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Full text of "Chemistry And Technology Wines And Liquors"

00 

m<OU 168448 m 



Copyright, 1935, by 
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, INC. 



All Rights Reserved 
This book, or any part thereof, may 
not be reproduced in any form without 
written permission from the publishers. 



Printed in TJ. S. A. 



PREFACE 

It is hoped that the present volume will, in a sense, serve to 
mark the end of an era, and the beginning of a new one. Man- 
kind has had certain arts from time immemorial. Weaving, 
smelting, pottery, and the production of alcoholic beverages are 
noteworthy among these. And they share, besides great age, 
the distinction of having reached a fairly high peak of perfection 
without that intensive application of scientific development which 
has been characteristic of the newer arts whose origin has been 
in the advance of scientific knowledge. 

This is not to say that they have been untouched by science 
until the twentieth century. In particular the art of alcoholic 
beverages owes much to the workers of the nineteenth century. 
Pasteur, Hansen, Lavoisier, and many of the immortals of sci- 
ence have left their imprint and monuments in this field as well 
as in many others. More recently, but still apart from the mod- 
ern age were the great investigations by the Royal Commission 
in Great Britain and President Taft's Board in this country into 
the question "What is Whiskey?" In our wine production, the 
work of the beloved Harvey W. Wiley culminating in the "Amer- 
ican Wines at the Paris Exposition" had a far-reaching decisive 
effect. This summary cannot do more than pay its respects to 
the thousands of earnest workers here and abroad who by their 
labors have added vastly to our knowledge of the art of making 
alcoholic beverages and their composition. 

The beverage art, however, has been distinguished in an- 
other way. It has had to suffer under the inherent conservative 
tendency of any old art, and also it has been specially hampered 
by various legal bedevilments. The era just past in the United 
States, prohibition, may be likened, by not a too strained analogy, 
to the Dark Ages in Europe from the fourth to the fourteenth 



IV 



PREFACE 



century. During the prohibition period, the beverage art, under 
the necessity of continuing its existence to satisfy a demand 
which would not cease even at an official behest, and yet under 
the need of concealment to evade legal requirements, went 
through a curious semi-comatose state. 

The time happened to coincide with a period in our national 
life when in all other arts, the sciences, especially the science of 
chemistry and the growing knowledge of chemical engineering, 
were finding broad new fields of extensive and intensive applica- 
tion. The vast results of these applications both in new products 
and in increased and improved productiveness are too well known 
to require illustration. 

Hence the repeal of prohibition found the beverage art as a 
sort of stepchild. Chemical science was ready to step in. Chem- 
ical engineering had its techniques ready. But the art to which 
these were to be applied was demoralized. Bootlegging required 
very little of its product. A very bare resemblance to its proto- 
type and a substantial "kick" were sufficient to satisfy the market. 
Quality of product was generally unattainable by bootleg manu- 
facturer, and really unnecessary to his market. Economy of 
production was a relatively minor consideration when the liability 
to government seizure and the maintenance of an army of thugs 
and wholesale bribery constituted the larger items in the final 
selling price of the product. 

In this historical background, the present volume is offered. 
The authors are unaware of any other summary of the art as it 
now exists which has been published recently and they feel that 
there may be a need for it. On this account the authors have 
felt it necessary to include between the same covers a wide di- 
versity of material of varying degrees of technical density, and 
they have been thereby forced to an equal diversity of treatment. 
Those sections which are primarily descriptive are necessarily 
broad rather than detailed. On the other hand, in the analytical 
sections, for example, precision of detail has been a specific aim. 
With this rationale for its apparent lack of uniformity, the au- 
thors offer it to the scientists and engineers who may within the 
next few decades largely transform the beverage art, in the hope 



OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Call No. && &/ if I & Accession No 

I t - ^ -A /- 

Author 

Title 
* This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. 




CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY 
OF WINES AND LIQUORS 



PREFACE 



V 



that for them it will prove a useful starting point. To the larger 
number who may wish to have a general knowledge of existing 
techniques or to have handy a reference for special purposes, the 
volume is also introduced in the hope that they will find in it such 
information as they may need. 



February, 1935. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

PREFACE iii 

LIST OF TABLES ix 

LIST OF FIGURES . xi 

I. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. SUGARS AND STARCHES . 3 

II. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. ENZYMES . . . 13 

III. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. FERMENTATION . . 17 

IV. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. RAW MATERIALS . . 25 
V. YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 46 

VI. PRODUCTION OF YEAST 63 

VII. MALT 71 

VIII. DISTILLATION 79 

IX. WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 96 

X. BRANDY, RUM, GIN, APPLEJACK AND MINOR DISTILLED 

LIQUORS 139 

XI. WINES, CHAMPAGNE AND CIDER 155 

XII. LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 190 

XIII. ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. INTERPRETATION . 230 

XIV. ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. METHODS . . 260 
ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 298 

XV. STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 326 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 34-8 

INDEX 355 



vii 



TABLES 

TABLE PAG i 

I. Composition of Barley 28 

II. Composition of Rye 30 

III. Composition of Corn 32 

IV. Composition of Oats 33 

V. Composition of Wheat 35 

VI. Comparative Table of Cereal Compositions . . 36 

VII. American Grape Varieties 38 

VIII. Comparison of Whiskey Processes 102 

IX. Composition of Wine Musts 162 

X. Analyses of Whiskies (Schidrowitz) .... 242-6 

XL Maxima and Minima on Scotch Whiskies . . . 247 

XII. Analyses of Whiskies (Tatlock 248 

XIIL Average, Maxima and Minima Data on Rye Whiskies 

(Crampton and Tolman) 250 

XIV. Average, Maxima and Minima Data on Bourbon 

Whiskies (Crampton and Tolman) . . . .251 

XV. Analysis of Eaux-de-vie De Vin of Known Origin . . 252 

XVI. Analysis of Eaux-de-vie of Known Origin . . . 253 

XVII. Analysis of Components of 25 Year Old Brandy . . 254 

XVIII. Analyses of Jamaica Rum 254 

XIX. Analyses of Demerara Rum 255 

XX. Analyses of Martinique Rum 255 

XXL Compiled Data on Rum ....... 256 

XXII. Analysis of Gin 256 

XXIII. Average Composition of European Wines . . .257 

XXIV. Average Composition of California Wines . . . 258 
XXV. Analyses of Liqueurs 259 

XXVI. Average Composition of Liquers 259 

Ai. Refractometer Readings of Methyl-Ethyl Alcohol 

Mixtures 294 

A2. Densities of Sugar Solutions 298-301 

A3. Specific Gravities of Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 

15-56/15.56 c 302-3 

A4. Specific Gravities of Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 

20/20 C. 304-5 

ix 



x TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

A5. Specific Gravities of Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 

25/25 C 306-7 

A6. Refractometer Readings of Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 

Several Temperatures 308-19 

A;. Munson and Walker's Table .... 320-25 
XXVII. Distilleries and Industrial Alcohol Plants in U. S. 

1901-32 331 

XXVIII. Taxes Paid on Wines and Liquors in U. S. 1901-1932 332 
XXIX. Spirits in Bond in U. S. 1901-1932 .... 333 
XXX. Materials Consumed in Alcohol Manufacture in U. S. 

1901-1932 334-5 

XXXI. Distilled Spirits Produced in U. S. 1901-1932 . . 336 
XXXII. Withdrawals of Tax Paid Spirits. 1901-1932 . . 337 

XXXIII. Exports of Distilled Spirits. 1901-1932 .... 338 

XXXIV. Whiskey Exports by Country of Destination. 1904- 

1932 339-41 

XXXV. Imports of Liquors. 1901-1932 342 

XXXVI. Apparent U. S. Consumption of Distilled Spirits. 1901- 

1932 343 

XXXVII. Wine Statistics. 1912-1932 344 

XXXVIII. Wine Exports. 1901-1925 345 

XXXIX. Wine Imports. 1901-1931 346 

XL. Apparent U. S. Wine Consumption. 1912-1932 . . 347 

XLI. International Trade in Wine. 1930 .... 347 



TEXT FIGURES 

FIGURE PAC7E 

1. Hydrolytfc Products of Starch n 

2. Wine Yeasts 49 

3. Harmful Organisms 54 

4. Grape Molds 58 

5. Bacteria of Wine Diseases 59 

6. Flow Sheet of Yeast Manufacture ...... 64 

T. Flow Sheet of Distillers' Yeast Manufacture .... 66 

8. Cross Section of Barley Kernel 72 

9. Changes During Malting 73 

10. Flow Sheet of Malting Process 75 

lOa. Water Alcohol Boiling Point Curve 80 

lob. Alcohol Content of Vapor from Boiling Dilute Alcohol 

Solutions 8 1 

n. Simple Pot Still 82 

12. Pot Still with Chautfe-Vin 83 

13. Pot Still with Chauffe-Vin 84 

14. Pot Still as used for Scotch Whiskey 85 

15. Pot Still with retorts, rectifiers and condensers .... 86 

16. Pot Still with double retort 86 

1 7. Pot Still with Corty's Head 86 

18. Coffey's Patent Still 88 

19. Diagram of Coffey's Still 89 

20. Beer Still 91 

21. Modern Intermittent Still 92 

22. Continuous Ethyl Alcohol Still 94 

22a. Mash Tun 102 

23. Flow Sheet of Mashing at An All Malt Pot Still Distillery . 104 

24. Flow Sheet for Three Types of Pot Still Whiskey . 108 

25. Mashing by the Acid-Conversion Process in 

26. Diagram Plan of Large Scale Distillery 118 

27. Detail of Grain Storage and Milling . . . . . .118 

28. Detail of Mashing, Yeasting and Fermenting . . . .119 

29. Detail of Distillation for Whiskey I2O 

30. Detail of Spirit and Gin Distillation 12 1 



xii TEXT FIGURES 

FIGURE PAGE 

31. Barreling and Bottling 122 

32. Detail of Mash Slop Recovery 123 

33. Cyclic Mashing 125 

34. Diagram of Gin Still Unit 151 

35. Applejack Still 163 

353. Chemical Changes from Grape Juice to Wine .... 164 

36. Flow Sheet of Red Wine Manufacture 165 

37. Large Modern Fermenting Room 167 

38. Modern Wine Storage Room 171 

39. Flow Sheet of White Wine Manufacture 173 

40. Flow Sheet of Champagne Manufacture 180 

41. The Vintage in the Champagne 182 

42. The Tuage or Bottling of Champagne 184 

43. Turning Champagne Bottles . .185 

44. Disgorging and Finishing Champagne 186 

45. Liqueur Blending Vessel (Conge a trancher) . . . .195 

46. Cone Filter for Liqueurs 199 

47. Wire Mesh Filter for Liqueurs 199 

48. Filter of Fig. 47 in Use 199 

49. Modern Distillery Laboratory 231 

50. Apparatus for Determination of Volatile Acids .... 280 



CHAPTER I 

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. SUGARS AND 

STARCH 

General Statement. The entire wine and liquor industry 
rests on the fact of nature that under suitable conditions sugar is 
transformed into potable alcohol, while at the same time the 
other materials in the sugar solution and the by-products result- 
ing along with the alcohol lend various pleasant characteristics to 
the finished product. It follows, then, that the character of the 
finished product depends, first, on the raw material which fur- 
nishes the sugar, second, on the conditions of the transformation 
of the sugar into alcohol, and third, on the after treatment of 
the alcoholic solution. An exact knowledge of the effect of each 
of these factors is the key to the successful production of a uni- 
formly palatable result. 

Fermentation. Basically, the transformation of sugar into 
alcohol is the one step which is common to all liquor production. 
This change, which is only one of a vast number of similar 
changes resulting from the action of living bodies on suitable 
organic (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) compounds, is called alco- 
holic fermentation to distinguish it from the many similar proc- 
esses which, starting with different chemicals, result in different 
products. 

Sugars. Alcoholic fermentation involves the transformation 
of a sugar, usually dextrose, into alcohol. Hence some discussion 
of sugars is the logical starting point. We have used the term 
sugar in a more generalized sense than it is used in lay language. 
To the chemist there are known many sugars, all of which are 
chemical compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 
The two latter elements are present always in the same ratio as 
in water, so that the sugars corne into a broad classification of 

3 



4 SUGARS AND STARCH 

chemical compounds called carbohydrates. Within this larger 
group the sugars are generally distinguished by their ability to 
form crystals. The chemist classifies sugars, first, according to 
the number of carbon atoms contained in their molecules, and 
second, according to the number of carbon atom chains which are 
present in their molecule. This system of classification leads to 
the following schematic terminology: 

Monosaccharides 

Trioses C 3 H 6 O 3 Glycerose 

Tet roses C 4 H 8 O 4 Erythrose, etc. 

Pentoses C 5 H 10 O 5 Arabinose, Xylose, Rhamnose, etc. 

Hexoses C 6 H 12 O 6 Dextrose, Fructose, Mannose, Galactose, 

etc. 

Heptoses C 7 H J4 O7 Manno-heptose, Gluco-heptose, etc. 

Octoses C 8 H 16 O 8 Gluco-octose, etc. 

Disaccharides 
Hexabioses C 12 H 2 2O ll Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose, etc. 

Trisaccharides 
Hexatrioses C 18 H 32 O 16 Raffinose, Melezitose, etc. 

Poly-saccharides 

(C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n Starch, Inulin, Cellulose, etc. 

Within each group the sugars are distinguished from each 
other by differences in chemical structure which result in differ- 
ences of such properties as solubility, sweetness, crystal form, 
optical rotating power, melting point, etc. In particular, it has been 
found that for each structure there are pairs of sugars which have 
equal but opposite optical rotating powers. Usually only one of 
each pair is of common occurrence. Further discussion of the 
chemistry of the sugars is beside our point here, which considers 
them merely as raw materials for the production of alcohol. 

For this purpose only the hexoses are directly suitable. Such 
di- or poly-saccharides as can be converted readily into hexoses 
are, of course, also of primary importance. The common hexoses 



SUGARS 5 

which are often encountered in the fermentation industry are, in 
order of decreasing importance: 

Dextrose 

d-Fructose, Laevulose 
Galactose. 

Of the disaccharides : 

Maltose 

Sucrose (Saccharose) 

Lactose, are of importance. 

Starch is the chief poly-saccharide encountered in the fermen- 
tation industry. 

Hexoses. Dextrose occurs naturally in the juice of fruits 
(grapes, etc.), from which is derived its common name, grape 
sugar; and in blood and many other sources. It is prepared com- 
mercially by the hydrolysis of starch by means of dilute acid and 
can be bought in crystal form of very nearly the same high degree 
of purity as cane sugar (sucrose). Its sweetness is slightly less 
than that of cane sugar. More often, however, dextrose is pre- 
pared directly in the wort (fermentation liquor) and converted 
into alcohol without isolation. In pure solution dextrose may be 
determined from the specific gravity or refractive index of the 
solution. In ordinary solutions dextrose may be separately deter- 
mined by making use of its chemical reducing power, optical rota- 
tion, fermentability, etc. Ordinarily the fermentation industry 
is more interested in the total content of fermentable sugars 
than in any special one. 

d-Fructose is usually also present in fruit juices, makes up 
very nearly half the sweetness of honey and is obtained in equal 
amounts as dextrose by the hydrolysis (so-called inversion) of 
cane sugar. It is somewhat sweeter to the taste than cane sugar. 
With dextrose, to which it is structurally, a very close relative, it 
is the most readily fermentable of sugars. 

Galactose. This sugar occurs almost exclusively as a product 
of the hydrolysis of lactose, milk sugar. It is of rather minor 
importance except in the production of such beverages as koumiss, 
etc. by the fermentation of milk. 



6 SUGARS AND STARCH 

Hexabioses. Maltose. Almost the sole occurrence of this 
sugar is in the product of the hydrolysis of starch either by the 
action of enzymes or by acid hydrolysis. It is not isolated but is 
fermented in the solution in which it is prepared. The enzyme, 
maltase, is usually elaborated by the same yeasts as carry on the 
fermentation. This enzyme converts the maltose into two equiva- 
lents of dextrose which are then directly fermentable. When 
isolated, maltose forms hard white crystalline masses, very simi- 
lar to grape sugar. It is determinable by the facts that its 
solutions have some reducing power (about two-thirds that of 
glucose), and that its solutions are strongly dextro-rotary. 

Sucrose (Saccharose). This is the sugar which is commonly 
meant when the word sugar is used. It occurs naturally in sugar- 
cane, beets, sugar maple, sorghum and in many other plants. Its 
production and purification are among the world's major indus- 
tries. Cane-sugar crystallizes in large monoclinic prisms which 
are readily soluble in water, very sweet in taste, and, as marketed, 
represents probably the nearest approach to absolute purity of 
all materials sold in large bulk. It is determinable in pure solu- 
tion by either the specific gravity, polarization, or refractive index 
of its solution. In impure solution, its optical rotatory power, 
lack of reducing property and the change in both these properties 
after hydrolysis (inversion) furnish means of determination. 

The inversion of sucrose results either from the action of 
acid or of a special enzyme, invertase, which is present in yeast. 
In either case the process results in one equivalent each of dex- 
trose and fructose. Sucrose, itself, does not ferment, that is, 
does not break up into alcohol and carbon dioxide under the 
influence of the enzyme, zymase. However, since most yeasts 
also contain invertase, the fermentation of sucrose proceeds as 
soon as this latter enzyme has had a little time to act. 

Lactose. Milk-sugar or lactose is found naturally, as its 
name indicates, in milk. It forms small white crystals which dis- 
solve with some difficulty in water. Lactose, on hydrolysis, 
yields equivalent amounts of dextrose and galactose. After 
hydrolysis the dextrose and galactose can be fermented with the 
production of alcohol, and usually in practice, with some pro- 



STARCH 7 

duction also of lactic acid. To this change is due the special 
character of beverages like koumiss. 

Starch.-; While many fermented liquors obtain sugar for con- 
version into alcohol from sources indicated above; by far the 
largest single source of sugar, especially for distilled liquors, is 
the poly-saccharide, starch. Its importance arises from the fact 
that by suitable treatment almost 100% conversion of starch 
into fermentable sugars, dextrose, maltose, etc. can be obtained. 
Hence the general nature, occurrence and physical and chemical 
properties of starch are of major interest in the fermented liquor 
industry. 

General Statement. Starch is the compound in which all of 
the higher (green-leaved) plants store the sugar they need for 
food. Hence it occurs almost universally in their tissues; and 
in their special storage places, seeds and tubers, makes up the 
bulk of the solids. When pure, it is a fine white powder having 
a density of 1.6 and at ordinary temperature it is quite insoluble 
in water, alcohol, ether, and other common solvents. Under the 
microscope, starch appears as minute, white, translucent grains 
varying widely in size and shape according to its origin. In 
each case, however, the average size and shape of the starch 
grains is so characteristic that it is usually comparatively easy 
to determine their botanic origin. Morphologically, starch 
granules can be classified into the following groups : 

(1) The potato group large oval granules, showing concentric rings 
and a nucleus or hilum, eccentrically placed. This group includes the 
arrowroot and potato starches. 

(2) The legume group round or oval granules usually also showing 
concentric rings and with an irregular hilum. The starches of peas, beans 
and lentils belong in this group. 

(3) The wheat group round or oval granules with a central hilum. 
Wheat, barley, rye and acorn as well as the starches of many medicinal 
plants are found in this group. 

(4) The sago group round or oval granules truncated at one end. 
The group includes sago, tapioca and cinnamon starches. 

(5) The rice group small, angular, polygonal grains. Corn, rice, 
buckwheat and pepper starches are included in this group. 



8 SUGARS AND STARCH 

Within various groups the grain size may vary from 0.005- 
0.15 mm. or more. 

Structure. The structure of the granules is quite complex, 
but consists essentially of an envelope of rather condensed nature 
enclosing a colloidal substance of slightly more diffuse structure. 
The envelope constitutes approximately 2% of the substance of 
the granule. 

Properties. The outstanding physical property of starch is 
that of forming a paste when heated in the presence of water. 
It can be shown under the microscope, that what happens is that 
the granulose, the interior material of the granule, swells as it 
absorbs water, and finally bursts its shell. A similar result can 
be obtained without the use of heat if the starch is first ground 
in a ball mill to break the cell wall, or if it is treated with chemi- 
cal reagents which destroy the cell wall. Dilute caustic alkalies 
and solutions of zinc chloride are among the reagents which 
produce this result. 

The temperature range required to produce pastification and 
the viscosity of the resulting paste are highly characteristic of 
the variety of starch employed. For most starches, however, 
pastification does not commence below 70 C. (158 F.) 

Classification. Commercial starches are classified, according 
to the viscosity of the paste produced, as thick- or thin-boiling. 
Wheat starch is a typical thin-boiling starch, as a 5% mixture 
of wheat starch in water yields a thin, translucent syrup, scarcely 
gelatinous at boiling temperature. Corn starch, on the other 
hand, is a characteristic thick-boiling starch. Its 5% mixture 
with boiling water is practically non-fluid. 

While it is now known that variations in the pasting quali- 
ties of a variety of starch can be induced by changes in the con- 
ditions of manufacture or by suitable treatments, these properties 
as well as the degree of gelatinization of the cooled paste are 
of great importance to many industries. In laundry practice and 
some branches of textile manufacture, for instance, it is essential 
that the starch paste be thin enough to penetrate the fabric when 
hot, without piling up on the surface, and at the same time that 
it have body enough to provide the necessary stiffness to the 



STARCH 9 

finished article. On the other hand, in paper-box making, to 
cite one example, a thick-boiling starch which will be adhesive 
without soaking into the stock is required. 

In the fermentation industry the pasting qualities of a starch 
are only of minor importance since adaptations can always be 
made to provide for them. The essential value of starch to 
the fermentation industry is that by suitable treatment it yields 
progressively more soluble products and finally can yield almost 
100% of dextrose. 

Conversion. The conversion of starch results first in the so- 
called soluble starches, then in dextrin, then in maltose and 
finally in dextrose. The earlier stages of the process are not 
sharply defined from a chemical point of view and they are con- 
trolled entirely with a view to the special qualities desired in the 
product. As the conversion continues, mixtures of an unfer- 
mentable gum, dextrin, with varying proportions of maltose and 
dextrose are obtained. By carrying the process further, a yield 
of almost pure dextrose can be secured. This, of course, is the 
object in the processing of starch for the fermentation industry. 
The conversion of starch results either by the action of the 
enzyme, diastase, by boiling with dilute acids or by gentle roast- 
ing. The first two methods are used in the fermentation industry, 
often in conjunction with each other. 

Chemically the process is a hydrolysis. That is, by the addi- 
tion of water to the starch molecules, the latter are split into 
more soluble materials. The products obtained depend upon 
the agent used, and, also, upon whether the action is allowed 
to go to completion. Many researches have been made in the 
study of this subject. C. O'Sullivan (J.C.S. 1872, 579; 1876, 
725), showed that the products of diastatic action are maltose 
and dextrin, and that the proportion of maltose in the product 
decreases as the temperature of conversion is raised above 63 C. 
According to Brown, Heron and Morris (J.C.S. 1879, 596], 
malt extract at room temperature converts starch paste into 80.9 
parts of maltose and 19.1 parts of dextrin, and the same change 
occurs at all temperatures to 6oC. The intermediate dextrins 
were investigated by Brown and Morris (J.C.S. 1885, 527; 



io SUGARS AND STARCH 

1889, 449) 462], and by Brown and Miller (J.C.S. 1889, 286). 
Various views have been held as to the nature of the intermediate 
products, and even of the final products. Daish (J.C.S. 1914, 
105, 2053, 2065} and Nanji and Beazley (J.S.C. Ind., 1926, 
2/57*), state that prolonged treatment with mineral acid con- 
verts starch into dextrins and maltose and finally into d-glucose. 
Ordinary diastase, or amylase, a /^-diastase, converts starch 
finally into dextrins and maltose, whereas takadiastase. which 
contains the enzyme maltase in addition to an a-diastase, yields 
J-glucose as final product. (Davis and Daish, B. C. Abs. 1914, 
ii, 588. Cf. Baker and Hulton, J.C.S. 1914, 705, 1529; W. A. 
Davis, J. S. Dyers, 1914, 30, 249}. G. W. Rolfe (Rogers 1 
Manual of Industrial Chemistry, 1921, go 5-906} states that since 
the discovery of the process of converting starch into dextrose by 
the action of heat and acids, dextrose in a crude form and known 
as starch sugar or grape sugar has entered into commerce, more 
or less. There is also a very pure dextrose commercially sold 
under the name "Cerelose." Its importance is small, however, 
as compared to that of Commercial glucose. " He draws atten- 
tion to the fact that there is some confusion of terms which as- 
sociate this starch product with grape sugar and dextrose. It is 
quite true that dextrose (^/-glucose) is an ingredient of commercial 
glucose, but the dextrose in the commercial glucose of today is 
the least important ingredient, both in quantity and for the quali- 
ties which it imparts to the product. He gives a diagram (See 
Figure I ) which shows the variation in proportion of the three 
primary constituents of commercial glucose; dextrin, maltose, 
and dextrose, present as acid hydrolysis of the carbohydrate mat- 
ter proceeds. The progress of the hydrolysis is shown by the 
change in optical rotation from that of starch paste to that of 
dextrose. The diagonal dotted lines show the respective dextrin 
and maltose percentages obtained in starch products hydrolyzed 
by diastase (malt) conversion for the corresponding rotation 
values. /These are corrected for the polarization influence of 
carbohydrates introduced in the malt, which do not come from 
starch hydrolysis. He states, further, that the stage of hydroly- 
sis most favorable for the manufacture of commercial glucose 



STARCH ii 

for ordinary purposes lies between the rotation values, 120 and 
140, although glucose used for special brewing purposes may 
be somewhat outside these limits. 

Maquenne and Roux (C.R., 1905, 140, 1303], claim that 
starch is a mixture of two substances, amylose and amylopectin, 
the former in the interior portion of the granule, and the latter 
in the envelope. The amylose, obtained by reversion, or by 
heating starch with water under pressure and cooling, gives no 



Commercial Glucose 



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FIG. i. 



coloration with iodine in the solid state, is not readily attacked 
by diastase, and is scarcely soluble in water at 120 C. If, how- 
ever, it is heated with water under pressure at 150 C. it dis- 
solves fairly readily; the solution can be filtered, gives a blue 
coloration with iodine and is completely converted into maltose 
by malt extract at 56 C. It is probable that the amylose and 
amylopectin are not homogeneous (C.R. 1908, 146, 542). Schry- 
ver and Thomas (Bio. J., 1923, 77, 497)1 have found that cer- 
tain starches contain small amounts of hemicelluloses, and Ling 



12 SUGARS AND STARCH 

and Nanji (J.C.S. 1923, 725, 2666), state the ratio of amylose 
to amylopectin is constant and is equal to 2:1, although their 
absolute percentage will vary according to the proportion of 
hemicellulose in the starch. For practical purposes, the progress 
of the hydrolysis or conversion of starch paste is shown by char- 
acteristic chemical and physical changes. The thick paste loses 
its colloidal nature and rapidly becomes more limpid, the con- 
centration (e.g., osmotic pressure) of the solution increases, 
although the dissolved carbohydrates become specifically lighter, 
and the solution becomes distinctly sweeter in taste. If tested 
with a weak aqueous solution of iodine, the deep sapphire blue 
given by the original starch paste changes as the hydrolysis pro- 
ceeds, passing into violet, then to a rose red which in turn 
changes to a reddish brown which grows steadily lighter, until 
just before complete hydrolysis is reached, it disappears alto- 
gether. A few drops of the solution poured into strong alcohol 
give a copious white precipitate during the early stages of the 
conversion; as the hydrolysis continues the amount of the precipi- 
tate becomes less until near the end when no precipitate is 
produced. 

If the conversion products are tested polariscopically, it will 
be found that there will be a progressive fall in specific rotation 
values from that of starch paste (202) to that of dextrose 
(52.7). The Fehling test shows no copper reduction with 
starch paste, at the beginning of the hydrolysis, but progressively 
increases till the maximum reducing power is reached when all 
of the converted products are finally transformed into dextrose. 



CHAPTER II 
THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. ENZYMES 

At the beginning of the preceding chapter the statement was 
made that fermentation results from the action of living bodies 
on suitable organic compounds. The actual instruments of the 
conversion, however, are not living cells but constitute a group of 
special chemical compounds which are built up or secreted by the 
living cells and which are called enzymes. We know that these 
enzymes are not living bodies because the changes which they 
produce can be effected in the entire absence of any live cells. 
Yeast juice, for example, even when totally free of yeast cells 
can cause the fermentation of suitable sugar solutions. The ac- 
tivity of the juice diminishes in the course of time, and both in 
rate of fermentation and in total fermentation produced; the 
extract or juice is much less efficient than an equivalent amount 
of living yeast. 

Description. As a class, the enzymes are unstable, nitrog- 
enous compounds of a colloidal nature and of great chemical 
complexity. Only t\vo enzymes, urease and pepsin, have been 
isolated in a fairly pure state. The exact chemical composition 
of the enzymes is still unknown. They are not necessarily pro- 
teins although many of them have certain properties common to 
proteins. Their most important characteristic is the ability to 
produce chemical changes in other substances without themselves 
being changed. This is what chemistflf s call catalytic power. An- 
other name for the enzymes as a group is chemical or soluble 
ferments. 

Specific Action. When enzymes are considered separately 
rather than as a class it is found that their individuality manifests 
itself in two ways; a combination of one special enzyme with one 
special substrate (material to work on) is required for each par- 

13 



14 ENZYMES 

ticular result. However, it is possible to classify enzymes to 
some extent by the type of reaction which they produce, as 
follows : 

GROUP ACTION 

1. Hydroxylases Invertase hydrolyses cane sugar. Amylase 

hydrolyses starch. 

2. Esterases Hydrolyse esters, including the lipases which 

act specifically on fats. 

3. Oxidases Produce oxidation. 

4. Reductases Produce reduction as e.g. reduce aldehydes to 

alcohol. 

^5. Carboxylases Split off carbon dioxide from organic acids. 

6. Clotting enzymes Thrombase, which clots blood. Rennin, which 

clots milks. 

It is now customary to name enzymes after the compound on 
which they act with the addition of the ending "ase." 

There are also known some cases in which enzymes tend to 
prevent rather than produce a reaction. In the majority of cases 
their action as catalysts is positive. That the action is truly 
catalytic is shown by the fact that the rate of reaction is directly 
proportional to the concentration of the enzymes, but the total 
amount of action is independent of the amount of enzyme, 
provided a sufficient time is allowed; and provided also that the 
enzyme is not decomposed by other means. As a rule a small 
amount of enzyme cannot decompose unlimited amounts of sub- 
strate, since most enzymes are relatively unstable. Hence, if only 
a small amount of enzyme is used the reaction slackens and 
finally ceases, owing to decomposition (autolysis) of the enzyme 
before all the substrate has reacted. 

Conditions of Functioning. Enzymes are sensitive to high 
temperatures, e.g. y when heated to below 100 C. their activity 
is completely destroyed. They are, however, resistant to many 
antiseptics which destroy protoplasm and kill fermenting organ- 
isms. Some germicides, such as formaldehyde, tend to destroy 
, enzymes. 

1 Preparation. Enzymes are concentrated by precipitation 
from their solutions by the addition of alcohol or acetone, or by 



SELECTIVITY 15 

the addition of salts such as ammonium sulphate; by precipitation 
after adjustment of the solution to a definite pH; or by adsorp- 
tion by such materials as alumina, silica gel, fullers' earth, etc. 
Often combinations of these procedures are used. The resulting 
products, however, are often contaminated with other enzymes 
and with inactive impurities, all of which makes the study of their 
reactions difficult. 

Selectivity. The action of enzymes is essentially selective, 
in this respect differing from the action of inorganic catalytic 
agents. The following tabular representation of the reactions of 
the trisaccharide, raffinose, will illustrate this: 

SUGAR CATALYST PRODUCTS 

Raffinose Acid Dextrose, fructose, galactose 

Raffinose Diastase Melibiose, fructose 

Raffinose Emulsin Galactose, sucrose 

In general, esters, amides, carbohydrates, glucosides, etc. are 
all hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid. Lipases will hydrolyze es- 
ters but not carbohydrates. Maltase will hydrolyze maltose but 
not sucrose. Even slight differences in the configuration of two 
sugars will be sufficient to affect their reactivity with a particular 
enzyme. 

It will be seen that the activities of the hydrolytic enzymes 
are so specific that great care must be exercised to provide those 
enzymes which, working on the available materials, will produce 
the desired results. While this circumstance is of great theo- 
retical importance, it enters into practical consideration rather 
rarely. As a rule each naturally occurring saccharide or other 
hydrolyzablc substance is accompanied by its own specific hydro- 
lytic enzyme so that it can be made available for natural utiliza- 
tion. The enzyme does not necessarily exist as such in the tissue, 
but may be present as a so-called zymogen, which liberates the 
enzyme under suitable conditions, such as a wound to the organ- 
ism or the presence of an acid. 

Co-enzymes. Very often also there are required the pres- 
ence of two factors, the enzyme and the co-enzyme to produce 
the fermentation. For example, it has been shown by Harden 



1 6 ALCOHOL-PRODUCING ENZYMES 

and Young (J.C.S. 1905 Abs. II; iog and ibid. 1906, I; 470) 
that yeast juice can be separated by dialysis into two fractions 
which when recombined are equal in activity to the original juice, 
although neither by itself will cause any fermentation. The 
dialyzable fraction, the co-enzyme, is resistant to boiling, but dis- 
appears from yeast juice during fermentation, or when the juice 
is allowed to undergo autolysis. It is decomposed by acid or 
alkaline hydrolyzing agents, by repeated boiling, and by the lipase 
of castor beans. The presence of both an enzyme and a co- 
enzyme has been found necessary in other fermentations, e.g., in 
the action of lipase it has been found that a co-enzyme which is a 
salt of a complex taurocholic acid is required. 

Alcohol-producing Enzymes. As can be inferred from the 
above, the number of types of enzymes required to carry on a 
practical fermentation may vary from one to three or more, ac- 
cording to the substrate to be fermented. 

Zymase, which carries on the final conversion of the mono- 
saccharide to alcohol and carbon dioxide in accordance with the 
chemical equation: 

Dextrose (or fructose, etc.) Alcohol Carbon Dioxide 

C 6 H 12 O 6 ^ 2C 2 H 5 OH + aCO 2 

is always necessary. 

A hydroxylase such as maltase or invertase is usually needed 
to convert maltose or sucrose respectively into mono-saccharide 
sugar. This conversion follows the formulation 

Disaccharide (Sucrose, Water Hexoses (Dextrose, 

maltose, etc.) fructose, etc.) 

CigH^Oii + H 2 O i CgH^Og + CgH 12 O6 

Finally another enzyme may be needed to saccharify, i.e., 
hydrolyze, the starch into maltose. Successful fermentation de- 
pends very largely upon the supplying of the required enzymes at 
the proper stage in the operation, and in the necessary amount to 
produce the desired result. Further consideration of these topics 
will be found under the captions of Yeast and Malt. 



CHAPTER III 

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. FER- 
MENTATION 

Alcoholic fermentation is a subject which has attracted the 
study of many chemists, even some of the greatest. Many days 
of research have been devoted to define completely the reactions 
which take place in this chemical transformation, and various 
theories have been advanced to explain the steps which occur. 
Despite all this work, our knowledge of its mechanism is still in- 
complete. We know that fermentation commences with sugars 
in the presence of certain other materials, ferments or enzymes; 
and we know most of the end products. But we do not know 
how these products result, why they result, or what are the inter- 
mediate steps in their formation. A completely satisfactory 
explanation still has not been found in answer to these questions. 

General Requirements. Sugar, water, the presence of a fer- 
ment, and a favorable temperature, usually 75 F.-85 F. and 
never over 90 F. are inescapable requirements. There are other 
limiting factors. The ferments or enzymes are known to be 
chemical compounds. They have not been analyzed completely, 
however, nor synthesized, and we are dependent for their pro- 
duction upon living plants, the yeasts. The reactions follow the 
law of Mass Action to the extent that as the concentration of the 
alcoEol approaches 14-16% the reaction slows down and finally 
stops. The law of Mass Action states that in a reversible reac- 
tion the final state reached depends on the relation between the 
concentrations of the initial and end materials. However, at- 
tempts to reverse the process of fermentation have been successful 
only in the minutest degree. 

Oxygen does not appear to enter into the fermentation 
reaction, but the presence of air and particularly aeration of the 
fermenting liquor, the substrate, do have a noticeable influence. 

17 



1 8 FERMENTATION 

Essential Nature. Whatever the starting point, in all cases 
the desired result is the presence of all of the sugars in a form 
suitable for conversion into alcohol. As previously stated, this 
process is called alcoholic fermentation. This change was be- 
lieved by Lavoisier (1789) to follow the formulation: 

C 6 H 12 O 6 = 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2C0 2 

Hexose Ethyl Alcohol Carbon Dioxide 



It was shown by Pasteur (1857) ^at this formulation actually 
accounts only for about 95% of the sugar consumed. Glycerin, 
organic acids and traces of other by-products account for the 
balance. This figure of 95%, however, does represent the yield 
of alcohol which is obtainable under favorable conditions and 
represents also the upper limit of the result of good commercial 
practice in the production of alcohol, either potable or industrial. 

Since their time, the combined labors of many students have, 
on the one hand, added somewhat to our knowledge of the 
mechanism of fermentation; and on the other hand, have de- 
fined some of the by-products as well as some of the minor 
prerequisites to success. 

Products. Pasteur found that the actual yield from the fer- 
mentation of 100 pounds of sugar was as follows: 

Alcohol .............................. 48.55 Ib. 

Carbon Dioxide ....................... 46.74 Ib. 

Glycerol ............................. 3.23 Ib. 

Organic Acids ........................ 0.62 Ib. 

Miscellaneous ......................... 1.23 Ib. 



100.37 H>- 

The fact that the total weight of fermentation products ex- 
ceeds slightly the weight of sugar fermented is explained by the 
absorption and fixation of small amounts of water to make cer- 
tain of the by-products. According to Pasteur some sugar is 
also utilized by the yeasts in building new yeast cells. 

In general, the chief products of vinous fermentation may be 
stated to be: alcohol and carbon dioxide (accounting for 94-95% 
of the sugar), glycerol 2.5-3.6%, acids 0.4-0.7%, and, in addition, 



CONTROLLING FACTORS 19 

an appreciable quantity of fusel oil (higher alcohols), some 
acetaldehyde and other aldehydes and some esters. Among the 
minor products of fermentation maybe listed the following which 
have been identified: 

Formic Acid 
Acetic Acid 
Propionic Acid 
Butyric Acid 
Lactic Acid 
Ethyl Butyrate 
Ethyl Acetate 
Ethyl Caproate, etc. 

Rate of Fermentation. The ratio of carbon dioxide to al- 
cohol produced and the ratio of yeast formed to alcohol produced 
both vary at different stages of the fermentation. They depend 
both on the age of the yeast and on the age of the fermentation. 
Slator, J.C.S. (1906), 89; 128, and ibid. (1908), 93; 217 has 
shown that the rate of conversion of dextrose into alcohol and 
carbon dioxide by yeast is exactly proportional to the amount of 
yeast present and, with the exception of very dilute solutions, is 
almost independent of the concentration of sugar. Slator and 
Sand, Trans. Ch. Soc. (1910) 97; 922-927 have further de- 
veloped and explained this fact by showing that the diffusion of 
sugar into the yeast cell is so rapid even in dilute solutions that 
more sugar is present in the cell than can be fermented at any 
instant. Various yeasts will ferment levulose (fructose) at the 
same rate as that at which dextrose is fermented. Similarly, 
maltase-containing-yeasts will ferment maltose solutions at the 
same rate as if dextrose were being fermented. 

Controlling Factors. The factors which really govern the 
rate of fermentation, then, are two: the concentration of yeast 
and the temperature. The latter is of the greatest importance. 
Taking as a unit the amount of fermentation produced at 32 F., 
six times as much will result in the same time at 77 F., and 
twelve times as much at 95 F. However, the rates of forma- 
tion of undesired by-products and of autolysis of the yeast also 
increase objectionably as the temperature is raised, hence it is 



20 FERMENTATION 

usual to set an upper limit of 90 F. on the fermentation. Since 
heat is evolved during the process, this requires that the rate 
must be so controlled that either natural radiation or artificial 
cooling will keep the temperature within the desired limits. 

Inorganic Requirements. Various inorganic constituents 
must also be present in the fermenting liquor. Some of these, 
phosphates in particular, play a part in the mechanism of fer- 
mentation. Others are necessary to provide food for the yeast, 
nitrogen compounds, calcium, potassium and manganese, etc. In 
addition there is a still incompletely defined compound called 
"bios" which appears to be essential to success. Most of these 
are present in sufficient amounts in the raw materials of the fer- 
mentation industry although it is probable that close study of their 
occurrence might be rewarded by increased yields and/or im- 
proved products. 

Mechanism. The role of phosphates especially is of interest 
since it shows that the fermentation proceeds by steps instead of 
immediately in the sense of the equation 



C 6 H 12 O 6 z^2C 2 H 5 OH 4- 2CO 2 

Harden and Young, J. Ch. Soc. (1908) Abs. i, 590 were the first 
to show that the addition of phosphates (disodium phosphate) to 
a mixture of yeast juice and dextrose resulted in both an initial 
acceleration and in an increased total fermentation. They also 
showed that there was an optimum concentration of phosphate, 
deviations from which in either direction resulted in a diminished 
rate of fermentation. It is assumed that a hexose-di-phosphate 
is formed as follows: 

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 2Na 2 HPO 4 -> C 6 H 10 O 4 (PO 4 Na 2 ) 2 + aH 2 O 

It is this compound which breaks down into alcohol and carbon 
dioxide and regenerates the sodium phosphate. The latter can 
then again combine repeatedly with the sugar, sensitizing it to 
the breaking down action of the enzyme until the fermentation 
is complete. It has been shown by careful experiments that dur- 
ing the period of increased fermentation the amounts of alcohol 
and carbon dioxide produced are stachimetrically related to the 



MECHANISM 21 

quantity of added phosphate in the ratio C 2 H 5 OH : Na 2 HPO 4 . 
Since the filtered enzyme plus phosphate will not of themselves 
induce fermentation, it follows that phosphate is not the co- 
enzyme. On the other hand, in the entire absence of phosphate 
no fermentation occurs even though both enzyme and co-enzyme 
are present. Arsenites and arsenates cause some acceleration of 
the fermentation, but they cannot be used in place of phosphates. 
They appear rather to act as accelerators in the decomposition of 
the dextrose phosphate. 

It has been found by further investigation that there is ap- 
parently another step in the fermentation reaction in which the 
dextrose di-phosphate splits into two moles of triose mono-phos- 
phate. It should be particularly noted that the immediately 
preceding study of the mechanism of the action of yeast juice is 
not directly applicable to the action of yeast. E.g. } Slator (loc. 
cit.) found that phosphates are without accelerating effect when 
living yeast cells are employed. 

Many other suggestions have been made regarding the inter- 
mediate steps in the conversion of dextrose into alcohol and 
carbon-dioxide and the nature of the intermediate products. 
Biichner and Meisenheimer, B. (1905), 38; 620, suggested that 
lactic acid is the first product of the action of zymase on dextrose 
since it is known that this acid is formed in muscle tissue by the 
oxidation of glycogen, which is a polydextrose. They added to 
this theory the assumption of a second enzyme, lactacidase, which 
carries on the decomposition of the lactic acid into ethyl alcohol 
and carbon dioxide; cf. Bio. Z. (1922), 128 ; 144 and 132 ; 165. 
This suggestion was based on the observation that a concentrated 
solution of dextrose when treated with alkali yields about 3% 
of alcohol on exposure to sunlight. Under similar conditions a 
more dilute solution gives a 50% yield of lactic acid. 

Another suggestion is that dihydroxy-acetone, CO(CH2OH) 2 
is the first result of the splitting of the hexose molecule. It has 
been shown by Biichner and Meisenheimer, B. 43; 1773 and by 
Lebedew, B., 44; 2932. Cf. also Franzen and Steppuhn, ibid., 
2915 that dihydroxy-acetone is fermentable by yeast. It has also 
been shown that dihydroxy-acetone and glyceraldehyde can, under 



22 FERMENTATION 

suitable conditions be condensed to form a hexose so that there 
is every probability that the reaction is reversible. Again, the 
suggestion has been made that glyceraldehyde, C(HO)' 
C(HOH) C(H2OH), by the loss of water yields an enolic 
compound CH : C(OH) CHO called methyl-glyoxal ; which, by 
the addition of water can yield either lactic acid or even ethyl 
alcohol and water. On the other hand, the above mechanisms, 
although plausible, appear improbable as important parts of the 
fermentation reaction since it has also been shown that glycer- 
aldehyde is only slowly fermented while methyl-glyoxal and lactic 
acid are unacted upon by yeast juice or yeast. 

Neuberg, Deut. Zuckerind. (1920) 45, 492, has shown that 
yeast contains an enzyme, carboxylase, which is capable of elimi- 
nating carbon dioxide from a-ketonic acids, and therefore suggests 
that pyruvic acid CH 3 CO COOH represents the initial splitting 
product of fermenting hexose. The reaction, then, proceeds with 
the decomposition of the pyruvic acid into acetaldehyde and car- 
bon dioxide, and the aldehyde is reduced by the yeast to ethyl alco- 
hol. In support of this theory it has been shown that the addition 
of pyruvic acid to a fermenting liquor increases the yield of alco- 
hol. The presence of glycerol, which may function merely as a 
yeast preservative, is required. It is also known that there is pres- 
ent in yeast an enzyme which is capable of reducing aldehyde. 
However, the conversion of the hexose into pyruvic acid is diffi- 
cult to formulate logically. 

Neuberg and Arinstein, Bio. Z. (1921), 117; 269 and 122; 

suggest the following steps for the fermentation: 

1 i ) Dextrose ^ Water + Methyl-Glyoxal-Aldol 

C 6 H 12 O 6 ^ aH 2 O + CH 3 CO CH(OH) CH 2 CO - CHO 
This keto form changes to the enol-form 

CH 2 : C(OH)- CH(OH) CH 2 CO CHO 

(2) Methyl-Glyoxal-Aldol ( keto form ) + Water ^ 

Glycerol 4- Pyruvic Acid 

CH 2 :C(OH)-CH(OH) CH 2 CO-CHO + aHO^ 

CH 2 (OH) CH(OH) CH 2 (OH) + CH 3 CO COOH 



BY-PRODUCTS 23 

Part of the pyruvic acid is converted by the action of carboxylase and 
reductase into alcohol and carbon dioxide. 

(3) Methyl Glyoxal + Acetaldehyde + Water ^ 

Alcohol + Pyruvic Acid 

CH 3 CO CH : O + CH 3 CHO + HoO ^ 

CH 3 CH 2 (OH) + CH 3 CO COOH 

In support of this exposition Neuberg cites the three different 
courses taken by the fermentation according to conditions : 

(a) Normal in fairly acid media with over 90% yields 

C 6 H 12 O 6 - 2C 2 H 5 OH -f 2CO 2 

(b) In the presence of sulphites (to fix aldehyde) 

C 6 H 12 6 - C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 + CH 3 CHO + CO 2 

(c) In faintly alkaline conditions (in the presence of sodium bicar- 

bonate) 

2C 6 H 12 6 +H 2 - 2C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 

-f 2CO 2 + C 2 H 5 OH + CH 3 CO 2 H 

In reply to the objection that acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid are 
not so readily fermentable as dextrose, Neuberg suggests that the 
reaction takes place with one of their tautomeric (enolic) forms. 

By-products. Glycerol. The preceding formulations of the 
fermentation reaction indicate readily the production of glycerol. 
Biichner and Meisenheimer have shown that it is formed in sugar 
solutions even by the action of yeast juice without the require- 
ment of living yeast cells. It is known also that by the addition 
of sodium carbonate or sulphite and by selection of the most 
suitable yeasts a yield of 25% or more of glycerol on the weight 
of sugar fermented can be obtained. 

Fusel Oil and Succinic Add, etc. It has been shown that this 
group of by-products derives not from the sugar but from other 
materials present in the fermenting liquor. F. Ehrlich in many 
researches (1904-1910) has shown that the higher alcohols and 
aldehydes, which when mixed we call fusel oil, are formed by the 
deammination of amino acids resulting from the hydrolysis of 
proteins. Thus isoamyl alcohol, which is the chief constituent of 
fusel oil, is closely related to leucine, amino-isohexoic acid, and 
active amyl alcohol is similarly related to isoleucine, a~amino-/3- 



24 FERMENTATION 

methyl-valeric acid. Both of these acids are formed in the 
hydrolysis of proteins and both, according to Ehrlich, are trans- 
formed into the corresponding amyl alcohols in the presence of 
sugar by the action of pure yeast cultures. The gross reaction is 
formulated as follows: 

(CH 3 ) 2 CH CH 2 - CH(NH 2 )- COOH + H 2 O 

(CH 3 ) 2 CH CH 2 CH 2 (OH) + CO 2 + NH 3 

In a similar manner the other amino acids react; tyrosine, /?-p- 
hydroxy-phenyl-a-amino-butyric acid yielding p-hydroxy-phenyl- 
ethyl alcohol, tyrosol; while phenyl-alanine, a-amino-/?-phenyl- 
propionic acid, yields phenyl-ethyl alcohol. Succinic acid, for ex- 
ample, which is of usual occurrence in fermented liquors is 
probably formed by a similar reaction from glutamic acid with the 
additional step of oxidation in the process. 

These changes take place only by the action of yeast but not 
by the action of yeast juice. This fact points to the importance 
of these reactions in the life process of the yeast cell. A similar 
conclusion results from the fact that no free ammonia is found 
at the end of the reaction, all of it having been consumed in the 
building up of new yeast cells. This conclusion is further 
strengthened by the fact, also shown by Ehrlich, that if appre- 
ciable amounts of simple nitrogenous bodies, such as ammonium 
salts, are present in the fermenting liquor these will be used by the 
organisms in preference to decomposing the amino-acids. Ehrlich 
has found it possible to increase or diminish the amounts of 
fusel oil formed by diminishing or increasing the amounts of 
ammonium salt added to the wort; and also to increase the yield 
of fusel oil by adding larger amounts of amino-acids to the fer- 
menting mixture. Practically all amino-acids formed in the 
hydrolysis of proteins can be similarly decomposed by yeast cells 
provided that sugar is present. As previously stated enormous 
amounts of research have been devoted to the mechanism of the 
fermentation reaction. Despite this, the complete definition of 
the reaction has not been arrived at. The point of interest here 
is that there are a large number of factors involved, many of 
them known and controllable and necessary to success. 



CHAPTER IV 

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. RAW 
MATERIALS 

General Classification. The preceding chapters have been 
devoted to a brief discussion of the chemical background which 
is common to all of the fermentation industry. The various raw 
materials which, by the application of the principles developed, 
are converted into alcohol-containing beverages will be discussed 
in the present chapter. The diversity of these raw materials is 
very great, since anything which contains sugar or may be treated 
to yield sugar, will serve and probably has been applied, to pro- 
duce intoxicating liquor. It is possible to classify these materials, 
therefore, in two ways. However any classification may err at 
times as industrial demands change. The classification may be : 

I. According to their function as sugar suppliers or auxiliaries. 
II. According to the products into which they enter. 

On the first basis we find three groups: 

A. Materials which supply preformed sugar for fermentation. 

Fruit and fruit juices 

Molasses 

Honey 

Sugar, etc. 

B. Starch-containing materials yielding fermentable sugar on treatment. 

Cereal grains 
Potatoes, etc. 

C. Auxiliary materials which contribute neither sugar nor starch. 

Spices and other Flavoring matters 
Coloring Agents 
Blending Agents, etc. 

This classification is based on applicability or composition. 
On the basis of use the same materials may be reclassified: 



26 RAW MATERIALS 

A. Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 

Cereal grains 

Potatoes 

Molasses 

Flavoring and Coloring Agents, etc. 

B. Materials for the production of wines. 

Fruit juices and fruits 
Sugar, etc. 

C. Materials for the production of liqueurs and cordials. 

Alcohol 

Sugar 

Spices and Essential Oils 

Coloring Agents, etc. 

Distilled Spirits. The materials used for the production of 
distilled spirits are further classified according to the types of 
product in which they find employment: 

American Whiskies 
Rye 

Barley 

Rye 
Bourbon 

Barley 

Corn 

Wheat 

Scotch Whiskies 
Pot Still Type 

Barley 
Patent Still Type 

Barley 

Rye 

Corn 

Oats 

Irish Whiskies 
Pot Still Type 
Barley 
Rye 
Oats 
Wheat 



DISTILLED SPIRITS 27 

Patent Still Type 
Barley 
Rye 
Corn 
Oats 

Gin (Distilled) 
Barley 
Rye 
Corn 

Kornbranntwein 

Barley 

Rye 

Corn 

Wheat 
Vodka 

Barley 

Rye 

Corn (In cheaper grades) 
Rum 

Molasses 

Cane Juice 

Schnapps 

Potatoes 
Brandy 

Grape juice and marc. 

Other fruits (Apples, prunes, cherries, etc.) 

Since the entire spirit industry is designed to produce palatable 
products, the tabulation given above is not necessarily binding. 
Some of the materials listed are very seldom used. Practice may 
differ from plant to plant producing the same product or may be 
influenced from year to year by changed crop and economic con- 
ditions. Owing to the great variety of distilled liquors in flavor 
and general character, and the influence on these of both the 
materials used and the processes by which they are treated, it 
is impossible to be completely general. However, it may be stated 
that the important cereal grains to the liquor industry are in 
order: barley, rye, corn, oats, and wheat. A short discussion 
of these grains including both their botanical and chemical char- 
acteristics follows: 



28 



RAW MATERIALS 



Cereal Grains. Barley. Barley takes the first place in im- 
portance in the spirit industry on account of its high production 
of the enzyme, diastase, when permitted to sprout (malt). There 
are several types of barley which are largely used. These include : 

1 i ) a. Hordeum distichum, a two-row type which includes the well- 

known varieties Chevalier, Hallett, Hanna. 

b. Hordeum zeocritum, two-row fan-shaped barleys of which 
Goldthorpe is the leading variety. 

(2) Hordeum vulgare, the ordinary six-row barley, such as Manchu- 
rian, Oderbrucker, Scotch, etc. 

(3) Hordeum hexastichum, which likewise have their flowers on a 
spikelet fertile, but on account of the fact that the ears are wide, 
the appearance of the head is a hexagon when examined from the 
top. These are really six-row barleys. An example of these is 
the white barley of Utah and adjoining States. 

The average composition of barleys of these three types, to- 
gether with data as to weight, are given in the following 
tabulation : 

TABLE I. AVERAGE PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF THREE TYPES OF 
MALTING BARLEYS (LE CLERC) * 



Type of barley 


Mois- 
ture, 


Water-free basis 


Wt. 

per 
bushel, 
pounds 


Wt. 

per 
1,000 
grains, 
grams 


Ash, 

/o 


Pro- 
tein, 


Fat, 


Fiber, 


Pento- 
sans, 


Starch 


Two-row 


8. 9 

8. 7 


2 . Q 
3-0 
2. 9 


ii. 6 
11.9 

IO.O 


2.0 
2.0 
2.0 


5-* 
5.8 


8-4 
9.6 
9.0 


59.1 
58.9 
59-9 


5* 
47 
48 


38 
27 
38 


Ordinary six-row 


Hexastichum 





i U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry. Bull. 124, Le Clerc and Wahl, Chemical studies of 
American barleys and malts. 

The two-row barleys are chiefly grown in Europe, although 
they are raised in this country in Montana, Idaho, New York, 
etc., to a limited extent. On account of their relatively high car- 
bohydrate content and low protein, they are particularly adapted 
to use in the brewery. 



CEREAL GRAINS 29 

In this country, the ordinary six-row barley is the kind most 
abundantly produced, being raised extensively in the States of 
the Mississippi Valley. Its relatively high protein content causes 
it to produce malt of high diastatic power, and thus fits it espe- 
cially to use in the distillery. 

A good distiller's barley should be free of dirt and have good 
odor and color, small grains of uniform size, a high percentage 
of nitrogen, and high germinating capacity. With these charac- 
teristics and with proper treatment in the malt house, it is bound 
to yield a malt of good character. 

Cleanliness is necessary, not only because dirt is not a source 
of alcohol, but because it is sure to carry large numbers of bac- 
teria and molds, which interfere with the production of a good 
malt. 

Barley is composed of about 12 per cent husks, 10 per cent 
bran, 2.5 per cent embryo, and the rest endosperm or the stored 
food for the plantlet. The husks and bran are merely protective. 
The germ is the seat of life; it consists of embryonic radicles or 
rootlets and the plumula or acrospire. The sprouting of this 
germ is essential to the production of malt since this serves to 
convert the starch of the endosperm into fermentable sugar. The 
endosperm is composed mostly of starch and protein, but both 
of these substances are insoluble and non-diffusible and can not 
be used directly in supplying food for the young plant. The 
agency which renders these soluble and diffusible is an enzyme 
or a series of enzymes secreted by the embryo during growth, 
one of which, the diastase, dissolves the starch and converts it 
into sugar and dextrin, while another, the peptase, acts on the 
protein. These enzymes are developed in the growing malt as 
the germ's need for food increases. The products of enzyme 
action are soluble and diffusible, and can be directly used as food 
by the growing embryo. 

Barley contains about 65 per cent of fermentable matter; 
and at a weight of 48 pounds per bushel one ton should produce 
about 98 gallons of alcohol. 

Barley, to be considered good, should show a germination 
of at least 97 per cent. If below this limit of vitality, it should 



30 RAW MATERIALS 

be reduced in price, or rejected. Grains which are incapable of 
germination are not only useless, but harmful, because they act 
as carriers of micro-organisms which may infect the rest of the 
grain. 

Rye. Rye is, comparatively speaking, a minor crop in the 
United States. The only species under cultivation is the common 
rye : Secale cereale. 

In structure and habits of growth, rye resembles wheat, and, 
like wheat, it is grown as both a spring and winter crop. It is 
a tall-growing, annual grass with fibrous roots, flat, narrow, bluish- 
green leaves, standing erect or decurved and having slender cylin- 
drical spikes consisting of two or three-flowered spikelets. The 
flowering glumes are long-awned or bearded and lance-shaped, 
and are so firmly attached that little chaff results from the thresh- 
ing. The individual grains are partly exposed and are longer, 
more slender and more pointed than wheat. They are dark, 
with a slightly wrinkled surface and are very hard and tough, 
requiring more power to mill than any other grain. 

The following is an analysis of common rye : 

TABLE II 

Moisture 1 1 . o% 

Ash 2.0% 

Protein (N X 6.25) n.6% 

Ether extract i . 7% 

Crude fiber 2.0% 

Pentosans 8.5% 

Total sugar 4 . o% 

Other carbohydrates 59. 2% 

Wt. per 1,000 grains 25.0 grams 

Wt. per bushel 56.0 Ibs. 

Rye is very largely used in distilleries which produce potable 
spirit such as whiskey, gin and vodka, and in the manufacture of 
compressed yeast It is also used in relatively small amounts in 
the yeast mashes of alcohol distilleries. It is not suited to use as 
the chief ingredient of the mash in an alcohol distillery, on ac- 
count of the tenacious quality of the mash which it forms. Fur- 
thermore, it gives a low yield in proportion to the amount of 
starch which it contains. Though it usually contains over 60 



CEREAL GRAINS 31 

per cent of fermentable matters, it rarely produces over 85 gal- 
lons of alcohol to the ton. 

Corn. This valuable food stuff is the grain of a gigantic 
grass known to botanists as Zea Mays. It originated in America 
but subsequently was transplanted to many other countries, prin- 
cipally France, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Portugal, South Africa and 
Argentine. 

There are over three hundred recognizable varieties, some 
of which are only a few inches in height, while others are giants 
of six feet or more ; some come to maturity in two months, while 
others require three or four times as long before their cobs ripen. 
There is also great variety in the shape, size, and color of the 
actual grain. Some are white as, for example, the Cuzco maize, 
others are yellow, red, purple, or even striped, and the varieties 
differ among themselves in chemical composition. 

The most important maize growing country of the world is 
the United States. Many varieties are cultivated, but the chief 
may be roughly grouped into four classes. First come the "Flint" 
varieties which are most commonly met with east of Lake Erie 
and north of Maryland, and the "Dent" varieties which are most 
popular west and south of these localities. The "Horsetooth," 
which passes insensibly into the above forms, is grown chiefly in 
the South. Lastly, the "Sweet" varieties are extensively cul- 
tivated for the green grain. These are boiled and used as 
a vegetable and seldom allowed to mature into the ripened 
grain. 

For the making of whiskey the finest white "Flint Corn" is 
preferred. The Kentucky distilleries are extremely careful in 
their selection of the raw material. Indian Corn that is grown 
along the Ohio and the Kentucky Rivers is especially sought after 
by the distillers as being peculiarly suitable. Corn which has been 
injured by frost, heat, moisture or mold can readily be used in 
the manufacture of industrial alcohol as such damage does not 
affect the fermentable content of the grain and it can be bought at 
a low price, but it is unsuitable for the liquor industry. 

A typical American maize should have the following com- 
position : 



32 RAW MATERIALS 

TABLE III 

Weight of 100 kernels 38 grams 

Moisture 10.75% 

Proteids 10 % 

Ether extract 4. 25% 

Crude fiber 1 . 75% 

Ash 1 . 50% 

Carbohydrates other than crude fiber 71 .75% 

Dry corn of good quality should yield at least 65% of sugars 
and starch and should yield from 98 to 105 gallons of 180 
alcohol per ton (shelled). 

Oats. Oats is the grain or seed of the cereal grass Avena 
sativa. It forms one of the most valuable sources of food for 
both man and beast, the nutritive value of the grain being very 
high. It is extensively grown in Great Britain, Continental 
Europe, Russia and North America. 

Practically four-fifths of the oat crop of the United States is 
produced in the thirteen states extending from New York and 
Pennsylvania westward to North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Nebraska and Kansas. Each of these states devotes more than 
a million acres to oats. The average yield in the six northern- 
most states, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North 
Dakota and South Dakota is 31.68 bushels per acre while their 
total production is slightly less than one-third of the oat crop 
of this country. The average yield of the other seven states, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska and Kan- 
sas is only 29.23 bushels per acre yet they produce more than 
half of the entire crop. The difference in yield of nearly two 
and one-half bushels to the acre between these two groups of 
states is due largely to the fact that the climatic conditions of 
the northern group are better suited to the production of the crop. 
There is no material difference in soil composition or other fac- 
tors affecting the yield. 

Oats are grown in the corn belt, which includes all the states 
of the second group, largely because a small-grain crop is needed 
in the rotation and because the grain is desired for feeding to 
work stock. Spring wheat is seldom satisfactory in this district 
and winter crops often do not fit well into a rotation which 



CEREAL GRAINS 33 

ordinarily includes corn, a small grain and grass. Under these 
conditions oats are generally grown as the best crop between corn 
and grass. This is particularly true in Illinois and Iowa, the 
two states producing the greatest quantity of both corn and oats. 

There are many factors which reduce the yield of oats in 
the corn belt. In general, those varieties of oats which mature 
earliest are best adapted to the belt, for early maturing often 
enables a crop to escape hot weather, injury from storms, and 
attacks of plant diseases. The early varieties also usually pro- 
duce less straw and for that reason are less likely to lodge than 
the ranker growing late varieties. A number of years ago the 
Early Champion and the Fourth Qf July varieties came into 
prominence but they are not now extensively grown, for, although 
early in maturing, their yield is often unsatisfactory. Burt is a 
very early variety much used for spring seeding south of the 
Ohio River but little known elsewhere. The type of early oats 
now most largely grown in this country is represented by the 
Sixty-Day and the Kherson varieties, two comparatively recent 
introductions from Europe. 

The following is a typical analysis of a variety of oats: 

TABLE IV 

Moisture 1 1 . 6% 

Ash 3.4% 

Protein (N X 6.25) 1 1 . 5% 

Ether extract 4 . 7% 

Crude fiber n.o% 

Pentosans 12.0% 

Total sugar 1.5% 

Other carbohydrates 44.3% 

Wt. per 1,000 grains 29.2 grams 

Wt. per bushel 32.0 Ibs. 

This grain is not too well suited for distillery use because of 
the glutinous nature of the mixture which is formed when it is 
treated with hot water. It contains about 50 per cent of fer- 
mentable substance and might be made to yield about 70 gallons 
of alcohol per ton. 

Wheat. Wheats have been cultivated by man since before 
the dawn of history, and nothing is now known of the original 



34 RAW MATERIALS 

wild forms from which they are descended. In old legends and 
ancient manuscripts wheat is spoken of as familiarly as at the 
present day. Nor do we know with any certainly in which coun- 
try it was first found; but it seems probable that Central Asia 
was the original home of the wild forms from which the culti- 
vated species have sprung. 

Wheat belongs to the grass family, Pouceas (Germineae), 
and to the tribe called Hordeae, in which the I to 8 flowered 
spikelets are sessile and alternate on opposite sides of the rachis, 
forming a true spike. Wheat is located in the subtribe Triticeae 
and in the genus Triticum where the solitary two-to-many flow- 
ered spikelets are placed sidewise against the curved channeled 
joints of the rachis. 

Great diversity is shown by the varieties of wheat grown in 
the United States. More than 200 distinct varieties are grown. 
Clark ("Classification of American Wheat Varieties" U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Dept. Bull. 1074, 1922) divides 
American grown wheats into the following groups: 

1 i ) Common 

(2) Club 

(3) Poulard 

(4) Durum 

(5) Emmer 

(6) Spelt 

(7) Polish 

(8) Einkorn 

(9) Unidentified 

Within these groups are numerous types of which the follow- 
ing more important are arranged in approximate order of pro- 
duction and use: 

Common 

Turkey, Marquis, Fultz, Red Wave, Poole, Fulcaster. 

Club 

Hybrid (Grown only on Pacific coast) 

Durum 

In Dakotas and adjoining states 



WINE MATERIALS 35 

Emmer 

Minnesota, Dakotas and adjoining states 

Polish 

New Mexico and Wyoming 
(Not grown much) 

Spelt 

Not grown to any extent commercially. 

The following is an analysis of two typical wheats: 

TABLE V 

Soft wheat Hard Wheat 

Moisture.... = 12.0% 12.0% 

Ash 1.9% 1.8% 

Protein (N X 6.25) 9.0% 12.4% 

Ether extract i.?% *-7% 

Crude fiber 2.5% 2.5% 

Pentosans 7-% 7-% 

Total sugar 2.7% 2.7% 

Other carbohydrates 63.2% 59-9% 

Wt. per i, ooo grains 38. 7 grams 38.7 grams 

Wt. per bushel 60.0 Ibs. 60.0 Ibs. 

What has been said regarding the yield of alcohol to be 
obtained from rye applies also to wheat and therefore, the latter 
has not been much used in distilleries, even at times when it was 
relatively cheap. 

Wine Materials. The wine industry differs from the spirit 
industry, among other things, in that the distinguishing character- 
istics of the finished product, wine, are much more closely re- 
lated to the individual character of the raw material. Although 
almost all wines are made from grapes, the character of a single 
batch of wine will depend not only on the variety of grape used, 
but even on the special plot of ground on which it was grown and 
the climatic conditions in the year of its growth. For this reason 
a classification of materials for the wine industry in the same 
manner as that given for the spirit industry is not possible. On 
the other hand, a means of classification is possible based on the 
geographical distribution of the grape varieties which are suc- 
cessfully grown for wine production. 



RAW MATERIALS 



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WINE MATERIALS 37 

Since the United States is geographically so large and offers 
for grape culture at one spot or another every feature that can 
he found elsewhere, the following tabulation and discussion is 
confined to this country. The principles, of course, and possibly 
excepting some special niceties, the practice are of universal 
application. 

The wine industry is somewhat less than 200 years old in 
the United States. It has successfully taken root in some of the 
Eastern and Middle States and principally in California and 
Texas. The first successful cultivation of American wine grape- 
vines was carried out in California in 1770 at the San Diego 
Mission of the Franciscan Padres. They used a Spanish vine 
which had been successfully transplanted in Mexico. The first 
real attempt to cultivate the grapevine on a commercial scale in 
California was probably around 1861 when the state government 
backed Colonel Haraszthy in a trip to the principal grape grow- 
ing districts of the world. He visited Europe, Asia Minor, 
Persia and Egypt and returned with 200,000 cuttings of vines 
which he believed likely to grow in California. A nursery was 
established at Sonoma and a study was made of the possibilities 
of the transplanted vines. Subsequently, the first State Board 
of Viticultural Commission, the United States Department of 
Agriculture and University of California, imported other clip- 
pings which were also tested. As a result vines were soon dis- 
tributed and planted in all suitable localities of the state. Ex- 
perienced European grape-growers and wine-makers were then 
induced to settle in the state and in course of time the well-known 
Californian industry was established successfully. As a result of 
this farseeing and well organized undertaking California, today, 
is able to imitate the wines of practically any district of the world. 

Many attempts were also made in Eastern states to establish 
vineyards and to found an Eastern wine industry, procedure be- 
ing much along the same lines as those tried successfully in Cali- 
fornia. Unfortunately, European grapes will not flourish in 
these sections of the United States and all such attempts ended 
in disaster. About the middle of the last century Nicholas Long- 
worth, Sr., experimented with the native Catawba grape in Ohio 



38 RAW MATERIALS 

and was so successful that the Ohio River was often referred to 
as the "Rhineland of America." This undertaking also came to 
a disastrous ending when disease attacked the vines. However, 
fresh plantings of American Vine Roots and Hybrids along the 
shores of Lake Erie and in Steuben County, New York, and 
parts of New Jersey have been more successful. 

Geographical Considerations. The choice of a site for 
grape production, as indicated previously, depends very largely 
on the nature of the soil and the climate. The following tabu- 
lation of grapes successfully grown in the United States will illus- 
trate this statement: 

TABLE VII. AMERICAN GRAPE VARIETIES 
Lake Shore District of Ohio 

Catawba, Delaware, Concord, Norton 

Steuben County, New York 

Arranged in the order of merit: 

Delaware, lona, Diana, Catawba, Concord, Isabellas, Norton 

Southern Texas 

Devereux (Black July), Mustang, Herbemont, Lenoir (known as 
Burgundy in eastern Texas and Black Spanish in western Texas). 

California 

Fresno County 

Zinfandel, Malvoisie and Fahirzozos. 

Zinfandel is considered best grape; color, excellent; flavor and acid, 
splendid. 

Sonoma Valley 

Mission, Riesling, Gutedel (Chasselais), Muscatel, Burger, Zin- 
fandel. 

The Mission grape has spread over the whole state and is much 
used in the production of Hock, Claret, Port and Angelica. 

Napa County 

Riesling, White, Pineau and Chasselais for dry white wines. 
Black Burgundy, Zinfandel and Charboneau for Claret. The first 
makes a dark, full bodied and richly flavored wine. The second 
has a fine raspberry flavor but an excess of acid and is a little light 
in body and color. 
Black Malvoisie is tbe best Port wine grape. 



WINE MATERIALS 39 

Bioletti (California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 193. "The Best 
Wine Grapes of California"} has summarized the geographical 
and climatic factors which must he borne in mind. While his 
statement is with particular reference to California, the principles 
which he enunciates are of general validity. He says: 

"For the good of the industry at large it is desirable that varieties 
should be planted which will produce as large a crop as is compatible with 
such quality as will maintain and extend the markets for our wine. These 
markets are varied in character. For some, cheapness is the essential 
factor; for others, quality. Cheap wines can be produced with profit only 
from heavy-bearing varieties grown in rich soil ; wines of the highest qual- 
ity only from fine varieties grown on hillsides or other locations where the 
crops are necessarily less. It is therefore unwise to plant poor-bearing 
varieties in the rich valleys where no variety can produce a fine wine. It 
is equally unwise to plant common varieties on the hill slopes of the Coast 
Ranges where no variety will produce heavy crops. The vineyards of the 
San Joaquin, Sacramento, and other valleys can not compete with the 
vineyards of the Coast Ranges in quality, and the latter can not compete 
with the former in cheapness. 

Each region has its own special advantages which, if properly used, 
will make grape-growing profitable in all, and instead of competing each 
will be a help to the other. The danger to be feared by the grape-growers 
of the Coast Ranges from the production of dry wine in the interior is not 
competition, but lies in the bad reputation given to California wines by 
the production of spoiled and inferior wines. If the cheap wines of the 
valleys are uniformly good and sound the market for the high-priced fine 
wines of the hills will increase, and large quantities of the Coast Range 
wines will be used for blending with the valley wines to give them the 
acidity, flavor and freshness which they lack. 

In order to obtain these results it is necessary that varieties suited to 
each region and to the kind of wine should be planted. No variety which 
is not capable of yielding from 5 to 8 tons per acre in the rich valley soils 
or from i l /2 to 3 tons on the hill slopes should be considered. On the 
other hand, no variety which will not give a clean-tasting, agreeable wine 
in the valley or a wine of high quality on the hills should be planted, 
however heavily it may bear. To plant heavy-bearing inferior varieties 
such as Burger, Feher Szagos, Charbono, or Mataro on the hills of Napa 
or Santa Cruz is to throw away the chief advantage of the location. The 
same is true of planting poor-bearing varieties such as Verdelho, Chardo- 
nay, Pinot, or Cabernet Sauvignon in the plains of the San Toaquin. 



RAW MATERIALS 



With these considerations in view, the following suggestions are made 
for planting in the chief regions of California: 

WINE GRAPES RECOMMENDED FOR CALIFORNIA 
For Coast Counties 



Red Wine Grapes 

1. Petite Si rah 

2. Cabernet Sauvignon 

3. Beclan 

4. Tannat 

5. Serine 

6. Mondeuse 

7. Blue Portuguese 

8. Verdot 



White Wine Grapes 

1 . Semillon 

2. Colombar (Sauvignon vert) 

3. Sauvignon blanc 

4. Franken Riesling 

5. Johannisberger 

6. Tsaminer 

7. Peverella 



For Interior Valleys 



Red Grapes 

1. Valdepenas 

2. St. Macaire 

3. Lagrain 

4. Gros Mansene 

5. Barbera 

6. Refosco 

7. Pagadebito 



White Grapes 

1. Burger 

2. West's White Prolific 

3. Vernaccia Sarda 

4. Marsanne 

5. Folle blanche 



For Sweet Wines 



Red Grapes 

1. Grenache 

2. Alicante Bouschet 

3. Tinta Madeira 

4. California Black Malvoisie 

5. Monica 

6. Mission 

7. Mourastel 

8. Tinta Amarelia 



White Grapes 

1. Palomino 

2. Beba 

3. Boal 

4. Perruno 

5. Mantuo 

6. Mourisco branco 

7. Pedro Ximenez 



Finally, a few suggestions as to what "not to do." 

Don't plant Mataro, Feher Szagos, Charbono, Lenoir, or any variety 
which makes a poor wine everywhere. 

Don't plant Burger, Green Hungarian, Mourastel, Grenache, or any 
common heavy-bearing varieties on the hill slopes of the Coast Ranges. 



LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 41 

Vineyards in such situations must produce fine wines, or they will not be 
profitable. 

Don't plant Chardonay, Pinot, Cabernet Suavignon, Malbee, or any 
light-bearing varieties in rich valley soils. No variety will make fine, high- 
priced wine in such situations, and heavy bearers are essential to the pro- 
duction of cheap wines. 

Don't plant Zinfandel, Alicante Bouschet, or any of the varieties which 
have already been planted in large quantities, unless one is sure that the 
conditions of his soil and locality are peculiarly favorable to these varieties 
and will allow him to compete successfully." 

Liqueurs and Cordials. The raw materials for the manufac- 
ture of liqueurs and cordials are necessarily classified in a different 
manner from those used in the distilled spirit or wine industries. 
In general they may be divided into three broad groups with sub- 
divisions as indicated: 

A. Flavoring Agents 

1. Herbs, spices, seeds, roots, and fruits. 

2. Aromatic spirits and tinctures. 

3. Aromatic waters. 

4. Essential Oils. 

B. Coloring Agents 

1. Vegetable Coloring Matters. 

2. "Aniline" dyes. (Synthetic dyestuffs.) 

C. Bulk Ingredients 

1. Sugar and glucose. 

2. Brandies or rectified spirits. 

3. Water. 

The number of materials included in Group Ai above is 
very large; among others the following find principal use: 

HERBS, SEEDS, ROOTS, SPICES, BARKS, FRUITS, ETC. 

Chinese aniseed Cocoa Caraque 

Bitter almonds Cocoa Maragnan 

Green an is Mace 

Coriander Vanilla 

Fennel Figs 

Angelica root Cumin 

-Angelica seed Calamus, aromatic 

Lemon peel Peel of Dutch Curacao 



RAW MATERIALS 



Orange peel 

Anis de Tours 

Anis d'Albi 

Ceylon cinnamon 

Orris 

Cloves 

Marjoram 

Sweet almonds 

Nutmeg 

Sassafras 

Muskseed 

Apricot stones 

Cherry stones 

Dried peach leaves 

Dried peaches 

Myrrh 

Quince juice 

Strawberries 

Nuts 

Pineapple 

Angostura bark 

In Group A 2 will be found: 



Aloes 

Saffron 

Curacao reeds 

Wormwood 

Hyssop Flowers 

Lemon balm 

Cherries 

Alpine mugwort 

Arnica Flowers 

Peppermint 

Balsamite 

Thyme 

Tonka beans 

Black currants 

Black currant leaves 

Quinces 

Red Sandalwood 

Liquorice wood 

Ginger root 

Galanga root 



AROMATIC SPIRITS 



Anis 

Angelica root 

Angelica seeds 

Curacao 

Peppermint 

Apricot 

Lemons 

Coriander 

Amberseed 

Dill 

Caraway 

Daucus 

Fennel 

Strawberries 

Group A 3 includes: 

Orange Flower 

Peppermint 

Rose 



Celery 

Aloes 

Myrrh 

Saffron 

Chinese cinnamon 

Cloves 

Nutmeg 

Orange Flowers 

Bitter Almonds 

Cardamom major 

Cardamom minor 

Oranges 

Nuts 



AROMATIC WATERS 
Moka 

Chinese aniseed 
Clove 



LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 43 

Group A4 includes the flavoring principles derived from 
any of the raw materials listed under the heading of Group A2. 
The term "essential oils'* is a generic commercial phrase used to 
designate the volatile oils obtained by various processes such as 
steam distillation, expression, maceration, enfleurage and solvent 
extraction, from the specific plant or part of a plant which gives 
them their name. The term is derived from the word "essence" 
meaning that in these oils is contained the soul or strength of the 
plant. In fact, in some countries, the single word is used instead 
of the longer "essential oil." In the United States, however, the 
usage is that the term "essence" or "spirits of" applies rather 
to a solution in alcohol of the "essential oil." And a new phrase 
"soluble essence" has been invented to describe essences which are 
completely miscible with water or dilute alcohol without separa- 
tion of the oil taking place. 

The essential oils exist in all odorous vegetable tissues, some- 
times pervading the plant, sometimes confined to a single part; 
in some instances, contained in distinct cells, and partially retained 
after desiccation, in others, formed upon the surface, as in many 
flowers, and evaporating as soon as formed. Occasionally two 
or more oils are found in different parts of the same plant. Thus, 
the orange tree produces one oil in its leaves, another in its 
flowers, and a third in the rind of its fruit. 

The volatile oils are usually colorless when freshly distilled, 
or at most yellowish, but some few are colored brown, red, green 
or blue. There is reason, however, to believe that in all instances 
the color depends on foreign matter dissolved in the oils. They 
have strong odors, resembling that of the plants from which they 
were procured, though generally less agreeable. Their taste is 
hot and pungent, and, when they are diluted, is often gratefully 
aromatic. The greater number are lighter than water, though 
some are heavier; their specific gravity varies from 0.847 to I - I 7- 
They vaporize at ordinary temperatures, diffusing their particular 
odor and are completely volatilized by heat. 

The following is a partial list of coloring agents used in the 
production of liqueurs and cordials: 



44 RAW MATERIALS 

VEGETABLE COLORS 

Caramel Indigo (Sulphonated) 

Cherry Extract Orchil 

Chlorophyll preparations Saffron 

Cochineal Vanilla Extract 
Cudbear 

SYNTHETIC DYESTUFFS 

In France the artificial coloring agents used are subject to less 
limitation than in the United States, and since France is the 
largest producer of cordials the following list is appended: 

Rose Bengal Bleu de lumiere 

Rouge de Bordeaux Bleu coupler 

Fuchsine, acid Malachite green 

Bleu de Lyon Violet de Paris (Gentian Violet 36) 

It should be noted that not one of these dyes is included in 
the United States list of colors certified for use in foods, which 
only are permitted to be used in this country in interstate com- 
merce and in many states in intrastate commerce. This list which 
follows is varied enough to allow for the production of any 
desired shade. 

CERTIFIED FOOD COLORS 

RED SHADES: GREEN SHADES: 

80. Ponceau 3R. 666. Guinea Green B. 

184. Amaranth. 670. Light Green SF Yellowish. 

773. Erythrosine. Fast Green FCF. 

Ponceau SX. 

ORANGE SHADE: BLUE SHADES: 

150. Orange I. 1180. Indigotine. 

Brilliant Blue FCF. 

YELLOW SHADES: 

10. Naphthol Yellow S. 
640. Tartrazine. 
22. Yellow AB. 
61. Yellow OB. 

Sunset Yellow FCF. 



LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 45 

The numbers preceding the names refer to the colors as listed in the 
Colour Index published in 1924 by the Society of Dyers and Colourists of 
England, which gives the composition of these dyes. Names not preceded 
by numbers are not listed in the Colour Index. 

No description is here necessary of the materials which we 
have classified as group C above. A description of their specific 
employment will be found in subsequent chapters devoted to 
manufacturing operations. The same applies to a number of 
minor ingredients or materials used for special purposes such as 
souring, fining, preserving, sterilizing, etc. 



CHAPTER V 
YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

General Statement. In the preceding chapter on Fermenta- 
tion it was stated that the production of alcohol is performed by 
enzymes which act on the sugars present in the fermenting liquor. 
It was also indicated previously that the enzymes which accom- 
plish this transformation are representative of a very large group 
of such materials which function in every chemical change in- 
volved in the life process. The enzymes of value to the 
fermentation industry are produced by living plants, yeasts, which 
are allowed to grow in the liquor to be fermented and which, 
as an incident of their own life process, achieve the desired pro- 
duction of alcohol. 

Yeasts belong to the second broad group of vegetable 
growths : those which do not contain chlorophyll and are, there- 
fore^ unable to manufacture their own food. This group is 
distinguished from the first group of plants which can extract 
inorganic materials from the soil and the air and from these 
manufacture their own food. The ability to perform this function 
is ascribed to the presence in the plant of a green coloring matter, 
chlorophyll. 

The group name of the non-chlorophyll bearing plants is 
fungi. They are all dependent for their food supply upon the 
materials built up by living plants of group one, or upon animal 
matter. Among the fungi, which naturally vary in complexity 
of structure, are a group of simply constructed plants having but 
one cell and which are called yeasts. The cells vary in shape 
and size, being round, oval or elongated, but of the order of 
0.003 inches in diameter. 

Each such cell consists of a transparent elastic sac or mem- 
brane enclosing a more or less granular mass of jelly-like sub- 
stance which is called protoplasm. The name was originated by 

46 



LIFE PROCESSES 47 

Purkinje (ca. 1840) to apply to the formative material of young 
animal embryos. Later, von Mohl (ca. 1846) used the term 
to distinguish the substance of the cell body from that of the 
nucleus which he called cytoplasm. In modern usage dating from 
Strasburger (ca. 1882) the name protoplasm has been applied to 
all of the essential living substance within the cell wall and means 
the form of matter in or by which the phenomena of life are 
manifested. Protoplasm can exist in many modifications varying 
from its usual one of a thick, viscous, semi-fluid, colorless, trans- 
lucent mass containing a high proportion of water and holding in 
suspension fine granular material. Chemical examination of pro- 
toplasm, necessarily after death, has shown that it is composed 
largely of protein material. During its life, however, it appears 
probable that the chemical composition is both more complex 
and more unstable. For our purpose it is only necessary to state 
that the protoplasm is that portion of the plant which is alive and 
which carries on the vital processes of the plant. 

Life Processes. All living organisms exemplify the cycle of 
birth, growth, multiplication and death. Starting, for yeast, at 
the stage of growth we see the process as follows: When the 
yeast is supplied with an abundance of nutrient material, it grows 
vigorously and the cellular protoplasm is homogeneous. As the 
growth continues and the nutrient material becomes exhausted, 
clear, apparently empty, spaces called vacuoles appear in the 
protoplasm. Actually these spaces are filled with serum or sap. 
At a little later stage, granules appear, some of which are fat 
globules while others are more condensed portions of proto- 
plasm. Finally, as the cell nears the end of its life, the proto- 
plasm shrinks to a thin layer against the cell wall while the bal- 
ance of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The nucleus of 
the cell is rarely visible and does not, for this reason, enter into 
our consideration. 

While this growth of the single cell continues, multiplication 
also takes place at a rapid rate. According as the life conditions 
are favorable or not multiplication takes place in one of two 

ways : 

1. By budding or germination. 

2. By endogenous division or ascospore formation. 



48 YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

The first process occurs under favorable conditions when the 
yeast is growing rapidly. It consists in a bulging of part of 
the cell wall and the pressing of part of the cell contents into 
the bulge which is formed. This is the bud. As the bud grows the 
wall between it and the mother cell constricts and finally closes 
and there are then two distinct cells. Whether the bud-cell stays 
in connection with the mother cell depends somewhat on the 
conditions of growth but more on the variety of yeast. With 
some varieties the bud stays in connection with the mother cell 
and itself multiplies through many generations so that long chains 
or branching clusters are formed. In all cases the rapidity of 
multiplication depends on the vigor of the yeast and the suitability 
of the conditions under which it is growing. 

In distinction to the method of reproduction just described, 
when a vigorous yeast growth is placed into adverse conditions 
it prepares to survive by a different mode. The protoplasm of 
the cells becomes granular, then divides so as to form separate 
masses. These round off and become invested with a wall so 
that the original cell wall acts merely as a sac to contain the new 
bodies. Because of this last fact the name ascospores is given 
them, meaning spores formed within a sac. The conditions re- 
quired to bring about ascospore formation are not completely 
understood. Usually, however, a suitable temperature, plenty 
of moisture and lack of nutrient material will cause young, vigor- 
ously growing yeast cells to form from one to four ascospores 
each. The spores have remarkable ability to survive under con- 
ditions which would be fatal to ordinary cells; such as extremes 
of temperature, lack of food, drying out, etc. 

When at some future time the spores are placed into favor- 
able conditions for growth they germinate and start a new series 
of the ordinary type of yeast cells. In germinating they exert 
a pressure against the wall of the mother cell which finally breaks 
and permits the escape of the new cells. In some cases actual 
dissolution of the cell occurs during germination. 

.The changes described above are well illustrated in the ac- 
companying figure, which shows stages in the life of a favorable 
pure culture yeast and also some of the mixed forms. 



CLASSIFICATION OF YEASTS 



49 



Classification of Yeasts. Although the structure of yeasts is 
so exceedingly simple that it seems difficult for varieties to exist, 
nevertheless there are many different kinds or species. The dis- 
tinctions are partly morphological, i.e., in the physical form of 
the cells, and partly chemical, i.e., in the enzymes elaborated by 
the cells which, of course, means that the products resulting from 







*&. 








'0 




FIG. 2. True Wine yeast. 

i. Yeast cells in fermenting grape juice (mixed forms). 

2. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus (spores). 

3. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus (old). 

4. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus (young). 



the action of different yeasts on the same medium or substrate 
will be different. When a pure yeast is used in fermentation, an 
entirely different result is obtained than from the use of an im- 
pure. The flavor is different, as also the odor, and with a pure 
yeast the keeping properties are better. For the purposes of the 
fermentation industry, yeasts are divisible into two groups: 



50 YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

1. The wild yeasts those which occur in nature; floating in 
the air, in the soil, and on^the skins of fruits. 

2. The cultivated yeasts which have been selected from the 
wild yeasts for their favorable action and are carefully guarded 
in laboratory and factory to insure purity of strain. 

There are two schools of thought in the fermentation indus- 
try and especially among wine makers as to whether it is prefer- 
able to use pure culture yeasts or to depend on wild yeasts. On 
the one hand it is claimed that pure culture yeast will result in 
a more accurately controlled fermentation, in a reduction in the 
time and labor required for racking and aging, a cleaner taste 
and flavor, and in the ability to select beforehand the flavor 
desired. 

On the other hand, it is claimed that these advantages are 
offset by the necessity of sterilizing the must, pressed grapes and 
juice. In practice, however, the benefits derived from the use 
of pure culture yeast can often be had without resorting to the 
costly operation of sterilization. The pure culture yeasts are 
especially advantageous in the manufacture of white and sparkling 
wines and in the refermentation of the latter. They are used ex- 
tensively abroad for these purposes and have secured some recog- 
nition and produced excellent results in some wineries in this 
country. 

In whiskey distilleries, pure culture yeasts have been used ex- 
tensively in recent years. The types are selected for high alco- 
hol yields and propagated by the Hansen single-cell method. 
There can be no doubt at the present time but that pure culture 
yeasts are an absolute necessity for the manufacture of distilled 
spirits and very much preferable for the manufacture of wines. 

The principal yeasts encountered in spirit and wine manufac- 
ture are : 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ordinary yeast of the brewer and the 
distiller. Two kinds are recognized: (a) top fermentation, and (b) bot- 
tom fermentation. 

Top yeast, as its name implies, is a type which rises in a frothy mass to 
the top of the mash during fermentation. Bottom yeast sinks to the bot- 
tom of the vat during fermentation. Higher temperatures favor the for- 



MICRO-ORGANISMS FOUND ON GRAPES 51 

mation of the former and lower temperatures favor the latter. Distillers' 
yeast is a high attenuating top variety. 

Saccharomyces ellipsoideus. This is the yeast which converts must, or 
grape juice, into wine. 

Saccharomyces pastorianus. This also occurs in wine making and when 
present during brewing gives a bitter taste to the beer. 

Saccharomyces mycoderma. This yeast is the cause of "mother 11 which 
appears on the surface of wine or beer after exposure for some days to 
the air. 

Bakers use either compressed yeast (compressed cakes of 
top yeast) or dried yeast (a mixture of yeast cells with starch). 
The former has high fermenting capacity and gives uniform 
results, but it will keep only a day or two; while the latter retains 
its capacity to produce fermentation for a long period. Brewers* 
yeast is not desirable for bread making because it is likely to give 
a bitter flavor and its activity is slow in a dough mixture. 

Pure Cultures. To determine the properties due to a par- 
ticular yeast, it must be separated from all other organisms with 
which it is associated and when grown thus, free from all con- 
tamination, it is then known as a "pure culture. " A commercially 
pure yeast is different, as this simply means "free from added 
non-yeast matter." This is the condition of most compressed 
yeasts as found on the market; they are commercially, but not 
bacteriologically, pure, since they have numbers of bacteria and 
molds associated usually with more than one yeast variety. 

Micro-Organisms Found on Grapes. The surfaces of 
grapes in the vineyard will hold any or all of the bacteria and 
fungi usually carried in the air and by insects. Many of these, 
especially the bacteria, cannot grow in grape juice on account of 
its acidity. These, of course, have a negligible effect on the wine. 
Others, such as most yeasts and molds and a few varieties of 
bacteria find grape juice to be a favorable medium for their de- 
velopment. Wine is a somewhat less suitable medium than 
unfermented grape juice (must], owing to its alcohol content, 
but still, a large number of forms are capable of growing in the 
wine. As the wine ages, the less suitable it becomes for the 
growth of micro-organisms, but it is never quite immune. 

Among the great variety of organisms the only ones desired 



52 YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

are the wine yeasts. Many different types of wine yeast have 
been isolated and studied. It has been demonstrated that not 
only do slight morphological differences exist, but also that they 
vary in the flavor and quality of wine produced and also in the 
speed and completeness with which they split sugar and consume 
acids. The true yeasts occur much less abundantly on grapes than 
the molds. Until the grapes are ripe they are practically absent, 
as first shown by Pasteur. Later, they gradually increase in 
number; on very ripe grapes being often abundant. In all cases 
and at all seasons, however, their numbers are much inferior to 
those of the molds and pseudo-yeasts. The cause of this seems 
to be that, in the vineyard, the common molds find conditions 
favorable to their development at nearly all seasons of the year, 
but yeasts only during the vintage season. 

Investigations of Hansen, Wortmann and others show that 
yeasts exist in the soil of the vineyard at all times, but in widely 
varying amounts. For a month or two following the vintage, a 
particle of soil added to nutritive solution contains so much yeast 
that it acts like a leaven. For the next few months the amount 
of yeast present decreases until a little before the vintage, when 
the soil must be carefully examined to find any yeast at all. As 
soon as the grapes are ripe, however, any rupture of the skin of 
the fruit will offer a favorable nidus for the development and 
increase of any yeast cells which reach it. Where these first 
cells come from has not been determined, but as there are still a 
few yeast cells in the soil, they may be brought by the wind, or 
bees and wasps may carry them from other fruits or from their 
hives and nests. 

The increase of the amount of yeast present on the ripe 
grapes is often very rapid and seems to have (according to 
Wortmann) a direct relation to the abundance of wasps. These 
insects passing from vine to vine, crawling over the bunches to 
feed on the juice of ruptured berries, soon inoculate all exposed 
juice and pulp. New yeast colonies are thus produced and the 
resulting yeast cells quickly disseminated over the skins and other 
surfaces visited. 

The more unsound or broken grapes present, the more honey- 



PSEUDO- YEASTS 53 

de\v or dust adhering to the skins, the larger the amount of 
yeast will be. The same is true, however, also of molds and 
other organisms. 

True Wine Yeasts Saccharomyces ellipsoideus. In the 
older wine-making districts, much of the yeast present on the 
grapes consists of the true wine yeast, S. ellipsoideus. The race 
or variety of this yeast differs, however, in different districts. 
Usually several varieties occur in each district. The idea preva- 
lent at one time, that each variety of grape has its own variety 
of yeast seems to have been disproved, though there seems to be 
some basis for the idea that grapes differing very much in com- 
position, varying in acidity and tannin contents, may vary also in 
the kind of yeast present. Several varieties of ellipsoideus may 
occur on the same grapes. In new grape-growing districts, where 
wine has never been made, ellipsoideus may be completely absent. 

Besides the true wine yeast, other yeasts usually occur. The 
commonest forms are cylindrical cells grouped as S. pasteurianus. 
These forms are particularly abundant in the newer districts, 
where they may take a notable part in the fermentation. Their 
presence in large numbers is always undesirable, and results in 
inferior wine. Many other yeasts may occur occasionally, and 
are all more or less harmful. Some have been noted as produc- 
ing sliminess in the wine. Many of these yeasts produce little or 
no alcohol and will grow only in the presence of oxygen. 

Pseudo-yeasts. Yeast-like organisms producing no endo- 
spores always occur on grapes. Their annual life cycle and their 
distribution are similar to those of the true yeast but some of them 
are much more abundant than the latter. They live at the 
expense of the food materials of the must and, when allowed to 
develop, cause cloudiness and various defects in the wine. 

The most important and abundant is the apiculate yeast, S. 
apiculatus (according to Lindner this is a true yeast producing 
endospores). The cells of this organism are much smaller than 
those of S. ellipsoideus and very distinct in form. In pure cul- 
tures these cells show various forms, ranging from ellipsoidal 
to pear-shaped (apiculate at one end) and lemon-shaped (apicu- 
late at both ends). These forms represent simple stages of de- 



54 



YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 



velopment. The apiculations are the first stage in the formation 
of daughter cells; the ellipsoidal cells, the newly separated daugh- 
ter cells, which, later, produce apiculations and new cells in turn. 
Many varieties of this yeast occur, similar in degree to those 
of S. ellipsoideus. They are widely distributed in nature, occur- 
ring on most fruits, and are particularly abundant on acid fruits 
such as grapes. Apiculate yeast appears on the partially ripe 
grapes before the true wine yeast and even on ripe grapes is more 
abundant than the latter. The rate of multiplication of this yeast 









FIG. 3. Yeasts and injurious pseudo-yeasts. 

1. Torulae and pseudo-yeasts. 

2. Torulae and pseudo-yeasts. 

3. Saccharomyces apiculatus. 

4. Saccharomyces pasteurianus. 

5. Mycoderma vini (2 forms). 

6. Dematium pullulans. 

is very rapid under favoring conditions and much exceeds that 
of wine yeast. The first part of the fermentation, especially at 
the beginning of the vintage and with acid grapes, is, therefore, 
often almost entirely the work of the apiculate yeast. 

The amount of alcohol produced by this yeast is about 4 per 
cent, varying with the variety from 2 to 6 per cent. When the 
fermentation has produced this amount of alcohol, the activity of 
the yeast slackens and finally stops, allowing the more resistant 
ellipsoideus to multiply and finish the destruction of the sugar. 



PSEUDO- YEASTS 55 

The growth of the apiculatus, however, has a deterring effect on 
that of the true yeast so that where much of the former has been 
present, during the first stages of the fermentation, the latter 
often fails to eliminate all the sugar during the final stages. 

Wines in which the apiculate yeast has had a large part in 
the fermentation are apt to retain some unfermented sugar and 
are very liable to the attacks of disease organisms. Their taste 
and color are defective, often suggestive of cider, and they are 
difficult to clear. This yeast attacks the fixed acids of the must, 
the amount of which is therefore diminished in the wine while, 
on the other hand, the volatile acids are increased. 

Many other yeast-like organisms may occur on grapes; but, 
under ordinary conditions, fail to develop sufficiently in competi- 
tion with apiculatus to have any appreciable effect on the wine. 
Most of them are small round cells, classed usually as Torulae. 
They destroy the sugar but produce little or no alcohol. 

A group of similar forms, known collectively as Mycoderma 
vini, occurs constantly on the grapes but, all being strongly 
aerobic, they do not develop in the fermenting vat. Under 
favoring conditions, however, they may be harmful to the fer- 
mented wine. 

Bacteria of many kinds occur on grapes as on all surfaces 
exposed to the air. Most of these are unable to develop in solu- 
tions as acid as grape juice or wine. Of the acid-resisting kinds, 
a number may cause serious defects and even completely destroy 
the wine. These, the u disease bacteria" of wine are mostly 
anaerobic and can develop only after the grapes are crushed and 
the oxygen of the must exhausted by other organisms. Practically 
all grape-must contains some of these bacteria, which, unless the 
work of the wine-maker is properly done, will seriously interfere 
with the work of the yeast, and may finally spoil the wine. The 
only bacteria which may injure the grapes before crushing are 
the aerobic, vinegar bacteria, which may develop on injured or 
carelessly handled grapes sufficiently to interfere with fermenta- 
tion and seriously impair the quality of the wine. 

Among the organisms which can infect wine and cause so- 
called "diseases" are the following: 



56 YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

Molds. The spores of the common saprophytic molds, Penicillium, 
Aspergillus, Mucor, Dematium, are always present on the grapes, boxes, 
and crushers, as on all surfaces exposed to dust laden air, and most of them 
find in grape must, excellent conditions for development. Botrytis cinerea, 
a facultative parasite of the leaves and fruit of the vine, is also nearly 
constantly present in larger or smaller quantities. All of these molds are 
harmful, in varying degrees, to the grapes and the wine. Some of them, 
such as Penicillium, may give a disagreeable moldy taste to the wine, suffi- 
cient to spoil its commercial value. Others, such as Mucor and Asper- 
gtlius may affect the taste of the wine but slightly and injure it only by 
destroying some of the sugar and thereby diminishing the final alcohol 
content. Dematium pullulans may produce a slimy condition in weak 
white musts, and most of them injure the brightness and flavor to some 
extent and often render the wine more susceptible to the attacks of more 
destructive forms of micro-organisms. 

On sound, ripe grapes, these molds occur in relatively small number, 
and, being in the spore or dormant condition, they are unable to develop 
sufficiently to injure the wine under the conditions of proper wine-making. 
On grapes which are injured by diseases, insects or rain, they may de- 
velop in sufficient quantities to spoil the crop before it is gathered. On 
sound grapes which are gathered and handled carelessly, they may develop 
sufficiently before fermentation to injure or spoil the wine. 

The molds are recognized by their white or grayish cobwebby growth 
over the surface of the fruit. This consists of fine branching and inter- 
lacing filaments known as mycelium. This is the vegetative stage of the 
fungus and the active part in the destruction of the material attacked. 
When mature, it produces spores which differ for each mold in form, size 
and color. The spores are the chief means of multiplication and distri- 
bution. They are minute, single celled bodies which are easily distributed 
as dust through the air, and are capable, after remaining dormant for a 
longer or shorter period, of germinating, under favorable conditions and 
giving rise to a new growth of mycelium. 

The commonest molds on grapes in California are the Blue Mold, the 
Black Mold and the Gray Mold. Usually only one of these occurs plenti- 
fully at the same time. Which this one will be depends principally upon 
the temperature and humidity. In the hotter regions the Black Mold is 
most common during the earlier part of the vintage, later the Blue Mold 
takes its place. In the cooler regions only Gray and Blue Molds occur 
commonly. 

Blue Mold (Penicillium glaucum). This is the common mold which 
attacks all kinds of fruit and foods kept for a length of time in a damp 
place. It is distinguished by the greenish or bluish color of its spores 
which cover the grapes attacked, and by its strong disagreeable moldy 
smell. It sometimes attacks late grapes in the vineyard after autumn rains 



PSEUDO-YEASTS 57 

have caused some of them to split. Grapes lying on the ground are espe- 
cially liable to attack. The principal damage of this mold occurs usually, 
after the grapes are gathered, while they lie in boxes or other containers. 
It will grow on almost any organic matter if supplied with sufficient 
moisture and at almost any ordinary temperature. It is almost the sole 
cause of all moldiness in boxes, hoses, and casks, and the most troublesome 
of all the molds with which the wine-maker has to deal. 

The conditions most favorable to its development are an atmosphere 
saturated with moisture and the presence of oxygen. 

Black Mold (Aspergillus niger). This is very common in the hotter 
and irrigated parts of California. It annually destroys many tons of grapes 
before they are gathered. It attacks the grapes just as they ripen and is 
distinguished by the black color of its spores, which sometimes fill the air 
with a black cloud at the wineries where the grapes are being crushed. It 
is especially harmful to varieties which have compact bunches and thin 
skins, such as Zinfandel. Its effect on the wine has not been well studied 
but it is much less harmful than Green Mold. Large quantities of grapes 
badly attacked are made every year into merchantable wine. The main 
damage done is in the destruction of crop and it is therefore a greater 
enemy to the grape-grower than to the wine-maker. 

Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea). This fungus in certain parts of Europe 
is a harmful parasite of the vine, injuring seriously leaves, shoots and 
growing fruit. The only injury of this kind noted in California is in the 
"callousing" beds of bench grafts. 

As a saprophyte it may attack the ripe grapes in much the same manner 
as the Black Mold. It occurs apparently all over California but seldom 
does much damage. It attacks principally second crop and late table 
grapes. 

Under certain circumstances this fungus may have a beneficial action. 
When the conditions of temperature and moisture are favorable, it will 
attack the skin of the grape, facilitating evaporation of water from the 
pulp. This results in a concentration of the juice. The mycelial threads 
of the fungus then penetrate the pulp, consuming both sugar and acid but 
principally the latter. The net result is a relative increase in the per- 
centage of sugar and a decrease in that of acid. This, where grapes ripen 
with difficulty, is an advantage, as no moldy flavor is produced. Two 
harmful effects, however, follow: First, the growth of the mold results 
in the destruction of a certain amount of material and a consequent loss of 
quantity. This is, in certain circumstances, more than counterbalanced by 
an increase in quality, as is the case with the finest wines of the Rhine and 
Sauternes. For this reason, the fungus is called in those regions the "Noble 
Mold." Second, an oxydase is produced which tends to destroy the color 
brightness and flavor of the vine. This may be counteracted by the judi- 
cious use of sulfurous acid. 



YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 






FIG. 4. Wine grape molds. 

1. Black mold (Aspergillus niger). (After Duclaux.) 

a. Fruiting hyphae. 

b. Sporecarp showing formation of spores. 

c. Spores. 

2. Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). (After Ravaz.) 

3. Blue mold (Penicillium glaucum). (From skin of moldy grape.) 

a. Mycelium. 

b. Fruiting hypha. 

c. Chains of spores. 

d. Spores. 



CONTROL OF YEASTS 



59 



This mold is not of great importance in California as its beneficial 
effects are not needed and there is seldom enough to do much harm. 

The special organisms which cause diseases in wine include: 
Anaerobic organisms such as Dematlum pullulans induce 
slimy fermentation which results in "ropiness." These bacteria 
attack the sugar, but not glycerin nor alcohol and produce man- 
mite, carbon dioxide, lactic and acetic acids and alcohol. Their 








FIG. 5. Disease Bacteria of wine. 

1. Bacteria of mannitic wine. 

2. Bacteria of bitter wine (butyric). 

3. Bacteria of vinegar (b. aceticum). 

4. Bacteria of lactic acid, young. 

(a) Cell of wine yeast. 

5. Bacteria of lactic acid, old. 

6. Bacteria of slimy wine. 

growth is entirely prevented by the presence of alcohol above thir- 
teen per cent, free tartaric, tannic or small amounts of sulphurous 
acid. The infection is ordinarily not very serious and disappears 
under ordinary cellar treatment. 

Botrytis and Penicilliiim which when present cause oxidation 
of the tannin causing a bitter taste. This is more common in 
red wines. 

Acetic acid bacteria which cause the further oxidation of al- 
cohol to acetic acid and result in a "pricking" taste. This taste 



60 YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

is noticeable even when there is only 0.1-0.15% of acetic acid. A 
dry wine becomes practically undrinkable at 0.25% of acetic acid. 

Saccharomyces apiculatus will cause some production of alco- 
hol but affects the flavor adversely. 

Mycoderma vini attack the alcohol changing it to carbon 
dioxide and water and hence weaken the wine directly as well as 
rendering it more susceptible to infection by other disease organ- 
isms. It is sometimes the cause of film. 

Control of Yeasts. Control of the growth of these organ- 
isms and even to some extent selection of the variety which shall 
grow is largely possible by a consideration of the factors affecting 
their vigor. 

Nutrition. The preferred food of the yeasts is the sweet 
juice of more or less acid fruits. Most of them are active agents 
of alcoholic fermentation breaking up the sugar into alcohol and 
carbonic acid gas. Wine yeast may carry on the fermentation 
until the liquid contains 15 per cent or slightly more of alcohol. 
Other yeasts, such as ordinary beer yeast cease their activity when 
the alcoholic strength of the liquid reaches 8 to 10 per cent, while 
some wild yeasts are restrained by 2 to 3 per cent. 

Delation to Oxygen. They are aerobic, that is, they require 
the oxygen of the air for their development. Most of them are, 
however, capable of living and multiplying for a limited time in 
the anaerobic condition, that is, in the absence of atmospheric oxy- 
gen. It is in the latter condition that they exhibit their greatest 
power of alcoholic fermentation. They multiply most rapidly 
and attain their greatest vigor in the presence of a full supply of 
air. In fermentation, therefore, it is necessary, first, to promote 
their multiplication and vigor by growing in a nutritive solution 
containing a full supply of oxygen and, then, to make use of 
their numbers and vigor to produce alcoholic fermentation in a 
saccharine solution containing a limited supply of oxygen. These 
conditions are brought about automatically in the usual methods 
of wine-making. The stemming and crushing of the grapes thor- 
oughly aerates the must. The yeast multiplies vigorously in this 
aerated nutritive solution until it has consumed most of the dis- 
solved oxygen. It then exercises its fermentative power to break 



CONTROL OF YEASTS 61 

up the sugar, with the production of alcohol. With many musts 
it is able in this way to completely destroy all the sugar without 
further oxygen. In other musts, especially those containing a 
high percentage of sugar, the yeast becomes debilitated before 
the fermentation is complete. In such cases it is generally neces- 
sary to reinvigorate it by pumping over the wine or by some other 
method of aeration before it can complete its work. 

Relation to Temperature. Yeast cells can not be killed or 
appreciably injured by any low temperature. They do not be- 
come active, however, until the temperature exceeds 32 F. Wine 
yeast shows scarcely any activity below 50 F., and multiplies 
very slowly below 60 F. Above this temperature the activity 
of the yeast gradually increases. Between 70 F. and 80 F. 
it is very active and it attains its maximum degree of activity 
between 90 F. and 93 F. Above 93 F. it is weakened, and 
between 95 F. and 100 F. its activity ceases. At still higher 
temperatures the yeast cell dies. The exact death point depends 
on the condition of the yeast, the nature of the solution and the 
time of exposure. In must and wine a temperature of 140 F. 
to 145 F. continued for one minute is usually enough to destroy 
the yeast. 

The best temperature in wine-making will depend on the kind 
of wine to be made and will lie between 70 F. and 90 F. 

Relation to Adds. The natural acids of the grapes, in the 
amounts in which they occur in must, have little direct effect on 
wine yeast. Indirectly they may be favorable by discouraging the 
growth of competing organisms more sensitive to acidity. Acetic 
acid has a strong retarding influence which commences at about 
0.2 per cent and increases with larger amounts until at 0.5 per 
cent to i.o per cent, according to the variety of the yeast, all 
activity ceases. 

Relation to Sulfurous Acid. Sulfurous acid is an antiseptic, 
mild or strong, according to the quantities used. The fumes of 
burning sulfur are used in various ways and for various purposes 
in wine-making. The active principle of these fumes is sulfurous 
acid gas of which the chemical formula SO 2 shows that it is 
composed of one. atom of sulfur combined with two atoms of 



62 YEASTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

oxygen. As sulfur has just twice the atomic weight of oxygen 
this means that one part by weight of sulfur combines with one 
part by weight of oxygen to produce two parts by weight of 
sulfurous acid gas. This combination takes place when sulfur 
is burned in free contact with air. The same substance can be 
obtained from certain salts, one of which is most suitable for use 
in wine-making. This is a potash salt known as potassium meta- 
bisulfite. This salt is composed of nearly equal weights of potash 
and sulfurous acid. In contact with the acids of the must, the 
sulfurous acid is set free and the potash combines with the tar- 
taric acid of the must to form bi-tartrate of potash, some of 
which is already present as a natural constituent of the must. 

Bacteria of all kinds arc much more sensitive to the effects 
of sulfurous acid than are yeasts. If used, therefore, in properly 
regulated amounts it can be made a very efficient means of pre- 
venting bacterial action and thus indirectly of aiding the work of 
the yeast. It has also the very valuable property of preventing 
the injurious action of the oxydase produced by Botrytis and 
other molds. Finally, it is necessary in most cases to prevent 
the too rapid or overoxidation of the wine during aging. 



CHAPTER VI 
PRODUCTION OF YEAST 

Commercial Yeast. The application of the principles just 
developed is well illustrated in the manufacture of yeast for gen- 
eral use. The same niceties observed in this process must also 
be followed in the production of so-called "starters" for the fer- 
mentation of whiskey mashes or of wine must. Figure 6 is the 
flow sheet of such a process. The exact proportions of the vari- 
ous grains used are naturally varied according to the secret 
formula of the manufacturer. 

It will be noted that the steps on this flow sheet may be 
divided by two horizontal lines into three broad divisions: 

1. The first set of mechanical operations has for its object 
the conditioning of the raw materials for the next set. It in- 
cludes very thorough cleaning and purification of all the materials, 
grinding the cereals to make them more reactive and steeping 
them in water to further ease the dissolution of the nutritive 
ingredients. 

2. The next set of biochemical and chemical operations in- 
cludes bringing the food for the yeast cells into the most readily 
assimilable form and then growing the yeast in the medium so 
produced under conditions which will result in the most vigorous 
and prolific production of yeast. 

3. In the final set of mechanical operations the yeast cells 
are separated from the fermented liquor under the optimum con- 
ditions to ensure their survival and prepared for marketing. The 
actual operations involved in the process are somewhat as follows : 

The cleaned, ground and steeped grains are cooked to pastify 
the starch. Usually the corn is cooked first at the highest tem- 
perature, then the rye is added and when the mash has cooled to 
the proper temperature for the most effective action of diastase 
(ca. 55 C, 130 F.) the malt is added. 

63 



PRODUCTION OF YEAST 



[Barley Malt[ [ Rye [ | Corn | | Water | [ Sprouts [ 
Cleaner] [Cleaner| [Cleaner) I Filter \ |Cleaner| 

i ' t 

Mill | I Mill | | Mill 



Fermenter 
where 
yeast 
grows 



Yeast Separators 
~*f3) Separated 



Mixing Machine 

Cars to Agencies 




Small 

Lactic Acid 

Mash 



Shipping 
Boxes 



| Refrigerator 



FIG. 6. 



DISTILLERS' YEAST 65 

When the diastase of the malt has had time to act the mash 
is inoculated with a smaller special mash of rye and malt in which 
a pure culture of lactic acid bacteria (Bacillus delbruckn} is 
growing. The mash is now incubated for about sixteen hours at 
the proper temperature (ca. 50 C., 122 F.). During this time 
the proteins of the grains are partially hydrolyzed and some 
lactic acid is formed. The liquor now contains largely sugars, 
resulting from the action of malt diastase on the starch, lactic 
acid, amino acids, and other hydrolysis products of the pro- 
teins, all in a highly assimilable form for the yeasts, and the cellu- 
lose residues from the cereals. 

This sour mash is filtered and the filtrate, now called "wort," 
is heated (Pasteurized) to kill off the lactic acid bacteria and 
any undesirable organisms. After cooling the wort is run into 
fermentation tanks and inoculated with a pure yeast culture of 
sufficient size. The wort is then aerated by passing in com- 
pressed air either through bottom or side inlets. The oxygen of 
the air bubbling through the wort stimulates the growth and 
reproduction of the yeast cells. 

When the growth of yeast has reached the desired extent, the 
cells are separated from the fermenting wort in the third set of 
operations. The ordinary equipment for this purpose is identical 
in action with the familiar centrifugal cream separator. The 
heavy cream of separated yeast is cooled, further water is re- 
moved by means of a filter press. The press cake is churned, 
squeezed in hydraulic presses, packed, and stored in a refriger- 
ator. 

Distillers' Yeast. Each manufacturer of distilled spirit pre- 
pares the yeast for carrying on the production of alcohol in a 
manner generally similar to that just described. The start is 
usually made by reserving a portion from each completed fer- 
mentation. The yeast in this reserved portion is propagated in 
a small special mash made often from equal amounts of barley 
malt and rye. In other distilleries only malt, either rye or barley, 
is used; or possibly a mixture of one of these malts with a ground, 
unmalted cereal such as wheat, barley or rye. In any case, the 
object is to produce yeast cells which are young, vigorous and 



66 



PRODUCTION OF YEAST 



so active that they will rapidly reproduce and will have a high 
sugar splitting or fermentive capacity, to the end that the highest 
possible yield of alcohol will result. A flow sheet of this process 
is shown in Figure 7. It will be noted that it corresponds quite 
closely to the main steps in the manufacture of ordinary yeast. 
The ground rye is first scalded with water of about 170 F. 
temperature. Then it is stirred, the ground malt added and the 
whole mash kept for about two hours at a temperature of ap- 
proximately 150 F. Its sugar content should be about 22 to 
25 per cent as indicated on the Balling hydrometer. 



Hot 
Water 



Ground 
Rye 



Barley 
Malt 



170F 



Yeast reserved from 
a previous fermentation 



Mashing 
150F and 22-25% Balling 

Cooling 

Souring 
120F 

Heating 
170F 

Cooling 



Fermentation 
80F 



To main mash at 7 to 8% Balling 



FIG. 7. 

The mash is now cooled and soured. Sometimes a pure cul- 
ture of lactic acid bacteria is added to speed up the souring 
process. Cooling reduced the temperature of the mash about 
thirty degrees, or to 120 F. When no lactic acid bacteria are 
added it is kept at this temperature for about forty-eight hours 
and souring is usually completed by that time. The addition of 
bacteria reduces the time for souring to about eighteen hours, or 
a little longer. 

The souring process not only helps in the development of a 
nutritive medium for the yeast but also the lactic acid formed 



WINE STARTERS 67 

prevents, or retards, the development of unfavorable micro- 
organisms during fermentation, notably acetic acid bacteria. 

As in commercial yeast manufacture, the lactic acid bacteria 
are killed by heating the mash again; this time to 170 F. After 
holding it at this point for about twenty minutes the temperature 
is brought down to about 85 F. and the seed yeast is added. 
Fermentation commences and the temperature is gradually low- 
ered about five degrees. When the sugar content of the mash has 
dropped to about 8 per cent Balling it is added to the main mash 
where it represents about 5 per cent of the total volume. 
Heating and cooling in all cases is obtained by the use of coils 
for the circulation of hot or cold water in the tanks. 

Wine Starters. Grapes ordinarily will produce a must which 
contains sufficient yeast to carry on the fermentation. Unfortu- 
nately, the must is also almost certain to contain many varieties 
of unfavorable micro-organisms. Hence, especially in the manu- 
facture of white wines some purging or sterilizing process is neces- 
sary. The process ordinarily used is called defecation. This 
consists of treating the must with sulfurous acid and is ordinarily 
accomplished by pumping it into sulfurized casks (as described in 
chapter on wine making). In from twelve to twenty-four hours, 
the must is purged, and all its gross impurities, including micro- 
organisms, dust and solid particles derived from the skins, stems, 
pulp and leaves have settled to the bottom. It may be slightly 
cloudy or nearly clear. It should then be drawn off into clean 
casks and fermentation started. Sometimes it is sterilized by 
Pasteurization following defecation, but this is not a very satis- 
factory operation from the flavor standpoint; it is costly and is 
generally dispensed with. In defecating must to eliminate un- 
favorable micro-organisms the wine maker, unfortunately also 
removes the true yeasts. The more perfect the process the more 
necessary it is to add wine yeast. It is, therefore, necessary to 
add a starter. 

Natural Starters. One method of producing such a starter 
is to gather a suitable quantity of the cleanest and soundest ripe 
grapes in the vineyard, crush them carefully and allow them to 
undergo spontaneous fermentation in a warm place. An addition 



68 PRODUCTION OF YEAST 

of a quarter to a third of an ounce of potassium meta-bisulfite per 
hundred pounds of grapes is of great assistance in promoting 
a good yeast fermentation in the starter. Perfectly ripe grapes 
should be selected and the fermentation allowed to proceed until 
at least 10 per cent of alcohol is produced. If imperfectly ripe 
grapes are used or the starter used too soon, the principal yeast 
present may be S. apiculatus. Towards the end of the fermenta- 
tion S. ellipsoideus predominates. From one to three gallons of 
this starter should be used for each hundred gallons of crushed 
grapes or must to be fermented. Too much should not be used 
in hot weather or with warm grapes, as it may become impossible 
to control the temperature. 

This starter is used only for the first vat or cask. Those 
following are started from previous fermentations, care being 
taken always to use the must only from a vat at the proper stage 
of fermentation and to avoid all vats that show any defect. 

Pure Yeast Starters. An improvement on a natural starter 
of this kind is a pure culture of tested yeast. There are two 
ways of using these yeasts. One is to obtain, from a pure yeast 
laboratory, a separate starter for each fermenting vat or cask. 
All the wine-maker has to do is to distribute this starter in the 
grapes or must as they run into the vat. If the starter is used 
when in full vigor this method is simple and effective. Unfortu- 
nately, it is difficult to have it on hand in just the right condition 
at the right moment. If the starter is too young, it will not 
contain enough yeast cells; if too old, the cells will be inactive or 
dead. The usual starter is in full vigor for only a few days 
at the most. Recent improvements in the methods of preparing 
pure yeast starters are said to overcome this difficulty and to 
produce starters which maintain their full vigor for weeks or 
months. 

The other method is for the wine-maker to obtain a small cul- 
ture of pure yeast from a reliable source and from this to make 
his own starter. 

To do this he prepares an innoculum of two or three gallons 
of must defecated with sulfurous acid and sterilized by boiling. 
This, on cooling, is placed in a large demijohn plugged with 



WINE STARTERS 69 

sterilized cotton and the pure culture of yeast added. The demi- 
john must be placed in a warm place (70 to 80 F.) and 
thoroughly shaken several times a day to aerate the must. In a 
few days a vigorous fermentation occurs. 

When the fermentation is at its height in the demijohn, which 
will be when the must still contains 3 or 4 per cent of sugar, it is 
ready to use to prepare a bulk starter. This is best prepared in a 
small open vat or tub, varying in size according to the amount 
of starter needed daily. Into this tub are poured twenty to fifty 
gallons of well-defecated must extracted from clean, sound grapes. 
It is not necessary to boil it, as the few micro-organisms it may 
contain will be without effect in the presence of the vastly more 
numerous yeast cells introduced from the pure culture in the 
demijohn. 

The whole of the pure culture is poured into the tub of must, 
the temperature of which should be between 80 and 90 F. This 
temperature is maintained either by warming the room or by 
occasionally placing a large can full of boiling water in the tub. 
This can should, of course, be tightly stoppered in order that 
none of the water may get into the must. The must should be 
well aerated several times a day to invigorate the yeast. This 
is done by dipping out some of the must with a bucket or ladle 
and pouring it back into the tub from a height of several feet or 
by the use of compressed air. The tub should be covered with a 
cloth to exclude dust, and everything with which the must comes 
in contact should be thoroughly cleaned with boiling water. 

In a day or two the must is in full fermentation and may be 
used as a starter. From ten to thirty gallons of starter are used 
for every thousand gallons of must or crushed grapes. The 
cooler the grapes the more should be added. Too much added 
to warm grapes may make the fermentation so rapid that it will 
be difficult to control the temperature. Moldy or dirty grapes 
require more than clean, because there are more injurious germs 
to overcome. 

Every twenty-four hours, nine tenths of the contents of the 
starter tub can be used and immediately replaced with fresh 
defecated must. The yeast in the remaining tenth is sufficient to 



70 PRODUCTION OF YEAST 

start a vigorous fermentation and multiplication of yeast. Two 
things must be watched with special care if the starter is to main- 
tain its vigor. The temperature must be kept above 80 F. and 
thorough and frequent aeration must be given. 

With care, a starter of this kind will remain sufficiently pure 
to be used continuously throughout the vintage. 



CHAPTER VII 
MALT 

In one very important respect the manufacture of spiritous 
liquors from a grain base differs from that commencing with a 
fruit juice base. This difference is that the fruit juices contain 
preformed sugar directly available for fermentation while the 
cereals contain starch and proteins in a relatively insoluble form. 
It was stated in previous chapters that by suitable processes this 
insoluble starch and proteins can be converted into soluble forms 
which are then fermentable. The processes by which this con- 
version is accomplished are the subject of this chapter. 

There are two general means by which starch and proteins 
are solubilized (hydrolyzed) for the purpose of fermentation. 
These are by the action of suitable enzymes or by treatment with 
acids. Of these the former is much more common in the liquor 
industry. For the production of suitable enzymes the natural 
changes which occur in the sprouting of seeds are used. The 
employment of this natural chemical process is called malting, 
and the product, malt. 

Malt. Malt may be made from any cereal but is commonly 
made from barley and unless otherwise specified, the term "malt" 
is understood to refer to barley malt. The general preference 
for barley is due to its high enzyme productivity, its ability to 
retain its husk in threshing (husk subsequently serving as a filter- 
ing material in the mash-tun) and the responsiveness of its endo- 
sperm during growth to modifications and mellowing. 

The following Figure 8 shows an enlarged cross-section of a 
barley grain. 

A grain of barley, or other cereal, consists essentially of two 
parts, the main starchy portion, known as the endo-sperm and a 
smaller part at one end of the corn known as the embryo. The 

71 



72 MALT 

embryo is the rudimentary plant. From it rootlets eventually 
develop which extract nourishment from the soil for the develop- 
ment or growth of the plant. The rootlets do not appear in the 
first stages and it is necessary for nature to provide some means 
of feeding the embryonic plant. The nutrient media provided 
by nature are principally starch, and smaller amounts of proteins 
and other products. The nutrient materials are contained in the 
endo-sperm and are insoluble and therefore non-diffusible through 
the cellular structures to the germ where they are needed. Na- 
ture has adjusted for this situation by providing that the plant 




secretes certain substances, namely enzymes, very actively as soon 
as germination commences. The enzyme, cytase, attacks the cellu- 
lar wall structures and its action makes it possible for the enzyme, 
diastase, to act upon the starch, changing it into a soluble form 
and therefore rendering it diffusible, assimilable and available to 
the germ as food. A portion of the insoluble proteins is also 
acted upon and changed into soluble, diffusible and chemically 
simpler substances, e.g., peptones, proteoses, and amino acids. 
This change, commonly called proteolysis, is thought to be 
brought about by other enzymes in the plant but little is definitely 
known with respect to these agents, the action partly resembling 
that of trypsin and partly that of pepsin or peptase. The actual 
mechanism by means of which cytase enables the other enzymes 
to reach the starch and proteins is also not definitely known; i.e., 
it is not known whether the cytase dissolves the cellulose or 
whether its action is merely a softening one whereby the cellulose 



MALT 



73 



is rendered permeable. Figure 9 is a diagram of the various 
changes which take place within the grain during the malting 
operation. 



j Cellulose I 
(envelopes^ 
\ 



GRAIN AT COMMENCEMENT 
OF MALTING 



CJ 

c 




j^ 

S 



f Cytase | 

< attacking > 

cellulose I 



. Diastase 
f acts on starch 1 
I and renders it I 
I soluble, diffusible 
I and assimilable. J 



I Other enzymes act on *"| 
proteins rendering them 
soluble, diffusible and I 
changing them to f 
chemically simpler 
substances. J 



\ 



/Soluble starch and soluble 
] products of proteolysis 
I diffusing through grain to 
I nourish embryo- 



EMBRYO 
GROWING 



c 

2 
o 

c 
!c 



| 

6 




Embryo's growth arrested 
by heat from kiln 



MALT 



FIG. 9. 



This is the process on which the maltster relies, but his en- 
deavor is to keep the consumption of starch as low as possible 
and hence when the action has proceeded to a point where he 
judges the starch rendered soluble and the enzymes developed to 



74 MALT 

the most useful point the process is arrested and the plant killed by 
drying the germinating grain in the malt kiln. This calls for 
considerable judgment and experience on the part of the maltster, 
but, in a general way, the end point may be said to have been 
reached when the plumule has grown almost to the length of the 
grain or corn. At this stage the starch should be in the proper 
degree of conversion into sugar and the enzymes developed to 
such a point as to be able to act upon and saccharify not only 
the starch of the malt but also the starch of the unmalted cereal 
with which it is often mixed in the mash tun. Since the yield 
of alcohol is dependent upon the yield of starch converted to 
sugar it is important to develop a malt of maximum diastatic 
properties. It is also economical because it eliminates the neces- 
sity of converting all of the cereal to malt. 

Generally speaking, American malts have high diastatic 
(starch-converting) power and are mixed with other cereals in 
proportions ranging from 10 to 15 per cent of the whole for the 
production of lower grade whiskies and from 20 to 50 per cent 
for the higher grades. The United States Dispensatory requires 
that malt shall be capable of converting not less than five times its 
weight of starch into sugars. Distillers' malt, however, is usually 
capable of accomplishing the conversion of nearly fifteen times its 
weight. 

Malt is used, either alone or in combination with unmalted 
cereals, as a raw material in the manufacture of whiskey, gin, 
vodka and kornbranntwein. It is also used as a raw material in 
the manufacture of beer. It is, therefore, one of the most im- 
portant products used by the liquor industry. 

The finished product may be light yellow, yellowish-brown or 
blackish-brown in color depending upon the intensity of the heat 
treatment received in processing. Caramel malts are yellowish- 
brown and are so called because they have been made from ordi- 
nary malt submitted to a secondary process consisting of steeping, 
drying and progressive heating until the sugar formed at the 
lower temperatures is finally caramelized. Black malts are those 
of the darkest color and are the product of comparatively high 
temperature drying. 



STEEPING 75 

The malting operation offers several distinct advantages. It 
assists in the development of the enzymes diastase, cytase and 
peptase which are of great importance. It influences the solubility 
of the albumen, starch and phosphates in the grains and affects 
the condition of the starch for subsequent conversion in the mash- 
ing operation. 

Practical Malting. The malting operation consists in: i. 
cleaning the grain, 2. adding water and steeping, 3. germinating, 

Barley 
Cleaning 



Offal to 

cattle feed- 

dealers 



- Water 



Steeping 

Skimmings dried and 

sold to cattle feed 

dealers 
Germinating 

Drying 
Malt 

Cleaning 
Crushing 

Finished Malt 

FIG. 10. 

4. drying, 5. cleaning and crushing. The sequence of these steps 
is shown in the flow sheet, Figure 10. 

Equipment and processes for cleaning, steeping and drying 
are more or less standardized but various methods are available 
for carrying out the germinating operation. 

Steeping. This consists of soaking the cereal in water for 
approximately 48 hours. Allowance must be made for variables 
such as kind and condition of barley, water temperature, hard- 
ness of water, humidity of air, etc. Float or ladle off skimmings. 
Change the water every 12 hours the first day and every 24 hours 
thereafter. When loading have tank half full of water and then 



76 MALT 

add barley, allowing water to stand i to 2 feet above the barley 
when full. When cereal is properly steeped drain off water. 

Germination. There are three methods available for carry- 
ing out the germinating operation on a large scale. These are 
respectively known as the floor, compartment, and drum systems. 
The floor method was the first used, the other two representing 
the contributions of modern chemical engineering. They are com- 
monly referred to as pneumatic malting and are based on mechan- 
ical as compared to hand turning over the grain and on subjecting 
it to a flow of conditioned air either intermittently or continuously 
during the raking or tumbling. Pneumatic malting is of great 
assistance to the patent still distilleries; it permits all-year-round 
malting. 

Floor system. In this method the damp cereal is spread upon 
the floor and is periodically shovelled over to aerate the germinat- 
ing mass and keep its temperature below the scorching or burning 
point. The right air temperature is about 60 F. and the grain 
temperature should be about 75 F. 

This part of the process must be watched closely and its suc- 
cess depends on the judgment and experience of the maltster who 
varies the depth of the grain at each working over. He will 
usually start with a depth of about 8 to 10 inches and then alter- 
nately and gradually increase and reduce it from a maximum of 
14 inches to a minimum of about 5 inches. 

Germination proceeds and in a few days reaches a point where 
further growth must be arrested. This is usually when the leaf 
or acrospire has grown to the length of the kernel. The ger- 
mination is stopped by drying the green malt in the kiln. Man- 
churian barley reaches this point in about five days while the 
two-rowed and Bay Brewing types take about eight days. 

Drum system. These are large drums of the rotating, tum- 
bling type found in many chemical and other industrial plants. 
They are arranged for continuous admission of conditioned air 
and their speed can be varied to suit operating requirements. 

It is customary to revolve the drums very slowly at first but, 
as germination proceeds, the speed of rotation is gradually stepped 
up. No definite operating rules can be set up since germinating 



GERMINATION 77 

conditions are never absolutely standard, but the following pro- 
cedure may be used as a guide : twelve complete revolutions every 
twenty-four hours for the first three days, then change to a full 
revolution every hour and a half for the next thirty-six hours 
and thereafter speed up to one revolution every forty minutes 
until germination reaches the arrestation point in about twelve 
hours more. 

Compartment system. This consists of an oblong tank with 
perforated bottom, usually of galvanized steel. The conditioned 
air can be either top or bottom delivered. A carriage fitted with 
revolving helices for stirring the grain travels across the top of 
the tank and a sprinkling device is usually provided for moistening 
the grain as it is turned over. Unloading is accomplished by 
means of a scraper which draws the grain to one end of the tank 
where an automatic device is located for feeding the germinating 
mass to a conveyor. 

Kiln drying. This is carried out in a three-storied building 
fitted with a suction fan on the top floor and a furnace on the 
ground floor. The furnace is fed with smokeless coal and air 
and the hot gases are sucked up through the floors and exhausted 
from the top of the building by the fan. The grain is spread 
on the top floor and given a preliminary drying. It is then 
dropped to the second floor where it is gradually subjected to 
higher temperatures. This is an operation of some delicacy, and 
considerable care and experience are required in order that the 
malt may be dried gradually and not spoiled by scorching. Ex- 
posing the green malt to too high temperatures at the beginning 
of the drying operation will reduce its diastatic strength. For the 
first 24 hours 90 F. is about right and it should then be dry to 
the touch; thereafter the heat is gradually increased until a tem- 
perature of 120 to 130 F. is reached in the 4Oth to 48th hours. 

The maximum diastatic properties of the malt are obtained 
when the drying is stopped at about 123 F. and this is an im- 
portant point for the distiller of mixed mashes. Malts dried at 
temperatures no higher than this point are usually referred to as 
green malts. 

On the other hand, where high diastatic power is not so 



78 MALT 

essential, as at all-malt distilleries, it is better to continue drying 
to a higher temperature. This gives the following advantages: 
( i ) a more friable product, easier to grind, (2) more suitable for 
storage and (3) better fermentations and superior flavoring 
properties. Offsetting these favorable characteristics is the fact 
that green malts are more nourishing to yeasts and have about 
ten times more diastatic power. Barley gives a malt of the high- 
est diastatic power with rye, wheat, oats and corn following in 
the order named. 

Yield. After the malting and kilning operations the acreened 
malt produced will weigh approximately 20 per cent less than the 
green grain, but, taken by measure, the malt will exceed the origi- 
nal grain by 6 or 7 per cent This is to say, the malt produced 
is bulkier but less dense than the original green grain. 

Acid Conversion. The theory of the acid conversion of 
starch into sugars was discussed in Chapter I. Practically, this 
method finds some use in the preparation of cereal raw materials 
prior to fermentation although probably less in this country than 
abroad. In the United States the hydrolysis of starch for fer- 
mentation is almost invariably accomplished by the diastatic action 
of malts. These malts are mixed with unmalted grain (the starch 
of which has been pastified by prior cooking) and the conversion 
to fermentable sugar carried to completion by a subsequent 
operation called "mashing." 

In Great Britain there is more variation in the means em- 
ployed to secure a completely fermentable mash. There is first 
of all the common process in which all of the diastatic action 
comes from malt. Then there are two processes for making 
mixed mashes. In the first of these, mixtures are made of malt 
and unmalted grain, the starch of the latter having been com- 
pletely converted by the acid process. In the second process the 
action of the acid on the unmalted grain is halted before com- 
pletion and a small proportion of malt added to finish the task 
of hydrolysis. The preparation of these mashes will be discussed 
again under the general subject of the whiskies prepared from 
them. 



CHAPTER VIII 
DISTILLATION 

Definitions. Distillation is defined as the separation of the 
constituents of a liquid mixture by partial vaporization of the 
mixture and separate recovery of the vapor and the residue. The 
more volatile constituents of the original mixture are obtained in 
increased concentration in the vapor; the less volatile remaining in 
greater concentration in the residue. The apparatus in which this 
process is carried on is called a still. Generally speaking, the 
essential parts of a still are: i. The kettle in which vaporization 
is effected, 2. the connecting tube which conveys the vapors to 
3. the condenser in which the vapors are reliquefied. Modifica- 
tions involving the addition of other parts to the still are intro- 
duced for various purposes such as the conservation of heat and 
to effect rectification. Rectification is a distillation carried out in 
such a way that the vapor rising from a still comes into contact 
with a condensed portion of the vapor previously evolved from 
the same still. A transfer of material and an interchange of heat 
result from this contact, thereby securing a greater enrichment of 
the vapor in the more volatile components than could be secured 
with a single distillation operation using the same amount of 
heat. The condensed vapors, returning to accomplish this object, 
are called "reflux" (The above definitions are substantially 
based on "The Chemical Engineers 1 Handbook" by Perry, 
p. 1 107-8.) 

In less precise language, a simple distillation is a means of 
separating a volatile liquid from a non-volatile residue. A frac- 
tional distillation is a means of separating liquids of different 
volatility. This latter process rests on the fact that no two liquids 
of different chemical composition have the same vapor pressure 
at all temperatures, nor very often the same boiling point. 

79 



8o 



DISTILLATION 



On the other hand, while its actual amount may be almost 
vanishingly small, every liquid or even solid substance has a defi- 
nite vapor pressure at any given temperature. Furthermore, that 
vapor pressure is unchangeable at a fixed temperature by any 
external means, but only by a change in the composition of the 
liquid. From this it seems probable that the vapor pressure de- 
pends partly on the nature of the liquid molecules and partly on 
their mutual attraction. We have neither need nor space here 
to develop the proof of this theory. Its application is as follows: 
The molecules of water (B. P. 100 C.) and of alcohol 
(B. P. 78.3 C.) do possess a strong attraction for each other 
as shown by the contraction which is readily observed when the 



BOILING POINTS OF ALCOHOL WATER MIXTURES 

100 C C 



78.30 
78.17 



Alcohol 100% 



Water 



_ i 50_ 



Alcohol 0% 
Water 100% 



FIG. ioa. 



two liquids are mixed. The effect of this on the vapor pressure 
and hence on the boiling point is shown in Figure ioa. From this 
diagram, the proportions of which are exaggerated, it will be 
noted that a mixture containing approximately 95% of alcohol 
to 5% of water by volume has a lower boiling point (i.e., higher 
vapor pressure) than either pure compound. From this it fol- 
lows that alcohol higher than 95.57% cannot be produced by 
distillation and also that in a simple still, starting with a mix- 
ture of alcohol and water of relatively low alcoholic strength, 
the first distillate will be higher in alcohol content and as the dis- 
tillation continues the alcohol content of each succeeding portion 
of distillate will be lower until finally pure water comes over. 
The relation between the alcohol content of the first vapors and 
distillate and that of the original boiling liquid as determined by 



DEFINITIONS 



81 



Sorel (Distillation et rectification industrially 1899) is shown in 
Figure lob. 

If the first portion of distillate were condensed and redis- 
tilled, the new distillate would be still richer in alcohol. For 
instance, if the liquid being distilled contained 10% of alcohol, 
the first distillate would contain 48.6% and this if condensed and 
redistilled would contain 69-70% alcohol. Obviously, a practical 
operation cannot be conducted in this manner. What is done, 
therefore, is to introduce into the head of the still a number of 
plates in each of which a portion of the vapor is condensed, yield- 
ing a liquid somewhat richer in alcohol than the original liquid, 
and this is again partly evaporated so that as we ascend the 



O iuu 
on 








1 




I 




x 


90 
u> 
| 80 

= 70 




_ 






^- 




^ 


^ 


.-^ 


^ 















bU 
>50 




l_ 























-^ 




___ 


^^ 


.___ 


40 


/ 












._ 












c 


f 




















*30 


/ 


















- 
















o o n 


/ 






















j= -i n 






















o 

< n 























10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Alcohol Content of Liquid in Weight % 

FIG. iob. 



column each plate is progressively of higher alcoholic strength. 
It is possible by the application of experimental results such as 
Sorel's (loc. cit.) to these considerations to calculate the number 
of plates required, and the proportion of condensate return re- 
quired, to produce alcohol of any desired strength from a given 
dilute supply. In general it can be seen that there is an inverse 
ratio between the number of plates and the amount of reflux so 
that as a practical matter it is advisable to increase the number 
of plates as far as economically feasible in order to economize 
fuel. 

The fact that it is difficult to secure alcohol concentrations in 
excess of 12-14% by fermentation alone, requires that for the 



82 DISTILLATION 

production of stronger liquors the process of distillation be ap- 
plied. The increase in alcohol concentration which can be 
achieved thereby depends on the effectiveness of the rectification 
and the completeness with which it is desired to recover all the 
alcohol. It can range up to a recovery in excess of 99% an d 
alcohol of 95% strength by volume. The type and size of still 




FIG. ii. Simple pot still used in liqueur manufacture. 

actually employed in the distilled liquor industry depends on the 
industrial development of the country in which the process is 
being applied, upon the beverage being made, the raw materials 
used, and the amount of material being processed at one time. 
The various types may be classified as pot stills, Coffey or patent 
stills, vat stills and continuous stills. 



POT STILLS 83 

Pot Stills. The simplest form of pot still is used in the man- 
ufacture of liqueurs both on account of the small lots which are 
worked and the method of manufacture. Such a still is shown 
in Figure 11. "A" is the kettle; "D" is the "swan's neck" for 
conveying the vapors to "R" the condenser; and "S" is the worm. 
The mode of operation of this apparatus is obvious from an 
inspection of the figure. 




FIG. 12. Pot still used in French brandy manufacture. 

C is the chauffe-vin used for pre-heating the wine fed to the still. 
R is the condenser. 

Figures 12 and 13 illustrate the addition of another part to 
the simple pot still as used in France for the production of brandy. 
This is the device marked "C," called in French the "chauffe- 
vin," from its function of pre-heating the wine which is fed to 
the kettle "A." This pre-heating is a mode of conserving some 
of the latent heat of the vapors by passing them through the feed 



84 DISTILLATION 

to the kettle before leading them to the condenser. The types 
of still illustrated are specially designed for brandy manufacture 
and their peculiar adaptation for this purpose will be found in the 
chapter on Brandy. 

Improved Pot Still. In Great Britain the chief distilled 
liquor is whiskey. Some of this continues to be made in pot-stills 




FIG. 13. French brandy still fitted with chauffe-vin. 

A is the kettle. 
C the chauffe-vin. 
R the condenser. 

of somewhat improved design and considerably larger size as 
shown in Figure 14. The pot stills used for this purpose are 
divided into two classes, wash stills and low-wines stills. The 
mash in which fermentation is complete, now called "wash," is 
distilled in the former. The distilled product, low wines, is ap- 
proximately a third of the volume of the original wash and 



IMPROVED POT STILL 




FIG. 14. 




FIG. 15. 



86 



DISTILLATION 



somewhere in the neighborhood of 25% alcoholic concentration. 
Since a large volume of wash must be handled to produce a much 
smaller volume of whiskey, the wash stills are very large, ranging 




FIG. 1 6. 



from 7,000 to 12,000 gallons capacity. It is not safe practice, 
however, to charge these stills beyond 50-75% of their capacity, 
to avoid foaming and priming, that is, the carrying over of some 




FIG. 17. 

of the boiling wash into the condenser. A still of the size range 
indicated may be expected to distill about 600 gallons of wash to 
low wines per hour. 

Figure 15 is an improved pot still, arranged for direct firing 
and equipped with a rectifier in addition. The vapors pass from 
the kettle into the rectifier, which is similar to an ordinary con- 



COFFEY STILL 87 

denser. The least volatile portions are condensed and returned 
to the still. The more volatile portions of the vapor pass on to 
the regular condenser. 

A doubling of this arrangement is shown in Figure 16. This 
kind of equipment is used in the British West Indies for the 
production of rum. Either Figure 15 or 1 6 may also be arranged 
for heating by steam instead of direct firing. 

Another type of rectifying arrangement called a "Corty's 
head" is shown in Figure 17. Four traps are fitted into the neck 
of the still. Each trap contains a diaphragm by means of which 
the direction of the rising vapors is changed, forcing them to 
circulate around the trap. Cooling water enters the system by 
means of the pipe (9) and flows downwards through pipes (10) 
from trap to trap. A fractional condensation occurs in each trap 
causing progressive rectification of the ascending vapors in an 
effective manner and resulting in the vapors passing to the total 
condenser being much richer in alcohol than those evolving from 
the boiling liquid in the kettle. 

Coff ey Still. The Blair, Campbell and McLean form of the 
"Coffey" or patent still, shown in Figure 18 in plan, and 
diagrammatically in Figure 19, is a much more effective rectify- 
ing and distilling equipment. Instead of applying direct heat 
to a large volume of wash in a kettle, the wash is spread 
in thin layers over a large surface and heat supplied by 
the introduction of steam from an external boiler. The wash 
enters the still at the top and trickles down over a series of per- 
forated copper plates. Steam enters the still at the bottom and 
bubbles upward through the perforations, each of which is in 
effect a trap. By this means the wash is heated and the alcohol 
vaporized so that by the time the wash has reached the lowest 
plate it has lost all of its alcohol and can be discharged from the 
still with its dissolved and suspended solids. As the mixture of 
alcohol vapor, volatile impurities, and steam rises toward the top 
of the apparatus, the lower becomes its boiling point, more steam 
is condensed from it, and the richer it becomes in alcohol. The 
part of the still in which this operation takes place is called the 
"analyzer." 



88 



DISTILLATION 




FIG. 1 8. (From Martin Industrial and Manufacturing Chemistry-Organic, Crosby, 
Lockwood and Son, London.) 



COFFEY STILL 



89 




90 DISTILLATION 

The vapors from the top of the "analyzer" are led into the 
bottom of a second column of perforated plates which is called 
the "rectifier." There is a zig-zag tube full of cooling liquid 
extending the full length of this column to serve as a condenser. 
Usually cold wash on the way to the analyzer is employed as 
cooling liquor, while it is thereby preheated, thus effecting econ- 
omy of heat. The alcoholic vapors on their upward passage 
through the plates are fractionally condensed in each cooling 
chamber and lose their water until finally they are condensed on 
an unperf orated sheet at the top of the column (the "spirit 
plate") as very strong alcohol, and are removed. It is stated 
that from 94-96% spirit can be continuously obtained from this 
type of still, whereas a simple still at best and even by repeated 
distillations will only yield a small quantity of strong alcohol not 
over 90-92% by volume from each operation. 

A mixture of weak, impure alcohol and "fusel oil" ("hot 
feints") collects in the bottom of the "rectifier." This is re- 
turned to the "analyzer" to recover the alcohol. Towards the 
end of the distillation of a batch, however, instead of completing 
the purification of all the alcohol, it is found more economical to 
raise the temperature of the apparatus and distill off the whole 
residue of impure spirit. This is condensed and collected as 
"feints" in a separate receiver. Here the fusel oil which has 
accumulated throughout the process separates, to a large extent, 
from the weak spirit and is skimmed off. The remaining 
"feints" are redistilled with the wash of a succeeding operation 
to recover their ethyl alcohol. 

In the United States alcohol is distilled and rectified from its 
wash by means of continuous stills. In smaller establishments all 
non-volatile materials and a substantial portion of the water are 
removed in a so-called "beer still," Figure 20. On account of the 
partial rectification in the preheater the distillate from a 6% 
beer will frequently run as high as 40 to 60 per cent alcohol. 
The crude alcohol is neutralized with some suitable alkali such 
as soda ash, and then purified and concentrated in an intermit- 
tent still, Figure 21. Assuming that the feed runs as high as 
60 per cent alcohol, the feed is diluted so as to reduce the con- 



COFFEY STILL 91 

centration to 50 per cent and the distillate will run as high as 95 
per cent alcohol but is collected in a number of portions of which 
70 to 75 per cent can be used as spirits. The neutralization of 
the distillate from the beer still must be very carefully done, 
because if the solution is boiled when alkaline, the nitrogenous 




Steam =W= xnz 



FIG. 20. Beer Still. (Redrawn from Robinson's Fractional Distillation. Courtesy 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.) 

bodies set free amines whose disagreeable odor is difficult to 
remove in the finished alcohol, and which also form blue com- 
pounds with copper which discolor the alcohol. Another draw- 
back is that they tend to combine with the aldehydes, forming 
resins which may gum up the column, or impart a yellow color 
to the alcohol withdrawn from the column. On the other hand, 



92 DISTILLATION 

if the solution is acid, esters will form, and any undecomposed 
ammonium acetate will react with strong alcohol forming ethyl 
acetate and setting free ammonia. (See Robinson, u The Ele- 
ments of Fractional Distillation.") 

The operation of the beer still shown in Figure 20 is per- 
formed as follows : The alcoholic feed is supplied by a constant 
level feed tank "A" containing a ball float which controls a steam 



Dephlegmator Condenser 



Column 



Kettle 


rr - - 


u 

-U 




Steam I 



T 

FIG. 21. Intermittent Still (modern). (Redrawn from Robinson's Fractional Distil- 
lation. Courtesy McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.) 

pump to pump the feed from the storage tank to A as rapidly 
as it is used. The feed then flows by gravity through the feed 
heater "B" where it is raised nearly to its boiling point. Con- 
tinuous stills are often fitted with recuperators in which the in- 
coming feed is heated by the outgoing hot waste from the bottom 
of the exhausting column. If the liquor contains solid materials 
that are likely to form deposits on the heating surfaces, recupera- 
tors are dispensed with, on account of the difficulty of cleaning 
the outside of the tubes. The vapor heater shown at "B M has 



COFFEY STILL 93 

the liquor only inside of the tubes, and the fouled surfaces can 
very easily be cleaned by removing the top and bottom heads of 
the heater, and passing a cleaning device through the tubes. 

The hot feed is introduced into the top section of the exhaust- 
ing column "C" where it flows downward from plate to plate; 
the volatile portions are gradually removed as the liquor comes 
into contact with the steam blown in at the bottom through the 
perforated sparger pipe "L." The exhausting column has usu- 
ally from 12 to 15 plates, each plate being large and deep to 
give a long time of contact of the feed in the column in order to 
insure complete removal of the volatile substances. The com- 
plete removal of these substances is readily tested by what is 
known as the slop tester. Vapor is withdrawn from a plate near 
the bottom at "H," any entrained liquid removed by the separat- 
ing bottle, and the vapor condensed in a suitable condenser "I," 
from which it flows to a tester "J" where it can be tested, or its 
specific gravity measured by means of a hydrometer. The 
exhausted liquor is then discharged from the bottom of the still 
through a suitable seal pipe "M. n The rate of introduction of 
steam into the column is governed by means of a suitable pressure 
regulator. 

The vapor leaving the exhausting column to pass to the heater 
is substantially in equilibrium with the liquid on the top plate of 
the column. It is partially condensed in the heater, enriched in 
its alcohol content, and then passes to the condenser where it is 
completely condensed. The portion of the vapor condensed in 
the heater is returned to the top plate of the column together 
with a controlled portion of the vapor condensed in the con- 
denser, from the regulating bottle "E." The distillate flows, 
through the tester "F" where its quantity and specific gravity 
may be measured, to the storage tank "G." The water supply 
for the condenser is obtained from the constant level feed 
tank "N." 

In larger establishments a continuous rectifying still is used in 
place of the intermittent still for the second operation. Figure 22 
is a diagram of such a continuous rectifying still. The still con- 
sists essentially of a purifying column "C" and a concentrating 



94 



DISTILLATION 



and exhausting column "D." The function of the purifying 
column is to remove the volatile head products, which are sep- 
arated from the alcohol by fractionation. The function of the 
concentrating column is to separate the alcohol from water, as 
well as from the less volatile impurities which are not removed 
in the heads. This rectifying unit will produce an alcohol of 
higher grade than the best produced by the intermittent still with 




FIG. 22. Ethyl Alcohol Still (continuous). (Redrawn from Robinson's Fractional 
Distillation. Courtesy McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.) 

a recovery of perhaps 75 to 85 per cent. It will avoid the neces- 
sity of subsequent purifying treatments with charcoal, etc., and 
rehandling of intermediate fractions at a considerable saving in 
time, labor, and expense. The purifying column is fitted with a 
partial reflux condenser "G" and a total condenser "H" and is 
independent of the rest of the apparatus except that it receives 
the hot feed continuously from the recuperator "B" and the 
feed supply tank "A" and delivers the purified dilute alcohol con- 
tinuously from its base to the other column "D." It has its own 



COFFEY STILL 95 

steam regulator "O" and cooling water supply and its rate of 
operation can be controlled according to the amount of the im- 
purities to be removed. 

A further improvement of this system of alcohol production 
is shown in the plan in Chapter IX on Whiskey. Here the beer 
still is connected directly to the rectifying unit so that the feed 
to the rectifier is in the form of a vapor instead of a liquid. This 
effects considerable saving of steam for heating purposes and the 
final product contains not less than 98 per cent of all the alcohol 
present in 'the beer and produces 90 per cent of this alcohol as 
high grade, pure spirits, the remainder as heads, and a washed 
fusel oil. Chemical analysis cannot determine whether the al- 
cohol produced comes from molasses or grain. These units use 
about 40 pounds of steam per gallon of alcohol produced. Fur- 
ther improvements now pending will give an even higher yield. 

The most modern American whiskey still consists of a column 
and an extra head which contains two rectifying plates and one 
washing plate. This still and its mode of operation are described 
in Chapter IX on Whiskey. 



CHAPTER IX 
WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

Historical. Whiskey is essentially an English and American 
beverage. It was first developed in the United Kingdom and 
subsequently its manufacture was taken up in this country. 

When whiskey was first made is not definitely known. But 
Usquebagh (from which the word "whiskey" derives) is said to 
have been made in Ireland in the twelfth century and it is re- 
ported that its manufacture there had assumed sizable propor- 
tions even before Queen Elizabeth's time. It is also said that 
distilled spirits were made by the monks prior to the fifteenth 
century and that they jealously guarded the secrets of their form- 
ulae and methods of manufacture. However, commencing with 
the fifteenth century the process became more widely known. 
There is a treatise on distillation which is one of the very first 
of printed books. At first the manufacture was carried on in 
a small way in the household, but a young whiskey distilling in- 
dustry was gradually established. At that time spirits were made 
from malt in Scotland and from wort and sour beer in England. 
The industry was operated under government supervision in all 
three countries and its products were taxed. As a result, the 
history of spirit distilling can be followed fairly accurately by a 
study of the taxation legislation. 

The industry has had a very stormy career and it is interest- 
ing to note that in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies many of its troubled periods and their subsequent develop- 
ments paralleled conditions under the prohibition era in the 
United States in the last thirteen or fourteen years. For example, 
restrictive legislation, high taxation, manufacture under strict 
government supervision and last, but not least, the bootlegger, or 

96 



HISTORICAL 97 

as he was then called, the illicit distiller, all existed long before 
our times. Smuggling was often rife, and England had its rum 
row two or three hundred years before America. In 1556 there 
was a death penalty in Ireland for illicit distillation. 

In the reign of Charles I there was formed the Distillers* 
Company of London, which received a charter of incorporation 
and was empowered to regulate the manufacture of whiskey from 
the point of the quality of materials to be used. A little later, 
in the reign of Charles II, distilling materials included such 
varied substances as sugar, molasses, sour wines, sour ales, cider, 
and wort from grain and malt; and the products included whiskey, 
brandy, gin, and rum (although much of this was made in 
Jamaica). By 1694 annual production in England had risen to 
900,000 gallons. 

The seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were 
periods of experimental taxation and other governmental regula- 
tion in Scotland, England, and Ireland, and the industry may be 
said to have grown in spite of, rather than because of, these 
regulations. Prior to 1860 the taxation and regulations were 
different in all three countries; and in Scotland, during one period, 
there was even a wide difference in regulations for Lowland and 
Highland distilleries. At one time taxes were either collected by 
local authorities or were farmed out to private persons or busi- 
ness houses, who received a percentage of their collections for 
their services. It was quite common for such tax collecting con- 
tracts to be let and sub-let. Later, a fixed minimum of receipts 
was stipulated for each distilling region. Following this another 
form of taxation was tried, based on the capacity of the still and 
its rate of operation, but the legitimate distillers displayed con- 
siderable ingenuity in beating the law, often by faster distilla- 
tion. Morewood (Inventions, etc., in Intoxicating Liquors, 
1824) describes a still for this purpose which was built with 
the unique proportions of 48 inches in diameter and only three or 
four inches deep! 

Thus, three centuries have passed and a satisfactory solution 
of the problem is still sought. When taxation was high and 
regulations very restrictive, legitimate production waned and il- 



98 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

licit distillation and smuggling increased. When taxation was 
lowered and regulations made less restrictive, legitimate manu- 
facture would prosper and smuggling and illicit manufacture 
diminish. 

In 1730 the laws almost killed the industry, but illicit distilling 
became so profitable that the government was forced to revise 
the regulations in 1743. Legitimate production then jumped to 
5,000,000 gallons of proof spirit In 1751, and again in 1756, 
taxation was increased and legitimate production gradually 
dropped till it amounted only to 3,000,000 gallons in 1820. In 
1760, 500,000 gallons of spirit were smuggled into England 
from Scotland. About the year 1800, 6,000 illicit stills were 
seized in Ireland in one year and illicit production exceeded legiti- 
mate production three or four times. Taxation was revised in 
Scotland in 1817, and in England in 1823, and finally in 1860 all 
legislation was consolidated and restrictions were somewhat re- 
laxed. Since then further concessions have been made from time 
to time, the greatest being those since the war. At present the 
tax is about $2.00 per bottle. 

The history of whiskey manufacture in the United States is 
not so easily traced. The date of the building of the first distil- 
lery is uncertain, as is the progress of the industry in the eight- 
eenth and nineteenth centuries. However, no book on this sub- 
ject can omit a reference to the "Whiskey Insurrection 77 which 
occured in Western Pennsylvania in 1792 to 1794, when Presi- 
dent Washington was compelled to call out the militia to quell 
the insurrectionists, so strong was the reaction against the excise 
regulations put into force about that time. 

The prohibition question, especially its legislation and devel- 
opments in the past two decades in the United States are too well 
known to warrant reviewing. According to D. S. Bliss, U. S. 
Commissioner of Industrial Alcohol, only seven distilleries were 
legally operated during this period for the purpose of manufac- 
turing whiskey for medicinal purposes. They were allowed to 
manufacture only limited quantities and they started operation 
during the fall of 1929. On the manufacture of whiskey during 
the last three decades see also Chapter XV on Statistics. 



DEFINITION AND TYPES 99 

Definition and Types. Whiskey may be defined as an alco- 
holic beverage produced from cereal grains by the following gen- 
eral series of operations: 

1. Transformation of the starch of the grains, either malted, unmalted, 
or mixed, into fermentable sugar. 

2. Fermentation of the sugar to produce alcohol. 

3. Distillation to concentrate the alcohol. 

4. Ripening by aging in oak barrels. 

There are available on the market a number of types of 
whiskey, which as the result of variations in the details of proc- 
essing or in the raw materials used, possess different flavors and 
other characteristics of importance to the consumer. In general 
these may be classified as : 

American 
Rye: 

Made from a mash composed of unmalted rye and either rye 

or barley malt. 
Bourbon : 

Made from a mash composed of maize and either wheat or 

barley malt. 

Low grade American whiskeys are made from mashes con- 
taining from i o to 15 per cent malt. 

High grade American whiskeys are made from mashes con- 
taining from 20 to 50 per cent malt. 

Most American whiskeys are made in patent stills. 

Scotch 

Pot still: 

Made from barley malt and having a smoky taste, obtained by 
using peat instead of coal as fuel in the kiln drying of the malt. 
Changes in the variety of peat used materially affect the flavor. 
This includes scotch whiskeys commonly classified in the British 
Isles as follows: (i) Highland malts, (2) Lowland malts, 
(3) Campbelltowns, (4) Islays. 

Patent still : 

Made from a mash composed of unmalted cereals and barley 
malt. The former may be either rye or oats but commonly is 
American maize (corn). These whiskeys do not have the 
smoky taste and are more American in character. 



ioo WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

Irish 

Pot still : 

Made from an all-malt mash or from a mixed mash composed 
of barley malt and unmalted cereals. The latter may be barley, 
oats, wheat, rye or variously proportioned mixtures. Malt runs 
high, from 30 to 50 per cent of the whole. 

Patent still : 

Made from a mash composed of unmalted cereals and barley 
malt. 

On a different basis all mixed mash whiskies may be classi- 
fied as either: 

Sour or sweet mash 
Sour mash: 

A whiskey made by cooking the ground, unmalted cereal with 
spent liquor of a previous mash which has been dealcoholized by 
distillation. 

Sweet mash : 

A whiskey made by cooking the ground unmalted cereal in the 
ordinary way with water. 

Blends. In addition to the straight whiskeys described above, 
both in this country and abroad various blends have come into 
public favor. Especially in Great Britain blending has become 
a very large trade as it is stated that the public taste demands a 
whiskey of less prominent but more uniform characteristics than 
formerly. To gratify this desire blends are made, in the United 
States presumably of straight whiskeys; but in Great Britain 
either by the mixture of various pot still whiskies of varying age, 
etc., with the possible addition of silent spirits from patent stills. 
In the latter case cheapness is often the purpose of the blend, 
but it is also stated that it unites the several whiskies in the mix- 
ture more completely and enables the blender to produce a whis- 
key of more uniform character. Blends, even when made from 
aged spirits of various kinds, are frequently stored in bond for 
considerable time. The addition of patent still spirits, even those 
containing very small amounts of secondary products, is viewed 
as dilution rather than as adulteration. Methods of blending are 
discussed under that heading later in this chapter. 



MASHING 101 

MANUFACTURE OF WHISKEY 

General Outline. The manufacture of whiskey is essentially 
a chemical process based on changes in the composition of ma- 
terials brought about by temperature alterations and the effect of 
the activity of ferments and other reagents. Very little depends 
on mechanical manipulation and there is a lack of spectacular 
features. 

Successful operation depends on a complete understanding of 
the changes taking place in the composition of the materials and 
on accurate temperature control. Technical knowledge, experi- 
ence and judgment are required to select and control conditions 
and materials so that a high yield of uniform product is obtained. 

It has Seen the object of the preceding chapters to explain 
the theoretical bases on which the process of whiskey making 
rests. In the present chapter the sequence of the operations and 
some of the manners of control are discussed. In actual fact, 
it is very easy to make a sort of crude whiskey by simple perform- 
ance in regular order of the first three or four basic operations 
listed in this chapter in the section on definitions and types. The 
commercial production of whiskey in quantities is very largely a 
magnification in scale of these operations with the introduction of 
refinements and modifications designed to facilitate the opera- 
tion, secure a more uniform product, and obtain a maximum 
yield. It is to be expected, therefore, that the historical steps in 
the change from the simple u home still" of earliest times to the 
largest scale continuous operation of American practice have 
been preserved and can be seen in the manufacture of whiskey in 
various establishments in different countries. This is the case 
to such an extent that the common varieties of whiskey are each 
identified with a different degree of evolution in the whiskey 
making process. A number of distinct process sequences can be 
formulated on this basis, of which the following are outstanding. 
(See Table VIII). 

Mashing. In all types of whiskey, the process, by which all 
the starch of the grains used is brought into solution, is called 
mashing. It involves both extraction and conversion of the starch 



102 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

TABLE VIII. TABULAR COMPARISON OF WHISKEY PROCESSES 



Whiskey 
type 

Materials 


Scotch or 
Irish 

All malt 


Scotch or 
Irish 


Scotch or 
Irish 


American 
small scale 


American 
large scale 

Malt and 
grain 


Malt and 
grain 


Malt and 
grain 


Malt and 
grain 


Pre-m ashing 


None 


None 


Partial acid 
conversion 


Cooking at 
normal 
pressure 


High pressure 
cooking of 
grain 


Filtration 
of mash 


Yes 
Only wort is 
fermented 


Yes 

Only wort is 
fermented 


Yes 
Only wort is 
fermented 


No 
Whole mash 
is fermented 


No 
Whole mash 
is fermented 


Method of 
distillation 


Pot still 


Pot still 


Patent still 


Patent still 


Patent still 



into sugars. The process is carried out in an apparatus called a 
u mash tun" as illustrated in Figure 22a. The essential parts of 
a mash tun are a vat equipped either with steam coils or means 




FIG. 223. Mash tun and apparatus. (Redrawn from Rogers* Manual of Industrial 
Chemistry, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.) 

of heating by direct injection of steam, and an efficient agitator. 
The latter must have both scraper and stirrer arms to ensure that 
all the ground grain comes into contact with the water. 



SCOTCH OR IRISH POT STILL WHISKEY 103 

Water. The quality of water used in mashing is very im- 
portant both on account of its influence on the quality of the 
finished liquor and in its own right, since it is used by the distiller 
in many times greater volume than any other of his materials. 
As used in mashing it is possible for impurities in the water to 
cause irreparable damage. It is also claimed that the water used 
influences the flavor of the finished whiskey. There is even told a 
tale of a Scotch distillery being built on the banks of a stream and 
then abandoned and a new distillery built on another stream 
twenty miles away because the water from the latter resulted in a 
product of superior flavor. As the Italians say Se non e vero, e 
ben trovato. Certainly it is known that Scotch and Irish distil- 
lers emphasize greatly the purity of their water supply. They 
select by preference, moss water, or some special location such 
as Loch Katrine or the river Bush, whose name is part of the 
trade name of "Old Bush Mills." 

Lacking such ideal locations, an effective water purification 
and softening plant may be necessary if the water supply is in 
the least questionable. The magnitude of the problem is readily 
seen from the fact that a pot still distillery, on a basis of 1,000 
bushels of malt mashed weekly, will require about 240,000 gallons 
of water, and a patent still distillery, producing 20,000 proof 
gallons of alcohol per week, will use about 700,000 gallons of 
water in its production. 

Scotch or Irish Pot Still Whiskey. Preparation of Wort. 
As can be seen from Table VIII (p. 102), the manufacture of 
this type of whiskey involves the least introduction of modern 
improved processes. The mashing procedure as shown diagram- 
matically in Figure 23 consists of three extractions of the ground 
grain, either all malted or a mixture of malted and unmalted, with 
separate portions of liquor. Oat husks are added to assist in 
the drainage or filtration of the wort and the third or final liquor 
from one batch of grain is used as the first liquor on the succeed- 
ing batch. The liquor is heated to the proper temperature, poured 
over and mixed with the cereals in the mash tun, allowed to soak 
for a suitable time and drained off. The first two liquors ob- 
tained in this manner are cooled to the proper temperature for 



IO4 



WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 



fermentation and run to the fermenting vats. The third liquor 
or "weak wort" is returned for use on the next batch of malt. 

Fermentation. This stage of the process of whiskey making 
permits of only minor variations in methods of inoculation, time, 
temperature control, etc. The general practice is the same both in 



Oat husks to 
facilitate 
filtration 



Ground Malt 



Weak wort from 
previous mash 



I 



Temperature 

1 50-1 60 F 

25-35 gal. per cwt. 

of malt. 



First Mashing 

Initial temperature 

135-145 F 



Hot Water 



Wort to coolers and 
fermentation vat. 



Second Mashing 
*" 150-1 55 F 



Hot Water 



Wort to cooler and 
fermentation vat. 



Third Mashing 
165-170F , 



Exhausted Mash to 
waste or recovery 

FIG. 23. 



Weak wort to heater 
and recirculation. 



America and in the British Isles. The principles to be observed 
have been outlined in Chapters III and VI. 

The customary procedure is as follows : The wort coming 
from the mash tuns, filtered abroad, unfiltered here, is cooled to 
between 68 and 70 F. Yeast in a vigorous state of activity 
is added and the fermentation proceeds. The temperature of 
the fermenting liquor increases and must be carefully controlled 
by passing cold water through coils in the fermentation vat. The 
amount of temperature rise permitted has a direct effect on the 
time of fermentation. In some distilleries the rise is kept small 



SCOTCH OR IRISH POT STILL WHISKEY 105 

and the fermentation slow. In most, however, the temperature 
is allowed to advance about twenty degrees in the first twenty 
hours. The temperature is never permitted, however, to exceed 
90 F. Since the distillers' yeast is very active, a sweet rye fer- 
mentation, for example, is usually complete in 72 hours. 

It is observed that high and rapid fermentations on the one 
hand are more likely to exhaust the sugar in the wort, but on the 
other hand, it is claimed that they are responsible for the forma 
tion of larger amounts of the congeneric substances including 
esters, fusel oil and aldehydes. 

deration. Some form of aeration is necessary both before 
and during fermentation. It may vary from the simple raising 
of buckets full of wort and pouring them back, to elaborate per- 
forated pipe and air pump assemblies. The results of aeration 
and the objects of the practice include: i. thorough stirring and 
intermingling of wort and yeast, 2. maintenance of uniformity 
of temperature throughout the vat, 3. expulsion of carbon diox- 
ide from the wort, 4. stimulation of yeast in vigor and multiplica- 
tion, 5. flocculation of suspended matter. 

Distillation. On the conclusion of the fermentation, the 
liquor, now called "wash," is ready for distillation. In Scotch 
pot still practice two distillations are required for preparing whis- 
key from the wash. The first takes place in the wash still. The 
distillation is continued until all the alcohol has been driven off 
from the wash and collected in one distillate. The liquor re- 
maining in the still is termed "pot ale" or "burnt ale"; and is 
either run to waste or dried for fertilizer. The distillate, which 
is technically termed "low wines," contains all the alcohol and 
secondary constituents from the wash, and considerable water. 
The low wines are transferred to a second and smaller still and 
arc redistilled. Three fractions are obtained from this distilla- 
tion. The first is termed "foreshots," the second constitutes the 
clean or finished whiskey, the third is called "feints." The fore- 
shots and feints are collected together, while the residue in the 
still, called "spent lees" is run to waste like the pot ale. 

The judgment and experience of the distiller determine the 
point at which the collection of foreshots is stopped, and that of 



106 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

whiskey commenced, and similarly that at which the latter is 
stopped and the collection of feints begun. 

The strength at which the whiskey fraction is run is of great 
importance as regards the character of the spirit. In Scotland 
this is generally from about n to 25 degrees over proof 
(11-25 .p.)- 

The foreshots and feints from one distillation are mixed and 
added to the charge of low wines for the next distillation and so 
throughout the distilling season. The feints collected from the 
last distillation of the season are kept to be added to the low 
wines from the first distillation of the succeeding season. 

In some distilleries in Scotland the whiskey is produced in 
three distillations. This practice is very general in the Low- 
lands; the spirit being then run at 40 to 45 degrees over proof. 

The volatile secondary constituents, which pass over with the 
alcohol into the low wines receiver, on the distillation of the wash, 
are thus incorporated as far as possible with the finished whiskey 
finally produced. There can be no doubt, however, that a portion 
escapes with the spent lees since it is known that partial decom- 
position is undergone during the process of distillation, e.g., cer- 
tain esters are easily decomposed when boiled with water under 
such conditions as those which obtain during distillation in the 
wash or low wines stills and the products of decomposition may 
wholly or partially remain in the spent lees and may consequently 
be absent from the whiskey. 

Again, some of the constituents which boil at much higher 
temperatures than water, may not wholly pass over with the 
alcohol in the distillation of the low wines, but may remain in the 
spent lees, and so also be lost to the finished whiskey. 

The extent to which the loss of secondary constituents may 
thus occur and affect the character of the whiskey depends largely 
upon the variety of pot still employed, and the manner of its 
operation; whether, for instance, the process of distillation be 
carried on slowly or rapidly; and it also depends on the strength 
at which the whiskey fraction is run. 

In Irish pot still practice the stills employed differ somewhat 
from those used in Scotland in that they are generally much 



BRITISH PATENT STILL WHISKEY 107 

larger, the wash still occasionally being of a capacity of 20,000 
gallons. The head of the still is shorter and in the still used for 
the distillation of low wines and feints the pipe connecting the 
head of the still with the worm is of considerable length and 
passes through a trough of water, the result being that a certain 
amount of rectification of the spirit vapor is effected on its way 
to the worm. This pipe is termed the "Lyne arm" and is con- 
nected with the body of the still by what is known as a "return 
pipe" through which is conveyed to the still for redistillation any 
liquid which has condensed in the pipe. 

Three distillations appear to be universally practiced in Ire- 
land for obtaining pot still whiskey and the method of collecting 
various fractions during a distillation is somewhat more compli- 
cated than with the Scotch process. Strong low wines and weak 
low wines, strong feints and weak feints, are collected and blended 
in various orders, and the practices in this connection probably 
differ in every Irish distillery. The whiskey fraction is usually 
run at a higher strength than in the Scotch process, viz; from 
25-50 per cent o.p. 

The addition of charcoal and also of soap in distillation is 
common both in Ireland and in Scotland, the soap being used to 
prevent frothing in the wash still and the charcoal in the low wines 
still to remove undesired constituents by absorption. 

The differences between Scotch High and Lowland and Irish 
practices in pot distillation are readily seen from the flow dia- 
grams (Fig. 24). 

British Patent Still Whiskey. General Statement. It is 
claimed for patent still operation in preference to pot still opera- 
tion that various economies are achieved as follows: 

i . Economy of time : 

a. Operation is continuous and rate of distillation is greater. There 
is a continuous feed of wash and a continuous discharge of spent 
wash, as compared with shut downs to charge and discharge in 
pot still practice. 

b. Rectification and distillation are carried out as part of the one 
process, whereas in pot still practice rectification is only partially 
achieved in one distillation, and two or even three distillations are 
necessary for complete rectification. 



io8 



WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 



a 



o 

g I 



- 



w in 
in 



Q 

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. $2 

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g.E 

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BRITISH PATENT STILL WHISKEY 109 

c. Only one condensation of the distillates is necessary, with cooling 
from a maximum temperature of 150 F. down to 60 or 70 F., 
as compared with pot still practice in which two or three con- 
densations are necessary. 

d. Operation can be carried on throughout the year. 

2. Economy of operation: 

a. Less cooling water required for condensing vapors to distillates. 

b. Cold wash is used to condense vapors to distillate, and the latent 
and sensible heats of the vapors and of the distillate serve to pre- 
heat the wash and raise it almost to its boiling point. This 
results in large fuel savings for primary heating. 

3. Efficiency of operation: 

a. Pure grain alcohol for use in the arts can be made as well as 
alcohol for denaturing. 

b. A highly rectified whiskey can be produced. 

c. Distillate is 148 to 154% proof. 

d. Strength of distillate can be practically constant despite wide 
variations in strength of wash. 

4. Miscellaneous: 

a. A greater variety of materials can be used and from practically 
all sources of supply so that advantage can be taken of temporary 
low prices. 

b. Yeast can be made as a by-product. 

On the other hand, the elimination of secondary products con- 
tained in the fermented wash is 95 per cent for the patent still 
as compared to only 90 per cent for the pot still. Hence many 
old time Irish and Scotch whiskey makers claim that it is the 
presence of some of these secondary products in the distillate 
which determines that their product is whiskey and not merely 
"neutral spirit**; i.e., flavorless, pure grain alcohol. 

The Scotch and Irish pot distillers claim that over a period 
of many years they built up a world-wide reputation for a bever- 
age called "whiskey" to obtain which it is necessary to distill a 
wash, obtained from certain raw materials, in a pot still according 
to certain methods developed by long years of practical research 
and experimentation. They claim that no patent still spirit, how- 
ever dosed with flavors, can duplicate the quality and flavor of 
their product. 



no WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

Preparation of Wort. In harmony with greater efficiency in 
the distillation, patent still operators have introduced modifica- 
tions in the method of saccharification of their cereal grains, usu- 
ally by some application of the "acid-conversion" process. This 
process has as its object partial conversion of the starch of the 
grains into fermentable sugars by the use of acid rather than the 
diastase of malt and depends on the latter only for the final com- 
pletion of the conversion. 

The general principles underlying this operation have been 
discussed in Chapter I on Starch. In practice small amounts of 
either sulphuric or hydrochloric (muriatic) acid are added to the 
mixture of ground grain and water, heat is applied until the 
action has proceeded to a sufficient extent and then the acid is 
neutralized. The procedure consists in mixing in a tun about 
36 gallons of water per cwt. of ground cereal or grist. About 
1-1.5 pounds of 60 B. sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) suitably 
diluted (by pouring the acid into the water never the reverse) is 
added for each cwt. of grist. Agitation is applied, and steam 
injected so that the temperature rises gradually. Care must be 
taken that the heating is neither too high nor too prolonged. 
When the starch has been gelatinized and the whole converted to 
a thin liquid the action is stopped by neutralizing the acid. Ordi- 
narily milk of lime (a suspension of slaked lime in water) is used 
to accomplish most of the neutralization and the rest effected to a 
very faint acid reaction by the gradual addition of powdered 
chalk. At the optimum condition of acidity cold water is added 
to cool the batch to about 145 F. 

The batch is then discharged into the mash tun in which 
some malt at a temperature of I25-I3O F. has been previously 
prepared. The temperature of the whole mash after mixing 
should be about 138 F. 

There are various modifications of this acid conversion proc- 
ess in which small amounts of malt are added at different stages 
to supplement the action of the acid. Three such variations are 
shown diagrammatically in Figure 25. 

It will be noted from Figure 25 that the first modification 
represents the acid conversion process exactly as described prc- 



BRITISH PATENT STILL WHISKEY 



in 




o o> 
.* E 



s 








ii2 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

viously. In the second modification a small portion of malt is 
added immediately to the ground cereal which is steeped in tepid 
water. Heat by steam injection is carefully applied so that the 
rate of temperature rise is very closely i F. per minute. The 
acid is only added when the batch has heated up to i65-i7o F. 
and the cooking is then continued as previously. In the third 
modification it is customary to use more water (50 gal. per cwt.) 
and less acid ( l / 2 Ib. per cwt.). The cooking follows the usual 
procedure except that a small portion of malt is added to the acid 
mash as a final step before it is poured into the main malt mash. 
In each case three extractions on a sort of counter-current system 
are used as in the all malt process. 

Fermentation. While equipment in a patent still distillery 
may be both larger and more elaborate, the process of fermenta- 
tion is practically identical with that described under pot still 
whiskey (p. 104). 

Distillation. The operation of a patent still in the British 
Isles is in all respects as described in Chapter VIII and on page 
126 of this Chapter under American Practice. The wash or 
beer is fed continuously from a storage tank or well through a 
heater, in which it absorbs heat from the ascending spirit vapors, 
into a distilling column consisting of perforated plates. Steam is 
fed at the bottom of the still causing evaporation of alcohol from 
the wash. By regulation of: 

1. Rate of beer inflow 

2. Point of beer entry 

3. Steam input 

4. Amount of condensed vapor returned to column (reflux) 

5. Point of reflux entry 

a dynamic equilibrium is established within the still. That is, the 
temperature and concentration of liquid at each point of the still 
remain constant even though there is continuous counter-current 
flow of liquid and vapor past the plates. Hence, it becomes pos- 
sible to discharge from the still bottom a spent slop containing 
less than i per cent of its original alcohol and to recover over 
90 per cent of the alcohol as whiskey of 50-75 per cent o.p. and 



BRITISH PATENT STILL WHISKEY 113 

of almost any desired content of the "congeneric substances" on 
which the flavor and odor depend. 

Operation and Yield. Nettleton ("The Manufacture of 
Whiskey and Plain Spirit" Aberdeen, 1913) cites records of 
various distilling operations at pot and patent still distilleries 
from which the following have been abstracted for comparison : 

LOWLAND POT STILL DISTILLERY ALL MALT 

Equipment : 

2 wash stills, each 6,200 gallons capacity 

2 low wines stills, each 3,800 gallons capacity 

Batch: 

2,600 bushels of malt 835 cwt. malt 

Wash: 

54,100 gallons 

4 consecutive mashings at 7 to 9 hour intervals 

Yield: 

5,104 British proof gallons or 6 i/io gal. per cwt. 

SMALL LOWLAND POT STILL DISTILLERY ALL MALT 

Batch : 

1,000 bushels of malt 

Wash: 

20,900 gallons 

Yield: 

1,979 British proof gallons or 6.16 gallons per cwt. (with a high 
class malt, skilfully manipulated, yield should be J to 7% gallons 
per cwt.) 

HIGHLAND POT STILL DISTILLERY ALL MALT 

Equipment : 

i wash still, 8,500 gallons capacity 

i low wines still, 4,500 gallons capacity 

Batch: 

i, 800 bushels of malt 659 cwt. 



n 4 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

Wash: 

37,730 gallons 

4 successive mashings at 7 hour intervals 

Yield: 

4,370 British proof gallons or 6% gallons per cwt. 

PATENT STILL DISTILLERY 
Batch: 

6,080 bushels of corn and malt 3,052 cwt. 
(5,168 bushels of corn) 
( 912 bushels of malt) 

Wash: 

216,500 gallons 

Yield: 

16,542 gallons of British proof spirit or 5.4 gallons per cwt. 

Reduction in bulk, in one continuous operation, from 216,500 gallons 
of wash to 9,930 gallons of spirit, or of 100 gallons of wash to 4.5 gallons 
of spirit. The wash had an average spirit value of 7.8% of proof spirit 
and the spirit produced an average spirit value of 165.2% or 65.2% o.p. 
The relative quantities of spirit and feints in the collected distillates were 
in the ratio of IOO proof gallons of spirit to 2.7 proof gallons of feints 
(16,409.9 actual to 444.6 actual). In bulk, the ratio was 100 gallons 
of spirit to 5.7 gallons of feints. 

PATENT STILL DISTILLERY 
Batch: 

10,500 bushels of corn and malt 5,089 cwt. 
(3,000 bushels of malt) 
(7,500 bushels of corn) 

Wash: 

500,000 gallons wort 
50,000 gallons yeast washings 

Yield: 

31,068.1 proof gallons or 6.1 proof gallons per cwt. 

Rate of distillation: 

2 Coffey stills operating 32 hours; rate per hour 17,187 gallons 

Reduction in bulk in one continuous distillation was 550,000 gallons 
(original wort, with yeast pressings, etc., recovered) reduced to 18,615 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 115 

gallons of spirit and feints, or in the ratio of 100 wash to 3.38 spirit and 
feints. The wash had an average spirit value of 6.3 per cent proof spirit, 
and the spirit and feints one of 166.9 P er cent proof (83.5 per cent by 
volume). 

The relative quantities of spirit and feints collected as distillates were 
31,045.3 and 826.2 proof gallons; or in a ratio of 100 spirit to 2.6 feints. 
The ratio of bulk was 100 spirit to 2.9 feints. 

In considering yield figures it should always be borne in mind 
that yield does not wholly depend on efficiency of distillation. 
The quality of grain varies from year to year and though the dis- 
tiller may pay more for his grain in one particular year it is quite 
possible that the yield per cwt. will be less than in the preceding 
year. This reduced yield is due to inferior grain and the rise 
in prices to economic factors. 

American Whiskey. General Statement. While the prac- 
tice of whiskey manufacture in the United States varies quite 
definitely from British practice, it is also divided within itself into 
two general schemes. The divergences from British practice are 
mainly in the method of preparing the grain before the actual 
mashing (saccharification of the starch) ; in the general custom 
of fermenting the whole mash rather than filtered wort; and in 
the almost universal employment of patent stills. Within itself 
American whiskey making may be classified as small scale and 
large scale. There are definite differences of procedure and not 
merely size of operation which distinguish the two groups. 

Preparation of Wort. Small Scale. Not only is starch a 
highly resistant material, but in cereal grains it is present in such 
highly compressed masses that some variety of treatment is neces- 
sary to loosen and spread it thinner before it is possible to convert 
it to sugars with any degree of efficiency. In the British Isles this 
object is accomplished either by subjecting the entire batch of 
grain to the malting process or else by the use of one or another 
modification of the acid conversion process. In the United States, 
where mixed mash whiskey is made, the starch is "opened up" or 
"pastified" by boiling with water, with or without the addition 
of a small portion of malt. In "small scale" operation this cook- 
ing is done at atmospheric pressure. The grain is ground to grist, 



n6 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

a portion of dry or green malt grist is added, hot water is poured 
on in the ratio of 20 gallons per 56 Ib. bushel of grist, and heat 
(steam) and agitation applied until the starch is "pastified." 
While the primary object of the process is "pastification," the 
addition of malt undoubtedly causes a slight amount of saccharifi- 
cation to occur simultaneously. It is usual to start the cooking at 
about 140 F. Live steam is then run into the open tank until 
the batch boils. Boiling continues for about one hour and then 
the batch is cooled to about 150 F. and the mashing commenced 
by the addition of a suitable quantity of malt. Generally, in a 
small distillery of this character, an open tank equipped with 
agitator, live steam, and cooling coils is employed for the starch 
pastification and the mashing is carried in the same vessel. Usu- 
ally the malt, when introduced into the mashing vat, is at a tem- 
perature of 1 25- 1 30 F. so that the batch after mixing will 
have a temperature of about 140 F. The mash is held at this 
temperature for a half hour or so and then warmed to about 
150 F. After being held at this temperature for about one and 
a half hours it is cooled to about 66 F. in the summer or 72 F. 
in the winter. 

Fermentation. The batch is then ready to commence the fer- 
mentation. While it is possible to commence fermentation at a 
somewhat higher temperature than those stated, it is also dan- 
gerous as the reaction may overheat beyond control. 

It has been suggested that the process just outlined may be 
modified in the interest of malt economy, as follows: The mixed 
mash is started at 135 F. and after thorough agitation, most of 
the wort is drained off and stored temporarily. In the while, the 
wet grain is again raised to boiling temperature and boiled for a 
short time. Cold liquor is then added to reduce the temperature 
to 140 F. and the stored wort pumped back and thoroughly 
mixed with the balance of the mash. The subsequent procedure 
is as above. This modified process was designed to permit a sec- 
ond pastification of such starch as was uncooked in the first opera- 
tion and provides no advantage if the first cooking was sufficiently 
thorough. 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 117 

Distillation. Practically all American whiskey is distilled in 
patent stills by the process described in detail for large scale 
distillation. 

LARGE SCALE OPERATION 

The manufacture of whiskey on a large scale in the United 
States represents the application to this process of all the im- 
provements in efficiency and economy of time and materials made 
available by modern Chemical Engineering knowledge. A dis- 
tillery includes units for milling; yeast production; whiskey, 
spirits and gin manufacture; recovery of secondary constituents; 
blending; and reduction and recovery of slop. A diagrammatic 
layout is shown as a whole in Figure 26 and the separate parts 
in Figures 27-31. 

Milling. The first operation at the distillery is the prepara- 
tion of the grain and malt. These are elevated to hoppers and 
passed over magnetic separators to remove tramp iron, etc., 
which might injure the crushers. The cereals are then fed to 
grinders of the type commonly used for flour milling, and re- 
duced to meal. The separate meals are then elevated to receivers 
and hoppers by means of air conveyors, and fed to their respective 
storage bins. 

Cooking. Starch is completely pastified by cooking under 
pressure. In order to maintain semi-continuous operation this is 
accomplished in three cookers used cyclically at intervals of an 
hour. That is, cooking of each distinct batch consumes three 
hours, but each hour another cooker in rotation has completed 
its batch and commences with a fresh one. A scheme of this 
operation is shown in Figure 32, p. 125. 

The charge is usually made up on the proportion of 15-20 
gallons of water at 100 F. per bushel of grist. In the mash tun 
more water or "slop-back" is added until the ratio is about 40 
gallons per bushel. It will be noted that economy of steam is ob- 
tained by using the high pressure steam from one cooker to pre- 
heat another. Similarly, the use of a barometric condenser serves 
to economize on cooling water. When the charge is properly 



n8 



WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 



RECEIVER 



EXHAUSTER 



CENTRIFUGAL 
SEPARATOR 




GRAIN STORAGE MILLING 

Fie. 37. (Courtesy E. B. Badger & Sons Co.) 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 



119 




MASHING YEASTING & FERMENTING 

FIG. 2$. (Courtesy of E. B. Badger & Sons Co.) 



I2O 



WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 




, WHISKEY DISTILLATION 

FIG. 29. (Courtesy E. B. Badger & Sons Co.) 




CO 

z 

o 



CQ 
PQ 



Q 
CO 

cE 

CL 
CO 



122 



WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 



*3SnOH NOVH 



M01VA313 

xovy or^ 




IU 












W 



O 

U 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 



123 




MASH RECOVERY 

FIG. 32. (Courtesy E. B. Badger & Sons Co.) 



I2 4 



WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 



TIME SCALE 


COOKER No. 


i 


2 


3 







Charge with grist and 


Steam bled to No. I 


Cold malt mash 







Hour 


water. 


cooker. 


added. Kept at 










i45F. for ist 1 5 min. 






Steam bled from No. 2 




1 50 F. for 2nd 1 5 min. 






cooker. 












Live steam at 50 Ib. 


Steam bled to baro- 


Discharge to mash 






pressure. 


metric condenser. Kept. 


tun. 








boiling until cooled to 










150 F. 22" vacuum. 










Steam bled to No. 3 


Cold malt mash 


Charge with grist 


i 


Hour 


cooker. 


added. Kept at 


and water. 








145 F. for ist 15 min. 










i5oF. for 2nd 15 min. 


Steam bled from 










No. i Cooker. 






Steam bled to baro- 


Discharge to mash 


Live steam at 50 Ib. 






metric condenser. Kept 


tun. 


pressure. 






boiling until cooled to 










i5oF. 11" vacuum. 












Cold malt mash 


Charge with grist and 


Steam bled to No. 2 


i 


Hour 


added. Kept at 


water. 


cooker. 






145 F. for ist 15 min. 










i5oF. for 2nd 15 min. 


Steam bled to No. 3 










cooker. 










Discharge to mash 


Live steam at 50 Ib. 


Steam bled to baro- 






tun. 


pressure. 


metric condenser. 










Kept boiling until 










cooled to 150 F. 22" 










vacuum. 


3 


Hour 


Recharge as at o hour. 


Steam bled to No. i 


Cold malt mash 








cooker. 


added. Kept at 










145 F. for ist 15 min. 








1 50 F. for 2nd 1 5 min. 



FIGURE 33. 3-Hour Cooking Cycle in Large American Distillery. 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 125 

cooked it has the consistency of a thick soup and all of its starch 
is quickly accessible to the diastatic action of the malt. 

Mashing. The mash is then pumped to the mash tun and 
water, or liquor from the spent slop tank if a sour mash is de- 
sired, is introduced in sufficient quantity to make the ratio of the 
total mash 40 gallons of liquid per bushel of grain and the batch 
is agitated while the mashing operation proceeds under tempera- 
tures and conditions approximately equivalent to those previously 
described under "mashing processes/' 

Fermentation. At the conclusion of the mashing operation 
the whole contents of the tun are pumped, usually to an inclosed 
cooler. In this type of cooler the mash is forced through a double 
pipe system and is cooled by a counter current of water down 
to 70 to 80 F. This is a radical departure from Scotch and 
Irish practice in which only the wort is used for fermentation. 
A small portion of the mash is bypassed to an auxiliary mash tank 
which forms part of the yeast propagating system. The main 
mash Is pumped from the coolers to the fermentation tanks and 
a certain amount of yeast is added from the yeast growing system. 
Fermentation soon commences and the temperature is controlled 
by means of cooling coils. It will be observed from the diagrams 
that the heating and cooling operations are effected by means of 
coils within the tanks. After completion of the fermentation 
the "beer" is pumped to the "beer well," a tank which is fitted 
with an agitating device thoroughly to stir the beer and prevent 
any settling. 

Distillation. At this stage of the process there are several 
interesting variations from Scotch and Irish methods of distilla- 
tion. Note, on the diagrams, that by means of a bypass system 
the beer well may be connected to either the whiskey or spirit 
stills; these are both termed beer columns, although they are 
really distinct kinds of stills. 

Various economies and several different methods of operations 
are effected by the aid of an elaborate piping system. Both the 
whiskey and the spirit stills are equipped with heat exchanging 
apparatus so that the still vapors passing through the heat ex- 



126 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

changers give up their latent heat to the beer as it is pumped 
through the apparatus on its way to the stills. In other words, 
pre-heating of the beer is effected by means of the latent heat of 
the still vapors. 

The whiskey still consists of a column equipped in the head 
with two rectifying plates and one washing- plate. In this very 
efficient arrangement ascending alcoholic vapors are rectified so 
that their alcoholic content is increased from approximately 
6 per cent to 72 per cent. This effects in one continuous opera- 
tion, and more efficiently, the same doubling of concentration 
achieved by the European pot still equipped with a doubler as 
shown in Figure 15 in Chapter VIIL The rectified vapors then 
pass through the heat exchanger and then into the condensing 
system. As they emerge from the condensing system they are 
tested for strength and content of secondary products. 

Another advance over European practice at this point is the 
fact that by means of the control system it is possible either to 
pass the condensates back to the column for reflux purposes or to 
withdraw them to a test box. By these means, a whiskey of 
almost any desired secondary product content can be produced at 
the will of the distiller, depending on the rate of reflux em- 
ployed. The distillate when diluted with distilled water to about 
100 proof (50% by volume) is ready to barrel as whiskey. 

The spirit still is a typical continuous alcohol rectifying still 
equipped with heat exchanging device for pre-heating the beer 
fed from the beer well and with various rectifying units for re- 
moving both lower and higher boiling impurities, especially alde- 
hydes and higher alcohols. By means of control and concentra- 
tion devices a practically pure, 96 per cent spirit can be produced. 

These spirit units recover more than 98 per cent of all the 
alcohol present in the beer and produce 90 per cent of this alcohol 
as high grade U. S. P. spirits and the remainder as heads and 
a washed fusel oil. Such a unit will use about 40 pounds of steam 
per gallon of alcohol produced. The largest of these units now 
in use produces 18,000 gallons of spirits per day of 24 hours. 

Figure 31 shows a mash recovery system. Here the spent 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 127 

still liquor, or slop, is received, agitated, and passed over a 
screen to filter out the solids. The solids are fed to a press to 
squeeze out residual moisture. The liquor is discharged to the 
spent slop tank, while the damp solids are then fed to a rotary 
drier of standard design, which drives off any remaining moisture. 
A blower delivers the dried solids to a receiver fitted with a hop- 
per which feeds the material to a packaging device. Recovery 
of solids is approximately 12 to 15 pounds per bushel. 

Unless legislation or peculiar local conditions require total 
evaporation the thin slop is discharged to the sewer or part is 
returned if process calls for "slopping back." 

Aging. Whiskey as first produced by any of the processes 
described is raw and unpleasant to the taste and disagreeable in 
odor. It has been known for very many years that by storage for 
a period of time, changes in the odor and taste are produced 
which result finally in the ripe smoothness of taste and pleasant 
odor associated with good whiskey. Despite much work the 
whole chemical nature of these changes is still incompletely 
known. As the late William Howard Taft concluded from an 
investigation made during his presidency: "It was supposed for 
a long time that by the aging of straight whiskey in the charred 
wood a chemical change took place which rid the liquor of fusel 
oil and this destroyed the unpleasant taste and odor. It now 
appears by chemical analysis that this is untrue that the effect 
of the aging is only to dissipate the odor and modify the raw, 
unpleasant flavor, but to leave the fusel oil still in the straight 
whiskey." 

Actually, comparative analysis of old and new whiskey shows 
a somewhat greater content of secondary constituents in the old 
matured whiskies, especially in the relative amounts of volatile 
acids and aldehydes. The esters also increase, but to a lesser 
extent, while the furfural and higher alcohol contents remain 
practically unaltered. Of course, whiskey stored in wooden bar- 
rels increases in proof due to a relatively more rapid diffusion 
of water through the pores of the wood. In obtaining the 
analytical results noted above, this change is compensated by 



128 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

calculation to a uniform base alcoholic strength. The solids con- 
tent and color of the whiskey increase markedly on aging due 
to the extraction of tannin, resins and other materials from the 
wood. The density of color is directly proportional to the solids 
content in an aged whiskey. 

Aging practices differ somewhat. British custom is to store 
the whiskey in uncharred oak barrels while American whiskies, 
both Rye and Bourbon, are stored in charred barrels. The color 
and solids of whiskey aged in uncharred packages are much 
smaller in amount and more water soluble than those of whiskey 
stored in charred packages. The charring also results in a "bead" 
of oilier consistency and greater permanence than the uncharred 
barrel imparts. 

Rye whiskies are stored in heated warehouses, while Bourbons 
are matured in unheated buildings. As a result the former are 
stronger in color than the latter. In general, whiskey does not 
improve at all after about ten years of storage, although there 
still continue slight changes in composition; nor is there any very 
marked improvement in desirable character after the first four to 
six years of storage. The high price of very old whiskies is 
largely to compensate for evaporation losses which become very 
marked, and the carrying charges on investment tied up for long 
terms of years. Storing has its limitations. A fifteen year old 
whiskey maybe a bad whiskey because, as President Taft pointed 
out, its fusel oil content has increased too much. There are whis- 
kies only two years old far better in flavor than hoary distillates 
that have been kept in barrels for two decades. 

Artificial Aging. The chemist distinguishes between aging 
and maturation; that is, between the mere passage of time and 
the effects thereby produced. If the latter can be duplicated 
within a short period, the results, from the chemist's and from an 
economic point of view are much preferable. Hence much study 
has been given to the subject of the artificial aging of spirits. 
Many of the more scientific suggestions are admirably summar- 
ized by Snell and Fain in an article which appeared in Ind. & 
Eng. Chem. News Ed. XII, 7, p. 120. They state: 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 129 

The Legalization of Traffic in spirituous liquors in this country has 
created a situation which puts a premium on naturally aged alcoholic 
beverages. To satisfy the demand for liquor at a popular price, the avail- 
able stocks on hand have to be increased either by blending or accelerated 
aging. 

During the aging process the constituents of alcoholic spirits undergo 
chemical change. A study of the changes taking place in whisky stored 
in wood over a period of eight years revealed (5) important relations 
between the acid, ester, color, and solid contents of a properly aged whisky 
which will differentiate it from artificial mixtures and from young spirits. 
High color, high solid content, and high alcohol concentration are gen- 
erally accompanied by high acid and ester content; low color and solid 
content go with a small amount of acids and esters. In the aging process 
the acids are at first formed more rapidly than the esters. Later the esters 
form more rapidly so that by the end of the fourth year they are present 
in the same amounts. The equilibrium reached at this period is main- 
tained. The amounts of higher alcohols increase in the matured whisky 
only in proportion to the alcohol concentration. The oily appearance of 
a matured whisky is due to material extracted from the charred container ; 
this appearance is almost lacking in whiskies aged in uncharred wood. 
The improvement in flavor of whiskies in charred containers after the 
fourth year is due largely to concentration. The higher content of solids, 
acids, esters, etc., of rye over Bourbon whiskies is explained by the fact 
that heated warehouses were used for maturing rye whiskies and unheated 
warehouses for maturing Bourbon. 

The aging of brandy, similar to that of whisky, takes place in oak 
casks. The conjoint action of the oxygen of the atmosphere and the 
resins, gums, and tannins extracted from the wood are responsible for the 
improvement of the liquor. These compounds, being capable of easy oxi- 
dation, pass through a series of reactions. Aromatic compounds particu- 
larly agreeable in taste and odor are formed. 

Aging of spirits involves oxidation. It is this reaction which one 
attempts to hasten by the processes devised for accelerated aging. Methods 
for aging spirits artificially fall into four main classes as follows : ( I ) 
treatment with air, oxygen, or ozone; (2) exposure to actinic rays; (3) 
electrolytic treatment; and (4) use of catalysts. Combinations of these 
methods are likewise employed. 

TREATMENT WITH GASEOUS OXIDANTS 

A recent example of the first type provides for treatment (77) of the 
liquor with oxygen while exposed on large wooden surfaces which have 



130 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

been impregnated with a solution obtained by extracting seaweed ash. 
Brandy (28) is artificially aged by bringing it into contact with activated 
charcoal which may first be treated with a current of air or oxygen. 

Oxidation may be accelerated by the use of compressed air (6). The 
liquid to be treated is run into a tank which can stand a pressure of 
several atmospheres. Compressed air enters from the bottom of the tank. 
The length of time required for treating by this process depends mainly 
on the pressure of the air, the nature of the liquid, and the extent of aging 
desired. In a special apparatus (21) for this purpose, the liquid is sprayed 
or atomized in a chamber containing air under pressure by delivering from 
two oppositely disposed nozzles with a double cone between. Intimate 
mixture is obtained. As a modification of methods for treatment with 
oxygen in high concentration, beverages such as brandy, cognac, and liqueurs 
(13} are cooled to a temperature below 18 C., saturated repeatedly 
with air while at this temperature, and afterward stored in a warm room 
until the acids combine with the alcohols forming esters. According to a 
Canadian process (26) oxygenating gas is bubbled through new spirits 
in a vat. The gas, after passing through the liquid, rises through a mass 
of shavings or cuttings of charred or desiccated wood (preferably oak) over 
which a counterflow of the spirits is maintained by withdrawing liquid 
from the bottom of the vat and discharging it into or over the wood. 

Alcoholic beverages, such as whisky, cognac, etc., are also treated with 
air (2) which has been subjected to a high-tension electric arc. This air 
contains oxides of nitrogen. The claim is made that the flavor is improved. 

Aging has been accomplished (4) by bringing the liquid in contact with 
bodies such as oak chips or shavings which have been treated with ozonized 
air or oxygen. This prevents local excess concentration of the ozone. 

Apparatus has been developed (/) for the production of ozone for use 
in the accelerated aging of liquors. Sizes up to 300 kw. with capacities 
up to 10 to 12 kg. of ozone per hour are available. Concentrations of 2 
to 4 grams of ozone per cubic meter can be obtained in air or oxygen, 
with an energy consumption of 25 to 35 kw-hr. per kg. of ozone. Treat- 
ment of liquor with ozone gives a mellowing effect in a short time which 
can be obtained otherwise only after months or years of storage. Analysis 
shows a decreased aldehyde content and an increased ester content. A 
suitable ozonizer for liquor treatment is a special 50-watt size with a 
capacity of 100 liters per hour. 

USE OF ACTINIC RAYS 

For artificial aging of wines and liquors by the action of ultra-violet 
light (7), a vapor electric arc having a quartz container is used. The 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 131 

liquor is passed over this lamp in a thin film. In several processes actinic 
rays are used in combination with oxygen or an oxidizing agent. 

One process (16) subjects them to light from a neon lamp ranging 
from yellow to orange in color, in the presence of oxygen. Another (20) 
subjects them to ultra-violet rays after addition of a small amount of 
hydrogen peroxide, inorganic and organic peroxide, or ozonide. 

As another variation (ig) wine, cognac, etc., are aged and improved 
by pretreating with ultra-violet light the water used in their preparation. 
The water may also be aerated or treated with oxidizing agents. The 
product after addition of the water is sometimes irradiated. 

ELECTROLYTIC TREATMENT 

Beverages are artificially aged by an electrolytic treatment (14) pro- 
ducing hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid. The electrodes and the dia- 
phragm between them are impregnated with insoluble inorganic salts or 
oxides capable of producing oxidation and reduction effects in the presence 
of the oxygen and hydrogen produced. 

In aging and maturing alcoholic liquors by electrolysis (10, //), a 
depolarizing cathode and a current of low intensity are used. The cathode 
is formed of a carbon electrode surrounded by manganese dioxide and 
carbon contained in a porous pot. The anode is formed of a nonoxidizable 
metal such as gold. The electrolysis is effected in the presence of the 
substances which the spirits will extract from oak wood. For this purpose 
the spirits are allowed to remain for some time before treatment in oak 
casks. Sometimes oak shavings are added to the spirits during treatment. 
The electrolysis will, owing to cataphoresis, assist in the extraction. The 
electrolysis may be effected in oak casks between anodes on the outside of 
the cask and a cathode inserted through the bunghole. Pads of moist linen 
or cotton are placed between the anode and the surface of the cask. The 
vats and casks are supported on insulators which may be bowls containing 
a liquid such as vaseline oil. The passage of current is maintained con- 
tinuously for eight to ten days, according to the conditions adapted for 
each application. 

Apparatus (8) for treating liquids such as wines, spirits, etc., with 
electrical currents of high voltage and low amperage, consists of two point- 
and-disk separators placed oppositely in parallel circuits connected to the 
terminals of a transformer, so that one alternation of the transformer cur- 
rent will pass through one circuit and the other alternation through the 
other. Barrels containing the liquid to be treated are inserted in each 
circuit. By the use of this method there is no heating of the liquid, and 
loss by volatilization of the aromatic compounds contained in the liquor 



132 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

is minimized. Another process (p) ages wine, cognac, and arrack by 
passing a high-tension electric discharge through them. The combination 
of the electrolytic treatment with the use of air, oxygen, or ozone has 
likewise proved effective. 

Suitable apparatus (23, 24, 25) combines treating liquor in barrels with 
a gas, such as air, oxygen, or ozone, and the use of an electric current to 
accelerate aging. An electrode is inserted through the bunghole of the 
liquor container, and the liquid either alone or together with a fine wire 
of high resistance connecting the electrodes serves as conductor. Heating 
of the liquid occurs in either case. 

An ingenious process (18) includes saturation of the liquid with oxy- 
gen, followed by the transformation of this oxygen into ozone by means 
of discharges of electricity through the liquid. The oxygen is introduced 
into the liquid under pressure and the electricity is discharged at short 
intervals through the liquid. Impurities from distillation are oxidized and 
the flavor is improved. 

USE OF CATALYSTS 

Artificial aging of spirits is aided by the use of catalysts. The vapors 
may be passed over finely dispersed metal oxides such as those of copper, 
nickel, and titanium (27) at 150 to 180 C. 

Suitable catalysts for oxidation (22) are oxides of cobalt, cerium, 
vanadium, and uranium. Catalysts for ester formation are oxides of lead, 
molybdenum, silicon, uranium, and cerium. The best flavors are produced 
by the use of oxides of lead, copper, nickel, molybdenum, cobalt, titanium, 
and silicon. 

Charcoal and charred sawdust have likewise been found to catalyze 
the maturing of spirits. The rising vapors, inside or outside the cask, 
may contact catalytically acting charred sawdust or charcoal (29) with- 
out the catalyst, however, coming in contact with the liquid. Other cata- 
lysts may be employed in this way, alone or together with the charcoal or 
charred sawdust. 

A similar method ( j) for maturing potable alcoholic liquors is to mix 
the vapors from a pot still with heated air, subdivide the mixture into 
narrow streams, and pass this through a narrow conduit heated to about 
1 50 C. The streams are joined and the treated vapors condensed. The 
heated metal walls are supposed to act catalytically to produce the desired 
result. 

MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES 

Spirits are also aged (15) by separating alcohol and water, and re- 
moving the fusel oil from the concentrated extract of oils, etc., by treat- 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 133 

ment with petroleum ether. The concentrated extracts are subjected to 
accelerated aging by one of the methods described above, and again mixed 
with alcohol and water free from fusel oil. 

According to another process ( 12) an extract prepared from oak wood, 
such as is used in making the usual storage vats, is added. The wood, 
which may be the heart of the larger branches of the trees or the waste 
obtained in making casks, is disintegrated and submitted to two successive 
extractions with aqueous alcohol and a final extraction with water. The 
alcoholic extracts are distilled in vacua at a low temperature, the residue 
is added to the aqueous extract, and the mixture is evaporated in vacuo to 
obtain the extract in the form of a dry solid. 

The old principle of acceleration of a chemical reaction by heat is 
applied to wines and spirits by storing them in closed vessels and agitating 
(30) for some months at 43 C. A rocking, effected by oscillating a 
platform on which the cask rests, rather than by a tremulous vibration, gives 
the desired results. 

The lines of attack on the problem are sound and can be expected to 
give results when properly applied. Details as to application vary in dif- 
ferent processes. Some are in commercial use today in our newest large 
industry. 

LITERATURE CITED 

(1) Becker, J., Chem. Fabrik, 1929, 49. 

(2) Brabender Elektromaschinen G. m. b. H., German Patent 500,- 

708 (1928). 

(3) Carroll, J. E., U. S. Patent 968,832 (1910). 

(4) Coffre, R., British Patent 340,647 (1928). 

(5) Crampton, C. A., and Tolman, L. M., /. Am. Chem. Soc.j 30, 

98 (1908). 

(6) Deriques, J. L., Z. Spiritusind., 31, 141 (1908). 

(7) Henri, V., Helbronner A., and von Recklinghausen, M., U. S. 

Patent 1,130,400 (1910). 

(8) Henry, C., British Patent 17,400 (1914)- 

(9) Hirschmann, W. A., German Patent 199,265 (1907). 
(10) Jarraud, A, British Patent 141,687 (1920). 

(n) Jarraud, A., German Patent 239,3OO (1910). 

(12) Jarraud, A., and Roussel, J., British Patent 148,829 (1920). 

(13) Monti, E., U. S. Patent 1,108,777 (1905)- 

(14) Nottelli, L. E., French Patent 711,300 (1931)- 

(15) Philipsky, J. H., German Patent 549,524 (1929). 

(16) Ibid., 557,8o6 (1930). 

(17) Ibid., 572,351 (i932). 



134 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

(18) Plotti, A., Progres agr. vit., 24, 674 (1908). 

(19) Reinisch, E., Austrian Patent 112,976 (1928). 

(20) .Ibid., 115,902 (1929)- 

(21) Saint-Martin, W., German Patent 237,280 (1910). 

(22) Sandor, Z, de, Mezogazdasdgi Kutatdsok, 4, 468 (1931). 

(23) Seitz, J., U. S. Patent 961,167 (1908). 

(24) Ibid., 967,574 (1908). 

(25) Ibid., 967,575 (1909). 

(26) Sunderman, F. R., and Gaut, R. E., Canadian Patent 303,644 

(1930). 

(27) Toth, G., Magyar Chem. Folyoirat, 38, 129 (1932). 

(28) Verdeaux, F., French Patent 716,829 (1931). 

(29) Verein der Spiritus Fabrikanten, German Patent 291,349 

(1915). 

(30) Vianna, J. da V., British Patent 23, 548 (1913). 

Dosing. It is also claimed and has probably been practiced 
that the addition of small proportions of the materials listed 
below either singly, or in combination, will improve the flavor and 
appearance of whiskey. 

Acetic Acid 
Allspice 

Almond shell extract 
* Beechwood creosote 
Caramel 
Caraway seed 
Cedar wood extract 
Cherries, dried 
Cherry juice 
Cinnamon 
Cloves 
Glycerin 

Glycerite of tannin 
Oak extract 
Peach juice 
Peaches, dried 
Plum juice 
Plums, dried 
Prune juice 

* Beechwood creosote is said to have been the material used during prohibition 
for imparting the smoky taste to bootleg Scotch whiskey. 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 135 

Prunes, dried 

Sherry wine 

Spirit of nitrous ether 

Tannic acid 

Vanilla 

Walnut shell extract 

Catechu tincture 

Coumarin 

Kino tincture 

Orris root 

Pekoe tea 

One of the less scientific methods for accelerating the matura- 
tion of whiskey was aging for comparatively short periods in 
old sherry wine casks. This method was claimed not only to be 
very effective but also is probably the least objectionable. As a 
variation the casks could be subjected, before filling with whiskey, 
to a forced seasoning. The process consisted of placing the casks 
bung down and drying them thoroughly by forcing a current of 
warm air through the bunghole. Then enough wine to wet all 
the inner surface was poured into the cask, the cask revolved to 
coat all the wood and the wood impregnated by forcing in warm 
air under pressure. 

Blending. On account of the inherent variability of a prod- 
uct made in relatively small batches like pot still whiskey; and 
the natural fluctuations in the qualities of the raw materials avail- 
able for patent still whiskey, the practice of blending whiskey of 
different distillations and different years arose early in the life of 
the industry, to enable the distiller to market a more uniform 
product. Later, the custom extended to the blending of the 
products of different distilleries and of distillates from both pot 
and patent stills. Still later, and in the United States possibly 
even more after the repeal of prohibition, the practice of spread- 
ing the flavor of an old whiskey over three to five times as much 
diluted u silent spirits" was exceedingly common. 

In Great Britain the business of blending has assumed great 
importance within the industry as can be shown by reference to 
the Directory of Whiskey Brands and Blends which lists 3428 



136 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

Scotch, 487 Irish, and 128 Scotch and Irish blends founded upon 
the output of 122 Scotch and Irish distilleries. 

The practice has both good and bad features. For example, 
the blender can take the distillers' output and by skillful blending 
produce a product of uniform characteristics year after year with 
little variation. Again, qualities desired of whiskey vary accord- 
ing to the locality. For example, Scotland, Canada and Scandi- 
navian countries favor stronger whiskies than those drunk in 
England, France, Belgium, Holland, Australia and India. It is 
hard to say what the United States now favors, probably a strong 
whiskey. The blender can meet these geographical differences in 
taste by skillful blending. On the other hand, cheap and inferior 
blends have often been foisted upon the public under misleading 
names. 

Blending formulae are secret, and the practice as carried on 
by some of the oldest and most conservative blenders approaches 
an art. At its crudest it consists of pouring the various whiskies 
into a blending tank according to formula, dosing, coloring and 
stirring the mixture and then allowing it to rest for 24 hours. 
The blend is aged in a cask for a short time and then bottled. 

This gives a raw whiskey, imperfectly blended, and fit only 
for a cheap trade. A good blender proceeds more as follows: 
First, he selects various fine malt whiskies. He blends these care- 
fully, marrying one whiskey with another every three months 
until the desired body and flavor are obtained, and then ages 
them in an uncharred oak cask for about two years. When he 
deems the blending and aging to be complete, he mixes the prod- 
uct with patent still spirit and Lowland or equivalent malt, stirs 
them up and allows them to age again in an uncharred oak cask 
for a year or more. 

Scotch pot distillers have admitted the necessity of blending 
both pot and patent still products, except when the pot still spirit 
has matured for a considerable number of years in wood, in which 
case they consider it unnecessary. They claim that it is the pot 
still product which imparts character to the blend and that con- 
sequently it must always be employed in preponderating propor- 



AMERICAN WHISKEY 137 

tion in the blend if the reputation, which the best classes of Scotch 
whiskey have gained, is to be maintained. 

The production of cheap and palatable Scotch whiskies in- 
volves a different set of considerations. It is necessary for pot 
still spirits to mature in wood in order that they should acquire 
a pleasant flavor. Patent still whiskies, on the other hand, 
although they are improved by aging in wood, change to a less 
extent and mature much more quickly. It is stated that by 
blending immature pot still with patent still whiskey the pungent, 
unpleasant taste of the former is attenuated or toned down and 
that the mixture then becomes u a palatable and not unwholesome 
spirit." Such a mixture, if stored in wood, would mature in a 
shorter time than would the pot still whiskey alone. 

The proportion of pot still to patent still whiskey in these 
cheap blends is varied chiefly in accordance with the price at 
which they are planned to sell. The cheapest blends may con- 
tain as little as 10 per cent of the former and even less. 

Irish distillers contend that it is unnecessary to blend aged 
Irish pot still whiskey with patent still spirits, but admit that such 
blends are made for the cheaper trades. By British law the age 
of the whiskey in a bottle is determined by the age of the young- 
est whiskey in it, irrespective of the amount of that whiskey. 
Let us suppose that there are fifteen whiskies in a bottle, aver- 
aging fourteen years and making up 99 per cent of the contents, 
while i per cent is a whiskey aged five years. The legal de- 
clarable age of that whiskey is five years. White lies have been 
told on labels bearing such inscriptions as "Whiskey in this bottle 
is fifteen years old." It is true that there may be whiskey in that 
bottle aged fifteen years, but the real story is not there. 

Post repeal American blending practice is still, at the time of 
this writing, in a chaotic state. The same general principles of 
desirable and undesirable blending are applicable as in British 
practice. The details of blending in this country as well as the 
tremendously complicated system of combined federal and sep- 
arate state legislation are in an almost continuous state of flux 
so that there is little to gain by recording them. With the advent 



138 WHISKEY MANUFACTURE 

of repeal in this country, stocks of aged whiskey were much below 
the anticipated demand. Hence, most such stocks were "blended" 
or "cut" with very new whiskey or even with diluted alcohol and 
other materials, colored with caramel, dosed with "prune juice 11 
and "bead oil" and sold quickly. Very shortly the flood of 
federal and state regulations appeared. These range from re- 
quirements that a "blended whiskey" shall contain not less than 
20 per cent of four year old "U. S. P. Whiskey" to requirements 
similar to the British, that blended whiskey shall bear on its label 
the age of the youngest whiskey it contains. The reader is re- 
ferred to Chapter XIII on interpretation of analysis for further 
details on this topic. 



CHAPTER X 
BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

AND 

OTHER DISTILLED LIQUORS 

BRANDY 

Brandy is the product prepared by distilling wine, wine lees 
and/or grape pomace and often by blending the results of these 
operations. 

It is a yellowish-brown liquor of sweet, smooth ethereal 
flavor and of fine bouquet. Alcoholic content is usually from 45 
to 55 per cent by volume. 

As first made it is normally colorless, and the familiar yellow- 
ish-brown hue is obtained either naturally by aging in oak casks 
or artificially by addition of a solution of caramel. 

The fine flavor and bouquet result from the secondary con- 
stituents of the brandy and are dependent upon a number of fac- 
tors, principally raw materials, operating methods, aging, etc. 
The secondary constituents consist of various esters (acetic, 
butyric, oenanthic, valerianic), acetic acid, volatile oils, tannin, 
fixed acid and coloring matter. Ethyl pelargonate (oenanthic 
ester) and other volatile constituents are thought to be mainly 
responsible for the flavor. 

Because of the fine quality of its products France is com- 
monly thought of as the home of brandy. However, other coun- 
tries are also large producers: e.g., Spain, Egypt, South Africa, 
Australia, Algeria, Germany and the United States (California). 
Spanish and Algerian brandies are of very high quality. Egyptian 
brandies are made from imported grapes (Asia Minor and 
Southern Turkey) and have a strong flavor. They are not so 
fine and compete with the cheaper brandies. Australian and 

139 



1 40 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

South African brandies are of fair quality. South African "dop" 
brandy is an "eaux de vie de marc." 

Brandies are produced in various parts of France. The best 
are produced in the Cognac district which is located in the two 
departments, Charente and Charente Inferieure. The region 
is also divided, according to the fineness of the wine, into the 
Grande (or fine) Champagne, the Petite Champagne, the Bor- 
deries and the Bois. Next in order of commercial merit are 
those made in the Armagnac, including the Marmande district. 

Other parts of France in which brandies are produced are: 
le Midi, Aude, Card, Herault and Pyrenees Orientales. Brandies 
from these districts are commonly known as the "Trois-Six de 
Montpellier." 

Eau-de-vie is the French name for brandy. It is used there 
in a rather broad sense and may embrace spirit distilled from 
wine, cider, perry, marc, cherries, plums or other fruit and also to 
mixtures of such spirits, or to a blend of any such eau-de-vie with 
any "alcool d'industrie" which is a name for either grain or 
beet alcohol. In view of this all-embracing nature of the term 
it is customary for a Frenchman to qualify his order for an eau- 
de-vie by specifying "un fine," or "fine champagne" or "un co- 
gnac" 

True brandies may be classified into the following grades : 

First. Distilled from high quality light white wine not less 
than a year old. 

Second. Distilled from second grade wines or spoiled and 
soured wines which have been specially treated before distilla- 
tion. 

Third. Distilled from grape pomace which may have been 
refermented with sugar and water. The term "grape pomace 1 ' 
includes the skins, pulp and possibly the stems of the fruit. These 
brandies are naturally of very inferior quality. They are known 
as Marc Brandies or "eau de vie de marc" from the French term 
for pomace. During prohibition a similar product was supplied 
in the United States by bootleggers under the name "grappo." 

Fourth. Certain incrustations are left on the sides and bot- 
toms of fermentation tanks and aging barrels. They are called 



BRANDY 141 

u wine lees 11 and usually contain from 20-35% f potassium acid 
tartrate (Cream of Tartar) and up to 20% calcium tartrate. 
They also contain yeast cells, and protein and solid matter which 
had settled out from the grape juice. By acidifying the lees with 
sulphuric acid and distilling, a product of exceedingly strong 
flavor and odor is obtained which is used to give character to 
diluted silent spirits, and the product is marketed as brandy. 

Distillation. In the Cognac district the brandy is made either 
by the large distilleries or by the farmer himself right at the 
vineyards. It receives very little rectification, when distilled, in 
order to conserve the secondary constituents which produce the 
bouquet and flavor. 

For this reason, the simplest pot stills or slight modifications 
thereof are generally used. The only usual modifications are 
the pot still with "chauffe-vin" and the "a premier-jet" still. Ca- 
pacity of the stills as a rule is about 150 to 200 gallons. 

A "chauffe-vin" is a heat exchanging device for preheating the 
wine before it reaches the still kettle. It consists of an arrange- 
ment whereby the neck of the pot still passes through a wine con- 
tainer so that the vapors, prior to condensation, give up part of 
their heat to the wine in the tank. Sec Figs. 12, 13. 

The "a premier jet" is a device for returning the distillate to 
a heat exchanging attachment at the head of the still. By this 
arrangement the newly rising still vapors give up part of their 
heat to the first distillate which is thus vaporized. Some rectifi- 
cation of the still vapors takes place. The a premier jet gives 
some effect of continuous rectification as compared to discon- 
tinuous operation with the ordinary pot still and the resulting 
product is stronger but not of such fine quality. These brandies 
are usually considered more suitable for liqueur manufacture 
than for direct consumption. 

In the simple pot still process, two distillations are used, which 
may be compared with the process of whiskey making in the 
Scotch pot still distilleries; the two distillates are respectively 
termed "brouillis" and "bonne chauffe" the terms being directly 
equivalent to the "low wines" and "spirits" of the whiskey dis- 
tiller. The stills are worked very slowly and regularly, ten hours 



142 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

are usually allowed to complete the distillation of a batch. The 
quality of the resulting brandy, still depends to a great degree on 
the judgment and skill of the operator. 

In other districts where the wines have a strong, earthy flavor 
somewhat more elaborate apparatus is used. The La Rochelle 
district uses the Alembic des lies which is a pot still with rectify- 
ing equipment. The Midi uses a continuous distilling column of 
the kind in favor in this country, excepting that it is equipped 
with a faucet or tap at each plate. This arrangement enables the 
operator to distil at higher or lower strengths at will. 

The wine used in the manufacture of Cognac contains from 
6 to ii per cent of alcohol, or from 12 to 22 per cent of 
proof spirit; the average strength is from 7^ to 8^2 per cent of 
alcohol or from 15 to 17 per cent of proof spirit. The final dis- 
tillate as run from the still is about 25% over proof or 60 to 
65% in alcoholic content. 

Aging. Following distillation the brandy is aged in oak 
casks. Considerable care must be taken in the ripening process if 
the distiller wishes to market a good product. Four or five years 
at least are required to develop the right bouquet, flavor and mel- 
lowness. The finest brandies are sometimes aged for twenty years 
or even longer. 

Before filling, the casks are thoroughly sterilized, either by 
steaming, or by scalding with several changes of boiling water. 
Following this, the cask is filled with white wine to dissolve any 
objectionable coloring matters or substances which might affect 
the flavor of the brandy and drained. 

Blending. Aged brandies are very often blended, since they 
may vary in characteristics according to source of raw materials, 
district of production, and year of vintage. Blending has been 
found necessary to produce a product of uniform characteristics 
year after year. As in whiskey blending, cheapening may also 
be a desideratum. 

Formulae are, of course, secret and are based on the ex- 
perience of the blender. They are generally varied each year, to 
some extent, to compensate for the variation in characteristics of 
the brandies available. The methods of procedure outlined under 



RUM 143 

Blending in Chapter IX on Whiskey apply, on the whole, to 
brandy blending. 

Many imitation brandies are on the market and it is very 
doubtful how much of the brandy consumed is genuine. Imitation 
brandies are made as a rule by cutting strongly flavored brandy 
with diluted, rectified grain alcohol, coloring and sweetening with 
caramel and cane-sugar syrup, adding small amounts of aromatic 
substances, and dosing with either "lees oil" or an extract of oak 
wood chips. 

Various extracts are used to give to the brandy aged and 
other characteristics. For example a wine distillate extract of 
cedar wood chips, i to 10 (about 500 c.c. per 100 liters finished 
product), gives wine and brandy a herb-like, typically aged char- 
acter. A wine distillate extract of bitter almond shells (100 to 
300 c.c. per 100 liters finished product) gives in addition to the 
herb-like flavor a pleasant aroma resembling vanilla. The same 
quantities of extract of either dried, green walnut shells or dried, 
stoned plums round out the flavor nicely. Orris root, coumarin, 
cinnamon, Pekoe tea and vanilla are also used although the wine 
laws of some countries prohibit their employment. Many of the 
products listed as dosing agents in Chapter IX on Whiskey have 
also been used. 

British Brandy. This is a compounded spirit prepared by 
re-distilling duty paid grain alcohol with flavoring ingredients or 
by adding flavoring materials to such spirits. The flavoring ma- 
terials used in any one case are a trade secret, but in general are 
to be found in the lists mentioned. 

Hamburg Brandy. This is an imitation grape brandy made 
by adding flavoring to potato or beet alcohol. 

RUM 

Rum is a spiritous beverage prepared by fermentation, dis- 
tillation and aging, from molasses and the scum and foam which 
form on the top of sugar cane juice when it is boiled. Fresh sugar 
cane juice may also be used when the cost of sugar production 
makes it profitable. High quality rums are made from mashes 
containing comparatively small amounts of skimmings (scum). 



144 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

So-called "Nigger rum" is made from mashes consisting princi- 
pally of the skimmings and other waste products of the defeca- 
tors of sugar cane factories. 

Rum is a yellowish-brown liquor of fine bouquet and sweet, 
smooth, alcoholic taste and flavor which cannot be successfully 
imitated artificially. The alcohol content of the genuine product 
should not be less than 78 per cent by volume. "Nigger rum" has 
a raw, sour, burnt taste and flavor. 

When first made, rum is normally colorless and the familiar 
yellowish hue is obtained by aging in casks. If an exceptionally 
dark color is required it is dosed with caramel. 

Because of the fine quality of its products Jamaica is com- 
monly thought of as the home of rum. However, rum is pro- 
duced in all countries where sugar cane is abundantly grown; e.g., 
British Guiana, West Indies, Brazil, southern United States, 
Madagascar and the East Indies. 

Jamaica rum is graded into three classes, namely: I. "local 
trade" quality for home consumption, 2. "home trade" quality for 
consumption in the British Isles, and 3. "export trade" quality for 
export. Local trade rum, the lowest quality, is distilled with 
particular emphasis on its alcoholic strength to the neglect of the 
other substances, chiefly esters, from which the flavor is derived. 
The flavor of this grade is, therefore, decidedly inferior. 

The "home trade" quality constitutes the bulk of the ex- 
ported rum. It has a full flavor, and chemically is characterized 
by a higher proportion of esters of higher fatty acids. It is gen- 
erally accepted that these acids result from bacterial decomposi- 
tion of the dead yeasts found in the distilling materials. As 
compared with "local trade" goods the "home trade" have a 
fuller and more fruity aroma and a marked spicy residual flavor 
is noted on dilution. Sometimes, even, an excess of the higher 
alcohols and esters which produce this result will also cause an 
objectionable cloudiness on dilution with water. On occasion 
"home trade" rums will have a noticeable burnt flavor resulting 
from over-distillation by direct fire. 

"Export trade" Jamaica Rum is manufactured principally for 
European, especially German, consumption. This class of goods 



RUM 145 

is so high in flavoring ingredients that it is unsuitable for beverage 
use, as such. The chief uses are for blending with lighter rums 
or neutral spirits and for the fortification of hock and similar 
wines. 

Rum Manufacture. Jamaica Rum. Rum is distilled from 
the by-products of sucrose recovery from sugar cane juice. The 
process of sugar recovery is here stated in brief outline to explain 
the origin of the raw materials for rum. The cane, within a 
few hours of cutting, is brought to the crushing mill. The lapse 
between cutting and crushing must be short to avoid losses of 
sucrose from various sources, especially inversion. Hence mills 
are usually rather small and serve only a limited territory. The 
sucrose content of the sugar cane varies from 10 to \%% of the 
total weight. 

At the mill the canes are cut into short bits by the rapidly 
revolving knives of the cutter and then pass to a series of three- 
roll crushers which press out the juice. If no water is added the 
process is called "dry crushing.' 1 In u wet crushing 1 ' water is 
played on the cane at the second or third set of rollers. The 
pressed cane or "bagasse" may be treated for further extraction. 
The juice drops into troughs under the rollers and is strained, 
warmed to about 200 F. and left for a time in settling tanks. 

Some sugar is still retained in the bagasse. Hence in some 
plants it is passed on an endless belt through a shallow trough 
containing water and then pressed once more in crushing rolls. 
This extract is added to the first juice. 

The amount of juice in the cane varies according to district of 
origin and degree of maturity. About 60 to 80 per cent of the 
juice is extracted by the methods described and the juice con- 
forms approximately to the following analysis: 

per cent 

Sucrose 14.1 

Reducing sugars 0.6 

Water 83.6 

Undetermined solids 1.7 

100.0 



146 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

After settling, the juice, which is still turbid and has an acid 
reaction, is drawn into mixing tanks and treated with enough 
lime to make it slightly alkaline. This treatment results in the 
precipitation of a number of impurities. The limed juice is heated, 
and in about an hour albuminous material coagulates on the lime 
precipitate forming a crust, and the whole produces a thick scum. 

After the juice has settled, the scum is removed and sent to 
the fermenting tank in the still house. The clear juice runs to 
evaporators, its sucrose content being about 14 per cent. In the 
first evaporation, it is concentrated to about 50 per cent sucrose. 
Further concentration is carried on until the desired point for 
proper crystal growth has been reached. The mass in the pan, 
then called "massecuite," contains a total of 82 per cent sucrose 
and perhaps 8 per cent water. Of the total sugar in the hot 
massecuite 56 per cent is in crystals and 44 per cent is in solu- 
tion; after cooling 65 per cent has crystallized and 35 per cent 
remains in solution. 

The thick semi-solid mass is placed in centrifugal baskets and 
"whizzed." The adhering solution which whirls off to the out- 
side, is collected and stored as molasses. The crystals are first 
washed in the basket, then removed for shipment. They con- 
stitute the raw or centrifugal sugar which refineries buy. 

The molasses may be concentrated again until all of its crys- 
tallizable sugar has been removed. 

Fermentation. In the meantime the scum which was sent to 
the fermenting pan in the still house was allowed to remain a few 
days until it soured, a certain amount of bagasse having been 
added to assist souring. 

A mash is made up of diluted molasses containing about 25 
to 30 per cent sugar and skimmings (sometimes juice is added). 
"Dunder" is also added. This is the name given to the spent 
liquor from the stills and has the color and consistency of pea- 
soup. It contains mineral salts, coagulated albuminoids and 
soluble nitrogenous substances; and not only stimulates fermenta- 
tion but increases yield and has a distinct influence on taste and 
flavor. 

The mash as mixed contains about 12 per cent fermentable 



RUM 147 

sugar. A vigorous fermentation soon sets in as a result of the 
sub-tropical climate and the composition of the mash. Fermen- 
tation is completed in about 6 to 12 days, sometimes longer, 
various organic acids being formed along with the alcohol. 

Distillation. Distillation is carried on in pot stills. The 
whole process must be carried out with a great deal of care. The 
first distillate has a nauseating odor and a raw burning taste so 
that it must be rectified to eliminate objectionable ethers, alde- 
hydes and acids. It is also customary to trap off a portion of the 
total rectified distillate so that it may be used for blending with 
succeeding distillates. 

Demerara Rum. We are fortunate in having the following 
description of rum manufacture which is quoted from a "Com- 
munication of the British Guianas Planters Assn. to the British 
Royal Commission on Whiskey and The Potable Spirits, 1909." 

"In British Guiana the wort is prepared by diluting molasses with 
water to a density of 1,060 and it is rendered slightly acid by the addi- 
tion of sulfuric acid in quantity sufficient to set free more or less of the 
combined organic acids, but so as not to have uncombined sulfuric acid 
present in the wash; whilst in some of the distilleries additions of sulfate 
of ammonia in small proportions are made to the wash, in order to supply 
readily available nitrogenous food for the yeasts and to thus enable them 
to multiply with rapidity and to retain a healthy active condition. The 
reason for rendering the wash slightly acid is to guard against the exces- 
sive propagation of the butyric and lactic organisms, and to render it more 
suitable for active alcoholic fermentation. Within a very short time from 
the molasses being diluted it enters into vigorous fermentation and rapidly 
proceeds to more or less complete attenuation in 30 to 48 hours. 
In British Guiana the distilleries are of three kinds: 

1. Those using pot stills or vat stills which are practically only 
modified stills. 

2. Those using both pot stills or vat stills and Coffey or other con- 
tinuous rectifying stills. 

3. Those using only Coffey or other continuous rectifying stills. 

Vat stills consist of cylindrical wooden vessels built of staves strongly 
hooped with wrought iron. They have high copper domes covering open- 
ings in the heads of the vessels which communicate with a retort or retorts 
of the Jamaica pattern, but, as a rule, the retort acts as the lowest vessel 
of a rectifying column. As in Winter's still a spiral pipe or a series of 



i 4 8 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

small perpendicular pipes descend down the interior of the column through 
which cold water is run whenever distillation is in progress, and by which 
the spirit vapor undergoes a process of rectification as it ascends the 
column before passing into the condenser. Vat stills are heated by injec- 
tion of steam." 

Aging. The aging of rum does not differ markedly from 
the aging of whiskey (q.v.). The temperatures are possibly a 
little higher and the time somewhat shorter. Either charred or 
uncharred casks are used and a deficiency of color in the finished 
product is made up by caramel. 

Imitation Rum. The practice of "stretching" rum is quite 
common, either of two general methods being used. In the first 
method rectified grain alcohol is diluted, "cut," with distilled 
water until it is of the same alcoholic strength as a previously 
selected rum of strong bouquet. This diluted alcohol is then used 
to mix with the rum in any ratio from one-to-one to one-to-four or 
five parts of alcohol to one of rum. The mixture is aged in casks 
for several months at a temperature of about 75 F. The product 
of this treatment might possibly be better called a "cut" rum than 
an imitation. In the second method, a mixture prepared as just 
described but before aging is further "cut" with distilled water 
and redistilled. The new distillate is treated with "rum essence" 
and then aged in casks. Rum essence, or the so-called "pelar- 
gonic ether" is a mixture of esters, alcohol etc, prepared in various 
ways. One favored method is said to consist in distilling a mix- 
ture of alcohol, crude acetic acid, starch, manganese dioxide and 
sulphuric acid. Rum essence is quite generally used in the prep- 
aration of imitation rum and also as a cooking flavor. An ex- 
perienced taster, however, would have no difficulty in distinguish- 
ing it from the genuine article. 

GIN 

There are two essential differences between gin and the liquors 
which have previously been under consideration. The major dif- 
ference is that gin derives the bulk of its flavor from pre-existing 
natural essential oils rather than from the products of fermenta- 
tion. Secondly, gin is somewhat more of an international product, 



GIN 149 

being made in the Continent especially Holland, in the British 
Isles and in the United States. In each country there are minor 
qualities which are distinctive. In general, however, gin is a 
colorless beverage containing from 40-55% of alcohol and hav- 
ing a perfume-like odor. It was originally made in Holland. 

Holland Gin. Since the production of alcohol for gin is a 
separate step from the introduction of the flavor it might seem 
that any sufficiently pure alcohol could be used in the manufacture 
of gin. As far as the American public is concerned, this is prob- 
ably true. However, abroad, and especially in Holland, the con- 
generic substances of the pot-still distillate from a properly fer- 
mented mash of barley malt, rye and corn are required to round 
out the taste of the product. This distillate, called moutwjn or 
maltwine, is bought from distilleries by the gin manufacturers 
and redistilled by the latter through a "gin head" containing 
juniper berries and other flavoring materials. This is the ma- 
terial which under the various names "Geneva," "Hollands," 
"Hollands Geneva" or "Hollands Gin" has spread widely over 
the surface of the earth. 

English Gin. In England the same raw materials are used 
as in Holland. However, since the distillation of alcohol for use 
in gin is almost always done in patent stills, the flavor of the 
British gin is decidedly different from the Dutch. The English 
gin manufacturer usually requires a clean spirit which has been 
rectified until only a slight grain flavoring remains, as decided by 
the judgment of the operator. Molasses spirit is objected to both 
in England and the Netherlands on the ground that it gives a 
coarse flavor to the finished gin. The selected spirit is then made 
into gin in a number of ways. The more approved process is 
to re-distill the spirit, after dilution with w r ater, in a pot-still 
equipped with a gin-head containing juniper berries and other 
flavoring materials as required. Some manufacturers, however, 
distill the flavoring materials separately and then add them to the 
diluted alcohol. Others distill before dilution, etc. The addition 
of from 2-4 or even 6% of sugar, or of l /2-i% of glycerin to gin 
is common practice to sweeten and "smoothen" the product. Gin 
is usually bottled as made and is unaffected by aging. 



150 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

American Gin. In the United States gin is made from the 
usual grain mash with juniper berries as the principal flavoring 
agent. Sloe gin has in addition the flavor and color extracted 
from "Black-haw" or Sloe berries. Among the flavoring agents 
used in gin are the following: 

Angelica Fennel 

Anise Grains of Paradise 

Bitter Almonds Juniper Berries 

Caraway Seed Orris Root 

Coriander Liquorice 

Calamus Turpentine 

Cardamoms Bitter Orange Peel 
Cassia Bark 

Turpentine is only occasionally used as a substitute for the es- 
sential oil of juniper. A small addition of sulphuric acid to the 
spirit before rectification is sometimes made to produce an ethe- 
real bouquet and flavor. 

Gin manufacture in the United States may be carried on along 
with the manufacture of whiskey and spirits. Its place in this 
unitized operation is shown in Fig. 26. A specialized plant for the 
manufacture of gin is shown in Fig. 34. The process is as follows : 
Pure spirit from the charge tank is drawn as needed to the gin 
still. Sufficient good-quality water is added to dilute the alcohol 
to about 125% proof. The juniper berries and other flavors re- 
quired for a batch are placed in the gin head. High pressure 
steam is run through a coil in the still to cause distillation. The 
heads and tails are discarded, and the middle run, after dilution 
with distilled water in the blending tank to 80 or 90% proof, is 
drawn off to bottles. 

Bath-tub Gin. This term was applied during the prohibition 
era to so-called u synthetic gin" made by adding mixtures of es- 
sential oils or essences to a suitably diluted alcohol. Smootheners 
were sometimes added and the product was then ready for the 
market. Actually, while the term might have some bearing as 
applied to the questionably sanitary methods of small bootleggers, 
gin has largely been made in this way in all countries and at most 
times. Nor is there any very cogent reason why gin thus made 



GIN 




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iS2 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

"synthetically" should be inferior qua gin to the distilled product. 
The question seems to be largely one of taste and we have pre- 
viously stated that the taste for gin varies in different countries. 
Certainly, the probability is in favor of a synthetic gin being 
consistently uniform, batch after batch, and the balance of oils 
used as flavors can be so selected that any desired aroma is 
achieved. 

APPLEJACK 

Applejack bears the same relation to cider that grape brandy 
bears to wine, but whereas fermented cider is more dealt in abroad 
than here; the reverse is true of applejack. It has been stated 
that applejack was first made in this country as early as 1698, 
and it is still a staple article of commerce. 

Applejack is the product resulting from the distillation of fer- 
mented apple must. Hence, in general, the same considerations 
apply to the manufacture of applejack as to that of grape brandy, 
and the same processes are used. It should be noted in par- 
ticular that the definition just stated differs from the popular im- 
pression of applejack as the unfrozen liquid removed from the 
core of a barrel of frozen cider. The product of this latter 
process would not only contain the alcohol of the cider, but also 
all its other dissolved substances and would be quite unpalatable. 
As far as any passable applejack is concerned, only that made 
by distillation need be considered, although it is possible that 
isolated farmers may in some few cases make their "hard liquor" 
in the more primitive fashion. 

For the purpose of making applejack it is important that the 
cider be made from suitable apples both as regards variety and 
quality and that the fermentation be conducted in a manner to 
avoid as far as possible the formation of volatile acids especially 
acetic acid. The reader is referred to pp. 187-9 on Cider for 
further details regarding the fermentation operation. The next 
step after the fermentation and aging of the cider is the distilla- 
tion of the brandy. Here particularly, the manner of procedure 
is similar to that in making grape brandy (q.v. pp. 141-2). Pot 
stills are, generally preferred to continuous stills and two or three 



ARRACK 153 

distillations are used to secure the desired alcoholic strength 
coupled with the proper removal of foreshots and tailings, which 
contain respectively aldehydes and fusel oil. After distillation 
the spirit is aged in oak barrels. Uncharred barrels of well sea- 
soned white oak are used, and those which have previously held 
wine or other spirits are preferred to new barrels. 

It is claimed, that on account of the lower starch and protein 
content of an apple must as compared with a whiskey mash, 
applejack can be aged in a much shorter time than whiskey. Hence 
it is usually considered potable after as little as three to six 
months' aging. It is, indeed, further claimed that apple brandy 
begins to lose its special character on aging in the wood for more 
than four to five years. 

ARRACK 

Arrack is prepared by distillation from toddy or a mixture 
of toddy with either fermented rice or rice and molasses mash. 
Toddy is palm wine which is obtained by fermenting the juice of 
the cocoanut palm. Arrack ranges from yellow to light brown 
in color. Its flavor and aroma resemble those of rum, if much 
molasses has been used in its preparation, but not to such an ex- 
tent that the one could be substituted for the other without in- 
stant discovery. Normally arrack has a sourish aroma and taste 
which are claimed to derive from the toddy. The alcoholic con- 
tent of arrack ranges from 70 to 80 per cent by volume. 

It is used either as such or in the preparation of hot drinks 
(grog, punch), particularly in making Swedish Punch, and also 
for strengthening and improving the aroma of ginger liqueurs and 
bitters such as Angostura, Boonekamp, etc. It is also used in the 
preparation of sweetmeats. 

Arrack is made in Siam, the Malay Archipelago, East India 
and Jamaica. 

Manufacturing Process. When rice or rice and molasses are 
used it is customary to employ only rice of the highest quality. 

Germination of the grain is started by the usual moistening 
with water and spreading in heaps or layers. As soon as the 
kernels start to sprout the grain is crushed between rollers and 



154 BRANDY, RUM, GIN 

hot water is added until the temperature of the mash reaches the 
neighborhood of 140 F. Around this temperature the enzymes 
convert the starch to sugar. The wort is strained and cooled to 
approximately 70 F. Fermentation is started by adding either 
toddy or a toddy and molasses mixture according to the formula 
employed. The fermented wash is subjected to three or more 
distillations after fermentation is completed. The unusual num- 
ber of distillations is required by the crude and inefficient stills 
employed. 

VODKA 

Genuine vodka is made from a mash of unmalted rye and 
either barley or rye malt. Potatoes and corn have been used as 
substitutes for rye in the cheaper grades. The alcoholic content 
of the better grades ranges from 40 to 60 per cent. 

SCHNAPPS AND KORNBRANNTWEIN 

These distilled liquors are consumed in considerable quantities 
in Germany, Holland and elsewhere on the continent of Europe. 

Kornbranntwein is prepared from a mixed mash of malted 
and unmalted cereals, generally rye. Corn may also be used. 
Methods of manufacture are similar to whiskey processes. 

Schnapps is diluted, rectified potato alcohol prepared by ( i ) 
heating a mash of potatoes under a pressure ranging from 30 to 
60 pounds to achieve pastification of the starch; (2) converting 
the starch to sugar by mashing with malt; (3) fermenting accord- 
ing to standard methods; and (4) distilling so that the final 
product is well rectified. 



CHAPTER XI 
WINE 

Definition. The term wine is a very broad one. It includes, 
with proper qualifications, the product resulting from the fer- 
mentation, with or without the addition of sugar and other sub- 
stances, of such diverse materials as dandelion blossoms, elder- 
berries, etc. More particularly, however, it refers to the result 
of the alcoholic fermentation and other suitable treatments of 
grape juice. It is in this sense that we shall use the term here. 
The processes by which raw grapes are converted into wine in- 
clude crushing, pressing, defecation, fermentation, fining, racking, 
fortification, etc. Historically, the preparation of wine is of 
immemorial age. As an industry it dates back for more than two 
millennia, which of course gives it rank among the oldest of hu- 
man occupations. 

Classification. Even in the centuries before the Christian 
era, qualities of w T ine were distinguished and different grades were 
known and demanded by consumers. At the present time and for 
commercial use almost innumerable distinctions are made in the 
grades and qualities of wine, including naming by types, combined 
with geographical distinctions down to the name of a particular 
vineyard and further distinction by the year of the vintage. The 
brands and names recognized in commerce are to be reckoned by 
thousands. 

A few citations are given to illustrate this point. Among the 
French red wines are many which are highly valued and of whose 
excellence there can be but one opinion. These include the red 
wines of Burgundy and especially those of Musigny, Richebourg, 
Romance, Chambertin, Gorton, Beaune des Hospices, Pommard, 
Volnay, Allos du Roy, and Clos Vougeot. The Clos Vougeot 
is one of the most highly prized of the products of the beauti- 



156 WINE 

ful Burgundian vineyards; its origin can be traced back to A.D. 
i no when the monks of Cipeaux received the vineyards from 
Hugues le Blanc, lord of Vergy, and cultivating with infinite care, 
succeeded in producing a wine which has maintained its reputa- 
tion for centuries. The wines of Beaujolais such as Macon, 
Thomis, Fleuric, and Moulin-a-vent are also known, and the pride 
of the banks of the Rhone are I'Hermitage, Cote-Rotie, and Cha- 
teauneuf-de-Pape. But the French wines, however, which enjoy 
perhaps the greatest popularity in the land which produces them 
are the world-famous red wines of Bordeaux. Some of the prin- 
cipal varieties of these are Haut Brion, Chateau-Margaux, 
Chateau-Leoville, Chateau-Lafite, Chateau-Lagrange, Chateau- 
Larose, Chateau-Millet, Mouton-Rothschild, Chateau-Latour, 
Branaire, Montrose-Dolfus, Ducru-Beaucailloux, Closd'Issan, St. 
Estephe, St. Emilion, and Medoc. Although the wines of Bor- 
deaux have been famous for centuries, it was not until towards the 
end of the eighteenth century that they became really fashionable, 
a state of affairs which was largely brought about by the influence 
of Marshal de Richelieu, who introduced them to the notice of the 
Parisians. 

There are a great many varieties of white wine, and perhaps 
the most famous of all is the Rhenish wine known as "Johannis- 
berger." This variety has a reputation which is world-wide, and 
is said to fetch the highest price among white wines. Enormous 
casks of Johannisberger which were casked and stored in their 
present position over three centuries ago are lying in the muni- 
cipal wine cellars of the township of Bremen. This wine, known as 
"the Rose," is as one might suppose, the subject of many legends, 
and is offered in hospitality to royalties and other persons of dis- 
tinguished rank who partake in the festivities of the town; it is 
also graciously given to the sick. Other Rhenish wines of great 
repute are Rauenthaler, Liebfraumilch, Marcobrunner, Rudes- 
heimer, Hoheheimer, Kottenlocher, Zeitlinger and Riesling. 

The white wines of Burgundy are also highly appreciated and 
Montrachet is regarded by some as the king of white wines. 
Meursault-Goutte-d'Or, Chablis Moutonne, Pouilly-Tuisse are 
also excellent. Among the white wines of Bordeaux, Chateau 



CLASSIFICATION 157 

Yquem is considered the best, and Chateau-Myrat, Latour- 
Blanche, Clos St. Marc, and the wines of Sautome, Barsac, and 
Graves also enjoy a high reputation. 

There are many varieties of champagne, but some of the 
most famous are Pommery-Greno, St. Marceaux, G. H. Mumm, 
Moet et Chandon, Montebello, Heidsieck, Roederer, Mercier, 
Veuve Cliquot, and Lanson. 

Most of these names correspond to real differences. Names 
taken from regions, such as Rhine wine or Sauterne, represent 
large differences in character easily distinguishable by taste and 
usually by chemical analysis. Names representing vineyards or 
vintage years represent differences of quality, which may be 
equally marked to the practiced taster, but are difficult to indicate 
by chemical means. 

Names drawn from particular vineyards are properly con- 
sidered proprietary and should not be used, nor the wines imi- 
tated elsewhere. Names drawn from localities or regions are of 
the same nature. They represent qualities due to special features 
of soil, climate, grape variety, and manufacturing methods which 
can not be identically duplicated in any other place. An excep- 
tion should probably be made of certain names which, while 
originally derived from particular localities have come to repre- 
sent, through long usage, characters due principally to methods of 
manufacture. Such names are Port, Sherry and Champagne. 

The name Burgundy should properly be given only to wine 
made in Burgundy from Pinot grapes; the name Medoc only to 
wine made in Medoc from Cabernet and also to the three or 
four other varieties recognized there as capable of producing the 
wine to which the region owes its reputation. 

There seems to be no sufficient reason, however, why a wine 
should not be called Port if it is made of suitable grapes in the 
recognized way and resembles those wines of the banks of the 
Douro, which first received this name. "Port," is no longer synon- 
ymous with "wine of Oporto." All the wines made in the region 
of Oporto are not port, nor does all port come from that region. 

With these possible exceptions, locality names belong only to 
the wines produced in that locality. Not only is this fair to the 



158 WINE 

consumer, but it is sound policy in the selfish interest of the pro- 
ducer. Wines are produced most profitably by those localities 
which have an established reputation. They have a sure market 
whatever the abundance of crops in other localities. It should 
be the aim of each locality to obtain and maintain a reputation 
which will make it independent of general competition. This can 
be done only by marketing consistently good wines under the 
name of the locality. 

The listing of wines in the manner indicated, while exceed- 
ingly important to the consumer of wines and especially to the 
connoisseur, is of little aid to the student or technician. For- 
tunately, it is possible to classify wines also in a more general 
manner on a basis of their gross composition, disregarding the 
fine distinctions made by the specialist. There are four dicho- 
tpmous bases on which wines can be divided, namely: 

1 . Dry or sweet 

2. Fortified or unfortified 

3. Sparkling or still 

4. Red or white 

These classes are defined as follows: 

a. Dry wines are those in which practically all of the sugar 
has been converted by fermentation into alcohol. Usually they 
are of comparatively low alcoholic content (ca. 8-12%). This 
class includes such wines as Chablis, Riesling, Hock, Moselle, 
Claret, Burgundy, Gregnolino, and Chianti. 

b. Sweet wines contain some unfcrmcnted sugar and have 
an alcoholic content usually between 13-15% by weight, all of 
which has been produced by fermentation. Auslese Rhine wine, 
Sauterne, and Tokay are wines of this class. 

c. Unfortified wines are those whose alcoholic content is en- 
tirely derived from fermentation. All of the wines mentioned in 
classes a. and b. fall within this group. 

d. Fortified wines derive some of their alcoholic content from 
fermentation and some from the addition of distilled spirits, usu- 
ally grape brandy. They contain usually from 1 8-22% of alcohol. 
Madeira, malaga, muscatel, port and sherry are wines of this 



CLASSIFICATION 159 

class. Champagnes also fall into this group. Angelicas are some- 
times considered to belong to this group although strictly speak- 
ing they are not wines at all, since they are made by adding suf- 
ficient grape brandy to fresh grape juice entirely to prevent any 
fermentation. 

e. Still wines, which include most of those mentioned above, 
are those whose fermentation has been completed before bot- 
tling so that they contain only such proportion of the carbon- 
dioxide produced in the fermentation as can remain dissolved in 
the liquid in equilibrium with the air under the conditions of 
manipulation. 

f. Sparkling wines are bottled before the fermentation has 
ceased so that they contain carbon-dioxide gas in solution at 
greater than atmospheric pressure. When they are served, the 
carbon-dioxide is liberated with effervescence. Their gas and 
alcoholic content vary according to the market for which they are 
intended. They may be dry or sweet, light or strong. Cham- 
pagne, sparkling Burgundy, and Asti-Spumanti are examples of 
sparkling wines. 

g. Red wines are those in which the skins, stems, etc., of the 
grapes are present during the fermentation so that the grape pig- 
ment is extracted and colors the fermented juice. This group in- 
cludes the majority of wines as, for example, Claret, Burgundy, 
Port, Chianti, etc. 

It should be particularly noted that the distinction between 
red wines and white is based on a difference in manufacturing 
process. This is of significance on the one hand because the varia- 
tion in color of so-called red wines covers every possible tint from 
inky purple to pale pink and tan, and on the other hand because 
the inclusion of skins, stems etc., in the fermenting liquor leads 
to somewhat different composition of the wine and requires dif- 
ferent handling from white wines. 

h. White wines are produced by fermentation of the grape 
juice only, with removal of the marc (skins, stems, etc.) before 
the fermentation has proceeded to a point when the pigment be- 
comes soluble. Riesling, sauterne, and champagne may be cited 
as examples. 



160 WINE 

It will be seen that by combination of the classes just given, 
sixteen possible categories are obtained into which wines may be 
classified. For instance, claret is a dry, unfortified, still, red wine. 
However, champagne may be a fortified, sparkling, white, 
either sweet or dry wine and many other wines can be placed 
in more than one category. Despite this ambiguity, these cate- 
gories are sufficient for scientific purposes, being based partly on 
the nature of the raw material, partly on the composition of the 
wine and partly on the methods of manufacture. 

A further subdivision of wines may be made within any of the 
groups mentioned, on the basis of quality, into three grades: fine, 
ordinary, and blending wines. A fine wine is one, all the com- 
ponents of which are in proper and harmonious proportion, and 
which has sufficient quality to repay aging and bottling. These 
constitute, in most regions, only a small part of the product. They 
are, however, the ideal toward which the efforts of every wine- 
maker tend. Ordinary wines are those which are sufficiently har- 
monious in their composition for direct consumption, but which 
exhibit no great delicacy of flavor or bouquet. These are usu- 
ally destined for bulk shipments and cheap markets. Blending 
wines are of various degrees of quality and character, but agree 
in having a deficiency or excess of some one or more essential 
components. There are blending wines with an excess of alcohol, 
or extract, or color which make them unsuitable for direct con- 
sumption. They serve, by blending, to correct other wines which 
are deficient in these components. Where the wine handlers have 
perfected their business, the bulk of wines are used for blending, 
for it is only the exceptional wines which cannot be improved by 
additions to correct their deficiencies and faults. 

Functions of Wine. The experience of many centuries has 
taught mankind that wines, when used in proper combination with 
foods, not only enhance the flavors of the food and the enjoyment 
in partaking of them, but aid in the digestion. There follows 
an abridged tabulation of the principal classes of wine together 
with the foods they should accompany: 

Dry white wines 

Oysters, fish, fowl, turkey, vegetarian dinners, omelettes, etc. 



MANUFACTURE OF WINE 161 

Dry red wines 

Roast meats such as beef, pork, lamb, steaks and chops, duck, goose, 
turkey, pheasant, venison, etc.; Italian dishes such as spaghetti, 
ravioli, macaroni, etc. 

Sparkling wines 

These are the proper accompaniment of the end of the meal, sweets 
and cheese. 

Fortified wines 

Sherry is preferred to any cocktail by almost all peoples but the 
American. It is also the proper wine to serve with soups and with 
hors d'oeuvre. Port and other heavy wines like Malaga, etc., are 
sipping rather than drinking wines, and should be used with cir- 
cumspection during the evening, when the appetite no longer 
clamors and the excellencies of the wine can be savored slowly. 

In fine cooking, wines play an important part which largely 
forms the basis of the reputation of the French cuisine. 

MANUFACTURE OF WINE 

Introductory. The manufacture of wine is, in principle, a 
matter of the greatest simplicity. The grapes are crushed, the 
juice fermented, the sludge of exhausted yeast and precipitated 
matter is removed by decantation, and one has wine. Unfor- 
tunately, there is an equal probability that if no more than the 
above is done, the product will be vinegar or something equally 
unpotable. Much more must be done if the wine is to be of a 
high quality. The ultimate in quality, of course, the wines that 
elderly connoisseurs sip with tears of thankfulness, are dependent 
not only on full and thorough care in their processing but also on 
a combination of favorable weather, soil, etc. in a given year in 
a given locality. These accidental factors are beyond human con- 
trol. The control of the stated steps in production of wine is, 
however, readily feasible and will be the subject of the immedi- 
ately following pages. 

Components. The fine points of wine making are necessi- 
tated by the original composition of the fermenting mass and 
the nature of changes which may occur during the fermentation 
and after-processes. The must (fresh pressed juice) contains 



162 



WINE 



sugar, organic acids, tannin, flavoring substances, proteins, mineral 
salts, and pectin and mucilaginous substances which it derives from 
the grapes. It also contains a large variety of yeasts, bacteria, 
and fungi, some of which are favorable and some the reverse. An 
average composition is indicated in the following Table IX re- 
ported by Koenig: 

TABLE IX. ANALYSIS OF WINE MUSTS 















Other 










Nitro- 






non- 






Sp. gr. 


Water 


genous 


Sugar 


Acid 


nitro- 


Ash 








matter 






genous 








% 


% 


% 


% 


matter 


% 


Minimum. . . 


i . 0690 


5^-53 


O.II 


12.89 


O.2O 


1.68 


O.2O 


Maximum. . . 


1.2075 


82.10 


0.57 


35-45 


1.18 


11.62 


0.63 


Average 


I . 1024 


74 40 


o 28 


IQ 71 


o 64 


4.48 


0.40 



















These components and their changes are very largely interrelated. 

When the sugar content is high enough the activity of the 
first fermentation prevents much action by harmful organisms. 
Later, enough alcohol has been produced to prevent the growth 
of these. A proper sugar content lies between 18 and 28%. 

Organic acids, especially tartaric, serve to produce sound and 
healthy wine in a number of ways. Sufficient acidity encourages 
sound fermentation and inhibits the growth of the disease bac- 
teria. Sufficient acid ensures a full tasting wine which will store 
well, while insufficient acid means a flat taste and short life. Acid 
also ensures a better extraction of color from the skins. 

Tannin, which is derived by extraction from the skins, seeds 
and stems of the grape is an essential constituent of the wine. It 
serves to confer disease resistance on the wine, aids remarkably 
in the clarification and produces a more brilliant color. On the 
other hand, an excess of tannin confers an astringence on the 
wine which delays its final maturity, although in the end the wine 
is more mellow for it. 

The flavoring substances present in the raw grapes undergo 



MANUFACTURE OF WINE 



163 



many changes during the life of the wine. To some extent they 
control the flavor of the end product. However, the extent of the 
changes has never been followed completely by chemical research 
so that little can be said on this topic. The characteristic bouquet 
of the finished wine is only slightly due to methyl-anthranilate, 
which has the distinguishing character of fresh grapes. Various 
aliphatic ethyl esters are formed as the wine lives, and these, the 




FIG. 35. Corner of the still room in a large applejack distillery. Showing one 
of the pot stills. (Courtesy of the American Wine and Liquor Journal, 
New York.) 

action of special varieties of Avine yeast (S. Ellipsoideus] , and 
even of frost (as in Reislings) each contribute their share to the 
final celestial bouquet of good wine. 

The relation of the constituents of the raw must to the fin- 
ished wine is shown in Figures 35, 35a. 

Red Wines. The production of wine falls naturally into two 
broad divisions, red and white wines respectively. The produc- 
tion of champagne and of other fortified wines may follow in 



164 



WINE 



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,2 t* o o - 

^^ r*^ 4 S 



Juliffli 

> "i'JSIf 
s I ?1 



= 

CO 
CO 



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2 



51 

s ts 

5 co 

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Lu 




MANUFACTURE OF WINE 165 

their earlier stages either of the broad divisions stated and 
diverges only at the later stages. The apparent divergence be- 
tween red and white wine processes consists only in that for the 
former, fermentation precedes drawing off and pressing, while 
for white wines the order is reversed. Actually, other differences 
are entailed which will be discussed under the topic of white wine 
manufacture. Red wine manufacture is somewhat simpler and 
will be considered here. 

The sequence of operations in the manufacture of red wines 
is indicated in the flow sheet, Fig. 36. 

Grape Bunches 

Stemming (Partial or complete) 

Crushing 

i t I (optional) 

Fermentation > j Sterilization by Sulphur Dioxide and 

I [ Starting with Cultured Yeast 

Drawing Down and Pressing 

First Ripening and Secondary Fermentation 

J, (optional) 

Second Ripening > Fining, filtration, etc. 

J, (optional) 

Bottling or Cask Ripening > Pasturization 

FIG. 36. Flow Sheet of red wine manufacture. 

When the grapes are at the proper stage of ripeness the 
bunches are plucked and brought to the winery. This may vary 
in size from the home of the French peasant to the large com- 
mercial wineries with capacities for thousands of gallons of wine. 
There can be, at this stage, no delay, since the grapes may become 
infected if left piled in bunches. The next stages to the starting 
of the fermentation must follow in rapid order. 

Stemming. If stemming is practiced, it may be done by 
hand, by the use of a screen which will pass the grapes, but not 
the stems, and which may be operated manually with the aid of a 
rake to spread the grapes over it, or may be mechanically shaken 
or vibrated. Another means of stemming, is a machine compris- 
ing a stationary, horizontal, perforated metal cylinder fitted in- 
ternally with a revolving shaft having arms which cause the 



1 66 WINE 

grapes to travel along the cylinder and drop through the holes 
or slots in its wall. Stemming may also be done after crushing. 
A strainer of suitable size with proper openings and fitted with 
revolving blades serves this purpose excellently. 

The stems can furmsh tannin to the juice if the skin and 
seeds are deficient in this respect. However, they also contain 
substances which "brown" the color and spoil the flavor of the 
finished wine. They may also introduce difficulties in handling 
the crushed mass. 

Crushing. In order to liberate the juice of the grapes and 
inoculate it with yeast, it is necessary that the grapes be crushed. 
Probably a sort of pestle or stamper operated in a container 
is even now used to crush grapes in small lots. By far the great- 
est amount, however, are crushed in a roll machine. This con- 
sists of a hopper into which the grapes are placed and from which 
they feed between two grooved rolls turning toward each other 
at different rates of rotation. The grooves catch the grapes from 
the hopper, and one roll passes over grapes held in the grooves 
of the other, crushing them. The crushed grapes may fall 
directly into the fermenting vat, or into a tank whence they may 
be pumped to the proper vat. In adjusting the machine it is only 
necessary that the rolls be so spaced that the seeds pass through 
uncrushed. Roll crushers are available in any size desired, from 
the domestic "one lug n to the large machines found in California. 
In any case their capacity is usually great compared with vat 
and other facilities required in the winery. There are possibly 
still existing, and there certainly were in the past, rural districts 
in which the grapes were placed directly in the fermenting vat, 
and the crushing done by the bare feet of men and women who 
walked around on the mass. 

Fermentation. The general considerations involved in the 
fermentation of grapes to produce wine have been discussed in 
Chapters V and VI. The fermentation of the crushed grapes 
is started as desired, either naturally or by means of a starter, 
and means to control the temperature must be available if very 
large batches are being fermented. These may include water 
cooling coils or as in parts of California, the construction of 



MANUFACTURE OF WINE 167 

the vats with thin cement concrete walls so the evaporation serves 
to effect some cooling. Even chloroforming the yeasts, tem- 
porarily to arrest the fermentation and stop heat production has 
been attempted. This control of temperature, it is repeated for 
emphasis, is necessary because the desired yeasts function best 




FIG. 37. Redwood tanks. 17,000-25,000 gallons capacity. (Courtesy of the Amer- 
ican Wine and Liquor Journal, New York.) 

between 70 and 80 F. while the disease bacteria are favored 
by temperatures over 90. It should be noted, however, that 
yeasts can be "trained" to work at unusually low or high tem- 
peratures when the climate, as in Southern California, requires 
it. The first visible evidence of active fermentation is the forma- 
tion of carbon dioxide. This is liberated in bubbles which become 
entrapped in the skins and cause them to rise and mat at the top 



1 68 WINE 

of the vat forming a "cap." When this cap is exposed to the 
air, the upper surface of the cap quickly ferments to completion 
and offers an excellent start to vinegar bacilli. At the same 
time the grape pigment becomes oxidized and bleached. To 
avoid this there are two alternative practices. The cap may be 
broken up and pushed down manually, or even as in some dis- 
tricts in France trodden down by men who enter the vats stripped, 
for this purpose. Alternatively a grid is installed in the vat about 
six inches below the level of the must, to keep the cap submerged. 
In this case it is necessary, to obtain aeration and uniform fer- 
mentation, that the liquor be circulated by pumping it from the 
bottom of the vat and allowing it to pour back at the top. A com- 
bination of these systems is often favored. The fermentation is 
kept open until the yeasts have multiplied and developed strongly 
and then the cap is submerged to avoid the dangers of open 
fermentation. 

Changes During Fermentation. While the most marked 
change during fermentation is the conversion of grape sugar into 
alcohol and carbon dioxide, other changes of smaller magnitude 
but equal importance to the quality of the finished wine also 
occur. 

As indicated previously, some of the acid present in the fresh 
must is consumed by the yeast. The drop in acidity is about 
40%, or from an original acidity of 0.5-1.5% expressed as tar- 
taric, to an acidity of 0.3-0.7% in the finished wine. This in- 
cludes volatile acids formed which should not exceed 0.15%. 

Protein matter present in the grapes is also partly consumed 
during fermentation. The manner of this consumption was dis- 
cussed in Chapter V. The end products, organic acids, esterify 
with the alcohol of the wine and contribute largely to its bouquet. 

The liquid extracts tannin and coloring matter from the skins 
and seeds of the grapes. The former, as previously stated, is of 
great importance to the soundness and clarity of the wine. The 
coloring matter of the grapes is, of course, the obvious distin- 
guishing feature of red wine. This color includes a group of sub- 
stances of obscure composition, which are called enolic acids. 
They probably do not go into complete solution in the liquid, but 



MANUFACTURE OF WINE 169 

rather into colloidal solution. Hence, the cell walls of the grapes 
must be broken down either by fermentation or heating (as in 
making bottled grape juice) before the color dissolves. It is 
possible that the alcohol may also have something to do with dis- 
solving the color. Over-ripe grapes, in which it is possible that 
the pigment is over-oxidized, yield a paler wine than those in 
which the grapes were gathered at the peak of their ripeness. 

Many other known and unknown changes of minor importance 
occur during the fermentation even when it is running its proper 
course. Coagulation of a portion of the albuminous and pecti- 
nous substance present may be mentioned as an example. How- 
ever, the main changes have been indicated and the key to all is 
the conversion of sugar to alcohol. 

Completion of First Fermentation. The rate of this con- 
version varies, as might readily be foretold, with the temperature, 
the vigor and numbers, and the strain of yeast. At the best, 
about 4 per cent of sugar per day is converted, so that a must 
containing originally 20% of sugar, will be fermented dry in about 
five days. Actually the time required may be anything between 
three days and three weeks. 

At some time during the active fermentation or very shortly 
after its completion the fermented juice or new wine must be 
separated from the marc, the pressed residue of grape skins and 
pulp. The exact stage at which this is done is very largely a mat- 
ter of pure choice although to some slight extent climatic factors 
serve as a guide. In the French Bordeaux district pressing is not 
done until two or three weeks after the end of the violent fer- 
mentation on the theory that thereby strength is added to the 
wine. In the Burgundy district a reverse theory is held that the 
shorter the fermentation the better the wine. Hence no time is 
lost between the completion of the fermentation and the separa- 
tion of new wine from marc. Here in the United States it is the 
general custom to draw down and press even before the com- 
pletion of fermentation. It is stated that in the Sandusky win- 
eries there was often as much as ten per cent of sugar in the must 
at the time of pressing. All three practices will produce good 
wines. Like the choice between open, submerged or combined 



170 WINE 

fermentation, the election probably depends on the judgment and 
skill of the wine maker. 

Pressing. Once the choice of time has been made, the mode 
of separation between new wine and marc remains essentially 
the same. By openirig a tap at the bottom of the fermenting vat, 
a very considerable portion of the new wine will drain off with- 
out pressing. This portion of the yield is usually less harsh and 
matures more rapidly than the press juice. Hence it is usually 
kept separate from succeeding portions of juice. 

When the drainage is essentially complete, the remaining 
saturated mass is transferred to a press. These range from small 
hand-screw affairs to large hydraulic presses. Their principle of 
operation is nevertheless identical with that of the old home 
jelly-bag. The mass is placed in a press and the solid matter 
confined within a strong porous cloth, the filter cloth. When 
pressure is applied the new wine is squeezed out and the solids 
remain in the cloth. In order to avoid clogging of the pores of 
the cloth by the finer portions of albuminous and other matter in 
the mass, it is essential that pressure be applied gradually al- 
though it may finally be exerted to the limit of the machine used. 
Even with this precaution, it is usual to open the press, loosen 
the mass and repeat the pressing once or twice. Some of the 
wineries which are more interested in quantity than quality of 
product, moisten the residue in the press with water, before the 
third pressing to wash out as much extractable matter as possible. 
This last pressing is called pinette in France and may not be sold. 
Aging and Racking. The new wine produced in the manner 
described is still far from the finished product which is mar- 
keted. It is low in alcohol and it still contains unfermented sugar, 
excess tartaric acid and tannin in solution. It is cloudy due to the 
presence of suspended yeast cells, albuminoids, pectinous mate- 
rials, etc. Its flavor is harsh and the aroma quite grapey rather 
than winey. Time is required for the completion of fermentation, 
the settling of suspended solids, and the ripening of the flavor. 
Usually these processes are accomplished by storing the new 
wine in oak casks at a cool temperature (50 F.) during the win- 
ter. A great deal of settling takes place, aided by the formation 



MANUFACTURE OF WINE 171 

of cream of tartar (potassium acid tartrate) crystals. With the 
spring and approach of warm weather, the wine is "racked." That 




FIG. 38. Modern wine storage room. (Courtesy of the American Wine and Liquor 

Journal, New York.) 

is, it is carefully poured or siphoned off from the sediment into 
new clean casks. The importance of this process is much greater 



172 WINE 

than appears from its simplicity. During the racking, some aera- 
tion takes place resulting in the solution of oxygen in the wine. 
This oxygen acts on the remaining albuminoids in the wine to 
precipitate them. It also improves the color and flavor. If the 
wine is to be fortified, the alcohol is added in portions at each 
racking. Artificial aeration is often employed to accelerate the 
processes desired. The sequence of aging and racking is re- 
peated at intervals of a month to six months until the wine is 
ready for bottling. 

Modifications in the temperature of storage, etc., all have 
their effect on the wine. Madeiras and sherries, for example, owe 
their special flavors to aging at a higher temperature than is 
usual for other wines. Some special wines may have sugar or 
condensed must added to them at the racking. For the simple red 
wines two or three rackings at intervals of six months are gen- 
erally sufficient to produce a satisfactory wine. 

Once the wine has ripened satisfactorily, efforts are made to 
arrest any further changes. Usually this requires that the wines 
be bottled and thereafter stored in a cool place with a minimum 
of disturbance. Sometimes the wine is pasteurized before bot- 
tling. This consists in heating it briefly to kill off as many bac- 
teria as possible. The difficulty is always that more heat or time 
of exposure are required for complete sterilization than the flavor 
of the wine will permit without harm. Hence a compromise is 
made. Pasteurization temperatures range from I2o-i5o F. 
and times from a very few seconds at the higher temperatures 
to a quarter hour at the lower heats. The entire operation is 
one which can only be performed on a large scale with the best 
possible equipment and control. Fortunately the dairy industry 
has furnished various machine designs and the technique of their 
operation which can be transferred unchanged to the wine 
industry. 

WHITE WINES 

In general the manufacture of white wines is very similar to 
that of red. The basic difference as will be noted by comparison 
of the flow sheet for red wines, Fig. 36, and a similar flow sheet 



WHITE WINES 173 

for white wines, Fig. 39, is that red wines are fermented on the 
whole crushed mass, while white wines are pressed before fer- 
mentation so that only the juice is fermented. 

This basic difference necessitates other variations between the 
manufacture of red wine and that of white. The plucking and 
pressing operations are the same. Since there has been no fer- 
mentation to break down the walls of the grape cells, higher pres- 
sures are required to ensure a good extraction of juice. 

Sterilization. Most of the wine yeasts are found on the skins 
of the grapes and remain there during the pressing. Hence the 
fresh grape juice is deficient in yeast and would ferment slowly 

Grape Bunches 

Stemming (Partial or Complete) 

T 

Crushing 
Pressing 

4' 
Sterilization with Sulphur Dioxide 

Fermentation started with Cultured Yeast 

First Ripening and Secondary Fermentation 

I (optional) 

Second Ripening > Fining, filtration, etc. 

| (optional) 

Bottling or Cask Ripening * Pasteurization 

FIG. 39. Flow sheet of white wine manufacture. 

and poorly if only the natural yeast were relied on to cause 
fermentation. During this long slow process, disease bacteria 
would have ample opportunity to flourish and spoil the wine, es- 
pecially since little or no alcohol is present, the acid is low and 
the tannin which comes from the skins and seeds is also very 
low. Hence it is preferable and indeed almost essential that the 
must or press juice be sterilized and then re-started with fresh 
vigorous yeast culture. The usual manner of sterilization is by 
means of sulphur dioxide which is introduced generally by burn- 
ing sulphur in the cask into which the must will be placed. 

The usual way of burning sulphur in a cask is to use sulphur 
matches or tapes, which are strips of thin cotton cloth which have 



174 WINE 

been dipped several times in melted sulphur. These tapes are 
hung on an iron wire about eighteen inches long, bent up at one 
end to hold the tape and fastened to a bung at the other. This 
method has the defect that some of the sulphur melts and drips 
on to the bottom of the vat, where it is incompletely burned. This 
incompletely burned sulphur may communicate a bad taste to the 
wine. The same is true of the burning of the cloth to which the 
sulphur is attached. A better method is to use thin paper instead 
of cloth for the tapes and to burn them in a sulphur cage. A 
sulphur cage is simply a hollow cylinder of iron, or better, of 
porcelain, open on top and closed below, sufficiently narrow to 
enter the bunghole and sufficiently long to hold the required 
amount of sulphur tape. The cylinder is pierced with numerous 
holes in all parts except the bottom inch, which acts as a cup to 
catch all the melted sulphur. The cylinder is suspended at eigh- 
teen inches below the head of the vat by means of a piece of iron 
wire attached to a bung. An alternative method is to add to 
the must a suitable amount (about one one-hundredth of i%, 
0.01%) of potassium metabisulphite (K2S2O5). This com- 
pound contains 56% of sulphur dioxide in an available form and 
therefore furnishes a more controllable means of dosing the wine 
than does burning sulphur. The effect of this addition is to kill 
off harmful bacteria and temporarily to inactivate the yeast. 
Hence the must is inactive for a time and may be clarified by 
filtration, centrifuging in a cream separator, or even by settling 
and decantation. The latter process, which is generally used only 
in the smaller wineries, must be performed within 24 hours of the 
addition of sulphur dioxide so that the commencement of fer- 
mentation by the yeasts still present in the residue does not stir 
up the sediment again. 

The sterilized and clarified must is now ready for its fermen- 
tation. An active culture of yeast is added in about a proportion 
of 2-10% by volume of the must. The temperature must be 
raised if necessary to 80 F. so that the yeast multiplies rapidly 
and continues its activity until enough alcohol is formed to protect 
the wine against disease. In small wineries heating is done by 
suspending a milk can or bucket of hot water in the must. The 



WHITE WINES 175 

large wineries are equipped with special coils in the vats which 
may be used. In any case, the manufacture of white wine, on 
account of its lower acid and tannin content, and on account of 
its slower fermentation requires greater care than does the manu- 
facture of red wine. 

Aging and Racking. In these processes again, greater pre- 
cautions are necessary for white wine than for red, and the rack- 
ing must be performed a greater number of times and at shorter 
intervals to ensure health in the delicate constitution of the white 
wines. Similarly pasteurization is almost obligatory for the 
lighter white wines prior to bottling. 

Correction of Wines. From the time the grapes are crushed 
until the wine is bottled any number of inherent deficiencies may 
appear or new troubles and diseases may develop. It is the object 
of the correction of wines to so alter the deficient or diseased 
character that a normal wine results. Very many treatments 
have naturally been developed as part of the wine-makers' tech- 
nique, for this purpose. Most of them are of limited or occasional 
application, but there are four or five which are very generally 
required. These include the correction of deficient sugar, acidity, 
and tannin, and the fining of wine. 

When the grapes are crushed a portion of juice is tested for 
its sugar and acid content. A proper sugar content should be 
between 20 and 28% and a deficiency requires only a simple cal- 
culation and the addition of the calculated amount of ordinary 
cane sugar. 

The normal acidity of the juice should be 0.5-1.5% expressed 
as tartaric. It was formerly the practice to correct low acidity by 
the addition of calcium sulphate, Plaster of Paris. Hence the 
operation is called "plastering the wine." This treatment has 
the advantage of ease since an excess of plaster may be added 
and comparatively small amounts as required will react. The 
reaction takes place as follows : 

Potassium 

Calcium Sulphate Cream of Tartar Calcium Tartrate Acid Sulphate 
(Insoluble) (Insoluble) (Insoluble) (Soluble) 

CaS0 4 + KH(C 4 H 4 O 6 ) - Ca(C 4 H 4 O 6 ) + KHSO 4 



176 WINE 

The effect, therefore, is to increase the amount of acid in solu- 
tion. On the other hand, the practice is undesirable since the 
dosage cannot be measured readily and also because it may result 
in the presence of sulphates in excess of the legal limits in the 
wine (corresponding to 2 grams of potassium sulphate per liter 
0.2%). It is easier to correct deficient acidity by blending with 
a juice of excess acidity or by the addition of a properly deter- 
mined and calculated dose of tartaric acid. 

Excess acidity within reasonable limits is not important since 
on aging the excess will precipitate as cream of tartar. How- 
ever, a new wine with excess acidity is harsh and matures slowly. 
There are two procedures which may be employed to correct excess 
acidity. These are called respectively "galHzingf* and "chaptaliz- 
ing." Gallizing consists in diluting the must with water and add- 
ing either grape or cane sugar to correct the deficiency in sugar 
which results. Within narrow limits it is a harmless practice, 
but naturally, the other essentials of the wine are equally diluted 
and a more watery wine results. Chaptalizing consists in partly 
neutralizing the acid with chalk and adding sugar. This is usu- 
ally done with grapes that are insufficiently mature. Like galliz- 
ing it is not objectionable if practiced in great moderation. 

Few red wines need treatment for insufficient tannin since 
they ferment over the seeds and skins and possibly some stems so 
that they have ample opportunity to acquire the tannin they need. 
White wines, on the other hand, are almost invariably deficient 
in tannin as the pressing immediately after the crushing offers 
no opportunity for extraction. The amount of tannin required 
in the finished wine is very slight, most of the excess being con- 
sumed in precipitating the albuminoids of the freshly fermented 
wine. However, the presence of tannin helps ensure a sound 
fermentation and to clarify the wine afterward, so that a slight 
addition of tannin, say one part to 20,000 of white wine must is 
unobjectionable and almost invariably beneficial. 

Fining. One of the qualities especially desired of wine is 
clarity in the highest degree. The various suspended solids which 
interfere with this clarity may settle out during aging and be 
removed in racking. Indeed, it has been stated that frequent 



WHITE WINES 177 

racking of wine is practically the equivalent of both filtration and 
sterilization. However, it often happens that the solids are so 
finely divided that they do not flocculate or clump together in 
sufficient mass to settle out. When this happens the wine remains 
cloudy unless an agent is added which will assist the flocculation 
and settling. This operation is called "fining." There are a 
number of materials which are adapted for this purpose all of 
them being gelatinous in nature. That is, they first dissolve in the 
wine, then gradually they combine with the tannin, to form in- 
soluble tannates which entrap the other solids dispersed in the 
liquid and cause the whole to settle to the bottom. Milk is used 
for this purpose, especially for wines deficient in tannin as the 
milk casein requires only acidity to cause it to change from a dis- 
solved to an insoluble state. More commonly gelatin, egg white, 
and isinglass are used. Mechanical filtration, refrigeration, and 
centrifuging are all coming into use to effect clarification of the 
wine. 

Bogue, The Chemistry and Technology of Gelatin and Glue, 
(1922, p. 355) discusses as follows the use of isinglass for fining: 

"The efficacy of the isinglass for this service lies in the purely mechan- 
ical property it possesses of maintaining a fibrous structure in the solu- 
tion, and as this settles slowly to the bottom it entangles in its netlike 
meshes the colloidal bodies that produce the undesirable turbidity. For 
clarifying wine the isinglass is first swollen in water and then in the wine 
until it is completely swollen and transparent. It is then thoroughly 
beaten into a small amount of the wine, strained through a linen cloth, 
and stirred into the rest of the wine. The temperature is kept low and 
the isinglass does not go into solution, but only into a very finely divided 
suspension. Thus the original fibrous structure of the sounds has at no 
time since it came from the fish been lost. In this lies the difference in 
the action of isinglass and gelatin for fining. If isinglass were heated and 
made into a true gelatin it would then have lost the properties which 
make it so valuable for this service." 

A single ounce of isinglass will clarify, under the optimum 
conditions, 500 gallons of wine in 10 days. One ounce of gelatin 
will clarify 50-120 gallons of red wine. The white of an egg 
will fine about 10 gallons of red wine. This last material is 
chiefly used with only the highest quality of wine. 



178 WINE 

Finings may be prepared as follows : 

Gelatin 

Cover with wine and soak a few hours or overnight. Dissolve 
by gentle heating, cool and dilute with more wine. Mix thor- 
oughly and add with stirring to the wine in the cask. 

Egg White 

Beat to a foam. Allow to settle and filter through heavy 
linen. Stir up with a small amount of wine and add with stir- 
ring to the wine in the cask. 

CHAMPAGNE 

General Statement. Champagne is a sparkling wine of fine 
flavor and fragrant bouquet. Its effect upon the human system 
is the production of rapid, but transient, intoxication. Medical 
authorities have stated that fine, dry champagnes are among the 
safest wines that can be consumed. Champagne is said to have 
valuable medicinal properties and to be of definite benefit in the 
treatment of neuralgia, influenza and a run-down condition. 

About the time of the Civil War pink or rose-colored cham- 
pagnes were fashionable; the color being obtained by tinting with 
a small amount of a dark red wine. Today, a straw color is 
favored and that is the color of all current commercial cham- 
pagnes. Occasionally, a pinkish wine is met, which owes its color 
to partial extraction from the grape skins and is the result of 
accident rather than design. 

Champagnes are made dry or sweet, light or strong accord- 
ing to the markets for which they are designed. A dry cham- 
pagne, of good quality and fragrant bouquet, free from added 
spirit, is made from the best vinbrut, to which a very small 
amount of liqueur has been added. Sweet champagne receives a 
heavier dosage of liqueur, which hides its original character and 
flavor, and therefore can be made from wine of less delicate 
flavor. 



CHAMPAGNE 179 

The dosage of champagne with syrup (liqueur) materially 
contributes to its sparkle, effervescence and explosiveness. It is 
not true, however, that the heavier the dosage the better the 
wine. Too heavy dosage causes an accumulation of carbon diox- 
ide in the space between the wine and the cork and such a cham- 
pagne explodes loudly and effervesces turbulently when the cork 
is withdrawn, but soon becomes flat and loses the characteristics 
one looks for in a good wine. On the other hand, a fine dry 
wine does not explode so violently, nor effervesce so turbulently, 
because it acquires its sparkle to a large extent from the natural 
sugar of the grape. This holds the carbon dioxide somewhat 
more firmly within the wine and so it continues to sparkle for a 
much longer time. While this helps it to hold the characteristics 
of a good wine for a longer period, it is only fair to say that a 
good champagne should retain its fine flavor even after the carbon 
dioxide is exhausted. 

Russia and Germany prefer sweet champagnes and twenty or 
more per cent of liqueur in the wine is not unusual for the latter 
country. England buys very dry, sparkling wines, having about 
one-fourth the amount of dosage given wines intended for Ger- 
many. France, herself, prefers light and moderately sweet wines. 
The United States used to buy a wine of intermediate character 
before prohibition. Australia and South Africa like their cham- 
pagne strong, while India and China and all hot countries favor 
light dry wines. 

Champagne is made in Germany and the United States, but 
France is commonly considered the home of this king among 
wines. The heart of the industry is in the Department of the 
Marne and centers around the cities of Reims, Epernay, Ay, 
Mareuil, Pierry, Avise, and to a lesser extent, Chalons. 

The best American sparkling wines come from the Finger 
Lake district of New York, and the Ohio region around Cin- 
cinnati. Very little sparkling wine was made in California before 
prohibition, but the industry is now being developed there. 

Apart from incessant labor, skill, care and precaution the fine 
quality of French champagnes is attributed to the climate (which 
imparts a delicate sweetness and aroma, combined with finesse and 



i8o 



WINE 



lightness to the wine) and to careful selection of the vines, of 
which four types are cultivated, three of them yielding black and 
one white grapes. The soil is also said to impart a special quality 
which it has been found impossible to imitate in any other part 
of the earth. Claims are made that to the wine of Ay it imparts 
a peach flavor, to that of Avenay a strawberry flavor, to that of 

Graces 



Pressing 



Pulp -<- 



^Juice from second 
and third pressing 
to inferior wines 



Primary 
Fermentation 



Secondary 
Fermentation 



Racking and Fining 

Blending 
(Cuyee) 



Finings - 



__Pure crystallized sugar 

added if cuvee is low in 

sugar 



- Pure culture yeast 



Syrup liqueur and 
brandy 



-Tannin 



Settling 
Bottling 
Resting 

Uncorking, dosing 
and corking 

Resting 
Shipping 

FlG. 40. 

Hautvillers a nutty flavor, and to that of Pierry a flint taste 
known as the "pierre a fusil" flavor. 

Manufacturing Process. Figure 40 is a graphical presenta- 
tion of the process of champagne manufacture. It will be noted 
that the early stages of the process are similar to those of white 
wine manufacture excepting that the juice of the first pressing is 
kept apart for first quality wines. Second and third pressings 



CHAMPAGNE 181 

are given, but the wine made from second or third juices is 
inferior. 

Following pressing the must is drawn into large vats and al- 
lowed to rest for 24 hours so that some settling of the sediment 
can take place. 

It is then transferred to sterilized casks of about 40 gallons 
capacity. The cask is filled to about nine-tenths of its capacity, 
and the bunghole is generally covered with a vine leaf held in 
place by a small stone. 

The must is then taken to one of the large underground 
caverns or cellars where a temperature of 60 to 70 F. usually 
prevails. The cask is bunged up, primary fermentation sets in 
and is almost completed in about two weeks to a month depending 
on whether the wine is high or low in sugar. At the proper 
point, as explained under red wine manufacture, primary fer- 
mentation is arrested by filling the cask up to the top, bunging it, 
and transferring it to a cooler cellar. Here a secondary and 
slower fermentation sets in. The object of this treatment is to 
preserve some of the sugar unsplit in order to insure to the wine 
its future effervescent properties. 

About the third week in December the wine is racked and 
fined and then blended (cuvee) in large vats of about 12,000 
gallons capacity. An agitating device worked by hand insures 
proper mixing of the wines. The proportions of the blend are 
never irrevocably standardized but about 80 per cent by volume 
of black grape wine to 20 per cent of white grape wine is aver- 
age practice. The vintages of Bouzy and Verzenay are supposed 
to impart body and vinosity; those of Ay and Dizy softness and 
roundness; and those of Avize and Cramont lightness, delicacy 
and effervescence. Some blenders prefer a one-third mixture of 
vintages of Sillery, Verzenay and Bouzy, one-third of Mareuil, 
Ay and Dizy, and one-third Pierry, Cramont and Avize. Others 
advocate an equal mixture of Ay, Pierry and Cramont. 

At this stage the important question arises of how much 
present and potential carbonic acid gas the wine contains. If it 
is too high in sugar and gas, there will be trouble because many 
will be lost after the bottling by explosive shattering of the 



182 



WINE 




- 



i 

= b 



a, 
E 






- 

c 
u- 



CHAMPAGNE 183 

bottles and the cellars will be flooded. On the other hand, if 
sugar and gas are low the wine will not sparkle properly and 
the corks will refuse to pop. 

The cuvee is, therefore, tested by means of a glucometer for 
sugar and if it registers low the addition is made up by sugar- 
candy. If it is high it is necessary to re-ferment it in a cask until 
it reaches the right condition. 

The cuvee is now fined with isinglass and some tannin is added 
to offset ropiness and other defects. It is casked and allowed 
to rest for a month. If by that time it has not become clear and 
limpid, it is racked off, re-fined and allowed another month to 
settle. In some of the largest establishments, mechanical fining 
or filtration is now used. 

The cuvee is put into new bottles (tirage) . These are usually 
new, very strong, and weigh about 2 Ibs. apiece. The pressure 
developed by the wine is such that the bottle is always weakened. 
It is, therefore, made of special glass which cannot liberate any 
alkali to act upon the wine and spoil it. 

The tirage is accomplished by running the wine into vats 
from which it flows into oblong tanks provided with a row of 
syphon taps, at which the bottles are filled. The taps automati- 
cally close and stop the flow as soon as the bottle is full. 

Next, a culture of selected pure yeast is often added and 
the bottles are corked, the corks secured by an iron clip (agrafe) 
and the pressure within the bottle determined by an instrument 
consisting of a sort of pressure gauge fitted with a hollow screw 
at the base. The screw is driven through the cork and the pres- 
sure in atmospheres registers on the gauge. A "grand mous- 
seaux" represents a satisfactory wine. It has a pressure of 5 3/4 
atmospheres and can safely be stored away in one of the cold 
subterranean caverns. If the pressure is about 4 atmospheres it 
is advisable to store the wine above ground until fermentation 
raises its pressure. If the pressure is less than 4 atmospheres it 
is advisable to put the wine back in a cask, add cane sugar and 
ferment further. 

The temperature of the cavern is about 50 F., and must 
be kept as constant as possible to avoid too great changes in 



WINE 




CHAMPAGNE 



185 



pressure and the bottles bursting in consequence. This is always 
a most anxious time. The bottles are placed in preliminary stacks 
until this danger is passed and then they are placed in secondary 
stacks. Both stackings are arranged horizontally so that the 
sediment can work towards the neck of the bottle. The bottles 
are even marked with chalk so that the one side remains up- 
wards. The duration of the bottle fermentation ranges from 
six months to two years. 




FIG. 43. Turning champagne bottles. (From Vizetelly, The History of Champagne, 
Henry Sotheran & Co., London.) 

At the end of that time the bottles are placed in a slanting 
position on special stands, with neck tilted slightly down. The 
purpose is to induce the sediment to collect on the lower side of 
the bottle and to travel towards the neck. A short shaking and 
turning movement is given each bottle once each day for six 
weeks while the neck is gradually inclined further downwards 
until finally the bottle is vertical with the neck pointing straight 
down. The shaking and turning of the bottles require great skill 
but in spite of this the men develop tremendous speed and handle 
incredible numbers per day. The use of a proper variety of 
yeast aids tremendously in the settling which is the object of this 
part of the process. 



i86 



WINE 




o r 

c 

'N 

"c.3 



II 

S E 



a 



CIDER 187 

The bottles are now taken to the uncorking room and chilled 
to fix the carbon dioxide more firmly. Uncorking is an art. The 
workman holds the bottle in a slanting position and gradually 
loosens the cork until it together with the sediment is blown out 
by the pressure. A finger is inserted to scoop out any remaining 
sediment and to stop the wine flowing out. Large establishments 
freeze the neck of the bottle and disgorge the sediment in a semi- 
solid form. At the same time the bottle is turned upright and 
temporarily closed. The champagne is then dosed by adding a 
wine solution of sugar and possibly also some brandy and the 
bottle is permanently corked. A skilled operator now takes the 
bottles and swings them above his head Indian club fashion, which 
operation thoroughly distributes the sugar solution throughout 
the wine. The bottles are then aged for some time in order to 
develop and blend the taste further and to bind the carbon 
dioxide. 

Imitation Champagne. This is made by carbonating white 
wine, or even cider, under pressure in the same manner that soda 
water is made. The gas which is forced into solution by this 
process never is as firmly absorbed as is the natural carbon dioxide 
in true champagne. Hence the wine very quickly loses its sparkle 
and becomes flat and lifeless. Nevertheless these imitations are 
sold in large volume at considerably lower prices than the genuine 
goods since they can be made without either the losses by explo- 
sion, etc., the high labor cost, or the long storage of true cham- 
pagne. The processing, however, is rather a branch of the car- 
bonated beverage industry than of the wine industry. A stricter 
interpretation of the term u Imitation Champagne" is sometimes 
used which confines it to sparkling wines made by the champagne 
process but outside the French Champagne District. 

CIDER 

This term, in the United States, has generally been applied to 
the beverage produced from the unfermented juice of apples. 
As such, it is conceded that its consumption exceeds that of any 
other beverage juice. However, most farmers permit the cider 
which they make for their own use to ferment or become "hard." 



i88 WINE 

Abroad the word "cider" is applied directly to the fermented 
product. The juice of the ripe apples from which cider is made 
contain from 7-15% of sugar, the average being around 11%. 
Hence the cider, if completely fermented can contain from 3.5- 
7.5% of alcohol, and the average product has about 5.5%. 

The factors which affect the quality of the finished cider are, 
in general, the same as those which affect wine, namely: variety 
of fruit, quality of fruit, degree of maturity of fruit, and the 
organisms and temperature of fermentation. To make good 
cider, first quality, clean apples of a suitable variety, grown espe- 
cially for cider making, must be selected. There are possibly as 
many varieties of apples as there are of grapes, if not more. The 
most important American varieties from their cider making pos- 
sibilities are : 

Sweet, sub-acid: 

Baldwin, Esopus, Hubbardston, Fameuse, Mackintosh, Northwest- 
ern, Rome Beauty, and Stark. 

Acid: 

Winesap, Jonathan, Yellow Newton, Stayman, Northern Spy, and 
York Imperial. 

Aromatic: 

Delicious, Golden Delicious, Lady, Black Gilliflower, White Pear- 
man, and Bana Bonum. 

Astringent: 

Florence, Hibernal, Soulard, Red Siberian, Hyslop, Transcendent, 
Launette, Martha, and Yellow Siberian. 

Neutral: 

Ben Davis, Black Ben, Jana, Willowturg, Missouri, Alexander, 
Wolf River, Buckingham, and Limberturg. 

In the absence of any of the above varieties, which are called 
"vintage apples/' any variety of winter apples is preferable to a 
summer variety. With the single exception of winesap apples, 
all the others are improved by suitable blending of varieties so 
that the desired qualities of flavor, acidity, sweetness, and astrin- 
gency are brought to a balance. 

The selected fruits are washed, if not already clean, rasped 



CIDER 189 

to a pulp, rather than crushed, and the pulp is pressed. The 
yield of juice varies with the apples and the type of pressing equip- 
ment used from 2-4 gallons per bushel. The juice is run into 
barrels or vats and either allowed to ferment naturally, or seeded 
with a pure culture of wine yeast at the rate of one pint of culture 
per fifty gallons of juice. The fermentation must proceed at an 
even lower temperature than that of wine, namely 5O-6o F. in 
order to avoid injury to the product. The fermentation proceeds 
in the usual violent manner, an abundant foam of yeast cells, pec- 
tins and albuminoids rising over the liquid as the reaction goes 
on. Then when most of the sugar of the must has been exhausted, 
in about a month, the foam subsides and the insoluble materials 
which it carried settle to the bottom of the barrel. At this time 
the batch is racked in a manner similar to wine (see p. 170) and 
allowed to carry on a quiet second fermentation at a lower tem- 
perature, ca. 45-5O F. This second fermentation requires from 
three to six months and should not be entirely complete even 
then. Hence, if the cider is racked and bottled at this stage it 
will carry on a little further fermentation in the bottle, producing 
a beverage with some of the sparkle and life of champagne. A 
cider made with care, in the manner described, will be sound and 
stable, and unlikely to acetify (turn to vinegar) . It may happen, 
however, that some clarification is needed. Formerly, skim milk 
in the proportion of one quart to about fifty gallons of cider 
was the preferred method of fining. Nowadays modern filtering 
equipment with such assistants as purified diatomaceous earth 
(kieselguhr) is used. 



CHAPTER XII 
LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

General Statement. Liqueurs and Cordials constitute a 
group of alcoholic beverages of a somewhat exotic nature. They 
are usually made from rectified alcohol, refined cane sugar and 
flavoring and aromatic substances extracted from fruits, herbs, 
seeds and roots. On account of their high content of sugar they 
are rarely consumed in any quantity and serve either as appetizers 
or as after dinner relishes. 

Liqueurs as a class are very largely of foreign origin and 
manufacture and their terminology is somewhat confusing. In 
this country the names "liqueur" and "cordial" are practically 
interchangeable. Abroad, liqueurs generally are products made 
on the continent and especially in France, while cordials are prod- 
ucts originating in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Another 
possible distinction is that the liqueurs as a group are more per- 
fume-like in character and exclude the cordials which are made 
with sharper flavors such as caraway, etc. 

Classification. The aim of all cordial and liqueur manufac- 
ture is a product in which the various separate constituents are 
so blended and united that only a summation is tasted by the 
drinker rather than a number of discordant single flavors. The 
varying degrees of success with which this object has been 
achieved and also the variations in concentration of the liqueur 
in alcohol, flavor and sugar have resulted in the recognition, es- 
pecially in France, of a number of grades of liqueur, as follows: 

1. Ordinaires i. Average 

a. Ordinaires a. Single Strength 

b. Liqueurs doubles b. Double Strength 

2. Demi-fines 2. Good 

3. Fine 3. Very good 

4. Superfine 4. Excellent 

190 



MANUFACTURE 191 

These grades are independent of the process of manufacture al- 
though it may be stated that the highest grades as to smoothness 
of flavor can in general only be made by the distillation process. 
Manufacture. There are three general methods by which 
cordials can be made: 

1. The distillation process. 

2. The infusion process. 

3. The essence process. 

In brief statement, the distillation process consists in macerating 
the selected aromatic flavoring substances in alcohol for a fixed 
period. The liquid is then distilled and the aroma and flavor of 
the herbs, seeds, fruits, etc., will be found in the distillate. This 
is then sweetened and colored and may also be diluted and blended 
with alcohol and water, and other materials as required. 

Certain aromas and flavors do not lend themselves to ex- 
traction by distillation and in these cases the infusion method is 
resorted to. In this process the aromatic substances are steeped 
in a solution of alcohol and sugar to which they impart their flavor- 
ing and aromatic principles. The solution may be colored and is 
then strained to separate the marc or solid residue. 

The "liqueurs par infusion" do not have the fine bouquet, 
flavor and taste found in the "liqueurs par distillation" with the 
exception of infusions of red fruits. These form a group of very 
fine liqueurs when they are made according to the best methods 
of the art. Typical of the finest are Cherry Brandy, Guignolet 
(brandy from black cherries) and Cassis (brandy from black 
currants). 

In the essence process, essential oils, either natural or syn- 
thetic, are added to the alcohol, which is then sweetened and 
colored. This kind of liqueur is generally of inferior quality as 
compared with the others and should only be made under excep- 
tional circumstances or when a cheap product is required. 

Whatever general type of manufacture is selected, a special 
art is required to produce fine quality products. A series of opera- 
tions are involved which must be conducted with skill, care, intel- 
ligence and knowledge because the characteristics of the finished 
product depend very largely on the technique of preparation, 



192 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

independent of the variation in quality of the raw materials. This 
last is a difficulty which always confronts the liqueur manufac- 
turer. No standard formula can be relied on to produce a liqueur 
of unvarying quality for the reason that the herbs or seed, etc., 
which flavor it may not have grown under like conditions, or have 
ripened equally, etc. 

The series of operations involved in the preparation of 
liqueurs may include most or all of the following: 

Infusion (Maceration) 

Distillation 

Blending 

Coloring 

Clarification 

Filtration 

Aging (True or Accelerated) 

Infusion is the process by which the flavoring ingredients are 
extracted from their natural raw materials and brought into solu- 
tion in the alcohol-water mixture desired. The details of the 
process depend very largely on the material which is being ex- 
tracted. The strength of the alcohol used may vary according to 
the solubility of the flavor in diluted alcohol and also according 
to the solubility of such undesired materials as resins, bitter prin- 
ciples, etc., which may be present in the herbs. Similar considera- 
tions dictate in each special case whether the extraction shall be 
performed hot or cold or whether it shall be carried on for days 
or only a few hours. 

Distillation for liqueur purposes is usually on a small scale 
employing a pot still, which, however, in the most modern practice 
may be equipped with a reflux condenser to permit partial extrac- 
tion at a boil. Whenever extraction is carried on in the still it 
is desirable that the latter be equipped with a steam or hot water 
jacket to avoid the possibility of burning as by direct heat. 

Blending includes the addition of sweetening, and coloring 
matters, other flavors, smoothening and softening agents, etc., 
to the distilled flavored alcohol. In France it is very often car- 
ried out in a hermetically sealed cylindrical copper vessel called 
a conge, see Fig. 45. 



MANUFACTURE 193 

Note that it is fitted with a sight-glass; i.e., there is an open- 
ing about three inches wide running down the side of the vessel 
and in this opening is a glass on which is etched a scale marked 
off in liters. By means of this sight-glass it is possible to deter- 
mine the exact proportions of alcohol, syrup and water in the 
conge and also to observe what is happening to them. 

Filling, mixing and emptying are all done by hand in the small 
establishments. Where the output is greater, the tanks contain- 
ing the ingredients are connected to the blending machines by 
piping and the feed is under air pressure so that it is only neces- 
sary to open each valve for the liquid to run into the blender. 
While this takes place the operator reads the quantity on the 
sight-glass. Stirring is usually by means of a mechanical agitator 
although sometimes it is accomplished manually. 

Perfect blending requires the mixing together of the various 
ingredients until they form an intimate and homogeneous whole. 
In carrying out this operation the following rules will prove of 
value: 

1 i ) Always add the sugar in the form of a syrup. It is better to 
prepare the syrup by dissolving the sugar in hot water, rather than 
cold water, as this seems to favor intimate mixing and results in a 
liqueur of finer quality and smoothness. 

(2) Always blend cold so as to avoid any evaporatio/i of alcohol and 
aromatics and to prevent any spoilage which may ensue. 

(3) Observe one of the following orders of addition: (a) put the 
aromatic spirit in first, (b) add the extra alcohol and stir for about 
ten minutes, (c) add the syrup and stir again, (d) add the re- 
quired quantity of water and stir again in order to thoroughly 
incorporate the various ingredients. Some liqueur manufacturers 
favor a reverse order of procedure: (a) water, (b) sugar and 
glucose, (c) alcohol and alcoholic tinctures, (d) aromatic spirits, 
etc. Once the blending has been completed the coloring is added 
and stirred in. 

The liqueur is allowed to rest for two or three days after 
mixing in order to give the ingredients time to blend thoroughly 
together. Thereafter, it is sampled to determine whether it has 
the desired combination of characteristics. If it is unsatisfactory. 



194 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

the operator must make such additions and modifications as his 
experience suggests. 

In the United States especially and also in many places abroad 
it has been found that the use of a closed blending tank is not 
essential, particularly for the spicier liqueurs sometimes classed 
as cordials. An open, copper-lined tank is used and agitation 
supplied either mechanically or manually. The order of addition 
of the ingredients remains important, however. This probably 
derives its weight partly from the necessity of preventing the 
precipitation of alcohol-soluble flavors from a strong solution by 
too great dilution with water; and partly to allow the escape of 
air dislodged from solution before the flavors are attacked and 
oxidized. Whatever method of blending is followed the finer 
liqueurs require aging to unite their constituents firmly in a per- 
fect blend and give them smoothness. 

Aging of liqueurs depends only slightly on chemical reaction, 
but more on the effect of time to cause the desired union of flavors. 
Hence it may very well take place either in bottles or casks. The 
time required is seldom more than a few days to a few months. 
As with all changes in which time is involved, the elevation of 
temperature causes acceleration of the change. Hence, in the 
home of liqueurs, France, a special technique has been developed 
and given a name, "Tranchage" for the accelerated aging of 
liqueurs. The process is not universally applicable since it causes 
rancidity in some liqueurs, e.g., anisette and creme de menthe. It 
also spoils chartreuse whose volatile oils will only commingle with 
time rather than heat. With care, however, it is an excellent and 
much used method. 

Tranchage is accomplished by heating the liqueur gradually 
to a temperature of 70 to 90 C. in a hermetically sealed vessel. 
Heat is supplied either by a water or a steam jacket. When the 
set temperature has been reached the heating medium is with- 
drawn and the liqueur allowed to cool slowly. 

The treatment is usually given in an apparatus called a "conge 
a trancher" see Fig. 45. This vessel is fitted with a safety valve, 
a thermometer, a sight-glass and a steam coil, and is the type 
mostly used in medium sized plants. The larger manufacturers 



MANUFACTURE 



195 



use a cylindrical tank fitted with legs, a large, quick-closing man- 
hole on top and a safety valve, and an inlet tap for the compressed 
air. Below is an exhaust valve for the air. 

The usual sight-glass with scale graduated in litres is 
on the side. The bottom is fitted with valves for drawing off 
the liqueur, either by gravity into jugs or under pressure. There 




FIG. 45. Liqueur blending equipment (conge a trancher). 

is a separate tap for drawing off wash water. A steam coil is 
provided for heating and a mechanical agitator for mixing. 

The method of operation is as follows: The feed taps for 
the ingredients are opened successively and the required quanti- 
ties of each liquid are run in. Then the contents of the vessel 
are agitated. When blending is completed the steam valve is 
opened and the mixture is heated until the temperature reaches 



196 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

the maximum allowable. Then the liqueur is either run off into 
casks under air pressure or is allowed to rest in the conge, whence 
it is run off, colored, filtered, and either barrelled or bottled. 

Coloring of liqueurs is done to add what the jargon of the 
advertising profession calls "eye appeal' 1 to the liqueur. Unless 
it is done with knowledge of the properties of the color used it is 
a risky business. On occasion the stronger colors may alter the 
taste and break up the harmonious blend of aromatics in the 
liqueur. Again the colors may be affected by light in storage 
and bleach or precipitate in the bottle. Infusions of red fruit 
tend to bleach to pinks and the violet ones tend to darken. The 
yellows tend to turn brown. Many of these changes can be 
averted by suitable skill or by proper selection of colors. Above 
all, where artficial aging is used, it is desirable to add color after 
the liqueur has cooled so that the effect of heat on the color will 
be avoided. With some vegetable colors the addition of about 
0.01-0.02% of alum to the liqueur is claimed to give permanence 
and stability. 

Clarification or fining of liqueurs is practiced not only to give 
them limpidity and brilliancy so that they are agreeable to the 
eye, but also to render them immune against changes caused by 
substances which they may hold in suspension. 

Clarification methods precipitate these insoluble substances so 
that they can be removed by filtration. Both these operations are 
preferably carried out after the liqueur has completely cooled 
following tranchage, or better still after resting and settling for 
several days. 

Various substances are used: albumen, white of egg, fish glue, 
gelatin, and skimmed milk, or the modern filter aids such as talc, 
asbestos, kieselguhr, etc. 

Sample procedures: To fine one hectoliter (25 gals.) of 
liqueur are as follows: 

Take three whites of egg and whip them up in a liter (quart) of water; 
pour it into the liqueur; stirring all the time; allow it to rest and settle 
for 24 to 48 hours ; then decant. 

Fining by means of white of egg works very well with cloudy 



MANUFACTURE 197 

or milky liqueurs. It also works well with liqueurs made by the 
infusion process, but in this case only one white of egg must be 
used to avoid altering the coloring material, which is partially 
precipitated by the albumen. 

Fish glue or isinglass is more often used. It works very well 
with strongly alcoholic liqueurs but its preparation is somewhat 
lengthy and calls for considerable care. 

The best method of procedure is as follows: 

Macerate the fish glue for 24 hours in ten times its weight of water, 
taking care to renew the water two or three times because the glue will 
otherwise putrefy and acquire a nauseating odor. When the glue becomes 
soft, wet, and white, it is put into a mortar and pounded for some time 
so as to disintegrate it and separate all fibres. In this condition, small 
quantities of fresh water are added to it gradually, with stirring until a 
milky suspension or solution results. This liquid is strained through silk 
or fine linen cloth. The coarse undisintegrated particles of glue left upon 
the silk or linen strainer are put back into the mortar and pounded again. 
Water is then added in the same manner as before and the whole pro- 
cedure is gone through again until very little residue remains. The sus- 
pension is now stirred vigorously and a solution of tartaric acid is added, 
the stirring is continued until the glue goes into solution. 

The final product is not a white, limpid, easily flowing liquid but 
a kind of thin, transparent jelly which should be free of every 
trace of animal fiber. The materials should be used in about the 
following proportions : 

Fish glue 10 grams y$ oz. 

Tartaric acid (dissolved in half a liter of 

water i pt. ) r gram 1 5 gr. 

i to 1^/2 liters 



Water I i to iy 2 quarts 

for one hectoliter (25 gals.) of liqueur. The jelly solution is 
poured into the liqueur which is then well stirred up and finally 
allowed to rest for two or three days. 

Another method replaces water as a solvent by either white 
wine or water to which some vinegar has been added. In this 
case it is not necessary to add tartaric acid. Ten per cent of alco- 
hol added to the dissolved fish glue will preserve it from putrefy- 



198 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

ing in the event that the glue solution is made up for some time 
before using. 

To fine with gelatin soften 30 grams (i oz.) in a liter (i 
quart) of warm water; add the mixture to the liqueur; stir in 
vigorously and allow to rest for several days. This type of 
clarification agent is best adapted for white liqueurs of low alcohol 
content. 

Milk is also a good clarification agent for white liqueurs of 
low alcohol content. It should be added in the proportions of 
one liter (i quart) of milk to each hectoliter (25 gals.) of 
liqueur. It is advisable to boil the milk and the liqueur should 
be well stirred while the addition is made. Milk makes a par- 
ticularly good fining agent for the curagaos. 

Always fine cold because hot fining results in the liqueur ac- 
quiring an albuminous taste which is very difficult to eliminate. 

Filtration of liqueurs is done in order to give them the final 
"polish" that ensures brilliant clarity and absence of turbidity. 
The means by which it is accomplished range from a simple felt or 
flannel bag to more mechanical filters of larger capacity. In any 
type of filter the true filtration is done by some powdered material 
added to the liqueur which builds up a cake on the meshes of the 
filter apparatus and holds back the slimy suspended matter with- 
out clogging. Hence it is always necessary to return the first 
runnings of the filter one or more times until an efficient coating 
of filtering medium has been produced and the filtrate is abso- 
lutely clear. The felt bag filter is used in the same manner as the 
domestic jelly bag. That is, it is suspended with a hoop to keep 
its mouth open and filled with a bucket. It drains into another 
bucket. In spite of its primitiveness it is an effective filter for 
small lots of material. The next type of apparatus used for 
filtration is a copper cone fitted with a faucet at the bottom. To 
use this filter close the faucet and line the cone with filter paper 
or preferably pack the bottom with pure cellulose or filter paper 
reduced to pulp with a little water. The cone is filled with liqueur 
and the faucet opened. Figure 46 shows such a cone filter. 

Figures 47 and 48 show a slightly more advanced type 
of filter and its method of application. It consists of a tinned 



MANUFACTURE 



199 




FIG. 46. 





FIG. 47. Wire mesh liqueur FIG. 48. Method of connecting and operating liqueur 
filter. filter shown in Fig. 47. 



200 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

copper cylinder fitted with a faucet at the bottom and valves at 
the side and top. The cover seals it hermetically. The interior 
consists of two metallic screens, one with horizontal and vertical 
shoot and warp wires; the other, a cone, with diagonal shoot and 
warp. It is necessary to disperse some kind of filtering material 
in the liqueur, so that this material deposits on the screens and 
aids in the production of a clear filtrate. Paper pulp, asbestos 
wool, talc, diatomaceous earth, etc., are satisfactory for this 
purpose. The method of application is shown in Fig. 48. If 
necessary, it is possible to arrange the filter and casks in battery 
form, so that the receiving barrel of one filter serves as the feed- 
ing barrel of another filter. 

Similar filters are used in which the capacity is increased by 
supporting the wire filter cloth over a thin hollow rectangular 
frame and placing a number of these in a container so that the 
liquid flows freely into the outer chamber, and after passing 
through the filtering surface is collected from the interior of the 
frame and drained into a storage vessel. 



CURASAO 

In order to summarize the actual application of the general 
process outline given above, the manufacture of Curasao is de- 
tailed here because this liqueur has probably become the one best 
acclimated on American soil and is made here in larger volume 
than any other. The Curasao fruit is one of the family of bitter 
oranges. They grow chiefly in the West Indies and the price for 
genuine Curasao peels is quite high so that distillers generally 
substitute up to 50% of other bitter orange peels in the cheaper 
liqueurs. 

Manufacture. The outstanding characteristic of Curasao 
liqueurs is a mild bitter taste derived from the maceration of the 
fresh Curasao peel in 190 proof alcohol. Very little of this ex- 
tract needs to be incorporated into the finished liqueur on account 
of its intense bitterness. The complete process of making Cura- 
gao liqueur as stated by Wolff (Spirits (1934) II, No. 6, 73) 
is as follows : 



b. 



CURAgAO 201 

FORMULA TO MAKE IOO GALLONS 

CURACAO TRIPLE SEC. 40% ALCOHOL BY VOLUME 
EXTRA FINEST QUALITY 

24 oz. Extra thin genuine fresh Curasao peels 
12 oz. Extra thin fresh Orange peels 

Grind and macerate for 2 days with 
2.5 gal. Alcohol 190 proof (95%) 

Draw off 2 gallons of Extract. To the remaining macer- 
ate add: 

20 Ib. Extra thin fresh Curasao peels 
15 Ib. Extra thin fresh Orange peels 
10 oz. Mace 
2 oz. Cloves 
38 gal. Alcohol 190 proof 
40 gal. Distilled water 



Digest for six hours at very gentle heat, place in a steam 
jacketed still, add another 5 gallons water, and distill slowly for 
2 hours with partial reflux until all the alcohol is driven over. 
Rectify the raw distillate to 35% alcohol by volume and filter 
clear over Kieselguhr to remove terpenes. Clean still and then 
rectify the filtered distillate to 58 gallons, 60% alcohol by 
volume. 

The extract and distillate are blended as follows : 

BLENDING FORMULA 

2 gal. Extract a. 
58 gal. Rectified distillate 60% b. 

1 gal. Genuine Jamaica Rum 74% 

4 gal. Grape distillate 60% 

2 gal. Port wine 

5 gal. Glucose 42 B. 

1 8 gal. Syrup made from 

250 Ib. best grade sugar 
25 Ib. milk sugar 

i Ib. Citric Acid C.P. 
13 gal. Distilled water 
Caramel color as needed. 

This formula will vield 100 eallons. 



202 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

A cheaper product is made as follows : 
1.5 Ib. Extra thin Curasao peel 

Macerate for two days with 1.5 gal. alcohol and draw off 

i gallon extract. 

To the remaining macerate add: 
2O Ib. Extra thin Curasao peel 
10 Ib. Dried expulped Curasao peel 
10 oz. Mace 
2.5 oz. Cinnamon 
2.5 oz. Cloves 

13 gal. Alcohol 190 proof (95% vol.) 
15 gal. Distilled water 

Direction for distillation same as preceding formula except 
that 20 gallons of rectified distillate at 60% are obtained. 

BLENDING FORMULA 

1 gal. Extract a'. 

20 gal. Rectified distillate 60% b'. 

0.5 gal. Genuine Jamaica Rum 74% 

2.5 gal. Grape distillate 60% 

24.5 gal. Alcohol 1 90 proof (95%) 

2 gal. Port wine 

23 gal. Syrup made from 

300 Ib. sugar 
20 Ib. milk sugar 

I Ib. Citric acid C.P. 
29.5 gal. Distilled water 
Caramel color as needed. 

Newly made Curasao liqueurs have a raw unpleasant taste of peel 
which the addition of milk sugar helps to overcome. Heating the liqueur 
in vacuo to 135 F. also accelerates aging the product. 

LIQUEUR FORMULAE 

There follows a selected list of formulae for the manufacture 
of liqueurs. In the case of many liqueurs a number of alternative 
formulae are cited according to the method of manufacture and 
the grade or quality of product. In using these formulae, the 
warning must be observed that no amount of direction can sub- 
stitute safely for care, skill and experience. 

In explanation of the following formulae it is also important 
to note that the words "spirit of' refer to an alcohol distillate 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 203 

from the flavoring material. The term essence refers to a solu- 
tion of the essential oil in alcohol. Directions for coloring have 

been omitted, as the user will naturally follow his judgment in 
this matter. The section on coloring in this chapter and the list 
of colors in Chapter IV may be helpful in this connection. 

ABSINTHE 
First Quality 

Wormwood 28 Ib. 

Hyssop 6 Ib. 8 oz. 

Lemon balm 6 Ib. 8 oz. 

Anis (green) 40 Ib. 

Chinese aniseed 12 Ib. 

Fennel 16 Ib. 

Coriander 8 Ib. 

Alcohol (90%) , 80 gal. 

Water 25 gal. 

Macerate for 48 hours. Distill. Color with an infusion of worm- 
wood and green herbs. 

CREAM OF ABSINTHE 
First Quality "Synthetic" 

Essence of absinthe 45 min. 

" " English peppermint 45 min. 

" " anis 4 dr. 

' ' " sweet fennel i dr. 

' ' distilled lemon 4 dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

ABSINTHE 
Average Quality 

Essence of absinthe 45 min. 

' ' ' * English peppermint 45 min. 

' ' ' * anis, green 4 dr. 

" " lemon 4 dr. 

" ," fennel I dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 2. 5 gal. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



204 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

ALKERMES DE FLORENCE 
Elixir of Life of Florence 

Essence of calamus 22 min. 

' * ' ' Chinese cinnamon 15 min. 

" * * cloves. . 40 min. 

* * ' ' nutmeg 22 min. 

' ' ' ' roses 30 min. 

Extract of jasmin 4 dr. 

" " anis 4 dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color with cochineal 

ANGELICA LIQUEUR 
Excellent Quality 

Angelica root 10 Ib. 

seed 8 Ib. 

Coriander seed i Ib. 

Fennel i Ib. 

Alcohol (90%) 28 gal. 

Macerate, distill and rectify to 36 gallons after addition of water. Add 
400 Ib. of sugar in syrup and make to 100 gallons with distilled water. 

Very Good Grade 

Spirit of angelica root 10 gal. 

11 " " seeds 10 gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 13.5 gal. 

Sugar 342 Ib. 

Water to make 100 gal. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of angelica roots 2 qt. 25 oz. 

' ' ' ' ' ' seeds 2 qt. 25 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 3 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade Double Strength 

Spirit of Angelica seeds i gal. 3 pt. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 gal. 5 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 205 

Average Grade Single Strength 

Spirit of angelica seeds 3 qt. 12 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 6 pt. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

ANISETTE 
Highest Quality Paris Type 

Chinese aniseed 16 Ib. 

Bitter almonds 4 Ib. 

Green anis 16 Ib. 

Coriander 2 Ib. 

Fennel i Ib. 

Angelica roots 4 oz. 

Lemon peel No. 80 

Orange peel No. 80 

Alcohol (90%) 34 gal. 

Macerate in alcohol for 24 hours, add 19 gallons of water, distill. Add 
19 gallons of water and rectify to draw off 36 gallons of good product. 
Dissolve 400 Ib. of refined sugar in 24 gallons of water and cool. Add 
this to the distillate and add: 

Infusion of orris 4 oz. 

Orange flower water i gal. 

Chinese aniseed water 8 oz. 

Clove water i .5 oz. 

Nutmeg water 1.5 oz. 

Add enough water to make up to 100 gallons. 

Alternative 

Anis de Tours 8 Ib. 

Anis d'Albi 8 Ib. 

Badiane (Chinese Aniseed) 4 Ib. 

Ceylon cinnamon i Ib. 

Orris 12 oz. 

Cloves 3 oz. 

Angelica root 3 oz. 

Dictame de Crete (marjoram) 12 oz. 

Coriander seed 12 oz. 

Almonds (sweet) 4 Ib. 



206 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Lemon peels No. 80 

Orange peels No. 20 

Nutmegs No. 40 

Alcohol (85%) 40 gal. 

Macerate for 24 hours, add water, distill, rectify, sweeten to 45. 
Add I gallon of orange flower oil. 

Anisette Bordeaux Type 

Badiane (Chinese aniseed) seeds 16 Ib. 

Anise (green) 4 Ib. 

Fennel 4 Ib. 

Coriander 4 Ib. 

Sassafras 4 Ib. 

Musk seed 14 oz. 

Lemon peel 4 Ib. 

Alcohol (90%) 35 gal. 

Macerate for 48 hours in alcohol. Add 30 to 40 gallons of water. 
Distill. Add 35 gallons of alcohol and 20 gallons of water and rectify. 
Dissolve 400-500 Ib. of sugar in hot water. Mix the syrup with the 
alcohol. This should give a total volume of 100 gallons. Filter. Add 
I or 2 gallons of orange flower oil. 

Very Good Grade 

Spirit of anise (prepared as above) 2.5 gal. 

Orange flower water I pt. 

Infusion of orris 3 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 gal. 

Sugar 1 9 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of anise 3 qt. 

Orange flower water 12 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2.5 gal. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

These liqueurs should be colored red. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 207 

Anisette (with Glucose) 

Spirit of anise 3 qt. 

Orange flower water 3 qt. 

Alcohol (90%) 1.75 gal. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Glucose (36 B) 2.75 gal. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade Double Strength 

Spirit of anise 3.5 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 4.25 gal. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

With Glucose 

Spirit of anise 3.5 qt. 

Alcohol (90%) 1.5 gal. 

Sugar 12 Ib. 

Glucose (36 B) 3.75 gal. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Single Strength 

Spirit of anise 0.5 gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

With Glucose 

Spirit of anise 0.5 gal. 

Alcohol (90%) 2 gal. 

Sugar 5 Ib. 

Glucose (36 B) 1.75 gal. 

Water to make 100 gal. 

" SYNTHETIC "ANISETTE 

Highest Grade 

Essence of Chinese aniseed i oz. 

" , " anise 2 dr. 

" " sweet fennel i dr. 

" " coriander 5 min. 

" "sassafras 45 



208 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Extract of orris 0.75 oz. 

" " amber (not musk) i dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Very Good Grade 

Essence of Chinese aniseed 6 dr. 

" " anise 2 dr. 

sweet fennel 45 min. 

" " coriander 5 min. 

sassafras 30 min. 

Extract of orris 4 dr. 

" " amber (not musk) 45 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 3- 2 5g*l. 

Sugar 30 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Ordinary Grade 

Essence of aniseed 3 dr. 

" Chinese aniseed 3 dr. 

' ' * ' sweet fennel 40 min. 

* ' ' ' coriander 4 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 2.5 gal. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Benedictine 

This product is made only by a company once the Benedictine Monks 
of Fecamp. Through hundreds of years they have kept its composition 
secret and have now a copyright on the name and bottle. The formula 
cited is an imitation which closely reproduces the original. 

Cloves 4 oz. 

Nutmeg I oz. 

Cinnamon \ oz. 

Mixture of peppermint, fresh angelica roots and 

alpine mugwort 3^ oz. 

Aromatic calamus 2 oz. 

Cardamom, minor 7 oz. 

Flowers of arnica i oz. 

Cut up and crush the materials and macerate for two days 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 209 

in 4 gallons of 85 per cent alcohol. Add 3 gallons of water and 
draw off 4 gallons. Distill. Add syrup made with 32 Ib. of 
sugar and 2 gallons of water. Make the volume up to 10 gal- 
lons. Color yellow and filter. 

BLACK CURRANT BRANDY (LIQUEUR) 
(Creme de Cassis) 
Excellent Quality 

Infusion of black currants (first) 4 gal. i qt. 

Spirit of strawberries 2 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 qt. i pt. 

Sugar, 40 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

In the formula just cited, as well as in the next following 
formulae reference is made to different infusions. To prepare 
these infusions the following directions are given: Steep or mace- 
rate the fruits or other flavoring ingredients in alcohol. When 
extraction appears complete, decant the solvent and use as the 
first infusion. A second and third infusion may be made from 
the same fruits but on account of the comparative weakness of 
these in extract they must be employed in the ratios of i : 2 and 
i : 3 to replace a first infusion. In balancing the formula correc- 
tion must be made in the amount of neutral spirits added to com- 
pensate for the alcoholic content of the volume of infusion used. 

Very Good Grade 
(Ratafia de Cassis) 

Infusion of black currants (first) 3 gal. 5 pt. 

" " strawberries 3 qt. 12 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal 

Sugar 30 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Infusion of black currants (first) 2 gal. 3 pt. 

Vin de Roussillon 3 qt. 12 oz. 

Infusion of wild cherries 3 pt. 

* * ' ' strawberries 3 pt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

"Water to make total volume up to 10 gallons. 



210 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Average Grade Double Strength 

Infusion of black currants (first) 2 gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade Single Strength 

Infusion of black currants i gal. 2 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. i qt. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

CREAM OF CELERY 

(Crime de Celeri) 

Very Good Grade 

Spirit of celery 2 gal. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. I qt. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of celery i gal. i qt. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 5 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of celery 2 dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 gal- i Pt. 

Sugar 35 lb - 

Water to make 10 gal. 

CHARTREUSE 

See remarks under Benedictine 
Green Chartreuse 

Melisse citronne, dry (lemon balm) 8 Ib. 

Hyssop flowers 2, Ib. 

Dry peppermint 2 Ib. 

Alpine mugwort 2 Ib. 

Balsamite x Ib. 

Thyme 7 oz 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 211 

Angelica leaves i Ib. 5 oz. 

' ' roots i Ib. 5 oz. 

Arnica flowers 3 oz. 

Bourgeons de peuplier-baumier 3 oz. 

Chinese aniseed 2 oz. 

Mace 2 oz. 

Alcohol (90%) 58^ gal. 

Macerate for 24 hours, add water and rectify to draw off 60 gallons; 
add sugar syrup made by dissolving 200 Ib. of sugar in hot water, mix and 

make total volume up to 100 gallons with water; age by heating; then 

color green with blue color and saffron or caramel, according to the de- 
sired shade. 

Rest, fine and filter. 

Yellow Chartreuse 

Lemon balm 4 Ib. 

Hyssop flowers i Ib. 

Alpine mugwort i Ib. 

Angelica leaves 2 Ib. 

* ' roots 2 Ib. 

Arnica flowers 2 oz. 

Chinese aniseed 2 oz. 

Mace 2 oz. 

Coriander 12 Ib. 

Aloes 4 oz. 

Cardamom, minor 4 oz. 

Cloves 3! oz. 

Alcohol (90%) 38 J gal. 

Refined sugar 200 Ib. 

Water, to make up to 100 gallons. 

Proceed as above, coloring yellow with saffron. 

White Chartreuse 

Lemon balm 4 Ib. 

Hyssop flowers i Ib. 

Alpine mugwort i Ib. 

Angelica leaves 2 Ib. 

' ' roots 13 oz. 

Chinese aniseed 13 oz. 

Mace 4 oz. 

Cloves 4 oz. 



2i2 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Nutmeg 4 oz. 

Cardamom, minor 4 oz. 

Calamus, aromatic 4 oz. 

Tonka beans i J oz. 

Alcohol (90%) 49 gal. 

Refined sugar 300 Ib. 

Water to make up to 100 gallons. 

Prepare as above. 

The monks age their product for two or three years. 

First Quality "Synthetic" 

Essence of lemon 15 min. 

' ' ' ' hyssop 15 min. 

' ' ' ' angelica I dr. 

" " English peppermint 2 dr. 

* ' " chinese aniseed 15 min. 

1 ' ' * nutmeg 15 min. 

' * * * cloves 15 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color: yellow or green. 

CHERRY CORDIAL 

(Ratafia de cerises de Grenoble) 

First Quality , Grenoble Type 

Infusion of cherries 2^ gal. 

* ' ' ' wild cherries i \ gal. 

Spirit of apricot stones 5 pt. 

* * ' ' strawberries 3 pt. 

Sugar 40 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Angers' Type 
Guignolet d* Angers 

Infusion of cherries 2 gal. 

" ' * wild cherries 2 gal. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 

Sugar 40 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 213 

Very Good Grade 

Infusion of cherries 3 J gal. 

" " wild cherries 3 qt. 12 oz. 

Spirit of apricot stones 3 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) i qt. 22 oz. 

Sugar 30 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Infusion of cherries. 3 gal. 

" ' ' wild cherries 2 qt. 

Spirit of apricot stones 2 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) i qt. 22 oz. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

CREAM OF COCOA 

(Creme de Cacao) 
Highest Quality 

Cocoa (Caracas) 20 Ib. 

Cocoa (maragnan) 20 Ib. 

Cloves 7 oz. 

Mace 8 oz. 

Vanilla. 4 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 40 gal. 

Roast the cocoa, grind it. Macerate in alcohol the cocoa, cloves, mace, 
and vanilla and distill after 48 hours. Rectify. Add i gallon of tincture 
of vanilla and 400 Ib. of refined sugar which has been dissolved in a suffi- 
cient quantity of water to bring the total quantity of liqueur to 100 gal- 
lons. The tincture of vanilla adds, in addition to flavor, a light yellow 
color which is much admired. 

CREAM OF COFFEE 
(Creme de Moka) 
Very Good Grade 

Spirit of moka (spirit of coffee) 2j gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 6 pt. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water . . to make 10 gal. 



2i 4 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Good Grade 
Moka water (aqueous extract of coffee) .... 2 gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 6 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

CURACAO 

The best as well as most detailed directions for making 
Curasao will be found on p. 201 et seq. in this section. How- 
ever, a number of alternative formulae have been included here 
to guide in the preparation of different grades of the liqueur. In 
each of the formulae cited below the addition of caramel color is 
required. 

Highest Quality Triple Sec. 

Dutch Curasao peel 64 Ib. 

Curasao reeds 32 Ib. 

Orange peels No. 6 

Lemon peels No. 4 

Alcohol (85%) 50 gal. 

Distill, rectify. Add: 

Infusion of oranges 3 gal. 

* ' ' * curagao reeds 2 gal. 

Sweeten with 

White sugar 200 Ib. 

Raw white sugar 80 Ib. 

Color and filter. 

Very Good Grade 

Spirit of Dutch Curasao 2| gal. 

' ' ' * oranges 3 qt. 

Infusion of Curasao 3 oz. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of Curasao i gal i qt. 

Infusion of curaf ao 4 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) ij gal. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 215 

Average Grade Double Strength 

Spirit of Curasao i gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 20 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

(With Glucose) 

Spirit of curagao i gal. 

Alcohol (90%) i\ gal. 

Sugar 13 lb. 

Glucose (36 B) 3 gal 3 qt. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade Single Strength 

Spirit of Curasao 3 qt. 12 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 10 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Proceed as above and color with a little caramel. 

(With Glucose] 

Spirit of Curasao 3 qt. 1 2 oz. 

Alcohol (90%) i gal. I qt. 

Sugar 4! lb. 

Glucose (36 B) i gal. 7 pt. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Highest Quality "Synthetic" 

Essence of distilled Curasao i oz. 2 dr. 

" Portugal, distilled 4 dr. 

Infusion of bitter Curasao sufficient quantity 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Very Good Grade " Synthetic " 

Essence of distilled Curasao f oz. 

" Portugal, distilled 2 dr. 30 min. 

" " cloves 30 min. 

Infusion of bitter curacao sufficient quantity 

Alcohol (85%) 3 gal- i qt. 

Sugar 3 6 lb - 

Water to make 10 gal. 



2i 6 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Average Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of Curasao 4 dr. 

" " Portugal, distilled i dr. 30 min. 

" " cloves 20 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 2j gal. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

DESSERT LIQUEUR 
(Liqueur de Dessert) 

Angelica seed 6 Ib. 

root 4 Ib. 

Calamus (aromatic) i Ib. 4 oz. 

Ceylon cinnamon i Ib. 4 oz. 

Myrrh 12 oz. 

Cloves 10 oz. 

Aloes 7 oz. 

Vanilla 8 oz. 

Nutmegs No. 20 

Saffron f oz. 

Alcohol (86%) 40 gal. 

Crystallized sugar 400 Ib. 

Water: sufficient to make up to 100 gal. total volume. 

Macerate in alcohol 48 hours. Distill. Rectify, color with tincture 
of saffron. Filter. 

GARUS* ELIXIR 
(Elixir de Gar us) 

Spirit of aloes 14 oz. 

" " myrrh 14 oz. 

" * ' saffron 14 oz. 

" " Chinese cinnamon 14 oz. 

cloves 8 oz. 

nutmeg 7 oz. 

Orange flower water 14 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color golden with saffron and a little caramel. 



t < ( i 

(I < 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 217 

GOLDEN ELIXIR 
(Eau de vie de Dantzick) 

Ceylon cinnamon 8 Ib. 

Ripe figs 8 Ib. 

Cumin i Ib. 12 oz. 

Musk seed 14 oz. 

Mace i Ib. 

Cloves i Ib. 

Lemon peel i Ib. 

Alcohol (86%) 40 gal. 

Refined white sugar 392 Ib. 

Macerate in alcohol 48 hours. Distill. Rectify. Dissolve sugar in 
sufficient water to make total volume up to 100 gallons. Settle. Filter. 
Add I leaf of gold per gallon. Agitate and bottle. 

HENDAYE'S ELIXIR 
(Eau de vie de Hendaye) 

Very Good Grade 

Spirit of anis i qt. 

" ' ' coriander i qt. 

' ' ' ' bitter almonds i qt. 

' * * * angelica root \ gal. 

" " cardamom, major 7 oz. 

" " " minor 7 oz. 

" " lemon 14 oz. 

" ' ' oranges % gal. 

Infusion of orris 3 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) i J gal. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Kirs chw ass er Liqueur 

Kirsch, fine (true cherry brandy) (50%).. . . 15 gal. 

Spirit of nuts (cherry stone or bitter almond) 10 gal. 

Orange flower water i gal. 

Alcohol (90%) i$ gal. 

Sugar 400 Ib. 

Water to make 100 gal. 



2i 8 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Huile de Kirschwasser "Synthetic" 

Essence of nuts 4 dr. 

*' " French neroli oil 40 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

CREME DE MENTHE 
Very Good Grade 

Spirit of peppermint 2^ gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 qt. 

Sugar 35 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color green with mixture of blue and yellow colors if desired. 

Good Grade 

Peppermint water i gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Alternative Formula 

Peppermint water i gal. i qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 5 gal. 

Sugar 20 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade 

Peppermint water 3 qt. 12 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 

Sugar 10 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Very Good Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of English peppermint 5 dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 gal- J qt- 

Sugar 35 lb. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 219 

Good Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of English peppermint 3 dr. 30 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

NUT BREW 

(Brou de Noix) 

Good Grade 

Infusion of nuts 3 gal. 

Spirit of nutmeg 5 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) \\ gal. 

Sugar 30 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color with caramel. 

Average Grade Double Strength 

Infusion of nuts 4 gal. I qt. 

Spirit of nutmegs 7 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) aj gal. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color with caramel. 

Average Grade Single Strength 

Infusion of nuts, aged 2 gal. i pt. 

Spirit of nutmeg 3 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 3 pt. 

Sugar 44 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color with caramel. 

NOYAUX 

(Eau de Noyaux) 

Finest Quality 

Apricot stones 16 Ib. 

Cherry stones 12 Ib. 

Dried peach leaves 4 Ib. 

Myrrh I Ib. 10 oz. 

Alcohol (90%) 40 gal. 

Water to make 100 gal. 

Crush the stones, macerate, add water and distill. 



220 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

CRME DE NOYAUX 
Very Good Quality 

Spirit of apricot stone i gal. 5 pt. 

" " bitter almonds I pt. 

Orange flower water 3 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 qt. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of apricot stones i gal. 3 pt. 

Alcohol (85%) 3 gal. 5 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade 

Spirit of apricot stones 7 pt. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 5 pt. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Proceed as above. 

ONE HUNDRED AND SEVEN YEARS 
Cent Sept Ans 

Spirit of lemon \\ gal. 

Rose water 6 gal. 

Alcohol (90%) 21 gal. 

Sugar 100 Ib. 

Water to make 100 gal. 

Color strongly red with orchil. 

ORANGE FLOWER CREAM 

(Crime de Fleurs d* Granger) 

Very Good Grade 

Spirits of orange flowers i gal. 

Orange flower water \ gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. i qt. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 221 

Good Grade 

Orange flower water 7 pt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 6 pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Double Strength 

Orange flower water i gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 5 gal. 

Sugan 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Highest Quality "Synthetic" 

Essence of French neroli oil 2 dr. 

Orange flower water i pt. 9 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of neroli of Paris i dr. 16 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

PERFECT LOVE 
(Par/ ait Amour) 
Very Good Grade 

Spirit of lemon i qt. 7 oz. 

* ' * ' oranges i qt. 7 oz. 

" " coriander 3 pt. 

" " anis i qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color this or the following with orchil. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of lemon i qt. 7 oz. 

" ' * coriander 3 pt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. i pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



222 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Average Grade 

Spirit of lemon I pt. 8 oz. 

' c ' ' coriander i pt. 8 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. i pt. 

Sugar 10 Ib, 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of distilled lemons 4 dr. 30 min. 

' ' ' ' cedar ' i dr. 30 min. 

" " coriander 6 min. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 5 pt. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

PINEAPPLE LIQUEUR 

(Crime d* Ananas) 

Finest Quality 

Pineapple (fresh) 6 Ib. 7 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Crush and infuse pineapple in alcohol for 8 days. Filter through silk 
cloth. Add sugar dissolved in 2% gallons of water. Add 7 oz. infusion 
of vanilla. Color yellow with caramel. 

PUNCH LIQUEUR 

Brandy (58%) 5 oz. 

Tafia (55%) 2 qt. 

Spirit of lemon, concentrated i \ oz. 

Citric acid I oz. 

Hyswen tea i f oz. 

Burnt sugar (4 B) 15 Ib. 

Water 4 gal. 

QUINCE BRANDY Ratafia de Goings 

Sweet juice of ripe quinces 5 pt. 

Spirit of cloves 7 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2j gal. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color yellow with caramel. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 223 

ROSE LIQUEUR 

(Huile de Roses) 
Good Grade 

Rose water i gal. i qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 5 gal 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade "Synthetic" 

Essence of roses 1 1 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

STRAWBERRY CORDIAL 

(Ratafia de Frambroises) 

Finest Quality 

Infusion of strawberries 3 gal. 

" cherries i gal. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. 

Sugar 40 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade 

Infusion of strawberries i gal. 2 qt. 

" black currant 2 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. I qt. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

STRAWBERRY BRANDY 
Average Grade Double Strength 

Spirit of strawberries (80%) 16 gal. 

Alcohol (90%) 8 gal. i qt. 

Sugar 200 Ib. 

Water to make 100 gal. 

TRAPPISTINE 
(See note under "Benedictine") 

Grand absinthe 5? oz. 

Angelica 5? oz. 

Peppermint 1 1 oz. 



224 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Cardamom 5^ oz. 

Melisse (balm) 4 oz. 

Myrrh 2^ oz. 

Calamus 2 J oz. 

Cinnamon i oz. 

Cloves ^ oz. 

Mace i oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 2 qt. 

Sugar 30 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Follow the general methods for Benedictine. 

VESPETRO 
Very Good Grade 

Spirit of amber seeds i pt. 

" " dill i qt. 

' ' ' ' anis 2 qt. 

* ' ' ' caraway 2 qt. 

* ' " coriander 2 qt. 

' ' ' ' daucus i qt. 

" fennel. i qt. i pt. 

Alcohol (85%) i gal. i qt. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Good Grade 

Spirit of amber seed 7 oz. 

< c< dill 21 oz. 

' ' " anis i qt. i pt. 

* * caraway i qt. 

4 ' ' ' coriander I qt. 

" " daucus ii oz. 

" " fennel i qt. 

Alcohol (85%) i qt. i pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade 

Spirit of amber seed 14 oz. 

" ' 4 dill 14 oz. 

14 " anis 28 oz. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 225 

Spirit of caraway 14 oz. 

* ' ' ' coriander 28 oz. 

" "daucus 14 oz. 

" fennel 14 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. i pt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Best Grade tl Synthetic" 
Essence of anis 4 dr. 

* ' " caraway 3 dr. 

* ' " sweet fennel i oz. 

' * ' * coriander 30 min. 

' ' * * distilled lemon 2 dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 

Sugar 45 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade "Synthetic" 
Essence of anis 3 dr. 

* * * * black currants 2 dr. 

' ' " sweet fennel 40 min. 

" " coriander 50 min. 

' ' " distilled lemon i dr. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

CREAM OF VANILLA 
Very Good Grade 

Infusion of vanilla 3 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 2 qt. 

Sugar 35 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Color with cochineal or orchil. 

Good Grade 

Infusion of vanilla 2 qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. i qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 



226 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Average Grade Double Strength 

Infusion of vanilla i qt. 

Alcohol (85%) 4 gal. 3 qt. 

Sugar 20 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

Average Grade Single Strength 

Infusion of vanilla i pt. 

Tincture of storax calamite 4 oz. 

Alcohol (85%) 2 gal. 2 qt. 

Sugar 10 Ib. 

Water to make 10 gal. 

BITTERS 

These are a special group of liqueurs used for their tonic 
properties and in small portions to flavor other beverages. In 
general, their manufacture is simple and quality depends on the 
proper selection of materials and care rather than intricate proc- 
essing. A few formulae are cited below from the vast number 
available. These are selected to be sufficiently illustrative. The 
remainder, the matching of any preparation now on the market 
is rather a matter for the master of the art than choice from a 
receipt book. 

Angostura Bitters 

Angostura bark 31 Ib. 

Red sandalwood 3 Ib. 

Liquorice (wood) i Ib. 

Chinese cinnamon f Ib. 

Ginger root 10 oz. 

Galanga root 10 oz. 

Cardamom 10 oz. 

Cloves 12 oz. 

Orange peel 6 oz. 

Mace , 3 oz. 

Cut the materials up finely and macerate them for 8 days in 6 gallons 
of alcohol (50%). Stir frequently. Add 40 gallons of alcohol (95%) 
and 8 gallons of sugar syrup. Add water to make up to 100 gallons total 
volume. Color reddish brown with caramel and tincture of cochineal. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 227 

Distilled Bitters 

Orange peel 12 lb. 

Dutch curacao bark 12 lb. 

Gentian (chopped) 6 oz. 

Cinchona bark 2 lb. 

Calamus i lb. 4 oz. 

Cardamom | oz. 

Lemon peel 2^ lb. 

Columba i J oz. 

Tangerine peel 6 oz. 

Alcohol (96%) 68 gal. 

Water 100 gal. 

Macerate for 48 hours. Distill to recover 75 gallons at So%. 

Add: 

Distillate 75 gal. 

Caramel 5 ' ' 

Sugar syrup 10 * ' 

Water no " 

200 gal. 
Fine and filter. 

Unicum Bitters 

Sugar 80 lb. 

Honey 64 lb. 

Absinthe 5 oz. 

Calamus root 2 oz. 

Cinnamon bark I \ oz. 

Ginger 2 oz. 

Orange peel i \ oz. 

Lemon peel i oz. 

Centaury 2^ oz. 

Gentian 2 oz. 

Cinchona bark (red) i .oz. 

Angelica root i oz. 

Lemon balm i\ oz. 

Spearmint i oz. 

Rhubarb i oz. 

Angostura bark 2& oz. 



228 LIQUEURS AND CORDIALS 

Macerate 3-7 days in 100 gallons 42% alcohol. Draw off, fine, and 
filter. 

VERMOUTH 
(Sweet or Italian Type) 

Absinthe i Ib. 

Gentian i\ oz. 

Angelica root 8 oz. 

Blessed thistle i Ib. 

Calamus root i Ib. 

Starwort i Ib. 

Centaury i Ib. 

Forget-me-not i Ib. 

Cinnamon 12 oz. 

Nutmeg 2 oz. 

Fresh cut oranges No. 24 

Sweet white wine 93! gal. 

Alcohol (85%) 5! gal. 

Macerate 5 days. Draw off and fine. Let stand 8 days and fine again. 
The product is then ready to bottle. Isinglass is preferred for fining. 

Vermouth Dry or French Type 

Coriander 4 Ib. 

Bitter orange peel 2 Ib. 

Orris root (powder) 2 Ib. 

Cinchona bark (red) i Ib. 4 oz. 

Calamus i Ib. 4 oz. 

Absinthe i Ib. 

Blessed thistle i Ib. 

Star wort i Ib. 

Centaury i Ib. 

Germander i Ib. 

Cinnamon 14 oz. 

Cloves 7 oz. 

Quassia 3i oz. 

Dry white wine 100 gal. 

Grind or crush the herbs, etc. Macerate 5-6 days. Draw off and 

fine. Let stand 15 days and add 2 gallons of bitter almond shell extract 
(see below) and three gallons grape brandy. The bitter almond shell 

extract is made by macerating i part bitter almond shells in 2 parts of 
85% alcohol for 2 months. 



LIQUEUR FORMULAE 229 

Vermouth Madeira Type 

Absinthe i Ib. 

Angelica root 8 oz. 

Blessed thistle i Ib. 

Lung moss i Ib. 

Veronica i Ib. 

Rosemary i Ib. 

Rhubarb 4 oz. 

Cinchona bark (red) i Ib. 12 oz. 

Powdered orris root 2 Ib. 

Curacao extract (see below) \ gal. 

Madeira wine 91 gal. 

Grape sugar 3 \ gal. 

Old brandy 5? gal. 

Macerate 3 days. Draw off and fine. Age 8 days and fine again. 
The curagao extract is prepared by macerating i part Curasao peels in 
2 parts of 85% alcohol for 8-10 days. 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

INTERPRETATION 

General Statement. Materials in general and alcoholic 
beverages in particular may be subjected to chemical analysis for 
any of a great variety of reasons. These include among others 
( i ) analysis by a manufacturer to determine uniformity of each 
batch of product with preceding batches; (2) analysis to determine 
the existence of adulteration in the product; (3) analysis to deter- 
mine compliance with standards of quality such as the Federal 
Pure Food Standards; (4) analysis to determine the identity of 
the material (i.e., compliance with definitions) ; (5) and analysis 
for the purpose of duplication of the material. Consideration 
must always be given to the purpose of the analysis before actual 
selection of the determinations to be made and the methods of 
making them. Obviously, a manufacturer can check his product 
from day to day by one or a few simple tests. On the other hand, 
analyses made to determine the identity or to duplicate a product 
must necessarily be as complete and as exact as the analytical art 
will permit. With this possibility in view, the methods of analysis 
cited in Chapter XIV have been reprinted, without exception, 
from the Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis of the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 3rd ed. 1930. 
Grateful acknowledgment is here made to the Association for per- 
mission to copy. These methods not only have official standing in 
the courts and with governmental administrative bodies, but they 
have been written after careful collaborative study so that they 
are both exact and complete in detail. 

Despite the accuracy and reproductibility of the results obtain- 
able by the methods cited, the analytical chemist must confess that 

230 



GENERAL STATEMENT 231 

his satisfaction of purposes 4 and 5 listed above, is difficult and 
often impossible of completion. This difficulty arises partly out 
of the inherent variability of many factors which enter into the 
composition of alcoholic beverages. Among these are noted 
especially the raw materials and the bio-chemical reactions of 
fermentation. Part of the difficulty is also due to the fact that 
the distinguishing characteristics of alcoholic beverages, flavor, 




FIG. 49. Modern distillery laboratory. (Courtesy American Wine and Liquor 

Journal.) 

smoothness, aroma, etc., are intangible by the analyst and can only 
be known by sensing them. 

However, notwithstanding the difficulties stated, the analyst 
has compiled data regarding the average composition of wines 
and distilled beverages. Comparison of the results obtained by 
the analysis of any given sample with the data so compiled will, 
therefore, indicate the approach of the sample to the norm for 
the kind of material it represents and may on occasion so empha- 
size the abnormality of the material as to establish its non-agree- 
ment with the definition. 



232 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

Definitions. There can be no discussion of the meaning of 
analysis of alcoholic beverages without prior agreement on the 
meaning of the names applied to the beverages, i.e., definitions of 
the beverages. Since the definitions and standards used by the 
Food and Drug Administration of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture and the labeling requirements of the Federal Alcohol Con- 
trol Board have the force of law in this country, as well as the 
merit of presenting definitions in as accurate language as pos- 
sible, they have been adopted by the authors and are presented 
here. 

Definition of Whiskey. The Department of Agriculture de- 
fines only medicinal whiskey and requires that it shall conform to 
the definition contained in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. This defi- 
nition reads as follows : "Whiskey is an alcoholic liquid obtained 
by the distillation of the fermented mash of wholly or partly 
malted cereal grains, and containing not less than 47 per cent 
and not more than 53 per cent by volume of C 2 H 5 OH at 15.56^. 
It must have been stored in charred wood containers for a period 
of not less than four years. 

The pharmacopoeia also sets up certain standards of identity 
and purity. These are: 

Acidity (Calculated as acetic) 36-120 parts per 100,000 
Esters (Calculated as ethyl acetate) 30-123 parts per 100,000 
Solids (Extract) not over 500 parts per 100,000 
Color To pass Marsh test for caramel. 

Freedom from denaturants such as wood alcohol, diethylphthalate, for- 
maldehyde, etc. 

The Federal Alcohol Control Administration in a regulation 
(Series 4) dated June 13, 1934 defines a number of classes and 
types of whiskey which include : 

Types: 

Neutral whiskey, Straight whiskey, Straight rye whiskey, Straight 
bourbon whiskey, Blended whiskey, Blended rye whiskey, Blended 
bourbon whiskey, a blend of straight rye whiskeys, a blend 'of 
straight bourbon whiskeys, Spirit whiskey, Scotch whiskey, Irish 
whiskey, Blended Scotch whiskey, Blended Irish whiskey, Special 
types of whiskey. 



DEFINITION OF WHISKEY 233 

The separate definitions of these are: 

(a) Neutral whiskey is any alcoholic distillate from a fer- 
mented mash of grain, distilled at more than 160 proof, and less 
than 190 proof. 

(b) Straight whiskey is any alcoholic distillate produced from 
a fermented mash of grain, distilled at not exceeding 160 proof 
and withdrawn from the cistern room of the distillery between 
no proof and 80 proof, and produced by the same distillery 
from the same type of materials, and as part of the same season's 
distillation, whether or not such proof is reduced prior to bot- 
tling. 

(c) Straight rye whiskey and Straight bourbon whiskey are 
straight whiskey distilled from a fermented mash of grain in which 
rye or corn, respectively, are the principal materials. 

(d) Blended whiskey is a mixture of straight whiskeys, or 
of straight whiskey or whiskeys and neutral whiskey, or of 
straight whiskey or whiskeys and neutral spirits distilled from 
grain, which contains at least 20% of 100 proof straight whiskey 
by volume. 

(e) Blended rye whiskey, and blended bourbon whiskey are 
blended whiskeys in which the whiskey or whiskeys are all rye or 
all bourbon, respectively. 

(f) A blend of straight whiskeys, A blend of straight rye 
whiskeys, and A blend of straight bourbon whiskeys are mixtures 
composed only of straight whiskeys, straight rye whiskeys, or 
straight bourbon whiskeys, respectively. 

(g) Spirit whiskey is a mixture of straight whiskey or whis- 
keys and neutral whiskey, or of straight whiskey or whiskeys and 
neutral spirits distilled from grain, which contains at least 5% 
and less than 20% of 100 proof straight whiskey or straight 
whiskeys by volume. 

(h) Scotch whiskey is a distinctive product of Scotland (i) 
composed of not less than per cent by volume of straight 
whiskey or whiskeys distilled therein from a fermented mash of 
barley malt, and of neutral whiskey distilled therein, and (2) 
manufactured and blended in compliance with the laws and regula- 



234 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

tions of the United Kingdom, and (3) containing no whiskey 
less than three years old. 

(i) Irish whiskey is a distinctive product of Ireland (i) 
composed of spirits distilled at approximately 171 proof from 
a fermented mash of malted barley and unmalted barley and other 
grains, with or without the addition of other spirits similarly dis- 
tilled in other seasons by the same distillery, and with or without 
the addition of not more than per cent by volume of neutral 
whiskey distilled at a higher proof, and (2) manufactured (in- 
cluding blending if practiced) in accordance with the laws and 
regulations of that division of Ireland in which manufactured, and 
(3) containing no whiskey less than three years old. 

(j) Blended Scotch whiskey or blended Irish whiskey is 
Scotch whiskey or Irish whiskey that is in fact a mixture of 
whiskeys. 

(k) Special types of whiskey (i) Any person producing 
any distilled spirits which, as a result of treatment by a chemical 
or mechanical process, possess the taste, aroma, characteristics 
and chemical composition of any whiskey for which standards of 
identity are herein prescribed, may petition the Administration for 
permission to designate such distilled spirits as whiskey of some 
new type, and the Administration may take such action on such 
petition as it deems fair and reasonable. (2) Any whiskey of 
any class or type prescribed in paragraphs (b) to (g) above, 
inclusive, produced in a foreign country, shall be designated by 
the name of the country in which produced, together with the 
applicable designation prescribed in such paragraphs. 

OTHER DISTILLED LIQUORS 

The F. A. C. A. classes and definitions are : 

Gins 

(a) "Distilled gin" and "compound gin" without appropriate 
qualifying words, are distilled gin and compound gin, respectively, 
in which the predominant flavor is derived from juniper berries. 

(b) Distilled gin is the product obtained by distilling juniper 
berries or other similar flavoring materials with neutral spirits. 



OTHER DISTILLED LIQUORS 235 

(c) Compound gin is the product obtained by mixing dis- 
tilled gin or gin essence or similar gin flavoring material with 
neutral spirits. 

(d) "London Dry," "Hollands," "Plymouth," "Geneva," 
"Old Tom," "Buchu," and "Sloe" gin are the types of gin known 
to the trade under such generic designations, and "distilled gin" 
or "compound gin," whichever is appropriate, shall accompany 
such designations. 

BRANDIES 

(a) Brandy is the alcoholic distillate obtained solely from 
the fermented juice of fruit, distilled under such conditions that 
the characteristic bouquet or volatile flavoring and aromatic 
principles are retained in the distillate. 

(b) "Brandy" without appropriate qualifying words, and 
"Grape Brandy" are the distillates obtained from grape wine or 
wines under the conditions set forth in (a). 

(c) Apple Brandy, Peach Brandy, or other fruit brandies 
are distillates obtained from the fermented juice of the respec- 
tive fruits under the conditions set forth in (a). 

(d) Cognac and Cognac Brandy is grape brandy distilled in 
the Cognac region of France, which is entitled to be designated 
as "cognac" by the laws and regulations of the French govern- 
ment. 

RUM 

(a) Rum is any alcoholic distillate obtained solely from the 
fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane molasses, or other 
sugar cane by-products, in such a manner that the distillate pos- 
sesses the taste, aroma, characteristic and chemical composition 
generally attributed to rum, and known to the trade as such. 

WINES 

The Department of Agriculture definitions of wine have been 
readopted since the repeal of prohibition from those promulgated 
on June 12, 1914. They read as follows: 

i. Wine is the product made by the normal alcoholic fer- 
mentation of the juice of sound ripe grapes, and the usual cellar 



236 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

treatment, and contains not less than 7 per cent or more than 16 
per cent of alcohol, by volume, and, in 100 cubic centimeters 
(2OC.) not more than o.i gram of sodium chloride nor more 
than 0.2 gram of potassium sulphate; and for red wine not more 
than 0.14 gram, and for white wine not more than 0.12 gram of 
volatile acids produced by fermentation and calculated as acetic 
acid. Red wine is wine containing the red coloring matter of the 
skins of grapes. White wine is wine made from white grapes or 
the expressed fresh juice of other grapes. 

2. Dry wine is wine which the fermentation of the sugars 
is practically complete, and which contains, in 100 cubic centi- 
meters (2OC), less than i gram of sugars and for dry red wine 
not less than 0.16 gram of grape ash and not less than 1.6 grams 
of sugar-free grape solids, and for dry white wine not less than 
0.13 gram of grape ash and not less than 1.4 grams of sugar- 
free grape solids. 

3. Fortified dry wine is dry wine to which brandy has been 
added but which conforms in all other particulars to the standard 
of dry wine. 

4. Sweet wine is wine which the alcoholic fermentation has 
been arrested and which contains, in 100 cubic centimeters 
(2OC.), not less than i gram of sugars, and for sweet red wine 
not less than 0.16 gram of grape ash, and for sweet white wine 
not less than 0.13 gram of grape ash. 

5. Fortified sweet wine is sweet wine to which wine spirits 
have been added. By act of Congress, "sweet wine" used for 
making fortified sweet wine and u wine spirits" used for such forti- 
fication are defined as follows (sec. 43, act of Oct. i, 1890, 26 
Stat. 621 ; as amended by Sec. 68, act of Aug. 27, 1894, 28 Stat. 
568; as amended by sec. i, act of June 7, 1906, 34 Stat. 215; as 
amended by sec. 2, act of Oct. 22, 1914, 38 Stat. 747; as amended 
by sec. 402 (c), act of Sept. 8, 1916, 39 Stat 785 ; and as further 
amended by sec. 617 act of Feb. 25, 1919, 40 Stat. mi): 

That the wine spirits mentioned in section 42 is the product re- 
sulting from the distillation of fermented grape juice, to which 
water may have been added prior to, during or after fermenta- 
tion, for the sole purpose of facilitating the fermentation and eco- 



OTHER DISTILLED LIQUORS 237 

nomical distillation thereof, and shall be held to include the 
product from grapes or their residues commonly known as grape 
brandy, and shall include commercial grape brandy which may 
have been colored with burnt sugar or caramel; and the pure 
sweet wine which may be fortified with wine spirits under the 
provisions of this act is fermented or partially fermented grape 
juice only, with the usual cellar treatment, and shall contain no 
other substance whatever introduced before, at the time of, or 
after fermentation, except as herein expressly provided: Pro- 
vided, That the addition of pure boiled or condensed grape must 
or pure crystallized cane or beet sugar, or pure dextrose sugar 
containing, respectively, not less than 95 per centum or actual 
sugar, calculated on a dry basis, or water, or any or all of them, 
to the pure grape juice before fermentation, or to the fermented 
product of such grape juice, or to both, prior to the fortification 
herein provided for, either for the purpose of perfecting sweet 
wines according to commercial standards or for mechanical pur- 
poses, shall not be excluded by the definition of pure sweet wine 
aforesaid: Provided, however, That the cane or beet sugar, or 
pure dextrose sugar added for sweetening purposes shall not be 
in excess of 1 1 per centum of the weight of the wine to be forti- 
fied : And provided furthur, That the addition of water herein au- 
thorized shall be under such regulations as the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, may from time to time prescribe : Provided, however, 
That records kept in accordance with such regulations as to the 
percentage of saccharine, acid, alcoholic, and added water con- 
tent of the wine offered for fortification shall be open to inspec- 
tion by any official of the Department of Agriculture thereto duly 
authorized by the Secretary of Agriculture; but in no case shall 
such wines to which water has been added be eligible for forti- 
fication under the provisions of this act, where the same, after 
fermentation and before fortification, have an alcoholic strength 
of less than 5 per centum of their volume. 

6. Sparkling wine is wine in which the afterpart of .the 
fermentation is completed in the bottle, the sediment being dis- 
gorged, and its place supplied by wine or sugar liquor and/or 



238 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

dextrose liquor, and which contains, in 100 cubic centimeters 
(2OC), not less than 0.12 gram of grape ash. 

7. Modified wine, ameliorated wine, corrected wine, is the 
product made by the alcoholic fermentation, with the usual cellar 
treatment, of a mixture of the juice of sound, ripe grapes with 
sugar and/or dextrose, or a sirup containing not less than 65 per 
cent of these sugars, and in quantity not more than enough to 
raise the alcoholic strength after fermentation to n per cent by 
volume. 

FOOD INSPECTION DECISION 156 

As a result of investigations carried on by this Department 
and of the evidence submitted at a public hearing given on Novem- 
ber 5, 1913, the Department of Agriculture has concluded that 
gross deceptions have been practiced under Food Inspection De- 
cision 1 20. The department has also concluded that the defini- 
tion of wine in Food Inspection Decision 109 should be modified 
so as to permit correction of the natural defects in grape musts 
and wines due to climatic or seasonal conditions. 

Food Inspection Decisions 109 and 120 are, therefore, hereby 
abrogated and, as guide for the officials of this Department in 
enforcing the Food and Drugs Act, wine is defined to be the 
product of the normal alcoholic fermentation of the juice of fresh, 
sound, ripe grapes, with the usual cellar treatment. 

To correct the natural defects above mentioned the follow- 
ing additions to musts or wines arc permitted: 

In the case of excessive acidity, neutralizing agents which do 
not render wine injurious to health, such as neutral potassium 
tartrate or calcium carbonate; 

In the case of deficient acidity, tartaric acid; 

In the case of deficiency in saccharine matter, condensed grape 
must or a pure dry sugar. 

The foregoing definition does not apply to sweet wines made 
in accordance with the Sweet Wine Fortification Act of June 7, 
1906 (34Stat. 215). 

A product made from pomace, by the addition of water, with 
or without sugar or any other material whatsoever, is not entitled 



CORDIALS AND LIQUEURS 239 

to be called wine. It is not permissible to designate such a product 
as "pomace wine," nor otherwise than as "imitation wine." 

CORDIALS AND LIQUEURS 

Cordials are defined by the Department of Agriculture as 
follows : 

Food Inspection Decision No. 125 July 7, 1910 
The Labeling of Cordials 

"The term 'cordial' is usually applied to a product, the alcohol 
content of which is some type of a distilled spirit, commonly neu- 
tral spirits of brandy. To this is added sugar and some type 
of flavor. The flavor is sometimes derived directly by the addi- 
tion of essential oils, again by use of synthetic flavors, and also 
by the treatment of some vegetable product with the alcoholic 
spirit to extract the flavoring ingredients. It is likewise the gen- 
eral custom to color cordials. When a cordial is colored in such 
a way as to simulate the color of the fruit, flavor, plant, etc., 
the name of which it bears, the legend 'Artificially Colored' in 
appropriate size type shall appear immediately beneath the name 
of the cordial, as is required by Regulation 17. Where the 
color used is not one which simulates the color of a natural 
product, the name of which is borne by the liqueur, then the 
legend as to the presence of artificial color need not be used. 
For example, creme de menthe which is artificially colored green 
should be labeled 'Artificially Colored.' On the contrary, char- 
treuse, whether green or yellow, need bear no such legend for 
color. 

"When the flavoring material is not derived in whole directly 
from a flower, fruit, plant, etc., the name of any such flower, 
fruit, plant, etc., should not be given to any cordial or liqueur 
unless the name is preceded by the word 'Imitation.' " 

The F. A. C. A. definition of cordials and liqueurs is: 

(a) Cordials and Liqueurs are the products obtained by dis- 
tilling fruits, flowers, plants, leaves, roots, or other flavoring ma- 
terials, except gin flavoring materials, with brandy or neutral 



2 4 o ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

spirits, and to which sugar has been added; or the products ob- 
tained by mixing fruit juices, essential oils and flavoring materials, 
other than gin flavoring materials, with brandy or with neutral 
spirits and to which sugar has been added. 

Imitations. The attitude of the Department of Agriculture 
has always been that any product which simulated those for which 
it has definitions and standards, but does not fully comply there- 
with, is an imitation. The F. A. C. A. has actually set forth 
definitions of imitations. 

(a) Imitation whiskey is any distilled spirits containing rye or 
bourbon essential oils or essences, or any distilled spirits colored 
or flavored in imitation of whiskey; and the designation 
"Whiskey" shall not be used unless immediately preceded by 
"Imitation." 

(b) Imitation cordials and liqueurs. When the flavoring 
material of a cordial or liqueur is not derived in whole directly 
from a fruit, flower, plant, leaf, root or other flavoring material, 
the name of any such fruit, flower, plant, leaf, root or other 
flavoring material shall not be given to the cordial or liqueur 
unless the name is immediately preceded by the word "Imitation." 

(c) Imitations, other than (a) and (b) above, are distilled 
spirits colored or flavored in imitation of any class or type of dis- 
tilled spirits defined in these Regulations, and the name of such 
class or type of distillated spirits shall not be used unless imme- 
diately preceded by the word "Imitation." 

Finally, the F. A. C. A. has set forth certain regulations 
of interest, regarding geographical names and additions of color- 
ing, etc. 

Section i. (a) Geographical and distinctive names. The 
name for distilled spirits which have a geographical name, or 
which are distinctive products of a particular place or country 
shall not be given to the product of any other place or country, 
unless such name is immediately followed by the word "type," 
and unless such product in fact conforms to such distilled spirits 
except as to age. 

(b) This section shall not apply to designations which by 
reason of usage and common knowledge have lost their geo- 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 241 

graphical significance to such an extent that they have become 
generic, provided the approval of the Administration is obtained 
prior to using such designation. 

Section 2. Coloring and Flavoring Materials. The addition 
of harmless coloring or flavoring materials, such as burnt sugar 
and blending materials, in a total amount not in excess of 2j^% 
of the distilled spirits by volume, shall not alter the classifica- 
tion of any distilled spirits as defined in these Regulations, pro- 
vided such coloring or flavoring materials are not used to imitate 
any class or type of distilled spirits for which standards of identity 
are established herein. This section shall not affect cordials or 
liqueurs. 

It will have been noted by the reader that the definitions just 
cited are in general based on the principle of stating that a 
product bearing a given name must be made from the materials 
commonly used in the manufacture of that product, by the com- 
monly understood processes of manufacture. // is only as a corol- 
lary that one may deduce that the composition of the product 
must conform to the general average of the type within reasonable 
limits. In order that the reader may judge for himself the fact 
of this compliance, a selection of the published analytical data re- 
garding liquors is presented here. The tabulated analyses of 
whiskey were made at the end of the first decade of this century. 
The "pure food" movement both here and abroad was then at 
its crest, and the question, "What is whiskey" was considered at 
length by legal bodies. The analyses presented were generally 
used as evidence in public hearings. 

ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 

British. Shidrowitz (Royal Commission of Whiskey and 
other Potable Spirits. Minutes of Evidence, Vol. i, pages 409, 
410, 1909) reports analyses of Scotch and Irish pot and patent 
still whiskeys and of American Bourbons and Ryes as follows : 



242 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



B "8 



f* 
o 



ii 

^ "i 

< CO 



-5 
W 



S 

as, 



1 



^O 

o 




n 



CO JU 






s2 - 



1 S 



"2 




2 





(2 




Aldehydes 


* 


11! 


O oo 

f- OO 


2 




-5 

w 


** 


o> 




O rt "u 




'Ctf r^ 




^s 


CO OO 


C 

2 S 


; 


w g. 




Alcohol 
per cent 
by volume 


l 




oT 

c 

3 




i 




8 JS 

J '~ 









^1 




5^> ^ ?^ 




1 1 1 

Q Q 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 



243 



II 

II 



. 
fe 

5 ^ 

5 o 

co e 



co 



1 1 

ift 

X 

w 
-J 

S 



1 




O d M 

6 o 


1 




HI 


* as , 


1 


?-?* 


C '3 ^ 
O rt "53 
~O rt 


O co -^ 


"rt T3 
' 


rf Tf -^- 00 


o C 
2 o 
t - 

w S. 


o" o ts 
666 


-J S J3 
- fe ^ 


^J- v,^ f^ OO 

O O ON CT\ 
\O ^ l -o -o 




1 , 

J>- "Tj O 
^QO 

^ CO j ^g 
^ 2 PL, CO 

^ C 2 

1 !! 

3SSS 



^ 

S 
53 

1 



^ 



"2 
2 

1 


88 8^ 

r? E? t? 2 

H H H 


1 

> 

JZ 

<U 

T3 

< 


CO MM 


Jl^ 

W) O '. 

s-^< 


oo O co c< so O 

CO *^* -^f -O rf *-^ 


2 

s 

W 


vr> H tj- CTs ^n CO 
CS rt- C t~< <H CO 


OJ 

C '"5 T3 
O <rt 'Q 

Z| - 


Tf HH CO 

CO 


"3 T3 

o *C 

^2 


r^ w o ro cr 

i C< *-i 


t; s 

c V 
" 


o 8 


>< h 

w g. 





o> 

* J C 

5 g 1 
. "1 

<-^ 


vo r-- c * <$ 

r>v oo r>. o\ co vo 

6 ON 6 HH" ON i-i 

[\ \o r>- r-- vo r^ 




























: ; 2 ; s ; 

s 3s" s 

2- X 2J 

XL, ^ ^ /^ 

^ OQ Cj 

1: = 1: I 
'5 .S .? 

3 Q Q 



"S 



o 

I 



I 



244 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



i 

Q 



I 



I 

c! 



73 


vn co M ^ v*so <H ON * osvO t- c^ 


i 


1 


*^co^t-^^t-c< COCOCOCOCOC<M 


Q 


8 

1 

ng 


s - aM a ea5a 


1 


*li 


*-o vr% co ^ V O r** r*^ ON !"" OO |^- O OO O 


I 

S -8 


w 


^oooor^-r^ON ONOO^-HHVOJ-IONON 




aH* 


OO OO^^O OOONON-ii-tOO N O 
TC* '^fCO^t'' T t'COCi>-<>- 


II 1 

S (14 S 


B.-S 

O <-> 


S VO d * H CO 

*"" S NV co oo" v~ 2 ci S TJ- \2 co oo r- v? 




H * 


5 ----- 

C/5 


o J2 b 


il 


CO 

W 

O Oc<- Ui i-<vri-i>-(-icSvOC< 


= 1 S 


.a l 


O OOO gj OOOOOOOO 


ft) OJ 


3 S | 

^ -3 


COOi-r--.CST|- < OOO-C<OOVOr^ON 


l- in ^ 


^^ 3 ^ 


^r^rj-dcovd g oXr^vdo\v>vo"4;*o 


S i "- 


< *J3 


J5 


1* 1 g 






III 




i^iili !i i; i ! ii 


A CO CO 
7^ ^s. *" 

];*' 




^ . ^ co' *> 

e c fc b 3 .-.. 

'3 '3 8 1 : J J ti e 

-^ ^^ f* ^- W . U 1) W l- 

^ ^ ^S " p S p S 

S2 s2t2oj iiS^ 

rt ctirtK '. ' ^* S 5 5 
>' ^ > > >L '^J^^^^'VV 
^ 4> ^ eg 1 1 1 1 1 

1; ~\ ~r\. |: ^ Gc 5^ 


Note re American Whiskie 
Both the Bourbon samples anc 
Note. Except where oth( 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 



X 



II 



.3 



-a 



o 

Si -g 



J 1 S 



PQ 



4> O O 

S c.S 
^ ^ s 

c "3 a 

O^o 



e "* u 

1 



H fi 

s e 



% J2 <-> 


^ <* O O oo so 


-* rf-so d O -<* 


^0 


Jb r-; ^ 


so oo oo d ^^ so 


O^v co O I*"" t^- O 


& 


sl^ 


SO t~- f v/ ~> OO ^ p 


d -^- r- oo I-* u^> 
d co d -o 

v 


& 






$ * q 


. 


_^ 




u 1 ocT 


8 


^ 


<t- d O ^O O oo 


*^*^ d oo d ^t- 


r> 


^ 


d vo o <<*<* O 


.S - c^vo 


a. 


fa 




DH 8 - 

Wo 1 - 1 


s 

CTl 






X 2 IT 








W H J 


r 


4 S 


oo O O so d Tf- 


oo d O ^ * d 


"o 


*~* P 


r-- so o r~-* r- ^t- 


t^* so o o> so r- 


^3 


< US 


' HH OO d Tf" 


CO >*H rf- 


X 


CO 


so oo oo O ^ O 


O oo oo so O O 


g 




O d oo r-~ r^ O 


*-*~ d i^ co 0^1 O^s 


"o 






^* * O O co 


oft 


w 


-, d 


HH d 


,0 
rt 


<u 




O O O oo O so 





s'J-'S 

^ O * 


d d O - co co 


O O so ^- * 


I 


_ 


r^ d so so ^f oo 


^- d so so oo *$- 


^ 


o * C 


*"* ^ 1-1 co 


HH co co O so 


d) 

cx 








CO 




d so O oo d O 


d ^- O oo so O 


i 


CO 


vo co O r^ oo d 


vo vo O ^ >- O 




< 


>-< l-i CO 


co d so 


c 


O 


O O O d O ^ 


O O oo so so sO 


(X 


in 


d r~-* d co so so 


so O d oo so ^ 


** 


(3 


co "<$ c< 


- z ><* 







g e Eg 

u 3 <u a 
OJQ c CD c e 

etf S "* .5 C! 


S g S g 
<u D S o a 

SP. e P e ! 


^ 




fe rt '^ ** rt "^ 
< ^ < ^ 


g s ; % : 

< s s < s s 


H" 








03 








CO 






5 !s 


i 




-S Is 


S 

s en 


s 




& 1 ^ 


(A CO 









00 W-> 


V 




ON ^ 


. . 


1 




^ .s 


.*" "^ 


fr 




1 

^ 


1 1 


(3 






^ 


C 




^ V. 





^ 




J ^ 

*^ O 


1 i 





246 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



w 
& 
w 



2 



X 

w 



I 

4 R 

< 



Alcoho 



< 

I 

8 



2 

O 






Aldehydes 



"3 



W 



acid 



Vola 



< i *- G 

fi 



* 

O 



3 

rt 

fc 



H vo vovo VO O O M 



vo O O M 



M r^-<oo 



"NO 
vo 









-g 



" 

S 



ON 



si, 

^1 



- 



f 

co O 



. 





S 

"H 
6 



vo 

<u ^ 

-5 S 

I e 



4 

B 



.S 
"E 



4J co 



Ui 

^ 1 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 



247 



The maximum and minimum limits obtained by Schidrowitz 
on 58 samples of Scotch whiskey regardless of age are shown in 
Table XL (Royal Comrn. on Whiskey, etc., Minutes of Evi- 
dence, Vol. i, p. 416, 1909.) 

TABLE XI. MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM RESULTS OF ANALYSES ON FIFTY-EIGHT SAMPLES 
OF SCOTCH WHISKEY. ANALYSES BY SCHIDROWITZ. 







Non 




Higher 


Higher 






Whiskey 


Total 
acid 


vola- 
tile 

or\A 


Ether 


alcohols, 
color- 
imetric 


alcohols, 
Allen- 
Marquardt 


Alde- 
hydes 


Fur- 
fural 










method 


method 






Highland Malts. . . 


10-83 


-35 


33-^5 


328-864 


112-235 


4-66 


1.6-6.3 


Lowland Malts 


6-60 


0-16 


27-87 


189-897 


82-228 


8-54 


0-5.2 


Campbel towns 


I 2-1 CO 


0-28 


53-Ho 


357-93 


160-259 


11-85 


2.4-8.0 


Islays 


ic-i6 


o n 


40-86 


62074.0 


I C C-2OO 


17-40 


1.8-C.2 


Grains 


7-60 


0-26 


2O-CC 


19-400 


^-80 


tr.-i7 


O-O.Q 



















Note: results are calculated to a basis of parts per 100,000 of absolute alcohol. 

Another series of analyses made by Tatlock on 75 samples 
of Scotch, Irish and American whiskies are shown in Table 12 
(Tatlock, Royal Comm. on Whiskey, etc., Minutes of Evidence, 
Vol. i, p. 431, 1909-) 



248 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



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4 samples 


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co^cod M> _oo^ Os\O oo d Os 


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31 samples 


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*tJ . O --s 3 O ; O^ 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 249 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 

American. There are available two extensive sets of analy- 
ses of American Whiskies completed in the years 19091912. 
The first set made by Crampton and Tolman (J. A. C. S. V. 
XXX (1908), 98 et. seq.) was made in an investigation of the 
effect of aging on whiskey. They drew samples each year for 
4-8 years from the same barrels of whiskey stored in warehouses 
and subjected these to extensive comparison. A summary of the 
results follows. 

It is of great importance in the interpretation of whiskey 
analyses to note the conclusions obtained by Crampton and Tol- 
man from their investigation. 

"i. There are important relationships among the acids, 
esters, color, and solids in a properly aged whiskey, which will 
differentiate it from artificial mixtures and from young spirit. 

2. All of the constituents are undergoing changes as the 
aging process proceeds, and it is evident that the matured whis- 
key is the result of these combined changes. 

3. The amount of higher alcohols increases in the matured 
whiskey only in proportion to the concentration. 

4. Acids and esters reach an equilibrium, which is main- 
tained after about three or four years. 

5. The characteristic aroma of American whiskey is de- 
rived almost entirely from the charred package in which it is 
aged. 

6. The rye whiskies show a higher content of solids, acids, 
esters, etc., than do the Bourbon whiskies, but this is explained 
by the fact that heated warehouses are almost universally used 
for the maturing of rye whiskies, and unheated warehouses for 
the maturing of Bourbon whiskies. 

7. The improvement in flavor of whiskies in charred pack- 
ages after the fourth year is due largely to concentration. 

8. The oily appearance of a matured whiskey is due to ma- 
terial extracted from the charred package, as this appearance is 
almost lacking in whiskies aged in uncharred wood." 



250 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



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ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 



251 





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252 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

"9. The 'body' of a whiskey, so-called, is due largely to the 
solids extracted from the wood." 

Adams J. Ind. & Eng. Ch. 3, 647 (1911) reports the results 
of an " Investigation to detect substitution of spirits for aged 
whiskey." His analytical results were similar to those of Cramp- 
ton and Tolman (loc. aV.), but his conclusion merits repetition. 
This is particularly the case because the question was passed on 
by a Federal Court and his conclusions approved by the Court. 
He states "In conclusion it should be stated that in work of this 
kind, the acids, esters and color form the points which should be 
used to determine the authenticity of the contents of a package of 
whiskey. The content of solids, higher alcohols, aldehydes and 
furfural will assist in arriving at a conclusion, but should not be 
relied on solely as can be done in the case of the acids, esters, 
and color." 

Analyses of Typical Brandies. Girard and Cuniasse ("Man- 
uel Pratique de L' Analyse des Alcools," 1899) state ^ at ^ e 
sum of the secondary constituents, referred to as the "coefficient 
of impurity," is seldom less than 300 in genuine brandy made from 
wine. They give various analyses of brandies from which the 
following have been chosen : 

TABLE XV. ANALYSIS OF EAUX-DE-VIE DE VIN OF KNOWN ORIGIN.* 





Cozes, 
1874 


Gemozac, 
1*93 


Gemozac, 
1896 


Champagne, 
15-20 yrs. 


Acidity 


2O I .O 


IOO 4. 


2Q O 


in. 8 


Aldehydes. 


4.6. 


72.1 


II C 


7O. O 


Furfural 


0.4 


0.8 


1.2 


1.6 


Esters 


QC.I 


I1Q. I 


JOI. 1 


117.2 


Higher alcohols 


2C4.O 


221.7 


26o.O 


24.4.. O 












Total secondary constituents * . 
Density at 1 5 


596.5 
O.QC7I 


494-3 
O . QO7 C 


403.0 

o 9022 


524.6 


Alcohol, by volume 


TJ . O 


64.. c 


66 o 


ro.o 


Extract, per 100 cc 




v^.. 3 




I?' ^ 
O.2 













* Expressed as parts per 100,000 of absolute Alcohol, 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 



253 



TABLE XVI. ANALYSIS OF EAUX-DE-VIE OF KNOWN ORIGIN. * 

(Analyzed in 1896) 





Saintonge, 
1880 


Saintonge, 
1896 


Armagnac, 
40 yrs. 


Acidity 


IOC. 7 


17. < 


14.6. 7 


Aldehydes 


27.Q 


I'D 

21. Q 


11.4. 


Furfural 


2. 1 


2 6 


O.7 


Esters 


167 o 


6l Q 


I2C { 


Higher alcohols 


i CQ. 8 


2 Co. 8 


2OT. C 










Total secondary constituents * 


4.62.7 


^6c.7 


CO7.8 


Density at 1 5 


O.QI C7 


0.804.7 




Alcohol by volume 


Co.o 


68.2 


40.8 


Extract, per 100 cc 




Nil 


o. 18 











* Expressed as parts per 100,000 of absolute alcohol. 

These analyses tend to demonstrate the following changes 
brought about by aging: 

1 i ) Increase in acidity 

(2) Increase in aldehydes 

(3) Increase in esters 

(4) Decrease in furfural 

(5) Decrease in higher alcohols 

(6) Decrease in total alcohol 

Other analyses of unidentified brandies listed as commercial 
cognacs and thought to be wine brandy cut with rectified alcohol 
showed total secondary constituents ranging from 202 to 283. 
These were compared with analyses of industrial alcohol (al- 
cools d'industrie) showing total secondary constituents ranging 
from 9 to 40.9. 

Ordonneau (Compt. rend. 102, 217) subjected 100 litres of 
25-year-old brandy to fractional distillation and reports the 
following : 



254 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

TABLE XVII. ANALYSIS OF 25-YEAR OLD BRANDY. 

Grams per 
Hectolitre 

Aldehyde 3.0 

Normal propyl alcohol 40.0 

Normal butyl alcohol 218.6 

Amyl alcohol 83. 8 

Hexyl alcohol 0.6 

Heptyl alcohol 1.5 

Acetic ester 35.0 

Propionic, butyric and caproic esters 3.0 

Oenanthic ester (about) 4.0 

Acetal and amines Tr. 

W. Collingwood Williams (J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1907, 26 y 
499) gives results of analyses of 28 samples of Jamaica rum as 
follows : 

TABLE XVIII. ANALYSES or JAMAICA RUM.* 





Min. 


Max. 


Average 


Ordinary type. 21 samples 
Alcohol, vol. per cent 


68.6 


82.1 


70. I 


Total solids, gms/ioo cc 


O. I 


1.16 


0.4.7 


Total acid as acetic 


10 


KC 


78 c 


Volatile acid 


21 


146 


/o. ^ 

61 


Esters 


88 


ioc8 


166. c 


Higher alcohols 


4.6 


I CO 


08 c 




i .0 


* J^ 
II. C 


yo. ^ 

A, f 


Aldehydes 


c.o 


70.0 


*r* J 

ir.-7 


Flavored rum. 7 samples 
Alcohol* vol. per cent 


66.1 


80.6 


77.1 


Total solids, gms/ioo cc 


Nil 


0.61 


0. 11 


Total acid as acetic 


At 


14^ 


IO2. C 


Volatile acid 


'JO 


IT7 


of. e 


Esters 


W 


1204 


768.< 




80 


14.4. 


IO7 




2.7 


12. 


r.2 


Aldehydes 


1^. O 


17- 5 


20.7 











* Results expressed as grams per 100 litres of alcohol (except the alcohol and solids). 

J. B. Harrison (Official Gazette, Demerara, Oct. 19, 1904, 
Extract, 2,093) Government Analyst, believes that a character- 



ANALYSES OF WHISKEY 



255 



istic commercial Demerara rum would yield 70 to 80 parts of 
esters per 100,000 of alcohol. He gives figures for various 
Demerara rums as follows. 

TABLE XIX. ANALYSES OF DEMERARA RUM. 





AVERAGE 


VALUES 


Origin 


Esters 


Vol. acid 


Distilleries in Demerara County 


<A 7 


26 c 


" " Essequilo " 


7Q. C 


xu. $ 

11 O 


" " Berbice " 


17' J 

78.7 


jo- v 

11 O 


Continuous and Coffev stills 


4.4.. Q 


18.4. 


Vat stills 


60 Q 


11. 1 




wy.y 





Bonis (Ann. Falsif. 1909, 12, 521) gives the following re- 
sults of analyses of Martinique rum: 

TABLE XX. ANALYSES OF MARTINIQUE RUM. 





Vol. 
acid 


Esters 


Aldehydes 


Higher 
alcohols 


Furfural 




20 1 


443 


92 


68 


8.8 


High quality 


201 
J 74 


9 1 
93 


59 
32 


385 
425 


5-3 

II. 




165 


62 


34 


339 


0.9 


Average quality 


'73 
H5 


83 
118 


20 
23 


244 
167 


o-5 
6-3 




197 


95 


16 


97 


3-8 


Poor quality 


158 


90 


15 


143 


O.I 




53 


5i 


10 


280 


o-7 



On fixed acids, the first sample showed 2.2 per cent and the 
balance ranged from 0.37 to 0.95 per cent. 

Girard and Cuniasse ( "Analyse des Alcools et des spiritueux" ) 
claim the average proportion of esters and other secondary prod* 
ucts comprised in the non-alcohol coefficient found in ordinary 



256 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

rums of commerce known to be genuine, are shown in the follow- 
ing table, expressed as parts per 100,000 parts of absolute 
alcohol : 

TABLE XXI. AVERAGE PROPORTION OF ESTERS AND OTHER SECONDARY PRODUCTS AND 
THE NON-ALCOHOL COEFFICIENT OF COMMERCIAL RUM. 





Min. 


Max. 


Average 


Acidity (as acetic acid) 


IC8.4 


400.0 


2 CO. 8 


Aldehydes (as acetaldehyde) 


O. 1 


C.4. c 


24.4 


Furfural 


1.2 


co.o 


7. I 


Esters (as acetic ester) 


IOC. 7 


447. I 


220. C 


Higher alcohols (isobutyl standard) 


<2.O 


7O8.6 


140.4 


Coefficient of secondary products 


4.72.7 


QIQ.O 


6C2. C 











Analyses of Gin. Since gin consists of a highly rectified 
alcohol or spirit with flavor, little can be learned from its analysis. 
However, Vasey ( u Analysis of Potable Spirits," p. 85) cites the 
following results : 

TABLE XXII. 

Volatile acids o.o grams per 100 liters of absolute alcohol 

Esters 37.3 " " " " " 

Aldehydes 1.8 " " " " " 

Furfural o.o " " " " " " " 

Fusel oil 44.6 " " " " " 

Analyses of Wine. There are reprinted here two extensive 
tabulations of the analyses of European and American wines 
respectively. The European Wine analyses (Table XXIII) 
were compiled by Konig and are copied from Leach ("Food In- 
spection and Analysis," 4th ed., 1920, p. 717). The American 
Wine Analyses (Table XXIV) were compiled by Bigelow and 
are copied from Leach (loc. cit., p. 718). 

Bioletti ("Principles of Wine Making, 1 ' California Ag. Exp. 
Sta., Bui. No. 213) summarizes the composition of wines as 
follows : 

The alcohol and acid in natural wines vary in an inverse 
ratio, in such a way that the volume percentage of alcohol added 
to the grams per liter of acid as sulfuric make a sum lying be- 



ANALYSES OF WINE 



257 



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258 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



1 


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o H 8 6 






ft 

S 


*fr >o 

10 00 
IO M 

o o 


oo\o ' O oo OO O oo to o toio 
<* 00 .' M O\ 00 00 M Ok COCO tooo 
Tt-M ;. ioO rOO COO O> M -t O 

o o ; o o o' o' o' o' o o* o o 


{j 


o o 
o o' 


toio ) Mroooro Mrt^.^t 
M 10 . to. ro ''t to O O\ ^ O 

MO I M O M O M O O 

o o I o o o o' o o o ' o 


U U 

g s a 

.S ;j 


00 O 

5 ? 

6 d 


Mro * N S? O O ro O to M MM 
O O * O O co O O O ro O to o 


II 

rt 

OH 


N 

1 1 


M' O ' CO O O 00* co O to 4 CO O 

II ; 1 1 + M 1 1 ^ ^ 1 


*S 


5^ 


* 

^tO* OO OOM OOM OOO\ OO NCO \OM 
COO ^M OOO> coto to\o toO N^fr >Oco 


& MS 




M M 


i 11 


oo oo 
00 ) 


0000 cioo TJ-M O0lo> or* OCX OM ooro 
MIO OO roo OOM Ot low Ooo Osto 


- rt 


o o 


OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO 


a - 


8 8 


o oo oo oo oo oo 
00 00 00 00 00 


C 2 o 






3^ 2 


to Tj- 


4 ' o* 4 ^ M co 4 H o 


^a 


N O 
00 CO 


\OM ' MTj- Tj-00 0000 toCO O^t 


a o o 





oo oo oo oo oo oo 


22 2 


S? 


Ovto. wrO co^f u?O> Oto O^ \ON coto 


o 3 


M to 


OoO N\O toO MCO NO too lo^oO toO 


<j 


M 




C 3 d 

8-g > 1 


o^S, 


N- 

cO oop oor- f-O Oco ooto- o>oo ION 

OOO Tf O OO too MM MO M ro 00 <N 


cE "3 > 


10 00 

M 


COM tOOO O>00 rtlO tOOO MOO MO MOO 

MMM M M M M MMM 


|| 




i 1 


OO MM OO Oro (ON OOM O\0 OO 

lorj- OM IOO MOO lOOv OOOO Mto OO 

OO\ OO> OO> Ooo MOO O>oo *foO ioOO 
OtOt Ov d O Oi OO\ O O\ OvO\ O O\ O O\ 


a"! 
a 


M * * 

00 * * 


O"'io'*M** to**to"*ro*'O*"O"' 

*M'*O>** co " " 10 " o * u> * " o ' ' 


z - s 


& : : 


liliiiii! i i i !; ; i i ii i ; = i ; 




RED WINES 

Bordeaux, or claret ty 
Maximum 


i;ii::j:i B :ii:i:|::;;:;S 

:::-:: ^ :: S ::::: -g :::::-:: 

i|sIi^|B Il^l^|8Jli5|S 
SI a i| a e| a ^'6| a g J a a a a || a S a a 

::5 S:^: : g S:^s:^g:a : 
l^s-gss^ss |ss^ss|^st^s|ss 

P^^S KCOCAPUCO 



ANALYSES OF CORDIALS AND LIQUEURS 259 

tween 13 and 17. This is what is known as the acid: alcohol 
ratio, and is used for the detection of watering. Water can be 
added only to very sweet grapes without exceeding the limits of 
this ratio and then only in very limited quantities. 

The alcohol and extract vary directly and in such proportions 
that the number representing the extract in grams per hundred 
cc. multiplied by the factor 4.5 gives a figure equal to or greater 
than the alcohol in grams per 100 cc. With white wines, in which 
the extract is normally lower, the factor, 6.5 is used in the same 
way. This is known as the alcohol: extract ratio and is used 
for the detection of the addition of sugar to the must. 

Analyses of Cordials and Liqueurs. As can be expected 
from the wide range of proportions cited in Chapter XII for 
making cordials their composition as shown by analysis also varies 
greatly. However, Leach (loc. cit., p. 787) cites the following 
results compiled by Konig as typical. 

TABLE XXV. ANALYSES OF LIQUEURS. 





Specific 
gravity 


Alcohol 
by 
volume 


Alcohol 
by 
weight 


Extract 


Cane 
sugar 


Other 
extrac- 
tives 


Ash 


Absinthe 


0.9116 


C8.Q7 




0.18 




O. 72 




Benedictine 


.0700 


<2. 


78. c 


76.00 


72. C7 


7 4.7 


O O4.7 


Ginger 


.0481 


47. c 


76.0 


27.70 


2C.Q2 


1.87 


O I4.I 


Crme de Menthe. . . 
Anisette de Bordeaux 
Curasao 


.0447 
.0847 
.0700 


48.0 
42.0 

cc.o 


36.5 

30.7 

4.2. < 


28.28 
34.82 
28.60 


2 7 - 6 3 
37-44 
28. co 


0.65 
0.38 
O. IO 


0.068 
O.040 

o 040 


Kummel 


.0870 


77. Q 


24.8 


72. 02 


71.18 


0.84 


o.oc8 


Angostura 


O . Q C4.O 


40. 7 




<r.8c 


4.16 


I.6q 




Chartreuse 


I . O7QQ 


47.18 




76. ii 


74. . 7 C 


1.76 





















More generally these beverages may be classed according to 
their sugar and alcohol content as follows : 

TABLE XXVI. 

Alcohol Sugar 

Average grade 20-25% Io % 

Good grade 25-30% 20% 

Very good grade 30-40% 35% 

Best grade 40-50% 45% 



CHAPTER XIV 
ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

METHODS 

(Reprinted by special permission from Official and Tentative Methods 
of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 3rd ed., 
f930.) 

WINES 
I. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION TENTATIVE 

Note and record the following: (i) Whether the container 
is "bottle full"; (2) the appearance of the wine, whether it is 
bright or turbid and whether there is any sediment; (3) con- 
dition when opened, whether still, gaseous, or carbonated; (4) 
color and depth of color; (5) odor, whether vinous, acetous, 
pleasant, or foreign; and (6) taste, whether vinous, acetous, 
sweet, dry, or foreign. 

2. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE OFFICIAL 

If gas is contained in the wine, remove it by pouring the 
sample back and forth in beakers. 

Filter the wine, regardless of appearance, before analyzing 
and determine immediately the specific gravity and such ingredi- 
ents as alcohol, acids, and sugars, which are liable to change 
through exposure. 

,3. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OFFICIAL 

Determine the specific gravity at 20/4 (in vacuo) by means 
of a pycnometer as follows: Carefully clean the pycnometer by 
filling with a saturated solution of CrOs in H2&O4, allowing to 
stand for several hours, emptying, and rinsing thoroughly with 
H 2 O. Fill the pycnometer with recently boiled distilled H 2 O 

260 



ALCOHOL OFFICIAL 261 

previously cooled to 16-18, place in a water bath cooled to the 
same temperature and allow the bath to warm slowly to 20. Ad- 
just the level of the H^O to the proper point on the pycnometer, 
put the perforated cap or stopper in place, remove from the 
bath ; wipe dry with a clean cloth, and after allowing to stand for 
1520 minutes, weigh. Empty, rinse several times with alcohol 
and then with ether, remove the ether fumes, allow the instrument 
to become perfectly dry, and weigh. Ascertain the weight of 
contained H2O at 20 in air (W of the formula below) by sub- 
tracting the weight of the empty pycnometer from its weight when 
full. Cool the sample to 16-18, adjust the level of the liquid to 
the proper point on the pycnometer, put the perforated cap or 
stopper in place, wipe dry, and weigh as before. Ascertain the 
weight of the contained sample at 20 in air (S of the formula 
below) by subtracting the weight of the empty pycnometer from 
its weight when filled with the sample. Calculate the specific 
gravity in vacuo by the following formula : 



_, S -f . . 

Q = - m which 

1. 00282 W 

G = corrected specific gravity of sample at 20/4 in vacuo ; 
W = weight of contained H 2 O at 20 in air; and 
S weight of contained sample at 20 in air. 

4. ALCOHOL - OFFICIAL 

(a) By volume. Measure 100 cc. of the liquid at 20 into 
a 300-500 cc. distillation flask and add 50 cc. of H2O. Attach 
the flask to a vertical condenser by means of a bent tube, distil 
almost 100 cc., and make to a volume of 100 cc. at 20. (Foam- 
ing, which sometimes occurs especially with young wines, may be 
prevented by the addition of a small quantity of tannin.) To 
determine the alcohol in wines that have undergone acetous fer- 
mentation and contain an abormal quantity of acetic acid, exactly 
neutralize the portion taken with NaOH solution before distilla- 
tion. (This is unnecessary, however, for wines of normal taste 
and odor.) Determine the specific gravity of the distillate at 
2O/4 as directed under 3 and obtain the corresponding per- 
centage of alcohol by volume from Tables A3-A5. 



262 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

(b) Grams per 100 cc. From the specific gravity of the dis- 
tillate, obtained under (a), ascertain the corresponding alcohol 
content in g per 100 cc. from Tables AJ-A5. 

(c) By weight. Divide the number of g in the 100 cc. of 
distillate, as obtained in (b), by the weight of the sample as cal- 
culated from its specific gravity. 

(d) By immersion refractometer. Verify the percentages of 
alcohol, as determined under (a) and (c), by ascertaining the 
immersion refractometer reading of the distillate and obtaining 
the corresponding percentages of alcohol from Table A6. 



GLYCEROL IN DRY WINES 

5. Method I (By Direct Weighing] Official 

Evaporate 100 cc. of the wine in a porcelain dish on a water 
bath to a volume of about 10 cc. Treat the residue with about 
5 g. of fine sand and 45 cc. of milk of lime (containing 15 g. 
of CaO per 100 cc.) for each g. of extract present and evaporate 
almost to dryness. Treat the moist residue with 50 cc. of alcohol, 
90% by volume; remove the substance adhering to the sides of 
the dish with a spatula; and rub the whole mass to a paste. 
Heat the mixture on a water bath, with constant stirring, to incip- 
ient boiling and decant the liquid through a filter into a small flask. 
Wash the residue repeatedly by decantation with 10 cc. portions of 
hot 90% alcohol until the filtrate amounts to about 150 cc. Evap- 
orate the filtrate to a sirupy consistency in a porcelain dish on 
a hot, but not boiling, water bath; transfer the residue to a small 
glass-stoppered, graduated cylinder with 20 cc. of absolute alco- 
hol; and add 3 portions of 10 cc. each of anhydrous ether, shaking 
thoroughly after each addition. Let stand until clear, pour off 
through a filter, and wash the cylinder and filter with a mixture 
of 2 parts of absolute alcohol to 3 parts of anhydrous ether, also 
pouring the wash liquor through the filter. Evaporate the filtrate 
to a sirupy consistency, dry for an hour at the temperature of 
boiling H 2 O, weigh, ignite, and weigh again. The loss on ignition 
gives the weight of glycerol. 



REAGENTS 263 

6. Method II (By Oxidation with Bichromate) Official 

Evaporate 100 cc. of the wine in a porcelain dish on a water 
bath, the temperature of which is maintained at 85-90, to a 
volume of 10 cc. Treat the residue with about 5 g. of fine sand 
and 5 cc. of milk of lime (containing 15 g. of CaO per 100 cc.). 
Proceed from this point as directed under 7 and 8, beginning with 
the clause "evaporate almost to dryness with frequent stirring," 
except to dilute the solution of glycerol after treatment with 
(Ag 2 )CO3 and Pb-acetate to a volume of 100 cc. instead of 
50 cc. Observe the precautions given concerning the temperature 
at which all evaporations are to be made. 

7. REAGENTS 

(a) Strong potassium dichromate solution. Dissolve 74.55 g. 
of dry, recrystallized K 2 Cr 2 O? in H2O; add 150 cc. of H 2 SO4; 
cool; and dilute with H 2 O to I liter at 20 C. I cc. of this solu- 
tion = 0.0 1 g. of glycerol. Owing to the high coefficient of expan- 
sion of this strong solution it is necessary to make all volumetric 
measurements of the solution at the same temperature as that at 
which it was diluted to volume. 

(b) Dilute potassium dichromate solution. Measure 25 cc. 
of the strong K 2 Cr 2 O7 solution at 20 into a 500 cc. volumetric 
flask and dilute to the mark with H 2 O at room temperature. 
20 cc. of this solution = I cc. of (a). 

(c) Ferrous ammonium sulfate solution. Dissolve 30 g. of 
crystallized ferrous ammonium sulfate in H 2 O, add 50 cc. of 
H 2 SO4, cool, and dilute with H 2 O to I liter at room temperature, 
i cc. of this solution approximately I cc. of (b). As its value 
changes slightly from day to day, it must be standardized against 
(b) whenever used. 

(d) Potassium ferricyanide indicator. Dissolve I g. of crys- 
tallized K 3 Fe(CN) 6 in 50 cc. of H 2 O. This solution must be 
freshly prepared. 

(e) Milk of lime. Introduce 150 g. of CaO, selected from 
clean hard lumps, prepared preferably from marble, into a large 



264 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

porcelain or iron dish; slake with H^O, cool, and add sufficient 
H2O to make i liter. 

(f) Silver carbonate. Dissolve o.i g. of Ag2SO4 in about 
50 cc. of H2O, add an excess of NagCOs solution, allow the 
precipitate to settle, and wash with H2O several times by decanta- 
tion until the washings are practically neutral. This reagent must 
be freshly prepared immediately before use. 

8. DETERMINATION 

Make evaporations on a water bath maintained at a tempera- 
ture of 85-90. The area of the dish exposed to the bath should 
not be greater in circumference than that covered by the liquid 
inside. 

Evaporate 100 cc. of the vinegar to 5 cc., add 20 cc. of H2O, 
and again evaporate to 5 cc. to expel acetic acid. Treat the 
residue with about 5 g. of 4O-mesh sand and 15 cc. of the milk 
of lime and evaporate almost to dryness, with frequent stirring, 
avoiding the formation of a dry crust or evaporation to com- 
plete dryness. Treat the moist residue with 5 cc. of H^O; rub 
into a homogeneous paste; add slowly 45 cc. of absolute alcohol, 
washing down the sides of the dish to remove adhering paste; 
and stir thoroughly. Heat the mixture on a water bath, with 
constant stirring, to incipient boiling; transfer to a suitable vessel; 
and centrifugalize. Decant the clear liquid into a porcelain 
dish and wash the residue with several small portions of hot 
alcohol, 90% by volume, by aid of the centrifuge. (If a cen- 
trifuge is not available, decant the liquid through a folded filter 
into a porcelain dish. Wash the residue repeatedly with small 
portions of hot 90% alcohol, twice by decantation, and then by 
transferring all the material to the filter. Continue the washing 
until the filtrate amounts to 150 cc.) Evaporate to a sirupy 
consistency; add 10 cc. of absolute alcohol to dissolve this residue; 
and transfer to a 50 cc. glass-stoppered cylinder, washing the dish 
with successive small portions of absolute alcohol until the vol- 
ume of the solution is 20 cc. Add 3 portions of 10 cc. each of 
anhydrous ether, shaking thoroughly after each addition. Let 
stand until clear, pour off through a filter, and wash the cylinder 



DETERMINATION 265 

and filter with a mixture of 2 volumes of absolute alcohol and 3 
of anhydrous ether. If a heavy precipitate has formed in the 
cylinder, centrifugalize at low speed, decant the clear liquid, and 
wash 3 times with 20 cc. portions of the alcohol-ether mixture, 
shaking the mixture thoroughly each time and separating the pre- 
cipitate by means of the centrifuge. Wash the paper with the 
alcohol-ether mixture and evaporate the filtrate and washings 
on the water bath to about 5 cc., add 20 cc. of H^O, and again 
evaporate to 5 cc. ; again add 20 cc. of H^O and evaporate to 
5 cc.; finally add 10 cc. of H2O and evaporate to 5 cc. 

These evaporations are necessary to remove all the ether and 
alcohol, and when conducted at 85-90 they result in no loss of 
glycerol if the concentration of the latter is less than 50%. 

Transfer the residue with hot H^O to a 50 cc. volumetric 
flask, cool, add the Ag2COs prepared from o.i g. of Ag 2 SC>4, 
shake, and allow to stand 10 minutes. Then add 0.5 cc. of basic 
Pb-acetate solution, shake occasionally, and allow to stand 10 
minutes. Make up to the mark, shake well, filter, rejecting the 
first portion of the filtrate, and pipet 25 cc. of the clear filtrate 
into a 250 cc. volumetric flask. 

Add i cc. of H2SO4 to precipitate the excess of Pb and then 
30 cc. of Reagent (a). Add carefully 24 cc. of HfeSO^ rotating 
the flask gently to mix the contents and avoid violent ebullition, 
and then place in a boiling water bath for exactly 20 minutes. 
Remove the flask from the bath, dilute, cool, and make up to the 
mark at room temperature. The quantity of strong dichromate 
solution used must be sufficient to leave an excess of about 12.5 cc. 
at the end of the oxidation, the quantity given above (30 cc.) 
being sufficient for ordinary vinegar containing about 0.35 g. or 
less of glycerol per 100 cc. 

Standardize the ferrous ammonium sulfate solution against 
Reagent (b) by introducing from the respective burets approxi- 
mately 20 cc. of each of these solutions into a beaker containing 
100 cc. of H2O. Complete the titration, using Reagent (d) as 
an outside indicator. From this titration calculate the volume (F) 
of the ferrous ammonium sulfate solution equivalent to 20 cc. 
of the dilute and therefore, to i cc. of Reagent (a). 



266 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

In place of Reagent (b) solution substitute a buret containing 
the oxidized glycerol with an excess of Reagent (a) and ascer- 
tain how many cc. are equivalent to (F) cc. of the ferrous am- 
monium sulfate solution and, therefore, to i cc. of Reagent (a). 
Then 250, divided by this last equivalent, = the number of cc. 
of Reagent (a) present in excess in the 250 cc. flask after oxida- 
tion of the glycerol. 

The number of cc. of Reagent (a) added, minus the excess 
found after oxidation, multiplied by 0.02, gives the grams of 
glycerol per 100 cc. of vinegar. 

9. GLYCEROL IN SWEET WINES OFFICIAL 

With wines in which the extract exceeds 5 g. per 100 cc., 
heat 100 cc. to boiling in a flask and treat with successive small 
portions of milk of lime until the wine becomes first darker and 
then lighter in color. Cool, add 200 cc. of 95% alcohol, allow 
the precipitate to subside, filter, and wash with 95% alcohol. 
Treat the combined filtrate and washings as directed under 5 or 6. 

10. GLYCEROL-ALCOHOL RATIO OFFICIAL 

Express this ratio as X : 100, in which X is obtained by multi- 
plying the percentage weight of glycerol by 100 and dividing the 
result by the percentage of alcohol by weight. 

EXTRACT 

ii. /. From the Specific Gravity of the Dealcoholized 
Wine Official 

Calculate the specific gravity of the dealcoholized wine by 
the following formula: 

S = G + i ~ A, in which 

S = specific gravity of the dealcoholized wine; 
G = specific gravity of the wine, 3 ; and 

A = specific gravity of the distillate obtained in the determination of 
alcohol, 4 (a). 

From Table A2, ascertain the percentage by weight of extract 
in the dealcoholized wine corresponding to the value of S. Mul- 



REDUCING SUGARS OFFICIAL 267 

tiply the figure thus obtained by the value of 5 to obtain the g. 
of extract per 100 cc. of wine. 

12. II. By Evaporation Official 

(a) In dry wines, having an extract content of less than 3 
grams per 100 cc. Evaporate 50 cc. of the sample on a water 
bath to a sirupy consistency in a 75 cc. flat-bottomed Pt dish, 
approximately 85 mm. in diameter. Heat the residue for 2-5 
hours in a drying oven at the temperature of boiling H2O, cool in 
a desiccator, and weigh as soon as the dish and contents reach 
room temperature. 

(b) In sweet wines. If the extract content is between 3 and 
6 g. per 100 cc., treat 25 cc. of the sample as directed under (a). 
If the extract exceeds 6 g. per 100 cc., however, the result, ob- 
tained as directed under n, is accepted, and no gravimetric 
determination is attempted because of the inaccurate results ob- 
tained by drying levulose at a high temperature. 

13. NON-SUGAR SOLIDS OFFICIAL 

Determine the non-sugar solids (sugar- free extract) by sub- 
tracting the quantity of reducing sugars before inversion, 14, from 
the extract, n or 12. If sucrose is present in the wine, deter- 
mine the nonsugar solids by subtracting the sum of reducing sugars 
before inversion and the sucrose from the extract. 

14. REDUCING SUGARS OFFICIAL 

(a) Dry wines. Place 200 cc. of the wine in a porcelain dish; 
exactly neutralize with normal NaOH, calculating the quantity 
required from the determination of acidity, 44; and evaporate to 
about Y$ the original volume. Transfer to a 200 cc. flask, add 
sufficient neutral Pb-acetate solution to clarify, dilute to the mark 
with H2O, shake, and pass through a folded filter. Remove the 
Pb with dry K-oxalate and determine, reducing sugars as di- 
rected under 1518. 

(b) Sweet wines. With sweet wines, approximate the sugar 
content by subtracting 2 from the result in the determination of 



268 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

the extract and employ such a quantity of the sample that the 
aliquot taken for the Cu reduction shall not exceed 240 mg. of 
invert sugar. Proceed as directed under (a) except to take this 
smaller quantity of the sample for the determination. 

15. Munson and Walker General Method Official 

REAGENTS 

(a) Asbestos. Digest the asbestos, which should be the 
amphibole variety, with HC1 (1+3) for 23 days. Wash free 
from acid, digest for a similar period with 10% NaOH solu- 
tion, and then treat for a few hours with hot alkaline tartrate 
solution (old alkaline tartrate solutions that have stood for some 
time may be used for this purpose) of the strength used in sugar 
determinations. Wash the asbestos free from alkali; digest for 
several hours with HNO 3 ( i + 3) ; and, after washing free from 
acid, shake with H^O into a fine pulp. In preparing the Gooch 
crucible, make a film of asbestos % i nc h thick and wash thor- 
oughly with H2O to remove fine particles of asbestos. If the 
precipitated Cu2O is to be weighed as such, wash the crucible 
with 10 cc. of alcohol, then with 10 cc. of ether; dry for 30 minu- 
utes at 100; cool in a desiccator; and weigh. 

Soxhlet's modification of Fehlintfs solution. Prepared by 
mixing immediately before use, equal volumes of (a) and (b). 

(a) Copper sulfate solution. Dissolve 34.639 g. of 
CuSO4.5H2O in H2O, dilute to 500 cc., and filter through pre- 
pared asbestos. 

(b) Alkaline tartrate solution. Dissolve 173 g. of Rochelle 
salts and 50 g. of NaOH in H2O, dilute to 500 cc., allow to stand 
for 2 days, and filter through prepared asbestos. 

1 6. PRECIPITATION OF CUPROUS OXIDE 

Transfer 25 cc. of each of the CuSO4 and alkaline tartrate 
solutions to a 400 cc. beaker of alkali-resistant glass and add 
50 cc. of the reducing sugar solution, or if a smaller volume of 
sugar solution is used, add H2O to make the final volume 100 cc. 



DETERMINATION 269 

Heat the beaker on an asbestos gauze over a Bunsen burner, regu- 
late the flame so that boiling begins in 4 minutes, and continue the 
boiling for exactly 2 minutes. (It is important that these direc- 
tions be strictly observed. To regulate the burner for this pur- 
pose it is advisable to make preliminary tests, using 50 cc. of the 
reagent and 50 cc. of H 2 O before proceeding with the actual 
determination.) Keep the beaker covered with a watch-glass 
during the heating. Filter the hot solution at once through an 
asbestos mat in a porcelain Gooch crucible, using suction. Wash 
the precipitate of Cu2O thoroughly with H 2 O at a temperature 
of about 60 and either weigh directly as Cu 2 O as directed under 

17, or determine the quantity of reduced Cu as described under 

1 8. Conduct a blank determination, using 50 cc. of the reagent 
and 50 cc. of H 2 O, and if the weight of Cu 2 O obtained exceeds 
0.5 mg., correct the result of the reducing sugar determination 
accordingly. The alkaline tartrate solution deteriorates on stand- 
ing, and the quantity of Cu 2 O obtained in the blank increases. 

iy. DETERMINATION OF REDUCED COPPER 

Direct Weighing of Cuprous Oxide 

(This method should be used only for determinations in solu- 
tions of reducing sugars of comparatively high purity. In prod- 
ucts containing large quantities of mineral or organic impurities, 
including sucrose, determine the Cu of the Cu 2 O by one of the 
methods described under 18, since the Cu 2 O is very likely to be 
contaminated with foreign matter.) 

Prepare a Gooch crucible as directed under 15. Collect the 
precipitated Cu 2 O on the mat as directed under 16 and wash 
thoroughly with hot H 2 O, then with 10 cc. of alcohol, and finally 
with 10 cc. of ether. Dry the precipitate for 30 minutes in a 
water oven at the temp, of boiling H 2 O, cool, and weigh. Calcu- 
late the weight of metallic Cu, using the factor 0.8882. Obtain 
from Table A7 the weight of invert sugar equivalent to the 
weight of Cu. 

The number of mg. of Cu reduced by a given quantity of 
reducing sugar varies, depending upon whether or not sucrose is 



270 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

present. In the tables the absence of sucrose is assumed except 
in the entries under invert sugar, where, in addition to the column 
for invert sugar alone, there are given one column for mixtures 
of invert sugar and sucrose containing 0.4 g. of total sugar in 
50 cc. of solution and one column for invert sugar and sucrose 
when the 50 cc. of solution contains 2 g. of total sugar. Two 
entries are also given under lactose and sucrose mixtures, showing 
proportions of i part lactose to 4 and 12 parts of sucrose, 
respectively. 

1 8. REAGENTS 

Volumetric Thiosulfate Method 

Standard thiosulfate solution. Prepare a solution of 
Na2S2Oa containing 19 g. of pure crystals in I liter. Weigh 
accurately about 0.2 g. of pure Cu and place in a flask of 250 cc. 
capacity. Dissolve by warming with 5 cc. of a mixture of equal 
volumes of strong HNOs and H^O. Dilute to 50 cc., boil to 
expel the red fumes, add a slight excess of strong Br water, and 
boil until the Br is completely driven off. Cool, and add a strong 
NaOH solution with agitation until a faint turbidity of Cu(OH)2 
appears (about 7 cc. of a 25% NaOH solution is required). Dis- 
charge the turbidity with a few drops of 80% acetic acid and add 
2 drops in excess. (The solution should now occupy a volume of 
50-70 cc.) Add 10 cc. of 30% KI solution. Titrate at once 
with the thiosulfate solution until the brown tinge becomes weak 
and add sufficient starch indicator to produce a marked blue 
coloration. Continue the titration cautiously until the color 
changes toward the end to a faint lilac. (If at this point the 
thiosulfate is added dropwise and a little time is allowed for 
complete reaction after each addition, no difficulty is experienced 
in determining the end point within a single drop.) i cc. of the 
thiosulfate solution = about 0.005 g. of Cu. 

1 8a. DETERMINATION 

After washing the precipitated Cu2O, cover the Gooch with 
a watch-glass and dissolve the oxide by means of 5 cc. of warm 
HNOs ( i + i ) poured under the watch-glass with a pipet. Col- 



SUCROSE 271 

lect the filtrate in a 250 cc. flask and wash the watch-glass and the 
Gooch free from Cu, using about 50 cc. of F^O. Boil to expel 
red fumes; add a slight excess of Br water; boil off the Br com- 
pletely; and proceed as directed under 18, beginning with "Cool 
and add a strong NaOH solution. . . ." 

SUCROSE 

19. /. By Reducing Sugars Before and After Inversion 

Official 

Determine the reducing sugars (clarification having been ef- 
fected with neutral Pb-acetate, never with basic Pb-acetate) as 
directed under 15 and calculate to invert sugar from Ay. Invert 
the solution as directed under 20 (b) or (c), or 22 (b) or (c) ; 
exactly neutralize the acid; and again determine the reducing 
sugars, but calculate them to invert sugar from the table referred 
to above, using the invert sugar column alone. Deduct the per- 
centage of invert sugar obtained before inversion from that ob- 
tained after inversion and multiply the difference by 0.95 to 
obtain the percentage of sucrose. The solutions should be diluted 
in both determinations so that not more than 240 mg. of invert 
sugar is present in the quantity taken for reduction. It is im- 
portant that all lead be removed from the solution with anhydrous 
powdered K-oxalate or Na 2 CO 3 before reduction. 

20. //. By Polarization Official 

Polarize before and after inversion in a 200 mm. tube, as 
directed under 20 or 22, a portion of the filtrate obtained under 
14. In calculating the percentage of sucrose do not fail to take 
into consideration the relation of the weight of the sample con- 
tained in 100 cc. to the normal weight for the instrument. 

(a) Direct reading. Pipet one 50 cc. portion of the Pb-free 
filtrate into a 100 cc. flask, dilute with H 2 O to the mark, mix well, 
and polarize in a 200 mm. tube. The result, multiplied by 2, is 
the direct reading (P of formula given below) or polarization 
before inversion. (If a 400 mm. tube is used, the reading 
equals P.) 



272 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

(b) Invert reading. First determine the quantity of acetic 
acid necessary to render 50 cc. of the Pb-free filtrate distinctly 
acid to methyl red indicator; then to another 50 cc. of the lead- 
free solution in a 100 cc. volumetric flask, add the requisite quan- 
tity of acid and 5 cc. of the invertase preparation, fill the flask 
with H2O nearly to 100 cc., and let stand overnight (preferably 
at a temperature not less than 20). Cool, and dilute to 100 cc. 
at 20. Mix well and polarize at 20 in a 200 mm. tube. If 
the analyst is in doubt as to the completion of the hydrolysis, 
allow a portion of the solution to remain for several hours and 
again polarize. If there is no change from the previous reading, 
the inversion is complete, and the reading and temperature of the 
solution should be carefully noted. If it is necessary to work at 
a temperature other than 20, which is permissible within narrow 
limits, the volumes must be completed and both direct and invert 
readings must be made at the same temperature. Correct the 
invert reading for the optical activity of the invertase solution 
and multiply by 2. Calculate the percentage of sucrose by the 
following formula: 

100 (P - /) - . 

S = ; 7 v T y m Which 

142.1 + 0.073 (m 13) t/2 
S = percentage of sucrose; 
P = direct reading, normal soln. ; 
/ = invert reading, normal soln. ; 
/ = temp, at which readings are made ; and 
m = g. of total solids in 100 cc. of the invert soln. read in the polariscope. 

Determine the total solids as directed under n. 

(c) Rapid inversion at 55-60. If more rapid inversion 
is desired, proceed as follows: Prepare the sample as directed 
under (a) and to 50 cc. of the Pb-free filtrate in a 100 
cc. volumetric flask add glacial acetic acid in sufficient quan- 
tity to render the solution distinctly acid to methyl red. The 
quantity of acetic acid required should be determined before 
pipetting the 50 cc. portion. Then add 10 cc. of invertase 
solution, mix thoroughly, place the flask in a water bath at 
55-60, and allow to stand at that temperature for 15 minutes 
with occasional shaking. Cool, add Na2COs solution until dis- 



SUCROSE 273 

tinctly alkaline to litmus paper, dilute to 100 cc. at 20, mix 
well, and determine the polarization at 20 in a 200 mm. tube. 
Allow the solution to remain in the tube for 10 minutes and again 
determine the polarization. If there is no change from the pre- 
vious reading, the mutarotation is complete. Carefully note the 
reading and the temperature of the solution. Correct the polar- 
ization for the optical activity of the invertase solution and mul- 
tiply by 2. Calculate the percentage of sucrose by the formula 
given under (b). 

(If the solution has been rendered so alkaline as to cause de- 
struction of sugar, the polarization, if negative, will in general 
decrease, since the decomposition of fructose ordinarily is more 
rapid than that of the other sugars present. If the solution has 
not been made sufficiently alkaline to complete mutarotation 
quickly, the polarization, if negative, will in general increase. As 
the analyst gains experience he may omit the polarization after 
10 minutes if he has satisfied himself that he is adding Na2COs in 
sufficient amount to complete mutarotation at once without caus- 
ing any destruction of sugar during the period intervening before 
polarization.) 

21. //. By Polarization Before and After Inversion With 
Hydrochloric Acid Official 

(In the presence of much levulose, as in honeys, fruit prod- 
ucts, sorghum sirup, cane sirup, and molasses, the optical method 
for sucrose, requiring hydrolysis by acid, gives erroneous results.) 

22. (a) Direct reading. Proceed as directed under 20 (a). 

(b) Invert reading. Pipet a 50 cc. portion of the Pb-free 
filtrate into a 100 cc. flask and add 25 cc. of H2O. Then add, 
little by little, while rotating the flask, 10 cc. of HC1 (sp. gr. 
1.1029 at 20/4 (or 24.85 Brix at 20)). Heat a water bath 
to 70 and regulate the burner so that the temperature of the 
bath remains approximately at that point. Place the flask in the 
water bath, insert a thermometer, and heat with constant agita- 
tion until the thermometer in the flask indicates 67. This pre- 
liminary heating period should require from 2j^-2^ minutes. 



274 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

From the moment the thermometer in the flask indicates 67, 
leave the flask in the bath for exactly 5 minutes longer, during 
which time the temperature should gradually rise to about 69.5. 
Plunge the flask as once into Ir^O at 20. When the contents 
have cooled to about 35, remove the thermometer from the 
flask, rinse it, and fill almost to the mark. Leave the flask in the 
bath at 20 for at least 30 minutes longer and finally make up 
exactly to volume. Mix well and polarize the solution in a 
200 mm. tube provided with a lateral branch and a water jacket, 
maintaining a temperature of 20. This reading must also be 
multiplied by 2 to obtain the invert reading. If it is necessary to 
work at a temperature other than 20, which is permissible within 
narrow limits, the volumes must be completed and both direct 
and invert polarizations must be made at exactly the same temp. 
Calculate sucrose by the following formula : 

IPO (P - /) . . . , 

o : z~~z~7 \ 7~> in which 

143 + 0.0676 (m 13) t/2 

S = percentage of sucrose; 
P = direct reading, normal soln. ; 
I = invert reading, normal soln. ; 
t = temp, at which readings are made; and 
m = g. of total solids in 100 cc. of the invert soln. read in the polariscope. 

Determine the total solids as directed under n. 

(c) Inversion at room temperature. The inversion may 
also be accomplished as follows: (i) To 50 cc. of the clarified 
soln., freed from Pb, add 10 cc. of HC1 (sp. gr. 1.1029 at 20/4 
or 24.85 Brix at 20) and set aside for 24 hours at a temp, not 
below 20; or, (2) if the temp, is above 25, set aside for 10 
hours. Make up to 100 cc. at 20 and polarize as directed under 
(b). Under these conditions the formula must be changed to 

the following: 

100 (P - I) 



n 



143.2 + 0.0676 (m 13) - t/2 



23. COMMERCIAL GLUCOSE OFFICIAL 

Polarize a portion of the clarified filtrate after inversion in a 
200 mm. jacketed tube at 87, as directed under 24. In calcu- 



ASH EXTRACT RATIO OFFICIAL 275 

lating the percentage of glucose do not fail to take into con- 
sideration the relation of the weight of the sample contained in 
100 cc. to the normal weight for the instrument. 

24. Commercial glucose cannot be determined accurately ow- 
ing to the varying quantities of dextrin, maltose, and dextrose 
present in the product. However, in sirups in which the quantity 
of invert sugar is so small as not to affect appreciably the result, 
commercial glucose may be estimated approximately by the fol- 
lowing formula : 

(a-S) IPO . , . , 
Q in w hich 

211 

G = percentage of commercial glucose solids; 
a = direct polarization, normal soln.; and 
S = percentage of cane sugar. 

Express the results in terms of commercial glucose solids polariz- 
ing + 21 iV. (This result may be recalculated in terms of com- 
mercial glucose of any Baume reading desired.) 

25. ASH OFFICIAL 

Proceed as directed below using the residue from 50 cc. of 
the wine. 

Weigh a quantity of the substance representing about 2 g. 
of dry material and burn at a low heat, not exceeding dull red- 
ness, until free from C. If a C-free ash cannot be obtained in 
this manner, exhaust the charred mass with hot H2O, collect the 
insoluble residue on an ashless filter, and burn the filter and con- 
tents to a white or nearly white ash. Add the filtrate, evaporate 
to dryness, and heat at dull redness until the ash is white or 
grayish white. Cool in a desiccator and weigh. 

26. ASH EXTRACT RATIO OFFICIAL 

Express results as i : X, in which X is the quotient obtained by 
dividing the g. of extract per 100 cc. by the g. of ash per 100 cc. 



276 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

27. ALKALINITY OF THE WATER-SOLUBLE ASH OFFICIAL 

Extract the ash obtained as directed under 25 with successive 
small portions of hot H 2 O until the filtrate amounts to about 
60 cc. 

Cool the filtrate and titrate with o.i N HC1, using methyl 
orange indicator. Express the alkalinity in terms of the num- 
ber of cc. of o.i N acid per 100 cc. of the wine. 

28. ALKALINITY OF THE WATER-INSOLUBLE ASH OFFICIAL 

Ignite the filter and residue from 27 in the Pt. dish in which 
the wine was ashed and proceed as directed below. Express the 
alkalinity in terms of the number of cc. of o.i N acid required 
to neutralize the water-insoluble ash from 100 cc. of the wine. 

Add an excess of o.i N HC1 (usually 10-15 cc.) to the 
ignited insoluble ash in the Pt. dish, heat to boiling on an as- 
bestos plate, cool, and titrate the excess of HC1 with o.i N 
NaOH, using methyl orange indicator. 

29. PHOSPHORIC ACID OFFICIAL 

Dissolve the ash obtained as directed under 25 in 50 cc. of 
boiling HNOs (1+9), filter, wash the filter, and determine 
P 2 Os in the combined filtrate and washings as directed below. 
If the ash ignites without difficulty, no free phosphoric acid need 
be suspected. Should there be any free acid, the ash remains 
black even after repeated leaching. In such cases, add Ca-ace- 
tate or a mixture containing 3 parts of Na2COs and i part of 
NaNOs to avoid loss of P^O^ before attempting to ash. Add 
NHUOH in slight excess; and barely dissolve the precipitate 
formed with a few drops of HNOs, stirring vigorously. If HC1 
or H2&O4 has been used as a solvent, add about 15 g. of crys- 
talline NH4NOs or a soln. containing that quantity. To the hot 
soln. add 70 cc. of molybdate soln. for every decigram of P2Os 
.present. Digest at about 65 for i hour, and determine whether 
or not the P2Os has been completely precipitated by the addition 
of more molybdate soln. to the clear supernatant liquid. Filter, 



CHLORIDES OFFICIAL 277 

and wash with cold H 2 O or preferably with the NH 4 NO 3 soln. 
Dissolve the precipitate on the filter with NIHUOH (i + i) and 
hot H 2 O and wash into a beaker to a volume of not more than 
100 cc. Neutralize with HC1, using litmus paper or bromthy- 
mol blue as an indicator; cool; and from a buret add slowly (about 
i drop per second), stirring vigorously, 15 cc. of magnesia mix- 
ture for each decigram of P 2 Os present After 15 min. add 
12 cc. of NHUOH. Let stand until the supernatant liquid is 
clear (usually 2 hours), filter, wash the precipitate with the 
dilute NHUOH until the washings are practically free from 
chlorides, dry, burn first at a low heat and ignite to constant 
weight, preferably in an electric furnace, at 950-1,000; cool 
in a desiccator, and weigh as Mg2P2O7. Calculate and report 
the result as percentage of P 2 Os. 

30. SULFURIC ACID OFFICIAL 

Precipitate directly the H 2 SO4 in 50 cc. of the wine by means 
of 10% BaCl 2 soln. after acidifying with a small excess of HC1, 
and determine the resulting BaSO4 as directed below. Allow the 
precipitate to stand for at least 6 hours before filtering. Report 
as SOs, using the factor 0.3430. 

Heat to boiling and add slowly in small quantities a 10% 
BaCl 2 soln. until no further precipitate is formed. Continue the 
boiling for about 5 min. and allow to stand for 5 hours or longer 
in a warm place. Decant the liquid through an ashless filter or an 
ignited and weighed Gooch crucible, treat the precipitate with 
15-20 cc. of boiling H 2 O, transfer to the filter, and wash with 
boiling H 2 O until the filtrate is free from chlorides. Dry the 
precipitate and filter, ignite, and weigh as BaSO4. 

3 I . CHLORIDES OFFICIAL 

To 100 cc. of dry wine or 50 cc. of sweet wine, add sufficient 
Na 2 COs to make distinctly alkaline. Evaporate to dryness, ignite 
at a heat not above low redness, cool, extract the residue with 
hot H 2 O, acidify the water extract with HNO 3 (i +4) 
determine chlorides as directed under 32 or 34. 



278 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

32. /. Gravimetric Method 

To the soln. prepared as directed in 31 add a IQ% AgNO 3 
soln., avoiding more than a slight excess. Heat to boiling, pro- 
tect from the light, and allow to stand until the precipitate is 
granular. Filter on a weighed Gooch crucible, previously heated 
to 140-150, and wash with hot H2O, testing the filtrate to prove 
excess of AgNO 3 . Dry the AgCl at 140-150, cool, and weigh. 
Report as percentage of Cl. 

33. //. Volumetric Method 

REAGENTS 

(a) Silver nitrate. Adjust to exact Q.I N strength by stand- 
ardizing against a o.i N NaCl soln. containing 5.846 g. of pure 
NaCl per liter. 

(b) Ammonium or potassium thiocyanate. o.i N. Adjust 
by titrating against the o.i N AgNOs. 

(c) Ferric indicator. A saturated soln. of ferric ammonium 
alum. 

(d) Nitric acid. Free from lower oxides of N by diluting 
the usual pure acid with about J4 volume of HoO, and boiling 
until perfectly colorless. 

34. DETERMINATION 

To the soln. prepared as directed under 31, add a known 
volume of the o.i N AgNOs in slight excess. Stir well, filter, and 
wash the AgCl precipitate thoroughly. To the combined filtrate 
and washings add 5 cc. of the ferric indicator and a few cc. of 
the HNOs and titrate the excess of Ag with the o.i N thiocy- 
anate until a permanent light brown color appears. From the 
number of cc. of o.i N AgNOs used, calculate the quantity of Cl. 
i cc. of o.i TV AgNO 3 = 0.003 5 5 g. of Cl. 

35. TOTAL ACIDS OFFICIAL 

Measure 20 cc. of the wine into a 250 cc. beaker, heat rapidly 
to incipient boiling, and immediately titrate with o.i N NaOH 



VOLATILE ACIDS 279 

soln. Determine the end point with neutral 0.05% azolitmin 
soln. as an outside indicator. Place the indicator in the cavities 
of a spot plate and spot the wine into the azolitmin soln. The 
end point is reached when the color of the indicator remains un- 
changed by the addition to the wine of a few drops of o.i N 
alkali. 

In the case of wines that are artificially colored and therefore 
cannot be titrated satisfactorily in the above manner, it will be 
found helpful to use phenolphthalein powder (one part of phe- 
nolphthalein mixed with 100 parts of dry, powdered K2SO4) as 
an indicator. Place this indicator in the cavities of a spot plate 
and spot the wine into the powder. The end of the titration is 
indicated when the powder acquires a pink tint. 

Express the result in terms of tartaric acid. I cc. of o.i N 
NaOH soln. = 0.0075 g- f tartaric acid. 

VOLATILE ACIDS 

36. Method I Official 

Heat rapidly to incipient boiling 50 cc. of the wine in a 500 
cc. distillation flask and pass steam through until 15 cc. of the dis- 
tillate requires only 2 drops of o.i N NaOH soln. for neutraliza- 
tion. Boil the H2O used to generate the steam several minutes 
before connecting the steam generator with the distillation flask 
in order to expel CO2. Titrate rapidly with o.i N NaOH soln., 
using phenolphthalein indicator. The color should remain about 
10 seconds. Express the result as acetic acid. I cc. of o.i TV 
NaOH soln. = 0.0060 g. of acetic acid. 

37. Method II Official 

Introduce 10 cc. of the wine, previously freed from CO2, into 
the inner tube of a modified Sellier distillation apparatus (Fig. 
50) ; add a small piece of paraffin to prevent foaming; and adjust 
the tube and its contents in place within the larger flask, which 
contains 100 cc. of recently boiled H2O. Connect with a con- 
denser as illustrated in the figure and distil by heating the outer 



280 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

flask. When 50 cc. of the distillate has been collected, empty 
the receiver into a beaker and titrate with o.i N NaOH soln., 
using phenolphthalein indicator. Continue the distillation and 
titrate each succeeding 10 cc. of distillate until not more than i 
drop of standard alkali is required to reach the neutral point. 
Usually 80 cc. of distillate will contain all the volatile acids. 




FIG. 50. 

38. FIXED ACIDS OFFICIAL 

To obtain the quantity of fixed acids, expressed as tartaric 
acid, multiply the quantity of volatile acids by 1.25 and subtract 
this product from the total acids. 

39. TOTAL TARTARIC ACID OFFICIAL 

Neutralize 100 cc. of the wine with A^ NaOH soln., calcu- 
lating from the acidity, 44, the number of cc. o/ TV alkali neces- 
sary for the neutralization. If the volume of the soln. is increased 
more than 10% by the addition of the alkali, evaporate to ap- 
proximately 100 cc. Add to the neutralized soln. 0.075 ^ 
tartaric acid for each cc. of TV alkali added and after the tartaric 
acid has dissolved add 2 cc. of glacial acetic acid and 15 g. of 
KC1. After the KC1 has dissolved, add 15 cc. of 95% alcohol; 
stir vigorously until the K-bitartrate begins to precipitate; and let 
stand in an ice-box at 15-18 for at least 15 hours. Decant the 
liquid from the separated K-bitartrate on a Gooch crucible pre- 
pared with a very thin film of asbestos, or on filter paper in a 



TANNIN AND COLORING MATTER 281 

Biichner funnel. Wash the precipitate and filter 3 times with a 
few cc. of a mixture of 15 g. of KC1, 20 cc. of 95% alcohol, and 
100 cc. of H2O, using not more than 20 cc. of the wash soln. in 
all. Transfer the asbestos or paper and precipitate to the 
beaker in which the precipitation was made; wash the Gooch 
crucible or Biichner funnel with hot H2O, using about 50 cc. 
in all; heat to boiling; and titrate the hot soln. with o.i N NaOH 
soln., using phenolphthalein indicator. Increase the number of 
cc. of o.i N alkali required by 1.5 cc. to allow for the solubility 
of the precipitate. I cc. of o.i N alkali is equivalent, under these 
conditions, to 0.015 g. of tartaric acid. To obtain the g. of total 
tartaric acid per 100 cc. of the wine, subtract the quantity of 
tartaric acid added from this result. 

40. FREE TARTARIC ACID AND CREAM OF TARTAR OFFICIAL 

Calculate the free tartaric acid and cream of tartar in the 
following manner: 

Let A = total tartaric acid in 100 cc. of wine, divided by 0.015; 
B = total alkalinity of the ash (sum of C and D) ; 
C = alkalinity of water-soluble ash ; and 
D = alkalinity of water-insoluble ash. 
Then 

( i ) If A is greater than B f 

Cream of tartar = 0.0188 X C, and 
Free tartaric acid = 0.015 X (A ~ B) ; 

(2) If A equals B or is smaller than B but greater than C 

Cream of tartar = 0.0188 X C, and 
Free tartaric acid = o; and 

(3) If A is smaller than C, 

Cream of tartar = 0.0188 X A, and 
Free tartaric acid = o. 

41. TANNIN AND COLORING MATTER OFFICIAL 

REAGENTS 

(a) Oxalic acid. o.i N. I cc. = 0.00416 g. of tannin. 

(b) Standard potassium permanganate soln. Dissolve 
1.333 g. of KMnO 4 in i liter of H2O and standardize the soln. 
against (a). 



282 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

(c) Indigo soln. Dissolve 6 g. of Na-sulfindigotate in 500 
cc. of H2O by heating, cool, add 50 cc. of H 2 SO4, make up to i 
liter, and filter. 

(d) Purified boneblack. Boil 100 g. of finely powdered 
boneblack with successive portions of HC1 (4-3), filter, and 
wash with boiling H 2 O until free from chlorides. Keep covered 
with H 2 O. 

42. DETERMINATION 

Dealcoholize 100 cc. of the wine by evaporation and dilute 
with H2O to the original volume. Transfer 10 cc. to a 2-liter 
porcelain dish and add about I liter of H 2 O and exactly 20 cc. 
of the indigo soln. Add the standard KMnO4 soln., i cc. at a 
time, until the blue color changes to green; then add a few drops 
at a time until the color becomes golden yellow. Designate the 
number of cc. of KMnO4 soln. used as "a." 

Treat 10 cc. of the dealcoholized wine, prepared as above, 
for 15 min. w r ith boneblack; filter; and wash thoroughly with 
H 2 O. Add i liter of H 2 O and 20 cc. of the indigo soln. and 
titrate with KMnO-i, as above. Designate the number of cc. of 
KMnO 4 used as "b." 

Then a b c, the number of cc. of the KMnO4 soln. re- 
quired for the oxidation of the tannin and coloring matter in 10 
cc. of the wine. 

43. CRUDE PROTEIN OFFICIAL 

Determine N in 50 cc. of the wine as directed below, and 
multiply the result by 6.25. 

Place the sample in a digestion flask. Add approximately 
0.7 g. of HgO, or its equivalent in metallic Hg, and 20-30 cc. 
of H 2 SO4 (0.1-0.3 g. of crystallized CuSO4 may also be used 
in addition to the Hg, or in many cases, in place of it). Place 
the flask in an inclined position and heat below the boiling point 
of the acid until frothing has ceased. (A small piece of paraffin 
may be added to prevent extreme foaming.) Increase the heat 
until the acid boils briskly and digest for a time after the mixture 



REAGENTS 283 

is colorless or nearly so, or until oxidation is complete. (The 
digestion usually requires at least 2 hours.) 

After cooling, dilute with about 200 cc. of H 2 O, and add a 
few pieces of granulated Zn or pumice stone to prevent bumping, 
and 25 cc. of K 2 S or Na 2 S 2 O 3 soln. with shaking. (If Na 2 S 2 O 3 
is to be used, it should first be mixed with the NaOH so that they 
may be added together. When no Hg or HgO is used the addi- 
tion of K 2 S or Na 2 S or Na 2 S 2 O 3 soln. is unnecessary.) Next add 
sufficient NaOH soln. to make the reaction strongly alkaline (50 
cc. is usually sufficient), pouring it down the side of the flask 
so that it does not mix at once with the acid soln. Connect the 
flask to the condenser by means of a Kjeldahl connecting bulb, 
taking care that the tip of the condenser extends below the sur- 
face of the standard acid in the receiver; mix the contents by 
shaking; and distil until all NH 3 has passed over into a measured 
quantity of the standard acid. (The first 150 cc. of the distillate 
will generally contain all the NH 3 .) Titrate with standard alkali 
soln., using the methyl red or cochineal indicator. 

44. PENTOSANS OFFICIAL 

Proceed as directed under 45, 46, except to use 100 cc. of the 
wine and 43 cc. of HC1 in beginning the distillation. Owing to 
the interference of sugars this determination can be made in dry 
wines only. 

45. REAGENTS 

(a) Hydrochloric acid. Contains 12% by weight HC1. To 
i volume of HC1 add 2 volumes of H 2 O. Determine the per- 
centage of acid by titration against standard alkali and adjust to 
proper strength by dilution or addition of more strong acid, as 
may be necessary. 

(b) Phloroglucin. Dissolve a small quantity of phloro- 
glucin in a few drops of acetic anhydride, heat almost to boiling, 
and add a few drops of H 2 SO 4 . A violet color indicates the 
presence of diresorcin. A phloroglucin which gives more than a 
faint coloration may be purified by the following method : 



284 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

Heat in a beaker about 300 cc. of the dilute HC1 (a) and 
1 1 g. of commercial phloroglucin, added in small quantities at a 
time, stirring constantly until it is nearly dissolved. Pour the 
hot soln. into a sufficient quantity of the same HC1 (cold) to make 
the volume 1500 cc. Allow to stand at least over night, prefer- 
ably several days, to permit the diresorcin to crystallize. Filter 
immediately before using. A yellow tint does not interfere with 
its usefulness. In using, add the volume containing the required 
quantity of phloroglucin to the distillate. 



46. DETERMINATION 

Place the sample in a 300 cc. distillation flask, together with 
100 cc. of the dilute HC1 and several pieces of recently ignited 
pumice stone. Place the flask on a wire gauze; connect with a 
condenser; and heat, rather gently at first, but then regulating 
so as to distil over 30 cc. in about 10 min. Pass the distillate 
through a small filter paper. Replace the 30 cc. distilled by a like 
quantity of the dilute acid, added by means of a separatory fun- 
nel in such a manner as to wash down the particles adhering to 
the sides of the flask, and continue the process until the distillate 
amounts to 360 cc. To the total distillate add gradually a 
quantity of phloroglucin dissolved in the dilute HC1 and thor- 
oughly stir the resulting mixture. The quantity of phloroglucin 
used should be about double that of the furfural expected. The 
soln. turns yellow, then green, and very soon there appears an 
amorphous greenish precipitate that grows darker rapidly, till it 
becomes almost black. Make the soln. up to 400 cc. with the 
dilute HC1 and allow to stand over night. 

Collect the amorphous black precipitate in a weighed Gooch 
crucible having an asbestos mat, wash carefully with 150 cc. of 
H 2 O so that the H 2 O is not entirely removed from the crucible 
until the very last, then dry for 4 hours at the temp, of boiling 
H2O, cool, and weigh in a weighing bottle. The increase in 
weight is taken to be furfural phloroglucide. To calculate the 
furfural, pentose, or pentosan from the phloroglucide, use the 
following formulas given by Krober: 



GUM AND DEXTRIN TENTATIVE 285 

1 i ) For a weight of phloroglucide, designated by "a" in the following 
formulas, under 0.03 g, 

Furfural = (a + 0.0052) X 0.5170. 
Pentoses = (a + 0.0052) X 1.0170. 
Pentosans = (a + 0.0052) X 0.8949. 

In the above and also in the following formulas, the factor 0.0052 rep- 
resents the weight of the phloroglucide that remains dissolved in the 400 
cc. of acid soln. 

(2) For a weight of phloroglucide "a" between 0.03 and 0.300 g., use 
the following formulas: 

Furfural = (a + 0.0052) X 0.5185. 
Pentoses = (a + 0.0052) X 1.0075. 
Pentosans = (a + 0.0052) X 0.8866. 

(3) For a weight of phloroglucide "ct* over 0.300 g., 

Furfural = (a + 0.0052) X 0.5180. 
Pentoses = (a + 0.0052) X 1.0026. 
Pentosans = (a + 0.0052) X 0.8824. 

47. GUM AND DEXTRIN TENTATIVE 

Evaporate 100 cc. of the wine to about 10 cc. and add 10 cc. 
of 95% alcohol. If gum or dextrin is present (indicated by the 
formation of a voluminous precipitate), continue the addition of 
alcohol, slowly and with stirring, until 100 cc. has been added. 
Let stand over night; filter; and wash with alcohol, 80% by vol- 
ume. Dissolve the precipitate on the paper with hot H 2 O, hydro- 
lyze the filtrate and washings with HC1, and proceed as directed 
below. 

48. (This method is intended only for such materials as raw 
starch, potatoes, etc., and includes as starch the pentosans and 
other carbohydrate bodies that undergo hydrolysis and are con- 
verted into reducing sugars on boiling with HC1.) 

49. Heat the liquid for 2.5 hours with 200 cc. of H 2 O and 
20 cc. of HC1 (sp. gr. 1.125) * n a fl as ^ provided with a reflux 
condenser. Cool, and nearly neutralize with NaOH. Complete 
the volume to 250 cc., filter and determine the dextrose in an 
aliquot of the filtrate as directed under 16 and 17 or 18. The 
weight of the dextrose obtained multiplied by 0.90 gives the 
weight of starch. 



286 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

50. NITRATES TENTATIVE 

(a) White wine. Treat a few drops of the wine in a por- 
celain dish with 2-3 cc. of H2SO4 that contains about o.i g. of 
diphenylamine per 100 cc. The deep blue color formed in the 
presence of nitrates appears so quickly that it is not obscured, 
even in sweet wine, by the blackening produced by the action of 
H2SO4 on the sugar. 

(b) Red wine. Clarify with basic lead acetate, filter, re- 
move the excess of Pb from the filtrate with Na2$O4, filter again, 
and treat a few drops of this filtrate as directed under (a). 

5 I . COLORING MATTERS AND PRESERVATIVES 

These subjects are treated extensively in Chapters XXI and 
XXXII of the Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis of the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 3rd ed. 1930, 
to which the student is referred. The following note is applicable 
to the question of preservatives in wine. 

The detection of added boric acid is somewhat difficult be- 
cause a small quantity of it is normally present in certain wines. 
Therefore a quantitative determination should be made. The 
determination of SO2 must also be quantitative. A small quantity 
of salicylic acid is also normal in wine, and for that reason not 
more than 50 cc. of the sample should be used in testing for that 
preservative. 

DISTILLED LIQUORS 
52. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OFFICIAL 

Determine the specific gravity at 20/4 by means of a pycnom- 
eter, as directed under 3, or by means of a small, accurately 
graduated hydrometer. 

53. ALCOHOL RY WEIGHT OFFICIAL 

Weigh 20-25 g. of the sample into a distillation flask, dilute 
with 100 cc. of H2O, and distil nearly 100 cc. Weigh the dis- 
tillate or make to volume at 20, In either case determine the 



ASH OFFICIAL 287 

specific gravity as directed under 3. Obtain the corresponding 
percentage of alcohol by weight from Tables A3-A5 ; multiply 
this figure by the weight of the distillate; and divide by the weight 
of the sample taken to obtain the percentage of alcohol by weight. 
The alcohol content of the distillate may be checked by deter- 
mining the immersion refractometer reading and obtaining the 
percentage of alcohol from Table A6. 

ALCOHOL BY VOLUME 

54. Method I Official 

From the specific gravity of the distillate obtained under 53 
ascertain the corresponding percentage of alcohol by volume from 
Tables A3-A5. Multiply this figure by the volume of distillate 
and divide by the volume of the sample (calculated from the 
specific gravity) to obtain the percentage of alcohol by volume 
in the original sample. 

55. Method II Official 

Measure 25 cc. of the sample at 20 into a distillation flask, 
dilute with 100 cc. of H^O, distil nearly 100 cc., make to volume 
at 20, and determine the specific gravity as directed under 53. 
Obtain, from Tables A3-A5, the corresponding percentage of 
alcohol by volume in the distillate and multiply by 4 to obtain the 
percentage of alcohol by volume in the original substance. 

The alcohol content of the distillate may be checked by de- 
termining the immersion refractometer reading and obtaining the 
percentage of alcohol from Table A6. 

5 6. EXTRACT OFFICIAL 

Weigh, or measure at 20, 100 cc. of the sample, evaporate 
nearly to dryness on a steam bath, transfer to a water oven, and 
dry at the temp, of boiling FbO for 2.5 hours. 

57. ASH OFFICIAL 

Proceed as directed under 25 using the residue from the de- 
termination of the extract c6. 



288 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

58. ACIDITY OFFICIAL 

Titrate 100 cc. of the sample (or 50 cc. diluted to 100 cc. if 
the sample is dark) with o.i N alkali, using phenolphthalein in- 
dicator. Express the result as acetic acid. I cc. of o.i N alkali 
= 0.0060 g. of acetic acid. 

59. ESTERS OFFICIAL * 

Measure 100200 cc. of the sample into a distillation flask; 
add 12.5-25 cc. of H2O; and distil slowly 100-200 cc., depend- 
ing upon the amount of sample taken, using a mercury valve to 
prevent loss of alcohol. Exactly neutralize the free acid in 50 
cc. of the distillate with o.i N alkali and add a measured excess 
of 2550 cc. of o.i TV alkali. Then either boil for an hour under 
a reflux condenser, cool, and titrate with o.i TV acid, or allow 
the soln. to stand over night in a stoppered flask with the excess 
of alkali, heat with a tube condenser for 30 min. at a temp, below 
the boiling point, cool, and titrate. Calculate the number of cc. 
of o.i TV alkali used in the saponification of the esters as ethyl 
acetate, i cc. of o.i N alkali = 0.0088 g. of ethyl acetate. Run 
a blank, using water in place of the distillate, and make any neces- 
sary correction. 

60. ALDEHYDES OFFICIAL 
REAGENTS 

(a) Aldehyde-free alcohol. Redistil 95% alcohol over 
NaOH or KOH; add 23 g. per liter of meta-phenylenediamine 
hydrochloride ; digest at ordinary temp, for several days (or 
under a reflux condenser on a steam bath for several hours) ; and 
distil slowly, rejecting the first 100 cc. and the last 200 cc. of the 
distillate. 

(b) Sulfite-fuchsln soln. Dissolve 0.50 g. of pure fuchsin 
in 500 cc. of H2O, add 5 g. of SO2 dissolved in H^O, make up 
to i liter, and allow to stand until colorless. As this soln. decom- 
poses rapidly, prepare it in small quantities and keep at a low 
temp. 

*The use of "100-200 cc." instead of "200 cc." and of "12.5-25 cc." instead of 
"25 cc." has been approved as official, first action. 



DETERMINATION 289 

(c) Standard acetaldehyde so In. Prepare according to the 
directions of Vasey, as follows: Grind aldehyde ammonia in a 
mortar with anhydrous ether and decant the ether. Repeat this 
operation several times and dry the purified salt in a current of 
air and then in vacuo over H^SO,*. Dissolve 1.386 g. of this 
purified aldehyde ammonia in 50 cc. of 95% alcohol, add 22.7 
cc. of N alcoholic H 2 SO 4 , make up to 100 cc. and add 0.8 cc. of 
alcohol for the volume of the (NH4) 2 SO 4 precipitate. Allow 
the mixture to stand over night, and filter. This soln. contains i g. 
of acetaldehyde in 100 cc. and will retain its strength. 

The standard found most convenient for use is 2 cc. of this 
strong aldehyde soln. diluted to 100 cc. with alcohol, 50% by vol- 
ume, i cc. of this soln. = 0.0002 g. of acetaldehyde. Make up 
the soln. every day or so, as it loses strength. 

6 1 . DETERMINATION 

Determine the aldehyde in the distillate prepared as directed 
under 65. Dilute 5-10 cc. of the distillate to 50 cc. with alde- 
hyde-free alcohol, 50% by volume; add 25 cc. of the sulfite- 
fuchsin soln.; and allow to stand for 15 min. at 15. The solns. 
and reagents should be at 15 when they are mixed. Prepare 
standards of known strength and blanks in the same way. The 
comparison standards found most convenient for use contain o.i, 
0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mg. of acetaldehyde. 

62. FURFURAL OFFICIAL 

REAGENT 

Standard furfural soln. Dissolve i g. of redistilled furfural 
in 100 cc. of 95% alcohol. Prepare standards by diluting I cc. 
of this soln. to 100 cc. with alcohol, 50% by volume, i cc. of 
this soln. contains o.i mg. of furfural. (The strong furfural soln. 
will retain its strength, but the dilute soln. will not.) 

63. DETERMINATION 

Dilute 10-20 cc. of the distillate, as prepared under 65, to 
to cc. with furfural-free alcohol, 50% by volume. Add 2 cc. of 



2 9 o ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

colorless aniline and 0.5 cc. of HC1 (sp. gr. 1.125) an d keep 
for 15 min. in a water bath at about 15. Prepare standards of 
known strength and blanks in the same way. The comparison 
standards found most convenient for use contain 0.05, o.i, 0.15, 
0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mg. of furfural. 

64. FUSEL OIL - OFFICIAL* 
REAGENTS 

(a) Purified carbon tctrachloride. Mix in a separatory 
funnel crude CCU with I /IQ its volume of H^SO^ shake thoroughly 
at frequent intervals, and allow to stand overnight. Wash free 
of acid and impurities with tap H^O, remove the HkO, add an 
excess of NaOH soln., and distil the CCU. 

The refuse CCU after titration is purified for further work 
by collecting in a large bottle, adding NaOH soln. ( i -f i ), shak- 
ing, washing with tap H2O until the washings are neutral to 
phenolphthalein, and distilling. 

(b) Oxidizing soln. Dissolve 100 g. of K^C^Oy in 900 cc. 
of H2O and add 100 cc. of 



65. DETERMINATION 

(i) To 50 cc. of the sample add 50 cc. of H^O, then add 
20 cc. of 0.5 N NaOH, and saponify the mixture by boiling for 
an hour under a reflux condenser; or, (2) mix 50 cc. of the liquid 
and 50 cc. of H2O with 20 cc. of 0.5 N NaOH, allow to stand 
overnight at room temp., and distil directly. Connect the flask 
with a distillation apparatus, distil 90 cc., add 25 cc. of H2O, 
and continue the distillation until an additional 25 cc. is collected. 
Whenever aldehydes are present in excess of 15 parts per 
100,000, add to the distillate 0.5 g. of metaphenylenediamine 
hydrochloride, boil under a reflux condenser for an hour, distil 
100 cc., add 25 cc. of H2O, and continue the distillation until 
an additional 25 cc. is collected. 

*In 65, lines i and 3, the use of "50 cc." instead of "100 cc." has been approved 
as official, first action. 



METHYL ALCOHOL 291 

Approximately saturate the distillate with finely ground NaCl 
and add saturated NaCl soln. until the specific gravity is i.io. 

Extract this salt soln. 4 times with the purified CCU, using 
40, 30, 20, and 10 cc., respectively, and wash the CCL* .3 times 
with 50 cc. portions of saturated NaCl soln., and twice with satu- 
rated Na2SO4 soln. Transfer the CCU to a flask containing 50 
cc. of the oxidizing soln. and boil for 8 hours under a reflux 
condenser. 

Add 100 cc. of H2O and distil until only about 50 cc. remains. 
Add 50 cc. of H2O and again distil until 35-50 cc. is left. Use 
extreme care to prevent the oxidizing mixture from burning and 
baking on the side of the distilling flask. The distillate should 
be water white; if it is colored discard it and repeat the deter- 
mination. Titrate the distillate with o.i N NaOH, using phenol- 
phthalein indicator, i cc. of o.i N NaOH = 0.0088 g. of amyl 
alcohol. 

If preferred, use rubber stoppers in the saponification and first 
distillation, but use corks covered with tinfoil in the oxidation 
and second distillation. Renew the corks and tinfoil frequently. 

Conduct a blank determination upon 100 cc. of CCU, begin- 
ning the blank at that point of the procedure immediately after 
the extraction and just before the washings with NaCl and 
Na2SO4 solns. 

66. SUGARS OFFICIAL 

Proceed as directed under 14-24. 

METHYL ALCOHOL 

67. Trillat Method Official 

To 50 cc. of the sample add 50 cc. of H2O and 8 g. of lime 
and fractionate by the aid of Glinsky bulb tubes. Dilute the first 
15 cc. of the distillate to 150 cc., mix with 15 g. of K^Cr^O? and 
70 cc. of H2SO4 ( i + 5), and allow to stand for i hour, shaking 
occasionally. 

Distil, reject the first 25 cc., and collect 100 cc. Mix 50 cc. 
of the distillate with i cc. of redistilled dimethylaniline, transfer 
to a stout tightly stoppered flask, and keep on a bath at 70-80 



292 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

for 3 hours, shaking occasionally. Make distinctly alkaline with 
NaOH solution and distil off the excess of dimethylaniline, stop- 
ping the distillation when 25 cc. has passed over. 

Acidify the residue in the flask with acetic acid, shake, and 
test a few cc. by adding 4 or 5 drops of a \% suspension of 
PbO2. If methyl alcohol is present, there occurs a blue colora- 
tion, which is increased by boiling. Ethyl alcohol thus treated 
yields a blue coloration which changes immediately to green, later 
to yellow, and becomes colorless when boiled. 

68. Rlche and Bardy Method Official 

The following method depends on the formation of methyl- 
aniline violet: 

Place 10 cc. of the sample, previously redistilled over K 2 COs 
if necessary, in a small flask with 15 g. of I and 2 g. of red P. 
Keep in ice KUO for 10-15 niinutes or until action has ceased. 
Distil on a water bath into about 30 cc. of H^O, the methyl and 
ethyl iodides formed. Wash with dilute alkali to eliminate free 
I. Separate the heavy, oily liquid that settles and transfer to a 
flask containing 5 cc. of aniline. If the action is too violent, 
place the flask in cold H^O; if too slow, stimulate by gently 
warming the flask. After an hour boil the product with H2O, 
cool, and add about 20 cc. of 15% NaOH solution; when the 
bases rise to the top as an oily layer, fill the flask up to the neck 
with H2O and draw them off with a pipet. Oxidize i cc. of the 
oily liquid by adding 10 g. of a mixture of 100 parts of clean 
sand, 2 of NaCl, and 3 of Cu(NOa)2; mix thoroughly; transfer 
to a glass tube; and heat to 90 for 8 10 hours. Exhaust the 
product with warm alcohol, filter, and dilute to 100 cc. with 
alcohol. If the sample is free from methyl alcohol, the liquid 
has a red tint, but in the presence of \% of methyl alcohol it 
has a distinct violet shade; with 2.5% the shade is very distinct 
and still more so with 5%. To detect more minute quantities 
of methyl alcohol, dilute 5 cc. of the colored liquid to 100 cc. 
with H2O and dilute 5 cc. of this again to 400 cc. Heat the 
liquid thus obtained in a porcelain dish and immerse in it a frag- 



WATER-INSOLUBLE COLOR TENTATIVE 293 

ment of white merino (free from S) for 30 minutes. If the 
alcohol is pure, the wool will remain white, but if methyl alcohol 
is present the fiber will become violet, the depth of tint giving 
a fairly approximate indication of the proportion of methyl 
alcohol. 

69. Immersion Refractometer Method Official 

Determine by the immersion refractometer at 20 the refrac- 
tion of the distillate obtained in the determination of alcohol, 
if, on reference to the table under A6, the refraction shows the 
percentage of alcohol agreeing with that obtained from the spe- 
cific gravity, it may be assumed that no methyl alcohol is present. 
If, however, there is an appreciable quantity of methyl alcohol, 
the low refractometer reading will at once indicate the fact. If 
the absence from the solution of refractive substances other than 
HaO and the alcohols is assured, this difference in refraction is 
conclusive of the presence of methyl alcohol. 

The addition of methyl alcohol to ethyl alcohol decreases the 
refraction in direct proportion to the quantity present; hence 
the quantitative calculation is made readily by interpolation in 
the table under 72 of the figures for pure ethyl and methyl alcohol 
of the same alcoholic strength as the sample being used. 

Example. The distillate has a specific gravity of 0.97080, 
corresponding to 18.38% alcohol by weight, and has a refraction 
of 35.8 at 20 by the immersion refractometer; by interpolation 
in the refractometer table the readings of ethyl and methyl al- 
cohol corresponding to 18.38% alcohol are 47.3 and 25.4, 
respectively, the difference being 21.9; 47.3 35-8=11.5; 
(11.5-^21.9)100=52.5, showing that 52.5% of the total al- 
cohol present is methyl alcohol. 

70. COLORING MATTERS TENTATIVE 

See under 51. 

71. WATER-INSOLUBLE COLOR TENTATIVE 

Evaporate 50 cc. of the sample just to dryness on a steam 
bath. Take up with approximately 15 cc. of cold H 2 O, filter, and 



294 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

72. TABLE Ai. 

SCALE READINGS ON ZEISS IMMERSION REFRACTOMETER AT 20, CORRESPONDING TO 
EACH PER CENT BY WEIGHT OF METHYL AND ETHYL ALCOHOLS 



Per 


Scale Read- 


Per 


Scale Read- 


Per 


Scale Read- 


Per 


Scale Read- 


cent 


ings 


cent 


ings 


cent 


ings 


cent 


ings 


alco- 
hol 
by 
weight 


Methyl 
alco- 
hol 


Ethyl 
alco- 
hol 


alco- 
hol 
by 
weight 


Methyl 
alco- 
hol 


Ethyl 
alco- 
hol 


alco- 
hol 
by 
weight 


Methyl 
alco- 
hol 


Ethyl 
alco- 
hol 


alco- 
hol 
by 
weight 


Methyl 
alco- 
hol 


Ethyl 
alco- 
hol 





14-5 


J 4-5 


*5 


29.7 


60. i 


50 


39-8 


90-3 


75 


29.7 


IOI.O 


i 


14.8 


16.0 


26 


30.3 


61.9 


51 


39-7 


91.1 


76 


29.0 


IOI.O 


i 


J 5-4 


17.6 


^7 


30-9 


63.7 


52 


39-6 


91.8 


77 


28.3 


100.9 


3 


16.0 


19.1 


28 


31-6 


65.5 


53 


39- 6 


92.4 


78 


27.6 


100.9 


4 


16.6 


20,7 


29 


32.2 


67.2 


54 


39-5 


93- 


79 


26.8 


100.8 


5 


17.2 


22.3 


3 


3*.8 


69.0 


55 


39-4 


93- 6 


80 


26.0 


100.7 


6 


17.8 


24.1 


3i 


33-5 


70.4 


56 


39-* 


94.1 


81 


25.1 


100.6 


7 


18.4 


25.9 


32 


34-1 


71.7 


57 


39-o 


94-7 


82 


24-3 


100.5 


8 


19.0 


27.8 


33 


34-7 


73-i 


58 


38.6 


95.2 


83 


23.6 


100.4 


9 


19.6 


29.6 


34 


35-* 


74-4 


59 


38.3 


95-7 


84 


22.8 


100.3 


10 


20.2 


31-4 


35 


35-8 


75-8 


60 


37-9 


96.2 


85 


21.8 


100. 1 


ii 


20.8 


33-2 


36 


36.3 


76.9 


61 


37-5 


96.7 


86 


20.8 


99.8 


12 


21. 4 


35-o 


37 


36.8 


78.0 


62 


37-o 


97-1 


87 


19.7 


99-5 


13 


22.0 


36.9 


38 


37-3 


79.1 


63 


36.5 


97-5 


88 


18.6 


99.2 


H 


22.6 


38.7 


39 


37-7 


80.2 


64 


36.0 


98.0 


89 


17-3 


98.9 


15 


23.2 


40-5 


40 


38.1 


81-3 


65 


35-5 


98.3 


90 


16.1 


98.6 


16 


2 3-9 


42.5 


41 


38.4 


82.3 


66 


35-o 


98.7 


9 1 


14.9 


98-3 


17 


24-5 


44-5 


42 


38.8 


83-3 


67 


34-5 


99.1 


92 


'3-7 


97.8 


18 


25.2 


46.5 


43 


39-* 


84.2 


68 


34-0 


99-4 


93 


12.4 


97.2 


19 


25.8 


48.5 


44 


39-3 


85.2 


69 


33-5 


99-7 


94 


II. 


96.4 


20 


26.5 


50-5 


45 


39-4 


86.2 


70 


33-0 


100. 


95 


9.6 


95-7 


21 


27.1 


52.4 


46 


39-5 


87.0 


7 1 


3 2 -3 


ICO. 2 


96 


8.2 


94-9 


22 


27.8 


54-3 


47 


39-6 


87.8 


72 


31-7 


IOO.4 


97 


6.7 


94.0 


2 3 


28.4 


56.3 


48 


39-7 


88.7 


73 


3 1 -* 


ico. 6 


98 


5- 1 


93-0 


24 


29.1 


58.2 


49 


39-8 


89.5 


74 


30-4 


100.8 


99 


3-5 


92.0 




















100 


2.0 


91.0 



wash until the filtrate amounts to nearly 25 cc. To this filtrate 
add 25 cc. of absolute alcohol, or 26.3 cc. of 95% alcohol, and 
make up to 50 cc. with H^O. Mix thoroughly and compare in 



DETERMINATION 295 

a colorimeter with the original material. Calculate from these 
readings the percentage of color insoluble in H^O. 

73. COLORS INSOLUBLE IN AMYL ALCOHOL TENTATIVE 

Evaporate 50 cc. of the sample just to dryness on a steam 
bath. Dissolve the residue in HkO and 95% alcohol and make 
to a volume of 50 cc., using a total volume of 26.3 cc. of 95% 
alcohol. Place 25 cc. of this solution in a separatory funnel and 
add 20 cc. of freshly shaken Marsh reagent (100 cc. of pure 
amyl alcohol, 3 cc. of sirupy H 3 PO 4 , and 3 cc. of H 2 O), shaking 
lightly so as not to form an emulsion. Allow the layers to sepa- 
rate and repeat this shaking and standing twice. After the layers 
have separated completely draw off the lower or aqueous layer, 
which contains the caramel, into a 25 cc. cylinder and make up to 
volume with alcohol, 50% by volume. Compare this solution in a 
colorimeter with the untreated 25 cc. Calculate from this reading 
the percentage of color insoluble in amyl alcohol. 

74. CARAMEL TENTATIVE 

Add 10 cc. of paraldehyde to 5 cc. of the sample in a test 
tube and shake. Add absolute alcohol, a few drops at a time, 
shaking after each addition until the mixture becomes clear. 
Allow to stand. Turbidity after 10 minutes is an indication of 
caramel. 

MARSH TEST FOR ARTIFICIAL COLORS TENTATIVE 

(Caramel and Some Coal Tar Dyes) 

75. REAGENT 

Marsh Reagent. Prepare as directed under 73. 

76. DETERMINATION 

Place 10 cc. of the sample in a 20 cc. test tube, add sufficient 
Marsh reagent to nearly fill the tube, and shake several times. 
Allow the layers to separate; if the lower layer is colored, it is 



296 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

an indication that the sample has been colored with caramel or a 
coal tar dye. 

In the absence of any color, test 10 cc, of the sample in the 
same manner, using sufficient fusel oil, amyl alcohol or pentasol 
to nearly fill the tube, and shake several times. A deeply colored 
lower layer is an indication of a coal tar dye ; its identity should 
be confirmed by using the methods under 51. 

DETECTION OF METHANOL IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 
77. REAGENT 

(a) Potassium permanganate solution. Dissolve 3 g. of 
KMnO4 in 15 cc. of 85% HsPOi and make up to 100 cc. with 
H 2 O. 

(b) Oxalic acid solution. Dissolve 5 g. of oxalic acid in 
100 cc. of H2SO4 (i + i). 

(c) Schiff's reagent. Dissolve 0.2 g. of Kahlbaum rosaniline 
hydrochloride in 120 cc. of hot H^O, cool, add 2 g. of anhydrous 
Na2SOs dissolved in 20 cc. of H2O, and 2 cc. of HC1, make up 
to 200 cc., and store in well-filled glass-stoppered amber bottles. 

78. DETERMINATION 

Dilute the alcoholic beverage to 5% total alcohol by volume. 
Transfer 5 cc. of this solution to a 6-inch test tube; add 2 cc. 
of the KMnO4 solution; and let stand 10 minutes. Remove 
the excess of KMnO4 by the addition of 2 cc. of the oxalic acid 
solution. As soon as the KMnO4 is decolorized add 5 cc. of 
Schiff's reagent. Mix thoroughly and let stand 10 minutes. If 
HCHO is present, the characteristic reddish purple color is 
produced. 

Run blanks on pure ethyl alcohol and on ethyl alcohol con- 
taining about \% of methanol. 



CORDIALS AND LIQUEURS 



297 



CORDIALS AND LIQUEURS 

No special methods for the examination of liqueurs and cor- 
dials have been included in the Official and Tentative Methods of 
Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 
The reader will find that the methods described above are gen- 
erally applicable to this purpose. The following are suggested as 
providing most of the determinations which will be required: 



Paragraph 

Physical Examination. i 

Specific Gravity 3 

Alcohol 4 

Glycerol 9, 5, or 6 

Total Solids 11 

Sugars 14-^4 

Non-sugar Solids 13 

Ash 25 

Ash-extract Ratio 26 

Alkalinity of Water- 
soluble Ash 27 

Alkalinity of Water- 
insoluble Ash 28 

Total Acids 35 



Paragraph 

Volatile Acids 36, or 37 

Fixed Acids 38 

Total Tartaric Acid. . . 39 
Tannin and Coloring 

Matter 41 

Gum and Dextrin 47 

Coloring Matters and 

Preservatives 51 

Esters 59 

Aldehydes 60 

Furfural 61, 62 

Fusel Oil 63, 64 

Methyl Alcohol 67-69 

Detection of Methanol. 77-78 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 
Aa-A? 

TABLE Ai. DENSITIES OF SOLUTIONS OF CANE SUGAR AT 20 C. 



Per cent 
sugar 


Tenths of Per Cent 


Per cent 
sugar 


o 


I 


2 


3 


4 


o 


0.998234 


0.998622 


O.999OIO 


0.999398 


0.999786 





i 


I.OO2I2O 


I.O025O9 


1.002897 


1.003286 


1.003675 


i 


a 


I.0060IS 


I . 006405 


1.006796 


1.007188 


1.007580 


2 


3 


1.009934 


I.OI0327 


I.OIO72I 


i. 011115 


1.011510 


3 


4 


I.OI388I 


I.OI4277 


I.OI4673 


1.015070 


1.015467 


4 


5 


I.OI7854 


I.OI8253 


I.OI8652 


1.019052 


1.019451 


5 


6 


I.02I855 


I.O22257 


1.022659 


1.023061 


1.023463 


6 


7 


1.025885 


1.026289 


I.O26694 


1.027099 


1.027504 


7 


8 


1.029942 


1.030349 


1.030757 


1.031165 


I.03I573 


8 


9 


I.O34O29 


1.034439 


1.034850 


1.035260 


1.035671 


9 


10 


1.038143 


1.038556 


1.038970 


1.039383 


1-039797 


10 


II 


1.042288 


1.042704 


I.043I2I 


1.043537 


1.043954 


ii 


12 


1.046462 


I.04688I 


I . 047300 


1.047720 


1.048140 


12 


13 


1.050665 


I.05I087 


I.O5I5IO 


I.05I933 


1.052356 


13 


14 


I.0549OO 


1.055325 


I.05575I 


1.056176 


1.056602 


14 


IS 


I.059I65 


1-059593 


I.060O22 


1.060451 


1.060880 


IS 


16 


1.063460 


1.063892 


1.064324 


1.064756 


1.065188 


16 


i? 


1.067789 


1.068223 


1.068658 


1.069093 


1.069529 


17 


18 


I.072I47 


1.072585 


1.073023 


1.073461 


1.073900 


18 


19 


1.076537 


1.076978 


I.0774I9 


1.077860 


1.078302 


i9 


20 


1.080959 


1.081403 


1.081848 


1.082292 


1.082737 


20 


21 


1.085414 


1.085861 


1.086309 


1.086757 


1.087205 


21 


22 


1.089900 


1.090351 


1.090802 


1.091253 


1.091704 


22 


23 


1.094420 


1.094874 


1.095328 


1.095782 


i .096236 


23 


24 


I.09897I 


1.099428 


1.099886 


I . 100344 


I . 100802 


24 


25 


I- 103557 


i .104017 


I . 104478 


I . 104938 


i . 105400 


25 


26 


I.I08I75 


i . 108639 


I.I09I03 


i . 109568 


1.110033 


26 


27 


I.II2828 


I.H3295 


1.113763 


1.114229 


1.114697 


27 


28 


I.H75I2 


1.117982 


I.II8453 


1.118923 


i. i 19395 


28 


29 


I.I2223I 


1.122705 


I.I23I79 


1.123653 


1.124128 


29 


30 


1.126984 


1.127461 


I.I27939 


1.128417 


1.128896 


30 


31 


I.I3I773 


1.132254 


I.I32735 


i. 133216 


i . 133698 


3* 


32 


I.I36596 


1.137080 


I.I37565 


I . 138049 


i . 138534 


32 


33 


I.I4I453 


1.141941 


1.142429 


r . 142916 


I.I43405 


33 


34 


I.I46345 


1.146836 


I.I47328 


I . 147820 


1.148313 


34 


35 


I.I5I275 


I.I5I770 


I.I52265 


1.152760 


I.I53256 


35 


36 


1.156238 


1.156736 


I.I57235 


I. 157733 


I.I58233 


36 


37 


I.l6l236 


1.161738 


I.l62240 


1.162742 


1 . 163245 


37 


38 


I . 166269 


1.166775 


1.167281 


1.167786 


I . 168293 


38 


39 


I.I7I340 


1.171849 


I.I72359 


i . 172869 


1. 173379 


39 


40 


I.I76447 


1.176960 


I-I77473 


I.I77987 


1.178501 


40 


41 


I.l8l592 


1.182108 


1.182625 


1.183142 


I . 183660 


4i 


42 


I.I86773 


1.187293 


1.187814 


1.188335 


1.188856 


42 


43 


I.I9I993 


1.192517 


I . I9304I 


I.I93565 


i . 194090 


43 


44 


I.I97247 


I-I97775 


I . 198303 


1.198832 


i . 199360 


44 


45 


I . 202540 


i . 20307 i 


I . 203603 


1.204136 


I . 204668 


45 


46 


1.207870 


i . 208405 


I . 208940 


1.209477 


1.210013 


46 


47 


1.213238 


i. 213777 


I.2I43I7 


1.214856 


i. 2 i 5395 


47 


48 


1.218643 


1.219185 


I.2I9729 


i . 220272 


1.220815 


48 


49 


1.224086 


1.224632 


I.225I80 


1.225727 


1.226274 


49 



298 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 299 

TABLE As. DENSITIES OF SOLUTIONS OF CANE SUGAR AT 20 C. Continued 



Per cent 
sugar 


Tenths of Per Cent 


Per cent 
sugar 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


o 




.000174 




.000563 




.000952 




.001342 




.001731 


o 


i 




. 004064 




.004453 




. 004844 




.005234 




.005624 


i 


2 




.007972 




.008363 




.008755 




.009148 




.009541 


2 


3 




.011904 




.012298 




.012694 




.013089 




.013485 


3 


4 




.015864 




.016261 




.016659 




.017058 




.017456 


4 


5 




.019851 




.020251 




.020651 




.021053 




.021454 


5 


6 




.023867 




.024270 




.024673 




.025077 




.025481 


6 


7 




.027910 




.028316 




.028722 




.029128 




.029535 


7 


8 




.031982 




.032391 




.032800 




.033209 




.033619 


8 


9 




.036082 




.036494 




.036906 




.037318 




.037730 


9 


10 




.040212 




.040626 




.041041 




.041456 




.041872 


10 


ii 




.044370 




.044788 




.045206 




.045625 




.046043 


ii 


12 




048559 




.048980 




.049401 




.049822 




.050243 


12 


13 




.052778 




.053202 




.053626 




. 054050 




.054475 


13 


14 




.057029 




057455 




.057882 




.058310 




.058737 


14 


15 




.061308 




.061738 




.062168 




.062598 




.063029 


15 


16 




.065621 




.066054 




.066487 




.066921 




067355 


16 


17 




.069964 




. 070400 




.070836 




.071273 




.071710 


17 


18 




074338 




.074777 




.075217 




075657 




.076097 


18 


19 




078744 




.079187 




.079629 




.080072 




.080515 


19 


20 




.083182 




.083628 




.084074 




.084520 




.084967 


20 


21 




.087652 




.088101 




.088550 




.089000 




.089450 


21 


22 




.092155 




.092607 




.093060 




.093513 




.093966 


22 


23 




.096691 




.097147 




.097603 




.098058 




.098514 


23 


24 




.101259 




.101718 




.102177 




.102637 




. 103097 


24 


25 




. 105862 




. 106324 




. 106786 




.107248 




.107711 


25 


26 




.110497 




. i 10963 




.111429 




.111895 




.112361 


26 


27 




. 115166 




.115635 




.116104 




.116572 




.117042 


27 


28 




.119867 




.120339 




.120812 




.121284 




.121757 


28 


29 




.124603 




.125079 




.125555 




.126030 




.126507 


29 


30 




.129374 




129853 




. 130332 




.130812 




.131292 


30 


31 




.134180 




. 134663 




.135146 




.135628 




.136112 


31 


32 




. 139020 




. 139506 




139993 




. 140479 




. 140966 


32 


33 




143894 




.144384 




.144874 




145363 




.145854 


33 


34 




. 148805 




. 149298 




.149792 




.150286 




.150780 


34 


35 




.153752 




.154249 




.154746 




155242 




.155740 


35 


36 




.158733 




-159233 




159733 




. 160233 




. 160734 


36 


37 




. 163748 




.164252 




.164756 




.165259 




.165764 


37 


38 




.168800 




. 169307 




. 169815 




.170322 




.170831 


38 


39 




. 173889 




. 174400 




.1749" 




.175423 




175935 


39 


40 




.179014 




.179527 




. 180044 




.180560 




.181076 


40 


41 




.184178 




. 184696 




.185215 




185734 




.186253 


41 


42 




.189379 




. 189901 




.190423 




. 190946 




.191469 


42 


43 




.194616 




195141 




.195667 




.196193 




.196720 


43 


44 




. 199890 




. 200420 




. 200950 




.201480 




.202010 


44 


45 
46 




.205200 
.210549 




.205733 
.211086 




. 206266 
.211623 




. 206801 
.212162 




207335 
.212700 


a 


47 




.215936 




.216476 




.217017 




.217559 




.218101 


47 


48 




.221360 




.221904 




.222449 




.222995 




.223540 


48 


49 




.226823 




.227371 




.227919 




.228469 




.229018 


49 



300 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

TABLE Aa. DENSITIES OF SOLUTIONS or CANE SUGAR AT 20 C. Continued 



Per cent 
sugar 


Tenths of Per Cent 


Per cent 
sugar 


o 


i 


2 


3 


4 


1 SO 


1.229567 


1.230117 


. 230668 


1.231219 


1.231770 


50 


Si 


i . 235085 


i . 235639 


.236194 


i . 236748 


237303 


5i 


52 


i . 240641 


1.241198 


.241757 


1.242315 


. 242873 


52 


53 


1.246234 


i . 246795 


247358 


i . 247920 


. 248482 


53 


54 


1.251866 


1.252431 


.252997 


1.253563 


.254129 


54 


55 


1-257535 


i . 258104 


.258674 


i . 259244 


.259815 


55 


56 


1.263243 


1.263816 


. 264390 


i . 264963 


.265537 


56 


57 


i . 268989 


1.269565 


270143 


1.270720 


.271299 


57 


58 


1.274774 


1.275354 


.275936 


1.276517 


.277098 


58 


59 


1.280595 


1.281179 


.281764 


1.282349 


.282935 


59 


60 


i . 286456 


i . 287044 


.287633 


1.288222 


.288811 


60 


61 


1.292354 


1.292946 


. 293539 


1.294131 


.294725 


61 


62 


1.298291 


1.298886 


. 299483 


1.300079 


.300677 


62 


63 


1.304267 


1.304867 


.305467 


1.306068 


. 306669 


63 


64 


1.310282 


1.310885 


.3H489 


1.312093 


.312699 


64 


65 


1.316334 


1.316941 


.317549 


I.3i8i57 


.318766 


65 


66 


1.322425 


1.323036 


.323648 


1.324259 


.324872 


66 


67 


1.328554 


1.329170 


.329785 


1.330401 


.331017 


67 


68 


1-334722 


1.335342 


.335961 


1-336581 


337200 


68 


69 


1.340928 


i.34i55i 


.342174 


1.342798 


343421 


69 


70 


1.347174 


i.3478oi 


.348427 


1.349055 


.349682 


70 


71 


I.353456 


1-354087 


.354717 


1-355349 


.355980 


7i 


72 


1.359778 


1.360413 


.361047 


1.361682 


.362317 


72 


73 


1.366139 


1.366777 


.367415 


1.368054 


.368693 


73 


74 


1.372536 


I.373I78 


.373820 


1.374463 


375105 


74 


75 


1.378971 


i.3796i7 


.380262 


1.380909 


.381555 


75 


76 


1.385446 


i . 386096 


.386745 


1-387396 


.388045 


76 


77 


1.391956 


1.392610 


.393263 


I.3939I7 


394571 


77 


78 


1-398505 


1.399162 


.399819 


1.400477 


.401134 


78 


79 


1.405091 


1-405752 


.406412 


1.407074 


407735 


79 


80 


1.411715 


1.412380 


.413044 


1.413709 


.414374 


80 


81 


1.418374 


1.419043 


.419711 


i . 420380 


.421049 


81 


82 


1.425072 


1.425744 


.426416 


1.427089 


.427761 


82 


83 


1.431807 


1.432483 


.433158 


1.433835 


-4345" 


83 


84 


1-438579 


1.439259 


.439938 


1.440619 


441299 


84 


85 


1.445388 


1.446071 


.446754 


1.447438 


.448121 


85 


86 


1.452232 


1.452919 


.453605 


1.454292 


.454980 


86 


87 


1.459114 


1.459805 


.460495 


1.461186 


.461877 


87 


88 


1.466032 


1.466726 


.467420 


1.468115 


.468810 


88 


89 


1.472986 


1.473684 


.474381 


1.475080 


475779 


89 














* 


90 


I.479976 


1.480677 


.481378 


1.482080 


.482782 


90 


9i 


1.487002 


1.487707 


.488411 


1.489117 


.489823 


9i 


92 


1.494063 


I-49477I 


495479 


1.496188 


.496897 


92 


93 


1.501158 


1.501870 


.502582 


1.503293 


. 504006 


93 


94 


1.508289 


1.509004 


.509720 


1-510435 


.5i"5i 


94 


95 


I.5I5455 


1.516174 


.516893 


1.517612 


.518332 


95 


96 


1.522656 


1-523378 


.524100 


1.524823 


.525546 


96 


97 


1.529891 


1.530616 


.531342 


1.532068 


532794 


97 


98 


1.537161 


1.537889 


.538618 


1-539347 


.540076 


98 


99 


1.544462 


I.545I94 


.545926 


1.546659 


547392 


99 


100 


1.551800 










IOO 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 301 

TABLE Ai. DENSITIES OF SOLUTIONS OF CANE SUGAR AT 20 C. Continued 



Per cent 
sugar 


Tenths of Per Cent 


Per cent 
sugar 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


50 


1.232322 


1.232874 


i . 233426 


1-233979 


1-234532 


50 


5i 


i - 237859 


1.238414 


1.238970 


1.239527 


i . 240084 


5i 


52 


i . 243433 


i 243992 


1-244552 


1-245113 


i 245673 


52 


53 


i . 249046 


i . 249609 


1.250172 


1-250737 


1.251301 


53 


54 


i . 254697 


1.255264 


1.255831 


i . 256400 


1.256967 


54 


55 


i . 260385 


i . 260955 


1.261527 


1.262099 


1.262671 


55 


56 


1.266112 


i . 266686 


1.267261 


1.267837 


1.268413 


56 


57 


1.271877 


1-272455 


i 273035 


1.273614 


1.274194 


57 


58 


1.277680 


1.278262 


i . 278844 


1.279428 


1.280011 


58 


59 


1.283521 


r . 284107 


i . 284694 


1.285281 


1.285869 . 


59 


60 


i . 289401 


1.289991 


i . 290581 


1.291172 


1.291763 


60 


61 


1.295318 


1.295911 


i . 296506 


1.297100 


i . 297696 


61 


62 


1.301274 


1.301871 


1.302470 


i . 303068 


1.303668 


62 


63 


1.307271 


1.307872 


1.308475 


1.309077 


i . 309680 


63 


64 


1.313304 


1-313909 


I.3H5I5 


1.315121 


1.315728 


64 


65 


I.3I9374 


I.3I9983 


1.320593 


1.321203 


1.321814 


65 


66 


1.325484 


1.326097 


1.326711 


1-327325 


1.327940 


66 


6? 


1.331633 


1.332250 


1.332868 


1.333485 


1.334103 


67 


68 


1.337821 


1.338441 


1.339063 


1.339684 


1.340306 


68 


69 


1.344046 


1.344671 


1-345296 


1-345922 


1.346547 


69 


70 


1.350311 


1.350939 


I.35I568 


I.352I97 


1.352827 


70 


71 


i .356612 


1.357245 


1.357877 


1-358511 


I-359I44 


7i 


72 


1-362953 


1.363590 


1.364226 


i . 364864 


1.365501 


72 


73 


1.369333 


1.369973 


1.370613 


I.37I2S4 


1.371894 


73 


74 


1-375749 


1-376392 


1-377036 


1.377680 


1-378326 


74 


75 


1.382203 


1.382851 


1.383499 


1.384148 


1-384796 


75 


76 


1.388696 


1.389347 


I.389999 


1.390651 


1-391303 


76 


77 


1.395226 


1.39588! 


1-396536 


1-397192 


1-397848 


77 


78 


I.40I793 


1.402452 


1.403111 


1.403771 


i . 404430 


78 


79 


i . 408398 


1.409061 


1.409723 


1.410387 


1.411051 


79 


80 


1.415040 


1.415706 


1-416373 


1.417039 


1.417707 


80 


81 


1.421719 


1.422390 


1.423059 


1.423730 


1.424400 


81 


82 


1.428435 


1.429109 


1.429782 


1.430457 


1.431131 


82 


83 


I.435I88 


1.435866 


1.436543 


1.437222 


1-437900 


83 


84 


1.441980 


1.442661 


1.443342 


1.444024 


1.444705 


84 


85 


1.448806 


1.449491 


I.450I75 


1.450860 


I.45IS45 


fs 


86 


1.455668 


1.456357 


1.457045 


1-457735 


1.458424 


86" 


87 


1.462568 


1.463260 


1.463953 


i . 464645 


1.465338 


87 


88 


1.469504 


i . 470200 


1.470896 


I.47I592 


1.472289 


88 


89 


1.476477 


1.477176 


1.477876 


1.478575 


1.479275 


89 


90 


1.483484 


1.484187 


1.484890 


1.485593 


1.486297 


90 


9i 


1.490528 


1.491234 


1.491941 


1.492647 


1-493355 


9i 


92 


I.4976o6 


1.498316 


1.499026 


1.499736 


i . 500447 


92 


93 


1.504719 


1.505432 


1.506146 


I . 506859 


1.507574 


93 


94 


1.511868 


1.512585 


1.513302 


1.514019 


I.5I4737 


94 


95 
96 


1-519051 
1.526269 


1.519771 
1.526993 


1.520492 
1.527717 


1.521212 

1.528441 


I-52I934 
1.529166 


95 
96 


97 


I-53352I 


1.534248 


1.534976 


i - 535704 


1-536432 


9 


98 


I . 540806 


I.54I536 


1.542267 


1.542998 


1-543730 


98 


99 


1.548127 


1.548861 


1-549595 


1.550329 


1.551064 


99 


100 












100 



302 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



I 

(x 

o 



(x 
o 



o 
CJ 

o 
X 
o 



Q 

to 

* 

u , 



o 



CO 

55 



(U 



^ 



H 






Cfl ~ M 



J^ 



O oo vo ^ d O oo vo 
r^i^-oooXOt-^M ci 



OOO VO <<* M ON f- VOCOM ON r^ Vo CO M ON t^ 
vo vo VO r-OO OOON O w C* d CO ^ vovo VO t- 

vo vo vo vovo vovo VO NO vO VO VO \O VO VO vo VO 



. -, O Os 
CNO s s 



S S S S S 



, , . 

s s s s s 



10VO t^OO O\ OHttO* 10*O VO 00 ON O M N fO "<t IOO t^OO O\ O M M f> < 

OkOkOkOkOk OOO OO O O O O O M M M M M HHHHH f* ft ft N ft 
HHHHH ft ft tt r* ft <S tt <N <S <S NNNNN C1 n (1 ft N 



* O ONO 
DvS vov 



VOVOVOVOVO vovovovovo vovovovovo 
' ~~ i 1-1 O ONOO f--vo vo ^f co c< H-< O 



vo vo vo vo Tt" 
ONOO r-vo vo 
co co co co c~ 



HHONr^VoCOMONr-Voc* O 00 VO <* C* OOOVO^C^ O OO VO CO HH ON f- vo CO fi 

co co Tf vovo r- r^-oo ONO MMCJCO^^O vovo r--oo ONONO'-'C^ c<co^ vovo 
OOOOO 6 O 6 O M M M M M i-I M M - M M I-II-HC<C<C< c<c<cir<c< 



S.VQ \J fVj 
XO S fNj 






ro * 10 VO 1SOO Ok O H 



1O 1O 1O 1O 1O 1O 1O 1O 1O V) 



i w O Q O C 
><s M O ON r 

I <S <S CS ~ H 



~ O 



co CO C 



(S - O O ON < 
vo vo ^j- co i-" ' 

^5 o ~ ~ ^ 



ONOO r^VO VO Tj- TJ- CO C< HH 

HI O ^\oo r^ vo vo Tf ro <" 
cococ4csc< csctctc*. 

0000000000 OOOOOOOOOO 0000000000 0000000000 OOC_ .. _ .. 

ONONONONO\ ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONC^ONONON O\ONONONON 

66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 6 6 6 6 6 



vo c* O oo \O 



0ovp "<he<Ooovo 
O\0\O MCSCOCO^- 

vo vo vovo NO vo NO vo VO vo VO VO vo vo vo NO t""^ r-* t^ r^- t^* t^ 



V\ S Ovts, VN 
OvV Os ON CD S } 



10 vo t>-oo a o H 
^ vo' vd >d NO 



t-OO Ok O H f) fO ^ 1OVO l>00 Ok 
t^ t* t* 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 



0\ Ok Ok 0\ ( 



vocoor--*^ c< ONr^^c< or-~voco>- ONT 

oo r^vo <$ co c< O ONOO t^ vo ^ co M M ONO< 

OOOOO OOONONON ONONONONONOOOOOOOOOO ooooooDor--r-<^i^-r--r^ 

ON ON ON ON ON ON ONOO oooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooocooo oooooooooo 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

ododo 66666 66666 00666 o' o o o o o o o o o 



Qoovo^c* OoovocO"-* ONI^-VOCO*-" ONt^vocot-i ONt^'tfc^OoovO'^'CHO 
O O M C* CO ^* 't 1 vovO t^ t^OOONO 1 " 1 wcico^t'vo vovo r--OOON ONO^c^co 

oodoo ododo dod'-'^ MMMW^ ^ ^ M M M MM<SC<C^ 



OQ VQ ^f. (Vj Q OQ VQ \j* (\j Q (^ Vr^ <V\ s, ON tx, vr^ <V\ S Os tx, V^ cy^ s O\ ts^ Vr^ (Vj 
Q K, <NJ <v^ ^j \J W^NO ts. OQ OQ Qy O "N *N C\j <Nrj >^ Vr^ VyO Ix^O Os Os O **i C\j f 

ddo'dd ddddd dddss sssss sssss s <v <vi <M' << 



o M (s m Tt IONO i>oo Ok o M 
ododo ddddd MM 



10 vo t-oo a o H 



O ^ O vo O vo O vo O vo O ^ O vO M vo * I s *- d t^ cooo ^f ON *o O vO d f^- co 

O oo r-- vo TJ- c< HI ONOO vO vo co d O ON t--vo ifcot- Ooor^-voTi- coi-iOooi^. 

Q ON ON ON ON ON ONOO oooo oooooooor- r-r^t^-r^r^- f^vo vOvovo vovovOvovo 

QONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

OOsONOsON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

Ddo'dd dddo'd ddddd ddo'dd ddddd odd do 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 



303 



v> <M o oo vo 'fr c< O oo vo *f c O oo vo -J-MONr^^coMONr^oco 
oo ON O -< c< co ^ ^t- *o vo r^oo oo ON O t-i M c< co ^ **> ^vO f- oo 

r^- r-oo oooo oooooooooo OOOOOOQOOO o\ ON o\ o\ ON o\ ON 6\6\ o\ a\ 



fc&SSS 



co co co co co c^clclc^cl dc^c 
r-- r-- r t^- r^ r^ r^- r~~ r~^ r~~ i r^ r 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 



ONONONONON ON 



ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo o 



CO M ON t^ vo d O 

ONO O^c^corj- 



}- <S O 

-c* 



CO VO CO M ON 
- 



O >h <>> s O\ 
Os O K? CNJ Pg 



SSSS 



Vrj Vrs Vrs V^ V 

1 



* 00 00 00 00 00 OOOOOOOOOO ON O) 



00 00 r- r-XO VOVOVOU-.XO 

ONOO r^-\O ^o rj- o c* 

ONONONONON ONONON 

t^ r^'r^- r^-t-~ r^-r^r^- - 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON O\ONONONON 

66666 06006 00666 66666 60006 66666 06006 



C^ co ^T vovo vo t^oo ON ON O M ol 

300000O OOOOOOOOOO 00 00 00 00 ON ONONONONON ONONO\O\ON ONONQOO 



. OsN. 

N.OO OO Os O S^ <M r*> 



oO 



OsOsOs OsOsOsOsOs OsOsOsOsO O O O O O 



O H N fO * 10VO h-OOO> OH^cO^t 

o o o o d o o o o o M M M M H 



h-OO O O M 







ON O 



5 vo r-oo ON ( 



ONVOMVOd oo ThOvOc* ONVOMOO rf- O^Dco ONVO c ON vo c< oo -o cS ONVO co O r~- -^ M 

vo ^t- co M O oo r->vo j- CO M O ON r-VO vococ^OONOOVOvorj-c< MQOO t^-vo vo co C< M 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONO< 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONO> 

ooooo ooooo ooooo o o 666 ooooo 66666 60660 



II 



ss 

og 

11 

o 



I 



B . 



s 



I 

a .2 



304 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



ON r-> vo d O oovo -"td O oovo co M ON r^^co-i ON 
r-oo ON O M MC^CO-^-*^ vrvo t^-oo oo ON O M d d 

vo VO vO vo vO vO vo VO VO 



u-0' 

(S 



N ts.O O O 



mo roo ON o M n eo ^ ioso i>oo o\ o H 

O\O\O\dtO\ OOOOO OOOOO M M M 



t-oo o\ o M N ro ^t 

N Ci f< n N N N N 



ftfe 



00 I^VO v rj- CO d O 00 f-*VO vo 
Vo vo vo vo vo vr> vo vo vo rj- ^ -^ rf- 



t^VO ^o 
HH O ONC 
co cod 



5 ^f ^ ^ co^> CO co CO co co 
ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 



VO 



i-C< Q 
- *^VO 



OOVO 






800 VO co * 
O i-" d < 

ddc< d dddd 



S*:l 



O H ro Tf IOVO *00 O\ O M ro 't lO^O JNOO O O M ro ^ 1OVO t- 00 Ot 

focoropofo rofOfororo 't^'^'^t^ 4 > '*^' << *^t ov)inmn in in in in m 



^, ...... _., _ ,-cod-i ONOO r^vo^ocodi-t Ooo r--vo ^ rf co d >-H o 

ONOO r^vo vn cod>-iOONOor^- t ^>'^-co dMO ONOO r^ vy-v ^f- co d HI O ONOO r-- 

ddddd dddd*-i i-tMHH-ii-i >--- O O OOOOO OOONONON 

oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooor^r-r^ 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON OSONONONON ONONONONON 

ooooo 66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 

co*-i ONr*-*^ coooovo ^ d 

M c d co -^ vr>vO vo r-oo ON 



oovo ^- d ONr-^nco - o\r^*oco Ooovo -^-d 
O "- d co co ^ vovo r- r-oo ON O 1-1 i n co "* 



g^-ff 



O H fO ^ VJNO t*00 Ov O M ro *fr in^O t^OO O\ O M eo <* 

t> t^ t- i> i> t^t>i>i>i>odQdooo6od oo oo oo oo oo o\ o\ o\ o\ o\ 



^oovo vn^-coi-<O ONOO vo vn^t- codOONQO r-vr>ij-cod 

, ^\ONO\ ONONONONONOooooooooo oooooor^r^ r-r-t^r-r- 

Jsoo oooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo 

A ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

66666 ooooo 66666 66666 60660 66666 



Soovo-^-d o 
O *-< d co <* 






o r- 
66666 



DVO Tf-i-i ON r^ v oco>- ON 

ovo r-oo oo ON O - d d 

H M M M i-i ~ ci d d d 






M 

n 



o H M fo ^ v>>o JNOO ch o M PO ^ mvo t^oo ON o M 

OOOOO OOOOO MMHMM MMMMM NN 



d HI ONOO vo ^~> co d O ON 

ON ONOO oooo oooooooor-- 



-vo ^ co - O oo r-vo 

-r^r^-r-r^ r--vo vovo 

NONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

NONONONON ONONONONON 



~ 



5vo 

, , 0\ (T ~ 
\ ON 

66666 



d oo co ON rj- 

" > M r~ " 

vo vo ' 

_ \ ON ON ^ . _ . 
ON O\ ON ON Oj\ 

66666 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 



305 



VO H-clQoo so -rj-t-i ON r-- vncot-i ON r- *t <S O oo so "1- d O oo so co 

r->oo ON o o M <s co co <$ ^'"O r-* r-oo ON o -< * c* co <* ^ *^NO r^ 
r- r- r-oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo' oo oo oo oo ON o\ ON ON ON ON o\ ON o\ 6\ 



CX O S fv t orj W\o> N.OO CX O 
KCKCNOsCNd 

sssss sssss sssss sssss s <M 



10NO t-00 Ok O M 






rO M M O OO t^-VO rj- CO 

--so vn -t e< .-, O ON 00 

_ _ D O O O O O O ON ON 

ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Os^ ^ 

66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 6 



i sO v 



. M 1 *? ** ^^ ^. / . W N *' 
b00000000000000000000 OtOkOsOiOt 



ON ON ON ON O\ ONOO oooooo ooooooooc 

ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON 

66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 ooooo 



OOOSOCO- ONl^VocO'- 1 ONr-VocOOOSO'^-d( 

vo vr,so r-oo ooONO"-c dco-^- ^>vo NO r-oo ON ( 



r-- r^oo oooo oooooooooo OOOOOOOOON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONOOO 



t\j 
Os O S S 



. 

tsl o^ 



in so t^oo o> o M N PO Tf in so t^-oo o> o M 
a a o\ ON a ooooo ooooo MM 



"> -^- d O c 

)S HH C 



oo oo oooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo 0606 oo'ob'ob' oo'ob'oo'co'oo 
ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 



N> rJ-H nOO NJD 

r-oo ONOO - 



o H n co ^ oso r-oo o> 



invoi>ooo OHnro^t in>orooo\ OH N co ^f 
44444 ininininin in u-) 10 in m so so so so so 



66066 ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 



:i 

a o 



d o 

8 -3 



si 

I 



*- bo C 

*il 

G o 
S ft 

.5 cs e* 



d | 8 

a Is 

a > > 

a >,2 



l 



306 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



t-- r^-oo ONO o - e< co -<t- <* *^vo r-oo 

vr> w*> ir>i vr>\o VO VO vo vo NO VO VO VO vo VO VO VO 

8 , Jt 

o >> bO 
iH-^'C 

e t> 

c w.v ^oo ^ o M ro * lovo i>oo a o H i ^ < 100 t*oo ov o M 

, .->-=; o ov ov dv dv o o o o o o o o o o M M H M H M M M M * M < N 

4) g M M M M M C4tt<SCttt N tt N tt N NMMMN ------- " 

oo r^vo ^ococ<HHOoor- v o < Tj-co-o ON r^vo <$ co^ HH n oo vo -o co c< o oo r^ 

HH o ONOO t- NO ^n ^ c< HH O ONOO r-vo ^h co d HH o ONOO vo ^o rj- co c< HH ONOO 

r^- !** t> !* t^ r^r^r^-t^r^ r-r^r^r^r^ t^t^r^r^t^- r^-r^-r-r--r^ r^t^-r-r^r^- 

(/)" 

JQL-O O O. O O O O O O O O O O O OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO 

CM c< co ^ *^> vo ^o t^oo ON ON o *^ c< c"0 *o ^" "^NVO r^ r^oo ON o o *~ c< co ^ ^~ 

, , OOOOO OOOOO Q "-j ^- " ^_! ^_! .!.!.! .!.".! ^ I . I ! ! ! ! . ! 

OOOOO OOOSS SSSSS SSSSS cvJM'r\jc\jc\j c\j cvi <\i cvj (\j 

SSSSS SSSSS SSSSS SSSSS SSSSS SSSSS 

O M N f) ^ IOVO t< 00 ON O M N fO ^i" IO vO t*00 Ov O M (S f) ^ IOVO t*> 00 Ov 

JJJ?J?I?J? JJ^OfOfOfO 44444 44444 lOlOlOlOlO lOIOlOlOlO 

;- | ^O ^^i ^ co <S O ONOO r^-vo ^o co d HH o ONOO vo *-o ^ *O c< O ONOO r^-vo ^ co cs 

to -- 19 ^<S<g<S^ &&&& && 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

^ 66666 00006 66666 66666 66666 6 

HH HH c< co ^* *^ */NVO r^-oo oo ON O *^ d c< co 4 *^> *-o vo r^-oo ON ON O 

ts, VTJ fY) s Os ts, ^TJ f*\ S ON 

S CVj <Vj >i >!J. Vrj^ lSO O ON O' S' N <N| *V^ ^ VJ^O \Q ' ts^OQ* Q>( Q i 

VrjVr^V-^VrjVr) <^W^W^VjVr^ W-^N^ VQNQX^ N OVO N O V O V O XiXixil 

_^ ^_ 

* $ 

g 1O\O b*00 Ot O M N fO ^ VOvO t^OO Ov O M f< fO ^ IOVO t00 Ov O H 

vdvdvOvOvO l>l>I>l>t> l> t^ 1> 1> t^ 00 00 00 00 00 OOOOOOOOOO OvO\bvOv6v 

. . oovo^nTj-c<HHOoo r-vo v<^ to d HH ON oo r^vo rf co <s M ONOO r^ vo -<t- co cs - 

boo jo OOOOO OOONONONONONON ONOO oooooooooo oooor-r-r^ r^r^r--r-r^ 

ON ON ON ON ON ON ONOO oooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo 

ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

j6_o^_6 66 66666 66666 6 6 666 6 o 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 

rti> o o o M c* co co *fr ^^ r^ r-oo ONO^ HHdco^-^- vnvo r-oo oo ON o *->-- 

66666 66666 6 6 6 -' w w M M' M MMMMM M ci cJ " CM 

o X^bp 

OOOOO OOOOO OOOSS SSSSS SSSs's' s'fM'tM'tNl^' 

OMISfO^ 1 10vOI>OOOv OWNPO^J- U5VOJt*OOO> OHNfO'* lOOt^OOOv 

I 0000 

<H r^- coo<r cooo ~r~~L . _ _ - . 

, _--, , - --.,. V ON r~-vo Tf co i- O OO f^-vo ^ co "-< O c 

bflo |o o ON ON ON ON ON ONOO oooo oooooooot^- r^-r--^^^- t^-NO vo vo vo vo vo vo ' 

- ONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

ONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

5/5 M'OOOO 66666 66666 66666 66666 66666 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 



.307 



vO'^t'C4Ooovoco>-ONr-~voco-<oovo*t'r<Ooovoco>-'ONr i ~-voco .o'S 

vo r^oo ONON O^dc^fO <* *^vo vor^ooONOOMMcoco-'t'VoNO - 

OOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOO OOOOONONON ONONONONON ON 

z* 
' 

c a 
o w 
'-D o 

2 I 

v 
NOO Ov O H N co "t 1/>\O **00 O. O w eo ^ IOO NOO O*O ^ 

Q 

vo co 1-1 Ooo NO ^t-ct O ON f- vo co -H ON r^voco"-" ON r- vo co -' ONNO "" fa 

r^-NO vo t c* HH o O\oo vo vo Tf co d O ONOO |-^vo rf- co c* HH O oo r-> 

n O O OOOOO ONONONONON ONONON ONOO oo u 

^ r^- r*> r^ r^- r~ r-> r^ vo vo NO NO NO NOVOVONONO vo *i o 

ONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONONON OC 

06660' 60' odd 66666 6 6666 ooooo 6 S 2 

) r^> vo co >H ON r~~- vo d O oo VO ^* H O r*^ vo co " ON r~~ vo c< O oo vo ^ cs ON r-- vo co 

3OO ONO-<>-C< CO^Vo VoVO f~-OO ONONO HtC^CSCO 1 ^ voVO VO f^OO ON ON O -< C< 

"o ^ 

T3 rj 

1 1 

S "s *s* *N' *s' N* *N' S' *N' S' S* S* S' S y *N SSSSS SSSS'N N S* N* S* S* S S *N N S 

? a 
2 8 

WsO I>00 O O H s f> 't ^ - - - . - - - 

OOOOOOOOOO OAChptCKp) 

M O ONOO f^ ^o * co H HH O oo t^-vb vo ^ co c^ HH ON 60 r^-^O vo Tj- co i- O ONOO 

ON ONOO oooo oooooooooo oor-r^-r-r- r-r^-r- r-vo vovovovovo vovovovovo , ^^, wo^ ^ 

ONONONONON O\ONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 

ooooo 66666 ooooo ooooo ooooo 66666 6 6 6 6 6_ 3 < 

^- vovo vo r*^ oo ONOO M c^co^t" 1 ^" *^> vo r^ r^-oo ON O ^^ M c< co 4 vn vovo I s ** oo oo ON O ' 

joo'oo oooooooooo oooooooooo ONONONONON ONONONO\ON ONONONOO 

il 

O O O O ^ 'g 

. ^ 

o\o\oo\o\ ooooo g2g22 ddddd M M ! H M 22222 222! 

ONOO r^^O ^ co c^ M o oo I^-NO vo co d I-H O oo r~-vO vo co d HH o ON I^-NO vo rf- r< H< o ONOO 

oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo 
ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ^ T M 

60606 do odd ooooo ooooo 66666 00606 "* 

CO rj- vr> u>vvO t^-OO ON ON M c< CO CO ^ VONO VO t^-OO ON (3 O M C< CO ^" "^ VOVQ' t~^ f^OO ON O 

tx^N r 

*? . V 

c\j c\j (NJ M <\| 

Jb g g 

'& ' 

w-wNONONO> ONO>ONONON ONONOAONON ONONONONON .ON ONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON 8 *** 
ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ONONONONON ^| v> 

66060 66666 66666 66666 66600 ooooo ooooo >* 



3 o8 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



! 
: 


4 

s 

i 

5 
S 
3 
) 

1 

3 

$ 

)^ 

4 I 
< *? 

3 r- 

- M 

IS 

il 

H 

t 

M (U 

3g 

M 

d w 

<l 

d 3 

c w 

s c/J 

sj 

3 2 

.> s 

5 

L| 

I) 

J 

a 

H 
J 

D 

g 
| 

H 


(S3 $ 


**,> o<. N *^, 


ONthVOOO ON^iCOO 






cj 

o 
10 


% "a >>.<> 

s 


?^^ ,a^?S= S"S,^R. &SSS{ -,<& 






*I*J 


00 10 ro O 00 *O Tf O lOMVOMt-. 
MrolO ^OOOM'* 10 b- 00 O M 


rOOON^ri \OMOHO 
rO^tOt^Ot O N ro IO 






U 


1^-f 


i iss? 33<s;s s a, 5e? ^53?t S-^^^-R 




&I*| 


'4-M OstoTfNO VOHVOrth* 

-nro rfvOOOOM rolOVOOOO\ 


^rot-N t*ftf*^O 
Mn^-iot^ 00 O M ro ^ 




U 


*!*f 


GO f^i^O^oo ^"^^ONN 


5^^^^ ^c?^^^ 




HHHHM r^CM^^CS, 


*l*| 


'' ' O OOlOroOOO Ortt.t^ 
-M ^tvOOOO\ M > * O t- 


OvONroW) ^OOOOiHW 




u 


C4 


o g >.bp 
Pi 8 - 






.... ^0 H ^0 M-NO ^o^ OHM 


^ ^xs txoo os H CM 3; ^. 




IP| 


' ' 00^*MO>t. ^O\tO 
O N * V> t* OvMM^vS 


IO O IO O IO OlOOt^tOS 

l> O Q r* f) o O t- o\ O 




u 

o 


a; c X.bp 

p-i 8 ^ 


: : : : :?^^^^?l^^^ 


M^^h^ts. OoO\OH<^ 


.... -0000 OOOON NNH NN HH(X,Mrv, 


> 


'.'.'.'. . * M CO V) rOMt-'tO 


10 o o o 10 o 10 o\ * a 

lOt^OOOH ro^-lOt-00 




U 
o 

8 


o w 







H M ^ ^XS 00 0, 


O^i^^J-trj <)OoO\OH 


. . . . . . . o o ooooo 


HHHHH HHH^M 


ai*J 


. \O ^ N O\ IO ro H 
H ro 10 <O 00 O W 


\O H \O M VO M O H VO O 

ro IO 00 Oi M^tlOI> 




u 

M 


o3 "c p>> be 

a. s^'S 


. 


O> O H M ^ *r>vo IN. 00 O 


S ^f% S><0 K 


.... ....0 OOOOO OHHHH HK.NHM 


il^l 


'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.-* H 00 10 M O> 
M ro "t <O 00 O\ 


Hro^fOt* O\Or!roiO 




U 


PH 8 '^ 


OO H ^O O M 


58?!f ^^^Jlo? 


^ 

(2 ^| 


; ;; ; ; ;;; 2R5 ^ 


OIMM^IO t^ 00 O HI ro 




u 

M 


IH +* "^ 

S d f^^w) 
P^ 8 S 
^ 





^^S 1 ?^ S,5.5^"g. 


O H <Vl ^ ^ 






*l "* 


M ro IO 58 


OOOMrot lsao 




ll 
g 


^U500 ^^00 e, ^.DOO 


QNTj-VDOO O^^VOCO 





ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 309 



o VN Tj-vo oo 


O PI rf VD 00 


OMrHOOO OCNTJ-VOOO 


O N Tj- O OO 


O c ^t vo 00 




00 OO 00 OO OO 




MttCSMM MC4CMCIM 


. 


^^^ 




^ vo oo o CM 
o H CM ^ *o 


M~ *o oo o CM 

VO t^ GO O N 


CMCo^t-Otx OoOvOHfM 


Ov H CM ^ vo 


ts. GO O N f*i 

Ov o CM <o T- 




* ^ *> ^ ^ 


fn ro ro ^ M- 


^^^^^ M-M-*o*oto 


to *o to 10 *o 


tr> vo Xi vo >o 




M VO H VO H 

00 Ov M M * 


vo o m o in 
in i> oo o M 


Ov Tj- 00 t- <H vO O "t Ov 

^-intoo OMro^m 


CO t* M VO M 

JC^ 00 O M CO 


in ov co t- o 
* in r-oo o 




























OQ o N CM co 


M- VO ts.0o Ov 


o H fo rh *o xs ^c^ H 


CM co -st- ^ ts. 


GO Ov O N CM 




CM co co <o co 


^ co ro ro co 


^^^rj-^. ^.^^.^^ 


tr> tr) tr> to tr> 


10 10 Xi X5 vc 




H VO H VO H 

vo ^ a o 


vo M m o in 
ro invo oo o\ 


o-*oof voMino 
H N co in vo oo o\ M <s co 


^ 00 M VO O 

in vo oo Ov H 


rtr^K^S 










VO vo vo vo *. 






<O 10 Xi Oo O 

ts QO o o CM 


co ^ *o \o OQ 


^o^fcS; ?,vS^^^ 


Oo O -i co M- 
O CM ro ^- o 


Xi ts. O\ O H 




CM CM CM co co 


v-O co CO ro ro 




10 *0 *0 *0 *^ 


to *0 *^XS VQ 




CH 1> M VO M 

t in i> oo o 


vo M vo tt in 


o in o rf oo nt^Mvoo 


^t O\ CO b- M 


? % r^^vS 










VO vo vo vo vo 






oo Ov r^ ^ 


VOOO CM ^ 




ro^h ^ ts.00 


H ro ^ to 






c^rocororo 




4^^.010 


ioiA^oio 




rO t* N VO M 

M co in <o oo 


VO M VO M VO 


t*Mino\ 'tooNt-M 


in ov co ^ M 


& ?*8 5- 


^ 








VO vo vo vo vo 


VO t* ^ *- ^ 


% 


*$* 


O i^ CM ro ^j. 


K|CototNO OH*O^}-X5 
Xits.OoOvO CMCO^\ri\o 


ts. Ov O H ro 
ts.0o O H CM 


M- vo ts. Ov O 

ro M 1 *o ^ GO 


a 

g 




<^ ro ro ro co 


corocoro^- ^h^M-^^ 




to 10 to to to 


q 


if 0\ 00 co 

O M CO i* VO 


^ 0\ 55 


<S vo (N vo O ^t O <*) t- <S 

in vo oo a> M co in vo oo 


VO H in Ov ro 
o\ M cs ro in 


N M in Ov rO 

vo oo a o n 


1 








in vo vo vo vo 


VO vO vo JS t 


^5 


ts, Ov H ro VTJ 

CM co *o vo ts. 


%S3 % 


^&;5^ ?^^^,% 


XS ts. Oo Ov O 


OQ O N co ^J- 
H ro ^ tr,\o 


t 


CM CM CM CM c^ 


CM CM ro ro co 


cororororo ^.^^.^-M. 


^- ^ ^ ^ 10 




g 


in o in o in 

00 O M co --t 


in !> oo c? M" 


Nt^Mino ^tocot^M 

cOTfvOt*O\ OMCO^VO 


vo o in o co 

t Ov O M co 


t^ M in o -t 

M- VO t^ Ov O 


*s 












5 

rt 


CM ^ xs ts. Ov 


ts, GO Ov O H 


CO'^-'oxSts, OoOvHCMro 


9^x3 <,> 


O M- vo ts. Ov 

o H CM <o ^h 


3 


CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM ro ro 


cocorororo coron-^^- 


^ ^ ^ ^ "* 




VM 


vo M vo o in 


o in o ^t oo 


cot^nvoo inov^ooco 


t* M 1O O ** 


oo N vo o in 


a 

8 




t . . ** ^ 


. N . "* . . ? ^ . . T 




. "* . . . 
vo 


>-> 












C/5 






ro 10 V Ov CM ^ ^0 ts^Oo 


H ro ^ to 


ts.oo o K, CM 


W 


H CM CM CM CM 


CM' CM c, <,i co 


***** ***^V 


44444 


4^*0 to *0 


W 


33 E & % 






co in vo oo ov 


00 vo -^ 
O N CO in vO 


^ 

"O 


* * 










! 


11 5 3 


ts. o o CM <t ^ 

^ tr> ts. Oo Ov 


X^t^ONHCM \J-Xits.OvO 


CM ro tr> Xi OQ 


Ov H Cvj ^- trj 

ts, 0, o H CM 


t 

rd 








^ rh M- ^ "* 




1 


vo o in o m 
co in o oo o 


o in ov co op 
M N co in vo 


cOt^(SVOM vOO-*O\ro 

ooo\M-^t inJ>ooo\tH 


t* M \o o in 
M ^ in JN oo 


Ov co JN M in 

OV H M ^t W 


I 

rt 












1 


O <N -fr vo oo 


O CN Tj- VD 00 


ONTtVOOO ONTftOOO 


O CN Tf vo OO 


O ^VO 00 


3 


oo oo oo oo oo 


a> a> o> a. a> 


OOOOO MMMMM 
CHW^WW WWCSWVN 


CN S CN CS N 


ro ro ro ro 

















3io ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 





J8.I 


O c* ^-to oo 


o ^t^o oo 


O w ^^o oo 


O w t vo oo 


O ^t^O 00 




cog 


W N W N d 


C4 CS N M C4 


to <o to vo vo 

d M C4 C4 C 


d W W N CS 


CS N C* C* W 




$ g X.M 


<*> ^O KOQ 
^^ IN.OO CX 


O H fo ^- *> 
H (V) <?*) ^t r> 


KO O S <M 
Xi K Oy O H 


s^fc^ 


O H M <*> Th 
Oo CN H M 


U 


P* 8- 


X5 <5 VQ X5 XS 






oo oo GO oo OQ 


Oo Oo CX 0, 





<u 

1_ *> H 
(3 C3 >> 5 
<v <U 4? ,5 


Tf 00 N V> O> 
M N t 10 v5 


Tj- 00 M O O> 
00 O\ M M CO 


SSS2 


*> h- M in> o\ 
*> in vo ts 


o o o *) r. 
o> <5 ci m t 




" <3 






M 








fc s >>!> 


00 O O 0! tf) 
^0 ^^0 txOo 


M- vs N.CO O 


N fvi <v^ U-> \o 


ts.0o O H <VJ 


<^ ^t-X5 KOO 
Xi KOo O 


u 


^ 8 -a '55 








GO GO OQ OQ OQ 


Oo Co Oo OQ O 


V 

M 


S3 a > 1 


IO O\ f) N M 

o\ O PO in 


t- 00 N O O 
vO l> O\ O 


^f oo M in p> 

co * vo t 00 


<vj t- M in oo 
o M fo TJ- in 


*O O fO t 
t* 00 O M N 




^ 8- 1 


l> 00 00 0000 


000000 01 


o\ a o\ o\ a> 


o o o o o 


O O M H M 




., -w 43 

a3 fl >> be 


04 ^ Ur> VO t^ 
<\j w^ \)- x^vo 


O, O H <vj <^0 
K O> O N cvj 


^ xs N.OO o 

^ ^ >^>Xi tx 


H r\i fo ^ *^ 
o, o H <\j <*> 


xs GO ex o H 

M- ^Xi GO CX 


u 


PL* S^'S 


^0 vc ^0 


Xi ^0 K K ^s. 


^s. ts. N. K K 


ts.0o GO Oo 00 


GO OQ Oo GO GO 


fO 
N 


a> 

!_,*> H 

5 d >> S 


O O -t t^. M 

i- a o M rt> 


IO O\ CO vO O 
<* 10 t^ 00 O 


it oo N m a 
M ^ m \o 


CO I*. O * 00 
00 O M *> 


M in o\ m vo 
mvo S So 




p< S-^-i 


J> N 00 00 00 


oo oo oo oo a 


o\ o\ o\ o\ a 


o a o o o 


O O O O H 




> 










H H H M H 




.. 4J 43 

0> CJ > be 


tx ^O OH c^| 
O N f\J ^ ^) 


<*> l ^ Xi t^ 00 

xs tx OQ o o 


CX O N <V| **> 
^ f^ \h w-> \o 


^ ^Xi IS.OQ 

tx <>o a o i-, 


O H <N| ^) ^t 
*> ^ *^>X5 tx 


U 


PH 8-| 










00 Oo OQ GO OQ 


M 
d 


a> c3 >% 5 


vO O "fr 00 
10 b- 00 O\ M 


vO O "t 00 

n Tt- in vo oo 


in o\ N vo a 

O\ O N fO t 


ro vo O ") t 
vO t* O* O M 


H IO O vO 

) * in t* oo 




* 8^| 


t^ l> t* b- 00 


oo oo oo oo oo 


00 O\ 0\ O\ O\ 


ON a a o o 


00000 




> 














., 4- X! 

a> d X bo 


^ ^ ^ '^^0 
CX O H <N) **) 


N. 0> O H M 
^h "^ t^ GO O\ 


^ ^5- Vr>O K. 
O H CM <v> *h 


ex o H <\i <^ 
^ N.OO ex o 


"^ ^Xi KGQ 
N CM <^5 ^ ^ 


CJ 


PH g- '3 










oo oo oo GO oo 


M 


a> 
fc X 


00 vO O ro 
ro 10 vO 00 O\ 


vO O Tf 00 r< 
O <s ro Tt vO 


m o\ ro vo o 

t- 00 M fO 


5%^^^ 


in o vo 

H ro in O 




PH s^l 




00 00 00 00 00 


oo oo a o\ o\ 


o\ o\ a o\ ot 


o o o o o 

H M M M M 




<5 a >> to 








^ 2;^o N.O^ 


^^^ ^^ 


U 


8-'S 


*f) \T) U-) X^> Xi 


Xb <5 X5 <> Xi 


Xi XD tx IX N. 


tx K t-x K ix 


KOo Oo Oo GO 


o 


- tl .v S 

0) C ?> H 


00 N vO ^ 
M ro 't vo b 


00 M $ 00 N 

00 O M N TJ- 


in o\ vo o 
m vo oo a M 


<*) h- H v> a 
n ro m vo t> 


vo ON vo 
0> O M ro * 




P< 8--f 




t^ 00 00 00 00 


oooooooo a 


o\ o\ o\ o\ o\ 


o\ o o o o 

H M M M 




U -M "3 

S C >> bO 


O H ^ ^<5 

X^ KOQ CX O 


Xi tx. OQ O> O 
K, M ro Ttso 


H <NI PO ^ *O 

KOo 00^ 


K Oo O, O H 
M <n "^ Xi N. 


(\j oo ^ ^)Xi 

Oo CX O N C\i 


U 


fin g - 'C 



W% r^ U>> r^ vo 


'O Xi XD O O 


Ki X5 VQ IX ts. 






<7 


-g*i 


O> **> * H 1/5 
O> M If 1C 


oo r in a 

vO 00 O\ O n 


vO O ro t- M 

ro in vo is o\ 


in oo M in O) 
o M ro -<t in 


vO a ro vo 
*> 00 O> M 




^ 8--i 


t. N t, t. 




00 00 00 00 00 


ot a a a Ok 


o> a o o o 




.,-- 43 

a> t3 >i bo 


M- "1 O Oo O\ 

^ ^^ bxOQ 


N f\l ^ ^ *t 

O ^ fa ^ ^h 


<r> XD OQ GO Ov 
^Xi 1x00 Oy 


N M ^ M- ^ 
H M f^ Sfr vr> 


x^ t^oo o o 

Xi N.OO CX s, 


U 


P^ 8- 'S 










K^^^OO 


So 


<u 

fe C X 


00 vO O V) 


O ro vO O fO 


VO * * M 


in oo N vo o> 


**> *o o #* ** 

in o oo a o 




S s-^l 






00 00 00 00 00 


oo oo a a o> 


01 o\ a a o 




+-> 
., *J 43 

S3 cs >* bo 


VS K Ov O N 

*o ^ ^ N.OO 


f^ ^ i^<j K 

Ov o N CM to 


00 Ov O H Vl 
^ ^ N.OQ Ov 


to ^h ^>X5 K 
N M f> > 


Oo O\ O N fn 
^VQ Oo 


CJ 
o 


P! 8-'s 




U^\o XS <5 X} 


Xi xs Xi x^ xi 


ts N. tx K K 


K K K t^Oo 


10 

4 


fe d >> 


^5&s 1? 


0\ fO vO * 

ro m vo oo o\ 


t* H ^t 00 

*0 * 


in o\ vo o 
r- oo o M ft 


?fc^aTc; 




& 8-| 




*" ^ *" * * 


00 00 00 00 00 


00 00 Oi Ot 0> 


Ot Ot Oi Oi 0\ 




1i 


O 't ^ 00 


O ^J-^O 00 


O tt ^tvO 00 


O w ^-<> oo 


O W +*> 00 




8 a 
co 8 






c, ^ 







ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 311 



O <" Tt-*O 00 


O N Tf vo oo 


O M ^t VO 00 


O ^ "t vo oo 


O vN TUD 00 


O W * VO 00 


8* S%$ 


O O O O 

co cO *O fO ^ 


M M M M M 

rO f> O tO O 


c* w cs w M 

O CO PO to <O 


o to to <o to 
to to to to to 


Tj- Tf ^ t -t 

CO CO CO CO CO 


vo N.OO ON o 

*> ** VrjNO 00 


N rvj ^o ^J-NO 

Ov O H CVJ Or> 


t^OO ON O N 
rt- VT^VO Oo ON 


<M ^O ^ ^X^ 
O H <vj <^ ^h 


tx Oo ON O H 
^X5 tC o, 


M CO ^ U^vo 
H CVJ CO ^f ^ 


ON ON 0. ON 












M in oo H in 

VO t- 00 O M 


a vo o -t 
TJ- in t* oo 


fc* M "< t* H 

OA M N c*> in 


^ b M ^J" t* 

VO t^. ON O H 


M * oo M m 
m 4 in t oo 


00 >- V) 00 H 

ex M f ro in 


M M M M M 
K, Co ^j. Vr^ \O 






^ V^vo t^Oo 






ON ON ON 0, ON 






S 2 S SS 




H <vj <vi M vj 


O ^t t*. M *fr 

* in vo 00 O\ 


00 M Tf 00 M 

ro ^f vo 


in o\ N in os 
** 00 O w 


s in ON in 
^J- in vo oo ON 


ON n in oo n 
O ro ^ 


in oo M rj- oo 
i> oS o M <s 














<M O ^h ^ Xb 
O N <NI co \h 


t^Oo O O H 
^^o |^ cx o 


CN, CT) -^ \^ \^ 
^ \) n ^}- Vr> 


Xi K. Oo ON O 
Xi tx.0o ON N 


~H >, f\j r*^ rh 
cv, co ^f ^X} 


vo ^Xi tx.00 

tx, Oo ON O M 








S 2 S S ^ 






O PO t> O rf 
f* co TJ- vo t> 


t- O ^J t^ O 
00 M rj- 


* b- M -<f t 

m vo oo o\ o 


O ^ t- O *5 
ro it vO t- 


VO O\ cO vO ON 
00 O\ M c< CO 


N in oo M in 
in vo t o\ o 














X5 tx.0o Oo O\ 
00 ON H CM 


^- o xs tx oo 


ON O H fV| fO 


M- ^ N.0o ON 


O H eg fO M- 


Xi N. OQ Oo O> 
*ovo t^oo ON 














O rr> t> O\ rf) 


O O\ PO VO O 


N vo o\ r in 


grs in oo M 


^t 00 M Tf t^ 


O CO t^ O ro 


ON O H CM co 
Xb Oo ON O N 


^h M- ^XS tx 
M <^ "?h ^ Xi 


IX OQ ON O H 

t^OQ ON H <M 


- <vj tv-j ^ vrj 
W> M- OVO tv. 


^ Xi tv t^Oo 
Oo ON H vM 


00 0, ON O H 
^ ^ *0 tvOQ 


00 00 Oo Ov ON 


O\ O Ox O O, 


ON ON ON O O 


O O O O O 


O O H M H 


I-H K, K, H H 














SS'S 8 % 


vo o> <s in o 


N in oo M n- 


00 M rf t^ O 


CO VO ON <S in 

^ in vo co o\ 


00 H *t t* OS 

o <s ro ^ in 


*OXi IX CO ON 


O N f^ ^ ^ 


XS N. Oo O., M- 


H ^ t*^ \f U-> 


Xi t^.00 O H 


CM to ^ o vo 






H 




M V) 00 M 
r* co -<* vO t* 


vo o\ H in t* 

OO ON M co 












to CO ^t <* t 


^O tx. OQ ON O 
fO ^ ^ O GO 


^ f\) <\j rr) *+ 
ON O H M <^ 


M- W-j w-> \D tx 
^- V^vo N.OQ 


S,Oo ON ON O 
ON O ^ M ^h 


o >-< H CM to 

^> XS tS.00 ON 


CO CO ^ M- \4- 
O N CN| CO ^- 


OQ GO Oo OQ 
*t V) \O t* O\ 


00 0, 0, 


0, 0, ON ON ON 


ON O O O O 


o o o o o 




00000 

O H f\j Co ro 
CM co \j. tr^ Xi 


M- 1 XD "0 N 

t^ OO Oi O >~i 


OQ OQ O\ ON O 
M ^ M- vr ts. 


O H f\i eg f*^ 

OQ ON O H M 


co co ^ r^- o 
co \h VT^VO t^x 


10 Xi vo vo t^ 

00 ON O >-l CM 


C 00 00 do 


Oo Oo Oo Ov ON 


O ON O, ON ON 


ON ON O O O 


O O O O O 


O O H N H 














O* SO O> S 

M co TJ- in t^ 


vo o> N in oo 

00 O\ M N PO 


M Tf b- O PO 

in \o ** o\ o 


in oo o rt- t- 
M s ^t in vo 


ON in 00 O 
JS O\ O M CO 


CO VO 00 H Tj- 

rf in vo oo o\ 














^ ^ M- ^ X2 
KS M to ^t ^ 


XS tx o OQ ON 
Xi tx Oo O. O 


ON O O M <Vl 
H <^ M- ^iXS 


OJ CO cr, -^J. r^- 
N.OO ON O H 


^t O '-0 X5 Xi 
(\, to M- o vo 


t\ tX bx OQ Oo 

bx OO ON O N 


00 Oo Oo 00 Oo 


00 Oo Oo Oo 0, 


0, 0, ON Os ON 


Os ON 0, 


o o o o a 


^ H 














O * vO O PO 
M p ro in <O 


vo o\ N m oo 

t- 00 O M 


5- m vo t- o\ 


in oo M co \o 
O M ro Tfr in 


o\ in oo o 

VO 00 O\ O 


ro in oo o ro 
PO ^ in t- oo 














o w -^ vo oo 


O CS rf VO 00 


O w ^-vo 00 


O rHO 00 


O -t to oo 


O <* <o oo 


o^ cr^ o^ O"k o^ 

d C1 M 


o o o o o 


fO tO fO to fO 


to to to <o to 


to to to to to 





312 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 





d 


N <C 


N TUT) CO 


N ^tooo 


o c, ^ir>oo 


TMDOO 




C/) 8 


IO IO 10 10 

CO co co co co 


^%^^% 





oo oo oo oo oo 


CO co co CO co 




& d xl 


t^ Oo O\ O N 


S ^ 95>o 


% s- 


oo oo o\ o\ o 


O N H ft) ft) 
OQ O, O N ft) 


(J 


P 8 " ' 


ft) ft) ft) ^ crj 


CO fr> C^ ro fr^ 


fto CD *> ^ ^j. 


M- ^ ^ M- ^> 


^ -^ VTN 1^ ^ 




P 












cs 


S SJ 


10 00 M 10 00 

VO t- O\ O M 


c^^^v^oS 


IO 00 w * vo 
O O fO ^t 


S IO t* O 
b- oo a M 


ro 10 00 M ro 



















qj d !> fcJD 


^f- ir^ Xi OQ O\ 


ft) ft) ^O ^ M- 


^X?K<^O: 


00 00 ON 0, Ov 

O H cvj o ^j- 


O O H >>H ft) 


U* 


c^ 8 * 'S 


M <\, M M M 


CO ft-> ft-> ft-> r^ 


fO ro or> ^ oo 


^ ^ M- ^ < ^- 


^ M- ^ M- * 


o 


^ 












CM 


&SJ 


M ^- t O *O 

Tj- 10 O 00 ON 


O M <o ^ IO 


r 00 Os O f< 


-I- vO t* 00 


O\ M r ro ^ > 




u 














& "d >> bp 


^ ^ S> Xi N. 


OQ O\ O H ft) 


^^^^8 fc 


Oo Cx O >s ft) 




U 





H ^J H H N 


J H ? H? ? 


H H ^ H 


M N H H H 


H H H H K, 


fO 


bf jj 


" "* S 


<S 10 00 M rf 
00 O\ O M CO 


t- O N IO 00 

^t vo r>- oo o\ 


ss'S,^^ 


Tt VO O\ H ^f 

i> oo a M n 




U 














||xl 


O O H H ft) 


Xi tx Oo O\ O 


^^S; 


txOo Oo Oo Ox 
XS K Oo O\ O 


^ 


U 
o 


5? 










K, H K, H N 


cs 


(v o> X5 J; 




IO IO IO IO vo 




vo a M * vo 


o <* t^ o\ 

^ vo l> 00 




> 












u 

o 

M 
M 


r Per Per 

t cent cent 
by by 
ht volume weight 


S ft) ft) ft) ft) 


10 00 M ff) VO 


Ol H <* |> O\ 




0, H 
O\ < fA| "> TT 

V)00 ro 10 

O O O O N 


U 
o 

tj 


<u d > bo 



i. *J J3 
<u cJ ^_bp 




~iT^~ 




Ov O> O O O 


H n- vo a M 


o 


OJ 


b- ON 00 


O ro vO 00 M 


PO vo O\ H ^t 
IO O b- O\ O . 


V ?^s^ 


00 M ro 10 00 
f- O\ O M N 




(^ u g 














d >> fcfi 


^^-" 


Oc O\ O\ O\ O> 


O >-. 




^-2^^ 


U 


E 
OJ 


vO O* M Tt vo 
O M ro rf IO 


O\ M xj- vo O\ 
VO 00 O M 


H TT VO O\ M 

ro >J- IO vO 00 


* vo 00 -" ro 
O\ O H CO Tf 


IO b* O N rf 

10 vo 00 O\ O 




^ U g 














^ g ^^bp 


Oo OQ O\ O\ O\ 
f^ rr) ^ >/^ Xi 


o\ o o o o 


$>^ R 


00 Ov O H ft) 


^%>g K 


CJ 
o 


frl U j> 








N H ^? H 


^? K, H S H 


M 


M ^ 8 


O\ O N *O ^ 


00 M ro SO 00 
10 t* 00 O\ C> 


O fO IO b- O 


cS S^?^ 


t vO 00 fO 

^ 10 2> oo o\ 




^ o g 














d 


O f Tf <O OO 


O M -<t *O 00 


O N ^j-vo 00 


O N ^frtO 


c, ^-tooo 




11 


10 tO V) V) VO 


to vo to to vo 


co S S co ?0 


00 00 00 00 00 


to to co co to 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 



O Tf- VO OO 


O 0* Tf VO OO 


cs Tf vo oo 


O <* Tf VO OO 


O Tf vo 00 


O IN Tf VO OO 


$5. 3. . SJ. 3. 


M M M M M 


W W d 


co 2 co fO co 


S S S "* 


10 10 10 vo to 














SiSs^s; 


VO tr> vo vo tx. 

oo o\ o H CM 


^^.^^^ 


O O O H M 

Os o H CM co 


4^v^ < 


Os O H CM co 


N S 


"2 "H "N 


^0 ^0 VO X3 Xi 


VO N. N. tx. N. 


Is, ts N. N. N. 


E^ ^ *s ^ 


$ %z ss 


3S 


ro IO 00 O ro 

M r* m in vo 


in oo M ro in 

t^ 00 O M N 


oo o co in oo 
co in vo i> oo 


o ro in oo M 
o M co in 


00 00 Os Os Os 


Os Os Os Os O 


o o o o o 


M M M 

XS tx.OQ Os O 


M M M M M 

ON O O O O 


H H H CM CM 

ts.0o Os H 


M Tf \O O> M 

vO t 00 Os M 


Tf NO OS M Tf 


vO Oj M Jtvo 


OS M Tf VO OS 

Tf vo t- 00 Os 


M ro vo 00 O 
M ro Tf vo 


ro 10 00 O co 
t^ 00 Os M N 


OO 00 00 00 Os 


Os Os Os Os Os 


Os Os O O O 


o o o o o 


M M M H M 


M M M fS N 










N O d C* CM 


cs r n 


CM CM CM co co 
o, o ^ CM co 


SS-SSS 


o* o * CM co 


^^^0^^ 


tv. tx t^ Oo Oo 

O\ O *~, CM Cr^ 


Oo OQ Oo O\ ON 












^r H H K, 


vO Os M Tf so 


Os M Tf O 00 


M ro vO 00 O 
vO t^ 00 0, M 


co in t^ o <s 


Tl- vO Os M ro 


in oo o Tf 
Tf in i> oo Os 


00 00 00 00 00 


00 Os Os Os Os 


Os Os Os Os O 


o o o o o 


M M M 


M M M M M 










M CM N CM 


<M <M N N Ct 


< & o 5 


$ 9 5<o 




C? 'co T? to NO 




^ ^^^x^ 


? 2" ^ 


$ $ $ $ $ 


l ^^ 1 ^^^ 


^^^^^ 


^^^ 


^^ r ^r 


Cl Tf Jt" OS M 

M rt ro Tf vo 


28 SS r? 


vo oo o r in 

ro Tf so fr 00 


S; o N S^ 


00 M ro in l^ 

in ^ oo os o 


os M ro in t- 

M ro Tf in vo 


00 00 00 00 00 


00 00 00 Os Os 


Os Os Os Os Os 


Os 


M 


M H M M M 














H >- CM CM CM 


??39 


SS 


o H CM co TJ- 


5-5R5S 


o H CM co TJ- 




^? ^ i^ 










00 M C? Jo 


Tf vO t* 00 Os 


M ro vo 00 ^0 


in t^ 01 M 

t- 00 0s N 


Tf vO 00 O N 

co T)- in r- oo 


in t^ os M ro 

OS O M CO Tf 


h- 00 00 00 00 


00 00 00 00 00 


Os Os 0. OS 0\ 


O\ Os Os O O 


00000 


O H H H M 














I*, H H CM N 


CM CM co co co 

GO ex o N CM 


^^C^X?^ 


oo o, o H <M 


5 3:$v 


Oo ON O H CM 


*t n> T* ** r* 


T* ^ vo vo tr> 


vo W*> ^ ^ xo 


*0 VnXi vo NO 


Xi X3 vo XS VO 


VO >0 K. ts. K. 














ro vo 00 H ro 
vO t* 00 O M 


10 t* O M Tf 


r- Os *-* co vo 

00 Os M N rO 


oo o <s in r- 

Tf vO t^ 00 Os 


c?^ 35% 


R<2 S^^ 


t- t- t- oo oo 


OO 00 00 00 00 


00 00 Oi Ov Os 


Os Os Os OS Os 


o o o o o 


O O O M M 


<M CM CM co CM 


^K^?S? 


??S!5? 


XD ts^OQ O\ O 


K, CM CO ^}- Vrj 


v? N!O? s o 






1C 


^ ^ ^ ^^ 


^ "H ^ "H ^ 


^ "H ^ ^ ^ 


O d Tf t Os 

Tf in vo *< oo 


M fO VO 00 O 

o M co in 

00 00 00 00 00 


v2 > < oj n 

oo oo oo oo ot 


co in i> os rs 


Tf *O 00 O <M 

oo a o ro 

Os Os O O O 


Tf vo 00 O N 

Tf in vo oo os 
o o o o o 


&Sc?3 


92K 


o\ o M CM co 


92 


ON O ^ fM CO 


CM CM CM CM H 














S 3* 3 


*: s o M ^ 


oo o <r in i> 

co in vo fr* oo 


O\ w co in t- 

Os M ro Tf 


Os M ro in t*. 

vn t> oo o\ o 


00 N Tf vo 
M ro Tf in vo 




"coco-'coco"^" 










CO co T* T> T* 


^^^^-^ 




^ v^ to xo to 


v^> Vr> vo vo vo 


NO Xi Xb Xi Xi 


o>S*Tf 3 


S^ Os 8 2 


cT % lovS'K 


t Os M CO IO 
00 Os M n ro 


vo 00 O rt Tf 
Tj- in j> oo Os 


vO 00 Os H ro 

o M CM Tf in 


t- 1- 1- 1- 1^ 


r- t- i- oo oo 


00 00 00 00 00 


OO 00 Ot Os Os 


Os Ot Os Os Os 


o o o o o 














O w Tfrvo oo 


O Tf VO OO 


O M Tf VO OO 


O Tf VO OO 


O N Tf VO 00 


O W Tf VO OO 


*%*& 


Tf Tf Tf Tf Tf 


sg.$*s 


395?3 


33333 


10 10 10 

Tf Tf Tf Tf Tf- 



314 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 





it 


O N "t<> 00 


O "*<> 00 


O w ^ vO 00 


ei ^-vooo 


O w ^- VD 00 






VO (O to tO VO 


t^ t>. t- t^ ^ 


oo oo oo oo oo 


a a> a> c^ a> 


o o o o o 




- 














o3 d ShU 


K bx Oo CX O 


s ^ ^^ 


^h ^ X5 tx Oo 


CX O KH fv) ^J- 


Xi txOo CX N 


(J 




oo oo &o oo oo 


CX CX CX CX CX 


CX CX CX CX CX 


o o o o o 


O O O O N 




s 












VO 


Qj 0> J2 JH 


TJ- vo a N m 

VO t^ 00 O M 


00 IH T}- b- O 

D ^f in vo oo 


Z% 2%% 


Ov in oo M 
m t- oo a M 


in oo H m oo 
N fo in vo t* 


















Ui * J -d 

S3 d >, bo 


$? ^? ^x? 


^ c^^^ 


%> s. 


OQ Cx O cvj 


oo o o N CM 


.J 




OQ oo oo oo oo 


Oo Oo Oo CX CX 


CX CX CX CX O\ 


CX CX O O O 


o o o o o 


% 










^0 rovO 0, 


N in oo D in 




| 














S3 d > be 


CX CX O O H 


^x^ H5S 


ct ?^?^>^ 


txO CX CX O 


H S! 3 ? 3 


U 




tx GO OQ GO OQ 


^^^ 


CX CX CX CX CX 


CX CX O\ CX O 


O O O O 





oj <U X5 M 


o M ro * in 


vO 00 O> O 


ro * in ^ oo 


vo o\ N in oo 

O\ O N f*> ^J" 


H Tt vo O\ <S 
*O 4 s - 00 O> H 




g 














S3 ta >> bo 


vo X} Xi X} tv 
ts.0o CX O H 


K OQ Oo GO CX 


CX O O H N 
tx CX O H M 


^?5xTR 


X5 X} tx OQ CX 
GO Cx O ^ f\j 





P-. 8^'a 


N. K N.OQ GO 


oo GO oo oo GO 


Oo GO CX CX CX 


CX CX CX CX CX 


CX CX O O O 


^ 


^ 












w 


& d >J 


O\ M fO vO 00 


H *) \O 00 H 


sss ^s 


vo a -t is 

vO JS O\ O M 


O "5 vO O\ H 

fo ^t in vo oo 




PH 8-! 


S Z X Z 8 


3 S3 ?! 8 


<S N N 




SrtSrtcT 




S3 d >> bo 








Oo CX CX O ^ 


"O txOo CX O 


U 


u > 


tx N. t-x N. t^ 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 


^ ^ ^ s ^ 


CX CX CX CX CX 


0, CX CX CX 


o 

M 




^t vo 00 O <S 

m o t>- ov o 


in is a M rt 


8 S 2^ 


00 IH ff) vO 00 

ro in vo t oo 


M ) \O 00 H 

o M ro in 




fcu-a-g 














S3 d x'S 


^ l ^ $ K 






GO CX O N (M 


oo oo GO ex Cx 


O" 


/V <U JO 'T; 

U K. 


tx ^ K. N, N. 


tx tx0 oo oo 


GO o OQ Oo Oo 


Oo Oo CX CX CX 


CX CX CX CX CX 


o 













H N 


8 


jj.&J 


O N T}- \D OO 


&"? 




H CO ^t \O 


t 00 O\ M 


U 
o 

M 


S3 d >> bO 



!! 


*0 


Xi txOo CX O 


oo OQ GO oo GO 


Xi txo cx o 
GO GO GO GO ex 

00 O\ O N fO 


CX CX CX CX CX 

* in vo oo o\ 


U 
So 

M 


D d ^ bfl 


oo o\ M eo in 

t^ 00 O H 


t>. ov H co in 

CO rt VO t^ 00 


*%%% 


GO GO GO GO GO 

t o\ M *j in 

in v5 oo o> o 


CX O N f\l *O 

GO CX CX CX CX 

t^ O f vo 
M ro -t in vo 




> 


O O H M M 


M M H M H 


K zz z z 


333*;? 


f? J? f? f? 




S3 d xli 


o o o o o 

Oo O\ O N <M 


O O O O 


o o o o o 

GO CX O N (\i 


00000 


00000 
OQ O\ O N C| 


U 


PH 8 - '53 


Xi Xi tx. t^ tx 


N. K tx K tx 


tx txOo GO GO 


GO GO GO GO GO 


GO GO CX CX CX 





p 












M 


Q. 53 j2 -2 


in \o oo o N 

vO t^ 00 O M 


t vO 00 O 


3^% $ % 


^t in so oo a 


^f vO 00 O M 

O H << in 


















U % 


O N ^ VO 00 


O M ^ vo 00 


O M rf VO 00 


O o "t VO 00 


w * vo oo 




ll 


VO VO VO VD VD 
*fr 't * ^ ^ 


^^55^ 


00 00 00 OO OO 


^^55^: 


8,8,8,8,8, 



S 
PQ 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 315 



O sN -ttO 00 


O -f vo 00 


O C< TflO OO 


O N ^f VO OO 


O N rf VO 00 


O W ""t VO OO 


M M M M M 
IO tO IO tO IO 


to to 10 to to 


10 10 IO to 10 


sssss 


10 10 10 to 10 
to IO IO to V) 


IO to >O IO IO 


* $>S$ 


ts, OQ O HI fM 


$$% 


S o"S ^ 


^ O ts. GO CX 


O fM fO ** *^> 


K, K, K, K, K| 

CM CM CM CM CM 


HI K, CM CM fM 
CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM fsi CM CM 

CM fM fM fM fM 


CM CM CM CM fM 


CM CM CM fM fM 


CM CM fM CM CM 


M in eo in 


& S M 


r> o * t-o M 
CM ^f in so oo 


^S S'SS 


v? \ C? ^ 


ro ^% tlS 


in vo vo vo vo 


VO vo vO vo 




to OO 00 OO 00 


oo oo oo cx cx 

<X> O H or\ ^*. 


cx cx cx cx cx 




CM CM fM fM fM 


CM CM CM fM fM 


CM CM fM fM fM 


^ fO ^ ^^0 


CM CM CM CM CM 


*&*&s 


ct to tn vo to 


o\ t? 57 Jo 5 


oo in oo M 
m t> oo o, M 


in oo CM m oo 

M ro in VO to 


CM in cx CM so 

CX M ro ^ 














&% 


3 S>^3^ 


i^^ c^^ c^ 


S^S^ 


ts.oo o H, CM 
co cx >-t CM <**> 


f~> ^ so ts.0o 


O O O H, 

in oo M ^t t- 


CM CM CM CM fM 


CM CM CM fM fM 




fM CM fM CM CM 


CM fM CM CM CM 










to 00 00 00 00 




ex o H, CM CM 


cv> TJ- Vr\ so SO 
CX O H, CM fr> 


ts. OO CX H, 


c\j orj rt- v^ so 
O H, CM fn M- 


is. Oo CX O H, 
^ so ts. CX O 


s s? 2;$^ 


o o o o o 
CM CM CM CM CM 


O H, K, K, K, 

CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM CM fM 


r\) CM CM fM fM 
CM CM CM CM fM 


c\i CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM CM 0) 


*t t* O CO so 
Os O fl co <* 


00 M ^f to O 

in to oo cx M 


ro in oo "if 


< O H? CM ro 


CM m oo CM in 

in so to cx o 


00 M -rf so O> 

M *o * in so 














^cTS^ 


ts. tsOo OO CX 
X5 tsCo CX O 


o H CM CM f 1 ""* 


^h **% Xi ^ ts 
ts. oo CX O H 


Co O CX H, 

CM ^o \h ^o tx 


GO cx o H, CM 


O O 

CM CM M CM CM 


O O O O H, 

CM fM CM CM M 


CM N fM fM fM 


CM CM CM CM fsi 


s; si ^ si ss 


fM fM CM CM CM 


SfcSS * 


to- cx <M m to 
N ro in o t- 


o ro in oo H 

0\ CM ^ 


^f to cx <s in 
in o i> cx o 


00 M ro in p\ 

M co <fr in so 


CM * t O ro 
00 CX O CM ro 


it it it r? J? 


J? r? f? r? 










cx o o o H, 

OQ O H, CS| tf) 


H, CM CM CM f> 


CX O H, f\! Prj 


tx t>^ GO cx o 


H| H, (\J CM 
HI CM f-> ^t- 


3^ < S 


CX O O O O 

K, CM CM CM CM 


o o o o o 
CM CM CM CM CM 


O H, K, K, K, 

CM CM CM CM CM 


K| K| KI K, K| 

CM CM fM CM CM 


c\i CM CM CM CM 

CM fM fM fM fM 


fM fM CM c\j CM 
fM fM CM CM CM 


3 S 3 <? 


^ I? S^ 


Sw -^f sO O\ 
t- OO Os O 


r5 ro ^? S to 


in t- o <o in 

OO CX M N rO 


OO O ro in OO 
f so to 00 CX 


rt it it it it 


<* in in m in 


in in in in so 


so so so SO so 


so so to t to 
CS <S CH CH C* 





V5 ts>0o CX O 


^^ Js. N.^ 


Oo Oo Oo OQ CX 
X3 ts.00 CX O 


0, Jo^ 


ts, Oo CX O H, 


CM cy^ ^j. ir^ so 


cx cx cx cx o 


O O O O O 


H, 


K| K, K, K, K| 

*M CM CM CM CM 


HI KI HI CM CM 
CM CM fM fM fM 


CM CM CM CM CM 
CM CM CM CM f\i 


in oo o c ^f 

O M ro ^t in 


vO O M ro in 

vO to O\ O M 


oo o CM in to 


,S * r7S5 


-f so CX M 

in so to oo o 


Tf vO 00 M ro 
M ro in vo 


^f ^fr f ><f * 


* * <<t in in 


in in in m in 

CM (M <M CM <M 


m o o so so 

CM CM r (M Ct 


so vO so VO to 
CM CM CM CM (M 

vr so SO so ts. 


" "^^ 














ROSS'S 


ro&vS ^ 


00 O ro V) to 


in I?- oo cx o 


o CM m to cx 
o * in o 


M co in oo o 

00 0\ O ro 


ff S S S ? 


* ^f if ^ if 


^t in in in in 


in in m in vo 


vO VO VO so so 


VO VO to to to 




00 CX O H fM 




GO cx o H CM 


^ ^ C^so ts! 


CO CX O H, CM 


CX 0, CX CX CX 


cx cx o o o 


o o o o o 


O H, K, K, 


K, K, K, K, K, 

CM CM CM CM CM 


H, K, CM CM CM 
tM fM CM CM CM 


o m to o\ M 

VO to 00 CX M 


17^* VO 


oT^ S Jo 


if vO 00 M ro 

04- in so oo cx 


in to o\ M ro 

o M M * in 


vO to CX O M 


r? f? c? r? it 


cT rt it rt rT 


et ? V?r?,? 


in tn in in in 

CM CM CM M N 


VO so vo so so 
<S <M CM CM CS 


\O SO SO to to 
CM CM <M C <M 


*vooo 


O * *$ vo oo 


O w "**> OO 


O P* *f VO OO 


O w rf 5 OO 


O M ^ VO OO 


M M M M M 
10 10 10 10 10 


to 10 to 10 10 


^^^^ 


^ *f ^" "f "t 
10 10 10 to 10 


10 10 tr) to 10 

10 to to to 10 


*$>>> 



316 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 





a I ' 


O c ^0 oo 


O w TJ-VO oo 


o ^no co 


o -*o oo 


O w "^ VO OO 




o ^S 


RSRRS 


00 00 00 00 OO 
IO IO IO 'O IO 


IO IO O IO to 


<O VO <4? *O <O 


55555 




S3 g >.bO 


XS t\. ON O H 


c7^^vS 5 


\O Oo O c>o to 

QO Ov H CM c>o 


Oo H Crj\o O\ 


CM rh tx o f> 


o 


u o 


oT oT cT 1? o? 


(?(?$<?$ 


C? N^ ^ ^ 




CM 01 CM CM CM 





*l 


Ov co to M v> 
O> M -^ 10 


ON co to M 10 

vO 00 ON M 


O ^t 00 co to 

t 10 oo o> 


N t- H \O M 
M Tf IO to 


\O M NO H VO 

00 O M co * 



















M -g x |l 


S^Sx^ 


OQ O H Oi cr> 


^2; .<> 


Oo O CV) to OQ 


O 0-j lr> OQ O 

txQo Ov o CM 


O 


* 8^1 


otoTotoTrt 


cto?c?^c? 


J? c? r? k? r? 


^^^ 


XD XS Xi K K 
01 CM Oj c\j CM 


Tf 
M 


fc >J 


2 co vO O *t 
to 00 O H 


to M Tf 00 CS 

n rf 10 so 00 


IO ON ro 00 N 
ON O N co IO 


\O O ^t ON tO 
vO 00 ON O 


00 to M VO 

co IO vO 00 ON 




PH o 1 




ro co co CO co 


CO co co co CO 


co co co CO co 


CO P> CO co P> 




fc "8 > to 


O\ H r\j ff} ^. 


i^ X5 Oo ON O 


^J ot^^S; 


txOQ ON O H 


H co ^ bv Ov 


O 


P-I 8 - *s 


J? ot ot ft ot 


rt cT cT ot o? 


k? C? 0? C? k? 


CM CM CM CM CM 




CO 

N 


Qj ,J ,3 


?M ? 


to ON co vO O 
00 ON M <s -rj- 


Sv&SS^ 


vO -*00 
co IO VO to 


SN^ S S? 




* g 














o3 a >> bo 


txCiQ O N fM 
XS tx ON O N 


o?^^ 


OO ON O H (V) 
tx o O H CM 


$ "%( 


fM ^t ^O &0 O 


U 
o 




r?o?c7cTfT 


oTcTrTct^ 


fT cT 1? k? r? 


c? c? c? k? 


CM oi CM CM oi 


c, 


k 1.&J 


00 ON O CS co 






to Ch fl co 






U 














M -M 5 


X3 tx Oo O, O 




^ XD tx Oo O\ 




X^ OQ Ov O CM 


u 




c7c7c7c7o? 








k?c?k?c7^ 


H 


fcf^J 


vO Oi D IO N> 

Tt- Wi to 00 ON 


co\0 00 M 




ON N IO 00 M 


IO 00 (S IO Ol 




**>/i 


XS K txoo^ Oj 


?N.^ 5, S 




XS IX. Oo O, H 




U 

Q 


H, gJ= u 


J?^ ^ o? 5? 


c?c7 ^ ? ot 


olclcT^ 


CM CM oi CM O) 


c\) CM CM CM CM 


s 










ON H N co IO 


VO to ON O M 




f* 8- ! 


^^^ ^^ 


S^ r^ cT 


ON ON ON ON ON 


ON O O O O 


M M 
CO CO co CO co 




gi 


N. tX N.OO Ov 

IxOQ O, O H 


Ov O O N N 


Oo Ov O H 01 


^^-^vo-^ 


OQ OQ O\ O H 
OQ O\ O Oi cv^ 


o 


o 


o! ol JM c? o? 


CM oj CM oj oj 


cv? o? ot M CM 


CM CM o, 01 o, 


CM CM CM CM 01 




fc x| 


W) 00 O co IO 
to 00 O H N 


00 O N 10 00 
CO IO vO to 00 


<H 10 to O 
M CO 10 


N to O\ 

\O to 00 ON M 


10 00 O CO VO 
CS CO IO vO to 




PH S-1 


cT'S ( 5 t S 


00 00 00 00 00 


ON ON ON ON ON 


222SS, 


o o o o o 




Jo fl x bo 


oo 0, ON 
Xh ^ x^ tx O\ 


O O K, K, H 


3 


O H CM cv-) rj. 


xs xs t^ tx GO 


u 


S-s'S 


8 SI 8 ) S! 


n-> ro. cv> rrj CN-J 


CM 01 rvj CM oj 


CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM CM CM 


00 

M 


1 >J 


$Z$ S> 


CO IO 00 O 
O M M -t IO 


^ to ON H CO 
VO to 00 H 


NO 00 O co IO 
co 10 vO to 


to ON <S 10 to 
00 ON H p co 




P^ o- ^ 




* * * * * 










ft a > bo 


^^^X^^. 


Xi Xi N. tx tx 

OQ O\ O H CM 


txOQ Oo Oo O\ 


ON Ov O O O 


H K, H M CM 


U 

O 


PH 8-^' 


CM CM CM c\i CM 


CM oj c\? c\? cs? 


CM CM <\i CM CM 


^o !^ 


M CM CM CM CM 

ON M co VO 00 
vO 00 ON O M 


M 


| 






00 00 00 00 00 


ON ON ON O\ a 






4) p 


o *t<> oo 


W Tf<> 00 


O N *t\> 00 


O w ^f"O 00 


O VN ^ tO 00 




ll 


\f) \f) \f) \f) \O 


10 o o o v> 


SSS585S5S 


u? <O w <*? U? 


55555 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 



317 



O f ^" *& oo 


^vooo 


o ^t <o oo 


O 'tvo oo 


-KOOO 


t>00 


vo vo vo vo vo 


VO VO VD VO VO 


vo vo vo vo vo 


10 10 10 10 10 

vo vo vo vo vo 


vo vo vo vo vo 


vo vo vo vo vo 


VO GO H W> GO 

txoo o H CM 


CM ^ Ov CM vo 


o \hOo CM tx. 


<S 5S rt ^ 


?v oo 4 *^ ^? 


OQ ^ ON ^h O\ 


CM CM CM CM CM 


GO OQ GO GO GO 


CM CM CM CM CM 


>$>$> 


^^c^^c^ 


^s>s>s>s> 


O in o m M 

VO ^ ON N 


VO (S 1> to 00 
ro in vo 00 ON 


in M oo ^ o 

M to ^ VO 00 


ON M ro ^ vo 


t* O> H to * 


in ro o oo in 

vo OO O M ro 


% % % $ % 


3 ro ro CO S 


S 3 






S % % 


3^% < 


% J?^ 


X3 txOo O H 


H ^- GO CM VQ 


1C 1 3% 


CM tx CM tx CM 

tx GO O H CTJ 


tx tx tx tx tx 

CM CM CM CM CM 


cvT^ ^ ^ ^ 


Co GO Co Ov Ox 

CM CM CM CM CM 


ON ON ON ON ON 

CM CM CM CM CM 


o o o o o 


O O H H H 


M <M -<t in t> 


oo o\ H to ^ 


vO t* O\ O N 


to in i- oo o 


M ro V) vO OO 


M 00 in ON 

o H to in vo 














O\ O N CM ^h 


v^XS ^00 




co X3 O tf) ^ 

GO ON H CM <^ 


H ^ GO CM Xi 

^.X5 tx ON O 


g C^ v ^ 


vo tx tx Ix tx 

CM CM CM CM CM 


c\r ^ ^r ^^ 


GO GO Oo Oo Go 

CM CM CM CM CM 


GO GO O\ ON ON 

CM CM CM CM CM 


ON 0, Ov ON 

CM CM CM CM crj 


,^,^^ 


to ^ M vo o 


in o rt- ON to 


00 ro ON rf ON 


t ON in O vo 


n t< ro ov m 


M t* CO O VO 


to ro *O to to 


to to to oo to 


sssss 


SS5S8 




vO vO vO vO * 

H ^t- GO CM vo 


CM CM CM CM CM 




CM CM CM CM CM 


GO GO GO GO oo 
CM CM CM CM CM 


Oy O\ ON ON O\ 

CM CM CM CM CM 


ON ON O\ O O 

CM CM CM cr^ cr) 


vo o ^t oo r* 
M to ^* in t* 


oo o % to 5 


m f^ oo o M 


Jo ^ vo ^ o\ 


vo o) oo to ON 
O n to in vo 


o"S Jo^ 


rO ro to rO ro 


2> % % % % 


^ S Jo *0 ^ 


ro ro to O ro 


% S ro 1 r^ 


Vo*> V ro'$^ 


^h *O tx ON N 


^$% 


C*") Vrj ^ O CM 


S;^ ^^$ 


tx O c"\, VQ c^ 


CVJ Vrj ON CNJ V^ 

CM cr^ r^ Xi tx 


CM CM CM CM CM 


^^ i>^ 


CM CM CM CM CM 


txGo Go GO GO 

CM CM CM CM CM 


Co Co GO Co ON 

CM CM CM CM CM 


ON ON O\ O\ ON 

CM CM CM CM CM 


t- oo ON M N 


Tf in vo 00 ON 


M CM CO in vO 


00 ON M CH ^ 


^ ON * ON rf 

in vo co ON M 


ON ^f O in O 
rs Tf vo t- ON 














tx GO ON H CM 

CM CM CM CM CM 


^^ ^^ ^ 


CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM c\j CM 


GO GO GQ Co GO 

CM CM CM CM CM 


GO GO Ov O\ ON 

CM CM CM CM CM 


c -<t in vo oo 


vO O to !* M 
ON M r to m 


in ON vo o 


^J- 00 vO O 
to Tf vo JC. ON 


* 00 ro t- 
O M ro -^ vo 


SN S % 


CO Jo S> to ro 


to Jo P> 5o P, 


to Jo to Jo Jo 


ro ro to to ro 


to to to ro ro 


n- t in in in 

to to ro to to 


^ > XS N. GO 


*0\ 0* rj ro ? 


V^ txGO O N 


fc5 


CM ^ X5 GO o 

txCo ON O CM 


**O ^h ^ tx GO 


J? $ $ 




CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM <M CM 


CM CM CM CM CM 


GO GO OQ GO GO 
CM CM ^ CM CM 


o\ - -t oo M 

00 M N t 


Tf t^ O CO t 

in vo oo Ot o 


S SSvg S 


t. M m oo 


"SR^'S.S 


vo M in ON * 






eO Jo Jo ro Jo 


W ro to to ro 
ro ro ro to to 


ro ro ro to ro 


t ^ f * t 

to ro ro ro ro 


&>* 5 


^}- vr^ vo tx GO 
Xi tx GO O\ f3 


H ^^.^X? 


is! GO o; o" CM 


c^^^xl 


o\ o H CM M- 


$$$ 


CM CM CM CM CM 


^^^^^ 


XS Xi vo N. ts. 

CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM CM CM CM 


tx GO GO GO Oo 

CM CM CM CM CM 


in vo JP oo o 


H ^ to in vo 


" &? 


* in t^ oo ON 


M <M to in vo 


t^ ON O ci to 














S rPSS^ 


$%< o\ 


S J7ct vq^ 


^xl o\c3 


H CM crj ^j. \o 


txGo ON O * 




CM CM CM CM CM 


\O X5 Xi vo vo 

CM CM CM CM CM 


^^^^ c\r 


tx Ns tX IX tx 

CM cv, CM CM CM 


c>f\r^^^ 


eoS^ScS 


S- ?R!? 


VS-S^S 


W 00 M 10 


00 M ^t 00 H 

OO O W C < 


S,S*2 














e, *VOOO 


O ^t vo oo 


O w ^ vo oo 


O CS Xj-VO 00 


O vN Tj-VO 00 


^-VOOO 





vo vo vo vo vo 


33333 


$&$$$ 


SS!!S!S 


VO VO VD VO Vo 



318 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

4rtf 



OOOOOOOOOO O% O O O"* O* OOOOO 
VO VO 1C <O (0 lO VO VD tO ID t^.t^r^t-t^ 



u 



^Nt^^O\ Xi Px) GO ^f. H 



txM-Obs.ro O K. <> O IX rj- N Oo ^ tvj 



1 



00 00 00 O\ O\ 



PO M O 00 > 

o\ o\ o\ o\ d 



1/)rONO 



> 00 t O 
C 10 t>0\ 

+ $ + $ $ $ 



u 



8*1 



t^ 00 00 00 00 00 00 O\ O\ O> O\ ( 



u 



w "c >> w> 

P-t 8 - ' 



Htx<vjOo\J- OXC)<\|Oo^J- OXS^Ox 1 ^ 
"*^txOOO C\4^Vr^XiOo ONf>M- x O 



~ 



'1 



J Ov ^O PO O 

r *} in t* o\ 
1^ t^ t^ l> l> 



i> -^ M oo in 
o <s rf in t 

00 00 00 00 00 



oo o M (v> in 



^.5P 



^rrjCY^rrjfr) 






vo t^ a 

vO ^O vO 



oo m M oo m <s o oo in m HOO^O^-H 

N-frvOt-ON Mprj^-\OOO OMPOinb- 

cjowooodod ao<>o>a ooodd 



u 



O) CV ") <V ">O C O 



- - 



- 



<M ^ f^ ^ ^ <^ 



<S 00 ^fO\m<NOO 
in O OOO\MrOTj- 






u 
8 



^8^'S 
fc 



rj-irjNOOoOv O^jfO^'O IxCoO^^O ^-^K-OoO N^^KStx 



in vo oo o\ M 

p/5 PO PO PO PO 



<s TJ- m t^ oo o M m m >o ooo\MPO^tvoooo\*-iPo 



CJ 



3 a > i 

PH 8-^ >; 



v 
Ojrx)<\iCx|C\) 



OOO 
f^Cr^f^ 



OO PO IN t~- 

4 in in in in 






o w PO m >o 
vo'vovdvot> ^i>t^t^t^odoooooooo 



CJ 



in o in o in o in w 



oo PO a in 
<^ in t> oo o 



U 



\o\o\o oo 



OOOOO MMMMM C4M 



O N 


tv 


D OO 


Al' 

O w 


^AL.) 

^ <o oo 


: i ILAJL 


KJb^^JH 


llLJNLJb 

o ^y> oo 


lAbLtt 

O w ^ vo CO 


O ^tv 


31 

O 00 


9 

O 




















t.^^ 


t- t^ < 


# 


OQ W> 




O ^ 

GO 


M O 
O C\j 


5O >O Vr^ 




^^ % 


&S ^5^ 


cx^ %x^<? 


C?c>^ 


N.S 


^? 


TW 


S> N 


e^ 


fcfc 


^^^ 


tx OQ OQ OQ Oo 


Oo O CX CX CX 


CX O O O O 


%^^^^ 


9-*^ 


** 


9 


in co 

M CO 


in 


Z 


oo oo 


00 IS b- 

rt VO 00 


^^asia 


^t vO 00 O 

M co in t^ o 


co in oo M ^t 
* vo o\ M 


^v^0-c^ 


S i: o 


ft^ 


H 


5 5 


5 


5 5 


5 5 


555 


in m in in in 


^^^^ s 


t- b- l> t^ 00 


oo oo oo a a 


5 3& 


& a 


a 


3 


>0 


CX H 


^ CX 


*O GO Oi 


3^ 


o Csi TJ- xi GO 


O Cq ^j- X} GO 


*A tx GO CX O 

O Cg rt- <5 CX 


^^s; 


tN CX 





co co 


** 


CO CO 


ff) ff) 


fT) ff) tf) 




^^^^^ 


CX CX CX CX CX 


0_ 






* 


co in 


t* 


O\ M 


CO Tf 


O 00 O 


N * O 00 O 


<S Tf vO 00 O 


in * o\ M 


Tf vo 00 O co 


in t* o\ 


c, * 


8 












55555 








* * ^ 


* Tf 


* 


<s% 


H 


H tx 


x1"c 


o; 8) 


^ VO <5 CX N 


co v<-> Xi GO O 


cj M- Xb tx CX 


GO CX CX O O 


Cg M- X5 


c? C? 


^ 


CO Co 


$ 


<3 <3 


00 <v> 


fr^ tr) tf) 


X5 Xi X^i Xi tN 


^^^^^ 


CO GO GO GO GO 


CX CX CX O, O 


O O O 


O H 


% 


CO H 

vO 00 


o\ 
o\ 


H ^ 


Tf N 

in t> 


M 0\ 00 
0\ 6 


^^^s s 

55555 


^vgcg g;^ 
55553 


O O H M CO 

<t vO 00 


in i> o\ H <t 

J- vo 00 M CO 


?fr? 





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^ 


^ 


^^ 


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CO Crj CO 


Vr~> tj>j \O Xi Xi 


X5 X^ X5 IX K 


tx tx IX tN GO 


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CX CX CX 


CX 


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oo "o 





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t^ ^ 


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vO 00 


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55555 










V 


vr> \o 


oo 


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CX N 


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S^ ?S;^ 


(\j GO w^ <vj o\ 


N.SN^ $ 


R CX N 3 


Cxi O CX 


GO GO 


% 




^ 




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U.J, 


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^Xi Xi X5 X5 
ro PO Co co co 


""^^- 


tx tx tx GO oo 


Oo Oo GO 


CX CX 





O 


o 


O O 


M M 


M M H 


M (S N N (S 
it <* -t rf Tt 


"t rf t "fr Tf 


t Tf Tt Tj- Tf 


rj- 't in in in 


in in vo 


VO vO 

&^ 


vO 


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4 


w 


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***** 




***** 


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tx txoo 
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<$< 

00 00 


^ 


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CO CO 


00 

o\ 

CO 


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00 (S 

^j in in 


-a- o 
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m 


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JX CX 


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CO U-j XD 


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^ tx <M GO ^J- 
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M- ^ N.OO O 


c7^5;^ll 


^ *( GO 
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a 


8,8, 


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^ ^ 


% ^ ^ 


^ ^ 2; ^ ^ 


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^ ^ $ $ ^ 


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tx tx tx 


^^ 


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00 O 


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co m 


l> <<fr 


M oo in 

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in R oo o N 


o t* in N o 

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M" co in 2- a 


a oo t* 


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^t- O tx 


4 4 


tx 


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H t- 

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CO 

in 


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S'S 


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co in vo 


^ M oo in co 
oo o H co in 


&^?s a 


S S, 8 1 


cO H 00 vo 't 
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S8.SS 


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00 


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% % % 


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M M M (H 


Tf Tj- ^- ^t 1 ^- 


555 


fO 't 
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tx 


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,8 



320 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

TABLE Ay. MUNSON AND WALKER'S TABLE * FOR CALCULATING DEXTROSE, INVERT 
SUGAR ALONE, INVERT SUGAR IN THE PRESENCE OF SUCROSE (0.4 GRAM AND 2 GRAMS 
TOTAL SUGAR), LACTOSE, LACTOSE AND SUCROSE (a MIXTURES), AND MALTOSE 

(CRYSTA LLIZED) 
(Expressed in milligrams) 



Cuprous oxide (Cu20) 


'$ 
O 

1 

a 


Dextrose (d-glucose) 


S 

9 

tO 

8 



) 1 


Invert Sugar and 
Sucrose 


Lactose 


Lactose and 
Sucrose 


Maltose 


Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) | 


3 

o 

+J 

B ui 

&>> 

*" 
o 


3 

o 

cfl M 

I! 

c* 


q 

w 

+ 

1 

u 


% 

II 

w 

<+ 


1 
JJ2 

M 




w 
-f 

3 
w 

u 


10 

12 

14 
16 
18 

20 

22 
24 
26 
28 

30 
32 
34 
36 
38 

40 
42 
44 
46 
48 

50 
52 
54 
56 
58 

60 
62 
64 
66 
68 

70 
72 
74 
76 
78 

80 
82 
84 
86 
88 


8. 9 
10.7 
12.4 
14.2 

16.0 

17.8 
19-5 
21.3 
23.1 
24-9 

26.6 
28.4 
30.2 
32.0 
33-8 

35-5 
37-3 
39-1 
40.9 
42.6 

44.4 
46.2 
48.0 
49-7 
51.5 

53-3 
55.1 
56.8 
58.6 
60.4 

62.2 
64.0 
65.7 
67.5 
69.3 

71.1 
72.8 
74.6 
76.4 
78.2 


4-o 
4-9 
5-7 
6.6 
7-5 

8-3 

9-2 
IO.O 

10.9 
ii. 8 

12.6 

13-5 
14-3 
15-2 
16.1 

16.9 
17-8 
18.7 
19.6 
20.4 

21.3 

22 . 2 
23.0 
23-9 
2 4 .8 

25-6 
26.5 
27.4 
28.3 
29-2 

30-0 
30-9 

31-8 
32.7 
33-6 

34-4 
35-3 
36.2 
37-1 
38.0 


4-5 
5-4 
6-3 
7.2 
8.1 

8.9 
9.8 
10.7 
ii. 6 
12.5 

13-4 
14-3 
15-2 
16.1 
16.9 

17-8 
!8. 7 
19.6 
20.5 
21.4 

22.3 
23.2 
24.1 
25-0 
25-9 

26.8 
27.7 
28.6 
29-5 
30.4 

31-3 
32.3 
33-2 
34-1 
35-0 

35-9 
36.8 

37-7 
38.6 
39-5 


1.6 
2-5 
3-4 
4-3 
5.2 

6.1 
7-0 

7-9 
8.8 
9-7 

10.7 
n. 6 
12.5 
13-4 
14-3 

15-2 
16.1 
17.0 

17-9 
18.8 

19-7 
20.7 

21 .6 

22.5 
23-4 

24-3 
25.2 

26. 2 
27.1 
28.0 

28.9 
29-8 
30.8 
31-7 

32.6 

33-5 
34-5 
35.4 
36.3 
37-2 




6.3 

7-5 
8.8 

IO.O 

11.3 

12.5 
13-8 
15-0 
16.3 
17.6 

18.8 

20. I 
21.4 
22.8 
24.2 

25-5 
29.6 
28.3 
29.6 
31.0 

32.3 
33-7 

35-1 
36.4 
37-8 

39-2 
40.5 
41-9 
43-3 
44-7 

46.0 
47-4 
48.8 
50.1 
51-5 

52-9 
54-2 
55-6 
57-0 
58.4 


6.1 
7-3 
8.5 
9-7 
10.9 

12. I 
13-3 
14-5 
15-8 
17-0 

18.2 
19-4 
20.7 

22. O 
23-3 

24-7 
26.O 
27-3 
28.6 
30.0 

31-3 
32.6 
34-0 

35-3 
36.6 

37-9 
39-3 
40.6 
41-9 
43-3 

44.6 
45-9 
47-3 
48.6 
49-9 

51-3 
52.6 
53.9 
55-3 
56.6 




6.2 

7-9 
9-5 

II. 2 
12-9 

14-6 

16.2 

17-9 
19.6 
21.2 

22.9 
24.6 
26.2 
27.9 
29.6 

31-3 
32.9 

34-6 
36.3 
37-9 

39-6 
41-3 
42.9 
44-6 
46.3 

48.0 
49.6 
5L3 
53-0 
54.6 

56.3 
58.0 
59-6 
61.3 
63.0 

64.6 
66.3 
68.0 
69.7 
71.3 


10 

12 

I i 

16 
18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

30 
32 
34 
36 
38 

40 
42 
44 
46 
48 

50 
52 
54 
56 
58 

60 
62 
64 
66 
68 

70 
72 
74 
76 
78 

80 
82 
84 
86 
88 






























4-3 
5-2 
6.1 
7.0 
7-9 

8.8 
9-7 
10.7 
ii. 6 
12.5 

13-4 
14-3 
15-2 
16.2 
17.1 

18.0 
18.9 
19.8 

20.8 

21.7 

22.6 
23-5 
24-5 
25-4 
26.3 

27-3 
28.2 
29.1 
30.0 
3LO 




































40.7 
4L9 

43.1 
44.2 
45.4 
46.6 

47-8 
49.0 
50.1 
51.3 
52.5 



*U. S. Bur. Standards Circ. 44, p. 321. The columns headed "Lactose" and "Lactose and Su- 
crose" are taken from "Methods of Sugar Analysis and Allied Determinations" by Arthur Given. 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 

TABLE Ay. MUNSON AND WALKER'S TABLE. (Continued) 
(Expressed in milligrams) 



321 



q 




x-x 




Invert Sugar and 
Sucrose 


Lactose 


Lactose and 
Sucrose 


Maltose 


f 


o 




8 








q 






9, 


U 


T3 


o 


"bo 


t4 


3 


-g 


W 






w 


a; 

73 


g 


U 


2, 


ri 





o 


+ 


3? 





t 


1 


uprous 


1 

o 


M 


tJ 

1 


a n 

jtf ctf 

IJf 


w) ^ 

if 

So w 


1 


a,- o 
1^ 


Is 


q 

1 


CO 

1 


U 


U 


Q 


Q 
(-H 


6 




u 


M 


H 


u 


u 


90 


79.9 


38.9 


40.4 


38.2 


31-9 


59-7 


57-9 


53-7 


73.0 


90 


92 


81.7 


39-8 


41.4 


39-i 


32-8 


61.1 


59-3 


54-9 


74.7 


92 


94 


83.5 


40.6 


42.3 


40.0 


33-8 


62.5 


60.6 


56.0 


76.3 


94 


96 


85.3 


41.5 


43-2 


41.0 


34-7 


63.8 


61.9 


57-2 


78.0 


96 


98 


87.1 


42.4 


44.1 


41-9 


35-6 


65.2 


63.3 


58.4 


79.7 


98 


IOO 


88.8 


43-3 


45-0 


42.8 


36.6 


66.6 


64-6 


59-6 


81.3 


IOO 


102 


90.6 


44-2 


46.0 


43-8 


37-5 


68.0 


66.0 


60.8 


83.0 


IO2 


104 


92.4 


45.1 


46.9 


44-7 


38.5 


69-3 


67.3 


62.0 


84.7 


104 


106 


94-2 


46.0 


47.8 


45-6 


39-4 


70.7 


68.6 


63.2 


86.3 


106 


108 


95-9 


46.9 


48.7 


46.6 


40.3 


72.1 


70.0 


64.4 


88.0 


108 


no 


97-7 


47-8 


49-6 


47-5 


41-3 


73-5 


71-3 


65.6 


89.7 


IIO 


112 


99-5 


48.7 


50.6 


48.4 


42.2 


74-8 


72.6 


66.7 


91-3 


112 


114 


101 .3 


49-6 


51-5 


49.4 


43-2 


76.2 


74-0 


67.9 


93-0 


114 


116 


103.0 


50.5 


52.4 


50-3 


44.1 


77-6 


75-3 


69.1 


94-7 


116 


118 


104.8 


5L4 


53-3 


51-2 


45-0 


79.0 


76.7 


70.3 


96-4 


118 


120 


106.6 


52.3 


54-3 


52.2 


46.0 


80.3 


78.0 


71-5 


98.0 


1 20 


122 


108.4 


53-2 


55-2 


53-1 


46.9 


81.7 


79-3 


72.7 


99-7 


122 


124 


IIO.I 


54-1 


56.1 


54-1 


47-9 


83.1 


80.7 


73-9 


101.4 


124 


126 


in .9 


55-0 


57-0 


55-0 


48.8 


84-5 


82.0 


75-1 


103.0 


126 


128 


113-7 


55-9 


58.0 


55-9 


49-8 


85.8 


83-4 


76.3 


104.7 


128 


130 


II5-5 


56.8 


58.9 


56.9 


50.7 


87.2 


84.7 


77-5 


106.4 


130 


132 


II7-3 


57-7 


59-8 


57-8 


51-7 


88.6 


86.0 


78.7 


108.0 


132 


134 


119.0 


58.6 


60.8 


58.8 


52.6 


90.0 


87.4 


79-7 


109.7 


134 


136 


120.8 


59-5 


61.7 


59-7 


53-6 


91.3 


88.7 


81.1 


111.4 


136 


138 


122.6 


60.4 


62.6 


60.7 


54-5 


92-7 


90.1 


82.3 


113.0 


138 


140 


124.4 


61.3 


63.6 


61.6 


55-5 


94-1 


91.4 


83.5 


114.7 


140 


142 


I26.I 


62.2 


64-5 


62.6 


56.4 


95-5 


92.8 


84.7 


116.4 


142 


144 


127.9 


63.1 


65-4 


63.5 


57-4 


96.8 


94-1 


85-9 


118.0 


144 


146 


129.7 


64.0 


66.4 


64-5 


58-3 


98.2 


95-4 


87.1 


II9-7 


146 


148 


I3I.5 


65.0 


67.3 


65-4 


59-3 


99-6 


96.8 


88.3 


121.4 


148 


ISO 


133.2 


65-9 


68.3 


66.4 


60.2 


IOI.O 


98.1 


89.5 


123.0 


150 


152 


135-0 


66.8 


69.2 


67.3 


61.2 


102.3 


99-5 


90.8 


124.7 


152 


154 


136.8 


67.7 


70.1 


68.3 


62.1 


103.7 


100.8 


92.0 


126.4 


154 


156 


138.6 


68.6 


71.1 


69.2 


63-1 


105.1 


IO2.2 


93-2 


128.0 


156 


158 


140.3 


69.5 


72.0 


70.2 


64.1 


106.5 


103.5 


94-4 


129.7 


158 


1 60 


I42.I 


70.4 


73.0 


71.2 


65.0 


107.9 


104.8 


95-6 


131-4 


160 


162 


143.9 


7L4 


73-9 


72.1 


66.0 


109.2 


106.2 


96.8 


133-0 


162 


164 


145.7 


72.3 


74-9 


73.1 


66.9 


1 10. 6 


107.5 


98.0 


134.7 


164 


166 


147-5 


73-2 


75.8 


74.0 


67.9 


112. 


108.9 


99-2 


136.4 


1 66 


168 


149-2 


74-1 


76.8 


75-0 


68.9 


113.4 


1 10. 2 


100.4 


138.0 


168 



322 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

TABLE Ay. MUNSON AND WALKER'S TABLE. (Continued) 
(Expressed in milligrams) 



1 




^ 




Invert Sugar and 
Sucrose 


Lactose 


Lactose and 
Sucrose 


Maltose 


1 


CJ 




1 








q 






O 


CJ 


<u 

"3 


^ 


'to 


M 


3 


^ 






CU 


ffi 


-8 








cj 









cu 


w 




'K 


o 


CJ 


v ~ x 


? 


M 


_o 


_ 


en 


-2 


,_ 


o 


(A 




$ 


2 


CO 

+J 


is 


IS 


i 


Jji 


CU u 


q 


l/J 




& 


a 




U 


) f 


Z ? 


w 


t> m 


t; N 


W 


& 


3 


o 


CU 
















3 


CJ 


CJ 


Q 


1 1 


o 


* 


CJ 


H 


H 


CJ 


CJ 


170 


151.0 


75-1 


77-7 


76.0 


69.8 


114.8 


in. 6 


IOI.6 


139-7 


170 


172 


152.8 


76.0 


78.7 


76.9 


70.8 


116.1 


112.9 


102.8 


141.4 


172 


174 


154.6 


76.9 


79-6 


77.9 


71-7 


H7.5 


114-3 


104.1 


143.0 


174 


176 


156.3 


77-8 


80.6 


78.8 


72.7 


118.9 


115.6 


105.3 


144.7 


176 


178 


158.1 


78.8 


81.5 


79-8 


73-7 


120.3 


117.0 


106.5 


146.4 


178 


1 80 


159-9 


79-7 


82.5 


80.8 


74-6 


121. 6 


118.3 


107.7 


148.0 


180 


182 


161.7 


80.6 


83-4 


81.7 


75-6 


123.1 


119.7 


108.9 


149-7 


182 


184 


163.4 


81.5 


84.4 


82.7 


76.6 


124-3 


121. 


IIO.I 


151-4 


184 


1 86 


165.2 


82.5 


85.3 


83.7 


77.6 


125.8 


122.4 


in. 3 


153-0 


186 


1 88 


167.0 


83-4 


86.3 


84.6 


78.5 


127.2 


123.7 


112.5 


154-7 


1 88 


190 


168.8 


84-3 


87.2 


85.6 


79-5 


128.5 


I25-I 


113.8 


156.4 


190 


192 


170.5 


85.3 


88.2 


86.6 


80.5 


129.9 


126.4 


115.0 


158.0 


192 


194 


172.3 


86.2 


89.2 


87.6 


81.4 


131-3 


127.8 


116.2 


159-7 


194 


196 


174.1 


87.1 


90.1 


88.5 


82.4 


132.7 


129.2 


117.4 


161.4 


196 


198 


175-9 


88.1 


9I-I 


89.5 


83.4 


134-1 


130.5 


118.6 


163.0 


198 


200 


177-7 


89.0 


92.0 


90-5 


84.4 


135-4 


I3I.9 


119.8 


164.7 


200 


202 


179-4 


89.9 


93-o 




85.3 


136.8 


133-2 


121. 


166.4 


202 


2O4 


181.2 


90.9 


94-0 


92-4 


86.3 


138.2 


134.6 


122.3 


168.0 


2O4 


206 


183.0 


91.8 


94-9 


93-4 


87.3 


139-6 


135-9 


123.5 


169.7 


206 


208 


184.8 


92.8 


95-9 


94-4 


88.3 


141.0 


137.3 


124.7 


171.4 


208 


210 


186.5 


93-7 


96.9 


95-4 


89.2 


142.3 


138.6 


I26.O 


173-0 


2IO 


212 


188.3 


94.6 


97.8 


96.3 


90.2 


143-7 


140.0 


127.2 


174-7 


212 


214 


190.1 


95-6 


98.8 


97.3 


91-2 


145. i 


I4I.4 


128.4 


176.4 


214 


216 


191.9 


96.5 


99.8 


98.3 


92.2 


146.5 


142.7 


129.6 


178.0 


216 


218 


193-6 


97-5 


100.8 


99-3 


93-2 


M7-9 


I44.I 


130.9 


179-7 


218 


2 2O 


195-4 


98.4 


101.7 


100.3 


94-2 


149-3 


145-4 


I32.I 


181.4 


22O 


222 


197.2 


99-4 


102 7 


101.2 


95- * 


150.7 


146.8 


133.3 


183.0 


222 


224 


199.0 


100.3 


103.7 


IO2.2 


96.1 


152.0 


I48.I 


134-5 


184.7 


224 


226 


200.7 


101.3 


104.6 


103.2 


97-1 


153-4 


149.5 


135.8 


186.4 


226 


228 


202.5 


IO2.2 


105.6 


104.2 


98.1 


154-8 


150.8 


137.0 


188.0 


228 


230 


204.3 


103.2 


106.6 


105.2 


99.1 


156.2 


152.2 


138.2 


189-7 


230 


232 


206.1 


I04.I 


107.6 


106.2 


100. 1 


157-6 


153-6 


139-4 


I9L3 


232 


234 


207.9 


I05-I 


108.6 


107.2 


IOI.I 


159-0 


154-9 


140.7 


193-0 


234 


236 


209.6 


106.0 


109.5 


108.2 


IO2.I 


160.3 


156.3 


I4I.9 


194.7 


2 3 6 


238 


211.4 


107.0 


110.5 


109.2 


IO3.I 


161.7 


157-6 


143.2 


196-3 


238 


24O 


213.2 


108.0 


in. 5 


IIO.I 


104.0 


163.1 


159-0 


144.4 


198.0 


240 


242 


215-0 


108.9 


112.5 


in. i 


105.0 


164.5 


160.3 


145.6 


199-7 


2 4 2 


244 


216.7 


109.9 


II3-5 


112. I 


106.0 


165.9 


161.7 


146.9 


201.3 


244 


2 4 6 


218.5 


no. 8 


114.5 


II3.I 


107.0 


167.3 


163.1 


I48.I 


203.0 


246 


248 


220.3 


in. 8 


115.4 


II4.I 


108.0 


168.7 


164.4 


149-3 


204.7 


248 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 

TABLE A7 MUNSON AND WALKER'S TABLE. (Co ntinued) 
(Expressed in milligrams) 



323 



q 








Invert Sugar and 
Sucrose 


Lactose 


Lactose and 
Sucrose 


Maltose 


O 


If 




tn 












3 


B 




1 








q 






q 


u 


'H 


^ 


1 


8 


3 


3 


+ 




g 


ffl 


V 

rs 

'H 





U 
^ 




=? 


* 


2 




. & 





^ 


o 


to 




tn 


to 


S i* 


to u, 


6 


iT 2 




q 


en 


1 


a 

Q, 


t-t 

H 


1 


8>! 


cj a' 


1 


3 | 


Jg 

3 " 


W 


I 
P, 


3 


o 


53 


> 










J2J H 




3 


U 


U 


P 


P 
t 1 


d 





u 


H 


H 


u 


U 


250 


222.1 


112. 8 


116.4 


115-1 


109.0 


170.1 


165.8 


150.6 


206.3 


250 


252 


223.8 


II3-7 


117.4 


116.1 


IIO.O 


171.5 


167.2 


I5I-8 


208.0 


252 


254 


225.6 


114.7 


118.4 


117.1 


III.O 


172.8 


168.5 


I53-I 


209.7 


254 


256 


227-4 


II5-7 


119.4 


118.1 


112. O 


174.2 


169.9 


154.3 


211.3 


256 


2 5 8 


229.2 


116.6 


120.4 


119.1 


II3.0 


175-6 




155-5 


213.0 


258 


260 


231.0 


117.6 


121.4 


1 20. i 


II4.O 


177.0 


172.6 


156.8 


214.7 


260 


262 


232.7 


118.6 


122.4 


121. I 


II5.0 


178.4 


174.0 


158.0 


216.3 


262 


264 


234-5 


II9-5 


123.4 


122. I 


116.0 


179-8 


175-3 


159-3 


218.0 


264 


266 


236.3 


120.5 


124.4 


I23-I 


117.0 


181.2 


176.7 


160.5 


219.7 


266 


268 


238.1 


121.5 


125.4 


I24.I 


118.0 


182.6 


I78.I 


161.8 


221.3 


268 


270 


239.8 


122.5 


126.4 


I25.I 


119.0 


184.0 


179-4 


163.0 


223.0 


270 


272 


241.6 


123.4 


127.4 


126.2 


120.0 


185.3 


180.8 


164.3 


224.6 


272 


274 


243-4 


124.4 


128.4 


127.2 


121. I 


186.7 


182.2 


165-5 


226.3 


274 


2 7 6 


245.2 


125.4 


129.4 


128.2 


122. I 


188.1 


183-5 


166.8 


228.0 


276 


278 


246.9 


126.4 


130.4 


129.2 


123-1 


189.5 


184.9 


168.0 


229.6 


278 


280 


248.7 


127.3 


131.4 


130.2 


I24.I 


190.9 


186.3 


169.3 


231.3 


280 


282 


250.5 


128.3 


132.4 


I3T .2 


I25-I 


i9 2 -3 


187.6 


170.5 


233.0 


282 


284 


252.3 


129.3 


133.4 


132.2 


I26.I 


193-7 


189.0 


171.8 


234.6 


284 


286 


254-0 


130.3 


134-4 


133 2 


I27.I 


I95-I 


190.4 


173.0 


236.3 


286 


288 


255-8 


131.3 


135-4 


134-3 


I28.I 


196.5 




174-3 


238.0 


288 


290 


257.6 


132.3 


136.4 


135-3 


129.2 


197-8 


I93-I 


175-5 


239 . 6 


290 


292 


259-4 


133-2 


137-4 


136.3 


130.2 


199-2 


194-4 


176.8 


241.3 


292 


294 


26l.2 


134.2 


138.4 


137-3 


I3I-2 


200. 6 


195-8 


178.1 


242.9 


294 


296 


262.9 


135-2 


139-4 


138.3 


132.2 


202. o 


197.2 


179-3 


244.6 


296 


298 


264.7 


136.2 


140.5 


139-4 


133-2 


203.4 


198.6 


180.6 


246.3 


298 


300 


266.5 


137-2 


I4L5 


140.4 


134-2 


204.8 


199-9 


181.8 


247-9 


300 


302 


268.3 


138.2 


142.5 


I4I.4 


135-3 


206.2 


201.3 


183-1 


249-6 


302 


304 


27O.O 


139-2 


143-5 


142.4 


136.3 


207.6 


202.7 


184.4 


251-3 


304 


306 


271.8 


140.2 


144-5 


143-4 


137-3 


209.0 


204.0 


185.6 


252.9 


306 


308 


273.6 


141.2 


145.5 


144-5 


138.3 


210.4 


205.4 


186.9 


254.6 


308 


310 


275.4 


142.2 


146.6 


145-5 


139-4 


211. 8 


206.8 


188.1 


256.3 


310 


312 


277.1 


143-2 


147.6 


146.5 


140.4 


213-2 


208.1 


189.4 


257-9 


312 


314 


278.9 


144.2 


148.6 


147-6 


141.4 


214,6 


209,5 


190.7 


259-6 


314 


316 


280.7 


145.2 


149.6 


148.6 


142.4 


216.0 


210.9 


191.9 


26l .2 


3i6 


318 


282.5 


146.2 


150.7 


149.6 


143-5 


217.3 


212.2 


193-2 


262.9 


3l8 


320 


284.2 


147-2 


I5I.7 


150.7 


144-5 


218.7 


213.6 


194-4 


264.6 


320 


322 


286.0 


148.2 


152.7 


I5L7 


145-5 


220. i 


215-5 


195-7 


266.2 


322 


324 


287.8 


149.2 


153-7 


152.7 


146.6 


221/5 


2l6.4 


197.0 


267.9 


324 


326 


289.6 


150.2 


154.8 


153-8 


147.6 


222.9 


217.7 


198.2 


269.6 


326 


328 


291.4 


151.2 


155.8 


154.8 


148.6 


224.3 


2I9.I 


199.5 


271.2 


328 



324 ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

TABLE Ay. MUNSON AND WALKER'S TABLE. (Continued) 
(Expressed in milligrams) 












Invert Sugar and 
Sucrose 


Lactose 


Lactose and 
Sucrose 


Vlaltose 


Q 


s 




w 















U 




















U 






TJ 




13 


13 


W 







W 




1 


U 


3 


8) 








+ 


4) 
Cfl 





+ 


g 


tfl 







10 


M 


d ** 


q 


2 


of o 


q 




! 


o 


t-> 





H 5) 


1 5> 




& 


2 OT 




2 


u 


6 


I 


M 


o 


as 


u 


* 

H 


1-5 H 
H 


u 


a 
u 


330 


293.1 


152.2 


156.8 


155.8 


149-7 


225-7 


220.5 


200.8 


272.9 


330 


332 


294.9 


153.2 


157.9 


156.9 


150.7 


227.1 


221.8 


2O2.O 


274.6 


332 


334 


296.7 


154-2 


158.9 


157.9 


I5I-7 


228.5 


223.2 


203-3 


276.2 


334 


336 


298.5 


155-2 


159-9 


159.0 


152.8 


229.9 


224.6 


204.6 


277-9 


336 


338 


300.2 


156.3 


161.0 


160.0 


153-8 


231.3 


226.0 


205.9 


279-5 


338 


340 


302.0 


157.3 


162.0 


161.0 


154.8 


232.7 


227.4 


207.1 


281.2 


340 


342 


303.8 


158.3 


163.1 


162,1 


155-9 


234.1 


228.7 


208.4 


282.9 


342 


344 


305.6 


159-3 


164.1 


163.1 


156.9 


235-5 


230.1 


209.7 


284.5 


344 


346 


307.3 


160.3 


165.1 


164.2 


158.0 


236.9 


231.5 


211. 


286.2 


346 


348 


309.1 


161.4 


166.2 


165.2 


159.0 


238.3 


232.9 


212.2 


287.9 


348 


350 


310.9 


162.4 


167.2 


166.3 


160.1 


239-7 


234-3 


213-5 


289.5 


350 


352 


312.7 


163-4 


168.3 


167-3 


161.1 


241.1 


235.6 


214.8 


291.2 


352 


354 


314-4 


164.4 


169.3 


168.4 


162.2 


242.5 


237-0 


216.1 


292.8 


354 


356 


316.2 


165.4 


170.4 


169.4 


163.2 


243.9 


238.4 


217-3 


294-5 


356 


358 


318.0 


166.5 


171.4 


170.5 


164.3 


245-3 


239-8 


218.6 


296.2 


358 


360 


319.8 


167-5 


172.5 


I7L5 


165.3 


246.7 


241.2 


219.9 


297-8 


360 


362 


321.6 


168.5 


173.5 


172.6 


166.4 


248.1 


242.5 


221.2 


299-5 


362 


364 


323.3 


169.6 


174.6 


173.7 


167.4 


249-5 


243-9 


222.5 


301.2 


364 


366 


325-1 


170.6 


175.6 


174-7 


168.5 


250.9 


245-3 


223.7 


302.8 


366 


368 


326.9 


171.6 


176.7 


175-8 


169-5 


252-3 


246.7 


225.0 


304-5 


368 


370 


328.7 


172.7 


177.7 


176.8 


170.6 


253-7 


248.1 


226.3 


306.1 


370 


372 


330.4 


173.7 


178.8 


177-9 


171.6 


255-1 


249-5 


227.6 


307-8 


372 


374 


332.2 


174-7 


179-8 


179.0 


172.7 


256.5 


250.9 


228.9 


309.5 


374 


376 


334-0 


175-8 


180.9 


180.0 


173-7 


257.9 


252.2 


230.2 


311.1 


376 


378 


335-8 


176.8 


182.0 


181.1 


174.8 


259-3 


253-6 


23L5 


312.8 


378 


380 


337-5 


177.9 


183.0 


182.1 


175.9 


260.7 


255-0 


232.8 


3M.5 


380 


382 


339-3 


178.9 


184.1 


183.2 


176.9 


262.1 


256.4 


234-1 


316.1 


382 


384 


34I-I 


180.0 


185.2 


184-3 


178.0 


263.5 


257-8 


235-4 


317.8 


384 


386 


342-9 


181.0 


186.2 


185.4 


I79-I 


264.9 


259-2 


236.6 


319.4 


386 


388 


344-6 


182.0 


187-3 


186.4 


180.1 


266.5 


260.5 


237-9 


321.1 


388 


390 


346.4 


183.1 


188.4 


187.5 


181.2 


267.7 


261.9 


239.2 


322.8 


390 


392 


348.2 


184.1 


189.4 


188.6 


182.3 


269.1 


263.3 


240.5 


324.4 


392 


394 


350-0 


185.2 


190.5 


189.7 


183.3 


270.5 


264.7 


241.8 


326.1 


394 


396 


351.8 


186.2 


191.6 


190.7 


184.4 


271.9 


266.1 


243.1 


327.7 


396 


398 


353-5 


187.3 


192.7 


191-8 


185-5 


273-3 


267.5 


244.4 




398 


400 


355-3 


188.4 


193.7 


192.9 


186.5 


274.7 


268.9 


245-7 


331- 1 


400 


402 


357-1 


189.4 


194-8 


194.0 


187.6 


276.1 


270.3 


247.0 


332-7 


402 


404 


358.9 


190.5 


195-9 


i95-o 


188.7 


277.5 


271.7 


248.3 


334-4 


404 


406 


360.6 


I9I.5 


197.0 


196.1 


189.8 


278.9 


273-0 


249-6 


336.0 


406 


408 


362.4 


192.6 


198.1 


197.2 


190.8 


280.3 


274-4 


251.0 


337-7 


408 



ANALYTICAL REFERENCE TABLES 

TABLE Ay. MUNSON AND WALKER'S TABLE. (Continued) 
(Expressed in milligrams) 



325 



f 




1 




Invert Sugar and 
Sucrose 


Lactose 


Lactose and 
Sucrose 


Maltose 


1 


Si 













q 






q 


U 


r$ 


^ 


Tjb 




1 


P-H 


W 








0) 


8 


U 


^ 


> 


3 





-1- 

i-l 


g> 





"t 


1 


M 

p 




& 


I 


2 


I s 


J2 M 

H 0$ 


1 


II 


f i 


q 


3 


* 


Q< 

a 
o 


8 


1 


!*! 


1^ E? 

bO w 


% 


1 * 


ctf H 


e* 


a 


U 


U 


Q 


M 


6 


N 


U 


H 


H 


U 


U 


410 


364-2 


193.7 


I99.I 


198.3 


I9I.9 


281.7 


275-8 


252.3 


339.4 


410 


412 


366.0 


194.7 


2OO.2 


199-4 


193-0 


283.2 


277.2 


253-6 


341.0 


412 


414 


367.7 


195-8 


2OI-3 


200.5 


I94.I 


284.6 


278.6 


254-9 


342.7 


414 


416 


369-5 


196.8 


202.4 


2OI.6 


195.2 


286.0 


28O.O 


256.2 


344.4 


416 


418 


371.3 


197-9 


203.5 


2O2.6 


196.2 


287.4 


281.4 


257.5 


346.0 


418 


420 


373-1 


199-0 


2O4.6 


203.7 


197-3 


288.8 


282.8 


258.8 


347.7 


420 


422 


374-8 


200. i 


205-7 


204.8 


198.4 


290.2 


284.2 


260.1 


349-3 


422 


424 


376.6 


2OI.I 


206.7 


205-9 


199-5 


291.6 


285.6 


26l.4 


351-0 


424 


426 


378.4 


2O2.2 


207.8 


2O7.O 


2OO.6 


293.0 


287.0 


262.7 


352.7 


426 


428 


380.2 


203-3 


208.9 


208. I 


201.7 


294.4 


288.4 


264.O 


354-3 


428 


430 


382.0 


204.4 


2IO.O 


209.2 


202.7 


295.8 


289.8 


265.4 


356.0 


430 


432 


383.7 


205-5 


211. I 


210.3 


203 . 8 


297.2 


291.2 


266.6 


357-6 


432 


434 


385 - 5 


206.5 


212.3 


2II.4 


204.9 


298.6 


292.6 


268.0 


359-3 


434 


436 


387.3 


2O7.6 


213-3 


212.5 


206.0 


300.0 


294.0 


269.3 


361.0 


436 


438 


389-1 


208.7 


214.4 


213.6 


207.1 


301.4 


295.4 


270.6 


362.6 


438 


440 


390-8 


209.8 


215-5 


214.7 


208.2 


302.8 


296.8 


272.O 


364-3 


440 


442 


392-6 


210.9 


216.6 


215-8 


209.3 


304-2 


298.2 


273-3 


365-9 


442 


444 


394-4 


212.0 


217.8 


216.9 


210.4 


305.6 


299.6 


274.6 


367.6 


444 


446 


396-2 


2I3.I 


218.9 


218.0 


211.5 


307.0 


3OI.O 


275-9 


369-3 


446 


448 


397-9 


2I4.I 


22O.O 


219.1 


212.6 


308.4 


302.4 


277.2 


370-9 


448 


450 


399-7 


215.2 


221. 1 


22O.2 


213-7 


309.9 


303.8 


278.6 


372.6 


450 


452 


401.5 


2l6.3 


222.2 


221.4 


214.8 


3H.3 


305.2 


279-9 


374-2 


452 


454 


403-3 


217.4 


223.3 


222.5 


215-9 


312.7 


306.6 


28l.2 


375-9 


454 


456 


405.1 


218.5 


224.4 


223.6 


217.0 


314-1 


308.0 


282.5 


377-6 


456 


458 


406.8 


219.6 


225.5 


224.7 


218.1 


315.5 


309.4 


283.9 


379-2 


458 


460 


408.6 


22O.7 


226.7 


225.8 


219.2 


316.9 


310.8 


285.2 


380.9 


460 


462 


410.4 


221.8 


227.8 


226.9 


220.3 


318.3 


312.2 


286.5 


382.5 


462 


464 


412.2 


222.9 


228.9 


228.1 


221.4 


319.7 


313.6 


287.8 


384.2 


464 


466 


413.9 


224.0 


230.0 


229.2 


222.5 


321.1 


315.0 


289.2 


385.9 


466 


468 


415.7 


225.1 


231.2 


230.3 


223.7 


322.5 


316.4 


290.5 


387.5 


468 


470 


417.5 


226.2 


232.3 


231.4 


224.8 


323-9 


317.7 


291.8 


389-2 


470 


472 


4I9-3 


227.4 


233-4 


232.5 


225.9 


325.3 


3I9.I 


293.2 


390-8 


472 


474 


421.0 


228.3 


234.5 


233-7 


227.0 


326.8 


320.5 


294-5 


392-5 


474 


476 


422.8 


229.6 


235-7 


234-8 


228.1 


328.2 


32L9 


295-8 


394-2 


476 


478 


424.6 


230.7 


236.8 


235-9 


229.2 


329.6 


323.3 


297.1 


395-8 


478 


480 


426.4 


231.8 


237-9 


237-1 


230.3 


331-0 


324.7 


298.5 


397-5 


480 


482 


428.1 


232.9 


239-1 


238.2 


231.5 


332.4 


326.1 


299.8 


399-1 


482 


484 


429.9 


234-1 


240.2 


239-3 


232.6 


333.8 


327.5 


30I.I 


400.8 


484 


486 


431-7 


235.2 


241.4 


240-5 


233.7 


335-2 


328.9 


302.5 


402.4 


486 


488 


433-5 


236.3 


242.5 


241.6 


234-8 


336.6 


330-3 


303.8 


404.1 


488 


490 


435-3 


237.4 


243.6 


242.7 


236.0 


338.0 


331-7 


305.1 


405.8 


490 



CHAPTER XV 
STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 

The importance of reliable and ample statistics to modern 
business is now widely recognized and in the last two decades 
the Federal Government and various trade associations have 
placed a vast amount of data at the disposal of the corporation 
executive. 

While the Federal Government has compiled statistics of the 
liquor production and trade for at least three decades, unfortu- 
nately the prohibition era has interfered; so that such figures as 
are available cannot present an accurate picture of the liquor 
trade as we have known it to exist for the 1918 to 1932 period. 

There are presented here a selection of statistical tables 
taken mainly from government publications and compilations 
obtained therefrom; which indicate with some accuracy the 
trends in the United States production and consumption of wines 
and liquors. The data are presented with a reservation that 
their accuracy, at best, is qualitative. 

Size of the industry. That the industry was formerly both 
large and widespread is shown by the fact that in 1901 there 
were 3,736 distilleries in operation, of which 1,258 used grain 
and 2,478 used fruit as raw material. 

By 1914 there were only 352 grain and 368 fruit distilleries 
operating, or a total of 720. Since production increased during 
this fourteen year period, we have evidence of merger into fewer 
and larger units. 

According to recent data (Dec., 1933) there are registered 6 
grain, 2 molasses and 25 fruit distilleries. All but five of the fruit 
distilleries are operating. In addition there are 43 industrial 
alcohol plants operating. See Table 27 for complete data. 

In 1907, and again in 1912, over $156,000,000 in taxes were 

collected on withdrawals of distilled spirits. The Government 

326 



FOREIGN TRADE IN DISTILLED SPIRITS 327 

collected $186,947,000 in 1917, $308,429,000 in 1918 and 
$353,737,000 in 1919. Taxes on wine ranged from $2,307,000 
in 1915 to $11,474,000 in 1919. See Table 28. 

In 1901 there remained aging in bonded warehouses after 
the annual withdrawals 154,438,407 gallons of distilled spirits. 
By 1914 the bonded warehouses held, after annual withdrawals, 
286,900,000 gallons; of which 278,108,000 were whiskey, 
1,217,000 rum, 216,000 gin, 4,865,000 brandy and 2,495,000 
alcohol. See Table 29. In 1913 the industry used 4,252,583 
bushels of malt and 5,828,450 bushels of rye in addition to other 
cereals. See Table 30. 

Production of distilled spirits. Production of distilled spirits 
exclusive of alcohol averaged 89,900,000 gallons from 1901 to 
1914, reaching a maximum of 114,634,000 gallons in 1913. 

Production of whiskey increased from 89,700,000 gallons in 
1901 to an average of 99,400,000 for the three year period 
1911 to 1913 inclusive. 

Production of rum increased from 1,724,000 gallons in 1901 
to 3,026,000 gallons in 1914. 

Production of gin increased from 1,636,000 gallons in 1901 
to 4,012,543 gallons in 1914. 

Production of brandy increased from 4,047,000 gallons in 
1901 to 7,307,800 gallons in 1914. 

Production of alcohol in 1901 was 41,458,000 gallons and 
81,101,000 gallons in 1915. Practically a 100 per cent increase 
in 15 years. By 1926 it had more than doubled to 202,270,000 
gallons. It jumped from 79,900,000 in 1922 to 122,400,000 in 
1923. Prior to that time 10,000,000 gallons was the highest 
jump, war years excepted. See Table 31 for more complete data. 
Withdrawals of distilled spirits. Withdrawals of distilled 
spirits exclusive of alcohol increased from 60,585,000 gallons in 
1901 to 83,577,000 gallons in 1913 and to 93,210,000 in 1917, 
a war year. They declined abruptly in 1920 to 6,394,000 and 
reached a low of 1,000,000 gallons in 1932. See Table 32. 

Foreign trade in distilled spirits. Exports of distilled spirits 
averaged 1,400,000 gallons for the 15 year period 1901 to 1915 
inclusive. , j ;. 



328 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 

Exports of rum held fairly level for the 8 year period 1910 
to 1917 and averaged 1,250,000 gallons. 

Exports of whiskey declined from 685,729 gallons in 1901 
to 155,880 gallons in 1918. They spurted suddenly to 3,315,861 
in 1920, preceding prohibition. See Table 33. 

Germany, Mexico, the Philippine Islands, South America, 
England, Central America, Canada and Bermuda have been our 
best customers for whiskey. Following prohibition, Bahama 
Islands, Bermuda, Canada, Cuba, England and Mexico all re- 
ceived large shipments, most of which probably found its way 
back to us via the bootleggers. See Table 34. 

Imports of distilled liquors remained fairly level during the 
period 1901 to 1918 and averaged 3,450,000 gallons a year. 

Imports of whiskey remained fairly level during the period 
1910 to 1917 and averaged 1,420,000 gallons per year. 

Imports of brandy averaged 494,000 gallons for the period 
1901 to 1917. 

Imports of gin averaged 955,000 gallons for the period 
1910 to 1916. 

Imports of cordials averaged 472,000 gallons for the period 
1912 to 1916. See Table 35. 

Consumption of distilled spirits. Theoretically, the ap- 
parent consumption of distilled spirits may be calculated as 
follows. Withdrawals from bonded warehouses, plus imports, 
minus exports should give the apparent consumption. Unfor- 
tunately, in the last seven or eight years bootleggers succeeded 
in diverting large amounts of industrial alcohol to alcoholic bev- 
erages. Since this diversion was considered to amount to a 
large volume, any estimate of consumption during prohibition 
must include an allowance for industrial alcohol and must be arbi- 
trary at best. By reference to Table 31 it will be observed 
that there was a tremendous expansion in industrial alcohol pro- 
duction for the period 1922 to 1932. However, in the period 
1901 -to 1915 production increased 100 per cent so that large ex- 
pansion in this industry is not unknown. On the other hand, in 
the period 1905 to 1914 production averaged 71,570,000 gallons 
and in the period 1919 to 1922, 90,350,000 gallons. Production 



WINE CONSUMPTION 329 

then increased rapidly, more than doubling (from 90,000,000 to 
200,000,000) in the next four years, 1922 to 1926, and main- 
tained a high rate thereafter. 

If increased industrial consumption during 1922 to 1926 ac- 
counted for one-half of the increased production then the remain- 
ing half probably represents the amount diverted by bootleggers. 
In other words, 25 per cent of any increase over the 1919 to 
1922 average. 

On this basis an estimate of consumption has been arrived 
at for the period 1901 to 1932 and is shown in detail in Table 
36. In period 1901 to 1919 consumption averaged 70,120,000 
gallons. In period 1925 to 1932 it averaged 41,050,000 gallons 
with a high of 52,292,000. 

It is impossible to determine whether prohibition really did 
cut consumption to this extent or whether too small credit has 
been given to the bootleg industry. However, by another method 
of the consumption it might be pointed out that in the 16 years 
1901 to 1916 the gross increase of withdrawals was roughly 28 
per cent. On this basis, if the normal increase for the next 16 
years has been at the same rate then withdrawals in 1932 would 
have amounted to 98,630,000 gallons so that consumption would 
have been something slightly over 100,000,000 gallons allowing 
for excess of imports over exports. 

Wine consumption. Statistics on wine are divided into two 
classifications, namely, still wines, and champagne and other 
sparkling wines. 

Production (total) of wines was fairly constant for the period 
1912 to 1919 averaging 45,600,000 gallons and reaching a high 
of 55,756,000 gallons in 1919. Thereafter it dropped sharply, 
averaging 6,800,000 gallons for the period 1922 to 1932. See 
Table 37. 

Exports of wine for the period 1901 to 1915 averaged 
786,000 gallons. From 1916 to 1920 exports increased from 
1,133,000 gallons to 4,573,000 gallons. Thereafter there was a 
sharp drop to 26,000 gallons in 1921 and in the period 1926 
to 1932 exports were too negligible to record. See Table 38. 

Imports of wine for the period 1901 to 1918 averaged 



330 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 

5,969,000 gallons of still wines; and 913,000 gallons of cham- 
pagne and other sparkling wines. It is interesting to note that 
the period 1903 to 1910 marked the largest consumption. Cham- 
pagne imports then averaged well over 1,000,000 gallons an- 
nually, and still wines also jumped to well over 7,000,000 gallons 
a year and even to 9,500,000 in 1910. Following enactment of 
prohibition there was a sharp drop to an average of 33,700 gal- 
lons of still wines and champagnes for the period 1924 to 1931. 
See Table 39. 

By combining the data in Tables 37-39 apparent consump- 
tion of wine is obtained. For the period 1912 to 1919 it aver- 
aged 49> 2 33>ooo gallons. 

Following prohibition it dropped to an average of 6,033,000 
gallons for the period 1924 to 1932, with a high of 11,403,000 
for the boom year 1929. See Table 40. 

The liquor industry as a consumer of agricultural products. 
The advocates for repeal of prohibition have made much of 
the large outlet for farmers' crops which the liquor industry will 
present. It is not within the scope of this book to consider the 
crops and amounts consumed by the beer brewing industry. 

Reference to Table 30 shows that in 1913 the distilled 
liquor industry used 4,252,000 bushels of malt and 5,828,000 
bushels of unmalted rye. In addition some portion of the corn 
and molasses consumption of 23,800,000 bushels and 64,600,000 
gallons respectively must also be allocated to the liquor industry 
although larger proportions went into the manufacture of alcohol. 

In 1925 the liquor industry used 96,170,000 pounds of raisins 
and 682,000 pounds of rice besides other materials. 

Another factor to be taken into consideration and which, so 
far, has not had a great deal of publicity is the potential outlet 
for fruit surpluses. For example, applejack from apples; cordials 
and liqueurs from peaches, pears, oranges, apricots, plums, cher- 
ries, prunes, herbs and seeds, etc. 

The possible future of the industry can be visualized by refer- 
ences to Table 41 which shows that in 1930 France produced 
MO9, 933,000 gallons, Italy 551,737,000 gallons, Spain 481,- 
585,000 and other countries similar large amounts of wine. 



THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



TABLE 27. DISTILLERIES REGISTERED AND OPERATED AND INDUSTRIAL-ALCOHOL PLANTS 
OPERATED, FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE 



Fiscal 
year 


Grain 


Molasses * 


Fruit 


Indus- 
trial 
alcohol 
plants 
oper- 
ated f 


Total 
oper- 
ated* 


Regis- 
tered 


Oper- 
ated 


Regis- 
tered 


Oper- 
ated 


Regis- 
tered 


Oper- 
ated 


1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 

*9 J 3 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 

'923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

I93i 
1932 


1,506 
i,37* 
W5 

M3 1 

896 
912 

878 

799 
690 

633 

588 

575 
528 

475 
438 
338 
301 

154 
i5 
8 

2 
2 


1,258 
1,089 
1,103 
744 
728 
740 
7 IO 

579 
4 66 

444 
432 
417 
398 

35* 
249 
279 
198 

72 

13 
6 

2 
2 


9 
ii 

'3 
15 
14 
14 
15 
*5 

X 7 
18 
18 
19 
23 
25 
*3 

25 
27 

27 
25 

21 

2 " 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


9 
ii 

12 

'5 

*3 

13 

'5 
14 
16 

16 

17 
18 

22 
*3 

23 

25 
25 
27 
23 

21 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


2,515 
1,869 

i,378 

i,453 
1,108 
1,215 
919 
667 
840 
470 
504 
401 

469 

380 
386 

337 
297 
192 
38 

21 

32 
3 1 
3 1 
23 
24 
^7 

22 
^5 
32 
25 
20 

^5 


2,478 
1,838 
1,326 
1,413 
IP3 1 

1,132 

862 

607 
810 
446 

474 
386 
450 
368 

363 
301 

28 4 
137 
38 
20 

29 
30 
31 
23 
24 
27 
22 

25 
32 

25 
20 
20 




3,745 
2,938 
2,441 
2,172 

i,772 
1,885 

i,587 

1,200 
1,292 
906 

923 
821 

870 

743 
635 
605 

57 
236 

74 
9i 

102 
102 
98 

95 
97 
93 
86 
82 
86 
84 
75 
7i 






































44 
69 
68 

65 

70 

7i 
64 
62 

55 
52 

5o 
46 

43 


























7 
7 
6 


7 
7 
6 



* Rum only manufactured since 1921. 

t Industrial-alcohol plants use both molasses and grain in manufacture of alcohol. 



332 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



TABLE 28. TAX COLLECTED ON DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES AND FERMENTED LIQUORS, 
FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE 



Year 


Distilled spirits 


Wines 


Fermented liquors 


Total 


iqoi 


Jll6 % O27.q7q.c6 




7C 669 907 6c 


$ 69788721 


^ 
iqO2 


f * w,v- ^ yy / y j^ 




7I,q88,qO2.iq 


iqi.I26,qiC.C2 


.7 

I qoi 


1 1 1. QC 1.4.72. 1O 




/ yy V 9y oy 
47,547,856.08 


~yo* yy j j 
I7q. COI. 128.4.7 


1004 


o yy jOvr/ jy 
135,810,015.42 




4q.o8l,4C8.77 


/.7Jj v *>O 'T/ 

l84.8qi,474.iq 


iqoC 






t7J OJT^J / / 


* w *r> w i/O,^/T^ x 

i86,iiq % o66.io 


y j 

IQ06 


!4l > iq4 > OCC 12 




Cc'64/8c8 c6 


>O 'yj^'^ ^"o 

IQQ.OIC qii.68 


*yww 


Ic6.1l6.QOI.8q 




Co <67*8i8 18 


yyy ojyy o v 

2lC.qO4.72O.O7 


iqo8 


* 3 W >OO V >.7 .7 

140,158,807.15 




59,807,616.81 


j,y v *t, / *^ > -' / 
Iqq.q66,421.q6 


AVfW 


134,868,034.12 




57,456,41 1 .42 


yyyy v y^ ~o y 


IQIO 


l4.8.O2q,1II.C4- 




60,572,288.54 


208,601,600.08 


IQII 


^ v y y?O 7^ 




64, 167,777. 6c 




*y* A 
1912 


i56',39M35-77 


$52.00 


T 1 ^O / ' / / / J 
63,268,770.51 


219,660,258.28 


19*3 


163,879,276.54 


66.00 


66,266,989.60 


230,146,332.14 


IQIA 


i Co 008 177 11 




67.08 1. C 1 2.4 C 


226.I7q68q.76 


1915 


142,312,397.40 


2,307,30! -97 


/ ) tj ^j 
7q 128 q4o72 


* v j /yy y i 
223,948,646.09 


I9l6 


156,050,909.55 


2,631,529.98 


88,771,103.99 


247,453,543-5 2 


1917 


186,947,243.78 


5,164,075.03 


91,897,193.81 


284,008,512.62 


I9l8 


308,429,318.77 


9,124,368.56 


126,285,857.65 


443,839,544.98 


1919 


353,737,44-77 


11,474,207.49 


117,839,602.21 


483,050,854.47 


I92O 


93,161,205.60 


4,744,070.11 


41,965,874.09 


139,871,149.80 


1921 


80,281,612.55 


2,316,452.46 


25,363.82 


82,623,428.83 


1922 


44,257,100.75 


1,306,249.72 


46,086.00 


45, 6 9,43 6 -47 


1923 


28,822,015.50 


1,531,991.38 


4,078.75 


30,358,085.63 


1924 


26,126,317.76 


1,454,062.88 


5,327.73 


27,585,708.37 


1925 


24,307,331.65 


1,595,488.63 


1,954-44 


25,904,774.72 


1926 


24,756,900.06 


1,679,434.38 


15,694,19 


26,452,028.63 


1927 


20,399,065.88 


795,602.83 


883.25 


21,195,551.96 


1928 


14,414,088.04 


893,408.41 


300.00 


15,307,796.45 


1929 


12,484,078.53 


292,549.93 


IOO.OO 


12,776,728.46 


IDOO 


II 4.CC 88l QQ 


2iq,i8l.68 




ii 60 c 267 67 


I 11 


10*201* C6q 41 


O.7>O W O w 
2284.qC.o6 




10,432,064.49 


I 12 


g' ' ' g 


XT7 J 




8.701.061.27 




> 


' 




,/ oyy o / 



THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



333 



TABLE 29. SPIRITS REMAINING IN BONDED WAREHOUSES JUNE 30, 1901, TO 1932 

BY KINDS 

[Statement in tax gallons] 



Year 


Whiskey 


Rum 


Gin 


Brandy 


Alcohol 


Aggregate 


1901 


150,652,832.5 


679.302.7 


268,105.7 


1,705,269.7 


1,132,897.1 


154,438,407.7 


1902 


164,388,547.8 


949,430.1 


246,526.8 


2,077,254.1 


3,157,925.8 


170,819,684.6 


1903 


183.930,488.3 


1,229,162.2 


172,118.6 


2,757,382.8 


3,019,009.0 


191,108,160.9 


1904 


191,320,875.7 


1,310,632.4 


255,073-1 


2,775,088.3 


2,249,344.6 


197,911,014.1 


1905 


210,780,752.6 


,195,443.9 


320,568.9 


3,177,271.9 


3,260,558.2 


218,734,595-5 


1906 


223,737.332-0 


,188,675.5 


273,231.3 


2,226,587.0 


1,536,590.0 


228,962,415.8 


1907 


242,319,516.7 


,222,581.1 


242,370.8 


2,153,250.4 


1,654,347.4 


247,592,066.4 


1908 


231,940,083.4 


,227,008.5 


201,176.3 


2,966,215.6 


1,657,860.0 


237,992,343.8 


1909 


226,096,519.0 


,108,327.9 


181,479.0 


3,679,936.7 


i,755,io8.i 


232,821,370.7 


1910 


230,224,625.0 


820,268.5 


161,604.8 


4,137,844.5 


2,302,176.3 


237,646,519.1 


1911 


246,203,020.4 


983,387.6 


214,794.0 


4,519,762.1 


1,878,144.6 


253,799,io8.7 


1912 


260,074,282.8 


984,953.3 


190,278.3 


5,001,083.6 


2,536,317-4 


268,786,915.4 


1913 


272,504,285.5 


1,086,063.4 


180,458.0 


5,784,226.8 


3,013,733-1 


282,568,766.8 


I9M 


278,108,056.1 


1,217,302.7 


216,016.2 


4,865,324-7 


2,495,085.2 


286,901,784.9 


1915 


249,714,721.4 


1,218,392.7 


234,965-4 


6,143,372.3 


2,500,261.8 


259,811,713.6 


1916 


228,677,774.1 


906,042.5 


216,911.5 


5,849,015-4 


2,602,150.2 


238,251,893.7 


1917 


189,675,854-7 


966,644.5 


533,065.0 


4,244,404.8 


3,657,118.4 


199,257,087.4 


1918 


140,721,821.5 


741,104.2 


2,777,467.7 


3,494,020.8 


14,718,871.1 


162,453,285.3 


1919 


63.942,931.5 


460,709.6 


1,551,101.8 


1,260,344.9 


6,403,408.2 


73,618,496.0 


1920 


50,550,498.6 


413,923.8 


963,996.7 


884,025.1 


3,935,326.1 


56,747,770.3 


1921 


3996i,943.8 


399,419.1 


885,912.9 


641,558.1 


8,643,577.4 


50,532,411.3 


1922 


36,588,568.3 


384,012.2 


987,884.7 


963,781.5 


7,068,291.1 


45,992,537.8 


1923 


33,151,029.0 


366,244.2 


878,597.2 


1,269,206.5 


7,364,040.9 


43,029,117.8 


1924 


30,064,670.9 


341,214.0 


836,730.2 


1,289,400.8 


6,697,627.3 


39,229,643.2 


1925 


26,840,953-5 


327,379.1 


8i9,599.3 


1,229,141.7 


9,641,420.9 


38,852,494.5 


1926 


23,814,140.2 


289,344-6 


802,433.2 


1,133,057.7 


6,249,064.2 


32,288,039.9 


1927 


20,904,071.2 


252,329.5 


8i9,443.7 


1,029,598.0 


9,263,241.6 


32,268,684.0 


1928 


17,975,943-8 


282,387.2 


815,718.2 


1,013,305.2 


7,u3,533.3 


27,200,887.7 


1929 


15,127,390.8 


226,830.6 


794,447.5 


906,702.8 


12,075,898.9 


29,131,270.6 


1930 


14,786,971-9 


171,409.8 


799,587.6 


864,141.1 


10,375,534.0 


26,997,644-4 


i93i 


15,179,327.9 


188,648.2 


781,191.8 


971,828.5 


16,346,160.8 


33,467,157-2 


1932 


15,293,713.1 


200,305.2 


746,076.2 


1,020,895.9 


19,223,942.03 


36,484,932.43 



334 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



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THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



335 



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& .::::: o ~ 


Sgg 

d-- o 


r ?* 








* c< 






.^2^ 




a 


fO^d 


O-^NO 




J 

J3 


"^ q^ vo 
R vo co 
it d o 
<a d M 


^a 
3 M . 

^- rt 4J 

. r~-* ct 


vn co Osoo ^ HH rf- d vO vo co 
VO NO CO ^H OO rh NO vo CO ^f ***^ 

o os HHOO HH o c^oo co < r-< 


u 


:::::: ft 8 

oo vo OS co co Os 
^ VO vo oo O VO vo 
*Q d d Os HH os d 


s of corn, i 
icing buty 
ids of whe 


osO coO ^-oooo O vp vo -^ 
O M oo d Os co ** oo os ^4" oo 


5 if-.fi 


5 O Os covo co c* 
^ d oo r^-oo O vo 


^63o 

l a 8 


<o co "4" t"- t^oo so os Os d T|- 


< 




B, ft o^! 
SS^-SL 


VO OO Vo COOO t OS VO OS VO 1 ^- 

f^ O vQ ^^ r^-oo t t O vO CO 

oo HH o r~-vo r^ vo rt- d co os 


. ."a 
t-fi l f 


oo O vo Os 


3i# 
"s 2 i 


OO OS OS M Q 00 HH 




^"i ocT co cT ocT 
CO * co 


rt'3 rf c 

l|f 

*ts ** o "S 


: ; : i ; ! : : 8 : : 

CO . 


1 


"5 VO OO Q '<* 

S co O vo os 
jj OS vo OS d 


S rt Sg 

Uli 


d 


an 


N^ t^ HH VO 


&#s3 

sK< 









^st 


: : :::::: ^ co 4 

M 00 M 


& 


^3 :::::: 


sl? 

^R^'2 


c^ 




^s S ?. '. : ; i '. '. 


d &3J s 
^^"S 








18| 


r-. vo vo r^d osoooo ^ o co 

ON ^ oo Os covo co vo f- vo HH 
vo oo Os co O Os d NO vo covo 


' 

*~> 


OS O 
^ d d 


Sails 
S-oS^ 


Os co Osvo HH \O vooo VO co vo 
r~^ T*- vo vo'rf OSOO vo T|- ^- O 
VO -"i- O O S O -^ co COVO VO vo 




!&<?:::::: 

o HH r^. 


*J? 
Ss 

OA'O O*'^ 








* at H > 


OSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOS 


1 


* * 

dddddcococo 

osososososososos 


l 

* ^ 
^ t* 








? 



336 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



TABLE 31. DISTILLED SPIRITS PRODUCED DURING FISCAL YEARS 1901-1932 
[Production shown in tax gallons] 



Year 


Whiskey 


Rum 


Gin 


Brandy 


Alcohol 


Total 
exclusive 
of alcohol 


1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 

I9'3 
1914 

IOI C 


79,701,170 
75,414,812 

70,673,93* 
60,606,978 
71,083,421 

70,633,074 
86,552,027 
54,502,027 
70,152,174 
82,463,894 
100,647,155 
98,209,574 
99,615,828 
88,698,797 

A A CC2 4.8O 


1,724,582 
2,202,047 
2,247,906 
1,801,179 
1,791,987 
1,730,101 
2,022,407 
1,895,922 
i>95 2 5 374 

<W3>949 
2,631,059 
2,832,515 
2,750,846 
3,026,085 
2 SAA ill 


1,636,299 

1,752,280 
1,913,404 
2,110,215 
2,187,709 
2,323,^89 
2,947,687 
2,756,752 
2,483,743 
2,985,435 
3,345,37 
3,577,86i 
4,014,600 
4,012,542 
7,6'?6,28c 


4,047,602 
4,220,400 

6,43 ,673 
5, J 93>262 
5,448,584 
4,444P7i 
6,138,304 
6,899,822 

6,440,857 
7,656,433 
7>953, I 3 I 
9,321,823 
8,252,874 
7,307,897 

8.C2I,OCI 


41,458,547 
49,254,261 
66,940,959 
6 9>793>578 
72,747, 6 76 
7o,979, 6 6o 
77,051,166 

67,835,037 
58,862,463 

68,534,247 
68,778,809 
75*630,032 
78,972,108 
78,874,219 
81,101,063 


89> I0 9, 6 53 
83,589,539 
81,265,914 

69,7^,634 
80,511,701 

79,^0,555 
97,661,049 
66,054,523 
81,029,248 
95*3 59*7! i 
I 4,57 6 ,7 I 5 
"3,944,773 
114,634,148 

103,045,321 


jyi j 
1916 
1917 
1918 
IOIO 


59,240,671 
57,651,834 

17.383.5" 


2,986,940 
2,842,921 
1,526,743 

8IC/7Q4. 


4,118,064 
5,756,666 
4,i78>538 


4,159,35! 
8,251,097 

5,357*325 

1,802,422 


182,778,245 
211,582,744 
150,387,680 
08,160,121 


1 War 


i y*y 

IQ2O 


ooj. 7Q{ 


QAA Ql6 




1. 640, AA C 


08.4.16.170 




IQ2I 


X J4/ W } 
7C7 '2*74. 


C4.7 CO*7 




If 70 7Q2 


8< 068 776 




IQ22 


/!>JO/4 
or C 7QQ 


JT-JjJ^/ 

864..'n2 




1,077,061 


70,006,101 




IO21 


J 1 jy/yy 


8OC.122 




1,417,461 


122,402,849 




J y-*j 

I O24. 




784.608 




84.7.IO4. 


IK,8o7,72C 




I QIC 




784. 086 




C4.7.727 


i66.i6c.<i7 




x y z i 

1926 




804.. 706 




641.068 


202,271,670 




102*7 




8lO 4.4.Q 




118,4.10 


1 84., 121,016 




1 y- i / 
1028 




QO.'KO 




411, cic 


169,149,904 




iy^o 
IQ2Q 




1. 227.4. 11 




1. 1 Q4.2Q2 


200,832,051 




xyxy 

TQ'JO 


I Qo8 QA*7 


082 78l 




4.I6.O4.1 


1 01. 8 CO. 14,2 




iyju 

I O*J I 


*>yy>y4/ 
o Aic 671 


I TOO 077 




82O.278 


166.014.14.6 




1 yj 1 

IO7.2 


^^Jij^ 1 

I 711 O28 


i > x- *j>y// 

I .OQJ..777 




6lO,786 


146,010.012 




i yj z 















Source: "Statistics concerning intoxicating liquors," Bureau of Industrial Alcohol, 
U. S. Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 



THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



337 



vo vo ON o vo r^-o ^t-o 

vo co vn co ON ON O co 



Kft *o i-i'vb d i-t vb Q vd O" < <?ONr^vndNO S o' S *-"vn > ^(xToo"^ ? T? o" 4 vo" - 

P 00 hi vnvo ONt-i ON ON vn ON ON "fr F*^ ^ CT" ^ ^ . 2> V? ^ >5 ^ !> ^ ^ ^ * f~rS? 

vo vn ^ T$- xj- vnvo vO vO " "" " " ~ ~ 

5 

tn 

D 

ONH-idi-<vnt-H r^oooovo d ON ^ O O cooo 

co Ji d d d oo oo i i O vo ON ON d ''t' ^J* O O vo i i r *-" TJ- ^- ON s vo ** d oo HH ON co 

ON hj\ t~~- O O oo d cooo r O Ovoo TJ- ON ^t~vo vn ONOO oo co co O vo ^t" d vnvo ON O d 

KJ) d ^J- O d co >" t^ HH co co d vnoo oo oo oo d O vo O vn - vn d ~ "~ ~" - - ~- 

o < cT 4^ 4 r^ r-^ 4 vn* kTscToo' 4 -" r --~ - r - ~ r -" - ~ -" - * -" r 

o 

N 

ONOO r|- ON vn ^vo ON d HH vnoo cocoOvO >-* O O vnO\ONCOdoooo d r^co "J-vp ON 

WQ d r ^ ^ ON >-i H^ { co co vn d r*- cooo f~ d ON O vnvo oo >* o | - 4 CA ****'* ~ " 
J~ O\ vn i-^ -f Tj- d^ -^00^ ^00^ t^ t-^ -^ CO C^^ i-^ vo vn co O\ ' ^ ' 

O VO O VO VO vO vn O ON ON ^t" r ^" I vnoo ON HH vo vn ON vn i-< co d (* "' co vn d HH oo 

^5 NO r--oo vn r-oo COH o ^covncot^I^-r^O coOvo c< cor^-co vnoo d vo oo d co -" 
O^vn-^r^r^-ONi-ro O\vn vnvo ONOO cooo HI ONOO d vo vo O ONOcToo oo oo^ocToo" 
CO ^vO vO VO VO r-vo rhvnvnvnvnvnvnvnt^-d M d d M - 

fi 

^ 

co-" T^OVOOO ^ONt^r^ ONVO ^Mdi-tcovnH-tO'-'vnH-iH-idO covo ^ ON ^-vo 

Q bJD ^ ooHHvo-i-dvovnr^.codvOdr*-doo ^-oo oo oo oo vn tl-oo vn d r^vo ^-co vp -" vo 

~" 5 oo vo ^t* ^* c*> CO ON d co ^ co ^ vn o d O M ON d ON vnNO covo O vo vo O oo 

5 t-ONHitncoH-Tt-r-ONHidooQ 1^^ *** *^ O^ 00 O vo d d d ' ' ' 

H X X j j ***. ,^t~L _i. iV r^ Xi o vX ^v r^oo vn d O ^ 

Ol 
o 1 

^ "> oo co r^oo vo l^- H vn ONVO ON l^vo ONVO oo oo oo co rt-vo - ONVO vO vo oo HH co co 

00 oo d co d" r^ 6 M o\ O vd co d* oo* ON 4oo ' 6 6 oo oo O vn 4- 4vd ~ 4 d d M O 

_.--* co t^ O -^- co ONOO d r^r-d Qvncod -^-d d H ONO vnvo oo i- vn d ^ r-oo HH o 

O vn^o S e? H^VO^VO ON ON O^ 0\ ON d 5 ?- 5 ***O. ' ^ cod^n-tcoddHH 

^ i-Tt-Ti-rcrdddddd'cocori-cofo 

B 

!*. ON r- ON ONVO ^ONdvO ONHHOO cod ^r- vnoo ONVO O oo ON O vO O\ O 

-. e d* oo' ON ONVO' -I co -' -*' oo* 6 - 6 6 4 O vn ^ vn ONOO 4- ^ c< M ^ cooo d r^ d 

H C co co ^ O -^ vnvo co vnoo ooQvnd fO-"CO-"CO IH ONvn r-oo r- d O ONOO <* 

PH H^ocT *cTvnT?o*NO' % coo"r^-vn-4rf 4'vo" O^ *-T o^ >-T 0*00* co cT ^ O^ocT fC *" -^ -- " 

PCO ON "T t^- O ONVO CO HH ON ON >H O vnvO "^ vn COVO d"-t MHIMMMHH 
r^ r-oo oo ONOO ONVO ^ NO vo r- r-vo vnvovo co " 

r*- co co covo r^oo o >-< r^oovo ^coo ON ONVO 

*** {.. (-Ivnvncor^r- 4oo vo 4-O\O-< COON4-ON>-| O ^vndvO O\ -> cooo oo covo O d 

2?P r--.oor-r--vnO covo O\oov5 'too O 4 co ON ONOO ~ - " 

^ ^Q 1 ^^ ^ *! ^S *^ ^ ^ ^ ^t ^i ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

r^oo*oo* i-T T|- co co ONVO O d vn -d-vo ^hoo HH d d r^oo"vd 

M ^J-MMCO-^-O ON-t ONOO vn rho -! vo ON d -^-00 HH INO _ . . _ _ 

i_i Q\ M vo c< vn r^ O vn d vo co d oo vo ^t" vn d ** HH M vo r~~~oo ONOO NO vn vn TJ- d ON 
r^ T? vn vn vn <oo\ d^r^d^dvo^rTroO^ covo dVOONd"i-<HiH-iH-iN-ii-<M-ii-r 
\n vn ^f rj- ^ -^f vn vnvo vo r- r- r- r-vo vo oo vnvo 

? Q f^ "^ VT^^ r^op ON O M d co ^ vnvo r-oo ON O w d I co "t vnvp r^oq ON O 
>^ 



338 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



TABLE 33. EXPORTS DISTILLED SPIRITS, 1901 TO 1932 
In gallons 



Year 


Brandy 


Rum 


Whiskey B 


Whiskey R 


All other 


Total 


1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 

IQIO 


i5>323 

24,077 
18,117 

7<V93 
21,171 

5>'45 
14,172 
2,750 
14,718 


1,076,711 
1,095,401 
1,096,719 
757,227 

9 II ,37' 
701,423 
914,074 

938,331 
926,049 
1,138,128 


5 2 5>37 2 
611,518 
169,396 
231,540 
212,001 
183,621 
190,067 
129,258 

33 1, 909 
46,301 


160,357 
155,046 
104,236 

127,535 
106,893 
109,522 
134,110 

1 7 2 ,755 
121,320 
1 82,002 


23,562 

7 6 ,384 
48,014 
47,402 

83,771 
40,089 

19,779 
28,391 
11,204 
78,122 


1,801,325 
1,962,426 
M3 6 ,482 
1,253,897 
1,335,207 
1,037,800 
1,272,202 
1,271,485 
1,405,200 
1,404,553 


IQII 




I.I2Q.C78 


C8.4CQ 


I 7 7.4 CO 


42,246 


1,363,733 


IQI2 




I.4.IO.84.O 


84,181 


I4O,I22 


27,797 


1,695,140 


IQII 




I,268,OC4 


60,252 


177,74! 


29,271 


1,534,918 


IQI4 




1^88,718 


47.77 C 


I74.IC2 


25,408 


1,596,073 


IQI C 




1 .24.0.804. 


74.827 


86,564 


7O.I C2 


1,392,343 


ioi6 




i,c86.qoo 


88,802 


124,700 


50,259 


1,850,661 


IQI7 




i ,704,706 


Cq,6ll 


170,610 


515,113 


2,109,139 


1918 




A(\\ C7I 


6c occ 


80 Q2C 


110.646 




IQIQ 




I 2O CIQ 


u iy;) j 

247. C87 


84.2 Q42 


247,278 




i y i y 

IQ2O 




06 QA.1 


I.lo6.l6Q 


2,HQ.6o2 


902,108 




iy*\j 
IQ2I 




y^yy^o 








264,000 


IO22 












268,000 


ly-Ax 
IQ27 












303,000 


A y x j 

IQ24 












238,000 


iv/xq. 
IQ2C 












118,000 


*y*3 
1926 












204,000 


IO27 












74,000 


*y*/ 
1928 












216,000 


IO2Q 












787,000 


iy-ty 
TQOQ 












13,000 


i yj w 

TOOT 












31,000 


i yj 1 

IQ72 












14,000 


x yj-* 















THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



339 





i> 


c^ co ON >^ ON **"> O ON *^>oo 






i: 


c< M vo vo ^o vo co ^ * * O oo * * 








>^Oco coO co t^.co'*cON'' 






c 








Q 


















c* Os ON co Tfvo c< O O t^-VO oo cooo c* vo < ^- 






cu 

-Q 
3 


00 Tf HH O 00 c< vr COVO ^nc<Oc<vr,i-irt->-i ' ' 
HicOTt-ooooOQvOf^c<vooovo>-iOvooo * ' 
^Hcot^^^r^o^o t~^vo ^vo co co ^ d *-o * 


:::::::::: 




U 


MMH.M H,VO^- ;; 

co 

















^MCOCOCO^^-CSCS "fONON COVO r- ^- co 


r^ 


> 


"g.S 


O O c< ON^t <1 ^>ONONO t * ONOO HH ON -ooo r^ CO * 




V5 

D 


Is 


^-^OvO-> ^-w^Oc^vo Tl-cl^^vO O ^ON ' 


oo 
^ ......... 


O 


c^| 




oo 


i i 








cT 




00 + ~ r-- ^-00 unvo ON^HH ONOO OM^OM^ 


00 


0? 


TD 


VO *-^*t^-OO O ^C^VOVO >- '^'^^O ^'CA CA VOQ 






ctf 






o 


C 




'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


h 
















? 








& 


rt 


oo *-*" oo O O d co *-o ^J* O t^-vo oo vo oo d ON 




t 


"a 


co i -oOcoONClOvo v/ ~>ctt^co-tt- ONOco ' 




2 




v? ^vo "o ct^ \o" C^oo cTSooS^- ^-^co' 




&H 'w' 


m 


*~COC*<S<S~C<C<~COVO gs ; 




J * 








s =a 




VO *^ 




a M 


s 


^ . . . ^ 




*B 


S 


00 ' ' 




B.s 


PQ 






SS 


2 w 

C -rj 


^vo O ^n t^ . vo . . ONOO 




3 g 
Q tJ 


rt S 
"5 






M rt 
Q CO 


PQ *""* 


? : 







^ b 


O oo co 






Srt 






M 


8P 


t"** co co 




U 


^ 






> 


^s >ic 






3 


OS 


* . . oo co^ON + . . 






'& 


co ' ' ON O\ ON t^ oo ' * 




> 




' co O i-t 00 VO * ' 




% 








\ 


<3 






3 




vo ONOO ....ON vo ~oo O ~l^coco. 




W 
^ 


C!j 
'5? 


coco>- r^ ci ri-Moodvo r-oo * 




PQ 


^ 


H ^t ^ M r- -^ covo * 




/< 




O oo co 




H 










3 


.00 O co^fH,. 
'CO CO OO*o'* 






< 


r*>co<s'' 






^ 


^^ r^co 0,0 ~ *, r^cc cso - 


co rf vnxo 1^00 ON O 




V 


ON0^0^8^0^0^0^0^0NO^O^O^ONONO^ONO^O^O^ 


O\ONO\O\ONO>ONONONON 











340 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



o Q-VO *< r-vo 

co Osvo Q r-- " 

- 



HI HI VOVO ^-00 vort-OO CO ">* O 

r- ro O^oo vooo vo "* oo t^vo co 



O 

6\ 



o 



cT oo" o^ 
<s vo 



v 

cf cT cT i-T >-T n i- c w i- 





''U 



vo vo 

-i ^ 

VO VO 



' 



i ON OS OS ON OS O\ 



THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 341 

h * M H< vn c* O ONOOO covo oovnt^r-.co-ico>-irhOsc< O 
^i^Mxy^wi^wQcoONr^ocJi-tt-ico^^eipdci^ p 

__ M M M CO C** ^^^^^^^gjE 

-( v^ ONOO 

^> co cT co O 
d 

c^ 
^ tr\ w> r-} cf . O 

1 
I 

R 

53 

!t ( CO 

W 

J 

5 - P ...... 

^ |g S;:?o5.MS ?>?)s5."i?ta:u .q>^ 

5 
8 

o~ 

I_ 

cooo w^vndoo cooovo O rj-mcooo ONQ^ 
vo M co *n r^ O ^3 *^ M oo_ co ^n *-ovo 

M HI M 

g 

^ 



342 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



TABLE 35. IMPORTS OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AS SHOWN BY THE REPORTS OF THE 
BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE, FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE 



Year 


Returned 


Brandy 


Whiskey 


Gin 


Cordials 
and 
liqueurs 


All other 


Total 


IQOI 


Gallons 

87C.OQQ 


Gallons 

2QO.'JOI 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 

I.7I2.I<6 


Gallons 

2 877. CC6 


AVfVA 

IQO2 


w / j> w yy 

8OC.2I2 


716,222 








1.000,887 


7.O7I 721 


IQOI 


810 CQI 


04.8.878 








2 o6l OC7 


7 22Q C26 


*y^O 
IQO4 


"*y>j;X* 
4.7I.CQ6 


^00,088 








2.278.842 


3IOI A26 


IQOC 


116.4.60 


AO'i,'i86 








2.766^4.66 


7.O86.72I 


1006 


I77.4.QQ 


4.70^1^7 








2,670.680 


7.287.612 


IQO7 


i <4..io6 


620,777 








7.27O.226 


4..o<7 66 c 


*y w / 
1008 


148,208 


CQ2.784 








7,2l6.228 


7.QC6 QIO 


IQOQ 


TOJ. OI C 


^^A-lAA 








7.88Q.O66 


4. 787 72C 


*yy 
IQIO 


*J'T> W<1 J 

1 1 Q. 6/l6 


7 1 6.2 CO 


1.060.700 


1,240.662 




I.24C.2OO 


T->/ />j *:> 

4 782 o67 


Ay*v*r 

IQII 




4.00,24.2 


1,207,602 


I,O4C,8l< 




Q2C,6oi 


7.674. 7 CO 


IQI2 




<OQ,286 


i,777,oio 


824,694 


C72.ICI 


4II,CQC 


7.6CO.776 


IQI7 




6io,7c8 


1,541,663 


074,776 


c7<r,2Qo 


778,627 


4,080,710 


IQI4 




602, <6 7 


1,01,870 


i.occ,88c 


<K,<7< 


4l4,qCO 


4,160.847 


IQIC 




4OO.2O7 


I,727,7Cq 


742,470 


408, OQO 


411,276 


7,28q.727 


1016 




C76,742 


1,742,197 


8OC.74Q 


77O.4C2 


C78,7CQ 


7. oc 7.4.00 


IQI7 




420, ^67 


1,676,151 


267, C2O 


7C7.7II 


397,934 


7,IIC,487 


iqi8 




274,QI2 


706.267 


112,649 


76,I2O 


154,148 


I,774,Oq6 


IQIO 




224 








2,964 


7,188 


IQ2O 




28.QIQ 


167.710 


27,287 


<8,4Q7 


4,66 c 


282 674 


IQ2I 














487 


*y-** 

IO22 














64 


jy^^r 
IQ27 














CO 


*y*J 
IQ24 














<7 


IO2C 














<8 


*7 J 
IQ26 














72 


*y-* w 

IQ27 














70 


*y*/ 
1028 














7Q 


*yxu 
I02Q 














8l 


IQIO 














47 


*yj v 

TOOT 














77 


*yj* 

IO12 














70 



















THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



343 



TABLE 36. APPARBKT U. S. CONSUMPTIOX or DISTILLED SPIRITS, 1901 TO 1932 
[Statement in tax gallons] 



Year 


Withdrawals 


Imports 


Exports 


Apparent 
consumption 


1901 


60,585,730 


2,877>556 


1,801,325 


61,661,961 


1902 


58,611,443 


3,3 I *32i 


1,962,426 


59*680,338 


1903 


49* 1 56*305 


3,229,526 


1,536,482 


50,849,349 


1904 


49,762,264 


3,101,426 


1,253,897 


5^609,793 


1905 


49*59M83 


3,086,321 


1,335*207 


51,342,697 


1906 


54,316,160 


3,287,612 


1,039,800 


56,563,972 


1907 


64,390,492 


4,053,665 


1,272,202 


67,171,955 


1908 


60,996,474 


3,956,910 


1,271,485 


63,681,899 


1909 


67*250*3*7 


4,787>3 2 5 


1,405,200 


70,632,442 


1910 


72,994,478 


4,382,067 


i *Q4,553 


75*971,982 


1911 


78,894,261 


3*674,350 


1,363,733 


81,204,878 


1912 


78,949>488 


3*650,736 


1,695,140 


80,905,084 


1 9 1 3 


83,577*326 


4,080,710 


i,534,9 l8 


86,123,118 


1914 


80,065,262 


4,160,843 


1,596,073 


82,630,032 


1915 


70,152,366 


3*289,727 


1,392,343 


72,049*750 


1916 


77>076,536 


3,953,499 


1,850,661 


79* J 79*374 


1917 


93*210,559 


3," 5>483 


2,109,139 


94,216,903 


IQl8 


60 .76 1. 2 "7O 


I.174..OQ6 




62. 1 7C.726 


y w 
iqlq 


w,y v * j.^jv 
65,625,796 


*,O/^ -7 

3,188 




v , O J,J 

65,628,984 


y y 
IQ2O 


6.7Q4..807 


282,674. 




6.677x71 


-? 
1921 


^joy^* v y / 
9,258,500 


, /^ 
487 


264,000 


> / /, J / 

8,994,987 


1922 


2,718,534 


64 


286,000 


2,432,598 


1923 


13,007*432 * 


50 


303,000 


12,704,482 


I92 4 


19,813,322 * 


53 


238,000 


19*575*375 


1925 


35* 1 56,785 * 


58 


118,000 


35*038,843 


1926 


52,586,654 * 


72 


294,000 


52,292,726 


1927 


43*876,34* * 


70 


34,000 


43,842,412 


1928 


40,191,134 * 


79 


216,000 


39*975.213 


I92 9 


52,o33,!7o * 


81 


383,000 


51,650,251 


1930 


47,402,120 * 


43 


13,000 


47>3 8 9* l6 3 


1931 


34,281,295* 


33 


31,000 


34,250,328 


I 93 2 


24,476,341 * 


39 


14,000 


24,462,380 



* Includes 25% of alcohol production estimated as used by bootleggers. 



344 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



O 



W 

P 



Q & 
55 >-> 

13 



O 

B 2 

S 5 






o 



Q 

< 



I) e 
g 



1 

s J, 



1.9 

s > 



3? 2 

JJ g 

> 3^ 

6c 
iq 



c 
.2 



O 



to 



ON O 



Osvo Q vo O o c< M ONVO 
^-t^ONOOnvncovo^oONCXJ 

o oo <> o \o r^- 4- o 4- 

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- 



M o oo 



Q M 

O Os 



-< -ncoH 



oooooooooo 

<-o vo O O O^-^O O *^>vo 
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ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON C3N ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON 



ci 

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THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



345 



TABLE 38. WINE EXPORTS AS SHOWN BY THE REPORTS OF THE BUREAU OF 
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE, FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1925, INCLUSIVE 



Year 


Gallons 


Year 


Gallons 


Year 


Gallons 


Year 


Gallons 


1901 


1,147,561 


1908 


457>495 


1914 


941,357 


1920 


4,573,587 


1902 


962,756 


1909 


427,408 


1915 


819,310 


1921 


26,000 


1903 


693,846 


1910 


5i9, 2 34 


1916 


1,133,274 


1922 


12,000 


1904 


914,841 


1911 


J , 394,994 


1917 


2,245,013 


1923 


47,000 


1905 


856,786 


1912 


957,120 


1918 


2,765,344 


1924 


13,000 


1906 


806,314 


'9*3 


1 WS 1 S 1 


1919 


4,926,425 


1925 


14,000 


1907 


573,359 















346 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



TABLE 39, WINE IMPORTS AS SHOWN BY THE REPORTS OF THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN 
AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE, FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE 



Year 


Still wines 


Champagnes 
and other 
sparkling 
wines 


Total 




Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


1901 


3,9 7,346 


933,234 




1902 


4,493,48o 


995,768 




1903 


5,075,818 


,223,832 




1904 


5,421,150 


,008,735 




1905 


5,440,238 


,"5,433 




1906 


6,122,563 


,246,182 




1907 


7,124,272 


,258,209 




1908 


7,329,066 


,100,007 




1909 


7,699,639 


1,309,884 




1910 


9,567,390 


1,173,009 




1911 


6,602,350 


665,485 




1912 


5,595,802 


843,402 




1913 


6,461,5^3 


842,484 




1914 


7,405,289 


810,006 




1915 


5,740,868 


343,890 




1916 


5,094,113 


618,630 




1917 


4,770,606 


587,142 




1918 


3,604,335 


372,690 




1919 


251,865 


27,822 




1920 


723,723 


96,861 




1921 


1,446,809 


122,942 


i,569,75i 


1922 


645,987 


32,652 


678,639 


1923 


161,510 


J 3,959 


175,469 


1924 


90,721 


2,209 


92,930 


1925 


79>7i3 


1,926 


81,639 


1926 


63,033 


13,946 


76,979 


1927 


33,337 


3,545 


36,882 


1928 


33>497 


1,911 


35,408 


1929 


34,2ii 


1,298 


35,509 


1930 


28,196 


1,238 


29,434 


I93 1 


26,306 


!,343 


27,649 



THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 



347 



TABLE 40. APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF WINE IN THE UNITED STATES, FISCAL YEARS 

1912 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE 



Year 


Gallons 


Year 


Gallons 


1912 


57,059,000 


1923 


14,812,000 


*9 1 3 


55,988,000 


1924 


9,112,000 


1914 


53,189,000 


1925 


3,701,000 


1915 


33,341,000 


1926 


5,890,000 


1916 


47,942,000 


1927 


4,434,000 


1917 


42,999,000 


1928 


4,974,000 


1918 


52,242,000 


1929 


11,416,000 


1919 


51,110,000 


1930 


3,200,000 


1920 


16,329,000 


I 93 l 


6,680,000 


1921 


21,989,000 


1932 


5,243,000 


1922 


6,538,000 







TABLE 41. INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN WINES 1930 
(In thousands of gallons) 



Country 


Production 


Imports 


Exports 


France 


I.IOQ.Q77 


7C2,78i 


28.014 


Italy 


i*777 


404 


27.267 


Spain 


JJ *)/O/ 

48i,c8c 


'ry'r 
VI 


*/>* w j 

02.200 


Algeria 


7CQ,7I4 


838 


2Q7.1 7 C 


Roumania 


22I.C42 


IO 


7A 


Argentina 


165,000* 


1,512 


JT 
144 


Portugal 


lCC,66q 


17 


21,607 


Hungary 


*jjy j 7 

oc.626 


27 


8,26 c 


Germany 


66.QOC 


21,074 


I.7Q4 


Bulgaria 


62.417 


f 


2 


Austria. 


71,768 


0,8 co 


17 


Australia 


1 8.1 co* 


c8 


470 


Switzerland 


l6QOQ 


70,002 


60 











* Estimated. 

f Less than 1,000 gallons. 

Source: International Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES * 
YEASTS AND FERMENTATION 

AHRENS. Das Gahrungs-Problem. In Sammlung Chemischer & 
Technischer Vortraege. Vol. II. Stuttgart, 1902. 

ALLEN, PAUL W. Industrial Fermentation. New York, 1926. 

BITTING, K. G. Yeasts and Their Properties. (Purdue Uni- 
versity Monograph Series, No. 5.) 

BUCHNER, E. H., and M. HAHN. Die Zymase Gahrung. 
Miinchen, 1903. 

EFFRONT. Biochemical Catalysts. New York, 1917. 

GREEN-WINDISCH. Die Enzyme. Berlin, 1901. 

GUILLIERMOND, A. The Yeasts. New York, 1920. 

HANSEN, E. CHR. Practical Studies in Fermentation. London, 
1896. 

HARDEN, ARTHUR. Alcoholic Fermentation. London, 1923. 

HENRICI, A. T. Molds, Yeasts, and Actinomycetes. New 
York, 1930. 

JORGENSEN. Micro-Organisms of Fermentation. London, 1900. 

KLOECHER. Fermentation Organisms. London, New York, 
1903. 

LAFAR. Technical Mycology. London, 1910. 

MAERCKER. Handbuch der Spiritusfabrikation. Berlin, 1908. 

MATTHEWS, CHAS. G. Manual of Alcoholic Fermentation. 
London, 1901. 

OPPENHEIMER. Dis Fermente. Leipzig, 1913-29. 

RIDEAL, SAMUEL. The Carbohydrates and Alcohol. London, 
1920. 

*The student will find directions to further bibliographies on all of the topics 
included here, except whiskey, in: West and Berolzheimer. Bibliography of Bibli- 
ographies on Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Washington, 1925, 1929, 1932. 

348 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 349 

DISTILLATION. PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL 

ELLIOT, C. Distillation in Practice. London, 1925. 

ELLIOT, C. Distillation Principles. London, 1925. 

HAUSBRAND, E. Principles and Practice of Industrial Distilla- 
tion. Trans, from the 4th German ed. by E. H. Tripp. 
London, 1925. 

ROBINSON, C. S. The Elements of Fractional Distillation. New 
York, 1930. 

YOUNG, SYDNEY. Distillation Principles and Processes. Lon- 
don, 1922. 

ALCOHOL 

FARMER, R. C. Industrial and Power Alcohol. London, 1921. 

FOTH, GEORGE. Handbuch der Spiritus Fabrikation. Berlin, 
1929. 

FRITSCH, J., and VASSEUX, A. Traite Theoretique et Practique 
de la fabrication de L'alcool et de Produits Accessoires. 
Paris, 1927. 

MclNTOSH, JoHN^G. Industrial Alcohol. London, 1922. 

SIMMONDS, CHAS. Alcohol: Its Production, Properties, Chem- 
istry and Industrial Applications. London, 1919. 

DE VOL, EVERETT T. A Farmers' Practical Treatise on Fer- 
mentation, Distillation and General Manufacture of Alcohol 
from Farm Products with Subsequent Denaturing. Omaha, 
1921. 

WRIGHT, FREDERICK B. Alcohol from Farm Products. New 
York, 1933. 

DISTILLED LIQUORS 

DE BREVANS, J. La Fabrication des Liqueurs. Paris, 1897. 
FOTH, GEORGE. Handbuch der Spiritus Fabrikation. Berlin, 1929. 
KULLMANN, OTTO. Die Spirituosen Industrie. Leipzig, 1912. 
MACDONALD, AENEAS. Whiskey. Porpoise Press, Edinburgh, 

1930. 
PIAZ, A. DAL. Die Cognac und Wein Spirit Fabrikation so wie 

die Trester und Hefebranntweinbrennerei. Wien, 1891. 
ROCQUES, X. Les Eaux-de-vie et Liqueurs. Paris, 1898. 



350 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

ROGERS^ ALLEN. Industrial Chemistry. New York, 1926. 
SCHEDEL, C. F. B. Der Distillateur. Leipzig, 1921. 

WINES 

ALWOOD, WILLIAM B. Experiments in cider making applicable 
to farm conditions and notes on the use of pure yeast in 
wine making. Bull. 129, U. S. Bur. of Chem., 1909. 

BABO, A. VON, and MACH. Handbuch des Weinbaues and der 
Kellerwirtschaft, 4. Auflage. Berlin, 1910. 

EARTH, MAX. Kellerbehandlung der Traubenweine, 2. Auflage. 
Stuttgart, 1903,. 

BENEVEGNIN, LUCIEN, and others. Manuel de Vinification. 
Payot et cie., Lausanne, 1930. 

BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. Defecation of Must for White Wine. 
California Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular 22. 
Berkeley, 1906. 

BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. Manufacture of Dry Wines in Hot 
Countries. California Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Bulletin 167. 1905. 

BIOLETTI, F. T., and CRUESS, W. V. The Practical Application 
of Improved Methods of Fermentation in California Wines 
during 1913 and 1914. California Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Circular 140. 1915. 

BIOLETTI, F. T. The principles of wine making. California 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 213. 1911. 

BIOLETTI, F. T. The Best Wine Grapes for California. Cali- 
fornia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 193. 1907. 

BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. Winery Directions. California Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Circ. 119. 1914. 

BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. The practical application of improved 
methods of fermentation in California wineries during 1913 
and 1914. California Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Circ. 140. 1915. 

BOULLANGER, EUGENE. Distillerie Agricole et Industrielle 
Eaux-de-vie de Fruits. Paris, 1924. 

DE BREVANS, J. La Fabrication des Liqueurs. Paris, 1897. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 351 

COSTE-FLORET, P. Precedes Modernes de Vinification. 

1. Vin Rouges. Paris, 1899. 

2. Vin Blanc. Paris, 1903. 

3. Les Residus de la Vendage. Paris, 1901. 
CUNIASSE, L. Memorial du Distillateur Liquoriste. Paris, 

1925- 
DUBOR, GEORGES DE. Viticulture et Vinification Moderne. 

Paris, 1894. 

EMERSON, E. R. The Story of the Vine. New York and Lon- 
don, 1902. 

FRITSCH, J. Nouveau Traite de la Fabrication des Liqueurs. 
Paris, 1926. 

GRAZZI-SONCINI, G. Wine. Classification, Wine Tasting, Qual- 
ities and Defects. Translated by F. T. Bioletti. Sacra- 
mento, 1892. 

GUNTHER. Die Gesetzgebung des Auslandes fiber den Verkehr 
mit Wein. Berlin, 1910. 

HAYNE, ARTHUR PERONNEAU. Bull. 117, Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. University of California, 1897. 

HUSMANN, GEORGE, and others. American Grape Growing and 
Wine Making. New York, 1919. 

KULISCH, P. Sachgemasse Weinverbesserung. Berlin, 1903. 

LARRONDE, EUGENE. Vins et Boissons. Paris, 1894. 

MEISSNER, RICHARD. Untersuchung der Weinplize. Stuttgart, 
1901. 

MENOTTI DAL PIAZ, A. Handbuch des Praktischen. Wein- 
baues, 1908. 

NESSLER-WINDISCH. Die Bereitung, Pflege, und Untersuchung 
des Weines, 8. Auflage. Stuttgart, 1907. 

PIQUE, RENE. Vinification et Alcoolisation des Fruits Tropicaus 
et Produits Coloniaux. Paris, 1908. 

RHEINBERG, H. Herstellung von Schaumwein unter Obst 
Schaumwein. Leipzig, 1913. 

ROGERS, ALLEN. Industrial Chemistry. New York, 1926. 

SCHMITTHENNER, F. Weinbau und Weinbereitung. Leipzig, 
1911. 

SEMICHON, L. Traite des Maladies des Vins. Paris, 1905. 



352 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

SHEEN, JAMES R. Wines and other Fermented Liquors. Lon- 
don, 1864. 

SIMON, ANDRE L. Wines and the Wine Trade. London, 1921. 

SIMON, ANDRE L. Bibliotheca Vinaria; a bibliography of books 
and pamphlets dealing with viticulture, wine making, distil- 
lation, management, sale, taxation, use and abuse of wines 
and spirits. G. Richards, Ltd., London, 1913. 

THORPE, EDWARD. Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, Vols. i to 
7. 1921-1927. 

THUDICHUM, J. L. W. A Treatise on Wines. London, 1896. 

University of California College of Agriculture. Report of the 
Viticultural Work during 1887 to 1895. Sacramento, 1896. 

VENTA, J. Les Levures dans la Vinification. Paris, 1911. 

VENTRE, JULES. Traite de Vinification Pratique et Rationnelle. 
Montpettier, 1930-31. 

VISETELLY, HENRY. A History of Champagne with Notes on 
other Sparkling Wines of France. New York and London, 
1882. 

WILEY, HARVEY W. American Wines at the Paris Exhibition 
in 1900: their composition and character. Also a mono- 
graph on the manufacture of wines in California by Henry 
Lachmann. U. S. Bur. of Chemistry. Bull. 72. 1903. 

WINDISCH, K. Die chemischen Vorgange beim Werden des 
Weines. Stuttgart, 1906. 

WORTMANN, JULIUS. Die wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der 
Weinbereitung und Kellerwirtschaft. Berlin, 1905. 

ANALYSIS 

CUNIASSE, L. Memorial du Distallateur Liquorist Paris, 
1925. 

GRIFFIN, JOHN J. Chemical Testing of Wines and Spirits. Lon- 
don, 1872. 

LEACH, A. E. Food Inspection and Analysis. New York, 1920. 

PRESCOTT, ALBERT B. Chemical Examination of Alcoholic 
Liquors. New York, 1880. 

ROCQUES, X. Encyc. Scient. des aide mem. Sect, de L'ingenieur. 
Paris. Page 198. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 353 

ROSENHEIM, OTTO, and SCHIDROWITZ, PHILLIP. On some 
Analyses of Modern "Dry" Champagne. In the Analyst 
25, 6-9, 1900. 

Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits. Re- 
port and Appendix. 19089. 

TOLMAN, L. M., and TRESCOT, T. C. A Study of the Methods 
for the Determination of Esters, Aldehydes and Furfural 
in Whiskey. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 28, 1619-29 ( 1906). 

WILEY, H. W. Beverages and their Adulteration. Philadel- 
phia, 1919. 

STATISTICS 

Bureau of Industrial Alcohol. Statistics Concerning Intoxica- 
ting Liquors. U. S. Treas. Dept. Washington, 1932. 

International Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics. Rome, 1930. 

ROLLER, ARNOLD. La Production et la Consommation des 
Boissons Alcooliques dans les Different Pays. Bur. Internat. 
Centre L'Alcoolisme. Lausanne, 1925. 

Rep. of the Bur. of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. U. S. 
Dept. Comm. Washington, 1901 date. 



INDEX 



Absinthe, 203 
Acetaldehyde, 22, 23 
Acid-alcohol ratio in wine, 259 
Acid conversion process, no, in 
Acidity, charge during fermentation, 168 

function of, 162 

total, determination of, 278, 288 

volatile, determination of, 279 
Aging, artificial, 128 

British practice, 128 

charred barrels in, 128 

of liqueurs, 194 

President Taft*s report on, 128 

Snell & Fain on, 129 
Agrafe, 183 
Agricultural products, consumption of, 

330, 334, 335 
Alcohol, boiling curve of, 80 

crude, neutralization of, 90 

determination of, 261, 287 

distillation curve of, 81 
Alcohol-extract ratio in wine, 259 
Alcohol, immersion refractometer tables, 
308-319 

in cider, 188 

recovery of, 127 

specific gravity tables, 302-307 

steam used for, 95 

theoretical yield, 18 

yield from barley, 29 

yield from corn, 32 

yield from oats, 33 

yield from rye, 30 
"A I cool d'industrie" 140 
Aldehydes, 91 

determination of, 288 
Alembic des lies, 142 
Alkalinity of ash, 276 
Alkermes de Florence, 204 
Amines, in alcohol, 91 
Amino-acids, role in fermentation, 23 
Amyl alcohol, 23, 24 
Amylase, 10 
Amylopectin, 1 1 
Amylose, 1 1 
Anaerobes, 58 
Analysis, reasons for, 230 
"Analyzer," 87, 90 
Angelica liqueur, 204 
Angostura Bitters, 226 
Anisette, 205 



Applejack, 152 

Apple, varieties, 188 

"<i premier-jet" still, 141 

Arrack, 153 

Ascospores, 48 

Ash, alkalinity of, 276 

determination of, 275, 287 
Ash-extract ratio in wine, 275 
Aspergillus Niger, 56, 57, 58 
Autolysis, 14, 19 

Bacteria, disease, 55, 59 

effect of SO2 on, 62 
Barley, average composition of, 28 

botanical description, 28 
Barley grain, cross-section of, 72 

yield from, 29 
Bath-tub gin, 150 
Bead, 128 
Beer still, 90, 91 

operation of, 92 
"Benedictine," 208 
Bitters, 226 

Black currant brandy, 209 
Black mold, 57, 58 
Blended whiskey, definition, 233 
Blending of liqueurs, 192, 193 

of whiskey, 136 
Blue mold, 56 
"bonne chauffe/' 141 
Botrytis cinerea, 56, 57, 58, 59 
Bourbon whiskey, aging of, 129 

description, 99 

Brandies, analyses of, 292, 293, 294 
Brandy, aging of, 142 

blending of, 142 

classification of, 140 

description of, 139 

distillation of, 141 

dosing of, 143 

F.A.C.A. definition, 235 

wine for, 142 
British brandy, 143 
"Bronillis/' 141 
Brou de Noix, 219 
Burnt ale, 105 

Cane sugar solutions, density of, 298-301 
"Cap" on fermenting wine, 168 
Caramel, detection of, 295 
Caramel malt, 74 



356 



INDEX 



Carbohydrates, 4 

Carbon dioxide in champagne, 181 

Carboxylase, 22 

Cassis, 209 

Catalysis, 13, 14 

Cent Sept Ans, 220 

Cereal grains, average composition, 36 

"Cerelose," 10 

Champagne, dosage of, 179 

manufacture of, 180 

pressure of, 183 

Changes during fermentation, 168 
Chaptalizing, 176 
"Chartreuse," 210 
"Chauffe <vin } " 83, 141 
Cherry cordial, 212 
Chlorides, determination of, 277 
Chlorophyll, 46 
Cider, 187 

Clarification of liqueurs, 196 
Cocoa, cream of, 213 
Co-enzymes, 15, 16 
Coffee, cream j>f, 213 
"Coffey" still, 87 
Cognac, F.A.C.A. definition, 235 
Color of grapes in wine, 168 
Color, insoluble in amyl alcohol, 295 

water insoluble in whiskey, 293 
Coloring of liqueurs, 196 
Coloring, permitted, 241 
Colors, vegetable, synthetic, certified, 

44 

Column still, 87 . . 

Compound gin, F.A.C.A. definition, 235 
Concentrating column, 94 
Conge, 192 

"Conge in trancher" 194, *95 
Consumption of distilled spirits, 328, 343 
Consumption of wine, 329 
Cordials, 190 

analyses of, 259 

methods of analysis suggested, 297 

U. S. Dept. Agr. definition, 229 
Corn, average composition, 32 

description, 31 

varieties, 31 . 

Corrections of wine, permitted, 238 
"Corty's head/' 86, 87 
Cream of absinthe, 203 

of Vanilla, 225 
Creme d' Ananas, 222 
Creme de cacao, 213 
Creme de celeri, 210 
Creme de Fleurs d'Oranger, 220 

de Menthe, 218 

de Moka, 213 
Creme de Noyaux, 220 
Crushing of grapes, 166 
Curasao, 214 

manufacture of, 200 



Cuvee, 181 
Cytase, 72 

Defecation of grape must, 67 

Dematium pullulans, 54, 56, 58 

Demerara rum, 147 

Density of sugar solutions, 298-301 

Dephlegmator, 92 

Dessert liqueur, 216 

Dextrin, 10 

Dextrose, 5 

Diastase, 10 

Diastatic power, 74 

Diatomaceous earth, 189 

Dihydroxy-acetone, 21 

Disaccharides, 4 

Distillation, alcohol recovery in, 95 

definition, 79 

Distillation of liqueurs, 192 
Distillation, steam used for, 95 
Distilled, gin, F.A.C.A. definition, 234 
Distilled spirits, production of, 327, 

336 

Distiller, illicit, 97 

Distilleries, registered, member of, 331 
Dop brandy, 140 
Dry wine, definition, 158 

U. S. Dept. Agr. definition, 236 
Dunder, 146 

"Eau de vie" 140 

de Dantzick, 217 

de Hendaye, 217 
"Eau de vie de marc" 140 
Egg white, in fining, 178 
Elixir de Garus, 216 
Embryo, 71 
Endo-sperm, 71 
Enolic acids, 168 
Enzymes, classification, 14 

description, 13 

preparation, 15 

specific, 13 
Essence, 43 
Essential oils, defined, 43 

origin, 43 

Esters, determination of, 288 
Exhausting column, 93 
"Export trade" rum, 144 
Exports, of distilled spirits, 338, 339- 

34i 

of wine, 345 
Extract, determination of, 266, 287 

Feints, 90, 105, 107^ 
Fermentation, aeration in, 105 

completion of first, 169 

general requirements, 17 

Lavoisier's formulation, 18 

open or submerged, 168 



INDEX 



357 



Fermentation, Pasteur's formulation, 18 

products of, 1 8, 19 

rate of, 19 

temperature variation of, 19 
Filtration of liqueurs, 198 
Fining of liqueurs, 196 
Fining of wine, 176 
Flavoring Agents, classified, 41 
Flavoring, permitted, 241 
Foreign trade in distilled spirits, 

327 

Foreshots, 105, 107 
Fortified wine, definition, 158 

U. S. Dept. Agr. definitions, 236 
Fractional distillation, 79 
French Vermouth, 228 
^-Fructose, 5 
Fungi, 46 

Furfural, determination of, 289 
Fusel Oil, 18, 23, 90 

determination of, 290 



Galactose, 5 

Gallizing, 176 

Garus' Elixir, 216 

Gas pressure, in champagne, 183 

Gelatin, in fining, 178 

in fining liqueurs, 198 
Geneva gin, 149 
Gin, analysis of, 256 

F.A.C.A. definition, 234 
"Gin head," 149 
Gin still, 151 
^/-Glucose, 10 
Glucose, commercial, 10 
Glyceraldehyde, 21 
Glycerol, 18, 22 
Glycerol-Alcohol Ratio, 266 
Glycerol in wines, determination of, 

262-266 
Glycogen, 21 
Golden Elixir, 217 
Grand mousseaux, 183 
Grape juice, changes during fermenta- 
tion, 164 

Grape pomace, brandy from, 140 
Grapes, American Varieties, 38 

crushing of, 166 

for champagne, 180 

not recommended, 40 

planted in U. S., 37 

recommended, 40 

stemming of, 165 

yield per acre, 39 
"Grappo," 140 
Gray mold, 57 
Green chartreuse, 210 
Green malt, 77 
Guianolet d* Angers, 213 



Hamburg brandy, 143 
Hemicellulose, 12 
Hendaye's Elixir, 217 
Hexabioses, 6 
Hexose, 4 

Hexose-di-phosphate, 20 
Holland Gin, 149 
"Home trade" rum, 144 
Hot feints, 90 

Huile de Kirsc/twasser, 218 
Huile de roses, 223 

Imitation champagne, 187 

Imitation liquors, F.A.C.A. definitions, 

240 

Immersion refractometer tables for al- 
cohol, 308-319 
Immersion refractometer table for wood 

alcohol, 294 
Imports, of distilled spirits, 342 

of wine, 346 

Infusion, description, 192 
Infusions, grades of, 209 
International trade in wine, 347 
Invertase, 16 
Irish whiskey, 100 
F.A.C.A. definition, 234 
manufacture of, 103 
Isinglass, in fining liqueurs, 197 

in fining wine, 177 
Italian Vermouth, 228 

Jamaica rum, analyses of, 254, 255 
manufacture of, 144, 145 

Kirschwasser Liqueur, 217 
Kornbranntwein, 154 

Lactacidase, 21 
Lactic acid, 21, 22 
Lactic acid bacteria, 59 

use, 65 
Lactose, 5, 6 
Laevulose, 5 
Lipase, 16 

Liqueur de Dessert, 216 
Liqueurs, analyses of, 259 

classification, 190 

methods of analysis suggested, 297 

operation in manufacture of, 192 
Liqueurs par distillation, 191 

par infusion t 191 
"Local trade" rum, 144 
Low wines, 84, 105, 107 
"Lyne arm," 107 

Maize, 31 
Malt, definition, 71 
drying, 77 



358 



INDEX 



Malt, green, 77 

steeping for, 75 
Maltase, 10, 16 
Malting, changes during, 73 

compartment system, 77 

drum system, 76 

end of, 74 

floor system, 76 

yield in, 78 
Maltose, 5, 10 
Mash tun, 102 
Mashing, 101, 104 

American practice, 117 
Mass Action Law, 17 
Massecuite, 146 
Methanol, detection of, 296 
Methyl alcohol, determination of, 291- 

293 

Methyl-glyoxal, 22 
Milk, in fining liqueurs, 198 

in fining wine, 177 
Molasses, 146 
Molds, 52, 56 
Monosaccharides, 4 
Mucor, 56 

Munson and Walker's Table, 320-325 
Must, 51 

sterilization of grape, 173 

wine, composition of, 162 
Mycoderma vini, 54, 55, 58 

Neutral whiskey, definition, 233 

"Nigger rum," 144 

Nitrates, in wine, detection of, 286 

Nitrogen, determination of, 282 

"Noble Mold," 57 

Noyaux, 219 

Oats, average composition of, 33 

occurrence, 32 

yield from, 33 
Open fermentation, 168 
Orange flower cream, 220 
Oxydase, 57 

control of by SO2, 62 
Oxygen, 17 

Parfait Amour, 221 
Patent still, 87, 88 

yield from, 114 
Pelargonic ether, 148 
Penillium glaucum, 56, 58, 59 
Pentosans, determination of, 2^3-285 
Pepsin, 13 

Phosphates, role in fermentation, 20 
Phosphoric acid, determination of, 277 
Pineapple Liqueur, 222 
Pinette, 170 

Plaster of Paris, in wine, 175 
Plumule, of malt, 74 



Polysaccharides, 4 

Pot ale, 105 

Potassium metabisulphite, use of, 174 

Pot still, with rectifier, 85 

yield from, 113 

Production of distilled spirits, 327, 336 
Protein, determination of, 282 

role in fermentation, 24 
Proteolysis, 72 
Protoplasm, 46, 47 
Pseudo-yeasts, 52, 54 
Punch Liqueur, 222 
Pyruvic acid, 22 

Quince Brandy, 222 

Racking, 171 
Raffinose, 4, 15 
Ratafia de cassis, 209 
Ratafia de cerises, 212 

de Goings, 222 

de FrambroiseSj 223 
Raw Materials, classification, 25 
Rectification, definition, 79 
Rectifier, 90 
Recuperator, 92, 94 
Red wine, difference from white wine, 

159 

manufacture of, 163 
Reflux, definition, 79 
Refractometer, immersion, table for 
wood alcohol, 294 

tables for alcohol, immersion, 308-319 
Resins, in alcohol, 91 
Rose liqueur, 223 
Rum, analyses of, 254, 255, 256 

classification of, 144 

description of, 143 

essence, 148 
Rye, average composition of, 30 

botanical description, 30 

yield from, 30 
Rye whiskey, aging of, 129 

description, 99 

Saccharomyces apiculatus, 53, 54, 55, 58 

cerevisiae, 50 

ellipsoideus, 49, 51, 53, 54 

mycoderma, 51 

pastorianus, 51, 53, 54 
Saccharose, 5 
Schnapps, 154 
Scotch whiskey, 99 

F.A.C.A. definition, 233 

manufacture of, 103 
Secondary products, in whiskey, 109 
Seeds, average composition, 36 
Simple distillation, 79 
"Smoothen," 149 
Sour mash, 100 



INDEX 



359 



Sparger pipe, 93 

Sparkling wine, definition, 159 

U. S. Dept. Agr. definitions, 237 
Specific gravity, determination of, 260, 
286 

tables for alcohol, 302-307 
Spent lees, 105 
Spirit plate, 90 
Spirits, in bond, 333 
Spores, 48 
Starch, acid conversion, 78 

classification of granules, 7 

conversion, 9 

hydrolysis, 9 

pressure cooking of, 117 

properties, 7, 8 

thick or thin-boiling, 8 
Starters for wine, natural, 67 

preparation, 67, 68 

pure culture, 68 
Stemming, 165 
Still, continuous rectifying, 93, 94 

definition, 79 

simple pot, 82 

unique, 97 

Still wine, definition, 159 
Straight whiskey, F.A.C.A. definition, 

233 

Strawberry cordial, 223 
Submerged fermentation, 168 
Sucrose, 5 

determination of, 271 
Sugar cane juice, composition of, 145 
Sugar, density of solutions, 298-301 

function of, in must, 162 
Sugars, determination of, 267-275, 291 
Sulphuric acid, determination of, 277 
Sulphur, use of, 174 
Sweet mash, TOO 
Sweet wine, definition, 158 

U. S. Dept. Agr. definition, 236 

Tannin, addition of, 176 

determination of, 281 

function of, 162 
Tartaric acid, 168 

determination of, 280 
Taxes, collected on liquor, 332, 344 
Tirage, 183 
Torulae, 54 
"Tranchage" 194 
Trappistine, 223 
Trisaccharides, 4 
Turpentine, in gin, 150 

Unfortified wine, definition, 158 
Unicurs Bitters, 27 
Urease, 13 
"Usquebaugh," 96 



Vacuoles, 47 
Vat stills, 147 
Vermouth, French, 228 

Italian, 228 
Vespetro, 224 
Vinegar bacteria, 59 
Vodka, 154 
Volatile acids, determination of, 279 



Wash, 84 

Wash stills, capacity of, 85, 107 

Water, use of, 103 

Wheat, average composition, 35 

botanical description, 34 

classification, 34 
Whiskey, analyses of, 242-251 

blending of, 136 

Bourbon, description, 99 

conclusions from analysis of, 249, 
252 

definition, 99 

distillation of, 105, 106 

dosing of, 134 

F.A.C.A. classification, 232 

F.A.C.A. definitions, 233 

fermentation of, 104 

Irish, loo 

origin, 96 

patent still, British, 107 

recovery of, 112 

rye, description, 99 

Scotch, 99 

sour mash, 100 

statistics on, 333-341 

sweet mash, 100 

tax history, 96, 97, 98 

U. S. Pharmacopoeia requirements for, 
232 

yield of, 112 
Whiskey types, 102 
White chartreuse, 211 
White wine, difference from red wine, 

159 

manufacture of, 173 
Wine, acid-alcohol ratio in, 259 
aeration of fermented, 172 
alcohol-extract ratio in, 259 
classification of, 158 
conclusions from analysis of, 256, 

259 

consumption of, 329, 347 
correction of, 175 
defecation, 67 
examination of, 260 
extract in, 266 
fining of, 176 
functions of, 160 
general definition, 155 
industry, started in U. S., 37 



360 



INDEX 



Wine, lees, 141 

names considered, 157 

pasteurization of, 172 

plastering of, 175 

pressing of, 170 

starters for, natural, 67 

starters for, pure culture, 68 

statistics on, 344-347 

U. S. Dept. Agr. definition, 235 
Wines, analyses of, 257, 258 

low, 84 

Withdrawals, of distilled spirits, 337 
Wort, American practice, 115, 117 

for yeast production, 65 

preparation of, 104 

preparation for British whiskey, no 



Yeast, commercial production, 63, 64 

distiller's, production of, 65, 66 
Yeast juice, 16 
Yeasts, classification, 49 

effect of alcohol on, 58 

effect of SO2 on, 61 

mode of growth, 47 

pure culture, 50 

relation to acids, 61 

relation to oxygen, 60 

relation to temperature, 61 

wild, 50 
Yellow chartreuse, 211 

Zymase, 16 
Zymogen, 15