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Cheese and Cheese-making 







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By James Long 


By James Long 


By James Long 



By James Long 

ENGLAND ... ... ... 53 

By James Long 


By John Benson 


By John Benson 




By John Benson 

By John Benson 

X. THE MILK INDUSTRY ... ... 115 

By James Long 


By James Long 


By James Long 




PROFESSOR HENRY, of the Wisconsin Agri- 
cultural College, recently stated that the loss 
of the American cheese trade with Great 
Britain was owing to the fact that his country- 
men did not make the best article, and that 
in many cases imitation cheese was produced 
for the sake of a possible temporary profit, but 
to the ultimate loss of all concerned. Whatever 
may be the immediate gain effected by the addi- 
tion of foreign fat to milk, or by the removal of 
a portion of the cream it contains, the permanent 
value of the cheese industry to the producer is 
maintained only by the manufacture of the best, 
and of its production in the largest possible 
quantity. To obtain both quantity and quality 



necessitates a close study of the subject and 
a recognition of the principles which underlie 
the practice of cheese-making. To obtain 
quantity of cheese it is essential to have rich 
milk. We are told by those who oppose the 
institution of a standard in this country that 
the solids present in milk do not exceed nj 
to 12 per cent., but the cheese-maker who 
produces or buys milk of this quality will 
not find his returns very satisfactory. The 
value of rich milk to the cheese-maker is two- 
fold. In the first place, cheese is chiefly com- 
posed of the fat and casein of the milk its 
two most important solids and water ; 
therefore, the more fat milk contains and 
this is by far the most important constituent 
the more cheese we produce per gallon, for 
three reasons : first, because the fat itself adds 
to the weight of the cheese ; next, because with 
the increase of fat there is an increase of casein, 
which follows in an almost constant ratio ; and 
last, it is a fact worth knowing that cheese pro- 
duced from rich milk, i.e. milk containing a 
high percentage of fat, retains more water, 
and consequently weight is obtained from this 


source also. Every good cheese is mellow in 
its texture, and to some extent this mellowness 
depends upon the proportion of fat the cheese 
contains. Recognizing these facts, we come to 
the first principle which it is essential to re- 
member, that in order to produce rich milk the 
cattle must be well selected, for quality depends 
rather upon breed than upon food. Nor is it 
entirely necessary to go to the Channel Islands 
for rich milkers. There are milkers of a very 
high order, as regards both quality and quantity, 
to be found in every British breed, particularly 
among Shorthorns and Devons. 

It is, therefore, by selection and by testing 
the milk of cows retained in the herd, and 
excluding those which produce poor milk, that 
quality is maintained. Although, as we have 
remarked, breed has more influence than food 
upon quality, yet the production of fat in milk 
depends largely upon good feeding, inasmuch 
as good feeding improves the yield although 
it may not increase the percentage of solids 
and consequently it increases the fat. Thus 
we get to the soil, and it is usually found that 
in those districts where the most luxurious 


crops are grown grass in particular, for it is 
the commonest food of cows the cattle are 
best, and the milk they produce most abundant. 
Soil, however, has another influence which it is 
essential to mention. As we shall show, acidity 
plays an important part in the process of cheese- 
manufacture. But acidity is to some extent 
controlled by the alkaline properties which are 
present in milk, and as a proportion of these 
properties depends to a large extent upon the 
soil from which they are obtained, so does 
the soil indirectly influence the quality of the 
cheese, unless, by the exercise of the highest 
skill, sufficient allowance is made and the acidity 
controlled. Similarly, water exercises an influ- 
ence when it contains an abnormal quantity of 
lime, and it is next to impossible to produce 
fine-flavoured cheese where such weeds as garlic 
are common on the pasture. The dairy, too, 
must be constructed with the object of providing 
perfect ventilation, the maintenance of an even 
temperature, and the exclusion of every possible 
means of conveying a taint to the milk. 

Upon the first part of the process of manu- 
facture in the dairy that of the coagulation of 


the milk a great deal depends. The period of 
the formation of the curd varies in accordance 
with the variety of the cheese produced. In the 
manufacture of soft cheese it is prolonged, some- 
times for a considerable period ; in the manufac- 
ture of pressed cheese it is usually short. The 
period of coagulation is influenced by the quality 
of the milk, the condition at the time the rennet 
is added, its temperature, and the strength and 
quantity of the rennet employed. The curd 
produced in a short time is elastic and compara- 
tively firm ; that produced after a prolonged 
period of coagulation is tender, it will scarcely 
bear cutting, and it parts with its fat, which is 
carried off in the whey unless it is very carefully 
handled. Thus it will be recognized that mel- 
lowness in cheese is obtained in different ways, 
but without sufficient moisture we can have no 
mellowness. Hence, if too large a quantity of 
rennet is used, if too much acidity is developed, 
or if the temperature is raised too high, the 
whey may be so rapidly and so completely 
expelled, that an insufficient amount of water 
will remain, either for the purpose of produc- 
ing the necessary mellow condition, or even of 


ripening the cheese. In the manufacture of 
pressed cheese the whey is expelled by cutting 
the curd and the finer it is cut the larger the 
surface exposed for its removal, by heating to 
a high temperature, by the development of 
acidity which causes the curd to contract 
and by pressing. In the manufacture of soft 
cheese, however, the curd is not cut, except in 
such large slices as are essential for its removal 
into the moulds ; but the whey drains off slowly 
by gravitation, and subsequently more is lost 
by evaporation. The cheese is soft because it 
retains more water than pressed cheese, while 
its flavour is largely influenced by the fact 
that it retains more sugar the sugar being 
in solution in the whey and because, in con- 
sequence, more acid (which is produced from 
the sugar) Is developed. A tender curd, then, 
such as is generally used in soft cheese-making, 
is obtained by setting the milk at a low tem- 
perature and by the employment of a small 
quantity of rennet. In this way coagulation 
will be delayed. It is also essential that the 
milk used should be sweet, for if, as in pressed 
cheese-making, a portion of the milk used has 


been allowed to stand for a number of hours, 
acidity will have commenced to develop, which 
hastens coagulation, and will in time actually 
produce it. 

The reason why curd which has been cut fine 
in the manufacture of large pressed cheese is 
left in the whey and heated, is that unless this 
were done it would not be sufficiently acid, for 
the curd when drawn from the whey is tough 
and dry as compared with the curd used in 
the manufacture of soft cheese. Unless this 
process were carried out the whey would not 
be expelled, and the cheese would not acquire 
its mellowness of texture or its fine nutty 
flavour. In soft cheese-making the curd is placed 
in small moulds ; small cheeses are, indeed, 
essential, otherwise the whey would be unable 
to find its way to the surface ; but unless the 
temperature is sufficiently high, it even then 
refuses to move, and for this reason soft cheese- 
making is conducted at specific temperatures 
which are applied to each variety of cheese. 
Theoretically, the time of coagulation is in 
inverse ratio to the quantity of rennet em- 
ployed, but in practice this axiom is not entirely 


borne out, although the reasons do not detract 
from its truth. The same conditions do not, for 
example, apply to large quantities of milk, or 
to entirely fresh milk, which apply to small 
quantities or to milk which has been practically 
ripened by exposure. Thus, in the manufacture 
of small cheeses small quantities of milk are 
employed, and this milk parts with its heat more 
rapidly than is the case with a large volume. 
Again, when acid is developed slightly in milk, 
less rennet is required, and a milk rich in fat 
does not produce the same result with the same 
quantity of rennet as a milk poor in fat. It 
is important, therefore, in cheese-making to 
understand the quality of the milk employed, 
and, where it has been exposed for any number 
of hours, to ascertain the quantity of acid 
which it contains. Where small quantities of 
milk are set for curd, wooden vessels should be 
used, as wood is a non-conductor of heat ; lids 
should be employed, and the whole covered 
with a blanket or any other non-conducting 

We have referred to the nature of the solid 
matter of milk. The cheese-maker should early 


learn to understand that only a portion of these 
solids find their way into the cheese, the bulk of 
the sugar of milk, which forms a large proportion 
of the total solid matter, remaining in the whey, 
together with portions of the mineral matter, the 
casein, the albumin, and the fat. Almost the 
whole of the casein is, however, extracted in 
cheese-making, this being coagulated by rennet 
or by acid, whereas the albumin passes into the 
whey in almost all varieties of curd which are 
not submitted during manufacture to a high 
temperature, as it is coagulated only by heat. 
There is, however, a material which has been 
described by chemists as albumose, which 
always passes into the whey, not being coagu- 
lated either by heat, rennet, or acid. In ac- 
cordance with the very extensive results obtained 
at the New York State Experiment Station, 
which we have had the advantage of inspecting, 
the average percentage of solids lost in cheese- 
making, i. e. by passing into the whey, amounts 
to 6-20, while the percentage of solids recovered 
from the milk, i. e. retained in the cheese, 
amounts to 6-30. The actual figures from 
my The Elements of Dairy Farming may, 



however, be quoted, as they are of considerable 

Milk-Constituents lost in Cheese-making. 

Lost in Whey for 100 Ibs. Milk. 




Total Solids 
Nitrogen Compounds ... 
Sugar, Ash, &c. 

6 '09 




5 '44 




5 '22 

Milk -Constituents recovered in Cheese-making. 

Retained in Cheese for 100 Ibs. Milk. 




Total Solids 

Nitrogen Compounds 


3 -I 9 







The term "nitrogen compounds" indicates 
casein and albumin. The largest proportion of 
solids which passed into the whey was in the 
months of August and September. The 
smallest proportion of fat lost in the whey was 
in June and July, whilst the smallest proportion 
of casein and albumin lost was in the months 
of July and August. Upon the basis of the 
work carried on at forty-eight cheese-factories, 
it was ascertained that 50*6 per cent, of the total 


solids of milk were recovered, including 90^98 of 
the fat and 7571 per cent, of the casein and albu- 
min. It has been supposed that a larger propor- 
tion of fat is lost when the milk is rich than when 
it is poor or of but moderate quality. But this is 
not the case, and the following table will show that 
the percentage of fat lost when the milk is rich 
is positively lower than when it is of lower 
quality ; also that the percentage of cheese made 
is enormously increased as the milk increases in 



Lbs. Fat 
lost in Whey 
per 100 Ibs. 

Per Cent. 
Fat of Milk 
lost in 

Lbs. Cheese 
made per 
100 Ibs. 





3 to 3'5 
3'5 to 4 
4 to 4*6 
4'5 to 5 
5 to 5 -25 






6 - oo 




IT is unnecessary to remark that our imports 
of cheese are very large ; in a recent year, in 
accordance with a calculation which we made, 
no less than 5*7 Ibs. of imported cheese were con- 
sumed per head of our population, as against 
7*9 Ibs. of home-made cheese, and the value of 
the cheese consumed in the same year per head 
of the people amounted to 6s., of which 2s. ^\d. 
went to the exporter. In 1892 we estimated 
the value of the cheese consumed in this country 
at eleven and three-quarter millions sterling, 
the home-produced article being valued at 
between six and a half and seven millions. 
The imports, however, have tended to increase, 
and if we take the month preceding that in 
which we write (1895) we find that the imports 
have reached 125,000 cwt, as against 71,000 



cwt. in the same month of the previous year. 
Taking the average quality of milk, this import 
of cheese for a single month represents fourteen 
million gallons, or the produce of 35,000 cows, 
giving an average yield of 400 gallons each per 
annum. A simple calculation, based upon the 
average number of cows kept in any one district, 
will show how many of our farmers are dis- 
placed by the energy of the foreign producer, 
and the low prices he is willing to take. 

The variety of cheese which is imported in 
the largest quantity into this country is made 
upon the Cheddar principle, although it comes 
from Canada, from Australasia, and from the 
United States, in each of which countries there 
is practically no rent to pay on the great major- 
ity of farms, while in very numerous instances 
the labour is performed by the occupiers them- 
selves. Thus it is that we are under-sold, in 
spite of the cost of freight across the ocean. 
Next to Cheddar come the Dutch varieties, 
Edam, or round, and the Gouda, or flat Dutch. 
We have had the advantage of inspecting 
numerous farms in Holland, and of seeing the 
cheese manufactured, and we are in a position to 


understand how easy it is for the thrifty and 
industrious Netherlander to supply the British 
market, although he does so, to a large extent, 
with cheese of inferior quality. 

Vast numbers of Dutch farmers are small 
owners, and live in the most frugal manner. 
Their cattle are deep milkers, and they feed 
upon extensive and luxuriant pastures, which 
are admirably managed, while the buildings 
forming the homestead are usually under one 
roof with the house proper, and are simplicity 
itself. It is not surprising, therefore, that Dutch 
cheese is sold at a low price. The Gouda variety 
is not unlike Cheddar when it is well manu- 
factured, but in the majority of instances both 
Gouda and Edam are of second quality, whether 
it be as regards flavour or texture. Gorgonzola 
probably takes third place. This cheese, largely 
manufactured in Italy, is produced by very small 
as well as by larger owners of cows, who obtain 
their curd in a manner which is not altogether 
perfect, especially as regards cleanliness, and 
who work upon a system, if such it may be 
called, which is extremely crude and incomplete, 
although in the Italian schools a well-defined 


and perfect system is seriously taught by men 
of considerable attainments, as we have had 
opportunities of recognizing. As a rule, the 
Italian farmer does not complete the process 
of curing, and this applies equally to the large 
and costly Parmesan, which is manufactured so 
extensively in Emilia and Parma. There is a 
class of middle-men who are capitalists and who 
possess admirably arranged ripening cellars and 
caves, and these persons buy the white cheese 
indeed it is often nothing more than green curd 
the curing of which they complete. Among 
varieties of a still more tasty character, we have 
the Roquefort, produced from sheep's milk, 
although cows' milk is to some extent taking its 
place; Camembert, Brie, Bondon, Neufchatel, 
and Port du Salut, all of which hail from France, 
the last-named being a partially pressed cheese, 
whilst the others are entirely unpressed and 
belong to the refined soft varieties. 

At the market price of cheese, which has been 
very low for some time, the English farmer who 
makes a really good article probably obtains $d. 
per gallon for his milk, net. There are, however, 
large numbers of makers who obtain less and 


who never make first-class cheese : there are 
some who obtain more and who have a reputa- 
tion for a first-class article. In the Colonies and 
America it is probable that makers as a body 
do not receive more than ^d. per gallon for their 
milk, net. If, therefore, we take an average 
cow of moderate pretensions, giving 400 gallons 
of milk per annum (and it is an undoubted fact 
that the majority of the cows in the country do 
not exceed this modest quantity), we shall find 
that the returns per cow, taking $d. as the 
basis, would amount to 8 6s. 8d., while the 
returns in the Cheddar-producing countries 
abroad would only amount to 5. In a 4O-cow 
dairy, therefore, the gross returns in England 
would amount to 366 per annum, and in the 
other countries referred to, to 200. The ques- 
tion now arises, whether this difference repre- 
sents the extra cost of rent, taxes, and labour : 
whether, in fact, the farmer is better off in this 
country with the higher receipts, or in other 
countries with the lower receipts. We venture 
to think that the British farmer holds the 
superior position, and that it is better worth 
his while to pay a good rent for good land and 


an excellent equipment under a good landlord 
in England than to pay no rent at all and we 
are speaking only of cheese-making either on 
the prairie of America or in the Australian bush. 
We are quite aware of the fact that the figures 
we have taken do not absolutely represent the 
exact state of affairs in either country, inasmuch 
as cheese is not made throughout the entire 
season, but they are sufficient for our purpose, 
for in both countries farmers obtain somewhat 
higher receipts in the winter, either by the sale 
of milk in England, or by the manufacture of 
butter in America and the Colonies. Further, 
the cheese-making farmer adds to his returns 
by the production of pork, in the manufacture of 
which he daily employs the whey from the cheese. 
The Dutch farmer does very little better than 
the Colonial farmer. As a small owner of land, 
he has no rent to pay, and as the labour upon 
his farm is confined to the management of the 
cows and a few pigs and the production of 
cheese, in which the wife of the farmer assists 
materially, there is little out of pocket paid in 
the year. The Italian farmers are not so fortu- 
nate as the Dutch ; they are extremely poor, 



and the bulk of the profit of the cheese industry, 
which is very extensive, finds its way into the 
hands of the curers and middle-men. In France, 
however, at all events so far as the leading 
varieties are concerned, the farmers do much 
better, and in the past they have obtained 
golden success in the production of their finest 
cheeses, hundreds of men having bought the 
farms they occupy out of the profits they have 
made. It has been no uncommon thing, and it 
is not uncommon to-day, to find French cheese- 
makers realizing from iod. to is. a gallon for all 
the milk they produce, through the medium of 
cheese. As we have urged for years, there 
are many varieties, some of which are well 
known in this country, which would have by 
this time enabled scores of English farmers to 
have followed their example. But, in spite of 
agricultural depression, in spite of the means 
of education which exist, and of the fact that 
we have introduced into this country the system 
of manufacture of a number of these varieties, 
systems which have been taught for some years 
now, we are not acquainted with a single 
practical farmer who has attempted to build up 


a business in any one variety, although there is 
an important market at his very door. 

We have referred to a number of the varieties 
of cheese which are imported. Naturally, 
Cheddar stands at the head of the list as a 
British cheese. A pound of Cheddar is usually 
represented by about 10 Ibs. or a gallon 
of milk ; but the quantity of cheese made from 
a given quantity of milk depends upon the 
quality of the milk, and this varies both with 
the cow and with the month of the year. In the 
Somerset Experiments and the New York State 
Experiments at forty-eight factories, the follow- 
ing quantities of milk, in pounds, were required 
in the various months named to produce each 
pound of cheese 

Somerset Expts. 
New York Expts. 












9 '95 


9 'S8 

TO '2 


9 '7 



Thus we see that in Somerset, our great 
Cheddar county, the milk was richest in 
October, the month in which it was also richest 
in New York ; but while it took considerably 
more than a gallon, on the average, to produce 
a pound of cheese in Somerset, it took less than 


a gallon in America ; and in five sets of experi- 
ments carried out upon an enormous scale in 
the States, the milk was always richer than in 
the experiments in Somerset, which were carried 
out upon actual cheese-making farms. As 
regards Cheshire cheese, which comes next to 
Cheddar in this country, we have not the 
same exact data; no work upon the same 
extensive and well-considered scale having 
been carried out in the successful county of 
Chester. These varieties are pressed cheeses, 
and in the same category come the Derby, the 
Gloucester, and the Leicester cheeses, all of 
which are but variations of the great Cheddar 
type, having nothing really typical or charac- 
teristic about them when considered apart from 
their prototype. The unpressed firm cheeses 
made in this country are known as Stilton, 
Wensleydale, and Cotherstone, all of which 
are mellow and ripened by the aid of the blue 
mould which grows in veins within them. In 
making these varieties, slightly more milk is 
required to produce a pound of ripened cheese 
than is the case with Cheddar or Cheshire, and 
consequently the value is higher ; but, owing to 


the extension of the system of dairy teaching, 
the two first-named of these varieties have been 
manufactured of late upon a much larger scale ; 
so much so in the last year that if production 
is further extended, the new makers will have 
reason to regret their entrance upon the in- 
dustry. They will find at the end of the 
season, when their harvest should arrive, that 
they have no market at any price ; and I, 
therefore, venture to caution milk producers 
against entering carelessly upon an industry 
which is now overdone. Far wiser would it be 
to commence the manufacture of the Swiss 
Gruyere, the Italian Parmesan, or the French 
Brie, Camembert, or Port du Salut, for each of 
which the market is still supplied by foreign 
producers. Broadly speaking, the cost of pro- 
ducing Cheddar or Cheshire, Derby or Leicester, 
Dutch or Gruyere, all of which are pressed 
cheeses, is similar in amount ; but immediately 
we handle the soft cheeses we reduce the cost 
of the milk required and increase the cost 
of labour. Abroad, old women are largely em- 
ployed in the work, and are paid very small 
wages, these persons assisting the female 


members of the farmer's family. A Camembert 
cheese sells readily for 6d., and weighs about 
ii ozs. A Brie, weighing i-J Ibs., or a little 
more, sells for is. 6d., also by retail. The quan- 
tity of milk required to make a Brie varies from 
two to two and a half gallons, and it may gener- 
ally be taken as a standard that half a gallon of 
milk of a little more than average quality will 
produce about 14 ozs. of white or unripened 
salable cheese, or 12 ozs. of ripened cheese, 
these figures being liable to increase or decrease 
in accordance with the quality of the milk. 
There is a sale in London for Camembert and 
Port du Salut as well as for Bondon, Neufchatel, 
and Gervais, all of which are very small cheeses, 
weighing a few ounces only, the first two being 
produced from new milk alone, and the last- 
named from a mixture of new milk and cream. 
The possibility of success depends upon the 
maker, for the London merchant is amenable 
to reason, and will buy in the English market 
if he can obtain a satisfactory article at a price 
which is at least not in excess of that charged 
by the Frenchman. 



THERE is no doubt that the manufacture of 
soft cheese is the most profitable branch of 
dairy farming in France. We have for many 
years paid much attention to this subject, in 
the hope that the system might be established 
in this country ; but, chiefly, perhaps, from 
want of knowledge of the system of manufacture, 
and to some extent from want of enterprise, 
our dairy farmers still allow the French to 
supply our markets, hesitating to take up a class 
of work which careful investigation would show 
them to be extremely profitable. The following 
remarks are not based upon theory ; they are 
the result of a considerable amount of labour 
devoted to the study of the processes of manu- 
facture of the leading varieties of soft cheese 
made in France. We were led to investigate 


the subject from the fact that no information 
was obtainable, and in spite of considerable help 
from personal friends in France we found great 
difficulty in arriving at really correct methods, 
while success was only achieved by continual 
experiment and practice. 

BRIE. In an article in the Journal of the 
Royal Agricultural Society, speaking of the 
Brie cheese, I pointed out that in five parishes 
in the Brie district alone six million cheeses 
were made annually. Assuming that each 
cheese weighed, upon the average, 4 Ibs., this 
quantity represented the yield of 25,500 cows, 
assuming each cow to produce 450 gallons of 
milk per annum. Reference to the agricultural 
returns will show that in a large number of 
our English counties the cows kept do not 
reach this number. It has been urged that 
if every dairy farmer took up the manufacture 
of a particular kind of soft cheese the market 
would rapidly be overdone ; but it is beside the 
mark to suggest what never has taken place 
and never will take place in connection with 
any industry, especially in this country, where 
farmers are proverbially careful in the extreme. 


The prices realized for Brie in Paris are often 
considerable, sometimes reaching a shilling a 
pound. The Parisians are large cheese-eaters, 
consuming about 12 Ibs. per head of the popula- 
tion per annum ; and the money annually spent 
in the wholesale markets of Paris in this one 
variety of cheese alone is estimated at about four 
million francs. The Brie is a large, round, flat 
cheese, varying from three-quarters of an inch 
to an inch in thickness, and from 8 to 12 inches 
in diameter ; but in a market like that of London, 
where the consumption is not large, chiefly, 
perhaps, because of the difficulty of placing the 
cheese before the public in prime condition, 
it is seldom offered in more than one size. In 
my own practice (for experimental work was 
followed by systematic manufacture) 10 Ibs. of 
rich milk or 12 \ Ibs. of ordinary milk were 
required to make a cheese which sold at is. 6d. 
The milk must not be skimmed, as the creamy 
character of the cheese is by this process very 
much diminished, as well as the mildness of its 

The plant required in the manufacture of soft 
cheese is neither considerable nor expensive. 


The draining-table should be made with a slight 
fall to the front, on the edge of which should 
be a narrow channel to carry off the whey ; 
wooden tables are usually covered with metal, 
but slate or brick-built stands faced with cement 
are still better. In either case the whey is 
enabled to run by gravitation into the channel, 
and is carried by the same force into a receptacle 
made for the purpose. The floor of the dairy 
should be of smooth hard cement laid on concrete, 
and the walls either of glazed bricks or smooth- 
faced Parian cement kept washed with lime. The 
utensils necessary are round wooden tubs with 
lids, stools on which to stand them preferably 
with rollers on the legs a large metal skimmer 
without perforations, a thermometer, a rennet 
measure, moulds made of tinned iron the exact 
diameter of the cheese to be made, boards made 
of seasoned wood so that they will not shrink, 
and sufficiently large to place the cheeses upon, 
mats made either of rush or fine rye-straw and 
large enough to cover the moulds, a salt-dredger, 
and some round osier plaques or plates, called by 
the French clayettes. The plate is intended for 
the cheese to rest upon instead of a plain board, 


so that air may penetrate beneath it. The 
mould is in two pieces, the bottom having a rim 
into which the upper portion fits. The object 
of these two pieces is that the cheese may 
be. conveniently turned, as we shall presently 

In the process of manufacture, the milk is 
strained into a ten-gallon tub, wood being used 
to prevent loss of heat, and the rennet added at 
a temperature of from 82 to 86 F. A little 
practice will show the manufacturer which 
temperature suits his milk best, and which to 
adopt at different seasons of the year. The 
curd should be fit to remove into the moulds 
in four hours, the apartment in which the work 
is performed being kept at from 60 to 62 F. 
Great care must be exercised to set exactly 
the quantity of milk required for the manu- 
facture of a given number of cheeses, and, as 
far as possible, each mould should be filled 
equally. Before moulding, the boards must be 
placed upon the draining-table, a dry, clean mat 
being laid on each, with the moulds on the top. 
The curd, which must be elastic, not sticking 
to the finger or the thermometer when inserted, 


is removed in large thin slices into the moulds. 
If the slices are thick the whey escapes with 
greater difficulty. When the moulds are filled 
the curd is left to drain, and in three to four 
hours, perhaps more in colder weather, the whey 
will have escaped and the curd have sunk into 
the lower portion of the mould. In this case 
the upper portion is removed, a mat is placed 
over the lower portion, followed by a board, the 
whole is rapidly inverted, the bottom mat and 
board removed, and subsequently cleansed, when 
the bottom of the cheese will be seen to be 
marked by the straws. On the following 
morning the same operation will take place 
again, so that the cheese will be marked on 
each side ; but with this turning the new mat 
is placed so that the marks will be crossed, 
causing a number of little points to appear on 
the surface of the cheese, instead of lines. These 
points will subsequently be covered with mould. 
In a few hours the last turning takes place, and 
again in from four to six hours the curd will be 
sufficiently firm to stand alone ; the mould will 
then be removed and the cheese fit to salt, this 
being done with extremely fine salt distributed 


by a dredger. Unless every portion of the crust 
receives salt the mould will not appear. Salting 
on the second side occurs some hours after the 
first salting : the cheese is then removed on its 
mat to a dayette and taken to the drying-room. 
Here it stays for a few days, being systematically 
turned until it is covered with white mould. 
In some cases it may stay in this apartment : 
in others a third room will be essential for the 
development of the blue mould, which gradually 
appears until the whole of the cheese is covered, 
so that at the end of from three to four weeks 
it is salable. In France, however, consumers 
of Brie prefer it in an advanced state of ripeness, 
and the blue cheese is therefore taken to an 
underground cave until it becomes so creamy that 
upon the breaking of the crust it runs, and in this 
condition it realizes a higher price. I venture to 
think, however, that the English taste would 
prefer the blue cheese, which is milder and more 
substantial. No Brie is thoroughly ripe until 
the white and somewhat solid curd has become 
yellowish and creamy throughout. Ripening 
proceeds from the outside, and on cutting any 
soft cheese of this character while this process 


is going on, it will be seen, if the ripening is 
not complete, that while beneath the crust the 
cheese is creamy, in the centre it is still solid 
and to some extent insoluble. It has been 
pointed out by Duclaux, a French chemist of 
considerable eminence who has studied this 
question perhaps more than any other inves- 
tigator, that the moulds which grow upon Brie 
and similar cheeses practically remove the acid 
present through the medium of what we may 
crudely term their roots, or mycelium, and that 
until this acid is removed the bacteria which 
are responsible for the ripening process are 
unable to complete their work. 

CAMEMBERT. Several years ago, I had the 
opportunity of inspecting a number of the most 
important Camembert dairies in the north of 
France, having already a close acquaintance with 
the system of manufacture. In one of these 
dairies that of M. Roussel 1800 cheeses were 
made daily from 800 gallons of milk, the produce 
of 400 cows. I estimated at the time that if M. 
Roussel produced Camembert during only five 
months of the year he would turn out 107 tons 
of cheese, which at that time was realizing a 


somewhat extravagant price. It is therefore 
not surprising that the Camembert makers were 
able to save money and to buy the farms they 
occupied. From investigations made in the 
county of Calvados, in which Camembert is 
chiefly made, I learned that there were large 
numbers of farmers who each made from 10,000 
to 160,000 cheeses per annum. There were 50 
farmers manufacturing more than 25,000 per 
annum, and large numbers making smaller 
quantities. From the station of Lisieux 655,000 
kilogrammes were dispatched ; and from the 
village station of Mesnilmauger 12,500 cases 
containing 62,000 dozen. In some other 
counties the manufacture was also considerable, 
but now it is possible that it is doubled. Certain 
it is that Camembert is much more largely 
consumed, and that the bulk of the cheese which 
arrives in this country is produced from milk 
which has been partially deprived of its cream. 
Camembert was invented during the Revolution 
of 1791 by the ancestress of M. Cyrille Paynel, 
a large maker in Calvados, recently dead, whose 
acquaintance I made on my first visit to the 
district. It is well known in every part of 


England, and would be certain to sell in much 
larger numbers than at present if its production 
were taken up as an industry. A gallon of rich 
milk produces about 2\ cheeses, so that a cow 
yielding 600 gallons would make 1350 cheeses, 
which, at afed. each which I believe to be the 
wholesale price of average cheese would realize 
2$ 6s. 6d. without the whey. The manufac- 
ture of Camembert, in a word, enables the 
producer to realize from lod. to is. per gallon 
for his milk during the summer season, when 
Cheddar realizes only $d. to 6d. a gallon (slightly 
more or less according to its quality), and butter 
about ^d. 

The following is a description of the system 
adopted in the manufacture of the cheeses made 
in my own dairy, which gained the 10 prize 
at the Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle, 
and the silver medal at the London Dairy 
Show. Seventy-five pounds of milk was set 
in the morning, and a similar quantity in the 
evening, at a temperature of 80 F. The 
quantity of rennet added to each lot was 2j 
cubic centimetres. The curd was fit for removal 
into the moulds in 8J hours. The moulds are 


small, deep cylinders, the inside diameter being 
equal to the diameter of the cheese. They are 
perforated, and are placed close together on an 
inclined draining-table upon large mats. A 
hundred and fifty pounds of the milk used, 
which, by the bye, was of high quality, produced 
three dozen cheeses ; the 36 moulds were, there- 
fore, nearly filled with the curd of the morning. 
In the afternoon the curd had sunk more than 
half-way down the moulds, which were again 
filled to the brim with the curd of the evening. 
On the following day, the curd having become 
partially firm by drainage, each mould was in- 
verted on fresh mats. This is a somewhat delicate 
operation, and skill is only acquired by practice. 
Turning continues until the cheeses are firm 
enough for the moulds to be removed. They 
were then salted alternately on each side and 
placed in batches upon clean mats, which were 
laid upon boards made for the purpose, and left 
upon shelves which were fixed above the draining- 
table. Here they were regularly turned until the 
white mould commenced to grow, when they 

were taken to the sechoir or drying-room. In 



this apartment they remained until the blue 
mould commenced to grow, when they were 
removed to a cave, which was excavated in the 
chalk. Here great attention had to be paid 
to ventilation, and to the hygrometric condition 
of the atmosphere, and until this was perfected 
it was impossible to obtain first-class cheese; 
but once the condition was acquired there was 
no further difficulty. With the continued growth 
of the mould, ripening is pursued ; insoluble 
curd becomes soluble, the flavour is acquired, 
and the cheese becomes fit for market. In 
some cases it may be necessary to heat the 
milk up to 86, while some makers in France 
do not remove the curd until four hours, 
and others remove it in two. Small quantities 
of milk are always renneted in preference to 
large quantities. Great care must be taken in 
preventing a damp atmosphere either in the 
drying or ripening rooms. During fine weather 
both Vooms are well ventilated, cross draughts 
being arranged in the former apartment, but 
during wet weather draughts are excluded 
and the room is kept as dry as possible. With 


excessive humidity the white mould changes to 
black, a variety known as the Aspergillus niger, 
while the blue mould, which is responsible for 
so much work in the process of ripening, is the 
common Penicillium glaucmn the shape of the 
tiny filaments known as hyphae, which are re- 
sponsible for the propagation of the spores of the 
mould, resembling a painter's brush, hence the 
Latin word penidllium. It is curious that these 
tiny fungoid plants should have so important 
an influence in the ripening of cheese. The 
blue mould is unquestionably the dominant 
fungus in the atmosphere of the dairy ; it will 
not only grow luxuriantly at the temperature 
at which soft cheese ripens, but at a still lower 
temperature when it is provided with a suitable 
soil or feeding material. It has been assumed 
by some writers that it is essential to cultivate 
the moulds common to cheese ; but this is not 
the case. It is common to every household, 
and its spores or seeds are so easily dispersed 
by the movement of the atmosphere that 
wherever such a material as cheese is placed 
it is certain to be attacked. The maker 
of soft cheese should, therefore, observe the 


recognized rules of cleanliness which apply to all 
dairies : lime, boiling-water, and the scrubbing- 
brush being used with absolute freedom, and 
without any fear of eradicating the fungus, the 
aid of which is so essential to success. 



IT is curious that the public should hold 
opinions with regard to the production of the 
various cheeses having blue or moulded veins 
within, which are entirely unwarranted by the 
facts. I refer to such varieties as the Gorgon- 
zola of Italy and the Stilton of this country. 
It is supposed by some that Gorgonzola, for 
example, is the product of goats' milk, or of 
the milk of the goat blended with the milk of 
the cow ; and by others that the blue mould is 
introduced by the insertion of metal skewers, 
which, by the way, are sometimes used, and 
used, too, for the purpose indicated, although 
the result is achieved in a very different manner 
from that supposed. The blue mould of cheese 

is the common penicillium which attacks bread 


and other materials common in the household. 
It is probable that it is abundant in every apart- 
ment of a house, and nowhere more so than in 
the dairy where cheese is made. If we regard 
the mould as a plant, and that plant as a weed, 
we shall better understand the principle which 
is followed in its extensive production by 
remembering that as the seeds of weeds are 
more prolific in the production of plant life 
when they fall upon fertile soil (such as the 
well-tilled and well-manured arable land of the 
farm) than when they fall upon the highway, 
so does the tiny plant which we call mould 
increase with great rapidity when it alights, as 
it were, from the atmosphere upon curd, which 
to it is a most fertile soil. It grows, elaborates 
its seeds or spores, which in their turn are shed 
abroad, falling upon similarly fertile soil, the 
curd of other cheeses, ultimately covering the 
portions in which they are permitted to grow. 

GORGONZOLA. Gorgonzola cheese is made 
from average cows' milk of the northern part 
of Italy, in which country I had the advan- 
tage of learning a great deal about the system. 
The cows' milk of Lombardy, to which refer- 


ence is chiefly made, is not so rich as is 
generally supposed, but it is not absolutely 
essential that the milk intended for conversion 
into Gorgonzola or Stilton cheese should be 
specially rich in fat. To a very large extent 
this milk is produced by small owners of cows, 
who manufacture the cheese, but do not perfect 
or ripen it, selling it to merchants for this 
purpose, who in their turn finish the process 
in the cellars and caves which they own. 
Gorgonzola is a cheese which is produced from 
two curds, that is to say, from two lots of curd 
made at different times. When the two curds 
are put into the mould which gives form to the 
cheese, one is cold and stale and the other warm 
and fresh. For example, assuming the cheese 
to be moulded in the morning, the milk of the 
evening previous having been brought to a 
temperature varying from 80 to 85 F., and 
in some cases 90 F., the rennet is added. 
It is important, however, to make one or two 
remarks at this point. In dairies which are 
conducted upon defined principles the temper- 
atures adopted are systematically arranged in 
accordance with the weather ; but large 


numbers of small farmers who have no dairies 
worthy the name, add the rennet to the milk 
just as it comes from the cow, so that the 
temperature may vary from 90 up to 93. 
Again, the rennet generally used in Italy 
is a filthy preparation which is, practically 
speaking, the macerated stomach of the calf, 
the actual animal matter itself. A portion of 
this material is placed in a piece of cloth and 
dipped with the left hand into the milk, the 
right hand the while squeezing it in order that 
the extract which exudes may be mixed with 
the milk, which is subsequently stirred. In 
Italy the curd, when fit for cutting or breaking, 
is gently broken with an instrument called a 
paumdrilo : the operation lasting about a 
quarter of an hour. The whey is gradually 
expelled until the curd is fit to be hung up 
in a cloth on to a hook in the ceiling, and 
there left until the following morning. It 
is essential that the apartment in which it 
hangs should be at least 60, but not 
more than 65 F. If higher, it may become 
too dry; if lower, tco heavy, the whey 
not leaving it properly. Naturally, however, 


difficulties are met with by the small dairymen 
in the mountainous districts, especially those 
who are constantly moving with their herds of 
cattle, and therefore compelled to make the cheese 
wherever they may be ; this system it is which 
accounts for so much inferior Gorgonzola. 

The curd of the morning is in the first place 
treated in a similar manner to that adopted with 
the curd of the evening, but when broken every 
effort is made to obtain from it a large quantity 
of whey while it is still warm. A small quantity 
of acid forms in the evening's curd, but the 
curd of the morning should be perfectly sweet. 
The mould used in the manufacture of Gorgon- 
zola is a curled piece of wood, preferably beech ; 
but in some cases metal is being introduced in 
consequence of the fact that it can be more 
easily cleaned, not absorbing the whey, as is 
the case with -wood. To one end of the mould 
a cord is attached, so that the cheese may 
be tightened or loosened as may be found 
desirable. When ready for moulding the curd 
is placed on the draining-table, which is fluted 
to carry off the whey, and the mould is placed 
on a rye-straw mat. Sometimes the mould is 


divided into two parts, the upper portion fitting 
into the rim at the head of the lower portion, 
and being removed when the curd sinks. Before 
filling, the mould is lined with a strainer cloth. 
In commencing, the bottom of the mould is 
covered with a thin layer of the warm morning's 
curd. Above this is placed a layer of the curd 
of the previous evening, followed again by 
another layer of warm curd, and so on until 
the top is reached, care being taken that the 
warm curd covers the entire surface of the 
cheese. The prime object, as I believe, of thus 
alternating the two different kinds of curd is 
that the mould is enabled to grow in the inter- 
stices which are formed, inasmuch as the warm 
and cold curds never unite in the same close, 
homogeneous manner as is the case where the 
curd is all made from one lot of milk, and is 
all of one temperature. 

MOULD-RIPENING. In different countries 
different methods are followed for the pro- 
duction of the mould. For example, in that 
part of France where the famous Roquefort 
cheese is produced from the milk of the ewe, 
the makers do not rely absolutely upon its 


natural growth, but they specially prepare a kind 
of bread, which is crumbled, and upon which 
mould is induced to grow, which it will easily 
do by exposure to a slightly warm, humid 
atmosphere. The mouldy crumbs which are 
thus produced are mixed with the curd, which 
is subsequently converted into cheese. 

After the cheese has been formed it remains 
for drainage in an apartment at about 66 F. 
It is frequently turned, taken out of the 
mould, the cloth changed, and turned again. 
In Lombardy, where the cheese is sold in its 
new or green form, it is weighed at the time 
it is last taken out of the mould. It is then 
ready for removal to the salting-room, where 
it subsequently remains a few days at 68 F. 
The cheese will then be found covered with 
a fine growth of white fungus, which is an 
indication that it is ready for salting. The 
finest salt is used by the best manufacturers, 
although those who exercise little care use 
any salt which comes to hand. The surface 
of the cheese is entirely covered by gently 
sprinkling, the salt being subsequently rubbed 
into the crust with the hand. As a rule, 


this method of salting continues daily for a 
considerable period, from two to four weeks ; u 
but in some cases the upper portion of the 
cheese is salted at one time and the lower portion 
at another, that is, on the following day, so that 
the entire cheese is really salted from twelve to 
fifteen times. When this process has been 
completed, the texture of the cheese may be 
examined. If it is too close, it is possible that 
the fungus or blue mould will not grow with 
freedom. In this case the cheese is pierced with ^ 
metal skewers, which admit the air, and with it 
oxygen, which the fungi require, for they are 
unable to grow in its absence. Should the 
texture, however, be sufficiently light and 
generous, nothing need be feared, as it will 
grow equally as well as in the Stilton, in which 
the texture is generally closer and mellower. 

When Gorgonzola cheeses are taken to the 
cave to ripen and some of the Italian caves 
which we have been enabled to see are very fine 
and well arranged they are laid upon shelves 
covered with rye- straw and kept at a temperature 
of about 55 F. As with other cheeses, ripen- 
ing can be hastened by a rise in the temperature, 


but the best cheese is that which is produced 
during the process of a longer time, and at a 
lower temperature. During the ripening process, 
which may take as long as from four to five months, 
or even more, different varieties of fungi grow 
upon the crust. The first to appear is a fungus 
of a dark colour, which is followed by a white 
mould, and subsequently by a red fungus, which is 
supposed to give colourtothe cheese, although this 
colour is generally simulated by artificial means. 
The best Gorgonzola is of a very high type 
indeed, but it is seldom seen in this country. 

STILTON. The leading blue moulded cheese 
in this country is the famous Stilton, and the 
system adopted in its manufacture is not unlike 
that which is followed in Italy in the manufacture 
of Gorgonzola, or in France in the manufacture of 
Roquefort and several other varieties of a similar 
character. Stilton is the leading cheese of a 
class which in this country includes the Wensley- 
dale and the Cotherstone, both of which when 
really perfect are varieties which it is difficult to 
beat ; indeed, a perfect Wensleydale, with its mild 
flavour and mellow texture, is scarcely equalled 
by a perfect Gorgonzola, and I am not sure, 


although Stilton is made in my own dairy, that 
this more famous variety can at its best equal 
either of those named at their best. It is, 
however, fair to say that perfect cheeses of 
either kind are much less often seen than is the 
case with Stilton, in the production of which 
very considerable skill is now brought to bear, 
the industry being one in which there is keen 
competition, and which, in consequence, it is 
to be feared, will in the future yield lower prices 
to those who produce this cheese. There are 
different methods adopted in the production of 
Stilton, which it is proverbially supposed can 
only be manufactured with success in Leicester- 
shire. This, of course, is fallacious ; but there 
is a great deal in Leicestershire herbage, if not 
in Leicestershire cattle or climate. A method 
which will be found successful is that of setting 
the morning's milk at 85 R, and removing the 
curd in thin layers at the end of an hour into 
the draming-cloths which are laid upon a 
properly constructed draining-table. It should 
be observed, however, that in no case is it 
possible to lay down definite figures for all 
cases, whether they relate to temperature, time, 


or the quantity of rennet used. The quality 
of the milk and the climate of the district have 
considerable influence, and these influences 
must be met by a slight deviation either in 
the temperature at which the milk is set 
or the quantity of rennet added, to say 
nothing of one or two subsequent details. 
The curd then is placed layer by layer into the 
drainers. Here, being warm, it gradually parts 
with its whey, and as it becomes firmer the 
corners of each cloth are tied loosely together, 
in order that the slight pressure thereby 
exerted may cause the whey to leave it still more 
effectually. These corners are from time to 
time tightened until the curd is fairly firm, and 
can be handled without breaking into pieces. 
When the temperature of the air is about 60 F. 
the curd may be generally left throughout the 
night, but when the temperature is below 60, the 
curd had better be slung in a cloth from the 
ceiling, as suggested with regard to the Gorgon- 
zola. In this way the curd parts with its whey 
more freely. On the following morning it may 
be removed, cut in cubes, and laid in an open 
shallow tin vessel to air. Airing is a somewhat 


indefinite term, but it may be mentioned that 
the object is to create or increase acidity in 
the curd. There can be no acidity without 
contact with oxygen, and as the air contains 
oxygen, so the curd is aired. 

The morning milk is treated in a similar 

manner, and sometimes on the evening of the 

day on which this curd was produced 

it may be placed within the mould, but it 

depends upon its condition, for it must not 

be broken up for moulding until it is 

sufficiently firm and ripe, more particularly if 

the weather is cold, as in this case the cheese 

would swell and be utterly spoiled. On the 

second day, however, it is always possible to 

mould. The mould used is a cylinder slightly 

larger in diameter than a Stilton cheese itself. 

It is perforated with a number of rather large 

holes, through which a certain quantity of the 

whey exudes when the curd is within it. The 

mould is placed upon a cloth and is gently 

filled by the hands with the mixed curd of the 

two milkings. At this time the earlier curd is 

distinctly acid both in taste and smell, and also 

silky and mellow. Before mixing, both curds 


are broken into fine pieces with the fingers as 
gently as possible, and, after weighing, mixed 
with a fair proportion of salt. It is salted curd, 
therefore, of which the cheese is made, and in this 
particular, as well as in others, it differs from the 
Gorgonzola process. Both top and bottom of the 
cheese are carefully finished off so that the edges 
are cut clean and the surface level. In the 
course of three or four days, should the tempera- 
ture be maintained at from 60 to 63 F., the 
cheese will be firm, and will have left the sides 
of the mould, which may be lifted from it, 
allowing it to stand alone. It is now bound 
with a calico binder somewhat tightly, and 
pinned top and bottom. This bandage is 
removed and a clean one put on every day 
until the somewhat wrinkled coat of the cheese 
has partially formed. It is then taken to the 
drying-room and subsequently to the ripening- 

All cheeses of this character lose con- 
siderably in weight, in spite of the fact that 
they are not pressed, and yet they maintain a 
mellower, softer, creamier texture than cheeses 
which have been pressed. It is possible to 


hasten the process of ripening : first, by drying 
the cheese at a slightly higher temperature than 
is common, and next, by ripening it in an 
apartment kept at from 65 to 67 F., and pro- 
nouncedly humid. On the other hand, ripening 
may be delayed by the adoption of a lower 
temperature, which both prevents the mould 
from growing so freely, and the bacteria (which 
play an important part in the conversion of 
the insoluble curd into soluble cheese) from 
carrying out their work so rapidly. 

New makers are apt to take up a variety 
of cheese, the producers of which are already 
numerous. The Italians are producing more 
and more Gorgonzola, while in England, Stilton, 
being the most fashionable of the blue moulded 
cheeses of this country, has had the ranks of its 
makers reinforced so much of late, that the price 
has fallen to such an extent that the industry 
will presently not be worth following. There is 
great room for the extension of the system 
adopted in Wensleydale, and it is certain that if 
this cheese were systematically produced, and if 
it were mild and mellow as the very finest of 
the samples are, it would be much more largely 


sold than is possible under present conditions, 
under which its sale is almost localized, and its 
existence practically unknown in many parts of 
the country, to say nothing of the other English- 
speaking countries of the world. The manu- 
facture of all these varieties is taught at the 
British Dairy Institute, Reading, and we are in 
a position to know that the instruction is really 
worthy of the attention of those engaged in 
dairy work. 



THE term " fancy cheese " has usually been 
applied to varieties produced from cream or full 
milk, or a mixture of cream and milk, which are 
small in size by comparison with the large cheeses 
of all countries, and which are unpressed, or only 
partially pressed, in the course of manufacture. 
But the Americans have applied the term to 
some cheeses which are pressed and which 
really have no claim to it in any sense of the 
word. Sometimes a private maker, who has a 
considerable reputation as a prize-taker, and 
who is in consequence enabled to obtain high 
prices, is termed a maker of " fancy " cheese 
for the simple reason that his product is excep- 
tionally excellent, and that it is obtainable only 

by those who are willing to pay the price for it. 


It should be the duty of every maker to en- 
deavour to produce fancy cheese in this sense, 
but there is no fear of the article being 
placed before the public in too large a quantity, 
as there are comparatively few makers who 
excel, the great majority producing cheese of 
second quality. Fancy cheese has not been 
produced in this country to any considerable 
extent. We have already named a few varieties ; 
there are, however, others which are worthy 
of the consideration of the manufacturer. On 
the Continent, and more particularly in France 
and Italy, there are numbers of small cheeses 
of various types produced in different localities, 
each of which has its admirers who consume it 
in large quantities, and who pay the producer a 
relatively larger sum per pound than is obtained 
by the makers of the huge pressed cheeses of 
Great Britain, America, and the Australian 
Colonies. Let us refer to some of these varieties. 
We have already mentioned the famous Gruyere 
of Switzerland, the Parmesan of Italy, both of 
which are pressed cheeses of considerable size ; 
we have also referred to the blue cheeses made 
in our own country, to the Gorgonzola of Italy, 


and the Roquefort of France, as well as to the 
two leading soft cheeses made by different 
sections of the French people, the Brie and the 
Camembert. These varieties may be supple- 
mented by the Port du Salut, Pont 1'Eveque, 
and Neufchatel, the Gervais, Coulommiers, and 
Bondon, all of which are made in France. 

PORT DU SALUT. The Port du Salut has 
long been one of the most delicate and popular 
varieties made upon the Continent, but although 
there are numerous makers, those who produce 
the perfect article are extremely few in number. 
The system of manufacture has until recently 
been supposed to be the secret of the Trappist 
monks, a colony of whom are located at the 
Monastery of Bricquebec, in the Department 
of Manche. A few years ago I had the 
pleasure of accompanying to the north of 
France a party of our own countrymen who 
desired to see something of the dairy system 
pursued by the most successful among the 
Norman farmers. We were enabled to see a 
great deal in consequence of the kindness and 
liberality of several of the farmers and others 
with whom I was previously acquainted. But 


my application to the Monastery, although 
backed by an introduction from one of the 
highest officials in the French Agricultural 
Department, was met by the response that no 
outsider was ever allowed to see the process of 
manufacture pursued ; that, in a word, the monks 
could not trust their own friends, who under the 
guise of curiosity had in previous years appar- 
ently taken advantage of the privilege extended 
to them to describe something of the system 
pursued, and thus to place other people in 
possession of a secret which is so jealously 
guarded. Secrets of this kind, however, are 
not long-lived, and it is impossible to prevent 
those who are acquainted with the principles of 
cheese-making from producing a variety of this 
character if they care to take the trouble to 
make a few thoughtful and well-arranged ex- 
periments for themselves. The Port du Salut 
cheese is not unlike a variety made in this 
country and known as the Caerphilly ; it is 
circular in form, flat, about an inch in thickness, 
and partially pressed. The pate, or flesh of the 
cheese, is extremely mellow or creamy, and yet 
homogeneous and firm in consistence, although 


there are a large number of holes throughout, 
which are characteristic of the variety, and 
which, in proportion to their size and number, 
are concurrent with its flavour. The milk 
is brought to a temperature of 86 F., and 
sufficient rennet is added to bring the curd 
in thirty minutes. The temperature is slightly 
varied with the season, as with almost every 
other variety of cheese, while the rennet used 
is in proportion to the quality of the milk. 
The curd, which is primarily deprived of a portion 
of its whey by gravitation, is subsequently en- 
closed in a mould which is lined with a strainer- 
cloth, and subjected to slight pressure. The 
press generally used is of a very simple character ; 
a number of screws are placed side by side on 
a beam, several cheeses being pressed at the 
same time. The screws are really turned by 
hand, so that it will be seen in a moment how 
slight and simple the process is. Port du Salut, 
having been deprived of its superfluous water, 
is ripened at a temperature of 54 F. The 
object is to prevent it becoming dry, and to 
ensure that slow process of change which is 
brought about by bacteria, so that it will be 


soft, mellow, nutty, and yet mild in flavour. 
This variety is already sold in England, and 
it is appreciated in London, where it is 
growing in favour. It is one of the most 
delicious cheeses, and its character is such that 
if it became better known to the English 
people it would be more highly appreciated, 
and would obtain a considerable sale. I know 
of no variety which is more worthy of pro- 
duction, and those who take it in hand will not 
only find that it is easily made, but that it will 
return them a profit far in excess of anything 
which can be obtained by the manufacture of 
the pressed cheeses which are made in such large 

PONT L'EVEQUE. Pont PEveque cheese is 
a variety with a great local reputation in the 
north of one of the most important dairy depart- 
ments of France. It takes its name from a 
village not far from Havre and Lisieux, and 
is sold in considerable quantities in the fashion- 
able watering-places of Trouville and Deauville. 
I was enabled to see the system pursued by the 
most famous maker, a highly intelligent farmer, 
upon his own farm near Pont 1'Eveque. This 


cheese, although unpressed, is firmer in texture 
than either the Brie or the Camembert, owing to 
its being deprived of its whey with much greater 
rapidity. The cheese is either square or oblong, 
slightly less than an inch in thickness, and weigh- 
ing from 14 to 17 ounces, for the size is not 
uniform; its crust is comparatively tough, and it 
may be kept for a considerable time with safety. 
Practically speaking, a gallon of milk will produce 
a good cheese, but as milk varies considerably 
in quality, it follows that very rich milk would 
produce a much larger cheese than poor milk. 
The milk is set at a temperature of 88 F., 
with sufficient rennet to bring the curd in fifteen 
minutes. A large rush or rye-straw mat is 
laid upon the draining-table. This mat may 
measure a yard in length by 26 to 30 inches 
in width, in accordance with the quantity of 
curd handled. When the curd is firm enough 
to remove, it is gently cut in cubes of large 
size, and with equal gentleness removed 
with a metal dish on to the mat, where it 
immediately commences to part with its whey. 
As the whey runs off, the curd toughens, the 
ends of the mat are drawn together, the slight 


pressure involved causes a still further loss of 
whey, and this goes on until the curd can be 
handled and placed in the metal moulds, which 
are made in accordance with the size the cheeses 
are intended to be. The newly-moulded 
cheese is then placed upon a small mat, and 
on the evening of the first day turned on to 
another mat. The result is that both sides of 
the cheese are free from fractures, the curd being 
homogeneous, and both are marked with the 
straws. It need hardly be added that where a 
large number of cheeses are made the mats are 
numerous and large, and provision is made for 
the moulds to stand side by side in order that 
space may be economized. Turning goes on 
from day to day until the metal mould is re- 
moved. Fungi then gradually appear on the out- 
side of the cheese until it is ultimately covered 
with blue. This growth depends upon the tem- 
perature adopted : in the first stage of manu- 
facture the temperature of the dairy is 63 ; when 
the cheese is removed into the first ripening 
apartment it is kept at 58, and when it is 
taken to the cave for slow ripening, it is kept 
at 56. Here, again, the apartment should be 


slightly humid as well as cool, one reason being 
that it is essential to maintain the moist character 
of the cheese, and to prevent the evaporation 
which, if allowed to continue, would ensure its 
being dry, unpalatable, and unsalable. 

i/' GERVAIS. The Gervais cheese is a delicate 
little luxury produced upon an enormous scale 
by several makers in France, two of whom are 
pre-eminent, M. Gervais and M. Pommel, both 
of Gournay. These makers produce millions in 
the course of a year. M. Gervais supplies Paris, 
sending up fabulous numbers every day ; M. 
Pommel, I believe by private arrangement 
with his neighbour, supplies other markets, in- 
cluding that of London. I have paid a visit to 
both establishments, and was able to see a great 
deal that was interesting and instructive in the 
factory of M. Pommel. Gervais is a mixture of 
cream and milk ; it is unnecessary to suggest what 
proportion should be used, inasmuch as every 
maker has his own idea, but one-third of average 
cream mixed with two-thirds of whole milk will 

J produce a most palatable and luxurious cheese. 
The essence of this system is the low tem- 
perature at which the mixture is set, 65 F. 


The rennet added is so small in quantity it is 
also mixed with water that coagulation is not 
complete for from eight to ten hours : indeed, one 
maker made a practice of delaying coagulation 
until twenty-four hours. The object after the 
removal of the curd is to extract the whey, and 
one of the simplest plans is to suspend it in a 
cloth or bag until it is sufficiently firm to be 
removed to the Gervais press. The somewhat 
firm curd is laid in a cloth, which is placed within 
a slatted wooden frame from six to nine inches 
in depth, and a heavy wooden block is then 
placed upon it : examination takes place from 
time to time until the curd is perfect in texture. 
It is then placed in batteries of little moulds 
which have been already lined with specially 
made unglazed paper in order to envelop 
each cheese on the outside of which the maker 
stamps his name and address. These cheeses 
are extremely profitable, and, partaking so 
much of the character of cream (with which the 
flavour of the cheese is combined), they are 
readily salable at a remunerative price. 

BONBON. Bondon cheese is largely made in 
the country districts around Rouen. It is pro- 


duced entirely from milk, and is an important 
industry among the very small farmers and cot- 
tagers of that part of France. Once, upon a visit 
to a large farm in the district, I was taken to see 
the dairies of a number of the smaller occupiers, 
whose wives my conductor systematically but 
fraternally kissed, and who were really the makers. 
Bondon, like Gervais, is extremely small, and 
from seven to nine cheeses are made from one 
gallon of average milk. The milk is set at a low 
temperature, and the curd takes a long time in 
coagulation. It is removed when firm to a 
strainer-cloth which has been stretched by the 
four corners over a vessel somewhat resembling 
an ordinary washing-tub. Here it gradually parts 
with its whey, being occasionally and gently 
moved, when the curd forms a coat which 
prevents the passage of the whey through the 
cloth. At a certain stage it is removed into a 
clean cloth, which is folded over it, covered with 
a board, and gently pressed. The right con- 
, sistence having been obtained, the little cheeses 
are moulded by hand in a most expert 
manner, the mould being a small copper 
cylinder some three inches in length by an 


inch and a half or thereabouts in diameter. 
I am bound to say that the process is 
difficult for an inexperienced maker, but like 
every other difficulty, it can be overcome by 
patience and practice. The cheeses are sub- 
sequently salted, and either sold at the end of a 
week in their fresh and white form, or kept in a 
cave until they have been covered with mould, 
when their flavour is enhanced and their value 
increased. They are sent in trays to the mar- 
kets, the smaller makers sending weekly or 
fortnightly, and the larger makers nearly every 
day. In the manufacture of the Neiifchatel, 
which resembles the Bondon in form, care is 
taken to prevent the curd being too close and 
homogeneous ; the curd is drained without pres- 
sure, and in consequence of its lighter texture 
when moulded, the spores of the common blue 
fungus, Penicillium glaucum, are enabled to 
develop during the ripening process, so that the 
interior of the cheese is blue as a Stilton and 
is prized in consequence, realizing a higher figure 
in the market. 

For some years several of these varieties have 
been sold in the London and other markets in 


considerable numbers, but these quantities do 
not represent what would be considered an 
extensive industry were they produced in this 
country. Coming from France, they realize 
prices which, in consequence of the cost of car- 
riage, are, perhaps, a little more considerable 
than they need be. If, however, we remember 
that a cheese which can be made at the rate of 
seven or eight to the gallon of rich milk, as is 
the case with the Neufchatel, realizes $d. y it fol- 
lows that the remuneration which the farmer 
obtains by producing a cheese of this character 
is very considerable as compared with the small 
prices which milk obtains in the open markets. 
Lastly, a few words about the Coulommiers 
cheese, which is made in the Brie district. I 
believe this to be one of the most important and 
most delicious cheeses made on the Continent, 
and it was the first the manufacture of which 
I introduced into this country. The first 
lessons I received in the principles of its pro- 
duction were given me by a very famous maker, 
Madame Decauville, of Coulommiers, who 
produces an article of the very first quality. 
It resembles the Camembert in form, but is 


slightly smaller in diameter, and thicker. It is 
made upon the Brie principle, and may be sold 
new at the end of a week with great advan- 
tage, for in this state it is much appreciated 
by the people of England ; but ripened, and 
sold at the end of six or seven weeks, it is 
infinitely more delicious, and will return from 
lid. to is. per gallon for all the milk utilized 
in its production. 



THE making of a good Cheddar cheese 
depends largely on conditions which are con- 
veniently summarized by the word " medium." 
A first-rate quality of Cheddar can be made in 
any district, provided that you have soil of 
medium quality, which will grow a short, sweet 
herbage. Soils resting on and derived from 
limestone rocks are ideal ; yet any soil of fair 
body, growing herbage free from all coarse 
grasses, &c., and containing a small percentage 
of leguminous plants, is equally appropriate. 
The breed of cattle is of considerable importance, 
owing to the great variation in the nature and 
quality of the milk which they yield. Those 
yielding milks rich in fat, and with a great 

difference between the size of the largest and 


smallest fat globules, are not so suitable as 
those yielding a milk containing an average 
percentage of fat, with only a slight differ- 
ence between the size of the fat globules. 
When a milk is rich in fat there is danger of 
loss during the making of the cheese. When the 
fat globules are nearly uniform in size, you are 
able to get a more perfect distribution of them 
throughout the cheese. The milk of different 
breeds varies in colour, some yielding a milk 
almost white, others one decidedly yellow. The 
nearer white the milk the better, if artificial 
colouring of the cheese is not going to be 
practised. A typical cheese-making milk is 
that of the Ayrshire breed. 

The food which the cow receives influences 
the milk. The ideal food for producing a cheese- 
making milk is grass ; and the addition of cake 
to the diet of a cow renders the milk more 
suitable for butter than for cheese-making. 
This is because prime Cheddars are made from 
a medium quality of milk rather than from an 
excessively rich one. Besides, the increase in 
the richness of milk from such feeding is largely 
that of the fat of the milk, and consequently no 


appreciable increase in the quantity of cheese 
is obtained ; whereas if butter was made a cor- 
responding increase in the butter yield would 
be got. Again, cheese made from the milk of 
cake-fed cows is liable to deleterious changes 
during manufacture. The drinking water of 
the cows should be free from all suspicion of 
contamination. Water from stagnant ponds, 
or the effluent water from sewage farms, renders 
cheese liable to become spongy. The surround- 
ings of the cow must be clean. The chief cause 
of complaint against milk is probably due to 
contamination after it is drawn from the cow. 
Given a suitable district, breed of cow, food, 
water supply, and surroundings, the cheese- 
maker can depend on commencing with a first- 
class raw article, i. e. a milk of average quality, 
suitable colour, with uniformly sized fat globules, 
and free from contamination either in the form 
of injurious bacteria or acquired taints. 

A Cheddar is a whole milk cheese, and con- 
sequently no fat is extracted from the milk 
which is intended for its making. The evening's 
milk is strained into the cheese- vat, and kept 
at 64 to 68 F. The temperature is varied 


according to the conditions of the weather and 
the keeping qualities of the milk. In the 
morning the cream is skimmed off, heated to 
90 F., and returned to the vat through the 
strainer along with the morning's milk. By 
this plan we get thorough mixing of the 
cream off the evening's milk, with the mixed 
evening's and morning's milk. The milk is 
now allowed to ripen, if it is not already ripe 

RIPENING is essentially acidity development. 
There are two methods of attaining the desired 
result, (a) The old Cheddar method in which 
a certain amount of sour whey is added to the 
milk in the vat. This is an empirical plan 
which does not take into account the amount 
of acid already present in the milk, and also 
risks one day's contaminated whey tainting the 
rest of the season's make of cheese. (#) The 
more modern method, and that adopted by the 
Canadian makers, is to keep the milk at a certain 
temperature (90 to 95) until the required acidity 
develops. This temperature is the one that 
is most favourable to the growth of the bacteria 
which produce the acid we desire to obtain. 


methods by which to determine the ripeness 
or amount of acidity developed (a) By means 
of rennet. Take 4 oz. of milk at the temperature 
at which it is intended to rennet the milk, and 
add i drachm of rennet ; if the milk coagulates 
in 20 to 22 seconds it is ready for renneting. 
(b) By means of chemical re-agents. Take out 
10 c.cs. of milk with a pipette, run into a white 
porcelain dish, and add three drops of phenol- 
phthalein solution (addition of an alkali to a 
solution of phenol-phthalein produces a pink 
coloration). From a burette allow to drop 
soda solution of such strength that i c.c. of it 
will neutralize O'Oi gramme of lactic acid. 
Whilst adding the soda solution, keep constantly 
stirring the milk in the dish, and on the appear- 
ance of the faintest tinge of pink which remains 
permanent, you know that the whole of the 
lactic acid in the milk is neutralized. If it 
requires 2 c.cs. of the soda solution for this 
purpose, we know that we have O'2 per cent, of 
acid in the milk, which is about the correct 
amount for making Cheddar. The former of 
these methods is probably to be preferred, 


owing to its requiring materials which are 
always at hand, and similar materials to those 
you are going to use in the actual cheese- 
making. The ripening or development of 
acidity is done with the object of aiding the 
coagulating action of the rennet, to assist in 
expelling moisture from the curd, and to shorten 
the whole process of manufacture. 

RENNETING. Assuming that the correct 
amount of acidity is developed, and that the 
temperature of the milk is 82 to 85, depend- 
ing on the season of the year, the atmo- 
spheric conditions of the day, &c., we add a 
sufficient quantity of rennet to ensure coagula- 
tion in 45 to 60 minutes. Usually 4 to 4! oz. 
of Hansen's rennet extract to each 100 gallons 
of milk is sufficient. After thoroughly stirring 
the milk and rennet, cover the vat with a cloth, 
and leave the curd until firm enough for cutting. 
When the curd makes a clean break over a 
finger inserted under and along its surface, it 
is ready for cutting. If cut before it is firm 
enough, you get a white whey owing to loss 
of fat, and this will happen however carefully 
the cutting is performed. If, on the other hand, 


the curd is too firm, you require to use such 
force in cutting that you also get a white whey, 
owing to the injury done to the curd. 

CUTTING. In the old Cheddar system a large 
single-bladed knife was used. In the Canadian 
system American cutters are used. With the 
latter the curd is first cut with a vertical knife 
lengthwise and crosswise, then with a horizontal 
knife in the same manner. Clean the sides 
and bottom of the vat with the hands ; cut 
again with two knives both ways, and allow to 
settle ten to fifteen minutes, the shorter period 
if the curd is hard, the longer if it is soft. The 
object of cutting is to facilitate the escape of the 
whey, and cutting into uniform-sized cubes aids 
in the securing of a good curd. 

BREAKING. After settling, stir the curd care- 
fully with the shovel breaker or rake for fifteen 
to twenty minutes, until the curd is the size of 
peas, and thoroughly intermingled with the 
whey. Then commence the application of 
heat or scalding, which usually takes place 
some forty minutes from the time cutting 

SCALDING. This is done to render the curd 


firm, and to develop acidity. There are two 
methods of scalding 

(a) The old method in which the operation is 
performed in three stages. The process consists 
in drawing off a proportion of the whey, and 
after heating it to a certain temperature adding 
it slowly to the contents of the vat. This is 
repeated three times. The first time the whey 
is heated to 110, the second to 120, and the 
third to 130. The temperature of the contents 
of the vat is raised the first time to 90, the 
second to 95, and the third to 100. To 
ascertain the number of gallons of whey to 
draw off, multiply the number of gallons of 
milk at the commencement by the number of 
degrees it is intended to raise the contents of 
the vat at the first scald. This product, divided 
by the number of degrees of heat it is intended 
to raise the whey, gives the number of gallons 
of whey required ; e.g. 

Contents of vat, 100 gallons. 

Temperature to which it is intended to raise 
the contents of the vat, 90. 

Temperature of whey before commencing 
heating, 85. 


Temperature to which it is intended to raise 
the whey, 110. 
Thus we have 

90 - 85 = 5 x 100 gals. = 500 
100 - 85 = 25 

< -r = 20 gals., amount of whey required. 
I 25 

The contents of the vat are stirred fifteen 
minutes after each scalding, but after the last 
scalding stir until the curd is sufficiently 

(b) The more modern method (which requires 
a jacketed vat and steam) is to raise the temper- 
ature continuously at the rate of i in three 
minutes, until 100 is reached, and then keep it 
at 100 until the curd is sufficiently cooked. 
Scalding ought to be done more slowly if little 
acid is present in the curd, and more rapidly if 
the acid is well developed. 

The curd is known to be scalded sufficiently 
when it is shotty, hard, sinks quickly, has an acid 
smell, and answers to the hot iron test. This 
last test is simple and gives constant results. 
It is performed by taking a small quantity of 


curd, compressing it tightly in the hand, drying 
it on a cloth, and then applying it firmly to a 
bar of iron heated to black heat, and gently 
drawing it away. If acid enough, the curd 
attenuates to fine threads of |-inch length. 
If not acid enough, it will not so attenuate ; if 
too acid it attenuates to a greater length. The 
sufficiently scalded curd is allowed to pitch for 
a quarter of an hour, and then a rack is put on 
and weighted with a 56-lb. weight. Thus the 
curd remains until it is consolidated or begins 
to mat. It is then cut up the centre with a long 
knife, rolled to the upper end of the vat, and the 
racks and weights placed on as before. Draw 
off the whey, remove the weights from the 
curd, cut it up and spread it on the bottom of 
the vat. 

curd in a square block in the bottom of the vat, 
sweep up all the crumbs, re-weight and allow 
to remain ten minutes. Cut into bricks and 
remove to the curd-sink ; cover with dry cloths 
and put on the weights. Open and turn every 
twenty minutes, turning the outside of the curd 
within. When the curd is firm and tough, cut it 


into two-inch cubes, tie up in a cloth, cover with 
dry cloths and a tin pan and apply the weights. 
Open out and separate every half-hour, using 
dry cloths each time until it is ready to grind. 
The above method of manufacture results in a 
more open and meaty cheese than that obtained 
by adopting the modern or Canadian plan. 

CANADIAN METHOD. In this method the 
whey is drawn off before any matting or con- 
solidating takes place, and the loose curd is 
removed from the vat to a curd-cooler, where it 
is stirred until it is dry enough to mat, which, 
however, is a point rather difficult for inexperi- 
enced persons to decide. Matting goes on until 
the curd is ready to grind. A curd is ready to 
grind when it is distinctly acid to the taste and 
smell, dry and solid in cutting, tears stringy, and 
attenuates from i in. to ij in. on the hot iron. 

GRINDING is done to reduce the curd to 
such a condition that salt can be thoroughly 
distributed ; it also allows of the cooling of the 
curd. When ground the curd is ready for weigh- 
ing, and, if cool enough, for salting. 

SALTING. About two per cent, of salt is the 
amount usually added, and the temperature of 


the curd should not be above 80. The salt 
hardens the curd, helps to dry it, has a slight 
antiseptic action and therefore arrests decay to 
some extent, and also has a tendency to check 
further development of acidity in the curd. After 
adding the salt stir the mixture well for fifteen 
minutes, which will ensure thorough incorpora- 
tion of the salt and the curd. When the tem- 
perature of the curd is 70 to 75 it is ready for 
putting into hoops which are lined with a cloth. 
In filling the hoops press carefully with the 
closed hand. After the hoop is full place it in 
the press. 

PRESSING. The pressure must be gradually 
applied, and should reach 10 cwt. in two hours' 
time, at which pressure it is allowed to remain 
over night. If pressing is excessive during the 
first few hours, fat is expelled with the whey, 
and the quality of the cheese is lowered. Besides 
this, a hard firm coat round the external portion 
of the cheese is got, which checks the drainage 
of the whey. The object of pressing is to bind 
and consolidate the curd, and to expel whey. 
A suitable temperature in the press-room (60) 
aids the objects of pressing. The morning next 


after the day of making, the cheese is taken out 
of the press, the cloth is removed, and the cheese 
bathed for one minute in water heated to 120. 
This improves the condition of the coat, render- 
ing it tougher and less liable to crack. After 
bathing put on clean cloths, and return to the 
press. Apply 10 cwt. pressure during the first 
two hours, and then 15 cwt. until next morning. 
On the morning of the third day turn the 
cheese, grease it, cap one end, and return to 
press with a smooth cloth ; then apply i to i J 
tons of pressure. The grease is applied to fill 
up cracks, to render the outside of the cheese 
smooth, and to enable the bandages to stick. 
On the fourth day turn the cheese, put a cap on 
the bare end, place in a clean cloth, and then 
apply pressure until the afternoon. In the 
afternoon bandage with a laced or winding 
bandage, weigh, and take up to the curing- 

CURING OR RIPENING. The temperature of 
the curing-room should be 65 to 70. New or 
young cheeses require the higher, old cheeses 
the lower temperature. The ripening - room 
requires to be kept at an even and correct 


temperature, for although the making of a 
Cheddar depends so largely on success in the 
first stages of the operation, there is yet a 
possibility of spoiling the best of curds if due 
attention is not given to the temperature of 
the ripening-room. When the temperature is 
too low the result is a soapy cheese lacking 
body and flavour; when too high, sweating 
occurs, loss of fat, and dryness in the cheese. 
The cheese must be turned daily for six weeks. 
Neglect to turn results in redness on the ends 
of the cheese, and moisture descends to the end 
which is resting on the racks. A certain amount 
of ventilation is necessary, but there must be 
no draughts. Usually the room is kept dark, 
which, however, is of little if any advantage, 
except that cheese-flies are not then quite so 



THE process of making a Stilton cheese has 
more similarity to that of the manufacture of 
some of the Continental cheeses than any other 
British make. Despite this fact it is a British 
cheese, and the county of Leicestershire can 
justly claim the honour of being its home. 
Indeed many people consider that it is im- 
possible to make the real article outside the 
county named. This, however, is an error, as 
with suitable buildings and utensils, with perfect 
cleanliness and with sufficient skill on the part 
of the maker, prime Stilton can be made in any 
district. The cost of producing a Stilton is 
however rather greater than that of a Cheddar 

or Cheshire. This is owing to the greater cost 


of the buildings, the greater amount of labour, 
the longer time taken in curing, and lastly, to 
the fact that less ripe cheese is obtained from a 
given amount of milk by the Stilton method 
than by the methods just mentioned. 

The Stilton is popularly considered to be a 
cream-cheese, but at the present time it is 
nearly always made of whole milk without the 
addition of cream, and yet the quality produced 
leaves nothing to be desired. Nevertheless the 
milk intended for making Stilton should be of 
at least average quality, and that produced by 
cows grazing on rich old pastures is the most 
suitable. The giving of large quantities of cake 
to the cows is not to be recommended, as this 
usually produces a milk that causes trouble 
during the making of the cheese. 

In the method of manufacture about to be 
described, two separately made curds are used. 
This method is the one by which the best 
Stiltons are made. One reason why this is so 
is found in the fact that separately made curds 
do not unite as closely as curds made at one 
operation. The consequence is that we get a 
great amount of air space in the body of the 


cheese, and therefore fulfilment of one of the 
conditions essential to the development of the 
mould which it is the pride of the Stilton maker 
to obtain. 

Before commencing operations the maker 
should have in remembrance the leading 
characteristics of an ideal Stilton. These are 
as follows-\A drab-coloured rough wrinkled 
skin, a texture salvy and mellow but not soapy 
(indeed, as the old Stilton maker's maxim says, 
" beware of chalk and beware of soap," which 
implies medium texture, and avoidance of 
hardness on the one hand and soapiness on the 
other),! a marbling throughout the body of the 
cheese due to the growth of a blue mould 
(Penicillium glaucum\ and the possession of an 
unique flavour. T 

The following is a list of the requisites for the 
manufacture of Stilton (a) Building. The 
building or dairy must be divided into at least 
three separate apartments, or better still if into 
four. These are (i) A setting-room and 
draining-room. One room may be made to 
serve the double purpose of setting and draining, 
or a separate room may be used for each 


purpose. (2) A drying- or coating-room. (3) 
A storing- or curing-room. Besides these a 
cellar is a great advantage, as the cheeses can 
be taken there when they are ripe, or even 
before they are ripe if the weather is hot, and 
the ordinary rooms are out of condition. For 
Stilton-making it is imperative that all the 
rooms should be high and well ventilated, and 
that they should be so constructed as to allow 
of cooling them in very hot weather. Further, 
they must have apparatus for heating purposes, 
as during spring and autumn artificial heat is a 
necessity. (#) Utensils. Briefly enumerated 
these are (i) A renneting-vat made of tin ; 
(2) a curd-ladle or scoop of about half a gallon 
capacity; (3) straining-cloths; (4) a curd-sink 
made of glazed earthenware ; (5) a draining-sink 
lined with tin ; (6) perforated metal moulds or 
hoops ; (7) boards (9 in. x 9 in.) ; (8) draining- 
shelves; (9) turning- and bandaging-table ; (10) 
knife, bandages, &c. 

MANUFACTURE. -Milk. (The milk for Stilton- 
making should be perfectly fresh, and not slightly 
acid . as is the case in the making of some 
British cheeses. This necessitates the renneting 


of the milk as soon as received into the dairy, 
and that which has never lost its animal heat is 
the most suitable. 

RENNETING. The rennet is added when the 
temperature of the milk has fallen to 84 F. ; 
and the amount required is i J drachms to every 
60 Ibs. of milk. ) Most makers consider that 
prepared rennets are inferior to the home-made 
ones. Yet we know that the use of home-made 
rennets is not essential to the making of the 
best Stiltons, as these are constantly made 
from prepared rennets. It seems probable that 
in using prepared rennets the makers accustomed 
to the home-made article make no allowance for 
the greater strength of the former, and conse- 
quently add too much. This results in an 
inferior cheese, but the fault is due to the maker 
and not to the rennet. After adding the rennet 
to the milk, thorough^ mixing of the two should 
be brought about by stirring. Let this be 
continued ten minutes, by which time mixing 
will be complete and there will be no danger of 


any cream rising. Now 'allow the contents of 
the vat to set for I to if hours, according to the 
state of the curd. This, although a somewhat 


prolonged coagulation, is not unusual in the 
making of sweet curd cheeses. 

ACIDITY. When ready, the curd is ladled out 
of the vat into straining-cloths, placed in the 
curd-sink. These cloths are about a yard 
square, and hold from three to four gallons each. 
In the act of ladling the curd is cut into thin 
slices, whereby the drainage of the whey is 
facilitated. The curd is allowed to stand for half- 
an-hour in its own whey, or longer if it is 
soft. The whey is then let off, and the curd tied 
up by bringing together the three corners of the 
straining-cloth and using the fourth as a bindery 
and here in the curd-sink it drains until evening. 
To aid the draining, tighten the cloths every 
hour during the first eight hours. This tighten- 
ing requires to be done with care, so that no curd 
is crushed in the operation. In the evening the 
curd is cut up into squares of about four inches 
and laid in the draining-sink with a light cotton 
cloth thrown over it. Here it remains over 
night, and during this time it slowly oxidizes. 
The evening's milk is treated in the same 
manner as the morning's milk, being allowed to 


drain during the night whilst in the curd-sink. 
In the morning cut up the evening's curd, and 
then allow the two curds to develop the requisite 
amount of acidity. If acidity does not develop 
rapidly enough, tear up the curds to aid it, or 
place them upon racks and keep them warm 
with hot water. 

SALTING. When the curds are ready, i.e. 
when they have developed a sufficient amount 
of acidity, and are of a certain mellowness, they 
are broken up by hand into coarse-grained 
pieces. It is always difficult to decide when 
the curds are ready, and experience is the only 
teacher. The following, however, are some of 
the signs that guide the maker as to the fitness 
of the curds The first curd made should be 
clean, flaky, decidedly acid, and free from 
sliminess or sponginess ; the second should be 
in about the same condition, but not so acid. 
It takes usually thirty-six and twenty- four hours 
respectively before the curds show the above 
signs. After these are broken they are mixed 
together, and a rather coarse salt is added at 
the rate of about I J per cent, by weight of the 
curd. If the curd is wet add more salt, if dry 


add less. It is usual to obtain 18 Ibs. of curd 
from 12 gallons of milk. 

HOOPING. The curd, after a thorough mixing 
with the salt, is put into hoops holding 20 to 
24 Ibs. each. If the cheese is for sale in a 
wholesale market let it be made full-sized, as 
such cheeses are easier to sell than small ones. 
The temperature of the curd at the time of 
hooping should be about 60 F. Before com- 
mencing to fill the hoops, place them on a 
board covered with a piece of calico. In filling, 
the curd should be firmly pressed at the bottom, 
and lightly at the sides, and the larger pieces 
should be put into the loosely-filled centre. By 
taking these precautions a cheese is obtained 
that presents a good surface. 

CHEESE-DRAINING. When the hoops are 
filled, they are carried, together with the board 
and cloth on which they stand, to the draining- 
shelves. The temperature of the room in 
which the shelves are placed should be 65 F. 
The hoop and cheese should be turned after 
standing two hours, an operation performed 
by inverting them upon a board and cloth 
similar to those on which they stand. The 


turning should be repeated before leaving for 
the day, and it must be performed at least 
once each day for the next nine days. Neglect 
in turning at this stage causes unequal ripening 
of the cheese, and the ends become uneven. 
If the curd does not settle properly it should 
be skewered through the perforations in the 
hoop, and a little salt should be rubbed on 
each end. 

days the cheese is taken out of the hoop, 
and if ready it is scraped with a knife. It 
is known to be ready for scraping when the 
cheese leaves the side of the hoop, when it 
is creamy on the outside, and when it has 
a smell similar to that of a ripe pear. The 
scraping makes a smooth even surface, fills 
up cracks, and aids in the production of the 
much-desired wrinkling of the coat of the 
cheese. This last result is brought about by 
the consolidating effect of the scraping on the 
surface of the cheese, and the comparatively 
loose and free state in which the central portion 
remain's. In consequence of this difference 
the external portion of the cheese settles less 


than the internal portion, and consequently a 
wrinkling of the coat of the cheese follows. 
After the cheese has been scraped, a bandage 
is tightly pinned round it, a cap placed on its 
upper end, and the cheese is put back into 
the hoop. Next day remove the hoop and 
bandage, and scrape the cheese, then tightly 
pin on a clean bandage round the top. Allow 
the bandage to hang loosely down, invert 
the cheese, and loosely fold the bandage over 
it. The cheese is then put upon the draining- 
shelves without the hoop, and there it remains 
until the coat begins to appear, which usually 
happens about the eleventh day counting 
from the day of hooping. 

eleventh day the external surface begins to 
show signs of white mould, also dry patches 
appear on the bandage. These are the first 
signs of the coat, and on their appearance the 
cheese is ready to go to the drying- or coating- 
room. This room should be cool and damp, 
have a temperature of from 55 to 60, and if 
possible it should have a gentle, cool, moist 
draught passing through it. By thus keeping 


the air of the coating-room cooler and moister 
than that of the draining-room we minimize 
the loss of moisture, and consequently avoid 
lowering the quality of the cheese, and at the 
same time we prevent fermentation becoming 
too rapid. If the coating-room is too dry, 
and the cheese shows signs of becoming hard, 
cover it with a moist cloth. The cheese on 
going to the coating-room has no bandages 
on it, but there is the small cloth on the board 
on which it rests, and this requires changing 
each day when the cheese itself is turned. 
Turning goes on for a fortnight, and by the 
end of that time the coat should be firmly 

CURING. When the coat is firmly fixed, 
the cheese is ready to go to the storing- or 
curing-room, which may be an airy cellar, or 
a cool upper room kept at a temperature of 
from 55 to 60 F. If the temperature is too 
high excessive evaporation ensues, and as a 
consequence a hard dry cheese ; if too low the 
ripening of the cheese is retarded. The shelves 
of the curing-room must be kept quite clean 
and free from mites, and the cheese turned 


daily. It takes a Stilton from four to six 
months to ripen, but some people try to shorten 
the period by skewering. This, however, is a 
rather doubtful proceeding, and yet it is per- 
missible if the cheese is close, and there is a 
lack of mould-growth. When such a plan is 
followed, care must be taken that the apertures 
made in the cheese are closed up, so that flies 
and mites will not be able to enter. The 
skewers should be put into the cheeses from 
each end, not at the sides, and their ends should 
pass each other. 

Besides this two-curd system of Stilton- 
making there is a " wet-curd " system. The 
essential difference between the two is to be 
found in the length of time during which the 
curd is allowed to stand in its own whey. In 
the wet-curd system the whole of the whey 
is not drained off until the curd is ready 
for vatting ; whereas in the method just 
described the curd stands in its own whey about 

Before concluding, we may with advantage 
briefly sum up the points of difference in the 
making of a Stilton, and in that of the better 


known and much more widely made Cheddar. 
In Stilton-making the rennet is added to 
a perfectly fresh milk, in Cheddar-making to 
slightly acid milk ; also less rennet is added 
if Stilton is to be made. It is owing to these 
two factors that the coagulation in Stilton- 
making is more prolonged than in the case 
of Cheddar. Again, in Stilton-making the 
development of acidity is not pushed by scald- 
ing as is the case with Cheddar, and instead 
of taking eight hours, it takes usually twenty- 
four and thirty-six hours. It may, however, be 
noted that in Cheddar-making acidity is allowed 
to develop in both milk and curd, whereas in 
Stilton-making it is only allowed to develop in 
the curd. Less salt is added to the curd of 
a Stilton than to that of a Cheddar, but this 
is more apparent than real, for when the curd 
of a Stilton is ready to salt it is much moister 
than that of a Cheddar. Lastly, the curd in 
Stilton-making is put to drain in a much softer 
condition than in Cheddar-making, but no 
pressure is applied to the former, whereas a 
ton and upwards is required for the latter. 
Finally, we feel fully justified in stating that a 


well-made Stilton stands without rival amongst 
the better known varieties of cheeses ; and 
we know from experience that by the system 
just detailed it is possible to produce an article 
of prime quality. 


CHESHIRE cheese is of more local than cos- 
mopolitan repute; indeed the making of it is 
practically confined to Cheshire and the counties 
that border upon it. The locality in which this 
cheese is made is really restricted to that where- 
in a demand for it exists, as its fragile nature 
renders it unsuitable for exportation purposes. 
The general conditions as to the food of the 
cow producing the milk intended for Cheshire- 
making are similar to those applicable to Cheddar. 
The dairy required is also similar. It consists 
of three apartments a making-room, a press- 
room, and a curing-room. The press-room in 
Cheshire-making, however, must contain, in 
addition to the presses, an oven, wherein the 
cheeses can be placed immediately after hoop- 
ing. This so-called " oven " is merely a recess 



in the press-room wall, so situated as to have 
the kitchen fire at the back of it. The utensils 
required are such as are used in any process 
of cheese-making, but the hoops are usually 
perforated, the vat is jacketed and rather 
shallow, and the curd-mill is fine-toothed, so 
that the curd can be ground down to a rather 
fine state of division. 

There are three methods of manufacturing 
Cheshire cheese, each of which produces a special 
type of cheese. The three methods are the early 
ripening, the medium ripening, and the late 
ripening, named after the predominant char- 
acteristic of the cheese produced, i.e. an early 
ripening cheese, a medium ripening cheese, and 
a late ripening cheese. The two latter of these 
cheeses are of much higher quality than the first 
named. Yet at the present time the quick or 
early ripening cheese is much made, and this 
probably is one of the causes of the prevailing 
low prices. 

The method of manufacture about to be 
detailed refers to a cheese which will take about 
three months to ripen, and is therefore classed 
as a medium ripening cheese. The qualities 


looked for in such a cheese are a rather high 
colour produced by the addition of colouring, 
a looseness, granulation, and openness in the 
body and texture known as " meatiness," a 
certain amount of crumbliness, and a mellow, 
rich, tasty flavour. 

Strain the evening's milk into the vat, and keep 
it at such a temperature that it will be about 
68 F. in the morning. In the morning skim 
off the cream, and heat it to 95 F. ; then pour 
it along with the morning's milk into the vat. 
If the correct amount of ripeness has been 
developed (and this is of the utmost importance), 
rennet the milk ; but if not, either keep the milk 
in the vat at a temperature of 94 F. until it is 
ripe enough, or add sour whey, which latter is 
the more common method. A little before this 
stage is reached the colouring is added, indeed 
it should be added ten minutes before renneting. 
When the colouring is added immediately before 
the rennet, there is great liability of getting a 
discoloured cheese. This, although one of the 
causes of discolouration, is not the chief one. 
At the present time white or uncoloured cheeses 


are being made, a method that is to be recom- 
mended, as it avoids all danger of discolouration 
from improper mixing of the colouring. But 
unfortunately the public demand is for a high- 
coloured cheese, and therefore colouring is still 
added by most makers, although it is so 

RENNETING. When the milk is ready to 
rennet, it should give a rennet test of twenty- 
two seconds, which is rather longer than is re- 
quired in Cheddar-making, or in other words the 
milk is sweeter. The temperature of the milk at 
the time of renneting should be 86 to 88 F., 
and the amount of rennet required is one oz. 
of rennet extract to twenty gallons of milk, 
or such an amount as will produce a curd that 
is ready to cut forty-five to sixty minutes from 
the time of adding it. After adding the rennet, 
stir the mixture in the vat for five minutes. 
Next cover the vat with a cloth, and when the 
curd is firm enough, cut it with the American 
horizontal knife, and then with the vertical knife 
until it is in a rather coarse condition. Just 
after the curd is cut, a little whey is usually 

drawn off for adding to the next day's milk, to 



aid the development of acidity. Next clean 
down the sides and bottom of the vat, and with 
the hands stir well for about fifteen minutes, 
when scalding should begin. 

SCALDING. The scalding is only partial, and 
the curd at the termination of it is considerably 
softer than that produced in Cheddar scalding. 
The scalding should be gradual, and a rate of 
i in five minutes is very suitable. Scald until 
a temperature of 92 to 94 is reached, and 
during the whole process careful and continuous 
stirring is required. When the correct temper- 
ature is reached, continue the stirring until the 
curd is quite firm, and the corners are rounded. 
Then allow the curd to settle for about an hour, 
or until it leaves the sides of the vat. Next cut 
the curd up the middle, roll it up to one end 
of the vat, and let off the whey. 

DRAINING THE CURD. When the whey 
has drained off cut the curd into blocks, and 
place it at one end of the vat. Then put a rack 
in the bottom of the vat, spread a cloth on it, 
and place the curd upon it, carefully covering 
it with a dry cloth. Turn the curd every ten 
minutes, and at each turning break it up into 


pieces of about two inches diameter. The turn- 
ing is repeated until the curd is sufficiently dry 
and acid, and four or five turnings are usually 
required. After the last turning grind the curd 
twice, making it finer than the curd of a Cheddar. 
The object of the fine grinding is to produce 
the granular, open, crumbly texture that is so 
much sought after in a Cheshire. 

SALTING. Salt is added at the rate of 7 to 
8 ozs. per 20 Ibs. of curd, more being used if the 
curd is wet, less if it is dry. The temperature 
at the time of salting should be above 70 F., 
and below 80 F. If below 70 the curd will 
not take the salt, and the cheese will afterwards 
become black in the centre. If 80 or above, 
there will be loss of fat during the after treat- 
ment of the cheese. Thoroughly mix the salt 
and the curd, and then put the salted curd into 
a hoop lined with a coarse cloth. After hooping 
take the cheese into the press-room, and place 
it in the cheese-oven, where a temperature of 
75 to 80 is maintained. Here the whey slowly 
drains from the curd, the curd itself contracts, 
and the amount of acidity gradually increases. 
The escape of the whey is facilitated by the 


insertion of skewers, and their occasional re- 
moval. After the cheese has been in the oven 
for four hours it is turned, put into a dry coarse 
cloth, placed back again into the oven, and there 
it remains until morning. 

PRESSING. Next morning the cheese is re- 
moved from the oven and put into a fresh cloth. 
It is then placed in a press, but no pressure is 
applied, or only a very little. On the next three 
or four mornings the cheese-cloth is changed, 
and the pressure is gradually increased. By 
about the fourth morning whey will have ceased 
to exude, and when such is the case the cheese 
should be removed from the press and taken 
into the curing- room. 

CURING. Before taking the pressed cheese 
to the curing-room a bandage is pasted on to it, 
the paste used consisting of flour, boiling water, 
and borax. Over this bandage, an ordinary 
cheese-bandage is placed, and the corners of 
the cheese are often ironed with a hot iron to 
render them smooth. When the cheese is band- 
aged take it to the curing-room, which should 
have a temperature of 60 to 65 F. The shelves 
of this room are frequently covered with straw, 


upon which the cheeses are placed. Such a 
plan tends to produce a growth of green mould 
on the external surface of the cheese. The 
cheeses require to be turned daily for the first 
week or two ; then gradually lessen the number 
of turnings until once per week is reached, and 
this must be continued until the cheese is sold. 
The cheese will be ripe in about four months. 

Although we have just detailed a method of 
making Cheshire cheese, no exact data can 
be really considered to represent the Cheshire 
method, since it varies considerably with different 
makers, and according to which one of the three 
kinds of cheeses it is intended to produce. The 
aim throughout each system is undoubtedly to 
produce the best article of its kind, and the 
following principles, considered along with the 
details of the medium process just described, 
will roughly indicate the variations that have 
to be made in order to produce the different 
types of Cheshire cheeses : The milk to be 
moderately sweet when the rennet is added ; 
the temperatures throughout the process of manu- 
facture to be varied according to the moistness 
of the curd required ; if a dry curd is wanted the 


temperature should be comparatively high, if 
a wet one comparatively low ; the quantity of 
rennet used to be varied according to the time 
the cheese is intended to ripen in, more being 
used if for quick ripening, and less if for slow 
ripening; the size to which the curd is to be 
cut depends on the amount of whey that is to 
be left in it, and this again depends on the kind 
of cheese ; for a quick-ripening cheese leave a 
deal of whey in the curd, and cut into large- 
sized pieces ; for a slow-ripening cheese expel 
the whey thoroughly, and cut the curd into very 
small pieces ; the amount of acidity to allow to 
develop in the curd whilst in the whey must be 
greater the sooner the cheese is required to be 
ripe ; the size of the particles of curd on salting 
also to be varied according to the time in which 
the cheese is wanted to ripen ; the shorter the 
ripening period the coarser should be the curd, 
and vice versd ; the pressure to be regulated 
according to the amount of whey required to 
be expelled, i.e. according to the dryness the 
curd is wanted; for quick ripening expel little 
whey, and therefore apply little pressure ; for 
slow ripening expel all the whey possible, and 


therefore apply much pressure ; a quick-ripening 
curd on hooping should be coarse-grained, and 
saturated with acid whey ; a slow-ripening curd 
on hooping should be fine-grained, dry, and 
contain very little free whey. 

Throughout the Cheshire systems the en- 
deavour is to develop more or less of acidity 
after the curd is hooped, and hence the use of 
the oven. 

The alreadydescribed medium ripening process 
produces a good Cheshire cheese of such quality 
that when ripe it will keep a few months, should 
the markets necessitate such a plan. This 
clearly indicates one of the advantages of adopt- 
ing this process (and this remark is also appli- 
cable to the late process), for should the early 
ripening one be adopted, the produce must be 
sold as soon as ripe, or else be wasted, as it has 
no keeping properties. On the other hand, the 
quick-ripening process produces a greater weight 
of cheese than the other two processes, and it 
also gives quicker returns, but the quality of the 
cheese produced by it is not first-class, and the 
risks as above indicated are great. 


THE making of this cheese is practically 
confined to the beautiful dales that render the 
north-western portion of Yorkshire so pictur- 
esque. As the name implies, the chief locality 
in which it is made is Wensleydale, and here 
the cheese has been made for centuries. This 
dale is not only famed for its cheese, but also 
for its variety of sheep, the so-called "blue- 
faced Leicester" or Wensleydale. 

A study of this method of cheese-making 
shows us that the fine pastures of the Yorkshire 
dales, chiefly on soils derived from limestone 
rocks, are especially adapted for producing a 
first-class cheese-making milk. Apart from this 
nothing special is needed in the way of food 

for the cow producing the milk used in the 


making of this cheese ; also no special dairy ac- 
commodation is required, and no special utensils 
are employed. In the old-fashioned method, 
a large brass or copper pan, called a "cheese- 
kettle," was used in place of a cheese-vat, but 
the use of this is fast dying out. 

The cheeses are made of two shapes, "flat" 
and " Stilton " shape. The former of these are 
suitable for making during spring and autumn, 
and also when the cheeses are intended for 
immediate consumption. When the cheeses 
are made of the " Stilton " shape, they are 
supposed to develop a greenish-blue mould 
just as a real Stilton, but with the flats this is 
not looked for. The Stilton-shaped Wensley- 
dales are therefore classed as British blue 
mould cheeses. The period of ripening of 
Wensleydales varies according to the shape 
adopted, but this is only so owing to the differ- 
ences in the curds used in making the respective 
shapes. The " flats " take only a short time to 
ripen, the " Stiltons " a longer time. Although 
we speak of " Stilton-shaped " Wensleydales it 
is rare to find them exactly resembling a Stilton 
in shape, as the cheese usually becomes much 


distorted after its removal from the hoop. 
Indeed, some makers consider that irregularity 
in shape is a sign of good quality. Nor is this 
without reason, for, in order to acquire the 
distinctive characters of a Wensleydale, the 
curd must be hooped when it is in a moist 
condition, and only a small amount of pressure 
must be applied to the cheese ; and these two 
factors render a cheese liable to unshapeliness. 

A good Stilton-shaped Wensleydale possesses 
the following characteristics A smooth surface, 
frequently a distorted shape, a soft, yielding 
texture similar to a Stilton but tougher, a blue 
mould evenly distributed throughout the body 
of the cheese, and not running in veins as in 
the real Stilton, and a mellow, creamy, mouldy 

In the past there was no fixed method of 
making the cheese, but now teaching is aiding 
to bring about a definite system, and also 
it is raising the average in regard to the 
quality of the cheeses produced. Some good 
cheeses were formerly made, but there were 
also many bad ones, and the average was 
decidedly lower than that of the present time. 


The method of manufacture about to be 
detailed is the modern method, and although 
the utensils used are not such as most of the 
dalesmen possess, yet they would undoubtedly 
be able to get a greater uniformity in their 
produce by using such. More especially would 
this desirable result be brought about if they 
gave attention to the quantity of rennet recom- 
mended ; to the temperature of coagulation, 
of scalding, of the curd on salting, of the 
curd on hooping, &c. ; to the amount of acid ; 
and finally to the method of salting. The 
adoption of such particulars avoids the hap- 
hazard results of the old style of making. 

Allow the evening's milk to run into the cheese- 
vat, and cool it down to 60. Stir the milk 
occasionally during the evening, which will help 
it to cool, and will also prevent the cream from 
rising. In the morning skim the cream off the 
evening's milk, and heat it to 90 F. Then 
pour the morning's milk, and the heated cream 
along with it, into the vat amongst the evening's 
milk, and raise the temperature of the mixed 
milks to 86 88 F. 


This method of treating the milk is appli- 
cable to cases where making is followed once 
a day, and only in very hot weather need 
the cheese be oftener made. If an excessive 
amount of acidity develops in the milk, the 
cheese will be dry and hard, and will never 
possess the true qualities of a Wensleydale. 

RENNETING. Given that the temperature of 
the milk is as stated, and that the milk itself 
is perfectly sweet, the rennet may be added. One 
drachm of rennet extract to 40 Ibs. of milk will 
produce a firm coagulation in about an hour, 
and therefore is the right quantity to add. After 
the addition of the rennet stir the mixture for 
five minutes. When the curd is sufficiently firm 
break it into cubes of about half-an-inch square, 
using American knives for the purpose. This 
breaking or cutting takes about five minutes, 
and after it is performed the curd is allowed to 
settle for five minutes. After settling, the curd is 
stirred for about twenty minutes with a shovel- 
breaker, rake, or hand. The latter of these is 
preferred when a small quantity of milk is being 
handled. After the stirring allow the curd to 
settle for ten minutes. 


PARTIAL SCALDING. Sufficient whey is now 
drawn off, so that when heated it will raise the 
temperature of the contents of the vat to what 
it was previous to renneting ; the whey taken 
off should not be heated to more than 130 F. 
After adding the heated whey, stir constantly 
for about half-an-hour, and then allow the curd 
about twenty minutes to settle. It is not always 
necessary to even partially scald in the making 
of Stilton-shaped Wensleydales ; indeed in 
summer-time it is only requisite when the 
weather is damp and cold, or whenever the 
curd seems as if it would be long in getting 
dry and firm. When "flats " are made scalding 
is always requisite. 

In case of not scalding the curd, the stirring 
is longer continued, and the curd is given a 
longer time to settle. The whey is let off when 
the curd is in the right condition. This, 
however, is not easily described, and experi- 
ence is the only guide. One sign of suffi- 
cient scalding is that you have 16 to 1 8 Ibs. 
of curd from 12 gallons of milk. If more 
the curd is too moist, if less it is too dry. 
The whey is usually drawn off one and a half 


to two hours from the time of cutting the 

After drawing off the whey, take the curd 
out of the vat, and place it in a straining-cloth. 
Put it on a draining-rack, open it out after 
the first half-hour, and cut it into pieces ; 
continue to do this every hour until the curd 
is ready to grind. A board is also placed 
on the curd whilst on the draining-rack, and 
7 to 28 Ibs. weight is placed upon the board. 
The amount r of pressure is regulated according 
to the weather, and the drainage of the whey. 
When the weather is cold, and the drainage is 
slow, apply more pressure to the curd, and vice 
versa. The curd when ready to grind should 
be decidedly sour, fairly dry and flaky, but not 
hard. It should be weighed before grinding. 

SALTING. The ground curd is salted at the 
rate of i oz. of salt to 4 Ibs. of curd. The curd 
preparatory to salting is either ground in a 
mill or broken by hand, but in either case 
it must not be made too fine. The effect 
of fine grinding is a tight cheese in which no 
mould will develop. The time elapsing between 


adding the rennet and salting the curd is from 
six to eight hours. In the old system of making, 
the direct application of salt to the curd was 
only practised with large cheeses, the rule being 
to place the pressed cheeses in a strong brine, 
and leave them there for three or four days. 
The objections to this method are (i) The un- 
certainty as to the amount of brine the cheese 
actually absorbs, as owing to differences in the 
amount of acidity present in the curd, the 
cheeses rarely absorb similar quantities, and as 
a consequence there is great variation in the 
cheeses produced. (2) The brine frequently 
does not penetrate to the centre of the cheese, 
and as a consequence a portion of it remains 
unsalted. (3) Placing cheeses in a brine cools 
them down to a very low temperature, and this 
interferes with the curing. 

When direct salting of the curd is practised, 
it is necessary to allow a greater development 
of acidity than when brining is practised. The 
necessity for this arises from the rapid check 
of acid development when hand salting is 
followed, and the slow check of it when brining 
is followed. 


HOOPING. After grinding and salting the 
curd, put it into perforated tin hoops or moulds, 
without bottoms or with movable ones only. 
Place the hoop on a board and cloth, and 
loosely fill in the curd. The curd required to 
fill a standard-sized Wensleydale hoop is that 
which can be obtained from 14 gallons of milk. 
The temperature of the curd on hooping should 
be 64 to 65. This comparatively low temper- 
ature is required in order to encourage mould 
development. Usually the cheese is put into 
the hoop without a cheese-cloth, but if the 
weather is hot it is better to use one. The 
cheese after being hooped is placed on a slab in 
the cheese-making room. Two hours after filling, 
the hoop and cheese should be turned and the 
cheese put into a dry cheese-cloth. Before 
leaving for the night a 4-lb. weight and a board 
are usually placed on the top of the cheese. 
When the cheese is left all night without pressure, 
or only with such as indicated, the temperature 
of the room in which it is placed should not be 
less than 60. 

PRESSING. Next morning turn the cheese, 
put it into a dry cloth, place it in a press, and 


apply I \ cwt. pressure for about five hours. Then 
remove it from the press, and turn it into a 
smooth cloth ; replace it in the press, and apply 
3 to 5 cwt. pressure until night. Next morning 
take it out of the press, sew on a bandage, 
and remove the cheese to a cool, moist room, 
placing it on a stone shelf. Let the cheese 
remain here for seven to nine days, turning it 

CURING. Take the cheese to the drying- or 
curing-room, kept at a temperature of about 
60 F. Turn the cheese daily, and if the weather 
is hot turn it twice a day. During the first few 
days it is necessary to skewer the cheese to 
prevent excessive heating. After six weeks 
in the curing-room, the cheese should be un- 
clothed, and if the blue mould is not developing, 
the cheeses must be skewered. The skewering 
must be done from the ends, and after the 
operation care must be taken to cover up the 
entrance to the skewer-holes, to prevent the 
passing in of flies, &c. 

The Stilton-shaped Wensleydales are ripe in 
four to six months ; the flats are ripe in about 
two months. In the making of flats the curd is 


usually scalded, and is made much drier than if 
for Stiltons. The curd for Stilton shapes should 
be moist, slightly acid, and rather coarse at the 
time of hooping, whereas that for " flats " should 
be drier, more acid, and finer. 

Properly made Wensleydales are prime 
cheeses, and there seems to be quite a possibility 
of their supplanting a deal of Stiltons within 
the next few years. This is not only on account 
of their possessing all the good qualities of a 
genuine Stilton, but also on account of the 
greater yield of cheese from a given amount of 
milk by the Wensleydale process, as compared 
with the real Stilton process. Indeed up to 
within the last few years Wensleydale cheeses 
were little known outside the locality of their 
making, but now that they are becoming of 
much wider repute, the demand for them is 
steadily increasing. 



THE production of milk in Great Britain is, 
next to the production of meat, the most im- 
portant branch of our agricultural industry. 
During the past ten years it has attained gigantic 
proportions, and the old system of retailing milk 
to which water was frequently added, drawn from 
cows the great majority of which were stalled 
and fed within the precincts of our large towns, 
has given place to an improved system under 
which pure milk is dispatched, after production 
on the farm, direct from the rural districts to 
the distributor. The result is that the most 
valuable of all foods has been placed before the 
people of every class at a price within their 
reach, and under conditions which render it 
purer and safer than was formerly the case. 
What the consumption of milk was twenty-five 


years ago it is impossible to say, but in spite 
of the enormous increase in production, it is 
believed, upon the basis of careful estimates, that 
the consumption per head of the population per 
day does not exceed a quarter of a pint. In 
America the milk industry has increased with still 
more rapid strides, and in the great States of New 
York and Massachusetts the consumption has 
been raised by leaps and bounds, until, e.g., the 
per capita consumption in the city of Boston has 
reached 1*33 half-pints per day. It is a curious 
fact that the milk consumption of the oldest city 
of the New World should be so much greater 
in fact, nearly three times as great as the con- 
sumption per head of the inhabitants of the city 
of Manchester. 

The fact that milk production has been more 
profitable to the farmer than most of the other 
branches of his industry, has, of late, induced 
numbers of tenants to keep dairy cows and 
produce milk for sale, or manufacture butter or 
cheese. Increased production has in this way 
increased competition, with the result that prices 
have fallen. Hitherto the prices of cheese and 
butter have been regulated by the imports from 


other countries, but until recently there have 
been no imports of milk except in a condensed 
form, so that the price of milk, as retailed from 
day to day, has been regulated by home competi- 
tion. Now, however, winter milk and cream are 
dispatched from Holland and Scandinavia, and 
although the quantity sent us is small as com- 
pared with the quantity we consume, yet it is 
evident that if a hundred thousand gallons can 
be sent successfully, it is probable that the trade 
will rapidly increase, and should this be the case 
the prosperity of the dairy farmer will decline 
more rapidly than it has hitherto done. We 
cannot prevent the importation of food from 
abroad, but we can control the system under 
which that food is imported, in order, first, that 
there may be no unfairness in the competition 
between our own people and the farmers of 
other countries ; and second, that the food im- 
ported shall be pure and wholesome. In 
regard to the first point there is no fairness. 
The charges for conveyance of foreign milk 
and cream are infinitely less than the charges 
for the conveyance of the same materials 
at home ; and as regards the wholesome con- 


dition of the milk sent us we have no guarantee 
whatever. Contagious diseases abound on the 
Continent, and farm workmen who have 
suffered from these diseases may be employed 
as milkers before they are fit for the work, 
while the fact that many of the cattle are 
diseased is sufficient to show that there is 
real danger in the consumption of imported 
milk which has not been sterilized before it 
is delivered to the consumer. We have re- 
marked that home competition is intensified. 
The result is that prices have fallen to a 
figure which is without precedent, which means 
that unless dairy farmers combine to protect 
their own interests, prices will fall still further 
until no margin of profit remains. Nor is a 
reduction of price brought about by the action 
of the consumer, who in our experience has 
never sounded one note of complaint in this 
direction. It is owing to competition between 
the various competitors in the milk trade, so 
many of whom have striven to retain the retail 
price of milk and to pay the farmer, as they 
were accustomed to pay, such a sum as will 
enable him to conduct his business with success. 


By combination further reduction might be suc- 
cessfully resisted, but so long as action is isolated, 
the necessities of the milk trade resulting from 
the keenness of competition will ensure a further 

The milk represented by the butter and 
cheese we import amounts to nearly 1,245,000,000 
gallons, whereas the milk produced for consump- 
tion, assuming the cows in this country 85 per 
cent, of which are in milk to yield 400 gallons 
per annum, is 1,400,000,000 gallons. In a calcu- 
lation made for a paper read at the Imperial 
Institute in 1895, I estimated the milk produced 
and sold as milk and in the form of butter 
and cheese at 1,405,000,000 gallons, so that the 
estimated yield on the basis above mentioned 
closely approximates to the estimated quantity 
consumed in some form or other. In the first 
place, the anual consumption of raw milk is 
placed at 13 gallons per head of the population 
per annum. The milk used in the manufacture 
of butter is estimated at 2*8 gallons to the 
pound ; while the milk utilized in the manufacture 
of cheese is estimated at one gallon to the pound. 
If we add to this the milk used for condensing, 


and deduct 25,000,000 gallons, which I estimate 
to be the quantity displaced by the adulteration 
of whole milk with separated milk, we get the 
total to which we have already referred. Now, 
it is evident upon the face of these figures that 
we must necessarily import both butter and 
cheese in order to provide for the requirements 
of our people ; at the same time, we are also 
shown that we have an enormous market if we can 
only provide the material for it. That material 
we should largely provide if the conditions 
were equal, but the foreign producer is assisted 
by defective British legislation, and by the unfair 
action of the railway companies, who carry his 
produce to the disadvantage of the English pro- 
ducer. There is -no doubt that the consumption 
of milk will immensely increase, and the more the 
people realize that it is the most wholesome as 
well as the cheapest food in the world, the more 
readily will they increase their daily consump- 
tion. If they are shown, as they should be, as 
often as possible, that while a large proportion of 
the solid matter of meat is absolutely indigestible, 
and that apart from this there is considerable 
waste as between the joint purchased and the 


joint consumed every particle of the solid 
matter in milk is digestible in the highest degree 
they will be able to appreciate the fact that 
the one food is not only more valuable in the 
sustenance of mankind, but infinitely cheaper, 
pound for pound. 

The cost of production of, milk depends upon 
various circumstances, the rent of the land and 
its quality, the cost of labour and the cost of 
food. It also depends, particularly in winter, 
upon the manner in which the food is selected 
and utilized. Generally speaking, dairy cows 
graze in summer, grass being occasionally sup- 
plemented and this is extremely wise by the 
addition of cotton cake, grains, or meal, whereas 
in winter a common ration is chaff, pulped roots, 
with cake, meal or grains mixed and given, after 
heating for some hours, at the rate of so many 
pounds per day. The cost of the production of 
milk, then, depends upon the cost of the pro- 
duction of the hay, straw, roots, or whatever is 
grown upon the farm, as well as upon the cost 
of the purchased foods. It follows, therefore, 
that in producing milk, one of the chief objects 
of the dairy farmer should be to grow heavy 


crops of those materials which are consumed by 
the cow, and of which hay, straw, and roots are 
the chief in winter, and grass in summer. To 
this question, however, we cannot devote any 
space. It is, nevertheless, clear that those who 
feed upon a principle which has been found to 
succeed in practice, obtain the best results. 
They recognize that the cow needs the necessary 
material to maintain the heat of her body, to 
provide for the waste of tissue which is per- 
petually going on, and for the manufacture of 
the solid materials which are present in milk, 
and in consequence they compose a ration which 
includes the necessary proportion of albuminoids, 
which they obtain by using such foods as cake, 
beans, peas, vetches, or various meals with 
liberality. There is no doubt that the cost of 
production plus the cost of conveyance and the 
supply of railway churns closely approximates 
to the summer price of milk, which is perhaps 
upon the average no higher than 6d. a gallon, a 
great deal being sold below this figure. 

We have referred to the system of adulteration 
which is now so widespread, and which is in- 
creasing from month to month. The Centrifugal 


Cream Separating Machine, excellent as it is, has 
become, in some hands, a medium for the dis- 
tribution of adulterated milk. When skilfully 
used, separated milk can be mixed with whole 
milk to a large extent and sold to the consumer 
without any fear of detection and punishment, 
and the reason is obvious. There is no standard 
of quality, and so long as a sample of milk 
satisfies the requirements of the public analyst 
it usually passes muster. The analyst is generally 
liberal-minded and generous, and in the absence 
of a definite law he frequently permits individuals 
to escape who ought to be severely punished. 
An average sample of good milk, from whatever 
part of England it may be taken, contains at 
least 3*4 per cent, of fat and 12*3 per cent, of total 
solids, but so long as a sample contains 275 
per cent, of fat, and is not otherwise suspicious, it 
generally passes muster. There is practically no 
milk the produce of a well-fed herd of cows which 
contains at any time less than 3 per cent, of fat, 
but there are thousands of herds in which the 
average milk contains from 3*5 to 5 per cent. 
It is perfectly easy, therefore, to obtain milk of 


good quality, and by mixing it with separated 
milk to produce a mixture which, if analyzed, 
will be found to contain more than 275 per 
cent, of fat. 

It has been urged by various responsible 
bodies that a standard requiring milk to contain 
3 per cent, of fat should be fixed by law. I 
have myself urged that it should be raised to 
3*25 per cent., and for reasons which are easily 
given. The trade insists that farmers as well 
as members of their own body would be fre- 
quently fined in consequence of the fact that 
milk occasionally falls below the proposed 
standard. It sometimes does fall below that 
figure in the case of individual cows, but a just 
law would provide that the owner of a single 
cow should be allowed to appeal to her, a 
sample of her milk being taken direct by the 
analyst, or in his presence. As regards the 
farmer, however, the matter is entirely different. 
It is in his power to select his cattle, to dispose 
of producers of poor milk, and to replace them 
with producers of rich milk, which are common 
enough ; but no such steps are taken by the 


farming community to-day simply because the 
law does not control the quality of milk, and so 
long as anything will suffice which is passable, 
farmers cannot be expected to take trouble which 
will not increase their receipts. By the aid of 
recent inventions, farmers and milk-sellers alike 
are able to test a number of samples of milk in 
a few minutes, so that there would be no excuse 
for the distribution of a sample containing less 
fat than the standard required. If the present 
system is allowed to continue, the whole milk 
trade will degenerate into more or less fraudulent 
competition connived at by the authorities in 
power. If there were no precedent for the pro- 
posal which has been made, it would be more 
difficult to urge its expediency, but standards 
exist in many parts of the world in America 
in particular; and it is remarkable that in 
Boston, Massachusetts, where the consumption 
of milk is greater than in any part of England, 
the standard is higher than in any other city 
in the world. After myself investigating the 
question in America, and being shown by those 
responsible for the conduct of the law that the 


consumption of milk as well as its quality 
has immensely increased since the institution 
of a high standard, I am satisfied that, bear- 
ing the above suggestions in mind, we should 
benefit the dairy industry of England in a 
high degree by instituting a standard for 

*- TH.*. 




A SAMPLE of pure butter should contain no 
more than from 10 to 15 per cent, of moisture, 
a good sample averaging about 12 per cent, and, 
unless heavily salted, an almost infinitesimal 
proportion of mineral matter. Theoretically, 
butter should contain nothing more than the fat 
of milk, the salt which is added during manu- 
facture, and the water which up to a certain 
point is inseparable from butter. Those who 
understand the manufacture of butter are well 
aware that both by the exercise of skill and care- 
lessness a much larger amount of water can be 
added to it than is essential ; and it follows that 
the larger the amount of water, the greater the 
weight of the butter produced. To knowingly 
manufacture butter with excessive moisture is 

fraudulent, for the consumer pays the price of 


butter for water; but it should be remembered 
that the perpetrators of a fraud of this character 
often defeat their own object, inasmuch as butter 
of high quality cannot be produced, nor will it 
keep if the water is excessive. Excessive 
salting is equally deleterious to the quality ; a 
minute proportion of salt improves the flavour 
common to butter, but a large quantity masks 
it, at the same time adding to the weight. We 
have remarked that there should be no other 
material in butter than fat, water, and salt. 
In practice, however, it is next to impossible to 
remove either the whole of the sugar, or the 
casein or curdy matter ; and this being the case, 
in the course of time and it depends entirely 
upon the proportion of caseous matter left in the 
butter a sample becomes rancid and unfit either 
for sale or consumption. The prime object, 
therefore, under the British system of butter- 
making is to produce as large a quantity of 
butter of the finest flavour as possible, re- 
ducing the moisture and the extraneous curdy 
matter and sugar to the lowest possible pro- 
portions. In the first place, then, in order to 
produce quantity it is necessary to use the cream 


separator, which extracts more fat from the milk 
than is obtainable by any other process. If this 
is followed by treatment which has for its object 
the conversion of as much of this fat as possible 
into butter, a maximum quantity will be ob- 
tained. As regards quality, it is first of all im- 
portant that the milk should be obtained from 
carefully fed cows which are milked by clean 
hands into clean vessels, the milk being sub- 
sequently strained before manipulation. The 
apartment in which the various operations take 
place should be perfectly pure. In this case 
the cream from the separator will in due 
course ripen properly, and fine flavour will in 
consequence develop. Having obtained quan- 
tity and flavour, we have next to deal with the 
conversion of the butter-fat obtained in the 
churn into made-up butter. As we shall see, 
the grains of fat as they are first produced are 
floating in buttermilk, the particular constituent 
of which is casein. This casein is an essential 
food of the lactic ferment; hence its removal 
is necessary. Careful washing, therefore, is 
the first process; and if the tiny grains are 
washed at a given stage, which is shown in 



every dairy school, the greater portion of the 
curd will be removed, and almost pure butter- 
fat left behind. 

Let us, however, assume that inferior butter is 
produced in a dairy, and that the occupier is 
unable to improve the quality. It may be asked 
how the production of an inferior article can be 
converted into the production of one of really 
high quality. The thing is easy if the work is 
carried out with intelligence and thoroughness. 
The manufacturer must condescend to details and 
recognize scientific facts. The alteration which 
takes place in cream, that is to say its change from 
perfect sweetness to a condition of sourness, 
acidity, or ripeness, is owing to the presence of an 
organism or bacterium which can only be dis- 
covered by those who are skilled in the use of the 
microscope. This organism rapidly increases in 
number when milk is warm and exposed to the 
atmosphere. It converts the sugar of milk into 
lactic acid ; hence the^ourness of milk. If this 
change is allowed to continue unchecked, the curd 
of the milk will coagulate, and it is for this reason 
that cream when allowed to ripen for churning 
becomes thicker. If cream is churned while it is 


still sweet it is frequently longer before it is con- 
verted into butter, it produces less butter, and 
the flavour is less full and nutty. The object, 
therefore, of ripening cream is to increase the 
quantity of butter and improve the flavour. In 
every dairy the lactic ferment is present either 
upon the utensils or in the atmosphere itself; 
but in some cases there are other organisms 
which, unlike the lactic ferment, have a 
contrary influence, producing a disagreeable 
flavour which reduces the value of the butter. 
The object of the dairyman, therefore, should be 
to maintain the apartment in which the milk or 
cream is placed, as well as the utensils employed, 
in as cleanly a condition as possible. There need 
be no fear about boiling water or lime destroying 
the lactic ferment. If it is removed from the 
utensils it is present in the air, and present, too, 
in a clean dairy perhaps in much larger numbers 
than any other organism is likely to be, and it 
is absolutely essential to the production of good 
butter. On the other hand, in a dirty apartment 
and on dirty utensils dangerous ferments are 
common ; and if through conditions which suit 
them and dirt is the chief of these they are 


induced to increase in number, they may obtain 
the mastery, and destroy the flavour and quality 
of the butter produced. Let us suppose, there- 
fore, as we have suggested already, that bad 
butter is produced in a dairy which has not been 
kept under the most perfect conditions. How can 
a change be brought about ? In the first place, 
the whole of the utensils, shelves, and tables 
should be removed and thoroughly cleansed 
with boiling water. The walls and ceilings 
should be lime-washed and the floor scalded 
and dried, for a dairy should be dry. In this 
way every colony or nest, as it were, of the 
undesirable bacteria will be destroyed, and the 
clean utensils being returned to the dairy may 
be employed both in the raising of cream and 
in the manufacture of butter without any fear 
whatever. If, however, the manufacturer desires 
to proceed upon still more definite lines, 'and to 
omit no course of procedure which will ensure 
success, he may introduce from the most success- 
ful dairy with which he is acquainted a small 
quantity of the sour buttermilk which has been 
produced from the same day's churning. This 
buttermilk will contain the germs or bacteria 


which have been responsible for the production of 
butter-flavour of high class. If this buttermilk is 
added to the cream which has been obtained from 
the milk in the now thoroughly clean dairy, that 
cream will be inoculated, and when it has ripened 
it will be sufficiently perfect to be churned with 
every hope of success ; and henceforth, so long 
as cleanliness is observed, there need be no fear 
as to the maintenance and constant reproduction 
of the friendly bacteria which are so desirable, as 
we have pointed out, in the manufacture of butter. 
Let us now deal with the actual process of 
manufacture. The milk is drawn from the cows, 
and arrives in the dairy at a temperature of 
about 90 F. or a little higher. It may be at 
once passed through the mechanical separator 
and skimmed, or it may be poured while still 
warm into shallow vessels in order that the 
cream may rise by gravitation. Under such 
conditions the dairy should not be more than 
60 F. if it is as low as 50, so much the better. 
The reason is that the greater the difference 
between the temperature of the milk and the 
temperature of the dairy the quicker and the 
more effectually will the cream rise. Cream is 


present in milk in the form of tiny globules ; 
these globules are much lighter than the other 
portion of the milk, hence when the milk is at 
rest they rise to the surface just as a cork rises 
to the surface of a volume of water at the bottom 
of which it has been placed. The reason why 
the fat rises better in warm milk placed in a 
cold apartment is that the fat feels the change 
of temperature less rapidly than the rest of the 
milk, inasmuch as it is a non-conductor of heat. 
This being so, the difference in the density or 
specific gravity of the fat and the liquid portion 
of the milk is greater, and the fat is relatively 
lighter than it would otherwise be where there 
is no difference in the temperatures. In hot 
weather cream rises with far greater rapidity 
than in cold ; milk rapidly becomes acid, both 
cream and milk thicken or coagulate, and for 
this reason the smaller globules of fat which are 
at the bottom of a milk-setting vessel are not 
able to rise at all they are impeded, as it were, 
by the coagulation of the casein, hence a pro- 
portion of the butter-fat is lost to the churn. 
When, however, cream is raised upon a shallow 
vessel, it forms a thin layer on the surface and is 


brought into direct contact with the air, and 
consequently is oxidized or ripened with greater 
perfection : on the other hand, where cream is 
obtained through the medium of the separator 
it is kept in bulk and is less throughly oxidized, 
because in passing through the machine it has 
been in contact with the air for but a few seconds, 
while the air does not so thoroughly affect the 
mass of cream which is kept in a particular 
vessel as it does when the same cream is raised 
over a large area on the milk in a number of 
vessels. It is next to impossible to describe the 
exact flavour and appearance of cream which 
is just ripe for churning. Those who desire 
to know what it is like should take a lesson 
from an expert and fortunately there are now 
plenty of teachers in almost every county in 

When ripe the cream is passed through a 
strainer into the churn, and churned at a tem- 
perature which varies in accordance with the 
season of the year. In summer it may be 
churned at 56 F. and in winter as high as 64 
F., but the exact degree depends upon the heat 
of the atmosphere, as we have suggested : a 


little experiment will enable the operator to 
thoroughly understand this point. Mixed cream 
should never be used : i. e. sweet and sour cream 
mixed together. The churn should be well 
cooled in summer and slightly warmed in winter 
by the aid of clean water, and let us remark 
that nothing is of greater importance than pure 
water; if it is impure, containing organic matter, 
this matter will be imported into the butter and 
will assist in decomposing it. After churning 
gently for a few minutes the carbonic acid gas 
which has formed in the churn may be allowed 
to escape by pressing the ventilator. Churning 
then continues until the grains of butter have 
reached the size of rice. At this point great 
care must be exercised. Some excellent makers 
here add a few quarts of very cold pure water, 
which gives crispness* to the grains, preventing 
their adhering to each other so completely. 
The butter-milk is then drawn off through a 
sieve and more cold water added. It should be 
sufficient to enable the grains of butter to float 
in the churn and to partially harden. The water 
is then again drawn off and fresh cold water 
added two or three times, the churn being 


turned gently that the butter grains may be 
washed, although they should not unite and 
increase in size. Lastly, thin brine may be 
added, and in this the butter may remain for 
some little time before it is removed, or the 
floating butter may be removed from the brine 
with a scoop and placed upon the butter-table, 
or into the butter-drier or delaiteuse, from either 
of which the water is removed, by working in 
the one case, and by centrifugal force in the 
other. If dry salting is now performed the 
salt should be weighed, having previously been 
thoroughly rolled as fine as possible, dried in 
an oven and rolled again. It may be distributed 
by the aid of a dredger over the butter at the 
rate of half an ounce to the pound. If the 
butter is to be salted for keeping, from three- 
fourths of an ounce to an ounce may be used to 
the pound. The water having been perfectly 
expelled, the butter is made up for the market, 
or it may be allowed to remain in a wooden 
trough to still further drain, or it may, as in 
Denmark, be made up into rough rolls, allowed 
to harden for five or six hours, again worked, 
and finally made up for sale. 



A CREAMERY is generally understood to be 
an establishment in which the cream sent by the 
producer is converted into butter, whereas the 
entire milk of the farmer is handled in a factory, 
either for conversion into butter or cheese, or 
both, as may be found most convenient. The 
creamery system, which has been adopted in 
America on a somewhat large scale, has certain 
advantages which are worthy of notice, although 
when compared with the modern factory, these 
advantages are more than counterbalanced by the 
disadvantages. For example, the farmer who 
supplies a factory is required to deliver the milk 
twice daily. If he resides some miles from the 
building, it becomes essential to keep a horse 
and cart for the purpose, while the time of a 

man is very largely occupied on the road. The 


cream-supplier, however, is not required to 
deliver his produce daily. He removes the 
cream from the milk on his own farm and 
retains it, in accordance with the regulations, for 
perhaps a couple of days, taking care to mix 
every skimming carefully with the bulk. Thus 
the journeys are diminished in number, while the 
weight carried on each is incomparably less. 
In supplying the factory, too, the farmer either 
parts with the separated milk, which is a great 
loss to his stock, or he buys it back at a price 
which is often higher than it ought to be, while 
in all cases it has to be carried back to the farm. 
Formerly cream was purchased in America at 
so much per inch, but as cream differs in quality, 
this was found to be an unsatisfactory system. 
Latterly, the principle of churning the cream of 
each contributor separately has been adopted, 
with payment in accordance with the butter 
produced. I have had the advantage of inspect- 
ing creameries where this plan has been carried 
out, and of ascertaining from the books that not 
only was the quantity of butter produced very 
often exceptionally small, but its market value 
varied enormously, sometimes falling as low as 


yd. per pound, and at other times reaching 
as much as nd. The difference was owing 
almost entirely to the system prevailing on the 
various farms. Where care was taken to pro- 
duce absolutely pure, clean milk, to raise the 
cream in an equally pure dairy, and to ripen it 
properly, the result was butter of high quality ; 
but where no care was taken disagreeable 
flavours were developed in the cream, and the 
butter was in consequence immensely reduced 
in value. It must be evident that where cream 
of varying qualities are thus separately churned a 
dairy organization is placed at a great disadvan- 
tage. Success depends so much upon high 
quality all round and upon the acquisition of a 
name for a perfect sample. The very fact of a 
creamery turning out a variety of samples 
differing in quality, is sufficient to handicap it 
so seriously in the market that even the best 
butter it produces realizes less than would be 
the case if the whole of the produce were alike 
good. It may be safely pointed out, however, 
that although the produce of a butter factory is 
of much higher average quality than the samples 
of butter made in a creamery, that quality is to 


some extent controlled by the fact that the 
milk is mixed. For example, assuming that 
fifty farmers contribute milk to a factory, there 
are certain to be some who do not grasp the 
fact that the quality of butter depends almost 
entirely upon the purity of the atmosphere in 
which the cows exist, of the water they drink, of 
the vessels into which the milk is poured, and of 
the cleanliness of the udder, the hands and 
clothes of the milkers. The introduction of a 
few lots of unclean milk into a volume of clean 
milk will immensely depreciate its value and 
the value of the butter obtained from it. Thus 
it happens that the careless contributor obtains 
as much for his milk, if it passes muster, as the 
man who exercises the greatest care and skill. 
We may take it for granted that the creamery 
system is next to impossible in England, 
although it may still answer in some parts of 
Ireland, where, in consequence of the difficulties 
of locomotion, it is impossible to deliver milk 
twice daily. The same objection cannot be 
made to the factory system, which is the only 
system applicable to such countries as Canada, 
Western America, and the Australian Colonies, 


as well as to parts of Ireland and a few districts 
in England and Scotland. 

Hitherto the reason why the factory has 
failed to obtain a hold upon the milk-producing 
portion of our population is that by means of 
butter or cheese production on a large scale it 
has not been possible to pay the producer so 
much for his milk as he can obtain by selling it 
for consumption in the large towns. There is, 
however, it is to be feared, a possibility that the 
value of milk for consumption will fall still lower 
until it approximates in value to the price paid 
to the factory. Should this be the case, the 
factory system is certain to extend ; but under 
present conditions it is applicable unless in a 
few special instances and for reasons which it is 
unnecessary to state only to those parts of the 
country which are too distant from large centres 
of population, or which are badly supplied with 
railway communication. It is for this reason 
that we find factories existing in parts of 
Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall, and it is obvious 
that where butter realizes no more than from 
lod. to lid. a pound during several of the 
summer months, the milk cannot be worth 


anything like so much as its market price for 
consumption, which has seldom fallen below 6d. 
a gallon until last year, especially where it 
requires 2 J gallons to produce a pound of butter. 
Let us refer for a moment to what has been 
done in Ireland by the Irish Agricultural 
Organization Society. Last year there were 
fifty-six co-operative dairies with eight branches, 
while some fifteen other dairies were in course 
of formation. The returns obtained by the 
Secretary of the Society show that the average 
yield of the cows from which the factories 
obtained their milk is 435 gallons per annum. 
It has been pointed out that the average value 
of farm-made butter in Ireland in 1894 was 8d. 
a pound, so that, on the assumption that each 
pound of butter produced at home required three 
gallons of milk, the return per cow to the farmer 
would be 4 i6s. 8d. On the other hand, the 
price paid for the milk by the factories having 
been -$\d. per gallon, the farmer contributing 
received 1 los. 2.d. per cow more than had he 
retained his milk for conversion into butter at 
home. In each case the separated milk would 
be utilized upon the farm, although we are 


bound to point out that something must be 
allowed for the conveyance of the milk between 
farm and factory. Estimating the value of the 
separated milk returned to the farm at id. per 
gallon, and the quantity returned at 345 gallons, 
the total receipt per cow would be 7 15^. yd. 
If we take the average value of milk sold in 
England for consumption at 7<, and it is 
possible that it will not reach a higher figure in 
the immediate future, we arrive at a total of 
12 i$s. gd., from which the cost of railway 
churns and of the conveyance of the milk to the 
station must be deducted. Again, a cow yielding 
the same quantity of milk would, if that milk 
was of exceptionally high quality, as in the case 
of the Jersey, produce 24 Ibs. of butter, which, at 
the Irish price of 8d. per pound, would yield 
8 os. %d. y or, plus 90 per cent, of the skimmed 
milk, g i$s. 2d. ; while at an average of is. a 
pound the return would equal 13 i$s.6d. How 
small, however, are all these figures compared 
with what was obtained a few years ago by butter- 
makers, cheese-makers, and milk-sellers alone ! 
We have been enabled to examine accounts of 
dairy farmers in the county of Cheshire, where 


over 20 a head has formerly been realized on 
herds of from eighty to one hundred cows. As, in 
many cases, rents have not decreased, as labour 
has maintained its value, and as the reductions 
in food stuffs and manures have been compara- 
tively small, it would seem that the deficiency is 
to be made up out of the farmer's pocket. The 
Irish factories realized an average price of 
iO'22d. per pound for butter in 1894, which 
was i '2gd. per pound less than in the previous 
year. While prices have fallen, however, the 
quality of the milk has risen. Thus, in 1893 the 
Irish factory milk produced 6' 19 oz. of butter per 
gallon, but in 1894 6*33 ozs., and this is one 
feature to which closer attention will have to be 
paid in the future. Prices cannot fall below 
a certain figure ; and it is possible that the 
farmer may, by the exercise of higher and still 
higher skill and care, not only increase the yield 
of milk per cow, but the quality of that milk 
also. It is, for example, quite possible to main- 
tain a herd of Jerseys which will yield a still 
higher average than 435 gallons per annum, and 
at the same time to produce milk which will 


yield butter at the rate of one pound per 17^ Ibs. 
of milk, instead of one pound to 2^ gallons, as 
is now the case in the best factories. In Ireland 
the cost of production based upon the general 
working expenses is about 10 per cent., or id. 
per pound when butter is at lod. ; but in the 
respective factories this figure may slightly 
differ for several reasons. Taking the factories 
working in 1894 as an example, it is found that 
the value of the butter produced varied from an 
average of 9-63^. to ir6od. per pound, while the 
cost of the milk varied from $d. to 3*83^. ; and 
still further, the yield of the butter produced 
from the milk varied from 5-82 oz. to 678 ozs. 
to the gallon. Thus, then, the cost of production 
depends upon the quality of the milk, the price 
paid per gallon, and the market value of the 
butter, as well as upon the actual amount of the 
working expenses, such as wages, packages, 
machinery, wear and tear, carriage, and 

We have already referred to the fact that 
cream has been paid for by the inch. It is now 
generally recognized that milk should be paid 


for in accordance with its butter value, or, where 
cheese is made, by its cheese value. Let us see 
how this system can be worked, taking the case 
of a factory paying a regular price to its con- 
tributors of 6d. an imperial gallon, or what is 
preferable, 6d. per 10 Ibs., for the measurement of 
milk is never satisfactory, the fluid being larger 
in volume when it is warm and smaller when it 
is cold. Let us suppose, too, that the factory 
manager is willing to pay an extra penny per 
gallon to be distributed among the contributors 
in proportion to the value of their milk, no milk 
being received which does not contain more 
than 3 per cent of fat. During the three months 
over which the accounts run, 108,000 gallons 
have been delivered, representing an average of 
about 1 200 gallons a day. The extra penny 
per gallon upon this quantity would amount to 
450, which is the sum available for distribution 
among the various contributors upon the basis 
of quality. One contributor may have supplied 
60 gallons a day with an average fat percentage 
of 3 '2. Another may have supplied 30 gallons 
with an average percentage of fat of 3*5, while a 


third contributor has sent in 20 gallons daily, 
containing 4 per cent of fat. Now we shall see 
how the account stands 


A ... 60 ... 90 ... 3-2 ... 1,728 

B ... 30 ... 90 ... 3-5 ... 945 

C ... 20 ... 90 ... 4*0 ... 720 

Remaining contributors ... 34,300 


Each degree of fat is shown to be worth 2'86d., 
so that C, who has contributed i per cent of fat 
more than the minimum permitted, becomes 
entitled to 8 us., multiplying the 720 by 2-86. 
He receives more than the full penny allotted, 
whereas, had his milk failed to reach more than 
3 per cent he would not have received a single 
shilling. This plan, which is ingenious and prac- 
tical, is of American origin, and if we do not 
think our cousins equal us in the quality of their 
produce, they at least exhibit much greater skill 
and originality in their system of management. 
Let us take another system. Assuming that the 
whole of the milk delivered to the factory is of 
good quality, it is paid for in accordance with 
the butter actually produced. As it is impos- 


sible, unless the milk is separately handled, to 
ascertain the exact amount of butter produced 
by each of the contributors of milk, every 
sample is tested by such a machine as the Bab- 
cock Tester, and the quantity of fat present 
ascertained. Supposing A has produced 3000 
pounds of milk containing 4 per cent, of fat, and 
B 4000 pounds containing 4! per cent, A will 
have produced 120 Ibs. of fat and B i8o.lbs., or 
300 Ibs. in all. It follows, therefore, that when 
the money value of the butter produced, after 
deducting the cost of manufacture, is^distributed, 
B will receive exactly two-thirds as much as A, 
B's larger cheque being entirely owing to the 
fact that his milk was richer, and had produced 
more butter. 

We are bound to remember that excellent as 
factory butter and cheese are, as compared with 
the average farm-house samples, there can be no 
question about the fact that the finest sample 
made by a skilled maker from milk which has 
been produced under his own supervision is 
superior to any sample produced in a factory 
which is necessarily obtained from mixed milk, 


produced under various systems of feeidng from 
cattle managed in different ways, and by more 
or less cleanly individuals. The factory is of 
enormous value, but we cannot admit that it 
can or that it ought to beat the produce of the 
farm, where that produce is obtained by the aid 
of the greatest skill. 


Richard Clay 6 Sons, Limited, London &* Bimgay. 





Who also supply the Victoria and Empress Cream Separators 
and all Appliances for Dairy use. 

iry use. 



A Description of the Chief Continental Systems. 

With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, gs. 

" By far the most important part of Mr. Long's valuable contribution to the literature of 
dairy-farming is that mentioned in the sub-title of the book, ' A Description of the Chief 
Continental Systems.' By this comparison we do not intend to disparage the chapters 
relating to British dairy-farming, which are full of useful facts, figures, hints, and illus- 
trated descriptions of most approved dairy implements and appliances ; but a great deal 
of this is over old familiar ground, whereas in his chapters on Continental systems of 
dairying Mr. Long introduces us to fresh fields and pastures new. . . . Mr. Long has 
travelled in France, Switzerland, and Italy, with the special object of studying the 
manufacture of the cheeses for which these countries are famous all over the civilized world, 
and he has given such complete details in the book before us that it will be the fault of his 
agricultural readers if they do not make some of these fancy products of the dairy. . . . 
He has also a great deal to tell his readers about butter-making in France, Denmark, 
and other parts of Europe. His book is not a large one for his comprehensive subject ; 
but it is crammed with valuable information which every dairy-farmer would do well 
to study." Pall Mall Gazette. 


Eight vols. , large crown 8vo, 55. each. 

Dairy- Farming, Management of Cows, etc. 


Tree- Planting, for Ornamentation or Profit, suitable to 

every soil and situation. 
Stock-Keeping and Cattle- Rearing. 
The Drainage of Land, Irrigation, and Manures. 
Root-Growing, Hops, etc. 
Market-Garden Husbandry. 
The Management of Grass Lands, Laying down Grass, 

Artificial Grasses, etc. 

" This is another, and probably the last, of the series of agricultural hand- 
books, which are convenient in form, handy in price, and bring the informa- 
tion fairly up to date. The truthful illustrations of the various plants to be 
used, the preparation of the soil, the cultivation of the crop during its early 
stages, the means by which permanent fertility may be maintained these 
are all matters which are clearly dealt with. The treatment of meadows, 
haymaking, &c., are very fully entered into, as also the cultivation of artificial 
grasses, fodder crops, &c." Field. 

Uniform with the above Series. 


With 21 Illustrations. Large crown 8vo, 55. 

" It puts before the public, on unquestionable authority, an unvarnished 
and honest statement of the advantages and difficulties (such as these are) of 
bee-keeping, and is in itself, therefore, a far more powerful incentive to the 
industry than any number of philanthropic or sentimental exhortations to the 
same object." Daily Telegraph. 

In small crown 8vo, 35. 



By G. HILL. 

" A charming picture of rural life." 

"This is not by any means a dry collection of statistics, garnished with 
frequent tables bristling with figures. On the contrary, it is a very pleasantly 
written record of the successful experiments in poultry-farming made by a 
gentleman who had settled down on a small property in the north-east part 
of Hampshire. There is an abundance of useful information for those who 
are interested in the keeping of poultry." 





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