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Full text of "Check-list of North American birds : the species of birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands / prepared by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union"

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CHECK-LIST 



North American Birds 



The Species of Birds of North America 

from the Arctic through Panama, 

Including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands 



PREPARED BY 
THE COMMITTEE ON CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION 



SIXTH EDITION 
1983 



Zoological nomenclature is a means, not an end. to Zoological Science 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION 

1983 



Copyright 1983 

by 

The American Ornithologists' Union 

All rights reserved, except that pages or sections may be quoted for research purposes. 



ISBN Number: 0-9436 10-32-X 



Preferred citation: 
American Ornithologists' Union, 1983, Check-list of North American birds, 6th edition. 



Printed by Allen Press, Inc. 
Lawrence. Kansas. U.S.A. 



CONTENTS 



Dedication viii 

Preface ix 

Check-list 1 

I. Tinamiformes 1 

1 . Tinamidae: Tinamous 1 

II. Gaviiformes 3 

1 . Gaviidae: Loons 3 

III. Podicipediformes 6 

1 . Podicipedidae: Grebes 6 

IV. Procellariiformes 11 

1 . Diomedeidae: Albatrosses 11 

2. Procellariidae: Shearwaters and Petrels 13 

3. Hydrobatidae: Storm-Petrels 26 

V. Sphenisciformes 31 

1 . Spheniscidae: Penguins 31 

VI. Pelecaniformes 31 

1 . Phaethontidae: Tropicbirds 31 

2. Sulidae: Boobies and Gannets 33 

3. Pelecanidae: Pelicans 36 

4. Phalacrocoracidae: Cormorants 37 

5. Anhingidae: Darters 40 

6. Fregatidae: Frigatebirds 41 

VII. Ciconiiformes 42 

1 . Ardeidae: Bitterns and Herons 42 

2. Threskiornithidae: Ibises and Spoonbills 55 

A. Threskiornithinae: Ibises 55 

B. Plataleinae: Spoonbills 58 

3. Ciconiidae: Storks 58 

VIII. Phoenicopteriformes 59 

1. Phoenicopteridae: Flamingos 59 

IX. Anseriformes 60 

1. Anatidae: Swans, Geese and Ducks 60 

A. Anserinae: Whistling-Ducks, Swans and Geese . . 60 

B. Anatinae: Ducks 71 

X. Falconiformes 98 

1. Cathartidae: American Vultures 98 

2. Accipitridae: Kites, Eagles, Hawks and Allies 100 

A. Pandioninae: Ospreys 100 

B. Accipitrinae: Kites, Eagles, Hawks and Allies ... 101 

3. Falconidae: Caracaras and Falcons 122 



XL Galliformes 129 

1. Cracidae: Curassows and Guans 129 

2. Phasianidae: Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys and Quail 132 

A. Phasianinae: Partridges and Pheasants 132 

B. Tetraoninae: Grouse 136 

C. Meleagridinae: Turkeys 141 

D. Odontophorinae: Quail 141 

E. Numidinae: Guineafowl 148 

XII. Gruiformes 149 

1. Rallidae: Rails, Gallinules and Coots 149 

A. Rallinae: Rails, Gallinules and Coots 149 

2. Heliornithidae: Sungrebes 160 

3. Eurypygidae: Sunbitterns 161 

4. Aramidae: Limpkins 161 

5. Gruidae: Cranes 162 

A. Gruinae: Typical Cranes 162 

XIII. Charadriiformes 163 

1. Burhinidae: Thick-knees 163 

2. Charadriidae: Plovers and Lapwings 164 

A. Vanellinae: Lapwings 164 

B. Charadriinae: Plovers 165 

3. Haematopodidae: Oystercatchers 173 

4. Recurvirostridae: Stilts and Avocets 174 

5. Jacanidae: Jacanas 175 

6. Scolopacidae: Sandpipers, Phalaropes and Allies .... 176 

A. Scolopacinae: Sandpipers and Allies 176 

B. Phalaropodinae: Phalaropes 207 

7. Laridae: Skuas, Gulls, Terns and Skimmers 209 

A. Stercorariinae: Skuas and Jaegers 209 

B. Larinae: Gulls 212 

C. Sterninae: Terns 226 

D. Rynchopinae: Skimmers 238 

8. Alcidae: Auks, Murres and Puffins 239 

IX. Columbiformes 250 

1 . Pteroclididae: Sandgrouse 250 

2. Columbidae: Pigeons and Doves 250 

X. Psittaciformes 266 

1. Psittacidae: Lories, Parakeets, Macaws and Parrots 266 

A. Platycercinae: Australian Parakeets and Rosellas 266 

B. Psittacinae: Typical Parrots 266 

C. Arinae: New World Parakeets, Macaws and 

Parrots 267 

XL Cuculiformes 282 

1. Cuculidae: Cuckoos, Roadrunners and Anis 282 

A. Cuculinae: Old World Cuckoos 282 



B. Coccyzinae: New World Cuckoos 283 

C. Neomorphinae: Ground-Cuckoos and 

Roadrunners 287 

D. Crotophaginae: Anis 289 

XII. Strigiformes 291 

1 . Tytonidae: Barn-Owls 291 

2. Strigidae: Typical Owls 292 

XIII. Caprimulgiformes 307 

1 . Caprimulgidae: Goatsuckers 307 

A. Chordeilinae: Nighthawks 307 

B. Caprimulginae: Nightjars 309 

2. Nyctibiidae: Potoos 315 

3. Steatornithidae: Oilbirds 316 

XIV. Apodiformes 317 

1 . Apodidae: Swifts 317 

A. Cypseloidinae: Cypseloidine Swifts 317 

B. Chaeturinae: Chaeturine Swifts 319 

C. Apodinae: Apodine Swifts 322 

2. Trochilidae: Hummingbirds 325 

XV. Trogoniformes 361 

1 . Trogonidae: Trogons 361 

XVI. Coraciiformes 367 

1 . Upupidae: Hoopoes 367 

2. Todidae: Todies 367 

3. Momotidae: Motmots 368 

4. Alcedinidae: Kingfishers 371 

A. Cerylinae: Typical Kingfishers 371 

XVII. Piciformes 373 

1. Bucconidae: Puffbirds 373 

2. Galbulidae: Jacamars 376 

3. Capitonidae: Barbets 377 

4. Rhamphastidae: Toucans 378 

5. Picidae: Woodpeckers and Allies 381 

A. Jynginae: Wrynecks 381 

B. Picumninae: Piculets 381 

C. Picinae: Woodpeckers and Allies 382 

XVIII. Passeriformes 400 

1 . Furnariidae: Ovenbirds 400 

2. Dendrocolaptidae: Woodcreepers 408 

3. Formicariidae: Antbirds 414 

A. Thamnophilinae: Typical Antbirds 414 

B. Formicariinae: Antthrushes and Antpittas 424 

4. Rhinocryptidae: Tapaculos 427 

5. Tyrannidae: Tyrant Flycatchers 428 

A. Elaeniinae: Tyrannulets, Elaenias and Allies .... 428 



B. Fluvicolinae: Fluvicoline Flycatchers 443 

C. Tyranninae: Tyrannine Flycatchers 460 

D. Tityrinae: Tityras and Becards 476 

6. Cotingidae: Cotingas 479 

7. Pipridae: Manakins 483 

8. Oxyruncidae: Sharpbills 487 

9. Alaudidae: Larks 488 

10. Hirundinidae: Swallows 489 

A. Hirundininae: Typical Swallows 489 

1 1. Corvidae: Jays, Magpies and Crows 499 

1 2. Paridae: Titmice 512 

13. Remizidae: Penduline Tits and Verdins 516 

14. Aegithalidae: Long-tailed Tits and Bushtits 517 

15. Sittidae: Nuthatches 518 

A. Sittinae: Typical Nuthatches 518 

1 6. Certhiidae: Creepers 520 

A. Certhiinae: Typical Creepers 520 

1 7. Pycnonotidae: Bulbuls 520 

1 8. Troglodytidae: Wrens 521 

19. Cinclidae: Dippers 537 

20. Muscicapidae: Muscicapids 538 

A. Sylviinae: Old World Warblers, Kinglets and 

Gnatcatchers 538 

B. Muscicapinae: Old World Flycatchers and Allies 545 

C. Monarchinae: Monarch Flycatchers 546 

D. Turdinae: Solitaires, Thrushes and Allies 546 

E. Timaliinae: Babblers 565 

21. Mimidae: Mockingbirds, Thrashers and Allies 567 

22. Prunellidae: Accentors 575 

23. Motacillidae: Wagtails and Pipits 576 

24. Bombycillidae: Waxwings 581 

25. Ptilogonatidae: Silky-flycatchers 582 

26. Dulidae: Palmchats 583 

27. Laniidae: Shrikes 584 

A. Laniinae: Typical Shrikes 584 

28. Sturnidae: Starlings and Allies 585 

A. Sturninae: Starlings 585 

29. Meliphagidae: Honeyeaters 587 

30. Zosteropidae: White-eyes 588 

3 1 . Vireonidae: Vireos 589 

A. Vireoninae: Typical Vireos 589 

B. Vireolaniinae: Shrike- Vireos 600 

C. Cyclarhinae: Peppershrikes 600 

32. Emberizidae: Emberizids 601 

A. Parulinae: Wood-Warblers 601 

B. Coerebinae: Bananaquits 641 



C. Thraupinae: Tanagers 641 

D. Cardinalinae: Cardinals, Grosbeaks and Allies . . 667 

E. Emberizinae: Emberizines 677 

F. Icterinae: Blackbirds and Allies 722 

33. Fringillidae: Fringilline and Cardueline Finches and 

Allies 742 

A. Fringillinae: Fringilline Finches 742 

B. Carduelinae: Cardueline Finches 743 

C. Drepanidinae: Hawaiian Honeycreepers 756 

34. Passeridae: Old World Sparrows 764 

35. Ploceidae: Weavers 765 

A. Ploceinae: Typical Weavers 765 

36. Estrildidae: Estrildid Finches 766 

A. Estrildinae: Estrildine Finches 766 

B. Viduinae: Whydahs 770 

Appendix A 771 

Appendix B 777 

Appendix C ' 789 

Appendix D 793 

AOU Numbers 797 

Index 811 



DEDICATION 




EUGENE EISENMANN 
1906-1981 



To Eugene Eisenmann, Chairman of the Committee on Classification and No- 
menclature, our friend and colleague, who, as Chairman of the Committee from 
1966 until his death in October 1981, directed our efforts toward production of 
this Check-list. His charisma and enthusiasm, the legal training that developed 
his skill as a moderator able to achieve fruitful compromise, and his broad knowl- 
edge of Neotropical birds made him a most effective Chairman. A warm and 
sensitive human being, he never failed to give the fullest attention to anyone 
approaching him seeking advice or help. We take pleasure in dedicating this work 
to his memory. 



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION 

Historical Background 

The five previous editions of the Check-list of North American Birds were 
published in 1886, 1895, 1910, 1931 and 1957. The present edition, the sixth, 
thus follows the first by almost a century. Each edition has included a preface, 
and the first edition was accompanied by a Code of Nomenclature which, in its 
introduction, outlined a 17-point "plan and form of the proposed American Or- 
nithologists' Union 'List of North American Birds'." In the prefaces of all editions 
since the first, the respective Committees on Classification and Nomenclature 
reviewed to some extent the policies and procedures of their predecessors and 
discussed any changes considered. The various prefaces and the Code of Nomen- 
clature in particular are important historical documents pertaining to traditions 
and points of view that have strongly influenced American systematic ornithology. 

Of the 17 points of plan and form, the more important dealt with the geograph- 
ical scope of the list, the inclusion of English vernacular names, a system of 
numbering and lettering species and subspecies, the composition of a hypothetical 
list, the addition of a list of fossil birds, the inclusion of some habitat information 
as well as geographic range, and the listing of taxa "in systematic order, to the 
end that the List may represent a classification as well as a nomenclature of the 
birds." The use of the subspecies category, expressed by trinomials, was also 
strongly affirmed. This plan and form for the first edition has been followed, with 
relatively minor changes, in the subsequent editions. 

Check-lists, like living organisms, tend to evolve toward greater complexity, 
although there may be some simplifying deletions. There were no major changes 
in the second and third editions, but the number of forms included and details 
of range were greatly increased. In discussing classification in the preface to the 
third edition, the Committee noted that "it seemed best from the standpoint of 
convenience to continue the old Check-list system unchanged" although "a slight 
modification of the system proposed by Dr. Hans Gadow in 1892-93 would best 
reflect our present knowledge of the classification of birds." The fourth edition 
incorporated this change, adopting a modified Gadow classification for higher 
categories. The sequence of genera was largely determined by Alexander Wetmore 
and Waldron DeWitt Miller, and the sequence of species and subspecies arranged 
by Witmer Stone was based primarily on Robert Ridgway's "Birds of North 
and Middle America." The fifth edition followed essentially the same system of 
classification and sequence of taxa. English names for both species and subspecies 
were applied in the first four editions, but those for subspecies were dropped in 
the fifth. The list of fossil birds had grown so large by the fourth edition that it 
was not included as a separate appendix in the fifth; instead, only Pliocene and 
Pleistocene records of living species were mentioned along with the contemporary 
range. The "summary statement of the habitat of each species and subspecies" 
called for in the first edition was never more than perfunctory and had virtually 
disappeared by the fifth edition. The number of forms included in the list and the 
details of geographic ranges continued to expand, and the fifth edition was par- 
ticularly detailed in the ranges of subspecies. Technical changes in nomenclature 
were incorporated in each new edition, but the numbering and lettering system 
for species and subspecies and criteria for the hypothetical list remained essentially 
the same. 



The continuous flow of new information on avian relationships and distribution 
renders any check-list instantly obsolete in at least some respects, and the need 
for revision and addition inevitably increases through time. As the desirability of 
a sixth edition of the Check-list became more evident, the Council of the A.O.U. 
and its Committee on Classification and Nomenclature considered essentially two 
choices: either to follow the format of the fifth edition, revising and updating it. 
or to adopt a new and broader approach. The latter alternative was chosen, and 
the Committee was charged with developing an appropriate plan. In the plan that 
was accepted, the most important changes from previous editions include: (1) 
expansion of the geographic scope of the Check-list area to include the Hawaiian 
Islands. Middle America and the West Indies; (2) restriction of coverage to the 
species level, in view of the great increase in the number of species treated: and 
(3 i adoption of those major changes in classification that are considered well- 
supported by published evidence and widely accepted. Details of these and other 
changes in plan, form and policy, and the rationale for each, are given in the 
following sections. 

Geographic Coverage 

The first point of plan and form of the first edition was "that the term "North 
American.' as applied to the proposed List of Birds, be held to include the continent 
of North America north of the present United States and Mexican boundary, and 
Greenland: and the peninsula of Lower [Baja] California, with the islands naturally 
belonging thereto": Bermuda was also included in the first edition. At that time. 
and until well into the 20th century the systematics and distribution of most 
Neotropical birds were too poorly known to be treated satisfactorily along with 
the comparatively well-studied Nearctic avifauna. The United States-Mexican 
border provided, for the most part, a convenient southern boundary that was 
reasonably close to the northern limit of the tropics, and a sea barrier separated 
the West Indies. Baja California was included because the avifauna of this pen- 
insula, which lies mostly within the Temperate Zone, was relatively well known 
and of largely Nearctic affinities. Greenland was apparently included because it 
is geographically part of the Western Hemisphere and also to extend the usefulness 
of the Check-list. At the time there was no comprehensive work in English on the 
birds of Greenland, and its inclusion added relatively few forms to the list. 

With the systematics and distribution of birds of the West Indies and of Middle 
America now reasonably well known, the Committee felt that the inclusion of 
those areas within the scope of the Check-list would greatly enhance its usefulness 
and would better express the zoogeographic relationship between these largely 
tropical regions and North America as it was defined in earlier editions of the 
Check-list. The area covered in the sixth edition is delimited as North America 
including all of the continental United States and Canada and their adjacent 
islands: the Hawaiian Islands: Clipperton Island: the Bermuda Islands: Middle 
America, consisting of Mexico and Central .America, the latter including Guate- 
mala. Belize (formerly British Honduras). El Salvador. Honduras. Nicaragua. 
Costa Rica and Panama, as well as all islands under their jurisdictions: the West 
Indies, including the Bahama Islands. Greater .Antilles. Leeward and Windward 
islands of the Lesser Antilles, and Swan. Providencia and San Andres islands. In 
the Bering Sea region the boundary corresponds to that delimiting the United 



States from the U.S.S.R., which also corresponds to the International Date Line. 
Greenland is excluded from the Check-list area. The southern boundary in Middle 
America is the Panama-Colombia border; in the Lesser Antilles, Grenada is the 
southernmost island included. Excluded are those of the Lesser Antilles extending 
along the northern coast of South America and roughly parallel to it, from Aruba 
east to Tobago and Trinidad; the term "Netherlands Antilles" is used in the Check- 
list to refer only to Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire, collectively, and does not include 
the Dutch islands of the Leeward group. 

The geographic limits of a regional check-list are unavoidably arbitrary. Inclu- 
sion of all species of New World birds in one check-list would be highly desirable, 
but this is not now feasible considering the data, resources, and time available to 
this Committee. The Committee did, however, consider the historical biogeog- 
raphy of the New World in defining the area described in the preceding paragraph. 
The widely accepted current theory of plate tectonics and continental drift holds 
that, in post-Cretaceous time, South America was separated by sea barriers from 
all other continents until the end of the Pliocene, when it became connected with 
Middle America by the closing of the Panama Seaway. North America was sep- 
arated from Europe in the North Atlantic region by a sea barrier, at least since 
the Eocene period. In the Bering Sea region, North America was probably con- 
nected intermittently with Asia in the Cenozoic Era (Miocene connection highly 
probable) and certainly connected in the Pleistocene. Throughout the Cenozoic 
Era there was a continuity of land from North America into Middle America at 
least as far south as northern Nicaragua and sometimes as far as central Panama. 
Until the land connection at the end of the Pliocene, Middle America was separated 
from South America by seaways of varying extent, duration and location. There 
were no land connections between the West Indies and North, Middle or South 
America from at least the early Cenozoic Era to the present. The details of this 
picture will undoubtedly be modified in the future, but the separation of the New 
World continents from each other and from the West Indies throughout most of 
the evolutionary history of modern birds appears to be well established. The 
present composition and distribution of the avifaunas of all of these regions have 
also been strongly influenced by Pleistocene events including glaciation, cooling 
and warming trends, and wet and dry cycles and changes in sea level associated 
with glacial and interglacial periods. 

North and Middle America are part of a continuum in terms of physical ge- 
ography, but the tradition in American ornithology has been to discuss these as 
distinguishable regions as previously defined, primarily for practical convenience. 
North America north of Mexico lies entirely in the Temperate to Arctic zones, 
but basically Temperate Zone conditions and habitats extend south in the higher 
altitudes into tropical latitudes in parts of the Greater Antilles and Middle Amer- 
ica. The contemporary avifauna of Middle America consists of a complex mixture 
of taxa of temperate and tropical North or South American derivation along with 
endemic forms, the latter primarily in montane regions, and a few relatively recent 
colonizers from the West Indies. The contemporary avifauna of the West Indies 
appears to be largely derived from colonizations from temperate North America 
and tropical Middle America, with a lesser degree of direct colonization from 
South America. The insularity of the region has also resulted in a large number 
of endemic forms. South America, as the longest isolated of the continents and 
with a wide variety of climatic zones and habitat types, evolved a distinctive 



avifauna of great diversity. The contemporary avifauna of South America has 
been less influenced by post-Pliocene invasions from the north than it was by 
earlier, overwater invasions that introduced representatives of groups new to the 
continent. 

Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States in 1959. Because state and 
federal government agencies and legislative bodies use the A.O.U. Check-list as 
a standard reference in matters pertaining to birds, the avifauna of all of the states 
should be included as a public service. Moreover, at least some members of the 
native Hawaiian avifauna were derived from ancestral populations of North or 
Middle American origin. Inclusion of the Hawaiian Islands within the Check-list 
area thus seems appropriate on all counts. 

Greenland has no endemic species of birds. Its avifauna includes numerous 
species of otherwise entirely Old World distribution that have been included in 
previous A.O.U. check-lists solely on the basis of the Greenland records. Deletion 
of Greenland from the Check-list area eliminates such essentially Palearctic forms 
but does not exclude any species that occur in both North America and Greenland. 
The deleted forms that appeared in previous editions are found in Appendix B 
of this edition. Finn Salomonsen's "The Birds of Greenland" (1950-51) gives a 
complete check-list and bibliography to that date, and eastern Greenland is cov- 
ered in Charles Vaurie's "The Birds of the Palearctic Fauna" (1959, 1965). 

The Lesser Antilles along the northern coast of South America, and Tobago 
and Trinidad in particular, have avifaunas with moderate to strong South Amer- 
ican affinities and for that reason are excluded from the Check-list area. 

Taxonomic Categories 

Because the A.O.U. Check-list is widely used as an official or quasi-official 
reference on the systematics and distribution of birds within its area, the Com- 
mittee feels a special responsibility to avoid introducing sweeping changes in 
taxonomic concepts that would drastically affect the form and content of the list 
unless such proposed changes have been adequately debated and widely accepted 
on the basis of published evidence. This policy is not based on inertia or innate 
conservatism, but on what we believe to be sound historical perspective. The 
shortest interval between the publication of any two Check-lists was nine years, 
and the interval since the fifth edition has been 26 years. Boldly innovative 
proposals for changes in systematics that will stimulate discussion, debate, and 
testing should be introduced in scientific journals or books. Modifications and 
counter-proposals can then be published, and the original innovative ideas may 
undergo many alterations before a consensus develops. Because the Check-list 
cannot quickly be revised and republished as the weight of opinion shifts, the 
Committee feels that it should adopt major changes only when a consensus based 
on verifiable data has developed. The Committee is fully aware that many aspects 
of the present system of avian classification are based more on tradition than on 
comprehensive data, but this does not necessarily make the traditional, arrange- 
ment wrong. In fact, in many cases, contemporary studies using sophisticated 
modern techniques have supported traditional classification. Our view of tradi- 
tionally accepted avian classification may be expressed by a legal analogy— it is 
innocent until proven guilty; suspicion and accusation without verifiable sup- 
porting evidence are not sufficient grounds for corrective action, but responsible 
charges should be investigated, a fair trial given if the charges have substance, 



and rehabilitation attempted when mistakes or violations have demonstrably 
occurred. 

Subspecies. The Committee strongly endorses the concept of the subspecies and 
the continued use of trinomials to express it, and we wish to make clear that the 
omission of separate listings of subspecies in this edition is not a rejection of the 
validity or utility of this systematic category. The omission of subspecies in this 
edition is based entirely on practical grounds, especially the need for publication 
of the Check-list within a reasonable period of time. Expansion of the geographic 
scope, which we consider of major importance, requires the treatment of more 
than 2000 species ( 1 9 1 3 in the main text), many of which are considered polytypic. 
If we had emulated previous committees by evaluating critically all of the described 
subspecies within the Check-list area, there would be little hope of publishing the 
work before the 2 1 st Century. The Committee therefore agreed, with some res- 
ervations, to proceed with a check-list dealing with taxa only down to the species 
level. References to subspecies have been included when necessary to clarify 
relationships or distribution, or where opinions differ as to specific or subspecific 
status. 

The subspecies taxon is particularly useful in birds because of the great potential 
mobility of most species and the migratory habits of many. The availability of 
formal published descriptions of the characteristics of taxonomically recognizable, 
geographically circumscribed breeding populations within the overall range of a 
species facilitates determination of the area of origin of individuals found outside 
that range, and in particular facilitates the tracing of routes of passage and seasonal 
residences of migratory forms. The study of intraspecific variation in connection 
with subspecies has also resulted in the assembling of data that have been of great 
value in ecological studies and in the analysis of the early stages of the process of 
evolution. 

It is the Committee's hope and intent that the species-level sixth edition will 
serve as a framework for future publications that will carry the taxonomy of the 
avifauna within the Check-list area to the subspecies level. We recognize that 
many people, including those in government agencies dealing with legislation, 
permits and law enforcement, need an authoritative list of subspecies within the 
A.O.U. Check-list area. For such purposes the Committee recommends continued 
use of the fifth edition plus the 32nd and 33rd supplements (Auk, 1973, 90, pp. 
411-419, and 1976, 93, pp. 875-879, respectively) for the area covered therein. 
For Middle America and the West Indies, the Committee recommends use of the 
Peters' "Check-list of Birds of the World" (193 1 et seq.) and those regional works 
that have critically evaluated subspecies included in their areas. 

Species. Of all the taxonomic categories within the Linnaean system, the species 
has been the most controversial. This is not an appropriate place for a review of 
opinions— the differing views have been extensively debated in other publications. 
The Committee has considered only those arguments that apply to birds and not 
those dealing with quite dissimilar organisms. Our policy is that the species is a 
real and fundamental biological entity, and we follow the biological species concept 
of Ernst Mayr. Our preferred definition is: a species is a group of populations, 
actually or potentially interbreeding, that is reproductively isolated from all other 
such groups. This definition is adequate to determine the status of the overwhelm- 
ing majority of forms within the Check-list area. The major problems in deter- 
mining specific status are posed by those cases in which formerly allopatric pop- 
ulations are in contact with limited interbreeding, or in which presently allopatric 



populations are spatially completely isolated from each other and perhaps poten- 
tially although not actually able to interbreed. From the 1940's through about the 
1960's, the predominant trend in avian systematics was to treat such distinguish- 
able allopatric populations as subspecies of a single polytypic species. In recent 
years there has been a trend away from relatively uncritical lumping as close study 
of some populations in zones of contact has shown that there may be assortative 
mating, reduced reproductive success in mixed pairs, and subtle (to the human 
investigator) behavioral, morphological, physiological or ecological differences 
that appear to constitute isolating mechanisms. 

Cases of intermediacy between the subspecies and species levels of differentia- 
tion are to be expected since evolution is a dynamic and continuing process. The 
Linnaean system of nomenclature, originally based on the concept of fixed or 
immutable categories, cannot be adapted to the infinite degrees of difference be- 
tween allopatric populations; there is therefore no absolutely right or wrong way 
to treat taxonomically those populations that are on the borderline between species 
and subspecies. The Committee has attempted to evaluate the evidence in each 
case, with the advice, when available, of specialists on the groups in question. 
Our tendency has been to consider closely related allopatric forms that differ 
substantially in ways that might be expected to effect reproductive isolation (such 
as visual and vocal signals, various aspects of behavior) as species unless there is 
strong evidence of a lack of reproductive isolation. In cases in which such pop- 
ulations are taxonomically distinguishable but not in ways that would appear to 
bring about reproductive isolation (such as small differences in size, color or form). 
our tendency has been to consider them conspecific. We have not always agreed 
within the Committee as to the treatment of individual cases, and we are aware 
that our collective judgment results in some compromise decisions that may 
ultimately prove wrong. In cases in which we felt reasonable doubt or in which 
contemporary authorities disagree, we have cited alternative opinions. 

Superspecies. The study of allopatric taxa has made it clear that two or more 
such taxa may represent similar but distinct species of relatively recent mono- 
phyletic origin which are much more closely related to each other than to any 
other species. It is useful and informative to call attention to the particularly close 
relationship of such a group or groups of species within the genus. For this purpose 
we employ the category of superspecies. defined as a group of entirely or essentially 
allopatric populations that have differentiated into distinct biological species from 
a common ancestor. The species comprising a superspecies are called allospecies. 
This definition is essentially that of Amadon (1966, Syst. Zool., 15, pp. 246-249). 
who traced the history of the concept and discussed its utility. The superspecies 
category does not require new names or formal taxonomic description. In the 
"Notes" section of the accounts of allospecies, we have indicated those groups of 
species that appear to constitute superspecies as defined above. 

A single example may help to clarify the Committee's approach in dealing with 
subspecies, species and superspecies. The genus Sphyrapicus (Picidae). comprising 
the sapsuckers, is a well-characterized genus with six taxa in at least two and 
possibly as many as four species. Sphyrapicus thyroideus is a distinct species which 
has been separated into two slightly different subspecies. S. t. thyroideus and S. 
t. nataliae. No modern authority considers these anything more than subspecies, 
and thus they are not individually mentioned or discussed in the Check-list. The 
fifth edition recognized only one other species. Sphyrapicus varius, divided into 
five subspecies: S. v. varius, S. v. appalachiensis, S. v. nuchalis, S. v. daggetti, and 



S. v. ruber. Except for appalachiensis, which is but a weakly marked form of 
varius, they differ sufficiently in color as to be (usually) recognizable in the field, 
but they are extremely similar in behavior and ecology and, although essentially 
allopatric, are known to interbreed to varying extents. For these reasons they were 
considered a single polytypic species in the fifth edition. Studies since then have 
confirmed that ruber and daggetti interbreed freely where their ranges meet, but 
interbreeding otherwise varies from moderate over a narrow zone of contact 
{nuchalis and daggetti, nuchalis and ruber) to very rarely or not at all (varius and 
nuchalis, varius and ruber) in some other areas. The Committee considered a mass 
of complex evidence and decided (not unanimously) to recognize two species, 
Sphyrapicus varius (consisting of S. v. varius and S. v. nuchalis) and Sphyrapicus 
ruber (consisting of 5. r. ruber and 5". r. daggetti). We have noted that these are 
considered conspecific by some authorities, and that others would also recognize 
nuchalis as a distinct species. Sphyrapicus ruber and 5 1 . varius are considered to 
be allospecies of a superspecies, and if nuchalis is recognized as specifically distinct 
it would also be included as an allospecies. S. thyroideus, which is widely sympatric 
with the other forms in western North America, is not included in the superspecies. 
Amadon (loc. cit.) proposed that superspecies status be symbolized by putting 
in brackets, following the name of the genus, the chronologically first-named 
species in the group of allospecies. The Committee endorses this procedure for 
well-studied cases, especially in simple lists; practical considerations preclude its 
usage in this Check-list. In the bracketing system, the species in the genus Sphy- 
rapicus would be listed as follows: 

Sphyrapicus [varius] varius 
Sphyrapicus [varius] ruber 
Sphyrapicus thyroideus. 

Genera. The definition of a genus used by the Committee is: a group of species 
of common phylogenetic origin that are more closely related to one another than 
to any others and that differ from others by a decided gap. If a single species differs 
markedly from any others, it may constitute a monotypic genus. The limits of 
genera cannot be defined except by arbitrary criteria, yet many subjectively or 
arbitrarily defined genera appear to represent natural monophyletic assemblages. 
The accurate determination of generic limits is inherently one of the most difficult 
problems in taxonomy, but the Committee has attempted to follow certain guide- 
lines in making its decisions. We have sought particularly to recognize as genera 
those species or groups of species that have reached different adaptive plateaus 
with the potential for further diversification in other evolutionary directions. We 
have adopted a middle course, avoiding recognition of monotypic genera that do 
not appear to meet this criterion but also avoiding submergence of adaptively 
distinct forms into large genera, thus obscuring their distinctiveness. We have also 
exercised practical judgment in some cases by recognizing more than one genus 
in very large groups of species which, even though there seem to be intermediate 
forms, appear to fall into two or more natural assemblages. For example, the 
parrot genera Aratinga and Ara are large and distinct multispecies groups, but the 
differences between them appear to be bridged by one or two species with inter- 
mediate characteristics. In our judgment, merging these genera would neither more 
accurately represent nor enhance understanding of the apparent relationship be- 
tween them. We have placed them adjacent in sequence and noted that they are 
closely related. We have also retained the extinct monotypic genus Conuropsis, 



as some potentially important characteristics must remain unknown, but have 
noted its apparent close relationship to Aratinga. 

Sequences of genera and species. The 1 7th point of the "plan and form" of the 
first edition called for sequences that "begin with the lowest or most generalized 
type, and end with the highest or most specialized." This was probably intended 
to refer to higher categories, but the principle can be logically extended to the 
lower ranking taxa as well. There are two obvious major problems in following 
this procedure: first, determining which taxa are more generalized and which more 
specialized; second, expressing this in a linear sequence of names. In attempting 
to decide sequences of generalized or primitive to specialized or derived, the 
Committee has followed what it considers to be the best published evidence and 
its own judgment. In many cases we simply lack sufficient evidence to make sound 
inferences about the phylogenetic history of a given taxon. The living forms may 
show a confusing mixture of presumably primitive and derived characters rather 
than a clear evolutionary trend. In the course of avian evolution there have been 
numerous and repeated branchings; even if these were all perfectly known, they 
could not be clearly represented by a linear sequence of names. We have attempted 
to cluster together those taxa which seem to be more closely related to one another 
than to any others, and within and among clusters have attempted to approximate 
a primitive to derived sequence. For example, the evolution of three contemporary 
species in the genus Sphyrapicus can be represented by the following diagram: 



ruber thyroideus 




We further propose that varius is closest to the probable ancestral stock and that 
thyroideus is a more highly derived form whose ancestors diverged at an earlier 
time than those of ruber, which shares more derived characters with varius. The 
linear sequence that most closely represents this view is varius-ruber-thyroideus, 
but we do not intend to suggest thereby that thyroideus is derived from ruber-hke 
ancestors. An alternative arrangement that lists thyroideus first would suggest that 
it was the most primitive, not the most derived form. When there is no convincing 
evidence for placing one taxon before or after another, we have either followed 
conventional arrangements or altered these somewhat to allow grouping of taxa 
that seem to show a primitive-derived sequence. When we found no secure basis 
for a primitive-derived sequence of species within a genus, we have followed the 
most widely used conventional geographic sequence of species, with roughly the 
northernmost form listed first and the southernmost last, or from west to east if 
the division of ranges is more oriented to that axis. 

A frequently encountered problem in attempting to reflect primitive-derived 
sequences in a check-list occurs when a sequence is traced from a presumably 
primitive form to the end of a chain of related taxa. whereupon it becomes 
necessary to return to a second such chain, derived from the same or similar 
primitive taxa. and follow it out the same way. This procedure results in the 
admittedly awkward juxtaposition of a more derived taxon and a relatively prim- 
itive one in the sequence. For example, in the Carduelinae. a phyletic line of 
medium-sized finches is followed from the primitive rosy-finches (Leucosticte) to 
the highly derived crossbills {Loxia). The next form in the Check-list sequence is 
the Common Redpoll (Carduelis flammed). This is not meant to suggest that we 



believe Carduelis to be derived from Loxia or Loxia-like ancestors; we regard 
the Common Redpoll as the most primitive (within our area) of a second phyletic 
line that also arose from primitive medium-sized finches. This line is followed 
through the derived Serinus, where it terminates. The remaining genera, Pyrrhula 
and Coccothraustes, are both primarily Old World derivatives of still other phyletic 
lines originating from primitive carduelines. As listed in a Check-list sequence, 
the most derived species of one phyletic line thus immediately precedes the most 
primitive species of another line derived from a common ancestor. 

Higher categories. Probably not since the time of the third edition, in which 
the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature chose not to use Gadow's 
relatively new system, has a Committee been faced with so many proposals for 
radical changes in the systematics of higher categories. As background on the bases 
for earlier arrangements, the historical introductions to avian classification in 
papers by Sibley (1970, Bull. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., 32, pp. 1-131) and Sibley 
and Ahlquist (1972, Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., 39, pp. 1-276) provide an excellent 
review. Since publication of the fifth edition (and even before), the traditional 
arrangement of higher categories has been challenged at many points. In some 
cases the recent challenges have been based on new data, in others on new methods 
and philosophies of classification. The new data stem from discoveries in mor- 
phology and paleontology, biochemistry, genetics, behavior and related fields. The 
new methods and philosophies include numerical taxonomy (phenetics) and phy- 
logenetic systematics (cladistics). We will not attempt to review all of these subjects 
and their consequences, a task that would require at least another volume. The 
virtues and shortcomings of the different methods and philosophies are being 
hotly debated in journals and symposia at the present time, and only true believers 
on the various sides consider the issues to be settled. Systematic revisions based 
on interpretations of new data, along with counter-proposals based on different 
data, are more frequent than ever. The dilemma that this poses for the Committee 
is well illustrated by the case of the flamingos (Phoenicopteridae). In the fifth 
edition, this group comprised a suborder Phoenicopteri in the order Ciconiiformes. 
This suborder was placed last in sequence, just before the Anseriformes, reflecting 
a belief that the flamingos also showed a close relationship to the latter. Subse- 
quently, biochemical data from egg-white protein analysis were adjudged to sup- 
port that classification, or at least not to refute it. An alternative arrangement was 
the placement of the flamingos in a separate order Phoenicopteriformes, indicative 
of their distinctiveness and the uncertainty as to their closest relationships. More 
recently, fossil evidence and anatomical studies led to various proposals, first that 
flamingos and anseriforms had a common ancestry, then that both those groups 
were derived from primitive charadriiform stock (with no close relationship to 
the Ciconiiformes), and next that the Phoenicopteridae be considered a family 
within the Charadriiformes, closest to the Recurvirostridae. The issue remains 
controversial. We cite this case not as a horrible example of unwelcome change 
but as a good example of how science advances— by the proposal of new hypotheses 
based on new evidence, and the testing of these for validity in the light of the 
same or different evidence. We feel, as stated earlier, that the Check-list is not 
the appropriate place for the testing of boldly innovative ideas in systematics and 
that the Committee's best course in this case is to retain the flamingos as a separate 
order, noting that their relationships remain uncertain and citing other treatments. 

In other cases, there appears to be consensus for change from tradition. For 
example, the penguins (Sphenisciformes) were formerly placed at the beginning 



of the sequence of Neognathae, implying that they were the most primitive living 
forms within that superorder. The present consensus is that the penguins are a 
specialized group derived from a volant marine ancestor and are best placed 
following the Procellariiformes. 

A particular difficulty for the Committee was the arrangement and content of 
the families of passeriform birds, a matter that is still in ferment. The fourth and 
fifth editions both used the same arrangement of passerine families, and many 
ornithologists over several generations have come to think of that arrangement 
as standard. The Committee feels that the evidence has become overwhelmingly 
strong for changes in the traditional system even though all the issues are by no 
means settled. The major changes from either the fifth edition or general usage 
that are adopted in the sixth edition are described below, in the sequence in which 
they occur in the list. 

1. The genera Attila, Rhytipterna, Laniocera, Pachyramphus (including Pla- 
typsaris) and Tityra (including Erator) are transferred from the Cotingidae to the 
Tyrannidae. 

2. The genera Auriparus and Psaltriparus are removed from the Paridae and 
placed in the families Remizidae and Aegithalidae, respectively. Relationships of 
these chiefly Old World families remain uncertain; they follow the Paridae only 
because compelling evidence for their proper placement is not yet available. 

3. The monotypic genus Donacobius is transferred from the Mimidae to the 
Troglodytidae. 

4. A large family Muscicapidae is recognized, including in our area the subfam- 
ilies Sylviinae, Muscicapinae, Monarchinae. Turdinae and Timaliinae. most of 
which were formerly regarded as families. The genus Chamaea, formerly placed 
in the monotypic family Chamaeidae, is included in the Timaliinae. 

5. The Vireolaniinae and Cyclarhinae, formerly given family rank, are included 
as subfamilies in the Vireonidae. 

6. A large family Emberizidae is recognized, including the following divisions: 
Subfamily Parulinae (formerly family Parulidae), including the genus Zele- 

donia (formerly in the monotypic family Zeledoniidae); 

Subfamily Coerebinae, including only the genus Coereba, the former family 
Coerebidae being considered polyphyletic and other genera formerly included in 
it now being placed in either the Thraupinae or Emberizinae; 

Subfamily Thraupinae. including the tribes Thraupini (including most genera 
in the former families Thraupidae and Coerebidae) and Tersini (formerly the 
monotypic family Tersinidae); 

Subfamily Cardinalinae. formerly the subfamily Richmondeninae of the fam- 
ily Fringillidae, but with Tiaris transferred to the Emberizinae; 

Subfamily Emberizinae, including the Emberizinae of the fifth edition plus 
Sporophila, Tiaris and other genera of the Emberizinae as used in Volume XIII 
of Peters' "Check-list of Birds of the World" (also including Diglossa and Eu- 
neornis, of the former Coerebidae); 

Subfamily Icterinae, formerly the family Icteridae. 

7. The family Fringillidae is revised to include the following divisions: Subfam- 
ily Fringillinae. including only the genus Fringilla: Subfamily Carduelinae, in- 
cluding the Carduelinae of the fifth edition plus Serinus, and excluding Sporophila; 
and Subfamily Drepanidinae (formerly the family Drepanididae). 

8. The family Passeridae is recognized, in the Check-list area including only 
the introduced species of Passer, formerly included in the Ploceidae. 

9. The family Ploceidae is represented in the Check-list area only by the in- 



troduced species of Ploceus and Euplectes. Several introduced species, not listed 
in previous editions, were formerly placed in the family Ploceidae but are here 
assigned to the family Estrildidae. 

10. The family Estrildidae, including the subfamilies Estrildinae and Viduinae, 
is represented in the Check-list area by several introduced species. 

Classifications similar to the above are used in most recent comprehensive 
taxonomic works; the major differences among these are in the placement of 
relatively few genera and in the ranking of taxa as families, subfamilies or tribes. 

The Committee feels that this arrangement expresses probable relationships 
much better than the traditional system and that the changes are necessary and 
desirable, although we recognize that new evidence will surely require modification 
of it. Other proposed changes will doubtless be validated in the future. In order 
to meet publications schedules, we have fixed 31 December 1981 as the latest 
date of publication of proposals for systematic changes to be considered by the 
Committee. 

At the time of this writing, Joel Cracraft (1981, Auk, 98, pp. 681-714) has 
published a new classification of birds of the world down to the level of tribes, 
based on principles of phylogenetic systematics (cladistics); Cracraft points out 
that many of his proposals are tentative and intended to stimulate further testing. 
A series of papers by Charles G. Sibley (and co-authors) appearing in late 1981 
and early 1982, with others in prospect, revises avian classification largely on the 
basis of data obtained from DNA-DNA hybridization. Many parts of these au- 
thors' new classifications differ considerably from each other and from those used 
in most current references, including the present Check-list. Adoption by the 
Committee of any or all of these major changes would be premature, as the 
Committee's publication deadline does not allow sufficient time for critical eval- 
uation to be published; we can only recommend serious consideration of these 
new proposals in the future. 

In summary, our interpretation of the original charge that the Check-list should 
represent "a classification as well as a nomenclature of the birds" is that it should 
constitute both a workable and a working hypothesis of avian systematics. By our 
recognition of the included taxa and our grouping and sequencing of them, we 
hypothesize a set of relationships and phylogenetic events. We have also attempted 
to point out the cases of greatest uncertainty and controversy, indicating alternative 
hypotheses that may be considered. We wish our hypothesis to be workable, in 
the sense of providing a classification that is as close as possible to a consensus 
of the views of authorities respected for their work in avian systematics, so that 
other scientists and interested persons in all fields may use it with reasonable 
confidence as a standard reference. While the Check-list should be authoritative, 
it should never be considered sacrosanct. The collective opinion of a committee 
frequently tends toward conservatism and tradition, which helps to avoid the risk 
of eccentricity or hasty and premature judgments but may result in overreluctance 
to accept new ideas. We also wish to have our classification regarded and evaluated 
as a working hypothesis— a set of proposals to be challenged and vigorously tested, 
then supported, modified, or rejected and replaced, all to the ultimate advancement 
of ornithological knowledge. 

Format 

The basic format of the Check-list consists of headings of systematic categories 
above the species level (class to subgenus) and, following the heading for genus 



(or subgenus, if any), accounts of species included therein. The species accounts 
include the scientific name, the preferred English name, the original citation and 
type locality, a general summary of the habitat(s) occupied, the geographical dis- 
tribution, and, when necessary, notes on relevant matters not covered in the 
foregoing. Fossil records are not listed; these may be found in Pierce Brodkorb's 
"Catalogue of Fossil Birds" (1963-1978, Bull. Fla. State Mus., Biol. Sci.). Policies 
followed for each of the portions of the species accounts are discussed beyond. 

Criteria for Inclusion 

All species for which there is a published record of occurrence within the Check- 
list area are included, either in the main text or in the appendices. In general, only 
records which appeared in print by 31 December 1981 have been considered, 
although unpublished records new to the area have been included if the Committee 
was able to verify them. Records of occurrence within 160 kilometers (100 miles) 
offshore from any coast within the Check-list area are included unless the locality 
of the records lies outside the specified limits of that area. For example, no records 
of occurrence west of the United States-Russian boundary in the Bering Sea region 
are included even though these could be less than 160 kilometers from U.S. 
territory, but records within 160 kilometers of the Hawaiian Islands are included. 

For inclusion of a species in the main text, records of occurrence must be 
documented either by a specimen or an unequivocally identifiable photograph. A 
recording of vocalizations diagnostic for a species could constitute equally valid 
documentation, but there are no cases in which inclusion in the Check-list is based 
solely on a recorded vocalization. Specimens provide by far the best evidence as 
they can be re-examined in many ways and may yield valuable data beyond a 
simple record of occurrence, but collecting of specimens is not always possible, 
practical or advisable. Photographs, preferably published, are the next best kind 
of evidence, and several species are included on the basis of photographic doc- 
umentation. Much of the distributional data for species whose occurrence in the 
Check-list area is well documented is based on sight records. Distributional records 
based on band recoveries are treated in the same manner as observational records. 
Where such reports significantly extend the otherwise known range of a species, 
the nature of the record is specified in the text. 

Established introductions. Introduced species (deliberate or inadvertent) are 
deemed to be established if there are persistent records for at least 1 years and 
satisfactory evidence of maintaining a reasonably stable or increasing population 
through successful reproduction. Dates of first introduction are given when known 
with reasonable certainty. All such established introduced species are included in 
the appropriate place in the main text. 

Appendix A. Species recorded in the Check-list area only on the basis of ob- 
servation are listed in Appendix A. The Committee recognizes that sight records, 
as they are usually called, can be as satisfactory as photographs for records of 
occurrence, and that many regional organizations have rigorous standards of ac- 
ceptance for sightings. Unfortunately, not all sight records can be satisfactorily 
evaluated, and even some published sightings are rejected by groups concerned 
with validation of regional lists. The Committee could not assume the enormous 
task of evaluating all published sight records and decided that its best course was 
to place in Appendix A all species whose occurrence within our area is based 
entirely on observational data accepted by the appropriate regional group. The 
scientific and English names for these species are also included in the main text 



in brackets, with reference to Appendix A, at the appropriate place in the species 
sequence. Observational records considered noteworthy and valid are included in 
the species accounts in the primary list for those species that are also documented 
by specimens or photographs. However, Appendix A does not include records of 
occurrence that appear to be human-assisted in any important way; these are 
treated in other appendices. 

Appendix B. This appendix is roughly equivalent to the single hypothetical list 
of earlier editions of the Check-list. Included in Appendix B are all species that 
are no longer accepted in the main text; see p. 777 for detailed criteria. The scientific 
and English names are included in the main text (in brackets) at the appropriate 
place in the species sequence, with reference to Appendix B. 

Appendix C. This appendix includes forms of doubtful identity or of hybrid 
origin that have been given a formal scientific name. Forms of doubtful identity 
are those such as Audubon's Sylvia carbonata, which cannot be identified as 
belonging to any known species and of which no specimens exist, or those based 
on unique type specimens, such as Emberiza townsendi. These species do not 
appear in the main text but are indexed. 

Appendix D. This appendix provides a simple list of deliberately introduced 
species or escaped captives of which there are records but that are deemed neither 
to have become established nor of sufficient importance to warrant treatment in 
Appendix B. They do not appear in the main text. 

A.O.U. Numbers 

The policy of providing A.O.U. Numbers for species is continued (see discussion 
on p. 797 preceding the List of A.O.U. numbers). 

Names 

Scientific names. The Check-list follows the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature adopted by the XV International Congress of Zoology, July 1958, 
effective on date of publication 6 November 1961, and subsequent amendments 
approved by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Unset- 
tled questions on nomenclature are discussed in the Notes sections under the 
relevant taxonomic category. 

Each scientific name is followed by the original citation (journal abbreviations 
in accordance with the BIOSIS List of Serials), the originally designated type 
locality, and any valid emendations or restrictions of the latter by subsequent 
revisers. The Committee has checked most but not all the citations in the original 
publications; scholars for whom these data are critical are advised to consult 
original sources. 

English names. The Committee follows the policy guidelines of Eisenmann 
(1955, Trans. Linn. Soc. N.Y., 7, pp. 1-1 28) and Eisenmann in Meyer de Schauen- 
see's "The Species of Birds of South America and Their Distribution" (1966) in 
regard to choice of names. With respect to orthography and related matters, we 
follow Cheesman and Oehser (1937, Auk, 54, pp. 333-340) and Parkes (1978, 
Auk, 95, pp. 324-326). Opinions were sought and received from the Check-list 
Committee of the American Birding Association and others with a major interest 
in English names, and we appreciate their cooperation and detailed analysis of 
English name problems. There is much concern about changes in both scientific 
and English names of birds. However, absolute stability is not possible in either 



set of names. Progress in systematic ornithology often dictates changes in scientific 
names in accordance with nomenclatural codes, and a broadening world-wide 
experience with birds has indicated that some changes in English names help to 
avoid confusion and promote uniformity. 

In general, the policy guidelines are as follows: 

1 . Retain well established names for well known and widely distributed species, 
even if the group name or a modifier is not precisely accurate, universally appro- 
priate, or descriptively the best possible. For example, the group names flycatcher, 
warbler and oriole are applied to New World species that are not confamilial with 
Old World taxa to which these same English group names are applied, but in both 
areas the names are so well established and the differences in relationship so well 
known that there is little confusion. Species such as the Common Tern are not 
everywhere "common," the Tennessee Warbler occurs in many other areas, and 
the Purple Finch is more red than purple. Changing such long established names 
would only contribute to confusion, not lessen it. 

2. For species or groups with extensive extralimital distributions, use English 
names that are generally accepted on a world-wide basis, provided that such a 
name does not duplicate another well-established one and is not otherwise in- 
appropriate. For example, we have adopted "Common Moorhen" for Gallinula 
chloropus and "moorhen" as the group name for all species of Gallinula, and 
likewise have adopted "harrier" as the group name for hawks of the genus Circus. 
These group names have long been established for these widely distributed forms 
in the rest of the English-speaking world. In a few cases of widely distributed 
species having long established, perhaps equally appropriate names in North 
America and in Eurasia (such as "Oldsquaw" and "Long-tailed Duck," respec- 
tively, for Clangula hyemalis), we have retained the American name. 

3. Use modifiers for all single-word or group names that are applied to more 
than one species. For example, Gray Catbird, not simply Catbird, is used for 
Dumetella carolinensis, as the closely-related Melanoptila glabrirostris is called 
the Black Catbird. Troglodytes troglodytes is usually known as "The Wren" in 
English-speaking regions of the Old World where it is the only species of wren 
present; this unmodified name is inappropriate for the Check-list area, where there 
are other congeneric and confamilial species known as wrens. In general, modifiers 
that are comparative terms should have parallel construction, as in Greater Yel- 
lowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) and Lesser Yellowlegs (7". Jlavipes); however, we 
have not rigidly adhered to this policy in cases of well established names such as 
Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and Lesser Black-backed Gull (L. fus- 
cus). 

4. In the New World tropics there are many species for which there are no well 
established English names. Some earlier authors of reference works on Neotropical 
birds knew some species only from a few study skins and coined names that often 
proved seriously inappropriate in the light of later knowledge. Previously pub- 
lished names should be used, however, if they are reasonably appropriate and/or 
well established. We have followed Eisenmann (loc. cit.) and Eisenmann in Meyer 
de Schauensee {loc. cit.) in conserving such names and in adopting newer ones to 
replace those that were not well established and were also descriptively inaccurate 
or suggested wrong relationships or distributions, or were obscure and uninfor- 
mative patronyms. A new name should be informative about some distinctive 
aspect of the bird's appearance, habits, relationships or distribution, or some 
combination of these that is not too lengthy. For example, we have adopted 



Chihuahuan Raven for Corvus cryptoleucus, a name suggested to us by several 
persons; normally, we would not replace a well known name such as White-necked 
Raven, no matter how inappropriate, but our policy would require the additional 
modifier "American" (because of an African species by the same name), producing 
a name cumbersome as well as inappropriate. 

5. When two taxa previously recognized as different species with different En- 
glish names are merged, a name applicable to both is needed. If neither taxon has 
an English name that is suitable for both, a new name must be provided. The few 
such names proposed by the Committee are intended to be informative rather 
than fanciful. For example, the taxa listed in the fifth edition as the Myrtle Warbler 
(Dendroica coronatd) and Audubon's Warbler (D. auduboni) are considered con- 
specific in this Check-list under the scientific name D. coronata, which has priority. 
The preferred English name is Yellow-rumped Warbler, which has been used in 
recent years in most publications; this name is equally descriptive of all popula- 
tions of both forms. Where we have merged two or more forms or divided one 
form into two or more, we have in the "Notes" section suggested appropriate 
English names for the taxa if treated in the other mode. 

6. Vernacular names derived from a language other than English may be adopt- 
ed when these are well established and not inappropriate. Many well known names 
are, of course, derived from classical or other European languages and some are 
based on verbal names from unwritten native languages. The endemic Hawaiian 
avifauna includes many species for which Hawaiian-language names are well 
established and used in English-language publications. We have generally followed 
authorities on Hawaiian birds in the use of these names, but for species belonging 
to widespread groups, we have chosen English names that we felt were more 
informative (e.g., Hawaiian Goose instead of Nene, Hawaiian Crow instead of 
Alala). 

We are fully aware that it is impossible to achieve universal agreement on the 
best choices for English names, and some differences in preference are inevitable. 
The Committee hopes that its choices will be acceptable to those who use primarily 
English names; those requiring greater uniformity may use Linnaean nomencla- 
ture. 

Habitat and Distribution 

Habitat. This section is intended to provide a concise overview of the kinds of 
habitats characteristically occupied by a given species. At the very least, this 
overview gives an indication of whether the species has broad or limited envi- 
ronmental tolerances, of its altitudinal range if relevant, and of the vegetational 
association usually frequented. The descriptions of habitats use similar phrasing 
but are not standardized. For many species detailed data on habitat occupancy 
can be found in regional works and monographs, especially those dealing with the 
Temperate Zone, and we have not attempted to be similarly exhaustive. For many 
other species, especially those in tropical regions, the range of habitats occupied 
is familiar only to specialists or little known to anyone. We believe that even 
generalized habitat information in conjunction with geographic range allows a 
better perception of the spatial and ecological distribution of a species than is 
otherwise possible, and for that reason we have included both kinds of data. If 
deficiencies in knowledge of habitat occupancy are made evident by the Check- 
list and this stimulates further study, so much the better. 



Many tropical regions include a range of altitudes that support tropical, sub- 
tropical, temperate and paramo zones, and in such cases the zones occupied by 
a species are indicated with capital letters (e.g., Subtropical Zone). As the altitu- 
dinal limits of such zones vary with local conditions and especially with latitude, 
we use the designation "Zone" in a general sense and follow the approximations 
suggested by Meyer de Schauensee in "A Guide to the Birds of South America" 
(1970, p. xii) converted to metric units. These are: Tropical Zone, sea level to 
1450-1600 m; Subtropical Zone, 1450-1600 to 2400-2800 m; Temperate Zone, 
2400-2800 to 3000-3800 m; Paramo Zone, 3000-3800 m to snow line, if present. 
For migratory species, any distinct differences in habitats used for breeding and 
for wintering have been indicated in a general way. Emphasis is on the breeding 
habitat, particularly if the species is widely dispersed in a variety of habitats in 
winter or if the wintering habitat is poorly known. 

Distribution. Geographic ranges are described in detail with the intent of leaving 
no doubt as to whether or not a species has been recorded within a particular 
geographic entity, down to the level of states or provinces in large countries and 
to portions of such units if they, too, are large. Such detailed range accounts are 
given only for regions within the Check-list area; detailed extralimital ranges are 
not given as these are better provided in works dealing specifically with those 
areas. 

The Committee considered at length the use of maps to designate ranges for all 
or most of the included species and reluctantly concluded that this was not feasible 
within the constraints of time and budget. Written descriptions can be altogether 
sufficient for ranges of species confined to islands or isolated montane regions or 
highly restricted lowland habitats. Such descriptions are at least adequate for 
species with ranges of limited geographic extent even if varied habitats are in- 
cluded, but written descriptions do not provide the means for easy visualization 
of the ranges of widely distributed continental species. Nevertheless, a written 
description does provide the essential data for determining range (especially in 
conjunction with habitat information), and one can readily ascertain if some 
particular locality is within the overall distribution of the species. 

The terms Gulf-Caribbean slope and Pacific slope are frequently used in the 
distributional accounts of Middle American birds. Throughout most of Middle 
America, there are mountain ranges that run generally parallel to the long axis of 
mainland Middle America and divide it into two slopes. The direction of prevailing 
winds from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea is roughly from northeast 
to southwest, so that moisture carried by these winds tends to be precipitated in 
lowlands on the Gulf-Caribbean side and in the mountains, leaving the Pacific 
slope relatively dry. This condition prevails, in general, from tropical Mexico to 
northern Costa Rica. The Gulf-Caribbean slope tends to be much wetter and to 
support more humid forests than the Pacific slope, which tends toward desert in 
northwestern Mexico and to thorn scrub and deciduous forest south to north- 
western Costa Rica. Farther south, the axis of Middle America shifts to a more 
east-west configuration, and humid conditions occur on both slopes, although 
there are local areas of aridity. Especially from northern Costa Rica north through 
tropical Mexico, many species are found only on either the wetter or the drier 
slope. Belize lies entirely within the Caribbean slope, and El Salvador lies entirely 
within the Pacific slope, which accounts for the absence of some latitudinally wide- 
ranging species from one country or the other. 

The sequence of localities in extensive geographic distributions within the Check- 



list area is as follows: northwest to northeast, defining the northern limit of the 
range; then south to the southwestern limit and east to the southeastern limit, 
defining the southern limit. A simplified example (omitting intermediate localities) 
for a wide-ranging continental species would be from northern Alaska east to 
Newfoundland, south to southern California, and east to the Atlantic coast of 
Georgia. This system defines a roughly quadrangular space, and the intermediate 
localities omitted in this example would fill in the details. Gaps or other com- 
plexities within the circumscribed range are mentioned parenthetically. Extra- 
limital ranges, if any, follow the same sequence of compass directions. 

Many species have smaller or more complex ranges that do not even approx- 
imate a quadrangle, but the same basic sequence of localities is used with mod- 
ifications as needed. In Middle America many distributions follow the northwest 
to southeast axis of the isthmus, and the descriptive sequence accords well with 
this. This sequence is used purely for standardization and is not intended to suggest 
the course of distributional history of the species. 

In the Hawaiian Islands, the sequence of localities is from northwest to south- 
east, roughly following the axis of the archipelago. 

Ranges for intraspecific groups that are considered by some authors to represent 
separate species are given separately for each "group." For nonmigratory species, 
the geographic area of known and regular residence {Resident heading) is described, 
along with mention of any records of unusual occurrence outside that area. For 
migratory species, the distribution is described under two headings: Breeds and 
Winters, which are self-explanatory; in some cases where breeding and wintering 
ranges overlap, some sedentary (resident) populations of an otherwise migratory 
species may be included. For species that have distinct and easily defined sedentary 
populations (and especially if different "groups" are involved), separate breeding, 
wintering and resident sections may be included within the limits of these ranges. 
In migratory species in which breeding or wintering ranges do not encompass all 
geographic areas where transients occur, a separate migration paragraph is added 
following the wintering range section; it should be emphasized that this separate 
statement is primarily for the purpose of adding these areas and, although occa- 
sionally included for clarification of migratory patterns (especially if spring and 
fall routes are different), its omission does not necessarily imply absence of mi- 
gration. These sections are followed by any records of casual or accidental oc- 
currence outside the usual range. 

For each species recorded in the Check-list area only accidentally, there is a a 
brief and combined Habitat & Distribution account, followed by specific record(s) 
and citations pertaining to the Check-list area; species of casual occurrence are 
treated similarly, but citations are not given. For species listed in Appendices A, 
B and C, only those distributional data relevant to the actual or supposed occur- 
rence of the species within the Check-list area are given. 

"Accidental" is applied to a species whose inclusion is based on one or two 
(rarely more) records and which, on grounds of reasonable probability, is literally 
accidental within the Check-list area and unlikely to occur there regularly. An 
example is Fregata ariel, a tropical pelagic bird of the Southern Hemisphere that 
has been recorded in Maine. 

"Casual" is applied to a species whose inclusion is based on two or a few records, 
not enough to constitute regular occurrence but for which subsequent records are 
not improbable. Examples would be some of the Siberian species recorded in the 
westernmost Aleutians, not far off their usual migration routes. 



Geographic names. It is a practical impossibility to name all the localities re- 
ferred to in the Check-list in the language of their country. It is not even practical 
to attempt complete consistency in the use of a given language; translating all 
names into English, for example, would lead to absurdities. The principal languages 
used within the Check-list area are English and Spanish, but there are a few 
localities where the official language is French or Dutch. The Committee's general 
policy is to give English place names for large geographical units (countries and 
larger), large physical features (major mountain ranges, islands, oceans, etc., es- 
pecially if international in scope), and for other places with well established English 
names or spellings; examples include Germany (not Deutschland), Brazil (not 
Brasil), Mexico (not Mexico), Panama (not Panama), Mexico City (not Ciudad 
de Mexico), the Isle of Pines (not Isla de Pinos) and the Caribbean Sea (not Mar 
Caribe). For smaller political units (states and smaller) and smaller geographical 
features (small islands, mountains, streams, etc.), place names are generally given 
in the language of the country (including appropriate diacritical marks); examples 
include Volcan Irazu (Costa Rica). Isla Tiburon (off Sonora) and Darien (province 
in Panama). In the case of state or province names that are the same as a larger 
political unit, the words "state of or "province" are added for further clarification; 
examples include the state of Mexico (in Mexico), the state of Yucatan (on the 
Yucatan Peninsula), and Panama province (in Panama). In a few cases we attempt 
to conform to common usage as it appears in well known regional works; for 
example, in recent West Indian publications by James Bond, San Andres, Prov- 
idencia and St. Barthelemy are used instead of St. Andrew, Old Providence and 
St. Bartholomew islands, respectively, and we follow that format. In cases where 
various choices are available, we have referred to the Atlas Plate series of the 
National Geographic Society and followed the etymology therein. 

Any policy is bound to involve compromises and exceptions that will not find 
unanimous favor. Our objective is to adopt names that will be clearly recognized 
and understood, regardless of language, by the greatest number of potential users 
of the list rather than to achieve a multilingual check-list. In no sense are we 
proposing a standardized format for place names within the area covered. 

Procedure and Future Needs 

Following the publication of the fifth edition, a Special Committee to Study 
Problems Relating to Avian Classification and the A.O.U. Check-list was estab- 
lished in 1960, consisting of Alden H. Miller (Chairman), Dean Amadon. W. Earl 
Godfrey, George H. Lowery, Jr., and Robert W. Storer. As a result of their findings, 
the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature was reestablished in 1962 for 
the purpose of producing the sixth edition of the Check-list; Miller was named as 
Chairman, and in 1963, Amadon, Emmet R. Blake, Eugene Eisenmann, Ned K. 
Johnson, Lowery, Storer and Harrison B. Tordoff were named as members. After 
Miller's death in 1965, Lowery was appointed Chairman Pro-tern. In 1966, Ei- 
senmann was named Chairman and Thomas R. Howell and Kenneth C. Parkes 
were added to the Committee, bringing the total membership to nine. Richard C. 
Banks replaced Tordoff, who resigned in 1972. In 1975, Parkes was named Vice- 
Chairman, and Lester L. Short was added to the Committee (and appointed 
Secretary) to replace Amadon, who had resigned. In 1976, Blake resigned and was 
replaced by Burt L. Monroe, Jr.; Lowery resigned in 1977 for reasons of health 
and was not replaced. In 1 972, Lloyd F. Kiff began preparing a file of distributional 



records for the Committee, and his extensive data were later given to Monroe for 
use in preparation of the species accounts. 

In the final years of the Committee's activities, the preparation of the manuscript 
by Monroe was the major factor ensuring production of the Check-list within the 
proposed time. The accuracy and consistency of the text reflect his time-consuming 
writing, proof-reading, checking of details, and handling of correspondence within 
and outside the Commitee, made possible through the generous allowance of time 
for these activities by the administration of the University of Louisville. 

From 1977 through 1981, the Committee, consisting of Eisenmann, Banks, 
Howell, Johnson, Monroe, Parkes, Short and Storer, produced the final manuscript 
for the sixth edition. Each member had been assigned certain families and was 
charged with preparing a list of the included taxa in a preferred sequence, with 
rationale and discussion about controversial points. This required evaluation of 
the validity of all the taxa from the family to the species (including the informal 
category of superspecies) and evaluation of the status of taxa regarded as either 
species or subspecies by different authors. When the available data were inadequate 
to permit an estimate of a primitive to derived sequence, conventional arrange- 
ments were followed. The completed list and a memorandum discussing the basis 
for the arrangement were circulated to the entire Committee for review. Any 
matters of disagreement were discussed, and advice of specialists outside the 
Committee was solicited whenever appropriate. Differences of opinion were de- 
cided by majority vote of the Committee. 

The preliminary and final drafts of the systematic and distributional parts of 
the Check-list, from higher categories to species accounts (including original ci- 
tations, habitat description, geographic ranges and notes), as well as appendices 
A-C, the section on A.O.U. numbers, and the index, were prepared by Monroe; 
Howell composed the original draft of the Preface, and Banks and Monroe com- 
piled the material for inclusion in Appendix D. Drafts of the species accounts 
were prepared and circulated to the Committee for criticism, and the substantive 
changes proposed were discussed in correspondence and at meetings and submitted 
to a vote. Early accounts requiring major revision were rewritten and recirculated, 
some groups going through as many as three preliminary drafts. A first draft of 
the entire Check-list was completed by August 1 980 and was circulated to regional 
authorities and specialists in a variety of matters. Minor additions and corrections 
were routinely incorporated, but all substantive changes proposed were voted on 
by the Committee. A second complete draft was prepared in December 198 1, and 
this and all still unresolved issues pertaining to the form and content of the list 
were discussed and voted on at a meeting of the Committee in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, from 28 January to 1 February 1982. 

Eisenmann as Chairman initiated the activities of the Committee, chaired its 
meetings, guided discussions on policy, and participated as a working member, 
sharing in all of the Committee's functions. Short as Secretary took minutes and 
kept records and assumed a large burden of responsibility for organizational mat- 
ters as well as participating in all other Committee activities. Eisenmann died in 
October 1981, and Monroe was appointed Acting Chairman to oversee the final 
stages of Committee operation and publication of the Check-list. 

The Committee was aided by information and advice from a large number of 
people. The names of all those who contributed something of value to the list 
would fill many pages, and the Committee acknowledges its debt to them and its 
appreciation for their assistance. We especially wish to thank the major regional 



reviewers (Keith A. Arnold. Andrew J. Berger, James Bond. Paul A. Buckley, 
John Bull. Jon Dunn. Charles A. Ely. Kimball Garrett. Daniel D. Gibson, W. Earl 
Godfrey. J. B. Gollop. George A. Hall. C. Stuart Houston. John P. Hubbard, H. 
Lee Jones, Brina Kessel. Douglas P. Kibbe, Robert L. Pyle. J. Van Remsen, Robert 
S. Ridgely. William B. Robertson. Arnold Small, Henry M. Stevenson, F. Gary 
Stiles. Max C. Thompson and Glen E. Woolfenden). 

At the conclusion of its task, the Committee realized once again that a check- 
list of such magnitude will inevitably be incomplete or otherwise deficient in some 
aspects of virtually all areas. Even our general policies will not be approved by 
all potential users of the list. We offer the Check-list in its present form as a 
document containing, we hope, the maximum amount of essential and useful data 
for those seeking information on the systematics and distribution of birds within 
the prescribed geographic area, considering the limits of time and budget and the 
availability of data. 

On the latter point, the Committee feels strongly and unanimously the need for 
continued collection of specimens to resolve unsettled questions of relationship 
and distribution. At the time of publication of the first A.O.U. Check-list, Amer- 
ican ornithology was, in part, still in the pioneering stage, and specimens were 
needed for correct identification and locality documentation. This is still the 
situation in many areas included in the sixth edition, and in all regions specimens 
provide the basic data for studies of systematics and distribution. However, sup- 
port for such studies is only one reason for continued collecting. Properly prepared 
and precisely labeled specimens are analogous to books in a library— some are 
more important and useful than others, but every one has value, each contributes 
to cumulative knowledge, and the whole constitutes an inexhaustible source of 
information for researchers now and in the future. Contemporary research requires 
specimens of many kinds, from traditional museum study skins and osteological 
and preserved whole-body preparations to samples of organs, tissues, cells, se- 
cretions, and intracellular structures and substances. Under the best of circum- 
stances, a single specimen may provide data on all of these things. Fossil material 
is of continuously increasing importance, as are specimens of eggs, embryos and 
nests. Knowledge derived from specimens is essential to the accuracy and veri- 
fiability of purely observational field studies, and even the conception and planning 
of such studies require the data base provided by collections. 

We wish to stress that judicious and ethical collecting is not only compatible 
with wise management practices but is ultimately essential for effective programs 
of wildlife conservation. Even with the most sophisticated instruments and math- 
ematical procedures, analysis still requires sound original data. If data are not 
already available, they must be obtained— in the field or laboratory, or both— 
and collecting is an integral part of this process. The A.O.U. Committee on 
Scientific and Educational Uses of Wild Birds (1975. Auk, 92. pp. 1A-27A) 
proposed in its report a code of ethics for collectors, designed to prevent abuses 
and to assure the protection of endangered populations. We emphasize that the 
number of individual birds taken by scientific collecting in any given period of 
time is infinitesimally small compared to the numbers lost through natural mor- 
tality and human activities unrelated to ornithological research. The greatest threat 
to avian survival is the alteration of environmental conditions and destruction of 
habitats by man— primitive or technologically advanced— and the best hope for 
countering this threat is the presentation of scientifically valid reasons for an 
alternative course of action. We regard the advancement of ornithological knowl- 



edge to be of enormous importance for its inherent value and also for use in 
planning the maintenance of environmental conditions that will enhance the qual- 
ity of human life. We therefore support the continued acquisition of such knowl- 
edge through appropriate scientific means consistent with these goals. 

Committee: fEuGENE Eisenmann, Chairman 
Burt L. Monroe, Jr., 

Acting Chairman and 

Editorial Coordinator 
Kenneth C. Parkes, Vice-Chairman 
Lester L. Short, Secretary 
Richard C. Banks 
Thomas R. Howell 
Ned K. Johnson 
Robert W. Storer 
t Deceased. 



THE CHECK-LIST: SPECIES 



Class AVES: Birds 

Subclass NEORNITHES: True Birds 

Superorder PALEOGNATHAE: Ratites and Tinamous 

Order TINAMIFORMES: Tinamous 

Family TINAMIDAE: Tinamous 

Genus TINAMUS Hermann 

Tinamus Hermann, 1783, Tabula Affinit. Anim., pp. 164, 235. Type, by 
subsequent designation (Apstein, 1915), "Le Magoua" Buffon = Tetrao 
major Gmelin. 

Tinamus major (Gmelin). Great Tinamou. 

Tetrao major Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 767. Based largely on "Le 
Magoua" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 507, pi. 24. (in Americae australis, 
praesertim Cayennae et Gujanae = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southeastern Puebla and central Veracruz south 
along the Gulf-Caribbean slope of northern Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas, southern 
Quintana Roo, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua, on both slopes of 
Costa Rica (absent from dry northwest) and Panama (except the drier central 
regions), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, 
west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, 
northern Bolivia and central Brazil. 

Genus NOTHOCERCUS Bonaparte 

Nothocercus Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 881. Type, by 
subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1895), Tinamus Julius Bonaparte. 

Nothocercus bonapartei (Gray). Highland Tinamou. 

Tinamus Bonapartei G. R. Gray, 1867, List Birds Br. Mus., pt. 5, p. 97. 
(valley of Aragua, Venezuela.) 



2 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Humid foothill and montane forest, especially in ravines (upper 
Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the highlands of Costa Rica (north to Cordillera de 
Guanacaste) and extreme western Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui massif); and the 
mountains from Colombia and western and northern Venezuela south through 
Ecuador to northwestern Peru. 

Genus CRYPTURELLUS Brabourne and Chubb 

Crypturellus Brabourne and Chubb, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, 14, 
p. 322. Type, by original designation, C. tataupa (Temminck) = Tinamus 
tataupa Temminck. 

Crypturellus soui (Hermann). Little Tinamou. 

Tinamus soui Hermann, 1783, Tabula Amnit. Anim., p. 165. Based on "Le 
Soui" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 512, and "Le Soui ou Petit Tinamou, 
de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 829. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid and subhumid forest edge, second growth, thickets, shrubbery 
bordering cultivated fields, and overgrown pastures (Tropical and lower Subtrop- 
ical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from southern Veracruz 
and northern Oaxaca south through Tabasco, northern Chiapas, Campeche, south- 
ern Quintana Roo, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua, on both slopes 
of Costa Rica (absent from dry northwest) and Panama (including Isla del Rey in 
the Pearl Islands, where probably introduced), and in South America (also Trin- 
idad) from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to 
western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and 
central and southeastern Brazil. 

Crypturellus cinnamomeus (Lesson). Thicket Tinamou. 

Tinamus (nothura) cinnamomea Lesson, 1842, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 5, p. 210. 
(La Union, Centre Amerique = La Union, El Salvador.) 

Habitat.— Brushy forest edge, second growth, dense scrub and thickets, pri- 
marily in semi-arid regions but locally entering humid lowland forest (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of Middle America from central 
Sinaloa south to northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste), and on the Gulf-Carib- 
bean slope from eastern San Luis Potosi and northern Tamaulipas south to the 
Yucatan Peninsula, northern Guatemala (Peten), Belize, and the interior valleys 
of eastern Chiapas, central Guatemala and northern Honduras. 

Notes.— Also known as Rufescent Tinamou. C. cinnamomeus and C. boucardi, 
while widely sympatric, hybridize along zones of habitat contact in the interior 
of Honduras (see Monroe, 1968, A.O.U. Ornithol. Monogr., no. 7, p. 42). The 
relationship of C. cinnamomeus to various South American forms remains uncer- 
tain. Frequently, C. idoneus (Todd, 1919), an isolate in northeastern Colombia 
and western Venezuela that is morphologically very similar, is treated as a sub- 
species of C. cinnamomeus, but others have included idoneus and the Middle 
American populations in a broader species, C. noctivagus (Wied, 1 820), to include 
nominate C. noctivagus of southeastern Brazil, C. atrocapillus (Tschudi, 1844) of 



ORDER TINAMIFORMES 3 

western Amazonia, C. duidae Zimmer, 1938, of the upper Orinoco, and other 
related forms. More recently, a superspecies relationship of C. cinnamomeus (and 
idoneus) with the wide-ranging, largely Amazonian C. undulatus (Temminck, 
1815) has been suggested. 

Crypturellus boucardi (Sclater). Slaty- breasted Tinamou. 

Tinamus boucardi (Salle MS) Sclater, 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 391. 
(Playa Vicente and Teotalcingo = Teotalcingo, Oaxaca.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest, advanced second growth and bordering thickets (Trop- 
ical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Veracruz (Cerro de Tuxtla) south along 
the Gulf-Caribbean slope of northern Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas, southern Quin- 
tana Roo, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua to Costa Rica (to the 
latitude of Puerto Limon, occurring also on the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de 
Guanacaste). 

Notes.— Also known as Boucard's Tinamou. C. boucardi and C. kerriae are 
closely allied and constitute a superspecies. The relationships of the northern 
Colombian C. columbianus (Salvadori, 1895), variously treated as a separate 
species, a race of C. boucardi, or a race of the South American C. erythropus 
(Pelzeln, 1863), remain uncertain (see Blake, 1977, Man. Neotrop. Birds, 1, pp. 
41^4). See also comments under C. cinnamomeus. 

Crypturellus kerriae (Chapman). Choco Tinamou. 

Crypturus kerriae Chapman, 1915, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, p. 636. 
(Baudo, Choco, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Humid foothill forest (upper Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in extreme eastern Panama (Rio Mono to Cerro Quia 
in southeastern Darien) and northwestern Colombia (foothills of the Serrania de 
Baudo in Choco). 

Notes.— See comments under C. boucardi. 

Superorder NEOGNATHAE: Typical Birds 

Order GAVIIFORMES: Loons 

Notes.— Evidence from fossils (Storer, 1956, Condor, 58, pp. 413^426) and 
from egg-white proteins (Sibley and Ahlquist, 1972, Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Bull., 39, pp. 53-58) suggests that the loons' closest living relatives are the Charad- 
riiformes. 

Family GAVIIDAE: Loons 

Genus GAVIA Forster 

Gavia J. R. Forster, 1788, Enchirid. Hist. Nat., p. 38. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Allen, 1 908), Colymbus imber Gunnerus = Colymbus immer 
Briinnich. 

Notes.— Authors in the Old World use the group name Diver for this genus. 



4 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Colymbus Linnaeus, 1758, has been frequently used in Old World literature for 
Gavia but has now been suppressed (Int. Comm. Zool. Nomencl.. 1956. Opin. 
Decl. Rend., 13. p. 3). 

Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan). Red-throated Loon. [11.] 

Colymbus stellatus Pontoppidan, 1763. Dan. Atlas, 1. p. 621. Based on 
Colymbus maximus stellatus Willughby, Ornithology, p. 256, pi. 62. (Tame 
River, Warwickshire. England.) 

Habitat.— Ponds and lakes in coastal and alpine tundra, and in coastal flats 
south of tundra (breeding): primarily bays, seacoasts and estuaries, less frequently 
on lakes and rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from Arctic coasts and islands from 
Alaska to Greenland, south along the Pacific coast through the Aleutian Islands 
to the Queen Charlotte Islands and (formerly) Vancouver Island, in the interior 
of the continent to central Yukon, southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, 
northern Manitoba, James Bay and (formerly) the north shore of Lake Superior, 
and along the Atlantic coast to southeastern Quebec (including Anticosti Island), 
Miquelon Island and northern Newfoundland (Ball Island); and in Eurasia from 
Iceland and Arctic islands and coasts south to the British Isles, southern Scan- 
dinavia, northern Russia. Lake Baikal. Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands, Kamchatka 
and the Commander Islands. Recorded in summer (and probably breeding) in 
northeastern Alberta and Newfoundland. 

Winters in North America primarily along the Pacific coast south to northern 
Baja California and northwestern Sonora, and on the Atlantic coast south to 
Florida, ranging regularly to the Gulf coast of Florida; and in Eurasia south to 
the Mediterranean. Black and Caspian seas, and along the western Pacific coast 
to China and Formosa. 

Casual in inland areas of North America south through the Rocky Mountains 
to Colorado and New Mexico, and in the eastern states to Texas and the Gulf 
coast (sight reports for Arizona). 

Gavia arctica (Linnaeus). Arctic Loon. [10.] 

Colymbus arcticus Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1. p. 135. (in Europa 
& America boreali = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Lakes in tundra and taiga (breeding); primarily seacoasts, bays and 
estuaries, less frequently on lakes and rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds [pacifica group] in eastern Siberia from the Arctic coast 
(west to the Indigirka River) south to Anadyrland, and in North America from 
the Arctic coast of Alaska and Canada, and Banks. Prince of Wales, Victoria and 
northern Baffin islands, south to St. Lawrence Island, southern Alaska (the base 
of the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island), southwestern Yukon, southern Mac- 
kenzie, northeastern Alberta, northern Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, Belcher 
Islands and northwestern Quebec; [arctica group] in Eurasia from the British Isles 
east across Arctic coasts to the Lena River, and south to southern Scandinavia, 
central Russia and Lake Baikal; and [viridigularis group] in eastern Siberia (east 
of arctica but not in the Arctic east of the Indigirka River) south to Transbaicalia. 
Amurland. Sakhalin and Kamchatka, and in western Alaska in the Cape Prince 
of Wales region. Recorded in summer and possibly breeding [pacifica group] in 



ORDER GAVIIFORMES 5 

northwestern British Columbia, northern Alberta and northwestern Saskatchewan, 
and north to Melville Island. 

Winters [pacifica group] south to Japan and along the Pacific coast of North 
America south to southern Baja California and southern Sonora, casually in the 
interior of western North America south to Arizona, New Mexico and Texas; 
[arctica group] in Eurasia south to the Mediterranean, Black, Caspian and Aral 
seas; and [viridigularis group] in Eurasia from the breeding range south to Man- 
churia, Ussuriland, Japan and the Kurile Islands, probably also to Korea and 
northern China, and casually in North America from western and southern Alaska 
south to British Columbia. 

Casual [pacifica group] in central and eastern North America from the Great 
Lakes region, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick and Maine 
south to the Gulf coast and southern Florida, most frequently recorded along the 
Atlantic coast from Maine to New York (Long Island), also (group uncertain) in 
the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu); and [arctica group] north to the Faroe Islands, Bear 
Island and Spitsbergen. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Black-throated Diver. The pacif- 
ica group is frequently treated as a separate species, G. pacifica (Lawrence, 1858) 
[Pacific Loon, 10], distinct from G. arctica [Black-throated Loon], because 
of reported sympatric breeding in eastern Siberia and western Alaska; however, 
since some specimens show intergradation between the pacifica and viridigularis 
groups, treatment as a single species is continued. A few authors would also 
consider G. viridigularis Dwight, 1918 [Green-throated Loon, 1 0. 1 ], as a species 
distinct from G. arctica, but intergradation of the two forms occurs widely in 
eastern Siberia east of the Lena River and Lake Baikal. 



Gavia immer (Briinnich). Common Loon. [7.] 

Colymbus Immer Brunnich, 1764, Ornithol. Bor., p. 38. (Faeroes.) 

Habitat.— Lakes and ponds, occasionally river banks, from tundra south to 
coniferous forest in either open or wooded situations (breeding); primarily sea- 
coasts, bays and estuaries, in migration regularly along lakes and rivers (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and central Alaska (Seward Peninsula, west- 
ern Aleutian Islands, and the Brooks Range), northern Yukon, northwestern and 
southern Mackenzie, central Keewatin, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, 
southern Baffin Island, Labrador and Newfoundland south to northern California 
(at least formerly), northwestern Montana, North Dakota, northern Iowa, northern 
Illinois, northern Indiana, northern Ohio, northern Pennsylvania, northern New 
York, southern New England and Nova Scotia; also both coasts of Greenland, 
Iceland, Scotland (in 1 970) and (probably) Bear Island. Summers regularly outside 
the breeding range south, at least casually, to southern California, Sonora, Texas 
and the Gulf coast, and in northern Europe and on Jan Mayen. 

Winters in North America primarily along the Pacific coast from the Aleutians 
south to Baja California and Sonora, and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from 
Newfoundland south to southern Florida and west to southern Texas; and in the 
western Palearctic along the Atlantic coast south to northwestern Africa, casually 
to the eastern Atlantic islands and through Europe to the Mediterranean and Black 
seas. 



6 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

In migration occurs on inland waters through most of the continental United 
States. 

Casual in Cuba (Havana). 

Notes.— In the Old World known as Great Northern Diver. G. immer and 
the closely related G. adamsii constitute a superspecies; they are considered con- 
specific by some authors. 

Gavia adamsii (Gray). Yellow-billed Loon. [8.] 

Colymbus adamsii G. R. Gray, 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 167. (Rus- 
sian America = Alaska.) 

Habitat.— Tundra lakes (breeding); seacoasts, bays and estuaries, less frequently 
on lakes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern and western Alaska 
(south to St. Lawrence Island and the southern Seward Peninsula) east to Banks, 
Victoria and Prince of Wales islands and northern Keewatin, and south to east- 
central Mackenzie and east-central Keewatin; and in Eurasia from extreme north- 
western Russia east to Siberia (including Novaya Zemlya). Summers outside the 
breeding range east to northeastern Keewatin (Melville Peninsula) and northern 
Baffin Island, and south to southern Mackenzie (Great Slave Lake) and southern 
Keewatin. 

Winters in North America along the Pacific coast of Alaska, casually south in 
coastal areas to California and extreme northern Baja California, and inland to 
Alberta; and in Eurasia in the breeding range, casually west to Greenland and 
south to southern Europe, China, Korea and Japan. 

Casual or accidental in Saskatchewan, Nevada (Lake Tahoe), Minnesota (Duluth 
area) and New York (Long Island); a report from Colorado is based on a mis- 
identified specimen of G. immer. 

Notes.— Known in the Old World as White-billed Diver. See comments under 
G. immer. 

Order PODICIPEDIFORMES: Grebes 

Notes.— The relationships of the grebes are uncertain. Their similarities with 
the loons and fossil Hesperornithiformes are generally believed to be a result of 
convergent evolution. According to Sibley and Ahlquist (1972, Peabody Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Bull., 39, p. 58), the total available evidence indicates that the loons 
and grebes, while members of the large complex of aquatic nonpasserine birds, 
are probably more closely related to some other group than to each other. 

Family PODICIPEDIDAE: Grebes 

Genus TACHYBAPTUS Reichenbach 

Tachybaptus Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. iii. Type, by 
monotypy, Colymbus minor Gmelin = Colymbus ruficollis Pallas. 

Limnodytes Oberholser, 1974, Bird Life Tex., 1, p. 63; 2, p. 970. Type, by 
original designation, Colymbus dominicus Linnaeus. 

Notes.— For reasons for recognizing Tachybaptus as a genus distinct from Pod- 
iceps, see Storer, 1976, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 18, pp. 113-126. 



ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES 7 

Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus). Least Grebe. [5.] 

Colymbus dominicus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 223. Based on 
"La Grebe de riviere de S. Domingue" Brisson, Ornithologie, 6, p. 64, pi. 
5, fig. 2. (in Dominica = Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water lakes, streams, ponds, lagoons and temporary bodies of 
water, generally in sluggish or quiet situations (Tropical to lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Baja California, Sinaloa, east-central and 
southern Texas and the Bahamas (except Grand Bahama) south through most of 
Middle America (including Cozumel Island), the Greater Antilles (east to Puerto 
Rico, possibly the Virgin Islands) and South America (also Tobago and Trinidad) 
to southern Peru and northern Argentina. 

Casual north to southern California (bred once, Imperial Dam, 1 946), southern 
Arizona, Sonora, and central and eastern Texas. Accidental in Louisiana (Baton 
Rouge), sight reports for Florida. 

Genus PODILYMBUS Lesson 

Podilymbus Lesson, 1831, Traite Ornithol., livr. 8, p. 595. Type, by mono- 
typy> Podiceps carolinensis Latham = Colymbus podiceps Linnaeus. 

Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus). Pied-billed Grebe. [6.] 

Colymbus Podiceps Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 136. Based on 
"The Pied-Bill Dopchick" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, p. 91, pi. 91. (in 
America septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds, sluggish streams and marshes, in migration and winter 
also in brackish bays and estuaries. 

Distribution.— Breeds in southeastern Alaska (Copper River region, at least 
formerly), and from southwestern and central British Columbia, south-central 
Mackenzie, northern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, central 
Ontario, southwestern Quebec, central Maine, southern New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island and Nova Scotia south locally through temperate North America, 
Middle America, the West Indies and South America to central Chile and southern 
Argentina (Chubut). 

Winters through most of the breeding range from southern British Columbia 
(west of the Rockies) and the central United States (east of the Rockies) southward, 
casually farther north. Northern populations are migratory, at least in part, and 
winter south to Panama; tropical populations are essentially sedentary. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands; north to southern Alaska, southern Yukon, 
Baffin Island, Labrador and Newfoundland; and on Bermuda. Accidental in Great 
Britain and the Azores. 

Notes.— P. podiceps and P. gigas are closely allied and may constitute a super- 
species, although both are reported to breed on Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. 

Podilymbus gigas Griscom. Atitlan Grebe. 

Podilymbus gigas Griscom, 1 929, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 379, p. 5. (Panajachel, 
5300 ft., north shore of Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Reed and cattail beds, less frequently open water (Subtropical Zone). 



8 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Resident on Lake Atitlan, Guatemala (elevation, 1555 meters). 
Notes.— Also known as Giant Pied-billed Grebe. See comments under P. 
podiceps. 

Genus PODICEPS Latham 

Podiceps Latham, 1787, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 294. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1 840), Colymbus cristatus Linnaeus. 

Dytes Kaup, 1 829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 44. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1841), Dytes cornutus Kaup = Colymbus auritus 
Linnaeus. 

Pedetaithya Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 44. Type, by 
monotypy, Colymbus subcristatus Jacquin = Colymbus grisegena Bod- 
daert. 

Proctopus Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 49. Type, by mono- 
typy, Colymbus auritus Linnaeus. 

Notes.— Podiceps has been considered by many authors to be a junior synonym 
of Colymbus Linnaeus, 1758, but the latter name has been officially suppressed 
(see comments under Gavia). 

Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus). Horned Grebe. [3.] 

Colymbus auritus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 135. (in summis 
Europse & America? lacubus = Vaasa, Finland.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds and lakes, occasionally along sluggish streams (breed- 
ing); bays, estuaries and seacoasts, and in migration commonly in inland fresh- 
water habitats, especially lakes and rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from central Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northwestern and southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin and northern Manitoba 
south to eastern Washington, northeastern Idaho, southwestern and northern 
Montana, northern South Dakota, northwestern Minnesota, central Wisconsin 
and extreme western Ontario (formerly from northern Ontario, southern Quebec 
and New Brunswick south to northern Utah, northwestern Nebraska, northeastern 
Iowa, northern Illinois, northern Indiana and southern New England); and in 
Eurasia from Iceland, northern Scotland and Scandinavia east across northern 
Russia and northern Siberia, south to central Russia, Lake Baikal, Amurland. 
Sakhalin and Kamchatka. 

Winters in North America on the Pacific coast from the Aleutians and south- 
coastal Alaska south to southern California and on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
from Nova Scotia south to southern Florida and west to southern Texas, rarely 
on inland waters from southern Canada and the Great Lakes southward; and in 
Eurasia from the seas off Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles and Norway 
south to the northern Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas, casually to Madeira, 
the Azores and northern Africa, and on the Pacific coast from Japan south to 
Korea. 

In migration regularly in North America through the Mississippi and Ohio 
valleys, and in western Europe. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai), the Gulf of California, 
Bermuda, Greenland, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen and the Commander Islands. 

Notes.— In Old World literature known as Slavonian Grebe. 



ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES 9 

Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert). Red-neciced Grebe. [2.] 

Colymbus grisegena Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 55. Based on 
"Le Jougris" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 931. (No locality given = 
France.) 

Habitat.— Lakes and large ponds with margins of reeds or sedges, occasionally 
along quiet rivers (breeding); primarily seacoasts, bays and estuaries, less fre- 
quently large inland bodies of water, in migration regularly on lakes, ponds and 
rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western and central Alaska, cen- 
tral Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, northwestern Saskatchewan, 
central Manitoba and western and south-central Ontario south to St. Lawrence 
Island (at least formerly), the Alaska Peninsula, central Washington, northern 
Montana, northeastern South Dakota and south-central Minnesota, rarely to 
southwestern Oregon, northern Michigan, southern Quebec and New Hampshire; 
and in Eurasia from Scandinavia and western Russia south to eastern Europe and 
Asia Minor, and from eastern Siberia south to Japan. 

Winters in North America from the Aleutians south on the Pacific coast to 
southern California (rarely), and from the Bay of Fundy south on the Atlantic 
coast to Florida, casually west along the Gulf coast to coastal Louisiana, and 
central and southeastern Texas; and in Eurasia primarily along the coasts of 
Norway and the North, Baltic, Caspian, Aegean, Adriatic and Black seas, rarely 
to the Mediterranean, and along the Pacific coast from Kamchatka south to Korea. 

Migrates regularly through the Great Lakes region, rarely through the Ohio and 
upper Mississippi valleys, and casually elsewhere in interior North America. 

Casual north to Hudson Bay, Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands 
and Spitsbergen. 



Podiceps nigricollis Brehm. Eared Grebe. [4.] 

Podiceps nigricollis C. L. Brehm, 1831, Handb. Naturgesch. Vogel Dtsch., p. 
963. (Germany.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds and lakes, in migration and winter also salt lakes, 
bays, estuaries and seacoasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from south-central British Columbia, 
central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba and western Min- 
nesota south to northern Baja California, central Arizona, central and northeastern 
New Mexico and south-central Texas, east to northeastern Illinois (Cook County), 
northern Iowa, eastern Nebraska, central Kansas and central Oklahoma, and south 
locally to central Mexico (recorded Chihuahua, Nayarit, Jalisco and Puebla); in 
South America (formerly) on temperate lakes in the Eastern Andes of Colombia; 
in Eurasia locally from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, central Russia and 
eastern Siberia south to the Mediterranean region, northern Africa (formerly), 
Asia Minor and Ussuriland; and locally in eastern and southern Africa. 

Winters inland in North America from central California, northern Nevada, 
northern Utah, northern New Mexico and central Texas, and on the Pacific coast 
from southern British Columbia, south through most of Mexico to Guatemala; 
in Eurasia from the British Isles south to the Mediterranean Sea, eastern Africa. 
Iran and northern India, and on the Pacific coast from Japan south to southern 



1 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

China; and essentially in the breeding range in South America (formerly) and 
Africa. 

Casual in southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, and eastern North America 
from the Great Lakes and New England south to the Gulf coast and Florida; also 
in Madeira and the Canary Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as Black- necked Grebe. The distinct, isolated, rufous- 
necked form in Colombia, now apparently extinct, has sometimes been recognized 
as a separate species, P. andinus (Meyer de Schauensee, 1959). P. nigricollis 
(including andinus), P. taczanowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894, of Lago de 
Junin, Peru, and P. occipitalis Garnot, 1826, of the Andes and temperate South 
America, may constitute a superspecies. P. caspicus (Hablitzl, 1783), used by 
some authors for P. nigricollis, has been officially suppressed (Int. Comm. Zool. 
Nomencl., 1956, Opin. Decl. Rend., 13, p. 121). 



Genus AECHMOPHORUS Coues 

Aechmophorus Coues, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14, p. 229. 
Type, by original designation, Podiceps occidentalis Lawrence. 



Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence). Western Grebe. [1.] 

Podiceps occidentalis Lawrence, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. 
Explor. Surv. R. R. Pac, 9, pp. liv, 892, 894. (Pacific coast from Washington 
Territory to California = Fort Steilacoom, Washington.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, lakes and bays, in migration and winter also sheltered sea- 
coasts, less frequently along rivers (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southeastern Alaska, south-central British Colum- 
bia, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba south to 
southern California, north-central Utah, southwestern Colorado, southwestern 
and northeastern New Mexico, western Nebraska, northwestern Iowa and western 
Minnesota; and locally in Mexico from Chihuahua and Durango south to northern 
Guerrero, Puebla and San Luis Potosi. 

Winters along the Pacific coast from southern British Columbia, and from Utah, 
Colorado, New Mexico and western and southern Texas south to southern Baja 
California, northern Guerrero, Puebla and San Luis Potosi. 

Casual north to southwestern and south-coastal Alaska (west to Adak in the 
Aleutians) and southern Yukon, and east to the Great Lakes, upper Mississippi 
Valley and southeastern Texas, very rarely to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from 
New England to Florida. 

Notes.— Two "color" morphs (referred to as "light-phase" and "dark-phase") 
exist in the populations of A. occidentalis, with light-phase birds becoming more 
scarce in the northern breeding populations. A high degree of assortative mating 
has been revealed in recent field studies (see Ratti, 1979, Auk, 96, pp. 573-586; 
Nuechterlein, 1981, Auk, 98, pp. 335-349), suggesting that further research may 
reveal the two forms to represent distinct species; if so, dark-phase birds will be 
called A. occidentalis, light-phased ones A. clarkii (Lawrence, 1858) [Clark's 
Grebe, 1.1] (see Dickerman, 1963, Condor, 65, pp. 66-67; lectotype from Chi- 
huahua). 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 1 1 

Order PROCELLARIIFORMES: Tube-nosed Swimmers 

Notes.— We follow Alexander et al. ( 1 965, Ibis, pp. 40 1-405) in the arrangement 
of families and genera of the order. 

Family DIOMEDEIDAE: Albatrosses 

Genus DIOMEDEA Linnaeus 

Diomedea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 132. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1 840), Diomedea exulans Linnaeus. 

Diomedea exulans Linnaeus. Wandering Albatross. [81.1.] 

Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 132. Based pri- 
marily on "The Albatross" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 88, pi. 88. (intra 
tropicos Pelagi & ad Cap. b. Spei = Cape of Good Hope.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on Antarctic islands from the South Atlantic 
east to the Auckland and Antipodes islands in the South Pacific, and ranges at 
sea generally throughout the southern oceans north to lat. 30°S. 

Accidental in California (The Sea Ranch, Sonoma County, 11-12 July 1967; 
Paxton, 1968, Auk, 85, pp. 502-504) and Panama (Bay of Panama, August 1937; 
Murphy, 1938, Condor, 40, p. 126); a report from Florida is unsatisfactory. 

Notes.— While there will always be uncertainty as to the validity of the northern 
occurrences with respect to possible transport by man, vagrancies in our area by 
other southern albatrosses {e.g., D. cauta and D. chlororhynchos) lend support 
that the foregoing reports are based on natural wanderings. 

[Diomedea irrorata Salvin. Waved Albatross.] See Appendix A. 

Diomedea albatrus Pallas. Short-tailed Albatross. [82.] 

Diomedea albatrus Pallas, 1769, Spic. Zool., 1, fasc. 5, p. 28. (ad oran Kam- 
tschatcae orientalum ... ad Insulam Beringii = in the Bering Sea off Kam- 
chatka.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on the ground on small oceanic islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in small numbers on Torishima, in the Seven Islands of 
Izu; formerly bred on Kita-no-shima (in the Parry group), Kobishi (in the Senkaku 
Archipelago, southern Ryukyu Islands) and Nishi-no-shima, Tome-shima and 
Muko-shima (in the Bonin Islands). Reported breeding from Wake Island is erro- 
neous, being based on D. immutabilis. 

Ranges at sea (commonly prior to 1900, casually in the 20th Century) from 
Siberia, the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska south to the China coast and through 
the North Pacific to the Hawaiian Islands (primarily the Leeward chain) and 
southern Baja California. 

Diomedea nigripes Audubon. Black-footed Albatross. [8 1 .] 

Diomedea nigripes Audubon, 1839, Ornithol. Biogr., 5, p. 327. (Pacific Ocean, 
lat. 30°44'N., long. 146°[W].) 



1 2 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH .AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Pelagic, breeding on the open sand on oceanic islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the western Hawaiian Islands (Kure. Midway, Pearl 
and Hermes Reef. Lisianski, Lays an. French Frigate Shoals, Necker, Nihoa and 
Kaula). and on Torishima in the Seven Islands of Izu: bred formerly in the northern 
Bonin Islands (Muko-shima). Volcano Islands (Iwo Jima). Marianas (Agrihan). 
Marshall Islands (Taongi). and on Marcus. Wake and Johnston islands. 

Ranges at sea in the Bering Sea. and in the North Pacific from the Gulf of 
Alaska south to Baja California and the Revillagigedo Islands, and from Kam- 
chatka south to the coast of China and the Caroline Islands. 

Notes.— Occasional hybrids between D. nigripes and D. immutabilis are reported 
from the Hawaiian Islands (Midway). 

Diomedea immutabilis Rothschild. Laysan Albatross. [82.1.] 

Diomedea immutabilis Rothschild. 1893. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club. 1. p. 48. 
( Laysan Island.) 

Habitat. — Pelagic, breeding in open grassy areas on oceanic islands. 

Distribution. — Breeds on most of the western Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to 
Nihoa. Niihau and Kauai, and rarely on Moku Manu off Oahu). in the Ogasawara 
Islands (on Torishima). and. at least formerly, in the Seven Islands of Izu (on 
Torishima). and on Marcus. Johnston and Wake islands. 

Ranges at sea in the Bering Sea. and in the North Pacific from the Gulf of 
.Alaska south (at least uncommonly) to the coast of California and Baja California, 
and from Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands south to the coast of Japan. 

Accidental in Arizona (Yuma). 

Notes.— See comments under D. nigripes. 

Diomedea melanophris Temminck. Black-browed Albatross. [82.2.] 

Diomedea melanophris Temminck. 1828, Planches Color., livr. 77, p. 456 
and text. (Cap. Nouvelle Hollande. et mers antarctiques = Cape of Good 
Hope.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on islands off southern South America. Ker- 
guelen in the southern Indian Ocean, and islands off southern New Zealand, and 
ranges at sea in southern oceans general!} north to the Tropic of Capricorn. 

Accidental on Martinique (Yauclm. 12 November 1956; Bond. 1959, Birds W. 
Indies. 4th Suppl.. p. 10). near Greenland, and in Iceland, the Faroe Islands, 
British Isles. Spitsbergen and Norway (sight records for waters off the Atlantic 
coast of North America from Newfoundland to Florida). 

Notes.— Although emended to D. melanophrys by Temminck in 1839. the con- 
sistent use of the acceptable spelling D. melanophris by him in 1828 renders the 
former an unjustified emendation. 

Diomedea cauta Gould. Shy Albatross. [82.3.] 

Diomedea cauta Gould. 1841. Proc. Zool. Soc. London ( 1 840). p. 177. (Bass's 
Straits [off southeastern Australia].) 

Habitat & Distribution. — Breeds on islands off southern Australia and New 

Zealand, and ranges at sea widely in the southern Pacific and Indian oceans, less 
commonly in the South Atlantic. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 1 3 

Accidental off the coast of Washington (lat. 47°55'N., long. 125°37'W., ca. 39 
miles west of the mouth of Quillayute River, 1 September 1951; Slipp, 1952, Auk, 
69, pp. 458^59). 

Notes.— Also known as White-capped Albatross. The specimen from off 
Washington has been referred to the race breeding in Australian waters, D. c. 
cauta. 

Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin. Yellow-nosed Albatross. [83.] 

Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 568. Based on 
the "Yellow-nosed Albatross" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (1), p. 309, 
pi. 94. (Ad caput bonae spei, et in mari australi extra tropicos = off Cape 
of Good Hope.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the South Atlantic and southern 
Indian oceans, and ranges widely at sea in these southern oceans east to Australian 
and New Zealand waters. 

Casual or accidental in Quebec (Gulf of St. Lawrence), New Brunswick (mouth 
of Bay of Fundy), Maine (East Freyburg, and off Machias Seal Island), New York 
(off Freeport, Long Island), Maryland (Ocean City), Louisiana (Holly Beach) and 
Texas (South Padre Island), also sight records offshore from Newfoundland and 
Maine south to Florida. 

[Diomedea chrysostoma Forster. Gray-headed Albatross.] See Appen- 
dix B. 

[Genus PHOEBETRIA Reichenbach] 

Phoebetria Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. v. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Diomedea fuliginosa Gmelin = Diomedea palpebrata 
Forster. 

[Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster). Light-mantled Albatross.] See Ap- 
pendix B. 

Family PROCELLARIIDAE: Shearwaters and Petrels 
Notes.— See comments under Hydrobatidae. 

[Genus MACRONECTES Richmond] 

Ossifraga (not Wood, 1835) Hombron and Jacquinot, 1844, C. R. Acad. Sci. 

Paris, 18, p. 356. Type, by monotypy, Procellaria gigantea Gmelin. 
Macronectes Richmond, 1905, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 76. New name 

for Ossifraga Hombron and Jacquinot, preoccupied. 

[Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin). Antarctic Giant-Petrel.] See Ap- 
pendix A. 

Genus FULMARUS Stephens 

Fulmarus Stephens, 1826, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13 (1), p. 233. Type, by- 
subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855), Procellaria glacialis Linnaeus. 
Priocella Hombron and Jacquinot, 1844, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 18, p. 357. 



1 4 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Fulmarus glacialis (Linnaeus). Northern Fulmar. [86.] 

Procellaria glacialis Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2, p. 5 1 . Based pri- 
marily on "Mallemucke" Martens, Spitsbergen Groenland Reise, p. 68, pi. 
N, fig. c. (in mari septentrionali intra circulum arcticum = Spitsbergen.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding primarily on sea cliffs, less frequently on low and 
flat rocky islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America on islands in the Bering Sea 
(Hall, St. Matthew and the Pribilofs), in the Aleutians (Buldir, Davidof, Gareloi, 
Bobrof and Chagulak islands) and in the northern Gulf of Alaska (on Seal, Semidi, 
Barren and Chiswell islands); in the Canadian Arctic on Devon Island, eastern 
Baffin Island (south to Cumberland Sound and Admiralty Bay) and Newfoundland 
(since 1973); and from coastal Greenland (north of Disko Bay and the Liverpool 
coast) east through Jan Mayen, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles, north- 
western France, Norway, Bear Island, Spitsbergen, Franz Josef Land, northern 
Novaya Zemlya and the Chukotski Peninsula (Plover Bay). Summers regularly 
outside the breeding range in the Bering and Chukchi seas, in Arctic Canada west 
to Banks and Melville islands, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the English Channel 
and North Sea, and along the coast of Kamchatka. 

Winters at sea in the southern Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean from the Aleutians 
south to Japan, the Seven Islands of Izu, the Hawaiian Islands and southern Baja 
California; and in the Atlantic Ocean from Greenland, Labrador, Spitsbergen and 
northern Norway south to the Newfoundland Banks, Georges Bank off Massa- 
chusetts, and northern France, less commonly but regularly off the east coast of 
the United States to South Carolina. 

Casual in Ontario, Quebec and continental Europe. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Fulmar. F. glacialis and F. 
glacialoides may constitute a superspecies. 

Fulmarus glacialoides (Smith). Southern Fulmar. 

Procellaria glacialoides Smith, 1840, Illus. Zool. S. Afr., pt. 1 1, pi. 51. (neigh- 
bourhood of the South African coast.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on cliffs around Antarctica and on Antarctic 
islands in the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans, and ranges at sea in 
southern oceans north to southern Australia, New Zealand, central South America 
and South Africa. 

Accidental off western Mexico (near Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Friedmann et ah, 1950, 
Pac. Coast Avifauna, no. 29, p. 1 5). The locality of Townsend's specimen reported 
from the "mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon" is deemed erroneous (Stone, 
1930, Auk, 47, pp. 414^115). 

Notes.— Also known as Slender-billed Fulmar. F. antarcticus Stephens, 1 826, 
often used for this species, cannot be definitely identified as to species (Falla, 1 937, 
Br. Aust. N. Z. Antarct. Res. Exped. Rep. (B), 2, pp. 158-164). See also comments 
under F. glacialis. 

Genus DAPTION Stephens 

Daption Stephens, 1826, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13 (1), p. 239. Type, by original 
designation, Procellaria capensis Linnaeus. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 1 5 

i 

Daption capense (Linnaeus). Cape Petrel. [102.] 

Procellaria capensis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 132. Based 
primarily on "The white and black Spotted Peteril" Edwards, Nat. Hist. 
Birds, 2, p. 90, pi. 90, right fig. (ad Cap. b. Spei = Cape of Good Hope.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in cliff niches and burrows on Antarctic and 
subantarctic islands in the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and in New 
Zealand waters, and ranges at sea regularly in southern oceans north to the Tropic 
of Capricorn, less frequently to the Equator. 

Accidental in Maine (Harpswell, Cumberland County, June 1873; Norton, 1 922, 
Auk, 39, pp. 101-103), Ireland, continental Europe, Sicily and Ceylon. Sight 
reports in the Pacific Ocean off California have been questioned, although one 
(off Monterey, 1962) seems to be well documented; a record from off the coast of 
Acapulco, Guerrero, is regarded as "indefinite" (Friedmann et ah, 1957, Pac. 
Coast Avifauna, no. 33, p. 402), and an early California specimen ("coast of 
California, opposite Monterey," before 1853; Lawrence, 1853, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N.Y., 6, pp. 4-7) is regarded as of uncertain origin. Some authors question 
the origin of all Northern Hemisphere records. 

Notes,— Also known as Pintado Petrel and Cape Pigeon. 



Genus PTERODROMA Bonaparte 

Pterodroma Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 768. Type, by 
subsequent designation (Coues, 1866), Procellaria macroptera Smith. 



Pterodroma hasitata (Kuhl). Black-capped Petrel. [98.] 

Procellaria hasitata Kuhl, 1820, Beitr. Zool., abth. 1, p. 142. (No locality 
given = Dominica.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on mountain summits. 

Distribution.— Breeds at high elevations on Hispaniola (Morne La Selle east to 
western end of Sierra de Baoruco), eastern Cuba (Monte La Bauja), Jamaica (Blue 
Mountains, formerly), Guadeloupe, Dominica (where probably extirpated) and 
(possibly) Martinique. 

Ranges at sea in the Caribbean and western Atlantic Ocean from about the 
Tropic of Cancer south to eastern Brazil, rarely to the Atlantic coast of North 
America from Maine to Florida (although regular and sometimes in large numbers 
off North Carolina). 

Accidental in Ontario, New York, western Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, western 
Florida (Leon County) and England. 

Notes.— The possibly extinct, dark form that bred on Jamaica has been regarded 
by some to represent a distinct species, Pterodroma caribbaea Carte, 1866 [Jamai- 
can Petrel]. P. hasitata and P. cahow constitute a superspecies; they are consid- 
ered conspecific by some authors. In addition, the Pacific forms P. phaeopygia 
and P. externa are considered by some to be representatives of the complex and 
conspecific with P. hasitata. All four species are best treated as constituting a 
superspecies. 



1 6 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Pterodroma cahow (Nichols and Mowbray). Bermuda Petrel. 

JEstrelata cahow Nichols and Mowbray, 1916, Auk, 33, p. 1 94. (Gurnet Head 
Rock, Bermuda.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows in sandy areas on islets. 
Distribution. — Breeds in Bermuda, persisting in small numbers on islets in Castle 
Roads, formerly also the Bahamas (Crooked Island, bone deposits in caves). 
Ranges at sea but not definitely recorded away from the breeding grounds. 
Notes.— Also known as the Cahow. See comments under P. hasitata. 



Pterodroma phaeopygia (Salvin). Dark-rumped Petrel. [98.5.] 

(Estrelata phceopygia Salvin, 1876, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 9, p. 507, pi. 
88, figs. 1 and 2. (Chatham Island. Galapagos.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows at higher elevations on islands. 

Distribution.— breeds' [sandwichensis group] in the interior highlands of the 
Hawaiian Islands (Kauai. Maui and Hawaii, probably also on Molokai and Lanai, 
formerly also Oahu); and [phaeopygia group] in the Galapagos Islands (Isabela, 
San Salvador, Santa Cruz, Floreana and San Cristobal. 

Ranges at sea [sandwichensis group] in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands; 
and [phaeopygia group] along the Pacific coast of Middle America in the vicinity 
of Clipperton Island and off Costa Rica. 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes regarded as distinct species, P. sand- 
wichensis (Ridgway, 1884) [Hawaiian Petrel, 98.5] and P. phaeopygia [Ga- 
lapagos Petrel]. See also comments under P. hasitata. 

Pterodroma externa (Salvin). White-necked Petrel. [98.7.] 

(JEstrelata externa Salvin, 1875, Ibis, p. 373. (Island of Masafuera and Juan 
Fernandez.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds [externa group] on Mas Afuera Island in the 
Juan Fernandez Islands off Chile, and [cervicalis group] on Raoul Island in the 
Kermadecs north of New Zealand, and ranges [both groups] primarily in the South 
Pacific, occasionally north as far as lat. 21°N. 

Casual [externa group] off the Pacific coast of Middle America (ca. 20 miles 
northwest of Clipperton Island; Loomis, 1918, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 2, 
p. 95); also near Hawaiian waters (lat. 19°45'N., long. 16P52'W., 135 miles 
southwest of Kaula, 16 November 1965, specimen USNM); also a sight record 
[cervicalis group] for Hawaiian waters (ca. 60 miles east of Hawaii, W. King and 
D. Husted). and others (not identified to group) from Hawaiian waters within 100 
miles of island areas. 

Notes.— The two widely isolated and distinct breeding groups are sometimes 
regarded as separate species, P. externa [Juan Fernandez Petrel] and P. cervicalis 
(Salvin, 1891) [White- necked Petrel]. See also comments under P. hasitata. 

[Pterodroma rostrata (Peale). Tahiti Petrel.] See Appendix A. 

[Pterodroma alba (Gmelin). Phoenix Petrel.] See Appendix A. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 1 7 

Pterodroma inexpectata (Forster). Mottled Petrel. [99.] 

Procellaria inexpectata J. R. Forster, 1844, Descr. Anim., p. 204. (in Oceano 
antarctico = Antarctic Ocean.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding primarily along inland mountain bluffs and in bur- 
rows on small islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in New Zealand (inland ranges of North and South islands, 
this population now much reduced) and on islands in the region (Curvier and 
Stewart islands, islets in Preservation Inlet and around Puysegue Point, and in 
the Snares, Auckland, Antipodes, Bounty and Chatham groups). 

Ranges at sea in Antarctic waters between New Zealand and South America, 
and throughout much of the Pacific from Japan, the southern Bering Sea and Gulf 
of Alaska south to the Hawaiian Islands and California (mostly far-offshore waters). 

Casual along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to California, and in the 
vicinity of the Galapagos Islands. Accidental in New York (Mount Morris, Liv- 
ingston County, 1 880). 

Notes.— Also known as Scaled Petrel. 

[Pterodroma solandri (Gould). Solander's Petrel.] See Appendix A. 

Pterodroma ultima Murphy. Murphy's Petrel. [100.1.] 

Pterodroma ultima Murphy, 1949, in Mayr and Schuz (eds.), Ornithol. Biol. 
Wiss., p. 89. (Oeno Island, south Pacific.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in burrows in the Austral, Tuamotu and other 
islands in the south-central Pacific Ocean, and ranges at sea north, possibly reg- 
ularly, to the tropical North Pacific. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands at Kure, French Frigate Shoals, and off Oahu 
(7 miles southwest of Barber's Point), in Oregon (Lincoln County, 15 June 1981; 
specimen USNM), and at sea ca. 350 miles west of Santa Barbara, California (lat. 
34°19'N., long. 126°24'W.); a report of P. solandri from off California (between 
Cape Mendocino and Point Reyes, within 60 miles of shore, 21 May 1981, 20 
individuals, photograph, R. Pitman; Am. Birds, 35: 973, 1981) apparently also 
pertains to P. ultima. 

Pterodroma neglecta (Schlegel). Kermadec Petrel. [98.4.] 

Procellaria neglecta Schlegel, 1863, Mus. Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, livr. 4, Procell., 
p. 10. (Kermadec and Sunday Islands.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in burrows on islands in the South Pacific 
(Kermadecs and Lord Howe east to the Juan Fernandez group), and ranges at sea 
generally through the South Pacific. 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure, 30 April 1923, A. Wetmore; Gould 
and King, 1967, Auk, 84, pp. 592-593) and England. 

The specific identity of a bird photographed in Pennsylvania (Heintzelman, 
1961, Wilson Bull., 73, pp. 262-267) and reported as P. neglecta is uncertain 
(Palmer, 1962, Handb. North Am. Birds, 1, p. 21 1); the record may be referable 
to either P. neglecta or P. arminjoniana. Reports from Mexican waters are con- 
sidered hypothetical (Friedmann et ah, 1957, Pac. Coast Avifauna, no. 33, p. 
403). 



1 8 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Notes.— Also known as Variable Petrel and sometimes treated under the name 
P. phillipii (G. R. Gray, 1862). P. neglecta and P. arminjoniana constitute a 
superspecies; they are considered conspecific by some authors. 

Pterodroma arminjoniana (Giglioli and Salvadori). Herald Petrel. [98.2.] 

JEstrelata arminjoniana Giglioli and Salvadori, 1869, Ibis, p. 62. (near Trin- 
idad [= Trindade] Island, in the South Atlantic.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on islands on bare rock under overhanging 
ledges or plants [arminjoniana group] in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans, 
and [heraldica group] in the South Pacific, and ranges at sea generally in the oceans 
near the respective breeding grounds. 

Casual [arminjoniana group] in the North Atlantic off North Carolina and east 
of the Lesser Antilles (lat. 21°51'N., long. 43°35'W.). Accidental [arminjoniana 
group] in New York (Caroline Center near Ithaca) and England; and [heraldica 
group] in the Hawaiian Islands (French Frigate Shoals, 14 March 1968; Amerson, 
1971, Atoll Res. Bull., no. 150, p. 125). 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes regarded as separate species, P. armin- 
joniana [Trindade or South Trinidad Petrel, 98.2] and P. heraldica (Salvin, 
1888) [Herald Petrel, 98.7]. See also comments under P. neglecta. 

Pterodroma cookii (Gray). Cook's Petrel. [98.3.] 

Procellaria Cookii G. R. Gray, 1843, in Dieffenbach, Travels N. Z., 2, p. 199. 
(New Zealand.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off the coast of New Zealand (Little and Great 
Barrier, off North Island; and Codfish, off Stewart Island). 

Ranges at sea from the northern and eastern Pacific Ocean south to New Zealand 
and Peru, and uncommonly but regularly to the Aleutians (near Adak), off Cali- 
fornia (especially Davidson Seamount), and off Mexico (between the Revillagigedo 
Islands and southern Baja California). 

Notes.— Also known as Blue- footed Petrel. P. cookii and P. defilippiana 
(Giglioli and Salvadori, 1869), from the Juan Fernandez Islands, constitute a 
superspecies; they are considered conspecific by some authors. 

Pterodroma hypoleuca (Salvin). Bonin Petrel. [99.1.] 

(JEstrelata hypoleuca Salvin, 1888, Ibis, p. 359. (Krusenstern Is., in North 
Pacific Ocean = Hawaiian Leeward Islands, probably Laysan; see Murphy, 
1951, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 1512, pp. 17-18.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows in oceanic islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the western Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to Nihoa), 
and in the Bonin and Volcano islands. 

Ranges at sea in the western North Pacific in the vicinity of the breeding grounds 
and from Sakhalin south to Formosa and the Seven Islands of Izu. 

Notes.— The relationships of this species and several closely allied forms that 
breed in southern waters from Australia and New Zealand east to South America, 
P. nigripennis, P. axillaris (Salvin, 1893), P. leucoptera (Gould, 1844) and P. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 1 9 

longirostris remain doubtful and controversial; some authors include P. cookii in 
the complex in addition to the above. 

Pterodroma nigripennis (Rothschild). Black-winged Petrel. [100.2.] 

(Estrelata nigripennis Rothschild, 1893, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 1, p. 57. 
(Kermadec Islands.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in burrows in the Kermadec and Austral islands, 
ofFNew Zealand, and ranges at sea, primarily in the South Pacific near the breeding 
grounds. 

Accidental in Hawaiian waters (ca. 60 miles west of Hawaii, 12 November 
1965; Berger, 1972, Hawaiian Birdlife, p. 239). 

Notes.— See comments under P. hypoleuca. 

[Pterodroma longirostris (Stejneger). Stejneger's Petrel.] See Appen- 
dix A. 

Genus BULWERIA Bonaparte 

Bulweria Bonaparte, 1843, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna (1842), 8, p. 426. 
Type, by monotypy, Procellaria bulwerii Jardine and Selby. 

Bulweria bulwerii (Jardine and Selby). Bulwer's Petrel. [101.] 

Procellaria bulwerii Jardine and Selby, 1828, Illus. Ornithol., 2, pi. 65. (Madeira 
or the small islands adjacent.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in rocky holes, crevices in cliffs, and on the ground 
under thick vegetation. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Pacific Ocean in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway 
east to Kaula Rock, and on small islets around the main islands), on small islands 
off the coast of China, in the Bonin, Volcano, Marquesas and Phoenix islands, 
and on Johnston Island; and in the Atlantic Ocean in the Azores, Madeira, Canary 
and Cape Verde islands. 

Ranges at sea in the western Pacific Ocean in the breeding areas and from Japan 
to Formosa and the Moluccas; in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from England to the 
Cape Verde Islands, casually to the Mediterranean Sea and the western Atlantic 
(off Trinidad); and to the equatorial, western and central Indian Ocean. A sight 
report from Florida is unsatisfactory. 

Notes.— B. bulwerii and B.fallax constitute a superspecies; they are sometimes 
considered conspecific. 

Bulweria fallax Jouanin. Jouanin's Petrel. [101.1.] 

Bulweria fallax Jouanin, 1955, Oiseau, 25, pp. 158, 159, 160. (en mer au 
point approximatif[lat.] 12°30'N., [long.] 55°E. [northwestern Indian Ocean].) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds presumably on small islands in the Indian 
Ocean off Arabia, and ranges at sea primarily in the northwestern Indian Ocean. 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Lisianski Island, 4 September 1967; Clapp, 
1971, Condor, 73, p. 490). 

Notes.— See comments under B. bulwerii. 



20 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Genus PROCELLARIA Linnaeus 

Procellaria Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 131. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Procellaria aequinoctialis Linnaeus. 

Adamastor Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 594. Type, by 
original designation, Procellaria haesitata Forster = Procellaria cinerea 
Gmelin. 

[Procellaria cinerea Gmelin. Gray Petrel.] See Appendix B. 

Procellaria parkinsoni Gray. Black Petrel. 

Procellaria parkinsoni G. R. Gray, 1862, Ibis, p. 245. (New Zealand.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands and at high elevations in 
mountains. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off New Zealand (Great Barrier and Little 
Barrier) and, at least formerly, in the mountainous interior ranges of both North 
and South islands, New Zealand. 

Ranges at sea west to Australia and east, apparently regularly, to the vicinity 
of the Galapagos Islands and waters off the west coast of Middle America (ca. 50 
miles off Guatemala, 14 April 1973, and 17 miles off the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa 
Rica, 21 April 1973, plus many sight records between Mexico and Panama prob- 
ably referable to this species; Jehl, 1974, Auk, 91, pp. 687-689). 

Notes.— Also known as Parkinson's Petrel. P. parkinsoni, P. westlandica Falla, 
1946, of New Zealand, and P. aequinoctialis Linnaeus, 1 758, of New Zealand and 
South American waters, constitute a superspecies; they are sometimes considered 
conspecific. 

Genus CALONECTRIS Mathews and Iredale 

Calonectris Mathews and Iredale, 1915, Ibis, pp. 590, 592. Type, by original 
designation, Procellaria leucomelas Temminck. 

Notes.— For reasons for separation of Calonectris from Puffinus, see Kuroda, 
1954, Class. Phyl. Tubinares, pp. 102-104, 117. 

Calonectris leucomelas (Temminck). Streaked Shearwater. [88.1.] 

Procellaria leucomelas Temminck, 1835, Planches Color., livr. 99, pi. 587. 
(seas of Japan and Nagasaki Bay.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on small wooded islands from the Bonin and 
Pescadores groups to the coast of Japan, and ranges at sea in the western Pacific 
Ocean from Korea and Japan to Borneo and New Guinea, casually to Ceylon. 

Accidental in Monterey Bay, California, 3 October 1975 (Morejohn, 1978, Auk, 
95, p. 420), and 9 October 1977 (Roberson, Morlan and Small, 1977, Am. Birds, 
31, pp. 1097-1098), also a sight record in October 1978. The inclusion of the 
Hawaiian Islands in the range by Vaurie (1965, Birds Palearctic, 1, p. 25) was 
based on an unsubstantiated report by a Japanese fishing vessel "in Hawaiian 
waters." 



ORDER PROCELLARI I FORMES 21 

Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli). Cory's Shearwater. [88.] 

Procellaria diomedea Scopoli, 1769, Annus I, Hist. -Nat., p. 74. (No locality 
given = Tremiti Islands, Adriatic Sea.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows and crevices on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the eastern Atlantic Ocean (in the Azores, on Berlenga 
Island off Portugal, and in the Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde islands) and the 
Mediterranean Sea (from Gibraltar locally east to the Adriatic Sea, the Balkans, 
Turkey and the Near East). 

Ranges at sea in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean from about lat. 
44°N. to lat. 36°S., reaching the coasts of North America (from Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia south to Florida), Brazil and Europe (north irregularly to England 
and France). 

Casual in the Gulf of Mexico (from Texas to Florida), the Bahamas (Grand 
Bahama), Cuba (off Gibara), Barbados, Trinidad, the Faroe Islands, continental 
Europe, Syria, South Africa and New Zealand. 

Genus PUFFINUS Brisson 

Puffinus Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 56; 6, p. 130. Type, by tautonymy, 

Puffinus Brisson = Procellaria puffinus Brunnich. 
Ardenna Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. iv. Type, by original 

designation, Procellaria minor Faber = Procellaria gravis O'Reilly. 
Thyellodroma Stejneger, 1889, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1 1 (1888), p. 93. Type, 

by original designation, Puffinus sphenurus Gould = Puffinus chlororhyn- 

chus Lesson. 
Neonectris Mathews, 1913, Austral Avian Rec, 2, p. 12. Type, by original 

designation, Puffinus brevicaudus Gould = Procellaria tenuirostris Tem- 

minck. 
Hemipuffinus Iredale, 1913, Austral Avian Rec, 2, p. 20. Type, by original 

designation, Puffinus carneipes Gould. 

Puffinus creatopus Coues. Pink-footed Shearwater. [9 1 .] 

Puffinus creatopus (Cooper MS) Coues, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 16, p. 131. (ex insula "San Nicholas" prope California = San Nic- 
olas Island, California.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off Chile (Mas a Tierra and Santa Clara in the 
Juan Fernandez group, and Isla Mocha in Arauco Bay). 

Ranges at sea mostly adjacent to land masses off the Pacific coast of the Amer- 
icas, north at least as far as the southern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. 

Notes.— P. creatopus and the closely allied P. carneipes constitute a superspecies 
and are sometimes considered to be conspecific. 

Puffinus carneipes Gould. Flesh-footed Shearwater. [95.1.] 

Puffinus carneipes Gould, 1844, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, 13, p. 365. 
(Small islands off Cape Leeuwin, western Australia.) 



22 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off the south coast of western Australia (from 
Cape Leeuwin to Archipelago of the Recherche), on Lord Howe Island, on islands 
off New Zealand (eastern coast of North Island), and on St. Paul Island in the 
Indian Ocean. 

Ranges at sea from the breeding areas throughout most of the Pacific Ocean to 
the Hawaiian Islands, the west coast of North America (from the southern Bering 
Sea and Gulf of Alaska south, uncommonly, to California), waters off Japan and 
the Juan Fernandez Islands offChile, and to the Indian Ocean (north to the Arabian 
Sea and Ceylon). 

Notes.— Also known as Pale- footed Shearwater. See comments under P. 
creatopus. 

Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly). Greater Shearwater. [89.] 

Procellaria Gravis O'Reilly, 1818, Voy. Greenland Adj. Seas, p. 140, pi. 12, 
fig. 1 . (Latitude of Cape Farewell and Staten Hook, frequently Newfound- 
land in summer.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on oceanic islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the South Atlantic Ocean on Tristan da Cunha (Night- 
ingale and Inaccessible islands), on Gough Island, and in the Falkland Islands. 

Ranges at sea throughout the Atlantic Ocean from Greenland and Iceland south 
to Tierra del Fuego and South Africa, occurring between May and September off 
the Atlantic coast of North America from Newfoundland to Florida, in June in 
the Davis Strait off Labrador and Greenland, and between August and October 
off Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the west coast of Europe (including the western 
Mediterranean east to Algeria and Sardinia). 

Casual in the Gulf of Mexico (from eastern Texas to Florida), West Indies (off 
Puerto Rico and St. Lucia), Costa Rica (Tortuguero), Trinidad and continental 
Europe, also sight reports for California (Monterey Bay) and the New Zealand 
region. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Great Shearwater. 

Puffinus pacificus (Gmelin). Wedge-tailed Shearwater. [96.1.] 

Procellaria pacifica Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 560. Based on the 
"Pacific Petrel" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 416. (circa insulam 
Europa aliasque maris pacifici = Kermadec Islands.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows near sea level on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off the western coast of Mexico (on San Bene- 
dicto, in the Revillagigedo group), in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to Kauai 
and Oahu, and on small islets around the main islands), in the central and western 
Pacific Ocean (from the Pescadores and Bonin Islands south to the Tonga, Austral 
and Pitcairn groups), in waters off southern Australia and around New Zealand, 
and in the Indian Ocean (from the Seychelles and Cocos-Keeling south to the 
Mascarenes and Western Australia). 

Ranges at sea in the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Middle America and 
South America (from Baja California, the Tres Marias Islands and Nayarit south 
to Panama, Colombia and Ecuador) and throughout most of the central and 
western Pacific Ocean north to Japan and Formosa; and in the Indian Ocean north 
to the Arabian and southern Red seas. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 23 

Puffinus bulleri Salvin. Buller's Shearwater. [96.2.] 
Puffinus bulleri Salvin, 1888, Ibis, p. 354. (New Zealand.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands offNorth Island, New Zealand (Poor Knights, 
Whale, and possibly Three Kings and Mayor). 

Ranges at sea in the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of North America (from 
the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska south to California), near the Hawaiian 
and Galapagos islands, off the Kurile Islands, and off the west coast of South 
America (Peru and Chile). 

Accidental inland in southern California (Salton Sea). 

Notes.— Also known as Gray-backed or New Zealand Shearwater. 

Puffinus griseus (Gmelin). Sooty Shearwater. [95.] 

Procellaria grisea Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 564. Based mainly on 
the "Grey Petrel" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 399. (in hemi- 
sphaerio australi, inter 35° et 50° = New Zealand.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on small islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off southeastern Australia (off New South Wales 
and Tasmania) and widely in New Zealand waters (including Stewart, Snakes, 
Auckland and Chatham islands); and off the southern coast of South America 
(Wollaston and Deceit, probably also Huafo and Mocha, off Chile; off Tierra del 
Fuego; and in the Falkland Islands). 

Ranges at sea throughout the Pacific Ocean north to the southern Bering Sea, 
Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka, Formosa and the Hawaiian Islands, and along the 
entire Pacific coast of the Americas; in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of North 
America from Labrador and Newfoundland south to Florida and Cuba (also in 
the Gulf of Mexico west to Texas), off eastern South America north to Brazil, off 
the west coast of Europe from Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark 
south to Portugal and the Mediterranean Sea (east to Algeria and Italy), and off 
the west coast of Africa north to Fernando Po and Angola. 

Casual inland in the United States, mostly after storms; recorded from southern 
California, southern Arizona, Alabama (Attalla) and North Carolina (Twin Oaks). 



Puffinus tenuirostris (Temminck). Short-tailed Shearwater. [96.] 

Procellaria tenuirostris Temminck, 1835, Planches Color., livr. 99, text facing 
pi. 587. (dans les mers au nord du Japon et sur les cotes de la Coree = 
Japan.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on small islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off the coast (and locally along the mainland 
coast) of southeastern Australia from South Australia (Nuyts Archipelago) east to 
Victoria and Tasmania, and north to New South Wales (Bateman's Bay). 

Ranges at sea in southern Australian and New Zealand waters, and north through 
the Pacific Ocean to the Bering and Chukchi seas, and south along the west coast 
of North America to Baja California (Los Coronados Islands). 

Casual in Hawaiian waters, off Guerrero, and in the Indian Ocean (Ceylon, and 
the Mekran coast of Baluchistan, Pakistan), also questionable sight reports from 
the Gulf of California and Costa Rican waters. 

Notes.— Also known as Slender-billed Shearwater. 



24 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Puffinus nativitatis Streets. Christmas Shearwater. [96.3.] 

Puffinus (Nectris) nativitatis Streets, 1877, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., no. 7, p. 29. 
(Christmas Island [Pacific Ocean].) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on oceanic islands on the ground beneath vegetation 
or in shallow tunnels. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Hawaiian Islands (east to Kauai and Moku Manu, 
off Oahu), in the Phoenix, Marquesas, Tuamotu and Austral islands, and on Wake, 
Christmas and Easter islands. 

Ranges at sea in the tropical Pacific Ocean. 

Accidental at sea between Clipperton Island and the mainland of Mexico. 

Puffinus puffinus (Briinnich). Manx Shearwater. [90.] 

Procellaria Puffinus Briinnich, 1764, Ornithol. Bor., p. 29. (E Feroa & Nor- 
vegia = Faroe Islands.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on turfy coastal islands, on cliffs of rocky 
islands, and occasionally inland in mountainous regions. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the North Atlantic on islands off Newfoundland (since 
1977) and Massachusetts (Penikese Island, 1973), and from Iceland and the Faroe 
and Shetland islands south around most of the British Isles to western France 
(Brittany), in Madeira and the Azores, and around much of the Mediterranean 
Sea (formerly also on Bermuda). 

Ranges at sea to the western Atlantic along the coast of North America (recorded 
regularly at sea from Newfoundland south to Maryland and Bermuda, casually 
to Florida), to the eastern Atlantic from Iceland and Norway south to the Canary 
Islands, east throughout the Mediterranean and Black seas, and to the east coast 
of South America from Trinidad to Argentina. 

Casual or accidental on the Gulf coast of Texas (Nueces County, North Padre 
Island) and Florida (Santa Rosa County), and in Greenland, continental Europe, 
South Africa and South Australia. 

Notes.— Species limits in the superspecies complex, which includes P. puffinus, 
the two following species, and two species from the Australian-New Zealand 
region, P. gavia (Forster, 1844) and P. huttoni Mathews, 1912, are uncertain. 
Variable treatments include the entire complex as a single species, or with the 
recognition of three species (P. puffinus, P. gavia and P. huttoni), the other forms 
united with one of the three; Murphy (1952, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 1586, pp. 1- 
21) unites auricularis and newelli with the puffinus group, and opisthomelas with 
the gavia group. Except for newelli, it seems best to consider all as allospecies of 
a superspecies; see also comments under P. auricularis. 

Puffinus opisthomelas Coues. Black- vented Shearwater. [93.] 

Puffinus opisthomelas Coues, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16, 
p. 139. (Cape San Lucas, Baja California.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows and small caves on islands. 
Distribution.— Breeds off the Pacific coast of Baja California (on Guadalupe, 
San Martin, San Benito and Natividad islands). 
Ranges at sea along the Pacific coast of North America from central California 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 25 

(casually north to Vancouver Island and Washington) south to Baja California, 
Sonora and (at least casually) Guerrero. 
Notes.— See comments under P. puffinus. 

Puffinus auricularis Townsend. Townsend's Shearwater. [93.1.] 

Puffinus auricularis C. H. Townsend, 1890, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 13, p. 133. 
(Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Group.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on oceanic islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds [newelli group] in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, possibly 
also on Molokai and Hawaii, and probably formerly on Maui); and [auricularis 
group] in the Revillagigedo Islands (on Clarion, San Benedicto and Socorro), off 
western Mexico. 

Ranges at sea in the vicinity of the breeding grounds, recorded [auricularis 
group] north to southern Baja California (Cape San Lucas) and south to Clipperton 
Island and Oaxaca; a sight report for Panama requires confirmation. 

Notes.— The two groups are occasionally regarded as distinct species, P. auricu- 
laris [Townsend's Shearwater, 93.1] and P. newelli, Henshaw, 1900 [Newell's 
Shearwater, 93.2], but because of similar morphology and vocalizations, con- 
specific treatment seems warranted. See also comments under P. puffinus. 

Puffinus assimilis Gould. Little Shearwater. [92.1.] 

Puffinus assimilis Gould, 1838, Synop. Birds Aust., pt. 4, app., p. 7. (New 
South Wales = Norfolk Island.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in burrows and crevices on coastal cliffs and 
islands in the eastern Atlantic (Azores south to Gough Island) and off Australia 
and New Zealand, and ranges at sea in the southern Atlantic and Indian oceans. 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway, 18 February 1968; Clapp and 
Woodward, 1968, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 124, p. 9), Nova Scotia (Sable Island. 
1 September 1896), South Carolina (Sullivan's Island, August 1883) and conti- 
nental Europe, also additional sight records from Puerto Rico and off the North 
Carolina coast. 

Notes.— Also known as Allied Shearwater. See comments under P. Ihermi- 
nieri. 

Puffinus lherminieri Lesson. Audubon's Shearwater. [92.] 

Puffinus [sic] Lherminieri Lesson, 1839, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 2, p. 102. (ad 
ripas Antillarum = Straits of Florida.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in rock crevices and on the ground under dense 
vegetation on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Caribbean and western Atlantic region on Crab 
Cay (off Isla de Providencia, east of Nicaragua), on Tiger Rock (off Bocas del 
Toro, Panama), on Los Roques (off northern Venezuela), on Bermuda, in the 
Bahamas, off Puerto Rico (Mona Island, and Cayo del Agua off Culebra), in the 
Virgin Islands, and widely in the Lesser Antilles (from St. Martin south to islets 
offTobago); in the eastern Atlantic on the Cape Verde Islands; in the Indian Ocean 
(islands in the southern Persian Gulf south to the Mascarene. Seychelles and 



26 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Maldive groups): and in the Pacific Ocean from the Bo run and \'olcano islands 
south to the Palau. New Hebrides. Society, Tuamotu and Galapagos islands. 

Ranges at sea in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts (at least casually, also 
sight reports north to Nova Scotia i south to Florida and throughout the West 
Indies to the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panama, and in the Gulf of 
Mexico west (at least casually i to Louisiana and Texas: m the tropical Indian 
Ocean north to the Persian Gulf. Arabian Sea and India: and in the eastern Pacific 
along the coast of Middle America from Oaxaca south to Panama and Colombia. 
and in the tropical Pacific from the general breeding range south to Indonesia, 
New Guinea and northern Australia. 

Accidental in Ontario f Almonte.) and England. 

Notes. — P. Iherminieri and P. j.ssimilis constitute a superspecies: they are con- 
sidered conspecific by some authors. 

Family HYDROBATIDAE: Storm-Petrels 

Notes. — Some authors consider this group to be a subfa m ily of the Prooellari- 
ldae. 

Genus OCEANTTES Keyserling and Blasius 

Oceanites Keyserling and Blasius. 1840. Wirbelth. Eur., pp. xcin. 131. 238. 
Type, by monotypy. "Tha'.ass'.drcrca" <= P r : :e'.'.:. r :a\ <■■ User.:: Bonaparte = 
Procellaria oceanic a Kuhl. 

Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl). Wilson* s Storm-Petrel. [109.] 

Procellariu cce2K::a Kuhl. 1820. Beitr. ZooL. abth. 1. p. 136. (No locality- 
given = South Georgia. > 

Habitat. — Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands and in coastal areas. 

Distribution.— Breeds around the continent of Antarctica, on subantarctic islands 
off southern South America (W'ollaston. Deceit. Herschel. South Georgia. South 
Orkneys. South Shetlands and probably other nearby islands) and on islands in 
the southern Indian Ocean (Crozets and Kergueleni. 

Ranges at sea throughout the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico north to Texas. 
the Gulf coast. Labrador and the British Isles, and east in the Mediterranean to 
Sardinia, throughout the Indian Ocean north to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, in 
Australian and New Zealand waters north to Indonesia and New Guinea, and in 
the South Pacific north along the west coast of South .America to Peru and occa- 
sionally Ecuador. 

Casual north in the Pacific Ocean off North .America 'recorded from California. 
Oaxaca and Panama, also sight records from Washington. Michoacan. Guatemala 
and Costa Rica). Accidental in southern Ontario (Long Beach. Lake Muskokai. 
southwestern Quebec (Lake Deschenes i. northern and western New York. Penn- 
sylvania (Greensburg. Reading) and interior Florida ( Gainesville i. 

[Oceanites gracilis (Elliot). White-vented Storm-Petrel.] See Appen- 
dix A. 

Genus PELAGODRO\L\ Reichenbach 

Pelagodroma Reichenbach. 1553. Avium Syst. Nat. (1852). p. iv. Type, by 
orieinal designation. Prcce'.'.aria •>-,-, j.r;->:j. Latham. 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 27 

Pelagodroma marina (Latham). White-faced Storm-Petrel. [111.] 

Procellaria marina Latham, 1790, Index Ornithol., 2, p. 826. Based on the 
"Frigate Petrel" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 410. (in Mari australi; 
latitudine 37 = off the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, lat. 35°-37°S.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows beneath heavy vegetation on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off Australia (from Abrolhos east to Bass Strait 
and Broughton Islands) and in New Zealand waters (Kermadec, Chatham, Auck- 
land, Antipodes and others near the mainland); in the Atlantic Ocean on Salvage, 
Canary (possibly) and Cape Verde islands, and on Tristan da Cunha and Gough 
Island in the South Atlantic; and in the southern Indian Ocean, at least formerly, 
on Amsterdam and St. Paul islands. 

Ranges at sea in the Indian and Pacific oceans from the Arabian Sea south and 
east throughout the Australian and New Zealand breeding range across the Pacific 
to the Galapagos Islands and the west coast of South America (off Ecuador); in 
the Atlantic from the Azores (casually north to the British Isles) south along the 
west coast of Africa to the South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans, occurring 
west to the coasts of Uruguay and Argentina. 

Casual off the North American coast from Massachusetts south to North Car- 
olina. 

[Genus FREGETTA Bonaparte] 

Fregetta Bonaparte, 1855, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 4 1 , p. 1113. Type, by original 
designation, Thalassidroma leucogaster Gould. 

[Fregetta grallaria (Vieillot). White-bellied Storm-Petrel.] See Appen- 
dix B. 

Genus HYDROBATES Boie 

Hydrobates Boie, 1822, Isis von Oken, col. 562. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 1 884), Procellaria pelagica Linnaeus. 

Hydrobates pelagicus (Linnaeus). British Storm-Petrel. [104.] 

Procellaria pelagica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 131. (in albo 
Oceano = Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on small rocky islands in the northern and 
eastern Atlantic Ocean and western Mediterranean Sea, and ranges at sea through- 
out the Mediterranean and Black seas and the eastern Atlantic and western Indian 
oceans. 

Accidental in Nova Scotia (Sable Island, 10 August 1970; McNeil and Burton. 
1971, Auk, 88, pp. 671-672); there is also an old specimen (USNM) from the 
"Bay of Fundy" lacking further data. A specimen taken at McClellanville, South 
Carolina, in 1972 and reported as H. pelagicus, was subsequently identified as 
Oceanodroma castro (Am. Birds, 27: 44, 1973). 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Storm Petrel. 

Genus OCEANODROMA Reichenbach 

Oceanodroma Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. iv. Type, by 
original designation, Procellaria furcata Gmelin. 



28 CHECK- LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Cymochorea Coues, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 16, p. 75. Type, 
by original designation. Procellaria leucorhoa Vieillot. 

Halocyptena Coues, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 16. p. 78. Type. 
by original designation. Halocyptena microsoma Coues. 

Loomelania Mathews, 1934, Bull. Br. Omithol. Club. 54. p. 119. Type, by 
original designation. Procellaria melania Bonaparte. 

[Oceanodroma hornbyi (Gray). Ringed Storm-Petrel.] See Appendix B. 



Oceanodroma furcata (Gmelin). Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel. [105.] 

Procellaria furcata Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2). p. 561. Based on the 
"Fork-tail Petrel" Pennant, Arct. ZooL. 2. p. 535. (in glacie maris, Amer- 
ican! & Asiam interfluentis = Bering Sea.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islands in burrows or holes under rocks. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the North Pacific from southern Alaska (the Aleutian 
Islands, islands in the Gulf of Alaska, and the Alexander Archipelago) south along 
the west coast of North America to islets off northern California (Del Norte and 
Humboldt counties), and from the Commander Islands south to the Kuriles. 

Ranges at sea from western .Alaska (the Bering Sea. casually the southern Chuk- 
chi Sea) south through the Bering Sea and North Pacific along the west coast of 
North America to central (casually southern) California, to the Hawaiian Islands 
and Marcus Island, and to Japan and the Volcano Islands. 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieillot). Leach's Storm-Petrel. [106.] 

Procellaria leucorhoa Vieillot. 1818. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 25 
(1817), p. 422. (sur les bords maritimes de la Picardie. se tient sur FOcean. 
jusqu'au Bresil = Picardy. France.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the North Pacific from the Shumagin and Aleutian 
islands and south-coastal Alaska south along the North American coast to Baja 
California (Los Coronados. San Benito and Guadalupe islands), and from the 
Commander Islands south to the Kuriles and northern Hokkaido. Japan: and in 
the North Atlantic from southern Labrador south to Newfoundland. Maine (Casco 
Bay) and Massachusetts (Penikese Islands), and from southern Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands and Norway to northern Scotland. 

Ranges at sea in the Pacific Ocean from the breeding areas south to the Hawaiian, 
Revillagigedo and Galapagos islands, and in the western Pacific to Indonesia and 
New Guinea; and in the Atlantic Ocean south along both coasts to Florida, the 
West Indies. Caribbean Sea. South America (Venezuela east to eastern Brazil) and 
South Africa, casually to the eastern Atlantic islands. Mediterranean Sea and 
western Europe. 

Casual or accidental in Ohio, southern Ontario, northern Quebec. Vermont. 
the District of Columbia, along the Gulf coast (from Texas east to Florida) and 
the Pacific coast of Costa Rica (Cabo Velas). and in Greenland and New Zealand. 

Notes.— O. leucorhoa and the closely allied O. monorhis (Swinhoe. 1867), of 
Japan and Korea, probably constitute a superspecies: some authors consider them 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 29 

to be conspecific. The breeding population on Guadalupe Island, here regarded 
as a race of O. leucorhoa, has been treated variously as a subspecies of O. monorhis 
or as a distinct species, O. socorroensis C. H. Townsend, 1890 [Dusky-rumped 
Storm-Petrel, 105.2]. 

Oceanodroma homochroa (Coues). Ashy Storm-Petrel. [108.] 

Cymochroa homochroa Coues, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16, 
p. 77. (Farallone Islands, Pacific coast of North America = Farallon Islands, 
California.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islands in natural cavities under rocks and in 
burrows. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off the coast of California (on Bird in Marin 
County, in the Farallon Islands and on San Miguel and Santa Cruz in the Channel 
Islands) and, rarely, northern Baja California (in Los Coronados Islands). 

Ranges at sea off the coast of California and Baja California from Marin County 
south to the San Benito Islands. 

Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt). Band-rumped Storm-Petrel. [106.2.] 

Thalassidroma castro Harcourt, 1851, Sketch Madeira, p. 1 23. (Deserta Islets, 
near Madeira.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islands in burrows and rocky crevices. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the Pacific Ocean in the Hawaiian Islands 
(no nest located, indirect evidence for nesting on Kauai, possibly also Maui), off 
Japan, in the Galapagos Islands, and possibly on Cocos Island, off Costa Rica; 
and in the Atlantic Ocean in the Azores (probably), Salvage, Madeira, Cape Verde, 
Ascension and St. Helena islands. 

Ranges at sea primarily in the vicinity of the breeding grounds, occurring casual- 
ly off the coast of Brazil and the British Isles. 

Casual or accidental off the Pacific coast of California and Costa Rica, off the 
Atlantic coast of North America (Delaware to North Carolina), on the central 
coast of Texas, in Florida (Escambia, Gulf and Pinellas counties, and Key West) 
and Cuba, and inland in Missouri (Weldon Spring), Ontario (Ottawa), Indiana 
(Martinsville), Pennsylvania (Chambersburg) and the District of Columbia. 

Notes.— Also known as Madeira or Harcourt's Storm-Petrel. 

Oceanodroma tethys (Bonaparte). Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel. [106.3.] 

Thalassidroma Tethys Bonaparte, 1852, Tagebl. Dtsch. Naturforsch. Aertze, 
Weisbaden, Beilage, no. 7, p. 89. (Galapagos Islands.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Galapagos Islands (Tower and Pitt) and on islands 
off the coast of Peru (San Gallan and Pescadores). 

Ranges at sea along the west coast of the Americas from Costa Rica south to 
the coast of Chile (lat. 20°S.), occasionally north as far as the Revillagigedo 
Islands and Guatemala. 

Casual off California (Monterey region) and Baja California (Guadalupe Island). 

Notes.— Also known as Galapagos Storm-Petrel. The northern specimens 



30 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

have been referred to the Peruvian breeding race. O. t. kelsalli (Lowe, 1925); 
specimens of both kelsalli and nominate O. t. tethys from the Galapagos popu- 
lation have been reported from the Bay of Panama. 

Oceanodroma melania (Bonaparte). Black Storm-Petrel. [107.] 

Procellaria melania Bonaparte. 1854, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 662. (coast 
of California = vicinity of San Francisco.) 

Habitat. — Pelagic, breeding on islands in burrows, crannies under rocks and 
crevices in cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds on Sutil Island, adjacent to Santa Barbara Island in the 
Channel Islands, off southern California: on Los Coronados and San Benito islands, 
off the Pacific coast of Baja California: and on islands in the northern third of the 
Gulf of California (Consag Rock, San Luis Islands and Partida Island). 

Ranges at sea along the Pacific coast of the Americas from central California 
(Marin County) south to Panama. Colombia. Ecuador and Peru (to lat. 8°S.). 

Notes. — O. melania and the closely related O. matsudariae Kuroda, 1922, of 
the Volcano Islands and Japanese waters, constitute a superspecies; they are con- 
sidered conspecific by some authors. 

^Oceanodroma macrodactyla Bryant. Guadalupe Storm-Petrel. 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa macrodactyla W. E. Bryant. 1887, Bull. Calif. Acad. 
Sci.. 2, p. 450. (Guadalupe Island. Baja California.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in burrows among coniferous trees at high eleva- 
tions. 

Distribution. — EXTINCT. Bred formerly on Guadalupe Island. Baja California; 
not certainly recorded since 1912. Known only from the vicinity of the breeding 
grounds. 

Oceanodroma markhami (Salvin). Markham's Storm-Petrel. 

Cymochorea markhami Salvin. 1883. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 430. (coast 
"of Peru. lat. 19°40'S.. long. 75°W.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeding grounds unknown; ranges at sea along the 
Pacific coast of South America from northern Peru to central Chile, occasionally 
to the Galapagos Islands. 

Accidental near Clipperton Island and off western Costa Rica (at Cocos Island). 

Notes.— This species and O. tristrami constitute a superspecies: some authors 
consider them conspecific, in which case Sooty Storm-Petrel may be used for 
the broader specific unit. 

Oceanodroma tristrami Salvin. Sooty Storm-Petrel. [107.1.] 

Oceanodroma tristrami (Stejneger MS) Salvin. 1896, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 25, 
pp. xiv, 347, 354. (Sendai Bay. [Honshu.] Japan.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islands in burrows and rocky crevices. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the western Hawaiian Islands (Pearl and Hermes Reef, 
Laysan. French Frigate Shoals. Nihoa. and possibly Kure and Midway), in the 
Seven Islands of Izu (Torishima) and in the Volcano Islands (Kita Iwo). 



ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 31 

Ranges at sea from the Hawaiian Islands (east at least to Kauai) to Japanese 
waters and the Bonin Islands. 

Notes.— See comments under O. markhami. 

Oceanodroma microsoma (Coues). Least Storm-Petrel. [103.] 

Halocyptena microsoma Coues, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16, 
p. 79. (San Jose del Caba [sic], Lower California = San Jose del Cabo, Baja 
California.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islets in crevices or among loose stones. 

Distribution.— Breeds on the Pacific side of Baja California in the San Benito 
Islands and in the northern third of the Gulf of California (Consag Rock, and San 
Luis and Partida islands). 

Ranges at sea along the west coast of North America from southern California 
(San Diego County), south to Oaxaca, less frequently south as far as Panama and 
northern South America (Colombia and Ecuador, to lat. 2°S.). 

Notes.— This species has formerly been treated in the monotypic genus Halo- 
cyptena. 

[Order SPHENISCIFORMES: Penguins] 

Notes.— Evidence from fossils, morphology and egg-white proteins, as sum- 
marized by Sibley and Ahlquist (1972, Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull., 39, pp. 
36-43) indicates that the penguins are most closely related to the Procellariiformes. 

[Family SPHENISCIDAE: Penguins] 

[Genus SPHENISCUS Brisson] 

Spheniscus Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 52; 6, p. 96. Type, by monotypy, 
Diomedea demersa Linnaeus. 

[Spheniscus mendiculus Sundevall. Galapagos Penguin.] See Appen- 
dix B. 



Order PELECANIFORMES: Totipalmate Swimmers 

Suborder PHAETHONTES: Tropicbirds 

Family PHAETHONTIDAE: Tropicbirds 

Genus PHAETHON Linnaeus 

Phaethon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 134. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus. 

Phaethon lepturus Daudin. White-tailed Tropicbird. [112.] 

Phaeton [sic] lepturus Daudin, 1802, in Buffon, Hist. Nat., ed. Didot, Quadr., 
14, p. 319. (Mauritius.) 



32 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on tropical islands in rocky crevices, holes or caves, 
especially on cliffs, occasionally in trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 
Bermuda, the Bahamas and throughout the Greater and Lesser Antilles south to 
islets off Tobago, Fernando de Noronha (off Brazil), Ascension Island, and islands 
in the Gulf of Guinea; in the Pacific Ocean from the Hawaiian Islands (main 
islands west to Kauai, rarely on Midway) and the Bonin and Volcano islands 
south to New Caledonia and the Fiji, Marquesas and Tuamotu islands; and in 
the Indian Ocean from the Seychelles and Andaman Islands south to the Mas- 
carenes and Christmas Island. 

Ranges at sea throughout the breeding areas and tropical waters in the western 
Atlantic, rarely north along the east coast of North America to North Carolina 
(casually in the Gulf Stream to Nova Scotia), casually in the Gulf of Mexico 
(mostly recorded offFlorida), and (probably) casually in the Caribbean Sea (recorded 
offPuerto Barrios, Guatemala, and northern Colombia); in the Pacific Ocean from 
Japan to Australia and (casually) New Zealand; and in the Indian Ocean south to 
South Africa. 

Accidental in California (Newport Bay, Orange County), Arizona (Scottsdale). 
Pennsylvania (Gettysburg) and western New York. 

Notes.— Also known as Yellow-billed Tropicbird. 

Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus. Red-billed Tropicbird. [113.] 

Phaethon cethereus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 134. (in Pelago 
inter tropicos = Ascension Island.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on tropical islands in crevices and holes, usually 
on cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the Caribbean region (on Culebra and Vie- 
ques off Puerto Rico, on small islets in the Virgin Islands and Lesser Antilles 
south to Tobago and Grenada, and on Swan Key in Almirante Bay, Panama, also 
on Los Hermanos and Los Roques off Venezuela), the eastern Atlantic (off Africa, 
including the Cape Verde Islands) and the South Atlantic (off Brazil); in the eastern 
Pacific off Mexico (Revillagigedo, Tres Marias and Isabela islands), in the Gulf 
of California (Consag Rock, and San Pedro Martir and San Jorge islands) and 
northern South America (the Galapagos and islands off the coast from Colombia 
to Ecuador and Peru); and in the northern Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Persian 
Gulf. 

Ranges at sea in the breeding areas in the western Atlantic region throughout 
the Lesser Antilles and off northern South America, less frequently through the 
Greater Antilles and south to Brazil, casually north off the Atlantic coast of North 
America from Florida to New York (Long Island) and Rhode Island; in the Pacific 
regularly from southern California and Baja California south to Peru, irregularly 
north to Washington, west to the Hawaiian Islands (recorded French Frigate Shoals 
and Nihoa) and south to Chile; and in the tropical Indian Ocean. 

Casual or accidental in southern Arizona, Madeira and southern Africa; an old 
report from the Newfoundland Banks is unsubstantiated. 

Phaethon rubricauda Boddaert. Red-tailed Tropicbird. [113.1.] 

Phaeton [sic] rubricauda Boddaert, 1 783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 57. Based 
on "Paille-en queue de l'lsle de France" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 
979. (Mauritius.) 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 33 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on small islands on the ground, in crevices and 
under vegetation, occasionally on cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Pacific Ocean from the western Hawaiian (Kure 
east to Niihau, also on Lanai and Kahoolawe, irregularly on Manana Island off 
Oahu, and possibly on islets off Molokai), Bonin and Volcano islands south to 
northeastern Australia (Raine Island) and Lord Howe, Norfolk, Kermadec, Tua- 
motu and Pitcairn islands; and in the Indian Ocean near Mauritius, in the Cocos- 
Keeling Islands, and off the northwestern coast of Australia. 

Ranges at sea throughout the breeding range and in the Pacific from Japan and 
the Hawaiian Islands (throughout) south to Australia and New Zealand; and in 
the Indian Ocean from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf south to South African and 
Australian waters. 

Casual east in the Pacific to California, and to waters off Guadalupe, the Revil- 
lagigedo and Clipperton islands. Accidental off the coast of Chile. 

Suborder PELECANI: Boobies, Pelicans, Cormorants and Darters 

Family SULIDAE: Boobies and Gannets 

Genus SULA Brisson 

Sula Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 60; 6, p. 494. Type, by tautonymy, 
Sula Brisson = Sula leucogaster Boddaert. 

Subgenus SULA Brisson 

Parasula Mathews, 1913, Austral Avian Rec, 2, p. 55. Type, by original 
designation, Sula dactylatra bedouti Mathews = Sula dactylatra Lesson. 

Sula dactylatra Lesson. Masked Booby. [114.] 

Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, Traite Ornithol., livr. 8, p. 601. (L'ile de l'As- 
cension = Ascension Island.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on open ground on oceanic islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Atlantic-Caribbean region off the Yucatan Pen- 
insula (Cayo Areas, Cayo Arenas and Alacran reef), in the southern Bahamas 
(Santo Domingo Cay), southwest of Jamaica (the Pedro and Serranilla cays), off 
Puerto Rico (Monito Island), in the Virgin Islands (Cockroach and Sula cays), in 
the Lesser Antilles (Dog Island offAnguilla, and in the Grenadines), offVenezuela 
(Islas de Aves east to Los Hermanos), and on islands off Brazil east to Ascension 
Island; in the Pacific off Mexico (on Clarion and San Benedicto islands in the 
Revillagigedo group, and on Clipperton Island), from the Hawaiian (Kure east to 
Kaula Rock, and on Moku Manu off Oahu) and Ryukyu islands south to eastern 
Australia (New South Wales) and the Kermadec and Tuamotu islands, and in the 
Galapagos and on islands off Ecuador, Peru and Chile (San Ambrosia and San 
Felix); and in the Indian Ocean from the Gulf of Aden and Cocos-Keeling and 
Christmas islands south to the Mascarenes and northwestern Australia. 

Ranges at sea in the Atlantic-Caribbean region from the Bahamas, Antilles and 
the Yucatan Peninsula south through the breeding range, casually north through 
the Gulf of Mexico from Tamaulipas and Texas east to Florida, along the Atlantic 
coast to North Carolina, and along the coast of Middle America; and in the Pacific 
and Indian oceans generally throughout the breeding range south to western Mex- 
ico (Oaxaca), eastern Australia and South Africa. 



34 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 



Casual off southern California (sight report). 
Notes.— Also known as Blue-faced or White Booby. 



Sula nebouxii Milne-Edwards. Blue-footed Booby. [114.1.] 

Sula Nebouxii Milne-Edwards, 1882, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), ser. 6, 13, p. 37, 
pi. 14. (la cote pacifique de l'Amerique = Pacific coast of America, pre- 
sumably Chile.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on open ground on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the Gulf of California (from Consag Rock 
and George Island southward), off western Mexico (Isabela, the Tres Marietas and 
the Tres Marias islands), in the Gulf of Panama (Isla Villa, Farallon del Chiru 
and Isla Pachequilla in the Pearl Islands, and Isla Bona), in the Galapagos Islands, 
and along the coast of South America from Colombia to northern Peru. 

Ranges at sea in the eastern Pacific from Baja California and the Gulf of Cal- 
ifornia south along the coast of Middle America and South America to the Gala- 
pagos Islands and central Peru, casually north to central and southeastern Cali- 
fornia and southwestern Arizona (Havasu Lake, Phoenix). 

Accidental in Washington (Everett) and Texas (Cameron County). 



Sula leucogaster (Boddaert). Brown Booby. [115.] 

Pelecanus Leucogaster Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 57. Based 
on "Le Fou, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 973. (No local- 
ity given = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on the ground on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the Atlantic-Caribbean region from islets 
off the Yucatan Peninsula, Florida Keys (formerly) and Bahamas south through 
the Antilles and along the coasts of Middle America and northern South America 
(east to Los Hermanos), and from the Cape Verde Islands and the Gulf of Guinea 
south to the coast of central Brazil and Ascension Islands; in the Pacific from 
Consag Rock and George Island in the Gulf of California south to Isabela, the 
Tres Marias, Revillagigedo and Clipperton islands, on islets off Costa Rica, in the 
Bay of Panama (Isla Bona, Farallon Rock and the Pearl Islands), off Colombia 
(Gorgona Island), and from the Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to Niihau and Moku 
Manu off Oahu), the Bonin and Volcano islands and the Seven Islands of Izu 
south to the South China Sea, northern Australia, New Caledonia and the Tonga 
and Tuamotu islands; and in the Indian Ocean from the. Red Sea and the Malay 
Peninsula south to the Seychelles, Cocos-Keeling and Christmas islands. 

Ranges at sea generally in the breeding range, and in the Atlantic-Caribbean 
region north, at least rarely, to the Gulf coast (Texas east to Florida), along the 
Atlantic coast north as far as New York and Massachusetts (casually Nova Scotia), 
and to Bermuda; in the Pacific from Baja California south to Ecuador, casually 
north to southern California, southern Nevada (Lake Mead) and southwestern 
Arizona (Havasu Lake), and from Hawaiian waters and Japan south to Australia 
and (rarely) New Zealand; and in the Indian Ocean south to South Africa. 

Notes.— Also known as White-bellied Booby. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 35 

Sula sula (Linnaeus). Red-footed Booby. [116.] 

Pelecanus Sula Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 218. Based in part 
on "The Booby" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 87, pi. 87. (in Pelago 
indico = Barbados, Lesser Antilles.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding in small trees and bushes on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in the Atlantic-Caribbean region off Belize 
(Half Moon Cay), in the Swan Islands (Little Swan), off Puerto Rico (Mona, 
Monito, Desecheo and Culebra islands), in the Virgin Islands (Dutchcap and, 
formerly, Cockroach and Sula cays), in the Grenadines (Battowia and Kick-'em- 
Jenny), off Venezuela (Los Roques east to Los Hermanos) and off Brazil (Fernando 
de Noronha and Trindade islands); in the Pacific off Mexico (the Tres Marias 
islands, and Clarion and San Benedicto in the Revillagigedo group), off Costa Rica 
(Cocos Island), in the Galapagos Islands, and from the Hawaiian (Kure east to 
Kauai, Oahu and Moku Manu islet) and Bonin islands south to northern Australia, 
New Caledonia, and the Fiji, Samoa and Tuamotu islands; and in the Indian 
Ocean from Aldabra east to Cocos-Keeling Island. 

Ranges at sea in the breeding areas in the Atlantic-Caribbean region from 
Quintana Roo and Belize south along the coasts of Middle America and South 
America to eastern Brazil, casually north to the Gulf coast (from Texas east to 
western Florida) and through the Greater Antilles to southern Florida; in the 
Pacific throughout the Hawaiian Islands (rare east of Oahu) and from Sinaloa 
south to Panama; and in the Indian Ocean north to the Bay of Bengal. 

Accidental in California (Farallon Islands). 

Subgenus MORUS Vieillot 

Morus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 63. Type, by monotypy, "Fou de Bassan" 
Brisson = Pelecanus bassanus Linnaeus. 



Sula bassanus (Linnaeus). Northern Gannet. [117.] 

Pelecanus Bassanus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 133. (in Scotia, 
America = Bass Rock, Scotland.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding primarily on open ground on flat-topped islands, 
less frequently on rocky slopes and cliffs along coasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands in eastern North America in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence (on Bonaventure, Anticosti and Bird Rocks in the Magdalen Islands), 
off Quebec (Perroquet Island, formerly), in Newfoundland (Cape St. Mary, and 
on Baccalieu and Funk islands), in Nova Scotia (near Yarmouth, formerly) and 
off New Brunswick (Gannet Rock); and in Europe around Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands, British Isles, northern France and Norway. 

Ranges at sea off eastern North America from southern Labrador, Greenland 
and areas near the breeding range south along the Atlantic coast to Florida, and 
west along the Gulf coast to southern Texas; and in Europe east and south to 
northern Russia, Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea, throughout the Mediterranean Sea, 
and along the Atlantic coast to northwestern Africa and (casually) the Cape Verde 
Islands. 

Casual inland in the St. Lawrence Valley, New England and the Great Lakes 



36 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

west to Michigan, Indiana and Ohio; and in Eurasia to Spitsbergen, Bear Island 
and continental Europe. Accidental on Victoria Island (Holman) and in Kentucky. 
Notes.— Known in most literature as the Gannet. The gannets of the world, S. 
bassanus, S. capensis (Lichtenstein, 1823) of South Africa, and S. senator (G. R. 
Gray, 1843) of Australia and New Zealand, probably constitute a superspecies. 

Family PELECANIDAE: Pelicans 

Genus PELECANUS Linnaeus 

Pelecanus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 132. Type, by subsequent 

designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Pelecanus onocrotalus Linnaeus. 
Cyrtopelicanus Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. vii. Type, by 

original designation, Pelecanus trachyrhynchus Latham = Pelecanus eryth- 

rorhynchos Gmelin. 
Leptopelicanus Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. vii. Type, by 

original designation, Pelecanus fuscus Gmelin = Pelecanus occidentalis 

Linnaeus. 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. American White Pelican. [125.] 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 571. Based on 
the "Rough-billed Pelican" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 586. (in 
America septentrionali = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Rivers, lakes, estuaries and bays, breeding on the ground, usually on 
islands in inland lakes. 

Distribution.— Breeds from south-central British Columbia (Stum Lake), north- 
eastern Alberta, northwestern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba and southwestern 
Ontario south locally to extreme northern California, western Nevada, northern 
Utah, northern Colorado, northeastern South Dakota and southwestern (formerly 
central) Minnesota, with sporadic breeding on the central coast of Texas and from 
central to southern California (formerly on Salton Sea). Recorded in summer (and 
possibly breeding) in southern Mackenzie (Great Slave Lake). 

Winters along the Pacific coast from central California and southern Arizona 
south along the western lowlands (less frequently in the interior) of Mexico to 
Guatemala and Nicaragua (sight reports for Costa Rica), and from Florida and 
the Gulf states south along the Gulf coast of Mexico to Tabasco and the state of 
Yucatan, casually in the breeding range in western North America. 

Wanders irregularly after the breeding season through most of eastern North 
America from Hudson Bay, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to 
the Gulf coast and (rarely) the West Indies (Bimini and Great Inagua in the 
Bahamas, Cuba and Puerto Rico). Accidental in Alaska (Petersburg), northern 
Mackenzie (Liverpool Bay) and Victoria Island (Holman). 

Notes.— In American literature usually known as the White Pelican. 

Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus. Brown Pelican. [126.] 

Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 215. Based 
mainly on "The Pelican of America" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 93, 
pi. 93. (in Africa, Asia, & in America = Jamaica.) 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 37 

Habitat.— Open marine situations along coasts, breeding on islands on the 
ground or in small bushes and trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands along the Pacific coast from central California 
(the Channel Islands, formerly north to Monterey County) south to Isabela and 
the Tres Marias Islands (and including islands in the Gulf of California), in the 
Bay of Fonseca (Honduras), off Costa Rica (Guayabo and Bolanos) and Panama 
(mostly in the Pearl Islands, and islets off Isla Coiba and in the Bay of Panama), 
in the Galapagos Islands, and along the South American coast from Ecuador to 
Chile (Isla de Chiloe); and along the Atlantic, Gulf and Caribbean coasts from 
North Carolina south around Florida and west to southern Texas, in the West 
Indies in the southern Bahamas (Great Inagua and Caicos islands) and the Greater 
Antilles east to the Virgin Islands and St. Martin, off the Yucatan Peninsula and 
Belize (Man-of-war Cay), and off the north coast of Venezuela from Los Roques 
east to Tobago and Trinidad. 

Ranges along the Pacific coast of the Americas from southern British Columbia 
south to Cape Horn; and throughout the Atlantic, Gulf and Caribbean coastal and 
insular areas from North Carolina (casually north to New England) south to eastern 
Venezuela (rarely to northern Brazil). 

Casual in inland areas of North America north to Idaho, Wyoming, North 
Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Ontario, and to NOva Scotia. 

Notes.— The large South American form in Peru and Chile is sometimes regarded 
as a distinct species, P. thagus Molina, 1782. 



Family PHALACROCORACIDAE: Cormorants 
Notes.— See comments under Anhingidae. 

Genus PHALACROCORAX Brisson 

Phalacrocorax Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 60; 6, p. 511. Type, by 
tautonymy, Phalacrocorax Brisson = Pelecanus carbo Linnaeus. 

Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus). Great Cormorant. [119.] 

Pelecanus Carbo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 133. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, rivers and seacoasts, breeding primarily in trees, although in 
North America nesting mostly on cliffs and ranging along seacoasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America along the Atlantic coast from the north 
shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Quebec (Lake, Outer Wapitagun, Anticosti. 
Magdalen and St. Mary islands) and southwestern Newfoundland (Guernsey Island, 
Coal River and Port au Prince Peninsula) south to Prince Edward Island (Cape 
Tryon and East Point) and Nova Scotia (south to Shelburne County), formerly 
south to the Bay of Fundy; in the Palearctic from southern Greenland, Iceland, 
the Faroe Islands and Scandinavia south to the Mediterranean and southern 
Europe, and across central Asia to Sakhalin, Japan, Formosa and China: and in 
New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand. 

Winters in North America in the breeding range and south regularly to North 



38 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Carolina, casually to southern Florida, the Gulf coast west to Louisiana, and inland 
to Lake Ontario and West Virginia; in Eurasia from the breeding range south to 
the Mediterranean and Black seas, the Persian Gulf, India, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, the Philippines and Bonin Islands; and generally in the breeding range 
in the Australian region. 

Notes.— Also known as Black or Common Cormorant and, in Old World 
literature, as the Cormorant. The African P. lucidus (Lichtenstein, 1823) is con- 
sidered by some to be conspecific with P. carbo; these two, along with P. capillatus 
(Temminck and Schlegel, 1850) of Japan and Korea, constitute a superspecies. 

Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson). Double-crested Cormorant. [120.] 

Carbo auritus Lesson, 1831, Traite Ornithol., livr. 8, p. 605. Based on "Le 
Cormoran dilophe" Vieillot, in Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, pi. 275. 
(in Nouvelle-Zelande, error = North America; restricted to upper Saskatch- 
ewan River by Todd, 1963, Birds Labrador Peninsula, p. 105.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, rivers, swamps and seacoasts, breeding on the ground or in 
trees in fresh-water situations, and on coastal cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the southeastern Bering Sea (Cape Peirce), southern 
Alaska (from Carlisle Island in the eastern Aleutians east to Yakutat Bay, and 
inland to Lake Louise), and from southwestern British Columbia, northern Alberta, 
central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, southern James Bay, the north shore of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland south in coastal areas (on the Atlantic 
coast between New England and Florida in but a few isolated colonies) and very 
locally throughout interior of North America (in widely scattered colonies) to Baja 
California, coastal Sonora, southwestern Arizona, southern New Mexico, north- 
central and southeastern Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida, and in the northern- 
most Bahamas, Cuba, the Isle of Pines and (formerly) Man-of-war Cay off Belize. 

Winters along the Pacific coast from the Aleutians and southern Alaska south 
to Baja California, the Revillagigedo Islands and Guerrero; and in the southern 
(casually central) United States from New Mexico and Texas east to the Gulf 
coast, north in the Mississippi Valley to Tennessee, and on the Atlantic coast from 
New England south to Florida, the Bahamas and Greater Antilles (east, at least 
casually, to the Virgin Islands). 

In migration regularly through the Great Plains and Mississippi and Ohio val- 
leys, irregularly north to southern Mackenzie and south to islands off the Yucatan 
Peninsula and Belize. 

Casual north to Yukon, Hudson Bay, Baffin Island and Labrador, and in Ber- 
muda and the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe). 

Notes.— P. auritus probably constitutes a superspecies with P. olivaceus, with 
which it is marginally sympatric. 

Phalacrocorax olivaceus (Humboldt). Olivaceous Cormorant. [121.] 

Pelecanus olivaceus Humboldt, 1 805, in Humboldt and Bonpland, Rec. Observ. 
Zool. Anat. Comp., p. 6. (prope banco ad Magdalenas fluminis ripas, lat. 
8°55' = El Banco, Magdalena, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Rivers, lakes, marshes and seacoasts, breeding in trees (Tropical to 
Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sonora, southern New Mexico, north-central and 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 39 

eastern Texas, and western Louisiana south throughout Middle America (including 
islands off the Yucatan Peninsula) and South America (also islands north of 
Venezuela from Aruba to Trinidad) to Tierra del Fuego; and on Cuba, the Isle of 
Pines and in the Bahamas (Cat Island, San Salvador and Great Inagua). 

Casual or accidental in southeastern California (Imperial Dam), southern Ari- 
zona, Colorado, western Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, southern Illinois, Mississippi, 
Jamaica, Puerto Rico and the northern Lesser Antilles, also sight reports for 
southern Nevada. 

Notes.— Also known as Neotropic Cormorant. The name P. brasilianus 
(Gmelin, 1789), sometimes used for this species, is regarded as indeterminate. 
See also comments under P. auritus. 

Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt). Brandt's Cormorant. [122.] 

Carbo penicillatus M. Brandt, 1837, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 
3, col. 55. (No locality given = Vancouver Island.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, breeding on open ground in rocky areas, ranging primarily 
at sea and, less commonly, inshore on brackish bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Pacific coast in south-coastal Alaska (Seal Rocks, 
Hinchinbrook Entrance, Prince William Sound, since 1 972), and from Washington 
(Matia Island) south to Baja California (Isla Natividad and in San Cristobal Bay, 
formerly on Guadalupe Island, Pacific coast; and San Pedro Martir, Salsipuedes 
and Roca Blanca islands, Gulf of California). 

Ranges generally near the breeding areas but occurs from southern Alaska south 
to southern Baja California (Cape San Lucas) and widely in the Gulf of California. 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas. Pelagic Cormorant. [123.] 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, 1811, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat., 2, p. 303. (maris 
Camtschatici orientalis et Americanarum insularum incola = Aleutian 
Islands.) 

Habitat.— Primarily seacoasts, breeding on cliffs on islands and along rocky 
coasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the southern Chukchi Sea (Cape Lisburne and Cape 
Thompson, Alaska) south through the Bering Sea to the Aleutian Islands, and 
along the Pacific coast of North America to northern Baja California (Los Corona- 
dos Islands), and from Wrangel Island east along the Arctic coast of Siberia to 
the Bering Strait, and south to northern Japan (Hondo). 

Winters from the Aleutians and southern Alaska south to central Baja California 
(casually to Cape San Lucas), and from Kamchatka south to China. 

Casual north to Point Barrow, Alaska; accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Mid- 
way and Laysan). 

[tPhalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas. Pallas' Cormorant.] See Appen- 
dix B. 

Phalacrocorax urile (Gmelin). Red-faced Cormorant. [ 1 24.] 

Pelecanus Urile Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 575. Based on the "Red- 
faced Corvorant" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 584, and the "Red-faced Shag" 



40 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 601. (in Camtschatcae rupestribus 
maritimis = Kamchatka.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts and rocky islands, breeding on cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the southern Bering Sea (on St. Paul and St. George 
in the Pribilofs, on Cape Peirce, and in the Walrus Islands), in the Aleutian Islands 
(from Attu eastward), and along the coast of southern Alaska (east to Cape St. 
Elias); also in the Commander Islands and off Japan (Hokkaido). 

Winters generally throughout the breeding range, occurring casually north to 
St. Michael in Norton Sound, Alaska, and south to southeastern Alaska (Sitka) 
and Japan (Honshu). 

[Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (Lesson). Guanay Cormorant.] See Ap- 
pendix A. 

[Phalacrocorax gaimardi (Lesson and Garnot). Red-legged Cor- 
morant.] See Appendix B. 

Family ANHINGIDAE: Darters 
Notes.— By some authors considered a subfamily of the Phalacrocoracidae. 

Genus ANHINGA Brisson 

Anhinga Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 60; 6, p. 476. Type, by tautonymy, 
Anhinga Brisson = Plotus anhinga Linnaeus. 

Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus). Anhinga. [1 18.] 

Plotus Anhinga Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 218. Based on the 
"Anhinga" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 218, and Brisson, Ornithologie, 
6, p. 476. (in America australi = Rio Tapajos, Para, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water swamps, lakes and sluggish streams at low elevations 
and, in tropical regions, primarily around brackish lagoons and in mangroves, 
nesting in trees (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from central and eastern Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, 
southern and eastern Arkansas, southern Missouri (formerly), western Tennessee, 
southern Illinois (formerly), north-central Mississippi, southern Alabama, south- 
ern Georgia and coastal North Carolina south to southern Florida, Cuba and the 
Isle of Pines, and from Sinaloa and the Gulf coast south along both lowlands of 
Mexico and through Middle America and South America (also Tobago and Trin- 
idad) west of the Andes to Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, 
northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Winters in the southeastern United States from central South Carolina, southern 
Georgia, Florida and the Gulf coast southward, being essentially resident in the 
breeding range in Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Middle America and South America. 

Casual after the breeding season north to southern California, Arizona, New 
Mexico, Nebraska, Michigan, southern Ontario, Ohio, New York and Maryland, 
and to the Florida Keys and Bahamas (Andros); the origin of some of these 
individuals, especially those reported in California, is questionable, and they may 
represent escapes from captivity. 



ORDER PELECANIFORMES 4 1 

Notes.— Also known as American Darter. The relationship of A. anhinga to 
the Old World forms A. rufa (Daudin, 1802) of Africa, A. melanogaster Pennant, 
1769, of Southeast Asia, and A. novaehollandiae (Gould, 1847) of the Australian 
region, remains in doubt; some authors suggest that all forms constitute a single 
superspecies. 

Suborder FREGATAE: Frigatebirds 

Family FREGATIDAE: Frigatebirds 

Genus FREGATA Lacepede 

Fregata Lacepede, 1799, Tabl. Mamm. Ois., p. 15. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Daudin, 1 802), Pelecanus aquilus Linnaeus. 

Fregata magnificens Mathews. Magnificent Frigatebird. [128.] 

Fregata minor magnificens Mathews, 1914, Austral Avian Rec, 2, p. 20. 
(Barrington, Indefatigable, Albemarle Islands = Barrington Island, Gala- 
pagos.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islands in mangroves, low trees and shrubs. 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Pacific coast offBaja California (Santa Margarita 
Island), Nayarit (Isabel and the Tres Marietas islands), Oaxaca (Natartiac Island 
in Laguna Superior, Juchitan), Honduras (Isla Pajaro in the Gulf of Fonseca). 
Costa Rica (Isla Bolanos), Panama (many islets in the Gulf of Chiriqui and Bay 
of Panama) and South America (Colombia, Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands); 
in the Atlantic-Caribbean region in Florida (Marquesas Key), on the central coast 
of Texas (Aransas county) and the coast of Veracruz (Laguna de Tamiahua), off 
the Yucatan Peninsula and Belize (Man-of-war Cay), widely in the Bahamas and 
Antilles (east to Barbuda in the northern Lesser Antilles), in the Cayman (Little 
Cayman) and Swan (Little Swan) islands, on islands north of Venezuela (Los 
Hermanos and Margarita east to Tobago), in the Grenadines of the southern Lesser 
Antilles, and locally along the South American coast to southern Brazil; and in 
the Cape Verde Islands, off western Africa. 

Ranges at sea along the Pacific coast from northern California (casually from 
south-coastal Alaska) south to northern Peru; throughout the Gulf of Mexico, 
Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic from North Carolina (casually from New 
England and Nova Scotia) south to northern Argentina; and in the eastern Atlantic 
in the vicinity of the Cape Verde Islands. 

Casual or accidental in the interior of North America, mostly after storms, north 
to Kansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Quebec and Newfoundland, and in 
Arizona and New Mexico; also in the British Isles, on continental Europe and in 
the Azores. 

Fregata minor (Gmelin). Great Frigatebird. [128.1.] 

Pelecanus minor Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 572. Based mainly on 
the "Lesser Frigate" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 590. (No locality 
given = Christmas Island, eastern Indian Ocean.) 

Habitat.— Pelagic, breeding on islands in trees or on low vegetation. 



42 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Pacific Ocean in the Revillagigedo Islands (San 
Benedicto and Clarion), off Costa Rica CCocos Island), in the Galapagos Islands, 
and from the Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to Nihoa, also one breeding record for 
Moku Manu islet off Oahu) and the South China Sea south to northeastern Aus- 
tralia (Raine Island) and the Fiji and Tuamotu islands; in the South Atlantic on 
Trindade Island, off Brazil; and in the Indian Ocean from Aldabra and the Sey- 
chelles east to Christmas Island. 

Ranges at sea generally in the vicinity of the breeding areas, and occurring 
throughout the Hawaiian Islands, north to Japan and south to southeastern Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand; not certainly recorded from the Pacific coast of North 
or South America. 

Accidental in Oklahoma (Pern.-. 3 November 1975). 

Fregata ariel (Gray). Lesser Frigatebird. [128.2.] 

Atagen Ariel (Gould MS) G. R. Gray. 1845. Genera Birds. 3. p. [669]. col. 
pi. [185]. (No locality given = Raine Island. Queensland.) 

Habitat. — Pelagic, breeding on islands primarily in low bushes or trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the South Pacific off northern Australia (Northwest 
Australia east to Raine Island. Queensland), in New Caledonia, and from the 
Howland. Line and Marquesas islands south to the Fiji. Tonga and Tuamotu 
islands: in the South Atlantic at Trindade Island, off Brazil: and in the western 
Indian Ocean in the Aldabra Islands. 

Ranges widely at sea, especially in the Pacific Ocean, north regularly through 
Indonesia, the South China Sea and western Pacific to Korea, Japan and Kam- 
chatka, and casually to the western Hawaiian Islands (Kure): also recorded in the 
South Atlantic not far from the breeding grounds, and in the Indian Ocean in the 
Mascarene Islands. 

Accidental in Maine (Deer Island. Hancock County. 3 July 1960: Snyder. 1961. 
Auk, 78, p. 265) and Siberia. 

Notes.— Also known as Least Frigatebird. 

Order CICOMIFORMES: Herons, Ibises. Storks and Allies 

Notes.— The monophyly of the Ciconiiformes. the relationships among the 
subgroups within it, and the relationships between this order and others are by 
no means clear. For a summary of these problems, see Sibley and Ahlquist (1972, 
Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull.". 39. pp. 72-86). 

Suborder ARDEAE: Bitterns, Herons and Allies 

Family ARDEIDAE: Bitterns and Herons 

Tribe BOTAURINI: Bitterns 

Genus BOTAURUS Stephens 

Botaurus Stephens. 1819. in Shaw. Gen. ZooL. 11 (2). p. 592. Type, by 
subsequent designation (G. R. Gray. 1840). Ardea stellaris Linnaeus. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 43 

Botaurus pinnatus (Wagler). Pinnated Bittern. 

Ardea pinnata (Lichtenstein MS) Wagler, 1829, Isis von Oken, col. 662. 
(Bahia, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in the lowlands of Middle America in southeastern 
Mexico (Veracruz, Tabasco, the state of Yucatan, and Quintana Roo), Belize, El 
Salvador (Laguna Jocotal) and Costa Rica (Rio Frio district, Guanacaste, Tur- 
rialba); and widely in South America in central Colombia and western Ecuador, 
and east of the Andes from southern Venezuela and the Guianas south to northern 
Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil. 

Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett). American Bittern. [190.] 

Ardea lentiginosa Rackett, 1813, in Pulteney, Cat. Birds Shells Plants Dor- 
setshire, ed. 2, p. 14. (Piddletown, Dorset, England.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water and brackish marshes, generally in tall vegetation. 

Distribution.— Breeds from extreme southeastern Alaska, central British Colum- 
bia, southern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, central Quebec 
and Newfoundland south to southern California, central Arizona (formerly), 
southern New Mexico, central Kansas, central Missouri, central and western Ten- 
nessee, western Kentucky, central Ohio, southern Pennsylvania, northeastern West 
Virginia, eastern Maryland and eastern Virginia; and locally in Texas, Louisiana, 
Florida, and in Mexico south to Puebla and the state of Mexico. 

Winters from southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, western 
Oregon, northern Nevada, northern and central Utah, northern Arizona, central 
New Mexico, northern Texas, central Oklahoma, central Arkansas, the Ohio Val- 
ley (rarely) and New York (casually farther north) south to southern Mexico and 
Cuba, rarely (or formerly) to Costa Rica and Panama, and to the Swan and Cayman 
islands, Greater Antilles (east to the Virgin Islands), Bahamas and Bermuda. 

Casual north to Keewatin and Labrador, and in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands, British Isles, continental Europe, the Azores and Canary Islands. 

Genus IXOBRYCHUS Billberg 

Ixobrychus Billberg, 1828, Synop. Faunae Scand., ed. 2, 1 (2), p. 166. Type, 
by subsequent designation (Stone, 1907), Ardea minuta Linnaeus. 

Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin). Least Bittern. [191.] 

Ardea exilis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 645. Based on the "Minute 
Bittern" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (1), p. 66. (in Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Tall vegetation in marshes, primarily fresh-water, less commonly in 
coastal brackish marshes and mangrove swamps (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in western North America in southern Oregon, 
interior and southern coastal California, central Baja California and southern 
coastal Sonora; in eastern North America from southern Manitoba, northeastern 
North Dakota, northwestern Minnesota, central Wisconsin, northern Michigan. 
southern Ontario, extreme southern Quebec, eastern Maine and southern New 



44 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Brunswick south to western and southern Texas, the Gulf coast, Florida and the 
Greater Antilles, and west to central Montana, Utah (Great Salt Lake, formerly), 
eastern Colorado and south-central New Mexico; in Middle America in Guatemala 
(Duenas and Atitlan), El Salvador (Lake Olomega), Honduras (Lake Yojoa, Copen), 
Nicaragua (Los Sabalos), Costa Rica (Guanacaste), Panama (Canal Zone) and 
undoubtedly elsewhere, especially in Mexico; and widely in South America in 
central Colombia (Temperate Zone), along the coast of Peru, and east of the Andes 
from Venezuela and the Guianas south to northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 
Recorded in summer (and probably breeding) in Nova Scotia. 

Winters from southern California, southern Texas and northern Florida south 
throughout the Greater Antilles, Middle America and South America (south to 
the limits of the breeding range). Breeding populations south of the United States 
are mostly sedentary; North American breeding birds winter as far south as Pan- 
ama and Colombia. 

Casual north to southern British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan, southern 
Alberta, southern Quebec and Newfoundland, and throughout most of the western 
states where breeding has not been verified. Accidental in Bermuda, Iceland and 
the Azores. 

Notes.— Two Old World species, /. minutus (Linnaeus, 1766) and /. sinensis 
(Gmelin, 1789), along with /. exilis, probably constitute a superspecies. 

Tribe TIGRISOMATINI: Tiger-Herons 

Genus TIGRISOMA Swainson 

Tigrisoma Swainson, 1827, Zool. J., 3, p. 362. Type, by original designation, 
Ardea tigrina "Latham" [= Gmelin] = Ardea lineata Boddaert. 

Heterocnus Sharpe, 1895, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 5, p. xiv. Type, by original 
designation, Tigrisoma cabanisi Heine = Tigrisoma mexicana Swainson. 

Notes.— Members of this genus are sometimes known under the group name 
Tiger-Bittern. 

Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert). Rufescent Tiger-Heron. 

Ardea lineata Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 52. Based on "L'O- 
nore raye, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., p. 860. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Interior of shaded forests and along forest streams, less commonly 
in swamps and mangroves (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in Middle America on the Caribbean slope of extreme 
eastern Honduras (Gracias a Dios), Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama (east to 
San Bias), and on the Pacific slope of Panama in Darien; and in South America 
from Colombia and Venezuela (also Trinidad) south, west of the Andes to western 
Ecuador and east of the Andes to northern Argentina, Uruguay and central Brazil. 

Casual or accidental in northern Honduras (Lake Yojoa, sight record) and 
Chiapas (presumably a vagrant). 

Tigrisoma fasciatum (Such). Fasciated Tiger-Heron. 
Ardea fasciata Such, 1825, Zool. J., 2, p. 117. (Brazil.) 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 45 

Habitat.— Along forest streams in humid, hilly regions (Tropical and lower 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Costa Rica (Caribbean slope foothills of the Cordi- 
llera Central and Cordillera Talamanca) and Panama (primarily Caribbean slope 
from Bocas del Toro to San Bias, and in Darien); and in South America east of 
the Andes from Colombia and Venezuela south to northern Argentina and south- 
eastern Brazil. 

Notes.— For use of T.fasciatum instead of T. salmoni Sclater and Salvin, 1 875, 
see Eisenmann, 1965, Hornero, 10, pp. 225-234. 

Tigrisoma mexicanum Swainson. Bare-throated Tiger-Heron. 

Tigrisoma mexicanum Swainson, 1834, in Murray, Encycl. Geogr., p. 1383. 
(Real del Monte, [Hidalgo,] Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, mangroves and occasionally moist woodland, pri- 
marily along the banks of streams and lagoons (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, southern San Luis Potosi and 
southern Tamaulipas south along both slopes of Middle America (including Cozu- 
mel Island and Isla Cancun) to eastern Panama (on the Pacific slope primarily, 
including the Pearl Islands, Isla Coiba and several smaller islets; on the Caribbean 
slope only in the San Bias area); also in the lower Atrato Valley of northwestern 
Colombia. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Heterocnus. 

Tribe ARDEINI: Typical Herons 

Genus ARDEA Linnaeus 

Ardea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 141. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Ardea cinerea Linnaeus. 

Ardea herodias Linnaeus. Great Blue Heron. [194.] 

Ardea Herodias Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 143. Based mainly 
on "The Ash-colour'd Heron of North- America" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 
3, p. 135, pi. 135. (in America = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water and brackish marshes, along lakes, rivers and lagoons, 
and mangroves, breeding primarily in trees, less commonly on the ground, rock 
ledges and coastal cliffs (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds [herodias group] from south-coastal and southeastern 
Alaska (west to Prince William Sound), coastal and southern British Columbia, 
northern Alberta, southern Keewatin, central Manitoba, southern Ontario, south- 
ern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south, at 
least locally, throughout the United States and much of Mexico to Guerrero, 
Veracruz, the Gulf coast and interior southern Florida, also in the Galapagos 
Islands; and [occidentalis group] in southern coastal Florida (north to the Tampa 
area, and including the Florida Keys), Cuba, the Isle of Pines, St. Thomas, Ane- 
gada, the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, and Los Roques off the northern coast 



46 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

of Venezuela, with breeding probably elsewhere in the Greater Antilles and on 
other islands off Venezuela. 

Winters [herodias group] from south-coastal and southeastern Alaska, the coasts 
of British Columbia and Washington, central Oregon, southern Idaho, western 
Montana, northern Wyoming, central Nebraska, central Missouri, the Ohio Valley, 
southern Ontario and the southern New England coast south throughout the 
southern United States, Middle America, Bermuda and the West Indies to north- 
ern Colombia, northern Venezuela, western Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands; 
and [occidentalis group] primarily in the vicinity of the breeding range and along 
the coasts of Venezuela and on islands offshore (east to Tobago and Trinidad). 

Wanders widely [herodias group] west to Cook Inlet, Alaska, and north to the 
Arctic coast of Alaska (rarely), central British Columbia, southern Keewatin, 
Hudson Bay (rarely), northern Quebec, Anticosti Island and Newfoundland; and 
[occidentalis group] north in peninsular Florida and casually along the Gulf coast 
west to Texas and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina, and in the Bahamas. 
Accidental [herodias group] in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii), north- 
western Alaska (Wainwright) and Greenland; and [occidentalis group] in Penn- 
sylvania. 

Notes.— The white and mixed white and blue forms have often been considered 
as a separate species, A. occidentalis Audubon, 1835 [Great White Heron, 192], 
but are now generally regarded as being conspecific with A. herodias. A. cinerea, 
A. cocoi and A. herodias are closely related and constitute a superspecies; some 
authors consider them conspecific. 

Ardea cinerea Linnaeus. Gray Heron. 

Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 143. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in habitats similar to A. herodias from the 
British Isles and Scandinavia east to Sakhalin and throughout much of Eurasia 
south locally to South Africa and the East Indies, wandering within this range 
after the breeding season. 

Casual in Greenland. Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Cars Bay, Montserrat, 
20 September 1959, bird banded at Lac de Grand-Lieu, France; Baudouin-Bodin, 
1960, Oiseau, 30, p. 274) and Trinidad. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Heron. See comments under A. 
herodias. 

Ardea cocoi Linnaeus. White-necked Heron. 

Ardea Cocoi Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 237. Based in part on 
"Le Heron hupe de Cayenne" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 400. (in Cayana = 
Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Along rivers, lagoons, marshes and swamps, breeding primarily in 
trees (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Panama (eastern Panama province and east- 
ern Darien) and throughout South America (also Trinidad) south to southern 
Chile and southern Argentina. 

Casual in central Panama (west to the Canal Zone). Accidental in the Falkland 
Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as Cocoi Heron. See comments under A. herodias. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 47 

Genus CASMERODIUS Gloger 

Casmerodius Gloger, 1842, Gemein. Handb. Hilfsb. Naturgesch. (1841), p. 
412. Type, by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1882), Ardea egretta 
Gmelin. 

Notes.— By some authors merged in Egretta, by others in Ardea. 

Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus). Great Egret. [196.] 

Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758,Syst. Nat.,ed. 10, l,p. 144. (inEuropa = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swampy woods, tidal estuaries, lagoons, mangroves and 
along streams, breeding primarily in tall trees (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America locally from southern Oregon and 
southern Idaho south through California, Nevada and southwestern Arizona, and 
from southeastern Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba, central Minnesota, 
southwestern Wisconsin, central Illinois, southern Indiana, southern Ontario, 
northern Ohio, Vermont (probably) and Maine south (west to eastern Colorado, 
southern New Mexico and south-central Texas) through the Gulf states, along 
both coasts of Mexico (also locally in the interior), and through the Bahamas, 
Antilles, Middle America and South America to southern Chile and southern 
Argentina; in the Old World from central Europe east to Ussuriland and Japan, 
and south to Turkey, Iran, India, China, most of Southeast Asia, the East Indies, 
the Philippines, New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand; and locally in Africa 
south of the Sahara and in Madagascar. 

Winters in North America from northern California, central Nevada, central 
Arizona, central New Mexico, central Texas, the Gulf coast and coastal North 
Carolina south throughout Mexico and the remainder of the breeding range in 
the Americas to the Straits of Magellan; in the Old World from the Mediterranean 
coast of Africa, the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, central India, China, Korea and Japan 
south through the breeding range in Southeast Asia to Australia and New Zealand; 
and in the breeding range in Africa and Madagascar. 

Wanders north irregularly in North America to southwestern British Columbia, 
southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba, southern Que- 
bec and Newfoundland; and in Europe to the British Isles, Scandinavia and the 
Baltic states. Casual in southeastern Alaska (Juneau), the Falkland and Canary 
islands, Mediterranean region and southern Africa; accidental in the Hawaiian 
Islands (Oahu). 

Notes.— Also known as Common or American Egret and, in Old World lit- 
erature, as Great White Heron. 

Genus EGRETTA Forster 

Egretta T. Forster, 1817, Synop. Cat. Br. Birds, p. 59. Type, by monotypy, 

Ardea garzetta Linnaeus. 
Florida Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. R. 

R. Pac, 9, pp. xxi, xlv, 659, 671. Type, by monotypy. Ardea caerulea 

Linnaeus. 
Hydranassa Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. 

R. R. Pac, 9, p. 660. Type, by original designation, Ardea ludoviciana 

Wilson = Egretta ruficollis Gosse. 
Dichromanassa Ridgway, 1878, Bull. U.S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 4, pp. 



48 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

224, 246. Type, by original designation, Ardea rufa Boddaert = Ardea rufes- 

cens Gmelin. 
Mesophoyx Sharpe. 1894. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 3, p. xxxviii. Type, by 

original designation, Ardea intermedia Wagler. 
Leucophoyx Sharpe. 1894. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 3, p. xxxix. Type, by 

original designation. Ardea candidissima Gmelin = Ardea thula Molina. 

[Egretta intermedia (Wagler). Intermediate Egret.] See Appendix B. 

Egretta eulophotes (Swinhoe). Chinese Egret. [196.2.] 

Herodias eulophotes Swinhoe. 1860. Ibis, p. 64. (Amoy. China.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in fresh-water habitats in northern Korea and 
southeastern China, and winters to lapan. wandering south to the Philippines and 
the East Indies. 

Accidental in Alaska (Agattu Island in the Aleutians. 1 6 June 1974: Byrd. Trapp 
and Gibson. 1978. Condor. 80, p. 309). 

Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus). Little Egret. [196.1.] 

Ardea Garzetta Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 237. (in Oriente = 

northeastern Italy.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds locally in marshy areas in southern Europe, 
Africa. Madagascar, and from Southeast Asia and Japan south to New Guinea, 
and winters principally in Southeast Asia and the African and Australian regions. 

Accidental in Quebec (Cacouna area. 14 May-6 September 1980), Newfound- 
land (Flatrock. Conception Bay. 8 May 1954). Barbados (Graeme Hall Swamp, 
16 April 1954). Martinique (6 October 1962), Trinidad and Surinam. 

Notes.— E. garzetta and E. thula may constitute a superspecies. 

Egretta thula (Molina). Snowy Egret. [197.] 

Ardea Thula Molina, 1782, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 235. (Chili = Chile.) 

Habitat. — Marshes, lakes, ponds, lagoons, mangroves and shallow coastal hab- 
itats, breeding in bushes and trees (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern California, northern Nevada, southeastern 
Idaho, Montana. South Dakota. Nebraska (formerly), central Kansas, central Okla- 
homa, central and eastern (also locally in extreme western) Texas, the lower 
Mississippi Valley (north casually or formerly to southeastern Missouri and south- 
ern Illinois), and the Gulf and Atlantic coasts (north to Maine) south, primarily 
in coastal lowlands and locally in the interior, through the Greater Antilles (east 
to the Virgin Islands) and Middle America, and throughout South America to 
southern Chile and central .Argentina. 

Winters from northern California, southwestern Arizona, the Gulf coast and 
coastal South Carolina south throughout the breeding range in the West Indies. 
Middle America and South America. 

Wanders irregularly north to southern British Columbia, southern Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, central Minnesota, southern Ontario, southern Quebec 
and Newfoundland (sight report from southwestern Mackenzie); also to the Baha- 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 49 

mas and throughout the Lesser Antilles, casually to Bermuda and the Hawaiian 
Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii). Accidental in southeastern Alaska (Juneau) and 
on Tristan da Cunha. 

Notes.— This species is frequently placed in the monotypic genus Leucophoyx. 
See also comments under E. garzetta. 

Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus). Little Blue Heron. [200.] 

Ardea ccerulea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 143. Based mainly on 
"The Blew Heron" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1 , p. 76, pi. 76. (in America 
septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds, lakes, meadows, streams and mangroves, breeding 
in trees and low shrubs, primarily in fresh-water habitats (Tropical to Temperate 
zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern California (casually, since 1979), southern 
Sonora, southeastern New Mexico, north-central Texas, central Oklahoma, central 
Kansas, southern Arkansas, southeastern Missouri, southwestern Kentucky, 
northwestern Tennessee, central Alabama, southern Georgia and the Atlantic coast 
(north to Maine) south along both coasts of Mexico and Middle America, through 
the Gulf coast region and West Indies, and in South America (also Tobago and 
Trinidad) from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas west of the Andes to central 
Peru and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, central Brazil and Uruguay; also 
sporadically in central Minnesota (Pope and probably Grant counties). 

Winters from southern Baja California, southern Sonora, the Gulf coast and 
coastal Virginia south throughout most of the breeding range. 

Wanders irregularly north to central California, southeastern Saskatchewan, 
southern Minnesota, central Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, 
southern Quebec, southern Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Casual or 
accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu), southwestern British Columbia and 
northwestern Washington (same individual), Utah and Greenland. 

Notes.— This species is often placed in the monotypic genus Florida. 

Egretta tricolor (Miiller). Tricolored Heron. [199.] 

Ardea tricolor P. L. S. Miiller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 111. Based on "La 
Demi-Aigrette" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. 7, p. 378, and "Heron bleuatre a 
ventre blanc, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 350. (Amer- 
ica = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds and rivers, breeding primarily near salt water in 
mangroves, on trees and in grasses virtually on the ground, very rarely in inland 
fresh-water situations (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Baja California, southern Sonora, south- 
eastern New Mexico, north-central and northeastern Texas, the Gulf coast and 
the Atlantic coast (north to southern Maine) south along both coasts of Middle 
America to northern South America, on the Pacific coast to central Peru and on 
the Caribbean-Atlantic coast to northeastern Brazil (also islands offthe north coast 
of Venezuela); and in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles (east to St. Thomas and St. 
Croix), and on Providencia and San Andres islands in the western Caribbean Sea. 
Casual or rare breeding inland in North Dakota (Long Lake) and central Kansas 
(Cheyenne Bottoms). 



50 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters from southern Baja California, southern Sonora, southeastern Texas, 
the Gulf coast and the Atlantic coast (north to New Jersey, casually farther) south 
through the remainder of the breeding range. 

Wanders irregularly north to Oregon, California, central Arizona, southern New 
Mexico, Colorado and, east of the Rockies, to southern Manitoba, northern Min- 
nesota, central Wisconsin, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, 
southern New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; also to the Lesser Antilles (south to 
Barbados). 

Notes.— Also known as Louisiana Heron. This species is frequently placed in 
the monotypic genus Hydranassa. 

Egretta rufescens (Gmelin). Reddish Egret. [198.] 

Ardea rufescens Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 628. Based on "Aigrette 
rousse" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 7, p. 378, and "L' Aigrette rousse, de la 
Louisiane" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 902. (in Louisiana.) 

Habitat.— Brackish marshes and shallow coastal habitats, breeding in low trees, 
primarily in red mangrove (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Breeds in Baja California (north to San Quintin on the Pacific 
coast and Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California), Sonora (Tobari Bay), 
Sinaloa (Isla Las Tunas) and Oaxaca (Mar Muerto); along the Gulf coast of Texas 
(Cameron to Chambers counties), Louisiana (North Island) and Alabama (Cat 
Island); in southern Florida (north to Merritt Island and the Tampa area), the 
northwestern Bahamas (Grand Bahama, Abaco, Andros and Great Inagua), Cuba, 
the Isle of Pines and Hispaniola (formerly Jamaica); and on the coast of the 
Yucatan Peninsula, including offshore islands. 

Winters primarily in coastal areas of the breeding range, north irregularly to 
central coastal and southern California, southwestern Arizona, the Gulf coast 
(from Texas to Florida) and Georgia (casually north to Virginia); and south along 
the Pacific coast to Costa Rica, and in the Caribbean to Belize, Puerto Rico and 
the northern coast of Venezuela (also the Netherlands Antilles east to Margarita 
Island). 

Casual inland, generally as postbreeding wanderers, to southern Colorado, cen- 
tral Texas, southern Illinois and Kentucky, and to Costa Rica (Caribbean coast) 
and Isla Coiba (off Panama). 

Notes.— This species is often placed in the monotypic genus Dichromanassa. 



Genus BUBULCUS Bonaparte 

Bubulcus (Pucheran MS) Bonaparte, 1855, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 40, p. 722. 
Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1871), Ardea ibis "Hassel- 
quist" [= Linnaeus]. 

Notes.— By some merged in the Old World genus Ardeola Boie, 1822, or in 
Egretta; affinities remain uncertain. 

Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus). Cattle Egret. [200. 1 .] 

Ardea Ibis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 144. Based on Ardea Ibis 
Hasselquist, Iter Palaestinum, p. 248. (in yEgypto = Egypt.) 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 5 1 

Habitat.— Wet pasturelands and marshes, both fresh-water and brackish situ- 
ations, also dry fields, nesting in trees (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Western Hemisphere locally from northwestern 
and central California, southern Idaho, northern Utah, Colorado, North Dakota, 
southern Saskatchewan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, southern Ontario, northern Ohio 
and Maine south, primarily in coastal lowlands (very scattered inland localities) 
through Middle America, the Gulf and Atlantic states, West Indies and South 
America (also Tobago and Trinidad) to northwestern Chile and northern Argen- 
tina; in southern Europe from the Mediterranean region east to the Caspian Sea, 
and south throughout most of Africa (except the Sahara), including Madagascar 
and islands in the Indian Ocean; and in Southeast Asia from India east to eastern 
China, Japan and the Ryukyu Islands, and south throughout the Philippines and 
East Indies to New Guinea and probably also northern Australia (introduced and 
established widely elsewhere in Australia). 

Winters in the Americas through much of the breeding range from southern 
California, eastern Texas, the Gulf states and Florida south through the West 
Indies, Middle America and South America; and in the Old World from southern 
Spain and northern Africa south and east through the remainder of the breeding 
range in Africa, Asia and Australia. 

Wanders north, at least casually, to southeastern Alaska (Ketchikan), southern 
Canada (British Columbia east to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland), and in Eurasia 
to Iceland, the British Isles, continental Europe and the eastern Atlantic islands. 

Introduced (in 1959) and established on most of the larger Hawaiian Islands, 
wandering to Midway and Johnston Island. 

Notes.— Also known as Buff- backed Heron. This species apparently spread to 
the New World (Guianas in South America) in the late 1870's, reaching Florida 
by the early 1 940's; the range is still expanding. 

Genus BUTORIDES Blyth 

Butorides Blyth, 1852, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiat. Soc. (1849), p. 281. Type, by 
monotypy, Ardea javanica Horsfield = Ardea striata Linnaeus. 

Notes.— Some authors merge this genus in the Old World Ardeola. 

Butorides striatus (Linnaeus). Green-backed Heron. [201.] 

Ardea striata Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 144. (in Surinami = 
Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Ponds, rivers, lakes, lagoons, marshes, swamps and mangroves, 
breeding in trees in wooded areas in both fresh-water and brackish habitats (Trop- 
ical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds [virescens group] from southwestern British Columbia 
(including Vancouver Island), western Washington, western Oregon, northern 
California, west-central and southern Nevada, southern Utah, north-central New 
Mexico, the western edge of the Great Plains states (north to eastern Colorado 
and eastern South Dakota), central Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, north-central 
Michigan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec and southern New Brunswick south 
through Middle America, the eastern United States and West Indies to eastern 
Panama (including the Pearl Islands), islands off the north coast of Venezuela 
(Aruba east to La Tortuga and Blanquilla) and Tobago. 



52 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters [virescens group] from western Washington (rarely at Lake Washington), 
coastal and southeastern California, southern Arizona, southern Texas, southern 
Louisiana, northern Florida and South Carolina south throughout the breeding 
range to northern Colombia and northern Venezuela. 

Resident [striatus group] in the Americas from eastern Panama (eastern Panama 
province and Darien), Colombia and Venezuela (also Margarita Island and Trin- 
idad) south to southern Peru, Chile (rarely), central Argentina and Uruguay, also 
in the Galapagos Islands; and in the Old World from the Red Sea to the Gulf of 
Aden, in Africa south of the Sahara, on islands in the Indian Ocean, and from 
northern China, the Amur Valley and Japan (northern populations in eastern Asia 
are migratory) south throughout southeast Asia, the East Indies and the Philippines 
to Australia and southern Polynesia. 

Wanders [virescens group] north to eastern Washington, Idaho, southern Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, central Ontario, Nova Scotia and 
southwestern Newfoundland, and south to Surinam; and [striatus group] north to 
Costa Rica (Guanacaste and Cocos Island) and St. Vincent, in the Lesser Antilles. 
Accidental [virescens group] in Bermuda, Greenland and England, also a sight 
report from the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii). 

Notes.— Also known as Little Heron. The two groups are sometimes regarded 
as separate species, B. striatus [Striated Heron] and B. virescens (Linnaeus, 1758) 
[Green Heron], but intergradation occurs in central Panama. Some authors also 
consider B. striatus and B. sundevalli (Reichenow, 1877), of the Galapagos Islands, 
as conspecific, since intermediate specimens (as well as both forms) have been 
obtained there; the extent of hybridization, however, has not been determined. 

Genus AGAMIA Reichenbach 

Agamia Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. xvi. Type, by original 
designation, Agamia picta Reichenbach = Ardea agami Gmelin. 

Agamia agami (Gmelin). Chestnut-bellied Heron. 

Ardea Agami Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 629. Based on "Agami" 
Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 7, p. 382, and "Le Heron Agami de Cayenne" 
Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 859. (in Cayanna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Shady forest streams and ponds in humid forest (Tropical, occasion- 
ally to Subtropical and lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally from southeastern Mexico (Veracruz, Tabasco, 
Chiapas and Quintana Roo) south through eastern Guatemala (Peten), Belize, 
northern Honduras (La Ceiba), Costa Rica and Panama, and in South America 
from Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the 
Andes to northwestern Ecuador and east of the Andes to northern Bolivia and 
Amazonian Brazil. 

Notes.— Also known as Agami Heron. 

Genus PILHERODIUS Bonaparte 

Pilherodius Bonaparte, 1855, Consp. Gen. Avium, 2 (1857), p. 139. Type, 
by monotypy, Ardea alba var. /3 Gmelin = Ardea pileata Boddaert. 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 53 

Pilherodius pileatus (Boddaert). Capped Heron. 

Ardeapileata Boddaert, 1 783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 54. Based on "Heron 
blanc, hupe de Cayenne'' Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 907. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat. — Forest regions near rivers and ponds, occasionally in wooded savanna 
and cultivated regions (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Panama (primarily in Darien but recorded 
west to Canal Zone), Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and Surinam south, east 
of the Andes, to eastern Peru, central Bolivia, northern Paraguay and eastern 
Brazil (to Santa Catarina). 

Tribe NYCTICORACINI: Night-Herons 

Genus NYCTICORAX Forster 

Nycticorax T. Forster, 1817, Synop. Cat. Br. Birds, p. 59. Type, by tautonymy. 

Nycticorax infaustus Forster = Ardea nycticorax Linnaeus. 
Nyctanassa Stejneger, 1887, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 10, p. 295, note. Type. 

by original designation, Ardea violacea Linnaeus. 

Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus). Black-crowned Night-Heron. [202.] 

Ardea Nycticorax Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1, p. 142. (in Europa 
australi = southern Europe.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, ponds, lakes, lagoons and mangroves, breeding in 
trees in wooded areas near water, occasionally in reeds (Tropical to Temperate 
zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Western Hemisphere from central Washington, 
southern Idaho, central Wyoming, east-central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, 
southern Manitoba, northwestern and central Minnesota, central Wisconsin, 
southern Michigan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, northeastern New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia south locally through the United States. Middle America, 
the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and South America to Tierra del Fuego and the 
Falkland Islands; from the Hawaiian Islands (Niihau east to Hawaii) south locally 
through the islands of Polynesia; and in the Old World from the Netherlands, 
central and southern Europe and northwestern Africa east to south-central Russia, 
and south locally through East and South Africa, on Madagascar, and from Asia 
Minor east across Southeast Asia to eastern China and Japan, and south to the 
Philippines and East Indies. 

Winters in the Western Hemisphere from southern Oregon, southern Nevada, 
northern Utah, central New Mexico, southern Texas, the lower Ohio Valley. Gulf 
coast and southern New England south throughout the breeding range, becoming 
more widespread in winter (including through the Lesser Antilles); in the Hawaiian 
Islands and Polynesia (sedentary population); and in the Old World in Africa 
south of the Sahara (most European populations), and from Asia Minor across 
Southeast Asia to Japan, and southward. 

Wanders north in North America to southern British Columbia, northern Wis- 
consin, central Ontario, central Quebec and Newfoundland; and in Europe to 
Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles. Scandinavia and the eastern Atlantic 



54 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

islands. Casual in the western Hawaiian Islands (Kure. Midway), southwestern 
Alaska (St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, and Shemya and Atka in the Aleutians), 
Bermuda and Greenland. 

Notes.— A T . nycticorax and N. caledonicus (Gmelin. 1789), of Polynesia and the 
Australian region, may constitute a superspecies. 

Nycticorax violaceus (Linnaeus). Yellow-crowned Night-Heron. [203.] 

Ardea violacea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 143. Based on "The 
Crested Bittern" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 79. pi. 79. (in America 
septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, lakes, lagoons and mangroves, breeding in trees 
in wooded situations near water, occasionally in arid areas on islands (Tropical 
to lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Baja California (both coasts), central Sonora, 
central and northeastern Texas, central Oklahoma, northeastern Kansas, south- 
eastern Nebraska, southern Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, 
southern Michigan, extreme southern Ontario (questionably), the lower Ohio Val- 
ley, eastern Tennessee, eastern West Virginia, southeastern Pennsylvania and 
Massachusetts south along both coasts of Mexico (including Socorro Island in the 
Revillagigedo group, and Isla Maria Madre in the Tres Marias group), the Gulf 
coast, Bahamas, Antilles, Middle America and coastal South America on the 
Pacific to extreme northern Peru (including the Galapagos Islands) and on the 
Caribbean-Atlantic to eastern Brazil. 

Winters from central Baja California, central Sonora, the Gulf coast and coastal 
South Carolina south throughout the remainder of the breeding range. 

Wanders, at least casually, north as far as central California, southern Arizona, 
southern New Mexico, eastern Colorado, North Dakota, southeastern Saskatch- 
ewan, southern Manitoba, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, southern New 
Brunswick, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and to Bermuda (where recently also 
introduced). 

Notes.— This species is placed by some authors in the genus Nyctanassa. 

Tribe COCHLEARIINL Boat-billed Herons 
Notes.— Sometimes maintained as a separate family or subfamily. 

Genus COCHLEARIUS Brisson 

Cochlearius Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 48; 5, p. 506. Type, by tau- 
tonymy, Cochlearius Brisson = Cancroma cochlearia Linnaeus. 

Cochlearius cochlearius (Linnaeus). Boat-billed Heron. 

Cancroma cochlearia Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 233. Based on 
"La Cuilliere" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 506. (in Guiana = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, mangroves and humid forest, usually near ponds or streams 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa in the Pacific lowlands and Tamaulipas 
in the Gulf-Caribbean lowlands south through Middle America (including islands 
off the Yucatan Peninsula) and South America (also Trinidad) west of the Andes 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 55 

to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia and 
northern Argentina. 

Suborder THRESKIORNITHES: Ibises and Spoonbills 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE: Ibises and Spoonbills 

Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE: Ibises 

Genus EUDOCIMUS Wagler 

Eudocimus Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1232. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Reichenow, 1877), Scolopax rubra Linnaeus. 

Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus). White Ibis. [184.] 

Scolopax alba Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 145. Based on "The 
White Curlew" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 82, pi. 82. (in America = 
South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, mangroves, lagoons and lakes, breeding in trees near water, 
especially in wooded swamps (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from central Baja California (lat. 27°N.), central Sinaloa, 
southern and eastern Texas, southern Louisiana, Florida, southeastern Georgia 
and coastal North Carolina (rarely Virginia) south along both slopes of Middle 
America, through the Greater Antilles (Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Jamaica and 
Hispaniola), and along the coasts of South America to northwestern Peru and 
French Guiana. 

Wanders north, at least casually, to southern California, southern Arizona, 
central New Mexico, eastern Colorado, southeastern South Dakota, southern 
Michigan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec and Nova Scotia; reports from 
northern California are regarded as based on escapes. Casual in Puerto Rico, also 
a sight report from the Bahamas (New Providence). 

Notes.— Despite slight overlap in mixed colonies in Venezuela, E. albus and 
E. ruber appear to constitute a superspecies. Hybridization between the two occurs 
in captivity and among the mixed Florida colony but has not been reported under 
natural conditions in South America. 

Eudocimus ruber (Linnaeus). Scarlet Ibis. [185.] 

Scolopax rubra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 145. Based mainly 
on "The Red Curlew" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 84, pi. 84. (in 
America.) 

Habitat.— Primarily in coastal swamps and lagoons, mangroves and occasion- 
ally along rivers and in drier interior areas, breeding in trees (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from northern Colombia and Venezuela (also Margarita 
Island and Trinidad) south, east of the Andes, to eastern Ecuador and southern 
Brazil. 

Accidental in Texas, Florida (1874), Alabama, Nova Scotia (possibly a man- 
assisted vagrant) and Grenada; reports from Louisiana, the Bahamas, Cuba, 
Jamaica, Honduras and Costa Rica are all open to question. Attempted intro- 



56 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

ductions in southern Florida through eggs placed in nests of E. albus have been 
generally unsuccessful. 
Notes.— See comments under E. albus. 

Genus PLEGADIS Kaup 

Plegadis Kaup. 1829. Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw.. p. 82. Type, by mono- 
typy, Tantalus falcinellus Linnaeus. 

Plegadis falcinellus (Linnaeus). Glossy Ibis. [186.] 

Tantalus Falcinellus Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 241. Based 
mostly on Numenius rostro arcuato Kramer. Elench. Veget. Anim. Aus- 
trian! Inf. Obsv.. p. 350. and "Le Courly verd" Brisson. Ornithologie, 5, 
p. 326. pi. 27. fig. 2. (in Austria. Italia = Neusiedler See. Lower Austria.) 

Habitat. — Marshes, swamps, lagoons and lakes, breeding in trees in wooded 
situations near water. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America locally from Maine (Stratton Island) 
and Rhode Island south to Florida, and west on the Gulf coast to Louisiana (Bird 
Island), also inland, at least casually, in Arkansas (Blytheville): in northwestern 
Costa Rica (Guanacaste. since 1978); in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola 
and Puerto Rico): in South America in northern Venezuela (Aragua); and locally 
in the Old World from southeastern Europe east to eastern China. India and the 
Malay Peninsula, and south through East Africa to South Africa and Madagascar. 
and through the East Indies to Australia. Reported breeding in eastern Texas has 
not been verified. 

Winters in the Americas from northern Florida and (casually) the Gulf coast 
of Louisiana south through the Greater Antilles (casually the Bahamas and north- 
ern Lesser Antilles), in northwestern Costa Rica, and in northern Venezuela; and 
in the Old World from the Mediterranean region east to Southeast Asia and south 
widely through Africa, the East Indies and Australia. 

Wanders north, at least casually, in North America to central Oklahoma. Mis- 
souri. Iowa, Wisconsin, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, Prince Edward Island, 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and in Eurasia to Iceland, the 
Faroe Islands. British Isles and Scandinavia. Casual in Bermuda, Panama, Colom- 
bia and the eastern Atlantic islands; sight reports from eastern Texas. Honduras 
and Costa Rica are not certainly identifiable to species. 

Notes.— P. falcinellus and P. chihi are sometimes considered conspecific. but 
sympatric breeding occurs in Louisiana (Bird Island) and possibly in eastern Texas. 
Despite limited sympatry. the two probably constitute at least a superspecies. 

Plegadis chihi (Vieillot). White-faced Ibis. [187.] 

Numenius chihi Vieillot. 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 8. p. 303. 
Based on "Cuello jaspeado" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag., 3, p. 
197 (no. 364). (Paraguay et dans les plaines de Buenos-Ayres = Paraguay 
and the campos of Buenos Aires, Argentina.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, ponds and rivers, mostly in fresh-water areas, 

breeding in low trees or on the ground in marshes (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America locally from central California, eastern 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 57 

Oregon, southern Idaho, Montana (probably), southern North Dakota and (for- 
merly) southwestern Minnesota south to Colima, Zacatecas, the state of Mexico, 
Veracruz, southern and eastern Texas, southern Louisiana (east to Bird Island), 
coastal Alabama, and occasionally (or formerly) in Florida (Brevard County and 
Lake Okeechobee); and in South America in northern Colombia and northern 
Venezuela, and from southwestern Peru, central Bolivia, Paraguay and extreme 
southern Brazil south to central Chile and central Argentina. 

Winters from southern California, Baja California, and the Gulf coast of Texas 
and Louisiana south through both lowlands of Mexico to Guatemala and El 
Salvador; and in the general breeding range in South America. 

Wanders north, at least casually, to southern British Columbia, southeastern 
Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba and Minnesota. Casual in 
the Hawaiian Islands, and in North America east to Arkansas, Ohio, New York 
(Long Island, where breeding suspected) and Maryland, along the Gulf coast to 
Florida, and south, at least formerly, to Costa Rica (Terraba valley). 

Notes.— See comments under P. falcinellus. 

Genus MESEMBRINIBIS Peters 

Mesembrinibis Peters, 1930, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5, p. 256. 
Type, by original designation, Tantalus cayennensis Gmelin. 

Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin). Green Ibis. 

Tantalus cayennensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 652. Based mainly 
on "Courly verd de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 820. (in 
Cayanna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Swampy woods and along the banks of forest ponds and streams 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Panama, Colombia, southern Venezuela and the 
Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, Paraguay, 
northeastern Argentina and extreme southeastern Brazil. 

Casual north to Costa Rica (Sarapiqui), also sight reports for northeastern Hon- 
duras (Rio Platano). 

Genus THERISTICUS Wagler 

Theristicus Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1231. Type, by monotypv. 
Tantalus melanopis Gmelin. 

Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert). Buff-necked Ibis. 

Scolopax caudatus Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 57. Based on 
"Courly a col blanc de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 976. 
(Cayenne.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Resident in marshes and wet fields through most of 
South America south to Cape Horn. 

Accidental in Panama (near Pacora, eastern Panama province; Wetmore, 1965, 
Smithson. Misc. Collect., 150 (1), p. 127) and the Falkland Islands. 

Notes.— T. caudatus and the high Andean T. melanopis (Gmelin. 1789) con- 
stitute a superspecies; they have been considered conspecific by some authors. 



58 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Subfamily PLATALEINAE: Spoonbills 

[Genus PLATALEA Linnaeus] 

Platalea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 139. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1 840), Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus. 

[Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus. White Spoonbill.] See Appendix B. 

Genus AJAIA Reichenbach 

Ajaia Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. xvi. Type, by original 
designation, Ajaia rosea Reichenbach = Platalea ajaja Linnaeus. 

Ajaia ajaja (Linnaeus). Roseate Spoonbill. [183.] 

Platalea Ajaia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 140. Based mainly on 
Ajaia Brasiliensibus Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 204. (in America aus- 
trali = Rio Sao Francisco, eastern Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, ponds, rivers and lagoons, breeding in low trees 
and bushes, occasionally on the ground (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally from northern Sinaloa, the Gulf coast of Texas 
and southwestern Louisiana (Cameron Parish), and southern Florida south along 
both coasts of Middle America and through the Greater Antilles (Cuba, the Isle 
of Pines and Hispaniola), Bahamas (Great Inagua) and South America to central 
Chile and central Argentina. 

Wanders north to central (rarely) and southern California, southwestern Ari- 
zona, the Gulf states from Louisiana to Florida, along the Atlantic coast to North 
Carolina; also widely through much of the West Indies (rare in Lesser Antilles). 
Casual or accidental north to southern Nevada, Colorado, Nebraska, southeastern 
Kansas, Arkansas, Indiana, Pennsylvania and Maryland, and south to southern 
Chile and the Falkland Islands. 

Suborder CICONIAE: Storks 

Family CICONIIDAE: Storks 

Tribe LEPTOPTILINI: Jabirus and Allies 

Genus JABIRU Hellmayr 

Jabiru Hellmayr, 1906, Abh. Math. Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, p. 71 1. 
Type, by original designation, Ciconia mycteria Lichtenstein. 

Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein). Jabiru. [189.] 

Ciconia mycteria Lichtenstein, 1819, Abh. Phys. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1816- 
17), p. 163. Based on "Jabiru" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 200. (north- 
eastern Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, savanna, lagoons and coastal estuaries, breeding in trees 
(Tropical z^one). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Middle America in southeastern Mexico 
(Tabasco, Chiapas, Campeche and Quintana Roo), Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, 



ORDER CICONIIFORMES 59 

Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, and in South America from Colombia, Ven- 
ezuela and the Guianas south, mostly east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, central 
Bolivia, northeastern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Wanders casually north to Veracruz (Cosamaloapan) and Texas (Kleberg and 
Brooks counties, Houston, Corpus Christi and Austin, the last an 1867 record 
possibly in error as to locality). Accidental in Oklahoma (near Tulsa). 

Tribe MYCTERIINI: Wood Storks 

Genus MYCTERIA Linnaeus 

Mycteria Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 140. Type, by monotypy, 
Mycteria americana Linnaeus. 

Mycteria americana Linnaeus. Wood Stork. [188.] 

Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 140. Based 
mainly on "Jabiru-guacu" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 201. (in America 
calidiore = Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, lagoons and mangroves, breeding in trees (Trop- 
ical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, the Mexican Plateau (rarely), 
the Gulf coast (from eastern Texas to Florida), and the Atlantic coast (from South 
Carolina to southern Florida) south locally along both lowlands of Middle America 
(including many offshore islands), in Cuba and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), 
and through South America to western Ecuador, eastern Peru, Bolivia and northern 
Argentina. 

Wanders north to southern California, southern Arizona, in the Gulf states to 
Arkansas and western Tennessee, and in the Atlantic states to Massachusetts, 
casually to northern California, southern Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Nebraska. 
southeastern South Dakota, Missouri, Illinois, southern Michigan, southern On- 
tario, New York, Maine and southern New Brunswick. Casual in Jamaica; acci- 
dental in northwestern British Columbia (Telegraph Creek). 

Notes.— Formerly known as Wood Ibis. 

Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES: Flamingos 

Notes.— The taxonomic position of the flamingos is controversial; recent evi- 
dence suggests a relationship with the Charadrii of the Charadriiformes (see Olson 
and Feduccia, 1980, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., no. 316, pp. 1-73). 

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE: Flamingos 

Genus PHOENICOPTERUS Linnaeus 

Phoenicopterus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 139. Type, by mono- 
typy, Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus. 

Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus. Greater Flamingo. [182.] 

Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 139. Based 
largely on "The Flamingo" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 73, pi. 73. 
(in Africa, America, rarius in Europa = Bahamas.) 



60 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Mud flats, lagoons and lakes, generally of high salinity, breeding on 
mud mounds in shallow water. 

Distribution.— Resident locally in the Americas along the Yucatan Peninsula 
(Rio Lagartos), in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, and probably Gonave 
and Beata islands), in the southern Bahamas (Acklins Island and Great Inagua), 
in the Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire) and in the Galapagos Islands; and in the 
Old World locally along the Mediterranean and northwestern African coasts, in 
the rift lakes of East Africa, in South Africa, and from southern Russia and the 
Caspian Sea south to the Persian Gulf and northwestern India. Formerly bred in 
the Florida Keys (probably), widely in the Bahamas, along the north coast of South 
America from Colombia to the Guianas, and in the Cape Verde Islands. 

Wanders to southern Florida (where a semi-domesticated flock is also estab- 
lished at Miami), widely through the Bahamas and Antilles, along the coasts of 
the Yucatan Peninsula (including Cozumel Island) and South America from 
Colombia to northern Brazil; and widely through Europe and to the Canary Islands. 
Casual or accidental along the Gulf coast from Texas to Florida, along the Atlantic 
coast north to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, inland north to Kansas and 
Michigan, and to Bermuda; reports from California certainly pertain to escaped 
individuals, and some of the foregoing vagrant records (especially the northern 
ones) may likewise pertain to such escapes. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Flamingo. The Old World 
populations have often been considered a separate species, P. roseus Pallas, 1811; 
with that viewpoint, P. ruber would be called American Flamingo. P. ruber 
(including roseus) and the South American P. chilensis Molina, 1782, appear to 
constitute a superspecies. 

Order ANSERIFORMES: Screamers, Swans, Geese and Ducks 

Suborder ANSERES: Swans, Geese and Ducks 

Family ANATIDAE: Swans, Geese and Ducks 

Subfamily ANSERINAE: Whistling-Ducks, Swans and Geese 

Tribe DENDROCYGNINI: Whistling-Ducks 

Genus DENDROCYGNA Swainson 

Dendrocygna Swainson, 1837, Class. Birds, 2, p. 365. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Eyton, 1838), Anas arcuata Horsfield. 

Notes.— The group name Tree-Duck was formerly used for members of this 
genus. 

Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot). Fulvous Whistling-Duck. [178.] 

Anas bicolor Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 136. Based 
on "Pato roxo y negro" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag., 3, p. 443 
(no. 436). (Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Shallow fresh and brackish waters, preferring marshes, lagoons, wet 
cultivated fields and occasionally forest, nesting on the ground among reeds and 
marshy vegetation (primarily Tropical Zone). 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 61 

Distribution.— Bree ds from southern California (locally north to Merced County, 
at least formerly), southwestern Arizona, central and eastern Texas, and the Gulf 
coast of Louisiana south to Nayarit, Jalisco (Lake Chapala), the valley of Mexico 
and northern Veracruz; locally in southern Florida, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, 
central Honduras (Lake Yojoa) and, probably, northwestern Costa Rica; in South 
America from Colombia, northern Venezuela and the Guianas south to western 
Ecuador and eastern Peru, and from Paraguay and central and eastern Brazil south 
to central Chile and central Argentina; and in the Old World in East Africa, 
Madagascar, India, Ceylon and southwestern Burma. 

Winters from southern California (at least formerly), southern Arizona (at least 
formerly), the Gulf coast and southern Florida south to Oaxaca and Tabasco, and 
in the breeding range elsewhere in the American tropics. South America and the 
Old World. 

Casual north to southern British Columbia, western Washington, central Ore- 
gon, Nevada, Utah, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan, southern Ontario, south- 
ern Quebec, Maine, southern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova 
Scotia; also to Guatemala (Lago de Retana), Bermuda, the Bahamas, Virgin Islands, 
Lesser Antilles (south to St. Vincent and Barbados) and Morocco. Accidental in 
Panama (La Jagua, eastern Panama province), presumably from South America. 

Notes.— D. bicolor and D. arcuata (Horsfield, 1824), of the Australian region, 
may constitute a superspecies. 

Dendrocygna arborea (Linnaeus). West Indian Whistling-Duck. 

Anas arborea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1, p. 128. Based mainly on 
"The Black-billed Whistling Duck" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 4, p. 193, 
pi. 193. (in America = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Primarily mangroves and forested swamps, nesting on the ground in 
reedy areas, in cavities in trees, or among dense bromeliads in palm trees. 

Distribution.— Resident throughout the Greater Antilles (including the Isle of 
Pines, Grand Cayman, and Ile-a-Vache off Hispaniola), in the Bahamas (Andros. 
San Salvador and Inagua islands) and in the northern Lesser Antilles (at least on 
Barbuda and Antigua). 

Accidental in Bermuda; a sight report from Florida (Belle Glade) may be based 
on an individual escaped from captivity. 

Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus). White-faced Whistling-Duck. [178.1 .] 

Anas viduata Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 205. (in Carthagena? 
lacubus = Cartagena, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, swamps, lagoons (fresh-water and brackish) and rivers, 
nesting on the ground among reeds and grasses, occasionally in hollow trees 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in Costa Rica (Guanacaste and the Gulf of Nicoya area) 
and irregularly in eastern Panama (eastern Panama province, wandering casually 
to the Canal Zone); through most of South America from Colombia and Venezuela 
(also Curacao and Trinidad) south to central Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina 
and Uruguay; in Africa from the Sahara south to Angola in the west and Natal 
in the east; and in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. 

Casual in the Antilles (Cuba, the Dominican Republic on Hispaniola. and 
Barbados). 



62 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus). Black-bellied Whistling-Duck. 
[177.] 

Anas autumnalis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 127. Based on "The 
Red-billed Whistling Duck" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 4, p. 194, pi. 194. 
(in America = West Indies.) 

Habitat.— Marshes (fresh-water and brackish), lagoons and the borders of ponds 
and streams, nesting on the ground in grassy areas or in hollow trees, and often 
foraging in cultivated fields (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from central Sonora, southern Arizona, the valley of 
Mexico (Distrito Federal), and central and southeastern Texas south through most 
of Middle America and South America (also Trinidad) west of the Andes to western 
Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina, 
Paraguay and southern Brazil; also one breeding record for northwestern Ten- 
nessee (Reelfoot Lake, 1978), possibly based on escaped individuals. 

Casual in southern California, Colorado, southern New Mexico, Kansas, Iowa, 
Michigan, Louisiana, Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Lesser Antilles; 
records from southern Florida may pertain to escapes from captivity, and early 
records in the West Indies may be of birds introduced from South America. 

Tribe CYGNINI: Swans 

Genus CYGNUS Bechstein 

Cygnus Bechstein, 1803, Ornithol. Taschenb. Dtsch., 2, p. 404, footnote. 
Type, by monotypy, Anas olor Gmelin. 

Subgenus OLOR Wagler 

Olor Wagler, 1 832, Isis von Oken, col. 1 234. Type, by subsequent designation 
(G. R. Gray, 1840), Cygnus musicus Bechstein = Anas cygnus Linnaeus. 

Clangocycnus Oberholser, 1908, Emu, 8, p. 3. Type, by monotypy, Cygnus 
buccinator Richardson. 

Cygnus columbianus (Ord). Tundra Swan. [18 n .] 

Anas Columbianus Ord, 1815, in Guthrie, Geogr., ed. 2 (Am.), 2, p. 319. 
Based on the "Whistling Swan" Lewis and Clark, Hist. Exped. Rocky 
Mount. Pac, 2, p. 192. (below the great narrows of the Columbia River = 
The Dalles, Oregon.) 

Habitat.— Open tundra ponds, lakes and sluggish streams, occasionally swampy 
bogs, breeding mainly on islets, less frequently in raised areas along shores, win- 
tering primarily in sheltered fresh-water situations, less frequently on bays and 
estuaries, in migration often in flooded fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds [columbianus group] from northwestern Alaska (Point 
Barrow and Cape Prince of Wales) south to St. Lawrence Island and the Alaska 
Peninsula, and east near the Arctic coast to Baffin Island, thence south around 
Hudson Bay to Churchill and the Belcher Islands; and [bewickii group] from 
northern Russia east along the Arctic coast (including Novaya Zemlya and other 
islands) to northern Siberia. 

Winters [columbianus group] on the Pacific coast of North America from south- 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 63 

ern British Columbia south to Oregon, and in the interior through the valleys of 
California to northern Baja California (casually), western Nevada, northern Utah, 
southern Arizona and southern New Mexico, also on the Gulf coast of southern 
Texas, and along the Atlantic coast from Maryland to North Carolina, casually 
north to Maine, south to Florida, and west along the Gulf coast to Louisiana, and 
in the interior of North America in the Great Lakes region; and [bewickii group] 
in Eurasia south to the British Isles, northern Europe, the Caspian Sea, Japan, 
Korea and the coast of China. 

In migration occurs widely [columbianus group] through the interior of North 
America on large bodies of water, primarily in the Great Basin, upper Mississippi 
Valley and Great Lakes, also across the Appalachians in southern Pennsylvania 
and northern West Virginia. 

Casual or accidental [columbianus group] in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway), 
Chihuahua, Guanajuato, Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Newfoundland, England, 
Japan and the Commander Islands; and [bewickii group] in the Aleutians (Adak), 
Oregon, California, Saskatchewan and Maryland (some of these reports are prob- 
ably based on escaped individuals, although the bird from Adak and one from 
California were recoveries of birds banded in Siberia), and in the Old World in 
Iceland, and south to the Mediterranean region. 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes considered full species, C. columbianus 
[Whistling Swan, 180] and C. bewickii Yarrell, 1830 [Bewick's Swan, 180.1], 
although free interbreeding occurs when the two are in contact. See also comments 
under C. cygnus. 

Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus). Whooper Swan. [179.] 

Anas Cygnus Linnaeus, 1758,Syst. Nat.,ed. 10, l,p. 1 22. (in Europa, America 
septentrionali = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds, marshes and quiet-flowing rivers, breeding in reed beds 
and weedy margins in the taiga zone (including in large bogs), more rarely in open 
tundra or steppe, wintering also in sheltered bays and estuaries. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Greenland (formerly), Iceland, the Faroe Islands 
(formerly), Scotland, Scandinavia and northern Russia east to Anadyrland and 
Kamchatka, and south to Poland, the Caspian Sea, Turkestan and Ussuriland. 

Winters south to central Europe, the eastern Mediterranean, Black and Caspian 
seas; and from Korea and Japan south to eastern China (casually to India and the 
Bonin Islands), and east to the central Aleutian Islands (at least as far as Atka). 

Casual in the Pribilof Islands, western and south-coastal Alaska, Jan Mayen, 
Spitsbergen, Bear Island, and south to northern Africa. Accidental in Maine 
(Washington County, 1903). 

Notes.— The relationships of C. cygnus, C. columbianus and C. buccinator are 
uncertain at the species level. C. cygnus and C. buccinator have been considered 
conspecific by some authors; an extreme view unites all three into a single species, 
despite geographical overlap in the ranges of the two Old World forms. For the 
present, it seems best to retain all three as distinct species. 

Cygnus buccinator Richardson. Trumpeter Swan. [181.] 

Cygnus buccinator Richardson, 1832, in Swainson and Richardson. Fauna 
Bor.-Am., 2 (1831), p. 464. (Hudson's Bay.) 



64 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Ponds, lakes and marshes, breeding in areas of reeds, sedges or similar 
emergent vegetation, primarily on fresh-water, occasionally in brackish situations, 
wintering on open ponds, lakes and sheltered bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds in northern Alaska (casually, from the Canning River east 
to Demarcation Point), in western Alaska (Noatak River Valley, Seward Peninsula 
and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta), widely in central and southern Alaska (from the 
middle Yukon River south to the Kenai Peninsula and Yakutat Bay), in south- 
eastern Alaska (casually), and locally from southern British Columbia, west-central 
and southeastern Alberta, and southwestern Saskatchewan south to southeastern 
Oregon, eastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming. Formerly bred from northern 
Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba and James Bay south to Nebraska, 
Iowa, Missouri and Indiana. 

Winters from southern Alaska, western British Columbia, southern Alberta 
(rarely) and Montana south to northern (casually southern) California, occasionally 
to Utah, New Mexico and eastern Colorado; formerly wintered south to the 
Mexican border (one record from Tamaulipas), the Gulf coast of Texas and Lou- 
isiana, Mississippi Valley, and Atlantic coast to North Carolina. 

Introduced and established in Nevada (Ruby Lake), and in southwestern South 
Dakota, with casual wintering from the latter population to Missouri (banding 
recovery and sight reports). 

Notes.— See comments under C. cygnus. 

Subgenus CYGNUS Bechstein 

Cygnus olor (Gmelin). Mute Swan. [178.2.] 

Anas Olor Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 501. Based in part on the "Mute 
Swan" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 436, and Pennant, Arct. Zool., 
2, p. 543. (in Russia, Sibiria, Persico etiam littore maris caspii = Russia.) 

Habitat.— Open and quiet waters of lakes, ponds, marshes and sluggish rivers, 
breeding in reed beds and similar emergent vegetation primarily in fresh-water 
areas, wintering also in brackish and protected marine situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and Russia 
southeast through central Europe to Asia Minor, and east to eastern Siberia and 
Ussuriland. 

Winters from the breeding range south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian 
seas and northwestern India, and from Korea south to eastern China, wintering 
casually to the Azores, northern Africa, Japan and the Seven Islands of Izu. 

Introduced and established in North America, with breeding recorded locally 
from southern Saskatchewan, northern Wisconsin, central Michigan, southern 
Ontario, southern New York and Connecticut south to central Missouri, northern 
Illinois, northwestern Indiana and, in the Atlantic region, Virginia; also in the 
Faroe Islands, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Recorded after the breed- 
ing season from the breeding range, Minnesota, the Great Lakes and Maine south 
to the Ohio Valley and Virginia. Some of these records, as well as isolated reports 
elsewhere in North America, may pertain to escapes from captivity. 

Tribe ANSERINI: Geese 

Genus ANSER Brisson 

Anser Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 58; 6, p. 261. Type, by tautonymy, 
Anser domesticus Brisson = Anas anser Linnaeus. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 65 

Notes.— See comments under Chen. 

Anser fabalis (Latham). Bean Goose. [171.1.] 

Anas Fabalis Latham, 1787, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 297. (Great 
Britain.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds, bogs, sluggish rivers, swamps and wet meadows from 
the coastal tundra to the taiga, breeding along watercourses, on open heath and 
in open grassy plains, wintering in brackish and marine situations as well as on 
fresh-water lakes and ponds. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Scandinavia, northern Russia (including Novaya 
Zemlya) and northern Siberia south to northern Mongolia, Lake Baikal, Amurland 
and Anadyrland. 

Winters south to the Mediterranean Sea, Iran, China and Japan. 

In migration ranges regularly in spring east to the western Aleutian Islands (east 
casually as far as Adak), and casually to St. Lawrence Island, in the Pribilofs, and 
on the Seward Peninsula (Safety Sound). 

Casual to Iceland, the eastern Atlantic islands and northern Africa. 

Notes.— A. fabalis and A. brachyrhynchus constitute a superspecies; they are 
regarded as conspecific by some authors. 

Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon. Pink- footed Goose. [171.2.] 

Anser Brachyrhynchus Baillon, 1834, Mem. Soc. R. Emulation Abbeville, ser. 
2, no. 1 (1833), p. 74. (Abbeville, lower Somme River, France.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in habitats similar to those of the preceding 
species in eastern Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen and possibly also Franz Josef 
Land and the Kola Peninsula, and winters in northwestern Europe. 

Accidental in Newfoundland (St. Anthony, 10 May-3 June 1980, photograph; 
Am. Birds, 34: 755, 1980); a report from Massachusetts in 1924 is regarded as of 
dubious authenticity. 

Anser erythropus (Linnaeus). Lesser White-fronted Goose. [171.3.] 

Anas erythropus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 123. (in Europa 
septentrionali = northern Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in taiga from Scandinavia to eastern Siberia, 
and winters widely on marshes, lakes and ponds from Europe and the Mediter- 
ranean region east to India and eastern China. 

Accidental in North Dakota (Mallard Island, Lake Sakakawea, McLean County), 
Ohio (Ottawa National and Magee wildlife refuges), western Pennsylvania and 
Delaware (Bombay Hook); some of these records may be of individuals escaped 
from captivity. 

Anser albifrons (Scopoli). Greater White-fronted Goose. [171.] 

Branta albifrons Scopoli, 1769, Annus I, Hist.-Nat., p. 69. (No locality given = 
northern Italy.) 

Habitat.— Arctic tundra and open areas in subarctic forest zone, breeding along 
small lakes and ponds, in deltas and estuaries, and in relatively dry areas of open 
low vegetation (scrubby trees, heath, sedges and grasses), wintering in sheltered 



66 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

inland and coastal marshes, pastureland and open terrain with small bodies of 
water, in migration often in flooded fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern .Alaska south to Bristol 
Bay and Cook Inlet, and east across northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie and 
southern Victoria Island to northern Keewatin: in western Greenland: and in 
northern Eurasia from the Kanin Peninsula east to Anadyrland. Recorded in 
summer on Melville Island. 

Winters in North America from southern British Columbia south in the coastal 
states and western Mexico to Jalisco, on the Mexican Plateau to the state of Mexico, 
on the Gulf coast from Texas and Louisiana south to Veracruz and Campeche. 
and rarely in the lower Mississippi Valley from Missouri southward: and in Eurasia 
from the British Isles and southern Scandinavia south to the eastern Atlantic 
islands (rarely). Mediterranean Sea. Asia Minor. India, and from Manchuria and 
Japan south to eastern China. 

In migration occurs in North America primarily west of the Mississippi River, 
casually in eastern North America from southern Ontario, southern Quebec and 
Labrador south to the Gulf coast (east to north-central Florida) and North Car- 
olina, formerly to Cuba. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands. .Aleutians ( Attu. Amchitka. Adak) and Pribilofs 
(St. Paul). 

Notes. — Usually known as White-fronted Goose. The Greenland race. A. a. 
flavirostris Dalgety and Scott. 1948. has been recorded from Quebec and the 
Atlantic seaboard south to Georgia: other North American records, including 
stragglers to the east coast, pertain to North .American subspecies. 

[Anser anser (Lmnaeus). Graylag Goose.] See Appendix B. 

[Anser indicus Latham. Bar-headed Goose.] See Appendix B. 

Genus CHEN Boie 

Chen Boie. 1822. Isis von Oken. col. 563. Type, by monotypy. Anser hyper- 

borens Pallas = Anas caerulescens Linnaeus. 
Exanthemops EUiot. 1868. Birds N. Am.. 2 (9), pi. 44. Type, by monotypy. 

Anser rossii Cassin. 
Philacte Bannister. lS^O. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 22. p. 131. Type. 

by monotypy. Anas canagica Sevastianov. 

Notes. — Some authors merge Chen in Anser. we retain Chen pending definition 
of generic limits in the geese. 

Chen caerulescens (Lmnaeus). Snow Goose. [169.] 

Anas camlescens Linnaeus. 1 7 58. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 124. Based on "The 
Blue-winged Goose" Edwards. Nat. Hist. Birds. 3. p. 152. pi. 152. (in 
Canada = Hudson Bay. northeastern Manitoba.) [Blue morph.] 

Anser hyperboreus Pallas. 1 "69. Spic. Zool.. 1. fasc. 6. p. 25. (in terris boreal- 
ibus ad Orientem 130° longitudinis sive circa Lenam et Ianam fluvios = 
northeastern Siberia.) [White morph.] 

Habitat. — Open tundra generally near water, breeding on raised hummocks and 
ridges, wintering in both fresh-water and salt marshes, wet prairies and extensive 
sandbars, foraging also in pastures, cultivated lands and flooded fields. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 67 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Alaska (Point Barrow) east along the Arctic 
coast and islands of Canada to northwestern Greenland and Ellesmere and Baffin 
islands, south to Southampton Island and along both coasts of Hudson Bay to 
the head of James Bay, also in northeastern Siberia (Wrangel Island, possibly also 
on the Chukotski Peninsula); isolated breeding reports from Oregon (Malheur 
Lake) and North Dakota (Arrowwood). 

Winters in western North America from the Puget Sound areas of British Colum- 
bia and Washington south to the interior valleys and (rarely) the southern coast 
of California, northern Baja California, northwestern Sonora and southwestern 
Arizona; from Chihuahua and southern (rarely northern) New Mexico south (locally 
and rarely) to Jalisco, Durango and Guanajuato (a report from Oaxaca is without 
foundation); from Kansas and Missouri south to the Gulf coast (from Florida to 
northern Veracruz), most commonly from Louisiana and Texas south to northern 
Tamaulipas; on the Atlantic coast from New York (Long Island) to Florida (pri- 
marily from Chesapeake Bay to North Carolina); and in eastern Asia in Japan 
and eastern China. 

Migrates chiefly along the Pacific coast and through Alberta and western Sas- 
katchewan, occurring widely in the United States west of the Rocky Mountains; 
through the Great Plains and Mississippi Valley, with large staging areas in the 
Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska and Iowa; and through Quebec and Ontario to the 
Atlantic wintering grounds. 

Casual south to southern Mexico (Tabasco), the Greater Antilles (east to the 
Virgin Islands), Bahamas and Bermuda; also in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, 
Maui), Aleutians (Attu, Alaid), Pribilofs (St. Paul), New England (coastal area), 
eastern Greenland, Iceland, the British Isles, continental Europe, the Azores and 
Korea. Accidental in Honduras (Campin, near La Lima) and the Marshall Islands. 

Notes.— The blue morph and white morph were formerly considered two dis- 
tinct species, C. caerulescens [Blue Goose, 169.1] and C. hyperborea [Snow 
Goose, 169]; the name caerulescens has priority. Blue morphs are concentrated 
in the center of the range, breeding mostly in populations north and northeast of 
Hudson Bay and wintering primarily on the Gulf coast. Hybridization in the wild 
between this species and C. rossii occurs infrequently; also occasional hybrids 
between C. caerulescens and Branta canadensis, and between the former and Anser 
albifrons, have been reported. 

Chen rossii (Cassin). Ross' Goose. [170.] 

Anser Rossii Cassin, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 13, p. 73. (Great 
Slave Lake.) 

Habitat.— Arctic tundra lakes, usually breeding on islands therein, frequently 
associated with C. caerulescens, in migration and winter in both fresh-water and 
brackish marshes and wet prairies, foraging in grassy areas, pastures and cultivated 
fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds primarily in the Queen Maud Gulf area of northern Mac- 
kenzie and northwestern Keewatin, with other colonies on southern Southampton 
Island and along the west coast of Hudson Bay south to Cape Churchill; probably 
also on Banks Island in northern Mackenzie. 

Winters in the interior valleys of California (casually to southern Arizona), and 
to southern (casually northwestern) New Mexico, Texas and the Gulf coast of 
Louisiana. 

Migrates primarily through Alberta and western Saskatchewan and the western 



68 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

states (casually west to British Columbia and Washington, and east to Wyoming, 
Colorado and Utah), and through the Great Plains (uncommonly east to southern 
Manitoba and the Dakotas. rarely to Minnesota. Illinois and Missouri). 

Casual in northern Alaska (Barrow. Tashekpuk Lake. Canning River Delta). 
southeastern Alaska (Stikine River Delta). Chihuahua (Laguna Bustillos). Ontario. 
Quebec, and along the Atlantic coast from New Jersey to Florida. 

Notes.— See comments under C. caerulescens. 

Chen canagica (Sevastianov). Emperor Goose. [176.] 

Anas Canagica Sevastianov. 1802. Nova Acta Acad. Sci. Imp. Petropolitanae. 
13, p. 349. pi. 10. (Kanaga Island. Aleutian Islands.) 

Habitat. — Lowland marsh areas of Arctic tundra, generally not far from the 
coast, nesting on the edges of ponds, lakes and potholes, migrating to upland areas 
to forage, and wintering in salt-water areas along reefs, rocky beaches and cliff 
shores. 

Distribution.— Breeds along the coast of western Alaska from Kotzebue Sound 
south to Kuskokwim Bay. on St. Lawrence and Nunivak islands, and in north- 
eastern Siberia from Koliutschin Bay east to East Cape and south to the Gulf of 
Anadyr. 

Winters throughout the Aleutians, along the Alaska Peninsula (east to Sanak 
Island and Bristol Bay), on Kodiak Island, irregularly south along the Pacific coast 
from southeastern Alaska and British Columbia to California (casually, once as 
far south as Orange County), and in Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway. Laysan. and the mam islands from 
Kauai east to Hawaii) and northern .Alaska (east to Barrow). 

Notes.— This species is frequently placed in the monotypic genus Philacte, 

Genus BRANTA Scopoli 

Branta Scopoli, 1769, Annus I. Hist.-Nat.. p. 67. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (Bannister. 1870), Anas bernicla Linnaeus. 

Leucopareia Reichenbach. 1853. Avium Syst. Nat. (1852). p. ix. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas leucopsis Bechstein. 

Eubranta Verheyen. 1955. Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg.. 31. no. 36. p. 9. Type, 
by subsequent designation (Parkes. 1958). Anas leucopsis Bechstem. 

Branta bernicla (Linnaeus). Brant. [173.] 

Anas Bernicla Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 124. (in Europa boreah 
= Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Arctic tundra, breeding in low and barren terrain, river deltas, sandy 
areas among puddles and shallows, wintering primarily in marine situations that 
are marshy, along lagoons and estuaries, and on shallow bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds [bernicla group] in North America from Prince Patrick. 
Melville and Ellesmere islands south to northern Keewatin (Adelaide Peninsula). 
Prince of Wales Island (probably), and Southampton. Coats and western Baffin 
islands, and in the Palearctic in northern Greenland. Spitsbergen and Franz Josef 
Land; and [nigricans group] in North America from western (Kuskokwim Bay) 
and northern Alaska east to northern Mackenzie and Banks. Melville and Prince 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 69 

Patrick islands (probably also Victoria Island), and in the Palearctic along the 
coast of Siberia east to the Chukotski Peninsula and Anadyrland. 

Winters [bernicla group] in eastern North America on the Atlantic coast from 
Maine to North Carolina (rarely to Florida), and in Europe (formerly widespread, 
now local) from the British Isles and North Sea south to the Mediterranean region, 
casually the Azores; and [nigricans group] in western North America along the 
Pacific coast from southern British Columbia south to southern Baja California, 
casually north to southeastern Alaska, and in eastern Eurasia south, at least rarely, 
to the coast of northern China and Korea. 

Casual [bernicla group] in the interior of North America from Manitoba and 
Ontario south to Texas and the Gulf coast, and in western North America (pri- 
marily coastal areas) from southeastern Yukon and southern British Columbia 
south to California; and [nigricans group] in the Hawaiian Islands, western North 
America east to Saskatchewan, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Colorado and Kansas, 
and south to Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Louisiana, and along the Atlantic 
coast from Massachusetts to Virginia. Accidental [bernicla group] in Barbados. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Brent Goose. The two groups have 
been regarded by some authors as separate species, B. bernicla [White-bellied 
Brant, 173] and B. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) = B. orientalis Tougarinov, 1941 
[Black Brant, 174]; mixed pairs and intermediates have been reported from 
Prince Patrick and Melville islands, but the extent of interbreeding is not known. 

Branta leucopsis (Bechstein). Barnacle Goose. [175.] 

Anas leucopsis Bechstein, 1803, Ornithol. Taschenb. Dtsch., 2, p. 424. (auf 
dem Zuge, Deutschland = Germany.) 

Habitat.— Rivers and marshes in Arctic regions, breeding primarily on rocky 
outcrops, ledges and crevices, less frequently on low islands, wintering in marshes 
and grasslands, generally near the coast. 

Distribution.— Breeds in eastern Greenland, Spitsbergen and southern Novaya 
Zemlya. 

Winters from the breeding range south to the British Isles, northern Europe and 
the Russian coast, casually to southern Europe and northern Africa. 

Casual in North America, most frequently from Labrador west to Baffin Island 
and James Bay, and south to Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, less 
frequently along the Atlantic coast south to South Carolina, and on rare occasions 
inland as far as Colorado, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Illinois and Tennessee, and south 
to the Gulf coast (recorded Texas and Alabama); and in the Old World to Bear 
Island, the Mediterranean region, the Azores and northern Africa. Some of these 
reports very likely pertain to escapes from captivity, but the majority of the 
northeastern North American and most of the Old World reports probably are of 
wild vagrants. 

Branta canadensis (Linnaeus). Canada Goose. [172.] 

Anas canadensis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 123. Based mainly 
on "The Canada Goose" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 92, pi. 92. (in 
Canada = City of Quebec.) 

Habitat.— A variety of habitats near water, from temperate regions to tundra, 
breeding on marshes, meadows, small islands, rivers and open situations com- 



70 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

manding clear views in fresh-water or brackish areas, also on man-made structures 
and in vegetation, wintering from tidewater areas and marshes to inland refuges 
and flooded fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Arctic coast of Alaska and northern Canada east 
to Baffin Island, western Greenland and Labrador, and south to the Commander 
Islands (formerly), Aleutians (Buldir), central California (San Francisco Bay region), 
northern Utah, southern Kansas, northern Arkansas, western Tennessee, western 
Kentucky, central Ohio, southern Ontario, southern Quebec and Newfoundland, 
occasionally to Maine (formerly to Massachusetts and undoubtedly farther south 
on the Atlantic coast). 

Winters from Kamchatka, south-coastal and southeastern Alaska (west to Prince 
William Sound), British Columbia, southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, 
southern Manitoba, the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of Newfoundland 
south to northern Baja California, the northern Mexican states (casually south to 
Jalisco and Veracruz), the Gulf coast and northern Florida (casually to the Florida 
Keys). 

Introduced and established in Iceland, the British Isles, Sardinia and New Zea- 
land; in addition, there are many feral, usually nonmigratory (although free-flying) 
populations in the United States, both within and outside the normal breeding 
range, and often of a subspecies other than that expected in the wild. 

Casual north to Melville Island, and in the Hawaiian Islands, central Siberia 
and Japan. Accidental in Bermuda, the Bahamas (Andros, New Providence) and 
Cuba, questionably in Jamaica. 

Notes.— The northern populations of small Canada Geese have been variously 
treated taxonomically as three separate species, B. hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) 
[Hutchins' or Richardson's Goose, 172.3], B. minima Ridgway, 1885 [Cack- 
ling Goose, 172.2], and B. leucopareia (Brandt, 1836) [Tundra Goose, 172.1]; 
as a single species under the name B. hutchinsii [Cackling Goose]; or as one or 
more subspecies of B. canadensis. Consideration of the entire complex as a single 
species seems best for the present. 

[Branta ruficollis (Pallas). Red-breasted Goose.] See Appendix B. 

Genus NESOCHEN Salvadori 

Nesochen Salvadori, 1895, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 27, pp. xii, 81, 126. Type, 
by original designation, Anser sandvicensis Vigors. 

Notes.— Some authors merge this genus in Branta. 

Nesochen sandvicensis (Vigors). Hawaiian Goose. [175.1.] 

Anser sandvicensis Vigors, 1833, List Anim. Garden Zool. Soc, ed. 3, p. 4. 
(Hawaiian Islands.) 

Habitat.— Uplands, primarily sparsely vegetated lava flows with no standing 
water. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Hawaiian Islands on Hawaii (population small 
and locally distributed, the surviving native populations having been increased 
by introductions from captive stock); recently reintroduced in the Haleakala area 
of Maui, where it may formerly have bred. 

Notes.— Also known as Nene. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 7 1 

Subfamily ANATINAE: Ducks 
Tribe TADORNINI: Shelducks 

[Genus TADORNA Lorenz von Oken] 

Tadorna Lorenz von Oken, 1817, Isis von Oken, 1, p. 1 183. Type, by tau- 

tonymy, Anas tadorna Linnaeus. 
Casarca Bonaparte, 1828, Geogr. Comp. List, p. 56. Type, by monotypy, 

Anas rutila Pallas = Anas ferruginea Pallas. 

[Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas). Ruddy Shelduck.] See Appendix B. 
[Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus). Common Shelduck.] See Appendix B. 
Tribe CAIRININI: Muscovy Ducks and Allies 

Genus CAIRINA Fleming 

Cairina Fleming, 1822, Philos. Zool., 2, p. 260. Type, by monotypy, Anas 
moschata Linnaeus. 

Cairina moschata (Linnaeus). Muscovy Duck. 

Anas moschata Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 124. (in India, error = 
Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Forest streams, ponds, marshes and swamps, nesting primarily in 
hollow trees (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the lowlands from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas south 
through most of Middle America (including Cozumel Island) and South America 
west of the Andes to western Colombia and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Casual in Trinidad. This species is widely domesticated, and reports of stragglers 
in North America north of Mexico likely pertain to escapes or individuals from 
attempted but unsuccessful introductions (especially those in Texas and Florida). 

Notes.— Also known as the Muscovy. 

Genus SARKIDIORNIS Eyton 

Sarkidiornis Eyton, 1838, Monogr. Anatidae, p. 20. Type, by original des- 
ignation, Anser melanotos Pennant. 

Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant). Comb Duck. 

Anser melanotos Pennant, 1769, Indian Zool., p. 12, pi. 11. (Ceylon.) 

Habitat.— Primarily ponds, wooded swamps, savanna lagoons and forested 
streams (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in tropical America from eastern Panama (Rio Chu- 
cunaque in eastern Darien, casually west to La Jagua, eastern Panama province) 
south through northern South America to central Peru, Bolivia, northern Argen- 
tina and Uruguay; and in the Old World in Africa (south of the Sahara), Mada- 
gascar, and from India east to southeastern China and Ceylon. 



72 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Notes.— The tropical American form has sometimes been treated as a species, 
S. sylvicola Ihering and Ihering, 1907 [American Comb-Duck], distinct from the 
Old World 5. melanotos. 

Genus AIX Boie 

Aix Boie, 1828, Isis von Oken, col. 329. Type, by subsequent designation 
(Eyton, 1838), Anas sponsa Linnaeus. 

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus). Wood Duck. [144.] 

Anas Sponsa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 128. Based mainly on 
"The Summer Duck" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 97, pi. 97. (in 
America septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Quiet inland waters near woodland, such as wooded swamps, flooded 
forest, ponds, marshes and along streams, where nesting in holes in trees and bird 
boxes, wintering on both fresh-water and brackish marshes, ponds, streams and 
estuaries. 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from southern British Colum- 
bia and southwestern Alberta south to central (rarely southern) coastal California 
and the interior valleys (Sacramento and San Joaquin) of that state, west-central 
Nevada, southern Oregon, northern Idaho and western Montana; and in eastern 
North America from east-central Saskatchewan, central and southeastern Mani- 
toba, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island 
and Nova Scotia south (east of the Rockies) to central and southeastern Texas, 
the Gulf coast, southern Florida and Cuba. 

Winters at least irregularly throughout the breeding range in western North 
America (most commonly near coastal areas and in the interior valleys of Cali- 
fornia, casually east to central Montana, northern Utah and southeastern Arizona); 
in eastern North America primarily in the southern parts of the breeding range 
north to southern Kansas, southern Iowa, the Ohio Valley and New England 
(occasionally farther north), and west to southern New Mexico; and in Cuba and 
the Bahamas. 

Casual in southeastern Alaska (Juneau, Stikine River), Newfoundland, northern 
Mexico (recorded Sinaloa, Durango and Distrito Federal) and Jamaica (at least 
formerly). Accidental in Puerto Rico, the Lesser Antilles (Saba) and Azores; Euro- 
pean reports are likely based on escapes or on small, local, unestablished flocks. 

Tribe ANATINI: Dabbling Ducks 
Genus ANAS Linnaeus 

Anas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 122. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Lesson, 1828), Anas boschas Linnaeus = Anas platyrhynchos 
Linnaeus. 

Spatula Boie, 1822, Isis von Oken, col. 564. Type, by monotypy, Anas cly- 
peata Linnaeus. 

Dafila Stephens, 1 824, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 1 2 (2), p. 126. Type, by monotypy, 
Dafila caudacuta Stephens = Anas acuta Linnaeus. 

Mareca Stephens, 1824, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12 (2), p. 130. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (Eyton, 1838), Mareca fistularis Stephens = Anaspene- 
lope Linnaeus. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 73 

Querquedula Stephens, 1824, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12 (2), p. 142. Type, by 
tautonymy, Anas circia Linnaeus = Anas querquedula Linnaeus. 

Nettion Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 95. Type, by mono- 
typy, Anas crecca Linnaeus. 

Chaulelasmus "G. R. Gray" Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List, p. 56. 
Type, by monotypy, Anas strepera Linnaeus. 

Eunetta Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 650. Type, by mono- 
typy, Anasfalcata Georgi. 

Anas crecca Linnaeus. Green- winged Teal. [139.] 

Anas Crecca Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 11, p. 126. (in Europae aquis 
dulcibus = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, marshes, ponds, pools and shallow streams, breeding in inland 
fresh-water areas with dense rushes or other emergent vegetation, in migration 
and winter in both fresh-water and brackish situations around marshes, lakes, 
estuaries and rice fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds [crecca group] in North America in the Pribilof (group 
uncertain) and Aleutian islands (east to Akutan), and in Eurasia from the British 
Isles east to eastern Siberia and the Commander, Kurile and Bering islands, and 
south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas, Mongolia, Manchuria, Ussur- 
iland and Japan; and [carolinensis group] in North America from western and 
northern Alaska (including the eastern Aleutians), northern Yukon, northwestern 
and southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, northern 
Ontario, northern Quebec, north-central Labrador and Newfoundland south to 
central Oregon, northern Nevada, northern Utah, Colorado, central South Dakota, 
southern Minnesota, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, northern Maine and 
Nova Scotia, with sporadic local breeding south to southern California, eastern 
Arizona, southern New Mexico, Kansas, Iowa, northern Illinois, northern Indiana, 
northern Ohio, Pennsylvania, northeastern West Virginia, and on the Atlantic 
coast to Delaware. 

Winters [crecca group] in North America in the Aleutians, and in Eurasia from 
Iceland, the British Isles, northern Europe, the Black and Caspian seas, Korea and 
Japan south to tropical Africa, India, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, southeastern 
China and the Philippines; and [carolinensis group] in the Hawaiian Islands, and 
in North America from southern Alaska (Kodiak Island), southern British Colum- 
bia, central Montana, South Dakota, southern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, 
the Great Lakes, New York, New England, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south 
to Baja California, central Mexico, the Gulf coast, southern Florida and the Baha- 
mas, rarely to northern Central America (Belize and northern Honduras), the 
Antilles (recorded south to Tobago) and Bermuda. 

Casual [crecca group] in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway, Oahu), on continental 
North America from Alaska and Labrador south on the Pacific coast to southern 
California, in the interior to Nevada, Ohio and Pennsylvania, and on the Atlantic 
coast to Florida, and in Micronesia, Greenland, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen and the 
eastern Atlantic islands; and [carolinensis group] in Colombia, Greenland, the 
British Isles, continental Europe, Morocco and Japan. Accidental [carolinensis 
group] in Costa Rica. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Teal. The two groups within 
the species have often been considered as separate species, A. crecca [Common 



74 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Teal. 138] and A. carolinensis Gmelin. 1789 [Green-winged Teal. 139]; inter- 
gradation between the two groups occurs in the Aleutians. 

Anas formosa Georgi. Baikal Teal. [139.1.] 

Anas formosa Georgi, 1775. Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich.. 1. p. 168. fum 
Irkutsk . . . und dem ganzen siidlichen Baikal = Lake Baikal, Siberia.) 

Habitat.— Small ponds, pools or edges of streams, generally in forested areas, 
breeding in marshy areas with reeds and emergent vegetation. 

Distribution.— Breeds in eastern Siberia from the Yenisei River east to western 
Anadyrland and Kamchatka, and south to Lake Baikal. Transbaicalia and the Sea 
of Okhotsk. 

Winters from eastern China. Korea and Japan south to India and Burma. 

Casual in western and northern Alaska from Wainwright south to the Pribilofs 
and Nanvak Bay, and in fall and winter on the Pacific coast from British Columbia 
south to southern California, although more southerly reports may be based on 
escapes. Birds reported from Ohio. Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina 
and Europe are almost certainly based on escaped individuals. 

Anas falcata Georgi. Falcated Teal. [137.1.] 

Anas falcata Georgi, 1775, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich., 1. p. 167. (Baikal 
region, Siberia.) 

Habitat. — Primarily in fresh-water on and around ponds, small lakes and quiet 
rivers, foraging and wintering also in rice fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds in eastern Siberia from the Yenisei River east to the Sea 
of Okhotsk and Kamchatka, and south to Lake Baikal. Mongolia, Amurland. 
Sakhalin and Japan. 

Winters from Japan south to Korea and eastern China, less frequently to Iran. 
India. Burma, Viet Nam and southeastern China. 

Casual in Alaska in the Pribilof (St. George. St. Paul) and Aleutian islands (Attu. 
Shemya. Amchitka, Adak). and in the Commander Islands. Reports from British 
Columbia (Vernon). Washington (Willapa Bay) and California (San Francisco, 
Newport Bay) may pertain to escaped individuals: records from Virginia. North 
Carolina and Europe almost certainly do. 

Anas rubripes Brewster. American Black Duck. [133.] 

Anas obscura rubripes Brewster, 1902, Auk. 19. p. 184. (Lake Umbagog, New 
Hampshire shore.) 

Habitat.— A wide variety of wetland habitats in both fresh-water and marine 
situations, in and around marshes, swamps, ponds, lakes, bays, estuaries and tidal 
flats, favoring wooded swamps for breeding. 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, north- 
ern Ontario, northern Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland south to northern 
South Dakota, southern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, central 
Indiana, central Ohio, central West Virginia, and on the Atlantic coast to North 
Carolina; also sporadic breeding west to southern Alberta and south to the northern 
Gulf states and Georgia. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 75 

Winters from southeastern Minnesota, central Wisconsin, central Michigan, 
southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to 
southern Texas, the Gulf coast and south-central Florida. 

Casual visitant (in summer in the northern areas, in migration and winter in 
western and southern localities) from central Alaska, northern Mackenzie, Kee- 
watin and Baffin Island south to northern California, northern Utah, Colorado 
and western Texas. Accidental in Puerto Rico, the British Isles, Sweden and the 
Azores; some of the extralimital records (especially one from Puerto Rico) and 
peripheral reports in the southwest (e.g., California) may pertain to escaped or 
released individuals. 

Notes.— Formerly known in American literature as the Black Duck. See com- 
ments under A. platyrhynchos. 

Anas fulvigula Ridgway. Mottled Duck. [134.] 

Anas obscura, var. fulvigula Ridgway, 1874, Am. Nat., 8, p. 11 1. (St. John's 
river, Florida = Dummits, Brevard County.) 

Habitat.— Primarily in coastal wetlands, both fresh- water and brackish situa- 
tions, in marshes arid ponds, foraging also in ungrazed fields and in rice. 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Gulf coast from southern Louisiana and Texas 
south to Tamaulipas; in peninsular Florida from Alachua County south to Cape 
Sable; and locally inland in southeastern Colorado, western Kansas, Oklahoma 
(rarely) and northeastern Texas. 

Winters in the breeding range and, at least casually, along the entire Gulf coast 
from western Florida to central Texas and south to Veracruz. 

Casual in the Great Plains region from Kansas and Oklahoma south to northern 
Texas, and in the Florida Keys (Key Largo). 

Notes.— Some individuals taken in the Great Plains region from Colorado to 
Oklahoma show indications of hybridization with A. platyrhynchos (Hubbard. 
1977, Bull. N.M. Dept. Game Fish, no. 16, pp. 31-34). See also comments under 
A. platyrhynchos. 

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus. Mallard. [132.] 

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 125. (in Europae 
maritimis = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Primarily shallow waters such as ponds, lakes, marshes and flooded 
fields, nesting on the ground and occasionally in trees in old crow nests, in migra- 
tion and winter mostly in fresh-water and cultivated fields, less commonly in 
brackish situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds [platyrhynchos group] in North America from northern 
Alaska, northern Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, southern Kee- 
watin, northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario, southern Quebec and southern 
Maine south to the Aleutian and Pribilof islands, southern California, the southern 
Great Basin, southern New Mexico, and from Oklahoma east through the Ohio 
Valley to Virginia, with local breeding (possibly through introduction or semi- 
domestic stock) to the Gulf coast and Florida, and in the Palearctic in southwestern 
Greenland, Iceland, and from Scandinavia east to eastern Siberia and south to 
the Mediterranean region, central Asia and Japan; and [diazi group] from south- 



76 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

eastern Arizona, southern New Mexico and west-central Texas south in the high- 
lands of Mexico to Jalisco, Michoacan, the state of Mexico, Distrito Federal, 
Tlaxcala and Puebla. 

Winters [platyrhynchos group] in North America generally from southern Alaska 
(west coastally to the Aleutian Islands, rare in central Alaska) and southern Canada 
south to central Mexico (at least to Michoacan, the state of Mexico and Veracruz), 
the Gulf coast, southern Florida and western Cuba, and in Eurasia from Iceland, 
the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and the southern part of the breeding range 
south to the eastern Atlantic islands, northern Africa, India, Burma and Borneo; 
and [diazi group] generally in the region of the breeding range. 

Introduced and established [platyrhynchos group] in the Hawaiian Islands, Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand; in addition, wild populations throughout most of the 
normal range are supplemented frequently by escapes from captivity. 

Casual or accidental [platyrhynchos group] in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica (near Turrialba), Panama (Canal Zone), the Bahamas (Andros, New 
Providence), Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands (St. Croix), Trinidad, Spitsbergen, 
Bear Island, and the Marshall and Gilbert [=Kiribati] islands. 

Notes.— Extensive hybridization in southeastern Arizona, southern New Mex- 
ico and west-central Texas compels merger of the two groups, formerly recognized 
as distinct species, A. platyrhynchos and A. diazi Ridgway, 1886 [Mexican Duck, 
133.1]. A. platyrhynchos (including diazi), A. fulvigula, A. rubripes, A. wyvilliana, 
A. laysanensis and possibly several Old World forms are all closely related; at 
least the first three appear to constitute a superspecies. In various treatments, 
some or even all the taxa mentioned are treated as conspecific under the name 
A. platyrhynchos. A. rubripes hybridizes frequently with A. platyrhynchos in an 
area of broad overlap, largely the result of introductions of the latter in the range 
of the former, but these two forms differ somewhat behaviorally and they tend 
to segregate as species. 

Anas wyvilliana Sclater. Hawaiian Duck. [132.1.] 

Anas wyvilliana Sclater, 1878, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 350. (Hawaiian 
Islands.) 

Habitat.— Coastal lagoons, marshes and mountain streams, nesting (at least at 
present) primarily on small islets. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and possibly Niihau, 
formerly on all main islands except Lanai and Kahoolawe); recent introductions 
from captive stocks to Oahu and Hawaii have bred successfully. 

Accidental in Sinaloa (Mazatlan, prior to 1859 = type of A. aberti Ridgway, 
1878); the validity of this record has been questioned. 

Notes.— Also known as the Koloa. See comments under A. platyrhynchos. 

Anas laysanensis Rothschild. Laysan Duck. [132.2.] 

Anas laysanensis Rothschild, 1892, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 1, p. 17. (Island 
of Laysan.) 

Habitat.— Brackish lagoons, and adjacent dense brush and sedges. 
Distribution.— Resident in small numbers on Laysan Island, in the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as Laysan Teal. See comments under A. platyrhynchos. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 77 

Anas poecilorhyncha Forster. Spot-billed Duck. [134.1.] 

Anas poecilorhyncha J. R. Forster, 1781, Zool. Indica, p. 23, pi. 13, fig. 1. 
(Ceylon.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on small streams and ponds in eastern Asia 
from Siberia and Sakhalin south to India, Ceylon and Southeast Asia, and winters 
south to the Philippines. 

Accidental in Alaska in the Aleutians (Adak, 10 April 1970-18 April 1971; 
Byrd, Gibson and Johnson, 1974, Condor, 76, p. 290) and on Kodiak Island (30 
October-1 November 1977; Trapp and Macintosh, 1978, W. Birds, 9, pp. 127- 
128). 

Anas bahamensis Linnaeus. White-cheeked Pintail. [143.1.] 

Anas bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 124. Based on the 
"Ilathera Duck" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 93, pi. 93. (in Bahama = 
Bahama Islands.) 

Habitat.— Shallow ponds, lakes, lagoons and inlets in fresh-water or brackish 
situations, usually with dense vegetation bordering water, sometimes foraging in 
cultivated fields. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Bahamas (from Abaco south to the Caicos), Greater 
Antilles, northern Lesser Antilles (south to Guadeloupe), islands off the north 
coast of Venezuela (Netherlands Antilles east to Tobago and Trinidad), northern 
Colombia (Magdalena Valley), coast of northern Venezuela, Galapagos Islands, 
Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to northern Chile, and eastern South 
America from the Guianas south through eastern Brazil to central Argentina and 
Uruguay. 

Casual in peninsular Florida. Accidental in Wisconsin (Lake Winnecone), Illi- 
nois (Steward Lake), Texas (Laguna Atascosa), Alabama (Magnolia Springs), Vir- 
ginia (Pungo, Chincoteague) and Delaware (Assawoman); some of these reports, 
as well as one from New Jersey representing a South American race, probably 
pertain to escapes from captivity. 

Notes.— Also known as Bahama Pintail or Duck. 

Anas acuta Linnaeus. Northern Pintail. [143.] 

Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 126. (in Europae mari- 
timis = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, rivers, marshes and ponds in grasslands, barrens, dry tundra, 
open boreal forest or cultivated fields, in migration and winter in both fresh-water 
and brackish situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds [acuta group] in North America from northern Alaska, 
northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, southern Victoria Island, northern Kee- 
watin, Southampton Island, northern and eastern Quebec, New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia south, at least locally, to southwestern and south-coastal Alaska, 
along the Pacific coast to southern California, and to northern Arizona, southern 
New Mexico, Kansas, central Iowa, northern Illinois, northern Indiana, northern 
Ohio, northern New York and Massachusetts, casually or sporadically to western 
Kentucky, Maryland and Virginia, also once on Ellesmere Island; and in the 



78 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Palearctic from western Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Spitsbergen and 
Scandinavia east across Arctic areas to the Chukotski Peninsula, Kamchatka and 
the Commander Islands, and south to the British Isles, central Europe, Caspian 
Sea, Transcaucasia and the Kurile Islands. In summer recorded casually to Banks 
and Baffin islands, and in Newfoundland. 

Winters [acuta group] in the Hawaiian Islands; in the Americas from southern 
Alaska (coastal areas west to the Aleutian and Kodiak islands), coastal British 
Columbia, central Washington, southern Idaho, central Utah, northern Arizona, 
northern New Mexico, eastern Colorado, Kansas, central Missouri, the Ohio Val- 
ley (uncommonly), and along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts, south 
throughout the southern United States, Middle America, Bermuda and the West 
Indies (south at least to Guadeloupe) to northern Colombia, northern Venezuela 
and the Guianas; and in the Old World from the British Isles, southern Scandi- 
navia, southern Russia, Turkestan and Japan south to northern and eastern Africa, 
the Indian Ocean, Borneo, the Philippines and islands of Micronesia. 

In migration occurs regularly in the Aleutians, Labrador and Newfoundland. 

Resident [eatoni group] in the southern Indian Ocean on the Crozets and Ker- 
guelen Island. 

Casual [acuta group] to Bear Island, Madeira and the Azores. 

Notes.— Also known as Common Pintail and, in Old World literature, as the 
Pintail. The two groups are sometimes treated as separate species, A. acuta and 
A. eatoni (Sharpe, 1 875), or with A. eatoni split as two additional species, A. eatoni 
on Kerguelen and A. drygalskii Reichenow, 1904, in the Crozets. Some authors 
consider the South American A. georgica Gmelin, 1789, and A. acuta as com- 
prising a superspecies. 



Anas querquedula Linnaeus. Garganey. [139.2.] 

Anas Querquedula Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 126. (in Europe 
aquis dulcibus = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Shallow inland lakes, ponds and streams bordered with dense emer- 
gent vegetation, reed beds or marshes, wintering primarily on fresh-water but also 
in marine or brackish situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, central Rus- 
sia and eastern Siberia (east to Amurland and Kamchatka) south to southern 
Europe, the Black and Caspian seas, Turkey. Transcaucasia, Mongolia and Ussur- 
iland. 

Winters from the Mediterranean Sea (rarely), Iraq, Arabia, India, eastern China, 
Formosa and Japan south to southern Africa, the Maldive Islands, Ceylon, Greater 
Sunda Islands, New Guinea and Australia. 

In migration occurs rarely (but regularly) in the western Aleutians (casually east 
to Adak). 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands, the Pribilofs (St. Paul Island), Iceland and the 
Faroe Islands. Accidental in British Columbia (Sea and Iona islands), Alberta 
(Two Hills, Galahad), Manitoba (St. Ambroise), New Brunswick (St. John), Bar- 
bados and the Azores, also additional sight reports of drakes from California, 
Prince Edward Island, Massachusetts, Delaware and North Carolina; some of 
these vagrants, particularly those in eastern North America, may pertain to escaped 
individuals. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 79 

Anas discors Linnaeus. Blue-winged Teal. [140.] 

Anas discors Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 205. Based mainly on 
"The White-face Teal" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 100, pi. 100. (in 
America septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds, sloughs, lakes and sluggish streams, in migration 
and winter in both fresh-water and brackish situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds from east-central Alaska, southern Yukon, southern Mac- 
kenzie, northern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, central Ontario, southern Que- 
bec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and southwestern New- 
foundland south to northeastern California, central Nevada, central Utah, southern 
New Mexico, western and southern Texas, central Louisiana, western Arkansas, 
central Tennessee and eastern North Carolina, locally also to southern California, 
the Gulf coast and central Florida. 

Winters from southern California, southwestern Arizona, western and southern 
Texas, the Gulf coast and North Carolina on the Atlantic coast (casually north to 
the southern Ohio Valley and Chesapeake Bay) south throughout Middle America 
and the West Indies to central Peru, central Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Casual in the Hawaiian and Aleutian (Adak) islands; north to northern Alaska, 
northern Mackenzie, Anticosti Island and southern Labrador, and to Bermuda 
and Uruguay. Accidental in Greenland and Europe. 

Notes.— A. discors and A. cyanoptera are closely related and natural hybrids are 
known; some authors have suggested superspecific status for the two despite rather 
broad overlap of breeding range. 

Anas cyanoptera Vieillot. Cinnamon Teal. [141.] 

Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 104. 
Based on "Pato Alas azules" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag.. 3, p. 
437 (no. 434). (dans l'Amerique meridionale sur la riviere de la Plata et a 
Buenos Ayres = Rio de la Plata and Buenos Aires, Argentina.) 

Habitat.— Shallow lake margins, reed beds, ponds, lagoons, sluggish streams 
and marshes, primarily in fresh-water but found in winter occasionally in marine 
situations (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from southern British Columbia, 
southern Alberta, southwestern Saskatchewan (probably), eastern Montana, cen- 
tral North Dakota, southwestern South Dakota (probably), western Nebraska and 
central Kansas south to northern Baja California, Jalisco, Chihuahua, Tamaulipas 
and central Texas. 

Winters from central California, southern Nevada, central Utah, southeastern 
Arizona, southern New Mexico and central Texas south through Middle America 
to Colombia, northern Venezuela and northern Ecuador. 

Resident in South America in Colombia (Eastern Andes, and the Cauca and 
Magdalena valleys), and from central Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil 
south to the Straits of Magellan. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Maui, Hawaii); north to south-central 
and southeastern Alaska, southern Yukon, central British Columbia, central .Alberta, 
central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba and Minnesota; and in eastern North 
America from southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New York and New Jersey 
south to the Gulf coast, Florida, the Bahamas (Grand Bahama), Cuba and Jamaica. 

Notes.— See comments under A. discors. 



80 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Anas clypeata Linnaeus. Northern Shoveler. [142.] 

Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 124. (in Europas 
maritimis = southern Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Shallow fresh- water areas with surrounding marsh, reed beds and 
other types of emergent vegetation, especially in muddy, sluggish water situations, 
in migration and winter in both fresh-water and brackish habitats, and in cultivated 
fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northwestern and southern Mackenzie, and northern Manitoba south to north- 
western and eastern Oregon (absent west of the coast ranges from central British 
Columbia southward), northern Utah, northern Colorado, northern Nebraska, 
northern Missouri and central Wisconsin, casually (or formerly) east to southern 
Ontario, southern Quebec, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, and south 
to southern California, central Arizona (probably), southern New Mexico, south- 
eastern Texas, central Kansas, northern Illinois, northern Indiana, northern Ohio, 
western Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware, and casually to northern Ala- 
bama; and in Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles and Scandinavia east across 
northern Russia and Siberia to Kamchatka and the Commander Islands, and 
south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas, southern Russia, Mongolia, 
Transbaicalia and Sakhalin. 

Winters in the Hawaiian Islands; in the Americas from the coast of southern 
British Columbia, central Arizona, northern New Mexico, central Texas, the Gulf 
coast and South Carolina on the Atlantic coast south through Middle America 
and the West Indies to Colombia, the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad, rarely 
in southern Alaska (in the Aleutians, on Kodiak Island, and in southeastern 
Alaska), and north to Minnesota, the Great Lakes, New England and Nova Scotia; 
and in the Old World from the British Isles, central Europe, southern Russia, 
eastern China and Japan south to northern and eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean, 
Malay Peninsula, Borneo, the Philippines and Micronesia. 

In migration occurs regularly in the Aleutian Islands. 

Casual or accidental in northern Alaska, Labrador, Newfoundland, Bermuda, 
Spitsbergen, Bear Island, the eastern Atlantic islands, South Africa and the Gilbert 
Islands [=Kiribati]. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Shoveler. Interrelationships of 
the shovelers of the world remain to be determined. 

Anas strepera Linnaeus. Gadwall. [135.] 

Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 125. (in Europe aquis 
dulcibus = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Marshes and grassy areas in both fresh-water and brackish situations, 
casually breeding in brushy or grassy areas away from water or on islands in lakes, 
in migration and winter on open water of any kind (but preferring marshy fresh- 
water situations to other types). 

Distribution.— Breeds [strepera group] in North America from southern Alaska 
(the Alaska Peninsula, and east to Prince William Sound and, rarely, southeastern 
Alaska), southern Yukon, southwestern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, cen- 
tral Manitoba, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, Prince Edward Island, 
Anticosti Island (rarely) and the New Brunswick-Nova Scotia border south locally 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 8 1 

to southern California, southern Nevada, northern Arizona, southern New Mex- 
ico, northern Texas, southern Kansas, Iowa, central Minnesota, southern Wis- 
consin, northern Ohio, northern Pennsylvania (formerly) and, on the Atlantic 
coast, to North Carolina, with one isolated breeding in northern Alabama (Wheeler 
Refuge); and in Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles and southern Scandinavia 
east to eastern Siberia, and south to the Mediterranean region, Algeria, Turkey, 
Iran, Afghanistan, northern China and Sakhalin. 

Winters [strepera group] in North America from southern Alaska (west to the 
Aleutian and Kodiak islands), southern British Columbia, Idaho, Colorado, south- 
ern South Dakota, Iowa, the southern Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay on the 
Atlantic coast (rarely from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) south to northern 
Baja California, Oaxaca, the state of Mexico, Puebla, Veracruz, Tabasco, the state 
of Yucatan, the Gulf coast throughout, Florida, the Bahamas (New Providence), 
western Cuba and (formerly) Jamaica; and in Eurasia from the British Isles, central 
Europe, and the Black and Caspian seas south to northern and eastern Africa, and 
east to India, Burma, Thailand, eastern China and Japan. 

Formerly resident [couesi group] in the northern Line Islands (Washington and 
New York islands); now extinct. 

Casual or accidental [strepera group] in the Hawaiian Islands, Pribilofs, western 
and northern Alaska, northern Manitoba, Bermuda, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, 
Nigeria, Ceylon and the Marshall Islands. 

Notes.— The two groups have sometimes been regarded as separate species, A. 
strepera [Common Gadwall] and A. couesi (Streets, 1876) [Coues' Gadwall]. 

Anas penelope Linnaeus. Eurasian Wigeon. [136.] 

Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 126. Based on "The 
Wigeon or Whewer" Albin, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 88, pi. 99. (in Europae 
maritimis & paludibis = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Extensive marshes and lakes with good vegetation along shores, 
breeding in fresh-water in taiga, forested areas, less commonly in open moors and 
cultivated country, wintering primarily in fresh-water and brackish situations in 
coastal areas but migrating extensively through inland regions. 

Distribution.— Breeds in Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles and Scandinavia 
east to eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, south to northern Europe, central Russia 
and Transcaucasia. 

Winters in the Old World from Iceland, the British Isles, northern Europe, 
southern Russia and Japan south to the eastern Atlantic islands, northern and 
eastern Africa, Arabia, India, the Malay Peninsula, southern China, Formosa and 
the Philippines, casually to Ceylon, Borneo, Celebes and Greenland; and regularly 
in North America on the Pacific coast from southeastern Alaska south to northern 
Baja California, and on the Atlantic-Gulf coast from Labrador and Newfoundland 
south to Florida and west to southern Texas, casually in the Hawaiian Islands. 

In migration occurs regularly (primarily in the spring) in southeastern Alaska 
(rare elsewhere in Alaska), and irregularly in the interior of North America from 
the southern parts of the Canadian provinces south to Arizona, Texas and the 
Gulf coast. 

Casual or accidental in Bermuda, the Antilles (Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Barbuda 
and Barbados), Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen, Bear Island, and the Caroline and Mar- 
shall Islands. 



82 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Notes.— Also known as European Wigeon and, in Old World literature, as the 
Wigeon. A. penelope and A. americana constitute a superspecies; occasional hybrids 
between the two species have been reported. 

Anas americana Gmelin. American Wigeon. [137.] 

Anas americana Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 526. Based on "Le Canard 
jensen, de la Louisiane" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 955, and the 
"American Wigeon" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 567. (in America a Cayenna 
insulisque vicini Oceani ad sinum Hudsonis usque = New York.) 

Habitat.— Large marshes and lakes, breeding in fresh- water situations with 
exposed shorelines, wintering in both fresh-water and brackish areas and foraging 
in marsh edges, sloughs and sheltered bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central (rarely western) Alaska, central Yukon, 
northwestern and central Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, 
northern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and 
southern Nova Scotia south to south-coastal Alaska (Cook Inlet east to Yakutat 
Bay), in the interior through much of British Columbia, northwestern and eastern 
Washington and eastern Oregon to northeastern California, northern Nevada, 
northern Utah, northern New Mexico, central Colorado, South Dakota, north- 
western Minnesota, northern Michigan, southern Ontario and northern New York, 
sporadically to the Atlantic coast (recorded breeding in Maine, Massachusetts and 
Delaware); the breeding range east of Manitoba and Minnesota is highly local. 

Winters in the Hawaiian Islands; and from southern Alaska, southwestern Brit- 
ish Columbia, Oregon, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, sporadically across 
the central United States to the southern Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, and on 
the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia south throughout the southern United States, 
Middle America and the West Indies to Panama, northern Colombia, northern 
Venezuela (rarely), Tobago and Trinidad. 

Casual or accidental in the Aleutians, islands in the Bering Sea, Banks Island, 
Newfoundland, Greenland, Iceland, Europe, the Azores, Japan, and the Com- 
mander, Caroline and Marshall islands. 

Notes.— See comments under A. penelope. 

Tribe AYTHYINI: Pochards and Allies 

[Genus NETTA Kaup] 

Netta Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 102. Type, by mono- 
typy, Anas rufina Pallas. 

[Netta rufina (Pallas). Red-crested Pochard.] See Appendix B. 

Genus AYTHYA Boie 

Aythya Boie, (before May) 1822, Tageb. Reise Norwegen, p. 351. Type, by 

monotypy, Anas marila Linnaeus. 
Nyroca Fleming, (June) 1822, Philos. Zool., 2, p. 260. Type, by tautonymy, 

Anas nyroca Guldenstadt. 
Aristonetta Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. 

R. R. Pac, 9, p. 793. Type, by original designation, Anas valisineria Wilson. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 83 

Perissonetta Oberholser, 1921, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (1920), p. 110. Type, by 
original designation, Anas collar is Donovan. 

Aythya ferina (Linnaeus). Common Pochard. [146.1.] 

Anas ferina Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 126. (in Europae mari- 
timis = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds and sluggish streams, breeding in fresh-water situations 
bordered with emergent vegetation, wintering in sheltered fresh-water and brackish 
areas, rarely in bays and estuaries. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Iceland, the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, 
central Russia and southern Siberia south to Spain, central Europe, Tunisia (for- 
merly), the Black and Caspian seas, Turkey and Lake Baikal. 

Winters from the British Isles, central Europe, southern Sweden and southern 
Russia south to the Mediterranean region, northern Africa, Arabia, India, Burma, 
eastern China and Japan, rarely to the eastern Atlantic islands, Formosa and the 
Philippines. 

In migration occurs rarely (but regularly) in the Aleutians (east to Adak), casually 
in the Pribilofs (St. Paul, St. George). 

Casual or accidental in south-coastal Alaska (Homer), the Faroe Islands and 
Guam, also a sight report from Saskatchewan. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Pochard. Relationships among 
A. ferina, A. valisineria and A. americana are close, and some authors have 
suggested that the first two form a superspecies. 

Aythya valisineria (Wilson). Canvasback. [147.] 

Anas valisineria Wilson, 1814, Am. Ornithol., 8, p. 103, pi. 70, fig. 5. (United 
States.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds, lakes, rivers and bays, breeding in fresh- water marshes 
bordered by emergent vegetation, and wintering on deep, fresh-water lakes and 
rivers as well as on sheltered bays and estuaries. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Alaska, northern Yukon, western and south- 
ern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, central and northeastern Manitoba, and 
western Ontario south to south-coastal Alaska (Anchorage area east to Bering 
River delta), and locally in inland areas to northeastern California, northern Nevada, 
northern Utah, central New Mexico, central Kansas, northwestern Iowa and extreme 
southern Ontario (Walpole Island). 

Winters along the Pacific coast from the central Aleutians (in small numbers 
west to Adak) and south-coastal Alaska south to Baja California, and from Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, the Great Lakes and, on the Atlan- 
tic coast, from New England (sporadically north in the western states to southern 
Canada) south to southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz and the Yucatan Peninsula), 
the Gulf coast and Florida. 

In migration occurs in southern Ontario and (rarely) southwestern Quebec. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands, western Aleutians, Pribilofs (St. 
Paul), Clipperton Island, Guatemala, Honduras, eastern Canada (north to New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia), Bermuda, Cuba and the Marshall Islands, also sight 
reports from Puerto Rico and the Swan Islands. 

Notes.— See comments under A. ferina. 



84 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Aythya americana (Eyton). Redhead. [146.] 

Fuligula americana Eyton. 1838. Monogr. Anatidae. p. 155. (North America. ) 

Habitat. — Large marshes, lakes, lagoons, rivers and bays, breeding in extensive 
fresh-water marshy areas, wintering mostly in brackish and marine lagoons and 
bays, less frequently in inland fresh-water situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in south-central and southeastern -Alaska, and from 
central British Columbia, southwestern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, west- 
central and southern Manitoba, and northwestern and central Minnesota south 
to southern California, southern Arizona, central New Mexico, northern Texas 
(Panhandle), central Kansas and northern Iowa, sporadically in eastern North 
America from Michigan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec. New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia south to Illinois, northwestern Indiana, northern Ohio, western Penn- 
sylvania (formerly) and central New York. 

R 'inters from British Columbia on the Pacific coast, in the interior from Nevada. 
Utah. Colorado. Kansas, the middle Mississippi and Ohio valleys, and the Great 
Lakes (occasionally north to the upper Great Lakes and southern Ontario), and 
from New England on the Atlantic coast south throughout the southern United 
States and most of Mexico to Guatemala. Cuba. Jamaica and the Bahamas. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands. Pribilofs (St. Paul), northern and western Alaska. 
Kodiak Island, southern Yukon. Nova Scotia. Bermuda. Greenland and Sweden, 
also a sight report for Guam. 

Notes. — See comments under A. ferina. 

[Aythya baeri (Radde). Baer*s Pochard.] See Appendix B. 

Aythya collaris (Donovan). Ring-necked Duck. [150.] 

Anas collaris Donovan. 1809. Nat. Hist. Br. Birds. 6. p. 14" and text. (Lin- 
colnshire. England, specimen found in Leadenhall market. London.) 

Habitat. — Marshes, lakes, rivers and swamps, breeding in fresh- water marshes, 
sloughs, bogs and swamps with relatively dense vegetation, wintering primarily 
on fresh-water and brackish situations of larger lakes, rivers and estuaries. 

Distribution.— Breeds in east-central and southeastern Alaska, and from central 
British Columbia, southern Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, north- 
ern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, northern Ontario, southern Quebec. New- 
foundland and Nova Scotia south to northwestern Washington, eastern Oregon. 
northeastern California, central Nevada, southeastern .Arizona, southern Colo- 
rado, northern Nebraska, northern Iowa, northern Illinois, central Michigan. 
southern Ontario, western Pennsylvania (formerly), northern New York and Mas- 
sachusetts: also nonh-central Florida (.Alachua County). 

Winters on the Pacific coast from southeastern .Alaska, in the interior from 
southern Nevada, southern .Arizona, northern New Mexico, northern Texas, and 
the lower Mississippi and Ohio valleys, and on the Atlantic coast from New 
England south through the southern United States. Middle America and the West 
Indies to Panama (east to Canal Zone and eastern Panama province) and Grenada. 

Casual in northern, western and southern .Alaska, and in the Hawaiian Islands. 
Bermuda. Venezuela (also Margarita Island and Trinidad). Iceland. Europe and 
the .Azores. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 85 

Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus). Tufted Duck. [149.1.] 

Anas Fuligula Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 128. (in Europas 
maritimis = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, ponds, lakes, swamps, bays and estuaries, breeding pri- 
marily near marshy ponds and small lakes, wintering mostly in marine and brack- 
ish areas, less commonly in fresh-water. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Bear Island (probably) 
and Scandinavia east to Ussuriland, Sakhalin and the Commander Islands, and 
south to central Europe, the Mediterranean Sea (rarely), Syria, Transcaucasia, 
northern Mongolia and Japan. 

Winters from Iceland, the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and Japan south 
to northern Africa, Arabia, India, the Malay Peninsula, eastern China and the 
Philippines. 

In migration ranges regularly to the western and central Aleutians, casually 
north to the Pribilofs, St. Lawrence Island and Barrow, and east in southern Alaska 
to Unalaska and Kodiak islands, and to Cordova. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands; elsewhere along the Pacific coast of North 
America from southern British Columbia south to southern California; on the 
Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to New Jersey and inland to Lake Michigan, 
southern Ontario, southern Quebec and central New York; and in Greenland, 
Spitsbergen, the eastern Atlantic islands, Seychelles, the Greater Sunda Islands 
and Micronesia. 

Aythya marila (Linnaeus). Greater Scaup. [148.] 

Anas Marila Linnaeus, 1861, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2, p. 39. (in Lapponica = 
Lapland.) 

Habitat.— Large lakes, rivers, bays and estuaries, breeding near small ponds 
and lakes primarily in forested tundra and northern borders of the taiga, frequently 
in open tundra and moors, and wintering mostly in open marine or brackish 
situations, less commonly on open inland fresh water. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western Alaska (Kotzebue Sound 
south locally to the Aleutians, Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island) east across 
northern Yukon, northwestern, north-central and southern Mackenzie, southern 
Keewatin, around Hudson and James bays, and northern Quebec (possibly also 
Labrador), casually or irregularly south to southeastern Alaska (Copper-Bering 
River deltas), northwestern British Columbia, central Manitoba, southeastern 
Michigan (St. Clair Flats), Anticosti and Magdalen islands, and Newfoundland 
(other southern reports open to question); and in Eurasia from Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands (formerly) and Scandinavia east across Arctic Russia to eastern Siberia, 
Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. 

Winters in North America along the Pacific coast from the Aleutians and south- 
eastern Alaska south to Baja California, in the eastern Great Lakes, from the Ohio 
and lower Mississippi valleys south to the Gulf coast (southern Texas east to 
Florida), and on the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland south to Florida; and in 
Eurasia from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and the Baltic and North 
seas south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas, the Persian Gulf and 
northwestern India, and on the Pacific coast from Sakhalin and Japan south to 
Korea and eastern China, rarely to Formosa and the Philippines. 



86 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands, throughout most of interior North America. 
in Sinaloa, the Bahamas (New Providence). Greenland. Jan Mayen and Bear 
Island, and south to the Azores and northern Africa; a sight report from Costa 
Rica requires confirmation. 

Notes. — Known in Old World literature as the Scaup. The extent of overlap in 
breeding range of the closely related A. mania and A. affinis may not adequately 
reflect their actual sympatry. as they are easily confused in the field. 

Aythya affinis (Eyton). Lesser Scaup. [149.] 

Fuligula affinis Eyton. 1838. Monogr. Anatidae. p. 157. (North America.) 

Habitat. — Lakes, rivers, bays, estuaries and marshes, breeding mostly near grass- 
margined ponds and small lakes, sometimes in grassy areas away from water, 
wintering in both fresh-water and marine situations, generally in sheltered areas. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Alaska, central Yukon, northwestern and 
southern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba and western Ontario south to southern 
interior British Columbia, northern Idaho, northern Wyoming, northern North 
Dakota, and northwestern and (formerly) central Minnesota, casually or irregularly 
east to southern Ontario and west-central Quebec, and south to western Wash- 
ington (Everett), northeastern California, southern Idaho, northeastern Colorado, 
central Nebraska, eastern Iowa, northern Illinois and northern Ohio. 

Winters in the Hawaiian Islands and southern Alaska (rare at Kodiak and 
Cordova), and from southern British Columbia, southern Idaho. Utah, north- 
eastern Colorado. Kansas. Iowa, the southern Great Lakes region and New England 
south throughout the southern United States. Middle America and the West Indies 
(uncommon in Lesser .Antilles) to northern Colombia, northern Venezuela, Tobago 
and Trinidad. 

In migration occurs regularly east to New Brunswick. Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland. 

Casual in Bermuda, western Ecuador and Greenland, also a sight report for 
Surinam. 

Tribe MERGINI: Eiders. Scoters. Mergansers and Allies 

Genus SOMATERIA Leach 

Somateria Leach. 1819. in Ross. Voy. Discovery, app.. p. xlviii. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas spectabilis Linnaeus. 

Eider Jarocki. 1819. Spis. Ptakow Gab. Zool. Krol. Warsz. Uniw., p. 62. 
Type, by monotypy. Anas mollissima "Gmelin" [= Linnaeus]. 

Lampronetta J. F. Brandt. 1847. Fuligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri Nov. 
Avium Rossicarum Spec. pp. 18. 19 and plate. Type, by monotypy. Fuli- 
gula (Lampronetta) fischeri Brandt. 

Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus). Common Eider. [159.] 

Anas mollissima Linnaeus. 1 758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 124. Based on "The 
Great Black and White Duck" Edwards. Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 98, pi. 98. 
(in Europa boreali. pelagica = Island of Gotland. Sweden.) 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 87 

Habitat.— Rocky seacoasts and islands, breeding on shores of ponds and lagoons 
with outlets to the sea, wintering primarily along seacoasts, and in bays or estuaries, 
occurring rarely on open fresh-water. 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from the Arctic coast of Alaska 
and Canada east to northeastern Mackenzie, on southern Banks and southern 
Victoria islands, and south (locally) in Alaska to the Aleutians, Alaska Peninsula 
and south-coastal Alaska (east probably to Glacier Bay); in eastern North America 
on southern Ellesmere, Cornwallis, Devon, Somerset and Baffin Islands, along 
coasts and on islands in Hudson and James Bays, and along coasts from northern 
Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland south to eastern Quebec (mouth of St. 
Lawrence River), New Hampshire, Maine and Nova Scotia; in the western Pale- 
arctic from Greenland (both coasts), Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Spitsbergen and 
Franz Josef Land south to the northern British Isles, northern Europe and southern 
Scandinavia; and in the eastern Palearctic from Wrangel Island, the New Siberian 
Islands and northeastern coast of Siberia south to Kamchatka and the Commander 
Islands. 

Winters in western North America from the Bering Sea ice pack south to the 
Aleutians and Cook Inlet, and on the Pacific coast south (rarely) to Washington 
and Oregon; in eastern North America in open water of Hudson and James bays, 
and from Labrador south along the Atlantic coast to New York (Long Island), 
casually south as far as Florida and inland to the Great Lakes; in the western 
Palearctic from the breeding range south to central Europe, casually to the Azores 
and southern Europe; and in eastern Eurasia south to Kamchatka. 

Casual in interior North America south to Colorado, Kansas and Iowa. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Eider. 

Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus). King Eider. [162.] 

Anas spectabilis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 123. Based mainly 
on "The Gray-headed Duck" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 154, pi. 154. 
(in Canada, Svecia = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts and large river valleys, breeding in the Arctic near fresh- 
water ponds and pools, usually in open tundra, rarely in rocky situations, and 
wintering primarily offshore along rocky coasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America along the Arctic coast and islands from 
northern Alaska east to Greenland, the west coast of Hudson Bay. James Bay and 
(probably) northern Labrador; and in Eurasia along the Arctic coast from northern 
Russia (including Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya) east to the Chukotski Pen- 
insula and St. Lawrence and St. Matthews islands. 

Winters in the Pacific region from Kamchatka and the Bering Sea south to the 
Kurile, Aleutian and Shumagin islands, rarely to the southern mainland coast of 
Alaska, casually as far south on the Pacific coast as southern California; in the 
Atlantic from Labrador and Greenland south to New England, less frequently to 
New York (Long Island) and New Jersey, and casually as far south as Florida; in 
the interior of North America uncommonly to the Great Lakes, casually to Kansas. 
Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and central South Carolina; and 
in western Eurasia to Iceland and the Scandinavian and northern Russian coasts. 

Casual in Alberta, the Faroe Islands, British Isles, Jan Mayen, Bear Island, 
continental Europe and Japan. 



88 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Somateria fischeri (Brandt). Spectacled Eider. [158.] 

Fuligula Fischeri J. F. Brandt. 1847. Fuligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri 
Nov. Avium Rossicarum Spec. p. 18. pi. 1. (St Michael. Alaska.; 

Habitat. — Ponds, lakes and open sea. breeding around sedgy or grassy ponds, 
lakes, deltas and tidal inlets, and wintering in marine situations near coasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds on the Arctic coast of Alaska from Point Barrow south 
to St. Lawrence Island and the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, and along the 
Arctic coast of Siberia from the Yana Delta east to the Chukotski Peninsula. 

Winters probably offshore in the western Bering Sea: recorded irregularly m 
coastal Alaska, and south casually to southern British Columbia ("Vancouver Island). 

Accidental in Norway: the origin of the individual supposedly taken at Bitter- 
water Lake. San Benito County. California, in 1893 is questionable. 

Genus POLYSTICTA Eyton 

Polysticta Eyton. 1836. Cat. Br. Birds, p. 58. Type, by monotypy. Anas stelleri 
Pallas. 

Polysticta stelleri (Pallas). Steller's Eider. [157.] 

Anas Stelleri Pallas. 1 7 69. Spic. Zool.. 1. fasc. 6. p. 35. pi. v. (E. Kam- 
tschatka = Kamchatka.) 

Habitat. — Arctic ponds, lakes and seacoasts. breeding in grassy edges of tundra 
ponds and lakes, occasionally on barren rocky tundra, wintering in shallow marine 
habitats around bays, reefs, lagoons and inlets. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America along the Arctic coast of Alaska from 
Point Barrow eastward, and south to St. Lawrence Island and Hooper Bay; and 
in Eurasia along the Arctic coast of Siberia from the New Siberian Islands and 
Lena Delta (casually Scandinavia and Novaya Zemlya) east to the Chukotski 
Peninsula. Recorded in summer (and possibly breeding) in northern Yukon and 
northwestern Mackenzie. 

Winters in North America in the Pribilof and Aleutian islands, and east along 
the southern coast of Alaska to Cook Inlet (rarely to Prince William Sound), 
casually along the Pacific coast to southern British Columbia (Vancouver Island); 
and in Eurasia from Scandinavia and northern Siberia south to the Baltic Sea. 
southern Kamchatka, and the Commander and Kurile islands. 

Casual or accidental in Quebec (Godbout). Maine (Scarborough). Massachusetts 
(off Scituate). Baffin Island. Greenland, the British Isles. Spitsbergen and conti- 
nental Europe. 

Genus CAMPTORHYNCHUS Bonaparte 

Camptorhynchus "Eyton"' Bonaparte. 1838. Geogr. Comp. List. p. 58. Type, 
by monotypy. Anas labradoria Gmelin. 

^Camptorhynchus labradorius (Gmelin). Labrador Duck. [156.] 

Anas labradoria Gmelin. 1789. Syst. Nat.. 1 (2), p. 537. Based on "The Pied 
Duck" Pennant. Arct. Zool.. 2. p. 559. and Edwards. Nat. Hist. Birds. 2. 
p. 99. pi. 99. (in America boreali = Labrador.) 

Habitat. — Breeding unknown: winter habitat included sandy bays and estuaries. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 89 

Distribution. — EXTINCT. Alleged to have bred in Labrador. Recorded along 
the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick south to New York 
(Long Island) and New Jersey (also one report from Chesapeake Bay); and inland 
in Quebec (Laprairie near Montreal) and New York (Elmira), where the last known 
individual was allegedly taken on 12 December 1878. 

Genus HISTRIONICUS Lesson 

Histrionicus Lesson, 1828, Man. Ornithol., 2, p. 415. Type, by original des- 
ignation, Anas histrionica Linnaeus. 

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus). Harlequin Duck. [155.] 

Anas histrionica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 127. Based on "The 
Dusky and Spotted Duck" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 99, pi. 99. (in 
America = Newfoundland.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, shallow fast-flowing water and rocky islets, breeding along 
mountain streams in forested regions, in rocky coastal areas, and occasionally on 
open tundra, wintering primarily in turbulent coastal waters, especially in rocky 
regions. 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from western Alaska, northern 
Yukon, northern British Columbia and southern Alberta south to the Alaska 
Peninsula, southeastern Alaska, Vancouver Island, eastern Oregon (also in the 
Sierra Nevada of California), central Idaho, western Wyoming and (formerly) 
southwestern Colorado; in eastern North America from southern Baffin Island 
south to central and eastern Quebec and eastern Labrador, possibly also northern 
New Brunswick and Newfoundland; and in the Palearctic in Greenland and Ice- 
land, and from the Lena River in Siberia east to Kamchatka, and south to northern 
Mongolia and the Kurile Islands. 

Winters along the Pacific coast of North America from the Pribilof and Aleutian 
islands south to central (rarely southern) California; on the Atlantic coast from 
southern Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia south to New York (Long 
Island), less commonly to the Great Lakes, casually farther inland south to north- 
ern New Mexico, Nebraska, Missouri, Kentucky and West Virginia, on the Atlantic 
coast to Florida, and on the Gulf coast from western Florida to Texas; and in 
eastern Eurasia from Manchuria and Kamchatka south to Korea and southern 
Japan. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway, Laysan), western Mac- 
kenzie, southern Canada (Alberta east to Manitoba), Sonora (Puerto Penasco), 
and widely through Europe. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Harlequin. 

Genus CLANGULA Leach 

Clangula Leach, 1819, in Ross, Voy. Discovery, app.. p. xlviii. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas glacialis Linnaeus = Anas hyemalis Linnaeus. 

Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus). Oldsquaw. [154.] 

Anas hyemalis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 11, p. 126. Based mainly 
on "The Long-tailed Duck from Hudson's-Bay" Edwards. Nat. Hist. Birds. 
3, p. 156, pi. 156. (in Europa & America arctica = northern Sweden.) 



90 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Mostly around shallow fresh- water lakes, primarily in taiga but also 
in tundra and along coasts and fjords (breeding); primarily open sea along coastal 
areas and large inland lakes, less commonly along rivers and on smaller lakes 
(nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from the Arctic coast of Alaska east 
across northern Canada and throughout the Arctic islands to Ellesmere and Baffin 
islands and northern Labrador, south to southern and central Alaska and north- 
western British Columbia, and from eastern and south-central Mackenzie and 
most of Keewatin south around Hudson and James bays; and in the Palearctic 
from Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen and Scandinavia east across Arctic Russia 
to the Chukotski Peninsula, Anadyrland, Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. 

Winters along the Pacific coast of North America from the Bering Sea south to 
central (rarely southern) California; along the Atlantic coast from Greenland and 
Labrador south to South Carolina; in the interior of North America on the Great 
Lakes; in Europe from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Scandinavia and western Russia 
south to central Europe and the Black Sea, casually to southern Europe, Madeira 
and the Azores; and in Asia from Caucasia to Iran, Lake Baikal, Korea, eastern 
China and Japan. 

Casual throughout the interior of North America from southern Canada south 
to southern Arizona, New Mexico, southern Texas, the Gulf coast, and the Atlantic 
coast to southern Florida. Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway) and 
northwestern Sinaloa (near Guamuchil), also sight reports for Baja California and 
Sonora. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Long-tailed Duck. 

Genus MELANITTA Boie 

Melanitta Boie, 1822 (before May), Isis von Oken, col. 564. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (Eyton, 1838), Anas fusca Linnaeus. 

Oidemia Fleming, 1822 (May), Philos. Zool., 2, p. 260. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Anas nigra Linnaeus. 

Pelionetta Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 107. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas perspicillata Linnaeus. 

Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus). Black Scoter. [163.] 

Anas nigra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 123. (in Lapponia, Anglia = 
Lapland and England.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water lakes and pools on grassy or bushy tundra and in the 
northern taiga (breeding); mostly coastal waters, less commonly on large inland 
lakes and rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in Alaska (from Cape Lisburne and 
the Alaska Range south to the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island) and scattered 
localities in central and eastern Canada (southern Keewatin, northern Quebec and 
Newfoundland); and in Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles, Spitsbergen and 
Scandinavia east across northern Russia and Siberia to Anadyrland, Sakhalin and 
Kamchatka. Summers widely (and possibly breeds) from southern Yukon and 
southern Mackenzie east to Labrador and Newfoundland. 

Winters in North America primarily on the Pacific coast from the Pribilof and 
Aleutian islands south to southern California and (rarely) northern Baja California, 
on the Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland south to South 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 9 1 

Carolina and Florida; and in Eurasia from the breeding regions south to the 
Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas (casually to Greenland, northern Africa 
and the eastern Atlantic islands), Korea, eastern China and Japan. 

Casual throughout the interior of North America south to Arizona, New Mexico, 
Texas and the Gulf coast (from southern Texas east to Florida). 

Notes.— Also known as Common Scoter. 

Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus). Surf Scoter. [166.] 

Anas perspicillata Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 125. Based on 
"The Great Black Duck from Hudson's-Bay" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 
2, p. 155, pi. 155. (in Canada = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Brushy or forested areas near bogs, ponds or sluggish streams (breed- 
ing); primarily marine littoral areas, less frequently in bays or on fresh-water lakes 
and rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Mackenzie River delta east across central Mac- 
kenzie and northern Manitoba to Hudson Bay in northern Ontario and west- 
central Quebec, and south to western (from Kotzebue Sound to the Alaska Pen- 
insula) and central Alaska, southern Yukon, central British Columbia, central 
Alberta and northern Saskatchewan; also in eastern Quebec and Labrador. Sum- 
mers widely in northern Alaska, and across northern Canada from southern Kee- 
watin east to Newfoundland. 

Winters primarily along the Pacific coast from the eastern Aleutian Islands and 
southeastern Alaska south to central Baja California and Sonora, on the Great 
Lakes, on the Atlantic coast from the Bay of Fundy south to Florida, and rarely 
(but regularly) to the Gulf coast (Texas east to Florida). 

Casual throughout the interior of North America south to Arizona, New Mexico, 
Texas and the Gulf states, and in Bermuda, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, British 
Isles, continental Europe and eastern Siberia. Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands 
(Oahu) and Japan. 



Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus). White-winged Scoter. [165.] 

Anasfusca Linnaeus, 1 758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 123. (in oceano Europaeo = 
Swedish coast.) 

Habitat.— Ponds, lakes and sluggish streams, primarily in open tundra or prairie 
with dense ground cover, less frequently in mixed tundra-taiga (breeding); mostly 
open sea and brackish waters along coasts, less frequently on open fresh water in 
inland areas (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds [deglandi group] in North America from northern Alaska, 
northern Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin and 
northern Manitoba south to central Alaska, southern Yukon, south-central British 
Columbia, northeastern Washington, southeastern Alberta, southern Saskatche- 
wan, northern North Dakota, southern Manitoba and northern Ontario, occurring 
in summer (and possibly breeding) to northeastern Mackenzie and from Hudson 
Bay east to Labrador and Newfoundland, and in Asia from central and eastern 
Siberia south to Lake Baikal, Amurland, Sakhalin and Kamchatka; and [fusca 
group] in Eurasia from Spitsbergen (formerly) and Scandinavia east across north- 
ern Russia to central Siberia, and south to west-central Russia. 



92 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters [deglandi group] in North -America primarily on the Pacific coast from 
the Aleutians and .Alaska Peninsula south to northern Baja California, on the 
Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and New- 
foundland south to South Carolina (rarely to Florida), and in Asia from Kamchatka 
south to Korea, eastern China and Japan: and [fuse a group] in Eurasia from the 
breeding grounds south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas. 

Casual [deglandi group] on Melville Island, through the interior to North Amer- 
ica south to Arizona. New Mexico, southern Texas and the Gulf coast feast to 
Florida), and in Greenland: and [fusca group] in Greenland. Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands. Bear Island, the Azores, northern Africa and Afghanistan. 

Notes.— Some authors regard the two groups as separate species. M. fusca [Velvet 
Scoter] and M. deglandi (Bonaparte. 1850) [White-winged Scoter], the latter 
also including the eastern Asiatic form M. f. siejnegeri (Ridgway. 188"). whose 
relationships appear to be with deglandi but whose status is uncertain. 

Genus BUCEPHALA Baird 

Bucephala Baird. 1858, in Baird. Cassin and Lawrence. Rep. Explor. Sun.". 

R. R. Pac, 9. pp. xxin. L, 787, 788, 795. Type, by original designation. 

Anas albeola Linnaeus. 
Glaucionetta Stejneger. 1885. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus.. 8. p. 409. Type, by 

original designation. Anas clangula Linnaeus. 
Clanganas Oberholser. 1974, Bird Life Texas. 2. p. 9~4. Type, by original 

designation. Anas islandica Gmelin. 

Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus). Common Goldeneye. [151.] 

Anas Clangula Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 125. On Europa; 
ssepius maritima = Sweden.) 

Habitat. — Ponds, lakes, rivers and coastal bays, nesting in hollow trees and 
stubs near water, and in bird boxes, wintering primarily in bays and estuaries, 
less commonly on rivers and lakes. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western Alaska (Kctzebue Sound). 
northern Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, southwestern Keewatm. 
northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec, central Labrador and 
Newfoundland south to central Alaska, southern British Columbia, nonhern 
Washington, central Montana, southern Saskatchewan (absent from grassland 
region of .Alberta and most of Saskatchewan), northern North Dakota, northern 
Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, northern 
New York, northern Yermont, Maine, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: and in 
Eurasia from Scandinavia east across Russia and Siberia to Kamchatka, and south 
to northern Europe. Lake Baikal. Manchuria and Sakhalin. 

Winters in North America primarily on the Pacific coast from the Aleutians 
and southeastern .Alaska south to southern California (casually to northern Baja 
California. Sinaloa and Durango). on the Great Lakes, in the interior in the 
Mississippi and Ohio valleys and south to the Gulf coast (southern Texas east to 
western Florida), and on the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia 
south to Florida, also irregularly elsewhere in the interior of the United States 
south to Arizona. New Mexico and western Texas: and in Eurasia from the breed- 
ing range south to the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey, Iran, southeastern China and 
Japan. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 93 

Casual in Bermuda, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Azores and northern Africa. 
Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Goldeneye. 

Bucephala islandica (Gmelin). Barrow's Goldeneye. [152.] 

Anas islandica Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 541. Based on "Hravn 
Oend" O. F. Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prodromus, p. 16. (in Islandia = Iceland.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds, rivers and seacoasts, breeding in tree cavities (occa- 
sionally on the ground) generally near lakes and ponds having borders of dense 
emergent vegetation, wintering mostly on lakes and rivers, and in coastal estuaries 
and bays, especially where rocky. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central and southwestern Alaska (base of the Alaska 
Peninsula), southern Yukon, western Mackenzie (probably), northern British 
Columbia and southwestern Alberta south to south-coastal and southeastern Alaska, 
southern British Columbia and northern Washington, locally at higher elevations 
to the Sierra Nevada of eastern California (at least formerly), eastern Oregon, 
northern Montana, northwestern Wyoming and (formerly) southwestern Colo- 
rado; in northeastern Quebec and northern Labrador; and in southwestern Green- 
land and Iceland. 

Winters primarily along the Pacific coast from south-coastal and southeastern 
Alaska (west to Kodiak Island) south to central (casually southern) California; in 
the interior of western North America locally from southern British Columbia 
and northern Montana to the Colorado River Valley of southeastern California 
and southwestern Arizona, and to Utah and Colorado; and in the Atlantic region 
(primarily coastal) from the upper St. Lawrence drainage, Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and Nova Scotia south to New York (Long Island), rarely to South Carolina. 

Casual in the Aleutian and Pribilof islands, to the eastern shore of Hudson Bay 
and Newfoundland, in the interior of North America from southern Canada south 
to southern New Mexico, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Tennessee and western North 
Carolina; also in the Faroe Islands, British Isles, Spitsbergen and continental 
Europe. 

Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus). Bufflehead. [153.] 

Anas Albeola Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 124. Based on the 
"Little Black and White Duck" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, p. 100, pi. 100. 
(in America = Newfoundland.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds, rivers and seacoasts, breeding in tree cavities in mixed 
coniferous-deciduous woodland near lakes and ponds, wintering on sheltered bays 
and estuaries as well as open fresh-water situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Alaska, southern Yukon, western and south- 
ern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba and northern Ontario 
south to southern British Columbia, northern Washington, northern Montana, 
southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba and (locally) south- 
ern Ontario; also locally (or formerly) south to the mountains of Oregon and 
northern California, and to northwestern Wyoming, northern Iowa and south- 
eastern Wisconsin. 

Winters from the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula on the Pacific coast, 
the Great Lakes in the interior, and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfound- 
land on the Atlantic, south in coastal states and the Ohio and Mississippi valleys 



94 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

(irregularly elsewhere in the interior) to the southern United States, northern Baja 
California, the interior of Mexico (to Jalisco, the state of Mexico, Distrito Federal 
and Tamaulipas), the Gulf coast and Florida, casually to the Greater Antilles 
(Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico) and the Hawaiian Islands. 

Casual in the Yucatan Peninsula, Bermuda, Greenland, Iceland, the British 
Isles, continental Europe, Japan, and the Kurile and Commander islands. 

Genus MERGELLUS Selby 

Mergellus Selby, 1840, Cat. Generic Sub-Generic Types Aves, p. 47. Type, 
by monotypy, Mergus albellus Linnaeus. 

Notes.— Mergellus and Lophodytes are sometimes merged in Mergus. 

Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus). Smew. [131.1.] 

Mergus albellus Linneaus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 129. (in Europa = 
Mediterranean, near Izmir, Turkey.) 

Habitat.— Lakes, ponds, bays and rivers, breeding in the taiga in cavities in 
trees (rarely on the ground) near water, wintering on lakes, sheltered bays and 
rivers. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Scandinavia east through northern Russia and Sibe- 
ria to Kamchatka, south to southern Russia, Amurland, the Sea of Okhotsk and 
northern Sakhalin. 

Winters from Iceland, the British Isles, Scandinavia, Russia and Kamchatka 
south to northwestern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf, eastern China, 
Korea and Japan. 

In migration (and casually at other seasons) ranges rarely but regularly to the 
Aleutian Islands (Attu east to Adak), casually north to the Pribilofs (St. Paul and 
St. George islands) and east to Kodiak Island and the coast of British Columbia 
(Vancouver Island), also a sight report from Washington. 

Casual or accidental in California (San Mateo), southern Ontario, New York 
(Buffalo), Rhode Island (Newport), Iceland, northern Africa and Burma; some of 
the eastern North American reports may pertain to escaped individuals. 

Genus LOPHODYTES Reichf >ach 

Lophodytes Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. ix. Type, by 
original designation, Mergus cucullatus Linnaeus. 

Notes.— See comments under Mergellus. 

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus). Hooded Merganser. [131.] 

Mergus cucullatus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 129. Based on 
"The round-crested Duck" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 94, pi. 94. 
(in America = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Streams, lakes, swamps, marshes and estuaries, breeding in tree cav- 
ities in forested regions near water, often near fast-flowing streams, wintering 
mostly in fresh-water areas but also regularly in estuaries and sheltered bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southeastern Alaska (north to the Taku and Chilkat 
rivers, casually to the Copper River delta), central British Columbia and south- 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 95 

western Alberta south to southwestern Oregon, central Idaho and northwestern 
Montana (casually to northern Colorado); and from central Saskatchewan, central 
Manitoba, central Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick and southern Nova 
Scotia south (primarily from the mountains of New England, New York and the 
Appalachians westward) through eastern North Dakota, central Iowa, southeastern 
Kansas and central Arkansas to northern Louisiana, central Mississippi, northern 
Alabama, northern Georgia and (rarely) central Florida. Occurs in summer (and 
probably breeds) north to southern Mackenzie, northern Ontario and northern 
Quebec. 

Winters along the Pacific coast in south-coastal Alaska (rarely, Prince William 
Sound), and from southern British Columbia south to northern Baja California, 
on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from New England south to Florida and west to 
Texas and Tamaulipas, irregularly in the interior from southern Canada south to 
the Mexican border, casually farther (recorded Distrito Federal and Veracruz), 
and in the northern Bahamas and Greater Antilles (recorded regularly in Cuba, 
casually in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). 

In migration occurs casually in southwestern Alaska (including the Aleutian 
and Pribilof islands) and Newfoundland. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Hawaii), Bermuda, Mar- 
tinique, the British Isles and continental Europe. 

Genus MERGUS Linnaeus 

Mergus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 129. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Eyton, 1838), Mergus castor Linnaeus = Mergus serrator Lin- 
naeus. 

Notes.— See comments under Mergellus. 

Mergus merganser Linnaeus. Common Merganser. [129.] 

Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 129. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Mostly lakes and rivers, nesting in tree cavities, nest boxes or cliff 
crevices, generally near clear waters in forested regions and mountainous terrain, 
wintering primarily on open lakes and rivers or brackish lagoons, rarely in marine 
coastal situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from central and south-coastal Alaska 
(west to the lower Kuskokwim River and Kodiak Island), southern Yukon, south- 
ern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, 
central Quebec, central Labrador and Newfoundland south to the mountains of 
central California, central Nevada, central Arizona, and southwestern and north- 
ern New Mexico (also once in northern Chihuahua), and east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains south to southern Saskatchewan, southwestern South Dakota (at least for- 
merly), northeastern Minnesota, central Wisconsin, central Michigan, southern 
Ontario, New York, eastern Pennsylvania (probably), northwestern New Jersey, 
central Massachusetts, southern Maine and west-central Nova Scotia, locally and 
casually farther south (recorded breeding in Virginia and North Carolina); and in 
Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles and Scandinavia east across Russia and 
Siberia to Anadyrland and Kamchatka, and south to northern Europe, central 
Russia, the northern Himalayas, northern Mongolia, Ussuriland and Sakhalin. 



96 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Recorded in summer (and probably breeding) north to central Mackenzie, southern 
Keewatin and northern Quebec. 

Winters in North America from the Aleutian Islands, central (rarely) and south- 
coastal Alaska, and British Columbia east across southern Canada to Newfound- 
land, and south to southern California, northern Baja California (rarely), northern 
Mexico (Sonora east to Tamaulipas, casually to Jalisco, Guanajuato and Distrito 
Federal) and the Gulf coast from southern Texas east to central Florida; and in 
Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles, Scandinavia. Japan and the Kurile Islands 
south to the northern Mediterranean region. Black Sea, Iran, northern India and 
eastern China. 

Casual or accidental in the Pribilof Islands. Bermuda. Greenland, the Faroe 
Islands, Spitbergen, Bear Island, northwestern Africa, Formosa and the Ryukyu 
Islands; a report from Puerto Rico is erroneous. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Goosander. 

Mergus serrator Linnaeus. Red-breasted Merganser. [130.] 

Mergus Serrator Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1. p. 129. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Rivers, ponds, lakes and coastal areas, breeding along inland waters. 
generally on small islands with low shrubby growth, wintering mainly in estuaries 
and sheltered bays, less frequently on inland fresh waters. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northern Mackenzie, central Keewatin. northern Baffin Island. Labrador and New- 
foundland south to the Aleutian Islands, southern and southeastern Alaska, north- 
ern British Columbia, northern Alberta, southwestern and central Saskatchewan, 
southern Manitoba, central Minnesota, central Wisconsin, central Michigan, 
southern Ontario, northern New York, southern Quebec, northern Vermont, Maine. 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, casually south along the Atlantic coast to New 
York (Long Island); and in the Palearctic from Greenland. Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands. British Isles. Scandinavia and northern Europe east across northern Russia 
and Siberia to Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. 

Winters in North America primarily along coasts and on large inland bodies of 
water from southern Alaska (west to the Aleutian Islands), the Great Lakes and 
Nova Scotia south to southern Baja California, southern Texas and the Gulf coast 
(east to Florida), casually also elsewhere in the interior from southern Canada 
south to northern Sonora, southern Arizona, northern Chihuahua and southern 
New Mexico; and in the Old World from Iceland, the Faroe Islands. British Isles, 
Scandinavia, Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands south to the Mediterranean. Black 
and Caspian seas, southern Russia, eastern China and Japan. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Molokai. Hawaii), Pribilofs, 
Bermuda, the Bahamas (Andros, New Providence), Cuba. Puerto Rico. Jan Mayen, 
Spitsbergen, the eastern Atlantic islands and northern Africa; a report from St. 
Croix, in the Virgin Islands, is erroneous. 

Tribe OXYURINI: Stiff-tailed Ducks 

Genus OXYURA Bonaparte 

Oxyura Bonaparte, 1828, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 2, p. 390. Type, by 
monotypy, Anas rubidus Wilson = Anas jamaicensis Gmelin. 



ORDER ANSERIFORMES 97 

Nomonyx Ridgway, 1880, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 3, p. 15. Type, by original 
designation, Anas dominica Linnaeus. 

Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin). Ruddy Duck. [167.] 

Anasjamaicensis Gmelin, 1 789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 5 1 9. Based on the "Jamaica 
Shoveler" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 513. (in Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, lakes and coastal areas, breeding mostly on fresh- water 
marshes with dense emergent vegetation, wintering on sheltered brackish and 
marine coastal areas as well as lakes and rivers (Temperate Zone). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in east-central Alaska (casually), and 
from central and northeastern British Columbia, southwestern Mackenzie, north- 
ern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba and western Ontario south 
to southern California, central Arizona, southern New Mexico, western and south- 
ern Texas, and southwestern Louisiana, with scattered, sporadic or former breed- 
ing from southern Ontario, southern Quebec and Nova Scotia south to northern 
Iowa, southwestern Illinois, northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Delaware, South 
Carolina and northern Florida, also in Mexico in southern Baja California and 
the valley of Mexico (and once at Duenas, Guatemala); in the West Indies in the 
Bahamas (New Providence), throughout the Greater Antilles, and in the Lesser 
Antilles south to Grenada; and in South America in the Andes from Colombia 
south to western Argentina and southern Chile. 

Winters in North America from southern British Columbia, Idaho, Colorado, 
Kansas, the Great Lakes and on the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts south 
throughout the southern United States and most of Mexico to Honduras (also a 
sight record from Nicaragua and a doubtful record from Costa Rica), and through- 
out the Bahamas; and in the Antilles and South America generally resident within 
the breeding range. 

In migration occurs rarely east to the Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 

Introduced and established in England. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Hawaii), southeastern Alaska, southern 
Yukon and Bermuda. 



Oxyura dominica (Linnaeus). Masked Duck. [168.] 

Anas dominica Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 201. Based mainly 
on "La Sarcelle de S. Domingue" Brisson, Ornithologie, 6, p. 472, pi. 41, 
fig. 2. (in America meridionali = Santo Domingo, Hispaniola.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water and brackish pools, ponds, lagoons, swamps and sluggish 
streams, generally with dense aquatic vegetation (primarily Tropical Zone, ranging 
locally to Temperate Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally from Nayarit, the Gulf coast of Texas and the 
Greater Antilles (including Grand Cayman) south through Middle America (both 
slopes, but not recorded Nicaragua) and the Lesser Antilles, and in South America 
from Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the 
Andes, to southeastern Peru, southern Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Casual inland in central Texas, and in southern Louisiana, Florida, the Bahamas 
and Tobago. Accidental in Wisconsin, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland and 
Tennessee. 



98 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Order FALCONIFORMES: Diurnal Birds of Prey 

Notes.— That the diurnal birds of prey form a natural group has been questioned. 
The Cathartidae share several characters with the Ciconiidae (Ligon, 1967, Univ. 
Mich. Mus. Zool., Occas. Pap., no. 651). Other authors consider the Accipitridae 
and Falconidae to be convergent. With a few exceptions, we follow the arrangement 
of Amadon (in Peters, 1979, Birds World, 1, ed. 2). 

Suborder CATHARTAE: American Vultures 

Superfamily CATHARTOIDEA: American Vultures 

Family CATHARTIDAE: American Vultures 

Genus CORAGYPS Geoffroy 

Coragyps Geoffroy, 1853, in Le Maout, Hist. Nat. Ois., p. 66. Type, by 
monotypy, Vultur urubu Vieillot = Vultur at rat us Bechstein. 

Coragyps atratus (Bechstein). Black Vulture. [326.] 

Vultur atratus Bechstein, 1793, in Latham, Allg. Uebers. Vogel, 1, Ann., p. 
655. Based on "The black vulture or carrion crow" Bartram, Travels Car- 
olina, pp. 152, 289. (St. John's River, Florida.) 

Habitat.— Nearly ubiquitous except in heavily forested regions, more commonly 
in lowland than highland habitats (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Arizona, Chihuahua, western Texas, 
eastern Oklahoma, eastern Kansas (formerly), Missouri, southern Illinois, south- 
ern Indiana, central Ohio, south-central Pennsylvania and New Jersey south to 
the Gulf coast and southern Florida, and throughout Middle America and South 
America (also Trinidad and Margarita Island, off Venezuela) to central Chile and 
central Argentina. Recorded in summer (and possibly breeding) north to New 
Jersey, New York (Long Island) and southern Maine. 

Wanders casually north to Colorado, North Dakota, Wisconsin, southern Ontario, 
southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia; also 
questionably recorded (sight reports only) from southern California and the Antilles 
(Cuba, Jamaica, Barbados, Grenada). Some populations appear to be partly migra- 
tory, especially the northernmost ones in the eastern United States and those in 
Middle America. 

Genus CATHARTES Illiger 

Cathartes linger ,1811, Prodromus, p. 236. Type, by subsequent designation 
(Vigors, 1825), Vultur aura Linnaeus. 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus). Turkey Vulture. [325.] 

Vultur aura Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 86. Based mainly on the 
"Tzopilotle s. Aura" Hernandez, Nova Plant Anim. Min. Mex. Hist., p. 
331. (in America calidiore = state of Veracruz.) 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 99 

Habitat.— Forested and open situations, more commonly in the latter, from 
lowlands to mountains (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern British Columbia, central Alberta, central 
Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, western Ontario, northern Minnesota, south- 
ern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, extreme southern Ontario, New York, south- 
ern Vermont, southwestern New Hampshire and Massachusetts south throughout 
the remaining continental United States, Middle America and South America 
(also Trinidad and Margarita Island, off Venezuela) to the Straits of Magellan; 
also in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, the Isle of Pines and Jamaica). Recorded in 
summer (and possibly breeding) north to northern Manitoba, east-central Ontario, 
southern Quebec, northern Vermont and Maine. 

Winters mainly from northern California, Arizona, Chihuahua, Texas, the Great 
Plains (north to Nebraska), Ohio Valley and Maryland (casually north to southern 
Canada) south to the Gulf coast, Florida and the northern Bahamas (casually to 
Bimini and New Providence), and through the breeding range in Middle America, 
the Greater Antilles and South America. 

Introduced and established in Puerto Rico. 

Casual north to east-central Alaska, northern Ontario, central Quebec, Labrador 
and Newfoundland, and on Bermuda, Hispaniola, St. Croix (in the Virgin Islands) 
and the Cayman Islands. 

Cathartes burrovianus Cassin. Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture. 

Cathartes Burrovianus Cassin, 1845, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 2, 
p. 212. (in the vicinity of Vera Cruz = near Veracruz Llave, Veracruz.) 

Habitat.— Lowland savanna, grasslands, marshy areas and open woodland 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in eastern and southern Mexico (southern 
Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, northern Chiapas, the Yucatan Peninsula, and 
on both slopes of Oaxaca), Belize, eastern Honduras (Mosquitia), northeastern 
Nicaragua (Puerto Cabezas) and Costa Rica (Rio Frio region, recorded rarely 
elsewhere), and from Panama (both slopes) south through most of South America 
east of the Andes to northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Genus GYMNOGYPS Lesson 

Gymnogyps Lesson, 1842, Echo Monde Savant, ser. 2, 6, col. 1037. Type, by 
monotypy, Vultur californianus Shaw. 

Gymnogyps californianus (Shaw). California Condor. [324.] 

Vultur californianus Shaw, 1798, in Shaw and Nodder, Naturalists' Misc., 9, 
pi. 301 and text, (coast of California = San Francisco or Monterey.) 

Habitat.— Mountainous country at low and moderate elevations, especially rocky 
and brushy areas with cliffs available for nest sites, foraging also in grasslands, 
oak savanna, mountain plateaus, ridges and canyons. 

Distribution.— Resident at present in very small numbers in the coastal ranges 
of California from Monterey and San Benito counties south to Ventura County, 
ranging, at least casually, north to Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, and east 



1 00 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

to the western slope of the Sierra Nevada (north as far as Fresno County) and the 
Tehachapi Mountains, with breeding sites apparently confined to Los Padres 
National Forest in Santa Barbara, Ventura and extreme northern Los Angeles 
counties. Formerly resident along the Pacific coast and in part inland west of the 
Cascade-Sierra Nevada ranges, apparently from southern British Columbia south 
to northern Baja California (although there are no confirmed breeding records 
outside of California). Recent reports of condors east to southwestern Utah and 
southeastern Arizona, as well as within or around the former range in Baja Cal- 
ifornia, seem to be without foundation. 

Genus SARCORAMPHUS Dumeril 

Sarcoramphus Dumeril, 1806, Zool. Anal., p. 32. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (Vigors, 1825), Vultur papa Linnaeus. 

Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus). King Vulture. 

Vultur Papa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 86. Based on "The 
Warwovwen, or Indian Vulture" Albin, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 4, pi. 4, and 
"The King of the Vultures" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 1 , p. 2, pi. 2. (in 
India occidentali, error = Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Primarily lowland forested regions, locally from densely forested sit- 
uations to open country in moist to arid habitats (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa, Puebla and Veracruz south through Mid- 
dle America and South America, mostly east of the Andes, to northern Argentina 
and Uruguay. Former reports from Florida (St. Johns River) probably pertain to 
Polyborus plancus. 

Casual in Trinidad. 

Suborder ACCIPITRES: Secretarybirds, Kites, Eagles, 
Hawks and Allies 

Superfamily ACCIPITROIDEA: Kites, Eagles, Hawks and Allies 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE: Kites, Eagles, Hawks and Allies 

Subfamily PANDIONINAE: Ospreys 

Notes.— Sometimes regarded as a family, the Pandionidae. 

Genus PANDION Savigny 

Pandion Savigny, 1809, Descr. Egypte, 1, pp. 69, 95. Type, by monotypy, 
Pandion fluvialis Savigny = Falco haliaetus Linnaeus. 

Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus). Osprey. [364.] 

Falco Halicetus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 91. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Primarily along rivers, lakes and seacoasts, occurring widely in migra- 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 101 

tion, often crossing land areas between bodies of water (Tropical and Temperate 
zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northwestern Alaska, northern 
Yukon, western and southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Man- 
itoba, northern Ontario, central Quebec, central Labrador and Newfoundland 
south locally to Baja California (both coasts), the Tres Marias Islands (off Nayarit), 
Sinaloa, central Arizona, southwestern and central New Mexico, southern Texas, 
the Gulf coast and southern Florida, and in the Bahamas, on small cays off Cuba, 
in the Virgin Islands, and along the coasts and on islands off the Yucatan Peninsula 
and Belize; and in the Old World from the British Isles, Scandinavia, northern 
Russia and northern Siberia south, at least locally, through much of Eurasia and 
most of Africa and Australia to South Africa, the Himalayas, Tasmania, New 
Caledonia and the Solomon Islands. 

Winters in the Americas from central California, southern Texas, the Gulf coast, 
Florida and Bermuda south through Middle America (including Cocos Island off 
Costa Rica, and in the Revillagigedos), the West Indies and South America (also 
the Galapagos Islands) to southern Chile, northern Argentina and Uruguay; and 
in the Old World from the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas, India and 
eastern China south throughout the remainder of the breeding range. 

In migration occurs regularly on islands in the western Pacific from the Ryukyu 
and Bonin chains southward. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai eastward), Aleutians and Pribilofs, north 
to northern Yukon and northern Quebec, on Guadalupe Island (off Baja Cali- 
fornia), and in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and the eastern Atlantic 
islands. 



Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE: Kites, Eagles, Hawks and Allies 

Genus LEPTODON Sundevall 

Leptodon Sundevall, 1836, Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (1835), p. 114. Type, by 
monotypy, "Falco cayanensis et palliatus auct." = Falco cayanensis Latham. 

Leptodon cayanensis (Latham). Gray-headed Kite. 

Falco cayanensis Latham, 1790, Index Ornithol., 1, p. 28. Based on the 
"Cayenne Falcon" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (1), p. 59. (in Cayana = 
Bahia, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Primarily heavily forested humid lowlands, often near marshes and 
streams, less frequently open woodland or arid situations (Tropical and Subtrop- 
ical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally from Oaxaca and southern Tamaulipas south 
through Middle America and South America (also Trinidad) west of the Andes 
to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to Paraguay, northern Argentina and 
southern Brazil. 

Genus CHONDROHIERAX Lesson 

Chondrohierax Lesson, 1843, Echo Monde Savant, ser. 2, 7. col. 61. Type, 
by monotypy, Chondrohierax erythrofrons Lesson = Falco uncinatus Tem- 
minck. 



1 02 CHECK- LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck). Hook-billed Kite. [327.1.] 

Falco uncinatus (Illiger MS) Temminck, 1822, Planches Color., livr. 18, pis. 
103-104. (Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, Brazil = Bahia.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forests, especially in swampy situations, ranging over open 
marsh and in open woodland (Tropical to lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [uncinatus group] from southern Sinaloa, Distrito Fed- 
eral, southern Texas (Falcon Dam, Santa Ana) and Tamaulipas south through 
Middle America and South America (also on Grenada in the Lesser Antilles, and 
on Trinidad) east of the Andes to central Peru, southern Bolivia, northern Argen- 
tina and southern Brazil; and [wilsonii group] in eastern Cuba. 

Notes.— The two groups are often regarded as distinct species, C. uncinatus 
[Hook-billed Kite] and C. wilsonii (Cassin, 1847) [Cuban Kite]. 

Genus ELANOIDES Vieillot 

Elanoides Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 24 (1 8 1 7), p. 1 1 . 
Type, by monotypy, "Milan de la Caroline" = Falco forficatus Linnaeus. 

Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus). American Swallow-tailed Kite. [327.] 

Falco forficatus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 89. Based on "The 
Swallow tail'd Hawk" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1 , p. 4, pi. 4. (in Amer- 
ica = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forested regions, especially swampy areas, ranging into open 
woodland (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from South Carolina south to Florida, and west 
to Louisiana and (formerly) central Texas; and from southeastern Mexico (Cam- 
peche and Quintana Roo) south through most of Middle America (except El 
Salvador) and South America (also Trinidad) to eastern Peru, southern Bolivia, 
northern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Formerly bred north to Okla- 
homa, eastern Kansas, eastern Nebraska, northwestern Minnesota and southern 
Wisconsin. 

Winters primarily in South America from Colombia and Venezuela southward; 
recorded occasionally in winter in Middle America, casually in Florida. 

In migration occurs regularly in the western Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica), 
and in Mexico from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas south to the Distrito Federal 
and Oaxaca, and eastward through the Yucatan Peninsula. 

Casual west and north to southeastern Arizona (sight record), New Mexico, 
eastern Colorado, southern Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, southern Ontario, 
New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Nova Scotia, also a 
sight report from the Bahama Islands (west of Grand Bahama). Accidental in 
Bermuda, Tobago and England. 

Notes.— In American literature usually known as the Swallow-tailed Kite. 

Genus GAMPSONYX Vigors 

Gampsonyx Vigors, 1825, Zool. J., 2, p. 69. Type, by monotypy, Gampsonyx 
swainsonii Vigors. 

Notes.— For inclusion of this genus is the Accipitridae, see Brodkorb, 1960, 
Auk, 77, pp. 88-89. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 103 

Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors. Pearl Kite. 

Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825, Zool. J., 2, p. 69. (tableland of Bahia, 
about ten leagues west-southwest from the Bay of San Salvador, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Open, primarily deciduous woodland and savanna, mostly in semi- 
arid regions (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of western Nicaragua (from near 
Chinandega to Granada); and in South America west of the Andes from western 
Colombia south to extreme northwestern Peru, and east of the Andes from north- 
ern Colombia, northern Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south to 
southeastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Casual (possibly resident) in Panama (west to Bocas del Toro and Code). 

Genus ELANUS Savigny 

Elanus Savigny, 1809, Descr. Egypte, 1, pp. 69, 97. Type, by monotypy, 
Elanus caesius Savigny = Falco caeruleus Desfontaines. 

Elanus caeruleus (Desfontaines). Black-shouldered Kite. [328.] 

Falco cceruleus Desfontaines, 1789, Hist. Acad. R. Sci. Paris (1787), p. 502, 
pi. 15. (Algiers.) 

Habitat.— Savanna, open woodland, marshes, partially cleared lands and cul- 
tivated fields, mostly in lowland situations (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [leucurus group] locally from northwestern Oregon south 
(west of the deserts) to northwestern Baja California, in peninsular Florida (for- 
merly), from southern Oklahoma, western Louisiana, east-central and southeast- 
ern Texas, Tamaulipas and Oaxaca south through Middle America (both slopes) 
to eastern Panama, thence eastward in northern South America to Surinam, from 
southern Bolivia and central and eastern Brazil south to central Argentina, and 
in central Chile; [caeruleus group] from southern Europe, southern Arabia, India. 
Southeast Asia, southern China and the Philippines south to southern Africa. 
Ceylon, the East Indies and New Guinea; and [notatus group] throughout Aus- 
tralia. The range [leucurus group], especially in Middle America, has greatly 
expanded since 1960. 

Casual straggler [leucurus group] north and east to Washington (where possibly 
breeding), eastern Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and northern 
and western Texas, in the Mississippi Valley north to Missouri and southern 
Illinois, east through the southeastern United States from Louisiana to South 
Carolina, Georgia and Florida, and to Trinidad. Accidental [leucurus group] in 
Massachusetts. 

Notes.— The three groups are sometimes considered as three allospecies, E. 
caeruleus [Black-winged Kite], E. leucurus (Vieillot, 1818) [White-tailed Kite] 
and E. notatus Gould, 1838 [Black-shouldered Kite], of a superspecies. 

Genus ROSTRHAMUS Lesson 

Rostrhamus Lesson, 1830, Traite Ornithol., livr. 1, p. 55. Type, by monotypy, 
Rostrhamus niger Lesson = Herpetotheres sociabilis Vieillot. 

Helicolestes Bangs and Penard, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., 62, p. 
38. Type, by original designation, Falco hamatus Illinger = Temminck. 



1 04 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot). Snail Kite. [330.] 

Herpetotheres sociabilis Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 18, 
p. 318. Based on "Gavilan de Estero Sociable" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. 
Pax. Parag., 1, p. 84 (no. 16). (Corrientes, near Rio de la Plata, Argentina.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water marshes, primarily in lowlands (Tropical, rarely Sub- 
tropical and lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Florida (Lake Okeechobee region, and locally 
throughout the Everglades basin and the upper St. John's River, formerly more 
widely in peninsular Florida), Cuba and the Isle of Pines; in the Pacific lowlands 
of Oaxaca; locally on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from Veracruz, Campeche and 
Quintana Roo south to Nicaragua; in northwestern Costa Rica (Pacific lowlands 
around Gulf of Nicoya and Guanacaste); locally in Panama (recorded Chiriqui, 
eastern Panama province and San Bias); and in South America from Colombia, 
Venezuela and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east 
of the Andes throughout to northern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil. 

Casual or accidental in southern Texas (Jim Wells County) and Trinidad; and 
north casually in Florida (primarily dispersal due to drought) to Wakulla, Sumter 
and Putnam counties. 

Notes.— Also known as Everglade Kite. 

Rostrhamus hamatus (Temminck). Slender-billed Kite. 

Falco hamatus (Illiger MS) Temminck, 1821, Planches Color., livr. 11, pi. 
6 1 and text. (Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forests, usually near ponds, swamps or sluggish streams 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Panama (Tuira Valley, along the Rio Paya, 
Darien); and locally in South America east of the Andes from northern Colombia, 
northern Venezuela and Surinam south to eastern Peru, Bolivia and Amazonian 
Brazil. 

Genus HARPAGUS Vigors 

Harpagus Vigors, 1824, Zool. J., 1, p. 338. Type, by subsequent designation 
(G. R. Gray, 1 840), Falco bidentatus Latham. 

Harpagus bidentatus (Latham). Double-toothed Kite. 

Falco bidentatus Latham, 1790, Index Ornithol., 1, p. 38. Based on the 
"Notched Falcon" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 34. (in Cay- 
ana = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Forests and open woodland, primarily in humid lowlands (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Veracruz, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo south in the 
Gulf-Caribbean lowlands to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica (absent from 
dry northwest) and Panama, and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela 
(also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, eastern 
Bolivia and east-central Brazil. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 105 

Genus ICTINIA Vieillot 

Ictinia Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 24. Type, by monotypy, "Milan cresserelle" 
Vieillot = Falco plumbeas Gmelin. 

Ictinia mississippiensis (Wilson). Mississippi Kite. [329.] 

Falco misisippiensis [sic] Wilson, 1811, Am. Ornithol., 3, p. 80, pi. 25, fig. 
1. (a few miles below Natchez [Mississippi].) 

Habitat.— Forest, open woodland and prairies, breeding in trees, usually near 
watercourses. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Arizona, northern New Mexico, southeast- 
ern Colorado, north-central Kansas, central Arkansas, southern Missouri, south- 
ern Illinois, western Kentucky, western Tennessee, the northern portions of the 
Gulf states, South Carolina and (probably) North Carolina south to central and 
southeastern New Mexico, western and south-central Texas, the Gulf coast and 
north-central Florida, the range expanding along its northern border in recent 
years; formerly bred north to central Colorado, Iowa, southern Indiana and south- 
ern Ohio. 

Winters apparently for the most part in central South America, where recorded 
from Paraguay and northern Argentina (in Chaco and Formosa): scattered reports 
indicate casual or occasional wintering north as far as southern Texas. 

In migration occurs regularly from Tamaulipas and Chiapas south through 
Middle America and Colombia. 

Casual straggler north to central California, southern Nevada, northern Colo- 
rado. South Dakota. Minnesota. Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Ohio. Pennsyl- 
vania. New Jersey. New York (Staten Island) and Massachusetts. 

Notes.—/, mississippiensis and /. plumbea constitute a superspecies: some authors 
regard them as conspecific. If merged into a single species, Plumbeous Kite would 
be the most suitable English name, although some authors have proposed Gray 
Kte. 

Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin). Plumbeous Kite. 

Falco plumbeus Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat.. 1 (1), p. 283. Based on the "Spotted- 
tailed Hawk" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (1), p. 106. (in Cayenna = 
Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Primarily forested lowlands, including moist forest, pines and man- 
groves, mainly in edge situations or in open woodland (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from Tamaulipas, eastern San Luis Potosi. Veracruz and 
Oaxaca south along both slopes of Middle America (including the Pearl Islands, 
where perhaps only a migrant), and in South America from Colombia. Venezuela 
(also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to southern Peru. 
southern Bolivia, northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. 

Winters primarily in the South American portion of the breeding range, casually 
south to Buenos Aires. Winter reports from Middle America have not been sub- 
stantiated. 

Notes.— See comments under /. mississippiensis. 



1 06 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 



Genus HALIAEETUS Savigny 



Haliaeetus Savigny, 1809, Descr. Egypte, 1. pp. 68. 85. Type, by monotypy. 
Haliaeetus nisus Savigny = Falco albicilla Linnaeus. 

Notes.— See comments under Busarellus. 



Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus). Bald Eagle. [352.] 

Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 124. Based on 
"The Bald Eagle" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina. 1. p. 1. pi. 1. (in America, 
Europa = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Primarily near seacoasts, rivers and large lakes, breeding in tall trees 
or on cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Alaska (southern Brooks Range), northern 
Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern 
Manitoba, central Ontario, central Quebec. Labrador and Newfoundland south 
locally to the Commander (formerly) and Aleutian islands (west to Buldir). south- 
ern Alaska, Baja California (both coasts), central Arizona, southwestern and central 
New Mexico, and the Gulf coast from southeastern Texas east to southern Florida 
(including the Florida Keys); absent as a breeding bird through much of the Great 
Basin (bred formerly) and most of the prairie and plains regions, also very locally 
distributed in interior North America, with populations reduced in recent years. 

Winters generally throughout the breeding range but most frequently from 
southern Alaska and southern Canada southward. 

In migration occurs widely but sporadically over most of the North American 
continent. 

Casual along the Arctic coast of northeastern Siberia, also a sight report from 
Puerto Rico. 

Notes.—//, leucocephalus and H. albicilla constitute a superspecies. 

Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus). White-tailed Eagle. [351.] 

Falco Albicilla Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 89. (in Europa. Amer- 
ica = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Rocky coasts, rivers and large lakes, in regions of tundra, forests, 
deserts or mountains. 

Distribution.— Breeds from western Greenland. Iceland. Scandinavia, northern 
Russia and northern Siberia south to northern Europe (formerly to northeastern 
Africa), Syria, Iran. Turkestan and Kamchatka: a report of breeding on Baffin 
Island (Cumberland Sound) has not been confirmed. 

Winters in the breeding range and south, at least casually, to the Mediterranean 
and Red seas. India, Formosa, Japan and the Seven Islands of Izu. 

Casual in the Aleutian Islands (Attu, where probably breeding, and Unalaska), 
off Massachusetts (near Nantucket Lightship) and in eastern Greenland. 

Notes.— Also known as WHrrE-TATLED or Gray Sea-Eagle. See comments under 
H. leucocephalus. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 107 

Haliaeetus pelagicus (Pallas). Steller's Sea-Eagle. [352.1] 

Aquila pelagica Pallas, 1811, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, p. 343 and plate, (in 
Insulis inter Camtshatcam et Continentem Americes, praesertim in infami 
naufragio et monte Beringii insula = Tauisk, on Sea of Okhotsk.) 

Habitat.— Sea coasts and the lower portions of coastal rivers. 

Distribution.— Breeds from northwestern Siberia (west to Yakutsk) and Kam- 
chatka south to Sakhalin, possibly also in Korea. 

Winters from the breeding range south to Korea, Japan and the Seven Islands 
of Izu. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure, Midway), the Aleutians 
(Attu, Unalaska, Unmak), the Pribilofs (St. Paul), Kodiak Island, Bering Island 
and eastern China. 

Genus CIRCUS Lacepede 

Circus Lacepede, 1799, Tabl. Mamm. Ois., p. 4. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (Lesson, 1 828), Falco aeruginosus Linnaeus. 

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus). Northern Harrier. [331.] 

Falco cyaneus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 126. Based on "The 
Blue Hawk" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 33, pi. 225. (in Europa, 
Africa = vicinity of London, England.) 

Habitat.— Prairies, moorlands, steppe and marshes (breeding); coastal marshes, 
meadows, grasslands and cultivated fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds [hudsonius group] in North America from northern Alaska, 
northern Yukon, northwestern and southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, 
northern Manitoba, central (and probably northern) Ontario, southern Quebec 
and Newfoundland (probably) south to northern Baja California, southern Ari- 
zona, southern New Mexico, southern and eastern Texas, western Oklahoma, 
southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, southern Illinois, central Kentucky, West 
Virginia, southeastern Virginia and (formerly) Florida; and [cyaneus group] in 
Eurasia from the British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia 
south to the northern Mediterranean region, southern Russia, Turkestan, Amur- 
land, Ussuriland, Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands. 

Winters [hudsonius group] in the Americas from Alaska (casually), southern 
British Columbia, southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan (rarely). South Dakota. 
Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, New York 
and Massachusetts (casually farther north) south through the United States, Middle 
America and the Antilles (rare in Lesser Antilles) to northern Colombia, northern 
Venezuela and Barbados; and [cyaneus group] in Eurasia from the British Isles, 
southern Scandinavia and southern Japan south to northwestern Africa, Asia 
Minor, India, Burma, eastern China, Formosa and the Ryukyu Islands. 

In migration occurs casually [group unknown] in the Aleutian and Commander 
islands. 

Casual or accidental [hudsonius group] in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway, Oahu), 
Labrador, Bermuda and the Bahamas; and [cyaneus group] in Iceland and the 
Faroe Islands. 



108 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes regarded as separate species. C. cyaneus 
[Hen Harrier] and C. hudsonius (Linnaeus. 1 "66) [American Harrier or Marsh 
Hawk]. C. cyaneus and the South American C. cinereus Vieillot, 1816. constitute 
a superspecies: they are considered conspecific by some authors. 

Genus ACCIPITER Bnsson 

Accipher Brisson, 1"60. Ornithologie. 1. p. 28: 6. p. 310. Type, by tautonymy. 
Accipiter Brisson = Falco nisus Linnaeus. 

Accipiter super ciliosus (Linnaeus). Tiny Hawk. 

Falco superciliosus Linnaeus. 1766. Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 128. (in Suri- 
nam o = Surinam.) 

Habitat. — Lowland forest, especially in forest edge and open woodland (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Nicaragua (vicinity of Waspam and Grey- 
town) south through Costa Rica. Panama and South America west of the Andes 
to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, central Bolivia, northern 
and eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and extreme northeastern .Argentina. 

[Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus). Eurasian Sparrowhawk.] See Appendix B. 

Accipiter striatus Vieillot. Sharp-shinned Hawk. [332.] 

Accipiter striatus Vieillot. 1808. Hist. Nat. Ois. Am. Sept.. 1 (1807), p. 42. 

pi. 14. (Santo Domingo = Haiti.) 

Habitat. — Forest and open woodland, either coniferous or deciduous, primarily 
the former in more northern and mountainous sections of the range (Tropical to 
Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds [striatus group] from western and central .Alaska, northern 
Yukon, western and southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, central Man- 
itoba, central Ontario, central Quebec, southern Labrador and Newfoundland 
south to central California, central .Arizona, southern New Mexico, southern Texas, 
the northern pans of the Gulf states, and South Carolina, and south through the 
highlands of Mexico to Oaxaca: also in the Greater Antilles (Cuba. Hispaniola 
and Puerto Rico). 

Winters [striatus group] from southern Alaska, the southernmost portions of 
the Canadian provinces (casually), and Nova Scotia south through the United 
States and Middle America to central Panama, casually to the Bahamas. Jamaica 
and (probably) Mona Island off Puerto Rico: also in the breeding range in the 
Greater Antilles. 

Resident [chionogaster group] in the highlands of Chiapas. Guatemala. El 
Salvador. Honduras and north-central Nicaragua; and [eryxhronemius group] in 
South America in the mountains of Venezuela, the .Andes from Colombia to 
Bolivia, and from central Brazil and Paraguay south to northern .Argentina and 
Uruguay. 

Casual or accidental [striatus group] in northern .Alaska and Bermuda. 

Notes. — The three groups are sometimes regarded as distmct species. A. striatus 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 109 

[Sharp-shinned Hawk], A. chionogaster (Kaup, 1852) [White-breasted Hawk] 
and A. erythronemius (Kaup, 1850) [Rufous-thighed Hawk]; others would rec- 
ognize A. erythronemius as a species, including chionogaster as a subspecies thereof. 

Accipiter bicolor (Vieillot). Bicolored Hawk. 

Sparvius bicolor Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 10, p. 325. 
(Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest and forest edge (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones, 
in southern South America to Temperate Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Oaxaca, Veracruz and the Yucatan Peninsula south 
through Middle America and South America west of the Andes to northwestern 
Peru and east of the Andes to northern Argentina, Paraguay and southern Brazil; 
and in Chile and extreme western Argentina north to about lat. 34°S. 

Notes.— The distinct form from Bolivia and western Brazil south to northern 
Argentina has sometimes been treated as a separate species, A guttifer Hellmayr, 
1917, as has the isolated A. chilensis R. A. Philippi and Landbeck, 1864, of Chile 
and western Argentina. See also comments under A. cooperii. 

Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte). Cooper's Hawk. [333.] 

Falco Cooperii Bonaparte, 1828, Am. Ornithol., 2, p. 1, pi. 10, fig. 1. (near 
Bordentown, New Jersey.) 

Habitat.— Primarily mature forest, either broadleaf or coniferous, mostly the 
former, foraging and wintering in open woodland and forest edge as well. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern British Columbia, central Alberta, central 
Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, western and southern Ontario, southern Quebec, 
Maine, New Brunswick (rarely), Prince Edward Island and (rarely) Nova Scotia 
south to Baja California, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, southern Texas, Lou- 
isiana, central Mississippi, central Alabama and central Florida. 

Winters from Washington, Colorado, Nebraska, southern Minnesota, southern 
Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, New York and New England 
south through the southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Hon- 
duras, casually to Costa Rica and Colombia (Cundinamarca). 

Notes.— A. cooperii and A. gundlachi may constitute a superspecies; some authors 
also consider A. bicolor as part of this same superspecies. 

Accipiter gundlachi Lawrence. Gundlach's Hawk. 

Accipiter Gundlachi Lawrence, 1860, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 252. 
(Hanabana, Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Forest, open woodland and mangroves, primarily in the lowlands 
but ranging into the highlands. 
Distribution.— Resident on Cuba. 
Notes.— See comments under A. cooperii. 

Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus). Northern Goshawk. [334.] 

Falco gentilis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 89. (in Alpibus = 
Dalecarlian Alps, Sweden.) 



1 1 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Deciduous and coniferous forest, forest edge and open woodland, 
foraging also in cultivated regions, primarily in mountains towards the south. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western and central Alaska, north- 
ern Yukon, western and southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin (probably), 
northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario, central and northeastern Quebec, Lab- 
rador and Newfoundland south to southern Alaska (west to the base of the Alaska 
Peninsula), central California, southern Nevada, southeastern Arizona, southern 
New Mexico, the eastern foothills of the Rockies (including the Black Hills of 
western South Dakota), central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, 
northern Minnesota, central Michigan, Pennsylvania, central New York and 
northwestern Connecticut, and in the Appalachian and (probably) Great Smoky 
mountains south to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina; locally in 
central Mexico (Jalisco and probably elsewhere); and in Eurasia from the British 
Isles (rarely), Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia south to the 
Mediterranean region, Asia Minor, Iran, the Himalayas, eastern China and Japan. 

Winters throughout the breeding range, and in North America south irregularly 
or casually as far as southern California, northern Mexico (recorded Sonora, Sina- 
loa, Durango and Chihuahua), south-central Texas, the northern portions of the 
Gulf states, and west-central Florida, and in Eurasia casually to northern Africa, 
India and Burma. 

Casual on southeastern Baffin Island. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Goshawk. The following species 
are closely allied to A. gentilis and may form a superspecies; A. henstii (Schlegel, 
1873) of Madagascar; A. melanoleucus Smith, 1830, of Africa; and A. meyerianus 
(Sharpe, 1878) of the Papuan region. 



Genus GERANOSPIZA Kaup 

Ischnosceles (not Ischnoscelis Burmeister, 1842) Strickland, 1844, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., ser. 1, 13, p. 409. Type, by original designation, Falco gracilis 

Temminck = Sparvius caerulescens Vieillot. 
Geranospiza Kaup, 1847, Isis von Oken, col. 143. New name for Ischnosceles 

Strickland. 



Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot). Crane Hawk. 

Sparvius caerulescens Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 10, p. 
318. (L'Amerique meridionale = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest and open woodland, including swamps and borders of 
marshes, almost always near water (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Mexico (Sonora on the Pacific slope and Tamau- 
lipas on the Gulf-Caribbean) south through Middle America and South America 
west of the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Notes.— Middle American birds have been considered a separate species, G. 
nigra (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1 847) [Blackish Crane-Hawk], by some authors but 
populations in Panama and northwestern South America are intermediate between 
nigra and caerulescens. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 1 1 1 



Genus LEUCOPTERNIS Kaup 

Leucopternis Kaup, 1847, Isis von Oken, col. 210. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (G. R. Gray, 1844), Falco melanops Latham. 

Leucopternis plumbea Salvin. Plumbeous Hawk. 

Leucopternis plumbea Salvin, 1872, Ibis, p. 240, pi. 8. (Ecuador.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland forest (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Panama (from Veraguas eastward on the Carib- 
bean slope, and on both slopes in Darien) south on the Pacific coast of South 
America to extreme northwestern Peru. 

Notes.— L. plumbea and the South American L. schistacea (Sundevall, 1851) 
[Slate-colored Hawk], constitute a superspecies; they are regarded as conspecific 
by some authors. 

Leucopternis princeps Sclater. Barred Hawk. 

Leucopternis princeps Sclater, 1866, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1865), p. 429, 
pi. 24. (Costa Rica, in montibus = Tucurrique, Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Moist mountain forests (upper Tropical and Subtropical zones). 
Distribution.— Resident from Costa Rica (cordilleras Central and Talamanca) 
and Panama south through western Colombia to northern Ecuador. 

Leucopternis semiplumbea Lawrence. Semiplumbeous Hawk. 

Leucopternis semiplumbeus Lawrence, 1861, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, 
p. 288. (Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, along the line of the Panama 
Railroad.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in northeastern Honduras (Gracias a Dios), Costa 
Rica, Panama, northern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. 

Leucopternis albicollis (Latham). White Hawk. 

Falco albicollis Latham, 1 790, Index Ornithol., 1 , p. 36. Based on the "White- 
necked Falcon" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 30. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest, forest edge and, less frequently, open woodland (Trop- 
ical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from northern Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco and Chiapas 
south mostly on the Caribbean drainage of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and 
Nicaragua, and both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama to South America, from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, 
to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. 

Genus BUTEOGALLUS Lesson 

Buteogallus Lesson, 1 830, Traite Ornithol., livr. 2, p. 83. Type, by monotypy, 
Buteogallus cathartoides Lesson = Falco aequinoctialis Gmelin. 



1 1 2 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Urubitinga Lafresnaye, 1842, Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat., 2, p. 786. Type, by 
tautonymy, Falco urubitinga Gmelin. 

Hypomorphnus Cabanis, 1844, Arch. Naturgesch., 10, p. 263. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Falco urubitinga Gmelin. 

Heterospizias Sharpe, 1874, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 1, pp. x, 158, 160. Type, by 
monotypy, Falco meridionalis Latham. 

Buteogallus anthracinus (Deppe). Common Black-Hawk. [345.] 

Falco anthracinus W. Deppe, 1830, Preis.-Verz. Saugeth. Vogel, etc., Mex., 
p. 3. (Veracruz.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest, swamps and mangroves, in both moist and arid 
habitats but generally near water, foraging often on tidal flats or in open woodland 
(Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [anthracinus group] from central Arizona, southwestern 
Utah, southern New Mexico, and western and (formerly) southern Texas south 
through Middle America (including Cozumel and Cancun islands off Quintana 
Roo, and Utila and Guanaja islands off Caribbean Honduras) to northern Colom- 
bia, and east through coastal Venezuela (also Trinidad) to Guyana, and in the 
Lesser Antilles on St. Vincent; and [gundlachii group] in Cuba (including small 
coastal cays) and the Isle of Pines. Northernmost breeding populations in the 
southwestern United States usually migrate southward in nonbreeding season. 

Casual or accidental [anthracinus group] in southern Nevada (breeding 
attempted), Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles (St. Lucia, the Grenadines and 
Grenada), also a sight report for Colorado: reports from southern Florida (Miami 
area) are probably on escaped individuals, and may pertain in part to B. urubitinga. 

Notes.— Also known as Black Hawk. Some authors treat the Cuban form as 
a distinct species, B. gundlachii (Cabanis, 1855) [Cuban Black-Hawk]; others 
would consider B. subtilis to be conspecific with B. anthracinus (and gundlachii). 
It appears that B. anthracinus (with gundlachii), B. subtilis and the South American 
B. aequinoctialis (Gmelin, 1788) constitute a superspecies. 

Buteogallus subtilis (Thayer and Bangs). Mangrove Black-Hawk. 

Urubitinga subtilis Thayer and Bangs, 1905, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., 
46, p. 94. (Gorgona Island, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Mangroves (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident along the Pacific coast of El Salvador (possibly north 
to Chiapas), Honduras, Costa Rica. Panama (including the Pearl Islands), Colom- 
bia (including coastal islands), Ecuador and extreme northwestern Peru (Tumbes). 

Notes.— See comments under B. anthracinus. 

Buteogallus urubitinga (Gmelin). Great Black-Hawk. 

Falco Urubitinga Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 265. Based in part on 
the "Brasilian Eagle" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (1), p. 41. (in Brasilia = 
northeastern Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Moist lowland forest and open woodland, primarily near large streams, 
lakes, ponds or marshes (Tropical and occasionally lower Subtropical zones). 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 1 1 3 

Distribution.— Resident from northern Mexico (central Sonora on the Pacific 
slope and southern Tamaulipas on the Gulf-Caribbean) south through Middle 
America and South America (also Tobago and Trinidad) west of the Andes to 
northwestern Peru and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northern 
Argentina and Uruguay. 

Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham). Savanna Hawk. 

Falco meridionalis Latham, 1790, Index Ornithol., 1, p. 36. Based on the 
"Rufous-headed Falcon" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 33. (in 
Cayana = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Wet savanna, marshes with scattered trees, and open swamps, rarely 
in drier savanna away from water (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from western Panama (from Chiriqui eastward, rare or 
absent from Darien) south in South America (also Trinidad) west of the Andes 
to northwestern Peru and east of the Andes to eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina 
and Uruguay. 

Notes.— Usually placed in the monotypic genus Heterospizias. 

Genus PARABUTEO Ridgway 

Parabuteo Ridgway, 1 874, in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds. 
3, pp. 248, 250. Type, by monotypy, Buteo harrisi Audubon = Falco uni- 
cinctus Temminck. 

Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck). Harris' Hawk. [335.] 

Falco unicinctus Temminck, 1824, Planches Color., livr. 53, p. 313. (Bresil 
. . . dans les environs du Rio-Grande, pres Boa- Vista = Boa Vista, western 
Minas Gerais, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Primarily savanna, open woodland and semi-desert, especially in the 
vicinity of marshes, swamps and large bodies of water (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southern Kansas (Meade County and vicinity, cas- 
ually or formerly), and from northern Baja California, southeastern California 
(formerly, recently reintroduced), southern Arizona, southern New Mexico and 
central Texas south through Middle America (rare and local from Chiapas to 
Nicaragua, unrecorded in Belize and Honduras) and South America (including 
Margarita Island off Venezuela) to central Chile and central Argentina. 

Casual in northern and eastern Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana (sight reports 
from southern Nevada and southern Utah). Stragglers reported from southwestern 
California, Iowa (Hillsboro), Ohio (Harrisburg), New York (Westchester County) 
and several localities in Florida likely pertain to escapes from captivity. 

Notes.— Also known as Bay- winged Hawk. 

Genus BUSARELLUS Lesson 

Busarellus "Lafresnaye" Lesson, 1843, Echo Monde Savant, ser. 2. 7, col. 
468. Type, by original designation, Circus busarellus Vieillot = Falco nigri- 
collis Latham. 

Notes.— Some authors suggest that this genus is closely related to Haliaeetus. 



1 1 4 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 



Busarellus nigricollis (Latham). Black-collared Hawk. 

Falco nigricollis ha.xha.rn. 1790. Index Ornithol.. 1. p. 35. Based on the ""Black- 
necked Falcon" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl.. 1. p. 30. (in Cayana = 
Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water marshes, wet savanna and swamps, less frequently around 
lakes and lagoons (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa and Veracruz south along both slopes of 
Middle America, and in South America from Colombia. Venezuela (also Trinidad) 
and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to southern Bolivia, northern Argentina 
and Uruguay. 

Genus HARPYHALIAETUS Lafresnaye 

Harpyhalicetus Lafresnaye. 1842. Rev. Zool. [Paris]. 5. p. 173. Type, by orig- 
inal designation. Harpyia coronata Vieillot. 

Urbitornis J. Verreaux, 1856. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 145. Type, by 
original designation, Circaeius solitarius Tschudi. 

Harpyhaliaetus solitarius (Tschudi). Solitary Eagle. 

Circaeius solitarius Tschudi, 1844, Arch. Naturgesch.. 10. p. 264. (Republica 
Peruana = Rio Chanchamayo. Junin. Peru.) 

Habitat.— Heavily wooded foothills and mountains, both in moist forest and 
pines (upper Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Mexico (recorded southeastern Sonora. Jalisco 
and Oaxaca), Guatemala (San Geronimo). Honduras (Valle de Talanga). Costa 
Rica (Volcan de Poas. Cordillera Talamanca and Golfo Dulce). Panama (Veraguas. 
eastern Panama province and Darien) and South America from Colombia and 
northern Venezuela south to central Peru. Bolivia and northwestern .Argentina. 
Although often listed for Nicaragua, there is no specific record. 

Notes.—//, solitarius is sometimes considered to be conspecific with the South 
American H. coronatus (Vieillot. 1817) [.American Crowned or Crowned Eagle]. 

Genus BLTTEO Lacepede 

Buteo Lacepede, 1799, Tabl. Mamm. Ois.. p. 4. Type, by tautonymy. Falco 

buteo Linnaeus. 
Asturina Vieillot. 1816. Analyse, pp. 24. 68. Type, by original designation. 

Asturia [sic] cinerea Vieillot = Falco nitidus Latham. 
Craxirex Gould. 1839, in Darwin, Zool. Voy. Beagle. 3 (6). p. 22. Type, by 

subsequent designation (G. R. Gray. 1 840), Polyborus galapagoensis Gould. 
Tachytriorchis Kaup. 1844. Class. Saugeth. Vogel. p. 123. Type, by monotypy. 

Buteo pterocles Temminck = Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot 

Notes.— Species of this genus are known in Old World literature under the group 
name Buzzard. 

Buteo nitidus (Latham). Gray Hawk. [346.] 

Falco nitidus Latham. 1790, Index Ornithol. 1. p. 41. Based on the "Plum- 
beous Falcon" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl.. 1. p. 37. (in Cayana = 
Cayenne.) 



ORDER FALCON I FORMES 1 1 5 

Habitat.— Open woodland, pasturelands, and generally open country with scat- 
tered trees, primarily in arid situations (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Arizona, Sonora, Jalisco, Hidalgo, 
Tamaulipas and (casually) southern Texas south through Middle America, and 
in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and Trinidad) and the 
Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to 
eastern Peru, northern and eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina, Paraguay and 
southern Brazil. Northernmost breeding populations in Arizona and Texas are 
usually migratory southward in nonbreeding season. 

Casual in southern New Mexico, and western and southeastern Texas. 

Notes.— Some authors have suggested that populations south to northwestern 
Costa Rica constitute a species, B. plagiatus (Schlegel, 1862), distinct from B. 
nitidus [Gray-lined Hawk], which ranges from southwestern Costa Rica south- 
ward. Sometimes treated in the monotypic genus Asturina. 

Buteo magnirostris (Gmelin). Roadside Hawk. [343.1.] 

Falco magnirostris Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 282. Based mainly on 
"Espervier a gros bee de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 464. 
(in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, second growth, pastureland, savanna and, less fre- 
quently, the canopy of denser moist forest (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Jalisco, southern Nuevo Leon and southern 
Tamaulipas south through Middle America (including Cozumel and Holbox islands 
off Quintana Roo; Roatan, Barbareta and Guanaja in the Bay Islands, off Carib- 
bean Honduras; and Coiba, Taboguilla, Iguana and the Pearl islands off Panama), 
and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, west 
of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Bolivia, northern 
Argentina and Uruguay. 

Accidental in southern Texas (Cameron County). 

Buteo lineatus (Gmelin). Red-shouldered Hawk. [339.] 

Falco lineatus Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 268. Based on the "Barred- 
breasted Buzzard" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (1), p. 56, and the "Red- 
shouldered Falcon" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 206. (in insula Longa = 
Long Island, New York.) 

Habitat.— Moist and riverine forest, and in eastern North America in wooded 
swamps, foraging in forest edge and open woodland (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern California south, west of the Sierran divide, 
to northern Baja California; and from eastern Nebraska, Iowa, central Minnesota, 
northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec 
and southern New Brunswick south to Veracruz, Tamaulipas, central and southern 
Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida (to Florida Keys); also locally in the valley of 
Mexico (recorded Zacatecas and Distrito Federal). 

Winters, at least sporadically, through the breeding range, but in eastern North 
America primarily from eastern Kansas, central Missouri, the Ohio Valley, north- 
western Pennsylvania, New York and southern New England southward. 

Casual north to Washington (Nisqually), southern Oregon, Colorado, North 
Dakota and southern Manitoba, and in southern Arizona, Sinaloa and Jalisco. 
Accidental in Scotland; a report from Jamaica is highly questionable. 

Notes.— B. lineatus and B. ridgwayi may constitute a superspecies. 



1 1 6 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Buteo ridgwayi (Con). Ridgway's Hawk. 

Rupornis ridgwayi Cory. 1883, Q. J. Boston Zool. Soc, 2. p. 46. (Santo 
Domingo = Samana. Dominican Republic.) 

Habitat. — Lowland forest edge and open woodland, foraging frequently in rel- 
atively open country. 

Distribution.— Resident on Hispaniola and surrounding small islands (Beata. 
Gonave. Ile-a-Vache. Alto Velo, Grand Cayemite and Petite Cayemite). 

Notes. — See comments under B. lineatus. 

Buteo platypterus (Vieillot). Broad-winged Hawk. [343.] 

Falco pennsylxanicus Wilson, 1812. Am. OrnithoL. 6. p. 92. pi. 54. fig. 1. 

(TAmerique septentrionale = near the Schuylkill River. Pennsylvania.) [Not 

Falco pennsylxanicus Wilson, 1812. ibid., p. 13 = Falco velox Wilson.] 
Sparxius platypterus Vieillot. 1823. in Bonnaterre and Vieillot, Tabl. Encycl. 

Meth.. OrnithoL. 3. livr. 93. p. 1273. New name for Falco pennsylxanicus 

Wilson, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Broad-leaved and mixed forest, preferring denser situations, less fre- 
quently in open woodland, in migration also in open country. 

Distribution.— Breeds in central Alberta and central Saskatchewan, and from 
central Manitoba, central Ontario, southern Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia south to eastern Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida. 

Winters primarily in southern Florida (mostly coasts and the Florida Keys, 
casually farther north), and from Guatemala (casually from Sinaloa and southern 
Texas) south through Middle America and South America to eastern Peru, Bolivia 
and southern Brazil, occasionally also in the breeding range in eastern North 
America. 

In migration occurs regularly in the eastern Plains states, eastern New Mexico, 
eastern and southern Mexico, and western Cuba, casually west to California, Utah, 
.Arizona. Colorado and western New Mexico: in recent years reported regularly 
in fall and winter in coastal California. 

Resident in the Antilles on Cuba and Puerto Rico, and from Antigua south to 
Grenada and Tobago. 

Casual north to northern British Columbia, northern .Alberta, northern Sas- 
katchewan and northern Ontario, and to Hispaniola (questionably) and Barbados. 

Buteo brachyurus Vieillot. Short-tailed Hawk. [344.] 

Buteo brachyurus Vieillot. 1816. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 4. p. 477. 
(No locality given = Cayenne.) 

Habitat. — Generally open country, from mangrove and cypress swamps to open 
pine-oak woodland, avoiding heavily forested situations (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in peninsular Florida (from St. Marks and San 
Mateo south to Lake Okeechobee, in winter mostly south of Lake Okeechobee). 
and from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas south through Middle America (including Coz- 
umel Island ofFQuintana Roo) and South America west of the Andes to western 
Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru. Bolivia, northern Argentina. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 1 1 7 

Paraguay and southern Brazil; a sight report from Hispaniola (Dominican Repub- 
lic) is doubtful. 

Notes.— Suggestions that B. albigula Philippi, 1899, of the South American 
Andes, and B. brachyurus are conspecific require confirmation. 

Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte. Swainson's Hawk. [342.] 

Buteo vulgaris (not Swainson, 1832) Audubon, 1837, Birds Am. (folio), 4. pi. 

372. (near the Columbia River = Fort Vancouver, Washington.) 
Buteo Swainsoni Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List, p. 3. New name for 

Buteo vulgaris Audubon, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Savanna, open pine-oak woodland and cultivated lands with scat- 
tered trees, in migration and winter also in grasslands and other open country. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in east-central Alaska, Yukon and Mackenzie, and 
from central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, western and 
southern Minnesota and western Illinois south to southern California (rarely), 
Baja California (formerly), Sonora, Durango, Chihuahua, central and southern 
Texas, and western Missouri. 

Winters primarily on the pampas of southern South America (south to Uruguay 
and Argentina), irregularly north to Costa Rica and Panama, casually north to 
the southwestern United States and southeastern Florida. 

In migration occurs regularly in most of Middle America, and rarely east along 
the Gulf coast to Florida; occasionally a common fall migrant through the Florida 
Keys. 

Casual in northeastern North America from southern Ontario, southern Quebec, 
New York and Massachusetts south to Pennsylvania and Virginia; a report from 
Jamaica is highly questionable. 

Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot. White-tailed Hawk. [341.] 

Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 4, p. 
477. (l'Amerique meridionale = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Open country, primarily savanna, prairie and arid habitats of mes- 
quite, cacti and bushes, very rarely in open forest (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Arizona (formerly, one breeding record 
in 1897), Sonora, Durango, Zacatecas and central and southeastern Texas south 
through Middle America (including Isla Taboga off Panama), and in South Amer- 
ica from Colombia, Venezuela (also the Netherlands Antilles, Margarita Island 
and Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to extreme eastern Peru, 
Bolivia and central Argentina. 

Casual in southwestern Louisiana, also a sight report for St. Vincent, in the 
Lesser Antilles. 

Notes.— The relationship between B. albicaudatus and the South American 
B. polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) and B. poecilochrous Gurney, 1879, 
needs clarification. 

Buteo albonotatus Kaup. Zone-tailed Hawk. [340.] 

Buteo albonotatus "G. R. Gray" Kaup, 1847, Isis von Oken. col. 329. (No 
locality given = Mexico.) 



1 1 8 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Arid semi-open country, especially open deciduous or pine-oak 
woodland, often nesting in tall trees along streams (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident (although partly migratory in northern part of breeding 
range) from northern Baja California, central Arizona, southern New Mexico and 
western Texas south locally through Middle America (including the Pearl Islands 
off Panama, but not recorded Belize), and in South America from Colombia, 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern 
Bolivia, Paraguay and southeastern Brazil; also recorded in western Peru (Lima 
area). 

Casual north to southern California (where breeding attempted in Santa Rosa 
Mountains in 1979 and 1980) and southern Nevada (sight record). 

Buteo solitarius Peale. Hawaiian Hawk. [344.1.] 

Buteo solitarius Peale, 1848, U.S. Explor. Exped., 8, p. 62. (Island of Hawaii.) 

Habitat.— Open forest and forest edge from sea level to highlands. 
Distribution.— Resident in small numbers on Hawaii, in the Hawaiian Islands. 
Accidental on Oahu (Pearl Harbor), also sight reports for Kauai and Maui. 

Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin). Red-tailed Hawk. [337.] 

Falco jamaicensis Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 266. Based on the 
"Cream-colored Buzzard" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (1), p. 49. (in 
Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— A wide variety of open woodland and open country with scattered 
trees, rarely in denser forest (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and central Alaska, central Yukon, western 
Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, central Ontario, southern 
Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south to south- 
eastern Alaska, Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, southern Texas, 
the Gulf coast and Florida, and in the highlands of Middle America to Costa Rica 
and western Panama (east to Canal Zone); in the Tres Marias and Socorro islands 
off western Mexico; and in the northern Bahamas (Grand Bahamas, Abaco, Andros), 
Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles (Saba south to Nevis). 

Winters from southern Canada south throughout the remainder of the breeding 
range, occurring also in the lowlands of Middle America. 

Accidental in Bermuda and England. 

Notes.— The dark and variable populations breeding in western, central and 
south-coastal Alaska, and in western Canada have sometimes been regarded as a 
distinct species, B. harlani (Audubon, 1831) [Harlan's Hawk, 338]. Relation- 
ships between B. jamaicensis, the South American B. ventralis Gould, 1837, and 
the Old World B. buteo (Linnaeus, 1758) complex are uncertain. 

Buteo regalis (Gray). Ferruginous Hawk. [348.] 

Archibuteo regalis G. R. Gray, 1844, Genera Birds, 1, pi. vi. (No locality 
given = Real del Monte, Hidalgo.) 

Habitat.— Open country, primarily prairies, plains and badlands, breeding in 
trees near streams or on steep slopes, sometimes on mounds in open desert. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 1 1 9 



Distribution.— Breeds from eastern Washington, southern Alberta, southern 
Saskatchewan and (formerly) southwestern Manitoba south to eastern Oregon, 
Nevada, northern and southeastern Arizona, northern and (formerly) southwest- 
ern New Mexico, north-central Texas, western Oklahoma and western Kansas. 
Recorded in summer (and probably breeding) in northeastern California. 

Winters primarily from the central and southern parts of the breeding range 
(casually north to Alberta and Saskatchewan, and east to western Missouri) south 
to Baja California, Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo and Tamaulipas. 

In migration occurs east to western Minnesota. 

Casual east to Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, New Jersey, Arkansas, Louisiana, 
Mississippi and Alabama. 

Notes.— Also known as Ferruginous Roughleg. 

Buteo lagopus (Pontoppidan). Rough-legged Hawk. [347.] 

Falco lagopus Pontoppidan, 1763, Dan. Atlas, 1, p. 616. (No locality given = 
Denmark.) 

Habitat.— Open coniferous forest, tundra and generally barren country, breeding 
on cliffs or in trees, wintering also in grasslands and open cultivated areas. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western and northern Alaska (also 
Kodiak Island, and Umnak in the eastern Aleutians), northern Yukon, the Arctic 
islands (north to Prince Patrick, Victoria, Bylot and southwestern Baffin islands) 
and northern Labrador south to northern and southeastern Mackenzie, northern 
Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec and Newfoundland; and in Eurasia 
in the Arctic from Scandinavia east to northern Siberia, Kamchatka and the Sea 
of Okhotsk. 

Winters in North America from south-central Alaska (casually), southern Can- 
ada (southern British Columbia east to southern Quebec and Newfoundland) south 
to southern California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, southern Texas, 
Missouri, Tennessee and Virginia, casually to eastern Texas and the Gulf coast 
(sight records from northeastern Sonora, northern Chihuahua and Florida); and 
in Eurasia from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and central Russia south 
to southern Europe, southern Russia, Manchuria, Ussuriland and Japan. 

Casual or accidental in the central and western Aleutians, Bermuda, Iceland, 
the Faroe Islands, southern Europe and northern Africa. 

Genus MORPHNUS Dumont 

Morphnus Dumont, 1816, Diet. Sci. Nat., l,suppl.,p. 88. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Chubb, 1816), Falco guianensis Daudin. 

Morphnus guianensis (Daudin). Crested Eagle. 

Falco guianensis Daudin, 1800, Traite Ornithol., 2, p. 78. Based on "Petit 
Aigle de la Guiane" Mauduyt, Encycl. Meth., Hist. Nat. Ois., 1, p. 475. 
(Guiane = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in northern Guatemala (Peten), northern Hon- 
duras (San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba), Costa Rica (Cuabre and Canas Gordas region) 
and Panama (both slopes, but doubtfully on Isla Coiba), and in South America 



1 20 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

from Colombia. Venezuela and the Guianas south, primarily east of the Andes, 
to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina (pos- 
sibly) and southeastern Brazil. Although listed for Nicaragua, there are no specific 
records. 

Genus HARPIA Vieillot 

Harpia Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 24. Type, by monotypy, "Aigle destructeur" 
Buffon = Vultur harpyja Linnaeus. 

Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus). Harpy Eagle. 

Vultur Harpyja Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 86. Based on 
"Yzquauhflr' Hernandez, Nova Plant Anim. Min. Mex. Hist., p. 34. (in 

Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Dense lowland forest (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Mexico (Oaxaca. Veracruz, Tabasco, 
Campeche and Chiapas) south through Middle America (excluding El Salvador. 
primarily occurring on the Caribbean slope north of Costa Rica), and in South 
America, from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, primarily east of the 
.Andes, to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina and southeastern 
Brazil. 

Genus AQLTLA Brisson 

Aquila Brisson. 1760. Ornithologie. 1, p. 28: 6. p. 419. Type, by tautonymy, 
Aquila Brisson = Falco chiysaetos Linnaeus. 

Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus). Golden Eagle. [349.] 

Falco Chrysaetos Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 88. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Generally open country, in prairies, tundra, open coniferous forest 
and barren areas, especially in hilly or mountainous regions, nesting on cliff ledges 
and in trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern and western Alaska east 
across Yukon, western and southern Mackenzie, northwestern Manitoba, northern 
Ontario and northern Quebec to Labrador, and south to southern Alaska (west 
to Unalaska in the eastern Aleutians), northern Baja California, the highlands of 
northern Mexico (south to Durango. Guanajuato and Nuevo Leon), western and 
central Texas (at least formerly), western Oklahoma and western Kansas, and in 
eastern North America to New York and New England, probably also in the 
Appalachian Mountains to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina: and 
in Eurasia from the British Isles. Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern 
Siberia south to northern Africa. .Arabia. Iran, the Himalayas, central China, Korea 
and Japan. 

Winters in North America from south -central Alaska (casually, the Alaska Range) 
and the southern portions of the Canadian provinces south throughout the breed- 
ing range, casually to Sonora. Sinaloa, Hidalgo and the Gulf coast from Texas 
east to central Florida (sight reports to Florida Keys); and in Eurasia generally in 
the breeding range, casually south to eastern China. 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 1 2 1 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai), possibly an escaped or released 
individual. 

Genus SPIZASTUR Gray 

SpizasturG. R. Gray, 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 3. Type, by original 
designation, S. atricapillus (Cuv.) = Buteo melanoleucus Vieillot. 

Spizastur melanoleucus (Vieillot). Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle. 

Buteo melanoleucus Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 4, p. 
482. (la Guyane = Guyana.) 

Habitat.— Dense lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, Chiapas and 
the state of Yucatan) south through Middle America (except El Salvador), and in 
South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, west of the 
Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern 
Argentina and southeastern Brazil. 



Genus SPIZAETUS Vieillot 

Spizaetus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 24. Type, by subsequent designation (G. 
R. Gray, 1840), "L'Autout huppe" Levaillant = Falco ornatus Daudin. 

Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied). Black Hawk-Eagle. 

Falco tyrannus Wied, 1820, Reise Bras., 1, p. 360. (Ilha do Chave, below 
Quartel dos Arcos, Rio Belmonte, Bahia, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest, primarily open woodland, forest edge or partially 
cleared woods (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern San Luis Potosi, Veracruz and Oaxaca 
south through Middle America (not recorded from the state of Yucatan or El 
Salvador), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and 
the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes 
to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and 
southeastern Brazil. 

Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin). Ornate Hawk-Eagle. 

Falco ornatus Daudin, 1800, Traite Ornithol., 2, p. 77. Based on "L'Aigle 
Moyen de la Guiane" Mauduyt, Encycl. Meth., Hist. Nat. Ois., 1, p. 475, 
and "L'Autour Huppe" Levaillant, Hist. Nat. Ois. Afr., 1, p. 76, pi. 2. 
(Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Heavy moist forest, occasionally forest edge (Tropical and Subtrop- 
ical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Tamaulipas, Veracruz and Oaxaca south through 
Middle America (including Isla Coiba off Panama), and in South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of 
the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, eastern 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. 



1 22 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Suborder FALCONES: Caracaras and Falcons 

Family FALCONIDAE: Caracaras and Falcons 

Tribe POLYBORINI: Caracaras 

Genus DAPTRIUS Vieillot 

Daptrius Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 22. Type, by monotypy, Daptrius ater 
Vieillot. 



Daptrius americanus (Boddaert). Red-throated Caracara. 

Falco americanus Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 25. Based on 
"Le Petit Aigle d'Amerique" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 417. (Cay- 
enne.) 

Habitat.— Primarily humid lowland forest, especially along forest edge and in 
clearings, less commonly deciduous forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident, at least formerly, from southern Mexico (Chiapas) south 
through Middle America (not reported Belize or El Salvador), and in South Amer- 
ica from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western 
Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, east-central Bolivia and central 
Brazil; in recent years has disappeared from most of its Middle American range. 

Genus POLYBORUS Vieillot 

Polyborus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 22. Type, by monotypy, "Caracara" 

Buffon = Falco plancus Miller. 
Caracara Merrem, 1826, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss. Kiinste. 

1 5, p. 1 59. Type, by subsequent designation (Hellmary and Conover, 1 949). 

Falco plancus Miller. 

Notes.— For use of Polyborus instead of Caracara, see Amadon, 1954, Auk, 
71, pp. 203-204. See also comments under Milvago. 

Polyborus plancus (Miller). Crested Caracara. [362.] 

Falco plancus J. F. Miller, 1777, Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., pt. 3, pi. 17. (Tierra 
del Fuego.) 

Habitat.— Open country, including pastureland, cultivated areas and semi-des- 
ert, both arid and moist habitats but more commonly in the former (Tropical and 
Subtropical zones, also Temperate Zone in South America). 

Distribution.— Resident [plancus group] in central and southern Florida (north 
to Brevard County, formerly to Enterprise and St. Augustine). Cuba and the Isle 
of Pines, and from northern Baja California, southern Arizona, Sonora, Sinaloa, 
Zacatecas, Nuevo Leon, central and southern Texas, and (rarely) southwestern 
Louisiana south locally through Middle America (including the Tres Marias Islands 
off Nayarit, but not reported Belize), and throughout most of South America (also 
islands off Venezuela from Aruba east to Trinidad) south to Tierra del Fuego and 



ORDER FALCON I FORMES 123 

the Falkland Islands; and [lutosus group] formerly on Guadalupe Island, offBaja 
California (now extinct). 

Casual [plancus group] north to central New Mexico and Oklahoma, and to 
islands off Panama (Taboga and Pearl) and Jamaica. Individuals reported from 
Oregon, Ontario, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and North Carolina are almost cer- 
tainly escapes from captivity. 

Notes.— The Guadalupe Island form is recognized by many authors as a distinct 
species, P. lutosus Ridgway. 1876 [Guadalupe Caracara]. The northern forms 
south to central South America are also considered by some as P. cheriway (Jac- 
quin, 1784) [Crested Caracara], distinct from P. plancus [Southern Cara- 
cara], although they intergrade near the mouth of the Amazon. 

Genus MILVAGO Spix 

Milvago Spix, 1824, Avium Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 12. Type, by monotypy, 
Milvago ochrocephalus Spix = Polyborus chimachima Vieillot. 

Notes.— Sometimes merged in Polyborus. 

Milvago chimachima (Vieillot). Yellow-headed Caracara. 

Polyborus chimachima Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, 
p. 259. Based on "Chimachima" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag., 1, 
p. 50 (no. 6). (Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Open country, savanna, pasturelands and cultivated areas, especially 
frequent near cattle (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southwestern Costa Rica (north to San Jose province) 
and Panama (including the Pearl Islands), and in South America from Colombia, 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, mostly east of the Andes, to 
eastern Peru, southern Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Notes.— M. chimachima and the South American M. chimango (Vieillot, 1816) 
appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Tribe HERPETOTHERINI: Laughing Falcons 

Genus HERPETOTHERES Vieillot 

Herpetotheres Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 18, p. 317. 
Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Falco cachinnans 
Linnaeus. 

Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus). Laughing Falcon. 

Falco cachinnans (Rolander MS) Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 90. 
(in America meridionali = Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Forest, most frequently in humid situations, primarily in forest edge 
and open woodland, nesting in tree cavities (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sonora and Tamaulipas south along both slopes 
of Middle America, and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the 
Guianas south, west of the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of Andes to 
eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 



1 24 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 



Tribe MICRASTURINI: Forest-Falcons 

Genus MICRASTUR Gray 

Brachypterus (not Kugelmann, 1794, nor Latreille, 1819) Lesson, 1836, Compl. 

Oeuvres Buffon, 7, p. 113. Type, by monotypy, Falco brachypterus Tem- 

minck = Sparvius semitorquatus Vieillot. 
Micrastur G. R. Gray, 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 6. New name for 

Brachypterus Lesson, preoccupied. 

Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot). Barred Forest-Falcon. 

Sparvius ruficollis Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 10, p. 
322. (I'Amerique meridionale = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Moist forest (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Guerrero, Puebla and Veracruz south through 
Middle America (except the state of Yucatan), and in South America west of the 
Andes from Colombia south to western Ecuador, and east of the Andes in northern 
Venezuela, and from eastern Peru and central and eastern Brazil (south of the 
Amazon) south to northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Notes.— The South American M. gilvicollis (Vieillot, 1817) is sometimes con- 
sidered conspecific with M. ruficollis, but see Schwartz, 1972, Condor, 74, pp. 
399^115. 

Micrastur mirandollei (Schlegel). Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon 

Astur mirandollei Schlegel, 1862, Mus. Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, livr. 1, Astures, 
p. 27. (Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Heavy moist lowland forest (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident, primarily in the Caribbean lowlands, in Costa Rica 
and Panama; and in South America from central Colombia, southern Venezuela 
and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and 
Amazonian and eastern Brazil. 



Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot). Collared Forest-Falcon. 

Sparvius semi- torquatus Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 10, 
p. 322. Based on "Esparvero Faxado" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag., 
1, p. 126 (no. 29). (Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Heavy forest, especially in thickets and dense areas, and mangroves 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa, San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas south 
through Middle America, and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and 
the Guianas south, west of the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of the Andes 
to eastern Peru, southern Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 



ORDER FALCON I FORMES 125 

Tribe FALCONINI: True Falcons 

Genus FALCO Linnaeus 

Falco Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 88. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1 840), "F. peregrinus L." = Falco peregrinus Tun- 
stall. 

Tinnunculus Vieillot, 1808, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am. Sept., 1 (1807), p. 39. Type, 
by subsequent designation (Walden, 1872), Falco columbarius Linnaeus. 

Hierofalco Cuvier, 1817, Regne Anim., 1 ( 1 8 1 6), p. 312. Type, by monotypy, 
Falco subbuteo Gmelin = Falco rusticolus Linnaeus. 

Cerchneis Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, col. 970. Type, by monotypy, Falco 
rupicolus Daudin = Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus. 

Hypotriorchis Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, col. 970. Type, by original desig- 
nation, Falco subbuteo Linnaeus. 

Aesalon Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., pp. 40, 190. Type, by 
tautonymy, Falco aesalon Tunstall = Falco columbarius Linnaeus. 

Rhynchodon Nitzsch, 1829, Observ. Avium Art. Carot. Comm., p. 20. Type, 
by subsequent designation (A.O.U. Comm., 1886), Falco peregrinus Tun- 
stall. 

Rhynchofalco Ridgway, 1873, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 16, p. 46. Type, 
by original designation, Falco femoralis Temminck. 

Planofalco Oberholser, 1974, Bird Life Texas, 2, p. 976. Type, by original 
designation, Falco mexicanus Schlegel. 

Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus. Eurasian Kestrel. [359.1.] 

Falco Tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 90. (in Europas 
turribus, etc. = Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in open country and partly open situations 
from the British Isles and northern Eurasia south to southern Africa, India, eastern 
China and Japan, and winters south to the East Indies and Philippines. 

Casual in Alaska (Attu and Shemya, in the Aleutians). Accidental in Massa- 
chusetts (Nantasket Beach), New Jersey (Cape May Point), the Lesser Antilles 
(Martinique), Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as European Kestrel and, in Old World literature, as the 
Kestrel. See comments under F. sparverius. 

Falco sparverius Linnaeus. American Kestrel. [360.] 

Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 90. Based on "The 
Little Hawk" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 5, pi. 5. (in America = 
South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Open and partly open country with scattered trees, cultivated lands 
and urban areas, nesting in holes in trees, on cliffs and in crevices of buildings 
(Tropical or Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and central Alaska, southern Yukon, west- 
ern (and probably northwestern) Mackenzie, northern Alberta, northern Saskatch- 
ewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick. 



1 26 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and southern Newfoundland south to southern 
Baja California (including Guadalupe Island), Sinaloa, the highlands of Middle 
America (to central Honduras), the Gulf coast and (at least formerly) southern 
Florida; in the Bahamas (north to Long Island, Rum Cay and San Salvador) and 
the Antilles (rare south of Guadeloupe); the lowland pine savannas of eastern 
Honduras and northeastern Nicaragua; and through most of South America (also 
the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad, but absent from heavily forested regions 
such as the Amazon basin) south to Tierra del Fuego (including the Juan Fernandez 
Islands off Chile). 

Winters from south-central Alaska (casually), southern British Columbia, the 
northern United States, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec and Nova Scotia 
south throughout the breeding range, and including the northern Bahamas and 
virtually all of Middle America, the northern populations migrating as far south 
as Panama. 

Casual or accidental in northern and southwestern Alaska, District of Franklin 
(Jenny Lind Island), Barbados, the Falkland Islands, British Isles, Denmark, the 
Azores and Malta. 

Notes.— Formerly known in American literature as Sparrow Hawk. Various 
Old World taxa, including F. tinnunculus, have been considered to form a super- 
species with F. sparverius, but relationships are uncertain. 

Falco columbarius Linnaeus. Merlin. [357.] 

Falco columbarius Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 90., Based on 
"The Pigeon-Hawk" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 3, pi. 3. (in Amer- 
ica = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Open country, nesting in and adjacent to grasslands (using mostly 
old crow and magpie nests) in scattered trees and bushes, on the ground under 
shrubs, on cliffs, and in cities, in migration and winter also in open woodland, 
moorlands, marshes and deserts, and along seacoasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northwestern Alaska, northern 
Yukon, northwestern and central Mackenzie, southeastern Keewatin, northern 
Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland south 
to southern Alaska, southwestern British Columbia, central Washington, eastern 
Oregon, Idaho, northern Montana, northern North Dakota, northern Minnesota, 
Iowa (formerly), northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, north- 
ern Ohio, southern Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; and in Eurasia 
from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles and Scandinavia east across Russia 
and Siberia to the Sea of Okhotsk, and south to Lake Baikal, Mongolia and 
Sakhalin. 

Winters in North America west of the Rockies from south-central Alaska, 
southern (primarily coastal) British Columbia, Wyoming and Colorado southward, 
locally across southern Canada (mostly in cities) in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Man- 
itoba, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and 
Newfoundland, and in the eastern United States from southern Texas, the Gulf 
coast and South Carolina (casually elsewhere north to the Canadian border) south 
through Middle America and the West Indies to northwestern Peru,western Ecua- 
dor, northern Colombia, northern Venezuela and Trinidad; and in Eurasia from 
Iceland, the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, southern Russia and southern 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 127 

Japan south to the Mediterranean region, northern Africa, Asia Minor, northern 
India, eastern China and Korea. 

Casual in Spitsbergen. 

Notes.— Formerly known as Pigeon Hawk. 

Falco femoralis Temminck. Aplomado Falcon. [359.] 

Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822, Planches Color., livr. 21, pi. 121 and text. 
(Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Open country, especially savanna and open woodland, and some- 
times in very barren situations (Tropical Zone, in South America to Temperate 
Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa, Chihuahua (possibly) and Tamaulipas 
(formerly north to southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and west-central 
and southern Texas, the last documented breeding in the United States in 1952 
in New Mexico, with an unverified report from southeastern Arizona in the late 
1960's) south locally to Chiapas, the Yucatan Peninsula and Belize; in the pine 
savanna of eastern Honduras and northeastern Nicaragua; and from western Pan- 
ama south generally throughout South America to Tierra del Fuego and the Falk- 
land Islands. 

Casual in Guatemala (San Agustin), western Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and, in 
recent years, in the former breeding range in the southwestern United States. 

[Falco subbuteo Linnaeus. Northern Hobby.] See Appendix B. 

Falco rufigularis Daudin. Bat Falcon. 

Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800, Traite Ornithol., 2, p. 131. Based on the 
"Orange-breasted Hobby" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 28. (in 
Cayana = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, forest edge and savanna, primarily in humid regions 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora and Tamaulipas south along both 
slopes through Middle America (including Coiba, Taboga and the Pearl islands 
off Panama), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and 
Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east 
of the Andes to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern 
Brazil. 

Notes.— For use of F. rufigularis instead of F. albigularis Daudin, 1800, see 
Eisenmann, 1966, Condor, 68, pp. 208-209. 

Falco deiroleucus Temminck. Orange-breasted Falcon. 

Falco deiroleucus Temminck, 1825, Planches Color., livr. 59, pi. 348. (Dans 
l'ile Saint Francois, partie meridionale du Bresil = Sao Francisco Island, 
Santa Catarina, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Primarily open forest and forest edge, usually in humid lowlands 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 



1 28 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Resident locally in southern Mexico (recorded Veracruz and 
Campeche), northeastern Guatemala (primarily Peten), Honduras (El Hatillo), 
Nicaragua (Matagalpa and the northeastern lowlands), Costa Rica and Panama 
(Chiriqui, Code and Darien), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela 
(also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, mostly east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Falco peregrinus Tunstall. Peregrine Falcon. [356.] 

Falco Peregrinus Tunstall, 1771, Ornithol. Br., p. 1. (No locality given = 
Northamptonshire, England.) 

Habitat.— A variety of open situations from tundra, moorlands, steppe and 
seacoasts, especially where there are suitable nesting cliffs, to high mountains, 
more open forested regions, and even human population centers where large 
buildings provide nesting sites. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Mac- 
kenzie, Banks, Victoria, southern Melville, Somerset and northern Baffin islands, 
and Labrador south to southern Baja California, the coast of Sonora, southern 
Arizona, New Mexico, western and central Texas, and Colorado, occasionally in 
the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental of northern Mexico, and, 
at least formerly, Kansas, Arkansas, northeastern Louisiana, Tennessee, northern 
Alabama and northwestern Georgia; in South America in central and southern 
Argentina, and central and southern Chile; and in much of the Old World from 
Greenland, the British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia, northern Siberia and 
the Chukotski Peninsula south, at least locally, through Eurasia and Africa to 
South Africa, Arabia, India, Ceylon, the East Indies, Australia (including Tas- 
mania), New Hebrides, and the Fiji and Loyalty islands. Absent as a breeding 
bird through much of continental North America, especially in the eastern part 
south of the Canadian Arctic, since the 1 950's; recently re-established as a breeding 
bird through introductions in parts of the northeastern United States. 

Winters in the Americas from southern Alaska (the Aleutians and Prince Wil- 
liam Sound), the Queen Charlotte Islands, coastal British Columbia, the central 
and southern United States (rarely farther north) and New Brunswick south through 
Middle America, the West Indies and South America to Tierra del Fuego; and in 
the Old World generally through the breeding range, with northernmost popula- 
tions usually migrating to tropical regions. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Canary Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as the Peregrine. The North African and Asiatic form is 
sometimes regarded as a distinct species, F. pelegrinoides Temminck, 1829. The 
South American F. kreyenborgi Kleinschmidt, 1929, appears to be a color morph 
of F. peregrinus. 

Falco rusticolus Linnaeus. Gyrfalcon. [354.] 

Falco rusticolus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 88. (in Svecia = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Primarily open country in the Arctic, including tundra, open conif- 
erous forest, mountainous regions and rocky seacoasts, nesting on cliffs and, occa- 
sionally, in trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
and Banks, Prince Patrick and Ellesmere islands south to central Alaska (including 



ORDER FALCONIFORMES 129 

the Aleutians west to Umnak), northwestern British Columbia, southern Yukon, 
northern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, Southampton Island, northern Quebec 
and northern Labrador; and in the Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland and north- 
ern Scandinavia east across northern Russia and northern Siberia to the Chukotski 
Peninsula, and south to Anadyrland, Kamchatka and Bering Island. 

Winters in North America from the breeding range south irregularly to the 
Pribilof and Aleutian islands, southern Alaska, southern Canada and the extreme 
northern United States; and in Eurasia from the breeding range south to the British 
Isles, western (casually central) Europe, southern Russia, Lake Baikal, Manchuria, 
Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands and Japan. 

Casual in winter south as far as northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, 
Oklahoma, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, northern Ohio, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Gyr Falcon. F. rusticolus and the 
Asiatic F. altaicus (Menzbier, 1891) appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Falco mexicanus Schlegel. Prairie Falcon. [355.] 

Falco mexicanus Schlegel, 1851, Abh. Geb. Zool. Bergl. Anat., 3, p. 15. 
(Mexico = Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.) 

Habitat.— Primarily open situations, especially in mountainous areas, steppe, 
plains or prairies, nesting on cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southeastern British Columbia, southern Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan and northern North Dakota south to Baja California, 
southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, southeastern Coahuila, western and 
northern Texas, and (formerly) northwestern Missouri. 

Winters from the breeding range in southern Canada south to Baja California, 
Sonora, Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. 

Casual north and east to Manitoba, Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana and Tennessee, 
and south to Hidalgo. Reports of accidentals in Alabama, Georgia and South 
Carolina may pertain to escaped individuals. 



Order GALLIFORMES: Gallinaceous Birds 

Superfamily CRACOIDEA: Megapodes, Curassows and Guans 

Family CRACIDAE: Curassows and Guans 

Genus ORTALIS Merrem 

Ortalida [accusative case] = Ortalis [nominative] Merrem, 1786, Avium Rar. 
Icones Descr., 2, p. 40. Type, by original designation, Phasianus mot mot 
Linnaeus. 

Ortalis ruficauda Jardine. Rufous- vented Chachalaca. 

Ortalida ruficauda Jardine, 1847, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, 20, p. 374. 
(Tobago.) 

Habitat.— Scrub, second growth and dense forest (Tropical Zone). 
Distribution.— Resident in northeastern Colombia, northern Venezuela (south 
to the Arauca and Orinoco rivers), and on Margarita Island and Tobago. 



130 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Introduced in the Lesser Antilles in the Grenadines (on Union and Bequia). 
where apparently established by the late 1 7th Century, but there have been no 
recent reports from Bequia. Early writings also alluded to its presence on St. 
Vincent in the late 17th Century. 

Notes.— Also known as Rufous-tailed Chach.ala.ca. The populations in 
Colombia and northwestern Venezuela are sometimes recognized as a distinct 
species. O. ruficrissa Sclater and Salvin. 1870; with this treatment. O. ruficauda 
is called Rufous-tipped Chachalaca 

Ortalis vetula (Wagler). Plain Chachalaca. [311.] 

Penelope vetula Wagler. 1830. Isis von Oken. col. 1112. (Mexico = Tampico. 
Tamaulipas.) 

Habitat. — Thickets, dense second growth, scrub and forest, primarily in semi- 
arid regions (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident [xetula group] on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from south- 
ern Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley) and Nuevo Leon south through the lowlands 
of eastern Mexico (including the Yucatan Peninsula and Isla Cancun). Belize and 
eastern Guatemala to northern Honduras (including Isla Utila in the Bay Islands). 
and in the interior valleys of Chiapas, central Honduras and north-central Nic- 
aragua: and [leucogastra group] in the Pacific lowlands from western Chiapas 
(vicinity of Pijijiapan) south to northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste). Reports 
from Cozumel. Mujeres and Holbox islands are regarded as doubtful. 

Introduced and established [xetula group] on islands off the coast of Georgia 
(Sapelo. Blackbeard and Little St. Simons). 

Notes.— The distinct Pacific lowland populations have often been regarded as 
a separate species. O. leucogastra (Gould. 1843) [White-bellied Chachalaca]. 

Ortalis cinereiceps Gray. Gray-headed Chachalaca. 

Ortalida cinereiceps G. R. Gray. 1867. List Birds Br. Mus.. pt. 5. p. 12. (north- 
west coast of .America = Pearl Islands. Panama.) 

Habitat.— Thickets, second growth and forest, especially near streams (Tropical 
Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Honduras (Olancho. Mosquitia). eastern and 
central Nicaragua. Costa Rica (except the dry northwest). Panama (including Isla 
del Rey in the Pearl Islands) and northwestern Colombia. 

Notes.— The South American O. garrula (Humboldt. 1805) and O. cinereiceps 
constitute a superspecies: they are considered by some as conspecific. With the 
broader species concept. Chestnut-winged Chachalaca may be used. 

Ortalis poliocephala (Wagler). Wagler's Chachalaca. 

Penelope poliocephala Wagler. 1830. Isis von Oken. col. 1112. (Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Dense scrub, second growth and forest in semi-arid regions, generally 
found near water (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora. Sinaloa and western Durango 
south to Morelos. western Puebla. Oaxaca and extreme western Chiapas (vicinity 
of Tonala). 

Notes.— Also known as West Mexican Chachalaca. Includes O. wagleri G. 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 1 3 1 

R. Gray, 1867 [Rufous-bellied Chachalaca], formerly recognized as a distinct 
species but now known to intergrade with poliocephala (see Vaurie, 1965, Am. 
Mus. Novit., no. 2222, pp. 17-19). 

Genus CHAMAEPETES Wagler 

Chamaepetes Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1227. Type, by monotypy, 
Ortalida goudotii Lesson. 

Chamaepetes unicolor Salvin. Black Guan. 

Chamaepetes unicolor Salvin, 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 159. (Ver- 
agua, Panama = Calovevora, Panama.) 

Habitat.— Primarily dense, undisturbed, moist montane forest (upper Tropical 
and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Costa Rica (north to Cordillera de 
Guanacaste) and western Panama (east to Veraguas). 

Genus PENELOPINA Reichenbach 

Penelopina Reichenbach, 1 862, Avium Syst. Nat., Columbariae, p. 152. Type, 
by monotypy, Penelope niger Fraser. 

Penelopina nigra (Fraser). Highland Guan. 

Penelope niger Fraser, 1852, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1850), p. 246, pi. 29. 
(No locality given.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, less frequently in deciduous woodland (upper 
Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of extreme eastern Oaxaca (Sierra 
Madre de Chiapas), Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador (at least formerly), Honduras 
and north-central Nicaragua. 

Notes.— Also known as Black Chachalaca. 



Genus PENELOPE Merrem 

Penelope Merrem, 1786, Avium Rar. Icones Descr., 2, p. 39. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (Lesson, 1828), Penelope marail "Linnaeus" [=Gme- 
lin] = Penelope jacupema Merrem = Phasianus marail Miiller. 

Penelope purpurascens Wagler. Crested Guan. 

Penelope purpurascens Wagler, 1830, Isis von Oken, col. 1110. (Mexico = 
probably Veracruz.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest, occasionally in scrub (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas south along both slopes 
of Middle America to Colombia, western Ecuador and northern Venezuela. 

Notes.— P. purpurascens, P. jacquacu Spix, 1825, and P. obscura Temminck. 
1815, the latter two South American, may constitute a superspecies. 



1 32 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Genus OREOPHASIS Gray 

Oreophasis G. R. Gray, 1844, Genera Birds, 3. p. [485]. col. pi. 121 and pi. 
[121]. Type, by monotypy, Oreophasis derbianus Gray. 

Oreophasis derbianus Gray. Horned Guan. 

Oreophasis derbianus G. R. Gray. 1844. Genera Birds. 3. p. [485]. col. pi. 
121 and pi. [121]. (Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest (Subtropical and lower Temperate zones). 
Distribution. — Resident in the mountains of Chiapas (possibly also extreme 
eastern Oaxaca) and Guatemala. 

Genus CRAX Linnaeus 

Crax Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 157. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Ridgway. 1896), Crax rubra Linnaeus. 

Crax rubra Linnaeus. Great Curassow. 

Crax rubra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 157. Based on "The Red 
Peruvian Hen" Albin, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3. p. 37. pi. 40. (in America = 
western Ecuador.) 

Habitat.— Primarily undisturbed, mature forest, mostly humid but also in semi- 
arid regions, occasionally in partially cleared areas and scrubby woodland (Trop- 
ical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern San Luis Potosi. southern Tamaulipas. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca south along both slopes of Middle America (including Coz- 
umel Island) to western Colombia and western Ecuador. 

Notes. — C. rubra is part of a large complex that probably constitutes a super- 
species, including the South American C. alberti Fraser. 1852. C. alect or Linnaeus. 
1766, C fasciolata Spix, 1825. C. daubentoni G. R. Gray. 1867. C. globulosa 
Spix, 1815, and C blumenbachii Spix. 1825. 

Superfamily PHASIANOIDEA: Partridges. Grouse. Turkeys and Quail 

Family PHASIANIDAE: Partridges. Grouse. Turkeys and Quail 

Subfamily PHASIANINAE: Partridges and Pheasants 

Tribe PERDICINI: Partridges 

Genus PERDIX Brisson 

Perdix Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie. 1. pp. 26. 219. Type, by tautonymy. 
Perdix cinerea Brisson = Tetrao perdix Linnaeus. 

Perdix perdix (Linnaeus). Gray Partridge. [288.1.] 

Tetrao Perdix Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 160. (in Europe agris = 
southern Sweden.) 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 1 33 

Habitat.— Primarily cultivated regions with marginal cover of bushes, under- 
growth or hedgerows, and pastures, steppe and meadows. 

Distribution.— Resident in Eurasia from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia 
and northern Russia south to southern Europe, Turkey, northern Iran, Turkestan 
and Mongolia. 

Widely introduced in North America and established locally from southern 
British Columbia, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, 
southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island 
and Nova Scotia south to northeastern California (formerly), northern Nevada, 
northern Utah, northern Wyoming, northern South Dakota, northwestern Iowa, 
extreme northern Illinois, central Indiana, west-central Ohio, northern New York 
and northern Vermont. 

Notes.— Also known as Hungarian or Common Partridge and, in Old World 
literature, as the Partridge. 

Genus FRANCOLINUS Stephens 

Francolinus Stephens, 1819, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 11 (2), p. 316. Type, by 
tautonymy, Francolinus vulgaris Stephens = Tetrao francolinus Linnaeus. 

Francolinus francolinus (Linnaeus). Black Francolin. [288.3.] 

Tetrao Francolinus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 275. (in Italia, 
Orienta, Africa, Asia = Cyprus.) 

Habitat.— Grasslands (primarily tall grass), scrubby and brushy areas, marshes 
and, locally, clearings in open forest. 

Distribution.— Resident from Cyprus, Asia Minor and the Near East east to 
southern Afghanistan, India and Assam. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1959, presently on Kauai. 
Molokai, Maui and Hawaii), southwestern Louisiana (Calcasieu and Cameron 
parishes), and southern Florida (Palm Beach County). 

Francolinus pondicerianus (Gmelin). Gray Francolin. [288.4.] 

Tetrao pondicerianus Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 760. Based on the 
"Pondicherry Partridge" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 2 (2), p. 774. (in 
Coromandel = Pondicherry, India.) 

Habitat.— Open dry country with scrub or grass, cultivated fields and desert 
scrub. 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Iran east to India and Ceylon. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1958, presently on 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui and Hawaii), southern Arabia, and the Andaman, Sey- 
chelles, Amirante and Mascarene islands. 

Francolinus erckelii (Riippell). Erckel's Francolin. [288.5.] 

Perdix Erckelii Riippell, 1835, Neue Wirbelth., Vogel, p. 12. pi. 6. (Taranta 
Mts., northeastern Ethiopia.) 

Habitat.— Scrub, brush and open areas with scattered trees, primarily in hilly 
or mountainous country. 



134 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution. — Resident in eastern Sudan (Red Sea Province), northern Ethiopia 
and Eritrea. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1957. now on all main 
islands from Kauai eastward). 

Genus ALECTORIS Kaup 

Alectoris Kaup. 1829. Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw.. pp. 180. 193. Type. 
by monotypy. Perdix petrosa Auct. (not Gmelin) = Perdix barbara Bon- 

naterre. 

Alectoris chukar (Gray). Chukar. [288.2.] 

Perdix Chukar]. E. Gray. 1830. in Hardwicke, Illus. Indian Zool.. 1 (2). pi. 
54. (India = Srinagar. Kumaon. India.) 

Habitat. — Rocky hillsides, mountain slopes with grass}" vegetation, open and 
flat desert with sparse grasses, and barren plateaus. 

Distribution.— Resident in Eurasia from southeastern Europe and Asia Minor 
east to southern Manchuria, northern China. Turkestan and the western Hima- 
layas. 

Introduced widely in North America and established, at least locally, from 
south-central British Columbia, northern Idaho, and central and eastern Montana 
south to extreme northern Baja California, southern Nevada, northern Arizona. 
extreme northwestern New Mexico and south-central Colorado: also in the Hawai- 
ian Islands (mam islands from Kauai eastward, but no longer on Oahu). 

Notes.— A. chukar was long regarded as a subspecies of A. graeca (Meisner, 
1804) [Rock Partridge] of Europe, but see Watson. 1962. Evolution. 16. pp. 
1 1-19. and 1962, Ibis, pp. 353-367. 

Genus COTURNTX Bonnaterre 

Coturnix Bonnaterre. 1791. Tabl. Encycl. Meth.. Ornithol.. 1. livr. 47. pi. 
lxxxvii. Type, by tautonymy. "Caille" Bonnaterre = Tetrao coturnix Lin- 
naeus. 

Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel. Japanese Quail. [288.6.] 

Coturnix vulgaris japonica Temminck and Schlegel. 1849. in Siebold. Fauna 
Jpn.. Aves. p. 103. pi. 61. (Japan.) 

Habitat. — Grasslands, marshes, cultivated fields and pastures. 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Mongolia and Transbaicalia east through 
Amurland to Ussuriland. Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands, and south to Manchuria. 
Korea and Japan. 

Winters from Transbaicalia (rarely) and central Japan south to the northern 
Indochina region, southern China and the Ryukyu Islands. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1921. presently on main 
islands from Kauai eastward, except Oahu). 

Notes. — Regarded by some authors as conspecific with C coturnix (Linnaeus, 
1758). a widespread Eurasian species, but differences in vocalizations and sym- 
patric breeding in northern Mongolia indicate specific status of C. japonica: the 
two species constitute a superspecies. 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 135 

Tribe PHASIANINI: Pheasants 

Genus LOPHURA Fleming 

Lophura Fleming, 1822, Philos. Zool., 2, p. 230. Type, by monotypy, Pha- 

sianus ignitus [Shaw]. 
Gennaeus Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1228. Type, by monotypy, Pha- 

sianus nycthemerus Linnaeus. 

Lophura leucomelana (Latham). Kalij Pheasant. [309.3.] 

Phasianus leucomelanos Latham, 1790, Index Ornithol., 2, p. 633. (India = 
Nepal.) 

Habitat.— Dense scrub, forest undergrowth, thickets and wooded ravines, in 
Hawaii in ohia-tree fern and koa forest, and on plantations. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Himalayas from Nepal east to northern Assam 
and Bhutan. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (on Hawaii in 1962, now 
in the North Kona district and on the slopes of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea). 

Genus GALLUS Brisson 

Gallus Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, pp. 26, 166. Type, by tautonymy, 
Gallus Brisson = Phasianus gallus Linnaeus. 

Gallus gallus (Linnaeus). Red Junglefowl. [309.4.] 

Phasianus Gallus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 158. (in India 
Orientali: Pouli candor etc. = Island of Pulo Condor, off the mouth of the 
Mekong River.) 

Habitat.— Forest undergrowth, second growth, scrub and cultivated lands. 

Distribution.— Resident from the Himalayas, southern China and Hainan south 
to central India, Southeast Asia, Sumatra and Java. 

Introduced in the Hawaiian Islands (by early Polynesians, probably about 500 
A.D.), established presently on Kauai, formerly on other main islands, with recent 
reintroductions not known to have become established except at Waimea Falls 
Park, on Oahu; on islands off Puerto Rico (Mona, and possibly Culebra); and in 
the Philippines, and on many islands of the East Indies and Polynesia. 

Genus PHASIANUS Linnaeus 

Phasianus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 158. Type, by tautonymy, 
Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus {Phasianus, prebinomial specific name, in 
synonymy). 

Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus. Ring-necked Pheasant. [309.1.] 

Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 158. (in Africa. 
Asia = Rion, formerly Phasis, Georgian S.S.R.) 

Habitat.— Open country (especially cultivated areas, scrubby wastes, open 
woodland and edges of woods), grassy steppe, desert oases, riverside thickets, 
swamps and open mountain forest. 



1 36 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Resident [colchicus group] from central Russia, Transcaucasia, 
Turkestan, Mongolia and Ussuriland south to northern Iran, northern Burma, 
China and Korea; and [versicolor group] in Japan, and the Seven Islands of Izu. 

Introduced and established [colchicus group] in the Hawaiian Islands (about 
1865, presently on all main islands from Kauai eastward), widely in North America 
from southern British Columbia (and the Queen Charlotte Islands), central Alberta, 
central Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, northern 
Wisconsin, central Michigan, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, New Bruns- 
wick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south, at least locally, to southern 
interior California, northern Baja California, Utah, southern New Mexico, north- 
ern and southeastern Texas, northwestern Oklahoma, Kansas, northern Missouri, 
southern Illinois, central Indiana, southern Ohio, Pennsylvania, northern Mary- 
land, New Jersey and North Carolina (Outer Banks), and in Japan, New Zealand 
and Europe; and [versicolor group] in the Hawaiian Islands (common on Hawaii, 
with smaller numbers on Kauai, Lanai and possibly Maui). 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Pheasant. The two groups are 
sometimes considered as separate species, P. colchicus [Ring-necked Pheasant, 
309.1] and P. versicolor Vieillot, 1825 [Green or Japanese Pheasant, 309.2]. 
Within the colchicus group, the Asiatic complex is sometimes treated as a species, 
P. torquatus Gmelin, 1789 [Ring-necked Pheasant], distinct from the more 
western P. colchicus [Common or English Pheasant]; most North American 
populations are from P. torquatus stock, although birds from European P. colchicus 
are mixed with torquatus in many areas. 

Genus PAVO Linnaeus 

Pavo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 156. Type, by tautonymy, Pavo 
cristatus Linnaeus {Pavo, prebinomial specific name, in synonymy). 

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus. Common Peafowl. [309.5.] 

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 156. (in India orientali, 
Zeylona = India.) 

Habitat.— Open forest, forest edge, second growth, scrub, open areas with scat- 
tered trees, and cultivated lands. 

Distribution.— Resident throughout India and on Ceylon. 

Introduced in the Hawaiian Islands (initially in 1860, presently established on 
Oahu and Hawaii, doubtfully so on Molokai and Maui); local, semi-domesticated 
populations have also persisted for years in various parts of the North American 
continent. 

Subfamily TETRAONINAE: Grouse 
Notes.— Sometimes regarded as a family, the Tetraonidae. 

Genus DENDRAGAPUS Elliot 

Dendragapus Elliot, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16, p. 23. Type, 
by subsequent designation (Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 1874), Tetrao 
obscurus Say. 

Canachites Stejneger, 1885, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 8, p. 410. Type, by original 
designation, Tetrao canadensis Linnaeus. 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 1 37 

Dendragapus canadensis (Linnaeus). Spruce Grouse. [298.] 

Tetrao canadensis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 159. Based on 
"The Black and Spotted Heath-cock" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 118, 
pi. 1 18. (in Canada = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Coniferous forest, primarily spruce and pine, especially with dense 
understory of grasses and shrubs. 

Distribution.— Resident from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, western and 
southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario, 
northern Quebec, Labrador, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to south - 
coastal and southeastern Alaska (west to the base of the Alaska Peninsula), north- 
ern Oregon, central and southeastern Idaho, northwestern Wyoming, western 
Montana, southeastern and central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Man- 
itoba, northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, north-central Michigan, southern 
Ontario, northern New York, northern Vermont, northern New Hampshire and 
eastern Maine. 

Introduced and established in Newfoundland. 

Notes.— The form resident from southeastern Alaska, central British Columbia 
and west-central Alberta south to northern Oregon, central Idaho, western Mon- 
tana and northwestern Wyoming was formerly regarded as a separate species, D. 
franklinii (Douglas, 1829) [Franklin's Grouse, 299]. 

Dendragapus obscurus (Say). Blue Grouse. [297.] 

Tetrao obscurus Say, 1823, in Long, Exped. Rocky Mount., 2, p. 14. (near 
Defile Creek = about 20 miles north of Colorado Springs, Colorado.) 

Habitat.— Coniferous forest, especially fir, mostly in open situations with a 
mixture of deciduous trees and shrubs. 

Distribution.— Resident [obscurus group] from southeastern Alaska (except coastal 
areas), southern Yukon and extreme southwestern Mackenzie south through the 
mountains of interior British Columbia, southwestern Alberta, eastern Washing- 
ton and the Rocky Mountains to eastern Nevada, northern and eastern Arizona, 
southwestern and north-central New Mexico, eastern Colorado and (formerly) 
western South Dakota; and [fuliginosus group] from coastal southeastern Alaska 
(north to Yakutat) and coastal British Columbia (including the Queen Charlotte 
and Vancouver islands) south in coastal ranges and the Cascades to northwestern 
California, and in the Sierra Nevada to southern California (Ventura County) and 
extreme western Nevada. 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes treated as separate species, D. obscurus 
[Dusky Grouse, 297]and£>./«%//?asMs(Ridgway, 1873) [Sooty Grouse, 297.1]. 



Genus LAGOPUS Brisson 

Lagopus Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, pp. 26, 181. Type, by tautonymy, 
Lagopus Brisson = Tetrao lagopus Linnaeus. 

Lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus). Willow Ptarmigan. [30 1 .] 

Tetrao Lagopus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 159. (in Europa? 
alpinis = Swedish Lapland.) 



1 38 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Open tundra, especially in areas heavily vegetated with grasses, mosses, 
herbs and shrubs, less frequently in openings in boreal coniferous forest. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America across the Arctic from northern Alaska 
east through Banks, southern Melville and Bathurst islands to western Baffin 
Island, and south to the central and eastern Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, 
central British Columbia, extreme west-central Alberta, central Mackenzie, south- 
ern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, extreme northern Ontario, the Belcher 
Islands (in Hudson Bay), central Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland; and in 
Eurasia from the British Isles and Scandinavia east across Russia and Siberia, and 
south to Mongolia, Ussuriland and Sakhalin. 

Winters mostly in the breeding range, in North America wandering irregularly 
(or casually) south to Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, central 
Ontario and Maine; and in Eurasia south to northern Europe. 

Introduced and established (in 1968, from the Newfoundland population) in 
Nova Scotia. 

Accidental on Vancouver Island and (prior to introduction) in Nova Scotia. 

Notes.— In the Old World known as Willow Grouse. 

Lagopus mutus (Montin). Rock Ptarmigan. [302.] 

Tetrao mutus Montin, 1776, Phys. Salskap. Handl., 1, p. 155. (Alpibus lap- 
ponicus = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Open tundra, barren and rocky slopes in Arctic and alpine areas, and 
relatively barren heaths and moors. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska east through the 
Canadian Arctic islands to Ellesmere and Baffin islands, and south to the Aleutians, 
southern Alaska (including Kodiak Island), western British Columbia, central 
Mackenzie, central Keewatin, Southampton Island, northern Quebec, northern 
Labrador and Newfoundland; and in the Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland, 
Scotland and Scandinavia east across northern Russia and northern Siberia to 
Kamchatka, and at high elevations in the Pyrenees and Alps of southern Europe, 
the mountain ranges of central Asia, and in the Kurile Islands and Japan (Honshu). 

Winters regularly in North America from the breeding range south to southern 
Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northwestern Ontario 
and central Quebec, casually to southwestern British Columbia (Vancouver Island); 
and in the Palearctic primarily resident in the breeding range. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Ptarmigan. 

Lagopus leucurus (Richardson). White-tailed Ptarmigan. [304.] 

Tetrao {Lagopus) leucurus Richardson, 1831, in Wilson and Bonaparte, Am. 
Ornithol., Jameson ed., 4, p. 330. (Rocky Mountains, lat. 54°N.) 

Habitat.— Alpine tundra, especially in rocky areas with sparse vegetation. 

Distribution.— Resident from south-central Alaska (Alaska Range), central Yukon 
and southwestern Mackenzie south to southern Alaska (west to the Kenai Pen- 
insula and Lake Clark), southern British Columbia (including Vancouver Island) 
and the Cascade Mountains of Washington, and along the Rocky Mountains 
(locally, mostly on alpine summits) from southeastern British Columbia and south- 
western Alberta south through Montana, Wyoming and Colorado to northern 
New Mexico. 

Introduced and established in California (high central Sierra Nevada). 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 139 

Genus BONASA Stephens 

Bonasa Stephens, 1819, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 1 1 (2), p. 298. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (A.O.U. Comm., 1886), Tetrao umbellus Linnaeus. 

Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus). Ruffed Grouse. [300.] 

Tetrao umbellus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 275. Based on "The 
Ruffed Heath-cock or Grous" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 79, pi. 248. 
(in Pensylvania = eastern Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Heavy forest, both coniferous and deciduous, although the presence 
of deciduous trees seems essential, in both wet and relatively dry situations from 
boreal forest and northern hardwood-ecotone to eastern deciduous forest and oak- 
savanna woodland. 

Distribution.— Resident from central Alaska, northern Yukon, southwestern 
Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, south- 
ern Quebec, southern Labrador, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova 
Scotia south to northwestern California, northeastern Oregon, central and eastern 
Idaho, central Utah, central Wyoming, central Montana, southern Alberta, south- 
ern Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba (absent from prairie regions of three pre- 
ceding provinces), central and southeastern Minnesota, northern Illinois, central 
Indiana, northern Ohio, in the Appalachians to northern Georgia, western South 
Carolina and western North Carolina, and to northeastern Virginia; also locally 
south to western South Dakota (Black Hills), eastern Kansas (formerly), central 
Arkansas, western Tennessee and northeastern Alabama (formerly). 

Introduced and established in Iowa and Newfoundland. 

Genus CENTROCERCUS Swainson 

Centrocercus [subgenus] Swainson, 1832, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna 
Bor.-Am., 2 (1831), pp. 358, 496. Type, by original designation, Tetrao 
urophasianus Bonaparte. 

Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte). Sage Grouse. [309.] 

Tetrao urophasianus Bonaparte, 1827, Zool. J., 3, p. 213. (Northwestern 
countries beyond the Mississippi, especially on the Missouri = North 
Dakota.) 

Habitat.— Foothills, plains and mountain slopes where sagebrush is present. 

Distribution.— Resident locally (formerly widespread) from central Washington, 
southern Idaho, Montana, southeastern Alberta, southwestern Saskatchewan, 
southwestern North Dakota and western South Dakota south to eastern California, 
south-central Nevada, southern Utah, western Colorado and northern New Mex- 
ico, formerly north to southern British Columbia and southeast to the Oklahoma 
Panhandle. 

Genus TYMPANUCHUS Gloger 

Tympanuchus Gloger, 1842, Gemein. Handb. Hilfsb. Naturgesch. (1841), p. 
396. Type, by monotypy, Tetrao cupido Linnaeus. 

Pedioecetes Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. 
R. R. Pac, 9, pp. xxi, xliv. Type, by monotypy, Tetrao phasianellus Lin- 
naeus. 



1 40 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus). Greater Prairie-Chicken. [305.] 

Tetrao Cupido Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 160. Based on "Le 
Cocq de bois d'Amerique" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 2, app., p. 1, pi. 
1. (in Virginia = Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Tall grasslands (prairie), occasionally cultivated lands of similar types, 
formerly in eastern (fire-produced) grassland and blueberry barrens. 

Distribution.— Resident locally and in much reduced numbers from eastern 
North Dakota, northwestern and central Minnesota, northern Wisconsin and 
northern Michigan south to northeastern Colorado, Kansas (except southwestern), 
southern and northeastern Oklahoma, central Missouri and southern Illinois; also 
in southeastern Texas. Formerly occurred (now extirpated or nearly so) from east- 
central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba and southern Ontario 
south, east of the Rocky Mountains, to eastern Texas, southwestern Louisiana, 
east-central Arkansas, central Indiana, western Kentucky and western Ohio; and 
in the east from Massachusetts south to Maryland, after 1835 confined to the 
island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts (where last reported in 1932). 

Notes.— Also known as Pinnated Grouse; the extinct eastern population was 
called Heath Hen. This species and T. pallidicinctus constitute a superspecies 
and are considered to be conspecific by some authors; with this concept, Prairie 
Chicken or Pinnated Grouse may be used. T. cupido and T. phasianellus hybrid- 
ize sporadically, but occasionally they interbreed extensively on a local level. 

Tympanuchus pallidicinctus (Ridgway). Lesser Prairie-Chicken. [307.] 

Cupidonia cupido var. pallidicinctus Ridgeway [sic], 1873, For. Stream, 1, p. 
289. (prairie of Texas [near lat. 32°N.].) 

Habitat.— Arid grasslands, generally interspersed with shrubs and dwarf trees. 

Distribution.— Resident locally and in reduced numbers from southeastern Col- 
orado, south-central Kansas and western Oklahoma to extreme eastern New Mex- 
ico and northern Texas (Panhandle), formerly north to southwestern Nebraska. 

Notes.— See comments under T. cupido. 

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus). Sharp-tailed Grouse. [308.] 

Tetrao Phasianellus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 160. Based on 
"The Long-tailed Grous from Hudson's-Bay" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 
3, p. 117, pi. 117. (in Canada = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Grasslands, especially with scattered woodlands, arid sagebrush, 
brushy hills, oak savanna and edges of riparian woodland. 

Distribution.— Resident, at least locally, from central Alaska, central Yukon, 
northwestern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern 
Ontario and west-central Quebec south to eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, 
southern Idaho, central Utah, central Colorado, extreme northeastern New Mexico 
(at least formerly), central Nebraska, eastern South Dakota, eastern North Dakota, 
central Minnesota, central Wisconsin, northern Michigan and southern Ontario; 
formerly occurred south to southern Oregon, northeastern California, northeastern 
Nevada, western Kansas, southern Iowa and northern Illinois, probably also north- 
ern Texas. 

Notes.— See comments under T. cupido. 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 141 

Subfamily MELEAGRIDINAE: Turkeys 
Notes.— Sometimes regarded as a family, the Meleagrididae. 

Genus MELEAGRIS Linnaeus 

Meleagris Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 156. Type, by tautonymy, 
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus (Meleagris, prebinomial specific name, in 
synonymy). 

Notes.— See comments under Agriocharis. 

Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. Wild Turkey. [310.] 

Meleagris Gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 156. Based 
mainly on the "Wild Turkey" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 44, pi. 
44. (in America septentrionali = Mirador, Veracruz.) 

Habitat.— Forest and open woodland, deciduous or mixed deciduous-coniferous 
areas, especially in mountainous regions (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally and generally in reduced numbers (formerly 
widespread) from central Arizona, central Colorado, northern Kansas, eastern 
Nebraska, southeastern South Dakota, northern Iowa, southern and eastern Wis- 
consin, central Michigan, southern Ontario (formerly), northern New York, south- 
ern Vermont, southern New Hampshire and southwestern Maine south to Guer- 
rero (possibly Oaxaca), Veracruz, southern Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida. 

Reintroduced widely through its former breeding range, and introduced and 
established locally north to central California, west-central and southern Nevada, 
eastern Utah, central Wyoming, southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, south- 
western Manitoba and southern Ontario (probably); also in the Hawaiian Islands 
(initially in 1788, now on Niihau, Lanai, Maui and Hawaii) and New Zealand. 

Notes.— Also known as Common or Plain Turkey. 

Genus AGRIOCHARIS Chapman 

Agriocharis Chapman, 1896, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6, pp. 287, 288. 
Type, by monotypy, Meleagris ocellata "Temminck" [= Cuvier]. 

Notes.— By some authors merged in Meleagris. 

Agriocharis ocellata (Cuvier). Ocellated Turkey. 

Meleagris ocellata Cuvier, 1820, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., 6, pp. 1, 4, pi. 1. 
(Gulf of Honduras = Belize.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest edge and tall second growth (Tropical Zone). 
Distribution.— Resident in southeastern Mexico (Tabasco and the Yucatan Pen- 
insula), northern Guatemala (Peten) and northern Belize. 

Subfamily ODONTOPHORINAE: Quail 

Genus DENDRORTYX Gould 

Dendrortyx Gould, 1844, Monogr. Odontoph., 1, pi. [3] and text. Type, by 
monotypy, Ortyx macroura Jardine and Selby. 



1 42 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Dendrortyx macroura (Jardine and Selby). Long-tailed Wood- 
Partridge. 

Ortyx macroura Jardine and Selby, 1828, Illus. Ornithol., 1, text to pi. 38 (in 
"Ortyx synopsis specierum"), and pi. 49 and text. (Mexico = mountains 
about valley of Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Dense underbrush of mountain slopes and relatively undisturbed 
humid pine-oak forests (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Jalisco, Michoacan, state of Mexico, 
Distrito Federal, Morelos, Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz and Oaxaca. 

Dendrortyx barbatus Gould. Bearded Wood-Partridge. 

Dendrortyx barbatus (Lichtenstein MS) Gould, 1846, Monogr. Odontoph., 2, 
pi. [2] and text. (Jalapa, Veracruz.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forests (Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern San Luis Potosi, eastern Hidalgo, eastern 
Puebla and Veracruz. 

Dendrortyx leucophrys (Gould). Buffy-crowned Wood-Partridge. 

Ortyx leucophrys Gould, 1 844, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1843), p. 1 32. (Coban, 
Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, primarily in dense undergrowth of clearings, 
open forest and forest edge (upper Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in the mountains of Chiapas (Sierra Madre de 
Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, north-central Nicaragua and Costa 
Rica (central highlands, including Dota Mountains). 

Genus ODONTOPHORUS VieiUot 

Odontophorus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 51. Type, by monotypy, "Tocro" 
Buffon = Tetrao gujanensis Gmelin. 

Odontophorus gujanensis (Gmelin). Marbled Wood-Quail. 

Tetrao gujanensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 767. Based in part on 
the "Guiana Partridge" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 2 (2), p. 776. (in 
Cayenna et Gujana = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest and shaded second growth (Tropical and lower Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southern and southwestern Costa Rica (Pacific slope 
from Gulf of Nicoya eastward) and Panama (Caribbean lowlands from Code 
eastward, and Pacific slope in Chiriqui, where probably now extirpated, and from 
eastern Panama province eastward), and in South America from northern Colom- 
bia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, mostly east of the Andes, to eastern Bolivia 
and central and northeastern Brazil. 

Odontophorus erythrops Gould. Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail. 

Odontophorus erythrops Gould, 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 99. (Pa- 
llatanga, Ecuador.) 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 143 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forests, generally in dense forest or heavy 
second growth (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [rnelanotis group] locally in northern and eastern Hon- 
duras (Caribbean slope west to the Sula Valley), Nicaragua (Caribbean slope), 
Costa Rica (mostly Caribbean slope) and Panama (both slopes); and [erythrops 
group] in western Colombia and western Ecuador. 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes regarded as separate species, O. rnel- 
anotis Salvin, 1865 [Black-eared Wood-Quail] and O. erythrops. 

Odontophorus leucolaemus Salvin. Black-breasted Wood-Quail. 

Odontophorus leucolaemus Salvin, 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 161. 
(Cordillera de Tole, Veraguas, Panama.) 

Habitat.— Humid highland forest, especially on steep wooded slopes (upper 
Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the central highlands of Costa Rica (west to Cordillera 
de Guanacaste) and western Panama (east to Code, mostly on the Caribbean 
drainage). 

Notes.— Also known as White-throated Wood-Quail. 

Odontophorus dialeucos Wetmore. Tacarcuna Wood-Quail. 

Odontophorus dialeucos Wetmore, 1963, Smithson. Misc. Collect., 145, no. 
6, p. 5. (1,450 meters elevation, 6V2 kilometers west of the summit of Cerro 
Mali, Serrania del Darien, Darien, Panama.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest (Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Panama (on Cerro Mali and Cerro Tacarcuna, 
at the southern end of the Serrania del Darien, in Darien). 

Odontophorus guttatus (Gould). Spotted Wood-Quail. 

Ortyx guttata Gould, 1838, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1837), p. 79. (Bay of 
Honduras = Belize.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, especially dense forest with open 
understory (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southern Mexico (Veracruz, northern Oaxaca, 
Tabasco, Chipas, Campeche and Quintana Roo), northern Guatemala (Peten and 
the Caribbean lowlands) and Belize, and in the highlands of central Guatemala, 
Honduras, north-central Nicaragua, Costa Rica and extreme western Panama 
(western Chiriqui). 

Genus DACTYLORTYX Ogilvie-Grant 

Dactylortyx Ogilvie-Grant, 1893, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 22, pp. xiv, 99, 429. 
Type, by monotypy, Ortyx thoracicus Gambel. 

Dactylortyx thoracicus (Gambel). Singing Quail. 

Ortyx thoracicus Gambel, 1848, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 4, p. 77. 
(Jalapa, [Veracruz,] Mexico.) 



1 44 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Primarily humid montane (cloud) forest, less frequently tropical 
deciduous forest, pine-oak association and humid gallery forest (Tropical and 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in southwestern Tamaulipas, southeastern San 
Luis Potosi. northeastern Puebla and central Veracruz: in western Jalisco and 
probably also Colima: in central Guerrero; in the Yucatan Peninsula: and from 
extreme eastern Oaxaca (Sierra Madre de Chiapas) south through the mountains 
of Chiapas, Guatemala and El Salvador to central Honduras. 

Genus CYRTONYX Gould 

Cyrtonyx Gould. 1844. Monogr. Odontoph.. 1. pi. [2] and text. Type, by 
monotypy. Onyx massena Lesson = Onyx montezumae Vigors. 

Cyrtonyx montezumae (Vigors). Montezuma Quail. [296.] 
Onyx Montezumae Vigors, 1830, Zool. J., 5, p. 275. (Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Pine-oak and oak scrub in the highlands, especially in open woodland 
with grass understory (Subtropical and lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident, at least locally, from central and southeastern Arizona, 
southern New Mexico, western and central Texas, northern Coahuila. central 
Nuevo Leon and central Tamaulipas south in the mountains of Mexico to west- 
central Veracruz and central Oaxaca (La Cieneguilla). 

Notes.— Also known as Harlequin Quail. C. montezumae and C. ocellatus 
constitute a superspecies: conspecificity has been suggested by some authors. 

Cyrtonyx ocellatus (Gould). Ocellated Quail. 

Onyx ocellatus Gould. 1837. Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1836). p. 75. (No 
locality given = Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Highland pine and pine-oak woodland, occurring in heavy under- 
growth or grassy areas, also on grassy slopes and in weedy fields adjacent to forest 
(Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of eastern Oaxaca (Sierra Madre de 
Chiapas). Chiapas. Guatemala. El Salvador. Honduras and north-central Nica- 
ragua. 

Notes.— See comments under C. montezumae. 

Genus RHYNCHORTYX Ogilvie-Grant 

Rhynchortyx Ogilvie-Grant. 1893. Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 22, pp. xv, 100, 443. 
Type, by monotypy, Odontophorus spodiostethus Salvin [=male] and Odon- 
tophorus cinctus Salvin [=female]. 

Rhynchortyx cinctus (Salvin). Tawny-faced Quail. 

Odontophorus cinctus Salvin. 1876. Ibis. p. 379. (Veragua = Panama.) 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally on the Caribbean slope of northern and eastern 
Honduras (west to the Sula Valley), Nicaragua and Costa Rica, on both slopes of 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 145 

Panama (rare west of the Canal Zone), and in northwestern Colombia and north- 
western Ecaudor. 

Genus COLINUS Goldfuss 

Colinus Goldfuss, 1820, Handb. Zool., 2, p. 220. Type, by monotypy, Perdix 
mexicanus, Caille de la Louisiane, Planches enlum. 149 = Tetrao virgini- 
anus Linnaeus. 

Colinus cristatus (Linnaeus). Crested Bobwhite. 

Tetrao cristatus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 277. Based mainly 
on "La Caille hupee du Mexique" Brisson, Ornithologie, 1, p. 260, pi. 25. 
fig. 2. (in Mexico, Guiania, error = Curacao.) 

Habitat.— Thickets, grasslands, cultivated areas and forest edge, generally in 
arid habitats north of South America (Tropical Zone, in South America to Tem- 
perate Zone). 

Distribution.— Res ident [leucopogon group] on the Pacific slope from western 
Guatemala (including the upper Motagua Valley on the Caribbean drainage) south 
through El Salvador, Honduras (including the Sula, Comayagua and Quimistan 
valleys on the Caribbean slope) and Nicaragua to central Costa Rica; and [cristatus 
group] on the Pacific slope of southwestern Costa Rica (Golfo Dulce region) and 
western Panama (east to western Panama province), and from western Colombia 
east through most of Venezuela (also Aruba, Curacao and Margarita Island) to 
the Guianas and eastern Brazil. 

Introduced and established [cristatus group] in the Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 
now extirpated) and the Grenadines (Mustique). 

Notes.— The northern Middle American populations are sometimes recognized 
as a separate species, C. leucopogon (Lesson, 1842) [Spot-bellied Bobwhite]. C. 
cristatus may be an allospecies of a superspecies also including C. virginianus and 
C. nigrogularis. 

Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus). Northern Bobwhite. [289.] 

Tetrao virginianus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 161. Based on 
"The American Partridge" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 3, p. 12, pi. 12. 
(in America = Virginia.) 

Habitat.— Brushy fields, grasslands (primarily long grass), cultivated lands and 
open woodland, in both humid and semi-arid situations (Tropical to Temperate 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southeastern Wyoming, central South Dakota, 
southern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, central Michigan, southern Ontario, 
southern New York, southern Vermont, southern New Hampshire and southern 
Maine south through the central and eastern United States (west to eastern Col- 
orado, eastern New Mexico and west-central Texas) to Florida (except the Florida 
Keys), Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Gulf coast, and eastern and southern Mexico, west 
to eastern Coahuila, western San Luis Potosi, southeastern Nayarit, eastern Jalisco. 
Guanajuato, the state of Mexico, Puebla and Oaxaca, east to Tabasco, eastern 
Chiapas and extreme northwestern Guatemala (Nenton-Comitan valley), and in 
the Pacific lowlands from central Guerrero to southern Chiapas; also in south- 



146 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN" BIRDS 

eastern Arizona (formerly, extirpated late 1890"s. remtroduction attempts not 
certainly successful) and eastern Sonora. 

Introduced and established in western North America (southwestern British 
Columbia. Washington. Oregon. Idaho and Montana), the West Indies (Hispan- 
iola. Puerto Rico. St. Croix, and Andros and New Providence in the Bahamas) 
and New Zealand. Attempted introductions elsewhere ("widely in the Hawaiian 
Islands. West Indies and Europe) have been unsuccessful as permanently estab- 
lished populations. 

Notes. — Known also as Common Bob white and. in earlier literature, as the 
Bobwhite. C. virginianus and C. nigrogularis constitute a superspecies; they are 
considered eonspecific by some authors. See also comments under C. cristatus. 

Colinus nigrogularis (Gould). Black-throated Bobwhite. 

Onyx nigrogularis Gould. 1843. Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1842). p. 181. 
(Mexico = state of Yucatan.) 

Habitat. — Pine savanna, forest clearings, weedy fields, sisal plantations, culti- 
vated areas and coastal scrub forest, mostly in arid regions (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Yucatan Peninsula (northern Campeche, the state 
of Yucatan, and northwestern Quintana Roo). northern Guatemala (Peten) and 
Belize: and in the Mosquitia of eastern Honduras and northeastern Nicaragua. 

Notes. — See comments under C. virginianus and C. cristatus. 

Genus PHILORTYX Gould 

Philortyx Gould. 1846. Monogr. Odontoph.. 2. pi. 6 and text. Type, by mono- 
typy. Onyx fasciatus Gould. 

Philortyx fasciatus (Gould). Banded Quail. 

Onyx fasciatus Gould. 1843. Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1842). p. 133. (Cal- 
ifornia, error = Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Open lowland thorn forest, thickets and weedy fields, especially near 
cultivated areas (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones.) 

Distribution.— Resident in southwestern Jalisco. Cohma. Michoacan. Guerrero. 
the state of Mexico. Morelos and Puebla. 

Notes.— Also known as Barred Quail. 

Genus CALLIPEPLA Wagler 

Callipepla Wagler. 1832. Isis von Oken. col. 2"~. Type, by monotypy. Cal- 

lipepla strenua Wagler = Onyx squamatus Vigors. 
Lophonyx Bonaparte, 1838. Geogr. Comp. List. p. 42. Type, by subsequent 

designation (G. R. Gray. 1840). Tetrao californicus Shaw. 

Callipepla squamata (Vigors). Scaled Quail. [293.] 

Onyx squamatus Vigors. 1830. Zool. J.. 5. p. 275. (Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Desert grasslands, deserts with spiny or shrubby ground cover, thorn 
scrub, and secondary deserts produced by man (Subtropical and lower Temperate 
zones). 



ORDER GALLIFORMES 147 

Distribution.— Resident from south-central Arizona, northern New Mexico, east- 
central Colorado and southwestern Kansas south through western Oklahoma, the 
western half of Texas, and the interior of Mexico to northeastern Jalisco, Guana- 
juato, Queretaro, Hidalgo and western Tamaulipas. 

Introduced and established in central Washington (Yakima and Grant counties) 
and eastern Nevada. 

Notes.— C. squamata and C. gambelii occasionally hybridize. 

Callipepla douglasii (Vigors). Elegant Quail. 

Ortyx douglasii Vigors, 1829, Zool. J., 4 (1828), p. 354. (Monterey, error = 
Mazatlan, Sinaloa.) 

Habitat.— Thorn forest, especially in foothill regions, scrubby thickets and 
deciduous forest, primarily in river valleys (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from northern Sonora and southwestern Chihuahua 
south through Sinaloa, northwestern Durango and Nayarit to northwestern Jalisco. 

The small population present near Nogales, Arizona, from 1964 to the early 
1970's apparently originated from escaped individuals. 

Notes.— This and the next two species previously have been separated from 
Callipepla in the genus Lophortyx. 

Callipepla gambelii (Gambel). Gambel's Quail. [295.] 

Lophortyx Gambelii "Nutt." Gambel, 1843, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 1 , p. 260. (some distance west [=east] of California = southern Nevada.) 

Habitat.— Deserts, primarily with brushy or thorny growth such as mesquite. 
desert thorn and yucca, also in adjacent cultivated regions (Tropical and Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from east-central California, southern Nevada, south- 
ern Utah, western Colorado and northwestern New Mexico south to northeastern 
Baja California, Sonora (including Isla Tiburon in the Gulf of California), coastal 
Sinaloa, northern Chihuahua and the Rio Grande Valley of western Texas. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1928, now on Lanai, 
Kahoolawe and possibly Hawaii), on San Clemente Island (off California), and in 
north-central Idaho. 

Notes.— C. gambelii and C. californica constitute a superspecies. See also com- 
ments under C. squamata and C. douglasii. 

Callipepla californica (Shaw). California Quail. [294.] 

Tetrao californicus Shaw, 1798, in Shaw and Nodder, Naturalists' Misc.. 9, 
text to pi. 345. (California = Monterey.) 

Habitat.— Brushy, grassy and weedy areas in both humid and arid regions, 
including chaparral, forest edge, cultivated lands, semi-desert scrub, thickets, sage- 
brush and, less frequently, open second-growth woodland. 

Distribution.— Resident from southern British Columbia (including Vancouver 
Island), Washington and western Idaho south through most of Oregon, California 
(including Santa Catalina Island) and Utah to southern Baja California. Most of 
the populations north of southern Oregon and east of California are apparently 
the result of introductions. 



1 48 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (by 1855, presently on Kauai 
and Hawaii), on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands (off California), and in central 
Chile, Australia (King Island) and New Zealand. 

Notes.— See comments under C. douglasii and C. gambelii. 



Genus OREORTYX Baird 

Oreortyx Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. R. 
R. Pac, 9, pp. xlv, 638, 642. Type, by monotypy, Ortyx picta Douglas. 

Oreortyx pictus (Douglas). Mountain Quail. [292.] 

Ortyx picta Douglas, 1829, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 16, p. 143. (No locality 
given = junction of Willamette and Santiam rivers, Linn County, Oregon; 
see Browning, 1977, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 90, p. 809.) 

Habitat.— Brushy mountainsides, coniferous forest, forest and meadow edges, 
dense undergrowth, and in more arid conditions in sagebrush, piny on and juniper. 

Distribution.— Resident from southwestern British Columbia (on Vancouver 
Island, where introduced but perhaps also native), western and southern Wash- 
ington, and central Idaho south through the mountains of California and northern 
and western Nevada to northern Baja California (Sierra Juarez and Sierra San 
Pedro Martir). 



Subfamily NUMIDINAE: Guineafowl 
Notes.— Sometimes regarded as a family, the Numididae. 

Genus NUMIDA Linnaeus 

Numida Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 273. Type, by monotypy, 
Numida meleagris Linnaeus = Phasianus meleagris Linnaeus. 

Numida meleagris (Linnaeus). Helmeted Guineafowl. [296.1.] 

Phasianus Meleagris Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 158. (in Africa = 
Nubia, upper Nile.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, cultivated lands and grasslands. 

Distribution.— Resident generally throughout Africa south of the Sahara. 

Widely domesticated throughout the world, and escaped individuals are fre- 
quently reported. Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1874 on 
Hawaii and possibly other main islands, perhaps not well established), in the West 
Indies (on Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Barbuda), and on 
Ascension, Trindade, and the Cape Verde islands. 

Notes.— There are three distinctive groups, the West African galeata group, the 
northeastern African meleagris group, and the central and southern African mitrata 
group (see Crowe, 1978, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 16, pp. 41-136), that intergrade where 
their ranges meet. Of these, N. mitrata Pallas, 1767 [Helmeted Guineafowl], 
and N. meleagris [Tufted Guineafowl] have been considered specifically distinct. 
Introductions in the Hawaiian Islands and West Indies are of the West African 
race, N. m. galeata Pallas, 1767. 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 149 

Order GRUIFORMES: Cranes, Rails and Allies 

Family RALLIDAE: Rails, Gallinules and Coots 

Notes.— The sequence and placement of genera used in this family is essentially 
that of Olson (1973, Wilson Bull., 85, pp. 381^116). 

Subfamily RALLINAE: Rails, Gallinules and Coots 

Genus COTURNICOPS Gray 

Coturnicops G. R. Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera Subgenera Birds, p. 120. Type, 
by monotypy, Rallus noveboracensis Gmelin = Fulica noveboracensis 
Gmelin. 
Notes.— See comments under Micropygia. 

Coturnicops noveboracensis (Gmelin). Yellow Rail. [215.] 

Fulica noveboracensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 701. Based on the 
"Yellow-breasted Gallinule" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 491. (in Novebo- 
raco = New York.) 

Habitat.— Marshes and wet meadows, breeding in fresh-water situations, win- 
tering in both fresh-water and brackish marshes, as well as in dense, deep grass 
and grain fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from northwestern Alberta, southern Mackenzie, 
central Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, southern Quebec, 
New Brunswick and (probably) Nova Scotia south to southern Alberta, southern 
Saskatchewan, North Dakota, central Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, northern 
Michigan, southern Ontario, Massachusetts and Connecticut (formerly in east- 
central California, and to northern Illinois and southern Ohio); and around Lerma 
in the valley of Toluca, state of Mexico. Reported in summer in southeastern 
Alaska, southern British Columbia, Montana and Colorado. 

Winters from coastal North Carolina south to southern Florida, west along the 
Gulf coast to central and southeastern Texas, and in the breeding range in Mexico; 
also (locally and casually) from Oregon south to southern California. 

In migration recorded in Washington, Arizona and New Mexico, and irregularly 
through most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Casual in Labrador. 

Notes.— Relationships with the Asiatic C. exquisita (Swinhoe, 1873) are uncer- 
tain, but that form and C. noveboracensis may constitute a superspecies. 

Genus MICROPYGIA Bonaparte 

Micropygia Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 599. Type, by 
virtual monotypy, Micropygia schomburgi "Cabanis" = Crex schomburg- 
kii Schomburgk. 

Notes.— Some authors merge this genus in Coturnicops. 

Micropygia schomburgkii (Schomburgk). Ocellated Crake. 

Crex Schomburgkii (Cabanis MS) Schomburgk, 1848, Reisen Br.-Guiana. 2, 
p. 245. (Our Village, on the upper Kukenaam River, Terr. Yuruari, Ven- 
ezuela.) 



1 50 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat & Distribution.— Resident in savanna and marshes of South America 
from southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela and the Guianas south, east of 
the Andes, to extreme eastern Peru, Bolivia and southeastern Brazil. 

One record from Costa Rica (Buenos Aires. Puntarenas province. 9 March 1967: 
Dickerman. 1968. Bull. Br. Ormthol. Club. 88. pp. 25-30). 

Genus LATERALLUS Gray 

Laterallus G. R. Gray, 1855. Cat. Genera Subgenera Birds, p. 120. Type, by 
monotypy. Rallus melanophaius Vieillot. 

Laterallus ruber (Sclater and Salvin). Ruddy Crake. 

Corethrura rubra Sclater and Salvin. 1860. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 300. 
fin provincia Verae Pacis = Coban. Vera Paz. Guatemala.) 

Habitat. — Marshes and wet fields, primarily in fresh- water situations (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the lowlands from Oaxaca on the Pacific and Tamau- 
lipas on the Gulf-Caribbean south along both slopes of Middle America (including 
Cozumel Island off Quintana Roo) to Honduras and northern Nicaragua, also a 
sight report for northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste). 

Laterallus albigularis (Lawrence). White-throated Crake. 

Corethrura albigidaris Lawrence. 1861. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 302. 
(Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, along the line of the Panama 
Railroad.) 

Habitat. — Marshes and wet meadows, primarily in fresh-water situations ( Trop- 
ical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southeastern Honduras (Rio Segovia [=Coco]i 
south through Nicaragua (Caribbean lowlands). Costa Rica (Caribbean lowlands 
and Pacific region around Golfo Dulce). Panama and northern and western Colom- 
bia to western Ecuador. 

Notes.— Some authors consider L. albigularis to be conspecific with the South 
American L. melanophaius (Vieillot. 1819) [Rufous-sided Crake], although its 
closest relationships may be with L. exilis. 

Laterallus exilis (Temminck). Gray-breasted Crake. 

Rallus exilis Temminck, 1831, Planches Color., livr. 87. pi. 523. (No locality 
given = Cayenne.) 

Habitat. — Lowland marshes, mostly fresh- water situations (Tropical and lower 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Belize (Middlesex), southeastern Honduras 
(Rio Segovia [=Coco]), southeastern Nicaragua (Rio Escondido). Costa Rica (sight 
reports). Panama (Isla Coiba. San Bias and the Canal Zone) and South America 
(scattered reports from Colombia. Venezuela. Trinidad, the Guianas. northern 
Brazil, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru and southern Paraguay). 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 1 5 1 

Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin). Black Rail. [216.] 

Rallus jamaicensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 718. Based on "The 
Least Water-Hen" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 142, pi. 278, lower 
fig. (in Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Salt marshes, less frequently in wet savanna and fresh- water marshes. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in California (recorded from the San Francisco 
Bay area and San Luis Obispo County, formerly also San Diego County); in Kansas 
(Finney, Franklin, Barton and Riley counties); along the Atlantic coast from New 
York south to central Florida; on the Gulf coast in eastern Texas (Brazoria Refuge, 
possibly also Galveston) and western Florida (St. Marks to Clearwater); in Belize 
(vicinity of Monkey River); and in western Peru, Chile and western Argentina. 
Recorded in summer (and possibly breeding) south to extreme northern Baja 
California, Veracruz (Tecolutla), and southern Florida (Everglades), and in Cuba 
and, at least formerly, Puerto Rico and Jamaica. 

Winters along the coast of California from the breeding range north to Tomales 
Bay; in the Imperial and lower Colorado River valleys of southeastern California; 
along the Gulf coast from southeastern Texas east to Florida; and in the breeding 
range in Belize and South America. 

In migration recorded sporadically east of the Rocky Mountains from Colorado, 
Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania south to 
western Texas, San Luis Potosi and the Gulf coast. 

Casual or accidental in Arizona, Guatemala (Duenas) and Bermuda. Reports 
from Honduras and Costa Rica require confirmation. 

Genus CREX Bechstein 

Crex Bechstein, 1803, Ornithol. Taschenb. Dtsch., 2, p. 336. Type, by tau- 
tonymy, Crex pratensis Bechstein = Rallus crex Linnaeus. 

Crex crex (Linnaeus). Corn Crake. [217.] 

Rallus Crex Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 153. (in Europae agris, 
carectis = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Grasslands, meadows and cultivated grain fields, mostly in lowland 
and mountain valleys, occasionally in marshy locations. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Faroe Islands, British Isles, Scandinavia, north- 
ern Russia and central Siberia south to the northern Mediterranean region, Turkey, 
Iran and Lake Baikal. 

Winters from the Mediterranean region (rarely), south throughout most of Africa, 
Madagascar and Arabia. 

Casual (at least formerly) on Baffin Island, along the Atlantic coast of North 
America (recorded from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Maine, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland), Bermuda, 
Greenland, Iceland, the eastern Atlantic islands, India, Australia and New Zealand. 

Genus RALLUS Linnaeus 

Rallus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 153. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Fleming, 1821), Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus. 



152 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Rallus longirostris Boddaert. Clapper Rail. [211.] 

Rallus longirostris Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 52. Based on 
"Rale a long bee, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 849. 
(Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Salt and brackish marshes and mangrove swamps, locally (mostly in 
the lower Colorado River Valley) in fresh-water marshes (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [obseoletus group] locally along the Pacific coast from 
central California (Marin County) south to central Baja California (Magdalena 
Bay), on the Gulf coast of southern Baja California (near La Paz, and on San Jose 
and Espiritu Santo islands), in the interior of southeastern California and south- 
western Arizona at the southern end of the Salton Sea and in the lower Colorado 
River Valley (where absent in winter), and along the Pacific coast from Sonora 
to Nayarit; and [longirostris group] along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Con- 
necticut south to southern Florida and west to southern Texas (Brownsville), in 
the Bahamas and Antilles (south to Antigua, also on Guadeloupe), in Quintana 
Roo (Chinchorro Reef, possibly also Cayo Culebra and Holbox Island), the state 
of Yucatan (Rio Lagartos) and Belize (Ycacos Lagoon), and along both coasts of 
South America (also Margarita Island and Trinidad) south to northwestern Peru 
and southeastern Brazil. Northernmost populations tend to be partially migratory. 

Wanders casually [obsoletus group] on the Pacific coast to the Farallon Islands, 
north to northern California (Humboldt Bay), and south to southern Baja Cali- 
fornia (Todos Santos); and [longirostris group] on the Atlantic coast north to New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and inland 
to central Nebraska (near Stapleton), central New York, Vermont, West Virginia 
and central Virginia. 

Notes.— R. longirostris and R. elegans constitute a superspecies; some authors 
consider them to be conspecific. The populations along the Pacific coast of North 
America and in the Colorado River Valley region have variously been treated as 
races of R. longirostris, races of R. elegans, or a separate species, R. obsoletus 
Ridgway, 1874 [Western Rail, 210]. See also comments under R. elegans. 

Rallus elegans Audubon. King Rail. [208.] 

Rallus elegans Audubon, 1834, Birds Am. (folio), 3, pi. 203; 1835, Ornithol. 
Biogr., 3, p. 27. (Kentucky, South Carolina, Louisiana and north to Camden, 
N. J. and Philadelphia = Charleston, South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water and, locally, brackish marshes. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from eastern Nebraska, Iowa, central Minnesota, 
southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, extreme southern Ontario, central New 
York, Connecticut and (rarely) Massachusetts south through northwestern and 
central Kansas, central Oklahoma and most of the eastern United States to western 
and southern Texas, southern Louisiana, central Mississippi, central Alabama and 
southern Florida; in the Greater Antilles (Cuba and the Isle of Pines); and in the 
interior of Mexico (from Nayarit, Jalisco, Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi south 
to Guerrero, Morelos and Puebla). 

Winters primarily from southern Georgia, Florida, the southern portions of the 
Gulf states, and southern Texas south to Guerrero, Puebla and Veracruz, and in 
Cuba and the Isle of Pines; occurs less frequently in winter in the central portions 
of the breeding range, and casually to the northern limits. 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 153 

Casual or accidental in eastern Colorado (Pueblo), North Dakota, southern 
Manitoba, east-central Ontario, southern Quebec, Maine and Newfoundland. 

Notes.— The breeding population in the interior of Mexico has been treated as 
a race of R. longirostris by some authors. See also comments under R. longirostris. 

Rallus limicola Vieillot. Virginia Rail. [212.] 

Rallus limicola Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 28, p. 558. 
(Etats Unis = Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water and occasionally brackish marshes, mostly in cattails, 
reeds and deep grasses (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in North America from southern British Colum- 
bia, northwestern Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, western and 
southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island (prob- 
ably). Nova Scotia and southwestern Newfoundland south to northwestern Baja 
California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, west-central Texas, western 
Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, northern Indiana, central Ohio, western 
Virginia, northern Georgia and coastal North Carolina, also in central Louisiana 
and northern Alabama; in the interior of central Mexico (Puebla. Tlaxcala and 
the state of Mexico, probably also central Veracruz, Oaxaca and western Chiapas); 
and in South America from southwestern Colombia to western Peru, and in 
southern Chile and southern Argentina south to the Straits of Magellan. 

Winters in North America from southern British Columbia and western Wash- 
ington south to northern Baja California, and from northern Sonora, Chihuahua, 
central Texas, the Gulf coast and coastal North Carolina south locally through 
most of Mexico to central Guatemala, casually in interior North America north 
to Montana, Colorado, Illinois, Michigan, southern Ontario, New York and Mas- 
sachusetts; and in the breeding range in Mexico and South America. 

Casual or accidental in Bermuda, Cuba and Greenland, also a sight report for 
Puerto Rico. 



[Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus. Water Rail.] See Appendix B. 

Genus ARAMIDES Pucheran 

Aramides Pucheran, 1845, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 8, p. 277. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Sclater and Salvin, 1869), Fulica cayennensis Gmelin = Fulica 
cajanea Miiller. 

Notes.— Ripley (1977, Rails World, p. 44) merges this genus with the Old World 
Eulabeornis Gould, 1844. 



Aramides cajanea (Miiller). Gray-necked Wood-Rail. 

Fulica cajanea P. L. S. Miiller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 119. Based on 
"Poule d'eau, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum.. pi. 352. (Cay- 
enne.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, mangrove swamps and wet lowland forest (Tropical and 
lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Tamaulipas. Hidalgo, Distrito Federal 



1 54 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

and Oaxaca south along both slopes of Middle America (including Cozumel Island 
offQuintana Roo, and the Pearl Islands off Panama), and in South America from 
northern Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guinas south, east of the 
Andes, to eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Aramides axillaris Lawrence. Rufous-necked Wood-Rail. 

Aramides axillaris Lawrence, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15, 
p. 107. (Barranquilla, New Granada [=Colombia].) 

Habitat.— Mangroves and coastal lagoons, rarely in wet forest (Tropical and 
lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally on the Pacific slope of central Mexico (recorded 
Sinaloa, Nayarit and Guerrero), in the state of Yucatan (Isla Mujeres and Las 
Bocas de Silan), Belize, Honduras (Isla Guanaja in the Bay Islands, and Pacific 
coast of Bay of Fonseca), western Nicaragua (San Cristobal and Volcan Mom- 
bacho) and Panama (on the Caribbean coast in northwestern Bocas del Toro and 
the Canal Zone, and on the Pacific in southern Code), and along the coasts of 
northern South America (also Trinidad and Isla Los Roques, off northern Ven- 
ezuela) south to Ecuador and east to Surinam. 

Genus AMAUROLIMNAS Sharpe 

Amaurolimnas Sharpe, 1893, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 1, p. xxviii. Type, by 
original designation, A. concolor (Gosse) = Rallus concolor Gosse. 

Amaurolimnas concolor (Gosse). Uniform Crake. 

Rallus concolor Gosse, 1847, Birds Jamaica, p. 369. (Basin Spring, and the 
neighbourhood of the Black River, in St. Elizabeth's, Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Swamps, dense thickets along forested streams, humid lowland forest 
and dense second growth (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally from southern Mexico (recorded Veracruz, 
Oaxaca, Tabasco and Chiapas) south through Middle America (not recorded El 
Salvador), and in South America very locally in western Ecuador, Guyana, and 
from eastern Colombia and Amazonian Brazil south to eastern Peru, northern 
Bolivia and southeastern Brazil; also formerly in Jamaica (last reported in 1881). 

Genus PORZANA Vieillot 

Porzana Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 61. Type, by tautonymy, "Marouette'" 

Buffon = Rallus porzana Linnaeus. 
PennulaDole, 1878, in Thrum, Hawaii. Almanac Annual (1879), p. 54. Type, 

by monotypy, Pennula millei [sic] Dole = Rallus sandwichensis Gmelin. 
Porzanula Frohawk, 1892, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 9, p. 247. Type, by 

monotypy, Porzanula palmeri Frohawk. 

Porzana porzana (Linnaeus). Spotted Crake. 

Rallus Porzana Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 262. (in Europa ad 
ripas = France.) 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 155 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in swamps, wet meadows and marshes 
throughout Europe east to northern Russia and Lake Baikal, and winters south 
to central Africa and the Bay of Bengal, rarely to the eastern Atlantic islands and 
southern Africa. 

Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Marigot, St. Martin, 8 October 1956; Voous, 
1957, Ardea, pp. 89-90) and Greenland. 

Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus). Sora. [214.] 

Rallus carolinus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 153. Based on "The 
Little American Water Hen" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 144, pi. 144, 
and the "Soree" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 70, pi. 70. (in America 
septentrionali = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat. — Primarily fresh- water marshes, less frequently in flooded fields, some- 
times foraging on open mudflats adjacent to marshy habitat. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southeastern Alaska (Stikine River), northwestern 
British Columbia, southern Yukon, west-central and southwestern Mackenzie, 
northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, west-central and 
southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and south- 
western Newfoundland south locally to northwestern Baja California, central 
Nevada, central Arizona, southern New Mexico, eastern Colorado, central Okla- 
homa, southern Missouri, central Illinois, central Indiana, central Ohio, West 
Virginia and Maryland. 

Winters regularly from central California, central Arizona, northern New Mex- 
ico, southern Texas, the Gulf coast and southern South Carolina south through 
Middle America (including Cozumel Island and Chinchorro Reef, but not recorded 
El Salvador), the West Indies and northern South America (also the Netherlands 
Antilles, Tobago and Trinidad) west of the Andes to central Peru and east of the 
Andes to eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, Venezuela and Guyana; occasionally 
occurs in winter north to extreme southern Canada and the northern United States. 

Casual or accidental in east-central Alaska, the Queen Charlotte Islands, south- 
ern Labrador, Bermuda, Greenland and the British Isles. 

Porzana flaviventer (Boddaert). Yellow-breasted Crake. 

Rallus flaviventer Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 52. Based on 
"Petit Rale, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 847. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes, borders of lakes and ponds, and. less frequently, 
swamps (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispan- 
iola and Puerto Rico), and from southern Mexico (Michoacan, Guerrero, Puebla, 
Veracruz and Chiapas) south through Guatemala (La Avellana), El Salvador (Lake 
Olomega), Nicaragua (Rio San Juan) and Costa Rica (Guanacaste) to Panama 
(east to eastern Panama province, and on Isla Coiba), and in South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, 
to northern Argentina, Paraguay and eastern Brazil. 

Notes.— Some authors place this species in the Old World genus Poliolimnas 
Sharpe, 1893. 



1 56 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

tPorzana sandwichensis (Gmelin). Hawaiian Rail. [214.1.] 

Rallus sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 717. Based on the 
"Sandwich Rail" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (1), p. 236. (in insulis 
Sandwich = Hawaii.) 

Habitat.— Open country below the forest belt, presumably in grassy areas. 
Distribution.— EXTINCT. Formerly resident on Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands; 
last specimen taken in 1864, last reported in 1884. 
Notes.— Porzana millsi (Dole, 1878) is a synonym. 

fPorzana palmeri (Frohawk). Laysan Rail. [214.2] 

Porzanula Palmeri Frohawk, 1892, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 9, p. 247. 
(Laysan Island, lat. 25°46'N., long. 171°49'W.) 

Habitat.— Grass tussocks and scattered vegetation in sandy areas, foraging often 
in more open areas. 

Distribution.— EXTINCT. Formerly resident on Laysan Island, in the Hawaiian 
Islands, where it disappeared between 1923 and 1936. 

Introduced and established in the Midway group on Eastern Island (between 
1887 and 1891, extirpated around 1944) and subsequently on Sand Island (in 
1910, last reported 1943); attempted introductions elsewhere in the western 
Hawaiian Islands were unsuccessful. 

Genus NEOCREX Sclater and Salvin 

Neocrex Sclater and Salvin, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1868), p. 457. 
Type, by monotypy, Porzana erythrops Sclater. 

Neocrex columbianus Bangs. Colombian Crake. 

Neocrex columbianus Bangs, 1898, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 171. (Pal- 
omina, Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water marshes, swamps and wet savanna (Tropical and Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in western Colombia and western Ecuador. Recorded 
from (and probably resident in) central Panama (Achiote Road just beyond the 
Canal Zone border in western Colon, 8 November 1965; Wetmore, 1967, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 80, p. 229). 

Notes.— Considered by some authors to be conspecific with N. erythrops, with 
which it constitutes a superspecies. 

Neocrex erythrops (Sclater). Paint-billed Crake. [217.1.] 

Porzana erythrops Sclater, 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 343, pi. 21. 
(Lima, Peru.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Resident in marshes, swamps and wet savanna in 
South America in the Galapagos Islands, western Peru, and from eastern Colom- 
bia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to northwestern Argen- 
tina, Paraguay and eastern Brazil. 

Accidental in Panama (Bocas del Toro, November 1981, specimen, N. Smith), 
Texas (near College Station, Brazos County, 17 February 1972; Arnold, 1978, 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 157 

Auk, 95, pp. 745-746) and Virginia (western Henrico County, 1 5 December 1 978; 
Blem, 1980, Wilson Bull., 92, pp. 393-394); some of these individuals may have 
been transported by man. 

Notes.— See comments under TV. columbianus. 

Genus CYANOLIMNAS Barbour and Peters 

Cyanolimnas Barbour and Peters, 1927, Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club, 9, p. 95. 
Type, by monotypy, Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour and Peters. 

Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour and Peters. Zapata Rail. 

Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour and Peters, 1927, Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club, 
9, p. 95. (Santo Tomas, Zapata Peninsula, Cuba, Greater Antilles.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water swamps. 

Distribution.— Resident only in the Zapata Swamp in the vicinity of Santo 
Tomas and north of Cochinos Bay, in western Cuba. 

Genus PARDIRALLUS Bonaparte 

Pardirallus Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 599. Type, by 
monotypy, Rallus variegatus Gmelin = Rallus maculatus Boddaert. 

Notes.— Some authors merge this genus in Rallus. 

Pardirallus maculatus (Boddaert). Spotted Rail. [212.2.] 

Rallus maculatus Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 48. Based on 
"Le Rale tachete, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 775. (Cay- 
enne.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water marshes, swamps, irrigated fields and wet grasslands 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Cuba (Havana, Matanzas and Las Villas prov- 
inces), the Isle of Pines (probably), Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) and Jamaica 
(at least formerly, a recent sight record from the Black River marshes); in Mexico, 
where recorded from Nayarit (near Laguna Agua Brava), Michoacan (Lake Patz- 
cuaro, sight record), Puebla (Laguna San Felipe), Veracruz (Tecolutla and near 
Tlacotalpan), Guerrero (near Acapulco), Oaxaca (near Putla) and Chiapas (Tuxtla 
Gutierrez and San Cristobal); in Belize (Ycacos Lagoon), Costa Rica (Guanacaste, 
Turrialba and near Cartago) and Panama (San Bias and eastern Panama provinces); 
and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and Trinidad) 
and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of the 
Andes to east-central Bolivia, northern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil. 

Accidental in Pennsylvania (Shippingport, Beaver County), Texas (Brownwood, 
Brown County) and the Juan Fernandez Islands (off Chile); the North American 
vagrants may have been man-assisted. 

Genus PORPHYRULA Blyth 

Porphyrula Blyth, 1852, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiat. Soc. (1849), p. 283. Type, by 
monotypy, Porphyrula chloronotus Blyth = Porphyrio alleni Thomson. 

Notes.— Sometimes merged in the Old World genus Porphyrio Brisson, 1760. 



1 5 8 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Porphyrula martinica (Linnaeus). Purple Gallinule. [218.] 

Fulica martinica Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 259. (in Martinicae 
inundatis = Martinique, West Indies.) 

Habitat. — Marshes, especially in areas of rank vegetation, primarily in lowlands, 
less frequently in highlands in South America (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in the interior of the eastern United States in 
southern Illinois (formerly), western Tennessee and central Ohio, and, primarily 
in lowlands, on the Pacific coast from Nayarit and on the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean 
coast from Maryland and Delaware south through Middle America, eastern and 
southern Texas, the Gulf states, Florida, the Greater Antilles and southern Lesser 
Antilles (Guadeloupe southward) to South America, where found virtually 
throughout south at least to northern Chile and northern Argentina. 

Winters from Nayarit. southern Texas. Louisiana and Florida south throughout 
the remainder of the breeding range. 

Wanders widely but irregularly north to southern California (San Diego), south- 
ern Nevada, central Arizona, Utah, Colorado, South Dakota. Minnesota, Wis- 
consin. Michigan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia. Labrador and Newfoundland, and to the Bahamas and northern Lesser 
Antilles (north to Barbuda). Casual or accidental in Bermuda, the Galapagos and 
Falkland islands, Tristan da Cunha. Ascension, St. Helena, the British Isles, con- 
tinental Europe, the Azores and South Africa. 

Notes.— P. martinica and the African P. alleni Thomson, 1842, appear to con- 
stitute a superspecies. 

Genus GALLINULA Brisson 

Gallinula Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie. 1. p. 50: 6. p. 2. Type, by tautonymy, 
Gallinula Brisson = Fulica chloropus Linnaeus. 

Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus). Common Moorhen. [219.] 

Fulica Chloropus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 152. (in Europa = 
England.) 

Habitat.— Fresh-water marshes, lakes and ponds, pr' warily in areas of emergent 
vegetation and grassy borders (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Western Hemisphere locally from central Califor- 
nia, central Arizona, northern New Mexico, western and north-central Texas, 
Oklahoma. Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, central Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, north- 
central Michigan, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, Vermont and Mas- 
sachusetts (also in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) south, most frequently in 
lowlands, throughout Middle America. Bermuda, the West Indies and most of 
South America (also the Galapagos Islands, Netherlands Antilles. Tobago and 
Trinidad) to northern Chile and northern Argentina; and in the Old World from 
the British Isles, Shetlands, southern Scandinavia, central Russia, southern Siberia, 
Sakhalin and Japan south throughout most of Eurasia and Africa to the eastern 
Atlantic islands, South Africa, the borders of the northern Indian Ocean (including 
Ceylon), the East Indies (to Sumbawa and Celebes), Philippines, Formosa, and 
the Ryukyu, Bonin and Volcano islands. 

Winters in eastern North America primarily from South Carolina and the Gulf 
coast southward, elsewhere in the Americas throughout the breeding range, occa- 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 159 

sionally north to Utah, Minnesota, southern Ontario and New England; and in 
the Old World from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, southern Russia and 
eastern China south throughout the remainder of the breeding range, casually to 
the Seven Islands of Izu. 

Resident in the Hawaiian Islands (presently resident on Kauai, Oahu and Molo- 
kai, formerly on all main islands from Kauai eastward, except Lanai). 

Casual north to southern Manitoba, central Ontario, eastern Quebec, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Accidental in Greenland, Iceland, 
the Faroe Islands, Spitsbergen and the Commander Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as Common Gallinule, in New World literature as the 
Florida Gallinule, and in Old World literature as the Moorhen. G. chloropus 
and the Australian G. tenebrosa Gould, 1846, constitute a superspecies; they are 
sometimes considered to be conspecific. 

Genus FULICA Linnaeus 

Fulica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 152. Type, by tautonymy, 
Fulica atra Linnaeus (Fulica, prebinomial specific name, in synonymy). 

Fulica atra Linnaeus. Eurasian Coot. [220.] 

Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 152. (in Europa = Swe- 
den.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in habitats similar to those of F. americana 
from Iceland, the British Isles and northern Eurasia south to northern Africa, 
India and eastern China, also in New Guinea and Australia, and winters throughout 
the breeding range and south to the East Indies and Philippines. 

Casual or accidental in Alaska (St. Paul, in the Pribilof Islands), Labrador 
(Tangnaivik Island in Anaktalak Bay, and Separation Point in Sandwich Bay), 
Newfoundland (Exploits Harbour), Greenland and the Faroe Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as European Coot and, in Old World literature, as the 
Coot. 

Fulica americana Gmelin. American Coot. [221.] 

Fulica americana Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 704. Based on the 
"Cinereous Coot" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (1), p. 279. (in America 
septentrionali = North America.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water lakes, ponds, marshes and larger rivers, wintering also 
on brackish estuaries and bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from east-central Alaska (casually), 
southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, northwestern and central Saskatchewan, 
central Manitoba, western and southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, southern 
New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south locally to southern 
Baja California, through Middle America to Nicaragua and northwestern Costa 
Rica (Guanacaste), and to the Gulf coast, southern Florida, the Bahamas, Greater 
Antilles (Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Jamaica and Hispaniola) and Grand Cayman. 

Winters widely from southeastern Alaska and British Columbia south through 
the Pacific States, and from northern Arizona, northern New Mexico, central 
Texas, the lower Mississippi and Ohio valleys, and Maryland (casually north to 
the Canadian border east of the Rockies) south throughout Middle America, the 



1 60 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

southeastern United States and West Indies (south to Grenada) to eastern Panama 
and (apparently) northern Colombia. 

Resident in the Hawaiian Islands (all main islands from Niihau eastward, except 
Lanai); and in the Andes of South America from Colombia south to western 
Bolivia, northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. 

Casual west to the eastern Aleutians, and north to western Alaska (Seward 
Peninsula), Franklin District, northern Ontario, central Quebec, Labrador, New- 
foundland and western Greenland; also to Clipperton Island, islands of the western 
Caribbean sea (Corn and Providencia), Bermuda and Iceland. 

Notes.— The Andean F. ardesiaca Tschudi, 1843, has sometimes been treated 
as a separate species, but it apparently is a color morph of F. americana (see Gill, 
1964, Condor, 66, pp. 109-1 1 1). See also comments under F. caribaea. 

Fulica caribaea Ridgway. Caribbean Coot. [221.1.] 

Fulica caribcea Ridgway, 1884, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 7, p. 358. (St. John, 
Virgin Islands.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water lakes and ponds, less frequently in coastal brackish lagoons 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident throughout most of the Antilles (south to Grenada and 
Barbados, but absent from the Isle of Pines and unreported from some of the 
Lesser Antilles), on Trinidad (questionably on Tobago), on Curacao, and in north- 
western Venezuela. 

Since 1974 reported from southern Florida (Broward County), primarily in 
nonbreeding season. Accidental in Tennessee (Chattanooga). 

Notes.— The relationships of F. americana and F. caribaea are not fully under- 
stood; the latter may eventually prove to be a morph of F. americana. Individuals 
with intermediate characteristics have been reported from southern Florida, Cuba, 
Hispaniola and St. Croix. 

Family HELIORNITHIDAE: Sungrebes 

Genus HELIORNIS Bonnaterre 

Heliornis Bonnaterre, 1791, Tabl. Encycl. Meth., OrnithoL, 1, livr. 47, pp. 
lxxxiv, 64. Type, by monotypy, Heliornis fulicarius Bonnaterre = Colym- 
bus fulica Boddaert. 

Heliornis fulica (Boddaert). Sungrebe. 

Colymbus fulica Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 54. Based on 
"Le Grebifoulque, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 893. 
(Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water lakes, sluggish streams and lagoons, especially where 
overhanging vegetation is dense (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from San Luis Potosi, central Veracruz, Campeche, 
northern Chiapas and Quintana Roo south in the Gulf-Caribbean lowlands of 
Central America to Costa Rica (locally also on the Pacific slope around the Gulf 
of Nicoya), in Panama (both slopes), and in South America from Colombia, 
Venezuela and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 161 

of the Andes to eastern Peru, east-central Bolivia, Paraguay and southeastern 
Brazil. 

Accidental in Trinidad. 

Notes.— Also known as American Finfoot. 

Family EURYPYGIDAE: Sunbitterns 

Genus EURYPYGA Illiger 

Eurypyga Illiger, 1811, Prodromus, p. 257. Type, by monotypy, Ardea helias 
"Lin. Gm." [=Pallas]. 

Eurypyga helias (Pallas). Sunbittern. 

Ardea Helias Pallas, 1781, Neue Nord. Beytr., 2, p. 48, pi. 3. (Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, primarily along streams, less 
frequently in swamps (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of southern Mexico 
(recorded Tabasco and Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, on both 
slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and in the lowlands of South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south to northwestern and eastern Peru, 
central Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. 



Family ARAMIDAE: Limpkins 

Genus ARAMUS Vieillot 

Aramus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 58. Type, by monotypy, "Courliri" Buf- 
fon = Scolopax guarauna Linnaeus. 

Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus). Limpkjn. [207.] 

Scopolax [sic] Guarauna Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 242. Based 
on "Le Courly brun d'Amerique" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 330, and 
"Guarauna" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 204. (in America australi = 
Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Swampy forest, mangroves and marshy lagoons (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in southeastern Georgia (north to the Altamaha River). 
Florida (absent from the Panhandle west of Wakulla County, and a visitant only 
in the Florida Keys) and the Greater Antilles (Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Jamaica, 
Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, including Gonave and Tortue islands), and from 
Veracruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Campeche and Quintana Roo (including Cozumel 
Island) south along both slopes of Middle America, and in South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes 
to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern 
Argentina and Uruguay. 

Casual or accidental in Texas (Jefferson and Cameron counties), Maryland and 
the Bahamas. 



1 62 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Family GRUIDAE: Cranes 
Subfamily GRUINAE: Typical Cranes 

Genus GRUS Pallas 

Grus Pallas, 1766, Misc. Zool. p. 66. Type, by tautonymy, Ardea grus Lin- 
naeus. 

Limnogeranus Sharpe, 1893, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 1, p. xxxvii. Type, 
by original designation, Limnogeranus americanus (L.) = Ardea americana 
Linnaeus. 

Grus canadensis (Linnaeus). Sandhill Crane. [206.] 

Ardea canadensis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 141. Based on "The 
Brown and Ash-colour'd Crane" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 133, pi. 
133. (in America septentrionali = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Open grasslands, marshes, swampy edges of lakes and ponds, river 
banks, and occasionally pine savanna. 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and central Alaska, northern Yukon, north- 
ern Mackenzie, Banks Island, northern Keewatin (Boothia Peninsula), southern 
Devon Island and Baffin Island south locally to the Chukotski Peninsula, Wrangel 
and St. Lawrence islands, southern Alaska (the Alaska Peninsula and Cook Inlet), 
Oregon, northeastern California, northeastern Nevada, north-central Utah, south- 
ern Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, South Dakota, Nebraska (formerly), southern 
Minnesota, northern Illinois, southern Michigan, northern Ohio (formerly), west- 
ern (formerly southern) Ontario and western Quebec (James Bay); also locally 
from northeastern Siberia south to the Chukotski Peninsula. 

Winters from central California, Sonora, southeastern Arizona, central New 
Mexico, western and southern Texas, the Gulf coast and southern Georgia south 
to northern Baja California, Sinaloa, Jalisco, the state of Mexico, Distrito Federal, 
Veracruz and central Florida. 

In migration recorded regularly throughout North America east to the Great 
Lakes, Appalachians and northeastern Mexico. 

Resident from southern Mississippi, southern Alabama and southern Georgia 
south through Florida to Cuba and the Isle of Pines, formerly also in southeastern 
Texas. 

Casual in the Pribilof and Aleutian islands, and in eastern North America from 
Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south throughout 
the eastern United States. Accidental in Quintana Roo (Chinchorro Reef), Ireland 
and Japan. 

Grus grus (Linnaeus). Common Crane. [206.1.] 

Ardea Grus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 141. (in Europse, Africae = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in marshes and open areas near water from 
northern Eurasia south to central Europe, Mongolia and Manchuria, and winters 
from the Mediterranean region east to India, and in Southeast Asia. 

Accidental in Alaska (Fairbanks), Alberta (Cavendish, Lethbridge and Atha- 
baska) and Nebraska (Buffalo and Kearney counties, also sight reports North Platte 



ORDER GRUIFORMES 163 

and Elm Creek), and sight reports for New Mexico (Bitter Lake) and Texas (near 
Brownfield). 

Notes.— Also known as European Crane and, in Old World literature, as the 
Crane. 

Grus americana (Linnaeus). Whooping Crane. [204.] 

Ardea americana Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 142. Based on "The 
Hooping Crane" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 75, pi. 75, and "The 
Hooping-Crane from Hudson's Bay" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 132, 
pi. 132. (in America septentrionali = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes and wet prairies, in migration and winter also 
in grain and stubble fields and on shallow lakes and lagoons. 

Distribution.— Breeds in south-central Mackenzie (vicinity of Wood Buffalo 
National Park) and adjacent northern Alberta; formerly bred from southern Mac- 
kenzie, northeastern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba south 
to North Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa, and in southeastern Texas and southern 
Louisiana. 

Winters primarily near the coast of southern Texas (mostly in the vicinity of 
the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge), occasionally northeast to southern Loui- 
siana; formerly wintered from southern Texas and the Gulf coast (east, at least 
casually, to Georgia and Florida), south to Jalisco, Guanajuato and northern 
Tamaulipas. 

Migrates primarily through the Great Plains from southern Canada and the 
Dakotas south to Texas; formerly ranged west to Wyoming, Colorado and New 
Mexico, and east to Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and South 
Carolina. 

Introduced (through introduction of eggs in nests of G. canadensis, not yet 
breeding) in Idaho (Grays Lake), these birds summering also in Utah, Montana 
and Wyoming, with wintering primarily in central New Mexico (upper Rio Grande 
Valley), casually to southeastern Arizona and northwestern Chihuahua (Janos). 
in migration also through western Colorado and northern New Mexico. 

Casual in migration recently east to Illinois (Pike County) and Missouri (Mingo 
National Wildlife Refuge). 



Order CHARADRIIFORMES: Shorebirds, Gulls, Auks and Allies 

Notes.— Some authors suggest that various other orders, such as Gaviiformes, 
Phoenicopteriformes and Columbiformes, or taxa therein, are closely related to 
or should be included in the Charadriiformes. 

Suborder CHARADRII: Plovers and Allies 

Family BURHINIDAE: Thick-knees 

Genus BURHINUS Illiger 

Burhinus Illiger, 1811, Prodromus, p. 250. Type, by monotypy, Charadrius 
magnirostris Latham. 



1 64 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Burhinus bistriatus (Wagler). Double-striped Thick-knee. [269.2.] 
Charadrius bistriatus Wagler, 1829, Isis von Oken, col. 648. (Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Arid semi-open country, savanna and openings in dry woodland 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in Middle America from southern Mexico (Veracruz, 
Tabasco, Oaxaca and Chiapas) south through the Pacific lowlands of Central 
America to nothwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste); in the Greater Antilles (His- 
paniola); and in South America from northern Colombia east through Venezuela 
(also Margarita Island) to Guyana and extreme northwestern Brazil. 

Casual or accidental in Texas (King Ranch, Kleberg County, 5 December 196 1), 
Barbados (perhaps not a natural vagrant) and Curacao. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE: Plovers and Lapwings 

Subfamily VANELLINAE: Lapwings 
Tribe HOPLOXYPTERINI: Spur-winged Lapwings 

[Genus HOPLOXYPTERUS Bonaparte] 

Hoploxypterus Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 418. Type, by 
monotypy, Charadrius cayanus Latham. 

Notes.— Often merged in Vanellus. 
[Hoploxypterus cayanus (Latham). Pied Lapwing.] See Appendix B. 
Tribe VANELLINI: Typical Lapwings 

Genus VANELLUS Brisson 

Vanellus Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 48; 5, p. 94. Type, by tautonymy, 

Vanellus Brisson = Tringa vanellus Linnaeus. 
Belonopterus Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. xviii. Type, by 
original designation, Tringa cajennensis Latham = Parra cayennensis 
Gmelin. 
Notes.— See comments under Hoploxypterus. 

Vanellus vanellus (Linnaeus). Northern Lapwing. [269.] 

Tringa Vanellus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 148. (in Europa, 
Africa = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Open fields, pastures, wet meadows, bogs, and grassy banks of ponds 
and lakes, in migration and winter also cultivated fields, seacoasts and mudflats. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Faroe Islands (rarely), British Isles, northern 
Scandinavia, northern Russia, Transbaicalia and Ussuriland south to Morocco, 
the northern Mediterranean region, Black Sea, Iran, Turkestan and northern Mon- 
golia. 

Winters from the British Isles, central Europe, southern Russia, Asia Minor, 
Iraq, Iran, India, Burma, China and Japan south to Madeira, the Canary Islands, 
northern Africa, Southeast Asia, Formosa and the Ryukyu Islands. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 165 

Casual to northeastern North America from Baffin Island, Labrador and New- 
foundland south through southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, 
Nova Scotia and New England to New York (Long Island). Accidental in North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Bermuda, the Bahamas (Hog Island), Puerto Rico and 
Barbados. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Lapwing. 

Vanellus chilensis (Molina). Southern Lapwing. 

Parra Chilensis Molina, 1782, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 258. (Chile.) 

Habitat.— Open country, preferring savanna, short grassy areas and fields, less 
commonly in marshes (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in South America mostly east of the Andes from Colom- 
bia, Venezuela and the Guianas south to Tierra del Fuego. 

Casual or irregular visitant to eastern Panama (Chiriqui, eastern Panama prov- 
ince, eastern San Bias and eastern Darien), Trinidad and the Falkland Islands. 
Accidental in the Juan Fernandez Islands. 

Reports of individuals of this species from southern Florida (north to Collier 
and Palm Beach counties) from 1959 to 1962 are apparently based on escaped 
birds. 

Notes.— Also known as Spur- winged Lapwing. 

Subfamily CHARADRIINAE: Plovers 

Genus PLUVIALIS Brisson 

Pluvialis Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 46; 5, p. 42. Type, by tautonymy, 
Pluvialis aurea Brisson = Charadrius pluvialis Linnaeus = Charadrius 
apricarius Linnaeus. 

Squatarola Cuvier, 1817, Regne Anim., 1 ( 1 8 1 6), p. 467. Type, by tautonymy, 
Tringa squatarola Linnaeus. 

Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus). Black-bellied Plover. [270.] 

Tringa Squatarola Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 149. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Tundra (breeding); mudflats, beaches, wet savanna, shores of ponds 
and lakes, and flooded fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska (Barrow east- 
ward) south to western Alaska (Hooper Bay, Nelson Island), and from north- 
western Mackenzie and Banks, southern Melville, Bathurst, Devon, Bylot and 
western and southern Baffin islands south to the Yukon River, north-central 
Mackenzie (Cockburn Point), southern Victoria Island, northern Keewatin (Ade- 
laide and Melville peninsulas), and Southampton and Coats islands; and in Eurasia 
from north-central Russia east across northern Siberia (including Kolguyev Island, 
southern Novaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands and Wrangel Island) to the 
Gulf of Anadyr. Nonbreeding individuals frequently summer in the wintering 
range. 

Winters in the Americas primarily in coastal areas from southern British Colum- 
bia and New Jersey (rarely New England) south along both coasts of the United 
States and Middle America, through the West Indies, and along both coasts of 



1 66 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

South America (also the Galapagos and other offshore islands) to central Chile 
and northern Argentina, also casually throughout the Hawaiian Islands; and in 
the Old World from the British Isles, southern Europe, northern India, Southeast 
Asia, southeastern China, southern Japan and the Solomon Islands south to south- 
ern Africa, islands of the Indian Ocean, the Malay Peninsula, Australia and New 
Zealand. 

Migrates primarily along coasts in the Northern Hemisphere from western and 
southern Alaska (casually the Aleutians), Labrador (casually) and Newfoundland 
southward, and locally through interior North America, especially in the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio valleys. 

Casual in northern Ellesmere Island, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, 
Azores and Madeira. 

Notes.— In Old World literature known as Gray Plover. 

Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus). Greater Golden- Plover. [271.] 

Charadrius apricarius Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 150. (in Oe- 
landia, Canada = Lapland.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds, with habitat requirements similar to those of 
P. dominica, from northern Eurasia south to the British Isles, northern Europe, 
the Baltic states and Taimyr Peninsula, and winters south to northern Africa, the 
Caspian Sea and eastern India, in migration regularly in Greenland. 

Casual in Newfoundland (St. John's, Avalon Peninsula and Cappahayden, 1 8- 
20 April 1961; Stephen ville Crossing, 24 May 1963; L'Anse-aux-Meadows, 26 
April-14 May 1978). 

Notes.— Also known as Eurasian Golden-Plover and, in Old World literature, 
as the Golden Plover. P. apricaria and P. dominica constitute a superspecies. 

Pluvialis dominica (Muller). Lesser Golden-Plover. [272.] 

Charadrius Dominicus P. L. S. Muller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 116. Based 
on "Le Pluvier dore de S. Dominigue" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 48. (St. 
Domingo = Hispaniola.) 

Habitat.— Grassy tundra (breeding); short grasslands, pastures, mudflats, sandy 
beaches and flooded fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds [dominica group] in North America from northern Alaska, 
northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and Banks, southern Melville (probably), 
Bathurst, Devon and northern Baffin islands south to central Alaska (interior 
mountain ranges), southern Yukon, northwestern British Columbia, central Mac- 
kenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario (Cape Hen- 
rietta Maria), and Southampton and southern Baffin islands; and [fulva group] 
along the Bering coast of Alaska (Wales south to Kuskokwim River, including St. 
Lawrence, Nunivak and Nelson islands), and in Eurasia from the Arctic coast of 
Siberia (Yamal Peninsula eastward) south to the Stanovoi and Koryak mountains 
and the Gulf of Anadyr. Nonbreeding individuals summer in the wintering range 
[dominica group] south to northern South America and [fulva group] in the Hawai- 
ian Islands. 

Winters [dominica group] in South America from Bolivia, Uruguay and southern 
Brazil south to northern Chile and northern Argentina; and [fulva group] in the 
Old World from northeastern Africa, the Red Sea, India, southern China, Formosa 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 167 

and islands of Polynesia south to the Malay Peninsula, Australia, Tasmania, New 
Zealand, the Tonga and Tuamotu islands and, casually, in coastal southern Cal- 
ifornia. 

Migrates [dominica group] in spring through Middle America and the interior 
of North America (from the Rockies to the Mississippi Valley), casually to the 
Pacific and Atlantic coasts, and in fall mostly from Newfoundland and Nova 
Scotia to New England, thence southward over the Atlantic, rarely through the 
West Indies and the interior of North America; and [fulva group] in the Hawaiian 
Islands, through the Aleutians, along the Pacific coast of North America south to 
California, and in Eurasia primarily in eastern Asia and over oceanic islands of 
the Pacific. 

Casual or accidental [dominica group] in Bermuda, Greenland, the British Isles 
and continental Europe; and [fulva group] inland in western North America (to 
Alberta and Idaho), on Isla Clarion (in the Revillagigedo group), and in Maine, 
Chile, Greenland, Europe, the Cape Verde Islands, Mediterranean region, eastern 
Africa and Arabia. 

Notes.— Also known as American Golden-Plover. Recent studies suggest that 
the two groups breed sympatrically in western Alaska and may represent separate 
species, P. dominica [American Golden-Plover, 272] and P. fulva (Gmelin, 
1789) [Asiatic Golden-Plover, 272.1]. See also comments under P. apricaria. 



Genus CHARADRIUS Linnaeus 

Charadrius Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, l,p. 1 50. Type, by tautonymy, 
Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus {Charadrius s. Hiaticula, prebinomial spe- 
cific name, in synonymy). 

Eudromias C. L. Brehm, 1830, Isis von Oken, col. 987. Type, by monotypy, 
Charadrius morinellus Linnaeus. 

Eupoda J. F. Brandt, 1845, in Tchihatchev, Voy. Sci. Altai Orient., p. 444. 
Type, by monotypy, Charadrius asiaticus Pallas. 

Aegialeus Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. 18. Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Charadrius semipalmatus "Aud." [=Bonaparte]. 

Oxyechus Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. 18. Type, by 
original designation, Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus. 

Ochthodromus (not Ochthedromus Le Conte, 1 848, Coleoptera) Reichenbach, 
1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. 18. Type, by original designation, Cha- 
radrius wilsonia Ord. 

Leucopolius Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 417. Type, by 
tautonymy, Charadrius niveifrons Cuvier = Charadrius leucopolius Wag- 
ler = Charadrius marginatus Vieillot. 

Podasocys Coues, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18, p. 96. Type, 
by original designation, Charadrius montanus Townsend. 

Pagolla Mathews, 1913, Birds Aust., 3, p. 83. New name for Ochthodromus 
Reichenbach, preoccupied. 

Charadrius mongolus Pallas. Mongolian Plover. [279.] 

Charadrius mongolus Pallas, 1776, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, p. 
700. (circa lacus salsos versus Mongoliae fines = Kulussutai, probably on 
the Onon River, eastern Siberia.) 



1 68 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Mudflats, beaches and shores of lakes and ponds, breeding on barren 
flats and steppe along sandy and stony banks of rivers, lakes and ponds. 

Distribution.— Breeds in centra! and northeastern Asia from the Pamirs east to 
western Sinkiang and through Tibet to the Nan Shan ranges, and on the Chukotski 
Peninsula, Kamchatka and the Commander Islands; also has bred in North Amer- 
ica in northern and western Alaska (Brooks Range, Choris Peninsula, Goodnews 
Bay, Seward Peninsula). 

Winters in the Old World from the Red Sea, Iran, India, Southeast Asia, south- 
eastern China and the Philippines south to southern Africa, the Seychelles, Ceylon, 
the Andaman Islands, Java, New Guinea and Australia. 

In migration occurs regularly in the Aleutians (east to Adak), on islands in the 
Bering Sea (St. Lawrence and the Pribilofs), and in coastal western Alaska, casually 
to northern Alaska (Barrow) and south-coastal Alaska (Cook Inlet). 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Lisianski), Oregon (Tillamook Bay, Colum- 
bia River), California (Moss Landing) and Louisiana (Grand Isle). 

Charadrius collaris Vieillot. Collared Plover. 

Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 27, p. 
136. Based on "Mbatuitui Collar negro" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. 
Parag., 3, p. 291 (no. 392). (Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Beaches, sandy savanna, and shores of rivers, lakes and ponds (Trop- 
ical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident primarily in coastal areas from Sinaloa and Veracruz 
south through Middle America, in the southern Lesser Antilles (Mustique in the 
Grenadines, and Grenada), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela 
(also the Netherlands Antilles, Margarita Island, Tobago and Trinidad) and the 
Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to 
central Argentina, also occasionally in central Chile. 

Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus. Snowy Plover. [278.] 

Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 150. (ad 
iEgypti ex Nilo canalem = Egypt.) 

Habitat.— Beaches, dry mud or salt flats, and sandy shores of rivers, lakes and 
ponds (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western and central North America along the Pacific 
coast from southern Washington to southern Baja California, and locally from 
interior southern Oregon, northeastern California, western Nevada, Utah, south- 
western Montana, Colorado, central Kansas and north-central Oklahoma south 
to southeastern California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico and north- 
central Texas; along the Gulf coast from Florida (south locally to Marco Island 
and, probably, the Florida Keys) west to Texas and northeastern Tamaulipas; in 
the southern Bahamas (north to Andros, Exuma and San Salvador), Greater Antilles 
(east to the Virgin Islands) and Lesser Antilles (St. Martin); on islands off the 
north coast of Venezuela (Curacao east to Margarita Island); on the Pacific coast 
of Oaxaca (Laguna Superior); along the Pacific coast of South America in Peru 
and Chile; and in Eurasia from southern Sweden, central Russia, central Siberia 
and Japan south to the Cape Verde Islands, Mauritania, North Africa, the Red 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 1 69 

Sea, northwestern India, Ceylon, Java, southeastern China and the southern Ryu- 
kyu Islands. 

Winters on islands and in coastal areas of North America from northern Oregon, 
the Gulf coast and Bahamas south to southern Mexico (casually to Guatemala, 
Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama) and the Greater Antilles; in the breeding 
range in South America; and in the Old World from the Mediterranean region 
and breeding range in Asia south to tropical Africa, Arabia, Ceylon, Southeast 
Asia, the East Indies, Philippines, Formosa and the Bonin Islands, casually from 
Sakhalin to the Palau Islands. 

Casual in the interior of North America north to southern British Columbia 
(in coastal regions to the Queen Charlotte Islands), Idaho, Montana, southern 
Saskatchewan, Minnesota, Wisconsin and southern Ontario, to the Atlantic coast 
of Florida (Merritt Island), and in the Florida Keys; a sight record from the 
Hawaiian Islands (Oahu) is questionable. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Kentish Plover. The western South 
American form is sometimes considered as a separate species, C. occidentalis 
(Cabanis, 1872); C. alexandrinus, the Australian C. ruficapillusTemminck, 1822, 
and the African C. marginatus Vieillot, 1818, constitute a superspecies and are 
treated as conspecific by some authors. 

Charadrius wilsonia Ord. Wilson's Plover. [280.] 

Charadrius wilsonia Ord, 1814, in Wilson, Am. Ornithol., 9, p. 77, pi. 73, 
fig. 5. (shore of Cape Island [=Cape May], New Jersey.) 

Habitat.— Sandy beaches, tidal mudflats and savanna pools, rarely far from 
coastal areas. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Baja California, northern Sonora and south- 
ern New Jersey south along the Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean coasts of 
Middle America (not recorded Nicaragua), the southeastern United States and 
West Indies (absent in Lesser Antilles south of Dominica, except for the Grena- 
dines, where present) to Panama (including the Pearl Islands) and northern South 
America east to northeastern Brazil (including islands off" the coast of Venezuela); 
also one breeding record for southeastern California (Salton Sea). 

Winters from Baja California, Sonora, the Gulf coast of Louisiana and Texas, 
and Florida south along the Pacific coast to northwestern Peru and in the Carib- 
bean-Gulf-Atlantic region throughout the breeding range to northern South Amer- 
ica. 

Casual north to southern California (Ventura and San Diego counties), in the 
interior to Minnesota (Duluth), Illinois (Glencoe) and the Lake Erie region (south- 
ern Ontario, Ohio and Pennsylvania), along the Atlantic coast to Nova Scotia, 
and on Barbados. 

Notes.— Also known Thick-billed Plover. 

Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus. Common Ringed Plover. [275.] 

Charadrius Hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 150. (in Europa 
& America ad ripas = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Sandy areas with scattered low vegetation, cultivated fields, short- 
grass areas near water, and grassy tundra, in migration and winter also mudflats, 
beaches and shores of lakes, ponds and rivers. 



1 70 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in western Alaska (St. Lawrence Island), 
and on Ellesmere, Bylot and eastern Baffin islands; and in the Palearctic in Green- 
land. Iceland and the Faroe Islands, and from Scandinavia, northern Russia and 
northern Siberia south to the northern Mediterranean region, the Chukotski Pen- 
insula, Anadyrland and the Sea of Okhotsk. 

Winters from the British Isles, western Europe, the Mediterranean region, Per- 
sian Gulf, western India and Sakhalin south to the eastern Atlantic islands, the 
Canary Islands, southern Africa, the Maldive Islands, northern China, Japan, the 
Volcano Islands and (casually) to Australia. 

In migration ranges casually to St. Lawrence and the Aleutian islands (Amchitka. 
Adak), and the mainland of western Alaska (Wales). 

Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados). 

Notes.— Also known as the Ringed Plover. C. hiaticula and C. semipalmatus 
constitute a superspecies; they are considered conspecific by some authors. 

Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte. Semipalmated Plover. [274.] 

Tringa hiaticula (not Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus) Ord. 1 824, in Wilson, 
Am. Ornithol., Ord reprint, 7, p. 65. (coast of New Jersey.) 

Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
5, p. 98. New name for Tringa hiaticula Ord. preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Sandy areas, and grassy or mossy tundra (breeding): mudflats, shallow 
marshes, beaches, flooded fields, and shores of lakes and ponds (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mac- 
kenzie, Banks, Victoria and southern Somerset islands, northern Keewatin (Mel- 
ville Peninsula), central Baffin Island and the northern Labrador coast south to 
the Pribilof and eastern Aleutian islands, western Alaska (the Alaska Peninsula), 
the Queen Charlotte Islands, southwestern and central British Columbia, south- 
eastern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, northeastern Alberta, northern Saskatche- 
wan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario (coast of Hudson and James bays), 
central Quebec and, coastally, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, southern New Brunswick, 
southern Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Nonbreeding birds often summer in 
the wintering areas south to Panama. 

Winters primarily in coastal areas from central California, central Sonora, the 
Gulf coast and South Carolina south through the West Indies, and along both 
coasts of Middle America and South America (also the Galapagos Islands. Tobago 
and Trinidad) to central Chile and Argentina (Patagonia). 

Migrates along both coasts of North America and commonly through the inte- 
rior, rarely or casually in the intermountain region from Idaho and Montana to 
Arizona, and casually to the Hawaiian Islands and western Aleutians. 

Casual in Bermuda, Greenland, the British Isles, eastern Siberia, and Johnston 
and Baker islands in the Pacific. 

Notes.— See comments under C hiaticula. 

Charadrius melodus Ord. Piping Plover. [277.] 

Charadrius melodus Ord, 1824, in Wilson, Am. Ornithol., Ord reprint, 7, p. 
7 1 . (Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey.) 

Habitat.— Sandy beaches, especially where scattered grass tufts are present, in 
migration and winter also mudflats, flooded fields and shores of lakes and ponds. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 171 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in the interior of North America from south- 
central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan and south-central Manitoba south to east- 
ern Montana, northwestern North Dakota, southeastern South Dakota (Union 
County), and central and eastern Nebraska; in the Great Lakes region (locally, 
formerly more widespread) from northern Michigan (Schoolcraft and Alger coun- 
ties) and southern Ontario south to the southern shores of lakes Michigan (in 
northeastern Illinois and Michigan), Erie (formerly) and Ontario; and in the coastal 
areas from northern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, southern Nova Scotia, 
southeastern Quebec (including Magdalen Islands) and Newfoundland south along 
the Atlantic coast to Virginia and (formerly) North Carolina. 

Winters primarily on the Atlantic-Gulf coast from South Carolina south to 
Florida and west to eastern Texas, and, less commonly, throughout the Bahamas 
and Greater Antilles (east to the Virgin Islands). 

Migrates through the interior of North America east of the Rockies (especially 
in the Mississippi Valley) as well as along the Atlantic coast. 

Casual in southern California, southern Arizona, northwestern Sonora (Puerto 
Penasco), southern New Mexico (sight reports), the interior of Texas, Bermuda 
and Barbados. 

Charadrius dubius Scopoli. Little Ringed Plover. [276.] 

Charadrius {dubius) Scopoli, 1786, Del Flor. Faun. Insubr., fasc. 2, p. 93. 
(Luzon, Philippines.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds along inland fresh- water areas from northern 
Eurasia south to the eastern Atlantic islands, northern Africa, Ceylon, Southeast 
Asia, the East Indies, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, and winters 
from southern Europe, the Caspian and Black seas, India, eastern China and Japan 
south to tropical Africa and Australia. 

Accidental in the Aleutian Islands (Buldir, 15-16 June 1974; Byrd, Trapp and 
Gibson, 1978, Condor, 80, p. 310); earlier reports from Alaska (Kodiak Island) 
and California (San Francisco) are regarded as unsatisfactory. 

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus. Killdeer. [273.] 

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 150. Based on 
"The Chattering Plover" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 71, pi. 71. (in 
America septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Fields, meadows, pastures, mudflats, and shores of lakes, ponds and 
rivers, less commonly along seacoasts, breeding in open dry or gravelly situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from east-central and southeastern 
Alaska, southern Yukon, western and southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatche- 
wan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, central Quebec (including the Mag- 
dalen Islands), New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, western Nova Scotia and 
western Newfoundland south to southern Baja California, central Mexico (recorded 
breeding to Guerrero and Guanajuato), Tamaulipas, the Gulf coast and southern 
Florida; in the southern Bahamas (Inagua, Caicos and Turks islands, probably 
also New Providence) and the Greater Antilles (east to the Virgin Islands); and 
in western South America along the coast of Peru and extreme northwestern Chile. 

Winters from southeastern Alaska (rarely), southern British Columbia, Oregon, 
the central United States from Utah east to the Ohio Valley (casually from southern 



172 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Canada east of British Columbia), and New England south throughout the remain- 
der of North America. Middle America. Bermuda, the West Indies and northern 
South America ("also most islands offshore) west of the Andes to western Ecuador 
and eastward to northern Venezuela: also in the breeding range in Peru and Chile. 
Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu. Maui) and Pribilofs: north to western 
and northern .Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin 
and central Labrador: and to Greenland. Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles. 
.Azores and Madeira. 

Charadrius montanus Townsend. Mountain Plover. [281.] 

Charadrius montanus J. K. Townsend. 1837. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
7. p. 192. (tableland of the Rocky Mountains = near Sweetwater River, 
Wyoming. ) 

Habitat. — Open plains at moderate elevations (breeding): short-grass plains and 
fields, plowed fields and sandy deserts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from extreme southern .Alberta (Milk River), northern 
Montana and northeastern North Dakota (rarely ) south through eastern Wyoming, 
western Nebraska. Colorado and western Kansas to central and southeastern New 
Mexico, western Texas ("Brewster County. Davis Mountains), western Oklahoma 
("Cimarron County) and western Missouri (Jackson County, formerly). 

Winters from central (rarely northern) California, southern .Arizona, and central 
and coastal Texas south to southern Baja California and northern Mexico (Sonora 
east to Tamaulipas). rarely farther south (recorded Zacatecas). 

Casual north to western Washington, southwestern .Alberta and southwestern 
Saskatchewan. Accidental in Massachusetts (Chatham). \ 'irginia (Chincoteague) 
and Florida, also sight reports from Minnesota and Georgia. 

Notes. — Often placed in the genus Eupoda. C. montanus and the Old World 
C. xeredus and C. asiaticus Pallas. 1773, appear to constitute a superspecies. 

[Charadrius veredus Gould. Oriental Plover.] See Appendix B. 

Charadrius morinellus Linnaeus. Eurasian Dotterel. [269.1.] 

Charadrius Morinellus Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 150. (in 
Europa = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Stony steppes, plains, newly plowed fields and marginal grassland 
(breeding): open stony or sandy areas, less frequently marshes, mudflats and sea- 
coasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution. — Breeds in North America in northern and western .Alaska (Bar- 
row to the Seward Peninsula and St. Lawrence Island): and in Eurasia locally in 
the mountains of the British Isles. Scandinavia and central Europe, and scattered 
across northern Russia and Siberia from the Ural Mountains to the Verkhoyansk 
Mountains and the Kolyma, and in northern Mongolia. 

Winters in southern Europe. North Africa. .Arabia. Iraq and Iran, casually in 
the Canary Islands. Madeira. Sakhalin, the Kuriles and Japan. 

In migration occurs in coastal western .Alaska and the western .Aleutians, ca- 
sually east along the northern coast of Alaska. 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure). Washington (Ocean Shores. West- 
port). California (Farallon Islands) and the Commander Islands. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 173 

Notes.— In Old World literature known as the Dotterel. Often placed in the 
monotypic genus Eudromias. 

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE: Oystercatchers 

Genus HAEMATOPUS Linnaeus 

Hcematopus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 152. Type, by monotypy, 
Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus. 

[Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus. Eurasian Oystercatcher.] See Ap- 
pendix B. 

Haematopus palliatus Temminck. American Oystercatcher. [286.] 

Hcematopus palliatus Temminck, 1820, Man. Ornithol., ed. 2, 2, p. 532. (a 
l'Amerique meridionale = Venezuela.) 

Habitat.— Rocky and sandy seacoasts and islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts (Mon- 
omoy) south to Florida, and along the Gulf coast west to central Texas and south 
to the Yucatan Peninsula (including Cozumel Island); in the Bahamas, Greater 
Antilles and Lesser Antilles (St. Barthelemy, Guadeloupe and the Grenadines); 
along the Pacific coast from central Baja California (San Benito Islands, possibly 
also Los Coronados Islands in northern Baja California) and the Gulf of California 
south to Guerrero (also the Revillagigedo, Tres Marias and Tres Marietas islands), 
along the coast of Costa Rica, and from the Bay of Panama (Pearl Islands and 
Los Santos) south to central Chile (Isla de Chiloe); and along the Caribbean- 
Atlantic coast of South America (also most islands off Venezuela, possibly also 
Tobago and Trinidad) south to south-central Argentina; recorded in summer and 
possibly breeding north to Labrador. 

Winters on the Atlantic-Gulf coast from North Carolina (casually from New 
Brunswick) south to southeastern Mexico, casually to Honduras; on the Pacific 
coast of North America from central Baja California (casually from San Luis 
Obispo County, California) south to Guatemala and Honduras; and generally in 
the breeding range in the West Indies and along the South American coast, casually 
on the Caribbean coast north to the Canal Zone and on the Pacific to Costa Rica. 

Casual in southern California (north to Point Reyes, and Salton Sea area), 
southern Ontario, southern Quebec, Maine and western Argentina. 

Notes.—//, palliatus and H. bachmani are closely related and considered con- 
specific by some authors [American Oystercatcher]; they form a hybrid zone 
about 200 miles in width in central Baja California. H. ostralegus is also considered 
by some as conspecific with the preceding two; the entire complex constitutes a 
superspecies. Under a single species treatment, Pied Oystercatcher may be used 
as the English name. 

Haematopus bachmani Audubon. American Black Oystercatcher. 
[287.] 

Hcematopus Bachmani Audubon, 1838, Birds Am. (folio), 4, pi. 427, fig. 1 
(1839, Ornithol. Biogr., 5, p. 245). (Mouth of the Columbia River.) 



1 74 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Rocky seacoasts and islands, less commonly sandy beaches. 

Distribution.— Resident from the western Aleutians (Kiska eastward) south along 
the Pacific coast of North America (including most islands offshore) to central 
Baja California (Punta Abreojos and Isla de Natividad); also has bred on Round 
Island, in the southern Bering Sea. 

Casual in the Pribilof Islands. 

Notes.— Known in American literature as the Black Oystercatcher. See com- 
ments under H. palliatus. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE: Stilts and Avocets 

Genus HIMANTOPUS Brisson 

Himantopus Brisson, 1760. Ornithologie. 1. p. 46; 5, p. 33. Type, by tau- 
tonymy, Himantopus Brisson = Charadrius himantopus Linnaeus. 

Himantopus mexicanus (Miiller). Black-necked Stilt. [226.] 

Charadrius Mexicanus P. L. S. Miiller. 1776, Natursyst.. Suppl.. p. 117. Based 
on the "Echasse de Mexique" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 36. (in Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Grassy marshes, wet savanna, mudflats, shallow ponds and flooded 
fields (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds [mexicanus group] locally on the Atlantic coast from 
southern New Jersey (formerly), Delaware and Virginia south to southern Florida, 
and from southern Oregon, Idaho, northern Utah, southern Colorado, eastern 
New Mexico, central Kansas, the Gulf coast of Texas and southern Louisiana, 
and the Bahamas south through Middle America, the Antilles (south to Antigua 
and Montserrat) and most of South America (also the Galapagos Islands, islands 
off Venezuela, and Tobago and Trinidad) to southern Chile and southern Argen- 
tina. Recorded in summer and probably breeding [mexicanus group] in eastern 
Montana and western South Dakota. 

Winters [mexicanus group] from central California, Sonora, the Gulf coast of 
Texas and Louisiana, and southern Florida south through Middle America, the 
West Indies and South America to the limits of the breeding range. 

Resident [knudseni group] in the Hawaiian Islands (main islands from Niihau 
eastward, except Lanai and Kahoolawe). 

Casual [mexicanus group] north to southern British Columbia, southern Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba. Wisconsin, southern Ontario, and, 
in the Atlantic coastal region, to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, 
and on Bermuda. 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes regarded as distinct species, H. mexi- 
canus [Black-necked Stilt, 226] and H. knudseni Stejneger, 1887 [Hawaiian 
Stilt, 226.1.]. H. mexicanus (including knudseni) is sometimes considered con- 
specific with the Old World H. himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758) [Pied or Black- 
winged Stilt]; they constitute a superspecies. and indeed all members of this 
genus may form a single superspecies. 

Genus RECURVIROSTRA Linnaeus 

Recurvirostra Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 151. Type, by mono- 
typy, Recunirostra avosetta Linnaeus. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 175 

Recurvirostra americana Gmelin. American Avocet. [225.] 

Recurvirostra americana Gmelin, 1 789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 693. Based mainly 
on the "American Avoset" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 502, pi. 21. (in 
America septentrionali et nova Hollandia = North America.) 

Habitat.— Lowland marshes, mudflats, ponds, alkaline lakes, and estuaries, 
nesting colonially (usually) on open flats or areas with scattered tufts of grass along 
lakes (especially alkaline) and marshes. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southeastern British Columbia, central Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba, southwestern Ontario and Min- 
nesota south locally to southern California, central Nevada, northern Utah, south- 
central Colorado, southern New Mexico and San Luis Potosi, and east to central 
Kansas and coastal Texas; also one breeding record for North Carolina (Pea Island. 
1968). Formerly bred north to southern Mackenzie. Nonbreeding individuals 
frequently summer in the wintering range. 

Winters mostly in coastal lowlands from northern California and southern Texas 
south to southern Mexico, casually to Guatemala (Pacific lowlands), Belize, Hon- 
duras (Copen and Cedeno) and Costa Rica (Chomes), also locally in southern 
Florida. 

Migrates primarily throughout the western half of the United States, rarely in 
eastern North America from southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick. 
Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south to the Gulf coast and Florida. 

Casual or accidental in Alaska (Valdez), the Bahamas (Andros, San Salvador), 
Cuba, Jamacia, Puerto Rico, St. Croix (in the Virgin Islands), Barbados, Tobago 
and Greenland. 

Notes.— Some authors consider all species of this genus as constituting a single 
superspecies. 

Suborder SCOLOPACI: Sandpipers, Jacanas and Allies 

Superfamily JACANOIDEA: Jacanas 

Family JACANIDAE: Jacanas 

Genus JACANA Brisson 

Jacana Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 48; 5, p. 121. Type, by tautonymy, 

Jacana Brisson = Parra jacana Linnaeus. 
Asarcia Sharpe, 1896, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 24, pp. ix, 68, 86. Type, by 

monotypy, Parra variabilis Linnaeus = Fulica spinosa Linnaeus. 

Jacana spinosa (Linnaeus). Northern Jacana. [288.1 

Fulica spinosa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1, p. 152. Based on "The 
Spur-winged Water Hen" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 1. p. 48. pi. 48. (in 
America australi = Panama.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes, floating vegetation, wet pastures and meadows, 
and edges of ponds, lakes and streams (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sinaloa, southern Texas (rarely north to 
Brazoria County) and Tamaulipas south along both slopes of Middle America 



176 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

(including Cozumel Island) to western Panama (east to Veraguas); also in the 
Greater Antilles (Cuba, the Isle of Pines. Jamaica and Hispaniola). 

Casual in central Texas (north to Mitchell, Bexar and Victoria counties) and 
Puerto Rico; reports from Florida are unsubstantiated. 

Notes.— Limited hybridization with /. jacana occurs in western Panama, and 
some authors treat J. jacana and J. spinosa as conspecific; they constitute a 
superspecies. If combined into a single species, American Jacana may be used 
for the English name. 

Jacana jacana (Linnaeus). Wattled Jacana. 

Parra Jacana Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 259. Based mainly on 
"Jacana quarta species" Marcgrave. Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 191, and "Le Chi- 
rurgien brun" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 125. pi. 11, fig. 1. (in America 
australi = Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes, wet grassy areas, and shores of ponds, lakes 
and rivers (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from western Panama (eastern Chiriqui and Veraguas 
eastward) south through South America (also Trinidad) to eastern Peru, eastern 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Notes.— See comments under J. spinosa. 

Superfamily SCOLOPACOIDEA: Sandpipers. Phalaropes and Allies 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE: Sandpipers, Phalaropes and Allies 

Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE: Sandpipers and Allies 

Tribe TRINGINI: Tringine Sandpipers 

Genus TRINGA Linnaeus 

Tringa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 148. Type, by tautonymy, 
Tringa ocrophus Linnaeus {Tringa, prebinomial specific name, in synon- 
ymy). 

Totanus Bechstein, 1803, Ornithol. Taschenb. Dtsch., 2, p. 282. Type, by 
tautonymy, Totanus maculatus Bechstein = Scolopax totanus Linnaeus. 

Glottis Koch, 1816, Syst. Baier. Zool.. 1. pp. xlii, 304. Type, by tautonymy, 
Totanus glottis Bechstein = Scolopax nebularia Gunnerus. 

Notes.— Some authors would merge all the genera of the Tringini in Tringa. 

Tringa nebularia (Gunnerus). Common Greenshank. [253.] 

Scolopax nebularia Gunnerus, 1767, in Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapper, p. 251. 
(district of Trondhjem. Norway.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, bogs and wet meadows in the taiga or high moorlands 
(breeding); marshes, ponds, lakes and mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from Scotland and Scandinavia east across Russia and 
Siberia to Anadyrland, Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk, and south to Lake 
Baikal. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 177 

Winters from the Mediterranean region, Iraq, the Persian Gulf, eastern China 
and Formosa south to southern Africa, India, Ceylon, the Maldive Islands, East 
Indies, New Guinea and Australia, straggling to the eastern Atlantic islands and 
New Zealand. 

In migration ranges regularly to the western Aleutians (Near Islands) and cas- 
ually to the Pribilofs (St. Paul). 

Audubon's record from Sand Key, near Cape Sable, Florida, is regarded as 
questionable. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Greenshank. Some authors 
have suggested that T. nebularia and T. melanoleuca constitute a superspecies. 

Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin). Greater Yellowlegs. [254.] 

Scolopax melanoleuca Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 659. Based on the 
"Stone Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 468. (auctumno in arenis littoris 
Labrador = Chateaux Bay, Labrador.) 

Habitat.— Muskeg and tundra (breeding); marshes, ponds, lakes, stream mar- 
gins, lagoons and coastal mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern Alaska (the lower Kuskokwim River, and 
from the Alaska Peninsula eastward), southwestern Mackenzie and south-central 
British Columbia east across the northern and central portions of the Canadian 
provinces to central and southern Labrador, Newfoundland, northeastern Nova 
Scotia and southern Quebec (Anticosti Island). Nonbreeding individuals some- 
times summer on the wintering grounds, especially along the coasts of the United 
States and in the West Indies. 

Winters from Oregon (rarely from southwestern British Columbia), central Cal- 
ifornia, southern Nevada, central Arizona, central New Mexico, southern Texas, 
the Gulf coast and coastal South Carolina (rarely from Long Island, New York) 
south through Middle America, the West Indies and South America to Tierra del 
Fuego. 

In migration occurs regularly throughout the North American continent south 
of the breeding range. 

Casual north to northern Alaska (Barrow), southern Mackenzie, southern Kee- 
watin, Southampton and Baffin islands, and northern Quebec, and in the Hawai- 
ian, Pribilof (St. George), Aleutian (Shemya, Adak) and Galapagos islands, and 
in Bermuda. Accidental in Greenland, the British Isles, Japan and the Marshall 
Islands. 

Notes.— See comments under T. nebularia. 



Tringa flavipes (Gmelin). Lesser Yellowlegs. [255.] 

Scolopax flavipes Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 659. Based on the "Yel- 
lowshank" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 468. (auctumno in Noveboraco = 
New York.) 

Habitat.— Tundra and muskeg (breeding); marshes, ponds, wet meadows, lakes 
and mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western (rarely) and central Alaska, central Yukon, 
northwestern and east-central Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northern Manitoba, 
northern Ontario and extreme west-central Quebec south to east-central British 



178 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Columbia, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan and southeastern Manitoba, with 
unconfirmed breeding reported south to southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois. 
Nonbreeding birds occasionally are reported in summer south from the breeding 
range as far as Argentina. 

Winters from the lowlands of Mexico (most commonly the Gulf-Caribbean, 
less frequently the Pacific lowlands and the interior, uncommonly from southern 
California), central New Mexico (casually), southern Texas, the Gulf coast and 
coastal South Carolina (rarely from Long Island. New York) south through Middle 
America, the West Indies and South America (also the Galapagos Islands) to 
Tierra del Fuego. 

In migration occurs regularly throughout North America south of the breeding 
range and east to southern Ontario, southern Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia, less commonly in western North America. 

Casual in the Hawaiian, Pribilof and Aleutian islands, Labrador, Newfoundland, 
Bermuda, the Azores and New Zealand. Accidental in Greenland, the British Isles, 
continental Europe, Zambia and the Falkland Islands. 

Tringa stagnatilis (Bechstein). Marsh Sandpiper. [255.1.] 

Totanus stagnatilis Bechstein. 1803. Ornithol. Taschenb. Dtsch., 2, p. 292, 
pi. 29. (Germany.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in marshes and wet meadows from eastern 
Europe east to western Siberia, and winters from the Mediterranean region. Persian 
Gulf and Southeast Asia south to southern Africa. India, the East Indies and 
Australia. 

Accidental in the Aleutian Islands (Buldir. 2 September 1974: Byrd. Trapp and 
Gibson. 1978. Condor. 80. p. 310). 



[Tringa totanus (Linnaeus). Common Redshank.] See Appendix B. 

Tringa erythropus (Pallas). Spotted Redshank. [253.2.] 

Scolopax erythropus Pallas. 1764. in Vroeg. Cat. Raissone Ois., Adumbr., p. 
6. (Holland.) 

Habitat.— Marshy sites in bushy tundra and edge of the taiga (breeding); marshes, 
ponds, wet meadows and mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia 
south to central Russia, central Siberia, Anadyrland and Kamchatka. 

Winters from the Mediterranean region. Persian Gulf. India and eastern China 
south to equatorial Africa. Ceylon and Southeast Asia. 

In migration ranges (primarily in fall) regularly in the western and central 
Aleutians (Attu. Alaid. Shemya. Buldir. Adak) and. casually, the Pribilofs (St. 
Paul). 

Accidental in British Columbia (Vancouver), Oregon (Columbia River), New- 
foundland (Terra Nova). Massachusetts (Plum Island), Connecticut (New Haven), 
New Jersey (Brigantine) and Barbados, also sight records also for Nevada. Ontario. 
Ohio. New Jersey and Texas. 

Notes. — See comments under T. totanus in Appendix B. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 179 

Tringa glareola Linnaeus. Wood Sandpiper. [257.1.] 

Tringa Glareola Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 149. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Edges of ponds in the taiga (breeding); lakes, ponds, streams, wet 
meadows, bogs and shallow pools, frequently in wooded regions (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America, at least rarely, in the western and 
central Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, probably also Adak and elsewhere); and in 
Eurasia from Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia south to southern 
Europe, Turkestan, northern Mongolia, Kamchatka, the Kurile and Commander 
islands, and the Chukotski Peninsula. 

Winters from the Mediterranean region, Iran, India, northern Thailand and 
southern China south to southern Africa, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, East Indies 
and Australia. 

In migration occurs rarely but regularly on St. Lawrence Island, in the Pribilof 
and western and central Aleutian islands, and on mainland western Alaska. 

Casual to northern Alaska, on western Pacific islands, and in the Faroe and 
eastern Atlantic islands. Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure, Midway), New 
York (Gaines, Orleans County) and Barbados. 

[Tringa ocrophus Linnaeus. Green Sandpiper.] See Appendix A. 

Tringa solitaria Wilson. Solitary Sandpiper. [256.] 

Tringa solitaria Wilson, 1813, Am. Ornithol., 7, p. 53, pi. 58, fig. 3. (Pocano 
Mt., Pa., Kentucky, and New York = Pocono Mountains, Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Taiga, nesting in trees in deserted passerine nests (breeding); fresh- 
water ponds, stream edges, temporary pools, flooded ditches and fields, more 
commonly in wooded regions, less frequently on mudflats and open marshes 
(nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from central and south-coastal Alaska, northern Yukon, 
western and southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, 
and northern and central Ontario east through central Quebec to central and 
southern Labrador, and south to northwestern and central British Columbia, 
central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba and northern Minne- 
sota; also probably in west-central Oregon (Lane County). 

Winters from northern Baja California (at least casually), the Gulf coast, south- 
eastern Georgia, Florida and the Bahamas south through Middle America, the 
Antilles and South America to Peru, south-central Argentina and Uruguay. 

In migration occurs from the southern portions of the breeding range south 
over most of the North American continent (rare on the Pacific coast north of 
central California). 

Casual or accidental in northern and western Alaska, Bermuda, the Galapagos 
Islands, Greenland, Iceland, the British Isles, France and South Africa. 

Notes.— T. solitaria and T ocrophus may constitute a superspecies. 

Genus CATOPTROPHORUS Bonaparte 

Catoptrophorus Bonaparte, 1827, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 2. p. 323. Type, 
by monotypy, Totanus semipalmatus Temminck = Scolopax semipalmata 
Gmelin. 
Notes.— See comments under Tringa. 



1 80 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin). Willet. [258.] 

Scolopax semipalmata Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 659. Based on the 
"Semipalmated Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 469. (in Noveboraco = 
New York.) 

Habitat.— Marshy lake margins in western North America, salt marshes in 
eastern North America (breeding); marshes, tidal mudflats, beaches, lake margins 
and, less frequently, open grassland (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America locally from eastern Oregon, 
Idaho, central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba south 
to northeastern and east-central California, western Nevada, central Utah, north- 
ern Colorado, western and northern Nebraska, and eastern South Dakota, formerly 
in western and southeastern Minnesota and Iowa; in eastern North America locally 
along the Atlantic-Gulf coast from southern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island 
and Nova Scotia south to southern Florida and west to southern Texas (possibly 
Tamaulipas); in the Bahamas, Antilles (Cuba, Beata Island off Hispaniola, Ane- 
gada and St. Croix in the Virgin Islands, and Antigua, possibly also Barbuda, St. 
Martin and Anguilla); on Grand Cayman (in the Caribbean Sea); and on Los 
Roques, off northern Venezuela. Nonbreeding individuals occur sporadically in 
summer as far south as northern South America. 

Winters from northern California (casually from southwestern British Columbia 
and western Washington) south along the Pacific coast (including offshore islands) 
to the Galapagos Islands and northern Chile; and from Virginia and the Gulf coast 
south along the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean coast of the Americas and throughout 
the West Indies to northern Brazil. 

In migration occurs primarily in coastal areas but also irregularly throughout 
most of the interior United States, casually around the Great Lakes. 

Casual north to northern Manitoba, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec 
and Newfoundland. Accidental in Alaska (Minto Lakes), Bermuda and Europe, 
also sight reports from the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui). 



Genus HETEROSCELUS Baird 

Heteroscelus Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. 
R. R. Pac, 9, pp. xxii, xlvii, 728, 734. Type, by monotypy, Totanus brevipes 
Vieillot. 

Notes.— See comments under Tringa. 



Heteroscelus incanus (Gmelin). Wandering Tattler. [259.] 

Scolopax incana Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 658. Based on the "Ash- 
coloured Snipe" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds. 3 (1), p. 1 54. (in insulis Eimeo 
et Palmerston = Eimeo [Moorea] Island, Society Group, Pacific Ocean.) 

Habitat.— Mountains and hilly regions, primarily along streams and lakes in 
areas that are rocky, mossy, or covered with scrubby vegetation, in damp meadows, 
and in creek bottoms, occasionally in forest clearings away from water (breeding); 
rocky seacoasts and islands, and sandy beaches of oceanic islands (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in mountains of western, central and 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 1 8 1 

south-coastal Alaska, central and southern Yukon, and northwestern British 
Columbia; and in Eurasia in northeastern Siberia, Anadyrland and the Chukotski 
Peninsula. Nonbreeding individuals sometimes occur in summer on the wintering 
grounds. 

Winters along the Pacific coast of the Americas from southern California (rarely 
Oregon and Washington) south regularly to the Revillagigedo Islands and the coast 
of Mexico, and locally to Honduras (Bay of Fonseca), Costa Rica (Cocos Island), 
Panama (Isla Coiba, Bay of Panama, and rarely to the Caribbean coast of the 
Canal Zone), Colombia (Malpelo Island), the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador and 
Peru (Punta Salinas); and in the Pacific from the Hawaiian Islands, Marianas and 
Philippines south to the Fiji, Samoa, Society and Tuamotu islands. 

In migration occurs regularly in the Aleutian Islands and along the Pacific coast 
of Central America. 

Casual inland in North America (recorded northwestern Mackenzie, east-central 
British Columbia, Alberta, eastern Oregon, eastern California, northeastern Baja 
California, southwestern Utah and southern Arizona), and in the Pacific from the 
Bonin, Volcano and Ryukyu islands, Japan and Formosa south to New Guinea. 
Australia and New Zealand. Accidental in Manitoba (Churchill), southern Ontario 
(Windmill Point, Fort Erie) and Massachusetts (Monomoy). 

Notes.—//, incanus and H. brevipes constitute a superspecies; they are consid- 
ered conspecific by some authors, although the breeding ranges seem to overlap 
in eastern Siberia. 



Heteroscelus brevipes (Vieillot). Gray-tailed Tattler. [259.1.] 

Totanus brevipes Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 6, p. 410. 
(Pays inconnu = Timor.) 

Habitat,— Mountains and hilly regions, primarily along streams or lakes in 
stony, mossy or scrubby situations, occasionally in clearings away from water 
(breeding); rocky seacoasts and islets, and sandy beaches on oceanic islands (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds apparently in eastern Siberian mountains from Lake Bai- 
kal to the Verkhoyansk Mountains and Anadyrland, possibly also in Kamchatka 
and the Kurile Islands; nest and eggs unknown. 

Winters from the Malay Peninsula, Philippines, and the Caroline, Mariana and 
Marshall islands south to Christmas Island (in the Indian Ocean), Java, New 
Guinea, Australia and Norfolk Island. 

In migration occurs regularly in the Aleutian (east to Unalaska) and Pribilof 
islands, on St. Lawrence Island, and along the coasts of Japan and China, casually 
along the coast to northern Alaska (Barrow). 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway) and California (Los Angeles Coun- 
ty). 

Notes.— Also known as Polynesian Tattler. See comments under H. incanus. 



Genus ACTITIS Illiger 

Actitis Illiger, 1811, Prodromus, p. 262. Type, by subsequent designation 
(Stejneger, 1885), Tringa hypoleucos Linnaeus. 

Notes.— See comments under Tringa. 



1 82 CHECK- LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Actitis hypoleucos (Linnaeus). Common Sandpiper. [263.1.] 

Tringa Hypoleucos Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 149. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Streams, ponds, lakes and seacoasts, generally with sandy or rocky 
margins, less frequently in marshes, breeding along banks of fresh-water habitats. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia and 
northern Siberia south to the Mediterranean region, northern Iran, Afghanistan, 
the Himalayas, Mongolia, Manchuria, Ussuriland, Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands 
and Japan; also in East Africa (Uganda). 

Winters from southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Iraq, eastern China 
and southern Japan south to southern Africa, Madagascar, Ceylon, islands in the 
eastern Indian Ocean, Australia, New Guinea and islands of the western Pacific. 

In migration occurs regularly in the western Aleutians (Near Islands), casually 
in the Pribilof Islands (St. George), on St. Lawrence Island, and in the Aleutians 
east to Adak. 

Notes.— A. hypoleucos and A. macular ia constitute a superspecies; they are 
considered by some authors to be conspecific. 



Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). Spotted Sandpiper. [263.] 

Tringa macularia Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 249. Based mainly 
on the "Spotted Tringa" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 139, pi. 277. (in 
Europa & America septentrionali = Pennsylvania.) 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Alaska, central Yukon, northwestern and 
central Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario, 
northern Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland south to southern Alaska (west 
to the base of the Alaska Peninsula), Oregon, southern California (in interior 
mountains), central Arizona, southern New Mexico, central Texas, the northern 
portions of the Gulf states, North Carolina, Virginia and eastern Maryland. Oc- 
casional nonbreeding individuals remain in summer on the wintering grounds. 

Winters from southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, southern 
Arizona, southern New Mexico, southern Texas, the southern portions of the Gulf 
states, and coastal South Carolina south through Middle America, the West Indies 
and South America (also the Galapagos Islands, and all islands off the Caribbean 
coast) to northern Chile, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

In migration occurs regularly along both coasts and throughout interior North 
America, and on Bermuda. 

Casual or accidental in Tristan da Cunha, Greenland, the British Isles, conti- 
nental Europe, the eastern Atlantic islands, Johnston Island and the Marshall 
Islands, also a sight report from the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu). 

Notes.— See comments under A. hypoleucos. 

Genus XENUS Kaup 

Xenus Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 115. Type, by mono- 
typy, Scolopax cinerea Guldenstadt. 

Notes.— See comments under Tringa. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 183 

Xenus cinereus (Giildenstadt). Terek Sandpiper. [263.2.] 

Scolopax cinerea Giildenstadt, 1775, Novi Comm. Acad. Sci. Petropol., 19 
( 1774), p. 473, pi. 19. (ad mare caspium, circa ostium fluuii Terek = shores 
of the Caspian Sea at the mouth of the Terek River.) 

Habitat.— River meadows, marshes, grassy banks of streams, ponds and lakes, 
especially in wooded regions, wintering also on mudflats and shallow estuaries 
and bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Finland, northern Russia and northern Siberia south 
to central Russia, Lake Baikal and Anadyrland. 

Winters from the Persian Gulf, southern Red Sea, Southeast Asia and Hainan 
south to South Africa (along the coast of eastern Africa), Madagascar, India, 
Ceylon, the Andaman Islands, East Indies, New Guinea and Australia. 

In migration occurs casually in the western Aleutians (Attu, Agattu, Shemya, 
Buldir), on St. Lawrence Island, in western and south-coastal Alaska (Nanvak 
Bay, Anchorage), and to western Europe, North Africa and New Zealand, also a 
sight report for northeastern Manitoba (Churchill). 



Tribe NUMENIINI: Curlews 

Genus BARTRAMIA Lesson 

Bartramia Lesson, 1831, Traite Ornithol., livr. 7, p. 553. Type, by monotypy, 
Bartramia laticauda Lesson = Tringa longicauda Bechstein. 

Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein). Upland Sandpiper. [26 1 .] 

Tringa longicauda Bechstein, 1812, in Latham, Allg. Uebers. Vogel, 4 (2), p. 
452. (Nordamerika = North America.) 

Habitat.— Grasslands, especially prairies, dry meadows, pastures, and (in Alas- 
ka) scattered woodlands at timberline, very rarely in migration along shores and 
mudflats. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from north-central Alaska (Brooks Range, Alaska 
Range and Wrangell Mountains), northern Yukon, northwestern British Colum- 
bia, extreme southwestern Mackenzie, northern Alberta, west-central and southern 
Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, southern Ontario, south- 
ern Quebec, central Maine and southern New Brunswick south in the interior to 
eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, Idaho, central Colorado, northwestern 
Oklahoma, north-central Texas, central Missouri, southern Illinois, northern Ken- 
tucky, southern Ohio, West Virginia, central Virginia and Maryland, possibly also 
to central Tennessee and (formerly) northern Utah. 

Winters in South America from Surinam and northern Brazil south to central 
Argentina and Uruguay. 

Migrates south through North America (rare along Pacific coast from southern 
Alaska to Washington, casually to California, and rare in Arizona, Nova Scotia 
and the South Atlantic coastal region), Middle America (not reported northwestern 
Mexico), the West Indies and most of South America (also Tobago and Trinidad) 
east of the Andes. 

Casual or accidental in eastern Quebec, Bermuda, Chile, the Falkland Islands. 



1 84 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Tristan da Cunha. Greenland, the British Isles, continental Europe, the .Azores 
and Australia. 

Notes.— .Also known in Old World literature as Bartram's Sandpiper: formerly 
known as Upland Plover. 

Genus NUMENIUS Bnsson 

Xurnenius Brisson. 1760. Ornithologie. 1. p. 48: 5. p. 311. Type, by tauto- 
nymy, Xurnenius Brisson = Scolopax arquata Linnaeus. 

Phceopus Cuvier. 1817. Regne Anim.. 1 (1816). p. 485. Type, by tautonymy. 
Scolopax phaeopus Linnaeus. 

Xurnenius borealis (Forster). Eskimo Curlew. [266.] 

Scolopax borealis J. R. Forster. 1772. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 62. p. 
431. (Fort Albany [on James Bay]. Hudson Bay). 

Habitat. — Open tundra (breeding); grasslands, pastures, plowed fields and. less 
frequently, marshes and mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Nearly extinct. Bred formerly in northwestern Mackenzie, pos- 
sibly west to western Alaska (Norton Sound). 

Wintered formerly from south-central Brazil south through Paraguay and Uru- 
guay to southern .Argentina and Chile (Isla Chiloe): last sight report in winter from 
.Argentina (near General Lavalle. Province of Buenos Aires. 1" January 1939). 

In migration recorded in spring from Guatemala (San Geronimo). Chihuahua 
(Lake Palomas) and regularly north from Texas and Louisiana through the Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri river drainages and west of the Great Lakes and Hudson 
Bay to the breeding grounds: recorded in fall west of Hudson Bay and regularly 
from southern Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the New England coast. 
casually to the lower Great Lakes (Michigan and southern Ontario), along the 
Atlantic coast (to South Carolina), and in Bermuda and the West Indies (recorded 
Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe. Carriacou in the Grenadines. Grenada and Barbados). 

Since the mid-1950's recorded (primarily sight reports) in spring from Texas 
(Galveston to Rockport. 1959-1963. with photographs from Galveston in March- 
April 1962. and on Padre Island. 1972) and Manitoba (Lake Manitoba. May 
1980). and in fall from the west coast of James Bay (1976). Massachusetts (Plym- 
outh Beach. 1970). New Jersey (Cape May. 1959) and South Carolina (Charleston 
area, 1956); last recorded specimen from Barbados (4 September 1963). 

Casual formerly on the Pribilofs. Colorado. Montana. Baffin Island. Tobago. 
Trinidad, the Falkland Islands. Greenland. Iceland and the British Isles. 

Notes.— A*, borealis and the Asiatic .V. minimis Gould. 1841. constitute a su- 
perspecies and are regarded as conspecific by some authors. 

Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus). Whimbrel. [265.] 

Scolopax Phceopus Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 146. (in Europa = 
Sweden). 

Habitat.— Sedge-dwarf shrub tundra, moorlands and heath (breeding): beaches. 
tidal mudflats, marshes, estuaries, flooded fields and pastures (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds [hudsonicus group] in North America from northern .Alas- 
ka, northern Yukon and northwestern Mackenzie south to western and central 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 185 

Alaska (Norton Sound, Alaska Range, Susitna River highlands) and southwestern 
Yukon, and along the western side of Hudson Bay from southern Keewatin south 
to northwestern James Bay (Lake River, Ontario); and [phaeopus group] in Eurasia 
from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, northern Scandinavia, northern Russia and north- 
ern Siberia south to the Orkney and Shetland islands, southern Scandinavia, 
central Russia, central Siberia, Anadyrland and the Sea of Okhotsk. Recorded in 
summer and possibly breeding [hudsonicus group] on Banks and Southampton 
islands; nonbreeding birds also may summer in the wintering range, especially 
along the Atlantic coast of the United States, in the West Indies, and along the 
coasts of California and western South America. 

Winters [hudsonicus group] in the Americas in coastal areas from central Cal- 
ifornia, the Gulf coast and South Carolina (rarely farther north) south through 
Middle America, the West Indies and South America (also the Galapagos Islands) 
to southern Chile and southern Brazil (casually to extreme northern Argentina); 
and [phaeopus group] in the Old World from the Mediterranean region (occa- 
sionally the British Isles), Arabia, India, Southeast Asia and eastern China south 
to southern Africa, Madagascar, islands in the Indian Ocean, Australia, New 
Zealand, and the Fiji and Phoenix islands. 

In migration occurs [hudsonicus group] primarily along the coast from southern 
Alaska (from Bristol Bay eastward, most commonly in spring), around Hudson 
and James bays, and (in fall) from Labrador and Newfoundland southward, ca- 
sually recorded through interior North America from southern Canada south to 
Arizona, New Mexico and the Gulf states; and [phaeopus group] through the 
eastern Aleutians (Near Islands) and the eastern Atlantic islands, rarely to the 
Pribilof and St. Lawrence islands. 

Casual [hudsonicus group] in Europe and New Zealand; and [phaeopus group] 
in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway, Oahu), mainland Alaska (Point Barrow), south- 
ern Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, New York (Long Is- 
land), New Jersey and Barbados, also sight reports from California, Virginia and 
southern Florida. 

Notes.— The American populations have sometimes been regarded as a separate 
species, N. hudsonicus Latham, 1790 [Hudsonian Curlew, 265], distinct from 
N. phaeopus [Whimbrel, 267]. 

Numenius tahitiensis (Gmelin). Bristle-thighed Curlew. [268.] 

Scolopax tahitiensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 656. Based on the 
"Otaheite Curlew" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (1), p. 122. (in Tahiti 
[Society Islands].) 

Habitat.— Montane tundra (breeding); coastal tundra, grassy fields, tidal mud- 
flats and beaches (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western Alaska (near the mouth of the Yukon River 
and on the Seward Peninsula); nonbreeding birds occur in summer on coastal 
tundra from Kotzebue Sound south to Hooper Bay, occasionally in the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Winters on Pacific islands from the Hawaiian (most commonly from Midway 
east to French Frigate Shoals) and Marshall islands south to the Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, 
Marquesas and Tuamotu islands. 

In migration occurs regularly in south-coastal Alaska (Cook Inlet to Prince 
William Sound), casually in the Pribilof and Aleutian islands. 



1 86 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Casual west to the Mariana and Caroline islands. Accidental in British Columbia 
(Vancouver Island) and Japan. 

Numenius tenuirostris Vieillot. Slender-billed Curlew. [268.1.] 

Numenius tenuirostris Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 8, p. 
302. (Egypt.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in boggy areas in steppe country in south- 
western Siberia and winters along beaches and mudflats west to the Mediterranean 
region, straggling to the British Isles and northwestern Africa. 

Accidental in Ontario (Crescent Beach, fall, "about 1 925"; Beardslee and Mitch- 
ell, 1965, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist., 22, pp. 212-213); a sight report for North 
Carolina is open to question. 

Numenius madagascariensis (Linnaeus). Far Eastern Curlew. [268.2.] 

Scolopax madagascariensis Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 242. 
Based on "Le Courly de Madagascar" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 321, pi. 
28. (in Madagascar, error = Macassar, Celebes.) 

Habitat.— Moorlands and wet meadows (breeding); mudflats, beaches and oc- 
casionally marshes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from eastern Siberia and Kamchatka south to Transbai- 
calia, northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria and Ussuriland. 

Winters from Formosa and the Philippines south to the East Indies, New Guinea, 
Australia and (rarely) New Zealand. 

In migration ranges casually to the Aleutian (Amchitka, Adak) and Pribilof (St. 
Paul, St. George) islands, and to western Alaska (Wales). 



Numenius arquata (Linnaeus). Eurasian Curlew. [264. 1 .] 

Scolopax Arquata Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 145. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in grasslands and marshes from northern Eur- 
asia south to southern Europe and the Gobi Desert region, and winters along 
beaches, on mudflats and in wet meadows from the southern parts of the breeding 
range south to southern Africa, Madagascar, the Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia 
and the East Indies. 

Accidental in Ontario (Crescent Beach, near Buffalo, New York), New York 
(Long Island, 1853), Massachusetts (Monomoy, 19 September 1976, and Martha's 
Vineyard, 18 February-18 March 1978) and Greenland, also a sight report for 
Nova Scotia. 

Notes.— Also known as Common Curlew and, in Old World literature, as the 
Curlew. TV. arquata and N. americanus may constitute a superspecies. 



Numenius americanus Bechstein. Long-billed Curlew. [264.] 

Numenius americanus Bechstein, 1812, in Latham, Allg. Uebers. Vogel, 4 
(2), p. 432. (New York.) 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 187 

Habitat.— Prairies and grassy meadows, generally near water, in migration and 
winter occurring also on beaches and mudflats. 

Distribution.— Breeds from south-central British Columbia, southern Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba south to eastern Washington, 
northeastern California, central Nevada, central Utah, southern Colorado, central 
New Mexico and northern Texas (possibly also Jeff Davis County and along the 
Gulf coast), and east to southwestern Kansas. 

Winters from central California, southern Arizona (rarely), extreme northern 
Mexico, southern Texas, southern Louisiana and coastal South Carolina south to 
southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz and the Yucatan Peninsula) and southern 
Florida, irregularly to Guatemala, Honduras and Costa Rica. 

Casual in southern Mackenzie, New Brunswick, Missouri and the Greater An- 
tilles (Cuba, Jamaica), also sight reports for eastern James Bay (Brae Island) and 
southern Ontario. Accidental in Panama (Canal Zone). 

Notes.— See comments under N. arquata. 

Tribe LIMOSINI: Godwits 

Genus LIMOSA Brisson 

Limosa Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 48; 5, p. 261. Type, by tautonymy. 
Limosa Brisson = Scolopax limosa Linnaeus. 

Vetola Mathews, 1913, Birds Aust., 3 (2), p. 191. Type, by original desig- 
nation, Scolopax lapponicus Linnaeus. 

Limosa limosa (Linnaeus). Black-tailed Godwit. [252.] 

Scolopax Limosa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 147. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Marshy grasslands, wet meadows, steppe and moorlands (breeding); 
marshes, flooded fields, beaches and mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, southern Scandinavia, 
the Baltic states, central Russia, central Siberia and Kamchatka south to southern 
Europe, southern Russia, Lake Baikal, Mongolia and the Sea of Okhotsk. 

Winters from the British Isles, Mediterranean region, India, Burma, China and 
the Philippines south to east-central Africa, Ceylon (rarely), Malaysia, the East 
Indies, Australia and Tasmania. 

In migration occurs casually in spring in the Aleutian (east to Adak). Pribilof 
(St. Paul), St. Lawrence and Little Diomede islands. 

Casual or accidental in Newfoundland, on Miquelon Island, and in Massachu- 
setts (Dartmouth), Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), New Jersey (Brigantine), North 
Carolina (Bodie Island) and Florida (Merritt Island). 

Notes.— L. limosa and L. haemastica appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Limosa haemastica (Linnaeus). Hudsonian Godwit. [251.] 

Scolopax Ha mastica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1. p. 147. Based on 
"The Red-breasted Godwit" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 138. pi. 138. 
(in America septentrionali = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Grassy tundra near water (breeding); marshes, beaches, flooded fields 
and tidal mudflats (nonbreeding). 



188 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution. — Breeds locally in south-coastal Alaska (Cook Inlet area) and prob- 
ably also in western Alaska (Kotzebue Sound and Norton Bay): in Mackenzie 
(Fort Anderson and mouth of Mackenzie River area) and northwestern British 
Columbia fChilcat Pass;; and around Hudson Bay fin northeastern Manitoba and 
northwestern Ontario). Recorded in summer in central and northern Alaska. in 
the interior of Southampton Island, and on Akimiski Island m James Bay. 

Winters in South America on the coast of Chile ("from Isla Chiloe south to the 
Straits of Magellan;, and from Paraguay, southern Brazil and Uruguay south to 
Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands, casually also in New Zealand. 

In migration primarily recorded in spring in the interior of North America from 
Texas and Louisiana north to Alberta. Saskatchewan and the west side of Hudson 
Bay. rarely on the Pacific coast of Guatemala and Costa Rica: in fall mostly 
southeastward from James Bay to the Maritime Provinces and New England, 
thence by sea southward, regularly recorded on Barbados and casually on Guad- 
eloupe. 

Casual (primarily in migratory periods; along the Pacific coast of North America 
(recorded British Columbia to California), in the interior of the western United 
States ("from Idaho and Wyoming south to Arizona and New Mexico), in the 
interior of the eastern United States ("mostly in spring), in Newfoundland, along 
the Atlantic coast (south to Florida, primarily in fall;, in Mexico (recorded Ta- 
maulipas. Veracruz and Oaxaca;. the Bahamas (Eleutherai. Greater Antilles (re- 
corded definitely from Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), coastal Venezuela (also 
Curacao and Trinidad). Bolivia and Peru. 

Notes. — See comments under L. limosa. 

Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus ). Bar-tailed Godwit. [250.] 

Scolopax lapponica Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1, p. 14". (in Lap- 
ponia = Lapland.; 

Habitat. — Coastal tundra and sedge-dwarf shrub tundra of foothills, in migra- 
tion and winter also marshes, flooded fields, estuarine areas and beaches. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in Alaska lAVales east to Point Barrow, 
and south to the Yukon River Delta;: and in Eurasia from northern Scandinavia 
east across northern Russia and northern Siberia to the Chukotski Peninsula and 
northern Anadyrland. 

Winters from the British Isles. North Sea. Mediterranean region, Black Sea-. 
Iraq and the Persian Gulf south to central Africa, islands of the northern Indian 
Ocean and Ceylon, casually to the .Azores, Canary Islands, southern Africa. Mad- 
agascar, the Seychelles and Maldive Islands: and from southeastern China. 
Formosa and the Philippines south to the East Indies, western Polynesia. Australia, 
New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. 

Migrates through the Hawaiian. .Aleutian and Pribilof islands, along the Bering 
Sea coast of the Alaska Peninsula, through Europe, and in the Pacific from the 
coast of Japan south through the islands of Polynesia to the Gilbert. Samoa and 
Tonga islands. 

Casual along the Pacific coast from south-coastal Alaska (west to Kodiak; and 
British Columbia south to southern California, in the Atlantic coastal region 
(recorded Newfoundland. Maine. Massachusetts. New York. New Jersey. Virginia. 
North Carolina and Florida;, and in Iceland and the Faroe Islands. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 189 

Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus). Marbled Godwit. [249.] 

Scolopax Fedoa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 146. Based on "The 
Greater American Godwit" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 137, pi. 137. 
(in America septentrionali = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Marshes and flooded plains, in migration and winter also on mudflats 
and beaches. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern 
Manitoba and northern Ontario (west coast and islands of James Bay) south to 
central Montana, central North Dakota, northeastern South Dakota and north- 
western Minnesota, formerly to central Iowa, east-central Minnesota and southern 
Wisconsin; recorded in summer (and probably breeding) in southwestern Alaska 
(Bristol Bay). Nonbreeding birds occur in summer in the winter range. 

Winters from central California, western Nevada, the Gulf coast and coastal 
South Carolina south to Florida, and along both coasts of Middle America (ir- 
regular or local south of Mexico) to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. 

Migrates primarily through interior western North America and along the Cal- 
ifornia coast, regularly north on the Pacific coast to British Columbia and south- 
eastern and south-coastal Alaska, and, primarily in fall, casually through interior 
eastern North America and along the Atlantic coast from southern Ontario, Que- 
bec and Nova Scotia south to the Greater Antilles (east to Anegada in the Virgin 
Islands). 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian (Laysan) and Galapagos islands; reports 
from the Lesser Antilles, Tobago and Trinidad are questionable. 

Tribe ARENARIINI: Turnstones 

Notes.— Formerly considered a subfamily, the Arenariinae, and included the 
genus Aphriza, now regarded as related to the knots (Calidris). 

Genus ARENARIA Brisson 

Arenaria Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 48; 5, p. 132. Type, by tautonymy, 
Arenaria Brisson = Tringa interpres Linnaeus. 

Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus). Ruddy Turnstone. [283.] 

Tringa Interpres Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 148. (in Europa & 
America septentrionali = Gotland, Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Dry, dwarf-shrub tundra, usually near water (breeding); rocky, barren 
or pebbly coasts, sandy beaches, mudflats and shores of lakes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska and the Canadian 
Arctic islands (Banks east to Ellesmere and southwestern Baffin islands) south to 
western Alaska (St. Lawrence Island and the Yukon River delta), and Southamp- 
ton, Coats and Mansel islands, probably also the northern portions of Mackenzie 
and Keewatin; and in the Palearctic from northern Greenland, Iceland, northern 
Scandinavia, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands south to 
central Greenland, the west coast of Norway, islands in the Baltic Sea, and the 
northern Siberian coast (east to the Bering Sea). Nonbreeding birds may be found 
in summer through the winter range. 



1 90 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters throughout the islands of the Pacific from the Hawaiian Islands south- 
ward; in North America in coastal areas from central California, the Gulf coast 
and New York (Long Island) south along both coasts of Middle America (including 
Mujeres, Cozumel and the Revillagigedo islands, Mexico), through the West In- 
dies, and along both coasts of South America (also the Galapagos Islands, Neth- 
erlands Antilles, Tobago and Trinidad) to Tierra del Fuego; and in the Old World 
from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, the Mediterranean region, Canary 
Islands and southeastern China south to southern Africa, India, Indonesia, Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand. 

Migrates in North America regularly through the Aleutian and Pribilof islands, 
from Hudson Bay east to Labrador and Newfoundland (mostly in fall), and along 
the Atlantic coast from the Maritime Provinces southward, also in the Old World 
primarily along coastal areas between breeding and wintering ranges; in small 
numbers through the prairie areas of the Canadian provinces, the lower Great 
Lakes, and the Mississippi and Ohio valleys; rarely along the Pacific coast from 
southeastern Alaska south to northern California; and casually elsewhere through 
the interior of central and western North America, and to Bermuda, Jan Mayen 
and Franz Josef Land. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Turnstone. Some authors sug- 
gest that A. interpres and A. melanocephala constitute a superspecies. 



Arenaria melanocephala (Vigors). Black Turnstone. [284.] 

Strepsilas melanocephalus Vigors, 1829, Zool. J., 4 (1828), p. 356. (northwest 
coast of [North] America.) 

Habitat.— Coastal salt-grass tundra (breeding); rocky seacoasts and offshore 
islets, less frequently in seaweed on sandy beaches and tidal mudflats (nonbreed- 
ing). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally along the coast of western and southern Alaska, 
from southern Kotzebue Sound south to the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, rarely to 
the north side of the Alaska Peninsula. Nonbreeding birds may be found in summer 
through the wintering range. 

Winters from south-coastal and southeastern Alas * (west to Kodiak) south 
along the Pacific coast to southern Baja California anu central Sonora. 

Casual in the central Aleutians (Amchitka), and inland in central Alaska, Yukon 
(Watson Lake), British Columbia (Atlin region and Nulki Lake), Montana (Glacier 
National Park), Oregon (Washington County) and California (Salton Sea, Needles, 
Volta Wildlife Area). Accidental in Wisconsin (Winnebago County). 

Notes.— See comments under A. interpres. 



Tribe CALIDRIDINI: Calidridine Sandpipers 

Genus APHRIZA Audubon 

Aphriza Audubon, 1839, Ornithol. Biogr., 5, p. 249. Type, by monotypy, 
Aphriza townsendi Audubon = Tringa virgata Gmelin. 

Notes.— See comments under Arenariini. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 191 

Aphriza virgata (Gmelin). Surfbird. [282.] 

Tringa virgata Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 674. Based on the "Streaked 
Sandpiper" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (1), p. 180. (in sinu Sandwich = 
Prince William Sound, Alaska.) 

Habitat.— Open rocky ground above treeline in interior mountains (breeding); 
rocky seacoasts and islands (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in central Alaska (Alaska Range and Fortymile River 
system) and Yukon (except southeastern part). Occasional nonbreeding individ- 
uals summer as far south as Panama, and others have been recorded in summer 
(and possibly breeding) in western Alaska (from Kotzebue Sound south to Hooper 
and Goodnews bays). 

Winters along the Pacific coast from south-coastal and southeastern Alaska 
(west to Kodiak) south along the Pacific coast of North America, Middle America 
(not recorded El Salvador, Honduras or Nicaragua) and South America to the 
Straits of Magellan. 

Casual in central Alberta (Beaverhill Lake), and on the Gulf coast of Texas 
(Port Aransas, Padre Island) and Florida (Escambia and Lee counties), also a sight 
report for western Pennsylvania (Presque Isle). 

Genus CALIDRIS Merrem 

Calidris Anonymous [=Merrem], 1804, Allg. Lit. Ztg., 2, no. 168, col. 542. 

Type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gmelin = Tringa canutus Linnaeus. 
Ereunetes Illiger, 1811, Prodromus, p. 262. Type, by monotypy, Ereunetes 

petrificatus Illiger = Tringa pusilla Linnaeus. 
Erolia Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 55. Type, by monotypy, Erolia variegata 

Vieillot = Scolopax testacea Pallas. 
Pelidna Cuvier, 1817, Regne Anim., 1 (1816), p. 490. Type, by subsequent 

designation (G. R. Gray, 1 840), Tringa cinclus Linnaeus = Tringa alpina 

Linnaeus. 
Crocethia Billberg, 1828, Synop. Faunae Scand., ed. 2, 1 (2), p. 132. Type, 

by monotypy, Charadrius calidris Linnaeus = Trynga alba Pallas. 
Pisobia Billberg, 1828, Synop. Faunae Scand., ed. 2, 1 (2), p. 136, tab. A. 

Type, by subsequent designation (A.O.U. Committee, 1908), Tringa min- 

uta Leisler. 
Arquatella Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. 

R. R. Pac, 9, pp. 714, 717. Type, by original designation, Tringa maritima 

Brunnich. 
Micropalama Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. 

R. R. Pac, 9, pp. xxii, xlvii, 714. 726. Type, by monotypy, Tringa hi- 

mantopus Bonaparte. 

Notes.— See comments under Eurynorhynchus. 

Calidris tenuirostris (Horsfield). Great Knot. [234.1.] 

Totanus tenuirostris Horsfield, 1821, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13 (1), p. 
192. (Java.) 

Habitat.— Barren or stony mountain tundra (breeding); rocky seacoasts, sandy 
beaches and tidal mudflats (nonbreeding). 



1 92 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Breeds in the mountains of northeastern Siberia from the lower 
Kolyma to Anadyrland. probably also from the Verhoyansk Mountains east to 
the Sea of Okhotsk. 

Winters from the Persian Gulf, India and Malaysia east and south to the Phil- 
ippines. East Indies. New Guinea and Australia. 

Migrates regularly along the coast of eastern Asia from Kamchatka south to 
Formosa and the Ryukyu Islands, rarely in the interior of Siberia, and casually 
in spring through southwestern and western Alaska in the Aleutians (Shemya, 
Adak). Pribilofs (St. Paul), and on St. Lawrence Island and the Seward Peninsula. 

Calidris canutus (Linnaeus). Red Knot. [234.] 

Tringa Canutus Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1, p. 149. (in Europa = 

Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Barren or stony tundra (breeding); primarily seacoasts on tidal mud- 
flats and beaches, less frequently in marshes and flooded fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in northwestern and northern Alaska 
(Seward Peninsula and Delong Mountains, rarely at Point Barrow and Cooper 
Island) and the Canadian Arctic islands east to Ellesmere and south to southern 
Victoria and Southampton islands, probably also on the Adelaide Peninsula and 
Mansel Island: and in the Palearctic from northern Greenland and Spitsbergen 
east to the New Siberian and Wrangel islands. Nonbreeding individuals occa- 
sionally summer in the wintering range, especially on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
of the United States and in the British Isles. 

Winters in the Americas in coastal regions from southern California, the Gulf 
coast and Massachusetts south to Tierra del Fuego. generally rare and irregular 
north of southern South America: and in the Old World from the British Isles, 
southern Europe, the Black Sea. India. Southeast Asia and the Philippines south 
to central Africa. Australia and New Zealand, casually to the .Azores and Ceylon. 

Migrates in North America primarily along the Atlantic coast from New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia south to Florida (rarely in fall in southern Labrador and 
Newfoundland), through the Great Lakes region (mostly in spring), along the 
Pacific coast from western and southern Alaska and British Columbia southward, 
irregularly along the coasts of Middle .America (not recorded Belize, El Salvador 
or Nicaragua) and South America (also Trinidad), casually elsewhere through the 
interior of North America and through the Pribilofs. Aleutians and West Indies 
(recorded Greater Antilles except Cuba, the Virgin Islands. Martinique and Bar- 
bados); and in the Old World generally in coastal areas through regions between 
the breeding and wintering ranges, casually through the eastern Atlantic islands. 

Casual in the Hawaiian and .Aleutian islands, on islands in the Bering Sea, and 
in Bermuda. Accidental in the Galapagos Islands. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Knot. 

Calidris alba (Pallas). Sanderling. [248.] 

Trynga alba Pallas, 1764, in Vroeg, Cat. Raissone Ois.. Adumbr.. p. 7. (de 
Noordsche Zeekusten = coast of the North Sea.) 

Habitat.— Dry sedge, barren or stony tundra (breeding): primarily sandy beach- 
es, less frequently on mudflats and shores of lakes or rivers (nonbreeding). 
Distribution.— Breeds in North America in northern Alaska (Barrow), and from 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 193 

Prince Patrick, Lougheed and northern Ellesmere islands south to northern Mac- 
kenzie, western Victoria Island, northern Keewatin (Melville Peninsula), the 
northwest coast of Hudson Bay (Cape Fullerton), and Southampton and northern 
Baffin islands; and in the Palearctic in northern Greenland, Spitsbergen, the Tai- 
myr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya, mouth of the Lena River, and the New Siberian 
Islands. Nonbreeding birds occur in summer in the winter range. 

Winters in the Hawaiian Islands; in the Americas in the Aleutians (locally), and 
from southern Alaska (west to the Aleutians), the Gulf coast and Massachusetts 
south along the coasts of North America and Middle America, through the West 
Indies, and along the coasts of South America to Tierra del Fuego; in the Old 
World from the British Isles, Outer Hebrides, Mediterranean region, Caspian Sea. 
Gulf of Oman, northern India, Burma and China south to South Africa, Mada- 
gascar, southern India, the Maldive Islands, Ceylon, the East Indies and Australia; 
and on Pacific islands from the Mariana and Marshall islands south to the Phoenix, 
Union and Galapagos islands. 

In migration occurs in North America along the Pacific coast from the Aleutians 
and southern Alaska, the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland, and in the interior 
in the prairie areas of the Canadian provinces and from the Great Lakes southward, 
rarely elsewhere in the interior and north to Labrador. 

Casual in Jan Mayen, Franz Josef Land and New Zealand. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Crocethia. 

Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus). Semipalmated Sandpiper. [245.] 

Tringa pusilla Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 252. Based on "La 
petite Alouette-de-mer de S. Domingue" Brisson, Ornithologie, 5, p. 222, 
pi. 25, fig. 2. (in Domingo = Hispaniola.) 

Habitat.— Open tundra, generally near water (breeding); mudflats, sandy beach- 
es, shores of lakes and ponds, and wet meadows (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Arctic coast of western and northern Alaska 
(south to Norton Bay), northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie. Canadian Arctic 
islands (Banks, Victoria, King William, central Baffin, and probably also Melville 
and Somerset islands), and northern Labrador south to western Alaska (mouth 
of the Yukon River), east-central Mackenzie, southeastern Keewatin, northeastern 
Manitoba, Southampton Island, northern Ontario (Cape Henrietta Maria), north- 
ern Quebec and coastal Labrador. Nonbreeding individuals often summer in 
coastal North America south to the Gulf coast and Panama. 

Winters from southern Florida and the Bahamas south through the West Indies 
(possibly along the Gulf-Caribbean coast of Middle America) and along the Ca- 
ribbean-Atlantic coast of South America (also Tobago and Trinidad) to Paraguay 
and southern Brazil, casually to southern Argentina; and along the Pacific coast 
of Middle America and South America from Guatemala (casually Oaxaca) south 
to northern Chile. 

Migrates primarily along the Atlantic-Gulf coast of North America from New- 
foundland southward, through the interior of North America east of the Rockies, 
and rarely but regularly through the Pribilofs, along the Pacific coast from British 
Columbia southward, and through the interior of western North America. 

Casual in the Pribilof and Aleutian islands, Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands. 
British Isles, continental Europe and the Azores. 

Notes.— C. pusilla and C. mauri are often placed in the genus Ereunetes. 



1 94 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Calidris mauri (Cabanis). Western Sandpiper. [246.] 

Ereunetes Mauri Cabanis. 185". J. Ornithol.. 4 (1856). p. 419. (South Car- 
olina.) 

Habitat. — Coastal sedge-dwarf tundra (breeding): mudflats, beaches, shores or 
lakes and ponds, and flooded fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution. — Breeds on islands in the Bering Sea (St. Lawrence. Nunivak) and 

along the coasts of western and northern Alaska (from Bristol Bay and the Kashu- 
nuk River to the Seward Peninsula and. less frequently. Point Barrow and Camden 
Bay), and in northeastern Siberia. Nonbreeding birds summer south at least to 
Panama. 

Winters from the coast of California (rarely from southern .Alaska) and North 
Carolina (rarely New Jersey ) south along both coasts of North America and Middle 
America, and through the West Indies to South America (also the Netherlands 
Antilles and Trinidad), on the Pacific coast to northern Peru and the Atlantic 
coast east to Surinam. 

Migrates most commonly along the Pacific coast from Alaska to South America, 
less commonly through the interior from central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, 
southern (casually northeastern) Manitoba and southern Ontario southward, reg- 
ularly in small numbers (especially in fall) through the Pribilofs. along the Atlantic 
coast from New England (rarely Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) south- 
ward, and casually to the Aleutians. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure. Kauai. Oahu. Maui) and the Galapagos 
Islands. Accidental in the Canary Islands. Tasmania and Japan. 

Notes. — See comments under C. pusilla. 

Calidris ruficollis (Pallas). Rufous-necked Stint. [242.2.] 

Trynga ruficollis Pallas. 1776, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs. 3. p. 700. 
(circa Lacus salsos Dauunae campestris = Kulussutai. eastern Siberia.) 

Habitat. — Swampy or mossy rundra. especially with scattered willow scrub 
(breeding): tidal mudflats and beaches (nonbreeding). 

Distribution. — Breeds in North America in northern and western Alaska (Point 
Barrow and Seward Peninsula): and in Eurasia in northeastern Siberia (Chukotski 
Peninsula to Anadyrland and Koryakland). Recorded in summer (and possibly 
breeding) elsewhere in Alaska (Kotzebue Sound. St. Lawrence Island and Alaska 
Peninsula). 

Winters from southern China south to the Andaman and Nicobar islands. East 
Indies. New Guinea, the Bismarck and Solomon islands. Australia. Tasmania and 
New Zealand. 

In migration occurs in coastal northern Alaska (east to the Colville River), 
through the Pribilofs and Aleutians, and widely in coastal western, south-coastal 
and (casually) southeastern Alaska, also casually along the Pacific coast of British 
Columbia (Vancouver Island) and in California (south to San Diego County and 
Salton Seat. 

Casual or accidental in Maine (Biddeford Pool). Massachusetts (Monomoy. 
Scituate), Connecticut (Guilford) and Ohio (Ashtabula). 

Notes. — Also known as Red-necked Stent or Rufous-necked Sandpiper. C. 
ruficollis and C. minuta may constitute a superspecies. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 195 

Calidris minuta (Leisler). Little Stint. [242.3.] 

Tringa minuta Leisler, 1812, Nactr. Bechsteins Naturgesch. Dtsch., pt. 1, p. 
74. (region of Hanau au Main, Germany.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on the tundra from northern Scandinavia east 
to the New Siberian Islands, and winters in marshes, flooded fields and mudflats 
in Africa and the Indian region. 

Casual or accidental in the Aleutians (Buldir), on islands in the Bering Sea (St. 
Lawrence Island, and St. Paul and St. George in the Pribilofs), and in northern 
Alaska (Point Barrow), Ontario (North Bay on James Bay), New Brunswick (Grand 
Manan), Massachusetts (Monomoy), Delaware (Kent County) and Bermuda; a 
report from Attu in the Aleutians is erroneous. 

Notes.— See comments under C. ruficollis. 

Calidris temminckii (Leisler). Temminck's Stint. [24 1.1.] 

Tringa Temminckii Leisler, 1812, Nachtr. Bechsteins Naturgesch. Dtsch., pt. 
1, p. 64. (region of Hanau au Main, Germany.) 

Habitat.— Mossy or wet tundra, and grassy meadows in the taiga (breeding); 
mudflats, shallow marshes, shores of lakes and ponds, flooded fields and, rarely, 
tidal flats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Scandinavia east across northern Russia 
to northern Siberia, and south to the Chukotski Peninsula and Anadyrland. Non- 
breeding individuals summer south to Lake Baikal. 

Winters from the Mediterranean region, Arabia, Iraq, Iran, India, southeastern 
China and Formosa south to central Africa, Ceylon, the Maldive Islands, Southeast 
Asia and Borneo, casually in Japan and the Philippines. 

In migration ranges rarely (or casually) to western Alaska (Wales), and to St. 
Matthew, St. Lawrence, the Pribilof (St. George) and western Aleutian (Attu, 
Shemya, Buldir) islands. 

Calidris subminuta (Middendorff). Long-toed Stint. [242.1.] 

Tringa subminuta Middendorff, 1851, Reise Sib., 2 (2), p. 222. (Hohen des 
Westabhanges vom Stanowoi Gebirge und des Nahe des Ausflusses des Uda = 
Stanovoi Mountains, Siberia.) 

Habitat.— Mossy or wet tundra (breeding); sandy beaches, mudflats and shores 
of lakes and ponds (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Commander Islands, in Anadyrland and (probably) 
Kamchatka, and on Sakhalin and the northern Kurile Islands. 

Winters from eastern India, southeastern China, Formosa and the Philippines 
south to Ceylon, the East Indies and northern Australia. 

In migration ranges rarely but regularly to the Aleutians (east to Adak). casually 
to the Pribilofs (Otter, St. Paul, St. George), St. Lawrence Island and western 
mainland Alaska (Wales). 

Accidental in the western Hawaiian Islands (Midway) and Oregon (South Jetty. 
Columbia River); reports from British Columbia (Vancouver area) require con- 
firmation. 

Notes.— C. subminuta and C. minutilla appear to constitute a superspecies. 



196 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Calidris minutilla (Vieillot). Least Sandpiper. [242.] 

Tringa minutilla Vieillot, 1819. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 34. p. 466. 
(Amerique jusq"au dela du Canada = Halifax. Nova Scotia.) 

Habitat. — Mossy or wet grassy tundra, occasionally in drier areas with scattered 
scrubby bushes (breeding): wet meadows, mudflats, flooded fields, shores of pools 
and lakes, and. less frequently, sandy beaches (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western .Alaska (Kobuk Riven, northern Yukon, 
northern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, Southampton Island, northern Quebec 
and northern Labrador south to the eastern Aleutians ( Lnalaska). Alaska Pen- 
insula, southeastern Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, northern Saskatch- 
ewan, northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario, eastern Quebec (Anticosti and 
Magdalen islands ). Nova Scotia ( Sable Island ) and Newfoundland, with an isolated 
breeding in Massachusetts (Monomoy). Nonbreeding birds summer in the win- 
tering range, primarily in North America south to California and the Gulf coast. 

Winters from coastal Oregon. California, southern Nevada, central Arizona. 
southern Utah, central New Mexico, central Texas, the Gulf states and North 
Carolina | casually north to Long Island) south through Middle America, the West 
Indies and South America (also all islands off the north coast) to the Galapagos 
Islands, northern Chile, and central and eastern Peru. 

Migrates regularly along coastal areas and through interior North America, west 
to the Pribilof and eastern Aleutian islands, and east to western Greenland. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu. Maui), north to southern Victoria. Mel- 
ville and southern Baffin islands, and in Bermuda. Europe and the Azores. 

Notes.— See comments under C. subminuta. 

Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot). White-rumped Sandpiper. [240.] 

Tringa fuscicollis Vieillot. 1819. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 34. p. 461. 
(Paragua;. . I 

Habitat. — Mossy or grassy tundra near water (breeding): grassy marshes, mud- 
flats, sandy beaches, flooded fields, and shores of ponds and lakes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Alaska, northern Yukon (possibly), north- 
western Mackenzie, and Banks. Melville. Bathurst and northern Bylot islands 
south to the mainland coasts of Mackenzie and Keewatin. northwestern Hudson 
Bay i Chesterfield Inlet), and Southampton and southern Baffin islands. 

Winters extensively in South America, primarily east of the Andes, south to 
Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego. casually west of the Andes to Chile. 

Migrates in spring primarily through Central America, eastern Mexico (recorded 
Tamaulipas. Veracruz, the state of Yucatan, and Cozumel Island) and the interior 
of North America from the Rockies east to the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, less 
commonly on the Atlantic seaboard north to the Maritime Provinces: and in fall 
from Hudson Bay through the interior and along the Atlantic coast from Labrador 
and Newfoundland south through the West Indies and northern South America 
(also most islands off Venezuela). 

Casual on Prince Patrick Island, and in western North America from south- 
coastal Alaska (Copper River delta) and Bntish Columbia south to southern 
California and Arizona (also recorded Montana). Accidental in the Galapagos 
Islands, Franz Josef Land, the British Isles, continental Europe, the Azores and 
Australia. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 197 

Calidris bairdii (Coues). Baird's Sandpiper. [241.] 

Actodromus Bairdii Coues, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 13. p. 
194. (Fort Resolution [Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie].) 

Habitat.— Dry coastal and alpine tundra (breeding); mudflats, estuaries, grassy 
marshes, and dry grassy areas near lakes and ponds, rarely dry pastures and prairies 
away from water (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and northern Alaska (Wales and Point Bar- 
row eastward), northern Yukon, and Melville, Ellef Ringnes and Ellesmere islands 
south to central Alaska (Ashinuk Mountains and Susitna River highlands), north- 
ern Mackenzie, northern Keewatin, southern Melville Peninsula, and Southamp- 
ton and south-central Baffin islands; also in northwestern Greenland, and on the 
Chukotski Peninsula in northeastern Siberia. 

Winters in South America locally in the Andes of Ecuador, and from central 
Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay south through Chile and Argentina to Tierra 
del Fuego. 

Migrates primarily through the central interior of Canada and the central plains 
of the United States, and, in spring only, through Venezuela, Colombia, Central 
America (rarely, recorded Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala) and Mexico 
(casually, recorded Oaxaca and the Tres Marias Islands); less frequently (primarily 
juveniles) and mostly in fall through the Pacific region (the entire Pacific coast of 
Alaska south to Baja California and Arizona, rarely in Middle America) and along 
the Atlantic coast (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and, rarely, Newfoundland 
south to Florida and the Gulf coast); and rarely elsewhere in interior North Amer- 
ica. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Laysan, Oahu), the Outer Hebrides, Faroe 
Islands, British Isles, continental Europe, and the Kurile and Galapagos islands. 
Accidental in South West Africa and Tasmania. 



Calidris melanotos (Vieillot). Pectoral Sandpiper. [239.] 

Tringa melanotos Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 
462. (Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Wet coastal tundra (breeding); wet meadows, mudflats, flooded fields, 
and shores of ponds and pools (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and northern Alaska (Wales and Point Bar- 
row eastward), northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and Banks, Victoria, Ba- 
thurst, Devon, northern Baffin and Southampton islands south to western Alaska 
(Goodnews Bay), central Mackenzie, southeastern Keewatin, and the south coast 
of Hudson Bay (locally to Cape Henrietta Maria); and along the Arctic coast of 
central and eastern Siberia from the Taimyr Peninsula eastward. 

Winters in southern South America from Peru, Bolivia and southern Brazil 
south to central Chile and southern Argentina, casually north to the Gulf coast 
and Florida. 

Migrates chiefly through interior North America, Middle America and northern 
South America, and in fall (uncommon in spring) through eastern North America 
(north to Labrador and Newfoundland) and the West Indies, including most 
islands off the north coast of South America; also rarely (mostly in fall) through 
the Hawaiian, Pribilof and Aleutian islands, to the Pacific coast from British 



1 98 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Columbia southward, and along the coast of eastern Asia from the Kurile Islands 
and Sakhalin south to Japan. 

Casual north to Prince Patrick Island, and in western Greenland, Iceland, the 
British Isles, continental Europe, the Azores, Zambia, Australia, New Zealand 
and Polynesia. Accidental in the Galapagos Islands. 

Calidris acuminata (Horsfield). Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. [238.] 

Totanus acuminatus Horsfield, 1821, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13 (1), p. 
192. (Java.) 

Habitat.— Grassy tundra (breeding); wet grassy areas, marshes, flooded fields, 
mudflats, and shores of lakes and ponds (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in northern Siberia from the Indigirka to the Kolyma, 
probably also on the Chukotski Peninsula. Recorded rarely in summer (and pos- 
sibly breeding) in western Alaska (Barrow, Kivalina). 

Winters from New Guinea, New Caledonia and the Tonga Islands south to 
Australia, Tasmania and (rarely) New Zealand. 

Migrates regularly through the Hawaiian Islands (mostly in western chain), 
western Alaska (north to Cape Seppings and Kotzebue Sound), islands in the 
Bering Sea, the Aleutians, and east to Kodiak Island, and from eastern Siberia, 
Sakhalin and Japan south through eastern China, the Philippines, East Indies 
(occasionally) and Ryukyu Islands; and rarely but regularly (primarily in fall) from 
south-coastal and southeastern Alaska south along the Pacific coast to southern 
California, and through Pacific islands from Johnston and the Marshall islands 
south to the Gilbert and Phoenix islands. 

Casual elsewhere in North America, mostly in fall (recorded Alberta, Saskatch- 
ewan, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Ontario, New York, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, Maryland and Florida). Accidental on Tristan da Cunha, and in the 
British Isles and northern India; a record from Vera Paz, Guatemala, is an error. 

Calidris maritima (Briinnich). Purple Sandpiper. [235.] 

Tringa Maritima Briinnich, 1764, Ornithol. Bor., p. 54. (E Christiansoe & 
Norvegia = Christiansoe, Denmark.) 

Habitat.— Mossy tundra, moorlands and heath, and coastal barren flats (breed- 
ing); rocky seacoasts and jetties, rarely along shores of large inland bodies of water, 
usually in rocky areas (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from Melville, Bathurst, Devon, Bylot 
and Baffin islands south to Southampton and Belcher islands, and James Bay 
(North Twin Island); and in the Palearctic from western and southeastern Green- 
land, Iceland, Spitsbergen, Bear Island, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, the 
New Siberian Islands and Taimyr Peninsula south to the Faroe Islands, northern 
Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia. Recorded in summer (and 
possibly breeding) west to Banks and Prince Patrick Islands. 

Winters in North America from southern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Is- 
land, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland south along the Atlantic coast to Maryland, 
rarely south to Florida, and casually inland to the Great Lakes (west to Minnesota, 
Iowa, Wisconsin and Indiana) and along the Gulf coast to southeastern Texas. 

In migration occurs on Prince of Wales Island and in coastal areas from Lab- 
rador southward. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 199 

Casual in Manitoba and the Azores. 

Notes.— C. mahtima and C. ptilocnemis constitute a superspecies; they are 
regarded as conspecific by some authors. 

Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues). Rock Sandpiper. [236.] 

Tringa ptilocnemis Coues, 1873, in Elliott, Rep. Seal Islands [in Affairs in 
Alaska], (not paged). (St. George Island, Pribilof Islands.) 

Habitat.— Grassy or mossy tundra in coastal or montane areas (breeding); rocky 
seacoasts, breakwaters and mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in central western Alaska (from Wales south probably to 
Hooper Bay), on islands in the Bering Sea (St. Lawrence, St. Matthew, Nunivak 
and the Pribilofs). in the Aleutian and Shumagin islands (Sanak). and in eastern 
Siberia on the Chukotski Peninsula and in the Commander Islands. 

Winters from southern Alaska (west to the Aleutians and Alaska Peninsula) 
south along the Pacific coast to central (casually southern, at least formerly) Cal- 
ifornia; and in Eurasia from the Commander Islands south to the northern Kurile 
Islands. A report from northwestern Baja California is probably erroneous. 

Notes.— See comments under C. mahtima. 

Calidris alpina (Linnaeus). Dunlin. [243.] 

. Tringa alpina Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 149. (in Lapponia = 
Lapland.) 

Habitat.— Wet coastal tundra (breeding); mudflats, estuaries, marshes, flooded 
fields, sandy beaches, and shores of lakes and ponds (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Mac- 
kenzie (Baillie Island), northeastern Keewatin and southern Somerset Island south 
to coastal western Alaska (Nunivak Island, Hooper Bay and Cook Inlet), South- 
ampton Island, northeastern Manitoba (Churchill) and northern Ontario (Cape 
Henrietta Maria), rarely to south-coastal Alaska (Cook Inlet and Cooper River 
delta); and in the Palearctic from eastern Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen. Novaya 
Zemlya and the Arctic coast of Siberia south to the British Isles. Baltic region, 
northern Russia and northern China. Recorded in summer (and possibly breeding) 
north to Melville Island and east to Baffin Island; nonbreeding individuals are 
often recorded in summer in the winter range. 

Winters in the Hawaiian Islands (in smaller numbers), and in North America 
along the Pacific coast from southeastern Alaska south to Baja California and 
Sonora, and on the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean coast from Massachusetts south to 
Florida, west to Texas, and south to the Yucatan Peninsula; and in the Old World 
from the British Isles. Mediterranean and Red seas. Gulf of Aden, India, south- 
eastern China and Japan south to the Cape Verde Islands, northern Africa. Arabia, 
the Indian coast and Formosa. 

Migrates primarily along the Bering Sea coast of Alaska, the Pacific coast from 
the Aleutians and southern Alaska southward, the Atlantic coast from eastern 
Quebec and Nova Scotia southward, and in smaller numbers through the interior 
of North America from southern Canada south to Arizona, New Mexico and the 
Gulf coast, most frequently through the Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes region. 

Casual in the Pribilof Islands, Newfoundland, Oaxaca. Guatemala, Costa Rica. 



200 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Panama, and the West Indies (irregularly south to Barbados): a report from Nic- 
aragua is considered an error. Accidental in Peru (sight report). 
Notes.— Also known as Red-backed Sandpiper. 

Calidris ferruginea (Pontoppidan). Curlew Sandpiper. [244.] 

Tringa Ferruginea Pontoppidan. 1763. Dan. Atlas. 1. p. 624. (Iceland and 
Christiansoe [Denmark].) 

Habitat.— Drier portions of Arctic tundra (breeding): mudflats, marshes and 
beaches (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America rarely in northern Alaska (Barrow): 
and in Eurasia in northern Siberia from the Yenisei Delta east through the Taimyr 
Peninsula and New Siberian Islands to Cape Baranov. Recorded in summer on 
Bering Island. 

Winters from the British Isles (rarely). Mediterranean region. Iraq. India. Burma, 
southern Thailand and the Philippines (rarely) south to southern Africa. Mada- 
gascar. Mauritius. Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, southern Australia. Tasmania 
and New Zealand. 

In migration occurs casually in western Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 

Casual along the Pacific coast of North America from south-coastal Alaska 
south to California, and to eastern North America from southern Ontario. Quebec. 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to Florida and west along the Gulf coast 
to Louisiana (sight reports also from Texas); recorded in interior North America 
in Alberta, Utah. Kansas, Illinois and Indiana (sight records from Montana. Wis- 
consin and Michigan), and in the Lesser Antilles (Grenada. Carriacou and Bar- 
bados, also sight records from Antigua and the Virgin Islands). Accidental in Peru 
and Argentina. 

Calidris himantopus (Bonaparte). Stilt Sandpiper. [233.] 

Tringa himantopus Bonaparte. 1826. .Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y.. 2. p. 15" 7 . 
(Long Branch, New-Jersey.) 

Habitat.— Sedge tundra near water, often near wooded borders of the taiga 
(breeding); mudflats, flooded fields, shallow ponds and pools, and marshes (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Alaska (west to Prudhoe Bay. probably 
rarely Colville River), northern Yukon (probably), northern Mackenzie (Cockburn 
Point. Perry River) and southern Victoria Island southeast to southeastern Kee- 
watin. northeastern Manitoba and northern Ontario (Cape Henrietta Maria), prob- 
ably also south locally in Canada to borders of the taiga. 

Winters primarily in South America from Bolivia and south-central Brazil south 
to northern Chile and northern Argentina, casually northward through Middle 
America (regularly around the Gulf of Nicoya in Costa Rica) and the West Indies 
to southeastern California, the Gulf coast and Florida. 

Migrates mostly through central North America (from the Rockies east to the 
Mississippi and Ohio valleys) and Middle America (not recorded Belize), in the 
fall also regularly along the Atlantic coast from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
southward (including the West Indies), and rarely in both migration periods west 
of the Rockies primarily along the Pacific coast from southeastern Alaska south- 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 201 

ward, but casually through western Alaska, the Pribilof Islands and south-coastal 
Alaska. 

Casual on Bathurst Island, and in Bermuda and the Galapagos Islands. Acci- 
dental in the British Isles. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Micropalama. 

Genus EURYNORHYNCHUS Nilsson 

Eurynorhynchus Nilsson, 1821, Ornithol. Svecica, 2, p. 29. Type, by mono- 
typy, Eurynorhynchus griseus Nilsson = Platalea pygmea Linnaeus. 

Notes.— This monotypic genus is distinguished from Calidris primarily by its 
highly specialized bill; some authors would merge Eurynorhynchus in Calidris. 

Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linnaeus). Spoonbill Sandpiper. [245.] 

Platalea pygmea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 140. Based on 
Platalea corpore supra fusco, subtus albo Linnaeus, Mus. Adolphi Friderici, 
2, p (in Surinami, error = eastern Asia.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on stone or shell banks in northeastern Siberia, 
and winters on mudflats and beaches from southeastern China south to Southeast 
Asia. 

Accidental in northwestern Alaska (Wainwright Inlet, 15 August 1914), the 
Aleutians (Buldir, 2 June 1977) and British Columbia (Vancouver, 31 July-3 
August 1978). 

Genus LIMICOLA Koch 

Limicola C. L. Koch, 1816, Syst. Baier. Zool., 1, p. 316. Type, by monotypy, 
Numenius pygmaeus Bechstein = Scolopax falcinellus Pontoppidan. 

Limicola falcinellus (Pontoppidan). Broad-billed Sandpiper. [248.1.] 

Scolopax Falcinellus Pontoppidan, 1763, Dan. Atlas, 1, p. 263. (No locality 
given = Denmark.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on tundra in northern Scandinavia, the Kola 
Peninsula and probably also northern Siberia, and winters on marshes, mudflats 
and beaches from the Mediterranean region, India and southeastern China south 
to the East Indies, Australia and New Zealand. 

Casual in the Aleutians on Adak (19 August 1977; Day, et ah, 1979, Auk, 96, 
pp. 1 89-1 90) and Shemya (30 August-6 September 1 978, five individuals; Gibson. 
1981, Condor, 83, p. 70). 

Genus TRYNGITES Cabanis 

Tryngites Cabanis, 1857, J. Ornithol., 4 (1856), p. 418. Type, by original 
designation, Tringa rufescens Vieillot = Tringa subruficollis Vieillot. 

Tryngites subruficollis (Vieillot). Buff-breasted Sandpiper. [262.] 

Tringa subruficollis Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 
465. (Paraguay.) 



202 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Dry, grassy tundra (breeding); dry grasslands (usually short grass), 
pastures, plowed fields and, rarely, mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from northern Alaska (Barrow and Atkasuk eastward), 
northern Yukon, northwestern Mackenzie, and Banks, Melville, Bathurst and 
Devon islands south to southern Victoria, Jenny Lind (in Queen Maud Gulf) and 
King William islands. 

Winters in South America in Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina. 

Migrates primarily through the interior of North America (between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Mississippi Valley), eastern Mexico (recorded Tamaulipas and 
Guanajuato), Central America (not recorded Belize) and northern South America 
(also Trinidad) east to Guyana and Surinam, rarely (mostly in fall) through eastern 
North America from southern Ontario, eastern Quebec and Nova Scotia south 
to southern Florida, and through the West Indies, casually in western North 
America from western Alaska, the Pribilof and Aleutian islands, and southern 
Alaska south to California. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Oahu), Labrador, New- 
foundland, the British Isles, continental Europe, Egypt, eastern Siberia, the Kurile 
Islands, Japan and Australia. 

Genus PHILOMACHUS Merrem 

Philomachus Anonymous [=Merrem], 1804, Allg. Lit. Ztg., 2, no. 168, col. 
542. Type, by monotypy, Tringa pugnax Linnaeus. 

Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus). Ruff. [260.] 

Tringa Pugnax Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, l,p. 148. (in Europa minus 
boreali = southern Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Grassy tundra, along shores of lakes and ponds, in swampy meadows 
and marshes, and rarely in hayfields, in migration and winter also mudflats and 
flooded fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds in Eurasia from northern Scandinavia, northern Russia 
and northern Siberia south to the British Isles (at least formerly), western and 
southern Europe, southern Russia, southern Siberia and the Chukotski Peninsula; 
also has nested in North America in northwestern Alaska (Point Lay). Occasional 
nonbreeding individuals are recorded in summer in the wintering range. 

Winters from the British Isles, southern Europe, Iraq, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, 
southeastern China and Formosa south to southern Africa, India, Ceylon, the East 
Indies, Philippines and Australia. 

In migration occurs rarely but regularly in the Hawaiian Islands, through western 
and southwestern Alaska (including St. Lawrence, Pribilof and Aleutian islands), 
along the east coast of North America (from Massachusetts to North Carolina), 
and in the Lesser Antilles (mostly in fall, recorded Guadeloupe, Barbados, St. 
Lucia and Grenada). 

Casual in western North America (primarily along the Pacific coast) from south- 
coastal Alaska south to southern California and Arizona; throughout most of 
North America east of the Rockies from southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, 
northeastern Manitoba, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, Que- 
bec and Nova Scotia south to Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida; and in north- 
eastern Manitoba (Churchill), Guatemala (Dpto. de Santa Rosa), Costa Rica 
(Chomes, sight reports), Panama (Canal Zone), Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Virgin 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 203 

Islands, Trinidad, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Johnston Island, and 
the Marshall Islands. 

Tribe LIMNODROMINI: Dowitchers 
Genus LIMNODROMUS Wied 

Limnodromus Wied, 1833, Beitr. Naturgesch. Bras., 4, p. 716. Type, by 
monotypy, Scolopax noveboracensis Gmelin = Scolopax grisea Gmelin. 

Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin). Short-billed Dowitcher. [23 1 .] 

Scolopax grisea Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 658. Based on the "Brown 
Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 464. (in Noveboraci maritimis = Long 
Island, New York.) 

Habitat.— Grassy or mossy tundra and wet meadows (breeding); mudflats, es- 
tuaries, shallow marshes, pools, ponds, flooded fields and sandy beaches (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in coastal regions of southern Alaska (Bristol Bay east to 
the Stikine River mouth); in central Canada from southern Yukon, southern 
Mackenzie and northeastern Manitoba south to east-central British Columbia, 
central Alberta and central Saskatchewan; and from the interior of the Ungava 
Peninsula south (probably) to northern Ontario (vicinity of Fort Albany). Non- 
breeding individuals often occur in summer south to the wintering grounds. 

Winters from central California, southern Arizona, the Gulf coast and coastal 
South Carolina south through Middle America, the West Indies and South Amer- 
ica to central Peru and east-central Brazil. 

Migrates regularly along the Pacific coast of North America from southeastern 
Alaska southward, through the interior of North America in the prairie regions 
of the Canadian provinces and from the Great Lakes region south through the 
Mississippi Valley, and along the Atlantic coast from southern Quebec, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland southward, occurring casually else- 
where in the interior of the United States. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway), Pribilof Islands, Ber- 
muda, Greenland, the British Isles and continental Europe. 

Notes.— L. griseus and L. scolopaceus constitute a superspecies. 

Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say). Long-billed Dowitcher. [232.] 

Limosa scolopacea Say, 1 823, in Long, Exped. Rocky Mount., 1 , p. 1 70. (near 
Boyer Creek = Council Bluffs, Iowa.) 

Habitat.— Grassy tundra and wet meadows (breeding); marshes, shores of ponds 
and lakes, mudflats and flooded fields, primarily in fresh-water situations (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in coastal western and northern Alaska 
(Hooper Bay, and Point Barrow eastward), northern Yukon and northwestern 
Mackenzie; and in Eurasia in northeastern Siberia on the Chukotski Peninsula 
and in Anadyrland. 

Winters from central California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, cen- 



204 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

tral Texas, the Gulf coast and southern Florida south through Mexico (mostly the 
western part) to Guatemala, rarely to Costa Rica, and casually to Panama (Bocas 
del Toro, and probably Canal Zone). 

Migrates primarily through western North America west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, less frequently (and primarily in fall) east of the Rockies from southern 
Canada (Alberta east to Quebec and, rarely, Nova Scotia) south to Florida, casually 
through the Aleutians and to the Antilles (recorded Cuba, Jamaica and Anegada). 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure, with many other records of "dowitchers" 
from throughout the islands attributed to this species). A record of an individual 
of this species in breeding plumage taken in October in Argentina (Buenos Aires) 
is open to question; sight records from South America likely pertain to L. griseus. 

Notes.— See comments under L. griseus. 



Tribe GALLINAGOINI: Snipe 

Genus LYMNOCRYPTES Kaup 

Lymnocryptes Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., p. 118. Type, by 
monotypy, Scolopax gallinula Linnaeus = Scolopax minima Briinnich. 

Lymnocryptes minimus (Brunnich). Jack Snipe. [230.2.] 

Scolopax Minima Brunnich, 1764, Ornithol. Bor., p. 49. (E Christiansoe 
[Island, Denmark].) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on the tundra from northern Eurasia south to 
central Russia and central Siberia, and winters in swamps and flooded fields from 
the British Isles, southern Europe, India and southeastern China south to central 
Africa, Ceylon and Formosa. 

Casual in Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Madeira, the Azores, Kurile Islands and 
Japan. Accidental in Alaska (St. Paul in the Pribilof Islands, Spring 1919), Cali- 
fornia (Gridley, Butte County, 20 November 1938), Labrador (Makkovik Bay, 24 
December 1927) and Barbados (12 November 1960). 

Notes.— Also known as European Jacksnipe. 

Genus GALLINAGO Brisson 

Gallinago Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 5, p. 298. Type, by tautonymy, Gal- 
linago Brisson = Scolopax gallinago Linnaeus. 

Capella Frenzel, 1801, Beschr. Vogel Eyer Wittenberg, p. 58. Type, by mono- 
typy, Scolopax coelestis Frenzel = Scolopax gallinago Linnaeus. 

Notes.— For use of Gallinago instead of Capella, see Mayr, 1 963, Ibis, pp. 402- 
403. 

Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus). Common Snipe. [230.] 

Scolopax Gallinago Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 147. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Wet, grassy areas from tundra to temperate lowlands and hilly re- 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 205 

gions, in winter and migration also wet meadows, flooded fields, bogs, swamps, 
moorlands, and marshy banks of rivers and lakes (Temperate Zone, in migration 
and winter also to Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northwestern and central Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northeastern Manitoba, 
northern Ontario, northern Quebec and central Labrador south to southern Alaska 
(west to Unalaska in the Aleutians, probably to Shemya and Attu), central Cali- 
fornia, east-central Arizona, northern New Mexico (probably), northern Colorado, 
western Nebraska, central Iowa, northeastern Illinois, northern Indiana, northern 
Ohio, northern West Virginia, northwestern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey, 
New England and the Maritime Provinces; in South America from Colombia, 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south to Tierra del Fuego; and in 
Eurasia from the British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia, northern Siberia and 
Bering Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia, northern Siberia and Bering Island 
south to southern Europe, southern Russia, the Himalayas and Kurile Islands. 
Reported breeding in central Mexico (Jalisco and Guanajuato) and the Azores is 
open to question. 

Winters in the Hawaiian Islands (rarely); in the Americas from southern (rarely) 
and southeastern Alaska, southern British Columbia, eastern Washington, Oregon, 
Utah, the central United States (Colorado east to western Kentucky and the 
northern Gulf states) and Virginia (casually from southern Canada) south through 
Middle America, the West Indies and South America to Tierra del Fuego, the 
North American breeding populations reaching Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam 
and Ecuador; and in the Old World from the British Isles, southern Europe, 
Madeira (casually), southern Russia and Japan south to south-central Africa. 
Ceylon, the Andaman Islands, Java and the Philippines. 

In migration occurs regularly in the central and western Aleutian Islands. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Snipe; the North American 
breeding populations are sometimes called Wilson's Snipe. The Eurasian race G. 
g. gallinago occurs in the Aleutians (east to Buldir, with probable breeding on 
Attu and Shemya), and casually in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai), Pribilofs, Lab- 
rador (Jack Lane's Bay) and Bermuda. South American forms are sometimes 
separated as a distinct species, G. paraguaiae (Vieillot, 1816). The African G. 
nigripennis Bonaparte, 1839, is considered conspecific with G. gallinago by some 
authors; they constitute at least a superspecies. 



[Gallinago media (Latham). Great Snipe.] See Appendix B. 

Gallinago stenura (Bonaparte). Pin-tailed Snipe. [229.1.] 

Scolopax stenura (Kuhl MS) Bonaparte, 1830, Ann. Stor. Nat. Bologna, 4, 
p. 335. (Sunda Archipelago.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in wet meadows and marshes from north- 
eastern Russia and northern Siberia south to central Russia, northern Manchuria 
and the Sea of Okhotsk, and winters from India, Southeast Asia, southeastern 
China and Formosa south to the East Indies, casually to northeastern Africa. 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Green Island, Kure, 1 3 January' 1 964; Clapp 
and Woodward, 1968, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 124, p. 21). 



206 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Tribe SCOLOPACINI: Woodcocks 

Genus SCOLOPAX Linnaeus 

Scolopax Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 145. Type, by tautonymy, 
Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus {Scolopax, prebinomial specific name, in syn- 
onymy). 

Subgenus SCOLOPAX Linnaeus 

Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus. Eurasian Woodcock. [227.] 

Scolopax Rusticola Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 146. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Moist woodland, both deciduous and coniferous, generally with ground 
cover of brackens and bushes, also in bogs, heath and moorlands. 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from the British Isles, Scandinavia and the area 
of the Arctic Circle in Russia and Siberia south to the eastern Atlantic islands, 
northern Mediterranean region, southern Russia, northern India, the Himalayas, 
Turkestan, Transcaucasia, Japan, the Seven Islands of Izu, Kurile Islands and 
Sakhalin. 

Winters from the British Isles, southern Europe, Iraq, Iran, India, southeastern 
China and Japan south to the Cape Verde Islands, northern Africa, southern India, 
the Malay Peninsula, Philippines (rarely) and Ryukyu Islands. 

Casual in eastern North America (recorded from Newfoundland, southwestern 
Quebec, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia and Alabama, mostly in the 
1 9th century), and in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Spitsbergen. 

Notes.— Also known as European Woodcock and, in Old World literature, as 
the Woodcock. 

Subgenus PHILOHELA Gray 

Philohela G. R. Gray, 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 90. Type, by original 
designation, Scolopax minor Gmelin. 

Scolopax minor Gmelin. American Woodcock. [228.] 

Scolopax minor Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 661. Based on the "Little 
Woodcock" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 463, pi. 19, upper fig. (in Americae, 
... in Carolinae, ... in Noveboraci silvis humidis = New York.) 

Habitat.— Moist woodland, primarily deciduous or mixed, thickets along streams 
or in boggy areas, and less frequently in wet grassy meadows and flooded fields. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, south- 
central and southern Ontario, southern Quebec, northern New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland south throughout eastern North 
America west to southeastern Minnesota, central Iowa, eastern Kansas (probably 
also to the eastern Dakotas and eastern Nebraska), eastern Oklahoma and east- 
central Texas, and south to the Gulf states and southern Florida. 

Winters in the southeastern United States from eastern Oklahoma, southern 
Missouri, Tennessee, the northern portions of the Gulf states, and Virginia south 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 207 

to east-central Texas, the Gulf coast and southern Florida, rarely wintering farther 
north in the breeding range. 

Casual or accidental in Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Manitoba, north- 
eastern Ontario, eastern Quebec and Bermuda, also sight records for the Yucatan 
Peninsula and Isla Cancun, Mexico. 

Subfamily PHALAROPODINAE: Phalaropes 
Notes. — Sometimes considered a family, the Phalaropodidae. 

Genus PHALAROPUS Brisson 

Phalaropus Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 50; 6, p. 12. Type, by tauton- 
ymy, Phalaropus Brisson = Tringa fulicaha Linnaeus. 

Lobipes Cuvier, 1817, Regne Anim., 1 (1816), p. 495. Type, by original 
designation, Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus = Tringa lobata Linnaeus. 

Steganopus Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 24 (1817), p. 
124. Type, by monotypy, "Chorlito del tarso comprimeido" Azara = Ste- 
ganopus tricolor Vieillot. 

Phalaropus tricolor (Vieillot). Wilson's Phalarope. [224.] 

Steganopus tricolor Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 
136. Based on "Chorlito Tarso comprimido" Azara. Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. 
Parag., 3, p. 327 (no. 407). (Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes and wet meadows, in migration and winter also 
on lakes, mudflats and salt marshes, and along seacoasts. 

Distribution.— Breeds in coastal British Columbia (Vancouver Island), and from 
southern Yukon, northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, central Saskatch- 
ewan, west-central and southern Manitoba, central Minnesota, southern Wiscon- 
sin, southern Michigan, southern Ontario and southwestern Quebec south in the 
interior to south-central California, central Nevada, central Utah, east-central 
Arizona, west-central New Mexico, northern Texas, central Kansas, western Ne- 
braska, eastern South Dakota, northern Iowa (formerly), northern Illinois, north- 
em Indiana and northern Ohio, with isolated breeding in Massachusetts (Plum 
Island). Recorded in summer (nonbreeding) north to central Alaska, central Mac- 
kenzie, northern Saskatchewan, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 

Winters primarily in western South America from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and 
Uruguay south through Chile and Argentina, casually as far north as southern 
California and southern Texas. 

Migrates regularly through western North America (east to the Great Plains, 
Texas and southwestern Louisiana), Middle America, Colombia and Ecuador, and 
uncommonly through eastern North America from Quebec (including Anticosti 
Island) and New Brunswick south to Florida and the Gulf coast: also recorded 
regularly in fall on Barbados. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands, western and northern Alaska, 
elsewhere in the West Indies (recorded Grand Cayman. Jamaica. Puerto Rico, 
Guadeloupe and Martinique), the Galapagos and Falkland islands, British Isles, 
continental Europe, Africa, islands of the central Pacific (Johnston and Easter). 
Australia and Antarctica. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Steganopus. 



208 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Phalaropus lobatus (Linnaeus). Red-necked Phalarope. [223.] 

Tringa tobata [sic] Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 148 [lobata in 
Emendanda, p. 824]. Based on "The Cock Coot-footed Tringa" Edwards, 
Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 143, pi. 143. (in America septentrionali, Lapponia = 
Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Grass-sedge borders of ponds and lakes (breeding); in winter pri- 
marily pelagic, occurring in migration on ponds, lakes, open marshes, estuaries 
and bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Mac- 
kenzie, southern Victoria Island, central Keewatin, and Southampton and south- 
ern Baffin islands south to the Pribilof and Aleutian islands, southern Alaska, 
northwestern British Columbia, southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, northern 
Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, islands 
in southern James Bay, northern Quebec, and locally along the Labrador coast; 
and in the Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland, the northern British Isles, Faroe 
and Shetland islands, and Spitsbergen east across Scandinavia, northern Russia 
and northern Siberia to the Bering Sea, Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. 
Nonbreeding individuals occur in summer along the cost of Newfoundland and 
on Miquelon Island. 

Winters at sea, in the Pacific from the Ryukyu Islands, central equatorial islands 
and the Galapagos south to the Lesser Sunda Islands, New Guinea, Australia 
(rarely), New Zealand and southern South America, casually north to southern 
California; in the South Atlantic off southern South America and Africa, casually 
north to the Azores; and in the Indian Ocean from East Africa east to Malaya. 

Migrates regularly through the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans along 
North American, Middle American and Eurasian coasts, also regularly through 
western Europe; less commonly but regularly through interior western North 
America from British Columbia and the prairie regions of Alberta, Saskatchewan 
and Manitoba south to southern Arizona; rarely or irregularly through the interior 
central and eastern North America south to San Luis Potosi, southern Texas, the 
Gulf coast and Florida; and casually through Central America (not recorded Belize 
or Nicaragua), Cuba and Bermuda, also sight reports from Jamaica, Puerto Rico 
and the Bahamas (New Providence). 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Laysan, Kauai). 

Notes.— Also known as Northern Phalarope. This species is often placed in 
the monotypic genus Lobipes. 

Phalaropus fulicaria (Linnaeus). Red Phalarope. [222.] 

Tringa Fulicaria Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 148. Based on "The 
Red Coot-footed Tringa" Edwards, Nat Hist. Birds, 3, p. 142, pi. 142. (in 
America = Hudson Bay.) 

Habitat.— Coastal tundra (breeding); in winter primarily pelagic, occurring in 
migration on bays and estuaries, less frequently on ponds, lakes and marshes. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western Alaska (Yukon delta and 
St. Lawrence Island) east across northern Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mac- 
kenzie, and Banks, Melville, Ellesmere, Bylot, Dundas and northern Baffin islands, 
and south to eastern Keewatin, Southampton and Mansel islands, northern Que- 
bec, and (probably) northern Labrador; and in the Palearctic from Greenland and 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 209 

Iceland east through Arctic islands (Spitsbergen, Bear, Novaya Zemlya and New 
Siberian) to northern Siberia. Nonbreeding individuals summer off the coasts of 
California and Newfoundland. 

Winters at sea offthe Pacific coast of South America from Colombia and Ecuador 
south to Chile (also regularly off southern California); in the South Atlantic off 
Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and off western Africa; and in the western 
Pacific from Japan south, at least casually to New Zealand. 

Migrates regularly through the Aleutians and along both coasts of North America 
(recorded south to Baja California, Oaxaca, Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida), 
irregularly through the interior but casually recorded virtually throughout the 
continent north of Mexico; also through the North Atlantic, western Mediterra- 
nean Sea, western Europe, and the Pacific Ocean off Japan. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands and Cuba, also sight records from Barbados. 
Accidental in India and Antarctica. 

Notes.— In Old World literature known as Gray Phalarope. 

Suborder LARI: Skuas, Gulls, Terns and Skimmers 
Family LARIDAE: Skuas, Gulls, Terns and Skimmers 

Subfamily STERCORARIINAE: Skuas and Jaegers 

Notes.— The subfamilies of the Laridae are given family rank by some authors, 
as the Stercorariidae, Sternidae and Rynchopidae. 

Genus STERCORARIUS Brisson 

Stercorarius Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 56; 6, p. 149. Type, by tau- 
tonymy, Stercorarius Brisson = Larus parasiticus Linnaeus. 

Coprotheres Reichenbach, 1853, Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. v. Type, by 
original designation, Lestris pomarinus Temminck. 

Stercorarius pomarinus (Temminck). Pomarine Jaeger. [36.] 

Lestris pomarinus Temminck, 1815, Man. Ornithol., ed. 1 (1814), p. 514. 
(les regions du cercle arcticuq; de passage accidentel sur les cotes de Hol- 
lande et de France = Arctic regions of Europe.) 

Habitat.— Swampy or mossy tundra, and flats near seacoasts (breeding); pri- 
marily pelagic, casually on large inland bodies of water (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in western and northern Alaska (south 
to Hooper Bay) east across the Canadian Arctic islands (north to Melville, Bathurst. 
Devon and Baffin islands), and south to northern Mackenzie, Southampton Island 
and northwestern Quebec; and in the Palearctic in western Greenland, Spitsbergen, 
Bear Island, Novaya Zemlya, and in northern Russia and northern Siberia from 
the Taimyr Peninsula to Anadyrland. Nonbreeding birds occur in summer off 
Alaska and British Columbia (Bering Sea and Aleutians south to Queen Charlotte 
Islands), in central Canada (south to northern Alberta and Hudson Bay), and in 
the Atlantic from Labrador and Newfoundland south to New England; also off 
Scandinavia. 

Winters primarily at sea in the Pacific near the Hawaiian Islands (primarily off 
Oahu), from central California south to Peru and the Galapagos Islands, and off 



2 1 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

eastern Australia; and in the Atlantic off Florida (possibly as far north as North 
Carolina) and the West Indies, and off the coasts of northern South America 
(Colombia to Guyana) and Africa. 

In migration occurs regularly off both coasts of North America and along the 
Gulf coast (west to Texas); not recorded off the Caribbean coast of Middle America 
between southern Mexico and Costa Rica. 

Casual in the interior of North America (from southern Canada south to Ari- 
zona, New Mexico and the Gulf states), and in central Europe, Japan, New Zealand 
and Antarctica. 

Notes.— Also known as Po marine or Pomatorhine Skua. 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus). Parasitic Jaeger. [37.] 

Larus parasiticus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. l.p. 136. (intra tropicum 
Cancri, Europse, Americas, Asia; = coast of Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Barren and dwarf-shrub coastal tundra (breeding); mostly pelagic. 
less frequently along seacoasts, casually on large inland bodies of water (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western and northern Alaska 
(Point Barrow eastward), northwestern Mackenzie, and Banks, southern Melville, 
Cornwallis, southern Ellesmere and Baffin islands south to the Aleutians, Alaska 
Peninsula, Kodiak Island, central Mackenzie, southern Keewatin. northeastern 
Manitoba, Southampton Island, northern Ontario (Cape Henrietta Maria), north- 
ern Quebec and northern Labrador; and in the Palearctic from Greenland, Jan 
Mayen, Spitsbergen, Bear Island and Franz Josef Land south to Iceland, the 
northern British Isles, northern Scandinavia, northern Russia, Novaya Zemlya, 
northern Siberia, the Commander Islands. Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk. 
Nonbreeding birds occur in summer off the Pacific coast of North America south 
to British Columbia, off the Atlantic coast to Newfoundland, and in the interior 
to southern Canada; also along the northern coasts of Europe. 

Winters mostly in offshore areas in the Pacific from southern California to 
southern Chile, and west to eastern Australia and New Zealand; in the Atlantic 
from Maine and the British Isles south to Brazil, eastern Argentina, the west coast 
of Africa, and the Mediterranean region, occurring west in the Gulf-Caribbean 
area to Texas; and in the Indian Ocean in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. 

In migration occurs regularly off the Pacific coast of North America, and along 
the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to Florida, the Bahamas and Cuba, rarely 
to the Lesser Antilles (Barbados and the Grenadines), and casually through the 
interior of North America from southern Canada south to Arizona, Texas and 
the Gulf states (most frequently recorded in the Great Lakes region), and along 
both coasts of Middle America. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as Arctic Skua. 

Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot. Long-tailed Jaeger. [38.] 

Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 
32, p. 157. (le Nord de l'Europe, de l'Asie et de l'Amerique = northern 
Europe.) 

Habitat.— Open or alpine tundra, flats with sparse vegetation and moorlands 
(breeding); pelagic, casually along seacoasts and on inland waters (nonbreeding). 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 2 1 1 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in western Alaska (St. Matthew, St. 
Lawrence and Nunivak islands, and Hooper Bay), and from northern Alaska, 
northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Keewatin and throughout the 
Canadian Arctic islands south to central interior Alaska (Brooks Range, Alaska 
Range, Susitna River highlands), southwestern Yukon, southern Keewatin. South- 
ampton Island and northern Quebec; and in the Palearctic from Greenland, Ice- 
land, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen, Bear Island and Novaya Zemlya south to northern 
Scandinavia, northern Russia, northern Siberia, Anadyrland, Kamchatka and the 
Sea of Okhotsk. Nonbreeding birds occur rarely in summer south to the Aleutian 
Islands, south-coastal Alaska, southern Mackenzie and southern Hudson Bay. 

Winters mostly at sea in the Pacific off South America from Ecuador to Chile, 
and in the Atlantic from about lat. 40° N. south to Argentina (more commonly 
in the southern areas). 

Migrates primarily well offshore, rarely along the Pacific coast from southeastern 
Alaska to Middle America (recorded south to Oaxaca, and off Costa Rica) and 
the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to New Jersey (casually to Florida), and 
casually through the interior of North America (mostly in the Great Lakes region, 
reported occasionally from the prairie regions of the Canadian provinces, the 
Great Plains states and Mississippi Valley), along the Gulf coast (Texas to Florida) 
and through the Antilles (recorded Cuba, Martinique and Barbados); also off the 
coasts of Europe and Africa, casually in the Mediterranean region. 

Notes.— In Old World literature known as Long-tailed Skua. 



Genus CATHARACTA Brunnich 

Catharacta Brunnich, 1764, Ornithol. Bor., p. 32. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (Reichenbach, 1852), Catharacta skua Brunnich. 

Catharacta skua Briinich. Great Skua. [35.] 

Catharacta skua Brunnich, 1764, Ornithol. Bor., p. 33. (E. Feroa Islandia = 
Iceland.) 

Habitat.— Rocky points, moors or pastures near the sea, occasionally sandy 
flats in estuaries (breeding); mostly pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds [skua group] in Iceland, and the Faroe, Shetland and 
Orkney islands; [antarctica group] in the Falkland Islands and along the coast of 
southern Argentina; and [lonnbergi group] widely on southern oceanic islands 
such as the South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South Georgia, Bouvet, Marion, 
Prince Edward, Crozets, Kerguelen, Heard, Macquarie, Auckland, Campbell and 
Antipodes. Nonbreeding birds [skua group] have been recorded in summer from 
Franklin District (Barrow Straits, Lancaster Sound, Baffin Bay), northern Quebec, 
southern Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Massachusetts (Georges Bank), 
Greenland, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen and the northern European coast. 

Winters at sea [skua group] in the eastern North Atlantic, from lat. 60°N. south 
to the Tropic of Cancer, regularly on the Newfoundland Banks and off the coast 
from Nova Scotia to Massachusetts, casually south to Florida, and rarely to the 
Canary Islands and Mediterranean region; [antarctica group] primarily in the 
South Atlantic and along eastern South America from Brazil to the Straits of 
Magellan; and [lonnbergi group] in southern oceans, most regularly off Australia. 



2 1 2 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Accidental [skua group] in Missouri (Kansas City). New York (Niagara Gorge 
between Ontario and New York). Belize (Ambergris Cay). Guyana. Novaya Zem- 
lya and continental Europe: and [bouncers: group] off lies des Saintes 'near Guad- 
eloupe. Lesser Antilles, recovery of bird banded in South Shetlands. but see De- 
villers. 197". Auk. 94. p. 42". for doubt as to identity) and near Kerala. India. 
Reports of C. s. antarctica and C. s. lonnbergi off the west coast of North America 
all pertain to C. maccormicki (see Devillers. op. cit., pp. 41 "— 1-29). and those from 
Barbados and off Puerto Rico may pertain to species other than C. skua. 

Notes.— Also known as Brown Skua. Some authors prefer to treat the two 
southern forms as full species. C. antarctica (Lesson. 1531) [Falkland Skua] and 
C. lonnbergi Mathews. 1912 [Southern Skua], distinct from C. skua INorthern 
Skua]. C. skua antarctica and C. chilensis exhibit limited hybridization in areas 
where both breed on the coast of Argentina and have been considered conspecinc 
by earlier authors. Although some have treated C. maccormicki as a race of C. 
skua. C. s. lonnbergi and C. maccormicki breed sympatrically without hybridiza- 
tion in the South Shetlands. 

[Catharacta chilensis (Bonaparte). Chilean Skua.] See Appendix B. 

Catharacta maccormicki (Saunders). South Polar Skua. [35.2.] 

Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders. 1893. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club. 3. p. 12. 
(Possession Island. \ ictoria Land. lat. ~1 C 14'S.. long. 1"1 = 15 W.) 

Habitat. — Pelagic, breeding on barren promontones and islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds on the South Shetland Islands, and along the coast of 
Antarctica. 

Ranges at sea regularly to the North Pacific, occurring in the northern spring, 
summer and fall from the Gulf of Alaska south to California (occasional reports 
of skuas off Mexico and Panama probably pertain to this species), in the Hawaiian 
waters (at least casually), and off Japan: and to the North Atlantic, where recorded 
certainly off Massachusetts (Georges Bank). New York (Hudson Canyon). North 
Carolina (several records, spring only) and Greenland. It is likely that most skua 
reports in the central North Atlantic in the northern summer pertain to this species. 

Accidental in northern .Alaska (off Icy Cape). 

Notes. — See comments under C. skua. 



Subfamily LARINAE: Gulls 

Genus LARL'S Linnaeus 

Lanis Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 136. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Selby. 1S40). Larus marinus Linnaeus. 

Hydrocoloeus Kaup. 1829. Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw.. pp. 113. 196. 
Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray. 1841 ). Larus minimis Lin- 
naeus. 

Microlarus Oberholser. 19~4. Bird Life Texas. 2. p. 982. Type, by original 
designation. Sterna Philadelphia Ord. 

Notes. — The genera Rissa. Rhodostethia. Xema. Creagrus and Pagophila are 

merged in Larus by some authors. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 213 

Larus atrichia Linnaeus. Laughing Gull. [58.] 

Larus Atricilla Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 136. Based on the 
"Laughing Gull" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 89, pi. 89. (in Amer- 
ica = Bahamas.) 

Habitat.— Sandy islands with scattered patches of long grass (breeding); sea- 
coasts, bays and estuaries, rarely on large inland bodies of water (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds on the Pacific coast of western Mexico in Sonora and 
Sinaloa (formerly bred at the southern end of the Salton Sea, southern California); 
and in the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean region from southern New Brunswick and 
southern Nova Scotia south locally along the coast to Florida and west to southern 
Texas, through the West Indies to islands off the north coast of Venezuela (Las 
Aves east to Tobago and Trinidad) and to French Guiana, and on islands off 
Campeche (Cayo Areas) and the state of Yucatan (Alacran reef). Nonbreeding 
birds occur in summer regularly in southern California (Salton Sea), on the Great 
Lakes (especially Erie and Michigan), along the Gulf-Caribbean coast of Middle 
America, and along the west coast of Mexico. 

Winters along the Pacific coast from southern Mexico south to northern Peru 
(casually north to northern California and south to the Galapagos Islands); and 
from the Gulf coast and North Carolina south throughout the Gulf-Caribbean 
region to the coast of South America (Colombia east to the Amazon delta). 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands; to the interior lakes of Middle America; in 
interior North America from Arizona, Colorado, North Dakota, the Great Lakes 
region and West Virginia southward; and in Greenland. 

Larus pipixcan Wagler. Franklin's Gull. [59.] 

Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831, Isis von Oken, col. 515. (Advena est, neque 
educat stagnis Mexicanis Prolem = Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Fresh- water marshes in prairie and steppe (breeding); seacoasts, bays, 
estuaries, lakes, rivers, marshes, ponds and irrigated fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from eastern Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southwestern 
Manitoba, eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota south locally to east- 
central Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, northwestern Wyoming, 
northeastern South Dakota and northwestern Iowa. Nonbreeding birds occur in 
summer from east-central British Columbia and northeastern Manitoba south to 
northern New Mexico, southeastern Wyoming, Kansas, central Iowa and the Great 
Lakes (especially Lake Michigan). 

Winters primarily along the Pacific coast of South America south to southern 
Chile (also the Galapagos Islands), less commonly from Guatemala southward, 
and on high Andean lakes in Peru and Bolivia; also rarely in southern coastal 
California, and casually along the Gulf coast of Texas and Louisiana. 

Migrates regularly through western North America from southern British Co- 
lumbia and the Rocky Mountains south to southern California, and through Texas 
and eastern Mexico to Veracruz and Oaxaca (casually to the Yucatan Peninsula), 
rarely to the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, and casually 
elsewhere in the Pacific region from southwestern Arizona southward, and to the 
Atlantic coast from southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland south to Florida. 



2 1 4 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands, and southwestern and south-coastal Alaska 
(Cook Inlet. Kodiak Island, and St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs). Accidental in 
the Revillagigedo Islands (Socorro Island), on northern Baffin Island, in the An- 
tilles (Puerto Rico and St. Barthelemy). on Tristan da Cunha, and in Sweden and 
the Marshall Islands. 

Larus minutus Pallas. Little Gull. [60.1.] 

Larus minutus Pallas. 1776. Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs. 3. p. 702. 
(Circa alueos majorum Sibiriae fluminum = Berezovo. Tobolsk. Siberia.) 

Habitat. — Grassy marshes (breeding); seacoasts. bays, estuaries, rivers, lakes, 
ponds, marshes and flooded fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in North America along the Great Lakes in north- 
ern Wisconsin (Manitowoc and Brown counties), northern Michigan (Upper Pen- 
insula) and southern Ontario (Rondeau. Pickering. Toronto and Parry Sound, 
since 1962). also in Manitoba (Churchill. 1981): and in Eurasia from southern 
Scandinavia and northwestern Russia south to northern Europe, south-central 
Russia, central Siberia and Lake Baikal. 

Winters in North America on the Great Lakes (especially Erie and Ontario), 
and along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Virginia; and in the Old World 
from Iceland, the Faroe Islands. British Isles, southern Scandinavia and the Baltic 
coast south to the Mediterranean. Black and Caspian seas, questionably also in 
eastern China. 

Migrates primarily through central Europe and western Asia. 

Casual along the Atlantic coast north to New Brunswick and south to Florida; 
in the interior from northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Minnesota and 
the Great Lakes south to the Gulf coast (Texas east to western Florida), reported 
west to Colorado. Kansas and Missouri: along the Pacific coast from southern 
British Columbia south to southern California: and in Sierra Leone and Kenya. 

Larus ridibundus Linnaeus. Common Black-headed Gull. [55.1.] 

Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1. p. 225. (in Mari 
Europaso = England.) 

Habitat. — Lakes, rivers, bogs, moors, grasslands, swamps and coastal marshes, 
in winter also seacoasts. estuaries and bays. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, central Scandinavia, 
northern Russia and northern Siberia south to the Mediterranean Sea, central 
Russia, central Siberia, northwestern Mongolia and Kamchatka; also in New- 
foundland (Stephenville Crossing. 1977). Nonbreeding birds occur north to Jan 
Mayen Island and northern Scandinavia, occasionally south in the wintering re- 
gions. 

Winters in North America along the Atlantic coast from Labrador, Newfound- 
land, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to New York (Long Island), casually 
to Florida and inland in the Great Lakes region (especially Erie and Ontario): and 
in the Old World from the southern part of the breeding range south to the eastern 
Atlantic islands, central Africa, the Persian Gulf, northern India. Malay Peninsula, 
eastern China, Formosa and the Philippines. 

In migration occurs regularly in western and southwestern Alaska from Nome 
south to the Aleutians, including St. Lawrence Island and the Pribilofs. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 215 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Midway, Oahu), along the Pacific coast of North 
America from south-coastal Alaska to southern California, and in Missouri. Ve- 
racruz, the Antilles (Puerto Rico and many of the Lesser Antilles), Greenland and 
Guam, also sight reports from Manitoba (Churchill), Kansas and Surinam. 

Notes.— Often called the Black-headed Gull. L. ridibundus and the South 
American L. maculipennis Lichtenstein, 1823, constitute a superspecies; they are 
considered conspecific by some authors. 

[Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot. Gray-hooded Gull.] See Appendix A. 

Larus Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte's Gull. [60.] 

Sterna Philadelphia Ord, 1815, in Guthrie, Geogr., ed. 2 (Am.), 2, p. 319. 
(No locality given = near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Old birds' nests in trees in open coniferous woodland (occasionally 
on the ground) near ponds and lakes (breeding); seacoasts, bays, estuaries, mud- 
flats, marshes, rivers, lakes, ponds and flooded fields (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and central Alaska, central Yukon, north- 
western and central Mackenzie and northern Manitoba south to the base of the 
Alaska Peninsula, south-coastal and (rarely) southeastern Alaska, southern British 
Columbia, central and southwestern Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern 
Manitoba and central Ontario (southern James Bay). Nonbreeding birds occur in 
summer south in coastal areas to California and New England, and in the interior 
to the Great Lakes. 

Winters from Washington (casually from south-coastal Alaska) south along the 
Pacific coast to southern Baja California, Sonora and Sinaloa; in the interior of 
Mexico south to western Jalisco and Guanajuato; from the Great Lakes (primarily 
Erie and Ontario) south through the Ohio and lower Mississippi valleys to the 
Gulf coast from southern Texas east to Florida (rare in the southern part), Ber- 
muda, the Bahamas and Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico), casually 
also in southern New Mexico. 

Migrates most commonly through eastern North America from the Mississippi 
Valley east to the Appalachians, but casually or sporadically elsewhere throughout 
the continent from southern Canada and Newfoundland southward. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands, Lesser Antilles (Martinique. Bar- 
bados), the British Isles and continental Europe, also sight reports from the Yu- 
catan Peninsula and Costa Rica. 

Larus heermanni Cassin. Heermann's Gull. [57.] 

Larus Heermanni Cassin, 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6, p. 187. 
(San Diego, California.) 

Habitat.— Flat rocky islets or isolated coasts, often with scattered grass clumps 
present (breeding); seacoasts, beaches, bays and estuaries (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds on islets offthe Pacific coast of Baja California (Isla Benito 
del Centro in the San Benito Islands, and Isla San Roque). in the Gulf of California 
(George, Raza, Salsipuedes, Ildefonso and Monserrate islands), locally on islets 
off Mexico south to Isla Isabela (off Nayarit). and elsewhere along the coast of 
Sinaloa; isolated breeding reports in coastal California (1980) north to Alcatraz 



2 I 6 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Island. Nonbreeding individuals often spend the breeding season in the post- 
breeding range. 

Ranges after the breeding season north to southern British Columbia (A'ancou- 
ver Island) and south to the Pacific coast of Guatemala. 

Casual or accidental in the Revillagigedo Islands (Socorro Island), southeastern 
California, western Nevada (Pyramid Lake), southern .Arizona. New Mexico (Pinos 
Altos Mountains). Oklahoma (Tulsa). Texas (Reagan County). Michigan 'Lake 
St. Clair i and Ohio (Lorain). 

Lams modestus Tschudi. Gray Gull. 

Lotus modestus Tschudi. 1S43. Arch. Naturgesch.. 9. p. 3S9. 'in Oceani 
pacifici littoribus = Lurin. south of Lima. Peru, i 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on interior deserts in Chile and rangei in 

nonbreeding season along the Pacific coast of South .America from Ecuador to 
central Chile. 

Accidental off Costa Rica (Cocos Island. 22 May 1925. W. Beebe; Slud. 1967, 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.. 134. p. 2~9) and off Colombia (Gorgona Island), also 
sight reports for Panama (Pacific entrance to Canal, and south of Isla Otoque in 
the Ba> of Panama). 

Lams belcheri Vigors. Band-tailed Gull. [54.2.] 

Larus belcheri Vigors. 1S29. Zool. J.. 4 (1828), p. 358. (No locality given = 

Peru.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds [belcheri group] along the Pacific coast of South 
America in Peru and northwestern Chile, and [atlanticus group] on the Atlantic 
coast m northern .Argentina, and winters along seacoasts and in bays and estuaries 
from western Ecuador to central Chile, and from Uruguay to central .Argentina, 
respectively. 

Casual in Panama (Pacific coast of Canal Zone, several sight records, one adult 
photographed I and Florida (near Pensacola. September 1965. weakened individual 
caught, photographed and kept in captivity for more than a decade: Marco Island. 
6 June 1 9 ~ . adult photographed: Cape Romano. 1 1 November 19 "4-29 January 
1975, photographed: and near Marco. January-11 February 19~6. adult photo- 
graphed). 

Notes. — Recent evidence points to the specific status of the two South American 
populations. L. belcheri [Belcher's Gull] andL. atlanticus Olrog. 195S [Olrog's 
Gull] (see Devillers. 19"". Le Gerfaut. 6 ~. pp. 22—43). Photographs of birds in 
nonbreeding plumage (Pensacola and Cape Romano individuals I have been iden- 
tified as the Pacific L. b. belcheri, other reports and photographs of birds in 
breeding plumage cannot be identified to group. The possibility of the Florida 
birds being escaped captives or man-assisted vagrants remains. 

[Larus crassirostris Vieillot. Buxck-tailed Gull.] See Appendix A. 

Lams canus Linnaeus. Mew Gull. [55.] 

Larus canus Linnaeus. 1~58. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 136. (in Europa = 
S-- 1 - eden. i 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 217 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, beaches, bays and mudflats, breeding along rocky or sandy 
coasts or inland along large lakes and rivers. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from western and central Alaska (Brooks 
Range and Kotzebue Sound), central Yukon, and northwestern and southern 
Mackenzie south to the Alaska Peninsula, southern Alaska, coastal British Colum- 
bia (to Vancouver Island), southern Yukon, northern Alberta (probably) and cen- 
tral Saskatchewan, also in northeastern Manitoba (Churchill); and in Eurasia from 
the Faroe Islands, British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia 
south to northern Europe, the Black and Caspian seas, Lake Baikal, northern 
Mongolia, Anadyrland, the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands. 
Nonbreeding birds occur in summer north to the northern coast of Alaska and 
northern Keewatin, and south to Washington, central Alberta and central Sas- 
katchewan. 

Winters in North America from southern Alaska (west to the Aleutians) south 
along the Pacific coast to northern Baja California, casually inland to eastern 
Washington, eastern Oregon, interior California, southern Nevada and Arizona, 
and casually to the Atlantic coast from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland south to Massachusetts (sight records farther south); and in the Old 
World from the breeding range south to the Mediterranean region, northern Africa, 
Iraq, the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, coastal China and Japan. 

In migration occurs regularly in interior British Columbia and northern Yukon. 

Casual in the western Aleutians, southern Ontario (lakes Erie and Ontario), 
Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, Bear Island and the eastern Atlantic islands. 
Accidental in Wyoming (Lake Fork River) and Colorado (Denver); a report from 
Florida is questionable. 

Notes.— Also known as Common or Short-billed Gull. Some authors suggest 
that the larger Asiatic form, which has been reported from the western Aleutians, 
is a separate species, L. kamtschatschensis Bonaparte, 1857 [Kamchatka Gull, 
56.1]. Some (possibly most) Atlantic coast records are referable to the European 
L. c. canus Linnaeus (photographs). 

Larus delawarensis Ord. Ring-billed Gull. [54.] 

Larus Delawarensis Ord, 1815, in Guthrie, Geogr., ed. 2 (Am.), 2, p. 319. 
(Delaware River, below Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, bays, estuaries, rivers, lakes, ponds, irrigated fields and 
plowed lands, breeding on rocky, grassy and sandy islets or isolated shores, occa- 
sionally on marshy lands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from southern interior British 
Columbia (Lake Okanagan), western and central Washington, northeastern Alberta, 
northwestern and central Saskatchewan, and north-central Manitoba south to 
northeastern California (Honey Lake), south-central Idaho, south-central Colo- 
rado, southeastern Wyoming and northeastern South Dakota (Waubay Lake); and 
in eastern North America from north-central Ontario, southern Quebec, Prince 
Edward Island, southern Labrador and northeastern Newfoundland south to east- 
ern Wisconsin, northern Illinois (Lake Calumet), northern Michigan, southern 
Ontario, northern Ohio (Lucas County), northern New York (Little Galloo Island), 
central New Hampshire and New Brunswick. Nonbreeding individuals occur in 
summer north to central Alaska, southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie and south- 
eastern Keewatin, and south through the wintering range. 



2 1 8 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters from southern British Columbia south along the Pacific coast to south- 
ern Mexico (casually to El Salvador), in the interior from the Great Lakes to 
central Mexico and the Gulf coast (Texas to Florida, casually south to the state 
of Yucatan), and along the Atlantic coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida, 
the Bahamas and Greater Antilles (east to the Virgin Islands). 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands, Costa Rica (Chomes) and the Lesser Antilles 
(south to Barbados), also sight reports from Caribbean Honduras. 

Larus californicus Lawrence. California Gull. [53.] 

Larus Californicus Lawrence, 1854, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 6, p. 79. (near 
Stockton, California.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts. bays, estuaries, mudflats, marshes, irrigated fields, lakes, 
ponds and agricultural lands, nesting on open sandy or gravelly areas on islands 
or along shores of lakes and ponds, generally with scattered grasses present. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern Mackenzie south through eastern Alberta. 
Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba, central Montana, east-central North Dakota 
and northeastern South Dakota to north-central Colorado (Weld County), and 
west to southern interior British Columbia, south-central Washington, south- 
eastern Oregon, northeastern California, western Nevada and northern Utah. 
Nonbreeding birds occur in summer north to southeastern Alaska and northern 
British Columbia, in northern New Mexico, and casually south through the win- 
tering range. 

Winters from southern Washington and eastern Idaho south, mostly along the 
Pacific coast, to southern Baja California, the Pacific coast of Mexico (to Colima). 
and locally in the interior of Mexico (to the state of Mexico). 

In migration occurs regularly in western North America south of the breeding 
range and east to New Mexico. 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands and Revillagigedos (Socorro Island). 
east to the Great Lakes and Mississippi Valley regions (recorded Minnesota. 
Illinois. Missouri. Michigan, Indiana, Ohio and New York), and to the Gulf coast 
of Texas, also questionable sight reports from the Atlantic coast (south to Virginia) 
and Florida. Reports from Guatemala are erroneous. 

Notes.— The species listed from L. californicus through L. marinus are closely 
interrelated; this complex poses one of the most complicated problems in orni- 
thological systematics today. 

Larus argentatus Pontoppidan. Herring Gull. [5 1 .] 

Larus Argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763, Dan. Atlas. 1, p. 622. (No locality 
given = Christiansoe, Denmark.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, bays, estuaries, lakes and rivers, nesting along rocky or 
sandy coasts, on tundra, on islands in larger lakes and rivers, and on cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northern Mackenzie, central Keewatin. Southampton and western Baffin islands, 
northern Quebec and northern Labrador south to southwestern, southern and 
southeastern Alaska, south-central British Columbia, central Alberta, central Sas- 
katchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, north- 
eastern Illinois, central Michigan, southern Ontario, northern Ohio, northern New 
York, and along the Atlantic coast to northeastern South Carolina; and in the 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 2 1 9 

Palearctic from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles, Scandinavia and northern 
Europe east across northern Russia and northern Siberia to Kamchatka, the Chu- 
kotski Peninsula, Anadyrland and the Sea of Okhotsk, and south locally to Italy. 
Nonbreeding birds summer south through much of the wintering range, especially 
in coastal areas. 

Winters in the Americas from the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, the Great 
Lakes region and Newfoundland south (mostly at sea and along coasts, large rivers 
and lakes) through North America, Middle America (rare south of Mexico) and 
the West Indies to Panama and Barbados; and in the Old World mostly in the 
breeding range south to central Europe, the Mediterranean region, Black and 
Caspian seas, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, India, central China, Formosa, and the 
Ryukyu and Bonin islands. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands and Greenland. 

Notes.— The central and southern Eurasian L. cachinnans Pallas, 1811, is con- 
sidered conspecific with L. argentatus by some authors. For other comments on 
relationships or hybridization, see notes under L. californicus, L. thayeri, L.fuscus, 
L. schistisagus, L. glaucescens, L. hyperboreus and L. marinus. 

Larus thayeri Brooks. Thayer's Gull. [43.1.] 

Larus thayeri Brooks, 1915, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., 59, p. 373. 
(Buchanan Bay, Ellesmere Land.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, estuaries and bays, less commonly on large inland lakes 
and rivers, nesting on cliffs facing sounds. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Banks, southern Melville, Bathurst, Axel Heiberg 
and central Ellesmere islands south to southern Victoria Island, northern Kee- 
watin, and northern Southampton, Coats (formerly) and northwestern Baffin islands. 
Nonbreeding birds sometimes summer in the wintering range. 

Winters primarily on the Pacific coast from southern British Columbia south 
to central Baja California, less commonly in south-coastal and southeastern Alaska, 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the eastern Great Lakes (Erie and Ontario), casually 
in the interior south to southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and the Gulf 
coast of Texas and west-central Florida (St. Petersburg), and casually on the 
Atlantic coast to Maryland, also sight reports south to central Florida. 

Notes.— L. thayeri was formerly regarded as a race of L. argentatus but 
is now generally regarded as a distinct species (see N. Smith, 1966, A. O. U. 
Ornithol. Monogr., no. 4, pp. 1-97); recent field studies indicate that L. thayeri 
and L. glaucoides kumlieni (once also regarded as a separate species, L. kumlieni 
Brewster, 1883 [Kumlien's Gull]), interbreed in mixed colonies on Baffin Island, 
but the extent and nature of this interbreeding has not yet been determined (see 
Weber, 1981, Cont. Birdlife, 2, pp. 6-8). 

Larus glaucoides Meyer. Iceland Gull. [43.] 

Larus glaucoides "Temm." Meyer, 1822, in Meyer and Wolf, Taschenb. 
Dtsch. Vogelkd., p. 197. (Meere der arktischen Zone, z. B. in Island, zuwei- 
len im Herbst an den Kiisten der Ost- und Nordsee = Iceland.) 

Habitat.— Primarily coastal waters, casually on large inland bodies of water, 
nesting on steep cliffs and ledges facing sounds and fjords. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America on southern Baffin Island (Foxe Pen- 



220 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

insula and Home Bay southward) and in extreme northwestern Quebec (Erik Cove, 
Digges Island), and in the Palearctic in Greenland, Iceland and Jan Mayen. Non- 
breeding birds summer south, at least casually, to British Columbia, Saskatchewan, 
the Great Lakes and New Jersey, and west to northern Alaska. 

Winters in North America from Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
south on the Atlantic coast to Virginia (casually to Florida), and inland (rarely) 
to the Great Lakes (especially Lake Erie), and in the Palearctic from Iceland, the 
Faroe Islands and Scandinavia south, at least rarely, to the British Isles, northern 
Europe and the Baltic region. 

Casual in Idaho, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Nebraska, Novaya Zemlya, 
southern Europe and Madeira; also sight reports west to British Columbia and 
Washington, and south, east of the Rockies, to the Gulf coast (from southeastern 
Texas east to western Florida, but some or perhaps most of these reports probably 
pertain to L. thayeri). 

Notes.— See comments under L. californicus and L. thayeri. 

Larus fuscus Linnaeus. Lesser Black-backed Gull. [50.] 

Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 136. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Coastal regions, bays, estuaries, and inland on lakes and rivers, nest- 
ing on tundra, along sandy or rocky coasts, and on islands in lakes and larger 
rivers. 

Distribution.— Breeds from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, northern Scandinavia 
and northern Russia south to the British Isles and France. Nonbreeding individuals 
often summer in the wintering range. 

Winters from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and the Baltic south to 
central Africa, the Red Sea and Persian Gulf; also in small numbers (but regularly 
and apparently increasing) in North America from the Great Lakes region, Lab- 
rador, eastern Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia south to the Gulf coast 
(west to Texas) and Florida. 

Casual in northwestern Mackenzie, Victoria Island, northeastern Manitoba, 
Colorado, Puerto Rico and St. Martin (in the Lesser Antilles). Accidental in Alaska 
(Icy Cape), California (Monterey), Panama (Canal Zone) and Greenland; a report 
from Australia is erroneous. 

Notes.— Some authors have considered L. argentatus and L. fuscus as conspe- 
cific, but they are widely sympatric with only local hybridization. See also com- 
ments under L. californicus. 

Larus schistisagus Stejneger. Slaty-backed Gull. [48.] 

Larus schistisagus Stejneger, 1884, Auk, 1, p. 231. (Bering Island and Petro- 
paulski, Kamtschatka = Bering Island, Commander Islands.) 

Habitat.— Mostly rocky seacoasts, breeding on cliffs and rocky islands, occa- 
sionally on flat sandy shores with bushes. 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Gulf of Anadyr and the western Bering Sea coast 
south through Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands to Sakhalin and Japan. Reported 
breeding at Harrowby Bay, northwestern Mackenzie, has been seriously ques- 
tioned (see Hohn, 1958, Can. Field Nat., 72, pp. 5-6). 

Winters from the Bering Sea and Kamchatka south to Japan, the Seven Islands 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 221 

of Izu, Volcano and Ryukyu islands, and the coast of eastern China. Wanders 
rarely in nonbreeding season to western Alaska (Point Barrow south to St. Law- 
rence, Nunivak, and the Pribilof and Aleutian islands). 

Casual in south-coastal Alaska (Anchorage, Kodiak, Homer). Accidental in the 
Hawaiian Islands (Kure) and British Columbia (Victoria). 

Notes.— Occasional hybrids between L. argentatus and L. schistisagus are 
reported; some authors consider the two conspecific. See also comments under 
L. californicus. 

Larus livens Dwight. Yellow-footed Gull. [49.1.] 

Larus occidentalis livens Dwight, 1919, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, p. 11. 
(San Jose Island, Lower [=Baja] California.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, bays and estuaries, breeding on islands. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Gulf of California from George Island and Consag 
Rock south to Espiritu Santo and San Pedro Nolasco islands. 

Winters in southwestern California (Salton Sea), the Gulf of California, and 
along the coast of Sonora, casually north to coastal southern California (San Diego 
County). 

Casual off Guerrero. 

Notes.— This species was formerly considered a race of L. occidentalis, but 
differences in morphology, behavior and vocalizations indicate that it is specifically 
distinct. Some authors feel L. livens is closely related to the Southern Hemisphere 
L. dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823. See also comments under L. californicus. 

Larus occidentalis Audubon. Western Gull. [49.] 

Larus occidentalis Audubon, 1839, Ornithol. Biogr., 5, p. 320. (Cape Dis- 
appointment [Washington].) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, bays and estuaries, breeding on rocky islands and coastal 
cliffs. 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Pacific coast from southwestern British Colum- 
bia south to west-central Baja California (Isla Asuncion) and Guadalupe Island. 

Winters from southern British Columbia south to southern Baja California, 
casually to the coast of Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (French Frigate Shoals, Oahu) and southwestern 
Arizona; a report from the Revillagigedo Islands (Isla Clarion) probably pertains 
to this species. Accidental in southwestern Alaska (Bristol Bay) and Illinois (Chi- 
cago). 

Notes.— See comments under L. californicus, L. livens, L. glaucescens and L. 
marinus. 

Larus glaucescens Naumann. Glaucous-winged Gull. [44.] 

Larus glaucescens J. F. Naumann, 1840, Naturgesch. Vogel Dtsch.. 10, p. 
351. (Nord-Amerika = North America.) 

Habitat.— Primarily coastal waters, nesting on cliffs, rock ledges, grassy slopes 
or barren flats. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from the southern Bering Sea (including 
the Pribilof and Aleutian islands), and southern and southeastern Alaska south 



222 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

along the Pacific coast to northwestern Oregon; and in the Commander Islands. 
Nonbreeding birds often summer in the wintering range. 

Winters in North America from the southern Bering Sea and southern Alaska 
south along the Pacific coast to southern Baja California and the Gulf of California, 
casually to Sonora, and inland to Idaho and southwestern Arizona; and in Asia 
from Bering Island to Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands and Japan. 

In migration occurs casually inland to Alberta. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands. Accidental in the Revillagigedo Islands (Socorro 
Island), Yukon (Windy Pass), Manitoba (Churchill) and Oklahoma (Capron). 

Notes.— Frequent hybridization between L. glaucescens and L. occidentalis occurs 
in mixed colonies from southern British Columbia to western Oregon, and these 
two will probably prove to be conspecific; hybridization also occurs between L. 
glaucescens and L. argentatus, at least on a limited basis, in south-coastal and 
southeastern Alaska. See additional comments under L. californicus. 

Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus. Glaucous Gull. [42.] 

Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767, in Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapper. p. 226 
(note). (Northern Norway.) / 

Habitat.— Primarily in coastal waters, less commonly along large inland bodies 
of water, breeding on sea cliffs, rocky coasts or borders of tundra lakes. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America on Arctic coasts and islands from west- 
ern and northern Alaska (south to Hooper Bay, and St. Matthew, Hall and, at 
least formerly, the Pribilof islands), northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and 
Prince Patrick, Ellef Ringnes and northern Ellesmere islands south to northern 
Keewatin, northern Quebec, northern Labrador (south to Hopedale), and to South- 
ampton, Coats, Belcher and southern Baffin islands; and in the Palearctic from 
northern Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen. Bear Island and Franz Josef 
Land east across northern Russia and northern Siberia (including Novaya Zemlya 
and the New Siberian Islands) to Anadyrland. Nonbreeding individuals often occur 
in the wintering range, and in summer south casually to northern Manitoba. 
northern Ontario, southeastern Quebec and New England. 

Winters in North America from the southern Chukchi Sea (rarely) and Bering 
Sea south along the Pacific coast to Oregon (casually to southern California), and 
on the Atlantic coast from Labrador south to Virgi t (rarely but regularly to 
Florida, and inland to the Great Lakes); and in the Paiearctic from the breeding 
range south to the British Isles, northern Europe and central Siberia, casually to 
the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands; in coastal Baja California (San Benito Islands); 
in the interior of North America from southern Canada (where more regular in 
occurrence) south to Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Texas and the Gulf coast: and 
in the eastern Atlantic islands. 

Notes.— Extensive hybridization occurs between L. hyperboreus and L. argen- 
tatus in Iceland (although sympatry without interbreeding exists in Canada), and 
between L. hyperboreus and L. glaucescens in the eastern Bering Sea region. See 
also comments under L. californicus. 

Larus marinus Linnaeus. Great Black-backed Gull. [47.] 

Larus marinus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 136. (in Europa = 
Gotland, Sweden.) 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 223 

Habitat.— Primarily seacoasts, less commonly on large inland bodies of water, 
nesting on rocky coasts and islands, occasionally on inland lakes. 

Distribution. — Breeds in North America along the Atlantic coast from northern 
Quebec, northern Labrador and Newfoundland south to the St. Lawrence River, 
Anticosti Island, and (along the coast) to North Carolina, also in southern Ontario 
on Lake Huron (Little Haystack Island, Presquile Park); and in the Palearctic 
from Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetlands, Spitsbergen, Bear Island, 
northern Scandinavia and northern Russia south to the British Isles, northern 
Europe and central Russia. Nonbreeding individuals occasionally summer north 
to southern Baffin Island, west to Hudson Bay, and south through the wintering 
range. 

Winters in North America along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland south 
to North Carolina, less commonly but regularly to Florida, Bermuda and inland 
on the Great Lakes; and in Eurasia from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, British Isles, 
Scandinavia and northern Europe south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian 
seas, casually to the eastern Atlantic islands. 

Casual or accidental in northeastern Manitoba, Montana, Colorado, Nebraska, 
the Ohio Valley (south to Kentucky), along the Gulf coast (Florida west to eastern 
Texas), and to the Bahamas (San Salvador) and Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Mona 
Island, Puerto Rico, St. Barthelemy and Barbados). 

Notes.— Occasional hybridization between L. marinus and L. argentatus has 
been reported. Some authors consider L. marinus and L. dominicanus as consti- 
tuting a superspecies, but others ally the former to L. occidentalis; see further 
comments under L. californicus and L. occidentalis. 

Genus RISSA Stephens 

Rissa Stephens, 1826, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13 (1), p. 180. Type, by monotypy, 
Rissa brunnichii Stephens = Larus tridactylus Linnaeus. 

Notes.— See comments under Larus. 

Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus). Black-legged Kittiwake. [40.] 

Larus tridactylus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 136. (in Europa 
septentrionali = Great Britain.) 

Habitat.— Steep cliffs along coasts or on islands, occasionally on ledges of build- 
ings (breeding); primarily pelagic, sometimes along seacoasts, bays and estuaries, 
casually on large inland bodies of water (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in Alaska along the Chukchi and Bering seacoasts from 
Cape Lisburne south to the Aleutians, and east along the Pacific coast to Glacier 
Bay and Dixon Harbor; in northeastern North America from eastern Somerset. 
Prince Leopold, Bylot and Cobourg islands south locally through northern and 
central Baffin Island, Labrador (probably) and Newfoundland to southeastern 
Quebec (Gulf of St. Lawrence, Anticosti and Bonaventure islands, and Perce and 
Bird rocks); and in the Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands. Jan 
Mayen, Spitsbergen, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, and the New Siberian, 
Bennet and Wrangel islands south to the British Isles, northern Europe, the north- 
ern Russian coast, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, and the Kurile and Commander islands. 
Nonbreeding birds occur in summer along the Arctic coast of Alaska and Canada, 
occasionally south along the Pacific coast to California. 



224 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters along the Pacific coast of North America from the southern Bering Sea 
and southern Alaska south to northwestern Baja California, casually to Nayarit 
(San Bias); along the Atlantic coast (mostly offshore) from Newfoundland, Nova 
Scotia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence south to North Carolina, less frequently to 
Bermuda and eastern Florida; and in the Old World from the breeding range south 
to northwestern Africa, the Mediterranean region and Japan, casually to the Cape 
Verde Islands, West Africa and the Baltic Sea. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to Laysan); and in the interior of 
North America from Alberta, Idaho, Montana, Manitoba, Minnesota and the 
Great Lakes region south to the Gulf coast (Texas east to western Florida), and 
in Nevada, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. Accidental in the Bahamas (Andros), 
Cuba, and off Jamaica. 



Rissa brevirostris (Bruch). Red-legged Kittiwake. [41.] 

Larus (Rissa) brevirostris "Brandt" Bruch, 1853, J.Ornithol., l,p. 103.(Nord- 
Westkuste von Amerika = Northwestern America.) 

Habitat.— Steep cliffs on islands (breeding); primarily pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in Alaska in the Pribilof (St. George, St. Paul) and Aleu- 
tian (Buldir, Bogoslof and Fire) islands, probably also the Commander Islands. 

Winters in the northern North Pacific Ocean, occurring east to the Gulf of 
Alaska (Kodiak and Middleton islands). 

Casual or accidental in east-central Alaska (near junction of Kandik and Yukon 
rivers), west-central Yukon (Fortymile), northwestern Oregon and Nevada (near 
Las Vegas), also a sight report for southwestern Washington. 



Genus RHODOSTETHIA MacGillivray 

Rhodostethia MacGillivray, 1842, Man. Br. Ornithol., 2, p. 252. Type, by 
original designation, Larus rossii Richardson = Larus roseus MacGillivray. 

Notes.— See comments under Larus. 

Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray). Ross' Gull. [61.] 

Larus roseus MacGillivray, 1824, Mem. Wernerian Soc, 5, p. 249. (Igloolik, 
Melville Peninsula.) 

Habitat.— Arctic coasts, river deltas and swampy tundra (breeding); mostly 
pelagic in Arctic waters (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in northern Siberia from the Kolyma Delta to Aby, Malaya 
(on the Alazeya River), Sredne Kolymsk and the Chaun River, also along the 
lower Indigirka River and on the southern Taymyr Peninsula; bred in 1977 and 
1978 in the Cheyne Islands (east of Bathurst Island), in 1980 in northeastern 
Manitoba (Churchill, three nests located), and once in west-central Greenland 
(Disko Bay). 

Winter range unknown, probably pelagic in open Arctic waters. 

In migration occurs along the Arctic coast of Alaska (primarily at Point Barrow), 
rarely on St. Lawrence Island, and casually in the Pribilofs; also recorded in 
migration on the Boothia and Melville peninsulas, on Cornwallis and eastern 
Baffin islands, in Keewatin (McConnell River), and in Greenland and the Arctic 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 225 

islands of the Old World, casually to the Faroe Islands, British Isles and continental 
Europe. 

Accidental in southwestern British Columbia (Victoria), Illinois (Chicago), New- 
foundland (Fogo Island), Massachusetts (Newburyport) and Japan. 

Genus XEMA Leach 

Xema Leach, 1819, in Ross, Voy. Discovery, app. 2, p. lvii. Type, by mono- 
typy, Larus sabini Sabine. 

Notes.— See comments under Larus. 

Xema sabini (Sabine). Sabine's Gull. [62.] 

Larus sabini J. Sabine, 1819, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 12, p. 522, pi. 29. 
(Sabine Islands near Melville Bay, west coast of Greenland.) 

Habitat.— Coastal wet meadows and salt-grass flats (breeding); primarily pelagic, 
casually along coasts or in inland waters (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from coastal western Alaska (Kotzebue 
Sound to Bristol Bay), northwestern Mackenzie, and Banks, Victoria, Bathurst, 
northwestern Devon and Bylot islands south locally to King William, southern 
Southampton and southwestern Baffin islands, and northern Keewatin; and in the 
Palearctic in northern Greenland and Spitsbergen, and from the New Siberian 
Islands and northern Siberia south to the Taimyr Peninsula and Lena Delta. 
Nonbreeding birds occur in summer to northern Ellesmere Island (probably breed- 
ing), central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, northern Ontario 
and northeastern Quebec, casually at sea south to wintering areas. 

Winters at sea in the eastern Pacific from Panama south to central Chile; and. 
less commonly, in the Atlantic (primarily tropical areas, rarely the North Atlantic). 

In migration recorded regularly along the Pacific coast of North America from 
Alaska to northern Baja California and Costa Rica; along the Atlantic coast from 
Labrador to New England (casually to Florida); and around Iceland and the coasts 
of Europe. 

Casual through the interior of North America (mostly in migration but occa- 
sionally in winter) from Alberta, Montana, North Dakota and the Great Lakes 
south to Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, the Gulf coast and Cuba; in Caribbean 
Panama (Canal Zone); and to Japan and the North Sea. 

[Genus CREAGRUS Bonaparte] 

Creagrus Bonaparte, 1854, Naumannia, 4, p. 213. Type, by original desig- 
nation, Larus furcatus Neboux. 

Notes.— See comments under Larus. 



[Creagrus furcatus (Neboux). Swallow-tailed Gull.] See Appendix A. 

Genus PAGOPHILA Kaup 

Pagophila Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw., pp. 69, 196. Type, 
by monotypy, Larus eburneus Phipps. 

Notes.— See comments under Larus. 



226 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Pagophila eburnea (Phipps). Ivory Gull. [39.] 

Lams ebwneus Phipps. 17 7 4. Voy. North Pole. App.. p. 187. (Spitsbergen.) 

Habitat.— Associated with the Arctic ice pack and drift ice. nesting on steep 
cliffs or low rocky islets near ice or snow. 

Distribution. — Breeds in Arctic North America on Seymour, southeastern Elles- 
mere. northern Baffin and. at least formerly. Prince Patrick, the Polynia and 
Meighen islands; and in the Palearctic in northern Greenland. Spitsbergen, Franz 
Josef Land, northern Novaya Zemlya and North Land. 

Winters in North America primarily over drift ice south to the southern Bering 
Sea fPribilof Islands) and northern Canada, casually south to south-coastal and 
southeastern Alaska and British Columbia, the Great Lakes (primarily Superior. 
Erie and Ontario), and along the Atlantic coast from Labrador. Newfoundland, 
eastern Quebec and Nova Scotia south to New Jersey: and in the Palearctic from 
southern Greenland. Iceland, the Faroe Islands. Scandinavia, northern Russia and 
northern Siberia south to the Commander Islands, casual!}" to the British Isles 
and northern Europe. 

Casual or accidental in southern .Alberta, central Saskatchewan. Manitoba. Min- 
nesota. Iowa (Appanoose County) and Ontario, also sight reports for Washington 
and North Carolina. 

Subfamily STERNINAE: Terns 
Notes.— See comments under Stercorariinae. 

Genus STERNA Linnaeus 

Sterna Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1, p. 137. Type, by tautonymy. 
Sterna hirundo Linnaeus {Sterna, prebinomial specific name, in synonymy). 

Thalasseus Boie. 1822. Isis von Oken. col. 563. Type, by subsequent desig- 
nation (Wagler. 1832), "772. cantiacus" = Sterna cantiaca Gmelin = Sterna 
sandxicensis Latham. 

Sternula Boie. 1822. Isis von Oken. col. 563. Type, by monotypy. Sterna 
minuta Linnaeus = Sterna albifrons Pallas. 

Hydroprogne Kaup. 1829. Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw.. p. 91. Type, by 
subsequent designation (G. R. Gray. 1846), Sterna caspia Pallas. 

Gelochelidon C. L. Brehm. 1 830. Isis von Oken. col. 994. Type, by monotypy. 
Gelochelidon meridionalis Brehm = Sterna nilotica Gmelin. 

Sterna nilotica Gmelin. Gull-billed Tern. [63.] 

Sterna nilotica Gmehn, 1789. Syst. Nat.. 1 (2), p. 606. Based on the "'Egyptian 
Tern" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds. 3 (2). p. 356. (in Aegypto = Egypt.) 

Habitat.— Gravelly or sandy beaches (breeding): salt marshes, estuaries, lagoons 
and plowed fields, less frequently along rivers, around lakes and in fresh-water 
marshes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in western North America in southern California 
(at southern end of Salton Sea), and on the coasts of Sonora (Bahia de Tobari) 
and Sinaloa. probably also on Montague Island (Baja California) and elsewhere 
in the Gulf of California; in eastern North America along the Atlantic-Gulf coast 
from New York (Long Island) south to Florida (occasionally also inland at Lake 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 227 

Okeechobee and Haulover) and west to southern Texas, probably also to Tamau- 
lipas and Veracruz; in the Bahamas (Great Inagua. Harbour Island), the Virgin 
Islands (probably Anegada and Sombrero, formerly Cockroach Cay): in South 
America on the Pacific coast of Ecuador, and on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. 
Uruguay and northern Argentina; and in the Old World from northern Europe, 
central Russia, southern Mongolia and eastern China south to Mauritania, north- 
western Africa, Asia Minor. Iran, India, Ceylon and southern China, also in 
Australia. Nonbreeding birds often summer in the wintering range. 

Winters in the Americas in coastal areas from Oaxaca, the Gulf coast and 
northern Florida south through Middle America, the West Indies and South 
America to Peru on the Pacific coast and northern Argentina on the Atlantic 
(including most islands off the north coast of Venezuela); and in the Old World 
from tropical Africa, the Persian Gulf. India. Southeast Asia, eastern China and 
the Philippines south to southern Africa, Java and Borneo, also in Australia and 
Tasmania. 

Casual north to southern Arizona, Illinois. Ohio, New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia, and to Bermuda, the British Isles, southern Scandinavia and Japan; sight 
reports from northern California are open to question. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Gelochelidon. 

Sterna caspia Pallas. Caspian Tern. [64.] 

Sterna caspia Pallas, 1770, Novi Comm. Acad. Sci. Petropol.. 14, p. 582, pi. 
22. (Mare Caspium = Caspian Sea, southern Russia.) 

Habitat. — Sandy or gravelly beaches and shell banks (breeding): seacoasts. bays, 
estuaries, lakes, marshes and rivers (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in western North America from coastal and eastern 
Washington, eastern Oregon, northern Utah and northwestern Wyoming south 
(mostly in the interior) to southern California (San Diego Bay. Salton Sea) and 
western Nevada (Lahontan Reservoir); in western Mexico in Baja California 
(Scammon Lagoon) and on the coast of Sinaloa (Isla Laricion); in the interior of 
North America from northeastern Alberta, southern Mackenzie, central Saskatch- 
ewan, north-central Manitoba and southern James Bay south to North Dakota 
(McLean County), northeastern Wisconsin, northeastern Illinois, central Michi- 
gan, southern Ontario, northwestern Pennsylvania (formerly) and New Jersey 
(probably); at scattered localities along the Atlantic coast in Newfoundland (Long 
Harbour River), southeastern Quebec (Fog Island. Natashquam). Virginia 
(Metomkin and formerly Cobbs islands). North Carolina (Oregon Inlet) and South 
Carolina (Cape Romain); along the Gulf coast from Texas east to Florida: and in 
the Old World from southern Scandinavia, northern Europe, southern Russia, the 
Black and Caspian seas, northern Mongolia. Ussuriland and eastern China south 
to the Mediterranean region, Persian Gulf, Ceylon, Australia and New Zealand, 
also along the coasts of Africa and in the interior at Lake Rudolph. Nonbreeding 
birds often summer in the James Bay and Great Lakes regions, and along both 
coasts of the United States, less frequently south in Middle America to Costa 
Rica. 

Winters in the Americas primarily in coastal areas from central California south 
to Baja California and Oaxaca. and from North Carolina south along the Atlantic- 
Gulf coasts to eastern Mexico, less frequently along both coasts and on inland 
lakes of Middle America (not recorded El Salvador) to northern Colombia and 



228 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Venezuela, and rarely to the Bahamas and Greater Antilles (east to Puerto Ricoi: 
and in the Old World from the breeding range south to tropical Africa, the Persian 
Gulf. India and (rarely) Southeast Asia. 

Migrates in North America primarily along coasts from British Columbia (rarely; 
and Nova Scotia southward, less frequently along large rivers in the interior. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu. Maui): in southeastern Alaska: in the 
interior of western North America from central Alberta and southern Saskatch- 
ewan south to Colorado and New Mexico: and in the Old World north to the 
Faroe Islands. British Isles and Japan. 

Notes. — Often placed in the monotypic genus Hydroprogne. 

Sterna maxima Boddaert. Royal Tern. [65.] 

Sterna maxima Boddaert. 1783, Table Planches Enlum.. p. 58. Based on the 
""Hirondelle de Mer de Cayenne" Daubenton. Planches Enlum.. pi. 988. 
(Cayenne.; 

Habitat. — Open sandy beaches (breeding): seacoasts. lagoons and estuaries, rarely 
on lakes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally on the Pacific coast in southern California (San 
Diego Bay. rarely), in west-central Baja California (Scammon Lagoon. Isla San 
Roque). along the coast of Sonora and Sinaloa. and in the Tres Marias Islands 
(erroneously reported from Isla Isabela); in the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean region 
from the Gulf coast (west to southern Texas) and Maryland (Chesapeake Bay) 
south through the West Indies to islands off the north coast of Venezuela (Neth- 
erlands Antilles east to Los Roques. and Trinidad.) and French Guiana, also in 
the state of Yucatan (Cayo Areas and Alacran reef): in South America on the coast 
of Uruguay; and in West Africa (islands off Mauritania). Nonbreeding individuals 
occur in summer in coastal areas in the Americas north to central California and 
New York, and south throughout the wintering range (rarely on the Pacific coast 
south of Mexico). 

Winters from central California, the Gulf coast and North Carolina south along 
both coasts of the Americas to Peru. Uruguay and Argentina: and on the west 
coast of Africa from Morocco to Angola. 

Casual north on the Atlantic coast to Maine and Nova Scotia. Accidental in 
the British Isles and Mozambique. 

Notes. — This and the following two species are often placed in the genus Thal- 
asseus. 

Sterna elegans Gambel. Elegant Tern. [66.] 

Sterna elegans Gambel. 1849. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 4 (1848). 
p. 129. (Mazatlan [Sinaloa]. Pacific coast of Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches and flats (breeding): seacoasts. bays, estuaries and 
mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Pacific coast from southern California (San 
Diego Bay) south to central Baja California (Scammon Lagoon. Isla San Roquet, 
and from the Gulf of California (Raza. Trinidad and George islands) south along 
the coast of Sonora and Sinaloa to (probably) Nayarit (Isabela Island). Nonbreed- 
ing birds occur in summer along the Pacific coast from central California to Costa 
Rica. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 229 

Winters along the Pacific coast from Guatemala south to central Chile (most 
commonly from Ecuador south, rare north of Panama). 

Wanders north regularly to central (rarely northern) California. Accidental in 
Texas (Corpus Christi). 

Notes.— See comments under S. maxima. 

Sterna sandvicensis Latham. Sandwich Tern. [67.] 

Sterna Sandvicensis Latham, 1787, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 296. 
(Sandwich, Kent, England.) 

Habitat.— Sandy beaches and flats (breeding); seacoasts, bays, estuaries and 
mudflats (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— breeds' [sandvicensis group] locally on the Atlantic coast of North 
America in Virginia (Fisherman's Island), North Carolina (Oregon Inlet) and South 
Carolina; along the Gulf coast from southern Texas east to southern Mississippi 
(Petit Bois Island), Alabama (formerly) and Florida; in the Bahamas, off southern 
Cuba (Cayo Los Ballenatos), and on islets in the Virgin Islands (off Culebra, St. 
Thomas and Anegada); off the state of Yucatan (Cayo Areas, Alacran reef), for- 
merly off Belize (Northern Two Cays); and in the Old World from the British 
Isles and southern Scandinavia south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian 
seas; and [eurygnatha group] on islands off the coast of Venezuela (Netherlands 
Antilles, Las Aves, Los Roques, and on Soldado Rock off northern Trinidad, the 
latter colony assigned by some authors to the sandvicensis group) and French 
Guiana, and along the coast of northern Argentina. Nonbreeding individuals occur 
in summer throughout the wintering range, most commonly in the Atlantic-Gulf- 
Caribbean region. 

Winters [sandvicensis group] along the Pacific coast from Oaxaca to Ecuador 
and Peru, in the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean region from Florida (casually from Vir- 
ginia) and the Gulf coast south throughout the West Indies, and along coasts to 
southern Brazil and Uruguay, and in the Old World generally from the southern 
portions of the breeding range south to the eastern Atlantic islands, southern 
Africa, the Persian Gulf and India; and [eurygnatha group] from the islands off 
Venezuela (including Tobago and Trinidad) and the Colombian coast south along 
the Atlantic coast to northern Argentina. 

Casual [sandvicensis group] north along the Atlantic coast to Massachusetts. 
Accidental [sandvicensis group] in southern California (San Diego Bay) and south- 
ern Ontario (Lucknow), also sight reports [eurygnatha group] for Puerto Rico, the 
Virgin Islands, and northern Lesser Antilles (St. Martin). 

Notes.— The North American form is also known as Cabot's Tern. The South 
American breeding form is usually regarded as a separate species, 5. eurygnatha 
Saunders, 1876 [Cayenne Tern], but interbreeding with S. sandvicensis occurs 
(see Junge and Voous, 1955, Ardea, 43, pp. 226-247). See also comments under 
S. maxima. 

Sterna dougallii Montagu. Roseate Tern. [72.] 

Sterna Dougallii Montagu, 1813, Suppl. Ornithol. Diet., [not paged], see under 
Tern, Roseate (with plate). (The Cumbrey Islands in Firth of Clyde [Scot- 
land].) 

Habitat.— Sandy beaches, open bare ground, grassy areas and under tumbled 



230 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

boulders, primarily on islands (breeding); seacoasts, bays and estuaries (nonbreed- 
ing). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally along the Atlantic coast of North America from 
Maine and Nova Scotia south to North Carolina (Core Bank); in the Florida Keys 
(Dry Tortugas), the Bahamas, Jamaica (Pedro Cays), Hispaniola (Beata Island, 
Cayos de los Pajaros), Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles and islands 
off Venezuela (Netherlands Antilles, Las Aves and Los Roques); off Caribbean 
Honduras (on Sandy Cay near Utila in the Bay Islands); in Bermuda (formerly); 
and in the Old World locally from the British Isles and northern Europe south to 
the Azores, Madeira and southern Africa, and from Ceylon and the Andaman 
Islands south in the Indian Ocean along the east coast of Africa and to the Sey- 
chelles and western Australia, also in the Pacific Ocean from China and the Ryukyu 
Islands south to the Philippines, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, and northern 
and eastern Australia. Breeding populations in the Northern Hemisphere show 
serious declines in recent years. 

Winters in the Americas primarily in the eastern Caribbean from the West 
Indies southward, ranging along the Atlantic coast of South America to eastern 
Brazil; and in the Old World from the eastern Atlantic islands and northern Africa 
south through the breeding range, and in the Indian and Pacific ocean areas 
generally near the breeding grounds. 

In migration occurs along the Atlantic coast of North America south to Florida, 
casually on the Gulf coast west to Texas; also in western Europe and the western 
Mediterranean region. 

Accidental in Indiana (Miller), western New York (Niagara River), Gorgona 
Island (off Pacific coast of Colombia, recovery of a bird banded on Long Island, 
New York), and central and southern Europe. An old report from the Pacific coast 
of Oaxaca is questionable. 

Sterna hirundo Linnaeus. Common Tern. [70.] 

Sterna Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 137. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Sandy, pebbly or stony beaches, matted vegetation (including tops 
of muskrat houses) and grassy areas (breeding); seacoasts, estuaries, bays, lakes, 
rivers and marshes (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the interior of North America from northern Alberta, 
south-central Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northwestern and central Man- 
itoba, central Ontario (including southern James Bay), southern Quebec, southern 
Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia south to eastern Washington, south- 
eastern Alberta, northeastern Montana, North Dakota, northeastern South Dakota, 
central Minnesota, northeastern Illinois, northwestern Indiana (Lake County), 
southern Michigan, northern Ohio, northwestern Pennsylvania (Presque Isle), 
central and northern New York, and northwestern Vermont, and locally along 
the Atlantic coast to North Carolina (to Wrightsville Beach); locally on the Gulf 
coast in Texas (Port Isabel to Galveston Bay), Mississippi (Petit Bois Island) and 
western Florida (St. George Island); in Bermuda, the Greater Antilles (islets off 
Hispaniola east to the Virgin Islands) and the Netherlands Antilles; and in the 
Old World from the British Isles, northern Europe, northern Russia, north-central 
Siberia and Mongolia south to the eastern Atlantic islands, Mediterranean region. 
Black and Caspian seas, Asia Minor, Iraq, Iran, Turkestan, Ladakh and Tibet. 
Nonbreeding individuals occur in summer on James Bay, throughout the Great 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 231 

Lakes region, along the Atlantic-Gulf coast (west to southern Texas), south in 
Middle America to Costa Rica, and throughout the West Indies. 

Winters in the Americas from southern California (casually) and Baja California 
(rarely) south along the Pacific coast of Middle America and South America to 
Peru, and from South Carolina, Florida and the Gulf coast (rarely) south through 
the West Indies and along the Caribbean-Atlantic coast of Middle America and 
South America to northern Argentina; and in the Old World from the southern 
portions of the breeding range south to southern Africa, Madagascar, Ceylon, the 
Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Louisiade and Solomon islands. 

In migration occurs regularly in interior North America in the Mississippi and 
Ohio valleys, casually elsewhere (reported north to Yukon, and south to Arizona 
and New Mexico), and on the Pacific coast north to British Columbia; also regular 
in western Alaska (the western Aleutian, Pribilof and St. Lawrence islands). 

Casual or accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (main islands from Kauai east- 
ward), Labrador, and interior South America (Ecuador, Bolivia). 

Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan. Arctic Tern. [7 1 .] 

Sterna paradiscea Pontoppidan, 1763, Dan. Atlas, 1, p. 622. (Christiansoe, 
Denmark.) 

Habitat.— Rocky or grass-covered coasts and islands, tundra, and sometimes 
along inland lakes and rivers (breeding); mostly pelagic, rarely in coastal bays and 
estuaries (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northern Mackenzie, Banks, Bathurst and northern Ellesmere islands, Labrador 
and Newfoundland south to the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, southern Yukon, 
northwestern British Columbia, southern Mackenzie, northwestern Saskatchewan, 
northern Manitoba, extreme northern Ontario (including James Bay), central Que- 
bec, New Brunswick and, along the Atlantic coast, locally to Maine (Casco Bay) 
and Massachusetts, also in Washington (Puget Sound, since 1977); and in the 
Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland, the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, north- 
ern Russia and northern Siberia south to northern Europe, Anadyrland, the Com- 
mander Islands and Gulf of Shelekhova. 

Winters primarily in the Southern Hemisphere in subantarctic and Antarctic 
waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, from off central Chile, central 
Argentina and South Africa to the Weddell Sea and (rarely) Antarctic continent. 

Migrates primarily at sea, casually through the Hawaiian Islands, along the 
Pacific coast from Alaska to southern California, along the Atlantic coast from 
New England to Florida (and west along the Gulf coast to Texas), and off the 
Pacific coast of South America from Colombia to Chile. 

Casual or accidental in interior California, northern and central Alberta, Idaho, 
Colorado (near Denver), Minnesota (Duluth), southern Ontario (Toronto), New 
York (Cayuga Lake), Georgia (Okefenokee Swamp), Cuba, the Black Sea and New 
Zealand. 

[Sterna sumatrana Raffles. Black-naped Tern.] See Appendix B. 

Sterna forsteri Nuttall. Forster's Tern. [69.] 

Sterna hirundo (not Linnaeus) Richardson, 1832, in Swainson and Richard- 
son, Fauna Bor.-Am., 2 (1831), p. 412. (on the banks of the Saskatchewan 



232 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

[River] = about 10-50 miles west of Cumberland House, Saskatchewan.) 
Sterna Forsteri Nuttall, 1834, Man. Oraithol. U.S. Can., ed. 1, 2, p. 274. 
New name for Sterna hirundo Richardson, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Fresh- water and salt marshes, in migration and winter also seacoasts, 
bays, estuaries, rivers and lakes. 

Distribution. —Breeds in the interior of North America from southeastern British 
Columbia, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba and southern 
Ontario (formerly) south through east-central Washington and eastern and south- 
central Oregon to southern California (San Diego Bay), western Nevada, south- 
central Idaho, north-central Utah, northern and eastern Colorado, central Kansas, 
western Nebraska, northern Iowa, northeastern Illinois (at least formerly), north- 
western Indiana and east-central Michigan (Bay County); along the Atlantic coast 
from southern New York (Long Island) south locally to North Carolina and, 
formerly, South Carolina (Bulls Bay); and along the Gulf coast from northern 
Tamaulipas and Texas east to southern Louisiana. 

Winters along the Pacific coast from central California and Baja California south 
to Oaxaca and Guatemala (Duenas), casually to Costa Rica (Gulf of Nicoya); and 
along the Atlantic-Gulf coast from Virginia (casually farther north) south to Flor- 
ida, west to Texas, south to northern Veracruz, casually to Costa Rica (Chomes); 
and in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles (east to Puerto Rico, also a questionable 
sight report from the Virgin Islands). 

Migrates primarily through interior North America, casually to the Pacific coast 
(north to southern British Columbia) and Atlantic coast (north to southern Quebec, 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia); birds from the Atlantic coast breeding popu- 
lations apparently disperse northward, at least to New England, prior to fall migra- 
tion. 

Accidental at sea several hundred miles east of Pernambuco, Brazil. 

[Sterna trudeaui Audubon. Trudeau's Tern.] See Appendix B. 

Sterna antillarum (Lesson). Least Tern. [74.] 

Sterna antillarum Lesson, 1847, Compl. Oeuvres Buffon, 20, p. 256. (Gua- 
deloupe, West Indies.) 

Habitat.— Seacoasts, beaches, bays, estuaries, lagoons, lakes and rivers, breeding 
on sandy or gravelly beaches and banks of rivers or lakes, rarely on flat rooftops 
of buildings. 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Pacific coast from central California (southern 
San Francisco Bay) south to southern Baja California and Chiapas; in the interior 
of North America locally along the Colorado, Red, Missouri, Mississippi and 
Ohio river systems from southern South Dakota, western Iowa, southwestern 
Missouri, northwestern Indiana, central Kentucky and northwestern Ohio south 
to central New Mexico, western Kansas, central Oklahoma, northeastern Texas, 
central Louisiana and western Tennessee; along the Atlantic-Gulf coast from 
Maine (Scarborough) south to Florida and west to Texas (Port Isabel); in the 
Atlantic-Caribbean region in Bermuda, throughout the Bahamas and Greater 
Antilles, in the Lesser Antilles (St. Martin, St. Kitts and Antigua), offBelize (Grassy 
Cay), in Honduras (on Sandy Cay near Utila Island, and at Puerto Caxinas), and 
on islands off Venezuela (Netherlands Antilles, Los Roques and Margarita, pos- 
sibly also Trinidad). Nonbreeding birds occur in summer north, at least casually, 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 233 

to west-central California (San Francisco Bay), eastern Wyoming, central Colo- 
rado, Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, northeastern Illinois and central Michigan, 
and south through the wintering range. 

Winters along the Pacific coast from Baja California south to southern Mexico, 
probably also to northwestern South America, and along the coast of South Amer- 
ica from Colombia east to eastern Brazil. 

In migration occurs throughout the Gulf-Caribbean region (including the Lesser 
Antilles and Trinidad), and along both coasts of Middle America (not recorded 
El Salvador or Nicaragua). 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands, Washington (Ocean Shores), northwestern Ore- 
gon (mouth of Columbia River), southwestern Arizona, Minnesota, Nova Scotia 
and northeastern Argentina. 

Notes.— 5". antillarum and the Old World S. albifrons Pallas, 1764 [Little 
Tern], are often considered conspecific, but see Massey, 1976, Auk, 93, pp. 760- 
773). The two species, in addition to 5 1 . superciliaris and S. lorata Philippi and 
Landbeck, 1861, of South America, S. saundersi Hume, 1877, of the northwestern 
Indian Ocean region, and 5". nereis (Gould, 1 843), of Australia, appear to constitute 
a superspecies. 

Sterna superciliaris Vieillot. Yellow-billed Tern. 

Sterna superciliaris Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Dist. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 
176. Based on "Hati Ceja blanca" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag., 
3, p. 377 (no. 415). (Paraguay.) 

Habitat and Distribution.— Breeds along rivers and lakes in South America east 
of the Andes from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south to southern Peru, 
central Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and Uruguuay, and winters in 
the breeding range, wandering to coastal areas, Tobago and Trinidad. 

Accidental in Panama (Coco Solo, Canal Zone, 17-20 October 1977, J. Pujals. 
photograph; Ridgely, 1981, Birds Panama, rev. ed., p. 366). 

Notes.— See comments under S. antillarum. 

Sterna aleutica Baird. Aleutian Tern. [73.] 

Sterna aleutica Baird, 1869, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, p. 321. (Kadiak = 
Kodiak Island, Alaska.) 

Habitat.— Grassy or mossy flats, on small offshore islands and coastal spits, 
around lagoons or near river mouths (breeding); pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in Alaska from the Chukchi Sea coast (Cape Krusenstern 
and Kotzebue Sound) south along the western coast to the Aleutians (west to Attu) 
and Alaska Peninsula, and east along the southern coast (including Kodiak Island) 
to Yakutat and Dry bays; and in Asia on the east coast of Kamchatka and Sakhalin. 

Winters at sea, range unknown. 

Casual in the Commander Islands and Japan. 

Sterna hinata Peale. Gray-backed Tern. [76.1.] 

Sterna lunata Peale, 1848, U.S. Explor. Exped., 8, p. 277. (Vincennes Island, 
Paumotu Group, Kauehi Island, Tuamotu Islands.) 

Habitat.— Sandy beaches or bare ground on islands (breeding); mostly pelagic 
(nonbreeding). 



234 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Breeds from the Hawaiian Islands (most of the western chain 
east to Kaula and Moku Manu off Oahu) and Wake Island south to the Phoenix, 
Fiji, Line and Tuamotu islands. 

Winters at sea in the central Pacific Ocean, wandering casually to the Moluccas. 

Sterna anaethetus Scopoli. Bridled Tern. [76.] 

Sterna (Anaethetus) Scopoli, 1786, Del. Flor. Faun. Insubr., fasc. 2, p. 92. 
(in Guinea = Panay, Philippine Islands.) 

Habitat.— Mostly pelagic, breeding on islands usually in rocky areas or on coral, 
occasionally on sand, but generally in crevices, on ledges or partially concealed. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Pacific Ocean on islets in northwestern Costa Rica 
(off Nicoya Peninsula) and possibly Panama (Frailes del Sur, offAzuero Peninsula), 
and from Formosa south to the East Indies, New Guinea and Australia; in the 
Atlantic-Caribbean region in the Bahamas, Cuba (Cayo Mono Grande), Jamaica 
(Morant and Pedro cays, and off Port Royal), Hispaniola (Navassa, Seven Brothers 
and Beata islands), Puerto Rico (Mona Island, and Desecheo Island off Culebra), 
the Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles, Belize (Saddle, Ellen and Curlew cays, at least 
formerly), off Venezuela (Las Aves and Los Roques, formerly on Aruba and off 
Tobago), off Mauritania, and on islands in the Gulf of Guinea; and in the Indian 
Ocean from off western India south to the Seychelles, Mauritius, and the Laccadive 
and Maldive islands. 

Ranges at sea in the Pacific off Middle America (recorded off Guerrero and 
Panama), and widely in the western Pacific from the breeding range north to 
Japan, Marcus Island, and the Volcano and Ryukyu islands; in the Atlantic- 
Caribbean region widely in the West Indies, north along the Atlantic coast (most 
abundantly after storms) from Florida to North Carolina (casually to Massachu- 
setts), casually along the Gulf coast from Florida west to Texas, and rarely along 
the north coast of Venezuela; and in the Indian Ocean from India and Ceylon 
south in the breeding range, and to the east coast of Africa. 

Accidental in Caribbean Costa Rica and Newfoundland, and at Cape Horn. 

Notes.— Also known as Brown- winged Tern. 

Sterna fuscata Linnaeus. Sooty Tern. [75.] 

Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 228. Based mainly on 
"L'Hirondelle-de-mer brune" Brisson, Ornithologie, 6, p. 220, pi. 21, fig. 
2. (in Insula Domincensi = Hispaniola.) 

Habitat.— Primarily pelagic, nesting in colonies on islands on sandy beaches, 
bare ground or coral, most often with scattered grasses present, less commonly 
on rocky ledges. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Pacific from the Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to 
Moku Manu and Manana off Oahu), islands off western Mexico (Clipperton, 
Revillagigedo, Tres Marias and Isabela), and the Ryukyu, Bonin, Marcus and 
Wake islands south to Australia, and Lord Howe, Norfolk, Kermadec and Tua- 
motu islands, also in the Galapagos Islands and on San Felix Island off Chile; in 
the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean region on small islands along the Gulf coast of Texas 
(Matagorda Bay to Kleberg County), Louisiana (Chandeleur Islands) and the Yuca- 
tan Peninsula (Cayos Areas, Alacran reef, and formerly Mujeres and Cancun 
islands), in North Carolina (Morgan Island, 1978), in Florida (Franklin County, 



ORDER C HARADRIIFORMES 235 

Tampa region, Dry Tortugas, Key West), throughout the Bahamas, ofFCuba (Cayo 
Mono Grande and Cayo de la Piedras), in the Virgin Islands and Lesser Antilles, 
off Belize (Round Cay) and probably also Honduras (Isla Roatan), off the north 
coast of Venezuela (Isla de Aves, islets off Tobago and Trinidad, and formerly 
Margarita), off Brazil (Rocas Reef, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade, Martin Vas 
Rocks) and in the tropical Atlantic (Ascension, and islets off St. Helena and 
Principe); and in the Indian Ocean from the Mascarene, Seychelles, Laccadive, 
Maldive and Andaman islands to western Australia. 

Ranges at sea in the Pacific throughout the Hawaiian Islands, off the west coast 
of Middle America from Sinaloa to Panama, and widely in the tropical and 
subtropical Pacific Ocean, throughout most of the Caribbean-Gulf region, regularly 
from Texas east to Florida (especially after storms) and casually north along the 
Atlantic coast to New England and Nova Scotia, also to Bermuda and along the 
coast of South America east to the Guianas; and widely throughout the tropical 
and subtropical Indian Ocean. 

Casual inland after storms in the Atlantic states north to New York, and to 
western Texas, Tennessee and West Virginia. 

Genus PHAETUSA Wagler 

Phaetusa Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1224. Type, by monotypy. Sterna 
magnirostris Lichtenstein = Sterna simplex Gmelin. 

Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin). Large-billed Tern. 

Sterna simplex Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 606. Based on the "Simple 
Tern" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 3 (2), p. 355. (in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds along rivers and lakes in South America in 
western Ecuador, and from Colombia, Venezuela (also Margarita Island and Trin- 
idad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, 
northern Argentina and Uruguay, and ranges to seacoasts in the nonbreeding 
season. 

Casual in Panama (Coco Solo, Canal Zone, and vicinity; and near El Rincon, 
Herrera). Accidental in Bermuda, Cuba (Nipe Bay) and Aruba, also records (of 
individuals whose origin has been questioned) for Illinois (photograph. Lake Cal- 
umet, Chicago) and Ohio (sight report, Evans Lake, near Youngstown). 

Genus CHLIDONIAS Rafinesque 

Chlidonias Rafinesque, 1822, Ky. Gazette, new ser., 1, no. 8, p. 3, col. 5. 
Type, by monotypy, Sterna melanops Rafinesque = Sterna swinamensis 
Gmelin = Sterna nigra Linnaeus. 

[Chlidonias hybridus (Pallas). Whiskered Tern.] See Appendix B. 

Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck). White-winged Tern. [78.] 

Sterna leucoptera Temminck, 1815, Man. Ornithol., ed. 1 (1814), p. 483. (les 
bords de la Mediterranee, etc. = Mediterranean Sea.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds on marshes from eastern Europe east to south- 
ern Siberia, Sakhalin and Manchuria, and winters along coasts, rivers and lakes 



236 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

from tropical Africa. India. Southeast Asia and eastern China south to southern 
Africa, Madagascar, Ceylon, the East Indies, New Guinea, Australia and. rarely. 
New Zealand, migrating through Europe, Korea and Japan. 

Casual or accidental in Alaska (Nizki Island in the Aleutians). Wisconsin (Lake 
Kcshkonong), Indiana (Gary), New Brunswick (Grand Point. Portobello Creek 
and Miscou Island), Massachusetts (Salisbury), Delaware (Little Creek and Port 
Mahon), Virginia (Chincoteague). the Bahamas (Great Inagua). Barbados and 
Guam, also a sight report for Georgia. 

Notes.— Also known as White- winged Black Tern. 

Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus). Black Tern. [77.] 

Sterna nigra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 137. (in Europa = near 
Uppsala, Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Marshes, sloughs and wet meadows, primarily fresh-water (breeding): 
pelagic, as well as along seacoasts, bays, estuaries, lagoons, lakes and rivers (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from southwestern and east-central 
British Columbia, northern Alberta, south-central Mackenzie, northwestern Sas- 
katchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario (probably), southern Quebec. 
southern New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south locally to south-central Califor- 
nia, northern Nevada, northern Utah, Colorado, Nebraska. Missouri (formerly). 
south-central Illinois, Kentucky (formerly), Ohio, Pennsylvania, western New 
York, northwestern Vermont and Maine (one old record from Fort Yukon, east- 
central Alaska); and in the Old World from northern Europe, north-central Russia 
and central Siberia south to the Mediterranean Sea, Asia Minor. Turkestan, and 
the Caspian and Aral seas. Nonbreeding birds occur in summer south on the 
Pacific coast to Panama, and in eastern North America to the Gulf coast. 

Winters in the Americas along both coasts from Panama south to Peru and 
Surinam: and in the Old World primarily in tropical Africa south to Angola and 
Tanzania, casually to Madeira and northern China. 

In migration occurs throughout the interior of North America south of the 
breeding range: along both coasts and through the interior of Middle America; 
along the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia south to Florida and the West Indies 
(rarely south to Barbados); and often far at sea. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands and Bermuda. Accidental in Alaska (Wrangell. 
and Walker Lake in the Brooks Range), southern Yukon, Chile and northern 
Argentina. 

Genus ANOUS Stephens 

Anoiis Stephens. 1826. in Shaw. Gen. Zool.. 13 (1). p. 139. Type, by subse- 
quent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Anoiis niger Stephens = Sterna sto- 
lida Linnaeus. 

Anous stolidus (Linnaeus). Brown Noddy. [79.] 

Sterna stolida Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 137. Based mainly on 
Hirundo marina minor, capite albo Sloane. Voy. Jamaica. 1. p. 31. pi. 6. 
fig. 2, and "The Noddy" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina. 1. p. 88. pi. 88. (in 
Americas Pelago = West Indies.) 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 237 

Habitat. — Primarily pelagic, nesting on islands on bare ground, rock ledges, 
sandy beaches or in trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Pacific Ocean from the Hawaiian (Kure east to 
Moku Manu and Manana islets off Oahu), Ryukyu and Bonin islands south to 
northern Australia, Norfolk Island and the Taumotu Archipelago, and from islands 
off western Mexico (Revillagigedo, Tres Marias, Tres Marietas and Isabela) south 
to Costa Rica (Cocos Island, possibly also on the Santa Elena Peninsula) and the 
Galapagos Islands; in the Gulf-Caribbean region from the Bahamas and Florida 
Keys (Dry Tortugas) south through most of the Antilles to islands off the coasts 
of the Yucatan Peninsula (Alacran reef), Belize, Venezuela (Las Aves east to 
Margarita, Tobago and Trinidad) and French Guiana; in the Atlantic Ocean on 
Trindade, Ascension, St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Gough, also islands in 
the Gulf of Guinea; and in the Indian Ocean region from the Red Sea, Gulf of 
Aden and Laccadive Islands south to Madagascar and the Seychelles. 

Winters at sea, generally in the vicinity of the breeding grounds, ranging casually 
(mostly after storms) to the Gulf coast (west to Texas), the Atlantic coast (north 
to North Carolina), and the coasts of Middle America (Caribbean coast and islands 
off Honduras and Nicaragua, and both coasts of Panama). 

Casual in Bermuda. Accidental in Massachusetts. 

Notes.— Also known as Noddy Tern and Common Noddy. 



Anous minutus Boie. Black Noddy. [79.1.] 

Anous minutus Boie, 1844, Isis von Oken, col. 188. (New Holland = Raine 
Island, Australia.) 

Habitat.— Primarily pelagic, breeding on islands in trees or on rock ledges. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the tropical Pacific Ocean from the Hawaiian Islands 
(throughout), and Marcus and Wake islands south to New Guinea, northeastern 
Australia and the Tuamotu Archipelago, also off the coast of Middle America on 
Clipperton Island, and on Cocos Island (off Costa Rica); in the Caribbean region 
off Belize (formerly on Southwest Cay in Glover's Reef, no recent records) and 
off Venezuela (Los Roques and possibly Las Aves); and in the tropical South 
Atlantic from St. Paul's Rocks and Fernando de Noronha to St. Helana and 
(formerly) Inaccessible Island. 

Winters at sea in the vicinity of the breeding grounds. 

Casual in the Florida Keys (Dry Tortugas, summers since 1962), also a sight 
report from Honduras (Isla Utila). Accidental on the central coast of Texas (Nueces 
County). 

Notes.— Some authors treat A. tenuirostris (Temminck, 1823) [Lesser Noddy] 
of the Indian Ocean as conspecific with A. minutus; they constitute a superspecies. 
With a single species concept, White-capped Noddy is the appropriate English 
name. 



Genus PROCELSTERNA Lafresnaye 

Procelsterna [subgenus] Lafresnaye, 1842, Mag. Zool. [Paris], ser. 2, 4, Ois., 
pi. 29, p. 1 . Type, by monotypy, Procelsterna tereticollis Lafresnaye = Sterna 
cerulea Bennett. 



238 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Procelsterna cerulea (Bennett). Blue-gray Noddy. [79.2.] 

Sterna cerulea F. D. Bennett, 1 840, Narr. Whaling Voy., 2, p. 248. (Christmas 
Island, Pacific Ocean.) 

Habitat.— Primarily pelagic, nesting in recesses and shallow cavities on rocky 
islands, and in the open on sandy islets. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the tropical Pacific Ocean from the Hawaiian Islands 
(Gardner Pinnacles, French Frigate Shoals, Necker, Nihoa and Kaula) south to 
the Samoa and Tuamotu archipelagos, and to Henderson, Easter and San Ambro- 
sia (off Chile) islands; also on Lord Howe, Norfolk and the Kermadec islands 
north of New Zealand. 

Winters at sea in the general vicinity of the breeding grounds. 

Notes.— Also known as Gray Ternlet. The southwestern Pacific populations 
are sometimes recognized as a distinct species, P. albivittata Bonaparte, 1856. 

Genus GYGIS Wagler 

Gygis Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1223. Type, by monotypy, Sterna 
Candida Gmelin = Sterna alba Sparrman. 

Gygis alba (Sparrman). White Tern. [79.3.] 

Sterna alba Sparrman, 1786, Mus. Carlson., fasc. 1, pi. 11. (in India orientali, 
ad promontorium Bonae Spet Insulasquae maris pacifici = Ascension 
Island.) 

Habitat.— Primarily pelagic, breeding on islands on bare limbs or crotches in 
branches of trees (no nest), less commonly on rocky ledges or coral, sometimes 
in old nests of Anous minutus and on various man-made structures. 

Distribution.— Breeds [candida group] on islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean 
from the Hawaiian (Kure east to Kaula, and on Oahu), Caroline and Marshall 
islands south to Norfolk, the Kermadec, Tonga and Society islands, also on Clip- 
perton Island, Cocos Island (off Costa Rica), in the Galapagos Islands, and on 
Easter and Sala-y-Gomez islands, and in the Indian Ocean in the Seychelles; and 
[alba group] in the Pacific in the Marquesas Islands, and in the South Atlantic on 
Fernando de Noronha, Trindade, Martin Vas Rocks, Ascension and St. Helena. 

Winters at sea generally near the respective breeding ranges. 

Accidental [Candida group] in the Revillagigedo Islands (Oneal Rock near Socorro) 
and on Bermuda (photograph of individual referable to this group). 

Notes.— Also known as White Noddy or Fairy Tern, the latter name now 
restricted to Sterna nereis (Gould, 1843) of the southwest Pacific. Some authors 
suggest that the two groups may represent distinct species, G. alba and G. Candida 
(Gmelin, 1789). 

Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE: Skimmers 
Notes.— See comments under Stercorariinae. 

Genus RYNCHOPS Linnaeus 

Rynchops Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 138. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Rynchops nigra Linnaeus. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 239 

Notes.— Treatment of Rynchops as masculine results from a decision by the 
International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature ruling that all genera end- 
ing in -ops are to be considered as of masculine gender. 

Rynchops niger Linnaeus. Black Skimmer. [80.] 

Rynchops nigra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 138. Based mainly 
on the "Cut Water" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 90, pi. 90. (in 
America = coast of South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Primarily near coasts on sandy beaches, shell banks, coastal islands, 
tropical rivers, and locally, gravelly rooftops, in migration and winter also bays, 
estuaries, lagoons and mudflats (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America in southern California (San 
Diego, Salton Sea) and along the coast of Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit; locally on 
the Atlantic-Gulf coast from Massachusetts (Plymouth), New York (Long Island) 
and New Jersey south to southern Florida (Miami area), and from western Florida 
(south to the Tampa Bay region) along the Gulf coast to Texas and south to 
Tabasco (possibly also the Yucatan Peninsula); and in South America along the 
Pacific coast in western Ecuador, and on the Caribbean- Atlantic coast from Colom- 
bia south (including in the larger rivers) to northern Argentina. 

Winters from southern California and Sonora south along the Pacific coast of 
Middle America and South America to southern Chile; and in the Atlantic-Carib- 
bean region from Florida (rarely from North Carolina) west along the Gulf coast 
to Texas and south along the coast of Middle America and South America (also 
Margarita Island and Trinidad) to central Argentina. Postbreeding individuals 
wander rarely north to central California and (usually following storms) to New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. 

Casual inland in coastal states, on the Mexican Plateau, and to Arizona, New 
Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Tennessee, southern Ontario and Quebec; also to 
Bermuda, the Bahamas (Bimini, Great Inagua), Cuba, Hispaniola (off the coast), 
the Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe and Grenada. 

Notes.— The morphologically distinct South American race, R. n. cinerascens 
Spix, 1825, has been recorded as a vagrant in Costa Rica and Panama. Some 
authors consider all species of the genus Rynchops to constitute a superspecies. 



Suborder ALCAE: Auks and Allies 

Family ALCIDAE: Auks, Murres and Puffins 

Tribe ALLINI: Dovekies 

Genus ALLE Link 

Plautus Gunnerus, 1761, Trondheimske Selks. Skr., 1. p. 263, pi. 6. Type, 
by monotypy, Plotus eller Plautus colwnbarius Gunnerus = Alca alle Lin- 
naeus. (Unavailable name; see Wetmore and Watson, 1969. Bull. Br. Orni- 
thol. Club, 89, pp. 6-7.) 

Alle Link, 1806, Beschr. Naturh. Samml. Univ. Rostock. 1. p. 46. Type, by 
monotypy, Alle nigricans Link = Alca alle Linnaeus. 



240 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Alle alle (Linnaeus). Dovekie. [34.] 

Alca Alle Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 131. (in Europas Americas 
arcticse oceano = Scotland.) 

Habitat.— Crevices on steep coastal cliffs (breeding); mostly pelagic, less fre- 
quently along seacoasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Palearctic in Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Spits- 
bergen, Bear Island, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya and North Land; also 
probably islands in the Bering Sea (St. Lawrence and Little Diomede), and possibly 
in North America on eastern Ellesmere Island. Nonbreeding birds occur in summer 
south to Baffin Island, and along the Atlantic coast to Maine. 

Winters offshore from the breeding range south to Southampton Island, Ungava 
Bay, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Bay of Fundy (irregularly along the Atlantic 
coast as far as North Carolina), and in the eastern Atlantic to the Canary Islands, 
Azores, France and the Baltic Sea, also casually south to southern Florida, Cuba, 
the Bahamas (Grand Bahama), Bermuda, Madeira and the western Mediterranean 
Sea. 

Casual along the Arctic coast of Alaska and Canada (Point Barrow), Melville 
Island and Keewatin, and in the interior of northeastern North America west to 
central Manitoba, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ontario and New York; also 
in the British Isles and interior of Europe. Accidental in western Florida (Bay 
County) and the Pribilof Islands (St. George). 

Notes.— Also known as Little Auk. 



Tribe ALCINI: Murres and Auks 

Genus URIA Brisson 

Uria Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 52; 6, p. 70. Type, by tautonymy, 
Uria Brisson = Colymbus aalge Pontoppidan. 

Uria aalge (Pontoppidan). Common Murre. [30.] 

Colymbus aalge Pontoppidan, 1763, Dan. Atlas, 1, p. 621, pi. 26. (Island = 
Iceland.) 

Habitat.— Coastal cliff ledges (breeding); pelagic and along rocky seacoasts (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America along the Pacific coast from western 
Alaska (Cape Lisburne, Kotzebue Sound, Diomede Islands) south through Norton 
Sound and the Bering Sea (St. Matthew, Nunivak and the Pribilof islands) to the 
Aleutians, and from south-coastal Alaska to central California (including the Far- 
allon Islands, and south to Monterey County, formerly Santa Barbara County); 
in eastern North America from Labrador (locally) and southeastern Quebec (north 
shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence, Anticosti and Bonaventure islands, and Bird Rocks) 
south to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia (at least formerly); and in the Palearctic 
from Greenland, Iceland, Bear Island and Novaya Zemlya south to northern 
France and central Norway, and from the Commander Islands and Kamchatka 
south to southern Sakhalin, eastern Korea and Japan. 

Winters primarily offshore in areas near the breeding grounds, in the Pacific 
south regularly to southern California and (rarely) northern Baja California; in 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 241 

eastern North America south to Maine, casually as far as Virginia (Back Bay); 
and in the Palearctic to northern Europe. 

Accidental in Florida (Fort Pierce). 

Notes.— Also known as Thin-billed Murre and, in Old World literature, as 
the Guillemot. 

Uria lomvia (Linnaeus). Thick-billed Murre. [31.] 

Alca Lomvia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 130. (in Europa boreali = 
Greenland.) 

Habitat.— Steep, coastal cliffs (breeding); mostly pelagic, less frequently along 
rocky coasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from northern Alaska (Cape Lisburne, 
Kotzebue Sound, Diomede Islands) south through the Pribilofs to the Aleutians, 
east to Kodiak, Middleton and St. Lazaria islands, in northwestern Mackenzie 
(Cape Parry), and from Prince Leopold, Cobourg, Bylot and eastern Baffin islands 
south to northern Hudson Bay (Coats Island and Chesterfield Inlet), northern 
Quebec (Ungava Bay to Cape Chidley), Labrador, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
Newfoundland (Bird Rock), formerly to Maine (Penobscot Bay); and in the Pale- 
arctic from Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, the 
New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island and northern Siberia south to northern 
Russia, Kamchatka, and the Commander and Kurile islands. 

Winters primarily offshore from the breeding range in North America south to 
southeastern Alaska, casually to central California (Monterey Bay), in northern 
Canada south to Hudson Bay, casually to northern Yukon; along the Atlantic 
coast to New Jersey, casually south to South Carolina (sight reports for Florida) 
and inland to the Great Lakes region (recorded from Michigan, Ontario and 
Quebec south to Iowa, Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania); and in the Palearctic 
south to northern Europe and Japan. 

Notes.— Also known as Brunnich's Murre and, in Old World literature, as 
Brunnich's Guillemot. 

Genus ALCA Linnaeus 

Alca Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 130. Type, by tautonymy, Alca 
torda Linnaeus {Alca, prebinomial specific name, in synonymy). 

Alca torda Linnaeus. Razorbill. [32.] 

Alca Torda Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 130. (in Europas borealis 
oceano = Stora Karlso, Baltic Sea.) 

Habitat.— Coastal cliffs and on rocky shores and islands (breeding); mostly 
pelagic, less commonly along rocky seacoasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from extreme southeastern Baffin Island 
and the coast of Labrador south to southeastern Quebec (north shore of Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, Cape Whittle, Bird Rocks, and Anticosti, Bonaventure and Mag- 
dalen islands), eastern Newfoundland, southern New Brunswick (Grand Manan). 
eastern Maine (Machias Seal Island and Matinicus Rock) and Nova Scotia; and 
in the Palearctic from Greenland east to the British Isles, Scandinavia and northern 
Russia. Recorded in summer (and possibly breeding) on Digges Island, off north- 
western Quebec. 



242 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Winters offshore from the breeding grounds in North America south to New 
York (Long Island), casually to South Carolina and Florida (Brevard County); 
and in the Palearctic from southern Scandinavia and the Baltic to the western 
Mediterranean Sea. casually to the Canary Islands. 

Casual on Lake Ontario and the Gulf coast of Honda (St. George and Santa 
Rosa islands). Accidental in Pennsylvania (Pittston). 

Notes.— .Also known as Razor-billed Auk. 

Genus PINGONUS Bonnaterre 

Plauius (not Gunnerus) Brunm'ch. 1"1. Zool. Fund., p. 78. Type, by mono- 

typy. "Brillefuglen" = Alca irnpennis Linnaeus. 
Pinguinus Bonnaterre. 1791. Tabl. Encycl. Meth.. Ornithol. livr. 47, pp. 

lxxsiii. 28. Type, by subsequent designation (Ogilvie-Grant. 1898). Alca 

irnpennis Linnaeus. 

^Pinguinus irnpennis ( Linnaeus ). Great Auk. [33.] 

Alca irnpennis Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 130. (in Europa arc- 
tica = Norwegian Sea. ) 

Habitat. — Low coastal rocky islands (breeding): mostly at sea (nonbreedmg). 

Distribution. — EXTINCT. Formerly bred in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Bird 
Rocks). Newfoundland (Funk Island). Greenland. Iceland and the Outer Hebrides 
(St. Kilda). possibly in the Faroe Islands and on Lund}", doubtfully on the Isle of 
Man. 

Wintered from the breeding grounds south to Maine and Massachusetts, casually 
to South Carolina: and to the British Isles. France. Spam. Denmark and Scan- 
dinavia. 

Last verified record, two taken in Iceland on 3 June 1844. 



Tnbe CEPPHINI: Guillemots 

Genus CEPPHUS Pallas 

Cepphus Pallas. 1~69. Spic. Zool.. 1. fasc. 5. p. 33. Type, by monotypy. 
Cepphus lacteolus Pallas = Alca gnile Linnaeus. 

Cepphus grylle (Linnaeus). Black Guillemot. [26.] 

Alca Gnile Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 130. (in Europas borealis 
oceano = Gotland. Sweden.) 

Habitat. — Holes under rocks (rarely m ground) on rocky islands, m crevices in 
base of coastal cliffs, and (in .Alaska) in or under beach flotsam (breeding): mostly 
pelagic, less frequently along rocky seacoasts (nonbreedingi. 

Distribution.— Breeds in northern Alaska (along the Chukchi and Beaufort sea- 
coasts from Cape Thompson east at least to Barter Island, probably also on St. 
Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea) and northern Yukon (Herschel Island); in 
eastern North America from Ellesmere. Devon. Somerset. Bylot and eastern Baffin 
islands south to the Melville Peninsula. Southampton Island, northern Ontario 
'Cape Hennetta Maria), the eastern shore of Hudson and James bays, northern 
Labrador. Newfoundland, shores and islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. New 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 243 

Brunswick, Maine and southern Nova Scotia; and in the Palearctic from Green- 
land, Iceland, Scandinavia, northern Russia, Novaya Zemlya and the New Sibe- 
rian, Wrangel and Herald islands south to the British Isles, southern Scandinavia 
and the coast of northern Siberia. Recorded in summer west to Banks Island and 
northern Keewatin. 

Winters mostly at sea from the breeding grounds south in the Bering Sea ice 
front to the Pribilof Islands, and in eastern North America from the breeding 
grounds south to New England, rarely New York (Long Island) and New Jersey; 
and in the Palearctic to northern Europe. 

Casual or accidental in Mackenzie, southern Manitoba, southern Ontario, east- 
ern Pennsylvania (Delaware River near Chester) and South Carolina. 

Notes.— C. grylle and C. columba constitute a superspecies. 

Cepphus columba Pallas. Pigeon Guillemot. [29.] 

Cepphus Columba Pallas, 1811, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 348. (in oceano 
arctico pariterque circa Camtschatcam et in omni freto inter Sibiriam et 
Americam = Kamchatka and Bering Strait.) 

Habitat.— Crevices in coastal cliffs or among rocks along shores, also under old 
docks and piers (breeding); mostly pelagic and along rocky seacoasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from northern Alaska (Cape 
Lisburne and Cape Thompson) south through Norton Sound and the Bering Sea 
(Diomede, St. Lawrence, St. Matthew, Hall and Bogoslof islands, and Cape New- 
enham and Cape Peirce) to the Aleutians, and south along the Pacific coast to 
southern California (to Santa Barbara Island, and on the mainland to San Luis 
Obispo County); and in Eurasia from the Chukotski Peninsula south to the Kurile 
Islands. Nonbreeding individuals occur in summer elsewhere in the Bering Sea 
(Nunivak and Pribilof islands). 

Winters in North America from the Pribilof and Aleutian islands south to central 
California (casually to San Diego County); and in Eurasia generally near the 
breeding grounds, casually to Sakhalin and Japan (Hokkaido). 

Notes.— See comments under C. grylle. 

[Cepphus carbo Pallas. Spectacled Guillemot.] See Appendix B. 
Tribe BRACHYRAMPHINI: Brachyramphine Murrelets 

Genus BRACHYRAMPHUS Brandt 

Brachyramphus M. Brandt, 1837, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg. 
2, no. 22, col. 346. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840). 
Colymbus marmoratus Gmelin. 

Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin). Marbled Murrelet. [23.] 

Colymbus marmoratus Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 583. Based on the 
"Marbled Guillemot" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2. p. 517, pi. 22, right fig. (in 
America occidentali et Camtschatca = Prince William Sound. Alaska.) 

Habitat.— Coniferous forests near coasts, nesting on large horizontal branches 
high up in trees, or on islands on open barren ground (breeding); mostly pelagic 
(nonbreeding). 



244 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Breeds in Alaska (Kenai Peninsula, Barren Islands), central Cal- 
ifornia (Santa Cruz County) and Siberia (Okhotsk); few nests known. Occurs in 
summer and probably breeds in North America from southern Alaska (the Aleu- 
tians, Alaska Peninsula and south-coastal region) south to central California, and 
in Asia from the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka and the Commander Islands south 
to Korea, Japan and the Kurile Islands. 

Winters offshore in North America from southern Alaska (casually the Aleutians 
and Pribilofs) south to central (casually southern) California; and in Eurasia from 
the summer range south regularly to Japan. 

Accidental in Indiana (Brown County) and Quebec (near Montreal). 

Brachyramphus brevirostris (Vigors). Kittlitz's Murrelet. [24.] 

Uria brevirostris Vigors, 1829, Zool. J., 4 (1828). p. 357. (San Bias [Mexico], 
error = North Pacific.) 

Habitat.— Coastal cliffs, and barren ground, rock ledges and talus above tim- 
berline in coastal mountains, generally near glaciers (breeding); mostly pelagic and 
along rocky seacoasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in Alaska in mountains, primarily coastal, from Port 
Hope south to the Aleutians and east to Glacier Bay. 

Winters generally offshore from the Aleutians east to Glacier Bay. 

Casual in northeastern Siberia and the Kurile Islands. Accidental in southern 
California (La Jolla, possibly not a natural vagrant). 

Tribe SYNTHLIBORAMPHINI: Synthliboramphine Murrelets 

Genus SYNTHLIBORAMPHUS Brandt 

SynthliboramphusM. Brandt, 1837, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg. 

2, no. 22, col. 347. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray. 1840). 

Alca antiqua Gmelin. 
Endomychura Oberholser, 1899, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 51. p. 

201. Type, by original designation, Brachyramphus hypoleucus Xantus de 

Vesey. 

Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus de Vesey). Xantus' Murrelet. 
[25.] 

Brachyramphus hypoleucus Xantus de Vesey, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, 11 (1859), p. 299. (Cape St. Lucas, Lower California = 14 
miles off the coast of Cape San Lucas, Baja California.) 

Habitat.— On islands on the ground, in crevices beneath large rocks, or under 
dense clumps of vegetation (breeding); mostly pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands off southern California (San Miguel, Anacapa 
and Santa Barbara, possibly other of the Channel Islands) and western Baja Cal- 
ifornia (Los Coronados, Todos Santos, San Benito, Natlvidad and Guadalupe). 

Winters primarily from central California (Monterey Bay) south to southern 
Baja California, casually farther north (recorded from the Farallon Islands. Oregon, 
Washington, and off Moresby Island, British Columbia). 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 245 

Notes.— Breeding populations on Guadalupe Island, presently known as S. h. 
scrippsi (Green and Arnold, 1 939), may represent a species distinct from S. hypo- 
leucus, as there is some evidence that both breed in the San Benito Islands and 
on Santa Barbara Island (with limited hybridization). S. hypoleucus and S. craveri 
appear to constitute a superspecies; the two are considered conspecific by some 
authors, but both apparently breed in the San Benito Islands with very little 
hybridization. These two species were formerly placed in the genus Endomychura. 

Synthliboramphus craveri (Salvadori). Craveri's Murrelet. [26.] 

Uria Craveri Salvadori, 1865, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Milano, 8, p. 387. (Golfo della California, Lat. 27°50'12" Long. 
1 10°10'45" = Raza Island, Gulf of California.) 

Habitat.— In rock crevices on islands (breeding); mostly pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds on most islands in the Gulf of California (north to Consag 
Rock), and probably north along the west coast of Baja California to Magdalena 
Bay and the San Benito Islands. 

Winters at sea in the Gulf of California and to the coast of Sonora (possibly 
farther south off western Mexico). Wanders after the breeding season north along 
the Pacific coast of Baja California and southern California to Monterey Bay. 

Accidental in Oregon (Lane County). 

Notes.— See comments under S. hypoleucus. 

Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gmelin). Ancient Murrelet. [21.] 

Alca antiqua Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 554. Based on the "Antient 
Auk" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 512. (in mari inter Camtschatcam, insulas 
Kuriles et Americam intermedio = Bering Sea.) 

Habitat.— Rocky seacoasts in crevices, under rocks, and occasionally in burrows 
in the ground (breeding); mostly pelagic, casually on large inland bodies of water 
(nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from southern Alaska (the 
Aleutian, Sanak and Kodiak islands) south to British Columbia (Queen Charlotte 
Islands), casually to northwestern Washington (Carroll Island); and in eastern Asia 
from the Commander Islands and Kamchatka south to Amurland. Sakhalin, the 
Kurile Islands, Korea and Dagelet Island. 

Winters primarily offshore in North America from the Pribilof and Aleutian 
islands south to central (rarely southern) California and (casually) northern Baja 
California (Ensenada); and in Asia from the Commander Islands south to Formosa 
and the Ryukyu Islands. 

Casual in the interior of western North America (in southern Yukon, and from 
southern British Columbia, Alberta, Idaho, Montana and southern Manitoba 
south to Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Nebraska) and in the upper Midwest and 
Great Lakes region (from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario and 
southern Quebec south to central Illinois and northern Ohio). Accidental in Lou- 
isiana (Lake Pontchartrain). 

Notes.— S. antiquus and the Japanese 5". wumizusume (Temminck, 1835) 
[Japanese or Temminck's Murrelet] constitute a superspecies. 



246 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Tribe AETHIINI: Auklets 

Genus PTYCHORAMPHUS Brandt 

Ptychoramphus M. Brandt. 183". Bull, Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg. 
2, no. 22. col. 347. Type, by monotypy. Uria aleiitica Pallas. 

Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas). Cassin's Auklet. [16.] 

Uria Aleiitica Pallas. 181 l.Zoogr.. Rosso-Asiat.. 2. p. 3~0. ( Russia ad Oceanum 
orientalem = North Pacific Ocean.) 

Habitat.— On islands in burrows in the ground (breeding): mostly pelagic, less 
frequently along rocky seacoasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally on coastal islands from southern Alaska (west to 
Buldir in the .Aleutians) south to southern Baja California (Asuncion. San Roque 
and Guadalupe islands). 

Winters along the Pacific coast from southern British Columbia (Vancouver 
Island), rarely from southeastern Alaska, south to southern Baja California. 

Casual inland in Washington and Oreeon. 



Genus CYCLORRHYNCHUS Kaup 

Cyclorrhynchus Kaup. 1829. Ski 77. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thierw.. p. 155. Type. 
by monotypy. Alca psittacula Pallas. 

Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas). Parakeet Auklet. [1~.] 

Alca psittacula Pallas. 1" 7 69. Spic. Zool. 1. fasc. 5. p. 13. pi. li: pi. v. figs. 4- 
6. (in man Kamtschatkam . . . et circa insulas partim versus Iaponiam 
partim versus Americam septentrionalem sparsas = Kamchatka, i 

Habitat.— Rocky seacoasts in cliff crevices, among boulders on beaches, and on 
rocky - slopes with dense vegetation (breeding); mostly pelagic, less common!}' in 
coastal regions (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western Alaska from the Diomede Islands. Fairway 
Rock. Sledge Island and Norton Sound south through the Bering Sea ! St. Lawrence. 
St. Matthew and the Pribilof islands) to the .Aleutians, and east to islands in Prince 
William Sound: and in eastern Siberia along the Gulf of .Anadyr and the in the 
Commander Islands. 

Winters off the Pacific coast of North .America from the Pribilof and Aleutian 
islands south, at least formerly, to southern California: and in Eurasia from the 
Bering Sea south to Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands and Japan. 

Casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kure. Midway) and northern Alaska (Point 
Barrow). Accidental in Sweden. 



Genus AETHIA Merrem 

Aethia Merrem. 1788. Vers. Grundr. Allg. Ges. Nat. Eintheil. Vogel. 1. Ten- 
tamen Nat. Syst. Avium, pp. ". 13. 20. Type, by monotypy. Alca cristatella 
Pallas. 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 247 

Aethia pusilla (Pallas). Least Auklet. [20.] 

Uria pusilla Pallas, 1811, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 373. (circa Camtschat- 
cam = Kamchatka.) 

Habitat.— Talus slopes and beach rock rubble, occasionally in small crevices 
in coastal cliffs (breeding); mostly pelagic, and at upwellings along rocky seacoasts 
and islands (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western Alaska from the Diomede Islands south through 
islands of the Bering Sea (including the Pribilofs) to the Aleutian, Shumagin and 
Semidi islands; and in eastern Siberia along the Chukotski Peninsula. 

Winters in the southern Bering Sea, at sea off the Aleutians, and from the coast 
of eastern Siberia south to Kamchatka, Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands and northern 
Japan. 

Casual north to northern Alaska (Point Barrow) and east to northern Mackenzie 
(Kittigazuit). Accidental in California (San Mateo County). 

Aethia pygmaea (Gmelin). Whiskered Auklet. [19.] 

Alca pygmaea Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 555. Based on the "Pygmy 
Auk" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 513. (circa insulam avium, inter Asiam 
septentrionalem et Americam = islands in the Bering Sea.) 

Habitat.— Crevices in talus slopes, among boulders along beaches, and on lava 
flows on high slopes (breeding); mostly pelagic, occurring off rocky seacoasts and 
islands (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in southwestern Alaska in the Aleutians (east at least to 
Unimak Pass and west to Buldir), possibly also in the Near Islands: and in eastern 
Siberia in the Commander and southern Kurile islands. 

Winters at sea off the Aleutians, and from the Commander Islands and Kam- 
chatka south to the Kurile Islands, casually to Japan. 

Casual north in the Bering Sea to St. Lawrence Island and Bristol Bay. 

Aethia cristatella (Pallas). Crested Auklet. [18.] 

Alca cristatella Pallas, 1769, Spic. Zool., 1, fasc. 5, p. 18, pi. iii; pi. v, figs. 
7-9. (Ultimarum versus Japoniam maxime incola et circa insulam Mat- 
mey = Hokkaido to Kamchatka.) 

Habitat.— Talus slopes and beach boulder rubble, occasionally in crevices in 
cliffs (breeding); mostly pelagic, occurring off rocky islands and seacoasts (non- 
breeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western Alaska on Bering Sea islands (from the Diomedes 
south, including King, St. Lawrence and St. Matthew, to the Pribilofs), and in the 
Aleutians east at least to the Shumagin and Semidi islands, but not in the Near 
Islands); and in eastern Siberia from the Chukotski Peninsula south to Sakhalin 
and the central Kurile Islands. Nonbreeding birds occur in summer north to 
northern Alaska (Wainwright and Barrow), and to the Wrangel and Herald islands, 
off northern Siberia. 

Winters in open waters of the Bering Sea and around the Aleutians, east to the 
vicinity of Kodiak; and in Asia south to Japan. 



248 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Accidental inland in Alaska (Nulato), in California (Marin County), and in the 
North Atlantic off the northeastern coast of Iceland. 

Tribe FRATERCULINI: Puffins 

Genus CERORHIXCA Bonaparte 

Cerorhinca Bonaparte. 1828, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 2. p. 427. Type, by 
monotypy. Cerorhinca occidentalis Bonaparte = Alca monocerata Pallas. 

Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas). Rhinoceros Auklet. [15.] 

Alca monocerata Pallas. 1811. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 362. (circa pro- 
montorium S. Eliae Americae et ad littora insulae Kadiak = Cape St. Elias, 
Alaska.) 

Habitat. — On wooded islands in ground burrows (breeding); mostly pelagic, less 
frequently along rocky seacoasts (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands along the Pacific coast of North America from 
south-coastal and southeastern Alaska (Barren. Middleton. St. Lazaria and 
Forrester islands) south to western Washington (Destruction Island, formerly 
Whidbey and Smith islands) and northern California (Castle Island in Del Norte 
County, and the Farallons); and in eastern Asia from southern Sakhalin and the 
southern Kurile Islands south to Korea and Japan. Nonbreeding birds occur in 
summer south casually to southern California (San Pedro). 

Winters off the Pacific coast of North America from southern British Columbia 
(casually from southern Alaska) south to Baja California (Santa Margarita Island): 
and in Asia in the southern part of the breeding range. 

Casual in the Aleutian and Commander islands. 

Notes.— Also known as Horn-billed Puffin. 

Genus FRATERCULA Brisson 

Fratercula Brisson. 1760, Ornithologie, 1 , p. 52; 6, p. 8 1 . Type, by tautonymy. 

Fratercula Brisson = Alca arctica Linnaeus. 
Lunda Pallas. 1811. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 363. Type, by subsequent 

designation (G. R. Gray. 1840), Alca cirrhata Pallas. 

Fratercula cirrhata (Pallas). Tufted Puffin. [12.] 

Alca cirrhata Pallas. 1769, Spic. Zool.. 1, fasc. 5. p. 7, pi. i: pi. v. figs. 1-3. 
(in Mari inter Kamtschatcam et Americam Archipelagumque Kurilum = 
Bering Sea.) 

Habitat. — Coastal slopes in ground burrows, sometimes under boulders and 
piles of rocks, occasionally under dense vegetation (breeding): primarily pelagic 
(nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds along the Pacific coast of North America from the Diomede 
Islands and Cape Thompson south through islands of the Bering Sea (including 
the Pribilofs) to the Aleutians, and east from Kodiak Island, the Alaska Peninsula 
and southeastern Alaska south to central California (to the Farallons, formerly to 
Anacapa Island); and in eastern Asia from the Kolyuchin Islands and East Cape 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 249 

south to Kamchatka, the Commander and Kurilc islands, Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin 
and northern Japan. 

Winters offshore from southern Alaska and Kamchatka south through the breed- 
ing range to central (rarely southern) California and southern Japan. 

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (Laysan) and Maine. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Lunda. 

Fratercula arctica (Linnaeus). Atlantic Puffin. [13.] 

Alca arctica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 130. (in Europae borealis 
oceano = northern Norway.) 

Habitat.— Rocky island slopes and seacoasts, usually in burrows, rarely in cliff 
crevices (breeding); primarily pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds in eastern North America from Labrador south in coastal 
areas to southeastern Quebec (Mingan, Anticosti, Bonaventure and Magdalen 
islands, and Gaspe Peninsula), Newfoundland, southwestern New Brunswick 
(Machias Seal Island) and eastern Maine (Seal Island and Matinicus Rock), also 
on Digges Island off northwestern Quebec; and in the Palearctic from Greenland, 
Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Spitsbergen, Bear Island and Novaya Zemlya south to 
the British Isles, northern Europe, southern Scandinavia and the coast of northern 
Russia. 

Winters in the North Atlantic off North America from Labrador south to Mas- 
sachusetts, casually to New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia; and in Eurasia from 
the breeding range south to the eastern Atlantic islands, northwestern Africa, the 
western Mediterranean region, and southern Europe. 

Accidental in Ohio (Toledo area), Ontario (Ottawa), southwestern Quebec (Lake 
St. Peter) and Vermont (Rutland). 

Notes.— Also known as Common Puffin and, in Old World literature, as the 
Puffin. F. arctica and F. corniculata constitute a superspecies. 

Fratercula corniculata (Naumann). Horned Puffin. [14.] 

Mormon corniculata Naumann, 1821, Isis von Oken, col. 782. (Kamchatka.) 

Habitat.— On rocky islands in cliff crevices and among boulders, rarely in ground 
burrows (breeding); mostly pelagic (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds on islands and along coasts of the Chukchi and Bering 
seas from the Diomede Islands and Cape Lisburne south to the Aleutian Islands, 
and along the Pacific coast of western North America from the Alaska Peninsula 
and south-coastal Alaska south to British Columbia (Queen Charlotte Islands, 
and probably elsewhere along the coast); and in Asia from northeastern Siberia 
(Kolyuchin Bay) south to the Commander Islands, Kamchatka, Sakhalin and the 
northern Kurile Islands. Nonbreeding birds occur in late spring and summer south 
along the Pacific coast of North America to southern California, and north in 
Siberia to Wrangel and Heard islands. 

Winters from the Bering Sea and Aleutians south, at least casually, to the western 
Hawaiian Islands (Kure east to Laysan), and off North America to southern Cal- 
ifornia; and in Asia from northeastern Siberia south to Japan. 

Accidental in Mackenzie (Basil Bay) and inland in Washington (Coolee City). 

Notes.— See comments under F. arctica. 



_ 5 I CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Order COLUMBIFORMES: Sandgrouse. Pigeons and Doves 

Notes.— Various tax a within this order have sometimes been included within 
the Charadriiformes. 

Suborder PTEROCLETES: Sandgrouse 
Family PTEROCLIDIDAE: Sandgrouse 

Genus PTEROCLES Temmmck 

Pterocles Temminck. 1815, Pig. Gall.. 3. pp. 238. "12. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray, 1840). Tetraoalchaial.iima.zui. 

Pterocles exustus Temmmck. Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse. [311.1.] 

P-.ercoles exu.r.:,s Temmmck. 1S25. Planches Color., livr. 60. pis. 354. 360. 
(west coast of Africa. Egypt and Nubia = Senegal 

Habitat. — Deserts and arid scrub, in the Hawaiian Islands in dry keawe scrub 
forest and rock;, grasslands at low and moderate elevations. 

Distribution.— Rer.deni across northern Africa (south of the Sahara) from Sen- 
egal east to Somalia and Kenya, and from Arabia and Syria east to Baluchistan 
and India. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (North Kona district of 
Hawaii, since 1961). 

Suborder COLUMBAE: Pigeons and Doves 

Family COLUMBIDAE: Pigeons and Doves 

Genus COLUMBA Linnaeus 

Columba Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 162. Type, by subsequent 

designation (Vigors, 1 S25 i. Columba oenas Linnaeus. 
PT.zr.ziKJLi Reichenbach. 1S53. Avium Syst. Nat. H852). p. xxv. Type, by 

monotypy. Columba leucocephala Linnaeus. 
Lithoenas Reichenbach. 1853. Avium Syst. Nat. (1852). p. xxv. Type, by 

monotypy. Columba livia "Linnaeus" = Gmelin. 
Chloroenas Reichenbach. 1853. Avium Syst. Nat. f 1852 1. p. xxv. Type, by 

monotypy. Columba monilis Vigors = Columba fascial a Say. 
(Enoenas [subgenus] Salvador! 1893. Cat. Birds Br. Mus.. 21, p. 248. Type, 

by subsequent designation (Ridgway. 1916). Columba nigrirostris Sclater. 

Notes. — For modern usage of Patagioenas and Oenoenasas genera distinct from 
Columba. see Johnston. 1962. Condor. 64 ? pp. 69-74; for contrary opinion, see 
Corbin. 1 9 6 S . Condor. "0. pp. 1-13. 

Columba livia Gmelm. Rock Do\~e. [313.1.] 

Columba domestica 8 livia Gmelin. 1 "89. Syst. Nat.. 1 (2). p. "69. (No locality 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 25 1 

Habitat.— In the wild state along rocky seacoasts or inland in gorges, river 
valleys, caves and desert oases, nesting on clifTledges or in holes and fissures; feral 
birds in the Western Hemisphere occasionally in natural habitats, more abun- 
dantly near human settlement, especially in cities, nesting on building ledges, 
bridge structures, monuments, and in abandoned houses and barns. 

Distribution.— Resident from the Faroe Islands, southern Scandinavia, Russia, 
western Siberia, Manchuria and northern China south through the British Isles, 
western Europe and the Mediterranean region to Madeira, the Canary Islands, 
Azores, Sahara region, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, Ceylon and Burma. 

Introduced and established in most inhabited portions of the world, especially 
around larger cities, including virtually all of the Western Hemisphere, West Indies 
and Hawaiian Islands. 

Notes.— Also known as Rock Pigeon; established, feral populations are some- 
times called Feral or Common Pigeon. 

Columba cayennensis Bonnaterre. Pale-vented Pigeon. 

Columba cayennensis Bonnaterre, 1792, Tabl. Encycl. Meth., Ornithol., 1, 
livr. 51, p. 234. Based on "Le Pigeon Ramier de Cayenne" Holandre. 
Abrege Hist. Nat., 2, p. 214. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Savanna, open woodland and mangrove swamps, both in humid and 
semi-arid situations (Tropical Zone, in South America to Temperate Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Veracruz, Tabasco, the Yucatan Peninsula and 
eastern Chiapas south in the Gulf-Caribbean lowlands of Middle America to 
Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and in South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of 
the Andes to southwestern Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, southern 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Notes.— Also known as Rufous Pigeon. 

Columba speciosa Gmelin. Scaled Pigeon. 

Columba speciosa Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 783. Based primarily 
on "Pigeon ramier, de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 213. (in 
Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest edge, open woodland and forest clearings, foraging 
occasionally in open areas near forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Veracruz and Oaxaca south on the Gulf-Caribbean 
slope of Middle America to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica (absent from 
dry northwest) and Panama, and in South America from Colombia. Venezuela 
(also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and 
east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina and southeastern 
Brazil. 

Columba squamosa Bonnaterre. Scaly-naped Pigeon. [314.1.] 

Columba squamosa Bonnaterre, 1792, Tabl. Encycl. Meth.. Ornithol.. 1. livr. 
51, p. 234. Based on "Le Pigeon Ramier de la Guadeloupe" Holandre. 
Abrege Hist. Nat., 2, p. 214. (Guadeloupe.) 



252 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Humid forest and woodland, occasionally in drier areas. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Greater Antilles (rare on Jamaica), Lesser Antilles 
(not recorded Anguilla, St. Barthelemy or Desirade), and islands off the north 
coast of Venezuela (Curacao. Bonaire, Los Testigos and Los Frailes. formerly also 
Aruba). 

Casual in southern Florida (Key West). 

Notes.— Also known as Red-necked Pigeon. 

Columba leucocephala Linnaeus. White-crowned Pigeon. [314.] 

Columba leucocephala Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 164. Based 
mainly on "The White-crown'd Pigeon" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina. 1 , 
p. 25, pi. 25. (in America septentrionali = Bahama Islands.) 

Habitat.— Mangroves (breeding), foraging in open forest, woodland and scrub. 

Distribution.— Breeds in southern Florida (mangrove islets in the Florida Keys 
from Elliott to Marquesas keys, and throughout Florida Bay), the Bahamas, An- 
tilles (south to Barbuda and Antigua), Cayman Islands, and islands of the western 
Caribbean Sea (Cozumel off Quintana Roo. cays off Belize, the Bay and Hog 
islands off Honduras, Providencia and Corn islands, and possibly on Swan Cay, 
Veraguas, Panama). Nonbreeding individuals occur in summer in southern pen- 
insular Florida (southern Dade and Monroe counties). 

Winters throughout most of the breeding range, regularly in southern peninsular 
Florida, the Florida Keys and northern Bahamas, ranging in Middle America to 
coastal areas (recorded Quintana Roo, Belize, Honduras and western Panama), 
and in the Lesser Antilles south to St. Lucia. 

Casual on the mainland of southern Florida (north to Fort Pierce region); a 
report from Oaxaca (Salina Cruz) is questionable. 

Columba flavirostris Wagler. Red-billed Pigeon. [313.] 

Columba flavirostris Wagler. 1831, Isis von Oken. col. 519. (Mexico = Ve- 
racruz.) 

Habitat.— Most frequently in semi-arid or arid woodland near water, less com- 
monly in more humid regions (usually at higher elevations), foraging in open 
pastureland and areas with scattered trees (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, Durango, San Luis Potosi, Nue- 
vo Leon and southern Texas (lower and middle Rio Grande Valley) south mostly 
in the lowlands (less commonly in interior regions below 4000 feet) through Middle 
America (including the Tres Marias Islands, but absent or rare on most of the 
Caribbean slope from Guatemala southward) to central Costa Rica. 

Notes.— C. flavirostris and C. inornata appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Columba inornata Vigors. Plain Pigeon. 

Columba inornata Vigors, 1827, Zool. J., 3, p. 446. (near Havana, Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Primarily woodland, including pine and rain forests, and open areas 
with scattered trees, foraging also in cultivated areas. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Greater Antilles (including Tortue Island off His- 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 253 

paniola, but now rare and surviving in reduced numbers everywhere except on 
Hispaniola, where locally common). 
Notes.— See comments under C. jlavirostris. 

Columba fasciata Say. Band-tailed Pigeon. [312.] 

Columba fasciata Say, 1823, in Long, Exped. Rocky Mount., 2, p. 10 (note), 
(small tributary of the Platte = Plum Creek, near Castle Rock, Douglas 
County, Colorado.) 

Habitat.— Temperate and mountain forests, primarily in oaks, less commonly 
in coniferous forest, and locally in lowlands, foraging also in cultivated areas 
(Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.- Breeds [fasciata group] from southwestern British Columbia (in- 
cluding Vancouver Island) south through the mountains of Washington, Oregon, 
California and extreme western Nevada to southern Baja California; from southern 
Nevada, Arizona, central Utah, north-central Colorado, New Mexico and western 
Texas south through the mountains of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Hon- 
duras to (at least formerly) north-central Nicaragua. Regular in summer (and 
probably breeding) north to southeastern Alaska (south of Thomas Bay) and west- 
central British Columbia. 

Winters [fasciata group] from central California, central Arizona, central New 
Mexico (rarely) and western Texas southward through the breeding range, occur- 
ring widely in Mexico in foothills at lower elevations than in the breeding season, 
rarely north to southwestern British Columbia, west to islands off the coast of 
California, and east to Nevada. 

Resident [albilinea group] in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama 
(east to eastern Veraguas); and in South America in the mountains from Venezuela 
(also Trinidad) and Colombia south to Peru, Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. 

Casual [fasciata group] in western and northern Alaska (near Nome, upper 
Ikpikpuk River), and from central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, Idaho, Mon- 
tana and North Dakota south to Wyoming, western Kansas, Oklahoma and west- 
ern Texas; many reports exist for eastern North America (from Minnesota, Mich- 
igan, southern Ontario, New Hampshire, New Brunswick, Maine and Nova Scotia 
south to Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida), but these may pertain 
largely or entirely to individuals escaped from captivity. 

Notes.— The two groups have sometimes been considered as distinct species, 
C. fasciata and C. albilinea Bonaparte, 1854 [White-naped Pigeon]. C. fasciata, 
C. caribaea and the South American C araucana Lesson, 1827, may constitute 
a superspecies. 

Columba caribaea Jacquin. Ring-tailed Pigeon. 

Columba {caribcea) Jacquin, 1 784, Beytr. Ges. Vogel, p. 30. Based on "Pigeon 
a queue annelee de la Jamaique"' Brisson, Ornithologie, 1, p. 138. (Kari- 
baische Inseln = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Forested mountains and hills. 
Distribution.— Resident on Jamaica. 
Notes.— See comments under C. fasciata. 



254 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Columba subvinacea (Lawrence). Ruddy Pigeon. 

Chloroenas subvinacea Lawrence. 1868. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9. p. 135. 
(Dota, Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Humid forests, in mountains (Costa Rica and western Panama) or 
primarily in lowlands (eastern Panama and South America), occurring both in 
dense forest and along forest edge (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama 
(east to Veraguas); and from eastern Panama (eastern Panama province. San Bias 
and eastern Darien), Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, west of the 
Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to east-central Bolivia and 
Amazonian Brazil. 

Notes.— It has been suggested by Wetmore (1968. Smithson. Misc. Coll.. 150 
(2), pp. 17-18) that the small lowland race in eastern Panama. C. 5. berlepschi 
Hartert. 1898. may represent a distinct species. 

Columba nigrirostris Sclater. Short-billed Pigeon. 

Columba nigrirostris Sclater. 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 390. (In statu 
Oaxaca reipubl. Mexicans = Oaxaca.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, primarily dense forest but foraging 
in clearings and second growth (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Veracruz, eastern Oaxaca, Tabasco, east- 
ern Chiapas and Quintana Roo south on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Central 
America to Costa Rica (including southwestern portion on the Pacific slope). 
Panama (both slopes) and northwestern Colombia (Choco). 

Notes.— The specimen described as C. chiriquensis (Ridgway. 1915) pertains to 
C. nigrirostris (see Wetmore. 1968. Smithson. Misc. Collect.. 150 (2). p. 15). C. 
nigrirostris and C. goodsoni appear to constitute a superspecies. 

[Columba goodsoni Hartert. Dusky Pigeon.] See Appendix A. 

Genus STREPTOPELIA Bonaparte 

Streptopelia Bonaparte, 1855, C. R. Acad. Sci. iris, 40. p. 17. Type, by 
subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Columba risoria Linnaeus. 

Streptopelia risoria (Linnaeus). Rjnged Turtle-Dove. [315.2.] 

Columba risoria Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 165. (in India.) 

Habitat.— Feral populations occur in open woodland and parks around human 
habitation: related species in the wild state inhabit arid country with trees and 
shrubs, often near human habitation. 

Distribution.— Origin and native country uncertain: long domesticated and 
worldwide in captivity. 

Introduced and established in southern California (Los Angeles region), west- 
central Florida (Pinellas County), the Bahamas (New Providence), Puerto Rico, 
and apparently also in eastern Texas (Houston region). 

Notes.— Also known as Barbary Dove. The use of the name S. risoria is 
tentative; the domestic stock, from which the introductions were made, may have 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 255 

been derived from either 5. roseogrisea (Sundevall, 1857) of Africa or S. decaocto 
(Frivaldszky. 1838) of Eurasia, these two forms considered conspecific by some 
authors. For the present, it seems best to retain the usage of 5. risoria. 

Streptopelia chinensis (Scopoli). Spotted Dove. [315.1.] 

Columba (chinensis) Scopoli, 1786. Del Flor. Faun. Insubr.. fasc. 2, p. 94. 
(China = Canton.) 

Habitat.— Woodland, forest edge, agricultural country' with trees, and especially 
in suburban residential areas and cultivated lands around human habitation. 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Afghanistan, the Himalayas and eastern 
China south to Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula. East Indies and Philippines. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (main islands from Kauai 
eastward); in southern California (primarily from Santa Barbara and Bakersfield 
south to San Diego and the Salton Sea) and extreme northwestern Baja California 
(Tijuana area): and in Mauritius. Celebes. Australia. New Zealand, and various 
islands of Polynesia. A small population still persists on St. Croix, in the Virgin 
Islands (introduced in 1964). 

Genus GEOPELIA Swainson 

Geopelia Swainson. 1837, Class. Birds. 2. p. 348. Type, by monotypy. Geo- 
pelia lineata Mus. Carl. pi. 67 = Columba striata Linnaeus. 

Geopelia striata (Linnaeus). Zebra Dove. [315.3.] 

Columba striata Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 282. Based on "La 
Tourterelle rayee des Indes" Brisson. Ornithologie. 1. p. 109. and "The 
Transverse Striped or Bared Dove" Edwards. 1. p. 16. pi. 16. (in India 
orientali = Java.) 

Habitat.— Open country with trees and shrubby growth, parks, gardens and 
cultivated areas, especially near human habitation. 

Distribution.— Re sident from the Malay Peninsula and Philippines south to the 
East Indies (east to Tanimbar and the Kei Islands). 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1922. now on all main 
islands from Kauai eastward). 

Notes.— Also known as Barred Dove. Often considered conspecific with the 
Australian G. placida Gould. 1844 [Peaceful Dove], but now regarded as spe- 
cifically distinct. 

Genus ZENAIDA Bonaparte 

Zenaida Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List. p. 41. Type, by tautonymy. 
Zenaida amabilis Bonaparte = Columba zenaida Bonaparte = Columba 
aurita Temminck. 

Zenaidura Bonaparte, 1 855, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 40. p. 96. Type, by original 
designation, Columba carolinensis Linnaeus = Columba macroura Lin- 
naeus. 

Melopelia Bonaparte. 1855. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 40. p. 98. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855). Columba meloda Tschudi = Co- 
lumba asiatica Linnaeus. 



256 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus). White-winged Dove. [319.] 

Columba asiatica Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 163. Based on 
"The Brown Indian Dove" Edwards. Nat. Hist. Birds. 2. p. 76, pi. 76. fin 

Indiis = Jamaica.) 

Habitat. — Generally arid regions with scrubby thickets or riverine forest, open 
cultivated lands with scattered trees, and mangroves (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southeastern California, southern Nevada, central 
Arizona, central New Mexico, northern Chihuahua and southwestern Texas south 
to southern Baja California, through most of Middle America (including Isla 
Tiburon offSonora. and Cozumel and Cancun islands offQuintana Roo) to Hon- 
duras, and locally in the Pacific lowlands to western Panama (Herrera and south- 
western Code, breeding presumed): in the Bahamas (Great Inagua. Caicos and 
Turks islands) and Greater Antilles (east to Puerto Rico, and Mona and Vieques 
islands): on islands of the western Caribbean Sea (Providencia and San Andres): 
and along the western coast of South Amenca from southwestern Ecuador south 
to northern Chile. 

I»7/2re/'5 generally in the breeding range, but northern birds are mostly migratory 
( individuals from the western United States have been recovered south to Costa 
Rica), casually ranging north to northern California (Humboldt County; and Col- 
orado, and occurring regularly along the Gulf coast east to Florida: West Indian. 
Middle American and South American breeding populations are mostly sedentary, 
although stragglers have been recorded from the northern Bahamas (Grand Ba- 
hama. Acklm's Island), and in the Virgin Islands (St. Croix). 

In migration occurs rarely but regularly (in fall) in southeastern Alaska. 

Introduced and established in southern Florida. 

Casual in the Pacific Northwest (north to southwestern British Columbia, also 
a sight report for Montana), in northeastern North Amenca (from northern On- 
tario. New Brunswick. Maine and Nova Scotia south to New York. Connecticut 
and Massachusetts) and along the Atlantic coast (in the Carolinas). 

Zenaida aurita (Temmmck). Zenaida Dove. [317.] 

Columba Aurita Temmmck. 1810. in Knip. Les Pigeons. Les Colombes. p. 
60. pi. 25. (Martinique.) 

Habitat. — Open woodland, second growth, scrub, cultivated lands and. locally. 
around human habitation (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution. — Resident m the Bahamas. Greater Antilles (also the Cayman 
Islands). Lesser Antilles (south to Grenada), and formerly in the Florida Keys 
(reportedly common in Audubon's day a century ago. nesting on islands near 
Indian Key): also along the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula (in the state of Yucatan 
and Quintana Roo). and on Holbox. Cancun and Mujeres islands. A specimen 
from Belize and reports from Cozumel Island are of dubious authenticity. 

Casual in southern Florida (Key West, also sight reports north to Osceola Coun- 
ty). 

Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs). Eared Dove. 

Peristera auriculata Des Murs. 1847. in Gay. Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile. Zool.. 1. 
p. 381. pi. 6. (central provinces of Chile.) 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 257 

Habitat.— Arid or semi-arid country, usually with some trees or bushes, open 
woodland and areas of cultivation (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the southern Lesser Antilles (Grenada and the Gren- 
adines), and throughout most of South America from Colombia. Venezuela (in- 
cluding islands from the Netherlands Antilles east to Tobago and Trinidad) and 
the Guianas south to Tierra del Fuego. 

Casual on Barbados, St. Lucia and Martinique: accidental in the Falkland Is- 
lands. An individual photographed in Panama (Coco Solo. Canal Zone) may have 
been an escape from captivity. 

Notes.— Z. auriculata and Z. macroura constitute a superspecies. 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus). Mourning Dove. [316.] 

Columba macroura Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, l.p. 164. Based mainly 
on "The Long-tailed Dove" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds. 1, p. 15, pi. 15. (in 
Canada, error = Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, cultivated lands with scattered trees and bushes, 
arid and desert country (generally near water) and second growth (Tropical to 
Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern British Columbia, central Alberta, south- 
central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, northern Wis- 
consin, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec. Maine, 
southern New Brunswick. Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south to southern 
Baja California, Sonora (in Pacific lowlands), in the interior mountains and Central 
Plateau of Mexico to Oaxaca and Puebla. and to northern Tamaulipas (in the 
Caribbean lowlands), Texas, the Gulf coast and southern Florida; in the Bahamas 
and Greater Antilles (east to Puerto Rico, and Culebra and Vieques islands): in 
the Revillagigedo (Clarion and Socorro) and Tres Marias islands off western Mex- 
ico; and in Costa Rica and Panama (east to western Panama province), probably 
also elsewhere in northern Middle America. Occurs casually in summer (and 
possibly breeding) in southeastern Alaska. 

Winters primarily from northern California east across the central United States 
to Iowa, southern Michigan, southern Ontario. New York and New England 
(uncommonly to the northern limits of the breeding range), and south throughout 
the breeding range and over most of Middle America to central Panama. 

Casual north to western and central Alaska, southern Yukon, southern Mac- 
kenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, central Quebec. Labrador and New- 
foundland. Accidental in Greenland and Colombia. 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (on Hawaii in 1963. pres- 
ently a small population in the North Kona region). 

Notes. — See comments under Z. auriculata and Z. graysoni. 

Zenaida graysoni (Lawrence). Socorro Dove. 

Zenaidura graysoni (Baird MS) Lawrence. 1871. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.V.. 
10. p. 17. (Socorro Island, Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland and scrub. 

Distribution.— EXTINCT in the wild. Formerly resident on Socorro Island, in 
the Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico; several recent searches (April 1978. 
April 1981) found only Z. macroura (a new invader to Socorro) and confirm the 



258 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

extirpation in the wild of Z. graysoni, although there are still living birds in 

captivity at this time. 

Notes.— The taxonomic status of this form is in doubt. Although considered 
by many authors as conspecific with Z. macrowa, differences in morphology, 
vocalizations and behavior support the maintenance of specific status for Z. gray- 
soni. 

Genus ECTOPISTES Swainson 

Ectopistes Swainson. 1827, Zool. J.. 3. p. 362. Type, by subsequent desig- 
nation (Swainson. 1837). Columba migratorialAnnaeus. 

^Ectopistes migratorius (Linnaeus). Passenger Pigeon. [315.] 

Columba migratoria Linnaeus. 1766. Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 285. Based 
mainly on "The Pigeon of Passage"" Catesby. Nat. Hist. Carolina. 1. p. 23, 
pi. 23. (in America septentrionali = South Carolina.) 

Habitat. — Forest, foraging in open country and cultivated lands adjacent to 
forest. 

Distribution. — EXTINCT. Bred formerly from central Montana, east-central 
Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba. Minnesota. Wisconsin. Michigan. Ontario. 
southern Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to eastern Kansas. 
Oklahoma. Mississippi and Georgia. 

Wintered from Arkansas, southeastern Missouri. Tennessee and North Carolina 
south to Texas, the Gulf coast and northern Florida, occasionally north to Indiana, 
southern Pennsylvania and Connecticut. 

Casual or accidental to Nevada. Idaho. Wyoming. British Columbia. Mackenzie. 
Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba. Baffin Bay. northern Quebec. 
Labrador. Prince Edward Island. Bermuda. Cuba (Havana market) and Mexico 
(recorded Puebla. Veracruz. Distrito Federal and Tabasco): also in Scotland. Ire- 
land and France, although the European individuals may have been escapes from 
captivity. Last specimen obtained in the wild taken at Sargento. Pike County. 
Ohio, on 24 March 1900: last living individual died in captivity in the Cincinnati 
Zoological Gardens. Cincinnati. Ohio, on 1 September 1914. 

Genus COLUMBINA Spix 

Columbina Spix. 1825. Avium Spec. Nov. Bras.. 2. p. 57. Type, by subsequent 

designation (G. R. Gray. 1841). Columbina strepitans Spix = Columba 

picui Temminck. 
Columbigallina Boie. 1826. Isis von Oken. col. 977. Type, by monotypy. 

Columba passerina Linnaeus. 
Scardafella Bonaparte, 1855. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 40. p. 24. Type, by 

original designation. Columba squamosa Temminck (not Bonnaterre) = 

Columba squammata Lesson. 

Columbina inca (Lesson). Inca Dove. [321.] 

Chamwpelia inca Lesson. 1847. Descr. Mamm. Ois.. p. 211. (Mexico [prob- 
ably west coast].) 

Habitat. — Open country with scattered trees or scrubby growth, most frequently 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 259 

in arid or semi-arid situations, and around cultivated areas, farmlands, parks and 
gardens (Tropical, less frequently Subtropical /ones). 

Distribution.— Resident from extreme southeastern California (Parker Dam 
area), central Arizona, southern New Mexico and central Texas south through 
Mexico (except the Yucatan Peninsula), Guatemala (rare in Peten and Caribbean 
lowlands), Honduras (Pacific lowlands and arid interior valleys) and Nicaragua 
(highlands and Pacific lowlands) to northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste and 
highlands to vicinity of San Jose); and, at least formerly, in the Florida Keys (Key 
West), where now apparently extirpated. 

Wanders casually to southern California, southern Nevada, Kansas, Oklahoma, 
Arkansas and Louisiana. The origin of some of the vagrants and of the Key West 
breeding populations may have been individuals escaped from captivity. 

Notes.— Often placed in the genus Scardafella. Some authors consider C. inca 
and the South American C. squammata (Lesson, 1831) [Scaled Dove] to be 
conspecific; they constitute a superspecies. 

Columbina passerina (Linnaeus). Common Ground-Dove. [320.] 

Columba passerina Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, l,p. 165. Based mainly 
on "The Ground Dove" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 26, pi. 26. (in 
America inter tropicos = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Open country with trees and bushes, sandy reefs, open sandy areas 
in forest and savanna, cultivated lands, and around human habitation in villages 
and towns (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern California (north to Orange County), 
central Arizona, southern New Mexico, central Texas, the Gulf coast. South Car- 
olina, Bermuda and the Bahamas south through Mexico (including Socorro Island 
in the Revillagigedos, the Tres Marias and Tres Marietas islands off western 
Mexico, and islands off the Yucatan Peninsula, but rare in the central highlands), 
the Antilles and Central America (mostly in the highlands and arid interior, but 
also in the Caribbean lowland savanna, and in the Bay Islands off Honduras) to 
central Costa Rica (Guanacaste and the arid central highlands); in western Panama 
(Azuero Peninsula region); and in northern South America from Colombia, Ven- 
ezuela (including islands from the Netherlands Antilles east to Trinidad) and the 
Guianas south to Ecuador and eastern Brazil. 

Wanders casually north to northern California, southern Nevada, Wyoming. 
Kansas, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, southern Ontario, Pennsylvania and New York. 

Notes.— Also known as Scaly-breasted Ground-Dove. 

Columbina minuta (Linnaeus). Plain-breasted Ground-Dove. 

Columba minuta Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 285. Based on "La 
petite Tourterelle brun d'Amerique" Brisson, Ornithologie. 1. p. 116. pi. 
8, fig. 2. (in America = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Savanna (including pine savanna), open country with scattered trees, 
second-growth woodland and cultivated areas (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle America in 
Veracruz, northern Oaxaca. Tabasco, Chiapas, Campeche, Belize. Guatemala, 
and, locally, northeastern Nicaragua (probably also in eastern Honduras) and 
extreme northeastern Costa Rica; along the Pacific coast of Middle America locally 



260 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

from central Oaxaca south to Costa Rica (not recorded Honduras or Pacific low- 
lands of Nicaragua, but present in the central highlands of Nicaragua) and Panama 
(east to eastern Panama province, also recorded on Caribbean slope in Canal 
Zone); and disjunctly in South America in northern Colombia, Venezuela (also 
Trinidad), the Guianas, both slopes of Peru, eastern and central Brazil, east-central 
Bolivia and northern Paraguay. 

Columbina talpacoti (Temminck). Ruddy Ground-Dove. [320.1.] 

Columba talpacoti Temminck, 1811, in Knip, Les Pigeons, Les Colombi- 
gallines, p. 22. (l'Amerique meridionale = Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Open second growth, cultivated lands, savanna, scrubby areas, and 
around human habitation (Tropical, less frequently Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sinaloa, eastern San Luis Potosi and 
Tamaulipas south through Middle America (including Cozumel and Cancun is- 
lands off Quintana Roo, and Coiba and Pearl islands off Panama), and in South 
America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Margarita Island, Tobago and Trinidad) 
and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of the 
Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina and northern Uruguay. 

Casual in southern Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley north to San Patricio Coun- 
ty) and Chile. 

Notes.— South American populations in western Ecuador and northwestern 
Peru have sometimes been treated as a separate species, C. buckleyi (Sclater and 
Salvin, 1877). 

Genus CLARA VIS Oberholser 

Peristera (not Rafinesque, 1815) Swainson, 1827, Zool. J., 3, p. 360. Type, 
by original designation, Columba cinerea Temminck = Peristera pretiosa 
Ferrari-Perez. 

Claravis Oberholser, 1899, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 51, p. 203. 
New name for Peristera Swainson, preoccupied. 

Claravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Perez). Blue Ground-Dove. 

Columba cinerea (not Scopoli, 1786) Temminck, 1811, in Knip, Les Pigeons, 

Les Colombes, p. 126, pi. 58. (au Bresil = Brazil.) 
Peristera pretiosa Ferrari-Perez, 1886, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 9, p. 175. New 

name for Columba cinerea Temminck, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Forest edge, second-growth woodland and forest clearings, generally 
in humid lowlands and foothills (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Chiapas on the Pacific slope, and from eastern 
San Luis Potosi and southern Tamaulipas on the Gulf-Caribbean slope south 
through Middle America, and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also 
Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to central Peru and east of 
the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina, Paraguay and southeastern 
Brazil. 

A sight report from southern Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley) is unverified. 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 261 

Claravis mondetoura (Bonaparte). Maroon-chested Ground-Dove. 

Peristera mondetoura Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 765. 
(Caracas, Venezuela.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, especially with heavy undergrowth or bam- 
boo (Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in the mountains of Middle America in Vera- 
cruz, Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica and western Pan- 
ama (Chiriqui); and in the Andes of South America from Colombia and north- 
western Venezuela south to Peru and western Bolivia. 

Notes.— C. mondetoura and C. godefrida (Temminck, 1811), of eastern South 
America, constitute a superspecies; some authors regard them as conspecific. 

Genus LEPTOTILA Swainson 

Leptotila Swainson, 1837, Class. Birds, 2, p. 349. Type, by monotypy. 
P[eristerd\. rufaxilla Nat. Lib. v. pi. 24 = Columba jamaicensis Linnaeus. 

Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte. White-tipped Dove. [318.] 

Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 40, p. 99. (de la 
Nouvelle-Grenade = Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, forest edge, second growth, clearings and, less fre- 
quently, cultivated areas around human habitation, primarily in arid or semi-arid 
regions (Tropical to lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, southwestern Chihuahua, west- 
ern Durango, Nayarit (including the Tres Marias Islands), Jalisco, San Luis Potosi. 
Nuevo Leon and southern Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley) south through Middle 
America (including the Pearl Islands and many other small islands off Panama), 
and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Netherlands Antilles east 
to Tobago and Trinidad) and the Guianas south to Peru, eastern Bolivia, central 
Argentina and Uruguay. 

Notes.— Also known as White-fronted Dove. Includes the South America L. 
brasiliensis (Bonaparte, 1856), regarded by some as a separate species. L. verreauxi 
and the South American L. megalura Sclater and Salvin, 1879, appear to constitute 
a superspecies. 

Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard and Bernard). Gray-fronted Dove. 

Columba Rufaxilla Richard and Bernard, 1792, Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1, p. 118. "(Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, occurring in forest edge, clearings, 
heavy undergrowth, and occasionally open situations adjacent to forest, in South 
America frequently also in open woodland, and on Grenada commonly in arid 
scrub (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [plumbeiceps group] from southern Tamaulipas. eastern 
San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, the state of Mexico, Puebla and northern Oaxaca south 
on the Gulf-Caribbean slope (except the state of Yucatan) through Belize, northern 
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua (also Pacific slope in southwest) and Costa Rica 



262 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

(both slopes) to northwestern Panama (Bocas del Toro). and in the Western Andes 
and Cauca Valley of Colombia: [battyi group] on the Pacific slope of western 
Panama (southern Veraguas and western Herrera). and on Cebaco and Coiba 
islands: [wellsi group] on Grenada (where surviving in small numbers), formerly 
also on offshore islands (Glover's and Green), possibly also on Tobago but not 
known from St. Vincent, although sometimes listed for that island: and [ruf axilla 
group] in South America from eastern Colombia. Venezuela and the Guianas 
south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, central Bolivia. Paraguay, northeastern 
Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Notes.— Three groups in this species are often considered distinct species, L. 
plumbeiceps Sclater and Salvin, 1868 [Gray-headed Dove], which includes battyi, 
L. wellsi (Lawrence. 1884) [Grenada Dove], and L. rufaxilla [Gray-fronted 
Dove]; Wetmore (1968. Smithson. Misc. Collect.. 150 (2), pp. 42^4) would also 
recognize L. battyi Rothschild. 1901 [Brown-backed Dove], as a distinct species. 
See also comments under L. jamaicensis. 

Leptotila jamaicensis (Linnaeus). Caribbean Dove. 

Columba jamaicensis Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1. p. 283. Based on 
Columba minor ventre candido Sloane. Voy. Jamaica. 2, p. 303, pi. 262, 
fig. 1. and "Le Pigeon de la Jamai'que'" Brisson. Ornithologie. 1. p. 134. 

(in Jamaica.) 

Habitat. — Open situations with shrubs or scattered trees, and arid woodland. 

Distribution.— Resident on Jamaica, Grand Cayman, the Yucatan Peninsula 
(including Holbox. Mujeres. Cancun and Cozumel islands), islands off Caribbean 
Honduras (Barbareta in the Bay Islands, and Little Hog Island), and Isla San 
Andres in the western Caribbean Sea. 

Introduced and established in the Bahamas (New Providence). 

Notes.— Also known as White-bellied Dove. L. jamaicensis and L. rufaxilla 
appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Leptotila cassinii Lawrence. Gray-chested Dove. 

Leptotila cassinii Lawrence. 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 19. p. 
94. (Line of the Panama Railroad, New Granada = Atlantic slope, Canal 
Zone.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland forest, second-growth woodland, forest edge, thickets 
and. locally, shady pastures and gardens (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from Tabasco and north- 
ern Chiapas south through Belize, northern Guatemala. Honduras and Nicaragua, 
and on both slopes from Costa Rica through Panama to northern Colombia. 

Notes.— Also known as Cassins Dove. 

Genus GEOTRYGON Gosse 

Geotrygon Gosse, 1 847. Birds Jamaica, p. 3 1 6 (footnote). Type, by subsequent 
designation (Reichenbach. 1853). Columba cristata Latham [=Gmelin. not 
Temminck] = Geotrygon syhatica Gosse = Columbigallina versicolor Laf- 
resnaye. 

Oreopeleia Reichenbach. 1853. Avium Syst. Nat. (1852), p. xxv. Type, by 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 263 

original designation, "Columba martinicana" Brisson = Columba martin- 
ica Linnaeus. 

Notes.— See comments under Starnoenas. 

Geotrygon veraguensis Lawrence. Olive-backed Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon veraguensis Lawrence, 1867, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 349. 
(Veragua [Panama].) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland forest and adjacent second-growth woodland (Trop- 
ical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica and Panama 
(also on Pacific slope in eastern Panama province), and in western Colombia and 
northwestern Ecuador. 

Notes.— Also known as Veraguas Quail- Dove. 

Geotrygon chrysia Bonaparte. Key West Quail-Dove. [322.] 

Geotrygon chrysia Bonaparte, 1855, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 40, p. 100. (Flor- 
ide = Florida.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest and scrub, primarily in semi-arid situations. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Bahamas (Grand Bahama, Great Abaco, Andros. 
New Providence, Eleuthera, San Salvador and North Caicos), Cuba, the Isle of 
Pines, Hispaniola (including Gonave, Tortue and Catalina islands), Puerto Rico 
and Vieques Island (possibly also Mona Island). 

Casual in southern Florida (the Florida Keys, and southern mainland in Monroe 
and Palm Beach counties, mostly near coasts). Formerly reported as common and 
breeding at Key West (Audubon, 1830's). 

Notes.— G. chrysia and G. mystacea constitute a superspecies; they are consid- 
ered conspecific by some authors. 

Geotrygon mystacea (Temminck). Bridled Quail-Dove. 

Columba mystacea Temminck, 1811, in Knip, Les Pigeons, Les Colombes, 
p. 124, pi. 56. (l'Amerique =' probably Lesser Antilles.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest and woodland, generally in undergrowth, usually in 
semi-arid situations. 

Distribution.— Resident on Puerto Rico (including Vieques and. probably. Cu- 
lebra islands), in the Virgin Islands (except Anegada), and in the Lesser Antilles 
(from Saba and Barbuda south to St. Lucia). 

Notes.— See comments under G. chrysia. 

Geotrygon albifacies Sclater. White-faced Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon albifacies Sclater, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 98. (environs 
of Jalapa, [Veracruz,] Southern Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest (Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— /?e57£fe/7/ in the mountains of Mexico (San Luis Potosi. Veracruz, 
Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and north- 
central Nicaragua. 



264 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Notes.— G. albifacies and G. chiriquensis are often considered as conspecific 
with the South American G. linearis (Prevost, 1843). but retention of three species 
constituting a superspecies complex seems more satisfactory. In the event all are 
combined into a single species. G. linearis, the name White-faced Quail-Dove 
would still be appropriate. 

Geotrygon chiriquensis Sclater. Chiriqlt Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon chiriquensis Sclater. 1856. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 143. (vi- 
cinity of the Town of David in the Province of Chiriqui in the State of 
Panama.) 

Habitat. — Humid mountain forest undergrowth and coffee plantations (upper 
Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama 
(Chiriqui and Veraguas). 

Notes.— See comments under G. albifacies. 

Geotrygon lawrencii Salvia. Purplish-backed Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon lawrencii Salvia, 1874. Ibis. p. 329. (Calobre. Veraguas. Panama.) 

Habitat. — Humid foothill forest (upper Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southeastern Veracruz (Cerro de Tuxtla and Yolcan 
San Martin, in the Sierra de Tuxtla): and in the mountains of Costa Rica and 
Panama (east to Darien). 

Notes.— G. lawrencii, G. costaricensis and G. goldmani are closely related, but 
the degree of relationship is uncertain: G. lawrencii and G. costaricensis are re- 
portedly sympatric in Costa Rica, while G. lawrencii and G. goldmani overlap in 
eastern Panama. 

Geotrygon costaricensis Lawrence. Buff-fronted Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon costaricensis Lawrence. 1868. Ann. Lye. Xat. Hist. N.Y.. 9. p. 136. 
(Costa Rica = Las Cruces de la Candelaria. Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, especially in heavy undergrowth (Subtropical 

Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama 
(east to Veraguas). 

Notes.— Also known as Costa Rican Quail-Dove. See comments under G. 
lawrencii. 

Geotrygon goldmani Nelson. Russet-crowned Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon goldmani Nelson. 1912. Smithson. Misc. Collect.. 60. no. 3. p. 2. 
(Mount Pirn, at 5000 feet altitude, head of Rio Limon. eastern Panama.) 

Habitat.— Humid foothill and montane forest in dense undergrowth (upper 
Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of eastern Panama (eastern Panama 
province and Darien) and extreme northwestern Colombia (Jurado). 

Notes.— Also known as Goldman's Quail-Dove. See comments under G. 
lawrencii. 



ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 265 

Geotrygon caniceps (Gundlach). Gray-headed Quail-Dove. 

Columba caniceps Gundlach, 1852, J. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 315. 
(Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest (Cuba) and mountain forest (Hispaniola). 
Distribution.— Resident in Cuba and Hispaniola (mountains of the Dominican 
Republic, not known from Haiti). 
Notes.— Also known as Moustached Quail-Dove. 

Geotrygon violacea (Temminck). Violaceous Quail-Dove. 

Columba violacea Temminck, 1810, in Knip, Les Pigeons, Les Colombes, p. 
67, pi. 29. (le Nouveau Monde = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, less frequently in semi-arid forest 
(Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Nicaragua (Caribbean lowlands), Costa Rica 
(humid Caribbean lowlands and foothills, also in semi-arid Guanacaste lowlands 
on Pacific slope) and Panama (from Colon eastward), and in South America from 
northern Colombia, Venezuela and Surinam south, east of the Andes, to Bolivia, 
northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay and eastern Brazil. 

Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus). Ruddy Quail-Dove. [322.1.] 

Columba montana Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, l,p. 163. Based mainly 
on "The Mountain Partridge" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica, 2, p. 304, pi. 261, fig. 
1. (in Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, second-growth woodland, coffee 
and cacao plantations, and occasionally semi-arid woodland (Tropical and lower 
Subtropical, locally to lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Antilles (south to Grenada, but absent from 
Barbados and the Grenadines); and from southern Sinaloa and Veracruz south 
along both slopes of Middle America (including Isla Coiba and San Jose, in the 
Pearl Islands, but not recorded El Salvador), and in South America from Colombia. 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes to eastern 
Peru, Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, northern Paraguay and southeastern Brazil. 

Casual in southern Florida (Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas). 

Geotrygon versicolor (Lafresnaye). Crested Quail-Dove. 

Columbigallina versicolor Lafresnaye, 1846, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 9, p. 321. 
(Jamai'que = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of mountain forest. 
Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Jamaica. 

Genus STARNOENAS Bonaparte. 

Starncenas Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List. p. 41. Type, by monotypy. 
Columba cyanocephala Linnaeus. 

Notes.— Some authors merge Starnoenas in Geotrygon. 



266 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Starnoenas cyanocephala (Linnaeus). Blue-headed Quail- Dove. [323.] 

Columba cyanocephala Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 163. Based 
on "Lhe Turtle-Dove from Jamaica" Albin, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 45, pi. 
49. (in America = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Lowland forest undergrowth, occasionally highland forest. 

Distribution.— Resident on Cuba. 

Recorded from the Isle of Pines (one specimen, 1 909), Jamaica (apparently 
through attempted introduction) and southern Florida (Key West and Miami, 
specimens, American Museum of Natural History and San Diego Natural History 
Museum, respectively), but these reports are likely based on introductions or 
escaped individuals. 

Order PSITTACIFORMES: Parrots and Allies 

Notes.— Lhe Psittaciformes are sometimes divided into a various number of 
families. 

Family PSITTACIDAE: Lories, Parakeets, Macaws and Parrots 

Subfamily PLATYCERCINAE: Australian Parakeets and Rosellas 

Genus MELOPSITTACUS Gould 

Melopsittacus Gould, 1840, Birds Aust., pt. 1, pi. [10] (=5, pi. 44 of bound 
volume). Lype, by monotypy, Psittacus undulatus Shaw. 

Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw). Budgerigar. [382.2.] 

Psittacus undulatus Shaw, 1805, in Shaw and Nodder, Naturalists' Misc., 16, 
pi. 673. (New Holland = New South Wales, Australia.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland and scrubby areas, especially in semi-arid habitats, 
suburban areas and parks. 

Distribution.— Resident (though nomadic) through most of the interior of Aus- 
tralia, rarely ranging to coastal areas. 

Introduced and established in west-central Florida (Charlotte to Citrus counties); 
recently escaped cage birds may be seen almost anywhere in North America. 

Notes.— Also known as Shell Parakeet or Budgerygah. 

Subfamily PSILTACINAE: Typical Parrots 

Genus PSITTACULA Cuvier 

Psittacula Cuvier, 1800, Lecons Anat. Comp., 1, table at end. Lype, by sub- 
sequent designation (Mathews, 1917), Psittacus alexandri Linnaeus. 

Psittacula krameri (Scopoli). Rose-ringed Parakeet. [382.3.] 

Psittacus krameri Scopoli, 1769, Annus I, Hist.-Nat., p. 31. (No locality 
given = Senegal.) 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 267 

Habitat.— Open woodland, savanna, cultivated lands, and areas around human 
habitation. 

Distribution.— Resident in North Africa from Senegal east (south of the Sahara) 
to Eritrea, Ethiopia and Sudan; and in southern Asia from Afghanistan, India and 
Nepal south to Ceylon and Burma. 

Introduced and established in small numbers in southern Florida (Dade County, 
since 1950's), Egypt, the Near East, Zanzibar. Mauritius, Singapore, Hong Kong 
and Macao; small introduced groups have also persisted in the Hawaiian Islands 
(on Oahu since 1971, breeding reported on Hawaii in 1981, and sight reports from 
Kauai), southern California (Los Angeles area, since 1956), and Virginia (Hamp- 
ton, since 1973). 

Subfamily ARINAE: New World Parakeets, Macaws and Parrots 

Genus PYRRHURA Bonaparte 

Pyrrhura Bonaparte, 1856. Naumannia, 6, Consp. Gen. Psittacorum, gen. 14. 
Type, by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1891). Psittacus vittatus Shaw 
[not Boddaert] = Psittacus frontalis Vieillot. 

Pyrrhura picta (Muller). Painted Parakeet. 

Psittacus pictus P. L. S. Muller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl.. pi. 75. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland forest and forest edge (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in western Panama (Azuero Peninsula); and in South 
America from northern Colombia, southern Venezuela and the Guianas south, 
east of the Andes, to eastern Peru and Amazonian Brazil. 

Pyrrhura hoffmanni (Cabanis). Sulphur-winged Parakeet. 

Conurus hoffmanni Cabanis, 1861, Sitzungber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde 
Berlin, 1 3 November. (Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, secondary forest, wooded ridges and hillsides, 
occasionally wandering to lowland forest (Subtropical, rarely Tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Costa Rica (from Cordillera de 
Talamanca and Dota Mountains southward, including to Volcan Irazu) and west- 
ern Panama (Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro, occurring also in the lowlands of the 
latter). 

Notes.— Also known as Hoffmann's Conure. 

Genus MYIOPSITTA Bonaparte 

Myiopsitta Bonaparte, 1854, Rev. Mag. Zool., ser. 2, 6, p. 150. Type, by 
subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855), Psittacus monachus Boddaert. 

Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert). Monk Parakeet. [382.4.] 

Psittacus monachus Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 48. Based on 
Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 768. (No locality given = Montevideo. 
Uruguay.) 



268 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Open woodland, savanna, arid scrubland, riverine forest, cultivated 
lands and orchards, especially around human habitation (Tropical and Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution. — Reside*:: from central Bolivia. Paraguay and southern Brazil 
south to central Argentina. 

Introduced and established in Puerto Rico: in the northeastern United States 
from southern New York and Connecticut south to New Jersey, with individual 
reports south and west to Kentucky and Virginia, but the present distribution in 
North America is very local and its status in doubt, particularly since control 
measures are in progress: and possibly also in Texas (Austin) and southern Florida 
(Dade County and Key Largo, present status in doubt i. 

[Genus NANDAYlTS Bonaparte] 

XjKdayus Bonaparte. 1554. Rev. Mag. Zool.. ser. 2. 6. p. 150. Type, by 
monotypy. Psittacus melanocephalus (not Linnaeus i Yieillot = Ps :::a ::<s 
nenday Vieillot. 

[Nandavus nenday (Yieillot). Black-hooded Parakeet.] See Appen- 
dix b". 

Genus CONUROPSIS Salvador! 

Conuropsis Salvadori. 1S91. Cat. Birds Br. Mus.. 20. pp. xiii. 146. 203. Type. 
by original designation. Psittacus carolinensis Linnaeus. 

Notes. — Some authors merge this genus in Aratinga. 

"""Conuropsis carolinensis i Linnaeus ). Carolina Parakeet. [382.] 

Psittacus carolinensis Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 97. Based on 
the "Parrot of Carolina" Catesby. Nat. Hist. Carolina. 1. p. 1 1. pi. 11. (in 
Carolina. Vir gini a = South Carolina. ) 

Habitat. — Riverine forest, cypress swamps and deciduous woodland, foraging 
in open situations including cultivated lands and gardens. 

Distribution. — EXTINCT. Formerly ranged from eastern Nebraska (reports 
from the Dakotas questionable i. Iowa, southeastern Wisconsin, southern Michigan 
(probably). Ohio. Pennsylvania and central New York south to southern Okla- 
homa (Texas records doubtful), the Gulf states (Louisiana eastward) and south- 
central Florida. Last specimen taken in the wild on the north fork of the Sebastian 
River. Brevard County. Florida, on 12 Mar;- Y Y: Ys: -mcwr. Y/ir.g individual 
died in the Cincinnati Zoo. 21 February 1918. although there are questionable 
sight reports for Florida in 1926 and South Carolina in 1936. 

Genus ARATINGA Spix 

Aratinga Spix. 1S24. Avium Spec. Nov. Bras.. 1. p. 29. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray. 1855). Psittacus luteus Boddaert = Psittacus sol- 
stitialis Linnaeus. 

Notes. — Members of Aratinga and other related genera are sometimes referred 
to by the group name Conure. See also comments under Conuropsis. 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 269 

Aratinga holochlora (Sclater). Green Parakeet. 

Conurus holochlorus Sclater, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 4. p. 224. 
(Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, most frequently highland pine forest, less frequently 
humid montane forest or lowland forest, locally arid scrub, foraging also in farm- 
lands and plantations (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution. — Resident [holochlora group] in southwestern Chihuahua and 
northeastern Sinaloa, wandering to southern Sonora; on Socorro Island, in the 
Revillagigedos; and from southern Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas south to Gu- 
anajuato, the state of Mexico, Puebla, Oaxaca, Veracruz and Chiapas; and [rub- 
ritorquis group] in the highlands of central and eastern Guatemala, El Salvador. 
Honduras and northern Nicaragua. 

Reports from southern Florida are based on escaped individuals. 

Notes.— The distinct Central American populations are often treated as a sep- 
arate species, A. rubritorquis (Sclater, 1887) [Red-throated Parakeet]. A. hol- 
ochlora and A. strenua constitute a superspecies; they are sometimes considered 
conspecific, but differences are retained in areas of sympatry. 

Aratinga strenua (Ridgway). Pacific Parakeet. 

Conurus holochlorus strenuus Ridgway, 1915, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28. p. 
106. (Ometepe, Nicaragua.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, primarily in arid lowland areas, less commonly to 
highland forest, foraging often in cultivated lands (Tropical, less frequently Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of Middle America from Oaxaca 
and Chiapas south to southwestern Nicaragua. 

Notes.— See comments under A. holochlora. 

Aratinga finschi (Salvin). Crimson-fronted Parakeet. 

Conurus finschi Salvin, 1871, Ibis, p. 91, pi. 4. (Bugaba, Chiriqui, Veragua 
[=Panama].) 

Habitat.— Open humid woodland, forest edge, cultivated lands and pastures 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southeastern Nicaragua (Caribbean lowlands), Costa 
Rica (primarily Caribbean slope and Golfo Dulce lowlands on Pacific slope, wan- 
dering elsewhere on latter in dry season on Cordilleras Guanacaste and Central) 
and western Panama (Caribbean slope in western Bocas del Toro and western 
Chiriqui, and Pacific lowlands in western Veraguas). 

Notes.— A. finschi and the South American A. leucophthatnuis (P. L. S. Miiller. 
1776) [White-eyed Parakeet] constitute a superspecies; they are sometimes re- 
garded as conspecific. 

Aratinga chloroptera (de Souance). Hispaniolan Parakeet. 

Psittacara chloroptera de Souance, 1856, Rev. Mag. Zool.. ser. 2, 8. p. 59. 
(Saint-Domingue = Hispaniola.) 



270 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat.— Mountain forest, ranging also to open woodland and second growth 
in the lowlands. 

Distribution.— Resident on Hispaniola, on Mona Island (formerly, last individ- 
ual taken in 1892), and probably also on Puerto Rico (based on hearsay evidence, 
but certainly not there after 1883). 

Introduced (but not certainly established) in southern Florida and Puerto Rico. 

Notes.— A. chloroptera and A. euops constitute a superspecies. 

Aratinga euops (Wagler). Cuban Parakeet. 

Sittace euops Wagler, 1832, Abh. Math. Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 1, p. 
638, pi. 24, fig. 2. (Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Heavy forest, sometimes foraging in open country. 
Distribution.— Resident on Cuba (widespread, most common in remote forested 
areas) and the Isle of Pines (apparently surviving in small numbers). 
Notes.— See comments under A. chloroptera. 

Aratinga nana (Vigors). Olive-throated Parakeet. 

Psittacara nana Vigors, 1830, Zool. J., 5, p. 273. (Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Lowland and foothill forest, clearings, scrub, second growth, culti- 
vated lands and plantations, in both humid and semi-arid habitats (Tropical and 
lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [astec group] on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle 
America from southern Tamaulipas and Veracruz south (including Holbox Island, 
off Quintana Roo) to extreme western Panama (western Bocas del Toro); and 
[nana group] on Jamaica. 

Notes.— The two groups are often considered as separate species, A. astec (de 
Souance, 1875) [Aztec Parakeet] and A. nana [Jamaican Parakeet]. 

Aratinga canicularis (Linnaeus). Orange-fronted Parakeet. 

Psittacus canicularis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 98. Based mainly 
on "The Red and Blue-headed Parakeet" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 4, p. 
176, pi. 176. (in America = northwestern Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, arid scrubland, swamps, open woodland, forest 
edge and, occasionally, around towns and villages, mostly in arid or semi-arid 
situations, usually nesting in excavations in termitaria (Tropical and lower Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of Middle America from central 
Sinaloa and western Durango south to northwestern Costa Rica (to the Gulf of 
Nicoya and San Jose region), also in the arid Comayagua Valley on the Caribbean 
slope of Honduras. 

An individual photographed in New Mexico (Las Cruces, July-August 1971) 
was almost certainly a bird escaped from captivity. 

Introduced (but not certainly established) in southern Florida and Puerto Rico. 

Notes.— Relationship of A. canicularis and the South American A. azurea (Gme- 
lin, 1789) at the superspecies level has been suggested by some authors. 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 271 

Aratinga pertinax (Linnaeus). Brown-throated Parakeet. 

Psittacus pertinax Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 98. Based mainly 
on "The Brown-throated Parrakeet" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 4, p. 177. 
pi. 177. (in Indiis = Curacao.) 

Habitat.— Arid scrub, semi-desert, mangrove, savanna, cultivated lands and 
plantations, most frequently in the dry habitats (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in western Panama (Pacific slope from western Chiriqui 
to eastern Panama province, ranging to Caribbean slope in the Canal Zone): and 
along the north coast of South America (including islands from the Netherlands 
Antilles east to Margarita) from northern Colombia east to the Guianas and 
northern Brazil. 

Introduced and established (before 1860) on St. Thomas, in the Virgin Islands 
(from the population on Curacao), spreading in recent years to eastern Puerto 
Rico, Culebra Island and St. John. 

Notes.— Known on St. Thomas as the Caribbean Parakeet. The isolated Pan- 
ama population is sometimes regarded as a distinct species, A. ocularis (Sclater 
and Salvin, 1865) [Veraguas Parakeet]. 

Genus ARA Lacepede 

Ara Lacepede, 1 799, Tabl. Mamm. Ois., p. 1 . Type, by subsequent designation 
(Ridgway, 1916), Psittacus macao Linnaeus. 

Ara severa (Linnaeus). Chestnut-fronted Macaw. 

Psittacus severus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1. p. 97. Based on Psit- 
tacus severus Linnaeus, Mus. Adolphi Friderici, 1, p. 13. (in Indiis = Am- 
azon River.) 

Habitat.— Forested lowlands and foothills, riverine woodland, swamps and cof- 
fee plantations (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Panama (Darien. ranging, at least for- 
merly, west to eastern Panama province and the Canal Zone), Colombia. Vene- 
zuela and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru. Bolivia, and 
Amazonian and central Brazil. 

An individual existing for several years in the wild state at Austin. Texas, was 
undoubtedly an escaped bird. 

Ara militaris (Linnaeus). Military Macaw. 

Psittacus militaris Linnaeus. 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1. p. 139. (No locality- 
given = Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, riverine forest, and dry forest, especially pine-oak, 
primarily in arid or semi-arid habitats (Tropical, less commonly Subtropical and 
lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Mexico from southeastern Sonora, southwestern Chi- 
huahua, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi. southern Nuevo Leon and 
central Tamaulipas south to the state of Mexico, Guerrero and Oaxaca (west of 



272 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

the Isthmus of Tehuantepec); and in South America in a series of isolated pop- 
ulations in northern Venezuela, Colombia (east and south of the range of A. 
ambigua), eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, eastern Bolivia and northwestern Ar- 
gentina. 

Notes.— A. militaris and A. ambigua may constitute a superspecies. 

Ara ambigua (Bechstein). Great Green Macaw. 

Psittacus ambiguus Bechstein, 1811. in Latham, Allg. Uebers. Vogel, 4 (1), 
p. 65. Based on "Le Grand Ara Militaire" Levaillant, Hist. Nat. Perr., 1, 
p. 15. pi. 6. (South America = northwestern Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest, clearings, forest edge and open country near forests 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Caribbean slope of eastern Honduras (Olancho, 
Mosquitia), Nicaragua and Costa Rica, locally on both slopes of Panama, and in 
northwestern Colombia, with an isolated population in western Ecuador. 

Notes.— Also known as Green or Buffon's Macaw. See comments under A. 
militaris. 

Ara chloroptera Gray. Red-and-green Macaw. 

Macrocercus macao (not Psittacus macao Linnaeus) Vieillot. 1816. Nouv. 

Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 2, p. 262. (British Guiana.) 
Ara chloroptera G. R. Gray, 1859, List Birds Br. Mus., pt. 3 (2), p. 26. New 

name for Macrocercus macao Vieillot, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Panama (eastern Panama province, San Bias 
and Darien, formerly also Canal Zone), and in South America from northern and 
eastern Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern 
Peru and eastern Bolivia, thence eastward across Paraguay and northern Argentina 
to southeastern Brazil. 

Notes.— Also known as Green- winged or Red-blue- and-green Macaw. 

Ara macao (Linnaeus). Scarlet Macaw. 

Psittacus Macao Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 96. Based mainly 
on "The Red and Blue Maccaw" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 4, p. 158, pi. 
158. (in America meridionali = Pernambuco. eastern Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Forest edge, open woodland, clearings, open country with scattered 
trees, and cultivated lands, in both humid and arid situations (Tropical and lower 
Subtropical zones.) 

Distribution.— Resident locally from Tamaulipas, Veracruz, northern Oaxaca, 
Tabasco, Chiapas and southern Campeche south along both slopes of Middle 
America (including Isla Coiba, off Panama), and in South America from Colombia. 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern 
Peru, Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. Now much reduced in numbers or extirpated 
throughout most of its Middle American range. 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 273 

fAra tricolor Bechstcin. Cuban Macaw. 

Ara tricolor Bechstcin, 1811, in Latham, Allg. Uebers. Vogel, 4 (1), p. 64, pi. 
1. Based on "L'Ara tricolor" Levaillant. Hist. Nat. Perr., 1. p. 13. pi. 5. 
(South America, error = Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Forest edge and open country with scattered trees, especially palms. 

Distribution.— EXTINCT. Formerly resident on Cuba (except Oriente Prov- 
ince), possibly also the Isle of Pines; last specimen taken in the Cienaga de Zapata 
in 1864. 

Notes.— Early accounts indicate that there may have been additional species of 
Ara on other West Indian islands; some scientific names have been proposed (see 
Appendix C) although no specimens exist. 

Ara ararauna (Linnaeus). Blue-and-yellow Macaw. 

Psittacus Ararauna Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 96. Based mainly 
on "The Blue and Yellow Maccaw" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds. 4, p. 159, 
pi. 159. (in America meridionali = Pernambuco, eastern Brazil.) 

Habitat. — Lowland forest, riverine forest, swamps and savanna, foraging in 
open areas near forested regions (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Panama (Pacific slope in eastern Panama 
province and Darien), Colombia, southern Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the 
Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, northern and eastern Bolivia. 
Paraguay, and central and eastern Brazil. 

Genus RHYNCHOPSITTA Bonaparte 

Rhynchopsitta Bonaparte, 1854, Rev. Mag. Zool., ser. 2. 6. p. 149. Type, by 
monotypy, Macrocercus pachyrhynchus Swainson. 

Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha (Swainson). Thick-billed Parrot. [382. 1 .] 

Macrocercus pachyrhynchus Swainson, 1827, Philos. Mag., new ser.. 1. p. 
439. (Table land, Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Highland pine-oak forest, foraging less frequently in pine forest at 
low elevations or in deciduous forest (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in the mountains of Chihuahua and Durango. probably 
elsewhere in the Sierra Madre Occidental of central and northern Mexico. 

Wanders widely, recorded from central Sonora south to Jalisco. Michoacan. the 
state of Mexico (Popocatepetl) and central Veracruz (Cofre de Perote and Jalapa); 
recorded formerly north to south-central and southeastern Arizona (Chiricahua. 
Dragoon, Galiuro and Patagonia mountains) and, possibly, southwestern New 
Mexico (unverified reports from the Animas Mountains). 

Notes.— Often considered conspecific with R. terrisi (but see Hardy. 1 967. Con- 
dor, 69, pp. 537-538); they constitute a superspecies. 

Rhynchopsitta terrisi Moore. Maroon-fronted Parrot. 

Rhynchopsitta terrisi Moore. 1947, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 60. p. 27. (Sierra 
Potosi. about 7500 feet, Nuevo Leon. Mexico.) 



274 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Highland pine-oak forest (upper Subtropical and Temperate zones). 
Distribution.— Resident in the Sierra Madre Oriental of southeastern Coahuila. 
Nuevo Leon and western Tamaulipas. 

Notes.— See comments under R. pachyrhyncha. 

Genus BOLBORHYNCHUS Bonaparte 

Bolborhynchus Bonaparte. 1857. Rem. Observ. Blanchard. Psittacides. p. 6. 
Type, by subsequent designation (Richmond. 1915). Myiopsitta caiharina 
Bonaparte = Pshtacida lineola Cassin. 

Bolborhynchus lineola (Cassm). Barred Parakeet. 

Pshtacula lineola Cassin. 1853. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6. p. 3~2. 
(vicinity of the National bridge. Mexico = Puerto Nacional. Veracruz.) 

Habitat. — Primarily montane humid forest, wandering to lowland moist forest 
and open woodland, in South America regularly in open forest and savanna 
(Subtropical, less commonly upper Tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in the highlands of Middle America from south- 
ern Mexico (Guerrero. Oaxaca. Veracruz and Chiapas) south through Guatemala. 
Honduras and Costa Rica to western Panama (Chmqui. Bocas del Toro and 
Veraguas): and in the Andes of South America from Colombia and northwestern 
Venezuela south to central Peru. 

Genus FORPUS Boie 

Forpus Boie. 1858. J. Ornithol., 6. p. 363. Type, by subsequent designation 
(Hellmayr. 1929), Psittacus passerinus Linnaeus. 

Forpus passerinus (Linnaeus). Green-rumped Parrotlet. 

Psittacus passerinus Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 103. Based on 
Psittacus minimus Linnaeus. Mus. Adolphi Friderici. 1. p. 14. (in Amer- 
ica = Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Semi-arid scrubland, savanna, cultivated lands, forest edge, man- 
groves, gardens and parks (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in northeastern Colombia, northern Venezuela (also 
Trinidad), the Guianas and Brazil south to the Amazon basin: also recorded from 
Curacao, where possibly introduced. 

Introduced and established on Jamaica (common) and Barbados (rare and ap- 
parently decreasing): attempted introduction on Martinique was unsuccessful. 

Notes.— Also known as Guiana Parrotlet. F. passerinus and F. xanthopter- 
ygius constitute a superspecies: they are sometimes considered conspecific. If the 
broad treatment is used. Common Parrotlet would be an appropriate name. 

[Forpus xanthoptervgius (Spix). Blue-winged Parrotlet.] See Appen- 
dix B. 

Forpus cyanopygius (de Souance). Blue-rumped Parrotlet. 

Psittacula cyanopygia de Souance. 1856. Rev. Mag. Zool.. ser. 2. 8. p. 157. 
(No locality given = northwestern Mexico.) 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 275 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, open woodland and open country with scattered 
trees, mostly in arid regions (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southern Sonora, Sinaloa, western Durango, Zaca- 
tecas, Nayarit (including the Tres Marias Islands), Jalisco and Colima. 

Notes.— Also known as Mexican Parrotlet. 

Forpus conspicillatus (Lafresnaye). Spectacled Parrotlet. 

Psittacula conspicillata Lafresnaye, 1848, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 1 1, p. 172. (in 
Colombia aut Mexico = Honda, upper Magdalena River, Tolima, Colom- 
bia.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, forest edge, savanna and forest clearings (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Panama (eastern Panama province and east- 
ern Darien), Colombia and southwestern Venezuela. 

Genus BROTOGERIS Vigors 

Brotogeris Vigors, 1825, Zool. J., 2, p. 400. Type, by original designation. 
Psittacus pyrrhopterus Latham. 

Brotogeris jugularis (Miiller). Orange-chinned Parakeet. 

Psittacus jugularis P. L. S. Miiller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 80. Based on 
"Petit Perruche a gorge jaune d'Amerique" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., 
pi. 190, fig. 1. (in America = Bonda, Santa Marta. Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, secondary forest, forest edge, arid scrub and plan- 
tations, most commonly in arid regions, less frequently wandering into humid 
forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Res ident in southwestern Mexico (Pacific lowlands of Guerrero, 
Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala (Pacific lowlands). El Salvador. Honduras (Pa- 
cific lowlands and arid interior valleys), Nicaragua (Pacific drainage, and locally 
in cleared areas on Caribbean slope), Costa Rica (Pacific lowlands and humid 
Caribbean region south at least to Limon), Panama (both slopes, including Coiba 
and Taboga islands), northern Colombia and northern Venezuela. 

Notes.— Also known as Tovi Parakeet. 

Brotogeris versicolurus (Miiller). Canary-winged Parakeet. [382.5.] 

Psittacus versicolurus P. L. S. Miiller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl.. p. 75. (No 
locality given = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, scrubland and open areas with scattered trees, less 
frequently in dense forest, in both arid and humid situations (Tropical and lower 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Colombia, northern Brazil and French 
Guiana south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, central Bolivia, northern Ar- 
gentina, Paraguay and southern Brazil. 

Introduced and established in southern California (Los Angeles County), west- 
central (Pinellas County) and southeastern Florida, Puerto Rico and western Peru 
(Lima). 



276 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Genus TOUIT Gray 

TouitG. R. Gray. 1855. Cat. Genera Subgenera Birds, p. 89. Type, by original 
designation. Psittacus huetii Temminck. 

Touit costaricensis (Cory). Red-fronted Parrotlet. 

Urochroma costaricensis Cory. 1913. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ.. Ornithol. 
Sen, 1, p. 283. (vicinity of Puerto Limon. Costa Rica.) 

Habitat. — Humid forest 'Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Costa Rica (Turrialba to Pueno Limon. and Cor- 
dillera de Talamanca) and western Panama (Chiriqui and Bocas del Toroi. 

Notes.— T. costaricensis and T. dilectissima constitute a superspecies: they are 
frequently considered conspecific. If combined, the broad species T. dilectissima 
is called Red-winged Parrotlet. 

Touit dilectissima (Sclater and Salvin). Blue-fronted Parrotlet. 

Urochroma dilectissima Sclater and Salvin. 1871. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 
(1870). p. 788. pi. 47. (south of Merida. Venezuela.) 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and foothill forest and open woodland (Tropical and 
lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution. — Resident in eastern Panama (eastern Panama province and Dar- 
ien). northern and western Colombia, northwestern Venezuela and northwestern 
Ecuador. 

Notes. — See comments under T. costaricensis. 

Genus PIONOPSITTA Bonaparte 

Pionopsitta Bonaparte. 1854. Rev. Mag. Zool.. ser. 2. 6. p. 152. Type, by 
monotypy. Psittacus pileatus Scopoli. 

Pionopsitta pvrilia (Bonaparte). Saffron-headed Parrot. 

Psittacula pyrilia Bonaparte. 1853. C. R. Acad. Sci. Pans. 3". p. 80". note. 
(Rio Hacha. Santa Marta. Colombia.) 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in extreme eastern Panama (eastern Darieni. northern 
Colombia and western Venezuela. 

Pionopsitta haematotis (Sclater and Salvm). Brown-hooded Parrot. 

Pionns hamatotis Sclater and Salvin. 1860. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 300. 
(In prov. Verae Pacis regione calida = Vera Paz. Guatemala.) 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and montane forest, forest edge and coffee planta- 
tions (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from southeastern Mexico 
(recorded Veracruz. Oaxaca. northern Chiapas, southern Campeche and Quintana 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 277 

Roo) south to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and from 
western Colombia to western Ecuador. 

Genus PIONUS Wagler 

Pionus Wagler, 1832, Abh. Math. Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 1, p. 497. 
Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Psittacus menstruus 
Linnaeus. 

Pionus menstruus (Linnaeus). Blue-headed Parrot. 

Psittacus menstruus Linnaeus, 1 766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1 , p. 1 48. Based mainly 
on "The Blue-headed Parrot" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 226. pi. 
314. (in Surinamo = Surinam.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, open woodland, forest edge and 
clearings, foraging also in cultivated lands (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Costa Rica (from Rio Pacuare on the Carib- 
bean slope eastward and, rarely, in the Golfo Dulce region on the Pacific) and 
Panama (both slopes, including Coiba and the Pearl islands), and in South America 
from Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the 
Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, central Bolivia, 
and Amazonian and southeastern Brazil. 

Pionus senilis (Spix). White-crowned Parrot. 

Psittacus senilis Spix, 1824, Avium Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 42, pi. 31, fig. 1. 
(No locality given = Veracruz, Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest, open woodland (including pine-oak), forest edge, sec- 
ondary woodland, savanna, and open country with scattered trees (Tropical and 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle America from 
San Luis Potosi and southern Tamaulipas south through eastern Mexico (including 
Campeche and Quintana Roo) and Central America to Costa Rica (both slopes) 
and western Panama (western Chiriqui and western Bocas del Toro). 

Genus AMAZONA Lesson 

Amazona Lesson, 1830, Traite Ornithol., livr. 3, p. 189. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Salvadori, 1891), C. farinosa = Psittacus farinosus Boddaert. 

Notes.— Members of the genus Amazona are sometimes referred to under the 
group name Amazon. 

Amazona albifrons (Sparrman). White-fronted Parrot. 

Psittacus albifrons Sparrman, 1788, Mus. Carlson., fasc. 3, pi. 52. Based on 
the "White-crowned Parrot" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (1), p. 281. (No 
locality given = southwestern Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, open woodland, secondary forest, scrub and sa- 
vanna, more frequently in arid situations, occasionally in humid forest, foraging 
also in cultivated lands (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 



278 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora. Sinaloa. western Durango and 
southeastern Veracruz south on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle America 
(including the Yucatan Peninsula) to Honduras and on the Pacific slope to north- 
western Costa Rica (Guanacaste). 

Notes. — See comments under A. xaniholora. 

Amazona xantholora (Gray). Yellow-lored Parrot. 

Psittacus albifrons (not Sp airman) Kuhl. 1820. Consp. Psittacorum. p. 80. 
(No locality given.) 

Chrysotis xantholora G. R. Gray. 1859. List Birds Br. Mus.. pt. 3 (2). p. 83. 
New name for Psittacus albifrons "Latham"" [=Kuhl], preoccupied. (Hon- 
duras = probably Belize.) 

Habitat. — Deciduous forest and second-growth woodland in and situations. 
very rarely in humid forest (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident throughout the Yucatan Peninsula (including Cozumel 
Island), in Belize, and on Isla Roatan (in the Bay Islands. Honduras). 

Notes. — Although superficially similar to A. albifrons. A. xantholora appears 
more closely related to the A. leucocephala superspecies of the West Indies. 

Amazona leucocephala (Linnaeus). Cuban Parrot. 

Psittacus leucocephalus Linnaeus. 1"58. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1 p. 100. Based 
mainly on "The W nite-headed Parrot" Edwards. Nat. Hist. Birds. 4. p. 
166. pi. 166. (in America = eastern Cuba.) 

Habitat. — Forested areas, open woodland and arid scrub. 

Distribution. — Resident in the Bahamas (Great Inagua and Abaco. formerly also 
on Long. Crooked. Acklin and Fortune islands). Cuba, the Isle of Pines, and the 
Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman and Cayman Brae, formerly also Little Cayman). 

Notes.— A. leucocephala, A. collaria and A. centralis are closely related and 
constitute a superspecies: some authors consider them to be conspecific. See also 
comments under A. xantholora. 



Amazona collaria (Linnaeus). Yellow-billed Parrot. 

Psittacus collarius Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 102. Based on 
Psittacus minor, collo miniaceo Sloane. Voy. Jamaica. 2. p. 297. (in Amer- 
ica = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest at higher elevations, foraging in cultivated lands. 
Distribution.— Resident on Jamaica. 
Notes.— See comments under A. leucocephala. 

Amazona ventralis (Mullen. Hispaniolan Parrot. 

Psittacus ventralis P. L. S. Mtiller. 1 "76. Natursyst.. Suppl.. p. 79. Based on 
"Perroquet a ventre pourpre. de la Martinique"" Daubenton. Planches En- 
lum.. pi. 548. (Martinique, error = Hispamola.) 



Habitat.— Forested regions, foraging in cultivated lands. 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 279 

Distribution.— Resident on Hispaniola (including Gonave, Grand Cayemitc, 
Beata and Saona islands). 

Introduced and established on Puerto Rico and in the Virgin Islands (St. Croix 
and St. Thomas). 

Notes. — See comments under A. leucocephala. 

Amazona vittata (Boddaert). Puerto Rican Parrot. 

Psittacus vittatus Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 49. Based on 
"Perroquet de St. Domingue" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 792. (Santo 
Domingo, error = Puerto Rico.) 

Habitat.— Forested regions and open woodland. 

Distribution.— Resident on Puerto Rico (a small population surviving in the 
Luquillo National Forest and vicinity), and formerly also Culebra Island. 

Amazona agilis (Linnaeus). Black-billed Parrot. 

Psittacus agilis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 99. Based on "The 
Little Green Parrot" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 4, p. 168, pi. 168. (in 
America = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Forested areas in hills and mountains. 

Distribution.— Resident at higher elevations in western Jamaica (absent from 
Blue and John Crow mountains in eastern Jamaica). 

Amazona viridigenalis (Cassin). Red-crowned Parrot. [382.6.] 

Chrysotis viridigenalis Cassin, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6, p. 
371. (South America, error = northeastern Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Forested regions, especially lowland deciduous forest and pine-oak 
woodland, foraging also in cultivated lands (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi and ex- 
treme northeastern Veracruz. 

Introduced and established in southern California (Los Angeles area, breeding 
in San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County), southern Florida (Dade County), and 
Puerto Rico; a small group has also persisted since 1970 in the Hawaiian Islands 
(on Oahu). 

Casual (probably) in southern Texas (several sight records, lower Rio Grande 
Valley northwest to Falcon Dam, apparently based on wild vagrants although the 
possibility of escaped cage birds cannot be excluded). 

Notes.— Also known as Green-cheeked Parrot. A. viridigenalis and A. finschi 
are closely related and constitute a superspecies. 

Amazona finschi (Sclater). Lilac-crowned Parrot. 

Chrysotis finschi Sclater, 1864, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 298. (Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, pine-oak woodland and secondary' forest, in both 
semi-arid and humid situations, foraging also in cultivated lands (Tropical and 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of western Mexico from south- 



280 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN" BIRDS 

eastern Sonora and southwestern Chihuahua south to Oaxaca (the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec). 

Introduced and possibly established in southern California (Los Angeles 
County). 

Notes.— See comments under A. viridigenalis. 

Amazona autumnalis (Linnaeus). Red-lored Parrot. 

Psittacus autumnalis Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 102. Based on 
"The Lesser Green Parrot" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds. 4. p. 164. pi. 164. 
(in America = southern Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and foothill forest, mangrove swamps and secondary 
forest, less frequently in deciduous woodland, pine-oak forest or pine savanna, 
foraging also in cultivated lands (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi south on the 
Gulf-Caribbean slope (including the Bay Islands off Honduras, but absent from 
the Yucatan Peninsula) to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica (on the Pacific 
mainly in the southwestern region) and Panama (including Coiba and the Pearl 
islands), and in South America in northern and western Colombia, western Ec- 
uador, northwestern Venezuela, and the upper Amazon basin of Brazil. 

Notes.— Also known as Yellow-cheeked Parrot. The population isolated in 
the Amazon basin is sometimes treated as a separate species. A. diadema (Spix. 
1824). 

Amazona farinosa (Boddaert). Mealy Parrot. 

Psittacus fahnosus Boddaert. 1783. Table Planches Enlum.. p. 52. Based on 
"Le Perroquet Meunier de Cayenne"' Daubenton. Planches Enlum.. pi. 861. 
(Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Veracruz and northern Oaxaca south on 
the Gulf-Caribbean slope (except the Yucatan Peninsula) to Nicaragua, on both 
slopes of Costa Rica and Panama (including Isla Coiba and other islets), and in 
South America from Colombia and Venezuela south, east of the Andes, to eastern 
Peru, Bolivia and central Brazil. 

Notes.— Also known as Blue-crowned Parrot. 

[Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus). Orange-winged Parrot.] See Appen- 
dix B. 

Amazona oratrix Ridgway. Yellow-headed Parrot. 

Chrysotis levaillantii (not Amazona levaillantii Lesson. 1831) G. R. Gray. 

1859, List Birds Br. Mus.. pt. 3 (2). p. 79. (Petapa, Oaxaca.) 
Amazona oratrix Ridgway. 1887, Man. N. Am. Birds, p. 587. New name for 

Chrysotis levaillantii Gray, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, open woodland and pine ridges (Tropical Zone). 
Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of Mexico (including the Tres Mar- 



ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 281 

ias Islands) from Colima south to Oaxaca (the Isthmus of Tchuantcpcc); on the 
Gulf-Caribbean slope of Mexico from southern Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas south 
to Veracruz and Tabasco; and in Belize. 

Introduced and possibly established in southern California (Los Angeles region) 
and southern Florida (Dade County). 

Notes.— Although A. oratrix and A. auropalliata are frequently considered con- 
specific with A. ochrocephala, the close approach of A. oratrix and A. auropalliata 
in Pacific Oaxaca without evidence of interbreeding, and the presence of both A. 
auropalliata and A. ochrocephala in Caribbean Honduras, suggest that the best 
treatment would be as allospecies of a superspecies complex. With a single species. 
Yellow-headed Parrot is the appropriate name. 

Amazona auropalliata (Lesson). Yellow-naped Parrot. 

Psittacus (amazona) auro-palliatus Lesson, 1842, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 5. p. 
135. (Realejo, centre Amerique [=Nicaragua].) 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, thorn scrub, open woodland and pine savanna, 
primarily in dry or semi-arid regions, foraging also in coffee plantations and 
cultivated lands (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of Middle America from extreme 
eastern Oaxaca south to northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste); in the Sula Valley 
of northern Honduras (where possibly introduced); in the Bay Islands off Carib- 
bean Honduras (Roatan, Barbareta and Guanaja); and in the Mosquitia of eastern 
Honduras and northeastern Nicaragua. 

Notes.— See comments under A. oratrix. 

Amazona ochrocephala (Gmelin). Yellow-crowned Parrot. 

Psittacus ochrocephalus Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 339. Based in part 
on "Le Perroquet Amazone du Bresil" Brisson, Ornithologie, 4, p. 272, pi. 
26, fig. 1 . (in America australi = Venezuela.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous and humid lowland forest, savanna, plantations and cul- 
tivated lands (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Sula Valley of northern Honduras (where present 
since at least mid- 19th Century, probably a native population); and from western 
Panama (including Coiba and the Pearl islands), Colombia, Venezuela (probably 
also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, Bolivia 
and Amazonian Brazil. 

Notes.— See comments under A. oratrix. 

Amazona arausiaca (Miiller). Red-necked Parrot. 

Psittacus arausiacus P. L. S. Miiller, 1766, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 79. Based 
on the "Blue-faced Green Parrot"' Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 43, pi. 
230. (Dominica.) 

Habitat.— Mountain forest. 

Distribution.— Resident on Dominica, in the Lesser Antilles, surviving in re- 
duced numbers. 

Notes.— A. arausiaca and A. versicolor may constitute a superspecies. Species 



282 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

of Atnazona may also have been present on Martinique and Guadeloupe, for 
which names have been proposed although no specimens exist (see Appen- 
dix C). 

Amazona versicolor (Miiller). St. Lucia Parrot. 

Psittacus versicolor P . L. S. Miiller, 1776, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 78. Based on 
"Perroquet, de la Havane" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 360. (Havana, 
error = St. Lucia.) 

Habitat.— Mountain forest. 

Distribution.— Resident on St. Lucia, in the Lesser Antilles, where surviving in 
much reduced numbers. 

Notes.— See comments under A. arausiaca. 

Amazona guildingii (Vigors). St. Vincent Parrot. 

Psittacus Guildingii Vigors, 1837, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1836), p. 80. (St. 
Vincent [Lesser Antilles].) 

Habitat.— Mountain forest, rarely in lowland forest. 
Distribution.— Resident on St. Vincent, in the Lesser Antilles. 

Amazona imperialis Richmond. Imperial Parrot. 

Psittacus augustus (not Shaw, 1792) Vigors, 1837, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 

(1836), p. 80. (South America, error = Dominica.) 
Amazona imperialis (Ridgway MS) Richmond, 1899, Auk, 16, p. 186 (in 

text). New name for Psittacus augustus Vigors, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Mountain forest at higher elevations. 

Distribution.— Resident on Dominica, in the Lesser Antilles, where surviving 
in small numbers. 

Order CUCULIFORMES: Cuckoos and Allies 

Family CUCULIDAE: Cuckoos, Roadrunners and Anis 

Subfamily CUCULINAE: Old World Cuckoos 

Genus CUCULUS Linnaeus 

Cuculus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 110. Type, by tautonymy, 
Cuculus canorus Linnaeus {Cuculus, prebinomial specific name, in syn- 
onymy). 

Cuculus canorus Linnaeus. Common Cuckoo. [388.2.] 

Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 110. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, forest edge and clearings, taiga, open country with 
scattered trees and, occasionally, treeless regions with bushy growth. 



ORDER CUCULIFORMES 283 

Distribution.— Breeds from the British Isles, Scandinavia, northern Russia and 
northern Siberia south to northern Africa, the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor, 
the Himalayas, Burma, Southeast Asia and eastern China. 

Winters from the Sahara (rarely Sudan), India and Southeast Asia south to 
South Africa, the East Indies, New Guinea and the Philippines, casually to the 
eastern Atlantic islands, Ceylon, and the Bonin, Moluccas and Palau islands in 
the western Pacific. 

In migration occurs in the Mediterranean region, Arabia, the Ryukyu Islands 
and Formosa, ranging casually to the western and central Aleutian (Buldir, Kiska, 
Amchitka, Adak) and Pribilof (St. Paul) islands. 

Casual on the western Alaskan mainland (Tutakoke River mouth), Iceland and 
the Faroe Islands. Accidental in Massachusetts (Martha's Vineyard) and the Lesser 
Antilles (Barbados). 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Cuckoo. Some authors regard 
C. canorus and the African C. gularis Stephens, 1815, as conspecific; they con- 
stitute a superspecies. 

Cuculus saturatus Blyth. Oriental Cuckoo. [388.1.] 

Cuculus saturatus (Hodgson MS) Blyth, 1843, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 12, p. 
942. (Nepal.) 

Habitat.— Forested regions, primarily coniferous, less frequently deciduous 
woodland or mixed coniferous-deciduous areas, locally in montane forest. 

Distribution.— Breeds from central Russia, central Siberia Anadyrland and 
Kamchatka south to the Himalayas, northern Burma, southern China, Formosa 
and Japan. 

Winters from the Malay Peninsula and Philippines south through the East Indies 
and New Guinea to northern and eastern Australia and Lord Howe Island. 

In migration occurs on islands of the western Pacific from the Ryukyu and 
Bonins southward. 

Casual in western and southwestern Alaska (Wales, St. Lawrence Island, the 
Pribilofs, and Rat Island in the Aleutians). 

Notes.— Also known as Himalayan Cuckoo. 

Subfamily COCCYZINAE: New World Cuckoos 

Genus COCCYZUS Vieillot 

Coccyzus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 28. Type, by monotypy, "Coucou de la 
Caroline" Buffon = Cuculus americanus Linnaeus. 

[Coccyzus pumilus Strickland. Dwarf Cuckoo.] See Appendix A. 

Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Wilson). Black-billed Cuckoo. [388.] 

Cuculus erythropthalmus Wilson, 1811, Am. Ornithol.. 4, p. 16, pi. 28, fig. 
2. (No locality given = probably near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) 

Habitat.— Forest and open woodland, both deciduous and coniferous (breed- 
ing); scrub (arid or humid) as well as forest, although most frequently in lowland 
humid regions (nonbreeding). 



284 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Breeds from east-central and southeastern Alberta, southern Sas- 
katchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, central Ontario, southwest- 
ern Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia south, at 
least locally, to southeastern Wyoming, eastern Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, east- 
ern Oklahoma, north-central Texas (once successfully in southern Texas), northern 
Arkansas, Tennessee, northern Alabama and the Carolinas. 

Winters in South America (also Trinidad) from northern Colombia and northern 
Venezuela south to Ecuador, northern Peru and central Bolivia. 

Migrates regularly through the southeastern United States; irregularly through 
Mexico (recorded from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas southward, mostly in Gulf-Ca- 
ribbean lowlands, including Cozumel Island) and Middle America (not recorded 
El Salvador); and casually west to the Pacific region from southern British Co- 
lumbia south to central California, Arizona and New Mexico, and through the 
Bahamas (Grand Bahama, New Providence) and the Antilles (recorded Cuba, the 
Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Barbuda). 

Casual or accidental in Newfoundland, Paraguay, northern Argentina, Green- 
land, the British Isles, continental Europe and the Azores. 

Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. [387.] 

Cuculus americanus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 111. Based on 
"The Cuckoo of Carolina" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 9, pi. 9. (in 
Carolina = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, especially where undergrowth is thick, parks and 
riparian woodland (breeding); forest, woodland and scrub (nonbreeding). 

Distribution.— Breeds from interior California (rarely north to western Wash- 
ington, questionably to southwestern British Columbia), northern Utah, northern 
Colorado, the Dakotas, southern Manitoba (rarely), Minnesota, southern Ontario, 
southwestern Quebec and southern New Brunswick south to southern Baja Cal- 
ifornia, southern Arizona, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, the 
Gulf coast and Florida Keys, sporadically farther south in Mexico (recorded Za- 
catecas and the state of Yucatan) and the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, His- 
paniola, Gonave Island, Puerto Rico, and St. Croix in the Virgin Islands), probably 
also in the Bahamas (Great Inagua) and Lesser Antilles (St. Kitts). 

Winters from northern South America (also Tobago and Trinidad) south to 
eastern Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. 

Migrates regularly through the southern United States, Middle America and 
the West Indies. 

Casual or accidental north to central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, Labrador, 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and in Bermuda, Greenland, the British Isles, 
continental Europe and the Azores. 

Notes.— Some authors suggest that C. americanus and the South American C. 
euleri Cabanis, 1873, constitute a superspecies. 

Coccyzus minor (Gmelin). Mangrove Cuckoo. [386.] 

Cuculus minor Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 41 1. Based mainly on "Petit 
Vieillard" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 6, p. 401, and the "Mangrove Cuckoo" 
Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (2), p. 537. (in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 



ORDER CUCULIFORMES 285 



Habitat.— Open woodland, lowland forest edge, scrub, deciduous forest and 
mangroves (Tropical and, rarely. Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from Sinaloa south on the Pacific slope of Middle America 
to western Panama (Veraguas); from Tamaulipas south in the Gulf-Caribbean 
lowlands of Middle America (including Holbox, Mujeres and Cozumel islands off 
the Yucatan Peninsula, and the Bay Islands off Honduras) to eastern Nicaragua; 
and from southern Florida (Tampa Bay and Miami areas southward in coastal 
areas, including the Florida Keys) and the Bahamas south throughout the Antilles 
(rare in Cuba, except on cays, not recorded Isle of Pines) and islands in the 
Caribbean Sea (Cayman, Swan, Providencia and San Andres) to Venezuela (also 
Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad), the Guianas and northern Brazil. 

Winters throughout the breeding range, and occurs, at least casually, elsewhere 
in peninsular Florida (including the interior) and south to central Panama (Canal 
Zone and the Pearl Islands). 

Accidental in southeastern Texas (Port Bolivar, also sight reports elsewhere). 

Notes.— C. minor and C. ferrugineus are considered to be closely related and 
conspecific (or members of a superspecies) by some authors, although this is 
questioned by others. In addition, the suggestion that the South American C. 
melacoryphus Vieillot, 1817, also belongs in this superspecies has been made, but 
others do not support such a treatment. 

Coccyzus ferrugineus Gould. Cocos Cuckoo. 

Coccyzus ferrugineus Gould, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 105. (Cocos 
Island.) 

Habitat.— Forest, open woodland, second growth and, occasionally, scrub. 
Distribution.— Resident on Cocos Island, off Costa Rica. 
Notes.— See comments under C. minor. 

[Coccyzus lansbergi Bonaparte. Gray-capped Cuckoo.] See Appendix A. 

Genus SAUROTHERA Vieillot 

Saurothera Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 28. Type, by monotypy, "Coucou a 
longbec" Buffon = Cuculus vetula Linnaeus. 

Saurothera merlini d'Orbigny. Great Lizard-Cuckoo. 

Saurothera merlini d'Orbigny, 1839, in La Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, 
Ois., p. 152 [p. 115 in Spanish edition], pi. 25. (Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, especially in thickets or dense undergrowth. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Bahamas (Andros, New Providence and Eleu- 
thera), and on Cuba (including Cayo Santa Maria and Cayo Coco) and the Isle of 
Pines. 

Notes.— All species of the genus Saurothera appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Saurothera vieilloti Bonaparte. Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo. 

Saurothera vetula (not Linnaeus, 1758) Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
nouv. ed., 32, p. 348. (Porto Rico = Puerto Rico.) 



286 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Saurothera vieilloti Bonaparte. 1850. Consp. Gen. Avium. 1 (1). p. 97. New- 
name for Saurothera vetula Vieillot. preoccupied. 

Habitat. — Open woodland, primarily with heavy undergrowth, brushy hillsides 
and coffee plantations. 

Distribution. — Resident on Puerto Rico and (formerly) Vieques Island, possibly 
at one time on St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands. 

Notes. — See comments under S. merlini. 

Saurothera longirostris (Hermann). Hispantolan Lizard-Cuckoo. 

Cuculus longirostris Hermann. 1783. Tabula Affinit. Anim.. p. 186. (Hispan- 
iola.1 

Habitat. — Woodland with dense undergrowth and thickets. 
Distribution. — Resident on Hispaniola (including Gonave. Tortue and Saona 
islands). 

Notes. — See comments under 5". merlini. 

Saurothera vetula (Linnaeus). Jamaican Lizard-Cuckoo. 

Cuculus Vetula Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 111. Based mainly 
on Cuculus major Sloane. Voy. Jamaica. 2. p. 312. pi. 258. (in Jamaica.) 

Habitat. — Open hilly woodland with dense undergrowth, and arid lowland 
woodland. 

Distribution.— Resident on Jamaica. 
Notes. — See comments under 5. merlini. 

Genus HYETORNIS Sclater 

Ptiloleptis (not Ptiloleptus Swainson. 183 . emended to Ptiloleptis by G. R. 

Gray. 1849) Bonaparte. 1854. Ateneo Ital.. 2. p. 121. Type, by monotypy. 

Cuculus pluvialis Gmelin. 
Hyetornis Sclater, 1862. Cat. Collect. Am. Birds, pp. xiii. 321. New name for 

Ptiloleptis Bonaparte, preoccupied. 

Hyetornis pluvialis (Gmelin). Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo. 

Cuculus pluvialis Gmelin. l"^. Syst. Nat.. 1 ( 1 ). p. 411. Based in pan on 
the "Old man or rainbird" Sloane. Voy. Jamaica. 2. p. 321. pi. 258. fig. 1. 
(in Jamaica.) 

Habitat. — Thickets in open woodland or scrub in hills or mountains. 

Distribution.— Resident on Jamaica. 

Notes.—//, pluvialis and H. rufigularis appear to constitute a superspecies. 

Hyetornis rufigularis (Hartlaub). Bay-breasted Cuckoo. 

Coccyzus rufigularis "Here, c. Wiirttemb." Hartlaub. 1852. Naumannia. 2. 
p. 55. (Mountain forests of Spanish Santo Domingo = Dominican Repub- 
lic.) 

Habitat.— Heavily forested hills and mountains, also arid lowland scrub. 



ORDER CUCULIFORMES 287 

Distribution.— Resident on Hispaniola (primarily the Dominican Republic, rare 
in Haiti) and Gonave Island. 

Notes.— See comments under //. pluvialis. 

Genus PIAYA Lesson 

Piaya Lesson, 1830, Traite Ornithol., livr. 2, p. 139. Type, by original des- 
ignation, Cuculus cayanus Gmelin [=Linnaeus]. 

Piaya cayana (Linnaeus). Squirrel Cuckoo. 

Cuculus cayanus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 170. Based on "Le 
Coucou de Cayenne" Brisson, Ornithologie, 4, p. 122, pi. 8, fig. 2. (in 
Cayana = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, forest edge, second-growth woodland, scrubby 
areas, thickets, plantations, and open country with scattered trees (Tropical and 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, southern Chihuahua, Durango, 
Zacatecas, southern San Luis Potosi and southern Tamaulipas south through 
Middle America (doubtfully recorded from Holbox and Mujeres islands, but casual 
on Isla Cancun, offQuintana Roo), and in South America from Colombia, Ven- 
ezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to northwestern 
Peru and east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina and 
Uruguay. 

Piaya minuta (Vieillot). Little Cuckoo. 

Coccyzus minutus Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 8. p. 275. 
Based in part on "Le petit Coucou de Cayenne" Brisson, Ornithologie, 4, 
p. 124, pi. 16, fig. 2. (No locality given = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Thickets, shrubby areas and dense undergrowth, generally near water 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Panama (Canal Zone and eastern Panama 
province eastward), Colombia and Venezuela (also Trinidad) south, east of the 
Andes, to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. 

Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE: Ground-Cuckoos and Roadrunners 

Genus TAPERA Thunberg 

Tapera Thunberg, 1819,G6teborgsKungl. Vetensk. Vitterhets-Samh. Handl.. 
3, p. 1. Type, by monotypy, Tapera brasiliensis Thunberg = Cuculus na- 
evius Linnaeus. 

Tapera naevia (Linnaeus). Striped Cuckoo. 

Cuculus navius Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1, p. 170. Based on "Le 
Coucou tachete de Cayenne" Brisson, Ornithologie, 4, p. 127, pi. 9, fig. 1. 
(in Cayania = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Dense second-growth areas, thickets, brushy regions, fields and scrub 
(Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 



288 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Mexico (Veracruz. Oaxaca. Tabasco. 
Chiapas and southern Quintana Roo) south along both slopes of Middle America. 
and in South America from Colombia. Venezuela (also Margarita Island and 
Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to southwestern Ecuador and 
east of the Andes to eastern Peru. Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Genus DROMOCOCCYX Wied 

Dromococcyx Wied. 1832, Beitr. Naturgesch. Bras.. 4 (1). p. 351. Type, by 
monotypy, Macropus phasianellus Spix. 

Dromococcyx phasianellus (Spix). Pheasant Cuckoo. 

Macropus phasianellus Spix, 1824, Avium Spec. Nov. Bras.. 1. p. 53. pi. 42. 
(forest of Rio Tonantins. Amazon Valley. Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Dense undergrowth and thickets of deciduous forest and second- 
growth woodland, forest edge and scrubby growth (Tropical Zone.) 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Mexico (Veracruz. Oaxaca. Chiapas and 
the Yucatan Peninsula) south through Middle America (not recorded Belize), and 
in South America from Colombia. Venezuela and the Guianas south, east of the 
Andes, to eastern Colombia, northern Bolivia. Paraguay, northeastern .Argentina 
and southeastern Brazil. 



Genus MOROCOCCYX Sclater 

Morococcyx Sclater, 1862, Cat. Collect. Am. Birds, p. 322. Type, by mono- 
typy, Coccyzus erythropyga Lesson. 

Morococcyx erythropygus (Lesson). Lesser Ground-Cuckoo. 

Coccyzus erythropyga Lesson. 1842. Rev. Zool. [Paris]. 5. p. 210. (San-Carlos. 
Centre Amerique = San Carlos. Nicaragua.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous woodland undergrowth, thickets, shrubby growth, scrub. 
and edges of fields and pastures in tangled growth, primarily in arid regions 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope of Middle America from southern 
Sinaloa south to northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste). occurring also in the arid 
interior valleys on the Caribbean slope of Guatemala (Motagua) and Honduras 
(Quimistan, Sula, Comayagua and Aguan). 

Genus GEOCOCCYX Wagler 

Geococcyx Wagler, 1831, Isis von Oken, col. 524. Type, by monotypy. Ge- 
ococcyx variegata Wagler = Saurothera californiana Lesson. 

Geococcyx velox (Wagner). Lesser RoadRunner. 

Cuculus velox A. Wagner. 1836. Gelehrte Anz.. Miinchen. 3. col. 96. (Mex- 
ico = outskirts of Mexico City.) 

Habitat.— Arid semi-open country with tangles, thickets and scrubby under- 



ORDER CUCU LI FORMES 289 

growth, including open deciduous forest, pine-oak woodland and savanna (Trop 
ical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in western Mexico from extreme southern Sonora south 
to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and in the interior of Middle America from central 
Mexico (Michoacan, state of Mexico, Morelos, Puebla and west-central Veracruz, 
with an isolated population in the state of Yucatan) south through Guatemala, El 
Salvador and Honduras to central Nicaragua. 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson). Greater Roadrunner. [385.] 

Saurothera Californiana Lesson, 1829, Compl. Oeuvres Buffon. 6, p. 420. 
(Californie = San Diego, California.) 

Habitat.— Desert scrub, chaparral, edges of cultivated lands, and arid open 
situations with scattered brush, locally in cedar glades and pine-oak woodland 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from northern California, western and central Nevada, 
southern Utah, Colorado, southern Kansas, central and eastern Oklahoma, south- 
western Missouri, western Arkansas and north-central Louisiana south to southern 
Baja California, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, northeastern Jalisco, eastern Mi- 
choacan, the state of Mexico, Distrito Federal, Puebla, Veracruz, Tamaulipas and 
the Gulf coast of Texas. 

Notes.— Often called the Roadrunner in American literature. 

Genus NEOMORPHUS Gloger 

Neomorphus Gloger, 1827, in Froriep, Notizen, 16, col. 278, note. Type, by 
original designation, Coccyzus geoffroyi Temminck. 

Neomorphus geoffroyi (Temminck). Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo. 

Coccyzus geoffroyi Temminck, 1820, Planches Color., livr. 2, pi. 7. (No lo- 
cality given = Para, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Nicaragua (Caribbean slope), Costa Rica (primarily 
Caribbean slope, on Pacific drainage in Cordillera de Guanacaste) and Panama 
(both slopes), and in South America from Colombia south, east of the Andes, to 
eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. 

Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE: Anis 

Genus CROTOPHAGA Linnaeus 

Crotophaga Linnaeus, 1 758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 105. Type, by monotypy, 
Crotophaga ani Linnaeus. 

Crotophaga major Gmelin. Greater Ani. 

Crotophaga major Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1). p. 363. Based in part on 
"Le grand Bout-de-petun" Brisson, Ornithologie, 4. p. 180. pi. 18, fig. 2. 
and Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 102, fig. 1. (in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 



290 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Thickets and second growth (generally near water), swamps and 
marshes (Tropical Zone, locally to Temperate Zone). 

Distribution. — Resident from eastern Panama (on the Caribbean slope from 
western Colon eastward, on the Pacific from the Canal Zone eastward). Colombia. 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western 
Colombia and east of the Andes virtually throughout to northern Argentina: 
several specimens taken along the Rio Tamesi. southern Tamaulipas. suggest a 
resident population in northeastern Mexico (Colson. 1978. Auk. 95. pp. 766-767). 

Crotophaga ani Linnaeus. Smooth-billed Ant. [383.] 

Crotophaga Ani Linnaeus. 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 105. Based mainly 
on the "Razor-billed Blackbird" Catesby. Nat. Hist. Carolina. 2. app.. p. 
3. pi. 3. and Sloane. Voy. Jamaica. 2. p. 298. pi. 256. fig. 1. (in America. 
Africa = Jamaica. ) 

Habitat. — Open situations with brush or scrub, fields, plantations, gardens and 
forest clearings (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in central and southern Florida (Tampa Bay and Merritt 
Island region southward, most abundantly from Lake Okeechobee area to Dade 
County); from the Bahamas south throughout the Antilles (including the Cayman 
Islands): on islands off Qumtana Roo (Holbox and Cozumel). Honduras (Swan 
and Bay islands) and Nicaragua (Corn. Providencia and San Andres): and in 
southwestern Costa Rica (Pacific slope north to the GulfofNicoya region). Panama 
(both slopes, including Coiba and the Pearl islands), and South America from 
Colombia. Venezuela (also Margarita Island. Lobago and Trinidad) and the 
Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes 
virtually throughout to northern Argentina. 

Casual north along the Atlantic coast to North Carolina, in southern Louisiana 
and northern Florida, and to the mainland of Honduras (Trujillo region, where 
possibly breeding). Accidental in New Jersey (Petty Island in the Delaware River). 

Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson. Groove-billed Ani. [384.] 

Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson. 182". Philos. Mag., new sen, 1. p. 440. 
(Lable land. Temiscaltepec = Lemascaltepec. state of Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Open and partly open country, including scrub, thickets, cultivated 
lands, savanna and second growth (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southern Baja California (Cape district, formerly); 
from southern Sonora. central and southern (casually western and southeastern) 
Lexas and southern Louisiana (rarely, one breeding record. Plaquemines Pansh) 
south along both slopes of Middle America (including Mujeres. Holbox and Co- 
zumel islands off Quintana Roo) and along both coasts of South America to 
extreme northern Chile and Guyana (also the Netherlands Antilles): and in north- 
western Argentina. 

Wanders regularly east along the Gulf coast to peninsular Florida, and casually 
northward to southern California, southern Nevada, central Arizona, central New 
Mexico. Colorado. South Dakota. Minnesota. Wisconsin. Michigan, southern On- 
tario. Ohio and Man land. Reports from Trinidad are erroneous. 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 291 

Order STRIGIFORMES: Owls 
Family TYTONIDAE: Barn-Owls 

Genus TYTO Billberg 

Tyto Billberg, 1828, Synop. Faunae Scand., ed. 2, 1 (2), tab. A. Type, by 
monotypy, Strix flammea auct. = Strix alba Scopoli. 

Tyto alba (Scopoli). Common Barn-Owl. [365.] 

Strix alba Scopoli, 1769, Annus I, Hist. -Nat., p. 21. (Ex Foro Juli = Friuli, 
northern Italy.) 

Habitat.— Open and partly open country in a wide variety of situations, often 
around human habitation, breeding in buildings, caves, crevices on cliffs, burrows 
and hollow trees, rarely in trees with dense foliage, such as palms (Tropical to 
Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Americas from southwestern British Columbia, 
western Washington, Oregon, southern Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, southern 
Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, New York, 
southern Vermont and Massachusetts south through the United States and Middle 
America (including many islands around Baja California and in the Gulf of Cal- 
ifornia, the Tres Marias Islands, Bay Islands off Honduras, and Pearl Islands off 
Panama), Bermuda, the Bahamas, Greater Antilles (except Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands) and Lesser Antilles (Dominica, St. Vincent, Grenada and the 
Grenadines), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also the Neth- 
erlands Antilles, Tobago and Trinidad) south to Tierra del Fuego; and in the Old 
World from the British Isles, Baltic countries, southern Russia and southern Si- 
beria south throughout most of Eurasia and Africa to southern Africa, Madagascar, 
the Malay Peninsula, the East Indies (except Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines) 
and Australia, and east in the western Pacific to the Society Islands. Northernmost 
populations in North America are partially migratory, wintering south to southern 
Mexico and the West Indies. 

Wanders casually north to southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, southern 
Manitoba, northern Minnesota, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia. Accidental in Alaska (Delta Junction). 

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (in 1958, now on all main 
islands from Kauai eastward) and on Lord Howe Island. 

Notes.— Known in most literature as the Barn Owl. T. alba and the closely 
related T. glaucops are regarded as species since sympatry occurs on Hispaniola. 
Some authors suggest that the populations in the Australian region may constitute 
a separate species, T. delicatula (Gould, 1 837), as apparently both North American 
and Australian forms have become established on Lord Howe Island without 
evidence of interbreeding. 

Tyto glaucops (Kaup). Ashy-faced Barn-Owl. 

Strix glaucops Kaup, 1853, in Jardine, Contrib. Ornithol. (1852), p. 118. 
(Jamaica, error = Hispaniola.) 



292 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Open woodland and scrub, breeding in limestone caves and sinkholes. 
foraging also around old buildings and rums. 
Distribution.— Resident on Hispaniola. 
Notes.— Also known as Hispaniolan Barn-Owl. See comments under T. alba. 

Family STRIGIDAE: Typical Owls 

Genus OTUS Pennant 

Otus Pennant. 1769. Indian Zool.. p. 3. Type, by monotypy. Otus bakka- 

moena Pennant. 
Gymnasia Bonapane. 1S54. Rev. Mag. Zool.. ser. 2. 6. p. 543. Type, by 

monotypy. Strix nudipes Daudin. 

Notes. — See comments under Gymnoglaux. 

Otus sunia (Hodgson). Oriental Scops-Owl. [3~4.1.] 

Strix sunia Hodgson. 1S36. Asiat. Res.. 19. p. 1~5. 'Nepal, i 

Habitat & Distribution. — Breeds in forest and woodland from Mongolia. Man- 
churia. Amurland. Sakhalin and Japan south to northern China. Korea, the Ryu- 
kyu Islands, and Seven Islands of Izu. and •■. : ; ::<?>'5 from southeastern China, the 
Ryukyus and Japan south to Southeast Asia and the Seven Islands of Izu. 

Accidental in Alaska in the .Aleutian Islands on Buldir (5 June 1977; Day. et 
al., 1979. Auk. 96. p. 189) and Amchitka (late June 19 "9: Roberson. 1980. Rare 
Birds W. Coast, p. 230). 

Notes. — O. sunia and other Old World forms are sometimes merged in the 
Eurasian O. scops (Linnaeus. 1758) [Common Scops-Owl], but studies of vocal- 
izations and behavior indicate their specific status. See also comments under O. 
flammeolus. 

Otus flammeolus (Kaupi. Flammulated Owl. [3"4.] 

Scops (Megascops) flammeola "Licht." Kaup. 1853. in Jardine. Contrib. Or- 
nithoL (1852). p. 1 1 1. (Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Montane forest, primarily ponderosa pine association, in migration 
widely through wooded areas in lowlands and mountains (upper Subtropical and 
Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from southern British Columbia < Kamloops. Pen- 
tictoni. north-central Washington, eastern Oregon, southern Idaho and northern 
Colorado south to southern California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico 
and western Texas (Guadalupe and Chisos mountains): also in southeastern Coa- 
huila (probably). Nuevo Leon (La Esperanza'. the state of Mexico 'Chimalpa> ar.c 
Veracruz (Las Vigas). 

Winters from central Mexico (Sinaloa. Jalisco. Michoacan and Distrito Fecera". 
south in the highlands to Guatemala and El Salvador, casually north to southern 
California. 

In migration occurs east to Montana, central Colorado, eastern New Mexico 
and western Texas. 

Casual or accidental in southeastern Texas (Port Aransas i. Louisiana (Baton 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 293 

Rouge), Alabama (Shelby County), Florida (Reddington Beach) and the Gulf of 
Mexico (ca. 75 miles southeast of Galveston, Texas). 

Notes.— Also known as Flammulated Screech-Owl. O. scops and O. Jlam- 
meolus are closely related and have been considered conspecific by some authors; 
differences in vocalizations suggest specific treatment, and consideration as a 
superspecies seems the preferred option (see Marshall, 1978, A. O. U. Ornithol. 
Monogr., no. 25, p. 8). 

Otus asio (Linnaeus). Eastern Screech-Owl. [373.] 

Strix Asio Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 92. Based on "The Little 
Owl" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 7, pi. 7. (in America = South 
Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, deciduous forest, parklands, residential areas in 
towns, scrub, and riparian woodland in drier regions. 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Saskatchewan (probably), southern 
Manitoba, northern Minnesota, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, south- 
western Quebec and Maine south through the eastern United States to eastern 
San Luis Potosi, southern Texas, the Gulf coast and southern Florida (Florida 
Keys), and west to eastern Montana, the Dakotas, eastern Colorado, Kansas, 
western Oklahoma and west-central (casually extreme western) Texas. Recorded 
in summer (and probably breeding) in central Alberta. 

Casual in Nova Scotia (Indian Lake), with sight reports from New Brunswick. 

Notes.— Formerly known as the Screech Owl. Relationships of North and 
Middle American Otus are discussed in Marshall (1967, W. Found. Vertebr. Zool., 
Monogr., no. 1, pp. 1-72), in which the four groups of O. asio are recognized on 
the basis of vocalizations and behavior as "incipient species"; these groups are 
now considered to be allospecies of a superspecies. Long distance dispersal ap- 
parently accounts for overlap and mixed pairs in marginally poor habitat along 
the Arkansas River in Colorado and the Rio Grande in Texas; the overlap does 
not appear to represent hybridization. If these four species (O. asio and the fol- 
lowing three species) are treated as a single species, O. asio, Common Screech-Owl 
is the appropriate English name. 

Otus kennicottii (Elliot). Western Screech-Owl. [373.2.] 

Scops Kennicottii Elliot, 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19. p. 99. 
(Sitka, Alaska.) 

Habitat.— Woodland, especially oak and riparian woodland, and scrub (Sub- 
tropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from south-coastal and southeastern Alaska (west to 
Cordova), coastal and southern British Columbia, northern Idaho, western Mon- 
tana, southeastern Colorado and extreme western Oklahoma south to southern 
Baja California, northern Sinaloa, in the Mexican highlands through Chihuahua 
and Coahuila as far as the Distrito Federal, and to western Texas (east to Big 
Bend). 

Notes.— Also known as Kennicott's Screech-Owl. Populations of this species 
in southern Sonora, western Chihuahua and Sinaloa have been treated by some 
authors as a separate species, O. vinaceus (Brewster, 1888) [Vinaceous 



294 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Screech-Owl], but differences in voice and behavior are lacking and intergra- 
dation occurs (see A. H. and L. Miller, 1951. Condor, 53, pp. 172-176). See also 
comments under O. asio. 

Otus seductus Moore. Balsas Screech-Owl. 

Otus vinaceus seductus Moore, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.. 54. p. 156. (5 
miles northeast of Apatzingan. Michoacan, altitude 1000 feet.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous woodland, mesquite and heavy second growth (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the lowlands of Colima, and in the Rio Balsas drain- 
age of Michoacan and western Guerrero. 

Notes.— See comments under O. asio. 

Otus cooperi (Ridgway). Pacific Screech-Owl. 

Scops cooperi Ridgway, 1878, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus.. 1. p. 116. (Santa Ana. 
Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, swamp forest and mangroves (Tropical and Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident along the Pacific coast of Middle America from Oaxaca 
(Puerto Angel region. Nejapa) south to northwestern Costa Rica (Guanacaste 
region). 

Notes.— Also known as Cooper's Screech-Owl. See comments under O. asio. 

Otus trichopsis (Wagler). Whiskered Screech-Owl. [373.1.] 

Scops trichopsis Wagler. 1832, Isis von Oken. col. 276. (Mexico = mountains 
of southwestern Puebla.) 

Habitat.— Montane pine-oak association (Subtropical and lower Temperate 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southeastern Arizona, northeastern Sonora. Chi- 
huahua, Durango, San Luis Potosi and Nuevo Leon south through the mountains 
of Mexico (west to Sinaloa. Nayarit. Jalisco, Michoacan and Guerrero, and east 
to west-central Veracruz), Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras to northern 
Nicaragua. 

Casual in southwestern New Mexico (Peloncillo Mountains). 

Notes.— Also known as Whiskered Owl or Spotted Screech-Owl. 

Otus guatemalae (Sharpe). Vermiculated Screech-Owl. 

Scops brasilianus Subsp. j8. Scops guatemala Sharpe, 1875, Cat. Birds Br. 
Mus., 2, pp. ix. 112, pi. 9. (Central America, from Veraguas northwards 
to Mexico = Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and montane forest, pine-oak association, lowland 
deciduous forest (both humid and arid), open woodland and plantations (Tropical 
and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident [guatemalae group] from southeastern Sonora and Ta- 
maulipas south on both slopes of Mexico to Chiapas and the Yucatan Peninsula 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 295 

(including Cozumel Island), and thence south, mostly in the highlands, through 
Guatemala (including Pctcn) and Honduras to north-central Nicaragua; and [ver- 
miculatus group] locally from northeastern Costa Rica and Panama south to 
northern Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. 

Notes.— The two groups are sometimes regarded as distinct species, O. guate- 
malae [Middle American Screech-Owl] and O. vermiculatus (Ridgway, 1887) 
[Vermiculated Screech-Owl]. 

Otus choliba (Vieillot). Tropical Screech-Owl. 

Strix choliba Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 7, p. 39. Based 
on "Choliba" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Parag., 2, p. 218 (no. 48). 
(Paraguay.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, second growth, forest border and clearings, open 
country with scattered trees, parklands and residential areas (Tropical and Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from central Costa Rica (San Jose region) south through 
Panama (including the Pearl Islands), and in South America from Colombia and 
Venezuela (also Margarita Island and Trinidad) south, east of the Andes, to eastern 
Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina and Paraguay; erroneously recorded from Hon- 
duras. 

Otus barbarus (Sclater and Salvin). Bearded Screech-Owl. 

Scops barbarus Sclater and Salvin, 1868, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 56. 
(Santa Barbara, Vera Paz, Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland in humid montane and pine forest (Subtropical and 
Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Chiapas and northern Guatemala. 
Notes.— Also known as Bridled Screech-Owl. 

Otus clarkii Kelso and Kelso. Bare-shanked Screech-Owl. 

Otus clarkii L. and E. H. Kelso, 1935, Biol. Leaflet, no. 5, [not paged]. (Ca- 
lobre, Panama.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, forest edge and hedgerows (Subtropical and 
lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— R esident in the mountains of Costa Rica (Cordillera Central 
eastward), Panama (recorded from western Chiriqui, Veraguas and eastern Darien) 
and extreme northwestern Colombia. 

Notes.— Also known as Bare-legged Screech-Owl. Once called Otus nudipes 
in the literature, based on Bubo nudipes Vieillot, 1807, now regarded as a nomen 
dubium. 

Otus nudipes (Daudin). Puerto Rican Screech-Owl. 

Strix nudipes Daudin, 1800, Traite Ornithol.. 2. p. 199. (Porto Rico and 
Cayenne = Puerto Rico.) 

Habitat.— Dense woodland, thickets and caves. 



296 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution. — Resident on Puerto Rico (including \ "leques and Culebra islands) 
and in the Virgin Islands (St. Thomas. St. John. Tortola. Virgin Gorda.and St. 
Croix). 

Notes.— Also known as Puerto Rican Bare-legged Owl 

Genus GYMNOGLAUX Cabams 

Gymnoglaux Cabanis. 1855. J. Ornithol.. 3. p. 466. Type, by monotypy. 
Xoctua nudipes Lembeye (not Strix nudipes Daudinj = Gymnoglaux law- 

rencu Sclater and Salvin. 

Notes. — Some authors merge this genus in Ottts. 

Gymnoglaux lawTencii Sclater and Salvin. Bare-legged Owl. 

Gymnoglaux lawrencii Sclater and Salvin. 1868. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 
32". pi. 29. (Cuba = Remedios. Cuba.) 

Habitat. — Densely foliaged trees, thickets and caves. 
Distribution.— Resident on Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 

Genus LOPHOSTRIX Lesson 

Lophostrix Lesson. 1836. Compl. Ouevres Buffon. ". p. 261. Type, by mono- 
typy. Strix griseata Latham = Strix cristata Daudin. 

Lophostrix cristata (Daudin). Crested Owl. 

Strix cristata Daudin. 1800. Traite Ornithol.. 2. p. 307. Based on "La 
Chouette a aigrette blanche" Levaillant. Ois. Afr.. 1. p. 43. (Guiana.) 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and foothill forest, and second-growth woodland 
(Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Mexico (Veracruz. Oaxaca and Chiapas) 
south through Middle America (not recorded Belize), and in South America from 
Colombia, western Venezuela and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern 
Peru, central Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. 

Genus PULSATRIX Kaup 

Pulsatrix Kaup. 1848. Isis von Oken. col. 771. Type, by monotypy. Strix 
torquata Daudin = Strix perspicillata Latham. 

Pulsatrix perspicillata (Latham). Spectacled Owl. 

Strix perspicillata Latham. 1790, Index Ornithol.. 1. p. 58. Based on the 
"'Spectacle Owl" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl. 1. p. 50. pi. 107. (in 
Cayana = Cayenne. I 

Habitat. — Humid lowland and foothill forest, second-growth woodland and 
plantations (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution. — Resident from southern Mexico (Veracruz. Oaxaca and Chiapas) 
south through Middle America, and in South America from Colombia. Venezuela 
(also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 297 

east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northwestern Argentina, Paraguay and 
southeastern Brazil. 

Genus BUBO Dumcril 

Bubo Dumeril, 1806, Zool. Anal., p. 34. Type, by tautonymy, Strix bubo 

Linnaeus. 

Bubo virginianus (Gmelin). Great Horned Owl. [375.] 

Strix virginiana Gmelin. 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 287. Based mainly on the 
"Virginia Eared Owl" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds. 1 (1). p. 119. (in omni 
America, etc. = Virginia.) 

Habitat. — A wide variety of forested habitats, moist or arid, deciduous or ev- 
ergreen lowland forest to open temperate woodland, including second-growth 
forest, swamps, orchards, parklands, riverine forest, brushy hillsides and semi- 
desert, nesting primarily in large nests of other species, sometimes on cliffs, in 
barns or on artificial platforms (Tropical to Paramo zones, most commonly Sub- 
tropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from western and central Alaska, central Yukon, north- 
western and southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, northern Manitoba, north- 
ern Ontario, northern Quebec. Labrador and Newfoundland south throughout the 
Americas (except the West Indies and most other islands) to Tierra del Fuego. 

Winters generally throughout the breeding range, with the northernmost pop- 
ulations being partially migratory, wintering south to southern Canada and the 
northern United States. 

Genus NYCTEA Stephens 

Nyctea Stephens. 1 826. in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 1 3 (2). p. 62. Type, by tautonymy. 
Strix erminea Shaw = Strix nyctea Linnaeus = Strix scandiaca Linnaeus. 

Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus). Snowy Owl. [376.] 

Strix scandiaca Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1. p. 92. (in Alpibus 
Lapponias = Lapland.) 

Habitat. — Tundra, primarily where mounds, hillocks or rocks are present, nest- 
ing on the ground, in winter and migration occurring also in open country such 
as prairie, marshes, fields, pastures and sandy beaches. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America in the western Aleutians (Attu, Buldir). 
on Hall Island (in the Bering Sea), and from northern Alaska, northern Yukon 
(Herschel Island), and Prince Patrick and northern Ellesmere islands south to 
coastal western Alaska (to Hooper Bay), northern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin. 
northeastern Manitoba (Churchill), Southampton and Belcher islands, northern 
Quebec and northern Labrador; and in the Palearctic in northern Greenland, and 
from northern Scandinavia, northern Russia, southern Novaya Zemlya and north- 
ern Siberia south to the British Isles (rarely), southern Scandinavia, the limits of 
tundra in Eurasia, and the Commander Islands. 

Winters irregularly from the breeding range in North America south to south- 
ern Canada. Minnesota and New York, casually or sporadically to central Cali- 



298 CHECK- LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

fornia (Santa Cruz County), southern Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Oklahoma, central 
and southeastern Texas, the Gulf states and Georgia (sight reports from central 
Florida); and in Eurasia south to Iceland, the British Isles, northern continental 
Europe, central Russia, northern China and Sakhalin. 

Casual or accidental in Bermuda, the Azores, Mediterranean region, Iran, north- 
western India and Japan. 

Genus SURNIA Dumeril 

Surnia Dumeril, 1806, Zool. Anal., p. 34. Type, by subsequent designation 
(G. R. Gray, 1840), Strix funerea Gmelin = Strix ulula Linnaeus. 

Surnia ulula (Linnaeus). Northern Hawk-Owl. [377.] 

Strix Ulula Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 93. (in Europa = Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Open coniferous or mixed coniferous-deciduous forest, forest edge 
and clearings, old deciduous forest burns, dense brushy areas (especially tamarack), 
swamps, scrubby second-growth woodland and muskeg, nesting in hollow trees 
and, occasionally, in old crow nests. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from the limit of trees in western and 
central Alaska, central Yukon, northwestern and central Mackenzie, southern 
Keewatin, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec, central Lab- 
rador and Newfoundland south to south-coastal Alaska (Kodiak Island), southern 
British Columbia, south-central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Mani- 
toba, northern Minnesota, south-central Ontario, northern Michigan (Isle Royale), 
southern Quebec and New Brunswick; and in Eurasia from northern Scandinavia, 
northern Russia and northern Siberia south to central Russia, northern Mongolia, 
northern Manchuria and Sakhalin. 

Winters from the breeding range southward, in North America irregularly to 
southern Canada and northern Minnesota, casually to western Oregon, Idaho, 
Montana, North Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin, southern Michigan, northern Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey; and in Eurasia to the British Isles, continental 
Europe and southern Russia. 

Accidental in Nebraska (Raymond). 

Notes.— Known widely as the Hawk Owl. 

Genus GLAUCIDIUM Boie 

Glaucidium Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, col. 970. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Strix passerina Linnaeus. 

Glaucidium gnoma Wagler. Northern Pygmy-Owl. [379.] 

Glaucidium Gnoma Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 275. (Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Forested regions, both dense and open situations, in coniferous, hard- 
wood, mixed and pine-oak associations, primarily in humid habitats, less fre- 
quently in arid ones, and foraging in open situations such as meadows adjacent 
to forest (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from central (and probably northern) British Columbia 
(absent from Queen Charlotte Islands), southwestern Alberta and western Mon- 
tana south, mostly in mountainous regions, to southern California, the interior 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 299 

of Mexico, Guatemala and central Honduras, extending east as far as central 
Colorado, central New Mexico and extreme western Texas; also in the Cape district 
of southern Baja California. Recorded rarely but regularly (and possibly breeding) 
in southeastern Alaska (west to Yakutat). 

Notes. — Relationships between the various New World species of Glaucidium 
are presently not well understood. A superspecific relationship between G gnoma 
and G. jardinii has been proposed. Within G gnoma, particularly in Arizona, 
populations in close proximity display differences in ecology (a northern form in 
coniferous forest, a southern one in pine-oak) and vocalizations, suggesting that 
two sibling species, G gnoma and G pinicola Nelson, 1910, are involved; further 
study is required to determine relationships. 

Glaucidium jardinii (Bonaparte). Andean Pygmy-Owl. 

Palttnopsis jardinii Bonaparte, 1855, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 4 1 , p. 654. (Andes 
of Quito, Ecuador.) 

Habitat.— Dense montane moist forest, forest edge and tangled undergrowth 
(Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of central Costa Rica and Panama 
(recorded Chiriqui and Veraguas); and in the Andes of South America from 
Colombia and western Venezuela south to Peru and central Bolivia. 

Notes.— Also known as Mountain Pygmy-Owl. See comments under G 
gnoma. 

Glaucidium minutissimum (Wied). Least Pygmy-Owl. 

Strix minutissima Wied, 1830, Beitr. Naturgesch. Bras., 3 (1), p. 242. (Interior 
of the Province of Bahia, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest and forest edge, in western Mexico 
in lowland deciduous and gallery forest, locally in eastern Mexico to humid mon- 
tane forest (Tropical to lower Subtropical zones, locally to upper Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Pacific lowlands of Mexico from southern Sinaloa 
to south-central Oaxaca (Puerto Escondido area); on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of 
Middle America (not recorded Yucatan Peninsula or Nicaragua) to Costa Rica, 
Panama (also Pacific slope in eastern Panama province. Canal Zone and Darien) 
and northwestern Colombia; and locally in eastern South America in Guyana, 
southeastern Peru, Paraguay, and central and northeastern Brazil. 

Notes.— The populations on the Pacific slope of Mexico may constitute a distinct 
species, G palmarum Nelson, 1901; in addition, the affinities of two races, G. m. 
sanchezi Lowery and Newman, 1949, and G. m. occultum Moore, 1947, are 
uncertain. Further study of this complex is required to determine relationships. 
See also comments under G gnoma. 

Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin). Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl. [380.] 

Strix brasiliana Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 289. Based on "Le Hibou 
de Bresil" Brisson, Ornithologie, 1, p. 499. (in Brasilia = Ceara, Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, second growth, coffee plantations, scrubby pastures, 
thorn scrub, partially cleared lands, and open situations with scattered trees and 
bushes, primarily in arid habitats (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 



300 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Distribution.— Resident from south-central Arizona (north to Phoenix area), 
Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and southern Texas (north to Starr 
and Kenedy counties) south through Mexico (including Isla Cancun off Quintana 
Roo), Belize, Guatemala (Pacific slope and arid interior valleys), El Salvador, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica (Pacific slope, very rare on Caribbean drainage) 
and Panama (Pacific slope east to western Panama province), and in South Amer- 
ica from the coastal lowlands of Colombia, Venezuela (also Margarita Island and 
Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes to eastern Peru, Bolivia, 
central Argentina and Uruguay (also on Pacific coast of Peru and northern Chile). 

Notes.— Also known as Ferruginous Owl. Patagonian G. nanwn (King, 1827) 
variously has been treated as conspecific or as forming a superspecies with G. 
brasilianum. See also comments under G. gnoma. 

Glaucidium siju (d'Orbigny). Cuban Pygmy-Owl. 

Noctua siju d'Orbigny, 1839, in La Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Ois., p. 
41, pi. 3. (Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland and forest edge. 
Distribution.— Resident on Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 
Notes.— See comments under G. gnoma. 

Genus MICRATHENE Coues 

Micrathene Coues, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18, p. 51. Type, 

by original designation, Athene whitneyi Cooper. 
Micropallas Coues, 1889, Auk, 6, p. 7 1. Type, by original designation, Athene 

whitneyi Cooper. 

Micrathene whitneyi (Cooper). Elf Owl. [381.] 

Athene whitneyi Cooper, 1861, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 1, 2, p. 118. (Fort 
Mojave, latitude 35° [N.], Colorado Valley [Arizona].) 

Habitat.— Desert with giant cacti, oak woodland and riparian woodland, es- 
pecially with sycamores (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— i?rm& from extreme southern Nevada (Colorado River, opposite 
Fort Mohave, Arizona), southeastern California (formerly west to central Riv- 
erside County), central Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, western Texas (Big 
Bend), Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and southern Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley) 
south to Sonora, Guanajuato and Puebla, probably elsewhere in central Mexico; 
also in southern Baja California (Cape district) and the Revillagigedo Islands 
(Socorro). 

Winters from southern Sinaloa, Michoacan and Morelos south to Guerrero and 
northern Oaxaca, certainly also elsewhere in central Mexico; resident on Socorro 
Island and in Baja California, where recorded north to lat. 28°10'N., possibly only 
as a vagrant. 

In migration occurs casually in east-central New Mexico. 

Genus ATHENE Boie 

Athene Boie, 1822, Isis von Oken, col. 549. Type, by subsequent designation 
(G. R. Gray, 1841), A. noctua (Retz.) Boie, PI. enl. 439. Str. passerina 
Auct. = Strix noctua Scopoli. 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 301 

Speotyto Gloger, 1842, Gemein. Hanb. Hilfsb. Naturgcsch. (1841), p. 226. 
Type, by monotypy, Strix cunicularia Molina. 

Athene cunicularia (Molina). Burrowing Owl. [378.] 

Strix Cunicularia Molina, 1782, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 263. (Chili = 
Chile.) 

Habitat.— Open grasslands, especially prairie, plains and savanna, sometimes 
in open areas such as vacant lots near human habitation or airports, nesting in 
mammal burrows in the ground (Tropical to Paramo zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern interior British Columbia, southern Al- 
berta, southern Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba south through eastern 
Washington, central Oregon and California (including the Farallon and Channel 
islands) to Baja California (including many coastal islands, and on Guadalupe 
Island), east to western Minnesota, northwestern Iowa, western Missouri, Okla- 
homa, eastern Texas and Louisiana (Baton Rouge), and south to central Mexico 
(including Isla Clarion in the Revillagigedo group, but southern limits of the 
breeding range in the interior in Mexico not known); in Florida (north to Suwannee 
and Duval counties), the Bahamas, western Cuba (western Pinar del Rio), eastern 
Cuba (near Guantanamo), Hispaniola (including Gonave and Beata islands) and, 
at least formerly, the northern Lesser Antilles (St. Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Redonda 
and Marie Galante); and locally in South America from Colombia and Venezuela 
(including Margarita Island) south to northern Tierra del Fuego. 

Winters in North America and Middle America in general through the breeding 
range, except for the northern portions in the Great Basin and Great Plains regions, 
and regularly south to southern Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador, casually to 
Honduras (Monte Redondo), Costa Rica (Los Cuadros on Volcan Irazu) and 
Panama (Divala in Chiriqui); and through the breeding range in the West Indies 
and South America, casually to Cuba. 

Casual north and east in eastern North America to Wisconsin, Michigan, south- 
ern Ontario, southern Quebec, Maine, New Brunswick (sight record), Massachu- 
setts and North Carolina, and in the Gulf states to Alabama and northwestern 
Florida. 

Notes.— Often placed in the monotypic genus Speotyto. 

Genus CICCABA Wagler 

Ciccaba Wagler, 1832, Isis von Oken, col. 1222. Type, by monotypy, Ciccaba 
huhula = Strix huhula Daudin. 

Ciccaba virgata (Cassin). Mottled Owl. 

Syrnium virgatum Cassin, 1849, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 4 (1848). 
p. 124. (South America = Bogota, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Dense forest, open woodland and second growth, both in arid and 
humid regions (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Gu- 
anajuato, San Luis Potosi, southern Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas south through 
Middle America (including the Yucatan Peninsula), and in South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes 
to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to Bolivia. Paraguay and northeastern 
Argentina. 

Notes.— Also known as Mottled Wood-Owl. 



302 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Ciccaba nigrolineata Sclater. Black-and-white Owl. 

Ciccaba nigrolineata Sclater, 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 131. (In 
Mexico Meridionali = Oaxaca.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest and forest edge, less frequently in 
deciduous woodland and mangrove swamps (Tropical and lower Subtropical 
zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern and southern Mexico (southeastern San 
Luis Potosi, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas and southern Quintana Roo) south locally 
through Middle America, and in South America from Colombia east to north- 
western Venezuela and south, west of the Andes, to western Ecuador and north- 
western Peru. 

Notes.— C. nigrolineata and the South American C. huhula (Daudin, 1800) are 
regarded as conspecific by some authors; they constitute at least a superspecies. 

Genus STRIX Linnaeus 

Strix Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 92. Type, by tautonymy, Strix 
stridula Linnaeus (Strix, prebinomial specific name, in synonymy) = Strix 
aluco Linnaeus. 

Strix occidentalis (Xantus de Vesey). Spotted Owl. [369.] 

Syrnium occidentale Xantus de Vesey, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 1 1 (1859), p. 193. (Fort Tejon, California.) 

Habitat.— Dense forest, both coniferous (primarily fir) and hardwood, the latter 
especially in shaded, steep-walled canyons (Temperate Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains and in humid coastal forest from 
southwestern British Columbia (north to Atka Lake, east to Manning Provincial 
Park) south through western Washington and western Oregon to southern Cali- 
fornia (San Diego County) and, probably, northern Baja California (Sierra San 
Pedro Martir); and in the Rocky Mountain region from southern Utah (Zion 
Canyon and Navajo Mountain) and central Colorado south through the mountains 
of Arizona, New Mexico, extreme western Texas (Guadalupe Mountains), north- 
ern Sonora, Chihuahua and Nuevo Leon to Jalisco, Michoacan and Guanajuato. 

Notes.— Some authors consider S. occidentalis and S. varia (along with S. 
fulvescens) as constituting a superspecies. 

Strix varia Barton. Barred Owl. [368.] 

Strix varius Barton, 1799, Fragm. Nat. Hist. Pa., p. 1 1. (Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania.) 

Habitat.— Dense woodland and forest (coniferous or hardwood), swamps, 
wooded river valleys, and cabbage palm-live oak hammocks, especially where 
bordering streams, marshes and meadows (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from northern Washington, southern and eastern Brit- 
ish Columbia, and extreme northwestern Montana (Lincoln County) east across 
central Alberta and central Saskatchewan, and from southern Manitoba, central 
Ontario, southern Quebec (including Anticosti Island), New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island and Nova Scotia south to central and southern Texas, the Gulf 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 303 

coast and southern Florida, and west to southeastern South Dakota (formerly), 
eastern Nebraska, central Kansas and central Oklahoma; and in the Central Plateau 
of Mexico from Durango south to Guerrero (Mount Teotcpcc) and Oaxaca (La 
Parada and Cerro San Felipe), and east to San Luis Potosi. Puebla and Veracruz. 
Recorded in summer (and probably breeding) in southeastern Alaska, south- 
western British Columbia and northeastern Oregon. 

Northernmost populations are partially migratory, individuals occasionally 
ranging to the Gulf coast. 

Notes.— S. varia and S. fulvescens are closely related and constitute a super- 
species; they are considered conspecific by some authors. See also comments under 
5. occidentalis. 

Strix fulvescens (Sclater and Salvin). Fulvous Owl. 

Syrnium fulvescens Sclater and Salvin. 1868. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 58. 
(Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest and pine-oak association (Subtropical and 
lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the mountains of Oaxaca (Totontepec). Chiapas. 
Guatemala. El Salvador and Honduras. 

Notes.— See comments under 5. varia. 

Strix nebulosa Forster. Great Gray Owl. [370.] 

Strix nebulosa J. R. Forster. 1772. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 62. p. 
424. (Severn River [northwestern Ontario].) 

Habitat.— Dense coniferous and hardwood forest, especially pine, spruce, paper 
birch and poplar, nesting primarily in old hawk nests, in migration and winter 
also in second growth, especially near water, foraging in wet meadows. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from central Alaska, northern Yukon, 
northwestern and central Mackenzie, northern Manitoba and northern Ontario 
south locally in the interior to the mountains of southwestern Oregon, California 
(central Sierra Nevada), northern Idaho, western Montana, northwestern Wyo- 
ming, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Min- 
nesota, northern Wisconsin and south-central Ontario; and in Eurasia from north- 
ern Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia south to central Russia, 
northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria. Amurland and Sakhalin. Recorded in 
summer (and possibly breeding) in southern Quebec. 

Winters generally through the breeding range, in central and eastern North 
America wandering south irregularly to southern Montana. North Dakota, south- 
ern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, southern Ontario and 
central New York, casually as far as southern Idaho. Nebraska. Iowa. Indiana. 
Ohio, and from southern and eastern Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
south to Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

Genus ASIO Brisson 

Asio Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie. 1. pp. 28. 477. Type, by tautonymy. Asio 

Brisson = Strix otus Linnaeus. 
Rhinoptynx Kaup. 1851, Arch. Naturgesch.. 17. p. 107. Type. b\ subsequent 



304 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

designation (Sharpe. 1875). Otus mexicanus Cuv. = Bubo clamator Vieil- 
lot. 

Asio otus (Linnaeus). Long-eared Owl. [366.] 

Strix Otus Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 92. (in Europa = Sweden.) 

Habitat. — Coniferous or mixed coniferous-deciduous forest, especially near 
water, less frequently in hardwoods or second growth, roosting in very dense. 
thick cover, less commonly in caves or cracks in canyon walls. 

Distribution.— Breeds in North America from southern and eastern British Co- 
lumbia, northern Yukon, southwestern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, cen- 
tral Manitoba, central Ontario, southern Quebec. New Brunswick. Prince Edward 
Island and Nova Scotia south to northwestern Baja California flat. 30°N.). southern 
Arizona, southern New Mexico, northern Nuevo Leon, western and central Texas, 
central Oklahoma. Arkansas. Missouri, central Illinois, western and northern In- 
diana, northern Ohio. Pennsylvania (also in the mountains to western Virginia). 
New York and New England: and in Eurasia from the British Isles. Scandinavia, 
northern Russia and northern Siberia south to the Azores. Canary Islands, north- 
western Africa, southern Europe. Asia Minor. Iran, the Himalayas. Manchuria. 
Formosa and Korea. 

Winters in North America from southern Canada south to northern Baja Cal- 
ifornia (casually to Los Coronados. Cedros and Tiburon islands). Jalisco, the state 
of Mexico. Distrito Federal. Puebla, San Luis Potosi. southern Texas, the Gulf 
coast and Georgia, casually to Florida. Bermuda and Cuba: and in the Old World 
from the breeding range south to northern Africa. Iraq. India and southern China. 

Casual or accidental in southeastern Alaska (Taku River). Labrador (Red Bay) 
and western Cuba. 

Asio stygius (Wagler). Stygian Owl. 

Nyctalops stygius Wagler. 1832. Isis von Oken. col. 1222. (Brazil or South 
Africa = Minas Gerais. Brazil.) 

Habitat. — Humid or semi-arid forest (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Middle America in northeastern Sinaloa. 
northwestern Durango. Guerrero (Omilteme). Veracruz (Mirador). Chiapas (Yol- 
can Tacana). Guatemala (Coban). Belize and north-central Nicaragua: in the 
Greater Antilles (Cuba, the Isle of Pines. Hispaniola and Gonave Island): and 
locally in South America in Colombia, western Venezuela. Ecuador. Brazil. Par- 
aguay and northern Argentina. Recorded also (and possibly resident) on Cozumel 
Island. Quintana Roo. 

Asio clamator (Vieillot). Striped Owl. 

Bubo Clamator Vieillot. 1808. Hist. Nat. Ois. Am. Sept.. 1 (1807). pi. 20. 
(depuis Caienne jusq'a la Baie d"Hudson = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open grassy and shrubby areas, savanna, forest edge and lowland 
moist forest, generally in open woodland situations (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally on the Gulf-Caribbean slope in northern Oaxaca. 
Veracruz. Guatemala. Honduras and Nicaragua, on the Pacific slope in El Sal- 
vador, on both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and in South America from 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 305 

eastern Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago) and the Guianas south, cast of the 
Andes, to eastern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina and Uruguay. 
Notes.— Frequently placed in the monotypic genus Rhinoptynx. 

Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan). Short-eared Owl. [367.] 

Strix flammea Pontoppidan, 1763, Dan. Atlas, 1, p. 617, pi. 25. (Sweden.) 

Habitat.— Open country, including prairie, meadows, tundra, moorlands, 
marshes, savanna and open woodland, in the Hawaiian Islands also around towns, 
nesting on the ground. 

Distribution.— Bre eds in the Hawaiian Islands (main islands from Kauai east- 
ward), and on Ponape in the Caroline Islands; in North America from northern 
Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, central Keewatin, southern Baffin 
Island (probably), northern Quebec, northern Labrador and Newfoundland south 
to the eastern Aleutian Islands (west to Unalaska), southern Alaska, central (and 
formerly southern) California, northern Nevada, Utah, northeastern Colorado. 
Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, northern Indiana, northern Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey and northern (formerly coastal) Virginia; in the Greater Antilles 
(Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico); and in Eurasia from Iceland, the British Isles, 
Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia south to southern Europe. 
Afghanistan, Transbaicalia, northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria. Anadyr- 
land, Sakhalin, the northern Kurile Islands and Kamchatka. 

Winters generally in the breeding range, in the Hawaiian Islands ranging casually 
to the western islands (Kure, Midway, and casually east to French Frigate Shoals); 
in North America and Middle America mostly from southern Canada south to 
southern Baja California (casually to Los Coronados Islands and Isla Tiburon), 
Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz, the Gulf coast and southern Florida; and in the Old 
World south to northwestern Africa, the Mediterranean region, northeastern Af- 
rica, Asia Minor, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, southern China and Japan, casually 
to the Azores, eastern Atlantic islands, Borneo, the Philippines and Ryukyu Is- 
lands. 

Casual or accidental in the Revillagigedo Islands (Clarion), Guatemala (Volcan 
de Agua), the Bahamas (Grand Turk), Lesser Antilles (St. Barthelemy). Bermuda 
and Greenland. 

Genus PSEUDOSCOPS Kaup 

Pseudoscops Kaup, 1848, Isis von Oken, col. 769. Type, by monotypy, 
Ephialtes grammicus Gosse. 

Pseudoscops grammicus (Gosse). Jamaican Owl. 

Ephialtes grammicus Gosse, 1847, Birds Jamaica, p. 19 (footnote). (Bluelields 
Mountains and Tait-Shafton, Jamaica = Tait-Shafton.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland and open country with scattered trees. 
Distribution.— Resident on Jamaica. 

Genus AEGOLIUS Kaup 

Aegolius Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw.-Ges. Eur. Thicrw.. p. 34. Type, by mono- 
typy, Strix tengmalmi Gmelin = Strix funereus Linnaeus. 



306 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus). Boreal Owl. [3~1.] 

Strix funereus Linnaeus. i~58. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 93. (in Europa = 
Sweden.) 

Habitat. — Dense coniferous forest, mixed coniferous-hardwood forest, and 
thickets of alder, aspen or stunted spruce, most commonly in proximity to open 
grassy situations, nesting mostly m old woodpecker holes in paper birch and 
poplar. 

Distribution. — Breeds in North America to tree line from central Alaska, central 
Yukon, southern Mackenzie, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, north- 
ern Ontario, central (and probably northern ) Quebec. Labrador and Newfoundland 
(probably) south to southern Alaska (Kodiak Island), northern British Columbia. 
central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, northeastern Minne- 
sota (near Grand Marais). western and central Ontario, southern Quebec (Mag- 
dalen Islands) and New Brunswick (Grand Manan). also in northwestern Wyoming 
(Yellowstone and Grand Leton) and Colorado (Rocky Mountain National Park): 
and in Eurasia from northern Scandinavia, northern Russia and northern Siberia 
south to the mountains of southern Europe, the western Himalayas, western China. 
Sakhalin and Kamchatka. 

Winters generally in the breeding range, in North America south irregularly 
to southern British Columbia, central Montana. North Dakota, southern Min- 
nesota, central Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southern Ontario. New York and 
New England, casually to southern Oregon. Idaho. Colorado. Nebraska. Illinois. 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey: and in Eurasia to southern Europe. Lssunland. 
the Kurile Islands and Japan. 

Accidental in the Pribilofs (St. Paul). 

Notes. — Known in Old World literature as Tengmalm's Owl. 

Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin). Northern Saw-whet Owl. [372.] 

Strix acadica Gmelin. 1 "88. Syst. Nat.. 1 ( 1 ). p. 296. Based on the "Acadian 
Owl" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds. 1 ( 1 ). p. 149. pi. 5. fig. 2. (in America 
septentrionah = Nova Scotia.) 

Habitat. — Dense coniferous or mixed coniferous-hardwood forest, cedar groves. 
alder thickets and tamarack bogs, occurring in migration and winter also in dense 
second growth, brushy areas, arid scrub and open buildings. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern Alaska (west to the base of the Alaska 
Peninsula), central British Columbia (including the Queen Charlotte Islands). 
central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, central Ontario, southern 
Quebec (possibly also Anticosti Island), northern New Brunswick. Prince Edward 
Island and Nova Scotia south to the mountains of southern California (also on 
Santa Cruz and Santa Catahna islands), locally m the highlands of Mexico to 
Oaxaca (Cerro San Felipe), and to extreme western Texas, central Oklahoma. 
central Missouri, southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, central Ohio. West 
Virginia, western Maryland and New York (Long Island): also in the mountains 
of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. 

Winters generally throughout the breeding range, south irregularly or casually 
to desert regions of southern California and southern Arizona, to the Gulf coast 
(eastern Texas eastward), and through the Atlantic states to central Florida. 

Casual or accidental on islands in the Bering Sea (St. Lawrence Island, and St. 
Paul in the Pribilofs). Newfoundland and Bermuda. 



ORDER STRIGIFORMES 307 

Notes.— A. acadicus and A. ridgwayi are closely related and have been consid- 
ered conspecific [Saw-whet Owl] by a few authors; they constitute a superspecies. 

Aegolius ridgwayi (Alfaro). Unspotted Saw-whet Owl. 

Cryptoglaux ridgwayi Alfaro, 1905, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1 8, p. 2 1 7. (( lerro 
de la Candelaria, near Escasu, Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Open pine-oak woodland and moist montane forest edge, also re- 
corded from farm buildings (Subtropical and lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Chiapas (Volcan Tacana), Guatemala (Sa- 
capulas, Quetzaltenango and Soloma), El Salvador (Los Esesmiles) and Costa Rica 
(Volcan Irazu, and Candelaria and Dota mountains). The accuracy of locality of 
a specimen reportedly taken in Oaxaca (Amatepec) has recently been questioned; 
occurrence of this species west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec requires confir- 
mation. 

Notes.— See comments under A. acadicus. 

Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES: Goatsuckers, Oilbirds and Allies 
Family CAPRIMULGIDAE: Goatsuckers 
Subfamily CHORDEILINAE: Nighthawks 

Genus LUROCALIS Cassin 

Lucrocalis Cassin, 1851, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5, p. 189. Type. 
by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855), Caprimulgiis nattereri Tem- 
minck = Caprimulgus semitorquatus Gmelin. 

Lurocalis semitorquatus (Gmelin). Short-tailed Nighthawk. 

Caprimulgiis semitorquatus Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1031. Based 
on the "White-collared Goatsucker" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, 2 (2), p. 
599. (in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest (up to montane forest in South 
America), foraging in partly open situations adjacent to forest (Tropical and lower 
Subtropical zones, in South America to Temperate Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from northeastern Nicaragua (Rio Banbana) south 
through Costa Rica (entire Caribbean slope, and Pacific southwest) and Panama 
(both slopes, including Isla Cebaco), and in South America from Colombia, Ven- 
ezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south to central and eastern Peru, central 
Bolivia, northern Argentina and central Brazil. 

Notes.— Also known as Semicollared Nighthawk. The Amazonian and An- 
dean forms in South America are often treated as separate species, L. rufiventris 
Taczanowski, 1884, and L. natteren (Temminck, 1822), respectively. 

Genus CHORDEILES Swainson 

Chordeiles [subgenus] Swainson, 1832, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna 
Bor.-Am., 2 (1831), pp. 337, 496. Type, by original designation. Capri- 
mulgus virginianus Gmelin = Caprimulgus minor Forster. 



308 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann). Lesser Xighthawk. [421.] 

Caprimtdgus acutipennis Hermann. 1783. Tabula Affinit. Anim.. p. 230. 
Based mainly on "Crapaud-volant ou Tette-chevre de la Guiane'* Dau- 
benton. Planches Enlum.. pi. 732. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat. — Open country, desert regions, scrub, savanna and cultivated areas. 
primarily in arid habitats (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from central interior California, southern Nevada, ex- 
treme southwestern Utah, central Arizona, central New Mexico, and central and 
southeastern Texas south to southern Baja California, and through the lowlands 
of both slopes of Mexico (including the Yucatan Peninsula and Cozumel Island) 
to Belize and Guatemala, also locally in Honduras (arid interior valleys on Ca- 
ribbean drainage). Nicaragua (Tipitapa). Costa Rica (Pacific slope of Guanacaste, 
and Puerto Cortes area) and Panama (Code and western Panama province): and 
in South America from Colombia. Venezuela (also Margarita Island. Tobago and 
Trinidad) and the Guianas south, generally throughout, to Peru, central Bolivia, 
Paraguay and southern Brazil. 

Winters from southern Baja California, central Sinaloa. Durango and Veracruz 
(casually from southern California and southwestern Arizona) south through Mid- 
dle America and South America to the limits of the breeding range, casually to 
Chile. 

Migrates regularly through Middle America (including the Bay Islands off Hon- 
duras), most commonly on the Pacific slope, ranging casually east to southern 
Louisiana. 

Casual or accidental in Colorado (Trinidad), north-central New Mexico. Okla- 
homa (Boise City). Ontario (Point Pelee). Alabama (Dauphin Island). Florida (St. 
George Island and Dry Tortugas) and Bermuda. 

Notes.— Also known as Trilling Nighthawk. 

Chordeiles minor (Forster). Common Nighthawk. [420.] 

Caprimulgus minor J. R. Forster. 1771. Cat. Anim. N. Am., p. 13. Based on 
"'The Whip-poor Will" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina. 2. app.. p. 16. (No 
locality given = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— A wide variety of open and semi-open situations, especially in sa- 
vanna, grasslands, fields, and around human habitation, including cities and towns, 
frequently breeding on fiat gravel roofs of buildings (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution. — Breeds from southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, northern Sas- 
katchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, central Quebec, southern Lab- 
rador and Nova Scotia south to southern British Columbia (including Vancouver 
Island), southern California (San Bernardino Mountains), southern Nevada, south- 
ern Arizona, northeastern Sonora. Chihuahua. Texas. Tamaulipas. the Gulf coast 
and southern Florida, and south locally in Middle America through Mexico (re- 
corded Durango. and in eastern Mexico south to Chiapas and the Yucatan Pen- 
insula), the pine savanna of Belize and the Mosquitia of eastern Honduras and 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica and Panama (east to eastern Panama province). 

Winters throughout South America south to northern Argentina. 

In migration occurs throughout Middle America and the West Indies, including 
most islands in the Caribbean Sea and those off Venezuela, and (in fall) in south- 
eastern Alaska. 



ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES 309 

Casual north to south-coastal, central and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, 
Melville Island, coastal Labrador, Newfoundland and Greenland; in Bermuda and 
Europe; and at sea near the Azores. 

Notes.— Also known as Booming Nighthawk. C. minor and C. gundlachii are 
often treated as conspecific, despite differences in vocalizations (but see Eisen- 
mann, 1962, Am. Mus. Novit., no. 2094, pp. 9-10); they constitute a superspecies. 

Chordeiles gundlachii Lawrence. Antillean Nighthawk. [420.1.] 

Chordeiles gundlachii Lawrence, 1857, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 6, p. 165. 
(Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Open and semi-open situations. 

Distribution.— Breeds in the Florida Keys (Stock Island, near Key West), the 
Bahamas, Greater Antilles (east to the Virgin Islands, including small cays off 
Cuba, Gonave and Tortue) and Cayman Islands. Occurs in summer also on the 
southern Florida mainland. 

Winters presumably in South America. 

In migration recorded in the Swan Islands, in the western Caribbean Sea. 

Casual in summer in Louisiana (New Orleans). 

Notes.— See comments under C minor. 

Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE: Nightjars 

Genus NYCTIDROMUS Gould 

Nyctidromus Gould, 1838, Icones Avium, pt. 2, pi. [12] and text. Type, by 
monotypy, Nyctidromus derbvanus Gould = Caprimulgus albicollis Gme- 
lin. 

Nyctidromus albicollis (Gmelin). Common Pauraque. [419.] 

Caprimulgus albicollis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1030. Based on the 
"White-throated Goatsucker" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds. 2 (2), p. 596. 
(in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, forest edge and clearings, shrubby areas, second 
growth, arid scrub, roadsides and plantations, less commonly in denser forest 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Sinaloa, southern Texas (McMullen and Refugio 
counties, probably north to Zavala, Frio and De Witt counties), Nuevo Leon and 
Tamaulipas south along both slopes of Middle America (including the Tres Marias. 
Mujeres and Cozumel islands off Mexico, and the Pearl Islands off Panama), and 
in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas 
south, west of the Andes to northwestern Peru and east of the Andes to eastern 
Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. 

Notes.— Formerly known as the Pauraque. 

Genus PHALAENOPTILUS Ridgway. 

Phalcenoptilus Ridgway, 1880, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 3. p. 5. Type, by original 
designation, Caprimulgus nuttallii Audubon. 



3 1 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Phalaenoptilus nuttallii (Audubon). Common Poorwill. [418.] 

Caprimulgus Nuttallii Audubon, 1844, Birds Am. (octavo ed.), 7, p. 350, pi. 
495. (upper Missouri = between Fort Pierre and mouth of the Cheyenne 
River, South Dakota.) 

Habitat.— Scrubby and bushy areas, prairie, desert, rocky canyons, open wood- 
land and broken forest, primarily in arid or semi-arid habitats. 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern interior British Columbia, Montana, 
southeastern Alberta, southwestern Saskatchewan (probably), southwestern (and 
formerly also southeastern) South Dakota and Nebraska south through eastern 
Washington, central and eastern Oregon and California to southern Baja Califor- 
nia, Jalisco, Durango, San Luis Potosi and Coahuila, and east to eastern Kansas, 
northwestern Oklahoma and central Texas. 

Winters in southern parts of the breeding range in California and Arizona 
(probably also farther east), sometimes in a torpid condition, and south to the 
limits of the breeding range in Mexico. 

Accidental in southern Manitoba (Treesbank), Minnesota (Swift County) and 
eastern Oklahoma (Oklahoma City). 

Notes.— Formerly known as the Poorwill. 

Genus SIPHONORHIS Sclater 

Siphonorhis Sclater, 1861, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 77. Type, by original 
designation, Caprimulgus americanus Linnaeus. 

fSiphonorhis americanus (Linnaeus). Jamaican Pauraque. 

Caprimulgus americanus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 193. Based 
on the "Small wood owl" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica, 2, p. 296, pi. 255, fig. 1. 
(in America calidiore = Jamaica.) 

Habitat.— Scrubby woods and partly open situations in arid or semi-arid re- 
gions. 

Distribution.— EXTINCT. Formerly resident on Jamaica; last collected in Tre- 
lawny in September 1859. 

Notes.— S. americanus and 5. brewsteri are closely related and constitute a 
superspecies. 

Siphonorhis brewsteri (Chapman). Least Pauraque. 

Microsiphonorhis brewsteri Chapman, 1917, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 37, 
p. 329. (Tubano, Province of Azua, Dominican Republic.) 

Habitat.— Semi-arid situations in the lowlands, especially in scrubby woodland. 
Distribution.— Resident locally on Hispaniola (including Gonave Island). 
Notes.— See comments under 5. americanus. 

Genus NYCTIPHRYNUS Bonaparte 

Nyctiphrynus Bonaparte, 1857, Riv. Contemp., 9, p. 2 15. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Oberholser, 1914), Caprimulgus ocellatus Tschudi. 



ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES 3 1 1 

Otophanes Brewster. 1888, Auk, 5. p. 88. Type, by original designation. 

Otophanes mcleodii Brewster. 
Nyctagreus Nelson. 1 90 1 , Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.. 1 4, p. 171. Type, by original 

designation. Caprimulgus yucatanicus Hartert. 

Nyctiphrynus mcleodii (Brewster). Eared Poorwill. 

Otophanes mcleodii Brewster, 1888. Auk. 5, p. 89. (Sierra Madre of Chihua- 
hua, Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Open oak woodland and pine-oak association in semi-arid situations 
(upper Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Chihuahua (including near the Sonora-Chi- 
huahua border), Jalisco, Colima and Guerrero. 

Casual (possibly resident) in Oaxaca (San Gabriel Mixtepec). 

Notes. — Often placed in the genus Otophanes. 

Nyctiphrynus yucatanicus (Hartert). Yucatan Poorwill. 

Caprimulgus yucatanicus Hartert. 1892. Cat. Birds Br. Mus.. 16, pp. xv. 525. 
575. (Tizimin. Yucatan.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland and partly open situations in arid and semi-arid 
lowlands, foraging at night in open areas (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Guatemala (Peten) 
and Belize. 

Notes.— Often placed in the genus Otophanes. 

Nyctiphrynus ocellatus (Tschudi). Ocellated Poorwill. 

Caprimulgus ocellatus Tschudi. 1844. Arch. Naturgesch.. 10, p. 268. (Re- 
publica Peruana = Peru.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland forest (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident (presumably) in northern Nicaragua (where known from 
a single specimen taken at Pena Blanca. Depto. de Jinotega); and in South America 
west of the Andes from western Colombia to western Ecuador, and east of the 
Andes from eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil south to Par- 
aguay and northeastern Argentina; a sight report for Panama (Canal Zone) requires 
confirmation. 

Genus CAPRIMULGUS Linnaeus 

Caprimulgus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1. p. 193. Type, by tauton- 

ymy, Caprimulgus europaeus Linnaeus (Caprimulgus. prebinomial specific 

name, in synonymy). 
Antrostomus Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List. p. 8. Type, by subsequent 

designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin. 
Antiurus Ridgway, 1912, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.. 25. p. 98. Type, by original 

designation, Stenopsis maculicaudus Lawrence. 
Setochalcis Oberholser, 1914, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus.. no. 86. p. 1 1. Type, by 

original designation, Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson. 



3 1 2 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin. Chuck- will's-widow. [416.] 

Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1028. Based 
mainly on "The Goat Sucker of Carolina" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, 
p. 8, pi. 8. (in Virginia et Carolina = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Deciduous forest, pine-oak association and live-oak groves, in mi- 
gration and winter also in open woodland, scrub and palmetto thickets. 

Distribution.— Breeds from eastern Kansas, southern Iowa, central Illinois, cen- 
tral Indiana, extreme southern Ontario, central and eastern Ohio, central West 
Virginia (probably), Maryland, New Jersey and southern New York (Long Island) 
and (probably) Massachusetts (Martha's Vineyard) south to south-central and 
southeastern Texas, the Gulf coast, southern Florida and the northern Bahamas 
(Andros, one record). Recorded sporadically in summer north to southern Wis- 
consin, southern Michigan and Pennsylvania. 

Winters from southeastern Texas and Louisiana south through Middle America 
(reported on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of eastern Mexico and the Pacific slope of 
Oaxaca, on both slopes south of Mexico, but not recorded Belize) to Colombia, 
and from northern Florida and the Bahamas south through the Greater Antilles 
(east to the Virgin Islands). 

Casual in Maine, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Venezuela. 

Notes.— Some authors suggest that C. carolinensis and C. rufus (plus C. otiosus) 
constitute a superspecies. 

Caprimulgus rufus Boddaert. Rufous Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus rufus Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 46. Based on 
"Crapaud- Volant ou Tette-Chevre de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches En- 
lum., pi. 735. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, second growth and forest edge in lowlands and 
foothills (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southeastern Costa Rica south through Panama 
(primarily the Pacific slope, including Isla Coiba), and in South America from 
Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east oflhe Andes 
to Bolivia, northern Argentina, Paraguay and southern Brazil. 

Notes.— Smaller forms of this species occurring from Costa Rica to Venezuela 
may represent a distinct species, C. minimus Griscom and Greenway, 1937 
[Ruddy Nightjar], with the large C. rufus ranging from the Guianas southward. 
See also comments under C. carolinensis and C. otiosus. 

Caprimulgus otiosus (Bangs). St. Lucia Nightjar. 

Antrostomus rufus otiosus Bangs, 1911, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, p. 188. 
(St. Lucia, West Indies.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland in lowlands (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Lesser Antilles (St. Lucia) and (presumably) 
northern Venezuela (recorded Zulia, Aragua and Miranga). 

Notes.— The distributional status of this species in Venezuela is uncertain, and 
thus its taxonomic status is unresolved. Specimens from Venezuela, all taken 
between August and May, possibly represent transients from St. Lucia but generally 
average smaller in size; more probably they constitute a resident population. 



ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES 3 1 3 

Various authors have considered C. otiosus to be a subspecies of C. rufus; however, 
it seems best to retain C. otiosus as specifically distinct until its status is deter- 
mined. See also comments under C. carolinensis and C. rufus. 

Caprimulgus cubanensis (Lawrence). Greater Antillean Nightjar. 

Antrostomus Cubanensis Lawrence, 1860, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 
260. (Cienaga de Zapata, and on the coast of Manzanillo, Cuba.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, especially along borders of swamps. 

Distribution.— Resident on Cuba, the Isle of Pines and Hispaniola. 

Notes.— Differences in vocalizations suggest that the population on Hispaniola 
may represent a species, C. ekmani (Lonnberg, 1929) [Hispaniolan Nightjar], 
distinct from the form on Cuba and the Isle of Pines, C. cubanensis [Cuban 
Nightjar]. 

Caprimulgus salvini Hartert. Tawny-collared Nightjar. 

Antrostomus macromystax (not Caprimulgus macromystax Wagler, 1831) 
Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 1874, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 2, p. 409. (Mirador, 
Vera Cruz.) 

Caprimulgus salvini Hartert, 1892, Ibis, p. 287. New name for Antrostomus 
macromystax Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, preoccupied. 

Habitat.— Open woodland in lowlands (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident [salvini group] from Nuevo Leon and southern Ta- 
maulipas south through eastern San Luis Potosi and Veracruz to northern Oaxaca 
and Chiapas; and [badius group] in the Yucatan Peninsula (including Cozumel 
Island), Belize (including Half Moon Cay, possibly as a vagrant) and Guatemala 
(presumably the Caribbean lowlands). 

One record [salvini group] from Nicaragua (Matagalpa), probably representing 
a vagrant. 

Notes.— Distinct vocalizations attributed to the badius group suggest that the 
groups may represent separate species, C. salvini and C badius (Bangs and Peck, 
1908) [Yucatan Nightjar]. C. salvini is considered by some authors as conspe- 
cific with the South American C. sericocaudatus (Cassin, 1849) [Silky-tailed 
Nightjar], with which it forms a superspecies. 

Caprimulgus ridgwayi (Nelson). Buff-collared Nightjar. [416.1.] 

Antrostomus ridgwayi Nelson, 1897, Auk, 14, p. 50. (Tlalkisala, Guerrero. 
Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Open woodland, including scrub, second-growth woodland, decid- 
uous forest, and hillsides with scattered trees, more frequently in arid situations 
(Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from southern Sonora, Sinaloa and Durango south 
through western Mexico and the southern portions of the Central Plateau to 
Morelos, Oaxaca and Chiapas; and in the Motagua Valley of Guatemala, the 
interior of Honduras, and central Nicaragua. Recorded in summer (and probably 
breeding) in southeastern Arizona and extreme southwestern New Mexico (Gua- 
dalupe Canyon). 

Notes.— Also known as Ridgway's Whip-poor-will. 



3 1 4 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson. Whip-poor-will. [417.] 

Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson, 1812, Am. Ornithol., 5, p. 71, pi. 41, figs. 1- 
3. (Pennsylvania = Philadelphia.) 

Habitat.— Forest and open woodland, both arid and humid, from lowland moist 
and deciduous forest to montane forest and pine-oak association, breeding in the 
tropics primarily in the mountain habitats (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern California (north to Los Angeles and San 
Bernardino counties, rare and local), southern Nevada, central Arizona, central 
Mexico and extreme western Texas south through the highlands of Mexico, Gua- 
temala and El Salvador to Honduras; and from north-central Saskatchewan, south- 
ern Manitoba, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia south, east of the Great Plains (west to southeastern South Dakota, eastern 
Nebraska, eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma) to extreme northeastern 
Texas, northern Louisiana, northern Mississippi, north-central Alabama, central 
Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, east-central North Carolina and eastern 
Virginia. 

Winters from northern Mexico (Sonora eastward), southern Texas, the Gulf 
coast and east-central South Carolina (casually farther north, on the Atlantic coast 
to New Jersey) south through Middle America to western Panama (western Chi- 
riqui), casually to southern California and Cuba. 

Casual in southern Baja California, southern Alberta, southwestern Saskatch- 
ewan, Utah (possibly breeds), Colorado and northern Quebec. Accidental in south- 
eastern Alaska (Kupreanof Island). 

Notes.— C. vociferus and C. noctitherus, considered conspecific by some authors, 
may constitute at least a superspecies. 

Caprimulgus noctitherus (Wetmore). Puerto Rican Nightjar. 

Setochalcis noctitherus Wetmore, 1919, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, p. 235. 
(Bayamon, Puerto Rico.) 

Habitat.— Heavily wooded areas in dry lowland forest. 

Distribution.— Resident on Puerto Rico, where now restricted to the south- 
western portion of the island. 

Notes.— Also known as Puerto Rican Whip-poor-will. See comments under 
C. vociferus. 

Caprimulgus saturatus (Salvin). Dusky Nightjar. 

Antrostomus saturatus Salvin, 1870, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 203. (Volcan 
de Chiriqui, Panama.) 

Habitat.— Open montane forest and woodland, forest clearings and edge, and 
second growth, foraging in more open situations adjacent to forest (Subtropical 
and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the central highlands of Costa Rica, and in western 
Panama (vicinity of Volcan Baru, western Chiriqui). 

Caprimulgus cayennensis Gmelin. White-tailed Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus cayennensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1031. Based 
mainly on "Engoulevent de Cayenne" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 6, p. 545, 



ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES 3 1 5 

and the "White-necked Goatsucker" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds. 2 (2), p. 
599. (in Cayennae cultis = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Open situations, especially grassy hillsides with scattered bushes, and 
savanna (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution. — /?<*s7<&77/ in the Lesser Antilles (Martinique); and in Costa Rica 
and Panama, and in South America from northern Colombia, Venezuela (also 
islands from the Netherlands Antilles to Tobago and Trinidad) and the Guianas 
south, east of the Andes, to northern Brazil. 
Accidental in Puerto Rico (sight report). 

Caprimulgus maculicaudus (Lawrence). Spot-tailed Nightjar. 

Stenopsis maculicaudus Lawrence, 1862, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 
459. (Para [Brazil].) 

Habitat. — Grasslands and savanna (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally in the Gulf-Caribbean lowlands of southern Mex- 
ico (southern Veracruz, northeastern Oaxaca and northern Chiapas), and in the 
Mosquitia of northeastern Nicaragua (probably also eastern Honduras); and in 
South America from eastern Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south, east 
of the Andes, to southeastern Peru, east-central Bolivia and southeastern Brazil. 

Apparently at least partly migratory from the Middle American breeding 
grounds, as there are few records during the nonbreeding season; recorded also 
from central Honduras (Lake Yojoa), probably as a transient. Presumably resident 
in the South American portion of the breeding range. 

Caprimulgus indicus Latham. Jungle Nightjar. [416.2.] 

Caprimulgus indicus Latham, 1790, Index Ornithol., 2, p. 588. Based on the 
"Indian Goatsucker" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, suppl., 1, p. 196. (in 
India.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in open woodland and forest from Manchuria 
and Japan south to India, Ceylon and eastern China, and winters in a variety of 
woodland and partly open habitats from the Himalayas, eastern China and Japan 
south to the East Indies and New Guinea. 

Casual in the Kurile Islands and Sakhalin. Accidental in Alaska (Buldir Island 
in the Aleutians, 31 May 1977; Day, et a/., 1979, Auk, 96, p. 189). 

Notes.— Also known as Gray Nightjar. 

Family NYCTIBIIDAE: Potoos 

Genus NYCTIBIUS Vieillot 

Nyctibius Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 38. Type, by monotypy, "Grand En- 
goulevent de Cayenne" Buffon = Caprimulgus grand is Gmelin. 

Nyctibius grandis (Gmelin). Great Potoo. 

Caprimulgus grandis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1029. Based mainly 
on "Le grand Tette-chevre tachete du Bresil" Brisson. Ornithologie, 2. p. 
485, and the "Grand Goatsucker" Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds. 2 (2). p. 
590. (in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 



3 1 6 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Dense lowland forest, forest edge and clearings, less commonly in 
open meadows (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident locally in Guatemala (Polochic and Salinas rivers), east- 
ern Honduras (Olancho). Nicaragua (San Emilio). Costa Rica and Panama (Ca- 
ribbean lowlands throughout, and Pacific lowlands in eastern Panama province 
and Darien). and in South America from Colombia. Venezuela and the Guianas 
south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, east-central Bolivia and southeastern 
Brazil. 

Nyctibins griseus (Gmelin). Common Potoo. 

Caprimulgus grisens Gmelin. 1789. Syst. Nat.. 1 (2). p. 1029. Based on "En- 
goulevent gris"" Buffon. Hist. Nat. Ois.. 6. p. 548. and the "Grey Goat- 
sucker" Latham. Gen. Synop. Birds. 2 (2). p. 592. (in Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat. — Open woodland, forest edge, clearings, and areas with scattered trees, 
also sometimes around human settlements (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution. — Resident from southern Sinaloa. southern San Luis Potosi and 
southern Tamaulipas south along both slopes of Middle America (including Isla 
Roatan in the Bay Islands. Honduras), and in South America from Colombia. 
Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western 
Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru. Bolivia, northern Argentina and 
Uruguay: and in the Greater Antilles (Jamaica. Hispamola and Gonave Island. 
also a sight report from Mona Island off Puerto Rico). 

Notes.— Also known as Lesser Potoo. Two groups within the species may be 
defined on the basis of differences in vocalizations and are regarded as separate 
species by some authors. X. jamaicensis (Gmelin. 1789) [Jamaican Potoo]. oc- 
curring in the West Indies and from Mexico south on the Gulf-Caribbean slope 
to Honduras and on the Pacific slope to central Costa Rica, and .V. griseus [Gray 
Potoo]. ranging from eastern Nicaragua southward. Further studies are needed 
to determine the status of these two groups. 

Family STEATORMTHIDAE: Oilbirds 

Genus STEATORNIS Humboldt 

Steatornis Humboldt. 1814. in Humboldt and Bonpland. Voy. Inter. Am.. 
1. p. 416. Tvpe. bv monotvpv. "Guacharo" = Steatornis caripensis Hum- 
boldt. 

Steatornis caripensis Humboldt. Oilbird. 

Steatornis caripensis Humboldt. 181". Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, p. 52. 
(caverns of Canpe. Cumana. Venezuela.) 

Habitat & Distribution. — Resident from Colombia. Venezuela (also Trinidad) 
and the Guianas south to Peru and northwestern Bolivia, nesting and roosting in 
caves, and foraging at night for oil palm fruits (its exclusive food) in open woodland 
where palms occur. 

Casual (although probably resident) in Panama (Rio Tacarcuna. eastern Darien. 
19 March 1954. and Canal'Zone. 11 May 19" 7 4). 



^ 



ORDER APODIFORMES 3 1 7 

Order APODIFORMES: Swifts and Hummingbirds 

Notes.— The degree of relationship between the swifts and hummingbirds has 
yet to be established (see Sibley and Ahlquist, 1962, Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Bull., 39, pp. 198-206). 

Family APODIDAE: Swifts 

Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE: Cypseloidine Swifts 

Genus CYPSELOIDES Streubel 

Cypseloides Streubel, 1848, Isis von Oken, col. 366. Type, by subsequent 
designation (Sclater, 1865), Hemiprocne fumigata Streubel. 

Cypseloides niger (Gmelin). Black Swift. [422.] 

Hirundo nigra Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1025. Based on "Le Martinet 
de S. Domingue" Brisson, Ornithologie, 2, p. 514, pi. 46, fig. 3. (in insulae 
S. Dominici et Cayennae = Hispaniola.) 

Habitat.— Primarily montane areas (except in the most northern part of the 
range), nesting in crevices or shallow caves in steep rock faces and canyons, usually 
near or behind waterfalls (occasionally in seacaves), foraging over both forest and 
open areas in montane habitats (Subtropical and Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds locally from southeastern Alaska (north to the Stikine 
River), northwestern and central British Columbia, and southwestern Alberta 
south through the Pacific states to southern California; in northwestern Montana. 
Colorado, central Utah (Provo Canyon) and north-central New Mexico (probably); 
locally from Nayarit, Puebla and Veracruz south through southern Mexico. Gua- 
temala and Honduras to Costa Rica; and in the Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispan- 
iola, Puerto Rico, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia and 
St. Vincent). 

Winters in Mexico (presumably), through the breeding range from Chiapas to 
Costa Rica, and in the Greater Antilles (except Puerto Rico); sight reports from 
northern South America (Trinidad and Guyana) may pertain to other species. 

In migration occurs from California, Arizona (casually) and New Mexico south 
through Mexico (including Baja California, with records at sea in the Pacific off 
Chiapas and Guatemala), and through the Virgin Islands and Lesser Antilles. 

Casual in south-coastal Alaska (Wooded Islands), also sight reports from Texas 
and the Florida Keys (Dry Tortugas). 

Cypseloides cryptus Zimmer. White-chinned Swift. 

Cypseloides cryptus Zimmer, 1945, Auk, 62, p. 588. (Inca Mine. Rio Tavara. 
Peru.) 

Habitat.— Forested regions, both lowlands and highlands, ranging also over 
more open habitats (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds presumably in South America (recorded Colombia. Ven- 
ezuela, Guyana, Ecuador and eastern Peru), possibly in Middle America; recorded 



3 1 8 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

locally from the Caribbean slope in Belize. Honduras (San Esteban), Nicaragua 
(El Recreo). Costa Rica (San Jose, and the Ten-aba region) and Panama (San Bias 
and Isla Coiba). 

Cypseloides cherriei Ridgway. Spot-fronted Swift. 

Cypseloides cherriei Ridgway, 1893. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus.. 16. p. 44. (Volcan 
de Irazii, Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Montane areas, nesting on rock ledges near waterfalls (Subtropical 
Zone). 

Distribution. — Known only from Costa Rica (Volcan de Irazu, and Puntarenas 
province), Colombia (Santander) and Venezuela (Aragua. where nesting has been 
verified). 

Cypseloides rutilus (Vieillot). Chestnut-collared Swift. 

Hirundo rutila Vieillot. 1817. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 14, p. 528. 
(No locality given = Trinidad.) 

Habitat.— Lowland and montane forest, nesting on rock faces near or behind 
waterfalls (occasionally in seacaves), foraging also over open country (Tropical 
and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Sinaloa. Durango, Zacatecas. Puebla and 
Veracruz south through Middle America (not reported Nicaragua), and in South 
America from Colombia. Venezuela (also Trinidad). Guyana and French Guiana 
(probably) south, on the eastern slope of the Andes, to eastern Peru and western 
Bolivia. Possibly migratory in part, especially the northern Middle American 
populations. 

Notes.— Sometimes placed in the genus Chaetura. 

Genus STREPTOPROCNE Oberholser 

Streptoprocne Oberholser. 1906, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.. 19. p. 69. Type, by 

original designation. Hirundo zonaris Shaw. 
Semicollum [subgenus] Brooke. 1970. Durban Mus. Novit.. 9. p. 16. Type, 

by original designation. Acanthylis semicollaris de Saussure. 

Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw). White-collared Swift. [422.1.] 

Hirundo zonaris Shaw, 1796. in J. F. Miller, Cimelia Phys., p. 100, pi. 44. 
(No locality given = Chapada. Mato Grosso. Brazil.) 

Habitat. — Forest and open country, lowlands and highlands, nesting on cliffs 
near or behind waterfalls (Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from Guerrero. San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas south 
through Middle America (including Isla Coiba off Panama), and in South America 
from Colombia. Venezuela and the Guianas south to Peru. Bolivia, northwestern 
Argentina, and central and southeastern Brazil: and in the Greater Antilles (Cuba. 
Jamaica. Hispaniola. Tortue Island, and possibly also the Isle of Pines). 

Wanders irregularly north in the Lesser Antilles to Grenada and the Grenadines. 
Accidental in western Florida (western Escambia County) and the northern Lesser 



ORDER APODIFORMES 3 1 9 

Antilles (Saba), also sight reports from southern Texas (Rockport) and Vieques 
Island (off Puerto Rico). 
Notes.— In the West Indies known as Antillean Cloud Swift. 

Streptoprocne semicollaris (de Saussure). White-naped Swift. 

Acanthylis semicollaris de Saussure, 1859, Rev. Mag. Zool., ser. 2, 1 1, p. 118. 
(les grandes forets, du Mexique = San Joaquin, near City of Mexico.) 

Habitat. — Forest and partly open country, lowlands and highlands, nesting on 
ledges in caves (Tropical to lower Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in northern and central Mexico (recorded Sinaloa, Chi- 
huahua, Nayarit, Hidalgo, Morelos and the state of Mexico). 

Notes.— Relationships of this species are uncertain; it is sometimes placed in 
the genus Aerornis W. Bertoni, 1901. 

Subfamily CHAETURINAE: Chaeturine Swifts 

Genus CHAETURA Stephens 

Chcetura Stephens, 1826, in Shaw, Gen. Zool. 13 (2), p. 76. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation (Swainson, 1829), Chaetura pelasgia [sic] = Hirundo 
pelagica Linnaeus. 

Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus). Chimney Swift. [423.] 

Hirundo pelagica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 11, p. 192. Based on 
"The American Swallow" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 2, app., p. 8, pi. 
8. (in America = South Carolina.) 

Habitat.— Open situations and woodland, especially around human habitation, 
now nesting and roosting primarily in chimneys, originally on cliffs or in hollow 
trees. 

Distribution.— Breeds in eastern North America east of the Rocky Mountains 
from east-central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, central Ontario, southern 
Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland 
(probably) south to eastern New Mexico, south-central and southern Texas, the 
Gulf coast and south-central Florida, with one confirmed breeding record for 
southern California (Ventura, 1977); recently recorded in summer (and probably 
breeding) elsewhere in southern California and Arizona. 

Winters in western Peru, and in the upper Amazon basin of eastern Peru, 
northern Chile and northwestern Brazil. 

Migrates regularly through the lowlands of eastern Mexico, the Caribbean slope 
of Middle America (including Cozumel Island, the Bay Islands off Honduras, and 
Taboga Island off Panama, casually on the Pacific slope of eastern Panama). 
Colombia and western Venezuela, casually west to Montana. Utah, California 
(primarily southern portion), Arizona and New Mexico, and through the Bahamas. 
Greater Antilles (recorded Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Tortue Island), and the 
Cayman Islands. 

Casual or accidental in Alaska (St. George Island in the Pribilofs). Bermuda 
and Greenland; sight reports from Alberta are questionable. 

Notes.— C pelagica, C. vauxi and C. chapmani may constitute a superspecies. 



320 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Chaetura vauxi (Townsend). Vaux's Swift. [424.] 

Cypcelus [sic] Vauxi J. K. Townsend, 1839, Narr. Journey Rocky Mount., 
etc., p. 348. (Columbia River = Fort Vancouver, Washington.) 

Habitat. — Forested regions, foraging and migrating also over open country 
(Tropical to Temperate zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds in western North America from southeastern Alaska, 
northwestern and southern British Columbia, northern Idaho and western Mon- 
tana south, chiefly from the Cascades and Sierra Nevada westward, to central 
California (Santa Cruz County); in southwestern Tamaulipas and southeastern 
San Luis Potosi; on the Yucatan Peninsula (including Cozumel Island); from 
Oaxaca, Veracruz and Chiapas south to Panama (including Coiba and the Pearl 
islands); and in northern Venezuela (Lara to Monagas). Recorded in summer (and 
probably breeding) in western Mexico from Sinaloa and Nayarit to Jalisco. 

Winters from central Mexico (casually from central California) south throughout 
the breeding range in Middle America, and in Venezuela; casual in winter in 
southern Louisiana and western Florida (Tallahassee). 

In migration occurs east of the breeding range from Idaho, Nevada and Utah 
south through the southwestern United States, Baja California and western Mex- 
ico. 

Notes.— Populations from southern Mexico southward have often been treated 
as a separate species, C. richmondi Ridgway, 1910 [Dusky-backed Swift]; further, 
the form in the Yucatan Peninsula and on Cozumel Island was formerly considered 
by some authors to be a distinct species, C. gaumeri Lawrence, 1882 [Yucatan 
Swift], but intergradation between gaumeri and richmondi is now known to occur. 
See also comments under C. pelagica. 

Chaetura chapmani Hellmayr. Chapman's Swift. 

Chcetura chapmani Hellmayr, 1907, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club, 19, p. 62. (Ca- 
paro, Trinidad.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Resident in forested and partly open regions (Tropical 
to lower Temperate zones) from eastern Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and 
the Guianas south locally to southwestern and northeastern Brazil, the southern- 
most population migratory northward. 

Ranges casually to (and possibly resident in) central Panama (Gatun, Canal 
Zone, 11 July 1911, and Mandinga. San Bias, 30 January 1957). 

Notes.— Also known as Dark-breasted Swift. See comments under C. pelag- 
ica. 

Chaetura brachyura (Jardine). Short-tailed Swift. 

Acanthylis brachyura Jardine, 1846, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1. 18, p. 120. 
(Tobago.) 

Habitat. — Lowland forest, savanna and mangroves, foraging also over open 
country and human settlements (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Lesser Antilles (St. Vincent, the population ap- 
parently partly migratory), and from Panama (Canal Zone and Darien), Colombia, 
Venezuela (also Tobago and Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes 



ORDER APODIFORMES 321 

to eastern Peru and central Brazil; also west of the Andes in southwestern Ecuador 
and northwestern Peru. 

Accidental in the Virgin Islands (St. Croix). Reports from Grenada are regarded 
as doubtful. 

Chaetura andrei Berlepsch and Hartert. Ashy-tailed Swift. 

Chaetura andrei Berlepsch and Hartert, 1 902, Novit. Zool., 9, p. 9 1 . (Caicara, 
Orinoco River, Venezuela.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in lowland forest in central Venezuela and 
Surinam, and from eastern Brazil south to Paraguay, northern Argentina and 
southern Brazil, ranging in winter from the breeding range north, at least casually, 
to Venezuela and Colombia. 

Accidental in Panama (Juan Diaz, western Panama province. 4 August 1923; 
Rogers, 1939, Auk, 56. p. 82), also an additional sight report from western Panama 
(Herrera). 

Notes.— Also known as Andre's Swift. 

Chaetura spinicauda (Temminck). Band-rumped Swift. 

Cypselus spinicaudus Temminck, 1839, Planches Color., livr. 102. Tabl. 
Meth., p. 57. Based on "Hirondelle a queue pointue de Cayenne" Dau- 
benton, Planches Enlum., pi. 726, fig. 1. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Lowland and foothill forest, foraging also over open country (Tropical 
and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southwestern Costa Rica (El General, Terraba and 
Golfo Dulce Regions) and Panama, and in South America from Colombia. Ven- 
ezuela (also Trinidad) and the Guianas south, west of the Andes to western Co- 
lombia and east of the Andes to the Guianas and Amazonian Brazil. 

Chaetura cinereiventris Sclater. Gray-rumped Swift. 

Chcetura cinereiventris Sclater, 1862, Cat. Collect. Am. Birds, p. 283. (Bahia, 
Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Primarily in montane forest and open woodland, foraging also over 
open situations in lowlands and foothills (Tropical and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in the Lesser Antilles (Grenada); from the Caribbean 
slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica south to western Panama (western Bocas del 
Toro); and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Trinidad) and the 
Guianas south, at least locally, west of the Andes to western Ecuador and east of 
the Andes to eastern Peru, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and southeastern 
Brazil. 

Notes.— C. cinereiventris and C. martinica constitute a superspecies; they are 
considered conspecific by some authors. 

Chaetura martinica (Hermann). Lesser Antillean Swift. 

Hirundo martinica Hermann. 1783, Tabula Affinit. Anim.. p. 229. (Marti- 
nique, West Indies.) 



322 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Habitat. — Mountain forest, ranging to sea level over woodland or open country. 

Distribution.— Resident in the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe. Dominica. Marti- 
nique. St. Lucia and St. Vincent): doubtfully recorded from Nevis (sight record). 
Reports from Trinidad are erroneous, being based on specimens actually taken 
on Dominica. 

Notes. — See comments under C. cinereixentris. 

Genus HIRUNDAPUS Hodgson 

Hirund-apus Hodgson. 1837. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. 5 (1836), p. "SO. Type, 

by original designation. Cypselus (Chaetura) nudipes Hodgson. 

Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham). White-throated Needletail. 

[422.2.] 

Hirundo caudacuta Latham. 1801?. Index Ornithol.. suppl.. p. 57. (Nova 
Hollandia = New South Wales. Australia.) 

Habitat & Distribution. — Breeds in the bottoms of hollow trees in montane 
forested regions m the Himalayas, and from Siberia south to Mongolia. Manchuria. 
Korea and Japan, and ■■■■■■inters over forested regions and open country from India 
and Formosa south to Australia and Tasmania. 

Accidental in the Aleutians on Shemya (21 May 19 "4: White and Baird. 1977, 
Auk. 94. p. 3S9) and Attu (24 May 197*8: Roberson. 1980. Rare Birds W. Coast. 
p. 236). and in Europe and New Zealand. 

Notes.— Also known as White-throated Needle-tailed Swift. 

[Genus AERODRAMUS Oberholser] 

Aerodramus Oberholser. 1906. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 58. pp. 
179. 182. Type, by original designation. Collocalia innominata Hume = 
Hirundo fuciphaga Thunberg. 

Notes.— This genus is often merged in Collocalia G. R. Gray. 1840. 

[Aerodramus vanikorensis (Quoy and Gaimard). Gray Swiftlet.] See 
Appendix B. 

Subfamily APODINAE: Apodme Swifts 

Genus APUS Scopoli 

Apus Scopoli. 1"~. Introd. Hist. Nat., p. 483. Type, by tautonymy. Hirundo 
apus Linnaeus. 

Apus apus (Linnaeus). Common Swift. [424.2.] 

Hiriuido Apus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1. p. 192. (in Europas altis = 

Sweden.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in tree cavities and in cliffs and buildings from 
northern Eurasia south to northern Africa. Arabia. Iraq, the Himalayas and north- 
eastern China, and winters in the southern half of Africa. 



ORDER APODIFORMES 323 

Accidental in Alaska (St. Paul Island, in the Pribilofs, 28 June 1950; Kenyon 
and Phillips, 1965, Auk, 82, p. 633); a sight report from Barbados is questionable. 

Notes.— Known in Old World literature as the Swift. A resident African form, 
A. barbatus (Sclater, 1865), is sometimes considered conspecific with A. apus; 
they constitute a superspecies. 

Apus pacificus (Latham). Fork-tailed Swift. [424. 1 .] 

Hir undo pacific a Latham, 1801?, Index Ornithol., suppl., p. lviii. (Nova Hol- 
landia = New South Wales, Australia.) 

Habitat.— A wide variety of habitats from seacoasts to mountains, generally 
breeding in colonies on cliffs, and in caves, buildings or tree cavities, migrating 
and wintering in both forested and open habitats. 

Distribution.— Breeds from eastern Siberia, Kamchatka and the Commander 
Islands south to northern India, the Malay Peninsula and southern China. 

Winters from the Himalayas and Malay Peninsula south to New Guinea, Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand. 

In migration ranges casually (primarily in summer and fall) to the Pribilof (St. 
George, St. Paul) and western Aleutian (Agattu, Shemya) islands. 

Accidental in the Seychelles. 

Notes.— Also known as White-rumped Swift, a name now generally restricted 
to the African species A. caffer (Lichtenstein, 1823). 

Apus melba (Linnaeus). Alpine Swift. 

Hirundo Melba Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 192. (ad fretum 
Herculeam = Gibraltar.) 

Habitat & Distribution.— Breeds in cliffs and buildings from southern Europe 
and India south to southern Africa, Madagascar and Ceylon, and winters generally 
throughout the breeding range, the northernmost populations being partly migra- 
tory. 

Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados, September 1955, after a hurricane; 
Bond, 1959, Birds W. Indies, 4th Suppl., p. 11). 

Genus AERONAUTES Hartert 

Aeronautes Hartert, 1892, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 16, pp. xiii, 436, 459. Type, 
by monotypy, Cypselus melanoleucus Baird = Acanthylis saxatalis Wood- 
house. 

Aeronautes saxatalis (Woodhouse). White-throated Swift. [425.] 

Acanthylis saxatalis Woodhouse, 1853, in Sitgreaves, Rep. Exped. Zuni Colo. 
Rivers, p. 64. (Inscription Rock, New Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Primarily mountainous country, especially near cliffs and canyons 
where breeding occurs, occasionally nesting in buildings and on seacliffs, foraging 
over forest and open situations in a variety of habitats (Subtropical and Temperate 
zones). 

Distribution.— Breeds from southern British Columbia. Idaho, Montana and 
southwestern South Dakota south through the Pacific and southwestern states 



324 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

(including the Channel Islands off California) to southern Baja California (a ques- 
tionable sight record of nesting on Guadalupe Island in 1892, unreported there 
since 1922), east to western Nebraska, northeastern and central New Mexico, and 
western Texas (to Val Verde County), and south through the interior of Mexico 
to Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. 

Winters from central California, central Arizona and, rarely, southern New 
Mexico (casually farther north) south to the limits of the breeding range in Middle 
America. 

Casual in eastern and southern Texas. Accidental in Kansas (Manhattan), Mich- 
igan (Hillsdale) and Arkansas (Hot Springs). 

Genus PANYPTILA Cabanis 

Panyptila Cabanis, 1847, Arch. Naturgesch., 13, p. 345. Type, by original 
designation, Hirundo cayennensis Gmelin. 

Panyptila cayennensis (Gmelin). Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift. 

Hirundo cayennensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., 1 (2), p. 1024. Based on "Le 
Martinet a collier blanc" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 6, p. 671, and "Martinet 
a collier de Cayenne" Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pi. 725, fig. 2. (in 
Cayenna = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland forest, foraging high over open and forested situa- 
tions and towns, and occasionally nesting on buildings as well as on cliffs and 
trees (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from Veracruz (Presidio), Oaxaca and Chiapas (Pal- 
enque) south locally on the Caribbean slope of Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua, 
in Costa Rica (Caribbean slope, and Golfo Dulce region on the Pacific) and Panama 
(both slopes), and in South America from Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and 
Trinidad) and the Guianas south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru and east- 
central Brazil. 

Panyptila sanctihieronymi Salvin. Great Swallow-tailed Swift. 

Panyptila sancti-hieronymi Salvin, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 190, 
pi. 23. (San Geronimo, Vera Paz, Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Montane forest, breeding in humid areas, foraging also over open 
situations at moderate elevations, including over towns (Subtropical and Tem- 
perate zones). 

Distribution.— R esident in the highlands of southern Mexico (Michoacan, Guer- 
rero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala and Honduras. 

Casual in north-central Nicaragua (El Corozo, Depto. de Nueva Segovia), also 
sight reports for Costa Rica. 

Genus TACHORNIS Gosse 

Tachornis Gosse, 1847, Birds Jamaica, p. 58 (footnote). Type, by monotypy, 
Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse. 



ORDER APODIFORMES 325 

Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse. Antillean Palm Swift. [425.1.] 

Tachomis phoenicobia Gosse, 1847, Birds Jamaica, p. 58 (footnote). (Ja- 
maica.) 

Habitat.— Lowlands, most commonly around human settlements, nesting in 
colonies in palm trees. 

Distribution.— Resident on Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Hispaniola (including Saona 
and Beata islands, and Ile-a-Vache) and Jamaica. 

Casual in the Florida Keys (Key West), also a sight report for Puerto Rico. 

Family TROCHILIDAE: Hummingbirds 

Notes.— Generic limits and relationships within this family are subjects of much 
controversy and are currently under study. 

Genus GLAUCIS Boie 

Glaucis Boie, 1831, Isis von Oken, col. 545. Type, by subsequent designation 
(G. R. Gray, 1840), G. braziliensis (Lath.) = Trochilus hirsutus Gmelin. 

Notes.— See comments under Threnetes. 



Glaucis aenea Lawrence. Bronzy Hermit. 

Glaucis ceneus Lawrence, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19 (1867). 
p. 232. (Costa Rica.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth and thickets bordering humid lowland forest, forest 
clearings, dense second growth and banana plantations, occasionally mangroves 
(Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from the Caribbean slope of Nicaragua south through 
Costa Rica (both slopes) to western Panama (Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui and western 
Veraguas); and the Pacific coast of Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. 

Notes.— G. aenea and G. hirsuta are closely related and constitute a superspe- 
cies; they are regarded as conspecific by some authors. 

Glaucis hirsuta (Gmelin). Rufous-breasted Hermit. 

Trochilus hirsutus Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., 1 (1), p. 490. Based in part on 
"Le Colibry du Bresil" Brisson, Ornithologie, 3, p. 670. (in Brasilia = 
northeastern Brazil.) 

Habitat.— Dense undergrowth and thickets of humid forest edge, forest clear- 
ings, second growth and banana plantations (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident from central Panama (Code and western Panama prov- 
ince eastward), Colombia, Venezuela (also Tobago and Trinidad) and the Guianas 
south, east of the Andes, to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and central Brazil; and 
in the Lesser Antilles (Grenada). 

Notes.— Also known as Hairy Hermit. See comments under G. aenea. 



326 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Genus THRENETES Gould 

Threnetes Gould, 1852, Monogr. Trochil., pt. 4. pi. [14 and 15]. Type, by 
subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855), Trochilus leucurns Linnaeus. 

Notes.— Sometimes merged in the genus Glaucis. 

Threnetes ruckeri (Bourcier). Band-tailed Barbthroat. 

Trochilus Ruckeri Bourcier, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 46. (No locality 
given = Esmeraldas, Ecuador.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of humid lowland forest and dense woodland, forest 
edge and thickets (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Caribbean slope of Belize, eastern Guatemala. 
Honduras and Nicaragua, and from Costa Rica (both slopes, except dry northwest) 
and Panama south through Colombia to western Venezuela and northwestern 
Ecuador. 

Genus PHAETHORNIS Swainson 

Phaethornis Swainson, 1827, Philos. Mag.,newser.. 1. p. 441. Type, by original 
designation, "Troeh. superciliosus of Authors" = Trochilus superciliosus 
Linnaeus. 

Phaethornis guy (Lesson). Green Hermit. 

Trochilus Guy Lesson, 1833, Les Trochil.. p. 119. Index, p. xiv. (Brazil. 
error = Venezuela.) 

Habitat.— Humid foothill and montane forest, forest edge and second-growth 
woodland, primarily in undergrowth or understory (upper Tropical and Subtrop- 
ical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in Costa Rica and Panama, and in South America from 
Colombia and northern Venezuela (also Trinidad) south, west of the Andes to 
western Colombia and east of the Andes to southeastern Peru. 

Phaethornis superciliosus (Linnaeus). Long-tailed Hermit. 

Trochilus superciliosus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1. p. 189. Based 
on "Le Colibry a longue queue de Cayenne" Brisson, Ornithologie. 3. p. 
686, pi. 35, fig. 5. (in Cayania = Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of humid lowland and deciduous (occasionally mon- 
tane) forest, forest edge and second-growth woodland (Tropical and lower Sub- 
tropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Pacific slope from Nayarit south to western 
Oaxaca; and on the Caribbean slope from Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas south 
through Central America to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, 
and in South America from northern Colombia and southern Venezuela south, 
east of the Andes, to eastern Peru. Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. 

Notes.— The relationships between P. superciliosus and P. malaris (Nordmann. 
1835), which are sympatric in Cayenne, are uncertain; some authors have treated 
them as conspecific, or Middle American populations have been assigned to one 
or the other form. 



ORDER APODIFORMES 327 

Phaethornis anthophilus (Bourcier). Pale-bellied Hermit. 

Trochilus anthophilus Bourcier, 1843, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 6, p. 71. (la vallee 
superieure de la Madeleine, region temperee, la Colombie = upper Mag- 
dalena Valley, Colombia.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of lowland and foothill forest, forest edge, clearings, 
thickets and plantations, less frequently in forest than congeners (Tropical and 
lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Panama (eastern San Bias, eastern Panama 
province, and the Pearl Islands) east through northern Colombia to northern 
Venezuela. 

Phaethornis longuemareus (Lesson). Little Hermit. 

Trochilus Longuemareus Lesson, 1832, Les Trochil., p. 15; 1833, p. 160, pi. 
2, 62. (Cayenne.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of humid lowland and foothill forest, forest edge and 
dense second growth, also in similar situations in deciduous forest in more arid 
regions, and in plantations (Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle America from 
Veracruz, Campeche and Quintana Roo south through northern Oaxaca. Tabasco, 
Chiapas, Belize and eastern Guatemala to Honduras, on both slopes of Nicaragua 
(rare on Pacific slope), Costa Rica (rare in dry northwest) and Panama, and in 
South America from Colombia and Venezuela (also Trinidad) south, west of the 
Andes to western Ecuador and east of the Andes to eastern Peru and northern 
Amazonian Brazil. 

Genus EUTOXERES Reichenbach 

Eutoxeres Reichenbach, 1849, Avium Syst. Nat., pi. XL [generic description 
only]; species added, Gould, 1851, Monogr. Trochil., pt. 2, pi. [5 and 6]. 
Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855), Trochilus aquila 
"Lodd." = Bourcier. 

Eutoxeres aquila (Bourcier). White-tipped Sicklebill. 

Trochilus Aquila (Loddiges MS) Bourcier, 1 847, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 
42. (Nouvelle Grenade, les environs de Bogota = vicinity of Bogota. Co- 
lombia.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of humid forest, forest edge and thickets (upper Trop- 
ical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from central Costa Rica south locally through Panama, 
and in South America west of the Andes from western Colombia south to western 
Ecuador and east of the Andes from southeastern Colombia south to northeastern 
Peru. 

Genus ANDRODON Gould 

Androdon Gould, 1863, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3. 12, p. 247. Type, by 
monotypy, Androdon aequatorialis Gould. 



328 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS 

Androdon aequatorialis Gould. Tooth-billed Hummingbird. 

Androdon aquatorialis Gould. 1863. .Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3. 12. p. 247. 
(Ecuador.) 

Habitat.— Humid forest, forest edge, clearings and open woodland (Tropical 
and Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident from eastern Panama (eastern Danenj and Colombia 
(east to Magdalena Valley) south along the Pacific coast to western Ecuador. 

Genus DORYFERA Gould 

Dory f era Gould. 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 95. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray. 1855). Trochihis ludoxiciae Bourcier and Mulsant. 

Doryfera ludoviciae (Bourcier and Mulsant). Green-Fronted Lance- 
bill. 

Trochilus ludoxicice Bourcier and Mulsant. 1847. Ann. Sci. Phys. Nat. Agric. 
Inc. Soc. R.. etc.. Lyon. 10. p. 136. (Colombia = Buena Vista. 4500 feet. 
Eastern Andes above Villavicencio. Colombia.) 

Habitat. — Humid montane forest and forest edge (Subtropical Zone). 

Distribution.— Resident in the highlands of central Costa Rica (primarily the 
Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central) and Panama (Chiriqui. Veraguas and 
eastern Darien): and in the Andes of South America from Colombia and western 
Venezuela south to Peru and western Bolivia. 

Genus PHAEOCHROA Gould 

Phaeochroa Gould, 1861. Introd. Trochil.. p. 54. Type, by subsequent des- 
ignation (Elliot, 1879), Trochilus cuxierii De Lattre and Bourcier. 

Notes.— Some authors merge Phaeochroa in Campylopterus. 

Phaeochroa cuvierii (De Lattre and Bourcier). Scaly-breasted Hum- 
mingbird. 

Trochilus Cuvierii De Lattre and Bourcier. 1846. Rev. Zool. [Paris]. 9. p. 310. 
(isthme de Panama et Teleman, Amerique centrale.) 

Habitat.— Undergrowth of open woodland, forest edge, clearings, scrub, thickets 
and gardens (Tropical Zone). 

Distribution. — Resident on the Caribbean slope from Belize to northeastern 
Costa Rica (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui). and from central Costa Rica (primarily 
on the Pacific slope) south through Panama (both slopes, and on Isla Coiba) to 
northern Colombia. 

Notes.— The northern Middle American populations south to northeastern Cos- 
ta Rica are sometimes recognized as a distinct species. P. roberti (Salvin, 1861) 
[Robert's Hummingbird]. 

Genus CAMPYLOPTERUS Swamson 

Campylopterus Swainson. 1827. Zool. J.. 3. p. 358. Type, by subsequent 
designation (G. R. Gray. 1840). C. latipennis (Lath.) = Trochilus largipen- 
nis Boddaert. 

Notes. — See comments under Phaeochroa. 



ORDER APODIFORMES 329 

Campylopterus curvipennis (Lichtcnstein). Wedge-tailed Sabrewing. 

Trochilus curvipennis Lichtenstein, 1830, Preis.-Verz. Saugeth. Vogel, etc., 
Mex., p. 1, no. 32. (Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest, forest edge and open woodland 
(Tropical and lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from southern San Luis 
Potosi and southwestern Tamaulipas south through Veracruz, northeastern Pueb- 
la, northern Oaxaca, Tabasco, northeastern Chiapas and the Yucatan Peninsula 
to central Guatemala (Peten and Alta Verapaz) and Belize; also in eastern Hon- 
duras (Olancho). 

Notes.— Also known as Curve-winged Sabrewing. The morphologically dis- 
tinct form from the Yucatan Peninsula and northern Central America has been 
treated as a separate species, C. pampa (Lesson, 1832) [Wedge-tailed Sabre- 
wing], although intergradation with C. curvipennis [Curve-winged Sabrewing] 
in Campeche has been reported. C. curvipennis and C. excel/ens are treated as 
conspecific by many authors; they constitute a superspecies. Further study of this 
complex is needed. 

Campylopterus excellens (Wetmore). Long-tailed Sabrewing. 

Pampa pampa excellens Wetmore, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 54, p. 207. 
(Volcan San Martin, 3300 feet, Tuxtla Mountains, Vera Cruz, Mexico.) 

Habitat.— Humid lowland and foothill forest and open woodland (Tropical and 
lower Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in southern Veracruz (Sierra de Tuxtla and Jesus Car- 
ranza). 

Notes.— For recognition of C. excellens as a distinct species, see Lowery and 
Dalquest, 1951, Univ. Kans. Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 3, pp. 583-586. See also 
comments under C. curvipennis. 

Campylopterus rufus Lesson. Rufous Sabrewing. 

Campylopterus rufus Lesson, 1840, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 3, p. 73. (No locality 
given = Guatemala.) 

Habitat.— Humid montane forest, forest edge, scrub, fields and coffee planta- 
tions, in nonbreeding season also to forest at lower elevations (upper Tropical and 
Subtropical zones). 

Distribution.— Resident in eastern Oaxaca (Sierra Madre de Chiapas), Chiapas, 
central Guatemala and El Salvador. 

Campylopterus hemileucurus (Lichtenstein). Violet Sabrewing. 

Trochilus hemileucurus Lichtenstein, 1830, Preis.-Verz. Saugeth. Vogel, etc.. 
Mex., p. 1, no. 33. (Mexico.) 

Habita