(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Chemicals and allied products"

T 




^ 



/ 









^^3<^. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/chemicalsalliedpOOmunruoft 



n 



urNroq^CV>cuac«itx:^voourd & Onc^cxjra ,T. ^ .1 



Twelfth Census of the United States. 






Census Bulletin. 



N->. 2lO. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



June 28, 1902. 



MANUFACTURES. 



CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. 



Hon. William R. Merriam, . 

Dlrcct<yr nf thu C'tii-fw^. 

Sir : I transmit herewith, for publication in bulletin 
form, the statistics of chemicals and allied products, 
prepared under my direction h\ Charles E. Munroe, 
Ph. U., professor of chemistrj', Columbian University, 
Washington, D. C, and by T. M. Chatard, Ph. D., his 
associate, acting as expert special agents of the division 
of manufactures. 

The unusually exhaustive and valuable character of 
the work is described in the introduction to this report 
by the expert special agents. Nothing approaching it 
in any particular has ever before been presented at any 
census of the United States. 

The statistics are presented in 9 tables: Table 1 is a 
sununary of the statistics for the entire industry, by 
states, lyOO; Table 2 is a summary for fertilizers, by 
states, 1900; Table -S is a summary for dyestuli's and 
tanning materials, by states, 1900; Table 4 is a sum- 
mary for paints, by states, 1900; Table 5 is a summary 
for varnishes, by states, 1900; Table 6 is a summary 
for explosives. b\' states, 1900; Table 7 is a summary for 
essential oils, by states, 1900; Table 8 is a sununary for 
chemicals, by states, 1900; and Table 9 is a summary 
for bone, ivory, and lampblack, bj' states, for 1900. 

In drafting the schedules of inquiry for the census of 
1900 care was taken to preserve the basis of comparison 
with prior censuses. Comparison may be made safely 
with respect to all the items of inquiry except those re- 
lating to capital, salaried officials, clerks, etc., and their 
salaries, the average numl)er of employees, and the total 



amount of wages paid. Live capital, that is, cash on 
hand, I)ills receivable, unsettled ledger accounti, raw 
materials, stock in process of manufacture, finished 
products on hand, and other sundries, was first called 
for at the census of 1890. No definite attempt was 
made, prior to the census of 1890, to secure a return of 
live capit<il invested. 

Changes were made in the inquiries relating to em- 
ployees and wages in order to eliminate defects found 
to exist on the form of inquiry adopted in 1890. At 
the census of 1890 the average number of persons em- 
ployed during the entire year was called for, and also 
the average number employed at stated weeklj- rates of 
pay, and the average number was computed for the 
actual time the establishments were reported as being 
in operation. At the census of 1900 the greatest and 
least numbers of employees were reported, and also the 
average number employed during each month of the 
year. The average number of wage-earners (men, 
women, and children) employed during the entire year 
was ascertained by using 12, the number of calendar 
months, as a divisor into the total of the average num- 
licrs reported for each month. This difterence in the 
method of ascertaining the average number of wage- 
earners during the entire year may have resulted in a 
variation in the number, and should be considered in 
making comparisons. 

At the census of 1890 the number and salaries of pro- 
prietors and firm members actively engaged in the busi- 
ness or in supervision were reported, combined with 
clerks and other officials. In ca.ses where proprietors 



.and fii'm membei's were reported without salaries, the 
amount that would ordinarily be paid for similar serv- 
ices was estimated. At the census of 1900 only the 
number of proprietoi"s and tirm members actively en- 
gaged in the industry or in supervision was ascertained, 
and no salaries were reported for this class. It is there- 
fore impossible to compare the number and salaries of 
salaried officials of any character for the two censuses. 

Furthermore, the schedules for 1890 included in the 
wage-earning class, overseers, foremen, and superin- 
tendents (not general superintendents or managers), 
while the census of 1900 separates from the wage-earning 
class such salaried employees as general superintendents, 
clerks, and salesmen. It is possible and probable that 
this change in the form of the question has resulted in 
eliminating from the wage-earners, as reported by the 
present census, many high-salaried employees included 
in that group for the census of 1890. 

In some instances, the number of proprietors and firm 
members, shown in the accompanying tables, falls short 
of the number of establishments reported. This is 
accounted for by the fact that no proprietors or firm 
members are repoi'ted for corporations or cooperative 
establishments. The number of salaried officials, clerks, 
etc., is the greatest number reported employed at any 
one time during the year. 

The reports show a capital of $238,529,641 invested 
in the manufacture of chemicals and allied products. 



This sum represents the value of land, buildings, 
machiner\', tools, and imjjlements, and the live capital 
utilized, but does not include the capital stock of aiij' 
of the manufacturing corporations of the state. The 
value of the products is returned at $202, .582,390, to 
produce which involved an outlay of $11,340,385 for 
salaries of officials, clerks, etc.; $21,799,251 for wages; 
$14,825,112 for miscellaneous expenses, including rent, 
taxes, etc.; and $124,043,837 for materials used, mill 
supplies, freight, and fuel. It is not to be assumed, 
however, that the difference between the aggregate of 
these sums and the value of the products is, in any 
sense, indicative of the profits in the manufacture of 
the products during the census j'ear. The census 
schedule takes no cognizance of the cost of selling man- 
ufactured articles, or of interest on capital invested, or 
of the mercantile losses incurred in the business, or of 
depreciation in plant. The value of the product given 
is the value as obtained or fixed at the shop or factor}'. 
This statement is necessarj- in order to avoid erroneous 
conclusions from the figures presented. 
Verj' respectfully, 




Chief Statistician f err Manufactures. 



CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. 



By Charles E. Mujjroe and Thomas M. Cjiatard. 



The publication of special reports relating to the 
manufacture of chemicals, which was begun in the 
Tenth Census, was a feature of the Eleventh Census. 
although, as stated in the report on "chemicals and 
alliod products" of the latter census (Eleventh Census, 
Msuuifacturing Industries. Part III. page 275). "owing 
to changes in the form of inquiry and the inclusion of 
certain allied industries not reported as chemicals at 
the census of 1880, and the exclusion of others that 
were included under this head at the Tenth Census, a 
true comparison is impossible.'" 

The same ma}' be said of the report on chemicals and 
alliod products for the Twelfth Census, now presented. 
Pharmaceutical preparations, included as chemicals 
by the Eleventh Census, have been excluded from the 
present report, while "bone, ivorj', and lamp black," 
previously reported elsewhere, is here included. Still, 
the data for so many of the industries included in the 
classilication are comparable that a fairl}' correct idea 
of the growth of the combined industries as a whole, 
during the past decade, may be obtained. 

The total number of active establishments included 
in this inquiry, as set forth in this report, is 1,827. 
Thirty-six establishments were reported as idle, mak- 
ing the total number of establishments 1,863. The 
report on "chemicals and allied products" for 1890 
covei'ed 1,()26 establishments, including those making 
pharmaceutical preparations as the principal product, 
but the latter arc not considered in the present report. 
The Census Office classities an establishment according 
to the nature of its principal product, this being deter- 
mined by its value as compared with that of any other 
product which may be made therein. The special 
schedules for the various industries call for the main 
products of the industry with sufficient detail, while 
subordinate products are, in most cases, brought to- 
gether under the caption " all other products." Hence, 
chemical products made b}' works belonging to other 
categories can not, in most cases, be ascertained from 
the returns and do not appear in this report except in 
a few specified instances. The amount so lost to this 
in(iuiry is, however, not so large as to materially afiect 
these returns, and as the value of such products is 
included in the figures of the other categories, the final 
total value of all manufactures is not affected. More- 
over, establishments whose products during the census 
year were valued at less than $500 are not included in 
the general tabulations, but are taken into considera- 
tion in this special report. 



Owing to the hearty cooperation of most of the lead- 
ing chemical works it is believed that the figures here 
presented are as nearly coirect as the difficulties attend- 
ing the collection of the information have permitted. 
In proV)ablj' no Ijranch of the census work is the need 
of a permanent, trained force more keenly felt than in 
this particular inquiry, the wide range of which is shown 
by the character of the " Special Schedule, No. 17,'' 
used in the collection of these returns. The products 
were classified under 19 groups, as follows: Group 1, 
Acids; II, Sodas; III, Potashes; IV, Alums; V, Coal- 
Tar Products; VI, Cyanides; VII, Wood Distillation; 
VIII, Fertilizers; IX, Bleaching Materials; X, Chemi- 
cals produced by the aid of Electricity; XI, Dyestuflfs; 

XII, Tanning Materials; XIII, Paints, Pigments, and 
Varnishes; XIV, Explosives; XV, Plastics; XVI, Essen- 
tial Oils; XVII, Compressed and Liquefied Gases; 
XVIII, Fine Chemicals; and XIX, General Chemicals. 
In the course of the work it was found necessary to form 
a subgroup, XIX A, to classif}' certain establishments 
whose main products were not originalh' included in 
"chemicals." A final group named "miscellaneous" 
includes a number of products not chemical but made 
by works belonging to the categor}- of "chemical in- 
dustries." By bringing such products together their 
nature, quantity, and value are given and the figures 
may be used to supplement the returns elsewhere given 
for such substances so far as they may be separately 
reported. 

Separate tabulations have been made of the data for 
Group VIII, Fertilizers; Groups XI and XII, D^-e- 
stufl's and Extracts; Group XIII, Paints; also Group 

XIII, Varnishes; Group XIV, Explosives; and Group 
XVI, Essential Oils. The data for the remainder of the 
groups are included in the general tabulation of "chem- 
icals." There is also a tabulation of "bone, ivorj-, and 
lamp black," but as results showed that the product was 
exclusively hydrocarbon black or lampblack, the figures 
may be properly included in those for "paints," and 
are so treated in the special group report. These 
tribulations are continued from previous censuses and 
are necessar}' in order that the condition of the manu- 
factures of states, cities, etc., may be promptly shown 
with sufficient detail, but for the proper presentation 
of the chemical indu.stries of the United States a cer- 
tain reclassification of products became needful. For 
example, a certain large establishment made paints, 
acids, and general chemicals, its paint product being 
the largest in value; the establishment was classified 

3 



under "paints," the other products being there re- 
ported as subproducts. In another instance a large fer- 
tilizer works, making its own acid, had such an extensive 
business in the manufacture of cottonseed products 
that, although it was really a chemical works of much 
importance, it could not be put in this category, but 
had to go elsewhere. So far as possible, the chemical 
products of this latter class of works have been taken 
into consideration in the special group reports, but 
separately noted, so that any duplication may be made 
evident. 

In the special group reports, all of the products 
belonging to the group are brought together. When 
the main product of a works belongs to the group under 
consideration, the establishment is a "main" one and 
belongs to Class A. When the group product is a 
minor one for an establishment, this is counted in, but 
as a " sub" works and placed in Class B. The chemical 



product of an establishment not belonging to the cate- 
gory of "chemical industries," as noted above, is also 
taken into account, but the establishment and its chem- 
ical product are placed in a third class, C. By this 
system each group report can present its special opera- 
tions and products in any desired detail; and while the 
figures of product may differ from and often exceed 
those of the general tabulations, no confusion can result 
if it is clearly understood that the purpose of the special 
group reports is to give as clear and complete a presen- 
tation of the American chemical industry as the avail- 
able information may permit. 

The following table gives, first, the totals for estab- 
lishments, capital, labor, cost of materials, and value of 
products as shown in the tabulations, and second, for 
purposes of comparison, the total values for the same 
classes of products as shown bj' the reclassified figures 
of the group reports: 



COMPARISON OF TABULATION VALUES WITH GROUP VALUES: 1900. 



TABULATION. 



Total , 

Chemicals 

Dyestufis' 

Essential oils 

Explosives 

Fertilizers 

Paints and varnishes'. 



Number of 
establish- 
ments. 



1,740 



4.59 

77 

70 

87 

422 

615 



WAGK-EARNERS. 



Capital. 



Average 
number. 



Total wages. 



«23S,6!29,641 



89,091,430 

7,839,034 - 

012,657 I 

19,4l)!>,846 I 
60,6a'J,7.W 

60,834.921 ' 



19,0.54 

1,648 

199 

4, ,502 

11,. 581 
9,782 



821,799,251 



9,401,467 
787, 942 
69,100 
2,383,766 
4, 185. 289 
4,971,697 



Materials, 
cost. 



(124,043,837 



34,564,137 
4,745,912 
596, 112 
10,334,974 
28,958,473 
44,844,229 



Products, 
value. 



$202,582,396 



62, 676, 730 
7, 350, 748 
850,093 
17, 125, 418 
44,657,385 
69, 922, 022 



Reclassified 

products, 

value. 



«221, 217, 217 



'78,414,840 

7, 767, 226 

8.59, 401 

816,950,976 

45,911,382 

71, 313, 392 



> Including miscellaneous, 84,175,656 from all tabulations. 
2 Including tanning materials. 



3 Excluding miscellaneous, 

♦Including bone, ivory, and lamp black. 



Taking the table of "principal products, their quan- 
titj^ and value, 1890," given on page 275 of the above- 
mentioned special report of the Eleventh Census, and 



comparing the returns for the same products as given 
by the figures of the Twelfth Census, the following 
results are shown: 



COMPARISON OF THE QUANTITIES AND VALUES OF 
THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS REPORTED: 1890 AND 1900. 



Total . 



Alum, pounds 

Coal-tar products 

Dyeing and tanning 
extracts and sumac, 
pounds 

Gunpowderand other ex- 
plosives, pounds X. 

Fertilizers, tons 

Paints, colore, and var- 
nishes 

Potash and pearlash, 
pounds 

Sodas, pounds 

Sulphuric acid, 50°; 
pounds 

Sulphuric acid, 60", 
pounds 

Sulphuric acid, 66", 
pounds 

Wood alcohol and acetate 
of lime 

Chemicals (including all 
acids, bases, and salts 
not heretofore enumer- 
ated ) 

All other products 



1890 



Quantity. 



$163,547,686 



93,998,008 



187,906,911 

125,646,912 
1,898,806 



5, 106, 939 
333, 124, 375 

1,009,863,407 

20,379,908 

354,533,667 



Value. 



IflOO 



Quantity. 



179,467,471 



169,626,536 

215, 690, 719 
3,091,717 



1,616,710 
687,591 



8,857,084 

10,993,131 
35,519,841 

62,908,252 



197,507 3,864,766 

5,432,400 1,279,082,000 

4,307,067 1,906,878,903 

122,940 ! 34,023,131 

3,249,466 I 754,558,455 

1,886,469 



Value. 



8221,217,217 



24,751,974 
13,018,263 



2,446,576 
1,421,720 



7,767,226 

16,950,976 
45,911,382 

71,313,392 

178,180 
10,237,944 

7,966,832 

246,284 

6,035,069 

6,775,290 



'40,791,690 
4,175,6.56 



> Including essential oils, 8859,401. 



This table shows that while the chemical industries of 
the United States have greatlj^ advanced in quantity of 
product, the value per unit of product has much de- 
creased, a tendency of much importance to those indus- 
tries which use the.se products as matei'ials for their 
own operations. 

Each of the groups into which products are classified 
represents a special form of establishment, sometimes 
two or more forms, even though a single establishment 
may, and often does, furnish products belonging to two 
or more groups. Hence it is practically impossible to 
construct for this special branch of inquiry a single 
schedule which, by the wording of the interrogatories 
and the indications as to the proper nature of the re- 
plies, will enable the Census Office to elicit the desired 
information from all alike. The difficulties experienced 
in collecting the statistics have, however, indicated 
improvements needed for future work, and, with a 
permanent Census Bureau, there is every reason to 
expect that at the next census the statistics of chemical 
manufactures will show results of much wider scope 
than it has been possible to present even at the census 
of 1900. 



5 



The willingness of the niiuiufacturers, notably of the 
great coinbinutions, to furiii.Hh in formation has l)cen 
uiost gratifying, and whon difficulties have occurred 
in most cases they have been duo to the fact that the 
establishments did not have such records as would give 
the information desired. The absence of such records 
has generally been regretted by the manufacturers, who 
have recognized the value such information would have 
been to them in their business. In the few cases where 
information was at first refused on the ground of inter- 
ference with private business, a courteous letter of ex- 
planation rarely failed to elicit a pleasant reply, giving 
everything desired so far as it could be furnished. 

While the groups above mentioned cover most of the 
products usually recognized as chemicals, inspection of 
the index of any standard work on chemical technology 
will show that the subjects considered as belonging to 
this domain are far more numerous. The reason for 
this becomes evident when it is remembered that every 
form of industry must be either physical or chemical 
or a combination of both. The manufacture of pig 
iron or the tanning of a hide is a chemical process, while 
the rolling of a mil or the making of a shoe is a phys- 
ical process, but many manufacturing processes in 
which chemical reactions occur can not be sharply 
classified, since, while the products arc the results of 
chemical action, the practical success of the operations 
depends upon the correct arrangement of the mechan- 
ical plant, a good example of this Ijeing the ammonia- 
soda process. Modern industrial ehemistr}- tends to 
develop itself more and more along engineering lines; 
hence the increasing demand for the chemical engineer — 
a mechanical engineer with a special equipment of chem- 
ical .science and technology. 

A list of the topics treated of in Wagners Chemical 
Technology is here given as an example of what the 
term "chemical technology-" as a rule embraces, to 
which is added a list of the special schedules and bulle- 
tins issued by the Census Office showing how far these 
topics are the subject of special inquiries and reports at 
the census of 1900, thus facilitating the obtaining of a 
comprehensive view of this industrial complex. 

COMPARISON OF THE TOPICS OF CHEMICAL TECHNOL- 
OGY WITH THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE CENSUS 
OF 1900. 



COMPARISON OF THE TOPICS OF CHEMICAL TECHNOL- 
OGY WITH THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE CENSUS 
OF 1900— Continual. 



Fuel: 

Clunnal (chemical manufactures) 

Coke 

Oas, tllumlnttting and fuel 

Oil, mineral (petroleum refining) . 

Paraffln, etc (petroleum rfllning).. 
Mi'lalhirgj': 

Iron and steel 

SSr':::::::::::::::;::::::::::;:: 

zinc 

Other metals, general schedule 



Special 
acnedule 
number. 



17 

7 

(no number) 

g 
8 

21 and 23 
24 
2S 
28 
8 



(chemical manufactnres) . 



(chemical manufactures) . 



Chemical manufactures. Inorganic: 

Common salt 

Adds, bases and Htlts . 

Fertilizers 

Explosives 

Comprt'sMed gsKes 

Klectrolylii,' ])r<)diK'ts. . 

Pulnts iind varnishes. . 
Chemical nuiiiufaetures, organic: 

Alc'iliols and ethers 

Organic aclcls 

OrgHulc coloring matters... 

Coal-tar products and colors., 
(ilass: 

Pottery and flreKjlay products 

Bricks 

(■enicntsand mortar, general schedule 

Foo<l. beverHges, etc.: 

Stan-li, general schedule 

Sugar, general schedule 

Feriiielilation 

Brewing, general schedule 

Wine making, general schedule 

Spirit'J, genenil schedule 

Flour and gris*t pnxlucts 

Meat prmlucts (slaughtering and meat packing) 

Milk, butter, and cheese 

Fibers: 

Preparing, bleaching, dyeing, printing, and finishing. 

Rilk 

W(H>1 

Cotton 

Hemp, flax, and jute ■. .. 

Paper . 



Miscellaneous: 

Tanning (leather, tanned and curried) . 

Glue, !*ize, gelatine, general schedule ... 

Bone distillation- 
Bone charcoal, general schedule 

Bone oil 

Fats, oils, soans, general schedule 

Stearin and givcerin. general schedule . 

Kesins, general schedule 

Essential oils (chemical manufactures) . 

Wood preser\'ation, general schedule ... 



>ehedule 
number. 



17 



31 
33 



12 

IB 
14 and 15 
11 
18 
34 

18 



17 



While some of these topics may at first appear to the 
la3-men to have but a veiy slight connection with chem- 
istry, as, for example, the manufacture of flour or bricks, 
yet flour and bricks, as well as all of the other chemical 
substances named, are chemical substances, and they 
have been the subject of extended chemical study by 
specialists, through which there has resulted great im- 
provement in the quality and cheapness of the products. 
In such industrial chemical investigation Germauv, 
leads all other countries, and its present preeminence 
in the field of chemical manufacture has been deservedly 
won by its work, although it has been materialh* aided 
by the character of the patent laws of England and of 
the United States. 

The German chemical manufacturer is far in advance 
of those of all other nations in recognizing the value of 
specialized chemical skill in the conduct of the works 
and in emploj'ing trained chemists in laboratory inves- 
tigations. Thus McMurtrie' points out that the Fa- 
briken der Actien-Ge.seli.schaft Farbewerke Meister 
Lucius und Bruning in HOchst, who were in 1S90 mak- 
ing Ijetween 1,700 and 1,8(X) diflferent colors, numbered 

' The Relations of the Industries to the Advancement of Chem- 
ical Science, by William McMurtrie, Proc. A. A. A. S., Vol. 44, 
page 79, 1895. ' 



among their 3,000 employees 70 chemists and 12 en- 
gineers. Green' states that in 1900 the six largest 
coal-tar color firms in Germany employed about 500 
chemists and 350 engineers and technical men, while 
Sir Henr}^ Roscoe" states that at the German works 
which he had visited, highly trained chemists were em- 
plojed in original researches with a view to new dis- 
coveries. "One employee, who received £1,000 a year, 
worked for several years without producing an3' results; 
but eventually he made a discover3' which repaid the 
firm ten times over, and placed an entirely new branch 
of manufacture in their hands." 

Owing to the extended discussions going on in Eng- 
land and America relative to the tremendous growth of 
the chemical industi'ies of Germany during the past 
twenty years, in which many have attributed much of 
this growth to the extensive emploj-ment of doctors of 
philosophy in chemistry and other university-bred 
chemists in the German technical works, a census has 
been taken of the establishments in the United States 
which are the subject of this report, with the following 
result: 

CHEMISTS EMPLOYED IN THE ESTABLISHMENTS 
TREATED OF IN THIS REPORT. 



GROUP 
NCMBER. 


Group name. 


Numberof 
chemists. 


I 


Acids 


28 


11 


Sodas 


g 


III 






IV 




11 


V 


Coal-tar products '- . . 




VI 






VH 




3 


VIII 


Fertilizers 


10 


IX 




4 


X 


Electro-chemicals 


9 


XI 


Dvestufis 


13 


XII 




7 


XIII 


Paints and varnishes 


."iS 


XIV 




32 


XV 




5 


XVI 


Essential oils 


2 


XVII 




9 


XVIII 




25 


XIX 


General chemicals 


41 




Total 






276 









When, in German works, the results of the investi- 
gations of the expert chemists indicate commercial pos- 
sibilities, practical working tests follow, and, in the 
end, one more patent is added to those which hamper 
the development of chemical industry in countries 
which, like the United States, give the foreigner the 
monopoly of a patent without requiring that the pro- 
tected article shall be made where the patent is issued. 
The effect is that since it is often more profitable to make 
the higher grade chemicals abroad than in the United 
States, foreign labor and capitsil are protected to the in- 
jury of the labor and capital of this countiy. Hence, 
while the manufacture of acids, alkalies, fertilizers, and 
other heavy chemicals has greatly increased in the 
United States, this is mainly because ol' tran.sportation 

' The Coal-tar IndvLstry, by A. G. Green, Science, Vol. 14, page 
663; 1901. 

*J. Soc. Chem. Ind., Vol. Ki, page .570, 1897. 



costs. The tariff on alkalies has certainly added much 
in the development of this branch because it has been to 
the interest of the foreign patentees to establish alkali 
works here either by their own capital or by granting 
licenses to others. When, as in the case of dyestuffs 
and other high-grade chemicals, the transportation cost 
is a minor consideration, the tariff has little effect in 
inducing the domestic manufacture of a foreign article 
protected by a local patent. So long as the demand for 
his article insures a sufficient price, the foreign patentee 
can make it abroad and ship it here, paying whatever 
duty may be demanded; bv simply refusing to grant a 
license for manufacture here, he is secured from 
all competition. Other countries may have refused 
to grant him a patent, which may even have be- 
come void in the original country, and the article be 
made by others; j^et under our laws, he, and he alone, 
may vend the article here. The English, who are suf- 
fering from a similar condition of their patent laws, 
are bestirring themselves to have the situation amelio- 
rated, and a special committee of the Society oir Chem- 
ical Industry has lately made a report upon this sub- 
ject.' The effects of granting British patents to for- 
eigners without requiring domestic operation are thus 
stated: 

1. We foster foreign labor and assist in the development of for- 
eign industries. 

2. As the introduction of a new article generally replaces an- 
other article hitherto in use, we throw out of employment a cer- 
tain number of our own workpeople. 

3. Very frequently the foreign patentee has either not succeeded 
in getting a patent in his own country or such patent has already 
run its course there, whilst his British monopoly remains in full 
force. The result is that we stifie invention and increase the prices 
of a number of articles by closing the doors to our own inventors 
and manufacturers, whilst our foreign competitors may make and 
vend abroad the patented article without any restriction or pay- 
ment of royalty. 

Several examples are given of the practical working 
of the English patent laws. Artificial alizarine was 
invented in Germany but no patent was granted there. 
English patents were, however, granted, with the result 
that the patentees, having the monopoly of the English 
market anyhow, simply made it in Germany, as being 
cheaper so to do, and built up an enormous trade which 
was the foundation of Germany's present supremacy in 
the manufacture of coal-tar dyestuffs. Again, the pro- 
duction of artificial indigo is destroying the natural 
indigo industry of India and producing much distress 
there. England, which is thus a heavy loser, can do 
nothing to offset this loss, because the patent monopoly 
gi'anted to the foreigner enables him to supply the 
English market on his own terms. 

Every country, save England and the United States, 
has a provision in its patent laws that a patent can be 
revoked if not worked in the counti'y granting the 
patent. Moreover, the French patent law has, in addi- 

' J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1002, pages 212 to 301. 



tion, the following provision, article 32, scotion 3, "The 
patent shall ho revoked if the i)iitentee has introduced 
into France articles of manufacture made abroad and 
similar to those which are protected by the patent." 
In this way France provides that, in giving to anyone 
the protection of her patent laws, her domestic industry 
shall be fostered, and not, as in England and the United 
States, ofti'n injured and sometimes destroyed. In- 
stances have occurred in this country where chemical 
substances once made heie are *no longer produced, 
because the foreign manufacturer, protect(Hl \>y his 
American patent, has been able to make the domestic 
manufacture unprofitable. 

The report under consideration states that "There is 
but one remedy for this vexed question which is both 
simple and efficacious, viz, to enact that 'A patent 
may Ije revoked if it be proved that an article patented 
is worked abroad and not in the United Kingdom, the 
onus of proof that the patent is worked, bona fide, in 
this country, resting with the patentee or licensee.'" 
Some such provision as this in the laws of the United 
States would materially aid the development of our 
American chemical industry. 

In order to bring out the relations existing between 
the growth of the chemical industr}- and of the patents 
which have been granted in this country covering 
inventions in this industiy, an abstract has been made 
of all chemical patents issued from the founding of 
the United States Patent Office up to the year 1900, 
and this Digest of Chemical Patents is given as an 
appendix to this report. It was prepared b}- Mr. Story 
B. Ladd, M. E., whose experience as a patent attorney 
especially fitted him for this duty, and he elsewhere 
shows the effect which the granting of these monopolies 
has produced on the industries of the United States. 

The Nineteenth century, the closing 3' ear of which 
is marked by the taking of the Twelfth Census, will 
always be a notable one in the history of chemical 
manufacture, since practically all of its present work- 
ing processes have had their origin and development 
during this period. Indeed, chemical maimfacture, as 
such, can hardly be said to have existed until the con- 
tinuouslj- working chamber process for sulphuric acid 
was introduced, about 1810, while the Leblanc soda 
process, although discovered by him in 1789, failed to 
get a footing until 181i, when it was introduced into 
England bj- Losh. Thereafter the development of 
chemical technology proceeded rapidly, and now, at the 
end of the century, we find that the great Leblanc proc- 
ess is approaching extinction through the inroads of the 
later ammonia-soda process and the electroh'tic chlorine 
process, while the chamber process for sulphuric acid 
appears to be about to meet a foi-midable competitor in 
the recently developed contact process. 

As the nature and working conditions of this process 
have been only lately made public, and as its general intro- 
duction will have such a profound effect upon industrial 
chemistry, especial attention is given to it in the next 



section. Moreover, contact action or cataljsis contin- 
ually occurs in chemical operations, has already numerous 
applications, and the number is continually increasing. 

Hv catalysis in meant that p(!culiar action of a sub- 
stance by which it can, when in contact with two or 
more substances cajmble of reacting upon each other, 
either cause the reaction, or, if the rea<;tion is already 
occurring, greatly diminish the time required for its 
completion. At the same time, the catalytic substance, 
so far as respects the nature of the ultimate products, 
appears to have undergone no change. Hence, Ost- 
wald's definition, "A catalytic agent is such material 
as affects the velocity of a chemical reaction without 
itself appearing in the final product." A very familiar 
example of catalytic action is the effect of adding man- 
ganese peroxide to potassium chlorate when making 
oxygen. Either of the substances gives off oxygen when 
heated to a temperature sufficiently high, but when 
mixed the reaction is effected at a much lower tempera- 
ture and with much less danger of explosion. When 
the reaction is completed, examination of the residue 
shows that only the chlorate has lost its oxygen, becom- 
ing chloride, the peroxide being apparently unchanged. 
It is probable that the latter has taken full part in the 
reaction, giving off' oxygen and taking it up again, but, 
looking only at the final result, it appears to have been 
effective merely by its presence. 

The action of the niter gas in the sulphuric acid 
chamber is also catalytic. The union of sulphur diox- 
ide and atmospheric oxygen can and does take place 
without the help of the niter gases, but the unassisted 
reaction is very slow and incomplete. The niter gases 
are oxygen carriers; the ox3'gen which they contain is 
in a much more active condition than that of the air, 
so that they oxidize the sulphur dioxide but replace 
the loss by taking up oxygen from the accompanying 
air. As water, in the form of steam, is alwajs present 
in this reaction, the final product is sulphuric acid, 
which, in theory at least, is free from oxides of nitro- 
gen, the niter gas remaining in its original active con- 
dition. In practice, however, a certain amount of this 
gas is reduced to inactive forms and this loss must be 
made up by addition of fresh gas, so that for every 
hundred parts of acid produced, a certain quantity of 
niter is used up, but this quantity, being theoretically 
nothing, depends upon the care of the management and 
other conditions. 

Other applications of catalysis are met with in the 
Deacon chlorine process, the manufacture of chlorates, 
aldehydes (the formaldehyde lamp for disinfection 
being an example), acetone, carbon tetrachloride, and 
many other organic products, the entire subject being 
one of great and increasing imiwrtance. 

Group I. — Acids. 

Sulphwic Add. — The manufacture of sulphuric acid 
has practically doubled during the past decade, the in- 
crease of product resulting more from the expansion of 



worfo than from an increase in their number. The fol- 
lowing table gives a comparison between the output for 
the census year of 1900 and that for 1890. The figures 
for quantity and value of 50"^ acid include acid made 
and consumed in the works in the production of ferti- 
lizers and other products. 

COMPARISON OF SULPHURIC ACID PRODUCED IK 1890 
AND 1900. 





1900—127 ESTABLISHMENTS. 


1890—105 ESTABLISHMENTS. 


STEEXGTH, 


Acid produced. 


Acid produced. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value 
per 
ton. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value 
per 
ton. 


Total.. 


2,69.5,460,489 


814,247,185 




1,384,776,962 


87,679,473 




50° 

60° 

66° 


1,906,878,903 

34,023,131 

754, 558, 455 


7,965,832 

246,284 

6,035,069 


$8.35 
14.47 
,16.00 


1,009,863,407 
20,379,908 
354,533,657 


4,307,067 

122,940 

3,249,466 


88.63 
12.06 
18.33 



The figures of quantity and value of the 50° acid for 
both periods include the amount of this acid made at 
certain works and consumed there in the manufacture 
of fertilizers. In addition there is given the quantity 
and value of the acid consumed at works in 1900 for 
makiqg mixed acids for explosives and for other pur- 
poses. The acid used for fertilizers was really 50° or 
chamber acid. The rest of the acid included for 1900 
was of various strengths, but for purposes of compari- 
son these have been reduced to 50°. In reducing 66° 
acid to 50°, the quantity is multiplied by 1.50, and for 
60° acid, multiplied Ijy 1.25, these factors being closely 
approximate to the usual strengths. 





1900. 


1890. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 




2,097,268,570 


$8, 819, 526 


581,536,200 


82,480,495 








1,678,718,000 
518,560,570 


6,591,147 
2,228,379 


.581,536,200 


2,480,495 




(') 







Even with these rcsti-ictions a comparison is interesting 
as showing the growth of this branch of manufacture. 



' Not given. 

The census report for 1890 also gave the total acid 
production reduced to a uniform strength of 50°. 
Doing this for the acid production of the present cen- 
sus gives the following comparison: 

Total acid as 50°: 

.1900 3,081,245,500 

1890 1, 567, 138, 777 



Gain, practically 100 per cent 1, 514, 106, 723 

The census of 1870 was the first at which separate 
figures were given- for sulphuric acid, but only the 
number of establishments and the total value of product 
were given. In 1880 the total quantity in pounds was 
given, but no separation into the various strengths was 
made, so that the returns are not strictly comparable. 



Year. 



Number 
of works. 



1S70 
1880 
1890 
1900 



4 
49 
105 
127 



Quantity of 
products. 



308, 765, 432 
1,384,776,972 
2, 695, 460, 489 



Value of 
products. 



8212,150 

3,661,876 

7, 679, 473 

14,247,185 



1 Not given. 

The first manufacturer of sulphuric acid in the United 
States appears to have been Mr. John Harrison, of 
Philadelphia, who in 1793 had a lead chamber capable 
of producing 300 carboys of acid per annum. ^ The 
business proving very remunerative, he built, in 1807, a 
lead chamber 50 feet long, 18 feet wide, and IS feet 
high. This was a large chamber for the time, and was 
capable of making nearly half a million pounds of sul- 
phuric acid annually, the price of the acid being then 
as high as 15 cents a pound. Mr. Harrison was also 
the first person in the United States to use a platinum 
still for the concentration of the acid, this having been 
up to then done in glass, a very precarious and danger- 
ous operation. This first still was made in ISl-l by Dr. 
Eric BoUman, and was at once put in use. It 
weighed 700 ounces, had a capacity of 25 gallons, and 
was in continuous use for fifteen years. 

Powers & Weightman, of Philadelphia, report that 
they began the manufacture of sulphuric acid in 1825, 
while a letter from Mr. Nicholas Lennig, containing 
much valuable information, states that about 1829 his 
father, the late Mr. Charles Lennig. erected a sulphuric- 
acid plant which "was so successful that the then exist- 
ing New York Chemical Company went into liquidation, 
and put the funds realized therefrom into a banking 
company now well known as the Chemical National 
Bank." 

It also appears that, in 1829, the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid was begun in Baltimore by two companies, 
the Maryland Chemical Works and the Baltimore 
Chemical Manufactory. The industry extended, and 
the figures given at the census of 1870 of i works, with 
a total product of the value of $212,150, are undoubt- 
edly erroneous. Of the works reporting acids as prin- 
cipal products at the census of 1900, 16 reported starting 
in business prior to 1870, while some of the fertilizer 
factories were making acid prior to that time. While 
nothing positive can now be said on this subject, it is 
not unlikely that in 1870 there were at least 25 sul- 
phuric acid works in operation, with a product of over a 
million dollars in value. Such a supposition is certainly 
more reasonable when compared, as above, with the 
figures of subsequent censuses, since everyone, at all 
conversant with this subject, is well aware that between 
1870 and 1880 there was no such outburst of energy in 
this branch of industry, as would be indicated by the 



' Catalogue, Harrison 
Philailelphia, 1902. 



Brothers & Company, Incorporated, 



9 



figures of the respective j*ears. Moreover, the figures 
of value for tlio total flit>iui<'al industry, so far as tlicv 
can 1)0 compared, weic, for 187U, $(iO,yiiS,214, and for 
1880, *89,388,172; while the figures for 1890 were 
l^ltil. 0(57. 190. The comparatively small increase of the 
figures of total value of product for 1880 over those for 
1870 is what would be expected in the slow uphill course 
of business between 1878 and 1880, while the next decade 
opened with a revival which, with occasional backsets, 
held good until 1893. 

The total number of sulphuric-acid works reporting 
at the census of 1900 was 127. Of these, 31 burned brim- 
stone only, 79 burned pyrites only, while 17 reported 
that they used both brimstone and pyrites. 

BriiiiHtonc PlanU. — Seven brimstone-burning plants 
made 66" acid, burning 18,042,072 pounds of brimstone 
and producing 51,204,775 pounds of 66" acid, or an 
average of 279 parts of 66^ acid (equivalent to 419 parts 
of oO'^ acid) to 100 brimstone, the figures for each plant 
running from 308 to 260 parts of acid. Thirteen brim- 
stone plants, making 50- acid only, used 35,955,680 
pounds of brimstone and produced 140,534,027 pounds 
of 50"^ acid, an average of 391 parts of acid to 100 parts 
of brimstone, the figures running from -H-6 to 321 parts 
of acid for 100 parts of brimstone. Two works report- 
ing, re.spectively, a yield of 321 and 334 parts, stated 
that they were using a very low grade of brimstone, 
which was obtained under advantageous conditions. 
Taking the 20 works together and the whole product as 
50^ acid, it is found that the grand average is 402 parts 
of acid for each 100 parts of brimstone. 

l\/rite>< Plants. — Nine pyrites plants, making 66° 
acid only, consumed 248,026,399 pounds of pyrites and 
produced 311,924,674 pounds of 66^^ acid, an average 
of 133.8 part*; of acid (equivalent to 200.7 parts of 50^ 
acid), for 100 parts pyrites. Thirty pyrites plants, 
making 50^- acid only, consumed 425,050,296 pounds of 
pj-rites and produced 889,222,560 pounds of 50*^ acid, 
an average of 209 acid to 100 pyrites, the figures run- 
ning from 234 to 160 parts. The gi'and average for the 
39 works is 206 acid to 100 pyrites. 

The figure 160 is given by 3 works l)urniiig low grade 
domestic pyrites, while the highest figure, 234 parts 
acid, is furnished by a new model plant burning pyrites 
with an average content of 50.05 per cent of sulphur 
and using 1.26 parts of nitrate of soda to everj- 100 
parts of pyrites. Other works give, per 100 pyrites, 
224 acid, 1.66 niter; 213.4 acid, 2.13 niter, while a 
large combination reports that it allows 2.5 pai-ts of 
niter and expects a yield of 225 parts of 50^ acid. The 
l)rimstone works show approximately a consumption 
of 4.29 parts of niter per 100 brimstone. In considering 
these figures, it must be remembered that the 66" acid 
does not average more than 93 per cent of H^SO^, cor- 
responding to 65.6- B. Similarly, the 50 acid runs 
from 52^ to 48° B., and even lower, and the chamber 
acid made and used in fertilizer works is usuallj- under 



60'-'. The continued use of brimstone in this industry 
in the United States is remarkable, as practically no 
brim.stone acid is now made in England or on tlur con- 
tinent of Europe. 

Tht' C'oiiidct I'mceHH. — In 19fK), at the meeting of the 
German Technical Chemists at Hanover, Clemens Wink- 
ler, the founder of the contact proc;ess, as we now have 
it, delivered an address entitled "The Development of 
the Sulphuric Acid Industry During the Nineteenth 
Century." In this paper, published in Zeitschrift fur 
Angewandte Chemie, 1900, page 731, he gives a .shoi-t 
review of the history and present stutus of the chamber 
process, and then shows the lines he followed in his cele- 
brated research upon contact action in the prfxluction 
of sulphur trioxide, which he made public in 1875. He 
then speaks of the subsequent development of this 
process, and concludes \i\ impressively stating that the 
contact process has already demonstrated its ability 
to compete with and finally to supersede the chamber 
process. The subject is so important that a summary 
of this paper is given here, and, following it. an abstract 
of the very valuable paper by Knietsch upon the devel- 
opment of the contiict process in the works of the 
Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik to which Winkler 
calls attention. This paper is very recent, having been 
published in the "Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen 
Gesellschaf t " for December, 19U1, and is so full of 
valuable information that its presentation here, in ab- 
stract, seems appropriate. 

Winkler stated that the only acid known to the 
ancients was vinegar, and that the first indication of the 
recognition of any other acid is when Geber, in the 
Eighth century, speaks of the "spirit" which can be 
expelled from alum and which possesses sohent powers. 
Albertus Magnus, Thirteenth centur\-, speaks of a 
".spiritus vitrioli Roraani" which can only have been 
sulphuric acid, while Basilius Valentinus, Fifteenth cen- 
tury, describes its preparation not only from copperas, 
but also by burning together sulphur and saltpeter, 
pointing out verj' distinctly not only that sulphur, in 
burning, produced some sulphuric acid, but also that 
the yield is much increased if saltpeter is added. 

Dornaeus, in 1570, descrited its properties accurately; Libavius, 
1595, recognized tlie identity of the acids from different processes 
of preparation; Angelus Sala, 161.3, pointed out the fact, which tiad 
sunk into ol)livion since Basilius, that sulphuric acid can be made 
by burning sulphur in moist vessels; after that time it was pre- 
pare<i by the apothecaries in that way.' 

The addition of saltpeter was introduced by Lefevre 
and Lemeiy, 1666, and Ward, in London, 1740, began 
to make sulphuric acid on a large scale in glass vessels. 
The lead chamber was first used by Roebuck, of Bir- 
mingham, who, in 174t>, erected such a chamber 6 feet 
square. The first chamber erected in France was at 
Rouen, in 1766. At this place, in 1774, De la Follie 
introduced the important improvement of the intro- 



1 Lunge: Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, 1891, Vol. I, page 7. 



10 



duction of steam into the chambers during the combus- 
tion of the brimstone. In 1793 Clement and Desormes 
showed that the chambei-s could be fed by a continuous 
current of air, by which much saltpeter could be saved. 
By this time the general principles of sulphuric-acid 
making were established, and by the end of the century- 
there were alread}^ six or eight works in Glasgow alone, 
while the price of a kilogram (2.2 pounds), which, in 
ITJrO, in German}', was about $1.12, sank in 1799 to 22 
cents, and is now (1900) about three-fourths of a cent. 

Lampadius (Grundriss d. tech. Chemie, Freiberg, 
1815, p. 3) has given a description of a sulphuric-acid 
works and the manner of operation at the beginning of 
the Nineteenth century. From this it is learned that 
a mixture of five parts of sulphur and one part of niter 
was burned in successive charges in the lead chamber, 
steam being admitted at the same time and air being 
let in when deemed necessary. The acid obtained 
was weak and had to be concentrated in glass retorts 
up to about 1.80 sp. gr., while the yield was less than 
half of what would be obtained at present. 

The proper construction of lead chambers involved 
great difliculties, it being almost impossible to make 
them gas-tight, until Debassyns de Richemont invented 
autogenic soldering. The chamber described by Lam- 
padius contained about 300 cubic meters (10,594 cubic 
feet), but the dimensions have been increased until now 
the biggest chambers contain 4,000 to 5,000 cubic meters 
(140,000 to 176,000 cubic feet). The last figures appear 
to be too large, and the present practice is not to in- 
crease the chamber space, but to supplement the sur- 
face by means of other devices, such as the Lunge- 
Rohrmann plates. 

Finallj^ in the earlier years of the Nineteenth century, 
the chamber process became a continuously working 
one, and thus was enabled to be what it now is, the 
foundation of the chemical industry and the measure 
of its extent. Improvements rapidly followed. The 
investigations of Gay-Lussac, on the recovery of the 
nitrogen oxides from the escaping gases, have given us 
the tower which bears his name, while the form of 
tower invented by Glover furnishes an efficient deni- 
trator for the acid flowing from the Gay-Lussac tower. 
The simultaneous use of these two towers is a necessitj^ 
in any modern, rationally managed establishment. 

The use of pyrites, in place of brimstone, was first in- 
troduced in 1836, on a manufacturing scale, l>y AVehrle, 
in Nussbaum, near Vienna, and by Brem, in Bohemia. 
In 1862, Spanish jjyrites began to be used in p]ngland, 
and by 1868 the- use of brimstone in English works had 
almost entirely ceased, and now very little brimstone is 
used in any country of Europe for the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid, while the consumptio!i in the United 
States for this purpose is still quite large, aiuounting, 
in the census year 1900, to 128,427,000 pounds, or 
about one-tenth of the total weight of the pyi'ites so 
used. 



Attempts to use the roaster gases from smelting 
works were made in 1S56-1S5S, and in 1859 a set of 
chambers using such gases was started at Oker. At 
present the smelting works in Germany produce (1899) 
186,000 tons of H^SO,, about 22 per cent of the total 
production. As elsewhere, the principal use of this 
acid is in the manufacture of superphosphate, of which 
500,000 tons were made in Germany in 1899. 

The methods of concentration of the weaker acids 
have been greatly improved, the increasing cost of 
platinum making it necessary to exercise the greatest 
economy. Platinum, which in 1870 cost about $1.50 per 
kilogram, cost in 1900 over $700 per kilogram, and the 
price is now little less than that of gold. Herteus, in 
1891, introduced the use of gold-plated platinum stills, 
which were found to be a great improvement. 

Fuming sulphuric acid, or Nordhausen acid, as it is 
also called, is a mixture of sulphur trioxide (or sul- 
phuric anhydride), with a varying proportion of mono- 
hydrated sulphuric acid. When the relation is about one 
part of SO3, to one jjart of H^SO,, it is solid at ordinary 
tenipei'atures, melting at 35^ C, and is the '"solid sul- 
phuric acid" of the trade. As it is obtained by heating 
copperas, alum, or other metallic sulphates, it was the 
first foi'm of sulphuric acid known, and the Pilsen acid 
works are already mentioned in 1526. This industry 
was desti'oycd during the Thirty Years War, but was 
revived at Nordhausen. In 1778 Starck reestablished 
the industry' in Bohemia, where, on account of the 
cheapness of labor and of the necessary vitriol stone, 
his successors enjoyed a practical monopoly of this sub- 
stance, until the increasing demand for it, in the manu- 
facture of alizarin, and for many other purposes, led to 
researches which have given methods by which it can 
])e made far more cheaply than by the distillation of 
vitriol stone, since when this is used only small charges 
can be worked, because the larger the charge, the higher 
the heat required, and the greater the loss of acid 
through the consequent splitting up of sulphur trioxide 
into sulphur dioxide and oxygen. 

That these two gases could be made to recombine by 
the contact action of platinum and other substances, had 
long been known and methods of utilization proposed, 
but nothing of importance had been accomplished until 
Clemens Winkler published, in 1875, the results of his 
researches. In the beginning of his work, Winkler 
heated the vitriol stone in much larger quantities, with- 
out regard to the decomposition of the trioxides, passed 
the gases over platinized asbestos, thus recomtnning 
the SOj and O, and then absorbed the trioxide in strong 
sulphuric acid. The results were very satisfactory, 
but it was necessary to find a material cheapei- than the 
vitriol stone. As the course of the work indicated that, 
for the best results, the SOj and O should be in stochi- 
ometrical proportions, sulphuric acid was used, be- 
cause when heated sufticientlv high it breaks up thus: 
H,S0i=S03+0+H,0. 



11 



The water vapor was easily removed and the resid- 
ual fjuscs roiniiinod in the oxact proportion needed. 

Tiie nood of a still clieaper material than sulphurio 
acid becoming manifest, Winkler began to experiment 
with the roaster gases of the Freiberg Smelting Works, 
and in time it was found that in this way two-thirds up 
to three-fourths of the SO, in these gases could be con- 
verted into SO,. Still there were many difficulties in 
tlie way of commercial success, such as purification of 
the gases, etc., so that Winkler was unable to publish 
his further results for many years. 

In the meantime the matter was taken uj) by the 
Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik at Ludwigshafen on 
the Rhine, and after years of unwearied scientific in- 
vestigation, in which no expense was spared, this great 
corporation has succeeded in solving the pi'oblem and 
has reaped a rich pecuniary reward. 

What the commercial success of the contact process 
means for the future of industrial chemistry njay best 
be expressed in the words of Winkler, who, having 
stated that at Ludwigshafen the new process can com- 
pete with the lead -chamber acid, goes on to say: 
"Therefore we can anticipate that, in no distant time, 
the lead chambers of to-day will be dispensed with, a 
condition amounting to a complete revolution in the 
domain of sulphuric-acid manufacture." Such a state- 
ment from so authoritative a source is a sufficient war- 
rant for the presentation in this place of the following 
abstract of Knietsch's paper: 

TUK CONTACT PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF 
SULPHURIC ACID.' 

I. Historical. — The production of sulphuric acid is a 
matter of the greatest importance, as it is not only the 
foundation of the inorganic heavy -chemical industry and 
is used for many other pui-poses, but also has lately be- 
come a most impoitsmt material in the organic dyc-stufi 
industry, especially in the production of alizarine colors 
and of synthetic indigo. The contact process is causing 
a complete revolution in the methods of manufacture of 
sulphuric acid; hence an account of its historical devel- 
opment and present status should be of great interest. 
The historical development of this process may be di- 
vided into four periods. 

First period : Phillips, in 1831, discovered the catalytic 
action of platinum in hastening the union of SO2 and O 
to form SO3. 

Second period: Wohler and Mahla, in 1852, showed 
that many other substances besides platinum possess 
catalytic properties, and explained the character and 
course of the reaction. 

Third period: Winkler used definite gas mixtures for 
the production of sulphuric anhydride, as it was then 
considered that only in this way could good quantitative 
yields be obtained. 

Fourth period, the present one, is noted by the suc- 
cessful use of the furnace gases directly. 

' R. Knietsch, Ber. d. d. Gesell, 1901, page 4069. 



The investigations of the third period were directed 
toward the production of fuming suljjhuric acid, which 
was then very expensive, while the investigations of 
the first and second periods had the same end as the 
work of the present time, that is, the replacement of 
the chamber process b}' improved methods. 

The catalytic action of platinum was discovered by 
Humphry Davy in .January, 1818, who showed that 
platinum wire, when warmed and then introduced into 
a mixture of oxygen (or air) with 11, CO, ethylene, or 
cyanogen, became incandescent, and that the gas mix- 
ture oxidized, usually gradually, but often rapidly. 

Edmund Davy, in 1830, discovered that finely divided 
precipitated platinum, when moistened with alcohol 
and exposed to the air, becomes incandescent and the 
alcohol burns. 

Doebcreincr, in 1822, found that finely divided plati- 
num, obtained by heating ammonio-platinic chloride, 
acted in the same maimer, and, in 1824, that such plati- 
num could ignite a stream of hydrogen, when this im- 
pinged upon it in contact with air, and utilized this 
discovery in his celebi-ated "lighting machine." 

The honor of having first utilized this catalytic action, 
for the production of sulphur trioxide, is due to Pere- 
grine Phillips of Bristol, England, who, in 1831, took 
out an English patent for his discovery, and, in 1832, 
Doebereiner and Magnus each confirmed the obser- 
vations of Phillips. Although this discovery attracted 
much attention, nothing practical followed until 18-t8, 
when Schneider exhibited a working model of an appa- 
ratus, which produced sulphuric acid through the contact 
action of a specially prepared pumice. This alleged 
discovery was presented with great claims, but never 
was able to show a success, although wonderful results 
were confidently predicted. The same may be said of 
the method of Richard Laming, who also used a contact 
mass of pumice, prepared by boiling it in concentrated 
sulphuric acid, washing it in ammoniacal water, diying, 
and then impregnating it with about 1 per cent of 
manganese dioxide, finishing bj' heating the mass in a 
retort to 600° and allowing it to cool out of contact 
with the air. Here we note for the first time, the use 
of another contact substance which, like platinum, can 
exist in various grades of oxidation, namely, manganese. 

Especially noteworthj- in this connection it, the English 
patent of Jullion, 1846, because here, for the first time, 
the use of platinized asbestus as a contact mass is 
claimed. In 1819, Blondeau passed a current of a mix- 
ture of sulphur dioxide, steam, and air through a highly 
heated tube containing ferruginous, argillaceous sand 
and obtained sulphuric acid, while, in 18o2, Wohler and 
Mahla found that oxides of iron, copper, and chrome 
also work catalytically upon a mixture of SO., and O, a 
mixture of cupric and chromic oxides being especially 
efficacious. These investigators gave, moreover, a cor- 
rect explanation of this catalytic action; they found, 
namel}', that cupric and ferric oxide, when heated in a 
current of sulphur dioxide free from oxygen, became 



12 



reduced to cuprous and fen'oso-ferric oxides with 
.simultaneous formation of sulphuric acid which, how- 
ever, ceased as soon as the reduction of the oxides was 
completed. On the other hand, chromic oxide, under 
similar conditions, remained entirely unaltered and no 
sulphuric acid was produced, while metallic copper, in 
spongy form, exerts no action upon a mixture of 2 vol. 
SO2 + 1 vol. O at ordinary temperatures, but, when 
heated, cupric oxide is first formed, and then sulphuric 
acid. 

They also call attention to the fact that this union of 
SO., and O can take place in the complete absence of 
Hfi. 

Upon these important discoveries are based the later 
researches of Lunge and others upon the catalytic ac- 
tion of pyrites cinder in causing the formation of SO3. 
Quartz has also been recommended for this purpose, as 
have also platinized asbestus, platinized pumice, and 
even platinized clay. 

Hundt, 1854, passed the 'hot roa.ster gas through a 
flue, filled with quartz fragments and heated by the gas, 
expecting to convert the greater part of the SOj into 
sulphuric acid with further treatment of the residue. 
The work of Schmersahl and Bouk, 1855. followed the 
same lines, as did aLso the method of Henry Deacon, 
which was patented in 1871, and may be considered as 
closing the second period. 

So far, not onlj^ had all attempts to supersede the 
chamber process failed, but also no j^ractical method for 
the production of fuming sulphuric acid had been de- 
vised. In 1875, Clemens Winkler published his cele- 
brated researches upon the formation of sulphuric 
anhydride, for which industrial chemistry must always 
be greatly indebted to him, as originating successful 
methods for the economical production of the fuming 
sulphuric acid for which, as it has become cheaper, 
many new uses have been discovered. 

Winkler concluded, as a result of his experiments, 
that the SO^ and O should alwaj's be present in the 
molecular proportion of 2:1, any excess of either gas 
having a deleterious influence upon the completeness of 
the reaction, and he obtained this desired proportion by 
simply breaking up ordinary hydrated sulphuric acid 
into HjO, SO2, and O, removing the H^O, and then 
recombining the SO^ and O by means of appropriate 
contact substances, the preparation of which he greatly 
improved by utilizing the reducing action of formic 
acid. All subsequent work in this branch continued to 
follow the lines laid down by Winkler; hence, while 
little j)rogress was made toward superseding the lead 
chamber, the manufacture of fuming sulphuric acid 
became highlj^ developed. 

II. KnieUcKs Work — Purijicatimi of the Gas. — This 
work was undertaken by the Badische Anilin und Soda- 
Fabrik to determine if a complete conversion of the 
SOj in roaster gas was as practically feasible as it is 
theoretically possible. . 



It is well known that the outgoing gases of the cham- 
ber process still contain C volume per cent of oxygen, 
and that the roaster gas emplo^-ed in the contact work 
contained a similar excess. Hence it was diificult to 
understand why, in the latter process, the yields were 
not nearer that of the former. 

Experiments showed that when pure SO^ was used 
the yield was close to the theoretical, even when a very 
large excess of O was jjresent, which was contrary to 
the accepted views of W' inkier. 

When roaster gas was used in laboratory experiments, 
it was found that when this was carefully cooled, washed 
with sulphuric acid, and completely purified before it 
was allowed to enter the catalytic tube, the results were 
very satisfactory, nor could any diminution of the effi- 
ciency' of the contact mass be noted even after several 
days' use. It was therefore supposed that the problem 
had been solved, and arrangements were made to carry 
on the process on full working scale. 

It was, however, soon found that in practice the con- 
tact mass gradually lost all of its efficiency, no matter 
how carefully the gases were cooled and purified. Ex- 
tended laboratory investigations were undertaken to 
determine the cause of this inefficiency, and it was ulti- 
mately discovered that there are substances which, when 
present in the gas, even in excessively small quantities, 
injure the catalytic properties of platinum to an extraor- 
dinary degree. Of all of the substances which may be 
found in roaster gas, arsenic is by far the most dele- 
terious, next mercury, while Sb, Bi, Pb, Fe, Zn, etc., 
are injurious onh' so far as they may coat the contact 
mass. 

It was also found that as the white cloud of sulphuric 
acid which was present in the gas contained arsenic, the 
complete removal of this was necessarv. although such 
removal had always been considered an impossibility. 
This was, however, finally accomplished after an enor- 
mous expenditure of time, labor, and money, so that, 
in the end, b}- extended washing and filtration, the 
gases were obtained in a condition absolutely free from 
all impurities. (D. R. P. 113933, July 22, 1S9S.) 

Slow cooling of the gas was found to be absolutely 
necessary as a preliminary to its purification. It is a 
fact, the cause of which is not yet clearly known, that 
the removal of the white cloud is rendered far more 
difficult if the gas is rapidly cooled. 

To insure slow cooling, a system of iron tubes was 
u.sed because it was supposed that, as the sulphuric acid 
in the gas was in a so highly concentrated condition, 
any action upon the metal would yield SOo only. It 
was now found that although the contact mass remained 
active for a much longer period, it still gradually lost 
its power, no matter how carefully the gas was purified. 
The cause of this was ultimately found to l)e a gas con- 
taining arsenic, probably hydrogen arsenide, produced 
by the action of the acid upon the iron by which hydro- 
gen was evolved, although the formation of this gas 



13 



under such conditions had always been considered im- 
possible. As soon as the cooling apparatus was so 
arrungod that no condensed acid could attack the iron, 
the trouble from tliis source entirely ceased. 

A final difficulty occurred in the occa.sional formation 
of a faint cloud of vmburiit sulphur which contained 
arsenic. Tiu? cure for this was found to be a proper 
mixing of the hot gases, thus insuring complete com- 
bustion, and this mixing wasetFected l)y means of steam, 
which is also benelicial, by diluting the strong sulphuric 
acid present in the gas, so that it did not condense in the 
iron pipes of the first portion of the cooling apparatus, 
and attack them; when condensing in the lead pipes of 
the remainder of the apparatus, the acid was too weak to 
injure the lead. The use of steam also prevented the 
formation of hanl dust crusts, which tend to stop up the 
pipes. 

III. Cooling of the Gases. — The next important ele- 
ment in the successful carrying out of the contact pro- 
cess is the effective and economical utilization of the 
heat dev^eloped by the reaction which is exothermic. 
s6,+0=S0,-f 22600 cal. 

The utilization of this heat had been suggested by 
Lunge, but only in the case of the use of a mixture of 
pure SOo and air, containing about 25 per cent of the 
former. On the other hand, it was universally consid- 
ered that it was necessaiy to employ extra heat when 
the much weaker roaster gases are to be treated. 
Hence the apparatus used in this work was furnished 
with special heating arrangements so that the tubes 
could be kept at red heat, the tubes being ai-ranged 
vertically like those of an upright boiler. Small, ver- 
tical tubes arc much supei-ior to the larger, horizontal 
ones, originally employed, as economizing the expen- 
sive platinized asl)estus and insuring a more certain 
contact of the gases with the mass. The proper filling 
of the tubes with the asbestus is a matter of impor- 
tance; it must be so done that no portion of the gas can 
pass through a tube without coming in contact with the 
mass, while the mass must not offer much resistance to 
the piissage of the gas. Owing to the nature of the 
asbestus, this latter difficulty is likely to occur, but can 
be avoided by the simple device of packing the asbestus 
in successive layers, separated by perforated diaphragms 
sliding upon a central rod, but kept apart at regular 
intervals. In this wa\^ all of the tubes can be similarly 
and evenly packed. 

As soon as this apparatus was started in the ordinary 
way at low red heat, the sui-prising discovei-y was made 
that not only was the output of acid increased, but that 
the strength of the gas current could be made greater 
when the tubes, instead of being heated artificially, 
were, on the contrarv, cooled by the admission of cold 
air. This discovery, a contradiction of what had been 
considered correct practice, gave a rational method of 
work; i. e., the apparatus uuist be systematically cooled 
to obtain the maximum effect and production. As now 



operated, the tubes are coolc<l by the cold, purified 
gases, which thi's become heated to the proper tem|>er- 
ature for the reaction. In this way the following ad- 
vantages are gained: 

First. Overheating of the apparatus is avoided, and 
thus a yield of 'J6 per cent — 98 per cent of the theoret- 
ical — is ol)tained. 

Second. The iron parts of the apparatus are pro- 
tected by this cooler working, and are therefore more 
durable. 

Third. The contact mass does not become overheated 
and its efficiency remains unimpaired. 

Fourth. The absolute efficiency of the contact mass, 
and of the entire apparatus, is greatly increased fjecause 
the rapidity of the gas stream can be increased, and the 
contact mass be maintained at the most efficient tem- 
perature. 

Another important discovery is that the reaction 
proceeds at atmospheric pressure, since it was formerly 
supposed that compression of the gases was necessary 
to overcome the hindrance of the indifferent gases pres- 
ent. In fact, if the other conditions are right the 
reaction proceeds almost quantitsitively at atmospheric 
pressure. This is very important since, if this method 
is to compete with the chamber process, every unneces- 
sary expense must be avoided. 

IV. Ahsorptiim of the Produced Anhydride. — The 
affinity of sulphuric anhydride for water is greater 
than for concentrated sulphuric acid, as shown by the 
relative amount of heat developed during the absolu- 
tion; hence it might be expected that the easiest and 
most complete absorption of anhydride from the con- 
tact process would be eflected by the use of water. It 
is found, however, that oil of vitriol containing 97-99 
per cent of H^SO, js much more efiective than either 
water or sulphuric acid of any other strength. The 
absorbing power of the acid at this degree of concen- 
tration is so great that a single absorption vessel is suf- 
ficient for the remoxal of the SO, from a ver}' rapid 
current of gas, provided that the strength of the acid 
be kept uniformly between the above limits by a steady 
inflow of water or weak acid, and a proportional outflow 
of the excess of strong acid thus produced. 

Sulphuric acid, at this particular degree of concen- 
tration, possesses certain marked qualities. Its boiling 
point is a maximum, so that if a weaker acid is evapo- 
rated, it loses water or weak acid until the residue 
attains a strength of 98.83 per cent HjSO„ at which 
point it distills without further change at a constant 
temperature of about ZZO^. Similarly, a stronger acid 
gives ofl' anhydride until this constant strength is 
reached. Again, at this particular degree, the vapor 
pressure is at its minimum, the specific gravity is at 
the maxinmm, the electrical resistance suddenly rises, 
while the action on iron decreases considerably. 

When fuming sulphuric acid is to be made, one or 
more absorption cells must precede the regular appa- 



14 



ratus. For these, cast iron, which is quite suitable as 
the material for the other vessel, liecomes unavailable, 
because, although it is onh* slowly attacked, it, what is 
worse, becomes fragile and even explodes. This ap- 
pears to be due to the fuming acid diffusing into the 
ii"on and then breaking up into SOj and H^S, thus 
causing a condition of internal stress. Wrought iron 
is attacked by fuming acid containing less than 27 per 
cent of SO3, but when the contents of anhydride 
exceeds this, the acid has practically no action upon 
wrought iron, and vessels of this material can be used 
for j-ears without sensible corrosion. 

V. Theory of the Contact Process. — The results of 
many experiments showing the influence upon the re- 
action of variations in the temperature, the composi- 
tion of the gases, the rate of flow (or the proportion of 
contact substance over which the gas passes) are given 
in the form of curves, and discussed, j'ielding the fol- 
lowing results: 

1. Complete conversion of the SO^ into SO3 occurs 
only when there is at least twice as much oxygen pres- 
ent as the reaction formula indicates. When using the 
gas obtained from the roasting of pyrites, and which 
contains about 7 vol. per cent of SO2, 10 vol. per cent 
of O, and 83 vol. per cent of nitrogen, the nitrogen is 
absolutelj' without influence upon the reaction, except 
as diluting the gas and reducing the output. 

2. The completeness of the reaction depends solely 
upon the temperature and not upon the nature of the 
contact substance. The reaction begins at about 200^. 
As the temperature rises, so does the degree of conver- 
sion, until, at about -100^, a nearly complete (98 to 99 per 
cent) conversion of the SO^ is feasible. Any further 
rise in temperature is injurious, the degree of conver- 
sion falling .so that at about 700° only about 60 per cent 
can be converted, while at about 900° the reaction 
ceases entirclj'. 

3. The nature of the contact substance has no influ- 
ence upon the completeness of the reaction, but, for 
practical results, a substance must bo employed which 
shows a high degree of efliciencj' at the proper tempera- 
ture of 400°. Substances, which require a higher 
temperature to develop their greatest efficiency, are 
evidently unsuited, since, as shown above, the degree 
of conversion falls with the rise in temperature. Up 
to the present time only one substance fulfilling the 
necessary conditions is known, and that is platinum. 
None of the other metals of the platinum group ap- 
proaches it in eflnciency. 

This valuable paper concludes with a series of tables, 
giving the results of exhaustive sets of determinations 
of the following properties of sulphuric acid, and of 
fuming sulphuric acid of various strengths from 1 to 
100 per cent of SO3: 

1. Melting point. 2. Specific gravity. 3. Specific 
heat. 4. Heat of solution. 5. Electrical resistance. 
6. Action upon iron. 7. Boiling point. 8. Vapor pres- 



sure. 9. Viscosity. 10. Capillarity. 11. Table giv- 
ing the percentage of free SO3 in a fuming sulphuric 
acid when the total contents of SO3 is known. 

Production of Sulphur Trioxidc. — The growth and 
pi'esent magnitude of the operations of this process in 
the works of the Badische Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik are 
shown by the following figures: 

Sulphur trioxide produced in — Tons. 

1888 18,500 

1894 39,000 

1899 89,000 

1900 116,000 

It will be seen from the foregoing, that this process 
has long passed the experimental stage, and now that the 
general conditions of successful operation are known, 
its speed}' adoption in this country' is to be expected. 
The advantages are many: First, no expense of con- 
struction and maintenance of the entire chamber S3's- 
tem, including the Gay-Lussac and Glover towers and 
the s-team and niter plant. Second, no expense for niter 
and for the sulphuric acid used therewith; although the 
resulting niter cake can be utilized, it is rarely a desir- 
able product. Third, the acid produced is pure, strong 
oil of vitriol, requiring no concentration for sale or 
use. Concentration of chamber acid to high strengths 
requires the use of platinum stills, which thereby lose 
in weight, the dissolved platinum being irrevocably lost. 
The rate of loss is much reduced by previous purifica- 
tion of the acid, but is alwaj's a considerable item of 
cost. Fourth, the contact acid is also free from arsenic, 
lead, or iron salts. The fundaiuental difference in the 
character of the reactions in the chamber process and 
of those in the contact method indicates the possibility 
of substantial improvements in the methods of roasting. 
Fifth, although the 50 degree acid, as it comes from the 
chambers, is desirable for many purposes— for example, 
in making superphosphates — it is held by some authori- 
ties that it can be made more cheaply by diluting the 
strong acid with the needed proportion of cold water, 
than l)y introducing this water into the chambers in the 
form of steam. This, however, is denied b}- others, and 
it is probable that the chamber process will continue to 
exist, though in a more restricted field. 

On the other hand, this new process appears to require 
a well planned and carefullj- managed sj'stem of purifi- 
cation for the roaster gases, and will need, for its suc- 
cessful operation, a higher order of chemical engineer- 
ing skill than has usuallj- been deemed necessary for the 
operation of. an acid plant. This, however, should 
hardly be considered an ol)stacle in this countiy, where 
all other branches of engineering manufacture have 
reached such a height, mainh- because the works have 
demanded and made liberal use of the highest order 
of trained abilit}', and have not hesitated to "scrap" 
expensive plant where it failed to give satisfactory 
results. In this connection the Badische Anilin-und- 
Soda-Fabrik is an instructive example. Its chemical 



15 



force numbers over 100 men, many of whom are engaged 
solely upon researches, the results of which, when prom- 
isinjj. are at once jjiit into operation on a sufficiently 
larffe scale to (li'terminc tiieir practical \alue. That 
such a course pays in a strict business sense is shown 
l)y the enormous dividends paid by this company, and 
i)y tlie practical monopoly wiiich it has loiiiJ- maintained 
in certain lines, simply i)ecause it has been a little ahead 
of its competitors in knowing just how a given thing 
should ln> done, and then at once protecting the discov- 
ery l)y patents. 

In addition to siilpliurii' acid, reports have been re- 
ceived regarding the production of the acids enumerated 
in the following table: 

ACIDS, OTHER THAN SULPHURIC, BY KIND, QUANTITY, 
AND VALUE: 1900. 



KIND. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Quaiillty. 


Value. 


Nitric 


34 
9 

31 
3 

12 
3 
4 
5 
3 


Poiindt, 
30.961,501 

42.:W1.819 

116,848,001 

2,384,».» 

26, 600, .565 

3,886.382 

2,677,004 

282,515 

141,291 


$1,454,909 


Mixed 


1,111.2.58 


Muriatic 


1 , 020. .574 




198,212 


Acetic 


426, 892 


I>ictic and oitiic 


33.5, 297 




781,603 


Tannic . 


135, 662 


Gallic 


20,275 







It is to be understood that the quantities and values 
given in this table represent only the acids .sold as such, 
or produced for sale in the establishments, for the actual 
production, in many cases, is much greater than that 
given above. Thus the first item on the list, nitric 
acid, is used in the making of the "mixed acids," which 
is the second item on the list. This mixed acid is not 
only manufactured in the acid factories and sold to ex- 
plosive works, to manufactuiers of pyroxjdin for u.se 
in the making of pla.stics and of varni.shes, and to other 
manufacturers, but many of the larger works now make 
the nitric acid which they consume in this manner. 
There is thus made and consumed more nitric acid than 
is sold as such, the production as reported amounting 
to (i2,473,29.5 pounds, which is probablv less than the 
total amount actually made for use and .sale. Theoret- 
ically, 74.13 parts of nitric acid monohydrate can be 
made from 100 parts of pure .sodium nitrate, but in 
practice, only 95 per cent of this is conden.sed, while 5 
per cent passes to the towers. From this, then, there 
would he required 43,8-11 tons of nitrate of soda and 
47,348 tons of sulphuric acid to produce the above- 
given quantity of nitric acid, and there would result as 
a by-product 5ii,609 tons of niter cake. It is to be 
borne in mind that nitric acids of various degrees of 
strength, ranging from single aquafortis of .specific 
gravitv 1.22, and doul)le aquiifortis of specific gravity 
1.30, to the .strongest nitric of 1.50 .specific gravity, and 
red fuming of 1.60 specific gravitj- are to be found in 
the market, and that no attempt has been made to sepa- 



rate them as to fpiantity, or to reduce them to u cf)m- 
mon basis, so that the data must l»e regarded as of aver- 
age value. 

Nitric acid was manufactured at Philadelphia in 1834 
by Carter & 8cattergood. The most notable recent ad- 
vance made in its manufacture is in the form of appa- 
ratus employed, which is du(^ to Edward Hart and Osciir 
Guttman. It is used in the manufacture of nitrates 
like silver nitrate, or nitrites like sodium nitrite: in 
making "mixed acids" and aqua regia; in making 
nitrosubstitution compounds, like nitrobenzene, nitro- 
naphthalene, and picric acid; organic nitrates, such as 
gun cotton and nitroglycerin; as an oxidizing agent in 
many chemical proces.ses; and for the etching of metals. 

By "mixed acids" is meant mixtures of nitric and 
sulphuric acids which are employed in "nitrating" 
organic sub.stJinces such as glycerin, cellulose, and car- 
bolic acid. The commex'cial use of such a mixture 
began with the manufacture of nitrobenzene and picric 
acid, but it received its greatest impetus about 1862 
when the commercial manufacture of nitroglycerin be- 
gan. Originally the users of this mixed acid purchased 
the sulphuric and nitric acids and mixed them in the 
desired proportions for u.se, the acids being trans- 
poi'ted in separate carbo3's of glass. These not infre- 
quently became broken during transportation, smd as 
the nitric acid rapidly reacts with and "fires" such 
organic matter as is used as packing for carbons, its 
tnuisportation gave rise to man}- seiious accidents, which 
led to restrictive legislation. It is not known to whom 
the credit is due for the discovery- that mixed acids of 
the highest concentration did not act upon iron, but for 
upward of twenty years manufactuiers have been mak- 
ing the desired mixtures at the acid woi'ks and .shipping 
them in iron drums, old glycerin drums having been 
first employed. With the increase in the production in 
works, attention has naturallj' been given by chemists 
to the utilization of the residues, and large economies 
have resulted from the regaining of the "spent acids" 
by which the sulphuric acid has been obtained of a 
.strength sufficient for reuse in the ordinary course of 
manufacture, and the nitric acid, though recovered in 
a weak state, has been of value in other arts. 

Owing to the necessity of having concentrated nitric 
acid to mix with this regained sulphuric acid, and to the 
fact that the transportation charges on nitric acid are 
A'ery high, and the necessary regulations governing its 
tran.sportation are vexatious to the consumers, many 
of the larger establishments have erected nitric-acid 
plants. In considering the magnitude of this industry 
there is to be noted not only the mixed acid sold as 
such, 42,368,819 pounds, the mixed acid produced and 
consumed in chemical works, 8,902,371 pounds, and the 
mixed acid reported produced and consumed in explo- 
sive works, 12,000,000 pounds, making in all 63,271,190 
pounds, but there is also to be taken into account this 
repeated reuse of the acid. From the product* re- 
ported of all kinds, nitroglycerin and dj-namite: gun- 



16 



cotton; pyroxylin for varnishes, for smokeless powder, 
for plastics, and for photography; and the nitro- 
substitution compounds, it is safe to say that 65,000 
tons of mixed acids were employed during the year 
1899-1900. 

Hydrochloric acid, commercially known as muriatic 
acid, is made by acting on common salt with sulphuric 
acid. The ordinar\' muriatic acid of commerce is an 
aqueous solution containing about -±0 per cent by weight 
of dry hydrogen chloride. For the amount of hydro- 
chloric acid reported on this standard there would be 
required for its production 37,000 tons of common salt 
and 39,000 tons of sulphuric acid of 60^ Baume, and 
there would be obtained in addition to the muriatic acid 
47,U00 tons of salt cake, which consists of sodium sul- 
phate, together with some undecomposed common salt, 
and an excess of sulphuric acid. A new development 
in this trade is in the use of wooden barrels as contain- 
ers in place of the glass carboys in which it was for- 
merly transported. 

Carter & Scattergood manufactured muriatic acid in 
Philadelphia in 1834, and Charles Lennig began its 
manufacture b}' modern methods in Philadelphia in 
1869. Hj^drochloric acid is used in the preparation of 
many organic and inorganic chlorides. Mixed with 
nitric acid it forms aqua regia, which is used in dis- 
solving the precious metals. It has largely been used 
as a source of chlorine in the manufacture of bleaching 
powder and potassium chlorate. It is used in the 
manufacture of acetic acid and gelatin, in the manu- 
facture of soda, and in a multitude of minor arts. The 
salt cake is used in the Le Blanc process for the manu- 
facture of soda, for glass making, for ultramarine, in 
dyeing and coloring, and for the production of Glauber's 
salts. 

Acetic acid as treated of under "chemicals" does not 
include vinegar, which is a very dilute acetic acid made 
largely by fermentation, but it covers such acid as is 
produced by chemical action from acetates, principally 
the calcium and sodium acetates. Calcium acetate is 
obtained in the destructive distillation of wood. The 
acetic acid is obtained from it by treatment with h\'dro- 
chloric acid and distillation. This may be purified by 
rectification with potassium dichroniate. A better 
product is obtained by converting the acid into a sodium 
salt and evaporating to dr^^ness to destroy tarry matters 
and then distilling with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids. 



Acetic acid, varying in strength from 28 per cent to 
90 per cent, is sent to the market in barrels holding 
on an average 425 pounds. Acetic acid is used in the 
preparation of metallic acetates, which are extensively 
used in dyeing and printing; or of organic acetates, 
such as ethyl and amyl acetates, which are used as 
solvents and flavors; in the manufacture of white lead; 
and the preparation of organic compounds. As an 
example of its use Lachman' states that in the prepa- 
ration of the chloracctic acid used by the Badische 
Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik in the manufacture of synthetic 
indigo in 1900 there were used 4,500,000 pounds of 
glacial acetic acid, requiring 26,000 cords of wood for 
its production. 

Lactic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acids are used in 
dyeing and in calico printing. Lactic acid is prepared 
by fermenting a sugar solution by means of certain 
bacteria, neutralizing the acid with calcium carbonate, 
and decomposing the calcium lactate thus formed with 
sulphuric acid. Lactic acid was manufactured by the 
Aver}' Chemical Company at Littleton, Mass., in 1882. 

Citric acid occurs in the free state in the juices of all 
the plants of the genus CUrm. such as limes, lemons, 
and sour oranges, (iood lemons yield about 5^ per 
cent of the cr3\stallized acid. It is obtained by neutral- 
izing the juice of the fruit with chalk and decompos- 
ing the resulting calcium citrate with an equivalent 
amount of sulphuric acid. This acid was manufactured 
by Carter & Scattergood at Philadelphia in 1834. 

Tartaric acid occurs free or combined in many plants, 
but the only source from which it is commercially ob- 
tained is the grape. During the fermentation of grape 
juice, as the alcohol increases in quantity the calcium 
and potassium tartrates present in the juice are pre- 
cipitated out, together with a quantity of organic color- 
ing matter, forming what is known as argols. After 
purification it is treated with chalk and calcium sulphate 
to convert it into calcium tartrate, and this when de- 
composed with sulphuric acid yields free tartaric acid. 
This acid was manufactured by Carter & Scattergood 
in Philadelphia in 1834. 

The foreign commerce in acids is exhibited in the 
following tables, compiled from the publications of the 
Bureau of Statistics, of the United States Treasury 
Department: 

'J. Am. Cliem. Soc, vol. 23, page 912: 1901. 



17 





IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1891-1900. 








'SULPIIUBIC ACID 
OR OIL OP VIT- 
RIOL (M. E. 8,). 


>8CLPHCRIC ACID. 


BORACIC ACID. 


CHROMIC ACID. 


CHROMIC AND LAC- 
TIC ACID. 


YEAK. 


Pound*. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Volnc. 


Commercial. 


Pure. 


All kinds. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


I 




Pounda. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 






1891 

189'2 


16,377 

8,277 

634 

17,068 

12,874 

86,796 

8,200 
26,350 
40,176 
M,9ii 


1886 

478 

48 

406 

188 
475 
43 
786 
1,874 
972 






162.093 


$7,975 


89,894 


$2,906 


475,378 

701,628 
771,776 
292,990 
926,164 
85.5,769 
548,603 


$30,138 

89,418 
40,568 
19,282 
42,066 
21,899 
19,494 
46,265 
66,428 
83,626 


/ ,j-- 


$1,5871 
166 
156 
609 
824 
707 
409 
430 
906 






8,786 

8,736 
400 

7,469 
48,759 
69,729 

2,726 


$339 

1,033 

32 

461 

1,606 

4,074 

40 


\ 606 
426 
8,318 
8,048 
4,461 
2,440 
2,708 
6,720 


















1894 .-.. 


























189t> 










1 
















1S9S 


134,707 


4,a53 


244,078 
436,968 
466,879 


7,994 
14,308 
17,467 


64,066 
28, MR 
84.741 


•4 m 




1,843 


1900 














8,044 


1 















CITBIC 


ACID. 


TARTARIC ACID. 


OXALIC ACID. 


SAUCYLIC ACID. 


ACID, TANNIC OR 
TANNIN. 


ALL oTH,BB Aana. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 




45,197 
80,034 
13,315 
5,502 
8,895 
39, 671 
73,133 
4,323 
65,190 
60,364 


$15,482 

27, 461 

4,633 

1,810 

2,480 

12,521 

18,158 

1,108 

16,669 

14,213 


1,511 
10 

130 
113 


$468 

5 

39 

32 


2,743,222 
2,209,940 
2,464,443 
2,783.876 
2,889,613 
3,164,969 
3,602,124 
3,747,011 
3,981,768 
4.990.123 


$200, .595 
150, .529 
143,194 
1.59,026 
189, .506 
219,630 
246,200 
242, 276 
246,027 
275,747 






659 
564 
1,443 
794 
1,600 
1,745 
3,144 
2,335 
3,697 
1,416 


$239 1 

216 

597 

287 

597 

681 
1,296 

927 
1,371 

671 


1,350,710 
1,024,680 
686,677 
836,216 
1,798,417 
1,027,2*5 
3,040,325 


$380,064 


1892 






347, 510 


1893 '. . . 


260,027 
252, 332 
193,974 
335,354 
616,187 
92,943 
185,368 
240,687 


8264,022 

231.946 

140,197 

138, 013 

201,980 

28,688 

67,192 

89.175 


175,637 


1894 


134,665 


1895 


355 1 88 
212 1 66 
225 i 71 
456 ' 128 
23,298 i 6,737 
954 1 252 


228,480 


1896 


240,522 


1897 


223,458 


1898 


4.5.265 


1899 1 




58.428 


1900 




56,826 






































II 







1 From the value given this would appear to be fuming sulphuric acid. 



Group II. — Soda Products. 

The great increase in this branch noted in the Census 
report for 1890 has continued during the past decade. 
The number of establi.shments making soda products as 
the main part or as a subsidiary of tlieir business has 
increased from 32 to 50, while the products have in- 
creased as shown in the following table. To these fig- 
ures for 1900 mu.st be added "other soda products," not 
otherwise specified, produced by these works and valued 
at$143,4:32, and also 11,756,000 pounds of borax, valued 
at $541,160, made by seven borax works. These items 
were not included in the report for 1890 and are there- 
fore not taken into the comparison. Where the figures 
of this table show an increase over the figures for the 
same items in other tables of this census, the difference 
is due to the inclusion here of all such products made by 
works belonging to other groups, for example, the 
caustic soda produced by electrolysis, which is included 
in the products of that group and not .separately re- 
poi'ted. This table shows the total actual production of 
the United States for the census year from all sources; 
and while the figures differ, there is no discrepancy. 



SODA PRODUCTS, 



BY QUANTITY AND VALUE, 1890 AND 
1900. 





1900 


1890 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Total 


1,279,082,000 


$10,237,944 


388,124,376 


$6,482,400 




Soda ash 


781,306,000 4,859,666 
126,498,000 876,243 
187,712,000 1 1 332,765 
233 668 000 1 3 170 'Mtfl 


94,801,200 
144,641,705 
60,678,760 
33,002,720 


1,179,720 

1,681,766 

2,009,800 

661 114 


Sal soda 


Bicarbonate of soda 

Caustic soda 











The decrea.se in the production of sal soda is note- 
worthy and is due to the increasing u.se of soap powders 
and other specially prepared washing materials. A 
comparison of these totals with the corresponding fig- 
ures for 1880 is interesting. 

SODA PRODUCTS, BY DECADES, 1880 TO 1900, WITH 
PERCENTAGES. 



YEAR. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


TOTAL PRODUCT. 


PER CENT OF IN- 
CREASE. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1880 


3 
32 
50 


40,269,938 

333,124,375 

1,279,082,000 


$868,560 
5,432,400 
10,237,944 






1890 


727.4 
284.0 


526 9 


1900 


88.6 







There are no figures for soda products anterior to 
1880, except that at the census of 1860, 11 establishments 
were reported manufacturing saleratus, with a total 
value of $1,176,000, while at the census of 1870, only 
4 were reported, with a value of products of $231,647, 
a decrease which is remarkable in view of the general 
development of other industries during that decade. 

Although the production has almost quadrupled 
during the past decade, the value per unit has fallen 
greatly. Taking the customary unit of 100 pounds, we 
find the following decrease of values: 



Soda ash. 



1890 $1.24 

1900 .62 

Decrease .62 

Percentage 50.00 



Sal soda. 



$1.09 
.77 



Bicar- 
bonate of 
soda. 



$3.31 
.97 



Caustic 
soda. 



.82 
29.35 



2.34 
70.69 



$2.00 
1.36 



.66 
32.50 



No. 210 2 



18 



This great increase in domestic production has re- 
sulted in a corresponding diminution of importations. 
The Treasury report of importations for 1890 gives 
soda ash and sal soda together as 332,733,952 pounds, 
valued at $3,493,288; caustic soda, 80,125,732 pounds, 
valued at $1,470,335; and bicarbonate of soda, 917,034 
pounds, valued at $16,319; while the same report for 
1900 gives soda ash, 78,571,870 pounds, valued at 
$648,450; sal soda, 6,624,194 pounds, valued at $31,072; 
and caustic soda, 11,429,989 pounds, valued at $177,857; 
but does not report bicarbonate separately. A com- 
parison of these quantities shows what progress has 
been made toward supplying the home market. 



1890 

1900 

Decrease... 
Percentage 



Soda ash 

and .sal soda, 

pounds. 



332,733,962 
85,196,064 



247,637,888 
74.39 



Caustic soda, 
pounds. 



80, 125, 732 
11,429,989 



68,695,743 
S6.73 



The ratios of quantities of these materials imported to 
the domestic production are as follows: 



YEAR. 


SAL SODA AND SODA 
ASH. 


CAUSTIC SODA. 




Foreign. 


Domestic. 


Foreign, 


Domestic. 


1890 


100 
100 


72 
1,075 


100 
100 


41 


1900 


1,979 









Some of the imported soda ash and caustic has un- 
doubtedly been used to make a part of the soda products 
reported at the census of 1900, but the quantity so used 
can not be ascertained and is in any case not large. 
The remainder, so far as concerns works making .soda 
products from purchased soda ash, etc. , was drawn from 
domestic sources, hence to this extent there is a duplica- 
tion of quantities and values. This duplication is un- 
avoidable. Had there been no imported stock on hand 
at the beginning of the census year and no importations 
during it, there would have been no difficulty in mak- 
ing any deductions needed to make the totals of quan- 
tities and values given in the table of soda products 
by quantity and value, 1890 and 1900, quite accurate. 
The returns for 1900 have been sufficiently studied to 
show that this duplication is proportionally small, that 
the totals given above are fairly correct, and that the 
real growth and present condition of the industry is 
substantiall}^ as shown. Most of the soda ash and 
bicarbonate reported are products of the ammonia-soda 
process, the cryolite process being limited by the supply 
of the mineral, and the natural soda industi'y restricted 
by cost of transportation to markets. 

Natural Soda. — The manufacture of soda products 
from the natural soda of the West has increased from 
10,964,390 pounds, valued at $124,783, in 1890, to 
20,420,000 pounds, valued at $106,600, in 1900. This 



increase is very small, because, although the raw 
material is available in inexhaustible quantities (and 
with a well-arranged plant, soda ash can be deliv- 
ered f . o. b. cars at the works at a cost less than one- 
half of that of ash at any ammonia-soda works in this 
or any other country), the distance from large eastern 
markets and consequent high freight rates have pre- 
cluded successful commercial competition, especially in 
the face of steadily falling prices of the product. Of 
late the economic conditions have materially changed 
and will continue to improve. The past two years 
have seen great enlargements in the industries and 
commerce of the Pacific states, while the recent political 
occurrences in the Pacific and in Asiatic countries have 
profoundly altered trade conditions and indicate an 
enormous increase in our Pacific commerce in the near 
future. In supplying the demands of this commerce 
our natural soda deposits, when properly developed, 
can distance all rivals. 

Although the operations so far carried on have been 
on a comparatively small scale, the subject has been care- 
fully studied ana much valuable information obtained. 
For example, at Owens Lake, California, the cost of 
making a ton of soda ash under local conditions is fairly 
well ascertained, and the lines to be followed to reduce 
manufacturing cost clearly indicated. Again, the extent 
of land suitable for evaporating vats is, in this locality, 
the measure of the possible development of the industry, 
and this is known. Many other important data have 
thus been secured, and as a general conclusion it may 
be safely stated that at Owens Lake alone there is space 
for works large enough for a production of soda ash 
more than equivalent to the entire demand of this coun- 
try for soda products. All this is unquestioned by any- 
one having a practical acquaintance with the matter, and 
only the limited radius of profitable marketing has 
retarded the development of this locality. This industry 
is therefore not a hypothetical one, but based on solid 
fact and experience, and because of this and the pros- 
pects for the future, it has been deemed advisable to 
devote especial attention to it in this report. 

The report on chemical products for the census of 
1880 gave an interesting resume of the existing infor- 
mation concerning the occurrences of natural soda, 
and later the subject was investigated, the result being 
published in "Natural Soda, its Occurrence and Utiliza-' 
tion," T. M. Chatard, Bulletin No. 60, United States 
Geological Survey, 1888. An extensive abstract of this 
paper was made by Prof. George Lunge and published 
in the Zeitschrift fiir Angewandte Chemie, 1893, pages 
3-11, because, as he states, he considered the existence 
of such enormous quantities of natural soda a most 
important factor in the future of the alkali industry. 
This same eminent authority, in The Mineral Industry 
for 1892, page 64, also says: 

There can be no doubt that the immense quantities of "natural 
soda" shown by Dr. Chatard and other authorities of the United 
States Geological Survey to exist in the Californian and other soda 



19 



lakes, will not be allowed to lie dormant any longer. I f these lakes 
are once worke<l with the energy whioh id otherwise not wanting 
in America, the days are nuniljeretl when Liverpool wxia will rule 
in the New York niarketn 

In lSi>2 Dr. Lunffo visit«d Owen,s Lake, California, 
the most iiiiportniit natiinil .soda lotality, and, while 
conlirining the general conclusions given in the above- 
mentioned bulletin, placed the cost of product at a much 
lower figure than there stated. 

In the same volume of "The Mineral Indu.stry " there 
is an article on "Natural Soda'' which gives additional 
data and suggestions as to the lines to be followed in 
the commercial development of this industry. 

Natural soda is the residue obtained by the evapora- 
tion of natural alkaline waters without the aid of arti- 
ficial heat. It is composed of sodium carbonate and 
bicarbonate in varying proportions, mixed with other 
salts, mainly sodium sulphate and chloride. It is found 
to some extent in all dry regions, such as Hungary, 
Egj'pt, and the deserts of Africa and Asia, but in no 
other country does it occur in such enormous quanti- 
ties as in the region lying east of the Sierra Nevadas. 
It forms the white incrustations of the alkali plains, 
but the.se are rarely of sufficient thickness and extent 
for prospective utilization, particularly as the "sinks," 
or lakes without outlet, in which nature has collected 
and concentrated the leachings and drainage of the alka- 
line districts, already contain more sodium carbonate 
than would suffice to supply the entire world demand 
for generations. That this is no exaggeration is made 
evident by considering only three of these lakes, the 
dimensions of which are known and the waters of which 
have been repeatedly and carefully analyzed. 

In southeastern Oregon is Abert Lake; area 40 
square miles, average depth 10 feet. In Mono County, 
Cal., we find Mono Lake; area 85 square miles, average 
depth 60 feet. In Inyo County, Cal., lies Owens Lake, 
with an area of 110 square miles and an average depth 
of over 17 feet. In computing the volume of water the 
usual unit is an acre-foot, which is equal to 43, 560 cubic 
feet, and as the analysis tells the amount of the sodium 
carbonate, NajCOj, and bicarbonate, NaHCO,, in a given 
volume, we get the following results for these three 
lakes: 





Acre-feet. 


NfiiCOs, tons. 


NaHCO,, tons. 




266,000 
3,264,000 
1,088,000 


3,428,382 
75,072,000 
39,875,200 


1,560,000 


Mono l.ake 


17,936,000 


Owens Lake 


8,431,000 


ToUI 




118,375,552 


27,927,000 









These are the largest occurrences, but there are many 
others, aggregating probably a far greater amount. 

In addition to these two carbonates the waters of 
these lakes contain much sodium sulphate and chloride, 
with smaller proportions of sodium borate, potassium 
chloride, and other salts. The valuable constituents are 



the two carlwnates, and the method of separating them 
from the other salts is fjawed on fractional crystallisa- 
tion, which means the methodical stoppage of a crys- 
tallizing process by drawing off the mother liquor from 
the "crop" of crystals so far formed. This "first 
crop" may be either the desired material in a purer 
condition than it was in the original solution, or else 
may consist mainly of impurities which we wish to re- 
move, this depending upon the proportions of the sub- 
stances in solution or their relative solubilities under 
the conditions. 

Now, all solutions of natural soda contain both sodium 
carbonate and bicarbonate, and it is upon the property 
of these two salts when in solution to unite to form a 
compound more soluble than bicarbonate but less solu- 
ble than carbonate, that the method of extraction is 
founded. If a solution of the two salts be exposed to 
spontaneous evaporation, there will be formed, at a cer- 
tain degree of concentration, a crop of acicular crystals 
which have a composition corresponding to 46.90 per 
cent of NajCO,, 37.17 per cent of NaHCO,, and 15.93 
per cent of H^O (water). The scientific name of this 
salt is urao, but it is u.sually called "summer .soda." 
The amount of this .salt thus obtained will depend upon 
the amount of bicarbonate present, as every 37. 17 parts 
of bicarbonate will, in crystallizing, take with it 46.90 
parts of NajCOj. If more bicarbonate is present than is 
needed to form summer soda, the excess will crystallize 
out before the summer soda forms. If too little is 
present, the excess of carbonate remains in solution. 

If a sample of water be evaporated from an}- of these 
lakes to a certain concentration point (sp. gr. 1.260 for 
Owens Lake water), crystallization will begin, the crys- 
tals being crude summer soda. Owing to the presence of 
so much sulphate and chloride in the solution, the crop 
becomes more and more contaminated with these .salts 
as the concentration proceeds. Hence, to obtain an 
article of a fair degree of purity, the process must be 
interrupted at some definite degree of specific gravity 
and the mother liquor drawn off. If the mother liquor 
be further evaporated, successive crops can be obtained, 
the earlier ones, in the case of Owens Lake, being 
principally sulphate and the later ones chloride. Finally 
remains a mother liquor rich in potash salts, from 
which, on cooling to a low temperature, the ordinarj' 
sal soda (NajCOj.lOHjO) crystallizes. 

While all of these localities can produce .summer 
soda in the manner described, the proportion of bicar- 
bonate present is, in each case, insufficient to give the 
largest possible yield. To obtain this, it is necessary to 
increase the proportion of bicarbonate, which can be 
done in several ways but most economically, probabi}', 
bj- utilizing the carbonic acid driven off in the process 
of furnacing to convert the urao into soda ash. When 
summer soda is heated to a moderate degree (about 
150° C, 300° F.) it lo.ses its water and excess of car- 
bonic acid; 100 parts yielding 70.35 parts ash, 9.74 parts 



20 



gas, and 19.91 parts of water. This furnacing must be 
done in any case to reduce weight and save transporta- 
tion charges; hence, if the gas can be economically used, 
there is a clear gain in so doing. While the refining 
work in which the crude product is converted into vari- 
ous marketable forms requires special training and use 
of improved machineiy, arranged and handled to save 
labor and fuel, the production of the crude material is 
comparatively simple and can be done on a large or 
small scale with probably equal advantage. At the 
"little lake" at Ragtown,Nev.,two men, in 1886, made 
300 tons and could have made much more had the con- 
ditions of the locality permitted. The product of the 
"big lake," made under very adverse conditions, re- 
quired but little more labor in proportion. The entire 
product was hauled 16 miles to the railroad and shipped 
to San Francisco where it was refined. Notwithstand- 
ing these heavy transportation costs, the operations were 
profitable and the works have been running steadily 
ever since. 

The.se examples show that in the development of this 
industry the innumerable small localities can be utilized 
quite as well as the larger ones, if transportation to the 
refining point be not too expensive. An intelligent, 
industrious man, working a small but well-situated pool, 
can produce, with onl}' occasional outside aid, an amount 
of summer soda which a refining works can take at a 
price advantageous to itself and remunerative to him. 
Furnacing before ■shipping to the refinery is not always 
advantageous, since, although the reduction in weight 
is about 25 per cent, the saving in transportation will 
rarelv paj' for the cost of furnacing when this is done 
on a small scale. Moreover, refiners prefer unfur- 
naced material, and by devoting attention exclusively 
to the production of summer soda, regularity of com- 
position, which is very important, can be better as- 
sured. Such work can therefore be made a ' ' poor man's 
job," a thing much needed in that region, and in time 
there would be a large direct consumption of the crude 
materials. 

Borax and Other Soda ProdxicU. — Seven establish- 
ments manufactured borax during the census year, with 
a combined production of 11,756,000 pounds, valued at 
11541,160. No figures for borax were given at the cen- 
sus of 1890, so that no comparison can be instituted. 
The present number of borax works is undoubtedly 
smaller than it was ten years ago, because it has been 
found more economical to ship the crude material to 
central points for treatment than to work it up locally, 
as was formerly done. 

" Other soda products," valued at $143,432, represent 
the total value of products so reported by many estab- 
lishments. As they are not otherwise specified, no 
further distribution is possible. 

The following table gives the geographical distribu- 
tion of the .soda industry, states having less than three 
establishments being grouped: 



SODA PRODUCTS, BY STATES, ARRANGED GEOGRAPH- 
ICALLY: 1900. 



. United states 

North Atlantic division 

New Jersey 

New Yorli 

Pennsylvania 

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maryland, and Virginia 

North Central division 

Illinois 

Michigan 

WLsconsin 

Indiana, Missouri, and Ohio 

Western division 

California 

Nevada 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



28 



Value of 
products. 



$10,922,536 



6,559,295 



105,607 

4,699.481 

861, 195 

893, 112 

3,694,436 



353,429 

2,814,969 

173, 101 

352,937 

668,806 



647, 175 
21,630 



The foreign commerce in soda products is set forth 
in the following table, compiled from the reports of 
the Bureau of Statistics of the United States Treasury 
Department: 

SODA ASH IMPORTED DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 

30, 1891 TO 1900. 



YEAB. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 


' 354, 744, 335 

'339,057,006 

388, 910. 183 

2,56,293,395 

300,599,257 

251,067,856 

162,585,074 

87,809,619 

45,444,305 

78, 571, 870 


$4, 382, 917 


1892 


4,496,597 
4,85.5,098 
2, .520, 921 
2, 367, 109 
1,950,981 
1,241,321 
689, 714 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


1899 


310, 742 


1900 


648,450 





' Includes sal soda for 1891 and 1892. 

SAL SODA IMPORTED DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 
30, 1893 TO 1900. 



YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1893 


27,531,554 
16,893,760 
28,761,108 
17,966,9% 
18,875,029 
8,851,011 
4,224,680 
6,624,314 


$238,029 
120, 794 


1894 


1895 


167,325 
84 423 


1896 


1897 


8'' 695 


1898 


40 266 


1899 


20,905 
81,072 


1900 





CAUSTIC SODA IMPORTED DURING THE YEARS ENDING 
JUNE 30, 1891 TO 1900. 



YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 


78,743,976 
64,741,106 
67,485,106 
38,987,832 
57,653,959 
61,713,044 
66,476,152 
29,697,185 
18,405,272 
11,429,989 


$1,874,700 
1,598,903 
1,344,. 525 


1892 


1893 


1894 


860 753 


1895 


1 044 809 


1896 


1,071.169 


1897 


1 147 763 


1898 


476,032 
252 297 


1899 


1900 


177, 857 





21 



ALL OTHER SALTS OF SODA LMPORTKD DURING THE 
YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1891 TO lUOO. " 



TKAR. 


Ponndm 


Value. 


1891 


18,186,888 
22,818,570 
47,664,9.S8 
14,829,622 
11,803,171 
9,090,367 
3,919,339 
21,400,585 
23,891,135 
23,632,374 


$118, 718 


1892 


167.634 
297 7f',I 


1893 .... 


1894 


104. NX] 
141,070 


1895 


1896 


1897 


67,684 
225, 62X 
817, 0:« 
814,425 


1«9,M 


1899 


1900 





1 1893 to 1900 Includea bicarbonate of soda. 

Group III. ^Potashes. 

This classitication wa.s intended to include not only 
potu.sh, which is im impure potassium carbonate, but 
also pearlash, which is the refined potassium carbonate, 
yet, though returns for the census year 1900 were 
received from 67 establishments, producing 3,864,766 
pounds of potash, valued at $178,180, no pearlash was 
reported manufactured. Of these 67 establishments, 12 
produced products valued at less than $500. 

The burning of wood and the lixiviation of the ash to 
extract the potash, though of minor importance so far 
a.s the monetary value of the product is concerned, is 
one of the oldest of the purely chemical industries. 
Cognizance was taken of it in the census reports of the 
United States as early as 1850, so that the data is at 
command for comparing the condition of the industry 
in this country for each decade since 1850, as set forth 
in the following table: 



TOTAL PRODUCTION OF POTASHES, BY DECADES: 1860 
TO 1900. 



TKAK. 


Number 
of estab- 

Itsh- 
mentfi. 


PKODUCT. 


Average 


Pounds. 


Value. 


pound 
(cents). 


1860 


569 

212 

105 

68 

75 
67 




(1,401,633 
688,660 
327,671 
232, M3 
197,607 
178,180 




1860 







1870 






1880 


4,571,671 
,5,106,939 
3,864,766 


5.09 
3.86 
4.82 


1890 


1900 





This table shows that there has been a constant 
decrease in the value of the product, though the quantity 
has varied somewhat. Starting with 1880, for which 
year both quantity and value were reported, it appears 
that the increase in the quantity of product for 1890 
over that for 1880 was 11.7 per cent, but the decrease 
in the value for 1890 compared with that for 1880 was 
15.1 per cent. In 1900 the decrea.se in the quantity 
as compared with that of 1890 was 24.3 per cent, while 
the decrea.se in the value was 9.8 per cent. The estab- 
lishments reported were distributed as follows: 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF POTASH FACTORIh»: 

1900. 



(TATn. 


Knmber 

OfM- 

Ublldh- 
menM. 


Artngt 
number 
of wavr- 
eamen. 


CaplUl. 


Valneof 
product. 


Percent 
of total. 


United States 


67 


92 


ro,m 


$178,180 


100.0 




MIchlffan , 


44 

15 
3 

5 


fi2 
25 
4 

11 


28,861 

20, cm 

2,275 
22,728 


79,642 
86, 619 
6,660 

M,4S» 


44.7 
19.9 

3.7 

$1.7 


Ohio 




Maine, Wl^-onsln, and 1111- 





There were reported as having been used in this 
manufacture 812,399 bushels of wood ashes, valued at 
$40,191. The yield of potash per bushel of ashes, as 
reported, varied from 2.4 to 7 pounds. In the product 
given above there is included potash packed in cans, 
amounting to 820,000 pounds, having a value of 
$53,349. Excluding this, as being in the nature of a 
duplication, it appears that the total production of 
potash for 1900 was 3,044,766 pounds, and that there- 
fore the average yield of potash per bushel of wood 
ashes, as shown by the entire returns, was 3.75 pounds. 
Pelouze and Fremy ' give the yield by weight as 10 per 
cent, and this appears in other text-books; but all re- 
turns for ashes received at the census of 1900 were 
given in bushels. 

As stated, potash is prepared by dissolving out the 
soluble contents of wood a.shes and evaporating the solu- 
tion to dryness. The process as carried out on a com- 
mercial scale is described by Mu.spratt,^ as follows: 

The American process for the extrai'tion of potashes is thus de- 
scribed by Morfit. The incineration of the plant is effected in dry 
pits sunk into the ground to a depth of 3 or 4 feet. The plant is 
thrown in in portions, and burned until the pit is nearly full of 
ashes. The latter are then removed, mixed with about 5 per 
cent of lime, and drenched with successive portions of fresh water. 
The ash tubs or vat« employed in this operation are usually formed 
from tar l)arrel8, by cutting them in half. A numl)er of these are 
furnished with two crossbeams, upon which rests a false cullen- 
deretl bottom covered with straw, and below this is a cock for the 
removal of the lye. The -first liquor running through, being sat- 
urate<l, is passed at once to the evaporating pan; while the second 
or third runnings, l)eing weaker, are reser\'ed and poured upon 
fresh ash until completely saturated. The evaporating pans are 
broad and shallow, and made of iron, with corrugated bottoms, to 
produce greater extent of heating surface; and as evaporation pro 
gresses, new supplies of strong liquor are poured in, and the heat is 
continued until a sirupy consistence is attained, when the fire ia 
gradually slackene<l and the contents of the pan, becoming solid, 
are dug out and placed aside as crtcde potashes. By subjecting this 
mass to the heat of a reverberatory furnace, most of the sulphur (*iV) 
and all excessive wat«»r and empyreumatic matters are expelled, 
causing a loss of 10 to 15 per c-ent. This modified product is white, 
with a bluish tinge; contains more carbonic acid than the original 
crude product, and takee the name of ptarUuh. The proceee em- 



729. 



' Traits de Chimie, 1865, Vol. II, page 22.5. 

'Chemistry as Applied to Arts and Maimfactures, Vol. II, page 



22 



ployed in Russia and northern Europe is the same in principle as 
that above described, and is conducted in a similar manner, except 
that no lime is used in the lixiviation process. 

According to Mendeleeff:' 

For the extraction of potash, which was formerly carried on 
extensively in the east of Russia (before the discovery of the Stass- 
furtsalt), the ash of grasses and the green portions of potatoes, 
buckwheat, etc., are taken and treated with water (lixiviated), the 
solution is evaporated, and the residue ignited in order to destroy 
the organic matter present in the extract. The residue thus 
obtained is composed of raw potash. It is refined by a second dis- 
solution in a small quantity of water, for the potash itself is very 
soluble in water, whilst the impurities are sparingly soluble. The 
solution thus obtained is again evaporated, and the residue ignited, 
and this potash is then called refined potash, or pearlash. 

According to Wiley : ' 

The composition of the ash of woods is extremely variable. Not 
only do different varieties of trees have varying quantities of ash, 
but in the same variety the bark and twigs will give an ash quite 
different in quantity and composition from that furnished by the 
wood itself. In general, the hard woods, such as hickory, oak, and 
maple, funiish a quality of ash superior for fertilizing purposes to 
that afforded by the soft woods, such as the pine and tulip trees. 
The character of the unleached wood ashes found in the trade is 
indicated by the subjoined analyses. The first table contains the 
mean, maximum, and minimum results of the analyses of 97 sam- 
ples by Goessmann.' 





MKAN COMPOSITION OF WOOD 
ASHES. 




Means. 


Maxima. 


Minima. 




5.6 
1.9 
34.3 
8.5 
12.9 
12.0 
29.9 


10.2 
4.0 

60.9 
7.5 

27.9 

28.6 


2.5 


phosphoric acid 


0.3 




18.0 


Magnesia 


2.3 




2.1 




0.7 













The data obtained in sixteen analyses made at the Connecticut 
station are given below:* 





Means. 


Maxima. 


Minima. 


Potash . 


5.3 
1.4 


7.7 
1.8 


4.0 




1.9 







In fifteen analyses of ashes from domestic wood fires in New 
England stoves the following mean percentages of potash and 
phosphoric acid were found: 

Potash .' 9. 63 

Phosphoric acid 2. 32 

' Principles of Chemistry, 1897, Vol. I, page 548. 

' Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis, 1895, Vol. II, 
pages 251 to 253. . 

'Annual report, Massachusetts agricultural experiment station, 
1888, page 202. 

'Annual report, Connecticut agricultural experiment station, 
1890, page 110. 



In leaching, ashes lose chiefly the potassium carbonate and phos- 
phate which they contain. Leached and unleached Canada ashes 
have the following composition: 





Unleached 
(percent). 


Leached 
(per 
cent). 




13.0 

12.0 

61.0 

5.5 

1.9 

6.6 


13.0 




30.0 




51.0 




1.1 




1.4 




3.5 







In the wood ashes of commerce, therefore, it is evident that the 
proportion of the potash to the lime is relatively low. 

The number of parts by weight of the chief ingredients of the 
ash in 10,000 iwunds of woods of different kinds is given in table 
below, together with the percentage composition of the pure ash; 
that is, the crude ash deprived of carbon and carbon dioxide. 

POUNDS OF THE INGREDIENTS NAMED IN 10,000 
POUNDS OF WOOD. 





Dogwood 

(Cfymus 
Florida). 


Sycamore 

(Platanus 

Occident- 

alu). 


Post oali 
•Jofa')"- 


Ash {F. 
Ameri- 
cana). 


Red oak 
{Quercua 
rubra). 


Hickory 
(Oarya 
lomeTi- 
torn). 




9.02 
5.72 
6.41 
14.67 


18.06 
9.55 

24.73 
0.49 


16.85 
6.96 
36.61 

5.28 


14.94 
1.16 
7.60 
0.10 


13.95 
5.98 

27.40 
3.05 


13.80 


Phosphoric acid . . . 


5.83 
18.40 


Magnesia 


4.86 







Potash 

Phosphoric acid 

Lime 

Magnesia 



White 
oak ( Q. 
aiba) 



10.60 
2.49 
7.86 
0.90 



Magno- 
lia (.W. 
grandi- 
flora). 



7.13 
3.19 
14.21 
2.94 



P'"f,i5pine(P. 
TrU). ""■'*»)■ 



6.01 
1.24 
18.04 
2.03 



4.54 
0.96 
15.16 
0.74 



Black 



Chest- 
nut 



Old field 



(Mem <£™?'',''Pi';.f,F- 



nigra). 



3.02 
0.92 
12,46 
0.10 



vesca or 
sativa). 



2.90 
1.09 
7.93 
0.34 



mitig). 



0.79 

0.73 

12. 12 

1.17 



The pure ashes of the woods contain the following per cents of 
the ingredients named: 



Potash 

Phosphoric acid 

Lime 

Magnesia 



Potash 

Phosphoric acid 

Lime 

Magnesia 



Dogwood 

( CV>r7iiw* 
Florida). 



Sycamore po.,^]. 
(.Plalanut ^««'<»» 
Occident- 



28.04 
8.51 

38.93 
6.80 



alii). 



23.17 
12.23 
31.62 
0.62 



(Q.obtu- 
Biloba) 



21.92 

9.00 

46.39 

6.S8 



Ash(F. Redoak Hjykonr 

Ameri- [{Quercm i^r^T 
cana). lYubra). ^""^ 



I 



46.04 



23.57 
0.60 



24.66 
10.55 

48.26 
6.38 



toia). 



28.60 
11.97 
87.94 
10.04 



White 

oak (Q, 

alba). 



42.16 
9.48 

29.85 
3.43 



Magno- 
lia (.Jf. 
grandi- 
flora). 



19.54 
8.75 

38.94 
8.05 



Georgia 

pine (P. 

patus- 

trig). 



Yellow 
pine (P. 

miiie). 



15.35 19.70 

3. 82 4. 18 

56.24 { 66.63 

6.25 j 3.20 



Black 
pine 

(Picea 
nigra). 



14.30 
4.33 

58.98 
0.60 



Cheat- 
nut 

[Castana 
vesca or 
saliva). 



Old field 
pine (P. 
mitis). 



18.10 
6.76 

49.18 
2.11 



3.35 

4.11 

67.73 

6.54 



From the data for production given above it is evident 
that, although the average price of potash for 1900 was 
higher than for 1890, the industry was not remunerative, 



23 



and that consequently the quantity and value of the 
prtwhict decreased. Indeed, owing to the competition 
of fon>if,'ii potash, the industry can now oxist only in 
locaiiti»>s whi'io wood is very eiieap and whore tlicrt" is 
a local demand for the product. In such places the 
product is of domestic manufacture and is an article of 
trade at the country stores, hut with the increasing 
value of timber, the field of operations is continually 
being contracted. 

The cost of producing a barrel of 650 pounds of 
potash is stated in a private coninmnication from a 
Michigan manufacturer to be as follows: 

Ashes, 150 bushels, at S i-enta $4.50 

Hauling ashes •>. 00 

Fuel 2.00 

Labor 3.00 

Barrel, t-ost of 1. 25 

KepaifM, iiiterect, etc 1.50 

Total cost 18.25 

Selling price at works 25. 00 

Gross profit per barrel 6. 75 

The ashes therefore yielded ii pounds of potash per 
bushel, and the potash sold at 3.85 cents per pound. It 
will be noted that the weight of a l«irrcl of potash is 
given above as 650 pounds. From the returns it appears 
that the net weight of a barrel of this material varies 
from 650 pounds to 740 pounds, the average being about 
700 pounds. 

Competition with the ashes of wood as a source of 
potash is found in beet-root molasses and residues; 
wool scourings, known as suint; and the potash .salts 
mined at Stassfui't and elsewhere abroad. In the case 
of the beet-root molasses and residues, and of the 
suint, the mass is calcined and the potassium carbonate 
extracted, as is done for wood. The potassium exists 
in the Stassf urt and other mineral salts as chlorides and 
sulphates in combination with magnesium and calcium, 
and after the potassium chloride is extracted from them, 
it is converted into pearlash by the Le Blanc process, 
or it may be converted into carbonate by the Solvay 
process, using trimethylammonium carbonate. Men- 
deleeff ' states that about 25,000 tons of potsish annually 
are now (18!<7) prepared from KCl at Stassfurt. Other 
proposed .sources of potash salts are sea water; the 
mother liquor of .salt works and minei'al springs; the 
residues from seaweeds; and the feldspars and similar 
rocks. 

There are, moreover, some industries which produce 
considerable quantities of wood ashes as a by-product, 
from which jjotash maj- be extracted with profit. For 
example, the wood-distillation industry uses hard wood 
and consumes nuich of the charcoal produced as fuel 
under the retorts. Hard-wood ashes are richer in pot- 
ash than soft-wood ashes, and as the extra cost of 
obtaining the potash should be verj- trifling in connec- 

' Principles of Chemistry, 1897, Vol. I, page 549. 



tion with the other operation, considerable quantities 
of it might be obtained from this source. 

As jKjtassium (•arbonatt< crystallizes with difficulty, it 
can not well be purified by the method often employed 
for purifying salts. The pure material nm.st, there- 
fore, be obtained by indirect means. Among other 
methods in vogue, one is to purify cream of tartar, 
obtained from grapes, by repeated crystallization, and 
then, by burning it, obtain the refined potash. When 
the cream of tartar is ignited by contact with air 
there is left a mixture of finely divided charcoal and 
potassium carbonate, and this comes into the market 
under the name of " black flux," and is used in smelting 
operations as a reducing agent. 

Potash is u.sed in the manufacture of .soft .soap; in 
making potassium .salts, such as potassium chromate; in 
making caustic potash; and, in the form of pearlash, in 
the making of glass. 

The potassium found in wood ashes is extracted from 
the soil by the plant during its growth, the presence of 
potassium compounds in the soil being essential to the 
growth of vegetation. Consequently, wood ashes are 
a valuable fertilizing material. Wiley ' says of this: 

The beneficial effects following the application of ashes, are 
greater than would be produced by the same quantities of matter 
added in a purely nianurial state. The organic origin of these 
materials in the ash has caused them to be presented to the plant 
in a form i)eculiarly suited for absorption. Land treated generally 
with wood ashes becomes more amenable to culture, is readily kept 
in good tilth, and thus retains moisture in dry seasons and permits 
of easy drainage in wet. These effects are probably due to the 
lime content of the ash, a property, moreover, favorable to nitrifica- 
tion and adapted to correcting acidity. Injurious iron salts, which 
are sometimes found in wet and sour lands, are precipitated by the 
ash and rendered innocuous or even beneficial. A good wood-ash 
fertilizer, therefore, is worth more than would lie indicated by its 
commercial value calculated in the usual way. 

From the census returns for 1900 it appears that the 
leached ashes have a certain manurial value and the 
returns show that the establishments reported above 
sold 87,040 bushels of leached ashes to be used as a 
fertilizer at a total value of $3,268, or, on an average, at 
3. 75 cents per bushel. It is stated by the manufacturers 
that wood ashes in leaching gain one-third in bulk; one 
manufacturer specifically stating that his 15,000 bushels 
of raw ashes yielded 20,0(X) bushels of leached ashes. 

From Wagner's Chemical Technolog\', 1892, page 
299, it appears that "the yearlj* production of potash, 
according to H. Griineberg, is from 

Wood ashes, Russia, Canada, United States, Hungary, and Tons. 

Galicia 20,000 

Beet sugar ash, France, Belgium, Germany 12, 000 

Mineral saltj*, Germany, France, Kngland 15, ()00 

Suint, German J', France, Belgium, Austria 1, 000 

Total from all sources 48,000 

"The.se conditions differ .strikingly from those which 
existed thirty [thirty-eightj years ago, when wood ash 
was in exclusive use and Russia potash ruled the mar- 

'PrinciplesandPracticeof Agricultural Analysis, Vol. II, page2.'v4. 



24 



ket. The potash extracted from wood ashes amounts 
to scarcely one-half of the total production; it decreases 
year by year, and the time when it will disappear from 
the market seems within measurable distance."' This 
agrees with the data shown -in the table above for the 
"Total Production of Potashes by Decades, 1850 to 
1900." 

The foreign commerce in potashes for the United 
States if exhibited in the follovving tables compiled 
from "The Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the 
United States for the years ending June 30, 1891-1900, 
Vol. II." 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS OF ASHES, POT AND PEARL: 1891 TO 
1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 




430,582 
1,307,634 
634,421 
650,261 
664,876 


$24,432 
99,566 
31,775 
29,205 
30,188 


1896 


969,874 
511,830 
869,841 
745,433 
1,273,906 


841,208 


1892 


1897 


21,727 




1898 


33,202 


1894 


1899 


29,676 




1900 


49,566 









IMPORTS OF ASHES, WOOD AND LYE OF, AND BEET- 
ROOT aSHES, FOR CONSUMPTION: 1891 TO 1900, IN- 
CLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Value. 


1891 


842,624 
54,855 
76,306 
74, WO 
77,708 


1896 


867,393 




1897 


66,423 




1898 


62,206 


|g((4 


189S 


59,970 




1900 


66,453 









IMPORTS OF POTASH, CARBONATE OF, OR FUSED, FOR 
CONSUMPTION: 1891 TO 1894, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAK. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 




839,980 


1891 


6,297,419 

8,745,268 
10,115,017 
8, 130, 975 


219,557 


1892 


309,586 




329,896 


1894 . 


262, 818 







IMPORTS OF POTASH, CARBONATE OF, CRUDE OR BLACK 
SALTS, FOR CONSUMPTION: 1895 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1895 


11,602,272 
12, 439, 180 
7,601,497 
15,844,374 
16,018,889 
21,191,258 


8364,506 


1896 


401,819 


1897 


229,029 


1898 


471,919 


1899 


437,675 


1900 


625,922 







LITERATURE. 

Chemistry aa Applied to the Arts and Manufactures, by Sheridan 
Mugpratt, Glasgow, 1860. 

Trait4 de Chimie, by Pelouze and Freniy, \'ol. II, Paris, 1865. 

A Manual of Chemical Technology, by Rudolf von Wagner, 
translated by William Crookes, New York, 1892. 

Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis, by Harvey W. 
Wiley, Vol. II, Easton, Pa., I89.J. 

The Principles of Chemistry, by D. Mendel^eff, New York, 1897. 



Group IV.— Alums. 

During the census year 1900 there were 13 establish- 
ments engaged in the manufacture of alums either as a 
principal or subordinate product. The comparison 
with previous censuses is as follows: 

PRODUCTION OF ALUMS, BY DECADES: 1880 TO 1900, 
INCLUSIVE. 





Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


PRODUCT. 


PER CENT OF IN- 
CREASE. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1880 


6 
10 
13 


39,217,725 
93,998,008 
179,467,471 


8808,165 
1,616,710 
2,446,676 






1890 


189.7 
90.9 


100.0 


1900 


51. S 







There are no census statistics of production anterior 
to 1880, and the census of 1900 is the first one at which 
the various alums were separately reported, as shown 
in the table which follows: 

KINDS OF ALUM PRODUCED IN 1900. 



Total. 



Ammonia alum 

Potash alum 

Burnt alum 

Concentrated alum . 

Alum cake 

Other alums 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Pounds. 



179,467,471 



6,680,373 
14,200,393 
16, 028, 464 
103,016,815 

4,048,655 
35,592,771 



Value. 



$2,446,576 



102,308 
215,004 
403,100 
1,062,. 547 
34,047 
629, 570 



The legend "other alums" is as reported on the 
schedules, and no doubt under it are included some of 
the kinds named in the li.st above, but it has not been 
possible to separate them. However, there are in the 
classification 1,626,000 pounds of aluminum hydroxide 
(hydrate of alumina), valued at $31,500. There are 
included under "burnt alum" 9,399,550 pounds of ma- 
terial, with a value of t>228,500, returned as "soda alum " 
from 4 establishments. In addition, there were reported 
3,928,160 pounds of ammonia alum, valued at $58,922, 
and 1,149,666 pounds of aluminum sulphate, valued at 
$10,922, as having been produced and consumed in the 
manufacture of other products. 

It should be said that of the 13 establishments reported 
above but 2 of them were reported as producing alum 
onl}-, the others being engaged in the manufacture of 
many other chemical substiinces. Taking the ratio of 
value which the alum bears to the total value of prod- 
ucts for these last-mentioned establishments as a guide, 
it appears that these 13 establishments employed 802 
wage-earners and a capital of $3,888,446 in the produc- 
tion of alum, and that there were consumed 34,000 tons 
of bauxite, having a value of $230,000; 5,000 tons of 
cryolite, of a value of $110,000; 2,000 tons of sodium 
sulphate, in the form of .salt cake or niter cake, of a 



26 



value of If4,100; 8»50 tons of ammonium sulphate, of 
a value of ♦21,1>00; 477 tons of potassium sulplmto, of a 
value of li!19,fi()0; and fit ,424 tons of sulpluiiic acid, 
there lioing usod for this acid 3,328 tons of sulphur, of 
a value of $66,000; 49.081 tons of pyrites, of a value 
of ^U 17,000; and 513 tons of sodium nitrate, of a value 
of *1S.(X)0. 

The jfeographical distribution of these establishments 
is set forth in the following- table: 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBITION OF ALUM FACTORIKS: 

1900. 



STATU. 


Number 

ofes- 

labllsh- 

menta. 


Average 
number 
ol wage- 
eamen. 


Capital. 


Value of 
product. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United Slates 


13 


802 


«8, 888, 445 


«2, 446, 576 


100.0 




6 
a 

4 


530 
74 

198 


2,747,482 
256,930 

885,033 


1,411,652 
306, 7M 

728,170 


57.7 




12.5 


Illinois. New York, and 
Michigan 


29.8 







Alum was known to the ancients and was u.sed by them 
in d^-eing, tanning, and in making medicine. Aluminum 
sulphate, mixed with more or less iron sulphate, occurs 
as effloi-escences on rocks and as the mineral feather 
alum, and it was this limited natural supply that was the 
source of the material used. The manufacture of alum 
is of oriental origin and was introduced into Europe 
about the Thirteenth century, the materials used being 
the mineral alunite or alum stone, which has the for- 
mula K2SO,.Alj(SO,)3.4Al(OH)3 mixed with compounds 
of iron. This mineral is insoluble in water, but by 
calcining it and exposing it in heaps, with occasional 
moistening, the mass weathers, and after some months 
a potassium alum may be dis.solved out which crystal- 
lizes in cubes and contains inclosed iron oxides which 
give it a red color. Such alum is known as "Roman 
alum" from its having been extensivelv manufactured 
at Tolfa, near Rome. Later, alum slates and shales, 
clay, bauxite, and cryolite have been employed as the 
raw materials of the alum manufacture, and the last- 
named two are the sub.stances which are now almost 
exclusively used for this purpose. 

When the minerals — clay, in its purer form of 'kaolin 
(AljSijO,.2HjO), or bauxite, which is aluminum hydrox- 
ide mixed with ferric, silicic, and other oxides in vary- 
ing proportions, are used as the source of alumina, the 
process consists in decomposing the mineral with sul- 
phuric acid and evaporating the solution of aluminum 
sulphate formed until, when cool, it sets to a stone-like 
ma.ss. This cake contjiins impurities in the form of 
silica, ferric sulphate, and free sulphuric acid, there 
being usually from 2 to 3 per cent of the latter present. 
When but little iron is present, the sub.stance is known 
as "alum cake;" when much iron is present it is known 
as ••alumino-ferric cake." Bauxite is especially liable 
to jield this last-named product. 



A purer aluminum sulphate is made from bauxite by 
calcining it with soda ash until sodium aluminatc i» 
formed. This is dis.solved. the solution filU^ed, and 
carbon dioxide pa.s.sed through it, by which the 
aluminum is precipitat<'d as hydroxide. This purified 
hydroxide is di.s.soIved in hot sulphuric acid and the 
solution formed run into leaden pans to c<X)l, when it 
forms a crystalline mass much u.sed in the arts under 
the name of "concentrated alum," and having the 
composition Alj(SC),)320HjO, though the separate 
crystals have but 18 molecules of water of crystalliza- 
tion. Manufacturers specify that bauxite for u.se in 
the manufacture of alum shall contain not-more than 3 
l>er cent of ferric oxide nor less than 60 per cent of 
aluminum oxide. 

Cryolite is used not onh-^ as a source of alum, but also 
for the manufacture at the same time of caustic soda, 
calcium orsodium fluorides, and hydrofluoric acid. This 
mineral, which in commercial quantities is found only 
in southern Greenland, is a double fluoride of sodium 
and aluminum, having the formula AlFj(NaF),. By 
calcining cryolite with powdered limestone and lix- 
iviating the frit, or by boiling cryolite with milk of 
lime, sodium aluminate is obtained as one of the prod- 
ucts of the reaction, and this may be converted into 
"concentrated alum" by the means above described. 
A modification of this consists in boiling sodium alumi- 
nate liquor with powdered cryolite, through which 
the sodium in each molecule is converted into sodium 
fluoride and the aluminum into alumina, and then pro- 
ducing "concentrated alum" by dissolving the alumina 
in sulphuric acid. 

When "concentrated alum" is dissolved in water and 
mixed with a solution of potassium sulphate, the solu- 
tion, on concentration, deposits beautiful, tran.sparent, 
colorless, octahedral crystals, which have a vitreous 
luster and the composition K,Als(SOj),.24H20. This 
sub.stance is known as "potassium alum " or " potash 
alum," and was the first complex alum recognized. It 
was the first to be manufactured commerciallj', since 
by this means the easily soluble aluminum sulphate 
wa.s separated from the iron sulphates, and a very su- 
perior article for use in dyeing was obtained. Since 
purer raw material has been found, and improved 
methods for purification have been devised, concen- 
ti-ated alum has largely displaced the complex alums in 
dyeing as well as in the other arts. 

Crystallized potassium alum of the composition given 
above is the type of a large number of complex alums 
which may be produced by mixing a .solution of alumi- 
num sulphate with a solution of an alkaline sulphate and 
crystallizing out the double salt. Among these we have 
in commerce crystallized ammonium and cr3'stallized 
sodium alum, though the latter is not common, owing 
to its being difficult to crystallize and to the fact that the 
crystals, when formed, readil}- eflioresce. When these 
crystallized alums are heated, the water of crystalliza- 



26 



tion, and usually a little of the sulphuric acid, is driven 
off and the material falls to a white powder known as 
"burnt alum," which is used in pharmacy. A similar 
sodium alum which is largely used in baking powders 
is prepared by mixing concentrated solutions of sodium 
sulphate and aluminum sulphate, allowing them to set 
in a cake, and roasting the alum to drive off the ,water, 
or bj' mixing the sulphates in the solid condition and 
heating them. By varying the proportions of the sul- 
phates and the temperature, various desired properties 
are imparted to the burnt alum, and these preparations 
are sold under various trade names. 

Effloresced sodium alum is sometimes known under 
the name of "porous alum," but this name, in the 
trade, is given to porous alum cake containing a little 
sodium alum and basic aluminum sulphate, which is 
made by stirring into alum cake, just before it sets, a 
desired quantity of soda ash. As the aluminum sul- 
phate possesses an acid reaction it reacts with the so- 
dium carbonate and the carbon dioxide evolved puffs 
up the mass and leaves it in a condition so that it may 
be readily dissolved. 

Alums may be formed with selenic and other acids in 
place of the sulphuric acid of ordinary alum. More- 
over, chromic, ferric, manganic, and other sulphates 
form double salts with the alkali sulphates, and though 
these compounds contain no aluminum whatever, they 
ai'e called alums because they crystallize in the same 
form, have the .same crystalline habit, the same oxy- 
gen ratio, and the same number of molecules of water 
of crystallization as the double sulphates of alumina 
and the alkali metals. None of these numerous alums 
has any commercial importance except "chrome alum," 
which has the formula K,Cr2(SO,),.24H,0. 

Potash and ammonia alums were made by Charles 
Lennig, of Philadelphia, in 1837, and concentrated 
alum was manufactured by him in 1859. Harrison 
Bros. & Co., of Philadelphia, began the manufacture of 
cr\'stal alum about 1840, and they began the manufac- 
ture of concentrated alum from haiKcite in 1877. The 
Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company began the 
manufacture of concentrated alum at Natrona, Pa., in 
1876, and they were the first to manufacture porous 
alum. 

Alums are used in dyeing, printing, tanning, paper 
making, in making lakes and other pigments, in puri- 
f^'ing water and sewage, as a constituent of baking 
powder, in medicine, in stucco work for hardening 
plaster, in photography for hardening films, in render- 
ing woodand fabrics non-inflammable, in "carbonizing" 
wool, in bleaching, and in the preparation of various 
aluminum compounds. 

The foreign conmierce in alums is shown in the fol- 
lowing table, compiled from the reports of the Bureau 
of Statistics of the United States Treasury Department: 



IMPORTS OF ALUMS FOR CONSUMPTION: 1891 TO 1900, 
INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 


4,652,985 
4,140,916 
4,572,923 
1,838,728 
2,983,682 


858,863 
59,&3« 1 
73,806 
30,831 
46,815 


1896 


5,525,825 
5,301.514 
2,787,639 
1,601,829 
2,186,266 


886,871 
96,529 


1892 


1897 


1893 


1898 


36,099 
14,244 
19,354 


1894 


1899 


1895 


1900 







And in the following tables, obtained from the same 
source, are shown the quantities and values of the raw or 
partlj^ manufactured materials so far as they were set 
forth: 

IMPORTS OF CRYOLITE FOR CONSUMPTION: 1891 TO 1900, 
INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Tons. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Tons. 


Value. 


1891 


7,129 
8,298 
8,459 
12,756 
8,685 


895,405 
76,350 
111,796 
170,215 
116,273 


1896 


7,024 
3,009 
10,788 
5,529 
5,878 


893, 198 
40 056 


1892 


1897 


1893 


1898 


144, 178 
79,455 
78,658 


1894 . 


1899 


1895 


1900 







IMPORTS OF BAUXITE FOR CONSUMPTION: 1897 TO 1900, 
INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


BAUXITE, CRUDE. 


ALUMINUM HYDRATE, 
OR REFINED BAUXITE. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1897 


8,722,074 


$14,915 






1898 


2,092,082 
2,955,339 
3,474,421 


860,194 

92, 019 


1899 


7,722,000 
6,850,000 


14,168 
11,413 


1900 


109,674 





LITERATURE. 

Outlines of Industrial Chemistry, F. H. Thorp: Macniillan, New 
York, N. Y., 1898. 

Manufacture of Alum, Lucien (ieschwind: D. Van Nostrand, New 
York, N. Y., 1901. 

Manual of Chemical Technology, Rudulf von Wagner: D. Apple- 
ton & Co., New York, N. Y., 1892. 

Watts, Dictionary of Chemistry, Vol. V, Longmans, Green 
& Co., London, 1869. 

Group V. — Coal-Tar Products. 

Notwithstanding that as early as 1816 Accum had 
devi-sed a process for obtaining a volatile oil from coal 
tar for use as a substitute for spirits of turpentine; that 
in 1845 A. W. Hofmann had discovered that this body 
contained benzene; that in 1856 a great impetus was 
given to tar distilling by the discovery of anilin colors 
by Perkin, since the benzol, which is the raw material 
for their maimfacture, was exclusively derived from 
coal tar, and that from 1806, when coal gas was intro- 
duced for lighting by David Melville at Newport, R. I., 
coal tar had been a bj'-product of the industry in this 
country; yet it was not until 1880 that an\' mention was 
made in the United States Census Reports of these 



I 



27 



bodies, and they are apparently given there in two 

clii.s.><irication.>s, a.s follows: On page 1(X)1 of Statiwti<'.>* of 
Manufactures there are reported 344,114 pound.s of 
aiitlinuone of a value of !^99,242, and in the table of 
speeitied indu.strle.s on page 20 of the same report, it is 
stated that three works produced ''coal tar" having a 
value of $4(i().8()(l, from which it is inferred that as the 
original coal tar was being produced in the several hun- 
dred gtvs works then exi.sting, the three works enumer- 
ated were engaged in producing coal-tar products. On 
pages 288 and 289 of Part III. Census of Manufactur- 
ing Industries, 1890, there are reported coal-tar prod- 
ucts of a value of $687,591. The establishments were 
distributed as follows: 

GECMJRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORIES FOR 
COAL-TAR PRODUCTS: 1890. 



United SUtes 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

New York 

District of Columbia 

Georgia 

Ma.s.sachusetts and Tennessee 



Value of 
products. 



»6S-,591 



330,200 
168,180 
13'<,324 
20,000 
20,000 
10,887 



Per cent 
of total. 



48. P 
24.5 
20.1 
2.9 
2.9 
1.6 



At the census of 1900 there were reported 14 estab- 
lishments devoted to the manufacture of coal-tar protl- 
ucts, which amounted in value to $1,322,094, and 8 
establishments in which this manufacture was of sec- 
ondary importance, with a value of $99,626, the total 
value being $1,421,720. These establishments were 
distributed as follows: 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORIES FOR 
COAL-TAR PRODUCTS: 1900. 



8TATX8. 


Number 
of e.stab- 

lish- 
mcnts. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


Capital. 


Value of 
products. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United States 


22 


466 


•1,448,622 


»1, 421, 720 


100.0 


Missouri 


3 
6 
3 

ID 


l.io 
177 
33 

101 


381,969 
661,482 
26,467 

389,724 


416,600 
396,759 
44,016 

666,346 


29 2 






New Yorii 


3 2 


Louisiana, Tennessee, 
Ohio. California, Min- 
ne.sota, Massachusetts, 
and New Jersey 


89.7 



Of these products, chemicals having a value of 
$205,047 were obtained from further action on the dis- 
tillate of the coal tar. In addition, the.se factories pro- 
duced tarred felt and tarred paper (in which part of 
the material from the coal tar was consumed), having a 
value of $442,529. 

Coal tar, as its name implies, is obtained from coal, 
and it is produced by the destructive distillation of coal 
out of contact with the air, the other products lieing 
gas, coke, and ammoniacal liquor. From the begin- 
ning of the Nineteenth century the chief commercial 



.source of the coal tar was found in the manufacture of 
coal gas for illuminating purposes, but to-day it is also 
obtained from the by-pnxluct coke ovens, while gas 
producers, blast furnaces, and water-gas plants furni.sh 
tars which now find commercial use.s, though they differ 
in comixjsition from coal tar. In the special report on 
coke for the census of 1900, it is reported that the pro- 
duction of tar from the by-product coke ovens for 
1899 amounted to 104,687,330 pounds, or 52,344 tons. 
Although the returns for gas for 190<J are given in the 
special report on gas for the census of 19(X), no .separate 
returns are therein presented for the by-product of tar. 
This may, however, be estimated as follows: In Table 8 
of that report it is stated that the total production of 
gas was 67,093,553,471 cubic feet, and in Table 9 that 
over 75 per cent of the gas manufactured during the 
census year was water gas. Putting the coal gas at 20 
per cent, we have 13,418,710,694 cubic feet of coal gas. 

The average yield of gas per ton of gas coal is 10,000 
cubic feet, and dividing the volume of gas by this there 
results 1,341,871 tons of coal as having been used for 
making coal gas. The yield of tar per ton of coal is 
about 5 per cent by weight, which gives from the above 
figure 67,094 tons of tar. The total quantity of coal 
tar from the by-product coke ovens and the coal-gas 
industry in 1900 was, then, approximately 119,438 tons. 
The quantity of "water-gas tar" may also l>e estimated 
from the quantity of oil consumed, which is given in 
the special report on gas as 194,857,296 gallons. Ac- 
cording to Douglas,' about 25 per cent of the oil is 
recovered as tar, which gives for the oil recorded above 
48,714,324 gallons of tar. As, accorditig to A. H. 
Elliott,* "water-gas tar" has a specific gravity of 1.1, 
a gallon will weigh 9.15 pounds, and therefore the 
total weight of " water-gas tar" obtained in the United 
States for 1900 as derived from the data given above is 
222,868 tons. No tar is reported from any other 
source, though it is known that abroad the blast fur- 
naces and gas producers are utilized as sources of this 
material. The total computed production of coal tar 
and water-gas tar for the United States for the census 
year 1900 is therefore 342,306 tons. It is worth noting 
that though the first by-product coke oven in the United 
States was erected in 1892,* yet the industry has grown 
so fast that the jield of coal tar from this source 
closely approaches that from coal gas making. 

In connection with these estimates it is interesting to 
compare the following statement made by Lunge* in 
the recent edition of his standard work: "White and 
Hess (Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1900, page 509), quote a 
number of anah'ses, from which they conclude that 
American coal tai-s aie not well adapted to distillation 
for the recovery of benzol, etc. , as they are inferior in 



'J. of Gas-Lighting, page 1130. 1891. 

» Am. Clieiii. J., page 248. 1884. 

'J. D. Pennock, J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol 21, page 681. 

*Coal Tar and Ammonia, 3d ed., Appendix, page 917. 



28 



quality to European tars except as regards anthracene. 
Their estimate of the production of coal tar in the 
United States, 400,000 tons, is probably much too high, 
since by far the greater portion of illuminating gas 
made there is (carburetted) water gas. Probably the 
quantity of 120,000 tons, which I gave as the produc- 
tion of coal tar in the United States in 1886, is not 
much, if at all, exceeded at the present time." The 
amount of coal tar reported as consumed in the United 
States in the census 3'ear 1900 was 22,004,650 gallons, 
which at 10 pounds per gallon gives 110,023 tons. 

The j'ield of tar from the manufacture of gas in 
Europe in 1898 is given by Lunge' from data supplied 
by Dr. Bueb, as follows: 

TAR PRODUCED IN MAKING GAS IN EUROPE IN 1898. 



COUNTRY. 


Tons. 


COLSTEY. 


Tons. 




1,120,000 




20,000 




Italy 


16,660 
16,650 




666,650 
166,650 
135,000 
41,500 
21,650 






Holland 


15,000 






13,500 


Austria-Hvingarv 


Switzerland 


6,750 













The data of the census of 1900 places the United 
States fourth in the list of countries in the amount of 
tar produced in the distillation of coal for the manu- 
facture of gas. 

It is of historical interest that the first English patent 
referring to the de,structive distillation of coal (that of 
John Joachum (sic) Becher and Henry Serle, dated 
August 19, 1681) does not treat of the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, but of "a new way of makeing pitch 
and tarre out of pit coale, never before found out or- 
used by any other," and this German chemist, Johann 
Joachim Becher, appears to have been the originator of 
the coal-tar industry, he having employed the coal tar 
as a substitute for "Swedish tar from firwood" in tar- 
ring wood and ropes. The French metallurgist de 
Gensanne^ describes a furnace in use before 1768 at 
Sulzbach, near Saarbriicken, for coking coal and recov- 
ering tar, the light oil from the tar being used for 
burning in lamps. 

Notwithstanding the various inventions for producing 
coal tar, it is, according to Lunge " — 

Certain that the manufacture of coal tar was never carried out on 
any extensive scale until it appeared as a necessary by-product in 
the manufacture of illuminating gas from coal, the idea of which 
seems to have occurred toward the end of the last century at the 
same time to the Frenchman Lebon and the Englishman William 
Murdoch. The former had already recommended the use of tar 
for preserving timber; but it was the latter who, along with his 
celebrated pupil Samuel Clegg, really laid the foundation of the 
enormous industry of gas making. The first private gas works 
was erected in 1798 at the engineering works of Bolton & Watts; 

•Coal Tar and Ammonia, 3d ed., page 17; ibid., page 4. 
'De Gensanne, "Traits de la fonte des Mines, Paris, 1770, 
Vol. I, ch. 12. 

'Coal Tar and Ammonia, pages 11-13. 



the first public gas works in London in the year 1813; in Paris, 
1815, and in Berlin, 1826. 

The tar formed in the manufacture of coal gas necessarily forced 
itself upon the notice of the gas manufacturer, since it could not 
be thrown away without causing a "nui.«ance." It was probably 
from the first burnt under the retorts, but the method of doing 
this without giving very much trouble was not understood then. 
Other quantities, no doubt, were used, in lieu of wood tar, as a 
cheap paint for wood or metals, but it must have been soon found 
out that in the crude state it is not well adapted for this purpose. 
* * * It was also quickly perceived that in this respect tar is 
improved by boiling it down to some extent, and as early as 1815 
Accum showed that if this boiling down is carried out in clo.sed 
vessels (stills) a volatile oil is obtained which may be employed 
as a cheap substitute for spirits of turpentine. But this does not 
seem to have been carried out to any great extent, and coal tar 
remained, for more than a generation from the first introduction 
of gas lighting, a nuisance and hardly anything else. 

In Germany the first more extensive employment of gas tar was 
for making roofing felt, for which purpose it has to be deprived of 
water and the more volatile constituents. Instead of condensing 
these, they were at first almost everywhere, and later on in many 
cases, removed by evaporating the tar in open vessels, thus creat- 
ing a considerable risk from fire. In Germany, Briinner, of 
Frankfort, was the first (in 1846) to condense the more volatile 
tar oils, from which he prepared a detergent, long after known by 
his name, and consisting principally of benzt^ne. 

In England, where the manufacture of illuminating gas origi- 
nated, and where it has always been, and still is, carried on to a 
very much greater extent than on the Continent, a more extensive 
industrial employment for coal tar was first opened out by the in- 
vention of Bethell (1838) for preserving timber, especially railway 
sleepers, by impregnation with the heavy oil distilled from gas tar. 
From that time dates the introduction of tar distilling on a large 
scale. The light oils may have been lost even here in some cases, 
but more usually they were condensed and employed as "coal-tar 
naphtha" for burning and for dissolving India rubber. 

The day of the light tar oils came after A. W. Hofmann (1845) 
had shown the presence of benzene in them, but especially when 
Mansfield, in his patent specification (1847), for the first time 
accurately described the composition of these oils, along with a 
process for preparing benzene in a pure state and on a large scale, 
and with proposals for utilizing the tar oils of lowest boiling point 
for lighting purposes. The industrial preparation of benzene was 
soon followed by that of nitrotenzene, at that time only employed 
as a substitute for the essential oil of bitter almonds, and known 
by the French fancy name of "essence de Mirbane." But all these 
applications produced only a limited demand for the light oils 
which could be made from the rapidly increasing quantities of gas 
tar; so that the latter, except in a few instances locally, did not 
attain any considerable commercial value. But a sudden impetus 
was given to tar distilling in 1856 by the discovery of the anilin 
colors, the material which forms their starting point, benzol, being 
exclusively derived from coal tar. 

Coal tar is an extremely complex mixture of chem- 
ical compounds, some of which have not yet been even 
isolated. As before stated, the tars from other pro- 
cesses than the destructive distillation of coal contain 
other constituents, and varying quantities of similar 
constituents, from those existing in coal tar. Likewise, 
coal tar will vary in its composition with the coal which 
is distilled and the manner in which the distillation is 
carried out. The "products" are obtained from the 
coal tar by fractional distillation, and the first products 
are crude naphtha and light oils of a specific gravity 
below 1.000, distilling over below 180^ C. ; dead oils and 



29 



creosote oils of a specific gravity above 1.000. distilling 
ovpi- between 180 V. and 270° C.; green or anthracene 
oils, distilling over between 270° C. and 360- C. ; and soft 
pitch, which is left in the still. 

The proportions of yields from different coals is shown 
in the following tables given by J. D. Pennock,' chem- 
ist in charge of the oldest by-product coke-oven plant 
in the United States: 

ANALYSES OF COAL. 











A 


B 






Per cent. 


Percent. 




34.20 

87.15 

8.65 

0.93 


32.68 




59.40 


Ash 


7.92 




1.19 






ANALYSES OF TAR. 



Specific gravity 

Water 

Light oil 

Creosoting oil . . 

Dead oil 

Naphthalene... 

Anthracene 

Soft pitch 



1.163 



Per cent. 



2.40 
4.60 
1.26 

22.81 
6.00 
0.60 

68.80 



1.203 



Per cent. 



2.70 
2.03 
0.50 
16.40 
Trace. 
Trace. 
70.50 



1.205 



Percent. 



1.40 
3.12 
0.29 

26.09 
0.20 
0.19 

67.40 



II 



1.231 



Percent. 



1.10 
1.63 
0.34 

19.23 
1.72 
0.24 

74.14 



Tars A and B, made from Coals A and B, whose anal- 
yses are given above, show what diilerences may exist 
in tars made from coals very similar in composition as 
shown by proximate analysis. Tars I and II represent 
two tars from gas works. They also vary greatly in 
composition. As a usual thing, they are found to be of 
much higher specific gravity and to contain less light 
oils than tars from the by-product coke oven, making 
them inferior as sources of benzene and for the manu- 
ture of tarred paper. 

To obtain the desired commercial products, the dis- 
tillate must be subjected to further treatment. Thus 
the light oil on fractional distillation, gives "benzol" 
to the extent, for the coke-oven practice, of from 0.6 to 
0.9 per cent of the weight of the coal used. According 
to Lunge," "the final products of general trade into 
which the crude benzol should be split up without 
I'esidues, are the following: 





FDBNISHES DI8TILLATE PEE CENT UP TO— 


Specific 




100». 


120°. 


180». 


180°. 


200°. 


gravity. 


90 per cent benzol 


90 










0.885 


fiO per cent benzol 


50 


90 








880 


Solvent naphtlia 


20 


90 


96" 


0.876 


Heavy naphtha 






880 








1 





' J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 21, page 696. 1899. 
'Coal Tar and .\mmonia, M e<i., page 588. 



"Ninety percent benzol" is a product of which 90 
per cent by volume distills before the thei'mometer rise* 
above 100° C. A good sample should not begin to dis- 
till under 80° C, and should not yield more than from 
20 to 30 per cent at 85^ C, or much more than 90 jH-r 
cent at 10(J° C, but it .should distill completely below 
120° C. A 90 per cent benzol of good quality contains 
about 70 per cent of benzene, 24 per cent of toluene, 
including a little xylene, and from 4 to 6 per cent of 
carbon disulphide and light hydrocarbons. 

"Fifty per cent benzol," often called 50 90 benzol, 
is a product of which 50 per cent by volume di.stills 
over at a temperature not exceeding 100° C, and 40 
per cent more (making 90 per cent in all) below 120° C. 
It should wholly distill below 130° C. It contains a 
larger proportion of toluene and xylene than the 90 per 
cent benzol. It is nearly free from carbon disulphide, 
and contains comparatively little of the light hydro- 
carbons. It is employed for producing the heavy 
anilin used in manufacturing ro.saniline or magenta. 

"Thirty per cent benzol" is a product of which 30 per 
cent distills below 100° C. and about 60 per cent more 
pa.ssing over between 100° and 120° C. It consists 
chiefly of toluene and xylene with smaller proportions 
of benzene and cumene. 

" Solvent naphtha" consists of xj'lene, pseudocumene, 
and mesitylene and is used in dissolving caoutchouc in 
the manufacture of watei-proof materials and other 
articles. 

From these " light oils," by fractional distillation and 
purification with .sulphuric acid, water, milk of lime, and 
caustic .soda, pure benzene, QH,, toluene, C,!!,, and 
xylene, CgHjo, may be obtained, the benzene being crys- 
tallized out. 

According to Pennock' the light oil obtained is from 
6.6 pounds to 8.5 pounds per long ton of coal and it 
varies with the percentage of volatile matter in the 
coal. The light oil contains from 58 to 63 per cent of 
benzene, divided thus: 

Per cent. 

90 per cent benzol 57 

50 per cent benzol ." 2 

Solvent naphtha 4 

The dead oils and creosote oils which compose the 
material that is collected from the coal-tar distillate be- 
tween 180° and 270° C. contain the "middle oil," and 
this fraction on further treatment yields crystallized 
carbolic acid, cresols, heavy solvent naphtha, pj-ridine 
bases, and naphthalene. In practice this is divided 
into further fractions, the fraction between 240° and 
270° C. furnishing the creosote oil, which is a commer- 
cial source of naphthalene, coal-tar creosote, and the 
cresols. The naphthalene, which exists to the extent 
of 40 per cent or more in the creosote oil, is removed 
by chilling the oil, which causes the naphthalene to 
crystallize out, leaving the cresols. The crystals are 

•J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 21, page 703. 



30 



then drained and pressed and purified further by sub- 
limation. 

The heavy coal-tar oil is used not only as a source of 
the more valuable products obtained by rectification or 
by ' ' breaking " in red-hot tubes, but also for ' ' pickling " 
timber; softening hard pitch; preparing varnishes; pre- 
paring cheap mineral paints, where the heavy oil is 
used in place of linseed oil; as an antiseptic; in the 
blue steaming of bricks; in carburetting gas; in the 
manufacture of lampblack; and by burning, as a source 
of heat and light. 

The fraction between 150^^ and 200° furnishes the 
carbolic acid, it being obtained by treating the oil with 
caustic soda, through which sodium phenolate is formed, 
which sepai'ates from the oil. The sodium phenolate 
is drawn off and then decomposed by sulphuric acid or 
carbon dioxide and the carbolic acid set free. The 
crude carbolic acid is now purified by distillation or 
other means and the pure carbolic acid, or phenol, which 
crystallizes in colorless crystals, obtained. Pure car- 
bolic acid is used in the manufacture of the dyestuffs, 
picric acid, and corallin, and of some azo dyes, also in 
the manufacture of salicylic acid, but most of the car- 
bolic acid, both pure and crude, is used for antiseptic 
purposes. The oil drawn off from the sodium phe- 
nolate contains some of the higher homologues of ben- 
zene, and naphthalene with pyridine bases. In com- 
merce it furnishes principally naphthalene, pyridine 
bases, and solvent naphtha of various degrees, the treat- 
ment being determined by the products sought. The 
pyridine bases are used in the manufacture of pharma- 
ceutical preparations and in denaturizing grain alcohol 
for use in the arts. 

The anthracene oil, which is the portion of the coal-tar 
distillate passing over above 270° C, is known also as 
green oil, green grease, and red oil, and it contains 
naphthalene, methyl naphthalene, anthracene, phenan- 
threne, acenaphthene, diphenyl, methyl anthracene, 
pyrene, chrysene, retene, fluoranthene, chrysogen, 
benzerythrene, carbazol, and acridine, together with a 
mixture of liquid high-boiling oils, of whose composi- 
tion nothing is j'et known, the whole forming a mass 
rather thinner than butter, filled with crystalline scales 
of a greenish-yellow color. The anthracene oil is 
treated by cooling and pressing, the liquid portion 
being sent to the heavy oil to be reworked with it. 
The solid portion is either sold as rough anthracene or 
it is fui'ther purified by washing with solvents which 
dissolve the impurities. On oxidation anthracene 
yields anthraquinone, which is used for the production 
of alizarine and other coal-tar colors. According to 
Pennock' there is as yet no market for anthracene in 
this country, but it is necessary that some anthracene 
should be present in coal tar pitch in order to produce a 
pitch of the right consistency for roofing purposes. 

As indicated, the naphthalene is accumulated in the 

' J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 21, page 697.' 



creosote oil and extracted from it in the crude condi- 
tion by freezing and pressing, when it is purified by 
sublimation. It is used in the manufacture of artificial 
colors and as a substitute for camphor in protecting 
goods from the ravages of moths. 

The coal-tar pitch, which forms the residue in the 
.still, is used in the manufacture of roofing composi- 
tions and tarred felt and tarred paper; incorporated 
with coal or coke dust, it is fashioned into briquettes 
for use as fuel; dissolved in creosote oil or other sol- 
vents, it is used as a paint for iron and woodwork; and 
it is used as a substitute for asphalt in street pavements. 

Benzene is employed as a solvent in the manufacture 
of nitrobenzene and diniti'obenzene, which are used in 
several arts and in the manufacture of many benzene 
derivatives. One important product is anilin, which 
is obtained by the reduction of mononitrobenzene. 
The anilin of commerce, which is known as anilin oil, 
is obtained from benzol, and this, as before stated, is a 
mixture of different cyclic hydrocarbons, the particu- 
lar mixture used being determined by the color which 
it is sought to produce. In this case, as with pure 
benzene, the mixture is nitrated by exposure to a mix- 
ture of nitric and sulphuric acids, and the nitrosubstitu- 
tion compounds that are produced are reduced by 
exposure to tin and hA'drochloric acid or some other 
source of nascent hydrogen. Benzol is also used as a 
cleansing agent and as a vehicle in paint. 

The niti'osubstitution compounds, and amido bodies, 
like anilin oil, represent in this group the "chemicals 
made from coal-tar distillery products." 

The foreign commerce in coal-tar products is set 
forth in the following tables, compiled from the reports 
of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department 
on imported merchandise entered for consumption into 
the United States: 

IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF COAL TAR DURING THE 
YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1891 TO 1896. 





TEAS. 


COAL TAB, CRUDB, 
AND PITCH. 




Barrels. 


Value. 


1891 


89,313 
117,066 
102, 136 

96,068 
112, 536 
139,976 


$263, 593 


1892 .. . 


302 791 


1898 


244,291 
218 514 


1894 


189i) 


247,957 
288,750 


1896 





I 



IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF COAL-TAR PRODUCTS, 
NOT MEDICINAL AND NOT COLORS OR DYES,' DURING 
THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1898 TO 1900. 



YEAR. 


Value. 


1898 


»228,037 
393,602 


1899 


1900 


397,780 





> These preparations are known as benzol, toluol, naphthalene, xylol, phenol, 
cresol, toluidine, xylldlne, cumidine, biuitrotoluol. binitrooenzol, benzidine, 
tolidine, dianisidine, naphthol, naphthylamine, diphenylamine, benzaldehyde, 
benzyl chloride, resorcin, nitrobeuzol, and nitrotoluol. 



31 



IMPORTS FOK CONSUMPTION OF PREPARATIONS OF 
COAL TAR, EXCKPT MEDICINAL, AND PRODUCTS OF, 
NOT SPECIALLY PROVIDED FOR, FOR THE YEARS 
ENDING JUNE 1, 1896 TO 1900. 



VIAR. 


Value. 


INK 


tl87,873 


1896 


313,943 


1897 


1896 


184, 416 


1899 


221, 101 


1900 


274,946 





LUeralure. 

A Treatise on Chemistry, by H. E. Roeooe and C. Schorlemmer, 
Vol. Ill: New York, 1887. 

The Rise and Development of Organic Chemistry, by Carl Schor- 
lemmer: I>ondon, 1894. 

A Handtook of Industrial Organic Chemistry, by Samuel P. 
Sadtler: Philadelphia, 1895. 

The Retort Coke Oven and the Chemistry of ita By-Products, by 
J. D. Pennock, .7. Aiiier. Chem. Soc, 21, 678-70.5. 1899. 

The Spirit of Organic Chemistry, by Arthur Lachman: New 
York, 1899. 

Coal Tar and .\mmonia, by George Lunge: 3d ed. New York, 
1900. 

Group VI. — Cyanides. 

In thi.s classification are included potassium ferro- 
cyanide, potassium ferricyanide, potassium and ammo- 
nium sulphocj'anates (known commercially a.s sulpho- 
cj'anides), and potassium, sodium, and other cyanides. 
No .separate account was taken of the cyanides at any 
census previous to 1900. At the cen.sus of 1900 returns 
were made only for potassium ferrocjanide and for 
pota.ssium cyanide. Twelve establishments were re- 
ported in which the cyanides were the principal prod- 
ucts, the value being $1,466,061, and 6 establishments 
in which they fonned secondary products, the value 
being $12,8-14. These 18 establishments employed 
$1,322,719 of capital and 391 wage-earners and pro- 
duced $1,595,505 of product. They were distributed 
as follows: 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF 
FACTORIES: 1900. 



CYANIDE 



STATES. 


Number 
of estab- 

li.sh- 
ments. 


Average 
number 
of wagc- 
eamen*. 


Capital. 


Value of 
product. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United States 


18 


391 


SI, 322, 719 


SI, 695, 505 


100.0 


New Jersey 


6 
4 

3 

5 


166 
107 
43 

75 


633.001 
317,816 
71,750 

400,252 


1,053,472 
303,245 
86,852 

151,936 


66.0 
19.0 
5.5 

9.6 


Pennsylvania 

Ohio 


Maryland, Massachusetts, 
and Missouri 





Of the products reported, 6,165,407 pounds, having 
a value of $994,014, were potassium ferrocyanide, and 
2,317,280 pounds, having a value of $601,491, were the 
so-called potassium cyanide. There were consumed in 
this manufacture 9,315,080 pounds of potassium car- 



bonate, having a value of $279,602; 3,456 tons of hoofs 
and of horn wa.ste, having a value of $87,502; 19,417 
tons of scrap leather, having a value of $150,213; l,2W 
tons of spent iron oxide from the gas works, having a 
value of $:^,000; 300,000 pounds of sodium, having a 
value of $93,183; 2,400 bu.shels of lime, having a value 
of $480; $9,520 worth of scrap iron, and 2,401,180 
pounds of pota.ssium ferrocyanide. 

Pota.ssium ferrocyanide (ferrocyanide of pota.ssium; 
yellow prussiate of pota.sh; blood-lye salt) was di.scov- 
ered by Macquer in 1752, through acting upon pru.ssian 
blue with an alkali. It is made by fusing potassium 
carbonate in cast-iron vessels and adding to the fused 
mass a mixture of nitrogenous organic matter, such as 
horns, hair, blood, wool waste, and leather scraps, with 
from 6 to 8 per cent of iron turnings or borings, until 
the mixture added equals about li parts of the potash. 
The fiLsed mass, when cooled, contains, among other 
substances, pota.ssium cyanide, carbonate, and sulphide, 
iron sulphide, metallic iron, and separated carbon. 
This mass is broken up and digested with water at 85° C. 
for several hours, during which reactions take place by 
which the potassium ferrocyanide is formed. The solu- 
tion is clarified and the potassium ferrocyanide purified 
bj' crystallization, when it appears in fine large yellow 
crystals, having the formula K,Fe(CN),.3HjO. 

Pota.ssium ferrocyanide is also prepared from the 
spent oxide of iron from gas works' purifiers, thereby 
utilizing the nitrogen compounds that have been taken 
up or formed during the process of purification. In 
this operation the oxide is lixiviated with warm water 
to remove the ammonium sulphocyanate and other 
ammonium compounds, and the residue is mixed with 
quicklime and heated by steam in closed vessels to 
100" C, through which calcium ferrocyanide is formed, 
and separated by lixiviation. By treating this with 
potassium chloride, the difficultly .soluble calcium 
pota.ssium ferrocyanide is formed, and by decomposing 
this with potassium carbonate the potassium ferro- 
cyanide results. 

Potassium ferrocj'anide was manufactured on a com- 
mercial scale by Carter & Scattergood in Philadelphia, 
before 1834. It is used largely for making prussian 
blue, pota.ssium cyanide and ferricyanide, prussic acid, 
in calico printing, in dj^eing, for ca.se-hardening iron, 
and in white gunpowder and pj'rotechnics. 

Potassium ferricyanide (ferricyanide of potassium; 
red prussiate of potash) was discovered by Leopold 
Gmelin in 1822,' and is formed by pa.ssing chlorine gas 
through a solution of potassium ferrocyanide until the 
solution will no longer give a blue reaction with a ferric 
salt. Or the salt maj' be formed 1)3- exposing dry pow- 
dered ferrocyanide to the action of chlorine gas; or by 
acting on a calcium and potassium ferrocyanide solu- 
tion with potassium permanganates; or. according to 

'Schw. J., vol. 34, page 325. 



32 



Lunge,' by boiling a solution of the ferrocyanide with 
lead peroxide, while a stream of carbon dioxide is passed 
through the solution. Potassium ferricyanide crystal- 
lizes without water of crystallization in blood-red 
prisms. It is very soluble, yielding an intensely yel- 
low solution which forms the blue pigment, known as 
Turnbull's blue, with ferrous salts. 

Carter & Scattergood were manufacturing red prus- 
siate of potash on a commercial scale at Philadelphia in 
1846. When in solution with caustic potash, it is a 
powerful oxidizing agent, and as such is used in calico 
printing as a "discharge" on indigo and other dyes. 
It also forms a part of the sensitive coating for photo- 
graphic "blue-print" papers, and has been recommended 
for use with potassium cyanide in the extraction of 
gold from its ores. 

Ammoniimi sulphocyanate (sulphocyanate of ammo- 
nium; ammonium thiocyanate; ammonium sulphocya- 
nide), the acid of which was first observed by Bucholz 
in 1799, is prepared by heating carbon disulphide and 
auunonium hydroxide to 125° C. in an autoclave until 
the pressure rises to 15 atmospheres, when the ammo- 
nium dithiocar hamate is formed. The pressure is now 
released and the autoclave heated to llO'^ C. , when the 
dithiocar bamate is decomposed and the products dis- 
tilled over. The ammonium sulphocyanate produced 
is obtained by evaporating the liquid remaining in the 
still in tin vessels and crystallizing out. 

As pointed out above, ammonium sulphocyanate is 
also obtained by lixiviating the spent iron oxide used 
in purifying illuminating gas. The salt crystallizes in 
colorless plates which are very soluble in water and 
alcohol. It is used as a source of other sulphocyanates 
and in dyeing, to prevent the injurious action of iron 
on the color. 

Among the sulphocyanates produced from it is the 
barium sulphocyanate which results from heating 
ammonium sulphocyanate with barium hydroxide solu- 
tion under slight pressure; and this barium salt is used 
generally for the manufacture of potassium and alumi- 
num sulphocyanates, which are used in textile dyeing 
and printing. 

Potassium cyanide (cyanide of potassium) has been 
generally prepared by fusing potassium ferrocyanide 
with potassium carbonate until the evolution of gas 
ceases. Potassium cyanide, potassium cyanate,' carbon 
dioxide, and metallic iron are formed. The metallic 
iron sinks to the bottom of the crucible and the fused 
mixture of cyanide and cyanate is run oflf. Part of the 
cyanate maj^'be reduced to cyanide by adding powdered 
charcoal to the fused mass, or it may be reduced by 
metallic zinc or sodium; or the cyanide may be extracted 
from the mass by a solvent such as alcohol, acetone, or 
carbon disulphide. By fusing the potassium ferrocy- 

'Ding. poly. J., vol. 238, page 75. 
' Gmelin, vol. 7, page 413. 



anide with sodium carbonate a mixture of sodium and 
potassium cyanide known under the name of "cyan- 
salt " may be produced. An almost pure cyanide can 
be obtained by heating the ferrocyanide per se accord- 
ing to the following equation: 

K,Fe(CN),=4 KCN+N,+FeC, 

but this method entails the loss of one-third of the ni- 
trogen in the ferrocyanide, and to avoid the waste of 
nitrogen Erlenmeyer proposed to add the proper 
amount of an alkali metal to the melted ferrocyanide, 
giving for sodium the following reaction: 

K,Fe(CN),+2 Na=4 KCN+2 NaCN+Fe 

and it is in this way that most of the so-called chem- 
ically pure potassium cyanide now sold is made, though 
it consists of a mixture of potassium and sodium cj-a- 
nides. It also contains a considerable quantity of potas- 
sium carbonate, which is added to it during the course 
of manufacture to reduce its strength, for the combined 
cyanides produced as above described have a higher 
percentage of cyanogen than chemically pure potassium 
cyanide could possibly have. The carbonate is added 
in sufficient amount to reduce the cyanogen contents to 
from 39 to 40 per cent, which is equivalent to from 98 
to 100 per cent potassium cyanide. 

Other processes have been devised for using sodium 
in making cyanides. One is to first convert the sodium 
into sodamine, thus: 2 Na+2 NHs = 2 NaNH,+H, by 
heating it in contact with ammonia gas, and then heat- 
ing the amine with carbon to form the cyanide thus: 
NaNH2+C=NaCN-(-H2. Another and later method by 
which it is claimed a better yield is obtained, is to form 
a stable cyanamid, at a temperature of about 400^ C. , 
from the sodamine and carbon, thus: 

2 NaNH,+C=Na,N,C+2 H,, 

and then i-eacting on the cyanamid with a further quan- 
tity of carbon at a temperature of 800° C. to form the 
cyanide according to the equation: 

Na,N,C+C=2 NuCN. 

Each of these methods requires a large amount of 
expensive sodium for a given output of cyanide. J. D. 
Darling has lately devised a process of using sodium in 
the synthetic production of sodium cyanide, which gives 
good results and in which the larger portion of the 
metallic base is furnished in the form of caustic soda, 
and but a small amount of sodium is needed to finish 
the process. It is claimed that by this process a mod- 
erate-sized sodium plant can produce enough metal to 
manufacture a large amount of cyanide. 

Potassium cyanide has been commercially manufac- 
tured by passing nitrogen over an intensely heated 
mixture of charcoal and potassium carbonate. Cya- 
nides have also been produced by conducting ammonia 



33 



gas through vertical retorts, heated to a red heat, and 
coiiUiiniiig a inixturo of charcoal and alkali carbonates. 
Potiussiuni cyanide is sonietinies oiitained in considera- 
t)lo (juantity from blast furnace."*, being foniied from the 
jiotassium carbonate in the ash of the fuel.' Because of 
this reaction between carbon and nitrogen in the presence 
of alkaline salts numerous effoi-ts have been made to 
utilize the reaction in making the atmospheric nitrogen 
available. 

Potassium cyanide was commercially manufactured 
by the H. V. Davis Chemical Works, at New Bedford, 
Mass., in 1852. As it is a powerful reducing agent, 
potassium cyanide is used as a flux in assa3'ing and in 
metallurgy; as a solvent of silver sulphide it is u.sed in 
cleaning silver articles; it has been used as a fixing 
solution in photography; for the preparation of Grdnat 
soluble and potassium i.sopurpurate in dyeing; and, as 
it forms a soluble double cyanide with silver, gold, cop- 
per, and other metals, it is much used in electroplating; 
but its largest use is now found in the cyanide process 
for the extraction of gold from its ores. 

The foreign commerce in the cyanides is set forth in 
the following tables, compiled from the publications of 
the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department of 
the United States: 

IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION DURING THE YEARS 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1891 TO 1900. 



YEAR. 


YELLOW PRUSSIATK 
or POTASH. 


RED PBUSSIATK OF 
POTASH. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Founds. 


Value. 


1891 


2,223,164 
1,302,632 
1,047,910 
699,103 
878,727 
1,066,562 
3,2.'i2,931 
1,340,305 
1,809,089 
l.TTl.SM 


(368,366 
232,058 
206,259 
114,826 
161,009 
157,467 
369,037 
132,608 
2(M,974 
224,274 


36,826 
35,933 
16,679 
11,136 
26,703 
30,890 
69,087 
77,246 
62,697 
53,716 


S10,660 
11,111 
5,743 
3,339 
7,693 
8,679 
14,893 
18,674 
16,211 
12,964 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


1899 


1900 





IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION DURING THE YEARS 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1897 TO 1900. 



IWT 16,232 

18»8 549,697 

.,„ 1,102,780 

1900 j 2,0«M,974 



CYANIDE OF POTASH. 



Pounds. Value. 



tM.190 
120,262 
263,613 
444,703 



LITEBATURB. 

Handbook of Chemistry, by Leopold Gmelin, Vol. VII: London, 
1852. 

Encyclopedia chimique, by M. Fremy, vol. 2: Paris, 1886. 

On the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen, by A. A. Breneman. 
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 11, 2-»8. 1889. 

A Dictionary of Chemistry, Henry Watts, vol. 2: London, 1870. 

'Blozam's Chemistry, page 619. 1890. 

No. 210 3 



Manual of Chemical Technology, by R, von Wagner: Ixmdon, 
1892. 

Outlines of Industrial Chemistry, by F. H. Thorp: New York, 
1898. 

The Cyanide Process for the Extraction of Gold, by M. Eissler: 
I>ondon, 1898. 

Die Cyan-Verbindungen, by F. FeuerlMch: Leipzig, 1896. 

Manufacture and Uses of Metallic Sodium, by J. D. Darling, 
J. Frk. Inst., 1.53, 65-74. 1902. 

The Composition of Commercial Cyanide of Potassium, by Rus- 
sell W. Moore, J. Soc. Ch. Ind., 21, 391-392. 1902. 

Group VII. — Wood Dlstillation. 

Wood distillation as now classified for census pur- 
poses deals solely with that treatment of wood by which 
wood alcohol, acetic acid, acetate of lime, pyroligueous 
acid, and charcoal, or any of these, are produced. 
This interpretation was given to it in 1880, the first 
census at which separate returns were set forth for the 
industry. The manufacture proceeds in two stages: 
First, the production of crude wood alcohol or wood 
spirits and crude acetate of lime; second, the refining 
of the alcohol, and the refining of the acetate of lime, or 
the production therefrom of acetic acid or acetone. 
The refining processes are usually carried out at other 
works than those in which the crude materials are pro- 
duced, but while in the census reports the alcohol 
refineries remain identified and classified with the wood 
distillation works, the factories where the acetate of 
lime is treated are classified with "chemicals, acids." 
With this preface it can be stated that 99 establishments 
were reported as producing some of the crude sub- 
stances enumerated above during the census year 1900. 
Of these, 84 were regular wood-distilling establish- 
ments and produced of crude alcohol 4,191,379 gallons, 
having a value of $1,660,061; of acetate of lime 
81,702,000 pounds, having a value of $926,358; and of 
charcoal 14,428,182 bushels, having a value of $612,009. 

These works employed $4,858,824 of capital, and 
1,268 wage-earners. There were 9 establishments re- 
porting the production of the crude material and the 
refining of the alcohol in the same factory; and these 
establishments produced of refined alcohol 637,856 
gallons, having a value of $370,513; of acetate of lime 
5,124,000 pounds, having a value of $54,928; and of 
charcoal 2,726,120 bushels, having a value of $114,663. 
They employed $760,156 of capital and 254 wage- 
earners. Besides these there were 9 establishments 
engaged in refining wood alcohol onh-, producing 
2,400,284 gallons of refined alcohol, having a value of 
$1,926,385, and employing $1,098,719 of capital, and 
52 wage-earners. Finally, there were 6 other estab- 
lishments engaged in the production of pyroligueous 
acid or pyrolignite of iron as incidental to other manu- 
facturing processes, the total quantity of pyroligueous 
acid reported from all sources being 182,446 gallons, 
valued at $9,481; of dye liquors 308,400 gallons, valued 
at $29,440, and of sundries, such as wood creosote. 



34 



wood oil, ashes, tar, and the like, amounting in value 
to $71,452. 

At the first census of this industry in 1880 only crude 
materials were reported. At the census of 1890 refined 
wood alcohol was reported for the first time, and it was 
then stated that the total output of crude alcohol was 
found by adding to that produced at the "acid facto- 
ries" that which was produced and refined in the same 
establishment. Proceeding in this way for the 9 estab- 
lishments reported above for 1900 as producing the 
crude alcohol and refining it in the same establishment, 
and converting the refined 97 per cent alcohol into crude 
82 per cent alcohol at a value of 42 cents per gallon, a 
total is obtained for these establishments of 754,584 
gallons of crude alcohol having a value of $316,925. 
By taking, in these instances, the per cent of the total 
value for all products added in the refining of the 
alcohol, the proportion of capital and labor devoted to 
the production of the crude material is found to be, for 
these 9 establishments, $641,052 of capital and 219 
wage-earners. There were, therefore, 93 factories pro- 
ducing crude alcohol, in which $5,499,876 of capital and 
1,487 wage-earners were employed. The total output 
thus ascertained is compared with the returns for the 
previous censuses in the following table: 

WOOD DISTILLATION, CRUDE MATERIAL PRODUCED: 
1880 TO 1900. 





Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


WOOD ALCOHOL. 


ACETATE OF LIME. 


CHARCOAL. 




Oalions. 


Value. 


Pounds, 


Value. 


Bushels. 


Value. 


1880 


17 
53 




$86,274 

688,764 

1,976,986 


6,593,009 
26, 778, 415 
86,826,000 


$166,892 
315, 430 
981,286 




$31, 770 


1890 


i, 116,075 
4, 940, 963 






1900.... 


93 


17,164,302 


726,672 



The increase of 1890 over 1880 in acetate of lime was 
306.2 per cent in quantity and 101 per cent in value. 
The increase for 1900 over 1890 was 224.2 per cent in 
quantity and 211.1 per cent in value. The increase for 
1890 over 1880 in wood alcohol was 698.3 per cent in 
value. The increa.se for 1900 over 1890 was 343.2 per 
cent in quantity and 187 per cent in value. 

These establishments were distributed as follows: 

WOOD DISTILLATION, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 
OF WORKS PRODUCING CRUDE PRODUCTS: 1900. 



STATE. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


Value of 
products. 


Per cent 
of total. 




93 


1,487 


$3,833,266 


100.0 








68 

24 

6 

3 

3 


878 

354 

169 

12 

74 


2,339,536 

786,252 

505,069 

18,409 

184,000 


61.3 


New York 


20.3 




13.2 


North Carolina 


0.4 


New Jersey, Indiana, and Massachu- 
setts 


4.8 







Only the number of i-efineries and quantity of prod- 
ucts were reported for 1890, and only with these can 



the present condition of the refined wood-alcohol in- 
dustry be compared, but this is suflicient to show how 
marked the growth has been. 

PRODUCTION OF REFINED WOOD ALCOHOL: 1890 AND 

1900. 



TEAR. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


1890 


4 
18 


166, 842 
3,038,140 




1900 


$2, 296, 898 







The increase of 1900 over 1890 is more than seven- 
teenfold. 

Although wood is u.sually spoken of as consisting of 
cellulose, it really consists of cellulose associated with 
a great variety of other organic substances, the kind 
differing with the different species of wood, and it is 
only necessary to recall the various gums, resins, tan- 
nins, sugars, and coloring matters found in commerce, 
which are obtained by simple processes of extraction 
from wood, to make this fact especially apparent. 
When subjected to heat out of contact with the air, the 
constituents of the wood ai'e decomposed into liquids, 
gases, and a solid residue, and this process has been 
resorted to for ages as a means for obtaining charcoal. 
During the middle ages it became known that wood 
vinegar or pyroligneous acid could be obtained by dis- 
tilling wood, but the identity of the acetic acid present 
with that obtained by the fermentation of alcohol was 
not known until 1802, when it was established by 
Thenard. The presence of wood spirit in the. distillate 
from wood was di.scovered by Robert Boj'le, in 1661, 
but its analogy to grain alcohol was first recognized by 
Taylor in 1812, and its composition was definitely fixed 
by Dumas and Peligot in 1831. Although charcoal, 
acetic acid, and methyl alcohol are the principal 
commercial products of the wood distillation industry, 
there is also produced, besides methyl alcohol, other 
alcohols, acetic acid and other acids, furfural and other 
aldehydes, acetone and other ketones, methyl acetate 
and other esters, methj'lamine and other amines, wood- 
tar creosote containing guaiacol and other phenols, and 
various hydrocarbons. 

Originally wood was treated for charcoal alone by 
charring it in heaps or in kilns, thus allowing all the 
other products named above to go to waste. This proc- 
ess is still carried on, but before the middle of the 
Nineteenth century the process of distillation in retorts, 
by which the acetic acid in the form of pyroligneous 
acid, pyrolignite of iron, or acetate of lime, and the 
wood spirits were recovered, was well established in 
Europe. The manufacture of pyroligneous acid was 
begun in the United States by James Ward in 1830, at 
North Adams, Mass. The manufacture of acetate of 
lime and methyl alcohol was started in the United 
States about 1867 by James A. Emmons and A. S. 



85 



Saxon, in Crawford County, Pa., and in 1874 George 
C. Edwards «>st4vl)lislied the Burce}' Chemical Works 
at liintrhiiinton, N. Y.,' to refine the crude wood 
spirit produced by the various acetate manufacturers. 
In 1876 Dr. H. M. Pierce obtained the tirst of a series 
of United States letters patent rehiting to inventions 
in this industry, which ho was the tirst to apply to 
the recovery of the by-products from the smoke of 
the charcoal kilns in Michigan, where charcoal was 
being produced for use in t)last furnaces. From that 
time he was most active in the promotion of the wootl 
distillation industry, and largely contributed to the 
revolution which has since been effected in our foreign 
commerce in the products of this industry. 

The wood us«!d for the making of wood alcohol and 
acetate of lime is hard wood, preferably oak, maple, 
birch, and beech. It is cut in 50-inch lengths, so that 
a cord of wood in this industry measures 48 by 48 by 50 
inches. It should be seasoned two and one-half years 
before "burning," to get the best results. The wood 
is burned in retorts, in ovens, or in kilns. The retorts 
are cylindrical, are made of three-eighths inch steel, 9 
feet long by .50 inches in diameter, and are provided 
with a large, tightly fitting door at one end and an 
outlet pipe about 15 inches in diameter at the other 
end. The retorts are set horizontally in pairs in brick- 
work, and batteries of from 6 to 16 pairs are common. 
The cord wood is fed through the door and carefully 
stacked so as to completely fill the retort. The ovens 
consist of rectangular iron chambers set in pairs in 
brickwork and provided with large doors at one end 
and three or more delivery pipes on the side of each 
oven. They are usually 27 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 
7 feet high inside, and rails are laid upon the floor of 
the oven ))y which steel cars loaded with cord wood may 
be run in. These cars each hold 2i cords of wood, and 
an oven of the above dimensions will receive two such 
cars. Ovens, however, are in use in this country that 
are from 48 to 50 feet in length and capable of receiving 
four cars at one charge. The retorts are heated from 
beneath by burning wood, coal, or charcoal, supple- 
mented by the tar, red oil, and gas, which are by- 
products of the industry. A very large part of the 
charcoal made in retorts is thus consumed. This fur- 
nishes another example of a chemical industry in which 
the former by-products have now become the principal 
products. The ovens are heated by natural gas. 

When the wood is heated the moisture is driven out, 
but no decomposition occurs until the temperature 
approaches 160'" C. Between this and 275^^ C. a thin, 
watery di.stillate, known as pyroligneous acid, is chiefly 
formed; from 275^ to 350^ C. the yield of ga.seous 
products becomes marked; and between 350"^ and 450° 
C. liquid and solid hydrocarbons are most extensively 
fonned. The quantity and character of the yield 

' Tenth Census of the United States, Manufactures, ireneral folio 
1013. 



depend upon the character and age of the wood and the 
temperature and rate at which the charge in heated. 
In the ovens the wood is heated for twenty-four hours 
and then the cars containing the charcoal are drawn and 
immediately run into iron sheds where, when the doors 
are closed and luted, the charcoal is allowed to cool. 
The volatile portions, from retorts or ovens, are car- 
ried to conden.sers where the pyroligneous acid and tar 
are condensed and the ga.ses are carried off to be burned 
under the boilers for generating steam, or under the 
retorts. 

The yield of pyroligneous acid is about 30 per cent 
and of tar about 10 per cent of the weight of the dry 
wood. The acid averages about 10 per cent of acetic 
acid, 1 per cent of methyl alcohol and 0. 1 per cent of 
acetone. As acetone is produced by the heating of 
acetates the yield of these two bodies will vary with 
the manner in which the heating is carried on. The 
pyroligneous acid is a dark red-brown liquid, having a 
strong acid reaction and a peculiar enip^reumatic odor, 
and its density varies between 1.02 and 1.05 specific 
gravity. It is used to a limited extent in the manufac- 
ture of an impure acetate of iron, known as " black iron 
liquor," or " pyrolignite of iron," but it is usually treated 
to separate the methyl alcohol, acetone, and acetic acid 
from it. This is done by distillation, the alcohol being 
concentrated by dephlegmators, as is done in the manu- 
facture of grain alcohol, to 82 per cent, when it is 
shipped to the refinery in iron drums holding about 
110 gallons each, or in barrels holding from 45 to 46 
gallons each. The acetic acid is recovered in two forms, 
viz, as "gray acetate of lime" or as "brown acetate of 
lime;" the first being produced when vapors from the 
distillation are passed through milk of lime, while the 
second is produced when the pyroligneous acid is neu- 
tralized with lime before distilling off the alcohol, and 
the resulting acetate of lime is thus contaminated with 
considerable tar. 

The crude wood alcohol is sent to the refinery to be 
purified and rectified, which is accomplished by further 
distillation from lime or caustic alkalies. The acetone 
can not \)e separated b\' simple distillation, but it may 
be converted into chloracetones of high boiling points 
and thus removed, or the separation maj- be effected 
b}- crystallizing out the methyl alcohol with calcium 
chloride, or the acetone maj' be converted into chloro- 
form and volatilized by distilling the mixture with 
chloride of lime. Mo.st of the methyl alcohol of com- 
merce contains acetone in varying quantities, even as 
much as 15 per cent, and such acetone containing alco- 
hols are especiallj- desired in several art^^, as the}' serve 
for the purpose to which they are put better than pure 
methyl alcohol. A pure methyl alcohol is now pro- 
duced in very considerable quantity which is of 100 per 
cent strength as it leaves the works, but it soon absorbs 
water on exposure so as to reduce its alcohol strength 
to 98 or 97 per cent. 



36 



In the Pierce process, as described by Landreth, the 
charring of the wood is effected in circular, flat-top, 
brick liilns holding 50 cords of wood each. The wood 
is charred by the heat produced by gas burned in a brick 
furnace under the kiln, into and thi'ough which the 
products of combustion pass. The gaseous products of 
the dry distillation of the wood pass from the kiln to con- 
densers, where the tarry and liquid products are con- 
densed and the gas sent back to the kiln. Thus none 
of the charcoal produced is burned to carbonize other 
wood, as in the common pits or ovens. The gas which 
elsewhere is wasted is here not only sufficient to effect 
the carbonizing of the wood, but furnishes fuel for the 
boilers required about the works. 

The wood used is as thoroughly seasoned as the con- 
ditions of maintaining a year's supply in advance, cost 
of storage room, and interest on capital invested in 
stock render economical. If not thoroughly dry when 
placed in the kilns, the carbonization of the wood is 
automatically deferred, by the absorption of the heat 
in the evaporation of the sap and other moisture, until 
the seasoning process is complete. This seasoning com- 
mences at the top of the kilns and proceeds regularly 
downward, by a definite plane of seasoning. When 
this plane reaches the bottom and the seasoning is com- 
plete, which is indicated by a sudden change in the 
color of the escaping vapors, the process of charring 
begins at the top and proceeds downward precisely like 
the seasoning process. 

The watery vapors driven off during seasoning are 
not preserved, but are allowed to escape through vents 
temporarily left open around the base of the kilns and 
through the top of the kiln chimneys, which, during 
this stage, are open at the top, but which, .so soon as 
the watery vapor has escaped, are connected with a 
suction main. The time required for the several stages 
in the cycle of operations in producing a kiln of char- 
coal is as follows: 

Days. 

For charging one kiln with wood 2 

For completing the seasoning of the wood 1 

For carbonizing the wood 7 

For cooling the charcoal 6 

For drawing the charcoal 2 

Total length of cycle 18 

As one 60-ton blast furnace requires 5,000 bushels of 
charcoal daily, or the output of 2 kilns, the total num- 
ber of kilns in a plant to furnish a continual supply of 
fuel must be equal to twice the number of days in a 
C3'cle plus a margin for relays, for repairs, and unusual 
delaj^s; the margin is usually chosen at one-sixth the 
effective number of kilns, so that the total number of 
kilns comprising a plant = 2(18) + 1(36) = 42, of which 
at any one time — 

4 kilns are being charged and closed. 

2 kilns are being seasoned. 
14 kilns are being carbonized. 
12 kilns are being cooled. 

4 kilns are being drawn. 

6 kilns are idle or acting as relays. 

42 



These 42 kilns are arranged in 2 distinct batteries of 
21 kilns each. Each battery has its own condensers and 
suction main carrying the products of distillation to the 
condensers, and its own gas main leading the noncon- 
densable gases back to the kiln furnaces. 

The condensers are composed of tall wooden tanks, 5 
feet square by 20 feet high, through which the products 
of distillation pass, each inclosing 99 vertical copper 
pipes, 2 inches in diameter, through which the condens- 
ing water flows. The condensed products are trapped 
out at the bottom of each condenser, of which 10 com- 
prise a battery, and conveyed to cooling tanks, where 
the tar is separated from the pyrolignepus acid liquor 
by cooling. The tar is used to coat the kilns to render 
them impervious to air, and for this purpose one coating 
of tar suffices for four burnings, while the usual coating 
of lime whitewash has to be repeated after each burn- 
ing. The circulation of the gaseous products through 
the system is maintained bj^ exhaust fans, which draw the 
noncondensed gases through the condensers and force 
them through the gas main back to the kilns, when they 
are injected into the furnaces by a steam jet from a 
one-sixteenth-inch orifice playing in the center of an 
inch nozzle on the gas pipe. The minimum amount of 
air necessary to effect the perfect combustion of the 
gases is admitted through regulating dampei's in the 
front of the furnace. 

From the liquor coolers the pyroligneous acid liquor 
is conveyed to the distilling house, where the acetic 
acid in the liquor is converted into acetate of lime; the 
liquor is then sent to the fractional distillation system, 
which comprises 8 primary stills and condensers, 4 
intermediate stills and condensers, and 2 final or ship- 
ping stills and condensers. The stills are circular tanks 
each holding about 2,500 gallons and are heated by 
steam coils of 2-inch copper pipe. The several stills of 
each of the 3 series are operated abreast. The distilla- 
tion is not carried on continuously, but each series is 
charged and the distillation carried on until all of the 
alcohol available is evaporated, when the stills are 
emptied and recharged with new liquor. The degree 
of concentration attained in each series of stills is as 
follows: 

The liquor entering the primary stills contains IJ per cent of 
alcohol. 

The distillate from the primary stills contains 15 per cent of 
alcohol. 

The distillate from the intermediate stills contains 42 per cent of 
alcohol. 

The distillate from the final stills contains 82 per cent of alcohol. 

The jdelds of products differ with the different works 
and with the different processes employed. According 
to Landreth the yields by the Pierce process with brick 
kilns are as follows: 



DRY WOOD. 


Volume per cord 
of wood. 


Mass per 
cord. 


Per cent. 




50.6bush 

4. 4 gnls 

4. 6 gals 

16.5gals 

220.7gals 

ll,00O.Ocu. ft .... 


1,012 lbs.... 

301bs.... 

40 lbs.... 

160 lbs.... 
1,838 lbs.... 

920 lbs.... 


25.80 


Resulting niethylic alcohol 


0.75 




1 00 


Resulting tarry compounds 


4.00 


Resulting water 


45 95 


Resulting noncondensable gases . . . 


23.00 


Total 




4, 000 lbs. 


100 00 


1 





37 



Thoujfli I t'ttctory reports as high as 12.93 gallons of 
ulcohol per cord of wood, yet the yields from the retort 
and ovon processes average about 10 gallons of alcohol, 
200 pounds of acetate of lime, and 50 bushels of charcoal 
per cord of wood in addition to the pas, tar, and chemical 
oil, all of which uic burned. The yield of brown acetate 
of lime is about one-third larger than that of gray. As 
has been said, where retorts are used much of the charcoal 
is burned. Where coal is used, four-tenths of the char- 
coal produced is burned under the retorts. Where no 
coal is used six-tenths of the charcoal produced is thus 
con.sumed. In all of the works the whole of the gas, 
tar, and chemical or red oil is burned by the aid of 
steam, but it is probable that investigation will show 
that the tar and red oil are too valuable to be thus con- 
sumed. 

The methyl alcohol is used for domestic fuel, as a 
solvent in varnishes, as a solvent in the manufacture of 
pyro.xylin plastics, in the production of formaldeh3'de, 
in the making of methylated spirit, and in the manu- 
facture of anilin colors. 

The acetate of lime is used for the manufacture of 
acetic acid, acetone, "red liquor," and, when purilied, 
as a mordant in dyeing. 

Acetone is employed in the manufacture of chloro- 
form, iodoform, and sulphonal, for denaturating grain 
alcohol, in making smokeless powder, and as a siolvent 
in sevei'al of the arts. 

A complete treatment of the wood distillation industry 
should include the production of turpentine, rosin, and 
tar by the distillation of the wood of the long-leaved 
pine, but this is made the subject of special report No. 
12t), issued January 11, 1902, entitled '"Turpentine and 
Rosin." 

The factories for the production of the crude prod- 
ucts of this industry must be located near an abundant 
supply of hard wood and where there is a suiEcient sup- 
ply of water for cooling the condensers and charging 
the steam-generating boilci-s, this steam being employed 
in distilling the liquors, evaporating the acetate solu- 
tions, drying the acetate, and operating the pumps by 
which the liquors are raised from one level to another. 
In some cases, however, the acetate pans are placed 
over the retorts so that the heat radiated from them 
may be usefully employed. The total amount of wood 
reported as consumed in this industry for 1900 was 
490,939 cords, having a value of $1,241,972, which gives 
an average value for it of $2.53 per cord as laid down 
at the works. Assuming one man to average one and 
one-half cords of wood per day, the cutting of the wood 
u-sed would give employment to 3,273 men for one hun- 
dred days each. Comparing this total quantity of wood 
reported with the totsd quantities of crude wood alco- 
hol, acetate of lime, and charcoal the average yields per 
cord of wood for all processes are found to he 10 gal- 
lons of alcohol. 176 pounds of acetate of lime, and 35 
bushels of charcoal. 



It is alleged in the "trade" that the importations of 
acetate of lime into the United States before the intro- 
duction of the by-product processes amounted to as 
much as 3,0<M>.(J<X) pounds annually. The only statis- 
tics di.scoverable in the records of the Treasury Depart- 
ment relative to this, is that in 1880 there were 38,0<X) 
pounds imported, having a value of $76. On the other 
hand, the following table, compiled from "The Foreign 
Commerce and Navigation of the United States for the 
Year Ending June 30, 1900," shows that the United 
States is exporting large quantities of both acetate of 
lime and wood alcohol: 

EXPORTS, WOOD ALCOHOL AND ACETATE OF LIME: 
1898 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 





WOOD AI/OOHOL. 


ACITATK or LIIfB. 




Gallons. 


Value. 


Poonda. 


Value. 


Total 


1,663,799 


(934,411 


m,274,5« 


12,014,269 




1898 


386,938 
727,062 
640,799 


199,230 

414,875 
320,306 


37,496,288 
48,987,511 
47,790,765 


637,866 
700,900 
776,413 


1899 


1900 





From the same source is the following record of 
imports of charcoal and pyroligneous acid: 

IMPORTS, CHARCOAL: 1891 to 1898, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Value. 


1891 


$56,020 
48,029 
61,634 
40,249 


1895 


120,272 

42,970 

82,106 

2,404 


1892 


1896 


1893 


1897 


1894 


1898 







IMPORTS, FOR CONSUMPTION, ACETIC OR PYROLIG- 
NEOUS ACID: 1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 


10,946 
12,280 
18,421 
22,244 
92,889 


tl.036 
2,302 
2 795 


1892 


1893 


1894 


3.959 
8,938 


1895 


1896 


1897 






1898 


127.949 
202.838 
292,891 


9,776 
14.467 
19,189 


1899 


1900 ---- 







LITERATCRB. 

Acetic Acid, Chemistry of Arts and Manufactures, by Sheridan 
Muspratt, Vol. 1, 1-48. 1860. 

The Economical Production.of Charcoal for Blast Furnace Pur- 
poses, by O. H. Landreth, Proc. A. A. A. S., 27, 145-151. 1888. 

Outlines of Industrial Chemistry, by F. H. Thorp: New York, 
1898. 

Handbook of Industrial Chemistry, S. P. Sadtler: Philadelphia, 
1895. 

The Distillation of Pine Wood in the South, by Franklin S. Clark, 
School of Mines Quarterly, 9, 16S-166. 1888. 

Charcoal Production and Recovery of By-Products, by Consul- 
Gen. Frank H. Mason, U. S. Consular Reports, 66, S5S-S61. 1901. 

The Manufacture of Charcoal in Kilns, by T. Egleston, Trans. 
Amer. Inst, of Mining Engineers, May, 1879. 



38 



The Composition of Wood Oil, G. S. Fraps, Amer. Chem. Jour., 
25, S6-54. 1901. 

Commercial Organic Analysis, Alfred H. Allen, revised by Henry 
Leffmann, 3d ed., Vol. 1: Philadelphia, 1898. 

Group VIII. Fertilizers. 

The term "fertilizer," as used in this report, includes 
all manufactured products which are intended to pro- 
mote the growth of plants and which can be, and 
customarily are, so used without needing any further 
factory treatment. Under this definition raw phosphate 
rock, even if finely ground, can hardly be included, 
nor can crude cottonseed, ordinary tankage, nor un- 
ground bone. All of these have fertilizing properties, 
but require further treatment, usuall}- chemical, if the 
full effect is to be economically obtained. The term 
"fertilizer works" should, strictly speaking, be con- 
fined to establishments producing "finished fertilizers," 
such as superphosphate, with or without ammoniates; 
"complete fertilizers," by which is meant a mixture of 
superphosphate with both potash and ammoniates; and 
"all other fertilizers," including bone meal and similar 
substances. But under the principle governing the 
classification of industries at the census of 1900 there 
can be included in fertilizer works all factories of 
which the main product, though not a finished ferti- 
lizer, was, nevertheless, a fertilizer material — say, 
tankage — in a condition of advanced manufacture, such 
products being included in "all other fertilizers." 

The total number of establishments thus classified as 
fertilizer works, and forming Class A, is 422. In addi- 
tion there are 18 small establishments, each of which 
reported a value, for all products, of less than $500, 
and hence are not included in the regular census tabula- 
tions. As the total fertilizer product of the 18 estab- 
lishments amounted to but 46 tons of complete fertilizer, 
valued at $1,047, and 213 tons of "all other fertilizers," 
valued at $3,489, it will be seen that the omission to 
tabulate establishments under $500 is of small conse- 
quence. J 

Under Cla.ss B are included 10 establishments whose 
main product places them in some one of the 19 groups 
of " chemical industries," but which made more or less 
fertilizers as a subordinate, though sometimes very 
important, part of the product. The total fertilizer 
product of this class amounted to superphosphate, tons 
1,810, value $20,417; complete fertilizer, tons 17,707, 
value $350,077; and " all other fertilizers," tons 7,983, 
value $98,510. 

Class C includes 28 works, none of which belongs 
to " chemical industries," yet at which were made a 
certain amount of fertilizers. The importance of 
taking this class into consideration, if a full presenta- 
tion of the industry is desired, is evident, since the 
total product of this class was superphosphate, tons 
12,000, value $100,000; ammoniated superphosphate, 
tons 750, value $13,500; complete fertilizer, tons 



24,391, value $521,825; and "all other fertilizers," 
tons 27,409, value $443,147. 

Class D includes such by-products of "slaughtering 
and meat packing," "garbage reduction," "glue," and 
similar industries as were reported as "fertilizers." 
So far as known, such materials are bones, bone tank- 
age, ammoniates, and the like, utilized in the prepara- 
tion of ammoniated and complete fertilizers. While 
included here for the sake of completeness, it must be 
remembered that the amounts and values of these prod- 
ucts, as well as those of Class C, are elsewhere reported 
in the census tables of their respective industries, and 
their presence here is a not unnoticed duplication. Of 
this class, 10 " garbage-reduction " works produced such 
materials aggregating 17,809 tons, value $256,322, while 
the report for "slaughtering and meat packing" gives 
"fertilizers," tons 160,962, value $3,326,119, and "glue" 
gives tons 15,942, value $331,268, a total of 204,713 
tons, and a value of $3,913,709. 

Included in "all other fertilizers" is fish scrap, the 
residue after the oil is pressed out of the fish, amount- 
ing to 27,035 tons, of a reported value of $448,602, in 
addition to which certain establishments made 1,942 
tons which were consumed in works in making ferti- 
lizers. The fish oil reported from the 25 establish- 
ments engaged in this industry amounted to 1,135,264 
gallons, valued at $222,929. The returns of scrap and 
oil per thousand fish, the customaiy unit of measure, 
naturally vary considerablj', according to the condition 
of the fish, whether fat or lean, the lean fish yielding 
little oil in proportion to the scrap. In one case of a 
large and well-managed factory having good fish, the 
yield per thousand fish was given as 4.17 gallons of oil 
and 185 pounds of scrap, while another large works, 
having very lean fish, reported a yield of only 1.87 
gallons of oil and but 140 pounds of scrap. The general 
average for all reports was, 2.98 gallons of oil and 
149.2 pounds of scrap per thousand fish. After the 
scrap leaves the press in which the oil is expressed, it 
must be protected from decomposition, as this not only 
produces a local nuisance but results in serious pecu- 
niary loss. In one case where 500 tons of good scrap 
were valued at $10,000, 500 tons of decomposed scrap 
were valued at only $3,000. In order to prevent this 
decomposition the laws of several states, for example, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, require that the daily 
output of scrap shall be sprinkled with sulphuric acid, 
as this prevents the lighting of flies upon it and the 
consequent development of maggots. When acid is so 
used, finely ground phosphate is often mixed with the 
scrap before shipment, thus taking up the excess of 
acid and hindering the rotting of the bags in which the 
scrap is shipped. 

The use of fish as a fertilizer was known to the abo- 
rigines of New England before the arrival of the whites, 
since it is stated in the records of the Plymouth colony 
that Squantum, a friendly Indian^ showed the colonists 



39 



how to manuro their corn b\- putting a fish into each 
hill. It would seem, therefore, that the colonists were 
ignonint of the fertilizin<,' valuo of fish, which is rather 
surprising, since the value of barnyard manure has been 
known since a very early period in the history of agri- 
culture, and marl, a phosphatic lime earth, was used in 
England, at least, prior to this i)eriod. It is possible, 
however, that the value of marl was considered to lie in 
its improving the physical condition of the soil rather 
than as furnishing any plant food, as the advantage of 
mixing clay with sandy soils or sand with clayey soils 
■was known to the Romans. 

As soon as the true action of fertilizers became known, 
it was seen that the presence of grease or oil in a ferti- 
lizer wa.s harmful, as hindering the conversion of the 
fertilizing ingredients into the soluble forms into which 
they must pass before they can be assimilated by the 
plant. Hence by extracting the oil from fish a valuable 
substance was obtained and the residue of scrap became 
more quickly cfllicient. The same thing occurs in the 
cottonseed industry, the oil and "linters," valuable for 
other purposes, containing very little fertilizer material, 
while the cake and hulls are in much better condition 
for utilization as feed or fertilizer than in their original 
condition as part of the seed. 

Little is known about the beginnings of the fish-oil 
industry, but it is stated that the HerreshofTs, of Rhode 
Island, were making fish oil and .sci^ap as early as 1863. 
The fish generally used for this purpose is the menhaden 
or mossbunker, which appears on the Atlantic coasts in 
the summer in large schools and is a very oily fish, in 
no demand for edible purposes. The number reported 
as caught during the cen.sus year is 4:58,963,200, and 
3'ielded the quantities of oil and scrap noted above. 

The most available statistics of this industry are 
those given by Eugene G. Blackford in One Hundi'ed 
Years of American Industr}', 1895, page 394. These 
are here presented with the .stati.stics derived from 
reports classified at the census of 1900 as chemical 
industries, group "fertilizers," and may therefore not 
include all of the reports received from this indu.stry. 
It is believed, however, that the showing Ls substan- 
tially complete, although the figures show an enormous 
reduction in capital invested and number of men 



employed, from the figures given for 1894. It is tme 
that in some ca.ses where complete fertilizers are also 
made, the men reported as employed are tho.se engaged 
at the factory only, tho.se employed in fishing tieing 
represented only by the cost of the fish as covering 
wages, supplies, and maintenance of ve.s.Hels. Still the 
total capital, $497,760, bears a fair relation to total 
value of product, which is $703,866, made up of oil, 
$222,929; scrap sold, $448,602; and .scrap u.sed in works, 
1,942 tons, of a calculated value of $32,237; and the 
general statistical position of the industry bears out 
the statements of some of those engaged in the 
industry to the effect that in 1900 there was little profit 
in it. 

MENHADEN INDUSTRY, SEASONS OF 1874, 1880, 1890, 
1894, AND 1900. 



YEAB. 


Fac- 
to- 
ries. 


Sail 
ves- 
sels. 


Steam- 
ers. 


Hen 
em- 
ployed. 


Capital 
Invested. 


Nnmber of 
flsh caught. 


Gallons 
ofoH 
made. 


Tons 

of 
scrap. 


1874 

1880 

1890 

1894 

1900 


64 
79 
28 
44 
25 


283 
366 
27 
30 


25 
82 
52 
57 


2,438 
3,261 
4,368 
2,560 
500 


r2, 500, 000 

2,550,000 

1,750,000 

1,737,000 

497,760 


492,878.000 
776,000,000 
.5.53,686,1.56 
540,361,900 
458,963,200 


3,372,847 
2,035,000 
2,939,217 
l,9i9.Sul> 
1,135,264 


50,976 
19,195 
21,173 
27,782 
28,977 












"Slaughtering and meat packing" furnishes a large 
quantity of fertilizer materials, becau.se, in the large 
packing establishments of the present day nothing util- 
izable is allowed to go to waste. The blood is carefully 
collected and dried, making a high-priced ammoniate, 
and the gelatin, glue, grease, etc., of the horns, hoofs, 
and other bones and other offal extracted. The residues 
from this part of the work are sold as bones, tankage 
(which is meat ofl'al dried and ground), and as "bone 
tankage" (which is tankage containing bone fragments). 
Dried blood, tankage, and all of the like materials, 
which are called "ammoniates," are valuable by-prod- 
ucts of the packing industry, and are the most expen- 
sive constituents of a complete fertilizer. 

The final aggregate of the reported amounts and val- 
ues of the fertilizer products for 1900 from all sources 
so far as found, superphosphate and other products 
made but consumed in the works in the making of mixed 
fertilizers not being included, is as follows: 



FERTILIZER PRODUCTS: KINDS, QUANTITY, AND VALUE, 1900. 





Number 

ofertab- 

Itsb- 

ments. 


RDPBRPHOePBATE. 


AHMOMIATED 8CPEB- 
PHOSPHATI. 


COMPLBTE FEETILIZEK. 


ALL OTBXR FKBTIU- 




Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tods. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


ClassA 


422 
18 
10 
28 


923,198 


<8, 471, 943 


142,898 


12,349,388 


1,436,682 

46 

17,707 

24,8*1 


825,446,046 

1,W7 

850,077 

S21.82S 


291,917 

213 

7,983 

27,409 


(t, 178, 284 


Under fMO 


3,489 


ClassB 


> i,8i6 

12,000 


20,417 
100,000 






96,510 


ClassC 


750 


13,500 


443,147 






Total 


478 


987,006 


8,592.860 


143,648 


2,362,888 


1,478,826 


26,318,>95 


837,922 
204,718 


4,728,480 


Class D 


8,918,709 


















Pinal total 


478 


987,008 


8,592,860 


148,648 


2,462,888 


1,478,828 


26,318,995 


632,285 


8,637,139 







40 



The total product, by classes, is as follows: 





Tons. 


Value. 


Class A 


2, 794, 695 

259 

27,500 

64,550 


$40,445,661 

4,536 

469,004 

1,078,472 


Under $500 




Class C 






Total 


2,887,0(M 
204,713 


42,097,673 
3,913,709 


Class D 




Final total 


3,091,717 


46,011,382 





The total number of establishments in Classes A, B, 
and C, the only ones which can properly be denominated 
fertilizer works, is 476. This shows a considerable 
increase — 392 — over the figures for the census of 1890 
but falls short of the estimates for 1898 made by the 
author of "The Fertilizer Industry."' The estimated 
number given by him, is "about 700." It is evident 
that this figure was too high, because while the busi- 
ness, as a whole, has much increased, the tendency, 
as in all other branches of manufacture, is to concen- 
trate the industry into the hands of larger companies 
or combinations, who by reason of greater facilites 
in, and control of, the market can, if necessary, un- 
dersell competitors and work on a closer margin of 
profit. The author of the interesting bulletin, just noted 
complains of the indifference, even " positive unwilling- 
ness of manufacturers to furnish the information de- 
sired." The experience of the Census Office with this 
group has been much more satisfactory. With but one 
exception, every establishment that was reached, either 
by the field force or by correspondence, endeavored to 
give a correct statement of the operations. From the 
large combinations and firms, reports were often re- 
ceived which were most valuable, and offers of any fur- 
ther information which might be needed. In other cases 
the reports, owing to the deficiencies of a hastih' a.ssem- 
bled field force were sometimes unsatisfactory, but cor- 
respondence brought the information, if existing. In 
the case of the positive refusal above mentioned, a little 
local inquiry enabled us to construct a satisfactory report, 
because the nature, quantity, and value of the product 
of the establishment were known, and from correct 
reports from establishments in the vicinity the quantities 
of ingredients and their cost could be fairly estimated. 
Such editing work must be done with great caution if 
the results are to have real value, and it is satisfactory 
to be able to state that, owing to the cheerful coopera- 
tion of manufacturers, such work has been reduced to 
a minimum. 

"Fertilizers" appears as a special item for the first 
time in the census report for 1860. The condition of 
the indu.str}' then and its growth since are shown by 
the following comparison, the percentage of gain for 
each decade over the preceding one being also given: 

' Miscellaneous Bulletin No. 13, United States Department of 
.Agriculture, 1898, page 5. 



FERTILIZER MANUFACTURE, BY DECADES: 1860 TO 1900. 



YBAE. 


Number 
01 estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Per cent 

of 
increase. 


Product 

(tons). 


Per cent 

of 
increase. 


Value. 


Per cent 

of 
Increase. 


1860 


47 
126 
278 
392 

478 








8891,344 
5,815,118 
19,921,400 
86,519,841 
41,997,673 




1870 


i68 
120 
41 
21 






552 


1880 


727,458 
1,898,806 
2,887,004 






1890 


161 

52 


78 


1900 


18 



These figures are fairly in accordance with what is 
otherwise known of the history of the development of 
this industry. Of the 422 establishments in Class A 
only 7 stated that the}' manufactured fertilizers prior to 
1860, 3 of these being in Baltimore, Md., where, so far 
as is known, the manufacture of fertilizers began. In 
1840 Liebig published his classical researches on plant 
nutrition, in which he assei'ted that "the food of all 
vegetation is composed of inorganic or mineral sub- 
stances." This was contrary to the then prevailing 
view, which was that the humus of the soil was the sup- 
port of plant life, the mineral substances, the ash of the 
plant, being considered of subordinate importance. 
The researches of Wiegman and Polstorf showed, how- 
ever, that a luxuriant plant growth could be obtained 
by planting the seeds in soil which had, by burning, 
been deprived of the last trace of humus or other 
.organic matter, and then watering them with dilute 
solutions of the needed inorganic salts. Other investi- 
gators continued this line of research, and a rational 
agriculture was then developed. It was found that a 
plant derives its carbon from the air directly- by means 
of its leaves, and also, but in a minor degree, through its 
roots by the absorption of water containing carbonic 
acid. On the other hand, while the plant can to a small 
extent supply its demand for nitrogen from the ammonia 
of the atmosphere by means of its leaves, this supply 
is quite inadequate for healthy growth. The deficiency, 
as also the demand for mineral salts, must be supplied 
through the roots. As these can only take up such 
substances when dissolved in water, it follows that not 
only the nitrogen which is taken up by the plant must 
be in soluble forms which are now considered to be 
nitrates, which are always soluble, but also the mineral 
constituents such as phosphoric acid, silica, lime, pot- 
ash, iron, etc., must be in forms soluble in water to be 
available for the nourishment of the plant. 

The importance of phosphoric acid being early 
recognized, the manufacture of superphosphate began. 
According to Kerl the fir.st scientifically planned ferti- 
lizer works in Germany were erected in 1860. A letter 
from Dr. II. W. L. Rasin, of Baltimore, states that — 

The manufacture of chemical fertilizers in the United States 
began about 1850. In that year Dr. P. S. Chappell, and Mr. William 
Davison, of Baltimore, made some fertilizer in an experimental 
way. About the same time Professor Mapes was experimenting. 
Later De Burg utilized the spent bone black derived from the 
sugar refineries and made quite a quantity of "dissolved bone black" 



41 



(guperphodphate). In 1863 or 1864 Mr. P. 8. Chappell commenced 
thp manufafture of fertilizerti, as dirt B. M. Rhodes, both of Balti- 
more. In 1866 Mr. John Kettlewell, recognizinK tlie fact tliat 
Peruvian guano (then becoming quite popular), and containing at 
that time 18 to 21 per cent of ammonia, waa too Htimulating and 
deficient in plant foo<l (phosphates), conceived the idea of manip- 
ulating the Mexican guano, containing no ammonia but 60 to 60 
pert-ent of (bone) phosphate of lime, and called his preparation 
"Kettlewell's manipulated guano." 

While in I85« the salcM of I'eruvian guano had increased to 60,000 
tons and of Mexican guano to some 10,000 tons, there was not at 
that date 20,000 tons of artificial fertilizers manufactured in the 
entire country. Baltimore waa not only the pioneer but the prin- 
cipal market for fertilizers until some time after the Civil War. 
The 50,000 tons of Peruvian guano referred to was bought and sold 
in this market, and there was little demand for that or the Mexican 
guano in any other market unless the inspection brand of the guano 
inspector of Baltimore was upon the package. The Peruvian Gov- 
ernment agent, who received and disposed of all importations, was 
locatefl here, an<l all other markets were supplied from Baltimore. 
At that time no fertilizers were sold west of Pennsylvania. 

Owing to the exhaustion of the sources of supply the 
importation of guano has ahnost ceased. In 1900 but 
1,150 tons, value $15,543, were imported frotn Peru, 
the total amount of guano imported being 4,756 tons, 
value $56,956. Much of this is, however, pi-actically 
phosphate rock, requiring chemical treatment before 
using. The original guano of Peru was produced from 
the excrements and remains of sea birds deposited upon 
islands in a vexy arid region. Its agricultural value 
was well known to the ancient Peruvians, whose wise 
laws forbade the killing or molestation of the birds. 
Owing to the scarcity of rain the ammoniacal salts devel- 
oped in the deposits remained in the guano, while in 
less arid regions the soluble salts were leached out, and 
where the underlying rock was a limestone this became 
altered to a certain depth, becoming a more or less pure 
tricalcic phosphate, usually called bone phosphate of 
lime. The guanos of Sombrero, of Navassa, and of 
many other places are examples, and all require chem- 
ical treatment. 

The importation of phosphate rock for 1900 amounted 
to 110,065 tons, value $504,092, coming mainly from 
Germany and Spain. The term ''phosphorite" is used 
to cover all of the varieties of phosphate rock which 
range from the crystallized apatite of Canada to the 
comparatively amorphous rock of South Carolina, but 
was originally applied to the fibrous phosphate from 
Estremadura, Spain, which occurs in large quantities 
and is extensively exported. The German phosphate 
from the Lahn region and other places is usually con- 
cretionary in appearance. This concretionary .structure 
is very characteristic of phosphorites, as shown in many 
jjlaces in Florida and in the so-called eoprolites of 
England and other localities. 

By treating phosphate rock or bones with sulphuric 
acid, superphosphate or acid phosphate is formed. The 
works making thi.s, mix more or less of it with ammoni- 
ates, or potash or both, producing the various grades 
of ammoniated superphosphate, superphosphates with 



potash, or complete fertilizer. The remainder i» sold 
a.s such, being bought by establishments that make 
various mixtures to suit local demands, while a very 
large quantity goes directlj" into con.sumption, being 
bought by farmers, who make their own composts. 

Of the 422 fertilizer works belonging to Cla.ss A, 76 
made sulphuric acid. The total quantity of acid thus 
made amounted to 642,938 tons of chamber acid of 50° 
Baume, of which 571,831 tons were consumed by the 
works producing it in making superphosphates, while 
the remainder, 71,107 tons, was .sold elsewhere mainly 
as chamber acid, only 5,360 tons being concentrated to 
higher strengths before sale. Thirty acid-making 
works did not make enough for their own demand and 
supplied the deficiency from other sources. In Cla.s.ses 
B and C, 3 works made 12,028 tons of 50° acid and con- 
sumed it in making superphosphate, making a total of 
583,859 tons thus made and consumed by 79 works. 

Of the 478 works producing fertilizers, 76 made 
superphosphate, but purchased the needed acid, while 
208 bought the superphosphate; in each ca.se the final 
product sold was mixed fertilizers. The remaining 
works, 115 in number, as well as all of Class D, pro- 
duced the fertilizer materials above mentioned and 
placed under "all other fertilizers." In so far a.s any 
of these products are purchased by other fertilizer 
works and used in making mixed fertilizers, the quan- 
tities and values of such purchases reappear in the 
mixed fertilizers, and to that extent there, is a duplica- 
tion. The extent of this duplication can only be esti- 
mated, since a considerable quantity of the products 
included in "all other fertilizers" consists of bone meal 
and other substances, which are used for composting or 
put on the land without further treatment. On the 
other hand, it is certain that "all other fertilizers" —tons 
532,235, value $8,637, 139— falls far short, both in quan- 
tity and value, of the real production of such materials. 
For example, the establishments under Class A report 
using 37,868 tons of cottonseed meal, and those in Class 
C, 3,608 tons, a total of 41,476 tons. These figures 
evidently represent only a fraction of the amounts 
actualh' used for fertilizer puiposes, since the total 
product of cotton seed meal for 1900 was 884,391 tons, 
value $16,030,576, a very large proportion of which, 
amounting to 638,638 tons, was used in composting, as 
shown by the large qiiantity of superphosphate which 
goes into consumption as such. 

The figures for superphosphate, ammoniated super- 
phosphate, and complete fei'tilizer are quite close to the 
truth, as an examination of the complete returns will 
show. The total quantity of superphosphates reported 
as made and sold as such by all of the classes A, B, and 
C is 937,008 tons. The quantity of supeiphosphate pur- 
chased for mixing purposes is, for Class A, 286,918 tons; 
Class B, 240 tons; Cla.ss C, 9,402 tons; a total of 296,560 
tons. Deducting this from the total, 937,008 tons, leaves 
the residue of 640,448 tons which was sold as such to 



42 



the ultimate consumer. To this amount must be added 
the superphosphate in the mixed fertilizers to obtain 
the total quantity pi'oduced for the census year. The 
returns show great variations in the proportions of 
superphosphate in the products of the various estab- 
lishments, but comparisons show that ammoniated 
superphosphate will average 70 per cent of superphos- 
phate and complete fertilizer 50 per cent, giving the 
following result: 

Superphosphate, sold as such, total tons 937, 008 

Superphosphate, purchased, total tons 296, 560 

Difference, equals finally consumed as such, tons 640, 448 

In ammoniated sujierphosphate, 70 per cent of 143,648 

tons 100, 553 

In complete fertilizer, 50 per cent of 1,478,826 tons 739, 413 

Total superphosphate produced, tons 1, 480, 414 

The total product of superphosphate may also be 
ascertained from the amount of sulphuric acid reported 
as being used in its manufacture. Comparison of the 
returns at the census of 1900 fully confirms the current 
statement that in making superphosphate from a stand- 
ard phosphate such as South Carolina rock the practice 
is to mix equal weights of phosphate and chamber acid. 
Reaction at once sets in, the mixture becoming quite 
hot and giving off vapors consisting of steam and vola- 
tile ingredients of the phosphate, such as carbon diox- 
ide, fluorine, and chlorine. This volatilization loss 
amounts, for South Carolina rock, to 10 per cent of the 
total weight of the ingredients. ■ Other phosphates, such 
as high-grade Florida rock, bones, etc., will of course 
require other proportions of acid and the volatilization 
loss will also differ, but the general average of all returns 
shows that every ton, 2,000 pounds, of phosphatic 
material required 2,000 pounds of chamber acid, lost 
10 per cent, 400 pounds, by volatilization, and yielded 
3,600 pounds of superphosphate. Taking all of the sul- 
phuric acid reported as consumed in works and that 
purchased the results are as follows: 



Class A . 
■Class B . 
Class C . 



SULPHURIC ACID. 



Con- 
sumed 
(tons). 



571, 831 
5,028 
7,000 



Total 

Add total, consumed . 



583,859 



Total acid used 

Add phosphate rock, equal amount. 



Deduct 10 per cent loss 

Total superphosphate produced, tons. 



Purchased 

(tons). 



231,528 
268 
200 



231,996 
683,859 



815, 855 
815,855 



1,631,710 
163, 171 



1,468,539 



Comparing the final quantitj^ with that reported 
above, namely, 1,480,414 tons, the difference is found 
to be only 11,875 tons, or 0.80 per cent. This agree- 



ment is surprisingly close, since, under the conditions, 
a much larger difference would have been sufficient to 
demonstrate the general correctness of the returns. 

The quantity of phosphate rock estimated above as 
used is 815,855 tons. Class A reported the purchase of 
806,445 tons; Class B, 4,810 tons, and Class C, 7,700 
tons; a total of 818,955 tons, or a difference of only 3,100 
tons. This close agreement is, however, only fortuitous. 
Many of the larger works undoubtedly had more or less 
phosphate rock in stock at the beginning and end of 
the census year, and it is not always clear that the 
quantity reported is the amount actually used or only 
that which was purchased during the year. A part of 
the superphosphate estimated above as contained in the 
mixed fertilizers was made from bones, spent bone- 
black, and other materials, but how much can not be 
ascertained, because, although Class A reported the 
consumption of 96,679 tons of l)ones, part of this was 
used to make boneblack, part was disposed of as bone 
meal, and part mixed with the compounded fertilizers 
without any special addition of acid. Again, part of 
the tankage bought by the works is " bone tankage," 
containing considerable quantities of crushed bone, so 
that it is ijnpossible to determine how uuich of the acid 
used actually went to make bone superphosphate. 

Examination of the reports shows that only a com- 
paratively small quantity of " concentrated phosphate" 
is made, although it would seem that there ought to 
be a considerable demand for this product which is so 
largely made in England, France, and Germany. It is 
made bj' treating pho.sphate rock with an amount of 
sulphuric acid sufficient to entirely decompose it, con- 
verting all of the lime into sulphate, allowing this to 
settle, and drawing off the solution of phosphoric acid. 
" The solution is then evaporated in lead pans to a 
density of 45° Baume, at which strength the solution 
contains nearl}^ 45 per cent PjOg. During this concen- 
tration the iron and aluminum phosphates separate and 
are removed. The strong solution of phosphoric acid 
is then treated with finely ground phosphate rock to 
form mono-calcium phosphate, which is dried and dis- 
integrated."' 

The phosphoric acid solution may be made from any 
form of phosphate, and low-grade material too poor for 
the manufacture of superphosphate can be used for this 
purpo.se. The phosphate rock added in the second 
stage of the process should, however, be high grade, if 
the best results are to be attained. For this reason, 
the Florida rock which contains up to 80 per cent or 
more of phosphate is mainly shipped abroad to supply 
the foreign demand for this purpose, while our own 
manufacturers, making only ordinary superphosphate, 
mainlj- use South Carolina rock containing about 60 per 
cent phosphate. The manufacture of superphosphate 
from South Carolina rock is a much simpler process and 

'Thorp, Outline of Industrial Chemistry, page 144; 1898. 



43 



the product is o satisfactory one, although its contents 
in soliiMo phosphoric acid is low. ranginj; from 2(1 to 24 
per cent as compared with concentrated phospiiate or 
"double super," which may contain up to 47 per cent. 
The further development of this industry in this 
countiy will depend uj)on transportation conditions as 
well as upon the advance of agricultural knowledge, 
but it would seem that there is a field for tnis worlx in 
the i)hos])hate regions where much poor rock occurs 
for which there is no present demand, but which might 



be utilized in the local manufacture of "double super." 
The use of tetrabasi<' phosphate, or slag phosphate, 

appears to have almost completely ceased in the United 

States, while its use is continually extending in Fiurope. 

The reasons assigned for this situation nee<l not be given 

here, but doubtless in time this valuable material will 

assume the importance it deserves. 
The following tabic shows the total fertilizer product 

of the United States, arranged geographically: 



44 



FERTILIZERS, PRODUCTS, BY STATES, 





STATES. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


TOTAL. 


SUPEEPHOSPHATE. 




Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Per cent 
of prod- 
uct. 


Per cent 
of value. 


Value 
per ton. 


1 


United States 


478 


2,887,004 


842,097,673 


937,008 


$8,592,360 


32.5 


20.4 


89.17 




North Atlantic division 


•? 


165 


685,893 


11,978,666 


139,232 


1, 316, 208 


20.3 


11.0 


9.45 




Maine 


s 


3 
10 

9 
37 
30 
66 

198 


1,828 
83,733 
11,077 
164,266 
247,144 
177,845 

1,531,688 


27,902 
2,108,675 
313,610 
2,610,435 
3,820,189 
3,097,956 

19,462,816 












4 


Massachusetts . . 


1,282 


12,820 


1.5 


0.6 


10.00 


f, 




a 


New York 


9,810 
108, 168 
22,978 

622,614 


105,645 
887, 470 
310,273 

5,302,997 


6.0 
42.6 
12.9 

40.7 


4.0 
23.2 
10.0 

27.3 


10.77 
8.44 
13.89 

8. ,52 


7 




8 


Pennsylvania 


ft 






Delaware 


10 


11 
42 

42 
20 
24 
45 
7 

63 


49,942 
386,133 

3,859 
258,474 
139,682 
388, ,572 
278, 982 
26,144 

258,726 


634,213 
5,213,926 

76,480 
3, 326, ,542 
1, 727, 270 
4,6.57,275 
3.331,469 
496, 642 

4,349,157 


2,386 
124, 6% 


28,250 
1,178,367 


4.8 
32.3 


4.8 
22.6 


11.84 
9.45 


n 




1? 


District of Columbia . . . 


13 


Virginia 


120,633 
60,820 
173. 183 
131,803 
9,394 

62,946 


1,024,893 

497,397 

1,404,669 

1,076,681 

93,940 

814,300 


46.7 
43.6 
44.6 
47.1 
35.9 

-24.3 


30.8 
28.8 
30.2 
32.3 
18.9 

18.7 


8.49 
8.17 
8.12 
8.17 
10.00 

12.93 


14 


North Carolina 


1ft 




16 


Georgia 


17 


Florida 


18 


North Central division . ... 




Ohio 


1ft 


28 
12 
16 
4 
3 

39 


103,814 
1(M,120 

11,668 
8,753 

30,371 

362,778 


1,. 562, 638 

1,842,300 

238,161 

166,115 

549,943 

6, 053, .564 


24,72,'i 
26,108 
365 
2,766 
8,978 

110, 649 


288,698 
313,850 
10,006 
44,248 
160,498 

1,140,376 


23.8 
26.1 
3.1 
31.6 
29.6 

31.4 


18.3 
17.0 
4.2 
28.3 
29.2 

22.8 


11.56 
, 12.02 
27.41 
16.00 
17.11 

10.30 


W 


Illinois 


71 


Indiana 


?? 




?3 


Kansas 


94 








?S 


4 

6 

21 

3 

6 

9 


17,818 
93,054 
139, 282 
37,704 
65,423 

22, 131 


295, ,520 

1,464,788 

1,944,283 

492, 772 

856,201 

636,687 












?B 


Tennessee 


35, 969 

38,246 

7,200 

29,244 


456,868 
369,887 
50,400 
263,821 


38.6 
27.6 
19.1 
44.7 


31.2 
19.0 
10.2 
30.8 


12.70 
9.70 
7.00 
9.00 


77 




78 




?ft 




30 






California 












31 


9 


22,131 


636,687 














All other states' 













•^0 


14 


3.5,788 


616,783 


1,668 


18,479 


4.4 


3.0 


11.80 







'Includes establishments distributed as follows: Iowa, 1; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1; Nebraska, 1; Oregon, 1; Rhode Island, 1; Texas, 2; Washington, 1; West 
Virginia, 2. 



ARRANGED GEOGRAPHICALLY: 1900. 



45 



AinoNIATKD aOFERPHOSPHATI. 


COHPLBTK riKTILIUBI. 


ALL ormn mriLizut. 


=3 


Tom. 


Value. 


Per cent 
o( prod- 
uct. 


Per pent 
of value. 


Value 
per ton. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Per cent 
of prod- 
uct. 


Per cent 
of value. 


Value 
per ton. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Per cent 
of prod- 
uct. 


Per cent 
of value. 


Value 
per ton. 




M8,«8 


», 462, 888 


6.0 


6.9 


117.14 


1,478,826 


•26,818,996 


61.2 


82.6 


•17.79 


827,522 


H 728. 430 


U.» 


U.2 


tU. 42 


1 


21,429 


674,251 


8.1 


4.8 


26.79 


481,521 


8,899,584 


62.9 


74.8 


20.62 


98,711 


1,188,828 


18.7 


9.9 


12.68 


2 












828 
78,171 
7,325 
87,862 
125,839 
131,196 

701,361 


21,602 
1,988,606 
205,931 
1.623,638 
2, 629. ,511 
2, 430. 297 

11,307.083 


45.3 
98.4 

66.1 
58.5 
51.0 
73.9 

45.8 


T7.4 
94.8 
66.7 
62.2 
68.8 
78.5 

58.1 


26.09 
26.44 
28.11 
18.48 
20.90 
18.48 

16.26 


1,000 
4,280 
2,752 

66,294 
8,887 

20,828 

136,052 


6,300 
107,150 

84,679 
542,752 
143,628 
304,114 

1,796,194 


64. 7 
. 6.1 
24.9 
84.8 
3.6 
11.6 

8.9 


22.8 
5.1 
27.0 
20.8 
3.8 
9.8 

9.2 

















25 08 ' ^ 


1,000 
10,300 
7,283 
2,846 

71,661 


23,000 
338.400 
159,880 

68,271 

1,056,542 


9.0 
6.3 
8.0 
1.6 

4.7 


7.3 

13.0 

4.2 

1.7 

6.4 


28.00 
32.85 
21.91 
18.71 

14.74 


80.84 
9.94 
16.22 
14.81 

18.20 


6 
6 
7 
8 

9 












17 180 


WH ms 


34.4 

47.7 
88.4 
41.8 
43.7 
63.5 
37.8 
69.0 

40.7 


60.8 
67.8 
91.3 
51.8 
86.8 
. 67.8 
49.3 
76.0 

43.5 


16.52 
16.21 
20.47 
17.41 
18.08 
16.14 
15. .56 
24.46 

17.95 


80,877 
28,734 
449 
26,713 
14,345 

7,514 
26,60.5 

1,315 

56,683 


822,090 
359,872 
6,680 
407,778 
197, 3W 
105,504 
871,799 
25,167 

1,078,316 


60.8 
7.4 
11.6 
10.8 
10.3 
2.0 
9.5 
6.0 

21.5 


44.8 
6.9 

8.7 
12.3 
11.4 

2.3 
11.2 

5.1 

24.8 


10.61 
12. .52 
14.87 
15.26 
18.75 
14.04 
13.98 
19.13 

19.40 


10 


48,608 


690,671 


12.6 


18.2 


14.21 


184,095 : 2,985.015 
3,410 ■ fi« Km 


11 

1'* 


4,800 
3,400 


72,100 
61,000 


1.7 

2.4 


2.2 
8.0 


16.72 
15.00 


106, 8'28 

61,017 

207, 875 

106,521 

15,435 

105,3,58 


1,820.771 

981,569 

3, 147, 202 

1,641,318 

377, 535 

1,891,260 


13 
14 


1S,SS3 


242,771 


5.5 


7.3 


15.81 


16 


34,840 


565,281 


18.6 


13.0 


16.22 


18 


23,806 

4,160 

27 


880,936 

58,100 

500 


28.0 
4.0 
0.2 


24.4 
3.2 
0.2 


16.00 
14.00 
14.81 


43,861 

48,483 

5,7.50 

2,774 

10,000 

199,609 


700,606 
83.5,335 
116,280 
39,039 
200,000 

8,242,648 


41.8 
41.8 
49.3 
31.7 
33.0 

56.6 


44.8 
45.3 
48.8 
25.0 
36.4 

64.2 


16.21. 
19.21 
20.22 
14.07 
20.00 

16.78 


11,930 
30,379 
5,526 
3,213 
4,535 

27,488 


195,398 
63.5,015 
111,375 
72,828 
63,700 

413,941 


11.8 
29.2 
47.4 
36.7 
14.9 

7.8 


12.8 
34.6 
46.8 

46 7 


16.39 
20.90 
20.16 

09 «7 


19 
20 
21 

09 


6,868 
15,037 


125,745 
256,599 


22.6 
4.3 


22.9 
5.1 


18.38 
17.06 


11.6 14.05 
8.2 16.06 


23 
2t 












17,315 
36,69.5 
92,2.53 
30, ,504 
22,842 

19,570 


295,520 
7W,220 
1,433,3.55 
442.372 
367, 181 

591,187 


100.0 
39.4 
66.2 
80.9 
34.9 

84.4 


100.0 
48.1 
73.7 
89.8 
42.9 

92.9 


17.07 
19.22 
1.5.42 
14.50 
16.07 

. 32.08 










W 












20,400 
6,783 


3M.OO0 
106,341 


21.9 
4.9 


20.8 14.90 
5.5 15.70 


Ofi 


2,000 


35,000 


1.4 


1.8 


17.50 


27 


18,037 
.! 


221,599 


20.0 


25.9 


17.00 


300 
2,561 


3,600 
45,500 


0.5 
11.8 


0.4 12.00 
7.2 17.76 


29 
























19,570 


591,187 


84.4 


92.9 


32.08 


2,561 


45,600 


11.6 


7.2 17.76 


81 














681 


10,215 


1.9 


1.7 


15.02 


21,407 


387,233 


59.8 


62.8 


18.08 


12,132 


200,866 


33.9 


82.6 


16.65 


33 



46 



The establishments of the above table have been 
grouped according to the customary census divisions. 
Of the total product of the United States, 2,887,004; tons, 
valued at $42,097,673, superphosphate, sold as such, 
amounted to 32.5 per cent of quantity, and 20.4 per 
cent of value, the average value per ton being $9.17; 
ammoniated superphosphate, to 5 per cent quantity, 
6.9 per cent value, and $17.14 per ton; complete ferti- 
lizer, 51.2 per cent quantity, 62.5 per cent value, and 
$17.79 per ton; and all other fertilizers, 11.3 per cent 
quantity, 11.2 per cent value, and $14.42 per ton. It 
must be remembered that while the quantities given in 
this table and elsewhere in this report are substantially 
correct, the values given in the reports are in most 
cases far below the market prices, since freight and 
other expenses must be added so that the final price to 
the consumer is very much higher. Moreover, as 
already stated, of the 937,008 tons of superphosphate, 
sold as such, 296,560 tons, or 31.7 per cent, were bought 
by other works and used for making mixed fertilizers, 
leaving 640,448 tons, or 08.4 per cent, which went 
directly into final consumption. At the average value 
of $9.17 per ton, the 296,560 tons would be worth 
$2,719,755, and, from one point of view, might be 
deducted, leaving superphosphate 640,448 tons, valued 
at $5,872,605, and the total product of the country 
2,590,444 tons, valued at $39,377,918. Such a presen- 
tation, while possiblj' nearer the truth as regards ulti- 
mate consumption, would, however, be incorrect in a 
census report of manufactures which deals with capital, 
labor, materials, and products. The production of the 
296,560 tons of superphosphate required capital, labor, 
and materials, and the figures of these demands are 
included in the general tables for this industry. The 
establishments purchasing this mateiial saved the cap- 
ital and labor required to produce it, so that if the 
deduction were made from the product, it would be 
necessary to make a corresponding deduction on the 
other side, which is plainly impossible. 

On examining this table it will be noted that the 
South Atlantic division leads in quantity and value of 
product, the North Atlantic division being second. 
The average fertilit}' of the Atlantic coast states is not 
high, and rational fanning requires the continued appli- 
cation of fertilizer, nmch of it of high grade. The 
general status of agriculture in the various states in 
these two divisions is well shown by the figures. When 
the size of the average farms is small and most of these 
devoted to the growth of vegetables, fruit, and such 
products, as is the case in New England, the fertilizers 
demanded are high priced, as the requirements of the 
soil must be carefully studied and supplied if profits are 
sought. Proceeding southwardly, agriculture is on a 
larger individual scale and of a simpler character, until, 
in the cotton states, we find practically only a single 
market product, requiring a simpler fertilizer, low in 
price, and to be applied with judgment. Any excess of 



fertilizer acts injuriously upon the crop by stimulating 
a growth which can not resist the inevitable drought of 
the region. Moreover, a too liberally stimulated cotton 
plant runs to stems and foliage, with but little fruit, as 
maj' be seen in plants grown in gardens. For conven- 
ience in picking, the cotton plant should not be more 
than 3 feet high, nor more than an average arm's 
length to the center, and the bolls should open nearly 
simultaneously. 

When a plant is grown in the rich soil of a gai'den, 
as is frequently done, for its beauty, it may reach a 
height of seven, eight, or more feet, with corresponding 
diameter, but, while quite beautiful, the yield of cotton 
is comparatively small, and costlj^ to gather. The 
possibilities in cotton culture become evident when it is 
considered that for upland cotton the average yield of 
lint cotton is from 150 to 250 pounds per acre, while 
careful cultivation under favorable weather conditions 
has been known to bring up this yield to 1,000 pounds. 
Indeed, although a yield of 1,500 pounds has never been 
attained, it is the goul which manj" intelligent planters 
consider can be reached by careful selection of seed, 
and proper methods of planting, fertilizing, and tend- 
ing. While it is not ff>asible, here, to make an extended 
comparison between the quantities and values of the 
fertilizers used in the different states in relation to the 
character of the agriculture and products, such a study 
will disclose that, while each state can show poor farm- 
ing, yet in the main, what is done is best suited to local 
conditions so far as understood. The methods which 
maj' enrich a farmer in Massachusetts would impov- 
erish him in South Carolina, while the methods which 
insure a good cotton crop are quite inapplicable to 
truck growing. 

In comparing the various states it will be noted that 
South Carolina leads in quantity of product, 388,572 
tons, while Maryland leads in value, $5,213,925. In 
the jn-oduction of superphosphate, sold as such, South 
Carolina leads with 173,183 tons, valued at $1,404,569, 
Georgia being second with 131.503 tons, and Maryland 
third with 124,696 tons. The Maryland product is, 
however, valued at $1,178,367, thus exceeding the 
Georgia valuation of $1,075,581. In the proportion of 
such superphosphate to the total production of the 
state, Georgia is first as it disposes of 47.1 per cent of 
its total product in this form, and is followed by Vir- 
ginia, Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina, New 
Jersey, and Maryland, in the order given. This large 
sale of superphosphate in these states is due to the 
numerous manipulators who mix special brands for local 
consumption, and also to the demands of farmers for 
home composting. This latter kind of work is natu- 
rally most frequent in the cotton states where the cotton- 
seed and cottonseed cake furnish a large local supply 
of ammoniates, while the extensive truck farming of 
New Jersey and Maryland causes a similar demand. 

The value of the superphosphate per ton ranged from 



47 



$7 in Mississippi to $27.41 in Indiana. The Mississippi 
valuation is very low, the average for the United 
States, $9.17. hpin^j about tlic prict^ for sui)erphosphate 
mado from rock. Tho high viiiiie of this product in 
Indiana and other states of the North Centml division 
is due to its having lun-n made from raw hone and being 
practically an ammoniatod superphosphate. Indeed, 
this value is higher than that given by any state for its 
product of "amnioniated super," with the exception of 
New York, which rates this product at $82.85, the 
average for the United States being only $17.14. In 
the production of "'anunoniatod super," Maryland loads 
all of the states, with a production of 48,()()8 tons, valued 
at $690,671, which is, however, only $14.21 per ton. 

In the production of complete fertilizer South Caro- 
lina leads both in quantity and value, producing 207,875 
tons, valued at $3,147,202, but the value per ton is low, 
$15.14. Leaving out California, the high valuation of 
whose fertilizer, $32.08, is due to the high cost of 
materials, it is found that the North Atlantic division, 
especially the New England states, makes the most 
expensive complete fertilizers. Connecticut leads with 
$28.11 average value per ton, followed by Maine with 
$26.09, and Massachusetts with $25.44. The Maryland 
product, next in quantity and value to South Carolina, 
being 184,095 tons, valued at $2,985,015, is quoted at 
only $16.21 per ton. 

''AH other fertilizers" amounts, for the United 
States, to 327,522 tons, valued at $4,723,430, being 11.3 
per cent of the total product, 11.2 per cent of the total 
value, and averaging $14.42 per ton. As might be ex- 
pectetl. New York leads in quantity, with a production 
of 56,294 tons, of an average value of $9.64 per ton. 
This low value shows the nature of the product, which 
is mainly garbage tankage, made by the garbage-reduc- 
tion works near the large cities. Illinois, next in ton- 
nage, 30,379 tons, is first in value, $635,015, or $20.90 
per ton, while Missouri gives a value of $22.67 per ton; 
the reason in both cases being that the product is 
largely made from slaughterhouse offal, which j'ields 
high-grade products. The "fertilizers" of Class D, 
204,713 tons, valued at $3,913,709, show an average 
value of $19.12 per ton, and belong to this category. 

So far as it is possible to show the capital employed, 
also the labor and other elements of cost in the produc- 
tion of fertilizers, the statistics are given in the special 
tabulation of Cla.ss A for this industry. It is, however, 
not possible to do this for the other classes, since fei-til- 
izers form only a subordinate part of the product, and 
the capital employed and the costs can not be separated 
from the general operations of the works. 

The importations of fertilizer materials for the cen- 
sus years 1890 and 1900, as given by the United States 
Treasury Department in "The Foreign Commerce and 
Navigation of the United States," 1890, pages 1160 to 
1151; 1900, page 102, is as follows: 



IMPORTS FOR IMMKDI.MK CONSUMPTION FOH THE 
YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1890 AND 1900. 



TBAB. 


raoirBikTn, crooe 

OR HATIVl. 


KinRRITE, KTAICITB 
OR CYAHITK, AMD 

KAixm. 


•OAKO. 




Tons. 


Valne. 


Ton». 


Vslne. 


Tom. 


ValDC. 


1890 


81,179 
14,075 


t309,764 
86,763 


82, 871 


8,482 
4,766 


«111.8U 
S8,474 


1900 


133,244 762,498 




TEAR. 


BOKB DCOT OR Ajn- 

MAI. CARBON A.SD 

BONE ASH, FIT ONLY 

FOR FERTILIZIXQ 

PDBTOaER. 


APATITE. 


A LI. nrnER iicB- 

(TAMCEK XOT ELSE- 
WHERE (rEciriES. 




Ton*. 


Value. 


Ton*. 


Valoe. 


Tom. 


Valae. 


1890 


8,219 
1,968 


<!)9,069 
80,189 


126 
333 


«,297 
4,019 ; 

1 


21,277 
99,169 


$333. 10» 
745 724 


1900 







The literature of the fertilizer industry is very volu- 
minous, and it is difficult to make a selection. The 
books giving the most useful information are probably 
The Phosphates of America, by Francis Wjatt, Scien- 
tific Publishing Company; Principles and Practice of 
Agricultural Analysis, Vol. II, Fertilizers, H. W. Wiley, 
Chemical Publishing Company, 1895; and the articles 
on Fertilizers in Muspratt — Kerl, Technical Chemistry, 
Wagner's Technology, and The Mineral Industry, the 
yearbook published by the Engineering and Mining 
Journal. 

Gkoup IX. — Bleaching Materials. 

Although bleaching materials of various kinds have 
been long in use and bleaching by chlorine or hypo- 
chlorites has been in vogue since the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, no separate returns have been 
secured for this industry at any previous census. Chlo- 
rine production has practically been, until I'ecently, 
incidental to the manufacture of soda by the Le Blanc 
process, and as this process has not secured a foothold 
in the United States, the production of chlorine bleaches 
has heretofore undoubtedly been insignificant in quantity 
and value. As pointed out in the treatment of Group 
X, with the inti'oduction of electricity as an agent in 
effecting chemical transformations, common salt and 
other chlorides are being electrolyzed on a commercial 
scale with the result that the production of chlorine 
and hypochlorites is assuming importance. The chlo- 
rine thus produced is converted into bleaching powder 
by means of lime, but other hypochlorites, and notably 
sodium hypochlorite, are made from imported bleaching 
powder. In addition there are produced and used in 
bleaching, disinfection, or as a preservative, hydrogen 
dioxide, sodium dioxide, sulphurous acid, sodium, cal- 
cium, and potassium bisulphites, and many special com- 
positions. 

In considering this industry in its entirety there must 
be discussed, not only those bodies specificallj- rejwrted 



48 



as bleaching materials produced by the older processes, 
but also such bleaching agents as have been produced 
by the aid of electricity, or sent out for use in the com- 
pound or liquefied state, and ahso those which are the 
subordinate products of establishments whose principal 
products classify them with other industries. Com- 
bining these there were 26 establishments in 7 states, 
producing 26,794,338 pounds of material having a value 
of $592,658, and employing a capital of $672,969 and 216 
wage-earners. These establishments were distributed 
as follows; 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORIES PRODUC- 
ING BLEACHING MATERIAL: 1900. 



STATES. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


Capital. 


Product. 


Per cent 
of 

total. 


United States 


26 


216 


8672,969 


$592,658 


100.0 


New York 


10 
6 
3 
3 

4 


126 
4 
10 
12 

64 


529,746 
25,853 
14,500 
15,039 

87,831 


407,327 

15, 878 
39, 171 
42. 399 

87,883 


68.7 


Pennsylvania 


2.7 


New Jersey 

Illinois 


6.6 

7.2 


Missouri, Michigan, and 
Ohio 


14.8 







Among the principal products were 10,979 tons of 
hypochlorites of a value of $462,9-19; 588,336 pounds 
of hydrogen dioxide of a value of $63,751:; 350,585 
pounds of sulphur dioxide of a value of $4,826, and 
1,461 tons of bisulphites of a value of $34,486. There 
were consumed in this manufacture 15,000 tons of salt 
brine, equivalent to 1,574 tons of salt, or, together 
with the other salt consumed, 9,055 tons of salt of a 
value of $19,105; 158,561 bushels of lime of a value of 
$20,532; 168 tons of caustic soda of a value of $7,618; 
92,600 pounds of metallic sodium; 93,000 pounds of 
black oxide of manganese of a value of $1,325; 227 tons 
of muriatic acid of a value of $4,325; 974 tons of soda 
ash of a value of $23,368; 7 tons of potash of a value 
of $420; 171 tons of sulphur of a value of $4,000; 74 
tons of barium dioxide of a value of $16,540; 74,490 
pounds of phosphoric acid of a value of $14,898; and 
44 tons of bleaching powder of a value of $1,570. 

SuLpJmr Dioxide (sulphurous acid gas; sulphurous 
anhydride; SOj). — This sub.stance has been u.sed as a 
bleaching agent from ancient times. It results from 
the burning of sulphur or sulphur-containing bodies in 
air or oxygen. In the presence of water it bleaches 
wool, hair, straw, and other tissues; but the bleaching 
is not permanent. Sulphur dioxide is used also as a 
disinfectant and germicide; in ice machines as a refrig- 
erating agent; in the preparation of bisulphites; to a 
small extent in the leather and glucose industries; and 
as the first product in the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid. Next to its use in making sulphuric acid, the 
largest consumption of sulphur dioxide is undoubtedly- 
in the sulphite process for converting wood into wood 
pulp for the pui-pose of making paper. As it is made 
and consumed in the works no returns are available to 



determine how much of the gas is produced in this 
industr}'. 

Blsulj}hites. — TheYe is retarned as having been manu- 
factured during the census year bisulphites of sodium, 
calcium, and potassium. They are manufactured by 
saturating a solution of sodium carbonate, milk of 
lime, or potassium carbonate with sulphur dioxide and 
crj^stallizing out the salt formed. Or the solution may 
be u.sed as made. These bodies are employed as anti- 
chlors in bleaching to remove the excess of chlorine 
from the fibers of the goods which have been bleached 
b}' hypochlorites, and thus prevent this chlorine from 
rotting the fiber. They are thus used to treat wood 
pulp in paper making, and it is probable that much of 
the material used in this art is not included here. The 
bisulphites are also employed in chrome tannage, in 
brewing, in glucose and starch making, and as preserva- 
tives. 

Hydrogen Dioxide (hydrogen peroxide, HjOJ. — Hy- 
di'ogen dioxide is made bj- treating barium dioxide, or 
sodium dioxide in suspension or .solution in water, with a 
dilute acid, and keeping the temperature at a low point 
by means of ice. Hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulphuric, 
nitric, or even carbonic acid may be emploj-ed. The 
hydrogen dioxide is set free as a gas, which dissolves 
in the water present. This solution is decanted off or 
filtered, phosphoric acid is added to it, and it is diluted, 
if necessary, so as to contain 3 per cent of H^O^, when 
it is sent into commerce, and is then known as a 10- 
volume solution. Hydrogen dioxide is a powerful oxi- 
dizing agent, and it is used in bleaching hair, silk, wool, 
feathers, bone, and ivory. It has been quite exten- 
sively used for toilet purposes; also as an antiseptic and 
disinfectant in surgerj'; as an antichlor; as a reducing 
agent in chrome tannage; and as a preservative for 
milk, beer, wine, and other fermentable liquids. The 
Oakland Chemical Company began the manufacture of 
hj'drogen peroxide in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1881. 

Sodium Dioxide (sodium peroxide, Na^Oj). — Sodium 
dioxide is made by heating metallic sodium in alu- 
minum trays, in a specially contrived furnace, to 300° 
C. while purified air is being passed over it. It is a 
yellowish white very hygroscopic powder, and is chiefly 
used as a bleaching agent, being a very powerful one, 
as it gives off 20 per cent of its weight of active oxy- 
gen. Its solution is too strongly alkaline for silk or 
wool bleaching, and for this purpose it should be con- 
verted into magnesium dioxide, which is easily effected 
by adding a solution of magnesium sulphate to the solu- 
tion of sodium peroxide. 

Hypochlorites. — There have been returns made for 
bleaching powder (which, according to Lunge, is a com- 
pound containing in the satne molecule calcium attached 
to chlorine and to a hypochlorous acid residue) and 
.sodium hj-pochlorite. The bleaching powder is made 
by passing chlorine gas into absorption chambers so as 
to come into contact with lime which has been so slaked 



49 



as to contain from 24.5 to 25.5 per cent of water. The 
lime is exposed to the action of the gas until the test 
shows that the product contains from 36 to 37 per cent 
of available chlorine. The yield from 100 pounds of 
good lime is 1.50 pounds of bleachinfj powder. Bleach- 
in};: powder is but partly soluble in water and when 
treated with water forms a iiiilk-liko fluid. It is an 
efficient bleaching, deodorizing, and disinfecting agent. 
To liberate the chlorine for bleaching purposes, an acid 
should be employed. The carbon dioxide of the atmos- 
phere will effect this result, but in practice a dilute 
mineral acid is usually employed, the cloth first being 
saturated in the bath of bleaching-powder emulsion, 
called the "chemic," and then in the bath of dilute 
acid, called the " sour." Bleaching liquors may be made 
by passing chlorine gas into the milk of lime, and it 
was in this form that it was first used. 

The enuilsion of bleaching powder reacts with mag- 
nesium sulphate to form magnesium hypochlorite, with 
alum to form aluminum hypochlorite, with zinc sul- 
phate to form zinc h^'ixjchlorite, and with sodium car- 
bonate to form sodium hypochlorite. They are all 
efficient bleaching agents and are especially desirable 
because they are completely soluble in water. Potas- 
sium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite have been 
sold under the respective names of Eau de Javelle and 
Eau de Labarraque, they having been prepared b}' 
passing chlorine gas through a solution of potassium 
carbonate for the first, and sodium carbonate for the 
sfecond. Sodium hyiiochlorite is still used for domestic 
purposes in removing spots from linen and also, together 
with oxalic acid, as an ink eradicator. 

Bleaching b\- chlorine was first suggested and applied 
by BerthoUet in 1785, and its adoption revolutionized 
the textile industry. He employed solutions of chlo- 
rine gas in water, but Tennant in 17!>8 patented a 
liquid bleach consisting of a solution of calcium or 
sodium hypochlorite prepared bj- passing the gas into 
milk of linje or a solution of caustic soda. This liquid 
bleach is difficult to transport and keep, and Tennant 
introduced a marked improvement b\' the invention of 
bleaching powder in 1799. Bleaching powder was 
made in this country at Bridesburg, Pa., by Charles 
Lennig in 1847. The Mathieson Alkali Works, at 
Niagara Falls, N. Y.,and the Dow Chemical Company, 
of Midland, Mich., began the manufacture of bleach- 
ing powder from electrolytic chlorine in 1898. 

Bleaching powder is still imported in very large 
quantities. The extent is shown in the following table, 
compiled from Volume II of the Foreign Commerce 
and Navigation of the United States for the years 
ending June 30, 1891 to 1900: 

IMPORTS OF LIME. CHLORIDE OF, OR BLEACHING 
POWDER: 1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Ponnds. 


Value. 1 


YEAR. 


Poands. 


Value. 


1«91 


107,475,715 
110,748,289 
120,811,918 
81,610,463 
100,466,774 


$1,429,509 
1,889.640 1 
2,213,121 
1.507,076 
1,644,835 
! 


1896 


104,053,877 
99,274,188 
114,232,578 
118,107,250 
136,403,151 


11,579,356 


1892 


1897 


1,375,560 


1898 


1898 


1,421,920 


18W 


1899 


l,159,2n 
1,464,019 


1896 


1900 







LITKRATTRB. 

Die Bleinhmittel, Beizen und Farlwitoffe, by J. Herzfeld, Volume 
I: Berlin; 1889. 

Pharmacopoeia of the I'niUxI Statea. 1890. 

The ChemiBtry of Paf)er Making, by R. B. Griffin ami A. D. 
Little: New York, 1894. 

A Theoretical and Practical Treatiue on the Manufacture of Sul- 
phuric Acid and Alkali, by George Lunge, Volume III: London, 
1896. 

Bleaching and Calico Printing, by George Duerr: London, 1896. 

Outlines of Industrial Chemistry, by Frank Hall Thorp: New 
York, 1898. 

Practical Treatise on the Bleaching of Linen and Cotton Yam 
and Fabric.^, by L. Tailfer: Ixmdon, 1901. 

Group X. — Chemical Substances Produced by the 

Aid ok Electricity. 

In no prior census has any mention been made of this 
art. As a fact, as shown in the historical account which 
follows, this industiy has practically been developed 
since the census of 1890 was taken. Nevertheless, it 
has already grown to such magnitude in these ten years 
as to effect serious inroads on the older processes, and 
it will undoubtedly in the future assume a greater 
importance. Already it is found that sodium and other 
metals, caustic soda, bleaching powder and other bleach- 
ing agents, bromine and potassium bromide, potassium 
chlorate, litharge, graphite, calcium carbide, carbo- 
rundum, carbon disulphide, and phosphorus are reported 
as being produced on a commercial scale, the total value 
of the output for 1900 being reported at $2,045,535. It 
is particularly to be noted that the Le Blanc soda pro- 
cess, which has for a century been a standard process 
for chemical manufacture, is now endangered not only 
by the Solvay ammonia process, but that the last prop 
on which it relied for profit has been thrown down by 
the development of economic methods for the electro- 
lytic production of bleaching powder. It is to be 
regretted that statistics of the electrical energy effi- 
ciency, and other data which are essential to a full 
understanding of this art are not at present accessible. 
But it can be stated that, apart from works producing 
aluminum (which is not included in the chemical indus- 
tries), there are 14 establishments in the United States 
belonging in Group X, and that these employ $9,173,060 
of capital and 739 w^age-earners. These establishments 
were distributed as follows: 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRO-CHEMICAL 
FACTORIES: 1900. 



STATES. 


Number 
of e8tat>- 

Uali- 
menta. 


I 
Average 

°,T^i capital. 

eomen. I 

1 


Value of 
producta. 


Percent 
of toul. 


United States 


14 


7S0 


«, ITS. 080 


12,045,836 


100.0 


New York 


10 
4 


«I4 
125 


8,311,638 
861, 5!a 


1,836,606 
208,(29 


89 8 


Maine, Michigan, Con- 
necticut, a n <1 - N e w 
Hampablre 


10 2 







It is to be observed that the total value of the prod- 
uct given here differs from that given in the tabulation 



No. 210 1 



50 



of "Chemicals" under the legend "Electro-chemicals," 
because caustic soda is classed with Group II, bleach- 
ing powder with Group IX, and the like; while 
there is gathered here the value of everything in all 
the classes which has been reported as having been 
produced bj' the use of the electric current. It is 
evident that while in the tabulation the value for a sub- 
stance appears but once, by this method of treatment 
the value of a given substance will appear each time 
that it is treated of in a'diflferent group, and that there- 
fore the value of that caustic soda which was produced 
electrolytically will not only appear in the total value 
given for Group X, now under consideration, but also 
under Group II, when the caustic-soda industry is con- 
sidered as a whole. For this reason, as well as because 
the establishments devoted to the manufacture by elec- 
tricity of any particular pi'oduct are too few to be dis- 
cussed under the rules separately, the statistics will be 
found combined with other statistics in the treatment 
of other groups. 

Sodium. — The remarkable experiments conducted by 
Sir Humphry Davy in 1807, which resulted in the isola- 
tion of sodium' and of potassium, not only added to 
the list of known chemical elements two of its most 
interesting and important members, but the method 
devised by him and used here for the first time, in which 
an element was isolated by the passage of an electric 
current through its fused electrolyte and in which also 
the vessel used to contain the fused electrolyte and in 
which the fusion was effected was made of conducting 
material and served simultaneously as a container, and 
as one pole of the decomposing cell, has been largelj"^ 
applied in recent times, since easily controlled supplies 
of electrical energy at reasonable cost have been at com- 
mand. Unfortunately no adequately cheap source of 
electrical energy was available until the dynamo was 
invented in 1867." In the meantime, and subsequent 
to Davy's discovery, Gay-Lussac and Thenard found 
that sodium could be displaced from fused caustic soda 
by metallic iron at a high temperature, and later Brun- 
ner discovered that this reduction could be effected 
under these circumstances by carbon also. Upon this 
discovery, and making use of the condenser of Donny 
and Maresca, Sainte-Claire Deville based the method of 
manufacture which he devised, and this was for many 
years the only one employed in the commercial pro- 
duction of this metal. In practicing this process a mix- 
ture of sodium carbonate, lime or chalk, and charcoal 
were heated in iron retorts, and the displaced sodium 
distilled off and condensed, the reaction taking place 
being represented b}' the equation: 

Na^CO, + 2 C = 2 Na + 3 CO. 

Darling says, " Deville brought its manufacture 

to a high degree of perfection, reducing the cost of a 

> Phil. Trans., vol. 98, page 1. 1808. 

' Borcher, Electric Smelting and Refining, page 104. 



kilo from 2,000 francs, in 1855, to 10 francs, in 1859."' 
About 1886, H. Y. Castner, an American, greatly 
simplified the manufacture by acting on sodium hydrox- 
ide with iron and carbon, or iron carbide, effecting the 
following reaction: 

6 NaOH+FeC, = 2 Na^COj+Fe-f 2 Na+3 H, 
by fusing the mass in steel or iron crucibles and pass- 
ing the vapors into condensers opening under high-test 
petroleum. According to Mendeleeff,* "At present 
(1897) a kilogram of sodium may be purchased for 
about the same sum (2 shillings sterling) as a gram 
cost thirty years ago." 

In 1890 Castner devised an electrolytic process which 
completely superseded the chemical processes for the 
isolation of sodium, and this has since been, until re- 
cently, the only pi'ocess in use in this country or abroad 
for the commercial production of this metal. The 
electrolyte consists of fused caustic soda, which is 
melted in a cylindrical steel crucible with a contracted 
neck at the bottom, so set in a flue that as the crucible 
is heated from the outside the body of it only becomes 
heated while the neck remains cool, so that the caustic 
soda which fills the crucible remains solid in the neck 
and protects the joint between the cathode and the cru- 
cible at that point. There is a perforation in the bot- 
tom of the crucible at the neck, through which the 
cathode is passed up verticall}' and sealed by the solid 
caustic soda, as described above. The electrodes are of 
iron, and the anode, which may be cylindrical in form, 
is inserted from above so as to surround the end of the 
cathode. Encircling the cathode within the anode, and 
depending from a collecting pot above, is a cylinder of 
iron-wire gauze which serves to prevent the sodium, as it 
is liberated, from passing into the anode compartment. 
The inverted collecting pot above the cathode is filled 
with hydrogen, which is one of the products of the elec- 
trolysis, and this protects the sodium, as it collects, from 
chance oxidation. The sodium is baled from the col- 
lecting pot as soon as it has accumulated in suflicient 
quantity. More recently Darling has devised a process 
by which sodium is obtained fi'om sodium nitrate. 

Metallic Sodium and Nitric Acid from Fused Sodium 
Nitrate. — The Darling process, as carried out in the 
works of Harrison Bros. &.Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., 
is characterized by the kind of diaphragm used. A 
cast-iron pot, set in a brick furnace and containing the 
nitrate to be decomposed, acts as the anode or positive 
electrode. A 6-inch layer of refractory insulating 
material is placed in the bottom of the pot and the por- 
ous cup rests centrally upon this, leaving a 3-inch 
space between the cup and the pot. This space is then 
tilled with sodium nitrate and the cup itself nearly 
filled with melted sodium hydroxide. The cathode, or 
negative electrode, consisting of a short length of 
4-inch wrought-iron pipe, provided with proper elec- 

'J. Frk. Inst., vol. 153, page 65. 1902. 

*The Principles of Chemistry, 1). Mendeleeff, vol. 1, page 5:^5: 
London, 1897. 



51 



trical connections, is suspended inside the cup, reachinjf 
nearly to the bottom, and bridges made of wrought- 
iron pipe support these cathodes in a row of porous 
cups. When external heat is applied to the furnace, 
the electrolytes melt, and, permeating the walls of the 
cup, allow the passage of the current which, when of 
suitable strength, causes the decomjwsition of the 
sodium nitrate into sodium, nitrogen dioxide, and oxy- 
gen. The nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are liberated 
as gases at the positive electrodes, escape through a 
hole in the cover provided for that purpose and are 
utilized. 

The positive sodium ions pass through the walls of 
the cup and on through the molten sodium hydroxide 
to be ultimately liberated in the metallic state at the 
cathodes. The first sodium liberated is absorbed by or 
combined with the sodium hydroxide, hydrogen gas 
being evolved and sodium monoxide, probably, being 
formed. After some time, metallic sodium rises to the 
top of the electrolyte in the cups and at intervals of 
about one hour is dipped off with a spoon and preserved 
under mineral oil. This style of porous cup and furnace 
gives excellent results. The use of two electrolytes of 
different character, yet having a common base, allows 
of the sodium being liberated in a neutral medium away 
from all danger of oxidation by the nitrate from which 
it is obtained. At first the sheet-metal walls of the 
porous cup had a verj' short life, being quickly eaten 
away by the local action caused by the secondary effects 
of the current. This trouble was overcome by shunt- 
ing about 5 per cent of the current directly through the 
metal walls of the cup, making them positive. This 
plan reduced the local action and increased the life of 
the cup about ten times. The material now used for 
the porous cup is a mixture of ground dead-burnt mag- 
nesite and Portland cement, and it makes a very satis- 
factory diaphragm. 

The nitrogen dioxide and oxygen evolved at the posi- 
tive poles are conducted by means of earthenware pipes 
to a number of receivers or Woulff bottles connected 
together and containing water. The nitrogen tetrox- 
ide which is produced on coming in contact with the 
water combines to form nitric acid, 3N,04+2H,0=4 
HN0j+N,0j. The N,Oj takes up a molecule of oxygen 
to again form NjO,, and more nitric acid is formed. If 
it is desired to make a very strong acid for use in the 
manufacture of high explosives, a system of towers 
that automatically brings the strength of the acid up 
to a high degree is used. 

Each furnace takes a current of about 400 amperes 
at an average E.M.F. of 15 volts. External heat is 
used only when starting up and when changing the cups, 
which have a life of from 425 to 450 hours; at other 
times during the operation the heat generated by the 
resistance to the passage of the current is sufficient to 
keep the electrolytes melted. 

It is interesting to note, in connection with this proc- 



ess, that in DecemV>cr, 1902, the supply of metallic 
sodium on hand and in storage at thc.H4> works had 
become so great that the city authorities, fearing acci- 
dents, compelled the ojMiration of the process to ceatie.' 

Up to some ten years ago, about the only viae for 
sodium outside of the lalwratory was in the isolation of 
aluminum, and when the electrolytic method for the 
production of aluminum was developed it l(K)ked as if 
the isolation of sodium on any large scale would cease. 
It was only when electricity was also applied to the 
isolation of sodium that it could Im; obtained cheaply 
enough to permit of its use in fields that had hitherto 
been closed to it on the score of cost. Chief among 
these new uses is the manufacture of alkaline cj-anides, 
which are so largely used in the extraction of gold 
from low-grade ores and tailings; for "quickening" 
mercury in gold amalgamation; for electroplating; in 
photography; and other minor uses. Large amounts 
are also converted into sodium peroxide to be used in 
bleaching wool, silk, and feathers, and thereby replac- 
ing the more expensive hydrogen peroxide. It is also 
used in making certain anilin colors and organic com- 
pounds, and wherever a powerful reducing agent is 
needed. 

Caustic soda and hypochlorites. — When common salt 
is electrolyzed it is separated into its constituents, 
sodium and chlorine, and this electrolysis may be 
effected by passing a proper current through fused 
sodium chloride, or through an aqueous solution of the 
salt; but in the latter case the sodium set free at the 
cathode immediately reacts with the water present, 
fomiing sodium hydroxide and liberating hydrogen. 
As shown in the discussion in Group II, the soda indus- 
try is one of the most important of the chemical in- 
dustries, and as common salt is used in the Le Blanc, 
iSolvay, and the other established processes of soda manu- 
facture as the raw material of the art, it is not surpris- 
ing that since, as stated above, common salt is readily 
electrolyzed, numerous processes and devices have 
been invented for effecting this on a commercial scale. 
Among them are the Vautin, Hulin, and the Borchers 
processes, in which fused sodium chloride is the electro- 
lyte, and' the Holland and Richardson, Hargreaves- 
Bird, Castner or Castner-Kellner, Solvay, Le Sueur, 
and the Dow, in which an aqueous solution of common 
salt, which in some instances is native brine, is used as 
the electrolyte. According to Blount,* the Castner- 
Kellner process is the only one which in 1900 was 
being worked in England on a large scale and in a 
profitable manner, but while this process is carried on 
in the United States, the Le Sueur and Dow proc- 
esses are also in active operation here. 

The difficulties in making the simple electrolysis of 
common salt a commercial success have been various. 
In the fused electrolyte processes they have been 

•Science, vol. 15 (N. 8.), page 129, Jan. 24. 1892. 
' Practical Electro-Chemiatry, page 309. 



52 



largely due to the corrosive action which fused salt 
exerts on most materials that can be used for making 
the vessels in which the electrolysis can be conducted, 
while, since the melting point of sodium chloride is 
800° C, and metallic sodium begins to distill below 
900° C. , the metal comes off mostly as a vapor, which 
greatly increases the difficulties of collecting it. In 
the dissolved electrolyte processes, among other diffi- 
Qulties, trouble has arisen from the evolved chlorine 
wandering into the cathode compartment and reacting 
with the previously fomied sodium hydroxide, or vice 
versa, to form hypochlorites and chlorates, while the 
complete separation of the caustic soda from the sodium 
chloride was not at first easily effected. 
C. L. Parsons,* writing in 1898, says: 

Ernest A. Le Sueur enjoys the distinction of having in- 
vented the first electrolytif process for the commercial decompo- 
sition of sodium chloride, which became a regular contributor to 
the markets of the world. Since February, 1893, caustic soda and 
bleaching powder have been manufactured at Rumford Falls, Me., 
on a commercial scale. 

It appears that Le Sueur began his experiments in 
the winter of 1887-1888, and after associating with him 
Charles N. Waite, who afforded him valuable assistance 
and some facilities at his chemical works in Newton, 
Mass., they together ran an experimental cell from 
October, 1890, to May, 1891, in a paper mill at Bellows 
Falls, Vt. In 1892 an association was formed, which in 
August of that year began the erection of a plant at 
Kumford Falls, and in February, 1893, began the man- 
ufacture of caustic soda and bleaching powder, using 
to generate the required current one 200-kilowatt 
dynamo of the Thompson-Houston pattern. The suc- 
cess of the venture was such that three more dynamos 
of the same capacity were installed in the fall of 1894, 
and the Electro-Chemical Company was organized. 

Parsons describes the Le Sueur cell as follows: 

The cell as now used is contained in a tank 5 by 9 feet and 1} feet 
deep, and made of one-quarter inch boiler steel. Excepting the 
asbestos, which composes the diaphragm, the wire netting of the 
cathode, and the materials of the positive electrode, it is built 
entirely of spruce, red brick, Portland cement, sand, and slate. 
These substances are so disposed in the cell as to be practically 
permanent, the wood being exposed to no action except that of the 
caustic solution, which has little effect upon it. The anodes are 
introduced from the top of the cell and may be removed singly 
without interrupting the process. Troublesome joints are closed 
with a specially prepared plastic cement. The diaphragm is tipped 
somewhat from the horizontal for the purpose of permitting the 
easy egress of the hydrogen bubbles. The foundation of the cell 
within the tank consists of an oblong frame of spruce, 8 feet 4 inches 
by 4 feet 10 inches, outside measurement, and 8 inches less on both 
dimensions inside. This frame is 11 inches deep, only the side 
pieces, however, resting upon thefloor of the tank. The end pieces 
consist of four 4-inch timbers, whose upper surfaces are 10 inches 
above the floor of the tank and 1 inch below the top surface of 
the longer side. The frame is divided transversely by a timber, 
similar to each of the end timbers, which crosses the middle of the 
frame at the same level as the end pieces. This center beam forms a 
bridge over which the flat iron ribs supporting the cathode are hung. 

'J. Am. Chem. Sec, vol. 20, page 868. 1898. 



The cell is thus divided into two equal spaces merely for mechanical 
convenience. The ribs referred to consist of four parallel pieces 
of flat iron, three of them being IJ by three-eighths inch, and 
the fourth, twice as wide. This wider piece is fastened at both 
ends to the containing tank, so as to receive from the latter 
the electric current, which enters through the material of the tank 
and communicates the current to the cathode, which rests upon 
these iron ribs. The diaphragm rests directly upon the cathode. 
The depth of the trough formed by the slanting ribs is 4 inches. 
There is an adequate arrangement at the ends of the bridge pieces 
by means of whicli the hydrogen, finding its way to this higher 
level, is delivered to exit pipes communicating with the atmosphere, 
or with any system of piping to which it is desired to deliver it. 
Xhe inch of space between the tops of the cross timbers and the 
side pieces is utilized to take a piece of slate 4 feet long bv 4 inches 
wide by 1 inch thick. This presses down upon the diaphragm and 
the cathode netting and keeps all solid. On top of the sides and 
ends of the frame there are four courses of common brick laid in 
clear cement. There is a coating of cement applied to the inside 
walls of the portion of the cell forming the anode compartment, 
and this includes not only the brick walls, but the small portion 
of the wooden sides above the cathode, which would otherwise 
come in contact with the anode liquid. The ceiling of the cell 
consists simply of pieces of slate, 2 feet by 1 foot, and suitably 
supported by transverse strips of slate, 1 inch thick by 4 inches 
wide. Through the ceiling plates pass the glass tubes to which 
the anodes are attached. 

The anodes which are now used are made from an alloy of iridium 
and platinum, and are so constructed that a very large anode sur- 
face is presented at an almost incredibly small cost, when it is 
considereii that it is not at all of the nature of a plated surface, but 
is an anode of solid metal. Sixty anodes on an average are used 
to each cell, and each anode costs 73 cents at the present market 
price of platimmi. They are acted upon chemically but slightly, 
if at all. If the glass holders break there is no loss of platinum, 
and a new anode can immediately be put in place. The total cost 
for the anodes of a plant producing, per month, 200 tons of bleach- 
ing powder, is approximately $5,000, or |40 for a cell producing .55 
pounds of sodium hydroxide and 50 pounds of chlorine per day; 
and this allows for a very low cell efficiency. The total cost for 
the renewal of the platinum, including labor, is less than half the 
cost of the bare carbon alone, as it was formerly used. Besides, it 
must be remembered that carbon anodes are certain to give more 
or less carbon dioxide if hypochlorite be present, while with these 
iridio-platinum anodes no carbon dioxide can possibly be produced. 

At Rumford Falls, the Electro-Chemical Company obtains power 
at a very low cost, so that it pays to obtain a maximum of work 
from each cell by using a higher current density in proportion to 
the anode surface than might be tenable under other conditions. 
As the cells are now constructed, a current of 1,000 amperes is 
passed through each cell under a pressure of six and one-half volts. 
I am aware that this voltage is high, and from a statement in Lunge '' 
he would probably, at first thought, condemn the process on this 
ground alone. But it will readily be understood how this increased 
voltage can be economically employed when it is considered that 
at $8 per electrical horsepower per year, which is the cost of 
power to the company at Rumford Falls, the extra cost per pound 
of product, on an average eflSciency of 80 ]ier cent, is but $0.00015 
for each extra volt used. This high voltage is by no means an 
essential of the process, and each cell can be run on a lower 
amperage, when of course less pressure would be required. It is 
simply a fact that at Rumford Falls it is economical to run the 
cells on this voltage, forcing through them all the current they can 
take without undue heating. Under these conditions, the renewal 
of the cell is usually made necessary only on account of the deterio- 
ration of the diaphragm. The diaphragms have an average life of 
seven weeks, and have been used twenty-four consecutive weeks 



' Alkali Industry, vol. 3. 



53 



withonl roiiewal. The cathcxlew are but little acted upon, and the 
Bteel tanks are practically indestructible. 

The cells are arranged so that twenty-two are in series, and 
three series are run in parallel on two dynamos. The hydrogen is 
used only for working platinum, the larger part being allowwl to 
escape into the atmosphere. The chlorine is conducted by earthen- 
ware pipi's to lead chainl)ers and alworbed by liine in the usual 
manner, although at present a i>art is U8e<l for manufacture of 
potassium chlorate. The i^austic solution is concentratetl by evap- 
oration in raaw, and is separate<l from the major part of the unde- 
composed salt by centrifugals. Any chlorate is now readily 
removed, and the solution is then boile<1 down in cast-iron kettles 
to a first-quality caustic sotla, analyzing alx)ut 74 per cent sodium 
oxide. The recovered salt is converted into brine and is used in 
the cathode com[>artnient of the cells, nothing but fresh brine and 
some hydrochloric acid ever being added to the anode side. Whole 
bays of twenty-two cells have shown daily averages of over 90 per 
cent chlorine efficiency, and weekly averages of 87 per cent. If 
the anode compartment could be kept constiintly acid, as can be 
done with single cells, a chlorine efficiency approaching very closely 
to the theoretical may be reached. The efficiency, reckoned upon 
the sodium hydroxide produceil, is not quite so high. 

One great fielil for electrolytic processes is the production of 
bleaching liquors and caustic solutions for bleacheries, paper mills, 
and the like. l.«rge economies might be introduced by companies 
of this kind by making their own solutions electrolytically instead 
of by the usual method of first transporting the chlorine in the 
form of bleaching powder and the alkali in the solid state. This 
is almost self-evident when one considers that the final evaporation 
of the caustic soda, which is quite costly, is done solely for pur- 
poses of transportation; that the absorption of chlorine by milk of 
lime is a very simple operation, and the bleach liquors so produced 
are much more efficient per unit of chlorine than bleaching pow- 
der; and that the raw material (salt) is easily and cheaply obtained 
and transported without deterioration, while a small plant can be 
run almost as economically as a large one. In fact, the Electro- 
Chemical Company has sold a great deal of chlorine in the form 
of bleach liquors to pulp mills at reasonable distances from the 
works, that preferred to take this liquid carrier of chlorine on 
account of its ready-settled solution, ease of manipulation, and its 
greater efficiency, although the cost of transportation might be 
somewhat greater. In works which do not require caustic soda, 
the process would also be highly economical, for under such con- 
ditions the cathode liquor can be directly used to absorb the chlo- 
rine, in excellent condition for bleaching purposes, thus doing away 
entirely with the cost and use of lime. I do not hesitate to predict 
that we shall yet see many Le Sueur plants established in connec- 
tion with mills now using bleaching powder. In fact, one of our 
largest American sulphite pulp mills has already made arrange- 
ments for a trial of the Le Sueur plant, with a view of bleaching to 
a very large extent. 

Parsons points out that the chief difficulty of the pro- 
cess from the outset has been to keep the .sodimn 
hydroxide in its proper compartment, for with the best 
of diaphragms a limited amount of diffusion into the 
anode compartment goes on, and sodium hypochlorite 
is foi-med, which is oxidized to sodium chlorate either 
before diffusion into the outer space or during evap- 
oration of the cathode solution, and is eventually 
recovered as a b}- -product in the form of potassium 
chlorate. In addition, the diffusing sodium hydroxide 
is partly electrolyzed, and, if carbon anodes are used, 
the oxygen liberated will attack them, forming carbon 
dioxide. The sodium hypochlorite niav also be elec- 
trolyzed, giving rise to nascent oxygen and increasing 



the amount of carljon dioxide produced, and this forma- 
tion of carlwn dioxide is u very serious matter, for 
unless removed from the chlorine gas, it renders the 
manufacture of a standard grade of bleaching powder 
imiM)ssibIe. Ia' Sueur has overcome many of these 
difficulties, first, by having the liquid in the anode com- 
partment at a higher level than that of the cathode, 
thus diminishing the entrance of sodium hydroxide by 
diffusion; second, by using platinum-iridium anodes; 
and third, by adding hydrochloric acid to the anode 
compartment .so as to keep the solution slightly acid. 
This acid, so added, at once decomposes any hypochlo- 
rite, and is itself oxidized so that all of its chlorine 
is regained in the form of that gas. No chlorine '\» 
lost by this operation, for the chlorine obtained as 
bleaching powder is greater than the equivalent of 
the sodium hydroxide by the amount of chlorine in the 
added hydrochloric acid. This use of hydrochloric acid 
is a matter of some expense, for an equivalent of chlo- 
rine at Rumford Falls costs more in the form of hydro- 
chloric acid than it is worth as bleaching powder, but 
in other localities, and especially near the Le Blanc soda 
factories, such use of hydrochloric acid may prove a 
positive advantage from the standpoint of economy. 
Parsons points out that while in 1892, when the Rum- 
ford Falls plant was built, bleaching powder sold in 
Boston for ^5 per ton and caustic soda for $74 per ton, 
in 1898 the prices were $30 and $36, respective!}-. 

According to Chandler,' all the difficulties enumerated 
above were completely overcome by the Castner process, 
in which the usual porous diaphragm is avoided, and a 
moving cathode of quicksilver is u.sed in its place which 
absorbs the metallic sodium as fast as it is produced 
and removes it at once from the decomposing cell to a 
neighboring one, where the sodium is withdrawn elec- 
trolytically and converted into sodium hydroxide. The 
operation is accomplished in what is known as the "tip- 
ping cell," which is so arranged that once a minute it is 
rocked upon its support just enough to cause the mer- 
cury cathode in the bottom to flow back and forth under 
the partition to and from the neighboring cell, where 
the sodium hydroxide is produced free from chlorine. 
The metallic sodiimi never exceeds more than 0. 2 per 
cent of the mercury, and consequently there is very 
little loss from the recombination of sodium and chlo- 
rine in the decomposing cell. 

An important adjunct to the tipping cell is Castner's 
graphitized anode. With the ordinary carbon anodes, 
such as have been previously employed, it was found that 
the combined action of the chlorine and other sub- 
stances resulting from the electrolysis of sodium chlo- 
ride, together with the chemical reactions which oc- 
curred at or near the surface, disintegrated them 
rapidly. By converting the anodes after they have Ijeen 
shaped and baked into the graphitic form, they are of 
much greater durability, and the graphitizing process 

' The Mineral Industry, vol. 9, page 765. 1901. 



54 



has been regularly employed on a large scale for this 
purpose. Other modifications and improvements in the 
details of construction of the tipping cells have been 
made which facilitate the pi'oduction and have increased 
the efficiency of the process. The Castner process 
yields pure caustic soda and pure chlorine, and has 
been in successful operation for several years in Eng- 
land, on the Continent, and at Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
At the last-named locality the company now using it is 
extending its plant. 

According to Blount,' the Castner- Kellner process is 
at work in England, at Weston Point, in Lancashire, 
where a plant of about 1,000 horsepower is in use and 
where a second plant of equal size is now being put down. 
Another plant of 2,000 horsepower (also about to be 
doubled), belonging to the Mathieson Alkali Company, 
is running at Niagara, using current supplied bj' the 
Niagara Falls Power Company. The output of this 
company is stated to be 10 tons of caustic soda and 24 
tons of bleaching powder per day of twenty-four hours; 
the current efficiency, from 85 to 90 per cent; the 
pressure required, 3.5 volts — i. e., the energy efficiency 
is from 55.6 to 58.9 per cent. These statements are 
found to be concordant if we assume that the joint effi- 
ciency of the transformers and dynamos is 80 per cent. 

This is not an unreasonable loss, inasmuch as the cur- 
rent has not only to be let down in voltage, but has to 
be transformed from an alternating to a direct current. 
The current comes from the power house at a pi'essure 
of 2,200 volts; it is transformed down in stationary 
transformers to a pressure of 120 volts. At this pres- 
sure the current, (which is, of course, still alternating,) 
passes to motor transformers, which transform it to a 
direct current delivered at a pressure of 200 volts, this 
being a convenient voltage for working a group of 
electrolytic cells. 

The anodes used are ordinary "squirted" carbons; 
they are subjected to a "special treatment," designed to 
render them more refractory, and are said to last a year. 
Connection is made with them by means of a lead cap 
cast on one end. The caustic soda solution obtained is 
fairly concentrated, e. g., about 20 per cent strength. 
Much is sent in liquid form in tank wagons to soap- 
makers in Buffalo, about 20 miles from Niagara. Some 
is boiled down and sold in the solid state to the Electro- 
Chemical Company, whose works are close to those of 
the Mathieson Alkali Company. 

The Dow process, as set forth in United States patent 
No. 621908, of March 28, 1899, has for its object the 
production of the chlorine and sodium hj^droxide from 
common brine, consisting of sodium chloride, calcium 
chloride, and magnesium chloride in aqueous solution, 
and the invention is in the peculiar kind of diaphragm 
employed and its method of formation. To form this 
diaphragm a quantity of metallic iron is introduced into 
the brine in the neighborhood of the anode. On the 

' Practical Electro-Chemiatry, pages 313-314. 



electric current being passed through the solution the 
first actions that take place are the decomposition of 
the electrolytic solution near the anode and cathode, 
free chlorine being formed at or near the anode, and 
free sodium, calcium, and magnesium being formed at 
the cathode. These latter in turn react with the water 
of the electrolyte to form sodium, magnesium, and cal- 
cium hydroxides, this formation also taking place near 
the cathode, thus 2NaH-2H30=2NaOH+H,. Part of 
the chlorine at the anode combines with the iron and 
forms iron chloride (SCl^ + 2Fe = 2FeCl3). The sodium, 
calcium, and magnesium hydroxides and the iron chlo- 
ride diffuse toward the middle of the cell and meet 
between the electrodes. On such meeting the iron is 
precipitated as iron h3'droxide, which forms part of the 
diaphragm, 

3NaOH+ FeCl, = Fe(0H)3+ 3NaCl , 
3Ca(OH),+2FeCl3=2Fe(OH)3+3CaCU, 
3Mg(OH),+2FeCl3=2Fe(OH)3-f3MgCl2. 

Calcium and magnesium h}'droxides are precipitated 
by the sodium hydroxide from the calcium and mag- 
nesium chlorides, 

2NaOH+ CaCl, = Ca(OH),+ 2NaCl, 
2NaOH+ MgCl, = Mg(OH), + 2NaCl. 

The diaphragm begins to form and build up from 
these precipitates, consisting of iron, calcium, and mag- 
nesium hydroxides. The chlorine diffusing toward the 
cathode on passing into the diaphragm, is absorbed by 
the calcium and magnesium hydroxides, forming cal- 
cium and magnesium hypochlorites, thus preventing 
the contamination of the cathode solution bj' the chlo- 
rine. These hypochlorites, whose formulae are not 
positively known, decompose very rapidly, probably 
into chloride and oxygen. In actual working these hy- 
pochlorites are not found present. The iron hydrox- 
ide being inert so far as the chlorine is concerned, is 
not disturbed, so that eventually the side of the dia- 
phragm near the anode is almost completelj' depleted of 
calcium and magnesium hydroxide by the action of the 
chlorine, and only iron hydroxide is left, while the 
cathode side consists mainlv of calcium and magnesium 
hydroxides. The iron hydroxide prevents to a great 
extent the chlorine of the anode compai'tment from 
being consumed by the parts of the diaphragm with 
which it will combine. As the pores of the diaphragm con- 
tain iron, calcium, and magnesium chlorides, the sodium 
hydroxide of the cathode side upon entering the dia- 
phragm is absorbed by these chlorides before it can 
diffuse to the anode side, so that the sodium hydroxide 
can not contaminate the anode solution. 

Thus the products of electrolysis are effectually pre- 
vented from passing into and contaminating the opposite 
solutions. The precipitation and formation of the dia- 
phragm will take place most rapidly where the diffu- 
sion is the greatest, and should any portion become 



55 



detached or mutilated diffimion will be greater at the 
niutilixtod point, and the consequent greater precipita- 
tion at this point will niond the break. It is thus seen 
that the diaphragm will thicken evenly. While one or 
more sheets of porous material — such as paper, cloth, 
a.sbe8tus, and the like — might be placed as a nucleus 
upon which the two essential layers of the diaphragm 
would be precipitated in the practical working of the 
cell, such a procedure has not been found necessary 
or advantageous, the diaphragm being readily pro- 
duced in the proper place without such foundation. 
The physical qualities of the mixed hydroxides when 
made into a diaphragm in thi.s manner are such that 
they form a coherent and self-supporting mass oflfering 
very little resistance to the passage of the electric cur- 
rent, but at the same time they oflFer a high resistance 
to the diffusion of the products of electrolysis and the 
electrolyte. 

In the Dow process carbon electrodes are used. In 
all the processes bleaching powder is produced by ab- 
sorbing the chlorine in dry slaked lime kept at a tem- 
perature below 46° C. The yield of bleaching powder 
from 100 pounds of good lime is 150 pounds. 

Chlwates. — Chlorates have heretofore been prepared 
by passing chlorine into alkaline solutions maintained 
at a temperature at or above 100° C. In making potas- 
sium chlorate, which is the salt most largely used, the 
chlorine was first passed into a hot milk of lime, and 
after this had become saturated with chlorine and had 
acquired a density of 25° to 30° Twaddle, the solution 
was run off to settle. When clear, potassium chloride 
in calculated quantity was added, which, by reacting 
with the calcium chlorate, gave rise to calcium chloride 
and potassium chlorate. 

As noted above, sodium chlorate may be obtained as 
a secondary product in the Le Sueur and other processes 
of electrolyzing common salt, and by metathesis with 
potassium chloride the potassium chlorate results. Since 
potassium chloride occurs native, and is mined at Stass- 
f urt, it would appear to be a simple matter to electrolyze 
a hot solution of this salt directly to the chlorate, using 
a vessel without any diaphragm, but this is found 
feasible only up to a small concentration. Kellner has 
proposed to add to a saturated potassium chloride solu- 
tion about 3 per cent of a sparingly soluble hydroxide, 
such as slaked lime or magnesia, and to keep the whole 
in agitation as the current is passed. The lime or 
magnesia assists in the formation of the chloric acid and 
serves to bring about the transfer of the potassium 
from its combination as a chloride to that as a chlorate. 
By concentration of the solution the potassium chlo- 
rate foraied crvstallizes out. As shown by United 
States patent 493023, of March 7, 1893, Gibbs and Fran- 
chot make use of a cathode of copper oxide in electro- 
lyzing the potassium chloride. The theoretical yield 
of potassium chlorate is 164 parts for every 100 parts 
of potassium chloride used. 



Potassium chlorate is used in manufacturing explo- 
sives, fireworks, fuse compositions, safety and parlor 
matches, and as an oxidizing agent in color works, io 
dyeing, and in other arts. 

Lead Oxides. — Under Sulom's process these are pro- 
duced by the oxidation of spongy metallic lead, which 
is obtained by the electrolytic reduction of galena. 
Dilute sulphuric acid is used as the electrolyte, and 
sheets of lead are employed for electrodes. As neither 
the galena nor the lead reduced from it is soluble in 
the electrolyte, there is no ionization of the lead com- 
pounds or conveyance of the lead, but the latter is left 
as a porous mass, having the form of the original mass 
from which it was obtained, while the sulphur is evolved 
as hydrogen sulphide, and in this regard this process 
differs from all other electrolytic processes in use or 
proposed for u.se. The porous lead heats up on ex- 
posure to air, and is readily converted to oxides, or 
may be employed in the Dutch process of making white 
lead, where its porous condition constitutes an advan- 
tage in promoting the speed of corrosion. The lead may 
also be directly compressed into grids for secondary 
batteries. 

Graphite. — Graphite is distinguished by being the 
first substance existing in nature as a mineral which 
has been commercially produced in the electric furnace. 
Its existence as a mineral under the names plumbago 
and black lead has long been known, and its employ- 
ment in pencils is described in a work written by Con- 
rad Gessner in 1565, but it was not until 1779 that its 
identit}' was established by Scheele and it became recog- 
nized as one of the allotropic forms of carbon. Sev- 
eral methods for the artificial production of graphite 
have been discovered, and that it is obtained from other 
forms of carbon by exposure to high temperatures, such 
as obtain in the electric furnace, has long been known, 
but the discovery that this is brought about through 
the formation first of carbon compounds, such as silicon 
carbide, and their subsequent decomposition is due to 
E. G. Acheson, and he has reduced this discovery to 
practice, producing graphite in quantity. An interest- 
ing feature of his discovery is that the phenomenon 
of the conversion is a progressive one and that a small 
portion of the other constituent of the carbide acts, as 
he says, "by catalysis" to convert a large mass of the 
amorphous carbon into graphite. This conversion is 
effected in a similar furnace to that used in the manu- 
facture of carborundum, and the methods employed are 
similar. 

The factory for working this process and making 
graphite from coke, bituminous coal, or other amor- 
phous forms of carbon was established at Niagara Falls 
in 1899, and is to-day the only factory in the world, and 
the material has been here produced in several forms. 
One is an intimate mixture of pure amorphous carbon 
and graphite in fine powder-for use as paint and for 
foundry facings. Another consists of articles pre- 



56 



viously molded from amorphous carbon which contains 
the catalytic agent. Among them are electrodes for 
use in alkali processes, like the Castner process, and 
carbon plates for use as brushes in dynamos and motors; 
and the life as well as the efficiency of these articles 
is much increased by being graphitized. It is expected 
that this process may utilize much of the fine refuse 
from the coke ovens. 

Graphite is used in the manufacture of pencils, cru- 
cibles, stove polish, foundry facing, paint, motor and 
dynamo brushes, antifriction compounds, electrodes 
for metallurgical work, conducting surfaces in electro- 
typing and for glazing powder grains. 

As pointed out, the chief source of graphite is from 
mines, and the extent of its production from this source 
in the United States will be shown when the census of 
the mining industry is taken. The amount imported 
is, however, very large, as shown by the following 
table, compiled from Vol. II of the Foreign Commerce 
and Navigation of the United States, for the year ending 
June 30, 1900: 

IMPORTS OF PLUMBAGO, 1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Tons. 


Value. 


1891 


10,135 

13,511 

14,207 

7,935 

7,051 


»509,809 
726, 648 
866,309 
410,819 
208,936 


1892 


1893 


1894 . . . 


1896 





1896, 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 



Tons. 



11,891 
12,469 

11,154 
16, 970 
20,597 



Value. 



tS84,554 

821,355 

472, 401 

1,081,859 

2,345,294 



Calcium Carbide, CaCj, was prepared in 1862 by 
Woehler, by heating an alloy of zinc and calcium with 
an excess of carbon, and in 1893, by Travers, by heat- 
ing a mixture of calcium chloride, carbon, and sodium. 
Its commercial production began in the United States 
at Spi-ay, N. C, in 1894, when Thomas L. Willson 
produced it by heating lime and coke together in an 
electric furnace, and out of this has grown the large 
industry which exists to-day. The furnace employed 
by Willson was of the simplest kind, as it consisted 
merely of a rectangular fire-brick box lined with carbon, 
to serve as one electrode, into which a stout carbon rod 
or bundle of rods dipped vertically to serve as the other 
electrode. The charge of mixed lime and coke was 
piled about the vertical electrode, which, after making 
contact to establish the arc, was raised as the mass was 
caused to react. Since the reaction is effected solely 
by the high temperature attained in the electric furnace, 
and not through electrolysis, either an alternating or a 
direct current can be employed, and as the former can 
be brought from a distance at a high voltage and trans- 
formed on the spot where it is to be used, by a .station- 
ary transformer, it is generally to be preferred. 

As carried on at Spray, the opei-ation was a discon- 
tinuous one, since, when the movable electrode had been 
raised to its greatest height and a prismatic mass of 
the carbide had been formed between the electrodes, the 
current had to be cut off, the furnace cooled, and the 



carbide removed, before a fresh charge could be put in. 
Besides, a very large part of the charge of coke and 
lime failed to be heated to the reaction temperature, 
and yet its presence was necessary to protect the walls 
of the furnace from the high temperature of the arc. 

Through the invention of Charles S. Bradley, this 
process has now been made continuous. He prefers to 
employ a rotary wheel or annulus, into which projects 
at one side an electrode; the wheel being provided 
with means for preventing the material from spilling; 
with means for supplying fresh material to be acted 
upon b3^ the current; and with facilities for removing 
the product; the whole being so arranged that the 
operation may be carried on in an uninterrupted man- 
ner, as the furnace is constantly forming fresh addi- 
tions to the product and permitting the latter to be 
removed as frequently as may be necessary. The 
wheel is preferably turned by power-driven machinery, 
and is provided with a hollow periphery', to which (over 
an arc covering the lower part of the wheel) buckets 
are attached, forming throughout the arc a closed 
receptacle for the material to be operated upon. 
These buckets are arranged to be withdrawn or opened 
when they reach the discharge-end of the wheel-arc. 
The material, in the form of powder or granules, is 
supplied to the side of the wheel which contains the 
electrode or electrodes. The electric arc, or the limits 
of the space within which the electric action on the 
material takes place, is wholly within the mass of pul- 
verized material, so that a wall of unchanged or uncon- 
verted material will surround the product of the 
furnace, and the motion of the wheel is in such direc- 
tion as to keep the converted material surrounded by a 
body of unconverted material, and thus to exclude air 
until the converted mass has become sufficiently cool to 
permit of its removal and further treatment for pack- 
ing for shipment or storage. 

In the formation of the calcium carbide, the intimate 
mixture of ground lime and ground carbon is supplied 
to that side of the wheel-arc into which the current is 
introduced and is here fused and forms a pool of liquid 
carbide within the wheel rim, the pool being surrounded 
by a mass of the uncombined mixed carbon and lime 
which acts as an efficient heat insulator and keeps the 
walls of the receptacle comparatively cool. As the 
wheel turns, the pool is withdrawn from the neighbor- 
hood of the arc, or region of electrical activity, so that 
the liquid carbide cools and solidifies under a superin- 
cumbent and surrounding mass of material, which pre- 
vents access of air and thus prevents wasteful consump- 
tion of carbon by combustion. Thus a core of solid 
calcium carbide is formed within a granular or pulver- 
ized mass of material, the core growing in length as the 
receptacle recedes from the electrode until it emerges 
from the other end of the wheel-arc, when the remova- 
ble sections of the wheel rim may be taken off one at a 
time, which permits the pulverized material to fall away 



57 



from the solid core of carbide, so that the latter may bo 
broken off or otherwise removed periodically. Thus 
the formation of carbide goes on continuously without 
any necessary interruption for recharging or removal 
of the product. 

The wheel used is formed in sections which un- 
bolted together, and it has a horizontal axis mounted 
in boxes at or near the Hoor level. The rim of the 
wheel is concave in cross section and is provided at in- 
tervals with pivoted latches to engage studs on setni- 
cylindrical sections of plate iron and thereby support 
them on the wheel. Auxiliary plates of thin sheet 
iron may be bent around the joint between the sections 
on the. inside of the wheel rim, to prevent the pulver- 
ized material from sifting through the cracks at the 
joints. The wheel may with advantage be made about 
15 feet in diameter, and the rim and plate-iron sections 
of such proportions as to form a circular receptatUe of 
36 inches in diameter. The inner wall of the wheel 
rim is provided with holes at intervals to receive cop- 
per plugs connecting with the several plates of a com- 
mutator on which bears a brush, connecting with one 
pole of an electric generator. The other pole of the 
generator connects with a carbon electrode about 4 
inches in diameter, mounted in a sleeve and provided 
with a screw thread on the outside, which engages an 
internally threaded sleeve secured to a bevel gear, on 
the axis of which is a crank for adjusting the electrode. 
The electrode and its regulating mechanism are 
mounted on a framework adjacent to the wheel pit, so 
that the electrode may be fed into the receptacle 
formed by the wheel rim and the rim sections when 
partly consumed. 

A feed hopper is provided with a spout projecting 
into the wheel rim and a gate for regulating the supply 
of mixed material to be acted upon. The wheel pit is 
preferably provided with sloping sides, so that any 
powdered material which drops from the wheel at its 
discharging end or elsewhere may slide by gravity' to 
a conveyor, the buckets of which return it to the feed 
hopper, to again pass through the furnace. 

The wheel is preferablj' connected with an electric 
motor by speed-reducing gearing. The motor shaft 
carries a worm, acting on a spur gear, on the shaft of 
which is secured another worm, meshing with another 
gear, on the shaft of which is a third worm, meshing with 
a gear on the wheel shaft. By this mechanism, a very 
slow speed of the wheel may be maintained, a complete 
revolution being made once in five da3's. In using the 
apparatus, the rim sections are latched over the wheel 
rim above an arc covering the lower part of the wheel, 
and the gate of the feed hopper is opened. A charge 
of intimately mixed carbon and lime, in proper propor- 
tions to form calcium carbide, falls into the receptacle 
around the wheel rim and accumulates until the top of 
the electrode is immersed therein. The circuit of the 
electric machine may then be closed and the electric 



motor thrown into operation. As the charge is moved 
away from the electrode, intense heat is created and the 
refnuitory material fu.ses. As the wheel turns, the \hm)\ 
gradually recedes from the electrode and slowly cools 
while inclosed within walls of refractory, uncombined 
matt^rial on all sides, and the cool product forms a 
bottom for the liquid compound. Thus a continuous 
core of the product is formed, new rim sections \mng 
added by the workman at intervals of a few hours. 

The electrode, at starting, should project well into 
the receptacle, and, a.s the wheel turns, the electrode 
rises relatively to the charge, and when it reaches a 
point near the top of the rim section, a new rim section 
is hung on the wheel by means of the next set of sup- 
ports, and a strip of sheet iron is bent around the joint 
between the rim sections. The gate of the hopper is 
then opened and the rim filled, or partly filled, with 
material. As thLs material in its jjowdered state is a 
very poor conductor of electricity as well as of heat, the 
immersion of the electrode does not interfere with the 
heating action. When a new rim section is added on 
the electrode side of the wheel,' one is removed at the 
other side. Thus the process continue.s until the solid 
core of the furnace product appears at the discharge 
end of the wheel, when a rim section is taken off and 
the powdered material falls into the pit, leaving a pillar 
of solid product projecting vertically, which may be 
broken off or otherwise removed. Solid calcium carbide 
is a conductor of electricity, and the copper plugs make 
a good contact with it, thereb}' constituting the carbide 
itself one of the electrodes. The action of the conmiu- 
tator leads the current to a )>oint of the carbide core 
close to the electrode, and prevents unnecessary resist- 
ance, which would intervene if the plugs were more 
widely spaced. The conducting plugs which are remote 
from the arc help to carry the current, and thus the 
heating of any one contact with the carbide core is 
reduced. 

Calcium carbide is used in generating acetylene gas, 
the reaction taking place when it is brought in contact 
with water at the ordinary temperature. As the man- 
ufacture of calcium carbide is a fairly efficient process, 
and as it may be produced wherever a head of water is 
available, as the energy is stored in it in a compact 
form, and as this energy may be readilj- made available 
again by generating the acetylene and burning it. cal- 
cium carbide is looked upon as a material bj- means of 
which the energj' of remote waterfalls that is now going 
to waste may be made useful to man. 

Oarlwrundum (Silicon carbide, SiC), the production of 
which is covered by E. G. Acheson in United States patent 
No. 4'.>iJ767, of February 28, 1893, is made in the I'nited 
States onl^-, and is made by heating a mixtui-e of 34.2 
per cent of coke, 54.2 per cent of sand, 9.9 per cent of 
sawdust, and 1.7 per cent of common salt in an electric 
furnace. The furnace is built up of bricks put together 
without any binding material, l)ecau8e of the necessity 



58 



of permitting the gases generated during the process 
to freely escape, and because the furnace must be 
pulled down at the end of each run. At each end of 
the bin-shaped furnace, which is about 15 feet long, 7 
feet high, and 7 feet wide, is a heavy bronze casting to 
which the leads are attached, which carries, on its inner 
surface, a bundle of sixty 3-inch carbon rods, each of 
which is 2 feet in length. These electrodes project into 
the furnace and are discontinuously connected by a 
cylindrical mass of coarsely powdered coke which forms 
a core about 9 feet long bj^ 2 feet in diameter in the cen- 
ter of the furnace. The charge of the above-described 
mixture, weighing about 10 tons, is packed all about 
this core. 

When the current is turned on, heating proceeds 
slowly until, after about two hours, carbon monoxide 
is evolved at all the openings in the brickwork and from 
the upper surface of the charge, where it burns with a 
blue flame. After some twelve hours the outside of 
the charge becomes red hot, and after twelve hours 
more the reaction has proceeded as fai' as practicable. 
After cooling, the furnace walls are pulled down, when 
the charge is now found to be separated into several 
layers, viz. ; an outer one consisting of about 11 per cent 
salt, 56 per cent silica, and 33 per cent of carbon, which 
represents the portion of the charge which has not been 
heated sufficiently high to be converted into carbide. 
Within this outer layer is a layer of greenish-colored 
material, concentric with the core and consisting of 
amorphous silicon carbide, mixed with raw materials. 
It is not hard enough for use as carborundum, and is 
reworked in the next charge. The third layer, which 
is about 10 inches in thickness, consists of crystallized 
silicon carbide, the crystals being small on the outside 
and increasing in size toward the core. This is the car- 
borundum. Within this layer is the poition about or 
within the core, which has been converted into graphite. 
The 10-ton charge yields about 2 tons of carborundum, 
though the theoretical yield of a charge of this size, 
consisting of silica and carbon mixed in equivalent pro- 
portions is about 4.2 tons. The energy used is about 
1,000 horsepower. 

Although pure silicon carbide is colorless, the crystals 
obtained in the commercial manufacture are blue, black, 
or dark brown, and are iridescent; and as they possess 
an almost adamantine luster, they are very beautiful. 
They are hard enough to scratch ruby and very penna- 
nent. Carborundum is largely used as an abrasive, the 
crystals being crushed in edge runners, washed with 
water and acid, dried, and graded by sieving. In this 
condition it is molded in a great variety of forms. It 
is also employed in the manufacture of steel as a sub- 
stitute for ferro-silicon, and in the manufacture of 
graphite. 

Carbon DimLpKide.—Onz of the most ingenious as 
well as one of the most recent chemical applications of 
electricity is in the manufacture of carbon disulphide 



(carbon bisulphide; bisulphide of carbon; CSj), a sub- 
stance which was discovered by Lampadius in 1796, 
and which has been heretofore manufactured by pass- 
ing the vapors of sulphur over coke or charcoal which 
has been heated to a "cherry red" in retorts made of 
cast iron or glazed earthenware. The further steps in 
the process are for the purpose of purifying the car- 
bon disulphide by removing uncombined sulphur, hy- 
drogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other foreign 
bodies which may be present, and this is accomplished 
by condensation in towers, washing in water, treatment 
with chemicals, such as lead acetate, caustic soda, milk 
of lime or anhydrous copper sulphate, mercury or mea- 
curie chloride, and redistillation. For certain uses the 
presence of certain of the impurities adds to the effi- 
ciency of the material, and in such cases the methods of 
purification alluded to are dispensed with. Owing to 
the corrosive action of the heated sulphur vapors and 
their products, but few materials can be employed in 
the construction of retorts, and those which have been 
used have been short lived, so that the manufacture has 
not only been conducted in a discontinuous manner, but 
the renewal account has been large. 

In the electric process of Edward R. Taylor, which 
was put into operation in 1900 at Torrey, N. Y., sev- 
eral sets of carbon electrodes are introduced into the 
base of a stack furnace and connected by a bridge con- 
sisting of broken coke or other conductive carbon, 
while the bodj- of the stack is filled with charcoal. 
Sulphur is fed in by suitable ports so as to cover the 
electrode faces when, as the current is passed through, 
it becomes melted and vaporized. At the same time 
the charcoal is heated above the electrodes, and reaction 
with the sulphur occurs. From the construction of the 
furnace, the heat radiated through the walls of the 
stack is utilized in heating the sulphur to the melting 
point, and the heat resident in the carbon disulphide 
vapors is largely utilized in heating up the charcoal as 
the latter descends the stack. The process is a contin- 
uous one, and the curi'ent may be regulated either by 
the amount of conductive carbon introduced into the 
furnace or by reducing the working surfaces of the 
electrodes by partly submerging them in the molten 
sulphur. 

Carbon disulphide is extensively used as a solvent 
and extractive agent, as it dissolves sulphur, phosphorus, 
iodine, rubber, camphor, wax, tar, resins, and nearly 
all oils and fats. It is a germicide and insecticide and 
is very largely used by transportation and storage com- 
panies for the destruction of weevils in wheat, and other 
insect pests, and by farmers for exterminating mice, 
i-ats, prairie dogs, gophers, and other subterranean ani- 
mals that damage the crops. It is employed in the 
manufacture of thiocyanates, carbon tetra-chloride, 
sulpho-carbonates, viscose, rubber cement, and in or- 
ganic prepai-ation work, and for prisms. 

Phosphm'MS. — Heretofore phosphorus has been pro- 



69 



duced from burnt bone or mineral phosphates by treat- 
ing them with sufficient sulphuric acid, to convert part 
or all of the calcium present into calcium sulphate and 
the phosphorus contents into calcium metaphosphate or 
eventually into phosphoric acid, and reducing these 
products by charcoal. 

Quite long ago Wohler suggested that the manufac- 
ture be carried out by heating the calcium phosphate, 
such as exists in burned bones or rock phosphates, with 
sand and carbon, by which a reaction of the following 
nature may be realized: 

2Ca,(PO.),+6SiO,+10C=6CaSiO,+10CO+P,; 
but until recently it has been impracticable to use this 
simple process on account of the high temperature re- 
quired. This diflSculty is now met in the electric fur- 
nace, and at present the electric production of phos- 
phorus is on a profitable basis. In the continuous 
process of Readman, Parker, and Robinson, 100 parts 
of calcium phosphate, 50 parts of sand, and 50 parts of 
coke are intimately mixed and heated in a tightly cov- 
ered electric furnace provided with an outlet pipe lead- 
ing to a condenser and a tap hole. The phosphoi'us 
volatilizes as it is liberated, and, together with the car- 
bon monoxide, passes to the condenser, where the phos- 
phorus condenses and is collected in water. The 
residue of calcium silicate and foreign bodies fuses to a 
slag and is tapped off at intervals, fresh charges of the 
phosphate mixture being introduced into the furnace 
without interrupting the electric current. 

The phosphorus as first produced is contaminated 
with sand, carbon, clay, and other impurities, and this 
crude phosphorus is purified by melting under warm 
water and straining through canvas, or by redistillation 
from iron retorts. For final purification it is treated, 
when molten, with a mixture of potassium dichromate 
and sulphuric acid, or by sodium hypobromite. Theo- 
retically, 100 parts of Ca,(PO,)j should yield 20 parts of 
phosphorus, but in practice with the electric furnace 
only about 17 parts are recovered. This is, however, 
much more than the yield given by the older process, in 
which part of the phosphate was converted into calcium 
metaphosphate; there the maximum yield on the origi- 
nal phosphate was but 11 parts in 100. 

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of friction 
matches and fuse compositions; for making rat poison; 
and as a source of phosphoric acid and other phospho- 
rus containing compounds that are used in medicine and 
in the arts. As phosphorus is a very active reducing 
agent, it has found some application in the precipitation 
of the precious metals and in electr«t}'ping. 

Other Products. — As an evidence of what may be ex- 
pected in the future, attention is called to the fact that 
hydrogen sulphide (which may be burned to produce 
sulphuric acid), white lead, chromic acid from chromium 
sulphate, and lampblack from acetylene are being made 
by the aid of electricity. Especial activity is to be 
looked for in the field of organic chemistry. So long 



ago as 1S49 KoHw' electrolyzed alkaline salts of fatty 
acids, obtaining hydrm^arbons, and since then halogen 
derivatives of the hydnxiarlions have been made from 
organic salts or alcohols and haloid compounds; chloral 
from alcohol and potassium chloride; mono and dich- 
loracotones and monobrom acetone from acetone and 
hydrochloric or hydrobromic acid; azoxybenzene, azo- 
benzene, hydrazobenzene, benzidine, and anilin from 
the reduction of nitrobenzene; piperidine by the reduc- 
tion of pyridine in acid solutions; and vanillin and 
heliotropine from the ozonization of eugenol or oil of 
cloves; and many other laboratory reactions. Accord- 
ing to Swan' the manufacture of iodoform, vanillin, 
chloral, azo and hydrazo compounds, oxidation products 
of fusel oil, dyestuflfs of the triphenylmethane type, 
anilin blue, anilin black, Hofmann's violet, alizarin, 
Congo red, oxidation products of the alcohols, sulphonic 
acids, piperidine, dihydroquinone, benzidine, and ami- 
dophenol have already been pi'oduced abroad by electro- 
chemical means, and that at least the first five are being 
so produced on a commercial scale. 

LitERATUBB. 

Electric Smelting and Refining, W. Borchere: Philadelphia, 
1897. 

Practical Electro-Chemistry, Bertram Blount: New York, 1901. 

Notes on Electro-Chemistry, by Charles F. Chandler. The 
Mineral Industry, vol. 9, 763-772. 1901. 

Manufacture and Uses of Metallic So<lium, .Tames D. Darling, 
J. Frk. Inst., 153, 65-74. 1902. 

The Le Sueur Process for the Electrolytic Production of Sodium 
Hydroxide and Chlorine, Charles Lathrop Parsons, J. Am. Chem. 
Soc, 20, 868-878. 1898. 

Production of Phosphorus and Chlorides of Carbon by means of 
the Electric Furnace, Sci. Am., 74, 180. 1901. 

Lighting by Acetylene, William E. Gibbs: New York, 1898. 

Carbon Bisulphide in the Electric Furnace, Elect. World and 
Engineer, 38, 1028. 1901. 

Graphite; Its Formation and Manufacture, E. G. Acheeon, 
J. Frk. Inst, June, 1899. 

Some Electrolytic Processes for the Manufacture of White Lead, 
Sherard Cowper-Cowles. The Electro-Chemist and Metallurgist 
and Metallurgical Review, 1, 145-147. 1901. 

Applications of Electrolysis to Organic Compounds, J. T. Hewitt 
The Electro-Chemist and Metallurgist, 1, 34-35, 99-100, 120-122, 
170-172. 1901. 

Chemical and Technical Education in the United States, Charles 
F. Chandler, J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 19, 591-620. l^K). 

Electro-Chemical Industry, Jos. VV. Swan, J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 
20, 663-675. 1901. 

Group XJ. — Dtkstuffs. 

Under the classification "dyestuffs and extracts" 
reports have been rendered for the two previous cen- 
su.ses. As the sources of much of the natural raw 
materials of the two industries and the methods for 
their treatment are in many respects similar, both dye- 
stuffs and tanning materials were embraced in this 

■ Liebig's Annalen, vol. 69, page 259. 1849. 
*J. Chem. Soc., vol. 20, page 668; 1901. 



60 



classification. Combining the returns of the census of 
1900 in the same manner we have the following com- 
parison: 

COMPARISON OF DYESTUFF AND EXTRACT FACTORIES: 
1880 TO 1900. 



YEAR. 


Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Capital. 


Wage- 
eamers. 


Value of 
product. 


1880 


41 
62 

77 


J2, 363, 700 
8,645,468 
7,839,034 


992 
2,302 
2,094 


S5, 253, 038 


1890 


9,292,614 


1900 


7,360,748 







This comparison shows a gain of 76.9 per cent in the 
value of the product for 1890 over that for 1880, and a 
loss of 20.9 per cent in the value of the product for 1900 
as compared with that of 1890. Considering the general 
character of trade conditions in 1900 and the activit}' of 
the dyeing and tanning industries, it is believed that this 
falling off is not real, but that it is due to a difference 
in rulings as to the category in which certain of the 
products reported should be put. For instance, the 
chromium compounds are used in dyeing, in tanning, 
for paints, and as chemicals in many arts. Where shall 
they be classified? Again, citric, lactic, tartaric, and 
other acids are used in calico printing and in other arts. 
Shall they be classified under acids or under dyestuffs? 
Questions like these continually^ arise, and they will 
necessarily be settled, to a certain extent, in different 
ways in the different censuses. The endeavor in the 
present report has been to classify substances as chem- 
icals in the categories of acids, sodas, potashes, alums, 
cyanides, and fine or heavy chemicals unless they very 
distinctivelj'^ belonged in one of the other categories in 
the scheme of classification. 

Another cause might arise from an extension of the 
work and an increase in the output of an establishment, 
if that increase took place in another industry, for the 
return would be classified under the principal product. 
Thus, if in 1890 an establishment were grinding sumac 
leaves part of the time and wheat part of the time, and 
the value of the ground sumac in 1890 exceeded that of 
the flour, the establishment would in that year have 
been classified under "dyestuffs and extracts;" but if 
in 1900 the value of the flour exceeded that of the 
sumac, the returns would be classified under "food and 
kindred products." As a rule these variations tend to 
balance one another and to give a result that is a close 
approximation to the true one, but in certain instances 
this maj^ not be the case, though in each census they 
all appear in the final summation. 

Taking the. returns thus assembled, the geographical 
distribution of the dyestuff and extract industry is pre- 
sented in the following table: 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DYESTUFF AND 
EXTRACT FACTORIES: 1900. 



STATES. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Wage- 
earnera. 


Value of 
product. 


I'er cent 
of value. 


United States 


77 


$7,839,034 


2,094 


87,360,748 


100.0 


New York 


19 
10 
12 
10 

8 
5 

13 


2, .548, 136 
592,510 

1,778,173 
591,916 
386,904 
272, 192 

1,670,203 


562 
56 
361 
172 
271 
98 

574 


2,111,811 

1,320,881 

1,269,246 

502,798 

479,372 

246,754 

1,420,886 


28.7 




18.0 




17.3 




6.9 




6.5 


West Virginia 


3.3 


California. Connecticut, 
Florida, Illinois, Ken- 
tucky. Maine, Michi- 
gan, Rhode Island, and 


19.3 







A clearer idea of the dyestuffs industry may be ob- 
tained by sepamtingthe statistics for this industry from 
those rendered for tanning materials and by combining 
with them the data from those schedules in which dj^e- 
stuffs have appeared as a minor product and which have 
therefore been sunk in another classification. There 
have been 72 establishments found in which such man- 
ufacture is carried on and the product is shown in the 
following table: 

TOTAL PRODUCTION OF DYESTUFFS IN THE UNITED 
STATES: 1900. 



CHARACTER OF PRODUCT. 



Total 

Natural dyestuflfs . 
Artificial dyestuffs 

Mordants 

Iron liquor 

Red liquor 

other products 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Quantity 
(pounds). 



61,209,231 



48,245,628 

7,698,435 

734,000 

3,344,568 

707,040 

479,560 



Value. 



$5,868,006 



3, 435. 808 
2. 280, 899 
8.5,466 
32,065 
7,340 
26, 428 



There were consumed in the manufacture 51,955 tons 
of logwood, of a value of $1,084,746; of fustic 3,104 
tons, of a value of $51,586; of cutch 798,508 pounds, of 
a value of $61,697; of indigo 109,034 pounds, of a value 
of $125,069; of yellow oak bark 4,907 tons, of a value 
of $29,451; of anilin dyes 1,734,717 pounds, of a value 
of $840,229; of alizarine and other coal tar colors 
1,417,325 pounds, of a value of $333,317; of logwood 
extract 2,364,792 pounds, of a value of $163,408; and of 
wood for the manufacture of iron liquor 2,838 cords, of 
a value of $9,629; besides small amounts of nicwood, 
quercitron, turmeric, quassia, persian berries, mja-a- 
bolans, gambler, sumac, nutgalls, quill-bark and oils, and 
other materials for assistants and mordants. 

Coloring matter obtained from vegetable or animal 
sub.stances have been used in coloring textiles from pre- 
historic times, and as they were supposed to exist ready 



61 



formed in the organism, they became known as natural 
dyestuflFs. Prominent ainonfj niitiiral dye.stuffs i« the 
coloring matter obtained from logwood aiid known as 
" hsematein." The color-forming substance (or chromo- 
gen), hivmatoxj'lin, exists in the logwood partly free 
and partly as a glucoside. When pure, hiematoxylin 
forms nearly colorless crystals, but on oxidation, espe- 
cially in the presence of an alkali, it is converted into 
the coloring matter hrematcin, which forms colored 
lakes with metallic bases, yielding violets, blues, and 
blacks with various mordants. Logwood comes into 
commerce in the form of logs, chips, and extracts. 
The chips are moistened with water and exposed in 
heaps so as to induce fermentation, alkalies and oxidiz 
ing agents being added to promote the "curing" or 
oxidation. When complete and the chips have assumed 
a deep reddish-brown color, the decoction is made 
which is employed in dyeing. The extract offers con- 
venience in transportation, storage, and use. It is now 
usually made from logwood chips that have not been 
cured. The chips are treated in an extractor, pressure 
often being used, but a pressure above 15 pounds to 
the square inch is to be avoided, as it may cause a 
decrease in the coloring power of the product. The 
liquor is settled to remove fibers and resin, and evap- 
orated in a vacuum pan to a density of about 50° Tw., 
or it may be continued until a solid extract is obtained 
on cooling. The yield of solid exti-act produced with 
pressure is about 20 per cent and without pressure 
about 16 per cent. The extiact is sometimes adulter- 
ated with chestnut, hemlock, and quercitron extracts, 
and with glucose or molasses. Reynolds & Innis made 
"dyestuffs'' at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1816. Brown- 
ing and Brothers made extracts in Philadelphia in 1834. 

Fustic is the heart wood of certain species of trees 
indigenous to the West Indies and tropical South Amer- 
ica. It is sold as chips and extract, yields a coloring 
principle which forms lemon-yellow lakes with alumina, 
and is chiefly used in d3'eing wool. Young fustic is the 
heart wood of a sumac native to the shores of the 
Mediterranean, which yields an orange-colored lake 
with alumina and tin salts. 

Cutch, or catechu, is obtained from the wood and pods 
of the Acacia catechu, and from the betel nut, both 
being native in India. Cutch appears in commerce in 
dark brown lumps, which form a dark brown solution 
with water. It contains catechu-tan nic acid, as tannin 
and catechin, and is exteu.sively used in weighting black 
silks, as a mordant for certain basic coal-tar dyes, as a 
brown dye on cotton, and for calico printing. 

Indigo, which is obtained from the glucoside indican 
existing in the indigo plant and in woad, is probably one 
of the oldest known dyestuffs. It is obtained from the 
plant by a process of fermentation and oxidation, the 
yield being from 0.2 to 0.3 percent of the weight of the 
plant. Indigo appears in commerce in dark blue cubical 
cakes, varying very much in composition as they often 



contain indigo red, and indigo brown (which affect the 
color produced b}' the dye), besides moisture, mineral 
matters, and glutinous substances. Thus Java' indigo 
contains from 70 to 80 per cent of the pure color; Ben- 
gal, 6(» to 70 per cent; and Kurpah, 80 to 55 per cent. 
It has been found that *' lots" of natural indigo .sold an 
one quality varied in themselves, and that samples drawn 
from the same chest and identical, so far as appearances 
went, differed as much as 7 to 8 per cent in their contents 
of pure indigo. Powdered indigo di.ssolves in concen- 
trated fuming sulphuric acid, forming monosulphonic 
and disulphonic acids. On neutralizing these solutions 
with sodium carbonate and precipitating the indigo car- 
mine with common .salt there is obtained the indigo 
extract, soluble indigo, and indigo carmine of com- 
merce. True indigo carmine is the sodium salt of the 
disulphonic acid, and when sold dry it is called " indigo- 
tine." Alexander Cochrane made extract of indigo at 
Lowell, Mass., in 1849. 

One of the most important of the recent achieve- 
ments of chemi.stry is the synthetic production of indigo 
on a commercial scale. For some years approaches 
have been made, as in the case of what was known as 
" propiolic paste," containing about 25 per cent of 
o-nitrophenylpropiolic acid, which was used for a time 
in calico printing, but abandoned because of the un- 
pleasant odor which was developed in the process, and 
which persistently adhered to the goods, and because 
the blue color produced was slightly gray in shade, and in 
the case of Kalle's artificial indigo prepared from o-nitro- 
benzenc chloride. The S3'nthetic indigo now made by 
the Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik is manufactured 
by the Heumann' process (D. K. P. 91202). Starting 
with naphthalene, the cheapest and most abundant of 
the coal-tar products, by treatment with highly con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, phthalic acid is obtained. 
This phthalic acid is converted into phthalimide by the 
use of ammonia; the phthalimide is converted to 
anthranilic acid by means of sodium hypochlorite; the 
anthranilic acid is united with chloracetic acid to form 
phenylglycocollorthocarboxjlicacid; by fusing this last 
mentioned acid with caustic soda, indoxyl or indoxj'lic 
acid is formed, according to the existing conditions, 
and when these are oxidized by air, in the presence of 
alkalies, they pass into indigo. In this manufacture 
10,000 tons of naphthalene, over 1,200,000 pounds of 
ammonia, 4,500,000 pounds of glacial acetic acid, and 
10,000,000 pounds of salt are consumed. The recov- 
ery of the 40,000 tons of sulphur dioxide, which 
occurs as a by-product in the treatment of the naph- 
thalene with sulphuric acid (which is the first step in 
the process of making indigo) is an important matter, 
and the recently jx'rfected contact process for its con- 
version into sulphuric acid for reuse comes in most 
opportunely. 

'J. Frk. Inst., vol. 153, page 50. 1902. 

»J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 23, page 911. 1901. 



62 



Lachman says:' 

The present annual production of synthetic indigo has not been 
given to the public, but from the data obtainable it can not be far 
from 3,000,000 pounds, about one-fourth of the world's supply. It 
is going to be a question of business rather than of manufacture 
when the indigo factories will have supplanted the indigo fields. 
Some of the above calculations will give a faint idea of the purely 
commercial side of this stupendous undertaking. The 'Badische' 
has already invested over $4,500,000 in the plant and the prelimi- 
nary experiments. 

Although mineral dyes such as prussian blue, chrome 
yellow, orange and green, and iron buflf, or nankin yel- 
low, have long been used, artificial dyestuffs assumed 
preponderating importance with the discovery of the 
lilac color mauve by Perkin in 1856, and fuchsine or 
magenta by Verguin in 1859, for with each succeeding 
year other colors have been discovered, until at the 
present time there are several thousand artificial organic 
dyes or colors on the market. Since the first of these 
were prepared from anilin or its derivatives the colors 
were known as ' ' anilin dyes," but as a large number 
are now prepared from other constituents of coal-tar 
than anilin they are better called "coal-tar dyestuffs." 
There are many schemes of classification. Benedikt- 
Knecht^ divides them into I, aniline or amine dyes; II, 
phenol dyes; III, azo dyes; IV, quinoline and acridine 
derivatives; V, anthracene dyes; and VI, artificial 
indigo. 

Of the anthracene dyes, the alizarin is the most im- 
portant, since this is the coloring principle of the madder. 
The synthesis of alizarin from anthracene was effected 
by Grabe and Liebermann in 1868, but a commercial 
process for its production was not developed until some 
years later, when it was worked out by the above-named 
chemists in conjunction with Caro, though the process 
was discovered simultaneously by Perkin. Schorlem- 
mer' said in 1894: "Grabe and Liebermann's discovery 
produced a complete revolution in calico printing, 
turkey-red dyeing, and in the manufacture of madder 
preparations sooner than was expected. Madder finds 
to-day only a very limited application in the dyeing of 
wool. Twenty years ago the annual yield of madder 
was about 5,000,000 tons, of which one-half was grown 
in France, while ten years ago the whole export from 
Avignon was only 600 tons." 

It is to be observed that the quantities of substances 
like indigo, coal-tar dyes, alizarin, and the like re- 
ported as consumed in the United States in the further 
manufacture of dyestuffs are less than the amount of 

'Loc. cit. 

' Chemistry of Coal-tar Colors. 

• Rise and Development of Organic Chemistry, page 248. 



these articles that is imported; but this follows natu- 
rally from the fact that a large, and in some instances the 
largest, part of this material goes directly to the dye 
works and print works, while there is recorded here 
only such as is the subject of further manufacture be- 
fore being offered for sale. As much of the material is 
made up in the dye and print works into other composi- 
tions of matter before being used, a complete summary 
of the dyestuff manufacture of the country would em- 
brace also the manufacture at this point of consumption, 
but such data are not at command. 

In textile dyeing and printing, substances called mor- 
dants are largely used, either to fix or to develop the 
color on the fiber. Substances of mineral origin, such as 
salts of aluminum, chromium, iron, copper, antimony, 
and tin, principally, and many others to a less extent, and 
of organic origin, like acetic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, and 
lactic acid, sulphonated oils, and tannins are employed 
as mordants. In all technologies and treatises on dyeing 
and printing the mordants are regarded as of equal im- 
portance with the coloring matters, and from this stand- 
point thej^ are properly included in a census of the 
dyestuffs industry; but in the larger scheme of the 
chemical industries, such as is now under consideration, 
the point of view will necessarily be different, and there- 
fore when a substance like alum or copperas or tannic 
acid is a distinctively chemical substance and is applied 
to other uses than in dyeing or printing, it is classified 
in its proper category under acids, bases, or salts, but 
when a substance is a composition of matter and is used 
exclusively or principally as a mordant it is embodied 
under that heading in the table given above. 

Iron liquor, known as black liquor or pyrolignite of 
iron, is made by dissolving scrap iron in pyroligneous 
acid. It is sold as a dirty olive-brown or black liquid, 
having a density of about 25 Tw. (1.12 sp. gr.) and con- 
sists mainly of ferrous acetate with some ferric acetate 
and tarry matters. It is used as a mordant in dyeing 
silks and cotton and in calico printing. It was manu- 
factured by James Ward, at North Adams, Mass., in 
1830. 

Red liquor is a solution of aluminum acetate in acetic 
acid, and is produced by acting on calcium or lead 
acetate solutions with aluminum sulphate or the double 
alums, the supernatant liquid forming the red liquor. 
The red liquor of the trade is often the sulpho-acetate 
of alumina resulting when the quantity of calcium or 
lead acetate is insufficient to completely decompose the 
aluminum salt. Ordinarily the solutions have a dark- 
brown color and a strong pyroligneous odor. It is 
called red liquor because it was first used in dyeing 
reds. It is employed as a mordant by the cotton dyer 
and largely by the printer. 



63 



IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION DURING THE YEARS KNDING JUNE 80, 1881-1900. 



YEAR. 


LOoirooD. 


EXTRACTS AND DEOOC- 

TlOia OF LOGWOOD AMD 

OTBER DYEWOODS. 


CAMWOOD. 


Fvtnc 


ALL oran otb- 
woon. 


evOMBAn. 




Tom. 


Value. 


Pounds. Value. 


Tons. 


ValTie. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Ton*. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 


84.381 
60,297 
66,404 
63,709 
60,683 
66,074 
33,462 
46,977 
87,618 
48,190 


$1,842,964 

1,238,592 

1,218,934 

1,313,376 

1,478,618 

1,622,069 

611,010 

744,135 

647,384 

628,464 


3,282,227 1275.802 


8 
29 
26 
70 
23 
50 


8,888 
8^ 74ft 
6,770 
1,<76 
8,748 


»,100 
8,490 
10,293 
7,765 
<,2»9 
8,882 
7,918 
9,823 
»,196 
4,440 


8132,841 
126,067 
166,807 
126,809 
89,696 
90,389 
102,472 
187,666 
121,666 
60,886 


1,002 

2,527 

479 

847 

668 

1,185 

689 

2,726 

8,884 

20,9ff7 


828.969 
60,131 
8,»78 
4; 426 
12,886 
18,688 
8,827 
33,476 
106, 27< 
205,361 


402,241 
276,680 
830.348 
151,121 
148,024 
118,517 
88.804 
68,796 
88,487 
81,306 


837.889 


1892 


4,227,017 
3,757,259 
2,817,451 
8,566,277 
4,910.176 
6,459,302 
3,664,623 


825,576 
287,723 
196.397 
261,762 

287, 120 
277,79s 
232 9W. 


24,597 


1898 


25.317 


1894 


12.686 


1895 


13,129 


1896 


9; 266 




4,102 


1898 






4;7» 




3,113,658 1 267; 406 
8,420,276 j 227,827 






2,(10 


1900 


1 


in 


3,944 






TEAR. 


OAKBIER 

JAPO 


OR TEBKA 

NICA. 


CRUDE INDIQO. 


INDIGO CARMINE. 


EXTRACTS OR PASTES 
OF INDIQO. 


SDBsn- 

TCTE 
INDIGO. 


MADDER AND MUNJECT, 

OR INDIAN MADDER, 
GROUND OR PREPARED. 


ORCHIL 

OR 
ORCBIL 
LIQUID. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


1891 


27,610,594 
25,808,495 
35,762,646 
26,408,458 
29,022,603 
82,343,256 
31,349.665 
42,333,486 
38,123,478 
38,857,515 


tl, 843, 604 

1,069,043 

1,305,468 

981,328 

963,255 

1,108,611 

959,501 

1,021,288 

754,497 

906,282 


2,069,500 
2,460,635 
8,226,314 
1,717,635 
3,411,539 
2,707,928 
3,010,005 
3,058,787 
3, 127, 182 


«, 600, 865 
1,772,606 
8,137,511 
1,218,680 
1,940,260 
1,671,018 
1,586,309 
1,807,336 
1.B98.S83 


28,175 
23,600 
29,687 
12, ."^M 
26,173 
34,967 
52,192 
25,671 
17,506 
18, 2W 


838,145 
28,636 
35,304 
16,907 
83,406 
42,369 
59,182 
28,642 
17,172 
1§,767 


881,969 
826,887 
1,317,835 
829,380 
605,750 
590,664 
469,729 
396,760 
254,531 
261,538 


868,288 
58,846 

101,847 
68,474 
67,817 
85,361 
51,153 
59,001 
23,324 
20,094 


8416 


878,260 
618,786 
668,779 
262,663 
829,477 
818,313 
292,462 
246,218 
280,081 
120,736 


839,806 
52,063 
61,720 
17,576 
18,541 
15,746 
12,963 
11,816 
12,296 
5,869 


881,974 


1892 


68,779 


1893 


2,798 

1,687 

187 


64,928 


1894 


43,236 


1896 


69,317 


1896 


82,881 


1897 




38,965 


1898 




66,766 


1899 




46,494 


1900 


2,747,043 1 1,446,490 




47,184 








TEAR. 


SAFFLOWER 
AND EX- 
TRACT OF, 
SAFFRON 

AND 

SAFFRON 

CAKE. 


COCHINEAL. 


OIL OF ANIUNE. 


SALTS OF 
ANILINE. 


AUZARIN, NATURAL OR 
ARTIFICIAL AND DYES 
COMMERCIALLY KNOWN 
AS ALIZARIN YELIX)W, 
ORA.NOE, GREEN. BLUE, 
BROWN, AND BLACK, IN- 
CLUDING EXTRACT OF 
MADDER. 


COAL-TAR 
COLORS OR 

DYES NOT 
SPECTALLY 

PROVIDED 
FOR. 


ALIZARIN ASSIST- 
ANT OR SOLUBLE 
OIL, OROLEATEOF 
SODA, OR TURKEY- 
RED OIL. 


ALIZARIN AS- 
SISTANT, ETC., 
ALL OTMIB. 




Value only. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value only. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value only. 


Qallons. 


Value. 


Pounds 


. Value. 


1891 


*44,59S 
55,391 
27,697 
24,841 
16,462 
83,765 
38,022 
52,482 
32,477 
44,502 


86,797 
230,039 
215,512 
104,284 
130,205 
160,422 
137,261 
168,055 

97,668 
158,911 


819,935 
55,883 
52,572 
28,124 
37,285 
50.988 
41,943 
45,762 
23,207 
31.408 


1,489,908 
1,428,070 
1,211,818 
951,671 
1,315,934 
1,364,674 


«299,662 
263,248 
163,539 
116,141 
148,426 
164,288 


8713, 732 
536,477 
432, 134 
395,575 
548,110 
662,469 
812,884 
1,087,704 
748,130 
537 812 


3, 443, 167 


8674. 101 


81,682,642 
1,640,024 
2,322,258 
1,429,101 
2,739,933 
2,918,332 
3,163,182 
3,723,888 
8,900,099 
4, 792- 10R 


653 


8437 


1,32! 
3,W 
2,90 
1,16, 


i tin 


Iggg 


4,838,220 ! 1,029,122 
5 729,221 1.12.S .VK 


J 2,262 
I 1,157 


1898 






1894 


3,960,079 
8,287,720 
6,154,156 
6,169,018 
5,871,962 
5,226,452 
6, 009, !A2 


722,919 
870,388 
994,396 
1,023,425 
886,349 
700,786 
771. 136 






1895 


92,158 
82,876 


25,785 
24,626 




1896 






1897 






1898 














1899 














1900 


















































LITERATURE. 

A Practical Handbook of Dyeing and Calico Printing, by Wil- 
liam Crookes: London, 1874. 

History of Anilin and Allied Coloring Matters, by W. H. Perkin: 
London, 1879. 

Chemistry of the Coal-Tar Colors, by R. Benedikt: London, 1889. 

Chemistry of the Organic Dyestuffs, by R. Nietzki: London, 
1892. 

The Rise and Developnvnt of Organic Chemistry, by C. Schor- 
lemmer: London, 1894. 

Systematic Survey of the Organic Coloring Matters, by G. 
Schultz and P. Julius: London, 1894. 

Handbook of Industrial Organic Chemistry, by S. P. Sadtler: 
Philadelphia, 189.5. 

Dyeing and Calico Printing, by Antonio Sansom, London, Vol. 
I, 1895; Vol. II, 1896; Vol. Ill, 1897. 

Outlines of Industrial Organic Chemistry, by F. H. Thorp: New 
York, 1898. 

Group XII. — Tanning Material.s. 

The making of leather is one of the older arts. 
From the best records attainable, according to Robert 



H. Foerderer,' it appears that the first tannery in this 
country was operated about the year 1630 in Virginia. 
A year or two later the first tannery in New England 
was established in the village of Swampscott, Lynn, 
Mass., by Francis Ingalls, and the vats used by him 
remained until 1825. With the establishment of the 
tanning industry necessarily came the gathering of the 
tanning materials from forest and field, and subse- 
quently their preparation for use, but the first mentior 
of this industry in census reports appears under the 
head of "sumac" in the report for 1850, and from this 
time, except in 1880, separate returns for tanning 
materials have been made in each census report, though 
the methods of statement have been so varied as to make 
comparison, except in certain items, almost impossible. 
Thus in 1850, 1860, and 1870 there are the classifications 
"sumac," "sumac bark and prepared sumac," and 
"ground sumac;" in 1860 and 1870 also, "ground 



495. 



'One Hundred Yeara of American Commerce, Vol. II, page 



64 



bark;" in 1870, also "hemlock-bark extract;" in 1890, 
"dyeing and tanning extract," and "chipped wood 
and other products of this group." 

In this report for the census of 1900 there are in- 
cluded, under "tanning materials," the ground, chipped, 
and other comminuted materials, and the exti-acts ob- 
tained from oak bark and wood, hemlock, sumac, and 
palmetto root, together with the chrouie solutions that 
are employed in tanning. Under this classification, and 
taking into account establishments not in the chemical 
classification of the census, but which produce tanning 
materials in addition to other products, like drugs or 
leather, 39 establishments were reported, employing 
$2,107,040 of capital and 700 wage-earners, and produc- 
ing $1,899,220 of product. They were distributed as 
follows: 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORIES PRODUC- 
ING TANNING MATERIALS: 1900. 



STATES. 


Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Capital. 


Wage- 
earners. 


Value of 
product. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United States 


39 


$2,107,040 


700 


81,899,220 


100.00 




8 
8 
4 
4 
6 

9 


385,904 
566,869 
311,870 
270,192 
94, 762 

447,443 


271 
103 
90 
90 

27 

119 


479,372 
357, 462 
295,356 
232,365 
181,800 

352,865 


25 33 


Peiinsvlvania 


18 82 


New York 


15.55 








9.57 


Ma^achusetts. Mary land, 
Florida, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Califor- 
nia 


18 50 







There were 23 establishments employing $1,065,666 
of capital and 351 wage-earners in the manufacture of 
tanning materials from the oak. There were used of 
oak and chestnut oak 36,897 coi'ds of bark, of a value of 
$265,657, and 34,871 cords of wood, of a value of 
$92,252, and there were produced of ground bark 
29,948,237 pounds, having a value of $186,381, and of 
extract, 34,673,997 pounds, having a value of $661,119. 

There were 10 establishments employing $586,681 of 
capital and 156 wage-earners engaged in the manu- 
facture of tanning materials from the hemlock. There 
were used of hemlock bark 43,666 cords, having a value 
of $210,930, and there were produced 35,591,329 pounds 
of extract, of a value of $572,882, whei'cas in 1870 (the 
only previous record at command) 2 establishments 
were reported employing $85,000 of capital and 37 
wage-earners, and having a product valued at $185,300. 

There were reported 11 establishments employing 
$333,648 of capital and 105 wage-earners engaged in 
the manufacture of tanning materials from sumac. 
There were used of sumac leaves 11,538 tons, having a 
value of $214,353, and there were produced 9,528,800 
pounds of ground sumac, valued at $114,660, and 
8,102,742 pounds of sumac extract, valued at $215,677. 
This output is compai'ed with data accessible in pre- 
vious census reports in the following table: 



PRODUCTION OF SUMAC, BY DECADES: 1850, 1860, 1870, 
AND 1900. 



YEAK 


Ntunber 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Wage- 
earners. 


Value of 
product. 


1850 


9 

4 

19 

11 


$15,550 

11,700 

167,450 

333,648 


25 

12 

85 

105 


836,731 


1860 


16,850 
267, 180 


1870 


1900 


330,337 





There was produced of chrome tannage solution, as 
reported, 1,837,134 pounds, of a value of $52,516, but 
it is probable that much of this material produced and 
consumed in tanneries is not accounted for. Besides 
these materials there was a quantity of tannic acid from 
nutgalls and other sources reported, but this is more 
properly classified and treated of under acids. 

The sources of tannin in nature are very numerous. 
Bernadin, in his book,' treats of 350 different vegetable 
sources. Mineral salts have also been employed as tan- 
ning agents, while more recently still the electric cur- 
rent and organic compounds, such as formaldehyde, 
have been employed to convert hides or skins into 
leather. The tannin which exists in or is produced 
from vegetation varies with the genus and the species, 
and even, it is believed, with the part of the plant from 
which it is obtained. Trimble^ classifies the tannins as 
follows: Group rt, gallo-tannic acid; chestnut- wood tan- 
nin; chestnut-bark tannin; pomegranate-bark tannin; 
sumac tannin. Group h, oak-bark tannin; mangrove 
tamnin; canaigre tannin; rhatany tannin; kino tannin; 
cetechu tannin; tormentil tannin. According to the 
pi-evailing views, tannin is a glucoside and the tannic 
acid obtained from it is digallic acid. Gallnuts arc the 
richest in tannin contents of any vegetable source, 
amounting to upward of 50 per cent, but the sources 
of tanning materials reported as used in tanning in the 
United States are oak and hemlock barks, oak wood, 
sumac leaves, and palmetto root. 

Oak and Hemlock. — The bark and the wood are chip- 
ped fine and sold in this form for making the tan liquor, 
or they are treated to extract the tannin and other prin- 
ciples, and this extract is put upon the market. For 
maki. g leather it has been found essential that the aque- 
ous extract shall contain sugars, gums, resins, and col- 
oring matters as well as tannin, since the above-men- 
tioned substances play an important part in the conver- 
sion of the hides into leather. According to Hough, ^ 
the yield of bark is 3 cords per acre, and 4 to 6 trees 
j'ield a cord of bark. 

Sumac. — The sumac stands next in importance to the 
hemlock as a source of tanning material in the United 
States. It is obtained from several species of the 
Shies, but chiefly f i"om the H. glabra and B. tyhina. 



' See Literature at the end of this group. 
•■"The Tannins, Vol. II, page 132. 
' Report upon Forestry, page 145. 



65 



The sumac host suited for tanning and dyoinp purposes 
^rows wild in a l)olt of country extending from Mary- 
land down throujjh the Atlantic states to (icorjfia, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and in 
portions of Kentucky and Tennessee. The northern 
climate appears too cool for developing the tanning 
properties of this plant to the best advantage, although 
in the past large quantities of the leaves gathered in 
Pennsylvania and New York have been sold to tanners 
of goatskins, who put them in vats to strengthen and 
keep the sewed skins from leaking, and they have been 
used by many tanners to brighten the color of their 
leather. 

According to Hough.' in 1877 the state of Virginia 
led in the production of sumac, and the business of 
collecting, grinding, and packing was carried on at 
Richmond, Fredericksburg, Alexandria, Culpeper, 
Winchester, and perhaps other places. According to 
Bernadin,' in 1880, 6,000 tons of American sumac 
were annuall}' brought into the market, principall}' 
from Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, and, above all, 
Virginia. Sumac leaves contain 2-1 per cent of tannin, 
but a sample of Rkus glabra from Georgetown, D. C, 
went as high as 26.10 per cent in tannin contents. 

The season for picking sumac begins about the first 
of July and ends the last of September, or with the 
first frost, for when the leaves turn red in the autumn 
the}' are no longer of value. The tanning properties 
of the sumac reside in the leaves, and only these should 
be gathered. The differences existing in various sam- 
ples of sumac is found often to be due to the care with 
which the leaves were gathered and dried. The blos- 
soms and berries, as well as the stems, should be thrown 
out and the leaves should be dried in the shade. When 
cured, the sumac is ground in mills under heavy wooden 
wheels, revolving in circles, at the ends of axles attached 
horizontally to a vertical shaft. These grinding wheels 
are inclosed in a tight covering to prevent the escape 
of the dust, which arises quite abundantly. John G. 
Hurkamp began grinding sumac at Fredericksburg, 
Va., in 1847. 

Palmetto Root. — The palmetto root is a source of 
tannin which has attracted attention in recent years in 
the South. It is found abundantly in Florida, and 
grows in Alabama, Louisiana, and Tennessee. It shows 
10 per cent of tannin and the root can be cut up like 
bark. The tannin from this source produces tough 
grain and strong, durable leathei*. It tans rapidly, 
giving a pleasing light color, toughness, and pliability, 
and is a good filler of leather. There was but one fac- 
tory reporting palmetto extract at the census of 1900. 
The extract is put up in barrels containing 52 gallons, 
and a gallon weighs about lOi pounds. 

Tanning FJxtracts.^ — ''The u.se of extracts in tan- 
ning has grown to large proportions during the past 

' Report upon Forestry, page 153. 

* Claseification de 350 raatieree tannaiites, page 23. 



fifteen years. Th(M'e are many advantages in the use 
of such exti-acts. The li((uids are always under jjerfect 
control; that is, by putting in so much extra<'t the 
<iuantity of tanning material is known. It does away 
with the storing of large quantities of t»ark, as 1 tmr- 
rel of extract is equivalent to alK>ut 1 cord of l)ark — 
128 cord feet. Where space costs money, this is quite 
an item, and it also saves interest and insurance on the 
bark. 

" There is no difference in the fiber produced by Uirk 
liquors and pure tanning extracts, as properly prepared 
extract is nothing more than concentrated liquor. 
Tanning extracts in common use in the United States 
are made from chestnut oak bivrk, chestnut oak wood, 
chestnut wood, hemlock bark, quercitron bark, canaigre, 
and sumac. Black oak bark extract is used to give a 
bloom to leather, and coloring or dyeing extracts are 
made from logwood, fustic, and from a large number of 
other materials. 

"The chestnut tree, after it is felled is peeled of the 
bark, which is objectionable on account of the coloring 
matter which it contains. The chestnut oak tree is used 
as it comes from the stump. The chestnut tree and the 
chestnut oak tree are cut into suitable lengths, say about 
4 feet long, in the forest. These pieces are then carried 
to the factory, where they are further reduced by ' chip- 
ping ' by a machine built especially for the purpose. 
This machine is a cast-steel disk 4 feet in diameter, re- 
volving rapidly, and carrying a suitable arrangement of 
knives, which cut the wood into small chips. These 
chips are carried to the leaches and leached or extracted 
as is usual in tanneries. No chemicals should be used 
in the leaches. The liquor is then run into settling 
tanks, and next passed through 10 wire-cloth strainers 
of the finest meshes to clarify it, after which the liquor 
goes to the vacuum pan and is concentrated under dimin- 
ished pressure at a temperature of between 120-^ and 
140° F. 

"The above-described method of settling and strain- 
ing is the one in common use in the United States, and 
it.produces a liquor which is pure and transparent enough 
to be made into an extract suitable for tiinneries. 

" When the degree of heat has been carried too high 
in the leaches, such liquor can only be clarified suflS- 
ciently b}- first lowering the temperature below the 
coagulating point of blood and adding blood; second, 
raising the temperature of the liquor suflicienth' high 
to coagulate the blood, which gathers up the fine sus- 
pended matter and settles to the bottom of the vat or 
tank, and is then still further strained. It is then con- 
centrated as usual. 

"Extract, however, made from a liquor which has 
been produced at too high a degree of heat, although 
clarified by blood albumen, will not produce a satis- 
factory article; that is, such an extract is not, strictly 
speaking, a concentrated liquor. 

•The Manufacture of Leather, by Charles T. Davis, pages 74-77. 



Ko. 210- 



66 



' ' The extract maker, it is true, obtains a larger yield or 
number of pounds of finished extract from his material, 
but it is at the expense of the tanner. The excessive 
degree of heat in the leaches extracts not only nontan- 
ning substances, which are objectionable, but destroj^s 
also certain bodies which act favoi'abljr in the production 
of leather. 

"In the concentration of the liquor in the vacuum 
pan, extreme caution must be observed as to the degree 
of heat. A temperature of over 140° F. or thereabouts 
produces a change in the tanning substances and in its 
allied nontanning substances which is verj^ objection- 
able, and which produces an undesirable leather, not 
only in color but in quality. In other words, a liquor, 
although carefully made, when subjected in the pan to 
a degree of heat in excess of 14-0° F., or thereabouts, 
yields an extract which, when diluted with water, is 
not what it was before concentration It is on this 
account that the multiple vacuum pans — that is, more 
than one pan — can not successfullj^ be used in the con- 
centration of liquors or the making of extracts. 

' ' In the use of extracts the tanner should always be 
on the lookout for only the pure article, free from 
adulterations of any kind. Extract is now being ex- 
tensively used for sole, upper, belting, harness, union, 
enameled, and patent leather, and in nearly all the cases 
which have fallen under our observation giving good 
results in both tannage and weight. 

"There are various methods followed in the prepara- 
tion of hemlock extract, but that used bj' a prominent 
extract company in Pennsylvania is a good one. The 
bark is ground in the old-fashioned mill and is very 
carefully leached in the old-fashioned way and boiled 
down in the vacuum pan under the least degree of heat 
that can be employed. No chemicals whatever are 
used. They do not press or crush their bark to get 
from it a larger yield, but are doing their best to giv^ 
a pure article which will produce a pure, strong, old- 
fashioned liquor. They take a good, fresh 10° bark- 
ometer liquor and boil it down to 27^° Baum^ in vacuum. 
There is no other description than this, for this is all 
thej' do. 

"The manufacture of tanning extracts now closely re- 
sembles the process for extracting sugar; the sliced 
wood is exhausted by diffusion in autoclaves under 
slight pressure, and the liquor is filter-pressed and 
evaporated in some cases in triple- effect apparatus 
which differs from those used at the sugar works 
merely in being constructed entirely of copper and 
bronze, to the exclusion of iron, and in being worked 
at a higher vacuum than sugar pans are. Most manu- 
facturers decolorize the liquor before concentration, 
either by the addition of some metallic salt or with 
albumen and bisulphite of soda. In the former case 
the acid of the salt remains in the extract, and in the 
latter, sulphate of soda and noncoagulable albuminoids 
are retained, whilst in both cases tannin is necessarily 
precipitated. The presence of salts in tanning extracts 



is much to be deprecated, since they accumulate in the . 
tan pits to the detriment of the leather. 

" Roy has shown that the so-called decolorizing proc- 
esses are beneficial to the.extract, not because they elimi- 
nate coloring matters, for they do this in a very minor 
degree, the color of the liquor after treatment being 
but slightly diminished if estimated on the basis of equal- 
ity of tannin content, but because they precipitate to- 
gether with the first portions of tannin, certain earthy 
and metallic bases, such as lime, magnesia, manganese, 
iron, and copper, derived from the wood and from the 
apparatus. It is these foreign matters combined with 
tannin, which are taken up, by the leather, imparting bad 
color and harsh and brittle grain. By substituting an 
aqueous solution of potassium ferrocyanide for the pre- 
cipitate previousl}^ used, Roy has succeeded in removing 
these metallic compounds without appreciably decolor- 
izing the extract, and finds that the leather produced 
by the treated extract is in every waj" comparable with 
that prepared with oak-bark liquor made in the tanyard. 
"It follows that tanning extracts must be examined 
for salts of the alkalies and the alkaline earths and for 
metallic compounds, and valued in accordance with their 
content of these, as well as with their content of tan- 
nin." 

John H. Heald & Co. began the manufacture of hem- 
lock-bark extracts at Baltimore, Md., in 1860; at El- 
mira, N. Y., in 1862; and at Lynchburg, Va., in 1869. 
Chrome Solution. — As far back as 1856 the system of 
tanning, or tawing, by the use of chromium compounds 
was discovered by a German chemist,' but all the earlj'^ 
experiments failed because the tannage could not be 
made permanent. A remedy was finally' found in the 
subsequent use of hyposulphite of soda by which the 
tannage was made lasting. The discovery of the rem- 
edy and its successful application were made in Phila- 
delphia, and the use of hyposulphite of soda for this 
purpose is covered by United States letters patent 
of June 28, 1888, granted to William Zahn. Accord- 
ing to Foerderer* the consequence of this invention 
was the creation in Philadelphia of what is to-day 
the largest and best equipped leather factory in the 
world. In carrying out the process, the skin is first dip- 
ped in a solution of a chromium salt, such as potassium 
dichromate, acidified with hydi'ochloric acid, and sub- 
sequently in a solution of sodium thiosulphate or a bi- 
sulphite acidified with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. 
It appears that for 100 pounds of skins 4 to 5 pounds of 
potassium dichromate, 2.5 to 4.5 pounds of hydrochlo- 
ric acid, 8 to 10 pounds of sodium " hj-posulphite," and 
to 1.5 pounds of sulphuric acid are consumed. Of 
course anj' equivalent chromium salt may be used, and 
latterly the use of other metallic radicals as coagulants 
has been tried. 

Considering leather as a chemical product (and it is 
always treated as such in the full chemical technologies) 
a notable example of the application of electricity is 
found in its use in the tanning of hides and skins to con- 

' One Hundred Years of American Commerce, Vol. II, page 497. 
'Ibid. 



67 



vert thcni into leftther. Thoro have been many «uch 
electric j)roce!s.se.s invented, some employing bvnnin 
solutions, hut mo.st of them referring to the use of 
mineral tannage, with chromium, aluminum, tin, and 
other metallic salts, on light skins, such as calf, goat, 
and sheep. One of these electric proccs.ses, " the Groth 
system of rapid tannage by electricity," has, according 
to Davis,' "so far been demonstrated in the United 
States at Kansas City, Mo., where good results are 
claimed for it."' Further on, in discussing electric and 
other ri\pid tannage systems, Davis' says: 

The bark uiethcxls of tanning are jjassing away with great rapid- 
ity, extracts and chrome are taking their place, and in the larger 
establishments the chemist has become an invaluable part of the 
personnel of the tannery, and he is kept but^y making investiga- 
tions and suggestions. 

The foreign commerce in tanning materials is set 
forth in the following tables, compiled from the publi- 
cations of the Bureau of Statistics of the United States 
Treasury Department. 

' The Manufacture of Leather, page 626. 
•Ibid., page 530. 

IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION DURING THE YEARS 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1891 TO 1900. 



YBAR. 


SrMAC, EXTRACT OF. 


imtAC, oBomto. 


BUMAC, UNMANDRAC- 
TDBED. 




Pounds, j Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891. ..; 


2,899,028 
1,902,089 
2,880,210 
1,277,609 
1,604,024 
2.472,923 
2,907,621 
1,266,542 
1,133,662 
1.419,827 


177,152 
68,863 

108,447 
54,535 
53,260 
78,604 
84,150 
48,399 
88,709 
60,295 


11,412,297 
10,822,614 
14,363,922 

8,315,551 
12,242,216 
13,349,233 
18,530,104 

8,336,117 
14,156,344 
10,644,001 


$236,729 
225,891 
289,953 
191,333 
236,541 
231,324 
245,992 
121,461 
202,606 
233,846 


2,953,202 
2,841,200 
3,817,568 
970,207 
2,203,645 
1,027,824 
2,117,439 
3,7M,307 
3,011,810 
1,048,955 


865,802 
60,667 
70 162 


1892 


1893... 


1894 


21,427 
40,021 
24,861 
30 554 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


62,5.53 
42,297 
20,800 


1899 

1900 





IMPORTS OF TANNING MATERIALS FOR CONSUMPTION 
DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1891 TO 1896. 





HEHLOCK BARK. 


HEMLOCK EX- 
TRACTS. 


OTHER THAN 
HEMLOCK. 


Hem- 

lOCli 

and 
other, 
value. 


Other 
articles 
in crude 


YEAR. 


Ooida. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 
114,968 


Pounds. 


Value. 


state used 
in tan- 
ning not 
specially 
provided 
lor.value. 


1891 

1892 


57,284 11274,426 
53,018 256,346 
60,688 241,244 
46,173 ! 212,360 
47,286 1 230,943 
43,964 214,891 


768,710 


3,810 

12,973 

672 


1229 

408 
71 




C2,603 
1,918 
8,361 
10,630 
16,629 
23,499 


1893 






1894 






1895 










»3,470 
19,046 


1896 







































DOMESTIC EXPORTS OF BARK AND EXTRACTS FOR 
TANNING DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE .TO, l«fil 
TO 1900. 



TIAB. 


Value. 


TSAB. 


ValiM. 


1891 


1241,382 
239, 708 
212, a» 
271,236 
290,862 


1896 


•3M,0O7 


1892 


1897 


241,979 
829, MM 
869, 6» 
376,742 


1898 


1898 

1899 


IH94 


1896 


1900 







LITERATURE. 

Report upon Forestry, by Franklin B. Hough: Washington, 
Government Printing Office, 1878. 

Classification de 350 matieres tannantes, by M. Bemadin: Paris, 
1880. 

The Tannins, by Henry Trimble, Philadelphia, Vol. I, 1892; 
Vol. II, 1894. 

One Hundred Years of American Commerce; Hides and I^eather, 
by Robert H. Foerderer, Vol. II, pages 494-497: New York, 1895. 

The Manufacture of Leather, by Charles Thomas Davis: Phila- 
delphia, 1897. 

Organic Chemistry, V. Von Richter, Philadelphia, Vol. I, 1899; 
Vol. II, 1900. 



Group XIII. — Paints (Including Varnishes, and 
Bonk, Ivoky, and Lami* black). 

Although paints (including pigments), varnishes, and 
bone, ivory, and lampblack have been separately tabu- 
lated, a large proportion of the establishments of the first 
two classes make both classes of products, and the product 
of the last class belongs entirely to pigments; hence it 
is advisable to consider them together in this special 
treatment. 

The following table gives a summary of the princi- 
pal totals of the three tabulations, with a final column 
giving the value of that portion of the products which 
really belongs to this group, the remainder belonging 
to other groups and being there considered. To the 
total of this column is added the value of the paint and 
varnish products from other groups, Class B, and also 
from other categories, Class C, so far as known, the 
values of these last being of course reported elsewhere 
under their respective classes, although usually not 
separately. 



68 





Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Capital. 


SALARIED OFFICERS, 
CLERKS, ETC. 


WAGE-EARNERS. 


Miscella- 
neous ex- 
penses. 


Cost of 
materials. 


Value of 
products. 


I'roducts be- 
longing to 
this group. 




Number. 


Salaries. 


Average 1 vvam>a 
number. wages. 


Total 


615 


S60,834,921 


3,731 


$5,040,301 


9,782 $4,971,697 


J5, 122, 881 


$44,844,229 


$69,922,022 


$67, 376, 641 








419 

15 

181 


42,801,782 

782,247 

17,550,892 


2,512 

21 

1,198 


3,077,318 

23,650 

1,939,333 


8,151 1 3,929,787 

86 1 46,107 

1,546 j 995,803 


3,430,061 

75, 678 

1,616,642 


33,799,386 

106,712 

10,939,131 


50,874,996 

359,787 

18,687,240 


48,440,780 

369,787 

18,576,074 


Bone ivory and lampblack . 






Total 


&)7 
















71,313,392 


















Class B 


10 
22 








' 








541,892 
8,394,869 


Class C 






















1 









The importance of considering, in this connection, the 
products of Class C is shown by the following list of 
their kinds, quantities, and values: 



White lead, dry, pounds 

Oxides of lead, pounds 

Oxide of zinc, pounds 

Dry colors, pounds 

Paints in oil, in paste, pounds. 
Paints, ready mixed, gallons.. 



Total. 



Quantity. 



6,968,000 
11,626,033 
60,236,154 
1,394,595 
2,694,824 
1479,998 



Value. 



$289,897 

312,403 

2, 212, 787 

55,450 

255,566 

268,766 



3,394,869 



^Quantities not always given; in such cases, calculated from the average 
value of product. 

There were 23 establishments of Class A and 2 estab- 
lishments of Class C reported as making white lead and 
oxides of lead. Including the figures of Class C, the total 
quantity of white lead reported as having been sold dry 
was 123,070,316 pounds, valued at $4,501,078, in addi- 
tion to which 131,621,628 pounds were reported as 
having been consumed in the manufacture of other 
paint products, making a total of 254,691,944 pounds. 
The total quantity of oxides of lead reported as sold as 
such is 62,385,656 pounds, valued at $2,862,743, in addi- 
tion to which 2,080,374 pounds were reported as being 
consumed, making a total of 64,466,030 pounds. The 
entire paint and varnish products, sold as such, from 
all sources are as follows: 



White lead, pounds 

Oxides of lead, pounds 

Oxide of zinc, jiounds 

Lamp black, pounds 

Fine colors, pounds 

Iron oxides and other earth colors, pounds . 

Dry colors, pounds 

Pulp colors, sold moist, pounds 

Paints in oil, in paste, pounds 

Paints, ready mixed, gallons 

Varnishes — 

Oil and turpentine, gallons 

Alcohol, gallons 

Pyroxylin, gallons 

Liquid dryers, etc., gallons 

Putty, pounds 

All other products 



Total . 



Quantity. 



123, 
62, 
60, 
7, 
4, 
33, 

169, 
20, 

310, 
17, 



070, 316 
38.5,656 
236, 1.64 
619, 345 
080,902 
772, 266 
128,836 
060,935 
072,089 
380,348 

286,768 
563,212 
204,069 
664,370 
287,323 



Value. 



$4,501,078 

2,862,743 

2,212,787 

420,037 

1,028,754 

324,902 

4,483,478 

861,531 

17,858,693 

15,139,431 

14, 337, 461 
943,069 
237, 012 

3,085,264 
238,427 

2,778,725 



71,313,392 



While it is not possible to give an equally complete 
list of materials, since the reports frequently give 
merely an aggi-egate of "all other materials" or report 



only one or two constituents separately, the following 
list may be of interest: 



Gums, pounds 

Alcohol, grain, gallons 
Alcohol, wood, gallons 
Dry colors, pounds' . . . 
Wliite lead, pounds ... 

Whiting, pounds 

Linseed oil, gallons 

Turpentine, gallons . . . 
Benzine, gallons 



Total . 



Quantity. 



36,533,632 

78,309 

310,059 



39,689,235 
10,690,441 
16, 167, 117 
6,519,408 
10,081,945 



Value. 



$3, 



470,695 
176, 907 
285,510 
0O2, 913 
970, 614 
.55, 157 
495, 196 
965,0.51 
045, 488 



24,466,531 



' Dry colors includes zinc oxide, barytes, earth colors, and other dry paint 
materials not otherwise specified. 

The growth of this industry as shown by previous 
census reports is as follows, the same chemicals being 
included for each census as far as comparable, although 
the Census Report for 1850 has some remarkable 
figures. This report gives 51 establishments making 
white lead with 1,508 employes, combined capital of 
$3,124,800, and a total product valued at $5,242,213, 
while onl\- 4 paint works and 3 varnish works are 
reported, with a total force of 26 employees, capital 
$14,550, and product valued at $92,375. These figures 
seem to be erroneous, unless the "white-lead works" 
were really paint works, although each may have cor- 
roded lead for its own use, but this too is doubtful. 
This view seems to be borne out by the figures of the 
next census, that of 1860, which gives white lead 36 
establishments with 994 employees, capital $2,453,147, 
product $5,380,347; paints 50 establishments; varnish 
48; total employees 991; and capital $3,711,450; product 
$286,675. Included in paints for 1860 is an e.stab- 
lishment reported as making zinc paints, with a 
capital of $1,000,000, employing 100 people, the prod- 
uct being valued at $250,000. Also 4 establishments 
making zinc oxide, with a combined capital of $1 , 328,000, 
employing 141 people, the total product amounting to 
only $226,860. These remarkable cases show that even 
at that early date overcapitalization was not unknown, 
at least in the zinc industry, unless, as is probable, the 
entire capitalization of the New Jersej' zinc-mining 
companies, which were then the sole producers, was 
entered as being employed in the manufacture of this 
by-product. 



f;9 



PAINT AND VARNISH: 1860 TO 1900. 



YEAR. 


Number 

of cs- 
labllsh- 
menta. 


Capital. 


Wage- 
caniere. 


Value of 
producta. 




68 
164 
224 
326 
822 
616 


83,217,100 
7,402,697 
13,949.740 
17.333.392 
46,318,146 
00,834,921 


1,679 
2,216 
8,604 
6,0M 
10,688 
13,513 


86.466,062 


IflSO 


11,107,842 


1870 


22,512,860 


1880 


29,111,941 


1890 


54,233,681 


1900 


67.876,641 







In order to make the figures for 1900 fairly compar- 
able with those of the preceding censuses, only the 
establishments of Class A are taken into account, the 
capital, value of products, and total number of em- 
ployees, office force as well as factory workers, being 
given. The table at the beginning of this special group 
report gives the true statistical position of this indus- 
try, but so far as can be learned no attempt was made 
in any former census to separate the products there 
given under Classes B and C. 

The paint and varnish industry in this country had 
its beginning in the early part of the last century. In 
1804 Samuel Wetheril! & Son began the manufacture of 
white lead in Philadelphia, followed in 1806 by Mr. 
John Harrison, the founder of the present firm of Har- 
rison Brothers & Co. , of Philadelphia. At that time 
all of the white lead used in this country was imported, 
but was greatly adulterated and very high priced. 
A letter from Mr. W. H. Wetherill, of Wetherill & 
Brother, the successors of Samuel Wetherill & Son, 
states that the American manufacture of white lead 
was much opposed by the agents of the foreign manu- 
facturers and that the factoiy started in 1804 was 
shortly after destroyed by fire and that "evidence was 
not wanting" that this was done "by an incendiary 
sent to this country for this purpose." In 1808 opera- 
tions were again started against heavy foreign compe- 
tition, which lasted until the War of 1812 which enabled 
the domestic manufacturers to get a solid footing. 
From that time the business rapidly increased. 

According to an article by W. P. Thompson in One 
Hundred Years of American Commerce, 1895, page 436, 
by 1830 there were 12 establishments in the country, of 
which 8 were east of the Alleghenies. This author 
gives the white-lead production of the country by dec- 
ades as follows: 

WHITE-LEAD PRODUCTION: 1810 TO 1890. 



YEAB. 


Tons. 


YEAH. 


Tons. 


1810 


369 


I860 


16,000 
86,000 


1820 


1870 


1830 


3,000 
."i.OOO 
9.000 


1880 


60,000 


1840 


18S7 


65,000 


18S0 


1890 


75,000 









The manufacture of oxidoH of lead nppoani t^) have 
begun at alM>ut the same time as that of white lead, 
since by 1812 there were at least three establishments 
in Philadelphia. Both proccsscH were very simple, 
litharge and red lead Iniing made from. the metal by 
regulated heating in a reverl)eratory furnace, while the 
white lead was made by the sfi-called Dutch proces.x, 
which is still the favorite, the prcxluct Inking considered 
to be superior in quality to that made by any other 
process. While, as in everything else, skill is required 
to make a good grade of product in an economical 
manner, the process itself is so simple that the large 
number of white lead works reported for the census 
of 1850 may lie explained by the development of the 
lead regions of Missouri and Illinois during the forties, 
as furnishing cheaper material, together with the idea, 
then probably prevalent, that anyone could make it, 
since it appeared to require only pots, lead, a little 
vinegar, and .some spent tan bark. 

The mixing of paints for .sale naturally preceded the 
making of white lead, but there is no information avail- 
able as to the beginning of such work. The fir.st var- 
nish factory, according to an article by D. F. Tiemann,' 
was founded by P. B. Smith, in New York in 1828, 
another earlj' manufacturer being Christian Schrack. of 
Philadelphia, who began business as a maker of paints 
in 1816. The quality of the American varnishes proved 
so satisfactory that as early as in 1836 an export 
trade began. In 1857 D. F. Tiemann & Co. began 
making carmine from cochineal, and in 1860 .soluble 
laundry blue and quicksilver vermilion, these products 
not having previously been made here. At present, 
American paint and varnish products enjoy a large and 
increasing foreign demand, and although the census 
returns for 1900 show that the great increase in the cost 
of materials during the census year has decreased 
profits, still the general condition seems to be. a .satis- 
factory one. 

The foreign commerce in paints and varnishes for the 
United States is exhibited in the following tables, com- 
piled from "The Foreign Commerce and Navigation of 
the United States," for the years ending June 30, 1891- 

1900. 

' One Hundred Yeare of American Commerce, 1896, Vol. II, page 621. 

PAINTS, PIGMENTS, AND COLORS: IMPORTS AND DO- 
MESTIC EXPORTS, FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 
1891-1900. 



TBAB. 


Imports, 
volne. 


Exports,' 
value. 


YEAR. 


'^ssr- 


Exporta,! 
ralue. 


18J1 


$1,439,127 

1,372,052 

1,466,761 

980.715 

1,246,924 


•690.696 


' 1888 


1,065,088 
1,XI7,440 
1,586,461 


1880,841 


1892 


709.857 


1897 


944,686 


1883 


700,308 
825,987 
729,706 


1898 

I 1899 


680. 7V7 


1894 


968,736 


1895 


, 1900 


1.213,512 









> Includes carbon black, gas black, lamp black, and oxide of ilnc, prior to 188B 



70 



VARNISHES, SPIRITS, AND ALL OTHER, IMPORTS AND 
DOMESTIC EXPORTS FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 
30, 1891-1900. 



. 


IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS. 




Gallons. 


Value. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


1891 


35,073 
38,737 
41,216 
20,337 
39,095 
40,644 
62,665 
32,848 
33,227 
43,743 


$97,298 

101,692 

111,675 

54,746 

106,927 

105,551 

159,024 

79,702 

79,461 

103, 985 


153,365 
215,266 
210,067 
226, 760 
256,890 
335, 979 
409,569 
398,841 
436,817 
588,545 


$203,285 


1892 


293,059 


1893 


268,400 


1894 


282,278 


1895 


303,959 


1896 . 


362,975 


1897 


431,761 


1898 


422, 693 


1899 


463,547 


1900 


620,104 







Group XIY. — Explosives. 

This industry, which, as measured by the value of the 
output, is the fifth iu importance among the industries 
classified under chemical products, has shown a most 
promising growth during the last decade, as presented 
by the returns of the Census of 1900, for 97 regular 
establishments in 21 different states were engaged in 
the production of explosives. These establishments 
employed $19,465, 846 of capital and 4,502 wage-earners, 
and produced 215,590,719 pounds, having a value of 
$16,950,976. They were distributed as follows: 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF EXPLOSIVES FAC- 
TORIES: 1900. 



STATES. 


Number 
o£ estab- 
lishments. 


Value of 
products. 


Per cent 
of total. 




97 


$16,950,976 


100.0 






Maine, Massachuaetta, Connecticut, and Ver- 


5 

54 
6 

25 

7 


654,862 

6,846,212 
1, 447, lOO 

3,728,249 
4,274,553 


3.9 


New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 


40.4 


Alabama, Tennessee, Missouri, and Kansas.. 
Iowa. Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, and 


8.6 
22.0 




25.2 







These factories were most numerous in the sections 
where mining or engineering operations were carried 
on most extensively. Though Pennsylvania had 36 fac- 
tories and the largest output was in the Middle Atlantic 
states, yet California alone manufactured over one-fourth 
of the entire annual output, and was much the largest 
producer in the United States. In addition to these 
establishments 5 were reported idle, 1 in operation with 
less than $500 in value of products, and 2 belonging to 
the United States Government that were in active oper- 
ation during the census year, making 80,000 pounds of 
explosives, having a value of $60,506. 

The growth of this industry may be shown by a com- 
parison of the returns at the various censuses for which 
reports have been recorded. In compiling this data it 
was observed that the different methods of collecting 
and reporting the statistics would not permit of a com- 
parison in every detail, yet so far as it can be made it is 
A'ery instructive. It was also borne in mind that while 



up to 1860 the data of the explosives industry were for 
gunpowder alone, in that year blasting powder was 
included, in 1870 nitroglycerine, in 1880 dynamite, in 
1900 smokeless powder, and for several of these decades, 
variable small amounts of guncotton, fulminate of mer- 
cury, and perhaps other explosives. The returns for 
seven decades are as follows: 

TOTAL PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF EXPLOSIVES, BY 
DECADES: 1840 TO 1900. 





Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Capital. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


PRODUCTS. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


1840 


137 
54 
58 
36 
54 
69 
97 


$875,875 
1,179,223 
2,305,700 
4,099,900 
6,585,185 
13,539,478 
19,465,846 


4% 

579 

747 

973 

1,340 

2,353 

4,502 


8,977,348 




1850 


$1, 590, 332 


I860 




3,223,090 






4, 237, 539 


1880 




5,802,029 


1890 


98,645,912 
215,980,719 


10,993,131 


1900 


U6, 960, 976 







1 This value is for the explosive substances only. When materials of all kinds 
produced in these establishments are included the value is $17,125,418. 

A better idea of the industry may be had by the 
discussion of each of the products so far as the statis- 
tics will permit. This is done for gunpowder (blasting 
powder being included in this term) in the following 
table: 

PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF GUNPOWDER, BY DE- 
CADES: 1840 TO 1900. 





Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Capital. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


PRODUCT. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


1840 


137 
54 
58 
33 
33 
37 
47 


$878,875 
1,179,223 
2,305,700 
4,060,400 
4,983,560 
9,609,975 
8,297,773 


496 

579 

747 

939 

1,011 

1,622 

1,708 


8,977,348 




I860 


$1, 590, 332 


I860 




8,223,090 


1870 




4,011,839 


1880 




3,348,941 


1890 


95,019,174 
123,314,103 


6, 740, 099 


1900 


5, 310, 351 







Gunpowder. — Although since the Eleventh Census 
smokeless powder has come to be used for military and 
sporting purposes, 1 pound, speaking roughly, replac- 
ing 3 pounds of black gunpowder, yet the amount 
of black gunpowder produced and consumed is still 
large, and it bids fair to be so for some years to come. 
This is due to several causes, among which are the 
following: First, because in ordnance it is necessary to 
use a priming charge of black gunpowder with which 
to fire the smokeless powder. Second, because smoke- 
less powder can not be efficiently substituted for black 
gunpowder in the older forms of small arms that are 
widely scattered over the country. Third, because 
black powder is most suitable for use in fuses and in 
pyrotechnics. Fourth, because smokeless powder is 
too expensive, and in no way superior to black gun- 
powder for saluting purposes. From the returns it is 
found that in the census year there were 10 establish- 
ments in 9 different states making black gunpowder, 
and that they employed $3,397,288 of capital, and 556 



71 



wage-earners, and produoed 25,638,804 pounds of pow- 
der, having a value of $1,452,377. In making this 
there were consumed 8,614 tons of potassium nitrate 
(India saltpeter). 174,810 bashels of charcoal, and 
1,282 tons of refined sulphur. About 6,800 tons of the 
potassium nitrate were made by conversion of sodium 
nitrate with potassium chloride, consuming 5,700 tons 
of sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter). The wood employed 
for the making of the charcoal was willow, alder, or 
dogwood, and the yield of charcoal was about 25 per 
cent by weight of the air-dried wood. 

While the composition of gunpowder may vary some- 
what, the formula usually followed for black gunpowder 
is 75 per cent of potassium nitrate, 15 per cent of 
black charcoal, and 10 per cent of sulphur. In recent 
yeai's brown prismatic powder has been used in heavy 
ordnance of the general composition of 78 per cent of 
potassium nitrate, 20 per cent of charcoal, and 8 per 
cent of sulphur, in which the "charcoal" was under- 
burned charcoal from peat or rye straw, or in which 
carbohydrates were used, but such gunpowder has been 
almost, if not completely, displaced. 

The manufacture of gunpowder is a very old one, 
this material having been used as a propeliant in cannon 
at the battle of Crecy in 1346. It was manufactured 
in the United States prior to and during the Revolu- 
tionary War by means of stamp mills which consisted 
of mortars and pestles of wood and bronze by which 
the ingredients wei'e pulverized and mixed, the damp 
material being giained by inibbing through sieves. 
This method produced not onlj- a very coarsely made 
and irregulari\- acting powder but it was very danger- 
ous, as, for instance, according to Chaptal, in France 
about one-sixth of the total stamps at work blew up an- 
nualh'. In 1787, Cossigny introduced at the Isle de 
France the practice of pulverizing and mixing the 
ingredients in wheel mills. In 1791, Carny devised the 
method of pulverizing in drums, wheel mills being used 
for incorporating the mass. During the latter part of 
the Eighteenth centur}- the manufacture of gunpowder 
was brought to a high degree of perfection in France 
by the eminent chemist Lavoisier, who had supervision 
of the Government powder works. 

The modern methods of manufacture in the United 
States began with the founding of the works at Wil- 
mington, Del., in 1802, by Eleuth^re Irende du Pont de 
Nemours, who had learned powder making from La- 
voisier, and who obtained from France the most ap- 
proved machinery; and these works, constantly grow- 
ing, have been in regular operation up to the present 
time, and the methods and kinds of machiner}' employed 
have been introduced into the mills subsequently erected 
elsewhere in this country. 

The more recent improvements have been in the 
introduction of retorts for burning the charcoal, the 
manufacture of the .saltpeter by conversion, and the 
devising of various foiins of press mills. The method 



of manufacturing potassium nitrate from sodium 
nitrate by metathesis with potaMsium chloride was 
suggested by Longchamps, Anthon, and Kuhlnmnn in 
185J», and was adopted at the Dupont works al)out 1H68. 
With the larg»^ deposits of sodium nitrate available in 
Chile and pota.ssium chloride accessible at Stassfurt, in 
Germany, this artificial source for saltpeter success- 
fully competed with the native sources in India, where 
the supply is limited. This method of manufacture of 
potassiiun nitrate has also so reduced the cost of the 
article as to remove all temptation to continue the 
vicious system of niter plantjitions, which robbed the 
soil of one of its most valuable plant foods. 

Blasting powder. — This industry, which is a develop- 
ment of the last century, was pursued during the last 
census year in 37 different establishments, located in 13 
different states, the state of Pennsylvania alone having 
19 separate works. There was employed $4,900,485 
of capital, and 1,153 wage-earners, and the product 
amounted to 97,744,237 pounds of powder, having a 
value of $3,880,910. In the manufacture of this 
powder there were consumed 38,000 tons of sodium 
nitrate (Chile saltpeter), 746,000 bushels of charcoal, 
and 5.100 tons of sulphur. 

Between 1802 and 1840 two large gunpowder fac- 
tories, as well as a few smaller ones, were established in 
the United States. The active construction of canals 
and the exploitation of mines caused a considerable and 
growing demand for gunpowder for use in blasting, 
which eventualh' became so marked that to meet it the 
powder makers placed a "blasting powder" upon the 
market, which contained the same ingredients as black 
gunpowder except that they were not so carefully 
purified and the powder was less carefully made. In 
1856 the material now commonh' known as blasting 
powder was made, and it differs from the older blasting 
powder chiefly in the fact that the expensive potassium 
nitrate (India saltpeter) of the latter is replaced by the 
cheap sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter). For some years 
prior to the above date, the idea of using sodium nitrate 
had obtained, but the fact that it was a deliquescent 
substance had proved an obstacle; yet the difficulties 
which were supposed to be insurmountable were over- 
come, and in 1856 its manufacture was begun on a large 
scale by the leading powder makers. A patent for a 
gunpowder containing sodium nitrate was granted to 
L. Dupont in 1857, and upon this an enormous industry, 
not only in the United States but throughout the world, 
has been built, and through it an additional impetus 
has been given to engineering and mining operations. 
Furthermore, this increased consumption of Chile salt- 
peter led to an increased development of the enormous 
deposits of this salt in the desert of Tarapaca, which so 
cheapened the nitrate as to benefit and stimulate the 
nitric acid, fertilizer, and many other industries in 
which this material is used. 

The proportions of the ingredients in blasting pow- 



72 



der may varj- widely. Thus the census returns for 
1900 showed gunpowders composed of 67.3 per cent of 
sodium nitrate, 22.9 per cent of carbon, and 9.4 per cent 
of sulphur, up to powder composed of 77.1 per cent of 
sodium nitrate, 8.6 per cent of carbon, and 14.3 per 
cent of sulphur. Guttman, in his "Manufacture of 
Explosives," gives a powder consisting of 60.19 per cent 
of sodium nitrate, 21.36 per cent of charcoal, and 18.45 
per cent of sulphur. From a large number of returns 
we tind the average composition to be 74 per cent of 
sodium nitrate, 16 per cent of charcoal, and 10 per cent 
of sulphur. 

Blasting powder is usually put upon the market in 
corrugated iron kegs, holding 25 pounds each. 

Nitroglycerin. — Nitroglycerin appeared for the first 
time among the chemical products of the United States 
in the census returns for 1870, but in 1890 it disap- 
peared under the legend "high explosives," which term 
usuallj' includes dynamite, gun cotton, nitrosubstitution 
explosives, and fulminates. While the larger part of 
the nitroglycerin made is subsequently consumed in 
the manufacture of dynamite, blasting gelatine, and 
smokeless powder, there is still a quantity made and 
sold as such. For the census year 1900 there were 22 
establishments located in 6 different states, employing 
$293,881 of capital and 105 wage-earners. The product 
amounted to 3,618,692 pounds and had a value of 
$783,299. There were consumed in its manufacture 
1,897,448 pounds of glycerin and 12,134,869 pounds 
of mixed acids. 

In addition to the nitroglycerin produced and sold 
as such, 31,661,806 pounds were made and consumed, 
and there were required to make it 15,043,483 peunds 
of glycerine and 96,092,451 pounds of mixed acids. 
The total production of nitroglycerin, therefore, for 
the census year was 35,482,947 pounds, and there were 
used as materials 16,983,918 pounds of glycerin and 
108,227,320 pounds of mixed acids. Although all but 
two of the factories purchased their sulphuric acid 
originally, many of them regained their spent acids 
and some of them manufactured their nitric acid. The 
quantity of acid reported as regained was 15,916,907 
pounds, and of nitric acid manufactured, 26,058,779 
pounds. There were consumed in the manufacture of 
this nitric acid 19,817 tons of nitrate of soda and 
28,177,000 pounds of 66° sulphuric acid, but much of the 
latter was regained acid. 

The production of nitroglycerin for 1900 as com- 
pared with that reported in previous decades is set 
forth in the following table: 

PRODUCTION OF NITROGLYCEKIN FOR THREE DEC- 
ADES, 1870, 1880, AND 1900. 





Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


PRODUCT. 


YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1870 


3 
19 
22 


$39,500 

1,601,625 

293,881 


34 
329 
105 


""3,'6s9,72i' 
3,618,692 


$226,700 


1880 


1,830,417 


1900 


783,299 







Nitroglycerin was discovered by Ascanio Sobrero in 
Turin, Italy, in 1847, and it is interesting to note that 
upwards of 7 ounces of the first nitroglycerin made by 
Sobrero are still kept at the Nobel dynamite factory at 
Avigliana, in Italy, and are tested every year. Itscom- 
mercial manufacture seems to have been begun by Alfred 
Nobel, in Sweden, in 1862, and in 1863 he received his 
first patent in this art for a mixture of ordinary gun- 
powder with nitroglycerin, he having at fir.st employed 
gunpowder as a means of exploding the nitroglycerin. 
In 1863, however, he discovered that nitroglycerin 
could not only be exploded with certainty by means of a 
copper capsule containing mercuric fulminate (now 
known as a blasting cap or detonator), but that the 
power developed by the nitroglycerin was enormously 
greater than could be obtained from it by any other 
means, and this discovery marked an epoch, not only in 
the history of nitroglycerin, but in that of all high ex- 
plosives, since it revealed the method of inducing explo- 
sion bj' detonation. 

So near as can be ascertained, the manufacture of 
nitroglycerin in the United States began at the Giant 
Powder Company's works in California, in 1867, using 
Nobel's methods. In 1867 George M. Mowbray also 
began the manufacture, by independent methods, at 
North Adams, Mass. Mr. Dupont says:' 

There are two engineering works which indicate very well the 
era of the introduction of high explosives in this country. In the 
year 1870 the Nesquehoning tunnel, near Wilkesbarre, was exca- 
vated in very hard rock by the use of black powder only. The 
engineers in charge were unwilling to introduce the then new and 
untried explosive. The work was, however, completed in good 
form and very quickly, owing largely to the extensive use of com- 
pressed air drills. About the same time the Hoosac tunnel was 
completed, nitroglycerin alone being used in the work. This ex- 
plosive was principally manufactured upon the ground, and was 
much used in the liquid state. This work was a greater one than 
the tunnel first mentioned, but the two serve to mark the transi- 
tion period in the practical use of explosives. One of the greatest 
of modern engineernig works, the Chicago drainage canal, is now 
(1895) being carried on largely by high explosives. It is an 
example of the magnitude of the work that is attempted with 
explosives. 

Nitroglycerin is manufactured by mixing glycerin 
with a mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Each 
of the materials used is the most concentrated that can 
be made, and the demand for large quantities of nitric 
and sulphuric acids and glycerin of the highest grades 
which has been created by the high-explosives industry 
has had a marked effect on the development of the acid 
and glycerine industries. The acids are usually mixed 
in the proportion of 3 parts by weight of sulphuric acid 
to 2 parts by weight of nitric acid, and they should con- 
tain 61.9 per cent of H^SO, and 34.5 per cent of HNO3, 
with not more than 0.7 per cent of NjOj. These pre- 
viously mixed acids are sent out from the acid works 
in iron drums holding about 1,500 pounds, and this 
weight of mixed acids makes a convenient charge for 
one run in the nitroglycerin converter, from 210 to 
230 pounds of glycerin being there mixed with it. 

> One hundred years of American Commerce, Vol. I, page 192. 



78 



Tlio reaction {joes on >)ctween the glycerin and the 
nitric acid, the sulphuric acid present serving chiefly 
to take up and retain the water which is one of the 
products of the reaction. When the reaction is com- 
pleted the materials are run into a tank, where they 
rest until, owing to their differences in specific gravity, 
the nitroglycerin and spent acids form into separate? 
layers; then the nitroglycerin is run oil' into washing 
and purifying tanks, and the acids are run off to be 
reworked. The dilute nitric acid thus obt^iined is some- 
times used in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate 
for use in dynamite dopes. The diluted sulphuric acid 
is sometimes used in the manufacture of nitric acid, but 
it is moie often concentrated in iron pans, and, after 
being mixed with strong nitric acid, again used in mak- 
ing nitroglycerin. This spent acid averages in com- 
position 72 per cent of sulphuric acid, 10 per cent of 
nitric acid, and 18 per cent of water. Theoretically, 
100 parts by weight of glycerin should yield 246 parts 
of nitroglycerin, but in practice the yields are from 
200 to 220 parts. 

Nitroglj'cerin is used directly in torpedoes, which 
are cylinders holding 20 quarts each, for "shooting" 
oil wells. It also is used in medicine as a heart stimu- 
lant. The principal use of nitroglj^cerin is in making 
dynamite and blasting gelatin. 

6uti Cotton or Pxjroxylui. — By the returns for the 
census of 1900 there were 10 establishments in 3 dif- 
ferent states engaged in the manufacture and sale of 
cellulose nitrates, for various uses and they employed 
$255,343 of capital and lt)3 wage-earners. There were 
produced 922,799 pounds of the various cellulose 
nitrates, having a value of $486,773, and there were con- 
sumed 691,115 pounds of cotton and 8,247,668 pounds 
of mixed acids. Besides these there were produced 
and consumed in other establishments 2,739,834 pounds 
of cellulose nitrates, making a total product for the year 
of 3,662,633 pounds. 

Gun cotton, or pyroxylin, is the name given to various 
cellulose nitrates which were discovered b^^ Schonbein 
iu 1846, and which result from the reaction between 
nitric acid and cellulose. There is a considerable num- 
ber of cellulose nitrates; authorities differ as to their 
number. In fact, there is still doubt as to the real con- 
stitution of cellulose, and therefore nothing can be pro- 
nounced with certainty as to the constitution of the 
nitrates produced from it. However, it is generally 
accepted that the formula of cellulose is some multiple 
of C.HidOs, and that the nitrates are produced by replac- 
ing one or more atoms of the hydrogen present by NO,. 
It is also accepted, following Vieille, that, taking the 
fornmla as C^H^Oj,, there may be at least 8 different 
cellulose nitrates in which from 4 to 11 groups of NO, 
have been introduced into the molecule. In the follow- 
ing table these different nitrates are so named as to 
indicate the number of NO, groups present, and there 
is also shown the per cent of N present in each. 




IT,, 1,1 W'll">">t>- 

"'V Uliieilfrom 
nltrofen. ^efiulow. 



CellnloM endecanltnte 
Cellulono decanltralv. . . 
Cellulose enneaiiKrate . 
Cellulone octonltrate . . . 
Cellalom! heptanltrHte.. 
CellukMc hexanitralc... 
CvllulcMc iwiitanitratc. 
Celluloae tetnuiitnUi. . . 



U.47 


176.4 


12.7ft 


160. 4 


11. M 


162. 8 


11.11 


186. 7 


10.18 


148.6 


9.U 


141.7 


8.02 


1S4.7 


6.78 


m.8 



In addition to these nitrates containing different per 
cents of nitrogen, there are undoulitedly i.somers of 
many of them. According to their difference in nitro- 
gen contents, or in intermolecular arrangement, these 
nitrates exhibit different degrees of solubility toward 
organic solvents, and are in consequence put to different 
commercial uses. Thus the higher ones are, under 
ordinary conditions, in.soluble in a mixture of 2 parts of 
strong ethyl ether and 1 part of strong ethyl alcohol, 
and such cellulo.se nitrate is called gun cotton. On the 
other hand, the lower nitrates are .soluble in the mixed 
solvent named under these conditions, and the.se cel- 
lulose nitrates are called pyroxylin. It should be 
said that later researches tend to show that, according 
to the conditions under which they are nitrated or the 
conditions under which they are expo.sed to the solvent, 
the higher nitrations are acted upon by the ether-alcohol 
solvent. 

Cellulo.se nitrates are prepared by immersing purified 
cotton in mixtures of nitric and sulphuric acid. In 
making gun cotton, the acid mixture consists of 1 [)art, 
by weight, of nitric acid of 1.5 specific gravity to 3 pails, 
by weight, of sulphuric acid of 1.845 .specific gravity, 
and 1 pound of steam-dried cotton is immer.sed in and 
digested for twenty-four hours with 12 pounds of this 
acid mixture. The acid is then wrung out and the gun 
cotton is pulped, washed, and compressed into blocks 
for use. The spent acids which are thrown out in the 
wringing have been found to contain 79.91 per cent of 
H,SO„ 9.52 per cent of HNO,, 1.04 per cent of N,0., 
and 9.65 per cent of water, and they are reworked to be 
used again. In making the lower cellulose nitrates 
weaker acids are used, the strength being determined 
by the use to which the nitrate is to tie put. Examples 
of such acid mixtures are given under smokeless pow- 
der and under pyroxylin plastics. 

Cellulose nitrates are used for many purposes in the 
arts. Finely pulped, compressed material, consi-sting 
principally of the highest nitration, is known as gun 
cotton and is used in militar}- mines and torpedoes, and 
for destructive purposes generally in military opera- 
tions. Owing to the discovery by E. O. Brown, of 
Woolwich, in 1868, that it can be detonated when 
wet, it is now stored and used while saturated with 
water. In 1847 or 1848 Doctor May nard, of Boston, dis- 
covered that pyroxylin was soluble in ether-alcohol and 
that the liquid, called "collodion," could be used as a 
vehicle for medicine and as a substitute for sticking 



74 



plaster. In 1851 Frederick Scott Archer invented the 
process of coating photographic plates with collodion. 
In 1869 John W. Hyatt, Jr., and Isaiah S. Hyatt, of 
Albany, N. Y., invented the process for manufacturing 
" celluloid " from cellulose nitrate. Still later, Fred- 
erick Crane invented pyroxylin varnishes, and Char- 
dennot invented a process for making artificial silk 
from pyroxylin. A large use for cellulose nitrates is 
in the manufacture of smokeless powder, explosive 
gelatine, and gelatine dynamite. By the use of pyrox- 
ylin solutions a form of artificial leather is obtained. 

Dynamite. — This explosive first appears in the report 
of the census of 1880, and then amounted in value to 
but one-third of that for the nitroglycerin produced. 
According to the census of 1900, there were 31 different 
establishments, located in 8 different states, employing 
$7,561,121 of capital, and 1,758 wage-earners engaged 
in the manufacture of dynamite. There were produced 
85,846,456 pounds, having a value of $8,247,223, and 
there were consumed in making it, 31,661,806 pounds of 
nitroglycerin, 20,090 tons of sodium nitrate, 9,934,360 
pounds of wood pulp, 82,558 pounds of pyrox3lin, and 
483,975 pounds of ammonium nitrate. 

The production and value of dynamite for 1900, com- 
pared with that reported in previous decades, is set forth 
in the following table: 

PRODUCTION OF DYNAMITE, BY DECADES: 1880 to 1900. 





Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Capital. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


PRODUCT. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


1880 


2 
32 
31 








$622,671 
4, 263, 032 


1890 


((3,929,503 
7,551.121 


731 
1,758 


30,626,738 
85,846,466 


1900 


8,247,223 







Dynamite was invented hj Alfred Nobel in 1866, and 
its manufacture began shortly after at the various 
works established by him. In his testimonj' before the 
select committee on explosive substances of the British 
Parliament, in 1874, Nobel testified that there were then 
18 factories, in which he was interested, engaged in this 
manufacture, 2 of them being in America, while there 
were many independent works in addition. The returns 
for dynamite were not so rendered in the prior census 
reports that the growth of this important industry can 
be readily ascertained, but some general idea of its 
growth may be gained from the following table, given 
by George McRobert, setting forth the annual sales 
of dynamite for each of sixteen years, from the factories 
with which Nobel was associated. 

McROBERT'S TABLE. 



YEAR. 


Sales, 
tons. 


YEAR. 


Sales, 
tons. 


1867 


11 

78 

184 

424 

785 

1,350 

2,050 

8,120 


1875 


3,600 
4,300 
5,500 
6 200 


1868 


1876 


1869 


1877 . 


1870 


1878 


1871 


1879 ... 


7,000 
7,500 
8,500 
9,500 


1872 < 


1880 


1873 


1881 


1874 


1882 







Dynamite is a material of most variable composition. 
It consists of a .solid porous absorbent which holds the 
liquid nitroglycerin, and its invention was a necessity, 
since so many frightful accidents due to the liquid state 
of nitroglycerin led to legislation in Europe which 
forbade the transportation and use of the latter explo- 
sive. Kieselguhr (known as infusorial silica) was largely 
used at first, and is still much used in Europe, as the 
absorbent, but this "dope," as the absorbent base is 
called, is almost entirely replaced in this countrj' by an 
explosive dope, which is most frequently a mixture of 
wood pulp and sodium nitrate, with a very small per- 
centage of calcium or sodium carbonate to act as a neu- 
tralizer to anj' acid present. Such a dynamite is known 
as a straight dynamite, but there are others which con- 
tain a dope of coarsely made gunpowder or of resinous 
compositions. In 1875 Nobel invented an explosive 
made by dissolving p3'roxylin or soluble cellulose nitrate 
in nitroglycerin until, when the mixture was cool, it 
set to a jelij'-like mass which is known as explosive or 
blasting gelatin. This is often mixed with wood meal 
or wood pulp, and then gelatin dynamite is produced. 
As maj' be inferred, dynamites vary greatly in their 
nitroglj'cerin contents, and they may be found on the 
market containing from 5 per cent, as in a bank blast- 
ing powder, up to 94 per cent, as in a blasting gelatin. 
The grade which is probably the most extensively used 
is that known as 40 per cent dj'namite, and analysis has 
shown a straight dynamite of this grade to contain of 
nitrogh'cerin 39.8 per cent, sodium nitrate 46.1 per 
cent, wood pulp 11.5 per cent, calcium carbonate, 0.7 
per cent, moisture 1.9 per cent. It can be safely 
assumed that 40 per cent is the average nitroglycerin 
content of the dynamites of all kinds put on the market. 

Dynamite as sold is usually loaded into parafiined 
paper cases, thus making it into "sticks" or "car- 
tridges." These sticks may vary much in size, but the 
average stick will be 8 inches in length by 1^ inches in 
diameter, and they are packed in sawdust in boxes 
holding 60 pounds each. 

Smokeless Powder. — At the time the Eleventh Census 
was taken no smokeless powder was reported, nor was 
there then any factory in operation for its regular pro- 
duction, while for the census year 1900 there was an 
output of 3,053,126 pounds of powder having a value 
at the works of $1,716,101. This industry, which is 
wholly a growth of the last ten years, embraced 9 fac- 
tories, having $2,153,958 of capital, gave employment 
to 730 wage-eai"ners, and consumed 14,000,000 pounds 
of mixed acids, 1,600,000 pounds of cotton, 2,600,000 
pounds of alcohol, 1,400,000 pounds of ether, 143,000 
pounds of acetone, and 88,000 pounds of nitroglycerin. 
There is little doubt that the growth will be much more 
rapid in the immediate future, as smokeless powder is 
rapidly supplanting black gunpowder for militaiy and 
sporting pui-poses, and, as a large part of the time dur- 
ing the last ten years has been spent in the invention 
of machineiy for handling the materials, in planning 



76 



works so as to secure the maximum of safety with the 
nmxinniiii of speed and ocononiy in manufacture and in 
the devisinj,' of means for the recovery and renewal of 
the spent acids and solvents. 

The verj' earliest manufacture of smokeless powder 
in the United States was carried on by Charles Lennig, 
at Philadelphia, Pa. , alwut 1850. His small-arm charges 
were made of long staple, fibrous gun cotton, and, as 
elsewhere, they were found to be so dangerous that 
their use was soon abandoned. The next factory to be 
started was erected by Carl Dittmar, at Quincy, Mass., 
about 1870, where a soft, granulated powder was made, 
but this was also abandoned. 

The first of the factories erected for the manufacture 
of modern smokeless jjowder was planned, erected, and 
operated at the United States Naval Torpedo Station at 
Newport, R. I., in 1890, by Charles E. Munroe, under 
tlie direction of Commander Theodore F. Jewell, United 
States Navy, inspector of ordnance, in charge of the 
station, and it is to-dav in regular operation, having 
been much enlarged. Following this, i factories were 
erected in 1891, 1 in 1895, 1 in 1898, and 2 in 1900, all 
of which were producing during at least a part of the 
census year. These factories were scattered through 7 
states, 3 of them being in New Jersey and 2 of them 
being factories belonging to and operated by the United 
States Government. The Government factories pro- 
duced militarj' powder only, 4 of the private factories 
produced sporting powder onlj-, while the remaining 
private works, though manufacturing largel3' for mili- 
tary purposes, produced some sporting powder also. 

The earliest I'ecorded attempt to use a smokeless ex- 
plosive as a propellant is found in the experiments of 
Howard, who in 1800 attempted to use mercury ful- 
minate in place of gunpowder in a firearm, with the 
result that he burst the piece. Immediately after the 
discovery of gun cotton by SchOnbein in 1846, extensive 
trials of it as a propellant were made in Germany, 
France, England, and the United States, but as it was 
then used in the ordinary fluffy or thread-like condition 
of cotton it proved too violent. In 1860 Frederick A. 
Abel devised a method for gi-anulating gun cotton by 
introducing pulped nitrocellulose containing water and 
a small quantity' of a binding material into a vessel to 
which a vibrating motion was imparted, thereby pro- 
ducing soft grains, but this does not seem to have come 
into vogue. 

The first person to realize any considerable degree of 
success was Captain Schultze of the German army, 
who, in 1862, made a soft-grained powder from well- 
purified and partly nitrated wood. The first nitrocel- 
lulose powder to approach modern requirements was 
the E. C. powder, invented by Reid and Johnson in 
1882, in which the .soft grains, produced by rolling 
pulped nitrocellulose containing water in barrels were 
superficially hardened or waterproofed after granula 
tion. The first successful militarj- smokeless ]X)wder 



was made in France by Viellle, and it consisted of a 
hard, dense-grained flake, or fagot powder, made from 
nitrocelluloses mixed with a nitrate, like barium nitrate, 
and with or without picric acid. This was followed in 
1888 by the ballistite of Nobel, and in 1889 by the cord- 
ite of Abel and Dewar, each of which was composed 
of mixtures of nitrocelluloses with nitroglycerine and 
a restrainer of some kind. The whole was worked, by 
admixture with suitable solvents and by use of the 
proper machinery, into grains which were hardened 
throughout. In 1889 Richard Von Freeden discovered 
that gelatinized nitrocellulose, still containing the solu- 
tion employed for its gelatinization, on being exposed 
to certain liquids, or the vapors thereof, undergoes a 
kind of coagulation and division into small lumps, 
which latter is promoted b}' stirring, and upon this he 
based a method of manufacture b3- which small-grained 
powders that are hardened throughout could be pro- 
duced, and the method is now quite extensively fol- 
lowed. 

Up to this time all gunpowders throughout the world, 
both black and smokeless, were made of mixtures of 
various ingredients, even the smokeless powders, which 
were made from nitrocellulose only, being made from 
mixtures of cellulose nitrates of different degrees of 
nitration; but in 1889 Charles E. Munroe proposed that 
smokeless powders be made of a single chemical sub- 
stance in a state of chemical puritj', and he pointed out 
that cellulose nitrate, of uniform nitration, then offered 
the best material from which to produce such a pow- 
der, and this is the principle which to-daj' governs the 
manufacture of military smokeless powders, at least in 
the United States. 

Although up to 1898 the United States Army pro- 
posed to use smokeless powder composed of nitrocellu- 
loses and nitroglycerin, the United States Navy adopted 
in 1890 a cellulose powder of uniform nitrogen con- 
tents, and the Army followed in 1898. As made to-day, 
the nitrocellulo.se used contains from 12.45 to 12.80 per 
cent of nitrogen. Such cellulose nitrate is made bj- 
dipping 1 pound of cotton (free from oil and mechan- 
ical impurities and containing about 57 per cent of 
moisture) in 19 pounds of "mixed acids," containing 
about 57 per cent of HjSO,, 28.2 per cent of HNO,, and 
not more than 2 per cent of N,0«. The acid has an 
initial temperature of 25° C, and the crock containing 
the mixed acids and cotton is heated to 36^ C. , the cot- 
ton being exposed at this temperature, with one turn- 
ing over of the cotton, for sixty minutes. After puri- 
fication b^' wringing, washing, and steaming to remove 
the acid, the nitrocellulose is freed from the water 
remaining in it by extraction with alcohol, and it is 
converted into a gelatinous ma-ss by kneading or stirring 
in a Werner and Pfleiderer mixing machine with a mix- 
ture of ethyl ether and ethyl alcohol, 2 parts by weight 
of ether and 1 part by weight of alcohol being usied 
for every 3 parts by weight of nitrocellulose. The 



76 



subsequent processes have for their object the more 
intimate mixing of the material and straining off of 
the unconverted portions, the shaping of the mass into 
grains, and the drying of the grains. The finished 
grains still contain some of the solvent, particularly 
alcohol, the amount varjnng with the thickness of the 
walls of the grains. In the very smallest grains this 
amounts to about one-half of 1 per cent, while in the 
larger grains there maj'^ be as much as 4 per cent of 
solvent present. 

It is not easy to check the data in this manufacture, 
and for this reason round numbers are given. It may 
be said, however, that 100 pounds of perfectly drj^ cot- 
ton will yield 169 pounds of this nitrocellulose, but the 
cotton as used may contain as much as 7 per cent of 
moisture, while the final product may contain from 
one-half of 1 per cent to 2 per cent of solvents. The 
quantities of acids can not well be checked, because the 
spent acid is "rebuilt" and used again. The difficulty 
is even greater with the solvents, since most of the 
works manufacture the ether used from part of the 
alcohol purchased or supplied to them besides reusing 
the recovered solvents. An additional complication in 
comparing costs arises from the fact that, when the 
powder is being made in private works for the United 
States Government, the manufacturer is permitted to 
use tax-free alcohol, while if he be making such powder 
for other parties he must use tax-paid alcohol. Where 
the Government supplies the alcohol, the weight of 
alcohol allowed is l.i times the weight of the finished 
powder. 

The foregoing description is for military powder, and 
though picrates and metallic salts, such as nitrates and 
bichromates, are used to some extent in sporting pow- 
ders, yet they are to so large an extent composed of 
nitrocellulose that they may be regarded for purposes 
of census classification as composed wholly of this 
material. The methods of manufacture are as a rule 
quite different from those employed in the making of 
military powders, and the gelatinizing agents used are 
ethyl acetate, amyl acetate, and the like, in place of 
ether-alcohol. It is to be noted that a small portion of 
the smokeless powder reported for the census year was 
a nitrocellulose-nitroglycerin powder which had been 
gelatinized by acetone. Smokeless powder is usually 
sold in metal canisters holding 1 bulk pound each. 

Fulminates. — Although charges of dynamite and 
other high explosives are invariably fired by detonators 
or blasting caps charged with mercuric fulminate, and, 
although percussion caps, friction primers, and fixed 
ammunition are also charged with this explosive, yet 
the amount of this most important and essential explo- 
sive which is returned as manufactured in the United 
States was quite insignificant. On the other hand, as 
shown by the following table, compiled from the records 
of the Bureau of Statistics of the United States Treas- 
ury Department, the importation of fulminate is assum- 



ing greater and greater importance as our home industry 
in other explosives grows, and this is shown even more 
markedly if to the values for the fulminates there be 
added those for the blasting caps, percussion caps, and 
cartridges that are also imported: 

IMPORTS, FOR CONSUMPTION, OF FULMINATES, FULMI- 
NATING POWDERS, AND LIKE ARTICLES: 1884 TO 1900, 
INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Value. 




8487 
5,577 
10,647 
10,099 
20,984 
10, 717 
19,460 
44,403 
36,278 


1893 


$48,509 


1885 


1894 


42,567 




1895 


65,891 


1887 


1896 


77, 197 




1897 


76, 515 


1889 


1898 


46,703 


1890 


1899 


108,741 


1891 


1900 


105,999 


1892 











The fact that, notwithstanding the dangers attendant 
on the transportation of this violent explosive substance, 
its home manufacture has been almost completely su- 
perseded by the foreign product, is explained on stating 
that it is manufactured from grain alcohol, mercury, 
and nitric acid; that for every 12 parts by weight of 
mercury fulminate produced 110 parts by weight of 95 
per cent alcohol are consumed; and that the tax levied 
in the United States on alcohol makes the foreign com- 
merce in this article a very profitable one, and home 
competition practically impossible. 

Wage-earners and wages. — There were employed- in 
the entire explosives industry 4,31:9 men, 117 women, 
and 36 children under 16 years of age. The wages for 
the men varied from $365 per annum in New Jersey 
to $790 per annum in California, the average for the 
whole country being $539 per annum. The average 
wage for women was $263 per annum, and for children 
$169 per annum. 

Power. — The total horsepower reported as being 
employed in these factories was 22,920 horsepower, of 
which 5,674 horsepower was supplied by 190 water 
wheels, 13,242 horsepower by 315 steam engines, 2,885 
horsepower by 177 electric motors, and 279 horsepower 
from other sources. The returns are chiefl\' interest- 
ing in marking changes in methods, for, formerly, in 
erecting black gunpowder works especial care was taken 
to secure a location for the works where there was an 
abundant water supply and plenty of wood for charcoal 
making; whereas, in the manufacture of the modern 
explosives, while a sufficient isolation to obtain security 
for the works and limit the damage resulting from acci- 
dental explosions is sought, yet readiness and conven- 
ience in transportation of the materials used and the 
goods manufactured are regarded as of the first impor- 
tance. The improvements in the methods for generat- 
ing, conveying, and transforming the energy in steam 
or electricity have now rendered it relatively safe to 
employ these sources of energy. 

Imports and Exports. — A more nearly' correct idea of 



77 



the condition of thi.s industry may be obtained if there 
i)e added to the censu.s statistics those for the ini[)orts 
and exports* of explosives. The imports of fulminates 
have already been considered, and attention is now 
called to the .statistics for the foreign commerce in all 
explosives as compiled from "The Foreign Commerce 
and Navigation of the United States for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1!>()0," Vol. II. 

IMPORTS OF GUNPOWDER, FULMINATES, AND ALL LIKE 
ARTICLES: 1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


OtINPOWDER. 


All other 
explosives, 
fulminates, 
etc., value. 


Total 


Pounds. 


Value. 


value. 


1891 


84,312 
81,111 
78,306 
86,481 
104,990 
68,998 
87,921 
98,708 
44,406 
81,212 


S19,148 
29,533 
68,974 
71,285 
84,882 
49,867 
63,722 
79,992 
29,824 
16,836 


tl24,528 
100,977 
124,661 
67,342 
96,940 
77,192 
98,727 
65,123 
160,620 
169,073 


»143,676 
130, .'ilO 
193,635 
138,627 
181,822 
127,049 
162.449 
145, 115 
190,444 
184,908 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1896 


1896 


1897 


1896 


1899 


1900 





DOMESTIC EXPORTS OF GUNPOWDER AND OTHER 
EXPLOSIVES: 1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE; 



1891 
1892 
189S 
1894 
1896 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 



OONPOWDEB. 



Founds. Valbe. 



733, 8»t 

903,077 

885,263 

496,566 

972,271 

1,11)9,936 

1,086,465 

1,202,971 

1,504,624 

1,612,822 



S8S,676 
108,276 
105,647 
66,839 
102,885 
124,823 
118,001 
139,644 
181,642 
197,488 



All other 

explosives, 

value. 



Total 
value. 



$806,870 


1996,546 


762,079 


860,355 


765,966 


861,513 


935,287 


1,002,126 


1,174,396 


1,277.281 


1,2.56,279 


1,381,102 


1,437,317 


1,, 555. 318 


1,255,762 


1.395,406 


1,3.')0,247 


I,.W1,889 


1,694,166 


1,891,601 



LITEK.\TURE. 

Powder and Explosives, by Francis G. Du Pont. One Hundred 
Vears of American Commerce, I, 192. 

The Manufacture of Explosives, Oscar Guttmann: Macmillan 
& Co., New York, 1895. 

Report and Proceedings of the Select Committee on Gun Cotton, 
etc., 1871-1874: London, 1874. 

Ascauio Sobrero, by Vincenzo Fino: Turin, 1889. 

On the Manufacture of Dynamite, G. E. Barton. Jour. Amer. 
Chem. Soc., 19, ,500-509. 1897. 

Notes on Nitroglycerine, Dynamite, and Blasting Gelatine, Geoi^ 
McRoberts. Philosophical Soc. of Glasgow, April 25, 1883. 

Lectures on Chemistry and Explosivee, Charles E. Munroe: 
Torf)edo Station Print, 1888. 

On the Development of Smokeless Powder, (Charles E. Munroe. 
Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., 18, 819-846. 1896. 

Sf)ecification8 for United States Navy Smokeless Powder. Pro- 
cee<ling8 U. S. Naval Inst., 24, 477-480. 1898. 

Smokeless Powder, Lieut. Joseph Strauss, U. S. N. Proceed- 
ings U. S. Naval Inst., 27, 7.S3-738. 1901. 

Geschichte der Explosivstoffe, S. J. Von Romocki: Berlin, 1895. 

Christian Friedrich Schonbein 1799-1868, by Kohlbaum & Schaer. 
Monographieen aus der Geschichte der Chemie IV Heft 1900, VI 
Heft 1901, Leipzig. 



Gkoui" XV. — Plahtics. 

Duringthe census year 8 establishments manufactured 
cellulose plastics and also engaged in the further manu- 
facture of these plitstics into articles of various sorts. 
The value of the plastics produced was *2,099,400. The 
totwl value of the plastics and of the finished articles 
was SWi,063,673. There were employed a capital of 
$7,568,720, and 1,221 wage-earners. The growth of the 
indu.stry can \)e shown only for the pyroxylin plastics, 
including the finished article as displayed in the follow- 
ing table: 

PRODUCTION OF PYROXYLIN PLASTICS, BY DECADES, 
1880 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



Naint>er 
YEAK. of estab- 
lishments. 


Number 
Capital. of em- 
ployees.' 

1 


Value of 
products. 


1880 6 


11,214,000 1 736 
3,158,487 , 1,023 
7,210,548 1,176 


•1,261,640 
2,675,736 
2,864,M4 


1890 12 


1900 1 7 



> For 1900 this means wage-earners only. 

Pyroaylin Plastics. — The best known of all the pyrox- 
ylin plastics is "celluloid." The art of making pyrox- 
ylin pla.stics was begun in England when Alexander 
Parkes discovered, in 1855, that a solution of pyroxylin, 
mixed with other substances, could, after the solvent was 
evaporated, be made into a substance having the quali- 
ties of horn or ivory, and could then be easily molded 
or worked or colored as desired. He entered vigor- 
ously upon the manufacture of this substance, which 
he called " parkesine," and put on exhibition various 
articles made from it, but the enterprise did not succeed 
and was abandoned in 1867. About this time Daniel 
Spill began the making of what he styled "zylonite" 
from pyroxylin or zyloidin by treatment with solvents 
and admixture with other materials, but owing to the 
fact that quite fluid solutions were employed, and to 
the difficulty of getting rid of the excess of the solv- 
ents, the operations were not commercially practicable. 

In 1869, John \V. Hyatt, Jr., and Isaiah S. Hyatt, of 
Albany, N. Y., made the important discovery that cam- 
phor by itself is a .solvent for pyroxylin, if, after the 
camphor has been mixed with the pyroxylin, the mix- 
ture be heated to from loO'^ to 200° F. and subjected 
at the same time to a heavy pressure, and that the prod- 
uct can be worked like rubber. To this discovery, for 
which United States Patent No. 105338, July 12, 1870. 
and its reissues were granted, to the process which 
tho.se inventors based on it, and to the knowledge and 
skill which were developed by its practice, is due the 
present commercial success of pyroxylin plastics. 

The Hyatt Brothers began the manufacture of cellu- 
loid in a small way at Albany, N. Y., in 1869, but cap- 
ital was soon interested in the venture, and in 1870 the 
business was removed to Newark, N. J., where the Cel- 



78 



liiloid Manufacturing Company has since remained in 
active operation. It had so expanded in 1896 that the 
floor space occupied at the factory was nearly eight 
acres in extent, and it is claimed that over 6,000 per- 
sons throughout the country were employed, either in 
producing the celluloid, or shaping the product of this 
factory into various articles. 

The manufacturing operations at the factory involve 
the production of the pyroxylin, its conversion into 
celluloid, and the manufacture of part of the product 
into wearing apparel and toilet and fancy articles. 
According to Field, the pyroxylin is made by dipping 
cotton or tissue paper into a mixture of sulphuric acid 
66 parts, nitric acid 17 parts, and water 17 parts, 100 
pounds of the acid mixture being used for 1 pound of 
the paper, and the immersion being continued from 
twenty to thirty minutes at 30° C. The pyroxylin 
used in this art is of low nitration, containing about 
10.18 per cent of nitrogen.' The purified pyroxylin is 
mixed with camphor by sprinkling it with a solution 
of camphor in wood alcohol, and incorporating the mass 
with other desired ingredients on steam-heated maxil- 
lating rolls. The .solid celluloid which is thus obtained, 
and which is a composition of pyroxylin with camphor, 
an ant-acid, and coloring matter, is then shaped by cut- 
ting into sheets, stuffing through die plates, molding 
under pressure while hot, turning, and the like, into 
various objects. 

Celluloid is used in making collars and cuffs; piano 
and organ keys; billiard balls; paper cutters; combs; 
backs for brushes and hand mirrors; handles for canes, 
umbrellas, whips, and cutlery; mouthpieces for pipes, 
cigarette and cigar holders; chessmen; dolls' heads and 
other toys; electrotype plates, and a great variety of 
other articles of adornment and use. 

Viscose. — This body represents the most recent de- 
velopment in the production of plastic bodies from cel- 
lulose, and was invented by C. F. Cross, E. J. Bevan, 
and C. Beadle, to whom United States Patent No. 
520770, of June 5, 1894, was issued. In the manufacture, 
purified cotton is treated with an excess of a 15 per cent 
solution of sodium hj'droxide and squeezed until it re- 
tains about three times its weight of the solution. It 
is then placed in a vessel with carbon disulphide, the 
quantity used being about 40 per cent of the weight of 
the cotton. After digestion for about three hours at 
the ordinary temperature, sufficient water to cover the 
mass is added and digestion allowed to proceed over- 
night, when, on stirring, a homogeneous liquid is ob- 
tained, which is a solution of cellulose thiocarbonate, 
or xanthate, and from which a jelly or coagulum of cel- 
lulose is produced by spontaneous decomposition, by 
precipitation with dehydrating agents, or by heating 
the solution. By incorporating viscose with mineral 
matters, hydrocarbons, and like substances, solid ag- 

' See Explosives: Gun Cotton or Pyroxylin, ante, page 73. 



gregates are produced which may be cast or molded 
into convenient fonns, and after purification and suffi- 
cient aging made available for various structural uses. 
More recently these investigators have found the 
cellulose tetracetate to be especially suitable for the 
formation of viscose. 

Other Plastics. — Many plastic substances are now 
made from caoutchouc, gutta-percha, casein, fibrin, 
gluten, and like bodies which act as gelatinizing or 
cementing agents, by which the zinc oxide, antimony 
sulphide, kaolin, and other fillers are held in solid aggre- 
gations which may be molded or shaped with lathes and 
other tools as desired. 

The foreign commerce in the pyroxylin plastics, as 
compiled from the Foreign Commerce and Navigation 
of the United States for the year ending June 30, 1900, 
Vol. II, is set forth in the following table: 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PYROXYLIN PLASTICS, 
1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Imports, 

value. 


Exports, 
value. 


1891 


*10,696 
43,363 
67,062 
96,977 
371,873 
337,862 
262, 675 
160,836 
249, 619 
378,583 




1892 


839,004 
36,697 
86,234 
72,926 
146,354 
149 631 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


155! 444 
173,771 
174,310 


1899 


1900 -•. 





LITERATURE. 

Pyroxylin, Its Manufacture and Applications, by Walter D. Field, 
J. Am. Chem. Soc, vols. 15 and 16, 1893 and 1894. 

Das Celluloid, by Fr. Buckmann, Leipzig, 1880. 

Cellulose, by Cross and Bevan, London, 1895. 

Researches on Cellulose, 1895-1900, by Cross and Bevan, London, 
1901. 

Group XVI. — Essentia r. Oils. 

Though one of the less important, as measured by 
the value of the product, this is one of the oldest of the 
chemical industries, and it received lecognition as a dis- 
tinct industry in census statistics so long ago as 1860. It 
appears, however, that there have been var3-ing views 
at the several censuses as to what substances should prop- 
erly be placed under this classification. For the census 
of 1900, there are included in this report, under this 
title, all those bodies reported as having been manufac- 
tured in the United States during the census year, that 
are usually included in the text-books and treatises under 
the legends "volatile oils"' or "essential oils," except 
vanillin, and oil or spirits of turpentine, which was 
made the subject of a special census report, while in 
addition witch-hazel is included. In this classification, 
then, there are, for the year ending June 1, 1900, 100 
establishments in 14 states, engaged wholly or chiefly 
in the production or refining of these oils. Of these, 
30 establishments produced a product of less than 



1 



79 



^500 in value. These 100 establishments employed 
J>622,S85 of capital and 201 wage-earners, and the value 
of their products was $850, 133. In addition, there were 
3 establitshnicnts which produced $9,268 of essential oils 
as a subordinate product. As pointed out, there is 
included here the refined natural oils and tho crude 
natural oils, and in addition the artificial oils. These 
last named are manufactured by 4 establishments, em- 
ploying $33,720 of capital and 13 wage-earners, and they 
reported $54,450 in value of products. The vanillin in- 
dustry, which is classified with "fine chemicals," 
returned 124,874 ounces of the product, having a value 
of $113,050. This was manufactured in 4 establish- 
ments, and gave employment to 26 wage-earners and 
$65,689 of capital. The product of refined natural oils 
for 1900 amounted in value to $370,500. The estab- 
lishments for the production of the crude natural oils 
were distributed as follows: 

GEOURAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUDE ESSENTIAL 
OIL FACTORIES: 1900. 



irrATis. 


Number 
of estab- 
lishments. 


Average 
number 
of wage- 
earners. 


Capital. 


Product. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United States 


97 


167 


(426,892 


$434,451 


100.0 


Connecticut , ... 


5 
11 
15 
10 
28 

28 


8 
15 
31 
14 
91 

8 


65,500 
183,675 
15, 149 
20,050 
107,509 

35,009 


45,580 
249,160 
38,165 
14,898 
70,126 

16,687 


10.5 


New York 


57.3 


Virginia 


!<.9 




3.4 


Michigan 


16.1 


New Hampsliire, Ver- 
mont, MassaehusettA, 
I'onnsylvania, North 
Carolina. Florida, 
Tennessee, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, and Cali- 
fornia 


3.8 







This tabular view shows that though this industry 
was widelj' distributed, it did not attain to any magni- 
tude except in the states of New York, Michigan, Con- 
necticut, and Virginia, and that in these states, as else- 
where, it was carried on by a large number of persons 
in a very small way. In fact it is usually carried on as 
an employment accessory to farming, the farmers taking 
advantage of the idle time between seasons to gather 
roots, herbs, bark, and leaves, and by means of a simple 
and often portable still (which is frequently erected for 
the time being in the woods near where the material is 
gathered) extracting their essential oils. This accounts 
for the small number of wage-earners in proportion to 
the number of establishments reported, as the farmer, 
in a large nuiuber of instances, carries out all the 
operations without hired labor. The character of the 
industry and the methods employed are especially illus- 
trated by the great variety of products reported, for 
there are, among others, returned and combined in the 
values given in the table, the natural oils of peppermint, 
speaniiint, erigeron (iieabane), pennyroyal, wormwood, 
tansy, fireweed, golden rod, wintergreen, black birch, 
sassafras, spruce, cedar, junipei*, and witch-hazel. 



The peppermint-oil industry was confined princi{Milly 
to Michigan, Indiana, and New York, there having ()een 
95,0<)() pounds produced in these three states; the 
sassafras-oil industry was lo<rated principally in Vir- 
ginia, where 104,931 pounds of this oil were produ<«d; 
the wintergreen-oil industry was located chiefly in 
Penn.sylvania, where 2,075 pounds were reported as 
having been produced; and the witch-hazel industry 
was located chiefly in Connecticut and New York, 
where 110,260 gallons of this substance, having a value 
of $54,649, were produced. 

As previously stated, the methods of classifying this 
industry, as well as the methods u.sed for collecting the 
statistics, have varied somewhat in the different cen.suses, 
but they have been suflSciently consistent for the last 
three decades to admit of the comparison made in the 
following table: 

TOTAL PRODUCTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS (CRUDE) BY 
DECADES, 1880 TO 1890, INCLUSIVE. 



YEAR. 


Nnmber 
of ertab- 
Ushments. 


Capital. 


Average 
nnmber 
of wage- 
earners. 


Value of 
prodnct 


1880 


124 
67 
97 


167,755 
102,223 
428, 8«2 


278 
191 
167 


•248,858 


1890 


2.56 847 


1900 


434,451 









The increase in the value of the product for 1890 over 
the value for 1880 was but 2.8 per cent, while the in- 
crease for 1900 over 1890 was 69.8 per cent. It is not 
possible to state how great a part of this increase for 
1900 is due to a more complete collection of the returns 
for this rural industry. There is an apparent falling off 
in the number of wage-earners, but if, since these 
operations are usually conducted by the owner of the 
establishment, there were added one man for each estab- 
lishment to the number of wage-earners, there would be 
a total of 264, which is probably not far from the truth. 
Another method of reckoning the number of wage- 
earners would be to take into account those engaged 
in the cultivation of the herbs, like mint, which aro 
grown for the production of es.sential oils, and it is 
probable that at the census of 1870, where the number 
of hands employed is reported as 2.365, a method such 
as this has been followed. It is necessary to recall that 
the essential-oil distilleries would, as a rule, be in opera- 
tion but a part of each year. 

The essential oils are those volatile oils which exist 
ready formed in animal and vegetable organisms, and 
they are called essential becau.se they possess, in a concen- 
trated form, certain of the characteristic properties of 
the plants from which they are derived. They are also 
known as the wlatile oils, because they are easily evap- 
orated, and as distilled oils, from the method bj- which 
a number of them are usually extracted from the plant. 
They exist in all odoriferous vegetation, sometimes 
pervading the plant, and in other cases being confined 



80 



to a single part of the plant. In some instances the oil 
is contained in distinct cells, where it is preserved after 
desiccation of the part, while in others, as in flowers, it 
is secreted on or near the surface, and exhaled so soon as 
formed. Occasionally two or more different oils are 
formed in different parts of the same plant, as in the 
orange tree, which contains one kind of oil in its leaves, 
another in its flowers, and a third in the rind of its fruit. 
Some essential oils are formed during distillation from 
substances of a different nature preexisting in the plant, 
as in the case of oil of bitter almonds, which is produced 
bj' the action of water on the amygdalin which exists in 
the bitter almond. These oils are compound substances, 
or mixtures of compound substances, consisting of car- 
bon and hydrogen alone, or of these elements combined 
with oxygen, sulphur, or nitrogen. These compounds 
are found among the derivatives of both the acj'clic 
and cyclic series, and in addition to the various hydro- 
carbons there have been found among them alcohols, 
aldehydes, acids, esters, ketones, phenols, phenol- 
ethers, lactones, quinones, oxides, sulphides, nitrils, 
and isothiocyanates. In the mixed oils the oxygenated 
bodies are often of greater importance than the hydro- 
carbons because they are usuallj^ the possessors of the 
characteristic odor of the oil in which they are con- 
tained. Latterly these oils have been concentrated for 
sale by the removal of the nonfragrant hydrocarbons, 
this concentrate representing from 2 to 30 volumes of 
the original oil. Thus, 1 volume of the concentrated 
oil represents 2 volumes of the oils of anise, cassia, 
fennel, gingergrass, mentha crispa, mentha piperita, 
cloves, sassafras, and star anise; 2^ volumes of the oils 
of bergamot, caraway, and lavender; 4 volumes of cu- 
min and rosemary; 5 volumes of thyme; 6 volumes of 
coriander; 8 volumes of calamus; lOvolumesof absinthe 
(wormwood); 20 volumes of juniper; 30 volumes of an- 
gelica, lemon, and orange. It is asserted that these 
concentrated oils are more permanent, more soluble in 
alcohol and water, have a finer odor, and a more nearly 
constant composition than the original oils. They are 
undoubtedly superior to the ordinary essential oils both 
in odor and strength, and they are now offered in the 
market under the name of " terpeneless volatile oils." 

The natural essential oils as ordinarily obtained are 
of a thin, oily consistency at ordinary temperatures. 
They partly rise in vapor at ordinary temperatures, dif- 
fusing their peculiar odors, and are wholly volatile at 
higher temperatures; they have a characteristic and 
generally pungent odor; they are sparingly soluble in 
water, but readily soluble in alcohol and ether, and 
most of them are optically active. In the later works, 
solid camphor-like bodies and vanillin are included with 
the essential oils. 

The essential oils are recovered by several different 
processes, depending upon the nature of the plant in 
which the oil exists and the nature of the oil. Thus, 
oils such as those of peppermint, sassafras, winter- 



green, and the like, are obtained by distillation; oils, 
such as those from the orange and lemon peel may be 
recovered by expression; and oils, such as those existing 
in blossoms and constituting their perfumes, may be 
obtained by the process of enfleurage. 

The process of distillation is well described in a cir- 
cular issued by Albert M. Todd, of Kalamazoo, Mich., 
entitled "The Essential Oil Industry of Michigan," of 
which the following is an abstract: 

The essential-oil industry of Michigan was inaugu- 
rated in St. Joseph county in 1835, being confined for 
many years to the production of oil of peppermint by 
the crude and primitive apparatus brought from the 
East, consisting of a copper kettle containing water in 
which the plants were placed, to which heat was directly 
applied, this being connected with a rude form of worm 
for condensation of the distillate. 

As the area under cultivation increased, the need for 
better appliances was felt, and Michigan's genms gave 
to the world the greatest invention of the century in the 
distillation of essential-oil plants — the steam distillery — 
by which the rate of distillation was increased from 
about 15 pounds to over 100 pounds of essential oil per 
da}\ The increased rapidity of distillation now se- 
cured was unfortunately not followed by a correspond- 
ing advance in quality, for no true system of tests was 
known by which the quality of the oil could be estab- 
lished, and weedy, resinous, or adulterated oil continued 
to be the rule. Beginning in 1808, Mr. Todd labored 
to advance the standard, the I'esult being that a system 
of tests was established, and a process of steam rectifi- 
cation, with elaborate appliances, was perfected for 
bringing the crude oil to a uniform state of purity and 
excellence. 

The manufacturing system is as follows: The plants 
having been carefuU}' cultivated ai'e cut when in full 
bloom, usually'during the months of August and Sep- 
tember, and after being partially dried are placed in 
large wooden vats having a capacity of from 2,000 to 
3,000 pounds dried plants each, which, after being filled, 
are closed with steam-tight covers. A pipe from the 
steam-generating boiler is connected with the distilling 
vats, entering them at the bottom under the plants. 
As the steam enters it is diffused evenly and forced up- 
ward through the plants. The heat of the steam ex- 
pands the globules of oil, which are contained in the 
minute cells of the leaves, causing them to burst, and 
the oil being thus freed is carried off' in the current of 
steam. This steam, now charged with the essential oil, 
having passed through the mass of plants to the top of 
the vat, escapes through a " changing valve" to the pri- 
mary condenser, which consists of a series of tin-coated 
pipes about 6 inches in diameter and 12 feet long, over 
which a large supply of cold water is made to flow 
evenly through a perforated trough from above. 

The steam of the distillate, consisting of oil and 
water, is condensed in a primary condenser, but, for the 



81 



purpose of roducin^' to a uniform temperature, it is 
conveyed to a large hlock-tin worm, .supplied eonstftiitiy 
with cold water. The di.stillate, after traversing this 
worm, falls into the receiver, a vessel al>out 3 foet in 
height and 10 inches in diameter, having an exterior 
pipe leading from the bottom to a height nearly equal 
to that of the receiver. As the distillate flows into the 
receiver, the water, l)eing heavier than the oil of pep- 
permint, sinks to the bottom of the vessel, and is forced 
from thence upward and out through the pipe men- 
tioned. The essential oil collects upon the top of the 
receiver and is dipped off. The same separation occurs 
with spearmint, wormwood, tansy, and the other oils 
lighter than water. With wintergreen and .sassafras, 
which are heavier, the system is reversed; the water 
rising to the top and being returned from thence to the 
boiler, while the oil sinks to the bottom. As the water 
of the distillate does not throw off the entire amount of 
essential oil contained, it is returned to the boiler and 
reconverted into steam and continuously used. Many 
of the distillers, however, allow this water to run to 
waste, and the amount wasted in America (which in 
England was formed}' bottled and sold) amounted, until 
recenth', to not far from 5,000,000 pounds. The vats 
in the largest distilleries in the United States require 
about 3,000 pounds of the dried plants for a charge. 
If the plants are properly dried, and an adequate sup- 
ply of steam is at command, the oil ma}' be distilled 
from the charge in forty-tive minutes. As thus dis- 
tilled from the plants the product obtained is the 
natural oil, which, even though pure plants are used, 
always contains an insoluble resin, and it is in this form 
that oil is usually sold. 

For the purpose of rendering the oil of absolute purity 
and the highest possible concentration, aroma, solubi lity, 
and therapeutic value, and freeing it from any foreign 
substances contained therein, it is placed in special 
retining stills, by means of which fresh steam is diffused 
through the oil in numerous jets, evaporating the most 
valuable and aromatic portions. This steam is gener- 
ated at a distance from the refiners, so that no direct 
heat is used, and by this process the scorching of the 
oil or formation of any empyreumatic product is ren- 
dered absolutely impossible. The supply of steam ad- 
mitted and the consequent rate of distillation is care- 
fully regulated. The first fraction is distilled very 
slowly, so that any foreign hydrocarbons present are 
eliminated. Afterwards the pure aromatic essential 
oil is volatilized, the speed of distillation being in- 
creased. After the aromatic oil has been recovered, 
there remains an oleo-resin (the bitter and insol- 
uble principle), which is cast away. This in old and 
oxidized oil, sometimes is found to the extent of over 
25 per cent. The refined es.sential oil thus obtained has 
the pure and sweet odor of its true plant in a high de- 
gree, is of the greatest strength, unusual solubility, 
brilliant and limpid, and is absolutely pure. 



The method of enfleurage consi.stH in the al)«orptlon 
of the perfume exhaled from fresh blos.soms by a neu- 
tral fat or oil. For this puqx)se pans are filled with 
fresh lard or l)eef fat and thickly covered with fresh 
petals, this covering Ixjing renewed until the fat in sat- 
urated with the perfume. The fat is then pressed 
through a sieve, and the thick substance which is ex- 
pressed and which contains the odoriferous principle is 
styled pomade; or plates of gla.ss are smeared with 
fresh lard, or cotton wool is coated with fresh olive oil, 
and the perfume is allowed to pass over these surfaces, 
and when the fat or oil is saturated the perfume is ex- 
tracted from them by .solution in alcohol. 

The oil of pep|)ermint, which is commercially among 
the more important of the natural oils produced in the 
United States, is obtained from several varieties of 
mint, all classified under the species Mentha piperita, 
which are cultivated in Europe and North America. 
The plant from which Japanese oil of peppermint is 
obtained belongs to another species. It is not known 
that any of the mints referred to in the Lif>er cU: arte 
dlstillandi ' were peppermint. The oldest known speci- 
mens of this plant were those collected by John Ray 
in Hertfordshire, England, in 1696, and to which, 
in his Ilistoria Plunta7iuiu, published in 1704, he gave 
the name of peppermint. These specimens are still 
preserved in the herbarium of the British Museum, and 
they correspond in all essential characteristics with the 
peppermint which is to-day cultivated in England. The 
commercial history of this industry dates from about 
the year 1750, when the cultivation of peppermint was 
begun in a very small way at Mitcham, Surrey county, 
England, and by the year 1800 the area under cultiva- 
tion had reached 100 acres. The industry in England 
reached its maximum about 1850, when 500 acres were 
under cultivation, but from that time it diminished, 
owing to American competition. 

According to a private communication from Leander 
S. Drew, of Lodi, Wis., the records of his establish- 
ment show that oil of peppermint was produced in Con- 
necticut before 1812, and that his grandfather, Daniel 
Drew, made oil of peppermint in Corinth, Orange 
county, Vt., before 1814. and redistilled oil bought near 
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1819. Further, he states that Lean- 
der Drew, M. D., his father, began the distillation of 
oils of wormwood, peppermint, spearmint, erigeron, 
and dittany, in Wisconsin, in 1843. The distillation of 
peppcrment oil began in Wayne county, N. Y., in 1816, 
and later this became the most important center of its 
production in the United States. As stated, the cul- 
tivation of peppermint was begun in St. Joseph c<mnty, 
Mich., in 1835 and this state has since rivaled New 
York in this industry. 

Formerly it was supposed that a larger yield of oil 
was obtained from the use of fresh plants in the still, 
but Todd has shown experimentally, and experience 

' Brunachwig, 1500. 



No. 210 — 6 



82 



has verified the showing, that the yield is equally large 
from the dried as from the fresh material, while a 
larger quantity of the dried material may be placed in 
a given still for a single charge, and oil may be dis- 
placed from it with threefold the rapidity that it can be 
from the fresh mint. In addition, as it is the practice 
of the local distillers to treat not only their own crop 
but that of their neighbors (one distillery, on an aver- 
age, serving for about ten planters), the cost of trans- 
portation is reduced by previously drying the mint, 
since the shrinkage in weight is over 49 per cent. 
Gildemeister and Hoffman," however, suggest that 
the known difference in solubility of the English and 
American oils may be due to the fact that the former 
is distilled from the fresh herb and the latter from the 
dried herb. The charge for treatment by the distillers 
is about 25 cents for each pound of oil produced. 

Peppermint plants are propagated from roots or run- 
ners, the ''sets" being planted out in the spring. 
There are therefore "old or second-crop" plants of 
previous plantings, which mature usually in August, 
and the " new ci'op," which matures in September. 
The proper time for cutting the mint is when the 
plants are full blown. The average yield of essential 
oil varies greatly, depending largely on the extent to 
which the plants are covered with leaves and blossoms, 
as it is these which contain the oil. The average yield 
of oil from green plants is about one-third of 1 per 
cent, or 6| pounds of oil for each 2,000 pounds of 
plants. Todd '' has obtained 18 pounds of oil from 2,000 
pounds of well-leaved plants, and but li pounds from 
a like quantity of coarse plants devoid of leaves. The 
average yield of oil per acre for the first and second 
year's crop is 11 pounds. 

According to Todd,' the average annual production 
of peppermint oil for the ten years prior to 1886 was 
about 100,000 pounds. According to Gildemeister and 
Hoffman,' the largest yearly production of peppermint 
oil in the United States was in 1897 and was distributed 
as follows: 

Michigan: Pounds. 

Eastern 13, 000 

Western 79, 000 

Northern 25, 000 

Southern 55, 000 

Total 172,000 

Indiana 32, 000 

New York 37,000 

Other localities 10, 000 

Total United States 251,000 

The consequence of this enormous production was an 
entirely unexpected drop in price, which has since re- 
stricted production. 

' Volatile Oils, page 641. 

= Amer. Phar. Assn., page 121. 1886. 

"Ibid. 

•The Volatile Oils, page 636. 



A by-product of the mint distillation industry is 
found in the mint hay. After the distillation is com- 
pleted this is lifted from the steam vat in the form of 
a large cylindrical cake, and when dried it is eaten 
with great relish by horses and cattle, or it is com- 
posted and i-eturned to the fields as a fertilizer. 

Peppermint oil is used as a flavor in food, drink, 
and confectionery, and in medicine. It is also u.sed as 
a source of menthol, or peppermint camphor. This 
menthol separation differs according to the oil used. 
The Japanese oil is so rich in menthol that it forms a 
crystalline mass, saturated with the oil, at ordinary 
temperatures. The American oil solidifies completely 
in a freezing mixture. The English and Saxon oils 
ver}' often show crystalline separations only after 
standing for a long while in the freezing mixture. 

Spearmint Oil.^ — The American spearmint oil is dis- 
tilled in New York and Michigan from the fresh herb 
of Mentha viridis, L. The herb is cultivated to a not 
inconsiderable extent, as much as 12,000 pounds being 
obtained in the two states mentioned. The oil is color- 
less, yellowish or greenish yellow, is liquid, and pos- 
sesses the characteristic penetrating and disagreeable 
odor of spearmint. With age and on exposure to the air 
the oil becomes viscid and darker. It has a specific grav- 
it}^ of 0.92 to 0.94 and is soluble in equal parts of 90 per 
cent alcohol, but the solution is rendered turbid b}' the 
addition of more solvent. An oil distilled by Fritsche 
Brothers had somewhat different properties. The spear- 
mint had been cultivated on the factory grounds at Gar- 
field, N. J., and was just in blossom when distilled. 
The 3neld was just 0.3 per cent. The oil had a specific 
gravity of 0.98 with an odor quite different from the 
commercial oil. It is possible that in the distillation of 
the commercial oil a part of this heavy oil is lost, thus 
accounting for the lower specific gravity. After the 
first harvest, toward the close of July, a second was 
made early in October. The yield from the fresh herb 
was onl}' 0.18 per cent. The odor of this oil was some- 
what less delicate, its specific gravity and rotatory 
power were lower, 0.961, but it was still heavier than 
the conmiercial oils, though never heavier than water. 

Oil of Wmnnwood.'' — Artemisia absinthium^ Z., is in- 
digenous to many European countries. It has been 
introduced into North America and is frequently culti- 
vated for commei-cial purposes. The distilled oil of 
wormwood was known to Porta about 1570, who called 
attention to its blue color. It is named in the price ordi- 
nances of Frankfort in 1587, and was first examined by 
Hoffman in 1722 and recommended by him for medici- 
nal purposes. 

Whereas, the French oil formerly controlled the mar- 
ket, it is now largely replaced by the cheaper American 
oil from New York, Michigan, Nebraska, and Wiscon- 

' The Volatile Oils, page 636. 
'Ibid., page 684. 



83 



sin. The consumption of wormwood oil has decroased 
considerably, due pt)ssibly to the toxic properties of 
the oil to which attention has been directed. The fresh 
herb cultivated in Germany yields one-half per cent of 
oil, which at tirst is colored dark brown but changes to 
},'reen after long exposure to the air. 

Oil of Eritjerott} — Erigeron canachrut/K, Z., is a very 
common weed, which is known in America as tteabane, 
horseweed, or butterweed. It is frequently found in 
peppermint fields. The fresh herb yields upon distil- 
lation 0.2 to 0.4 per cent of oil, which finds limited 
medical application in the United States, and which was 
made official in the United States Pharmacopoeia of 
1890. 

Oil of Sassafras.' — The sassafras tree is widely dis- 
tributed in North America, from Canada to Florida and 
Alabama, and westward as far as Kansas and the north- 
ern part of Mexico. The older bark and wood are 
odorless; the green parts of the tree, when crushed, 
smell faintly aromatic, but not of safrol; the wood of 
the roots, and especially the root bark, are more rich 
in oil cells. 

Next to turpentine oil the oil of sassafras was the first 
volatile oil distilled in a primitive fashion in North Amer- 
ica. On account of the pleasant aroma the I'oot bark was 
chewed by the aborigines, who called it jHivame. It was 
also mixed with smoking tobacco (Rafinesque) and added 
as an aromatic to refreshing beverages and was used as a 
remed}'. On account of its marked characteristics the 
sassatras tree is said to have attracted the attention of 
the Spaniards at their tirst landing in Florida under 
Ponce de Leon in 1512; also under De Soto in 1538. 
They are said to have regarded it as a kind of cinnamon 
tree. As late as the first half of the Nineteenth century 
the bark, leaves, and buds were used in the Middle and 
Central states as a substitute for Chinese tea. As early 
as 1582, sassafras wood and bark became known in Ger- 
many as a new American drug and were used under the 
name of Lignum pavanuia (German, Fenchelholz). 
The bark and wood were apparently first distilled by 
Angelus Sala in 1620, who mentions that the oil is heav- 
ier than water. Schroeder's Pharmacopceia msdico- 
chymica, published in Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1641, 
is the fii"st pharmacopoeia that gives directions for the 
distillation of the oil, whereas the municipal price ordi- 
nance of Frankfort-on-the-Main of 1587 already enu- 
merates Oleum ligni soLssafras. Schoepf, who was a 
careful observer, and who traveled through the Atlantic 
states in 1783 and 1784, repeatedly refers to the sassa- 
fras tree, but does not mention the oil. Evidently the 
distillation of the oil did not become an industry until 
the close of the Eighteenth or the early part of the 
Nineteenth century. 

The original process of distillation seems to have been 
generally very primitive, but it is now conducted in a 

> The Volatile Oils, paf^ 668. 
•Ibid., page 395. 



.somewhat more rational manner. The stills, made of 
3-inch planks, an- from 4 to 5 feet high, aliout 12 feet 
square, and strengthened by iron bandn. Que of the 
sides is provider! with two clo.se-fitting doors, an upper 
one for charging the .still, and a lower one for remov- 
ing the exhausted material. The wood is split or sawed 
into thin pieces. The steam, generated in a Itoiler, 
enters the still at the bottom, and the distillate is cooled 
in a coiled conden.ser and collected in a large copper 
flask of 20 gallons capacity. About 2 inches from the 
bottom this fiask is provided with a stopcock, through 
which the oil is drawn off from time to time. The ex- 
hausted wood is dried and used as fuel. Such a still 
has a capacity for 20,00») pounds of wood, and the dis- 
tillation of this quantity lasts from about forty -eight to 
fifty hours. The root bark yields from 6 to 9 per cent 
of oil, and the wood part of the root less than 1 per 
cent. According to W. H. Phelps,' Big Island, Va., 
35 pounds of oil per ton of 2,000 pounds of sassafras is 
a good average yield. The yield from all the factories 
in Virginia, by the returns, average 23 pounds per ton. 

Up to the middle of the Nineteenth century the oil 
was distilled principally in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
Virginia, and Baltimore and Richmond were the prin- 
cipal commercial centers. In 1860, just prior to the 
Civil War, not less than 50,000 pounds of sassafras oil 
were sold annually in Baltimore alone (Sharp). Since 
the sixties considerable quantities of the oil have also 
been distilled in New Jersej-, New York, Ohio, Indiana, 
Tenne.ssee, and the New England states, but the practi- 
cal extinction of the tree has rendered the industry 
unprofitable. 

Wintergreeti Oil.* — Wintergreen, Gaultfu^'iaprocum- 
bens, L. (Family Ericacete) grows from the New Eng- 
land states to Minnesota and south as far as Georgia 
and Alabama. On account of the peculiar odor and 
taste which develop when the plant is chewed, it was 
early used by the natives. The distillation of the oil 
was probably begun in the first decades of the Nine- 
teenth century along with that of sassafras bark and 
birch l)ark in the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
and New York. At first these aromatics were used for 
chewing, later for the preparation of refreshing bever- 
ages and home remedies, and especially for the much- 
used "blood purifiers." When the preparation of the 
volatile oils became successful, these were often used 
instead of the aqueous extract of the drug. This use 
is of considerable importance in the hi.story of the in- 
troduction of wintergreen and sas.safras oils, as both 
of these were used as popular remedies in the United 
States since the Ijeginning of the Nineteenth century 
under the title of patent medicines. The preparation 
and use of these remedies soon became general, and 
with these came a greater demand for the oils. Win- 
tergreen oil was especially in demand for the prepara- 



' Private communication. 
•The Volatile Oils, page 585. 



84 



tion of one of the oldest known remedies in the United 
States, namely, Swaim's Panacea, introduced in 1815, 
which at that time had an enormous sale and in the 
efficiency of which great confidence was placed. 

Wintergreen oil does not appear to have been used 
at that time for any other purpose. The first mention 
of it in literature is found in a botanical work by Bige- 
low, a physician of Boston, published in 1818. In it 
Gaultheria oil is mentioned as a staple article of the 
drug stores, and it is also stated that this oil occurs not 
only in Gaultheria, but also in Sjnrxa ubnaria, the root 
of Spirseu lohata, and especially in the bark of Betida 
lenta. The oil first appeared in pharmacopoeias in the 
United States Pharmacopseia of 1820. The medicinal 
use of the oil did not become general until after 1827, 
when the New York Medical Society made known its 
use in the preparation of the popular specific mentioned 
above. 

Although the similarity of the volatile oil from 
Gaultheria procumbetu, Z., with that from the bark of 
Betxda lenta, Z., was known before 1818, the identity 
of their principal constituent was shown scientifically 
about the same time by William Proctor, jr., of Phila- 
delphia, in 18-12 and Cahours in 1844. From that time 
on, the oil was no longer distilled exclusively from 
wintergreen, but often from this, together with birch 
bark, or from the latter only. The oil came more and 
more into use as an aromatic for pharmaceutic and cos- 
metic preparations, for beverages and medicinal reme- 
dies, and thus became an article of commerce. In 
recent time, however, it is often adulterated with kero- 
sene and alcohol. Methyl salicylate has been prepared 
on a large scale and brought into the market as artificial 
oil of lointergreen since 1886 b}' Schimmel & Co. It is 
official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. 

The preparation of oil of wintergreen has alwaj's been 
carried on in a primitive manner, the distillation being 
conducted by the smaller farmers at the place where the 
plant grows. This was first done in the New England 
states and later in the mountain and forest districts of 
the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and Maryland. Usually old copper whisky 
stills of various sizes, mostly from 200 to 400 gallons 
capacity, serve as stills. Sometimes the distillation is 
done in boxes of oak wood about 8 feet long, 4 feet 
high, and from 4 to 5 feet broad; mostly, however, in 
larger alcohol barrels, held together bj' strong iron 
hoops, the perforated bottom of wliich is fitted as tightly 
as possible into a suitable cast-iron kettle, which is filled 
with water for distillation. On the upper part of the 
barrel is placed a copper helm, which is connected with 
a condensing worm in a large wooden tub. 

In the distillation, which is carried on for only a few 
months in the year, the still, barrel, or box is filled 
with finely chopped, well-wetted plants. The charge is 
allowed to stand over night and firing begun in the 
morning. The distillation is usually complete in eight 



hours. About 90 per cent of the oil passes over during 
the first two or three hours, the remaining 10-per cent 
in the course of the next three or four hours. The 
crude oil is colored dark by the iron of the condenser. 
The small producers sell the crude oil obtained to whole- 
sale druggists, who purity it by rectification. 

Sweet-birch oil (wintergreen oil).' — Cherry birch, or 
sweet or black birch {Betula lenta, L., family Betu- 
laceae) is a tree which grows on good forest soil 
throughout southern Canada and the northern United 
States, westward as far as Minnesota and Kansas, and to 
the south as far as Georgia and Alabama. When 
chewed, its reddish bronze-colored bark develops a 
peculiar fragrance and taste, and on this account has 
been used by the natives for chewing and in the prep- 
aration of refreshing and medicinal beverages. Next 
to turpentine oil, the oils of sassafras, wintergreen, and 
birch bark were among the first oils obtained by 
distillation in the United States. The similarity in 
odor and taste of birch-bark oil, with true oil of 
wintergreen from Gaultheria procuinhens, was shown 
before 1818 (Bigelow). The chemical identity of the 
principal constituent of both was demonstrated by Proc- 
tor in 1843. As the demand for wintergreen oil in- 
creased, sweet-birch bark was distilled indiscriminately 
with wintergreen leaves, or even distilled alone, as a sub- 
stitute, so that the commercial oil is at present obtained 
almost exclusively from the bark of sweet birch {Betula 
lenta, L.). 

For purposes of distillation the young trunks and 
branches were formerly used. These were cut into 
pieces from 1 to 4 inches in length, which were macer- 
ated for twelve hours previous to distillation. For the 
latter operation stills like those described under winter- 
green oil were used. The bark of the trunk and larger 
branches is now used, being peeled off in late summer, 
and either cut or torn by means of toothed rollers, and 
freshly distilled with water from copper stills. If win- 
tergreen grows abundantly in the neighborhood, it is 
added to the bark in the still. Preference is given to 
the one which is the more abundant and more conven- 
iently gathered. According to Kennedy, maceration for 
twelve hours is considered indispensable to a good yield. 
A ton of 2,240 pounds of birch bark yields about 5 
pounds of oil, which amounts to 0.23 per cent. A like 
amount of wintergreen jaelds about 18 pounds of oil. 
By rational distillation, however, as much as 0.6 per 
cent of oil can be obtained from the bark. 

Proctor recognized, in 1843, that the oil does not pre- 
exist in the bark, but results from the interaction of two 
of the constituents present with water in a similar way to 
that attending the formation of the oils of bitter almonds, 
nmstard, etc. According to more recent investigations 
by Schneegans, these substances are Betulase, a ferment, 
and Gaultherin, a glucoside, which crystallizes with one 
molecule of water. 

'The Volatile Oils, page 331. 



85 



Oil of Red Cedar Wood.^ — The Virfjiniii or rod <'edar 
is IV shrub or tree which is distributed throughout the 
United States. Its wood is used in the niamifacture of 
tipir boxes, lead pencils, and small ornanKuits. It is 
adapted to this pur|^)ose on account of its uniform struc- 
ture, its mild sandalwood odor, and because it is not 
attacked by insects. For the distillation of the oil, the 
waste from the lead-pencil manufactory is used, yield- 
ing from 2.5 to 4.5 per cent. The exhausted chips are 
then utilized by the furriers in the preparation of skins. 
A very inferior oil is ol)tained in this country as a by- 
product from the drying chambers of the lead-pencil 
factories. These chambers are so constructed that the 
escaping vapors from the cedar wood ciin be condensed. 
In this ca.se, however, the high-boiling constituents of 
the wood remain behind and only the more volatile 
constituents are obtained. The oil thus obtained is 
more mobile and its odor is both less fine and less 
permanent than that of the normal, making it unserv- 
iceable for use in perfumery. 

Hemlock m' spruce iieedi^i oll^ — The needles and young 
twigs used in the distillation of this oil seem to be 
contributed by thi-ee different species: The hemlock or 
spruce, which occurs throughout North America from 
Canada to Alabama and westward as far as the Pacific; 
the white spruce; and the black spruce. They are 
equally widely distributed. In the collection of the 
leaves and twigs it seems highly probable that no dis- 
tinction is made between these three species, so that a 
commercial oil may contain variable amounts of the oils 
from all three. In fact, the oils, being regarded as 
identical, are brought into the market under the common 
name of hemlock or spruce oil. Inasmuch as they are 
alike in properties and composition, quantitatively, the 
confusion in this case may be regarded as being of little 
or no consequence. 

Witch-hazel^ {Ilamamelis virginiana, L.). — Witch- 
hazel is a shrub indigenous to and growing in almost all 
sections of the United States. It is the only species of 
the genus found in eastern North America. The bark 
has a bitter, astringent, somewhat sweetish and pungent 
taste, but no odor. Walter B. Cheney examined witch- 
hazel bark and found in it tannin, resin, and an extract- 
ive, but no indication of an alkaloid or other crystalline 
principle.* It contains a trace of volatile oil, however. 
Dr. John Marshall, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
found that hamamelis root contains tannic acid and a 
trace of volatile oil, but no other active substance.' 

The bark of the witch-hazel is said to have first 
attracted attention on account of its use by the North 
American Indians as a sedative application to external 
inflammations. It was many years ago strongly recom- 
mended by Dr. James Fountain and Dr. N. S. Davis for 

' The Volatile Oils, page 276. 
'Ibid., jMige263. 

•U. .S. Dispensatory, 18th ed.: 1899. 
* Am. Jour. I'har., page 418. 1886. 
'Therap. Gaz., vol. 11, page 296. 



hemorrhage of the lungs and stomach.' Of late years 
professional attention has In-en very strongly directed 
to witch-hazel on account of the enormous sale of a 
proprietary remedy said to have Iwen made by distilling 
the bark with very dilute alcohol (B i>er cent), and UH«?d 
externally for sprains and bruises and internally for 
many diseases. 

The preparation known as witch-hazel extract, or 
witch-hazel water, is obtained by digesting 100 parts by 
weight of Hamamelis shoots and twigs with 200 volumes 
of water and 15 volumesof alcohol for twenty-four hours. 
The mixture is then distilled by applying direct heat, 
but bett«;r by means of steam, until KX) volumes of the 
distillate have been obtained. The preparation should 
be made from the fresh young twigs of the Hamamelis 
only, and these are preferably to be collected in the 
late autumn when the plant is in flower. The returns 
for 1900 show that 13,248 gallons of alcohol, having a 
value of $31,606, were consumed in this industry during 
the census year. 

Artificial Essential Oils. — One of the greatest achieve- 
ments of modern chemistry is the production in the 
laboratory of chemical substances, such as have been 
previously known only as the results of vital proces.ses 
going on in vegetable or animal organs, and this achieve- 
ment is especially marked in the production of those 
essential oils which are used as flavors or perfumes. 
The first step in this development was the discovery by 
analysis of the compound or compounds which consti- 
tuted the odorous or fragrant principle existing or pro- 
duced from the natural substance, as in the recognition 
by Woehler and Liebig of the existence of benzalde- 
hyde in the oil of bitter almonds; the next was the 
discovery of a method or methods by which this chem- 
ical substiince could be artificially produced. Some- 
times, however, bodies have been discovered which, 
while unlike the natural principle, possess an odor which 
resembles that of the naturally occurring body. There 
is an example of this in the mono-nitrobenzene, which 
in its odor resembles oil of bitter almonds and which, 
together with mono-nitrotoluene, is sold for scenting 
soap underthe name of oil-of-mirbane. In addition to the 
above, there have long been known and used, amyl acetate 
as essence of Jargonelle pear, amyl valerate as essence 
of apple, cinnamic aldehyde as oil of cinnamon, cumic 
aldehyde as oil of cumin, and many others. 

One of these synthetic flavors that has especiallv at- 
tracted attention is vanillin, which is the active odorous 
ingredient of the vanilla pod, in which it exists to the 
extent of about 2 per cent, appearing on the surface of 
the fjean as a fine white crystalline efilorescence. It 
was found to be methyl protocatechuic aldehyde, and it 
was first prepared artificially by Tiemann from con- 
iferin, which is a glucoside occurring in the cambium 
of various coniferous woods. Later, Tiemann, and 



•N.Y.Jour. Med., Vol. X, page 208; Trans. Amer. Med. Aaeoc., 
Vol. I, page 360. 



86 



simultaneously De Laire, discovered that it could be 
produced by the oxidation of eugenol, the chief constit- 
uent of oil of cloves, and this is now the principal .source 
of artificial vanillin, which is manufactured on a con- 
siderable scale both in this country and abroad. 

Another artificial principle is cmimai-hi, which is the 
chief ingredient in the favorite perfume known as 
" new mown hay." This body is in nature the active, 
odorous principle of the Tonquin (Tonka or Tonco) bean, 
and it is found chemically to be the d-lactone of cou- 
maiinic acid. Perkin' pointed out that if .salicylic 
aldehyde be heated with acetic anhydride and sodium 
acetate, and the melt be treated with water and again 
heated, coumarin and acetic acid are formed. 

The odorous body present in the heliotrope blossom 
finds its liken&ss in the methylene ether of protocate- 
chuic aldehyde, which is also known to chemists under 
the name of heliotropin and also piperonal. It was 
originally made from piperine extracted from pepper, 
but it is now commercially prepared by the oxidation 
of saf rol or iso-safrol. 

The odor of may blossom, or hawthorn, is fairly well 
reproduced b}' anisic aldehyde, which, chemically speak- 
ing, is the methyl ether of para-oxybenzaldehyde. It 
can be prepared from carbolic acid h\ a series of reac- 
tions, but it is more easily obtained by oxidizing anise- 
seed oil. 

The much-desired perfume of the violet finds its syn- 
thetic rival in the chemical ionone, which Tiemann and 
Kriiger succeeded in producing in 1893, after years of 
patient research. This is produced by the condensation 
of citral with acetone in the presence of alkalis, by 
which pseudo-ionone is formed, and the subsequent heat- 
ing of this pseudo-ionone with dilute sulphuric acid and 
a little glycerine or with alkalies. Citral, which is the 
aldehyde of geraniol, is found in lemon oil, orange oil, 
the oil of Eucalyptus maculata (var. citrioCUn'd), and 
lemon-grass oil, the last two named having a consider- 
able proportion of it. 

The production of artificial musk has aroused especial 
interest, since, while in the cases of the preceding chem- 
icals their character had been ascertained from a careful 
study of the plants in which they naturally occurred, in 
the case of musk, which is the preputial secretion of 
the musk deer, the chemistry of the substance is yet 
unknown. There have been several artificial musks 
produced, but practicallj- the only one used is manu- 
factured under the patents of Albert Baur and is known 
as "musk Baur." The patents cover several nitro- 
derivatives of tertiary butyl-xylene, each of which has 
the odor of musk. 

The synthetic nerolin is prepared by heating b-naph- 
thol with methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid, while 
the artificial neroli oil is a mixture of geraniol and linalol 
with their acetic esters and the methyl ester of anth- 
ranilic acid. Artificial lilac is tei*pineol prepared from 

'J. Chem. Soc, vol. 21, pages 53 to 181. 



oil of turpentine, and this body is used in mixtures for 
the preparation of other perfumes, such as artificial 
hj'acinth. Cinnamyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol have 
the odor of hyacinth; methyl benzoate the odor of niobe 
oil; linalyl acetate the odor of bergamot oil; while sec- 
ondarj' stj'rolyl acetate has a marked odor of ja,smine oil. 

It has already been noted that methyl salicylate has 
been prepared on a large scale and brought into the 
market since 1886 as artificial oil of wintergreen. Yet 
this enumeration of .synthetic chemicals used as flavors, 
or as perfumes, by no means exhausts the list, and it is 
easih' believable that the number of these substances and 
the quantity of the product will greatly increase. It 
should be especially noted that these artificially pre- 
pared sub.stances are often purer and better than those 
which are extracted from plants or animal substances. 

Foreign Commerce in Enitential Oils. — The extent of 
this commerce is displayed in the following tables, com- 
piled from "The Foreign Commerce and Navigation of 
the United States" for the year ending June 30, 1900: 

IMPORTS OF OILS, VOLATILE OR ESSENTIAL AND DIS- 
TILLED, 1891 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



TKAB. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


YEAR. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 


3,4.59,533 
3, 451, 519 
4,022,117 
2.861,875 


$1,523,491 
1,676,064 
1,664,036 
1,102,108 
1,398,956 


18% 




$1, .554, 2,89 


1892 


1897 




1,88,5,523 


1893 . . 


1898 




1,611,078 


1894 


1899 




1,691,257 


1895 


1900 




1, 8,59, 184 













EXPORTS OF OILS, VOLATILE OR liSSENTIAL AND 
DISTILLED: 1891 to 1900, INCLUSIVE. 





PEPPERMINT OIL. 


Another, 
value 
only. 


YEAR. 


PEPPERMINT OIL. 


All other, 
value 
only. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 


45,321 
54,987 
99,629 
80,225 
87,633 


8120,831 
1.56,418 
267, 422 
209,722 
194,616 


865,104 
68,501 
79,920 
64,907 ' 

190, 798 


1896 .... 

1897 .... 
1898.... 
1899.... 
1900.... 


85,290 
162,492 
145,375 
117,462 

89,558 


8174,810 
257,484 
180,811 
118,227 
90,298 


8102,487 
146, .569 
201,497 
162, 3,58 
166,424 



LITERATURE. 

Watts'a Dictionary of Chemistry, 4, 182-191. 1868. 

The Volatile Oils, Gildemeister and Hoffmann, trans: Ed. Kre- 
mers, Milwaukee, 1900. 

Essential Oils and Resins, AVagner's Chem. Tech., Crookes & 
Fischer. Pages 935-938; 1892. 

United States Dispensatory; Volatile Oils (18th ed. ), pages 904- 
910; 1899. 

The Treatment and Distillation of Peppermint Plants, A. M. 
Todd, Am. Druggist, July, 1888. 

The Oil of Peppermint, A. M. Todd, Proc. Am. Phar. Assn., 34, 
121. 1886. 

Semiannual Report of Schimmel & Co. (Fritzsche Brothers), 
April, 1895-October, 1901, Miltitz, London and New York. 

Scientific and Industrial Bulletin of Roure-Bertrand Fils, of 
Grasse, Semiannual from March, 1900, Evereux, France. 

Piesse's Art of Perfumery, Charles H. Piesse, London, 1891. 

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Perfumery, by C. 
Deite: Philadelphia, 1892. 

Odorographia, by J. Ch. Sawer, London: 1892. 

The Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes, by 
Ernest J. Parry: London, 1899. 



i 



87 



Group XVII.— Comhresskd and Liquefird Gaskh. 

In tho roport of tho Eleventh Census, Part III. piijre 
279, it is stilted that " the use of compressed luunioniii 
gas has reached large proportions in the last decade, and 
has proved a valuable aid in the preservation of food, 
the refrigeration of malt liquors, and the manufacture 
of ice. The introduction of the use of anh}-drou8 am- 
monia has given great imjx>tus to the manufacture of 
spi>cial machinery adapted to its employment in the 
departments named. Taken as a whole, its manufac- 
ture may be classed as a distinct industry." Although 
Prof. A. C. Twining,' of New Haven, Conn., had in 
1850 received a patent for an ice machine using ethyl, 
ether, or other compressed gas, and had in 1855 a ma- 
chine of 1 ton capacity in operation in Cleveland, Ohio,' 
and although in 1867, and probably earlier, the am- 
monia ice machines of Ferdinand Carr6 were in active 
operation, this seems to have been the first allusion in 
the census reports to compressed gases, and no data are 
there given for them. At the census of 19(X> returns 
were made not only for compressed or liquefied ammonia 
(known technically as anhydrous ammonia), but also 
for sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen monoxide 
(known technically as nitrous oxide), oxygen, and 
liquid air, the manufacture being carried on during the 
census j-ear in 30 different establishments regularly 
devoted to this business. In addition there were 6 
estsiblishments reported in which liquefied gases were 
produced as a subordinate part of the product, the major 
part of the product being in some instances other than 
chemicals. Besides, 1 idle establishment was reported. 
Taking the returns together, it is found that there were 
37 establishments devoted to this manufacture, produc- 
ing $1,220,297 of products and giving employment to 
251 wage-earneis and $2,185,535 of capital. These es- 
tablishments were distributed as follows: 

GEOGKAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ESTABLISHMENTS 
FOR COMPRESSING AND LIQUEFYING GASES: 1900. 



United States . 



New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Illinoin 

Missouri, Michigan, Dela- 
ware, California, Massa- 
chusetts, Vermont, and 
Wisconsin 



Number 

ofen- 

tablLsh- 

ments. 



37 



10 



CapltAl. 



12,186,535 



Arenige 
number 
of wage- 
eamen. 



251 



631,148 
232,542 
467,720 
52,980 
285,436 



526,715 



53 



Product. 



•1,220,297 



144,276 

239,713 

63,086 

180,850 



363,991 



Per cent 
of total. 



lOO.O 



19.6 

11.8 

19.6 

4.3 

14.8 



Of these establishments 19, employing 181 wage- 
earners and $1,650,094 of capital, were engaged in pro- 
ducing liquefied carbon dioxide, and the output for the 
census year amounted to 12,196,061 pounds, of a value 



386. 



> Bamard'8 Report on Paris Exposition of 1867, pagee 368 to 
' Refrigerating and Ice- Making Machinery, page 24. 



of $708,864. In addition, 1 establishment using carlwn 
dioxide in iiiaiiufa(;tun> reported having produced and 
consumed 165,000,00(J pounds of this gas during the 
yea.'; but, though it was compressed, it was not lique- 
fied for use. There was employed in the manufacture 
of the lique,fied carbon dioxide reported aljove, 7,'»27 
tons of magnesite, 2,011 tons of limestone, 774 t«ns of 
coke, and 4,771 tons of sulphuric acid, and among 
other products there were obtained 3,095,(WX) pounds of 
Ep.som .salts, 3,278 tons of calcined magnesite, and 5,(X>0 
bushels of lime. About 3,500,000 pounds of the carbon 
dioxide reported came from fennentation or from 
effervescent springs. 

Ten establishments employing 52 wage-earners and 
$453,328 in capital were engaged during the census year 
m producing anhydrous ammonia, and the output for 
the year amounted to 2,443,729 pounds, having a value 
of $448,157. and there were consumed in this manufac- 
ture 2,148 tons of ammonium sulphate, 4,199,708 pounds 
of aqua ammonia, and 83,402 bushels of lime. 

Carbon Dioxide (carbonic acid gas, CO,). — Carbon di- 
oxide was liquefied by Faraday in glass tubes as early 
as 1823, through the pressure resulting from the gas 
being set free from combination. In 1834 Thilorier 
operated this method on a much larger scale by the use 
of wrought-iron cylinders in place of the glass tubes. 
He discovered that by allowing the liquid to rapidly 
evaporate the reduction in temperature was so great 
that a portion of the CO, became solid. By moistening 
this solid CO, with ethyl ether he obtained a tempera- 
ture of -100° C. In 1837 Dr. John Torrey, of New 
York, liquefied this compound in tubes and applied the 
liquid to guns as a propellent. In 1844 Natterer in- 
vented a pump by which very high pressures were ob- 
tained, and through which the liquefaction of carboD 
dioxide could be better accomplished than by the self- 
compression method previously used. In all these cases 
when liquefying carbon dioxide the gas was not only 
subjected to pre-ssure, but it was al.so cooled. In 1869 
Prof. W. N. Hill, at the United States naval torpedo 
station, Newport, R. I., proposed the use of liquefied 
CO, in torpedoes. In June-August, 1873,' he made 
more than 500 pounds of the material, and the manu- 
facture was continued at the station at intervals for some 
years. 

In a private communication from John B. Stobaeus, 
of Charles Cooper & Co., Newark, N. J., it appears 
that he began the liquefaction of carbon dioxide on a 
commercial scale in the United States in July, 1884. and 
put the product on the market. The gas was generated 
from magnesite imported from Greece, by reaction with 
sulphuric acid, and the by-product was Epsom salts. 
The material was sent to the trade in steel tubes weigh- 
ing about 27 ix)unds each, and these tubes were fitted 
with a valve having a conical seat, which was invented 
by Mr. Stobaeus. The booksof this firm showthat 1,188 

* Liquid Carbonic Acid, page 4. 



88 



cylinders, containing 14,256 pounds of COj, were pro- 
duced in 1885, and 10,704 cylinders, containing 128,448 
pounds of COj, in 1891. The manufacture has since 
been taken up by others, and in addition to the method 
used bj' Mr. Stobaeus the carbon dioxide is now obtained 
by burning magnesite, by which magnesia is obtained 
as the by-product; or dolomite, by which a cement is 
obtained as the by-product; or marble or limestone, by 
which quicklime is obtained as the by-product; by 
treating marl with sulphuric acid; and bj' burning 
coke. The carbon dioxide issuing from effervescent 
mineral springs, and that produced in the fermenting 
tubs during the brewing of beer, is also collected and 
liquefied. In all of these processes the gas is washed 
and otherwise purified before compression. 

From the data given bj' Mr. Stobaeus it appears that 
the cylinders supplied by his firm held 12 pounds of 
CO2 each. The American Carbonate Company, of New 
York, advertise to supply cylinders in two sizes, con- 
taining 10 and 20 pounds of CO^, respectively, repre- 
senting 600 and 1,200 gallons of gas, the net weight of 
the cylinders being 27 and 70 pounds. Several of the 
companies announce that the cylinders are tested for a 
pressure of 3,700 pounds per square inch. 

Compressed carbon dioxide is used in charging soda 
water, mineral waters, cider, beer, and other efferves- 
cent drinks. By attaching a charged cylinder of the 
gas, governed by a proper regulating valve, to a barrel 
of beer or other beverage the liquid is not only contin- 
uous!}' charged with the gas, but by the gas pressure the 
liquid is forced to the point where it is desired to serve it. 
By its use the old art of " Ki-aeusen," which consisted in 
adding to stored beer, as it was being casked or bottled, 
some beer in the first stages of fermentation, has been dis- 
placed. Carbon dioxide is used in the manufacture of 
salicylic acid and of many carbonates. It is proposed 
for use as a medicinal agent by inhalation and in baths; 
for raising dough in the manufacture of aerated bread; 
as a refrigerating medium; as a buoyant material in 
raising wrecks or preventing disabled ships from sink- 
ing; and for extinguishing fires, K. Ogden Doremus 
having found that but 20 per cent of CO^ in the air of 
the locality where fire exists is sufficient to arrest the 
progress of the flames. It has been used by the Gov- 
ernment as a motive power for automobile torpedoes. 

Anhydrous ammonia. — This material is the chemical 
substance ammonia (NHj) in a pure and dry condition 
and in a compressed and liquefied state, and it is manu- 
factured by the distillation of the ordinarj' 26° ammo- 
nia of commerce in a suitable apparatus. This appa- 
i*atus, which should be of sufficient strength to stand a 
pressure of 65 pounds to the square inch, comprises a 
still, a condenser, three separators, and a drier or 
dehydrator. The still is heated by a suitable steam 
coil to a temperature of about 212° F., when the ammo- 
niacal gas, together with a certain amount of water, 
passes off into the first separator, which latter is usually 
situated on the top of, and forms an upwai'd extension 



of, the still. In this first separator the greater portion 
of the watery particles carried over are eliminated by 
a series of perforated plates, through the perforations 
of which the gas has to pass, and ai-e returned to the 
still through a dip pipe. From this first separator the 
partly dried gas passes through a water-cooled worm 
in the condenser, and then successively through the 
two other separators to the drier or dehydrator, where 
it is passed through a set of similarly perforated plates 
to those in the first separator, but having small-sized 
lumps of freshly burnt lime placed upon them, hj which 
any moisture that may still remain in the gas is re- 
moved, and the completely anhydrous product can then 
be passed into the ammonia pump or compressor. It 
is found advisable to work the still at a pressure above 
30 pounds to the square inch, so as to admit of the liquid 
being raised to a slightly higher temperature than the 
boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure, with- 
out causing the water to boil, the result of this being 
that the whole, or practically the whole, of the ammo- 
nia will be set free, while at the same time the least pos- 
sible amount of the water will be vaporized and passed 
over with the ammonia gas. 

Or it may be obtained from ammonium salts by heat- 
ing them with lime and treating the gas as above 
described. The salt usually employed is ammonium 
sulphate. Aqua ammonia, or ammonia water, is of dif- 
ferent strengths, according to the amount of NHj dis- 
solved in it, but the standard sti-ength has a specific 
gravitj' of 26° Beaume, and it contains 38.5 per cent by 
volume, or 26.6 per cent by weight of anhydrous ammo- 
nia. Thus 3. 76 pounds of 26° ammonia will be required 
to make 1 pound of anhydrous ammonia. An excel- 
lent table of the yields of anhydrous ammonia from 26° 
ammonia is given by Iltyd I. Redwood.' The ammo- 
nium sulphate or sulphate of ammonia of commerce 
is reckoned as containing 25 per cent of anhydrous 
ammonia. 

It is believed that some at least of the owners of ice 
machines produce the anhydrous ammonia that they 
employ, either in originally charging their machines, or 
in making good any loss which may take place, but 
there are no returns on this point. It appears also that 
there is some anhj^drous ammonia imported, the repoi't 
on "The Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the 
United States" from the Treasury Department placing 
this at 14,210 pounds, having a value of $5,870 for the 
yQdiV 1891, but the data for such importations as may 
have occurred in other years of the past decade do not 
appear separately. 

Although Fourcroy and Vauquelin and, at about the 
same time, Guyton de Morveau, announced that they 
had accomplished the liquefaction of ammonia gas, it is 
believed that, as they had no suitable means for drying 
the gas, they failed to obtain the anhydrous ammonia. 

'Theoretical and Practical Ammonia Refrigeration, page 113. 



89 



It was first i-ortainly li(]tiofi(>(l by Faraday in 1828. and 
it was not lonjf lieforc it was beinj^ produced in consid- 
erable ((uantities. Luriiin and Schetfer began the com- 
incrciai nianufacturo in St. Ijoiiis, Mo., in 1H79. 

Aniiydrous ammonia apiKjars, as stated above, to 
have tirat been used for refrigeration by Ferdinand Carr^ 
in his absorption machine, but it was not long before it 
was employed in compression machines of the type 
invented by Peritins and Twining, based on the refrig- 
erating principle, which was demonstrated by Doctor 
Culien in 1755, and although it has had to compete with 
ethyl ether, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and air, it 
is to-day the material which is most largely used in ice 
machines, and this is the principal use for this sub- 
stance, though recent researches indicate that other 
uses will soon be found for it in chemical manufacture 
and in other arts. 

Sidphur Dioxide (sulphurous acid gas, SO,). — This 
substance is produced by burning sulphur in air or oxy- 
gen, 1 pound of sulphur giving 2 pounds of sulphur 
dioxide. It was liquefied by Monge and Clouet about 
the beginning of the Nineteenth century. The liquefied 
sulphur dioxide is now a regular article of commerce, 
and is sent into the trade in glass "siphons" and in 
iron flasks, a.s being a convenient means of transporta- 
tion and storage of the substance for use in chemical 
laboratories and in manufacture. The liquid has found 
some use in ice machines. The substance is used as a 
reducing agent, as a bleaching agent, and as a disin- 
fectant. Hardin' states that at present (1899) "about 
4,0!)0.0<)0 kilograms of this liquid are being prepared 
annually." 

Nitr<Hfeti Monoxide (hyponitrous oxide, nitrous oxide, 
laughing gas, N^O). — This body is prepared by heating 
anunonium nitrate to a temperature not exceeding 258° 
C, when the gas is evolved. It is carefully purified, 
well washed, and then compressed in steel cylinders. 
This gas was first liquefied by Faradaj* in 1823. The 
Lennox Chemical Company began the liquefaction of 
the gas for the trade at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1883. The 
exhilarating properties of the gas were discovered by 
Sir Humphry' Davy, who was the first to inhale it, in 
1809, and it then received the name of laughing gas. 
It is now used sis an anaesthetic agent in minor surgical 
ov)erations, especially in dentistry, its use for this pur- 
pose having l)een suggested by Dr. Hoi^ace Wells, and 
it was fir.st applied to him in the extraction of a tooth 
at Hartford. Corm.. December 11, 1844. 

Oxygen. -This gas, as commercially supplied in the 
compressed condition, is produced by heating potassium 
chlorate mixed with black oxide of manganese. It is 
sold in the market for use in medicine by inhalation, 
when it is usually mixed with nitrous oxide, essential 
oils, and other bodies which are believed to possess 



234. 



'The Rise and Development of the Liquefaction of Gases, pa^e 



therap<'Utic cjualities. Liquid oxygen is not known to 
lie produced commercially except as referred to under 
li(|uid air, but it was the first of the so-called permanent 
gases to be licjuefied, this having been independently 
effected by Pictet and Cailletet in 1877. 

Lifjuid Air. — Atmospheric air is a mixture of approx- 
imately 21 per cent of oxygen and 78 pt^r cent of nitro- 
gen by volume, with nin«'ty-four one-hundredths of 1 
per cent of argon, about four one-hundredths of 1 per 
cent of carbon dioxide, and variable (|uantities of water 
vapor, ammonia, and other bodies, according to local- 
ity and conditions. After 1823, when Perkins' errone- 
ously Iwlieved that he had li(|uefied air, numerous un- 
successful attempts were made to accomplish this result, 
but in 1877 Raoul Pictet and Louis Cailletet, working 
independently in Switzerland and in France, achieved 
the result on a small laboratory scale, and it was later 
repeated by Wroblewski, Olzewski, and Dewar, who ini- 
proved the methods so as to notablj' increase the yields, 
and in 1893 Dewar froze air into a clear, transparent 
solid. The liquefaction of air on an industrial scale 
began about this time with the invention of the ma- 
chines of Linde, Hampson, and Tripler, and later those 
of Ostergren and Burger, Dewar, Kuhn, Chase, Code, 
O'Doherty, Johnson, and others. 

The methods may be dass-ified as the cascade method 
of Pictet, Cailletet, Wroblewski, and Onnes; the self- 
intensive motor method of Siemens, Kuhn, and John- 
son; the countercurrent free-expansion sxstem of Linde, 
Hampson, Tripler, and Ostergren, and Burger; and the 
self-intensive work method of the American Liquid 
Air Companj-, known as the Ala S3^stem. Emmens' 
states that the principal features of the method by 
which the liquefaction of air can be effected on a com- 
mercial scale was clearly described in the specifications 
of British patent No. 2064, granted to Charles William 
Siemens in 1857. 

Owing to the complex composition of air, several 
different products are obtained by its liquefaction, 
notably liquid oxygen and nitrogen and solid carbon 
dioxide. Pictet has invented a separator by which 
these bodies may be rapidly separated for use, and there 
is thus drawn off at —70° F., solid carbon dioxide; at 
—290° F., commercial oxygen gas of 50 per cent purity; 
iVt —296° F., oxygen gas of 99 j)er cent purity; at — 3(X>^ 
F., liquid oxygen and nitrogen gas of 95 per cent purity; 
at —310° F., nitrogen gas of 99 per cent purity; at 
— 312° F., liquid air; and at —316° F., liquid nitrogen. 

While many commercial uses for liquid air have 
been proposed, it is not known to be so used at present. 
It may, however, be now looked upon as a source of 
oxygen which promotes combustion and enables man 
to obtain high temperatures and high illuminating 
power, but it is not yet proved that this method of 

' .Annals of Philosophy, vol. 6, page 66. 
' Liquelie<l Air, page 2. 



90 



heating and lighting can compete economical!}' with 
electricity. Liquid air does enable man to readily obtain 
low temperatures, which can be usefully emploj'ed in 
chemical operations, and a continually extending use 
may be looked for in this direction. Elihu Thomson 
has pointed out that it may possibly find a useful appli- 
cation in increasing the efficiency of conductors of 
electricity. 

Chlorine. — This gas, which may be produced by the 
action of muriatic acid on black oxide of manganese or 
by the electrolysis of common salt, is produced com- 
mercially abroad in the liquid state, but no returns are 
made of it in this country. It is used in chemical 
manufactures and for bleaching and disinfection. It is 
sent out to the trade in iron cylinders. 

LITBRATl'RE. 

Reports of the United States Commissioners to the Paris Uni- 
versal Exhibition, 1867, Volume III. Machinery and Processes 
of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus of the Exact Sciences, by 
F. A. P. Barnard: Washington, 1870. 

Liquid Carbonic Acid, Its Preparation and the C'onstruetion of 
Vessels to Contain It, by Walter N. Hill, United States Torpedo 
Station. 187-5. 

Encyclopedic Chiniique, by M. Freniy, 2, Section 1 : Paris, 1885. 

Compressed Carbonic Acid (jas. American Carbonate Com- 
pany, New York, 1887. 

No More Kraeusen; Carbonating of Beer: The l^niversal Car- 
bonating Company, New York, 1897. 

Refrigerating and Ice-Making Machinery, by A. J. AVallis-Tay- 
ler: London, 1897. 

Theoretical and Practical .\nuuonia Refrigeration, by Iltyd I. 
Redwood: London, 1898. 

The Rise and Development of the Liquefaction of Gases, by 
Willet L. Hardin: New York, 1899. 

Liquid Air and the Liquefaction of (iases, by T. O'Conor Sloane: 
New York, 1899. 

Liquefied Air; an address delivered by the president of the 
American Liquid Air Company, by Stephen B. Enunens: New- 
York, 1899. 

Liquid Air: the Separation of Its Constituent Gases and Their 
Commercial Application, by Raoul Pictet and Moritz Burger: 
Philadelphia, 1900. 

The Experimental Study of Gases, by Morris W. Travers: Lon- 
don, 1901. 

Group XVIII. — Fine Chemicals. 

Under this classification are grouped the chemically 
pure chemicals manufactured for sale, the chemical sub- 
stances which are made for use in laboratories and in 
pharmac\% and tho.se in which, like the salts of silver 
and of gold, the price of the unit of measure is relatively 
very high. It is to be noted that though this term is 
used in the market the dividing line between "fine 
chemicals" and "heav\' chemicals" is by no means 
sharply drawn or constant. The statistics for fine chem- 
icals, 1900, are: 



FINE CHEMICALS, BY KIND, QUANTITY, AND VALUE: 

1900. 



KIND. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ment. 


Unit of measure. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




3 

8 
6 
3 
8 
7 
7 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
9 
4 




1,638,715 

2, 847, .575 

3,387,522 

254, 952 

263,238 

576, .'>71 

8, .594 

20,714 

19,030 

487,090 

7, 312 

5,373 

1,252,604 

124,874 


8178,666 






148,971 


Alkaloids . . 


Ounces . 


1,743,264 






18, 131 


Ether 


Pounds 


129,876 






66, 676 


Gold salts 


Ounces 


90,145 






32, 831 




Pounds 


76, 120 




Pounds - 


1.50, 100 






54,600 
28,200 










499,345 


Vanillin 


Ounces 


113,050 







In this table only those fine chemicals that were pro- 
duced in notable quantity and in more than two differ- 
ent establishments are enumerated. How large the list 
is may be understood when it is stated that the total 
value of all the products classified under this legend is 
$-1,2 10,744: while the total value of those enumerated in 
the table, excluding such as appear also in other classifi- 
cations, is $3,148,974. 

Under the term alkaloids is included caffeine, mor- 
phine, pilocarpin, quinine and the other alkaloids from 
the cinchona barks, and strychnine. To the quantity of 
ether given in the table should be added 1,400,000 
pounds of ether used in the explosive indu.stiy, much 
of which was made from tax-free alcohol and known as 
"Government ether." Among the esters manufactured 
for sale were ethyl acetate, ethyl butyi-ate, amyl ace- 
tate, and amyl butyrate. Under the legend "phos- 
phorus" are included upward of 300,000 pounds which 
were produced by electro-chemical processes. Under 
"rare earths" there were reported ctesium zirconate, 
cerium oxide, didymium oxide, lanthanum oxide, radio- 
active barium, thorium nitrate, and thorium oxide. The 
gold and platinum .salts were chlorides and the silver 
salts consisted of the nitrate. The vanillin was synthetic. 

In addition, as showing the variety of this manu- 
facture, it may be remarked that there were returned 
reports on acetanilide, bromine, chloral, chloro- 
form, chloride of sulphur, coumarin, eth^l chloride, 
formaldehyde, and glycosine. Many fine chemicals are 
undoubtedly lost to this group from having been re- 
ported under the head of "pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions" or drugs, and thus passed to another classification 
outside of the "chemical industry." 

Acetone is produced by the dry distillation of calcium 
acetate or other acetates, the other product of the re- 
action being a metallic carbonate. A commercial source 
of it is therefore found in the treatment of the residue 
left after manufacturing anilin by the distillation of 
nitrobenzene with acetic acid and iron. E. R. Squibb, 



91 



M. O..' bus dovol<)|«>d H eonimerriiil procesH for it« 
nmiiutHctiiio from noetic iicid. It ot^curs largely in 
some varieties of wood spirit. 

Formerly iill iiitroijcii-containinj'' bodies oecui'rinjf in 
pltiiits iind i)ossessiii},'' liiisic chtiriicters or the derivatives 
of these, from which bases could be isolated were desig- 
nated u.s alkaloids, but with the bettor knowledge of 
their constitution which modern organic chemistr\' has 
furnished, these bodies have been distributed among 
various classes of organic compounds. Thus caffeine 
is a uric acid derivative; piperine, a pyridine derivative; 
quinine, a quinoline derivative; and morphine, an iso- 
quinoline derivative. In the commercial treatment of 
these Iwdies. however, it has seemed best to use the 
term alkaloid with its old significance because, that 
substances of a similar nature have been found in ani- 
mals, we nnist more properly speak of these as vege- 
table alkaloids; all of the bodies i-eturned in this census 
Ijeing from this source. As they occur in plants they 
are generally combined with acids such as malic, citric, 
or tannic and the like, and the commercial preparation 
of the alkaloids consists in their extraction from the 
bark, fruit. leaf, or root by means of suitable solvents, 
among which ether, chloroform, amyl alcohol, grain 
alcohol, petroleum ether, and benzene may >>e enumer- 
ated. By the use of alkalies the bases may be isolated, 
and l)y the use of sulphuric, or other acids, salts may be 
formed hy which to facilitate the extraction and puri- 
fication of the alkaloids. 

In 1820 the separate alkaloids in cinchona bark (qui- 
nine, cinchonine, ett\) were determined, and. shortly 
after, Pelletier began their manufacture in Fi-ance. 
About the same time John Fai-r started a quinine fac- 
tory in Philadelphia, and was followed at a later day by 
John Currie, who built one in New York. From the 
correspondence it appears that the establishment of 
Rosengarten & Sons, of Philadelphia, manufactured 
sulphate of quinine in 1823, sulphate of moi-phine and 
acetate of morphine in 1832, piperine in 1838. strych- 
nine in 1834. veratrine in 1835, and codeine in 1836. 
Extract of quinine was manufactured by John Farr,' 
of Philadelphia, in 1825. 

Ether (ethyl ether, common ether, sulphuric ether) 
is the di-ethyl oxide and is made by the reaction of 
grain alcohol with sulphuric acid. The process in- 
vented for its manufacture bv Williamson is a contin- 
uous one, and, theoretically, one portion of sulphuric 
acid will convert an unlimited quantity of alcohol into 
ether. As a fact, some of the sulphuric acid is reduced, 
and not only is there loss of acid and alcohol, but in con- 
.sequence of this reduction the ether becomes contami- 
nated with sulphur dioxide and must be purified for 
use. According to Squibb,' 360 pounds of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid suffices to etherify 120 barrels of 

'J. .■^in. Chem. S<k\, vol. 17, pajte 197. 1895. 
»J. Phil. Coll. Phariii., Vol. I, So. 2. May, 1826. 
' Ephemeris, vol. 2, page 590. 



clean spirit. The acid charge Tnust then \yti changed, a.«t 
the mixture has l>ec'ome dark and tarry, and liable to 
froth in the still. The production of sulphur dioxide 
in the j)rocoss may Ih- prevented by using l>enzene- 
sulphonic acid in place of sulphuric acid in the still. 
Other ethers are also prtxluced in the continuous proc- 
ess by substituting other alcohols for ethyl alcohol. 

Ether was manufactured by liosengarten & Sons at 
Philadelphia in 1823, and by Carter & Scattergood, of 
the same <-ity, in 1834. It is used a.s an ana;sthetic agent 
and as a solv'ent in many arts; but it» largest use to-day 
is as a solvent in the manufacture of smokeless powder. 

The esters known also as ethereal .salts, were form- 
erly styled compound ethers. They are compounds 
in which there is present both an alcohol radical and an 
acid radical. They are usually commercially prepared 
by treating an alcohol with sulphuric acid in the pres- 
ence of a mineral salt containing the desired a<;id radical. 
Thus, ethjl acetate (known as acetic ether) is obtained 
by distilling dried sodium acetate with ethj'l alcohol and 
sulphuric acid, and ethyl nitrite (which isthe active prin- 
ciple of spirit of niter or spirits of nitrous ether) is pre- 
pared by distilling sodium nitrate with ethyl alcohol 
and sulphuric acid. Acetic ether and spirit of niter 
were manufactured at Philadelphia by Rosengarten & 
Sons in 1823. 

According to Mr. John McKes.son' it was an Ameri- 
can surgeon, Beaumont, who made, between 1825 and 
1833, the famoiis classical observations upon the phe- 
nomena of digestion in the living stomach, which 
revealed the functions of the gastric juice, and it is to 
Schwann that the discovery of the active principle of 
this juice in 1836 is due. Schwann named this principle 
pepsin, though he was unable to separate it. The 
history of American commerce in pepsin practically 
begins with the introduction of Scheffer's pepsin in 
1872. To Scheffer is due the credit of the invention of 
the simple, practical, and widely adopted ''.salt" proc- 
ess for isolating the pepsin from the gastric juice of the 
stomachs of hogs. "Pepsin prepared b\' this method 
appeared in commerce principally as 'saccharated pep- 
sin.' the ferment being incorporated with a large pro- 
portion of milk sugar. In 1879 Fairchild introduced 
the original form of pepsin in scales, 'free from added 
substance or reagents.' The appearance of this pepsin 
of phenomenal strength, with the recognition of the 
fallacy of administering the fennent in the largely 
diluted form then in vogue, was the signal for great 
activity in the manufacture and improvement of com- 
mercial pepsins. The obvious importance of stomach 
digestion naturally directed attention chiefly to the 
stomach ferments, and the medicinal use of the digest- 
ive ferments still remains popularly identified with 
pepsin; yet the other digestive ferments, especially 
those of the pancreas, po.ssess far wider scope of activity 



*One hundred yearn of American Cotuiiierce, Vol. II, page 610. 
1869. 



92 



and are relatively of wider importance. Practical 
recognition and application of thef<e pancreas ferments 
must fairly be attributed to Fairchild, who in 1880 in- 
troduced the extractnm j)anc7'eati><^ containing diastase 
for the conversion of starch, trypsin for the conversion 
of albumin, the emulsifying ferment for the digestion 
of fats, and the milk-curdling ferment. 

"Pepsin now appears in a great number of popular 
as well as official forms, and is prepared generally by 
pharmaceutical manufacturers everywhere. We have 
in the United States the only house in the world engaged, 
in the manufacture of the digestive femients and pre- 
digested foods, as an exclusive specialty. The digest- 
ive ferments occupy a brilliant position in modern 
therapeutics, and the progress of physiological chem- 
istry suggests still further utilization of the animal 
organic principles as recently shown in the successful 
and important treatment of disease by the thyroid 
gland." The pancreatin, trypsin, and other ferments, 
except pepsin, mentioned above are included in the 
statistics for pharmaceutical preparations. 

The statistics for the bromine production of the 
United States in 1900 were largely collected on the 
Salt schedule (No. 9), and were published in a special 
report of the census. Since this element is isolated 
from the mother liquors of salt works it is natural that 
the material should be returned as a minor product of 
that industr}-. There are instances, however, where 
the bromine collected as such, or in the form of bro- 
mide, is the chief or sole product of the industry, 
and these more naturally have been reported on the 
Chemical schedule (No. 17). Reducing the bromides 
thus produced to bromine and combining the data re- 
ceived on all the schedules, it ai>pears that during the 
census year 1900 there were produced in the United 
States 480,742 pounds of bromine having a value of 
5^111,121, which is the value at the works. 

It may be of interest to compare this result with 
the following statistics from The Mineral Industry for 
1899, page 68. The production of bromine in the 
United States, including the proportionate amount of 



bromine contained in potassium bromide, decreased 
during 1899. falling from 486,978 pounds to 433,003 
pounds; the price, however, increased from 28 to 29 
cents. The production of bromine in the world is still 
controlled by the association of American producers, 
and hj the Leopoldshall-Stassfurt convention, which 
has several years longer to run. 

PRODUCTION OF BROMINE IN THE UNITED STATES. 



1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 



Michi- 
gan, 
pounds. 



30,280 

42,000 

'147, 2t6 

'141, -232 

'138,272 



Ohio, 
pounds. 



152,360 
212,860 
124,972 
106,860 
82,368 



Pennsyl- 
vania, 
pounds. 



104,647 
1.52, 600 
116,967 
119,998 
111,160 



West 
Virginia, 
pounds. 



107, 567 
149,836 
97, 954 
118,888 
101,213 



Total, ' Metric 
pounds. ! tons. 



Total 
value. 



394,8.54 
559,285 ! 
487,149 ' 
488,978 I 
433,003 



179 ' 

249 1 
221 ! 
221 1 
196 ! 



$102, 662 
143, 074 
136,402 
136,354 
126, 571 



' Including the bromine equivalent of the product recovered as potassium 
bromide. 

The manufacture of bromine was begun in the United 
States in 1846 by Dr. David Alter,' of Freeport, Pa. 
In 18ti6 works were erected at Tarentum, Pa. , and in 1868 
at Pomeroy, Meigs County, Ohio. By the introduction 
of improved processes the price of this article has fallen 
from $6 per pound in 1856 to 28 cents per pound, which 
is the approximate price to-day. 

Among the chemicals used as anresthetic agents and 
as a .solvent for organic sub.stances, chloroform holds a 
high position. It was formerly manufactured In' the 
action of bleaching powder on grain alcohol, but the 
latter is now largely replaced by acetone. Squibbs" 
saj's that if 58 pounds of acetone be used to 600 pounds 
of bleaching powder containing 35 per cent of available 
chlorine, the yield of chloroform will be 150 to 180 per 
cent of the weight of acetone employed. 

The foreign commerce in fine chemicals is exhibited 
in the following tables, compiled from the publications 
of the Bureau of Statistics of the United States Treasury 
Department: 

' Tenth Census of the Unites States, report on manufactures, 
page lOU. 

M. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 18, pajje 244; 1896. 



IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1891-1900. 



1891. 
1892. 



1885. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



ACONITE BARK, 
LEAF, A.ND ROOT. 



Pounds. 



2,761 



4,351 
1,329 



3,034 
4,020 



1,392 
3,808 



Value. 



$266 



236 
108 



197 
620 



120 
274 



Nl'X VOMICA. 



Pounds. 



1,394, 
1,392, 
1,720, 
1,720, 
595, 
1,275, 
1,298, 
2,026, 
1.636, 
8,070, 



Value. 



1(32,930 
34,038 
41,567 
89,821 
9,620 
15,668 
1.5,200 
29,529 
28,995 
66,460 



I SULPHATE or MOR- 
ALL SALTS OF MOR- , PHIA OR MORPHINE 
PHIA OR MORPHINE. AND ALL ALKALOIDS 
OR SALTS OF. 



29,564 
38,758 
23,580 
29,076 
16,029 
896 
14,949 
2,382 



Value. 



$42,269 
43, 301 
25,035 
36,452 
18,507 

1,083 
30,301 

2,832 



Pounds. Value. 


1 























13,409 I $32,836 
13,081 ! 85,357 
26,208 ; 75,274 



ALL SALTS OF 
STRYCHNIA OR 
STRYCHNINE. 



0unce.s. 



230 
305 
16,538 
566 
1,158 
8,766 
1,377 
13,049 
15,394 
7,753 



Value. 



$175 
163 

7,063 
259 
502 

3,405 
678 

6,381 

6,570 



ETHERS, 
SULPHCRIC. 



Pounds. 



100 
20 
146 
65 
191 
466 
476 
187 
817 



Value. 



$1 
28 
2 
32 
6 
24 
44 

103 
36 

110 



FRUITS, ETHERS. 
OILS, OR ES.SENCE. 



Pounds. 



611 
762 
1,148 
766 
1,132 
2.375 
3,276 
2,290 
2.673 



Value. 



SI, 540 
800 
2,286 
964 
1,731 
9.1.58 
5,781 
3,669 
4,507 



93 



IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1891-1000-ContiniMd. 





ALKALOIDS 0> SALTS Or CIICCRONA B.tKK. 








PIIOSPHORI-S. 






■ — 
lODIXI. 


VEAB. 


Bark or other miitcrliil 
(rom which quinine 
may be extracted. 


CIncbonldta. 


Buliihatc ofqulnta. 


UlIMllR SALTS OF 
CI.HCHDNA. 


BROMIKK. 


Crate. 




Poanda. 


Value. 


Onnoea. 


Value. 


Ounces. 


Value. 


Ounces. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Ponnds. 


Value. 


Pound*. 


Valoe. 


1891 


2,672,8l>t 
S. 423, Ml 
2,374,041 
2,602,224 
2,012,399 
2,699,789 


•901,086 
299,998 
196,867 
143,194 
117,998 
166,699 


156.229 
11,483 

364,192 

313,640 
72,426 

282,321 


•3,866 
1,686 

11,714 
7,177 
3.634 
9,980 


3,079,000 
2,6S(i,677 
3.027.819 
2,141.130 
1.808,969 
2.»fi0.07R 
2,714,147 
8,643,298 
2,788,663 
2,628,060 


$806,821 
642,440 

.').'i6.7M2 
470, .816 
327. .Ml 
764,060 
489,821 
762,211 
666,819 
763,986 


112,013 
166,442 
48,030 
40,8,'iO 
37,027 
78.607 
367,873 
424,666 
986,480 
616,168 j 


•28,977 
29,366 
11,695 
10,991 
10,867 
23,147 
67,237 
106.961 
262. 141 
l.'>8.817 


161.166 
86,622 
89,874 
20.767 
28.747 
.'iO.027 
60,731 
43,361 
12,399 
26,228 


•63,690 
31,643 
44.068 
11,927 
14.131 
26,646 
29,870 
21,849 
7,366 
9,789 






241.186 •882.009 


1892 

1893 

18W 

1895 . 


63..V.3 
780 
20 


r.oM 

234 
11 


164.186 167,893 
127.248 609,186 
401,601 887,127 


1H96 






:::::::::::i:::::::::: 


1897 








1898 






803,278 
233,886 
101,838 


38,802 
34,932 
16,924 






46i,!d4i 806, 7IU 
818, 476 673, 469 


1899 










1900 











673.128 1.462 434 
















iR. 


loDiNB— contlnned. 


CHLORAL HYDBATE. 


CHLOROFORM. 


tODOrORM. 


HYDRIODATR, IO- 
DIDE. AND Ut- 
DATE OF POTASH. 


CALOMKL AVD 


YKJ 


Crude and resub- 
Umed. 


Resubltmed. 


RIAL XEDICIIfAL 
PREPARATIONS. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1891 






35 


«1C6 
14 
26 
31 










1,242 

244 

176 

lOS 

168 

243 

116 

30 

52 

j 202 


•19,459 
890 
649 
382 
683 
926 
437 
96 
163 
602 


1,024 
186 
187 
181 
236 

6,489 

2,774 
280 

2,168 
1 1,288 


•036 
S05 
475 
464 

561 
9,289 
6,032 

649 
3,607 
2,165 


7,801 
12,680 
13,496 
8,486 
8,280 
13,900 
12.349 
, 12,316 
21,963 
16,647 


•6,244 


1892 




t 
7 






35 

11 

43 

239 
137 
91 
.M2 

227 
75 

1 


•16 
14 
18 

164 
46 
18 

123 
72 
36 


8.114 


1893 




1 


7,941 






1 


4,715 


1S95 


; 31,374 

291.895 

391,561 


$48,360 
666,908 
872,626 


20,097 310.976 


4,209 


1896 






80,275 
63,360 
40,263 
12,370 
796 


17,367 

35.138 

23,063 

7, .562 

1,634 


7,154 


1897 






6,063 


1898 . .. 


22 

43 

601 


1. 


63 
146 
410 


6,386 


1899 i 




11,848 


1900 




10,163 





















Group XIX. — Chemicals General (Including all 
Chemical Products not Especially Enumerated 
Elsewhere). 

Thi.s group includes a very large variety of products, 
and while they are enumerated here more in detail than 
has been feasible in any previous census report, it is 
not to be concluded that the presentation is complete. 

The total number of establishments belonging to this 
group, and forming Class A, is 78, while 107 other es- 
tablishments, forming Class B, made these products as a 
subordinate part of their industry. The great variety 
of products belonging to this group permits onl}^ a few 
general division.s, tubulated in table below, the amount 
of each product made in the works, but con.sumed there 
in the manufacture of other products, being entered 
separately so far as known. Classes A and B are com- 
bined for the sake of brevity. 

CHEMICALS GENERAL, BY KIND, QUANTITY, AND 
VALUE: 1900. 



A, 16; B,12. 



A,2; B,4. 



Ammonia, aqua 

AmniDiiiH, conHume<l 

Ainniuniiim. anua Kulphate 

Amuioniiim. MilphateconKumed . 

Ammonium salU), sundry ] A, 2; B,4. 

Ammonium silts, consume*! 

Antimony salts j A. 3; B,3. 



Number of estab- 
lishments. 



Chritme products. 

C'oppi>ras 

Copjicraa, consumed . 

Crt-am tartar 

Dyers' chemicals 



A,5; B.5 

A,l; B,9 



A, 8. 
A, 2; 



B.8. 



Pounds. 



26,768,068 
1, 624, 632 

11,094, 6.M 

1,681,700 

1,904,479 

423, <83 

211,966 

16,407,882 

27,746,670 
1,987.000 

11,288,680 
6,663,247 



Value. 



•1,237,745 
20,488 

288,667 
43,724 

128,768 

22,778 

1,180,267 

133,892 

7 948 

2, 130! 104 

106,896 



CHEMICALS GENERAL, BY KIND, QUANTITY, AND 
VALUE: 1900— Continued. 



PRODnCTS. 



Epsom salts -. 

Glauber's salts 

Glycerin 

Glycerin, consumed . 

Lead acetate 

Saltpeter 

Silicate, sodium 

Sulphur, refined 

Tin salts 

Vitriol, blue 

Zinc sails 



Number of estab- 
lishments. 



Pounds. 



A, 2; 
A, 3; 
A. 5; 



B,5.. 
B,15., 
B,5.. 



A, 3: 
A,6. 
A, 6; 
A, 4. 
A. 4; 
A, 2: 
A, 4: 



B,3.. 
b',3.'. 



B,9.. 
B,2.. 
B,10. 



9, -.239, 809 

31,314,256 

l.i 383,798 

4,000,000 

1,296,991 

13,088,680 

66,302,901 

25,996,638 

6, '247, 205 

8,460,243 

9,511,909 



Value. 



•75,086 
160,065 
2,012,886 
480,000 
73,190 
482,680 
416,005 
398,548 
603,937 
544,817 
353.902 



> Not given. 



The incompleteness of even this partial return is evi- 
dent when it is noted that the ammonium sulphate pro- 
duced by the gas and coke industries, the glycerin from 
soap and other works, and the metallic salts, such as 
blue vitriol, etc., produced in metallurgical works, are 
not included here. The difficulty of obtaining a fairlj' 
complete enumeration of chemical products is shown by 
the fact that the returns collected on Special Schedule 
No. 17 give a total value for "chemicals, not otherwise 
specified," of !P2, 1-12,41 J*. In many cases it would not 
have been possible for the respective establi.shments 
to give these products in more detail, because this 
item is made up in part of .small quantities of special 
chemicals made to rill certain orders, nor would the in- 
formation have sufficient practical value to warrant the 
e.\penditurc of the labor required to make more com- 
plete returns. In some instances, however, more defi- 
nite information would have l>een desirable and could 
have been secured had circumstances permitted. 



94 



While 17 establishments reported a production of 
26,506,818 pounds; of niter cake, valued at $37,360, 15 
establishments produced 81,191,424 pounds of salt cake, 
valued at $345,277, and 10 establishments produced 
62,701 tons of pyrites cinder, valued at $105,631, it is at 
once evident that these figures are only a small portion 
of the actual product. Where an acid chamber is op- 
erated in connection with a fertilizer works, the niter 
cake is usually consumed in the manufacture of ferti- 
lizers. While there is usually no sale for the pyrites 
cinder, a few works report using pyrites, the cinder of 
which is returned to other works for special treatment, 
but. in most cases, the cinder is simply "dumped," in 
the hope that at some time in the future a market may 
be found for it. 

The following table gives the quantities and values 
of the various chemical products enumerated in this 
group, the amounts designated by "C" being the fig- 
ures collected from other branches of industry. As 
these are elsewhere reported, they must be so entered 
to prevent appai'ent duplication : 



Unit. 



Acetate: 

Lead 

Sodium 

Alumirmm chloride 

Ammt)nia, aqua 

Ammonium carbonate 

Ammonium chloride 

Ammonium nitrate 

Ammonium sulphate: 

Class A and B 

class C 

Antimony salts 

Barium carbonate 

Barium chloride 

Barium sulphate (satin white) 

Bone ajih 

Calcium chloride 

Carbon disulphide 

Chemicals not specified 

Chrome products 

Copper salts (see also vitriol blue) 

Copperas 

Cream of tartar 

Dyers' chemicals 

Epsom salts 

FItiorides (of allialies) 

Fluoride, calcium residue 

Glauber's salts 

Glycerin: 

Class A and B 

Class C 

Iron salts (see also copperas) 

Magnesium salts (see also Epsom salts) 

Manganese salts 

Metals (sundry, by-products) 

Metallic oxides (sundry) 

Nitrite, sodium 

Niter cake 

Paris green 

Phosphate: 

Acid calcium 

Sodium 

Sundry 

Salt: 

Common (by-product) 

Scouring 

Salt cake 

Saltpeter 

Silicate, .sodium , 

Sulphur, refined 

Sulphur chloride 

Sulphate: 

Sodium 

Sodium hi- , 

Sulphide sodium . . . '. 

Sulphites: 

Sundry , 

Sundry hi- 

Sulphite, sodium hypo- 

Sulphate, calcium, residues 

Tin salts 

Vitriol, blue: 

Class A and B 

ClassC 

Zinc salts 

Sundries 



Pound . . 
Pound., 
Pound . . 
Pound . . 
Pound.. 
Pound., 
Pound., 

Pound.. 
Pound., 
Pound . . 
Pound.. 
Pound.. 
Pound.. 
Pound . . 
Pound., 
Pound., 
Pound., 
Pound . , 
Pound., 
Pound . , 
Pound . , 
Pound . 
Pound . 
Pound . 
Pound . 
Pound. 

Pound. 
Pound. 
Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound . 
Pound. 
Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound. 
Pound . 

Pound . 
Pound . 
Pound . 

Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound. 
Pound. 
Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound. 

Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound . 

Pound . 
Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound. 
Pound. 

Pound. 
Pound . 
Pound. 
Pound . 



Quantity. 



1,296,991 

708.360 

903. 118 

■28, 282, 700 

1,851,889 

516,410 

36,680 

11,094,854 
12,200,931 
211,956 
2,400,000 
1,100,000 
2,144,000 
2,596,500 
7, 079, 040 
773,800 



15,407,882 

100,000 

29, 733, 670 

11,286,680 

6, 653, 247 

9, '239. 809 

480,000 

9,906,900 

31,314,255 

1.5,383,798 
11,128,676 
2, 246, 358 
26,312,000 
30,000 



48,000 

769, 170 

26,506,818 

674,660 

2, 510, 694 
4,231,160 
1,221,150 

53,978,689 
631,250 
81,191,424 
13,088,680 
66,302,901 
25,998,638 
10,000 

6,467,744 
6, 156, 742 
2,967,717 

149,500 
2,922,850 
10, 469, 744 



6, 247, 205 

8,460,243 
26,274,358 
9,511,909 



Value. 



873,190 
'21,193 
12, 7'24 
1,258,233 
97,808 
26, 742 
4,218 

288,668 

334,869 

22, 778 

24,800 

16,600 

47,962 

58,130 

28,357 

31,392 

2,142,419 

1,130, '2.57 

18,180 

143, 3'27 

2, 137, 104 

105, 895 

75,066 

40,000 

7,000 

160,066 

'2,012,886 

1,202,715 

83,287 

134,700 

1,000 

503,648 

16,000 

67,194 

37,360 

80,9.58 

95,307 
121,7% 
70,343 

80,832 
19,9'22 
345,277 
482,580 
416,005 
393, 548 
3,500 

'29,689 
27,103 
32,634 

19,300 
34,486 

144,868 
25,402 

603, 937 

544,817 

1,174,081 

353,902 

169,036 



In considering the various items of this table, the 
quantities given for the lead and sodium acetates, as also 



for aluminum chloride, probably, fairly represent the 
total production of these articles, since they are made 
only in works which belong to "chemical indu,stries," 
and which have given fairly detailed reports. Still, 
and this is true for all other cases, where these sub- 
stances are made in small quantities, thej' maj' be, and 
usually are, included in " chemicals not specilied," which 
aggregates so large a value. 

The quantities of aqua ammonia and of the various 
ammonium salts enumerated are probably less than the 
true amounts, since these are made in many industries, 
some of which do not belong to the chemical category. 
It is, however, reasonable to suppose that these figures 
do cover the greater part of such product because, al- 
though it has not been possible to get direct figures for 
the quantity of ammonia liquors, produced by the gas 
works, still most of these sell their liquors to outside 
chemical works which have furnished figures of their 
own production. Similarly, while some of the makers 
of boneblack, and other industi'ies producing artimonia 
liquors, were cla.ssified in other categories, most of their 
ammonia product was refined elsewhere, and appears 
in this tabulation. 

The ammonium products reported, other than sul- 
phate, and their contents in NH, (anhydrous ammonia) 
are as follows: 

Pounds. Pounds. 

Ammonia, anhydrous liquid 2, 443, 729=NH, 2, 44.'5, 729 

Ammonia, aqua, 20 per cent 28, 282, 700=NH3 5, 656, .540 

All other ammonia salts 1, 894, 474=NHs 531,387 

32,620,903 8,631,686 

In addition to these figures, a certain amount of am- 
monium nitrate, picrate, etc., has been made and con- 
sumed in the explosive industry, and, moreover, it is 
likely that not all of these products have been so re- 
ported as to be identified and separated. It is, there- 
fore, fair to assume that the total quantity of ammonium 
products, other than sulphate, made in the United States 
during the census year, and entering into consump- 
tion, is equivalent to 10,000,000 pounds of anhydrous 
ammonia. 

The total reported quantity of ammonium sulphate 
is as follows: 

Pounds. Pounds. 

From chemical industry 1 1,094, 5.54 =XH, 2,773,639 

From chemical industry, consumed. 1, 681, 700=NH3 420,425 

From coke industry 11, 984, 931=NH, 2,996,283 

From other categories 216,000=NHs 54,000 

24, 977, 185=NH, 6, 224, 347 
Used by fertilizer industry 8, 239, 445=NH3 2, 059, 061 

Available for other purposes . 16, 737, 740=NH3 4,165,286 
Deficit Nils 5,834,714 

Total required NH, 10,000,000 

To supply this deficit, the coke industry reports in 
addition, a production of ammonium liquor of 1,572,325 
gallons which, at 8 pounds to the gallon and an average 
of 18 per cent NH3, equals 2,517,720 pounds, leaving 
3,316,994 pounds to be supplied either as ammonia 
liquor, or sulphate, by the gas industry and by such 
other industries as are not already included. Since the 



96 



qimntity contriliutod by this liist cliiss is compamtivf ly 
very siimll,tlie 3,81(!,9!t4 pounds may ho taken iiw heinjj 
furnished by the gas industry. The total amount of 
aniinoiiiii produced by it is undoubtedly nuich greater. 
t)ut it nuist be reiueinbered that, in many of the smaller 
works, the local conditions are such that the ammonia 
liquor can not be protital)ly utilized, and hence is run 
to waste. Despite the demand for ammonium sulphate 
for fertilizer purposes, it is not a simple matter to make 
a sulphate suitable for this u.se, since the crude salt 
contains sulphocyanate and other impurities which 
must be removed, as they are highly deleterious to 
vegetation. Such purification reipiires special skill and 
can not be profitably undertaken unless the supply of 
ci'ude material is sufficiently large to warrant the erec- 
tion of the proper plant. 

C'onsiderable (juantities of ammonia liquor and sul- 
phate are made in Europe as by-products from the 
gases of olast furnaces, and this i)r()duction will un- 
doubtedly increase with the extending use of gas-driven 
engines. This use requires that the furnace gases nuist 
be carefully cooled and systematically washed, so that 
the gas shall enter the engine with the miniumm of 
impurities, as these rapidly destroy the working parts 
of the combustion chambers. Where the gas h used 
only for heating the stoves and for burning under 
boilers, such purification is not necessary, and so far, no 
serious attempt has been made here to produce am- 
monium salts in blast-furnace work. 

In considering the other items of this list, the quan- 
tities of antimonj- salts and barium salts probably cover 
the entire product. The quantity of bone ash reported 
is undoubtedly less than the actual product, as is also 
the case with calcium chloride, since none is reported 
in the special census rejwrt on salt, although formerly 
a large quantity was produced as a by-product in the 
Ohio River salt region. The salt of this region con- 
tains calcium chloride in place of the calcium sulphate 
of the New York, Michigan, and other regions, and 
owing to its presence the salt when made is "soft salt," 
slightly deliquescent and quickly dissolved. The north- 
ern salt, which contains no calcium chloride, is "hard 
salt" and dissolves much more slowly. Owing to its 
ready solubility the "soft salt" was formerly preferred 
in the South for curing meats, as it "struck in" faster, 
hence there was a better chance of saving the meat in 
the comparatively warm climate, where ice was unat- 
tainable. 

Calcium chloride is largely used in solution as the 
circulating medium in the manufacture of ice and in re- 
frigeration; also, to a subordinate extent, as an air drier 
and in the manufacture of textile goods; also to some 
extentas the solution used in charging fire extinguishers. 
It reconunends itself for this last- mentioned use l)ecause 
of the low freezing points of strong .solutions of the 
salt. It is stated that a solution of calcium chloride of 
1.25 specific gravity, and containing 27 per cent of the 
salt, freezes at 32.6^ F., and that one at 1.175 specific 
gravity, freezes at zero. It is, therefore, an easy matter 



to prepare solutions which will not freeze at the lowest 
winter temfjerature of the locality where used, and 
hence be always ready for sen'ice in case of fire. 

Chrome products, mainly bichromates of potash or 
soda, fonn a considerable item in this li.st. Ten estab- 
lishments reported making such products during the 
census year. The industry has an especial interest, 
because the methods of manufacture have been largely 
developed in this country. The Ikltimore Chrome 
Works, still the largest producer, began operations in 
1845. which have been continued with great success up 
to the pi-esent time. 

The copperas reported is only a portion of the total 
product, as the product of the met^illurgical works is 
not included. It is made in large quantities by wire 
mills galvanizing works from the "spent pickle." Be- 
fore wire rods can be drawn or iron can be galvanized 
the surface must be carefully cleaned, part of this work 
being the pickling or immersion of the steel or iron 
in a bath of moderately diluted sulphuric acid. This 
dissolves the rust and also some of the metal, so that in 
time the bath becomes spent, being then a .solution of 
ferrous sulphate containing still much free acid. To 
neutralize this acid, and at the same time to utilize an 
otherwise waste material, the iron clippings and other 
iron scrap of the shops are added to the pickle which 
dissolves them. The solution is then evaporated and 
allowed to crystallize. The crystals are removed and 
the mother liquor used to make Venetian red, by treat- 
ing it with lime. This causes a precipitation of calcium 
sulphate mixed with hydrated oxide of iron, various 
shades of color being obtained by regulating the pro- 
portion of lime added and by subsequent treatment. 

Cream of tartar, so extensively' used in baking 
powders, is another large item. Eight establishments 
reported making it, but the bulk of the business is done 
bj- two of them. 

This manufacture illustrates the refinements of which 
chemical manufacture on a large scale is capable; for 
the Tartar Chemical Co., at its works in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., is producing cream of tartar by the ton in a 
chemically pure condition. 

The Epsom and Glauber's salts reported prolwibly 
cover the production, but the figures for gU'cerine rep- 
resent only a small part of the actual production, as 
the product of only a few of the soap-making establish- 
ments and other sources is here included. 

Sodium silicate, or water gla.ss, is produced in large 
quantities, as it is extensivelj' used in soap making, 
calico printing, and fresco painting; for rendering cloth 
and other draperies noinnflammable; as a preservative 
for timber and porous stone; in the manufacture of 
artificial stone and in making cements for glass and 
pottery. 

Sulphur chloride is used in vulcanizing caoutchouc; 
sodium sulphide as a depilatory in tanning; and sodium 
hyposulphate in photography, dyeing, and calico print- 
ing, and for other purposes. The quantity of sulphites 
reported is only a very small part of that actually made, 



96 



since the sulphite used in making paper pulp is usually 
made and consumed in the works, and is not separately 
reported. 

The other items receive no special mention. The 
quantities given are believed to fairly represent the 
production of the country-, and their methods of prepa- 
ration and uses may be found in the standard works on 
technical chemistry. 

Subgroup A. — In the course of this work schedules 
were received from 19 establishments, whose principal 
products were not originally classified in "chemicals," 
though the products were the result of operations of 
a chemical nature. As such establishments are more 
properly included in this category than in any other, 
and 3'et can not well be placed in any of the regular 
groups, it is deemed advisable to form a special sub- 
group, XIX A, in which all such are included. Their 
character and the extent of their operations are shown 
in the following list: 



PRODUCTS INCLUDED IN SUBGROUP A— Continued. 



Camphor, refined . 

Casein 

Dextrin and sizes. 

Milk sugar 

Sliellac, refined ... 
Sundry products . . 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. I 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

598, 708 

609,210 

12,204,570 

1,395,290 

1,123,752 



Value. 



8254,190 
30,336 
221,995 
110, 247 
187, 333 
176,92? 



In addition, a number of establishments classified 
under other groups report such substances as subprod- 
ucts of their operations, the aggregate becoming con- 
siderable both in quantities and values, and also 
emphasizing the importance of care in the preparation 
and correlation of schedules and in the collection of 
returns. 

At the beginning of this report a list has been given 
of the principal topics included in the field of "chemi- 
cal technology," and it has been indicated how far these 
have been separately treated of in the present census. 
Referring to this list, it will be ob.served that no pro- 
vision was made for taking .special returns of establish- 
ments manufacturing certain important products, such 
as glue, soap, starch, etc., noted below, the general 
schedule for manufactures, No. 3, being used for this 
purpose. 

The following list of the products included in this 
group, while fairly correct for the special industries 
enumerated above, must therefore, for all of the other 
items, be taken as representing only a portion of the 
total product of such articles throughout the country 
during the census year. 

PRODUCTS INCLUDED IN SUBGROUP A. 



Boiler compounds 

Bone black 

Brandy 

Camphor, refined . 

Caramel 

Casein 

Cement 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Unit. 



Barrels . 
Tons 



Quantity. 



200 
18,100 



Pounds. 
Pounds. 
Pounds . 
Tons.... 



625,128 

1,736,000 

609,210 

10,150 



Value. 



$6,400 
586,736 

14,561 
264.830 

87,000 
30.9.'vl 
82,500 



Chemical compounds, sundry 

Cider 

Dextrine, sizes, etc 

Disinfectants 

Extracts, flavoring 

Filler, crown 

Filler for fertilizing 

Gelatine 

Glue 

Gum compound 

Gvpsum, precipitated , 

Ink 

Licorice extract 

Milk sugar, refined 

oils for textile work , 

Paste, or fiour 

Pyrites cinder 

Residues, factory 

Shellac, refined 

Soaps, etc 

Starch 

Wax, sealing 



Number 
of estab- 

lish- 
ments. 



Unit. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Pounds I 19,106,784 



Gallons. 

Tons 

Tons 

Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Tons 



6,000 

2,963 

14,677 

922,261 

11,0^9,408 

336,012 

1,264 



Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds. 
Tons.... 



1,178,226 

1,375,290 

133,300 



Pounds . 



Pounds. 
Pounds . 



62, 701 
'i,'832,'296' 



1,372,889 
111,500 



8102,228 

563 

470, 518 

1,865 

60,000 

3B, 931 

35,000 

251, 872 

701, 596 

38,716 

1,264 

41,000 

89,610 

110,290 

7,000 

15,042 

105,631 

15,637 

817,585 

207,716 

30,890 

12,400 



3,726,292 



Miscellaneous. — The examination of schedules for 
tabulation has furnished a large amount of products 
which are not chemical, and therefoi'e would not be 
included in our returns, except that they are side prod- 
ucts of establishments belonging to this category. In 
addition, there are values such as "custom work," in- 
creasing the profits of an establishment, and the " bonus" 
paid by cities to garbage-reduction works, which is 
necessary to the existence of such works. 

The following list shows the variety and value of 
these articles, quantities being given where possible, 
and may be useful as supplementing the returns for 
such products so far as these may be separately reported: 





Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Unit. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Apples, evaporated 


1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
3 
3 
6 
9 

\ 

12 

1 

1 

1 

1 

61 

17 

13 

1 

6 

1 

20 

25 

1 

1 

7 
1 
1 
7 

3 
3 

2 
6 

1 


Pounds 

Pounds 

Pounds 

Case 

Pounds 

Dozens 


35,000 
47,000 

755,806 
13,718 

200,000 
350 


81,100 




1,364 




84,068 
30 865 


Birdseed 




7,600 


Brushes 


8,000 
68,440 
181,475 
161,790 




Candles 


Pounds 


1,792,075 










213,675 

5,000 

189,021 

79 940 


Corks . .. 









Custom work 


L. 


Dent^il plaster 

Fish, edible 




3,864,000 
2,000 


77,270 


Barrels 


8 000 


Flo\ir 


2,000 

2,400 

1,034,248 

158 198 




Tons 


200 


Grease, tallow, etc . 


Hides 






Horns, hoofs, etc 






22 443 






7,200 
2,100 


15,000 


Hay, mint 


Tons 


6,356 

74 '>18 


Mirrors 


Oils: 

Animal 






655,363 
222,9'.'9 
207 155 


Fish 


Gallons 

Gallons 

Pounds 

Pounds 

Pounds 


1,135,264 

460,344 

6,051,400 

2,265,352 


Linseed 


Cake 


60 514 




31,528 


Potterv, chemical .. 


462 




Pounds 


112,894 


5, 815 


Rooting materials 


438, 779 

62,859 
42 918 


Sundries: 






Metallic 






Mineral 






12,400 

34,123 

8 780 









Wax, modeling' 


Pounds 


25,000 






Total 






84,175.686 




i 





The foreign commerce, in substances treated of in this 
group, is set forth in the following tables, compiled from 
the publications of the Bureau of Statistics of the 
United States Treasury Department: 



97 

IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 80, lWl-1900. 



IWi. 
1893. 
1894. 
1H95. 
1896. 
1)197. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900.. 



AQOA, OR WATIR AM- 
MOMIA. 



Pounda. 



376, 7M 



Vftlne. 



•12.888 

8,1M 

7U 



AmOMIA, CARBONATE 
or, MDRIATIC OR SAL- 
AMMOmAC, AND tVL- 
PHATB or. 



PoBOdl. 






24,831,118 
14,275,882 
18,7M,«I9 
7,8t8,848 
19,888,879 
80,fi2S,S18 
24,891,808 
20.fi9ft,623 
19.228,811 
22, 18ft. 985 



Value. 



1740, 6«7 
472,278 
680,222 
809,701 
668,146 
804,671 
576,152 
456,273 
520,752 
684,901 



rOTAIH, CHROMATB 
AHD BICBROMATS. 



Pounds. 



Valo*. 



•ODA, BICHROMATK 
AKO CHROMATB. 



Ponndi. 



1,284,085 
1,058,521 

969,067 
1,009,499 
2,024,776 
1,444,716 
1,366,074 
1,016,029 
1,099,098 , 

645,188 



•95.951 
81,287 
79. 174 
83,420 
173,139 
129,389 
112.783 
79,495 
75,2.'>4 
41,449 



545.456 
706,246 
671,503 
267,397 
600.600 
566,631 
319,641 
296,549 
598.262 
474,654 



VrIoc 



131,565 
44,091 
44.183 
17,657 
40,321 
38,103 
22,070 
19,027 
29,861 
21,962 



ABOAI. OB ABOOL, OB 
CBVDl TABTAB. 



Poundi, 



21,579,102 
24,813,171 
28,770,810 
22,878,180 
27,911,122 
28,4X1,665 
23. 1.W.576 
741.150 



VbIo*. 



82,197,507 i 
2.216,525 
2,341,575 
I.W4,200 

i,tm,7ao 

2,724,709 

1,967,042 

65.1.M 



ABaoU, OB WINE Lin. 



VBloa. 



18.461,479 
28. 800. 7*2 
27.t8»,4SI 



$1,526,878 
1,914,460 
2,888,698 



WITRATl or POTASH OB 
SALTPETEB, CRUDE. 



Pounds. 



1881. 
1892. 
1898. 
18M. 
1885.. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898.. 

1900!' 



040,787 

251,514 
560,599 
671.217 
73.'), 290 
"58,974 
719, 876 

985, .'iO,') 
332.836 



Value. 



t459,084 
43.5,839 
4te, 6(i<i 
■251,418 
246,552 
389, .524 
406,761 
270,291 
409,818 
269,739 



NITRATE or aODA, 



Tons. 



100,428 
109,863 
91,661 
88,079 
124,803 
127,667 
83,331 
125,081 
122,314 
184,247 



Value. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



*2, 928, 874 
2,976,816 
8,062,715 
2,785,048 
4,124,712 
8,870,724 
2.640,389 
2,729,750 
2,064,805 
4,786,807 



18,975,577 
14,197,549 
16, .540, 213 
8,321,853 
13,488,825 
21, 1.58, 829 
12,717,098 
12,274,987 
15, 665, 2.52 
27,943,106 



I 



•996,686 

831.810 

898,686 

519,296 

784,613 

1,472,802 

1,182,099 

774.709 

1.024,131 

2,1.55,414 



CAMPHOB. BXriHED. 



Pounds. 






88 

56,820 
156,291 
137,882 
271,164 
IS8.912 
349,994 
170,406 

90,743 
109,971 



Value. 



•21 
17,361 
.51,229 
44,233 
88,882 
68,786 
84,539 
54,602 
28,806 
42.901 



DIXTBIN, BPBNT 

BTABCH, oim scnnn- 



TOTE, 
QUM. 



OR BRITISH 



Pounds. 



6,819, 

8,275, 
4,6.50, 
3,968, 



4.874, 
3,787, 
3,402, 
5,960, 



Value. 



•212,968 
137,408 
161,480 
121.963 



124,719 
108,919 
99,056 
169,470 



IRON. SCLPHATB Or, 
OB COPPEBAS. 



Pounds. Value. 



806,987 
496,596 

1,010,089 
927,162 
542,316 

1,123,443 

991,000 

260.270 

127,041 

2,700 



•4,103 
2,597 
4,099 
3,619 
1,344 
4,161 
6,925 
1,087 
606 
111 



1891 . 
1892. 
1898. 
1894. 
1896. 
1896. 
1897. 
1896. 
1899. 
1900. 



Brown, acetate of. Wblte, acetate of. 



Poundii. 



2,902 



3,510 
30,154 
26,020 
6,006 
3,487 
18,192 



Value. 



1123 



154 
934 
860 
257 
188 
711 



Pounds. 



13,279 
1,230 
2,185 
3,217 
.59,399 
48,060 
8,122 
8,594 
6,146 
4,0)8 



Value. 



•707 
101 
154 
220 
2,822 
1,873 
190 
231 
337 



MAONKSIA, SULPHATE 
OF, OR EPSOM SALTS. 



Pounds. 



16,370 
31,742 
61,337 
59,294 
660 
100,8,59 
240,573 
91, 137 
74,186 
377,274 



Value. 



•206 
360 
480 
402 
16 
691 

1,122 
614 
626 

2,168 



MILK, SDOAB or. 



Pounds. 



251,406 
236.869 
98,785 
31,346 
14,117 
16,365 
17,117 
1,844 
4,064 
2,378 



Value. 



•42, 
34, 
12, 

3, 
1, 
2, 

2, 



BEriNED SULPHUR. 



Tons. 



5 
48 
122 
305 
430 
56 
227 
186 



Value. 



•6,579 



118 
1,255 
2,392 
5,388 
9,111 
1,642 
5.802 
4,470 



SULPHATE or COPPER, 
OR BLUE TITBIOL. 



Pounds. Value. 



! 



3,432 

2,189 

8,941 

2.470 

24.5.787 

876, 401 

192,114 

12.302 

15.961 

2.184 



•810 
166 
363 
140 

5,481 
28,792 

6,797 
618 
1«I 
lU 



1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1896. 
1896. 
1897. 
1896. 
1899. 
1900. 



HYPOSULPHITE OF 
SODA. 



Pounds. 



6,965,581 
11,007,111 
10,686,997 

8,676,361 



Value. 



•74,501 
98,733 
94,634 
78,591 



NITRITK OF SODA. 



Pounds. Value. 



156 

5,456 

806,386 



15,8 



•87 
298 



I SILICATE OF SODA, OR 
PHOSPHATE OF SODA. OTHER ALKALINE 

SILICATES. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Pounds. Value. 



606,373 
1,436,171 
3,723,907 
2,226,885 



•9.045 
24,599 : 
59,175 
43,817 I 



.535,080 
571,153 
608,228 
485,435 
492,207 
.580,310 
600,132 
417, 476 
527,531 
1,306,782 



•6,429 
7,090 
6,991 
.5,054 
4,562 
5,277 
5,468 
3,971 
4,266 
9,586 



SULPHATE OF SODA OR 
GLAUBER'S SALTS. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



SULPHATE or SODA. 
SALT OR NITER CAKE. 



Pounds. Value. 



274,784 : 
187,396 I 
489,796 : 
924,874 
49,414 

,916,486 
612,026 
732,094 
519,080 

,028,240 



927,804 
4fi^878 
180.349 
791,586 
248.332 
692,755 
748,600 
228.000 
984,940 
382,260 



131,900 
221,846 
43,988 
107.4.59 
71,801 
86.5)0 
20, 682 
20, M9 
29,«B( 



No. 210 7 



98 



Table 1.— FERTILIZERS: 



2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 

13 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 

S7 



40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 

58 
54 
55 
56 
57 
68 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
66 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
76 
76 

77 

78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
88 
84 

86 
W 
87 



Number of establishments .^ 

Character of organization: W 

Indi vidual 

Firm and limited partnership 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

Genera! superintendents, managers, cl'^rks, etc. — 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year 

Least number employed at any one time during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over — 

A verage number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years — 

Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expenses not hith- 
erto Included. 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Pish, thousands 

Cost 

Kainit, tons 

Cost 

Limestone, tons 

Cost ; 

Phosphate rock, tons 

Cost 

Pyrites, tons 

Cost 

Acids — 

Sulphuric, tons 

Coat 

Nitric, pounds 

Cost 

Acid phosphate, tons 

Cast 

Ammonia- 
Aqua, pounds 

Coat 

Sulphate, pounds 

Cost 

Bones, tan kage, and offal 

Common salt, tons 

Cost 

Cotton seed and meal 

Lime, bushels 

Cost 

Nitrate of potash, tons 

Cost 

Nitrate of soda, tons 

Cost 

Potash salts 

Sulphur, tons 

Cost 

Tallow and fats 

■ All other components of products 

Fuel 

Rent of power and heat 

Mill supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Aggregate value 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, 50 Baum^, tons 

Value 

Sulphuric, 60 Baum<;, tons 

Value 

Sulphuric, 66 Baum4, tons 

Value 

Other acids : 

.Sodas — 

Sal soda, tons 

Value 

Other soda products 



United States. 


Alabama. 


California. 


Connecticut. 


Delaware. 


422 


17 


8 


9 


11 


136 
103 
183 


2 
9 

6 


S 


6 
2 

1 


7 
1 
3 


6 


860,685,753 
88,6.59,641 
88,930,424 
87,092,354 

$41,003,334 
361 


81,407,323 
$18,118 
822.5,500 
$17,5, .518 
$988, 187 
32 


8647. .506 
879,476 

8128, 210 
$.59,314 

$380, .506 
3 


$382, 518 
830. 00« 
$48, 669 
$'16,766 

8237,083 
8 


$496,784 
$l:), 500 
$82, .567 
$103,639 
$297, 078 
9 


1,712 
82,124,972 


60 
$61,975 


16 
$20,148 


30 

$28,063 


17 
$16,685 


243 
$662,741 


10 
821,700 


4 

$7,500 


4 
87,200 


3 
$5,000 


1,469 
$1,462,231 


.50 
$40,275 


12 
$12,648 


26 
$20,863 


14 

811,685 


1,381 
$1,420,596 


48 
$39,476 


11 
$12,168 


21 
$19,460 


13 
$11,205 


88 
$41,635 


2 
$800 


1 
$480 


5 
81,403 


1 
$480 


20,267 

7,202 

11,581 

$4,185,289 


840 

260 

439 

$94,965 


94 

58 

70 

$40,138 


212 

92 

133 

$53,708 


393 
69 

148 
$50,5.53 


11,435 
$4,142,853 


439 
$94,965 


70 
$40,138 


118 
$48,319 


148 
$50,553 


131 
$39,463 

15 
$2,973 

83, 734, 285 

896,605 

$288,006 

$3,326,181 






20 
$6,889 


























$92, 704 

8900 

$22,924 

$68,880 


817,638 
81,430 
81,403 

$14,805 


$19,784 

8400 

$1,164 

$18,190 


818,137 

850 

$1,043 

$17,044 


$23,493 

$28,968,473 

4,589,632 

$183,542 

54,700 

8520,833 

7.1.58 

87,322 

806,445 

$3,554,174 

288,778 

$1,466,285 

231,527 

81,355,382 

1,075 

841 

286,898 
82,176,245 










$1,387,385 


$482,818 


$228,242 

17,560 

$25,189 

200 

$7,500 


$399,642 

200,000 

$40,000 

1,461 

$16,235 

2,106 

$7.52 

2,062 

$7,5«9 






13,048 
$132,172 














23,940 

8244,216 

9,520 

862 600 


1,166 
$12,462 


17 
$143 








600 
85,000 


2,075 
$82,000 


231 
$1,736 


1,972 
$11,824 










68,385 
$169,820 


1,800 
$25,000 


3,226 

$28, 248 


21,262 
$154,292 


2,620 

$681 

8,239,446 

$186,609 

89,766,73,5 

481 

82,211 

8167,410 

13,130 

$887 

884 

$32,156 

19, .518 

$709, 841 

83,098,400 

12,728 

$268,670 

$28,500 

$1,029,163 

$797,639 

817, 603 

$175, ,507 

$2,213,182 

$1, 199. 455 

844,657,385 




















2,303,000 

860,709 

8176,956 












$340,611 


$88,514 


$51,708 










$80,218 






































252 

$9,800 

$31,270 

810 

$18,000 


999 
831,868 
898,484 

263 
$6,102 


409 
$14,112 

827,726 


58 
82,312 

838,861 

60 

$1,200 






$12,390 
$19,622 
81,032 
$10, 743 
8131,265 
8118 826 


$6,425 
$7,707 
$1,112 
$2,077 
$21,917 


$10,664 

$6,368 

$50 

$860 

$9,254 

$7, 879 


84,368 

87,150 

8262 

82,790 

$29,613 

$31,706 


$2,068,162 


$670,517 


$390,805 


$738,708 


65, 747 

8380,691 

1,388 

$13,678 

2,417 

844,019 


2,934 
828,000 






























634 

$12,680 


















18 

$277 

$1,245 



























SUMMARY BY STATES, 1900. 



99 



Dlatrlct o( Columbia. 


PloriiU. 


QeorvU. 


IlUnolt. 


Indlaiw. 


KUMM. 


Kmtockr. 


1 ■ " 

l/oubilsna. 




6 

4 

2 


7 

2 

1 
4 

$783, 3a> 
$92,164 
$13K, IK) 
$109,748 
$386,272 
4 

29 
$26,781 

8 
$9,166 

21 
$17,666 

18 
$16,266 

3 
$1,800 

242 

68 

117 

$39,961 

114 

$39. .Ml 


41 

11 
10 
20 

(t, on, 618 
hs7,762 

r, 044, 804 
$661,1X4 

$4,819,918 
39 

114 
$147,018 

1.S 
$42,376 

99 
$104,043 

97 
$103,683 

2 
$960 

2.125 

624 

1.128 

$2»t.887 

1.121 
r293.887 


6 

2 
1 

2 

$1,632,606 

$200,200 

$213,200 

$84,810 

$1,134,296 

4 

62 
$74,960 

3 
$9,000 

49 

$65,960 

17 
$66,000 

2 
$960 

438 

308 

337 

$172.2.'i0 

287 
$154,250 

.50 
$18,000 


14 

7 
6 

r215,K76 
$8,676 
$26,360 
$30,600 
$160,330 
19 

18 
$11,640 

4 
$4,900 

14 
$6,740 

12 
$6,840 

2 
$400 

104 

48 

46 

n8,640 

45 
$18,640 


3 

1 


4 


• 


1 








2 

$229,733 
$19,000 
(66.480 
(44,448 
$99,886 
1 

6 
(6.300 


4 

(186, (74 

(40,788 

(247,686 

2 

16 
(17,660 

4 

$9,600 

12 
$8,060 

10 

$7,460 

2 
$600 

166 

84 

89 

$39,788 

89 
$39,738 


• 

n.(B0,l«2 
(46, 8M 

^420 

rw,4»2 




t9S,0N6 
122,000 
111,000 
n8,686 
$43,500 
8 

7 
$1,788 


10 


27 
(61.107 

10 
(80,000 

17 
(21,107 

17 
(21.107 


U 
12 

IS 






14 


7 
$1,738 

7 
$1,783 


6 
$6,800 

6 
$6,800 


16 
U 

17 
18 

U 








» 


62 

27 

22 

$9,061 

22 

$9,061 


242 

te 

166 
(70.882 

166 

$70,882 


410 

179 

778 

$87,280 

269 
$88,656 

19 
$8,600 


21 
22 
2S 
24 

2S 
20 

27 




:::;::::::::::;::::::::::::::;:;;:::;;;: 








28 




3 
$460 

$34,080 
$1,496 
$2,307 

$30,228 


6 
$1,000 

$406,936 

$4,261 

$36,174 

$3«),376 

$126 

$2,349,636 








29 














8ft 


$2,617 

$1,210 

$100 

$1,307 


$84,997 

$40 

$2,833 

$82, 124 


$9,602 
$1,100 
$1,389 
r,118 


$6(2.380 

$40 

$2,000 

$60,340 


$16,608 
(2,400 
$2,938 

$11,170 


$108,720 

$265 

$1,116 

$102,839 


81 
32 
83 
34 

» 


$80,273 


$330,649 


$1,005,731 


$159,089 


$411,139 


$166,215 


(014,481 


30 
87 


















38 


ti,sia 


723 
$8,640 


10,205 
$98,181 










1,888 

(17,416 

21 

$64 

15,180 

$64,015 

2.457 

$13,088 


89 










40 










41 
















4? 




8.040 
$82,177 

3.177 
$17,473 

300 
$1,800 


120.981 

$417,037 

37,879 

$213,466 

24.202 
$133,207 


10,280 
$69,820 






.5.626 
$17,804 


43 








44 








46 












46 




9,280 
$81,468 


320 
$4,100 


8,000 
$84,440 


4.814 

$32,187 


47 






48 






49 


















60 


$14. .vn 


6,647 
$48,447 


30. 306 
$276,183 


.5,366 
$48,3,52 


1,106 
$12, 180 


760 

r.iio 


1.910 
$20,700 


17.419 
$164,627 


61 
62 

68 


















M 




600,000 

$16,000 

$96,926 

6 

$48 


30.000 

$900 

$,'534,781 

40 

$100 

$78,192 


1,000.000 
$31,000 
$.540,785 










96 












60 


$24,123 


$123,706 


(296,496 


$66,060 


$216,218 

140 

$660 

$9,000 


'^ 












.59 












60 














01 


















m 


















m 


















M 


16 

$676 

$8,680 


269 
$9,619 
$64,300 


1.333 

$60,086 

$136,906 

360 

$8,760 


.500 
$19,000 
*79,87» 






89 
$4,600 
$6,400 


46 

$1,702 

$16,044 

2,027 

$61,627 


06 






00 


$1,628 


(17,647 


07 
08 














00 














70 


$1,236 

km 

$260 
$206 

$78,980 


$6,828 

-OS 

$2,088 
$23,389 
$8,306 

$900,239 

90 
$623 


$28,146 
$62,698 


$7,407 
$48, M 


$1,440 
$2.»)0 


(8,878 
(16,700 
$13,600 

(8,170 
(1»,201 


$18,887 
$4,380 


$636 

$17,970 


n 

75 


$11,461 
$192,417 
$117,181 

$8,307,863 

866 

$6,436 


$2,904 
$86,930 


$846 
$8,375 
$8,875 

$266,331 


$1,390 
(4,6«1 
$6,387 

$121,345 


$3,745 
(49.284 


74 

75 
70 


$1,886,160 


(649, »«8 


(m,6ei 


77 

78 














79 












in 

$8,960 

208 

$8,736 

(11.214 


80 
















81 
















m 
















m 




$210 













84 














Ki 


'■ 


i : 








80 


I-"-:::: ::::::::i::::::::::;::::::::: 


., ::..::..:..:.::. ::::::i::.:.:..:..:....:;:.i ::i....::.;:..: :. 


(840 


87 



100 



Table 1.— FERTILIZERS: SUMMARY 



Number of establiphmcnts 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm and limited partnership 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries ■ 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total ;uimber 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations— 

N umber 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerks, etc.— 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number 

Salaries : 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year 

Least number employed at any one time during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years- 
Average number .- 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expenses not hith- 
erto included. 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Fish, thousands 

Cost 

Kainit, tons 

Cost 

Limestone, tons 

Cost 

Phosphate rock, tons 

Cost 

Pyrites, tons 

Cost 

Acids — 

Sulphuric, tons 

Cost 

Nitric, pounds 

Cost 

Acid phosphate, tons 

Cost 

Ammonia — 

53 Aqua, pounds 

54 Cost 

55 Sulphate, pounds 

56 Cost 

57 Bones, tankage, and offal 

,«>8 Common salt, tons 

59 Cost 

60 Cotton seed and meal 

61 Lime, bushels 

62 Cost 

63 Nitrate of potash, tons 

64 Cost 

65 Nitrate of soda, tons 

66 Co.st 

67 Potash salts 

68 Sulphur, tons 

69 ■ Cost 

70 Tallow and fats 

71 All other components of products 

72 Fuel 

73 Rent of power and heat 

74 Mill supplies 

75 All other materials 

76 Freight 

Products: 

77 Aggregate value 

Acids— 

78 Sulphuric, 50 Baum^, tons 

79 Value 

80 Sulphuric, 60 Baumi5, tons 

81 Value 

82 Sulphuric, 66 Baum6, tons 

88 Value 

84 Other acids 

Sodas— 

85 Salsoda, tons 

fig Value 

87 Other soda products 



5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 

13 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

23 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 
S3 
34 

35 



37 



Maine. 



S49,3.y) 

81,050 
$4,900 
826,400 
817,000 
1 

2 
83,400 



2 
83,400 



2 
$3,400 



87 

8 

U 

$6,990 

34 

$6,990 



Maryland. 



11 
12 
17 

$7, 003, 376 

$713,011 

$965,287 

$1,108,947 

$4,216,131 

37 

212 

$245,528 

42 
$98,892 

170 
$146,6:?6 

162 
$143,389 

8 
$3,247 

1,983 

758 

1,016 

8457, 692 

1,010 
$455,576 



$2,116 



Massachusetts. 



82, 120 



$220 
$1,900 



$22,190 

5,000 

$1,500 

160 

81,500 



330 

$4,600 



85,580 



$354, :i44 

$34,846 

■ $35,054 

8284,444 



3, 643, 846 

12,000 

$16,500 

6,895 

858,547 



123,562 

$562, 861 

41,075 

$179,259 

24,747 
$146,009 



29,571 
$237, Ml 



278, 521 

$7,939 

81,159,28.1 

140 

8700 



9 

4 

2 

3 

83, 2.60, 030 
$130, 179 
$•227, 967 
$396, 601 

$2,476,283 
7 

171 
$186,685 

2 
825,000 

169 
8161,685 

153 
$153,563 

16 
$8,132 

349 

161 

227 

$116,083 

226 
$114,619 

1 
$464 



Mississippi. 



8353,497 
817, 322 
840,000 
857, 162 

$239, 013 



$199,787 

$4,126 

$15,209 

$180, 432 



$1,115,818 



$133 

18, 722 

$131,7:!4 

9,0)4 

$43, 459 

1,600 
$11,600 

1,076 
Ml 

6.853 
$62,368 



200,000 

$6,600 

$402, 020 

12 

$72 



38 
$1,600 
$2,480 



82,310 
$250 



$265 

$1,430 

$875 

$40,002 



2,668 
$95, 602 
$436, 219 

6,277 
$141,281 



$81,863 
$56,762 
8100 
$32, 845 
$310, 329 
$120, 224 

$5,481,903 

19, 912 
$118,185 



$406 



1 

$16 

3,120 

8112, 176 

$■209, 755 



$8,823 
$13, 674 



$7, 322 
$92. 993 
$14,130 

$2,074,590 



15 
818,660 



6 
$6,150 



9 
812,600 



9 
812,500 



172 
46 
94 

$32,800 

94 

$32,800 



Missouri. 



$40,186 



$6,067 
$34,119 



8342,389 



3,234 
$35,800 



9,000 
822,000 

4,000 
$28,000 

800 
$5,000 



7,892 
867, 178 



893,046 



150 
$6,400 
$18,660 



$8,-2»0 
$3, 376 



$5, l."0 
$34,000 
816,600 

$492,772 



$219,201 
$20,767 
$46, 9.37 
$37, 607 

$113,870 
1 

15 

812,907 

4 
83,935 

11 

$8,972 



$8,120 

2 

$852 

81 
50 
60 

$27,986 

59 

$27, .390 



1 
$396 

836, 449 
$300 
$7S3 

$30,714 

$4, 652 
$137,306 



40 
$400 



6:W 
$1,819 



432 
$2,935 



173 
$1,748 



$64,690 



$1,340 



$47,968 
$7,608 



8439 



$236,638 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



101 





New York. 


North Carolina. 


Ohio. 


PennajrlvanlB. 


Sooth Carolina. 


TanncMee. 


Vtlflllto. 


AllaUMr(M(ai.i 

11 
S 

•' 

(616,545 
•21,144 

•120,883 

126.811 

247,207 

8 

19 
•26.898 

5 
•10.600 

14 
•18,398 

13 
•16.670 

1 
•728 

286 

168 

218 

•110.857 

218 
•110.867 




28 

11 
8 
9 

•5,690,270 
»66,.'>85 
(808,382 
»6.S2,477 

•3,872,826 
30 

166 
•230,330 

21 
•88,130 

134 

•142,200 

r26 

tl3«. 746 

8 
(6.454 

1.308 

7.W 

962 

•441. 1T7 

929 
•432.4.51 

30 
•7,894 

8 
(832 

•312,500 
•11,069 
•18,429 

•282,268 

•784 

•8.146,022 

14,118 

•9,765 

486 

•4,382 


S2 

17 
8 
12 

»4,eOO,,V)9 

•462,071 

r20,629 

•1,012,878 

•2,415,481 

24 

192 
•211,207 

20 
•59,770 

172 
•161,437 

158 
•144,887 

14 

•6,670 

2,001 

784 

1,033 

•491,898 

1,083 
•491,898 


18 

1 
7 
10 

•2,818,921 

•911,534 

•408,281 

•213,508 

•2,102,598 

16 

51 
•65,838 

11 

•29,823 

40 
•36,015 

40 
•36,015 


37 

t 
t 

9 

•1.887,937 

•98,762 

•273,879 

C«6,003 

(1,179,293 

26 

80 
•103,608 

18 
•26,860 

67 
•76,758 

62 
r4,098 

6 
•2,660 

868 

246 

400 

•173,888 

394 
•171,768 

5 
•2,000 

1 
•120 

•112,317 
•1,044 

ts,e26 

•107,447 

•200 

•1,016,501 

700 

•2,800 

2, .530 

•21.360 

75 

•160 

28,516 

•114,172 

5,000 

•13,000 

21,328 
•143,806 


51 

22 
16 
18 

(3,802,794 
•490.711 
•681,845 
(508,872 

•2,121,866 
43 

167 
•200,755 

16 
•57,708 

■ 151 

•143,047 

140 
•137,608 

11 
•5,439 

956 

692 

766 

•351,873 

764 
(361,773 


22 

2 
1 
19 

•10,. 505, 043 

•109.441 

•1,642.600 

•487.117 

•8,265,886 

5 

85 
•164,716 

9 
•35,976 

76 
•128,740 

75 
•128,600 

1 
•240 

3,068 
754 

1,772 
H79.449 

1,772 
•479,449 


A 


• 
12 
IS 

•4,908,(81 
•164. S28 
•679,504 
•488,402 

•3.681.087 
85 

112 
•141,872 

22 
•54,266 

90 

•87,606 

89 
•87,156 

1 
•460 

2,286 

487 

1,171 

•820,774 

1,171 
•820,774 


1 
1 


2 
8 

•HO, 397 
•76,947 

•818,519 
•68,889 

•491,592 
4 

45 
•48,668 

7 
•19,800 

38 
•29,268 

37 
•28,788 

1 
•480 

747 

201 

443 

•94,101 

443 
•94,101 


1 
4 

6 
8 
7 
8 

( 
10 

11 
13 

IS 
14 

16 
18 

17 
18 

1« 




20 


790 

242 

427 

•109,192 

426 
•109,117 


21 
22 
28 
24 

26 
28 

71 
















28 




1 
•75 

•108,209 

•39 

r7,535 

(90,625 

•10 

•1,044,267 

4,215,600 

•18.668 

967 

•9.587 

1,815 

•2,400 

38,858 

•160,564 

16,684 

•88,818 

8,402 
•19,061 


1 
(100 

•238,324 
•15,023 
•10,414 

•203,364 

(9, .523 
(2,584,272 










» 












80 


•317,826 

r,410 

•20,420 

•289.846 

•ISO 

•1,909,168 


•675,589 

«,050 

•53,200 

•621,339 


•110,963 


•306,382 

•6,187 

•27.040 

•272,844 

(311 

(2,161,423 

104.754 

•57,4.51 

1,107 

•10,781 

1,666 

•2,000 

82,482 

•290,778 

35,988 

•147,312 

16,211 
•99,236 


•61, 276 
•1,920 
•1,905 

•49,663 

•7,788 

•362,221 
20,000 
•11,669 


31 

32 


•2,713 
•106,240 


33 
34 

1^f> 


•8,107,710 


•790,101 


86 

37 










88 


i,268 

•15,075 

169 

r66 

20.834 

•142.701 

5,940 

•30.611 

16,559 
•113,662 


i.265 

(11,479 

1,100 

•3.50 

33,413 

•200,320 


9,114 
•71,226 




8* 






40 




168 

r2« 

10 
•02 


41 








42 


85,293 

•397,982 

14,064 

•74,916 

60,082 
•262,099 


141,464 

•565,861 

83,272 

•399,010 

4,469 
•24,632 


36,431 
•118,067 

20,668 
•155,428 

310 
•2,412 


43 
44 
45 






48 


3,5,057 
(193, 7.59 


646 
8,429 


47 
48 
49 




















50 


12,551 
•119,061 


18,123 
•154,685 


10,256 
•87,276 


8.774 
•82,519 


15,600 
(137,548 


12,702 
•121,141 


1,200 
(9,000 


14,646 
•130,626 

730,000 

•21,900 

•567,892 

10 

•86 


20O 
•1,696 


61 
52 

58 


















54 


726,300 

•20,246 

•1,104,361 


22,624 
r21,316 
•588.«4 

•336 


60.000 

•1,600 

•354,015 










2,400,000 
•800 

(249,169 

1 
(60 


.55 










66 


•344,183 

8 

•50 


(1,094,136 

40 

(200 


•1,061,977 


•141,576 


.57 

68 










59 










60 




1,343 

•225 

5 

•200 

1,199 

•41,884 

•279,899 

1,740 

•29,680 






11,430 
(600 






357 

•62 

877 

•81,880 

1,774 

•64,901 

•205,327 




81 














tt7 






1 

•60 

336 

•11,650 

•36,633 

1 

(30 

•1,000 

•46,456 

(20,348 








88 














84 


2,097 

•71,770 

•626,341 

600 

•12,100 


745 

•28,609 
•105,866 


667 
(26.729 
•829,619 


2,168 
•82,669 
•310,118 


489 
•19,707 
•114,224 


116 

•8.021 

•11,880 


86 

66 

a 

68 














n 




•27,500 
•290,702 

•54,414 
•130 

•14,101 
•162,031 

•40,654 

•8.644,320 










70 


•141,664 
•49,966 


•79,737 

•196,602 

•97 

(21,074 

•185,769 

•6,987 

•3,147,894 

610 

•4,060 

34 

•188 

1,575 
•22,603 


•8,145 
•23.703 
(600 
(13,683 
•86,138 
•36,669 

•1,407,625 


•99,456 

•88,786 


•19,014 
•17,071 


•78,424 
•55^668 

noo 

•7,180 
•170,017 
•284,378 

•8.415,850 

309 

•1,699 

1,205 

r,230 


•26.189 
•20.698 


71 
78 

7H 


(14,989 
•160,116 
•187,874 

•4,290,629 


(6,353 
•96,158 
•75,873 

•1,667,068 


•6,909 

•223,276 

•63,750 

•4,882,506 

41,088 
•225, 608 


•2.643 
•88,140 
•102,819 

•1,486,288 


•1.865 
•16.976 
•6.080 

•828. S72 


74 
75 
76 

77 

78 














79 














80 
















81 
















n 


















8R 


















M 


18 
•277 


















HR 


















88 


















S7 



'Includes establishments distribated as follom: Iowa, 1; Michigan, 1: 
Virginia, 2. 



UlnneaoU, 1: Nebraska, 1: Ongon, 1; Rhode Island, 1; Texas. 2: Washington, 1; Wot 



102 



Table 1.— FERTILIZERS: SUMMARY 



100 
101 
102 
103 

104 
106 
106 

107 
108 



109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 

119 
120 



121 
122 
123 
124 

125 
126 
127 
128 
129 



Product»— Continued. 

Aggregate value — Continued. 
Fertilizers — 

Total value 

Superphosphates — 

From minerals, bones, etc., tons 

Value 

Ammoniated, tons 

Value 

Complete, tons 

Value 

All other, tons 

Value 

Chemicals, not otherwise specified — 

Epsom salts, pounds 

Value 

Value of all other products 

Products consumed: 

Sulphuric acid, tons , 

Acid phosphate, tons 

Charcoal, nushels 

All other products consumed, pounds 

Comparison of products: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for censu.s year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned — 

Engines — 

Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas or gasoline, number 

Horsepower 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Electric motors, number 

Horsepower 

Other power, number 

Horsepower 

Rented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 

Establishments clas.sified by number of persons employed, not including pro- 
prietors and firm members: 

Total number of establ ish men ts 

No employees 

Under 5 

6 to 20 

21 to 50 

61 to 100 

101 to 250 

251 to 500 

501 to 1,000 



United States, 



140, 445, 661 

923, 198 

$8,471,943 

142, 898 

J2, 349, 388 

1,436,682 

$2.5,446,046 

291,927 

M, 178, 284 

1,400,000 

810,500 

$3,749,890 

571,831 

88,964 

14,600 

36,512,386 

329 

$31,249,688 
$27,420,663 

361 
39,621 



591 
37, 121 

30 
410 

16 
359 

36 

841 

2 

90 

220 
480 



81 
160 
68 
43 
63 
17 
1 



Alabama, California, 



$1,942,708 

38,246 

$369, 587 

2,000 

$35,000 

92, 2,53 

$1,433,3.55 

6,670 

$104, 766 



$100,454 
22,020 



18, 200, 000 

11 
$1,762,700 
$1,627,287 

17 
1.450 



27 
1,360 



$586,687 



17, .570 

$M1, 187 

2, .561 

$45,500 



$71,150 
538 



$670,617 
$640,828 



7 
416 



8 

340 

1 

16 



Connecticut, i Delaware. 



$313,610 



1,000 
$23, 000 

7, 326 
$205, 931 

2,752 
$84,679 



$77,195 



7 
$344,605 
$354, 160 

7 
834 



6 
245 



15 



$634,213 



2,385 
$28,250 



17,180 
$283, 873 

30,377 
$322,090 



$104,490 



9 
$460,213 
$401,881 

9 

775 



19 
705 



1U3 



BY STATES, 1900-Continued. 



UlatrlctofColumblii. 

•71.480 


Florida. 


G«i»|te. 


Illlnoll. 


ladiaiw. 


Kadmi. 


Kcntookjr. 


UmliiUna. 




•496.642 

9.3M 
•83, WO 


•3,240,804 

131,608 

•1,076.681 

14.603 

•229,271 

101,219 

•1.663.653 

26,606 

•371,799 


•1,721,760 

26,108 

•313,860 

4.160 

•58.100 

43.483 

•836.336 

23.433 

•614,476 


«as,8U 

86ft 

•10, 006 

27 

•600 

5,760 
•116,280 

6,431 
•109,060 


•649,943 

8.978 

•160.49*1 

6.858 

•126.746 

10,000 

•200,000 

4. .585 

•63.700 


•296,620 


•866.201 

29,244 
•2n,821 

18,087 
•231.699 

2.'. 842 

•367. 181 

300 

•8.600 


W 
99 












n 

92 

m 

M 
96 








3.160 

•64.800 

449 

•6.680 


1.5.485 

•377.63.5 

1.315 

•25,167 


17.816 
•296.520 




96 




97 


















98 


•7,460 


•2,764 
7,065 


•121,613 

78,6.55 


•133,400 


•19,496 




•26, 726 


•26.606' 

17.7)8 
3,026 


99 
















101 
















102 




380,000 

7 
•500,239 
•438,292 

5 
412 

8 
400 




• 










108 


6 
•78,930 
•73,300 

2 
8fi 

1 


20 
•1,432,461 
•1.317.770 

32 
3.823 

■54 
3,795 


3 

•514.660 
•392,860 

4 

1,315 

9 

1,316 


13 
•254,571 
•211,270 

14 
666 

16 

628 

2 

37 


8 
•649,943 
•421,928 

2 
820 

2 
320 


4 
•321.246 
•293.629 

4 

488 

7 
483 


6 
•896,351 
•617,632 

< 
828 

11 
796 


IM 
10& 
106 

107 

loe 

109 

no 
















112 


























1 . 








114 






■■^ 2" 

28 










2 
81 
















































118 




12 
















20 








300 

3 








7 


41 


6 


14 


4 


6 


121 


1 
4 

1 


1 
1 
4 


2 
14 
10 
8 
6 
1 


2 
- 1 


4 
9 
1 


1 






123 




2 
I 

t 
2 


124 




2 
2 


125 






126 




1 


1 

1 




2 








128 














m 



















104 



Table 1.— FERTILIZERS: SUMMARY 



100 
101 
102 
103 

104 
105 
106 

107 
108 



109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 

119 
120 



121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 



Products — Continued. 

Aggregate value — Continued. 
Fertilizers — 

Total value 

Superphosphates — 

From minerals, bones, etc., tons , 

Value 

Ammoniated, tons 

Value 

Coinplete, tons 

Value 

All other, tons 

Value 

Chemical, not otherwise specified— 

Epsom salts, pounds 

Value 

Value of all other products 

Products consumed: 

Sulphuric acid, tons 

Acid phosphate, tons 

Charcoal, bushels 

All other products consumed. j>ounds 

Comparison of producU^: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned — 
Engines- 
Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas or gasoline, number 

Horsepower 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower L 

Electric motors, number 

Horsepower 

Other power, number 

Horsepower 

Eented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 

Establishments clas.sified by number of persons employed, not including pro- 
prietors and firm members: 

Total number of establishments 

No employees 

Under .") 

6 to 20 

21 to 50 

51 to 100 

101 to 250 

261 to 500 

501 to 1,000 



Maine. 



$27,902 



828 

821,602 

1,000 

86,300 



Maryland, Massachusettfi. Mississippi. Missouri. 



85,174,357 

124,444 

81,176,099 

48,608 

8690, 671 

183, 705 

82,977,015 

27,017 

8330,572 



812, 100 



2 
$28,002 

828,500 



8188,958 
94,490 



5,823,200 

34 
83,936,185 
83,731,268 



3,647 



51 
3,268 

4 
75 

2 
44 

7 
205 



82,060,575 

1,282 
812,820 



76,571 

81,940,605 

4,280 

8107, 150 



$14,015 
18,590 



$2,073,910 
$1, 517, 852 

7 
1,217 



26 
785 



382 

1 

50 



8492,772 

7,200 
850,400 



30,604 
8442,372 



9,000 
9,000 



3 

8492, 772 
8429,000 

3 
415 



4 
415 



8139,395 

2,766 
$44,248 



2,774 
839,039 

2,354 
856,108 



$97,240 



3 

$236,635 
8234, 176 



6 
609 



I 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



105 



New Jersey. 


New York. 


North Carolina. 


Ohio. 


Fennnylvanla. 


South OaroUna. 


Teoneaee. 


Virginia. 


All othn itatw.! 




(8,703,712 

106,135 

(887,020 

7,283 

(69. ,580 

126,839 

(2.629,611 

8,039 

(127.601 


(2,444,420 

9,810 

(106,646 

10,800 

(338,400 

87,862 

(1,628,688 

44;086 

(876,787 


(1,487,388 

48,820 

(897,897 

8,400 

(61,000 

68,528 

(841,632 

14,346 

(197,304 


(1,662,518 

24,728 
(285,698 

28.806 
(380. 93A 

■C), :i'ii 
ruo.eoti 

11,918 
(196,278 


rA69*>.969 

22,976 

(310,273 

2,846 

(63,271 

120,161 

(2,166,826 

10,467 

(167,000 

1,400,000 

(10, .VX) 

(936,861 


(4,666,806 

173,188 
r, 404, 569 


(1,464,788 

85,969 

(456,668 


(8,328,479 

120,688 

(1.0M,8» 

4,800 

(72,100 

106,828 

(1,820,771 

26,687 

(406,715 


(266,729 
40 

•2? 

661 

(10,216 
6,6.^ 

(107,646 
9,510 

(147,089 


(6 

W 
(0 
VI 






97 


207,860 

(8,146,916 

7,497 

(105,824 


36,696 
(7W,220 

20,400 
(804.000 


n 

94 
96 
96 

97 


















98 


(686.640 

25,836 
17,627 


(678,833 
18,968 


(10,292 

88,047 
6,545 


(94,640 

8,000 
18,060 




(1,500 

36,495 
5,071 


(88,442 
68,946 


(867,648 


99 


188,978 


too 


35,746 




101 










107 


967,186 

26 
(3,724,270 
(3,649,571 

22 

2,778 

41 

2,638 

2 

40 


9,400,000 

26 
(2,628,762 
(2,390,249 

27 
2,461 

40 
2,436 


i, 666, 666 

13 
(1.130, 60.") 
(1,062,897 

16 
1,292 

29 

1,163 

16 

56 




762,000 

60 
(3,,'>93,820 
(3,064,029 

48 
3,836 

69 

3,682 

1 

10 

7 

123 











106 


20 

$1,071,156 

(916,066 

26 
2,168 

36 

1,998 

3 

175 


(792|863 

18 
3,940 

36 
8,940 


4 

(1,126,890 

(609,894 

5 
948 

14 
943 


29 
(2,129,961 
(1,878,606 

88 

4,240 

69 
4,065 

2 

loJ 

3 
27 

1 
40 


8 
(680,747 
(480,338 

10 
788 

I< 

788 


104 
106 
106 

107 
106 

109 
110 
lit 










11? 










113 
















114 


9 
100 


1 
5 












116 















116 


::::::::::::;:::::!:::;:::::::::;:::: 








117 










118 




20 


83 




1 




119 






20 

51 
5 
16 
22 
6 
1 
1 
1 








170 


28 


32 
1 

10 
10 
6 


18 
1 
3 
5 
8 
3 
3 


27 
2 
6 

13 
3 
1 
1 
2 


22 


5 


89 


11 


121 
1?? 


8 

18 

1 

1 


2 
3 
1 
2 
11 
3 




8 
8 
6 
8 

7 
2 


5 
3 


I'^l 


2 


124 
ITS 


1 


2 

1 


176 


1 3 


4 
1 


177 


! 2 


2 


178 








179 


1 






1 









< Includes establishments distributed as follows: Iowa, 1; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1; Nebraska, 1; Oregon, 1; Rhode Island, 1; Texa^ 2; Washington, 1; West 
Virginia, 2. 



106 

Table 2.— DYESTUFFS AND EXTRACTS, SUMMARY BY STATES: 1900. 



United 

States. 



Nirmber of establishments 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm and limited partnership 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerks, etc.— 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men — 

Number 

Salaries 

Women- 
Number 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year... 

Lea^t number employed at any one time during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years — 

Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all .sundry expenses 

not hitherto included ■ 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Gums 

Wood, for extracts, tons 

Cost 

Acids — 

Sulphuric, tons 

Cost 

Nitric, pounds 

Cost 

Mixed, pounds 

Cost 

Ammonia, aqua, pounds 

Cost 

Alcohol, wood, gallons 

Cost 

Bones, tankage, and offal 

Common salt, tons 

Cost 

Dry colors 

Lead. tons 

Cost 

Lime, bushels 

Cost 

Tallow and fats 

All other components of products 

Fuel 

Rent of power and heat 

Mill supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Total value 

Acids 

Alums, pounds 

Value 

Fertilizers, tons 

Value 

Dyestuffs— 

Natural, pounds 

Value 

Artificial, pounds 

Value 

Tanning materials — 
Natural — 

Ground or chipped, pounds 

Value 

Extracts, pounds 

Value 

Artificial, pounds 

Value 

Epsom salts, pounds 

Value 

Value of all other products 

Products consumed 



chusetts. 



77 

28 
19 
30 

$7,839,034 
81,027,908 
$1,075,033 
81,839,946 
$3, 896, 147 
61 

229 
$312, 109 

43 

8' IB, 880 

186 
8193,229 

163 

8181,750 

23 
811,479 

2,094 

1,486 

1,648 

$787,942 

1,607 
8781,370 



85,911 

5 
$661 

$458,212 
$23,052 
$24,071 

$410,870 
8219 

$4, 745, 912 

$325 

245,198 

$2,393,179 

814 

$16,757 

1,55,367 

$5,434 

209,061 

83,763 

1,227,000 

$73,620 

1,000 

$(>J0 

8750 

2,254 

87,829 

$447, 649 

125 

$11, 140 

3,840 

$800 

$9,000 

81,175,402 

8183, 307 

$4,153 

$71,613 

8267,918 

$69, 473 

$7, 350, 748 

$72,900 

1,600,000 

$90,000 

55 

$1,500 

46, 662, 023 

82,621,682 

6,681,880 

$1, 806, 730 



49,002,037 

8465, 966 

60, 395, 392 

$1,216,346 

1,837,134 

$62, ,616 

87,500 

$1,600 

81,121,618 

8842,260 



New 
Jersey. 



7 
1 
2 

$592, 510 
$91,800 
868,000 
$60, 973 

$371,737 
11 

27 
$36,120 

3 
811,100 

24 
$26,020 I 

21 I 
$23,740 

3 
81,280 

66 

;« 

49 
828,226 

48 
$27, 626 

1 

$600 



$20,449 
83,606 
$1,910 

$14,933 



81,123,833 



3,750 
842,638 

370 
$9,990 
10.5,000 
84,200 



2 
6 

$591,916 
$121,000 
$76,000 
$131, .553 
$263,363 
7 

32 
$33, 783 

8 
817,100 

24 
$10,683 

18 
$14, 817 

6 
81,866 

172 

71 

88 

$40,067 

78 
$38,618 

10 
$1,449 



1,227,000 
873, 620 



$397,495 

"""s'sio 



$538,462 
88,266 



8595 

843,653 

84,115 

81,320,881 



1,500,000 
890,000 



3, .532, OOU 
8283, 800 

2,123,816 
$871,213 



New York. 



Pennsyl- 
vania. 



849, 482 
$3, 745 
$2,220 

$43,617 



$2,548,136 
$667,463 
$345,504 
8436, 703 

$1, 198, 466 



78 
$91,680 

11 
$28,300 

67 
863,380 

60 
859,876 

7 
$3,504 

562 

517 

638 

$300,832 

538 
$300,832 



Virginia. 



$128, 447 
$10,460 
$1P,432 

$107,555 



$282,332 



12,326 
8207, 867 



100 
$447 



826 

811, 

81, 

$1 

821 

811, 

8602, 
872, 



$1,263,843 



34,441 
8594, 826 



81,297 



12 

4 
3 
5 

$1,778,173 
8121,460 
8273, 179 
$637,993 
8845,561 
5 

36 
$60,686 

12 
$39,900 

24 
$20,786 

21 
819, 057 



81,729 

361 

286 

267 

8118, 544 

251 
8117, 169 

5 
$1,260 

1 
8126 

8168,262 
81,785 
83,272 

$163,134 
$61 

$661,444 



4 
3 
1 

$385,904 
$37,923 
$54,360 
$72,100 

8221,531 
12 

20 
$22,060 

2 
$1,920 

18 
820,130 

18 
$20,130 



West 
Virginia. 



1 
2 
2 

8272,192 
$17,860 
$38,000 
$66,049 

$160,293 
7 

8 
$7,930 



$4,780 

5 
$3,160 

5 
83,150 



All other 
states. ' 



209,061 
$3,763 



2,1,54 

$7, 382 

$40,500 

126 

811, 140 



376, 470 
816,000 



6, 160, 000 

$206, 210 

267, 100 

$41,858 



13, 872, 000 
$98,600 
719, 228 
$16,684 
1,460,664 
$36, 516 



$466,939 
$31,193 
8373 
$12, 713 
$82, 177 
$11,640 

$2,111,811 



63,447 
$614, 266 



246 
$4,000 



$8,000 



$9,000 
838,768 
822,447 



271 

174 

201 

858,588 

183 



15 
$1,200 

3 
$400 

$17, 739 
$1,081 
$1,956 

814, 703 



8307, 481 



48,216 
$246,680 



90 

74 

$26,325 

74 
826,325 



815, 320 
$400 
8745 

814,017 
$158 

$144, 068 



$750 



7,880,048 

$1,005,079 

2,457,162 

$787, 976 



$4,508 
$46,329 
$15, 126 

$1,269,246 



7,024,440 
$295,356 



869,868 



$23,400 
$842,250 



23,831,150 

$816,135 

42.5,800 

$50,400 



415,117 

87,78» 

18, 663, 124 

$339,618 



$2, 610 
$14,090 
$1,323 
81, 165 
823,363 
817,600 

8479, 372 



65 
$1,600 



35,700 
$106,900 

113 
81,470 
50,367 
$1,234 



13 

2 

5 
6 

$1, 670, 203 

$70, 422 

$220,000 

8534,575 

$845,206 

12 

28 
859,880 

4 

816, 780 

24 
$44,080 

20 
$10, 980 

4 

$3,100 

674 

312 

441 

$216,360 

435 
$213,812 

6 

81, 412 

1 

8136 

$68, .523 
81,976 
$3,537 

$63,011 



$5,115 
$9,000 
$578 
81,670 
$18, 101 



$245,754 



26, 145, 920 
$180, 1.58 

17, 936, 725 
$290,066 



87,500 
$1„500 
$53,910 



$7,649 



1,292,360 
$11,389 



7,925,000 

$166, 915 

3,889,875 

$76,450 



8962, 911 

8326 

47, 319 

$680,002 



1,000 
8800 



81,6.54 



897, 019 
887, 159 



$52,947 
833.483 
$9,622 

81,420,886 



$2,000 



5,258,825 

$210,428 

15,612 

$43, 894 



1,644,000 

$22, .500 

12, 272, 000 

$169,273 



$974, 791 



1 Includes establishments distributed as follows: California, 1; Connecticut, 2; Florida, 2: Illinois, 2: Kentucky, 1; Maine, 1; Michigan, 1; Rhode Island, 2; 
Tennessee, 1. 



107 

Tablb 2 DYKSTUFFS AND EXTRACTS, SUMMARY BY STATES: lUOO-Coatinued. 





United 
SUtw. 


chUMtU. 


New 

Jener. 


New York. 


Henn«yl- 
vaiila. 


VliKtnU. 


We« 
VIrflnla. 


All other 

riteteii.> 


Comrariflon of products: 


W 
•6,929,8eo 
18,240,278 

m 

11,518 

144 

10,458 

1 

300 

9 

828 

16 

159 

20 
2S6 

!S5 

77 

1 

12 

33 

14 

12 

2 

2 

1 


10 
II.820.H81 
tl. 218, 858 

« 
347 

6 
2S7 


« 

•490,798 
•441,617 

7 
8M 

10 
7M 


17 
•1,WI8.0M 
•1,808,320 

12 
4,208 

48 
4,148 


8 
•1. 088, 478 
•1.012,812 

11 
2,818 

27 

2,482 

1 

300 


R 
•479,872 
•380,116 

8 
786 

14 
470 


8 
•215,254 
•189, 50* 

S 
4S6 

8 
4U 


11 




•1.89«,4M 
•1,214.481 

10 


Value for prect'diuK buslneiw year 

Power: 




2,081 
88 


Own*Mi— 

Eiifrlni'i*— 

Stettni number 




1.901 


Gas or fcasollne number 


















1 
50 






3 
140 




5 










i' 

16 


U8 




8 
8 

5 
SB 


8 
40 

IS 


7 


1 








IS 


Rentetl— 














17S 


■a 












SB 


Est&bllshmeuts t'laMsiliert by number of persons employed, not 
including proprietors and tlrm membera: 


10 


10 


19 

i 

7 
8 
4 

1 

1 
1 


12 
1 

1 
3 
5 
1 
1 


8 


b 


IS 






Under5 * 


3 
7 


3 
5 




1 

8 


2 


5 to 20 


4 

1 
8 


4 


21to60 


6 






2 


1 


1 


101 to 2S0 
















1 


fiOl to 1 000 . 




















1 





■Includes establUhmentg distributed as follows: California, 1; Connecticut, 2; Florida, 2; Illinois, 2; Kentucky, 1; Ualne, 1; Mlctiigan, 1; Ebode Island, 2: 
rennessee, 1. 



108 



Table 3.— PAINTS: SUMMARY 



11 

12 

13 
14 

15 
16 

17 

18 

19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

42 
43 
44 

45 

4S 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 

54 
65 
56 
57 
68 
69 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 



87 



Number of establishments 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm or limited partnership 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerks, etc. — 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at anyone time during the year 

Least number employed at any one time during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over — 

Average num,ber 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years — 

Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expen.ses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expeni-es not hitherto included . 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Gums 

Limestone, tons 

Cost 

Pyrites, tons 

Cost 

Wood— 

For alcohol, cords 

Cost 

For extracts, tons 

Cost 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, tons 

Cost 

Nitric, pounds 

Cost 

Mixed, pounds 

Cost 

Acid phosphate, tons 

Cost 

Alcohol- 
Grain, gallons 

Cost 

Wood, gallons 

Cost : . 

Bones, tan kage. and ofTal 

Common salt, tons 

Cost 

Dry colors 

Glycerine, pounds 

Cost 

Lead, tons 

Cost 

Lime, bushels 

Cost 

Lin.seed oil, gallons 

Cost 

Nitrate of soda, tons 

Cost 

Potash salts 

Sulphur, tons 

Cost 

Tallow and fats 

All other components of products 

FueK 

Rent of power and heat 

Mill supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Aggregate value 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, 60 Baum^, tons 

Value 

Sulphuric, 66 Baum^, tons 

Value 

Nitric, pounds 

Value 



United States. 



120 
109 
190 

W2,i501,782 
$5,263,179 
i5, 128, 578 
«7, 068, 854 

«2.'>,041,17! 
293 

2, 512 
$3,077,318 

324 
$814,037 

2,188 
$2,263,281 

1,910 
$2, 130, 270 

278 
$133,011 

9,514 

6,971 

8,151 

$3,929,787 

7,357 
$3,711,685 

744 
$209,540 

50 
$8,562 

$3,430,061 
$289. 366 
$200, 720 

$2,802,642 
$1,S7,333 

$33,799,386 

$354,660 

18,234 

$50,368 

20,598 

$122,300 

26 

$52 

11,746 



1,989 

$13,915 

68,568 

$3,687 

1,75.5,822 

$26,002 

190 

$1,519 

9,813 

$16, 778 

32,488 

$26,806 

$2,278 

458 

$2,260 

$8,758,499 

692 

$87 

99,0.52 

$8,585,688 

33,007 

$6,098 

11,835,174 

$6,431,227 

1,086 

$36,395 

$21,675 

2, 764 

$58,088 

$i,700 

$5. 929, 030 

$.514,372 

$42, 672 

$169,090 

$3,234,658 

$316, 709 

$60,874,995 

23,964 

$201,299 

4,053 

$89, 179 

749,666 

$28,112 



California. 



5 
2 
4 

$873,378 
$8,300 
$159, 588 
$117,463 
$688, 027 
10 

33 
$39,922 

4 
$6,550 

29 
$34,372 

29 
$34,372 



179 
153 
163 

$100, 4^4 

154 
$97,047 



$3,397 



$19, 165 
$6,300 
$1,776 

$10,972 
$117 

$853,231 



Georgia. 



$130,476 



1,908 
$152, 6,50 



172, 630 
$99,556 



$342, 275 
$9, 070 
$2,690 
81,435 
$99,404 
$15, 675 

$1,128,64:) 



2 
1 
2 

$101,300 

$4,000 

$4,600 

$11,500 

$81,300 

3 

12 
$9,170 

2 
$1,650 

10 
$7,520 

10 
$7,520 



34 

30 

23 

$9,844 

19 
$8,704 

1 

$600 

3 
$540 

$10,905 
$2,720 
$1,360 
$6,825 



$112,474 

$6,400 



$48, 943 



49, .551 
$29, 997 



$8.0.51 
$492 
$460 
$245 

$7,690 
$10,296 

$182,279 



BY STATES, 1900. 



1U9 



Illliiots. 


Indlaiw. 


Iowa. 


Kentucky. 


Loulalana. 


Maryland. 


MaaMHsbiuetu. 


Mlchlsan. 


MlnneMrta. 




33 

4 
2 

•3,387,850 
•379.442 
•228,439 
•436.939 

•2.343.030 
8 

347 
8460,379 

49 
•111,184 

298 
•&«9,196 

265 
•325,242 

43 


.5 


6 

1 

• 3 

2 

•207,486 

•7,242 

•22,550 

«»,813 

•156,880 

9 

31 

•23,480 

1 
(2,400 

30 
•21,080 

24 
819,380 

6 
(1,700 

51 

•29 

40 

(14,739 

34 
(13,510 

6 
(1,229 


9 

8 
2 

4 

•174.586 
820.422 
K-MiOO 
(•27,837 

(100,827 
7 

12 
(12, WO 

6 
(7,600 

6 
8,5,300 

6 
(5,300 


8 


18 

S 

7 

I 

•290.222 
•18.000 
•28.000 
(78.760 

(165.462 
21 

'26 
•26.900 

8 

r.ooo 

23 
•18,800 

28 

818,900 


80 

7 
10 
18 

•1,800,706 
(80,476 
•207. '241 
r20'2.'269 
(810. 7'22 
26 

75 
•102.784 

19 
•39,700 

56 
•63.064 

47 
•69,026 

9 

•1,058 

384 

291 

337 

•176, 101 

311 
•166.473 

■26 
(9,6'28 


. 18 
4 


6 

I 
1 
4 

tm.an 

86, 329 

•44! 874 

•247.796 

6 

29 
•28,816 

7 
•10,288 

22 
•18,140 

19 
•17,160 

8 
•880 

•6 

60 

62 

•20,806 

42 
•17,667 

10 
•2,749 


1 
2 




1 
2 

(140.491 
(21. MO 
(18.600 
(32.499 
(67.892 
8 

13 

(14.242 

8 

•6.460 

10 
r.782 

9 
(7.002 

1 
(780 

24 

19 

21 

(10. 116 

19 
(9.544 

2 
(572 


> 


5 
8132,431 


• 

81..VV9..546 
8111.299 
8230.969 
81.59.674 

•1.067.608 
4 

183 
n35,266 

20 
•47.020 

168 
•88.246 

183 
•81,192 

80 
r.OfiS 

426 
330 

384 
8129.690 

293 
•111. IM 

80 
•16.837 

11 
•1.659 

•220.482 
•5.604 
r,325 

•207,653 


4 

8 

8 


•7.463 
•50.751 
•74.217 

1 

13 
•11,166 

• 
•4,600 

10 
•6.566 

10 
•6,566 


7 
8 
9 

10 

11 
» 

18 
14 

16 
16 

17 
18 

19 


•23 953 








m 


836 

574 

702 

•348,674 

629 
•324,862 

72 
•23.512 

1 


45 

29 

33 

•13.641 

27 
•12.835 

6 
•806 


62 

45 

52 

(20,326 

46 
(18,826 

6 
(1,500 


119 

104 

110 

(46,273 

94 
(41.688 

9 
(2.585 

7 
(l.OOO 

(2-2.172 
(5.407 
(1.349 

(15,416 


a 

22 
28 
24 

26 
26 

27 
28 

78 


•300 















80 


•414. 110 
•41.485 
821.822 

«3tO,76S 
890 


•17,330 

•4,381 

(450 

•10.999 
(1,500 


(19.833 

(20 

8783 

(19.030 


(7,848 

(1,440 

(838 

(5, ,570 


(19,452 




(112,789 
(18,170 
(11,591 
883. 0-28 


•61,381 

r.216 

•778 

•61.138 
•2.200 

•209,145 


81 

9f 


(815 
818,637 


33 
84 
36 


«, 375, 872 
816 375 


•111,015 


(255.510 


(263,952 


(8-2,271 


(265,743 


81.332.899 

(37.848 


•1,1,53,783 
•46,030 


36 

37 
















38 


















n 




















40 




















41 




















47 




















48 




















44 




















45 












4 
•109 


2 
(40 

9.668 
1286 






46 
















47 
















48 


















49 


















nn 























61 





















itt 




















A* 


20 
(54 

11,710 
•10,140 


















64 


















M 












600 
r50 






66 

















IV7 
















m 




















,59 




















60 


•1,764,935 


•71,819 


(84.170 


(106,826 


2.5,338 


(84,074 


8378.334 


•431,064 


r.5.449 


61 
67 




















68 


11,866 

•991. M2 

2.457 

8149 

1.640.240 

8730.473 












3.614 

•325.309 

6.443 

•2.706 

890.248 

r71.938 






64 
















66 








.5.57 

(160 

65,691 

•32,846 








66 














67 


,54.906 
•22,226 


182,866 
(73.947 


221,140 
(93,506 


102,660 
(50,060 


587,416 
•260,300 


154.619 
•75,168 


68 
» 
71) 




















71 














•21.000 






78 


















78 




















74 




















76 


850,238 

•10,966 

•7.7S2 

•346.098 

821.734 

».5,987,M8 


•4,022 
•717 
•51 
•271 
•11,561 
(348 

(166,335 


•72.987 
•4.558 


•32,288 

•1,JW0 

(l.IOl 

(445 

(23.476 
(1.7S6 

(359.085 


•12,669 
•2,102 

•14 

•2T2 

•7.062 

•1.806 

•132,102 


•90,231 

•6,477 

•200 

•810 

(24.362 

(9.400 

(442.744 


•219.152 

•26.108 

n.60O 

•3,209 

•128,365 

814,262 

•2,006,982 


•182,454 

•10,917 

(813 

•3,219 

•192.802 

•26.194 

•1.826.742 


•38.563 

•2.176 

i661 

•12.808 

•3. 619 

•357.816 


76 

77 
78 


•640 
•15.156 
•4.062 

•336.867 


79 
80 
81 

82 

88 




















M 




















8ft 




















■8 




















87 




















88 



110 



Table 3.— PAINTS: SUMMARY 



31 
32 
38 
34 
36 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

42 
43 
44 
46 

46 
47 
48 
49 
60 
51 
52 
53 

64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
66 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 



Number of establishments 

Character of organization: 

Indi vidua] 

Firm or limited partnership 

Incorporated eompa n y 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries : 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerks, etc.— 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number 

Salaries - 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year 

Least number employed at any one time during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years — 

Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expenses not hitherto included. 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Gums 

Limestone, tons 

Cost 

Pyri tes, tons 

Cost 

Wood— 

For alcohol, cords 

Cost 

For extracts, tons 

Cost -■ 

Acids — 

Sulphuric, tons 

Cost 

Nitric, pounds 

Cost 

Mixed, pounds 

Cost 

Acid phosphate, tons 

Cost 

Alcohol- 
Grain, gallons 

Cost 

Wood, gallons 

Cost 

Bones, tankage, and offal 

Common salt, tons 

Cost 

Dry colors 

Glycerine, pounds 

Cost 

Lead, tons 

Cost 

Lime, bushels 

Cost 

Linseed oil, gallons 

Cost 

Nitrate of soda, tons 

Cost 

Potash salts 

Sulphur, tons 

Cost 

Tallow and fats 

All other components of products 

Fuel . ; 

Rent of power and heat 

Mill supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Aggregate value 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, 60 Baum^, tons 

Value ' 

Sulphuric, 66 Baum6, tons 

Value 

Nitric, pounds 

( Value 



Missouri, 



20 

2 
6 
13 

83.078,899 
8267,368 
8362, 018 
8402, 858 

82, 066, 656 
12 

138 
8213,626 

26- 
863,690 

112 
8149, 936 

104 
8146,336 



$4,600 

577 

382 

488 

»2'25, 830 

486 
8217,587 

24 
86,924 

8 
81,319 

8169,984 
819,659 
815,827 

8134,498 



83,234,423 

878 



Nebraska. 



8881,6.57 
860,000 

83.56,000 
898, .500 

8367, 157 



41 
858,456 

2 

89,000 



849,456 



32 
846,420 



7 
83,036 



105 



93 
853,020 



82 
849, .590 



11 
83,430 



870, 405 

$480 

m, 147 

867, 778 



8534,256 



8680,596 



15, 447 
$1,332,088 



1,155,791 
8506,392 



8434,809 

826,614 

83,870 

86,948 

$236,679 
86,349 

84, 323, 355 



New Jersey. 



7 
7 
18 

82, ,507, 867 
8122. 350 
$3,57. 206 
$404,697 

$1,623,614 
20 

131 
$178, 228 

17 
$32, 015 

114 
8146,213 

106 
$141,137 



$5,076 

729 

564 

626 

$317, 786 

5.58 
$299, 972 

68 
817,814 



8191,449 
88, .524 

810, 564 
8158,290 

814,071 

$2, 519, 447 
$33,886 



119 
$2,984 



330,000 
$5,000 



New Y'ork. 



$92,610 



4,136 
$4,953 I 



458 

$2,260 

$483,423 



2,901 
8242, 666 



213,779 
8102, 773 



$24, 471 
812,959 



81,505 
$44,364 
813, 018 

3838,151 



3,000 
$275,600 



402,636 
8184,826 



620 
818,500 



81, 106, 330 
865, 810 
8550 
$11,207 
$296, 694 
$38,534 

83, 460, 362 



811,318,449 
82, 129, 678 
81,09,5,653 
81,495.299 
86, .597. 819 
34 

.506 
8717,339 

61 

8178,420 

454 
8538,919 



$512,815 

56 
$26, 104 

2,521 

1,855 

2,173 

$1,175,277 

1.976 
81,126.011 

187 
848,086 

11 
82,180 

881.5, 946 
$99, 494 
860,984 

$650,468 
$5,000 

88,344,9;^6 

8116, 527 

8,734 

$26, 268 



293 
$16,523 



1,400 
82,160 



1,426,822 
821,002 



769 
$500 



$2,210,230 

692 

$87 

24.083 

82,124.948 

4.000 

$800 

2.632,319 

81,248,766 

20 

$1,219 



600 

812,595 

8.5,700 

81.573,1.51 

$109,981 

SI 1.932 

$56, 535 

8799, 475 

$6,647 

$12, 543, 825 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



Ill 



Ohio. 


Oregon. 


PentuylTsnla. 


Rhode Uland. 


TenneMee. 


Texw. 


Wuhlngtnn. 


WtKOfWill. 


All other iiute«.i 


45 

7 
16 
22 

(4.306.499 
(490.596 
(474,906 
(433,921 

(2,907,077 
41 

396 
(470.581 

55 
(123. 160 

340 

(347.421 

297 
(325.283 

43 
(22.138 

919 

601 

733 

(336,746 

635 
(308,493 

96 
(33,253 


3 

1 
1 
1 

r2K.332 
(5,000 
(6..'iflO 
(18.247 
(98.585 
2 

7 
(8.880 

2 
(4,800 

5 
(4.080 

4 

(3.600 

1 
(480 

41 

39 

39 

(22.836 

37 
(21,876 

2 
(960 


60 

27 
23 

17 

(10.268,616 
n, 601, 877 
(1,333,868 
(2.767.768 
(4,660,002 
47 

406 
(468,024 

(124,780 

369 
(328,244 

329 
(306.018 

40 

r22,22« 

1.862 
1,430 
1.649 

rse.m 

1,,W7 
(711,636 

87 
(23,512 

5 
(964 

(eii.53.<< 

(26,641 

(23,298 

(408,839 

(52,856 

(5,203,343 

(38,410 

9.500 

(24, 100 

20, .598 

(iat,300 


4 

2 

1 
1 

(104, 781 

(6.000 

(21.800 

(16.700 

(61.281 

4 

18 
(16.164 

2 
(6,000 

11 
(11,164 

8 
(10, 124 

3 

(1.040 

21 
15 

18 
(9.998 

17 
(9,890 

1 
(108 


6 
8 


6 

2 
3 


S 


5 

1 
( 

1 

(463. 236 


17 

7 
4 
• 

(WI.016 
•25,800 
(183, a«s 

16 

48 
•63,083 

7 
•12.750 

41 

•40.283 

33 

•87.411 

8 
•2.872 

329 

222 

•108, «00 

240 
•96,912 

25 

•7,288 

4 
•600 

•85,154 
(7,042 
(3,446 

r3,ie6 

(1,500 

(731,298 
(5.766 


1 

2 

1 

(66.982 

(6,600 

(31,000 

(6,822 

r22.610 

2 

4 
(4.620 

2 
(8.000 

2 
(1.620 

1 

(1.200 

1 
•420 

13 

10 

10 

•6.770 

9 
•6,620 

1 
•160 


2 

(73.545 

(4.500 

(6,000 

(14,276 

(48,770 

3 

8 
(11.000 

•4 

(8,300 

4 

f2,700 

3 
ri,220 

1 
. (480 

51 

36 

45 

(17,742 

42 
r7, 142 

3 
(600 


(14,076 






(2.926 

(12,060 

10 


(39.414 

(423.822 

6 

43 
(28.761 

(5.700 

40 
(23.061 

80 
(17.046 

10 
(6.016 

108 

80 

78 

•28.117 

68 
•24.117 

10 
•4,000 




















19 

14 

18 

(6,600 

13 
(6,600 




















(filS.OiO 
(23, .576 
132,090 

(.W2.384 
(60.000 

(3,2W,5.« 
(63,116 


(8,033 

(2,100 

fc54 

(3,379 


•6,688 

(1,269 

(313 

(4.116 


(.5.160 
(996 
(291 

(3.873 


(2,760 

(1,240 

(86 

(1,434 


(1,082 
(4*3 
(140 
(479 


•21,400 
(6,400 

(2,093 
(13.907 


(86,680 


(106,376 


(88,995 


(22,032 


(31.436 


(67.5.711 
(225 














































, 




























26 
(62 






















11,462 
(62,260 

187 
(3,060 
4-5.000 
(2,619 




























7 

A68 

14,000 

(782 














270 
(S.404 











































































190 
(1,519 

8,839 

(15,808 

9,132 












































186 
(tl« 

185 
(162 
















4.225 
(6.173 












2,500 
•2.075 
























































(907.584 


(22,937 


(622,542 


(61,812 


(47,902 


(11,434 


(11,279 


r2S6,94« 


•167.883 




















9.831 
(817.413 

fa 

(10 
1,431,006 
(722,229 






26.402 

(2,824,072 

17,100 

(1,200 

1,547,008 

(637,216 

1,066 

(35,176 

(675 

1,544 

(26,993 









































3.400 
(1.071 
151.857 
(74.167 














62.660 
(23,758 


84,338 
(15,182 


48,093 
(24,047 


11,822 
(5,811 


28.. 558 
(9.097 


493,576 
(236.945 






























































::::;:::;::;:;;:;;:::::::::::::;;;:;i 


















(340,791 

(34,480 

(1.625 

(15.094 

e7I,,532 

(6,166,001 


(27,266 

(720 

(220 

(100 

(5.230 

(6.450 

(141,669 


(637,264 

(141,966 

(1,378 

(45,762 
(633,864 

(30,348 

(9,137,970 

23,964 

(201,299 

4,063 

(89.179 

M9.666 

(28.112 


•14.100 
(963 
(920 
(479 

(17.996 
(4.924 

(166.818 


(4,764 
(2,721 


(1,443 

(2.V2 

(72 

(55 

(1,,590 
(1,376 

(39,830 


(3.914 

(25 

(420 

(60 

(3.828 

•8.318 

•67,600 


(81,660 
•2,5(23 


(361.441 
(10.923 
(780 
(11.130 
(63.199 
(68.(04 

(1.M2.924 


(348 
•160,790 


•1,008 
•(8.611 

riA 

(881.767 










' 












































' 


1 









29 
(0 

31 
32 
33 

34 
36 

33 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

42 
48 
44 
46 

46 

47 
48 
49 
SO 
51 
.52 
S3 

54 
S5 

at 

57 
56 
50 
60 
61 
62 
63 
84 
«5 
«6 
C7 
<8 
(9 
70 
71 
72 
78 
74 
75 
7S 
77 
78 
7« 
80 
81 



'Includes establlabments distributed wfollowa: Colorado. 2: Connecticut, 2: Delaware, 2: District of Columbia, 1; Kama*, 1; Maine, 2: )liMiarippl,l: Nevada. 1: 
North Carolina. 2: Vermont. 2: Virginia. 1. 



112 



Table 3.— PAINTS: SUMMARY 



100 
101 
102 
103 

104 
105 
106 
107 

108 
109 

no 

111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
lltt 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 

las 

126 
127 
128 

129 
130 
131 
13! 
133 
1S4 
135 
IW 
137 

133 
139 
140 



141 
142 
143 
144 
145 

]4fi 
147 
148 

149 
150 



152 
153 
164 
156 
156 
167 
158 
169 
160 

161 
162 
163 

164 
165 
166 
167 
188 

m 

170 

171 
172 



Products— Continued. 

Aggregate value — Continued. 
Acids — Continued. 

Acetic. pound.s 

Value 

Soda.s 

Alums, pounds 

Value 

Coal-tar distillery products 

Wood distillation— 

Wood alcohol, refined, gallons 

Value 

Charcoal, bushels •. 

Value 

All other 

Fertilizers — 

Complete, tons 

Value 

All other, tons 

Value 

Dyestuffs — 

Natural, pounds 

Value 

Artificial, pounds 

Value 

Tanning materials — 

Natural, extracts, pounds 

Value '. 

Paints, colors, and varnishes- 
Total value 

Pigment — 

White lead, pounds 

Value 

Oxides of lead, pounds 

Value 

Lamp, and other blacks, pounds 

Value 

Fine colors, pounds 

Value 

Iron oxides and other earth colors, pounds 

Value 

Dry colors, pounds 

Value 

Pulp colors, sold moist, pounds 

Value 

Paints: 

Paints in oil, in paste, pounds 

Value 

Paints already mixed for use, gallons 

Value 

Varnishes and japans — 

Oil and turpentine varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Alcohol varnishes, gallons 

Value , 

Pyroxyline varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Liquid dryers, japans, and lacquers 

All other paints, colors, and varnishes 

Fine chemicals 

Chemicals not otherwise specified— 

Copperas, pounds 

Value 

Value of all other products 

Products consumed: 
Acids- 
Sulphuric, tons 

Nitric, pounds 

Lead oxides, pounds 

White lead, pounds 

All other products consumed, pounds 

Compari.son of products: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned— 

Engines — 

Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas or gasoline, number 

Horsepower 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Electric motors, number 

Horsepower 

Other power, number 

Horsepower 

Rented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 

Furnished to other establishments, horsepower 

Establishments classified by number of persons employed, not including proprietors and firm members: 

Total number of establishments 

No employees 

Under 6 

5 to 20 

21 to 60 

61 to 100 

101 to 250 

251 to 500 

601 to 1,000 



United States. California. 



1,715,007 
$30,569 
839, 614 
25,445,612 
J342, 969 
«16.716 

78 
8110 
1,138 
J137 
»684 

465 

JID, 497 

685 

$1,878 

1,843,749 

$99,779 

680,000 

$390,000 

.5M,896 
810, 161 

$48, 440, 780 

116, 102, 316 
$4,211,181 

m, im, 623 

$2, .V«. 340 

1,06.1,000 

860,2.50 

3. 3-J.\ 'isa 

$736. 796 

33. Va. 89<) 

831 K, 242 

157, 472. 838 

84,066,147 

20, 060, 935 

$861,. 531 

303, 460, 028 

817.40.5,822 

16,591,745 

814,618,277 

1,373,603 

81,236,861 

46, 369 

871,707 

16,291 

816, 225 

8303, 495 

81,983,90*; 

84.092 

5, 786, 400 

$29,346 

81,139.073 



27,141 

611,427 

374, 061 

24,922,647 

15, 997, 525 

371 
848,8,84,792 
$43,348,494 

342 
27. 183 



388 
23,191 

18 
345 

24 
845 

65 

839 

3 

300 

771 
892 
414- 

419 

13 

120 

148 

79 

38 

19 

4 

1 



$823,224 

4, 800, noo 

8237, 180 

.500, 01)0 

825, 895 



2,411,622 
8207,797 
a55, 837 
8349,352 



Georgia. 



8182,279 



$3,000 



$305,419 



10 
$1,124,965 
81, 215. .560 

8 
964 



4 

525 

2 

21 



19 

3.50 



65 



870,683 

(66,065 

91,394 

$93,714 



$7, .500 
$25,000 



3 

$84,000 
$92,000 

4 

90 



30 



118 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



IlllllOll*. 


Indiana. 


Iowa. 


Kentucky. 


Loulalana. 


Maryland. 


Manachiuett*. 


MIchlfao. 


MInnanU. 






















80 


















(0 






1 












(1 




















n 




















w 














815.000 






M 






' 












15 




















M 




















97 




















99 




















99 




















100 




















101 




















in? 




















im 




















104 





















10S 




















108 




















107 




















108 




















109 


11,037,475 
8531.962 


8165,335 


8335,367 

250.000 
$24,750 


8367,086 


8132,102 


8396,931 

80,000 
84,000 


81,938,682 

110,496 

86,625 

8,726,279 

8197,440 

700,000 

842,000 

346,000 

83.5,000 

2,278,000 

$2.S,435 

3,44-1,701 

8218,607 

739,312 

867,426 

10,362,389 
86.3;?. -551 
479,011 
«67,829 

111,913 

895,772 

1,400 

82,800 


81,826,742 


8867,816 


110 
HI 
























113 


















114 
115 
U6 
117 
118 




365,000 
818,260 




























190,000 
331,000 

814,617 
9,8.'«,710 
8300.789 

81,000 

45.021.424 

82.631,1.19 

2,586,440 


























































120 
121 




3,012,000 
8n,666 






1,533, .509 
833. .t06 
5.58.300 
831,042 

1,101.227 

887. .519 

232.514 

8205,740 

2,8,750 
83,875 


4i7,4i8 
no, 737 




















128 
















1,726.100 

8120,806 

2.5, 112 

826,279 




1,405,000 

874, l.W 

181,485 

8134,901 


1,022. MO 

870,610 

387,575 

$282,525 


189,831 

$.10, 686 

91,017 

$81,416 


9,761,846 

8684,716 

847,206 

8974,318 

69,290 

886, .363 

3.100 

86.940 


796,282 
8100,084 

296,661 
8267,732 


126 
126 
127 
128 

129 
130 
131 


1 S2fi, 2.tO 












Sill. 000 

16,000 

816,000 

8363,200 
























132 
138 
184 
186 

136 
137 






































$4,260 
826,000 


816,483 
8128,216 


815,468 
818,200 






$30,000 


$3,950 












812,696 








.. 




























139 




81,500 


82,000 




846,813 


852,400 
14,969 






140 

141 
142 
143 
144 
146 
































































;.::::...... 
















27 
85.889,568 
♦5,200,700 

27 
2,763 

22 

2,491 

2 

1 
15 

1 


3 
8156,806 
8130,000 

5 
2S9 

S 
20P 

1 
86 


6 
8336,867 
8238,540 

6 
147 

5 
147 


8 
8329,085 
8300,467 

8 

5 
189 

1 
10 


3 
8132, 102 
8183,306 

2 
101 

1 
40 

I 
36 


13 
8142,744 
8367,193 

8 
828 

9 

soe 


28 
81,953.0)7 
81, 712. -414 

26 
1,287 

21 
1,132 


12 
81,824,382 
81,643,346 

12 
837 

12 
739 


6 
>33»,08I 
8277,500 

5 
203 

2 
133 


146 
147 
148 

149 
ISO 

151 
162 
153 
154 
156 
ISO 
157 
U8 
ISO 
160 

161 
162 
163 

164 
166 
166 
187 
168 
169 
170 
171 














' 


































2 
40 


9 
83 













































3 
221 
80 

33 


23 




67 






27 
68 


5 
10 
60 

IS 

1 
4 
S 
1 
2 
2 


70 




25 


20 




1 




6 


6 
2 
1 

1 
2 


9 


3 

1 


13 


80 

1 
6 
16 
6 
2 


6 


8 
8 
10 

4 
3 


1 
8 
1 


6 
S 

1 


6 
5 
3 


1 
3 
2 


1 
1 
































































No. 210 8 



114 



Tablb 3.— PAINTS: SUMMARY 



Missouri. Nebraska. New Jersey. New York 



100 
101 
102 
103 

104 
105 
106 
107 

108 
109 



111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 

125 
126 
127 
128 

129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
187 

138 
139 
140 



141 
142 
143 
144 
146 

146 
147 
148 

149 
150 



151 
152 
153 
154 
165 
156 
167 
158 
169 
160 

161 
162 
163 



164 
166 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 



Products— Continued. 

Aggregate value— Continued, 
Acids — Continued. 

Acetic, pounds 

Value 



Sodas . 

Alura.s. pound.s. 



Value . 



Coal-tar distillery products 

Wood distillation- 
Wood alcohol, refined, gallons . 

Value 

Charcoal, bushels 

Value 

All other 

Fertilizers — 

Complete, tons 

Value 

All other, tons 

Value 

Dyestuffs — 

Natural, pounds 

Value 

Artificial, pounds 

Value 

Tanning material — 

Natural, extracts, pounds 

Value 

Paints, colors, and varnishes — 

Total value 

Pigments — 

White lead, pounds 

Value 

Oxides of lead, pounds. 
Value . 



Lamp, and other blacks, pounds . 
Value 



84,108,476 

4, 942, 814 
8243, 681 

3,581,604 
8183, 189 



Fine colors, pounds . 

Value 

Iron oxides and other earth colors, pounds 

Value 

Dry colors, pounds 

Value 

Pulp colors, sold moist, pounds 

Value 

Paints — 

Paints in oil, in paste, pounds 

Value 

Paints already mixed for use, gallons 

Value 

Varnishes and japans — 

Oil and turpentine varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Alcohol varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Pyroxyline varnishes, gallons 

Value' 

Liquid dryers, japans, and lacquers 

All other paints, colors, and varnishes 

Fine chemicals , 

Chemicals not otherwise specified — 

Copperas, pounds 

Value 

Value of all other products , 

Products consumed: 
Acids- 
Sulphuric, tons 

Nitric, pounds , 

Lead oxides, pounds , 

White lead, pounds 

All other products consumed, pounds 

Comparison of products: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned— 
Engines- 
Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas, or ga.soline, number 

Horsepower 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Electric motors, number 

Horsepower 

Other power, number 

Horsepower 

Rented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 

Furnished to other establishments, horsepower 

Establishments ela.ssitied by number of persons employed, not including proprietors and 
firm members: 

Total number of establishments 

No employees 

Under 5 

5 to 20 

21 to 50 

51 to 100 

101 to 250 : 

251 to 600 

501 to 1,000 



8,4.55,000 
882, 494 



45,782,816 

82, 267, 924 

1,. 527, 528 

81,285,649 

650 
8650 



821,250 
823,639 



8214, 879 



18 
84,161,356 
84,460,387 

15 
1,703 



18 

1,565 

1 

6 



660,000 
8390,000 



8838, 151 



1,126,262 
861,889 



$3,022,557 



14,471,171 
8717, 047 



8,&'>0,306 

8553.9,50 

221,712 

8219, 712 



1,136,284 

8190,893 

.500,000 

825,000 
4,7.5(i,080 

$441,. 580 
5.156,948 

8162,556 

8, 545, 2.56 

8517, 159 

622, .542 

$680,189 

178,832 

8148, 245 

3.285 

84,571 



82,600 



823,857 
8211,460 



$47,805 



7,261,300 



8838,161 
$7.58, 424 



310 



1,147,946 

22 
$2,490,554 
82,042,534 

23 

1,886 



30 

1,792 



106 
20 



20 



48 



8716 



1,843,749 
899,779 



812,226,159 

39, 109, 000 
$547,440 

12,426,000 
$663,176 



1,192,466 

$443. 7.55 

15.4.58,000 

$121,. 534 

41,433.177 

82,118,799 

12, 941,. 596 

$.580, 623 

68,997,820 

84,009,797 

2.876,234 

82, 862, 426 

460, .500 

$417. •195 

1.000 

$1,000 



$.53,044 

$406,070 

$4,092 



$214, 079 



71 
$12,276,700 
811,743,756 

63 
5, 723 



63 

,762 

3 

40 

6 

266 

6 

73 



288 

296 

76 



BY STAT1':S, nHX>— Continued. 



116 



Ohio. 


Oregon. 


PeoMylvanla. 


Rhode Inland. 


Tennnne. 


Teziu. 


Wuhlngton. 


Wliic<>n>lii. 


All other Matoki 








1,715,007 
$30,669 
$39,614 

$1,000 














m 


















tn 


















«1 


















97 


::::::::":::::::::::::::::::::::::: 














(■ 


















M 
















78 


9A 


















96 


















97 


















W 


















W 






4.a 

«0,497 

685 

$1,878 












ino 


















101 



















107 


















ira 


















104 





















inn 




















lOtI 




















107 






664,896 
$10,161 

$8,237,632 

' 32,478,546 
$1,516,121 
27,893,478 
$1,338,959 














im 


















109 


$5,127,261 

8,822,814 

$383,475 

1,506,000 

$79,792 


$96,131 


$166,818 


$145,790 


$39,830 


$67,600 


$881,717 


$1,039,598 


110 
111 






• 










117 
















118 
















114 
















115 


:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 
















116 


2,'>l,000 

$19,900 

80,000 

$1,200 




267.562 

$16,048 

6,294,331 

$96,816 

67,164,490 

$616,561 

594,379 

$12,842 

56,313,415 

$2,908,062 

1,994,333 

$1,381,036 

218,534 

$189,491 

17,829 

$31,612 

291 

$225 

$57,902 

$171,957 








I" 




1,000 
$200 


117 














118 






7,660,000 
$30,640 








119 














i?n 


1,441,781 












26,929.972 
$146,499 


171 


$95,010 














in 














60.400 
$6,043 

6,000,000 

$412,600 

430.000 

$387,560 


I'M 


:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 












1?4 


80„'>95,967 

$1,752,553 

2, ,^74, 468 

12,362,313 

229,976 


30,576 

$7,644 

78,991 

$88,487 


629,800 
$70,776 
36,554 
$33,829 


142,000 
$28,400 
106,073 
$86,750 


241,429 

$15,600 

26,200 

$23,930 




2.662,09? 

$141,315 

471,329 

$396,886 

84,168 

$31,483 

600 

$1,200 


ITS 




126 


48,600 
$57,600 


127 
128 

^f9 


$237,237 














130 


1,505 




1,250 
$1,260 








2,600 
$3,824 


1H1 


$3,510 










182 










im 


















134 


$48,429 
$143,842 








$300 




$14,300 
$58,000 


$4,201 
$317,809 


135 




$60,964 
















137 






3,700,000 
$16,650 
$128,410 

12,182 

611.427 

374,061 

17,609,347 

14,846,296 

65 
$9,124,9.52 
$7,365,106 

62 
6,267 

108 

5,492 

1 

60 

11 

210 

12 

127 

3 

300 

28 
60 
156 

66 














138 


















1S1> 


$87,740 


$45,428 




$5,000 






$50 


$2,400 


140 




• 




141 






































































8,283 

11 

$1,027,660 

r 66, 295 

IS 
1,018 

12 
651 
1 
6 
4 
329 
1 
9 


145 


39 
$4,955,569 
$3,934,070 

37 
2,350 

26 

2,033 

4 

92 

1 

1 

12 
120 


3 

$141,559 

$90,794 

2 
36 

1 
80 


4 
$166,818 
$185,822 

1 
106 

2 
100 


5 
$160,790 
$131,600 

2 
122 

1 

100 

1 

22 


6 
»89,880 
$28,060 

4 

80 

3 

26 


2 
$17,600 
«1&,100 

2 
50 


6 
$881,767 
$516,500 

6 
867 

6 

387 


146 
147 
148 

149 
ISO 

161 








168 
154 


























1 




166 








1 




167 











\ 




Ifift 
















169 



















47 6 






6 


80 




24 


1«1 


57 
28 

45 

2 
» 
18 
11 
2 
2 
1 




8 
16 

4 





















S 


6 

1 
1 
2 

1 


6 


3 


6 
1 
2 
1 


17 
I 
7 
6 
1 
1 
3 


164 
166 
166 
IC7 

in 




23 
22 
11 
5 
4 


2 
1 
1 


3 
2 


2 

1 


2 

1 








i« 

170 
171 












1 














1 














172 





















< Include)) establlabmentH diatributed a.* follows: Colorado,2: ConnecUcat,2; Oelmwue,2; Dlatiict of Columbia, I; Kanaaa,!; Malne,2: MiaiailpDt. I: Nevada.!: 
North Carolina. 2; Vermonl, 2; Virginia, 1. -. rt- . — -, 



116 



Table 4.— VARNISHES: 



35 



Number of establishments 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm or limited partnership 

IneorjM>ratod company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machiner>", tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries 

Proprietorft and firm members 

Salaried olhciiils, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations- 
Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerks, etc. — 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men — 

Number 

Salaries 

Worn en— 

Number 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time d\iring the year 

Least numberemployea at anyone time during the year 

Average number ...'. 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over- 
Average nnmber 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years- 
Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expenses not 
hitherto included. 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Gums 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, tons 

Value 

M i xed, pounds 

Cost 

Alcohol- 
Grain, gallons 

Cost 

Wood, gallons 

Cost 

Dry colors 

Lime, bushels 

Cost 

Linseed oil, gallons 

Cost 

Potash salts 

All other components of products 

Fuel 

Rent of power and heat 

Mill supplies ; 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Aggregate value 

Cyanides- 
Potassium C5'anide, pounds 

Value. . " 

Yellow prussiate of potash, pounds 

Value 

Dyestuffs, artificial, pounds 

Value 

Paints, colors, and varnishes- 
Total value 

Pigments — 

Fine colors, pounds 

Value 

Dry colors, pounds 

Value 

Paints- 
Paints in oil, in paste, pounds 

Value 

Paints already mixed for use, gallons 

Value 

Varnishes and japans — 

Oil and turpentine varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Alcohol varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Pyroxyline varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Liquid driers, japans, and lacquers 

All other paints, colors, and varnishes 

Explosives, gun cotton, or pyroxyline, pounds 

Value 



United States. 


California. 


Connecticut. 


Illinois. 


Indiana. 


Kentucky. 


181 

59 
41 
81 

$17,550,892 
$1, .573, 916 
$2,3.58.905 
$1,448,609 

812,169,462 
119 

1,198 
$1,939,333 

1.54 
8463,819 

1,044 
81,475,514 

919 
81,410,643 

125 
864,871 

1,658 

1,546 
8995,803 

1,479 
8976, 174 

62 

818,878 

5 
8751 

81,616,642 
847, 4.58 
$84, 431 

81,425,031 

$59,722 

810,939,131 
82,947,060 

2 

886 

144, 482 

$3,667 

G5, 146 

8151,089 

274.221 

8255.354 

8260,317 

600 

$100 

4,308,943 

$2, 0,56. 469 

$l»9 

$3.713.6,81 

$105, 366 

S4. 741 

$13..5:J4 

81,261.9,52 

8165, 206 

818,687,240 

25,945 
810,0.82 
2,5,000 
$.500 
40,000 
85,000 

818,676,074 

81,000 
8211,000 
6,600,000 
8304,000 

2,9.50,370 
$19.5.637 
287, 8.50 
'5245, 849 

12,909,248 

$13, 096, 693 

603,442 

$833, .522 

143. .836 

$162,601 

$2,7,81.115 

$74.5.6.57 

42.752 

$45. 959 


8 
2 


8 

1 
2 

5 

8373,962 
822, 400 
825, 4.54 
$25,072 

8301,036 
6 

17 
821,550 

9 

88,560 

8 
813,000 

8 
813,000 


19 

4 

2 

13 

$2,344,728 
$297,178 
8348, 279 
$180,996 

$1,518,275 
10 

171 
$242, 157 

19 
866,104 

152 
$176,053 

132 
$166,616 

20 
$9,437 

210 

163 

187 

8124,688 

177 
8122,980 

9 
81,552 

1 
8156 

$138,423 

85,611 

810,498 

$120,584 

81,730 

$1,276,709 
8438,643 


3 


3 






1 

$148,500 
842,000 
821,000 
811,000 
874,600 
1 

6 

87,860 

2 

82,700 

4 
85,160 

4 
$5,160 


3 

8208,039 
$11,. 556 
$■57,0.56 
$23, 322 

8116,105 


3 

8187, 749 

$S..5(X) 

$25, 775 

$13,807 

8139,667 


25 
$32,480 

6 
88,372 

19 

824,108 

19 

824,108 


32 
826,564 

2 
82,150 

30 
824,404 

24 
822,650 

6 
81,754 

45 

45 

41 

819,940 

41 
819, MO 








14 

12 

14 

87, 316 

14 
87,316 


49 

26 

32 

819,250 

22 
816,260 

10 
$3,000 


18 

17 

18 

89,632 

18 
89,632 






















84,8.50 
8120 
8380 

84,360 


846,9.59 

87.50 

$1,646 

844,663 


89,9.54 


83,841 

8240 

$1,061 

$2,540 


81,407 
88,547 


888,900 
822,714 


8234, 474 
8107,499 


$143, ,51 4 

848,872 


$206,668 
$49,102 

































940 

82,1.50 

2,773 

83,766 


100 
$220 

690 
81,400 
$4,043 


2,890 

8.5, 491 

88,206 

873, 230 

87,302 


601 

$1,396 

.591 

8591 




























33. i54 

818,627 


40, 831 
821, 772 


481,471 
8'20.5,038 


87,3.56 
$37, .589 


47,485 
827,351 


832,420 

8715 


878,984 

81,790 

850 

8215 

815, .569 

82,932 

8399,769 


8399,736 
817,235 
$50 
8994 
8114,604 
814,386 

82,190,265 


$38, .516 
$975 


$114,211 
$994 


85 

84, ,503 
84,100 

8130,805 


825 
$11,23.5 
84,315 

8237,502 


$135 

813, 875 


8334,978 




















































8130,805 


$399,759 


82,190,265 

11,000 
81,000 


8237,602 


8315,978 


































8, .500 
8330 

9, ,500 
85,800 

263, 624 

8195,260 

1,210 

83, .569 

383 

8594 

821,949 

$10,000 














8,034 

817, 196 

1, ,576, 053 

81,594,904 

134,943 

$187,538 










123,670 

8120,392 

2,670 

85,300 


133,521 

8304,479 

175 

$404 

28,810 

836,012 

843,104 

815, 760 


454,5.50 

8314, 603 

100 

8145 








86,113 


$2.59,293 
$130,334 


81,230 

















i 



SUMMARY BY STATER, 1900. 



117 



Maryland. 


MuwchUKtt*. 


Michigan. 


Mtnouri. 


New leney. 


V«W York. 


Ohio. 


TennqrlvaDla. 


All other tuten.! 




3 

1 
1 


14 

6 
3 
6 

•358.384 
•18,900 
•86.088 

tM.8ao 

•248,596 
11 

42 
•44,174 

11 
•22,423 

31 
•21,751 

25 
119,601 

6 
(2,150 

57 

46 

51 

$31,505 

46 

$29,995 

5 
(1,600 


4 

2 
2 


7 
2 


14 

t 

8 
15 

(3.949.266 
(300.548 
(1173.931 
R^U.Ml 

(2.610,145 
11 

2.51 
(372.559 

31 
899.470 

220 
8273.089 

193 
$257,424 

27 
$13, (ifio 

235 

212 

221 

81.W.085 

217 
$157,173 

2 
$612 

2 
$300 

$197,2.58 

$7,645 

815, .564 

8174,049 


40 

19 
10 
U 

•A <80,083 

•680,618 

617,987 

426,433 

•4,066,194 

19 

298 
•641,208 

88 
(148,620 

'265 
•492.588 

244 
•480,508 

21 

(12.085 

.554 

527 

.537 

(343. .5.58 

515 
•836.003 

21 
(8.360 

1 
8195 

(537.238 
$13,202 
(26.204 

(497,332 

(.500 

(3,964,068 
(1,011,516 

2 
(86 


20 

4 

« 
10 

•1.19.5.885 

(90.081 

•163.352 

•84.519 

•857,933 

'21 

120 
(16.5.317 

20 
•68,060 

100 

•107,267 

•101,645 

11 

(5,622 

120 

111 

109 

(70,841 

108 
(76, Ml 

1 
(800 


Z7 

18 
» 

5 

(1.816.431 
(198,436 
(IKl, 138 
8170.350 

(1,2IH,508 
17 

120 
•172,216 

12 
(32,900 

108 
(138,716 

96 
(134.022 

12 
(5,694 

181 

ltJ4 

167 

(119.4'28 

165 
(119.088 

1 
•240 

1 
(100 

•201,497 
•4,054 
•5,474 

•134,477 

•57,492 

$1,391,371 
(-209,530 


• 


1 

7 


3 

3 

•189.570 

•8.800 

•21.398 

•10,700 

•149,172 

8 

23 
•28,400 

5 
•10,800 

18 
•17,600 

12 
•14,030 

6 
•8,580 

26 

'25 

24 

•13,205 

23 
•12,906 

1 
•300 


t 


1 


5 

(16.'>. 323 

(17. (KX) 

$8. (TO 

819.717 

•119. ina 

2 

19 
(27.194 

2 
(3,000 

17 
(24,191 

17 
$24, IW 


4 


848.604 


•984,870 
•28,500 

•167.887 
•.53.796 

•684.237 
10 

66 
•150,400 


5 

8 


(9.000 

(9,4.V1 

(30.148 

3 

9 
(7,264 

2 
•1,080 

7 
•6,184 

6 
•6,100 

1 
(84 

13 

11 

12 

(5,488 

11 
(5,2M 

1 
(234 


7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
13 

11 




14 


66 
(150,400 

50 
(141,600 

15 
(8.800 

108 

103 

106 

(49.416 

95 
(46,736 

11 
(2.680 


16 

1« 

17 
18 

19 




•10 


29 

23 

27 

(17,361 

27 
$17,361 


21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
28 

77 




78 




TV 














3ft 


$3,994 
$740 
8197 

83,057 


$26,439 
$5,976 
(1,828 

(18,635 


(262.401 

$180 

(10,296 

(251,925 


•10,368 

•2,990 

$687 

(6,691 


(165,960 
(6,110 
(8,494 

(162,356 


•6,926 


31 
32 
33 
34 


(34,734 
(3,204 


(274,441 
(101,632 


(814,857 
(176,920 


(12.1,021 
828,551 


$1,306,244 
$500,884 


(910,910 
(180,586 


•178,200 
•87,407 


3< 
37 

38 


















W 










144, 4S2 

$3,567 

10,124 
$23,669 

40.h67 

S41..H.W 

8.>59 








40 



















4) 




1,080 
(2,604 

1,200 
(1,100 
(2,929 


9.434 

(21.698 

200 

(200 


100 
•245 

6,899 
84,112 
(4,041 


34.168 

(80.080 

109,676 

•103,880 

•1,634 


1,070 

(2,434 

4,635 

(6,230 

(4,100 

,500 

(100 

375,066 

(186,960 


4,296 

(10,303 

14,702 

(13,8.50 

(217.075 


353 

•799 

3,782 

•5,145 

•14,334 






43 








45 


•1,400 


46 




47 


















48 


9,726 
•4,863 


99,091 
•47,958 


815,607 
(156,799 


4.5,925 
(20,240 


441, 7a5 

8214.7.55 

8609 

8399. !*M 

$11,768 

$.504 

81.622 

8101,307 

$5, -296 

$2,753,562 

2.5, 945 


1.567,096 
$721,707 


676.611 
8348.312 


88,820 
•44,598 


49 
60 
61 


(18,851 
i614 


(95,600 

(3,175 

(220 

(194 

(15,795 

(3,234 

(500,672 


(197.279 
(3,706 


$58,207 

$1,396 

$50 

$85 

(7,283 

(811 

(231,168 


$1,417,212 

$42,685 

(2,955 

. (4.563 

(534,149 

(3,721 

(6,334,467 


(428,366 

(8,940 

(292 

(1,530 

•81,423 

(9.»t9 

(1,538,623 


8375,533 
(9,874 


•68.912 

•1,500 

i620 

•100 

•12,885 

•1,900 

•248,273 


52 
53 


(102 

(1^950 

(750 

(64,521 


(3.080 
(155.176 
(100,000 

(1,561,150 


(884 

(192,198 
(13,812 

(2.161,496 


55 
6« 

57 

58 
59 










(10,082 

25,000 

•500 




























61 




























40,000 
$5,000 

86, 272, 219 

70.000 
(210,000 


























64 


$64,521 


(600,672 


(1,661,150 


(230,168 


•2,731,726 


•1,635,623 


•2,167,413 


•248,273 


65 

66 


















67 














6.600.000 
•304.000 

2,758,108 

•142,914 

168,926 

•124,013 

1,190.122 

•1.047.181 

'27.301 

(46,041 




68 






















40,000 
$2,000 




14,107 

(16,000 

14,740 

(9,600 

109,519 

$12ti.9y0 

2.106 

(3,277 

6.900 

(16.000 

•59,301 


127,655 
(86,293 


2.000 

noo 

46.900 
(46.016 

4.467,708 

(i, "248, 219 

219,705 

(400,428 

102,777 

(99,000 

(1,021.069 

(247.388 

35.000 

(35,000 










70 






8.'7.» 

•3.626 

1,016. .589 

(940. UK) 

41.799 

(46.597 




71 






•6,000 

ss».eao 

178,637 

$188,577 

5,700 

•10.000 


72 












27,060 
(19.990 


824,619 

(346,828 

3,000 

(9,060 


1,963,673 

(1,543,074 

475 

(1,511 


1,486,013 

$2,106,076 

64.258 

$119,652 

6.366 

$10,995 

$350,382 

•109.328 

7.752 

(10.969 


74 

75 




Tl 
















7y 


(16,571 
(28,000 


(122,910 
(19,874 


(16,193 
(1,372 


•463.870 
•81,371 


(401. aM 
(92. 230 


$96 

•10.000 


80 
81 





















83 



' Includes establUbmentu distributed asfollonri: Louisiana, 1: Maine. 1; Minnesota. 1: Oregon. 1; Rhode Island. 1: Virginia, 1. 



118 



Table 4.— VARNISHES: SUMMARY 



92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 

102 
103 
104 



105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 



Products— Continued. 

Aggregate value — Continued. 

Fine chemicals 

Value of all other products 

Products consumed 

Comparison of products; 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned — 
Engines- 
Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas or gasoline, number 

Horsepower 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Electric motors, number 

Horsepower 

Other power, number 

Horsepower 

Rented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 

Furnished to other establishments, horsepower 

Establishments classified by number of persons employed, not includ- 
ing proprietors and firm members: 

Total number of establishments 

No employees 

Under 5 

5 to 20 

21 to 50 

■51 to 100 

101 to 250 



United States. 



85,000 
$44,625 

S748,624 

162 
$17,441,726 
815,510,030 



4,192 



102 

3,699 

10 

1,56 

5 

lOS 

27 

93 

1 

25 

ai 
29 
120 



181 
5 
58 
85 
21 



California. 



8130,805 
8119, 660 



Connecticut. 



$21,000 

8 
8399, 7.» 
$435, 113 

3 

62 



18 
82,137,765 
81, 960, 058 

14 

482 



12 

422 

4 

»2 



19 



Indiana. 



8237,502 
$209,676 



Kentucky. 



$19,000 



2 

$285,700 
$220,000 

2 
140 



4 
140 



119 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



Marj-land. 


Miunchuiett«. 


Michigan. 


MlMuiirl. 


New Jeraejr. 


Now York. 


Ohio. 


PeniujrIvaDla. 


All nther •Utca.i 














$5,000 
$17,248 
$116,000 

86 
$6,644,006 
$4,796,784 

24 
1,136 

82 
1.0M 

S7 

4 

6 

17 

41 




- 




84 








$1,000 


t2«5 

$M6,000 

20 
ri, 638, 552 
$2,400,716 

11 
47t 

10 
4S8 


$3,000 


$4,«H 
$66,824 

22 

$1,836,481 
$1,768,808 

14 

796 

22 

2 
60 


1 


M 










88 


3 
tM,52l 
$T2, 686 

2 
52 

1 
40 

1 
12 


13 

$492,672 
>i23,439 

6 
430 

6 
S2S 


3 
$l,fi60,M0 
$t.2&2,SU 

1 
250 

1 
280 


7 
$231,168 
$215, 8tM 

3 

48 

2 
18 

1 
25 


19 
$1,684,373 
$1,486,418 

10 
230 

9 

206 


6 

$248,278 
$198,474 

1 
25 


87 
M 
88 

90 

n 

92 




98 




M 












96 


1- 
100 










96 
















«7 








2 

2 


2 

15 


1 
10 




98 












99 












100 




















101 




3 
2 






15 


10 
17 
20 

40 
1 

14 
15 
6 
2 
2 


10 




25 


107 






10 




im 




25 

4 

1 
1 
1 










104 


3 


14 


7 


24 
1 
6 

12 
3 
1 
1 


20 


27 
2 

13 
8 
3 


6 


106 
106 




5 
9 


3 
4 


7 

10 

2 

1 


1 
5 


107 


S 


lOK 

in« 












110 






1 




I 




III 















> Includes establisluneDts distributed as follows: Louisiana, 1: Maine, 1; Minnesota, 1: Oregon, 1; Rhode Island, 1: Virginia, 1. 



120 



Table 5.— EXPLOSIVES: SUMMAEY BY STATES, 1900. 



Number of estab!i.«hmeiits 

Character of organization: 

Individual , 

Firm and limited partnership 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total , 

Land 

Buildings , 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries , 

Proprietors and firm members , 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc: 

Total number 

Total salaries , 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, 
clerks, etc.— 

Total number , 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number , 

Salaries , 

including pieceworkers, and 



Wage-earners, 
total wages: 
Greatest number employed at any one time 

during: the year 

Least number employed at any one time 

during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years- 
Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue.. 
Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and 
all sundry expenses not hitherto in- 
cluded 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Wood, for alcohol, cords 

Cost 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, tons 

Cast 

Nitric, pounds 

Cost 

Mixed, pounds 

Cost 

Ammonia, aqua, pounds 

Cost 

Alcohol — 

Grain, gallons 

Cost 

Wood, gallons 

Cost 

Glycerine, pounds 

Cost 

Lead, tons 

Cost 

Nitrate of potash, tons 

Cost 

Nitrate of soda, tons 

Cost 

Potash .salts 

Sulphur, tons 

Cost 

All other components of products 

Fuel 

Rent of power and heat 

Mil] supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Total value 

Acids — 

Sulphuric, 60° Beaumii, tons 

Value 

N i trie, pounds 

Value 

Other kinds of acids 

Explosives— 

Gvnipowdcr, pounds 

Value 

Nitroglycerine pounds 

Value 

Guncotton, or pyroxyline, pounds. . 

Value 

DJ^lamjte, pounds 

Value 



United 
States. 



10 
11 
76 

S19, 465, 846 
$1,168,753 
$3,003,089 
$3,114,120 

S12, 179,884 
23 

768 
$914, 447 

161 
$349, 371 



607 
$.56.5, 076 

558 
$544,421 

49 
820,6.55 



5,352 

3,830 

4,502 

$2,383,756 

4,349 
$2, 346, 887 

117 
$30, 781 

36 
$6,088 

$1,096,601 

$«,3o0 

$64, 161 



$1,018,435 
$7, 6.58 

$10,334,974 

600 

$4,800 

7,864 

$130, 699 

467, 587 

$17, 171 

66,906,146 

$1,505.7.54 

649, 703 

$11,303 

122,516 

$47,406 

14,004 

$10, 531 

16,983,918 

$2,016,557 

7 

$910 

1,847 

$1.50, 544 

88,524 

$2,902,866 

$4.5,947 

12, 742 

$317, 38S 

$1,056,602 

$356,950 

$5,500 

$130,3*4 

$1,258,883 

8364, 784 

$17,125,418 

310 

87,478 

1,507,126 

$22,054 

82,111 

123,314,103 

85,310,351 

3.618,692 

8783,299 

228,342 

8103, 702 

85 846,456 

$8, 247, 223 



California. 



$3, 283, 928 
$206, 987 
$909,985 
$394,029 

$1,772,927 



82 
$130, 860 



13 

820,650 



69 
$110,210 

64 
$107, 450 

5 
$2,760 



1,047 

762 

906 

$602,765 

882 
8593, 128 

24 
89,637 



8255, 278 
81,600 
$10, 178 



8213,500 
82, 669, 634 



140 

82,296 

319, 987 

813, .359 

12,100,000 

8148, 718 



7,712 
817,350 



5,7ft5,997 
8681,840 



22,503 
8700, 396 



5,482 
8126, 3,55 
3403,278 
8110,645 
$.5,500 
$.53,611 
$288, 107 
$118, 179 

84,283,818 



500,000 
$80,000 



50,000 

$30,000 

27,055 910 

82,895,703 



Illinois. 



8493, 566 

832, 474 

$.52, 240 

$124, 443 

8284,409 



14 
814, 133 

5 
$10, 180 



9 
$3, 953 

7 
$3,560 



8393 



115 



48 

71 

$32,064 



71 
832,064 



$15, 007 

'"'$i,'68i' 

$13, 926 
8143, 937 



257 

819,826 

2, 182 

869, 776 



323 
$7,004 
$8, ,503 
$3, .576 



$2,304 
820, 161 
812, 787 

8289,735 



6,358,250 
8270,974 



Indiana. 



$876, 146 
$27, 2,50 

8181,825 
878, 114 

8588,957 



37 
$55,400 


814,400 



31 
841,000 

28 
839,720 

3 

$1,280 



291 

16(1 

245 

$118,979 

217 
8114,299 

28 
84,680 



$43, 546 

825 
83,081 



838,440 
82,000 



8610,209 



2,005 
$36, 895 



3,020,000 

886,449 

120, 703 

$3,438 



1,407,659 
8157, 945 



4, 735 
$164,567 



198 
86, 773 
847,541 
818,209 



81,747 
866,306 
820,339 

$976,247 



140, 706 
82,814 



4,925,000 

8214, 824 

675,000 

$118,750 



6,456,041 
8614,934 



Michigan 



8351,930 
$9,680 
847,200 
850,598 
8244,452 
1 

24 
$42,580 

4 

■ 89,200 



20 
833,380 

18 
$32,020 

S 
$1,360 



85 

113 

866,282 

108 
864, 749 

5 
81,533 



$19,833 

8200 

81,183 



814,250 

84,200 

8501,584 



406 

1,748 



6,694,964 

$189, 276 

110,000 

$2,000 



1, 152, 501 
8142, 873 



2,203 
876, 342 



51 

$1,002 

$18,138 

$6,731 



$1,824 
$27,995 
$25,655 

$691, 766 



4,000 
82,000 



6,643,975 
8652, 174 



New 
Jersey. 



10 



10 

84, 283, 307 
$136,125 
$.502, 664 
$.556, 104 

83,088,414 



255 
8206,822 



33 
$63,907 



222 
8142,915 

208 
$137,711 

14 

$5,204 



926 

1,146 

8,563, 621 

1,137 
8561,743 



81,732 



1 
8146 



8215, 621 
"'§8,' 326 



8207,296 



82,048,837 



4,954 
$65,736 



21,052,244 

$372, 403 

340,000 

83,400 

113,7.53 

828,930 

13,604 

810,166 

3,866,604 

8434, 101 



28 

82,780 

14,513 

$485, 704 

$20, 902 

308 

$7, 296 

$244, 041 

$82, 763 



$23,458 
8254,321 
812, 836 

83, 649, 216 

187 

85,428 

1,366,420 

819, 240 

$2,111 

5, 477, 900 

$240,027 

14,199 

$2,191 

178,842 

$73, 702 

25, 5.50, 543 

$2, 185, 365 



New York. 



1 
4 

$451,505 

$40,000 

$67, 475 

$101,815 

8242,215 

2 

19 
$18, 003 

10 
$9,180 



9 

$8,823 



64 

88 

$52,288 

85 



$11,543 

'"$!,' 968 

89,575 



8201,331 



548,861 
$15, 221 



72, 883 
$9, 110 



549 

848,807 

1,883 

$62, 821 



344 

8n,0&5 

$9,070 

$4,678 



82,956 
$36,351 
81,285 

$332,998 



Ohio. 



1 
1 

7 

81,972,4.51 
$315,000 
$365, 786 
8373.000 
$918,665 



.56 
892, 520 



17 
$51,300 



39 
$41,220 



32 
838,260 



7 
$2,960 



313 
352 

$178, 786 

350 

$178, 286 

2 
8500 



8103, 756 
81,110 
89,198 



892,748 
8700 



$773,269 



6, 208, 183 
8164,207 



816, 169 
8109,304 



383 

$31,282 

8,379 

$277, 529 



1,355 
$33, 243 
$13, 781 
$24,168 



$12,260 
$86,568 
$20, 927 

$1,330,489 



$263, 594 



200 21,627,675 



671,218 
$69,404 



$927, 098 
1,465,113 
$351,970 



Pennsyl- 
vania. 



9 
19 

$2,819,458 
8110,466 
8391,515 
8943, 102 

81,374,375 
17 

102 
8130,394 

28 
861,280 



74 
$69, 114 



66 
$65,139 



»,975 



727 

553 

629 

$320, 362 

.598 
$312,357 

27 
87,406 



8200, 371 
83,215 
$10, 889 



8186,267 
81,500,282 



342 

$15,728 
113,600 
82, 272 
9, 874, .537 
8238, .593 
48, 640 
F2, 443 

1,051 

81,126 

400 

8365 

1,913,237 

$258,357 

7 

8910 

44 

f3,354 

14,876 

8495, .576 

81,000 

2,031 

$57, 872 

$70, .582 

832,721 



16 

$4, 933, .5.55 
8290, 771 
$484, 399 
8492,915 

$3, 66.5, 470 



$20,633 

$228, 748 

869, 972 

82,898,180 

1-23 
82,050 



All other 
states.1 



179 

$223, 736 

45 
8109, 274 



134 
$114,461 

126 

8111,738 



$2,723 



1,165 

913 

9.55 

$448,609 

901 
$437, 973 

23 
85,294 



$5, 342 

$231,649 

$200 

$18, 257 



$212,434 
$758 

$1, 885, 921 

600 

$4,800 

17 

$296 

34,000 

$1,540 

7, 407, 3.57 

$290. 887 

360 

822 



1,988,868 
8223,027 



586 

844. 495 

17.250 

8570, 1.55 

824, 045 

2, 6,50 

866 803 

$2411668 

$73,462 



811,. 591 
$2.50,326 
882, 804 

$3, 075, 969 



34,961,649 43, .524, 429 
$1,. 507, 807 $1, sot;, 627 



1,163,918 
$256,289 



8, .507, 676 



306, 462 
$52,099 



10.961,096 



> Includes establishments distributed as follows: Alabama, 2; Connecticut, 1; Delaware, 1; 
»ee, ^i Vermont, 1; Virginia, 1; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 1. 



$790,372 1$1,039,271 
Iowa, 1; Kansas, 1; Maine, 1: Massachusetts, 2; Missouri, 1; Xennes- 



121 



Tablb 5.— EXPLOSIVES: 8UMMAKY BY STATES, 1900-Conrtnaed. 



Product!"— Oimtlnncrt. 

ToUil viilvK' — ronttniUMl. 
ExpWw^ivt'*— *'*intlinie<1. 

!?UHiki*leKH {K>w(kT, pounds 

Valuv 

All othtT explosives 

Vnlueof all utbcr product* 

Produels cousumed: 
Aflds— 

Siilphurlr, toiu 

Nitric. p<nnul!i 

Mixed, (Ktunds 

rharcon 1, Imsliels 

Ether. iHiuiids 

Niiriile o( iiinmonlH. pounds 

Nitn t^l vccrinc. pttunda 

Pvnix vllno, ih>iiik1s 

A^l other priKlmtx conaumed, pounds 

Comparisou of protUictj*: 

Number of establishmcnta reporting tor 

tMitli years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year , 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned— 
Engines— 

Steam, number 

Horse|>ower 

Ga-s or gasoline, number 

HorseiK>wcr 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Electric motors. numl)er , 

HorscfKiwer , 

Other power, number , 

Horsepower 

Rented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Ftimlshed to other establishments, horsc- 

runver 

Establishments classified by number of persons 
employed, not including proprietors and firm 
members: 

Total uuml)er of establishments 

Under 5 

5 to 20 

21 to 60 

51 to 100 

101 to'iTO 

251 to 500 

501 to 1,000 



UniMd 
SUM*. 



2,9T3,12« 

tl.«55,«4S 

$850. '153 

«142,799 



32,8«6 

14,.%58.135 I 

12,000.000 

4)<,2«5 

1,192,7(M 

l.'W,307 

31,661,S06 

1,S01,461 

6,230,313 ; 



80 
«16,'218,510 
tl3,607,449 



22,080 



315 

13,242 

7 

72 

190 

5,674 

177 

2,885 

4 

97 

110 

180 



CaUfomla. 



1,301,000 

|Hifi,r>oo 

8452, 2.-i0 
!9,265 



25,200 
8,600,000 
12,0(10,000 



700,679 
i6,'895,'tid3' 
'i,'7i5,'372' 



S4. 236, 568 
S3, 573, 032 



7 
,279 



20 

695 

2 

9 

7 

200 

18 

220 

2 

45 



IlUnolii. 



tl8,761 



2 
1272,678 
«241,768 



.■HK) 



4 

560 



Indlaita. 



Michlcao. 



«8,«88 
122, 93« 



t2,48» 



3.605 
«6,740 



81,115 

2,254,788 

4,310 



5 
I9;2,498 
(774,203 



760 



11 
660 



22 
100 



t37,M2 



586,106 



77,192 
2,647,820 



4 

(603,426 
(490,370 

5 
271 



11 
121 



150 



New 
Jeraejr. 



1,477,633 

1765,991 

(17.5,000 

(80,161 



3,561 
8,885,290 



393,125 



8,877,764 

1,297,151 

275,617 



(3,471,183 
(2,553,6»3 



:,458 



56 
2,582 



55 

826 

1 

50 



10 



New York. 



182,000 



5 
(3S2.998 
(308,986 



13 

390 

2 

32 

33 

817 

6 

90 



Ohio. 



<l,t85 
•49,021 
(2,400 



109,360 



Pmiwyl- All other 
■talc*.' 



(16,900 
•21.762 



2,7tt,7M 



4,000 

(1.400 

(147.560 

(2B.122 



«I.2M 



4,M1.672 
4,'2»,'324 



28 13 

(1.276.489 (2,073,731 (2,979.009 
(1.144.097 (1,813.112 92,713.189 



3,979 



34 
2,136 



11 

602 

52 

1,241 



180 



34 

3,673 



101 

2.803 

1 

15 
46 
853 



lA 
6,771 



«6 

3,296 
2 
16 

87 

3.062 

24 



■ Includes establishments distributol as follows: Alabama, 2: Connecticut, 1; Delaware, 1; Iowa, 1; Kansas. 1; Maine, 1; Massachusetts. 2; Missouri, 1: Tenncs- 
«ee, 2; Vermont, 1; Virginia. 1; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin. 1. 



122 



Table 6,— OIL, ESSENTIAL: SUMMARY BY STATES, 1900. 



Number of establishments 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm and limited partnership . 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 



Total. 



Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerks, etc.— 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year. 

Least number employed at any one time during t lie year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years- 
Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 
Total. 



Rent of works 

Ta.\es, not including internal rsvenue 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expenses not hith- 
erto included 

Contract work 

Materials used: 

Total cost 

Gums 

, Wood, for extracts- 
Tons 

Cost 

Alcohol, grain- 
Gallons 

Cost 

All other components of products 

Fuel 

Rent of power and heat 

Mill supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Aggregate value 

Es.sential oils — 

Total value 

Natural, pounds 

Value 

Witch-hazel, gallons 

Value 

Artificial, value 

Value of all other products 

Comparison of products: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned— 

Engines — 

Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas or ga.sollne, number 

Horsepower 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Rented — 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 



United 
States. 



70 

47 
17 
6 

8612,6.57 
S180, 831 
S130, 401 
$78, 219 
S2-23, 706 
73 

42 

825, 523 

7 
S3, 680 

35 
821,843 

31 

821,343 

4 
8500 

.503 

283 

199 

869,100 

191 
867, 186 

7 
31,839 

1 

875 

849, 762 
82, 720 
83,240 

843, 398 
S404 

8596,112 
8440 

1,441 

86,726 

13,258 

831,630 

8513, 188 

316,241 

8543 

32, 481 

821,604 

34, 259 

3850,093 

8843, 731 
881,829 

8737, 032 
110, 260 
354,649 
852,060 
86, 362 

66 
8805, 605 
8763, 770 

52 
1,048 



Connecti- 
cut. 



2 
1 
2 

365,500 
811,700 
$;!2, 100 
811,200 
810,500 
4 

2 
32,000 



2 
82,000 



2 
32,000 



82,957 



7 
82,503 



1 
$4M 



82,260 

810 

8235 

31,615 
8400 

829,208 



10,000 
323, 8.50 



3i50 



878 

81,925 

8102 

345,530 

845,530 

300 

S4.S0 

91,000 

845.050 



3 
335,480 
825,000 

5 

137 



Indiana. 



818, 425 

314, 235 

81,020 

31,950 

31,220 

7 



76 

13 

82,903 



8152 
8214 



32,876 



82,307 
8305 



39 
3255 



814, 180 

814. 180 

17,683 

314,180 



814, 180 
816, 898 

2 

8 



Michigan. 



8227, 496 
Sas. 246 
357,390 
825,010 
856,850 
28 

13 
89,290 



13 
39,290 



13 
89,290 



263 

87 

97 

828,667 

93 
828,032 



3560 

1 

375 

87,868 

810 

81,376 

85, 982 
8124,803 



3116,723 
31,996 



31,065 

34,519 

3500 

8208, 568 

8202, 258 
218, 453 
3202, 268 



86,310 

21 
8206,768 
8204,490 

17 
252 



22 
252 



New York. 



3256,886 
852,220 
835, 910 
329,076 

8139,680 
2 

24 
813, 318 

7 
83,680 



13 
39,138 

4 

8500 

63 

52 

42 

324,295 



323,470 

3 

8825 



338,411 
82,427 
81,326 

834,658 



8412, 832 

8440 



8,248 

37,766 

3373, 894 

811,929 

3543 

31, 125 

813,515 

33,630 

8531,000 

3531,000 

517, 462 

8469, 331 

19,260 

89,699 

852, 050 



Virginia. 



11 
3513, 030 

3482, 830 

11 
432 



18 

417 
1 
2 



313,884 
3145 
83, 120 
84,719 
38,900 
22 

2 

3619 



2 
3519 

2 
$519 



60 

48 

29 

36,819 

29 
86,819 



8183 
851 



3457 



321,807 



819, 194 
81,246 



8170 

81,182 

813 

337,772 

837, 772 
117, 721 
837,772 



7 
324,643 
323,060 

13 
193 



14 
193 



All other 
states.' 



830, 467 

813, 785 

3861 

36,265 

89,856 

10 

1 
3396 



1 
8396 



1 
$396 



22 

10 

10 

83,459 

10 
83,459 



8666 

$90 

$100 



8472 
84 



84,586 



749 
82,723 

10 

321 

81, 070 

8515 



$208 
312 

813,043 

312,991 

10,210 

$12,991 



852 

7 
811,504 

811,492 

4 
26 



S 

23 

1 

3 



1 Includes establishments distributed as follows: California, 2: Florida, 1: Massachusetts, 1: North Carolina, 1; Pennsylvania, 2; Wisconsin, 2. 



B 



123 



Taulk O.— }<»8KNTIAL: SUMMARY BY STATES, IMO-Continued. 





Cnlted 
States. 


Oonneeti- 
cut 


IndUn*. 


HichlRiin. 


X.w York. 


Virginia. 


All other 
•Ut«a.> 


EiiUihlliihinenbi rlniHinect by number of pengns employed, nut InrliiilInK 
proprietor" nnti firm momner": 
Total luinilK'r of t't^tabllitinientM.... 


70 

ft 

38 

24 

? 


6 


7. 


22 

1 

18 

6 
1 

1 


14 

I 
9 
3 
1 


U 


• 


No einploveos 




4 
1 


2 
5 


7 
« 




8 to 20 


3 


21 to SO 




101 IO280 












1 









> Includes establlshmenta distributed on {oUowa: OaUtomla, 2: Florida, 1; Hanachnsetts, 1; North Carolina, 1; Pennsylvania, 2; Wisconsin. 2. 



124 



Table T.— CHEMICALS: 



17 

18 



19 
20 



23 
24 



25 
26 



27 
28 



31 
32 
33 
34 

35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 

44 
45 
46 
47 



Number of establishments 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm and limited partnership 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings ' 

"Machinery, tools, and implements 

Cash and sundries. ^ 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries , 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerlis, etc. — 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Numi>er 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieceworkers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year 

Least number employed at any one time during the year 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over — 

Average number 

Wages 

Women, 16 years and over — 

.■V verage num ber 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years — 

A verage number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of works 

Taxes, not including internal revenue 

Rent of ofBces, insurance, interest, and all sundry expen.ses, not 
hitherto included. 

Contract work 

-Materials used: 

Total cost 

Gums 

Limestone, tons 

Cost 

Phosphate rock, tons 

Cost 

Pyrites, tons 

Cost 

Wood— 

For alcohol, cords 

Cost 

For extracts, tons 

Cost 

Acids- 
Sulphuric, tons 

Cost 

Nitric, pounds. 

Cost 

Mixed, pounds 

Cost 

Acid phosphate, tons. 

Cost 
Argols 
Ammonia- 
Aqua, pounds 

Cost 
Sulphate, pounds. 
Cost 
Alcohol- 
Grain, gallons 

Cost 
Wood, gallons 
Cost 
Bones, tankage, and offal 
Common salt, tons. 

Cost 
Dry colors 

Glycerine, pounds 

Cost 

Lead, tons 

Cost 

■Lime', bushels 

Cost 

Lin.seed oil, gallons 

Cost 

Nitrate of potash, tons 

Cost 

Nitrate of soda, tons 

Cost 

Potash salts 

Sulphur, tons 

Cost 

Tallow and fat'! 

Wood ashes, bushels 

Cost 

All other components of products 




United States. 



118 

97 

249 

889,091,430 
89, 924, 613 
814,447,998 
825, 173, 778 
S39,M5,W1 
242 

2,123 
82, 923, 033 

326 
8741,570 

1,797 
82,181,463 

1,660 
82, 115, 477 

137 
865,986 

22,081 

16.603 

19,054 

89,401,467 

18,132 
89,141,804 

856 
8248,011 

66 
811,652 

84,363,868 
8153,715 
8306,696 

83,870.595 

832,862 

834,564,137 

8514,627 

765, 064 

8660, 220 

9, 845 

866,088 

324,461 

81,512,490 

494,447 

81,250,942 

3,000 

818,000 

37, 832 

8429. 903 

2, 439, 297 

8127,811 

6.M),500 

821,047 

.59 

84,5.52 

82,204,800 

415, 609, 303 

81,0.51,703 

8, 745, 568 

8471,117 

120,474 

8263, 472 

3,371,090 

81,457,854 

8543, 898 

38,996 

8130, 108 

89,868 

17,651,212 

81,402,762 

5,217 

820, 359 

7,378,408 

8434,367 

13,000 

97,600 

3,3.53 

8117,499 

S7, 892 

81,250,520 

•728,187 

55,296 

81,080.716 

8337,317 

801,047 

839,507 

810,423,149 



California. Connecticut. 



21 

4 
4 
13 

81,844,928 
8248, 7.52 
8289,511 
8651,992 
8654, 673 
11 

62 
870, 493 

19 
821,300 

43 
849, 193 

36 
844, .543 

7 
84,6.50 

628 

263 

390 

8230. 395 

387 
8228,973 

3 

81,422 



889,823 
81,280 
88,089 

880,454 



$1,406,425 



1,600 

88,000 

300 

83,900 

6,331 

834,658 



3,000 

818,000 

746 
822,122 



398,500 

83,186 

50 

82,000 

8245,000 

89,158.596 

812, 542 

200,000 

84,250 



856.000 

454 

81,639 



3,509 
8700 



3,410 

8104, 758 

88, ,500 

4, 454 
8102,926 



$406, 743 



3 

8311,399 
$.8,8.50 
$21,000 
8146, 849 
8134, 700 



12 
89,068 

4 
82,800 



86,268 



86,060 

1 

8208 

55 

40 

45 

831,716 

45 
$31,716 



88,877 

$4,000 

8608 

84,269 



8105,106 



2,597 
813,585 



$11 



Illinois. 



5 
i 
18 

$2,384,062 
8449, 938 
$299,569 
$887,849 
$746, 706 
13 



$119,028 

16 
830,125 

80 
888,903 

69 

$84,458 

11 
84,445 

692 
S05 
579 

8309,286 

.513 
8293,006 

48 
813, 187 

18 
83,093 

890,293 

811,100 

87, 113 

$72,080 



81, 175, .571 

816 

9,2.50 

81,330 

200 

8.'J00 

4,337 

825,965 



6,797 

866. .525 
2.5,000 
81,000 



Indiana. 



3 
4 

$1,076,390 

890, 269 

$206, 398 

8478, 601 

8301,122 

7 

41 

853,077 

5 
813,000 

36 
840,077 

35 
839, 877 

1 
8200 



299 

297 

8154, 173 

294 
$153, 408 



1 

8105 

$74,406 

$:» 

• $5,183 
869, 193 



$187,066 



18,867 
8108, 789 

1.5,000 
$40,000 



130,268 
84,056 



400 



17 

$76 



1,070 
835,692 



1,655 
832,104 



$3,666 



862,998 

5,058 

819, 120 



617, 195 
$57, 642 



2,002 
8397 



490 

817, 668 

81,200 

2, 265 

$46, 397 



8577,112 



245 
$3, .520 



7,000 
$350 



3,048 
810, 494 



18,432 
83,090 



4,222 
8148, 631 



2.5,200 
$1,280 
890. 239 



Maine. 



8550, 426 

$2, 335 

847,396 

$467, 4.59 

833,236 

3 

7 
$2,733 

1 
$1,000 

6 
$1,733 

6 
81,733 



22 

20 

12 

$4,928 

12 
84,928 



82,991 
$500 
$263 

$2,228 



$16, 758 



1,000 
$5,000 



81,200 
82,289 



21,960 

82. 044 

830 



Sl'MMARY BY STATES, 1900. 



125 



Maryland. 



1 
1 
6 

■ Jl,»0ii,2W 
S.V>1.001) 

t.'W6,46.% 

3 

83 
tfil.424 

8 
t22,6S0 

25 
«»,774 

22 
127, 2M 

8 
tl,490 

406 

475 

ta4«.4M 

472 
•24S.M8 

8 
1806 



MasMchii- 
•etta. 



tl03,a88 
>4.087 

K.284 
»91,067 



1781,909 



17 

3 
4 
11 

»1,877.S71 

SKA.UrtD 

8348.314 

$3(i7.912 

tl. 100. 176 

8 

92 
8188,091 

16 
«42,240 

T7 
I90,8.M 



186,244 

11 
$4,607 

747 

629 

62: 

8388.716 

680 
1828,631 



89,476 

8 
t60» 

«268,236 

»5,780 

*16,791 

r240,665 

86,000 

•1,080,826 
(98,881 



3,195 I. 

((19,775 :. 

14. 107 I 

868,731 : 



25,«M0 
tlOl.OU 

280 
81,680 



Mlcbi|[*n. 



80 
7 
14 

<7,.vn.&.'ss 

J1,(M7,,')60 
81,631.261 
83.2.'>8.406 
81,666,624 
46 

143 
8216, 999 

80 
864,690 

113 
8151,309 

106 
8147,286 



>4,023 

8,409 

2,341 

2.897 

81,162,634 

2. S51 
81,158,673 

46 
86.961 



Mtaouri. 



31.% 690 

8271.161 

3. 4lW 

SH<.K)7 

831.791 

82, 691 
8124.830 



8603,732 

83,085 

82.S,674 

8471.183 

S(,790 



82,707,464 81,335,798 



81,969,875 
8181,224 
82»*,389 
8427, ."iafi 

81.066,676 
1 

78 
8111,606 

10 
r27,237 



8»i.369 

62 
881.032 

6 
83,337 

366 

3.S6 

340 

8162,351 

277 
8150, .W7 

37 
87. 152 

26 
84,642 

8135,806 

87,200 

816,775 

8111,831 



Nevada. 



848.075 
J.5.000 
82.0."iO 
87.025 

834,000 
7 

1 
8600 



1 
8600 



1 
8600 



48 

38 

20 

87,170 

18 
86,680 

2 
8490 



82,086 



8126 
81,960 



86,050 



New Jersey. 



14 
10 
87 

817,284.675 
82,114,179 
fti.797,240 
83.728,737 
88,644,619 
38 

402 
8577,837 



8132.060 

363 
8445.277 

348 
8438.3.58 

15 
86,919 

S.4I9 

2,611 

3,048 

81,576,132 

2,765 
81,473,582 

289 
8100,918 

4 
8632 

8638.013 
817.337 
8.'a,403 

8-549,796 

818,477 

86, 994, ,508 
8163,902 



1,337 

812,016 

71.718 

8315.729 

3,208 
812,364 



New York, 



93 



18 
49 

822.106.887 
8l.15y.illl 
83,3J1,799 
8.5,484.870 

812,069,667 
23 

.503 
8718. 831 

69 
8192,684 

434 

t526,247 

404 
S-MI.149 

30 
81.5.098 

.5,332 

3.8.5)1 

4. .531 

82.302,999 

4,4-29 
82,269.816 

102 
833,184 



81,142,851 
864.620 
881.947 
8993.784 

82, .500 

88, 669. .561 

81<st5,388 

316.016 

8289, 722 

1.270 

812. 700 

48. 43a 

8196. 847 

108,885 
8271,681 



Ohio, 



13 
a 

u 

83.670,401 
8397,680 
8618,046 
8V76.144 

81,778,682 
21 

164 
8199.166 

22 
832,710 

142 
8166, 4.56 

126 
81.58.424 

16 
88,032 

745 
551 

609 
8340,332 

.583 



24 
(7,000 



81.57. 810 

87, .587 
816, 744 
$132,877 

8602 

82,083,721 

81,200 

100 

81,000 



37,421 
8181,025 



Paniwyl- 
vanU. 



100 

11 
38 
68 

823,766,6.56 
•2. 030, .146 
13.939,376 
86,709.182 

810,077,762 
64 

416 

(572.846 



8138.098 



349 
8434,748 



8423,111 

26 
811,637 

4,651 
4,101 

4,278 
(2,198,243 

4,055 
82,186,905 

211 
869,036 

12 
(2,302 

(981,869 
816, 881 
860,838 

8861,657 

82,493 

(6,805,769 

869,240 

61,829 

(49,669 

78 

(390 

76,961 

(378, 4T7 

280,872 
(791,417 



Rhode 
Itlaod. 



3 
1 
1 

(840,724 
(18.000 
(43,800 
(31,800 

(348,924 
3 

11 

(12,908 

1 
(2,600 

10 
810,403 



(9,968 

1 
(420 

161 

76 

100 

843,201 

&) 
(40,804 

16 
(2,400 



(36,996 
(i,126 

(2. 866 
(29,004 



Wlaconiln. 



1 

(288, 4M 



(164,9(6 

(138,4(0 

3 

8» 

H8,060 

8 

82,876 

27 
(40,174 

27 
(40,174 



70 
66 

64 
(28,258 

49 
(24.569 

16 
(1,689 



(67,649 

(6,700 

8834 

861,016 



Allocber 
iuu«.> 



U 



IS 

(8,272,081 

•i,6e«.«ao 

(484.966 

M»,407 

IMS. 768 

3 

30 
•81,781 

16 
•16,700 

16 
•16,081 

18 
•16,161 

3 
•920 



8117,828 
(.500 



4,183 
(26,470 



(131, 421 



727 
•263,846 

20 
•8,630 



•120,143 

•463 

•12.168 

•107.532 



•668,867 



70,879 
•86,348 



7,402 
(22,412 

8,506 
(8,970 



3 
S 

4 

B 
< 
7 
8 

9 
10 

11 
13 

IS 
U 

16 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 



909 I 21 

647 22 

747 23 

(287,476 ' 34 



26 
26 

27 
38 

39 
30 

SI 

82 
83 
S4 

85 

86 
87 
38 

9t 
40 
41 
42 
43 

44 

46 
46 
47 

48 
49 
GO 
61 

set 

83 
64 
65 

66 

57 
58 
69 
60 

61 



64 
66 

66 
67 
68 
89 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 



3,868 \ 
(18,640 



2,166 
832, 473 
659,287 
826,889 



3,463 
838, 173 



622 ' 
(6,779 i 



10. 162 

8118,806 

1,692,610 

(97,496 



3,017 

85.5,446 

15.400 

tt\n6 



200.000 
86,000 



436 
•26 



29,291,188 
8488, 162 



(1.700 

50 

(260 



190,000 
(22,000 



1,011 

(36,848 

(131,800 

937 

(21,300 



(290,704 



I 



15 ' 

837 
M,271 i 
843,470 



1,568 
82,310 
86,631 



J414,9'24 

1,462 

(6,014 



27 
(2,409 
18,000 
(7,200 



2,067 

(70,799 

•4,868 

3,809 
(61,291 



(344,721 



131, '2.56 

(22, 4.V2 



(67.906 



684,617 

829,440 

8119,986 



41,W9.931 
8116.538 
1,13:1,931 ' 
(136, .561 ' 

36,837 

881,841 

7,250 

85.700 

3125 

609 

(2,124 



50,474 

(8,095 



68 

82,198 

8-5.400 

1,008 

(22.021 



(849,244 



(1,044,800 

98,949,132 

(82,740 

4,299. 4-24 

(118.332 

36,747 

(74,657 

252,622 

(147,689 



6,989 

(26,980 

(4,237 



4 

8452 

591,5,000 

180.000 

89.000 

5.57.7.53 

(143. 189 

14.2.50 

$»(.628 

3,001.916 

(1,226.4W 

87.809 

11,475 

(30,643 



241 
(3,369 
12,000 

(20 



7,005 

(67,160 

36,000 

(1,760 

62,000 

(10,861 

6 

(2,100 



100,000 
(7,000 



96,664 
(16,467 



10,000,000 

(830,000 

6,181 

(16,845 

5, 800. 194 

(264,246 



14,666 
(468,808 
(234,302 

16,482 
•273,429 



79 

(6,446 

4,561 

(148,360 

•66,032 

12,302 

•264,271 

(4,000 



(1,726 1 (2.808.376 1 (1.679.708 



43,017,000 

(26,810 

19,619 

(679 

5,675 

81-'. »*0 

3,500 

84,000 



5,226 
(13, 130 



106,392,160 
(197,894 
1.062,458 

(29,468 

24, 1,50 

8.5.3,091 

51,, 531 

830, ,591 

8312 , 

4,020 

817,968 



14,128 
(478 

2,400 
85,600 



(614,970 



27.429 
84.;«» 



5.870 

(197. 4.57 

(25, 149 

2.4«0 

8IS.61W 
S-.T3, 31 1 

169,270 

(6, 743 

(647,697 



l.OOO 

(160 

9 

(1.106 

1,017,281 

$92,499 

13.000 

(7,500 

3,274 

(112,063 



818-5. 763 
10.381 

$19N.a64 
8<K).000 



6.085 
(1.826 



113 
(3.903 



9*7 
(18,188 



(2,686,378 (39,251 I (113.626 



8,663,870 

(148,641 

1.127,729 

(28,198 



130 
(360 



12,079 
(2.092 



334 

(14,308 



111 
•2.125 



•61.061 



< Includes c<tabll>hmenL<< dixtributed aa follow*: Arizona, 1: Colorado, 2: Delaware. 1: Distrii'l o( Columbia, 1: Kentucky, 1: Nehraska. 1: New Hampiihiiv, 1; 
North Carolina, 2: Tennessee, 1: Vermont. 2: Virginia, 1; Went Virginia. I. 



126 



Table 7.— CHEMICALS: SUMMARY 



88 
89 
90 
91 
92 

93 

94 

9S 
% 
97 

99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
10« 
107 
108 
109 

110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 

126 
127 

128 
129 
ISO 
131 
132 



133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 



142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 

148 
149 
150 
151 

152 
153 
154 
155 



156 
157 
158 
159 



161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 

167 
168 
169 
170 

171 
172 



Materials used — Continued. 
Total cost— Continued. 

Fuel 

Kent of f>owerand heat 

Mill .supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Aggregate value 

Acids — 

Total value 

Sulphuric, 50° Baumfi, tons 

Value 

Sulphuric, 60° Baum6, tons 

Value 

Sulphuric, 66°Baum6, tons 

Value 

Nitric, pounds 

Value 

Mixed, pounds 

Value 

Tartaric, pounds 

Value 

Acetic, pounds 

Value 

Other acids 

Sodas- 
Total value 

Sal soda, tons 

Value 

Soda ash, tons 

Value 

Bicarbonate of soda, tons 

Value 

Caustic soda, tons 

Value 

Borax, tons 

Value 

Other soda products 

Pota.shes, pounds 

Value 

Alums, pounds 

Value 

Coal-tar products- 
Coal-tar distillery products 

Chemicals made from coal-tar distillery products . 
Cyanides— 

Potas.sium cyanide, pounds 

Value 

Yellow prussiate of potash, pounds 

Value 

Other cyanides 

Wood distillation — 
Wood alcohol — 

Crude, gallons 

Value 

Refined, gallons 

Value 

Acetate of lime, tons 

Vahie 

Charcoal, bushels 

Value 

All other wood distillates 

Fertilizers — 

Superphosphates — 

From minerals, bones, etc. , tons 

Value 

Complete, tons 

value 

All other fertilizers, tons 

Value 

Bleaching materials — 

Hypochlorites, tons 

Val ue 

Other bleaching agents 

Electro-chemiciil products ; 

DyestufTs— 

Natural, pounds 

Va lue : 

Artificial, pounds 

Value 

Tanning materials — 
Natural- 
Extracts, pounds 

Value 

Artificial, pounds 

Value 

Paints, colors, and varnishes- 
Total value 

Pigments- 
Fine colors, pounds 

Value 

Iron oxides and other earth colors, pounds . 

Value 

Dry colors, pounds .• 

Value 

Paints- 
Paints in oil, in paste, pounds 

Value 

Paints, already mixed for use, gallons 

Value 

Varnishes and japans — 

Oil and turpentine varnishes, gallons 

Value 



United States. 



»3,539,0y^ 

8222,356 

$212, 434 

S2,991,l.=>ti 

81,021,710 

862, 676, 730 

$11,853,498 

97,8.58 

$427,393 

16, 829 

$242,879 

409,547 

$5,508,625 

28,704,709 

$1,404,743 

36,468,819 

$1,111,158 

997,004 

$294,603 

14,641,673 

$345, 951 

$2,518,146 

$11,596,915 

63,231 

$779, 166 

386,361 

$4, 768, 383 

68,185 

$1,324,843 

78, 779 

$2,917,955 

5,637 

$502,480 

$1,304,088 

3,764,806 

$174, 476 

152,520,2,59 

$2, 013, 607 

$809,830 
$512,264 

2,291,335 
$591,280 

6, 140, 406 

$993, 514 

$129 



4,191,379 

$1,660,061 

3, 038, 140 

$2, 296, 898 

43,41;^ 

$981, 286 

17,154,302 

$726, 672 

$9,534 



1,810 

$20, 417 

17,242 

$339,600 

7, 243 

$95, 132 

2, 143 

$115,608 

$376, 478 

$1,305,368 

513, 302 

$36,547 

3,896,4.58 

$54,948 



1,062, .500 
$82, 500 
616,9.50 
$12, 639 

$541,892 

674, 6,50 
$80, 9.58 
318, :«io 
$6,660 
3,661,403 
$57,881 

67, 467 
81,668 
20,756 
$6,559 



3,907 
83,907 



California. Connecticut. 



$147,200 



$70, 256 
$147,712 

$2,061,470 



$654, 
3, 

$44, 
2, 

$33, 

$103! 
3,380, 
$158, 



90, 
827, 



$288,472 

$660,025 

3,870 

$58,370 

1,320 

$17,160 

225 

$9,000 

3 

$125 

5,502 

8490,330 

$91,040 



$11,415 
$19,217 



2,000 
$60,000 



1,0.50,000 
$30,000 



$15, 7.50 



2,100,000 
815, 750 



$9,164 



$.507 
$10,250 



$290,320 
$279,804 



Illinois. 



$81,056 

$300 

$8,860 

$149, 693 

$52,798 

$2, 086, 625 

$407,263 



9, 126 

$162, 815 

1,592,280 

$79, 871 

1,466,014 

836, 600 



12,450 

$224,130 

,508, 758 

835,600 



$518 
$7,038 



87,038 



Indiana. 



$42,419 



$1,398 

$36,176 
8680 

$1,037,832 

$572,148 



19,419 

8231,487 

3-50, 748 

816, 530 

6,434,418 

$240, 510 



867,920 
$11,120 

8136.413 I 

$303,771 ; 

.5,061 
$67,489 



884,621 

8299.463 

3,487 

$34, 874 



2,458 
$221,325 



$14,957 
820,000 
853, .349 
10,130,000 
895,600 



$264,589 
135,200 
86,350 



1,900 
$33,145 



297 

$38, 649 



12, .500 
82,500 



100,000 
8(i5, 000 
1,000 
830,000 
7.50,000 
830,000 



$490 



Maine. 



$1,635 

$1,055 

$127 

$810 

$2,665 

831,638 

$17,542 

402 

$3,214 

1,034 

814, 328 



88,290 
82,935 



89,631 



fl 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



127 



Maryland. 


Haaaohu- 

NttS. 


Ulchlgan. 


MlHOOTt. 


Nerada. 


New Jttwej. 


Naw York. 


Ohio. 


Pannnjrl- 
vania. 


Rhode 
(■land. 


Wfanonilii. 


A]lo<ber 
lUtek' 




$90,013 

$60 

$33,609 

»«0,589 


$94,058 

$1,118 

89,781 

$188,998 

$35,696 

$2,010,830 

$900,968 

37.895 

$36,110 


$838,706 


$30,990 

$1,881 

81.758 

$64,543 


$476 


8375,770 
81,620 

837. 183 
$544,202 

$49,704 

$12,207,289 

$8,358,192 

8,936 

$56,lil6 


$959,487 
$212,997 

$47,847 
$858,468 

$6»,8M 

$I5,»»4,866 

$1,712,961 

81ft 

$11,000 

60 

$1,000 

.59.206 

$87^,911 

4,100.541 

8222.740 

6. 392. .516 

$159,800 

720,000 

$208,000 

4,127.162 

$«.470 

8141. (HO 

$4,921,144 

28,096 

83.57,308 

167.552 

82,066,422 

43,812 

888,5.003 

40.499 

$1,518,464 


•96,643 


$668,672 

$1,250 

$28,397 

$668,400 

$600,141 

$18,084,384 

$2,038,652 

16, 101 

$99,773 

13,356 

$193,799 

97,590 

$1,190, .530 

1.222,445 

$56,887 


$8,866 

$26 

$699 

$8,626 
$3,109 

$292,794 

$153,994 

28 

$2,500 

20 

$292 

7,092 

$148,962 

20,000 

$1,500 


$1,817 


$117, «22 
$2,000 
$6,422 

$123,487 
K2Z8 

$1,838,562 
•117,490 


m 

8$ 


$18,287 
$1,57,768 
$68,068 

$6,864,724 


$120 
$730 


$10,981 

$111, 664 

H346 

$3, 676. 260 

$1,886,326 


$Z76 

$11,617 

$3,416 

$254,196 


to 

•1 
98 


$1,271,410 

$176,569 

31.648 

$176,569 


$1,804,090 
$81,880 


$20,960 


94 








OA 














96 














17 





















W 




27,684 

$414,211 

3,082,046 

$86,741 




2.869 
$64,500 




123,236 

$1,474,011 

12,890,260 

$666,533 

6,081, 134 

$259,588 


46,i47 

$627,944 

1,377,291 

$72,248 

17,094,707 

$414,665 




6,261 

•102.690 

180,000 

•10,800 


99 










ion 










101 












107 












108 




















104 












187,004 

$69,608 

2,515,575 

$41,516 

$397,645 

$970,568 

12,756 

$132,990 








106 






















106 








662,673 
$10,650 
$16,680 

$30,129 




6,478,443 
$187,196 
$711,783 

$170,363 

84 

$410 










107 


















108 




$364,906 

$118,182 

232 

$2,900 






8371,468 

$122,820 

4,100 

$42,640 


$760 

n,8oo 




•4,000 
•924, 4W 


109 


$39,500 

2.600 

$25,000 


$2,826,377 


$20,960 


$174,801 

3,096 

$67,190 


UO 
lit 












112 


i88,i6.5 

82,168.969 

10,000 

$160,000 

18,000 

$500,000 




600 
$8,800 




28,724 
$617,082 

6,426 
$122,079 

6,984 
$207,697 


iin 


















114 












7,700 

$154,000 

11,754 

$460,845 




23 
$4,761 


115 
















116 






111 
$8,679 




20 
$820 






117 














118 






135 
812,160 








119 






















i?n 


fl4,600 


$115,282 


$17,408 
1,869,116 

$77,609 
1,480,000 

839,600 


$21,460 


$169,133 


$93,952 


$80,180 
852,200 
$34,233 


$222. 7i8 


$1,800 


$112,350 


r7,691 


121 




17? 






















123 




18,266,415 
$216,754 

$12,518 








46,211.951 
8593,070 

829.000 
814.300 


76,43i,89S 
$1,068,683 

$178,102 
$175, 147 

7.236 

82.047 

2,003.004 

$301,069 

8129 

2,848.326 

$1,183,095 

41.902 

$34,600 

27.732 

$6.57,810 

11,079,029 

$461,259 

$2,302 








l?4 


















l?5 




894,400 




$227,400 
$3,600 

2,210.000 
$.572,400 

2.822,566 
$470,490 


$243,000 






$14,000 


178 






$300,000 









I'?7 




60.000 
$18,020 




24,099 

$3,813 

96,024 

$14,408 












178 
















129 


700,000 
$120,700 








518,822 
$86,862 








130 
















in 
















13? 






116,010 

$32,226 

504,196 

$319, .553 

3,396 

$43,266 

2,8.31,120 

$119,063 








l.ft56,088 

$431,064 

2.207,230 

81,762.812 

11,285 

$250,211 

2.310,6.53 

8103.390 

8632 








170,960 
$18,677 
^160 
$7,460 


11M 


















184 




29,652 
$86,973 






90,000 
$67,500 


3,000 
$4,000 






vm 












118 












1T7 




















IW 




15,000 
$1,200 
$1,200 






152,600 

$10,800 

$6,031 

30 
$450 








16,000 
i960 
$369 


139 














140 














141 


252 
$2,268 

390 
$8,000 

717 
X.SOO 


1,528 

$17,699 

14,758 

r279.588 

2,727 

$56,321 

1,782 
$62,887 












147 




















143 












99 

$2,012 

120 

$1,411 

8 

$1,600 

$10,258 








144 




















145 










1.779 
$955 










148 


















147 








66 
$12,972 










148 


















.. .. 


149 




$gi2 


$21,196 




$340,612 
$1,102,481 


$3,500 








150 




$193,266 












151 




513,302 
$36,547 


















167 
























153 










2,929,808 
$29,970 






786,6.50 
$22,678 






230,000 
$2,800 


164 




















166 


















• 


158 


























167 














36,000 
$5,400 

$262,636 

674,680 
$80,968 
144.000 
$6,600 
1,.500,000 
$38,000 




680.950 
$7,239 

$21,137 








158 






















IW 


$400 




$3,881 






$230,598 




$6,000 




•2,000 


160 












161 
























107 


130,000 
i400 














24,360 

$160 

■ 58.276 

$286 

67,467 
$1,668 
10,755 
$4,&&« 


"iSg 






188 


















184 










8,127 
$3,846 








166 




















188 




















167 
























168 




















. 


io,'666 

•2,000 


169 






















170 












8,907 
$3,907 










171 
























172 



Mncludea extabllahmenta diitributed a8 (oUowe: Arizona. 1; Colorado. 
North Carolina. 2: Tenneaee, 1; Vermont. 2: Virginia. 1; West VirKinia. 1. 



IK'laware. 1: District of Colnmbla, 1: Kenttickjr, I: Nebraska, 1: New HamiMhire, 1: 



128 



Table 7.— CHEMICALS: SUMMARY 



173 
174 

175 
176 
177 

178 

179 
180 

ISl 
182 

183 
184 
185 

186 
187 
188 

189 
190 
ISl 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 

205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 



221 
222 
223 
224 

225 
226 
227 

228 
229 
230 

231 
232 



23S 
2W 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 

248 
244 
245 



246 
247 
248 
249 

250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 



Products — Continued. 

Aggregiite value— Continued. 

Paints, colors, and varnishes — Continued. 
Total value— Continued. 

Varnishes and japansi — Continued. 

Alcohol varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Pyroxyline varnishes, gallons 

Value 

Liquid dryers, japans and lacquers 

All other varnishes, and japans ^ 

Explosive.' — 

Guncotton, or pyroxyline, pounds 

Value 

Plastics— 

Pvroxyline plasties 

All other plastics 

Essential oils — 

Natural, pounds 

Value 

Artificial 

Compres.sed and liquified gases- 
Anhydrous ammonia 

Carbon dioxide 

Compressed and liquified gases, not otherwise enumerated 

Fine chemicals — 

Total value 

Alkaloids, ounces 

Value 

Gold salts, ounces 

Value 

Silver salts, ounces 

Value 

Platinum salts, ounces 

Value 

Chloroform, pounds 

Value 

Ether, pounds 

Value 

Acetone, pounds 

Value 

All other fine chemicals 

Chemicals, not otherwise specified — 

Total value 

Glycerine, pounds 

Value 

Cream of tartar, pounds 

Value 

Epsom salts, pounds 

Value 

Blue vitriol, poiinds 

Value ., 

Copperas, pounds 

Value 

Phosphates of soda, pounds 

Value 

Tin salts, pounds 

Value . i 

Value of all other products 

Products consumed: 
Acid.s — 

Sulphuric, tons 

Nitric, pounds 

Mixed, pounds 

Charcoal, bushels 

Ether, pounds 

Pyroxyline, pounds 

All other products consumed, pounds 

Comparison of products: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year 

Value for preceding business year 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting 

Total horsepower 

Owned — 

Engines- 
Steam, number 

Horsepower 

Gas or gasoline, number 

Horsepow er 

Water wheels, number 

Horsepower 

Electric motors, number 

Horsepower 

Other power, number 

Horsepower 

Rented— 

Electric, horsepower 

Other kind, horsepower 

Furnished to other e.stablishments, horsepower 

Establishments classified by number of persons employed, not including 
proprietors and firm members: 

Total number of establishments 

No employees 

Under 6 

5 to 20 

21 to 50 

.51 to 100 

101 to2.T0 

251 to 500 

601 to 1,000 

Over 1,000 



United States. 



13,401 

$37,840 
43,942 

8.58, 186 

8&44 

$287, 589 

98,405 
J39,962 

81,970,387 
8129, 013 

725 
8464 

82,410 

8448, 157 

8696,164 

870,690 

84, 220, 339 

3,387.522 

81,743,264 

8,594 

$90, 145 

1,252,604 

8499. 345 

7, 312 

8'>4,600 

3%. 540 

$98, 070 

263,2.3.M 

$129, 876 

1,638,715 

$178. 666 

$1,426,373 

$5,148,646 

15, 383, 798 

82, 012, 886 

10,620,000 

82,081,500 

6, 072, 309 

$45. 966 

7, .500, 000 

$375, 000 

14. 097. 905 

$.tS. .V*1 

3, 478. 350 

8104, .5.54 

4,677.471 

8470, 1.59 

812, 799, 405 



925,7% 

16,9.53,659 

8,902,371 

1,656.790 

560 

662, 884 

484, 925, 323 

394 
858,786,318 
849, 462, 554 



341 
92,381 



1.091 

69,560 

17 

361 

65 

1,915 

79 

2,032 

6 



18,231 
252 
106 



4.59 

10 

90 

178 

105 

31 

80 

8 

2 

5 



California. 



820,488 
824,000 



$326,000 



1.610.000 
$326,000 



$243,815 
1,415 



1, 659, 503 

19 
81,697,235 
81,429,458 

18 
984 



31 

982 

1 

2 



Connecticut. 



83, 478 



1,210 
B70, 139 



Illinois. 



32 

8100 

810 



$180,350 
$100,060 



8100,060 

$169. 695 
1,403. .506 
8169, 695 



Indiana. 



$490 



3 
8290,320 
$241,880 

1 
25 



$701,133 



6,594 
155,484 



1, 317, 031 

23 
$2,061,551 
81,762.034 

19 
1,606 



29 

1,298 

2 



5 
145 



$34,381 



10,190 

6, 198. 996 

148,671 



5 
$911,482 
$928, 123 

6 
782 



15 

562 



11 
226 



Maine. 



81,530 



4 
822,007 
815,300 

2 

1,411 



2 

1,400 
1 
5 



129 



BY STATES, 1900— Continued. 



Marrliuid. 


Maattchu- 
Mtta. 


MIohtfan. 


Mlanorl. 


Mavada. 


New Jeney. 


New York. 


Ohio. 


Praoajrl- 
vanla. 


Rbod« 
UUnd. 


Wlaconaia. 


AlloUWT 
•UUa.1 














130 

$V» 

43,»42 

$58,186 


10,900 
$31,600 




2,771 
$6,820 








ITS 




















\Mi 


>••■>• > 








































m 
















$»44 

$8,000 








177 






$8,881 






$164,140 

98,406 
$39,962 

$1,858,746 
$3,750 


$106,678 




K600 






ITU 
















I7t 
























1W 




$111,641 
$119,868 




















Iffl 














$6,895 

«9e 

$S64 








in 




















in 

























1M 














$2,40G 










iffi 







18,976 


$79,742 
$62,844 




$92,375 
$69,225 


$47,906 



$126,885 
$112,828 






$77,786 
$8,000 


im 




$eoo 

$13,200 
$9,390 




$173,962 
$62,490 

$475,498 




$79,486 


187 








$5,000 
$1,660 




im 


fl2»000 




$284,056 




$406,854 

288,672 

$98,213 

803 

$9,917 

173,000 

$63,890 

932 

r,922 

334,000 

86<;.800 

6*3,000 

$1S,6.50 

63,593 

$6,359 

$135, 103 

$1,120,977 


$2,930,831 

8,096,860 

$1,645,051 

2,500 

$26,000 

650,907 

$277,632 


$60,000 






iw 










i$* 






















191 








5,226 
$53,448 
103,576 
$37,719 

6,380 
$46,678 




65 

$780 

32.5. 121 

$120,104 










191t 






. . .. 












in 


















194 


















1% 


















I9A 






















11T 










62,540 
$31,270 
74,500 
W5.700 
1,4.'»,S<)5 
J1.58, 712 
$118,932 

$2,133,275 

8,000,000 

$1,120,000 

4.800,000 

$960,000 

20,000 

$1,000 












ltd 






















149 










116.360 
$66,211 






16,188 

$t,sis 

119,267 
$13,596 
$969,238 

$491,873 








700 


















?in 


















im 




















Trn 


$12,000 
$116,215 


$9,390 
$30,191 




$46,666 
$2,654 




$1,650 

$726,211 
5.607.874 
$691,536 


$60,000 






?04 








$31,6.56 
372,418 
$81,666 


■m 










IM 


















■m 












4,210,000 
$796,500 








•m 























in 


1,421500 
$14,215 












4,630,809 
$30,751 

7,500,000 
$375,000 

3,000,000 
$18,000 








710 




















711 




















71? 
























713 












871,902 
$5,231 


67,403 
$675 


10,158.600 
$34,675 








714 


















716 


3.400,000 
$102,000 







78,380 
$2,554 










71(1 






















717 


i79,687 
$30,191 
$388,771 

U.7o6 

856,500 

8,784,700 






3,130,578 

$320,246 

$3. 470, SM 

33,878 

5,402,401 

19 000 


257,329 

$51,600 

$1,626,073 

20,165 
2,469,6)e 




1.109,977 

$68,122 

$2,226,425 

822,975 
339,961 








718 


"■■$7»i,'4M' 
3,7S0 
















719 


$1,292,024 
10,205 


$879,123 

744 
8,074 




$914,764 

2.314 
963.422 


$82,000 


$440 


$143,856 
600 


7?0 




771 








•n 














't^ 




267,825 








2»t,000 




939,500 
560 






156.466 


7'?4 



















775 




239,842 
5,216,478 

17 
$2,010,830 
$1,492,996 

12 
2,169 

28 
2,144 








423,042 
18,152,321 

45 

$11,008,452 

$9,193,671 

48 
8.362 

174 
8,028 

1 
7 
1 
6 
4 
215 
1 
5 












7?« 




65,817,010 

47 
$5,063,708 
$3,967,657 

15 
21,999 

130 
21,987 


306,676 




389,476,640 

80 
$15,699,331 
$13,529,828 

82 
34,690 

324 
15,596 
2 
127 
24 
114 
31 
740 


1.463.060 

28 
$3,(JS7,317 
$3,032,065 

20 
1,280 

80 
1.280 


8.648.466 

90 
$12,762,467 
$10,802,657 

91 
13,112 

226 
11,903 

10 
148 

88 
886 

20 
670 






2,440,500 

14 
$1,336,552 
$1,019,610 

9 

4,777 

44 

4,830 


7'r7 


4 

J477,927 
$342,366 

5 
460 

17 
445 


6 
$1,404,687 
$1,238,897 

8 
344 

10 
817 




3 
$20,960 
$20,400 

2 
60 

3 

48 

1 
2 


4 
$292,794 
$272,369 

1 
126 

4 
12s 


2 
$189,706 
$173,443 

3 
206 

4 
206 


228 
229 
230 

231 
232 

28S 
284 

fin 


















738 


















7*7 






j 












738 


1 
6 




6 
32 














7W 

















740 












4 
26 

120 
2 


741 






















74? 








17 
10 




18,0m 
20 
60 

92 










in 


10 


26 






102 
10 

SI 
3 
11 
18 
14 
6 
7 
' 2 










744 














■P4ft 


7 


17 


51 
3 
29 

7 
5 
2 
2 

1 


8 


8 


35 
2 
12 
15 
6 


100 


4 


4 


15 


246 

747 


1 


S 
8 


1 
1 
4 




10 
43 
23 
8 
6 
2 


• 

49 
80 
« 
S 
1 
1 
1 


1 

1 




2 
10 

1 
1 


?4tl 


2 

1 


2 
2 


719 


2 
1 
2 
1 


7fin 


2 


251 


2 
1 


2 




1 




•fVt 










*fM 












1 


7M 






2 






1 


1 








■M 





















Mnclndes establishments distributed as follows: Arlxona, 1: Colorado, 2: Delaware, 1; District of Columbia. 1; Kentucky, 1: Nebraska, 1: New Hampshire.!: 
North Carolina. 2; Tennessee. I; Vermont, 2; Virginia. I: We^it Virginia. 1. 

No. 210 9 



130 



Table 8 — BONE, IVORY, AND LAMPBLACK: SUMMARY BY STATES, 1900. 



United 
States.1 



United 
States.! 



Number of establishmenta 

Character of organization: 

Individual 

Firm and limited partnerslup 

Incorporated company 

Capital: 

Total 

Land 

Buildings 

Machinery, tools, and implements 

Casli and sundries 

Proprietors and firm members 

Salaried officials, clerics, etc.: 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Officers of corporations — 

Number 

Salaries 

General superintendents, managers, clerics, etc.— 

Total number 

Total salaries 

Men- 
Number 

Salaries 

Women — 

Number 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, including pieeeworlcers, and total wages: 

Greatest number employed at any one time during the year 
Least number employed at any one time during the year — 

Average number 

Wages 

Men, 16 years and over- 
Average number 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Total 

Rent of worlcs 



2 
8 
5 

8782,247 
8149, 103 
8196,422 
8300,571 
8136. 151 
17 

21 
823,660 

6 
86,360 

16 

817,290 

16 
816,990 



92 

80 

85 

846,107 

85 
846, 107 

876, 678 
86,625 



Miscellaneous expenses — Continued. 
Total— Continued. 

Taxes, not including internal revenue , 

Rent of offices, insurance, interest, and all sundry expenses 

not hitherto included 

Contract worlj 

Materials used: 

Total cost , 

Components of products , 

Fjiel 

Mill supplies 

All other materials 

Freight 

Products: 

Total value 

Pigments — 

Lamp and other blocks, pounds 

Value , 

Comparison of products: 

Number of establishments reporting for both years 

Value for census year , 

Value for preceding business year , 

Power: 

Number of establishments reporting , 

Total horsepower 

Owned— 
Engines- 
Steam, number 

Horsepower , 

Gas or gasoline, number , 

Horsepower , 

Establishments cla.ssified by number of persons employed, not in- 
cluding proprietors and firm members: 

Total number of establishments 

Under 6 

6 to 20 

21 to 60 ". 



82,260 

866,902 



8108, 712 
866,776 
82,663 
81,771 
832, 126 
82,376 

8359, 787 

6, 454, ;?45 
8369, 787 

15 
8369, 787 
$280,816 

13 

365 



18 
345 

1 
20 



15 
7 
7 
1 



'Includes establishments distributed as follows: Pennsylvania, 12; Connecticut, 1; New York, 1; Ohio, 1. 
Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 1900. 





establishments: number, and char- 
acter OF organization. 


CAPITAL. 


STATES AND TERK1T0KIK8. 


Total 
number. 


Individ- 
ual. 


Firm 
and lim- 
ited part- 
nership. 


Incorpo- 
rated 
com- 
pany. 


Total. 


Land. 


Buildings. 


Machinery, 

tools, and 

Implements. 


Cash and 
sundries. 


United States 


1,740 


516 


405 


820 


8238,629,641 


822,947,444 


835,270,880 


846,116,461 


8134,194.896 






19 
,53 
4 
31 
16 

8 
10 
46 
88 
42 

8 
5 
18 
10 
18 

63 
83 
97 

8 
4 

39 

5 

4 

160 

285 

23 

137 

5 

306 

12 

22 
14 
7 
5 

64 
9 

12 
6 


2 
16 


9 

7 


8 
30 

4 
16 

6 

2 
6 
22 
64 
20 

3 
3 
13 

8 
6 

24 
37 
28 
5 
3 

28 

5 


1,514,791 
6,807,440 
392,865 
3,2.54,506 
2, 139, 856 

111,606 

778,319 

6,764,918 

10,24.5,146 

2,527,306 

621,171 

291,278 

740,484 

1,439,1.53 

1, 107, 261 

9,148,474 

7,887,796 

10,684,794 

371,083 

372, 797 

6,256.327 

945,517 

53,075 

34,307,300 

46,913,165 

2,878,088 

13,083,173 

176,332 

48,964,862 

1,166,566 

10,606,043 

1,258,373 

50, .550 

316, 422 

8,158,747 
313,29? 
817,341 
166,426 


20,118 
590,618 

15,700 
128,772 

95,100 

22,000 
95, 164 
141,762 
1,369 232 
161,985 

38,442 
24,000 
,50,522 
70,394 

71,585 

1,282,011 

467,046 

1,286,685 

7,829 

20,322 

496,359 

70,500 

5,000 

3,350,787 

4, 931, 861 

110,269 

1,392,119 

6,000 

4,602,488 

68,700 

109,441 

108,947 

700 

8,200 

1,706,496 

27,060 

18,000 

6,844 


239,060 
1,609,294 

81,200 
429,881 
238,467 

11,800 

139, 186 

1,049,304 

1,141,727 

480,112 

103,150 
74,450 
82,976 

313,956 
76,594 

1,241,469 
979.209 

2,048,160 
37,085 
50,000 

742,024 

882,319 

2,050 

6,016,423 

6,274.907 

411,432 

1,810.967 

6,500 

6,979,963 

178,583 

1.642,600 

366,619 

5,000 

34,685 

973,308 

48,900 

8,500 

70,112 


212,824 
1,236,298 
148,650 
790,778 
223,814 

29,585 

136,298 

672, 634 

1,715,112 

663, 238 

84,018 
67,648 
98,846 
215,419 
528,459 

1,702,628 

1,149,955 

3,565,983 

50,374 

87,362 

948,877 

111,576 

. 7,625 

5,838,209 

8,986,573 

228,823 

2,213,887 

21,247 

11.928,088 

162,911 

487, 117 
177,114 
26,226 
82. 132 

1,242,299 

74,049 

208,769 

31,822 


1,042,799 
3,471,233 


California . . . . . 




Connecticut ... 


9 

8 

4 
4 
13 
15 
14 

2 
2 
3 


6 
1 

2 

1 

11 

9 

8 

3 


1 905 075 


Delaware 


1,582,475 




48,221 


Florida 


407 672 




4,901,218 


Illinois 


6, 029, 075 




1,231,971 


Iowa 


395, .566 




135, ISO 


Kentucky 


2 
2 
2 

21 
21 
14 
2 


508,441 




8,39.384 


Maine 


5 

18 

26 

65 

1 

1 

6 


430. 623 




4, 922, 366 


Ma.s.sachU8etts 


6, 291,. 586 




3, 783, 966 


Minnesota 


276, 795 




245,113 


Missouri . 


5 


4, 069. 067 




381,122 






4 
30 
56 

9 

38 

2 

102 

2 

1 
3 
3 


38,.=i00 




41 
104 

2 
34 

2 
89 
,6 

2 
3 
2 
2 

20 
2 
3 

1 


89 
125 

12 

65 

1 

115 

19 

8 
2 
3 

22 

I 
4 


20, 102, 881 


New York 


26, 720, 124 




2,127,564 


Ohio 


7, 666, .500 


Oregon 


143,685 

20,464,333 

765, 371 


Rhode Island 


South Carolina 


8,26,5,886 




615, 793 




18,625 


Vermont 


191 , 405 


Virginia 


22 
2 
4 

1 


4, 2a'.. 644 


West Virginia 


163, 293 




,582, 0.H2 


All other states ' 


66,948 







1 Includes establishments distributed as follows: Arizona, chemicals, 1; New Hampshire, chemicals, 1, Washington, fertilizer, 1: paints, 3 



131 

Tablb 9.— CHEMICAI-S ANn ALLIED PRODUCTH: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TEKRITORIE8. 

1900— Ck)ntinued. 



BTATm AND TKRRITOKII 



rnttwi suu*. 



Alabama 

California . . . 

Colorado 

Connecticut . 
Delawart' 



Disirictof Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

llUnoin 

Indiana 



Iowa 

Kansaii.... 
Kentucky . 
Louisiana . 
Maine 



Maryland 

Matnachusetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mi»-i»dppi 



MlsBonri 

Nebraska. . . 

Nevada 

New Jersey. 
New York . . 



North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania .. 
Rhode Island... 



South Carolina . 

Tenneaiee 

Texan 

Vermont 



Virginia 

Wert Virginia... 

Wisconrin 

All other states. . 



Proprle- 

toitknd 

Arm 



ban, 
number. 



I.IW 



80 



106 
113 



21 
112 



200 



(ALIIIED omaALI, CLU», (TC. 



Total. 



Number. Salaries. 



8,605 



74 
199 

18 
108 

36 



88 
126 



184 



43 

22 

280 

422 

431 

32 

18 

334 

43 

1 

1,226 

1,619 

51 

820 

10 

1,260 

46 

85 
6" 
2 
15 

153 
10 
83 

7 



tll,340,S8A 

69,640 
269,283 

20,520 
164,481 

60,194 

5,433 

81,031 

l.")6, 188 

912,841 

168,768 

28,980 
9,940 
61., 564 
66.969 
28, .533 

330.116 
526, ,540 
558,934 
31 878 
20,714 

412,916 

62,156 

600 

1, .599, 059 

2,411,586 

65,838 
1,086,692 

15,080 
1,606,571 

72,941 

164,716 
84,243 
3,900 

8,468 

182,861 
9,830 
78,691 



Offlcenof 
corporatlona. 



Number. 



1,263 



149 

201 

11 

128 

2 

173 

7 



18 



Salaries. 



tS, 160, 458 



24,984 
67,700 
8,800 
68,200 
32,450 

2,500 
9,166 
44,025 

227,378 
45,272 

2,400 
3,640 
20,350 
36,460 
16,200 

129,622 

160,463 

128,910 

10,258 

fi, 1,50 

107,682 
9,000 



432,682 
620,554 

29,823 

293, 570 

4,800 

457,626 

17,000 

3.5,976 
45,800 



1,600 

64.586 
6,680 

10,656 
3,000 



GenenU anperlntendents, manacen, clerks, etc. 



ToUl. 



Ntunber. 



7,842 



87 
187 
10 
79 
27 

8 

26 
109 
690 

no 

S3 
6 
50 
80 
IS 

225 
869 
376 
25 
12 

284 
41 

1 
1,077 
1,418 

40 
692 

8 
1,087 



76 
49 
2 
11 

124 
5 

71 
5 



Salaries. 



18, 179, 927 

44,656 
211,, 588 
12,220 
96,281 
27,744 

2,938 
21,866 
112,163 
685,468 
118,491 

26,580 
6,800 
41,214 
SO, .509 
12,333 

200,494 

876,077 

435,024 

21,620 

14, .564 



305,234 
.53, 1.56 
600 
166,377 
791,082 



36,015 

743,122 

10,280 

1,148,945 

56,941 

128,740 
38,443 
3,900 

6,808 

118,275 

3,150 

68,085 

3,695 



Men. 



Number. 



6,637 



.55 
144 

9 

71 
26 

8 
22 
107 
511 
104 

■ 27 
5 
42 
29 
12 

213 
823 
322 
21 
12 



1 
1,286 

40 

609 

7 

987 

31 

75 
47 
2 
4 

121 

6 

61 

3 



Halarles. 



r,841,4<0 



43.886 
203,093 
11,800 
98,686 
27,264 

2,983 
20, ,566 
111,208 
645,6,56 
116,611 

24,880 
6,800 
38,860 
29,729 
9,733 

19,5,678 

856,610 

418,788 

20,160 

14,564 

294,682 

50,120 

600 

1,126.193 

1,727,171 

36,016 

701,410 

9,800 

1,098,246 

51,277 

128,500 

37,483 

3,900 

4,360 

117,825 
3,150 
62,020 
8,076 



Women. 



Mnmber. 



706 



78 
132 



83 

1 

100 

8 

1 
2 



8alanc*. 



•sa8,4>; 



aoo 

7,810 
730 

2,aM 
480 



1,800 

960 

89,812 

1,880 

1,700 



2,864 

780 

2,600 

4,821 

ao.4C7 

21,286 
1,460 



10, .552 
8,036 



40,184 
63,861 



41,712 

480 

,50,700 

4,664 

240 
960 



2, ,508 
950 



6,015 
620 



132 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TERBIT0BIE8. 



United States. 

Alabama 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut , 

Delaware 

District ot Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentuclcy 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mi.<«issippi 

Mis.souri , 

Nebraslca 

Nevada 

New Jersey 

New Yorlt 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

All other states 



WAGE-EAKNEBS, INCLUDING PIECEWORKERS. 



Total. 



Greatest 
number 
employed 
at any one 
time dur- 
ing the 
year. 



Least 
number 
employed 

at any 
one time 

during 
the year. 



61,568 



887 

1,973 

91 

869 

665 

57 

283 

2,159 

2,294 

891 

183 
318 
286 
4.56 
187 

2,699 

1,669 

4,386 

77 

176 

1,316 

199 

50 

7,211 

11,180 

805 

3,035 

48 

8,713 



3,066 

922 

88 

121 

3,452 
111 
232 
69 



37,939 



289 

1,259 

54 

525 

304 

32 
85 

651 
1,602 

630 

137 
136 
129 
200 
73 

1,281 

1,101 

2,966 

62 

50 

991 

137 

37 

5,069 

7,667 

256 

1,837 

46 

7,287 

218 

754 

310 

26 

44 



103 

190 

30 



Average 
number. 



46,765 



460 

1,547 

67 

662 

403 

27 

144 

1,149 

1,880 

651 

160 
197 
190 
800 
108 

1,613 

1,337 

3,626 

62 



1,143 

174 

22 

6,091 

8,940 

441 

2,218 

46 

7,814 

258 

1,772 

594 

48 

73 

2,154 
87 
165 
44 



Wages. 



$21, 799, 251 



99,782 
982, 378 

31,430 
356,532 
186,005 

11,298 
49, 161 
304,731 
987,870 
317,968 

71,451 
95,644 
83,324 
97,827 
38,810 

754,907 

117, 043 

1,451,730 

27,466 

35,200 

.513,293 

100,686 

8,670 

3,09.5,868 

4,691,897 

113,860 

1,112,593 

26,136 

3,883,218 

132, 205 

479,449 
143, 619 

18,376 
28,809 

626, 1.59 
33,469 
65,440 
24,947 



Men, 16 years and over. 



Average 
number. 



44,635 



456 
1,511 
63 
630 
399 

27 

141 

1,140 

1,679 

614 

1.52 
197 
184 
279 
105 

1,587 

1,2.57 

3,469 

52 



1,018 

163 

20 

5,674 

8,615 

440 

2,085 

43 

7,459 

242 

1,772 

582 

48 

50 

2,114 
87 
140 
43 



Wages. 



$21,214,066 



99,334 
967,922 

30,200 
347,583 
185,391 

11,298 
48,711 
302,591 
927,622 
311, 717 

70,022 
95,644 
81,824 
93,655 
37, 710 

748,166 

693,670 

1,421,425 

24,717 

35,200 

485,588 

97,256 

8,180 

2,963,539 

4,599,067 

113,785 

1,069,151 

24, 876 

3, 787, 584 

129, 697 

479, 449 
142,019 
18,376 
22, 271 

620,809 
33,469 
59,751 
24, 797 



Women, 16 years and 
over. 



Average 
number. 



1,952 



1 
180 
36 



6 

21 

3 

19 
75 
145 
10 



75 

11 

2 

407 

313 



130 

3 

331 

16 



Wages. 



$554,423 



448 
14,456 
1,230 
8,949 

138 



600 
56,563 
6,146 

1,229 



1,600 
4,172 
1,100 

5,741 
22,531 
28,571 

2,749 



17,915 

3,430 

490 

130,419 

90, 4.55 



43,a53 
1,260 

91,443 
2,508 



600 

"6,'538' 

4,3.'J0 

'5,689 
150 



Children, under 16 
years. 



Average 
number. 



178 



50 



Wages. 



$30,762 



450 
1,540 
3,686 

106 

200 



1,000 

842 

1,734 



9,790 



1,910 
2,375 

75 
389 



1,000 



133 

Table 9.-CHEMICAL8 AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TEKRIT<^)RIE8, 

1900— C'ontinawl. 









ATKRiiOE NUHBCm OF 


WAOa-ajkRMKM, INCLUDIIta 


niCBWORKEU. 






fITATBII AND TBRaiTORlM. 


Men, 16 yean and nvisr. 




January. 


Febni- 
ary. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


Jane. 


July. 


Ancnat. 


"T"- 


October. 


NoTan- 
ber. 


DeMm- 
bcr. 


United StftteH 


45,847 


47,271 


48,974 


46.878 


48,698 


42,630 


40,620 


42, 2n 


48,880 


48,844 


46,086 


46,884 




AlftbAiuft 


744 
1.469 
56 
520 
290 

21 

182 

1,863 

1,648 

542 

142 
192 
144 
344 

.58 

1,395 

1,258 

8,435 

52 

176 

962 

164 

30 

6,537 

8,644 

557 

1,883 

43 

7,282 

234 

2,876 
675 
32 
72 

2.036 
85 
164 
45 


786 
1,453 
6fi 
570 
804 

23 

220 

1,987 

1,692 

566 

203 
199 
160 
410 

78 

1,407 

1,297 

3,460 

57 

176 

981 

144 

16 

5,528 

8,821 

629 

1,946 

43 

7,315 

236 

2,993 
772 
29 
62 

2,375 
83 
160 
45 


T73 

1.422 

66 

617 

851 

31 

212 

1.947 

1.761 

573 

140 

181 
195 
420 
86 

1,525 

1,339 

8,559 

66 

161 

1,011 

133 

22 

5,907 

9,097 

692 

2,116 

43 

7,518 

239 

2,98.5 
868 
38 
76 

2,600 
84 
170 
81 


687 
1.649 
68 
659 
416 

86 

142 

1,1T7 

1,758 

649 

139 

161 
200 
33.5 
171 

1,677 

1,387 

3,777 

66 

109 

1,009 

1.57 

19 

6,000 

9,218 

619 

2, 191 

43 

7,648 
211 

1,637 

656 

42 

33 

2,186 
83 
178 
39 


861 
1,887 

la 

700 
407 

86 
126 
630 
1,806 
636 

141 

149 
182 
267 
172 

1,597 

1,210 

3,668 

58 

57 

1,086 
141 

14 
.5,764 
9,069 

406 

2,108 

43 

7,664 

234 

806 

464 

35 

37 

1,958 
87 
174 
36 


267 
1,402 
62 
676 
866 

28 

119 

496 

1,683 

611 

IM 
143 
194 
247 
119 

1,466 

1,189 

8,767 

57 

39 

1,068 

164 

19 

5,701 

8,971 

283 

2,028 

43 

7,427 

281 

776 
444 

47 
80 

1,982 
88 
136 
81 


116 

1,628 

86 

666 

896 

29 

115 

510 

1,600 

716 

M4 

149 
175 
175 
119 

1,826 

1,130 

8.236 

52 

81 

1.086 

168 

18 

5.479 

7.995 

282 

2.039 

43 

7.329 

201 

744 

881 

59 

36 

1.993 
88 
119 
40 


184 

1,569 

67 

649 

521 

29 
105 
.527 
1,691 
718 

156 

184 

204 

174 

92 

1,828 

1,229 

3,286 

48 

41 

1,066 

174 

18 

5,711 

8,076 

257 

2.307 

45 

7,408 

261 

741 

520 
81 
38 

2,000 
86 
120 
41 


268 
1,486 
68 
683 
694 

30 

100 

662 

1,769 

686 

163 
224 
244 
234 
114 

2,199 

1,246 

3,382 

49 

61 

1,071 

185 

17 

5,723 

8,258 

292 

2,374 

46 

7,685 

263 

787 

887 

57 

48 

1.930 
87 
124 
'16 


810 

1,686 

72 

642 

489 

24 
»4 

928 
1,688 

571 

160 

246 
207 
221 
86 

1,631 

1,258 

8,280 

47 

88 

1.026 

185 

36 

6.878 

8.866 

416 

2.049 

44 

7,636 

261 

1,443 

614 

87 

62 

1,964 
85 
97 
40 


407 

1,C78 

68 

AM 

m 

19 

109 

1,409 

1,606 

647 

148 
282 
163 
268 
108 

1,423 

1,309 

8,283 

48 

111 

990 

174 

17 

8,578 

8,895 

486 

1,968 

48 

7,897 

247 

2,766 

868 

SO 

66 

2,278 
104 
U6 
64 


800 


OUifomia 


1,618 
67 


Colorado 




846 




289 




128 


Florida ..-- 




1,863 

1,667 

881 


Illinois 


Xndiaua . 


Iowa 


141 


KanmH 


289 




146 




289 


Maine 


63 


Man'land 


1,407 

1,286 

8.564 

48 




Mk'hiKun 




)flin1fi>lrpl 


199 


Hinouri 


913 




178 




14 




.5. .564 
8,502 

417 




North Carolina 




2,011 
43 




Pen [isy 1 vania 


7,501 
254 


RhtKle Island 


Bouth Carolina 


2,824 
884 




Texas 


48 




68 




2,149 
83 






123 


All other Btatee 


46 







134 

Table 9 — CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 







AVERAGE NUMBER OF WAGE-EARNERS, 


INCLUDING PIECEWORKERS— Continued. 




STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Women, 16 years and over. 


• 


Janu- 
ary. • 


Febru- 
ary. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Septem- 


Octo- 
ber. 


Novem- 
ber. 


Decem- 
ber. 




1,911 


2,000 


2,066 


2,063 


2,052 


1,986 


1,823 


1,830 


1,876 


1,945 


1,944 


1,927 






2 
36 

4 
27 

1 


2 
36 

4 
29 

1 


2 
36 

4 
32 

1 


3 
37 

4 
34 

1 


3 
37 

4 
36 

1 


4 
37 

4 
27 

1 


4 
37 

4 
30 

1 


5 
37 

4 
31 

1 


6 
37 

4 
37 

1 


7 
36 

4 
37 

1 


7 
36 

4 
36 

1 


5 


California 


36 


Colorado 


4 


Connecticut 


27 


Delaware ... 


2 


Tlistrint nf Cnlntn Wa 




Florida 


























Georgia 


3 
185 
29 

6 


2 
193 
29 

7 


2 
197 
33 

7 


2 

199 

37 

9 


1 

188 
41 

8 


1 
180 
43 

14 


1 
155 
44 

3 


1 

155 

41 

3 


1 
157 
41 

3 


1 
169 
40 

3 


1 
176 
30 

3 


1 




192 


Indiana 


27 






Kansas 






6 
24 
2 

19 

61 

169 

ID 


6 
32 
6 

19 
64 
175 
11 


6 

31 

6 

19 

70 

173 

11 


6 

30 

3 

19 
74 
176 
11 


6 

19 

3 

20 
74 
151 
11 


6 

18 
2 

24 
71 
125 
11 


5 
18 
2 

21 

74 

113 

8 


5 
15 
2 

20 
79 
103 

7 


8 
15 
2 

20 
85 
106 

8 


8 
15 
6 

17 

90 

137 

8 


8 
14 
6 

16 
79 
152 
11 




Louisiana 


16 






Maryland 


17 






Michigan 


165 






Mississippi 




Missouri 


73 
11 

1 

am 

808 


72 

11 

1 

404 

320 


73 

11 

2 

392 

336 


72 

11 

2 

369 

350 


74 

11 

2 

410 

354 


76 

11 

2 

441 

323 


82 

11 

2 

420 

294 


80 

11 

2 

428 

291 


81 

11 

2 

435 

303 


79 

11 

1 

423 

298 


68 

11 

2 

417 

300 


70 












395 






North Carolina 




Ohio 


122 

3 

346 

18 


131 

3 

340 

17 


153 

3 

350 

18 


174 

3 

346 

17 


157 

3 

344 

15 


129 

3 

338 

IS 


98 

3 

313 

1 


105 

3 

306 

11 


110 

3 

308 

15 


135 

3 

314 

16 


117 

3 

332 

24 


117 








338 
27 


Rhode Island 


South Carolina 




2 


2 


2 


3 


S 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




Texas 






28 
30 


27 
30 


33 
35 


12 
31 


17 
31 


18 
36 


20 
30 


21 
35 


19 
30 


23 
35 


28 
35 




Virginia 


35 


West Virginia 




26 


26 


26 
2 


26 

2 


26 

2 


26 


26 


25 


25 


25 


24 


20 


AH other states 























136 

Tablk 9.— chemicals AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DCTAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continue*!. 





ATUAOB NUMBBR OP WAOa-BABHCM, IKCLODIIIO PtBCBWOBBBBa— CoDtlniMd. 


STATn AMD TKftRrrOKIBa. 


CbUdran, nndcr 16 jrean. 




J«na- 

UJ. 


Febni- 


Much. 


April. 


M.y. 


Jim*. 


Joir. 


Anrnt 


TT- 


Octo- 
b«. 


Noram- 
Iwr. 


Dae«B- 
bw. 




177 


180 


191 


188 


in 


174 


174 


188 


180 


U6 


IM 


US 
































rAlffiimfa. 
















































































8 


S 


8 


8 


8 


4 


4 


4 


8 


2 


2 


2 








9 
18 
IS 


8 
IS 
18 


10 
13 

18 


2 
18 
20 


2 
8 
21 


2 

8 

21 


1 

8 

21 

1 

2 


1 
3 
27 
2 

2 


1 

8 

24 

1 

2 


1 
8 

21 

4 

2 


1 

13 
19 

2 

2 


2 




13 


IlltnoiB 


31 




2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


























































Maine 


























Maryland 


7 
8 
12 


7 
S 
» 


7 
4 
IS 


7 
7 
12 


7 
8 
15 


7 
C 
15 


7 
5 
14 


7 
6 
18 


7 
7 
18 


7 

4 
8 


7 
4 

7 


7 




4 


M ichiflran 


7 


Minnesota 




Mlastaslppi 


























MtMouri 


49 


M 


49 


50 


47 


45 


47 


54 


56 


51 


45 


48 


Nebraska 




Nevada . 




























9 
11 


9 
11 


11 
18 


11 
18 


U 
14 

1 
6 


11 
12 

1 
4 


11 

12 

1 
4 


9 
12 

1 
4 


9 
11 

2 

2 


9 
11 

2 

1 


9 
U 


9 


New York 


11 








4 


4 


3 


4 


1 


1 








25 


2S 


29 


26 


25 


25 


22 


21 


24 


23 


26 


28 






South Carolina 


























Tenneflse6 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


































6 


5 


7 


7 


10 


7 


10 


8 


6 


7 


8 


6 





















































































136 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 













MATERIALS 


rsED. 
















Aggregate 
cost. 


Purchased in raw state. 




Total cost. 


Fish. 


Gums. 


Kainit. 


Ijimestone. 


Phosphate rock. 


Pyrites. 




Thousands. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


United States 


$124,043,837 


$15,702,216 


4,589,632 


$183,542 


$3,817,112 


64,700 


$520,833 


790,466 


$717,910 


816,290 


$3,620,262 


633,837 


$3,101,07! 




1,428,452 
5,502,254 

158, 716 
1,615,099 

738.041 

55,060 

341,681 

2, 462, 109 

7,981,328 

1,513,769 

519,376 
521,979 
659,350 
700,380 
214, 666 

4,726,232 

4,996,442 

5,362,671 

235,787 

349,689 

5, 496, 347 

572,898 

9,500 

16,297,390 

24,756,424 

1,087,430 
8,006,959 

163,143 
18,230,605 

631,859 

3,107,710 

1,054,022 

64,524 

320,287 

3,055,220 

205,200 

862,991 

68,257 


438,888 
100,360 

15.597 
680,308 

63,556 

1,552 
62,290 
735,084 
542, 974 
197,661 








13,048 


132,172 






23,940 
1,486 


244,216 
16,362 


9,520 
6,331 
4,800 
2,597 


62,600 
34,658 
12,000 
13 685 








22,714 

3,597 

109,668 


1,600 


8,000 














17,660 
200,000 


25,189 
40,000 


200 
1,461 

164 

723 

10,205 


7,500 
18,235 

1,652 

8,640 

98,181 






17 
2,062 


143 
7,569 




2,106 


762 
























8,040 
120.931 
10,480 


32,177 

417,037 

60,320 


3,177 
37,879 
4,337 

18,867 


17,473 
213,466 

25,965 
108,789 








6,400 

455,359 
48,872 






Illinois 






9,280 


1,330 



























































79,-506 
95.158 
20,000 

908,867 

663,863 

714,839 

2,337 

85,800 

30,848 






49,102 

640 

12,000 

3,204 
232,861 
222,950 

2,337 










8,625 
15,180 


17,804 
64,015 












1,858 
160 

6,895 


17,416 
1,500 

68,547 


21 


54 


2,467 
1,000 

55,182 
34,894 
5,238 


13 03J 




5,000 
12,000 


1,500 
16,600 


5,009 
247,999 








126,757 

18,722 
3,465 


582,626 
131,734 
16,807 




38 
315,690 


133 
274,161 


147, 479 


Michigan 










31,791 




















3,284 
40 


36,800 
400 






9,000 
630 


22,000 
1,819 


4,000 


28,009 








28,629 


































■ 
















1,733,693 
2,942,580 

287,849 

568,408 

5,480 

2,462,198 

118,105 

1,026,097 

284,770 

9,261 

1,200 

803,360 

106,900 

225 

12,912 


14, 118 


9,765 


698,672 
1,344,871 


486 
1,263 

967 
2,530 


4,382 
15,076 

9,687 
21,360 






86,630 
22,104 

38,858 
28,515 


409,998 
156,401 

160,654 
114, 172 


85,782 
54,379 

16,684 
42,421 


390,645 
227,458 


New York 


324,919 

1,815 
176 


316,745 

2,400 
1,160 


North Carolina 


4,21.5,500 
700 


18,668 
2,800 


88,818 




234,901 

6,480 

317,180 

5,480 


194,025 












1,265 


11,479 


62,429 
168 


74,109 
728 


33,491 


200,710 


97,579 
4,183 

83,272 
20,668 


600,777 








25,470 
399. 019 








9,114 


71,226 


141,464 

36,431 

10 


656,861 

118,067 

92 


Tennessee 












185,428 




15,000 


9,169 














Vermont 
















Virginia 


104,754 


57,461 


12,000 


1,107 


10,781 


72,245 


38,S48 


82,482 


290,778 


35,988 


147, 312 


West Virginia 










225 




















6,000 


2,500 














2,602 


10, 412 





















187 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALUED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





HATiMALs tTUD— Contlnncd. 




ParchaMd In raw itate— CoDtinned. 


Purcbaaed In partially mannfactured (orm. 


BTATKS AND TSKRI- 
TORIBB. 


Wood. 


Total cost. 


Adda. 


Acid phosphate. 


A rgols. 




For alcohol. 


For extracts. 


galphuric. 


Nitric. 


Mixed. 




Oordi. 


CMt. 


Tom. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Ponnds. 


Cost. 


Pounds. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Unttea States' 


496,078 


11,265, 794 


261,884 


12, 486. 688 


•87,828,162 


280,028 


tl,M6,T42 


8,I81,8»4 


1164,144 


60,686,011 n,660,US 287,147 


ia,i82,na i2.20<,8ao 








' 




702,484 
4,288,886 
110,743 
659,230 
826,778 

47,665 

234,591 

1,334,190 

6,883,225 

1,082.731 

406,239 
444,986 
514,155 
.522,265 
160,946 

3,088,179 

8,753,550 

2,994,372 

208,681 

201,564 

4,393,443 

487,039 

7,806 

12,198,674 

17,479,648 

605,982 

6,409,486 

137,533 

12,198,066 

421,950 

1,699,892 
487,503 
46,139 
300,792 

1,378,984 

66,062 

723,801 

34,664 


600 
2,961 


6,000 
66,418 






433,266 
12,498,600 


11,844 
161,904 


58,386 
1,560 


169,820 
27,000 




Callfonila 






8,i72 


18,«2« 


319,987 


13,869 


246,000 
















18,801 


624,223 


23i 
1,972 


1,736 
11,824 










8,226 
21,262 

1,550 
5,547 
30,306 
6,866 
1,106 


28,248 
154,292 

14,600 
48,447 
276,188 
48,862 
12,180 




















DUtrlrt of C^liimbiA .. 














- 












8,800 


4,000 


300 
24,202 
16,077 
2,570 


1,800 
133,207 
147,993 
44,616 




























Illinois 










28,000 


i,666 










16,000 


40,000 






8,020,000 


86,449 


























3,000 
4,314 


34,440 
32,187 










760 

1,910 

17,419 

330 

29,671 
6,563 


7,110 

20,700 

164,027 

4,600 

287,641 
62,868 










600 


12,600 




























Maine .... 
























Maryland 










28,119 
4,138 
3,869 


164,668 
54,108 

47,921 














880 
82,094 


6,480 
124,830 


4,477 
16,460 


45,186 
44,000 


774,980 


81,416 








Michigan 


6,094,964 


189,276 




Minnesota 












Utwlalppi 










500 
1,054 


5,000 
9,714 










7,892 
176 


67.178 
1,748 




Ulwouri 














6,966,091 


251,600 




Nebnuika 
















Nevada 



















A 












3,208 
108,885 

3,134 


12,364 
271,681 

7,822 


i2,826 
84,734 


207,867 
611,349 


75,317 
21,064 

3,402 
21,576 


436,626 
172,641 

19,051 
147,333 


1,692,610 
16,400 


97,496 
656 


21,526.726 
2,183,744 


380,970 
39,966 


i2,55i 
18,127 

10,256 
8,774 


119,061 
156,137 

87,276 
82,610 


1,044,800 


NewYork 


916,000 


Ohio 






26,000 


802 


6 «n ifs 


164,207 




















280,872 


791,417 


74,899 
8,277 


566,826 
86,457 


42,836 
554 

4,459 
310 
92 


283,697 
2,853 

24,632 

2,412 

576 


193,600 


6,641 


9,«6.537 
100,000 


249,464 
7,000 


is, 795 
200 

12,702 
1,200 


141,167 
1,696 

121,141 
9,000 




















TenneM6e 






6,433 


11,276 




























Vermont 


400 


1,200 





















Virginia 






48,216 
85,700 


246,680 
106,900 


16,498 
113 


104,936 
1,470 


34,000 
50,367 


1,640 






14,646 


130,526 




West Virginia 






1.234 


1 nofi nm 


27,443 












[ 




All other states 


















1 






















1 





138 

Table 9.— CHEMrCALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





MATEHiALS USED— Continued. 




Purchased in partially manufactured form— Continued. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Ammonia. 




Alcohol. 




Bones, tank- 
age, and 
offal. 


Comm 






Aqua. 


Sulphate. 


Grain. 


Wood. 






Pounds. 


Cost. 


Pounds. 


Cost. 


Gallons. 


Cost. 


Gallons. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 




417, 488, 626 


$1,137,307 


16,986,013 


8657,726 


331,207 


$510,375 


3,692,803 


$1,751,345 


$10,313,661 


42,189 


$142,398 






















340,611 
232,955 






California 


89,1.58,596 
90,000 


12,542 
4,050 


2,502,000 


64,959 


8,652 

185 

10,100 


19,500 

416 

24,070 


2,773 
185 
690 


3,766 

162 

1,400 


464 
120 

17 


1,639 
360 






328 
1,127,729 


11 
28,193 


88,514 
51,708 

24,123 
96,926 
634,781 
603,783 
123,705 

1,000 

296,496 

66,059 

215,218 
5,580 

1,160,985 
402,020 
415, 154 






1,492,360 
3,268,864 


60,277 
2,444 




District of Columbia 














Florida 


500,000 

30,000 

1, 130, 268 


15,000 

900 

36,056 


10 


24 






6 

40 

5,068 

3,048 

1 




Georgia 










100 


Illinois 






3,310 
601 


6,483 
1,396 


100,916 
591 


84,170 
691 


19,120 
10,494 




127,703 


3,788 








Kansas 










































Louisiana 










53 


103 






140 


560 


Maine 










1,965 


2,161 




Maryland 






478,521 
200,000 


13,939 

5,500 






190 
1,580 
1,462 


950 




1,227,436 
29,431,188 


73,646 
490,162 


1,095 
9,434 


2,641 
21,698 


66,071 
200 


45,320 
200 


2,382 
6,014 


Michigan 








Mississippi 


















93,046 

64,815 
15,770 








41,049,931 


116,638 


1,133,931 


136,661 


36,937 


82,086 


14,149 


9,812 


509 


2,124 


Nebraska 


























99,289,132 
180,000 


56,140 
9,000 


6,025,724 
580,377 

50,000 
19,549 


138,578 
164,504 

1,500 
579 


160,624 
52,426 


127,156 
122,964 


311,229 
3,111,592 


204,668 
1,330,284 


1,104,361 
596,733 

354,015 

344,183 

1,893 

1,086,766 

204.401 

1,061,977 
141,676 
25,875 


6,547 
13,713 


28,677 
38,361 


New York*. 


North Carolina 


Ohio 


43,017,000 


25,810 


6,745 

30O 

38,336 

2,400 


15,314 

696 

80,328 

6,500 


12,360 

217 

75,766 

1,600 


16,403 

184 

47,369 

2,800 


5,234 


13,180 


Oregon 




105,440,790 


200,337 


1,062,458 
2,414,128 


29,468 
1,078 


4,060 


18,168 


Rhode Island 


South Carolina 












1,964,640 


2,400 






































360 

536,620 
1,224,000 


22 

64,851 
16,300 




















730,000 


21,900 










558,642 


10 


85 


West Virginia 












Wisconsin 










2,500 


2,075 








AH other states 













































189 

Tablk 9.— chemicals AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





MATEBiALs iniD— Continoed. 




Purohaaed In partlallr manutaotured fonn— Continued. 


■TATn AND TKHBITOUn. 


Cotton 

seed and 

meal. 


Dry col- 
ors. 


Glycerine. 


Lead. 


Lime. 


Unseed oil. 


Nitrate of pot- 
ash. 


Nitrate of soda. 




Onat. 


Cost. 


Pounds. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Coat. 


Bushels. 


Cost 


Oallons. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Tons. 


coat 


United State* 


•1«7,410 


19,476,888 


84. CSS, 822 


13,419,406 


104,401 


88.618,097 


7.428,886 


8442,262 


16,157,117 


f7.4S6,l<6 


6,084 


1800,199 


147,020 


•4,flW,822 


bam» 


80.218 


88.867 
28,666 
11.096 

246 


63,119 
6.766,997 


8.068 
681.840 


















410 

28,912 

180 

2,677 
2,616 

16 
289 

1,888 
8,172 
8,967 

4,716 

46 

1.468 

8,669 
6,187 
2,208 


U,2M 

aa.oti 


Oaltfnmlft 


1,908 


162,660 


3,609 
1,818 


700 
224 


206,784 
76,042 
71,496 
10,400 

800 


118,088 
87,621 
34,968 
4,660 

600 














•,800 


















91,098 














7, ceo 

1,190 


1,213 
203 






78,8a 


















078 


Florida 
















9,8U 




78,i92 


48,943 














49, .%i 

2,121,711 

142,264 

182,866 
3,600 

268,626 
66,604 
30,168 

112,876 
489,339 
913,022 
164, 619 


29,997 
936,511 
59,816 

73,947 
1,400 
120,857 
33,802 
15,729 

64,943 
219,896 
417,099 

80,169 
8,600 

626,632 

102,773 

1,080 

399,681 

1,970,468 

800 
909,189 

48,218 
993,028 

16,182 






woa» 

108,444 


IlHnoia 


1,772,23" 


617.196 


57.642 
167,946 


11,866 


991,012 


4.469 
18.432 


646 
3,090 


267 


19,826 






71,819 1.407.669 


818,198 

160,101 

4,600 




84,170 

446 

106,826 

26,338 






























Kentucky 












1,864 


816 
160 








9,000 














1,702 




37,061 










96 


6,000 


44,700 
182,460 






88,474 










190.000 
27,283 
134,266 


22,000 
10,706 
22,462 


Maaaachusetta 


784,389 

431, 0>« 

75,449 

3,500 

684,637 






8,641 


327,718 


492 


88,611 


182,976 


Michigan 


1,162,601 


142,878 


76,342 


Minnesota 












Miogtisippi 1 














6.000 

1,201,716 

213,779 

1,800 

Rid All 






160 
2,6(0 


5,400 
90,288 


Missouri 




1,787,811 


199,741 




15,447 ' i.a.'a.oss 


50,474 


8,096 








92,610 




2,901 


242,666 








Nevada 


















New Jersey 




488,219 


3,866,604 
10,073,676 


434, 101 
839,197 


3,000 
29,389 


275,500 
2,162,933 


98,664 
5,805,537 


15 467 


28 1 2,780 
633 ^ ^'•It 


si,276 
7,663 

746 
14,585 


1,026,282 
264,274 

28,609 
486.686 


New York 


2,262,264 


255, 271 4 lis' iil 


North Carolina 


1,180 
911,6*4 

37,271 
847,617 

61, 812 






750 

1,806,071 

95,452 

2 «« «10 








7,849.186 


624,274 


9,831 


817,418 


27,979 


4,418 


8»1 


31,342 


Oregon 








1,914.237 


268,607 


26,418 


i .iJA rK7 


1,015,814 
6,085 


94,299 


3,318 


116,407 


16,699 
229 

2,169 
2,650 


667.481 


Rhode Island 






1,826 ' 34 son 


7 584 


Sonth Carolina 










1 










82,689 
88,098 


Tennesaee 




47,902 
11,434 

6,378 

46,649 












48,098 
11,822 


24,047 
6,8U 






Texas 
















Vermont 




i 






3,426 

367 
612 


1,086 

62 
122 










Virginia 




1 


' 


27,737 


13,868 


877 


31,880 


1,786 


6B,MS 


West Virginia 




138,438 


15,228 








256,949 
11.279 




493,575 
28,568 


236,945 
9,097 






8S7 
144 


28,290 
71908 


All other states 




:::::::;:::;:::;:::::: 

























140 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





MATERIALS csED— Continued. 




Purchased in partially manufactured form — Continued. 


Fuel. 


Rent of 

power and 

heat. 


Mill sup- 
plies. 


All other 
materials. 

* 




STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Potash 
salts. 


Sulphur. 


Tallow 
and fats. 


Wood ashes. 


All other 
components 
of products. 


Freight. 




Cost. 


Tons. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Bushels. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


Cost. 


United States 


$3,891,818 


83,530 


«1,724,8.'>7 


$380,517 


801,047 


839,507 


$23,906,991 


$6,615,636 


$297,568 


$779,814 


$11,281,479 


$3, 143, 972 








31,270 
106,984 


827 
10,199 


18,690 
23.5,383 








17,687 

1,191,206 

28,343 

294,236 

50,341 

1,335 

8,427 

36,197 

1,419,544 

184,066 

83,763 

9,977 

167,211 

15,084 

23,406 

481, 639 

1,211,334 

635, 780 

58,073 

8,280 

1,448,228 
33,320 

6,726 
4,726,743 
5,600,216 

8,185 
1,389,691 

60,371 
3,960,779 

92,142 

99,455 

4.5,680 

1,443 

293,306 

133,473 
6,266 

197,888 
4,265 


20,284 
275,557 
5,980 
95,996 
13,364 

2,066 
9,749 

63, 186 
200,325 

65, .666 

22,652 
21,643 

8,647 
20,072 
4,468 

153,866 

150,780 

863,430 

3,726 

3,375 

81,316 

22,414 

5.35 

587,230 

1,355,502 

23,703 

184,879 

820 

826,449 

29,692 

88,786 

34,279 

1,822 

3,632 

252,736 
9,528 
11,136 
6,558 


1,032 

9,302 

780 

160 

262 

260 
360 
460 
11,306 
51 


10,886 
63,481 
960 
60,667 
4,854 

255 

2,488 

11,706 

22,814 

4,296 

1,652 
3,767 
2,3a6 
4,017 
3,368 

67,366 
21,262 
27,785 
596 
.6,160 

10.915 

2,0^6 

130 

89,474 

146,813 

13,683 

46,368 

260 

116,856 

2,428 

5,909 

4,975 

355 

1,425 

13,848 

1,702 

3,803 

280 


136,102 
484,502 
12,802 
80,751 
87,978 

2,379 

23,866 

200,007 

718,979 

133,908 

58,292 
38,083 
43,543 
66,846 
27,048 

377,230 
426,916 
544,326 
14,808 
34,200 

366,864 

48, .372 

1,030 

1,. 378, 462 

2,509,999 

89,827 

661,345 

11,790 

1,868,441 

41,786 

223,276 

118,248 

6,600 

12,622 

316,673 

20,401 

116,179 

8,110 


118,826 
285,666 


California 
















11,864 


Connecticut . . 


27,725 
62,906 

3,530 
54,300 
136,905 
81,075 

1,628 


1,997 
616 


43,487 
10,937 








38,098 










42,249 
993 


District of Columbia . . 








Florida 












8,337 
127, 477 


Georgia . 


380 

2,588 

198 

694 
281 


8,750 

.63,401 

6,773 

13,198 
9,218 








Illinois 








101,70') 


Indiana 




25,200 


1,280 


29,557 






30,641 




17,647 
5,400 

15,644 
4,769 

568,019 

235,613 

67,905 








13,600 

1,101 

14 

1,056 

350 
4,938 

813 
1,020 










10,09& 
2,008 

7,781 




2,627 
260 

7,214 

3,358 

51 


,61,527 
5,000 

162, 681 

63,010 

1,002 










8 


21,960 


2,044 




130,374 
75,144 

217,407 
4,619 
16,600 

7,160 















584,617 


29,440 






Mississippi 


18,660 
6,740 












Missouri 


1,003 


22,021 









5,801 










13,018 


Nevada 
















New Jersey 


781,154 
337,931 

105,866 
61,682 

1,900 
617,046 

9,950 

310,118 
114,224 


17,010 
14,986 


311,326 
307,681 








4,553 
228,897 

600 
1,917 

820 
2,758 

965 


306,814 
93,086 

35,786 


New York 


9,700 












Ohio 


3,816 


81,875 


274,314 


169,270 


6,743 


144,566 

6,460 

771,848 

16,933 

63,760 

124,247 

1,375 

616 




Pennsvlvania 


13,966 
937 


282,929 
18,186 


96,500 






Rhode Island . . ... 






South Carolina 










419 


12,164 










T**xafl 








72 
















Virginia 


205,327 












1,423 

578 


289,206 














Wisconsin 




142 

in 


3,694 
2, 125 








7,847 
3,313 












2,420 













141 

Table 0.— CHP:MICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DKTAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





pRODccn oomtmcD. 


BTATn AND T1RBITOBIB8. 


Add*. 


Acid 
phos- 
phate 
(tons). 


Charcoal 
(bushels). 


Ether 
(pounda). 


Lead 
oxides 

(pounds). 


Nitrate 
of am- 
monia 
(pounds). 


Nitroglyc- 
erine 

(pounds). 


Pyroxy- 

line 
(pounda). 


White 

lead 

(pounda). 


All other 
producu 
consumed 
(pounds). 




Sulpharic 
(tons). 


Nitric 
(pounda). 


Mixed 

(pounda). 


United States 


1,B67,1M 


82,128,221 


20,902,871 


88,964 


1,719,675 


1,193,264 


874,061 


168,807 


81,661,806 


1,964,345 24.i>22.«47 


M6,m,0>7 












22,030 

27,158 

600 

1,210 
















18.5,324 
10,8«5,80S 






18,230,612 


i^oiifftmiA 


8,600,000 


12,000,000 






799,579 








182,000 


S, 874, 876 


















570,139 






16,798 
29,200 














21,000 




















2,647,281 




























7,065 

78,6.% 

6,rm 

13,795 























880,000 




























1.5.5,484 
8,185,736 




















1,817,081 




148,671 









81,116 


2,254,788 


4,310 




428,729 














1,426,207 








■ : 
















































17,718 






3,025 


















^^laine 
























98,240 
45,806 
10,205 






















.6,828,200 




855,500 
586,105 


8,734,700 














239,842 




5, 215, 478 






267,825 






77,192 


2,547,820 




56,817,010 




















9,666 
•744 






9,000 


















Mlasouri 


8,074 












8,906,248 






306,676 


















7,251,300 






























62,775 
»t,123 

33,047 
10,314 


13,787,691 
2,469,682 


19,000 


17,527 




393,125 






8,877,764 
182,000 


1,720,193 




21,079,070 


New York 


294,000 
155,400 








399,834,890 


North Carolina 




5,545 
13,060 












1,003,283 


Ohio 


963,422 










106,350 






1,463,080 


Oregon 




















835,157 


951.388 




35,746 


939,500 


660 


374,061 




2,756,709 




17,509,347 


24,312,375 


Rhode' Island 












138,978 
35,495 
























Tennessee 






5,071 


16,887 














40 600 






















Vermont 










65 
















Vinfinift 


68,946 




















2,400.000 


West Virginia 
























Wisconsin 


























All other states 





















































142 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES. 


PB0DUCT8. 




Total. 


Rent Of 
works. 


Taxes. 


Rent of 

offices, 

interest, 

etc. 


Con- 
tract 
work. 


Aggregate 
value. 


Group 1.— Acids. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total 
value. 


Sulphuric. 




60° Baum^. 


60° Baum^. 


66° Baum^. 




Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 




814,826,112 


(626,891 


«973,685 


812,963,054 


8262,582 


8202,582,3% 

2, 123, 102 
8,279,243 
299,964 
2,544,714 
1,366,416 

88,137 

.533,789 

3, ,549, 632 

12,422,227 

2,686,427 

6%, 022 

73.3,818 

1,0.54.008 

1,049,653 

389,631 

7,2e»,580 

8, 088, 698 

9,757,084 

403, 101 

505, 972 

7,588,090 

954,840 

27,226 

26,763,866 

40, 998, 911 

1,623,030 

13,307,431 

239,369 

32, 164, 223 

1,127,329 

4,882,506 

1,917,985 

125, 170 

408,737 

5,059.465 
334,003 

1,230,838 
117,190 


812,757,012 


187,879 


81,016,861 


18,217 


8266,567 


416,017 


86,641,823 








97,677 
386,899 

28,649 
175,944 
112,986 

3,521 

34,890 

416,841 

743,906 

155,204 

49, 311 
59,144 
29,676 
123,352 
17,431 

483,898 

649, 776 

1,015,881 

64,660 

40,866 

374, 174 

74,315 

2,382 

1,604,323 

2,992,743 

109,043 

1,166,268 

8,313 

2,309,431 

104,869 

675,689 

143,653 

4,089 

39,591 

421,586 

15,990 

84,891 

4,671 


1,100 

10, 770 

1,370 

6,160 

2.50 

1,660 
1,545 
6,981 
68,636 
5,636 

20 

280 

4,180 

265 

500 

45,030 
37,658 
8,979 
7,415 


22,969 
21,846 

3,749 
10.439 

4,678 

138 
2,397 
37,534 
43,353 
11,662 

3,402 
2,644 
4,894 
1,961 
3,229 

44,884 
51,604 
46,059 
843 
6,647 

34,711 

2,845 

176 

107,606 

203,297 

17,810 

70, 327 

794 

106,215 

6,116 

53,200 

3,942 

215 

200 

37,871 

870 

3,117 

441 


72,860 
354,166 

23,530 
1.59,945 
108,058 

1,823 

30,948 

372,201 

640,0% 

134,606 

46,889 
56,220 
20,602 
121, 126 
13,7C2 

893,984 
656,614 
952,853 
54,192 
34,219 

304,662 

70,990 

2,110 

1,415,215 

2,583,408 

91,180 

993,412 

4,579 

2,007,662 

83,636 

621,339 

138,715 

2,334 

39,126 

369, 579 
14,562 
70, 374 
3,767 


758 
117 


26,000 
667,440 

74,800 
279,804 


2,934 
3,537 


26,000 
44,091 












2,369 


33,460 


6,071 
3,000 
9,126 


116, 124 




60,000 




400 










162, 815 






























Florida 




833 

6,436 

407,268 

574,962 


90 

856 


623 
6,436 












125 
1,820 
3,600 










Illinois 






12,450 
19,419 


224,180 












231,487 












Kansas 








































26, 910 
17,642 

294,754 
900,968 






149 
1,034 


5,960 
14,328 


208 


8,736 


Maine 




402 

51,555 
37,396 


3,214 

294,754 
36,110 


Maryland 








Massachusetts . 


5,000 
7,990 
2,200 






27,634 


414,211 








Minnesota 


































30,149 

480 

96 

48,320 

197,888 

39 
40,027 

2,940 
72,249 

8,319 

1,060 
996 

1,540 
266 

12,325 
410 

11,100 
463 


4,652 


81,830 










2,869 


64,500 


Nebraska 






























33,282 
8,150 

14 
61,502 


3,452,871 
1,740,102 


9,123 
1,426 


60,664 
16,050 







123,236 
60,871 


1,474,011 
896 514 




84 


1,488 


North Carolina 




Ohio 


1,386,326 










40, 147 


527,944 


Oregon 












123,316 

7,788 


2, 389, 861 
163,994 

225,698 


39,188 
28 

41,036 


303,122 
2,600 

225,698 


13,356 
20 


193,799 
292 


101,643 
7,092 


1,279,709 
148 962 


Rhode* Island . . 






Tennessee 












Texas 




































Vit^inia 


1,811 
158 


8,929 


309 


1,699 


1,205 


7,230 






West Virginia 






Wisconsin 
















All other states 




42,690 










2,251 


42,690 















143 

Tabl» 9.— chemicals AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PBODtrcn—oon tinned. 


STATES AND TBRRITO- 


Oronp I.— Acids— Continued, 


Group 11.— 6oda«. 


Kin. 


Nitric. 


Mixed. 


Tartaric. 


Acetic. 


Other. 


Total 
-value. 


Sal soda. 


Rodaaab. 




Pounds. 


Vdtie. 


Frmnds. 


Value. 


Pounda 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Tons, 


Value. 


Tons. 


Valne. 


United sut««... 


SO, 061, Ml 


n, 454, 909 


86,468,819 


n. Ill, 158 


997,004 


1294,608 


16,856,680^ 


1876,520 


12,604,581 


lU, 688, 061 


68,249 1779,448 888,161 |«4,768,888 


































8. 880, 840 
180,000 

i,Ma,»o 


1S8,298 
10,800 
79,871 






90,000 


27,000 






288,472 

4,000 

518 


666,025 
8,800 
7,038 


8,870 


68,870 


1,120 


17,160 
















1,466,044 


86,600 


































































Florida 


















210 








































IlUnots 


U8,768 
491, 4M 


86,666 
18,344 










867,920 


11,120 


136,413 
84,621 


808,771 
299,463 


5,061 
3,487 


67,489 
34,874 








6,434,418 


240,510 






































































































11,214 


840 










Maine 















































89,905 

118,182 

2,826,877 


2,500 
232 


25,000 
2,900 








8,082.046 


86,741 














. 864,906 






Michliran 














i88,i6& 


2,158,909 


Minnesota 


























MUelwlppi 






























MifBOUii . . 














652,573 


10,650 


16,680 


80,129 










Nebraska 










































20,960 

170,640 

4,921,144 






600 


8,800 




14,286,680 
4,100,541 


684,773 
222,740 


5,081,134 
6,392,516 


259,583 
159,800 






6,478,443 
4,127,162 


187,196 
95,470 


786,744 
141,040 


52 
28,095 


687 
357,303 




New York 


720,000 


208,000 


167,552 ■ 2.066.422 








Ohio 


1,877,291 


72,248 


17,094,707 


414,665 










371,468 


122,820 


4,100 


42,640 






















1,972,111 
20,000 


83,999 
1,500 






187,004 


59,603 


4,230,582 


72,084 


397,545 

750 


1,010,167 
1,800 


12,756 


1!t9 OQO 












. 
























































Texas 






























Vermont 






























Virginia 




















920,999 






28.724 


517,082 


Weet Virginia 














































174,801 


8,096 


57,190 






All other states 


























1 


















! 





144 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PBODUCTS — continued. 




Group II.— Sodas— Continued. 


Group III.— Pot- 
ashes. 


Group IV.— Alums. 


Group v.— Coal-tar products. 


STATES AND TBREITO- 

RIES. 


Bicarbonate of 
soda. 


Caustic soda. 


Borax. 


Other soda 
products. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Total 
value. 


Coal-tar 
distillery 
products. 


Chemi- 
cals 
made 
from 

coal-tar 
distil- 
lery 
prod- 
ucts. 




Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


United States... 


68,185 


SI, 324, 848 


78,779 


$2,917,955 


5,637 


$602,480 


$1,344,947 


3,764,806 


$174,476 


179,465,871 


$2,446,576 


$1,338,810 


$826,546 


$512,264 


































225 


9,000 


3 


125 


5,602 


490,330 


91,040 
3,500 
7,038 










30,6.S2 


11,415 


19 217 














Connecticut 
























































Dtstrict of Columbia . . 






























Florida 






























Georgia 






























Illinois 






2,458 


221,325 






14,957 
264,589 


820,000 
135,200 


63,349 
6,350 


10,130,000 


95,600 








Indiana 
















Iowa 






















































Kentucky 






























Louisiana 














840 
















Maine 














88,290 


2,935 












Maryland 














14,905 

116,282 

17,408 












Massachusetta 


















19,766,415 
1,480,000 


306,754 
39,500 


27,513 


27,513 






10,000 


150,000 


18,000 


566,666 






1,869,116 


77,609 




Minnesota 












Mississippi 






























Missouri 






111 


8,679 






21,460 










394,400 


94,400 


300,000 






























135 


12,150 
























20 
40,499 


820 
1,518,464 


169,133 
93,952 










231,000 
44,016 


227,400 
29,716 


3,600 
14,300 


New York 


43,812 


885,003 










46,211,951 


593,070 


North Carolina 










Ohio 














80,180 


852,200 


34,233 






243,000 


243,000 




Oregon 




















Pennsylvania 


7,700 


154,000 


11,754 


460,845 






262,332 
1,800 






101,877,605 


1,411,652 


3&4,249 


179, 102 


175, 147 


Rhode Island 










South Carolina 




























Tennessee 
























14,000 


14,000 




Texas 


























Vermont 






























Virginia 


6,42.5 


122,079 


5,934 


207,697 






74,191 
















West Virginia 




















Wisconsin 


23 


4,761 










112,350 
















All other states 























































146 

Tabi-r «) — CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DKTAILKD STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





piu>Dt;cTs— continued. 




Oroup VI.— Cyanides. 


OioDp VII.— Wood distillation. 


■TATES AND TERRI- 
T0RIE8. 


Total 
value. 


Polasdum cyanide. 


Yellow prutniate 
ol potash. 


Other 

eya- 

nldea. 


Total 
value. 


Wood alcohol. 


AceUle of lime. 




Crude. 


Reflned. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Oalloni. 


Valne. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


Tona. 


Value. 


United SUtH... 


n.sM,6a6 


2,817,280 


(601,362 


6,165,406 


(994,014 


tl29 


J5, 675, 616 


<,i9i,s;s 


•1,660,061 


8,088,218 


•2,297,008 


48.418 


•981, 288 


Alabftmft 




























California 




























Colorado 




























Conneodcut 




























Delaware 




























District of Columbia. . 




























Florida 




























Georgia 




























IlUnoU 




























Indiana 














125,000 






100,000 


65,000 


1,000 


30,000 


Iowa 














































Kentucky 




























Louisiana •.... 




























Maine 


120,700 
18,020 






700,000 


120,700 


















Maryland 


60,000 


13,020 


















MasdacluLsetts 








38,607 
514, 106 






29,6.52 
501,196 


35,973 
319,553 






Michigan 














116,010 


32,225 


3,396 


43,265 


Minnesota 




' 










Misfis-flppi 


18,216 


24,099 


3,813 


96,024 


14,403 


















Mi-'^souri 


















Nebraska 





























Nevada 


i, 063,472 


2,235,945 


582,482 


2,847,556 


470,990 


















New Jersey 




83,331 
2,548,109 

22,437 
4,000 






90,000 
2,207,230 

62,238 
3,000 


67,500 
1,762,812 

7,570 
4,000 




















1,066,063 
170,960 


431,064 
13,677 


11,285 


250,211 


North Carolina 


86,852 






518,822 


86,a52 




Ohio 












Oregon 


303,245 


7,236 


2,047 


2,003,004 


301,069 


129 










Penncylvanla 


2,339,066 


2,848,326 


1,183,095 


41,902 


31,600 


27,732 


657,810 


Rhode Island 















South Carolina 





























Tennessee 




























Texns 




























Vermont 














960 














Virginia 


























West Virginto 




























Wisconsin 




























All other state* 


















































... 







No. 210 10 



146 

Table 9.-CHEMICAL8 AND Al.LIED PRODUCTS : DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PRODUCTS — continued. 




Group VII— Continued. 








Group VIII— 


Fertilizers. 






BTATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Charcoal. 


Another 

products 

in this 

group. 


Total value. 


Superphosphates. 


Complete. 


All 






From minerals, 
bones, etc. 


Ammoniated. 


other. 




Bushels. 


Value. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 




17,155,440 


$726,809 


il0,452 


$40,914,685 


925,008 


$8,492,360 


142,898 


$2,349,888 


1,454,389 


$25,796,148 


299,910 


$4,276,794 












1,942,708 
6.S6, 687 


38,246 


369,587 


2,000 


86,000 


92,253 
19,670 


1,483,356 
591,187 


6,670 
2,561 


104,766 
45,600 


California 
































313, 610 
634,213 

71,480 

496,642 

3,240,304 

1,754,905 

235,836 

3,075 

549,943 

29-5,520 

866,201 

27,902 

6, 188, 926 
2,060,576 

353,608 
7,285 

492,772 

139,395 
68,914 






1,000 


23,000 


7,325 
17,180 

3,160 
15, 435 


205,931 
283,878 

64,800 
.177.R.1R 


2,752 
30,377 

449 

1,315 

26,605 

25,333 

5,431 

155 
4,636 










2,385 


28,250 


322,090 

6,680 
25,167 
371 799 


District of Columbia 




1 














9,394 

131,503 

26, 108 

865 


93,940 

1,076,581 

313,850 

10,006 






Geor^a 








14,603 

4,150 

27 


229,271 

68,100 

600 


101,219 1-66.'!. 65.1 


Illinois 








43,483 
5,750 


836,835 
116,280 


647,620 




760,000 


30,000 




109,050 

3,075 
63,700 


Iowa 












8,978 


160,498 


6,858 


126,745 


10,000 

17,315 

22,842 

828 

184,095 
76.671 
14,753 


200,000 

295,620 

j67,181 

21,602 

2,985,015 

1,940,605 

279,588 


Kentucky 
















29,244 


263,821 


13,037 


221,699 


300 
1,000 

27,734 
4,280 
2,767 
1,471 


3 600 


Ualne 








6,300 

334,872 

107,160 

56,321 

7,285 










124,696 
1,282 
1,828 


1,178,367 
12, 820 
17,699 


48,608 


690,671 


Massachusetts 


15,000 
2,831,120 


1,200 
119,063 


1,434 









Minnesota 














7,200 
2,766 


60,400 
44, 248 






80,604 

2,774 
4,532 


442,372 

39,039 
58,914 


Missouri 












2,354 


66,108 














Nevada 




















New Jersey 


152,500 
2,310,653 

1,138 


10,800 
103,390 

137 


6,031 
632 

1,053 


3, 704, 162 
2,445,375 

1, 48,, 338 

1,562,518 

6,500 

2,712,767 

105,755 

4,666,808 

1,464,788 

69,800 


105,165 
9,810 

48,820 
24,728 


887,470 
105,645 

397,397 
285,698 


7,283 
10,300 

3,400 
23,805 


59,580 
338,400 

61,000 
380,936 


126,839 

87,862 

63,628 
43,351 


2,629,511 
1,628,638 

841,682 
700,606 


8,039 
45,814 

14,346 
11,918 
120 
11,272 
2,938 

7,497 
20,400 
4,036 


127,601 
877,692 

197,304 
195,278 
6,600 
170,889 
47,309 

106,824 

304,000 

68,520 


New York . . 


North Carolina 


Ohio 


Oregon 








Pennsylvania. . . 


11,079,029 


461,269 


2,302 


22,975 


310, 273 


2,846 
681 


63,271 
10,215 


120,715 
2,097 

207,860 

36,695 

25 


2,178,384 
48,231 

3,146,915 

704,220 

500 


Rhode Island 


South Carolina 








173,183 

85,959 

40 


1,404,569 

456,668 

780 


Tennessee 
























Vermont 


16,000 


960 












3,324,979 
6,400 


120,633 


1,024,893 


4,300 


72,100 


106,828 


1,820,771 


26,692 
350 


407,215 
5,400 


West Virginia 








Wisconsin 




















All other states 








8,01.0 












400 


8,000 




1 




I ■ ' 





147 

Table 0.—CH?:MICAL8 AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

leOO— Contiiiaed. 





PRODFCTs— con tinned. 




Qnmp tX.— Bleacbing materials. 


Electro- 
chemical 
producu. 


' Oroup XI.— Djrestnfls. 


CTATn AND TERKITORira. 


Total 
value. 


Hypochlorites. 


Other bleach- 
ing agents. 


Total TRlne. 


Natural. 


ArtiflcUl. 




Tons. 


Value. 


Valne. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Poonds. 


Valne. 


United States 


•4n,06« 


2,148 


•116,608 


1876,478 


•1,806,368 


Hn4,88< 


49,019,074 


(2,668,008 


u,ue,ao8 


•2,266,678 






AlAbama 












































Colorado ,.,, 


































86,825 


808,176 


36,826 






Delaware 






































Florida 












5,650 


69,825 


S,6S6 






















UlinoU 


38,648 


297 


88,649 






18,804 






U,200 


18,894 
























































Kentucky 












































Maine 










9,631 


80,000 






4,412 


30,000 




















912 
£2,887 






912 




1,191,660 


4,046,302 


320,347 


2,123,816 


871,211 


Mirhigan 


1,782 


62,387 


198,266 


Minnesota 














Mississippi 






















Missouri 


21,196 






21,196 
































Nevada 
























12,972 
840,612 


66 


12,972 






668,068 
1,897,884 


6,160,000 
9,728,797 


206,240 
1,104,868 


3,846,908 
2,497,162 


461,808 




340,612 


1,102,481 


792,976 








Olilo 


3, SCO 






3,500 
































Pennsylvania 


U,858 




8 


1,600 


10,268 




889,213 
168,468 


23,831,150 
4,391,326 


816,136 
168,463 


1,162,450 


73,078 


Rhode Island 






South Carolina 
















Tennessee 






















Texas 
















• 






Vermont 












2,800 






280,000 


2,300 


Vir(finia 
















West Virginia 












11,889 






1,292,360 


11,889 


















All other states 













































148 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PRODUCTS— con tin ued . 




Group XII.— Tanning materials. 

■ 


STATES AND TERRIT0EIE8. 


Total value. 


Natural . 


Artificial. 




Ground or chipped. 


Extracts. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


United States 


$1,790,118 


49,002,037 


$465,956 


62,012,788 


81,259,007 


2,454,084 


$66,165 


















CRlifrtrnift 


31,500 


300,000 


1,600 


1,050,000 


30,000 
































. ... 












District of Columbia 


















20,000 






1,060,900 


20,000 
















Illinois 


2,500 






12,500 


2,500 




































1 














21,000 


1.344,000 


21,000 
























" 






























16,000 
100,684 










376,470 


16,000 


Michigan .... 






8,444,600 


100, 6S4 














































Nebraska 
































New Jersey 


181,800 
300,756 


13,872,000 


98,600 


719,228 
7,024,440 


46,684 
295,366 


i, 460, 664 
36,000 


36,516 


New York . - .. 


6,400 


North Carolii:'^ 






Ohio 
















Oregon 
















Pennsylvania 


364. 701 


416,117 


7,783 


19,108,020 


349,679 


580,950 


7,239 


Rhode Island 




















48,589 






2,776,500 


48,589 






Texas 




























470,223 
232,365 


25,145,920 
7,926,000 


180,168 
166,915 


17,936,725 
3,,S89,875 


290,065 
76,450 






West Virginia 






Wisconsin 






All other states 

































149 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODrCTS: DETAILED .'5TATEMf:NT BY STATES AND TEKRIT0KIE8, 

1900— Continued. 













raoDUCT*— Gontloucd. 


















Group XII 


.— Palnta, colon, and varnlahea. 








■TATU AND TKRRlTORin. 


Anngate 
Tklue. 


A.— Plgmenla. 




Total value. 


White lead. 


Oxide* of lead. 


Lamp and other blacks. 


Pine colon. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Tnited States 


•67,918,638 


$13,824,773 


116,102,316 


t4, 211, 181 


60,769,623 


t2, 550,840 


' 7,519,846 


•420,097 


4,080,902 


•I,lk28.754 






. w^-^. 






















ft. Hf Am in. 


969,779 
188,600 
679,334 
82,873 

2,!i00 


278,825 


4,800,000 


287,180 


600,000 


26,895 






















7,840 
200 










224,000 


7,840 
















1,000 


200 








































182,279 

8,129,967 

403,327 

385,367 
4,875 
673,063 
140,102 
U7,991 

460,862 
2,439,254 
3,891,773 

895,816 
18,200 

4,388,644 

838,151 

8,875 

5,984,881 

18,762,564 

2,468 

6,702,884 

186,981 

10,725,879 

181,818 























880,868 
18,260 

96,316 


11,037,476 


631,962 










201,000 


32,000 








366,000 


18,280 






250,000 


24,750 










KRTifnK 






















































Maine 






















68,947 
594,482 
40,737 


80,000 
110,496 


4,000 
5,525 
















3,725,279 


197,440 


700,000 


42,000 


345,000 


35,000 












































Minouri 




509,864 
61,889 


4,942,814 


248,681 


3,581,604 
1,125,262 


183, 189 
61,889 




















Nevada 
















1,540,921 
4,812,435 


14,471,171 
39,109,000 


717,047 
547,440 










1,135,284 
1,937,116 


190,893 


New York 


12,426,000 


663,176 


15,000 


2,650 


734,713 






Ohio 


619,377 


8,822,814 


383,475 


1,608,000 


79,792 


550,000 


40,000 


254,000 


19,900 








4,1U,190 

eoo 


82,478,546 


1,516,121 


27,893,478 


1,338,959 


6,665,345 


309,397 


207,502 


16,048 


























147,790 
39,830 
401,077 

201,972 


30,640 
























































Virginia 


146,499 


















WG*!t Vinrinia 




















881,717 
57,600 


6,043 


















All other states 







































150 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PEODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PRODUCTS— continued. 










Group XIII.- Paints, 


colors, and varnishes — Continued. 








STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


A.— Pigments— Continued. 


B.— Paints. 




Iron oxides and other 
earth colors. 


Dry colors. 


Pulp colors 


sold moist. 


Total 
value. 


Paints in oil, in paste. 


Paints already mixed 
for use. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


United States 


33,772,256 


S324,902 


167,734,241 


H 428, 028 


20,060,935 


8861,531 


832,473,812 


306,477,865 


817,603,127 


16,900,350 


814,870,685 




































2, 100, 000 


15,750 






557, 149 
160,000 
99,385 
21,876 

2,500 


2, 411, 622 

83,330 

1,428,868 

....215,846 


207, 797 

10,000 

68,009 

8,496 


355,837 
153,325 
34,020 
16,725 

1,000 


349, 3.52 












150,000 














31,376 














13,3S0 














2,500 































149, 779 

4,629,569 

153,215 

209,051 

4,875 

353,135 

132,102 

60,406 

293,259 
1,103,380 
1,659,034 

357,816 
13,200 

3,878,173 

773,66-2 

3,375 

1,132,641 

6,918,338 

2,377 
4,118,491 

135,731 
4,562,2512 

104,604 


870,683 

45,021,424 

1,734,600 

1,405,000 


56,065 

2,634,159 

121,136 

74,150 


91,394 

2,594,474 

34,612 

181,485 
6,500 

387, 575 
94,017 
13,000 

232,544 
479,011 
847,205 
298,661 
12,000 

1,542,268 

221,712 

2,700 

622,542 

2,922,134 


93. 714 


Illinois 


1,183,565 


14,617 


9,853,710 


300,789 


10,000 


1,000 


1,995,410 




32. 079 








3,042,000 


71,566 






134, 901 










4,875 
















1,022,640 
189,834 
822,600 

1,101,227 

10,402,389 

9,761,345 

796,282 


70,610 
50,686 
47,133 

87,519 
635,551 
684,716 
100,084 


282, 525 
















81.416 
















13,273 




130,000 
2,278,000 


400 
28,435 


1,533,509 

3,445,701 

417,418 


33,505 

218,607 

40,737 


558,300 
739, 312 


31,042 
67,425 


205,740 


Massachuaettfl — 


467,829 
974.318 












257, 732 
















13,200 

1,295,249 
219,712 








8,455,000 


82,494 






45,796,923 
8,850,306 


2,282,924 
863,950 


























3,375 


New Jersey 


500,000 
15,602,000 


25,000 
127,134 


4,764,207 
42,933,177 


445,425 
2,156,799 


8,156,948 
12,941,596 


162, 556 
580,623 


8,672,911 
68,999,820 

2,803 

30,595,%7 

30,576 

59,138,990 

629,800 


552,452 
4,009,897 

2,377 
1,752,553 

7,644 

3,082,644 

70,775 


580,189 




2,908,441 




Ohio 


80,000 


1,200 


1,441,781 


95,010 






2,578,218 

114,991 

2,174,014 

35,554 


2,385,938 

128, 087 

1,509,608 

33, 829 










6,318,691 
20,000 


96,976 
500 


63,817,766 


820,847 


594,379 


12,842 
















7,660,000 


30,610 










117, 150 
39,530 
170,207 


142,000 
241,429 
108,660 


28,400 
15,600 
8,300 


116, 073 

26,200 

232,059 




Texas . . 










23,930 
164.907 
















Virginia 






25,929,972 


146,499 






West Virginia 




















Wisconsin 










60,400 


6,043 


800,050 
57,500 


6,000,000 


412,500 


430,000 
48,500 


387,550 
57,500 































161 

Table O.-CHEMICALS AND ALURD PRODUCTS: DOTAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





9 






PBoo(;crs— continued. 












Group XIII.— PalnU, colors, and vamlsbes-Contlnued. 


Group XlV.-ExpkMir**. 


STATR8 AND TERRITORISS. 






C— Varnishes and japans. 




All other 
products in 
this group. 


Total 
value. 


Ooopo 




Total 
value. 


OH and turpentine 
varnishes. 


Alcohol var- 
nishes. 


I'yroxyllne var- 
nishes. 


Liquid dry- 
ers, japans, 
and lac- 
quers. 


wder. 




Gallons. 


Value. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Potuidt. 


Vklne. 


United States 


|18,602,7W 


14,286,768 


114,387,461 


568,212 


(948,069 


204,068 


1237,012 


18,086,264 


13,017,162 


n7, 066, 897 


12S,814,10S 


16, no, 861 


























64,140 

4,274,558 


247,625 
600,000 


8,611 




180,806 

28,800 

890,092 

2,200 


128,670 
80,000 
187,679 


120,892 

28,500 

807,462 


2,670 


5,300 






6,113 


8,000 


80,000 












175 
600 


4(M 
1,200 


28,810 


36,012 


46,214 
1,000 


82,6i7 
8,597 


812,400 
443,971 


7,282,760 
8,794,779 


812,400 




443,971 














Florida . .. 


.. . 
























Geonrla 


7,600 

2,186,496 

221,372 














7,600 
296,804 
21,949 


26,000 

488,634 

10,490 

30,000 




1 


Illinois '!!"!Ii!!"i"' 


1,617,068 
263,624 


i,e2i,i54 

196,260 


148,943 
1,210 


203,638 
8,669 


16,000 
383 


16,000 
694 


289,736 
970,944 

358,315 
179,000 


6,868,260 
4,926,000 

12,618,400 
4,477,675 


270,974 




214,324 




353. 31 .S 




















179,000 




816,978 
8,000 
46,000 

44,646 

698,853 

1,668,549 

28,000 


464,660 
8,810 
60,000 

55,800 

486,532 

1,632,963 

27,754 


814,608 
7,904 
46,000 

23,825 

442,600 

1,629,437 

28,000 


100 


146 






1,230 
96 


8,960 


























11,686 

54,000 

148,089 

28,453 

10,000 


170,000 


4,000,000 


170,000 












20,821 

189,393 

80,661 






4,400 
8,675 


11,360 
8,451 






171,062 
891,766 


1,227,775 


147,330 




















Hlasinlppl 


















MisDOuri 


227,468 


110,169 


127,640 


2,106 


3,277 


6,600 


16,000 


80,551 


23,639 

2,600 

600 

484,928 

760,036 


992,842 
























1 










2,826,391 
6,271,765 

91 
1,739,808 

61,200 
1,779,960 

11,250 


1,668,752 
4,928,208 


2,258,228 
4,665,714 


67,673 
281,205 


124,743 
432,928 


49,308 
102,777 


69,181 
99,000 


874,239 
1,074,118 

91 
512,299 


8,493,197 
867,998 


5,477,900 
5,939,200 


240,027 




263,694 






Ohio 


1,245,566 

32,000 

1,406,656 


1,177,397 

51,200 

1,286,672 


43,304 1 60,107 






225,213 


1,330,489 


21,627,675 


927,096 










Pennsylvania 


47,901 1 K5.47S 


291 


226 


469,580 


272,187 
65,464 


2,571,368 


34,961,649 


1,607,807 


Rhode Island.. . 


6,950 


11,260 










































220,318 


2,600,000 


100.000 




300 














300 






Vermont 














280,870 


1,400 

8,500 
62,099 
92,000 






Virginia 


65,473 


66,478 


66,478 
















West Virginia 




















17,624 






2,600 


3,324 






14,800 


68,000 


2,376,626 


92,000 


All other states 







































152 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PBODUCTS— continued. • 




Group XIV.— Explosives— Continued. 


Group XV.— Plastics. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Nitroglycerine. 


Gun cotton, or 
pyroxyline. 


Dynamite. 


Smolieless powder. 


Another 
explo- 
sives. 


Total 
value. 


Pyroxyline 

plastics. 


All other 

products 

in this 

group. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


United States 


3,618,692 


$783,299 


369,499 


8189,623 


85,846,456 


»8,247,223 


2,973,126 


Jl, 655, 948 


$860,463 


$2,099,400 


$1,970,387 


$129, 013 
















496,801 
27,055,910 


46,429 
2,896,703 














California 







60,000 


30,800 


1,361,000 


816,600 


452,260 




















Connecticut 




















































District of Columbia 


























Florida 


























Georgia 












































18,761 








Indiana 


676,000 


118,750 






6,456,041 


614,934 


68,938 


22,936 






















Kansas 




















































Louisiana 




















































Maryland 


























Massachusetts 


















23,732 
37,692 


231,509 


111,641 


119,868 




4,000 


2,000 






6,643,976 


652,174 






Minnesota 










































Missouri 










10,464,235 


992,842 




































Nevada 


























New Jersey 


14,199 


2,191 


284,499 
35,000 


124,623 
35,000 


25 550 543 9 ItW -'!«R 


1,477,633 


766,991 


175,000 


1,862,496 


1,868,746 


3,750 


New York" 


671,215 


69,404 


North Carolina 



















Ohio 


1,455,113 


351,970 










61,556 


49,021 


2,400 


























1,163,918 


256,289 






8,507.676 


790,372 






i6,966 


6,395 




5,395 














South Carolina 


























Tennessee 


















120,318 








Texas 
























Vermont 














4,000 


1,400 










Virginia 














3,500 








West Virginia 


306,462 


52,099 










































All other states 





















































ir)3 

Tahi.k O.— chemicals AND ALUED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERBITOKIES, 

1900— Continued. 





piioDocm— oontlniNd. 




Group XVI.— Esaentlal oils. 


Group XVII.— Compreaed and 
llqaefled gaaea. 


Group y VIII.— Fine cbmnlcal*. 


<iTATE8 AND TERRIT0RI18. 


Total 
value. 


Natural. 


Witch-hazel. 


Artlfl- 
clal. 


Total 
value. 


Anhy- 
drous 
ammo- 
nU. 


Carbon 
dlozlde. 


Com- 

preswd 

and 

'& 
gasea 
not 
other- 
wise 
enu- 
mer- 
ated. 


Total 
value. 


Alkaloids. 


Gold salts. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Qallons. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Ounces. 


Value. 


Onncea. 


Value. 


United Statcfl 


IS46,«a6 


882,664 


1737,496 


110,280 


S64,S49 


(64,460 


(1,215,011 


1448,167 


1696.164 


•70,690 


14,229,431 


3,887,522 


•1,748,264 


8,694 Ml,145 


































r'jkiifnmitt 


2,490 


3,330 


2,490 








44,488 


20,488 


24,000 




































46,530 


300 


480 


91,000 


45,060 


























7T,786 


77,786 














































500 


400 


500 




















































Illinois 


110 
14,180 


82 
17,683 


100 
14,180 






10 


180,3.50 




180,350 




100.060 






• 














































































































































Maine 










































• 












12,000 
9,390 












4,395 
202,258 


2,930 
218,453 


4,396 
202,258 








13,700 
2,976 




600 


18,200 










MiohiiF&n 








2,976 
































Mississippi 
































Missonri 














142,686 


79,742 


62,844 




234,056 






5,226 


53,448 


Nebraska 






















Nevada 















































151,600 
226,452 


92,375 


69,225 
173,962 


■52,'496" 


406,864 
484,590 


288,672 


98,213 


803 
66 


9,917 


New York 


533,400 
500 


517,402 
500 


469,351 
.■iOO 


19,260 


9,699 


64,450 


780 












Ohio 









52,905 


47,905 




6,000 


1,6.50 
































Pennsylvania 


2,696 


1,993 


2,595 


. 






239,713 


126,885 


112,828 




2,930,831 
60,000 


3,098,860 


1,645,061 i 2,500 


26,000 


Rhode Island 










Sonth Carolina 






























































Texas 














































3,000 




3,000 














Virginia 


87,772 


U7,721 


37,772 






















West Virginia 


























Wisconsin 


2,876 


1,750 


2,876 








79,465 




79,466 














All other state* 


























1 












1 















154 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PBODDCT»— continued . 




Group XVIII.— Fine chemicals— Continued. 




Silver salts. 


Platinum salts. 


Chloroform. 


Ether. 


Acetone. 


All other. 




Ounces. 


Value. 


Ounces. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 




1,262,6M 


$499,345 


7,312 


$54,600 


396 540 


»98,070 


263,238 


$129,876 


1,638,715 


8178,666 


$1,435,465 






























California 

















































































































Florida 1 









































Illinois 1 



















100,060 


























, 






















i 






















1 


















Louisiana 














































Maryland 






















12,000 


Massachusetts 




















9,390 


Michigan 
















































Mississippi 


























103,576 


37,719 


6,380 


46,678 






116,350 


56,211 






40,000 


Nebraska 


































New Jersey 


173,000 
325, 121 


63,890 
120,104 


932 


7,922 


334,000 
62,540 


66,800 
31,270 


56,000 
74,500 


. 18,650 
45,700 


63,593 
1,455,865 


6,359 
158,712 


135, 103 
128 024 


New York , 


North Carolina 








Ohio 






















1 650 


























Pennsylvania 


650,907 


277,632 










16,388 


9,315 


119,257 


13,595 


959,238 
50,000 


Rhode Island 










South Carolina 














































Texas 
















































Virginia 
























West Virginia 

























Wisconsin 




















































1 1 






; 









155 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMFINT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PBODDCTS— continued. 




Oronp XIX.— CbemlcftU not othenrlie •peclfled. 


VTATBB AXD TBRRITOBin. 


Total 
value. 


Qijeetia. 


Cream of tartar. 


Epaom salt*. 


Blue vitriol. 


Coppenui. '""'"JES:**"'" 




Pounds. 


Valoe. 




Value. 


Pound*. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. Value., Pounds. 


Value. 


United States 


I5.1W.9U 


15,883,798 


12,012,886 


10,620.000 


12.061,600 


7,669,809 


167,966 


7,600.000 


1376.000 


19,884,806 


187,927 '8.478,880 


tlM.&54 
























, 






82t,000 






1,610,000 


826,000 
























































































Diatript nf Columbia 






















1 




Florida 






















































182,891 


1,403,606 


169.695 














2.086,400 


12,696 











































































































































2f aine 






























116,215 
80,191 










1,421,600 


14,215 










8,400,000 


102,000 




















Hicblgan 


i 
















































HiffilMlppI ' - 


























Hiasonrl 


2,K4 
81,656 




















78,350 


2,564 




372,418 31,655 












































1,120,977 
2,133,275 




4,2i6,666 

4,800,000 


795,500 
960,000 










871,662 
67,403 


5,231 
675 








8,000,000 1,120,000 


20,000 


1,000 




















Ohio 


726,211 


5,607.874 691,536 














10,158,600 


34,675 


























520,523 








6,118,309 


42,751 


7,566,666 


375,000 


6,700,000 


31,660 


















South C&rolina 




















































Texafl 





















































Vinfinia 


























West Virginia 





























Wisconsin 




1 























All other states 




( 

































1 





166 

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 

1900— Continued. 





PRODtJCTS— continued. 


COUPAKISOIf OF PRODtJCTS. 








POWER. 










GroupXIX.— Chem- 
icals not other- 
wise specified — 
Continued. 


All other. 


Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 
report- 
ing for 
both 
years. 


Census year 
1900. 


Preceding 
business year 


Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 
report- 
ing. 


Total 
horse- 
power. 






Owned. 






STATES AND TERRITORIES, 


Engines. 


Water 






Tin salts. 


Steam. 


Gasorgasoline. 






Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Num- 
ber. 


Horse- 
power. 


Num- 
ber. 


Horse- 
power. 


Num- 
ber. 


Horse- 
power. 




4,677,471 


S470, 169 


S19,003,538 


1,473 


8180,675,706 


$166,604,049 


1,364 


198,338 


2,682 


158,646 


86 


1,669 


SU 


9,273 






Alabama 






100,454 
629,649 
33,154 
970, 673 
167,573 

14,157 
10,164 
121,613 
869,683 
56,365 

4,265 


13 
48 
4 
26 
13 

7 
10 
23 
74 
36 

8 
4 

15 
9 

10 

54 

79 

89 

6 

4 

36 

- 5 

4 

131 

246 

15 

116 

6 

277 

12 

7 
13 
5 
3 

47 
7 
9 
6 


1,817,640 
7,863,041 
299,954 
2,486,964 
1,077,926 

85,637 

533,789 

1,516,461 

10,886,616 

2,546,039 

696.022 
728,943 
963,730 
1,036,4,63 
366,000 

4,921,377 

8,027,083 

9,362,568 

377,031 

605,972 

7,026,687 

964,840 

27, 225 

23,823,809 

38,930,4.55 

1,162,111 

12,414,903 

239.359 

30.791,652 

1,127,329 

866,429 

1,577,587 

39,830 

404,337 

3,756,967 

303,503 

1,074,347 

77,190 


1,662,913 
6,981,138 
190,952 
2, 313, 213 
1,098,490 

83,855 

469,492 

1,409,770 

9,567,420 

2,270,170 

566,051 
554, .593 
829,686 
808,938 
374,600 

4,513,513 

6,526,099 

7,664,301 

310, .500 

441,000 

6,868,038 

841,6.50 

2.5,900 

20,281,702 

35,058.082 

1,084,357 
10,501,736 

1.58, 794 
26.081.791 

999, .561 

792,863 
971,818 
28,060 
267,368 

3, 129, 320 

267,168 

694,3.S3 

74,764 


19 

42 

4 

. 21 

12 

3 

7 
36 
66 
34 

7 
4 
15 

8 
8 

47 
60 
52 
6 
3 

29 

5 

3 

120 

224 

16 

103 

4 

272 

5 

18 

11 

6 

4 

67 
8 

11 
4 


1,630 
3,653 
199 
2,692 
2,602 

94 

527 
3,913 
6,726 
2, 441 

763 

1,105 

969 

927 

2,644 

4,487 
6,190 

23,774 
271 
416 

2,805 

380 

59 

17,817 

49,974 

1,292 

10,017 

90 

30,86.5 

730 

3,940 

2,106 

180 

380 

9,782 
550 

1.090 
280 


34 
66 
6 
38 
30 

1 

10 
56 
76 
49 

22 
6 

17 
12 
10 

78 

89 

179 

4 

4 

49 

4 

5 

321 

638 

29 

156 

2 

659 

15 

36 
23 
6 
6 

127 
8 
11 

1 


1,515 
2,653 
167 
1,731 
1,360 

65 

615 

3,856 

6,086 

2,008 

753 
730 
902 
835 
196 

4,056 

4,890 

23,494 

201 

415 

2,599 

360 

57 

16,293 

28,784 

1,163 

7,657 

60 

27,372 

647 

3,940 

1,838 

175 

380 

9,292 
500 

1,087 
130 
















6 


47 


7 


200 




















33 
40 

1 


911 












1,082 












9 


Florida 


























11 linois 






8 
3 


139 
73 


1 


15 


Indiana . 








Iowa 

















i 

1 
1 


5 
10 
36 












64,425 
26,600 
13,630 

1,027,229 

616, 106 

1,300,784 
















Maine 






17 

2 
6 
6 


2,420 
44 








5 

1 


87 
10 




. 179,587 


30,191 






160 


Minnesota ; 












Mississippi . 
















Missouri 






1,192,242 

26,120 

2,400 

4,185,535 

2,657,133 

10, 292 
1,050,044 

45,928 

3,371,440 

465,509 


3 


37 
















Nevada 






1 
3 
10 

16 

7 


2 

47 
228 

56 
267 






New Jersey 


3,130,678 
257,329 


320,246 
51,600 


2 
67 


30 






Ohio 






12 














1,109,977 


68,122 


17 


598 


102 
2 


1,582 
60 


Rhode Island 














Tennessee . 






22,600 
16,540 


1 


22 


6 


250 


Texas 






















Virginia 






91,091 

32,750 

490 

9,000 


1 


2 


7 


246 


West Virginia 














1 


3 






All other states 

























157 

Tadlb O CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TEKKIT()RIh>4, 

1900— Continued. 





rowia— continued. 


FAOTOBtH. 




Owned— Continued. 


Rented. 


Fnr- 
niabedto 

other 

establlsh- 

menbi. 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
eMab- 
liiih- 
ments. 


No em- 
ployee!. 


Under 

5. 


5to 
20. 


21 to 
60. 


61 to 
100. 


101 to 
2W. 


auto 
soo. 


SOI to 
1,000. 




STATU AKD TIBKITOUK. 


Electrir motors. 


Other power. 


Orer 
1,00a 




Num- 
ber. 


Hone- 
power. 


Num- 
ber. 


Horse- 
power. 


Electric, 
horse- 
power. 


Other 
kind, 
horse- 
power. 


Horse- 
power. 




I'nlted States 


899 


6,S4V 


IS 


642 


19,446 


1,914 


876 


1,740 


43 


418 


<S6 


SIS 


14S 


122 


84 


« 


6 








1 
S7 


26 
670 






30 

173 

16 

17 


60 
65 
2 




19 
63 
4 
81 
15 

8 
10 
46 
88 
42 

8 
5 
18 
10 
13 

63 
83 

97 
8 

4 

39 
5 
4 

160 
285 

23 

137 

5 

306 

12 

22 
14 

7 
5 

64 
9 
12 




1 
12 


8 
28 

2 
18 
10 

4 
1 

18 
81 
22 

1 


6 
9 

1 
4 

1 

1 

6 

10 

22 

7 

2 


4 
4 
1 
8 

1 


3 
4 










2 
3 
1 


46 

15 
26 


40 




1 








Colilieiticllt 


2 
6 


8 
140 




i" 

2 

i' 

2 

i' 

6 


9 
1 

8 

1 
3 
19 
9 

2 

2 

6 

....... 

10 

27 

48 

1 


1 

1 


i 

1 






20 
20 






















Florida 










12 
30 
23 
23 




8* 

10 
2 

i' 

s 

1 
1 

8 

4 
S 


1 

6 
S 
2 

1 

2 










2 

9 

85 


28 
159 
837 










1 
1 






lllinoU 






304 


161 


































» 


TO 








300 
















57 




6 
4 

S 

23 
87 
19 
6 

1 

13 
2 
2 
66 
106 

7 

61 

3 

126 

3 

3 
5 
3 
3 

20 
4 

4 
3 


8 
2 
3 

17 
10 
10 
2 
2 

10 

i' 

27 
56 

3 
22 

1 
66 

1 

1 
3 










2 
8 

8 
26 
15 


31 
19 

210 
W5 
U5 


. 




25 




2 








Maine 






9 










Mftrvland 






90 
95 
10 




8 
2 
6 


2 
2 
1 








i 


50 


30 

5 
70 










140 




2 










HiiBlsslppi 






■ ■ ■ 








1 

2 
8 










Minonri 


8 


6 







123 
20 


40 






10 


2 


2 






Nebraska 












Nevada 






[ 






8" 

5 

3 
6 

9' 

i' 

i' 


1 

36 
67 

4 

33 
1 

70 
4 

2 
1 
3 
1 

15 
4 
3 
2 










New JemeT 


74 
63 


1,171 
989 


2 


56 


20 
18,435 

83 
57 
30 
28 


201 
337 


10 
14« 


12 

28 

s 

6 


18 
14 

3 
6 


5 

6 


2 


1 


New York 


1 


North Carolina 








Ohio 


66 


1,376 






57 


208 


8 






Or<^on 












40 

1 




893 
15 


4 


am 


80 
8 


1.56 
15 


17 
8 

2 
2 

1 


13 

1 

11 


2 


2 


1 


Rhode Island 














8 
2 




































6 










Vermont 














1 
8 








Virginia 


3 

1 


27 
15 


1 

1 


40 
10 




175 
26 




7 

s' 

1 


11 

1 


2 


1 




West Vl^nla 












. 


1 








All other states 










ISO 





































APPENDIX 



(159) 



il 



CONTENTS. 



DIGEST OF UNITED STATES PATENTS RELATING TO THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 
(Products and processes.) 



Gbopp I.— acids. Page. 

Sulphuric 163 

Nitric 164 

Mixeti 165 

Hydrochloric 165 

Phosphoric 165 

Other inorganic 166 

Acetic 166 

Lactic 167 

Tartaric 167 

Citric 167 

Salicylic 167 

Tannic 167 

Other organic 167 

tiRoup II.— SODAS. 

Caustic soda 168 

Sodium carbonates 169 

Borates 171 

Recovery processes 171 

Packing processes 172 

Group III.— POTASH. 

Carbonates 173 

Group IV. -ALUMS. 

Ammonia alum 173 

Potash alum 173 

Swla alum 173 

Concentrated alum 173 

Alum cake 174 

Other alums 174 

Group V.— COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 
See group XVIII, Fine chemicals. 

Group VI.— CYANOGEN COMPOUNDS. 

Cyanides 175 

Ferrocyanides 176 

Other cyanides 176 

Group VII.— WOOD DISTILLATION. 

Wood distillation 176 

Resins and turpentine 177 

Group VIII.— FERTILIZERS. 

Products 178 

Processes 182 

No. 210 — u 



Group IX.— BLEACHING MATERIALS AND Page. 
BLEACHING PROCESSES. 

Chlorine 187 

Hypochlorites: 

Materials 188 

Proceiwes 189 

Sulphur dioxide 190 

Hydrogen dioxide and ozone 190 

Other metallic dioxides 190 

Metallic jjermangajiates 190 

Other bleaching agents: 

Materials 190 

Processes 191 

Group X.— CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES PRODUCED 
BY THE AID OF ELECTRICITY. 
Products: 

Inorganic 191 

Organic — 

Carbides 192 

Other organic 192 

Processes 192 

Apparatus 201 

Group XL— DYESTUFFS AND EXTRACTS. 

Natural : 

Inorganic 205 

Organic 205 

Artificial: 

Inorganic 206 

Organic 207 

Processes 237 

Mordants 240 

Group XIL— TANNING. 

Natural 242 

Artificial, inorganic 243 

Group XIII.— PAINTS, COLORS, AND VARNISHES. 

Pigments 244 

Paint.'' 245 

_A'aniishes 245 

Group XIV.— EXPLOSIVES. 

Gunpowder, including blasting powder 245 

Nitroglycerine 248 

Cellulose nitrates and other organic nitrates 248 

Dynamites 250 

Smokeless powder 252 

Nitro-sobstitution comiwunds 253 

(161) 



162 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Fulminates, priming rompositions, and fuses 254 

Pyrotechnic compusitions 255 

Match compositions 256 

Group XV.— PLASTICS. 

Pyroxyline plastics 257 

Viscose - 262 

Rubber and rubber substitutes 262 

Caseine plastics 264 

Other plastics 268 

Processes 277 

Group XVI.— E-SENTIAL OILS. 

Essential oils, perfumes, and flavors 280 

Artificial musk 280 

Group XVIL— COMPRESSED AND LIQUEFIED GASES. 

Hydrogen 280 

Chlorine 280 

Oxygen 280 

Nitrogen 281 

Nitrous oxide 281 

Sulphur dioxide 281 

Carbon dioxide 281 

Apparatus 281 

Group XVIIL— FINE CHEMICALS. 
Inorganic: 

Bromine and iodine 282 

Sodium and potassium 282 

Selenium 282 

Rare earths 282 

Platinum metals 283 

Carbon compounds: 

Hydrocartons 283 

Haloid compounds — 

Chlorides 283 

Bromides 284 

Iodides 284 

Fluorides 284 

Alcohols and phenols 284 

Aldehydes and their products — 

Aldehydes 285 

Vanillin 285 



Page. 
Carbon compounds — Continued. 

Ethers 286 

Acids 286 

Esters or salts 286 

Ketones 289 

Sulphur compounds 289 

Nitrogen compounds — 

Nitrosubstitution compounds 290 

Substituted ammonias 290 

Purins and derivatives — 

Purins 291 

Xanthins 292 

Pyrazoles 292 

Chinolines or quinolines 292 

Chinaldines 293 

Isatins 293 

Alkaloids 293 

Pyrazines and piperazines 293 

Proteids 294 



Group XIX.— CHEMICALS NOT OTHERWISE 
ENUMERATED. 

Inorganic: 

Sulphur 294 

Phosphorus 294 

Carbon 294 

Haloid compounds 294 

Oxides 295 

Sulphides 297 

Basic hydroxides — 

Ammonia 297 

Other hydroxides 299 

Chlorates 299 

Nitrites and nitrates .300 

Sulphites and sulphates .300 

Phosphates 302 

Carbonates 303 

Silicates 304 

Aluminates 304 

Manganates and permanganates 304 

Processes and apparatus 304 

Organic: 

Processes and apjiaratus 306 



DIGEST OF UNITED STATES PATENTS. 



PrepartMl by 8tory B. Ladd. under the <1lreotlnn of Cbables E. MrNRoK. 



^ 



GROUP I.— ACIDS. 

SULPHURIC ACID. 

S,SOS—Au(jiuit te, ISSl. E. L. SEYMOUR. Impnivcincnl in proceaa of reducing 
ores by zinc rompoundf. 

ahnnms piui from tho calcination of sulphiiret ores wiih air and steam la 
throiiKli (clilspathie nwk, maKnesian limestone, siilphuretB of metals or 
e, convcrtin)! the same lnt«i their Kulphatcs, and the surplus gas Is con- 
verti-d into dlluie sulphuric add. The (tases reniaiuinK or cvolvod are combined 
with crude or niw ammonia or other alkaline substance producinft fertilizers; 
or tlic sulphurou.'i leases of the first operatl<»n are passed into water in the pres- 
ence of meiallic zinc, forming .sulphate of zinc, which is converted into white 
oxide of zinc. 

UM7— February te, ISHU. J. SMITH AKD J. B. SAVAGE. Improvement in the 

manufatinre. of «utphnric acid. 

Sulphuric acid is heated for concentration by steam coils In leaden pans and 
(till. 

UI,SS&—May SI, ISSi. I,. CHANDOR. Imprmxment in the manufaciure oj sul- 
phuric add. 
Columns of stoneware or clay Qasks arc used In lieu of lead chambers, and 

the sulphurous acid Is passed through masses of porous bodies, such as coke or 

pumice stone. 

U.lS7—June /.'.. imi. R. G. LOFTUS. Improvtd procem of recovering the acid 

Vied in refining ^iCtroieum. 

The spent acid is, first, diluted with ."iO per cent of water, mibjected to agita- 
tion ana then repose in a leaden-lined tank, and the oily matters subsequently 
drawn oil; second, the diluicd acid is cunccntratcd by evaporation to from l.iiW 
to 1.700 and subjected to further diluti<m and repose; third, the clear liquid is 
mphoned off from the heavier impurities and again concentrated to from 1.0,50 
to 1.700; and, fourth, it is concentrated in glass, porcelain, or other suitable 
vessels to a specific gravity of'1.816. 

U.Oao— January 16. imfi. A. H. TAIT AND J. \V. AVIS. Improved apparatm /or 

desulphurizing ores. 

Air heated to from 260° to 315° C. is forced through sulphuret ore in a closed 
chaml>er un<ler n pri^ssure of 20 to 40 pounds. The admission of a small quan- 
tity of nitric oxide gas is advantageous. 

et,919— March 19. 1867. D. ASHWORTH AND R. B. EATON. Impromment in con- 
centrating sulphuric acid. 
A series of glass retorts is use<l in combination with a heating apparatus. 

7S,»M—llay tS, lass. D. ASHWORTH AND R. B. EATON. Improved apparatus 

for eoneenlmting sulphuric acid. 

The hot concentrated acid is cooled and the fresh acid heated by fiowing the 
latter through an encasing jacket of a vessel of the former. It also relates to 
structural details. 

SS.SSl— February 9, 1869. A. H, TAIT. Improvement in ttie manufaciure of sul- 
phuric acid. 

Sulphurous acid Is freed from nitrogen by liquefying the sulphurous acid and 
allowing the nitn>gen gas to escape. Arsenic is removed by refrigerating the 
sulphurous-acid vapor*. Sulphurous-acid gas is exposed to the action of nitric 
oxide, air, and steam under pressure, formiag sulphuric acid, which is concen- 
trated by injecting hot air. 

»7,1S*— iVoremter 15, 1869. L. S. FALES. Improved mode of recovering the spent 

acid from oil refineries. 

To effect the separation of the tarry matter from the spent acid of oil refineries, 
etc., the spent acid, either with or without the addition of sulphate of pota.sh or 
of ammonia, and diluted with water, is subjectetl to the action of ammoniacal 
vapors from gas liquor, and then allowed to stand, when the tarry matter is 
removed, leaving a clear solution, wliich is then concentrated by evaporation, 
sulphate of S(Xla being first added. 

it7,SM>—}ttty 18, 187i. J. HUGHES. Improvement in the manufaciure of acids and 

paints from the materials used to pttrify gas. 

.Satnrateii or si)ent gas-purifying materials are used as a base for the manufac- 
ture of arlds. The resultant oxide, in the case of iron materials, is available as 
a base for paints. 

Itt9,i0!t — July 16, 187i. \V. ARCHDEACON. Improvement in preparing wooden 

vessels for holding acids. 

The interior of the vessel is impregnated with a composition of glue 1 part 
and beeswax 3 parts, applied under pressure, 

1S7.691— April a, 1873. J. KIRCHER. Improvement in obtaining sulphur, sut- 
phuric acid, and sulphurets of sodium and pf/tassinmfrum gas time, etc. 
Saturated gas-purifying material — lime or iron— is heated with superheated 

steam to evolve sulphureted hydrogen for the manufacture of sulphuric^ acid. 

Flowers of sulphur is produced by mixing gas lime with loam and sublimating 

the excess of sulphur; lac sulphur by mixing .the gas lime with water and acid; 

sulphuret of sodium or potassium by subjectiug the gas lime to the action of 

caustic soda or other alkali or salt. 

liS,t(»—Scptember tS, 1S7S. E.THOMSON AND W.H. GREENE. Improvement 

in the mannfactnre of sulphuric acid. 

It relates to details of structure and arrangement, including subjecting the 
nitrous gases evolved from the reaction of sulphurous acid and nitric acid to the 
action of cold water and air currenis in a chamber with porous packing, to form 
nitric add. 



lU,9!li—Sovember te, WS. J. SAUNDERS. Improvement <n the manMfaetmt e^ 

sulphuric acitl. 

Hollow glass lulls with one or more openings are used for filling sulphuric-acid 
condensing towers. 

im,t>95— April il, 187i. H. Sl'RENGEL. Improvement in the mant{faeture ijf sul- 
phuric aciit. 
Very line spray or mist of water or apidifle<l aqueous solQtknu are used In 

place of steam. Sulphuric acid Is sprayed to absorb the nitrous ftmies in the 

gases from the sulphuric-acid chambers, and the acid containing the absorbed 

fumes is sprayed in the leaden chambers. 

175,731,— April i, 1876. W.H.NICHOLS. Improvement in sulphuric-acid packages. 
They are made of sheet iron, with the surfaces and edges coated with lead and 
united by melted lead. 

IOi,lU—iluy IS, 1878. A. PtNlSSAT. Improvement in processes for recovering 

waste sulphuric acid. 

Sulphuric acid la recoverc<l from the refu.se in the treatment of coal oil by 
washing the acid from the tar, evaporating down to about 60° Baum^, and then 
vaporizing, condensing, and producing the white sulphuric acid and concen- 
trating, 

!06,SC»—July 13, 1878. F. F. FARRAR AND F. P. GILL. ImprovemerU in proc- 
esses and ajtparatus for recovering waste sulphuric acid. 

Acid Is reclaimed from the residuum tar of refineries by mixing the tar with 
hot water and steeping with heat, then allowing it to cool and settle, when the 
acid and tar are drawn off from below. The acid water is then heated and the 
purer liquor withdrawn from the bottom and the water evaporated. 

StS,S71— January 13, 1880. J. A. W. WOLTERS. Xanufacture of nnhydroiu sul- 
phuric acid. 

Anhydrous sulphuric acid is obtained bv the distillation of a mixture of anhy- 
drous bisulphate of soda (or pota.sh) and anhydrous .sulphate of magnesia, or 
compounds of the other so-called vitriols and alkaline earths. 

130,171— JiUy SO, 1880. H. BOWER. Process of and apparatus for treating residuum 

from petrolfnim refineries. 

Sulphuric acid is recovered by washing the sludge acid with water in covered 
tanks, mechanically .separating the sulphurie-acid solution and carbonaceous 
matters from the oily ingredients, as by centrifugal machines (for re<iLslilla- 
tion), separating the acid .solution from the carbonaceous matters by heating 
in a series of concentrators, and finally concentrating and distilling the sepa- 
rated sulphuric-acid solution. 



131,683— September 18, 1880. 
acid. 



E. CLARK. Recovering sulphuric acitl from sludge 



In the recovery of sulphuric acid from the sludge acid of oil refineries, the 
offensive vajwrs are eop.aucted ofl byan exhaust produced by an induced steam 
blast while the sludge is being agitated by steam. 

133,680— October 16, 1880. E. C. E. AND L. L. LABOIS. ,W(init(acfure of carbon 
bisulphitie and sulphuric acid from pyrites, and apparatus therefor. 
A limited proportion of sulphur is first extracted from a determined quantity 

of pyrites and combined with carbon in a separate retort, while the hot pyritic 

residue is conducted to a separate furnace for the manufacture of sulpnuric 

acid. 

11,0,11.8— April 19, 1881. J. GRIDLEY. Process (tf and apparatus for concentrating 

stUphuric acid. 

A strong heat is applied to the under surface of a thin body of dilute acid, and 
at the same time a blast of superheated steam or hot air is applied to the upper 
surface, and the vapors removed as they rise. 

tie,396—Aumist 30, 1881. C. KOLBE AND T. UNDFORS. Apparatus for concen- 
trating sulphuric acid. 
A series of platinum retorts is arranged on a plane and connected by pipes 

from the bottom of one to a higher point of the next, giving an equilibrium of 

level in all the retorts. 

160,1,16— December 6, 1881. F. BENKER AND H. LA8NE. Manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. 
Nitrous compounds are economized, in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, by 

mixing sulphurous-acid gas with the gases which enter the Oay-Lussac tower. 

151,187— J anuarii 10, ISSi. H. WURTZ. Process of treating mineral pyrites and 
sulphides for Oie manufacture of sulphurous and sulphuric acids. 
A new product for use in the manufacture of sulphuric ai'id is made by gran- 
ulating sulphurets and mixing same with comminuted metallic iron ana form- 
ing into cakes or lump. The iron in the lumps is oxidized by moistening vritb 
a saline solution. Asbeatus or mica may be incorporated as a binder. 

163.I,H5— October 3, 1883. J. GRIDLEY. Process qf and apparatus for concentrat- 
ing sulphuric acid. 

A small stream of dilute acid from the evaporating pan. of about 60° Baum£, 
Is continuously introduced into a large quantity of acid of tJ6° Baumi in a con- 
centrating iHiii and kciit at the boiling point, with a proportionate constant 
discbarge therefrom. The pan of cast iron has its walls above the weak acid 
line protected. 

167,581— Xovcmber H, 1881. R. N, R. PHELPS AND W. A. CLARK, Jr. Prvcen 

of treating the tvastc pickle liquor if iroMcitrks. 

Ferric oxide, sulphuric acid, and other products are recovered from pickle 
liquor by evaporating the liquor, dr)-ing and pulverizing the crj'stals of sulphate 
of Iron, heating them in a retort, say to 710° C, with air in retrulaled quan- 
tities, and condensing the sulphuric and sulphurous acid vapors. 

(163) 



164 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



£68,79$— December 12, 1882. E, HAWORTH. Manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

Sulphurous-acid gajs — as from lead smelters — is first passed through water, 
which dissolves the gas and condenses any metallic fumes. The water is then 
passed to a heating tank and the sulphurous-acid gas there evolved conveyed to 
a leaden chamber while the water is returned to the dissolving chamber. 

991,821— January 8, 18SU. M. A. WALSH. Process of concentrating sulphuric add. 
Monohydrated sulphuric acid is produced by first concentrating up to 93 per 
cent of monohydrated acid in the usual way and then transferring it, while hot, 
to an iron or steel vessel and therein completing the concentration. 

S0e,897— October 21, 188U. R. M. BREINIG. Processoftlie treatment of sludge acid. 
A soap compound adapted to unite with the sludge tar is mixed with the 
sludge, and the free acid is then readily separated from the tarrj- mass. 

S10,U7— December SO, 188!,. A. B. NOBEL AND G. FEHRENBACH. Manufac- 
ture of anhydrous sulphuric acid. 

Sulphuric anhvdride is produced by subjecting sulphuric acid to the dehydrat- 
ing influence of hydnvted phosphoric acid. 

3U,5iS— March H, 1885. G. THOMSON AND W. KEMP. Purifying sulphuric 

acid. 

Sulphuric acid is purified by treating with ammonium sulphide, filtering, and 
finally concentrating by heat. 

SSS,58S — August U, 1885. E. D. KENDALL. Process of recovering sulphuric 

anhydride. 

Sulphuric anhydride is recovered from a compound containing an excess of 
fuming sulphuric acid by heating the compound in a partial vacuum and con- 
densing the volatilized sulphuric anhydride. 

SS5.362 — September 1, 1885. J. McNAB. Process of manufacturing sulphuric acid. 

Sick or pale acid chambers are restored by injecting thereinto mitrous vapors. 
339.552- April 6, 1886. J. HUGHES. Apparatus for concentrating acids. 

An evaporating pan is made of porcelain with a transparent glass cover. 
Sld,785—June 1, 1886. U. CUMMINGS. Manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

Sulphuric acid is produced by calcining a mixture of clay and sulphate of 
lime, the proportions being such as will give hydraulic cement as a by-product. 

Slt5,lU0~-July 6, 18S6. J. HUGHES. Process of making sulphuric acid. 

Hot sulphur and nitric fumes from a sulphur furnace are projected through a 
spray of water, in an intermediate chamber, and then passed into a condensing 
cnarhber. 

357,107— February 1, 1887. H. J. P. SPRENGEL. Obtaining sulphuric acid by the 

aid of waste steam. 

The exhaust steam from the engine is employed for the leaden chambers. 
The engine boiler pressure may be raised — say 10 pounds— for the leaden cham- 
bers, and the engine exhaust provided with a corresponding back pressure. 

357 ,5Z8— February 8. 1887. J. B. F. HERRESHOFF. Process of concentrating ml- 

ph uric acid. 

Sulphuric acid is first concentrated to about 86 per cent, then concentrated 
in a separate vessel to about 95 per cent, and this is evaporated in another ves- 
sel to produce a residual strong acid of 98 per cent and a condensed pure acid of 
93.5 per cent. 

37 8,77 U— February 28, 1888. H. DE GROUSILLIERS. Process of treating sludge 

acid. 

Sulphuric acid is recovered from sludge acid by first removing the petroleum 
or tarry impurities by floating them, then adding to the waste sulphate of soda 
or potash and preci pi tilting the bisulphate formed by boiling and evaporation, 
then depriving the precipitate of its aqueous substance by heating to a moderate 
red heat, and finally vaporizing and condensing the sulphuric acid. 

S8!,,8U~Junr 19, 1888. E. HANISOH AND M. SCHROEDER. Process of produc- 
ing sulphuric anhydride. 

Sulphuric anhydride is produced by reducing the volume of a gaseous mixture 
of sulphurous acid and oxygen (air 75 per cent, SOo 25 percent) by compression 
and subjecting the mixture under pressure to the converting action of a suita- 
ble contact surface, as a platinized substance, at red heat. 

IS9,h59— February S3, 1892. R. S. PENNIMAN. Ap})aratU9 for the final concentra- 
tion of oil of vitriol. 
A continuous- process apparatus ha.s a series of coupled glass retorts with the 

contents agitated by injected air or otherwise. 

U75,586—May -ZL, 1892. P. MAUKO, Process of solidifying lUjuid acids. 

Liquid acids arc solidified by .adding thereto a soluble salt adapted to crystal- 
lize with the water, as sulphate of sodiimi or of calcium for sulphuric acid, or 
chloride of calcium or of magnesium for hydrochloric acid. The mixture is 
preferably heated and agitated, and then cooled. 

i8lf,5U6— October 13, 1892. E. J. BARBIER. Process of treating bisulphate ofi^oda. 
Neutral sulphate of soda and sulphuric acid are obtained from bisulphate of 
soda (35° to 45° BaumO) by refrigerating the bisulphate to about 10° C. until 
decomposition takes place, separating the er^'stalized neutral sulphate from the 
sulphuric acid and concentrating the same. 

509,66U— November 2S, 189S. H. HOWARD. Method of and apparatus for concen- 
trating sulphuric acid. 

The fiow of sulphuric acid to the still is governed by an automatic valve con- 
trolled by the specific gravity of the distillate. 

51l*,983— February 20, 189L W. WOLTERS. Process of concentrating sulphuric acid. 
Sulphate of lead is added to the acid during concentration to prevent corrosion 
of the leaden vessels.. 

SSo, 882— March 19, 1805. E. J. BARBIER. Process of and apjKiratus for making 

sulphuric acid. 

The vapor of sulphurous acid circulates through a series of towers in succeasion 
wherein it is .subjected to the action of a divided stream of sulpho-nitric, or 
diluted nitric acid, in the upper part of each tower, and to the action of nitrous 
and afjueoUH vapors in the lower part. 

$1,1,01*1— June 11, 1895. F. J. FALDING. Process of and apparatus for making 

concentrated sulphuric acid. 

The hot sulphurous gases are conducted through a concentrating tower, and 
a denitrating tower to the lend chambers, and the acid there formed is returned 
in downward flow through the denitrating tower and the concentrating tower 
and from thence to storage tanks, whereby the deuitrated acid is exposed to 
the action of the hot sulphurous gases. 



5U1,597—June 25, 1895. J. D. DARLING. Method of and apparatus for manufac' 
turing sulphuric acid and by-products. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

51S, 596— September 17, 1895. N. P. PRATT. Process of and apparatus for making 

sulphuric acid. 

In the manufacture of .sulphuric acid the gases in the acid chamber are com- 
mingled and agitated by withdrawing a i>ortion of the gases at one point and 
reintroducing them at another. 

590,826— September 28, 1897. J. D. DARLING. Porous diaphragm for electrolytic 

apparatus. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
691,730— October U, 1897. W. BAIN. Process of and apparatus for electrolyzing. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
598,351— February 1, 1898. A. STAUB. Apparatus for making sulphuric acid. 

The towers are filled with acid-resisting bodies, each having an inverted cup 
or open depression on the under side. 

636.921,— November U, 1899. M. SCHROEDER. Process of combining gases by con- 
tact process. 

Sulphuric acid or sulphuric anhydride is recovered from gases containing SOj 
and O by passing said gases through a mass comprising a catalytic agent ana 
soluble salts. When the efficiency of the mass has become impaired by the 
action of the impurities the soluble carried salts are dissolved out. The cata- 
lytic mass is formed by evaporating a mixture of a liquid, a platinum salt, and 
a suitable soluble salt, and then reducing the platinum salt to the metallic 
state. 

636,925— November U, 1899. M. SCHROEDER. Oatalytic material. 

It consists of a catalytic substance, as platinum, distributed through a mass 
of one or more soluble salt**, which, serving as a carrier therefor, are stable in 
the presence of hot sulphuric anhydride. An alkali salt is dissolved in water, 
mixed with a platinum salt solution, evaporated, and the resulting salt crusts 
dried and granulated. (See 636,924.) 

6 W, 037— December 26, 1899. J. V. SKOGLUND. Apparatus for making acids. 

A tower or chamber for acid vapors is coated on the inside with an acid-resist- 
ing material and silicate of potash or soda, and treated with an acid to remove 
from the silica any alkaline material. 

61,1.276 — Januanj 16, 1900. J. D. DARLING. Porous diaphragm for cells employing 
fused electrolytes. 
See Group X. Electro-chemistry, 

61,2,390— January 30, 1900. F. P. VANDENBERGH. Process of making sidphuric 
acid. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

6I,3.57S—F€brua)"y 15, 1900. W. WARING AND J. E. BRECKENRIDGE. Process 

of purifying sludge aci<l8. 

About -4 per cent of sodium nitrate is mixed with sludge acid, at a tempera- 
ture between 60° and 180° F.. to purify it and permit the recovery of the sul- 
phuric acid. One per cent of sodium nitrate snffices to remove offensive odors. 

652,119~June 19, 1900. R. KNIETSCH. Method of making sulphuric anhydride. 

A gas containing sulphur dioxide and oxygen is passed through a contact 
substance, as platinized asbestus, while maintaining therein a temperature, at 
the hottest part, between the composing and decomposing temperature of sul- 
phuric anhydride. The inflowing gas is heated by contact with the catalytic 
chamber and the latter cooled, and the temperature is regulated by adjust- 
ments of the gas and air currents, without external heating, except in special 
cases. 

NITRIC ACID. 

9U,969— September 21, 1869. G. W. MOWBRAY. Purifying nitric acid. 

Warm air is passed through nitric acid to purify it of th^ red fumes of nitrous 
acid. 

125,635- A jyril 9, 1872. C. W. VOLNEY. Improvem-ent in apparatus for the treat- 
ment of liquid. t wUh nitric add. 
Liquids, as alcoholic substances, to be treated with nitric acid are repeatedly 

withdrawn from the vessel where nitric acid is added, cooled, and returned. 

176,813— May 2, 1876. R. E. ROGERS. Improvement if methods qf recovering 

nitric acid used in se]mrating gold and silver. 

Nitric acid is recovered from nitrate of silver solutions by precipitating the 
silver with hydrochloric acid in liquid or gaseous form. 

198,776 — January 1, 1878. B. C. MOLLOY. Improvement in recovery of waste nitrous 

gases. 

A hot-water spray is used in towers or other suitable apparatus to absorb per- 
oxide of nitrogen and recover nitric acid from its lower oxides. 

1,77,375— June 21, 1892. J. LANG. Process of making nitric acid. 

The mixed vapors of nitric acid, nitrous acid, and impurities arc passed from 
the generator into a receiver and subjected to a heat high enough to keep the 
impurities vaporized, but not so high as to keep the pure nitric acid vaporized 
(for concentrated nitric acid the temperature should l>e at least H0° C), and the 
vaporized impurities with any nitric-acid vapor arc then passed into a cooler 
kept at a temperature low enough to condense the nitric-acid vapors (40° to 60° 
C. ), which flow back into the receiver, while the vaporized impurities pass off 
un condensed. 

1,91,IS1— February 7, 1893. O. GUTTMANN. Process (if making nitric acid. 

An air bla.st is introduced into the tube between the distilling chamber and 
the condenser, to act upon the gaseous nitric acid and convert the low oxides 
before condensation. 

500,786— JiUy U, 1895. C. O. VOLZ. Process qf making nitric acid. 

Pure and highly concentrated nitric acid is produeed by placing the raw 
materials, as saltpeter and sulphuric acid, in an air-ti^'ht receptacle, estubhsh- 
ing a vaciuim, and condensing the vapor. Action is accelerated by heating the 
retort to S5° C. 

511„12!,— February 6, 1891,. 
alkali. 



G. LUNGE. Process of making nitric acid and caitstic 



An alkaline nitrate is mixed with crude ferric oxide in sufficient quantity to 
maintain the porosity of the mass, as two parts of ferric oxide to one of sodi'iun 
nitrate, and the heated mass is subjected to the action of heated air and steam 
at a temperature sufficient to convert the whole of the alkaline base into an 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



165 



nikalino (errlte, with the evolution ot nitrous fumiiioiiiivcrtlble Intonllrleiiclil. 
The alkaline forrito Is ileoomixwed with hoi water to recover the eauotle alkult 
anil ferrlf oxlile. 

617.001— .Varch tO. ISVi. J. I). DARUNO. Jtode i)f produeing nitric acid and 

»irlaU/rmn nitrttieg. 

See Or«up X, Eleetro-chemUtry. 
sr.ODH—Miireh m, I89i. H. A. FRASCH. Pructst qf maktnff concentraUd nitrtr 

arid. 

Nltrle-acld vapors art" exposed to the action of sulphuric add, or other dehy- 
drating nsent, and hot air at a tompvraluro above the condensation point of the 
nitric add to he obtained. 

HS,ll(t—>^1>trmlKria,lS»l,. M. rRESTICE. Procet* qf making nilrk acid. 

A mixture formed by dlsnolvlnR sodium nllrntc In sulphuric acid by heat Is 
successively passed through a scries ot heated comjiartmenta and the vapors 
collected and conden8e<l. whereby nitric ud<l Is continuously produced. The 
lliiuld matter under distillation seals the passages between the series of cham- 
bers. 

M7. 7 IS— October It, 1891,. M. PRENTICE. Still for Maiming nitric add. etc. 
Still for process No. 526.116. 

177, Stli- February tS, 1887. Q. J. ANDER8SON AND J. C. DITTRICH. Proeet* qf 
mantt/arturing ozone and bf/-proiiucUi. 
See Group X, Elcctro-chemLstry. 

IDO.liS— .September H, 1897. W. GARROWAY. Proceti of mating ollcatineMicata 

and nitru' acid. 

See Group If, Sodium Compounds, Silicates. 
l<)1.0.'i7—Ocl'iher.'i.lS97. J. V. SKCX3HJNI). Process of mamifacturlng nitric acid. 

Nitric-«ci<l vajsirs arc conveyed Into a cliumber packed with i)ieces of acld- 
nrix>f material, the temperature of the chamber being maintained equal to or 
higher than the boiling fKjint of the nitric acid and at a point that the watery 
materials will be condensed: the vapors are conden8e<l and the nitric acid is 
allowed to run In thin lilms over the pieces of acid-proof material, being exposed 
to oxidizing action of air. 
699,71,3— itaicti 1, 1893. E. A. STARKE. Compound nitrate and method o/ making 

same. 

A new product, a fused compound consisting of an alkaline-earth-metal 
nitrate with an alkaline-metal nitrate, and suitable for the manufacture of 
nitric acid and explosives, is formed by converting an alkaline-carth-metal salt 
into a nitrate, as by contact with waste nitric acid and vapors of various manu- 
facturing processes, and then dehydrating the nitrate by fusing with an alkaline- 
metal nitrate. 

eO),5(»—May a, 1S98. E. HART. Apparatus for distiUing acids. 

The still haa a series of small distillation tubes, closed at bottom, depending 
from the receiver and presenting an extended heated surface. They may be of 
glass. 



M1.S9I,— September 5, 1899. 
nitrates. 



H. K. BAYNES. I'rocess of decomposing alkali 



A pulverulent mixture of alkali nitrate and ferric oxide is fumaced at about 
6W C. in a revolving inclined cylinder retort, which is subjected to intermit- 
tent jarring and has longitudinal ribs to lift and shower the charge, the nitrous 
fumes being led off; whereby. In a continuous operation, the material is sub- 
jected in streams <)r lilms to repeated contact with heated surfaces and thesolid 
firnducts are carried out of the path of the uudecomposed particles. The alka- 
Ine ferrite is sul>sequently converted into ferric oxide and caustic alkali. 

6i8,Stt— April Si, 1900. J. F. WHITE. Process of making nitric acid. 

In the manufacture of nitric acid from .sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid, the 
weak nitric acid Ls converted into strong nitric acid by adding it to the succeed- 
ing charge of scsiium nitrate and sulphuric acid, preferably by mixing it with 
the sulphuric acid. 

MIXED ACIDS. 

16i,t60—June 8, 1875. P. CASTELLAXOS. Improvement in the manufacture of 

niirosuiphuric add for 7najmfacturing nitroglycerine. 

A mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid is produced by condensing vapor- 
ized nitric acid In liquid sulphuric acid. 

lei.tei — June 8, 1875. P. CASTELLANOS. Improvement in recovering acids from 

residuum of niiroghjcerine manufacture. 

The dilute residuum, dropped in small quantities throtigh a heated column 
filled with obstructions, is treated with sulphurous-acid gas, the resulting nitric 
acid collected, and the sulphuric acid drawn oil. 

iei,!Sl—June 8, 1875. P. CASTELLANOS. Improvement in apparatus for recover- 
ing acids from the residuum of nitroglycerine manttfaciure. 
Apparatus for process No. 164,261. 

tSl,9SS— January S, 18Si. F. V. POOL. Process of removing floceulent matter from 

spent acids. 

Floceulent matter, in spent acid used in the treatment of soluble fiber, is 
removed by Intnxlucing powdered barium sulphate — 30 pounds per 650 gallons of 
solution— and permitting it to stand from thirty-six to seventy nouts. 

t8!,,7 a— September 11, 18SS. F. JENSSEN. Separatimi of nitric acid from a mijcture 

of nitric and sulphuric acid. 

A continuous stream of the mixed acids is passed through a connected series 
of retorts to which are given separate degrees of heat, and the nitric a<'id Is 
distilled over from each retort into .separate receivers, the acid In each of the 
receivers being of a ditlereiit strength. 

S0e,5l9— October li, 1881,. F. V. POOL. Manufacture of soluble nilrocettulote. 

See Group XIV, Explosives. 
SSe.Sti-nin-iuiry 23, 1886. F. V. POOL. Art of manufacturing nitrocellulose. 

Sec Group XIV, Explosives. 
SiS.Sia-June 15. 1886. F. V. POOL. Art of making nUroceUalose. 

See Group XIV, Explosives. 

350,1,97— October It, 1886. G.M.MOWBRAY. Manufacture of pynavltne. 
See Group XIV, Explosives. 

SS0.UI8— October It, 1886. G. M. MOWBRAY. Manufacture qf pyrozyliM. 
See Group XIV, Explosives. 



1.79,988— August t, tS9t. H. MAXIM. Method qf restoring nitrating aeldt. 

See Group XtV, Explosives. 
5te,7St—Orlolier t, 1891,. R. C. SCHOPPHACS. Proeem of ntlraling etUuUne. 

See Group XIV, Exploolves. 

HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 

SUI.196— April It, last. E. 80LVAY. Preparation of hydroehlnrir aciil. 

Hydrochloric add Is obtained In a dry state by absurblng It, or the vapon 
thereof, in asolution of caldum chloride, and then vaporlilog the acid whlcli 
is alone evolved. 

199,8.10 — tunes. 1881,. L, MOND. Process of obtaining hydrochloric acid from the 

rrtfidu/.s of ammonia-softa monufneture. 

The lli|Uors obtaint-d In the manufaiUure of soda by the ammonia procen are 
eva|ioratiil, and after separating therefrom the chloride of s<silum. which salu 
out. the remaining pr<Kluct Is treated with sulphuric acid yielding hydro<;hloric- 
acid gas, which is condensed or utilized, and, as a secondary product, sulpliate 
of ammonia. 

50S,511—November U, 188L L. MOND. Process qf making hydrochloric aetd. 

Chloride of ammonium Is treated with an excesa of sulphuric acid— aay with 
double the quantity nece.«»<iry to form the neutral .sulphate— and the mixture 
heated until all of the hydrochloric acid is disengaged. 

516,300— April 11, 1885. E. SOLVAY. Manufacture of hydrnrhlorie acid. 

For the manufacture of hydnxihioric acid a composition is uaed of chloride ot 
calcium, slilcioua clays, and the residuum from the manufacture of hydrochloric 
acid by a previous operation. 

Sei.Ote— April IS, 18S7. O. RUMPF. Process of (ibtaining muriatic acid. 

For the priHiuction of hydrochloric aei<l metallic oxides are chlorldizcd by 
passing vapors of ammonic chloride through them in a heated state, and then 
subjecting the metallic chlorides to a mixed current of air and steam. When 
the metallic chlorides are decomposed the operation is re[>eat«d. 

.i79,un— March 13, ISSS. L. MOND. Obtaining ammonia and hydrocUorle add. 

See Group XIX, Ammonia and Ammonium Salts. 
1,5.1,986— June 9, 1891. E. SOLVAY. Process of dlsliUing hydrochloric add. 

A current of dehydrating material — as sulphuric acid — is caused to flow in a 
continuous circuit through a distilling apparatus and an cvajiorator, the soln- 
titm of iiydrochloric acid being fwl Into the dehydrating solution within the 
still, whereby hydrochloric acid is liberated and after passing off is condensed. 

503..-i.W—Au()ust 15, 1893. E. SOLVAY. Apparatus for the distillation of hydro- 
chloric actd. 
Apparatus for process No. 453,986. 

WI,,S39—Maj/ 10, 1891. W. WALKER. Process of and apparatus for making sili- 
cates and hydrochloric acid. 

Hydrochloric acid is obtained as a by-product in the production of pure sili- 
cates for gla.ss making by mixing chlorine of sodium and lime with pulverized 
sand, and heating the ma.ss in the presence of moisture to drive off the hydro- 
chloric acid, which Is collected, and form a silicate of soda and lime. 

605,369— June 7, 1898. J. R. WYLDE AND J. W. KYNASTON. Procets of making 

hydrochloric acid. 

Hydrochloric acid free from arsenic Is made from gases, wherein hydrochloric- 
acid gas is present contaminated with arsenic, by cooling the gases and then 
pa.ssing them in the presence of chlorine through or in contact with coke in a 
"dry tower." in which the arseni<* is retained, and thence to a wet tower, in 
which the hydrochloric acid is condensed. 

61i.m;t— October 11, 1898. G. B. B ALDO. Process of and apparatus for etectrolyzing 

sen water. 



Sec Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

18,773— January 31, 1899. H. S. 
nates. 
Sec Group XIX, Alumlnates. 



618,77i— January 31, 1899. H. S. BLACKMORE. Process of making alkali aluml- 
nates. 



PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

ll,,7ti—Apriin, 1866. E. N. HORSFORD. Improcement in preparing phosphoric 
acid as a substitute for other solid acids. 

'■ Pulverulent phosphoric acid " is produced by treating burned bones with 
dlluteti sulphuric acid for several days, then leaching the pasty ma.ss and con- 
centrating the extract to 2.5° Baurn^. and adding perfeeth- wnite l>one ashes and 
concentrating to one-half its original bulk. P'lour or farinaceous material is 
then added, and the material is passed through a sieve and dried. 

156,1M— October m, 1871,. J. E. SIEBEL. Improvement in recovering phosphoric 

acid and purifying ajnmmiia. 

A solution of phosphate of lime, obtaine<l in the treatment of Imnea, is satu- 
rated with ammonia, forming a solution of phosphate of ammonia, whicls is 
evaporated, heate<l in a retort, and the ammonia recovered as well as the pkioa- 
phoric acid. Crude ammonia thus repeatedly used is purified; 

191,,050—Aiigust 14, 1*77. N. B. RICE. Improvement in processes qf recovering 

pttosphoric acid used in manufacture of gelatine. 

In obtaining gelatine from bone, etc., by means of phoaphoric acid, the acid 
phosphate of Time is treated to recover the phosphoric acid by subjecting each 
lot to tlie action of sulphuric acid and then leocbing a part or the whole of the 
next lot through the sediment. 

tt9,70S—July 6, 1880. E. N. HORSFORD. Pulverulent preparation qf phosphoric 
add. 

Pulverulent phosphoric add Is formed by treating the acid liquor tn bring it 
into the condition of free pha*<phoric acid, concentrating it, mixing it with 
starch as a neutral suljstance. drying, and pulverizing. It is then mixed with a 
dry alkaline carbonate to form a baking powder. 

tSO.Sn— August 10, 18S0. E. N. HORSFORD. Pulverulent preparation qf phos- 

ptwricacid. 

The liquor resulting from the acti<m of sulphuric acid upon bone-ash is taken 
directly from the leach, boiled down and mixed with starch, dried, and pulver- 
ized; forming a pulverulent product of free phosphoric acid and monocaldc 
phosphate direct from the liquid, it is mixed with a dry alkaline carbonate to 
form a baking powder. 



166 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



239,59U~March S9, 18S1. H. S. MAXIM. Process of and apparatus /or vianu/oc- 

Uiring phosphoric anhydride. 

Phosphoric anhydride is jjroduced by bringing together a jet of vapor of 
phosphorous and a blast of air of sufficient volume to oxidize the phosphorous 
to its highest equivalency. 

S53M3—May 23, 1883. W. H. HUGHES AND P. O'RIELLY. ProceifS of pre^mr- 

ing plwsphoric acid from bones. 

Liquid acid phosphates are treated with chlorate of potassa and the compound 
subjected to a high degree of heat to eradicate organic impurities. The process 
as a whole involves washing, calcining, leaching with sulphuric acid, filtering, 
treating with hot air or steam and then with chlorate of potassa and beat, and 
dissolving in water, with successive flltrations at different stages. 

306,e6U— October IK. 1881*. S. G. THOMAS AND T. TWYNAM. Pt^ocess of obtain- 
ing phosphoric acid from metallurgical slugs. 
The slag is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, a lime salt added in just 

sufficient quantity to precipitate the iron as ferric phosphate, and the solution 

of free phosphoric acid separated. 

S12.90U— February ZU, 1885. C. SCHEIBLER. Process of treating phosphatic slag. 
The fluid slag is allowed to cool very slowly, whereby a concentration of the 
phosphoric acid takes place on the one part and of the iron and manganese on 
the other, so as to permit of their being separately removed. 

S9S,lS8~~Nov€mber27,1888, W. B. GILES AND A. SHEARER. Manufacture of 

phospJioric acid. 

Phosphoric acid is separated from impurities by distilling impure phosphoric 
acid at a high temperature — say a red heat— in the presence of a current of air, 
steam, or hydrochloric acid, and condensing the distillate in a partial vacuum. 

l^9,575~~Sepiember 15, 1891. C. GLASER. Process of making phosphoric acid. 

Sulphuric acid is first diluted with phosphoric acid (instead of water), and 
then successive charges of jjhosphatic material are treated with sulphuric acid 
diluted with phosphoric acid of increasing degrees, using the phosphoric acid 
derived from each charge as a diluent to the sulphuric acid used in treating the 
succeeding charge. 

527,670— Octo&er 16, 1891,. G. DESCAMPS. PhospJioric acid with an absorbent. 

Phosphoric acid in a dry form is provided by charging a vegetable cellulose, 
as sawdust or cane bagasse, with phosphoric acid and drying, the operation 
being repeated to increase the percentage of phosphoric acid in the absorbing 
material. 

5W. nU—May £8, 1895. J. VAN RU YMBEKE. Process of inaking phosphoric acid. 
A mixture of natural phosphate and clay is submitted to the action of heat in 
the presence of a reducing agent, as by fusing with coke, and the phosjjhorus 
vapors, produced and earned off with the products of combustion, are subjected 
to the action of air in sufficient quantity to oxidize the vapors into phosphorus 
pentoxide, which is collected in water, and concentrated to the desired density. 

OTHER INORGANIC ACIDS. 

76,678~April U, 1868. D. P. WEBSTER. Improvement in bottles far holding hydro- 
fluoric acid. 
They are made of wood, papier-mac hC, or like material, coated inside with 

asphalt and outside with a compound of india rubber and gum shellac. A 

bottle may be made of two sections fitted together, 

137, 07£~March 25, 1873. F. GUTZKOW. Improvement in the manufacture of bo- 

racic acid. 

Boracie acid is separated from borate of lime by distillation with superheated 
steam. 

160,761— March 16, 1875. F. FORMHALS. Improvement in processes of obtaining 

boracie acid from borate of lime. 

Sulphurous acid is passed through borate of lime while the latter is in a state 
of suspension in water. 

27 /,,660— March 27, 1883. W. B. ROBERTSON, Jr. Process of and apparatus 

for obtaining boracie acid from borates. 

Nitrous and sulphurous vapors are formed aud introduced, together with air, 
into a borate solution, or borate in suspension in wat«r, forming boracie acid. 

239.836— December 11, 1883. J. B. HOBSON. Process of and apparatus for obtain- 
ing boracie acidfrmn native borate of lime. 
Borate of lime is boiled with water and sulphuric acid gradually added, not, 

however, in excess. The solution is allowed to settle and the liquor is drawn 

off, filtered, cooled, and the boracie acid crystallized out and pressed to remove 

the remaining mother liquor and expel its impurities. 

650,187— May 22, 1900. C. C. MOORE. Process of making boracie acid and chlo- 
rates. 

Powdered crude borate is suspended in water, or the mother liquor of a pre- 
vious operation— say three pounds to the gallon — chlorine is i»assed there- 
through with agitation, and the boracie acid precipitated by refrigerating to 15° 
to 20° C. 

322,011— July lU, 1885. W. A. ROWELL. Manufacture of chromic acid. 

Chromic acid is produced by first producing in a solution of a chromate a pre- 
cipitate of chromate of strontium, then completing the precipitation of the chro- 
mate solution by means of barium; afterwards decomposing the chromate of 
barium with excess of sulphuric acid and finally applying the same acid to 
decompose the chromate of strontium. 

630,612— August 8, 1899. M. Le BLANC AND H. REISENEGGER. Process of 
producing chromic aci-i by electrolysis. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

S9l,,S87~D€ce))iber 11, 1888. E. W. PARNELL AND J. SIMPSON. Obtaining 

hydrogen sulphide. 

Ammonium sulphide is first treated with dilute carbonic acid and the evolved 
gases permitted to escape; then the ammonium sulphide is given a second treat- 
ment with carbonic acid, yielding pure hydrogen sulphide. 

l^3,2U9—May U, 1839. A. M. AND J. F. CHANCE. Obtaining hydrogen sulphide 

from alkali waste. 

Gases containing carbonic acid are passed through alkali waste and the result- 
ant gases, containing hydrogen sulphide, are then passed through fresh alkali 
waste so that the hydrogen sulphide unites therewith. The waste so enriched 
is then treated with gases containing carbonic acid, yielding a gas rich in hydro- 
gen sulphide, which is collected. 



h61, 665— October SO. 1S91. T. W. CAPPON. Process of producing hydrofiuosilicic 

acid. 

Hydrofiuosilicic acid is produced by passing fluoride of silicon into an aque- 
ous solution containing free hydrofluoric acid — from 10 per cent to 20 per cent 
or more — during the presence of which free acid the silica is dissolved. 

IS5,607— December 22, 1391. M. W. BEYLIKGY. Manufacture of hydrofiuosilicic 

acid. 

Hydrofiuosilicic acid is produced by heating a mixture of sulphate of iron 
and an equivalent proportion of finely powdered fluorspar to incipient redness 
in a closed vessel, passing steam over it to produce tiuohydrie acid charged 
with vapor of water, and finally passing the said acid condensed with water 
through silica. 

626, 5 11— June 6, 1399. E. TEISLER. Process of obtaining silicic and hydrofiuosili- 
cic acids. 

An aqueous .solution of fluorine compounds, resulting from the purification of 
graphite, is heated to evolve a mixture of steam and gasiform fluosilicate, and 
the mixture is then cooled so as to cause the fluosilicate to decompose into 
silicic acid and hydrofiuosilicic acid, and the two compounds are separated. 

/^,633~-January 10, 
acid. 



139S. F. GRUESSNER. Process of recovering metastannic 



Metastannic acid combined with arsenic is recovered by dissolving the com- 
I>ound in concentrated hot sulphuric acid, then adding an oxidizing agent, us 
nitric acid, and then diluting until free metastannic acid is precipitated. 

529,100— November IS, 1891,. LA. F. BANG AND M. C. A. RUFFIN. Manufacture 

of anhydrous stannic add. 

A solution of an alkaline bicarbonate is added to a solution of an alkaline 
stannate to precipitate metastannic acid, which precipitate is mixed with sul- 
phuric acid, dried and calcined at a red-white heat. 

575,2hO~January 12, 1897. A. K. HUNTINGTON. Process of making hydrocyanic 

acid. 

A mixture of acetylene and nitric oxide is ignited and rapidly burned in a 
closed chamber — as "in a gas engine. The products, hydrogen and hydrocyanic- 
acid gases, are passed through solutions of substances which combine with 
hydrocyanic acid — as soda or potash — producing cyanides. The carbonic oxide 
and hydrogen may be used for combustion. 

101,011— March 22, ISiO. M. HATSCHEK. Improved apparatus for producing sul- 

phurous acid. 

A solution of sulphurous acid is ])roduced by spraying water through the 
ascending fumes of sulphur. 

123.7 IS^Febi'uary IS, 1873. P. MARCELIX. Improvement in the manufacture of 

sulphurous acid. 

Pure sulphurous acid is produced by the decomposition of sulphate of iron 
with sulphur in a retort at a brig^it cherry-red heat. 

268,530— December 5, 1832. R. P. PICTET. Pi-oductvm and dehydration of sul- 
phurous oxide and apparatus therefor. 

Sulphurousacid gas is passed through a refrigerator in which pure anhydrous 
sulphurous acid is undergoing vaporization, whereby at the low temperature 
(at least —10° C.) the hydrate of the .sulphurous acid crystallizes out. 

308,289— November 18. 188U. T. TERRELL. Making ferric oxide and sulphurous 

acid from ferric sulphate. 

The ferric sulphate is decomposed by heat; free sulphur (about 10 per cent) 
being mixed therewith to assist the decomposition. 

311,595 — Februarys, 1885. I. S. McDOUGALL. Production of sulphurous acid. 

In the production of sulphurous acid air is forced under pressure into a closed 
vessel containing ignited sulphur or sulphur-bearing material, the vessel being 
water jacketed or cooled to maintain a temperature below that of volatilization 
of sulphur; the sulphurous gases are conducted from said retort into and below 
the surface of an absorbing liquid. 

363,1,57— May 21,, 1887. H. B. FORD. Apparatus for and process of the manufac- 
ture of sulphurous oxide. 
In the manufacture of sulphurous oxide in liquid form all moisture is removed 

from the air before it is supplied to the sulphur furnace. 

378,673— February 28, 1383. C. E. GETCHELL. Apparatus for making sulphurous 

acid. 

A combining chamber has thin sinuous or zigzag passages for the acid fumes, 
with water inlet at the upper part, thus affording an intimate contact with one 
another. 

197.57/, — November 27, 1ST7. C. R. STUNTZ. ImprovemeiU in compositions for pro- 
ducing suiphureted hydrogen. 

A powder consisting of an intimate mixture of coal tar and sulphur, the lat- 
ter being equivalent to or in excess of the hydrogen of the coal tar. If the gas 
is prepared in fragile vessels, the powder is diluted with sand to make the coke 
friable. 

22U,li26— February 10, 1830. W. E. A. HARTMANN. Manufacture of hydrogen 

sulphide. 

Hydrogen sulphide is produced by bringing together at a red heat, in a con- 
verter, sulphurous acid (or the vapor of sulphur or of sulphuric acid), carbon 
(coke) , and steam. 

ACETIC ACID. 

93,817— August 17, 1369. L. D. GALE AND I. M. GATTMAN. Improvanent in the 

manufacture of sugar of lead and acetic acid. 

Lead is corroded by vapors of vinegar mixed with atmospheric air, the vine- 
gar concentrated by means of chloride of sodium and the sugar-of-lead solution 
bleached with suiphureted hydrogen. Acetic acid, free from pyroligneous 
odor and color, is obtained by the distillation of acetate of lime with sulphuric 
acid. 

121,536 — December 5, 1871. J. F. CAVARLY. Improvement in purifying acetic 
acid. 
. Acetic acid is deodorized and purified by mixing therewith a small quantity 
of any of the alcohols included in the formula C.„H2 (sn+l) Og. 

118,788— September 12, 1871. C. J. T. BURCEY. Improvement in Vw manufacture 

of acetic CLCid. 

Acetate of lime and concentrated sulphuric acid are introduced into a boiler 
while under direct agitation, and the vapors condensed. 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TU CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



i<;7 



aOa.tia—Novfmbrr l», ISTS. A. I'IRZ. Improivmeiil in the mannfaclun iff aetlie 

aeU. 

A solution ot nerraunirnnati' o( iKitanli Ik nrtiU'd to Impure acetic aclil and the 
product illntillod to remove Impurities (1 |iound of permanganate to 100 inniiidii 
ot acid). 

tmSUa—Sitremlirr 19. IS7H. A. I'IRZ. [mprorrmivil In thf mam{ftuittre qf acrtic 

actfi. 

Acetic acid in extmcted Inim acetate of lime by leaching with sulphuric acid 
In itraduiilly weakciu'd MilutlonH, usInR the weak acetic acid as a diluent for 
the sulpluirlc acid, 

iOl.lKt—Aiiril :s. tsuy. I. A. F. BANG AND M. C. A. RUFFIN. I'rnoK> i^ puri- 
fying nfriic aritt. 

Crude acetic add In the Uqtild state is piirifled from pyrollRneous matter by 
brliijtliiK into Intlmiite contact with a carlxHi c iimiH)und. such as a hydnwarlKiii 
ol the benzene series, wherebv the Impurities are dissolved, and the acid then 
aeparated from the purifylnif agent. Air Is tirat blown through the crude acid 
to oxidize the tarry matters. 

llLnT—XomnlKT r,. I.ssy. I. A. F. BANG AMD M. C. A. RUFFIN. ProCfm n/ 

piiri/yiutf tifftic arid. 

In the purilicatlon of cnide acetic acid a small quantity of an oxidizing agent, 
suclii as blniixide of manganese, is introiltiecd as well as a heavy hydrocarlxm, 
the former to oxidize the impurities insoluble in hvdnK'arbons and not alTccted 
by the air. The add is heated to ebullition and the vapors caiLsed t<> pass 
through the hydrix'arbon purifying agent to the air, and the condensed particles 
to fallback through the purifying agent. 

Ull.tiS—Jull/ 1, 1S90. F. C. ALKIER. Obtaining acetic acid and methyl aleohol. 

Wood-pulp lyes are concentrated by repeated use: the concentrated solution 
neutralized bv an alkali: the methyl alcohol recovered by distillation; the 
residuary liquor evaporated to dryness; and the acetate distilled with an acid 
to obtain the acetic acid. 

ISt.ate—JuIji Si. isao. I. a. F. bang and M. C. a. RUFFIN. I'nmm oj mo*- 

tfij? fief tic acid. 

In the manufacture of acetic acid a hot solution of acetate of lime is acted 
upon by hot sulphuric acid and the auueous acetic acid drawn o(T from the 
crystaHlue priwitict. A concentrated solution of acetic acid is formed by dis- 
solving the acetate of lime in a weak solution of acetic acid and decomposing 
the resulting solution while hot by means of hot sulphuric acid. 

M5,4«i— .Vmf'i'xT '. ii^Z- F. I'. DF.WEY. Process of obtaining alumina and 

acetic acid. 

A solution of acetate of alumina, which may be formed from sulphate of alu- 
mina ami acetate of lime, is subjected to destructive distillation; the acetic- 
acid vapor is collected in a condenser, and the precipitated alumina recovered. 

S95,7S7— December SI, 1.197. A. SCHMIDT. Puriflcationnf crude acetic acid. 

Acetic acid is filtered in a tinely divided state thrnujth coal or coke, pure 
oxygen gas being forced up through the coal In an opposite direction. 

eSi.tri— Octobers, 1S99. H. PLATER-iSYBERG. Process of extracting acetic acid 
front atkatine acetates. 
Sec Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

LACTIC ACID. 

HS,St7—Jul!i ,•:, 18S1. C.E.AVERY. Mamifactme of lactates. 

Lactic acid and lactates are produced by the fermentation of a sugar of vege- 
table origin with a lactic ferment in the presence of nitrogenous matters, chiefly 
of vegetable origin, and of a substance suitable to gradually neutralize the acid 
as formed. 

tao.SHS— December 18, 1883. G. A. MARSH, ifanufacture of lactates and lactic acid. 
In the manufacture of lactic acid and the lactates by the fermentation of dex- 
trine or like gums with an active lactic ferment and an acid neutralizing sub- 
stance, agitation is prevented during fermentation to avoid butyric and other 
destructive fermentations. 

t90,t.'ii—l>ecetnher IS. lasi. O. A. MAR.SH. ilanufactureof lactates for the prorhic- 

tion of tactic acid. 

Lactic acid an .he lactates are produced by the fermentation of any amyla- 
ceous substance, as com meal, in its original form, in water, with an active 
lactic ferment charged with an acid neutralizing substance, as carbonate of 
lime. 

«W JU— December 18, 188$. C. O. THOMPSON, ifanufacture of lactic acid and 

lactates. 

Neutral calcium-lactate crystals are obtained by digesting amylaceous matter, 
converting a portion into glucose, and adding to' the glucose lliiuor, still mixed 
with the nitrogenous matters and residues, pure white gluccwe, fermenting 
with lactic fcmicnl and neutralizing the acid as it fonns with carbonate of lime. 
Acid crystals are obtained from the nontm! cryst-ais by digesting same in hot 
water, filtering, treating with sulphuric acid, again liltering, concentrating, and 
crystallizing. 

Stl,9SS—July 7, 18SS. C. N. WAITE. Process ofdistHling lactic acid. 

It Is dlstllle<l and purified by the aid of free steam; the steam takes up the 
pure lactic acid and is then condensed. 

SM.8IS—.\orember 17. 1S8S. C.E.AVERY. Manufacture nf ladates. 

A lactic ferment is purified and preserved by adding it to a medium specially 
favorable to its growth and less favorable to the growth of other fennents. A 
pure reagent is prepared by successive impregnations of a series of culture baths 
with lactic ferment, the impregnation of each solution from the nreceding one 
being elTected at the point of full height of fermentation, as eviuenced by the 
evolution of carbonic acid gas at its tirst maximum. A culture bath is formed 
by adding 1.000 part-s of starch sugar, dextrine, glucose, or milk sugar to 6,000 
parts of water, then -TOO part.s of cartxmate ot lime, and tinallv 100 parts of vege- 
table nitrogenous matter, the mixture being kept at a heat of 35° to 45° C. 

S65.655—June S.% 1887. C. N. WAITE. Manufacture of lactic acid. 

In the lactic fermentation of a fermentable sugar with lactic ferment and a 
neutralizer, glue is added to supply soluble nitrogenous matter. 

ses.OSt— August 9, 1887. C. N. WAITE. Process of lactic fermentation. 

A pure lactate of lime is produced by the fermentation of sugar, glucose, or 
pure starch with a minute quantity of nitrogen in the form of ammonia, and a 
minute quantity of phosphoric acid, and lactic ferment in a closed vessel in the 
absence of air. 



ii.;.ii7H—June So.tmi. <'. X. WAITE. Process nf manufncturlng Inelle neUI . 

i)rude salts, such as zinc lactate, arc dlsnolved in boiling water, an exceM of 
milk of lime is added to the s<ilutloti, the precipitate rvinnviM by flllnition, and 
sulphuric add added to the nitrate, which is then again flltert.<l to rt^raore the 
sulphate of lime. 

mi„707—./Hne l.y I8B7. V. RtJOHEN. Prorr; ,^ makinfi lactic acid. 

Carbohydrates are heated with milk of lime In a cinaed vemel at not lem than 
lao" C, by which the carbohydrates are hydrolyznl lu lactic aeld. 

TARTARIC ACID. 

199,0S»— January S, 1878. F. DIETRICH. Improremenl in the mnnufaeiure ef tar- 
taric acid. 

Argols and residues r>f wine making are expowd In a dry slate Ui a tempera- 
ture ot 140° to 170° C, to taollltate the purifying of the taruric aeld salts. 

tSt.l97—Noremher U, 1S19. H. GOLDENBERO. Improremeni in the manufacture 

qf tartaric acid. 

In the mantifacture of tartaric acid, potaasinm hydrate Is recovered by mix- 
ing neutralized tartrattr of pot^iHsiuni. :f2(> parts, and water H times as much, 
with quick time, 112 parts, slacke^i in 1(1 times the quautitv ot water, and pour- 
ing into the mixture while stirring a solution of tartrate of polaMiam. 

iBS,7ga—July 14, 1891. R. W. 8CHEDLER. Manufacture of tartaric add. 

Sulphuric acid, from 5 to 15 per cent, Is added to solutions of tartaric acid 
eoneentmted to the point of crystallization to Increase the quantity of crjrital- 
llzed tartaric acid. The mother liquor Is u.sed to treat tartrate of lime. 

CITRIC ACID. 
SlS.OSa—Febmary to, I89i. C. WEHM ER. Process qf making citric aeld. 

A sugar solution of from 10 to 20 per cent, acidulate<l with from 2 to 6 
per cent of citriir acid, is exposed to the air until a fungtms growth foniu 
thereon, when the spores of fungi are cultivated in a sterilized sugar aolatlon, 
and the jmrc culture thus obtained is introduced into other sugar solutions 
and allowed to stand eight to fourteen days until citric add is Uinn*-*\. The 
acid is (Hinvcrted into a lime salt with carbonate of lime from which citric acid 
is prepared. 

SALICYLIC ACID. 

150,887— May IS, lg!i. H. KOLBE. Improvement in the procemet of preparing 

salicylic and other acids. 

.Salicylic acid, as well as the isomeric and homologons acids, is produced by 
the action of carbonic acid on carbolic acid, or cressolic acids, or on a mixture 
of them. In presence of alkalies or alkaline earths. 

166,868— Augui.1 17, 1875. W. E. GRAF. Improrement in processes of producing 

saliculic acid. 

Salicylic acid is produced by conducting carbonic acid from a generator 
into a closed, heated still, containing carbolic acid and alkali. (Apparatus No. 

166,862.) 

196. S.fi— October 16, 1877. E. SCHERING. Improvement in purifying talicylie 

acid by dialysis. 

Saiieyllc acid is purified by filtering it through animal membrane. 
)Si,S90—.ranuary IS, 1886. R. SCHMITT. Manufacture of salicylic acid. 

Salicylic acid and its homologues are produced by subjecting the phenolates 
of the alkalies and earthy alkalies to the action of dry carbonic add under 
pres,siire at low temperatures, to produce phenyl carlwnic alkaline and earthy 
alkaline salts, and tnen converting the.se .salts into salicylates and their homo- 
logues by heating in hermetically closed vessels at from 120° to 140° C. 

S65.875— January 11, 188:7. T. KEMPF. ManufactureofsalicyticacidandsubsUtutet 

thereof. 

Salicylic acid, or the substitutes and homologues thereof, is produced in one 
operation by subjecting the phenolates of the alkalis and earthy alkalis, and 
the substituted phenolates of said alkalis and earthy alkalis, to the action of 
carbonic acid under pressure at from 120° to 145° C. 

iie.SlS— December 5, 1889. H. BAUM. Dithiosalicylic acid. 

A new product, having the general formula Ci^HioSjOg, and which melts a.s 
a resin. It Is formed by heating protochloride of sulphur (or the bromide or 
Iodide) with salicylic acid. 

M9,l8!—>!member IS, 1891,. S. MARAS8E. Proeessof making salicylic acid. 

A dry mixture of phenol and potas-sium carbonate in excess Is treated at a 
gradually increasing temperature with carbonic-acid gas under pressure until 
the reaction is completed and potassium salicylate is obtained. Salicylic acid 
is then produced from the potassium salicylate in the well-known way. 

611.011,— September SO. 1898. L. LIMPACH. ProccM of making saticylo-aceticaeid. 
Monochloracetates are caused to act on salts of salicylamid, and the prodnct 
is stiponified. 

61,!,.077— February S7. 1900. F.HOFFMANN. Acetyl salicylic acid. 

A new product, soluble in benzene, alcohol, and glacial acetic acid, M. P. 136° 
C, is obtained by heating salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. 

TANNIC ACID. 

S3i,U89— August SU, 1880. J. HOLTZ. (Maining tannic acid. 

Tannin or tannic acid is produ<'ed in adcularform by passiiig the ioq>laBated 
tannin extract through a fine sieve and breaking up the dried threads. 

S6S.7!n— .September 5, 188S. A. MITSCHERLICH. Manufacture qf tannic aeid. 

W(K)d is first subj«*te<l to the action of steam under pressure, and then to the 
action of an aqut^ous s^tliition of liisulpbite of Iim«' at a temiR.rature alxjve the 
iKiiliug point; and the t*innlc acid solution and a solution of bisulphite of iimo 
are siinultancously produced by exposing small pieces of carbonate of time to 
the joint action of a spray ot water from above and the fumes of the aforesaid 
Ablution from Ik-'Iow. 

OTHER ORGANIC ACIDS. 

t7e,888-Xay 1, 188S. C. RCDOLPH. .Vaniifadnrcofeinnamicacid. 

Benzylldeacetone is heated with bromine di!i«olve<l in soda lye and dilnted 
sulphuric acid added when the bromoform generated has separated from the' 
aqueous solution. The cinnamlc acid is ourified by recryslallixation with alco- 
hol or water. 



168 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



Ui.set— September 11, 1883. M. H. LACKERSTEEN. Process oj treating fats and 
oils. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

363,566— Xox'ember 30, 1SS6. M. H. LACKERSTEEN. Process of manufacturing 

soap and glycerine. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
W! ,906— July SO, 1889. B. R. SEIFERT. Process of making paraoxybenzoic acid. 

In the manufacture of this acid the heating of potassium jihenate and dry 
carbonic acid is done in a closed vessel under a superatmospheric pressure to 
180° C. or more. 

i70,9SO— March 16, 189S. B. R. SEIFERT. Process of making oxymethoxybemoic 

acids. 

Guaiacol acid and etigetinie acid are produced by evaporating an aqueous 
solution of guaiacol or eugenol and an alkali or earthy alkali, aiid saturating 
the dry salt with carbon dioxide under pressure and heating to over 100° C. 

138,190— December SO, 189i. B. R. SEIFERT. Process of making oxyuritic acid. 

Alkaline or earthy alkaline salts of eresol are subjected to the action of car- 
bonic acid at a temperature of from l&P to 220° C. The product is dissolved in 
water and alpha oxyuvitic acid is precipitated by mean.s of hydrochloric acid. 
It has a M. P. of 290° C. It may be purified from any cresotinic acid by partial 
precipitation of the solution of a salt of the acid. 

Sll.iSO— December se, 189S. A. A. NOYES AND A. A. CLEMENT. Process for 
the manufacture of paraamidophenol sulphonieacid. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

61^7,611 — October 8, 1895. L. LEDERER. Process of making aromatic oxycarbon 

acids. 

The homologous phenoxacetic acids are melted with caustic alkalis; as 
ortho-oresoxacetic acid one part and caustic soda two part*, and heated to 270° 
C. with the addition of a little water. The aqueous solution of the melt is 
decomposed by dilute sulphuric acid. 

656,711— March S, 1896. B. R. SEIFERT. Citricphenetidin acid and process of 

obtaining it. 

New products, having the form of white crystalline powders, of acid reaction, 
soluble in water, in alcohol, and in soda solutions, are produced by heating 
para-amido-phenetol with citric acid or its derivatives; treating the product 
with hot water or with solutions of soda or caustic soda, and of a mineral acid 
successively, and crystallizing. 

657,ltlO — March 31, 1896. W. MAJERT. Pyrocotechin mmio-acetic acid and process 

of making same. 

A new compound, M. P. 131° C, is produced by subjecting one molecule of 
pyrocatechin to the action of one molecule of chloracetic acid in the presence 
of an alkali or alkali carbonate. 

663,076— June SO, 1896. B. R. SEIFERT. Paraphenetidin succinic acid and process 

qf making same. 

New products, derived from the dicarbon acids of the fattv series and para- 
phenetidin, soluble in water, M. P. 163° to 195° C, are produced by heating 
paraphenetidin with one of the dicarbon acids of the fatty series, boiling the 
product with soda solution and adding a mineral acid, and purifying by crys- 
tallization. 

698,790— February 8, 1898. A. KREPTING. Process of treating seaweed [tang 
acid). 

The lime is extracted by means of dilute sulphuric acid before the seaweed 
Is otherwise chemically treated, the liquid filtered, and the nonnitrogenous 
and pure tang acid precipitated. 

6!,lf,S31— Februarys?, 1900. E. SAPPER. Process of making phthalic acid. 

A substance whose formula contains that of the naphthalene nucleus la heated 
with sulphuric acid in the presence of mercuric sulphate. 

335,963— February 9, 1886. E. SCH A AL. Converting petroleum and similar hydro- 
carbons into acitis. 

Petroleum and other hydrocarbons of the series C„Ha,-f2 are converted into 
organic acids by subjecting them in the presence of alkaline substances — caus- 
tic alkalis, alkaline earths or their carbonates — to the action of an oxidizing 
agent, separating out the alkaline salts produced and decomposing them with 
a mineral acid, and finally separating the organic acids into liquid acids and 
solid acids by distillation. 

GROUP II.— SODAS. 

CAUSTIC SODA. 

16,111— November S6, 1866. C. BICKELL. Process of treating feldspar for manure. 
Pota.sh or soda is obtained either in the caustic or carbonated state. 
See Group VIII, Fertilizers, Processes. 

U,SSa— February 8, 1869. H. PEMBERTON. Improvement in the process of manu- 
facturing caustic soda and otiwr caustic alkalis. 

The solution of caustic soda or other caustic alkalies is separated from the 
carbonate of lime or other precipitate by filtration through fire brick or other 
porous substance capable of resisting the caustic action of the alkaline liquors. 

16l,8U6—July 7. 1871,. C. AND J. JURON AND A. AND L. IMBERT. Improve- 
ment in the production of caustic alkalis from carbonates. 
Superheated steam is passed through the mass of alkaline carbonates to be 

converted. 

169,800— November 9,1876. H. GASKELL, JK. Improvement in processes of manu- 
facturing caustic soda. 
A heated revolving furnace is first charged with salt cake, or with cake and 

coal slack, and when the salt cake has become fluxed or softened the chalk or 

lime is added and the balance of the slack. 

301,018— March 6, 1878. C. LOWIG. Improvement in manufacture of caustic alka- 
lis and preparations of alumina. 

Carbonate of soda or potassa is heated to a red heat with so much alumina, or 
alumina ore, or oxide of iron, as to present one equivalent of alkali to one 
equivalent of alumina. By subsequent lixiviation aluminate of soda is obtained 
free of cartx)nate of alkali. The product is decomposed bv the addition of a 
paste of hydrate of lime, of hydrate of strontia, or of hydrate' of magnesia, form- 



ing the aluminates of said earths as precipitates, the caustic alkali remaining 
in solution. Gelatinous hydrate of alumina is produced by the formation of 
chloride of alimiinium from the aluminates of the earths prepared according to 
this process, and the decomposition of the same by means of the earths, or their 
carbonic-acid salts, or the aluminates. 

103,761 — May ii, 1878. E. W. PARNELL. Improvement in the manufacture of 

caustic alkalis. 

Carbonates of soda and potassa of a greater specific gravity than 1,200° are 
heated with caustic lime in a closed vessel under pressure. 

11,1,383— May 10, 1881. G. T. LEWIS. Perfumed caustic soda. 
An essential oil is added to granulated or pulverized caustic soda while in ec 
' dry state. 

16i,91S— March U, 1881. E. CAREY, H. GASKELL, Jr., AND F. HURTER. Puri- 
fication of alkaline solutions. 
Alumina in solution is added to alkaline solutions containing an excess of 

silica to precipitate the same. 

158,850— May 30, 1881. E. CAREY, H. GASKELL, Jr., AND F. HURTER. Purifi- 
cation of alkaline solutions obtained in the manufacture of soda. 
The sulphur compounds are oxidized with the aid of manganese oxide or 

sodium nitrate, and the liquor is then heated to at least 176° C. to cause the 

double decomposition of the oxidized sulphur compounds and the cyanogen 

compounds. Ammonia is recovered. 

ni,117— February IS, 1883. C. B. DUDLEY. Method of making soda-lime. 

Sal soda is mixed with caustic lime — without extraneous heat — in such pro- 
portions that the water of crystallization will be taken up by the caustic lime. 

17i,619— March 17, 1883. C. LOWIG. Process of manufacturing caustic alkalis. 

A mixture of carbonate of soda — or of potash — and oxide of iron is fumaced, 
and subsequently lixiviated. 

361,677— May 10, 1887. E. SOLVAY. Manufacture of causHc soda. 

Sodium bicarbonate obtained by the ammonia-soda process is mixed directly 
with oxide of iron, heated in a closed apparatus and then transferred to another 
furnace and heated to the temperature necessary to drive out the remaining 
carbonic acid so as to obtain caustic soda. 

1,01,116— April SO, 1889. J. A. BRADBURN. Process of manufacturing caustic soda. 
Sodium chloride, or potassium chloride, is treated with nitric acid and perox- 
ide of manganese in a still. The spent liquor is treated with caiLstic soda or 
potash, the precipitated manganese oxidized and removed, and the nitrate solu- 
tion evaporated, mixed with ferric oxide, fumaced, and the mass then lixivi- 
ated. 

IM,3SU: lM,39e; tM,59l,— December 9, 1890. 1. L. ROBERTS. Electrolytic appa- 
ratus. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

1,50,103— April 7, 1891. E. A. LE SUEUR. Electrolytic apparatus. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

t,6t,,136— June 16, 1891. A. KAYSER. Manufacture of caustic alkali, etc. 

A mixture of an alkaline chloride with a clay containing silica— in the pro- 
portions of U pounds of silica to 1 pound of alumina— is heated to a white heat 
in a converter by the direct action of highly heated gas containing steam; then 
melted with an alkali, leached, and the residue ground to release the alkali. 
The gaseous products from one converter, combined with additional highly 
heated gases, are applied to a second mixture of the chloride with clay. 

!„^S,56S— September 1, 1891. F. ELLERSHAUSEN. Process of making caustic 
alkali. 

In the manufacture of caustic soda and potash from solutions of their respec- 
tive sulphides, the solutions are filtered through granulated ferrate of sodium or 
potassium. 

1^9,688— September 16, 1891. 6. H. GRAY. Process of making soda with strontium 

Halts. 

Sodium, or potassium, hydrate is produced by treatment of sodium sulphate 
with strontium hydrate, followed by treatment of the strontium sulphate thus 
produced with magnesium carbonate and sodium, or potassium, salts, thus 
producing strontium carbonate to be afterwards converted into strontium 
hydrate. 

l,63,S66—Novcmbcr S, 1891. J.SIMPSON. Process of making caustic soda. 

Calcic phosphate is treated with hydrochloric acid, sulphate of soda is added, 
the liquor is drawn off and concentrated, and the concentrated mass is sub- 
jected to a red heat, fused, and the fused mass dissolved. The phosphate of 
soda and sodium chloride contained in the .solution are separated, the former 
treated with caustic lime, and the resulting phosphate of lime and caustic soda 
separated. 

1S1,I,07— August IS, 1891. F. M. LYTE. Production of cattstie alkalis and chloriTte. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
tSI,,990— October 16, 1891. H. BLACKMAN. Electrolytic process and apparatus. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

1,91,700— February lU, 1893. E. B. CUTTEN. Method of elcctrolytically producing 

soda and cldorine. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
1,98,769— June 6, 1893. T. CRANEY. Method of electrolynng salts. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

601,111— July 11, 1893. C. N. WAITE. Art of manufacturing clUorine or caustic 
alkali by electrolysis. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

601,783— July 18, 1893. E. HERMITE AND A. DUBOSC. Method of and appa- 
ratus for electrolyzing solutions. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

60i,70S— September 11, 1893. A. BREUER. Electrolytic diaphragm. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

508,80/,— November U, 1893. H. S. BLACKMORE. Process of and apparatus for 
dissociating salts of alkalis by electrolysis. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



169 



StO.979— December 19. JS9.1. O. LUNQE ANDC. II. M. LYTK. Procfut 11/ makinu 
• bnitir Irmt gtUU aiid ctiu^ir tilkatl. 

Cruili- pig lend is oxlclizwl iinil the oxirto dliwilvcd In nitric acid; the lead 
nllnilv dwoiniio.ifil by wkIu ciirlKinnte unci rnimtli' Midn to form bniilo lead car- 
bomito anil pure whIIi' nitmti', Nllrlo mid, for um' over iiKiiln. nnil fcrrltc of 
KcMln In llicn funniil by dniiblr iliriimiKMlilon iif ihc .•uKlicnltruli' with ferric 
oxide, and the (errlle of soda Is deionuHuivd Into ferrle oxide and eaiixtle »oda, 
Silver, If any. Is precipitated from tlio lead nitrate with finely divided lead. 

Sli.It.1—I->hr<mrj, fi, lani. K. M. LY'IK AND O. HTNOE. J'rofetii -if making 

rttitMic alkali and lead chturidr. 

An alkaline nitntte l.s flnit formed by the double deeompoaltlon of nitrate of 
lead and an alkaline chkiride. and the alkaline chloride i« then deoomjHwe*!, 
while In admixinre with ferric oxide In sutHclent projiortlon to maintain the 
I>or<wlty of the mass, by the action of heatecl air and nteam at a temperature 
suthelent to convert the whole of the Imso of the alkaline iiitratv Into a ferrlte 
of the alkali with the evolution of nltroua fumeji, which are converted Into 
nitric acid. 

il».06^— April 10, ISBi. C. HOEPFNER. EtectrolyUc apparalui. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
iiajas— April 10, Ili9i. H. Y. CA.STNER. Electrolytic apparcOut. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

StS.710— April tU89L H. CARMICHAEL. Method 0/ and apparatia /or electro- 
chemical decompotitioti. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
iti.eiU—Julu 10, lS9i. I. L. ROBERTS. Eleetroli/tic diaphragm. 
See Group X, ElcctroKihemlstry. 

itt,il6-^nUy to, 189i. I. L, ROBERTS. Method qf electrolytic decomposUion qf 

laOt. 

See Gmnp X, Electro-chemistry. 
6tS,0t6-Jttly 17, 189i. C. N. WAITE. Diaphragm for ekdrolyUc cell$. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

ItS.Stt— October SO. lS9i. H, Y. CASTNER. I^ocese 0/ and apparatus/or electro- 
lytic decwnjumtion of alkaline mlts. 
See (Jroup X, Electro-chemistry. 

Ul.tas-December l.S, 189i. C. T. J. VAUTIN, ProeeM of and apparatus for the 
production ttf ,-awttic alkali. 

See Group X. Electro-chemistry. 

SSi.03S— February It, 189S. T. CRANEY. Apparatus for manvfaduring caustic 

soda. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
ll.l,l!A—June ;s, lS9i. H. BL.\CKMAX. Electrolytic process and apparatus. 

Sec Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

5l,l.S97—June U. isg.'i. J. D. DARLING. Method of and apparalm for manufac- 
turing sulphuric acid and by-products. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

6i8,StS—Seplember 17. 1895.^ C. HOEPFNER. Anode for electrolytic apparatus. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

See.OiS— March 10, 1896. M. H. WILSON. Electrolytic apparatus. 
Sec Group X, Eleetro-chcmi-stry. 

ees,tSl—Seplemher it, lS9e. H. BLACKMAN. Electrolytic anode and apparatus. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

S7t.i7!— December 1, isae. H. Y. CASTNER. Anode for electrolytic processes. 
Sec Group X, Elcctro-chemlietry. 

678,1.67— March 9. 1897. C. KELLNER. Process of and apparatus for simuUane- 
ously producing ammonia, sodium hydroxide, and chlorine. 
Sec Group X, Electro-chemistrj-. 

SSS.3.iO—.Vay i6, 1897. E. A. LE SUEUR. Process qf electrolysis. 

See Group X, Electro-chemlstr)-. 
686,387— June i9, 1897. C. KELLNER. EUdrotytic diaphragm. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

586,06— July IS, 18S7. L. P. HCUN. JVoCM* 0/ electrolytie decomposition qf solu- 
tions. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

5S6.7t9—July to, l«/7. C. KELLNER. Mdhotl of and apparatus for effecting 
cledrolysis. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

BS7,8SO— August 10, 1897. L. P. HULIN. Process qf and apparatus for manufac- 
turing metallic peroxide and cattstic alkalis. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

CSS,t76— August 17, 18S7. C. KELLNER. Electrolytic process and apparatus there- 
for. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

S90,6iS—Septembertl,ls»7. C. KELLNER. Processqf producing hydrates or other 
salts qf alkaline metals. 
See Grotip X, Electro-chemistry. 

690JitS—Sn>lember t8, 1897. J. D. DAKLIMO. Porous diaphragm for electro- 
lytic apparatus. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
691.730— October It, 18S7. W. BEIN. Procets qfand apparatus for ekdrolyzing. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
59t.SOt—Xorember t, 1S97. N. MARCHAL.' Eledrie diaphragm. 

See Group X, Electro-chemi.stry. 

606,931— July 6. 1898. W. S. ROMME. Process of and apparatus/or decomposing 
stUid fubftunces. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 



609,7 iS— August IS, 1898. W. (i. LUXTOS. Diaphragm for electrolytic purpose*. 
Sec Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

611,009— October It, IS98. G. B. BALD<>. Process qf and apportitut fur flertn^yf 
ing tea water. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

6tS,69S—Apmu, 1889. C. E. ACKER. Procrss of and appariiim for making caustic 

alkedts. 

A fnMcd alloy, containing an alkali metal, lssuhmttlp<1 to thed!r< ,..i - ,,f 

steam from lielow the surface, by meaUM of a convi-rt*T havlntf an :i 

with steam Inlet, whereby the steam Is decomiswifl and hydr' d 

an alkaline hydrate are forme<l, the hydrate tjelnK immediately iiriM</>c-t as 
formed. 

6tS,9l8— April ti. 1899. W. LANG, C. PI8T0R, A>'D .M. f)TTO. Process of puri- 
fying caustic alkalis. 
The dllTiulvenew of a solution of the lyes, mixed with other nolutiona of a 

similar dlffuslvenem, Is Increnjied by Increusinic the deKree of concentration, and 

the Ivcs are then separated from the mixture by dllTuslon Into water through a 

diapnra^m. 

631.168— A ugust tt, IS99. C. K ELLN ER. Methoel qf and apparatus for producing 
alkali salts. 
Sec Group X, ElectrcM^hemistry. 

636,tSi — yovember 7, 1899. E. BAKER. Process of and apparatus /or electro- 
lytic decomposition of mline solutions. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

eS7.U0—XofeTnbtT 11, 1899. G. H. POND. Process of and apparatus for disso- 
ciating subi'tancee by cledrolysis. 
See Gn>np X, Electro-chemistry. 

eU.S'O— January 16, 1900. J. D. DARLING. Porous diaphragm for ceOs employ- 
ing fused electrolytes. 
See Group X, Electro-chemlstrj'. 

01,9.666— May 16, 1900. C. E. ACKER. Process of manufadurlng alkali and 
ludogen gas. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

66S.611— June 16, 1900. J. HARGREAVES. Combined diaphragm and electrode. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
66t,7Sl—Jidy S, 1900. J. B. ENTZ. EUdrolytic producUoH qf cauttie soda, etc. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

SODIUM CARBONATES. 

l,191-Junetl,.1839. H. G. DY'ER AND J. HEMMING. Improvement in the manu- 

fadure of carbonate of soda . 

Carbonate or bicarbonate of ammonia is used In convertine common salt Into a 
carbonate of soda, with recovery of the ammonia for use in sumequent operations. 

9,S!S—Orto>)er 19, 1S6S. H. PEMBERTON. Imprmement in making soda-ash and 

carbonates of soda. 

A mixture of sulphate of soda and carbonaceous matter is melted, without 
the addition of lime or other matter. An aqueous solution of the product is 
treated with carbonic acid and evai>orated to dryness and again treated in the 
dry state by carbonic acid to form bicarbonate of soda. 

59.tl5 — July 11,, 1863. L. CHANDOR. Tmprt/vement in the mant^facture of alkaline 

carbonates. 

Pota.ssium and sodium sulphurets in solution are transformed into carbonates 
by the action of cream of lime and a current of carbonic acid. By the reaction 
01 solutions of sulphuret of barium and sulphate of soda, siilphiiret of sodium 
Is obtained and sulphate of t>ary ta. To free the sulphohydric acid from carlxjuie 
add it is passed through a solution of sulphuret of barium, producing carbonate 
of baryta. 

l,H,697— August 13, 1866. T. MACFARLANE. Improved process qf preparing 
cbiorine, bleaching powder, carttonatc of soda, and other products. 
Chlorine is produced by heating a mixture of calcined green vitriol, common 
salt, and peroxide of iron in a current of air, and the residue used for the man- 
ufacture of cartxjnate of soda and soda ash. A mixture of burnt lime and slag 
is used for the furnace hearths. In the manufacture of carbonate of soda and 
soda ash the deep green alkaline solution is decolorized by the application of 
heat and the pas.sage of the fiame and carljonic acid produced by combustion 
over the solution, the ga.ses being absorbed. The artificial sulphuret of Iron is 
converted into the sulphate by tne action of the air and moisture, the sulphate 
being washed out with hot water and the solution concentrated. 

65,600 — June 19, 1866. H.M.BAKER. Improvement in tlie manufadure qf carbon- 
ate of soda, dc. 

Bicarbonate of magnesia, produced by charging carbonate of magnesia with 
carbonic acid under neat and pressure. Is mixed with one equivalent propor- 
tion of sodium chloride, giving bicartionate of soda and magnesium chlonde. 
The latter is de<'omposed by heat, yielding muriatic acid, which is distilled out, 
and magnesia, which latter is bicartx)nated and again used. 

6l,.S86—.t.pril SO, 1867. A. P. VON pOhRNHOFF. Improved process in the manu- 
fadure of bicarbonate of soda. 
Hydrate of soda is treated with carbonic gas and steam. 

90,IMh-May 18, 1869. I. WALZ AND J. M. PENDLETON. Improvement in the 

manufadure of carbonate ofsoita and other chemicals. 

A mixture of carbonate of lime and sodium nitrate in chemical proportions 
Is heated in a retort with admission of steam to regenerate nitric acid. The 
product is available for caustic soda solutions. 

116.66i—July i, 1871. W. H. BALMAIN. Improvement in the tllan^faeture qf 

bicarbonate of Sfteta. 

Bicarlxmatc of sisla. being insoluble in a saturated solution of salt or of sul- 
phate of soda. Is washed and purified by allowing water to Biter through It. 

ISO. 171, — August 6, 187i. .I.YOUNG. Improvement in proeetsa and apparatus for 

the manufadure //carbonate of soda. 

Bicarbonate <tf so<la mixed with comjKtunds of ammonia is boiled to reduce 
t<t carbonate of ammonia by tlriving off a |K>rtion of the carbonic acid and the 
residual compounds of ammonia, which are recovcre<i. 



170 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



lie.l^S— March J,, lg!S. E. SOLVAY. Improrenient in processes and apparatus for 

the vianitfqetiire of carbonate of soda. 

Carbonic iicid gas is forced into tlie bottom of a high column of a solution of 
salt and ammonia, the liquor being fed into the column midway of its height. 
The ammonia is regenerated with magnesia or basic magnesium chloride, the 
residue being boiled down with steam and the chlorine condensed. 

liS.7S5— October tl, WS. H. DE GROUSILLIERS. Improvement in the mami- 

factnre of alkaline carbonates. 

Thev are produced from their haloid salts by treating same with carbonate of 
ammonia dissolved in strong alcohol or wood spirit. 

191,11^— September 11, 1877. J. MACTEAR. Improvanent in manufacture of gran- 

xUated crystalline carbonate of soda. 

The "vat," or "red," or similar liquor is first cartjonated and then concen- 
trated, and cooled under agitation. The residuary liquor is boiled down to 
dryness and the salts decomposed in a furnace, as practiced with fresh soda- 
sulphate. 
198.S9S— December IS, 1877. F. GUTZKOW. Improremenl in the mamifacture of 

soda from its sulphate. 

Sulphate of lime is dissolved in water with the aid of sulphurous acid and 
sulphate of soda added, and the precipitated sulphate of lime removed. The 
solution of bisulphite of soda is then heated and converted into a neutral sul- 
phite solution and treated with quicklime to form caustic soda and sulphite of 
lime. The caustic soda is exposed to the action of carbonic acid to convert it 
into a carbonate. 

S0S,S56— April 16, 1S78. G. T. LEWIS AND W. J. MEXZIES. Improvement in 

manvfacture of bicarbonate of soda. 

Bicarbonate of soda is produced by passing carbonic-acid gas tiirough a mix- 
ture of sal soda and carbonate of soda by the ammonia process. 
eiS,15i— December S, 1879. C. V. PETRAEUS. Improvcmmt in processes for maitr 

vfacturing alumina and carbonate of soda. 

Hydrated alumina and carbonate of soda arc manufactured from cryolite and 
bauxite, by roasting together crushed cryolite and caustic lime, adding crushed 
bauxite, and boiling the mixture in water and treating the solution with car- 
bonic-acid gas. 

tiS.US— December 2, 18:79. C. V. PETRAEUS. Improvement in processes for man- 
ufacturing alumina and carbonate of soda. 

A roasted mixture of cryolite and caustic lime is treated with water, the solu- 
tion sepamted from the sediment, the liquor boiled with bauxite, and the 
liquor last formed separated from the sediment and treated with carbonic-acid 
gas, producing hydrated alumina precipitate and carbonate of soda in solution. 

ISS.lSi — December 2, 1S79. C. V. PETRAEUS. Improvememt in processes for man- 
ufacturing alumina and carbwtate of soda. 

A mixture of bauxite and cryolite is boiled with milk of lime, the solution 
separated, and the clear liquor treated with carbonic-acid gas to form a precipi- 
tate of alumina and solution of carbonate of soda. 

tSi.SiO— February 3, 1830. A. STEARNS. Manufacture of carbonates and bicar- 

bonates. 

The substance to be charged with gas is molded into perforated blocks and 
then exposed to the gas. 

tS7,0SS— April -37, 1S80. W. J. MENZIES. Manufacture of bicarbonate of soda. 

Soda ash of commerce is dissolved in water; any free soda is neutralized with 
carbonic acid or bicarbonate of soda; chloride of lime is added to oxidize any 
sulphur compounds, and the solution is linally treated with carbonic acid. 

iS7,561—May 11, 1880. W. J. MENZIES. Manufacture of bicarbonate of soda. 

Bicarbonate of .soda is puritied of ammon ia and organic coloring matter by pa.ss- 
ing a current of carl)omc acid over or through dry bicarbonate of soda while 
under heat and pressure. 

tW,090—June a, 1880. H. BURGESS. Concentrating alkaline solutions. 

The liquid tricklas downward throtigh a tower in the presence of hot air or 
products of combustion which are induced to take the same downward course. 

tl,3,991—Julii S, 1881. E. SOLVAY. Manufacture of soda. 

About .50 per cent of soda, already decomposed or calcined, ia mixed with 
bicarbonate of soda previous to introduction of same into the decomposing 
apparatus, to prevent incrustation. 

t61,9iii— January S, 188i. E. SOLVAY. Manufacture of soda. 

Waters obtained from the distillation of ammonia in the manufacture of 
ammonia .soda are heated in a vessel which is heated to a higher temperature 
in its upper tlian in its lower portion, the salt being precipitated in the cooler 
portion and driven into a nonheated portion of the apparatus and separated 
out. The concentrated solution of calcium chloride is decanted from the 
remaining water and from the salt. 

S5i,919— March Ik. 1881. E, CAREY, H. GASKELL, Jr., AND F, HURTER. Puri- 
fication of alkaline solutionis. 

The solutions are submitted to the action of sulphur or sulphur compounds 
added to or produced in the alkaline .solution, and of carlH)nic acid, the solution 
thus treated being then subjected to an elevated temperature to separate con- 
tained iron. 

US,821— September 6, lasS. E. SOLVAY'. Manufacture of soda. 

Bicarbonate of soda is calcined under violent agitation so as to maintain it 
as a cloud of dust and secure contact of every particle with the heated walls. 

tes,981— September 5, 1881. E, SOLVAY, Mamifacture of soda by the ammonia 

process. 

A continuous supply of both brine and ammonia is fed to the saturating ves- 
sel, from which the overflow is conducted to a vessel in which precipitation of 
the sludge takes place before carbonating and during the contliiuous flow of 
the ammoniacal brine. 

tei.OAi—September .5, i«»2. J. McCRODDEN. Soda block. 

A block of soda has its surface grooved or furrowed to give a large surface for 
the action of heat and impregnating gases. 

ee5,367— October 3, 18SS. B. T. B.^BBITT. Manufacture of bicarbonate of soda. 

.Soda ash is blown against an abutment by a blast of carbonic-acid gas induced 
by a jet of superheated steam. 

165,368— October 3, 1S82. B. T. BABBITT. Manufacture qf bicarbomUe of soda. 
Soda ash is treated with carbonic-acid gas under a super-atmospheric pressure. 



ST0.668— January 16. 1883. E. N. HORSFORD AND C. A. CATLIN. Prepanng 

alkaline bicarbonates. 

Alkaline bicarbonates are moistened with solutions of salts of magnesium or 
with solutions of other .salts which by double decomposition with the bicarbon- 
ates will fonn a superficial inert or less active carbonate— as by moistening with 
a solution of sulphate of maguesium— and theu dried. 

271,366— .lanuary SO. 18S3. E. H. RUSSELL. Process of purifying soda ash. 

Sodium carbonate is puritled of sodium sulphide by dissolving in water con- 
taining hyposulphite of soda or potash and adding sulphate of copper. 

Z76,0S0— April 17, 1883. H. GASKELL, JB., AND F. HURTER. Manufacture of 
bicarbonate of soda. 
Anhydrous carbonate of soda is subjected to the action of aqueous vapor and 

carbonic-acid gas, the aqueous vapor being so proportioned as to produce a dry 

bicarbonate. 

276.990— May 1, 1SS5. E. CAREY, H. GASKELL, JR„ AND F. HURTER. Manu- 
facture of bicarbonate of so<ia. 
Salts, obtained bv the evaporation of solutions of carbonate of soda, are 

mechanically agitated and treated with carbonic-acid gas, the excess being 

removed, and moisture removed or added as required. 

285,608— August SI, 188S. E. W. PARNELL. Manufacture qf alkalis. 

Crude alkaline solutions obtained by the i^e Blanc process are purified of sul- 
phurets by adding zinc or zinc oxide dissolved in a caustic alkali solution. 

287,561— October SO, 188S. . C, KNAB. Process of snaking sodium carbonate. 

A mixture of chloride of lead and caustic soda or potash is produced by the 
decomposition of chloride of sodium or potassium by the oxide of lead in 
water, and the caustic alkali is then dissolved out with alcohol, the alcoholic 
solution treated with carbonic acid, and the lead recovered in the moist way by 
precipitating with white cast-iron and subsequent oxidation. 

298,356— May 6, lS8i. J. TOWNSEND. Process of obtaining soda. 

A mixture of kainit and silica, or silica and alumina, is heated to from 540° 
to 81,5° C. then air or steam is passed through or over it. whereby chlorine or 
hydrochloric acid is evolved. The sulphates in the residue are then mixed with 
carbonaceous material, heated and reduced to sulphides, and the latter treated 
with carbonic acid to form carbonates of soda and potash. 

S0S,512—Xovember 25, 1881,. L. MOND AND G. JARM.\Y. Manufacture of so- 
dium bicarbonate. 

The crude soda is dissolved under pressure in water heated to near the decom- 
posing point of sodium bicarbonate at that pressure; the insoluble matters sepa- 
rated; the solution cooled below 6.5° C; the pressure removed; the solution 
cooled by passing through pans; and the pure sodium bicartwuate separated. 
The mother liquor is used for dissolving fresh crude salt. 

320,256 — June 16, 1885. A. KAYSER. Process of maldng sodium carbonate. 

Sodium sulphate is heated to a low red heat below the smelting point of the 
sulphate and a current of carbonic-acid gas and carbon monoxide — one equiva- 
lent of each— is pa.ssed through the heated sulphate, forming cartK)nate of soda 
and sulpiiurous acid. Tiie sulphurous-acid gas is employed for the conversion 
of sodium chloride into sodium sulphate, 

326,1,23— September 16, 1885. H, GASKELL, Jb. Process of purifying ammonia 

soda. 

Bicarbonate of soda contaminated with ammonia is heated in an atmospliere 
of carbonic acid, to volatilize the ammonia without decomposing the bicarbon- 
ate, the gases withdrawn, and the ammonia condensed. 

31,3.673— June 15, 1886. E. W. PARNELL AND J. SIMPSON. Ammonia-soda 

process. 

The ammonium chloride obtained in the ammonia-alkali process is mixed with 
the alkali waste of the Le Blanc process, and the sulphide of ammonium so 
produced is employed for admixture with the .sodium-chloride solution in the 
ammonia-alkali process, the hydrogen sulphide produced being collected and 
utilized, 

357,821,— Felmiary 15, 18S7. J. HAWLICZEK. Mamifacture of bicarbonate of soda. 
A solution of a chloride or sulphate of sodium or other alkali metal is mixed 
with ii crude carbonate or sulpiiide of sodium solution, and then treated with 
carbonic-acid gas in two stages, the impurities deposited in the first stage being 
separated, and bicarbonate of soda deposited in the second stage. 

361,366 — April 19, 1887. H. FRASCH. Manufacture of sodaby the ammoniaprocess. 
The ammoniacal solution is passed through a succession of ves.sels, and treated 
with mixed live steam and exhaust steam. The ammoniacal vapors of the suc- 
cessive distillations are taken oil separately. A large body of brine is main- 
tained in the absorbing apparatus, and the ammonia is brought in contact with 
a part only of the same. The salt strength of tlie ammoniated brine is restored 
by passage through a vessel in which a body of salt is suspended near the upper 
part. 

381,622— April 19, 1887. H. FRASCH. Process of and apparatus for the manvfac- 
ture of soda by ammonia. 

Limekiln gases are washed with a solution of soda, potash, or ammonia, or a 
carbonate thereof — such as the decomposed ammonium-chloride solution from 
which sodium carbonate lias been separated — to remove sooty matters without 
absorption of carbonic acid, and then forced directly into the ammoniated brine. 
The brine is given a preliminary cart>onatioh. then cooled, and then again car- 
bonated to precipitate .'iodium bicarbonate. Ammoniated brine and an ammo- 
niura-chlonde solution are introduced into the precipitating apparatus, so that 
in the early stages the formation of sodium bicarbonate in a liquid containing 
a considerable proportion of ammonium chloride is insured. Clogging of open- 
ings is prevented by artificially heating the walls of the openings. 

363,962 — MaySl, 18S7. H. FRASCH. Process of and apparatus for making Sodium 

carbonate by ammonia. 

The brine is treated witli magnesium carbonate to precipitate calcium, then 
with sodium carbonate to precipitate the magnesium, and afterwards with 
ammonia and carbonic acid. Tlie brine, under a continuous flow, is beaten 
into a spray in one or more tubes containing an atmosphere of ammonia. After 
saturation with ammonia the brine flows or percolates through a mass of .solid 
salt to regenerate the solution. The brine is super-ammoniated, and its strength 
theu reduced by addition of other brine. Revolving brackets carry compressed 
carbonic acid from above a body of ammoniated brine down into it and there 
discharge it. Ammoniated brine is treated with the gases obtained from burn- 
ing lime with hydrocarbon oil or similar clear fluid fuel. A continuous Alter 
employs a moving filter cloth. 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



171 



SOi.Mt—^uiK 7, JSW. K. 80LVAY. Ih-uceu i{f atiil apparatuifnr maklnu todium 

bicarbtniair. 

(;ruili' liliiirbonnic In decouipoiwd liv lieni, tho cBrlKinic-nclcl rbh cvolvwl 1" 
COoli-<l niid lixiviKleil, the mmIh wiliitioii <lt'cnnte<l Hnd cooled, iiiid then treated 
with thu purified giui niid tliu reaiiltiiiK curboiiate tillered and dried. 

SlS.WH—Januanj to. Itk-iti. A. KAYSEH. frix-et* of making atkalim tUleatn and 

ct\rhttmitr». 

Chloride n( wxilnm (or potaasluml 1h mixed with olny, nii<l the mixture hented 
111 II eoiiverter directly liy |iiiN<hiK hiKhly-hcuti'il g«j<e* coiiutliiiiiK »le«in throiiKh 
tho converter. coiivertiiiK the chlorlile into oxide uiid KeiierntliiK inurlntic-Hcld 
KKs. The converted iiiutcriiil i» Miulled with nil ulkuU iiiid tlic MHllum, or 
potaaaliiiu. ooiubliiiitloii.H extracted by lixivlallon. 

Sta.SSl— May K. IStiS. K. W. I'ARNKLL AND J.SIMPSON. Makinti mdlum car- 

boHotfif hy ttutphiilf* <\fthe alkuUne fttrth*, 

A inixtiire o( ground milphiitc of lime or baryta and cnrhoiiaceoun matter la 
roa.«te<i In a iionoxidiziiiK atinoNphcre; the suliihuret pro<iiiccd to mixed with 
chloride of ammonium and heBti'<l. and the .siilphiirct of ammonium evolved, 
toKethcr with carbonie-ocld Ka.s, is conducted Into a solution of Mxjlum chloride. 

SSi.sSi—Jitne 19, IfiSS. M. R. WOOD. Maim/nctiirc o/biatrlxmatr of Kiida. 

Crude bicarbonate mixed witli water to a cream-like consistency is heated to 
(IS°to91l°C while subjecte<l to iires.siire hy forcinK air into and thniuKh it to 
expel the exces8 of ammoniacal impiiritiex. Carbonii* acid is afterwards foiecd 
through it to replace any carbonic acid ttiat may have been driven oS by the 
air. 
SS7,e}S—Augiut 7, I8SS. L. F. J. WRINKLE. Proeeia of treating native eoda. 

A Mtiuated solution of the crude sotla in hot water is cleared by settling, 
■trained while hot, partially cooknl and crystallized, and run otl into other ves- 
sels and ftirther cooled and crystallized. 

39».r:5— March S. 11139. J. I. WATTS AND W. A. RICHARDS. SaU of fodium. 
Anew prtMluct.asalt, ".sesquicurlxniatcof soda." coiitiiininxoneequivttlentof 
bicarljonale of soda, one equivalent of monocarbonate^if soda, and two equiva- 
lent.'! of water, in chemical combination (NaHCOaNa-iCOa'JHjO), produced by 
process No. 399.170. 

S»9.l7H—Mareh5.ISil!). J.I. WATTS AND W.A.RICHARDS. Procemuf making a 

tKKlium saU. 

Sodium sesquicarbonate ia produced by crystallizinK at above 3.5° C. an aque- 
ous .solution containing not less than 3 equivalents ofsoda (NojO) to 4 equiva- 
lent-s of carbonic acid (COj) . 

U>l.i>'J9— April le. 1389. F. H. GOSSAGE. Ptoccm of making mda. 

In the manufacture of sulphide of sodium or potassium, to prevent destruc- 
tion of the furnace lining. *< parLs by weight of sodium chloride is added to the 
mixture for every 20 part-s of the sulphate. 

US.IUr—Hmember i9,lSSa. O. KERNER AND J. MARX. Procew of electrolyzing 
mlU of the alkaUt. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

UO.TSi—June ««. ttl90. F. W. A. FRERICHS. I^ocem of making alkaline cartm- 

itatcif and acetone. 

The acetate of an alkaline earth, a.? acetate of lime, is treated with Ihesulphate 
of the desired alkali to make an acetate of the same, which is then subjected to 
distillation, together with the anhydride of acetic acid. 

459.MO— OrtofxT ?ii. tSSH). L. A. STAUB. Procesn of and apparatus for decompoe- 

in;/ birarl)4tnat€ of »oita. 

The bicarbonate is mixed with water at about 60° C. and treated with steam 
and ammonia in a closed chamber: carbonic acid is drawn oft at the top and 
the momx^rbonate, as a semiiiquid mud, at the 1x)ttom. 

UjS,!S7—ya>nuxry 10. lS9t. B. PEITZSCH. I'roceM of treating .^a^furt taUt. 

Potassic raw .salts are treated with sulphuric acid, the sulphates thus obtained 
mixed with milk of lime, the gypsum thus formed and the magnesia being 
separated by filtering from the resulting solution of the alkaline sulphate, ana 
the latter mixed with sulphide of barium and converted into a solution of sul- 
phide of alkali and treated in a concentrated condition with carlxinic acid. 
Sepamtion of the bicurtjonates of potassium and sodium is effected by their dif- 
ferent degrees of solubility in water, and potash is obtained from its bicarbonate 
by roasting, and soda by calcination. 

1^,567— November S, 1S91. F. M. LYTE. Process of making alkaline carbonate and 

chlorine. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
i9i,'Jl9— March 7, 1S9S. K. J. SUNDSTROM. Manufacture ofsoda. 

Bicarbonate mud is first treated with a solvent of the ammonia combinations, 
such as concentrated .salt brine, and then water in fine spray is passed through 
the mud to remove the sodium chloride. 

61i,ms— March 6. lS9i. H. R. BROWNE. Process of making soda crystals. 

Bicarbonate of soda obtained by the ammonia-soda process is heated until it 
is converted into a mixture of monocarbonate and bicarbonate of soda and the 
ammonia has been driven off; and the mixture thus obtained is then dissolved 
in caustic-soda liquor obtained by the electrolysis of t^rine, aud the monocar- 
bonate of soda crystallized out. 

S5l,89S—JaHuari/ 14, lS9e. T. CRANEY. Proctm qf and apparattu for making 
carbanales of soda. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistrj-. 

5Sl.9Si— January li. is»e. T. CRANEY. Process Qf and apparatiu/ormanitfacture 
of sodium bicarbonate. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

6m,-'lS—May 19, isae. J. MEVRUEIS. Trealmait of sodium chloride. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

S79.317— March S3. 1897. E. J. CONST AJI AND A. VON HANSEN. Process of 
manufacturing percartfonatts. 
Sec Gniup X, Electro-chemistry. 

eSii.U.i—Xmvmber7, 1399. W. D. PATTEN. Process of making cakes of Inearbonate 

of stuia. 

Moist carbonate of soda is formed into small cakci, and then treated with 
carbonic-acid gas, converting them into bicarbonate of suda and making them 
rigid. 



BORATES, 

IM.oei— March ti, ttai. N. M. HKLL. Art of manufacturing tinraj.. 

Borate of llmels boiled with a cnrtHinnleof mmU stiliitlon iiri'i"' r"—""- "i'h 
constant agitation or circulation, and then nin Into setllcr 
In the manufacture, the material is sortisl into oarw and < 

fairtlcles are first etiarged Into the solution of the full streiig,., ;■-,..,. „ ,ue 
nil charge of borates, and the finer particles added ilurlng the builiog. 

i76,l!ft—June7, ism. J. AHCOroH. I'rocess of making tiorat. 

The (rorap<inent part*— crystal swlliim carlMMiale 71 ixitinds and Ntmcic acid 
r>'2 pounds — are ptuce<l In a suitable vcKsel with a small quantity of water, in the 
sha|>e of steam, and subjecte<l to heat to drive off the superfluoiu moisture, then 
agitated iu other vensels during process of cooling. 

RECOVERY PROCESSES. 

SS,9SS— December 17, imsi. H. LOWE. Imprmemml in processes of rero'irimj soda 

used in the manufacture of }Mper stork. 

The spent .solution of cau-stic soda is chargefl with carbonic-acid gas to pre- 
cipitate the organic matter. 

lS,tU,—February7 , 1885. M. L. KEEN AND H. BURGEiSS ( Reisme: 7,iSS-Januart 
SO. /S77). Improvement in processes and apparatus for evapijratlng and calcining 
alkaline soltUwns. 

The solution is evaporated to dryness and calcined, bt-lng continDoiisly sub- 
jected to flame and hot gases, whereby the vegetable matter is consamed. 

63,839— April 10. 1866. T. F. LEUMANN. Improved method of recovering tauU 

alkali used in tlte manufacture of pai>er. 

The unspent caustic alkali of alkaline solutions is converted into • carbooale 
by carbonic-acid gas. 

5J,,093— April ti, 1866. U, M. BAKER. Improved process for recovering mule 

alkali. 

The waste liquor is evaporated to dryness and the residue subjected to 
destructive distillation. 

83,733— November 3, 1868. C. D. J. SEITZ. Improvement in recovering waste 

cUkcdiesfrom paper stock and other fibers. 

The waste liquor is evaporated down to from one-half to one-fourth: soda is 
added (caustic soda or soda ash) and the hot solution run over quicklime, 
which disposes of the remaining water; and the mixture fumaced. 

101.003— March tt, 1870. W. GOODAIRE AND G. STEAD. Improrement in 

restoring ivaste alkali used in oit refineries. 

Spent alkali liquor is evaporated to a paste, and then calcined to consume 
the oleaginous portions, leading black asn, which is leached, and the hot fil- 
trated liquid treated with hydrated lime. 

13i,i5i— October Hi, 18711. C. M. TESSlfe DU MOTAY. Improrement in recover- 
ing waste alkalis used in treating paper pulp. 

The hot liquor is treated with carbonic-acid gas and sulphuret of sodium, or 
a bicarbonate, after which it is twiled aud then recanstined and the precipi- 
tated matter removed, 

156,1*83 — Sovember 3, 187U. D. HANNA. Improvement in processes for restoring 

and purifying caustic alkali. 

The spent litjuor is agitated, filtered, heated to boiling with agitation, and 
tlien treated with quicklime, with or without ammonia. 

167,919— December tH, ISIU. 
alkalis. 



A. S. LY^MAN. Improrement in restoring spent 



Spent alkali is exposed to air currents for evaporation by means of revolving 
disks. The gases from the incinerating furnace pass through a filter stack that 
is kept moistene<l with dilute alkali. 

181, W6 — August it, 1876. S. BROWN. Improvement in the process qf saving caus- 
tic alkali in the manufacture of paper pulp. 
Straw is boiled in a weak solution of lime, crushed and reduced in a rag- 
engine to " half-stuS," and then subjected under steam pressure to the action 
of caustic alkali. 

191,759— June li, 1877. W. W. HARDING. Improvement in restoring and recov- 
ering alkaline wastes. 
To recover alkali from the waste liquor used in disintegrating paper stock, 
it is first reduced to a dry, porous, or flocculent substance, by exposing the liquid 
in thin layers to the action of heated cylinders or plates and removing the 
dried material by scrapers or brushes as fast as formed, aud then incinerating 
the porous mass ip the hearth of a reverberatory furnace. 

19l„ll,l— August li, 1877. H. H. FURBISH. Improrenu-nt in processes for rteov- 
1 ering alkalis used for the reduction of wood to paper pulp. 
The spent lees are washed from the cooked mass in water heated by steam 
from the digester, evaporated, the ash recovered in a recover}* furnace and 
boiled and rendered caustic by lime, and the same evaporated and reduced 
to proper strength. 

li9,M—.Iune 29. 1880. C. C. MARKLE AND J. JORDAN. Recovering soda from 

spent liquors after treating vegetable fiber. 

In incinerating the residue of the waste liquor, air-slaked lime Is added to 
and burned with the residue to render the lime again caustic. 

366,966— July 19, 1887. P. HOGAN. Process (^ and apparatus for recovering 

alkali. 

Dry peat is saturated with spent liqaor from the manufacture of wood pulp 
and otncr materials and heated iu a slowly revolving cylinder, the vap<ir being 
conveyed off and force<l into a convoluted condensing flue by a fan blower. 

S91.i59— October tS, 1888. J.W.DIXON. Process qf concentrating lu/uids. 

The liquor is heated m vacuo by interior heating coils while [Hissing through 
a cylinder, a vaiK>r space Ixdng preserved above the liquor with constant ex- 
haust of the vapors, and also continuous withdrawal of the liquor by suction. 

U>3.869—Maygl, I.'i8». V. U. BH)EDK. Kecovering spent atkili. 

Spent alkaline lyes are fint saturated with phosphoric acid to precipitate the 
fatty and coloring matters; then decanted or Hltereil. any residuary color being 
destroyed with chlorine; and the daritltsi liquor is then treated with lime, 
barium, or like compound caimble M forming an in.soluble combination with 
the phosphoric acid aud liberating the soda or potash in an available form. 



172 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



03,870— May 21, 1889. V. G. BLOEDE. Recovering alkali. 

Spent ftlkaline lyes are saturated with sulphurous acid, effecting a separation 
of the impurities, and the sulphites or bisulphites of the alkali are then con- 
yerted into hydrates or carbonates by the action of caustic or carbonate of 
lime, barium or equivalent compounds. 

i4)5,75!,—Jiirte 25, 1889. S. "WOLF. Recovering soda. 

In the sulphate cellulose process there is added to the brown lye of the pro- 
cess acid sulphate of soda which has previously been treated with the lime 
mud of the said process, transforming the latter into g-ypsum, a well-known 
manure, the unwashed alkalis being recovered out of the calcareous mud. 

U18,f65~D€C€niber SI, 18S9. E. N. ATWOOD. Process of recovering soda. 

Spent soda liquor of wood-pulp mills is atomized and burnt as fuel under 
pressure. The products of combustion pass through water to catch floating 
particles of alkali. 

U1S,Z7/,— December SI, 1889. F. A. CLOUDMAN. Process of recovering Koda. 

Chemicals, such as soda of spent soda liquors, are recovered by sprajing liquor 
containing the chemical by means of steam and oil into a combustion chamber 
and burning the mixture as fuel. 

U2!*,7 56— April 1, 1890. H. BLACKMAN. Process of recovering soda. 

The liquor is atomized by a gaseous bla.st, subsequently superheated, and the 
mixture is then injected into a furnace. 

lt78,981—JiUy 19, 1892. H. BLACKMAN. Apparatmfor and process of recovering 

alkali. 

The concentrated liquor is introduced in a bath on the calcining hearth and 
subjected to the heat of gases of combustion, the material being moved from 
saia bath along the ealcinin|r hearth until its combustible constituents are cal- 
cined out, and the material is finally fused and allowed to flow off. 

l^SO. 109— August 2, 1892. G. LUNGE AND J. DEWAR. Process of recovering 

sulphur, carbonate of soda, and iron oxide. 

The residue obtained by decomposing sodium sulphide with a ferrite is acted 
on, in a moist condition, with a suitable mixture of^ carbonic acid and oxygen. 

658,970— April 28, 1896. O. LUGO AND H. T. JACKSON. Method qf electrolytic 

treatment of stxip-lyes. 

See Group X — Electro-chemistry. 
620,751— March 7, 1899. L. J. DOREXFELDT. Process of utilizing siUphite lyes. 

The concentrated waste liquors of sulphite wood pulp mills are utilized as 
fuel by heating to liquidize, tillering under pressure, and then spraying into the 
combustion chamber. 

620,755— March 7, 1899. V. DREWSEN AND U J. DORENFELDT. Process oj 

utilizing sulphite lyes. 

The waste liquor is neutralized with sodium carbonate; evaporated with ad- 
dition of calcium carbonate: the residuum burned: the sodium carbonate in the 
product leached out, and the insoluble calcium sulphide treated with carbonic 
acid, producing calcium carbonate and hydrogen sulphide, which latter is con- 
verted into sulphurous acid or sulphur. 

PACKING PROCESSES. 

15,957— October 21, 1856. G. THOMPSON. {Reissue: 651, — Febnianf 1, 1859; 

2,569— April 16, 1867; 5,886— May 26, lS7i,.) Improvevient in the manitfacture of 

caustic alkali. 
■ A block of caustic alkali is inclosed in resin, beeswax, or other similar sajwui- 
fiable material. 

18, 21U— September 15, 1857. G. THOMPSON. Improvement in boxts for preserving 

alkalis. 

A metallic box has the top and bottom united to the cylinder side with an in- 
fusible cement made of fire clay moistened with Unseed" oil. 

52, U65— February 6, 1866. T. C. TAYLOR. Improvement in jnitting up caustic 
alkali. 

Metal cylinders are stood on end in sand, nearly filled with molten alkali, 
the top sealed with cement, then reversed and the bottom sealed with cement. 

52,U66— February 6, 1866. T. C. TAYLOR. Improvement tn putting up and pre- 
serving caustic potassa and soda. 
To prevent melting the solder a small quantity of alkali is poured into a case 

and allowed to partially cool, and the case is then filled by installments. 

52,910— February 27, 1S66. T. C. TAYLOR. Improved method of putting up caustic 

alkali. 

Blocks of alkali are packed in a case, and oil, grease, or like material poured 
in to fill the interstices. 

86, S19— January 26, 1869. J. REAKIRT. Improvement in patting up caustic 

alkalis. 

They are packed in glazed stone jars haviug a shoulder to receive a disk, the 
whole sealed with cement. 

S9,70U— May U, 1869. T.C.TAYLOR. Improved mode of putting up caustic soda 

for the manufacture of soap. 

Caustic alkali is comminuted, then mixed with oil or grease and packed in 
barrels or vessels. It can be cut out as required for use. 

110,189— December SO, 1870. W. H. BALMAIN. Improvement in packing caustic 
alkalis. 

They are granulated or pulverized and packed in cases without the admixture 
of other materials. When in p<^>wdered form a corrosive liquid is not formed, 
but the moisture is absorbed until a protective coating of carbonate forms on 
each particle. 

12S,5Uf—Fcbrunry 6, 1S72. J. H. SEIBERT. Improvement in packages for cau^ic 
alkalis, acids, and salts. 

They arc made of a plastic compound, as plaster of paris. with one-tenth flour 
or marble dust, cast in a protecting wrapper. The heads are cast on to combine 
and form a solid casing. 

12l„859— .March 19, 1872. J. H. SEIBERT. Improvetnent in packages for alkalis, 

acids, etc. 

The package is formed by casting a plastic substance, as a mixture of glyce- 
rine, wax, and paper pulp between an inside and an outside protecting wrapper. 



128,176— June 18. 1S72. J. H. SEIBERT. Improvement in packages for putting up 

caustic alkalis, acids, etc. 

It is cast of a plastic composition and coated with a resinous or protective 
coating. The alkali is congealed to conform to the package and then placed 
therein. 



W,1S7— March 25, 1873. 
alkali. 



G. W. HUMPHREY. Improvement in incasing caustic 



Improvement in processes 



Improvement in compositions for 



It is put up in india-rubber envelopes or coverings. 

139,955 — June 17, 187S. H. B. HALL. Improvement in packages for caustic soda 

or alkali. 

The alkali is packed in a spun or stamped metal cup with a cover of resin 
poured in in a liquid state. 

150,508— May 5, 187L B. T. BABBlTT. Improvement in caustic-alkali packages. 

A block of caustic alkali hermetically sealed and protected from atmospheric 
influence by a coating or envelope of turpentine. 

150.509— May 5, ISs it. B. T. BABBITT. Improvement in the processes for coating 

caustic alkalis. 

Balls or blocks of caustic alkali are submerged in melted turpentine in a ves- 
sel in which a vacuum is produced. 

158,091,— December 22, 187 i,. A. K. LEE. Improvement inputting up caustic alkalis. 
Paper and wood as a carrier for caustic alkalis, etc., is first coated with a 
cement formed of white lead ground in oil, sulphur, and black oxide of manga- 
nese: then with a composition of asphaltum, paraffin, black oxide of man- 
ganese, and soapstone: the lusphaltum. paraftin. and black oxide of manganese 
being reduced to a fluid by a product obtained from crvide turpentine distilled 
at not exceeding 225° and from which the pyroligneous-acid water has been 
separated while the turpentine is in vapor. 

16lt,k05—June Ifi. 1875. T. C. TAYLOR. Improvement in compositions for coating 
blocks f if caustic alkali. 
It consists of a mixture of a flne earth and oil. 

18!„925— November 28, 1876. T. C. TAYLOR. Improvement in methods nf packing 

caustic alkali. 

It is inclosed in a solid molded form in a can, with a surrounding envelope of 
any mineral powder which will absorb the lye. 

193.SS0—Jtdy 2lt, 1877. H. B. HALL AND E. HINE. 
and apparatus for putting up cauMic alkali. 
Dry granulated caustic alkali is comprtjssed into air-tight packages. 

206.S91—Augut>t IS. 1878. A. MENDLESON. 

coating txlkali balls. 

It consists of Burgundy pitch 16 parts, plaster of paris 2 to 4 parts, and oil 
one-half pari. 

229,161— June 22, 1880. A. MENDLESON. Coated caustic-alkali ball. 

A coated alkali ball has a sealing-boss formed of the coating over the sprue- 
spot. 

2S8,06U— February 22, ISSl. M. M. SMITH. Mamifacture of alkali balls. 
A series of alkali balls is cast on a common wire and coated. 

21^,939— July 5, 1881. W. .1. MENZIES. {Reissue: May 9. 1882. Xo. 10.108 for the 
process; S'o. 10,109 for the prodnrt.) Grinding and sieving cnui^tic alkali. 
Caustic alkali is ground and sieved while hot or in a temperature sufficiently 

high to prevent deiiquesence. 

256,095— April U, 1882. B. T. BABBITT. Method of puUing up caustic alkali. 

The molten alkali is run into cans with soldered heads, which are set in water 
or otherwise cooled during the process of filling. 

260.27-2— June 27 . 1882. B. T. BABBITT. Method of ptdting up caustic alkali. 

Cans formed of a cylindrical body and a head with an outwardly turned 
flange inserted into the body are filled with the molten alkali, and the heads 
are then inserted while the alkali is still molten, and pressed down upon the 
alkali, and finally, after the alkali has hardened, soldered to the can. 

261,228— July 18. 1882. C. HEMJE AND T. C. BRECHT. Process of and appOr 

ratus for comp residing pkif tic and other materials. 

Compressed cakes of plastic or other material, as bicarbonate of soda, have a 
cemented crust or film of the same material formed thereon, as by subjecting 
them to a bath of steam. The steam may be impregnated with gum arabic. 

270.997— ./an nary 23, 1883. T. C. TAYLOR. Packing cau/^tic alkali. 

Pulverized alkali is mixed with resinous or fatty matter— about 20 percent — 
and compressed into balls or blocks, and finally given a suitable coating to 
prevent deliquescence. 

270,998— January 23, 1883. T. C. TAYLOR. Packing caustic alkali. 

A fatty or resinous matter is added to caustic alkali during the process of 
grinding or preparation to prevent the giving off of caustic dust. 

275.1S8— April 10, 1883. E. KIRK. Treatment of caustic soda. 

A new composition, consisting of a mixture of powdered caustic soda and 
powdered sand. 

282,633— August 7, 18H3. T. S. HARRISON. Process of producing a perfumed soap 

alkali. 

A package of soap-making alkali contains a soluble or fusible capsule of per- 
fume. 

286,132— October S, 1883. F. P. HARNED. Process of grinding caustic soda. 

One or 2 per cent of carbonate of soda or soda ash is added to caustic alkali, 
and it is then ground and bolted without deliquescence. 

287,128— October 23, 188S. C. HEMJE. Method of compressing pxdverized material. 
In the formation of compressed cakes of pulverized material, as of bicarbonate 
of soda, the molds are suujected to a iet of steam prior to filling, which con- 
denses on the sides of the mold, and tne cakes formed have a glazed exterior 
shell composed of the same material as the body of the cake. 

51S,0ltU—May 19, 1885. C. SEMPER. Proems of grinding caustic soda. 

Ground salt cake or dried sulphate of soda — say 4 percent — is added to caustic 
soda, and the mixture ground and bolted. 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RKLATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



173 



SS.1.!>tt,— March sn, Ifm. J. W. CARSON AND F. I". HARNEP. Mamtfaeture qf 

bl'tckM of bi(^trb4matt; qf wtda. 

It Is comprewied iiitoblix knimmtHllnlelyon rcmovlnR It fmm the carbonatltiK 
chambers or the waxhliiK tHbUw, imil iK'fiiri' dryliiR or Kriiiding. 

ttU.9'!3—itay H, lii9<J. H. I'KECIIT. PrDfrim nf jiaekimi cautllr atkntlff. 

Thp nuistic nlkall Is cast In blm-knanil (mckiHl In iiinks. with an nlkallnc car- 
bonate packed In between tbe eaiistlcalkali lilocks and the walla of the eagk. 

GROUP III.— POTASH. 

POTASHES, CARBONATES. 
ttS—June 10, ISSi. G. CLEM KNT. Improvanrid in Uu proceu <if teaching athet. 
In Hettlnx up the leach a small quantity of hot unslaked lime and hot aahea Is 
placed In the middle of the ashes. 

1,691— Jiih/ ts. 111,0. J. OSBORN. Impmrcment in the mrxleof eitracting the alkali 

/rvm a«he9 in the vianufactnrc ofpolagh, 

A mile alum with lime and salt la added to the leaching solution. 
3.iS3—Sri>leml>er 7, 13U. E. CHAMBERLIN. Improvement in the manufacture 

The volatile products of the combustion of anthracite coal, purified only of 
dust in connection with steam, are employed for the conversion of pearlash. 

m.sei—Marrh S«. 1S7S. M. B. MANWARINO AND R. I)E WITT BIRCH. 

Impnurmrnl in thr manttjacture qf pf>tash anit ph/mpbntt' oflimti. 

Potash Is extracted from the ashes of cotlon-secd hulls by boiling in water 
and adding lime. 

I.io.fil.i-Aiinuri to, 1S!I. W. WENTWORTH AND G. W. CLEAVELAND. 

Jiiiprot'rmfnt in the mant^factnrc of pearlaalieg. 

Ground Iwrk, preferably s|>ent tan hark, is mixed with the lye, the liquor 
eviiporaled, and the residuum incinerated. 

tl6.t,S»—June 10, isrg. J. AND R. H. WOODRUM. Improvement in teparoHng 

pt>tiuh fi-t»n uithes. 

Water at Imlling heat is percolated through the ashes heated to a red heat. 
t5i,€,iS — Janiinnj Si, 1SS2. C. R. ENOEL. Mnnufmiurc of carbonate of potanttium. 

A double cartjonate of magnesium and potassium is first formed by treating 
a mixture of carbonate of magnesium, or free magnesia, and an aqueous solu- 
tion of a i»otassium salt with carbonic-acid gas. Carbonate of potassium i« then ' 
separated out of the double carbonate by boiling or heating in a dry state. 

S78.S66 — January 10, 1888. F. BRL^XJES. Procens of obtaining potaesium cartn)- 

nate. 

A mixture of potassium chloride and ammonia-magnesium carlK>nate is dLs- 
jKtlved in water and the precipitate which forms is removed and digested in 
water to separate the pota-ssium chloride which goes into solution, the other I 
carbonates oeing less soluble. I 

iSi.931— October S5, IS9i. P. ROSIER. Prncem of making potaseium carhrmaie. 

A mixture of equal molecules of pota.ssium sulphate and p<»t»tssium bichro- 
mate in aqueous solution is converted by means ol calcium hydrate or barium 
or strontium hydrate into potassium chroniate, the .solution saturated with car- 
bonic acid, the precipitated potassium biclircunatc separated from the iHita.-ssium 
bicarlMMUite pnHiuceti, the pot*i.ssium bichromate remaining in solution is sep- 
arated, and lastly a potassium carbonate containing chromium is obtained from 
the lye by further evaporation. 

GROUP IV.— ALUMS. 
AMMONIA ALUM. 
MS,S1S— December t.lSSL W. J. MESZIE.S. Manufacture of burnt alum. 

Concentrated solutions of sulphate of ammonia and sulphate of alumina are 
mixed in the nroportion of 1 part of the former to 4 parts of the latter and 
evaporated to do'ucss. 

POTASH ALUM. 

StS,i77— October to, 18SS. H. C. FREIST. Man iif act ure qf crystal cUum. 

Crystal alum free from Iron is produced by treating a solution of sulphate of 
alumina cuntHining iron with chlorate of potash or like oxidizing agent to con- 
vert the ferrous oxide into ferric oxide, and adding, either before or after the 
impurities have been removed, sulphate of potash, sulphate of ammonia, or sul- 
phate of soda, and crystallizing the alum. 

Dll,71l—June I'J, lS9i. J. HEIBLING. /Vocars of making potmh alum and 
alumina. 

A mixture of clay, sulphate of potash, and sulphate of ammonia (in the pro- 
portion of the alumina of the clay and sulphate of potash each 1 part, sul- 
phate of ammonia 3 parts) molded into bricks is heated to from 27.i° to 300° C, 
until the ammonia is driven off, when it is dlasolved, the Iron eliminated, and 
the ammonia previously removed is added, whereby the alumnia is precipi- 
tated and the sulphate of ammonia and sulphate of potash are regenerated. 

SODA ALUM. 

ter.eiO—yovember n, last. p. & F. M. SPENCE, Manufacture of alum. 

In tbe manufacture of soda alum, cold saturated solutions are mixed with 
stronger solution."— as of sp. gr. I.5.T— of a higher temperature, to prevent solidi- 
fication with crystallization, or, if solidified, to change into the crystalline form. 

iiO.iSS— February H. tS90. E. AUGfe. Procett nf making mda alum. 

A .solution of sodium sulphate combined with a solution of aluminum sul- 
phate is condensed by evaporating in vacuo at a temperature not exceeding &SP 
C., C(K»le<I and crystallized, 

iS5,li9—Auguft X, 1890. E. AUGt. Process of crystallizing soda alum. 

A stdution of sulohate of alumina and sulphate of soda is concentrated to 
between 1.32 ami 1.42 sp. gr., cooled to a pasty form, and then exposed in layers 
uiKjn inclined surfaces at a temperature of 15° to 20° C. till the mother liquors 
are separated. 

i.'ii.l'ii'—June le. 1891. F. M. & D. D. SPENCE AND A. ESILMAN. Proctuqf 

linking soda alum, 

i-ufficient sulphate of soda is diasolvcd In a boiling concentrated solution of 
sulplintc of^ilumiTia. or aluniino-ferric sulphate, of a sp. gr. not exceeding 1.3, to 
form with the sulphate of alumina w»du alum; the impurities settled in a closed 
ves.sel; the s»>lntion eva|Kirated to a so. gr. of from 1.42.') to 1.4.T0. then agitated and 
■cooled until a magma is formed, which is stirred and turned over from time to 
time until it is converted Into crystals of soda alum and mother liquor. 



IM.nir—July tl, IH9I. r. if. it D. D. APENCR. Mannfadure nf soda alum. 

To« liolllng concentrate^! solution of soda alum, prep«re<l from sulphate of 
alumina and stilphate of Msla, or from alumhuHferrlc and sulphate of iuii\n. of 
a sp. gr. of l.l.'iO, there Is added a snudl <iuantlty of a cold Hnturate<t iwiliitiori 
of soda alum suttlclent to yield on cisillng of the mixture a magma not loo sIIH 
to l>e freely stirred and tumc<l over until transformed Into crystal* of loda alum 
and mother liquor. 

m,HO—May U, 189S. T, 8. HARRISON AND C. SEMPER. Aluminous cm- 

pound. 

A compound of sulphate of alumina and double sulphate nf alumina and 
soila; a hard, dry compound, readily ground, but highly soluble; tbe product oi 
process No. 4»7,57L 

m.ill—May M, 189S. T. 8. HARRISON AND C. SEMPER. ProeesM of mnting 

aluminous compounds. 

An aluminous solution Is hardened by adding powdered sulphate of soda, aay 
20 per cent, to tbe concentrated aluminous solution ready to run off. 

CONCENTRATED ALUM. 

l,9iS— January tS, ISil. -M. J. FUNCKE. Improrement in the manner or proceu 

qf manufacturing sulphate of alumina. 

The clay is prepared by desiccation, reduced to a powder, and treated with 
sulphuric add, dried, then treated with water to dUMOIve the salt, settled, and 
any free acid neutralized with lime water. The clear liquor Is drawn off and 
the iron precipitated with prusslate of potash, the exact quantity required 
being ascertained by a test sample. 

60,780— January I, ISgr. H. PEMBERTON. Improrement in the manufacture of 

sulphate of alumina, alttm, and other aluminous compouwts. 

In place of sulphuric acid, the acid solution obtained from the tarry acid re- 
siduum resulting from the refining of petroleum, etc. (impure sulphuric add). Is 
used. 

t9t,]60-Maytl, 1877. C. LENNIG. Improvement in processes of manufadvirtng 

aluminic sulphate and alum. 

The alumina in clay or kaolin la dissolved by sulphuric add under pressure 
In a closed vessel. 

196,01,3— October 9, 1877. (i. P. ROCKWELL. Improvement in manufacture of 
alum. 

Aluminic sulphate and alum are manufactured by the decompooltion of the 
mineral indianaite, a practically pure silicate of alumina, by means of sulphuric 
acid, and the elimination of the separated silica. For alum the equivalent of 
alkali is added prior to crystallization. 

t08,615— October 1, WS. F. LAUR. (Reissue: 8,8Sg— September t, lgt9: Mi*— 
Augu^ 10, 1880.) Improrement in manufacture qf sulphate of alumina. 
In the process of manufacturing sulphates of alumina a neutral solution is 
made and then pieces of zinc ore introduced to convert the iron into a color- 
less compound of iron prior to concentration. 

Sll,7S7—Xovember 18. 1879. A. A, CROLL. Improvement in the manufacture of 

sulphate of alumina. 

The saturating vessel is jacketed to prevent the escape of heat and maintain 
the fluidity of the mass, and the charge is drawn off successively from different 
levels, producing batches of different grades. 

tm.loe—July to. 1880. W., T., & J. CHADWICK AND J. W. KYNASTON. 

Process of making and purifying sulphate of alumina or alum. 

In the manufacture of alumina, alum cake, or alum, the Iron Is precipitated 
out ol the solution by treating with arsenious acid and neutralizing with 
carbonate of lime. The remaining arsenic is then precipitated by hydrogen 
sulphide. 

IS!. 816— February IS. 1881. W., T., & J. CHADWICK AND J. W. KYNASTON. 

Purifying sulphate of alumina. 

Iron is removed from the aluminous .solution by the addition of fenocyanide 
of calcium, and the arsenic then precipitated by a soltible sulphide, as hydrogen 
sulphide, by this means carrying down the suspended ferrocyanide. A small 
quantity of sulphate of copper or sulphate of zinc is used when arsenic is not 
employed to remove the suspended ferrocyanide. 

SS9,0S9— March SI, 1881. J. H. EASTWICK. Manufacture ofsulpliate of alumina. 
Halloysite (Indianaite) is ground and bolted— roasting lieing dispensed with— 
mixed -with sulphuric acid, and then treated with hydrate of alumina, produc- 
ing spontaneous ebullition and decomposition of the halloysite. 

SiS,9i9—July 5, ISSl. B. E. R. NEWLANDS. Manufacture of sulphate of alumina. 
Sulphate of alumina is purifie<l of sulphuric acid and iron by evaporating a 
solution of impure salt to the point of crystallization on cooling, or by adding 
sufficient water to the salt to obtain the impurities in solution and leave the 
sulphate pure, and then separating the mother liquor containing the impurities 
by pressure or centrifugal action. 

US,710— August 16, 1881. C. SEMPER. Manufacture qf sulphate qf alumina. 

A solution of ferruginous sulphate of alumina is treated in a finely divided 
state or in spray with sulphurous acid or hydrogen sulphide to decolorize it. 

t67,M7—May 9, 188S. C. FAHLBERG AND C. SEMPER. JWAod of removing 

iron from ferruginous satinc solutions. 

The ferruginoas solution is treated with plumbic dioxide either by adding 
aame to the solution or by converting a neutral monobasic or polyboaic salt cu 
lead, or an oxide of lead into plumbic dioxide In said solution. Ferrous oxides 
are firet converted into ferric oxides. 

K7.K8—May 9, 18SS. C. FAHLBERG AND C. SEMPER. Recovery qf plumbic 
dioxide fri/m ferruginous solntiims. 

The waste plumbic dioxide and ferric plumbate is treated with nitric acid, or 
other add or add salt, to recover the iri>n. 

tei,.77S— September 19, ISSt. C. SEMPER. Removing iron from ferruginous sotit- 
lions. 

The solution is treated with manganese dioxide or manganic sesquloxide. 
Ferrous oxide when present should lirst be converted into ferric oxide and the 
solution should be basic or neutral. The spent manganic dioxide is revived by 
treatment with dilute sulphuric acid. 

S6i,77!,—.'^ei>lrmbrrl9,lSSt. C. SEMPER. Processqf removing ironandmang^ineae 
from certain solutions. 

Iron and manganese are both removed by a single operation from ferruginous 
solutions (of such salts as are not decomptwed in the operation of the process) 
containing manganous salts by treatment with a permanganate and heat. 



174 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



We.m— October Si, ISSl. R. A. FISHER. Sizinp for paper makers. 

An aluminous comixjund containing sodium or zinc, a new product of a viscid 
or creamy consistency is produced bv neutralizing a portion of the acid of an 
acid solution of aluminum sulphate by means of sodic or zincic oxide or zmc, 
evaporating the solution .o about 37° Baumi5, and then cooling under agitation. 

tee.iSS— October Si, 1883. n.. A. FISHER. Sizing /or paper makers' me. 

Sulphate of alumina of a rtscous or creamy consistency, a new product, is 
made by cooling under agitation a solution of sulphate of alumina evaporated 
to about 37° Baum6 when boiling. 
tSOfiSS— June S6, 188S. C. SEMPER. Manufacture of mdplmte of cdumina. 

A neutral porous alumina sulphate containing magnesia sulphate is produced 
bv treating a hot solution of alumina sulphate of such degree of concentration 
that it will harden when cold, with carbonate or bicarbonate of magnesia. 

tSO,0S9—J«nete, 1885. C. SEMPER. Manufacture of sulphate of alumina. 

A neutral or basic alumino-magnesiaii compound is formed by treating a hot 
acid solution of sulphate of alumina with magnesic carbonate, bicarbonate, or 
oxide. 
180,090— June $6, 18SS. 0. SEMPER. Mamifaclure of sulphate of alumina. 

Porous alumina sulphate containing zinc is produced by adding zinc sulphite 
to a hot solution of alumina sulphate from which silica has been removed, and 
which is of such degree of concentration as to harden when cold. 

SSl,09S—June 50, 1885. R. A. FISHER. Xcutral sizing material for pajier makers' 

use. 

A solution of sulphate of alumina free from iron is made neutral or slightly 
basic with oxide of zmc, or other suitable neutralizing material; insoluble 
matter, if any, is removed: the clear solution concentrated toabout 66° Baum6; 
bicarbonate of soda added to the hot viscid mass to produce a poroas or vesicu- 
lar structure, and the mass cooled and broken into lumps. 
SSl.OQS— June SO, 188.5. R.A.FISHER. Neutral sizing tnaterial for paper makers' 

use. 

For the production of a white sizing material from ferruginous aluminous 
sulphate a solution of sulphate of alumina containing iron is prepared, the 
ferric sulphate reduced to ferrous sulphate, and the solution made neutral, etc., 
as per No. 321,092. 

Sgl,09!r-,Tune SO, 1885. R. A. FISHER. Mamifactureof an aluminous sizing mate- 
rial for paper makers' use. 

For the production from any ferniginous .sulphate of alumina solution of a 
porous sizing material free from iron, nearly all of the iron is flrst converted 
into insoluble Prussian blue by means of a slight excess of yellow prussiate of 
potash, the incidentlv formed soluble prussian blue removed and the excess 
of yellow prussiate of potash by means of oxide of zinc; when the solution of 
sulphate of ammonia is freed from prussian blue and other insoluble matter by 
subsidence, filtration, or othenvlse, and concentrated to about 65° Baum^, etc., 
as in No. 821,092. 

521,095— June SO, 1885. R. A. FISHER. Manufacture of a sizing material for paper 
makers' use. 

For the manufacture of a porous sulphate of alumina containing magnesia, 
but free from iron and excess of alumina and acid, artificial hydrate of alumina 
free from iron is dissolved in sulphuric acid and water: then magnesia or car- 
bonate of magnesia is added to the hot fluid, which is then cooled until it 
begins to thicken, when bicarbonate of soda is added to produce a porous or 
vesicular structure. 

521.096— June 30, 1SS5. R. A. FISHER. Sizing material to be usedln the mamifac- 
tureof paper. 

For the manufacture of a sizing material containing both zinc and iron, but 
free from an objectionable bnfl color, hot sulphuric acid is mixed into any ferru- 
ginous alum clay, water being added from time to time to prevent overflow; 
the liquor is then drawn off, settled, decanted, and treated with zinc and bicar- 
bonate of soda. 

521,097— June 50, 1885. R. A. FISHER. Manufacture of sizing for paper mxikers' 

use. 

For the manufacture of a porous sizing material free from iron direct from 
ferruginous aluminous mineral, hot sulphuric acid is mixed with finely ground 
ferruginous alum chiy: all or nearly all of the iron is removed by means of a 
plumbic oxide, manganese dioxide or sesquioxide, or potassium permanganate 
or other precipitate of iron from aluminous solutions, and the solution is cleared 
and concentrated and bicarbonate of soda added. 

521,098— June SO, 1885. R. A. FISHER. Manufacture of sizing material for paper 

makers' use. 

In the production of a porous sizing material direct from ferruginous alumi- 
nous minerals, hot sulphuric acid is mixed with ferruginous alum clay, the 
ferric oxide reduced to ferrous oxide by the addition of zinc, and the clear 
liquor decanted, concentrated, and treated with bicarbonate of soda. 

533,680— January 5, 1886. C. SEMPER. Manufacture of sizing compounds for paper 

makers' use. 

Plumbic oxide, or other substance which will precipitate iron, is added to a 
neutral ferruginous solution of s\ilphate of alumina, which is then filtered, and 
either before or after treatment with plumbic oxide, oxide of zinc is added to 
make the solution sufficiently basic not to act upon ultramarine blue. Bicarbon- 
ate of soda is finally added to make the product porous. 

SiS,60i—JiUy 13, 1886. C. SEMPER. Process of imiking porous alum. 

A ferruginous solution of sulphate of alumina is treated with plumbic dioxide 
or other precipitant of iron from aluminous solutions, the insoluble matter is 
removed, and bicarbonate of soda is added to the solution in a sufficiently cool 
and concentrated condition, and the vesicular mass ia crushed or broken into 
lamps. 

Si5,605—July IS, 1886. C. SEMPER. Process of making porous alum. 

A ferruginous solution of sulphate of alumina is treated with zinc to reduce 
ferric oxide to ferr()us oxide, the insoluble impurities removed, and the clear 
liquor in a sufficiently cool and concentrated condition treated with bicarbon- 
ate of soda, and finally the mass is crushed into lumps. 

551,210— October 19, 1886. C. SEMPER. .Sizing material for paper makers' use. 

A solution of sulphate of alumina free from iron is treated with oxide of zinc, 
either before or after the removal of any insoluble matter, and then, when suffi- 
ciently concentrated and cooled, bicarbonate of soda is added. 

551.211— October 19,1886. C. SEMPER. Sizing material for paper makers' use. 

.K solution of sulphate of alumina containing iron is treated with a reducing 
agent to convert ferric sulphate into ferrous sulphate, and it is then treated 
with oxide of zinc to render it neutral or basic; any insoluble matter is removed, 
and. when sufficiently concentrated and cooled, bicarbonate of soda is ad<^ed. 



505,901— August 22, 1893. W. E. CASE. Process of making aluminum compounds. 

An insoluble aluminum compound, free from iron, is obtained by treating an 
aqueous solution of crude aluminum sulphate with nitnc and sulphuric aeids, 
adding calcium fluoride, then adding asolution of an alkali carbonate assodium 
carbonate, to precipitate iron, and mechanically separating the liquid from the 
solid products of the reaction. The solution is then treated with a further quan- 
tity of the alkali carbonate to precipitate the aluminum compound. 
520,1,16— May 29, 189!,. 3. ENEQUIST. Process of making porous sidphate of 

alumina. 

A hot concentrated solution of sulphate of alumina is run oH and solidified 
on a zinc or aluminum surface, whereby the hydrogen given off makes the 
material porous. 

ALUM CAKE. 

209,1,88— October 39, 1878. G. T. LEWIS. Improvement in manufacture of alum cake 

and sidphate of alumina. 

The aluminous materials are ground and mixed with sulphuric acid in one 
operation, and the mixture afterwards heated from 82° to 126° C. 
217,1,60— July 15, 1S79. T. S. HARRISON. Improvement in manufacture of alumi- 
nous cake. 

Fibrous aluminous cake, a new article of manufacture, has fibrous silicate of 
magnesia, or fibrous sulphate of lime or equivalent material, substituted for the 
silica of alum cake. 
220 720— October 21, 1879. F. LADR. Improvement in the manufacture of alumitious 

cake. 

Zinc is introduced into an acidulated ferruginous solution of sulphate of 
alumina to neutralize the free acid and convert the iron into a colorless iron 
compound prior to concentration. 
225,300— .March 9, 1880. C. V. PETRAEUS. Manufacture of aluminous cake. 

White aluminous cake is made from ferruginous aluminous sulphate by treat- 
ing the aluminous sulphate in solution mth alkaline sulphides, sulphides of 
alkaline earths, or metallic sulphides, such as finely ground zinc blende or 
galena. 
225 301— March 9, 1880. C. V. PETR.\EUS. Manufacture of aluminous cake. 

The peroxide of iron in ferruginous aluminous sulphate is reduced to the 
protoxide and decolorized by the addition of powdered or spongy lead, and then 
boiling or agitating the solution. 
2S3,916—A'ovember 2, ISSO. O. F. BIHN AND R. HEERLEIN. Manufacture of 

aluminous cake. 

Aluminous sulphate in a semifluid condition is treated with sulphites, bisul- 
phites or hyposulphites of the alkalis, alkaline earths, or the metallic bases to 
decolorize the iron and produce a white cake. 
2SU,70I,— November 23, 1880. G. F. BIHN. Manufacture of white aluminous cake. 

A pulverized mixture of halloysite and bauxite is treated with sulphuric acid 
and the mass decolorized as in No. 233,916. 
238.613— March 8, 1881. C. SEMPER. Manufcu-ture of aluminous cake. 

A ferruginous aluminous sulphate is treated with oxalic acid, or oxalates of 
the alkalis, of the alkaline earths, or of the metallic bases to produce a color- 
less aluminous cake containing the iron salts. 
2U0,597—AprU 26, 1881. G. T. LEWIS AND C. V. PETRAEUS. Manufacture of 

aluminous cake. 

The last traces of prussian blue are removed from an aluminous-cake solution, 
to which vellow prussiate of potash has been previously added, by treating the 
liquor with metallic zinc, oxide of zinc, or zinc ore. 
21.3,635— June 28, 1881. C. SEMPER. Manufacture of aluminous Cake. 

Ferruginous aluminous sulphate is decolorized by treating It in a semifused 
condition with zinc or zmc dust. 
253,377— February 7, 1882. T. S. HARRISON. Manufacture of aluminous cake. 

A blue aluminous cake containing ferrocyanide of iron is produced by precipi- 
tating the iron as prussiate of iron in a ferruginous aluminous sulphate solution 
and then concentrating the solution without removing the prussiate of iron. 

ni,S71— January 30, 1SS3. C. SEMPER. Manufacture of aluminous cake. 

The aluminous sulphate in a semifused condition is treated with sulphites, 
bisulphites, or hyposulphites of the alkalis, alkaline earths, or the metallic 
bases. 
51,2,599— May 25, 1886. F. P. EARNED. Process of making neutral aluminous 

compounds. 

In the manufacture of sulphate of alumina pulverized caustic soda or alumi- 
nate of soda is mechanicallv mixed with the product during the grinding to 
neutralize the free acid, the quantity required for the neutralization being 
ascertained by a test of the aluminous cake. 
3U,ll,0—June 22, 1SS6. C. SEMPER. Process of making a sulphate of alumina 

compound. 

A basic compound containing basic sulphate of alumina and sulphate of 
magnesia and water is produced by treating a neutral or slightly basic solution 
of sulphate of alumina with the oxide, carbonate, or bicarbonate of magnesia. 

!,!,3,e8.'>— December SO, 1890. H. W. SHEPARD. Process of making alum cake. 

Sutficient sulphuric acid is added to bauxite or other aluminous material to 
form basic sulphate of alumina, when an alkaline or alkaline earthy sulphide, 
as impure calcium sulphide, is added to the hot pasty mass and mixed there- 
with in quantity sufficient to reduce the soluble iron to the ferrous state. The 
mass is then diluted with water and the dissolved sulphate separated from the 
insoluble impurities and concentrated. 

526,205— September 18, 1891,. J. V. SKOGLUND. Aluminous cake and process qf 

making same. 

An aluminous cake free from ferric iron and consisting of sulphate of alumina, 
ferrous iron, an excess of a stannous compound, and a stannic compound, is 
produced by reducing the greater portion of the iron in a ferruginous sulphate 
of alumina solution by means of a weaker reducing agent, such as sulphurous 
acid or a sulphite, and then finishing the reduction with any stannous com- 
pound as stannic oxide. 

OTHER ALUMS. 

222,162— December 2, 1879. C. V. PETRAEUS. Improvement in processes for man- 
ufacturing alumina and carbonate of soda. 
See Group II, Sodium Compounds. • 

223,1,1,2— January 13, 1880. R. A. FISHER. Preparing a sizing material used by 

paper makers. 

A neutral compound consisting essentially of sulphate of alumina and zinc is 
made by treating a solution of sulphate of alumina with oxide of zinc. 



I)I(;p:st of patents relating to chemical industries. 



176 



tt.^.Ui—Jnmmni IS. ism. R. A. FISHER. Mnnu/aetHn qfa whtte compound /or 
paper makrrn' iiiv, 

A wliitloii iif Mil|ilinte ot nlimilnn, oliiiilncd fMm nlumlnoun earth* conMln- 
liiK Iron. I» tmiii'il with a rwliu'liix ukuiii to convert ferric Into (crrou* mlla.and 
v*ien with oxlile o( ilnc to noutrallxe the free acid. 

ttg.mj—JuHf IS. IfiSO. \V., T., A J. CHADWICK AND J. W. KYNA8TON. 

Proern/ur Ihr piirf/lnillon i\fat»mina, baujctte, rtc. 

The iron in alnnilnous ninteriiiln, swh «» bauxite or clay. Is converted Into a 
soluble oxniiile hv trentinK with n Holiition of oxalic acid, and the oxalate In 
then removed liy nitration and decantation. 

W».M7— ^aniinry I, 188S. C. V. PETRABC8. JIanMfadurt of ponu tiiKifcrmu 
alHm. 

Poms zinclfen>ua alum i« produced by adding carbonate ot dnc to molten 
■ulphate of alumina. 

t(lt.S7»-Aiit)ii>t 7, ISSa. K. OARDAIR AND T. OLADY8Z. .Vnn<i/aelure <tf 
anhiftirouii tUuminn, 

Crystal." of chlorhydr»to of aluminum are preparcil by the reaction of chlor- 
hydric acid upon • aolution of aluminum tulpnate, and then decomposed by 
heat. 

»0I.I7U-July 1. ISSi. A. E. SPENCER. Desiccniing alum. 

It is melted and drie<i in a revolving cylinder by heat externally applied, the 
altim flowing evenly over the Interior surface of the cylinder. 

Slt,S9i— February U, tSSS. C. V. PETRAEU8. Man u/aeture qf alumina bjf paper- 
mill sludge. 

A product fn-e fr<im Iron is produced from ferruginous aluminous material by 
mixing same with the sj^ent soda-liquor from wood-pulp manufacture, evapo- 
rating down, nnd burning. 

GROUP v.— COAL-TAR PRODUCTS. See Group XVIII. 

GROUP VI.— CYANOGEN COMPOUNDS. 

CYANIDES. 

tet.aot—Dtccmber 19, ISSt. L. MOND. .Vami/arture of cyanogen compound* and 
ammonia. 

In the manufacture of barium cyanide and ammonia, briquettes are formed of 
•n Intimate mixt\ire of carbon. cnrl)onate or oxide of l>ariiim. and a refractory 
basic absorbent— such h.s mafincsin— nnd hcate<l in a reducing flame before 
exposure to nitrogen, or the niixlure is heated in ma.ss, cooled, and broken up. 
The nitrogenous gii.«es arc passc<l through the hot liarium salts, thereby cooling 
them, and then tli rough fresli layers of barium salts and cartwn at the "tempera- 
ture require<l to form cyanogen compounds. 

V7.8Sl—May 1.1. 18SS. A. T. SCHUESSLEE. Proeea qf treating tpeni Umefiom nag 

trorin/or eyanidei. 

The soluble substances are extracted by lenihing: the liquor treated with car- 
bonic-acid gB-s and the hydrogen sulphide utilized; while the residuum of the 
first process is decomposed by the addition of commercial salt of sulphate ot 
potash, the precipitate removed, and the liquor evaporated to form salt for the 
manufacture ot ferrocyanides. 

18LS79— October IS, 189S. G. T. BEILBY. ProceM of mating ci/anides. 

Ammonia is passed through a liquid-fused mixture of nnhvdrous alkali 
cyanide, and carbon. The gases may be led through secondary retorts contain- 
ing alkalized charcoal at a suitable temperature for the formation of cyanide. 

t07, 7iS— October SI, 189S. D. J. PLAYFAIR. Prncei-f nj making ojanidet. 

A sulphocyanate (suiphocyauide or thiocyniiate) is heated to from S00° to 
1,000° F. with a metal fusible at the said temperature, of the class comprising 
lead and zinc, producing u sulphide insoluble in the evanide. The cyanide is 
■eparated by settling or lixlviation. 

SOifiSr—Deermber S, 1S9S. W. SIEPERMAXN. Proce»» of and apparalut for 
mating cyanides. ' 

Ammonia is passed into a mixture of alkaline carbonates and powdered char- 
coal, heated to a dark-red heat, and the heat is subsequently raised to a bright 
red. Cyanide of potassium is separated from Its aqueous solution by gradudly 
Increasing the percentage ot carbonate ot potash or caustic potash. 

ft«S9t— September tS. 189i. C. T. J. VAUTIN. Procen of making cyanides u/alka- 

In the^manufactnrc ot cvanides of the alkaline metals from fcrrocvanides by 
the substitution of an alkaline metal for the iron. Instead ot potassiuiri or sodiuin 
an alloy of the alkaline metal with lead is used, and the resulting fused evanide 
is separated from the residue of iron and lead. 

5S9.S7»—itay U, ms. W. McD. M ACKEV. Process qf making potassium cyanide. 
A carbonaceous and potassium mixture Is treated in a vertical furnace having 
two setsot tuyeres at different levels and an intermediate outlet tor the cyanide 
Taporfi. 

Sil.oee—June 18, 189S. H. Y. CASTNER. Process of making cyanides. 

PrcTlonaly or separately made alkaline metal Is treated with nascent nltnxren 
and carbon. ^ 

SiS.as—Jaly SO, 1895. H. Y. CASTNER. Process of and apparatus for maUna 
alkali cyanides. •■•■ j ~v 

A molten alkali metal, as sodium, at a temperature of 300° to 400° C. is Intro- 
ducwl into an ntmosphcreof anhydrous ammonia in the proportionsof 23 pounds 
of alkali metal for each IT pounds of ammonia gas. The amid produced is 
withdrawn and passed through carb<m heated to redness. 

Sie,3t3— September 17. 1S9S. C. HOEPFNER. Anode for electrolytic apparatus. 

See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 
Si8,068—OeUiber u, 189S. B. HUNT. Proeets qf recovering cyanides. 

A solution of zinc sulphate containing some free sulphuric acid Is added to 
spent cyanide liquor, the supernatant liquor is drawn ofl, more than sulllcient 
sulphuric acid is added to the precipitate to decomi>ose the zinc evanide. the 
mixture is distilled, and the distillate washed and passed through two caustic 
alkali sciltitions, the first containing sufficient alkali to combine with a part only 
of the hydrocyanic acid, and the other on excess ot alkali lor absorbing the 
remainder. " 

Se7.5Sl— Septembers, iS9e. J. RA8CHEN. Process of maHnp cyanides. 

A sulphocyanide, as of sodium or calcium, mixed with water, is heated in the 
presence ot an oxidizing agent, as nitric acid, and the evolved gases pn^-cd 



through a solution of caustic alkali or alkaline earth, whereby the hydroryanle 
ai>d Is alwnrbed. The unabwirlied nitric-oxide gas Is reeunvcrted lnu> nitric 
•old with air and steam. 

Se7.Mt-Sr,,lemherH,l8»a. J. RA>*CHRN. Proccf qf making cyanides. 

Referring to No. fi«7,.Wl. the evolved oxidized gosra ar.- |Kiwd through a 
heated-water si'rubber. where the nitrons fumes are r<'talne<l. then lnt<i cold 
water or a water tower, by which the hydriK-yanlc a<;ld Is absorbed for >ubi«- 
qiient obtalnmcnt of eyanide. then through or In contact with lime water U> 
obtain cyanide, the escaping nitric oxide being reconverted Inbi nitric acid. 

S»9.10!^nclober «, IS9«. J. A. KENDALL. Process qf ami mparatiufor making 
cyanides. 

The heating Teasel, which may be made ot nickel or sheet cobalt, with a 
platinum dls<'1iarge flue, is inclosed in an outer roswl wltb bydrotcn gu clrcti- 
lating through the intervening space. 

669.Stli— October IS, 1806. P. DANCKWARDT. Process of and apparatus for i/ro- 
ducing cyanides. 

SccOninp X, Electro-chemistry. 
S7e,tgl,— February t, 1897. 3. D. (ilLMOITR. Process of making eyanide*. 

A mixture of carbonaceous material and an alkali at a high temperatnre la 
treated with atmospheric nitrogen, forming a cyanide, which is lixiviated, and 
cartsin dioxide and nitrogen, obtained from comliustlon of cartxin in atmoa- 
pherlc air, is paased through the .solution while ut a high temiierature, forming 
hydrocyanic acid and a CHrlxinate of the ba.se of the evanide. The said acid 
and carNmate are separated, and the carljonate dried and mixed with carbona- 
ceous material in a fresh operaticm.and the nitrogen, frce<i from the wid carbon 
dioxide, is passed therethrough while maintained at a high temperature. 

S77.SS7— March t, 1897. H. Y. CASTNER. Process of making cyanide. 

Molten alkali metal is iiercolated through carbon heated to redness in the 
presence of a current of free nilrog(;n. The molten alkali metal enters the 
retort and the cyanide Is conducted out through trapjied pipes. 

S79,6S9— March SO. 1897. H. W. CROWTHER, E. C. ROfWlTER, O. S. ALBRIGHT, 
AND J. J. H(X>D. Process of and apparatus for making cyanide*. 
In the manufacture of ferrocyanides the iron is cleaned bv treating it with an 
alkaline or alkaline-earth sulphide. It Is then mixed with a sulphocyanide 
and the mixture dried in the presence of an inert gas, as limekiln gases, to pre- 
vent oxidation. 

.'^79.988— Aprils, 1897. C. KELLNER. Process of producing melaate cyanides. 
See Group X, Electrochemistry. 

190,217— September SI, 1897. A. FRANK AND N. CARO. Process of making 

cyanides. 

(;arl)idcs of a suitable metal— as a mttal of the alkalis— are heated to a red 
heat and subjected to the action of nitrogen saturated with steam. A caustic 
alkali or an alkali carbonate may be mixed with the carbide. 

59I..'i7.'i— October IS, 1S97. J. R. MOISE. Process of making cyanides. 

Boride of nitrogen is pro<liiced by calcining a mixture of biborate of soditun 
100 pounds, and hydrocnoride of ammonium l.iO pounds, lixiviating with boil- 
ing water acidified with hydrochloric acid, and filtering. A mixture of the 
boride of nitrogen thus obtained with carbonate of potassium and carbon is 
heated to a dark red, forming cyanides and imrates, which are separated by 
crystallization. Fcrrocyanide is produced direct by adding iron filings to the 
mixture. 

591,7SO— October It, 1897. W. BAIN. Process qf and apparatus for eteOrotyxing. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

B96,6l,l— January i, 1898. H. R. VIDAL. ProceM of making cyanides. 

Cyanogen compounds are produced by heating phospham (PN.H) with a 
carbonate, e. g.. phospham, 6 parts, potassium carbonate. 19 parts. The addition 
of coal carbon pnxliiees a cyanide instead of a cvanate, and iron a ferr<K-yanide. 
Sulphocyanides are obtaineil in the presence o^ sulphur, and ga.seous cyanogen 
by heating a mixture of phosjiham and dry natural potafwium oxalate. 

605.69!,— .hinc li. 1S98. H. .?. BLACKMORE. Process of making cyanides. 

Metallic sulphides, as potassium sulphide, are converted intocvanidee, sulpho- 
cyanides and ferrocyanides by introducing a metallic carbide, as granular iron 
carbide, into the molten sulphide and passing nitrogen gas therethrough. 

e07,S<r7—JiUy 19, 1898. P. DANCKWARDT. Process of and apparatus for maUtui 
ferrocyanides. 

A mixture of an alkali sulphocyanide, as that of sodium, with lime, ehareoal, 
and a carbide or carbides, preferably calcium carbide and iron carbide, is 
heated, leached with water, and the ferrocyanide separated. 

607.881— July 36. 1898. H. REICHARDT AND J. BUEB. Process of making cua- 

nidetifrom molasses lyes. 

Cyanide of ammonium is produced direct from molasses or molasses lyes by 
distilling with exclusion of air and maintaining the gases at about 1,100° C. 
until cyonide of ammonium is formed, by passing them through highly heated 
fire-brick flues. The cyanogen is separated as terrocvanide by leading the 
gases through an iron-salt solution. 

eiS.709—AprU IS, 1899. A. FRANK AND N. CARO. Process of nuMng cyanide*. 
A carbide, as an alkaline metal carbide, is mixed with an oxide ot a metal 
only, and heated in the presence ot nitrogen, free or ixiund. It is heated to a 
temperature below the melting jxiint of the cyanide until absorption of nitro- 
gen ceases, and then the temperature Is raised to the melting point. 

Sft5,964— -Vav SO, 1899. J. BC EB. Process of adraeting cyanogen from coat go*. 

The gas, before going to the ammonia scrubbers, is passed throtigh a <x>neen- 
trated 8«>lutioii of a metalli<t salt— as chloride or sulphate ot iron— thereby pre- 
cipitating all of the cyanogen and part ot the ammonia, and leaving the greater 
part of the ammonia with the gas. 

eU.671— January 16, 1900. W. WITTER. Proeets qf producing solution qf cyano- 
gen haliile. 

A solution of cyanogen halide— such as chloride or bromide— Is produced by 
clectrolyzing. without a iliaphragni and with inert electnxies. a .solution con- 
taining an alkali eyanide. an alkali halide, such a.s chloride or brximide. and the 
salt ot a metal— OS magnesium— which torma an insoluble hydroxide. 

6U.78t— February e, 1900. J. Bl'EB. Procet* qf making hydrocyanic add. 

Gases resulting from the destructive distillation of organic matters, eiwled and 
treed of ammonia, are sulijccii^d to contact with alcohol, as in an alcohol tower, 
and the alcoholic solution of bydn)ryanicaeid is subjectwl to fractional distilla- 
tion. The hydrocyanic-acid gas is separated from the alcohol by reaction with 
ilcoholic caustic alkali. 



176 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



651.SiS—Jttne U.1900. A. DZIUK. Process of making cyanides. 

Cyanidesand ferrocyanldes of the alkaline earth metals, including magnesium, 
are "produced bv subjecting carbides of thesaidmetalsinthenaseent state to the 
action of a superheated current of pure nitrogen, as by passing heated nitrogen 
over the carbide while in a fluid state in an electric furnace. 

FERROCYANIDES. 

Ul— October 2S. 1837. H. STEPHENS. (,Beisstw: S—AprU 21. 1S5S.) Imprmed 

manufacture of coloring m<Uter. 

Prus.siate of potash or soda is produced by passing the gases evolved from the 
distillation of animal matters, or other matters that yield nitrogen and hydro- 
carbons, direct into a mass of alkali in a state of fusion, and then into a solution 
of alkali conUiined in separate vessels. Prussian blue of commerce is digested 
In strong acid to render it more soluble in oxalic acid, and then dissolved m 
oxalic acid as a final process. 
6,U9—Januarv iS. 18US. M. KALBFLEISCH. Improved mode of treating anlrml 

matters prevloM to calcination for the manufacture ofprussiales nf potash or soda. 

Animal matter of any kind is dissolved in caustic potash or soda and dried 
before calcining. 
til. 51.7— December 9, 18:9. J. TCHERNIAC AND U. GUNZBURG. Improvement 

in processes of and apparatus for making ferrocyanldes. 

Carbon di-sulphide and an ammoniacal solution are mixed under heat, and the 
resultant sulphocvanidc of ammonium is mixed with lime under heat; a solii- 
ble carbonate or" sulphate, as of potassium, is added to the solution; and 
finally the resultant sulphocyanide is mixed with lime. carb»n, and iron, and 
heated to a red heat. 
giS. 661— August 16, 1881. T. RICHTERS. Manufacture of potassium ferroeyardde. 

Nitrogenous material is moistened with a solution of carbonate of potassiuin, 
dried without combustion while in contact with carbonic acid, then heated in 
a retort to drive off the volatile ingredients, and the residuum lixiviated with 
iron; the prussiate of potash being then separated from the liquor, which can 
be used for moistening fresh material. 
159,802— June 20, 1882. H. BOWER AND W. L. ROWLAND. Process of obtaining 

ferrocyanldes from gas liquor. 

The ammoniacal liquor is treated with iron or a ferric salt, and then with 
lime (and the ammonia distilled off), and the ferrocyanldes ar« extracted from 
the sediment by the addixion of an alkaline salt, such as potas.sium or sodium 
carbonate. 
t59,908-June 20, 1882. C. C. PARSONS AND E. F. CRUSE. Process of obtaining 

cyanides. 

Iron in the form of a salt or in the insoUible form of hydrate, carbonate, oxide, 
or sulphide, or of metallic iron, is added to ammoniacal gas liquor in the absence 
of acia and without neutralizing the ammonia, and before the ammonia is 
removed, to convert thccvanidesof ammonium into ferrocyanldes of ammonia. 
Lime is then added, the ammonia distilled off, and the ferrocyanldes of calcium 
converted into prussian blue by the addition of acid and a salt of iron. 

t91,16S— January 1. 1831,. C. DE VIGNE. Manufacture of ferrocyanides. 

Coal gas containing cyanogen or hydrocyanic acid is cooled and deprived of 
tarry products and then passed through a mixture of iron and an alkaline salt, a« 
iron" filings and crystallized carbonate of .soda, the mixture being subsequently 
washed and the solution evaporated to obtain the ferrocyanide. 

S03,l.S7—August 12. 1881,. H. KUNHEIM AND H. ZIMMERMANN. Process of 

making ferrocyanides. 

Ferrocvanide of calcium potassium is produced by precipitating ferrocyanide 
of calcium from its solution by means of chloride of potassium. Spent materials 
used in gas purification may be used. 

ill.21,8— February 17, 1885. H. BOWER. Manufacture of ferrocyanide of potas- 
sium. 
A mixture of nitrogenous animal matters, potassium carbonate, and iron is 

heated and the resultant cake or melt treated with water and carbon dioxide. 

962.236— May S. ISSi. J. VAN RUYMBEKE. Obtaining cyanide and ferrocyanide 
from tank water. 

A solution of alkali, as soda or potash, holding finely divided barytii in sus- 
pension, is added to tank water which has been prepared from animal substances 
bv the action of steam at a high heat and under pressure, and the resulting .solu- 
tion evaporated to about 20 i)er cent of the moisnire, when the residue is sub- 
jected todestructive distillation at red heat and the ammonia generated is forced 
to pass downward through the porous mixture of red-hot alkali, carbon, and 
cyanides already formed. 

i65,600— December 22. 1891. W. L. ROWLAND. Process of recovering cyanides 

from coal gas. 

A soluble salt of iron is added to the water used for extracting the ammonia 
from the gas passing through the scrubbers, in proportion to remove cyanides, 
but insiimcient to remove sulphides, thus forming soluble ferrocyanide of 
ammonia along with the ammonia compounds. The ammonia is boiled off and 
the residue treated with lime to give ferrocyanide of calcium, which is treated 
wilhaii alkaline chloride or sulphate, and the resulting double salt decomposed 
with an alkaline carbonate to form an alkaline ferrocyanide. 

556.130— March 10, 1896. H. BOWER. Procem of making prussiates. 

Prussiate of pota.sh or soda is produced from sulphocyanide of iron by forming '■ 
cyanide of pota.s«ium, adding to this the sulphocyanide during fusion, and then 
cooling, lixiviating, and crystallizing. 

B60.Hi—Uay 26, 1896. H. BOWER. Process of recovering cyanogen compounds 

from gas liquors. 

An acidified solution of a copper salt is added to gas liquor containing soluble 
ferrocvanide and sulphocvanidc and freed of ammonia, to form insoluble ferro- 
cyanide and sulphocyanide of copper, and metallic iron is then added to decom- 
ji'ose the precipitate and form a .sohition of sulphocyanide of iron. If the last 
step is conducted with heat and pressure, there is produced sulphide of copper 
ana ferrocyanide of iron. 

«2I,,SSS—May I, 1899. W. SCHRODER. Process of making yellow prussiate of 

potash. 

The gaseous productsof the destructive distillation of coal are passed through 
an aqueous solution of protochloride of iron, and the solution is then distilled 
with milk of lime to precipitate calcium ferrocyanide. The excess of lime in 
the residual sf)lution is first precipitated: then ferric chloride is added to precip- 
itate the remaining calcium ferrocyanide, and the entire nrecipitiite is treated 
with a solution of potassium carbonate t*) precipitate calcium carbonate and 
ferric hydrate, when the solution is concentrated to crystallize out the yellow 
prussiate of potash. 



OTHER CYANIDES. 

570, ISO— November S, 1896. J. J. HOOD AND A. C. SALAMON. Manufacture of 

cyanogen compounds. 

Carbon bisulphide, ammonia, and a fixed base or bases, as peroxide of man- 
ganese and lime, are heated together in such proportions that the products of 
the reactions of the carbon bisulphide and ammonia combine with the hxed 
base or bases, forming sulphocyanide and sulphide of the base or bases, the 
whole of the ammonia being utilized in the production of sulphocyanic acid. 
578,908— March 16, 1897. G.J.ATKINS. Chlorocyanid salts and process of making 

same. 

A new series of compounds, chlorocyanide salts, efficient agents for leaching 
ores consist of an alkali and a compound of cyanogen ftised together, at as low 
a temperature as possible, with one or more bases; as, for example, potassium 
ferrocyanide 1 part and sodium chloride 2 parts. 

GROUP VII.— WOOD DISTILLATION. 

Sa.mi-March SI, 1863. M. A. LE BRUN-VIRLOY. Improvement in drying and 

carl}onizing wood, peat, and other fuel. 

First the material is introduced at one side or end of a furnace and with- 
drawn from the other side or end in a state suitable for use as fuel; second, the 
doors or openings are hermetically closed; third, regulated taps, valves, and 
registers control the admission and exit of air, gas, and other volatile products; 
fourth a portion of the volatile products is collected and removed after the 
whole or part of it-s caloric has been utilized; fifth, the material and d<5bris of 
little value and the combustible gases are utilized; and, sixth, the material to 
be treated is subjected first to a low temperature and then to a gradually 
increasing temperature. 
1,9,21,7— August 8, 1865. A. H. EMERY. Improvement in the manufacture of pyro- 

ligneous acid. 

In the distillation of wood in the manufacture of pyroligneous acid, steam is 
admitted in large quantities, while the heat is not raised sutticiently to char 
the wood until the wood is thoroughly dried and a large portion of the spirits 
of turpentine and resin taken out, when the heat is raised to commence rapid 
charrnig, the steam being nearly or quite shut off. 

62,097— February 12, 1867. P. H. VANDER WEYDE. Improvement in the manu- 
facture of white lead. 

For use in the manufacture of white lead, acetic acid is produced from the 
distillation of wood, and at the end of the operation the remaining charcoal is 
transformed into carbonic acid by blowing air into the bottom of the still. The 
precipitate is treated with a hot alkaline solution of quicklime, or its equiva- 
lent, and the filters washed out with lime water. 

93,817— August 17, 1869. L. D. GALE AND I. M. CATTMAN. Improvement in 
ihe moMiufacture of sugar of lead and acetic acid. 
See Group I, Acetic Acid. 

118,7 S7— September 12, 1S71. C. J. T. BURCEY. Improvement in the manufacture 

of acetate of lime. 

Superheated vapors of pyroligneous acid and dry slaked lime are agitated 
together. The empyreumatic vapors are condensed, the gaseous products of 
condensation being "utilized for combustion in the furnace. 

lSl,312—September 10, 1872. J. D. STANLEY. Improvement in 2>rocesses and 

apparatus for producing oils, etc. 

Vapor from the distillation of pine wood is passed into condensing water, the 
uncondensed vapor passes off as an inflammable gas, the floating oil is separated, 
and the condensing water and acids flow off as waste. 

18i,898—^'ovember 28, 1876. H. M. PIERCE. Apparatus and process for treating 

wood for charcoal and other purposes. 

To make concentrated pyroligneous acid the hot volatile products are ex- 
hausted from a charcoal kiln and compressed until the acid vapors are lique- 
fied, the temperature being maintained at such height that the diluting water 
will be separated and permitted to escape in a vaporized condition. 

1S5, lU— December 6, 1876. E. R. SQUIBB. Manufacture of acetic acixl. 

Wood in a retort is subjected to the action of heat in an oven, whereby, the 
temperature being even and controllable, an acid practically free from tar is 
obtained. 

300,381,— June 17 , 1881,. J. A. M.4.THIEU. instillation, of wood. 

The vapcrs resulting from the carbonization of the upper portion of a mass of 
material in a retort are partially condensed by passing the vapors downward 
through the uncarboniied portion of the material. 

353,998— Decanbcr 7, 1886. T. W. WHBELER. Process of and apparatus fur dis- 

iiXing uood. 

Wood is first subjected to distillation with steam under low pressure and tem- 
perature, thereby softening the wood and driving off the turpentine vapors, 
which are passed into a bath of limewater, warmed and agitated by a current 
of steam; when the wood is softened the steam valve and turpentine-vaporvalve 
are closed, the oil valve opened, and the temperature raised to nearly 400° F., 
thereby quit;kly running off the creosote oil and pyroligneous acid, which are 
separated until they run off of the same gravity, when the tar valve is opened 
and the temperature gradually lowered until the tar and gas are run off. 

i«5,7rr — July.lO, 1388. G, RUMPF, Manufacture of acetone. 

See Group XVIII, Ketones. 
388,529— August 28, 1883. F. S. CLARK. Process of obtaining creosote, etc. 

The process consists in mingling a cau.stic-soda solution containing creosote or 
analogous phenoloid bodies with pyroligneous acid, thereby ot-casioning a 
reaction between the mingled bodies, and depositing creosote, and forming 
acetate of sixia by the union of the soda solution and the acetit acid of the 
pyroligneous-acid solution. 

393,079— November 20, 1388. G. RUMPF. Manufacture of acetone. 
See Group XVIII, Ketones. 

1,07,1,1,2— July 23, 1839. E. MEYER. Process of obtaining methyl alcohol from 
wooitpulp lyes. 
See Group XVIII, Alcohols. 

1,90,1,97— January 21,, 1893. F. H. & R. H. PICKLES. Process <tf purifying 

pyrolignites. 

Pyrolignites in a liquid state arc purified of tarry matters by treatment with 
the carbonaceous residue olHained in the manufacture of j)russiate of potash.or 
alkaline carbonaceous matter prepared by carbonizing animal matter with 
carbonates or hydrates of tlie alkalis. 



{ 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



177 



iOLMl—AHgutfU. tau. F. J. BEKUMANN. UrlluHl i\f dMmiHH uixxl mute. 

The method of mnnufnrtiirlnK woo<l vlnegnr fnini wcmkI wantc, «iirh a* naw- 
(luiit or ohi{>M, coiiHiHtJ* In rniivi-rliiiK Ihe Kainv Into bI(M-krt l>y i>rfKsiiru up to 
Hliout three hnndred ntnioKphiTen, oxpremlnK wnter eoiitAlniMl in ttio wood, 
then carbonliInK the bUK'ki in retorta, an<l prei'lpitatlng the viw«» Kenurated. 

MS,Mt— March It. IS9S. O. POR8CH. /VoorM tf/ ttiakiug aedone. 

8«e Uroup XVIII, Ketono. 
tn,)M—Ffbrunr\illl.l><S7. K. H^E^t.. Tcrpcne alcohol. 

8e« Group XVIII, Alcohols. 

Mf.Wi— .WnrrA M, 1«>9. F. W. J. F. SCHMIDT. Xetkod q/ preparing wood /or 

dry diMttlation. 

The wood i» cut croaawlae of the Kmin Into thin lamlnn, and then dlatiUed. 
ti8.SS9—May t. 1900. H. O. CHl'Tr. Prucett iij making aedone. 

8m Group XVIII, Ketonea. 

RESINS AND TURPENTINE. 

ItMt— March K, ISIS. N. U. CHAFEE. Improvement in the man^fac^ure o/roHn 

and tpiriti of turpentine. 

In the manufacture of white rcain and white npirita of turpentine from the 
pim of pines, iiteam la conducted in and mixed with the irum (n a still and then 
pawed through a metal heater. 

t,OI>t— March IS, 1IH7. K.L.MARTIN. Improvement in re/tulng (urpaiUne. 

Splrlta of tur|>entine are refined by the u.ie of alkali and water. u.slng a strong 
aolutlon i)f potiishwi and water, not leiw than 12 t^nnd.s to the gallon, and 1 
gill t>f alkali to a gallon of splrlta of turpentine. 

T.ita—JtUy SO, ISSO. C. J. MEINICKE. Improivment in didiUing tpiriU o/ tur- 
pentine. 
Crude turpentine Is mixed with grease and soda solution and heated, forming 

a aoap, n solutliiu of common salt Is added and the spirits of turpentine distilled, 

leaving the resin saponilied ready for soap making. 

8,iSS — yuvember i, ISSI. L. S. ROBBINS. Improvement in tanners' oil from rosin. 
The product obtained bv distilling a mixture of oil, which has t>een distilled 
from resin at about 600° F.. and slacked lime, say about .5 per cent, with the 
addition of steam, followed by a second distillation with caustic lime, and fur- 
ther treatment of the product with steam. 

«,W»— AoivrnVr i, 1851. L. 8. ROBBINS. Improvement in lubricating oil from 

rotin. 

The product obtained by dLstilllng n mixture of oil. which has been distilled 
from resin at nl>out .^60° F., and slacked lime, say about 5 per cent, with the 
addition of steam, followed by ii second distillation with caustic lime, and fur- 
ther treatment of the product with steam. 

8,U)0—Xoiemt>er i. 1811. L. S. ROBBINS. Improrement in distilling acid and 

naphtha from rosin. 

Resin is melted and heated up to 325° F., or thereabouts, and maintained 
l>etween 300° F. and 325° F. until the acid and water arc driven off, when steam 
Ls injected and the temperature maintained at 325° F. to throw off the naptitha. 

«,49I— .Voeemfcer i. 1811. L. S. ROBBINS. ImprovemaU in paint oil from rosin. 

The product obtained by the double redistillation with steam of oil which 
baa been distilled from resin at about 660° F. and further treatment of the 
product with steam. 

9,680— April 19, 18tS. S. L. DANA. Improi-ement in purifying rosin oil. 

Realn oil is deodorlxed by combining the fluid formed by the first distillation 
of realn or realn oil with .slacked lime or other alkaline, earthy or equivalent 
metallic base, and distilling the compound. 

9,75i—May ii. ISSS. M. PAGE. Improvement in processes of distUling rosin oil. 

Steam is introduced into the head of the goose-neck so that the vaporized oils 
will pass through and be commingled therewith. 

W,8i»—Mtty t, laSi. H. HALVOR.SON. Improvement in processes for distilling 

rotin oU. 

Clay la mixed with resin— 5 parts of clay to 1 part of rosin— and the mixture 
distilled: no pitch residuum being left in the retort. 

n.eti— March S7, 1860. D. FEHRMAN. Improvementin the manufacture of resin. 
Resin is purified by treatment and distillation in a vacuum pan with a small 
quantity of water and steam at low temperature, rising from 150° F. to 180° F. 

t7,6iS— March 17 , 1860. H.NAPIER. Imprmement in the manufacture of resin. 

The crude turpentine is heated in a still until it attains a temperature rather 
exceeding that of steam at a pressure of 10 pounds, then steam at said pressure 
is caused to permeate and pa.sa through the mass without condensation, until 
all the oil of iuri)entine ha-s pa.ssed over, when the heat is raised to 5.t0° to 600° F. 
with the continued blowing of steam through the mass at the same pressure. 

t8,663—June It, 1860. S. FRAZER. Improvement in distiUalion of oils from resin. 
Crude resin la distilled and certain specified quantities of product arc suceea- 
alvely drawn off from the receiver of the condenser, the temperature of the 
product being successively raised from 74° F. for the first drawing to 132° F. for 
the fourth drawing, and then lowered to 106° F. for the fifth drawing. 

U,Sllr— September to, 186i. D. HULL. Improvement in extracting rosin and other 

substances from pine wood. 

Resin is produced direct from pine wood by heating aamc with heated air or 
■nperheated steam, the outgoing blast being conveyed to a condenser, where the 
spirits of turpentine is collected. 

U.UI3— September t!, 1881. O. R. H. LEFFLER. Improvement in distilling turpen- 
tine from wood. 

Turpentine is distilled direct from wood saturated or thoroughly moistened 
with steam or water. 

ie.09t— January SI, 186S. A.H.EMERY. Imprm<emcnt in obtaining spirits qf tur- 
pentine, oil, resin, and other products from pine wood. 

A current of ordinary steam Is passed over and through the wood int*) a con- 
denser, the retort being externally heati-d enough to prevent condensation of 
steam, the pressure In the i>oiler Ijelng suffliient to give the requisite heat. 
When the aplrits of turpentine have i>a.'«ed over, the temperature is increased 
tor the remaining products. 

• 
U,i06—June 17, 186S. D. HULL. Improvement in extracting turpentine and other 
products from resinous woods. 

Pine or other resinous wood Is distilled under leas than atmospheric preanire. 
No. 210 12 



l^,tia—Autu0t I, IMS. A. H. EMERY. Improvement in the manufatture of pitch. 
Pitch la made from pine wood by one distillation, by beating the bottom ol 
the retort lo the requisite degree. 

U»,tia—Auguit 8.18ns. A. H. EMERY. Improremenl in the maitu/aeture q/ 

turpentine, etc. 

Wood is distilled under more than atmospheric pmsora, mj, np to 2 or 3 
atmospheres, without the application of ateam or raperhealM Heam, to secure 
an Incraued production of oil of turpentine and resin bclora dtrtmctlTe dlstUU- 
tlonbeRins. 

eo,lS*— September t», laei. J. JOHNSON. Improvement in the manufacture of 

spirits lif turpentine. 

Water, steam, air or gases, and solvents are caused to circalate among the 
wood In suitable reoopucies at a temperature sufflctently low to sacnra the 
extractive tereblntblnates and resins free from empyreonutlc odofs. The wood 
Is placed orera strattun of water which condeiues the volatile prodncts ol Ibe 
wood and fixes the resin. Two boiierri are succeadrely oaed to eootumlxe the 
heat and save waste of tereblnthine products. Suitable soluble salts are added 
to raise the boiling point and increase the temperature for extraction. Wood Is 
compressed after aleaming to eliminate oleo-rmiu. 

51,081— April 17, 1866. J. A. PASTORELLI. Improvedmethodof extracting turpen- 
tine from wood. 

In the distillation of resinous woods for the extraction of essence of tarpen- 
tine, etc., the wood la placed in a boiler over a fire together with water to form 
steam to prevent the burning of turpentine formed. 

89,i9S—Aprill7,lsea. 3. MERRILL. Improvement in the manufacture of rosin oil. 
Resin oil is deodorized by gradually raising the temperature and distilling off 
the odorous naphthaly oil until the oil coming over n-achea from 18° U> 14° 
Baum4's hydrometer, when the distillation is stopped, the remaining oil being 
vlrtualiy free from odor. 

100,958— March IS, 1870. J. TREAT. Improvement in the manufacture of rotin oil. 

Resin oil is refined and bleached by adding from 2 to 4 ounces of caustic soda 

per gallon of oil and a small (|uantlty of gum benzoin, and distilling. Steam 

IS introduced into the worm to commingle with the vapor before condeijsatlon. 

130,198— August to, 187t. J. D. STANLEY. Improvement in distilling and purify- 
ing turpentine from wood. 

The vapor from the distillation of pine wood U introduced into a rerelTer con- 
taining the vapor generated from water or other liquid impregnated or satu- 
rated with lime, which vapors combine and condense. 

lS9,!,Ot—May n, 1878. A. K. LEE. Improvement in bleaching resins. 

Resin is reduced to a powder or small lumps and bleached by the direct action 
of steam and heat while the mass is under agitation. 

HS.lSl-December i, 1S7S. S.L.COLE. Improvement In the production of turpen- 
tine from sawdust. 
Spirits of turpentine Is produced from sawdust by destructive distillation by 

the application of fire direct to a retort containing the same. 

179.960— July IS, 1878. A. ROCK. Improvement in production and treatment qf 

resin. 

In the distillation of scrap turpentine and the production of resin therefrom 
the condensable vapors are eliminated while under treatment in a retort during 
distinct and separate meltings, or exposures to a melting heat, followed in each 
instance by an exposure to a cooler temperature, and the vapors are condensed, 
whereby colopholk' acid is prevented from being unduly developed in the resin: 
the vapors are eliminated by means of currents of air sweeping over the tur- 
pentine or resin while successively melted and cooled. 

180,ie7— August 1, 1S76. L. J. DUROUX. Improvement in purifying spirits qf 

turpentine. 

Powdered alum, or alum water. Is mixed with spirits of turpentine — 2 to S per 
cent of powdered alum or a solution of ft to 10 per cent of alum In water eqiul 
to the turpentine — and agitated, and the mixture allowed to settle, when the 
purified spirit Ls drawn off. 

19l,,701— August 28, 1877. A. MARTIN. Improvement in the manttfaeture qf 

bretcer' s pitch. 

Brewer's pitch is made direct from crude turpentine, using oil of resin Instead 
of tallow^ or other oils, by first melting the turpentine and drawing off a portion, 
reducing the remainder by extracting s|>lrlts and acids Iwfore adding the oil of 
resin and ocher, and, when drawing off the mass through a strainer, adding 
thereto a portion of turpentine first drawn off. 

tO0,168— February IS, 1878. D. M. BUIE. (Seitsue: t0,SSa-^une S, ISSS.) 
Process of manufacturing oils from organic substances. 
See Group XVI, Essential Oils. 

tit.OlS— May Ii, 1881. J. A. McCREARY. Process of and apparatus for distilling 

turjteidine. 

The crude material is diluted with a suitable mcnstrum. as spirits of turpen- 
tine: an alkali added, the excess of the latter precipttattHl, filtered, and then 
distilled: and pending the pnx^ess of distiUutiou the unoonden5e<l products are 
conducted from the worm to the still and forced through the liquid contents of 
the latter. 

t76,981— May 1, 1888. L. PRADON. Method of and apparatus for the manufacture 

of oil from resinous wood. 

Pine oil, a mobile transparent liquid, CtMu- produced bv distilling realnons 
wood at a temperature of about 400° C. It is mixed with petroleiun or coal oil 
to form an illuminating oil. 

e77.SOS—May 15, ISSS. H. M. PIERCE. Process of and apparatus for the recovery 
of turpentine and other wood products, and for the manufacture of charcoal. 
The vapors from wood distillation are subjected to the action of a spray of 

water, whereby the oils and resinous matters are separated, and the supernatant 

oily matter is then drawn <^ff. 

V7,S06—May IS. ISSS. H.M.PIERCE. Proeeu of and apparatus for the mamtfae- 
ture qf turpentine. 

Wood Is subjected In a closed chamber to the action of heated gases and steam, 
and the gases and vapors withdrawn and condensed. 

t8i,S«7— .'September i, ISSS. L. BELLINGRATH. Process of mcamfaeturing rotbk 

and spirits of turpentine. 

Crude turpentine is melted and heated by steam heat to a temperature suffl- 
dent lo volatilize the spirit which is driven off and condensed, tAe resin being 
passed through sieves and retained heated and in a liquid state by steam heat 
until all the water and vaporlzable Impurities are dispelled. 



.178 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



Sa.srs-Attgust IS, ISSS. D. J. OGILVY. Eoiin oil. 

As a new article of manufacture, resin oil of commerce treated with and 
containing an alkaline salt of sodium or potassium sufficient to wholly or par- 
tially neutralize the resinous acids, say from H to 2i per cent of commercial 
caustic soda. 

SSe.lSS—July 17, 188S. E.KOCH. Process oj disHUing pine wood for the produc- 
tion of crude dry turpaitiiie and pine tar. 

The pine oil is extracted by dry distillation; the distillate treated with milk 
of lime and agitation; the mixture settled; the oil and lye or other impurities 
combined therewith separated; the oil agitated with dilute sulphuric acid to 
remove the last traces of alkali; and the oil finally distilled. 

Sm.iSt— October 2. 18SS. F.S.CLARK. Pine-oil product. 

An oily body, li^ht in color, sp. gr. heavier than water, not distilling over below 
500° F., hot volatile at ordinary temperatures, not flashing when heated under 
350° F., and becoming solid between zero and 32° F., is produced by the fractional 
distillation and treatment of pine oil. (Process No. 390,454.) 

Sm.USi— October t. iSSS. F. S. CI>ARK. Pine-oil product. 

An oily body, sp. gr. at 68° F. of 0.856, completely volatilizing if soaked 
in paper, boiling at 326° F.. produced from the distillation and treatment of 
pine oil. (Process No. 390,454. ) 

SSO.iSi— October t, 1888. F. S. CLARK. Procest of refining pine oil. 

The process consists in fractionally distilling pine oil and separating the frac- 
tions at or about 540° F., and in separately treating said fractions by two or more 
fractional distillations and treatments with caustic soda and one or more treat- 
ments with sulphuric acid. (Products Nos. 390,451 and 390,452.) 

195,91,1— December U, 1888. J. B. UNDERWOOD. Process of dittUUng turpentine. 
A refined petroleum is mixed with crude turpentine and the mixture dis- 
tilled, thereby obtaining an increased yield of spirit, and toughening the resin 
left as a residuum. 

S95,7S1— January 8, 1889. E. A. BEHRENS. Bleaching and refining resins and 

other substances. 

Resins are first dissolved in a volatile substance, having a low boiling point, 
such as naphtha, the solution mixed with an alkali to separate the impurities, 
the alkali and impurities removed, the solution mixed with a suitable bleach- 
ing agent and the latter removed, and finally the resin separated by evapora- 
tion of the solvent and the latter recovered. The movements of the solutions 
are controlled by the compression and exhaustion of the air. 

49*, Bki— April 18, 189S. G. COL. Process of treating crude resins and their resi- 
dua. 
The heated crude products are stirred, then run into settling tanks and 

settled, and the upper liquid portion decanted and distilled until the volatile 

matters have passed into a condenser. 

e08,608— November Ik, 1893. K. L. ETHERIDGE. Mantifacture of rosin. 

Bluing (indigo) is mixed with turpentine and distilled to produce a high- 
grade resin, and eradicate the coloring matter imparted by mixing the "virgin " 
and the "yearling" dips. 

568,258— September 22, 1896. V. J. KUESS. Process of and apparatus for distiUing 
fatty substances. 
See Group X, Electro-chemistry. 

eSl,7i9— August 21, 1899. A. MULLER-JACOBS. Manufacture of substances from 

rosin oUs. 

The invention consists in the products resulting from and in the process of 
producing from resin oil an oil u-seful as a lubricant and gums or resinous sub- 
stances useful as substitutes for shellac, by treating the resin oil with sulphuric 
acid, converting the resulting sulpho-acids into water-soluble alkali salts, 
removing the oil, and treating the remaining liquid with acid or with soluble 
salt or salts of an alkaline earth or metal forming corresponding precipitates, 
and washing and drying the matter precipitated. 

eS6,t5t—Atiguat 11, 1900. ¥. G. KLEINSTEUBER. Compound for dissolving 
resins. 
See Group XV, Other Plastics. 

GROUP VIII.— FERTILIZERS. 

PRODUCTS. 

e.tSlr-March 17, iai9. P. S. AND W. H. CHAPPELL. Improvement in artificial 

manures. 

The residuum from the manufacture of alum and the residuum from the man- 
ufacture of epsom salts are mixed with sulphate of lime, the residuum from the 
manufacture of prussiate of potash, bisulphate of soda, common salt, and a 
composition resulting from the treatment of bones with gas liquor and sul- 
phuric acid. 

7,0.55 — JanxLary 29, 1850. R. HARE. Preparatimi of animetl and other manure. 

Animal material or nitrogenous vegetable matter is treated with mineral 
acids to produce a concentrated manure: wood tar, coal tar, or their equivalents 
are also added. 

I7,39f — May 16, 1857. L. S. ROBBINS. Improvement in fertilizing compounds. 

Green sand, containing little or no carbonate of lime, is mixed with superphos- 
phate of lime in the proportion of 2 parts of the former to 1 of the latter, and 
ground. . 

tf,5Ul4 — January II, 1859. D. BRUCE. Improvement in artificial manure. 

Animal matter, decomposed to a pulpy mass by standing In closed vessels at a 
temperature of 32° to 60° C, is disinfected by mixing therewith charred bitu- 
minous shale or a roasted mixture of carbonaceous matter and clay, and then 
dried. 

tl,.98li— August 9, 1S59. E. BLANCHARD. Improvement in composts. 

A mixture of lime, sodium chloride, wood ashes, charcoal, wheat bran, chim- 
ney soot, and gypsum. 

I6.18i— November 11, 1859. L. HARPER. Improvement in fertilizers. 

Peat, muck, or lignite are mixed with sulphate of lime, soda, potash, and 
magnesia, and, if desired, with green-sand marl, as a base for fertilizer compo- 
sitions; phosphate and biphosphate of lime is added to the bnse, and the mix- 
ture impregnated with ammonia, as by admixture of pulpy nitrogenous matter. 
16.196— November 22, 1859. J. J. MAPES. Improvenwnt in fertilizers. 

One hundred parts by weight of apatite or calcined bones or phosphate of 
lime is saturated with sulphuric acid, and after the superphosphate of lime is 
formed there is then added 86 parts of Peruvian guano and 20 parts of sulphate 
of ammonia. 



16,S07—December 10, 1859. J. J. MAPES. Improvement in fertilizers. 

The fertilizer product of No. 26,196 is mixed and ground with equal quantities 
by weight of dried blood. 

26,985— January 31, 1860. L.HARPER. Improvement in fertilizers. 

Green-sand marl, after atmo.spheric disintegration, is spread in a layer, 
covered with a layer of fish or offal, and the latter covered with marl impreg- 
nated with sulphate or nitrate of soda or potash. After decomposition is 
advanced, marl mixed with bone du.st dissolved in an excess of sulphuric acid 
is added, and sulphate of lime is sprinkled from time to time until decompasi- 
tion is completed and no more ammonia is evolved; the mass being repeatedly 
turned toward the end, and finally dried. 

27,072 — February 7, 1860. A. ROLLAND. Improvaneid in fertilizers. 

A mixture of alum, 7 parts; sulphate of iron, 29 parts; sulphate of soda, 36 
parts; sulphate of lime, 25 parts; sulphuric acid, 3 parts; all by weight, to be 
used direct as a fertilizer, or a solution of the same is sprinkled on manure. 
18,516— May 29, 1860. L. STEPHENS. Improvement in fertilizers. 

A mixture of decomposed animal matter, 1,200 pounds; animal charcoal, 150 
to 200 pounds; sombrero guano, 200 pounds; Peruvian guano, 175 pounds; 
ammonium sulphate, 25 pounds; common salt, 100 pounds; and solution of bone 
in muriatic acid, 50 gallons. 

SS,706 — Noivmber 12, 1861. J. B. HYDE. Improvement in manufacture of manure 

from fish. 

Dried peat, marl, clay, or plaster is mixed with fish pulp or pumice and the 
mixture ground, whereby eliectual pulverizing is secured. 

Slf,039— December 24, 1861. ST. J. O'DORIS. Improvement in fertilizers. 

A mixture of coal ashes, 75 parts; animal manure, 15 parts; animal matter, 5 
parts; and vegetable matter, 5 parts— all in bulk, 

Slt,815— April 1,1861. J. M. GALLAGHER. Improved fertilizing composition. 

A mixture of liquid animal matter, obtained by condensing the gases and 
vapors from the charring or burning of bones, with animal charcoal and sul- 
phuric acid. 

S9.519— August 11, 1868. G. F. WILSON. Improved fertilizer or manure. 

Bone sulphate of lime, the residue from the treatment of bone coal with sul- 
phuric acia for the production of phosphate of lime, is mixed with the ammo- 
niacal and other bodies condensed in the distillation of the bones. 

il, SSI— January 19. 1861,. E. VON NORDHAUSEN. Improved artificial manure. 
The residuum of petroleum, known as "still bottoms," is crushed and mixed 
with slacked lime and a sulphate of lime produced, to which is added urine, 
producing a sulphate or ammonia, and the mass dried. 

iS,6Sg—July 26, 186i. W. H. H. GLOVER. Improved fertilizer. 

Muck is dried and mixed with the refuse water, gurry, etc., from the manu- 
facture of fish oil. 

i6,8J,7— March U, 1865. W. D. HALL. Improved manure. 
Lobster refuse is desiccated and pulverized. 

i6,957— March 11. 1865. J. B. TRIBBLE. Improved composition for preventing dis- 
ease in vegetables. 

A mixture of wood ashes, 3 pecks; slacked lime, 2 peeks; sulphur, 1 peck; and 
sodium chloride, 1 peck (per acre of land; a preventive of potato rot). 

1,9,91,5— September 12, 1865. J. D. WHELPLEY. Improved fertilizer. 

A mixture of finely pulverized feldspar, feldspathic granite, and other potash- 
bearing rock, with gypsum and bone or phosphate of lime. 

50,91,0— November U, 1865. O.LUGO. Improved fertilizer. 

Leather treated with sulphuric or other acids, boiled, ground, and afterwards 
treated with urate of ammonia. 

52,8U,— February 27, 1866. J. GOULD. Improved fertilizer. 

Mixtures of gas lime, lime, salt, and animal and vegetable or vegeto-animal 
matter are fermented, whereby the carbolic acid and carbo-hydrogens of the 
gas lime are intimately combined with the lime. 

55,871- June 26, 1866. J. AND A. HURSH. Improved fertilizer. 
Ocher, either in a raw or burnt' state, is used as a fertilizer. 

61,870— Febrxmry 5, 1867. F. C. RENNER. Improved fertilizer. 

A mixture of rich earth, 1,600 pounds; saltpeter, 100 pounds; sulphate of 
ammonia, 200 pounds; and flour of raw bone, 100 pounds; the mixture being 
allowed to "sweat" in a heap. 

61,,602—May 7, 1867. W. VERMILYA. Improved composition for invigorating fruU 
and forest trees. • 

A mixture of sulphate of copper, 3pounds; sulphur, 1 pound; saltpeter, 1 ounce; 
and iron filings, half a pound. A hole is bored near the root of the tree, and 
after inserting some of the mixture the hole is plugged. 

66,S57—July 2, 1867. P. G. KENNY. Improved manure. 

Sulphate of iron is mixed with manure, and dis.solved by urine passed through 
the mass. Aluminous earth may be spread on the pile above a sprinkling of 
iron sulphate. 

66,650— July 9,1867. J.A.THOMPSON. Improved compositim of matter for disin- 
fecting and preparing fertilizers. 

Charcoal charged with sulphurous acid or other disinfecting or other gas 
is mixed with ground gypsum, as a disinfectant and deodorizer. It is mixed 
with animal and vegetable substances to form a fertilizer with or without the 
addition of common salt, wood ashes, bone dust, or other material. 

67,SS5—Jidy SO, 1867. J.K.MOORE. Improved fertUixer. 

Powdered clam or oyster shells (not burnt) treated with add. 
67,1,50— August 6, 1867. H. E. POND. Improved artificial fertiliser. 

Meadow muck is partially dried, then treated with sulphuric acid; lime is 
then added and mixed therewith, then a solution of potash, salt, and nitrate of 
soda, and finally superphosphate of lime, and the mass dried. 

70,608— November 5, 1867. H. E. POND. Improved fertiliser. 

Meadow muck is partially dried, then treated with sulphuric acid; sulphate 
of lime or gypsum is then mixed therewith, then a snhition of nitrate of potash, 
salt, and nitrate of soda, and finally superphosphate or^iphosphate of lime. 

71,711,— December S, 1867. L. S. FALES. Improved fertilizing compound. 
A mixture of sea sand, sulphate of ammonia, charcoal, bones, and dried blood. 



I 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



179 



71,7ti—Dftrmber.1,m7. L. 8. FALE8. Improrrd firlttlUT. 

A inlxtiirt- or iiIkIiI mil trcHte<1 with wutv iirWI (torn petroleum rpflnrrlen. 
ChBrciml— prrtirolily lliiil niHili- from |>eut— •ulphalr o( ammonln, pulvorlicU 
botii'!*, (Iritil liltKMl, (tiiil Ntltpi'tcr. 

Tt.om—lirraHhtrlO, Ifer. W. O. ORIMEH. ImproKdftrUUter. 

ElRlit l>ui<holii ot irniiiiKl tionp niwl W |m>iiiicIii of iiilphatc of Hmmonla are dl»- 
■olvi'<l in lM)poundiior oil otvllriol. hikI 40galloiM of urine and to bushels of 
rich onrth ndtltHl. nnd the mixture dried. 

74,r»9— ^Hrimrf/M. ISrW. J.COMMINS. Imprvml modKiftnatingmintyalphot- 
phaUt/or the mantiftvtnrr nf/crtilUrr/i, 
PhonphHtic minerals or earths are heated to a re<l or white heat and aaturatod 

with H solution of sodium ehlorlde while hot, to convert the insoluble pho«phale« 

into soluble mineral. 

te.OSl— April tl.ims. W. li. BL'SEY. Impnmd/ertilizer. 

Six hundnnl pounds of Peruvian Kuano and 100 potuids of sodium ehlortde 
are mixed together and then mixed with 1.300 pounds o^ soluble superphos- 
phate of lime, formed by treating carbonized biinc with sulphuric acid. 

T7,6t!7— any. ■•, ises. A.SMITH. Impromnmt inJertlHtcrt. 

Cnu'lclings reduced to jiowder are I'ombined with phosphates. 
7t,8iO—May I!, ISeS. J. S. RAMSBt'RO. Improved JcrlUUxr. 

One hundrMl pounds of ealclnod Upuc Is mixtHl with i") pounds of sulphate of 
ammonia and :i iriillons of hut water or barnynrd H'tnor. and 25 pounds of sul- 
phurie Held adrteil to form an ammoninled sii|»eritluwphate of lime, which 
while hot \-* mixed with 60 pound.s of Hul|>lmte of soda. V2h iKjunds of sulphate 
of lime, and hV) ixiunds of slaelicd ashes or muck. 

77.860— .Vail i:. J.siW. J. ALTHOUSE. Improved fcrtUUfr. 

Seven hundri-d pounds of air-slacked lime is mlxe<l with 180 pounds of ground 
bone and 100 ixiunds of wood ashes, covered with a layer of ground plaster and 
wet with 3a) louiids of urine, and allowed to stand for eight to twelve weeks, 
when It Is mixed with 400 pounds ot wheat br»n and 300 |x)unds of hen dung. 

79.160—June t3. l.^H. I). A. TKR HOEVEN. {Reltme: i05S and WBS—Junc 18, 

1870.) Improvement in JtrtUizers. 

A fertiliier composed of horns, hoofs, or like animal matter; produced by 
steaming, drying, and crushing or grinding. 

as,S7lr-PfbrMary t, 1869. O. A. MOSES. Improved prepared phosphate. 

South Carolina phosphates and marls are ground under water and separated 
according to their specific gravity and dried, thereby producing, as the finer 
material, nearly i)ure fertilizing phosphates. 

SS.IM— March 50, 1869. S. A. BURKHOLDER and G. \V. WILSON. Improvement 

in/ertUixer». 

A mixture of bone dust, 600 pounds; oil of vitriol, 200 pounds; sulphate, lOO 
pounds; sodium nitrate, 10 pounds; sodium chloride, 50 pounds; groimd plaster 
or sulphate of lime, 300 pounds; wood ashes, 80 pounds; and 7 bushels of earth 
or sand. 

8S.i66—Xarch SO, 1869. L. 8. FALES. Improved JertUiier. 

A mixture of bones, leather scrap, and bloixi in sulphuric acid and water is 
subjectwl to the steam and ammoniacAl vapors from a mixture of sulphate of 
ammonia, gas liquor, and slacked lime, the solid portion of the product drained 
and mixctl with dry peat. 

»0,057— Jfay 11, 1889. D. STEWART. Improved photphaie fertilixbig compound. 
Manures are produced from soluble sillcRtes and phosphates by composting 
them with caustic alkalis, as by forming alternate layers of in.«oluble phos- 
phates previously moistened with a saturated solution of crude pota.sh and 
quicklime, and allowing the successive layers to slack as strata alter strata is 
added. After cutting down and mixing, a handful of ground gj-psum is added 
to each shovel of the compost. 

»l,6e7—June tt, 1869. F. C. RENNER. Improved /ertitixr. 

One thousand and fifty pounds of rich earth is mixed with 100 pounds of sul- 
phate of ammonia and 60 pounds of saltpeter, and then incorporated with 300 
pounds of bone du^t. 100 poundsof salt cake, 200 pounds of Peruvian guano and 
200 potmds of plaster. 

91.077— June t». 1869. E. N. McKIUH AND H. W. BENDER. Improved ferlUiz- 

ing compound. 
■ .K mixture of earth, 1,000 pounds: sulphate of ammonia. 100 pounds; sodium 
chloride, 100 iK]iiiid»; [learlash and sulphate of wxla. each 2.i pounds; together 
with ground bone. 400 [lounds; Peruviau guano. 100 pounds; and ground plaster 
ISU pounds. ' 

9t,810— July to, 1869. R.FISH. Improved fertUtier. 

A mixture of night soil, marl, peatashes, charcoal, copperas, salt, tobacco 
gypsum, tincture of almonds, tincture of coffee, and coffee grounds. ' 

97,169— XovenOjer !3, 1869. B. R. CROASDALE. Improved bags /or guano pltot- 
phaUt, and other JertUiiert. ' 

They are coated inside with tar, pitch, or gum, and then inside and outside 
with a thin coat of crude petroleum or other oil. 

97 .9S9— December U, 1869. O. LUGO. {Seitsue: S,SU>—Fa>ruary IS, 1870.) /m- 

proved JertUizcr or guano. 

An antiseptic fertilizer from flsh or other animal matter, prepared by passing 
hot air downward through the material until about 90 per cent of the water 5 
extracted, and then introducing, by means ot a current of air. hydrocarbon 
and phenol (carljonic acid) vapors. tollowc<l by a blaj-t ot hot air to expel the 
remaining isirtion of water and hydrocarbon. The oils and fatty matters in 
solution with the hydrocarbon and surplus phenol are condensed. 

99,S5t— January M, 1870. I. W. SPEYER. Improvement in/ertHixrt. 

The minerals obtained from the mines of Sta-ssfurt, Prussia, chiefiy sulphates 
and muriates ot potash and magnesia, arc pulverized, dissolved in boiling 
water, and crystallized out by cooling, for use as a manuring compound. 

90,sau— February I, 1870. J.COMMINS. Improvement ia/rrlUizert. 

A mixture of 1 part, by measure, of gas-liquor and 3 parts of blood, is coagu- 
lated with one nve-bundredth part of sulphuric acid, dried, and reduced to a 
powder. 

99.U)S—f\Anuiry 1, 1870. O.LUGO. Improvement in /ertUixen or JUhi/mam. 

Fish are dried (withont scorching or roasting) before deoompiMltlon sets in, 
so as to secure a highly nitiogcnized product, pulverized and mixed with phos- 
phates, etc. 



99.978— Mminry IS, 1870. A. VAN HAAOKN AND W. ADAMilON. Imprinrtt 

JrrttltSfrfrtmi glue rrirlduum. 

(Hue ri-siduum is Niiled in an alkaline nolHtlon. common salt added, the 
soap priHliict removed, and charcoal or |ilast«r of p«rls or other fertilizing ab- 
sorbent mixefl with the masa, 

10O.t6H—h>liruary tt, 1870. O. LL'OO. tmprovemetU in the manttfaeture 'tf/er- 

tUisrrn /nnn animal tabntance*. 

An antiseptic fertilizer, nrcparcd from animal matter by treating it with car- 
bolic acid or phenol. In snlutlcm with sullable hyr|rocarl>oiia or preferably in a 
state oi vapors, with or without a current of hot sir or | 



100,«t»— March 8, 1870. H. A. HWIKL. Imprtwement in treating hlood Jor Oe 

preparation of /ertiUxert, and /or other purponrn. 

Coagulated blood, prepared by the action of steam, drained and pressed. 
10O,7t9— March IS, 1870. 3. COMMINS. Improvement infertUiier: 

A fertilizer formed of gas-liquor, blood, and sulphuric acid, with dry groand 
phosphate of lime, mixed and evaporated to dryness. 

101,181— March tt, 1870. H. A. HOOEL. Improvement inferliUur: 

The fat of dead animals Is extracted with steam, and the flesh Is subjected to 
heavy pressure, dried, and pulverized. 

lOt.UH—AprU 16, 1870. W. I. SAPP. Improvement in the matutfaeture of/erUl- 
izerg. 

A fertilizer made from silicated phosphates, produced by treating phosphatic 
guano or like material with soluble dliclc acid or water glass, to render the 
phosphates soluble. 

101,610— May S, 1870. E. P. BAUOH. Improvement In drying guano. 

Rock phosphate, or other material, is banked over grated flues for hot gases. 
so that tliey can penetrate the mass. 

10«,S1S— August 16, 1870. G. BOURGADE. Improvement in compound /or /ertiliser. 
A mixture ot blood and lime, formed by mixing slacked lime with the blood, 
adding water and heating at a low heat and subjecting the coagulated mass to 
pressure to expel the albumen. 

106,616— August tS, 1870. T. SIM. ImprovanetU in the manufacture o/ /erldixert. 
Cottonseed residuum, or other matter, divested of oil by chemical means (as 
by bisulphide of carbon), is mixed with phosphate of lime. 

107,878— October i, 1870. J. COMMINS. Improvement in the manufacture of /er- 
tUizert. 

Black salt-marsh graas ISpartina gtabin), is chopped, macerated, and reduced 
to a pulpy mass, for use with phosphates or animal matter; it contains a large 
amount of nitrogen, 10 per cent of potash, and 8 per cent of soda. 

108,869— October 18, 1870. J. M. LOEWENSTEIS. ImprovemeiU in /rrtUizing 

comjtoinuis. 

Night soil is mixed with double the quantity of pulverized unslaked lime, 
subjected to pressure to express superfluous liquid, and is then treated with 
dilute sulphuric acid. 

lll,Sl7—JanuarySl,1871. J. M. LOWENSTEIN. Improvement in /ertili:ing com- 
pounds. 

A composition formed of night soil, sulphuric acid, bones or bone dust, and 
unslacked lime. 

ni.ess— March U, Igil. T. TAYLOR. Improvement in/ertUiiers. 

A mixture of night soil with peat, clay, soluble silicates, a persalt of iron, and 
tincture of quassia. 

lU,13S—Aprai5.1S71. W.B.HAMILTON. Improvement in /ertUising compounds. 
A mixture of night soil, cotton-seed ineal, salt, gypsum, and bone phospliate. 

llJ,.798—May 16, 1871. L. C. GIFFORD. Improvement in compounds /or preserving 
/ruit trees. 

A mixture of 2 parts of calomel and 1 part of carbonate of soda, by weight, 
mixed dry. 

118,987— September It, 1871. U. S. TREAT. Improvement in /eriUixrs /rom sea- 
weed. 
Seaweed is reduced to a pulp by the action of steam under pressure and 

mixed in a mill with finely powdered quicklime. 

119,99i—0ctt)her 17. 1871. D. W. PRESCOTT. Improvement in the manufacture of 
solubk phosphates /or /erUtizers. 

A mixture of 1.600 pounds of b<me dust and 300 pounds of soda ash is mois- 
tened thoroughly with water and allowed to remain in a heap for two weeks and 
then dried. 

ltU.tSl,—March S, 1871. B. R. CROASDALE. Improvement in bags /or phosphates, 

itc. 

It is made of a textile fabric, as burlap, coated witli roofing paper, which may 
be saturated with an acid-proof or waterproof substance. 

lli.ilS—.Varch 6, 1873. J. R. WESTOVER. Improvement in compounds /or /ruit 

trees, etc. 

A mixture of kerosene oil, 1 quart; flsh oil, 1 pint; flour of sulphur, one-half 

ound; pulverized saltpeter, one-foui'' " 

destroyer and fertilizing compound. 

It5,9t7— April 13, lS7t. J. R. BLACK. Improvement in /ertUiiers. 

A mixture of stable manure and muck in eoual parts is formed: and also a 
mixture of saltpeter 60 pounds, common salt 3 barrels, lime 3 Iwrrels. and ashes 
5 barrels; and a compost formed ot alternate layers of the two mixtures, the 
latter mixture being one-fourth of the former. 

lts,9S9— April tS.mt. J. M. DEERINO. Improvement in /ertiUttng compounds. 
Fish or lobster chum Is mixed with material charged with carbolic acid, i.s 
tar water, ammoniacal water, or spent lime, spread and covered with drv earth, 
peat, or brick dust, then with air-slacked lime, then wet seaweed, then 'groimd 
gypsum, and then drv' earth or peat. The layers may be repeated, and the pUe 
Is allowed to slowly decompose. 

lt6,U8—May 7, 1871. T. 8EWELL. Improvement in compositions /or deodorixing 

as>d preparing /erUUxers. 

Giotind peat charcoal is saturated with equal parts of carbolic add and pei^ 
chloride oi manganese, and used in combination with clay, eartli, or soiL 

lt8,S78— July t, 1871. W. 8.A1UES. Improvement in artl/lciatmimura. 

Carbon and sulphate of iron are mixed In the proportions of from 1 to 6 parts 
of carbon to I part of sulphate of iron. 



pound; pulverized saltpeter, one-fourth poimd, and 1 pint of water, as an insect 
desf "■ ' — "'"-' — ^ 



180 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



ISH.SJiS— October 119, J87t. C.F.SMITH. Improvement in compositions for renovat- 

ing and invigorating apple trees. 

A mixture of pulverized blue vitriol, 4 parts: white chalk, 1 part, and iron 
scales, 1 part, all in bulk; applied by bonng a hole to the center of the tree 
near the roots and filling it with the mixture. 

138. US— April 19, 1S73. J. WHITEHILL. Improvement in fertilizers. 

For agricultural purposes cau.stic lime is ground to the state of sand. 
liS.SlS—Septeniber SS. ISiS. J. B. WILSON. Improvement in fertilizing soils. 

Pulverized anthracite coal, cither with or without manure ingredients, is 
used as a fertilizer; it maintaining the soil in a moist condition. 

11^,310— September SO, 1ST3. J. J. STORER. Improvement in fertilizers from offal. 
A fertilizer consisting of offal, tank-stuff, blood, etc., treated with burning 
ga.ses directly in contact so as to impregnate the mass with soot and free car- 
bon, and give a dark brown or almost black color to the product. 

Ii7. 035— Februarys. i87L R. BIRDSALL. Improvement in fertilizing compounds to 

be used to protect trees, etc. 

A mixture of 8 bushels of topsoil, 1 bushel of gas lime, 4 quarts of common 
salt, 'i quarts spirits of turpentine, 2 pounds of saltpeter, and 2 quarts of crude 
coal oil, with sufficient water to work into a homogeneous mass; afterwards 
dried. 

li9,SiS— March 31, ISO,. C. PERRY. Improvement in fertilizers. 

Malt, or grain, with the germinating principle destroyed, isasedas a fertilizer 
or as an ingredient for a fertilizer and plant food. 

li9,!SU—Marcli 31, lS7i. G. J. POPPLEIN. {Reissue: 7,t96— September 5, IS! 6.) 

Improvement in fertilizers. 

A fertilizer containing tripoli, or consisting of tripoli and phosphate of lime, 
pulverized and intimately mixed. 

ll^.Ui— April 7, 1S7U. J. H. GREEN. Improvement in waterproofing compounds 

for guano bags, hales, etc. 

A composition for waterproofing bagging consists of rubber cement, linseed 
oil. benzine, zinc or white lead, magnesia, umber, flour bran orsawdust, litharge, 
and sulphur. 

15i.7S!>—Jtdy 7, mi.. R. A. CHESEBROUGH. Improvement in antiseptic ferti- 
lizers. 
A mixture of boneblack and hydrocarbon oil, say in the proportions of 70 per 

cent and 30 per cent. It should be mixed with an equal amount of earth. 

15S,9ll—July U, lS7li. S. D. SHEPARD. Improvement in fertilizing compounds. 

A composition of peat, 120 pounds; fish oil, 15 gallons; and fish liver, from 
which the oil has been removed, 30 gallons. 

133.1,77— July 2S, lS7i. B. R. CRO ASD ALE. Improvement in bags for phosphates, 

guano, etc. 

Bags of a textile fabric are saturated with hydrate of lime, dried, and then 
Immersed in oil or oil and paraffine. 

15i,017— August 11, 1871,. B. G. CARTER. Improvement in fertilizing compounds. 
A mixture of Peruvian guano, 600 pounds; archilla guano. 300 pounds; dis- 
solved bone, 200 pounds; wood ashes, 300 pounds; soda, 50 pounds; and ground 
plaster, 630 pounds. 

153. 3U1— September 2S, 187i. G. E. E. SPARHAWK AND M. A. BALLARD. 

Improvement in fertilizers. 

A mixture of 25 bushels each of air-slacked lime, wood ashes, hen guano, and 
soil; 1 bushel of salt, 200 pounds of gypsum, and 10 pounds of bone dust. 

160.191— February S3, 1875. C. H. HOFFMANN. Improvement in fertilizing com- 
pounds. 

A fertilizing liquid for germinating seeds, etc., produced by boiling a mixture 
of 3 gallons of liquid manure, 3 ounces of salt, and 2 ounces of saltpeter; dis- 
solving therein three-quarters of a pound of unslacked lime; straining, and then 
adding one-half ounce each of crude petroleum and sulphur balsam. 

171,857— January i, 187S. ST. J. RAVENEL. Improvement in fertilizers. 

Pulverized iron pyrites is mixed with ground phosphatic material. 
173,611— February 15, 1876. X. G. GRIFFITH. Improvement in fertilizers. 

One hundred pounds of horse manure is mixed with 80 to 100 pounds of sul- 
phuric acid, and then 100 pounds each of bone dust and of archilla, curacoa or 
Mexican guano are mixed therewith. 

17U,568— March 7, 1876. G. J. POPPLEIN. {.Reissue: 8,187— April 16, 1878.) Im- 
provement in fertilizers. 
An intimate mixture of tripoli or infusorial earth and potash or .soda. 

175,81,6— April 11, 1876. J. B, WILSON. Improvement in composts. 
A pile is formed of layers of mud, muck or marl, manure or guano, and salt, 

with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid poured thereover, then a layer of lime. 

and a covering of sand or earth; the mass standing for thirty days or so, when it 

Is thoroughly decomposed. 

178,19!,— May 30, 1876. A. W. ROWLAND. Improvement infertUizers. 

A compound of wood ashes, cottonseed, earth, manure, sulphates of magnesia 
of soda, and of ammonia, sodium chloride, .sodium nitrate, dissolved bone, and 
ground plaster. 

191.1,76- .May 29, 1877. H. SELIGM AN. Improvement in deodorizing, disinfecting, 

and fertilizing compounds. 

A compound of mineral potash salt, as carnaillit, 70 parts; gypsum or other 
calcareous substance, 23 parts; and sulphuric acid, 5 parts. 

193,890— August?, 1877. C. F. PANKNIN. Improvement in fertilizers. 

A fertilizing compound consisting of a comminuted mixture of 95 parts of 
phosphate of lime and ft parts of sulphur. 

iOS,67U — May lU, 1878. B. J. TIMBY. Improvement in compositions for protecting 
trees. 

A compound of 20 pounds of sulphur, 2 pounds of soot, and 900 balm-of-Gilead 
buds. 

toe,077—July 16, 1878. T. J. BOYKIN AND J. W. CARMER. Improvement in 

fertilizers. 

A compound consisting of a mixture of dissolved bone, 3 bushels; ground 
plaster, 3 bushels; sodium nitrate and sodium sulphate, each 40-pounds; and 
ammonium sulphate, 33 pounds; to be incorporated with a suitable base, as dry 
peat or muck. 



loa.SU-.'SeptemberU, 1878. A. F. CROWELL. Improvement infertUizers. 

A fertilizer consisting of the waste nitrogenous and gelatinous fluid obtained 
in the process of extracting oil from fish, combined with the soluble porti ns of 
a superphosphate, the solution being concentrated or evaporated to dryness. 

aw,540— October 1, 1878. C. RICHARDSON. Improvement in fertilizers. 

A fertilizer composed of hair or bristles in the form of fine powder, produced 
by treating them with live steam at, say, 90 pounds pressure, drying, and grind- 
ing. 

i09,9ao— November 19, 1878. A. PIRZ. Improvement infertUizers. 

A fertilizer composed of bone and artificial sulphate of lime {a waste product 
from the manufacture of acetic acid) in equal parts. The constituents are 
mixed with water and allowed to lie until the mass has become solid. 

Sll,£38— January 7, 1879. J. INGMANSON. Improvement in fertilizers. 

A fertilizer composed of ground bone. 90 pounds: caustic lime, 10 pounds; 
mixed together with 6 pounds of oil of vitriol diluted with 5 gallons of water. 

il6.S90-June 10, 1879. E. OSGOOD. Improvement in compounds for preventing 

the destruction or rotting of bags, etc. 

A compound of beeswax and tallow, to which tar may be added, is applied 
to fertilizer bags. 

S3t,756— September 28, 1880. H. M. POLLARD. FcrtUizer. 

A mixture of night soil and calcined plaster, in e<jual quantities, with umber 
in the proportion of 1 in 200 by weight, and .sulphuric acid 1 in 25. 

233,875— Xovember S, ISSO. J. C. PERKINS. Mixed pho»phaiic manure. 

A mixture of sulphuric acid, water, animal charcoal, bones, marl, coprolite, 
sugar scum, night soil, fish or flsli refuse, hard-wood charcoal, castor pomace, 
hydrochloric acid, sulphate of lime, ashes from calcined leather, tobacco ashes, 
sodium nitrate, and ammonium sulphate. 
231,,783— November 23, ISSO. B. JOHNSON AND W. P. GIDDINGS. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of ground and unburned oyster shells, 100 pounds: common pot- 
ash, 2 pounds: and carbonate of soda. 1 pound. 

21,0,015— April 12. 1881. W. H. HUBBELL. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of guano, 200 pounds; bone dust, 400 pounds; plaster, 800 pounds; 
and German potash, 200 pounds. 

21,2,193— May 31, ISSl. W. FIELDS. Fertilizer. 

A composition of limestone, 500 pounds; feldspar, 1,000 pounds; oyster shells, 
300 pounds, all unburned and ground fine: cast-iron scrapings and moldings 
from foundry, 200 pounds; water, 9 gallons; sulphuric acid, 2 gallons; and nitric 
acid, 1 pint. 

2m,121— August 23, 1881. L. GRAF. Artificial manure. 

Produced by mixing an alkaline solution of leather scrap with lime or lime 
salts — such as sulphate or carbonate of lime — and with phosphate of lime, and 
then treating the mixture with sulphuric acid. 

21S,2l,2— August 23, 1881. B. TERNE. Treatment of tank waters of slaughterhouses, 

etc. 

Concentrated tank water is combined with sulphuric acid and used as a sol- 
vent for phosphatic substances in the manufacture of manures. 

250,706— December IS, 1881. H. S. BRADLJ:Y. Oimpost. 

A mixture of 1,000 pounds each of stable manure and of swamp muck, 1 bushel 
of slacked lime, 8 pounds each of sulphate of ammonia and of sulphuric acid, and 
1 pound of alum. 

2Bl,S6i— December 27, 1S81. E. J. HOUSER. Fertilizing compound. 

A mixture of cottonseed meal, 4 parts; dissolved bone, 3 parts; and German 
potash salts, 3 parts; by weight. 

251,628— December 27, 1S81. G. B, OAKES. Manufacture offish guano. 

A pulverized fertilizer composed of boiled fish refuse with 5 per cent of sul- 
phuric acid, pulverized charcoal, finely ground gypsum or mineral phosphates, 
and salt to prevent fermentation. 

253,971— February 21, 1882. I. BROWN. Fertilizer. 

As a manure or an ingredient therefor, a solid mixture of sulphuric acid and 
gypsum, or peat or equivalent medium, denominated a " supersulphate." 

253,991— February 21, 18S2. I. ELSASSER. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of bat guano, cottonseed meal, bone dust, and the shell known as 
Gnathadon cuneata, pulverized. 

258,521,— May 23, 18S2. R. K. ZELL. Fertilizer bag. 

A bag made acid proof by treatment with an aqueous solution formed of rosin 
soap, 100 parts by weight; alum, 5 parts; asbestos, 4 parts; and gelatine, 1 part. 

263,907— September 5, 1882. W. H. HORNEE AND F. HYDE. Bag for holding 

phosphates, etc. 

Fertilizer bags are made acid proof by treatment with a composition of rosin, 
paraffine, or mineral oil, and soap or saponified grease. 

2eS,31!,—November 28, 1882. W. D. STYRON. Fertilizer compound. 

A compound known as the " Norfolk Fertilizer and Insecticide " is a mixture 
of sulphur, 2ft pounds: saltpeter, 40 pounds; salt, 200 pounds; kainit, 200 pounds; 
bone phosphate, 40 pounds; and lime, 1,49ft pounds. 

269,701,— December 26, 1882. D. E. PAYNTER. Fertilizing compound. 

A compound of calcined gypsum, water, and mineral coal dust is burned, the 
ashes mixed with acidulatecl urine, and dried. 

277,023— May 8, 1883. J. GOULD. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of salicylic acid, gas lime from gas works using oyster-shell lime, 
animal matter (night soil or blood), vegetable matter (sumac, seaweed, or 
leaves), with salt, alum, and carbolic acid. 

278,383— May 29, 1883. J. R. YOUNG, Jr. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of night soil, bone phosphate of lime, and sulphuric acid is evap- 
orated to dryness after the resulting chemical action is complete. 

27S,3S/,—May 29, 18SS. J. R. YOUNG, Jr. FertUlzer. 

A mixture of night soil, 1,000 pounds; dry fish scrap, 400 pounds; and sul- 
phuric acid, 175 pounds; dried. 

27S.l,S0—May 29, 1883. J. R. YOUNG, jR. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of night soil, 100 gallons; phosphatic guano, 400 pounds; and sul- 
phuric acid, 7ft pounds: evaporated to dryness after chemical action is complete. 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



181 



tSI.SiO—Juty ti. ISSt. \V. J. COURTS. Frrlitiser. 

A mixture of dliwolvcil raw iKinp, fulphati'o of nluininnm, of ammonitun. of 
Iron, of innKmslinn. iind of jHiUish. sodium iiltruti'. kalnit, mill hiimus or rii'li 
dirt. In oerUiln spt'cilied |iroponlons. 

ISS.SOS—Aiiijuiil li, tSSi. T. WELLS. FcrtUizer. 

\ mixture of cnrbonate of ummonla, 8 pounds; carbonate of soda. VI pounds; 
Nilt. H) ponnda; wood aabes, S bushels; and suble manure, 20 bushels. 

tsr',fS.'i—.Sri)lembrrtS,lS8S. J. B. BECK. FrrtUixcr. 

A mixture of bitter salt, limestone plaster, sodium sulphate, ammonium sul- 
phate, and ixitash. 

»0,8.M— AlcmfxT JS, JS«3. A.EDWARDS. t^crtU iicr /or Uibacro crops. 

A comminuted mixture of fresh horse manure, 1 ton, blood, 100 pounds or 
more; and iKitash, 100 pounds. 

tSO.lltg—Ikeembfr S.I, ISSS. W.R.WILKINSON, fcrlitizer. 

A mixture of bone ash, W i>er cent; gypsum, 10 per cent; sulphate of iron, Ji 
per cent; sulphate of potash, •iH per cent; and dried blood, lit per cent. 

tStMO—Junuary S», ISSi. D. R. CASTLEMAN. Ferlitizer. 

A mixture of pulverized tobacco stems and prepared phosphate, in equal pro- 
portions. 
t9S,aS9—ifa!i to, ISSi. B. C. BRIGGS. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of 1 barrel each of bone meal and plaster; 2 barrels each of ashes, 
hen manure or guano, muck, and urine, and 1 bushel of salt. 

S07,718—XovcmlHr i, ISSi. L. HAAS. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of furnace slag and sulphate of ammonia composed of liquid 
ammonia and sulphuric acid, to which is added limestone or oyster shells and 
grimiul bone, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, and potash, 
with piaster. 
S0S,S97—Xoreml>er 15, ISSi. J. R. YOUNG, Jr. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of night soil, phosphate of lime, sulphuric acid, nitrogen compound 
(as ammonia), and potash. 
an, 010— May 5, ISSS. W. S. PIERCE. Phoephaie fertilizer. 

A fertilizer is made from the insoluble phosphates of alumina, iron, lime, and 
other bases, by drying and pulverizing the raw material, mixing with it a cer- 
tain quantity "of sulphate of ammonia— sufficient to prevent the fertilizer from 
absorbing moisture — treating the mixture with strong sulphuric acid, and 
drying. 

SlS,S71—May 19, ISSS. L. HAAS. Fertilizer. 

A compound of furnace slag, oyster shells, charcoal, tan-bark waste, tobacco 
stems, broom-corn seed meal; sodium nitrate, sulphate, and chloride; diluted 
sulphuric acid or ammonia, plaster, ashes, phosphatic iron ores, phosphatic 
rocTi, ground slag, and kainit. 

SS7,:56— September 19, ISSS. L. HAAS. Fertiliser. 

A fertilizer and insect preventive, consisting of furnace slag, 70 per cent; salt, 
10 per cent; ashes, 10 per cent; charcoal, 10 per cent; and water, with 5 per cent 
of acid. 

330,075— November 10, 18S5. A. E. WEMPLE. FertUizer. 

A mixture of bone flour, 60 per cent; sulphate of ammonia, 15 percent; sodium 
nitrate, 15 per cent; potas.sium chloride, 5 per cent; magnesium sulphate, 6 per 
cent; and nitrogenous matter, as dried blood, 10 per cent. 

3il,9e»—3Iay 18, 18S6. J. VAN RUVMBEKE. Fertilizer. 

A nonviscid and nondeliquescent fertilizer, consisting of concentrated and 
partially decomposed tank wastes, containing carbolic acid and other phenols 
without the addition or artificial mixture of said phenols; the product of No. 
342,238. 

31,5,507 — Julyl5,18S6. W. W. HICKS. Treatment o/ humus and miick. 

A mixture of calcined humus and muck, which has been changed and 
sweetened by the heat and gases of the said calcining. 

3i6,0ti—July 10, ISSe. H. H. COLQUITT. Fertilizer. 

A mixture of the raw kernels of cottonseed with phosphoric rock or phosphate 
of lime. 

SU),tSii— September U, 1886. P. VINSON. Combined JertUizer and inoedicide. 

A mixture of cattle dung, horse dung, sheep dung, fowl dung, blue vitriol, 
saltpeter, slacked lime, leached ashes, cayenne pepper, black pepper, ginger, 
mustard seed, and garlic. 

353,110— Xovember 13, 1SS6. D. W. DUDLEY. Fertilizer. 

Equal quantities of bone meal and wood ashes are mixed and saturated with 
water ana allowed to stand for about three weeks, then lime is slacked in brine 
and added to the mixture, and gypsum and salt in equal quantities arc added 
to the mass. 
367,731— August 1, 1887. J. VAN RUYMBEKE. FertUizer. 

Nitrogenous fertilizing material, consisting of the undecomposed coagulated 
albuminoids of concentrated tank waters freed from undue deliquescence and 
viscidity produced by rendering the gelatinous substances insoluble, as by the 
addition of sulphate of iron. 

371,630— October IS, ISS!. P. B. ROSE. Tank-uiante fertilizer. 

A fertilizer in a dry form consisting of tank waste incorporated with cellulose 
or lignine vegetable material, or paunch material taken from slaughtered 
animals. 

3;3.0S7—October 15, 1887. J. REESE. Phosphatic ferlUizer. 

A fertilizer composed essentially of pulverized calcareous phosphatic basic 
slag; pulverized to an impalpable powder. 

377,0Si— January 31, 1888. G.H.MURRAY. Fertilizing composition. 

A compound of one-half pulverized tan bark, one-quarter distillery slop or 
animal excrement, and one-quarter common salt, slacked lime, and potash. 

378.688— February IS, 18SS. P. C. JENSEN. Fertilizer. 

Tankage or tank-water residue is dried at a low temperature, broken up and 
mixeil with unslacked lime, and the mixture thoroughly pulverized. 

S82,60i—.Vay 8, ISSS. S. L. GOODALE. Fertilizer. 

Crude mineral containing hydrated aluminic and ferric phosphates is pulver- 
ized and mixed with carbonaceous matter wet with sulphuric acid, and the 
mixture heated to a degree sufficient to expel the constituent water contained 
in the hydrated phosphate. 



ne.rH— January 15, 11II9- U. ENDEMANN. FertUizer. 
A fertilizer produced from tobnceo, and having certain tpeclfled character!*- 

tics; product of process No. 404, *IH. 

397,056— .lanuary 19, Ism. P. HoGAN. Feriillzer. 

Composed of disaolvol lignine from vegetable sutwlances, and alkaline salts 
from the digesters in the manufacture of chemical fltjer or similar works. In 
combination with peat, clay, lime, earth, or other aloorbent matter. 

m,ty>—July 16, 18S9. N. B. POWTER. PlutsjihaHc fertilizer. 

A dry granular compound cf)mposed (»f phosphatic rock or earth containing 
over 10 per cent of alumina or Iron. 1.000 wmnds; sulphuric a<.id (Ol^j.MO 
pounds; and tank water containing about 20 per cent of animal matter, 750 
IK)Unds. 

Ui7,lil—July 16, 18S9. N. B. POWTER. PhotphaUc fertUtzer. 

.\ dry fertilizing composition comiKwed of Cayman Islands phosphatic rfjck, 
800 fsmnds; (iOO [>ouuds of animal matter combined with not more than the 
same amount of water; .550 pounds of sulphuric add (Ml°),and60 pounds of car- 
bonate of lime. 

m8,Ull— August 6, 1889. J. A. LIGHTHALL. Fertiliser. 
Tobacco stems reduced to dry, granular charcoal. 

!,ls.2i,6—Xovcmber 19, 1889. J.J. HANSEL.MAN. Liquid manure. 

It consists of water, sulphurous acid, soap. salt, lime. Isinglass, spirits of am- 
monia, and the soluble parts of cow dung and guano. 

USt.OVl—July 15, 1890. J. D. SIMMONS. Phosphatic fertilizer. 

A mixture of wood ashes, 6 parts; phosphate of lime, 9 parts; muriate of pot- 
ash, 2 parts; pulverized sulphur, 2 parts; and sodium nitrate, 1 part; all by weight. 

i3J,.li3— August 11, 1890. L. J. CARLILE AND G. B. RUMPH. Combined ferti- 
lizer and insecticide. 
A composition of refuse tobacco, bran, cottonseed meal, parts green, powdered 

hellebore, arsenious oxide, and India berries (cocculus indicus) . 

iS8,8S9— October 11, 1890. 3. PATTEIUiON. FertUizer. 

A mixture of caustic lime— unslacked when Introduced— gypnun, rotten rock, 
common bog, sulphate of iron, salt, and water. 

U8,088— February 10, 1891. J. VAN RUYMBEKE. yUrogenous fertilizer. 

A fertilizing material consisting of "stick " and asoluble salt of iron or alumina 
made basic by the addition of lime thereto. 

U,8,SS7— March 17, 1891. J. VAN RUYMBEKE. Nitrogenous fertilizer. 

A dry pulverulent and practically nondeliquescent material consisting of a 
mixture of liquid stick, 1 ton, and ground, dried animal matter, 600 to 800 
pounds, subjected to a heat not exceeding 380° F. 

iB0,15S— April li, 1891. J.REESE. Ammoniated phosphate. 

A fertilizer composed essentially of pulverized, calcareous, phosphatic, basic 
slag and salts of ammonia, such as sulpnate of ammonia. 

i50,15i— April li, 1891. J. REESE. PhosphxUic fertilizer. 

A fertilizer composed essentially of pulverized, calcareous, phosphatic. basic 
slag and potasslc material such as kainit, sulphate of potash, or muriate of 
potash. 

i50,155— April li, 1891. J. REESE. Phosphatic fertilizer. 

A mixture of pulverized, calcareous, phosphatic, basic slag, potash, and am- 
monia (such as the sulphate). 

iS0,5Sl—April li, 1891. J. REESE. Phosphatic fertilizer. 

A mixture of muriate of potash and pulverized, calcareous, phosphatic, basic 
slag. 

i6S,7W—June 9, 1891. 1. VAN RUYMBEKE. Phosphatic fertilizer. 

A fertilizer consisting of a metapbosphate prepared by submitting acidified 
rock to the action of a high degree of heat (No. 446.087), and stick loaded with 
about 15 per cent of carbonate of lime, mixed and allowed to stand until granu- 
lated. 

i53.7SO—June 9. 1891. J. VAN RUYMBEKE. Phosphatic fertilizer. 

A mixture of iron or alumina acid phosphates and stick, subjected to the 
action of heat at or above 212° F. until it assumes a black color, when it will 
granulate. 

i61,i76— November 3, 1891. 



C. W. DOUGHTY. FertUizer. 



A compound of ground and unbumt but dried carbonate of lime and human 
feces in equal proportions, and dried but unbumt gypsum In the proportion of 
10 per cent of the carbonate of lime. 

iSi,631— October 18, 1891. J. J. DUNNE. NUrogenous fertUizer and process of 

making the same. 

A fertilizing material, consisting of a bulky, fiocculent, pnl venilent, impalpable 
precipitate composed of coagulated nitrogenous albuminoids of tank waters 
combined with ph()sphatic material insoluble in water, but soluble in citrate of 
ammonia; produce<i by heating tank waters with phosphates and an acid, then 
treating with a neutralizing agent, separating tne precipitated matter, and 
drying. 

i8i,679— October 18, 1891. J. D. SIMMONS. FertUizing composition. 

A mixture of sulphuret of iron, 2 parts; sulphate of riotash, 2 parts; wood 
ashes, 6 parts; and pnospbate of lime, 10 parts, all by weight. 

308,110— November 7, 1893. C. J. GREENSTREET. Nitrogenous fertUizer and proc- 
ess of making same. 
A soluble salt of manganese — as black oxide of manganese — with or without 

the addition of basic ferric sulphate, is mixed with "stick " and evaporated to 

dryness. 

517,i86— April 3, 189i. 3. B. SCHENCK. Fertilizer. 

A fertilizer produced by boiling skins or their products or other like nitrog- 
enous materials in sulphuric acid, to produce a jelly-like mass, aud adding 
night soil, boneblack, and ground tobacco. 

517,661— AprU 3, 189i. N. B. POWTER. Phosphatic fertUizer. 

A dry, odorless fertilizing compound, consisting of substantially pure phos- 
phate of alumina containing insoluble phosphoric acid mixed with slaughter- 
house or other refuse, without the addition of acid; the product of No. 517,682. 

611,561— July 3, 189i. E. GULICK. Mineral fertUizer. 
A mixture of aluminous shale, 80 per cent, and wood charcoal, 20 per cent 



182 



MANUFACTURINa INDUSTRIES. 



5g5,tli£— August gS, ISM. J. VAN RUYMBEKE. Coagulant. 

A coagulant, formed by adding a boiling solution of an alkaline bichromate 
to a mixture of copperas and sulphuric actd. 
BS6.2SS— March S6. 1S95. J. W. HICKMAN. Fertilizer. 

Composed of muriate of potash, black hellebore, sodium nitrate, paris green, 
superphosphate of lime, hydrocyanic acid, and ground bone. 
S37,S22— April SS, 1S9S. C. J. GREENSTREET. Fertilizer and process of making 

same. 

A nitrogenous fertilizer composed of solids of tank water combined with a 
soluble silicate, produced by adding an agent capable of neutralizing the silicate 
and retaining iree ammonia (such as sulphuric acid), then adding a soluble 
silicate of an alkali and expelling the surplus water, and drying. 
659.71,7— May SI, 1S95. J. M. McCAND LESS AND J. F. ALLISON. Fertilizer com- 

pound. 

A mixture of an acid phosphate, 1,200 pounds; dried blood, 100 pounds; cotton- 
seed meal, 250 pounds; muriate of potash, 50 pounds; and ground graphitic 
schist, 400 pounds. 
550,61,5— November is, 1895. C. H. THOMPSON. Fertilizing material and process 

of making same. 

Peat moss, or like fibrous or spongy material, is boiled in a weak solution of 
phosphoric acid together with a fertilizing composition— as soot, bone meal, and 
gypsum— and then strained and partially fermented. 

67S,8IS—Febriuxry 9, 1897. P. HUFF. Fertilizer. 

A composition, for protecting and fertilizing corn, of coal tar, brimstone, soft 
soap, saltpeter, lime, and plaster. 

589,197— August SI, 1897. J. E. STEAD. Phosphate and method of making same. 

A silico-phosphate, readilv soluble in solvents existing in the soil, of the for- 
mula: (CaO)4 I'o Os + CaO. SiOo = Caj P, SiOiz; capableof isolation in character- 
istic crystals in the form of a double salt; produced by melting normally insoluble 
phosphates with silicious and calcareous matter in proportion to yield com- 
pounds containing the ratio of 310 of tribasic phosphate of lime to between 58 
and 116 of monosilicate of lime. 

699,066— February 15, 1898. V. DOANE. Insecticide 

A composition of kainite, potassium nitrate, and white arsenic, the kainite 
being in excess; for destroying cranberry insects. 

601,089— March n, 1898. J. G. WIBORGH. Phosphate and method of making same. 
A tetra-calcium-sodium (or potassium) phosphate, readily soluble in citrate 
of ammonia; produced by heating apatite to a red or yellow heat with matter 
containing sodium (or potas.sium) in proportion to yield a compound contain- 
ing the ratio of about 426 of phosphoric acid to 660 of oxide of calcium, and 
from about 124 to 188 of oxide of sodium (or potassium). 

619,6SS— February Ih, 1899. C. H. THOMPSON. Fertilizer and method of making 

same. 

A fermented fertilized material (which will serve as a substitute for earth), 
produced bv dissolving phosphoric acid, potassium carbonate, and sodium 
nitrate in water; adding thereto a mixture of soot, gypsum, and bone meal 
with water; boiling therein a spongy or fibrous material as peat moss; strain- 
ing; adding yeast and sugar or saccharine matter, and fermenting the product. 

635,6!ie— October 24, 1899. W. WARING AND J. E. BRECKENRIDGE. Acid- 

proof bag for fertilizers. 

The bags are treated with an acetate, preferably acetate of lime. 
eS9, 806— December S6, 1899. J. H. BREWER. Fertilizing compound. 

A solution of water, saltpeter, sal soda, bluestone, nitrate of ammonia, and 
potash, is sprinkled on stable manure, and then wood ashes, salt, lime, phos- 
phate, cottonseed meats, and kainit is mixed therewith. 

6i9,9l,l—May «2, 1900. H. MEHNER. Artificial fertUizer. 

A fertilizer containing as an essential ingredient silicon nitrides, which form 
ammonia with the acid reagents in the soil. 

PROCESSES. 

S,lS9—June li, 181,3. C. BAER AND J. GOULIART. Improvement in making 

manure. 

Vegetable matter is formed into heaps, without previous immersion in lye 
(as according to the Jauflret method), and subsequently the lye is poured 
onto it. 

U,1,S0— March 6, 1865. R. C. DEMOLON AND G. A. C. THURNEYSSEN. Im- 
provement in treating fishfor manure and oil. 

It is reduced to a dry powder, by steaming, expressing the oil, grating, desic- 
cating, and pulverizing. 

16,111— November i5, 1856. C, BICKELL. Process of treating feldspar for a 

manure. 

Feldspar, either potash or soda feldspar, is decomposed by heating it with 
lime and phosphate of lime, to obtain potash or soda, either in the caustic or 
carbonated state, or for the purpose of obtaining a fertilizer. 

16,882— March 2A, 1857. L. REID. Improvement in processes for preparing ferti- 

lizers. 

The liquid matter obtained from the treatment of animal matter with high 
pressure steam, after separation of the fat and pulpy matter, is treated with 
sulphuric acid, and neutralized with bone dust; then the solid matter properly 
gniund is mixed therewith together with pulverized bones and dried clay, and 
the mass dried and ground. 

i7,257 — May 5, 1867. O. STEARW6. Improved process of preparing green-sand 

marl as a fertUizer of lands. 

The sand is washed with agitation to separate useless earthy matters, then 
disintegrated, with or without the admixture of animal matter, and then 
ammonia is added, in the form of ammonia sulphate or otherwise. 

t5,772— October 11, 1859. D. STEWART. Improved method of preparing bones for 

fertilizing purposes. 

Bones are stratified in a heap along with animal, vegetable, and mineral mat- 
ter, to effect decomposition, the order of stratification being old plaster; stable 
manure, etc; bones, blood, etc.; stable manure, etc.; old plaster. 

te.SiS— December to, 1869. W. D. HALL. Improvement in fertilizers. 

Fish is boiled in fresh water, drained, sprinkled with from 1 to 3 per cent of 
sulphuric acid, mixed, and dried. 



S6,l,17—May 37, 1862. L.HARPER. Improvement in fertilizers. 

Phosphatic guano, which is deficient in soluble matter, is spread in moist- 
ened layers together with layers of nitrogenous matter and layers of sulphate 
of lime, sprinkled with sulphuric acid, and exposed to the sun, with turnings 
of the material. 
38,01,0— March SI, 1863. L. D. GALE. Improvement in treating phosphatic guanos. 

Animal matter is treated with acid, or its equivalent, to separate the nitrog- 
enous matter from the oil; and a concentrated manure is formed by mixing 
animal matter so treated with pulverized gypsum and then with guano. 

1,1,1^8— February 2, 1861,. L. HARPER. Improvement in restoring phosphatic 

guano. 

A portion of the phosphatic guano is nitrogenizeu by saturating it with ani- 
mal broth or juice or unne, and dried; another portion is treated with sulphuric 
acid; and nitrogenous animal matter is treated with alkaline salts, sulphate of 
iron, and magnesium chloride; the three masses are then mixed in a heap and 
subjected to fermenting and heating for a month. 

1,1,663— February 16, 1861,. A. A. HAYES. Improvement in restoring deammoniated 

guano. 

Common salt is mixed with the phosphate or guano and oil of vitriol diluted 
with water, animal secretion, or ammonia water. After the moist mixture 
begins to stiffen it is placed in a heap and mixed with animal matter sufficient 
to supply the required amount of ammonia and allowed to ferment until putre- 
faction ceases. 
ia,006— March 2S, 186U. G. A. LIEBIG. Improvement in treating and preparing 

Navassa guano. 

The larger particles, available for fertilizers, are separated out, and the finer 
material containing peroxide of iron, organic and indeflned material, is used 
for paint and other uses. 
l,S,l,66—July 13, 1861,. W. AD AMSON. Improved process of treating hair. 

Hair of hogs and other animals is dried and deodorized by subjecting it to the 
direct action of the products of combustion of coal or other fuel. 

1,5,961— January 17, 1866. G. A. LIEBIG AND E. K. COOPER. Improved proc- 
ess for manufacturing fertilizing phosphates. 

Navassa guano or other substances containing phosphate of iron or of alumina 
are made available for agricultural purposes by, first, treating with caustic lime 
or carbonate or sulphate of lime, giving a phosphate of lime convertible into 
superphosphate with sulphuric acid; second, treating with caustic or carbonate 
or sulphate of soda or potash; third, treating with silicic acid. 

1,6,318— February lU, 1865. W. ADAMSON. (Iteissues: 2,111,— November 28, 1865; 
Div. A 8,71,1 (process); Div. B 8,7ia {product), June 10, 1879.) Improved method 
of treating offal. 

Animal offal is drained and dried by subjecting it to the direct action of the 
products of combustion, in a chamber, at one operation. 
1,6,700— March 7, 1865. R. B. POTTS. Improved process for treating Navassa 

guano. 

Superphosphate of lime is made from Navassa guano or all guano containing 
more than 6 per cent of iron and alumina, by sprinkling it with the requisite 
quantity of sulphuric acid while the mass is continually agitated. 

1,7,610— May 9, 1866. E. P. BAUGH. Improved mode of manufacturing superphos- 
phate of lime. 

Bones and other offal or guano are fed into a closed or nearly closed tank, 
along with a stream of sulphuric acid, and therein thoroughly mixed; the prod- 
uct being continuou-sly discharged from the bottom. 

1,7 ,611— May 9, 1866. E. P. BAUGH. Improved method of treating manure. 
Sewage, guano, etc., is dried by passing the products of combustion from a 

furnace through the material; the same being fed by traveling aprons across the 

current of hot gases. 

a, 91,1— May SO, 1866. R. B. FITTS. Improved process for treating and compound- 
ing marl. 
Marl is treated with night soil in combination with sulphuric acid, and to the 

product there is added salt cake, gas lime, and animal charcoal. 

1,3,831 — September 5, 1865. G. A. LIEBIG. Improvement in the manvjacture of 

superphosphates. 

Sulphurous acid, or muriatic acid, or sodium chloride is used as a substitute 
for sulphuric acid in the production of a superphosphate from Navassa guano 
or other phosphatic compound. 

l,9,S91—September 12, 1866. F. KLETT. Improvement in the manufacture of fer- 
tilizers. 

A mixture of feldspar, carbonate or hydrate of lime, fluoride of calcium, and 
phosphate of lime or iron is calcined at a red heat for about five hours, using 
2 parts of the carbonate or hydrate of lime and 1 part of the phosphate of 
lime or iron for every 1 part of the feldspar and 2 parts of fluoride of calcium 
for every 1 part of alkali contained in the mineral. 

52,863— February 27, 1866. A. AND E. LISTER. Improvement in deodorizing offal 
Hot air and gases are forced into closed offal-drying cliambers, and at the same 
time the gases, vapors, and exhalations are withdrawn therefrom and passed 
into the furnace. 

61,,636—May 8, 1866. J. WISTER. Improved mode of grinding bmiesformunure,ete. 
Hard plaster is mixed with bones in grinding to facilitate the process and 
prevent gumming of the mill. 

69,978— November 27, 1866. A. DE FIGANlilRE. Improvement in the manufacture 

of super-phosphates of lime. 

The powdered guano is brought into contact with a surface wet with sul- 
phuric acid, as the surface of a revolving cylinder. 

60,91,8— January 1, 1867. A. SMITH. Improved fertilizer. 

Boiled animal matter is subjected to pressure, as in a hydraulic press, to pre- 
serve the fleshy matter from decoinposition. 

62,760— March 12, 1867. G. A. LEINAU. Improvement in preparing fertilizers. 

Sod is banked up with quicklime, and after standing for some time blood, 
urine, domestic guano, and land plaster are successively applied or spread on 
the bank, and then spent charcoal is worked into the mass. 

70,e71—Nove7nber 6, 1867. W. DE ZENG. Improvement in tlie preparation of fer- 
tilizers. 

Finely pulverized slags of reducing and smelting furnaces are used in com- 
bination with acids and alkalis, as the waste acids of dyeworks, and also with 
urine, farm-house manure and otlier iimnioniaciil compounds. 



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 



183 



Tl,l>a»—Da«litberS,Jat7. J. W. BITNKR. Improvemtnt in/eriUiiert. 
Manure til damp-rotted, thun dried utid pulverized. 

7IS,ltS—i[arrh 10, ises. O. F. WILSON. Improvanent in the manttfadure nfphot- 

phatlc ferlUisert. 

A mixture of bones, bono ash or bone coal, and hot vl.scld niter or Halt cake Is 
treated In a revolving cylinder with hot water and steam under prewure. 

73,StS—.\lareh 10, 1863. O.F.WILSON'. Improvfment in the preparation of bones 

for the mitnu/actun 0/phmphoric acid and photphates. 

To remove the cvanides, sulphides, and other organic compounds from bones 
which have been distilled according to No. 75,329. The bone-black material Is 
heated In a rauttle furnace and the material turned over from time to time 
until It assumes a uniform gray tint. 

7S,»t7— March 10, 1S6S. Q. F. WILSON. Improvement in the manitfacture qfphoa- 

phatei/or agricultural purpotet. 

Bones are treated with water and oil of vitriol In a vat having a steam heating 
coll until the whole mass is reduced nearly or quite to dryness. 

78,061— Mail 19, 1S6S. J. COMMINS. Improved mode of treating mineral phot- 

phates/or the mamifacture of fertilizers. 

Mineral or earthy or natural phosphates are heated and plunged into gas 
liquor, combined with sulphuric acid or other acid or salt. The phosphates may 
be first treated with a solution of sodium chloride. 

78,7SO—Jutu' », IS6S. L. 8. FALE.S. Impriirement in the manufacture of fertilizers. 
Bones, blood, and highly nitrogenous material are treated witli the waste a<ud 
from oil rellneries and the vapors from waste ammouiacal water of gas works, 
and the mass reduced to a pasty consistency and cooled to a powder. This Is 
mixed with blood digested with sulphuric acid and peat. 

79,160— June tS, 186B. D. A. TER HOEVEN. (Reissue: t,,05S and l,,05S— June IS, 

1870). Improvement in ttte manufacture of fertilizers. 

Honu, hoofs, or other animal matter of au equivalent character are steamed, 
dried, and crushed or ground. 

8S,tfS—.Varch IS, 1S69. A. SMITH. Improved fertilizer. 

Refuse leather is steamed at about 75 pounds pressure for four to eight hours, 
dried and pulverized without the use of chemical agents. It may then be 
mlxetl with a phosphate. 

90,Sta—ila!/ 18, 1869. G. F. WILSON. Improved process of treating offal-gelaline 

and scrap for Die manufacture of fertilizers. 

Offal-gelatine and scrap is treated with acid phosphate of lime concentrated 
and dried, and mixed with bone sulphate of lime, dried peat, gypsum, clay, etc. 

90,S67—May i5, 1869. W. LALOR. Improved feHllizer. 

The refuse acid of petroleum-oil rellneries is used instead of sulphuric acid In 
the conversion of bone into superphosphates. 

9t,7IA— July SO, 1869. J. G. NICKERSON. Improved fertilizer frmt seaweed. 

Seaweed is cut into small pieces, dried, mixed with any of the fertilizing in- 
gredients, and ground. 

99,9114— February 15, 1810. O. LUGO. Improvement in the manufacture of ferti- 
lizers and in extracting oils and fats. 
Fish, oflal, blood, and other animal matter is treated with sulphurous acid or 

with nitrous fumes and sulphurous acid, separate or in connection with hot 

air, steam, or gases of combustion. 

10O,i57— March 1, 1870. C. U. SHEPARD, JB. Improvement in preparing am- 

moniated sulphuric acid for the mamtfadure of fertilizers. 

Phosphatic material is treated with ammoniated sulphuric acid for the pro- 
duction of an ammoniated superphosphate, said acid being produced by treat- 
ing ammoniaeal water with lime or other liberating material, or by the 
liberation of ammonia from boneblack or other ammoniaeal matter, and the 
absorption of the vapor by sulphuric acid in such proportions as to leave a part 
of the sulphuric acid uncombined. 

10t,6S9—May S, 1870. O. LUGO. ImprovemeiU in the manufacture of fertilizers 

and oil from Jith. 

Fish is boiled, steamed, or cooked In acid or acid-salt solution to retain and 
bind the nitrogenous substances. 

t0i,St7 — June 24, 1870. O. LUGO. Improvement in manufacture of fertilizers from 

fish, etc. 

Fish liquor is treated with sulphuric acid, acid sulphates, hydrochloric acid, 
or pyroli^neous acid, and may then be concentrated, either to dryness, form- 
ing a highly nitrogenized product, or partially concentrated and mixed with 
flsn scrap or pomace previous to desiccation. 

10S,t8S—JiUy 11, 1870. E.WHITLEY. ImprovemerU in the manufacture <if fertili- 
zers. 
Vegetable matter is burned under a covering of earth, so that the latter is 

impregnated with the gaseous products of combustion, and the earth and ashes 

are then mixed. 

105,319— July IS, 1870. A. DUVALL. Improvement in treating vitriolized phos- 
phates. 

Pulverized crude phosphate mixed with sulphuric acid, in a .semlliquid state, 
is run into a large bin, the heat generated in the mass keeping it in a state of 
ebullition and thoroughly mixing it. It also effects the evaporation of the 
water. The side of the bin is afterwards removed and the mass broken up. 

10S.909—Suvember 1, WO. C.P.HOUGHTON. Improvement in the manufacture 

of fertilizers. 

Pulverized crude marl is treated with a solution of soda-ash niter, and salt to 
correct its caustic qualities, and may be mixed with bones and Peruvian guano. 

111,751,— February Ik. 1871. L. S. FALES. Improvement in treating blood for the 

manufacture of fertilizers. 

Blood is treated with lime, soda, or potash, and acids and afterwards subjected 
to heal and agitation to evaporate its water. 

111,851— February li, 1871. W. B. JOHNS. Improvement in treating bones, horns, 

hoofs, etc., for manufacture of fertilizers. 

They are desiccated and rendered friable by treating with steam in contact 
therewith, at the commencement of the operation, and then subjected to heat 
evolved from steam not in contact; in one continuous operation and in one 
vessel or apparatus. 

111.910— Frhnmry 11, 1871. J.J.CRAVEN. Improvement in treating blood for Vie 

manufacture of fertilizers and ammoniaeal satis. 

Dried salt cake — either the bisulphate or binltrate of soda — Is mixed with 
blood and submitted to heat sutllcient to dls.solve the salt. 



113,116— April i, 1871. D. FORBies AND A. P. PRICE. Improvement in the treat- 
ment ofsewige and the mantifnrtnrr of fertilizers. 

Natural phosphates of aluiiiiini arc treated with the sulphuric acid or hydro- 
chloric add. or mixtures of the siiine. cither with or without a baao such a* 
lime, and sewage Is then treated with the product. 

m.ma—May 9, mi. O. T. lewis, improvement in grinding photphale tub- 

stances. 

Mineral phosphates arc ground with water, Instead of grinding dry, to reduce 
them to extremely fine powder. 

119,000— SititemlKr 19, 1871. W. AOAMSON AND C. F. A. SIMONIN. (Reittue: 
mv. A. 5610; IHv. B, 5611: Div. C, S61t— October tl, 1H7S.) Improvement in treat- 
ing nfal, flesh, entrails, etc., for preservation of manure, etc. 
Animal oils and fats are extracted by means of hydrocarbon vapors in a 

closed vessel: the residue, deprived of its fatty constituents and retaining the 

ammonia, constitutes a fertilizer. 

lit,ns— December 16, 1871. W. H. McNEILL. Improvement in deodorizing the 

gases from lard boiling, etc. 

The vapors are subjected to the action of a disinfectant preTlotu to passing 
to the condenser. 

111,77^— January 18, 1871. J. A. MANNING. Improvanent in proeettet for manu- 
facturing fertilizers. 

The contents of vaults and cess pits is treated with 5 per cent of sulphuric 
acid, and then evaporated In tanks. Products of combu.stlon passing over or in 
contact with the material are then forced, with the vaiwrs. into a condenser; 
the carbureted hydrogen passing to a purifier and thence to a gas holder; the 
weak solution of ammonia treated for the manulacture of sulpliate of ammonia; 
and the dry product for a fertilizer. 

ltS,7U,— February IS, 1873. B. TANNER. Improvement in the manufacture of 

superphosphateit of lime. 

Slowly soluble superphosphate of lime; produced by heating a mixture of 
sulphate of lime and phosphate of .soda or of ix>tash. with or without water; or 
by treating lime or sulphate of lime with any of the forms of j>hosphate of soda 
or of potash; or with phosphoric acid and sodium or potassium chloride, or 
equivalent agents. Soda or potash in a caustic condition, or in combination 
with an acid, are produced as by-products. 

11I,,0I,1— February 17, 1871. J. E. DOTCH. Improvement in deodorizing and fer- 
tilizing materials. 
Pulverized clay, argillaceous earth, and clay marl is treated with sulpho- 

muriatic acid and then mixed with night soil, etc. Clay thus treated may be 

mixed with coal ashes, coke, or gas-house silt, as a disinfecting substitute for dry 

earth. 

lll.,901— March 16, 1871. J. M. LOEWENSTEIN. Improvement in deodorizing and 

fertilizing compounds. 

Dilute sulphuric acid is neutralized with caustic or carbonate of lime, and 
then equal quantities of peat, charcoal, sand, carbolic acid, clay, common salt, 
and river sediment are added; the composition to be used in a dry state to de- 
odorize night soil. 

lli,9ei— March 16, 1871. M. B. MANWAKING AND R. DE WITT BIRCH. Im- 
provement in the manufacture of potash and phosphate of Hme. 
See Group III, Potash. 

115,017— March 16, 1871. S. BROWN. Improvement in preparing fertilizing male- 
rials from earth, etc. 
A fertilizer composed of burnt earth and wood ashes, prepared by charging 

and burning a kiln with alternate lasers of wood and earth. 

115,07!,— March 16, 1871. H. H. PARISH. Improvement in treating sewage for 

fertilizers, etc. 

A mixture of retorted charcoal (the product of pyroligneous-acid works), 1 
part, and slacked lime, 2 parts. Is mixed .with sewage to deodorize and con- 
vert into manure. 

115,111— March 16, 1871. M. J. STEIN. Improvement in rendering animal matters 

and drying and pulverizing the same. 

A fertilizer derived from the treatment of animal matters in a confined condi- 
tion, the material notcomingincontact with Iheairat any stage of the process. 

115,3iS— April 1,1871. A.SMITH. Improvementinapparatusfor pulverizing ani- 
mal matters for fertilizers. 
Animal matter is desiccated and pulverized by triturating the same in a hot 

chamber in a revolving cylinder, mixed with hard substances, as pieces of iron 

or stones. 

115,613— April 9, 1871. N. A. PRATT. Improvement in treating phosphates of lime 

for the manufacture of fertilizers. 

Crude phosphates treated with sulphuric acid are at once subjected to 
hydraulic or other pressure to extract the soluble phosphates. The liquor, and 
a thin smooth paste of lime, are heated to about 180° F. and one poured into 
the other in such proportions as to neutralize, and boiled and stirred until the 
phosphate of lime is precipitated, when it is compressed into cakes. 

116,90!,— May 11. 1871. N. A. PRATT AND G. T. LEWIS. Improvement in the 

treatment of phosj>liate»for the manufadure of fertilizers, etc. 

Crude phosphate is ground with acid and water, and the product pressed in 
bags, to obtain the phosphoric extract, which extract is then ground with lime, 
magnesia, or other base, or their salts to produce an artificial phosphate. 

117.670— June i, 1811. M. J. STEIN. Improvment in drying and deodorizing aiU- 

mal matters, oils, etc. 

The vapors and gases are exhausted from the heating chamber or veasel as 
fast as generated. 

118,1,5!,— July 1, 1871. H. C. BABCOCK. Improvement in baling manures. 
It Is formed and pressed into bales, either with or without embedded handles. 

119,517— July 16, 1811. E. P. AND D. BAUGH. Improvement in the treatment of 

horns, hoofs, and other organic matter. 

Exhaust steam is pas,sed through a mass of horns, hoofs, bones, or other organic 
offal preparatory to grinding (steam, under pressure, having a tendency to force 
in the glutinotis con.stituents and obstruct the trituration). 

118,751— July 9. 1871. N. A. PRATT AND G. T. LEWIS. Improvement in treating 

phofphaiic rock, etc. 

The phosphatic extract of No. 126,904 is evaporated to dryness, alone or 
mixed with salts of .soda, potash, magnesia, or ammonia: or such mixtures are 
calcine<i to produce compound phosphates of lime and of the alkalis. It may 
be mixed with other fertilizing components. 



184 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



180,610 — August SO, 1S72. H. C. BABCOCK. Improrcmcnt in preparing manure 

for transportation, storage, or market. 

The straw is eliminated and tlie residuum is compressed into a bale, and may 
be covered with a coating of clay, cement, or the like. 

ISl.lSl— September S, 1872. J. J. STORER. (Reimui: e,70.?— December SS. 1S7S.) 
Improvement in processes and apparatus for deodorising and destroying the gases 
from offal-treating establishments. 
The gases are deodorized by passing them through an independently heated 

furnace, flue, or other heat-radiating chamber; also by contact with burning 

coke, charcoal, or coal, or a blast of tine pulverized fuel. 

133,i98— October SI, 1S7S. J. J. S