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Full text of "Check-list of birds of the world"

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CHECK-LIST 
OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

VOLUME I 



LONDON : HUMPHREY MILFORD 
OXFOBD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



CHECK-LIST 
OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 



VOLUME I 



BY 



JAMES LEE PETERS 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF BIRDS, MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 




f3^U^ Qt^Cr-^^ M'^ '2. 



CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1931 



COPYRIGHT, 19S1 
BY THE PRESIDENT AND FELLOWS OF HARVARD COLLEGE 



PRINTED AT THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS., TJ. 8. A. 



INTRODUCTION 

It is now nearly thirty- two years since the first volume of 
Sharpe's Handlist of the Genera and Species of Birds made 
its appearance. The five volumes comprising that work have 
long been the one and only standard catalogue available 
to ornithologists, and it is a pity that Sharpe's work could 
not have remained so, but the rapidity of the increase of orni- 
thological knowledge has made it clear for a number of years 
that a new work along the same, or perhaps shghtly more 
elaborate, lines was needed. 

The order of families and higher groups followed in this 
work is essentially the same as that proposed by Wetmore 
in the Proceedings XJ. S. National Museum, 76, Art. 24, 1930, 
pp. 1-8. The arrangement of the subfamilies and the sequence 
of genera and species have been compiled from many sources 
and from personal examination of material. The much- 
mooted question of generic limits is largely a matter of indi- 
vidual preference. In the recognition of genera I have en- 
deavored to adhere to the doctrine that 'Hhe genus should 
be used for expressing relationships," and that minor struc- 
tural differences should be considered as of specific value 
only, or at the most merely of subgeneric worth. 

The fact that a species or subspecies is included does not 
necessarily mean that I am in a position to vouch for its 
validity; nor when a name is relegated to synonymy does it 
mean that the form is unrecognizable (unless, of course, the 
name is a direct synonym) . In a work such as this which con- 
tains a large amount of compilation, it is clearly impossible to 
be critical throughout and it is absolutely necessary to refer 
freely to the opinions of sound ornithologists. Where a con- 
flict of opinion exists I have tried to follow my own best 
judgment. In recognizing representative forms as subspecies, 
even where physical intergradation does not occur, or where 



VI INTRODUCTION 

intergradation by individual variation is not complete, I 
think my own views are entirely in harmony with those of 
most progressive ornithologists. 

In giving the ranges I have endeavored to outline con- 
cisely the normal range of each bird, and whether or not it is 
migratory; specific instances of casual or accidental occur- 
rence are considered to be outside the scope of a list of this 
character. 

For each genus I have endeavored to give one or more 
references to recently published revisionary work, geographic 
lists, or to works where the principal synonymy of the genus 
may be found. In large genera there may be several such 
references, while in a small genus one or two suffice. In short, 
these references may be regarded as the basis on which the 
treatment of the genus and species rests. 

It must be clearly understood by all users of this work 
that it does not include a complete principal synonymy. 
Synonyms, both generic, specific and subspecific, are given 
only for genera, species and subspecies described since the 
publication of the first volume of Sharpe's Handlist. In many 
cases where the Handlist recognized as valid a form since rele- 
gated to synonymy, that fact is stated in a footnote. Syno- 
nyms not to be found in any of the volumes of the Catalogue of 
Birds of the British Museum are cited in full. References also 
in full are given for each genus and species recognized. In the 
large majority of cases such references have been personally 
verified. 

Within each genus the species have been arranged in phylo- 
genetic sequence as nearly as can be determined; subspecies 
are arranged geographically from North to South and from 
West to East. 

Fossil birds are regarded as being outside the scope of this 
Check-list, which deals with recent birds only. To maintain 
the continuity of the classification as far as possible, the fossil 
orders and famihes have been included in their properplace, 
but printed in Gothic type. It has been necessary to draw a 



INTRODUCTION Vll 

line somewhere between fossil and recent birds, and for this 
purpose any bird is considered as belonging among the fossils 
if it is not known from at least a fragment of the skin and 
feathers. Recent species now known to be extinct are indica- 
ted by a dagger (f). 

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature has been 
followed except in the application of Article 28. Where two 
names are of the same date, and it has been or can be proven 
that one of them is actually the prior name, even if only a 
matter of line anteriority on the same page, then I have 
used the prior name, regardless of the action of some "first 
reviser." 

No names have been included that have been published 
since December 31, 1930. The manuscript was sent to the 
printer late in January, 1931, and it has seemed best to close 
it to birds described after January first. One or two of my 
friends have given me advance information of new birds in 
manuscript, suggesting that the names be published as 
nomina nuda in this list in advance of their descriptions. 
This practice was very common seventy-five or a hundred 
years ago and led to much confusion in later years. It should 
not be attempted as late as 1931. 

In the preparation of this volume I have received aid and 
encouragement from numerous friends. First and foremost 
it gives me great pleasure to acknowledge a debt of gratitude 
to Outram Bangs, an outstanding figure in Ornithology for 
over thirty years, whose kindly help and wise counsel have 
helped me over many a difficult group. 

Thomas Barbour, Director of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, has long encouraged me in the belief that this Check- 
list could be printed under the auspices of the University. 

Proofs have been read in whole or in part by Mr. H. 
B. Conover, Dr. Herbert Friedmann, Dr. C. E. Hellmayr, 
Dr. Ernst Mayr, Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy, Dr. C. W. 
Richmond, Dr. Alexander Wetmore and Mr. J. T. Zimmer. 
Miss Eleanor K. Sweet, Librarian at the Museum of Com- 



VIU INTRODUCTION 

parative Zoology, has also carefully read the proofs and de- 
tected many inconsistencies in citation of titles of both books 
and serials. To Dr. Roberto Dabbene was submitted the 
manuscript covering the Rheas and the Argentine species of 
Tinamiformes. Mr. W. B. Alexander read over the part of 
the manuscript dealing with the Pelicaniformes and made 
numerous valuable suggestions; Dr. Erwin Stresemann per- 
formed the same service for the genus Accipiter; Mr. J. H. 
Fleming, Dr. Einar Lonnberg, Mr. W. L. Sclater, and Dr. B. 
Stegmann have helped me with specific inquiries. To Mr. 
Thomas E. Penard of Arlington, Massachusetts, I am in- 
debted for access to his private library containing several 
rarities not otherwise available in the vicinity of Cambridge. 
I am also indebted to the authorities of the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Academy of Natural Sciences, and 
the United States National Museum for the privilege of ex- 
amining material in their respective institutions. I should be 
most remiss in my acknowledgments if I did not express my 
appreciation of the devotion of Mrs. R. E. Bowen, Secretary 
to the Bird Department at the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, who painstakingly typed the entire manuscript and 
performed much other tedious clerical work in connection 
with the undertaking. 

J. L. P. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 
1 June, 1931 



CONTENTS 

SUBCLASS ARCHAEORNITHES 3 

Order Archaeopterygiformes 3 

Family Archaeopterygidae 3 

SUBCLASS NEORNITHES 3 

SUPERORDER OdONTOGNATHAE 3 

Order Hesperornithiformes 3 

Family Hesperornithidae 3 

Baptornithidae 3 

Enaliornithidae 3 

Order Ichthyornithiformes 3 

Family Ichthyornithidae 3 

SuPERORDER PaLAEOGNATHAE 3 

Order Struthioniformes 3 

Family Struthionidae 3 

Genus Struthio Linne 3 

. Order Rheiformes 4 

Family Rheidae 4 

Genus Rhea Brisson 4 

Pterocnemia G. R. Gray 5 

Order Casuariiformes 5 

Family Casuariidae 5 

Genus Casuarius Linne 5 

Family Dromiceiidae 9 

Genus Dromiceius Vieillot 9 

Family Dromornithidae 1 

Order Dinornithiformes 1 

Family Dinornithidae 1 

Order Aepyornithiformes 1 

Family Aepyornithidae 1 

Order Apterygiformes 1 

Family Apterygidae 1 

Genus Apteryx Shaw 1 

Order Tinamiformes 12 

Family Tinamidae 12 

Genus Tinamus Latham 12 

Nothocercus Bonaparte 14 

Crypturellus Brabourne and Chuhb 15 

Rhynchotus Spix 23 

Nothoprocta Sclater and Salvin 24 

Nothura Wagler 26 



CONTENTS 

Taoniscus Gloger 28 

Eudromia Geoffroy 28 

Tinamotis Vigors 29 

SUPERORDEB NeOGNATHAE 29 

Order Sphenisciformes 29 

Family Spheniscidae 29 

Genus Aptenody tes J. F. Miller . 29 

Pygoscelis Wagler 30 

Eudyptes Vieillot 31 

Megadyptes Milne-Edwards 32 

Eudyptula Bonaparte 32 

Spheniscus Brisson 33 

Family Cladornithidae 34 

Order Gaviiformes 34 

Family Gaviidae 34 

Genus Gavia J. R. Forster 34 

Order Colymbiformes 35 

Family Coljnubidae 35 

Genus Poliocephalus Selby 35 

Subgenus Tachybaptus Reichenbach 35 

Poliocephalus Selby 37 

Genus Colymbus Linne 38 

Aechmophorus Coues 40 

Centropelma Sclater and Salvin 40 

Podilymbus Lesson 41 

Order Procellariiformes 41 

Family Diomedeidae 41 

Genus Diomedea Linne 41 

Phoebetria Reichenbach 45 

Family Procellariidae 46 

Subfamily Fulmarinae 46 

Genus Macronectes Richmond 46 

Daption Stephens 47 

Fulmarus Stephens 47 

Halobsena Bonaparte 47 

Pachyptila Illiger 48 

Subfamily Pufiininae 51 

Genus Priocella Hombron and Jacquinot 51 

Thalassoica Reichenbach 51 

Adamastor Bonaparte 51 

Procellaria Linne 52 

Puffinus Brisson 53 

Subgenus Ardenna Reichenbach 53 

Thyellodroma Stejneger 55 

Puffinus Brisson 56 



CONTENTS XI 

Genus Pterodroma Bonaparte 60 

Pagodroma Bonaparte 67 

Bulweria Bonaparte 67 

Family Hydrobatidae 68 

Genus Oceanites Keyserling and Blasius 68 

Pelagodroma Reichenbach 69 

Fregetta Bonaparte 69 

Nesof regatta Mathews 71 

Garrodia Forbes 71 

Hydrobates Boie 72 

Oceanodroma Reichenbach 72 

Subgenus Cymochorea Coues 72 

Oceanodroma Reichenbach 74 

Genus Halocyptena Coues 75 

Family Pelecanoididae 75 

Genus Pelecanoides Lacepede 75 

Order Pelecaniformes 77 

Suborder Phaethontes 77 

Family Phaethontidae 77 

Genus Phaethon Linne 77 

Suborder Pelecani 79 

Superfamily Pelecanoidea 79 

Family Pelecanidae 79 

Genus Pelecanus Linne 79 

Subgenus Pelecanus Linne 80 

Cyrtopelicanus Reichenbach 80 

Leptopelicanus Reichenbach 81 

Family Cyphornithidae 82 

Superfamily Suloidea 82 

Family Pelagornithidae 82 

Sulidae 82 

Genus Morus Vieillot 82 

Sula Brisson 83 

Family Phalacrocoracidae 85 

Genus Phalacrocorax Brisson 85 

Halietor Heine 93 

Nannopterum Sharpe 94 

Family Anhingidae 94 

Genus Anhinga Brisson 94 

Suborder Fregatae 95 

Family Fregatidae 95 

Genus Fregata Lacepede 95 

Suborder Odontoptertges 97 

Family Odontopterygidae 97 



XU CONTENTS 

Order Ciconiiformes 97 

Suborder Ardbae 97 

Family Ardeidae 97 

Subfamily Ardeinae 97 

Genus Ardea Linne 97 

Subgenus Ardea Linne 98 

Pyrrherodia Finsch and Hartlaub . . . 101 

Genus Notophoyx Sharpe 102 

PUherodius Bonaparte 102 

Butoxides Blyth 102 

Erythocnus Sharpe 107 

Florida Baird 107 

Ardeola Boie 107 

Bubulcus Bonaparte 108 

Melanophoyx Sharpe 109 

Dichromanassa Ridgway 109 

Casmerodius Gloger 109 

Egretta T. Forster 110 

Subgenus Egretta T. Forster 110 

Hemigarzetta Mathews Ill 

Genus Demigretta Blyth Ill 

Mesophoyx Sharpe 112 

Leucophoyx Sharpe 113 

Hydranassa Baird 113 

Agamia Reichenbach 114 

Syrigma Ridgway 114 

Nycticorax T. Forster 114 

Calherodius Bonaparte 116 

Oroanassa Peters 116 

Nyctanassa Stejneger 116 

Gorsachius Bonaparte 117 

Zonerodius Salvadori 118 

Tigriornis Sharpe 118 

Tigrisoma Swainson 118 

Heterocnus Sharpe 119 

Subfamily Botaurinae 120 

Genus Zebrilus Bonaparte 120 

Ixobrychus Billberg 120 

Dupetor Heine and Reichenow 123 

Botaurus Stephens 124 

Family Cochleariidae 125 

Genus Cochlearius Brisson 125 

Suborder Bal^enicipites 125 

Family Balsenicipitidae 125 

Genus Balseniceps Gould 125 



CONTENTS XUl 

Suborder Ciconiae 126 

Superfamily Scopoidea 126 

Family Scopidae 126 

Genus Scopus Brisson 126 

Superfamily Ciconioidea 126 

Family Ciconiidae 126 

Subfamily Mycteriinae 126 

Genus Mycteria Linne 126 

Ibis Lacepede 126 

Subfamily Ciconiinae 127 

Genus Anastomus Bonnaterre 127 

Sphenorhjoichus Lichtenstein 128 

Dissoura Cabanis 128 

Ciconia Brisson 129 

Euxenura Ridgway 129 

Xenorhynchus Bonaparte 129 

Ephippiorhynchus Bonaparte 130 

Jabiru Hellmayr 130 

Leptoptilos Lesson 130 

Superfamily Threskiornithoidea 131 

Family Threskiornithidae 131 

Subfamily Threskiornithinae 131 

Genus Threskiornis G. R. Gray 131 • 

Carphibis Reichenbach 132 

Pseudibis Hodgson 132 

Thaumatibis Elliot 132 

Geronticus Wagler 133 

Nipponia Reichenbach 133 

Lampribis Elliot 133 

Hagedashia Bonaparte 134 

Bostrychia Reichenbach 135 

Harpiprion Wagler 135 

Theristicus Wagler 135 

Cercibis Wagler 136 

Mesembrinibis Peters 136 

Phimosus Wagler 137 

Guara Reichenbach 137 

Plegadis Kaup 138 

Lophotibis Reichenbach 138' 

Subfamily Plataleinae 139 

Genus Platalea Linn6 139 

Platibis Bonaparte 140 

Ajaia Reichenbach 140 

Suborder Phoenicopteri 140 

Family Phoenicopteridae 140 



XIV CONTENTS 

Genus Phoenicopterus Linne 140 

Phoeniconaias G. R. Gray 141 

Phoenicoparrus Bonaparte 141 

Order Anseriformes 142 

Suborder Anhimae 142 

Family Anhimidae 142 

Genus Anhima Brisson 142 

Chauna Illiger 142 

Suborder Anseres 143 

Family Anatidae 143 

Subfamily Cygninae 143 

Genus Cygnus Bechstein 143 

Chenopis Wagler 143 

Subfamily Plectropterinae 144 

Genus Anseranas Lesson 144 

Plectropterus Stephens 144 

Subfamily Cereopsinae 145 

Genus Cereopsis Latham 145 

Subfamily Anserinae 145 

Genus Chen Bote 145 

Anser Brisson 146 

Eulabeia Reichenhach 148 

Cygnopsis J. F. Brandt 148 

Philacte Bannister 149 

Branta Scopoli . 149 

Nesochen Salvadori 151 

Chloephaga Eyton 151 

Cyanochen Bonaparte 152 

Chenonetta Brandt 152 

Subfamily Dendrocygninae 152 

Genus Dendrocygna Swainson 152 

Subfamily Anatinae 154 

Genus Alopochen Stejneger 154 

Neochen Oberholser 154 

Sarkidiornis Eyton 155 

Cairina Fleming 155 

Asarcornis Salvadori 155 

Coscoroba Reichenhach 155 

Casarca Bonaparte 156 

Stictonetta Reichenhach 156 

Tadorna Fleming 157 

Pseudotadorna Kuroda 157 

Nesonetta G. R. Gray 158 

Anas Linne 158 

Mareca Stephens 167 

Chaulelasmus Bonaparte 168 



CONTENTS XV 

Spatula Boie 169 

Malacorhynchus Swainson 170 

Rhodonessa Reichenbach 170 

Aix Boie 170 

Dendronessa Swainson 171 

Cheniscus Eyton 171 

Nettapus Brandt 172 

Pteronetta Salvadori 172 

Heteronetta Salvadori 172 

Subfamily Nyrocinae 173 

Genus Netta Kai(.p 173 

Metopiana Bonaparte 173 

Nyroca Fleming 173 

Tachyeres Owen 176 

Bucephala Baird 177 

Clangula Leach 178 

Histrionicus Lesson 178 

Somateria Leach 179 

Subgenus Eider Jarocki 179 

Somateria Leach 180 

Genus Arctonetta G. R. Gray 180 

Oidemia Fleming 180 

Melanitta Boie 181 

Subgenus Melanitta Boie 181 

Pelionetta Kaup 182 

Genus Camptorhynchus Bonaparte 182 

Polysticta Eyton 182 

Hymenolaimus G. R. Gray 183 

Salvadorina Rothschild and Hartert 183 

Subfamily Oxyurinae 183 

Genus Thalassornis Eyton 183 

Nomonx Ridgway 183 

Oxyura Bonaparte 184 

Biziura Stephens 185 

Subfamily Merginae 185 

Genus Mergellus Selby 185 

Lophodytes Reichenbach 185 

Mergus Linne 186 

Subfamily Merganettinae 188 

Genus Merganetta Gould 188 

Order Falconiformes 189 

Suborder Cathartae 189 

Family Cathartidae 189 

Genus Vultur Linne 189 

Sarcoramphus Dumeril 189 

Coragyps Geoffroy 190 



XVI CONTENTS 

Cathartes Illiger 190 

Gymnogyps Lesson 191 

Family Teratomithidae 192 

Suborder Falcones 192 

Superfamily Sagittarioidea 192 

Family Sagittariidae 192 

Genus Sagittarius Hermann 192 

Superfamily Falconoidea 192 

Family Accipitridae 192 

Subfamily Elaninae 192 

Genus Elanus Savigny 192 

Chelictinia Lesson 193 

Machaerhamphus Westerman 194 

Subfamily Perninae 194 

Genus Elanoides Vieillot 194 

Aviceda Swainson 195 

Henicopernis G. R. Gray 198 

Pernis Cuvier 198 

Odontriorchis Kawp 199 

Chondrohierax Lesson 200 

Subfamily Milvinae 200 

Genus Harpagus Vigors 200 

Ictinia Vieillot 201 

Rostrhamus Lesson 201 

Helicolestes Bangs and Penard 202 

Milvus Lacepede 202 

Lophoictinia Kaup 204 

Hamirostra Brown 204 

Haliastur >Se% 204 

Subfamily Accipitrinae 205 

Genus Accipiter Brisson 205 

Erythrotriorchis Sharpe 225 

Melierax G. R. Gray 225 

Heterospizias Sharpe 226 

Urotriorchis Sharpe 227 

Subfamily Buteoninae . 227 

Genus Geranoaetus Kaup 227 

Buteo Lacepede 228 

Parabuteo Ridgway 240 

Asturina Vieillot 240 

Leucopternis Kaup 241 

Kaupifalco Bonaparte ; . . 243 

Butastur Hodgson 243 

Hypomorphnus Cabanis 244 

Buteogallus Lesson 244 

Busarellus Lafresnaye 245 



CONTENTS XVll 

Harpyhaliaetus Lafresnaye 245 

Unibitomis /. Verreaux 246 

Morphnus Dumont 246 

Harpia Vieillot 246 

Pithecophaga Ogilvie-Grant 247 

Harpyopsis Salvadori 247 

Oroaetus Ridgway 247 

Spizastur G. R. Gray 247 

Spizaetus Vieillot 248 

Lophaetus Kaup 250 

Cassinaetus W. L. Sclater 250 

Stephanoaetus W. L. Sclater 251 

Polemaetus Heine 251 

Hieraaetus Kaup 251 

Aquila Brisson 253 

Uroaetus Kaup 256 

Ictinaetus Blyth 256 

Haliseetus Savigny 257 

Ichthyophaga Lesson 259 

Subfamily Aegypiinae 259 

Genus Sarcogyps Lesson 259 

Torgos Kaup 260 

Aegypius Savigny 260 

Trigonoceps Lesson 260 

Gyps Savigny 261 

Pseudogyps Sharpe 262 

Necrosyrtes Gloger 262 

Neophron Savigny 263 

Gypohierax Ruppell 263 

Gypaetus Storr 263 

Subfamily Circinae 264 

Genus Circus Lacepede 264 

Geranospiza Kaup 268 

Gymnogenys Lesson 268 

Subfamily Circaetinae 269 

Genus Terathopius Lesson 269 

Circaetus Vieillot 269 

Spilornis G. R. Gray 270 

Dryotriorchis Shelley 274 

Eutriorchis Sharpe 274 

Subfamily Pandioninae 275 

Genus Pandion Savigny 275 

Family Falconidae 276 

Subfamily Herpetotherinae 276 

Genus Herpetotheres Vieillot 276 

Micrastur G. R. Gray 276 



XVIU CONTENTS 

Subfamily Polyborinae 278 

Genus Daptrius Vieillot 278 

Milvago Spix 279 

Phalcoboenus d'Orbigny 279 

Polyborus Vieillot 280 

Subfamily Polihieracinae 281 

Genus Spizapteryx Kaup 281 

Gampsonyx Vigors 281 

Polihierax Kaup 282 

Microhierax Sharpe 282 

Neohierax Swann 283 

Subfamily Falconinae 284 

Genus Falco Linne 284 

Subgenus Hierofalco Cuvier 284 

Notofalco Mathews 287 

Nesierax Oberholser 287 

Rhjoichodon Nitzsch 287 

Falco Linne 291 

Rhynchofalco Ridgway 294 

Tinnunculus Vieillot 294 

Dissodectes P. L. Sclater 297 

Cerchneis Boie 298 

Genus leracidea Gould 305 

New name proposed in Volume I 

Falco sparverius eidos nom. nov 305 

Index - 307 



CHECK-LIST 
OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 



Class AVES 

Subclass ^rcfjaeornitfiesJ 

Order larcfjaeopterpgiformesi 

Family J^rcfjaeopterpQibae 

Subclass NEORNITHES 

SuPERORDER (X^boHtognatfiae 

Order |^es^perornitf)iforme£f 

Family l^esfperomittibae 

Family ^iaptomitfji^ae 

Family ^naliomitfjibae 
Order 3cf)ttl|>ornitf)ifonne£f 
Family Scfjtfjpomitfjitrae 

SuPERORDER PALAEOGNATHAE 

Order STRUTHIONIFORMES 
Family STRUTHIONIDAE 

Genus STRUTHIO Linne 

Struthio Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 155. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Struthio camelus Linne. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, 
p. 63.) 
cf. Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1900, p. 5-13. 

Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1919, p. 81-83. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 1-2. 

Struthio camelus camelus Linne 
Struthio Camelus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 155. (S5Tia, 
Arabia, Lybia, Africa. Restricted type locality, North Africa, Roths- 
child, supra p. 83; further restricted to Sennar, Stresemann, Orn. 
Monatsb., 34, 1926, p. 139.) 

North Africa, south of the Atlas Mountains to the Egyptian Sudan and 
the Danikil Coast. 

Struthio camelus spatzi Stresemann 

Struthio camelus spatzi Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 34, 1926, p. 138. 

(Rio de Oro.) 
Rio de Oro, western Africa. 



4 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild 

Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Om. CL, 39, 1919, p. 83. 
(Syrian Desert.) 

Syrian and Arabian Deserts. 

Struthio camelus molybdophanes Reichenow 

Struthio molybdophanes Reichenow, Mitt. Om. Ver. Wien, 1883, p. 202. 
(Somaliland.) 

Somaliland and Gallaland, south to the Tana River. 
Struthio camelus massaicus Neumann 

Struthio massaicus Neumann, Journ. f . Orn., 46, 1898, p. 243. (Ukamba, 
Kenya Colony.) 

Eastern parts of Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory. 

Struthio camelus australis Gurney 

Struthio australis Gurney, Ibis, 1868, p. 253. (South Africa.) 

South Africa, south of the Cunene and Zambesi Rivers. 

Order RHEIFORMES 

Family RHEIDAE 

Genus RHEA Brisson 

Rhea Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 46; 5, 1760, p. 8. Type, by monotypy, 
Struthio americanus Linn^. 

cf. Dabbene, Hornero, 2, 1920, p. 81-84. 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 23-27. 

Rhea americana americana (Linn6) 

Struthio americanus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 155. (South 
America = Sergipe and Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, ex Marcgrave.) 

Northern and eastern Brazil. 

Rhea americana intermedia Rothschild and Chubb 

Rhea americana intermedia Rothschild and Chubb, Nov. Zool., 21, 1914, 
p. 223. (Barra San Juan, Colonia, Uruguay.) 

Southern Brazil and Uruguay. 
Rhea americana albescens Lynch Arribalzaga and Holmberg 

Rhea albescens Lynch Arribalzaga and Holmberg, El Naturalista Ar- 
gentina, 1, 1878, p. 101. (Carhue, Buenos Aires, Argentina.) 

Rhea roihschildi Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 
8, 1911, p. 273. (Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires, Argentina.) 



ORDER CASUARIIFORMES 5 

Argentina from the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean and south to the Rio 
Negro. 

Genus PTEROCNEMIA G. R. Gray 

Pterocnemia G. R. Gray, Hand List Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, 1871, p. 2. Type, 
by monotypy, Rhea darwinii Gould = Rhea pennata d'Orbigny. 

cf. Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 33, 1913, p. 79-81. 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 27. 

Pterocnemia pennata garleppi Chubb 

Pterocnemia tarapacensis garleppi Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 33, 1913, 
p. 79. (Esperanza, 4000 met., Bolivia.) 

Highlands of extreme southeastern Peru, Bolivia and northwestern 
Argentina. 

Pterocnemia pennata tarapacensis Chubb 

Pterocnemia tarapacensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 33, 1913, p. 79. 

(Canchosa, Tarapacd., Chile.) 
Northern Chile (Tarapacd). 

-Pterocnemia pennata pennata (d'Orbigny) 

Rhea pennata d'Orbigny, Voy. Am. Merid., 2, 1834, Itin. p. 67, note. 

(Patagonia.) 
Argentina from the Rio Negro to the Straits of Magellan. 



Order CASUARIIFORMES 
Family CASUARIIDAE 

Genus CASUARIUS Brisson^ 

Casuarius Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 46; 5, p. 10. Type, by tautonymy, 
Casuarius Brisson = Struthio casuarius Linn6. 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 34, 1927, p. 34-37. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 2-7. 
Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 29, 1912, p. 49-52. 
Rothschild, Trans Linn. Soc. London, 15, 1900, p. 109-148, pl. 22-41. 

Casuarius casuarius casuarius (Linn^) 

Struthio Casuarius Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 155. (Asia, 
Sumatra, Molucca, Banda; correct type locality, Ceram. Cf. Roths- 
child, supra, p. 115.) 

Ceram. 

^ For the final arrangement of the members of this genus I am indebted 
to Dr. Ernst Mayr. 



6 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Casuarius casuarius altijugus P. L. Sclater 

Casuarius altijugus P. L. Sclater, Nature, 17, 1878, p. 375. (Wandam- 
men, Dutch New Guinea.) 

Casuarius casuarius bistriatus van Oort, Notes Leyden Mus., 29, 1907, 
p. 205, pi. 8. (North coast of Dutch New Guinea.) 

Geelvink Bay district, Dutch New Guinea. 

Casuarius casuarius lateralis Rothschild 

Casuarius casuarius lateralis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1925, 
p. 30. (North coast of northeast New Guinea.) 

Northern coast of New Guinea. (Gaza River region.) 

-Casuarius casuarius sclaterii Salvadori 

Casuarius sclaterii Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 12, 1878, p. 422. 
(Coast opposite Cornwallis Island, southeast New Guinea.) 

Coast of southern New Guinea from Princess Marianne Straits to Milne 
Bay. 

Casuarius casuarius beccarii P. L. Sclater 

Casuarius beccarii P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875, p. 87, 
fs. 1, 2. (Wokan Island, Aru Islands.) 

Wokan Island, Aru Islands. 

Casuarius casuarius violicoUis Rothschild 

Casuarius casuarius violicoUis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 8, 1899, 
p. 27. (Trangan Island? Aru Islands.) 

Trangan Island, Aru Islands. 

Casuarius casuarius johnsonii F. Mueller 

Casuarius johnsonii F. Mueller, Australian, Dec. 15, 1866. (Gourie 
Creek, Queensland.) 

Casuarius casuarius hamiltoni Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 124. 
(Cairns, North Queensland.) 

North Queensland. 

Casuarius bicarunculatus tricarunculatus Beccari 

Casuarius tricarunculatus Beccari, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1876, 
p. 717. (Warbusi, northwest New Guinea.) 

Casuarius salvadorii Oustalet, Bull. Assoc. Sci. de France, 1879, no. 539, 
p. 350. (Warbusi,) 

Geelvink Bay district, Dutch New Guinea. 



ORDER CASUARIIFORMES 7 

Casuarius bicaninculatus intensus Rothschild 

Casuarius casuarius intensus Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 8, 1898, 
p. 21. (Unknown.) 

Southwestern New Guinea. 

Casuarius bicarunculatus bicarunculatus P. L. Sclater 

Casuarius bicarunculatus P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 

p. 211. (No locality given.) 
Wammer and Kobroor Islands, in the Aru Islands. 

Casuarius bicarunculatus intermedius Rothschild 

Casuarius bicarunculatus intermedius Rothschild, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 
49, 1928, p. 10. (No type locality.) 

"Probably the two larger islands between Kobroor and Trangan, Aru 
Islands." 

Casuarius bicarunculatus chimaera Rothschild 

Casuarius casuarius chimaera Rothschild, BuU. Brit. Orn. CL, 14, 1904, 
p. 39. (Unknown.) 

Range unknown. 

Casuarius bennetti papuanus Schlegel 
Casuarius papuamis Schlegel, Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk., 4, 1871, p. 54, 
(Andai, Berau Peninsula.) 

Casuarius edwardsi Oustalet, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1878, p. 389, 

pi. 21. (Dorey.) 
Casuarius rogersi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 48, 1928, p. 87. (No 

type locality.) 

Geelvink Bay region. New Guinea. 

Casuarius bennetti goodfellowi Rothschild 

Casuarius papuanus goodfellowi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 35, 
1914, p. 7. (Jobi Island.) 

Jobi Island. 

Casuarius bennetti claudii Ogilvie-Grant 

Casuarius claudii Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 29, 1911, p. 25. 
(Iwaka River; 4000-5000 feet.) 

Snow Mountains, New Guinea. 

Casuarius bennetti hecki Rothschild 

Casuarius picticollis hecki Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 8, 1899, p. 49. 
(German New Guinea.) 



8 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Casuariusfoesteri Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 33, 1913, p. 66. (Two 
days inland from northwest end of Huon Gulf; 1000 met.) 

Casuarius keysseri Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 29, 1912, p. 50. 
(Rawlinson Mountains, German New Guinea.) 

Saru waged Region of northeastern New Guinea. 

Casuarius bennetti picticoUis P. L. Sclater 

Casuarius pidicolUs P. L. Sclater, Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1874, p. 138. (Dis- 
covery Bay, southeastern New Guinea.) 
Lowlands of southeastern New Guinea. 

Casuarius bennetti loriae Rothschild 

Casuarius loriae Rothschild, Nov. Zool., 5, 1898, p. 513. (British New 

Guinea, type from Aroa River.) 
Aroa River Region of southeastern New Guinea. 

Casuarius bennetti bennetti Gould 
Casuarius Bennetti Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 269, Aves, 

pi. 129. (New Britain.) 
Casuarius bennetti maculatus Rothschild, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, 

1900, p. 148. (Habitat unknown.) 
New Britain. 

Casuarius bennetti roseigularis Rothschild 

Casuarius roseigularis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 15, 1905, p. 32. 

("Habitat unknown.") 
Range unknown. 

Casuarius unappendiculatus philipi Rothschild 

Casuarius philipi Rothschild, Nov. Zool., 5, 1898, p. 418. ("Probably 

eastern German New Guinea.") 
Range unknown. 

Casuarius unappendiculatus mitratus Rothschild 

Casuarius unappendiculatus mitratus Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 14, 
1904, p. 38. (Habitat unknown.) 

Casuarius uniappendiculatus multicolor Le Souef , Emu, 29, 1930, p. 242, 
pl. 39. (Based on a captive bird believed to have been taken in the 
Bainings District, 30 miles west of Rabaul, New Britain.) ^ 

New Britain(?). 

Casuarius unappendiculatus doggetti Rothschild 

Casuarius doggetti Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 14, 1904, p. 39. (No 
locality.) 

Range unknown. 

» Kinghorn, Emu, 30, 1930, p. 48-50. 



ORDER CASUARIIFORMES 9 

Casuarius unappendiculatus unappendiculatus Blyth 

Casuarius unappendiculatus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 29, 1860, 

p. 112. (No locality.) 
Island of Salawatti (and Misol?). 

Casuarius unappendiculatus occipitalis Salvadori 

Casuarius occipitalis Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1875, p. 718, 

note. (Jobi.) 
Island of Jobi. 

Casuarius unappendiculatus rothschildi Matschie 

Casuarius rothschildi Matschie, Journ. f. Orn., 49, 1901, p. 268. 
(No type locality = Berau Peninsula. Ex f. of C. unappendic- 
ulatus Rothschild, not Blyth, in Trans. Linn. Soc. London.) 
Berau Peninsula, western New Guinea. 

Casuarius unappendiculatus aurantiacus Rothschild 

Casuarius unappendiculatus aurantiacus Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. 01., 

8, 1899, p. 50. (German New Guinea.) 
Northeastern New Guinea. 

Casuarius unappendiculatus rufotinctus Rothschild 

Casuarius unappendiculatus rufotinctus Rothschild, Trans. Zool. Soc. 

London, 15, 1900, p. 137. (Unknown.) 
Casuarius unappendiculatus suffusus Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 14, 

1904, p. 39. (Unknown.) 
Northern coast of New Guinea from Humboldt Bay westward. 

Casuarius hagenbecki Rothschild 

Casuarius hagenbecki Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 14, 1904, p. 40. 

(No locahty.) 
Range unknown. 

Casuarius jamrachi Rothschild 

Casuarius jamrachi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 14, 1904, p. 40. 

(No locality.) 
Range unknown. 

Family DROMICEIIDAE 
Genus DROMICEIUS Vieillot 

Dromiceius Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 54. Type, by monotypy, Casuarius 

novaehollandice Latham. 
Peronista Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 107. Type, by original 

designation, Dromaius peroni Rothschild = Casuarius diemenianus 

Jennings. 



10 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

c/. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 35, 1929, p. 42. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1912, p. 1-26. 
Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 175-176. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 1-2. 

Dromiceius n. hoUandiae woodwardi Mathews 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae woodwardi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, 
p. 175. (Strelly River, Northwest Australia.) 

Northwest and midwest Australia, Northern Territory, northern 
Queensland(?). 

Dromiceius n. hollandiae n. hoUandiae (Latham) 

Casuarius N. Hollandice Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 665. (New Hol- 
land = Sydney, New South Wales.) 

Central and southern Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and 
southern Australia. 

Dromiceius n. hollandiae rothschildi Mathews 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae rothschildi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, 
p. 175. (Gracefield, Southwest Austraha.) 

Southwestern Australia, 

t Dromiceius n. hollandiae diemenensis (Le Souef) 
Dromaeus diemenensis Le Souef, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 21, 1907, p. 13. 

(Tasmania.) 
Dromiceius novcehollandice gunni Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 4, 1922, 
p. 175. (New name for diemenensis.) 

Tasmania (formerly, now extinct) . 

t Dromiceius diemenianus ^ (Jennings) 

Casuarius diemenianus Jennings, Ornithologia, 1828, p. 382. (Kangaroo 
Island.) 

Dromaius peroni Rothschild, Extinct Bds., 1907, p. 235, pi. 40. (Kan- 
garoo Island.) 

Dromaius parvulus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1910, p. 19, pi. 3. (Kan- 
garoo Island.) 

Kangaroo Island, Australia (formerly, now extinct). 

1 Dromaeus minor Spencer, Vict, Nat,, 23, 1906, p. 140, (King Island, 
Bass Strait,) Based on bones only. 

Dromaeus bassi Legge, Emu, 6, 1907, p. 119. (King Island.) Based on bones 
only. 

Dromiceius spenceri Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 176, note. (New 
name for the Emu figured as Dromaeus minor in Bds. Austr., 1, 1910, pi. 4. 
Cited as a synonym of D. diemenianus in Syst, Av, Australas,, 1927!!) 



ORDER APTERYGIFORMES 11 

Family Bromornitf)i1iae 

Order JBinomitijifomtejf 

Family Bmomitfjibae 

Order ^(Spj>ornitJ)iformes{ 

Family ^€pj>omitf)ibae 

Order APTERYGIFORMES 

Family APTERYGIDAE 

Genus APTERYX Shaw 

Apteryx Shaw, Nat. Miscell., 24, 1813, pi. 1057, 1058. Type, by mono- 
typy, Apteryx australis Shaw. 

Stidapteryx Iredale and Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1926, p. 76. 
Type, by original designation, Apteryx owenii Gould. 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 34, 1927, p. 31-32. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 7-8. 
Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 204-206. 
Oliver, New Zealand Bds., 1930, p. 55-62. 

Apteryx australis mantelli Bartlett 

Apteryx Mantelli Bartlett, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1850 (1851), p. 275. 

(North Island.) 
New Zealand: North Island. 

Apteryx australis australis Shaw 

Apteryx australis Shaw, Nat. Miscell., 24, 1813, pi. 1057. (New Zealand. 
Type from Dusky Sound, South Island.) 

New Zealand: South Island. 

Apteryx australis lawryi Rothschild ^ 

Apteryx lawryi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1, 1893, p. 61. (Stewart 
Island.) 

New Zealand: Stewart Island. 

Apteryx owenii Gould 

Apteryx Owenii Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, p. 93. (New Zea- 
land.) 

New Zealand: South Island (formerly on North Island?). 
> This is a recognizable race, fide J. H. Fleming in litt. 



12 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Apteryx haastii Potts 

Apteryz Haastii Potts, Trans. New Zealand Inst., 4, 1872, p. 204. 
(Okarita, South Island.) 

New Zealand, West coast ranges of South Island. 



Order TINAMIFORMES 

Family TINAMIDAE 

Genus TINAMUS Latham 

Tinamus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 633. Type, by subsequent desig- 
nation, Tinamus brasiliensis Latham = Tetrao major Gmelin (Gray, 
List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 63). 

cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 12, 1913, 
p. 577-589. 
Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 1-2. 
Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, 1917, p. 187-189. 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, no. 8, 1929, p. 150-152. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 8. 

Tinamus tao tao Temminck 

Tinamus tao Tenuninck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 569, 749. (State of 
Pard.) 

Northern and central Brazil east to the Rio Tapaj6z. 

Tinamus tao septentrionalis Brabourne and Chubb 

Tinamus tao septentrionalis Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (8), 12, 1913, p. 578. (Plains of Cumand, Venezuela.) 

Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana. 

Tinamus tao kleei (Tschudi) 

Crypturus kleei Tschudi, Arch. f. Naturg., 9, Bd. 1, 1843, p. 387. (Rio 
Chanchamayo and Chunchotambo.) 

Eastern Peru and eastern Ecuador? (exact limits not known). 

Tinamus tao weddelli Bonaparte 

Tinamus weddelli Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, 1856, 

p. 881, 954. (La Paz, BoUvia.) 
Northern Bolivia. (Perhaps not different from kleei.) 

Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot) 

Cryptura solitaria Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 34, 1819, p. 105. 

(Paraguay.) 
Eastern Brazil from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul; Paraguay; Misiones. 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 13 

Tinamus major robustus Sclater and Salvin 

Tinamus robustus Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., 1868, p. 87, pi. 44. 
(Choctum, Guatemala.) 

Southeastern Mexico south in the Caribbean lowlands to Honduras and 
in the highlands to northern Nicaragua. 

Tinamus major fuscipennis Salvadori 

Tinamus fuscipennis Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 500. 
(Escondido River and San Rafael,^ Nicaragua.) 

Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua southward through eastern Central 
America to the Canal Zone. 

•Tinamus major castaneiceps Salvadori 

Tinamus castaneiceps Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 507, 
pi. 6. (Volcan de Chiriqui.) 

Southwestern Costa Rica and Pacific slope of Panama to Darien. 

Tinamus major saturatus Griscom 

Tinamus major saturatus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, no. 8, 
1929, p. 150. (Cana, 2200 feet, eastern Panama.) 

Extreme eastern Panama and northern Colombia. 

-Tinamus major latifrons Salvadori 

Tinamus latifrons Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 506. 
(Balzar Mountains, Ecuador.) 

Tinamus robustus inexpectatus Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (8), 12, 1913, p. 578. (Salidero, northern Ecuador.) 

Western Colombia (Barbacoas) to western Ecuador (Balzar) ." 

Tinamus major zuliensis Osgood and Conover 

Tinamus zuliensis Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 
Zool. Ser., 12, 1922, p. 24. (Rio CogoUo, District of Perija, Venezuela.) 

Semiarid districts of eastern Colombia and western Venezuela. 

-Tinamus major major (Gmelin) 

Tetrao major Gmehn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 767. (Cayenne and 
Guiana.) 

Trachypelmus subcristatus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reise Brit. Guiana, 
3, 1848, p. 749. 

The Guianas and northern Brazil. 

' Since San Rafael is within the range of robustus I hereby restrict the type 
locality oi fiiscipennis to the Rio Escondido. 
' Cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 65, 1927, p. 145. 



14 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Tinamus serratus nificeps Sclater and Salvin 

Tinamus ruficeps Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., 1873, 
p. 162. (Western Ecuador, Panama, Chiriqui; type from Rio Napo, 
Ecuador, ^de Salvin, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 507.) 

Northern (?) Colombia to eastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. 

Tinamus serratus peruvianus Bonaparte 

Tinamus peruvianus Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 1856, 
p. 573, note. (No type locaUty given = Peru.) 
Province of Huanuco, eastern Peru.^ 

Tinamus serratus serratus (Spix) 
Pezus serratus Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 61, pi. 76. (Rio Negro, 

Brazil.) 
Tinamus major Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 502, (Not 

Tetrao major Gmelin.) 
Southern Venezuela (Upper Caura Valley), western Brazil (valleys of 
the Rio Negro, Madeira and Guapor^ Rivers). 

Tinamus guttatus Pelzeln 

Tinamus guttatus Pelzeln, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 13, 1863, p. 1126. 
(Brazil. Borba, fixed as type locality by Hellmayr, Nov. ZooL, 14, 
1907, p. 409.) 
Eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru to the mouth of the Amazon* and 
south to northeastern Bolivia. 

Genus NOTHOCERCUS Bonaparte 

Nothocercus Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, 1856, p. 881. 
Type, by subsequent designation, Tinamus Julius Bonaparte (Salva- 
dori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 509.) 
cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 2. 
Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 18, 1921, p. 1-3. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 9. 

Nothocercus nigrocapillus (G. R. Gray) 

Tinamus nigrocapillus (sic) G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus,, Gallinae, 

1867, p. 98. (Chile, error, = Central Bolivia.) 
Mountains of central Bolivia. 

Nothocercus fuscipennis Chapman 

Nothocercus fuscipennis Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 18, 1921, p, 1. 

(Andes west of Popayan, 10,340 feet, Colombia.) 
Western Andes of Colombia. 

1 Cf. Hellmayr, Abb. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss., 22, 1906, p. 719. 

2 Cf. Hellmayr, Abh, K, Bay, Akad, Wiss., 26, Abth. 2, 1912, p. 82. 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 15 

Nothocercus julius julius (Bonaparte) 

Tinamus julius Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, 1854, 

p. 663, note. (Colombia.) 
Nothocercus julius salvadorii Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 33, 1914, p. 95. 

(Ecuador.) 
Humid temperate zone of the Central and Eastern Andes of Colombia; 
northern Ecuador (Mts. Pichincha and Ambato). 

Nothocercus julius venezuelensis Cory 
Nothocercus julius venezuelensis Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. 

Ser., 1, 1913, p. 283. (Paramo de Tama, western Venezuela.) 
Known only by one specimen from the type locality. 

Nothocercus bonapartei frantzii (Lawrence) 

Tinamus frantzii Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, 1869, p. 140. 

(Cervantes, Costa Rica.) 
Highlands of Costa Rica and western Panama. 

Nothocercus bonapartei bonapartei (G. R. Gray) 

Tinamus Bonapartei G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Galhnae, 1867, 
p. 97. (Valley of Aragua, Venezuela.) 

Subtropical zone in mountains of eastern Colombia and western Vene- 
zuela. 

Nothocercus bonapartei intercedens Salvador! 
Nothocercus intercedens Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 513. 

(Frontino, Colombia.) 
Mountains of western Colombia.^ 

Nothocercus bonapartei plumbeiceps Lonnberg and Rendahl 
Nothocercus plumbeiceps Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, no. 25, 

1922, p. 13. (Baeza, road to Napo, 5500 feet, Ecuador.) 
Subtropical zone in mountains of eastern Ecuador. 

Genus CRYPTURELLUS Beabourne and Chubb 

Crypturellus Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 14, 

1914, p. 322. Type, by original designation, "C. tataupa Temm." 

( = Tinamus tataupa Temminck.) 
Microcrypturus Chubb, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1917, p. 30. New name 

for Crypturellus on grounds of preoccupation by Crypturella Silvestri. 
Crypturornis Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, 1922, p. 74. New 

name for Crypturus auct. not lUiger. Type, by original designation, 

Tetrao cinereus Gmelin. 

1 Cf. Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1911, p. 1208. 



16 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 14, 1914, 
p. 319-322. (Key to forms.) 
Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 3. 
Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, 1917, p. 191-193. 
Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, 1926, p. 147-150. 
Helhnayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, 1929, p. 475-478. 
Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, 1922, p. 73-76. (Nomencl. and 

list of forms.) 
Peters, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 10, 1929, p. 113-114. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 9. (Crypturus.) 

Crypturellus cinereus (Gmelin) 

Tetrao cinereus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 768. (Cayenne.) 

The Guianas to eastern Peru, Rio Punis (Cachoeira), Rio Madeira 
(Humaythd) to the mouth of the Amazon. 

Crypturellus berlepschi berlepschi (Rothschild) 

Crypturus berlepschi RothschUd, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 7, 1897, p. 5. 

(Cachabe, 500 feet, northern Ecuador.) 
Pacific slope from northwestern Colombia to northwestern Ecuador. 

Crypturellus berlepschi fumosus (Chapman) 

Crypturus macconnelli fumosus Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 332, 
1928, p. 1. (Junction of Rios Napo and Curaray.) 

Amazonian Ecuador (Rios Napo, Curaray and Suno) and Amazonian 
Peru (Rio Orosa). 

Crypturellus berlepschi macconnelli (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus macconnelli Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(8), 14, 1914, p. 320. (Bonasica, British Guiana.) 

British and Dutch Guiana. 

Cr3rpturellus castaneus (P. L. Sclater) 

Tinamus castaneus P. L. Sclater, Proc, Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 277. 

(Colombia, based on a "Bogota Skin.") 
Eastern Colombia and eastern Ecuador. 

Crypturellus obsoletus cerviniventris (Sclater and Salvin) 

Crypturus cerviniventris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 

1873, p. 512. (Venezuela.) 
Venezuela: La Valencia and La Azulita (known only from two speci- 
mens).^ 

1 Cf. Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, 1922, 
p. 25. 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 17 

Crypturellus obsoletus chirimotanus (Stolzmann) 

Cryphirus obsoletus chirimotanus Stolzmann, Ann. Zool. Mus. Polon. 
Hist. Nat., 5, 1926, p. 198. (Chirimoto, Huayabamba Valley, north- 
eastern Peru.) 

Northeastern Peru: Huayabamba Valley. 

Crypturellus obsoletus ochraceiventris (Stolzmann) 

Crypturus obsoletus ochraceiventris Stolzmann, Ann. Zool. Mus. Polon. 
Hist. Nat., 5, 1926, p. 199. (La Gloria, Chanchamayo Valley, central 
Peru.) 

Central Peru: Chanchamayo and Vitoc Valleys. 

Crypturellus obsoletus punensis (Chubb) 
Crypturus obsoletus punensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1917, p. 30. 
(Oroya, Puno, Peru.) 

Southern Peru and western Bolivia. 

— Cr3rpturellus obsoletus griseiventris (Salvadori) 

Crypturus griseiventris Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 514 
(in key), p. 521. (Santarem, Brazil.) 

State of Pard: Santarem. 

Crypturellus obsoletus obsoletus (Temminck) 

Tinamus obsoletus Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 588, 751. (Brazil 
and Paraguay.) 

Brazil from States of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes south to Rio 
Grande do Sul; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina (Misiones). 

^Crypturellus soui meserythrus (P. L. Sclater) 

Tinamus meserythrus P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 392. 
(Play a Vicente, Oaxaca, Mexico.) 

Southern Mexico to Honduras. 

Crypturellus soui modestus (Cabanis) 

Crypturus modestus Cabanis, Journ. f. Cm., 17, 1869, p. 212. (Costa 
Rica.) 

Nicaragua, Costa Rica and western Panama. 

■ Crypturellus soui panamensis (Carriker) 

Crypturus soui panamensis Carriker, Ann. Carn. Mus., 6, 1910, p. 379. 
(Loma del Leon, Canal Zone.) 

Panama: Canal Zone to Darien; Pearl Islands. 



18 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Crypturellus soui caucse (Chapman) 

Crypturus soui caucoe Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 31, 1912, 
p. 141. (San Antonio, 6600 feet, Colombia.) 

Western Colombia: Cauca and Magdalena Valleys. 

Crypturellus soui harterti (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus soui harterti Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(8), 14, 1914, p. 32L (Vaqueria, northern Ecuador.) 
Northwestern Colombia to western Ecuador. 

Crypturellus soui caquetae (Chapman) 

Crypturus soui caquetoe Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, 1915, 

p. 635. (Florencia, 675 feet, Colombia.) 
Southeastern Colombia, south and east of the Guaviare River. 

Crypturellus soui nigriceps (Chapman) 

Crypturus soui nigriceps Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 96, 1923, p. 1. 
(tFpper Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador.) 

Eastern Ecuador. 

Crypturellus soui mustelinus (Bangs) 

Crypturus soui mustelinus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, 1905, 
p. 151. (Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia.) 

Santa Marta region of northeastern Colombia. 

Crjrpturellus soui soui (Hermann) 

Tinamus soui Hermann, Table Affinit. Anim., 1783, p. 165. (Cayenne.) 

From the eastern base of the Andes (north of the Guaviare River), east 
through Venezuela, the Guianas and northern Brazil at least to the mouth 
of the Amazon. 

Crypturellus soui andrei (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus soui andrei Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., (8), 14, 1914, p. 321. (Trinidad.) 
Trinidad. 

Crypturellus soui hoffmannsi (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus soui hoffmannsi Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (8), 14, 1914, p. 321. (Humaythd, Rio Madeira, Brazil.) 

Middle Rio Madeira (left bank). 

Crypturellus soui albigularis (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus soui albigularis Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (8), 14, 1914, p. 320. (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) 

Eastern Brazil from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro. 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 19 

— - Cr3rpturellus undulatus adspersus (Temminck) 

Tinamus adspersus Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 585, 751. 

(State of Para, Brazil.) 
British Guiana (Rupununi River ^) and northern Brazil from the valley 
of the Rio Branco and lower Rio Madeira to the Rio Tapajoz. 

— ~ Crypturellus undulatus yapura (Spix) 

Pezus yapura Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 62, pi. 78. (Yapura and 

Solimoes.) 
Eastern Peru, eastern Ecuador and adjacent parts of Brazil (Rio So- 
limoes). 

Crypturellus undulatus confusus (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus undulatus confusus Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (8), 14, 1914, p. 321. (Humaytha, Rio Madeira, Brazil.) 

Brazil, from the left bank of Rio Madeira to the Rio Punis. 

Crypturellus undulatus vermiculatus (Temminck) 

Tinamus vermiculatus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 62, 1825, pi. 369. 
(Brazil.) 

Eastern BrazU from Maranhao and Piauhy to western Minas Geraes 
and northern Sao Paulo. 

Crypturellus undulatus undulatus (Temminck) 

Tinamus undulatus Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 582, 751. (Para- 
guay.) 

Nothocercus scolopax Bonaparte, Tabl. Parall. Ord. GalUnaces (extr.) 
1856, p. 12, 18, no. 335. (Santa Cruz, Bolivia.) 

Tinamus radiatus Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Gallinae, 1867, p. 100. 
(Bolivia.) 

Eastern BoHvia, Matto Grosso and Paraguay. 

— Crypturellus boucardi boucardi (P. L. Sclater) 

Tinamus boucardi P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 391. 
(Oaxaca, type from Teotalcingo.) 

Southern Mexico, south in the highlands to northern Nicaragua. 

— Cr3rpturellus boucardi costaricensis (Dwight and Griscom) 

Crypturus boucardi costaricensis Dwight and Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., 
no. 142, 1924, p. 1. (Miravalles, 1500 feet, Costa Rica.) 

Caribbean lowlands of Honduras and Nicaragua; northern Costa Rica 
(both slopes). 

^ Crypturus simplex Salvador! appears to be a sjraonym. 



20 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Crypturellus kerriae (Chapman) 

Crypturus kerrice Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, 1915, p. 636. 
(Baudo, Choco, Colombia.) 

Known only from the type. 

Crypturellus atrocapillus (Tschudi) 

Crypturus atro-capillus Tschudi, Arch. f. Naturg., 10, Bd. 1, 1844, p. 307. 
(Peru, no definite locality.) 

Range not definitely known. 

Crypturellus garleppi garleppi (Berlepsch) 

Crypturus garleppi Berlepsch, Journ. f. Orn., 40, 1892, p. 454. (Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.) 

Bolivia in Department of Santa Cruz. 

Crypturellus garleppi aflBnis (Chubb) 

Crypturus garleppi a finis Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 8. (Rio Blanco, Bolivia.) 
Bolivia in Department of Cochabamba (probably the same as g. gar- 
leppi). 

Crypturellus rubripes (Taczanowski) 

Crypturus rubripes Taczanowski, Orn. P^rou, 3, 1886, p. 303. (Lechugal, 

Peru.) 
Status and range not definitely known. 

Crypturellus variegatus variegatus (Gmelin) 

Tetrao variegatus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 768. (Guiana.) 

Tinamus bimaculatus, G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Gallinae, 1867, 
p. 101. (South America.) ^ 

Southeastern Colombia (La Morelia); southern Venezuela (Caura, 
River); the Guianas; Rio Negro; right bank of the Rio Madeira (Calama, 
Borba) ; east to the Rio Capim and Bahia? 

Crypturellus variegatus salvini (Salvadori) 

Crypturus salvini Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 517 (in 
key), p. 537. (Sarayacu, Ecuador.) 

Eastern Ecuador. 

Crypturellus brevirostris (Pelzeln) 

Tinamus brevirostris Pelzeln, Verb. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 13, 1863, 

p. 1128. (Brazil.) 
Cayenne and Western Brazil: Rio Negro, Rio Solimoes. 

1 Braboume and Chubb, supra, p. 320, have set up this name without, how- 
ever, assigning a range to the bird. 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 21 

Crypturellus bartletti bartletti (Sclater and Salvin) 

Crypturus bartletti Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1873. 
p. 311. (Santa Cruz, eastern Peru.) 

Crypturus bartletti caroli Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (8), 14, 1914, p. 320 (in key), p. 321. (Rio Madeira, Brazil.) = 9 

Eastern Peru from the Rio Ucayali east to the left bank of the Rio 
Madeira. 

— Crypturellus cinnamomeus occidentalis (Salvadori) 

Crypturus occidentalis Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 516 
(in key), p. 546. (San Bias, Nayarit, Mexico.) 

State of Nayarit, Mexico. 

Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus (Salvadori) 

Crypturus mexicanus Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 516 
(in key), p. 545. (Monte Verde [Tamaulipas] Mexico.) 

Southern parts of the State of Tamaulipas. 

— - Crypturellus cinnamomeus inomatus (Nelson) 

Cryptxirus inomatus Nelson, Auk, 17, 1900, p. 253. (Metlaltoyuca, 

Puebla, Mexico.) 
Tropical forests of northern Vera Cruz and adjacent parts of Puebla. 

— -Crypturellus cinnamomeus cinnamomeus (Lesson) 

Tinamus (nothura) cinnamomeus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 210. (La 

Union, Central America, = San Salvador.) 
Southern Vera Cruz and Oaxaca south on the Pacific slope to Nicaragua. 

Crypturellus cinnamomeus goldmani (Nelson) 

Crypturus sallcei goldmani Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, 1901, 
p. 169. (Chichen Itza, Yucatan.) 

Yucatan Peninsula. 

— Crypturellus cinnamomeus praepes (Bangs and Peters) 

Crypturornis cinnamomeus praepes Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 67, no. 15, 1927, p. 472. (Bolson, Costa Rica.) 

Northwestern Costa Rica. 

Crypturellus ciimamomeus idoneus (Todd) 

Crypturus idoneus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, 1919, p. 117. 

(Bonda, Santa Marta, Colombia.) 
Santa Marta region of Colombia, east to the Rio CogoUo in western 
Venezuela. 



22 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Crypturellus cinnamomeus spencei (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus cinnamomeus spencei Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (8), 14, 1914, p. 320 (in key), p. 322. (Venezuela.) 

Crypturus cinnamomeus spencei Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 38, 1917, 

p. 29. (Caracas, Venezuela. Described as a new subspecies ! !) 
Northern Venezuela. 

Crypturellus columbianus (Salvadori) 

Crypturus columbianus Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 517 

(in key), p. 545. (Neche, Antioquia, Colombia.) 
Northern Colombia. 

-Ciypturellus transfasciatus (Sclater and Salvin) 

Crypturus transfasciatus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zo5l. Soc. London, 

1878, p. 141, pi. 13. (Santa Rosa, Ecuador.) 
Arid western Ecuador and Peru from Chone to Paletillas. 

Crypturellus noctivagus dissimilis (Salvadori) 

Crypturus dissimilis Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 516 

(in key), p. 541. (Quonga, British Guiana.) 
Eastern Venezuela and British Guiana south to northern Brazil (Obidos) . 

- Crypturellus noctivagus noctivagus (Wied) 

Tinamus noctivagus Wied, Reise Bras., 1, 1820, p. 160, note. (Eastern 

Brazil, type from Muribecca, Espirito Santo.) 
Eastern Brazil from Piauhy to Rio Grande do Sul. 

Crypturellus erythropus (Pelzeln) 

Tinamus erythropus Pelzeln, Verb. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 13, 1863, 
p. 1127. (BrazU.) 

Northern Brazil from the Rio Negro and the Rio Branco south to the 
Amazon and east to Obidos. 

Crypturellus strigulosus strigulosus (Temminck) 

Tinamus strigulosus Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 594, 752. (State 
of Pard, Brazil.) 

Brazil from the Rio Madeira and the Amazon south to the Guaporl and 
Ciudad do Matto Grosso, east to the Rio Ourem. 

Crypturellus strigulosus hellmayri (Brabourne and Chubb) 

Crypturus hellmayri Brabourne and Chubb, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(8), 14, 1914, p. 320 (in key), p. 322. (Humaythd, Rio Madeira, 
BrazU.) 

Unique, perhaps not separable from strigulosus. (Cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
34, 1937, p. 33.) 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 23 

Crjrpturellus casiquiare (Chapman) 

Crypturornis casiquiare Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 380, 1929, p. 3. 
(Right bank of Rio Casiquiare at its junction with Rio Guainia, 
Venezuela.) 

Known only from the type locality. 

Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler) 

Crypturus parvirostris Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, Crypturus, no. 13. 
(Brazil.) 

Brazil south of the Amazon from the Madeira to Pernambuco and south 
to eastern Bolivia, Paraguay and Sao Paulo. 

Crjrpturellus tataupa inops Bangs and Noble 

Crypturellus tataupa inops Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, 1918, p. 445. 
(Perico, northwestern Peru.) 

Northwestern Peru. 

Crypturellus tataupa peruviana (Cory) 

Crypturus tataupa peruviana Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Orn. Ser., 
1, 1915, p. 293. (San Ramon, 2900 feet, west-central Peru.) 

Peru, in Department of Junin. 

Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (Temminck) 

Tinamus tataupa Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 590, 752. (Brazil 
and Paraguay.) 

Brazil from Piauhy, Ceard, and Pernambuco to Matto Grosso; eastern 
BoUvia; Paraguay; northern Argentina from Tucumdn to Misiones. 

Genus RHYNCHOTUS Spix 

Rhynchotus Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 60, pi. 76c. Type, by monotypy, 
Rhynchotus fasciatus Spix = Tinamus rufescens Temminck. 

cf. Helhnayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, 1929, p. 479- 

480. 
Laubmann, Wiss. Ergebn. Deutsche Gran Chaco-Exped., 1930, p. 77- 

80. 
Wetmore, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 1921, p. 434-435. 

Rhynchotus rufescens catingae Reiser 

Rhynchotus riifescens catingae Reiser, Anz. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.- 
Naturw. Kl., 42, 1905, p. 324. (Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, Brazil, 
type from Palmeirinhas.) 

Brazil from the Rio Madeira to the States of Piauhy and MaranhSo. 



24 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Rhynchotus rufescens rufescens (Temminck) 

Tinamus rufescens Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 552, 747. (Para- 
guay, rare in Brazil. Sao Paulo suggested as type locality by Hell- 
mayr, supra, p. 479, note.) 

Rhynchotus rufescens alleni Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1917, p. 30. 
(Chapada, Matto Grosso.) 

Eastern Bolivia, Matto Grosso, Minas Geraes east to Bahia and south to 
Paraguay, northeastern Argentina (Misiones) and Uruguay. 

Rhynchotus rufescens pallescens Kothe 

Rhynchotus pallescens Kothe, Journ. f. Orn., 55, 1907, p. 164. (Torn- 

quist, Buenos Aires, Argentina.) 
Rhynchotus arcanus ^ Wetmore, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 1921, p. 434. 

(Parand,, Province of Entre Rios, Argentina.) 
Argentina from the Fomosan Chaco and Entre Rios south to Cordoba 
and southern Buenos Aires. 

Rhynchotus rufescens maculicoUis G. R. Gray 

Rhynchotus maculicoUis G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Gallinae, 1867, 

p. 102. (Bolivia.) 
Western and southern Bolivia to western Argentina (Tucumdn). 

Genus NOTHOPROCTA Sclater and Salvin 

Nothoprocta Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., 1873, p. 153, 
156. Type, by original designation, Crypturus perdicarius KittUtz. 

of. Berlepsch, Proc. Fifth Int. Zool. Congr., 1902, p. 548-549. 
Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 5-6. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 11. 

Nothoprocta taczanowskii Sclater and Salvin 

Nothoprocta taczanowskii Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 

1874, pi. 84. (Maraynioc, central Peru.) 
Central and southern Peru. 

Nothoprocta kalinowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann 

Nothoprocta kalinowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 11, 1901, p. 192. 

(Licamachay, 15,000 ft.) 
Central Peru. 

1 Laubmann sinks arcanus as a synonym of pallescens, but Dabbene (in 
litt.) believes that it may be provisionally placed as a subspecies, intermediate 
between rufescens and pallescens. 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 25 

Nothoprocta ornata omata (G. R. Gray) 

Rhynchotus ornatus G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Gallinae, 1867, 
p. 102. (Bolivia.) 

Southeastern Peru and Bolivia. 

Nothoprocta omata rostrata Berlepsch 

Nothoprocta ornata rostrata Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, 1907, p. 371. (Cumbre 
de Malamala, 3300 met., Tucumdn.) 

Western Argentina in Provinces of Jujuy and Tucuman. 

Nothoprocta cinerascens (Burmeister) 

Nothura cinerascens Burmeister, Journ. f. Orn., 8, 1860, p. 259. (Tucu- 
man.) 

Western Argentina in Pro'V'inces of Salta, Tucuman, Santiago del 
Estero, La Rioja, Cordoba and Mendoza. 

Nothoprocta branickii Taczanowski 

Nothoprocta hranickii Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, 
p. 563. (Junin, Peru.) 

Central Peru. 

— Nothoprocta curvirostris Sclater and Salvin 

Nothoprocta curvirostris Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., 
1873, p. 163. (Calacali and Puellaro, Ecuador.) 

Paramo of Ecuador and northern Peru. 

Nothoprocta oustaleti Berlepsch and Stolzmarm 

Nothoprocta oustaleti Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 11, 1901, p. 191. 
(Cora Cora, 11,500 ft., Province of Ayacucho, Peru.) 

Western Peru. ^ £, ^^ 

Nothoprocta fulvescens Berlepsch 

Nothoprocta fulvescens Berlepsch, Proc. Fifth Int. Zool. Congr., 1902, 

p. 548. (Urcos, 3500 met., Cuzco, Peru.) 
Southeastern Peru. 



A^ 



Nothoprocta pentlandii ambigua Cory 

Nothoprocta ambigua Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Orn. Ser., 1, 
1915, p. 293. (Hacienda Llagueda, northeast of Otusco, Peru.) 

Nothoprocta pentlandii simonsi Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn CI., 38, 1917, 
p. 30. (San Pablo, Cajamarca, 1500 met., central-north Peru.) 

Southern Ecuador to northern Peru. (Temperate Zone.) 



26 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Nothoprocta pentlandii pentlandii (G. R. Gray) 

Rhynchotus Pentlandii G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Gallinae, 1867, 

p. 103. (Andes of Bolivia.) 
Highlands of Bolivia south to northwestern Argentina. (Temperate 
Zone.) 

Nothoprocta perdicaria perdicaria (Kittlitz) 

Crypturus perdicarius Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 

(sav. 6tT.), 1, 1830, p. "192" [ = 193], pi. 12. (Valparaiso, ChUe.) Cf. 

Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Polon. Hist. Nat., 1, 1921, p. 18. 
Nothoprocta coquimhica Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 551 

(in key), p. 554, pi. 15. (Coquimbo, Chile.) Cf. Conover, Auk, 41, 

192J^, p. 334. 
Northern and central Chile; Easter Island (introduced). 

Nothoprocta perdicaria sanborni Conover 

Nothoprocta perdicaria sanborni Conover, Auk, 41, 1924, p. 334. (Mafil, 

Valdivia, Chile.) 
Southern Chile from Curico south to Puerto Montt. 

Genus NOTHURA Wagler 

Nothura Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, Nothura. Type, by subsequent desig- 
nation, Tinamus horaquira Spix (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 63.) 

cf. Helhnayr, Abh. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss., 22, 1906, p. 705-708. 

Laubmann, Wiss. Ergebn. Deutsch. Gran Chaco-Exped., 1930, 

p. 72-76. 

Sharpe, HandUst, 1, 1899, p. 11. 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 33-39. 

Nothura maculosa peruviana Berlepsch and Stolzmann 

Nothura maculosa peruviana Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, 1906, 

p. 101. (Santa Ana, central Peru.) 
Central Peru. 

Nothura maculosa agassizii Bangs 

Nothura agassizii Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 23, 1910, p. 107. (Moho, 

Lake Titicaca, Peru.) 
Highlands of southeastern Peru and western Bolivia. 

Nothura maculosa boliviana Salvadori 

Nothura boliviana Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 558 (in 

key), p. 561. (Bolivia.) 
Southern Bolivia; Argentine and Paraguayan Chaco (west of the Para- 
guay and Parand Rivers) . 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 27 

— Nothmra maculosa maculosa (Temminck) 

Tinamus maculosus Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 557, 748. 
(Paraguay.) 

Paraguay; southern Brazil in States of Sao Paulo and Parand; north- 
eastern Argentina (Misiones), 

Nothura maculosa savannarum Wetmore 

Nothura maculosa savannarum Wetmore, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 
1921, p. 435. (San Vicente, Department of Rocha, Uruguay.) 

Brazil in State of Rio Grande do Sul; eastern Uruguay. 

^ Nothura maculosa nigroguttata Salvadori 

^Nothura nigroguttata Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 558 (in 
key), p. 650. (Central Pampas, Argentina. Type from Choele Choel 
Rio Negro Territory.) 

Argentina from Cordoba, Santa F^ and at least southern Corrientes 
south to the Rio Negro; western Uruguay. 

Nothura boraquira (Spix) 

Tinamus boraquira Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 63, pi. 79. ("In campis 
petrosis districtus adamantini.") 

Northeastern Brazil from Ceard. and Piauhy south to Bahia; also Depart- 
ment of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.^ 

Nothura darwinii darwinii G. R. Gray 

Nothura Darwinii G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Gallinae, 1867, 
p. 104. (Bahia Blanca, Argentina.) 

Eastern Argentina from southern Buenos Aires province to Chubut. 

Nothura darwinii salvadori! Hartert 

Nothura salvadorii Hartert, Nov. Zool., 16, 1909, p. 266. (Arenal, Salta, 
Argentina.) 

Nothura darwini mendozensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1917, p. 31. 
(Mendoza, Argentina.) 

Western Argentina, limits not known, but probably south to the Rio 
Negro and east to Cordoba. 

Nothura minor (Spix) 

Tinamus minor Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 65, pi. 82. (Tejuco [ = Dia- 
mantina, Minas Geraes] Brazil.) 

Southern Brazil from central Minas Geraes to southern Sao Paulo. 
» Cf. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 12, 1929, p. 478. 



28 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus TAONISCUS Gloger 

Taoniscus Gloger, Hand- u. Hilfsb. Naturg., 1842, (1841), p. 404. 
Type, by monotypy, Tinamus pavoninus Gloger = Tinamus nanus 
Temminck. 

cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 7. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 11. 

Taoniscus nanus (Temminck) 

Tinamus nanus Temminck, Pig. et Gall., 3, 1815, p. 600, 753. (Para- 
guay.) 

Paraguay; Brazil in States of Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo and Parand. 

Genus EUDROMIA ^ Geoffroy 

Eudromia Geoffroy, Mag. Zool., 1832, cl. 2, text to pi. 1. Type, by 
monotypy, Eudromia elegans d'Orbigny and Geoffroy. 

cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 7. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 12. 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 28-33. 

Eudromia elegans intermedius (Dabbene and Lillo) 

Calopezus intermedius Dabbene and Lillo, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
24, 1913, p. 192, pi. 12. (Colalao del Valle, Tucumdn.) 

Andean valleys of western Tucumdn and La Rioja, Argentina. 

Eudromia elegans formosa (Lillo) 

Calopezus formosus Lillo, Rev. de Litr. y Sci. Santiago, 1905, p. 39. 
(Type from between Las Cejas and Isca lacu, Tucumdn.) 

Plains of eastern Tucumdn and northwestern Santiago del Estero, 
Argentina. 

Eudromia elegans albida (Wetmore) 

Calopezus elegans albidus Wetmore, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 1921, 
p. 437. (San Juan, Argentina.) 

Plains of San Juan, Argentina. 

Eudromia elegans morenoi (Chubb) 

Calopezus elegans morenoi Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 38, 1917, p. 31. 
(Neuquen "West Patagonia.") 

Argentina from northern Mendoza eastward to San Luis and central 
Pampa, south probably to the upper Rio Negro and the Limay. 

1 Under the International Code, Eudromia is not preoccupied by Eudromias 
Boie 1832 and must take precedence over Calodromas Sclater and Salvin (not 
preoccupied by Calodromus Guerin 1832) and Calopezus Ridgway 1884. 



ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES 29 

Eudromia elegans elegans d'Orbigny and Geoffroy 

Eudromia elegans d'Orbigny and Geoffroy, Mag. Zool., 1832, cl. 2, pi. 1 
and text (mouth of the Rio Negro). Cf. Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool, 65, no. 9, 1923, p. 2S7. 

Southern Argentina from southwestern Buenos Aires province westward 
to range of morenoi, southward to Santa Cruz. 

Genus TINAMOTIS Vigoks 

Tinamotis Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p. 79. Type, by mono- 
typy, Tinamotis pentlandi Vigors. 

cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 8. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 12. 

Tinamotis pentlandi Vigors 

Tinamotis Pentlandi Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p. 79. 
C'Andes.") 

Mountains of central Peru south to highlands of western Argentina, 
above 12,000 ft. (Jujuy, Los Andes, Tucumdn and San Juan.) 

- Tinamotis ingoufi Oustalet 

Tinamotis Ingoufi Oustalet, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), 9, 1890, p. 18. 
(Vicinity of Santa Cruz.) 

Southern Argentina in Territory of Santa Cruz. Casual in western Rio 
Negro. 

SuPERORDER NEOGNATHAE 

Order SPHENISCIFORMES 

Family SPHENISCIDAE 

Genus APTENODYTES J. F. Miller 

Aptenodytes J. F. Miller, Icon. Anim., 1778, pi. 23. Type, by mono- 
typy, Aptenodytes patagonica Miller. 

cf. Dabbene, Hornero, 2, 1920, p. 7. 

Oliver, New Zealand Bds., 1930, p. 63-66. 

- Aptenodytes patagonica patagonica J. F. Miller 

Aptenodytes patagonica J. F. Miller, Icon. Anim., 1778, pi. 23. (No 
locality = South Georgia, ^e Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1911, p. 274.) 

Breeds on Staten Island and South Georgia, wandering to Tierra del 
Fuego and the Falkland Islands. 



so CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Aptenodytes patagonica halli Mathews 

Aptenodytes patagonica halli Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1911, p. 272. 
(Macquarie Island.) 

Breeds on Macquarie, Kerguelen, Crozet and Marion Islands, wandering 
north to Tasmania and New Zealand. 

Aptenodytes forsteri G. R. Gray 

Aptenodytes forsteri G. R. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, 
p. 315. (Antarctica, lat. 64° 77' S.) 

Breeds on the shores of Antarctica; wanders north to the South Orkneys. 

Genus PYGOSCELIS Wagler 

Pygoscelis Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 281. Type, by monotypy, Aptenodytes 
papua Forster. 

c/. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 226-228. 
Dabbene, Hornero, 2, 1920, p. 5, 8. 
Mathews, Bds. Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, etc., 1928, p. 76-87. 

Pygoscelis papua papua (Forster) 

Aptenodytes papua Forster, Comment. Getting., 3, 1781, p. 140, pi. 3. 

(Falkland Islands.) 

Breeds on the Falkland Islands, South Orkneys, South Georgia, South 
Shetlands and small Antarctic islands. 

Pygoscelis papua taeniata (Peale) 

Aptenodytes tceniata Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 264. (Macquarie 

Island.) 
Breeds on Macquarie, Heard, Kerguelen and Marion Islands. 

Pygoscelis adeliae (Hombron and Jacquinot) 

Catarrhactes adeliae Hombron and Jacquinot, Ann. Sci. Nat. ZooL, (2), 
16, 1841, p. 3^0. (Adelie Land.) 

Breeds on shores of Antarctica, South Orkneys and South Shetlands. 

Pygoscelis antarctica (Forster) 

Aptenodytes antarctica Forster, Comment. Getting., 3, 1781, p. 141, pi. 4. 
(South Shetlands.) 

Breeds on the South Orkneys, South Shetlands and islands off the 
Antarctic continent. In winter north to the Falkland Islands and South 
Georgia. 



ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES 31 

Genus EUDYPTES Vieillot 

Eudyptes Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 67, 70. Type, by subsequent desig- 
nation, Catarrhades chrysocome auct. = Aptenodytes crestata J. F. 
Miller. 
cf. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 221-225. 
Dabbene, Hornero, 2, 1920, p. 6, 8. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 10-11. 

Eud3rptes pachjnrhynchus G. R. Gray 
Evdyptes pachyrhynchus G. R. Gray, Voy., 'Erebus' and 'Terror,' 
Birds, 1845, p. 17. (Waikowaiti, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Breeds on the coasts of New Zealand, and at Stewart and Snares Islands. 
In winter to southern Australia, Tasmania and Chatham Islands. 

Eudyptes sclateri Buller 
Eudyptes sclateri Buller, Bds. New Zealand, ed. 2, 2, 1888, p. 289. (Auck- 
land Islands.) 

Breeds on Auckland Islands. 

Eudyptes crestatus crestatus (J. F. Miller) 

Aptenodytes crestata J. F. Miller, Icon. Anim., 1784, pi. 49. (Falkland 

Islands.) ^ 

Eudyptes cristata mosleyi Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 1, 
1921, p. 11, in text. (Inaccessible Island.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island and the Falkland Islands. 
In winter on the Argentine coast north to Buenos Aires. 

Eudyptes crestatus filholi Hutton 

Eudyptes filholi Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 3, 1878, 
p. 334. (Campbell Island.) 

Eudyptes cristata inter jectus Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 1, 
1921, p. 11. (Kerguelen Island.) 

Breeds on Campbell Island, Antipodes Island, St. Paul Island, Kergue- 
len, Crozet, Prince Edward and Marion Islands. 

Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch 

Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch, Trans. New Zealand Inst., 8, 1876, p. 204. 
(Macquarie Island.) 

Breeds on Macquarie Island, ranges north to New Zealand and Tas- 
mania. 

' For change of specific name from chrysocome to crestata see Mathews and 
Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec, 4, 1921, p. 145-147. 



32 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt) 

Catarhades chrysolophus Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., 
2, 1837, p. 315. (Falkland Islands.) 

Breeds on South Georgia, South Orkneys, South Shetlands, Prince 
Edward Island, Marion Island, Heard Island and Kerguelen. 

Genus MEGADYPTES Milne-Edwabds 

Megadyptes Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (6), 9, 1880, art. 9, 
p. 56. Type, by monotypy, Catarrhactes antipodes Hombron and 
Jacquinot. 
cf. Oliver, New Zealand Bds., 1930, p. 67-69. 

Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron and Jacquinot) 

Catarrhactes antipodes Hombron and Jacquinot, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., 
(2), 16, 1841, p. 320. (Auckland Islands.) 

Breeds on the Otago Peninsula of South Island, Stewart, Auckland and 
Campbell Islands. 

Genus EUDYPTULA Bonaparte 

Eudyptula Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, 1856, p. 775. 

Type, by monotypy, Aptenodytes minor Forster. 
cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1912, p. 280-286. 

Eudyptula minor novgehoUandiae (Stephens) 

Spheniscus novoehollandice Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, pt. 1, 

1826, p. 68. (Port Jackson, New South Wales.) 
Eudyptula minor woodwardi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 199. 
(Sandy Hook Island off West Australia.) cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool, 35, 
1929, p. 43. 
Coast of Australia from southwestern Australia to southern Queens- 
land; Tasmania. 

Eudyptula minor minoi (J. R. Forster) 

Aptenodytes minor J. R. Forster, Comment. Getting., 3, 1781, p. 147. 

(Dusky Sound, South Island, New Zealand.) 
Breeds on New Zealand, Stewart Island and Chatham Islands. 

Eudyptula minor iredalei Mathews 

Eudyptula minor iredalei Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1911, p. 286, pi. 67. 
(Chatham Island; error, is not from Chatham Islands.) cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool, 34, 1928, p. 922-2S0. 
Validity extremely doubtful, range not known. 



ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES 33 

Eudyptula albosignata Finsch 

Eudyptula albosignata Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 207. 
(Akaroa, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Breeds on Banks Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand. 

Genus SPHENISCUS Bkisson 

Spheniscus Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 52; 6, p. 96. Type, by monotypy, 
'^Manchot" et "Manchot tachete" = Diomedea demersa Linne. 

cf. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 228-231. 
Dabbene, Hornero, 2, 1920, p. 7-9. 
Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1900, p. 14-15. 

Spheniscus demersus (Linne) 

Diomedea demersa Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 138. (Cape of 
Good Hope.) 

Breeds on islands off the west coast of South Africa; occurs north to 
Angola and Natal. 

Spheniscus humboldti Meyen 

Spheniscus Humboldti Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol., 16, 
suppl., 1834, p. 110, pi. 21. (Peru.) 

West coast of South America from Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru, to 
Tierra del Fuego. Breeds on islands off the coast southward to central 
Chile. 

Spheniscus magellanicus (J. R. Forster) 

Aptenodytes magellanims J. R. Forster, Comment. Gotting., 3, 1781, 
p. 143, pi. 5. (Straits of Magellan.) 

Breeds on Tierra del Fuego, Staten Island and Falkland Islands; coast of 
Chile to Mocha Island. Occurs on both coasts of South America north to 
Talcahuano, Chile on the west and to Sao Paulo on the east, 

Spheniscus mendiculus Sundevall 

Sphe7iiscus mendiculus Sundevall, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 126, 
129. (Galapagos Islands.) 

Galapagos Archipelago. 

Note : I am unable to allocate properly the two following, doubtless 
synonyms of the Chilean members of Spheniscus: 

Spheniscus modestus Phihppi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 1899, p. 171. 
(Chile.) 

Spheniscus flavipes, Ibid., op. cit., p. 172 (Chile). 



34 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Family Clabomitfjltiae 

Order GAVIIFORMES 

Family GAVIIDAE 

Genus GAVIA J. R. Forster 

Gavia J. R. Forster, Enchirid. Hist. Nat., 1788, p. 38. Type, by subse- 
quent designation, Colymbus imher Gunnerus = Colymbus immer 
Brunnich (Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 24, 1908, p. 35.) 
c/. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1456-1463. 
Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 115-116. (Colymbus.) 

Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan) 

Colymbus Stellatus Pontoppidan, Danske Atl., 1, 1763, p. 621. (Den- 
mark.) 

Practically circumpolar. Breeds from Arctic coasts and islands of 
Europe, Asia and North America south to Sweden, northern Russia, 
Kamchatka, Aleutian Islands, coast of British Columbia, Manitoba, New 
Brunswick and Newfoundland; Greenland; Iceland. Winters chiefly 
coastwise and on large lakes, to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian 
Seas, South China, northern Lower California and Florida. 

Gavia arctica arctica (Linne) 

Colymbus arcticus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 135. (Europe and 
North America, restricted type locality, Sweden, ex first citation from 
Fn. Svec.) 
Breeds in northern Europe from Scotland to northern Russia south to 
northeastern Germany and in Russia to about lat. 55°. 

Gavia arctica suschkini (Sarudny) 

Urinator arcticus suschkini Sarudny, Orn. Mitt., 3, 1912, p. 111. (Rus- 
sian Turkestan.) 
Kirghiz Steppe and west Siberia to the Yenessei. 

Gavia arctica viridigularis Dwight 

Gavia viridigularis Dwight, Auk, 35, 1918, p. 198. (Gichega, northeastern 
Siberia.) 

Northeastern Siberia probably from the Lena Delta to Kamchatka and 
Sakhalin; western Alaska. 

Gavia arctica pacifica (Lawrence) 

Colymbus pacificus Lawrence, in Baird's Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. 
Pac, 9, 1858, p. 889. (San Diego, California and Puget Sound.) 

Breeds on the Arctic coasts of North America from Point Barrow to 
Southhampton Island, south to the Alaska Peninsula, Lake Athabasca 



ORDER COLYMBIFORMES 35 

and York Factory. Winters on the Pacific coast of North America from 
Puget Sound to Lower California. 

Gavia immer immer (Briinnich) 

Colymbus Immer Briinnich, Orn. Boreal., 1764, p. 38. (Faroes). 

Breeds in northern North America from the Arctic coasts to the north- 
ern United States; Greenland, Iceland and apparently on Jan Mayen. 
Winters from about its southern breeding limit to Lower California, Gulf of 
Mexico, Florida, the British Isles and coasts of the North Sea, occasionally 
to the Mediterranean, Madeira and the Azores. 

Gavia immer elasson Bishop 

Gavia immer elasson Bishop, Auk, 38, 1921, p. 367. (Carpenter Lake, 
RoUette Co., North Dakota.) 

Probably the breeding form in the Dakotas and perhaps adjacent states 
and Canadian provinces. Winter range not definitely established. 

-Gavia adamsii (G. R. Gray) 

Colymbus adamsii G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 167. 
(Alaska.) 

Breeds on the Arctic coasts of eastern Siberia, and North America east to 
the Mackenzie Delta. Winters irregularly from Norway to southern 
Alaska. 

Order COLYMBIFORMES 

Family COLYMBIDAE 

Genus POLIOCEPHALUS Selbt 

Poliocephalus Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Av., 1840, p. 47. Type, by 
monotypy and tautonymy, Podiceps poliocephalus Jardine and Selby. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1455-56. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 104r-105. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 4. - 

Subgenus TACHYBAPTUS Reichenbach 

Tachyhaptus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. iii. Type, 
by monotypy, Colymbus minor GmeHn = Colymbus ruficollis Pallas. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis ruficollis (Pallas) 

Colymbus ruficollis Pallas, Vroeg's Cat. Coll. 1764, Adumbr., p. 6 (Hol- 
land) . 
Europe south to the Mediterranean and east to the Urals; northwestern 
Africa. 



36 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Poliocephalus ruficollis poggei (Reichenow) 

Colymbus nigricans poggei Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 50, 1902, p. 125. 

(Province of Chihli, China.) 
Eastern China from Chihli to southeastern Yunnan; Hainan. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis japonicus (Hartert) 
Podiceps ruficollis japonicus Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1455. 

(Tokio.) 
Korea, Quelpart Island; Japan. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis kunikyonis Kuroda 

Poliocephalus ruficollis kunikyonis Kuroda, Ibis, 1927, p. 722. (Minami- 
Daitojima, Borodino Islands, Okinawa group. Middle Riu Kiu Is- 
lands.) 

Confined to the type locality. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis iraquensis (Ticehurst) 

Podiceps ruficollis iraquensis Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 44, 1923, 

p. 28. (Ishandarieyeh, Euphrates.) 
Marshes of Iraq, Mesopotamia. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis philippensis (Bonnaterre) 

Colymbus Philippensis Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encyc. M^th., 1, 1790 (1791), 

p. 58. (Fresh waters of the Philippines.) 
Formosa, Borneo, Philippines. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis vulcanorum (Rensch) 

Podiceps ruficollis vulcanorum Rensch, Journ. f. Orn., Hartert Festschr., 
1929, p. 205, note. (Crater Lake Segare Anak, 2000 met., Lombok.) 
Timor, Flores, Lombok, Java. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis tricolor (G. R. Gray) 

Podiceps {Sylheocyclus) tricolor G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1860 (1861), p. 366. (Ternate.) 

Celebes, the Moluccas; New Guinea; Bismarck archipelago and the 
Solomon Islands. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis novaehoUandiae (Stephens) 

Podiceps novaehoUandiae Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, pt. 1, 1826, 

p. 18. (New South Wales.) 
Podiceps fluviatilis parryi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 197. 

(Parry's Creek, northwest Australia.) 
Podiceps fluviatilis carterae Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 197. 

(Broome Hill, southwest Australia.) 
Southern New Guinea; Australia; Tasmania; Rennell Island; New Heb- 
rides, New Caledonia. 



ORDER COLYMBIFORMES 37 

Poliocephalus ruficoUis capensis (Salvador!) 

Podiceps capensis Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2) 1, 1884, p. 252. 
(Shea.) 

Africa from the Gold Coast to Abyssinia and south to the Cape of Good 
Hope; Comoro Islands; Madagascar. 

Poliocephalus pelzelnii (Hartlaub) 

Podiceps pelzelnii Hartlaub, Orn. Madagascar, 1861, p. 83. (Mada- 
gascar.) 
Madagascar. 

Poliocephalus dominicus brachypterus (Chapman) 

Colymbus dominicus brachypterus Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

12, 1899, p. 256. (Lomita Ranch, Texas.) 
Southern Lower California and southeastern Texas to western Panama. 

Poliocephalus dominicus dominicus (Linne) 

Colymbus dominicus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 223. (Santo 
Domingo.) 

Greater Antilles. 

Poliocephalus dominicus brachyrhynchus (Chapman) 

Colymbus dominicus brachyrhynchus Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 12, 1899, p. 255. (Matto Grosso.) 

Tropical South America. 

Subgenus POLIOCEPHALUS Selby 

Poliocephalus rufopectus G. R. Gray 

Podiceps (Poliocephalus) rufopectus G. R. Gray, in Dieffenbach's Trav. 
New Zealand, 2, 1843, p. 198. (North Island, New Zealand.) 

New Zealand. 

Poliocephalus poliocephalus cloatesi (Mathews) 

Podiceps poliocephalus cloatesi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 197. 
(Point Cloates, midwest Australia.) 

Midwest and northwest Australia. 

- Poliocephalus poliocephalus poliocephalus (Jardine and Selby) 

Podiceps poliocephalus Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn., 1, 1827, p. 13. (New 

South Wales.) 
Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia; Tasmania. 



38 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus COLYMBUS Linne 

Colymbus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 135. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Colymbus cristatus Linne (Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 
Water Bds. No. Am., 2, 1884, p. 425.) 

cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 27. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1444-1456. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 103-105. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 3-4. 

Colymbus rolland (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Podiceps rolland Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. 'Uranie/ 1824, p. 133, pi. 36. 
(FalMand Islands.) 

Falkland Islands. 

Colymbus chilensis (Lesson) 

Podiceps chilensis Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 358. (Concepcion 
Bay, ChUe.) 

Southern Peru and Bolivia south through Chile, Argentina and Uruguax 
to the Straits of Magellan. 

Colymbus occipitalis juninensis (Berlepsch and Stolzmann) 

Podiceps calliparcBUS juninensis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 112, in text. (Lake Junin, Peru.) 

Highlands of Peru and Bolivia. 

Colymbus occipitalis occipitalis (Garnot) 

Podiceps occipitalis Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., 7, 1826, p. 50. (Falkland 
Islands.) Cf. Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 46. 

Highlands of northwestern Argentina south to Tierra del Fuego and the 
Falkland Islands. 

Colymbus taczanowskii (Berlepsch and Stolzmann) 
Podiceps taczanowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, 1894, p. 109, pi. 4. 

(Lake Junin, Peru.) 
Lake Junin, Peru. 

Colymbus auritus Linn6 

Colymbus auritus Linn4, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 135. (Sweden.) 

Podiceps auritus var. korejevi Zarudny and Loudon, Orn. Monatsb., 10, 
1902, p. 186. (Gouvernment of Orenberg, Semiretschie region; eastern 
Persia in winter.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Norway, Russia (south of lat. 65° 30') east to the 
lower Amur; south to Scotland (locally), Denmark, Orenberg and Astra- 
kan (southern limits of breeding in Asia not determined) ; in North America 



ORDER COLYMBIFORMES 39 

from the lower Yukon, northern Mackenzie and southwestern Ungava, 
south to the northern tier of states. Winters to the Mediterranean, eastern 
China, southern California, the Gulf Coast and Florida. 

Colymbus nigricoUis nigricollis (C. L. Brehm) 

Podiceps nigricollis C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 
p. 963. (Germany.) 

Breeds in Europe and Asia from Denmark and the eastern Lake Prov- 
inces of Russia to the Amur region, south to southern Russia, Transcau- 
casia and Asia Minor. 

Colymbus nigricollis gurneyi (Roberts) 

Proctopus nigricollis gurneyi Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 6, 1919, p. 118. 
(Lamberts Bay, South Africa.) Cf. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 42, 
1922, p. 116. 
Africa from southern Angola to Ethiopia and south to Cape Province. 

Colymbus nigricollis californicus (Heermann) 

Podiceps Californicus Heermann, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 
p. 179. (California.) 

Breeds from central British Columbia, Great Slave Lake and Manitoba 
south to southern California, northern Arizona and northern Iowa. 
Winters from central California to Lower California and Guatemala. 

Col3rmbus cristatus cristatus Linne 

Colymbus cristatus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 135. (Sweden.) 

Breeds in southern Sweden, Finland to eastern Siberia and China, south 

to the Mediterranean, Morocco, Algeria, Eg5^t, Turkestan, Kashmir, 

northern India and Japan. In winter migrates from the northern part of its 

breeding area south to the Mediterranean, Persian Gulf and Burma. 

Colymbus cristatus infuscatus (Salvadori) 
Podiceps infuscatus Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2), 1, 1884, 

p. 251. (Lago Kilole, southern Abyssinia.) 
Africa, south of the Sahara. 

- Colymbus cristatus christian! (Mathews) 

Podiceps cristatus christiani Mathews, Bds. Austr., 1, 1911, p. 267, pi. 26. 

(Victoria.) 
Australia, Tasmania. 

Colymbus cristatus australis (Gould) 
Podiceps Australis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1844, p. 135. (Aus- 
tralia and Van Diemen's Land, error = New Zealand.) Cf. Mathews, 
Bds. Austr., 1, 1911, p. 268-269. 
New Zealand. 



40 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Colymbus grisegena grisegena Boddaert 
Colymbus grisegena Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 55. (No lo- 
cality, based on Daubenton, pi. 931 = France. Designated by 
Hartert, 1912.) 
Podiceps griseigena schi0leri Hortling, Orn. Fenn., 6, 1929, p. 14. (Fin- 
land.) 
Breeds from Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula south to the mouth 
of the Dniester and to Transcaucasia; west Siberia to Turgai, south to 
Armenia and the Oxus delta. Winters south to the Mediterranean, north- 
ern Africa and Persia. 

Colymbus grisegena holboUii (Reinhardt) 

Podiceps HolboUii Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. naturhist. Foren. Kjoben- 
havn, 1853, p. 76. (Nenortalik, Julianehaab District, Greenland.) 

Breeds in eastern Asia from Kamchatka to Ussuriland and in North 
America from the lower Yukon, northern Mackenzie and northern Ungava 
south to northern Washington and southwestern Minnesota. Winters to 
China and Japan, southern California, the Ohio Valley and North Carolina. 

Genus AECHMOPHORUS Coues 

Aechmophorus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 229. Type, 
by original designation, Podiceps occidentalis Lawrence. 

Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence) 

Podiceps occidentalis Lawrence, in Baird, Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. 
Pac, 9, 1858, p. 894. (Fort Steilacoom, Washington.) 

Breeds from British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan and southern 
Manitoba south to northern California, Utah and northern North Dakota. 
Winters from southern British Columbia south through California to 
central Mexico. 

Aechmophorus major (Boddaert) 

Colymbus major Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 24. (Cayenne: 
probably an error.) 

Northern Peru, Rio Negro and Amazonia south to the Straits of Ma- 
gellan. 

Genus CENTROPELMA Sclater and Salvin 

Centropelma Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., 1869, p. 189. Type, by 
monotypy, Podiceps micropterus Gould. 

Centropelma micropterum (Gould) 
Podiceps micropterus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, p. 220. 

(Lake Titicaca.) 
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 41 

Genus PODILYMBUS Lesson 

Podilymbus Lesson, Traite d'Orn.,livr. 8, 1831, p. 595. Type, by mono- 
typy, Podiceps carolinensis Latham = Colymbus podiceps Linne. 

Podilymbus podiceps podiceps (Linne) 

Colymbus Podiceps Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 136. (Caro- 
lina.) 

Breeds from British Columbia, southern Mackenzie, Quebec and New 
Brunswick south locally to Central America. Winters from the southern 
half of its breeding range south to Cuba and Panama. 

Podilymbus podiceps antillarum Bangs 

Podilymbus podiceps antillarum Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 4, 
1913, p. 89. (Bueycito, Oriente, Cuba.) 

Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe^). 

-Podilymbus podiceps antarcticus (Lesson) 

Podiceps antarcticus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 209. (Valparaiso, 

Chile.) 
The greater part of South America from Colombia and Venezuela to 
Chile and southern Argentina. ^ 

Podilymbus gigas Griscom 

Podilyjnbus gigas Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 379, 1929, p. 5. (Pana- 
jachel, 5300 ft., north shore of Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.) 

Confined to Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. 

Order PROCELLARIIFORMES 

Family DIOMEDEIDAE 

Genus DIOMEDEA Linne 

Diomedea Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 132. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Diomedea exulans Linn6 (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, 
p. 78.) 

Nealbatrus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 274. Type, by original 
designation, Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin. 

Diomedella Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 275. Type, by original 
designation, Diomedea cauta Gmelin. 

1 CJ. Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, 1927, p. 273-274. 
^ Cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 65, 1926, p. 181. 



42 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Rhothonia Murphy, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 37, 1917, p. 861. Type, 
by original designation, Diomedea (Rhothonia) sanfordi Murphy = 
Diomedea epomophora Lesson. 

cf. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 13-22. 
Dabbene, Hornero, 3, 1926, p. 332-341. 
Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antarct. Exped. 1910, Zool., 4, no. 5, 1930, 

p. 162-180. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 129-130. 
Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 419, 1930, p. 1-7. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 15-16. 

■Diomedea exulans Linn^ 

Diomedea exulans Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 132. (Cape of 
Good Hope.) 

Diomedea chionoptera Salvin, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 1896, p. 440 (in 
key), p. 443. (Kerguelen Island.) 

Diomedea exulans rohui Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 125. 

(Sydney, New South Wales.) 

Diomedea exulans westralis Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1918, p. 23. 
(Albany, West Australia.) 

Diomedea chionoptera alexanderi Dabbene, Hornero, 3, 1926, p. 338. 
(South Atlantic, lat. 38° 30' S., long. 56° W.) 

Diomedea dabbenena Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 50, 1929, p. 11. (New 
name for Diomedea alexanderi Dabbene not Thalassogeron alexanderi 
Mathews.) 

Breeds at Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island, South Georgia, Marion 
Island, Prince Edward Island, the Crozets, Kerguelen, Auckland Islands 
and Antipodes Island. Ranging over the southern oceans between lat. 
30° and 60° south. 

Diomedea epomophora Lesson 
Diomedcea epomophora Lesson, Ann. Sci. Nat. 6, 1825, p. 95. (No type 

locality given in original description, = Campbell Island.) 
Diomedea (Rhothonia) sanfordi Murphy, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 37, 

1917, p. 861. (Off Corral, ChHe.) 
Diomedea exulans rothschildi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 246, pi. 

95. (Australian Seas.) 
Diomedea epomophora mccormicki Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 261. 

(Enderby Island.) 

Breeds on Campbell Island and on Enderby Island of the Auckland 
Group. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 43 

Diomedea irrorata Salvin 

Diomedea irrorata Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, p. 430. (Callao 
Bay, Peru.) 

Breeds on Hood Island, Galapagos, ranging to the coast of Peru. 

Diomedea albatms Pallas 

Diomedea albatrus Pallas, Spic. Zool., 1, fasc. 5, 1769, p. 28. (Off Kam- 
chatka.) 

North Pacific, breeding on Wake Island and the Bonin Islands. 

Diomedea nigripes Audubon 

Diomedea nigripes Audubon, Orn. Biog., 5, 1839, p. 327. (Pacific Ocean, 

lat. 30° 44' N., long. 146° W.) 
Phoebastria nigripes reischekia Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 51, 1930, 

p. 29. (New Zealand.) 

North Pacific, breeding on islands northwest of Hawaii; Marshall 
Islands. 

— — Diomedea immutabilis Rothschild 

Diomedea immutabilis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 1, 1893, p. 48. 
(Laysan Island.) 

Central North Pacific: breeds on Laysan and Midway Islands, San 
Geronimo and Guadalupe Islands. 

Diomedea melanophris melanophris Temminck 

Diomedea melanophris Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 77, 1828, pi. 456 and 
text. (Cape of Good Hope.) 

Thalassarche melanophris impavida Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 267, 
pi. 96. (Tasmania.) 

Thalassarche melanophris belcheri Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 271. 
(Kerguelen.) 

Southern oceans between the Tropic of Capricorn and lat. 60° S. 
Breeds on South Georgia, the Falkland Islands, Kerguelen, Auckland 
Islands and Campbell Island. 

Diomedea melanophris richmondi (Mathews) 

Thalassarche melanophris richmondi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, 
p. 272. (West coast of South America.) 

Off west coast of South America. Breeding on Ildefonso Island, Chile. 
(Doubtful form.) 



44 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Diomedea buUeri Rothschild 

Diomedea bulleri Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1, 1893, p. 58. (New 

Zealand.) 
Diomedea platei Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 6, 1898, p. 190. (Cavancha, 

Chile.) 
South Pacific. Breeds on Snares Island. 

Diomedea cauta cauta Gould 

Diomedea cauta Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), p. 177. 

(Bass Strait.) 
Diomedella cauta rohui Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 55. (Syd- 
ney, New South Wales.) 
Diomedella cauta wallaca Mathews, loc. cit., 3, 1918, p. 160, new name 

for rohui. 
South Pacific and AustraUan Seas. Breeds on Albatross Island, Bass 
Strait. 

Diomedea cauta salvini (Rothschild) 

Thalassogeron salvini Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1, 1893, p. 58. 

(New Zealand.) 
Thalassogeron layardi Salvin, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 1896, p. 449 (in 

key), p. 450. (Cape Seas.) 
South Indian Ocean and South Pacific. Breeds on Bounty Island. 

Diomedea cauta eremita (Murphy) 

Thalassarche cauta eremita Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 419, 1930, 

p. 4. (P5a-amid Rock off Pitt Island, Chatham Islands.) 
Breeds on Pyramid Rock, Chatham Islands. 

Diomedea desolationis (Salvadori) 

Thalassogeron desolationis Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Torino, 26, 1911, 

no. 638, p. 2. (Desolation Island.) 
Affinities not known. ^ 

- Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin 

Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 568. 

("Cape of Good Hope and southern oceans outside the tropics.") 
Thalassogeron ezimius G. E. Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., 9, 1895, p. 440, 

pi. 8. (Gough Island.) 
Thalassogeron carteri Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 14, 1903, p. 6. 

(Point Cloates, northwestern Australia.) 
Diomedea bassi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 206. (Southeast 

Australian Seas.) 

1 Cf. Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 419, 1930, p. 6. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 45 

Breeds on islands in the Tristan da Cunha group, Gough Island, the 
Crozet Islands and St. Paul Island and ranges over the South Atlantic, 
Indian Ocean and Australian Seas. ^ 

Diomedea chrysostoma Forster 

Diomedea chrysostoma Forster, Mem. Math. Phys. Paris, 10, 1785, p. 571, 
pi. 14. (Vicinity of the Antarctic Circle and in the Pacific Ocean.) 

Thalassogeron chrysostoma alexanderi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, 
p. 55. (West Australia.) 

Thalassogeron chrysostoma harterti Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 280. 
(Kerguelen Island.) 

Diomedea culminata maiheiosi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 29, 1912, 
p. 70. (Campbell Island?) 

Breeds on South Georgia, Kerguelen, Marion Island, the Crozets, Camp- 
bell Island and Diego Ramirez Islands, Cape Horn, and ranges over the 
southern oceans .^ 

Genus PHOEBETRIA Reichenbach 

Phoebetria Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. v. Type, by 
original designation, Diomedea fuliginosa Gmelin = Diomedea palpe- 
brata Forster. 

of. Dabbene, Hornero, 3, 1926, p. 319-323. 
Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 33, 1926, p. 344. 
Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antarct. Exped. 1910, ZooL, 4, no. 5, 1930, 

p. 180-184. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 133. 
Nichols and Murphy, Auk, 31, 1914, p. 526-533. 

Phoebetria fusca fusca (Hilsenberg) 

Diomedea fusca Hilsenberg, Froriep's Notiz., 3, 1822, col. 74. (Mozam- 
bique Channel.) 
Breeds on Inaccessible, Gough and Tristan da Cunha Islands, wanders 
in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. 

Phoebetria fusca campbelli Mathews 

Phoebetria fusca campbelli Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 304. (Aus- 
tralian Seas.) 
Breeding range not known. Very doubtfully distinct from typical form. 

Phoebetria palpebrata palpebrata (Forster) 

Diomedea palpebrata Forster, Mem. Math. Phys. Paris, 10, 1785, p. 571, 
pi. 15. C'47° S. lat. to 71° 10' " = 64° S., 38° E. fide Mathews.) 

^ Cf. Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 33, 1926, p. 345-346. 
* Ibid., p. 344-345. 



46 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phoebetria palpebrata huttoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 297. 
(New Zealand Seas,) 

Phoebetria -palpebrata antardica Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 302. 
(South Georgia.) 

Phoebetria palpebrata murphyi Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 
1921, p. 50, in text (South Georgia) new name for antardica. 

Breeds on South Georgia, subantarctic islands of New Zealand and on 
Kerguelen. Ranges over the southern oceans north to lat. 33° S. 

Phoebetria palpebrata auduboni Nichols and Murphy 

Phoebetria palpebrata auduboni Nichols and Murphy, Auk, 31, 1914, 
p. 531. (Mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon.) 

Breeding range unknown; occurs on west coast of America. 

Family PROCELLARIIDAE 

Subfamily FULMARINAE 

Genus MACRONECTES Richmond 

Macronedes Richmond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, 1905, p. 76. New 
name for Ossifraga Hombron and Jacquinot (not Wood). Type, by 
monotypy, Procellaria gigantea Gmelin. 

cf. Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 4, 1909, p. 261-264. 

Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antarct. Exped. 1910, ZooL, 4, no. 5, 
1930, p. 147-159. 

Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin) 

Procellaria gigantea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 563. (Type 
locality restricted to Staten Island, Mathews, infra, p. 186.) 

Macronectes giganteus forsteri Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 189. 
(Valparaiso Bay, Chile.) 

Macronectes giganteus solanderi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 187. 
(Falkland Islands.) 

Macronectes giganteus halli Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 187. (Ker- 
guelen.) 

Macronectes giganteus wilsoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 189. 
(Ross Sea.) 

Macronedes giganteus dovei Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 54. 
(Sydney, New South Wales.) 

Breeds on Graham Land, South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South Geor- 
gia, Falkland Islands, Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island, Kerguelen, 
Prince Edward Island, Marion Island, Heard Island, Crozet Islands, An- 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 47 

tipodes Island, Snares Island, Campbell Island, and Macquarie Island(?). 
Ranges throughout the southern oceans and into the tropics on the coast 
of Peru. 

Genus DAPTION Stephens 

Daption Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. ZooL, 13, pt. 1, 1826, p. 239. Type, 
by original designation, Procellaria capensis Linne. 

cf. Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 4, 1909, p. 276-280. 

Daption capensis (Linne) 

Procellaria capensis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 132. (Cape of 
Good Hope.) 

Daption capense australis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 187. 
(New Zealand.) 

Breeds on South Georgia, South Orkneys, South Shetlands, Graham 
Land, and Kerguelen Island, ranging over the southern oceans. 

Genus FULMARUS Stephens 

Fulmarus Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. ZooL, 13, pt. 1, 1826, p. 233. Type, 
by subsequent designation, Procellaria glacialis Linne. (Gray, List 
Gen. Subgen. Bds., 1855, p. 129.) 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1436-1438. 

Witherby and others, Pract. Handb. Brit. Bds., 2, 1922, p. 443-446. 

-Fulmarus glacialis glacialis (Linne) 

Procellaria glacialis Linn^, Faun. Suec, ed. 2, 1761, p. 51. (Within the 
Arctic Circle.) 

Breeds from northern Greenland to Cumberland Sound, coasts of 
Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Faroes, British Isles, Spitzbergen, Franz 
Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya. Winters in the North Atlantic south to 
about lat. 43°. 

Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii Cassin 

Fulmarus Rodgersii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 326. 
(Indian Ocean, error = North Pacific.) 

Breeds on Wrangel and Herald Islands, islands in Bering Sea, Com- 
mander Islands, coasts of Kamchatka, and Kurile Islands; in winter in the 
North Pacific from the Aleutian Islands south to Japan and northern 
Lower California. 

Genus HALOBiENA Bonapaete 

Halobcena Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, 1856, p. 768. 
Type, by monotypy, Procellaria ccerulea Gmelin. (The other in- 
cluded species, H. typica, is a nomen nudum at that point.) 



48 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Halobsena caerulea (Gmelin) 

Procellaria caerulea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 560. (Southern 

Ocean.) 
Haloboena ccerulea victorice Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 54. 

(Victoria.) 
Halobaena murphyi W. S. Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, 1917, 

p. 146. (Stromness Bay, South Georgia.) 

Breeds at Kerguelen and Falkland Islands and ranges throughout the 
southern oceans. 

Genus PACHYPTILA Illiger 

Pachyptila Illiger, Prodromus, 1811, p. 274. Type, by subsequent desig- 
nation, Procellaria forsteri Latham (Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types 
Av., 1840, p. 49). 

Heteroprion Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 222. Type, by original 
designation , -iyeteroprion belcher i Mathews. 

Fulmariprion Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 215. Type, by original 
designation, Pseudoprion turtur crassirostris Mathews. 

cf. Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 4, 1909, p. 285-296; pt. 5, 1910, p. 297- 
298. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 355-356. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 199-233. 
Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 1, 1921, p. 41-44. 

Pachyptila forsteri forsteri ^ (Latham) 

Procellaria Forsteri Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 827 (New Zealand). 

Breeds at Chatham Islands, Foveaux Straits and Dusky Sound, New 
Zealand. 

Pachyptila forsteri gouldi^ (Mathews) 

Prion vittatus gouldi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 203 (in key), 

p. 211. (Bass Strait, Victoria.) 
Bass Strait. Breeding place not known. 

Pachyptila forsteri missus (Mathews) 

Prion vittatus missus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 203 (in key), 

p. 212, pi. 92. (Perth, southwestern Australia.) 
Coasts of southwestern Australia. Breeding place not known. 

1 Procellaria vittata Gmelin 1789 is preoccupied by Procellaria vittata 
G. Forster, Voy. Round World, 1, 1777, p. 91 and p. 98, note. 

2 Dr. Murphy considers most of the subspecies of Pachyptila to be indis- 
tinguishable. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 49 

Pachyptila forsteri macgillivrayi (Mathews) 

Prion vittata macgillivrayi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 211. (St. 
Paul Island, Indian Ocean.) 

Breeds at St. Paul Island. 

Pachyptila forsteri salvini (Mathews) 

Prion vittatus salvini Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 212. ("Crozets, 
Marion Island, etc.") 

Breeds at Marion Island and the Crozets. 

Pachyptila forsteri keyteli (Mathews) 

Prion vittata keyteli Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 210. (Tristan da 
Cunha.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island and South Georgia.^ 

Pachyptila desolata desolata (Gmelin) 

Procellaria desolata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 562. (Desola- 
tion Island = Kerguelen Island.) 

Breeds at Kerguelen Island. 

Pachyptila desolata mattingleyi (Mathews) 

Heteroprion desolatus mattingleyi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 223 
(in key), p. 226. (Geelong, Victoria.) 

Heteroprion desolatus macquariensis Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, 
p. 227. (Macquarie Island.) 

Breeds at Macquarie Island (?).2 

Pachyptila desolata peringueyi (Mathews) 

Heteroprion desolatus peringueyi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 230. 
(Pondoland coast. South Africa.) 

Cape Seas. Breeding place not known. 

Pachyptila desolata alexanderi (Mathews and Iredale) 

Heteroprion desolatus alexanderi Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 
1, 1921, p. 42. (Cottsloe Beach, West Australia.) 

Coast of southwestern Australia. Breeding place not known. 

Pachyptila desolata altera (Mathews) 
Heteroprion desolatus alter Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 231. 
(Auckland Islands.) 

Breeds on Auckland Islands. 

1 Cf. Dabbene, Hornero, 3, 1923, p. 134. 

2 Cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 356. 



50 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Pachyptila desolata banksi A. Smith 

Pachyptila hanksi A. Smith, Ills. Zool. So. Air., Aves, 1840, pi. 55. (Cape 
Seas.) 

Breeds on South Georgia and the South Orkneys. Ranges north to the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Pachyptila belcheri (Mathews) 

Heteroprion belcheri Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 215 and text figs., 
p. 224. (Geelong, Victoria.) 

Probably breeding on subantarctic islands, ranging northward to the 
waters adjacent to Australia and New Zealand, the east coast of South 
America to Montevideo; the Falkland Islands. 

Pachyptila turtur turtur (Kuhl) 

Procellaria tnrtur Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 143. (Bass Strait.) 
Pseudoprion turtur huttoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 220. 

(Chatham Islands.) 
Pseudoprion turtur nova Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 55. (Syd- 
ney, New South Wales.) 
Breeds on islands in Bass Strait and on the Chatham Islands. Ranges 
over seas of Australia and New Zealand. 

Pachyptila turtur eatoni (Mathews) 

Pseudoprion turtur eatoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 220. (Ker- 

guelen Island.) 
Breeds at Kerguelen. 

Pachyptila turtur crassirostris (Mathews) 
Pseudoprion turtur crassirostris Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p, 221. 

(Bounty Island.) 
Breeds on Bounty Island and Antipodes Island. 

Pachyptila turtur fallai Oliver 
Pachyptila turtur fallai Oliver, New Zealand Bds.^ 1930, p. 114. (Otago, 

South Island, New Zealand.) 
New Zealand: known only from three specimens, aU from South Island. 

?Pachyptila turtur solanderi (Mathews) 
Pseudoprion turtur solanderi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 220. 

(West coast of South America.) 
Status and breeding place not determined. 

?Pachyptila turtur brevirostris (Gould) 
Prion brevirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 88, pi. 93. 

(Madeira!) 
Status and breeding place not determined. 



order procellariiformes 51 

Subfamily PUFFININAE 
Genus PRIOCELLA Hombkon and Jacquinot 

Priocella Hombron and Jacquinot, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 18, 
1844, p. 357. Type, by monotypy, Priocella garnotii Hombron and 
Jacquinot = Fulmarus antardicus Stephens, 
c/. Dabbene, Hornero, 3, 1923, p. 142-145. 

Priocella antarctica (Stephens) 
Fulmarus antardicus Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., 13, pt. 1, 1826, 

p. 236. ("Antarctic ocean pretty far to the South.") 
Priocella antarctica addenda Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 125. 

(New Zealand Seas.) 
Known breeding stations are on Adelie Land, at Cape Roquemaurel and 
Louis Phihp Land. Ranges north in the Pacific to New Zealand and Peru 
(once to Oregon) and in the Atlantic to lat. 35° S., casually to Cape St. 
Roque and St. Helena Island. 

Genus THALASSOICA Reichenbach 

Thalassoica Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. iv. Type, by 
original designation, Procellaria antarctica GmeUn. 
cf. Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antarct. Exped., 1910, Zool., 4, no. 5, 1930, 
p. 132-134. 

Thalassoica antarctica (Gmelin) 
Procellaria antarctica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 565. (Ant- 
arctic Circle between 31°-61°.) 
Breeding on the Antarctic continent, ranging north to 50° S. lat. 

Genus ADAMASTOR Bonaparte 

Adamastor Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 1856, p. 594. 
Type, by original designation, Procellaria hcesitata Forster = Procel- 
laria cinerea GmeUn. 

cj. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 119-124. 

Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec, 4, 1920, p. 111. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 115-116. 

Adamastor cinereus (Gmelin) 

Procellaria cinerea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 563. (Within the 
Antarctic Circle = New Zealand Seas, lat. 48° S., designated as type 
locaUty by Mathews, 1912, p. 123.) 

Procellaria pallipes Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 123. (New Zea- 
land, ex Solander ms.) 



52 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Priofinus cinereihs dydimus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 54. 
(New Zealand.) 

Breeding on Gough Island, Kerguelen, Macquarie Island and Antipodes 
Island, ranging over the southern oceans between 30° and 55° S. and on the 
west coast of South America to Peru. 

Genus PROCELLARIA Linne 

Procellaria Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 131. Type, by subse- 
quent designation, Procellaria cequinoctialis Linne (Gray, List Gen. 
and Subgen. Bds., 1840, p. 78). 
cf. Dabbene, Hornero, 3, 1923, p. 5-7. 

Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 354-355. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 106-124 (part, excl. P. cinerea). 

Procellaria aequinoctialis aequinoctialis Linn^ 

Procellaria cequinoctialis Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 132. (Cape 

of Good Hope.) ^ 
Procellaria cequinoctialis mixta Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 111. 
(Eastern Cape Seas. Type from the South Atlantic 300 miles north of 
Capetown.) 
Procellaria cequinoctialis brahournei Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, 

p. 113. (West coast of South America.) 
Breeds on the Falklands, South Georgia, Crozets and Kerguelen, ranging 
north over the southern oceans to 30° S. lat. to the west coast of Peru, 
casually to southeast Brazil, Angola and Mozambique. 

Procellaria aequinoctialis steadi Mathews 

Procellaria aequinoctialis steadi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 112. 

(Antipodes Island and Auckland Islands. Type from Antipodes 

Island.) 
Breeds on Antipodes Island and Auckland Islands. 

Procellaria conspicillata Gould 
Procellaria conspicillata Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, 

p. 362. (Very abundant in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.) 
Procellaria perspicillata Mathews, Bds. Austr., suppl. no. 2, 1923, p. iv. 

(Nomen nudum.) 
Status and breeding range not known. 

Procellaria parkinsoni G. R. Gray 

Procellaria parkinsoni G. R. Gray, Ibis, 1862, p. 245. (New Zealand.) 

Breeding on North Island, New Zealand; ranges over the South Pacific 
from Australia to the Galapagos. 

1 Dabbene. loc. cit. p. 5, substitutes South Georgia. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 53 

Genus PUFFINUS Brisson 

Puffinus Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 56; 6, p. 130. Type, by tautonymy, 
Puffinus [puffinus] Brisson = Procellaria puffinus Briinnich. 

Calonedris Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 590, 592, Type, by 
original designation, Procellaria leucomelas Temminck. 

Hemipuffinus Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 20. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Puffinus carneipes Gould. 

Neonedris Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 12. Type, by original 
designation, Puffinus brevicaudus Gould. 

Alphapuffinus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 110. Type, by 
original designation, Puffinus assimilis Gould. 

Reinholdia Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 107. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Puffinus reinholdi Mathews. 

Cinathisma Hull, Emu, 15, 1916, p. 205. Type, by monotypy, Cina- 
thisma cyanoleuca Hull = Reinholdia reinholdi byroni Mathews. 

Microzalias Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 597. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Puffinus nativitatis Streets. 

cf. Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 2, 1908, p. 72-152. 

pt. 3, 1908, p. 153-154. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 347-353. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1419-1429. 
Loomis, Proc Cal. Acad. Sci., 2, pt. 2, no. 12, 1918, p. 59-62; 109-149. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 45-105. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 110-115. 
Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 582-604. 
Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 276, 1927, p. 1-15; no. 419, 1930, 

p. 7-14. 
Murphy, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 50, 1924, p. 240-251. 
Oberholser, Auk, 34, 1917, p. 471-475. 

Subgenus ARDENNA Reichenbach 

Ardenna Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. iv. Type, by 
original designation, Puffinus maior Faber = Puffinus gravis O'Reilly. 

Puffinus leucomelas (Temminck) 

Procellaria leucomelas Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 99, 1835, pi. 587. (Seas 
of Japan and Nagasaki Bay.) 

Breeds at the Bonin and Pescadores Islands. Range extends from coasts 
of Korea and Japan to the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea; occasion- 
ally to Ceylon. 



54 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

PuflSnus diomedea diomedea (Scopoli) 

Procellaria diomedea Scopoli, Annus I, Hist. Nat., 1769, p. 74. (No 
locality given; Mediterranean Sea generally accepted, but cf. Hartert, 
Vog. pal. Fauna Nachtr. 1, 1923, p. 77.) 

The Mediterranean Sea from Gibraltar to Syria and Egypt; the Adriatic 
and the Bosphorus. Breeds on islands in the Mediterranean. 

Puffinus diomedea borealis Cory 

Pufinus borealis Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CI., 6, 1881, p. 84. (Off Chatham 
Island, Mass.) 

Puffinus Jcuhli fortunatus Bannerman, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 35, 1915, 
p. 120. (Isla Graciosa, Canary Islands.) 

North Atlantic Ocean. Breeds on the Azores, the Madeiras, Salvage 
Islands and the Canaries. 

PuflBmus diomedea edwardsii Oustalet 

Puffinus Edwardsii Oustalet, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (6), 16, art. 5, 1883, 
p. 1. (Branco, Cape Verde Islands.) 

Puffinus mariae B. Alexander, Ibis, 1898, p. 92. (Brava, Cape Verde 
Islands.) 

Breeds on the Cape Verde Islands. 

Pufl&nus diomedea flavirostris (Gould) 

Procellaria flavirostris Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, p. 365. 
(Off Cape of Good Hope in lat. 36° 39' S., long. 10° 3' E.) 

Western Indian Ocean. Breeds on Kerguelen Island. 

Puffinus creatopus Coues 

Puffinus creatopus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 131. 
(San Nicolas Island, California.) 

Eastern Pacific Ocean. Breeds on Masatierra Island, migrating north to 
the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska. 

Puffinus cameipes Gould 

Puffinus cameipes Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, p. 365. 

(Small islands off Cape Leeuwin, West Australia.) 
Puffinus cameipes carbonarius Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 90. 

(Three Kuigs Island, New Zealand ex Solander ms.) 
Puffinus cameipes zealanicus Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1926, 

p. 76. (New name for carbonarius.) 
Puffinus cameipes neozealanicus Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 

1926, p. 93. (New name for zealanicus.) 
Puffinus cameipes hakodate Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 90. (Seas 

of Japan.) 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 55 

Puffinus carneipes hullianus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 90. 
(Norfolk Island = Lord Howe Island.) 

Breeds on islands off southwestern Australia, North Island, New Zea- 
land and at Lord Howe Island. Ranges east to Juan Fernandez and north 
to Japan and coasts of California. 

PuflSnus gravis (O'Reilly) 

Procellaria Gravis O'Reilly, Voy. Greenl. Adj. Seas, 1818, p. 140, pi. 12, 
f. 1. (Cape Farewell and Staten Hook to Newfoundland.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha. Ranges over the South Atlantic and on 
migration in the North Atlantic to the Grand Banks, British Isles and 
Arctic Circle. 

Subgenus THYELLODROMA Stejneger 

Thyellodroma Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 11, 1888, p. 93. Type, by 
original designation, Puffi,nus sphenurus Gould = Puffi,nus chlororhyn- 
chus Lesson. 

Puffinus pacificus pacificus (Gmelin) 

Procellaria pacifica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 560. (Pacific 

Ocean. Type locality restricted to Kermadec Islands. Mathews, 

Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 80.) 
Puffinus chlororhynchus iredali (sic) Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 27, 

1910, p. 40. (Sunday Island, Kermadec group.) 

Breeds on the Kermadec Islands. 

Pufltous pacificus chlororhynchus Lesson 
Puffinus chlororhynchus Lesson, Traite d' Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 613. (No 

locality. Type from Shark's Bay, West Australia.) 
Puffinus pacificus hamiltoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 82. (The 

Cousin, Seychelles.) 
Puffinus pacificus alleni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 83. (San 

Benedicto Island, Revilla Gigedos.) 
Puffinus pacificus royanus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 85. (Bondi 

Beach, near Sydney, New South Wales.) 

Breeds on the Seychelles, west and east coasts of Australia, Lord Howe 
and Norfolk Islands; Revilla Gigedo group (San Benedicto Island) and 
many other islands in the Pacific. Ranges throughout the warmer parts of 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Puffinus pacificus cuneatus Salvin 
Puffinus cuneatus Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 353. (Krusenstern Island.) 
Puffinus pacificus laysani Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 83. (Laysan 
Island.) 



56 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WOELD 

Puffinus pacificus whitneyi Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 45, 1925, p. 106. 

(Kandavu, Fiji Islands.) 
(Puffinus knudseni Stejneger is also a sjmonym). 

Breeds on Krusenstern Island, Laysan, French Frigate, Bonin Islands, 
the Vulcan group, Pescadores, Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Kauai.) 

Puflfinus buUeri Salvin 

Puffinus bulleri Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 354. (New Zealand.) 

Breeds on islets off North Island, New Zealand. Ranges east to the west 
coast of South America and north to California. 

Subgenus PUFFINUS Brisson 

PuflBnus griseus (Gmelin) 

Procellaria grisea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 564. (Southern 

Hemisphere between 35° and 50° = New Zealand.) Cf. Mathews, 1912, 

p. 95. 
Neonedris griseus pescadoresi Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 602. 

(Pescadores Island.) 
Neonedris griseus missus Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 602. 

(Kurile Islands.) 
Neonedris griseus nutcheri Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 54. 

(Bondi Beach, near Sydney, New South Wales.) 

Breeds on South Island and Stewart Island, New Zealand; Chatham, 
Auckland and Snares Islands; Andes of northern Chile, islands off southern 
Chile and the Falkland Islands. Ranges across the southern Pacific from 
New South Wales to Juan Fernandez and migrates into the North Pacific 
and North Atlantic to Kamchatka, Alaska, Labrador, Greenland and the 
Faroes. 

Puflanus tenuirostris tenuirostris (Temminck) 

Procellaria tenuirostris Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 99, 1835, text to pi. 587. 

(Seas north of Japan and shores of Korea.) 
Puffinus brevicaudus Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 28, 1847, pi. 56. (Islands of 

Bass Strait.) 
Puffinus intermedius Hull, Emu, 11, 1911, p. 98. (Cabbage Tree Island, 

Port Stephens, New South Wales.) 
Neonedris tenuirostris grantianus Hull, Emu, 15, 1916, p. 206. (Ulla- 

duUa, New South Wales.) 
Neonedris tenuirostris hulli Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 36, 1916, 

p. 82. (Barrier Reef, Queensland.) 

Breeds in Tasmania, islands of Bass Strait, southeastern AustraUa and 
Bounty Islands. Ranges east to the Tuamotu Islands and north to eastern 
Siberia and Bering Sea. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 57 

Puflfinus heinrothi Reichenow 
Puffinus heinrothi Reichenow, Journ. f . Orn., 67, 1919, p. 225. (Blanche 
Bay, New Britain.) 

Known only from New Britain, where it probably breeds. 

PufRnus nativitatis Streets 

Puffinus (Nectris) nativitatis Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1877, no. 7, 
p. 29. (Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean.) 

Tropical Pacific. Breeds at Laysan, Wake and Christmas Islands, and 
in the Phoenix, Marquesas, Tuamotu and Austral Archipelagos. 

Puflanus puffinus pufl&nus (Brunnich) 

Procellaria pufinus Brunnich, Orn. Bor., 1764, p. 29. (Faroes and Nor- 
way.) 

Puffinus puffinus bermudce Nichols and Mowbray, Auk, 33, 1916, p. 195. 
(Gurnet Head Rock, Bermuda.) Cf. Dwight, Auk, 44, 1927, p. 243. 

Eastern North Atlantic. Breeds in Iceland, the Faroes, British Isles, 
coast of Brittany, Azores, Madeira, the Salvages and Bermuda. 

Puffinus puffinus yelkouan (Acerbi) 

Procellaria Yelkouan Acerbi, Bibl. Ital., 47, 1827, p. 297. (The Bos- 
phorus, opposite Bujukdere.) 

Eastern Mediterranean. Breeds on islands in the Aegean Sea. 

Puffinus puffinus mauretanicus Lowe 

Puffinus puffinus mauretanicus Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 41, 1921, p. 140. 

(Algiers.) 

Western Mediterranean. Breeding probably on the Balearic Islands and 
coasts of Corsica and Sardinia. 

Puffinus reinholdi reinholdi ^ Mathews ~ 5 **^' *' 

Puffinus reinholdi reinholdi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 47 (in 
key), p. 74, pi. 74. (New Zealand.) 

Puffinus reinholdi melanotis Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 36, 1916, 
p. 89. (Kaipara Beach, North Island, New Zealand.) 

Puffinus reinholdi huttoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 47 (in key), 
p. 77. (Snares Island.) 

New Zealand Seas. Breeds on both islands of New Zealand and on 
Snares Island. 

* Sometimes called gavia (Procellaria gavia Forst., Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., 
1844, p. 148) but c/. Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 33, 1926, p. 347. 



58 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Puffinus reinholdi byroni (Mathews) 

Reinholdia reinholdi byroni Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 187. 

(Byron Bay, New South Wales.) 
Cinathisma cyanoleuca Hull, Emu, 15, 1916, p. 205. (Open sea between 
UlladuUa and on Brush Island, New South Wales.) 

Coast of New South Wales. Breeding place unknown. 

Puffinus reinholdi montaguei (Mathews) 

Reinholdia reinholdi montaguei Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 5, 1922, p. 2. 
(New Caledonia.) 

New Caledonia and New Hebrides. 

Pufltous opisthomelas Coues 
Puffinus opisthomelas Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 139. 
(Cape San Lucas, Lower California.) 

Breeds on west coast of Lower California, San Benito, Natividad and 
Guadalupe Islands, ranging north to the coast of British Columbia. 

PuflSnus auricularis C. H. Townsend 
Puffinus auricularis C. H. Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 13, 1890, 
p. 133. (Clarion Island, Lower Cahfornia.) 

Breeds on the Revilla Gigedo Islands. Occurs in the eastern Pacific 
from Cape San Lucas to Clipperton Island. 

fPuflfinus newelli Henshaw 
Puffinus newelli Henshaw, Auk, 17, 1900, p. 246. (Waihee Valley, 

Ulani = Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands.) 
Extinct. Formerly bred on Lanai and Molokai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Puflinus assimilis assimilis Gould 
Puffinus assimilis Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 4, 1838, app., p. 7. (New 

South Wales = Norfolk Island.) 
Puffinus assimilis howensis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 125. 
(Lord Howe Island.) 

Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands. 

PuflSnus assimilis kermadecensis Murphy 

Puffinus assimilis kermadecensis Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 276, 
1927, p. 3. (Herald Island, Kermadec group.) 

Kermadec Islands. 

Puffinus assimilis kempi Mathews 

Puffinus assimilis kempi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 69. (Chatham 

Islands.) 
Breeding on Chatham Islands; Bounty Island(?) 



ORDER PROCELLRIIAFORMES 59 

Puffinus assimilis tunneyi Mathews 

Puffinus assimilis tunneyi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 47 (in key), 
p. 71. (Boxer Island, Southwest AustraUa.) 

Coast of southwestern Australia. Breeds at Houtman's Abrolhos and 
in the Recherche Archipelago. 

PuflSnus assimilis munda (Salvin) 

Nedris munda Salvin, in Rowley's Orn. Misc., 1, 1876, p. 236. (Lat. 48° 
27' S.; long. 93° W. of London.) 

Known only from specimens taken in lat. 48° 30' in the South Pacific. 

Puffinus assimilis elegans Giglioli and Salvadori 

Puffinus elegans Giglioli and Salvadori, Ibis, 1869, p. 68. (South Atlantic 
Ocean, lat. 43° 54' S.; long. 9° 20' E.) 

Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island. 

Puffinus assimilis baroli (Bonaparte) 

Procellaria baroli Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1857, p. 204. (Mediter- 
ranean, Desertas near Madeira, Canary Islands. Restricted to Deser- 
tas, Bannermann, Ibis, 1914, p. 477.) 

Puffinus godmani AUen, Auk, 25, 1908, p. 339. (Madeira.) 

Puffinus obscurus atlanticus Rothschild and Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 
27, 1911, p. 43. (Porto Santo, near Madeira.) 

Madeira, Salvages and Canary Islands. 

Puflfinus Iherminieri Iherminieri Lesson 

Puffinus (sic) Lherminieri Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 102. ("Ad ripas 
Antillarum.") 

Breeds on Bermuda, the Bahamas, Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles (St. 
Martins, Saba, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe, Barbados). 

Puffinus Iherminieri boydi Mathews 

Pufflnus Iherminieri boydi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 70. (Cape 

Verde Islands.) 

Cape Verde Islands. 

Pufl5nus Iherminieri subalaris Ridgway 

Puffinus subalaris Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, 1897, p. 650. 
(Dalrymple Rock, Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago.) 

Pufinus Iherminieri becki Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 70. (Cul- 
pepper Island, Galapagos Archipelago.) 

Breeds in the Galapagos Archipelago. 



60 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

PuflSnus Iherminieri polynesiae Murphy 

Puffinus Iherminieri polynesioe Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 276, 1927, 
p. 8. (Tahiti, Society Islands.) 

Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas and Samoan Islands. 

PuflSnus Iherminieri dichrous Finsch and Hartlaub 

Puffinus dichrous Finsch and Hartlaub, Faun. Centr. Polyn., 1867, 
p. 244. (McKean Island, Phoenix group.) Puffinus minor Hartlaub 
is a synonym. 

Western Pacific from the Phoenix to the Pelew groups. 

Puflinus Iherminieri gunax Mathews 

Puffinus Iherminieri nugax Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 72, (Off 
Townsville, Queensland, ex Solander ms.) 

Puffinus Iherminieri gunax Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 50, 1930, p. 55. 
New name for Puffinus nugax Mathews, not Procellaria nugax Bona- 
parte. (Melapav Islet, Banks group. New Hebrides.) 

Probably breeding on the Banks group of the New Hebrides. Ranges to 
the east coast of Australia (?). 

Puflinus Iherminieri bannermani Mathews and Iredale 

Puffinus bannermani Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 594. (North 
Iwojima, Bonin Islands.) 

Bonin Islands. 

Puffinus Iherminieri bailloni (Bonaparte) 

Procellaria nugax a. bailloni Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1857, p, 205. 
(Mauritius.) 

Seychelles and Reunion; Mauritius (?). 

Puffinus persicus Hume 
Puffinus Persicus Hume, Str. Feath., 1, 1873, p. 5. (At sea between 
Guadar and Muscat.) 

Arabian Sea and coasts of Persia and northwestern India. Breeding 
place not known. 

Genus PTERODROMA Bonaparte 

Pterodroma Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, 1856, p. 768. 
Type, by subsequent designation, Procellaria macroptera A. Smith 
(Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 137). 

Oestrelatella Bianchi, Faun, dela Russ., Aves, 1, pt. 2, 1913, p. 521, 719. 
Type, by original designation, (Estrelata hypoleuca Salvin. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 61 

c/. Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 3, 1908, p. 176-232. 

pt. 4, 1909, p. 233-253. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 347. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1429-1435. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 129-173. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 117-123. (Pterodroma, 

Aestrelata, Cookilaria.) 
Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 370, 1929, p. 1-17. 

Pterodroma macroptera macroptera (A. Smith) 

Procellaria macroptera A. Smith, Ills. Zool. So. Afr., pt. 2, 1840, pi. 52. 
(Cape Seas.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha, the Crozets, Kerguelen Island. 

Pterodroma macroptera albani Mathews 

Pterodroma macroptera albani Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 30. 
(Rabbit Island, West Australia.) 

Breeds on south coast of western Australia (fide Alexander). 

Pterdroma macroptera gouldi (Hutton) 
^strelata gouldi Hutton, Ibis, 1869, p. 351. (New Zealand Seas.) 
Breeds on North Island, New Zealand. 

Pterodroma aterrima (Bonaparte) 

Procellaria aterrima Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1857, p. 191. (Reunion.) 
Mascarene Islands. 

Pterodroma lessonii lessonii (Garnot) 

Procellaria Lessonii Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., 7, 1826, p. 54, pi. 4. 
("Dans les parages du Cap Horn et de la mer Pacifique par 52° de 
lat. sept. [ = austr.] et 85° de longit." "Falkland Islands Seas" sub- 
stituted by Mathews, List. Bds. Austr., 1913, p. 37. Why?) 
Breeds on Kerguelen Island, ranges over the southern oceans from 
Antarctica to lat. 35° S. 

Pterodroma lessonii australis (Mathews) 
Aestrelata lessonii australis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 54. 
(Sydney, New South Wales.) 

Breeds on Bounty, Auckland and Antipodes Islands. 

-Pterodroma hasitata (Kuhl) 

Procellaria hasitata Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, Abth. 1, p. 142. (ex 

Forster.) 

Formerly bred on Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles; present breeding colony 
not known but almost certainly in mountains of Hispaniola. Ranges off 
coasts of Florida and eastern Brazil. 



62 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

fPterodroma caribbaea Carte 

Pterodroma caribboca Carte, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1866, p. 93, pi. 10. 
(Blue Mountains, Jamaica.) ^ 

Formerly bred on the Island of Jamaica. Now extinct. 

tPterodroma cahow (Nichols and Mowbray) 

Mstrelata cahow Nichols and Mowbray, Auk, 33, 1916, p. 194. (South- 
east side of Castle Island, Bermuda.) 

Formerly bred on Bermuda. Now extinct. 

— ^Pterodroma incerta (Schlegel) 

Procellaria incerta Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 6, Procell., 1863, p. 9. 
("Mersaustrales.") 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha, ranging over the South Atlantic and 
southern Indian Oceans. 

Pterodroma rostrata rostrata (Peale) 

Procellaria rostrata Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 296. (Moun- 
tains about 6000 feet on Tahiti, Society Islands.) 

Breeds on the Society and Marquesas Islands. 

Pterodroma rostrata trouessarti Brasil 

Pterodroma rostrata Trouessarti Brasil, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
23, 1917, p. 432. (New Caledonia.) 

Breeds on New Caledonia. 

Pterodroma becki Murphy 

Pterodroma becki Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 322, 1928, p. 1. (Lat. 
3° S., long. 155° E.) 

Unique.^ 

Pterodroma alba (Gmelin) » 

Procellaria alba Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 565. (Turtle and 
Christmas Islands.) 

Breeds in the tropical Pacific on Christmas Island, the Phoenix, Mar- 
quesas, Tonga and Tuamotu Islands(?). 

1 Procellaria jamaicensis Bancroft, Zool. Journ., 5, 1829, p. 81. (Summit of 
Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica) is an absolute nomen nudum. 

2 Dr. Murphy writes me that a second specimen was collected May 18, 
1928, northwest of Rendova Island. 

3 Loomis, Auk, 37, 1920, p. 88-91, considers this the same as Procellaria par- 
virostris Peale. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 63 

-Pterodroma inexpectata (J. R. Forster) 

Procellaria inexpectata J. R. Forster, Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., 1844, 
p. 204. (Antarctic Ocean.) 

Procellaria lugens Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 159. (Antarctic 
Ocean to southern Tierra del Fuego, ex Solander ms.) 

Pterodroma inexpectata thompsoni Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, 
p. 125. (East Austraha.) 

Breeds on New Zealand (South Island), Chatham Islands, Bounty 
Island. Ranges north to Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, accidental in 
Livingston Co., N. Y. (type of Aestrelata scalaris Brewster). 

Pterodroma solandri^ (Gould) 
Procellaria Solandri Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1844, p. 57. (Bass 

Strait.) 
Oestrelata montana Hull, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 35, 1911, 
p. 785. (Lord Howe Island.) 

Breeds on Lord Howe Island, Tuamotu and Austral Islands. Ranges 
over the South Pacific from eastern Australia to Ducie Island. 

Pterodroma brevirostris (Lesson) 

Procellaria brevirostris Lesson, Traits d' Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 611. (No 
type locality.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha and Kerguelen. Ranges over the South 
Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans. 

Pterodroma heraldica heraldica (Salvin) 

Mstrelata heraldica Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 357. (Chesterfield Islands.) 
Breeds on Chesterfield Islands, Tonga, Marquesas and Tuamotu Islands. 

Pterodroma heraldica paschae Lonnberg 

Pterodroma {jEstrelata) heraldica paschae Lonnberg, in Skottsberg's Nat. 
Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands, 3, pt. 1, 1920 (1921), p. 23. 
(Easter Island.) 

Breeding on Easter Island. 

• Pterodroma phillipii (G. R. Gray) 

f. Procellaria melanopus GmeUn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 562. (North 
America.) 

Procellaria phillipii G. R. Gray, Ibis, 1862, p. 246. (Norfolk Island.) 

Procellaria neglecta Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 6, Procell., 1863, p. 10. 
(Kermadec and Sunday Islands.) 

^ Replaces melanopus Gmelin. 



64 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Pterodroma neglecta quintali Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 68. 
(Lord Howe Island.) 

Breeds on the Kermadecs, Lord Howe, Austral and Tuamotu Islands; 
Juan Fernandez. Ranges over the Pacific from the Kermadecs to Mexico.^ 

Pterodroma anninjoniana (Giglioli and Salvador!) 

Aestrelata Arminjoniana Giglioli and Salvadori, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 
11, 1868, p. 452. (South Trinidad Island.) 

(Estrelata wilsoni Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 12, 1902, p. 49. (South 
Trinidad Island.) 

Estrelata chionophara Murphy, Auk, 31, 1914, p. 13, pi. 2. (Trinidad 
Islet.) 

Breeds on South Trinidad Island. 

Pterodroma wortheni (Rothschild) 

Oestrelata wortheni Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 12, 1902, p. 62. 
(Pacific Ocean, lat. 3° S., long. 118° 45' W.) 

Range and status not determined. 

Pterodroma magentae (Giglioli and Salvadori) 

Aestrelata Magentae Giglioli and Salvadori, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 11, 
1868, p. 451. (Pacific Ocean, lat. 39° 38' S., long. 125° 58' W.) 

Unique. 

Pterodroma oliveri (Mathews and Iredale) 

Estrelata oliveri Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 113. 
(Sunday Island, Kermadec Islands.) 

Kermadec Islands. (Unique.) 

Pterodroma mollis mollis (Gould) 

Procellaria mollis Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, p. 363. 
(South Atlantic Ocean.) 

Pterodroma dubius Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 44, 1924, p. 70. (New 
name for bird figured and described in Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, 
p. 157, pi. 86, Australia?.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Kerguelen and St. Paul Islands. 

Pterodroma mollis feae (Salvadori) 

Oestrelata feae Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2), 20, 1899, p. 305. 
(San Nicolas Island, Cape Verdes.) 

Breeds on Madeira and the Cape Verdes. 
1 Cf. Hartert, Nov. Zoo!., 34, 1928, p. 129-131. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 65 

-Pterodroma phaeopygia phaeopygia (Salvin) 

CEstrelata phceopygia Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 9, 1876, p. 507, 
pi. 88, f. 1. (Chatham Island, Galapagos.) 

Breeds on the Galapagos Archipelago. 

Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis (Ridgway) 

CEstrelata sandwichensis Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway 's 
Water Bds. No. Am., 2, 1884, p. 395, in text. (Hawaiian Islands.) 

Pterodroma externa externa (Salvin) 

CEstrelata externa Salvin, Ibis, 1875, p. 373. (Islands of Masafuera and 
Juan Fernandez.) 

Breeds on the Juan Fernandez group. 

• Pterodroma externa cervicalis (Salvin) 

CEstrelata cervicalis Salvin, Ibis, 1891, p. 192. (Kermadec Islands.) 
Breeds on the Kermadec Islands. 

Pterodroma cookii cookii (G. R. Gray) 

Procellaria Cookii G. R. Gray, in Dieffenbach's Travels in New Zea- 
land, 2, 1843, p. 199. (New Zealand.) 

Breeding at Hen and Chickens Islands, New Zealand. 

Pterodroma cookii axillaris (Salvin) 

CEstrelata axillaris Salvin, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1, 1893, p. 33. (Chatham 
Islands.) 

Breeds on Chatham Islands. 

Pterodroma cookii nigripennis (Rothschild) 

CEstrelata nigripennis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1, 1893, p. 57. 
(Kermadec Islands.) 

Breeds on the Kermadec and Austral Islands. 

Pterodroma cookii orientalis Murphy 

Pterodroma cookii orientalis Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 370, 1929, 
p. 5. (200 miles west of Callao, Peru.) 

Occurs off the west coast of South America between lat. 12° and 34° S. 
Breeding place not known. 

Pterodroma cookii defilippiana (Giglioli and Salvadori) 

Mstrelata defilippiana Giglioli and Salvadori, Ibis, 1869, p. 63. (Off 
northern Chile.) 

Breeds on Masatierra and Santa Clara Islands of the Juan Fernandez 
group. 



66 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Pterodroma leucoptera leucoptera (Gould) 

Procellaria leucoptera Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, p. 364. 
(Cabbage Tree Island, Port Stephens, New South Wales.) 

Cookilaria cookii hyroni Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 36, 1916, p. 48. 
(Byron Bay, error = Port Stephens.) 

Breeding on Cabbage Tree Island, New South Wales. 

Pterodroma leucoptera masafuerae Lonnberg 

Pterodroma cookii masafuerae Lonnberg, in Skottsberg's Nat. Hist. 
Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands, 3, pt. 1, 1921, p. 14. (Masa- 
iuera Island.) 

Breeds on Masafuera Island. 

Pterodroma leucoptera hypoleuca (Salvin) 

(Estrelata hypoleuca Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 359. (Krusenstern Island, 
North Pacific Ocean = Krusenstern Reef?) 

Breeding on the Bonin and western Hawaiian Islands. 

Pterodroma leucoptera brevipes (Peale) 

Procellaria brevipes Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 297, 337. (Lat. 
68° S., long. 95° W.) 

Breeds on New Hebrides and in the Fijis. Ranges east to the Galapagos 
Islands. 

Pterodroma leucoptera longirostris (Stejneger) 

JEstrelata longirostris Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus,, 16, 1893, p. 618. 
(Province of Mutzu, Hondo, Japan.) 

North Pacific. Breeding place unknown. 

The following "species" based on Solander's descriptions have not been 
satisfactorily identified with any known Petrels and are purely hypothet- 
ical. 

Pterodroma atrata (Mathews) 

Procellaria atrata Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 163. (Lat. 25° 21' S., 
long. 129° W., ex Solander ms.) 

Pterodroma sordida (Mathews) 

Procellaria sordida Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 162. (Lat. 25° 21' 
S., long. 129° E. and lat. 39° 49' S., long. 111° 30' W., ex Solander ms.) 

Pterodroma agilis (Mathews) 

Procellaria agilis Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 152. (Lat. 36° 49' S., 
long. 111° 30' W., ex Solander ms.) 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 67 

Pterodroma siliga Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 1926, p. 40. (New 
name for P. agilis Mathews, not Gray ^ in synonymy of Fulmarus 
(Astrelata) Philippii, no description, a simple nomen nudum, the re- 
naming not called for.) 

Pterodroma velificans (Mathews) 

Procellaria velificans Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 161. (Lat. 44" 
35' S., long. 109° 2' W. of London, and lat. 36° 49' S., long. 111° 
30' W., ex Solander ms.) 

Genus PAGODROMA Bonaparte 

Pagodroma Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, 1856, p. 768. 
Type, by monotypy, Procellaria nivea Forster. 

of. Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 33, 1926, p. 354. 

Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antarct. Exped., 1910, ZooL, 4, no. 5, 1930, 
p. 142-147. 

Pagodroma nivea (Forster) 

Procellaria nivea Forster, Voy. Round World, 1, 1777, p. 96, 98. (Lat. 
52° S., long. 20° E.) 

Pagodroma nivea (novegeorgica) von der Steinen, Internat. Polarforsch. 
Deutsche Exp., 2, 1890, p. 250. (South Georgia.) 

Pagodroma confusa Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 177, left-hand 
f. (Cape Adare.) 

Pagodroma nivea falklandica Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1926, 
p. 76. ("New name for P. n. novegeorgica Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 
1912, p. 177, preoccupied as synon3an of nivea Forster.") 

Pagodroma nivea pealei Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 49, 1928, p. 19. 
(New name for Procellaria Candida Peale = Procellaria nivea Forster.) 

Pagodroma nivea alba Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 49, 1928, p. 52. 
(New name for "the bird described in Birds of Norfolk and Lord Howe 
Island, 1928, p. 103, pi. 39.") 

Breeds on South Georgia, South Orkneys, South Shetlands, probably at 
Cape Adare and at other places on the shores of Antarctica. Ranges north 
to lat. 50° S. 

Genus BULWERIA Bonaparte 

Bulweria Bonaparte, Nuov. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, 8, 1842 (1843), 
p. 426. Type, by monotypy, Procellaria bulwerii Jardine and Selby. 

cf. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 42-43. 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1435-1436. 

1 Handlist Gen. Bds., pt. 3, 1871, p. 106. 



68 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Bulweria bulwerii (Jardine and Selby) 

Procellaria bulwerii Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn., 2, 1828, pi. 65. (Ma- 
deira.) 
Bulweria hulweri pacifica Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 607. 

(Iwojima, Bonin Islands.) 
Breeding on islands off the coast of China; the Bonin Islands, Vulcan 
Islands, the western Hawaiians and Marquesas Islands in the Pacific 
Ocean; Madeira, the Salvages, Canary and Cape Verde Islands in the 
Atlantic. 

Bulweria macgillivrayi (G. R. Gray) 

Thalassidro7na (Bulweria) Macgillivrayi G. R. Gray, Cat. Bds. Trop. 

Ids. Pacific Ocean, 1859 (= I860?), p. 56. (Ngau, Fiji Islands.) 
Unique. 

Family HYDROBATIDAE 

Genus OCEANITES Keyserling and Blasius 

Oceanites Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelth. Eur., 1, 1840, p. xciii, 
131, 238. Type, by subsequent designation, Procellaria wilsonii Bo- 
naparte = Procellaria oceanica Kuhl. (Gray, List. Gen. Bds., 1841, 
p. 99.) 
cf. Dabbene, Hornero, 2, 1922, p. 243. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 11-14. 

Murphy, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 38, 1918, p. 117-146. 

Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus (Kuhl) 
Procellaria oceanica Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, Abth. 1, p. 136, pi. 10, f. 1. 
(No type locaUty. South Georgia designated by Murphy, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 38, 1918, p. 128.) 
Breeds on South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South Georgia, wintering in 
the North Atlantic to Labrador, the Grand Banks and British Isles.^ 

?Oceanites oceanicus exasperatus Mathews 

Oceanites oceanicus exasperatus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 11, 
pi. 68. (New Zealand Seas.) 

Breeds on Antarctica. Ranges north to India, Australia and New Cale- 
donia. 

Oceanites gracilis gracilis (Elliot) 

Thalassidroma gracilis Elliot, Ibis, 1859, p. 391. (West coast of [South] 

America.) 
Breeding grounds not known. 

1 Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 86 gives: "0. o. chilensis" as "breeding on 
islets off Cape Horn." I am unable to find out when, where or by whom the 
alleged subspecies was named. It is not citable from Alexander, since the name 
is a nomen nudum at that point. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 69 

Oceanites gracilis galapagoensis Lowe 

Oceanites gracilis galapagoensis Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 41, 1921, 

p. 140. (Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago.) 
Breeds on the Galapagos. 

Genus PELAGODROMA Reichenbach 

Pelagodroma Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. iv. Type, by 
original designation, Procellaria marina Latham. 
cf. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 91-92. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 353. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 19-30. 
Murphy, BuU. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 50, 1924, p. 233-235. 

Pelagodroma marina marina (Latham) 

Procellaria marina Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 826. (Southern 

oceans = off the mouth of the Rio La Plata, lat. 35° S. - lat. 37° S. 

fide Murphy, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 50, 1924, p. 233.) 
Breeds on Tristan da Cunha and Nightingale Islands. 

Pelagodroma marina hypoleuca (Webb, Berthelot and Moquin-Tandon) 
Thalassidroma hypoleuca Webb, Berthelot and Moquin-Tandon, Orn. 

Canarienne, 1841, p. 45. (Tenerife, Canary Islands.) 
Breeds on the Salvages, Canary and Cape Verde Islands. 

Pelagodroma marina maoriana Mathews 

Pelagodroma marina maoriana Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 24. 

(Type from Chatham Islands.) 
Procellaria passerina Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 24. (Kermadec 

Islands, ex Solander ms.) 
Breeds in New Zealand (North Island), Auckland, Chatham and Ker- 
madec Islands. 

Pelagodroma marina dulciae Mathews 

Pelagodroma marina dulcice Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 21. 

(Breaksea Island, Southwest Australia.) 
Pelagodroma marina howei Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 26. (Mud 

Island, Victoria.) 
Breeds on the coasts of western and southern Australia. 

Genus FREGETTA Bonaparte 

Fregetta Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 41, 1855, p. 1113. 

Type, by original designation, Thalassidroma leucogaster Gould. 
Fregettornis Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 31. Type, by original 

designation, Procellaria grallaria VieiUot. 



70 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

c/. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 356-357. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 31-36. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 108-110. (Fregetta, 

Pealea, Cjonodroma.) 
Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 124, 1924, p. 7-11. 

Fregetta grallaria grallaria (Vieillot) 

Procellaria grallaria Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., 25, 1817, p. 418. 
(New South Wales, error "Juan Fernandez" designated as type lo- 
caHty by Mathews, supra, 1927, p. 109.) 

Breeds on Masatierra Island, Juan Fernandez group. 

Fregetta grallaria titan Murphy 

Fregetta grallaria titan Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 322, 1928, p. 4. 
(Rapa Island, Austral group, South Pacific.) 

Rapa Island and adjacent waters. 

Fregetta grallaria insularis (Mathews) 
Fregettornis insularis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 124. (Lord 

Howe Island.) 
Fregettornis alisteri Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 124, (Lord 

Howe Island.) 
Fregettornis innominatus Mathews, Austr. Av, Rec, 2, 1915, p. 124. 

(Lord Howe Island.) 
Breeds on Lord Howe Island. 

Fregetta royana (Mathews) 

Fregettornis royanus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 86. (Lord 
Howe Island.) Probably a melanism of insularis for which it would 
then be an earlier name. 

?Fregetta lineata (Peale) 

Thalassidroma lineata Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 293. (Upolu, 
Samoa.) ^ 

Fregetta tropica tropica (Gould) 

Thalassidroma tropica Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, 
p. 366. (Atlantic Ocean in lat. 33° N., long. 18° 6' W.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha. 

Fregetta tropica melanogaster (Gould) 

Thalassidroma melanogaster Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, 

p. 367. (Southern Indian Ocean.) 
Fregetta tropica australis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 86. (New 

Zealand.) 

1 Dr. Murphy tells me that lineata is only a phase of some species of Fregetta. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 71 

Breeds on Kerguelen and the Crozets; said to breed also on the South 
Shetlands, South Orkneys, South Georgia, the Falkland Islands, St. Paul 
and Amsterdam Islands. 

?Fregetta tubulata Mathews 
Fregetta tubulata Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 42. (Near the coasts 
of Australia, ex Gould Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, 1844, p. 367- 
368.) 1 

Genus NESOFREGETTA Mathews 

Nesofregetta Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 31. Type, by original 
designation, Fregetta mcestissima Salvin. 

cf. Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 108. 
Murphy, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 124, 1924, p. 11-13. 

Nesofregetta albigularis (Finsch) 

Procellaria albigularis Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 722. 

(Kandavu, Fiji Islands.) 
Wregetta Amphitrite Jardine, M6m. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 6, 

1858 (1859), p. 172. (Marquesas Islands.) 
Breeds on Christmas Island, the Phoenix, Marquesas and Fiji Islands; 
New Hebrides. 

Nesofregetta moestissima (Salvin) 

Fregetta mcestissima Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1879, p. 130. 
(Samoan Islands.) 

Unique. 

Genus GARRODIA Fokbes 

Garrodia Forbes, Coll. Sci. Papers of Garrod, 1881, p. 521, note. Type, 
by original designation and monotypy, Thalassidroma nereis Gould. 

cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 15-18. 

— Garrodia nereis (Gould) 

Thalassidroma Nereis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), 
p. 178. (Bass Strait, Australia.) 

Procellaria saltatrix Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 16. (Lat. 42° 
34' S., long. 185° W. = off Kaukoura, New Zealand, ex Solander ms.) 

Procellaria longipes Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 17. (Off New Zea- 
land, ex Solander ms.) 

Oceanites nereis chubbi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 18. (Falkland 
Islands.) 

1 This "species" appears to have been based on a specimen of an already 
known form of Fregetta in which the nasal tubes have become distorted. 



72 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Oceanites nereis couesi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 18. (Kergue- 

len.) 
Breeds on New Zealand, Chatham, Bounty and Auckland Islands, South 
Georgia, the Falkland Islands, and Kerguelen. 

Genus HYDROBATES Boie 

Hydrobates Boie, Isis, 1822, col. 562. Type, by subsequent designation, 
Procellaria pelagica Linn6 (Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, Water Bds. 
No. Am., 2, 1884, p. 403). 
cf. Witherby and others, Pract. Handb. Brit. Bds., 2, 1924, p. 409-412. 

Hydrobates pelagicus (Linne) 

Procellaria pelagica Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 131. (Restricted 
type locality; coast of Sweden.) 

Eastern North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, breeding on Ice- 
land, the coast of Norway, small islands off the British Isles and west coast 
of France and islands in the western Mediterranean. Ranges to the Red 
Sea and coasts of tropical western Africa. 

Genus OCEANODROMA Reichenbach 

Oceanodroma Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. iv. Type, 
by original designation, Procellaria furcata Gmelin. 

Bannermania Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 578. Type, by mono- 
typy, Thalassidroma hornbyi Gray. 

Pacificodroma Bianchi, Faun, de la Russ., Ois., 1, pt. 2, 1913, p. 516, 
559. Type, by original designation, Thalassidroma monorhis Swinhoe. 

cf. Alexander, Bds. Ocean, 1928, p. 79-81, 83-85, 87, 90. 
Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 1, 1907, p. 8-40. 
Oberholser, Auk, 34, 1917, p. 465-467. 

Subgenus CYMOCHOREA Coues 

Cymochorea Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 75. Type, by 
original designation, Procellaria leucorhoa Vieillot. 

Oceanodroma tethys tethys (Bonaparte) 

Thalassidroma Tethys Bonaparte, Journ. f. Orn., 1, 1853, p. 47. (Gala- 
pagos Islands.) 
Breeds on the Galapagos Islands. 

Oceanodroma tethys kelsalli (Lowe) 

Thalassidroma tethys kelsalli Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1925, p. 6. 

(Ancon, Peru.) 
Breeds on islands off the coast of Peru. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 73 

Oceanodroma castro castro (Harcourt) 

Thalassidroma castro Harcourt, Sketch of Madeira, 1851, p. 123. (De- 
sertas Islets, Madeira.) 

Breeds on Madeira, the Salvages, Azores, Cape Verdes and St. Helena. 

Oceanodroma castro cryptoleucura (Ridgway) 

Cymochorea cryptoleucura Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, 1882, 
p. 337. (Kauai, Hawaiian Islands.) 

Breeds on the Hawaiian Islands. 

Oceanodroma castro bangsi Nichols 

Oceanodroma castro bangsi Nichols, Auk, 31, 1914, p. 389. (Lat. 1° N., 
long. 93° W.) 

Breeds on the Galapagos Islands and probably Cocos Island. 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa beali Emerson 

Oceanodroma beali Emerson, Condor, 8, 1906, p. 54. (Sitka Bay, Alaska.) 

Oceanodroma beldingi Emerson, Condor, 8, 1906, p. 54. (Netarts Bay, 
coast of Oregon.) 

Breeds from southeastern Alaska to the coast of Oregon. 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa kaedingi Anthony 

Oceanodroma kaedingi Anthony, Auk, 15, 1898, p. 37. (At sea near 
Guadalupe Island, Lower California.) 

Breeds on Guadalupe Island, Lower California; occurs off Lower Cali- 
fornia south to Clarion and Socorro Islands. 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa (Vieillot) 

Procellaria leucorhoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 25, 1817, p. 422. 
(Maritime parts of Picardy.) 

Breeds on Kurile, Commander and Aleutian Islands, coasts of Alaska, 
Maine, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, So. Greenland, Iceland, Faroes and 
British Isles. South in winter across the Equator. 

Oceanodroma macrodactyla W. E. Bryant 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa macrodactyla W. E. Bryant, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
2, 1887, p. 450. (Guadalupe Island, Lower California.) 

Formerly bred on Guadalupe Island. Now probably extinct. 

Oceanodroma markhami markhami (Salvin) 

Cymochorea markhami Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, p. 430. 
(Coast of Peru. Lat. 19° 40' S., long. 75° W.) 

Occurs off coast of Peru and Chile; breeding ground not known. 



74 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Oceanodroma markhami tristrami Salvin 
Oceanodroma tristrami Salvin, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 1896, p. 347 (in 

key), p. 354. (Sendai Bay, Japan.) 
Japan, Laysan Island, Midway Island. 

Oceanodroma owstoni (Mathews and Iredale) 
Cymochorea owstoni Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 581. (Okinose, 
Sagami Sea.) ^ 

Oceanodroma melania melania (Bonaparte) 

Procellaria melania Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, 1854, 
p. 662. (Coast of California.) 

Breeds on islands off the coast of Lower Cahfornia (San Benito Island 
and Los Coronados). 

Oceanodroma melania matsudariae Kuroda 
Oceanodroma melania matsudariae Kuroda, Ibis, 1922, p. 311. (Sagami 

Bay, Japan.) 
Breeding place unknown. 

Oceanodroma monorhis monorhis (Swinhoe) 

Thalassidroma monorhis Swinhoe, Ibis, 1867, p. 386. (Near Amoy, 
China.) 

Breeds on islands off Formosa, ranges north to Japan and south to Singa- 
pore. 

Oceanodroma monorhis socorroensis C. H. Townsend 
Oceanodroma socorroensis C. H. Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 13, 

1890, p. 134. (Socorro Island, Lower California.) 
Oceanodroma monorhis chapmani Berlepsch, Auk, 23, 1906, p. 185. (San 

Benito Island.) 
Breeds on islands off Lower California and west coast of Mexico; ranges 
north to California and south to the Galapagos. 

Oceanodroma homochroa (Coues) 
Cymochorea homochroa Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 77. 

(Farallon Islands, California.) 
Breeds on the Farallon Islands, San Miguel and Santa Clara Islands, 
California. 

Subgenus OCEANODROMA 

Oceanodroma hornbyi (G. R. Gray) 

Thalassidroma Hornbyi G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1853 
(1854), p. 62. (Northwest coast of America.) 

1 This species may eventually prove to be the same as tristrami and will re- 
place it if tristrami turns out to be unidentifiable. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 75 

Procellaria (Oceanites) collaris R. A. Philippi, Verb. Deutsch. wiss. Ver. 

Santiago, 3, pt. 1, 1895, p. 11 and plate. (Tableland east of Taltal, 

CbUe.) 

Breeds in tbe Cbilean Andes and occurs in tbe warm-water areas of tbe 

tropical and subtropical south Pacific adjacent to the coast of South 

America. 

Oceanodroma furcata (Gmelin) 

Procellaria furcata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 561. (Icy seas 
between America and Asia.) 

Breeds on Kurile, Commander and Aleutian Islands and islands off 
coast of southern Alaska, Washington and northern California. 

Genus HALOCYPTENA Coues 

Halocyptena Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 78. Type, by 
original designation, Halocyptena microsoma Coues. 

of. Godman, Monogr. Petrels, pt. 1, 1907, p. 6-7. 

Halocyptena microsoma Coues 

Halocyptena microsoma Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 79. 
(San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California.) 

Breeds on San Benito Island, Lower California; occurs on Pacific coast of 
America from Lower California to Ecuador. 

Family PELECANOIDIDAE 
Genus PELECANOIDES LacepJide 

Pelecanoides Lac^pede, Tabl. Ois., 1799, p. 13. Type, by monotypy, 

Procellaria urinatrix Gmelin. 
Porthmornis (subgen.) Murphy and Harper, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

44, 1921, p. 502, f. 2, b., p. 503 (in key), p. 513. Type, by monotypy, 

Puffinuria garnotii magellani Mathews. 
Pelagodyptes (subgen.) Murphy and Harper, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

44, 1921, p. 502, f . 2, c, p. 503 (in key), p. 519. Type, by monotypy, 

Pelecanoides georgicus Murphy and Harper. 
cf. Murphy and Harper, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 44, 1921, p. 495-554. 

Pelecanoides garnotii (Lesson) 

Puffinuria Garnotii Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 394, (Coast of Peru 

between Isla San Gallan and Lima.) 
Puffinuria garnotii lessoni Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 239. (Coast 

of Chile.) 
West coast of South America from Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru to Val- 
paraiso, Chile. 



76 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Pelecanoides magellani (Mathews) 

Puffinuria garnolii magellani Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 239. 
(Straits of Magellan.) 

Pacific coast of South America from Trinidad channel south to Cape 
Horn; Atlantic coast from Puerto Deseado south to Cape Horn. 

Pelecanoides georgica Murphy and Harper 

Pelecanoides georgica Murphy and Harper, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
35, 1916, p. 66. (Cumberland Bay, South Georgia.) 

South Georgia; Macquarie Island. 

Pelecanoides urinatrix urinatrix (Gn^elin) 

Procellaria urinatrix Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 560. (Queen 
Charlotte Sound, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Pelecanoides urinatrix belcheri Math. Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 84. 
(Australian Seas = Victoria, ex Mathews, List Bds. Austr., 1913, 
p. 41.) 

Coasts of southeastern Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand. 

Pelecanoides urinatrix chathamensis Murphy and Harper 

Pelecanoides urinatrix chathamensis Murphy and Harper, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 35, 1916, p. 65. (Chatham Islands.) 

Chatham and Auckland Islands, Snares Island, Bounty Island(?), An- 
tipodes Island (?) 

Pelecanoides urinatrix berard (Gaimard) 

Procellaria Berard Gaimard, Bull. G6n. et Univ. Ann. et Nouv. Sci., 3, 
1823, p. 53. (Near the Falkland Islands.) 

Breeds on the Falkland Islands; occurs off the Argentine coast from 
Buenos Aires province S. to lat. 50°. 

Pelecanoides urinatrix dacunhae NicoU 

Pelecanoides dacunhce NicoU, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 16, 1906, p. 103. 
(Tristan da Cunha.) 

Breeds on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Islands. 

Pelecanoides urinatrix coppingeri Mathews 

Pelecanoides urinatrix coppingeri Mathews, Bds. Austr., 2, 1912, p. 238. 
(Straits of Magellan. Type from Cockle Cove, Pilot Island, Trinidad 
Channel, Chile.) 
Breeding range not known, probably restricted to the vicinity of the type 
locality. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 77 

Pelecanoides exsul Salvin 
Pelecanoides exsul Salvin, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 1896, p. 437 (in 

key), p. 438. (Kerguelen Island, fixed by Murphy and Harper, loc. 

ciL, p. 544.) 
Crozet, Kerguelen and Auckland Islands. 

Order PELECANIFORMES 

Suborder PHAETHONTES 

Family PHAETHONTIDAE 

Genus PHAETHON Linne 

Phaethon Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 134. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Phaethon cethereus Linn^ (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, 
p. 80.) 

Scoeophcethon ^ (sic) Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 56. Type, by 
original designation, Phaethon rubricauda westralis Mathews (new 
name for Phoenicurus Bonaparte, not Forster). 

Leptophoethon ^ (sic) Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 56. Tjrpe, by 
original designation, Phaethon Upturns dorotheoe Mathews (new name 
for Lepturus Reichenbach, not Brisson). 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 32, 1925, p. 275-276. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 233-235. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 17-18. 

Phaethon aethereus aethereus Linn^ 

Phaethon cethereus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 134. (Ascension 

Island.) 
Breeds on Ascension Island, Fernando Noronha and St. Helena Island. 

Phaethon aethereus mesonauta Peters 

Phaethon cethereus mesonauta Peters, Occ. Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
5, 1930, p. 261. (Swan Key, Almirante Bay, Panama.) 

Breeds on islands off the west coast of Mexico; the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago (Daphne Island) ; in Almirante Bay, Panama; off the coast of Vene- 
zuela; locally in the Lesser Antilles; the Cape Verde Islands. 

Phaethon aethereus limatus Peters 

Phaethon cethereus limatus Peters, Occ. Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5, 
1930, p. 261. (Tower Island, Galapagos Islands.) 

Breeds on Tower Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

^ Originally proposed as new generic name, not as a substitute. 



78 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phaethon aethereus indicus Hume 

Phaeton indicus Hume, Str. Feath., 4, 1876, p. 481, 483. (Mekran 
coast.) 

Northern Indian Ocean — said to breed on islands in the Persian Gulf; 
Dahlak Islands. 

Phaethon rubricauda rubricauda Boddaert 

Phaeton rubricauda Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 57. (Mauri- 
tius.) 
Tropical western Indian Ocean, breeding on Mauritius. 

Phaethon rubricauda westralis Mathews 

Phcethon (sic) rubricauda westralis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, 
p. 88. (West Australia, type from Houtman's Abrolhos.) 

Breeding on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and islands off the north- 
west coast of Australia. 

Phaethon rubricauda roseotincta (Mathews) 

ScoBophaethon rubricauda roseotincta Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 46, 

1926, p. 60, new name for: 
Phaethon rubricauda eruhescens Rothschild, Avif . Laysan, pt. 3, 1900, 

p. 296. (Kermadec Islands) preoccupied by Phaeton erubescens Gray, 

List. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1844, pt. 3, p. 182 in synonymy of P. phoenicu- 

ros Gmelin. 
Phaethon novaehollandiae Auct. recent., not Brandt. Cf. Hartert, supra. 
Kermadec, Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands. 

Phaethon rubricauda melanorhynchos Gmelin 

Phaeton melanorhynchos GmeUn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 582. 
(Turtle and Palmerston Islands.) 

Palmerston, Society and Turtle Islands. 

Phaethon rubricauda rothschildi (Mathews) 

Scceophcethon rubricauda rothschildi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 303. 

(Laysan and Niihau.) 
Scceophcethon rubricauda brevirostris Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, 

p. 303. (Bonin Islands, type from North Noojima.) 

Benin and Hawaiian Islands. 

Phaethon lepturus lepturus Daudin 

Phaeton lepturus Daudin, Buffon Hist. Nat., ed. Didot, Quadr., 14, 
1802, p. 319. (Mauritius.) 

Indian Ocean, breeding in the Mascarene, Seychelles and Andaman 
Islands. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 79 

Phaethon lepturus fulvus Brandt 

Phaethon fulvus Brandt, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. P^tersb., (6), 5, 1840, 
p. 269. (No type locality.) 

Christmas Island,^ Indian Ocean. 

Phaethon lepturus dorotheae Mathews 

Phcethon lepturus dorotheae Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 7. 
(Queensland.) 

Breeds on islands in the southwestern Pacific. 

Phaethon lepturus catesbyi Brandt 

Phaethon catesbyi Brandt, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., (6), 5» 
1840, p. 270. (Restricted type locality, Bermuda, Mathews, Auk, 32, 
1915, p. 196.) 

Breeds on Bermuda, Bahamas and locally in the Greater and Lesser 
Antilles. 

Phaethon lepturus ascensionis (Mathews) 

Leptophcethon lepturus ascensionis Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 311. 
(Ascension Island.) 

Breeds on Ascension and Fernando Noronha Islands; Ilha das Cabres, 
Gulf of Guinea. 

Suborder PELECANI 

SuPERFAMiLY PELECANOIDEA 

Family PELECANIDAE 

Genus PELECANUS Linne 

Pelecanus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 132. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Pelecanus onocrotalus Linn^ (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, 
p. 80). 

Metapelecanus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 206. Type, by 
original designation, Pelecanus roseus Gmelin. 

Neopelecanus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 206. Type, by 
monotjTpy, Pelecanus rufescens Gmelin. 

cf. Dubois, in Wytsman's Gen. Av., pt. 7, 1907, p. 1-4, 1 pi. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1402-1405. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 235-236. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 23. 

» Cf. Grant, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 7, 1897, p. 23-34. 



80 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Subgenus PELECANUS Linne 
/ Pelecanus onocrotalus Linn^ 

Pelecanus Onocrotalus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 132. (Africa, 
Asia.) 

Lakes and larger rivers of southeastern Europe east to northern India, 
south to Senegal, the White Nile and Nyasaland. 

/" Pelecanus roseus Gmelin 

Pelecanus roseus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 570. (Manila, 
P.I.) 

Eastern (and central?) Asia; White Nile and coasts of South Africa; 
Greater Sunda and Philippine Islands in winter. 

7 Pelecanus rufescens Gmelin 

Pelecanus rufescens Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 571. (West 
Africa.) 

Africa south of lat. 16° N.; southern Arabia; Madagascar. 

/ Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin 

Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 571. (Philip- 
pine Islands.) 

Coasts of India and Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula and southern 
China; Hainan, Java, Luzon and Mindanao. 

"Y" Pelecanus crispus Bruch 

Pelecanus crispus Bruch, Isis, 1832, col. 1109. (Dalmatia.) 

Southeastern Europe, Sea of Azov, Caspian Sea, northern Syria, Persian 
Gulf east to southeast Mongolia and China; winters south to Egypt, 
northern India and southern China. 

-y Pelecanus conspicillatus conspicillatus Temminck 

Pelecanus conspicillatus Temminck PI. Col., livr. 47, 1824, pi. 276. 

(Australia = New South Wales.) 
Eastern Australia; accidental in New Zealand. 

?Pelecanus conspicillatus westralis Mathews 

Pelecanus conspicillatus westralis Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 244. 
(Perth, West Australia.) 

Tenimber Islands, New Guinea, northern and western Australia. 

Subgenus CYRTOPELICANUS Reichenbach 

Cyrtopelicanus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853) p. vii. Type,' 
by original designation, Pelecanus trachyrhynchus Latham = Pele- 
canus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. 



-/- 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 81 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 571. 

(North America = Hudson Bay and New York, ex Latham, Syn., 3, 2, 

p. 586, no. 8.) 

Breeds from central British Columbia and Great Slave Lake to central 

Manitoba, south to southern California and southern Texas. Winters 

locally from California to Florida and southward to Panama. 

Subgenus LEPTOPELICANUS Reichenbach 

Leptopelicanus Reichenbach Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853) p. vii. Type, 
by original designation, Pelecanus fuscus Gmelin = P. occidentalis 
Liane. 

Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis Linn^ 

Pelecanus occidentalis Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 215. (Ja- 
maica, from first citation.) 

Pelecanus relictus G. H. Thayer, The Sentry, Kingstown, St. Vincent, 

W. I., Jan. 9, 1925. (Kingstown Harbor, St. Vincent.) 
Greater and Lesser Antilles, breeding locally. 

Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis Gmelin 

Pelecanus carolinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. , 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 571 . (Charles- 
ton Harbor, South Carolina.) 

Pelecanus albicollis Maynard, Am. Sportsm., 3, 1874, p. 379. (Cedar 

Keys, Florida.) 
Breeds locally along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of southern United 
States from North Carolina to Texas (perhaps further south). 

Pelecanus occidentalis californicus Ridgway 

Pelecanus (Juscus?) californicus Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer and Ridg- 
way, Water Bds. No. Am., 2, 1884, p. 143. (La Paz, Lower Cali- 
fornia.) 

Pacific coast of America from southern British Columbia south to 
Ecuador and the Galapagos Archipelago. 

Pelecanus occidentalis thagus Molina 
Pelecanus Thagus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chih, 1782, p. 240. (Chile.) 
Pelecanus Landbecki F. Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, Chile, 1, 1909, 

p. 63. 
Coasts of Peru and Chile south to central Chile and casually further. 



82 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Family CppfjotnitJjibae 

SUPERFAMILY SULOIDEA 

Family ^elagomitljitiae 

Family SULIDAE 

Genus MORUS Vieillot 

Morus Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 63. Type, by monotypy, "Fou de 
Bassan" Buff on = Pelecanus bassanus Linne. 

Sulita Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 123. Type, by original 
designation, Pelecanus bassanus Linne (new name for Morus Vieillot 
on grounds of preoccupation by Morum Bolten). 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1405-1407. 

Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 1921, p. 76-77. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 20. 

Morus bassanus (Linn6) 

Pelecanus Bassanus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 133. (Scot- 
land; America = Bass Rock; Scotland.) 

Breeds locally on the British Isles, islands off Iceland and in North 
America in islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and off Newfoundland. In 
winter south to northern Africa, eastern Atlantic islands and the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

Morus capensis (Lichtenstein) 

Dysporus capensis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 86. (Cape of 
Good Hope.) 

Breeds on islands off the coasts of South Africa from Hollams Bird 
Island to Algoa Bay. 

Morus serrator serrator (G. R. Gray) 

Pelecanus serrator G. R. Gray, in Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand, 
2, 1843, p. 200. (Substitute name for Sula australis Gould, not 
Stephens. Tasmania.) 

Sula serrator dyotti Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 63. (Tas- 
mania.) 

Breeds on islands in Bass Strait and off Tasmania, occurring off the 
coasts of Australia south of Fremantle and Brisbane. 

--/ Morus serrator rex (Mathews and Iredale) 

Sulita serrator rex Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr,, 1921, p. 77. 
(New Zealand.) 

Breeds on North Island, New Zealand. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 83 

Genus SULA Brisson 

Sula, Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60; 6, 1760, p. 494. Type, by tautonymy, 

"Sula" = Sula leucogaster Boddaert. 
Hemisula Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 55. Type, by original 

designation, Sula leucogaster rogersi Mathews. 
Parasula Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 55. Type, by original 

designation, Sula dadylatra hedouti Mathews. 
cj. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. S. A., 1912, p. 60. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 199-235. 

Mathews and Iredale, Man. Bds. Austr., 1921, p. 71-75. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 230-232. {Sula, Piscatrix, 
Parasula.) 

Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 35, 1915, p. 41-45. 

Sclater, Syst. Av., iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 18-19. 

Sula nebouxii Milne-Edwards 

Sula Nebouxii Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (6), 13, art. 4, 1882, 
p. 37, pi. 14. (Pacific coast of America.) 

Breeds on islands off the coasts of Mexico, Ecuador, northern Peru and 
in the Galapagos Islands. 

Sula variegata (Tschudi) 

Dysporus variegatus Tschudi, Fauna Per., Orn., 1845, p. 313. (Islands 
off the coast of Peru.) 

Breeds on islands off the coast of Peru and ranging south to Chiloe 
Island, Chile. 

Sula abbotti Ridgway 
Sula abbotti Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 1893, p. 599. (Assump- 
tion Island.) 
Tropical Indian Ocean, breeding at Assumption and Christmas Islands. 

-—/- Sula dactylatra dactylatra Lesson 

Sula dactylatra Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 601. (Ascension 

Island.) 1 
Breeds locally in the West Indies and at Ascension Island. 

■ — ^Sula dactylatra calif ornica Rothschild 

Sula dactylatra californica Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 35, 1915, 
p. 43. (San Benedicto Island, Revilla Gigedos group.) 

Breeds on islands off the west coast of Mexico. 

1 Sula dactylatra Lesson, Voy. 'Coquille, ' 1, 1829, p. 494 (Ascension Island) 
is a nomen nudum. 



84 CHECK-UST OF BIRDS OF THE WOULD 

-J- Sula dactylatra granti Rothschild 

S>ula granti Rothschild. Bull. Brit. Om. CI., 13, 1902, p. 7. (Galapagos 
Islands, type from Culpepper Island.) 

Breeds on the Galapagos Islands. 

--/- Sula dactylatra personata Gould 

Sida personata Gould. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S46, p. 21. (North and 

northeast coasts of Austraha = Raine Island, North Queensland.) 
Breeds on islands of the central and western tropical Pacific Ocean and 
off northeastern Austraha. 

Sxila dactylatra bedouti Mathews 

Sula dactylatra hedouti Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 189. 
(Bedout Island, southwest Austraha.) 

Christmas Island, Indian Ocean to the Sunda Islands, and northern 
Australia, (^'ery doubtfully distinct from personata.) 

Sula dactylatra melanops Heughn 

Snla melanops Heughn, Ibis, 1859, p. 351, pi. 10, f. 2 and 3. (Burda- 
Rebschi, Somah coast.) 

Western Indian Ocean (Assumption, Seychelles and Mascarene Islands) ; 
the Red Sea and East African coasts from Lindi to Somaliland. 



-y 



Sula sula websteri Rothschild 
Sula wehsteri Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 7, 1898, p. 52. (Clarion 

Island, Re-villa Gigedos group.) 
Breeds on the Galapagos Islands. 

-/ Sula sula sula (Linne) 

Pelecanus Sula^UmiQ, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 218. (Ascension 

Island, designated by Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 216.) 
Piscatrix sula autumnalu Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 22, 

1919, p. 186 and plate. (South Trmidad Island.) 
Breeds locally in the West Indies and on Ascension and South Trinidad 
Islands. 

—^ Sula sula rubripes Gould 

SuJa rtibripes Gould, Sjm. Bds. Austr., pt. 4, 1838, app., p. 7. (New 

South Wales = Raine Island, northern Queensland, fide Mathews.) 
Islands of the Indian and tropical western and central Pacific Oceans. 

-J- Sula leucogaster leucogaster (Boddaert) 

Pekcanus Leucogaster Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 57, no. 973. 
(Cayenne.) 

1 Pelecanus piscator Linne, 1758, p. 134 is in my opinion indeterminable. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 85 

Breeds on Florida Keys (formerly), islands off the Caribbean coast of 
Central America, the West Indies and the tropical Atlantic. 

— /- Sula leucogaster brewsteri Goss 

Sula breu-steri Goss, Auk, 5, 1888, p. 242. (San Pedro Martir Island, 
GuK of California.) 

Sula nesiotes HeUer and Snodgrass, Condor, 3, 1901, p. 75. (CUpperton 
Island.) 

Eastern Pacific from Lower California to CUpperton Island, breeding on 
islands off the coast throughout its range. 

—J— Sula leucogaster etesiaca Thayer and Bangs 

Sida etesiaca Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, no. 5, 1905, 
p. 92. (Gorgona Island.) 

Islands off the Pacific coast of Central America and Colombia (Pearl 
Islands, Cocos, Saboga and Gorgonilla Islands) and probably also the 
Galapagos Islands. 

-J— Sula leucogaster plotus Forster 

Pelecamis Plotus Forster, Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., 18-14, p. 278. (Near 
New Caledonia.) 

Western and central tropical Pacific to northeastern Australia. 

Sula leucogaster rogersi Mathews 

Suia leucogaster rogersi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 189. 
(Bedout Island, West AustraHa.) 

Java to northern Australia. (Probably the same as plotus.) 

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE 
Genus PHALACROCORAX Brissox 

Phalacrocorax Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60. Type, by tautonjmy, Pha- 

lacrocorax = Pelecanus carbo Linne. 
Mesocarbo !Mathews and Iredale, Ibis. 1913, p. 415. T\'pe, by original 

designation, Carbo sulcirostris Brandt. 
Pseudocarbo Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 205. T}-pe, by 

original designation, Pelecanus capensis Sparrman. 
Anacarbo Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8. 1922, p. 205. Type, by original 

designation, Gracidu-s neglectm Wahlberg. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1386-1399. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 161-192. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927. p. 224-229. 

Murphy, BuU. Am. :Mus. Xat. Hist.. 25, 1916, p. 31-48. 

OUver, Xew Zealand Bds., 1930, p. 174-201. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924. p. 20-21. 



-/- 



86 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phalacrocorax auritus cincinatus (Brandt) 

Carbo cincinatus Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. P^tersb., 3, 1837, 
col. 55. (Kadiak Island, Alaska.) 

Breeds on the Pacific coast of North America from the Alaska Peninsula 
and Kadiak Island south to Washington. In winter south to California. 

Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus Ridgway 

Phalacrocorax dilophus albociliatus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 2, 
1884, p. 94. (Pacific coast of the United States from California to 
Cape St. Lucas = FaraUon Islands, California.) 

Western United States from Oregon, Nevada and Utah to southern 
Lower California and Arizona; ReviUa Gigedo Islands. 

Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Lesson) 

Carbo auritus Lesson, Traite d' Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 605. (New Zea- 
land, error = North America.) 

Breeds from central Saskatchewan, northern Ontario and Newfoundland 
south to northern Utah, middle Mississippi valley and eastern Maine. 
Winters from Virginia to the Gulf Coast. 

Phalacrocorax auritus floridanus (Audubon) 

Carbo floridanus Audubon, Bds. Am. (folio ed.) 3, 1835, pi. 252. (Florida 

Keys.) 

Breeds in North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, the Bahamas and the Isle 
of Pines. Winters throughout its breeding range, except in the Carolinas. 

-~/ Phalacrocorax olivaceus mexicanus (Brandt) 

Carbo mexicanus Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. P^tersb., 3, 1837, 
col. 56. (Mexico.) 

Northwestern Mexico to Louisiana and south to northern Nicaragua; 
the Bahamas, Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 

■—; Phalacrocorax olivaceus olivaceus ^ (Humboldt) 

Pelecanus olivaceus Humboldt, in Humboldt and Bonpland, "Rec. 
d'Observ. Zool. et d'Anat. Comp., " 1805, p. 6. (Banks of the Magda- 
lena River, lat. 8° 55' N., Colombia.) 

Coasts, lakes and rivers of Central and South America from Nicaragua to 
Tierra del Fuego. 

— y Phalacrocorax sulcirostris sulcirostris (Brandt) 

Carbo sulcirostris Brandt, Bull. Sci. Imp. Acad. Sci. St. P^tersb., 3, 1837, 
col. 56. (Terrae australes = New South Wales?) 

Eastern, southern and southwestern Australia. 

1 Olim vigua. Cf. Richmond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 39, 1926, p. 142. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 87 

Phalacrocorax sulcirostris territori (Mathews) 

Mesocarbo ater territori Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 176. (Hermit 
BQll, Northern Territory.) 

Southern Borneo through the Moluccas to New Guinea, Kei and Aru 
Islands to Northwest Austraha and Northern Territory. 

Phalacrocorax sulcirostris purpuragula (Peale) 

Carbo purpuragula Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 269. (Manua 
Bay, New Zealand.) 

New Zealand, known only from the Bay of Islands. 

Phalacrocorax carbo carbo Linn6 

Pelecanus Carbo Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 133. ("Europe." 

Restricted to the "rock-nesting form of North Atlantic Ocean," 

Hartert, antea, p. 1387.) 

Breeds in North America from Labrador to Nova Scotia; Greenland; 

Iceland; in Europe on the Faroes and the Norwegian coast to the Kola 

Peninsula; British Isles. Generally resident in winter, south occasionally to 

Long Island, Lake Ontario and eastern Atlantic islands. 

7*-~ Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis ^ (Shaw) 

Pelecanus sinensis Shaw, Nat. Misc., 13, 1801, pi. 529, text. (China.) 

Phalacrocorax carbo indicus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 171. 
(India.) 

Central and southern Europe east to China and India. 

-; Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae Kuroda 

Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae Kuroda, Tori, 4, 1925, 348 and col. pi. of 
head. (Haneda, Province of Shimosa, Japan.) 

Breeds in Japan and probably also Saghalin, the Kuriles, Quelpart 
Island and Korea. 

'7— Phalacrocorax carbo maroccanus Hartert 

Phalacrocorax carbo maroccanus Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 16, 1906, 
p. 110. (Shorf Elbaz, west coast of Morocco.) 

West coast of Morocco from Cape Blanco to Mogador. 

Phalacrocorax carbo lugubris Riippell 

Phalacrocorax lugubris Riippell, Syst. Uebers. Vog. N. 0. Air., 1845, 
p. 134, pi. 50. (Abyssinia.) 

Northeastern Africa south to the central African lakes. 

^ Carbo svhcormoranus Brehm is a synonym, cf. Ticehurst, Ibis, 1923, p. 
459; Stresemann, Abh. u. bericht Mus. Dresden, 16, no. 2, 1923, p. 65; Bangs 
and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Z06I., 68, no. 7, 1928, p. 326. 



88 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus (Lichtenstein) 

H aliens lucidus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 86. (Cape of Good 
Hope.) 

The Cape Verde Islands and coasts of Africa from Senegal on the west 
and the Tana River on the east south to Cape Province. 

Phalacrocorax carbo novsehoUandiae Stephens 
Phalacrocorax Novce Hollandice Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. ZooL, 13, pt. 1, 
1826, p. 93. (New South Wales.) 

Carbo carbo westralis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 33. (Swan 
River, Southwest Australia.) 

Phalacrocorax carbo gracemeri Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 167. 
(Gracemere, Queensland.) 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Phalacrocorax carbo steadi (Mathews and Iredale) 
Carbo carbo steadi Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 411. (New Zea- 
land.) 

New Zealand. 

'"/'Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Stephens 

Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. ZooL, 13, pt. 1, 1826, 

p. 91. (Bengal.) 
India, Ceylon, Assam and Burma. 

Phalacrocorax capensis (Sparrman) 

Pelecanus capensis Sparrman, Mus. Carls., fasc. 3, 1788, no. 61 and pi. 
(False Bay, Cape of Good Hope.) 

Coasts of South Africa north to the Congo and Natal. 

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis Ogilvie-Grant and Forbes 

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis Ogilvie-Grant and Forbes, Bull. Liverp. 
Mus., 2, 1899, p. 3. (Socotra.) 

Socotra Island, coasts of the Gulf of Aden and islands in the Persian 
Gulf. 

Phalacrocorax neglectus (Wahlberg) 

Graculus neglectus Wahlberg, (Efv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., Stockholm, 12, 
1855, p. 214. (Islands off the coast of southwest Africa.) 

Coasts of South Africa from Namaqualand to Simon's Bay. 

— f Phalacrocorax capillatus (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Carbo capillatus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Faun. Jap. Aves., 
1850, pi. 83. (Japan.) 

Japan, Korea, Quelpart Island. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 89 

—f^ Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt) 

Carho penicillatus Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., 3, 

1837, col. 55. (Type locality not given.) 
Pacific coast of North America from Vancouver Island to Cape San 
Lucas. 

-A Phalacrocorax aristotelis aristotelis ^ (Linne) 

Pelecanus aristotelis Linne, Fn. Svec, 1761, p. [xxiii], based on no. 146. 

(Sweden.) 
Coasts of Iceland and Norway to the Murman coast, the Faroes, rocky 
coasts of the British Isles, Channel Islands and the west coast of France, 
Portugal and Spain. 

—/■' Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii (Payraudeau) 

Carbo Desmarestii Payraudeau, Ann. Sci. Nat., 8, 1826, p. 464. (Coasts 

of Sardinia, etc.) 
Islands and rocky coasts of the Mediterranean from the Balearic Islands 
to Greece; the Adriatic Sea; uncommon in northern Africa. 

Phalacrocorax aristotelis riggenbachi Hartert 

Phalacrocorax graculus riggenbachi Hartert, Nov. Zool., 30, 1923, p. 132. 

(Cape Blanco north, west coast of Morocco.) 
West coast of Morocco from Mogador to Cape Blanco north. 

-~v~. Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus Pallas 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 303. 

(East Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands.) 
Breeds on Chuckchee Peninsula, Kamchatka, the Commander, Kurile 
and Aleutian Islands, coasts and islands of northwestern North America 
from Norton Sound to central-south Alaska. South in winter to Japan and 
China on the west and to Puget Sound on the east. 

— ^-Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens Audubon 

Phalacrocorax resplendens Audubon, Bds. Am. (folio ed.), 4, 1838, pi. 412, 
left hand f. 1. (Cape Disappointment, Washington.) 

Pacific coast of North America from Washington to Cape San Lucas and 
Mazatlan. 

fPhalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas 

Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 305. 

(Bering Island.) 
Bering Island. Extinct since 1852, five specimens in existence. 

1 Olim graculus; for change of name of. Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. 
Rec, 6, 1923, p. 48. 



90 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

— i-- Phalacrocorax urile (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus Urile Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 575. (Kamchatka.) 

Kamchatka!! seacoast, Kuriles, Commai!der Islands, islands in Bering 
Sea, PribUov and Aleutian Islands. 

I Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus magellanicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 576.^ 
(Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island.) 

Coasts of southern South America from Chiloe Island on the west to 
Santa Cruz on the east; Falkland Islands. 

Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (Lesson) 

Carbo Bougainvillii Lesson, Voy. 'Thetis et de L'Esp^rance,' 2, 1837, 
p. 331. (Valparaiso, Chile.) 

West coast of South America from Punta Parinas, Peru to Corral, Chile. 

Phalacrocorax featherstoni Buller 

Phalacrocorax featherstoni Buller, Ibis, 1873, p. 90. (Chatham Islands.) 
Chatham Islands. 

Phalacrocorax varius varius (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus varius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 576. (Queen 
Charlotte Sound, New Zealand.) 

New Zealand. 

Phalacrocorax varius perthi (Mathews) 

Carbo varius perthi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 88. (Perth, 

West Australia.) 
Hypoleucus varius whitei Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 187. (Lake 
Albert, South Australia.) 

Southern Australia; Tasmania? 

/ Phalacrocorax fuscescens (Vieillot) 

Hydrocorax fuscescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 8, 1817, p. 86. 

("Australasie.") 
Carbo gouldi tunneyi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 88. (South- 
western Australia.) 

Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

1 Carbo ater Lesson is based on a young bird of this species, probably taken 
on the Falkland Islands. The type locality "Shark Bay, West Australia" 
is erroneous. Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Paris (2), 1, 1929, p. 64. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 91 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus carunculatus (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus carunculatus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 576. (Queen 
Charlotte Sound, South Island, New Zealand and Staten Island, ex 
Latham.) 

Marlborough Sounds District, South Island, New Zealand. 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus chalconotus (G. R. Gray) 

Graculus chalconotus^ G. R. Gray, Voy. 'Erebus' and 'Terror,' Birds, 
1845, p. 20, pi. 21. (Otago, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Southern part of South Island (Otago) ; Stewart Island, New Zealand. 

'~~ Phalacrocorax carunculatus onslowi Forbes 

Phalacrocorax onslowi Forbes, Ibis, 1893, p. 533. (Chatham Islands.) 
Chatham Islands. 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus ranfurlyi Ogilvie-Grant 

Phalacrocorax ranfurlyi Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 11, 1901, 
p. 66. (Bounty Islands.) 

Bounty Islands. 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus colensoi Buller 

Phalacrocorax colensoi Buller, Bds. New Zealand, ed. 2, 2, 1888, p. 161. 
(Auckland Islands.) 

Auckland Islands. 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus campbelli (Filhol) 

Urile campbelli Filhol, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 2, 1878, p. 132. (Camp- 
bell Island.) 

Campbell Island. 

Phalacrocorax verrucosus (Cabanis) 

Halieus (Hypoleucus) verrucosus Cabanis, Journ. f . Orn., 23, 1875, p. 450. 
(Kerguelen.) 

Kerguelen. 

J- Phalacrocorax gaimardi (Lesson) 

Pelecanus Gaimardi "Garnot" Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, June, 1828, 
p. 373. (Callao Bay, Peru.) 

Phalacrocorax cirriger King, Zool. Journ., 4, July 1828, p. 103. (Straits 
of Magellan.) 

Coasts of Peru and Chile south to the Straits of Magellan and east 
coast of Patagonia. 

^ Phalacrocorax huttoni Buller, 1888 and P. stewarti Og.-Grant, 1899 are 
synonyms. 



92 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phalacrocorax punctatus punctatus (Sparrman) 

Pelicanus (sic) punctatus Sparrman, Mus. Carls., fasc. 1, 1786, no. 10 and 
pi. (Queen Charlotte Sound, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Sticticarbo punctatus sassi Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 50, 1929, p. 19. 
(North Island, New Zealand.) 

North and South Islands, New Zealand. 

Phalacrocorax punctatus oliveri Mathews 

Sticticarbo steadi Oliver, Trans. New Zealand Inst., 61, 1930, p. 139. 
(Otago, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Phalacrocorax oliveri Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 51, 1930, p. 18. 
(New name for Sticticarbo steadi Oliver, not Carbo carbo steadi 
Mathews and Iredale.) 

Stewart Island; occasional at Otago, South Island, New Zealand. 

Phalacrocorax atriceps atriceps King 

Phalacrocorax atriceps King, Zool. Journ., 4, 1828, p. 102. (Straits of 
Magellan.) 

Coasts of southern South America from Corral, Chile (west) and Rio 
Santa Cruz (east) to Tierra del Fuego; South Shetlands. 

Phalacrocorax atriceps traversi Rothschild 
Phalacrocorax traversi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 8, 1898, p. 21. 
(Macquarie Island.) 

Macquarie Island. 

'/ Phalacrocorax albiventer albiventer (Jjesson) 

Carbo albiventer Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 604. (Falkland 
Islands.) 

Coast of Patagonia from Puerto San JuUan southward; Tierra del 
Fuego; Fallcland Islands. 

Phalacrocorax (albiventer) georgianus Lonnberg 

Phalacrocorax atriceps georgianus Lonnberg, Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl., 40, no. 5, 1906, p. 69. (South Georgia.) 

South Georgia. 

Phalacrocorax albiventer vanhofifeni Reichenow 
Phalacrocorax vanhoffeni Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 12, 1904, p. 46. 
(Crozet Island.) 

Crozets. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 93 

Genus HALIETOR Heine 

Halietor Heine, Journ. f . Orn., 8, 1860, p. 202. Type, by original desig- 
nation, Pelecanus pygmeus Pallas. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1396-1398. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 228. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 21. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 280-281. 

—/- Halietor melanoleucos melanoleucos (Vieillot) 

Hydrocorax melanoleucos Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 8, 1817, p. 88. 
(" Australasie," restricted type locality, New South Wales fide 
Mathews.) 

Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

~y^ Halietor melanoleucos melvillensis (Mathews) 

Carbo melanoleucus melvillensis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 74. 
(Melville Island.) 

Lesser Sunda Islands, New Guinea, Moluccas, Pelew Islands, Solomon 
Islands, Santa Cruz group, northern Australia. 

~^ Halietor melanoleucos brevirostris (Gould) 

Phalacrocorax brevirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 26. 
(No locality given = New Zealand.) 

New Zealand. 

— -/- Halietor africanus africanus (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus africanus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 577. (Africa.) 

Phalacrocorax africanus menegauxi Millet-Horsin, Rev. Fran. d'Orn., 7, 
1921, p. 177. (Togo.) 

Coasts and inland waters of Africa from Gambia and Upper Egypt to 
Cape Province. 

— f Halietor africanus pictilis (Bangs) 

Phalacrocorax africanus pictilis Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, no. 
14, 1918, p. 500. (Miandrivazo, Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 



Halietor niger (Vieillot) 

Hydrocorax niger Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 8, 1817, p. 88. (East 
Indies = Bengal.) 

India, Ceylon, Indo-Burmese countries, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java and Borneo. 



94 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

'"/ Halietor pygmeus (Pallas) 

Pelecanus pygmeus Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reich, 2, 1773, 
p. 712, pi. G. (Caspian Sea.) 

Hungary, the Balkan States, Black and Caspian Seas, Transcaspia, 
Palestine, Persia and Afganistan; Algeria. 

Genus NANNOPTERUM Sharpe 

Nannopterum Sharpe, Handlist of Birds, 1, 1899, p. 235. Type, by 
monotypy, Phalacrocorax harrisi Rothschild. 

"' 7 Wannopterum harrisi (Rothschild) 

Phalacrocorax harrisi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 7, 1898, p. 52. 
(Narborough Island, Galapagos Islands.) 

Narborough and Albemarle Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Family ANHINGIDAE 

Genus ANHINGA Brisson 

Anhinga Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60; 6, 1760, p. 476. Type, by tau- 
tonymy and monotypy, Anhinga [anhinga] Brisson = Plotus anhinga 
Linne. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1399-1401. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 193-198. 
Stuart Baker, Faun. Brit. Ind. ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 282-283. 

Anhinga rufa chantrei (Oustalet) 

Plotus Chantrei Oustalet, Ann. Sci. Nat., ZooL, (6), 13, 1882, art. 7, p. 7, 

8. (Lake of Antioch.) 
Lake of Antioch and marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates. 

v Anhinga rufa rufa (Daudin) 

Plotus rufus Daudin, Buffon Hist. Nat., ed. Didot, Quadr., 14, 1802, 
p. 319. (Senegal.) 

Senegal and Suakim, south to the Cape of Good Hope. 

'\ Anhinga rufa vulsini Bangs 

Anhinga vulsini Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, 1918, no. 14, p. 501. 
(Maevetanana, Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

I Anhinga melanogaster Pennant 

Anhinga melanogaster Pennant, Indian Zool., 1769, p. 13, pi. 12. (Ceylon 

and Java.) 
Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, Borneo, Java, Philippines and Celebes. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 95 

Anhinga novaehoUandiae (Gould) 

Plotiis Novae Hollandiae Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, p. 34. 

(Rivers of the whole of the southern coast of Australia.) 
Plotus novae-hollandiae derbyi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 74. 

(Derby, Northwest Australia.) 
New Guinea, Australia. Accidental in New Zealand. 

Anhinga anhinga (Linn^) 

Plotus anhinga Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 218. (Brazil.) 
United States from Texas, southern Illinois and North Carolina south 
through tropical Mexico and Central America, Cuba, Isle of Pines, tropical 
South America, to southern Brazil and northern Argentina. 

Suborder FREGATAE 

Family FREGATIDAE 

Genus FREGATA LacepJide 

Fregata Lac^pede, Tabl. Ois., 1799, p. 15. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, Pelecanus aquila Linne. (Daudin, Hist. Nat. Buffon, ed. Didot, 
Quadr., 14, 1802, p. 317.) 

Parvifregata Mathews, Bds. Austr., suppl., 1, 1920, p. 64. Type, by 
original designation, Attagen ariel G. R. Gray. 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 32, 1925, p. 274-275. 
Lowe, Nov. Zool., 31, 1924, p. 299-313. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 236-290. 
Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 117-121. 
RothschUd, Nov. Zool., 22, 1915, p. 145-146. 

Fregata aquila Linn^ 

Pelecanm Aquilus Linn4, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 133. (Ascension 

Island.) 
Ascension Island. 

Fregata andrewsi Mathews 

Fregata andrewsi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 120. (Christmas 
Island, Indian Ocean.) 

Christmas, Cocos Keeling and Anamba Islands and off the coasts of 
Sarawak, Celebes and India. 

Fregata magnificens magnificens Mathews 

Fregata minor magnificens Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 120. 
(Barrington, Indefatigable and Albemarle Islands, Galapagos. Type 
from Barrington Island.) 
Breeds on the Galapagos Islands and Pearl Islands, ranging over the 
tropical eastern Pacific. 



96 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Fregata magnificens rothschildi Mathews 

Fregata minor rothschildi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, p. 280. (Aruba, 
Dutch West Indies.) 

Southern Florida, West Indies, Caribbean coast of Mexico and Central 
America, coast and islands of northern South America. 

Fregata magnificens lowei Bannerman 

Fregata magnificens lowei Bannerman, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 48, 1927, 
p. 12. (Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands.) 

Cape Verde Islands and the Gambian coast. 

Fregata minor aldabrensis Mathews 
Fregata minor aldabrensis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 199. 

(Aldabra Island.) 
Western Indian Ocean, breeding on the Seychelles and on Aldabra. 

Fregata minor minor (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus minor Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 572. (No type 
locality. Fixed as eastern half of the Indian Ocean by Rothschild, 
antea, p. 145 and further restricted to Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 
by Lowe, antea, p. 306.) 

Fregata minor listeri Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 119. (Christ- 
mas Island, Indian Ocean.) 

Eastern Indian Ocean. Breeds on Christmas Island and Paracels Reef 
in the China Sea, 

Fregata minor peninsulae Mathews 
Fregata minor peninsulae Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 44, 1923, p. 15. 

(North Queensland.) 
Fregata minor mathewsi Lowe, Nov. Zool., 31, 1924, p. 309. (Raine 

Island, North Queensland.) 

Caroline (?) and Marshall (?) Islands south to New Guinea and Queens- 
land. 

Fregata minor palmerstoni Gmelin 

Pelecanus Palmerstoni ^ Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 573. (Pal- 
merston Island, Pacific Ocean.) 

Laysan Island and Hawaiian Islands, south to New Zealand. 

Fregata minor ridgwayi Mathews 

Fregata minor ridgwayi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 120. (Cul- 
pepper and Wenman Islands, Galapagos. Type from Culpepper 
Island.) 

Galapagos Islands. 

^ Fregata strumosa Hartert is a synonym. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 97 

Fregata minor nicoUi Mathews 
Fregata minor nicolli Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 118. (South 
Trinidad Island.) 

Fregata minor januaria Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 22, 
1919, p. 186. (Littoral of Brazil from Rio de Janeiro to Santos.) 

South Trinidad Island, Atlantic Ocean. 

Fregata ariel iredalei Mathews 

Fregata ariel iredalei Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 121. (Al- 

dabra Island.) 
Western Indian Ocean, breeding on Aldabra. 

Fregata ariel ariel (G. R. Gray) 

Atagen (sic) Ariel G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, 1845, col. pi. [185]. (Raine 
Island fixed as type locality by Mathews, 1914, p. 121.) 

Fregata ariel tunnyi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 121. (Bedout 
Island, Northwest Australia.) 

China Coast and Philippines to the Moluccas, Admiralty and Fiji 
Islands to tropical Australia. Breeds on islands off northern Australia and 
New Caledonia and in the South Pacific. 

Fregata ariel trinitatis Ribeiro 

Fregata ariel trinitatis Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 22, 1919, 
p. 192. (South Trinidad Island.) 

Fregata ariel wilsoni Lowe, Nov. Zool., 31, 1924, p. 311. (South Trini- 
dad Island.) 

South Trinidad Island. 

Suborder 0tKmtQpttxpqti 
Family (^tiontopterpsilrae 

Order CICONIIFORMES 

Suborder ARDEAE 

Family ARDEIDAE 

Subfamily ARDEINAE 

Genus ARDEA Linne 

Ardea Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 141. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Ardea cinerea Linne (Gray, List. Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 60). 

Myola Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 195. Type, by original 
designation, Ardea pacifica Latham. 



98 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Ajrardea Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 203. Type, by original 
designation, Ardea melanocephala Vigors and Children. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1229-1235. 

Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 43, 1912, p. 531-559. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 23-24. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 336-344. 

Subgenus ARDEA Linnie 

~/ Ardea sumatrana sumatrana Raffles 

Ardea Sumatrana Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, pt. 2, 1822, 
p. 325. (Sumatra.) 

Burma and the Malay Peninsula to Borneo, the Philippines, the Sunda 
Islands, Moluccas and New Guinea. 

Ardea sumatrana mathewsae Mathews 

Ardea sumatrana mathewsoe Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 230. 
(Cooktown, Queensland.) 

Ardea sumatrana gilberti Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 230. (Derby, 
Northwest Australia.) 

Northern Australia. 

Ardea imperialis Stuart Baker 

Ardea imperialis Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 49, 1928, p. 40. (New 
name for Ardea insignis Hume (Sikkim Terai, Bhutan Doars, etc.), ex 
Hodgson, nomen nudum not available. 

Sikkim to Arakan. 



-/ 



-/ 



Ardea goliath Cretzschmar 

Ardea goliath Cretzschmar, in Riippell's Atlas, 1826, Vogel, p. 39, pi. 26. 
(White Nile, Bahhar Abiad.) 

Africa from Senegal and the Egyptian Sudan to Cape Province; not in- 
frequent in India. 

Ardea humbloti Milne-Edwards and Grandidier 

Ardea humbloti Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Hist. Nat. Madagascar, 
Ois., 1, 1885, p. 546. (Eastern Madagascar.) 

East coast of Madagascar; Aldabra Island (?). 

Ardea melanocephala Vigors and Children 

Ardea melanocephala Anon. [= Vigors and Children] in Denham and 
Clapperton's Travels, 2, 1826, app. p. xxi, 201. (Lake Chad?) 

Africa from Gambia and the Sudan to Cape Province; Madagascar. 



ORDKR CICONIIFORMES 99 

'/' Ardea cinerea cinerea Linn^ 

Ardea cinerea Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 143. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden. C/. Hartert, antea, p. 1229.) 
Breeds in the greater part of Europe and Asia to western China; scat- 
tered localities in Africa; the Canary Islands. Winters in the Mediter- 
ranean countries and in Africa. Casual in northwest India. Accidental in 
Iceland and Greenland. 

"T'^Ardea cinerea jouyi Clark 

Ardea cinerea jouyi Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 468. (Seoul, 

Korea.) 
East Siberia, eastern China, Japan, Formosa and Hainan.^ 

/ Ardea cinerea firasa Hartert 

Ardea cinerea firasa ^ Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1917, p. 6. (Mada- 
gascar. Type from the Antinosy Country.) 
Aldabra, Madagascar and probably the Comoros. 

/~Ardea herodias fannini Chapman 

Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 14, 1901, 

p. 87. (Skidegate, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands.) 
Permanent resident of the Pacific coast region from southern Alaska 
south to Washington. 

"7 Ardea herodias hyperonca Oberholser 

Ardea herodias hyperonca Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 43, 1912, 
p. 550. (Baird, Shasta Co., California.) 

Permanent resident of the Pacific coast region of Oregon and California. 
''Ardea herodias treganzai Court 

Ardea herodias treganzai Court, Auk, 25, 1908, p. 291. (Egg Island, 
Great Salt Lake, Utah.) 

Breeds in western United States west of the Cascades and Sierras east to 
the Great Plains; northwestern Mexico. Winters from Arizona to Texas 
and south into northwestern Mexico. 

' Ardea herodias herodias Linn^ 

Ardea Herodias Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 143. (America = 
Hudson Bay, ex Edwards.) 

1 The Gray Herons breeding from Mesopotamia to western China are 
slightly paler than the European specimens, but are nearer to such examples 
than to the pale bird of extreme eastern Asia. Gould's leucophaea is available for 
this poorly differentiated intermediate form which in my opinion is not worth 
recognizing by name. 

^ For reason for adopting this name over Ardea johannae Gmelin, of. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 32, 1925, p. 272. 



100 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds from Alberta east to the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Magdalen 
Islands) southeast through eastern North and South Dlakota, central 
Iowa, northern Illinois, southern Indiana, eastern Kentucky and Tennessee 
to southeastern South Carolina. Winters from southern United States 
south to Panama. 

Ardea herodias wardi Ridgway 

Ardea wardi Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CI., 7, 1882, p. 5. (Oyster 
[ = Estero] ^ Bay, Florida.) 

Breeds from eastern Kansas and eastern Texas east to the middle 
Mississippi Valley in southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, east to 
southeastern South Carolina, south to the Gulf of Mexico and Florida. 
Winters in the southern part of its range. 

Ardea herodias oligista Oberholser 

Ardea herodias oligista Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 43, 1912, 

p. 553. (San Clemente Island, California.) 
Resident on the Santa Barbara Islands, California. 

Ardea herodias sanctilucae Thayer and Bangs 

Ardea herodias sancti-lucce Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 
4, 1912, p. 83. (Espiritu Santo Island, Lower California.) 

Resident on the coasts and islands of Lower California from lat. 27* 
southward. 

Ardea herodias lessonii Wagler 
Ardea Lessonii Wagler, Isis, 1831, col. 531. (Mexico, restricted to the 

Valley of Mexico, Oberholser, antea, p. 556.) 
North-central and southern Mexico from Chihuahua to Campeche. 

Ardea herodias adoxa Oberholser 

Ardea herodias adoxa Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 43, 1912, p. 544. 
(Island of Curagao.) 

Said to breed on Inagua Island (Bahamas), Cuba, Isle of Pines and 
Jamaica. Migrant to other West Indian islands. 

Ardea herodias cognata Bangs 
Ardea herodias cognata Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 3, 1903, p. 100. 

(Indefatigable Island, Galapagos.) 
Permanent resident on the Galapagos Islands. 

Ardea occidentalis occidentalis Audubon 

Ardea occidentalis Audubon, Bds. Am., folio ed., 3, 1835, pi. 281. (Keys 
near Key West, Florida.) 

Breeds in the coastal swamps of extreme southern Florida and on the 
Florida Keys. 

1 Cf. Holt, Auk, 42, 1925, p. 266-267. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 101 

~7 Ardea occidentalis repens Bangs and Zappey 

Ardea repens Bangs and Zappey, Am. Nat., 39, 1905, p. 186. (Cienaga, 
Isle of Pines.) 

Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica. 

(Some form of Ardea occidentalis occurs in Yucatan). 

-7^ Ardea cocci Linn^ 

Ardea Cocoi Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 237. (Cayenne.) 

The greater part of South America, south to Chubut, Argentina. Occa- 
sional on the Falkland Islands. 

""/ Ardea pacifica Latham 

Ardea pacifica Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. 45. (New South 
Wales.) " 

Notophoyx pacifica alexandrae Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 231. 
(Alexandra, Northern Territory.) 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Subgenus PYRRHERODIA Finsch and Hartlaub 

Pyrrherodia Finsch and Hartlaub, Vog. Ost-Afr., 1870, p. 676. Type, 
by monotypy, Ardea purpurea Linn6. 

"T Ardea purpurea purpurea Linn6 

Ardea purpurea Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 236. ("In Ori- 
ente.") 

Breeds in middle (rarely) and southern Europe east to Persia; Africa. 
European birds winter in Africa. 

—/ Ardea purpurea madagascariensis van Oort 

Ardea purpurea madagascariensis van Oort, Notes Leyden Mus., 32, 
1910, p. 83. (Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

Ardea purpurea manilensis Meyen 

Ardea purpurea var manilensis Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. 
Carol., 16, suppl., 1834, p. 102. (Philippines.) 

Breeding in India, Ceylon, Burma, China south of the Yangtze and Riu 
Kiu Islands south to the Philippines, Greater Sunda Islands and Celebes. 

Ardea purpurea ussuriana (Shulpin) 

Phoyx purpurea ussuriana Shulpin, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS., 
28, 1928, p. 399. (Mouth of the Lefu River, Chanka Lake, Ussuri- 
land.) 

Breeds in southern Ussuriland; winter range not known. 



-\ 



102 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus NOTOPHOYX Sharps 

Notophoyx Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Gl., 5, 1895, p. 13. Type, by original 

designation, Ardea novoehollandice Latham. 
Tonophoyx Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 195. Type, by original 
designation, Notophoyx flavirostris Sharpe = Ardea picata Gould. 
cf. Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 195. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 196-198. 

7 Notophoyx novaehollandiae (Latham) 

Ardea novce Hollandice Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 701. (New South 

Wales.) 
Notophoyx novaehollandiae parryi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 231. 

(Parry's Creek, Northwest Australia.) 
Lesser Sunda Islands from Lombok eastward; Celebes, Timor, New 
Caledonia, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand, 

Notophoyx picata (Gould) 
Ardea (Herodias) picata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1845, p. 62. 

(Port Essington, Northern Territory.) 
Ardea aruensis G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, p. 188. (Aru 

Islands.) 
Tonophoyx aruensis normani Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 126. 

(Normanton, Queensland.) 
Celebes, Timorlaut, southern Moluccas, New Guinea, Aru Islands and 
Northern Australia. 

Genus PILHERODroS Bonaparte 

Pilherodius Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 139. Type, by mono- 

typy, Ardea alba var. /3 Gmelin = Ardea pileata Boddaert. 
cf. Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 174-175. 

T Pilherodius pileatus (Boddaert) 

Ardea pileata Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 54. (Cayenne, ex 

PI. enlum., no. 907.) 
Eastern Panama to eastern Peru and Brazil south to Santa Catharina. 

Genus BUTORIDES Bltth 

Butorides Blyth, Cat. Bds. Mus. As. Soc 1849, (1852), p. 281. Type, by 

monotypy, Ardea javanica Horsfield. 
Tohurides Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 195. Type, by original 

designation and monotypy, Butorides rogersi Mathews. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1249-1251. 

Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 1912, p. 529-577. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 103 

~f- Butorides virescens anthonyi (Mearns) 

Ardea virescens anthonyi Mearns, Auk, 12, 1895, p. 257. (Seven Wells, 
Salton River, northern Lower California.) 

Butorides virescens eremonomus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 
1912, p. 546. (San Diego, Chihuahua.) 

Arid regions of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. 
In winter south to Lower California and western Mexico. 

/ Butorides virescens frazari (Brewster) 

Ardea virescens frazari Brewster, Auk, 5, 1888, p. 83. (La Paz, Lower 
California.) 

Southern Lower California. 

"7 Butorides virescens virescens (Linne) 

Ardea virescens Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 144. (America. 
Restricted to the coast of South Carolina by Oberholser, op. cit., 
p. 534.) 

Butorides saturatus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 1888, p. 577. 
(Swan Island, Caribbean Sea.) 

Breeds in eastern North America from northeastern South Dakota, 
central Minnesota, southern Ontario and central Nova Scotia south to 
eastern Mexico and Florida. Winters in the southeastern United States 
and through Mexico and Central America to Panama. 

~~^ Butorides virescens bahamensis (Brewster) 

Ardea bahamensis Brewster, Auk, 5, 1888, p. 83. (Watlings Island, 
Bahamas.) 

Bahama Islands. 

Butorides virescens maculatus (Boddaert) 

Cancroma maculata Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 54. (Marti- 
nique, ex PI. enlum., no. 912.) 

Ardea brunescens (sic) "Gundlach" Lembeye, Av. Cuba, 1850, p. 84, 
pi. 12. (Cuba.) 

Butorides virescens cubanus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 1912, 
p. 557. (Palmarito, Oriente, Cuba.) 

Butorides virescens christophorensis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
42, 1912, p. 561. (St. Kitts, West Indies.) 

Butorides virescens dominicanus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 
1912, p. 562. (Roseau, Dominica.) 

Butorides virescens lucianus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 1912, 
p. 565. (Castries, St. Lucia.) 



104 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Butorides nirescens harbadensis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 

1912, p. 567. (Joe's River, Barbados.) 
Butorides virescens grenadensis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 

1912, p. 568. (Grenada.) 
Butorides virescens tohagensis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 1912, 

p. 571. (Tobago.) 
Butorides virescens hypernotius Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 

1912, p. 549. (Rio Indio, Canal Zone.) 
Ranges throughout the West Indies and the east coast of Central 
America from southern Guatemala to the Canal Zone. 

Butorides virescens mesatus Oberholser 

Butorides virescens mesatus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 1912, 

p. 548. (Managua, Nicaragua.) 
Western Nicaragua (probably not different from maculatus). 

-V Butorides virescens margaritophilus Oberholser 

Butorides virescens margaritophilus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
42, 1912, p. 553. (San Miguel Island, Pearl Islands.) 

Pearl Islands in the Bay of Panama. 

Butorides virescens curacensis Oberholser 

Butorides virescens curacensis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 

1912, p. 573. (St. Patrick, Curagao.) 
Curagao (perhaps Aruba and Bonaire). 

\ Butorides sundevalli Reichenow 

Ardea {Butorides) Sundevalli Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 25, 1877, p. 253. 

(Galapagos Islands.) 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

~~^ Butorides striatus patens Griscom 

Butorides striatus patens Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, no. 8, 
1929, p. 156. (Near Panama City, Panama.) 

Canal Zone. 

"V Butorides striatus striatus (Linn^) 

Ardea striata Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 238. (Surinam.) 
Tropical America from eastern Panama to southern Brazil. 

Butorides striatus robinsoni Richmond 

Butorides robinsoni Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, 1896, p. 655. 
(Margarita Island.) 

Confined to Margarita Island off coast of Venezuela. Probably not dif- 
ferent from s. striatus. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 105 

^ Butorides striatus cyanurus Vieillot 

Ardea cyanura Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 14, 1817, p. 421, (Para- 
guay.) 

Southern Brazil (?), Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina south 
to the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Aires. 

Butorides striatus brevipes (Ehrenberg) 
Ardea, Nycticorax, brevipes Ehrenberg, in Hemprich and Ehrenberg's 
Symb. Phys. Aves, 1, 1833, fol. m, note 2. ("Ripas Nili et ad maris 
rubri littoris.") 

Somaliland and coasts of the Red Sea. 

— \ Butorides striatus atricapillus (Afzelius) 

Ardea atricapilla Afzelius, Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. Stockholm, 
25, 1804 (1805), p. 264. (Sierra Leone.) 

Tropical Africa. 

\ Butorides striatus rutenbergi (Hartlaub) 

Ardea rutenbergi Hartlaub, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880, p. 39. (Mo- 
hambo, northern Madagascar.) 

The Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Rodriguez and Reunion. 

Butorides striatus degens Hartert 
Butorides striatum degens Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1251. 
(Praslin Island, Seychelles.) 

Seychelles. 

Butorides striatus crawfordi Nicoll 
Butorides crawfordi Nicoll, Bull. Brit. Orn. Gl., 16, 1906, p. 105. (As- 
sumption Island.) 

Assumption and Aldabra Islands. 

Butorides striatus albolimbatus Reichenow 

Butorides albolimbatus Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 8, 1900, p. 140. 
(Diego Garcia.) 

Diego Garcia Island, Indian Ocean. 

~\ Butorides striatus albidulus Bangs 

Butorides albididus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 26, 1913, p. 93. (Sua- 
diva Atoll, Maldive Islands.) 

Maldive Islands. (Very close to, if not identical with, albolimbatus.) 

~~— r Butorides striatus spodiogaster Sharpe 

Butorides spodiogaster Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1894, p. 17. (Anda- 
mans and Nicobars.) 

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 



106 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

^ Butorides striatus amurensis Schrenck 

Ardea {Butorides) virescens var amurensis Schrenck, Reise Amur Lande, 
1, pt. 2, 1860, p. 441. (Amurland.) 

Butorides striatus actophilus Oberholser, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, no. 7, 
1912, p. 1. (North Pagi Island, Barussan Islands.) 

Butorides striatus icasopterus Oberholser, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, no. 7, 
1912, p. 1. (Simalur Island, Barussan Islands.) 

Breeds in Ussuriland, lower Amur River, Korea, Japan, northeastern 
China and Bonin Islands. In winter to Formosa, the Philippines, Sunda 
Islands and Celebes. 



Butorides striatus connectens Stresemann 

Butorides striatus connectens Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 38, 1930, p. 48. 
(Yao-shan, Kwangsi.) 

Southern China from the Yangtse River south to northern Siam and 
French Indo-China. (Poorly characterized form, hardly worth recognition 
by name.) 

Butorides striatus javanicus (Horsfield) 

Ardea Javanica Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 190. 
( [Western] Java.) 

Butorides striatus carcinophilus Oberholser, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 14, 
1924, p. 294. (Casiguran, Luzon, PhiUppines.) 

Butorides striatus carcinophonus Oberholser, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
14, 1924, p. 294. (Pulo Alanga, eastern Borneo.) 

Butorides striatus sipora Chasen and Kloss, Ibis, 1926, p. 277. (Sipora, 
Barussan Islands.) 

India and Ceylon, Malay Peninsula and southern Indo-Chinese coun- 
tries, Philippines, Sunda Islands and Celebes. 

Butorides striatus moluccarum Hartert 

Butorides striatus moluccarum Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1251. 
(Burn.) 

Burn, Ceram, and Amboina; Obi (?). 

Butorides striatus macrorhynchus (Gould) 

Ardetta macrorhyncha Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 34, 1848, pi. 66. (East coast 
of Australia = Gosford, New South Wales, apud Mathews.) 

Butorides javanica littleri Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 233. (Cook- 
town, North Queensland.) 

New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Aru and Kei Islands, eastern Australia 
(Queensland and New South Wales) . 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 107 

Butorides striatus stagnatilis (Gould) 
Ardetta stagnatilis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847 (1848), p. 221. 

(Port Essington, Northern Territory.) 
Northwest Australia and Northern Territory. 

Butorides striatus patruelis (Peale) 
Ardea patruelis Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 216. (Tahiti.) 
Tahiti and probably other South Sea islands. 

Butorides rogersi Mathews 

Butorides rogersi Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. 01., 27, 1911, p. 101. 

("N. W. Australia," type from Onslow, midwest Australia.) 
Midwest Australia? (It is highly probable that this so-called species 
will eventually prove to be nothing more than a color-phase oi B. s. stagna- 
tilis.) 

Genus ERYTHOCNUS Shakpe 

Erythocnus Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1894, p. 39. Type, by original 
designation, Ardea rufiventris Sundevall. 
cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 29. 

Erythocnus rufiventris (Sundevall) 
Ardea rufiventris Sundevall, (Efv. K. Vet.-Akad. Stockholm, for 1850, 
1851, p. 110. ("Caffraria." Type from Mooi River, near Potchef- 
stroom, Transvaal.) 
South Africa from Natal and eastern Cape Province north to southern 
Angola, the Zambesi, and Victoria Nyanza. 

Genus FLORIDA Baird 

Florida Baird, Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pac, 9, 1858, p. xxi, xlv, 

659, 671. Type, by monotypy, Ardea ccerulea Linne. 
cf. Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, pt. 3, 1927, 
p. 293-295. 

Florida caerulea (Linne) 

Ardea ccerulea Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 143. (North America 
= Carolina, ex Catesby.) 

South Atlantic and Gulf States, tropical Mexico, Central America, the 
West Indies and South America to Peru on the west and Buenos Aires 
Province, Argentina, on the east. 

Genus ARDEOLA Boie 

Ardeola Boie, Isis, 1822, col. 559. Type, by monotypy, Ardea ralloides 
ScopoU. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1245-1249. 



108 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

/ Ardeola ralloides (Scopoli) 

Ardea ralloides Scopoli, Annus 1, Hist. Nat., 1769, p. 88. ("In Carnio- 
lica" = Krain.) 

Breeds in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, lower Danube and 
southern Russia to Persia and Transcaspia; Africa from Algeria to Cape 
Colony; Madagascar. Straggles after breeding north to the British Isles 
and Germany and to the eastern Atlantic islands. Migratory in Europe. 

/ Ardeola idae (Hartlaub) 

Ardea Idae Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 8, 1860, p. 167. (East coast of 
Madagascar.) 

Madagascar, occasionally to East Africa. 

/ Ardeola grayii (Sykes) 

Ardea Grayii Sykes, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 158. 
(Dukhun.) 

From the Persian Gulf east to Burma, south to India, Ceylon, the Lacca- 
dives, Andamans, Nicobars and the Malay Peninsula. 

' Ardeola bacchus (Bonaparte) 

Buphus hacchus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 127. (Malay Penin- 
sula.) 

China from Kansu and the Tsin-ling Mountains south to the Malay 
Peninsula, Hainan and Borneo. 

"I Ardeola speciosa (Horsfield) 

Ardea speciosa Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 189. 
(Java.) 

Borneo, Celebes, Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa. 

Genus BUBULCUS Bonapaete 

Buhulcus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 124. Type, by tautonymy, 
Ardea ibis Linn6 = Ardea bubulcus Audouin. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1243-1245. 

Bubulcus ibis ibis (Linne) 

Ardea Ibis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 144. (Egypt.) 

Iberian Peninsula; western Asia from the Caspian Sea to Persia; south- 
west Arabia, west, northeast and north tropical Africa, Madagascar, the 
Comoro Islands, Aldabra, Mauritius and Seychelles. 

^^ Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert) 

Cancroma Coromanda Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 54. (Coro- 
mandel, ex Daubenton, pi. 910.) 



OKDER CICONIIFORMES 109 

India, Ceylon and Burma, southern China (western Szechuan to Fokien)^ 
Korea, southern Japan, Formosa, Hainan, Philippines, Sunda Islands, 
Celebes, Ceram and Buru. 

Genus MELANOPHOYX Sharpe 

Melanophoyx Sharpe, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1894, p. 38. Type, by 
original designation, Ardea calceolata DuBus = Ardea ardesiaca 
Wagler. 
cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 26. 

— y^~ Melanophoyx ardesiaca (Wagler) 

Ardea ardesiaca Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, Ardea, no. 20. (Senegambia.) 
Tropical Africa from Senegal and the upper White Nile south to Trans- 
vaal and Natal. 

Melanophoyx vinaceigula Sharpe 
Melanophoyx vinaceigula, Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 5, 1895, p. 13. 

(Potchefstroom, Transvaal.) 
Transvaal (known only from tjqje) . 

Genus DICHROMANASSA Ridgway 

Dichromanassa Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 4, 1878, 
p. 224, 246. Type, by original designation, Ardea rufa Boddaert 
= Ardea rufescens Gmelin. 
cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 106-109. 

Dichromanassa rufescens rufescens (Gmelin) 

Ardea rufescens Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 628. (Louisiana.) 
Dichromanassa rufescens dickeyi van Rossem, Condor, 28, 1926, p. 246. 

(San Luis Island, Gulf of California.) 
Lower California, coasts of Mexico, the Gulf States, Bahama Islands, 

Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. 

Dichromanassa rufescens colorata Griscom 
Dichromanassa rufescens colorata Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 235, 

1926, p. 9. (Culebra Key, Ascension Bay, eastern Quintana Roo.) 
Yucatan Peninsula (?) and nearby islands. 

Genus CASMERODIUS Gloger 

Casmerodius Gloger, Hand-und Hilfsb. Naturg., 1842 (1841), p. 412. 
Type, by subsequent designation, Ardea egretta Gmelin (Salvador! 
Orn. Pap. deUe Mol., 3, 1882, p. 349). 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1236-1239. (Egretta, part.) 
Oberholser, Auk, 36, 1919, p. 557-558. 



110 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

'"/ Casmerodius albus albus (Linne) 

Ardea alba Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 144. (Europe.) 
Breeds in southeastern Europe, western and northern Asia to southeast 
Siberia, northern China and northern Japan. Winters in northern Africa, 
India, and southern China. 

y Casmerodius albus modestus (J. E. Gray) 

Ardea modesta J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 19. (India.) 

Egretta alba negleda Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 230. (Parry's 

Creek, northwestern Austraha.) 
India, east to southern and central China, central and southern Japan, 
south and east to Australia. 

Casmerodius albus maorianus (Iredale and Mathews) 
Herodias alba maoriana Iredale and Mathews, Ibis, 1913, p. 404. (New 

Zealand.) 
Breeds in the Okarito district. South Island. Straggler elsewhere in New 

Zealand. 



V 



Casmerodius albus melanorhynchos (Wagler) 
Ardea Melanorhynchos Wagler, Syst. Av., Addit., 1827. (Senegambia.) 
Africa from Senegal and the Egyptian Sudan south to Cape Province; 

Madagascar. 

/ Casmerodius albus egretta (Gmelin) 

Ardea Egretta Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 629. (Santo Do- 
mingo, Falkland Islands, South America to Louisiana.) 
Southern United States, Mexico, the Greater Antilles, Central America 
and South America to Patagonia (for detailed range c/. Cooke, Bull. 45, 
U. S. Biol. Surv., 1913, p. 40-44). 

Genus EGRETTA T. Forster 

Egretta T. Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Bds., 1817, p. 59. Type, by mono- 
typy, Ardea garzetta Linne. 
cj. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1239-1241 (Egretta, part). 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 194-195. (Egretta, 

Hemigarzetta.) 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 26. 

Subgenus EGRETTA T. Forster 

~f- Egretta garzetta garzetta (Linne) 

Ardea Garzetta Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 237. ("Oriente," ex 

Brisson.) 
Southern Europe, southern and central Asia east to China, Japan and 
Hainan; Africa and Madagascar. 



V- 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 111 

Egretta garzetta nigripes (Temminck) 

Ardea nigripes Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. 2, 4, 1840, p. 376. ("L'Ar- 
chipel des Indes" = Sunda Islands.) 

Sunda Islands, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea. 



Egretta garzetta immaculata (Gould) 

Herodias immactdaia Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 25, 1846, pi. 58. ("North- 
ern portion of Australia" = Port Essington ^^de Mathews.) 

Egretta garzetta kempi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 56. (North- 
Queensland.) 

Australia. 

T Egretta dimorpha Hartert 

Egretta dimorpha Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. 01., 35, 1914, p. 14. (West 
[ = southeast coast of] Madagascar.) 

Madagascar and Aldabra. 

Subgenus HEMIGARZETTA Mathews 

Hemigarzetta Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, 1914, p. 448. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Herodias eulophotes Swinhoe. 

Egretta eulophotes (Swinhoe) 
Herodias eulophotes Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 64. (Amoy, China.) 
Southern and central China, Formosa, Celebes. 

Genus DEMIGRETTA Blyth 

Demigretta Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 15, 1846, p. 372. Type, by 
monotypy, Demigretta concolor Blyth = Ardea sacra GmeHn. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1241-1243. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 198-199. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 26-27. 

Stuart Baker, Faun. Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 351-353. 

Demigretta (gularis?) gularis (Bosc) 

Ardea gularis Bosc, Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1, 1792, p. 4, pi. 2. 
(Senegal R.) 

West Africa from Senegal to Gaboon. 

Demigretta (gularis?) schistacea (Hemprich and Ehrenberg) 

Ardea, Lepterodas, schistacea Hemprich and Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. 
Aves, 1833 [p. 12], pi. 6. (Red Sea.) 

Coasts of the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. 



112 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Demigretta asha (Sykes) 

Ardea Asha Sykes, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 157. 

(Dukhun.) 
West coast of the Indian Ocean from the Persian Gulf to Sind, south to 
Ceylon and the Laccadives. 

I Demigretta sacra (Gmelin) 

Ardea sacra Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 640. (Tahiti.) 

Demigretta sacra cooktowni Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 232. 

(Cooktown, Queensland.) 
Demigretta sacra tormenti Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 232. 

(Northwest Australia; type said to be from Point Torment.) 
Demigretta sacra buchanani Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 85. 

(Buchanan Island, Northern Territory.) 
Demigretta matook carteri Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 1920, p. 75. 

(Cape Leeuwin, southwestern Australia.) 
Coasts of Burma and the Malay Peninsula, the Andamans and Nico- 
bars; South China, southern Korea, Riu Kiu Islands, PhiUppines, Sunda 
Islands, Moluccas, Celebes, New Guinea, South Pacific Islands, northern 
Australia, New Zealand. 

Genus MESOPHOYX Shaepe 

Mesophoyx Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1894, p. 38. Type, by original 
designation, Ardea intermedia Wagler. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1239. (Egretta, part.) 

""t Mesophoyx intermedia brachyrhyncha (Brehm) 

Herodias brachyrhynchus Brehm, Journ. f. Orn., 2, 1854, p. 80. (Blue 

Nile.) 
Africa from Kordofan and the Egyptian Sudan south to Cape Province. 

/ Mesophoyx intermedia intermedia (Wagler) 

Ardea intermedia Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 659. (Java.) 

Peninsular India and Ceylon east to China and Japan, south to the 
Greater Sunda Islands and the Philippines. 

"^Mesophoyx intermedia plumifera (Gould) 

Herodias plumiferus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847 (1848), 

p. 221. (New South Wales.) 
Mesophoyx intermedia territori, Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, 
p. 126. (Northern Territory.) 

Buru, Ceram, New Guinea, Australia. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 113 

Genus LEUCOPHOYX Sharpe 

Leucophoyx Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1894, p. 39. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Ardea candidissima Gmelin = Ardea 
(hula Molina, 

cf. Bailey, Auk, 45, 1928, p. 430-440. 

~f Leucophoyx thula brewsteri (Thayer and Bangs) 

Egretta candidissima brewsteri Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. 
CI., 4, 1909, p. 40. (San Jos^ Island, Lower California.) 

United States west of the Rockies from Great Salt Lake southward; 
Lower California. 

~~l Leucophoyx thula thula (Molina) 

Ardea Thula Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 235. (Chile.) 

Southeastern United States (formerly to southern Illinois and Cape 
May, New Jersey). Mexico, Central America, West Indies and South 
America to Chile and northern Argentina. 

Genus HYDRANASSA Baird 

Hydranassa Baird, Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pacific, 9, 1858, p. 660. 
Type, by original designation, Ardea ludoviciana Wilson = Egretta 
ruficollis Gosse. 

cf. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 1906, p. 50. 

\ Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis (Gosse) 

Egretta ruficollis Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, 1847, p. 338. (Burnt Savanna 
River, Jamaica.) 

Hydranassa tricolor occidentalis Huey, Trans. San Diego Nat. Hist. Soc, 
5, no. 7, 1927, p. 83. (Scammon Lagoon, Lower California.) 

Breeds from the Gulf States and North Carolina to the Greater Antilles 
and Central America; Bahama Islands, central Lower California and the 
Pacific coast of Mexico to northwestern Ecuador and Venezuela (Aruba 
Island). 

~~Y~ Hydranassa tricolor tricolor (P. L. S. Miiller) 

Ardea tricolor P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. 111. 
(America = Cayenne, ex Buffon.) 

Dutch and French Guiana to northeastern Brazil. 

Hydranassa tricolor rufimentum Hellmayr 

Hydranassa tricolor rufimentum Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 1906, p. 50. 
(Caroni Swamp, Trinidad.) 

Island of Trinidad. 



114 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus AGAMIA Reichenbach 

Agamia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. xvi. Type, by 
original designation and monotypy, Agamia pida Reichenbach = 
Ardea agami Gmelin. 

cj. Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 168-169. 

/ Agamia agami (Gmelin) 

Ardea Agami Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 629. (Cayenne.) 

States of Vera Cruz and Chiapas, Mexico, south to Peru and Brazil. 

(Matto Grosso.) 

Genus SYRIGMA Ridgway 

Syrigma Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., 4, 1878, 
p. 224, 247. Type, by original designation, Ardea sibilatrix Temminck. 

cf. Laubmann, Wiss. Ergebn. Deutsche Gran Chaco-Exped., 1930, p. 66. 

"/ Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck) 

Ardea sibilatrix Temminck, PL Col., livr. 46, 1824, pi. 271. (Brazil and 
Paraguay.) 

Southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and adjacent parts of Argentina. 

Genus NYCTICORAX T. Forster 

Nycticorax T. Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Bds., 1817, p. 59. Type, by 
tautonymy and monotypy, Nycticorax infaustus Forster = Ardea 
nycticorax Linne. 

cf. Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 117, 1921, p. 51-54. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1251-1254. 
Peters, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 39, 1930, p. 263-275. 

• Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (Linn^) 

Ardea Nycticorax Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 142. (Southern 
Europe.) 

Holland and Germany east to Japan, south to Africa, India and the 
Sunda Islands. 

~i Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli (Gmelin) 

Ardea Hoactli Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 630. ("In Novae 
Hispaniae lacubus" = Valley of Mexico.) 

Breeds from northern Oregon, southern Wyoming, southern Manitoba, 
northern Quebec and Nova Scotia south through Central America, north- 
ern and eastern South America to eastern Argentina; Hawaiian Islands. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 115 

'"Nycticorax nycticorax cyanocephalus (Molina) 

Ardea cyanocephala Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. ChUi, 1782, p. 235. (Chile.) 

Nycticorax cyanocephalus falklandicus Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 35, 
1914, p. 15. (Falkland Islands.) 

South America from the highlands of southern Peru south through Chile 
and western Argentina to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands. 

~7^ Nycticorax caledonicus manillensis Vigors 

Nycticorax Manillensis Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, 
p. 98. (ManUa, P. I.) 

Nycticorax caledonicus major Hachisuka, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1926, 
p. 103. (Zamboanga, Mindanao, P. I.) 

Philippine Islands and northern Borneo. 

Nycticorax caledonicus minahassae Meyer and Wiglesworth 

Nycticorax minahassae Meyer and Wiglesworth, Journ. f . Orn., 42, 1894, 

p. 115. (Kema, northern Celebes.) 
Celebes.^ 

/ Nycticorax caledonicus pelewensis Mathews 

Nycticorax caledonicus pelewensis Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 46, 1926, 
p. 60. (Pelew Islands.) 

Pelew Islands. 

Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris Vigors 
Nycticorax crassirostris Vigors, Voy. 'Blossom,' Zool., 1839, p. 27. 
(Bonin Islands.) 

Bonin Islands. 

/Nycticorax caledonicus mandibularis Ogilvie-Grant 

Nycticorax mandibularis Ogilvie-Grant, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888, 
p. 203. (Aola, Guadalcanar Island, Solomon Islands.) 

Solomon Islands. 

Nycticorax caledonicus caledonicus (Gmelin) 
Ardea caledonica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 626. (New Cale- 
donia.) 

New Caledonia. 

1 Nycticorax caledonicus hilli Mathews 

Nycticorax caledonicus hilli Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 233. 
(Parry's Creek, northwestern Australia.) 

Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia. 

1 Cf. Riley Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 64, art. 16, 1924, p. 30-31. 



-/ 



I 



116 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Nycticorax caledonicus cancrivorus Neumann 
Nycticorax caledonicus cancrivorus Neumann, Orn. Monatsb., 38, 1930, 

p. 18. (Uatom Island.) 
Bismarck Archipelago. 

Genus CALHERODIUS Bonapaete 

Calherodius Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 139. Type, by mono- 
typy, Ardea cucullata Lichtenstein = Ardea leuconotus Wagler. 

Caloardea Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 11, 1926, p. 219. Type, by 
original designation, Ardea leuconotus Wagler. 

of. Peters, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 39, 1930, p. 275-276. 

Calherodius leuconotus (Wagler) 
Ardea Leuconotus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, Ardea, no. 33. (Senegambia.) 
Senegal and Egyptian Sudan south to the Transvaal and Natal. 

Genus OROANASSA Peters 

Oroanassa Peters, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 39, 1930, p. 276. Type, 
by original designation, Nycticorax magnificus Ogilvie-Grant. 

cf. Peters, loc. cit., p. 276-277. 

Oroanassa magnifica (Ogilvie-Grant) 
Nycticorax magnificus Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1899, p. 586. (Five-finger 

Mountain, Hainan.) 
Mountains of the island of Hainan and of central Fukien, China. 

Genus NYCTANASSA Stejnegeb 

Nyctanassa Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 1887, p. 295 (note). 
Type, by original designation, Ardea violacea Linne. 
cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 131-134. 

Nyctanassa violacea violacea (Linn6) > 

Ardea violacea Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 143. (North America 

= Carolina, ex Catesby.) 
Breeds from eastern Kansas, southern Illinois and Indiana and South 
Carolina south through eastern Mexico, eastern Central America and the 
West Indies. Winters in the southern part of its range. 

Nyctanassa violacea bancrofti Huey 

Nyctanassa violacea bancrofti Huey, Condor, 29, 1927, p. 167, and fig. 
(Scammon Lagoon, Lower California.) 

Pacific coast of Lower California south to Salvador. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 117 

Nyctanassa violacea cayennensis (Gmelin) 
Ardea cayennensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 626. (Cayenne.) ^ 
South America from Colombia south to Peru and southern Brazil. 

/ Nyctanassa violacea pauper (Sclater and Salvin) 

Nycticorax pauper Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, 
p. 327. (Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Archipelago.) 

The Galapagos Islands. 

Genus GORSACHIUS Bonapakte 

Gorsachius Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 138. Type, by monotypy, 
Nycticorax goisagi Temminck. 

cf. Hachisuka, Ibis, 1926, p. 585-592. 

Kinnear and Robinson, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 1927, p. 130. 

/~Gorsachius goisagi (Temminck) 

Nycticorax goisagi Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 98, 1835, pi. 582. (Japan.) 

Eastern China, Japan, Riu Kiu Islands, Formosa and the Philippines 
(Luzon and Mindanao). 

"^Gorsachius melanolophus melanolophus (Raffles) 

Ardea melanolopha Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1822, p. 326. 
(Western Sumatra.) 

Tropical and subtropical India, Ceylon, southern China, Formosa, Indo- 
China, Borneo, Sumatra and Java. 

Gorsachius melanolophus minor Hachisuka 

Gorsachius melanolophus minor Hachisuka, Ibis, 1926, p. 592. (Katchel 
Island, Nicobar Islands.) 

Nicobar Islands. 

Gorsachius melanolophus kutteri (Cabanis) 

Butio Kutteri Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 29, 1881, p. 425. (Philippines.) 

Gorsachius melanolophus hlythi Hachisuka, Ibis, 1926, p. 591. (Philip- 
pines.) 

Philippine Islands. 

Gorsachius melanolophus rufolineatus Hachisuka 

Gorsachius melanolophus rufolineatus Hachisuka, Ibis, 1926, p. 591. 
(Iwahig, Palawan.) 

Palawan. 
» Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 1918, p. 31. 



118 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus ZONERODIUS Salvadori 

Zonerodius Salvadori, Ann, Mus. Civ. Geneva, 18, 1882, p. 336. Type, 
by monotypy, Ardea heliosylus Lesson. 
cf. Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 203. 

~ / Zonerodius heliosylus Lesson 

Ardea Heliosyla Lesson, Voy. 'Coquille,' Zool., 1, livr. 7, 1828, pi. 44; 

livr. 16, 1830, p. 722. (New Guinea.) 
Salawatti, New Guinea and Aru Islands. 

Genus TIGRIORNIS Sharpe 

Tigriornis Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 5, 1895, p. 14. Type, by original 
designation and monotj^y, Tigrisoma leucolopha Jardine. 
cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 29. 

/ Tigriornis leucolopha (Jardine) 

Tigrisoma leucolopha Jardine, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 17, 1846, p. 86. 

(Either Old Calabar or Bonny Rivers.) 
West Africa from Sierra Leone south to the lower Congo and east to 
northeastern Belgian Congo. 

Genus TIGRISOMA Swainson 

Tigrisoma Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, 1828, p. 362. Type, by original 

designation, Ardea tigrina Gmelin = Ardea lineata Boddaert. 
Tigribaphe Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 20, 1912, p. 61. Type, by mono- 
typy, Tigribaphe leucolaema Reichenow ^ = Tigrisoma salmoni Sclater 
and Salvin. 
cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, 1926, p. 208. 

HeUmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, no. 18, 1929, 

p. 488-489. 
Stolzmann, Ann. Mus. Polon. Hist. Nat., 5, 1926, p. 203-206 (plum- 
ages of salmoni). 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 58-60. 

"^ Tigrisoma lineatum lineatum (Boddaert) 

Ardea lineata Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 52. (Cayenne, ex 

Daubenton, PI. enlum. no. 860.) 
Tigrisoma excellens Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 1888, p. 595. 
(Segovia River, Honduras.) ' 

^ Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop. pt. 1, 1924, p. 30, note, states that Tigribaphe 
leucolaema Reichenow is founded on a Tigrisoma from South America and not 
on an African bird as claimed by Reichenow in the original description (see 
postea). 

2 Cf. Todd, Ann. Cam. Mus., 14, 1922, p. 137. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 119 

Eastern Central America from the Segovia River south to Panama, 
northwestern South America to Ecuador east to the Guianas and upper 
Amazonia. 

^-y^ Tigrisoma lineatum marmoratuin (Vieillot) 

Ardea marmorata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 14, 1817, p. 415. 
(Paraguay.) 

Tigriosoma (sic) bahioe Sharpe, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 5, 1895, p. 14. (Ba- 
hia, BrazU = immature.) 

Brazilian Highlands, Paraguay and northern Argentina. 

Tigrisoma (lineatum?) fasciatum (Such) 

Ardea Fasciata Such, Zool. Journ., 2, 1825, p. 117. (Brazil.) 
Range not determined. 

Tigrisoma (lineatum?) bolivianum (Lonnberg) 

Heterocnus bolivianus Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 462. (Tatarenda, Bolivian 

Chaco.) 

Bohvian Chaco south to Corrientes, Argentina. 
(Perhaps not different irom. fasciatum) . 

~/" Tigrisoma salmoni salmoni Sclater and Salvin 

Tigrisoma salmoni Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875, 
p. 38, f. 2. (Cauca River, Colombia.) 

Tigribaphe leucolaema Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 20, 1912, p. 61. 
(Ukerewe Island, Lake Victoria. Error = northwestern South 
America.) 

Tropical Colombia and Ecuador. 

Tigrisoma salmoni brevirostre Stolzmann 

Tigrisoma salmoni brevirostre Stolzmann, Ann. Mus. Polon. Hist. Nat., 5, 
1926, p. 206. (Valley of Marcapata, southeastern Peru.) 

Southeastern Peru. (This proposed subspecies requires confirmation.) 

Genus HETEROCNUS Sharpe 

Heterocnus Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 5, 1895, p. 14. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Tigrisoma cabanisi Heine. 

cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 198-200. 

/ Heterocnus cabanisi (Heine) 

Tigrisoma Cabanisi Heine, Journ. f. Orn., 7, 1859, p. 407. (Mexico.) 

Mexico from southern Sonora and southern TamauUpas to eastern 
Panama. 



120 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Subfamily BOTAURINAE 

Genus ZEBRILUS Bonaparte 

Zebrilus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 138. Type, by monotypy, 

Ardea undulata Gmelin. 
cf. Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 172-173. 

~ ' Zebrilus undulatus (Gmelin) 

Ardea undulata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 637. (Cayenne.) 
The Guianas to Central Brazil. 

\Ardea pumila Boddaert, 1783, the earliest name for this species, is pre- 
occupied by Ardea pumila Lepechin, 1770.] 

Genus IXOBRYCHUS Billberg 

Ixobrychus Billberg, Syn. Faun. Scand., 1, pt. 2, 1828, p. 166. Type, by 
subsequent designation, Ardea minuta Linne. (Stone, Auk, 24, 1907, 
p. 192.) 
cf. Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 52. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1256-1261. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 202-203 (Ixobrychus), 

p. 204 (Nannocnus). 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 30. 
Wetmore, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 1919, p. 173-175. 

^ Ixobrychus minutus minutus (Linn^) 

Ardea minuta Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 240. (Switzerland.) 
Central and southern Europe to western Siberia and Transcaspia, Asia 

Minor and Palestine to Kashmir and northwestern India; northern Africa. 

Winters in Africa to Cape Colony. 

Ixobrychus minutus payesii (Hartlaub) 

Ardea Payesii Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 6, 1858, p. 42. (Casamanse 
River, Senegal.) 

Africa from Senegal and the Sudan south to Cape Province; southwestern 
Arabia. 

/ Ixobrychus minutus podiceps (Bonaparte) 

Ardeola (Ardea) podiceps Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 134. (Mad- 
agascar.) 
Madagascar. 

Ixobrychus minutus dubius Mathews 
Ixobrychus minutus dubius Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 234. 

(Southwest Australia, type from Herdman's Lake.) 
Southwest Australia. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 121 

Ixobrychus minutus alisteri Mathews 

Ixobrychus minutus alisteri Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 188. 
(New name for Ardea pusilla Vieillot, not Miiller. New South Wales.) 

Ixobrychus minutus queenslandicus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, 
p. 89. (Kedron Brook, South Queensland.) 

Ixobrychus minutus victoria Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1915, p. 24. 
(Geelong, Victoria.) 

Eastern Australia from Queensland to Victoria. (Perhaps not different 
from dubius.) 

Ixobrychus minutus novaezelandiae (Potts) 

Ardeola Novce Zelandice Potts, Trans. New Zealand Inst., 3, 1871, p. 99. 
(Westland, South Island, New Zealand.) 

New Zealand. 

«~ Ixobrychus sinensis sinensis (Gmelin) 

Ardea Sinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 642. (China.) 

Northeastern China south to India, Ceylon, Burma and the Malay 
Peninsula, Moluccas and New Britain. (The validity of the various sub- 
species is questionable. Cf. Hartert, loc. cit., p. 1260.) 

\ Ixobrychus sinensis luteolus (Stejneger) 

Ardetta luteola Stejneger, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 1887, p. 290, in text. 
(Wakayama, Kii, Hondo, Japan.) 

Japan. 

"^ Ixobrychus sinensis astrologus Wetmore 

Ixobrychus sinensis astrologus Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, 1918, 
p. 83. (Paete, Laguna, Luzon.) 

Philippine Islands. 

Ixobrychus sinensis lepidus (Horsfield) 

Ardea lepida Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 190. 
(Java.) 

Sumatra? Java. 

I Ixobrychus sinensis bryani (Seale) 

Ardetta bryani Seale, Occ Pap. Bishop Mus., 1, no. 3, 1901, p. 27. 

(Guam.) 
Guam. 

\ Ixobrychus sinensis moorei Wetmore 

Ixobrychus sinensis inoorei Wetmore, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 1919, 

p. 173. (Uala, Truk group. Middle Carolines.) 
Unique. 



122 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 



-4 



Ixobrychus involucris (Vieillot) 

Ardm involucris Vieillot, Tabl. Encyc. M^th., 3, 1823, p. 1127. 
(Paraguay.) 

Southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, south to northern Patagonia. 
Isolated in the Santa Marta district of Colombia. 

Ixobrychus exilis hesperis Dickey and van Rossem 

Ixobrychus exilis hesperis Dickey and van Rossem, Bull. Sou. Cal. Acad. 

Sci., 23, 1924, p. 11. (Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, California.) 
Breeds in western North America from southern Oregon to southern 
California. In winter south to Lower California (and Central America?). 

/ Ixobrychus exilis exilis (Gmelin) 

Ardea exilis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 645. (Jamaica.) 

Breeds in central and eastern North America from southern Saskatche- 
wan and Nova Scotia south to the West Indies and southern Mexico. 
Winters from Georgia southward to Brazil. 

Ixobrychus exilis puUus van Rossem 

Ixobrychus exilis pullv^s van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 
6, 1930, p. 227. (Tobari Bay, Sonora, Mexico.) 

Coastal mangrove swamps of the Arid Tropical Zone of southern Sonora, 

Mexico, from Kino Bay, south at least to Tobari Bay. 

1... 

' Ixobrychus exilis bogotensis Chapman 

Ixobrychus exilis bogotensis Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 33, 
1914, p. 171. (Suba Marshes, Bogota, Colombia.) 

Savanna of Bogota, Colombia. 

Ixobrychus exilis erythromelas (Vieillot) 

Ardea erythromelas Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 14, 1817, p. 422. 
(Paraguay.) 

Trinidad and the Guianas south to Paraguay. 

Ixobrychus eurhythmus (Swinhoe) 

Ardetta eurhythma Swinhoe, Ibis, 1873, p. 74, pi. 2. (Amoy, Shanghai.) 

Breeds from southern Transbaikalia to Ussuri and south to middle 
China and the Japanese Islands to Hondo. Winters from southern China 
to Cochin China and the Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sunda Islands and 
Celebes. 

Ixobrychus cinnamomeus (Gmelin) 

Ardea cinnamomea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 643. (China.) 

China from Manchuria to Hainan; Riu Kiu Islands; Formosa; India and 
Ceylon, Andamans and Nicobars, Philippines, Sunda Islands and Celebes. 



-/ 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 123 

Ixobrychus stunnii (Wagler) ^ 
Ardea Sturmii Wagler, Syst. Av. 1827, Ardea, sp. 37. (Senegambia.) 
Africa from Senegal and Kordofan south to Cape Province. 

Genus DUPETOR Heine and Reichenow 

Dupetor Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., 1890, p. 308. 
Type, by monotypy, Ardea flavicollis Latham. 

cf. Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 33, 1926, p. 174. 
Hellmayr, Avif. Timor, 1914, p. 108. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 205-206. (Dupetor and 
Erythrophoyx.) 

"/ Dupetor flavicollis flavicollis (Latham) 

Ardea flavicollis Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 701. (India.) 

Central and southern China south to the Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, 
Malay Peninsula, Cochin China, Greater Sunda Islands and Celebes. 

Dupetor flavicollis australis (Lesson) 

Ardea australis Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 572. ("du Voyage 
de Peron " = Timor.) 

Timor. 

Dupetor flavicollis nesophilus (Sharpe) 

Ardeirallus nesophilus Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1894, p. 32. (Dtike 
of York Island.) 

New Britain, Duke of York Island and New Ireland. 

Dupetor flavicollis woodfordi (Ogilvie-Grant) 

Ardeiralla woodfordi Ogilvie-Grant, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888, p. 202. 
(Aloa, Guadalcanar, Solomon Islands.) 

Solomon Islands. 



-~i 



Dupetor flavicollis gouldi (Bonaparte) 

Ardetta goiddi Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 132. (New South 

Wales.) 
Ardetta melaena Salvadori, Atti R. Acad. Sci. Torino, 13, 1878, p. 1187. 

(Halmahera.) 
Ardeirallus prcetermissus Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 3, 1893, p. 4. 

(Ceram and Buru). For many years known as Erythrophoyx praeter- 

missa (Sharpe). 

I I do not believe that the characters on which Ardeiralla Bonaparte are 
based are of generic value. If such slight structural variations are stressed to 
the extent of generic separation, then Nannocnus and Ardeiralla must both be 
maintained and a genus created, for exilis. 



124 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Ardeiralla flavicollis olivei Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 234, 
(Johnston River, North Queensland.) 

Ardeiralla flavicollis disneyi Mathews, op. cit. (Parry's Creek, Northwest 
Austraha). 

Ardeiralla flavicollis melvillensis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, 
p. 74. (Melville Island.) 

Moluccas, New Guinea, Aru and Kei Islands; Australia. 

Genus BOTAURUS Stephens 

Botaurus Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., 11, pt. 2, 1819, p. 592. Type, by 
subsequent designation, Ardea stellaris Linn6. (Gray, List. Gen. Bds., 
1840, p. 66.) 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1261-1264. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 206-207. 
Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1900, p. 364. 

"T Botaurus stellaris stellaris (Linn^) 

Ardea stellaris Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 144. (Europe, re- 
stricted tj^je locality, Sweden.) 

Botaurus stellaris orientalis Buturlin, Nascha Okhota, 1908, Heft 9-11. 
(Inkou, Manchuria and Olekminsk, Siberia.) 

Breeds in the greater part of the temperate Palaearctic region. Winters 
from the Mediterranean countries to northeastern Belgian Congo, Ethio- 
pia and Arabia. 

Botaurus stellaris capensis (Schlegel) 

Ardea stellaris capensis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 5, 1863, Ardeae, p. 48. 

(South Africa.) 
South Africa from Lake Ngami to Natal and Cape Province. 

""^ Botaurus poiciloptilus (Wagler) 

Ardea poiciloptila Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, Ardea, sp. 28, note. (New 
South Wales.) 

Botaurus poiciloptilus westralensis Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 235. 
(Sharks Bay, West Australia.) 

Botaurus poiciloptilus maorianus Iredale and Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. 
CI., 46, 1926, p. 76. (New name for Botaurus rmlanotus Gray, 1843, 
not Botaurus melanotos Brehm, 1842. New Zealand.) 

Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. 

"• Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu) 

Ardea lentiginosa Montagu, Suppl. Orn. Diet., 1813, text and plate. 
(Piddletown, Dorsetshire, England.) 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 125 

Breeds from central British Columbia east to southern Ungava, south 
to southern California, the Ohio Valley and Delaware Bay. Winters from 
the southern part of its breeding range south to Guatemala, occasionally to 
Panama and Cuba. 

~f-' Botaurus pinnatus (Wagler) 

Ardea pinnata Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 662. (State of Bahia, Brazil.) 
South America from Colombia to the Guianas and to southeastern BrazU. 

Family COCHLEARIIDAE 

Genus COCHLEARIUS Brisson 

Cochlearius Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 48; 5, 1760, p. 506. Type, by 
tautonymy, [Cochlearins] cochlearius Brisson = Cancroma cochlearia 
Linn6. 
cf. Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 172-173. 
Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 235, 1926, p. 10-11. 

'^Cochlearius cochlearius zeledoni (Ridgway) 

Cancroma zeledoni Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, 1885, p. 93. 

(Mazatlan, Mexico.) 
Mexico, from Sinaloa and Vera Cruz south to northern Costa Rica. 

Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis Griscom 

Cochlearius zeledoni panamensis Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 235, 

1926, p. 11. (Corozal, Canal Zone.) 
Southern Costa Rica and Panama. 

'/ Cochlearius cochlearius cochlearius (Linn^) 

Cancroma Cochlearia Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 233. (Guiana.) 
Northern South America to Peru and southern Brazil; Island of Trini- 
dad. 

Suborder BAL^NipiPITES 

Family BAL^NICIPITIDAE 

Genus BAL^NICEPS Gould 

Balceniceps Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851 (1852), p. 1. Type, 

by original designation, Balceniceps rex Gould. 
cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 86-89. 

-y- Balseniceps rex Gould 

Balceniceps Rex Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851 (1852), p. 2, pi. 35. 

(Upper White Nile.) 
Bahr-el-Ghazal and White Nile south to the Katanga district and 
Uganda. 



126 check-list of birds of the world 
Suborder CICONIAE 

SUPERFAMILY SCOPOIDEA 

Family SCOPIDAE 

Genus SCOPUS Bkisson 

Scopus Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 48; 5, 1760, p. 503. Type, by mono- 
typy, Scopus = Scopus umbretta Gmelin. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 89-93. 

Scopus umbretta umbretta Gmelin 

Scopus Umbretta Gmelin,. Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 618. (Senegal.) 
West Africa from Senegal to Nigeria. 

^ Scopus umbretta bannermani C. H. B. Grant 

Scopus umbretta bannermani C. H. B. Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 35, 

1914, p. 27. (Mt. Leganisho, 6600 feet, British East Africa.) 
The entire Ethiopian region, including southwestern Arabia and Mada- 
gascar, except that section occupied by S. u. umbretta. 

SUPERFAMILY CICONIOIDEA 

Family CICONIIDAE 

Subfamily MYCTERIINAE 

Genus MYCTERIA Linne 

Mycteria Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 140. Type, by monotj^y, 
Mycteria americana Linne. 

cf. HeUmayr, Abh. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss., 22, 1906, p. 711. 

' Mycteria americana Linne 

Mycteria americana Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10., 1, 1758, p. 140. ("America 
cahdiore," = Brazil, from first citation.) 

Breeds along the coast from Texas to Florida north to South Carolina; 
Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, South America to Peru and 
Argentina (to Cordoba and Buenos Aires). 

Genus IBIS LACEPfeDE 

Ibis Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., 1799, p. 18. Type, by tautonymy, Ibis candi- 
dus Daudin = Tantalus ibis Linne. 

Dipluravis Strand, Soc. Ent. Stuttgart, 25, no. 4, 1910, p. 14. Substitute 
name for Diplura Jerdon, not Koch. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 127 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 107-110. 
Ridgway, Auk, 30, 1913, p. 95. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 331-332; 8, 
1930, p. 558. 

Ibis ibis (Linne) 

Tantalus Ibis Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 241. (Egypt.) 
Africa from Senegambia to the Sudan and south to Cape Province; 

Madagascar. 

' Ibis leucocephalus (Pennant) 

Tantalus leucocephalus Pennant, Indian ZoQl., 1769, p. 11, pi. 10. (Cey- 
lon.) 
India, Ceylon, Burma, Indo-China and southwestern China. 

» Ibis cinereus (Raffles) 

Tantalus cinereus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1822, p. 327. 

(Sumatra.) 
Malay Peninsula to Cambodia, Sumatra and Java.^ 

Subfamily CICONIINAE 

Genus ANASTOMUS Bonnaterre 

Anastomv^ Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encyc. M^th., Orn., 1, 1791, p. xciii. Type, 
by subsequent designation, Ardea oscitans Boddaert (Gray, List Gen. 
Bds., ed. 2, 1841, p. 87). 
cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 102-103. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 333-334; 8, 
1930, p. 559. 

' Anastomus oscitans (Boddaert) 

Ardea oscitans Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 55. (Pondicherry, ex 

Daubenton, pi. 932.) 
India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma, Siam and Cochin China. 

"^"Anastomus lamelligerus lamelligenis Temminck 

Anastomus lamelligerus Temminck, PI. Col., livr., 40, 1823, pi. 236. 

(Senegal.) 
East Africa from Senegal and the Sudan to the Zambesi River. 

Anastomus lamelligerus madagascariensis Milne-Edwards 

Anastomus madagascariensis Milne-Edwards, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 

Paris, 91, 1880, p. 1037. (Madagascar.) 
Madagascar. 

^ Delacour, Ibis, 1929, p. 208-209, reinstates Tantalus lacteus Temminck as 
a valid species occurring in the same region as cinereus. 



128 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus SPHENORHYNCHUS Lichtenstein 

Sphenorhynchus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 76. Type, by 
monotypy, Ciconia dbdimii Lichtenstein. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 99-102. 

' r Sphenorhynchus abdimii (Lichtenstein) 

Ciconia Abdimii Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 76. (Dongola, 

Sudan.) 
Drier parts of Africa from Dongola and Ethiopia to Angola and the 
Transvaal. 

Genus DISSOURA Cabanis 

Dissoura Cabanis, Preuss. Staats-Anz., 1850, Beil., p. 1484. Type, by- 
subsequent designation, Ardea episcopus Boddaert. (Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 294.) 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 97-99. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 324, 325; 8, 
1930, p. 557. 

-A' Dissoura episcopus microscelis (G. R. Gray) 

Ciconia microscelis G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, 1848, [p. 561] pi. CLI. 

(No type locaHty = Africa, apud Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1901, 

p. 348.) 
Africa from Senegambia and the Sudan south to Cape Province. 

Dissoura episcopus episcopus (Boddaert) 
Ardea Episcopus Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 54. (Coromandel 
Coast, ex Daubenton, pi. 906.) 

India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

— \ Dissoura episcopus neglecta Finsch 

Dissoura neglecta Finsch, Orn. Monatsb., 12, 1904, p. 94. (Celebes, Java, 

Sumbawa, Lombok, and the Philippines.) 
Malay Peninsula, Siam, Indo-China, Sunda Islands, Celebes and the 
Phihppines. 

Dissotira episcopus stonni (Blasius) 

Melanopelargus episcopus stormi Blasius, Mitt. Naturh. Mus. Liibeck, 

(2), Heft 10-11, 1896, p. 120. (Pontianak, West Borneo.) 
Dissoura mortoni Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 13, 1902, p. 26. (Lamang, 

Sandakan cf ; Mengalong River, Sarawak 9 .) Figured Ibis, 1903, pi. 5. 

Borneo. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 129 

Genus CICONIA Brisson 

Ciconia Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 48; 5, 1760, p. 361. Type, by tau- 
tonymy, Ciconia = Ardea Ciconia Linne. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1213-1216. 

Ciconia ciconia ciconia (Linne) 

Ardea Ciconia Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 142. (Europe, Asia, 
Africa; restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in the greater part of Europe north to latitude 60°; Morocco, 
Algeria, Tunis. Winters in Africa south to Cape Province. 

Ciconia ciconia asiatica Severtzov 

Ciconia alba asiatica Severtzov, Bull. Imp. Soc. Friends Xat. Sci. Anthr. 
and Ethnogr. Moscow, 8, pt. 2, 1873, p. 145. (Turkestan.) 

Breeds in Buchara, Turkestan and Yarkand. Winters in India. 

Ciconia ciconia boyciana Swinhoe 

Ciconia boyciana Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1873, p. 513. 
(Yokohama.) 

Breeds from Lower Ussuri and the Amur Rivers to Korea and Japan. 

Ciconia nigra (Linn^) 

Ardea nigra Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 142. (Northern Europe; 
restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in southern Sweden, Denmark, Germany, east through Russia 
and Asia to northern China. Winters in Africa south of Senegambia and 
the Sudan; India. 

Genus EUXENURA Ridgway 

Euxenura Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 4, 1878, p. 249. 
Type, by monotypy, Ardea maguari Gmehn = Ardea galeata Molina.'' 

cf. Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 61. 

Euxenura galeata (Molina) 
Ardea Galeata MoUna, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 235. (Chilet) 
South America from the Guianas to Chile and southern Argentina. 

Genus XENORHYNCHUS Bonaparte 

Xenorhynchnis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 106. Tj-pe, by sub- 
sequent designation, Mycteria australis Shaw. (Salvadori, Orn. Pap., 
pt. 3, 1882, p. 377.) 

cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, 1914, p. 407-411. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 326-327. 



130 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

-V Xenorhynchus asiaticus asiaticus (Latham) 

Myderia asiatica Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 670. (India.) 
India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Siam and Cochin China. 

Xenorhynchus asiaticus australis (Shaw) 
Myderia Australis Shaw, Trans. Linn. Soe. London, 5, 1800, p. 33. (New 

South Wales.) 
Xenorhynchus asiaticus rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 229. 

(Northwest Australia, type from Fitzroy River.) 
New Guinea, islands in Torres Strait, northern and eastern AustraUa. 

Genus EPHIPPIORHYNCHUS Bonaparte 

Ephippiorhynchus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 106. Type, by 
monotypy, Mycteria senegalensis Shaw. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 103-105. 

~\ Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis (Shaw) 

Mycteria Senegalensis Shaw, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 5, 1800, p. 35, 

pi. 3. (No type locality = Senegal.) 
Africa from Senegal and the Sudan south to the Orange River. 

Genus JABIRU Hellmayr 

Jahiru Helhnayr, Abh. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss., 22, 1906, p. 711. Type, by 
original designation and monotypy, Ciconia myderia Lichtenstein. 

cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 314-315. 

Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein) 

Ciconia mycteria Lichtenstein, Abh. K. Akad. Wiss. BerUn, Phys. Kl., 
1816-1817 (1819), p. 163. (Brazil, ex Marcgrave.) 

Southern Mexico, Central America and South America to Argentina 
(northeastern Cordoba.) 



\ 



Genus LEPTOPTILOS Lesson 

Leptoptilos Lesson, Traite d'Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 583. Type, by subse- 
quent designation, Ardea dubia GmeUn. (Gray, List. Gen. Bds., 
1840, p. 67.) 
cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 105-107. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 327-330. 

^"/"Leptoptilos dubius (Gmelin) 

Ardea dubia Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 624. (India.) 
India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Indo-Chinese countries, Sumatra, 
Java and Borneo. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 131 

A"Leptoptilos crumenifems (Lesson) 

Ciconia crumenifera Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 8, 1831, p. 585. (Sene- 
gal.) 
Senegal and the Sudan south to the Orange River. 

Leptoptilos javanicus (Horsfield) 

Ciconia Javanica Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 188. 
(Java.) 

Central and southern India, Ceylon, Burmese Provinces, southern 
China, Hainan, Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 

SuPERFAMiLY THRESKIORNITHOIDEA . 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE 

Genus THRESKIORNIS G. R. Gray 

Threskiornis G. R. Gray, App. to List Gen. Bds., 1842, p. 13. Type, by 
original designation, Tantalus cethiopicus Latham. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1225-1228. 
Mathews, Auk, 30, 1913, p. 95. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 189. 

/ Threskiornis aethiopica aethiopica (Latham) 

Tantalus cethiopicus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 706. (" Aethiopia" = 
Egypt?) 

Africa south of the Sahara, southern Arabia to the Persian Gulf. For- 
merly in Egypt. 

Threskiornis aethiopica abbotti (Ridgway) 

Ibis abbotti Ridgway, Descr. New Bds. Ids. of Aldabra and Assumption 
northwestof Madagascar, Aug. 16, 1893. (Aldabra Island.) [Advance 
sheet from Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, Oct. 25, 1893, p. 599.] 

Island of Aldabra. 

/Threskiornis aethiopica bernieri (Bonaparte) 

Ibis bernieri Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 151, note. (Madagascar.) 
Madagascar. 

/Threskiornis melanocephala (Latham) 

Tantalus melanocephalus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 709. (India.) 
India, Ceylon and Burma to China and Japan. 



132 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

/ 

Threskiornis molucca molucca (Cuvier) 

Ibis molucca Cuvier, Regne Anim., 6d. nouv., 1, 1829, p. 520, note. 

(Moluccas.) 
Babber, Ceram, Salawatti, Waigiu, Kei Islands, New Guinea. 

"^ Threskiornis molucca strictipennis (Gould) 

Ibis strictipennis Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 4, April 1, 1838, app. p. 7. 

(Australia). Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837 (= May 1838), p. 106. 
Ibis molucca alligator Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 227. (South 
Alligator River, Northern Territory.) 

Australia. 

Genus CARPHIBIS Reichenbach 

Carphibis Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. xiv. Type, by 
original designation. Ibis spinicollis Jameson. 
cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, 1914, p. 386-391. 

^ Carphibis spinicollis (Jameson) 

Ibis spinicollis Jameson, Edinb. New Philos, Journ., 19, 1835, p. 213. 

(Murray River, New South Wales.) 
Carphibis spinicollis fitzroi (sic) Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 228. 

(Fitzroy River, northwest AustraUa.) 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Genus PSEUDIBIS Hodgson 

Pseudibis Hodgson, in Gray's Zool. Misc., 1844, p. 86. Type, by mono- 

typy. Ibis papillosa Temminck. 
cf. Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 315-318. 

'"» Pseudibis papillosa (Temminck) 

Ibis papillosa Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 51, 1824, pi. 304. (India and 

Ceylon.) 
Northern India south to Mysore. 

-~l Pseudibis davisoni (Hume) 

Geronticus Davisoni Hume, Str. Feath., 3, 1875, p. 300. (Pakchan 

Estuary, Tenasserim.) 
Eastern Upper Burma to Pegu, Tenasserim, Cochin China and Siam. 

Genus THAUMATIBIS Elliot 

Thaumatibis Elliot, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 483, 489. Type, by 
original designation. Ibis gigantea Oustalet. 
cf. Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 5, 1921, p. 73-74. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 133 

"Thamnatibis gigantea (Oustalet) 

Ibis gigantea Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom., Paris (7), 1, 1877, p. 25. (Me- 
kong River, Cambodia). (Figured Ibis, 1911, pi. 1.) 

Cochin China, Cambodia, Peninsular Siam. 

Genus GERONTICUS Wagler 

Geronticus Wagler, Isis, 1835, col. 1232. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, Tantalus calvus Boddaert. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 67.) 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1222-1224. {Comatibis eremita.) 
Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, pt. 2, 1901, p. 323-324. 

'Geronticus eremita (Linne) 

Upupa Eremita Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 118. (Switzerland.) 

Now found only locally in northern Africa and east to Mesopotamia; 
coasts of the Red Sea; Ethiopia; Blue Nile. Formerly in southern Europe 
north to the upper Rhine Valley, Switzerland and Hungary. 

Geronticus calvus (Boddaert) 

Tantalus Calvus Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 52. (Cape of 
Good Hope, ex Daubenton, pl. 867.) 

Mountainous districts of southern Africa. 

Genus NIPPONIA Reichenbach 

Nipponia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. xiv. Tj^^e, by 
monotypy. Ibis temminckii Reichenbach = Ibis nippon Temminck. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1224-1225. 

Nipponia nippon (Temminck) 

Ibis nippon Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 93, 1835, pl. 551. (Japan.) 

Breeds in Ussuriland, Korea, Japan (south to Hondo), northern China 
south to southern Kansu, Tsinling Mountains and Kiauchou. Migratory 
only in northern part of its range. 

Genus LAMPRIBIS Elliot 

Lampribis Elliot, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 483 (in key), p. 507. 
Type, by monotypy, Ibis olivacea DuBus. 

Oreoibis Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 31, 1912, p. 235. Type, 
by original designation, Oreoibis akleyorum Chapman. 

cf. Bannerman, Nov. Zool., 35, 1929, p. 78-81. 

Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 117-123. 
Chapin, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 84, 1923, p. 1-7. 



-i 



-7 



134 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Lampribis olivacea olivacea (DuBus) 

Ibis olivacea DuBus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., 4, 1838, p. 105 and pi. 

(Upper Guinea, accepted as type locality by Chapin, loc. cit.) 
Lampribis splendida Salvador!, Ibis, 1903, p. 185. (Liberia.) 
Sierra Leone and Liberia. 

Lampribis olivacea cupreipennis (Reichenow) 

Theristicus cupreipennis Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 11, 1903, p. 134. 

(Cameroon.) 
Southern Cameroon and western Congo. 

Lampribis olivacea rothschildi Bannerman 

Lampribis rothschildi Bannerman, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 1919, p. 6. 

(Infante d'Henrique, Principe Island.) 
Princes Island, Gulf of Guinea. 

Lampribis olivacea bocagei Chapin 

Lampribis bocagei Chapin, Am. Mus, Novit., no. 84, 1923, p. 5, f. 2A, 

3A. (Rio de Sao Thom6, Sao Thome Island.) 
Island of Sao Thom6, Gulf of Guinea. 

Lampribis olivacea akleyorum (Chapman) 

Oreoibis akleyorum Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 31, 1912, p. 235, 
pi. 23, 24. (South slope of Mt. Kenya, 9000 feet.) 

Southern slopes of Mt. Kenya, Kenya Colony. (Mt. Elgon and Aber- 
dare Mountains?) 

Lampribis rara Rothschild, Hartert and Kleinschmidt 
Lampribis rara Rothschild, Hartert and Kleinschmidt, Nov. Zool., 4, 
1897, p. 377. (Denkera, Gold Coast, ex. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1877, pi. 51.) 
Liberia to Angola and east across the Belgian Congo to Avakubi and 
Bomakandi. 

Genus HAGEDASHIA Bonaparte 

Hagedashia Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 152. Type, by "virtual 
tautonymy," Tantalus hagedash Latham. 
cf. Neumann, Ornis, 13, 1909, p. 190-196. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 36. App. 1930, p. 836. 

Hagedashia hagedash brevirostris (Reichenow) 

Theristicus brevirostris Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 15, 1907, p. 147. 

(Al^n, southern Cameroon.) 
Hagedashia hagedash guineensis Neumann, Ornis, 13, 1909, p. 194. 

(Ogruga, Ammambara Creek, Nigeria.) 
West Africa from Gambia to the Congo; Fernando Po. 



ORDER CICONITFORMES 135 

/ Hagedashia hagedash nilotica Neumann 

Hagedashia hagedash nilotica Neumann, Ornis, 13, 1909, p. 193. (Kimo, 

northwest of Adis Ababa, Etliiopia.) 
The White Nile to central Ethiopia and Shoa, south to Uganda. 

~~^ Hagedashia hagedash erlangeri Neumann 

Hagedashia hagedash erlangeri Neumann, Ornis, 13, 1909, p. 193. (Dogge, 

southern Somaliland.) 
East Africa from southern Somaliland south to Nyasaland and the 
Zambesi. 

" ^ Hagedashia hagedash hagedash (Latham) 

Tantalus Hagedash Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 709. (Cape of Good 

Hope.) 
Africa south of the Zambesi. 

Genus BOSTRYCHIA Reichenbach 

Bostrychia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. sdv. Type, by 
monotypy, Ihis carunculata Riippell. 

cf. Reichenow, Vog. Air., 1, pt. 2, 1901, p. 325. (Theristicus caruncula- 
tus.) 

-A 

Bostrychia carunculata (Riippell) 

Ibis carunculata Riippell, Neue Wirb., Vog., 1837, p. 49, pi. 19. (Taranta 

Mountains, Ethiopia.) 
Ethiopian Highlands from Senaf^ to Shoa. 

Genus HARPIPRION Wagler ^ 

Harpiprion Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1232. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion. Ibis plumbeus Temminck = Ibis caerulescens Vieillot. (Gray, 
List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 67.) 
cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 24. (Molybdophanes.) 

f Harpiprion caerulescens (Vieillot) 

Ibis coerulescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 16, 1817, p. 18. (Para- 
guay.) 

Central Brazil south to Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina. 

Genus THERISTICUS Wagler 

Theristicus Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1231. Type, by monotypy, Tantalus 
melanopis Gmehn. 
cf. Salvadori, Ibis, 1900, p. 501-517. 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 64-65. 

^ Replaces Molybdophanes Reichenbach. 



136 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

"T Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert) 

Scolopax caudatus Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 57. (Cayenne, 

ex Daubenton, pi. 976.) 
Theristicus columbianus Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus., 21, 1899, p. 23. 

("Colombia.") 
Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and 
northern Argentina. 

■ / Theristicus branickii Berlepsch and Stolzmann 

Theristicus branickii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, 1894, p. 404. (Lake 

Junin, Peru.) 
High Temperate Regions of Ecuador, Peru and northern BoUvia. 

/ Theristicus melanopis (Gmelin) 

Tantalus melanopis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 653. ("In 

insula Novi Anni.") 
Chile and southern Argentina from the Rio Negro to Tierra del Fuego. 

Genus CERCIBIS Wagler 

Cercibis Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1232. Type, by monotypy, Ibis oxycercus 

Spix. 
of. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 28-29. 

"/ Cercibis oxycerca (Spix) 

Ibis oxycercus Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 69, pi. 87. 

("Province of Pard,.") 
Orinoco region east to Surinam, south to southeastern Colombia and the 
Rio Negro region of Brazil. 

Genus MESEMBRINIBIS Peters ^ 

Mesembrinibis Peters, Occ. Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5, 1930, p. 256. 
Type, by original designation, Tantalus cayennensis GmeUn. 

of. Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, 1915, p. 532-533. 

—7 Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin) 

Tantalus cayennensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 652. (Cay- 
enne.) 
Panama and the greater part of tropical South America to Paraguay and 
northeastern Argentina. 

1 Replaces Harpiprion Wagler. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 137 

\ 
\ 

Genus PHIMOSUS Wagler 

Phimosus Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1233. Type, by monotypy, Ibis nudi- 
frons Spix. 

cf. Hellmayr, Abh. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss., 22, 1906, p. 710. 

Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, 1929, p. 485. 

' Phimosus infuscatus berlepschi Hellmayr 

Phimosus berlepschi Hellmayr, Verb. ZoQl.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 53, 1903, 
p. 247. (Orinoco River region.) 

Northern South America from the mouth of the Magdalena River to 
Surinam. 

Phimosus infuscatus nudifrons (Spix) 

Ibis nudifrons Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 69, pi. 86. ("Ad litora lacum 
S. Francisci.") 

BrazU south of the Amazon from Matto Grosso east to Piauhy and south 
to Sao Paulo. 

I Phimosus infuscatus infuscatus (Lichtenstein) 

Ibis infuscata Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 75. ("Brazil" = 
Paraguay, ex Azara.) 

Phimosus azarae Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 1902, p. 123. 

(Paraguay.) 

Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Genus GUARA Reichenbach 

Guara Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat. 1852 (1853), p. xiv. Type, by 
original designation, Scolopax rubra Linne. 

cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 39-42. 

/Guara alba (Linn6) 

Scolopax alba Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 145. (Carohna.) 

Guara alba longirostris Bailey, Bull. Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist., 
no. 4, 1930, [p. 1] (no type specimen or type locality designated). 

Breeds from Lower California, Central Mexico, the Gulf coast, Florida 
and South Carolina to the West Indies and northern South America. 
Winters from Central Mexico, the Gulf coast and Florida southward. 

"f Guara rubra (Linn6) 

Scolopax rubra Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 145. (Bahamas.) 
Tropical South America; casual in the West Indies and Central America. 



138 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus PLEGADIS Kaup 

Plegadis Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch., 1829, p. 82. Type, by mono- 
typy, Tantalus falcinellus Linn6. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1220-1222. 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 29-38. 

' Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus (Linn6) 

Tantalus Falcinellus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, p. 241. (Austria, 

Italy.) 
Breeds from southern France, Serbia, Rumania and southern Russia to 
the Mediterranean region, eastward through Persia, Turkestan, Afghani- 
stan and tropical Asia. Also Africa and Madagascar. In North America 
locally in Mexico and along the Gulf coast, Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. 
Casual north of its breeding range in northern Europe and northeastern 
North America. 

Plegadis falcinellus peregrinus (Bonaparte) 
Ibis peregrina Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, 1855, p. 159. (Java and 

Celebes.) 
Plegadis falcinellus rogersi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 56. 

(Parry's Creek, northwest Austraha.) 
Philippines, Celebes, East Indies from Java to Australia. 

Plegadis (falcinellus?) guarauna (Linne) 
Scolopax Guarauna Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 242, (Brazil.) 
Breeds in North America from Oregon and Utah to southern Mexico and 
in South America from Peru and Brazil to Argentina (Mendoza and 
Buenos Aires Provinces). North American birds winter in southern part of 
breeding range; South American north of Santiago, Chile and Cape San 
Antonio, Argentina. 

Plegadis ridgwayi (Allen) 

Falcinellus Ridgwayi Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, 1876, p. 355. 

(Lake Titicaca.) 
Highlands of Peru and Bolivia. 

Genus LOPHOTIBIS Reichenbach 

Lophotibis, Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. xiv. Type, by 
original designation, Tantalus cristatus Boddaert. 
cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 27-28. 

""J Lophotibis cristata cristata (Boddaert) 

Tantalus cristatus Boddaert, Table PI. enlum. , 1783, p. 51 . (Madagascar, 

ex Daubenton, pi. 841.) 
Eastern Madagascar. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 139 

Lophotibis cristata urschi Lavauden 

Lophotibis cristata urschi Lavauden, Alauda (1), 1, 1929, p. 233. (Anka- 
rafantsika and 100 km. southeast of Majunga, western Madagascar.) 

Western Madagascar. 

Subfamily PLATALEINAE 

Genus PLATALEA Linne 

Platalea Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 139. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Platalea leucorodia Linn6. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, 
p. 67.) 
of. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1217-1220. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, 1914, p. 398-402. 
Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1901, p. 330-332. 

z' Platalea leucorodia leucorodia Linne 

Platalea Leucorodia Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 139. (Europe.) 

Breeds locally in Holland, southern Spain, Balkan countries, Rumania 

and southern Russia to Transcaucasia and Asia Minor. Winters in Africa. 

• Platalea leucorodia major Temminck and Schlegel 

Platalea major Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Faun., Jap., Aves, 

1849, p. 119, pi. 75. (Japan.) 
Central Asia from China, southern Transbaikalia, Ussuriland and 
Japan south to Syria, Egypt, India and Formosa. Migratory in northern 
part of its range. 

Platalea leucorodia archeri Neumann 

Platalea leucorodia archeri Neumann, Joum. f. Om., 76, 1928, p. 783. 

(Dahlak Island, Red Sea.) 
Coasts of the Red Sea and Somaliland; White Nile. 

/ Platalea minor Temminck and Schlegel 

Platalea minor Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Faim. Jap., Aves, 
1849, p. 120, pi. 76. (Japan.) 

Korea, southern Japan to southern China, Hainan, Formosa and oc- 
casionally to the Phihppines. 

y Platalea alba Scopoli 

Platalea alba Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr., 2, 1786, p. 92. (Luzon, 
ex Sonnerat. Error = Cape of Good Hope.) 

Africa from Gambia and the Egyptian Sudan south to Cape Province; 
Madagascar. 



140 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

^ Platalea regia Gould , 

Platalea regia Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 4, 1838, App. p. 7. (East 
coast of New South Wales.) 

Platalea regia stalkeri Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 229. (Alexan- 
dra, Northern Territory.) 

Austraha; occasional in New Guinea,* Celebes, Timor, the Moluccas and 
New Zealand. 

Genus PLATIBIS Bonaparte 

Platibis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 40, 1855, p. 724. 

Type, by monotypy, Platalea flavipes Gould. 
cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, 1914, p. 403-406. 



H 



"~r 



Platibis flavipes (Gould) 

Platalea flavipes Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 4, 1838, App. p. 7. (New 
South Wales.) 

Platalea flavipes whitei Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 229. (Alexan- 
dra, Northern Territory.) 

Austraha. 

Genus AJAIA Reichenbach 

Ajaia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. xvi. Type, by orig- 
inal designation Ajaia rosea Reichenbach = Platalea ajaja Linn6. 
cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 26, 1898, p. 52-55. 

Ajaia ajaja (Linn6) 

Platalea Ajaja Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 140. ("in America 
australi" = Jamaica from first citation.) 

Breeds in the southern United States (Gulf States and Florida), Baha- 
mas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica(?), Central Mexico south to Argentina 
(Cordoba and Buenos Aires) and Chile. 

Suborder PHOENICOPTERI 

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE 

Genus PHOENICOPTERUS Linne 

Phoenicopterus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 139. Type, by 
monotypy, Phoenicopterus ruber Linn6. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1266-1268. 
Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 9-10. 

1 Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 191, sets up Platalea inter- 
media Ogilvie-Grant (Ibis, 1889, p. 52, pi. 1, Port Moresby), for the birds from 
New Guinea, but gives no reasons for so doing. 



V 



H 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 141 

Phoenicopterus antiquorum Temminck 

Phcenicopterus antiquorum Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1820, p. 587. 
(Europe and Africa.) 

Breeds locally in the Caspian Sea region, the Kirghiz Steppes, Trans- 
caspia, Transcaucasia, West Siberia (Turgai), about the Persian Gulf, 
Ceylon(?), northwestern India, Cape Verde Islands and South Africa. 
Formerly in southern Spain, southern France, Tunis and Lower Egypt. 

Phoenicopterus ruber Linn6 

Phoenicopterus ruber Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 139. ("Africa, 
America, rarius in Europa." Restricted type locality. West Indies.) 

Atlantic coast of subtropical and tropical America, breeding locally in 
the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Yucatan and Guiana; formerly on the 
Florida Keys; Galapagos Islands. 

' Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina 

Phoenicopterus Chilensis MoUna, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 242. 
(Chile.) 

Temperate South America from Peru on the west and Uruguay on the 
east to Tierra del Fuego. 

Genus PHOENICONAIAS G. R. Gray 

Phoeniconaias G. R. Gray, Ibis, 1869, p. 440, 442. Type, by monotypy, 
Phoenicopterus minor Geoffroy. 

of. Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1901, p. 350. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 375-376. 

' i Phoeniconaias minor (Geoffroy) 

Phoenicopterus minor Geoffroy, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom., 1, pt. 2, 1798, 
p. 98 and pi. (No type locaUty given = Senegal.) 

Southern and eastern Africa, (possibly Senegal) ; Madagascar and north- 
western India. 

Genus PHCENICOPARRUS Bonaparte 

Phcenicoparrus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 1856, 
p. 992. Type, by original designation, Phoenicopterus andinus Philippi. 

c/. Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 21-22. 

' Phcenicoparrus andinus (R. A. Phihppi) 

Phoenicopterus andinus R. A. Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 1854, p. 337. 
(Desert of Atacama, northern Chile. ) 

Chilean Andes and Andes of northwestern Argentina (Catamarca). 



142 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phcenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater) 

Phoenicopterus jamesi Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1886, p. 399, 
pi. 36, p. 400, f. 3. (Andes of Province of Tarapaca, Chile.) 

Andes of southern Peru, northern Chile and extreme northwestern 
Argentina. 

Order ANSERIFORMES 

Suborder ANHIMAE 

Family ANHIMIDAE 

Genus ANHIMA Brisson 

Anhima Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 48; 5, 1760, p. 518. Type, by tau- 
tonymy, Anhima [anhima] = Palamedea cornuta Linn6. 

cf. HeUmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. ser., 12, 1929, p. 498. 

Anhima cornuta (Linne) 

Palamedea cornuta Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 232. (Brazil.) 
The greater part of northern tropical South America. 

Genus CHAUNA Illiger 

Chauna Illiger, Prodromus, 1811, p. 253. Type, by monotypy, Parra 
chavaria Linn6. 

cj. Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 67-69. 

Chauna torquata (Oken) 

Chaja torquata Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3, pt. 2, 1816, p. 639. ("In Para- 
guay, um Plata.") 

Chauna salvadorii Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 53, 
new name for Palamedea cristata Swainson, not Linn6. 

Paraguay, southern Brazil, northern and eastern Argentina and Uru- 
guay. 

Chauna chavaria (Linne) 

Parra Chavaria Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 260. (Carthagena.) 
Northern Colombia and northern Venezuela. 



order anseriformes 143 

Suborder ANSERES 

Family ANATIDAE 

Subfamily CYGNINAE 

Genus CYGNUS Bechstein 

Cygnus Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., pt. 2, 1803, p. 404, note. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas olor Gmelin. 

Clangocycnus Oberholser, Emu, 8, 1908, p. 3. Type, by monotypy, 
Cygnus buccinator Richardson. 

Euolor, Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1917, p. 117. Type, by 
original designation, Anas olor Gmelin. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, 1270-1276. 
Oberholser, Emu, 8, 1908, p. 1-9. 
Schi0ler, Danmarks Fugle, 1, 1925, p. 383-410. 

Cygnus cygnus cygnus (Linne) 

Anas Cygnus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122, (Restricted type 
locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds from northern Scandinavia eastward through Finland and 
northern Russia and in northern Asia from Kolymsk and Anadyr to 
Kamchatka and the Commander Islands south to Ussuri; south in winter 
to the British Isles, central Asia, China and Japan, sometimes to the 
Mediterranean. 

Cygnus cygnus islandicus C. L. Brehm 

Cygnus Islandicus C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 
p. 832, (Iceland.) 

Southern Greenland (formerly) and Iceland. 

Cygnus bewickii bewickii Yarrell 

Cygnus Bewickii Yarrell, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 16, 1830, p, 453, 
(England.) 

Breeds in northern Russia from the Kanin peninsula and northern 
Siberia east to the Lena Delta; south in winter to the British Isles, north- 
ern Europe, Caspian Sea and central Asia. 

Cygnus bewickii jankowskii Alpheraky 

Cygnus bewicki jankowskii Alpheraky, Priroda i Okhota, Sept., 1904, 
p. 10. (Ussuriland.) In Russian: cf. Buturlin, Ibis, 1907, p, 651, 

Breeds from delta of the Lena to the delta of the Kolyma; south to China 
and Japan in winter. 



144 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Cygnus columbianus (Ord) 

Anas Columbianus Ord, in Guthrie, Geog., 2nd Am. ed., 2, 1815, p. 319, 
(The Dalles, Oregon, ex Lewis and Clark Exp., 2, p. 192.) 

Breeds in North America chiefly north of the Arctic Circle from Alaska 
to Hudson Bay, north to about lat. 79°; St. Lawrence Island. Winters 
principally along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts from southern Alaska to 
California and from Chesapeake Bay to Currituck Sound. 

Cygnus buccinator Richardson 

Cygnus buccinator Richardson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor. 
Am., 2, 1831 (1832), p. 464. (Hudson Bay.) 

Now breeds from British Columbia to the west shore of Hudson Bay and 
locally to Wyoming; in winter south to southern California and Texas and 
casually further east. 

Cygnus olor (Gmelin) 

Anas Olor Gmehn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 502. (Restricted type 
locality, Russia; cf. Oberholser, antea, p. 9.) 

Now breeds in southern Scandinavia, Denmark, east Russia, central 
and southern Russia, lower Danube valley, Asia Minor and Persia east 
through Turkestan to Mongolia; in winter to northern Africa, Black Sea, 
northwestern India and Korea. 

Cygnus melancoriphus (Molina) 
Anas Melancoripha Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 234. (Chile.) 
Paraguay, southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Falkland 

Islands. 

Genus CHENOPIS Wagler 

Chenopis Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1234. Type, by monotypy, Ch. atrata 
= Anas atrata Latham. 
cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1914, p. 10-22. 
Oberholser, Emu, 8, 1908, p. 9-11. 

Chenopis atrata (Latham) 
Anas atrata Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 834. (Lakes of Australia.) 
Chenopis atrata roberti Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 446. (West 

Australia.) 
Austraha (except north central) and Tasmania. 

Subfamily PLECTROPTERINAE 

Genus ANSERANAS Lesson 

Anseranas Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 418. Type, by monotypy, 

Anas melanoleuca Latham = Anas semipalmata Latham. 
cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1914, p. 23-33. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 145 

Anseranas semipalmata (Latham) 
Anas semipalmata Latham, Trans. Limi. Soc. London, 4, 1798, p. 103. 

(Hawkesbury River, New South Wales.) 
Anseranas semipalmata hamiltoni Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, 

p. 85. (Northwest AustraHa. Type from Parry's Creek.) 
Southern New Guinea and AustraUa. 

Genus PLECTROPTERUS Stephens 

Pledropterus Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12, pt. 2, 1824, p. 6. Type, 
by subsequent designation, Anas gambensis Linn^. (Eyton, Monogr. 
Anat., 1838, p. 10.) 
cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 49-56. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 45. 

Plectropterus gambensis gambensis (Linne) 

Anas gambensis Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 195. (Gambia.) 
Africa from Gambia, Kordof an and the White Nile south to the Zambesi. 

Plectropterus gambensis niger P. L. Sclater 
Plectropterus niger P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 47. 

(Type a cage bird said to have come from Zanzibar.) 
Africa south of the Zambesi. 

Subfamily CEREOPSINAE 

Genus CEREOPSIS Latham 

Cereopsis Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. Ixvii. Type, by monotypy, 
Cereopsis n. hollandice Latham. 
cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1914, p. 44-52. 

Cereopsis n. hollandiae Latham 

Cereopsis N. Hollandice Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. Ixvii. (New 

South Wales = Islands of Bass Straits, apud Mathews.) 
Cereopsis novaehollandiae georgi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 446. 

(Twin-Peak Island, southwest AustraUa.) 
Islands off south and southwest AustraUa and in Bass Straits. 

Subfamily ANSERINAE 

Genus CHEN Boie 

Chen, Boie, Isis von Oken, 10, 1822, col. 563. Type, by monotypy, Anser 
hyperboreus PaUas. 
cf. Bent, BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 130, 1925, p. 164-188. 
Kennard, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 9, 1927, p. 85-93. 



146 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Chen cserulescens (Linne) 

Anas ccerulescens Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. (Hudson 
Bay.) 

Breeds on southwestern part of Baffin Island. Winters chiefly on coast 
of Louisiana. Casual elsewhere, 

Chen hyperborea (Pallas) 

Anser hyperboreus Pallas, Spic. Zool., fasc. 6, 1769, p. 31. (Northeastern 
Siberia.) 

Breeds in North America east to Melville Peninsula and Southampton 
Island (east shore of Hudson Bay?), also on the Arctic Islands just north. 
Almost certainly breeds in northeastern Siberia and perhaps further west. 
In winter south on the coast of Asia to Japan and most of temperate North 
America but uncommon east of the Mississippi. Occasional in Europe. 

Chen atlantica Kennard 

Chen atlantica Kennard, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 9, 1927, p. 93. (Prin- 
cess Anne Club, Back Bay, Princess Anne County, Virginia.) 

Breeds on coasts of northern Greenland and eastern EUesmere Land, 
Devon Island (?), Bylot Island(?). In winter on the Atlantic seaboard from 
Chesapeake Bay to North Carolina. 

Chen rossii (Cassin) 

Anser Rossii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, p. 73. (Great 
Slave Lake.) 

Breeding range unknown, possibly on Arctic coast or islands of North 
America east of Kent Peninsula. Winters in the interior valleys of Cali- 
fornia. 

Genus ANSER Brisson 

Anser Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 58. Type, by tautonymy, Anser domesti- 
cus = Anas anser Linn6. 

Melanonyx Buturlin: Psovaia i Rusheinaia Okhota, 1901, p. 22. 

cf. Alpheraky, Geese Europe and Asia, 1905, p. 24-132. 
Bent, BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 130, 1925, p. 188-204. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1278-1288. 
Pleske, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 6, 1928, p. 313-319. 

Anser anser (Linn6) 

Anas Anser Linn6, Syst, Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. (Restricted type 
locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland; Europe north of a line from Friesland to the lower 
Danube, Macedonia, southern Russia, northern and central Asia to 
Ussuriland and Kamchatka. In winter south to the Mediterranean, north- 
western Africa, northwestern India and China. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 147 

' Anser albifrons albifrons (Scopoli) 

Branta albifrons Scopoli, Annus I, Hist. Nat., 1769, p. 69. (Northern 
Italy?.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Finmark, Novaya Zemlj'-a, Kanin Peninsula, Kol- 
guev Island, Arctic coast of Siberia to Bering Straits, New Siberian Islands 
and Arctic America from Yukon delta to Anderson River; western Green- 
land between 66° and 72° N. In winter to both shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, Black and Caspian Seas, northern India, China and Japan; west- 
ern North America south to Jalisco and the GuLf coast. 

Anser albifrons gambelli Hartlaub 

Anser Gambelli Hartlaub, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1852, p. 7. (Texas and 
southern United States.) 

Breeding range unknown, probably somewhere east of the Mackenzie 
Delta. Winters in the Sacramento VaUey, California.^ 

Anser erythropus (Linn6) 

Anas erythropus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. (Restricted 
type locality. North Sweden. Lonnberg, Ibis, 1913, p. 401-402.) 

Anser rhodorhynchus Buturlin, Psovaia i Rusheinaia Okhota, 1901, p. 19. 
(Northern Asia.) 

Breeds on the alpine mountains from Russian Lapland to the Kolyma 
and perhaps to the Chuckchi Peninsula. Winters south to southern Eu- 
rope, Egypt, Turkestan, northwest India, China and Japan. 

Anser fabalis fabalis (Latham) 

Anas Fabalis Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl., 1, 1787, p. 297. (Great 
Britain.) 

Anser (Melanonyx) carneirostris Buturhn, Psovaia i Rusheinaia Okhota, 
1901, p. 28, 44. (Novaya Zemlya.) 

Anser oatesi Rickett, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 11, 1901, p. 46. (Foochow, 
Fokien, China — based on fragments of a single example.) 

Breeds from the Kanin Peninsula(?), and mouth of the Pechora, Kolguev 
Island, Novaya Zemlya, Vaigatch and Yalmal Peninsula to the lower 
Yenessei between lat. 69°-71° N. In winter south to the Mediterranean, 
Black and Caspian Seas, Turkestan. Casual as far as China. 

Anser fabalis sibiricus * (Alpheraky) 

Melanonyx arvensis sibiricus Alpheraky, Geese Europe and Asia, 1905, 
p. 104, pi. 10, 23. (East Siberia.) 

Breeds along the Arctic coast of Siberia from the Taimyr Peninsula to 
the Chuckclii Peninsula. In winter to China and Japan. 

1 Swarth and Bryant, Univ. Calif. Publ. ZooL, 17, 1917, p. 209-222. Kuroda, 
Condor, 31, 1929, p. 173-180. 

* = Anser middendorffi, (part) of Sharpe. 



148 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Anser f abalis serrirostris Swinhoe 

Anser segetum var. serrirostris Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, 

p. 417. (Near Amoy, China.) 
IMelanonyx segetum anadyrensis ButurHn, Nascha Ochota, Heft 11, 

1908, p. 21-28. (Anadyr.) 
"f Anser fahalis curtus Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1923, p. 277. (Shansi, 

China.) 
Nests at the mouth of the Yenessei and in the northern part of Gouvern- 
ment of Yakutsk (lower Lena, Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers) to the 
Chuckchi Peninsula. In winter to China and Japan. 

Anser neglectus Sushkin 

Anser neglectus Sushkin, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 5, 1896, p. 6. (No type 
locality = Gouvernment of Ufa, east Russia, ex Ibis, 1897, p. 5-8.) 

Believed to breed on Novaya Zemlya and Kolguev Island. Apparently 
migrates through the Gouvernment of Ufa and winters in Hungary. 

Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon 

Anser Brachyrhynchus Baillon, Mem. Soc. R. Abbeville, 1833, p. 74. 
(Abbeville on the lower Somme, France.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Spitzbergen and possibly Franz Josef Land and the 
Kola Peninsula. Winters in northwestern Europe. 

Genus EULABEIA Reichenbach 

Eulabeia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853) p. ix. Type, by orig- 
inal designation. Anas indica Latham. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1288-1289. (Sub nom. Anser 
indicus.) 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 4, 1929, p. 405-407. 

Eulabeia indica (Latham) 

Anas indica Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 839. (India in winter, and 
Tibet.) 

Breeds on the lakes of high central Asia from the Tian-Shans (and Ala- 
tau) to Ladakh and Kokonor. Winters from Sind to Assam and northern 
Burma. 

Genus CYGNOPSIS J. F. Brandt 

Cygnopsis J. F. Brandt, Descr. et Icon. Anim. Ross. Nov. Aves, fasc. 1, 
1836, p. 5. Type, by subsequent designation. Anas cygnoid [es] Linn6. 
(Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 73.) 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1276-1277. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 149 

Cygnopsis cygnoid (Linne) 

Anas Cygnoid Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122. (Asia.) 
Siberia from the Tobol and the Ob to Kamchatka, the Commander and 

Kurile Islands south to the Altai, Lake Baikal and Ussuri. Winters in 

China. 

Genus PHILACTE Bannister 

Philade Bannister, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, p. 131. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas canagica Sewastianov. 

cf. Bent, BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 130, 1925, p. 263-269. 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1289-1290. (Sub nom. Anser 
canagicus.) 

- Philacte canagica (Sewastianov) 

Anas Canagica Sewastianov, Nova Acta Acad. Sci. Imp. St. P^tersb., 13, 
1802, p. 349, pi. 10. (Kanaga Island, Aleutian Islands.) 

Breeds on the northeast coast of Siberia, northwest coast of Alaska and 
on St. Lawrence Island. Winters chiefly in the Aleutian Islands. 

Genus BRANTA Scopoli 

Branta ScopoU, Annus I, Hist. Nat., 1769, p. 67. Ty^e, by subsequent 
designation. Anas bernicla Linn^. (Bannister, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
PhUa., 1870, p. 131.) 

cf. Bent, BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 130, 1925, p. 204-263. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1292-1299. 
Schiller, Danmarks Fugle, 1, 1925, p. 497-523. 

Branta bernicla bernicla (Linn^) 

Anas Bernicla Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. (Northern 
Europe = Sweden.) 

Breeds in northern Europe and Asia from Novaya Zemlya to the Taimyr 
Peninsula; Franz Joseph Land; Kolguev Island. Winters on the coasts of 
northwestern Europe. 

Branta bernicla hrota (0. F. Miiller) 

Anas Hrota 0. F. Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prodr., 1776, p. 14. (Iceland.) 

Breeds in Arctic America from long. 100° W. (110° W.?) south tolat. 
74° N., on both western and eastern coasts of Greenland south to 70° N., 
and on Spitzbergen. Winters chiefly on the Atlantic coast of the United 
States from New Jersey to North CaroUna, also on the coasts of north- 
western Europe. 

_Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence) 

Anser nigricans Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 4, 1846, p. 171, 
pi. 12. (Egg Harbor, New Jersey.) 



150 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds on the Arctic coasts of Siberia from the Taimyr Peninsula and 
New Siberian Islands eastward; Arctic America on the mainland east to 
Coronation GuK and on the islands east to long. 110° W. (100° W.?). 
In winter on western shores of the Pacific south to Japan and northern 
China and on the east from Vancouver Island to Lower California. 

Branta leucopsis (Bechstein) 

Anas leiicopsis Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., Th. 2, 1803, p. 424. (Ger- 
many.) 

Breeds in northeastern Greenland and in Spitzbergen. In winter to the 
British Isles and the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas. 

Branta canadensis canadensis (Linn6) 

Anas canadensis Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. (Canada.) 

Breeds in North America south of the Barren Grounds. Upper Yukon, 
Mackenzie (Fort Anderson), Labrador (Okak) south to northeastern Cali- 
fornia, northern Utah, northern Colorado, South Dakota, James Bay, Gulf 
of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland. Winters chiefly in the United States. 

Branta canadensis hutchinsii (Richardson) 

Anser Hutchinsii Richardson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.- 
Am., 2, 1831 (1832), p. 470. (MelviUe Peninsula.) 

Breeds in northeastern Siberia and on the Commander and Kurile 
Islands; Barren Grounds of North America from northern Alaska east to 
southern Baffin Land, Southampton Island and west shore of Hudson Bay 
(ChurchiU), north to Victoria Land and Boothia Peninsula. Winters south 
to Japan and in the western United States. 

Branta canadensis occidentalis (Baird) 

Bernicla occidentalis Baird, Report Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pac, 9, 1858, 
p. 766. (Port Townsend, Washington.) 

Resident from Prince William Sound, Alaska, to the Queen Charlotte 
Islands. 

Branta canadensis minima Ridgway 

Branta minima Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, 1885, p. 22. (Pacific 
coast of North America = St. Michaels, Alaska.) 

Breeds on the Bering Sea coast of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 
Winters west of the Rocky Mountains from southern British Columbia to 
San Diego County, California. 

Branta ruficollis (Pallas) 

Anser ruficollis Pallas, Spic. ZooL, fasc. 6, 1769, p. 21, pi. 4. (Lower Ob, 
southern Russia.) 

Breeds on the Siberian Tundra from the Ob to the Khatanga. Winters in 
the southern part of the Caspian Sea and in the Aral Sea. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 151 

Genus NESOCHEN Salvadori 

Nesochen, Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 81 (in key) p. 126. 
Type, by original designation and monotypy, Anser sandvicensis 
Vigors. 
cf. Wilson and Evans, Aves Hawaiienses, pt. 4, 1893 [= p. 187-189 and 
pi.]. 

-Nesochen sandvicensis (Vigors) 

Anser sandvicensis Vigors, List Anim. Garden Zool. Soc, ed. 3, 1833, p. 4. 
(Hawaiian Islands.) 

Hawaiian Islands. Now nearly extinct in the wild state. 

Genus CHLOEPHAGA Eyton 

Chloephaga Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 13. Type, by original desig- 
nation, Anas magellanica Gmelin = Anas leucoptera Gmelin. 

cf. Blaauw, Ibis, 1920, p. 497-498. 

Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, 1917, p. 75. 
Wetmore, Univ. Cal. Publ. Zool., 24, 1926, p. 415. 

Chloephaga melanoptera (Eyton) 

Anser melanopterus Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 93. (Lake Titicaca.) 

Western South America from the highlands of Peru and Bolivia to the 
Straits of Magellan. 

Chloephaga leucoptera (Gmelin) 

Anas leucoptera Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 505. (Falkland 
Islands.) 

Southern Chile, southern Argentina, Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands. 

Chloephaga dispar (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Bernicla dispar Philippi and Landbeck, An. Univ. Chile, 21, 1862, p. 431. 
(Chile.) 

Pacific slope of the Chilean cordiUera to the Straits of Magellan. 

■ Chloephaga poliocephala Sclater 

Chloephaga poliocephala Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 128. 
(ex pi. 165 in Gray, Gen. Bds.) 

Southern Chile, southern Argentina and Tierra del Fuego. 

-Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater 

Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 387, 
pi. 173. (Falkland Islands.) 

Falkland Islands; occasional in southern Argentina. 



152 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

— '-- Chloephaga hybrida hybrida (Molina) 

Anas Hybrida Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 24L (Chiloe 
Island.) 

Chile from Chiloe southward, southern Argentina, Tierra del Fuego. 

Chloephaga hybrida malvinarum Phillips 

Chloephaga hybrida malvinarum Phillips, Auk, 33, 1916, p. 423. (Port 
Stephens, West Falkland, Falkland Islands.) 

Falkland Islands. 

Genus CYANOCHEN Bonaparte 

Cyanochen Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 1856, p. 648. 
Type, by monotypy, Bernicla cyanoptera Riippell. 

^ cf. Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1900, p. 138-139. 

Cyanochen cyanopterus (Riippell) 

Bernicla cyanoptera Riippell, Syst. Uebers., 1845, p. 129, pi. 47. (Shoa.) 
Highlands of Ethiopia and Shoa. 

Genus CHENONETTA Brandt 

Chenonetta Brandt, Descr. Icon. Anim. Ross. Nov. Aves, fasc. 1, 1836, 
p. 5. Type, by monotypy, Anser lophotus Brandt = Anas jubata 
Latham. 

cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1914, p. 51-59. 

— Chenonetta jubata (Latham) 

Anas jubata Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl., 1801, p. Ixix. (New South Wales.) 

Chenonetta jubata alexanderi Mathews, Austral. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 56. 
(Northwest Australia.) 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE 

Genus DENDROCYGNA Swainson 

Dendrocygna Swainson, Classif. Bds., 2, 1837, p. 365. Type, by subse- 
quent designation, Anas arcuata Horsfield. 
(Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 28.) 

Ctenanas Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 90. (New name for 
Leptotarsis Eyton [type, by monotypy, Leptotarsis eytoni Eyton] on 
grounds of preoccupation by Leptotarsus Guerin.) 

cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 115-182. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 153 

• Dendrocygna viduata (Linne) 

Anas viduata Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 205. (Carthagena. 

Colombia.) 
Tropical South America south to the Argentine Chaco, Paraguay and 
Uruguay. Africa south of the Sahara to southern Angola and the Umlazi 
River; Madagascar; Comoro Islands. 

Dendrocygna bicolor helva Wetmore and Peters 

Dendrocygna bicolor helva Wetmore and Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
35, 1922, p. 42. (Unlucky Lake, San Diego County, California.) 

Breeds locally from southern California east to southeastern Texas and 
south to Lake Chapala and the Valley of Mexico. In winter south to Gue- 
rrero and Tabasco. 

Dendrocygna bicolor bicolor (Vieillot) 

Anas bicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 136. (Paraguay.) 
Northern tropical South America from Colombia to the Guianas; Trini- 
dad; Brazil from Bahia southwest to Tucuman thence southeast to Buenos 
Aires Province. East Africa from Kordofan and Sennar to Natal; Mada- 
gascar; India and Ceylon; Bengal to Pegu. 

Dendrocygna arcuata (Horsfield) 

Anas arcuata Horsfield, Zool. Res. Java, pt. 8, 1824, pi. [64.] (Java.) 
Dendrocygna javanica peroni Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 86. 

(Northwest AustraUa.) 
Philippines, Borneo, Java, Bali, Sumba, Celebes, Timor, Moluccas, east- 
ern New Guinea, Australia, New Caledonia, Fiji Islands. 

Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield) 

Anas Javanica Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 199. 
(Java.) 

India from Sind eastward to the coast of southern China, south over the 
Indian Peninsula, Ceylon, Nicobar Islands, Malay Peninsula, Siam and 
Cochin China; Riu Kiu Islands, southwestern half of Borneo; Sumatra; 
Java. 

Dendrocygna autumnalis autumnalis (Linne) 

Anas autumnalis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 127. (America.) 
Sinaloa, Nuevo Leon and southeastern Texas south to the Canal Zone. 

Dendrocygna autumnalis discolor Sclater and Salvin 

Dendrocygna discolor Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., 1873, 

p. 161. (Venezuela, Guiana and Brazil.) 
Eastern Panama and tropical South America to Guayaquil on the west, 

east over Amazonia and the Guianas to southern Brazil (Sao Paulo); 

northern Argentina? Trinidad, and occasional in some of the southern 

Lesser Antilles. 



154 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Dendrocygna arborea (Linn^) 

Anas arborea Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (America = 
Jamaica.) 

Bahama Islands, Greater Antilles, Virgin Islands, northern Lesser 
Antilles. 

Dendrocygna guttata Schlegel 

Dendrocygna guttulata Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 36. 
(Buru, Ceram and Celebes) nomen nudum. 

Dendrocygna guttata Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 6, 1866, Anseres, p. 85. 
(Celebes.) 

Basilan and Mindanao, Celebes, Moluccas, Buru, Ceram, Amboina, 
Tenimber, Aru and Kei Islands, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago. 
(Gunantambu Island.) 

Dendrocygna eytoni (Eyton) 

Leptotarsis Eytoni Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 111. (Northwest 
Australia.) 

Dendrocygna eytoni munna Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 86. 

([Northwest] AustraUa.) 
Australia and Tasmania. 

Subfamily ANATINAE 

Genus ALOPOCHEN Stejneger 

Alopochen Stejneger, Standard Nat. Hist., 4, 1885, p. 141. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation, Anas cegyptiaca Linn6. (Oberholser, Journ. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, 1918, p. 572.) 

cj. Philhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 187-199. 

Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linn6) 

Anas cegyptiaca Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 197. (Egypt.) 

Africa south of the Sahara, also the entire Nile Valley; southern Pales- 
tine. Numerous instances of casual occurrence in Europe. 

Genus NEOCHEN Oberholser 

Neochen Oberholser, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, 1918, p. 571. Type, by 
original designation and monotypy, Anser jubatus Spix. 

cf. Philhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 200-203. 

Neochen jubata (Spix) 

Anser jubatus Spix, Av. Bras., 2, 1825, p. 84, pi. 108. ("Ad ripam fl. 
Solimoens in insula Praya das Ongas.") 

Basins of the Orinoco and the Amazon and their affluents. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 155 

Genus SARKIDIORNIS Etton 

Sarkidiomis 'Eytou, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 20. Type, by original 
designation, Anser melanotos Pennant. 
cf. Phillips, Xat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 68-79. 

■Sarkidiomis melanota (Pennant) 

Anser melanotos Pennant, Indian Zool., 1769, p. 12, pi. 11. (Ceylon.) 
Africa from Gambia and the Sudan south to Cape Colony; Madagascar; 
India and Ceylon, Burma, Tenasserim, Siam and southeastern China. 

• Sarkidiomis caninculata (Lichtenstein) 

Anas carmiculata Lichtenstein, Abh. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Phys. KI., 
1816-17 (1819) p. 176. (Brazil, ex Marcgrave.) 

Eastern tropical South America from Venezuela south to northern 
Argentina, Paraguay and southern Brazil (Sao Paulo). 

Genus CAIRINA Flemng 

Cairina Fleming, Philos. Zool., 2, 1822, p. 260. Type, by monotypy, 
Anas moschata Linne. 
cf. Philhps, Xat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 57-67. 

■Cairina moschata (Linne) 

Arwzsmosc/iotoLinne, Syst. Nat.,ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. ("India." Brazil 

substituted by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 1902, p. 131.) 

Mexico (iSIazatlan and central Tamaulipas) south through Central 

America and South America to the coast of Peru on the west and to La 

Plata estuary in the east; casual to the Rio Negro, Argentina. 

Genus ASARCORNIS Salvadori 

Asarcornis, Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 46 (in key), 
p. 59. Type, by original designation and monotypy, Anas scutulata 

S. MiiUer. 

cf. Philhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 80-84. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., Bds., 6, 1929, p. 387-389. 

Asarcornis scutulata (S. MiiUer) 

Anas scutulata S. Mliller, Verh. Nat. Ges. Ned. Land-en Volkenk., 1842, 

p. 159 (Java.) 
Assam south through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Java. 

Genus COSCOROBA Reichenbach 

Coscoroba Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853) p. x. Type, by 
original designation and tautonymy, Anser candidus Vieillot = An,as 
coscoroba Molina. 
cf. Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 42-44. 



156 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina) 

Anas Coscoroba Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 234. (Chile.) 
Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Falkland Islands. 

Genus CASARCA Bonaparte 

Casarca Bonaparte, Comp. List Bds. Europe and North America, 1838, 
p. 56. Type, by monotypy and tautonjmay Anas rutila Pallas = Anas 
casarca Linne = Anas ferruginea Pallas. 

of. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 230-264. 

Casarca ferruginea (Pallas) 

Anas ferruginea Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat. 1764, Adumbr., p. 5. (No type 
locality given = Tartary.) 

Breeds chiefly from southeastern Europe and western Mediterranean 
lands north and east across Asia to Transbaikalia, and the upper Amur, 
south to Persia, the Himalayas and southwestern China. Winters in the 
southern half of its breeding range and to the Nile Valley; India and south- 
ern China. 

Casarca cana (Gmelin) 
Anas cana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 510. (Cape of Good 

Hope.) 
Cape Province, Orange Free State, Transvaal. 

Casarca tadornoides (Jardine and Selby) 
Anas tadornoides Jardine and Selby, 111. Cm., 2, 1828, pi. 62 and text. 

(New South Wales.) 
Casarca tadornoides westralis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 118. 

(Southwest Australia, type from Augusta.) 

West and South Austraha, Victoria and Tasmania. 

Casarca variegata (Gmelin) 
Anas variegata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 505. (New Zealand 
= Dusky Sound, ex Latham.) 

New Zealand. 

Genus STICTONETTA Reichenbach 

Stictonetta Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853) p. ix. Type, by 

original designation. Anas ncevosa Gould, 
c/. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 92-93. 

Stictonetta ngevosa (Gould) 
Anas ncBvosa Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), p. 177. (West 
Australia.) 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 157 

Stidonetta ncevosa lesueuri Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 87. 
(New South Wales.) 

Stidonetta hranda Mathews, Bds. Austr., 4, 1915, pi. 215. (New South 
Wales.) 

West Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. 

Genus TADORNA Fleming 

Tadorna Fleming, Philos. ZooL, 2, 1822, p. 260. Type, by tautonymy, 
Anas tadorna Linn^. 

c/. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1301-1303. 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 204-227. 

•Tadorna tadorna (Linne) 

Anas Tadorna Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122. (Coasts of 
Europe = Sweden.) 

Breeds on the coasts of Norway and southern Sweden, British Isles, 
coast of France, east to Esthonia; locally about the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, Black and Caspian Seas and eastward on the saline lakes of central 
Asia to East Siberia, Mongoha and Tibet. Winters from the southern part 
of its breeding range to northern Africa, Arabia, India, South China and 
Japan. 

Tadorna radjah radjah (Lesson) 

Anas radjah "Lesson and Garnot," Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 417. 
(Buru.) 

Moluccas, Ceram, Buru, Waigiu, Salawatti, New Guinea and the Aru 
Islands. 

Tadorna radjah rufitergum Hartert 

Tadorna radjah rufitergum Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 12, 1905, p. 205. (South 
AUigator River, Northern Territory.) 

Tadorna radjah flindersi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 86. 
(Cooktown, Queensland.) 

Northern and eastern tropical Australia. 

Genus PSEUDOTADORNA Kuroda 

Pseudotadorna Kuroda, Tori, 1, 1917, p. 1. Type, by monotypy, Pseudo- 
tadorna cristata Kuroda. 

cf. PhilUps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 228-229. 

Pseudotadorna cristata Kuroda 

Pseudotadorna cristata Kuroda, Tori, 1, 1917, p. 1, f. 1. (Naktung 
River, near Fusan, Korea.) 



158 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Pseudotadorna cornuta "Kuroda," Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, 

p. 1305. (Substitute name for P. cristata.) 
Known only from three (to 1930) specimens, two from Korea and one 
from near Vladivostok. Possibly a hybrid. 

Genus NESONETTA G. R. Gkay 

Nesonetta G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, 1844, p. 627. Type, by original 
designation, Nesonetta aucklandica G. R. Gray. 
cf. PhilHps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 89-91. 

Nesonetta aucklandica G. R. Gray 

Nesonetta aucklandica G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, 1844, p. 627, pi. 169, f. 4 

(head). (Auckland Islands.) 
Auckland Islands. 

Genus ANAS Linne 

Anas Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122. T3T)e, by subsequent 
designation, Anas boschas Linne = Anas platyrhynchos Linne. (Les- 
son, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 417.) 

Lophonetta Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, 1914, p. 100. Type, by 
original designation. Anas cristata Gmelin. 

Horizonetta Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, 1917, p. 119. Type, 
by original designation, Anas laysanensis Rothschild. 

Afranas Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 204. Type, by original 
designation. Anas undulata Dubois. 

Melananas Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 204. Type, by orig- 
inal designation. Anas sparsa Eyton. 

Micronetta Roberts, Ann. Trgjisv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 204. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Anas punctata Burchell. 

Notonetta Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 204. Type, by orig- 
inal designation. Anas capensis Gmelin. 

Sihirionetta Boetticher, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 2, 1929, p. 11 (sub- 
genus). Type, by original designation, Anas formosa Georgi. 

Amazonetta Boetticher, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 2, 1929, p. 12. Type, by 
original designation. Anas braziliensis Gmelin. 

Speculanas Boetticher, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 2, 1929, p. 14. Type, by 
original designation. Anas specularis King. 
cj. Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 126, 1923, p. 34-75; 98-130; 144-158. 
(Anas, Eunetta, Nettion, Querquedula, Dafila, Poecilonetta.) 
Boetticher, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 2, 1929, p. 10-15.^ 

1 I believe it best to follow the treatment of this genus as constituted by 
Hartert and by Phillips. The only other alternative is to break it up into a large 
number of genera and subgenera, each one monotypic. It does seem, however, 
that the "Widgeons" constitute a small, well-defined group, so I maintain 
Mareca, and for similar reasons Chaulelasmus, is also kept distinct. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 159 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1306-1328. (Except strepera, 

penelope and americana.) 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 214-218. (Except 

Mareca and Nesonetta.) 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 2, 1923, p. 3-409. (Except penelope, 

americana, sibilatrix, strepera, and couesi.) 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 3-9. 
Schiller, Damnarks Fugle, 1, 1925, p. 269-349. (Nettion, Dafila, 

Anas, Querquedula.) 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 41-43. 

"Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos Linne 

Anas platyrhynchos Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Europe, 
restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Europe and Asia from the Arctic Circle south to the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, Asia Minor, northern Persia, Turkestan, Tibet, Central China, 
Korea and northern Japan; also Iceland ( = A. p. subboschas Brehm, if the 
race is valid) and the Azores. In North America from northern Alaska and 
the Mackenzie Delta to the west shore of Hudson Bay (Fort Churchill), 
south to northern Lower California, southern New Mexico, eastern Kansas, 
central Missouri, southern Ohio and the upper James River in Virginia. 
Winters from southern half of its breeding range to northern Africa, Nile 
Valley, Persian Gulf, India, Burma, southern China, Japan, southern 
Mexico and Florida. Many casual records. 

Anas platyrhynchos conboschas C. L. Brehm 

Anas conboschas C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 
p. 865. (Greenland.) 

Breeds on the coasts of Greenland, on the west, north to Upernavik and 
on the east, north to Angmagsalik. 

Anas wyvilliana Sclater 

Anas wyvilliana Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1878, p. 350. (Ha- 
waiian Islands.) 

Hawaiian Islands. Accidental at Mazatlan, Mexico {Anas aberti Ridg- 
way). 

-Anas oustaleti Salvadori 

Anas oustaleti Salvadori, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 4, 1894, p. 1. (Marianne 

Islands.) 
Islands of Guam, Saipan and Tinian, Marianne Group. 

-Anas laysanensis Rothschild 

Anas laysanensis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 1, 1892, p. 17. (Lay- 
san Island.) 

Laysan Island. (14 birds left in 1923.) 



160 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Anas poecilorhyncha zonorhyncha Swinhoe 

Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe, Ibis, 1866, p. 394. (Ningpo, China.) 
Eastern Asia from Dauria, the Amur River, southern Sakhahn and the 

Kurile Islands south to southern China and Formosa. 

Anas poecilorhyncha haringtoni (Gates) 

Polionetta haringtoni Gates, Jo urn. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 17, 1907, 

p. 558. (Shan States.) 
Burma, Shan States, Yunnan. 

Anas poecilorhyncha poecilorhyncha J. R. Forster 

Anas poecilorhyncha J. R. Forster, Zool. Indica, 1781, p. 23, pi. 13, f. 1. 

(Ceylon.) 
The whole of India to western Assam; Ceylon. 

Anas superciliosa pelewensis Hartlaub and Finsch 

Anas superciliosa var. pelewensis Hartlaub and Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1872, p. 108. (Pelew Islands.) 

Pelew Islands, northern New Guinea, Solomon, Fiji, Samoan and Tonga 
Islands and Tahiti. 

Anas superciliiosa percna Riley 

Anas superciliosa percna Riley, Proc, Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, 1919, p. 93. 
(Koelawi, Celebes.) 

Celebes. (This is probably the form found in western Sumatra, Java, 
Lesser Sunda Islands and Buru.) 

Anas superciliosa rogersi Mathews 

Anas superciliosa rogersi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 33. 

(Augusta, southwest Australia.) 
Australia and Tasmania. 

Anas superciliosa superciliosa Gmelin 
Anas superciliosa Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 537. (New Zea- 
land.) 
New Zealand. 

Anas luzonica Fraser 

Anas Luzonica Fraser, Proc, Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 113. (Island of 

Luzon.) 
Philippine Islands. 

Anas melleri Sclater 

Anas melleri Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864 (1865), p. 487, pi. 34. 

(Madagascar.) 
Madagascar; Mauritius (introduced). 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 161 

■— - Anas fulvigula fulvigula Ridgway 

Anas obscura yar. fulvigula Ridgway, Am. Nat., 8, 1874, p. 111. (St. 

John's River, Florida.) 
Gulf coast of Florida (possibly Alabama), and north on the east coast of 
Florida to the St. John's River. 

- — Anas fulvigula maculosa Sennett 

Anas maculosa Sennett, Auk, 6, 1889, p. 263. (Nueces Bay, Texas.) 
Gulf coast of the United States from Texas to Mississippi. 

*--^" Anas diazi diazi Ridgway 

Anas diazi Ridgway, Auk, 3, 1886, p. 332. (San Ysidoro, Puebla, 
Mexico.) 

Highlands of Central Mexico. 

— — Anas diazi novimexicana Huber 

Anas novimexicana Huber, Auk, 37, 1920, p. 273. (Rio Grande, west of 

Las Cruces, Dona Ana Co., New Mexico.) 
Southwestern United States in the upper Rio Grande Valley. 

' — -- Anas rubripes rubripes Brewster 

Anas obscura rubripes Brewster, Auk, 19, 1902, p. 184. (New Hampshire 

shore of Lake Umbagog.) 
Breeds from the west shore of Hudson Bay (Fort Churchill?) to southern 
James Bay and Lake Superior; eastward limits not known. Winters south 
to the Gulf of Mexico and on the entire Atlantic coast to Florida. 

— — Anas rubripes tristis Brewster 

Anas rubripes tristis Brewster, Auk, 26, 1909, p. 176. (New name for 
Anas obscura Gmehn [not Pontoppidan] New York, ex Latham.) 

Breeds chiefly along the Atlantic coast from Labrador to North Caro- 
lina; westward limits not known. In winter from Nova Scotia to Florida 
and on the Gulf coast. 

Anas undulata ruppelli Blyth 

Anas Ruppelli Blji;h, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 24, 1856, p. 265. (Cen- 
tral Africa = inner northeast Africa.) 

Upper Blue Nile and Ethiopian Lake region. 

— Anas undulata undulata DuBois 

Anas undulata DuBois, Orn. Gall., 1, 1837, p. 119, pi. 77. (Cape of Good 
Hope.) 

Africa from Angola, Uganda and Kenya Colony southward. 



162 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Anas sparsa leucostigma Riippell 

A7ias leucostigma Riippell, Syst. Uebers. Vog. N.-O. Afr., 1845, p. 130, 
138, pi. 48. (Abyssinia.) 

Eastern Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and western Ethiopia south through 
eastern Congo, Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory, southern limit 
not known. 

Anas sparsa sparsa Eyton 

Anas sparsa Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 142. (South Africa.) 
South Africa, northern Limits not known. 

Anas chlorotis G. R. Gray 

Anas chlorotis G. R. Gray, Voy. 'Erebus' and 'Terror,' Bds., 1845, p. 15, 
pi. 20. (New Zealand.) 

New Zealand and Chatham Island. 

Anas cyanoptera cyanoptera Vieillot 

Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 104. (La 
Plata River and Buenos Aires.) 

Breeds in North America from southern British Columbia and the cen- 
tral valleys of the Pacific states to the western edge of the Great Plains, 
south to northern Lower California and central Mexico. Winters in 
Mexico and Central America. Breeds also in South America from Argen- 
tina and Chile southward, and in the Falkland Islands. Occurs regularly 
and perhaps breeds in Colombia and Ecuador. 

Anas cyanoptera orinomus (Oberholser) 

Qnerquedula orinomus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, 1906, p. 93. 
(Puna, Lake Titicaca, Peru.) 

Andean plateau of Peru and Bolivia. 

Anas discors Linn6 

Anas discors Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 205. (North America 
= Virginia or Carolina.) 

Querquedida discors albinucha Kennard, Auk, 36, 1919, p. 459. (Grand 
Chenier, Cameron Parish, Louisiana.) 

Breeds in North America east of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada from 
Great Slave Lake and Lake Winnipeg (rarely to the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and northern New England) south to Nevada, New Mexico and Louisiana. 
Winters south over Mexico, Central America and the West Indies to north- 
ern South America (Peru on the west and Cayenne on the northeast). 

Anas querquedula Linne 

Anas Querquedida Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Europe, 
restricted type locality, Sweden.) 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 163 

Breeds in southeastern England, southern Sweden, Finland and north- 
ern Russia east across Asia (south of lat. 60° N.) to Kamchatka; south to 
France, Italy, Black and Caspian Seas, Turkestan, Tibet(?) , Manchuria and 
northern Japan (Hokkaido). Winters from the Mediterranean to West 
Africa (Nigeria), upper Egypt and Kenya Colony; southern Arabia, India, 
Indo-Chinese countries, Sunda Islands, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas 
and New Guinea. 

Anas castanea (Eyton) 

Mareca castanea Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 119, pi. [19]. (New 
South Wales.) 

Virago castanea alexanderi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 56, 
(Southwest Austraha.) 

Australia (absent from the north coast and the interior) ; Tasmania, 

Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons S. Miiller 

Anas (Mareca) gibberifrons S. Miiller, Verb. nat. ges. Ned., Land-en 
Volkenk., 1842, p. 159, note. (Celebes.) 

Java, Celebes, Lesser Sunda Islands, Aru and Kei Islands, New Guinea, 
Rennell Island, New Caledonia. 

Anas gibberifrons mathewsi Phillips 

Anas gibberifrons mathewsi PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 2, 1923, p. 266, 
new name to replace 

Nettion castaneum rogersi Mathews (not Anas superciliosa rogersi 
Mathews), Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 86. (Northwest Australia, type 
said to be from Parry's Creek.) 

Australia (except Melville and Cape York Peninsulas) ; Tasmania. 

Anas gibberifrons gracilis Buller 

Anas gracilis Buller, Ibis, 1869, p. 41. (Manawatu, North Island, New 
Zealand.) 

New Zealand. 

Anas albogularis albogularis (Hume) 

Mareca albogularis Hume, Str. Feath., 1, 1873, p. 303. (Andaman 
Islands.) 

Southern Andaman Islands. 

?Anas albogularis leucopareus (Fleming) 

Polionetta albigularis leucopareus Fleming, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, 
1911, p. 215. (North Reef Island, Andamans.) 

North Reef Island and possibly Middle Andaman, Andaman Islands. 



164 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Anas bernieri (Hartlaub) 

Querquedula Bernieri "J. Verr." Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 8, 1860, p. 173. 

(Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

Anas capensis Gmelin 

Anas capensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 527. (Cape of Good 
Hope.) 

Africa from the Cunene, Bechuanaland, African lakes, Uganda and 
southern Ethiopia southward. Apparently absent from southeastern 
Africa. Recorded from Lake Chad and Senegambia. 

Anas punctata Burchell 

Anas punctata Burchell, Travels, 1, 1822, p. 283, note. (Zak River, 
Cape Province.) 

Africa from southern Angola, Uganda and Shoa to Cape Province; 
Madagascar. 

Anas crecca crecca Linne 

Anas Crecca Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Europe and Asia north to lat. 70°, south to the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, the Caucasus, Transcaspia, Turkestan, Dzungaria, MongoUa, 
northeastern China, Manchuria and Hoklcaido; Aleutian Islands; Iceland. 
Winters in Iceland and western Europe and from the southern part of its 
breeding range to northern Africa, Nile Valley, Somaliland, Persia, India 
and Ceylon, Assam, southern China and the Philippines. Many instances 
of casual occurrence elsewhere. 

Anas crecca carolinensis Gmelin 

Anas carolinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 533. (Carolina to 
Hudson Bay.) 

Breeds from northern Alaska, northern Mackenzie, Great Slave Lake 
and Fort Churchill south to California, northern New Mexico and Iowa 
(formerly), east to Manitoba and Minnesota, locally and rarely to the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. Winters in the southern United States, Mexico, northern 
Central America and the West Indies. 

Anas formosa Georgi 

Anasformosa Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich, 1, 1775, p. 168. (Lake 
Bailcal.) 

Breeds in eastern Siberia from the middle Lena River east to the Kolyma 
delta and Anadyr, south to Lake Baikal (?) Amurland, northern Sakhalin 
and northern Kamchatka. Winters in China, Japan and Formosa. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 165 

■ Anas falcata Georgi 

Anas falcata Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich, 1, 1775, p. 167. (Asi- 
atic Russia.) 

Breeds in northern Asia south of the Arctic Circle from the upper Yenesei 
to Kamchatka, south to northern Mongoha(?), the Amur and Ussuriland. 
Winters in Japan, Korea, eastern and southern China to upper Burma. 

— — Anas leucophrys Vieillot 

Anas leucophrys Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 156. (Para- 
guay.) 

Southern Bolivia, Paraguay, southwestern (Matto Grosso) and southern 
(Rio Grande do Sul) Brazil, northeastern Argentina and Uruguay. 

— ~ Anas brasiliensis Gmelin 

Anas brasiliensis Gmehn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 517. (Brazil.) 

Eastern South America from the Orinoco, western Brazil, eastern Boli- 
via, Paraguay, northern Argentina and Uruguay to the Atlantic Ocean. 

"Anas specularioides alticola Men^gaux 

Anas cristata alticola Menegaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 1, 1909, 
p. 224. (Lake Poopo, Bohvia.) 

Highlands of Peru and BoHvia. 

Anas specularioides specularioides King 

Anas specularioides King, Zool. Journ., 4, 1828, p. 98. (Straits of 
Magellan.) ^ 

Mountains of Chile, southern and western Argentina, Tierra del Fuego 
and Falkland Islands. 

— — Anas specularis King 

Anas specularis King, Zool. Journ., 4, 1828, p. 98. (Straits of Magellan.) 
Andes of Chile and Argentina from lat. 40° S. to the Straits of Magellan. 

— '- Anas versicolor puna Tschudi 

Anas Puna Tschudi, Arch. f. Naturg., 10, Band 1, 1844, p. 315. (Peru.) 
Highlands of Peru, Bolivia and northern Chile (above 12,000 feet). 

-~— Anas versicolor versicolor Vieillot 

Anas versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 109. (Para- 
guay.) 

Chile, southern Bolivia, Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul south to Tierra 
del Fuego; Falkland Islands. 

^ Anas cristata Gmelin, the earliest name for this species, is preoccupied by 
Anas cristata J. B. Fischer, Vers. Nat. Livland, 1778, p. 81. 



166 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

— — Anas andium (Sclater and Salvin) 

Querquedula andium Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., 1873, 
p. 162. (High Ecuador between Rio Bamba and Mocha.) 

High Andes in Colombia, Ecuador and western Venezuela. 

— Anas flavircstris oxyptera Meyen 

Anas oxyptera Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol., 16, suppl., 
1834, p. 121, pi. 26. (Southern Peru.) 

Andean region of central and southern Peru, western Bolivia, northern 
Chile and northern Argentina (Jujuy and Salta). 

■~— - Anas flavircstris flavircstris Vieillot 

Anas flavirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 107. (Bue- 
nos Aires.) 

Southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and central Chile south to 
Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands. 

- ■ - Anas eatcni eatcni (Sharpe) 

Querquedula eatoni Sharpe, Ibis, 1875, p. 328. (Kerguelen Island.) 
Kerguelen Island. 

Anas eatcni drygalskii Reichenow 

Anas drygalskii Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 12, 1904, p. 47. (Crozet 
Islands.) 

Crozet Islands. 

- — Anas gecrgica Gmelin 

Anas georgica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 516. ("Georgia 
austraU America.") 

Island of South Georgia. 

»—- Anas spinicauda Vieillot 

Anas spinicauda Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 135. 

(Buenos Aires.) 
Southern South America from the highlands of Peru and plateau of 
Bohvia to southern Brazil and south to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands. 

Anas acuta acuta Linne 

Anas acuta Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Europe, restricted 
type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland and in northern Europe and Asia south to the northern 
British Isles, Germany, southern Russia, Transcaspia, Turkestan, Altai, 
Transbaikaha, the Amur, Kamchatka and Commander Islands (?). Winters 
south to northern Africa, the Nile Valley, Shoa, Persian Gulf, India, Cey- 
lon, Burma, Siam, southern China and Formosa. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 167 

Anas acuta tzitzihoa Vieillot 

Anas tzitzihoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 163. (Mexico, 
ex Hernandez.) 

Breeds from Arctic coast of northwestern North America east to Hudson 
Bay, south to southern California, northern Colorado and central Iowa. 
Winters from southern British Columbia, Mississippi Valley and Chesa- 
peake Bay to Panama and the West Indies; Hawaiian Islands. 

Anas angustirostris Menetries 

Anas angustirostris Menetries, Cat. Rais. Obj. Zool. Caucase, 1832, p. 58. 
(Lenkoran.) 

Breeds in southern Spain, northern Africa, Cyprus, Syria, southern Cas- 
pian Sea, Persia and Baluchistan. Winters chiefly in northwestern India. 

Anas bahamensis bahamensis Linne 

Anas bahamensis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. (Bahama 
Islands, ex Catesby.) 

Bahama Islands, Greater and northern Lesser Antilles, the Guianas and 
northern Brazil. 

Anas bahamensis rubrirostris Vieillot 

Anas rubrirostris VieUlot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 108. (Bue- 
nos Aires.) 

Southern BrazU, Paraguay, Uruguay, northern and eastern Argentina. 
Occurs in Peru, Bolivia and Chile but status not known. 

Anas galapagensis (Ridgway) 

Poecilonetta galapagensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, 1889, 
p. 115. (Charles Island, Galapagos.) 

Galapagos Islands. 

Anas erythrorhyncha Gmelin 

Anas erythrorhyncha Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 517. (Cape of 
Good Hope.) 

Africa from BengueUa, the upper Zambesi, Lake Tanganyika, Uganda, 
and southern Ethiopia to Cape Colony; Madagascar. 

Genus MARECA Stephens 

Mareca Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12, pt. 2, 1824, p. 130. Type, by 
subsequent designation, Mareca fistularis Stephens = Anas penelope 
Linn^. (Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 33.) 

cf. Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 126, 1923, p. 86-98. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1321-1323. 
PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 2, 1923, p. 167-210. 



168 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Mareca penelope (Linne) 

Anas Penelope Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland and in northern Europe and Asia north to lat. 71° N., 
south regularly to lat. 60° N., and more rarely to 45° or 42°, Winters on 
the coasts of Britain and southward to northern Africa, the Nile Valley, 
Ethiopia, Persian Gulf, India, Tenasserim, southern China, Hainan and 
Japan. Regularly in autumn and winter on the Atlantic coast of North 
America from New England to the Carolinas. Numerous instances of 
casual occurrence elsewhere. 

Mareca americana (Gmelin) 

Anas americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 526. (Louisiana 
and New York.) 

North America from the Yukon and Mackenzie Basins, mainly east of the 
Rockies, to Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes to Lake Winnipeg, south to 
eastern Oregon, northern Colorado, southern Wisconsin and Indiana. 
Winters from the coast of British Columbia, Mississippi Valley, and Atlantic 
coast from Long Island southward to Costa Rica and West Indies. 

Mareca sibilatrix (Poeppig) 

Anas sibilatrix Poeppig, Froriep's Notizen, 25, 1829, col. 10. (Chile.) 

Southern South America from Chile to southern Brazil (Rio Grande do 
Sul) and south to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands. Occurs in the north- 
ern part of its range only in winter. 

Genus CHAULELASMUS Bonaparte 

Chaulelasmus Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 56. Type, 
by monotypy. Anas strepera Linn^. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1230-1231. 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 2, 1923, p. 138-158. 

Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn6) 

Anas strepera Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland, southeastern England and across Europe and Asia 
(south of lat. 60° N.) to Kamchatka; south to Holland, Germany, central 
Russia, Caspian Sea, Seistan, Altai(?) and Transbaikalia. In North America 
from southern British Columbia, central Alberta and northern Saskatche- 
wan south to southern California, Colorado, Nebraska and Wisconsin. 
Winters from southern Europe, Asia Minor, the Himalayas, middle China 
and Japan to northern Africa, Ethiopia, India, Assam and southern China 
and from southern British Columbia, Arizona, the Mississippi Valley and 
North Carolina south to Lower California, southern Mexico and Florida. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 169 

fChaulelasmus couesi Streets 

Chaulelasmus couesi Streets, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CI., 1, 1876, p. 46. (Wash- 
ington Island, Fanning Group.) 

Washington and New York Islands, Fanning Group. Now extinct. 
Cf. Wetmore, Condor, 27, 1925, p. 36. 

Genus SPATULA Boie 

Spatula Boie, Isis von Oken, 1822, col. 564. Type, by monotypy, Anas 
clypeata Linn^. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1328-1331. 
Philhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 10-41. 

Spatula clypeata (Linne) 

Anas clypeata Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. (Coasts of 
Europe, restricted type locahty, southern Sweden.) 

Spatula clypeata Indiana Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1913, p. 194. 
(India.) 

Breeds in the British Isles eastward through Europe and Asia to the 
Kolyma delta, usually about to the Arctic Circle, and south to France, 
Turkey, the Black Sea, Transcaspia, Turkestan, northern Mongolia(?), 
Transbaikalia, Amur, Ussuri and Kamchatka(?). In North America from 
Kotzebue Sound to the lower Mackenzie and southeastward to Lakes 
Athabaska and Winnipeg; south to central California, northern New 
Mexico, Kansas and Indiana. Winters in Europe and Asia from the south- 
ern border of its breeding range to northern and eastern Africa, Persian 
Gulf, India, Ceylon, Burma, southern China and Japan; in North America 
on the Pacific coast from Puget Sound; inland in the lower Mississippi 
Valley and on the Atlantic coast from Chesapeake Bay southward regu- 
larly to Honduras; the Hawaiian Islands. Many instances of casual occur- 
rence. 

Spatula platalea (Vieillot) 

Anas platalea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 157. (Para- 
guay.) 

Southern South America from Peru and Bolivia to southern Brazil and 
south to the Straits of Magellan; migratory in northern and southern parts 
of its range. 

Spatula capensis (Eyton) 

Rhynchaspis capensis Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 135. (No type 
locality given = Cape of Good Hope.) 

South Africa north to Angola and the Transvaal. 



170 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

■Spatula rhynchotis rhynchotis (Latham) 

Anas Rhynchotis Latham, Ind. Orn., SuppL, 1801, p. Ixx. (New South 

Wales.) 
Spatula rhynchotis dydimus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 56. 

(Southwest Australia.) 
Southern and eastern Australia and Tasmania. 

Spatula rhynchotis variegata Gould 
Spatula variegata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1856, p. 95. (New 

Zealand.) 
New Zealand. 

Genus MALACORHYNCHUS Swainson 

Malacorhynchus Swainson, Journ. Roy. Inst. Gr. Brit., 2, pt. 4, 1831, 
p. 18. Type, by monotypy. Anas membranacea Latham. 
cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 42-45. 

Malacorhynchus membranaceus (Latham) 
Anas membranacea Latham, Ind. Orn., SuppL, 1801, p. Ixix. (New South 

Wales.) 
Malacorhynchus membranaceus assimilis, Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 

1912, p. 86. (Fitzroy River, Northwest AustraUa.) 
Australia and Tasmania. 

Genus RHODONESSA Reichenbach 

Rhodonessa Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. ix. Type, by 
original designation. Anas caryophyllacea Latham. 
cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 90-93. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 390-391. 

Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (Latham) 
Anas caryophyllacea Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 866. (India.) 
Local in northeastern India and eastern India south to Madras. 

Genus AIX Boie 

Aix Boie, Isis, 21, 1828, p. 329. Type, by subsequent designation. Anas 
sponsa Linn^. (Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 35.) 
cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 46-72. 

Aix sponsa (Linn6) 

Anas Sponsa Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (North America 
= Carohna.) 

Breeds in western North America from British Columbia to California 
and from Lake Winnipeg to southern Nova Scotia, south to Texas, Florida 
and Cuba. Winters in the southern half of its breeding area. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 171 

Genus DENDRONESSA Swainson 

Dendronessa Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am. Bds., 1831 (1832), p. 497. Type, 
by original designation, Anas galericulata Linne. 

cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 73-84. 

Dendronessa galericulata (Linne) 

Anas galericulata Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (China.) 
Aix galericulata brunnescens Clark, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, 1914, 

p. 87. (Kiusiu, Japan.) 
Breeds in eastern Asia from the Amur and Ussuri south through Korea, 

eastern China and the Japanese Islands to Formosa. Winters in the part 

of its range below lat. 40° N. 

Genus CHENISCUS Etton 

Cheniscus Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 15. Tj^pe, by original designa- 
tion. Anas coromandeliana Gmelin. 
cf. Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 209-210. 
PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 98-111. 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 6, 1929, p. 392-394. 

Cheniscus coromandelianus coromandelianus (Gmelin) 

Anas coromandeliana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 522. (Coro- 
mandel, India.) 

India, Ceylon and Burma east to southern China (Yangtse River), south 
to the Malay Peninsula, Indo-Chinese countries; northern Luzon, Borneo, 
Sumatra, Java and Banka; casual in northern Celebes. 

Cheniscus coromandelianus albipennis (Gould) 

Nettapus albipennis Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 6, 1842, text to pi. 5. (East- 
ern AustraUa = Moreton Bay, Queensland, fide Mathews.) 

Cheniscus coromandelianus mackayi Mathews, Austr. Av. Pee., 3, 1916, 
p. 56. (Mackay, Queensland.) 

Eastern Australia. 

Cheniscus pulchellus (Gould) 

Nettapus pulchellus Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 6, 1842, pi. 4. (Port Essing- 
ton, Northern Territory.) 

Cheniscus pulchellus rogersi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1916, p. 56. 
(Parry's Creek, Northwest Australia.) 

Ceram, Buru, southern New Guinea, northern Austraha. 



172 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus NETTAPUS Brandt 

Nettapus Brandt, Descr. Icon. Anim. Ross. Nov., Aves, fasc. 1, 1836, p. 5. 
Type, by monotypy. Anas madagascariensis Gmelin = Anas aurita 
Boddaert. 

cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 94-97. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 45. 

Nettapus auritus (Boddaert) 

Anas aurita Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 48. (Madagascar, ex 
Daubenton, pi. 770.) 

Africa from Gambia and Bahr el Ghazal through Kenya Colony south 
to Cape Province; Madagascar. 

Genus PTERONETTA Salvadori 

Pteronetta Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 46 (in key), p. 63. 
Type, by original designation and monotypy, Querquedula hartlaubii 
Cassin. 

cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 1, 1922, p. 85-89. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. .Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 44. 

Pteronetta hartlaubii (Cassin) 

Querquedula Hartlaubii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 175. 
(Camma River, Gaboon.) 

Pteronetta hartlaubi albifrons Neumann, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 21, 1908, 
p. 42. (Ituri Forest, Upper Congo.) 

Liberia to the Congo, upper Uele and Ituri districts and the African 
lake region. 

Genus HETERONETTA Salvadori 

Heteronetta Salvadori, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Milano, 8, 1865, p. 374. 
Type, by original designation and monotypy. Anas melanocephala 
Vieillot (not Gmelin) = Anas atricapilla Merrem. 

cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 94-96. 

Heteronetta atricapilla (Merrem) 

Anas atricapilla Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber's Encyc, sect. 1, 35, 1841, 
p. 26. (Buenos Aires.) 

Central Chile east to Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul, south in Argen- 
tina to provinces of Mendoza, San Juan and Buenos Aires. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 173 

Subfamily NYROCINAE 

Genus NETTA Kaup 

Netta Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Eur. Thierw., 1829, p. 102. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas ntfina Pallas. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1333-1335. 
PhUlips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 101-113. 

Netta rufina (Pallas) 

Anas rufina Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs, 2, 1773, p. 713. (Caspian Sea 
and lakes of Tartarian Desert.) 

Breeds chiefly from the lower Danube through southern Russia east 
across the Kirghiz Steppes to west Siberia, south to northern Syria, Persia 
and Yarkand. Winters largely in India, Burma and the Shan States but 
there are many records for Europe, North Africa and eastern Asia. 

Genus METOPIANA Bonaparte 

Metopiana Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 1856, p. 649. 
Type, by monotypy. Anas peposaca Vieillot. 
cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 114-120. 

Metopiana peposaca (Vieillot) 

Anas peposaca Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 132. (Para- 
guay and Buenos Aires.) 

Central Chile south to Chiloe Island, east across Argentina to Paraguay, 
Uruguay and southward to Rio Negro Territory. 

Genus NYROCA Fleming 

Nyroca Fleming, Philos. Zool., 2, 1822, p. 260. Type, by tautonymy, 

Anas nyroca Giildenstadt. 
Perissonetta Oberholser, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 1920, p. 110. Type, by 
original designation and monotypy. Anas collaris Donovan. 
cf. Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 126, 1923, p. 175-230. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1335-1344. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. AustralaS., pt. 1, 1927, p. 220-222. (Excl. Erisma- 

tura, p. 221.) 
PhilUps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 121-286. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 40. 

Sharpe, Handlist, 1, 1899, p. 222-223. (Aythya, Aristonetta, Fuli- 
gula.) 

Nyroca valisineria (Wilson) 
Anas valisineria Wilson, Am. Orn., 8, 1814, p. 103, pi. 70, f. 5. (Eastern 
United States.) 



174 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds from Great Slave Lake and upper Mackenzie Valley south to 
eastern Oregon, northern Utah, northern New Mexico and southwestern 
Nebraska, east to central Manitoba and South Dakota. Winters from 
southern British Columbia, Colorado, southern Illinois and Chesapeake 
Bay to central Mexico, coasts of the Gulf States and Florida. 

Nyroca ferina (Linne) 

Anasferina Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Europe, restricted 
type locality, Sweden.) 

Nyroca ferina ferinoides Kuroda, Dobuts. Zasshi, 32, 1920, p. 243 
(Japanese text), p. 245 (English text). (Haneda, near Tokio, Japan.) 

Breeds in the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and from eastern 
Russia through west Siberia (mainly south of lat. 60°) to Lake Baikal; 
south to Holland, Germany, the Balkan States, Black Sea, Kirghiz Steppes 
and Yarkand. Winters in its west European breeding range and south to 
northern Africa, Nile VaUey, Persian Gulf, India, Burma and southern 
China. Numerous records of casual occurrence in Europe and eastern Asia. 

Nyroca americana (Eyton) 

Fuligula americana Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 155. (North 
America.) 

Breeds in western North America from southern British Columbia, 
Lake Athabasca, central Saskatchewan and western Manitoba south to 
southern California, Utah, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Winters chiefly 
in the United States and south to Lower California and the Valle de Mexico. 

Nyroca coUaris (Donovan) 

Anas collaris Donovan, Brit. Bds., 6, 1809, pi. 147 and text. (Lincoln- 
shire, England, from specimen found in Leadenhall Market, London.) 

Breeds in North America chiefly from Lake Athabaska and northern 
Alberta and Saskatchewan southeastward to Manitoba and thence south 
to North Dakota and Wisconsin. Breeds also in southern British Columbia, 
Oregon, northern California and Nebraska. Winters in southern United 
States (chiefly Gulf Coast and Florida) south to Guatemala, the Bahamas 
and the Greater Antilles. 

Nyroca fuligula (Linne) 

Anas fuligula Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland, the British Isles and the greater part of Europe and 
Asia north to lat. 70° and south to central Europe, the Balkan States, 
Kirghiz Steppes, Lake Baikal, the Amur River, Sakhahn and the Com- 
mander Islands. Winters in the southern half of its European breeding 
range and from Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Kashmir, central China, Korea 
and Japan south to northern Africa, the Nile Valley, Persian Gulf, India, 
Arakan, south China and the Philippines. Many casual records in Africa 
and the East Indies. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 175 

Nyroca nyroca (Giildenstadt) 

Anas nyroca Giildenstadt, Nov. Comm. Sci. PetropoL, 14, 1769, p. 403. 
(" — regionibus Tanaicensibus inter gradum 54:°-55° . . .") 

Anas rufa Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec, 4, 1921, p. 153. {Ex 
Linne, Fn. Svec, ed. 2, 1761, p. 47, no. 134.) 

Breeds in southern Europe to Rumania, Poland and west Siberia to the 
Ob Valley, south to northern Africa (Morocco and Algeria) , Persia, Turke- 
stan, Kashmir, the Pamirs and southern Tibet. Winters in the Mediter- 
ranean region, Nile Valley, Persian Gulf, Arakan and Burma. 

Njnroca innotata Salvadori 

Nyroca innotata Salvadori, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 4, 1894, p. ii. (Betsileo, 

Madagascar.) 

Northern and eastern Madagascar. 

Nyroca baeri (Radde) 

Anas (Fuligula) Baeri Radde, Reisen Sud. von Ost-Sibirien, 2, 1863, 
p. 376, pi. 15. (Southeast Siberia.) 

Breeds from Transbaikalia to the lower Ussuri and the Amur; Kam- 
chatka(?). Winters in China, Korea and Japan, upper Assam and Burma. 

■ Nyroca australis Eyton 

Nyroca australis Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 160. (Australia = New 
South Wales.) 

Nyroca nyroca dampieri Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 87. (Fitz- 
roy River, Northwest Australia.) 

Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand; casual in New Guinea (Arfak), 
Celebes, New Hebrides and New Caledonia. 

-Nyroca erythrophthalma (Wied) 

Anas erythrophthalma Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Brasil, 4, 1832, p. 929. 
(Lagoa do Brago, Villa Belmonte, southern Brazil.) 

Nyroca hrunnea Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 161, pi. [23]. (Southern 
Africa.) 

Fuligula nationi Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, 
p. 522. (Lima, Peru.) i 

Western South America from northwestern Venezuela to southern Peru; 
Africa from Angola on the west and Shoa on the east to Cape Province. 

■ Njnroca novseseelandise (GmeHn) 

Anas novce Seelandice Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 541. (Dusky 
Sound, South Island, New Zealand.) 

New Zealand (both islands), Auckland Island, Chatham Islands. 
1 But of. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus, Nat. Hist., 36, 1917, p. 234. 



176 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Nyroca marila marila (Linne) 

Anas Marila Linn^, Fn. Svec, ed. 2, 1761, p. 39. (Lapland.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Orkneys, Hebrides, Scandinavian Peninsula, Russia 
and Siberia, mainly north of lat. 60°; eastern limits not defined. Winters 
on the coasts of western Europe, eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea, 
Syria, Persian Gulf and northwestern India. 

Nyroca marila mariloides (Vigors) 

FuUgula Mariloides Vigors, Zool. Beechey's Voy. 'Blossom,' 1839, p. 31. 
(No type locality = Bering Sea.) 

Breeds on Bering Island, probably also Kamchatka, In winter to the 
coasts of China, Korea and Japan. 

Nyroca marila nearctica (Stejneger) 

Aythya marila nearctica Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 29, 1885, 
p. 161. (North America.) 

Breeds from the Aleutian Islands and the Bering Sea coast of Alaska 
north to the Arctic coasts of Alaska and Canada, east to the west shore of 
Hudson Bay (rarely further east), south to central British Columbia (east 
of the Cascades), central Alberta, central Saskatchewan and southern 
Manitoba (formerly to Iowa and Minnesota). Winters chiefly on the sea 
coasts of North America, from the Aleutian Islands on the west and 
from Maine on the east, south to northern Lower California and the West 
Indies. 

Nyroca aflinis (Eyton) 

FuUgula affinis Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 157. (North America.) 
Breeds from the middle Mackenzie Valley and Lake Athabaska to west- 
ern Ontario and south (east of the Cascades) to Oregon, Utah and Ne- 
braska; formerly to northern Illinois. Winters chiefly from the southern 
United States south to Panama and the West Indies. 

Genus TACHYERES Owen 

Tachyeres Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 9, 1875, p. 254. Type, by 
monotypy. Anas brachyptera Latham. 
cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 287-297. 

Tachyeres brachyptera (Latham) 

Anas brachyptera Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, 1790, p. 834. (Falkland Islands.) 
Coasts of southern South America from Valdivia on the west and Puerto 

Deseado on the east, south to Tierra del Fuego; also on some of the Andean 

Lakes; Falkland Islands.^ 

1 The question as to whether there are one or two species of "Steamer 
Ducks" is still an open one. 

RiiUUiJ- f^^'^ctls ^^"^ QuH '^r (\ticrU X^TUrrcL. Act 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 177 

Genus BUCEPHALA Baird 

Bucephala Baird, Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pac, 9, 1858, p. L, 788, 795. 
Type, by original designation, Anas albeola Linne. 
cf. Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 130, 1925, p. 21-24. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1345-1350. 
PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 287-333. 

Bucephala clangula clangula (Linne) 

Anas Clangula Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds from the Scandinavian Peninsula across Europe and Asia north 
to the limit of trees; south to Germany, central Russia, the southern border 
of the coniferous forest of Siberia, to Kamchatka and Sakhalin Island. Also 
in Montenegro and the Dobrudja. Winters from the British Isles, southern 
Scandinavia and southern limit of breeding range in Europe and Asia to the 
Mediterranean, Persian Gulf, northern India, Burma, southern China and 
Japan. 

Bucephala clangula americana (Bonaparte) 

Clangula Americana Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 58. 
(America, restricted type locality, eastern United States.) 

Breeds in North America from the Umit of heavy timber in central 
Alaska, southern Mackenzie, Hudson Bay and northeastern Labrador 
south to central British Columbia and the northern tier of states. New 
Brunswick and Newfoundland. Winters on the Pacific coast from the 
Aleutian Islands to California and on the Atlantic from Maine to South 
Carolina. Also on open lakes and rivers from the northern boundary of the 
United States south irregularly to the mouth of the Mississippi. 

Bucephala islandica (Gmelin) 

Anas islandica GmeUn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 541. (Iceland.) 

Breeds in the mountains of northwestern North America from south-cen- 
tral Alaska to southwestern Colorado; in Labrador; in southwestern Green- 
land, and in Iceland. Winters on the Pacific coast from southern Alaska to 
San Francisco Bay; on the Atlantic from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Long 
Island. Non-migratory in Greenland and Iceland. 

Bucephala albeola (Linn6) 

Anas Albeola Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. (America = 
Newfoundland, ex Edwards.) 

Breeds from central Alaska, northern Mackenzie, Great Slave Lake, 
southwestern shores of Hudson Bay and western Ontario south through 
central British Columbia to northern Montana; south also to Alberta and 
Manitoba. Winters mainly in the United States and on the Pacific coast to 
the Aleutian and Commander Islands. 



178 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus CLANGULA Leach 

Clangula Leach, in Ross, Voy. Disc, 1819, App., p. xlviii. T3^e, by 

monotypy, Anas glacialis Linne = Anas hyemalis Linne. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1351-1354. 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 347-366. 

Clangula hyemalis (Linne) 

Anas hyemalis Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Arctic Europe 
and America, restricted type locality, northern Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Spitzbergen, Novaya Zemlya and Arctic coasts and 
islands of Europe and Asia to Bering Strait; Commander Islands; Aleutian 
Islands, islands in Bering Sea, coasts of Alaska, Arctic coasts and islands 
north of North America to lat. 83°; coasts of Greenland. Winters in 
ice free waters south to the shores and larger lakes of central Europe, 
Caspian Sea, the Pacific coast of Asia to Japan and of North America to 
California; the Great Lakes; Atlantic coast of North America from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to North CaroUna; southern Greenland. 

Genus HISTRIONICUS Lesson 

Histrionicus Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 415. Type, by original 
designation. Anas histrionica Linn6. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1360-1363. 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, 1925, p. 367-383. 

Histrionicus histrionicus histrionicus (Linn6) 

Anas histrionica Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 127. (America, 
restricted type locality, Newfoundland, ex Edwards.) 

Breeds in northern Labrador (probably); coasts of Greenland north to 
lat. 77° on the west and to lat. 70° on the east; Iceland. Chiefly permanent 
resident, but some winter from Newfoundland to Long Island; casual in 
western Europe. 

Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus W. S. Brooks 

Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus W. S. Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 59, 1915, p. 393. (Cape Shipunski, Kamchatka.) 

Breeds in eastern Siberia from the Lena River (S. of lat. 65°) and Lake 
Baikal to Anadyr, Kamchatka, Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands. In North 
America it breeds on the coast and islands of southern Alaska and south in 
the mountains to central California and Colorado. Winters from the Com- 
mander Islands to Japan and from the Pribilov and Aleutian Islands to 
California. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 179 

Genus SOMATERIA Leach 

Somateria Leach, in Ross, Voy. Disc. 2, 1819, p. 154, App., p. xlviii. 
Type, by monotypy, Anas spectabilis Linne.^ 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1366-1373. 
Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 80-129. 

Subgenus EIDER Jarocki 

Eider Jarocki, Spis Ptakow Gab. Zool. Warsz. Univ., 1819, p. 62. Type, 
by monotypy. Anas mollissima Linn4. 

Somateria mollissima v-nigra G. R. Gray 

Somateria V-nigra G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855 (1856), p. 
212, pi. 107. (Kotzebue Sound.) 

Breeds on the Arctic coasts and islands of northeastern Asia from the 
Ajon (or Alon) Islands to Bering Strait, Copper Island, Commander and 
Aleutian Islands and coasts of North America from Kadiak Island to Vic- 
toria Island and Coronation Gulf. Winters chiefly in the Aleutian Islands. 

Somateria mollissima borealis (C. L. Brehm) 
Platypus borealis C. L. Brelim, Lehrb. Naturg. Eur. Vog., 2, 1824, p. 813. 
(Coasts of Baffin Bay and Davis Strait and west coast of Greenland, 
etc.) 
Breeds on the Arctic coasts and islands of North America from long. 100° 
W., north to Ellesmere Island, south to northern Hudson Bay, east to 
Baffin Island, Labrador south to Hamilton Inlet and west coast of Green- 
land to 82° N. Winters from the open waters of Greenland south to Maine. 

Somateria mollissima dresseri Sharpe 

Somateria Dresseri Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 8, 1871, p. 51, 
f. 2. (North America.) 

Breeds on both coasts of Hudson and James Bay and from Labrador 
south of Hamilton Inlet to Penobscot Bay. Winters from Ne\\^oundland 
to Nantucket Shoals. 

Somateria mollissima mollissima (Linn6) 

Anas 7nollissima Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. ("Europa 

boreali pelagica," restricted tj^pe locality, Island of Gottland.) 
Somateria mollissima britannica Millais, Brit. Diving Ducks, 2, 1913, 

p. 2. (British Isles.) 
Breeds on the coasts of southeastern Greenland(?), Iceland, Jan Mayen, 
Scotland, Scandinavia and east to the Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya. Par- 
tially resident, but some winter on the North Sea and west coast of France. 

1 Of the two included species, one is listed only in the vernacular, the other 
has a valid binomial name and may be accepted as a monotypic type. 



180 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Somateria moUissima faeroeensis C. L. Brehm 

Somateria Faeroeensis C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 

1831, p. 893. (Faroes.) 
Faroes; resident. 

Subgenus SOMATERIA Leach 

Somateria spectabilis (Linn€) 

Anas spectabilis Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. (Canada, 
Sweden.) 

Breeds on Spitzbergen and on the Arctic coasts and islands of Europe 
and Asia from Kolguev and Novaya Zemlya to Anadyr, thence south to 
Kamchatka and the Commander Islands; St. Lawrence and St. Matthew 
Islands; Arctic coasts and islands of North America north to lat. 76°, 
east to northern Labrador; Grinnell Land, Grant Land, both coasts of 
Greenland south to lat. 62°. Winters from Hmits of open water to Iceland, 
Scandinavia, British Isles, the Kuriles and on the Atlantic coast of North 
America to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland; rarely further. 

Genus ARCTONETTA Gray 

Arctonetta Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855 (1856), p. 212. Type, by 

monotypy, Fuligula fischeri Brandt. 
cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 73-79. 

Arctonetta fischeri (Brandt) 
Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri Brandt, Fuligulam Fischeri Novam 
Avium Speciem, 1847, p. 18, pi. 1. (St. Michael, Alaska.) 

Breeds on the New Siberian Islands and on the Arctic coast of Siberia 
from the Yana River to Bering Strait and on the Alaskan coasts from 
Kuskokwim River to Barter Island. Winters in the Aleutian Islands. 

Genus OIDEMIA Fleming 

Oidemia Fleming, Philos. Zool., 2, 1822, p. 260. Type, by subsequent 
designation. Anas nigra Linne. (Gray, List. Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 74.) 

cf. PhUlips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 3-25. 

Oidemia nigra nigra (Linne) 

Anas nigra Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. (Lapland, Eng- 
land.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Ireland, Scotland and northern Europe and Asia from 
Norway east to the Taimyr Peninsula; also on Waigatch and Novaya 
Zemlya. Winters chiefly on the coasts of western Europe, the Mediter- 
ranean, Black and Caspian Seas. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 181 

Oidemia nigra americana Swainson 

Oidemia Americana Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna 
Bor.-Am., 2, 1831 (1832), p. 450. (Hudson Bay.) 

Breeds in northeastern Asia, the Aleutian Islands and western Alaska; 
may possibly breed sporadically across northern North America to New- 
foundland. Winters from its southern limit of breeding south on the Pacific 
coast of Asia to Japan and China, and in North America from Aleutian 
Islands to California, on the Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic coast from 
Newfoundland to North Carolina. 

Genus MELANITTA Boie 

Melanitta Boie, Isis von Oken, 1822, col. 564. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Anasfusca Linne. (Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 52.) 

PhcBonetta Stone, Auk, 24, 1907, p. 198. Type, by original designation, 
Anas fusca Linne. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1354-1358. 
Miller, Auk, 33, 1916, p. 279-281. 
Miller, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 243, 1926, p. 1-5. 
PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 26-56. 

'Melanitta fusca fusca (Linne) 

Anasfusca Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. ("Oceano Euro- 

paeo," restricted type locality, coast of Sweden.) 
Breeds from Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea east to the Yenissei. Win- 
ters on the coasts of western Europe, the Mediterranean, Black and Cas- 
pian Seas. 

-Melanitta fusca stejnegeri (Ridgway) 

Oidemia stejnegeri Ridgway, Man. No. Am. Bds., 1887, p. 112. (Kam- 
chatka to Japan.) 
Breeds in eastern Asia from the Altai and Minusinsk to Anadyr, Kam- 
chatka and the Commander Islands. Winters on the coast of eastern Asia 
from the Commander Islands to Japan and China. 

-Melanitta fusca dixoni (W. S. Brooks) 

Oedemia deglandi dixoni W. S. Brooks, Bull. Mus., Comp. Zool., 59, 

1915, p. 393. (Griffin Point, Arctic Alaska.) 
Probably breeds in western Alaska, eastern limits not known. Winters 
on the Pacific coast of North America from Unalaska to California. 

Melanitta fusca deglandi (Bonaparte) 

Oedemia deglandi Bonaparte, Rev. Crit. Orn. Eur., 1850, p. 108. (North 
America.) 



182 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds from the Mackenzie Delta (and upper Yukon?) to northern Brit- 
ish Columbia, North Dakota and Manitoba eastward to James Bay 
(casually to Labrador?) . Winters on the Great Lakes and on the Atlantic 
coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland to North Carolina. 

Subgenus PELIONETTA Kaup 

Pelionetta Kaup, Skizz. Ent.-Gesch. Eur. Thierw., 1829, p. 107. Type, 
by monotypy. Anas perspicillata Linn^. 

Melanitta perspicillata (Linne) 

Anas perspicillata Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Hudson 
Bay, ex Edwards.) 

Breeds in northern North America from the Yukon and Mackenzie 
Deltas to Lake Athabaska and eastward to Hudson and James Bays; be- 
lieved also to breed in northeastern Siberia and in Labrador. Winters from 
Alaska to California; on the Great Lakes; and from Nova Scotia to South 
Carolina. 

Genus CAMPTORHYNCHUS Bonaparte 

Camptorhynchus "Eyton" Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 58. 
Type, by monotypy. Anas labradoria Gmelin. 

cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 57-63. 

tCamptorhynchus labradorius (Gmelin) 

Anas labradoria Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 537. (Arctic 
America, Connecticut and Labrador.) 

Extinct. Believed to have bred formerly in Labrador. Wintered from 
Grand Manan to Chesapeake Bay(?) but chiefly off Long Island, N. Y. 

Genus POLYSTICTA Eyton 

Polystida Eyton, Cat. Brit. Bds., 1836, p. 58. Type, by monotypy. Anas 
stelleri PaUas. 

cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 64-72. 

Polysticta stelleri (Pallas) 

Anas stelleri Pallas, Spic. Zool., fasc. 6, 1769, p. 35, pi. 5. (Kamchatka.) 

Breeds on the Arctic coast of Siberia from the Taimyr Peninsula to 
Bering Strait and on the coasts of Alaska from Barter Island to Unimak 
Island. Winters on the open waters of northern Finland and Norway; 
Kamchatka, Commander and Kurile Islands, Aleutian Islands and Kenai 
Peninsula, Alaska. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES . 183 

Genus HYMENOLAIMUS G. R. Gray 

Hymenolaimus G. R. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 11, 1843, p. 370. 
Type, by monotypy, Anas malacorhynchos Gmelin. 

cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 205-210. 

Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos (Gmelin) 

Anas malacorhynchos Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 526. (Dusky 
Sound, South Island, New Zealand.) 

Mountain streams of New Zealand. 

Genus SALVADORINA Rothschild and Hartert 

Salvadorina Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 1, 1894, p. 683. Type, 
by monotypy, Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild and Hartert. 

cf. PhUhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 203-204. 

" Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild and Hartert 

Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 1, 1894, 
p. 683 (Waigiu.) 

Island of Waigiu and mountain streams of New Guinea. 

Subfamily OXYURINAE 

Genus THALASSORNIS Eyton 

Thalassornis Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 70. Type, by original 
designation, Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton. 

cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 135-142. 

Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus Eyton 

Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 168. (Cape of 
Good Hope.) 

Africa from eastern Cameroon and southern Ethiopia south to Cape 
Colony. 

-Thalassornis leuconotus insularis Richmond 

Thalassornis insidaris Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, 1897, p. 679. 
(Sakales River, eastern Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

Genus NOMONYX Ridgway 

Nomonyx Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 3, 1880, p. 15. Type, by 
original designation, Anas dominica Linne. 

cf. PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 143-150. 



184 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Nomonyx dominicus (Linne) 

Anas dominica Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 201. (South America 
= Santo Domingo, from Brissonian reference.) 

Greater AntUles and South America to Chile (Concepcion), northern 
Argentina (Tucumdn) and eastern Argentina (Buenos Aires Province). 
Occasional in Mexico, Central America and the Lesser Antilles. 

Genus OXYURA Bonaparte 

Oxyura Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 2, 1828, p. 390. 
Type, by monotypy. Anas ruhidus Wilson. 

cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 151-190. 

Oxyura leucocephala (ScopoU) 

Anas leucocephala Scopoli, Annus I, Hist.-Nat., 1769, p. 65. (No type 
locality given, but probably from northern Italy.) 

Breeds in the western half of the Mediterranean region, mouths of the 
Danube, southern Russia and thence east to Turkestan. Irregular migrant 
south to lower Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia and northern India. 

Oxyura jamaicensis rubida (Wilson) 

Anas ruhidus Wilson, Am. Orn., 8, 1814, p. 128, 130, pi. 71, fs. 5, 6. (Dela- 
ware River.) 

Breeds in North America from central British Columbia, Great Slave 
Lake and Lake Winnipeg south to northern Lower California, Arizona, New 
Mexico, Nebraska, Iowa and Wisconsin; casually east to Massachusetts 
and south to Central America. Winters on the Pacific coast of California 
and from the southern limit of breeding range to Mexico and the Gulf 
States; on the Atlantic coast from New York to Florida. 

Oxyura jamaicensis jamaicensis (Gmelin) 

Anas jamaicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 519. (Jamaica.) 

Erismatura alleni Danforth, Auk, 42, 1925, p. 558. (Cartagena Lagoon, 
Porto Rico.) 

Resident in the West Indies ^ (Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Rico, the Grena- 
dines) . 

Oxyura maccoa (Eyton) 

Erismatura maccoa Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 169. (Indian Isles = 
South Africa.) 

Eastern Africa from southern Ethiopia to Cape Province. 

1 Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, (New York Acad. 
Sci.) 9, pt. 3, 1927, p. 314-317. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 185 

Oxyura f erruginea (Eyton) 
Erismatura ferruginea Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 170. (Chile.) 
Andean lakes of Peru and Bolivia. 

Oxyura vittata (R. A. Philippi) 

Erismatura vittata R. A. Philippi, Arch. f. Naturg., 26, Band 1, 1860, 
p. 26. (ChUe.) 

Southern South America from northern Chile to Rio Grande do Sul, 
Brazil and to Chubut, Argentina. 

Oxyura australis Gould 

Oxyura Australis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p. 85. (Swan 
River, West Austraha.) 

Oxyura australis victoricB Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 87. (Vic- 
toria.) 

Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

Genus BIZIURA Stephens 

Biziura Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12, pt. 2, 1824, p. 221, Type, by 
monotypy, Biziura novaehollandiae Stephens = Anas lobata Shaw. 

cf. PhilHps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 191-198. 

Biziura lobata (Shaw) 

Anas lobata Shaw, Nat. Misc., 8, 1796, pi. 255. (New South Wales = King 
George Sound, West Austraha, fide Mathews, 1927.) 

Biziura lobata westralis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 87. (West 
Australia. Type said to be from Herdsman's Lake, southwest Aus- 
tralia.) 

Biziura lobata menziesi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1914, p. 90. (New 
South Wales.) 

Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

Subfamily MERGINAE 

Genus MERGELLUS Selbt 

Mergellus Selby, Cat. Gen. and Subgen. Types Bds., 1840, p. 47. Type, 
by monotypy, Mergus albellus Linne. 

cf. Philhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 229-240. 

•Mergellus albellus (Linne) 

Mergus Albellus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Mediterranean Sea near Smyrna.) 



186 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds from extreme northeastern Scandinavia across northern Russia 
and Siberia south to the lower Volga, Turkestan and the Amur. Winters 
on the coasts and lakes of Europe south to the Mediterranean; in Asia 
south to Persia, northern India, southern China and Japan. 

Genus LOPHODYTES Reichenbach 

Lophodytes Reichenbach, Syst. Av. Nat., 1852 (1853), p. ix. Type, by 
original designation, Mergus cucullatus Linne. 

cf. PhUhps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 241-255. 

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linne) 

Mergus cucullatus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. (America = 
Virginia and Carolina.) 

Breeds locally throughout the wooded regions of North America from 
British Columbia, central Alberta and Saskatchewan to Hudson and James 
Bays, thence southeastward to northern Maine, south to Oregon, Wyom- 
ing, Nebraska, Louisiana and Florida. Winters chiefly in the Pacific 
States, the region about Lake Michigan, the Gulf States and the Atlantic 
States from New York southward. 

Genus MERGUS Linne 

Mergus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Mergus castor Linn6 = Mergus serrator Linn6. (Eyton, 
Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 76.) 

Prionochilus Bertoni, An. Cient. Paraguayos (1), no. 1, 1901, p. 8. Type, 
by monotypy, Prionochilus braziliensis Bertoni = Mergus octosetaceus 
Vieillot. 

Promergus Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 410. Type, by original 
designation, Mergus australis Hombron and Jacquinot. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1920, p. 1375-1381. 
PhiUips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 256-302. 

Mergus merganser merganser Linne 

Mergus Merganser Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. (Europe, 
restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Iceland, Scotland, Scandinavia and across Russia and Siberia 
(north about to the Arctic Circle) to Kamchatka, the Kurile and Com- 
mander Islands; south to Denmark, southern Germany, Poland and cen- 
tral Russia, also in Switzerland and Rumania; southern limits in Asia not 
defined. Winters on coasts and rivers of Europe, south to the Mediter- 
ranean; Black and Caspian Seas; southern Asia to Mesopotamia, northern 
India, Assam, southern China and Japan. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 187 

Mergus merganser orientalis Gould 

Mergus Orientalis Gould, Proc. Zool. See. London, 1845, p. 1. (Amoy, 
China.) 

Breeds from Turkestan and the Altai east to western Kansu, south to 
Afghanistan and the Himalayas. Winters southward and eastward to 
Assam and Japan respectively, occurring together with the typical form. 

Mergus merganser americanus Cassin 

Mergus americanus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, 1852, p, 187. 
(North America.) 

Breeds from southeastern Alaska, Great Slave Lake, Churchill River, 
James Bay, Gasp6 Peninsula and Newfoundland south to the northern 
tier of the United States; in the mountains south to California, New Mexico 
and formerly to Pennsylvania. Winters west of the Rocky Mountains 
from Vancouver to California; the Great Lakes, Mississippi Valley to the 
Gulf of Mexico and on the Atlantic coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to 
North Carolina. 

Mergus squamatus Gould 

Mergus squamatus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. 184. (China.) 

Recorded in summer from Copper Island and on the lower Amur River. 
Winters in China from western Szechuan to central Fukien and south to 
western Yunnan. 

Mergus serrator Linn6 

Mergus Serrator Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. (Europe, 
restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Mergus serrator major Schi0ler, Dansk. Orn. Tidskr., 19, 1925, p. 115. 
(West Greenland.^) 

Breeds in Iceland, northern British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia 
and Siberia (north to the mouths of the large rivers) east to Kamchatka; 
south to Denmark, northern Germany, the lower Volga, Kirghiz Steppes, 
central Siberia, Transbaikalia, the Amur and Sakhalin; islands in Bering 
Sea. In North America from Alaska, the Mackenzie Delta, Great Slave 
Lake, Fort Churchill, central Labrador thence north to southern Baffin 
Island, south to the northern tier of the United States. Coasts of Greenland 
north to Upernavik on the west and Scoresby Sound on the east. Winters 
on the coasts and rivers of Europe south to the Mediterranean; in Asia to 
Syria, Sinai Peninsula, Persian Gulf and on the coasts of China and Japan 
south to Formosa. In North America winters chiefly on the Pacific coast 
of the United States, the Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast and the Atlantic 
seaboard from New Brunswick to Florida; southern Greenland. 

^ While this is quite possibly a valid race, it has not been currently recognized, 
and until it has been confirmed and its distribution worked out it is better to 
regard major as a synonym. 



188 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Mergus octosetaceus Vieillot 

Mergus octosetaceus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 14, 1817, p. 222. 

(Brazil.) 
Prionochilus braziliensis '^ Bertoni, An. Cient. Paraguayos, (1), no. 1, 

1901, p. 8. (Alto Parana, lat. 27° S.) 
Southern Brazil in the States of Goyaz, Sao Paulo, Santa Catharina and 
Parand and also in Parana River drainage in eastern Paraguay and north- 
eastern Argentina (Misiones). 

Mergus australis Hombron and Jacquinot. 

Mergus australis Hombron and Jacquinot, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (2), 16, 

1841, p. 320. (Auckland Islands.) 
Auckland Islands. 

Subfamily MERGANETTINAE 

Genus MERGANETTA Gould 

Merganetta Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1841 (1842), p. 95. Type, by 
monotypy, Merganetta armata Gould. 
cf. Dabbene, Hornero, 4, 1927, p. 34-38. 

PhilUps, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 4, 1926, p. 211-223. 

Merganetta annata colombiana Des Murs 
Merganetta Colombiana Des Murs, Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 179. (No type 

locality given = Colombia by inference.) 
Andes of Venezuela, Colombia and northern Ecuador. 

Merganetta armata leucogenis (Tschudi) 

Anas leucogenis Tschudi, Arch. f. Naturg., 9, Band 1, 1843, p. 390. 
(Andes of Peru.) 

Andes of central and southern Ecuador and of Peru (except the range 
occupied by turneri.) 

Merganetta armata turneri Sclater and Salvin 

Merganetta turneri Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869 
(1870), p. 600. (Tinta, Peru.) 

Known only from Tinta, the Cuzcan Andes and Rio Victor (Dept. of 
Arequipa) Peru. 

Merganetta armata garleppi Berlepsch 

Merganetta garleppi Berlepsch, Orn. Monatsb., 2, 1894, p. 110. (Cocotal, 

Bolivia.) 
Mountains of Bolivia. 

1 This specific name was introduced independently by Bertoni, though 
Vieillot had renamed his octosetaceus as hrasilianus in 1825; a name later 
"emended" to brasiliensis by G. R. Gray. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 189 

Merganetta armata berlepschi Hartert 

Merganetta berlepschi Hartert, Nov. Zool., 16, 1909, p. 244. (Near Tucu- 
man, 1800 met.) 

Mountains of northwestern Argentina (in States of Salta and Tucumdn). 

Merganetta armata armata Gould 

Merganetta armata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1841 (1842), p. 95. 
(Andes of Chile, lat. 34°-35°.) 

Andes of central ChUe and adjoining parts of western Argentina north to 
Mendoza, southern limit not known. 

Merganetta armata fraenata Salvadori 

Merganetta frcenata Salvadori, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 27, 1895, p. 457 (in 
key), p. 458, pi. 5, f. 1. (Central Chile.) 

Andes of central Chile south of the range of armata. Exact Umits not 
known. 

Order FALCONIFORMES 

Suborder CATHARTAE 

Family CATHARTIDAE 

Genus VULTUR Linne 

Vultur Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 86. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Vultur gryphus Linn^. (Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 24, 1907, p. ll.)i 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 2-4. 

Vultur gryphus Linne 

Vultur Gryphus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 83. (Chile.) 

Andes of western Venezuela and Colombia, south in the mountains to 
the Straits of Magellan; occurs also in Patagonia south of the Rio Negro. 

Genus SARCORAMPHUS Dumeril 

Sarcoramphus Dumeril, Zoologie Analytique, 1806, p. 32. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation, Vultur papa Linne. (Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, 
1825, p. 381, note, and p. 384.) 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 5-6. 

1 In Science (N. S., 24, 1906, p. 775-776) J. A. Allen showed that the type of 
Vultur Linne should be V. gryphus, but also showed how that species might be 
the type of Sarcoramphus and Gryphus; the first valid designation appears to 
be that given above. 



190 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

-4- Sarcoramphus papa (Linne) 

Vultur Papa Linne, Syst, Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 86. ("India occiden- 
talis" = Surinam, designated by Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, 1908, 
p. 289.) 
Tropical Mexico south through Central and South America to northern 
Argentina. 

Genus CORAGYPS Geoffegy 

Coragyps Geoffroy, in Le Maout, Hist. Nat. Ois., 1853, p. 66. Type, by 
raonotypy, Vultur urubu Vieillot = Vultur atratus Bechstein. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 7-10. 

Coragyps atratus atratus (Bechstein) 

Vultur atratus Bechstein, Latham, Allg. Uebers., Vogel, 1, 1793, Anh., 
p. 655. (Florida, ex Bartram.) 

North America from Kansas, Illinois, Indiana and Maryland to the Gulf 
States and south through Mexico and Central America to Panama. 

—-4-' Coragyps atratus foetens (Lichtenstein) 

Cathartesfoetens Lichtenstein, Verz. ausgest. Saug. und Vog., 1818, p. 30. 

(Paraguay.) 
South America; south to Chiloe Island on the west and to about lat. 40° 
on the east. 

Genus CATHARTES Illiger 

Cathartes Illiger, Prodromus, 1811, p. 236. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, Vultur aura Linn^. (Vigors, Zo5l. Journ., 2, 1825, p. 384.) 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 11-18. 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 88-90. 

-- \ Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied 

Cathartes septentrionalis Wied, Reise Nord-Am., 1, 1839, p. 162. (Near 

New Harmony, Indiana.) 
North America from southern British Columbia, southwestern Ontario 
and the lower Hudson Valley (west side) south to Lower California and the 
tableland of Mexico. 

—\- Cathartes aura aura (Linn^) 

Vultur Aura Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 86. ("America caU- 
diore." Vera Cruz, Mexico, substituted by Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 18, 1905, p. 124.) 
Cathartes aura insularis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 3. (Cozumel 

Island.) 
Central(?) Mexico to Panama; the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. Intro- 
duced into southwestern Porto Rico. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 191 

— ■' / Cathartes aura nificollis Spix 

Cathartes mficollis Spix, Av. Bras., 1, 1824, p. 2. (Interior of Bahia and 

Piauhy.) 
Venezuela, the Guianas and Brazil south to Paraguay (northern Argen- 
tina and Uruguay?) 

■ — 7^~ Cathartes aura j Ota (Molina) 

Vtiltur Jota Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. ChUi, 1782, p. 265. (Chile, re- 
stricted to Concepcion by Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 4.) 

Cathartes aura meridionalis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 3. (Co- 
lombia.) 

Wathartes occipitalis Stolzmann, Ann. Zool. Mus. Polon. Hist. Nat., 4, 
1925, p. 319. (Huambo, 3700 feet, northeastern Peru.) 

Western South America from Colombia to northern Chile and western 
Argentina. 

"^T" Cathartes aura falklandica (Sharpe) 

Catharista falklandica Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 11, 1873, 
p. 133. (Falkland Islands. Type from Berkeley Sound.) 

Coasts of Chile from Concepcion to the Straits of Magellan; Falkland 
Islands. 






Cathartes urubitinga Pelzeln 

Cathartes Urubitinga "Natterer," Pelzeln, Sitzungsb. K. Akad, Wiss. 
Wien, 44, 1861, p. 7. (Southern and central Brazil.) 

Northeastern Venezuela, the Guianas and Brazil south to northern 
Argentina and Uruguay. 

Genus GYMNOGYPS Lesson 

Gymnogyps Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant (2), 6, 1842, p. 1037. Type, 
by monotypy, Vultur californianus Shaw. 

of. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 19-21. 

— j^— Gymnogyps californianus (Shaw) 

Vultur californianus Shaw, Nat. Misc., 9, 1797, p. [1], pi. 301. (Coast 
of California.) 

Western North America from the coast ranges of south central California 
to northern Lower California. Formerly north to the Columbia River. 

Family WttsAotnitt^i'tiUt 



192 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Suborder FALCONES 

SuPERFAMiLY SAGITTARIOIDEA 

Family SAGITTARIIDAE 

Genus SAGITTARIUS Hermann 

Sagittarius Hermann, Table Affin. Anim., 1783, p. 136, 235. Type, by 

monotypy, Sagittarius of Vosmaer = Falco serpentarius MUler. 
cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 46. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 63-65. 

Sagittarius serpentarius (J. F. Miller) 
Falco serpentarius J. F. Miller, Icon. Anim., 1779, pi. 28. (Cape of Good 

Hope.) 
Senegambia and the Egyptian Sudan south to Cape Province. 

SuPERFAMiLY FALCONOIDEA 
Family ACCIPITRIDAE ^ 
Subfamily ELANINAE 

Genus ELANUS Savigny 

Elanus Savigny, Descr. figypte, 1, 1809, p. 69, 97. Type, by monotypy, 

Elanus caesius Savigny = Falco caeruleus Desfontaines. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1184-1185. 
MacGregor, Man. Phil. Bds., pt. 1, 1909, p. 234-235. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 197-210. 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Americana, 3, 1901, p. 97-98. 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 125-127. 

-| ' Elanus caeruleus caeruleus (Desfontaines) 

Falco caeruleus Desfontaines, Hist. (Mem.) Acad. Paris, 1787 (1789), 

p. 503, pi. 15. (Algiers.) 
All of Africa from Algeria and Egypt to Cape Province; Madagascar; 
occasional in southern Europe. 

^ For remarks on the systematic position of many genera and species of 
hawks; tentative arrangement of the two families; characters separating the 
Accipitridae from the Falconidae and a classification of the Falconidae: 

cf. Sushkin, Zool. Anz., 22, 1899, p. 500-518. 

Sushkin, Zool. Anz., 23, 1900, p. 269-277; 522-528. 
Sushkin, Nouv. M^m. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Moscou, 26, pt, 4, 1905, p. 1- 
247, 4 pi. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 193 

Elanus caeruleus vociferus (Latham) 

Falco vociferus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 46. (India = Coromandel 
Coast, ex Sonnerat, apud Hartert.) 

India south of the Himalayas, east to southern Yunnan, south to Ceylon, 
northern Tenasserim and Indo-China. 

Elanus caeruleus hypoleucus Gould 

Elanus hypoleucus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 127. (Near 

Macassar, Celebes.) 
Philippines, Greater Sunda Islands, Celebes; Sula Islands. 

— / Elanus notatus Gould 

Elanus notatus Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 4, 1838, app., p. 1. (New 

South Wales.) 
Elanus axillaris parryi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 251. (Parry's 
Creek, northwest AustraUa.) 

Australia. 

'*~^ Elanus leucurus majusculus Bangs and Penard 

Elanus leucurus majusculus Bangs and Penard, Proc. New Eng. Zool. 

CI., 7, 1920, p. 46. (San Rafael, California.) 
Breeds locally in the United States from California to South Carolina 
south to northern Lower California, Texas and Florida. Winters south to 
Guatemala and British Honduras. 

— -• Elanus leucurus leucurus (Vieillot) 

Milvus leucurus VieiUot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 20, 1818, p. 563. 

[ Wrongly printed as 556.] (Paraguay.) 
South America from Venezuela to central Chile, Argentina (Cordoba, 
Buenos Aires) and Uruguay. 

— y Elanus scriptus Gould 

Elanus scriptus Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 9, 1842, pi. [24.] (South Australia 

= Cooper's Creek, according to Mathews.) 
Elanus scriptus victorianus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1917, p. 70. 

(Victoria. New name for the bird figured as Elanus scriptus, Bds. 

Austr., 5, pi. 250.) 

Interior of Australia. 

Genus CHELICTINIA Lesson 

Chelictinia Lesson, ficho du Monde Savant, 10, 1843, col. 63. Type, by 
monotypy, Elanoides riocourii Vieillot. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 224-227. 



194 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

s»«,.. Chelictinia riocourii (Vieillot) 

Elanoides riocourii Vieillot, Gal. Ois., 1, 1822, accipitres, p. 43, pi. 16. 
(Senegal.) 

Northern Africa from Senegal and Nigeria to the White Nile and Shoa. 

Genus MACHAERHAMPHUS Westbrman 

Machaerhamphus Westerman, Bijdr. tot de Dierk., 1, 1848, p. 29, pi. 12. 
Type, by monotypy, Machaerhamphus alcinus Westerman. 

cf. Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds., ed. 2, 5, 1928, p. 169-170. 
Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 233-235. 

Machaerhamphus alcinus alcinus Westerman 

Machaerhamphus alcinus Westerman, Bijdr. tot de Dierk., 1, 1848, p. 29, 
pi. 12. (Malacca.) 

Southern Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula; Malay Archipelago to 
New Guinea. 

•~-l Machaerhamphus alcinus anderssoni (Gurney) 

Stringonyz anderssoni Gurney, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1865 (1866), 
p. 618. (Otjimbinque, Damaraland.) 

Liberia, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Somaliland southward to Damara- 
land; Madagascar. 

Subfamily PERNINAE 

Genus ELANOIDES Vieillot 

Elanoides Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 24, 1818, p. 101. Type, by 
monotypy, Milan de la CaroUne = Falco forficatus Linne. 

cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, 1926, p. 237. 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Americana, 3, 1901, p. 95-97. 

"" I Elanoides forficatus forficatus (Linn6) 

Falco forficatus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (CaroUna, ex 
Catesby.) 

Breeds locally from northern Minnesota, southern Indiana and South 
Carolina to eastern Mexico. Winters south of the United States; area not 
known. 

- — I Elanoides forficatus yetapa (Vieillot) 

Milvus yetapa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 20, 1818, p. 564. (Para- 
guay ex Azara.) [cf. also Tabl. Encyc. M6th., 3, 1823, p. 1205.] 

Central America south to Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina 
and southern Brazil. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 195 

Genus AVICEDA Swainson 

Avkeda Swainson, Classif. Bds., 1, 1836, p. 300 (diagnosis; no included 
species). Type, by subsequent designation, Aviceda cuculoides Swain- 
son, op. cit., 2, 1837, p. 214. 

Nesobaza Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 213. Type, by original 
designation, Pernis madagascariensis A. Smith. 
cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 220-222. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 211-220. (Subnom. Lophastur.) 
McGregor, Man. Phil. Bds., pt. 1, 1909, p. 236-238. 
RUey, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 64, art. 16, 1924, p. 41. 
Stresemann, Nov. ZooL, 20, 1913, p. 305-308. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds., ed. 2, 5, 1928, p. 170-176; op. cit., 
7, 1930, p. 427. {Subnom. Baza.) 

Aviceda cuculoides cuculoides Swainson 

Aviceda cuculoides Swainson, Classif. Bds., 2, 1837, p. 214. (Generic 

characters and fig. of head). Id. Bds. W. Afr., 1, 1837, p. 104, pi. 1. 

(Description, no type locality = West Africa.) 
Baza emini Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 42, 1894, p. 163, note. (S. W. of 

Albert Nyanza, lat. 1° N., long. 28°-30° E.) 
Baza cuculoides batesi Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 107. (River Ja, 

Cameroon.) 

Forests of western and central Africa from Gambia to the Ituri district 
and the Niam Niam country, south to Gaboon. 

Aviceda cuculoides verreauxii Lafresnaye 

Aviceda Verreauxii Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 130. (Durban, 

Natal.) 

East Africa from Mombasa south to Nyasaland, Rhodesia, Natal and the 
south coastland of Cape Province at Knysna. 

Aviceda madagascariensis (A. Smith) 

Pernis Madagascariensis A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. (2), 1834, 

p. 285. (Madagascar.) 
Madagascar. 

Aviceda jerdoni jerdoni (Blyth) 

Pernis Jerdoni Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 11, 1842, p. 464. 
(No type locality = Malacca.) 

Sikkim to eastern Assam south to Burma, Malay Peninsula and Siam; 
Sumatra. 

Aviceda jerdoni ceylonensis (Legge) 

Baza ceylonensis Legge, Str. Feath., 4, 1876, p. 247. (Near Kandy, 
Ceylon.) 

Travancore and Ceylon. 



196 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Aviceda jerdoni bomeensis (Sharpe) 

Baza borneensis Sharpe, Ibis, 1S93, p. 557. {Ex Briiggemann, Abh. nat. 

Ver. Bremen, 5, 1876, p. 47, nomen nudwn, Pontianate, Borneo.) 
Borneo. 

Aviceda jerdoni magnirostris (Kaup) 

Hyptiofnts magnirostris ''G. Gray'' Kaup, Isis, 1S47. col. 343. {Ex Gray, 
List Bds. Brit. Mus., 1S44, p. 19, notnen nudum, Philippine Islands = 
Luzon, fide Sharpe, Ibis, 1893, p. 555.) 
Luzon and Mindanao, PhiHppine Islands. 

Aviceda jerdoni leucopias (Sharpe) 

Baza leucopias Sharpe, Ibis, ISSS, p. 195. (Palawan.) 
Romblon, Samar and Palawan, PhiHppine Islands. 

Aviceda jerdoni celebensis (SchlegeD 
Baza celebensis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Rev. Ois. de Proie, 1873, p. 135. 

(Celebes and Sula Islands.) 
Celebes and Sula Islands. 

Aviceda subcristata timorlaoensis (A. B. Meyer) 

Baza ti7norlaoejisis A. B. Meyer. Abh. Ber. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 4, 1892- 
1893 (1893), no. 3, p. 5. ' (Timorlaut.) 

Islands from Lombok east to Timorlaut including, probably, Djampea, 
Bonerate and Kahdupa. 

Aviceda subcristata pallida (Stresemann) 

Baza s-ubcristata pallida Stresemann, Nov. Zool., 20, 1913, p. 305 (in key), 

p. 306. (Tual, Kei Islands.) 
South-East and Kei Islands. 

— ^ Aviceda subcristata rufa (Schlegel) 

Baza rufa Schlegel, Yog. Xed. Ind., Valkvog., 1866, p. 41, 78, pi. 27, f. 4; 
pi. 28, f. 1-3. (Hahnahera, Morotai, Batjan, Temate, Tidore.) 

Xorthem Moluccas. 

Aviceda subcristata stresemanni (Siebers) 
Baza stresemanni Siebers, Treubia, 7, 1930, Suppl. p. 243. (Xal'Besi, 

Bum.) 
Bum. 

■ --I Aviceda subcristata reinwardtii (Miiller and Schlegel) 

Falco {Lophotcs) Reinwardtii Miiller and Schlegel, Yerh. Xed. Overz. 
Bezitt. Zool. Aves., 1843, p. 35, f . 2. (Celebes, Borneo, error = Ceram, 
substituted by Berlepsch, Abh. Senckb. Xat. Ges., 34, 1911, p. 81.) 
Southern Moluccas (Ceram, Amboina); Misol, Salawatti, Waigiu, 
Xew Guinea. 



ORDER FALCOXIFORMES 197 

-4- ?Aviceda subcristata stenozona (G. R. Graj-) 

Baza stenozana G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, p. 169. (Am 

Islands.) 
Am Islands. (Doubtfully distinct from reinwardiii.) 

Aviceda subcristata megala (Stresemann) 

Baza subcristata megala Stresemann, Nov. Zool., 20, 191.3, p. .305 (in key), 

p. 307. (Fergusson Island.) 
Fergusson and probably other islands in the D'Entrecasteaux Group. 

Aviceda subcristata bismarckii (Sharpe) 

Baza birmarcJcii Sharpe, in Gould, Bds. New Guinea, pt. 25, 1888, text 
to plate labelled Baza gumeyi. (Xew Britain and New Ireland. Type 
from New Britain figured as Baza gumeyi.) 
Bismarck Archipelago (New Hanover, Xew Ireland, New Britain) . 

""' Aviceda subcristata gumeyi (Ramsay) 

Baza Gumeyi Ramsay, Joum. Linn. .Soc. London, 16, 1882, p. 130. 

(L'gi Island, Solomon Islands.) 
Solomon Islands. 

Aviceda subcristata queenslandica (Mathews) 

Baza s^ubcristata queenslandica Mathews, Xov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 251. 

(Mackay, Queensland.) 
LophaMur s^ubcriMatus kempi Mathews, Bds. Aiistr., 5, 1916, p. 220. 

(SkuH Creek, Cape York.) 
Northwest Australia to northern Queensland. 

"—/-" Aviceda subcristata subcristata (Gould) 

Lepidogenys s^ibcriMatus Gould, Sjti. Bds. Austr., pt. 3, 1S3S, pi. [46] 

and text. (New South Wales.) 
Southern Queensland and New South Wales. 

— 1^ — Aviceda leuphotes leuphotes (Dumont) 

Falco leuphotes Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat., 16, 1820, p. 217. (Pondi- 

cherrj'.) 
Nepal, Terai, Sikkim and eastern Bengal to eastern Assam (north of the 
Brahmapootra) ; Travancore, Ce5ion. 

1 — Aviceda leuphotes bxirmana (W. L. Sclater) 

Baza lophotes burmana W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Om. CL, 41, 1920, 

p. 31. (Malewoon, Patchan Estuan,', Tenasserim.) 
Baza lophotes melli Stresemann, Joum. f. Om., 71, 1923, p. 525. (Tso- 

gok-wahn, Kwangtung.) 
Assam (south of the Brahmapootra) east to Indo-China and south to 
northern Malaj' Peninsula and Siam; moimtains of Kwangtung. 



198 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus HENICOPERNIS G. R. Gray 

Henicopernis G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 153. Type, 
by monotypy, Astur longicauda Lesson = Falco longicauda Garnot. 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 126-127. 

■^1 Henicopernis longicauda longicauda (Garnot) 

Falco longicauda Garnot, Voy. 'Coquille', livr. 7, 1828, pi. 10; livr. 12, 
1829, p. 588. (Dorey, Dutch New Guinea.) 

Waigiu, Salawatti, Mysol, Misori, New Guinea, Aru Islands. 

Henicopernis longicauda infuscata Gurney 

Henicopernis infuscata Gurney, Ibis, 1882, p. 128. (Blanche Bay, New 
Britain.) 

New Britain. 

Genus PERNIS Cuvier 

Pernis Cuvier, Regne Animal, 1, 1817 (1816), p. 322. Type, by monotypy, 
Falco apivorus Linn6. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1181-1184. 
McGregor, Man. Phil. Bds., pt. 1, 1909, p. 235-236. 
Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 5, 1923, p. 94-95. 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 165-169. 

»— ^ Pernis apivorus apivorus (Linn^) 

Falco apivorus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 91. (Europe = 
Sweden apud Hartert.) 

Breeds in Europe from Norway, Sweden and Lapland south to Spain, 
northern Italy and Greece, east to western Siberia. Winters in Africa south 
to Natal. 

,^L..,. Pernis apivorus orientalis Taczanowski 

Pernis apivorus orientalis Taczanowski, Fauna Orn. Sib.-Orient., pt. 1, 

1891, p. 50 (in M^m Acad. Imp. Sci. St.P^tersb., (7), 39. Eastern 

Siberia.) 
Pernis apivorus japonicus Kuroda, Dobuts. Zasshi, 37, 1925, p. 223 

(Japanese text), p. 225 (English text). (Province of Shinano, Hondo, 

Japan.) 

Breeds in southern Siberia from southwestern Altai to the Amur region; 
also the mountains of Hondo ; probably in Manchuria and northern China. 
South in winter to northern India, Burma and southern China. 

I Pernis apivorus ruficollis Lesson 

Pernis ruficollis Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 1, 1830, p. 77. ("Patrie in- 
connue" = Bengal.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 199 

India from the Punjab to Ceylon; Bengal and Assam (probably south- 
western Yunnan) east to Tonkin and Laos. 

f Pernis apivorus ptilorhyncus (Temminck) 

Falco ptilorhyncus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 8, 1821, pi. 44. (Java and 
Sumatra.) 

Malay Peninsula, peninsular Siam; Java, Sumatra and Borneo. 

-j — Pernis apivorus celebensis Walden 

Pernis celebensis Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 8, 1872, p. 111. 
(Celebes.) 

Pernis celebensis steerei Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 1919, p. 41. 
(San Antonio, Negros, Philippines.) 

Philippine Islands and Celebes. 

Genus ODONTRIORCHIS Kaup 

Odontriorchis Kaup, Classif. Saug. und Vog., 1844, p. 124. Type, by 
monotypy, cayennensis — Falco cayennensis Gmelin, p. 269. (Not of 
p. 263) = Falco palliatus Temminck. 

Micraetus Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), 1901, p. 156. Type, by 
monotypy, Micraetus holmbergianus Bertoni = Falco palliatus Tem- 
minck. 

cf. Helbnayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, 1929, p. 456-457. 

[ Odontriorchis palliatus (Temminck) 

Falco palliatus "P. Max." Temminck, PI. Col., Uvr. 23, 1822, pi. 204. 
(Brazil and Guiana = Rio Peruhype, southern Bahia, accepted by 
Hellmayr as type locality.) 

Micraetus Holmbergianus Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), 1901, p. 156. 

(Banks of the Alto Parang, lat. 25° 47' S., Paraguay.) 
Odontriorchis palliatus guianensis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 159. 

(Near Paramaribo, Surinam.) 

Odontriorchis palliatus mexicanus Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 159. 
(Tampico, Mexico.) 

Tropical Mexico south through Central and South America (including 
Island of Trinidad) to BoUvia and southeastern Brazil. 

Odontriorchis forbesi Swann 

Odontriorchis jorbesi Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 159. (Pernam- 
buco, Brazil.) 

Unique.^ 

1 Hellmayr, loc. cit., casts doubt upon the validity of this species, but W. L. 
Sclater in lilt., informs me that he does not believe th&i forhesi can possibly be 
identical with palliatus. 



200 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus CHONDROHIERAX Lesson 

Chondrohierax Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant, (2), 7, 184.3, col. 61. 
Type, by monotypy, Daedalion erythrofrons Lesson = Falco uncinatus 
Daudin. 

cf. Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 267-269. 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Americana, 3, 1901, p. 101-103. 

i Chondrohierax megarhynchus (Des Murs) 

Regerhinus Cymindis Megarhynchus "Kaup," Des Murs in Castelnau, 
Voyage, 1, 1855, Ois., p. 9, pi. 1. (Sarayacu, Ecuador?). 

Andes of Venezuela; eastern Ecuador; eastern Peru; Bolivia.^ 

• \ Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck) 

Falco uncinatus "Illiger" Temminck, PL Col., hvr. 18, 1822, pi. 103, 104, 
115. ("Vicinity of Rio to the north of Brazil and all of Guiana.") 

Tropical Mexico, through Central and South America to northern Ar- 
gentina; Island of Grenada, Lesser Antilles. 

*-^ Chondrohierax wilsonii (Cassin) 

Cymindis Wilsonii Cassin, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n. s., 1, 1847, 
p. 21, pi. 7. (Near Gibara, Cuba.) 

Island of Cuba. 

Subfamily MILVINAE 

Genus HARPAGUS Vigors 

Harpagus Vigors, Zool. Journ., 1, 1824, p. 338. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Falco bidentatus Latham. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, 
p. 4.) 

cf. Carriker, Ann. Carn. Mus., 6, 1910, p. 469. 
Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 272-274. 

— -i Harpagus bidentatus fasciatus Lawrence 

Harpagus fasciatus Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, p. 429. 
(Guatemala.) 

Southern Mexico to Panama. 

~~V Harpagus bidentatus bidentatus (Latham) 

Falco bidentatus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 38. (Cayenne.) 

Colombia to the Guianas, south to Peru, eastern Bolivia, Matto Grosso 
and northern Maranhao. 

1 The birds recorded as Chondrohierax megarhynchus by Dabbene (Hornero, 
3, 1926, p. 391-394) from Tucumdn appear to belong to uncinatus. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 201 

/ Harpagus diodon (Temminck) 

Falco diodon Temminck, PL col., livr. 34, 1823, pi. 198. (Brazil = Rio 
Peruhype, near Villa Vigosa, southern Bahia.^) 

Gampsonyx ranivorus Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), 1901, p. 165. 

(Alto Parana, lat. 25° 40', Paraguay.) 
Eastern Brazil from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. 

Genus ICTINIA Vieillot 

Ictinia Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 24. Type, by monotj^Dy, Milan-Cres- 
serelle Vieillot = Falco plumbevs Gmelin. 

cf. Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr .-Americana, 3, 1901, p. 103-105. 

"*— |- Ictinia misisippiensis (Wilson) 

Falco misisippiensis Wilson, Am. Orn., 3, 1811, p. 80, pi. 25, f. 1. (Below 
Natchez, Mississippi.) 

Breeds (formerly at least) from northeastern Kansas, southern Indiana 
and South Carolina to Texas and Florida. Winters in Florida and southern 
Texas, occasionally south to Guatemala. 

—— + Ictinia plumb ea (Gmelin) 

Falco plumbeus Gmehn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 283. (Cayenne, ex 
Latham.) 

Ictinia plumbea vagans Miller and Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 25, 
1921, p. 5. (Pena Blanca, Nicaragua.) 

Tropical Central and South America from southern Mexico to Bolivia, 
northern Argentina, Paraguay and southern Brazil. 

Genus ROSTRHAMUS Lesson 

Rostrhamus Lesson, Traits d'Orn., U\t. 1, 1830, p. 55. Type, by mono- 
typy, Rostrhamus niger Lesson = Herpetotheres sociabilis Vieillot. 

Cymindes "Spix" Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, 1922, p. 79. 
Type, by monotypy, Cymindis leucopygus Spix = Herpetotheres socia- 
bilis Vieillot. 

cf. Wetmore, BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 106-107. 

~-f-" Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus Ridgway 

Rostrhamus sociabilis var. plumbeus RidgM'ay, in Baird, Brewer and 
Ridgway, Hist. No. Am. Bds., 3, 1874, p. 208 (in key), p. 209. (Ever- 
glades of Florida.) 

Breeds locally in tropical Florida, Cuba, Isle of Pines, eastern Mexico to 
Costa Rica. 

1 Naumburg, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 60, 1930, p. 112. 



202 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

--^' Rostrhamus sociabilis sociabilis (Vieillot) 

Herpetotheres sociabilis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 18, 1817, p. 318. 
(Corrientes and Rio de la Plata.) 

Rostrihamus (sic) tenuirostris Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), 1901, 

p. 171. (Puerto Bertoni, Alto Parand, lat. 25° 40', Paraguay.) 
Eastern Panama over South America to northern (Tucumdn) and east- 
ern (Buenos Aires) Argentina and Uruguay. 

Genus HELICOLESTES Bangs and Penard 

Helicolestes Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 62, 1918, p. 38. 
Type, by original designation, Falco hamatus "IlHger" = Temminck. 

cf. Hellmayr, Abh. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss., Kl. 2, 23, 1906, p. 569. 

T Helicolestes hamatus (Temminck) 

Falco hamatm "Illiger" Temminck, PI. col., livr. 11, 1821, pi. 61. 
(Brazil.) 

Northern South America from Surinam to eastern Peru and the lower 
Amazon. 

Genus MILVUS Lacepede 

Milvus Lacepede, Table Ois., 1799, p. 4. Type, by tautonjTiiy, Falco 
milvus Linn6. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1166-1175. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 170-180. 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 120-125. 

— ^' Milvus milvus milvus (Linne) 

Falco Milvus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Europe, Asia, 
Africa, restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Milvus milvus harterti B^de, M^m. Soc. Sci. Nat. Morocco, no. 16, 1926 
(= May, 1927), p. 36. (Ain-Leuh, Middle Atlas, Morocco.) 

Breeds in England (locally), Scandinavia north to lat. 61°, east to 
Russia, south to northwestern Africa, Asia Minor and Palestine; Canary 
Islands. Migratory in the northern part of its range, but not crossing the 
Sahara. 

Milvus milvus fasciicauda Hartert 

Milvus milvus fasciicauda Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 33, 1914, p. 89. 
(Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands.) 

Cape Verde Islands. 

— \ Milvus migrans migrans (Boddaert) 

Falco migrans Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 28. (Restricted type 
locality, France, apud Hartert, ex Daubenton, pi. 472.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 203 

Milvus korschun reichenowi Erlanger, Orn. Monatsb., 5, 1897, p. 192. 

(Sidi Ali-ben-Aoun, southern Tunis.) 
Milvus korschun rufivevter, Buturlin, Nascha Okhota, 1908. (Transcau- 
casia and Transcaspia.) 
Breeds from Spain, southern France, Germany and Finland south to 
northwestern Africa, southeastern Europe, Asia Minor, Kirghiz Steppes, 
and northeastern Baluchistan. Winters in northern Africa.^ 

■— I Milvus migrans aegyptius (GmeHn) 

Falco oegy-ptius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 261. (Egypt.) 
Egypt. 

— j Milvus migrans parasitus (Daudin) 

Falco parasitus Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 150. (South Africa, 
ex LevaiUant.) 

Africa south of the Sahara (including Ethiopia); Madagascar and the 
Comoro Islands. 

"^ Milvus migrans arabicus Swann 

Milvus migrans arabicus Swann, Synop. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 153. 

(Lahy, southern Arabia.) 
Southern Arabia and Somaliland. 

—'I Milvus migrans govinda Sykes 

Milvus Govinda Sykes, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 81. 
(Deccan.) 

All of India, Burma and Ceylon, rarely to the Malay Peninsula. 

—I- Milvus migrans affinis Gould 

Milvus affinis Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 3, 1838, pi. [47, f. 1] and text. 

(Australia = New South Wales, ^de Mathews, antea, p. 171.) 
Milvus korschun napieri Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 249. (Napier 

Broome Bay, northwest Australia.) 
Lesser Sunda Islands, Timor, Celebes, New Guinea, Bismarck Archi- 
pelago, Australia. 

""°~V^ Milvus lineatus lineatus (J. E. Gray) 

Halicetus lineatus J. E. Grav, in Hardwicke, 111. Ind. Zool., 1, pt. 8, 1831, 
p. 1, pi. 18. (China.) 

Milvus melanotis ferghanensis Buturlin, Nascha Okhota, 1908. 

(Ferghana.) 
Breeds in western Siberia from about lat. 58° N. east to Transbaikalia 
and Japan, south to Transcaspia, Turkestan, the Himalayas and northern 

1 Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 58, says, "of doubtful occurrence 
in the Etliiopian region, ..." 



204 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

China. Winters south to northern India, Burma and Indo-China and 
Hainan. 

Milvus lineatus formosanus Kuroda 

Milvus lineatus formosam<s Kuroda, Dobuts. Zasshi, 32, 1920, p. 243, 

(Japanese text), p. 245 (English text), (Gyochi, Nanto District, Central 

Formosa.) 
BeUeved to be resident on Formosa. 

Genus LOPHOICTINIA Kaup 

Lophoictinia Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 113. Type, by monot5T)y, Milvus 

isurus Gould. 
cf. Mathews, Eds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 181-186. 

.. Y^.-^ Lophoictinia isura (Gould) 

Milvus isurus Gould, Syn. Eds. Austr., pt. 3, 1838, pi. [47, f . 2] and text. 

(Austraha = New South Wales, fide Mathews antea, p. 182.) 
Milvus isura westraliensis Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 250. (Perth, 

Southwest Austraha.) 
Austraha. 

Genus HAMIROSTRA Erown 

Hamirostra Erown, 111. Gen. Eds., pt. 8, 1846, p. 12. Type, by monotypy, 
Hamirostra montana Erown = Buteo melanosternon Gould. 
cf. Mathews, Eds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 187-196. 

'-^ Hamirostra melanosternon (Gould) 

Buteo melanosternon Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), p. 162. 

(Interior of New South Wales.) 
Gypoidinia melanosterna decepta Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 250. 

(Parry's Creek, Northwest Australia.) 
Interior of Australia. 

Genus HALIASTUR Selby 

Haliastur Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Aves, 1840, p. 2 (note), p. 3. 

Type, by original designation, Hal. pondicerianus = Falco indus Eod- 

daert. 
Idiniastur Mathews, Eds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 146. Type, by original 

designation, Milvus sphenurus Vieillot. (Originally proposed as a sub- 
genus.) 
cj. Hartert, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 364, 1929, p. 2. 

Mathews, Eds. Austr., 5, 1915-1916, p. 145-169. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas, 1, 1927, p. 255-256. 

Stuart Eaker, Fauna Erit. Ind., ed. 2, Eds., 5, 1928, p. 118-120. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 205 

Haliastur Indus Indus (Boddaert) 

Falco Indus Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 25. (Pondicherry, ex 

Daubenton, pi. 416 and Buffon, 1, p. 490.) 
India and Burma east to southern China, south to Ceylon, Tenasserim, 
northern Siani and central Annam. 

Haliastur Indus intermedius Blyth 

Haliastur intermedius Bl3i;h, Ibis, 1865, p. 28. (Java.) 

Malay Peninsula, southern Siam and southern Annam southward; 

PhiHppines, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, east to Celebes ^ and the Lesser Sunda 

Islands. 

Haliastur indus girrenera (Vieillot) 

Haliaetvs girrenera Vieillot, Gal. Ois., 1, 1822, p. 31, pi. 10. (India, Ben- 
gal, Pondicherry, Coromandel and Malabar, also New Holland accord- 
ing to Latham. Restricted type locality, New South Wales [the plate 
represents the AustraUan form]). 
Haliastur indite subleucosternus Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 249. 

(Derby, northwest AustraUa.) 
The Moluccas, New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago, Solomon Islands, 
Austraha.^ 

Haliastur sphenurus sphenurus (Vieillot) 

Milvus sphenurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 20, 1818, p. 564. 

(Australia = New South Wales.) 
Haliastur sphenurus territori Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 88. 

(Northern Territory; type said to be from Mary River.) 
New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Australia and Tasmania. 

Haliastur sphenurus johannae Brasil 

Haliastiir sphenurus johannae Brasil, Rev. Frany. d' Orn., 4, 7 Jan. 1916, 
p. 201. (New Caledonia.) 

Haliastur sphenurus sarasini Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 29 Feb. 1916, 

p. 169. (New Caledonia.) 
New Caledonia. 

Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE 

Genus ACCIPITER^ Brisson 

Accipiter Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 28, 310. Type, by tautonjony, Ac- 
cipiter Brisson = Falco nisus Linne. 

^ Haliastui ambiguus Briiggemann is a synonym of intermedius; Haliacetus 
leucosternus Gould, one of girrenera. 

2 I entirely agree with Hartert and Stresemann in uniting Astur with Ac- 
cipiter. There is no line which can be drawn between the two groups. Foot 



206 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Paraspizias Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 74. Type, by original 
designation, Sparvius cirrhocephalus Vieillot. 

Aerospiza Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 208. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Falco tachiro Daudin. 

Neonisus Roberts, Arm. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 208. Type, by original 
designation, Accipiter melanoleucus A. Smith. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1145-1163. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 32, 1925, p. 267-270. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 35-83. 
Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 238-248. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 67-71. 
Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 72, 1924, p. 435-437; 442-446. 
Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 73, 1925, p. 319-323. 
Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 32, 1924, p. 6-7. 
Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 34, 1926, p. 73-76. 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 156-164. 
Stuart Baker, op. cit, 7, 1930, p. 421-425. 
Sushkin, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 39, 1928, p. 1-32. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 3, 1925, p. 176-196. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 4, 1925, p. 197-276. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 5, 1926, p. 277-337. 

--J^- Accipiter gentilis gentilis (Linne) 

Falco gentilis, Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Dalecarlian 
Alps, Sweden.) 

Scandinavian Peninsula, Latvia and western Russia (Provs. of Vitebsk 
and Minsk). 

—Hh Accipiter gentilis gallinarum (C. L. Brehm) 

Astur gallinarum C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 
p. 83. (Coniferous Forests of Germany.) 

Western and central Europe east to Russia (Provs. of Grodno and 
Poltava). 

--4 Accipiter gentilis arrigonii (Kleinschmidt) 

Astur gentilis arrigonii Kleinschmidt, Om. Monatsb., 9, 1903, p. 152. 

(Sardinia.) 

Corsica and Sardinia. 

structure, the chief character which has been used to differentiate the two 
genera, shows every possible variation between the "Asturs" with the shorter 
middle toe and the "Accipiters" in which the middle toe is very long and 
slender. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 207 

Accipiter gentilis marginatus (Filler and Mitterspacher) 

Falco marginatus Filler and Mitterspacher, Iter per Foseg. Sclavon., 
1783, p. 28. (Vukovar, Slavonia.) 

Astur gentilis balcanicus Lonnberg, Journ. f. Orn., 73, 1925, p. 105. 
(Southeastern Europe.) 

Western half of Jugo-Slavia and northern Albania. 

—f— Accipiter gentilis moscoviae (Sushkin) 

Astur gentilis moscoviae Sushkin, Froe. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 39, 1928, 
p. 8. (Dist. of Mikhailov, Frov. of Riazan, central Russia.) 

Central and part of northwestern European Russia from Leningrad and 
Lake Onega south to Kharkov and Voronezh, east to Kazan and Simbirsk. 

-^ Accipiter gentilis buteoides (Menzbier) 

Astur palumbarius buteoides Menzbier, Orn. Geogr. Eur. Russl. (in, 
Mem. Sci. Univers. Imp. Moscou Hist. Nat.) 1882, p. 439. (Near 
Vladimir, central Russia.) 

Astur gentilis poecilopterus Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1922, p. 228. 
(Lodma and North Dvina, Frov. Arkhangelsk, Russia.) (Also de- 
scribed as a new subspecies in Ibis, 1923, p. 215, northern Russia.) 

Northeastern Russia and western Siberia from the lower Dvina (possibly 
Kola Feninsula and Ufa) east probably to the Yenessei. 

—y- Accipiter gentilis caucasicus Kleinschmidt 

Accipiter Palumbarius caucasicus Kleinschmidt, Berajah, 1923, p. 5; 
pi. 9, f. 5; pi. 12, f. 5. (Caucasus.) 

Crimean Feninsula, Caucasus, Transcaucasia and probably also north- 
western Fersia. 

— /- Accipiter gentilis albidus (Menzbier) 

Astur palumbarius albidus Menzbier, Orn. Geogr. Eur. Russl. (in, M^m. 
Sci. Univers. Imp. Moscou, Hist. Nat.) 1882, p. 438. (East Siberia, 
Amurland and Kamchatka, ex FaUas, Schrenck.) 

Astur caesius ButurUn, Fsovaia i Ruzheinaia Okhota, 1907, no. 7. 
Also described under the same name in Orn. Monatsb., 15, 1907, p. 80. 
(Sredue-Kolymsk, east Siberia.) 

Northeast Siberia east of the Yana River; Kamchatka. Southern limits 
of range not known. 

-j^ Accipiter gentilis schvedowi (Menzbier) 

Astur palumbarius Schvedowi Menzbier, Orn. Geogr., Eur. Russl. (in, 
Mem. Sci. Univers. Imp. Moscou, Hist. Nat.) 1882, p. 439. (Trans- 
baikaUa.) 

Central Asia from Barnaul and Krasnoyarsk to Yakutsk and the Aldan 
River, south to the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains and the Amur River. 



■208 CHECK-LIST OF BIEDS OF THE WORLD 

- — i Accipiter gentilis khamensis (Bianchi) 

Astur palumbarim khainemis Bianchi. Bull. Brit. Om. CI., 16, 1906, 
p. 70. (Kham, southeastern Tibet, type from Lun-tok-ndo, north of 
Chando, headwaters of the Mekong, according to Sushkin supra.) 

Southeast-Central Asia, in southwestern Kansu, southeastern Tibet, 
Szetchuan. perhaps northern Yunnan. 

y/ Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae (^Swann and Hartert) 

Astur geniilis fvjiyama Swann and Hartert, Bull. Brit. Om. CI., 43, 1923, 
p. 170. (Sagam i-no-kuni. Japan.) 

Japan and Sakhalin. 

— / Accipiter gentilis atricapillus (Wilson) 

Fak-o atrkapiUu^ Wilson, Am. Om., 6, 1812, p. SO, pi. 52, f. 3. (Near 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) 

Xorthwestem Alaska to northern Ungava, south to Michigan. ]Maine 
and Xew Brunswick. South in the mountains to Xew Mexico and Pennsyl- 
vania. Irregularly in winter south to northern Mexico, Texas, Missouri 
and Virginia. 

-y- Accipiter gentilis striatxilus (Ridgway) 

Astur atricupillus var. striatulus Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 
Hist. Xo. Am. Bds., 3. 1S74. p. 23S. 2.39! 240. (Colorado, ''Fort Benton 
on the Missouri," "Fort Steilacoom, Puget Sound.") 

Breeds in the Boreal Zone of the Pacific coast region from Cook Inlet to 
California. Arizona, Xew Mexico and Chihuahua. 

Accipiter henstii (Schlegel) 

Astur henstii Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1873, Rev. Ois. de Proie, p. 62. 
(Morondava, southwestern Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

Accipiter meyerianus (Sharpe) 
Astur Meyerianus Sharpe, Joum. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1878, p. 458. 

(Ansus, Island of Jobi.) 
Astur planes Reichenow, Joum. f. Om.. 58. 1910, p. 412. (Island of 

Vuatom, off the north coast of Xew Britain. Error, type is from the 

Gazelle Peninsula, Xew Britain.) = imm. 9 

Accipiter planes manehi Stresemann, Om. !Monatsb., 30, 1922, p. 110. 
(lUo-Illo, Ceram) = imm. f 

Ceram, Ceramlaut, Gilolo, Jobi, Xew Britain, Solomon Islands. 

Accipiter biirgersi (Reichenow) 

Astur biirgersi Reichenow, Om. Monatsb., 22, Feb. 1914, p. 29. (Ma- 
anderberg. Sepik Piiver region, Xew Guinea) = ad. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 209 

Accipiter (Astur) eudiabolus Rothschild and Hartert, Bull. Brit. Om. CI., 
35, Nov. 1914, p. 8. (Babooni, 3000 feet, British New Guinea) = ad. 
melanistic. 

Mountains of eastern New Guinea. 

" I -Accipiter melanoleucus temminckii (Hartlaub) 

Astur Temminckii Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 3, 1855, p. 353. (Rio 

Bountry, Gold Coast.) 
West coast of Africa from Cape Yerde south to Gaboon. 

— /^ Accipiter melanoleucus melanoleucus A. Smith 

Accipiter melanoleucus A. Smith, So. Air. Quart. Joum. (1), 1830, p. 229. 
(Ba\iaans River, Cape Proxdnce.) 

Eastern Africa from Ethiopia to Cape Pro\ince. 

—y/ Accipiter tachiro macrocelides (Hartlaub) 

Astur macrocelides "Te mm ." Hartlaub, Joum. f. Orn., 3, 1855, p. 354* 
(Gold Coast.) 

Sierra Leone to southern Nigeria. 

Accipiter tachiro unduliventer (Riippell) 

Falco {Astur) undvliventer Riippell, Neue Wirbelth., Vog., 1836, p. 40, 
pi. 18, f. 1. (Simien, Ethiopia.) 

Ethiopia and Shoa. 

Accipiter tachiro sparsimfasciatus (Reichenow) 

Astur sparsimfasciatus Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 3, 1895, p. 97. (Zan- 
zibar.) 

Astur tachiro nyansae Neumann, Orn. Monatsb., 10, 1902, p. 138. (^'ic- 
toria Nyanza.) 

Astur tachiro acelefus Oberholser, Proc. T. S. Nat. Mus., 28, 1905, p. 829. 
(Taveta, Kenya Colony.) 

Astur tachiro orienticola Oberholser, Ann. Carn. Mus., 3, 1906, p. 495. 
(Mombasa, Kenya Colony.) 

Astur tachiro tenebrosi.is Lonnberg, Ark. f. Zool., 11, no. 5, 1917, p. 2. 
(Londiani, Kem-a Colon}'.) 

Astiir tachiro benguelleiisis Swann, Sra. List. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 34. 
(Kabisombo, River Quilengo, Benguella.) 

Uganda and Kenya Colon}' to Angola and Mashonaland. 

Accipiter tachiro tachiro (Daudin) 

Falco tachiro Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 90. (Antiniquoi County 
= Knysna, Cape Pro^^nce.) 

Eastern Transvaal and Natal to Cape Province. 



210 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

j Accipiter tachiro toussenelii (J. and E. Verreaux) 

Nisus Toussenelii J. and E. Verreaux, Journ. f. Orn., 3, 1855, p. 101. 

(Gaboon.) 
Cameroon to Gaboon. 

'-^- Accipiter tachiro canescens (Chapin) 

Astur toussenellii (sic) canescens Chapin, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 7, 1921, 
p. 1. (Medje, northern Ituri district, Belgian Congo.) 

Forested regions of the Belgian Congo. 

Accipiter tachiro lopezi (Alexander) 
Astur lopezi Alexander, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 13, 1903, p. 49. (Moka, 
Fernando Po.) 

Island of Fernando Po, Gulf of Guinea. 

/ Accipiter castanilius Bonaparte 

Accipiter castanilius Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1853, p. 578. 
(South America. Error = Gaboon.) 

Accipiter beniensis Lonnberg, Ark. f . Zool., 10, no. 24, 1917, p. 13. (Beni, 

eastern Congo.) 
Cameroon to Portuguese Congo, east to the Ituri district of the Belgian 
Congo. 

"»-/ Accipiter trinotatus Bonaparte 

Accipiter trinotatus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, 1850, p. 33. (Celebes.) 
Spilospizias trinotatus haesitandus Hartert, Nov. Zool., 3, 1896, p. 162. 
(Southern Celebes. Type from Tasoso, Bonthain Peak, 6000 feet.) 

Celebes. 



i 



Accipiter brevipes (Severtzov) 
Astur brevipes Severtzov, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 23, no. 3, 1850, 
p. 234, pi. 1-3. (Gouvernment Voronesh.) (Owing to an error in 
pagination of pt. 3, pp. 241-352 were numbered 173-284, conse- 
quently there are two p. 234's. The reference cited applies to the first 
p. 234.) 
Astur graecus Madard,sz, Orn. Monatsb., 18, 1910, p. 65. (Greece.) 
Breeds from southern Russia to Jugo-Slavia, Greece, Asia Minor and the 
Caucasus. Winters in Syria and from the southern shores of the Caspian 
Sea to southwestern Persia. 

— /- Accipiter badius sphenurus Rtippell 

Falco (Nisus) sphenurus Rlippell, Neue Wirbelth., Vog., 1836, p. 42. 

(Dahlak Island, Red Sea.) 
Astur riggenbachi Neumann, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 21, 1908, p. 69. (Gas- 

sam, east of Thies, Senegal.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 211 

Astur sphenurus obscurior Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 64, 1916, p. 161. 
(Bossum, Uam River, northeastern Cameroon.) 

Senegal, Gold Coast and southern Nigeria east to Eritrea and south- 
western Arabia, south to Cameroon, Uganda and Kenya Colony. 

— ^ Accipiter badius polyzonoides A. Smith 

Accipiter polyzonoides A. Smith, lU. Zool. S. Afr. Aves, 1838, pi. 11. 
(South Africa north of lat. 26° S. = Mafeking, Transvaal.) 

Africa from Tanganyika Territory, northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland 
south to the Orange River. 

— /- Accipiter badius chorassanicus (Heptner and Stachanov) 

Astur badius chorassanicus Heptner and Stachanov, Journ. f. Orn., 78, 
1930, p. 514. (Machtum-Kala, 13 km. west of Askhabad, Trans- 
caspia.) 

Transcaspia and northern Persia; Baluchistan(?). 

"~~/ Accipiter badius cenchroides (Severtzov) 

Astur cenchroides Severtzov, Bull. Imp. Soc. Friends Nat. Sci. Anthr. and 
Ethnogr. Moscou, 8, pt. 2, 1873, p. 113. (Aulje-ata and Chimkent, 
Russian Turkestan; restricted to the lower Syr-Darja by Heptner 
and Stachanov.) 

Breeds in the Syr-Darja Valley, western Tian-Shan and Ferghana. 
Winters in Sind and the Punjab. 

~-^! — Accipiter badius dussumieri (Temminck) 

Falco dussumieri Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 52, 1824, text to pi. 308 
(adult), pi. 336 (immature). (India, type from Bengal.) 

India from Kashmir to Sikkim and Bengal, south to Travancore. 

ccipiter badius badius (Gmelin) 

Falco badius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 280. (Ceylon.) 
Astur insularis Madardsz, Orn. Monatsb., 18, 1910, p. 65. (Ceylon.) 
Travancore and Ceylon. 

Accipiter badius poliopsis (Hume) 

Micronisus poliopsis Hume, Str. Feath., 2, 1874, p. 325. (Northern 
Pegu.) 

Southern Assam to Tenasserim. 

■ { — A ccipiter badius klossi Swann ^ 

Astur badius klossi Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 4, 1925, p. 217. 
(Daban, southern Annam.) 

^ Regarded as indistinguishable from poliopsis by Stuart Baker. 



212 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Southern China from the Burma border (and Shan States?) east to 
Kwangsi and Hainan, south to the northern Malay Peninsula, Siam and 
Cambodia. 

Accipiter butleri butleri (Gurney) 

Astur hutleri Gurney, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 7, 1898, p. 27. (Car Nicobar 

Island.) 

Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands. 

Accipiter butleri obsoletus (Richmond) 

Astur obsoletus Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, 1902, p. 306. 

(Katchal Island.) 
Katchal Island, South Nicobar Islands. 

--/ Accipiter soloensis (Horsfield) 

Falco Soloensis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 137. 

(Java.) 

Breeds from northern China and Korea south to Kwangtung and For- 
mosa(?). In winter to the Malay Peninsula and the East Indies to Waigiu. 

Accipiter novaehoUandise sumbaensis (A. B. Meyer) 

Urospizias sumbaensis A. B. Meyer, Abh. Ber. Mus. Dresden, 4, pt. 3, 
1893, p. 7. (Sumba Island.) 

Sumba Island. 

\/ Accipiter novaehoUandiae sylvestris Wallace 

Accipiter sylvestris Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863 (1864), p. 487. 
(Flores Island.) 

Islands of Flores, Sumbawa, Pantar and Alor. 

Accipiter novaehollandiae polionotus (Salvadori) 

Urospizias polionotus Salvadori, Mem. Accad. Torino (2), 40, 1890, 

p. 147. (Timorlaut.) 
Islands of Banda, Babber, Dammer and Timorlaut. 

Accipiter novaehollandiae albiventris (Salvadori) 

Urospizias albiventris Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1875, p. 982. 
(Great Kei Island and Kei Bandan.) 

Kei Islands. 

Accipiter novaehollandiae obiensis (Hartert) 

Astur griseogularis obiensis Hartert, Nov. Zool., 10, 1903, p. 3. (Obi 
Major.) 

Island of Obi Major. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 213 

~-f '"• Accipiter novaehollandiae griseogularis (G. R. Gray) 

Astur griseogularis G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 343. 

(Batchian, Gilolo and Ternate.) 
Islands of Tidore, Ternate, Halmahera, Batjan and Gebe. 

Accipiter novaehollandiae mortyi Hartert 

Accipiter fasciatus mortiji Hartert, Nov. Zool., 32, 1925, p. 269. (Morty 

Island.) 
Island of Morotai (or Morty). 

— I Accipiter novaehollandiae hiogaster (S. Mtiller) 

Falco hiogaster S. Miiller, Verb. nat. ges. Nederl. Land-en Volkenk., 

1841, p. 110, note. (Amboina.) 
Islands of Ceram and Amboina. 

Accipiter novaehollandiae pallidiceps (Salvador!) 

Urospizias pallidiceps Salvador!, Ib!s, 1879, p. 474, (Buru.) 
Island of Buru. 
— j-w Accipiter novaehollandiae leucosomus (Sharpe) 

Astur novcehollandice leucosomus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, 
p. 94 (in key), p. 119. ("New Guinea and adjacent islands" ex 
Schlegel, Vog. Ned. Ind., 1866, p. 19, 58, pi. 11, f. 3.) 
Islands of Salawatti, Job! and Mafor;New Guinea, D'Entrecasteaux 
Islands and Louisiade Archipelago; Wa!giu(?) Aru Islands(?) 

Accipiter novaehollandiae misoriensis (Salvador!) 

Urospizias misoriensis Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1875, p. 904. 

(Korido, Misori Island.) 
Island of Misori. 

'? Accipiter novaehollandiae dampieri (Gurney) 

Urospizias dampieri Gurney, Ibis, 1882, p. 453. (New Britain.) 
Bismarck Archipelago. 

Accipiter novaehollandiae rooki Rothschild and Hartert 

Accipiter hiogaster rooki Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 21, 1914, 

p. 288. (Rook Island.) 
Rook Island (between New Guinea and New Britain). 

— I' Accipiter novaehollandiae bougainvillei (Rothschild and Hartert) 

Astur etorques bougainvillei Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 12, 
1905, p. 250. (Bougainville Island.) 

Bougainville and Fauro Islands. 



214 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Accipiter novaehollandise rufoschistaceus (Rothschild and Hartert) 
Astur rufoschistaceus Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 1902, p. 590. 

(Ysabel Island, Solomon Islands.) 
Ysabel, Choiseul and Treasury Islands. 

Accipiter novsehollandiae pulchellus (Ramsay) 

Astur pulchellus Ramsay, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, 16, 1881, p. 131. 

(Cape Pitt, Solomon Islands, ex Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 4, 

pt. 1, 1879, p. 66.) 
Guadalcanar and Florida Islands. 

Accipiter novaehoUandiaB rubianae (Rothschild and Hartert) 

Astur etorques rubianae Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 12, 1905, 

p. 250. (Solomon Islands, type from Gizo.) 
Islands of New Georgia, Rendova, Gizo and Vella Lavella. 

Accipiter novaehoUandiae cooktowni (Mathews) 

Astur clarus cooktowni Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 245. (Cook- 
town, north Queensland.) 

Ast^lr novaehoUandiae alboides Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 246. 
(Parry's Creek, northwest Australia.) 

Astur clarus robustus Zietz, South Austr. Orn., 1, 1914, p. 13. (MelviUe 
Island.) 

Northern Australia. 

«»^ Accipiter novaehollandias novaehollandiaB (Gmelin) 

Falco novce-Hollandice Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 264. (New 

South Wales ex Latham = Tasmania fide Mathews.) 
Southern Australia and Tasmania.^ 

Accipiter eichhomi eichhorni Hartert 

Accipiter eichhorni Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 36. (Feni Island, 

east of South New Ireland.) 
Known only from Feni Island. 

Accipiter eichhorni imitator Hartert 

Accipiter eichhorni imitator Hartert, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 37. (Choi- 
seul Island.) 
Choiseul Island, northern Solomon Islands. 

/ Accipiter poliocephalus G. R. Gray 

Accipiter poliocephalus G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, p. 170. 

(Aru Islands.) 
Mysol, Salawatti, Waigiu, Jobi, Fergusson and St. Aignan; Aru Islands. 

^ Sparverius cinereus Vieillot and Astur rail Vigors and Horsfield are both 
synonyms. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 215 

Accipiter haplochrous Sclater 
Accipiter haplochrous Sclater, Ibis, 1859, p. 275, pi. 8. (Nu Island, off 

New Caledonia.) 
New Caledonia. 

Accipiter henicogrammus (G. R. Gray) 
Astur henicogrammus G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 343. 

(East Gilolo.) 
Islands of Morotai (or Morty), Batjan and Halmahera (or Gilolo). 

Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Lister) 

Urospizias natalis Lister, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888 (1889), p. 523. 

(Christmas Island.) 
Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. 

Accipiter fasciatus wallacii (Sharpe) 

Astur wallacii Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 95 (in key), 
p. 128, pi. 5. (col. f. of adult). (Lombok, ad. d', Buru, yg. 9.) 

Islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sermata, Moa, Letti, Kalao, 
Djampea, Kalidupa, Tomia; Tukang Besi Islands. 

Accipiter fasciatus tjendanae Stresemann 

Accipiter fasciatus tjendanae Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 73, 1925, p. 323, 

note 1. (Waingapo, Sumba.) 
Island of Sumba. 

—f~ Accipiter fasciatus hellmayri Stresemann 

Accipiter fasciatus hellmayri Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 70, 1922, p. 129, 
note 2. (Timor). New name for Falco torquatus Temminck not Pon- 
toppidan. 

Islands of Timor, Semao, Alor and Savu. 

Accipiter fasciatus buruensis Stresemann 

Accipiter torquatus huruensis Stresemann, Nov. Zool., 21, 1914, p. 381. 

(Fakal, 1050 m., Buru.) 
Island of Buru. 

""' Accipiter fasciatus polycryptus Rothschild and Hartert 

Accipiter fasciatus polycryptus Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 22, 
1915, p. 53. (Sogeri dist., 2000-3500 feet, Owen Stanley Mountains, 
New Guinea.) 
New Guinea. 

-) Accipiter fasciatus didimus (Mathews) 

Astur fasciatus didimus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 33. (Mel- 
ville Island.) 
Northwest Australia, Northern Territory, Melville Island. 



£16 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Accipiter fasciatus cruentus (Gould) 
Astur cruentus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1842 (1843), p. 113. 

(York dist.. West Australia.) 
West and South Australia. 

"^t Accipiter fasciatus fasciatus (Vigors and Horsfield) 

Astur Fasciatus Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, 

1827, p. 181. (New South Wales.) 
Astur fasciatus mackayi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 246. (Mac- 

kay, Queensland.) 
Eastern Australia; Norfolk Island (?). 

y Accipiter fasciatus vigilax (Wetmore) 

Astur approximans insularis F. Sarasin, Nova Caledonia, Zool., 1, livr. 

1, 1913, p. 8. (New Caledonia.) 
Astur fasciatus vigilax Wetmore, Condor, 28, 1926, p. 46. (New name for 

Astur f. insularis Sarasin not Astur badius insularis Madardsz.) 
New Caledonia. 

Accipiter fasciatus rufitorques (Peale) 

Aster rufitorques Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 68 (Fiji Islands.) 
Fiji Islands. 

"^ Accipiter francesii brutus (Schlegel) 

Nisus brutus Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk., 3, 1866, p. 80. (Mayotte 

Island.) 
Mayotte Island, Comoro Group. 

-'"/ Accipiter francesii pusillus (Gurney) 

Scelospizias pusillus Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 358. (Joanna Island, ex Ibis, 

1864, pi. 7.) 
Islands of Joanna (or Anjuan) and Grand Comoro, Comoro Group. 

-/- Accipiter francesii francesii ^ A. Smith 

Accipiter Francesii A. Smith, So. Afr. Quart. Journ. (2), 1834, p. 280. 
(Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

^- f Accipiter trivirgatus rufitinctus (Horsfield) 

Spizaetus rufitinctus Horsfield, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 153. 

(Banks of the Brahmaputra, Assam.) 
Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Yunnan and Formosa south to Burma and 
Indo-Chinese countries. 

1 Nisuoides morelii Pollen is a synonym. Cf. Bangs and Peters, Auk, 43, 
1926, p. 369-370. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 217 

Accipiter trivirgatus trivirgatus (Temminck) 

Falco trivirgatus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 51, 1824, pi. 303. (Sumatra.) 

Hill districts of southern India and Ceylon, Tenasserim, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo and the Philippines (?). 

Accipiter griseiceps (Schlegel) 

Astur griseiceps Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1862, Astures, p. 23. (Atep 
and Gorontalo, north Celebes.) 

Celebes. 

Accipiter bicolor fidens Bangs and Noble 

Accipiter bicolor fidens Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, 1918, p. 444. (Buena 
Vista, Vera Cruz, Mexico.) 

Southeastern Mexico. 

Accipiter bicolor bicolor (Vieillot) 

Sparvius bicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 325. 

(Cayenne.) 
Yucatan through Central America to Colombia, the Guianas and 
Amazonia. 

Accipiter bicolor schistochlamys Hellmayr 

Accipiter bicolor schistochlamys Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 16, 1906, 
p. 82. (Nanegal, western Ecuador.) 

Western Ecuador. 

Accipiter bicolor pileatus (Temminck) 

Falco pileatus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 35, 1823, pi. 205. (Brazil = 
Ilha Cachoeirinha, Rio Belmonte, Bahia, fide Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Publ. Zool. Ser., 12, 1929, p. 458.) 

Brazil from Maranhao, Ceard, and Bahia south to Rio Grande do Sul, 
Paraguay and northern Argentina. 

Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) 

Falco cooperii Bonaparte, Am. Orn., 2, 1828, p. 1, pi. 10, f. 1. (Near 
Bordentown, N. J.) 

Breeds from southern British Columbia, southern Alberta, central Que- 
bec and Nova Scotia south over the United States to northern Mexico. 
Winters from the northern United States to Costa Rica. 

Accipiter gundlachi Lawrence 

Accipiter Gundlachi Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, 1860, 
p. 252. (Hanabana, Cuba.) 

Cuba (of doubtful status; now probably extinct). 



218 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Accipiter pectoralis (Bonaparte) 

Falco pectoralis Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. ZooL, 1850, p. 490. (Brazil.) 

Range not exactly known but probably from the Guianas to south- 
eastern Brazil and west to Ecuador. 

^ Accipiter chilensis R. A. Philippi and Landbeck 

Accipiter chilensis R. A. Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. f. Naturg., 30, 
Band 1, 1864, p. 43. (Chile.) 

Chile and western Argentina south to the Straits of Magellan. 



/ 



Accipiter guttifer Hellmayr 

Accipiter guttifer Hellmayr, Verhandl. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 13, 1917, p. 200. 
(Bolivia). New name for Sparvius guttatus auct not Sparvius guttatus 
Vieillot, which is Accipiter pileatus Temminck. 

Southern Bolivia to northwestern Argentina. 

—4^ Accipiter superciliosus exitiosus Bangs and Penard 

Accipiter superciliosus exitiosus Bangs and Penard, Proc. New Eng. 
Zool. CI., 7, 1920, p. 45. (Carillo, Costa Rica.^ 

Costa Rica south to northern and western Colombia. 

Accipiter superciliosus superciliosus (Linne) 

Falco superciliosus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 128. (Surinam.) 
Venezuela and the Guianas south to Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

-f- Accipiter albogularis G. R. Gray 

Accipiter albogularis G. R. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 5, 1870, 
p. 327. (Recherche Bay, San Cristoval.) 

Astur sharpei Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (6), 12, 1877, p. 25. 
(Marianne Islands. Error = specimen of albogularis with wrong local- 
ity, fide Stresemann, in litt.) 

Solomon Islands. 

Accipiter luteoschistaceus Rothschild and Hartert 

Accipiter luteoschistaceus Rothschild and Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 
46, 1926, p. 53. (Talasea, New Britain.) 

New Britain. 

Accipiter melanochlamys melanochlamys (Salvador!) 

Urospizias melanochlamys Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1875, 
p. 905. (Mt. Arfak, New Guinea.) 

Berau Peninsula, northwestern New Guinea. 

1 Cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 1930, p. 187-188. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 219 

Accipiter melanochlamys schistacinus (Rothschild and Hartert) 

Astur melanochlamys schistacinus Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 20, 
1903, p. 482. (Mt. GoHath, eastern central Dutch Papua.) 

tp^^!^^ M*- Goliath and Angabunga River, New Guinea. 
— «/ Accipiter collaris Sclater 

■f^'j^.r Accipiter collaris Sclater, Ibis, 1860, p. 148, pi. 6. ("Interior of New 
t-^^', Grenada" = Bogota,, Colombia.) 

Known only from a few specimens from Colombia (Bogota collections) 
and the Andes of Merida, Venezuela. 

Accipiter poliogaster (Temminck) 

Falco poliogaster "Natterer" Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 45, 1824, pi. 264. 
(Brazil.) 

Exact distribution not worked out; recorded from Colombia, British 
Guiana, Paraguay, southern Brazil (Sao Paulo) and northeastern Argen- 
tina (Misiones). 

^4— Accipiter nisus nisus (Linn6) 

Falco Nisus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 92. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Accipiter nisus galliae Kleinschmidt, Falco, 13, 1917, p. 24 (pp. 17-24 
duplicated) (France). 

Breeds from limit of trees in northern Europe east to Russia and south 
to the Mediterranean. Winters south to northern Africa. 

^ Accipiter nisus hibemicus Swann 

Accipiter nisus hibemicus Swann, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 44, 1924, p. 79. 
(Hillsborough, County Down, Ireland.) 

Resident in the wooded districts of the British Isles. 

— /- Accipiter nisus punicus Erlanger 

Accipiter nisus punicus Erlanger, Orn. Monatsb., 5, 1897, p. 187. (Ain- 
bou-Dries, Tunis.) 

Iberian Peninsula (?), Morocco, Algeria and Tunis. 

y^ Accipiter nisus granti Sharpe 

Accipiter Granti Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 5, 1890, p. 485. 
(Madeira.) 

Madeira. 

— f — Accipiter nisus teneriffae Laubmann 

Accipiter nisus teneriffae Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 11, 1912, 
p. 164. (Vilaflor, Tenerife.) 

Canary Islands. 



220 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

<--*/ Accipiter nisus wolterstorffi Kleinschmidt 

Accipiter wolterstorffi, Kleinschmidt, Orn. Monatsb., 9, 1901, p. 168. 
(Lanusei, Sardinia.) 

Corsica and Sardinia. 

Accipiter nisus peregrinoides Kleinschmidt 

Accipiter nisus peregrinoides Kleinschmidt, in Grote, Aus der Orn. Lit. 
Russlands, no. 3, 1921, p. 56. (Rossitten, east Prussia.) 

Probably the breeding race of Russia and western Siberia. Winter 
range not worked out, but has been taken in Hungary at that season. 

«-^^ Accipiter nisus nisosimilis (Tickell) 

Falco Nisosimilis Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 2, 1833, p. 571. 
(Marcha, Borabhum, India.) 

Breeds in northern and central Asia from Turkestan to the Sea of 
Okhotsk, Japan, northern China and eastern China south to the Yangtse. 
Winters to India, Burma and southern China. 

Accipiter nisus pallens Stejneger 

Accipiter pallens Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 1893, p. 625. 
(Province of Hitachi, Japan.) 

Doubtful form, believed to be the breeding race in Kamchatka. In 
winter to Japan. 

— T^ Accipiter nisus melaschistos Hume 

Accipiter Melaschistos (sic) Hume, Rough Notes, March, 1869, p. 128. 

(Interior of the Himalayas.) 
Accipiter melanoschistus Hume, Ibis, July, 1869, p. 356. (Simla.) 

Accipiter nisus lodygini Bianchi, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 16, 1906, p. 69. 
(Kham, southeastern Tibet; figured Aves Exped., P. K. Koslowi, 
1907, pi. 3, f. 2.) 
Breeds from Kashmir east to the Minshan Range, south to the Hima- 
layas and Upper Burma. 

— ^Accipiter rufiventris perspicillaris (Rlippell) 

Falco (Astur) perspicillaris Riippell, Neue Wirbelth., Vog., 1836, p. 41, 
pi. 18, f. 2. (Gondar, Abyssinia.) 

Ethiopia and Shoa. 

—f Accipiter rufiventris rufiventris A. Smith 

Accipiter rufiventris A. Smith, So. Air. Quart. Journ. (1), 1830, p. 231. 

(Baviaan's River.) 
South Africa north to Katanga. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 221 

— y- Accipiter madagascariensis A. Smith 

Accipiter Madagascariensis " Verreaux" A. Smith, So. Afr. Quart. Journ., 

(2), 1834, p. 282. (Madagascar.) 
Madagascar. 

—f~ Accipiter striatus velox (Wilson) 

Falco velox Wilson, Am. Orn., 5, 1812, p. 116, pi. 45, f. 1. (Banks of the 

Schuylkill River near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) 
Breeds from northwestern Alaska, northwestern Mackenzie eastward to 
central Quebec and Newfoundland, south to Lower California and northern 
Mexico, Texas, the Gulf coast and northern Florida. Winters from British 
Columbia and the northern border of the United States south to Costa 
Rica. 

""-^ Accipiter striatus fringilloides Vigors 

Accipiter fringillmdes Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, 1827, p. 434. (Near Havana, 

Cuba.) 
Island of Cuba. 

— / Accipiter striatus striatus Vieillot 

Accipiter striatus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., 1, 1807, p. 42, pi. 14. (Haiti.) 
Mountains of Hispaniola. 

Accipiter striatus venator Wetmore 

Accipiter striatus venator Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, 1914, 

p. 119. (Maricao, Puerto Rico.) 
Mountains of western Puerto Rico. 

"»-~4«- Accipiter erythronemius chionogaster Kaup 

Nisus (seu Accipiter) chionogaster Kaup, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851, 

p. 41. (Coban, Guatemala.) 
Recorded only from Guatemala and Nicaragua. 

— ^ Accipiter erythronemius salvini (Ridgway) 

Nisus salvini Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 2, 1876, 

p. 121. (M^rida, Venezuela.) 
Accipiter chionogaster venezuelensis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 58. 

(Escorial, Merida, Venezuela.) 

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia and Andes of Merida, Vene- 
zuela. 

— "/- Accipiter erythronemius ventralis Sclater 

Accipiter ventralis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1866, p. 303. (In- 
terior of Colombia.) 
Andes of western Colombia, Ecuador and Peru to northwestern Bolivia.* 

1 Accipiter ventralis nigroplumbeus Lawrence is the dark phase of v. ventralis, 
Cf. Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark, f. Zool., 14, no. 25, 1922, p. 34. 



222 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

^Accipiter erythronemius erythronemius Kaup 

Nisus vel Accipiter erythronemius "G. Gray," Kaup, Contr. Orn., 1850, 

p. 64. (Bolivia.) 
Eastern Bolivia to Bahia south to Rio Grande do Sul, Entre Rios and 
Tucumdn. 

Accipiter minullus zenkeri Reichenow 

Accipiter zenkeri Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 2, 1894, p. 125. (Jaunde, 

Cameroon.) 
Accipiter sharpei Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1901, p. 564. (Gaboon?) not 

Astur sharpei Oustalet which is Accipiter albogularis sharpei (Oustalet) . 

Accipiter batesi Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 13, 1903, p. 50. (Efulen, 

Cameroon.) 
West Africa from Cameroon to Benguella. 

*-^>' Accipiter minullus erythropus (Hartlaub) 

Nisus erythropus "Temm." Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 3, 1855, p. 354. 

(Rio Bountry, Gold Coast.) 
West Africa from Gambia to Togoland.^ 

Accipiter minullus intermedius Erlanger 

Accipiter minullus intermedius Erlanger, Journ. f . Orn., 52, 1904, p. 173. 

(Abela, Ethiopia.) 
Africa from the Egyptian Sudan and Ethiopia to Uganda. 

Accipiter minullus sassii Stresemann 
Accipiter minullus sassii Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 32, 1924, p. 109. 
(Beni, Belgian Congo.) 

Eastern Belgian Congo. 

•'■"'"/ Accipiter minullus tropicalis Reichenow 

Accipiter mimdlvs tropicalis Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 46, 1898, p. 139. 

(East Africa.) 
Eastern Kenya Colony south to the Zambesi. 

- 7 Accipiter minullus minullus (Daudin) 

Falco minullus Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 88. (Gamtoos River, 

Cape Province.) 
Africa south of the Zambesi. 

— T Accipiter virgatus affinis Hodgson 

Accipiter affinis Hodgson, Bengal Sporting Mag., n. s., 8, 1836, p. 179. 
(Nepal.) 

' Nisus hartlaubi Hartlaub and Accipiter bilttikoferi Sharpe are synonyms. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 223 

Breeds from the western Himalayas to western China, Yunnan and south 
to Assam and hills of northern Burma. Winters over the greater part of 
northern India, southern China (including Hainan and Formosa) and 
Indo-China. 

Accipiter virgatus besra Jerdon 

Accipiter Besra Jerdon, Madras Journ. Lit. Sci., 10, 1839, p. 84. (Soonda 
Jungles, South India.) 

Southern India and Ceylon. 

— }r Accipiter virgatus virgatus (Temminck) 

Falco virgatus ''Reinw." Temminck, PL Col., Hvr. 19, 1822, pi. 109. 
(Java.) 

Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 

-, -j . Accipiter virgatus confusus Hartert 

Accipiter virgatus confusus Hartert, Nov. Zool., 17, 1910, p. 209. (La- 
guna de Bai, Luzon.) 

Accipiter manillensis auct. not Meyen. 

Philippine Islands: (Luzon, Guimaras, Leyte, Mindanao, Mindoro, 
Negros) . 

•f — Accipiter virgatus gularis (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Astur (Nisus) gularis Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1845, p. 5, pi. 2. (Japan.) 

Breeds in northern China and Japan. In winter south to the Philippines 
and the Malay Archipelago. 

Accipiter virgatus stevensoni Gurney 

Accipiter stevensoni Gurney, Ibis, 1863, p. 447, pi. 9. (Pekin and Macao, 
China.) 

Breeds in Manchuria to northern China. In winter to Burma, Indo- 
China and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. (Doubtfully distinct 
from gularis) . 

^^ Accipiter virgatus nisoides Blyth 

Accipiter nisoides Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 16, 1847, p. 727. 
(Malacca.) 

Southern China from Fohkien to Burma, the Andamans and the Malay 

States. 

l/^ Accipiter virgatus rhodogaster (Schlegel) 

Nisus virgatus rhodogaster Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1862, Astures, 

p. 32. (Gorontalo, northern Celebes.) 
Celebes and Banggai. 



224 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

T — Accipiter virgatus sulaensis (Schlegel) 

^i8U8 sulaensis Schlegel, Vog. Ned. Ind., Valkv., 1866, p. 26, 64, pi. 16, 
fs. 3, 4. (Sula Besi.) 

Sula Islands. 

Accipiter cirrhocephalus papuanus (Rothschild and Hartert) 

Astur cirrhocephalus papuanus Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 20, 
1913, p. 482. (Snow Mountains, New Guinea.) 

New Guinea. 

— y- Accipiter cirrhocephalus cirrhocephalus (Vieillot) 

Sparvius cirrhocephalus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 329. 

(New South Wales.) 

Accipiter cirrocephalus hoesitataM.a,thews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 1917, p. 128. 
(Cape York, Queensland.) 

Accipiter cirrhocephalus quaesitandus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, 
p. 81. (Cape York, Queensland.) 

Eastern Australia. 

Accipiter cirrhocephalus broomei Mathews 

Accipiter cirrhocephalus broomei Mathews, Nov. ZooL, 18, 1912, p. 247. 
(Broome Hill, southwest Australia.) 

Northern Territory and western Australia. 

Accipiter brachyurus (Ramsay) 

Astur brachyurus Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 4, 1879, 
p. 465. ("Thirty miles inland" = New Britain.) 

New Britain. 

Accipiter erythrauchen erythrauchen G. R. Gray 

Accipiter erythrauchen G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 344. 
(East Gilolo.i) 

Northern Moluccas (Halmahera, Batjan, Obi) 

Accipiter erythrauchen ceramensis (Schlegel) 

Nisus cirrhocephalus ceramensis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1862, 
Astures, p. 39. (Ceram.) 

Southern Moluccas (Ceram and Buru). 

«- / Accipiter ovampensis Gurney 

Accipiter ovampensis Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 367, pi. 6. (Okavango River, 
Ovampoland.) 

' Accipiier rubricollis Wallace is a synonym. Cf. Stresemann, Nov. Zool., 21, 
1914, p. 72. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 225 

Accipiter hilgerti Erlanger, Journ. f . Orn., 52, 1904, p. 171, pi. 6. (Daroli 
River, Arussi-Gallaland.) 

Africa from the Gold Coast to Uganda and southern Ethiopia south to 
southwest Africa and eastern Transvaal. 

Genus ERYTHROTRIORCHIS Sharpb 

Erythrotriorchis Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875, p. 337. Type, 
by monotypy, Falco radiatus Latham. 

cf. Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 249-250. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 5, 1926, p. 339-341. 

""T^ Erythrotriorchis radiatus (Latham) 

Falco radiatus Latham, Lid. Orn., Suppl., 2, 1801, p. xii. (New South 
Wales.) 

Erythrotriorchis rufotibia Campbell, Emu, 10, 1911, p. 249. (Napier 
Broome Bay, northwest AustraUa) . 

Erythrotriorchis radiatus katherine (sic) Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 

1916, p. 57. (Katherine River, Northern Territory.) 

Erythrotriorchis radiatus queenslandicus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 3, 

1917, p. 128. (Cedar Bay, Queensland.) 

Northern and eastern Australia. 

— ^ Erythrotriorchis doriae (Salvadori and d' Albertis) 

Megatriorchis doriae Salvadori and d'Albertis, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 
7, 1875, p. 805. (Yule Island, New Guinea.) 

New Guinea. 

Genus MELIERAX G. R. Gray 

Melierax G. R. Gray, List. Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 5. Type, by original 
designation, Fako musicus Daudin. 

cf. Friedmann, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, 1928, p. 93-96. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 71-72. 

— y.— Melierax musicus musicus (Daudin) 

Falco musicus Daudin, Traits d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 116. (Cape Province, 
ex Levaillant.) 

Western portion of South Africa north to Matabeleland and Damara- 
land. 

— ^ Melierax musicus poliopterus Cabanis 

Melierax poliopterusCabanis, in von derDecken, Reise, 3, Abthl. 1, 1869, 
p. 40. (Umba River, East Africa.) 

East Africa from Somaliland to Irangi, Tanganyika Territory. 



226 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

-/' Melierax metabates metabates Heuglin 

Melierax metabates Heuglin, Ibis, 1861, p. 72. (White Nile between 6° 

and 7° N. lat.) 
Western Morocco and northern Nigeria through the southern Egyptian 
Sudan to Ethiopia; south on the east to Tanganyika Territory. 

Melierax metabates neumanni Hartert 

Melierax canorus neumanni Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1165. 
(Arbub, near Merau, Dongola Province, Sudan.) 

The Sahara from Lake Chad to Kordofan and the Red Sea Province of 
the Egyptian Sudan. 

*/ Melierax metabates mechowi Cabanis 

Melierax Mechowi Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 30, 1882, p. 229. (Angola: 

type from Melandje.) 
Southern Angola to northern Damaraland, east to Nyasaland and 
Mashonaland. 



r 



Melierax metabates ignoscens Friedmann 

Melierax metabates ignoscens Friedmann, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, 

1928, p. 94. (Shekh Othman, Aden Protectorate, Arabia.) 
Southwestern Arabia. 



^•^ Melierax gabar (Daudin) 

Falco gabar Daudin, Traits d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 87. (Interior of South 

Africa, ex Levaillant.) 
Africa from Senegambia, Sudan, Ethiopia and southwestern Arabia to 
Cape Province. 

Genus HETEROSPIZIAS Sharpe 

Heterospizias Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 158 (in key), 

p. 160. Type, by monotypy, Falco meridionalis Latham. 
cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 5, 1926, p. 342-344. 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 113-115. 

— 7 Heterospizias meridionalis meridionalis (Latham) 

Falco meridionalis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 36. (Cayenne.) 
Eastern Panama and tropical South America south to Bolivia, the Para- 
guayan Chaco and Rio Grande do Sul. 

/ Heterospizias meridionalis australis Swann 

Heterospizias meridionalis australis ^ Swann, Auk, 38, 1921, p. 359. 

(Laguna de Malima, Tucumdn.) 
Northern Argentina south to Tucumdn and Buenos Aires. 

1 Circus rufulus Vieillot may prove to be an earlier name. Cf. Wetmore, 
supra, p. 114, 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 227 

Genus UROTRIORCHIS Sharpe 

Urotriorchis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 46 (in key), p. 83. 
Type, by monotypy, Astur macrourus Hartlaub. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 294-297. 

Urotriorchis macrourus macrourus (Hartlaub) 

Astur macrourus "Temm." Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 3, 1855, p. 353. 
(Dabocrom, Gold Coast.) 

Gold Coast Colony. 

■—y^ Urotriorchis macrourus batesi Swann 

Urotriorchis macrourus batesi Swann, Syn. List. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 29. 
(Bitye, River Ja, Cameroon.) 

Cameroon and Portuguese Congo east to the Aruwhimi and Ituri dis- 
tricts of the Belgian Congo. 

Subfamily BUTEONINAE 

Genus GERANOAETUS Kaup 

Geranoaetus Kaup, Class. Saugeth. und Vog., 1844, p. 122. Type, by 
monotypy, Falco aguia Temminck = Spizaetus melanoleucus VietUot, 

cf. Swann, Mongr. Bds. Prey, pt. 5, 1926, p. 345-348. 

— X-- Geranoaetus melanoleucus meridensis Swann 

Geranoaetus melanoleucus meridensis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, 
p. 68. (Nevada, 3000 met., Merida, Venezuela.) 

Andes of M6rida, Venezuela; perhaps also mountains of Colombia and 
Ecuador. 

/ Geranoaetus melanoleucus melanoleucus (Vieillot) 

Spizaetus melanoleucus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 32, 1819, p. 57. 
(Paraguay.) 

Paraguay and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) south to eastern 
Argentina and Uruguay. 






Geranoaetus melanoleucus australis Swann 

Geranoaetus melanoleucus australis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 67. 
(VaUe del Lago Blanco, Chubut, Argentina.) 

Northwestern Argentina south to the Straits of Magellan; probably also 
from Peru and central Chile southward. 



228 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus BUTEO ^ LacepJide 

Buteo Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., 1799, p. 4. Type, by tautonymy, Falco 
buteo Linne. 

Potamolegus Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos, (1), no. 1, 1901, p. 158. 
Type, Potamolegus superciliaris magniplumis Bertoni. (Here desig- 
nated for the first time.) 

Praedo Kleinschmidt, Falco, 13, 1917, p. 10. Type, by original designa- 
tion, Mausebussard = Falco buteo Linne (not Praedo Nelson). 

Percnohierax Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 72, no. 4, 1920, p. 2. Type, 
by original designation, Falco leucorrhous Quoy and Gaimard. 

Coryornis Ridgway, Auk, 42, 1925, p. 585. Type, by original designa- 
tion, Rupornis ridgwayi Cory. 

cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, 1926, p. 227-230. 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1114-1131; 3, 1922, p. 2202-2205. 
Peters and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 11, 1929, p. 43-48. 
Portenko, BuU. Acad. Sci. URSS, CI. Sci. Phys.-Math., 1929, p. 623- 

652; 707-716. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 66-67. 
Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 73, 1925, p. 295-319. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 5, 1926, p. 349-364. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 6, 1926, p. 365-396. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 7, 1928, p. 397-428. 

Buteo albicaudatus hypospodius Gurney 

Buteo hypospodius ^ Gurney, Ibis, 1876, p. 73, pi. 3. (Medellin, Colom- 
bia.) 

Southwestern United States (Lower Rio Grande Valley) south through 
Mexico and Central America to northwestern South America (Colombian 
Andes and Andes of M^rida, Venezuela). 

Buteo albicaudatus colonus Berlepsch 
Buteo albicaudatus colonus Berlepsch, Journ. f. Orn., 40, 1892, p. 91. 

(Island of Curagao.) 
Tachytriorchis albicaudatus exiguus Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., 34, 1915, p. 637. (Barrigon, head of Rio Meta, Colombia.) 
Colombia, east of the Andes, to Surinam; also Islands of Aruba, Bonaire, 
Curagao and Trinidad. 

^ Includes Rupornis. I do not believe that Rupornis is generically separable 
from Buteo. Magnirostris appears to have its nearest affinities with Buteo 
platypterus; ridgwayi is undoubtedly not distantly related to Bvteo lineatus 
while leucorrhous probably is not far removed from Buteo brachyurus. 

2 Replaces B. a. sennetti Allen; cf. Stresemann supra, p. 317-319. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 229 

Buteo albicaudatus albicaudatus Vieillot 

Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 4, 1816, p. 477. 
(South America = Rio de Janeiro apud Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, 
1908, p. 291.) 
Northwestern Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay south to the Rio 
Negro. 

Buteo poecilochrous Gurney 

Buteo poecilochrous Gurney, Ibis, 1879, p. 176. (Yauayacu, Ecuador.) 
Buteo melanosternus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, 1906, p. 104. 
(Cuzco, Peru). Not Buteo melanosternon Gould, which is Hamirostra 
melanosternon (Gould.) 
Buteo erythronotus simonsi Swann, Sjm. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 85. (Chal- 

lapata, Bolivia.) 
Andes of northern Ecuador to northern Chile and northwestern Argen- 
tina.^ 

Buteo polyosoma peruviensis Swann 

Buteo erythronotus peruviensis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 85. 

(Eten, Dept. of Lambayeque, northwestern Peru.) 
Coast region of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru. 

Buteo polyosoma polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Falco polyosoma Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. 'Uranie', Zool., pt. 1, 1824, 

p. 92, pi. 14. (Falkland Islands.) 
Buteo melanostethus R. A. Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 1899, p. 166. 

(Prov. of Santiago, Chile.) Figured, An. Mus. Nac. Chile, entr. 15, 

sect. 1, Zool., 1902, pi. 2. 
Buteo poecilogaster R. A. Phihppi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 1899, p. 166, 

167. (Chile.) Figured An. Mus. Nac. Chile, entr. 15, sect. 1, Zool., 
1902, pi. 3. 

^Buteo macrorhyncus R. A. Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1 , 1899, p. 166, 

168. (Prov. of Valdivia, Chile.) Figured, An. Mus. Nac. Chile, entr. 
15, sect. 1, Zool., 1902, pi. 4.^ 

Andes of Ecuador and Peru south through western Bolivia; Chile, Ar- 
gentina (east to Tucumdn and Cordoba and from Buenos Aires Province 
south to Tierra del Fuego); Falkland Islands.^ 

1 Cf. Stresemann antea, p. 316 and also Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
65, 1926, p. 229-230. 

2 I cannot imagine what Buteo albigula Philippi (Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 2, 
1899, p. 170) can possibly be. 

3 Swann in his Monograph of the Birds of Prey (pt. 8, 1928, p. 398) identifies 
Buteo ventralis Gould as a race of Buteo jamaicensis. I cannot agree to this; 
there seems to be no reason for not regarding it as a plumage variation of the 
polymorphic Buteo polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard). 



230 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Buteo polyosoma exsul Salvin 

Buteo exsul Salvin, Ibis, 1875, p. 37L (Mas-a-fuera Island.) 
Juan Fernandez Islands. 

Buteo rufinus rufinus (Cretzschmar) 

Falco rufinus Cretzschmar, in Riippell, Atlas, Vogel, 1829, p. 40, pi. 27. 
(Upper Nubia, Schendi and Sennar and Ethiopia.) 

Buteo ferox raddei Loudon, Proc. Fifth Int. Orn. Congr., 1912, p. 355 
and pi. (Talysch-Kumbaschinsk, Caspian Sea.) 

Breeds from southern Russia, Kirghiz Steppes, Turkestan and western 
Mongolia south to Greece, Asia Minor and the western Himalayas. Win- 
ters chiefly in Africa from northern Sudan to the valleys of the White and 
Blue Nile, and in northwestern India. 

Buteo rufinus cirtensis (Levaillant jun.) 

Falco cirtensis Levaillant jun. Expl. Algerie, 1850, pi. 3. (No type 

locality given = Algeria.) 
Northern Africa from Morocco to Tunis and south of the Atlas to the 
western Sahara. 

Buteo rufofuscus augur Riippell 

Falco (Buteo) Augur, Riippell, Neue Wirbelth., Vog., 1836, p. 38, pi. 16. 
(Ethiopia.) 

Ethiopia to southern Rhodesia. 

Buteo rufofuscus archeri W. L. Sclater 

Buteo jakal archeri W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1918, p. 17. 
(Waghar, Somaliland.) 

British Somaliland. 

Buteo rufofuscus rufofuscus (J. R. Forster) 
Falco rufofuscus J. R. Forster, Levaillant, Naturg. Afr. Vog., 1798, p. 59, 
p. 16. (South Africa.) 

Africa, south of the Limpopo. 

Buteo auguralis Salvadori 

Buteo auguralis Salvadori, Atti Soc. Ital. Milano, 8, 1865, p. 377. (Abys- 
sinia and Gebel Aidun, Lybian Desert.) 

Gold Coast east to the Egyptian Sudan and southern Ethiopia, south to 
Angola. 

Buteo hemilasius Temminck and Schlegel 

Buteo hemilasius Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., Aves, 
1844, p. 18, pi. 7 (1845). (Japan.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 231 

Breeds from Lake Baikal to Ussuri and the Amur south to Tibet and 
MongoUa, probably also in northern China. Winters south to India, 
Burma and central China. 

Buteo regalis (G. R. Gray) 
Archibuteo regalis G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 1, 1844, col. pi. 6. (Real del 
Monte, Mexico ex G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 19, 
nomen nudum.) 
Breeds from southern Washington, southwestern Saskatchewan and 
southern Manitoba to southern California, Utah, Colorado and Kansas. 
Winters south to Lower California and northern Mexico. 

Buteo jamaicensis alascensis Grinnell 

Buteo horealis alascensis Grinnell, Univ. Cal. Publ. Zool., 5, 1911, p. 211. 
(Glacier Bay, Alaska.) 

Southeastern Alaska from Yakutat Bay to the Queen Charlotte Islands, 
British Columbia. 

Buteo jamaicensis borealis (Graelin) 

Falco borealis Gmehn, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 266. (Carolina.) 
Buteo calurus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, 1855, p. 281. (Fort 

Webster, New Mexico.) 
Middle Yukon and central western Mackenzie, Manitoba, central 
Quebec and Newfoundland south throughout Lower California, Mexico 
and to the Gulf coast and Georgia. Winters somewhat south of its north- 
ern breeding limit. Replaced by the following race in the northern half of 
the Great Plains. 

.Buteo jamaicensis kriderii Hoopes 

Buteo borealis var. kriderii Hoopes, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1873, 

p. 238, pi. 5. (Winnebago Co., Iowa.) 
Breeds in the Great Plains region of the United States from Wyoming to 
Minnesota and south to Nebraska and Missouri. Winters south to Texas 
and the Gulf Coast. 

Buteo jamaicensis umbrinus Bangs 

Buteo borealis umbrinus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 2, 1901, p. 68. 

(Myakka, Manatee Co., Florida.) 
Florida Peninsula, Cuba, Isle of Pines. Bahama Islands? 

Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis (Gmelin) 
Falco jamaicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 266. (Jamaica, 

ex Latham.) 
Buteo tropicalis Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, 1909, p. 357. 

(San Lorenzo, Dominican Republic.) 
Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands; (birds from the 
Leeward Islands, Lesser Antilles, may be of this race). 



232 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Buteo jamaicensis fumosus Nelson 

Buteo horealis fumosus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 1898, p. 7. 
(Maria Madre Island.) 

Tres Marias Islands. 

Buteo jamaicensis socorroensis Nelson 

Buteo horealis socorroensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 3, 1880, 
p. 220. (Socorro Island, nomen nudum! ex Lawrence Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., 14, 1871, p. 301, but there not described!) 

Buteo horealis socorroensis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 1898, p. 7, 
in text. (Socorro Island.) 

Socorro Island, off the west coast of Mexico. 

Buteo jamaicensis costaricensis Ridgway 

Buteo horealis, var. costaricensis Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 
Hist. No. Am. Bds., 3, 1874, p. 285, note. (Costa Rica.) 

Highlands of southern Mexico to western Panama. 

Buteo harlani (Audubon) 

Falco Harlani Audubon, Bds. Am., folio ed., 1, 1830, pi. 86. (Near St. 
Francis ville. La.) 

Breeds in southeastern Alaska, southwestern Yukon and northern Brit- 
ish Columbia. In migration southeastward to the Upper Mississippi 
Valley, wintering in the Lower Mississippi Valley. 

Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) 

Polyborus galapagoensis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 9. 
(Galapagos Islands.) 

Galapagos Islands. 

Buteo albonotatus albonotatus Kaup 

Buteo alhonotatus Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 329. {Ex Gray, List Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 1, 1844, p. 17, where nomen nudum, based on specimen 
from Mexico.) 

Breeds from southern Arizona, New Mexico, southwestern Texas and 
Lower California through Mexico, occurring in migration in Central 
America south to Panama. 

Buteo albonotatus abbreviatus Cabanis 

Buteo ahhreviatus Cabanis, in Schomburgh, Reise Brit. Guiana, 3, 1848, 
p. 739. (Upper Pomeroon River, British Guiana.) 

Resident in the Pearl Islands and in northern South America east to 
Surinam. Doubtfully distinct from the typical race. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 233 

— r^ Buteo lineatus elegans Cassin 

Buteo elegans Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, 1855, p. 281. (Cali- 
fornia and New Mexico.) 
Southern British Columbia south to northern Lower California and 
northwestern Mexico. 



-f 



Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gmelin) 

Falco lineatus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 268. (Long Island, 
New York.) 

Breeds from central Manitoba, southern Quebec and Nova Scotia south 
probably to Missouri, Tennessee and North Carolina; western limit is 
approximately the eastern border of the Great Plains. Winters through the 
southern half (or more) of its breeding range south to the Gulf and South 
Atlantic States. 

~— 4- Buteo lineatus texanus Bishop 

Buteo lineatus texanus Bishop, Auk, 29, 1912, p. 232. (Corpus Christi, 

Texas.) 

Coastal Plain region of southeastern Texas and the adjacent parts of 
Tamaulipas. 

— f- Buteo lineatus alleni Ridgway 

Buteo lineatus alleni Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, 1885, p. 514. 

(Tampa, Florida.) 
Resident in the Gulf and South Atlantic States from eastern Texas to 
South Carolina, south to Miami, Florida. 

'-«—>. Buteo lineatus extimus Bangs 

Buteo lineatus extimus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 7, 1920, p. 35. 

(Cape Florida.) 
Extreme southern Florida Peninsula and the Florida Keys. 

\ Buteo ridgwayi (Cory) 

Rwpornis ridgxoayi Cory, Quart. Journ. Boston Zool. Soc, 2, 1883, p. 46. 

(Santo Domingo = Lower Yuma Valley, Dominican Republic.) 
Island of Hispaniola. 

Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte 
Buteo Swainsoni Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 3. {Ex 

Audubon pi. 372 = near the Columbia River.) 
IButeo (Asturina?) aethiops R. A. Phihppi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 

1899, p. 167, 168. (Central Provinces of Chile.) Figured An. Mus. 

Nac. Chile, entr. 15, sect. 1, Zool., 1902, pi. 8. 
?Buteo pictus R. A. Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 1899, p. 167, 169. 

(Province of Valdivia, Chile.) Figured An. Mus. Nac. Chile, entr. 15, 

sect. 1, Zool., 1902, pi. 9. 



234 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds from southern British Columbia, western Alaska, northwestern 
Mackenzie and Manitoba south to southern California and southeastern 
Arizona. In migration through Central America and western South 
America to its winter range in Chile. 

Buteo solitarius Peale 
Buteo solitarius Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 62. (Island of 

Hawaii.) 
Confined to the Island of Hawaii. 

Buteo buteo buteo (Linne) 

Falco Buteo Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 90. (Europe, restricted 
type locality, Savoy, List Brit. Bds., ed. 2, 1915, p. 139.) 

Europe south of lat. 66° from northern part of British Isles, Sweden 
and Poland south to Spain, Italy, western part of the Balkan Peninsula 
and the Carpathian Mountains. 

Buteo buteo rothschildi Swann 
Buteo buteo rothschildi Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1919, p. 43. (Terceira, 

Azores.) 
Azores. 

Buteo buteo harterti Swann 

Buteo buteo harterti Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1919, p. 43. (Madeira.) 
Madeira. 

Buteo buteo insularum Floericke 

Buteo insularum Floericke, Mitt. Reichsb. Vogelk. und Vogelsch., 3, 

1903, p. 64. (Grand Canaria.) 
Buteo buteo lanzaroteae Polatzek, Orn. Jahrb., 19, 1908, p. 113. (Lan- 

zarote.) 
Canary Islands. 

Buteo buteo bannermani Swann 

Buteo buteo bannermani Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1919, p. 44. (Near 

Mindello Bay, St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands.) 
Cape Verde Islands. 

Buteo buteo arrigonii Picchi 

Buteo buteo Arrigonii Picchi, Avicula, 7, 1903, p. 40. (Sardinia.) 
Corsica and Sardinia. 

Buteo oreophilus Hartert and Neumann 

Buteo oreophilus Hartert and Neumann, Orn. Monatsb., 22, 1914, p. 31. 

(Koritscha, 2800 m., southern Abyssinia.) 
Mountains of northeastern and central Africa. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 235 

Buteo brachypterus Hartlaub 

Buteo brachypterus "y. Pelz." Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 8, 1860, p. 11. 
(Madagascar, probably from Tamatave.) 

Madagascar. 

• Buteo vulpinus intermedius Menzbier 

Buteo vulpinus intermedius Menzbier, Orn. Turkestan, 1888, p. 197. 

(Russia.) 
Breeds from eastern Sweden, Finland, the White Sea south through 
western and central Russia to Rumania and Bulgaria. Winters in eastern 
Africa(?) 



"Buteo vulpinus menetriesi Bogdanov 

Buteo menetriesi Bogdanov, Ois. Caucasus, in Arb. Naturf . Ges. Kazan, 8, 
1879, heft 4, p. 45. (Caucasus.) 

Caucasus and northern Persia. 

Buteo vulpinus vulpinus (Gloger) 

Falco vulpinus "Licht." Gloger, Das Abandern der Vogel, 1833, p. 141. 
(Africa.) 

Breeds from the Urals and southeastern Russia east to the Kentai 
Mountains and Turkestan. Winters in eastern Africa, Arabia and western 
India. 

Buteo burmanicus burmanicus Hume 

- Faclo (sic) buteo japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna 
Jap., Aves, 1844, p. 16, 1845, pi. 6, 6b (the plates are lettered Buteo 
vulgaris japonicus.) (Japan) not Falco tinnuculus japonicus id, op. cit., 
p. 2. 

Buteo burmanicus Hume, Str. Feath., 3, 1875, p. 30, in text. (Thayet- 
myo, Upper Pegu.) 

Buteo japonicus saturatus Portenko, Bull. Acad. Sci. URSS., CI. Sci. 
Phys.-Math., 1929, p. 644. (Ju-tschou, Kham, southeastern Tibet.^ 

1 This form of Buteo burmanicvs described from western China and south- 
eastern Tibet may well be a valid form, but the name saturatus is invalidated if 
Asturina saturata Sclater and Salvin is placed in the genus Buteo as has been 
done in this Check-List. 

In the same paper, Portenko divides the different subspecies of the palaearctic 
Buteos each into a number of color varieties, employing a quadrinomial form of 
terminology to designate them, i. e., Buteo japonicus japonicus Temminck f. 
pallidipectus. In such cases it is quite evident that no nomenclatorial value is 
to be attached to the fourth term, nevertheless the practice of designating 
color varieties in this way may lead to serious complications and should be 
avoided. 



236 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Breeds in Asia from eastern Turkestan and the Upper Yenessei north to 
Dauria and Lake Baikal, east to Ussuriland, south to the Himalayas, 
Manchuria, Korea and Japan. Winters south to India, Burma and south 
China. 

-Buteo burmanicus toyoshimai Momiyama 

Buteo japonicus toyoshimai Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1, 1927, 
p. 73 (Japanese text), 98 (English text), (Okimura, Coffin Island, 
Bonin Islands.) 

Bonin Islands. 

Buteo lagopus lagopus (Pontoppidan) 
Falco Lagopus Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, 1763, p. 616. (Denmark.) 

Breeds on the tundras of northern Scandinavia and northern Russia. In 
winter south to the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Balkan Peninsula. 

Buteo lagopus pallidus (Menzbier) 

Archibuteo pallidus Menzbier, Orn. Turkestan, 1, 1888, p. 163. (Siberia, 
Turkestan, Kamchatka, Ussuri. Types from Bugun River and Ver- 
noy, Turkestan.) 

Breeds in northern Siberia from the Ob to the Kolyma, south to Lake 
Baikal. Winters south to Transcaspia, Turkestan, northern China and 
northern Japan. 

Buteo lagopus s.-johannis (Gmelin) 
Falco S. Johannis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 273. (Hudson 
Strait and Newfoundland.) 

Breeds in Arctic America from the Aleutian Islands and northwestern 
Alaska to Ungava, south to central British Columbia, southern Ungava 
and Newfoundland. Winters from the northern United States to Cali- 
fornia, Texas and North Carolina. 

Buteo platypterus platypterus (Vieillot) 

Sparvius Platypterus Vieillot, Tabl. Encyc. M^th., 3, 1823, p. 1273. 
(Pennsylvania = Schuylkill River, ex Wilson.) 

Buteo platypterus iowensis B. H. Bailey, Auk, 34, 1917, p. 73. (Eagle 
Lake, Hancock Co., Iowa.) 

Breeds from central Alberta, Ontario, southern Quebec and Cape Breton 
Island south to Texas, the Gulf States and Florida, west to the eastern edge 
of the Great Plains. Winters from southern Illinois and New Jersey to 
northern Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Amazonian Peru. 

Buteo platypterus cubanensis Burns 

Buteo platypterus cubanensis Burns, Wils. Bull., 18 (n. s.), 1911, p. 148. 
(Cuba.) 

Islands of Cuba, Isle of Pines and probably Puerto Rico. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 237 

— Buteo platypterus insulicola Riley 

Buteo platypterus insulicola Riley, Auk, 25, 1908, p. 273. (Antigua, 

British West Indies.) 
Island of Antigua. 

■~ Buteo platypterus rivieri Verrill 

Buteo (latissimus) rivieri Verrill, Descriptions of three new species of 

birds from Dominica B. W. I., no date [= 24 Oct. 1905], not paged. 

(Dominica.) 
Lesser Antilles from Dominica to St. Lucia. 

"" Buteo platypterus antillarum Clark 

Buteo antillarum Clark, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, 21 Feb. 1905, p. 62. 

(Chateaubelair, St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles.) 
Lesser Antilles on the islands of St. Vincent, Grenada and the larger 
Grenadines. 

Buteo magnirostris griseocauda (Ridgway) 

Rupornis magnirostris var. griseocauda Ridgway, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 16, 1873-1874 ( = Dec. 1873), p. 87 (in key), p. 88. (Mexico.) 

Eastern and southern Mexico from central Tamaulipas south to Oaxaca 
and probably to Tabasco and Chiapas. 

f^ Buteo magnirostris conspectus (Peters) 

Rupornis magnirostris conspecta Peters, Auk, 30, 1913, p. 370. (San 

Ignacio, Yucatan.) 
Yucatan Peninsula to extreme northern British Honduras. 

~ Buteo magnirostris gracilis (Ridgway) 

Rupornis gracilis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, 1885, p. 94. (Co- 
zumel Island.) 

Islands of Cozumel, Meco, Holbox and probably Mugeres, off the coast 
of Yucatan. 

' - Buteo magnirostris direptor (Peters and Griscom) 

Rupornis magnirostris direptor Peters and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. CL, 11, 1929, p. 46. (Finca El Cipres, near Mazatenango, Pacific 
slope of Guatemala.) 
Guatemala (except probably extreme northeastern), south to Salvador 
and east to southwestern British Honduras. 

-\ Buteo magnirostris argutus (Peters and Griscom) 

Rupornis magnirostris arguta Peters and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. 
CL, 11, 1929, p. 46. (Ahnirante, Panama.) 

Central America, from eastern Honduras south on the Caribbean slope 
to western Panama and from the Honduras-Nicaragua boundary south on 
the Pacific slope to northwestern Costa Rica. 



238 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

-X- Buteo magnirostris ruficauda (Sclater and Salvin) 

Asturina ruficauda Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, 
p. 133. (Cordoba, Jalapa, Mexico City, Omoa, Guatemala, Veragua, 
David. The specimen figured in Exotic Orn., June 1, 1869, came either 
from Veragua or the line of the Panama R. R. Since the latter is not 
included in the list of original localities, the former may be taken as 
the type locality.) 

Pacific slope of Central America from the head of the Gulf of Nicoya to 
the Rio Tuyra, eastern Panama. 

H. i Buteo magnirostris alius (Peters and Griscom) 

Rupornis magnirostris alia Peters and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. 
CI., 11, 1929, p. 48. (El Rey, Pearl Islands.) 

Confined to El Rey (or San Miguel Island), Pearl Islands, Bay of Pan- 
ama. 

/ Buteo magnirostris insidiatrix (Bangs and Penard) 

Rupornis magnirostris insidiatrix Bangs and Penard, BuU. Mus. Comp, 
Zool., 52, 1918, p. 36. (Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia.) 

Caribbean slope of eastern Panama to northern and western Venezuela. 

- j Buteo magnirostris ecuadoriensis (Swann) 

Rupornis magnirostris ecuadoriensis Swann, Syn. List Accip., ed. 2, 1922, 
p. 91. ("Vaqueroi" = Vaqueria(?) Ecuador.) 

Western Colombia and western Ecuador. 

— j Buteo magnirostris occiduus (Bangs) 

Rupornis magnirostris occidua Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, 1911, 
p. 187. (Rio Tambopata, eastern Peru.) 

Rupornis magnirostris zamorce Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 31, 1922, 
p. 3. (Sabanilla, 5700 feet. Rio Zamora, Province of Loja, Ecuador.) 

Southeastern Ecuador and Peru east of the Andes, eastward possibly to 
the Rio Madeira. 

«X Buteo magnirostris magnirostris (Gmelin) 

Falco magnirostris Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 282. (Cayenne, 
ex Daubenton PI. enlum., no. 464.) 

Eastern Venezuela, the Guianas and northern Brazil. 

*-4-- Buteo magnirostris nattereri (Sclater and Salvin) 

Asturina nattereri Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, 
p. 132. (Vicinity of Bahia.) 

Northeastern Brazil from Maranhao and Ceara to Bahia (perhaps to Rio 
de Janeiro and northern Sao Paulo.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 239 

I*—"- Buteo magnirostris magniplumis (Bertoni) 

Potamolegus superciliaris magniplumis Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos 
(1), no. 1, 1901, p. 159. (Rio Mondaih, Paraguay.) 

Southern Brazil from Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo (perhaps further 
north) south to Rio Grande do Sul, northeastern Argentina and eastern 
Paraguay. 

Buteo magnirostris superciliaris (Vieillot) 

Sparvius superciliaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 328. 
(Paraguay.) 

Potamolegus superciliaris var. furvicollis Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos 
(1), no. 1, 1901, p. 161. (Asuncion, Paraguay.) 

Paraguayan and Argentine Chaco. 

1 Buteo magnirostris gixlaris (Schlegel) 

Asturina gularis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1862, Asturinae, p. 4. 
(Buenos Aires.) 

Uruguay and eastern Argentina in Provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Rios 
and Buenos Aires. 

*4^- Buteo magnirostris saturatus (Sclater and Salvin) 

Asturina saturata Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, 
p. 357. (Apolo and Tilotilo, BoUvia.) 

Southern Bolivia south through northwestern Argentina to Tucuman. 

— f Buteo leucorrhous (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Falco Leucorrhous Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. de 1' 'Uranie', Zool., pt. 1, 
1824, p. 91, pi. 13. (Brazil.) 

Rupornis nigra Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), no. 1, 1901, p. 162. 
(Alto Parang, lat. 25°-27° S., Paraguay.) 

Northeastern Colombia to Venezuela, south to Ecuador and Peru, north- 
western and northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. 

Buteo brachyurus Vieillot 

Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 4, 1816, p. 477. (No 
type locality = Cayenne, substituted by Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, 
1908, p. 291. 

Elanus amauroleucus Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), no. 1, 1901, 
p. 166. Banks of the Alto Parang, lat. 26° and 27° S., Paraguay.) 

Buteo abbreviatus minimus Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1919, p. 51. ("Miri- 
tiba, S. Brazil.") 

Breeds in southern Florida, possibly in eastern Mexico and Central 
America and locally in South America where it occurs south to Paraguay 
and northeastern Argentina. 



240 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus PARABUTEO Ridgway 

Parabuteo Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, Hist. No. Am. Bds., 
3, 1874, p. 250. Type, by monotypy, Buteo harrisi Audubon, 

cf. Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Americana, 3, 1899, p. 56-57. 
(Buteo harrisi.) 

■i' Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi (Audubon) 
t 

Buteo harrisi Audubon, Bds. Am., folio ed., 4, 1837, pi. 392. (Between 

Bayou Sara and Natchez, Mississippi.) 
Southern United States from California to Mississippi south to western 
Ecuador; Lower California. 

I Parabuteo unicinctus unicinctus (Temminck) 

Falco unicinctus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 53, 1824, pi. 313. (Vicinity of 

Rio Grande, near Boa Vista, Brazil.) 
?Buteo ater R. A. Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 1899, p. 167, 168. 
(Province of Valdivia, Chile.) Figured An. Mus. Nac. Chile, entr. 15, 
sect. 1, Zool., 1902, pi. 5. 
IButeo (Asturina) elegans R. A. Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 65, Bd. 1, 1899, 
p. 167, 169. (Chile.) Figured An. Mus. Nac. Chile, entr. 15, sect. 1, 
Zool., 1902, pi. 7. (Not Buteo elegans Cassin, 1855.) 
South America (east of the Andes) from Venezuela and Surinam south to 
Argentina (Provinces of Cordoba and Buenos Aires) ; northern (?) and cen- 
tral Chile. 

Genus ASTURINA Vieillot 

Asturina Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 24. Type, by monotypy, Asturia 
(sic) cinerea Vieillot = Falco nitidus Latham. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 432-436. 

Asturina nitida plagiata Schlegel 

Asturina plagiata Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1862, Asturinae, p. 1, 

note. (Vera Cruz, Mexico.) 
Asturina plagiata maxima van Rossem, Condor, 32, 1930, p. 303. (San 

Javier, Sonora, Mexico.) 
Breeds from southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley south 
through Mexico to northern Guatemala. Migratory in the northern part of 
its range. 

"■ Asturina nitida micrus Miller and Griscom 

Asturina polionota Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 17, 1869, p. 208. (Costa 

Rica). Not Asturina polionota Kaup, 1847. 
Asturina plagiata micrus Miller and Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 25, 
1921, p. 4. (Four miles northeast of Chinandega, Nicaragua.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 241 

Asturina plagiata minor "Griscom" Swann, Sjti. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, 
p. 90. (Pigres, Costa Rica.) 

Central America on the Caribbean slope from British Honduras east to 
Tela, Honduras; on the Pacific slope south to northwestern Costa Rica. 

— -nr Asturina nitida costaricensis Swann 

Asturina nitida costaricensis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 90. 
(Pozo del Rio Grande, Bornea [ = Boruca], Costa Rica.) 

Southwestern Costa Rica south on the Pacific slope to the Canal Zone. 

—4-- Asturina nitida nitida (Latham) 

Falco nitidus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 41. (Cayenne.) 
Tropical South America (including Trinidad) , from Panama east of the 
Canal Zone to southern Brazil. 

- - 1 Asturina nitida pallida Todd 

Asturina nitida pallida Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, 1915, p. 170. 
(Rio Surutu, Bolivia.) 

Tropical eastern Bolivia. 

Genus LEUCOPTERNIS Kaup 

Leucopternis Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 210. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, Falco melanops Latham. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., 1855, 
p. 3.) 

Morphnarchus Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 72, no. 4, 1920, p. 2. Tj^pe, 
by original designation, Leucopternis princeps Sclater. 

cj. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 463-474. 

— k- Leucopternis albicoUis ghiesbreghti (DuBus) 

Buieo ghiesbreghti DuBus, Esq. Orn., Hvr. 1, 1845, pi. 1. ("Hacienda 
Mirador, several leagues from Vera Cruz," Mexico.) 

Southern Mexico to Guatemala and British Honduras. 

—J— Leucopternis albicoUis costaricensis W. L. Sclater 

Leucopternis ghiesbreghti costaricensis W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 
39, 1919, p. 76. (Carillo, Costa Rica.) 

Honduras to eastern Panama. 

— V Leucopternis albicoUis albicoUis (Latham) 

Falco albicoUis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 36. (Cayenne.) 

Venezuela, Trinidad and the Guianas to Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and 
eastern Brazil (Maranhao) . 



242 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

""'"I Leucopternis albicoUis occidentalis Salvin 

Leucopternis occidentalis Salvin, Ibis, 1876, p. 496. (Type believed to be 
from Providence of Loja or Puna Island, Ecuador.) 

Western Ecuador. 

Leucopternis (albicoUis?) polionota Kaup 

Asturina (Leucopternis) polionota Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 212. (Sao Paulo, 
Brazil. Ex Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 17, nomen nudum). 

Southern Brazil and Paraguay. 

— ■ I Leucopternis lacernulata (Temminck) 

Falco lacernulatus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 74, 1827, pi. 437. (Brazil.) 
Southeastern Brazil. 

— I Leucopternis melanops (Latham) 

Falco melanops Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 37. (Cayenne.) 
The Guianas to northern Brazil and eastern Ecuador. 

"^1 Leucopternis kuhli Bonaparte 

Leucopternis Kuhli Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, 1850, p. 19. (No type 
locality = Para, Brazil, designated by Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. 
Am., 1912, p. 69.) 

Amazonian Peru and Brazil. 

"-4 Leucopternis semiplumbea Lawrence 

Leucopternis semiplumbeus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 

7, 1861, p. 288. (Caribbean slope of the Isthmus of Panama along the 

line of the railroad.) 
Nicaragua to northwestern Ecuador. 

I Leucopternis plumbea Salvin 

Leucopternis plumbea Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 240, pi. 8. (Ecuador.) 
Eastern Panama to western Ecuador. 

■ — I Leucopternis schistacea (Sundevall) 

Asturina schistacea Sundevall, Ofv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 7, 1850 (1851), 

p. 132, note. (Brazil.) 
Eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru to northeastern Brazil. 

■~i — Leucopternis princeps Sclater 

Leucopternis princeps Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1865, p. 429, pi. 
24. (Costa Rica.) 

Costa Rica, western Panama, Ecuador. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 243 

Genus KAUPIFALCO Bonaparte 

Kaupifalco Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. Zool. (2), 6, 1854, p. 533. Type, 

by monotypy, Falco monogrammicus Temminck. 
cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 251-254. 

— f— Kaupifalco monogrammicus monogrammicus (Temminck) 

Falco monogrammicus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 53, 1824, pi. 314. 

(Senegal.) 
Africa south of the Sahara, from Senegal and the Egyptian Sudan to 
Gaboon, Uganda, Kenya and Kilimanjaro. 

— f-- Kaupifalco monogrammicus merid (Hartlaub) 

Micronisus monogrammicus var. Merid. Hartlaub, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London, 1860, p. 109. (Ambriz, Angola.) 
Africa from Angola to coastlands of eastern Africa south to Natal and 
southern Transvaal. 

Genus BUTASTUR Hodgson 

Butastur Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 12, 1843, p. 311. Type, by 
original designation. Circus teesa Franklin. 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1913, p. 1186-1188. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 104-108. 

—y Butastur teesa (Franklin) 

Circus Teesa Franklin, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1831 (1832), 

p. 115. (Further India = Ganges-Nerbudda, apud Stuart Baker.) 
Northwestern India to northern and western Burma south to Travancore 
and Tenasserim. 

• / Butastur indicus (Gmelin) 

Falco indicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 264. (Java, ex La- 
tham.) 
Breeds in Ussuriland, Japan and eastern China. In winter to Burma, 
Tenasserim and Malay Peninsula and Indo-Chinese countries, Philippines, 
Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas and New Guinea. 

Butastur liventer (Temminck) 

Falco liventer (sic) Temminck, PI. Col, livr. 74, 1827, p. 438. (Celebes, 
Sumatra, Java and India.) 

Burma south to Tenasserim; Siam(?), Indo-China, Borneo, Java and 
Celebes. 

4 Butastur rufipennis (Sundevall) 

Poliornis rufipennis Sundevall, Ofv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 7, 1850 (1851), 

p. 131. (Near Khartoum.) 
Senegal east to the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and south to the Ivory Coast 
and the Pangani River. 






244 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus HYPOMORPHNUS i Cabanis 

Hypomorphnus Cabanis, Arch. f. Naturg., 10, Bd. 1, 1844, p. 263. Type, 
by original designation, Falco uruhitinga Linne. 

cj. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 451-454. 

— I Hypomorphnus urubitinga ridgwayi (Gurney) 

Uruhitinga ridgwayi Gurney, List Diurn. Bds. Prey, 1884, p. 148. (Gua- 
temala.) 

Mexico (from states of Sonora and Tamaulipas) to Panama. 

— ..j Hypomorphnus urubitinga urubitinga (Gmelin) 

Falco Uruhitinga Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 265. (Brazil.) 

Uruhitinga uruhitinga occidentalis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 97. 
(Rio Bogota, western Ecuador.) 

Tropical South America from Colombia eastward and south to Peru and 
southern Brazil. 

„„,| Hypomorphnus urubitinga azarae (Swann) 

Urubitinga uruhitinga azarae Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, 
p. 453. (Gomez, Tucumd-n, Argentina.) 

Paraguay and northern Argentina south to Tucuman and Santa F^. 

Genus BUTEOGALLUS ^ Lesson 

Buteogallus Lesson, Traite d' Orn., livr. 2, 1830, p. 83. Type, by mono- 
typy, Buteogallus cathartoides Lesson = Falco cequinoctialis Gmelin. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 449-450. (Buteogallus), 
p. 455-462 (Urubitinga, part.). 

—I Buteogallus anthracinus anthracinus (Lichtenstein) 

Falco anthracinus Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Mex. Vog., 1830, p. 3. 

(Mexico.) 

Uruhitinga anthracina hangsi Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 98. 
(San Miguel Island, Pearl Islands, Bay of Panama.) 

Southern Arizona and Texas (Rio Grande Valley) to Panama (Colom- 
bia and Venezuela?). 

^ Hypomorphnus must replace Urubitinga. Urubitinga was used in a vernac- 
ular sense by the French ornithologists from Cuvier's time onward, but its use 
was always in the vernacular and it was never validated as a generic name prior 
to 1840. In that year G. R. Gray, in his List Gen. Bds., p. 2, cited Urubitinga 
in a generic sense as a synonym of Morphnus Cuvier, rendering it untenable 
from that date. 

2 In my opinion the short-legged, short-tailed species with more slender bills 
formerly associated with H^Jponlorphnus vrubitinga are not very closely related 
to it. They are, however, not generically separable from Buteogallus, formerly 
considered monotypic. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 245 

— 4 Buteogallus anthracinus cancrivorus (Clark) 

Uruhitinga anthracina cancrivora Clark, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, 1905, 

p. 63. (Barrouallie, St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles.) 
St. Vincent (and possibly St. Lucia and Grenada), Lesser Antilles; Trini- 
dad, north coast of Colombia and Venezuela(?) 

Buteogallus gundlachii (Cabanis) 

Hypomorphnus Gundlachii Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 2, 1854, Extra-H. 

(1855), p. Ixxx. (Cuba.) 
Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 

— I Buteogallus subtilis (Thayer and Bangs) 

Uruhitinga subtilis Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 46, 1905, 

p. 94. (Gorgona Island, Colombia.) 
Pacific slope from El Salvador south to Ecuador (Puna Island). 

•^ Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Gmelin) 

Falco cequinodialis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 265. (Cayenne.) 
Swampy forests of the Atlantic coast of South America from the Orinoco 
Delta to the Brazilian State of Parand. 

Genus BUSARELLUS Lafresnaye 

Busarellus Lafresnaye, in d' Orbigny, Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat., 2, 1842, 
p. 785. Type, by original designation, "Le Buseray" LevaiUant = 
Falco nigricollis Latham, 
c/. Swann, Mongr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 246-248. 

1-- Busarellus nigricollis nigricollis (Latham) 

Falco nigricollis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 35. (Cayenne.) 
Busarellus nigricollis macropus Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 95. 

(Tally Pan, Manatee River, British Honduras.) 
Mexico (Sinaloa and Vera Cruz) south to Peru, BoUvia and Brazil.^ 

Busarellus nigricollis australis Swann 

Busarellus nigricollis australis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 95. 

(Morovi [ = Mocovi, Chaco] Argentina.) 
Northern Argentina and Paraguay. 

Genus HARPYHALI^TUS Lafresnaye 

Harpyhalicetus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 173. Type, by original 
designation and monotypy, Harpyia coronata Vieillot. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 475-476. 
1 Cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 32, 1925, p. 267. 



246 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Harpyhaliaetus coronatus (Vieillot) 

Harpyia coronata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 14, 1817, p. 237. 
(Paraguay, ex Azara.) 

Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil south to Chile and Argentina 
(Rio Negro). 

Genus URUBITORNIS J. Vekreaux 

Uruhitornis J. Verreaux, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1856, p. 145. Type, by 
original designation and monotypy, Circaetus solitarius Tschudi. 

cj. Kothe, Orn. Monatsb., 20, 1912, p. 1-5. 

Urubitornis solitaria (Tschudi) 

Circaetus solitarius Tschudi, Arch. f. Naturg., 10, Bd. 1, 1844, p. 264. 
(Peru.) 

Central America, south on the Pacific slope of South America to Chile. 

Genus MORPHNUS Dumont 

Morphnus Dumont, Diet. Sei. Nat., 1, 1816, Suppl., p. 88. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation, Falco guianensis Daudin (Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 1, 1916, p. 252). 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 479-481. 

Morphnus guianensis (Daudin) 

Falco guianensis Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 78. (Cayenne.) 

Tropical rain forest from Honduras to southern Brazil, Paraguay and 
Amazonian Peru (?). 

Morphnus taeniatus Gurney 

Morphnus taeniatus Gurney, Ibis, 1879, p. 176, pi. 3. (Sarayaeu, Ecua- 
dor.) 

Known only from eastern Ecuador. 

Genus HARPIA Vieillot 

Harpia Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 24. Type, by monotypy, "Aigle de- 
structeur" = Vultur harpy j a Linne. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 482-484. 

Harpia harpyja (Linne) 

Vultur Harpyja Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 86. (Mexico, ex 

Hernandez.) 
Mexico from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec south to Bolivia, southern 
Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 247 

Genus PITHECOPHAGA Ogilvie-Grant 

Pithecophaga Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 6, 1896, p. 16. Type, by 
monot3'-py, Pithecophaga jefferyi Ogilvie-Grant. 
cf. McGregor, Man. Phil. Bds., pt. 1, 1909, p. 226-227. 

Pithecophaga jefferyi Ogilvie-Grant 

Pithecophaga jefferyi Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 6, 1896, p. 17. 

(Samar, Philippine Islands.) 
PhiUppine Islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Leyte?) 

Genus HARPYOPSIS Salvadori 

Harpyopsis Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1875, p. 682. Type, by 
monotypy, Harpyopsis novaeguineae Salvadori. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 8, 1930, p. 485. 

Harpyopsis novaeguineae Salvadori 

Harpyopsis novae guineae Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 1875,. 
p. 682. (Andai, Arfak Peninsula, New Guinea.) 

New Guinea. 

Genus OROAETUS Ridgway 

Oroaetus Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 72, no. 4, 1920, p. 1. Type, by 
original designation, Falco isidori Des Murs. 

cf. Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 283-286. 

Oroaetus isidori (Des Murs) 
Falco Isidori Des Murs, Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 175 bis. (Santa Fe de 

Bogota.) 
Colombia to western Venezuela and south through Ecuador to Bolivia. 

Genus SPIZASTXJR G. R. Grat 

Spizastur G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds. 1841, p. 3. Type, by original 
designation, "S. atricapillus Cuv." = Falco atricapillus Temminck 
(not Wilson) = Buteo melanoleucus VieiUot. 
cf. Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr .-Americana, 3, 1901, p. 93-94. 

Spizastur melanoleucus (Vieillot) 

Buteo melanoleucus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 4, 1816, p. 482. 

(Guiana.) 
Mexico from Oaxaca and Vera Cruz to Surinam and south to Paraguay 
and northeastern Argentina. 



248 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Genus SPIZAETUS Vieillot 

Spizaetus Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 24. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, Falco ornatus Daudin. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 2.) 

Phceoaetus Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 72, no. 4, 1920, p. 2. Type, by 
original designation, Falco limnaetus Horsfield (new name for Limnae- 
tus Horsfield 1830, not Limncetus Bowdich, 1825). 

Limnaetops Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 7, 1930, p. 408. 
Type, by original designation, Limnaetops c. cirrhatus (Gmelin) = 
Falco cirrhatus Gmelin. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1131-1133. 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr. -Americana, 3, 1901, p. 91-93. 

Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 72, 1924, p. 429-432. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 84-93. 

Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin) 

Falco ornatus Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 77. (Cayenne.) 

Spizaetus apirati Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), no. 1, 1901, p. 154. 
(Mouth of the Rio Mondaih, Paraguay.) 

Southern Mexico from Oaxaca and Vera Cruz south to Peru, Paraguay, 
northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Spizaetus devillei Dubois 

Spizaetus devillei Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. de Belgique (2), 38, 1874, p. 
129, pis. 1 and 2. (Baeza, Ecuador.) 

Known only from eastern Ecuador, probably the same as ornatus. 

Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied) 

Falco tyrannus Wied, Reise Brasilien, 1, 1820, p. 360. (Quartel dos Arcos, 
Rio Belmonte, Bahia, Brazil.) 

Southern Mexico from Vera Cruz south to southeastern Brazil. 

Spizaetus nipalensis orientalis Temminck and Schlegel 

Spizaetos orientalis Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1844, p. 7; 1845, pi. 3. (Japan.) 

Northern Japan in the mountains of Hokkaido and Hondo and (accord- 
ing to Kuroda in Handlist of Japanese Birds) Shikoku, Korea, and perhaps 
the island of Kiusiu. 

Spizaetus nipalensis fokiensis W. L. Sclater 

Spizaetus nipalensis fokiensis W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, Dec. 
8, 1919, p. 37.1 (Fokien Province, China.) 

1 This name is a nomen nudum in Swann, Synop. List Accip., pt. 2, Nov. 7, 
1919, p. 72. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 249 

Southern China in the hills of the provinces of Anwei, Fokien and 
Kwangtung; south to Indo-Burmese countries and Tenasserim; island of 
Hainan. 

Spizaetus nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgson) 

Nisaetus Nipalensis Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 5, 1836, p. 229, 
pi. 7. (Nepal.) 

Breeds at elevations between 2000 and 7000 feet in the Himalayas from 
Kashmir to eastern Assam and the Lichiang Range, Yunnan. Wanders in 
winter to the plains of India. 

Spizaetus nipalensis kelaarti Legge 

Spizaetus kelaarti Legge, Ibis, 1878, p. 202. (Ceylon.) 

Hills of Mysore and Nilgiri Hills south to the Malabar Coast, Travan- 
core and Ceylon. 

Spizaetus nipalensis alboniger (Blyth) 

Nisaetus alboniger Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 14, 1845, p. 173. 

(Malacca.) 

Mountains of southern Tenasserim to the Malay Peninsula and south- 
western Siam; Sumatra, Borneo. 

Spizaetus nipalensis bartelsi Stresemann 

Spizaetus nipalensis bartelsi Stresemann, Journ. f . Orn., 72, 1924, p. 431. 
(Melatti Mountains, western Java.) 

Mountains of western Java. 

Spizaetus nipalensis philippensis Gould 

Spizaetus Philippensis Gould, Bds. Asia, pt. 15, 1863, in text to pi. 
labelled Spizaetus alboniger (Philippines; Luzon, suggested as type 
locality by Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 121. [Tj^dc in Norwich 

Museum].) 

Philippine Islands (Luzon, Lubang, Mindoro, Palawan, Masbate, Basi- 
lan, Siquijor, Negros). 

Spizaetus nipalensis lanceolatus Temminck and Schlegel 

Spizaetos lanceolatus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1844, p. 7, in text. (Celebes.) 

Celebes and Sula Besi. 

Spizaetus cirrhatus limnaeetus (Horsfield) 

Falco Limnceetus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 138. 
(Java.) 

Northern India from Garhwal to eastern Bengal and Assam, south to the 
Malay Peninsula; Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippine Islands (Lubang, 
Mindoro, Calamianes, Palawan, Mindanao). 



250 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Spizaetus cirrhatus cirrhatus (Gmelin) 

Falco cirrhatus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 274. (India.) 

Indian Peninsula (except Travancore) from Etawah and western Bengal 
southward. 

Spizaetus cirrhatus ceylanensis (Gmelin) 
Falco ceylanensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 275. (Ceylon.) 
South Travancore and Ceylon. 

Spizaetus cirrhatus andamanensis Tytler 

Spizaetus Andamanensis Tytler, Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 1865, p. 112. 
(Port Blair, South Andaman Island.) 

Andaman Islands. 

Spizaetus cirrhatus floris (Hartert) 

Limnaetus limnaetus floris Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, 1898, p. 46. (South 
Flores.) 

Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores, Wetta and Luang). 

Spizaetus gurneyi (G. R. Gray) 

Aquila {Heteropus?) gurneyi G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 
p. 342, pi. 169. (Batchian, given as type locality in original descrip- 
tion, but specimen from Waigiu is claimed as the type in Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 274.) 

Northern Moluccas (Morotai, Haknahera, Ternate, Batjan), Misol, 
western New Guinea, Jobi Island, Aru Islands and Goodenough Island. 
Waigiu? Salawatti? 

Genus LOPHAETUS Kaup 

Lophaetus Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 165. Type, by monotypy, Falco occipi- 
talis Daudin. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 248-251. 

Lophaetus occipitalis (Daudin) 

Falco occipitalis Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 40. (Anteniquoi 
Country = Knysna Dist., Cape Province, apud Sclater.) 

Africa south of the Sahara from Senegal to western Ethiopia south to 
Cape Province. 

Genus CASSINAETUS W. L. Sclater 

Cassinaetus W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 42, 1922, p. 76. Type, by 
original designation, Limnaetus africanus Cassin. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 247-248. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 251 

Cassinaetus africanus (Cassin) 
Limnaetus africanus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 4. 
(Ogabi River, Gaboon.) 

Spizaetus batesi W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1919, p. 87. 
(Bitye, Ja River, Cameroon.) 

Togoland to Cameroon and Gaboon, eastward to the Welle (Uelle) 
region. 

Genus STEPHANOAETUS W. L. Sclater 

Stephanoaetus W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 42, 1922, p. 75. Type, 
by original designation, Falco coronatus Linne. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 245-247. 

Stephanoaetus coronatus (Linne) 
Falco coronatus Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 124. (Coast of 
Guinea, ex Edwards, pi. 224.) 

Africa from Portuguese Guinea and Uganda south to Angola and Cape 
Province. 

Genus POLEMAETUS Heine 

Polemaetus Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Orn., 
1890, p. 270. Type, by monotypy, Falco bellicosus Daudin. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 243-245. 

Polemaetus bellicosus (Daudin) 

Falco bellicosus Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 38. (Great Namaqua- 
land between 28° S. lat. and the Tropic.) 

Africa south of the Sahara from Gambia and Ethiopia to Cape Province; 
absent from Guinea and the Equatorial forest region. 

Genus HIERAAETUS Kaup 

Hieraaetus Kaup, Classif. Saugeth. u. Vog., 1844, p. 120. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Falco pennata Gmelin. 

Anomalaetus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 208. Type, by 
original designation, Spizaetus ayresi Gurney. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1109-1114. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 116-126. 
Stresemann, Nov. Zool., 31, 1924, p. 214-216. 
Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 72, 1924, p. 432-435. 

Hieraaetus fasciatus fasciatus (Vieillot) 

Aquila fasciata Vieillot, Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, 2, pt. 2, 1822, p. 152. 
(Montpellier, France.) 

Southern Europe south to northern Africa and east to India and south- 
ern China. 



252 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

— — Hieraaetus fasciatus spUogaster (Bonaparte) 

Spizaetus spilogaster "Dubus" Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1850, 
p. 487. (Abyssinia.) 

Hieraaetus fasciatus minor Erlanger, Journ. f. Orn., 52, 1904, p. 185, pi. 10. 
(Dambale, near Artu, northern SomalUand.) 

Ethiopia and Somaliland south to Bechuanaland; also Angola and 
Windhuk. 

Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin) 

Falco pennatus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 272. (No type 
locality given.) 

Breeds in the Iberian Peninsula, southern France, southeastern Europe 
and southern Russia east to southern Transbaikalia, south to northern 
Africa and India. Winters chiefly in India and northeastern Africa. 

,« .. Hieraaetus kienerii kienerii (E. Geoff roy) 

Astur Kienerii G. S. [= E. Geoffroy], Mag. ZooL, 1835, cl. 2, pi. 35. 
(Himalayas.) 

Eastern Himalayas from Nepal to eastern Assam and locally south to the 
Malay Peninsula. Also southwestern India and Ceylon. 

Hieraaetus kienerii formosus Stresemann 

Hieraaetus kieneri formosus Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 32, 1924, p. 108. 
(Northern Celebes.) 

Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, Lesser Sunda Islands east 
to Sumbawa. 

Hieraaetus morphnoides weiskei (Reichenow) 

Eutolmaetus weiskei Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 8, 1900, p. 185. (Astro- 
labe Mountains, 3000 met.. New Guinea.) 

Eastern New Guinea. 

Hieraaetus morphnoides morphnoides (Gould) 

Aquila morphnoides Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), p. 161. 
(Yarrundi, Upper Hunter River, New South Wales.) 

Aquila morphnoides coongani Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 248. 
(Coongan River, northwest Australia.) 

Australia. 

Hieraaetus ayresii (Gurney) ^ f..^^^^' ^ 

Spizaetus ayresii Gurney, Ibis, 1862, p. 149, pi. 4. (Natal.) 

West Africa from Spanish Guinea, Togo and Cameroon to Portuguese 
Congo; East Africa from Ethiopia through Uganda, Kenya Colony and 
Tanganyika Territory to Mozambique. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 253 

Genus AQUILA Beisson 

Aquila Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 28, 419. Type, by tautonjTny, Aquila 
Brisson = Falco chrysaetos Linne. 

Micraetus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 208. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Aquila wahlbergi Sundevall. Not Micraetus Bertoni, 
1901. 

Afraetus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 10, 1924, p. 80. Substitute name 
for Micraetus Roberts, preoccupied. 

Psammoaetus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 10, 1924, p. 79. Type, by 
original designation, Aq^lila nipalensis Hodgson. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914-1915, p. 1088-1109. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 59-60. 
Swann, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 45, 1925, p. 64-73. 

Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Linne) 

Falco Chrysaetos Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden ex Fn. Suec.) 

Europe from Lapland and northern Russia east to western Siberia, south 
to the Pyrenees, southern Russia, Caucasus and Asia Minor. 

Aquila chrysaetos fulva (Linn6) 

Falco fulvus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88. (Europe = Eng- 
land, ex Ray.) 

Breeds in Scotland and on the inner and outer Hebrides; formerlj'^ in Ire- 
land. Very doubtfully distinct from A. c. chrysaetos. 

Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri Severtzov 

Aquila fulva Hovieyeri Severtzov, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
15, livr. 5, 1888, p. 184. (Balearic Islands and Algeria.) 

Spain, Balearic Islands and mountains of northern Africa (Morocco, 
Algeria, Tunisia). 

Aquila chrysaetos daphanea Severtzov 

Aquila daphanea Severtzov, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 15, 
livr. 5, 1888, p. 190. (Russian Turkestan, Mongolia, Himalayas, 
Transbaikalia and Ala-shan Mountains.) 

Turkestan and eastern Persia to central Asia, south to the Himalayas. 

Aquila chrysaetos obscurior Sushkin 

Aquila chrysaetos obscurior Sushkin, Bds. of the Russian Altai, etc., 1925, 
p. 59. (Ogudai, central Altai and basin of the Tchagan-burgasy, Sai- 
lughem Range.) 

Russian Altai east to Transbaikalia and northern Mongolia. 



£54 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

PAquila chrysaetos kamtschatica Severtzov 
Aquila fulva kamtschatica Severtzov, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mos- 
cou, 15, livr. 5, 1888, p. 180. (Kamchatka.) 

Kamchatka. 

Aquila chrysaetos japonica Severtzov 

Aquila fulva japonica Severtzov, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
15, livr. 5, 1888, p. 182. (Japan.) 

Japan and Korea, and probably northeastern China. 

. Aquila chrysaetos canadensis (Linne) 

Falco canadensis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88. (Canada = 
Hudson Bay, ez Edwards.) 

Northern Alaska to northern Ungava south to Lower California, central 
Mexico, South Dakota and in the mountains of the eastern United States 
south to North Carolina. 

Aquila heliaca heliaca Savigny 

Aquila heliaca Savigny, Descr. figypte, Ois., 1809, p. 82, pi. 12. 
(Upper Egypt.) 

Southern Europe from Hungary to southern Russia, thence eastward to 
Lake Baikal; south to Greece, Cyprus, Asia Minor, northern India and 
China. South in winter to the Sudan and Somaliland, India and south- 
eastern China. 

Aquila heliaca adalberti C. L. Brehm 

Aquila Adalberti C. L. Brehm, Bericht 13, Vers. Deutsch. Orn. Ges., 
1860 (1861), p. 60-62. (Spain.) 

Spain, and perhaps Algeria. 

Aquila rapax belisarius (Levaillant jun.) 

Falco Belisarius Levaillant jun., Expl. Sclent. Algerie, Ois., 1850, pi. 2. 
(No type locality = Guelma, northeast Algeria.) 

Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia. 

Aquila rapax raptor A. E. Brehm 

Aquila raptor A. E. Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 13. (Blue and White 

Nile.) 

Aquila albipes A. Chapman, Savage Sudan, 1921, p. 110. (White Nile.) 

From Kordofan east to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somaliland and southwestern 
Arabia. 

Aquila rapax rapax (Temminck) 

Falco rapax Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 76, 1828, pi. 455. (South Africa.) 
Africa from Kenya Colony and Angola southward. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES ^55 

Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin 

Aquila Vindhiana Franklin, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 114. 

(Vindhya Hills, central India.) 
Aquila murina Sushkin, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 11, 1900, p. 8. (Darjeeling.) 
India to eastern Bengal and Assam; north-central Burma. 

Aquila nipalensis orientalis Cabanis 

Aquila orientalis Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 2, 1854, p. 369, note. (Near 
Sarepta, southeastern Russia.) 

Psammoaetus nipalensis bradfieldi Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 12, 1928, 
p. 301. (Damaraland.) 

Breeds in southern Russia from the Don east across the Kirghiz Steppes 
to southwestern Siberia, Amu Darja and Syr Darja. In winter through the 
Crimea and Rumania to Mesopotamia and the Egyptian Sudan and Dama- 
raland. 

Aquila nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgson) 

Circaetus nipalensis Hodgson, As. Res., 18, pt. 2, 1833, p. 13, pi. 1. 
(Nepal.) 

Breeds from the Altai to Mongolia and southeastern Siberia south to 
northwestern India and the Himalayas. Winters to India and southern 
China. 

•Aquila clanga Pallas 

Aquila Clanga Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 351. (Russia and 
Siberia.) 

Breeds in European Russia from lat. 60° N. south to the Balkan States; 
east through Turkestan, southern Siberia and Transbaikalia to Amurland, 
south to northwest India and northern China. Winters south to north- 
eastern Africa, India and southern China. 

Aquila pomarina pomarina C. L. Brehm 

Aquila Pomarina C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 
p. 27. (Pomerania.) 

Breeds in northern Germany, the Baltic Provinces south through Poland 
to the Balkan States, east through Russia, thence to the Caucasus.^ Win- 
ters from southeastern Rumania and Asia Minor to the Sudan and Kenya 
Colony. 

^ Aquila pomarina sinensis Wilder and Hubbard, Journ. Roy. As. Soc, No. 
China Branch, 55, 1924, p. 206. (Chihli Province, northeastern China) is not 
an Aquila; the description "tarsus feathered half-way down ..." automati- 
cally throws it out of the genus. I suspect it may prove to be Buteo buteo 
burmanicusH 



^5Q CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Aquila pomarina hastata (Lesson) 

Morphnus hastatus Lesson, in Belanger, Voy. Ind.-Orient., ZooL, 1834, 
p. 217. (BengaL) 

India and northern Burma. 

Aquila verreauxii Lesson 

Aquila Verreauxii Lesson, Cent. ZooL, 1830, p. 105, pi. 38. (Interior of 
the Cape of Good Hope.) 

Africa in the highlands of Ethiopia and Somaliland; mountains of south- 
ern Africa. 

Aquila wahlbergi Sundevall 

Aquila Wahlbergi Sundevall, Ofv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 7, 1850, (1851), 
p. 109. ("Caffraria superior!, prope 25° lat." Type from Mohapoani 
Berg, Bechuanaland.) 

Africa from Eritrea and Uganda on the east and Portuguese Guinea on 
the west, south to Bechuanaland and the Transvaal. 

Genus UROAETUS Kaup 

Uroaetus Kaup, Classif. Saugeth. u. Vog., 1844, p. 121. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, /wcosa = Aquila fucosa Temminck? = Vultur audax 
Latham. 

cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 94-115. 

Uroaetus audax (Latham) 

Vultur audax Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. ii. (New South 
Wales.) 

Aquila audax carteri Mathews, Nov. ZooL, 18, 1912, p. 247. (Grace- 
field, west Australia.) 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Genus ICTINAETUS Bltth 

Idinaetus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 12, 1843, p. 128. Type, by 
monotypy, Idinaetus ovivorus Blyth = Aquila pernigra Hodgson. 

cf. Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds., ed. 2, 5, 1928, p. 82-84; 7, 1930, 
p. 407-408. 

Ictinaetus malayensis perniger (Hodgson) 

Aquila Pernigra Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 5, 1836, p. 227. 

(Nepal.) 

Himalayas to eastern Assam, south to Ceylon, and occasionally to 
Burma and the Malay Peninsula. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 257 

Ictinaetus malayensis malayensis (Temminck) 

Falco malayensis "Reinw." Temminck, PL Col., livr. 20, 1822, pi. 117. 
(All the large islands of the Indian Archipelago, principally Java and 
Sumatra; restricted to Java by Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 115.) 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Sula Islands. 

Genus HALI.ffiETUS Savigny 

Halioeetus Savigny, Descr. figypte, Ois., 1809, p. 68, 85. Type, by 

monotypy, Halioeetus nisus Savigny = Falco albicilla Linn^. 
cf. Bangs, Auk, 15, 1898, p. 174-176. 

Friedmann, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 153, 1930, p. 66-69. (Sub nom. 
Cuncuma.) 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1175-1181. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 131-144. {Sub nom. Cuncuma.) 

Reichenow, Vog. Afr., 1, 1901, p. 604-607. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 64-65. {Sub nom. Cun- 
cuma.) 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 108-113. 

—•jh- Haliaeetus vocifer damans C. L. Brehm 

Haliaetos damans C. L. Brehm, Journ. f. Orn., 1, 1853, p. 199, note. 
(No definite locality: Shoa, designated by Friedmann, supra, p. 66.) 
Senegal east to the Egyptian Sudan and Ethiopia, south to Gaboon and 
the Ubangi River. 

— ^ Haliasetus vocifer vocifer (Daudin) 

Falco vocifer Daudin, Traits d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 65. (Keurboom River, 

Cape Province, ex LeVaillant, pi. 4.) 
Africa from Angola? Uganda, and Kenya Colony south to Cape Prov- 
ince. 

-4— Haliaeetus vociferoides Des Murs 

Halicetus vociferoides Des Murs, Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 175 bis. (Madagas- 
car.) 

Madagascar; Mauritius? 

— V- HaliaBctus leucogaster (Gmelin) 

Falco leucogaster Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 257. (Locality un- 
known = New South Wales designated by Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 
1912, p. 248.) 

Halioeetus leucogaster pallidus Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 248. 
(Derby, northwest Australia.) 

Coasts of India, Ceylon, Burma and the Malay Peninsula and through 
the entire Malay Archipelago to Australia, Tasmania and western Poly- 
nesia.^ 

1 Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 254-255 recognizes Cuncuma I. 
leucogaster southern Australia and Tasmania; C. I. pallida northern Australia, 



258 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

,—4-- Haliseetus leucoryphus (Pallas) 

Aquila leucorypha'P aWas, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 1, 1771, p. 
454. (Lower Ural River.) 

Southern Russia through central Asia to Transbaikalia and south to the 
Persian Gulf, northern India and northern Burma. 

L_Haliaeetus leucocephalus washingtoniensis (Audubon) 

Falco Washingtoniensis Audubon, Bds. Am. (fol. ed.), 1827, pi. 11. 
(Henderson, Kentucky.) 

HalioBtus leucocephalus alascanus C. H. Townsend, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 11, 1897, p. 145. (Unalaska, Aleutian Islands.) 

Northwestern Alaska and northern Mackenzie to northern Ungava and 
south to British Columbia and the northeastern United States. 

- I Haliseetus leucocephalus leucocephalus (Linne) 

Falco leucocephalus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 124. (Carolina, 
ex Catesby.) 

Halioeetus floridana H. B. Bailey, Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist., Bull, 
no. 4, April 1 ( = March 20) 1930, p. [2] (Lower Florida Peninsula). 

Approximately the southern half of the United States, south to northern 
Lower California and northern Mexico.^ 



Haliseetus albicilla (Linne) 

Falco Albicilla Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Restricted type 
locality, Sweden, ex Fn. Suec.) 

Breeds in Greenland, Iceland, northern British Isles (formerly) northern 
Europe and Asia east to Anadyr and Kamchatka south to the eastern 
Mediterranean (formerly to Egypt and the Red Sea), Mesopotamia, Persia 
and Japan. Casually or in winter to northern Africa, northwestern India, 
southern China and the Aleutian Islands. 

Haliseetus pelagicus (Pallas) 

Aquila pelagica Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 343 and pi. 

(Islands between Kamchatka and America.) 
IThalassaetus macrurus Menzbier, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 11, 1900, p. 4. 

(Yakutsk, eastern Siberia.) 

Moluccas and New Guinea and C. I. oceanica, Celebes. The last name was given 
by Meyer and Wiglesworth to Temminek's pi. 49 of the PI. Col. Mathews 
sets it up without telling how it differs, and also leaves the question of name for 
the bird occupying the " extralimital " range of the species entirely up in the 
air. I follow Stuart Baker, whose treatment seems to be entirely sound. 

1 There is a steady decrease in the size of H. leucocephalus from north to 
south throughout its range. Where the Hne between the two subspecies is 
drawn is entirely a matter of opinion. Audubon's type of washingtoniensis had 
a wing measurement of 32 inches; 4 inches longer than any Alaskan specimen 
measured by me if measured the same way. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 259 

Breeds in Kamchatka and probably also on Sakhalin Island. Occurs on 
the Commander Islands; south in winter to the coasts of Amur and Ussuri 
and northern Japan. 

Haliaeetus niger Heude 

Halioeetus niger Heude, NaturaUste, 1887, p. 95. (" Mer de Tartaric".) 
Figured Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseilles, 19, 1924, pi. 8. 

Genus ICTHYOPHAGA Lesson 

Idhyophaga Lesson, ficho du Monde Savant (2), 7, 1843, col. 14. Type, 
by monotypy, Idhyophaga javana Lesson = Falco ichthyoitus Hors- 
field. 
cf. Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 114-118; 7, 
1930, p. 414-415. 

Icthyophaga ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Horsfield) 

Falco Ichthyaetus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 136. 
(Java.) 

India, Assam, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Greater Sunda 
Islands and eastward to Celebes. 

Icthyophaga ichthyaetus plumbeiceps Stuart Baker 

Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus plumbeiceps Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 

47, 1927, p. 150. (Trincomalee, Ceylon.) 
Ceylon. 

Icthyophaga nana plumbea (Jerdon) 

Polioaetus plumbeus "Hodgson," Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 336. (North- 
western Himalayas.^) 

Lower Himalayas from Kumaon and Kashmir to eastern Assam and 
Upper Burma. 

Icthyophaga nana nana (Blyth) 

Ichthyaetus nanus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 11, 1842, p. 202. 

(Malay Peninsula.) 
Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra. 

Subfamily AEGYPIINAE 

Genus SARCOGYPS Lesson 

Sarcogyps Lesson, ficho du Monde Savant (2), 6, 1842, col. 1038. Type, 
by monotypy, Vultur ponticerianus Latham = Vultur calvus Scopoli. 
cf. Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 8-10. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 50-52. 

1 Stuart Baker gives Nepal in vol. 7 of Bds. of Brit. Ind. 



260 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

.^. „ Sarcogyps calvus (Scopoli) 

V^dtur calvus Scopoli, Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr., 2, 1786, p. 85. (Pondi- 

cherry, ex Sonnerat.) 
India and Burma to the Malay Peninsula, Siam and Cochin China. 

Genus TORGOS Kaup 

Torgos Kaup, Isis, 21, 1828, col. 1144. Type, by monotypy, Vultur auri- 
cularis Daudin = Vultur tracheliotus Forster. 
cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 46-49. 

Torgos tracheliotus nubicus (H. Smith) 

Vultur Nubicus H. Smith, in Griffith, Anim. Kingd., 6 (= Aves, 1), 
1829, p. 164. (Nubia.) 

Algeria (formerly) ; Egypt to Kordofan, Ethiopia and Somaliland, south 
to Kenya Colony. 

■ — f — Torgos tracheliotus tracheliotus (J. R. Forster) 

Vultur tracheliotus J. R. Forster, in Levaillant, Reise Afr., 3, 1791, p. 363, 

pi. 12. (Cape Colony.) 
Africa south of the Zambesi. 

Genus AEGYPIUS Savigny 

Aegypius Savigny, Descr. figypte, Ois., 1, 1809, p. 68, 73. Type, by 
monotypy, Vultur niger Daudin = Vultur monachus Linne. 
c/. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1208-1210. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 22-24. 

— jA- Aegypius monachus (Linne) 

Vultur Monachus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 122. (Arabia, ex 

Edwards, pi. 290.) 
Breeds locally in southern Europe from Portugal to the lower Danube, 
the Caucasus and southern Urals to northeastern Tibet and eastern China, 
south to northern Morocco, Asia Minor and the Himalayas. 

Genus TRIGONOCEPS Lesson 

Trigonoceps Lesson, ficho du Monde Savant (2), 6, 1842, col. 1038. 
Type, by monotypy, Vultur occipitalis BurcheU. 
cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 53-55. 

~~~r"'Trigonoceps occipitalis (Burchell) 

Vultur occipitalis Burchell, Travels, 2, 1824, p. 329, note. (Makkwari = 

Matlowing River, Bechuanaland.) 
Africa from Senegal to the Blue Nile, south to the Orange River and 
Natal (absent from the equatorial forest region). 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 261 

Genus GYPS Savigny 

Gyps Savigny, Descr. Egypte, Ois. 1, 1809, p. 68, 71. Type, by mono- 
typy. Gyps vulgaris Savigny = VuUur fulvus Hablizl. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1203-1208. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 10-18. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 25-39. 

— 1^^ Gyps fulvus fulvus (Hablizl) 

Vultur fulvus Hablizl, Neue Nord. Beytr., 4, 1783, p. 58. (Mountains of 
Gilan, Persia.) 

Gyps cinnamomeus Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 15, 1907, p. 30. (Naryn, 
southeast Turkestan.) 

Mountains of southern Europe (also in Sardinia and Sicily), shores of the 
Black Sea and north in eastern Russia to lat. 59°, east to Turkestan, 
South to mountains of northern Africa, Egypt, Ethiopia and Persia. 

Gyps fulvus fulvescens Hume 

Gyps Fulvescens Hume, Rough Notes, 1, March, 1869, p. 15, 19. (Punjab). 
Also Ibis, July, 1869, p. 365. 

Afganistan and northern India to the lower Himalayas. 

- /- Gyps (fulvus) coprotheres (J. R. Forster) 

Vultur Coprotheres J. R. Forster, in Levaillant, Naturg, Afr. Vog., 1798, 
p. 35, pi. 10. (South Africa.) 

South Africa north to the Transvaal. 

— -/-» Gyps himalayensis Hume 

Gyps Himalayensis Hume, Rough Notes, 1869, p. 12, 15. (Himalayas 
from Kabul to Bhutan.) 

Mountains of Turkestan, Tibet, the Pamirs and the Himalayas to west- 
ern China and western Assam. 

-^-^ Gyps ruppellii ruppellii (A. E. Brehm) 

Vultur Ruppellii A. E. Brehm, Naumannia, 2, 1852, p. 44. (Khartum.) 
Senegambia and Nigeria to Egypt and the Sudan. 

""f-^ Gyps ruppellii erlangeri Salvadori 

Gyps erlangeri Salvadori, Bol. Mus. Zool. Torino, 23, 1908, p. 3. (Shoa.) 
Highlands of Eritrea, eastern Ethiopia and Somaliland. 

Gyps indicus indicus (Scopoli) 

VuUur indicus Scopoli, Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr., 2, 1786, p. 85. (India, 
ex Sonnerat.) 

Indian Peninsula. 



262 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Gyps indicus jonesi Whistler 

Gyps indicus jonesi Whistler, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 1927, p. 74. (Mar- 
gala Range, Rawal Pindi district.) 

Northwestern India in low hill ranges (1500-2500 feet) between the Salt 
Range and the Indus. 

Gyps indicus nudiceps Stuart Baker 

Gyps indicus nudiceps Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 1927, p. 151. 
(New name for Gyps tenuirostris Hume, Khatmandoo, Nepal.) 

Lower Himalayas through Bengal, Assam and Burma to the Malay 
Peninsula and Indo-Chinese countries. 

Genus PSEUD O GYPS Sharpe 

Pseudogyps Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 11, 1873, p. 133. 
Type, by subsequent designation, Vultur bengalensis Gmelin. (Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 11.) 

cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 48. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 1, 1924, p. 40-45. 

-*4 Pseudogyps bengalensis (Gmelin) 

Vultur bengalensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 245. (Bengal.) 

Indian Peninsula east to southern Yunnan, south to Siam and Cochin 
China, Malay Peninsula to Penang. 

Pseudogyps africanus (Salvadori) 

Gyps africanus Salvadori, Not. Stor. R. Accad. Torino, 1865, p. 133. 

(Sennar.) 
Pseudogyps africanus fullehorni Erlanger, Orn. Monatsb., 11, 1903, p. 22. 

(Lake Rukwa, Nyasaland.) 
Pseudogyps africanus schillingsi Erlanger, Orn. Monatsb., 11, 1903, 

p. 22. (Mkomasi, German East Africa.) 
Pseudogyps africanus zechi Erlanger, Orn. Monatsb., 11, 1903, p. 22. 

(Kratschi, Togoland.) 
West Africa, Sudan and Ethiopia to Angola, Nyasaland and Transvaal. 

Genus NECROSYRTES Gloger 

Necrosyrtes Gloger, Hand-u. Hilfsb. Naturg., 1842 (1841), p. 236. Type, 
by monotypy, Cathartes monachus Temminck. 
cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 60-62. 

'■^' Necrosyrtes monachus monachus (Temminck) 

Cathartes monachus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 38, 1823, pi. 222. (Senegal.) 
West Africa from Senegambia to the Gold Coast. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 26S 

— ^— Necrosyrtes monachus pileatus (Burchell) 

Vultur pileatus Burchell, Travels, 2, 1824, p. 195, note. (Hopetown Dis- 
trict, Cape Province.) 

Bahr-el-Ghazal, White Nile and Somaliland south to the Orange River 
and Natal. 

Genus NEOPHRON Savigny 

Neophron Savigny, Descr. figypte, Ois., 1, 1809, p. 68, 75 and 76. Type,, 
by monotypy, Vultur percnopterus Linne. 

c/. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1200-1202. 

-■ / ■ Neophron percnopterus percnopterus (Linne) 

Vultur Percnopterus (sic) Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 87. 

(Egypt.) 
Neophron percnopterus rubripersonatus Zarudny and Harms, Orn. 

Monatsb., 10, 1902, p. 52. (Persian Baluchistan.^) 

Southern Europe north to southern France, Bulcowina and southern 
Russia, east to Turkestan, Afganistan and northwestern India; south to 
Morocco, Egypt (and thence to South Africa) Arabia, Persia and Sind. 
Canary and Cape Verde Islands. 

Neophron percnopterus ginginianus (Latham) 

Vultur ginginianus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 7. (Gingee, Coroman- 
del, ex Sonnerat.) 

Indian Peninsula from the eastern limit of p. percnopterus, the lower 
Himalayas and Bengal southward; rare in Ceylon. 

Gentjs GYPOHIERAX Ruppell 

Gypohierax Ruppell, Neue Wirbelth., Vog., 1835, p. 46. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, and monotypy, Falco angolensis Gmelin. 

cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 270-273. 

— f Gypohierax angolensis (Gmelin) 

Falco angolensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 252. (Angola.) 

West Africa from Gambia to Angola, east to Niam Niam country; oc- 
casional in eastern Africa. 

Genus GYPAETUS Storr 

Gypaetus Storr, Alpenreise, 1784, p. 69. Type, by monotypy, Gypaetus 
grandis Storr = Vultur aureus Habhzl. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1193-1199. 

^ This form apparently based only on sight observations has never been 
confirmed. 



264 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

-^ Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Hablizl) 

Vultur aureus Hablizl, Neue Nord. Beytr., 4, 1783, p. 64. (Province of 

Gilan, northern Persia.) 
Mountains of southeastern Europe (Pyrenees, formerly; Alps, Ap>- 
penines), islands in the Mediterranean Sea, east to northern China and 
south to southern Arabia and the Himalayas. 

Gypaetus barbatus barbatus (Linne) 

Vultur barbatus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 87. (Africa = 

Santa Cruz, near Oran, ex Edwards, pi. 106.) 
Northern Africa (mountains of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). 

•*— I Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis Keyserling and Blasius 

' Gypaetos meidionalis (sic) Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelth. Eur., 1840, 
p. xxviii. (South Africa.) 
Mountains of Ethiopia and of South Africa. 

Subfamily CIRCINAE 
Genus CIRCUS LacepJide 

Circus Lac^pede, Tabl. Ois., 1799, p. 4. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, Falco aeruginosus Linne. (Lesson, Man. d' Orn., 1, 1828, p. 105.) 

Pseudocircus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 207. Type, by 
original designation, Accipiter macrourus S. G. Gmelin. 

Melanocircus Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 207. Type, by 
original designation, Falco maurus Temminck. 
cj. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1133-1145. 

Mathews, Syst. Av. Australas., pt. 1, 1927, p. 236-238. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 73-74. 
Stresemann, Journ. f. Orn., 72, 1924, p. 262-269. 
Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 102-124. 

—-/ Circus cyaneus cyaneus (Linne) 

Falco cyaneus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 126. (Europe, Africa 
= vicinity of London, England, ex Edwards, pi. 225.) 

Breeds in Europe north to the Arctic Circle (casually further) and in 
Asia south of the tundra east probably to the Lena River; south to the 
Pyrenees, Italy, Turkestan and Tibet. Winters in the region about the 
Mediterranean, northeastern Africa, northern India, Burma, China, 
Japan (?). 

— -/ Circus cyaneus taissiae Buturlin 

Circus taissiae Buturlin, Journ. f . Orn., 56, 1908, p. 283 and note. (North- 
east Siberia.) 
Circus cyaneus cernuus Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 5, 
1914, p. 32. (Nischny Kolymsk.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES ^65 

Breeds in northeastern Siberia, limits not known. Winter range not 
known, possibly Japan. 

I Circus cyaneus hudsonius (Linne) 

Falco hudsonius Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 128. (Hudson Bay, 
ex Edwards.) 

Breeds in North America from northwestern Alaska, Mackenzie, north- 
ern Manitoba, central Quebec and Newfoundland, south to northern Lower 
California, southern Texas, Ohio and Virginia. Winters from southern 
British Columbia, South Dakota, southern Michigan, southern New York 
and southern New England, south through Central America (occasionally 
to Colombia) and Cuba; casual in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. 

' — / Circus macrourus (S. G. Gmelin) 

Accipiter macrourus S. G. Gmehn, Nov. Comm. Acad. Petrop., 15, 1770 
(1771), p. 439, pi. 8, 9. (Voronezh, southern Russia.) 

Breeds from the Baltic Sea provinces east to Tarbagatai and the Tian 
Shans, south to Rumania, southern Russia and Ferghana. Winters in 
Africa from the Sudan to Cape Province; India, Ceylon and Burma. 

Circus assimilis quirundus Mathews 

Circus assimilis quirundus Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 23. ("Ce- 
lebes and the northern Islands.") 

Circus assimilis celebensis Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 32, 1924, p. 48. 
(Minahasa, Celebes.) 

Celebes. 

?Circus assimilis rogersi Mathews 

Circus assimilis rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 244. (Fitzroy 
River, Northwest Australia.) 

Northwest Australia, Northern Territory and northern Queensland. 

—•f^ Circus assimilis assimilis Jardine and Selby 

Circus assimilis Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn., 1, 1828, sig. H, pi. 51 and 
text. (Near Sidney, New South Wales.) 

Australia, south of the range of rogersi; Tasmania. 

"T — Circus pygargus (Linne) 

Falco Pygargus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Europe = 
England, ex Albin.) 

Breeds in England and through northern Europe (south of lat. 57°) and 
Asia to Turkestan, Altai and northwestern Mongolia; south to Spain, 
northwestern Africa, Italy and Rumania. Winters from Palestine to South 
Africa, India, Ceylon and Assam. 



26Q CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WOELD 

„_iL_.Circus melanoleucus (Pennant) 

Falco melanoleucus Pennant, Indian ZooL, 1769, p. 2, pi. 2. (Ceylon.) 

Breeds from Lake Baikal east to Ussuriland and south to Mongolia, 
northern China and the Amur region. Winters in eastern India, Burma, 
southern China; Indo-Chinese countries, Borneo and the Philippines. 

-~/ Circus maurus (Temminck) 

Falco maurus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 78, 1828, pi. 461. (Cape of Good 
Hope.) 

Natal and Cape Province. 

—^-Circus cinereus Vieillot 

Circus cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 4, 1816, p. 454. (Para- 
guay, ex Azara.) 

South America from central Peru and eastern Bolivia (casually to 
Ecuador and Colombia) south to the Straits of Magellan. 

-— / Circus bufioni (Gmelin) 

Falco Buffoni Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 277. (Cayenne.) 

Eastern South America from Venezuela and British Guiana to the 
Straits of Magellan; Chile; Trinidad. 

/ Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus (Linn6) 

Falco ceruginosus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 91. (Europe, 
restricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Breeds from southern Sweden and Denmark east to the Yenessei, south 
to the Mediterranean, Turkestan and MongoUa. In winter to South 
Africa, India, Malay Peninsula, southern China, Japan and the Philip- 
pines. 

Circus aeruginosus harterti Zedlitz 

Circus aeruginosus harterti Zedlitz, Journ. f. Orn., 62, 1914, p. 133. 
(Mhoiwla, Morocco.) 

Breeds in southern Spain (Provinces of Cadiz and Sevilla), Morocco and 
northern Algeria; probably also in Tunisia and Egypt. 

•— /-" Circus ranivorus aequatorialis Stresemann 

Circus aeruginosus aequatorialis Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 32, 1924, 
p. 48. (Kiraragua, Kilimanjaro.) 

East Africa from Uganda to Nyasaland. 

Circus ranivorus ranivorus (Daudin) 

Falco ranivorus Daudin, Traits d'Orn., 2, 1800, p. 170. (South Africa, ex 
Levaillant = Cape Colony, apud Sclater, 1924, p. 74.) 

South Africa, north to the Transvaal. 



r 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 267 

--~/ Circus spilonotus spilonotus Kaup 

Circus spilo7iotus Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 953. (Asia.) 
Breeds from Turkestan to Transbaikalia, south to Tibet, Mongolia and 
northern China. Winters to southern China, Formosa, Indo-Chinese coun- 
tries and the PhHippines. 

?Circus spilonotus spilothorax Salvadori and d'Albertis 

Circus spilothorax Salvadori and d'Albertis, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 7, 

1875, p. 807. (Yule Island, New Guinea.) 
Unique. Perhaps an aberrant, stray spilonotus. 

~-Y Circus spilonotus maUlardi J. Verreaux 

Circus Maillardi J. Verreaux, in Maillard, He Reunion, 1862, p. 160. 
(Reunion Island.) 

Reunion Island. 

-~J Circus spilonotus macrosceles A. Newton 

Circus macrosceles A. Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 180. 
(Madagascar.) 

Comoro Islands and Madagascar. 

— J" Circus approximans approximans Peale 

Circus approximans Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, 1848, p. 64. (Ma- 
thuata, Venua Levu, Fiji Islands.) 

Fiji Islands. 

Circus approximans wolfi Gurney 

Circus wolfi Gurney, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1865 (1866), p. 823, pi. 44. 
(New Caledonia.) 

New Caledonia, (New Hebrides?). 

- — -/ Circus approximans gouldi Bonaparte 

Circus gouldi Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, 1850, p. 34. (Australia. Re- 
stricted type locahty. New South Wales, apud Mathews.) 

Circus approximans inexpectatus Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 245. 
(Parry's Creek, northwest Australia.) 

Circus approximans drummondi Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 419. 
("New Zealand.") 

Southeastern New Guinea, Australia (except western), Tasmania, New 
Zealand. 

Note. Sclater (Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., 1930, app., p. 840) sets up Circus Humbloti 
Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar, Oiseaux, 1, p. 747; 2, All. 1, 
pi. 29A, 29B, f . 1, la, lb. 29C, f . 1, la 1885? ( = 1876-1879?) believing it to be a 
distinct species generally overlooked. The description is based on a young 



"/ 



268 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

bird; no color characters are given to distinguish it from young macrosceles but 
the figures show the tips of the wings reaching to the tip of the tail. The meas- 
urements given for the wing and tail of macrosceles and humbloti by Milne- 
Edwards and Grandidier are approximately the same, however. It therefore 
would appear that in the type of humbloti the tail had been shoved up into the 
body of the skin. 

Genus GERANOSPIZA Kaup 

Geranospiza Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 183. Type, by original designation, 
Falco gracilis Temminck. 

cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 3, 1925, p. 154-159. 

Geranospiza nigra livens Bangs and Penard 

Geranospiza caerulescens livens Bangs and Penard, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 34, 1921, p. 89. (Alamos, southern Sonora.) 

Northwestern Mexico (known only from a breeding pair from the type 
locality) . 

Geranospiza nigra nigra (Du Bus) 

Ischnosceles niger Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 14, pt. 2, 1847, p. 102. 
(Mexico.) 

Northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas) south to Panama. 

«-=/ Geranospiza nigra balzarensis W. L. Sclater 

Geranospiza niger balzarensis W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1918, 
p. 45. (Balzar Mountains, Province of Guayas, Ecuador.) 

Eastern Panama and tropical South America west of the Andes to south- 
western Ecuador and Puna Island. 

— /•' Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot) 

Sparvius caerulescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 318. 
(South America: Cayenne, designated as type locality by Berlepsch 
and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 1902, p. 114.) 

Eastern Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas to northern Brazil. 

- "I Geranospiza gracilis (Temminck) 

Falco gracilis Temminck, PL Col., livr. 16, 1821, pi. 91. (Eastern Brazil.) 

Eastern Brazil (south of the Amazon) to the Bolivian Chaco, Paraguay 
and northern Argentina. 

Genus GYMNOGENYS Lesson 

Gymnogenys Lesson, Traits d' Orn., livr. 1, 1830, p. 64. Type, by mono- 
typy, Vultur radiatus Scopoli. 

cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 74-75; pt. 2, 1930 (app.), 
p. 840. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 269 

—4 Gymnogenys radiatus (Scopoli) 

Yuliur radiatus Scopoli, Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr., 2, 1786, p. 85. 

(Madagascar, ex Sonnerat.) 
Madagascar. 

— J- Gymnogenys typicus pectoralis (Sharpe) 

Polyboroides pectoralis Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 13, 1903, p. 50. 

(Efulen, Cameroon.) 
Gymnogenys typicus kempi Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 17. (Bo, 

Sierra Leone.) 
West Africa from Portuguese Guinea to Cameroon. 



■+-- Gymnogenys typicus typicus (A. Smith) 

Poloboroides (sic) typicus A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. (1), 1830, p. 107. 

(Eastern Cape Province.) 
Gymnogenys typicus graueri Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 17. 

(Kisseyi, Lake Kivu.) 
East and South Africa from the Egyptian Sudan to Cape Province. 

Subfamily CIRCAETINAE 

Genus TERATHOPIUS Lesson 

Terathopius Lesson, Traite d' Orn., livr. 1, 1830, p. 46. Type, by mono- 
typy, Falco ecaudatus "Shaw" = Falco ecaudatus Daudin. 
of. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 264-267. 

Friedmann, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 153, 1930, p. 63-66. 

f- Terathopius ecaudatus (Daudin) 

Falco ecaudatus Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 54. (Anteniquoi 

Country = Knysna district. Cape Province, apud Sclater.) 
Senegal, the Egyptian Sudan, and Ethiopia south to Cape Province. 

Genus CIRCAETUS Vieillot 

Circaetus Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 23. Type, by monotypy, " Jean-le- 
Blanc" Buff on = Falco gallicus Gmelin. 

Smithaetus i Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 209. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Circaetus pectoralis A. Smith. 

Melaneatus i Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 209. Type, by 

original designation Circaetus cinereus VieiUot. 
cf. Bannermann, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 256-262. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1188-1190. 
Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 32, 1924, p. 165-166. 

^ Originally proposed as a subgenus. 



^70 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

-Circaetus gallicus gallicus (Gmelin) 

Falco gallicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 259. (France.) 

Breeds from central Europe east to Turkestan and Mongolia, south to 
northern Africa, Persia, India and northern China. Migratory in the 
northern part of its range. Winters chiefly in northeastern Africa. 

Circaetus gallicus beaudouini Verreaux and Des Murs 

Circaetus beaudouini Verreaux and Des Murs, Ibis, 1862, p. 212, pi. 7. 
(Bissao, Portuguese Guinea.) 

Senegal to Kordofan, south to eastern Cameroon. 

-Circaetus gallicus pectoralis A. Smith 

Circoeetus pectoralis A. Smith, S. Air. Quart. Journ. (1), 1830, p. 109. 
(South Africa.) 

Circaetus rufulus Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 13, 1905, p. 179. (Songea, 
Tanganyika Territory.) 

White Nile and Ethiopia south through eastern Africa to Cape Province; 
southwest Africa. 

Circaetus cinereus Vieillot 

Circaetus cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 23, 1818, p. 445. 
(Senegal.) 

Plains region of upper Guinea east through the Sudan to Ethiopia, south 
to Cape Province. 

Circaetus fasciolatus Gurney 

Circaetus fasciolatus Gurney, Ibis, 1861, p. 130. (Natal, ex Gray, List 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 1848, p. 18, where a nomen nudum.) 

Coastal region of Tanganyika Territory to Nyasaland and Natal. 

Circaetus cinerascens J. W. Mtiller 

Circaetus cinerascens J. W. Mtiller, Naumannia, Heft 4, 1851, p. 27. 
(Sennar.) 

Portuguese Guinea east to the Egyptian Sudan and Blue Nile, south to 
northern Angola and the Zambesi River; absent from the Equatorial 
Eorest. 

Genus SPILORNIS G. R. Gray 

Spilornis G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 3. Type, by original 
designation, Falco bacha "Shaw" = Falco bassus J. R. Forster. 

Haematornis Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1831 (March, 
1832), p. 170. Not Haematornis Swainson, Feb., 1832. (Turdidae.) 

€/. Chasen and Kloss, Ibis, 1926, p. 278-279. 

McGregor, Man. Phil. Bds., pt. 1, 1909, p. 227-230. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 271 

Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 1919, p. 38-41. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 96-103; 7, 1930, 

p. 410-411. 

Spilornis cheela cheela (Latham) 

Falco Cheela Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 14. (India = Lucknow,^e 
W. L. Sclater supra.) 

Northern India from Kashmir and Sind to eastern Assam, north of the 
Brahmapootra. 

Spilornis cheela albidus ^ (Temminck) 
Falco albidus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 4, 1820, pi. 19. (Pondicherry.) 
India south of the Himalayas (except Travancore). 

—y" Spilornis cheela spilogaster (Blyth) 

Haematornis spilogaster Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 21, 1852, p. 351. 

(Ceylon.) 
South Travancore and Ceylon. 

— P- Spilornis cheela burmanicus Swann 

Spilornis cheela burmanicus Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 81. 
(Jobin, Thayetmyo, Burma.) 

Assam (south of the Brahmapootra) to the Shan States and Tonkin, 
south to northern Tenasserim. 

Spilornis cheela davisoni Hume 
Spilornis Davisoni Hume, Str. Feath., 1, 1873, p. 307. (Neighborhood 

of Port Blair, South Andamans.) 
Andaman Islands. 

Spilornis cheela bassus (J. R. Forster) 
Falco Bassus J. R. Forster, in Levaillant, Naturg. Afr. Vog., 1798, 
p. 55, pi. 15. (Mountains of Great Namaqualand, error = Malacca or 
Sumatra.) 

Falco bacha Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 43. (Mountains of Great 

Namaqualand error = Malacca or Sumatra.) 
Spilornis cheela malayensis Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 83. (Raub, 

Pahang, Malay Peninsula.) ^ 
Southern Tenasserim, the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

1 The genus Spilornis is generally regarded as masculine. 

^ The renaming of Falco bacha Daudin was uncalled for. Levaillant's plate 
and description on which the name is based agree closely with the Spilornis 
from the Malay Peninsula. Levaillant's account of the habits of "Le Bacha" 
and the region it was supposed to inhabit undoubtedly refer to a Spizaetus or 
one of the closely allied genera, but that is no reason for discarding a name 
based exclusively on a recognizable plate. If names are thrown out simply be- 
cause the type locality is erroneous, many more names among the early authors 
would find their way into the discard. 



272 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Spilornis cheela floweri Swann 

Spilornis cheela floweri Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 81. (Tanka- 

man and Chantaboon, Siam.) 
Siam. 

— I — Spilornis cheela ricketti W. L. Sclater 

Spilornis cheela ricketti W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 1919, p. 37. 

(Yamakan, 1500 feet, Fokien, China.) 
Northeastern Burma to southern Yunnan and southeastern China. 

Spilornis cheela perplexus Swann 
Spilornis cheela perplexus Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 135. 

("Triomate Yayeyama, S. Loo Choo Is." = Yayeyama, Iriomote 

Island, Riukiu Islands.) 
Southern Riukiu Islands (Ishigaki and Iriomote). 

Spilornis cheela hoya Swinhoe 
Spilornis hoya Swinhoe, Ibis, 1866, p. 304. (Formosa.) 
Island of Formosa. 

Spilornis cheela rutherfordi Swinhoe 
Spilornis rutherfordi Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 85. (Central Hainan.) 
Island of Hainan. 

^ / Spilornis cheela salvadorii Berlepsch 

Spilornis salvadorii Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 2, 1895, p. 73. (Nias Island.) 
Nias Island (off the southwestern coast of Sumatra). 

- I Spilornis cheela bido (Horsfield) 

Falco Bido Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 137. (Java.) 
Java. 

Spilornis cheela baweanus Oberholser 

Spilornis bassus baweanus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 52, 1917, 
p. 185. (Bawean Island, Java Sea.) 

Bawean Island (between Java and Borneo.) Doubtfully distinct from 
bido. 

Spilornis cheela richmondi Swann 
Spilornis cheela richmondi Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 135. 

(Kendawangan River, southwest Borneo.) 
Southwestern Borneo. 

— "-f- Spilornis cheela pallidus Walden 

Spilornis pallidus Walden, Ibis, 1872, p. 363 in text. (Sarawak.) 
Lowlands of Borneo from Sarawak to Sandakan. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 273 

Spilomis cheela kinabaluensis W. L. Sclater 

Spilornis cheela kinabaluensis W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 
1919, p. 37. (Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo.) 

Mountains of northern Borneo (Mt. Kinabalu and Mt. Dulit). 

— i — Spilomis cheela palawanensis W. L. Sclater 

Spilornis cheela palawanensis W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 40, 1919, 
p. 38. (Palawan.) 

Southwestern Philippines (Islands of Busuanga, Calamianes, Palawan 
and Balabac). 



Spilornis minimus minimus Hume 

Spilornis minimus Hume, Str. Feath., 1, 1873, p. 464. (Camorta, Nico- 
bar Islands.) 

Northern Nicobar Islands (Camorta, Trinkat, Nancoury and Katschall). 

— f- Spilomis minimus klossi Richmond 

Spilornis klossi Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, 1902, p. 304. 
(Pulo Kunyi, Great Nicobar Island.) 

Southern Nicobar Islands; (known only from Great Nicobar). 

Spilomis elgini elgini (Bljrth) 

Haematornis elgini "Tytler" Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 32, 1863, 
p. 87. (South Andaman Island.) 

Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

— |- Spilomis elgini abbotti Richmond 

Spilornis abbotti Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903, p. 492. 
(Simalur Island.) 

Simalur Island (off northwest coast of Sumatra). 

V Spilornis elgini sipora Chasen and Kloss 

Spilornis elgini sipora Chasen and Kloss, Ibis, 1926, p. 278, pi. 3. (Sipora 
Island.) 

Sipora Island (off west coast of Sumatra). 

Spilornis rufipectus raja Sharpe 

Spilornis raja Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1, 1893, p. 55. (Kuching, 
Sarawak, Borneo.) 

Sarawak region, Borneo. 

- Spilomis rufipectus rufipectus Gould 

Spilornis rufipectus Gould, Proc. Zo5l. Soc. London, 1857, p. 222. (Ma- 
cassar.) 

Celebes. 



274 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

'^ Spiloniis rufipectus sulaensis (Schlegel) 

Circaetus sulaensis Schlegel, Vog. Ned. Ind., Valkvog., 1866, p. 38. (Sula 

Islands.) 
Sula Islands. 

— J— Spilornis holospilus holospilus (Vigors) 

Buteo holospilus Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1830 (1831), 

p. 96. (Near Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands.) 
Philippine Islands (except those occupied by the next race); Sulu 
Archipelago. 

^ Spilornis holospilus panayensis Steere 

Spilornis Panayensis Steere, Bds. Mamm. Steere Exp., 1890, p. 7. 

(Guimaras, Panay, Negros, Philippine Islands.) 
West-central group of the Philippines (Tablas, Sibuyan, Panay, Gui- 
maras, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor). 

i/ Spilornis asturinus A. B. Meyer 

Spilornis asturinus A. B. Meyer, Abh. Nat. Ges. Isis, Dresden, 1884, 

p. 13. (Locality unknown.) 
Known only from the unique type in the Dresden Museum. 

Genus DRYOTRIORCHIS Shelley 

Dryotriorchis Shelley, Ibis, 1874, p. 90. Type, by monotypy, Astur 
spedabilis Schlegel. 
cf. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr., 1, 1930, p. 254-256. 

— y^ Dryotriorchis spectabilis spectabilis (Schlegel) 

Astur spectabilis Schlegel, Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk., 1, 1863, p. 131, Vog. pi, 

6. (St. George Elmina, Gold Coast.) 
Liberia to southern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. 

.-./.■ Dryotriorchis spectabilis batesi Sharpe 

Dryotriorchis batesi Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 601. (Efulen, Cameroon.) 
Southern Cameroon south to Gaboon and east to the Aruwhimi River, 
Belgian Congo. 

Genus EUTRIORCHIS Sharpe 

Eutriorchis Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875, p. 73. Type, by orig- 
inal designation and monotypy, Eutriorchis astur Sharpe. 
cj. Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop., pt. 1, 1924, p. 63. 

-~-/~-' Eutriorchis astur Sharpe 

Eutriorchis astur Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875, p. 73, pL 13. 

(Southern Madagascar.) 
Madagascar. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 275 

Subfamily PANDIONINAE 

Genus PANDION Savigny 

Pandion Savigny, Descr. figypte, Ois., 1, 1809, p. 69, 96. Type, by 
monotypy, Pandion fluvialis Savigny = Falco halioetus Linne. 

cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1914, p. 1190-1193. 
Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 293-302. 

'-'/ Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin) 

Falco carolinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 263. (No locality 
given = Carolina, ex references.) 

Breeds from northwestern Alaska, northwestern Mackenzie, southern 
Ungava and Newfoundland south to Lower California, western Mexico and 
Gulf Coast of the United States. Winters from the southern United States 
through Mexico, Central America and the West Indies to Peru, northern 
Argentina and Paraguay. 

~-f~~ Pandion haliaetus ridgwayi Maynard 

Pandion Ridgweir (sic) Anonymous [ = C. J. Maynard] Am. Exch. and 
Mart, 3, no. 3, Jan. 15, 1887. (Andros Island, Bahamas.) 

Resident in the Bahama Islands and the coasts of Yucatan ^ and British 
Honduras. 

-I Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (Linn6) 

Falco Halioetus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 91. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden, ex Fn. Suec.) 

Breeds in Europe and Asia from Scotland (formerly) and Lapland east 
to Kamchatka and Japan, south to Spain, northern Africa, islands in the 
Mediterranean, Greece, coasts of the Red Sea, southern Arabia, the Him- 
alayas and southern China. In winter south to South Africa, India, the 
Philippines and the Sunda Islands. 

— -I Pandion haliaetus cristatus (Vieillot) 

Buteo cristatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 4, 1816, p. 481. (New 
South Wales = Tasmania, fide Mathews.) 

Pandion haliaetus melvillensis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 34. 
(Melville Island, Northern Territory.) 

Java, Celebes, Lesser Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, Bis- 
marck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Australia, Tasmania. 

Pandion haliaetus microhaliaetus Brasil 

Pandion haliaetus microhaliaetus Brasil, Rev. Frang. d' Orn., 4, 1916, 
p. 201. (New Caledonia.) 

New Caledonia. 

1 Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 235, 1926, p. 13. 



276 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Family FALCONIDAE 

Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE 

Genus HERPETOTHERES Vieillot 

Herpetotheres Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 18, 1817, p. 317. Type, by- 
subsequent designation, Falco cachinnans Linne. (Gray, List Gen. 
Bds., 1840, p. 3.) 

cj. Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 1919, p. 23-24. 

Herpetotheres cachinnans chapmani Bangs and Penard 

Herpetotheres cachinnans chapmani Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 62, 1918, p. 37. (Quintana Roo; type from Santa Lucia, Rio 
Hondo.) 

Southern Mexico from Nayarit and Vera Cruz south to the Canal Zone. 

Herpetotheres cachinnans cachinnans (Linne) 

Falco cachinnans Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 90. (South 
America, ex Rolander. Type locality restricted to Surinam by Ber- 
lepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, 1908, p. 290.) 

Herpetotheres cachinnans fulvescens Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 34, 1915, p. 638. (Alto Bonito, 1500 feet, west slope of western 
Andes, Antioquia, Colombia.) 

Eastern Panama from the Canal Zone; northern South America south to 
southwestern Ecuador and northern BrazU north of the Amazon. 

-Herpetotheres cachinnans maestus Bangs and Noble 

Herpetotheres cachinnans maestus Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, 1918, 
p. 444. (Bellavista, Peru.) 

Northwestern Peru. 

Herpetotheres cachinnans queribundus Bangs and Penard 

Herpetotheres cachinnans queribundus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 63, 1919, p. 23. (Pemambuco, Brazil.) 

Eastern Ecuador; Brazil south of the Amazon through tropical Bolivia 
south to the Argentine Chaco, Paraguay and southern Brazil. 

Genus MICRASTUR G. R. Geat 

Micrastur G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1841, p. 6. Type, by original 
designation, Falco brachypterus Temminck = Sparvius semitorquatus 
Vieillot. 

Thrasyaccipiter M. and W. Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), no. 1, 
1901, p. 164. Type, by monotypy, Thrasyaccipiter seminocturnus M. 
and W. Bertoni = Sparvius ruficollis Vieillot. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 277 

Clamosocircus Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 3, 1925, p. 145. Type, by 
original designation, Sparvius gilvicollis VieiUot. 

cf. Sclater, Ibis, 1918, p. 343-347. 

Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 3, 1925, p. 140-153. (Clamosocircus 
and Micrastur.) 

' Micrastur semitorquatus ^ naso ^ (Lesson) 

Carnifex naso Lesson, ficho du Monde Savant, (6), 2, 1842, col. 1085. 

(Realejo, Nicaragua.) 
Mexico from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas to northern Colombia and Vene- 
zuela. 

Micrastur semitorquatus semitorquatus (VieiUot) 
Sparvius semi-tor quatusYieiHot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 322. 

(Paraguay, ex Azara.) 
Eastern Brazil to Paraguay and northern Argentina. 

PMicrastur semitorquatus buckleyi Swann 
Micrastur melanoleucus buckleyi Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1919, p. 15, 

subst.' (Sarayacu, Ecuador.) 
Amazonian Ecuador (perhaps not different from semitorquatus) . 

Micrastur mirandollei (Schlegel) 

Astur mirandollei Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 2, 1862, Astures, p. 27. 
(Surinam.) 

Southeastern Costa Rica to the Guianas, eastern Peru and northern 
Brazil. 

Micrastur ruficollis ruficoUis (Vieillot) 
Sparvius ruficollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 322. 
(South America = Brazil, subst. by Swann, supra, p. 145.) 

Thrasyaccipiter seminocturnus M. and W. Bertoni, An. Cien. Para- 
guayos (1), no. 1, 1901, p. 164. (Forests of the Alto Parana.) 

?Accipiter virgatus M. and W. Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), no. 1, 
1901, p. 163. (Djaguarasapa, lat. 27° 30' S., Alto Parana, Paraguay) 
not Falco virgatus Temminck, 1822 = Accipiter virgatus virgatus 
(Temminck.) 

Brazil from Matto Grosso and southern Piauhy south to Parand, Para- 
guay and northern Argentina. 

1 Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133. 1926, p. 99. 

2 Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 1930, p. 186. 

3 Part 2 contained a sheet of addenda and corrigenda, ordering the can- 
cellation of p. 15 and 16 of pt. 1 and included new pages to replace them; 
M. m. buckleyi was described on the substituted 15th page. 



278 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Micrastur ruficoUis zonothorax (Cabanis) 

Climacocercus zonothorax Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 13, 1865, p. 406. 
(Puerto Cabello, Venezuela.) 

Santa Marta Mountains of Colombia, and mountains of northern Vene- 
zuela. 

Micrastur ruficollis gilvicollis (Vieillot) 

Sparvius gilvicollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 10, 1817, p. 323. 
(No locality = Cayenne, substituted by Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, 
1910, p. 410.) 

The Guianas and the Amazon Valley from the eastern Andes to Para. 
Micrastur ruficollis guerilla Cassin 

Micrastur guerilla Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, 1848, p. 87. 
(Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico.) 

Southern Mexico to Guatemala. 

- Micrastur ruficollis interstes Bangs 

Micrastur interstes Bangs, Auk, 24, 1907, p. 289. (La Estrella de Car- 
tago, Costa Rica.) 

Costa Rica south to western Colombia and western Ecuador. 

Micrastur plumbeus W. L. Sclater 

Micrastur plumbeus W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 38, 1918, p. 44. 
(Carondelet, Rio Bogota, Province of Esmereldas, Ecuador.) Fig. 
Ibis, 1918, pi. 8. 

Northwestern Ecuador. Doubtfully distinct from interstes. 

Subfamily POLYBORINAE 
Genus DAPTRIUS Vieillot 

Daptrius Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 22, 68. Type, by monotypy, Dap- 
trius ater Vieillot. 

of. Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 44, 1931, p. 23-25. 

Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 75-79. (Ibycter, part.) 

Daptrius ater Vieillot 

Daptrius ater Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 68. (Brazil.) 

Tropical South America from eastern Ecuador and the lower Orinoco to 
Amazonian Brazil and Maranhao. 

Daptrius americanus guatemalensis (Swann) 

Ibycter americanus guatemalensis Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1921, p. 14. 
(Guatemala.) 

Tropical Central America from Guatemala to the Canal Zone. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 279 

Daptrius americanus americanus (Boddaert) 

Falco americanus Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 25. {Ex Dauben- 
ton, pi. 417, no type locality = Cayenne, ex Buff on.) 

Tropical South America from eastern Panama south to central Peru and 
through Venezuela and the Guianas to southern Brazil. 

Genus MILVAGO Spix 

Milvago Spix, Av. Bras., 1, 1824, p. 12. Type, by monotypy, Milvago 
ochrocephalus Spix = Polyborus chimachima Vieillot. 
cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 88-93. 

Milvago chimachima cordatus Bangs and Penard 

Milvago chimachima cordata Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, 1918, p. 35. (San Miguel Island, Pearl Islands, Bay of Panama.) 
Panama and Colombia eastward to British Guiana. 

Milvago chimachima paludivagus Penard 

Milvago chimachima paludivaga Penard, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 8, 

1923, p. 36. (Paramaribo, Surinam.) 
Surinam and probably Cayenne. 

Milvago chimachima chimachima (Vieillot) 

Polyborus chimachima Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 259. 

(Paraguay, ex Azara.) 
Northeastern Peru and eastern Brazil from the Amazon south to Para- 
guay, the Argentine Chaco and Uruguay. 

Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot) 

Polyborus chimango Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 5, 1816, p. 260. 
(Rare in Paraguay, common on the Rio de la Plata, ex Azara.) 

Southern South America from northern Chile, Paraguay and south- 
eastern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) south on the west to central Chile and on 
the east to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands. 

Milvago chimango temucoensis W. L. Sclater 

Milvago chimango temucoensis W. L. Sclater, Bidl. Brit. Orn. CL, 38, 

1918, p. 43. (Palal, near Temuco, Chile.) 
Southern Chile (Cautin Province and southward). 

Genus PHALCOBCENUS D'Orbignt 

Phalcoboenus d'Orbigny, Voy. Am. M^rid., livr. 2, 1834, Ois., pi. 2. Type, 
by monotypy, Phalcoboenus montanus d'Orbigny = Aquila mega- 
loptera Meyen. 
cf. Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 44, 1931, p. 23-26. 

Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 80-87. (Ibycter, part.) 



280 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Phalcoboenus australis (Gmelin) 
Falco australis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 259. (Staten 

Island.) 
Islands off Tierra del Fuego, Staten Island, the Falkland Islands. 

Phalcoboenus albogularis Gould 

Polyborus {Phalcoboenus) albogularis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 

1837, p. 9. (Santa Cruz, Argentina.) 
Ibycter circumcindus Scott, Auk, 27, 1910, p. 152. (Chubut, territory of 

Chubut, Argentina.) 
Western and southern Argentina from the Sierra de Mendoza and north- 
western Rio Negro to Santa Cruz. 

Phalcoboenus megalopterus carunculatus Des Murs 

Phalcobcenus carunculatus Des Murs, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1853, p. 154. 

(Colombia.) 
Paramo Zone of Colombia and Ecuador. 

- Phalcoboenus megalopterus megalopterus (Meyen) 

Aquila megaloptera Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol, 16, 
Suppl. 1, 1834, p. 64, pi. 7. (Highest regions of the Cordillera of 
ChUe.) 
Puna Zone of northern Peru south to Chile, including the Puna of Salta 
and Jujuy and the Sierra de Tucumdn, northwestern Argentina. 

Genus POLYBORUS Vieillot 

Polyborus Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 22. Type, by monotypy, "Cara- 
cara" Buff on = Falco plancus J. F. Miller. 
cf. Swann, Monogr. Bds. Prey, pt. 2, 1925, p. 67-74. 

Polyborus plancus plancus (J. F. Miller) 
Falco Plancus J. F. Miller, Icon. Anim., 1777, pi. 17. (Tierra del Fuego.) 
Southern South America from Chile, northern Argentina, Paraguay and 

Uruguay to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands. 

Polyborus plancus brasiliensis (Gmelin) 

Fake brasiliensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 262. (Brazil.) 
South America from the Amazon south to northern Paraguay and 

southern Brazil. 

Polyborus cheriway cheriway (Jacquin) 

Falco cheriway Jacquin, Beytr., 1784, p. 17, pi. 4. (Aruba and coast of 
Venezuela.) 

Eastern Panama? (Pearl Islands) and northwestern South America to 
Peru on the west and eastward to the Guianas. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 281 

Polyborus cheriway audubonii Cassin 

Polyborus Audubonii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 2. 
(Florida.) 

North America from northern Lower California, Arizona, Texas and 
Florida, south through Mexico and Central America to western Panama; 
Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 

Polyborus cheriway pallidas Nelson 

Polyborus cheriway pallidus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 1898, 
p. 8. (Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands.) 

Tres Marias Islands off the west coast of Mexico. 

-~— fPolyborus lutosus Ridgway 

Polyborus Lutosus Ridgway, BuU. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 1, 
1876, p. 459. (Guadalupe Island.) 

Guadalupe Island off the west coast of Lower California. Now extinct. 

Subfamily POLIHIERACINAE 

Genus SPIZIAPTERYX Kaup 

Spiziapteryx Kaup, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851 (1852), p. 43. Type, 
by monotypy, Harpagus circumcinctus Kaup. 

cf. Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 133, 1926, p. 100-101. 

-— Spiziapteryx circumcinctus (Kaup) 

Harpagus circumcirictus Kaup, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851 (1852), 
p. 43. ("Chili," error = Argentina.) 

Argentina in Provinces of Salta, Catamarca, Tucum^n, Santiago del 
Estero, Santa Fe (?), La Rioja, Mendoza, Cordoba and northern Pampa. 

Genus GAMPSONYX Vigors 

Gampsonyx Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, 1825, p. 69. Tj^e, by monotypy, 
Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors. 

cf. Miller and Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 25, 1921, p. 13. 
Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 163-164. 

«~|- Gampsonyx swainsonii leons Chubb 

Gampsonyx swainsonii leonce Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1918, p. 22. 
(Leon, western Nicaragua.) 

Gampsonyx swainsoni meridensis Swann, Syn. Accip., 1920, p. 104. 
(Nevada, Merida, Venezuela.) 

Western Nicaragua; Santa Marta region of Colombia east through Vene- 
zuela to British Guiana (southern limits not known); Margarita Island. 



282 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Gampsonyx swainsonii swainsonii Vigors 

Gampsonyx Swainsonii Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, 1825, p. 69. (Brazil = 
"tableland 10 leagues in the interior of Bahia W. S. W. from the Bay 
of St. Salvador.") 

Eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru to Bahia, south to BoUvia, northern 
Argentina (Salta and Tucumdn) and Paraguay. 

Gampsonyx swainsonii magnus Chubb 

Gampsonyx swainsonii magnus Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1918, 
p. 22. (Amotape, Peru.) 

Western Ecuador and western Peru.^ 

Genus POLIHIERAX Kaup 

Polihierax Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 47. Type, by monotypy, Falco semi- 
torquatus A. Smith. 

cf. Friedmann, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 153, 1930, p. 99-102. 
Zedlitz, Journ. f. Orn., 62, 1914, p. 675-678. 

Polihierax semitorquatus castanonotus (Heuglin) 

Hypotriorchis castanonotus Heuglin, Ibis, 1860, p. 407. (Mere Belenia = 
near Gondokoro, Upper White Nile.) 

Polihierax semitorquatus homopterus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
27, 1904, p. 738. (Goulf, i. e., Laga, western Somaliland.) 

Poliohierax semitorquatus deckeni Zedlitz, Journ. f. Orn., 62, 1914, p. 675- 

(Southern Somaliland.) 
Southern Ethiopia and Somaliland south to Kenya Colony. 

Polihierax semitorquatus semitorquatus (A. Smith) 

Falco simitorquata (sic) A. Smith, Rep. Exp. Expl. Cent. Air., 1836, 
p. 44. (Near Old Latakoo, i. e., Kuruman, Bechuanaland.) 

Eastern Africa from Tanganyika Territory south to Bechuanaland and 
Basutoland. 

Genus MICROHIERA.X Shakpe 

Microhierax Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 350 (in key), p. 366. 
Type, by original designation, Falco fringillarius Drapiez. 

cf. McGregor, Man. Phil. Bds., pt. 1, 1909, p. 238-239. 

Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 51-55. 

^ The genus Gampsonyx is in need of revision with the aid of ample material 
to determine the limits of the various races and what ones should be recog- 
nized. The above arrangement is entirely provisional. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 283 

Microhierax fringillarius (Drapiez) 

Falco fringillarius Drapiez, Diet. Class, d' Hist. Nat., 6, 1824, p. 412, pi. 
59. (Indes [= Sumatra]. Malacca suggested as type locality by 
Swann, 1920.) 

Southern Tenasserim through the Malay Peninsula to Java and Suma- 
tra; Borneo (except northeast portion). 

• Microhierax cserulescens caerulescens (Linne) ' 

Falco ccerulescens Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88. (Asia = Ben- 
gal, ex Edwards, pi. 108.) 

Northern India from the western Himalayas to Assam, south to the 
United Provinces and Cachar. 

Microhierax caerulescens burmanicus Swann 

Microhierax caerulescens burmanicus Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, 
p. 116. (Thayetmyo, Burma.) 

Burma and the Shan States (south to northern Tenasserim); Siam; 
Annam. 

Microhierax melanoleucos (Blyth) 

lerax melanoleucos Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 12, 1843, p. 179. 

(Assam.) 

Assam; southeastern China; Tonkin. 

Microhierax latifrons Sharpe 

Microhierax latifrons Sharpe, Ibis, 1879, p. 237, pi. 7. (Ldwas River and 
Lumbidan, Borneo.) 

Northwestern Borneo. 

Microhierax erythrogonys erythrogonys (Vigors) 

Hierax erythrogonys Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 96. 
(Island of Luzon.) 

Philippines (Islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Bohol.) 

Microhierax erythrogonys meridionalis Ogilvie-Grant 

Microhierax meridionalis Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1897, p. 220. (Zam- 
boanga, Mindanao cf and Samar 9 •) 

Philippines (Islands of Samar, Cebu, Mindanao). 

Genus NEOHIERAX Swann 

Neohierax Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 184. Type, by original 
designation, Polihierax insignis Walden. 

cf. Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., ed. 2, Bds., 5, 1928, p. 55-57. 



284 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Neohierax insignis insignis (Walden) 

Polihierax insignis Walden, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871 (1872), p. 627. 
(Tongoo, Upper Burma.) 

Burma. 

Neohierax insignis cinereiceps (Stuart Baker) 

Polihierax insignis cinereiceps Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 
1927, p. 101. (Myawadi, Tenasserim.) 

Myawadi and adjoining district of Tenasserim east to Laos, south to 
French Indo-China and Siam. 

Subfamily FALCONINAE 

Genus FALCO Linne 

Falco Linn^, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Falco subbuteo Linne. (A. O. U. Committee, 1886.) 

cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, 1915, p. 372-382. 

Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. Ser., 1, 1915, p. 311-335. 

Erlanger, Journ. f. Orn., 51, 1903, p. 289-301. 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1913, p. 1042-1087. 

Hartert, Nov. Zool., 22, 1915, p. 168-185. 

Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 221-258. 

Menzbier, Faune de la Russie, Aves, 6, livr. 1, 1916, p. 52-344. 

Oliver, New Zealand Bds., 1930, p. 386-388. 

Peters, Bull. Essex Co. Orn. CI., 1926 (1927), p. 20-24. (Author's 

repr., p. 1-7.) 
Rothschild, Nov. Zool., 33, 1926, p. 231-233. 
Stegmann, Bull. Acad. Sci. URSS, 1929, p. 585-598. 
Stegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS, 1928 (1929), p. 143-158. 
Stegmann, Journ. f. Orn., 1929, Hartert Festschr., p. 143-154. 
Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 1927, p. 102-107. 
Stuart Baker, Fauna Brit. Ind., Bds., ed. 2, 5, 1928, p. 31-67. 

Subgenus HIEROFALCO Cuvier 

Hierofalco Cuvier, Regne Anim., 1, 1817, (1816), p. 312. Type, by mon- 
otypy, Falco candicans Gmelin. 

Falco biarmicus erlangeri Kleinschmidt 

Falco Hierofalco erlangeri Kleinschmidt, Aquila, 8, 1901, p. 33. (Tunis 
and Tanger, northern Morocco. Type from Jebel Sidi Ali ben Aoun.) 

Falco Hierofalco tschusii Kleinschmidt, Falco, 3, 1907, p. 103. (Tanger, 

northern Morocco.) 
Southern Spain and northwestern Africa to Tunis, chiefly south of the 
Atlas Mountains to the southern escarpment of the Tademait Plateau. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 285 

Falco biarmicus feldeggii Schlegel 

Falco feldeggii Schlegel, Abh. Geb. Zool., Heft 3, 1843, p. 3, pi. 10, 11. 
(Dalmatia.) 

Southern Italy and the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula south to 
Sicily and Greece. 

Falco biarmicus tanypterus Schlegel 

Falco tanypterus Schlegel, Krit. tJbers., 2, 1844, p. 11. (Nubia and 
Abyssinia.) 

Nubia, Egypt (south to Khartum), Palestine and Arabia. 

Falco biarmicus abyssinicus Neumann 

Fako biarmicus abyssinicus Neumarm, Joum. f. Orn., 52, 1904, p. 369. 

(Shoa.) 
Northern Africa from Nigeria, across the Egyptian Sudan to Eritrea, 
Ethiopia and Aden, south to the East African lake region. 

Falco biarmicus biarmicus Temminck 

Falco biarmicus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 55, 1825, pi. 324. (Caffraria 
and Cape of Good Hope.) 

Africa from Angola and Kenya Colony southward. 

Falco cherrug cherrug J. E. Gray 

Falco cherrug J. E. Gray, in Hardwicke's 111. Ind. Zool., 2, 1834, pi. 25. 
(India.) 

Breeds in Hungary, middle and southern Russia and the Caucasus. In 
winter to Egypt and northwestern India. 

Falco cherrug saceroides (Bianchi) 

Gennaia saceroides " Menzb. " Bianchi, Aves Exped. Kozlowi per Mongol 
et Tibetium Or., 1907, p. 204. (Fu-ma-fu, southern Alashan.) 

Breeds in the mountains of Turkestan, Semiretschie, Dzungaria and 
southeastern Altai. Winter quarters not definitely known. 

Falco cherrug progressus Stegmann 

Falco cherrug progressus Stegmann, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Russ., 
1925, p. 64. (Between Urga and Kalgan, northern Mongolia.) 

Breeds in southeastern Transbaikalia and northern Mongolia. Has been 
taken in winter in the Alashan and eastern Nan-shan Mountains. 

Falco cherrug milvipes Jerdon 

Falco milvipes Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 240. (Umballa, India.) 

Breeds from the Pamirs and the Altai Mountains across to southeastern 
MongoUa and south to the Nanshan and Alashan Mountains. Winter 
birds from India and southern China are usually referred here. 



286 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco mexicanus Schlegel 
Falco mexicanus Schlegel, Abh. Geb. Zool., Heft 3, 1843, p. 15. (Mexico 
= Monterey, apud Swann, Syn. Accip., ed. 2, 1922, p. 207.) 

Southern British Columbia and southeastern Saskatchewan south to 
Lower California and southern Mexico. 

Falco jugger J. E. Gray 

Falco Jugger J. E. Gray, in Hardwicke's 111. Ind. Zool., 2, 1834, pi. 26. 
(India.) 

Afghanistan, Baluchistan and all of India south of the Himalayas, east 
to Assam. 

Falco altaicus (Menzbier) 

Hierofalco altaicus Menzbier, Orn. Turkestan, livr. 3, 1892, p. 272. 
(Altai and Minussinsk.) 

Hierofalco lorenzi Menzbier, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 11, 1900, p. 3. (Autumn 
and winter in Provinces of Jenisseish and Tomsk.) 

Breeds in the Sajan Mountains, the Altai, Tarbagatai, Russian and 
Chinese Turkestan.^ 

Falco rusticolus candicans Gmelin 

Falco candicans Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 275. (No locality 
given = Greenland, substituted as type locality by Hartert, 1913, 
p. 1064.) 

Breeds on the coasts of Greenland and probably high Arctic America; 
perhaps also Franz Josef Land and Spitzbergen. Wanders irregularly south 
to the northern United States and northern Europe. 

Falco rusticolus islandus Briinnich 

Falco Islandus Briinnich, Orn. Bor., 1764, p. 2. (Iceland.) 
Iceland. 

Falco rusticolus rusticolus Linne 
Falco rusticolus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88. (Sweden.) 

Breeds in northern Scandinavia, Lapland and northern Russia. Wan- 
ders irregularly south to the British Isles and central Europe. 

Falco rusticolus uralensis (Severzov and Menzbier) 

Hierofalco uralensis Severzov and Menzbier, Orn. Geogr. Europ. Russl., 
1882, p. 288, pi. 3. (Ural Mountains.) 

Falco rusticolus alascanus Swann, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 42, 1922, p. 67. 
(Norton Bay [ = Sound] Alaska.) 

Northern Siberia from western Siberia to Kamchatka, islands in Bering 
Sea and Bering coast of Alaska. 

1 Cf. Sushkin, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 45, 1924, p. 18. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 287 

Falco rusticolus obsoletus Gmelin 

Falco obsoletus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 268. (Hudson 
Strait, ex Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 208.) 

Arctic North America from northern Alaska to Labrador. Wanders 
irregularly in winter south to British Columbia and northern United States. 

Subgenus NOTOFALCO Mathews 

Netofalco Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 56. Type, by original 
designation, Falco subniger G. R. Gray. 

Falco subniger G. R. Gray 

Falco subniger G. R. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 11, 1843, p. 371. 
(Australia? = Victoria, ^de Mathews, List Bds. Austr., 1913, p. 112.) 

Notofalco subniger minnie Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1915, p. 127. 
(Minnie Downs, Queensland.) 

Australia. 

Subgenus NESIERAX Oberholser 

Nesierax Oberholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 203. New 
name for Harpe Bonaparte (not Harpe Lacepede) and for Harpa 
Sharpe (not Harpa Lamarck). Type, by original designation, Falco 
novce-seelandice Gmelin. 

Falco novaeseelandise Gmelin 

Falco novce-Seelandice Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 268. (Queen 

Charlotte Sound, South Island, New Zealand, ex Latham.) 
Nesierax pottsi Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 420. (Paroah Bay, 

North Island, New Zealand.) ^ 
New Zealand (North and South Islands, Stewart Island). 

Subgenus RHYNCHODON Nitzsch 

Rhynchodon Nitzsch, Obs. Avium Art. Carot. Comm., 1829, p. 20. Type, 
by subsequent designation, Falco peregrinus Tunstall (A. 0. U. Com- 
mittee, 1886. 

Eufalco Aclocque, Faune de France, 1, 1900, p. 113. Type, by subse- 
quent designation, Falco communis Gmelin = Falco peregrinus Tun- 
staU. (Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 53, 1917, p. 589.) 

Archifalco Boetticher, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, no. 11, 1927, p. 112. Type, 
by original designation, Natiirliche Gruppe 1 of Hartert's Vog. pal. 
Fauna, p. 1042 = Falco peregrinus Tunstall. 

^ No case has yet been proven for the occurrence of two species of this sub- 
genus side by side. The name given by Mathews and Iredale was given as a 
new name to replace the three applied to the so-called smaller "species", all of 
them preoccupied. 



288 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco peregrinus peregrinus Tunstall 

Falco Peregrinus Tunstall, Orn. Brit., 1771, p. 1. {Ex Pennant, Brit. 
Zool., 1, p. 136 = Northamptonshire, England.) 

Falco barbarus subsp. germanicus Erlanger, Journ. f. Orn., 51, 1903, 
p. 294. (Heldra, near Treiffurt, Germany.) 

Falco "peregrinus brittanicus Erlanger, Journ. f. Orn., 51, 1903, p. 296. 
(Great Britain; based on seven specimens from Scotland, England and 
the Isle of Man.) 

Falco peregrinus rhenanus Kleinschmidt, Berajah, 1912, "Falco pere- 
grinus," pi. 9. 

Falco peregrinus scandinaviae Kleinschmidt, Berajah, 1918 (Dec. 1915), 
pi. 33; p. 46 (1916). (Upland, Sweden.) 

Breeds in Europe from northern Sweden and northern Russia east to the 
Urals, south to the Pyrenees, the Alps, Italy, northern parts of the Balkan 
Peninsula and Rumania. Wanders occasionally in winter to the Mediter- 
ranean. 

PFalco peregrinus riphaeus Buturlin 

Falco peregrinus riphaeus Buturlin, Psovaia i Ruzheinaia Okhota, 13, 
1907, p. 99. (Southern Urals.) 

Southern Ural Mountains.^ (Status not understood.) 

Falco peregrinus calidus Latham 

Falco calidus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 41. (India.) 

Falco peregrinus ussuriensis Buturlin, Psovaia i Ruzheinaia Okhota, 13, 
1907, p. 100. (Ussuriland and Japan.) 

Falco peregrinus harterti Buturlin, Psovaia i Ruzheinaia Okhota, 13, 
1907, p. 100. (Lower Lena to Anadyr, common on the Kolyma.) 

Falco Blancheti Lavauden, Rev. Fran?, d' Orn., 7, 1922, p. 212 and pi. 
(Oued Hamdoun, near Sousse, and Sfax, Tunis.) 

Breeds in northern Asia from western Siberia east to Anadyr and Kam- 
chatka. In winter migrating to Japan, southeastern India, Sunda Islands, 
the Moluccas, New Guinea and occasionally to northern Africa.^ 

1 Menzbier, supra, p. 59, cites this name in an array of "Faunistic Literature 
relating to Russia" but does not dispose of it definitely in synonymy. Menz- 
bier's method of handling subspecies is one all his own. He divides Falco p. 
peregrinus into a number of "forms" including F. p. p. f. griseiventer, f. comi- 
cum, f. abietinus, and f. brevirostris. 

^ Hartert (supra) and Menzbier (supra) are entirely at variance in their 
views on the forms of Peregrine Falcon in Asia. I have followed the former's 
treatment, but the occurrence in China of certain anomalous specimens leads 
to the belief his views are not entirely correct. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 289 

■ Falco peregrinus brookei Sharpe 

Falco Brookei Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 11, 1873, p. 21. 

(Sardinia.) 
Falco caucasicus Kleinschmidt, Falco, 3, 1907, p. 62. (Northeastern 

Caucasus.) 
Breeds in Spain and the northern peninsula of Morocco, Corsica, Sar- 
dinia, southern Italy and eastward through the larger east Mediterranean 
Islands, Greece and Asia Minor to the Caucasus. 

' ——Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides Temminck 

Falco 'pelegrinoides Temminck, PL Col., livr. 81, 1829, pi. 479. (Nubia = 

Dongola.) 
Breeds in the eastern Canary Islands, middle and southern Morocco, 
Tunis, Egypt and Nubia, eastern limits unknown. 

Falco peregrinus babylonicus P. L. Sclater 

Falco babylonicus P. L. Sclater, Ibis, 1861, p. 218, pi. 7. (Oudh, in India, 
Babylonia and Abyssinia. Type from Oudh.) 

Breeds in western and central Asia from Mesopotamia to the Gobi 
Desert, south to Persia and Baluchistan. Winters in northwestern India. 

Falco peregrinus arabicus Erlanger 

Falco barbarus arabicus Erlanger, Journ. f. Orn., 51, 1903, p. 293. (La- 

hadsch, near Aden.) 
Southwestern Arabia, Eritrea and northern Somaliland. 

— ^— Falco peregrinus peregrinator Sundevall 

Falco peregrinator Sundevall, Physiogr. Sallskapets Tidskr., 1, pt. 2, 1837, 

p. 177, pi. 4. (At sea in lat. 6° 20' N. between Ceylon and Sumatra, 70 

Swedish mUes off the Nicobars.) 

Resident throughout India and Burma from the Himalayan foothills to 

Ceylon and southern Burma east to the lower Yangtze Valley in eastern 

China. 

Falco peregrinus fruitii Momiyama 

Falco peregrinus fruitii Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1, 1927, p. 71, 

Eng. text, p. 97. (Isino-mura, Alessando Island, Volcano Islands.) 
Volcano and probably also the Bonin Islands. 

— >-- Falco peregrinus ernesti Sharpe 

Falco ernesti Sharpe, Ibis, 1894, p. 545. (Mt. Dulit, northern Borneo.) 
Resident in the Philippines, Greater Sunda Islands, Bali, New Guinea 
and Woodlark Island. (Whether the Peregrines recorded from the Fiji 
Islands, New Caledonia and New Hebrides belong to one or more unnamed 
insular races, or are stragglers of ernesti or macropus or only wintering 
calidus is not known.) 



290 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco peregrinus macropus Swainson 

Falco macropus Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1837, p. 341. (Tasmania.) 
Falco peregrinus suhmelanogenys Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 

33. (Southwest Australia. Type from Bokerup according to Mathews, 

Syst. Av. Australas., 1, 1927, p. 263.) 
Australia and Tasmania. 

Falco peregrinus perconfusus Collin and Hartert 

Falco peregrinus perconfusus CoUin and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 34, 1927, 
p. 52, new name for Falco minor Schlegel, not Bekker, Borkhausen 
and Lichthammer. (Mountains of the Cape of Good Hope.) 
Africa from Gold Coast Colony and Sennar, south to Angola and Cape 
Province. 

-Falco peregrinus radama Hartlaub 

Falco radama Hartlaub, Orn. Beitr. Faun. Madagascar, 1861, p. 17. 

(Madagascar.) 
Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. 

- Falco peregrinus pealei Ridgway 

Falco communis var. pealei Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., 5, 1873, p. 201. 

(Sitka, Alaska and Oregon.) 
IFalco rudolfi Kleinschmidt, Falco, 5, 1909, p. 19. (Hakodadi, northern 

Japan.) 
Apparently the breeding form on islands in Bering Sea, the Aleutian 
Islands and both shores of the North Pacific south to the KurUe Islands 
on the west and to the Queen Charlotte Islands ^ on the east; migratory in 
the northern parts of its range. 

~ Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte 

Falco Anatum Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 4. (Great 

Egg Harbor, N. J., ex WUson, Am. Orn., 9, 1814, p. 120, pi. 76.) 
Breeds from Norton Sound, Alaska, northern Mackenzie, Bafiin Island 
and west-central Greenland south to Lower California, Texas, Kansas, In- 
diana, Pennsylvania and Connecticut, in the mountains to South Carolina. 
Winters from British Columbia, Colorado and southern New England to 
the West Indies and South America. 

Falco peregrinus cassini Sharpe 

Falco Cassini Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 11, 1873, p. 221- 

(Straits of Magellan and Chile.) 
?Falco kreyenborgi Kleinschmidt, Falco, 35, 1929, p. 33. (Based on a cage 
bird in the Zoo at Miinster, Germany, which was said to have come 
from Punta Arenas, Chile.) 

1 Brooks, Condor, 28, 1926, p. 77-79. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 291 

Distribution not well understood, but breeds in southern South America 
at least in Chile, and probably further north; Falkland Islands. 

?Falco fasciinucha Reichenow and Neumann 

Falco fasciinucha Reichenow and Neumann, Orn. Monatsb., 3, 1895, 
p. 114. (Teita, Kenya Colony.) 

Status not determined; known only from the type and one other speci- 
men. 

- Falco deiroleucus Temminck 

Falco deiroleucus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 59, 1825, pi. 348. (Isla Sao 

Francisco, Santa Catharina, Brazil.) 
Hypotriorchis melanogyne Bertoni, An. Cien. Paraguayos (1), 1901, p. 168. 

(Puerto Bertoni, Alto Parand, lat. 25° 40', Paraguay.) 
Locally distributed from southern Vera Cruz south to Peru, northwest- 
ern Argentina, Paraguay and southern BrazU. 

SuBGENtrs FALCO LiNNf; 

Cuvieria Roberts, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 8, 1922, p. 210. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Falco cuvieri A. Smith. 

Falco albigularis albigularis Daudin 

Falco albigularis Daudin, Traits d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 131. (Cayenne.) 

Falco rufigularis petoensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1918, p. 22. 
(Peto, Yucatan.) 

Central and South America from western Mexico (Nayarit), south to 
southern Brazil and eastern Argentina? 

Falco albigtilaris pax Chubb 

Falco rufigularis pax Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 39, 1918, p. 22. (Cha- 
ruplaya, BoUvia.) 

Bolivia south to western (Tucumd,n) and northern (Formosa) Argentina. 
Probably also western Matto Grosso. 

Falco subbuteo subbuteo Linn6 

Falco Subbuteo Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden.) 

Falco saturatus Buturlin, Journ. f . Orn., 56, 1908, p. 283. (Northeastern 
Siberia.) Not Falco saturatus Blyth. 

Hypotriorchis subbuteo jakutensis Buturlin, Nascha Ochota, 1910, p. 71. 
(Chuckche, northeastern Siberia.) ^ 

Hypotriorchis subbuteo irkutensis Johansen, Orn. Jahrb., 25, 1914, p. 83. 
(Irkutsk.) 1 

1 Stegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URRS, 1928 (1929), p. 154-155. 



^92 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco subbuteo ussuriensis Domaniewski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Var- 
sovie, 10, 1917, p. 260, 267. (Sidemi.) i Not Buturlin, 1907. 

Hypotriorchis subbuteo distinguendus Portenko, Bull. Acad. Sci. URSS., 
ser. 7, CI. Sci. Physico-Math., 1930, p. 302. (Bitjug River, Gouvern- 
mont of Voronezh.) 

Breeds from Scandinavia and northern Russia across Asia to eastern 
Siberia and Kamchatka, south to the Mediterranean, southwestern Siberia, 
Transbaikalia (and probably to northwestern China) and Manchuria. In 
winter south to Africa, India and southeastern China. 

Falco subbuteo jugurtha Hartert and Neumann 

Falco subbuteo jugurtha Hartert and Neumann, Journ. f . Orn., 55, 1907, 
p. 591. (Tanger, northwestern Morocco.) 

Morocco, Algeria and Tunis. 

Palco subbuteo centralasiae (Buturhn) 

Hypotriorchis subbuteo centralasiae Buturlin, Orn. Mitt., 2, 1911, p. 175, 
new name for: 

Falco subbuteo cyanescens Lonnberg, Ark. Zool., 6, no. 9, 1905, p. 6. 
(Baimgol, Tianshan) not Falco cyanescens Vieillot. 

Hypotriorchis subbuteo planicola, Portenko, Bull. Acad. Sci. URSS., 
ser. 7, CI. Physico-Math., 1930, p. 308. (Yarkend Oasis, Kashgaria). 

Turkestan south to northern Persia and the eastern Himalayas. 

Falco subbuteo streichi Hartert and Neumann 

Falco subbuteo streichi Hartert and Neumann, Journ. f. Orn., 55, 1907, 
p. 592. (Swatow, Kwang-tung, China.) 

Tsinling Mountains south to the Shan States, Yunnan and southeastern 
China. 

Falco severus rufipedoides Hodgson 

Falco Rufipedoides Anonymous = Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist., 
4, 1844, p. 283. (Hills of India, restricted to Nepal by Baker, Bull. 
Brit., Orn. CI., 47, 1927, p. 107.) 

Northern India in the Himalayas from Kuman to western Assam north 
of the Brahmapootra. 

Falco severus severus Horsfield 

Falco severus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 135. 
(Java.) 

Assam and the Kachin Hills south to Siam and Cochin China; Sumatra, 
Java and the Philippines. 

1 Stegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS, 1928 (1929), p. 154-155. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 293 

-Falco severus papuanus Meyer and Wiglesworth 

Falco severus papuanus Meyer and Wiglesworth, Abh. Ber. Mus. Dres- 
den, 4, 1892-1893, no. 3, (1893), p. 6. (Huon Gulf, New Guinea.) 
Borneo, Celebes, Halmahera, Buru, Ceram, Salawatti, New Guinea, 
New Britain, Solomon Islands.^ 

"Falco longipennis longipennis Swainson 

Falco longipennis Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1837, p. 341. (Tasmania.) 

Falco lunulatus apsleyi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 1, 1912, p. 33. (Mel- 
ville Island.) 

Falco lunulatus murchisonianus Mathews, Nov. Zool. 18, 1912, p. 252. 
(East Murchison, West Australia.) 

Falco melanotus White and Mellor, Emu, 12, 1913, p. 164. (FHnders 
Island, Bass Strait) not of Shaw, 1809. 

Falco longipennis samueli Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 232. (New 
name for Falco melanotus White and Mellor, "if the bird be separ- 
able.") 

Australia and Tasmania; in winter to Kei Islands, Ceram, Amboina and 
Ternate.2 

Falco longipennis hanieli Hellmayr 

Falco longipennis hanieli Hellmayr, in Haniel's Zool. Timor, Lief. 1, 1914, 

p. 100. (Bonleo, 1100 met., western Timor.) 
Lesser Sunda Islands. 

Falco cuvierii A. Smith 

Falco Cuvierii A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. (1), 1830, p. 392. (Kei 
River, Cape Province.) 

Africa from the Gold Coast, Bahr el Ghazal and Shoa south to Cape 
Province. 

-Falco eleonorae Gene 

Falco Eleonoroe Gene, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 105. (Sardinia.) 

Eastern Canary Islands, coasts of northwestern Africa and rocky islands 

in the Mediterranean Sea east to the Cyclades and Cyprus. Has been 

taken in Somaliland, Reunion and Madagascar. 

■Falco concolor Temminck 

Falco concolor Temminck, PL Col., livr. 56, 1825, text (but not pi. 330). 

(Senegal, Barbary Coast, Egypt, Arabia. Arabia suggested as type 

locaUty by Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 135.) 
Red Sea coasts and Somaliland south to Mozambique; Madagascar. 

' The races and ranges of Falco severus require much revision. 

2 Obviously Falco longipennis is badly in need of revision. Mathews in his 
Bds. Austr. repudiates both murchisonianus and apsleyi, but reestablishes them 
again in the Syst. Av. Australas., without a word of explanation. 



294 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco hypoleucos Gould 

Falco hypoleucos Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), p. 162, 

(West Australia; type taken 60 miles from Swan River, ^de Mathews.) 
Falco hypoleucus ashhyi Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, 2, 1913, p. 73. (South 

Australia.) 
Falco hypoleucus ashleyi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1915, p. 234. 

(Lapsus (?), as synonym of Falco hypoleucos Gould.) 
Australia. 

Subgenus RHYNCHOFALCO Ridgway 

Rhynchofalco Ridgway, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 16, 1873, p. 46. 
Type, by original designation, Falco femoralis Temminck = Falco 
fuscocaerulescens Vieillot. 

Falco fuscocaerulescens septentrionalis Todd 

Falco fusco-coerulescens septentrionalis Todd, Proc, Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, 
1916, p. 98. (Fort Huachuca, Arizona.) 

Arizona, New Mexico and southern Texas south through Mexico to Gua- 
temala(?) ^ and Yucatan (?) ^ 

Falco fuscocaerulescens fuscocaerulescens Vieillot 
Falco fusco-coerulescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 11, 1817, p. 90. 

(Paraguay.) 
Greater part of South America from Colombia to Tierra del Fuego. 

Falco fuscocaerulescens pichinchae Chapman 

Falco fuscocoerulescens pichinchce Chapman, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 205, 

1925, p. 1. (Crater of Pichincha, Ecuador.) 
Andes of Ecuador southward into Peru (La Raya). 

Subgenus TINNUNCULUS Vieillot 

Tinnunculus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., 1, 1807, p. 39. Type, by subsequent 
designation, Fako columbarius Linne. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
1, 1874, p. 374.) 

?Falco columbarius subaesalon C. L. Brehm 
Falco subaesalon C. L. Brehm, Ornis, 3, 1827, p. 9. (Iceland, migrating 

to Germany in winter.) 
Falco alfred-edmundi Kleinschmidt, Falco, 13, 1917, p. 9. (Iceland.) 
Iceland. 2 

^ Specimens from these countries not seen. A bird from British Honduras in 
the M. C. Z. belongs to the smaller southern race. No other records from Cen- 
tral America. 

2 The Merlins of Iceland are said to be darker but the form requires con- 
firmation. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 295 

-Falco columbarius aesalon Tunstall 

Falco Aesalon Tunstall, Orn. Brit., 1771, p. 1. (No type locality = 
France, from Brissonian reference.) 

Falco columbarius alaunicus Fediusin, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Lenin- 
grad, 1927, p. 71. (New name to replace aesalon.) 

Breeds on the Faroes, Ireland, Scotland, northern England, Scandinavia 
and east to the Mezen River, south to the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Finland and 
Minsk. In winter over southern Europe to northern Africa and north- 
western India. 

■ Falco columbarius regulus Pallas 

Falco regulus Pallas, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 2, 1773, p. 707. 
(Siberia.) 

Breeds in eastern Europe and western Siberia to the Chatanga, south to 
Moscow, Novgorod (southern Umits in western Siberia not known) , south- 
western Gouvernment Irkutsk and northern Transbaikalia. In winter to 
Transcaucasia and Turkestan, Asia Minor and Egypt. 

Falco columbarius insignis (Clark) 

j^salon regulus insignis Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 470. 
(Fusan, Korea.) 

Breeds in northern Siberia from the eastern edge of the range of regulus, 
across Yakutsk to the Stanowoi Mountains. In winter to Turkestan, north- 
ern India, southern China and Japan. 

Falco columbarius pacificus (Stegmann) 

Aesalon columbarius pacificus Stegmann, Bull. Acad. Sci. URSS, CI. Sci. 
Physico-math., 1929, p. 591. (Klippe Rasboinik, Sea of Ochotsk.) 

Breeds in eastern Siberia, Sakhalin, Kamchatka? Winters to Japan and 

eastern China. 

Falco columbarius christiani-ludovici Kleinschmidt 

Lithofalco aesalon pallidus Sushkin, BuU. Brit. Orn. CI., 11, 1900, p. 5. 
(Western part of the Kirghiz Steppes), not Falco pallidus Schinz. 

Falco christiani-ludovici Kleinschmidt, Falco, 13, 1917, p. 10. (New 
name for Falco pallidus (Sushkin.) 

Breeds on the Kirghiz Steppes from Orenburg to the Altai, north to 
Omsk and Lake Tschany. Winters to the Caucasus, Turkestan and Tarim 
Basin. 

Falco columbarius lymani Bangs 

Falco aesalon lymani Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 54, 1913, p. 465. 
(Tchegan-Burgazi Pass, Altai Mountains.) 

Breeds in the Tian-Shan Mountains, southern Russian Altai, Mongo- 
lian Altai east to the Iche-Bogdo Massif and the Changai Mountains, north 



296 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

to Lake Kossogol, the Obo Sarym Pass and southeastern Transbaikalia. 
Winter specimens known from eastern Turkestan and Zaidam, 

Falco columbarius suckleyi Ridgway 

Fako columbarius var. suckleyi Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., 5, 1873, 
p. 20L (Shoalwater Bay and Fort Steilacoom, Washington.) 

Breeds on Kodiak Island and probably other coastal islands of southern 
Alaska and British Columbia. Occasional in winter south to San Francisco 
Bay. 

Falco columbarius bendirei Swann 

Falco columbarius bendirei Swann, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 42, 1922, p. 66. 
(Fort Walla Walla, Washington.) 

Breeds from northwestern Alaska, Yukon and northwestern Mackenzie 
to British Columbia, Alberta and northern Saskatchewan, south in the 
mountains to northern California. In winter to California and New Mexico 
south to Lower California and northern Mexico. 

Falco columbarius columbarius Linn6 

Falco columbarius Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 90. (America = 
Carolina, ex Catesby.) 

Breeds from the limit of trees in eastern Canada south to Newfound- 
land, Nova Scotia, northern Maine, northern Michigan and southern Mani- 
toba, west to the eastern border of the Great Plains. Winters from the 
Gulf States to the West Indies and northwestern South America. 

Falco columbarius richardsonii Ridgway 

Falco Hypotriorchis richardsonii Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1870, p. 145. ("Interior of North America.") ^ 

Breeds in the Great Plains region of southern Alberta, southern Saskat- 
chewan, northern Montana and northwestern North Dakota? In winter 
south through Colorado and New Mexico to Texas and probably north- 
western Mexico. 

Falco chicquera chicquera Daudin 

Falco chicquera Daubin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 121. (Bengal.) 
Himalayas to southern India. 

Falco chicquera ruficoUis Swainson 

Falco ruficoUis Swainson, Bds. W. Afr., 1, 1837, p. 107, pi. 2. (Senegal.) 
Africa from Gambia and the Sudan south to the Zambesi. 

1 The three cotypes listed by Ridgway in the original description are as fol- 
lows: adult cf , mouth of the Vermilion River near the Missouri; adult 9 , Ber- 
thoud's Pass, Rocky Mountains, Colorado; Immature cf, Fort Rice [North] 
Dakota. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 297 

-Falco chicquera horsbrughi Gunning and Roberts 

Falco horsbrughi Gunning and Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 3, 1911,. 
p. 110. (Pretoria.) 

Africa south of the Zambesi. 

Subgenus DISSODECTES P. L. Sclater 

Dissodectes P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. 248. Type, by 
subsequent designation, Falco dickinsoni P. L. Sclater. (Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 1, 1874, p. 423.) 

Falco ardosiaceus Vieillot 

Fako Ardosiaceus Vieillot, Encyc. Meth., Orn., pt. 3, 1823, p. 1238. 
(Senegal.) 

Africa from Senegal, the Egyptian Sudan and Ethiopia south to Angola 
and Lake Victoria. 

Falco dickinsoni P. L. Sclater 

Falco dickinsoni P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. 248. 
(Chibasa, Shire River, Nyasaland.) 

Africa from Angola to southern Tanganyika Territory and Portuguese 
East Africa. 

Falco zoniventris Peters 

Falco zoniventris Peters, Ber. Verh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin for 1853 (1854) ^ 
p. 783. (St. Augustin Bay, Madagascar.) 

Madagascar. 

Subgenus ERYTHROPUS C. L. Brehm 

Erythropus C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1828, col. 1270. Type, by monotypy,. 
Falco erythropus Linne. 

• Falco vespertinus Linne 

Falco vespertinus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 129. (Ingria = 
Province of St. Petersburg, fide Hartert, p. 1078.) 

Falco vespertinus obscurus Tschusi, Orn. Jahrb., 15, 1904, p. 229. (Tomsk^ 
western Siberia) not Falco obscuru,s Gmelin. 

Falco pyrrhogaster Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 23, Feb. 1915, p. 25. 
(Bosum, eastern Cameroon.) 

Erythropus vespertinus transriphaeus Buturlin, Orn. Mitt., 6, March,, 
1915, p. 126. (New name for Falco obscurus Tschusi, not Gmelin.) 

Breeds from eastern Sweden (probably) , Russia and western Siberia to 
the Yenessei and south to Rumania, southern Russia and the lower Lena. 
Winters in the Egyptian Sudan, Angola and Damaraland. 



298 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco amurensis Radde 

Falco vespertinus var. amurensis Radde, Reisen siid von O.-Sibir., 2, 
1863, p. 102, pi. 1, f. 2a, 2b. (Amur.) 

Breeds in Siberia east of Lake Baikal to Amurland south to Manchuria 
and northern China to the Tsin-ling Mountains. Winters in eastern and 
southern Africa from Kenya Colony to Cape Province. 

Subgenus CERCHNEIS Boie 

Cerchneis Boie, Isis, 19, 1826, col. 970. Type, by monotypy, Falco rwpi- 
colus Daudin. 

Megacerchneis Roberts, Ann. Transv. Mus., 8, 1922, p. 210. Type, by 
original designation, Falco rwpicoloides A. Smith. 

Falco naumanni naumanni Fleischer 

Falco naumanni Fleischer, in Laurop and Fischer's 'Sylvan' for 1817- 
1818 (1818), p. 174. (Southern Germany.) 

Cerchneis naumanni sarmaticus Domaniewski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. 
Varsovie, 10, 1917, p. 1046. (Poland: tyipe from near Lublin.) 

Breeds in southern Russia north to Orenberg; Asia Minor and the 
Mediterranean countries and islands. Winters throughout Africa. 

Falco naumanni pekinensis Swinhoe 

Falco cenchris var. pekinensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, 

p. 442. (Near Peking, China.) 
Cerchneis naumanni turkestanicus Zarudny, Orn. Mitt., 3, 1912, p. 114. 

(Turkestan.) 

Breeds from Turkestan eastward to Manchuria and northern China, 
exact limits not known. Migrates to India and occasionally to north- 
eastern Africa. 

Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus Linne 

Falco Tinnunculus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 90. (Europe, re- 
stricted type locality, Sweden, apud Hartert.) 

Cerchneis perpallida Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 470. 
(Fusan, Korea.) ^ 

Tinnunculus minutus MUlet-Horsin, Rev. Frany. d' Orn., 2, 1912, p. 269. 
(Medenine, Tunisia.) 

IFalco Tinnunculus ultratinnunculus Kleinschmidt, Falco, 25, 1929, 
p. 35. (Wladikaukas, northern Caucasus.) 

^ The type of this bird which I have examined in the U. S. National Museum 
is in fresh spring plumage; it is a male probably not quite fully adult and 
slightly aberrant. Perpallida appears to be a direct synonym of t. tinnuvculus, 
not an earlier name for dorriesi as Kuroda (Tori, 5, 1928, p. 27-28) thought. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 299 

Breeds from Scandinavia and northern Russia south to the Mediter- 
ranean and northern Africa, east to northern and western Siberia probably 
to the Altai Mountains and the Yenessei River and south to northern 
Persia. Migrates in winter from the northern parts of its range south to 
Gold Coast, Tanganyika Territory, Arabia and northwestern India. 

Falco tinnunculus dorriesi (Swann) 

Cerchneis tinnuncula dorriesi Swann,^ Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 146. 
(Sidemi and Amur River, East Siberia.) 

Breeds in eastern Siberia probably from TransbaikaUa to the Amur 
River and south to northern Manchuria; Korea (?). Winters probably to 
India, eastern China and south to Formosa. Philippine records may be 
referable here. 

Falco tinnunculus japonensis Ticehurst 

Falco tinnunculus japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna 
Jap., Aves, 1844, p. 2, pi. 1 and IB. (Japan) not Falco japonicus 
Gmelin. 
Falco tinnunculus japonensis Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 50, 1929, 
p. 10. (New name for the bird described by Temminck and Schlegel, 
loc. cit.) 
Breeds in Japan and apparently most of east-central Asia from Ladak 
and Kashmir to northern China south to Tibet and Szechuan. In winter 
to India, Burma and southern China. 

Falco tinnunculus saturatus Blyth 

Falco saturatus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 28, 1859, p. 277. 
(Tenasserim.) 

Breeds from Yunnan and the hills of eastern and central Burma to 
Tenasserim. 

Falco tinnunculus interstinctus Horsfield 

Falco interstinctus Horsfield, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839 (1840), 
p. 154. (Assam.) 

Lower Himalayas between 2000 and 8000 feet east to Assam, Cachar, 
Sylhet and Manipur. 

Falco tinnunculus objurgatus (Stuart Baker) 

Cerchneis tinnunculus objurgatus Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 47, 
1927, p. 106. (Ootacamund, Nilgiris, southern India.) 

Hill ranges of Mysore and southern India to Travancore and Ceylon. 
1 Cf. Stegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS, 1928, p. 157-158. 



300 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco tinnunculus canariensis (Koenig) 

Cerchneis tinnunculus canariensis Koenig, Journ. f . Orn., 37, 1889, p. 263. 
{Nomen nudum.) 

Idem, 38, 1890, p. 285, 324, 473, pi. 1. (Canary Islands.) First descrip- 
tion. 

Madeira and the western Canary Islands. 

Falco tinnunculus dacotiae Hartert 

Falco tinnunculus dacotiae Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 2, 1913, p. 1086. 
(Lanzarote, Canary Islands.) 

Eastern Canary Islands. 

Falco tinnunculus neglectus Schlegel 

Falco neglectus Schlegel, Mas. Pays-Bas, Rev. Ois de Proie, Accip., 
1873, p. 43. (St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands.) 

Cape Verde Islands. 

Falco tinnunculus rupicolaeformis (C. L. Brehm) 

Cerchneis rupicolaeformis C. L. Brehm, Vogelfang, 1855, p. 29. (Egypt 
and Germany = Egypt by general assent.) 

Egypt and Nubia, exact range not known. 

Falco tinnunculus carlo (Hartert and Neumann) 

Cerchneis tinnunculus carlo Hartert and Neumann, Journ. f. Orn., 55, 
1907, p. 592. (Bissidimo, near Harrar, Ethiopia.) 

Forested highlands of Africa from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Somaliland 
south to Angola and central Tanganyika Territory. 

Falco tinnunculus rupicolus Daudin 

Falco rupicolus Daudin, Traite d' Orn., 2, 1800, p. 135. (Cape of Good 

Hope and Kaffirland, ex Levaillant.) 
Tinnunculus rupicolus rhodesi Finch-Davies, Ibis, 1920, p. 620. (Matopo 

Hills, Rhodesia.) 
South Africa throughout, north to southern Angola and Nyasaland. 

Falco moluccensis moluccensis (Bonaparte) 

Tinnunculus moluccensis "Schlegel" Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, 1850, 

p. 27. (Amboina, ex Hombron and Jacquinot, Voy. Pole Sud., Zool., 

Atlas, Ois., pi. 1, f. 2.) 
Falco moluccensis bernsteini Stresemann, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 1, 1919, 

p. 8, new name for Tinnunculus moluccensis orientalis Meyer and 

Wiglesworth, not Cerchneis orientalis Brehm. (Northern Moluccas.) 

The Moluccas from Morotai to Buru and Ceram. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 301 

Falco moluccensis occidentalis (Meyer and Wiglesworth) 

Tinnunculus moluccensis occidentalis Meyer and Wiglesworth, Abh. Ber. 
Mus. Dresden, 6, 1896, no. 2, p. 8 in text. (Celebes.) 

Cerchneis moluccensis microbalia Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 54, 
1917, p. 178. (Solombo Besar Island, Java Sea.) 

Celebes, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands from Kangean to Wetter. 

Falco moluccensis renschi Siebers 

Falco moluccensis renschi Siebers, Treubia, 7, 1930, Suppl. p. 239. 
(Laora, western Snmba.) 

Sumba Island. 

Falco cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield 

Falco Cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, 
1827, p. 183. (Australia = New South Wales.) 

■ Cerchneis unicolor Milligan, Emu, 4, 1904, p. 2. (Yalgoo, West Australia.) 

Cerchneis cenchroides milligani Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, 1912, p. 253. 
(Parry's Creek, Northwest Australia.) ^ 

Australia and Tasmania. 

-Falco rupicoloides field! (Elliot) 

Cerchneis fieldi Elliot, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. Ser., 1, 1897, 
p. 58. (Silo Plain and Toyo Plain, Somaliland.) 

Somaliland. 

Falco rupicoloides arthuri (Gurney) 

Tinnunculus arthuri Gurney, List Diurn. Bds. Prey, 1884, p. 156, 158. 
(Mombasa.) 

Kenya Colony. 

Falco rupicoloides rupicoloides A. Smith 

Fako rupicoloides A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. (1), 1830, p. 238. 
(Groene River, Little Namaqualand.) 

Africa, south of the Zambesi. 

Falco newtoni aldabranus Grote 

Falco newtoni aldabranus Grote, Orn. Monatsb., 36, 1928, p. 78. (Alda- 
bra Island.) 

Aldabra (and the Comoro Islands?). 

1 Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, p. 291, says, "with a good and fairly representa- 
tive series now available I cannot recognize any subspecies. All the differences 
seen seem to be only individual and every attempt to fix any subspecies defi- 
nitely has failed." Nevertheless he recognized all three forms in the Syst. Av. 
Australas., without a word of explanation. 



302 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco newtoni newtoni (Gurney) 

Tinnunculus newtoni Gurney, Ibis, 1863, p. 34, pi. 2. (Madagascar.) 
Madagascar. 

^ Falco punctatus Temminck 

Falco -punctatus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 8, 1821, pi. 45. (Mauritius.) 
Mauritius. 

Falco araea (Oberholser) 

Cerchneis araea Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, 1917, p. 76, new 
name for Falco gracilis Lesson, not of Temminck. (Seychelle Islands.) 

Seychelle Islands. 

Falco alopex alopex (Heuglin) 

Tinnunculus alopex Heuglin, Ibis, 1861, p. 69, pi. 3. (Gallabat, Egyp- 
tian Sudan.) 

Interior of Gold Coast Colony east to the Egyptian Sudan, Eritrea, and 
Ethiopia. 

Falco alopex eremica (Oberholser) 

Cerchneis alopex eremica Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, 1917, 
p. 76, new name for Cerchneis alopex deserticola Reichenow, not Falco 
sparverius deserticola Mearns. 

Cerchneis alopex deserticola Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 7, 1899, p. 190. 
(Mangu, Togoland.) 

Togoland. 

Falco sparverius sparverius Linne 

Falco sparverius Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 90. (America = 

Carolina ex Catesby.) 
Cerchneis sparveria guatemalensis Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 156. 
(Capetillo and Huehuetenango, Guatemala.) 

Breeds from the Upper Yukon, northwestern Mackenzie, southern Kee- 
watin and Newfoundland south to northern California, Texas, northern 
Alabama and North Carolina. Winters from British Columbia, Colorado, 
Kansas, Ohio and southern New England south to eastern Panama. 

' Falco sparverius paulus (Howe and King) 

Cerchneis sparverius paulus Howe and King, Contr. N. Am. Orn., 1, 
1902, p. 28. (Miami, Florida.) 

Southern Alabama (probably also Mississippi) to South Carolina, south 
over the Florida Peninsula. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 303 

— — Falco sparverius phalaena (Lesson) 

Tinnunculus phalcena Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant, 12, 1845, coL 

1087. (San Bias and Acapulco, Mexico.) 
Southern California, Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas south to 
northern Lower California and northwestern Mexico. 

— ~" Falco sparverius peninsularis Mearns 

Falco sparverius peninsularis Mearns, Auk, 9, 1892, p. 267. (San Jos^, 

Lower CaUfornia.) 
Lower California from lat. 28° southward. 

— Falco sparverius tropicalis (Griscom) 

Cerchneis sparveria tropicalis Griscom, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 414, 1930, 

p. 1. (Antigua, Guatemala.) 
Guatemala; apparently confined to the Motagua Valley. 

"*" — Falco sparverius sparveroides Vigors 

Falco Sparveroides Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, 1828, p. 436. (Cuba.) 
Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 

"■ — Falco sparverius dominicensis Gmelin 

Falco dominicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 285. (His- 

paniola.) 
Hispaniola. 

Falco sparverius loquaculus (Riley) 

Cerchneis sparveria loquacula Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, 1904, p. 284. 

(Isabel II, Vieques Island.) 
Puerto Rico and adjacent islands east to the Anegada Passage. 

— — Falco sparverius caribaearum Gmelin 

Falco caribcearum Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 284. (No type 
locahty = Lesser Antilles from references. Dominica suggested as 
type locality by Swann, Syn. List Accip., 1920, p. 155.) 
Lesser Antilles: common on the northern, rare on the southern islands. 

— - Falco sparverius isabellinus Swainson 

Falco isabellinus Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1837, p. 281. (British 

Guiana.) 
Coastal districts of northern South America from the Santa Marta 
region of Colombia to Cayenne. 

Falco sparverius brevipeimis (Berlepsch) 

Tinnunculus sparverius brevipennis Berlepsch, Journ. f. Orn., 40, 1892, 

p. 91. (Island of Curagao.) 
Islands of Curagao, Aruba and Bonaire. 



304 CHECK-LTST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

Falco sparverius margaritensis (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparverius margaritensis Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. PubL, 
Orn. Ser., 1, 1915, p. 297. (Margarita Island.) 

Margarita Island. 

Falco sparverius intennedius (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparveria intermedia Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. 
Ser., 1, 1915, p. 325. (Villa vicencio, 1600 feet, base of eastern Andes, 
Colombia.) 
Eastern slope of the central Andes of Colombia, north to Antioquia, east 
to the Venezuelan border and the llanos of eastern Colombia. 

Falco sparverius ochraceus (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparverius ochracea Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. 
Ser., 1, 1915, p. 298. (Colon, Tachira, Venezuela.) 

Mountains of northern and western Venezuela. 

Falco sparverius perplexus (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparverius perplexa Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. 
Ser., 1, 1915, p. 327. (Lower Essequibo River, British Guiana.) 

Known definitely only from the type locality. 

Falco sparverius caucse (Chapman) 

Cerchneis sparverius caucce Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, 
1915, p. 375. (La Manuelita, near Palmira, 3500 feet, Cauca Valley, 
Colombia.) 
Cauca Valley region of western Colombia. 

- Falco sparverius aequatorialis Mearns 

Falco sparverius cequatorialis Mearns, Auk, 9, 1892, p. 269. (Guayaquil, 
Ecuador = error; the type undoubtedly came from the interior table- 
land.) Cf. Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, 1926, p. 2^1. 
Cerchneis sparveria andina Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. Ser., 

1, 1915, p. 323. (Quito, 9300 feet, Ecuador.) 
Subtropical and Temperate Zones of Ecuador south to the Rio Chan- 
chan. 

Falco sparverius distinctus (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparverius distincta Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. 
Ser., 1, 1915, p. 297. (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Brazil.) 

Range and status not fixed. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 305 

" — ^Falco sparverius eidos nom. nov. 

Tinnunculus sparverius var. australis, Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1870, p. 149, new name for Falco gracilis Swainson, not of Les- 
son. (Bahia, Brazil.) 

Falco (Cerchneis, Tinnunculus) australis Auct. not Falco australis Gme- 
lin.i 

Eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia and the greater part of Brazil south of the 
Amazon. 

Falco sparverius cearae (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparveria cearoe Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. Ser., 1, 

1915, p. 318, note. (Quixada, Ceard, Brazil.) 
Unique (perhaps the same as eidos for which it would then be an earlier 
name.) 

!■— Ji'alco sparverius peruvianus (Cory) 

Cerchneis sparverius peruviana Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn, 
Ser., 1, 1915, p. 296. (Chachapoyas, Peru.) 

Southwestern Ecuador and northern Peru south to Huanuco. 

—-Falco sparverius cinnamominus Swainson 

Falco cinnamominus Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1837, p. 281. (Chile.) 

Chile, southern Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina south to 
Tierra del Fuego. 

Falco sparverius f ernandensis (Chapman) 

Cerchneis sparverius f ernandensis Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
34, 1915, p. 379. (Masatierra Island, off Chile.) 

Juan Fernandez Islands. 

Genus IERACIDEA Gould 

leracidea Gould, Syn. Bds. Austr., pt. 3, 1838, pi. 43. Type, by mono- 
typy, Falco berigora Vigors and Horsfield. 

cf. Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 259-280. 

leracidea berigora novaeguineae A. B. Meyer 

Hieracidea novaeguineae A. B. Meyer, Journ. f. Orn., 42, 1894, p. 89. 
(Southeastern New Guinea.) 

Eastern New Guinea, Dampier Islands and Vulcan Island. 

^ For review of the South American races of Falco sparverius, cf. Cory, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Orn. Ser., 1, 1915, p. 311-335. 



306 CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD 

leracidea berigora melvillensis Mathews 

leracidea berigora melvillensis Mathews, Austr. Av, Rec, 1, 1912, p. 34. 
(Melville Island.) 

Northern Territory, Melville Island and northwest Australia.^ 

leracidea berigora kempi Mathews 

leracidea berigora kempi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 277. (Cape 
York.) 

Northern Queensland. 

leracidea berigora occidentals Gould 

leracidea occidentalis Gould, Bds. Austr., pt. 16, 1844, p. 105 and pi. 
(Western Australia = Perth, fide Mathews.) 

Western Australia. 

leracidea berigora centralia Mathews 

leracidea berigora centralia Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 277. 
(Finke River, central AustraHa.) 

Central Australia. 

leracidea berigora berigora (Vigors and Horsfield) 

Falco Berigora Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, 1827, 
p. 184. (Austraha = New South Wales.) 

Coastal districts of eastern Australia. 

leracidea berigora tasmanica Mathews 

leracidea berigora tasmanica Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, 1916, p. 276. 

(Tasmania.) 

Tasmania. 

1 Most of the Australian "subspecies" of leracidea berigora appear to have 
been founded on individual variants and color phases. In my opinion a revision 
based on adequate material would reduce the number of recognizable sub- 
species to about half (or less) of the number listed here. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



abbotti, Ibis, 131 
abbotti, Spilornis, 273 
abbotti, Sula, 83 
abbotti, Threskiornis, 131 
abbreviatus, Buteo, 232 
abdimii, Ciconia, 128 
abdimii, Sphenorhynchus, 128 
aberti. Anas, 159 
abyssinicus, Falco, 285 
Accipiter, 205 
Accipitridae, 192 
Accipitrinae, 205 
aceletus, Astur, 209 
actophilus, Butorides, 106 
acuta. Anas, 166 
adalberti, Aquila, 254 
adamsii, Coiymbus, 35 
adamsii, Gavia, 35 
Adamastor, 51 
addenda, Priocella, 51 
adeliae, Catarrhactes, 30 
adeliae, Pygoscelis, 30 
adoxa, Ardea, 100 
adspersus, Crypturellus, 19 
adspersus, Tinamus, 19 
Aechmophorus, 40 
Aegypiinae, 259 
Aegypius, 260 
segyptiaca, Alopochen, 154 
segyptiaca. Anas, 154 
segyptius, Falco, 203 
segyptius, Milvus, 203 
Aepyornithidae, 11 
aequatorialis. Circus, 266 
sequatorialis, Falco, 304 
sequinoctialis, Buteogallus, 245 
sequinoctialis, Falco, 245 
sequinoctialis, Procellaria, 52 
Aerospiza, 206 
aeruginosus. Circus, 266 
aeruginosus, Falco, 266 
sesalon, Falco, 295 
ffithereus, Phaethon, 77 
aethiopica, Threskiornis, 131 
aethiopicus, Tantalus, 131 
aethiops, Buteo, 233 
afiinis, Accipiter, 222 



affinis, Crypturellus, 20 
affinis, Crypturus, 20 
affinis, Fuligula, 176 
affinis, Milvus, 203 
affinis, Nyroca, 176 
Afraetus, 253 
Afranas, 158 
Afrardea, 98 

africanus, Cassinaetus, 251 
africanus, Gyps, 262 
africanus, Halietor, 93 
africanus, Limnaetus, 251 
africanus, Pelecanus, 93 
africanus, Pseudogyps, 262 
Agamia, 114 
agami, Agamia, 114 
agami, Ardea, 114 
agassizii, Nothura, 26 
agilis, Procellaria, 66 
agilis, Pterodroma, 66 
aguia, Falco, 227 
Aix, 170 
Ajaia, 140 
aiaja,Ajaia, 140 
ajaja, Platalea, 140 
akleyorum, Lampribis, 134 
akleyorum, Oreoibis, 134 
alascanus, Falco, 286 
alascanus, Halisetus, 258 
alascensis, Buteo, 231 
alaunicus, Falco, 295 
alba, Ardea, 102 
alba, Guara, 137 
alba, Pagodroma, 67 
alba, Platalea, 139 
alba, Procellaria, 62 
alba, Pterodroma, 62 
alba, Scolopax, 137 
albani, Pterodroma, 61 
albatrus, Diomedea, 43 
albeola, Anas, 177 
albeola, Bucephala, 177 
albellus, Mergellus, 185 
albeUus, Mergus, 185 
albescens, Rhea, 4 
albicandatus, Buteo, 229 
albicilla, Falco, 258 



310 



INDEX 



albicilla, Haliaeetus, 258 
albicollis, Falco, 241 
albicollis, Leucopternis, 241 
albicollis, Pelecanus, 81 
albidulus, Butorides, 105 
albidus, Accipiter, 207 
albidus, Astur, 207 
albidus, Calopezus, 28 
albida, Eudromia, 28 
albidus, Falco, 271 
albidus, Spilornis, 271 
albifrons, Anser, 147 
albifrons, Branta, 147 
albifrons, Pteronetta, 172 
albigula, Buteo, 229 
albigularis, Crypturellus, 18 
albigularis, Crypturus, 18 
albigularis, Falco, 291 
albigularis, Nesofregetta, 71 
albigularis, Procellaria, 71 
albinucha, Querquedula, 162 
albipennis, Cheniscus, 171 
albipennis, Nettapus, 171 
albipes, Aquila, 254 
albiventer, Carbo, 92 
albiventer, Phalacrocorax, 92 
albiventris, Accipiter, 212 
albiventris, Urospizias, 212 
albociliatus, Phalacrocorax, 86 
albogularis, Accipiter, 218 » 
albogularis, Anas, 163 
albogularis, Mareca, 163 
albogularis, Phalcobcenus, 280 
albogularis, Polyborus, 280 
alboides, Astur, 214 
albolimbatus, Butorides, 105 
alboniger, Nisaetus, 249 
alboniger, Spizaetus, 249 
albonotatus, Buteo, 232 
albosignata, Eudyptula, 33 
albus, Ardea, 110 
albus, Casmerodius, 110 
alcinus, Machaerhamphus, 194 
aldabranus, Falco, 301 
aldabrensis, Fregata, 96 
alexanderi, Chenonetta, 152 
alexanderi, Diomedea, 42 
alexanderi, Heteroprion, 49 
alexanderi, Pachyptila, 49 
alexanderi, Thalassogeron, 42, 45 
alexanderi. Virago, 163 
alexandrae, Notophoyx, 101 



alfred-edmundi, Falco, 294 
alius, Buteo, 238 
alia, Rupornis, 238 
alisteri, Fregettornis, 70 
alisteri, Ixobrychus, 121 
alleni, Buteo, 233 
aUeni, Erismatura, 184 
alleni, Puffinus, 55 
alleni, Rhynchotus, 24 
alligator. Ibis, 132 
alopex, Falco, 302 
alopex, Tinnunculus, 302 
Alopochen, 154 
Alphapuffinus, 53 
altaicus, Falco, 286 
altaicus, Hierfalco, 286 
alter, Heterprion, 49 
altera, Pachyptila, 49 
alticola, Anas, 165 
altijugus, Casuarius, 6 
amauroleucus, Elanus, 239 
Amazonetta, 158 
ambigua, Nothoprocta, 25 
ambiguus, Haliastur, 205 
americana. Anas, 168 
americana, Bucephala, 177 
americana, Clangula, 177 
americanus, Daptrius, 279 
americanus, Falco, 279 
americana, Fuligula, 174 
americana, Mareca, 168 
americanus, Mergus, 187 
americana, Mycteria, 126 
americana, Nyroca, 174 
americana, Oidemia, 181 
americana, Rhea, 4 
americanus, Struthio, 4 
amphitrite, Fregetta, 71 
amurensis, Ardea, 106 
amurensis, Butorides, 106 
amurensis, Falco, 298 
Anacarbo, 85 

anadyrensis, Melanonyx, 148 
Anas, 158 
Anastomus, 127 
Anatidae, 143 
Anatinae, 154 
anatum, Falco, 290 
andamanensis, Spizaetus, 250 
anderssoni, Machaerhamphus, 194 
anderssoni, Stringonyx, 194 
andina, Cerchneis, 304 



INDEX 



311 



andinus, Phoenicoparrus, 141 
andinus, Phcenicopterus, 141 
andium, Anas, 166 
andium, Querquedula, 166 
andrei, Crypturellus, 18 
andrei, Crypturus, 18 
andrewsi, Fregata, 95 
angolensis, Falco, 263 
angolensis, Gypohierax, 263 
angustirostris, Anas, 167 
Anhima, 142 
Anhimae, 142 
Anhimidae, 142 
Anhinga, 94 
anhinga, Anhinga, 95 
anhinga, Plotus, 95 
Anhingidae, 94 
Anomalaetus, 251 
Anser, 146 
anser. Anas, 146 
anser, Anser, 146 
Anseranas, 144 
Anseres, 143 
Anseriformes, 142 
Anserinae, 145 
antarctica, Aptenodytes, 30 
antarctica, Phoebetria, 46 
antarctica, Priocella, 51 
antarctica, Procellaria, 51 
antarctica, Thalassoica, 51 
antarcticus, Fulmarus, 51 
antarcticus, Podiceps, 41 
antarcticus, Podilymbus, 41 
antarctica, Pygoscelis, 30 
anthonyi, Ardea, 103 
anthonyi, Butorides, 103 
anthracinus, Buteogallus, 244 
anthracinus, Falco, 244 
antillarum, Buteo, 237 
antillarum, Podiljonbus, 41 
antipodes, Catarrhactes, 32 
antipodes, Megadyptes, 32 
antiquorum, Phoenicopterus, 141 
apirati, Spizaetus, 248 
apivorus, Falco, 198 
apivorus, Pernis, 198 
approximans. Circus, 267 
apsleyi, Falco, 293 
Aptenodytes, 29 
Apterygiformes, 11 
Apterygidae, 11 
Apteryx, 11 



Aquila, 253 
aquila, Fregata, 95 
aquilus, Pelecanus, 95 
arabicus, Falco, 289 
arabicus, Milvus, 203 
araea, Cerchneis, 302 
araea, Falco, 302 
arborea. Anas, 154 
arborea, Dendrocygna, 154 
arcanus, Rhjmchotus, 24 
Archaeopterygidae, 3 
Archaeopterygiformes, 3 
Archaeornithes, 3 
archeri, Buteo, 230 
archeri, Platalea, 139 
Archifalco, 287 
arcticus, Colymbus, 34 
arctica, Gavia, 34 
arctonetta, 180 
arcuata, Anas, 153 
arcuata, Dendrocygna, 153 
Ardea, 97, 98 
Ardeae, 97 
Ardeidae, 97 
Ardeinae, 97 
Ardeiralla, 123 
Ardenna, 53 
ardesiaca, Ardea, 109 
ardesiaca, Melanophoyx, 109 
Ardeola,' 107 
ardosiaceus, Falco, 297 
argutus, Buteo, 237 
arguta, Rupornis, 237 
ariel, Atagen, 97 
ariel, Attagen, 95 
ariel, Fregata, 97 
Aristonetta, 173 
aristotelis, Pelecanus, 89 
aristotelis, Phalacrocorax, 89 
armata, Merganetta, 189 
arminjoniana, Aestrelata, 64 
arminjoniana, Pterodroma, 64 
arrigonii, Accipiter, 206 
arrigonii, Astur, 206 
arrigonii, Buteo, 234 
arthuri, Falco, 301 
arthuri, Tinnunculus, 301 
aruensis, Ardea, 102 
Asarcornis, 155 

ascensionis, Leptophsethon, 79 
ascensionis, Phaethon, 79 
asha, Ardea, 112 



312 



INDEX 



asha, Demigretta, 112 
ashbyi, Falco, 294 
ashleyi, Falco, 294 
asiatica, Ciconia, 129 
asiatica, Mycteria, 130 
asiaticus, Xenorhynchus, 130 
assimilis, Circus, 265 
assimilis, Malacorhynchus, 170 
assimilis, Puffinus, 58 
astrologus, Ixobrychus, 121 
Astur, 205 

astur, Eutriorchis, 274 
Asturina, 240 
asturinus, Spilornis, 274 
ater, Buteo, 240 
ater, Carbo, 90 
ater, Daptrius, 278 
aterrima, Procellaria, 61 
a,terrima, Pterodroma, 61 
atrata, Anas, 144 
atrata, Chenopis, 144 
atratus, Coragyps, 190 
atrata, Procellaria, 66 
atrata, Pterodroma, 66 
atratus, Vultur, 190 
atricapillus, Accipiter, 208 
atricapilla. Anas, 172 
atricapilla, Ardea, 105 
atricapillus, Butorides, 105 
atricapillus, Falco, 208, 247 
atricapilla, Heteronetta, 172 
atricapillus, Spizastur, 247 
atrocapillus, Crypturellus, 20 
atrocapillus, Crypturus, 20 
atriceps, Phalacrocorax, 92 
atlantica, Chen, 146 
atlanticus, Puffinus, 59 
aucklandica, Nesonetta, 158 
auduboni, Phoebetria, 46 
audubonii, Polyborus, 281 
audax, Uroaetus, 256 
audax, Vultur, 256 
augur, Buteo, 230 
augur, Falco, 230 
auguralis, Buteo, 230 
aura, Cathartes, 190 
aura, Vultur, 190 
aurantiacus, Casuarius, 9 
aureus, Gypaetus, 264 
aureus, Vultur, 264 
auricularis, Puffinus, 58 
auricularis, Vultur, 260 



aurita. Anas, 172 
auritus, Carbo, 86 
auritus, Colymbus, 38 
auritus, Nettapus, 172 
auritus, Phalacrocorax, 86 
australis, Aestrelata, 61 
australis, Apteryx, 11 
australis, Ardea, 123 
australis, Busarellus, 245 
australis, Colymbus, 39 
australis, Daption, 47 
australis, Dupetor, 123 
australis, Falco, 280, 305 
australis, Fregetta, 70 
australis, Geranoaetus, 227 
australis, Heterospizias, 226 
australis, Mergus, 188 
australis, Mycteria, 129 
australis, Nyroca, 175 
australis, Oxyura, 185 
australis, Phalcoboenus, 280 
australis, Podiceps, 39 
australis, Pterodroma, 61 
australis, Struthio, 4 
australis, Tinnunculus, 305 
australis, Xenorhynchus, 130 
autumnalis. Anas, 153 
autumnalis, Dendrocygna, 153 
autumnalis, Piscatrix, 84 
Aviceda, 195 
axillaris, (Estrelata, 65 
axillaris, Pterodroma, 65 
ayresii, Hieraaetus, 252 
ayresii, Spizaetus, 252 
Aythya, 173 

azarae, Hypomorphnus, 244 
azarae, Phimosus, 137 
azarae, Urubitinga, 244 

babylonicus, Falco, 289 
bacchus, Ardeola, 108 
bacchus, Buphus, 108 
bacha, Falco, 271 
badius, Accipiter, 211 
badius, Falco, 211 
baeri, Anas, 175 
baeri, Nyroca, 175 
bahamensis. Anas, 167 
bahamensis, Ardea, 103 
bahamensis, Butorides, 103 
bahise, Tigriosoma, 119 
bailloni, Procellaria, 60 



INDEX 



313 



bailloni, Puffinus, 60 
Balaeniceps, 125 
Balsenicipites, 125 
Balaenicipitidae, 125 
balcanicus, Astur, 207 
balzarensis, Geranospiza, 268 
bancrofti, Nyctanassa, 116 
bangsi, Oceanodroma, 73 
bangsi, Urubitinga, 244 
banksi, Pachyptila, 50 
Bannermania, 72 
bannermani, Buteo, 234 
bannermani, Puffinus, 60 
bannermani, Scopus, 126 
Baptornithidae, 3 
barbadensis, Butorides, 104 
barbatus, Gypaetus, 264 
barbatus, Vultur, 264 
baroli, Procellaria, 59 
baroli, Puffinus, 59 
bartelsi, Spizaetus, 249 
bartletti, Crypturellus, 21 
bartletti, Crypturus, 21 
bassanus, Morus, 82 
bassanus, Pelecanus, 82 
bassi, Diomedea, 44 
bassi, Dromaeus, 10 
bassus, Falco, 271 
bassus, Spilornis, 271 
batesi, Accipiter, 222 
batesi. Baza, 195 
batesi, Dryotriorchis, 274 
batesi, Spizaetus, 251 
batesi, Urotriorchis, 227 
baweanus, Spilornis, 272 
Baza, 195 

beali, Oceanodroma, 73 
beaudouini, Circaetus, 270 
beccarii, Casuarius, 6 
becki, Pterodroma, 62 
becki, Puffinus, 59 
bedouti, Sula, 84 
belcheri, Heteroprion, 50 
belcheri, Pachyptila, 50 
belcheri, Pelecanoides, 76 
belcheri, Thalassarche, 43 
beldingi, Oceanodromia, 73 
belisarius, Aquila, 254 
belisarius, Falco, 254 
bellicosus, Falco, 251 
bellicosus, Polemaetus, 251 
bendirei, Falco, 296 



bengalensis, Pseudogyps, 262 
bengalensis, Vultur, 262 
benguellensis, Astur, 209 
beniensis, Accipiter, 210 
bennetti, Casuarius, 8 
berard, Pelecanoides, 76 
berard, Procellaria, 76 
berigora, Falco, 306 
berigora, leracidea, 306 
berlepschi, Crypturellus, 16 
berlepschi, Crypturus, 16 
berlepschi, Merganetta, 189 
berlepschi, Phimosus, 137 
bermudse, Puffinus, 57 
bernicla. Anas, 149 
bernicla, Branta, 149 
bernieri. Anas, 164 
bernieri. Ibis, 131 
bernieri, Querquedula, 164 
bernieri, Threskiornis, 131 
bernsteini, Falco, 300 
besra, Accipiter, 223 
bewickii, Cygnus, 143 
biarmicus, Falco, 285 
bicarunculatus, Casuarius, 7 
bicolor, Accipiter, 217 
bicolor. Anas, 153 
bicolor, Dendrocygna, 153 
bicolor, Sparvius, 217 
bidentatus, Falco, 200 
bidentatus, Harpagus, 200 
bido, Falco, 272 
bido, Spilornis, 272 
bimaculatus, Tinamus, 20 
bismarckii, Aviceda, 197 
bismarckii. Baza, 197 
bistriatus, Casuarius, 6 
Biziura, 185 
blancheti, Falco, 288 
blythi, Gorsachius, 117 
bocagei, Lampribis, 134 
bogotensis, Ixobrychus, 122 
bolivianus, Heterocnus, 119 
boliviana, Nothura, 26 
bolivianum, Tigrisoma, 119 
bonapartei, Nothocercus, 15 
bonapartei, Tinamus, 15 
boraquira, Nothura, 27 
boraquira, Tinamus, 27 
borealis, Buteo, 231 
borealis, Falco, 231 
borealis, Platypus, 179 



314 



INDEX 



borealis, Puffinus, 54 
borealis, Somateria, 179 
borneensis, Aviceda, 196 
borneensis, Baza, 196 
boschas, Anas, 158 
Bostrychia, 135 
Botaurinae, 120 
Botaurus, 124 

bougainvillei, Accipiter, 213 
bougainvillei, Astur, 213 
bougainvillii, Carbo, 90. 
bougainvillii, Phalacrocorax, 90 
boucardi, Crypturellus, 19 
boucardi, Tinamus, 19 
boyciana, Ciconia, 129 
boydi, Puffinus, 59 
brabournei, Procellaria, 52 
brachyptera, Anas, 176 
brachypterus, Buteo, 235 
brachypterus, Colymbus, 37 
brachypterus, Falco, 276 
brachyptera, Tachyeres, 176 
brachypterus, Poliocephalus, 37 
brachyrhynchus, Anser, 148 
brachjrrhynchus, Colymbus, 37 
brachyrhynchus, Herodias, 112 
brachyrhyncha, Mesophoyx, 112 
brachyrhynchus, PoUocephalus, 37 
brachyurus, Accipiter, 224 
brachyurus, Astur, 224 
brachyurus, Buteo, 239 
bradfieldi, Psammoaetus, 255 
branda, Stictonetta, 157 
branickii, Nothoprocta, 25 
branickii, Theristicus, 136 
Branta, 149 
brasiliensis, Anas, 165 
brasiliensis, Falco, 280 
brasiliensis, Polyborus, 280 
brasiliensis, Tinamus, 12 
braziliensis, Prionochilus, 188 
brevicaudus, Puffinus, 56 
brevipennis, Falco, 303 
brevipennis, Tinnunculus, 303 
brevipes, Accipiter, 210 
brevipes, Ardea, 105 
brevipes, Astur, 210 
brevipes, Butorides, 105 
brevipes, Procellaria, 66 
brevipes, Pterodroma, 66 
brevirostris, Crypturellus, 20 
brevirostris, Hagedashia, 134 



brevirostris, Halietor, 93 
brevirostris, Pachyptila, 50 
brevirostris, Phalacrocorax, 93 
brevirostris. Prion, 50 
brevirostris, Procellaria, 63 
brevirostris, Scseophsethon, 78 
brevirostris, Theristicus, 134 
brevirostre, Tigrisoma, 119 
brevirostris, Tihamus, 20 
brewsteri, Egretta, 113 
brewsteri, Leucophoyx, 113 
brewsteri, Sula, 85 
britannica, Somateria, 179 
brittanicus, Falco, 288 
brookei, Falco, 289 
broomei, Accipiter, 224 
brunescens, Ardea, 103 
brunnescens, Aix, 171 
brunnea, Nyroca, 175 
brutus, Accipiter, 216 
brutus, Nisus, 216 
bryani, Ardetta, 121 
bryani, Ixobrychus, 121 
Bubulcus, 108 
bubulcus, Ardea, 108 
buccinator, Cygnus, 144 
Bucephala, 177 
buchanani, Demigretta, 112 
buckleyi, Micrastur, 277 
biirgersi, Accipiter, 208 
biirgersi, Astur, 208 
biittikoferi, Accipiter, 222 
buffoni. Circus, 266 
buffoni, Falco, 266 
bulleri, Diomedea, 44 
bulleri, Puffinus, 56 
Bulweria, 67 
bulwerii, Bulweria, 68 
bulwerii, Procellaria, 68 
burmana, Aviceda, 197 
burmana. Baza, 197 
burmanicus, Buteo, 235 
burmanicus, Microhierax, 283 
burmanicus, Spilornis, 271 
buruensis, Accipiter, 215 
Busarellus, 245 
Butastur, 243 
Buteo, 228 
buteo, Buteo, 234 
buteo, Falco, 234 
Buteogallus, 244 
buteoides, Accipiter, 207 



INDEX 



315 



buteoides, Astur, 207 
Buteoninae, 227 
butleri, Accipiter, 212 
butleri, Astur, 212 
Butorides, 102 
byroni, Cookilaria, 66 
byroni, Puffinus, 58 
byroni, Reinholdia, 58 

cabanisi, Heterocnus, 119 
cabanisi, Tigrisoma, 119 
cachinnans, Falco, 276 
cachinnans, Herpetotheres, 276 
cserulea, Ardea, 107 
caeruleus, Elanus, 192 
caeruleus, Falco, 192 
ca;rulea, Florida, 107 
caerulea, Halobsna, 48 
cterulea, Procellaria, 48 
cserulescens. Anas, 146 
CBerulescens, Chen, 146 
cserulescens, Falco, 283 
cairulescens, Geranospiza, 268 
cserulescens, Harpiprion, 135 
caerulescens. Ibis, 135 
cserulescens, Microhierax, 283 
caerulescens, Sparvius, 268 
caesius, Astur, 207. 
caesius, Elanus, 192 
cahow, ^strelata, 62 
cahow, Pterodroma, 62 
Cairina, 155 
calceolata, Ardea, 109 
caledonica, Ardea, 115 
caledonicus, Nycticorax, 115 
Calherodius, 116 
calidus, Falco, 288 
californianus, Gymnogyps, 191 
calif ornianus, Vultur, 191 
californicus, Colymbus, 39 
californicus, Pelecanus, 81 
californicus, Podiceps, 39 
californica, Sula, 83 
Caloardea, 116 
Calodromas, 28 
Calodromus, 28 
Calonectris, 53 
Calopezus, 28 
calurus, Buteo, 231 
calvus, Geronticus, 133 
calvus, Sarcogyps, 260 
calvus, Tantalus, 133 



calvus, Vultur, 260 
camelus, Struthio, 3 
campbelli, Phalacrocorax, 91 
campbelli, Phoebetria, 45 
campbelli, Urile, 91 
Camptorhynchus, 182 
cana, Anas, 156 
cana, Casarca, 156 
canadensis, Anas, 150 
canadensis, Aquila, 254 
canadensis, Branta, 150 
canadensis, Falco, 254 
canagica. Anas, 149 
canagica, Philacte, 149 
canariensis, Cerchneis, 300 
canariensis, Falco, 300 
cancrivorus, Buteogallus, 245 
cancrivorus, Nycticorax, 116 
cancrivora, Urubitinga, 245 
candicans, Falco, 286 
candidissima, Ardea, 113 
candidus, Anser, 155 
candidus, Ibis, 126 
Candida, Procellaria, 67 
canescens, Accipiter, 210 
canescens, Astur, 210 
capensis, Anas, 164 
capensis, Ardea, 124 
capensis, Botaurus, 124 
capensis, Daption, 47 
capensis, Dysporus, 82 
capensis, Morus, 82 
capensis, Pelecanus, 88 
capensis, Phalacrocorax, 88 
capensis, Podiceps, 37 
capensis, Poliocephalus, 37 
capensis, Procellaria, 47 
capensis, Rhynchaspis, 169 
capensis, Spatula, 169 
capillatus, Carbo, 88 
capillatus, Phalacrocorax, 88 
caquetse. Crypt urellus, 18 
caquetse, Crypturus, 18 
carbo, Pelecanus, 87 
carbo, Phalacrocorax, 87 
carbonarius, Puffinus, 54 
carcinophilus, Butorides, 106 
carcinophonus, Butorides, 106 
caribsearum, Falco, 303 
caribbsea, Pterodroma, 62 
carlo, Cerchneis, 300 
carlo, Falco, 300 



316 



INDEX 



carneipes, Puffinus, 54 
carneirostris, Anser, 147 
caroli, Crypturus, 21 
carolinensis, Anas, 164 
carolinensis, Falco, 275 
carolinensis, Pandion, 275 
carolinensis, Pelecanus, 81 
Carphibis, 132 
carterae, Podiceps, 36 
carteri, Aquila, 256 
carteri, Demigretta, 112 
carteri, Thalassogeron, 44 
carunculata, Anas, 155 
carunculata, Bostrychia, 135 
carunculata, Ibis, 135 
carunculatus, Pelecanus, 91 
carunculatus, Phalacrocorax, 91 
carunculatus, Phalcoboenus, 280 
carunculata, Sarkidiornis, 155 
carunculatus, Theristicus, 135 
caryophyllacea. Anas, 170 
caryophyllacea, Rhodonessa, 170 
Casarca, 156 
casarca, Anas, 156 
casiquiare, Crypturellus, 23 
casiquiare, Crypturornis, 23 
Casmerodius, 109 
Cassinaetus, 250 
cassini, Falco, 290 
castanea, Anas, 163 
castaneus, Crypturellus, 16 
castanea, Mareca, 163 
castaneus, Tinamus, 16 
castaneiceps, Tinamus, 13 
castanilius, Accipiter, 210 
castanonotus, Hypotriorchis, 282 
castanonotus, Polihierax, 282 
castor, Mergus, 186 
castro, Oceanodroma, 73 
castro, Thalassidroma, 73 
Casuariidae, 5 
Casuariiformes, 5 
Casuarius, 5 
casuarius, Casuarius, 5 
casuarius, Struthio, 5 
catesbyi, Phaethon, 79 
catingae, Rhynchotus, 23 
Cathartae, 189 
Cathartes, 190 
Cathartidae, 189 
cathartoides, Buteogallus, 244 
caucse, Cerchneis, 304 



caucse, Crypturellus, 18 
caucse, Crypturus, 18 
caucse, Falco, 304 
caucasicus, Accipiter, 207 
caucasicus, Falco, 289 
caudatus, Scolopax, 136 
caudatus, Theristicus, 136 
cauta, Diomedea, 44 
cayennensis, Ardea, 117 
cayennensis, Falco, 199 
cayennensis, Mesembrinibis, 136 
cayennensis, Nyctanassa, 117 
cayennensis, Tantalus, 136 
cearse, Cerchneis, 305 
cearae, Falco, 305 
celebensis, Aviceda, 196 
celebensis. Baza, 196 
celebensis. Circus, 265 
celebensis, Pernis, 199 
cenchroides, Accipiter, 211 
cenchroides, Astur, 211 
cenchroides, Falco, 301 
centralasiae, Falco, 292 
centralasiae, Hypotriorchis, 292 
centralia, leracidea, 306 
Centropelma, 40 
ceramensis, Accipiter, 224 
ceramensis, Nisus, 224 
Cerchneis, 298. 
Cercibis, 136 
Cereopsinae, 145 
Cereopsis, 145 
cernuus, Circus, 264 
cervicalis, (Estrelata, 65 
cervicalis, Pterodroma, 65 
cerviniventris, Crypturellus, 16 
cerviniventris, Crypturus, 16 
ceylanensis, Falco, 250 
ceylanensis, Spizaetus, 250 
ceylonensis, Aviceda, 195 
ceylonensis. Baza, 195 
chalconotus, Graculus, 91 
chalconotus, Phalacrocorax, 91 
chantrei, Anhinga, 94 
chantrei, Plotus, 94 
chapmani, Herpetotheres, 276 
chapmani, Oceanodroma, 74 
chathamensis, Pelecanoides, 76 
Chaulelasmus, 168 
Chauna, 142 
chavaria, Chauna, 142 
chavaria, Parra, 142 



INDEX 



317 



cheela, Falco, 271 
cheela, Spilornis, 271 
Chelictinia, 193 
Chen, 145 
Cheniscus, 171 
Chenonetta, 152 
Chenopis, 144 
cheriway, Falco, 280 
cheriway, Polyborus, 280 
cherrug, Falco, 285 
chicquera, Falco, 296 
chilensis, Accipiter, 218 
chilensis, Colymbus, 38 
chilensis, Oceanites, 68 
chilensis, Phoenicopterus, 141 
chilensis, Podiceps, 38 
chimachima, Milvago, 279 
chimachima, Polyborus, 279 
chimaera, Casuarius, 7 
chimango, Milvago, 279 
chimango, Polyborus, 279 
chionogaster, Accipiter, 221 
chionogaster, Nisus, 221 
chionophara, ^Estrelata, 64 
chionoptera, Diomedea, 42 
chirimotanus, Crypturellus, 17 
chirimotanus, Crypturus, 17 
Chloephaga, 151 
chlororhynchos, Diomedea, 44 
chlororhynchus, Puffinus, 55 
chlorotis. Anas, 162 
Chondrohierax, 200 
chorassanicus, Accipiter, 211 
chorassanicus, Astur, 211 
christian!, Colymbus, 39 
christian!, Podiceps, 39 
christiani-ludovici, Falco, 295 
christophorensis, Butorides, 103 
chrysaetos, Aquila, 253 
chrysaetos, Falco, 253 
chrysocome, Catarrhactes, 31 
chrysolophus, Catarhactes, 32 
chrysolophus, Eudyptes, 32 
chrysostoma, Diomedea, 45 
chubbi, Oceanites, 71 
Ciconia, 129 
ciconia, Ardea, 129 
ciconia, Ciconia, 129 
Ciconiae, 126 
Ciconiidae, 126 
Ciconiiformes, 97 
Ciconiinae, 127 



Ciconioidea, 126 
Cinathisma, 53 
cincinatus, Carbo, 86 
cincinatus, Phalacrocorax, 86 
cinerascens, Circaetus, 270 
cinerascens, Nothoprocta, 25 
cinerascens, Nothura, 25 
cinereiceps, Neohierax, 284 
cinereiceps, Polihierax, 284 
cinereus, Adamastor, 51 
cinerea, Ardea, 99 
cinerea, Asturia, 240 
cinereus, Circaetus, 270 
cinereus. Circus, 266 
cinereus, Crypturellus, 16 
cinereus, Ibis, 127 
cinerea, Procellaria, 51 
cinereus, Sparverius, 214 
cinereus, Tantalus, 127 
cinereus, Tetrao, 16 
cinnamomea, Ardea, 122 
cinnamomeus, Crypturellus, 21 
cinnamomeus, Gyps, 261 
cinnamomeus, Ixobrychus, 122 
cinnamomeus, Tinamus, 21 
cinnamominus, Falco, 305 
Circaetinae, 269 
Circaetus, 269 
Circinae, 264 

circumcinctus, Harpagus, 281 
circumcinctus, Ibycter, 280 
circumcinctus, Spiziapteryx, 281 
Circus, 264 
cirrhatus, Falco, 250 
cirrhatus, Limnaetops, 248 

cirrhatus, Spizaetus, 250 

cirrhocephalus, Accipiter, 224 

cirrhocephalus, Sparvius, 224 

cirriger, Phalacrocorax, 91 

cirtensis, Buteo, 230 

cirtensis, Falco, 230 

Cladornithidae, 34 

damans, Haliaetos, 257 

damans, Haliseetus, 257 

Clamosocircus, 277 

clanga, Aquila, 255 

Clangocycnus, 143 

Clangula, 178 

clangula. Anas, 177 

clangula, Bucephala, 177 

claudii, Casuarius, 7 

cloatesi, Podiceps, 37 



318 



INDEX 



cloatesi, Poliocephalus, 37 
clypeata, Anas, 169 
clypeata, Spatula, 169 
cochlearia, Cancroma, 125 
cochlearius, Cochlearius, 125 
Cochlearius, 125 
Cochleariidae, 125 
cocoi, Ardea, 101 
cognata, Ardea, 100 
colensoi, Phalacrocorax, 91 
collaris, Accipiter, 219 
collaris, Anas, 174 
collaris, Nyroca, 174 
collaris, Procellaria, 75 
colombiana, Merganetta, 188 
colonus, Buteo, 228 
colorata, Dichromanassa, 109 
columbarius, Falco, 296 
columbianus. Anas, 144 
columbianus, Crypturellus, 22 
columbianus, Crypturus, 22 
columbianus, Cygnus, 144 
columbianus, Theristicus, 136 
Colymbidae, 35 
Colymbiformes, 35 
Colymbus, 38 
communis, Falco, 287 
conboschas. Anas, 159 
concolor, Demigretta, 111 
concolor, Falco, 293 
confusus, Accipiter, 223 
confusus, Crypturellus, 19 
confusus, Crypturus, 19 
confusa, Pagodroma, 67 
connectens, Butorides, 106 
conspectus, Buteo, 237 
conspecta, Rupomis, 237 
conspicillatus, Pelecanus, 80 
conspicillata, Procellaria, 52 
cookii, Procellaria, 65 
cookii, Pterodroma, 65 
cooktowni, Accipiter, 214 
cooktowni, Astur, 214 
cooktowni, Demigretta, 112 
coongani, Aquila, 252 
cooperii, Accipiter, 217 
cooperii, Falco, 217 
coppingeri, Pelecanoides, 76 
coprotheres, Gyps, 261 
coprotheres, Vultur, 261 
coquimbica, Nothoprocta, 26 
Coragyps, 190 



cordatus, Milvago, 279 
cornuta, Anhima, 142 
cornuta, Palamedea, 142 
cornuta, Pseudotadorna, 158 
coromanda, Cancroma, 108 
coromandeliana, Anas, 171 
coromandelianus, Cheniscus, 171 
coromandus, Bubulcus, 108 
coronatus, Falco, 251 
coronatus, Harpyhaliaetus, 246 
coronata, Harpyia, 246 
coronatus, Stephanoaetus, 251 
Coryornis, 228 
Coscoroba, 155 
coscoroba. Anas, 156 
coscoroba, Coscoroba, 156 
costaricensis, Asturina, 241 
costaricensis, Buteo, 232 
costaricensis, Crypturellus, 19 
costaricensis, Crypturus, 19 
costaricensis, Leucopternis, 241 
couesi, Chaulelasmus, 169 
couesi, Oceanites, 72 
crassirostris, Nycticorax, 115 
crassirostris, Pachyptila, 50 
crassirostris, Pseudoprion, 50 
crawfordi, Butorides, 105 
creatopus, Puffinus, 54 
crecca. Anas, 164 
crestata, Aptenodytes, 31 
crestatus, Eudyptes, 31 
crispus, Pelecanus, 80 
cristata, Anas, 165 
cristatus, Colsrmbus, 39 
cristata, Lophotibis, 138 
cristata, Palamedea, 142 
cristatus, Pandion, 275 
cristata, Pseudotadorna, 157 
cristatus, Tantalus, 138 
cruentus, Accipiter, 216 
cruentus, Astur, 216 
crumenifera, Ciconia, 131 
crumeniferus, Leptoptilos, 131 
cryptoleucura, Cymochorea, 73 
cryptoleucura, Oceanodroma, 73 
Crypturella, 15 
Crypturellus, 15 
Crypturornis, 15 
Crypturus, 15 
Ctenanas, 152 
cubanensis, Buteo, 236 
cubanus, Butorides, 103 



INDEX 



319 



cucuUata, Ardea, 116 
cucullatus, Lophodytes, 186 
cucuUatus, Mergus, 186 
cuculoides, Aviceda, 195 
Cuncuma, 257 
cuneatus, Pufl&nus, 55 
cupreipennis, Lampribis, 134 
cupreipennis, Theristicus, 134 
curacensis, Butorides, 104 
curtus, Anser, 148 
Cuvieria, 291 
cuvierii, Falco, 293 
curvirostris, Nothoprocta, 25 
cyanescens, Falco, 292 
cyaneus, Circus, 264 
cyaneus, Falco, 264 
cyanocephala, Ardea, 115 
cyanocephalus, Nycticorax, 115 
Cyanochen, 152 
cyanoleuca, Cinathisma, 58 
cyanoptera, Anas, 162 
cyanoptera, Bernicla, 152 
cyanopterus, Cyanochen, 152 
cyanura, Ardea, 105 
cyanurus, Butorides, 105 
Cygninae, 143 
cygnoid, Anas, 149 
cygnoid, Cygnopsis, 149 
Cygnopsis, 148 
Cygnus, 143 
cygnus, Anas, 143 
cygnus, Cygnus, 143 
Cymochorea, 72 
Cymodroma, 70 
Cymindes, 201 
Cyphornithidae, 82 
Cyrtopelicanus, 80 

dabbenena, Diomedea, 42 
dacotiae, Falco, 300 
Dafila, 158, 159 
dactylatra, Sula, 83 
dacunhse, Pelecanoides, 76 
dampieri, Accipiter, 213 
dampieri, Nyroca, 175 
dampieri, Urospizias, 213 
daphanea, Aquila, 253 
Daption, 47 
Daptrius, 278 
darwinii, Nothura, 27 
darwinii, Rhea, 5 
davisoni, Geronticus, 132 



davisoni, Pseudibis, 132 
davisoni, Spilornis, 271 
decepta, Gypoictinia, 204 
deckeni, Poliohierax, 282 
defilippiana, ^Estrelata, 65 
defilippiana, Pterodroma, 65 
degens, Butorides, 105 
deglandi, Melanitta, 181 
deglandi, Oedemia, 181 
deiroleucus, Falco, 291 
demersa, Diomedea, 33 
demersus, Spheniscus, 33 
Demigretta, 111 
Dendrocygna, 152 
Dendrocygninae, 152 
Dendronessa, 171 
derbyi, Plotus, 95 
deserticola, Cerchneis, 302 
deserticola, Falco, 302 
desmarestii, Carbo, 89 
desmarestii, Phalacrocorax, 89 
desolata, Pachyptila, 49 
desolata, Procellaria, 49 
desolationis, Diomedea, 44 
desolationis, Thalassogeron, 44 
devillei, Spizaetus, 248 
diazi, Anas, 161 
Dichromanassa, 109 
dichrous, Puffinus, 60 
dickeyi, Dichromanassa, 109 
dickinsoni, Falco, 297 
didimus, Accipiter, 215 
didimus, Astur, 215 
diemenianus, Casuarius, 10 
diemenianus, Dromiceius, 10 
diemenensis, Dromaeus, 10 
diemenensis, Dromiceius, 10 
dimorpha, Egretta, 111 
Dinornithidae, 11 
Dinornithiformes, 11 
diodon, Falco, 201 
diodon, Harpagus, 201 
Diomedea, 41 
diomedea, Procellaria, 54 
diomedea, Puffinus, 54 
Diomedeidae, 41 
Diomedella, 41 
Diplura, 126 
Dipluravis, 126 
direptor, Buteo, 237 
direptor, Rupornis, 237 
discolor, Dendrocygna, 153 



320 



INDEX 



discors, Anas, 162 
disneyi, Ardeiralla, 124 
dispar, Bernicla, 151 
dispar, Chloephaga, 151 
dissimilis, Crypturellus, 22 
dissimilis, Crypturus, 22 
Dissodectes, 297 
Dissoura, 128 
distincta, Cerchneis, 304 
distinctus, Falco, 304 
distinguendus, H3rpotriorchis, 292 
dixoni, Oedemia, 181 
dixoni, Melanitta, 181 
dorriesi, Cerchneis, 299 
don-iesi, Falco, 299 
doggetti, Casuarius, 8 
domesticus, Anser, 146 
dominicanus, Butorides, 103 
dominicensis, Falco, 303 
dominica, Anas, 184 
dominicus, Colymbus, 37 
dominicus, Nomonyx, 184 
dominicus, Poliocephalus, 37 
doriae, Erythrotriorchis, 225 
doriae, Megatriorchis, 225 
dorothese, Phaethon, 79 
dovei, Macronectes, 46 
dresseri, Somateria, 179 
Dromiceiidae, 9 
Dromiceius, 9 
Dromornithidae, 11 
drummondi. Circus, 267 
drygalskii, Anas, 166 
Dryotriorchis, 274 
dubia, Ardea, 130 
dubius, Ixobrychus, 120 
dubius, Leptoptilos, 130 
dubius, Pterodroma, 64 
dulcisD, Pelagodroma, 69 
Dupetor, 123 
dussumieri, Accipiter, 211 
dussumieri, Falco, 211 
dydimus, Priofinus, 52 
dydimus. Spatula, 170 
dyotti, Sula, 82 

eatoni. Anas, 166 
eatoni, Pachyptila, 50 
eatoni, Pseudoprion, 50 
eatoni, Querquedula, 166 
ecaudatus, Falco, 269 
ecaudatus, Terathopius, 269 



ecuadoriensis, Buteo, 238 
ecuadoriensis, Rupornis, 238 
edwardsi, Casuarius, 7 
edwardsii, Puffinus, 54 
Egretta, 110 
egretta, Ardea, 110 
egretta, Casmerodius, 110 
eichhorni, Accipiter, 214 
Eider, 179 
eidos, Falco, 305 
Elaninae, 192 
Elanoides, 194 
Elanus, 192 
elasson, Gavia, 35 
elegans, Buteo, 233, 240 
elegans, Eudromia, 29 
elegans, Puffinus, 59 
eleonoriB, Falco, 293 
elgini, Haematornis, 273 
elgini, Spilornis, 273 
emini. Baza, 195 
Enaliornithidae, 3 
Ephippiorhynchus, 130 
episcopus, Ardea, 128 
episcopus, Dissoura, 128 
epomophora, Diomedea, 42 
eremica, Cerchneis, 302 
eremica, Falco, 302 
eremita, Comatibis, 133 
eremita, Diomedea, 44 
eremita, Geronticus, 133 
eremita, Thalassarche, 44 
eremita, Upupa, 133 
eremonomus, Butorides, 103 
erlangeri, Falco, 284 
eriangeri. Gyps, 261 
erlangeri, Hagedashia, 135 
ernesti, Falco, 289 
erubescens, Phaethon, 78 
Er3rthocnus, 107 
erythrauchen, Accipiter, 224 
erythrofrons, Daedalion, 200 
erythrogonys, Hierax, 283 
erythrogonys, Microhierax, 283 
erythromelas, Ardea, 122 
erythromelas, Ixobrychus, 122 
erythronemius, Accipiter, 222 
erythronemius, Nisus, 222 
erythrophthalma. Anas, 175 
erythrophthalma, Nyroca, 175 
Erythropus, 297 
erythropus, Accipiter, 222 



INDEX 



321 



erythropus, Anas, 147 
erythropus, Anser, 147 
erythropus, Crypturellus, 22 
erythropus, Falco, 297 
erythropus, Nisus, 222 
erythropus, Tinamus, 22 
erythrorhyncha, Anas, 167 
erythrorhjmchos, Pelecanus, 80 
Erythrotriorchis, 225 
etesiaca, Sula, 85 
eudiabolus, Accipiter, 209 
Eudromia, 28 
Eudromias, 28 
Eudyptes, 31 
Eudyptula, 32 
Eufalco, 287 
Eulabelia, 148 
eulophotes, Egretta, 111 
eulophotes, Herodias, 111 
Eunetta, 158 
Euolor, 143 

eurhythma, Ardetta, 122 
eurhythmus, Ixobrychus, 122 
Eutriorchis, 274 
Euxenura, 129 
exasperatus, Oceanites, 68 
excellens, Tigrisoma, 118 
exiguus, Tachytriorchis, 228 
exilis, Ardea, 122 
exihs, Ixobrychus, 122 
eximius, Thalassogeron, 44 
exitiosus, Accipiter, 218 
exsul, Buteo, 230 
exsul Pelecanoides, 77 
exulans, Diomedea, 42 
eytoni, Dendrocygna, 154 
eytoni, Leptotarsis, 154 
externa, (Estrelata, 65 
externa, Pterodroma, 65 
extimus, Buteo, 233 

fabalis. Anas, 147 
fabalis, Anser, 147 
faeroeensis, Somateria, 180 
falcata. Anas, 165 
falcinellus, Plegadis, 138 
falcinellus, Tantalus, 138 
Falco, 284, 291 
Falcones, 192 
Falconidae, 276 
Falconiformes, 189 
Falconinae, 284 



Falconoidea, 192 
falklandica, Catharista, 191 
falklandica, Cathartes, 191 
falklandicus, Nycticorax, 115 
falklandica, Pagodroma, 67 
fallai, Pach3rptila, 50 
fannini, Ardea, 99 
fasciatus, Accipiter, 216 
fasciatus, Astur, 216 
fasciata, Aquila, 251 
fasciata, Ardea, 119 
fasciatus, Harpagus, 200 
fasciatus, Hieraaetus, 251 
fasciatus, Rhynchotus, 23 
fasciatum, Tigrisoma, 119 
fasciicauda, Milvus, 202 
fasciinucha, Falco, 291 
fasciolatus, Circaetus, 270 
feae, QEstrelata, 64 
feae, Pterodroma, 64 
featherstoni, Phalacrocorax, 90 
feldeggii, Falco, 285 
femoralis, Falco, 294 
ferghanensis, Milvus, 203 
ferina. Anas, 174 
ferina, Nyroca, 174 
ferinoides, Nyroca, 174 
fernandensis, Cerchneis, 305 
fernandensis, Falco, 305 
ferruginea. Anas, 156 
ferruginea, Casarca, 156 
ferruginea, Erismatura, 185 
ferruginea, Oxyura, 185 
fidens, Accipiter, 217 
fieldi, Cerchneis, 301 
fieldi, Falco, 301 
filholi, Eudyptes, 31 
firasa, Ardea, 99 
fischeri, Arctonetta, 180 
fischeri, Fuligula, 180 
fistularis, Mareca, 167 
fitzroi, Carphibis, 132 
flavicollis, Ardea, 123 
flavicoUis, Dupetor, 123 
flavipes, Platalea, 140 
flavipes, Platibis, 140 
flavipes, Spheniscus, 33 
flavirostris. Anas, 166 
flavirostris, Notophoyx, 102 
flavirostris, Procellaria, 54 
flavirostris, Pufiinus, 54 
fiindersi, Tadorna, 157 



322 



INDEX 



Florida, 107 
floridanus, Carbo, 86 
floridana, Haliaeetus, 257 
floridanus, Phalacrocorax, 86 
floris, Limnaetus, 250 
floris, Spizaetus, 250 
floweri, Spilornis, 272 
fluvialis, Pandion, 275 
foesteri, Casuarius, 8 
foetens, Coragyps, 190 
foetens, Cathartes, 190 
fokiensis, Spizaetus, 248 
forbesi, Odontriorchis, 199 
forficatus, Elanoides, 194 
forficatus, Faico, 194 
formosa. Anas, 164 
formosus, Calopezus, 28 
formosa, Eudromia, 28 
formosus, Hieraaetus, 252 
formosanus, Milvus, 204 
forsteri, Aptenodytes, 30 
forsteri, Macronectes, 46 
forsteri, Pachyptila, 48 
forsteri, Procellaria, 48 
fortunatus, Puffinus, 54 
frasnata, Merganetta, 189 
francesii, Accipiter, 216 
frantzii, Nothocercus, 15 
frantzii, Tinamus, 15 
frazari, Ardea, 103 
frazari, Butorides, 103 
Fregata, 95 
Fregatae, 95 
Fregatidae, 95 
Fregetta, 69 
Fregettornis, 69 
fringillarius, Falco, 283 
fringiliarius, Microhierax, 283 
fringilloides, Accipiter, 221 
fruitii, Falco, 289 
fucosa, Aquila, 256 
fiillebornii, Pseudogyps, 262 
fujiyamse, Astur, 208 
fujiyamse, Accipiter, 208 
fuliginosa, Diomedea, 45 
Fuligula, 173 
fuligula. Anas, 174 
fuligula, Nyroca, 174 
Fulmarinae, 46 
Fulmariprion, 48 
Fulmarus, 47 
fulvescens. Gyps, 261 



fulvescens, Herpetotheres, 276 
fulvescens, Nothoprocta, 25 
fulvigula. Anas, 161 
fulva, Aquila, 253 
fulvus, Falco, 253 
fulvus. Gyps, 261 
fulvus, Phaethon, 79 
fulvus, Vultur, 261 
fumosus, Buteo, 232 
fiunosus, Crypturellus, 16 
fumosus, Crypturus, 16 
furcata, Oceanodroma, 75 
furcata, Procellaria, 75 
furvicollis, Potamolegus, 239 
fusca. Anas, 181 
fusca, Diomedea, 45 
fusca, Melanitta, 181 
fuscus, Pelecanus, 81 
fusca, Phoebetria, 45 
fuscescens, Hydrocorax, 90 
fuscescens, Phalacrocorax, 90 
fuscieoUis, Phalacrocorax, 88 
fuscipennis, Nothocercus, 14 
fuscipennis, Tinamus, 13 
fuscocaerulescens, Falco, 294 

gabar, Falco, 226 
gabar, Melierax, 226 
gaimardi, Pelecanus, 91 
gaimardi, Phalacrocorax, 91 
galapagensis. Anas, 167 
galapagensis, Poecilonetta, 167 
galapagoensis, Buteo, 232 
galapagoensis, Oceanites, 69 
galapagoensis, Polyborus, 232 
galeata, Ardea, 129 
galeata, Euxenura, 129 
galericulata. Anas, 171 
galericulata, Dendronessa, 171 
galliae, Accipiter, 219 
gallicus, Circaetus, 270 
gallicus, Falco, 270 
gallinarum, Accipiter, 206 
gaUinarum, Astur, 206 
gambelli, Anser, 147 
gambensis. Anas, 145 
gambensis, Plectropterus, 145 
Gampsonyx, 281 
garleppi, Crypturellus, 20 
garleppi, Crypturus, 20 
garleppi, Merganetta, 188 
garleppi, Pterocnemia, 5 



INDEX 



323 



garnotii, Pelecanoides, 75 
garnotii, Priocella, 51 
garnotii, Puffinuria, 75 
Garrodia, 71 
garzetta, Ardea, 110 
garzetta, Egretta, 110 
Gavia, 34 

gavia, Procellaria, 57 
Gaviidae, 34 
Gaviiformes, 34 
gentilis, Accipiter, 206 
gentilis, Falco, 206 
georgi, Cereopsis, 145 
georgianus, Phalacrocorax, 92 
georgica, Anas, 166 
georgica, Pelecanoides, 76 
georgicus, Pelecanoides, 75 
Geranoaetus, 227 
Geranospiza, 268 
germanicus, Falco, 288 
Geronticus, 133 
ghiesbreghti, Buteo, 241 
ghiesbreghti, Leucopternis, 241 
gibberifrons, Anas, 163 
gigantea, Ibis, 133 
giganteus, Macronectes, 46 
gigantea, Procellaria, 46 
gigantea, Thaumatibis, 133 
gigas, Podilymbus, 41 
gilberti, Ardea, 98 
gilvicollis, Micrastur, 278 
gilvicollis, Sparvius, 278 
ginginianus, Neophron, 263 
ginginianus, Vultur, 263 
girrenera, Haliaetus, 205 
girrenera, Haliastur, 205 
glacialis. Anas, 178 
glacialis, Fulmarus, 47 
glacialis, Procellaria, 47 
godmani, Pufiinus, 59 
goisagi, Gorsachius, 117 
goisagi, Nycticorax, 117 
goldmani, Crypturellus, 21 
goldmani, Crypturus, 21 
goliath, Ardea, 98 
goodfellowi, Casuarius, 7 
Gorsachius, 117 
gouldi, Jilstrelata, 61 
gouldi, Ardetta, 123 
gouldi, Circus, 267 
gouldi, Dupetor, 123 
gouldi, Pachyptila, 48 



gouldi, Prion, 48 
gouldi, Pterodroma, 61 
govinda, Milvus, 203 
gracemeri, Phalacrocorax, 88 
gracilis. Anas, 163 
gracilis, Buteo, 237 
gracilis, Falco, 268, 302, 305 
gracilis, Geranospiza, 268 
gracilis, Oceanites, 68 
gracUis, Rupornis, 237 
gracilis, Thalassidroma, 68 
graculus, Phalacrocorax, 89 
graecus, Astur, 210 
grallaria, Fregetta, 70 
grallaria, Procellaria, 70 
grandis, Gypaetus, 263 
granti, Accipiter, 219 
granti, Sula, 84 
grantianus, Neonectris, 56 
graueri, Gymnogenys, 269 
gravis, Procellaria, 55 
gravis, Puffinus, 55 
grayii, Ardea, 108 
grayii, Ardeola, 108 
grenadensis, Butorides, 104 
grisea, Procellaria, 56 
grisegena, Colymbus, 40 
griseiceps, Accipiter, 217 
griseiceps, Astur, 217 
griseiventris, Crypturus, 17 
griseiventris, Crypturellus, 17 
griseus, Puffinus, 56 
griseocauda, Buteo, 237 
griseocauda, Rupornis, 237 
griseogularis, Accipiter, 213 
griseogularis, Astur, 213 
gryphus, Vultur, 189 
Guara, 137 

guarauna, Plegadis, 138 
guarauna, Scolopax, 138 
guatemalensis, Cerchneis, 302 
guatemalensis, Daptrius, 278 
guatemalensis, Ibycter, 278 
guerilla, Micrastur, 278 
guianensis, Falco, 246 
guianensis, Morphnus, 246 
guianensis, Odontriorchis, 199 
guineensis, Hagedashia, 134 
gularis, Accipiter, 223 
gularis, Ardea, 111 
gularis, Astur, 223 
gularis, Asturina, 239 



SM 



INDEX 



gularis, Buteo, 239 
gularis, Demigretta, 111 
gunax, Puffinus, 60 
gundlachi, Accipiter, 217 
gimdlachii, Buteogallus, 245 
gundlachii, Hypomorphnus, 245 
gunni, Dromiceius, 10 
gurneyi, Aquila, 250 
gurneyi, Aviceda, 197 
gurneyi, Baza, 197 
gurneyi, Colymbus, 39 
gurneyi, Proctopus, 39 
gurneyi, Spizaetus, 250 
guttata, Dendrocygna, 154 
guttatus, Sparvius, 218 
guttatus, Tinamus, 14 
guttifer, Accipiter, 218 
guttulata, Dendrocygna, 154 
Gymnogenys, 268 
Gymnogyps, 191 
Gypaetus, 263 
Gypohierax, 263 
Gyps, 261 

haastii, Apteryx, 12 
Haematornis, 270 
haesitandus, Spilospizias, 210 
hsesitata, Accipiter, 224 
hsesitata, Procellaria, 51 
hagenbecki, Casuarius, 9 
hagedash, Hagedashia, 135 
hagedash, Tantalus, 135 
Hagedashia, 134 
hakodate, Puffinus, 54 
Haliseetus, 257 
haliaetus, Falco, 275 
halisetus, Pandion, 275 
Halietor, 93 
Haliastur, 204 
halli, Aptenodytes, 30 
halli, Macronectes, 46 
Halobsena, 47 
Halocyptena, 75 
hamatus, Falco, 202 
hamatus, Helicolestes, 202 
hamiltoni, Anseranas, 145 
hamiltoni, Casuarius, 6 
hamiltoni, Puffinus, 55 
Hamirostra, 204 
hanedae, Phalacrocarax, 87 
hanieli, Falco, 293 
haplochrous, Accipiter, 215 



haringtoni. Anas, 160 
haringtoni, Polionetta, 160 
harlani, Buteo, 232 
harlani, Falco, 232 
Harpa, 287 
Harpagus, 200 
Harpe, 287 
Harpia, 246 
Harpiprion, 135 
Harpyhalisetus, 245 
harpy j a, Harpia, 246 
harpyja, Vultur, 246 
Harpyopsis, 247 
harrisi, Buteo, 240 
harrisi, Nannopterum, 94 
harrisi, Parabuteo, 240 
harrisi, Phalacrocorax, 94 
harterti, Buteo, 234 
harterti. Circus, 266 
harterti, Crypturellus, 18 
harterti, Crypturus, 18 
harterti, Falco, 288 
harterti, Milvus, 202 
harterti, Thalassogeron, 45 
hartlaubi, Nisus, 222 
hartlaubii, Pteronetta, 172 
hartlaubii, Querquedula, 172 
hasitata, Procellaria, 61 
hasitata, Pterodroma, 61 
hastata, Aquila, 256 
hastatus, Morphnus, 256 
hecki, Casuarius, 7 
heinrothi, Puffinus, 57 
heliaca, Aquila, 254 
Helicolestes, 202 
heliosylus, Ardea, 118 
heliosylus, Zonerodius, 118 
hellmayri, Accipiter, 215 
hellmayri, Crypturellus, 22 
hellmayri, Crypturus, 22 
helva, Dendrocygna, 153 
Hemigarzetta, 111 
hemilasius, Buteo, 230 
Hemipuffinus, 53 
Hemisula, 83 

henicogrammus, Accipiter, 215 
henicogrammus, Astur, 215 
Henicopernis, 198 
henstii, Accipiter, 208 
henstii, Astur, 208 
heraldica, ^Estrelata, 63 
heraldica, Pterodroma, 63 



INDEX 



325 



herodias, Ardea, 99 
Herpetotheres, 276 
Herpetotherinae, 276 
hesperis, Ixobrychus, 122 
Hesperornithidae, 3 
Hesperornithiformes, 3 
Heterocnus, 119 
Heteronetta, 172 
Heteroprion, 48 
Heterospizias, 226 
hibemicus, Accipiter, 219 
Hieraaetus, 251 
Hierofalco, 284 
hilgerti, Accipiter, 225 
Mlli, Nycticorax, 115 
himalayensis, Gyps, 261 
hiogaster, Accipiter, 213 
hiogaster, Falco, 213 
Histrionicus, 178 
histrionica. Anas, 178 
histrionicus, Histrionicus, 178 
hoactli, Ardea, 114. 
hoactli, Nycticorax, 114 
hoffmannsi, Crypturellus, 18 
hoffmannsi, Crypturus, 18 
holboUii, Colymbus, 40 
holbollii, Podiceps, 40 
holmbergianus, Micraetus, 199 
holospilus, Buteo, 274 
holospilus, Spilornis, 274 
homeyeri, Aquila, 253 
homochroa, Cymochorea, 74 
homochroa, Oceanodroma, 74 
homopterus, Polihierax, 282 
Horizonetta, 158 
hornbyi, Oceanodroma, 74 
hornbyi, Thalassidroma, 74 
horsbrughi, Falco, 297 
howei, Pelagodroma, 69 
howensis, Puffinus, 58 
hoya, Spilornis, 272 
hrota. Anas, 149 
hrota, Branta, 149 
hudsonius, Circus, 265 
hudsonius, Falco, 265 
huUi, Neonectris, 56 
hullianus, Puffinus, 55 
humbloti, Ardea, 98 
humbloti. Circus, 267 
humboldti, Spheniscus, 33 
hutchinsii, Anser, 150 
hutchinsii, Branta, 160 



huttoni, Phalacrocorax, 91 
huttoni, Phoebetria, 46 
huttoni, Pseudoprion, 50 
huttoni, Puffinus, 57 
hybrida, Anas, 152 
hybrida, Chloephaga, 152 
Hydranassa, 113 
Hydrobates, 72 
Hydrobatidae, 68 
hyemalis. Anas, 178 
hyemalis, Clangula, 178 
Hymenolaimus, 183 
hyperboreus, Anser, 146 
hyperborea, Chen, 146 
hyperonca, Ardea, 99 
hypernotius, Butorides, 104 
hypoleucus, Elanus, 193 
hypoleucos, Falco, 294 
hypoleuca, (Estrelata, 66 
hypoleuca, Pelagodroma, 69 
hypoleuca, Pterodroma, 66 
hypoleuca, Thalassidroma, 69 
Hypomorphnus, 244 
hypospodius, Buteo, 228 

Ibis, 126 
ibis, Ardea, 108 
ibis, Bubulcus, 108 
ibis, Ibis, 127 
ibis, Tantalus, 127 
icasopterus, Butorides, 106 
ichthysetus, Falco, 259 
ichthysetus, Ichyophaga, 259 
Ichthyornithidae, 3 
Ichthyornithiformes, 3 
Icthyophaga, 259 
Ictinia, 201 
Ictinaetus, 256 
Ictiniastur, 204 
idae, Ardea, 108 
idae, Ardeola, 108 
idoneus, Crypturellus, 21 
idoneus, Crypturus, 21 
leracidea, 305 
ignoscens, Melierax, 226 
imber, Colymbus, 34 
imitator, Accipiter, 214 
immaculata, Egretta, 111 
immaculata, Herodias, 111 
immer, Colymbus, 35 
immer, Gavia, 35 
immutabilis, Diomedea, 43 



326 



INDEX 



impavida, Thalassarche, 43 
imperialis, Ardea, 98 
incerta, Procellaria, 62 
incerta, Pterodroma, 62 
Indiana, Spatula, 169 
indica, Anas, 148 
indicus, Butastur, 243 
indica, Eulabeia, 148 
indicus, Falco, 243 
indicus, Gyps, 261 
indicus, Phaethon, 78 
indicus. Phaeton, 78 
indicus, Phalacrocorax, 87 
indicus, Vultur, 261 
indus, Falco, 205 
indus, Haliastur, 205 
inexpectatus. Circus, 267 
inexpectata, Procellaria, 63 
inexpectata, Pterodroma, 63 
inexpectatus, Tinamus, 13 
infaustus, Nycticorax, 114 
infuscatus, Colymbus, 39 
infuscata, Henicopernis, 198 
infuscata. Ibis, 137 
infuscatus, Phimosus, 137 
infuscatus, Podiceps, 39 
ingoufi, Tinamotis, 29 
innotata, Nyroca, 175 
innominatus, Fregettomis, 70 
inops, Crypturellus, 23 
inornatus, Crypturellus, 21 
inornatus, Crypturus, 21 
insidiatrix, Buteo, 238 
insidiatrix, Rupornis, 238 
insignis, ^salon, 295 
insignis, Ardea, 98 
insignis, Falco, 295 
insignis, Neohierax, 284 
insignis, Polihierax, 284 
insularis, Astur, 211, 216 
insularum, Buteo, 234 
insularis, Cathartes, 190 
insularis, Fregetta, 70 
insularis, Fregettornis, 70 
insularis, Thalassornis, 183 
insulicola, Buteo, 237 
intensus, Casuarius, 7 
intercedens, Nothocercus, 15 
interjectus, Eudyptes, 31 
intermedius, Accipiter, 222 
intermedia, Ardea, 112 
intermedius, Buteo, 235 



intermedius, Calopezus, 28 
intermedius, Casuarius, 7 
intermedia, Cerchneis, 304 
intermedius, Eudromia, 28 
intermedius, Falco, 304 
intermedius, Haliastur, 205 
intermedia, Mesophoyx, 112 
intermedia, Platalea, 140 
intermedius, PufRnus, 56 
intermedia, Rhea, 4 
interstes, Micrastur, 278 
interstinctus, Falco, 299 
involucris, Ardea, 122 
involucris, Ixobrychus, 122 
iowensis, Buteo, 236 
iraquensis, Podiceps, 36 
iraquensis, Poliocephalus, 36 
iredalei, Eudyptula, 32 
iredalei, Fregata, 97 
iredali, Puffinus, 55 
irkutensis, Hypotriorchis, 291 
irrorata, Diomedea, 43 
isabeUinus, Falco, 303 
isidori, Falco, 247 
isidori, Oroaetus, 247 
islandica, Anas, 177 
islandica, Bucephala, 177 
islandicus, Cygnus, 143 
islandus, Falco, 286 
isura, Lophoictinia, 204 
isurus, Milvus, 204 
Ixobrychus, 120 

Jabiru, 130 

jakutensis, Hypotriorchis, 291 
jamaicensis, Anas, 184 
jamaicensis, Buteo, 231 
jamaicensis, Falco, 231 
jamaicensis, Oxyura, 184 
jamaicensis, Procellaria, 62 
jamesi, Phoenicoparrus, 142 
jamesi, Phoenicopterus, 142 
jamrachi, Casuarius, 9 
jankowskii, Cygnus, 143 
januaria, Fregata, 97 
japonensis, Falco, 299 
japonica, Aquila, 254 
japonicus, Buteo, 235 
japonicus, Falco, 235, 299 
japonicus, Pernis, 198 
japonicus, Podiceps, 36 
japonicus, Poliocephalus, 36 



INDEX 



327 



javana, Icthyophaga, 259 
javanica, Anas, 153 
javanica, Ardea, 106 
javanicus, Butorides, 106 
javanica, Ciconia, 131 
javanica, Dendrocygna, 153 
javanicus, Leptoptilos, 131 
jerdoni, Aviceda, 195 
jerdoni, Pernis, 195 
jefferyi, Pithecophaga, 247 
johannae, Ardea, 99 
johannae, Haliastur, 205 
johnsonii, Casuarius, 6 
jonesi, Gyps, 262 
jota, Cathartes, 191 
jota, Vultur, 191 
jouyi, Ardea, 99 
jubata, Anas, 152 
jubatus, Anser, 154 
jubata, Chenonetta, 152 
jubata, Neochen, 154 
jugger, Falco, 286 
jugurtha, Falco, 292 
Julius, Nothocercus, 15 
Julius, Tinamus, 15 
juninensis, Colymbus, 38 
juninensis, Podiceps, 38 

kaedingi, Oceanodroma, 73 
kalinowskii, Nothoprocta, 24 
kamtschatica, Aquila, 254 
katherine, Erj^throtriorchis, 225 
Kaupifalco, 243 
kelaarti, Spizaetus, 249 
kelsalli, Oceanodroma, 72 
kelsalli, Thalassidroma, 72 
kempi, Egretta, 111 
kempi, Gymnogenys, 269 
kempi, leracidea, 306 
kempi, Lophastur, 197 
kempi, Puffinus, 58 
kermadecensis, Puffinus, 58 
kerrise, Crypturellus, 20 
kerrise, Crj^turus, 20 
keysseri, Casuarius, 8 
keyteli, Pachyptila, 49 
keyteli. Prion, 49 
khamensis, Accipiter, 208 
khamensis, Astur, 208 
kienerii, Astur, 252 
kienerii, Hieraaetus, 252 
kinabaluensis, Spilornis, 273 



kleei, Crypturus, 12 
kleei, Tinamus, 12 
klossi, Accipiter, 211 
klossi, Astur, 211 
klossi, Spilornis, 273 
knudseni, Puffinus, 56 
korejevi, Podiceps, 38 
kreyenborgi, Falco, 290 
kriderii, Buteo, 231 
kuhli, Leucopternis, 242 
kunikyonis, Poliocephalus, 36 
kutteri, Butio, 117 
kutteri, Gorsachius, 117 

labradoria. Anas, 182 
labradorius, Camptorhynchus, 182 
lacernulatus, Falco, 242 
lacernulata, Leucopternis, 242 
lacteus, Tantalus, 127 
lagopus, Buteo, 236 
lagopus, Falco, 236 
lamelligerus, Anastomus, 127 
Lampribis, 133 
lanceolatus, Spizaetus, 249 
landbecki, Pelecanus, 81 
lanzaroteae, Buteo, 234 
lateralis, Casuarius, 6 
latifrons, Microhierax, 283 
latifrons, Tinamus, 13 
lawryi, Aptery^x, 11 
layardi, Thalassogeron, 44 
laysanensis. Anas, 159 
laysani, Puffinus, 55 
lentiginosa, Ardea, 124 
lentiginosus, Botaurus, 124 
leonse, Gampsonyx, 281 
lepida, Ardea, 121 
lepidus, Ixobrychus, 121 
Leptopelicanus, 81 
Leptophagthon, 77 
Leptoptilos, 130 
Leptotarsis, 152 
Leptotarsus, 152 
Lepturus, 77 
lepturus, Phaethon, 78 
lepturus. Phaeton, 78 
lessonii, Ardea, 100 
lessonii, Procellaria, 61 
lessonii, Pterodroma, 61 
lessoni, Puffinuria, 75 
lesueuri, Stictonetta, 157 
leucocephala. Anas, 184 



328 



INDEX 



leucocephalus, Falco, 258 
leucocephalus, Haliseetus, 258 
leucocephalus, Ibis, 127 
leucocephala, Oxyura, 184 
leucocephalus, Tantalus, 127 
leucogaster, Cuncuma, 257 
leucogaster, Falco, 257 
leucogaster, Haliseetus, 257 
leucogaster, Pelecanus, 84 
leucogaster, Sula, 84 
leucogaster, Thalassidroma, 69 
leucogenis, Anas, 188 
leucogenis, Merganetta, 188 
leucolaema, Tigribaphe, 119 
leucolopha, Tigriornis, 118 
leucolopha, Tigrisoma, 118 
leucomelas, Procellaria, 53 
leucomelas, Puffinus, 53 
leuconotus, Ardea, 116 
leuconotus, Calherodius, 116 
leuconotus, Thalassornis, 183 
leucopareus. Anas, 163 
leucopareus, Polionetta, 163 
leucophaea, Ardea, 99 
Leucophoyx, 113 
leucophrys. Anas, 165 
leucopias, Aviceda, 196 
leucopias, Baza, 196 
leucopsis. Anas, 150 
leucopsie, Branta, 150 
leucoptera, Anas, 151 
leucoptera, Chloephaga, 151 
leucoptera, Procellaria, 66 
leucoptera, Pterodroma, 66 
Leucopternis, 241 
leucopygus, Cymindis, 201 
leucorrhous, Buteo, 239 
leucorrhous, Falco, 239 
leucorhoa, Oceanodroma, 73 
leucorhoa, Procellaria, 73 
leucorodia, Platalea, 139 
leucorypha, Aquila, 258 
leucoryphus, Haliseetus, 258 
leucosomus, Accipiter, 213 
leucosomus, Astur, 213 
leucosternus, Haliaeetus, 205 
leucostigma. Anas, 162 
leucurus, Elanus, 193 
leucurus, Milvus, 193 
leuphotes, Aviceda, 197 
leuphotes, Falco, 197 
Iherminieri, Puffinus, 59 



limatus, Phaethon, 77 
Limnaetops, 248 
Limnaetus, 248 
Limnsetus, 248 
limnseetus, Falco, 249 
limnseetus, Spizaetus, 249 
■ lineata, Ardea, 118 
lineatus, Buteo, 233 
lineatus, Falco, 233 
lineata, Fregetta, 70 
lineatus, Haliaetus, 203 
lineatus, Milvus, 203 
lineata, Thalassidroma, 70 
lineatum, Tigrisoma, 118 
listeri, Fregata, 96 
littleri, Butorides, 106 
livens, Geranospiza, 268 
liventer, Butastur, 243 
liventer, Falco, 243 
lobata, Anas, 185 
lobata, Biziura, 185 
lodygini, Accipiter, 220 
longicauda, Astur, 198 
longicauda, Falco, 198 
longicauda, Henicopernis, 198 
longipennis, Falco, 293 
longipes, Procellaria, 71 
longirostris, iEstrelata, 66 
longirostris, Guara, 137 
longirostris, Pterodroma, 66 
lopezi, Accipiter, 210 
lopezi, Astur, 210 
Lophaetus, 250 
Lophastur, 195 
Lophodytes, 186 
Lophoictinia, 204 
Lophonetta, 158 
Lophotibis, 138 
lophotus, Anser, 152 
loquacula, Cerchneis, 303 
loquaculus, Falco, 303 
lorenzi, Hierofalco, 286 
loriae, Casuarius, 8 
lowei, Fregata, 96 
lucianus, Butorides, 103 
lucidus, Halieus, 88 
lucidus, Phalacrocorax, 88 
ludoviciana, Ardea, 113 
lugens, Procellaria, 63 
lugubris, Phalacrocorax, 87 
luteola, Ardetta, 121 
luteolus, Ixobrychus, 121 



INDEX 



329 



luteoschistaceus, Accipiter, 218 
lutosus, Polyborus, 281 
luzonica, Anas, 160 
lymani, Falco, 295 

maccoa, Erismatura, 184 
maccoa, Oxyura, 184 
macconnelli, Crypturellus, 16 
macconnelli, Crypturus, 16 
macgillivrayi, Bulweria, 68 
macgiUivrayi, Pachyptila, 49 
macgillivrayi, Prion, 49 
macgillivrayi, Thalassidroma, 68 
Machaerhamphus, 194 
mackayi, Astur, 216 
mackayi, Cheniscus, 171 
macquariensis, Heteroprion, 49 
macrocelides, Accipiter, 209 
macrocelides, Astur, 209 
macrodactyla, Oceanodroma, 73 
Macronectes, 46 
macroptera, Procellaria, 61 
macroptera, Pterodroma, 61 
macropus, Busarellus, 245 
macropus, Falco, 290 
macrorhyncha, Ardetta, 106 
macrorhynchus, Butorides, 106 
macrorhyncus, Buteo, 229 
macrosceles, Cifcus, 267 
macrourus, Accipiter, 265 
macrourus, Astur, 227 
macrourus. Circus, 265 
macrourus, Urotriorchis, 227 
macrurus, Thalassaetus, 258 
maculatus, Butorides, 103 
maculata, Cancroma, 103 
maculatus, Casuarius, 8 
maculicollis, Rhynchotus, 24 
maculosa. Anas, 161 
maculosa, Nothura, 27 
maculosus, Tinamus, 27 
madagascariensis, Accipiter, 221 
madagascariensis. Anas, 172 
madagascariensis, Anastomus, 127 
madagascariensis, Ardea, 101 
madagascariensis, Aviceda, 195 
madagascariensis, Pernis, 195 
maestus, Herpetotheres, 276 
magellani, Pelecanoides, 76 
mageUani, Puffinuria, 76 
magellanica. Anas, 151 
magellanicus, Aptenodytes, 33 



magellanicus, Pelecanus, 90 

magellanicus, Phalacrocorax, 90 

magellanicus, Spheniscus, 33 

magentae, Aestrelata, 64 

magentae, Pterodroma, 64 

magnificens, Fregata, 95 

magnificus, Nycticorax, 116 

magnifica, Oroanassa, 116 

magniplumis, Buteo, 239 

magniplumis, Potamolegus, 239 

magnirostris, Aviceda, 196 

magnirostris, Buteo, 238 

magnirostris, Falco, 238 

magnirostris, Hyptiopus, 196 

magnus, Gampsonyx, 282 

maguari, Ardea, 129 

maillardi. Circus, 267 

maior, Puffinus, 53 

major, Aechmophorus, 40 

major, Colymbus, 40 

major, Mergus, 187 

major, Nycticorax, 115 

major, Platalea, 139 

major, Tetrao, 13 

major, Tinamus, 13, 14 

majusculus, Elanus, 193 

Malacorhynchus, 170 

malacorhynchos. Anas, 183 

malacorhynchos, Hymenolaimus, 183 
malayensis, Falco, 257 
malayensis, Ictinaetus, 257 
malayensis, Spilornis, 271 
malvinarum, Chloephaga, 152 
mandibularis, Nycticorax, 115 
manehi, Accipiter, 208 
maniUensis, Accipiter, 223 
jaanilensis, Ardea, 101 
manillensis, Nycticorax, 115 
mantelli, Apteryx, 11 
maorianus, Botaurus, 124 
maorianus, Casmerodius, 110 
maoriana, Herodias, 110 
maoriana, Pelagodroma, 69 
Mareca, 167 

margaritensis, Cerchneis, 304 
margaritensis, Falco, 304 
margaritophilus, Butorides, 104 
marginatus, Accipiter, 207 
marginatus, Falco, 207 
mariae, Puffinus, 54 
marila, Anas, 176 
marila, Nyroca, 176 



330 



INDEX 



mariloides, Fuligula, 176 
mariloides, Nyroca, 176 
marina, Pelagodroma, 69 
marina, Procellaria, 69 
markhami, Cymochorea, 73 
markhami, Oceanodroma, 73 
marmorata, Ardea, 119 
marmoratum, Tigrisoma, 119 
maroccanus, Phalacrocorax, 87 
masafuerae, Pterodroma, 66 
massaicus, Struthio, 4 
mathewsi, Anas, 163 
mathewsse, Ardea, 98 
mathewsi, Diomedea, 45 
mathewsi, Fregata, 96 
matsudariae, Oceanodroma, 74 
mattingleyi, Heteroprion, 49 
mattingleyi, Pachyptila, 49 
mauretanicus, Puffinus, 57 
maurus. Circus, 266 
maurus, Falco, 266 
maxima, Asturina, 240 
mccormicki, Diomedea, 42 
mechowi, Melierax, 226 
Megacerchneis, 298 
Megadyptes, 32 
megala, Aviceda, 197 
megala. Baza, 197 
megaloptera, Aquila, 280 
megalopterus, Phalcoboenus, 280 
megarhynchus, Chondrohierax, 200 
megarhynchus, Regerhinus, 200 
melaena, Ardetta, 123 
Melananas, 158 
melancoripha. Anas, 144 
melancoriphus, Cygnus, 144 
Melaneatus, 269 
melania, Oceanodroma, 74 
melania, Procellaria, 74 
Melanitta, 181 
melanocephala, Anas, 172 
melanocephala, Ardea, 98 
melanocephalus, Tantalus, 131 
melanocephala, Threskiornis, 131 
melanochlamys, Accipiter, 218 
melanochlamys, Urospizias, 218 
Melanocircus, 264 
melanogaster, Anhinga, 94 
melanogaster, Fregetta, 70 
mielanogaster, Thalassidroma, 70 
melanogyne, Hypotriorchis, 291 
melanoleucus, Accipiter, 209 



melanoleuca, Anas, 144 
melanoleucus, Buteo, 247 
melanoleucus. Circus, 266 
melanoleucus, Falco, 266 
melanoleucus, Geranoaetus, 227 
melanoleucos, Halietor, 93 
melanoleucos, Hydrocorax, 93 
melanoleucos, lerax, 283 
melanoleucos, Microhierax, 283 
melanoleucus, Spizaetus, 227 
melanoleucus, Spizastur, 247 
melanolopha, Ardea, 117 
melanolophus, Gorsachius, 117 
Melanonyx, 146 
Melanophoyx, 109 
melanophris, Diomedea, 43 
melanopus, Procellaria, 63 
melanopis, Tantalus, 136 
melanopis, Theristicus, 136 
melanops, Falco, 242 
melanops, Leucopternis, 242 
melanops, Sula, 84 
melanopterus, Anser, 151 
melanoptera, Chloephaga, 151 
melanorhynchos, Ardea, 110 
melanorhynchos, Casmerodius, 110 
melanorhynchos, Phaethon, 78 
melanorhynchos. Phaeton, 78 
melanoschistus, Accipiter, 220 
melanosternus, Buteo, 229 
melanosternon, Buteo, 204 
melanosternon, Hamirostra, 204, 229 
melanostethus, Buteo, 229 
melanotos, Anser, 155 
melanotos, Botaurus, 124 
melanotus, Botaurus, 124 
melanotus, Falco, 293 
melanotis, Puffinus, 57 
melanota, Sarkidiornis, 155 
melaschistos, Accipiter, 220 
Melierax, 225 
meUeri, Anas, 160 
melli. Baza, 197 
melvillensis, Ardeiralla, 124 
melvillensis, Buteo, 275 
melvillensis, Carbo, 93 
melvillensis, Halietor, 93 
melvillensis, leracidea, 306 
membranacea, Anas, 170 
membranaceus, Malacorhynchus, 170 
mendiculus, Spheniscus, 33 
mendozensis, Nothura, 27 



INDEX 



331 



menegauxi, Phalacrocorax, 93 
menetriesi, Buteo, 235 
menziesi, Biziura, 185 
Merganetta, 188 
Merganettinae, 188 
merganser, Mergus, 186 
Mergellus, 185 
Merginae, 185 
Mergus, 186 

meridensis, Gampsonyx, 281 
meridensis, Geranosetus, 227 
merid, Kaupifalco, 243 
merid, Micronisus, 243 
meridionalis, Cathartes, 191 
meridionalis, Falco, 226 
meridionalis, Gypaetus, 264 
meridionalis, Heterospizias, 226 
meridionalis, Microhierax, 283 
mesatus, Butorides, 104 
Mesembrinibis, 136 
meserythrus, Cr5^turellus, 17 
meserythrus, Tinamus, 17 
Mesocarbo, 85 
mesonauta, Phaethon, 77 
Mesophoyx, 112 
metabates, Melierax, 226 
Metapelecanus, 79 
Metopiana, 173 
mexicanus, Carbo, 86 
mexicanus, Crypturellus, 21 
mexicanus, Crypturus, 21 
mexicanus, Falco, 286 
mexicanus, Odontriorchis, 199 
mexicanus, Phalacrocorax, 86 
meyerianus, Accipiter, 208 
meyerianus, Astur, 208 
Micraetus, 199 
Micraetus, 253 
Micrastur, 276 
microbalia, Cerchneis, 301 
Microcrypturus, 15 
microhaliaetus, Pandion, 275 
Microhierax, 282 
Micronetta, 158 
micropterum, Centropelma, 40 
micropterus, Podiceps, 40 
microscelis, Ciconia, 128 
microscelis, Dissoura, 128 
microsoma, Halocyptena, 75 
Microzalias, 53 
micrus, Asturina, 240 
middendorffi, Anser, 147 



migrans, Falco, 202 
migrans, Milvus, 202 
milligani, Cerchneis, 301 
Milvago, 279 
Milvinae, 200 
milvipes, Falco, 285 
MilvTis, 202 
milvus, Falco, 202 
milvus, Milvus, 202 
minahassae, Nycticorax, 115 
minima, Branta, 150 
minimus, Buteo, 239 
minimus, Spilornis, 273 
minnie, Notofalco, 287 
minor, Aptenodytes, 32 
minor, Asturina, 241 
minor, Dromaeus, 10 
minor, Eudyptula, 32 
minor, Falco, 290 
minor, Fregata, 96 
minor, Gorsachius, 117 
minor, Hieraaetus, 252 
minor, Nothiira, 27 
minor, Pelecanus, 96 
minor, Phoeniconaias, 141 
minor, Phoenicopterus, 141 
minor, Piatalea, 139 
minor, Puffinus, 60 
minor, Tinamus, 27 
minuUus, Accipiter, 222 
minuUus, Falco, 222 
minuta, Ardea, 120 
minutus, Ixobrychus, 120 
minutus, Tinnunculus, 298 
mirandollei, Astur, 277 
mirandollei, Micrastur, 277 
misisippiensis, Falco, 201 
misisippiensis, Ictinia, 201 
misoriensis, Accipiter, 213 
misoriensis, Urospizias, 213 
missus, Neonectris, 56 
missus, Pachyptila, 48 
missus. Prion, 48 
mitratus, Casuarius, 8 
mixta, ProceUaria, 52 
modesta, Ardea, 110 
modestus, Casmerodius, 110 
modestus, Crypturellus, 17 
modestus, Crypturus, 17 
modestus, Spheniscus, 33 
mcestissima, Fregetta, 71 
moestissima, Nesofregetta, 71 



332 



INDEX 



mollis, Procellaria, 64 
mollis, Pterodroma, 64 
moUissima, Anas, 179 
mollissima, Somateria, 179 
molucca. Ibis, 132 
molucca, Threskiornis, 132 
moluccarum, Butorides, 106 
moluccensis, Falco, 300 
moluccensis, Tinnunculus, 300 
Molybdophanes, 135 
molybdophanes, Struthio, 4 
monachus, Aegypius, 260 
monachus, Cathartes, 262 
monachus, Necrosyrtes, 262 
monachus, Vultur, 260 
monogrammicus, Falco, 243 
monogrammicus, Kaupifalco, 243 
monorhis, Oceanodroma, 74 
monorhis, Thalassidroma, 74 
montaguei, Puffinus, 58 
montaguei, Reinholdia, 58 
montana, Hamirostra, 204 
montana, Oestrelata, 63 
montanus, Phalcoboenus, 279 
moorei, Ixobrychus, 121 
morelii, Nisuoides, 216 
morenoi, Calopezus, 28 
morenoi, Eudromia, 28 
Morphnarchus, 241 
morphnoides, Aquila, 252 
morphnoides, Hieraaetus, 252 
Morphnus, 244, 246 
mortoni, Dissoura, 128 
mortyi, Accipiter, 213 
Morum, 82 
Moras, 82 

moschata, Anas, 155 
moschata, Cairina, 155 
moscoviae, Accipiter, 207 
moscoviae, Astur, 207 
mosleyi, Eudyptes, 31 
multicolor, Casuarius, 8 
munna, Dendrocygna, 154 
munda, Nectris, 59 
munda, Puffinus, 59 
murchisonianus, Falco, 293 
murina, Aquila, 255 
murphyi, Halobaena, 48 
murphyi, Phoebetria 46 
musicus, Falco, 225 
musicus, Melierax, 225 
mustelinus, Crypturellus, 18 



mustelinus, Crypturus, 18 
Mycteria, 126 
mycteria, Ciconia, 130 
mycteria, Jabiru, 130 
Mycteriinae, 126 
Myola, 97 

nsevosa, Anas, 156 
naevosa, Stictonetta, 156 
nanus, Ichthyaetus, 259 
nana, Icthyophaga, 259 
nanus, Taoniscus, 28 
nanus, Tinamus, 28 
Nannocnus, 123 
Nannopterum, 94 
napieri, Milvus, 203 
naso, Carnifex, 277 
naso, Micrastur, 277 
natalis, Accipiter, 215 
natalis, Urospizias, 215 
nationi, Fuligula, 175 
nativitatis, Puffinus, 57 
nattereri, Asturina, 238 
nattereri, Buteo, 238 
naumanni, Falco, 298 
Nealbatrus, 41 
nearctica, Aythya, 176 
nearctica, Nyroca, 176 
nebouxii, Sula, 83 
Necrosyrtes, 262 
neglectus, Anser, 148 
neglecta, Dissoura, 128 
neglecta, Egretta, 110 
neglectus, Falco, 300 
neglectus, Graculus, 88 
neglectus, Phalacrocorax, 88 
neglecta, Procellaria, 63 
Neochen, 154 
Neognathae, 29 
Neohierax, 283 
Neonectris, 53 
Neonisus, 206 
Neopelecanus, 79 
Neophron, 263 
Neornithes, 3 
neozealanicus, Puffinus, 54 
nereis, Garrodia, 71 
nereis, Thalassidroma, 71 
Nesierax, 287 
nesiotes, Sula, 85 
Nesobaza, 195 
Nesochen, 151 



INDEX 



333 



Nesofregetta, 71 
Nesonetta, 158 
nesophilus, Ardeirallus, 123 
nesophilus, Dupetor, 123 
Netta, 173 
Nettapus, 172 
Nettion, 158, 159 
neumanni, Melierax, 226 
newelli, Puffinus, 58 
newtoni, Falco, 302 
newtoni, Tinnunculus, 302 
n. hollandise, Casuarius, 10 
n. hollandise, Cereopsis, 145 
n. hollandise, Dromiceius, 10 
nicoUi, Fregata, 97 
nigra. Anas, ISO 
nigra, Ardea, 129 
nigra, Ciconia, 129 
nigra, Geranospiza, 268 
niger, Haliseetus, 259 
niger, Halietor, 93 
niger, Hydrocorax, 93 
niger, Ischnosceles, 268 
nigra, Oidemia, 180 
niger, Plectropterus, 145 
niger, Rostrhamus, 201 
nigra, Rupornis, 239 
niger, Vultur, 260 
nigricans, Anser, 149 
nigricans, Branta, 149 
nigriceps, Crypturellus, 18 
nigriceps, Crypturus, 18 
nigricollis, Busarellus, 245 
nigricollis, Colymbus, 39 
nigricollis, Falco, 245 
nigricollis, Podiceps, 39 
nigripennis, (Estrelata, 65 
nigripennis, Pterodroma, 65 
nigripes, Ardea, 111 
nigripes, Diomedea, 43 
nigripes, Egretta, 111 
nigrocapillus, Nothocercus, 14 
nigrocapillus, Tinamus, 14 
nigrogularis, Phalacrocorax, 88 
nigroguttata, Nathura, 27 
nigroplumbeus, Accipiter, 221 
nilotica, Hagedashia, 135 
nipalensis, Aquila, 255 
nipalensis, Circaetus, 255 
nipalensis, Nisaetus, 249 
nipalensis, Spizaetus, 249 
nippon. Ibis, 133 



nippon, Nipponia, 133 
Nipponia, 133 
nisoides, Accipiter, 223 
nisosimilis, Accipiter, 220 
nisosimilis, Falco, 220 
nisus, Accipiter, 219 
nisus, Falco, 219 
nisus, Haliseetus, 257 
nitida, Asturina, 241 
nitidus, Falco, 241 
nivea, Pagodroma, 67 
nivea, Procellaria, 67 
noctivagus, Crypturellus, 22 
noctivagus, Tinamus, 22 
Nomonyx, 183 
normani, Tonophoyx, 102 
notatus, Elanus, 193 
Nothocercus, 14 
Nothoprocta, 24 
Nothura, 26 
Notofalco, 287 
Notonetta, 158 
Notophoyx, 102 
nova, Pseudoprion, 50 
novaeguineae, Harpyopsis, 247 
novaeguineae, Hieracidea, 305 
novaeguineae, leracidea, 305 
novsehollandiaj, Accipiter, 214 
novaehollandiae, Anhinga, 95 
novaehollandiae, Ardea, 102 
novaehollandiae, Biziura, 185 
novsehollandiaj, Cereopsis, 145 
novsehollandise, Eudyptula, 32 
novsehollandise, Falco, 214 
novsehollandise, Notophoyx, 102 
novaehollandiae, Phaethon, 78 
novsehollandise, Phalacrocorax, 88 
novae hoUandiae, Plotus, 95 
novaehollandiae, Podiceps, 36 
novaehollandiae, Poliocephalus, 36 
novsehollandise, Spheniscus, 32 
novseseelandise. Anas, 175 
novseseelandise, Falco, 287 
novseseelandiae, Nyroca, 175 
novse zelandise, Ardeola, 121 
novsezelandise, Ixobrychus, 121 
novegeorgica, Pagodroma, 67 
novimexicana. Anas, 161 
nubicus, Torgos, 260 
nubicus, Vultur, 260 
nudiceps. Gyps, 262 
nudifrons, Ibis, 137 



334 



INDEX 



nudifrons, Phimosus, 137 
nugax, Procellaria, 60 
nugax, Puffinus, 60 
nutcheri, Neonectris, 56 
nyansae, Astur, 209 
Nyctanassa, 116 
Nycticorax, 114 
nycticorax, Ardea, 114 
nycticorax, Nycticorax, 114 
Nyroca, 173 
nyroca, Anas, 175 
nyroca, Nyroca, 175 
Nyrocinae, 173 

oatesi, Anser, 147 
obiensis, Accipiter, 212 
obiensis, Astur, 212 
objurgatus, Cerchneis, 299 
objurgatus, Falco, 299 
obscura, Anas, 161 
obscurus, Falco, 297 
obscurior, Aquila, 253 
obscurior, Astur, 211 
obsoletus, Accipiter, 212 
obsoletus, Astur, 212 
obsoletus, Crypturellus, 17 
obsoletus, Falco, 287 
obsoletus, Tinamus, 17 
occidentalis, Aechmophorus, 40 
occidentalis, Ardea, 100 
occidentalis, Bernicla, 150 
occidentalis, Branta, 150 
occidentalis, Crypturellus, 21 
occidentalis, Crypturus, 21 
occidentalis, Falco, 301 
occidentalis, Hydranassa, 113 
occidentalis, leracidea, 306 
occidentalis, Leucopternis, 242 
occidentalis, Pelecanus, 81 
occidentalis, Podiceps, 40 
occidentalis, Tinnunculus, 301 
occidentalis, Urubitinga, 244 
occiduus, Buteo, 238 
occidua, Rupornis, 238 
occipitalis, Casuarius, 9 
occipitalis, Cathartes, 191 
occipitalis, Colymbus, 38 
occipitalis, Falco, 250 
occipitalis, Lophaetus, 250 
occipitalis, Podiceps, 38 
occipitalis, Trigonoceps, 260 
occipitalis, Vultur, 260 



oceanica, Cuncuma, 258 
oceanica, Oceanites, 68 
oceanica, Procellaria, 68 
Oceanites, 68 
Oceanodroma, 72, 74 
ochracea, Cerchneis, 304 
ochraceus, Falco, 304 
ochraceiventris, Crypturellus, 17 
ochraceiventris, Crypturus, 17 
ochrocephalus, Milvago, 279 
octosetaceus, Mergus, 188 
Odontognathae, 3 
Odontopteryges, 97 
Odontopterygidae, 97 
Odontriorchis, 199 
Oestrelatella, 60 
Oidemia, 180 
oligista, Ardea, 100 
olivacea, Ibis, 134 
olivacea, Lampribis, 134 
olivaceus, Pelecanus, 86 
olivaceus, Phalacrocorax, 86 
olivei, Ardeiralla, 124 
oliveri, vEstrelata, 64 
oliveri, Phalacrocorax, 92 
oliveri, Pterodroma, 64 
olor, Anas, 144 
olor, Cygnus, 144 
onocrotalus, Pelecanus, 79, 80 
onslowi, Phalacrocorax, 91 
opisthomelas, Puffinus, 58 
Oreoibis, 133 
oreophilus, Buteo, 234 
orientalis, Aquila, 255 
orientalis, Botaurus, 124 
orientalis, Cerchneis, 300 
orientalis, Mergus, 187 
orientalis, Pernis, 198 
orientalis, Pterodroma, 65 
orientalis, Spizaetus, 248 
orientalis, Tinnunculus, 300 
orienticola, Astur, 209 
orinomus, Anas, 162 
orinomus, Querquedula, 162 
ornata, Nothoprocta, 25 
ornatus, Falco, 248 
ornatus, Rhynchotus, 25 
ornatus, Spizaetus, 248 
Oroaetus, 247 
Oroanassa, 116 
oscitans, Anastomus, 127 
oscitans, Ardea, 127 



INDEX 



335 



Ossifraga, 46 
oustaleti, Anas, 159 
oustaleti, Nothoprocta, 25 
ovampensis, Accipiter, 224 
ovivorus, Ictinaetus, 256 
owenii, Apteryx, 11 
owstoni, Cymochorea, 74 
owstoni, Oceanodroma, 74 
oxycerca, Cercibis, 136 
oxycercus, Ibis, 136 
oxyptera, Anas, 166 
Oxyura, 184 
Oxyurinae, 183 

Paehyptila, 48 

pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes, 31 
Pacificodroma, 72 
pacificus, Aesalon, 295 
pacifica, Ardea, 101 
pacifica, Bulweria, 68 
pacificus, Colymbus, 34 
pacificus, Falco, 295 
pacifica, Gavia, 34 
pacificus, Histrionicus, 178 
pacifica, Procellaria, 55 
pacificus, Puffinus, 55 
Pagodroma, 67 
Palaeognathae, 3 
palawanensis, Spilornis, 273 
pallens, Accipiter, 220 
pallescens, Rhynchotus, 24 
palliatus, Falco, 199 
palliatus, Odontriorchis, 199 
pallidiceps, Accipiter, 213 
pallidiceps, Urospizias, 213 
pallidus, Archibuteo, 236 
pallida, Asturina, 241 
pallida, Aviceda, 196 
pallida, Baza, 196 
pallidus, Buteo, 236 
pallida, Cuncuma, 257 
pallidus, Falco, 295 
pallidus, Haliaeetus, 257 
pallidus, Lithofalco, 295 
pallidus, Polyborus, 281 
pallidus, Spilornis, 272 
paUipes, Procellaria, 51 
palmerstoni, Fregata, 96 
palmerstoni, Pelecanus, 96 
palpebrata, Diomedea, 45 
palpebrata, Phoebetria, 45 
paludivagus, Milvago, 279 



panamensis, Cochlearius, 125 
panamensis, Crypturellus, 17 
panamensis, Crypturus, 17 
Pandion, 275 
Pandioninae, 275 
panayensis, Spilornis, 274 
papa, Sarcoramphus, 190 
papa, Vultur, 189 
papillosa. Ibis, 132 
papillosa, Pseudibis, 132 
papua, Aptenodytes, 30 
papua, Pygoscelis, 30 
papuanus, Accipiter, 224 
papuanus, Astur, 224 
papuanus, Casuarius, 7 
papuanus, Falco, 293 
Parabuteo, 240 
parasitus, Falco, 203 
parasitus, Milvus, 203 
Paraspizias, 206 
Parasula, 83 

parkinsoni, Procellaria, 52 
parryi, Elanus, 193 
parryi, Notophoyx, 102 
parryi, Podiceps, 36 
Parvifregata, 95 
parvirostris, Crypturellus, 23 
parvirostris, Crypturus, 23 
parvirostris, Procellaria, 62 
parvulus, Dromaius, 10 
paschae, Pterodroma, 63 
passerina, Procellaria, 69 
patagonica, Aptenodytes, 29 
patens, Butorides, 104 
patruelis, Ardea, 107 
patruelis, Butorides, 107 
paulus, Cerchneis, 302 
paulus, Falco, 302 
pauper, Nyctanassa, 117 
pauper, Nycticorax, 117 
pavoninus, Tinamus, 28 
pax, Falco, 291 
payesii, Ardea, 120 
payesii, Ixobrychus, 120 
Pealea, 70 
pealei, Falco, 290 
pealei, Pagodroma, 67 
pectoralis, Accipiter, 218 
pectoralis, Circaetus, 270 
pectoralis, Falco, 218 
pectoralis, Gymnogenys, 269 
pectoralis, Polyboroides, 269 



336 



INDEX 



pekinensis, Falco, 298 
peJagica, Aquila, 258 
pelagica, Procellaria, 72 
pelagicus, Halieeetus, 257 
pelagicus, Hydrobates, 72 
pelagicus, Phalacrocorax, 89 
Pelagodroma, 69 
Pelagornithidae, 82 
Pelagodyptes, 75 
Pelecani, 79 
Pelecanidae, 79 
Pelecaniformes, 77 
Pelecanoidea, 79 
Pelecanoides, 75 
Pelecanoididae, 75 
Pelecanus, 79, 80 
pelegrinoides, Falco, 289 
pelewensis, Anas, 160 
pelewensis, Nycticorax, 115 
Pelionetta, 182 
pelzelnii, Podiceps, 37 
pelzelnii, Poliocephalus, 37 
penelope, Anas, 168 
penelope, Mareca, 168 
peninsulae, Fregata, 96 
peninsularis, Falco, 303 
penicillatus, Carbo, 89 
penicillatus, Phalacrocorax, 89 
pennatus, Falco, 252 
pennatus, Hieraaetus, 252 
pennata, Pterocnemia, 5 
pennata, Rhea, 5 
pentlandii, Nothoprocta, 26 
pentlandii, Rhynchotus, 26 
pentlandi, Tinamotis, 29 
peposaca, Anas, 173 
peposaca, Metopiana, 173 
percna. Anas, 160 
Percnohierax, 228 
percnopterus, Neophron, 263 
percnopterus, Vultur, 263 
perconfusus, Falco, 290 
perdicarius, Crypturus, 26 
perdicaria, Nothoprocta, 26 
peregrinator, Falco, 289 
peregrinus, Falco, 288 
peregrina. Ibis, 138 
peregrinus, Plegadis, 138 
peregrinoides, Accipiter, 220 
percnopterus, Vultur, 263 
peringueyi, Heteroprion, 49 
peringueyi, Pachyptila, 49 



Perissonetta, 173 
perniger, Ictinaetus, 256 
pernigra, Aquila, 256 
Perninae, 194 
Pernis, 198 

peroni, Dendrocygna, 153 
peroni, Dromaius, 10 
Peronista, 9 

perpallida, Cerchneis, 298 
perplexa, Cerchneis, 304 
perplexus, Falco, 304 
perplexus, Spilornis, 272 
persicus, Puffinus, 60 
personata, Sula, 84 
perspicillaris, Accipiter, 220 
perspicillaris, Falco, 220 
perspicillata. Anas, 182 
perspicillata, Melanitta, 182 
perspicillatus, Phalacrocorax, 89 
perspicillata, Procellaria, 52 
perthi, Carbo, 90 
perthi, Phalacrocorax, 90 
peruviana, Cerchneis, 305 
peruviana, Crypturellus, 23 
peruviana, Crypturus, 23 
peruvianus, Falco, 305 
peruviana, Nothura, 26 
peruvianus, Tinamus, 14 
peruviensis, Buteo, 229 
pescadoresi, Neonectris, 56 
petoensis, Falco, 291 
Phseoaetus, 248 
Phseonetta, 181 
phseopygia, CEstrelata, 65 
phseopygia, Pterodroma, 65 
Phaethon, 77 
Phaethontes, 77 
Phaethontidae, 77 
phalsena, Falco, 303 
phalaena, Tinnunculus, 303 
Phalcoboenus, 279 
Phalacrocoracidae, 85 
Phalacrocorax, 85 
Philacte, 149 
philipi, Casuarius, 8 
philippensis, Colymbus, 36 
philippensis, Pelecanus, 80 
philippensis, Poliocephalus, 36 
philippensis, Spizaetus, 249 
phiJippii, Fulmarus, 67 
phillipii, Procellaria, 63 
phillipii, Pterodroma, 63 



INDEX 



337 



Phimosus, 137 
Phoebetria, 45 
Phoeniconaias, 141 
Phoenicoparrus, 141 
Phoenicopteri, 140 
Phoenicopteridae, 140 
Phoenicopterus, 140 
phoenicuros, Phaethon, 78 
Phoenicurus, 77 
picata, Agamia, 114 
picata, Ardea, 102 
picata, Notophoyx, 102 
pichinchse, Falco, 294 
pictus, Buteo, 233 
picticollis, Casuarius, 8 
pictilis, Halietor, 93 
pictilis, Phalacrocorax, 93 
pileatus, Accipiter, 217 
pileata, Ardea, 102 
pileatus, Falco, 217 
pileatus, Necrosyrtes, 263 
pileatus, Pilherodius, 102 
pileatus, Vultur, 263 
Pilherodius, 102 
pinnata, Ardea, 125 
pinnatus, Botaui'us, 125 
piscator, Pelecanus, 84 
Piscatrix, 83 
Pithecophaga, 247 
plagiata, Asturina, 240 
plancus, Falco, 280 
plancus, Polyborus, 280 
planes, Astur, 208 
planicola, Hypotriorchis, 292 
Platalea, 139 
platalea, Anas, 169 
platalea. Spatula, 169 
Plataleinae, '139 
platei, Diomedea, 44 
Platibis, 140 
platypterus, Buteo, 236 
platypterus, Sparvius, 236 
platyrhynchos, Anas, 159 
Plectropterinae, 144 
Plectropterus, 145 
'i^t^.: ^}^S^d''^' 138 



«1M 



plotus, Pelecanus, 85 
plotus, Sula, 85 
plumbeus, Falco, 201 
plumbeus. Ibis, 135 
plumbea, Icthyophaga, 259 
pliunbea, Ictinia, 201 



plumbea, Leucopternis, 242 
plumbeus, Micrastur, 278 
plumbeus, Polioaetus, 259 
plumbeus, Rostrhamus, 201 
plumbeiceps, Icthyophaga, 259 
plumbeiceps, Nothocercus, 15 
plumifera, Mesophoyx, 112 
plumiferus, Herodias, 112 
podiceps, Ardeola, 120 
podiceps, Colymbus, 41 
podiceps, Ixobrychus, 120 
podiceps, Podilymbus, 41 
Podil5rmbus, 41 
poecilochrous, Buteo, 229 
poecilogaster, Buteo, 229 
Poecilonetta, 158 
poecilopterus, Astur, 207 
poecilorhyncha. Anas, 160 
poggei, Colymbus, 36 
poggei, Poliocephalus, 36 
poiciloptila, Ardea, 124 
poiciloptilus, Botaurus, 124 
Polemaetus, 251 
Polihieracinae, 281 
Polihierax, 282 
Poliocephalus, 35, 37 
poliocephalus, Accipiter, 214 
poliocephala, Chloephaga, 151 
poliocephalus, Podiceps, 37 
poliocephalus, Poliocephalus, 37 
poliogaster, Accipiter, 219 
poliogaster, Falco, 219 
polionotus, Accipiter, 212 
polionata, Asturina, 240, 242 
polionota, Leucopternis, 242 
polionotus, Urospizias, 212 
poliopsis, Accipiter, 211 
poliopsis, Micronisus, 211 
poliopterus, Melierax, 225 
Polyborinae, 278 
Polyborus, 280 
polycryptus, Accipiter, 215 
polynesise, Puffinus, 60 
polyosoma, Falco, 229 
polyosoma, Buteo, 229 
Polysticta, 182 
polyzonoides, Accipiter, 211 
pomarina, Aquila, 255 
pondicerianus, Hal[iastur], 204 
ponticerianus, Vultur, 259 
Porthmornis, 75 
Potamolegus, 228 



338 



INDEX 



pottsi, Nesierax, 287 
Praedo, 228 

praepes, Crypturellus, 21 
praepes, Crypturornis, 21 
praetermissus, Ardeirallus, 123 
praetermissa, Erythrophoyx, 123 
princeps, Leucopternis, 242 
Priocella, 51 
Prionochilus, 186 
Procellaria, 52 
Procellariiformes, 41 
Procellariidae, 46 
progressus, Falco, 285 
Promergus, 186 
Psammoaetus, 253 
Pseudibis, 132 
Pseudocarbo, 85 
Pseudocircus, 264 
Pseudogyps, 262 
Pseudotadorna, 157 
Pterocnemia, 5 
Pterodroma, 60 
Pteronetta, 172 
ptilorhyncus, Falco, 199 
ptilorhyncus, Pernis, 199 
Puffininae, 51 
Puflfinus, 53, 56 
puffinus, Procellaria, 57 
puffinus, Puffinus, 57 
pulchellus, Accipiter, 214 
pulchellus, Astur, 214 
pulchellus, Cheniscus, 171 
pulcheUus, Nettapus, 171 
puUus, Ixobrychus, 122 
pumila, Ardea, 120 
puna, Anas, 165 
punctata. Anas, 164 
punctatus, Falco, 302 
punctatus, Pelicanus, 92 
punctatus, Phalacrocorax, 92 
punensis, Crypturellus, 17 
punensis, Crypturus, 17 
punicus, Accipiter, 219 
purpuragula, Carbo, 87 
purguragula, Phalacrocorax, 87 
purpurea, Ardea, 101 
pusillus, Accipiter, 216 
pusilla, Ardea, 121 
pusillus, Scelospizias, 216 
pygargus. Circus, 265 
pygargus, Falco, 265 
pygmeus, Halietor, 94 



pygmeus, Pelecanus, 94 
Pygoscelis, 30 
Pyrrherodia, 101 
pyrrhogaster, Falco, 297 

quaesitandus, Accipiter, 224 
queenslandica, Aviceda, 197 
queenslandica, Baza, 197 
queenslandicus, Erythrotriorchis, 225 
queenslandicus, Ixobrychus, 121 
Querquedula, 158, 159 
querquedula, Anas, 162 
queribundus, Herpetotheres, 276 
quintal!, Pterodroma, 64 
quirundus, Circus, 265 

radama, Falco, 290 
raddei, Buteo, 230 
radiatus, Erythrotriorchis, 225 
radiatus, Falco, 225 
radiatus, Gymnogenys, 269 
radiatus, Tinamus, 19 
radiatus, Vultur, 269 
radjah, Anas, 157 
radjah, Tadorna, 157 
raii, Astur, 214 
raja, Spilornis, 273 
ralloides, Ardea, 108 
ralloides, Ardeola, 108 
ranfurlyi, Phalacrocorax, 91 
ranivorus, Circus, 266 
ranivorus, Falco, 266 
ranivorus, Gampsonyx, 201 
rapax, Aquila, 254 
rapax, Falco, 254 
raptor, Aquila, 254 
rara, Lampribis, 134 
regalis, Archibuteo, 231 
regalis, Buteo, 231 
regia, Platalea, 140 
regulus, Falco, 295 
reichenowi, Milvus, 203 
Reinholdia, 53 
reinholdi, Puffinus, 57 
reinwardtii, Aviceda, 196 
reinwardtii, Falco, 196 
reischekia, Phcebastria, 43 
relictus, Pelecanus, 81 
renschi, Falco, 301 
repens, Ardea, 101 
resplendens, Phalacrocorax, 89 
rex, Balseniceps, 125 



INDEX 



339 



rex, Morus, 82 
rex, Sulita, 82 
Rhea, 4 
Rheidae, 4 
Rheiformes, 4 
rhenanus, Faico, 288 
rhodesi, Tinnunculus, 300 
rhodogaster, Accipiter, 223 
rhodogaster, Nisus, 223 
Rhodonessa, 170 
rhodorhynchus, Anser, 147 
Rhothonia, 42 
Rhynchodon, 287 
Rhynchofalco, 294 
rhynchotis, Anas, 170 
rhynchotis. Spatula, 170 
Rhynchotus, 23 
richardsonii, Falco, 296 
richmondi, Diomedea, 43 
richmondi, Spilornis, 272 
richmondi, Thalassarche, 43 
ricketti, Spilornis, 272 
ridgwayi, Buteo, 233 
ridgwayi, Falcinellus, 138 
ridgwayi, Fregata, 96 
ridgwayi, Hyomorphnus, 244 
ridgwayi, Pandion, 275 
ridgwayi, Plegadis, 138 
ridgwayi, Rupornis, 233 
ridgwayi, Urubitinga, 244 
riggenbachi, Astur, 210 
riggenbachi, Phalacrocorax, 89 
riocourii, Chelictinia, 194 
riocourii, Elanoides, 194 
riphaeus, Falco, 288 
rivieri, Buteo, 237 
roberti, Chenopis, 144 
robinsoni, Butorides, 104 
robustus, Astur, 214 
robustus, Tinamus, 13 
rodgersii, Fulmarus, 47 
rogersi. Anas, 160, 163 
rogersi, Butorides, 107 
rogersi, Casuarius, 7 
rogersi, Cheniscus, 171 
rogersi. Circus, 265 
rogersi, Nettion, 163 
rogersi, Plegadis, 138 
rogersi, Sula, 85 
rogersi, Xenorhynchus, 130 
rohui, Diomedea, 42 
rohui, Diomedella, 44 



rolland, Colymbus, 38 
rolland, Podiceps, 38 
rooki, Accipiter, 213 
rosea, Ajaia, 140 
roseus, Pelecanus, 80 
roseigularis, Casuarius, 8 
roseotincta, Phaethon, 78 
roseotincta, Scseophaethon, 78 
rossii, Anser, 146 
rossii, Chen, 146 
rostrata, Nothoprocta, 25 
rostrata, Procellaria, 62 
rostrata, Pterodroma, 62 
Rostrhamus, 201 
rothschildi, Buteo, 234 
rothschildi, Casuarius, 9 
rothschildi, Diomedea, 42 
rothschildi, Dromiceius, 10 
rothschildi, Fregata, 96 
rothschildi, Lampribis, 134 
rothschildi, Phaethon, 78 
rothschildi, Rhea, 4 
rothschildi, Scseophaethon, 78 
royana, Fregetta, 70 
royanus, Fregettornis, 70 
royanus, Puffinus, 55 
ruber, Phoenicopterus, 141 
rubianae, Accipiter, 214 
rubianae, Astur, 214 
rubidiceps, chloephaga, 151 
rubidus, Anas, 184 
rubida, Oxyura, 184 
rubra, Guara, 137 
rubra, Scolopax, 137 
rubricauda, Phaethon, 78 
rubricauda, Phaeton, 78 
rubricollis, Accipiter, 224 
rubripersonatus. Neophron, 263 
rubripes, Anas, 161 
rubripes, Crypturellus, 20 
rubripes, Crypturus, 20 
rubripes, Sula, 84 
rubrirostris. Anas, 167 
rudolfi, Falco, 290 
rufa. Anas, 175 
rufa, Anhinga, 94 
rufa, Ardea, 109 
rufa, Aviceda, 196 
rufa, Baza, 196 

rufus, Plotus, 94 — 't^ p. 3^0 
rufescens, Ardea, 109 
rufescens, Dichromanassa, 109 



340 



INDEX 






rufescens, Pelecanus, 80 
rufescens, Rhynchotus, 24 
rufescens, Tinamus, 24 
ruficauda, Asturina, 238 
ruficauda, Buteo, 238 
ruficeps, Tinamus, 14 
ruficollis, Anser, 150 
ruficoUis, Branta, 150 
ruficollis, Cathartes, 191 
ruficollis, Colymbus, 35 
ruficollis, Egretta, 113 
ruficollis, Falco, 296 
ruficollis, Hydranassa, 113 
ruficollis, Micrastur, 277. 
ruficollis, Pernis, 198 
ruficollis, Poliocephalus, 35 
ruficollis, Sparvius, 277 
rufimentum, Hydranassa, 113 
rufina, Anas, 173 
rufinus, Buteo, 230 
rufinus, Falco, 230 
rufina, Netta, 173 
rufipectus, Spilornis, 273 
rufipedoides, Falco, 292 
rufipennis, Butastur, 243 
rufipennis, Poliornis, 243 
rufitergum, Tadorna, 157 
rufitinctus, Accipiter, 216 
rufitinctus, Spizaetus, 216 
rufitorques, Accipiter, 216 
rufitorques, Aster, 216 
rufiventris, Accipiter, 220 
rufiventris, Ardea, 107 
rufiventris, Erythocnus, 107 
rufiventer, Milvus, 203 
rufofuscus, Buteo, 230 
rufofuscus, Falco, 230 
rufolineatus, Gorsachius, 117 
rufopectus, Podiceps, 37 
rufopectus, Poliocephalus, 37 
rufoschistaceus, Accipiter, 214 
rufoschistaceus, Astur, 214 
rufotibia, Erythrotriorchis, 225 
rufotinctus, Casuarius, 9 
rufulus, Circaetus, 270 
rufulus, Circus, 226 
rupicolaeformis, Cerchneis, 300 
rupicolaeformis, Falco, 300 
rupicoloides, Falco, 301 
rupicolus, Falco, 300 
Rupornis, 228 
ruppelli, Anas, 161 



ruppellii. Gyps, 261 
ruppellii, Vultur, 261 
rusticolus, Falco, 286 
rutenbergi Ardea, 105 
rutenbergi, Butorides, 105 
rutherfordi, Spilornis, 272 
rutila. Anas, 156 

sacra, Ardea, 112 
sacra, Demigretta, 112 
saceroides, Falco, 285 
saceroides, Gennaia, 285 
Sagittariidae, 192 
Sagittarioidea, 192 
Sagittarius, 192 
salmoni, Tigrisoma, 119 
saltatrix, Procellaria, 71 
salvadorii, Casuarius, 6 
salvadorii, Chauna, 142 
salvadcrii, Nothocercus, 15 
salvadorii, Nothura, 27 
salvadorii, Spilornis, 272 
Salvadorina, 183 
salvini, Accipiter, 221 
salvini, Crypturellus, 20 
salvini, Crypturus, 20 
salvini, Diomedea, 44 
salvini, Nisus, 221 
salvini, Pachyptila, 49 
salvini. Prion, 49 
salvini, Thalassogeron, 44 
samueli, Falco, 293 
sanborni, Nothoprocta, 26 
sanctilucse, Ardea, 100 
sanfordi, Diomedea, 42 
sandvicensis, Anser, 151 
sandvicensis, Nesochen, 151 
sandwichensis, OEstrelata, 65 
sandwichensis, Pterodroma, 65 
sarasini, Haliastur, 205 
Sarcogyps, 259 
Sarcoramphus, 189 
Sarkidiornis, 155 
sarmaticus, Cerchneis, 298 
sassii, Accipiter, 222 
sassi, Sticticarbo, 92 
saturata, Asturina, 239 
saturatus, Buteo, 235, 239 
saturatus, Butorides, 103 
saturatus, Falco, 291, 299 
saturatus, Tinamus, 13 
savannarum, Nothura, 27 



INDEX 



341 



Scseophsethon, 77 
scalaris, Aestrelata, 63 
scandinaviae, Falco, 288 
schillingsi, Pseudogyps, 262 
schi0leri, Podiceps, 40 
schistacea, Ardea, 111 
schistacea, Asturina, 242 
schistacea, Demigretta, 111 
schistacea, Leucopternis, 242 
schistacinus, Accipiter, 219 
schistacinus, Astur, 219 
schistochlamys, Accipiter, 217 
schlegeli, Eudyptes, 31 
schvedowi, Accipiter, 207 
schvedowi, Astur, 207 
scolopax, Nothocercus, 19 
Scopidae, 126 
Scopoidea, 126 
Scopus, 126 
sclateri, Eudyptes, 31 
sclaterii, Casuarius, 6 
scriptus, Elanus, 193 
scutulata. Anas, 155 
scutulata, Asarcornis, 155 
seminocturnus, Thrasyaccipiter, 277 
semipalmata, Anas, 145 
semipalmata, Anseranas, 145 
semiplumbea, Leucopternis, 242 
semitorquatus, Falco, 282 
semitorquatus, Micrastur, 277 
semitorquatus, Sparvius, 277 
semitorquatus, Polihierax, 282 
senegalensis, Ephippiorhynchus, 130 
senegalensis, Mycteria, 130 
sennetti, Buteo, 228 
septentrionalis, Cathartes, 190 
septentrionalis, Falco, 294 
septentrionalis, Tinamus, 12 
serpentarius, Falco, 192 
serpentarius, Sagittarius, 192 
serrator, Mergus, 187 
serrator, Morus, 82 
serrator, Pelecanus, 82 
serratus, Pezus, 14 
serratus, Tinamus, 14 
serrirostris, Anser, 148 
severus, Falco, 292 
sharpei, Accipiter, 222 
sharpei, Astur, 218, 222 
sibilatrix. Anas, 168 
sibilatrix, Ardea, 114 
sibilatrix, Mareca, 168 



sibilatrix, Syrigma, 114 
sibiricus, Anser, 147 
sibiricus, Melanonyx, 147 
Sibirionetta, 158 
siliga, Pterodroma, 67 
simitorquata, Falco, 282 
simonsi, Buteo, 229 
simonsi, Nothoprocta, 25 
simplex, Crypturus, 19 
sinensis, Aquila, 255 
sinensis, Ardea, 121 
sinensis, Ixobrychus, 121 
sinensis, Phalacrocorax, 87 
sinensis, Pelecanus, 87 
sipora, Butorides, 106 
sipora, Spilornis, 273 
s.-johannis, Buteo, 236 
s. johannis, Falco, 236 
Smithaetus, 269 
socorroensis, Buteo, 232 
socorroensis, Oceanodroma, 74 
sociabilis, Herpetotheres, 202 
sociabilis, Rostrhamus, 202 
solanderi, Macronectes, 46 
solanderi, Pachyptila, 50 
solanderi, Pseudoprion, 50 
solandri, Procellaria, 63 
solandri, Pterodroma, 63 
solitarius, Buteo, 234 
solitarius, Circaetus, 246 
solitaria, Cryptura, 12 
solitarius, Tinamus, 12 
solitaria, Urubitornis, 246 
soloensis, Accipiter, 212 
soloensis, Falco, 212 
Somateria, 179, 180 
sordida, Procellaria, 66 
sordida, Pterodroma, 66 
soui, Crypturellus, 18 
soui, Tinamus, 18 
sparsa, Anas, 162 
sparsimfasciatus, Accipiter, 209 
sparsimfasciatus, Astur, 209 
sparverius, Falco, 302 
sparveroides, Falco, 303 
Spatula, 169 
spatzi, Struthio, 3 
speciosa, Ardea, 108 
speciosa, Ardeola, 108 
spectabilis. Anas, 180 
spectabilis, Astur, 274 
spectabilis, Drytriorchis, 274 



342 



INDEX 



spectabilis, Somateria, 180 
Speculanas, 158 
specularioides, Anas, 165 
specularis, Anas, 165 
spencei, Crypturellus, 22 
spencei, Crypturus, 22 
spenceri, Dromiceius, 10 
Spheniscidae, 29 
Sphenisciformes, 29 
Spheniscus, 33 
Sphenorhynchus, 128 
sphenurus, Accipiter, 210 
sphenurus, Falco, 210 
sphenurus, Haliastur, 205 
sphenurus, Milvus, 205 
sphenurus, Puffinus, 55 
spilogaster, Haematornis, 271 
spilogaster, Hieraaetus, 252 
spilogaster, Spilornis, 271 
spilogaster, Spizaetus, 252 
spilonotus. Circus, 267 
Spilornis, 270 
spilothorax, Circus, 267 
spinicauda. Anas, 166 
spinicollis, Carphibis, 132 
Spizaetus, 248 
Spizastur, 247 
Spiziapteryx, 281 
splendida, Lampribis, 134 
spodiogaster, Butorides, 105 
sponsa, Aix, 170 
sponsa, Anas, 170 
squamatus, Mergus, 187 
stagnatilis, Ardetta, 107 
stagnatilis, Butorides, 107 
stalkeri, Platalea, 140 
steadi, Carbo, 88, 92 
steadi, Phalacrocorax, 88 
steadi, Procellaria, 52 
steadi, Sticticarbo, 92 
steerei, Pernis, 199 
stejnegeri, Melanitta, 181 
stejnegeri, Oidemia, 181 
stellaris, Ardea, 124 
stellaris, Botaurus, 124 
stellatus, Colymbus, 34 
stellata, Gavia, 34 
stelleri. Anas, 182 
stelleri, Polysticta, 182 
stenozona, Aviceda, 197 
stenozona. Baza, 197 
Stephanoaetus, 251 



stevensoni, Accipiter, 223 

stewarti, Phalacrocorax, 91 

Stictapteryx, 11 

Stictonetta, 156 

stormi, Dissoura, 128 

stormi, Melanopelargus, 128 

streichi, Falco, 292 

strepera. Anas, 168 

streperus, Chaulelasmus, 168 

stresemanni, Aviceda, 196 

stresemanni. Baza, 196 

striatus, Accipiter, 221 

striata, Ardea, 104 

striatus, Butorides, 104 

striatulus, Accipiter, 208 

striatulus, Astur, 208 

strictipennis, Ibis, 132 

strictipennis, Threskiornis, 132 

strigulosus, Crypturellus, 22 

strigulosus, Tinamus, 22 

strumosa, Fregata, 96 

Struthio, 3 , 

Struthionidae, 3 

Struthioniformes, 3 

sturmii, Ardea, 123 

sturmii, Ixobrychus, 123 

subaesalon, Falco, 294 

subalaris, Puffinus, 59 

subboschas. Anas, 159 

subbuteo, Falco, 291 
subcormoranus, Carbo, 87 
subcristata, Aviceda, 197 
subcristatus, Lepidogenys, 197 
subcristatus, Trachypelmus, 13 
subleucosternus, Haliastur, 205 
submelanogenys, Falco, 290 
subniger, Falco, 287 
subtilis, Buteogallus, 245 
subtilis, Urubitinga, 245 
suckleyi, Falco, 296 
suffusus, Casuarius, 9 
Sula, 83 

sula, Pelecanus, 84 
sula, Sula, 84 
sulaensis, Accipiter, 224 
sulaensis, Circaetus, 274 
sulaensis, Nisus, 224 
sulaensis, Spilornis, 274 
sulcirostris, Carbo, 86 
sulcirostris, Phalacrocorax, 86 
Sulidae, 82 
Sulita, 82 



INDEX 



343 



Suloidea, 82 
sumatrana, Ardea, 98 
sumbaensis, Accipiter, 212 
sumbaensis, Urospizias, 212 
sundevalli, Ardea, 104 
sundevalli, Butorides, 104 
superciliaris, Buteo, 239 
superciliaris, Sparvius, 239 
superciliosus, Accipiter, 218 
superciliosa. Anas, 160 
superciliosus, Falco, 218 
suschkini, Gavia, 34 
suschkini, Urinator, 34 
swainsoni, Buteo, 233 
swainsonii, Gampsonyx, 282 
sylvestris, Accipiter, 212 
syriacus, Struthio, 4 
Syrigma, 114 

tachiro, Accipiter, 209 
tachiro, Falco, 209 
Tachybaptus, 35 » 
Tachyeres, 176 
taczanowskii, Colymbus, 38 
taczanowskii, Nothoprocta, 24 
taczanowskii, Podiceps, 38 
Tadorna, 157 
tadorna, Anas, 157 
tadorna, Tadorna, 157 
tadornoides. Anas, 156 
tadornoides, Casarca, 156 
tseniata, Aptenodytes, 30 
taeniatus, Morphnus, 246 
tseniata, Pygoscelis, 30 
taissiae. Circus, 264 
tanypterus, Falco, 285 
Taoniscus, 28 
tao, Tinamus, 12 
tarapacensis, Pterocnemia, 5 
tasmanica, leracidea, 306 
tataupa, Crypturellus, 23 
tataupa, Tinamus, 23 
teesa, Butastur, 243 
teesa. Circus, 243 
temminckii, Accipiter, 209 
temminckii, Astur, 209 
temminckii. Ibis, 133 
temucoensis, Milvago, 279 
tenebrosus, Astur, 209 
teneriffae, Accipiter, 219 
tenuirostris, Gyps, 262 
tenuirostris, Puffinus, 56 



tenuirostris, Rostrihamus, 202 
Terathopius, 269 
Teratornithidae, 192 
territori, Haliastur, 205 
territori, Mesocarbo, 87 
territori, Mesophoyx, 112 
territori, Phalacrocorax, 87 
tethys, Oceanodroma, 72 
tethys, Thalassidroma, 72 
texanus, Buteo, 233 
thagus, Pelecanus, 81 
Thalassoica, 51 
Thalassornis, 183 
Thaumatibis, 132 
Theristicus, 135 
thompsoni, Pterodroma, 63 
Thrasyaccipiter, 276 
Threskiornis, 131 
Threskiornithidae, 131 
Threskiornithinae, 131 
Threskiornithoidea, 131 
thula, Ardea, 113 
thula, Leucophoyx, 113 
Thyellodroma, 55 
Tigribaphe, 118 
tigrina, Ardea, 118 
Tigriornis, 118 
Tigrisoma, 118 
timorlaoensis, Aviceda, 196 
timorlaoensis. Baza, 196 
Tinamidae, 12 
Tinamiformes, 12 
Tinamotis, 29 
Tinamus, 12 
Tinnunculus, 294 
tinnunculus, Falco, 298 
titan, Fregetta, 70 
tjendanae, Accipiter, 215 
tobagensis, Butorides, 104 
Toburides, 102 
Tonophoyx, 102 
Torgos, 260 

tormenti, Demigretta, 112 
torquata, Chaja, 142 
torquata, Chauna, 142 
torquatus, Falco, 215 
toussenelii, Accipiter, 210 
toussenelii, Nisus, 210 
toyoshimai, Buteo, 236 
tracheliotus, Torgos, 260 
tracheliotus, Vultur, 260 
trachyrhynchus, Pelecanus, 80 



344 



INDEX 



transfasciatus, Crypturellus, 22 
transfasciatus, Crypturus, 22 
transriphaeus, Erythropus, 297 
traversi, Phalacrocorax, 92 
treganzai, Ardea, 99 
tricarunculatus, Casuarius, 6 
tricolor, Ardea, 113 
tricolor, Hydranassa, 113 
tricolor, Podiceps, 36 
tricolor, Poliocephalus, 36 
Trigonoceps, 260 
trinitatis, Fregata, 97 
trinotatus, Accipiter, 210 
tristis, Anas, 161 
tristrami, Oceanodroma, 74 
trivirgatus, Accipiter, 217 
trivirgatus, Falco, 217 
tropica, Fregetta, 70 
tropica, Thalassidroma, 70 
tropicalis, Accipiter, 222 
tropicalis, Buteo, 231 
tropicalis, Cerchneis, 303 
tropicalis, Falco, 303 
trouessarti, Pterodroma, 62 
tschusii, Falco, 284 
tubulata, Fregetta, 71 
tunneyi, Carbo, 90 
tunneyi, Puffinus, 59 
tunnyi, Fregata, 97 
txirkestanicus, Cerchneis, 298 
turneri, Merganetta, 188 
turtur, Pachyptila, 50 
turtur, Procellaria, 50 
typicus, Gymnogenys, 269 
typica, Halobaena, 47 
typicus, Poloboroides, 269 
tyrannus, Falco, 248 
tyrannus, Spizaetus, 248 
tzitzihoa, Anas, 167 

Ultratinnunculus, Falco, 298 
umbretta, Scopus, 126 
umbrinus, Buteo, 231 
unappendiculatus, Casuarius, 9 
uncinatus, Chondrohierax, 200 
uncinatus, Falco, 200 
undulata. Anas, 161 
undulata, Ardea, 120 
undulatus, Crypturellus, 19 
undulatus, Tinamus, 19 
undulatus, Zebrilus, 120 
unduliventer, Accipiter, 209 



unduliventer, Falco, 209 
unicinctus, Falco, 240 
unicinctus, Parabuteo, 240 
unicolor, Cerchneis, 301 
uralensis, Falco, 286 
uralensis, Hierofalco, 286 
urile, Pelecanus, 90 
urile, Phalacrocorax, 90 
urinatrix, Pelecanoides, 76 
urinatrix, Procellaria, 76 
Uroaetus, 256 
Urotriorchis, 227 
urschi, Lophotibis, 139 
Urubitinga, 244 
urubitinga, Cathartes, 191 
urubitinga, Falco, 244 
urubitinga, Hypomorphnus, 244 
Urubitornis, 246 
urubu, Vultur, 190 
ussuriana, Ardea, 101 
ussuriana, Phoyx, 101 
ussuriensis, Falco, 288, 292 

vagans, Ictinia, 201 
valisineria. Anas, 173 
valisineria, Nyroca, 173 
vanhoffeni, Phalacrocorax, 92 
variegata. Anas, 156 
variegata, Casarca, 156 
variegatus, Crypturellus, 20 
variegatus, Dysporus, 83 
variegata. Spatula, 170 
variegata, Sula, 83 
variegatus, Tetrao, 20 
varius, Pelecanus, 90 
varius, Phalacrocorax, 90 
velificans, Procellaria, 67 
velificans, Pterodroma, 67 
velox, Accipiter, 221 
velox, Falco, 221 
venator, Accipiter, 221 
venezuelensis, Accipiter, 221 
venezuelensis, Nothocercus, 15 
ventralis, Accipiter, 221 
ventralis, Buteo, 229 
vermiculatus, Crypturellus, 19 
vermiculatus, Tinamus, 19 
verreauxii, Aquila, 256 
verreauxii, Aviceda, 195 
verrucosus, Halieus, 91 
verrucosus, Phalacrocorax, 91 
versicolor. Anas, 165 



INDEX 



345 



vespertinus, Falco, 297 
victoria, Ixobrychus, 121 
victorise, Halobsena, 48 
victorise, Oxjoira, 185 
victorianus, Elanus, 193 
viduata, Anas, 153 
viduata, Dendrocygna, 153 
vigilax, Accipiter, 216 
vigilax, Astur, 216 
vigua, Phalacrocorax, 86 
vinaceigula, Melanophoyx, 109 
vindhiana, Aquila, 255 
violacea, Ardea, 116 
violacea, Nyctanassa, 116 
violicollis, Casuarius, 6 
virescens, Ardea, 103 
virescens, Butorides, 103 
virgatus, Accipiter, 223, 277 
virgatus, Falco, 223, 277 
viridigularis, Gavia, 34 
vittata, Erismatura, 185 
vittata, Oxyura, 185 
vittata, Procellaria, 48 
v-nigra, Somateria, 179 
vocifer, Falco, 257 
vocifer, Haliseetus, 257 
vociferoides, Haliseetus, 257 
vociferus, Elanus, 193 
vociferus, Falco, 193 
vulcanorum, Podiceps, 36 
vulcanorum, Poliocephalus, 36 
vulgaris. Gyps, 261 
vulpinus, Buteo, 235 
vulpinus, Falco, 235 
vulsini, Anhinga, 94 
Vultur, 189 

wahlbergi, Aquila, 256 
waigiuensis, Salvadorina, 183 
wallaca, Diomedella, 44 
wallacii, Accipiter, 215 
wallacii, Astur, 215 
wardi, Ardea, 100 
washingtoniensis, Falco, 258 
washingtoniensis, Haliaeetus, 258 
websteri, Sula, 84 
weddelli, Tinamus, 12 
weiskei, Eutolmaetus, 252 
weiskei, Hieraaetus, 252 



westralensis, Botaurus, 124 
westraliensis, Milvus, 204 
westralis, Biziura, 185 
westralis, Carbo, 88 
westralis, Casarca, 156 
westralis, Diomedea, 42 
westralis, Pelecanus, 80 
westralis, Phaethon, 78 
whitei, Hypoleucus, 90 
whitei, Platalea, 140 
whitneyi, Puffinus, 56 
wilsoni, Fregata, 97 
wilsonii, Chondrohierax, 200 
wilsonii, Cymindis, 200 
wilsoni, Macronectes, 46 
wilsoni, Qilstrelata, 64 
wilsonii, Procellaria, 68 
wolfi. Circus, 267 
wolterstorffi, Accipiter, 220 
woodfordi, Ardeiralla, 123 
woodfordi, Dupetor, 123 
woodwardi, Dromiceius, 10 
woodwardi, Eudyptula, 32 
wortheni, Oestrelata, 64 
wortheni, Pterodroma, 64 
wyvilliana. Anas, 159 

Xenorhynchus, 129 

yapura, Crypturellus, 19 
yapura, Pezus, 19 
yelkouan, Procellaria, 57 
yelkouan, Puffinus, 57 
yetapa, Elanoides, 194 
yetapa, Milvus, 194 

zamorae, Rupornis, 238 
zealanicus, Puffinus, 54 
Zebrilus, 119 ■; '^ 
zechi, Pseudogyps, 262 
zeledoni, Cancroma, 125 
zeledoni, Cochlearius, 125 
zenkeri, Accipiter, 222 
Zonerodius, 118 
zoniventris, Falco, 297 
zonorhyncha, Anas, 160 
zonothorax, Climacocercus, 278 
zonothorax, Micrastur, 278 
zuliensis, Tinamus, 13 




3 2044 062 548 441