nollekens, Life of, quoted, 30 
Nottingham, 202 



O 



Oiron faience (copied by Minton), 

i8S 

Old folks, mill to grind young, 

271 

O'Neale, painter, Worcester, 78 

Opaque, xxii. ; opaque porcelain 
(Spode), 153 

Oriental models copied at Bow, 
58 ; at Caughley, 137 ; at Chel- 
sea, 35, 37, 39; at Coalport, 
144 ; by Minton, 181 ; by 
Spode, 1 54 ; at Worcester, 67 , 
70 85 

marks on English china 

(Chelsea), 39 ; Worcester, 71 
porcelain, having English 



coats of arms, 115, 120, 
Over-glaze, xxii. 



" P" as a mark, 240 

Palissy ware copied by Minton, 

184 
Parian ware (Copeland), 158 ; how 

discovered, 21 
** Parrish" (of Norwich), name on 

delft plates, 115 
Parting cups, 208 
Paste, definition of, xxii. ; hard, 

91, 97, 98, 105 
Pastille-burner (Crown Derby), 

II ; Spode, 52 
Pastorella, woman playing the 

(Bow), 50, 53 
Pennington, mark of, 240, 241 
Perdita(Mrs. Robinson), portrait 

of, on modern Coalport, 146 
Petersburg, 197 
Petuntse, xxiii., 195 
Philips, Richard (Lowestoft), 127, 

129 
Piggin, 208 
Pinxton, Billingsley at^ 165 



INDEX 



28s 



Planche, Andrew, originator of 

Derby works, 6 
Plato, portrait medallion of 

(Wedgwood), 255 
Plymouth, 01-96; characteristics 

of, 106 ; illustrations of, 91, 94, 

95 ; marks, 94, 96 ; Sale Prices, 

107 
Plymouth, - Lady, designs on 

Derby painted by, 12 
Porcelain, definition of, xxiii., 195 ; 

hardy first manufacture of, in 

England, 91 ; at Bristol, 97, 

98 ; at New Hall, 105 ; at 

Plymouth, 91 
Porphyry (Wedgwood), 256, 258 
Portland Vase, 260, 261, 263 
Portrait medallions (Wedgwood), 

255, 274, 275, 276 
Posset- mug, 207 

pot, 207 

Pottery, definition of, xxiii., 194 
Powles, Richard (Lowestoft), 129 
Prices, why old china commands 

high; 106 
Printed table service, first blue, 

made in England, 138 
Printing on china, xxiii. 
transfer, at Battersea, 

240; at Liverpool, 237, 239; 

at Worcester, 72 
Purple Lustre ware, 232 
Puzzle jugs 207 ; illustration of 

(Wedgwood), 212 



Queen Charlotte, Wedgwood 
service for, 200, 253, 263 

Queen's Ware (Wedgwood), 253, 
270 ; importance of, in history 
of ceramics, 200 

Quin as Falstaff, Bow figure of, 

55 
" Quinton" (of Yarmouth), name 

on delft plates, 115 



R 



** R" as a mark, 184 ; initial on 
Lowestoft, 129 



Redgrave (Lowestoft), 129 

Reid & Co. (Liverpool), 241 

•*' Resist" pattern (Lustre ware), 

231 
" R. H.," signature on Worcester 

mug, 72, 76 
Richard III., Garrick as, Bow 

figure, 55 
Ring, Joseph, Bristol, 201 
Robinson, Mrs. (Perdita), portrait 

of, on modern Coalport, 146 
Rockingham, unfinished ware 

from, sold to Robert Allen 

(Lowestoft), 118 
Rose, French refugee, painter at 

Lowestoft, 118 
Rose, John (Caughley), 138-9 ; 

Swansea factory purchased by, 

174 
Rose, L & Co., marks of, 142 

" R. P.," initials on Lowestoft, 127 

Russia, Emperor of, modern 

service made for (Coalport), 142 
Catherine of, Wedgwood 

service made for, 263 



S 



"S" as a mark, 140 

Saddlers' Hall, portrait of 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
at, SI 

Sadler, John (Liverpool), 238 ; 
signature on tile, 246 

Sadler & Green, 239 ; Wedg- 
wood's Queen's Ware decorated 

by, 253 

Sale Prices — 
Bloor Derby, 24 
Bow, 62 
Bristol, 107 
Caughley, 147 
Chelsea, 41 
Coalport, 147 
Copeland, 161 
Crown Derby, 23 
Derby, Crown, 23 

Bloor, 24 

Chelsea, 44 



Liverpool, 246 
Lowestoft, 130 



286 



INDEX 



Sale Prices* continued — 
Mason's Ware, 21 8 
Minton, 187 
Nantgarw, 175 
Plymouth, 107 
Spode, 159 
Staffordshire, 218 
Swansea, 176 
Wedgwood, 273 
Whieldon, 272 
Worcester, 84 
Salopian, 136; marks, 140 
Schnorr, John (Dresden), 196 
Schrieber, Lady Charlotte, col- 
lection of, 78 
Selkirk, Alexander, his mug, 

214 
Sevres, artist from, at Plymouth, 
94 ; copied, at Chelsea, 37 ; at 
Coalport, 143 ; at Worcester, 
77 ; marks of, imitated at Coal- 
port, 143 
*S. H." as a mark, 20 
Sharp (Stevenson, Sharp & Co.), 

Derby, 20 
Shaw (Liverpool), 240, 241 
Shylock figure (Chelsea), 41 
Silver Lustre ware, 229-231 ; 
illustrations of, 227, 228, 229, 
231 ; modern imitations of, 227 
Slip ware, old English, 208 
Smeaton (builder of Eddystone 
Lighthouse), friend of Cook- 
worthy, 92 
Soft paste, definition of, xxii. 
Soqui, Sevres artist at Plymouth, 

94 
Spode, Josiah the first 151 ; the 

second, 153 ; the third, 153 

ware, characteristics of, 

158; illustrations of, 151, 152, 
155; marks, 153, 155 ; Sale 
Prices, 159; supersedes French 
wares on the Continent, 153 
Sprig, Angouleme, imitated by 
Derby, 22 ; Chantilly pattern 
(Derby), 22 
Sprinvont, Nicholas, at Chelsea, 

33 
Spring and Summer, group, Chel- 
sea, 41 



I 



Square seal as a mark (Worcester), 

Staffordshire earthenware, illus- 
trations of, xi., 198, 199; Sale 
Prices, 218 

Stevenson & Hancock, 20 

Sharp & Co. , 20 

Stone china — M inton, 1 82 ; Spode, 

154 
Sunderland, 201, 202, 214; frog 

mugs, 202 ; illustrations of mugs 

and jugs, 193, 203 
Swansea, 171-174 ; characteristics 

of, 175 ; chief painters at, 173 ; 

illustrations of, vii., 172, 173 ; 

marks, 171 ; sale of factory to 

John Rose (Coalport), 174; Sale 

Prices, 176 
Swords, crossed, as a mark, 20 



" T " as a mark, 60, 63, lOO 

Temple Bar, view of (Bloor 
Derby vase), 25 

Terra-cotta ware (Wedgwood), 256 

Thames Tunnel, view of, on mug, 
214 

Tiles, enamelled Minton, 184 ; 
printed Liverpool, 237, 239 

Tithe pig — subject on Liverpool 
mug, 246 

"To (signature of Tebo), as a 
mark, 60, 63 

Toby jug, 197 

Tortoiseshell ware, 250, 251 

Toy sets, Lowestoft, 124 

Transfer-printing, xxiii. , 72 ; illus- 
trations of Liverpool, 237, 243, 
244, 245 ; Worcester, 67, 73 

Translucent, xxiii. 

Triangle as a mark, 33, 35, 39 

Trident as a mark, 171 

True porcelain, definition of, xxiii. 

Turner, dark blue Caughley, 136, 
137 ; mark of, 140 

Tyg, 208 

U 

Unaker, 51 
Under-glaze, xxii. 



INDEX 



287 



Venice, anchor as mark, 30 ; 

workmen from, at Chelsea, 30 
Vicar and Moses, StaflFordshire 

figure, 199 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 

Bow, 57 ; Worcester, 78 ; Oiron 

faience, 185 
Vienna, 197 
Vincennes, origin of, 30 
Virginia, clay from (Ply niouth), 92 



W 



" W" as a mark, 71, 79 

Walker, Samuel, 140, 165 ; at 
Nantgarw, 169 ; at Swansea, 
170 

Wall, Dr. John, founder of 
Worcester, 69 ; his death, 77 ; 
painting by, in Merton College, 
Oxford, 69 

Walpole, Horace, quoted, on 
Battersea printing, 240 ; on 
Chelsea, 33 

Wear, cast-iron bridge across 
(Sunderland mug), 202 

Wedgwood, Josiah, 249, 250 ; art 
of the potter, views concerning, 
265 ; monument to, at Stoke- 
on-Trent, 268 ; opposes Cook- 
worthy and Champion's patent 
(Bristol), 97 ; opinion of, con- 
cerning Richard Champion, 104 

Wedgwood Ware, 249-276 ; early 
imitation of jewels, 252 ; illus- 
trations of, 207, 249, 256, 259, 



260, 277 ; lustre ware, 228, 
marks of, 269, 270 ; Queen's 
ware, 253 ; printed at Liverpool, 
240 ; Sale Prices, 273 

Wedgwood catalogues, 265 

Wedgwood & Bentley, marks of, 
269 

Wedg^wood, spurious mark imi- 
tating Wedgwood, 270 

Welsh ware, Isle worth, 205 

Whieldon, Thomas, 251 ; illus- 
tration of Whieldon ware, 251 ; 
Spode apprenticed to, 151 

White porcelain biscuit (Wedg- 
wood), 257 

Willow pattern plate, introduced 
at Caughley, 137 ; illustration 
of, i. ; Spode, 152 

Wilson (Staffordshire), Lustre 
w^are 228 

Wolcot', Dr. ("Peter Pindar"), 
friend of Cookworthy, 92 

Wolfe, General, death of, on jug, 
214 

Wood, Ralph (Burslem), 199 

Worcester, 67-88 ; Billingsley, 
flower-painter at, 165 ; charac- 
teristics of old, 83 ; illustrations 
of, xiii., 67, 73, 77, 81 ; taarks, 
70, 71, 78, 79; Sale Prices, 84 

Wrotham, Kent, 202 



Yarmouth, pottery at, 200 
Young, W. W., painter, Nant- 
garw, 170, 171 



UNWIN BROTHERS, LIMITED, THE GRESHAM PRESS, WOKING AND LONDON. 



1 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



4 



PtLOM THB LtBRARV OF 

MRS. MARY M. BARCLAY 

of St. Louii, MiMouri 



DR. JULIUS HOWARD PRATT 
MRS. LUCY E. MCCLELLAND 
. Dr. ROBERT BARCLAY