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Full text of "Chicago, the marvelous city of the West; a history, an encyclopedia, and a guide, 1891, illustrated written and compiled by John J. Flinn."

n r. HlGAGO TRlBUNr 



IS THE 



Lu'finj HeW^paper' of Kmm, 

And ■' ^Hlei verywhere^ on account o^ ^HA(RJCTL\.< 

as -well as the EXTEj\ 



Its Circul rl'TioN 



TO BE- 

ii 



The Best Advertising Medium. 



mXlJ IT^"WANT"dOLUM|ig * 



For anything you may '^^Aed, and use the 
to make your wants knon I \ Advef - 

tisemenis of all kindd /^^ -.. returns 

from THE Tm^uJ . 

o<\ \] M AND BE CoWlNGEDI>o 



Sixty-four (64) Branch Offices in the city, and adverti^ 
ments accepted by all of them at office rates. 



l/^ 



CHICAGO 



The Marvelous City of the West. 



A HISTORY'. AN ENCYCLOPEDIA. 



AND 



A GUIDE. 

189I. 
ILLUSTRATED. 



V.RITTEN .A.ND CO/SPILED B 



To:M:isr t. iF^Liirnsr. 



3. 

[ot in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, though batheel in all the glorioi^ 
colorings of Oriental fancy, is there a tale which surpasses in P 

wonder the plain, unvarnished history of Chicago." 



CHICAGO: 

rLINN & SMEPPARD. 

95 DEARBORN ST. 



r 



S'-: 



3 




Entered according- to act of Congress, 
September, 1890, 

By JOHN J. FLINN, 

In the Office of the Libraiian of Congi-ess, 
at "Washington, D. C. 



All Rights of Translation Reserved. 



^ 



OONOHUE <L HENNEBERRY. PRINTERS AND BINDERS 
J. W. TAYLOR, PHOTOGRAPHER. 



VANOERCOOK A CO. . ENGRAVERS. 



' AND 

THE KIMBALL PIANO. 




Chicago, December i6, i88« 



^^'. KiMBALI, Co. 

Chicago, III. 
^' ^'^if TJ-emen:— It gives me great pleasure to testifv to the merits 
wimDaii Piano. It has a wonderfullv sweet and sympathetic toce a 
ae von^e in a most satisfactory manner. ' ^ 



R 



of the ! 
and supp 
Sincerely yours, 



K 




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i 



THE_CHICAGO HERALD. 



(Daily, Suxdav aaw Weekly.) 



LA 



DATE DUE 



QAYLORO 234 



rtiatl* in u t A 



ION 



A GREA T MEDIUM FOR SMALL ADS. 




I 



f89f 

. . THE 



S TANDARD mm 

— TO — 

CHICAGO 

FOR 1891 

Is one of the most complete, creditable and beautiful 
Guide Books ever issued. 



THE 



STANDARD Gffl 



— TO — 



CHICAGO 

FOR 1892 

Revised completely, and containing a large amount of 

new matter and a large number of new 

illustrations, will eclipse it. 

1892 




For 

New York. 

Boston, Mass. 

Albany, N. Y. 

Elmira, N. Y. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Jamestown, 
N. Y. 

Chautauqua 
Lake, N.Y. 

Meadville, 

Pa. 

Youngstown. 
O. 

Akron, O. 

Mansfield, O. 

Columbus,0. 

and all other 

points 

on the 

N. Y., L. E. 
& W. R. R. 

N.Y., P. & 
OR. R. 



The Chicago & Erie R. R 

(LATE CHICAGO & ATLANTIC RY.) 



DATE DUE 


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CATL .B^ -■ -4 






PBT.TJU ,N '■ S A 



M 




UHiliAUU lu int iior 

Solid Vestibule Trains Between 

CHICAGO AND NEW YORK, 

With Pullman Sleeping, Dining and Day Coaches. 
Pullman Buffet Sleeping Cars to Boston, and ^ 

Pullman Sleeping Cars to Ashland, Ky., via Columbus, O 

EVERY DAY OF THE YEAR. 

No Change of Cars on any Class of Ticket 
to New York. 

Trains arrive and depart from Dearborn Station, con 
Polk and Dearborn Sts., Chicago. 
For further information, call on or address 

' lOT Clark St., Chicago. a ?1 ^nrKER 

^' % ¥TiKew York. Gen'l Maimer, Cleveland. 

G. P. Agent,^JNewj:^orK.^^^ ^^^,^ ^^_ p_ ^^^ Chicago. 



Albx 



M. T HOMSON, Pres. Chas. J. Winchbstbr, Vice-Pres. jAs. Thomson, Secy. & Treaa. 



THOMSON I TAYLOR SPICE CO. 



INIF'ORXERS OF' 



Q.offees, • Sp'ces, ■ |ndigos, • S®ecls. 




IvlANUFACXURERS OF^ 



ROAST AND GROUND COFFEES, SPICES, FLAVOR 

ING EXTRACTS, DRY AND LIQUID BLUING, 

HOPS AND SAGE. 



66, 68, 7a 72 MICHIGAN AVENUE, p U IP H P H 
CORNER LAKE. UnluMuU. 



AMERICA, 

CHICAGO'S Great Weekl,y 

ESTABLISHED 1888. 
SLASON THOMPSON, EDITOR. 



ITS STAFF COMPRISES: 
laurice Thompson^ 
Hobart C. Taylor, 

Moses JL, Sc udder, Jr., 
C/ias. If. Dennis^ 

Fred Perry Poivers, 
Harry B. SinitJi. 




CARTOONS EAOH WEEK 

. . . BY . . . 



F. G. ATTWOOD, 



PRANK P. W. BE LEW 

( CHIP ) 

Junius, Cortu 



. . . American Ideas for American Readers . . . 

THIRTY-TWO PAGES A WEEK. $3.00 A YEAT . 

Send ID Cents for Specimen Copy. 
80-182 MOXROE ST., - - - CHICJ^GO. 




LITHOGRAPHERS 

180*182 east flDonroe Street, 



. . . .CH\CAGO. . . . 



Telephone 132o 



w 



H 



ITS 

flee J 

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rHil 
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( 



ADVERTISERS IN THFS BOOK. 



America, Slason Thompson & Co. 
American Cutlery Co. 
Andrews, A. H. & Co. 
Athenaeum, The Chicago. 
Baltimore 6c Ohio Railroad. 
Carpenter, George B. & Co. 
Carson, Pirie & Co. 
Chambers, J. B. & Co. 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 
Chicago & North- Western Railway. 
College of Vocal and Instrumental Art. 
:;olson, Charles D. 
ponkey,W. B. Co. 
urrau Dry Kiln Co. 
onohue & Henneberry. 
^unlap& Co. 
pconomiat, The. 

pggleston, Mallette & Brownell. 
flder, J. C. <S:Co. 
Crie, The Chicago and. Railroad. 
first National Bank, 
fowler, E. S. & W. S. 
uller, Chas. H., Advertising Agency, 
arrity. Miss S. E. 
oodrich Transportation Co. 
ormully & Jeffery Manufacturing Cu. 
rand Palace Hotel. 
Ipnning, The R. J. Co. 
ir, J. A. &S. G. 

ey Land Association. 
L^ ^";^ Milligan Manufacturing Co. 
\^ral(i, .. ^ (.hicago. 
antly, Eu i.. ^ Co. 
|a8che& Jurs. 
jfman, R. W. Jr. & Co. 
iinois Central Railroad, 
iter Ocean, The. 
nkina Bros. 
wmaly The Chicago Evening, 



Kaestner, Chas. & Co. 

Keams & Orme. 

Kimball, W. W. Co. 

Klicka, Joseph. 

Kurtz Bros. & Buhrer. 

Lansing &■ McGarigle Co. 

Leland Hotel, The. 

Mariner Sc Hoskins. 

Meadowcrof t Bros. 

Meeker Medicine Co., The. 

Milwaukee Chair Co. 

Nonotuck Silk Co. 

National Bank of Illinois, The. 

Northwestern Rubber Co. 

O'Brien's Art Gallery. 

Post, The Chicago Evening. 

Rappieye Plating & Manufacturing Co. 

Raymond Bros. Impt. Pulv. Co. 

Remington Standard Typewriter. 

Rice-Hinze Piano Co. 

Rice & Whitacre Manufacturing Co, 

Rogers, Mrs. A. F. 

Sherman House, The. 

Staats Zeitung, The Illinois. 

Standard Guide to Chicago, The. 

Stensland, Paul O. & Co. 

Stone, Charles D. & Co. 

Thomson & Taylor Spice Co. 

Trihune, The Chicago. 

Union National Bank. 

Union Pacific Railway Co. 

Watry, N., Optician. 

Webster Manufacturing Co. 

Wellington Hotel, The. 

Western Smelting and Refining Works. 

Wheeler & Tappan. 

Wilde, James Jr. & Co. 

Wilkinson, The John Co. 



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



MAPS. 

showing the City of Chicago as It Is— Streets, Boulevards, Park System, Location 
of Woi-id's Colambian Exposition, Important Points, Industrial Centers, 
Annexed Suburbs, Outlying- Territory, Etc. [Contained in " Pocket " of 
back cover.] 

Showing Chicaifo Sanitary Drainage District Page 

SJiowing Burned District of Chicago, After Great Fire of October, 1871 Page 

Showing Relative Position of Chicago with Regard to Other Principal Cities of 
the World, facing Page 



11 
35 

34 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Facing Page. 

Ashland ave., Looking South on 88 

Auditorium, Studebaker, Ai-t Build'gs 201 
Boai-d of Trade Tower, View from — 108 
Central Music Hail, Suite and Randolph 308 

Chamber of Commerce Building 18') 

City Hall. La Salle St., Front of 17 

Cold Stora 2e Exchange 357 

Dearborn Passenger Station 193 

Douglas Monument 153 

Emmanuel Baptist Church, Interior. . 2,9 

Epiphany, Church of the 464 

Field's Wholesale House, Side View of 473 

First National Bank, Interior 385 

Garfield Park, View in 353 

Germania Maennerchor Club House . . 400 

Grace Episcopal Church 160 

Graceland Cemetery, View in 388 

Grand Central Passenger Station 109 

Grand Palace Hotel 449 

Haymarket Block, West Madison st. . . 280 

Haymarket Square 431 

Herald Building 357 

Home Insurance Building 339 

Illinois Club, Interior 508 

Jackson Pai'k, Site of Columbian 

Exposition Frontispiece 

John M. Smyth Block, W. Madison st. 165 

Kimball Hall, Wabash ave 237 

Lake Front, Bird's-Eye View of 21 

La Salle Statue, Lincoln Park 116 

Leland Hotel 316 

Libby Prison Museum 416 

Lincoln Monument, Lincoln Park . . 96 
Lincoln Park, Clark st. Entrance to . . 316 

Lincoln Park, Indian Group in 33 

Lincoln T>ark, Lily Beds and Schiller 

Monument 540 

Lincoln Park, Zoological Gardens — 60 
Madison and Clark sts., A Scene at ... . 28 



Facinsr Pa 

Masonic Temple 11 

McCormick Reaper Works -^ 

McCormick Seminarj^ Buildings 1' 

Michigan Boulevard, View on. 
Midway flaisance, Lookizig South 

North Side Water Tower 

North- Western Passenger Station — ^ 

Police Monument 55: 

Post Office and Custom House -^ 

Prairie ave., A Bit of 4k 

Pullman, Boulevard in 4t 

Pullman Building, The 

Pullman, Entrance to 3{ 

Rand-McNally Building 4? 

" Rookery," Grand Vestibule of i 

" Rookery '^ and Board of Trade •' 

Scene on the River 4- 

Sherman House Corner I' 

South Chicago R. R. Station— I. C. R. R. 

South Water St., Morning on 

St. Joseph's Hospital ; . . 

State St., North from Field's. 

State St., North from Madison st 

State St., South from Adams st 

State St., South from Palmer Hous*~ 

Tacoma Building, The 

Thomson-Taylor Spice Co.'-' , uifOing 

Tribune Building, The ... •*. ^f 

Union League Club House ■-• 

Union National Bank, Interior I 

Union Stock Yards, Entrance to I 

Union Stock Yards, Exchange BMd'g. ^ 
Union Stock Yards, Pens and Sh^ds. . I 
Van Buren Street Passenger Station. E 
Washinerton Park, Conservatory .... i 
Washington Park, Drexel Fountain . 1 

Wt^liing-ton Hotel. The ^ 

William Deering Harvester Works.... P 



I 



iL 



THIS BOOK 
IS DIVIDED INTO F^IVE^ F»ARXS. 



PART I. CHICAGO AS IT WAS. 

PART II. CHICAGO AS IT IS. 

PART III. THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 

PART IV. THE world's COLCJMBIAN EXPOSITION. 

PART V. THE GUIDE. 



TO 

THE CHILDREN OF CHICAGO 

IN GENERAL, 

AND TO 

MY OWN LITTLE CHILDREN 

IN PARTICULAR, 

WHO, IF THE LORD SPARES THEM UNTIL 

THEY SHALL HAVE ATTAINED 

THE ALLOTTED SPAN OF LIFE, 

WILL SEE THIS CITY 

THE GREATEST METROPOLIS ON THE GLOBE, 

THIS VOLUME 

IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 

BY 

THE COMPILER. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Abendpost 368 

Abstracts of titles 342 

Academies— private 89-97 

Academy of sciences 453 

Acacia club 210 

Act of Congress provid- 
ing for Fair 473 

Ada St. church, M. E 191 

Adams Ex. building 503 

Adams Ex. Co 257 

Adams st. (west) res. . . .539 
Adams, J. McGregor, res.. 542 
Adams & Westlake work8,260 
Administration and cost 
of maintenance Public 

Library 105 

Adolph, Loeb & Co., bk. . .151 

Advance, The 379 

Aermotor Go's works 260 

African M. E. churches.. 19 1 

Aid Ass'n., Masonic 456 

Aid Ass'n., Pioneer 178 

Aid Association 169 

Aid Societies 53, 165, 159 to 181 
^ im of this volume 17 and 18 

... X For^eCo 260 

Aldine Square 77 

Alexian Bros.' Hospital.. 307 

Alhambra theatre 118 

Alley ''L" Road 202 

Allen's School 90 

Allen's Academy 90 

AUerton's, Sam'l, res 529 

Alliug's, John, res 53i) 

All Saints Church, Episco- 
pal 190 

All Saints Church, Catho- 
lic ..193 

Alpine, location of 3x2 

Altenheim, location of 382 

Ambulance Service 306 

Ames— Minor T., res 528 

Americans in Chicago 82 

American College of Den- 
tal S\irgery 250 

American Com'l Trav 379 

American Engineer 379 

American Express Co 255 

AmericanEducational and 
American Exchange Nat'l 

Bk 140 

American Fi^^ld 379 

Amer.Horse f-Jhow Ass'n.. 207 

American Israelite 379 

American Je'.velpr 379 

American Trust & Savings 

Bank 151 

America, publ'n office of .377 
Amount expended in Pub- 
lic Charities 20 

Amusements 11 8-128 

Ararchy in Chicago 344 

-Anarchist's "Revenge Cir- 
lular " 362 



Anderson pub. school 101 

Antioch, location of ... 382 
Annexation of Lake View, 

Hyde Park, etc 48 

Annexed night free schls. UK) 
Annual fat stock show ... .344 
Anshe Maariv cemetery ..15e 

Apollo club 210 

Arbeiter Zeitung 368 

Architecture of the Ma- 
sonic Temple 507 

Architecture of Chicago . . 128 
Architectural iron work8.260 

Area of Chicago 19 and 49 

Area of the lakes 116 

Area of parks and public 

squares m and 67 

Areaof public parks 20 

Area of ter. annexed 48 

Area of wards of Chicago 49 

A rend's Drug Store 522 

Argo club 210 

Argyle Park P. O . . 86 

Argyle Park— location of.. 382 
"Aristocratic" qr. of city ,529 
Arlington Heights, loca- 
tion of 382 

"Armory" police station.. 499 
Armour, P. D., benevolent 

deeds of 497 

Armour, P. D., magnitude 

of business done by 497 

Armour, P. D., method of 

doing business 497 I 

Armour's, P. D.,residence,529 
Armour Mission. 160andlS8 
Armour Miss'nKin'g'rten, 90 
Armour Miss'n Library .. .330 
Armour Miss'n Training 

School 251 

Armour & Co., emp'yes of .496 
Armour & Co., offices of 496 
Armour st. public school. .101 
Arrivals and clearances on 

the Great Lakes 61 

Arrivals and clearances on 

the seaboard 61 

Arrivals and clearances of 

vessels at Chicago, 60-63 

Articles mfd. in Chicago.. 56 

Art 130-135 

Art Assn., Union League.. 135 

Art coUections.private 132 

Art galleries, T. O'Brien's.525 
Art Institute of Chicago . . 130 
Art Institute of Chicago 

art school '..133 

Art Institute, expenses etcl31 

Art Museum .130 

Art Museum building 131 

Art school 134 

Artists' society 134 

Ashland block 521 

Ashland boulevard 69 



Ashland boulevard resi- 
dences 638 

Ashland club 210 

Ashland ave. mission 188 

Ass'ds, benevolent, etc... .452 
Astronomical department 
Northwn. University. . .241 

Astronomical society 453 

Asylums 89 

Asylums (charitable) in 

Chicago 20 

Asylums (State) 460 

Asylum for boys (St. 

Joseph's) 180 

Asylums (orphan) .... 159-181 

Asylum for the insane 42 

Atchison, Topeka & San- 
ta Fe R. R. depot. . .381,410 

Athenaeum 227 

Athenseum library 330 

Athletic association —the 

Chicago 204 

Athletic clubs 203-209 

Atlas Nat'l Bank 140 

Atlantic hotel 318 

Attractions, special, at the 

Exposition 481 

Atwood's clothing house. 520 

Atwood's corner 344 

Auburn Park P. O 86 

Auburn Park, location of.382 

Auditorium building 135 

Auditorium dimensions. . .135 
Auditorium directory and 

officers 135 

Auditorium enclosures. . .136 

Auditorium entrances 136 

Auditorium, history of ...i36 
Auditorium hotel. . . 136, 318 
Auditorium investment.. .137 

Auditorium location 137 

Auditorium lobby 137 

Auditorium theatre.. .119, 138 

Auditorium tower. 344 

Auditorium views 137 

Augustana hospital 308 

Aurora 333 

Austro-Hungarian ceme- 
tery 156 

Austin 383 

Avondale 86,383 

Awnings pulled down by 

Wentworth 508 

Baggott, Jas., res 538 

Bakeries 346 

Ballard, Addson's, res 532 

Ball Courts (hand) 207 

B. &0. Ex. Co 257 

B. & O. R. R. depot. . . .381, 413 
Banking business of Chi- 
cago 30, 139-155 

Banks of Chicago, condi- 
tion of 31 

Bank clearings in Chicago 19 



11 



GENKKAI. I.XDEX. 



Banks (Nat.) of Chicago, 

capital of 19 

Banker's club 210 

Bank failures 139 

Banking institutions, Nat. 139 
Banking institutions,State 

and private 151 

Bank of Montreal 151 

Banks, surplus and profit 19 

Baptist ehurcties 188 

Baptist missions 189 

Baptist missionary train- 
ing school 251 

Baptist training school 90 

Bar association 452 

Barber shops 345 

Barley, receipts and ship- 
merits 32,35-37 

Barrington 383 

Baseball clubs 203 

Baseball clubs (indoor) — "09 

Batavia 383 

Battle of Gettysburg pan- 
orama 132, 525 

Battery D— First Artillery 338 

Bayer'..- 383 

Bee Hive, dry goods 517 

Beef (dressed), receipts 

and shipments 35-37 

''Beer Riot" 357 

Belden ave. Presbyterian 

church 192 

Belden ave. Baptist chur'b.l88 
••' Bell " Clothing House. . .518 

Beit Line railroad 259 

Benevolent Fund (Police). 80 
Benevolent Institut'n.159-181 
Benevolent societies . . 4o2 

Bennett hospital .308 

Benuet Medical College... 250 

Bensonville 383 

Benton ....383 

Berry, the candy raer — 523 
Beseda (Bohemian reading 

club) 210 

Bethany Church, Baptist 188 
Bethany Church (Cong'al.l87 

Bethany Home 161 

Bethesda Church, Baptist.188 
Bethesda Kindergarten.. . 89 
Bethlehem Chapel,Cong'all87 

Bethlehem school — 93 

Bible Institute 183 

Bible Society (Chicago) . ..182 

Bicycle clubs 206 

Biler ave 499 

Billings, C. K. G., res 539 

Binding, Print, Litho 59 

Black Road 345 

Blacksmith shops 345 

Blaine's, Emmons, res 542 

Blind, State Inst, for 460 

"Blocks" 345 

Bloom 383 

Blue Island 383 

Blue Island ave. to be 

» cabled 199 

BJue Island ave. pub. sch'1,101 



Blue Island ave., nature of 

business on 534 

B'nai Abraham cemeterj'.156 
Board of Ai'chitects of the 

Fair 479 

Board of Lady Managers, 

Fair 480 

Board of Education Cham. ,488 
Board of Trade building. .222 
Board of Trade officers. . . 2:^2 
Board of Trade trans. 19, 31-39 
Board of Trade district, 

ten years after the fire.. 499 
Board of Trade (open). . . .226 

Boarding houses 345-484 

Boat and yacht clubs 203 

Bohemians in Chicago — 82 
Bohemian Congregation 

of Free Thinkei's 453 

Bohemian M. E. church's. 192 
Bohemian school — 90 

Boiler and tank works 262 

Bonded indebt. of city . . . .345 
Bonfield detective agency.226 
Books taken from public 

library 20 

Books most called for in 

public library 1C6 

Books in public library, 

character of 105 

Books bound in Chicago.. 20 

Boots and shoes 345 

Bootblacks.. 345 

Bootbl'ks' and Newsboys' 

Home 175 

Boston oyster house 520 

Boulevard, pub. school. .101 
Bound books, production 

of 20 

Bowmanville church, 

Congregational 187 

Bowmanville P. 86 

Boxing club 205 

Boys' Asy. (St. Joseph's).. 180 
Boys' and girls' training 

schools 253 

Boyer's, J. H., res 528 

Bradly works 539 

Branches of pub. library . 106 
Branch post-offices, loca- 
tion of 83 

Brainard 384 

Brainard public school — 101 
Brass and Copper mf rs . 57 
Brega's, C. W.,residence. .531 

Bremen 384 

Brentano's books, etc 526 

Brenan public school 101 

Brevoort hotel 320 

Breweries of Chicago, out- 
put of 41 

Brewing, distilling and to- 
bacco interests 56 

Brick, stone, etc., mfrs 57 

Bridewell or house of cor- 
rection 49 

Bridges and viaducts — 50 
Bridge at Madison st 534 



I Bridge builders 304 

I Briggs house 319 

Brighton ch., Cong'al . . . .187 
: Brighton public .school. . .101 

j Brighton park 384 

Brighton Park public 

j school 101 

I Brink's city express 357 

I Brisbane 384 

British American ass'n .... 453 
Broomcorn receipts and 

shipments 37 

Brown & Holland— short- 
hand and typewriting. . .89 

Browning clubs 210 

Browning, King & Co., 

clothiers 530 

Brown public school 101 

Bruce detective agency. . .^6 
Brunswick-Balke billiard 

mf'y 527 

Bryant & Stratton's busi- 
ness college 89, .527 

Bryan block 494 

Buck & Raynor'8 corner 

drugstore 516 

Buckinham's, John, res . . 530 
Buda foundry and manu- 
facturing works 261 

Buena Park 86, 384 

Buildings erected in Chi- 
cago. 19 

Building permits in 1890. .108 
Building operations in 

Chicago 107 

Building of the court 

house and city hall 486 

Buildings (office) 139 

Buildings of Chicago, char- 
acter of 128 

Buildings of the exposi- 
tion 481 

Bid's & Trd's exchange. . .223 

Bullock Mfg. Co 282 

Bull's Head tavern 345 

Bunco Steerers 519 

Bureau of justice 162 

Bureau of identification, 

police dep't 80 

Burke's European hotel... 319 

Burhngton 384 

Burlington Heights 384 

Burned dis't of the great 

fire 350 

Burnside Crossing P.O — 86 

Burr pub. school 101 

Burr mission .91 

Burj'ing groun<ts 155-159 

Business of Chicago City 

Railway Co.. ; 197 

Business done by the var- 
ious Chicago F Rs . . 413-452 
Business of Nor h Chicago 

Street Railway Co 198 

Business of West Chicago 

Street Railway Co 199 

Brisiness view of Chicago 19 
Business colleges 89 



business (wholesale) o f 

Chicago 19 

Business of Chicago, job- 
bing and wholesale 54 

Business of Marshall Field 

&Co 513 

Business of the post oflBce, 

increase in 84 

Business transacted at 

stockyards 35 

;{utter and cheese 345 

.-{utter, cheese and egg 

association 226 

Jjutter— receipts and ship- 
ments 37 

buying and selling stock 

at the yards 294 

j5ab and hack rates 483 

I'able sj'stem, descrip. of. .199 
.'able car service 195-203 

iable employes, pay of. .196 
able system of the South 

Side 197 

:;able line (South Side) 

equipment of 197 

::^abling Blue Island ave . . 199 
;). A. Crosby «& Co's w'riis.261 
,iahn & Strauss, bankers . . 151 

: 'alhoun pub. school 101 

;!alifornia ave. church, 

Congregational 187 

r 'alif ornia ave. dept. Y. M. 

C.A 184 

\Ialif ornia Fruit Transpor- 

j tation Company 261 

■alif ornia ave. mission — 188 
wal. Pioneers west, assn. . .461 
;alifornia ave. pub. scb'l.lOl 

!alumet building, 496 

lalumet Nat'l Bank 141 

.Jalumet Canning Co 262 

.;alumet club 210 

Talumet district 543 

Jalumet electric railroad. 200 
Calumet Iron & Steel Vo. .262 
Oalumet ave. pub. school .101 

Calumet P. O 86 

Calumet ave. residences. .630 

Calumet region 345 

Calvary cemetery 156,384 

Calves, receipts and ship- 

mentsof 35,36 

Camp Douglas plot 315 

Camp Lake 384 

Camp McDonald 384 

Canadian-American 379 

Canadian- Amer. league. . .453 

Canfield 384 

Canning, and preserving 

company (woman's) 367 

Capacity di'ainage canal. .111 
Capital of Chi. nat. banks 19 

Capital of state banks 139 

Capital of national banks . 139 
Capital employed in man- 
ufactures 56 

Capital stock of railroads 
running intoChicago 411-482 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Capt. Wells at massacre of 

Ft. Dearborn 27 

Capt. Heald warned by 

Gen. Hull 25 

Carette lines 201 

Carleton club 211 

Carpenters and Builders . 346 
Carpenter pub. school — 101 

Carpenter, Geo. B 507 

Carriage district 525 

Carriage manufactures. .525 

Carriage rate 483 

Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., 

wholesale dry goods 523 

Car Shops at Pullman — 289 
Cars used in transporting 

live stock 35 

Cary 384 

Cathedral of the Holy 

Name, Catholic 193 

Cathedral SS. Peter and 

Paul, Episcopal 190 

Catholic Colonizat'n As8'n,456 

Catholic Pilot 379, 

Catholic Home 379, 

Catholic sch'ls (priv.) . ...89-97 
Catholic (Ro'n) churches, 193 

Caton's, Judge, res 530 

Cattle and Hogs slaugh- 
tered in 1890 36 

Cattle Slaughtered 19 

Cattle, receipts and ship- 
ments of 35,36-37 

Cattle at the yards, classi- 
fication of 295 

Cause of massacre of Fort 

Dearborn 24 

Caxton building 503 

(I!emeteries . 155-159 

Cemetery of the Congre- 
gation of the North Side 156 
Centennial Church,Baptistl88 
Centenary Church, M. E.. 191 

Central boulevard 69 

Central Bible school 90 

Central col. of shorthand 89 
Central church (Swing's). 191 
Central Detail station . . . .486 
Central Detail police dept. 79 
Central Music Hall . . ..122-507 
Central Meeting of 

Friends 194 

Central park P. O 86 

Central park pub. school 101 
Central park churcb. Con- 
gregational 187 

Central pk. driving as8'n..207 
Central Park Presbyter- 
ian Church. 193 

Central W.C.T.U. Chicagol82 
Chamber's Corner(jewelry 

store) 520 

Chamber of Commerce 

(Old) 360 

Chamber of Commerce 

Building 129,492 

Champion harvester works 
. .. 303 



111 



Changing the water flow.. 109 
Character of buildings of 

Chicago 128 

Character of books in pub. 

library 105 

CJharitable asylums in Chi- 
cago 19 

Charitable Institutions... 89 

Charities 159-181 

Charities,private and pub- 
lic, amounts expended in 20 
Charity Kindergarten .. 90 
Charity ass'n., Hebrew ... 169 
Chas. Gossage & Co. -dry 

goods 514 

Chas. Henrotin,banker — 151 
Chebra Gemilath Chasadim 

Ubikur Cholim ceraet'ry 156 
Chebra Kadisha Ubikur 

Cholim cemetery 156 

Cheltenham P. O 86 

Cheltenham Beach 384 

Chemical Bank building.. 504 
Chemical Trust & Savings 

Bank 151 

Chemicals manufactured. 58 
" Cheyenne," location of..499 

Chicago, area of 19 

Chicago Academy of Sci- 
ences 453 

Chicago Astro'l society. . .543 

Chicago Art school 89 

Chicago Athenteum . . .89, 227 
Chicago ave. ch., Moody... 191 
Chicago Athletic Ass'n — 204 
Chicago American Horse 

Exchange 223 

Chicago as it is 29 

Chicago as it was 21 

Chicago & Alton R. R. de- 
pot 381,422 

Chicago Business College. 89 
Chicago, bids, erected in.. 19 

Chicago Bible Society 182 

Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy R. R. depot. .381, 414 

Chicago club 211 

Chicago Canoe club 203 

Chicago Curling club 206 

Chicago Corset Company. 524 
Chicago conservatory . . 89 
Chicago College of Music 509 
Chicago College of Phar- 

macv 89-250 

Chicago College of Dental 

Surgery '50 

Chicago Children's Hospi- 
tal 162 

Chicago & Calumet Stock 

Yards Company 285 

Chicago cold storage 263 

Chicago Crucible Steel 

Casting Company 264 

Chicago City Ry. Co 197 

Chicago Drop Forge & 

Foundry Co 264 

Chicago Dramatic & Mus- 
leal College 89 



IV 



Chicago Daily News fresh 

air fund 162 

Chicago Electric Club. . .211 
Chicago Emergency Hos- 
pital 308 

Chicago Eagle. 379 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois 

railroad depot 381, 424 

Chicago & Erie R. R. de- 
pot 381-440 

Chicago fire of 1871 349 

Chicago fire of 1874 351 

Chicago fencing and box- 
ing club 205 

Chicago Free Kindergar- 
ten ass'n 164 

Chicago & Grand Trunk 

R. R., depot 381-424 

Chicago Hotel, the P02 

Chicago historical so'ty...453 
Chicago half-orphan asy- 
lum 94 

Chicago Hussars 340 

Chicago kitchen garden 

ass'n 231 

Chicago Lawn 86-384 

Chicago Law Institute.... 453 
Chicago, length and width 

of 19 

Chicago life-saving sta- 
tion 332 

Chicago light-houses 333 

Chicago medical college. 250 
Chicago musical college.. 89 
Chicago manual training 

school 89,229 

Chicago, mayors of 359 

Chicago Mail 374 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul R.R. depot 381,417 

Chicago National bank. ... 141 
Chicago nursery and half- 
orphan asylum 164 

Chicago & Northern Paci- 
fic K.R. depot 381,425 

Chicago & North- Western 

R.R. depot 381,426 

Chicago orphan asyl. . .90, 165 

Chicago opera house 122 

Chicago oyster house — 523 

Chicago policlinic 165 

Chicago portage under the 

British flag 22 

Chicago, population of — 19 
Chicago relief and aid 80C.165 
Chicago real estate board. 223 
Chicago, Rock Island & 

Pacific R.R. depot. . .381,419 
Chicago so"ty of artists — 134 
Chicago stock exchange. .224 
Chicago splice bar mill . . . 265 
Chicago Sanitary District 

Map 110 

Chicago steel works 265 

Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas 

City R. R. depot ... 381,421 
Chicago, St, Louis & Pitts- 
burg R. R. depot ... 381, 444 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Chicago Trust & Savings 

Bk 151 

Chicago Theological semi- 
nary 92,231 

Chicago Woman's club. . ..211 

Chicago Yacht club 203 

Children of school age 20 

Chinese laundries 346 

Chinese mission 94 

Christ Church Episcopal. .190 
Christian churches. . 187 
Christian Endeavor so'ty 183 
Christian organizati'ns 182,195 
Christian Science Theo- 
logical Seminary 90 

Church club 212 

Churches 186-195 

Churchesin Chicago, num- 
ber of . 20 

Church Societies 454 

Ch .Home for A g'd Pers'n8,166 
Chumesero's, J. C, res. . . 630 

Ch. of Atone'nt, Epis 190 

Ch. of the Ascen'n, Epis. . .190 

Ch. of Annunciation 193 

Ch. of the Assumption.. . ,193 
Ch. of the Covenant, Pres.192 
Ch. of the Epiphany, Epis.. 190 
Ch. of the Holy Angels, 

Catholic 193 

Ch. of the Holy Family. . . .193 
Ch. of the Immaculate 

Conception, Catholic 193 

Church of Our Lady of 

Sorrows, Catholic 193 

Church of the Messiah, 

Unitarian 194 

Church of the Redeemer, 

Congregational 187 

Church of the Redeemer, 

Universalist 194 

Church of the Sacred 

Heart, Catholic 193 

Church of the Transfigur- 
ation, Episcopal 190 

Cicero and Proviso St. Rail- 
way Co 201 

Cigars and Tobacco 346 

Circuit Court (U. S.) 46 

Circuit Court 490 

Cities and towns tributary 

to Chicago 466 

Cities of the U. S., pop. of. 361 
Cities reached by the Chi- 
cago railroads 412 to 452 

Citizens' association 458 

Citizens' league 458 

Citizen, The, publication 

office of 378 

City and environs 3F0 

City Clerk's office 68, 487 

City Collector's office. .63, 487 
City Detective dept. .... .485 

City Hall building 484 

City Hall employes' sal- 
aries 63 

City improvements pro- 
posed 60 



City parks 

City railway service. ..^ 95- 

City telegraph 

Clarendon Hills 

Clarke public school 

Clark's, John M., res 

Clark St., North, nature 03 
business on 

Classification of cattle al 
the yards 

Class of books most called 
for in public library. 

Clearances (banks) fox 
1890 

Clearances of vessels al 
Chicago 61 

Clearances on the sea- 
board 

Clearances on the Great 
Lakes 

Clerk— probate expenses 
of 

Clerk of circuit court, ex- 
penses of 

Clerk superior court, ex- 
penses of 

Clerk's office (county) 

Clerk's office (city) ex- 
penses of 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis R. R. 
depot . 381, 

Clifton 

Clifton House 

Climate of Chicago 

Clinton ville. . 

Clinton street church. 
Congregational 

Clocks of the city ; 

Closing of Foreign Mails. . 

Clothing, Cloaks, etc., 
manufactured 

Clubs, athletic, sporting, 
etc 203-; 

Clubs in Chicago 

Clubs— gentlemen's and 
social { 

Club, Litteraire Francais..! 

Oyde J 

Coal Exchange i 

Coal and Iron Ore sources.^ 

Coal, receipts and ship- 
ments 

Coastwise, receipts and ' 
shipments 

Cold storage exchange. . .2 

Colehour 86,3 

Collection in Art Museum.l 

Colleges 2 

Colleges, private 89- 

Colleges. medical 2 

College of Dental and Oval 
Surgery, Northwestern 
University 2 

College of Pharmacy, 

Northwestern UniversityZ 

College of Physicians and 
Surgeons 93,2. 



GENERAL IXDEX. 



College of Life school 90 

College of music 508 

College Place residences .530 
'vollegiat • Sv-hool, N. Side. 244 
"IJolured pop. of Chicago. . f>2 
Jolumbia -National Bank 14'-i 
Columbia Steel Car Co . . . .2tt5 

Colum-jia Theatre 123 

Columbu- pub. school — 101 
Commerce of Chicago, 

growth of 19,40 

Commercial exchanges. 2:21 

Commercial hotel 319 

Commercial club 212 

Commercial Nat'l. Bank.. 142 
Commissioner of Health, 

duties of 485 

CoTimission merchants. . .346 
Committees of Fair direc- 
tory 479 

Comparative cost of cable 
and horse propulsion.. .199 

Comptroller's office 487 

Comptroller's office, sala- 
ries. 44, 63 

Compulsory education law 9^ 
Concordia cemetery . . . 156 
Condition of Chicago Nat. 

banks. 31 

Condition of city treasury 51 

(Confidence men 519 

Conffregational churches. 187 
Congressional action on 
World's Columbian Ex .473 

Couley's 'SSh 

Conservatory of Music, 

(N. W. Universitj') 241 

Conservatories in the dif- 
ferent parks 67, 68 

Construction of building, 

method of 129 

Consulates 346 

Continental Nat. Bank... 14:i 

Continental hotel 319 

Contractors 346 

Convalescents' Home 186 

Conventions in Chicago, 

national, political 360 

Cook Co. Court House 42 

Cook Co., expenses of, 44 

Cook County Hospital 09 

Cook Co. judiciary 45 

Cook County jail 43 

Cook county normal 

school 97 

Cook county property, val- 
uation of 45 

Cook county poor house. . 43 
Cook county, population.. 83 

(•ojper pub. school 101 

Corn Exchange bank 151 

Corn, receipts and ship- 
ments of 35, 37 

Corn, receipts and ship- 
ments of 33 

Co»ned meats, receipts and 

shipments 37 

Cortland 385 



Corner drug .stores, na- 
ture ot their bubiuess. . .516 

Coroner's inquests 43 

Coroner's office 4fc9 

Coronersoffice,expen8eof 44 

Cost of art institute 131 

Cost of buildings erected 

in Chicago 19 

Cost of cable and horse 

propulsion 199 

Cost of county officers 44 

Cost of drainage canal 111 

Cost (estimated) of the 

Exposition buildings 481 

Cost of the " Fair " 4bl 

Cost of maintenance of 

public liorary 105 

Cost of P. O bldg. etc 87 

Cost of pub. schl. prop'ty. 20 

Cost of water works Hi 

Council chamber, City 

Hall 488 

Council and mavor, sal.. . . 65 

Countess Yacht Club 203 

County agent, expenses of 44 
County Attorney's office, 

expenses of 44 

County board, expenses of 44 

County Clerk's office 489 

County Courts 490 

County Expenses 44 

County Hospital, Expenses 

of 44 

County Insane Asylum. . . 42 

County jail 43 

County officers, cost of . . . 44 
County office*, receipts of. 45 

County organization 41 

County poor house 43 

Co. Physician, expenses of 44 

Co. Recorder's office 489 

Co. Treasurer's office . . 490 
Course of study in Public 

Manual Training Sch'l.. 98 
Course of study in North- 
western University 238 

Courtof claim (U. S.) 46 

Courts of cook county 45 

Courts of Cook county 490 

Court house building 484 

Court house, expenses of. 44 
Court house of Cook 

county 42 

Covenant Ch., C'ng'g'n'1..187 

Covenant Ch., Baptist 188 

Cowles', \Vm. H., res 532 

Cragin Ch„ Congregatin'l.l87 

Cragin P. O 86 

Crane Co. 's Works 265 

Craver, Steel & Austin's 

Works.. 266 

Crawford P. O 86 j 

Crawford pub. school 101 

Crawford 385 i 

Crerar Library 330 j 

Crete 385 

"Crib," the 346 

"CYibs" of the wat'r wr'k8,lU | 



Crib and break water light 

house 334 

Cricket Club ?o6 

Criminal Courts 490 

Criminal C'rt, exp'nses of. 44 

Criterion Tiieatre 123 

Cronin Murder.. 346 

Crown Point 385 

Crucible Steel Casting Co. 264 

Crystal Lake 3b5 

Cudahy's, Michael, res 531 

Cummings 86, 3e5 

Curling Club, the Cnicago,205 

Curry, Charley 523 

Cuyler 386 

Cycling clubs 2o6 

Cyclorama buildings 525 

Cymrodorian society 454 

Daily newspapers 20, 367 

Daily News, fresh air 

fund 163 

Daily News 368 

Daily News office 522 

Dale & Sempill's corner 

Drug store 516, 630 

Dalton 385 

Danes in Chicago 82 

Dania Society 454 

Danish Lutheran Orphans' 

Home 166 

Dauphin Park 385 

David Bradley M^g. Co... .266 

Davis, Geo. R., res 539 

Deaf & Dumb, school for.. 178 
Deaf and dumb. State in- 
stitution for 460 

Dearborn ave. residences. 541 

Dearborn club 212 

Dearborn pub. school 101 

Dearborn seminary 90 

Deaths in city during the 

year 1890 51 

Decorative art society 454 

Dedication of Exposition 

buildings 482 

Deering 385 

Deering harvesting ma- 
chine works 300 

DeKalb 385 

Delivery stations of pub. 

library 106 

Dem . State Cen'l Com .... 364 

Dentists 346 

Dental colleges 89 

Dental societies .457 

Dental Coilege.Northwest- 

ern University 242 

Depots of the various 

railroads 381,410 

Dept. of public works — 487 
Descript, of pub. library . .104 
Descript. of waterworks. .114 
Description of cable sys- 
tem 199 

Description of route of 
the drainage canal.. 111-114 

Desplaines 385 

Destruct'n of "TheSands "346 



VI 



GENERAL IJS DEX. 



Detective agencies 236 

Detective police 79 

Deiecnve office— the city. 485 
Detention hospital, ex- 
penses of 44 

Leutscher Krieger Verein.454 

iJime Saviujfs BanKS 152 

Dimensions of Audito- 
rium 135 

Dinner clubs — 21JJ 

Dnectory of the " Fair " . . 477 
Directory and olficei's of 

Auditorium 135 

Directors of banking 

houses 139-155 

T .iscipies of Christ»» 194 

Distance of Chicago from 

otlier cities 347 

Distilling- interests 56 

District Court (U.S.) ... 46 
Division Headquarters and 

Precmcts, police dep't.. . 79 
Doane's, J. W. residence. .528 

Dogbladet 369 

Doa-gett's building 527 

Dokon 385 

D.maersberger's, Jos. re8.531 
Donohue & Henneberry's 

establishment 503 

Doolittle pub. school 101 

Dore pub. school 101 

Douglas Club 212 

Douglas boulevard 69 

Douglas monument square 77 

Douglas Park 67,69 

Douglas Park Club 212 

Douglas Park church, Con- 
gregational, 187 

Douglas public school 101 

Downer's Grove 385 

Drainiige com., powers of.l09 
Drainage and ship canal. .109 
Drainage canal, cost of — Hi 
Drainage c'n'l, capacity of,l 11 
Drainage canal, purpose of ,111 

I >i ainage district, map 110 

Drainage canal, route of. 111 

Drake fountain 347 

Drake's, John B., res 53() 

Dramatic colleges 89 

Dressed beef business of 

Chicago 296 1 

Dressed beef, receipts and | 

shipments 35, 37 i 

Dressmakers 347 

Drexd blv . 70 

Drexel kindergarten 90 

Drop, Forge and foundry 

com any 264 

Drovers National bank.. 143 

I )rovers Journal 379 

Druggists 347 

Dry Goods Reporter 379 

Dry goods stores 347 

1 'uncan Av (hurch. Con- 
gregational 187 

Dun lap's, Geo. L., res.497, 528 
Dun's Commercial Report 55 



Dunning P. 86 

Dyer 386 

E agle, The Chicago 379 

Early history of Chicago.. 21 

Early trading posts 22 

Earnings of south side 

cable company 197 

East Grove 38ti 

East Roseland . .386 

Economist, The 378 

Eden Musee 1^3 

Edgewater 86, 386 

Edison Park 380 

Educational institutions. .227 
Educational institutions, 

medical 250 

Educational institutions, 

training schools 2P1 

Eighth church, Presbyt'n.l92 
Eighth ward private schls. 91 
Eighteenth ward private 

schools 94 

Elburn 387 

Electric A ge. The 379 

Electric Company (West- 
ern) works 805 

Electric engineer 379 

Electric lights (city) 47 

Electric lights streets . 3b4 

Electrical Review 379 

Electric R.R., Calumet. . 200 
Electric R'y, South End . 5i02 
Electric R'y, Cicero and 

Proviso 201 

Eleemosynary support ... 45 
Elevated R-y,Randoiph st. 202 
Elevated R'y, South Side. .20^ 
Elevated R. R., Lake st .201 

Elevators, grain 272 

Elevators, storage capac- 
ity of 34 

Eleventh Ward private 

schools 92 

Elgin 387 

Elgin Nat. Watch Co .266 
Elgin Watch Case Co ... . 270 
Ellis ave. kindergarten.... 90 

Ellis Park 77 

Ellsworth, Chicago, Zou- 
aves 341 

Elmhurst 387 

Elsdon 387 

ElsdonP. O 86 

Emerald ave. Presbyterian 

church 192 

Emergency hospital 308 

Emerson public school ... .101 
Emmanuel (colored) ch., 

Congregational 187 

Employes of cable lines, 

pay of 196 

Employes of Marshall 

Field & Co 513 

Employes of schools, sal- 
aries of 103 

Engineering department, 

salaries 63 

Engine houses, location of 48 



Engiewood 86, 887 

Englewood church. Con- 
gregational 187 

Englewood, North, ch., 

Congregational 187 

Englewood Trinity ch., 

Congi-egational 187 

Engiewood Heights 86, 367 

Englewood on the Hill . .387 
Englewood national bank. 143 
English influence with na- 
tives 23 

English in Chicago 82 

Entrances to Auditorium . 136 
Environs of Chicago.. .. 380 

Eola 388 

Episcopal churches 190 

Episcopal (Reformed) 

churches 190 

Epstean's dime museum. 123 
Equipment and force of 

fire department 47 

Equipment of the Chicago 

railroads 411-453 

Equipment of insurance 

patrol 48 

Equipment of South Side 

cable line 197 

Erie street church, M. E .191 
Erring Woman's Refuge 

for lef orm 45-166 

E. S. Dreyer& Co., bankers 152 
Estimated expenditures 

for 1891 (city) 61 

Estim'ed rev. for '91, (city) 51 
Evacuat'n of Ft. Dearb'n, 26 
Evangel'l Luth'an sch'l... 91 
Evangelical Luthe'an Ger- 
man churches 189 

Evanston 388 

Evanston boat club 203 

Evanston club 213 

EvaLSton country club.... £13 
Evanston life-sav'gst't'n..333 

Evanston water works 117 

Evanston zouaves 341 

Eva Sadam's school 90 

Evening Post 374 

Evening Mail 374 

Evening Journal .369 

Evergreen Park 390 

Excessive precipitation at 

Chicago 40 

Exchange, Stock Yards. . .298 
Execu've Com. of the Fair, 479 
Executive department of 

public schools 97 

Expend, for 1891 (estira.) . . 51 

Expend, of pub. sch'is 98 

Expense of the Bridew'll. 49 

Expenses of Cook Co 44 

Expenses of Chicago P.O. 88 
Expenses of pub. Iibr'y..l05 
Explorations of La Salle 

and Marquette 21 

Exnort trade of Chicago. . 55 
E position — The World's 
Columbian 473-483 



GENERAL INDEX. 



VU 



Exports by lake to Can. ... 63 

Exports of grain. 33 

Exposition— Inter-State ..357 

Expret-s cuinpanies 255 

Eye & Ear Infirmary (char- 
itable) 460 

Factory and tenement 

house inspection 53 

FacuIty,MoCormick'8 The- 
ological Seminary 236 

Faculty of Theological 

Seminary 332 

"Fair/' the 348 

"Fair" building, descrip- 
tion of, 348 

"Fair "school 34i^ 

"Fair," the world's... 473, 483 

Fairbank's, N. K., res 532 

Fairview Park 390 

Famous corners 516 

Fargo's, S. M., res 541 

Fargo's, C. H., res 6.30 

Farm, Field & Stockman.. 379 
Farm Implement News. . .;579 

Farmers Review 379 

Farmers Trust Company. .152 

Farragut boat club 2(3 

Farragut Naval ass'n 2C3 

Farwell residences 542 

Farwell Hall 523 

Farwell (J. V.) & Co.. .524, 35T 

Fat Stock Show ..344 

Federal courts 46 

Federal officers 46 

Federal representation 46 

Feeble-minded children, 

asylum for 460 j 

Feed officers 64 I 

Feehanville 390 1 

Female pop. of Chicago... 82 i 
Female Seminary, Morgan j 

Park 237 ! 

Fencing club 205 

Fernwood 890 

Fidelity Bank building — 521 
Field's business methods 

and general policy 512 

Field (Marshall), early life 

of 512 

Field's early business ex- 
perience 511 

Field, Leiter & Co 510 

Fi^^ld's loss by the great 

fire 511 

Field's maxims of busi- 
ness 512 

Field's, Marshall, res 538 

Field's personal appear- 
ance 513 

Field's retail store 510 

Field's social life 513 

Field's wholesale house. . .511 
Fifth ward, private schools 90 
Fifteenth ward, private 

_ schools 93 

i^igaro.publicat'n oflBce of 378 
Financial business of Chi- 
cago 130 



Financial condition of the 

Board of Trade 222 

Fire Alarm offices 486 

Fire alarms in 1890 47 

Fire dep't. of Chicago 46 

Klre dep't. headquarters 47 
Fire dep't. equipment and 

force 47 

Fire dep't., salaries 64 

Firs insurance, 1890 47 

Fire of 1871 349 

Fire of 18:4 35i 

Firemen's benev. soc'y... 48 
Firemen's pension fund.45-48 

Fire relics 35' 

First settler of Chicago.. . . 22 
First tort built at Chicago 23 
First ward private schools 89 
First Nat. bank bldg... 143,504 
First brigade, general and 

staff ... 336 

First regiment I. N. G. . . .336 
First church— Baptist . ... 188 
First ch.. Congregational. 187 

First ch. (Christian) 187 

First church (Scandina- 
vian), Congregational. .187 

First M. E. church 191 

First ch., Presbyterian. 192 
Firat society of Spiritual- 
ists 194 

Fishing and hunting- 
clubs 207 

Fish, Joseph & Co 515 

Fisk monument 352 

Fisk & Co., D. B., 526 

Flaxseed, receipts and 

shipments 35,37 

Floating bath-house 349 

Floating hospital 308 

Flour and feed ass'n 236 

Flour in store in Chicago. 32 
Flour, receipts and ship- 
ments 33,35,37 

Floral educational soc 457 

Force and equipment of 

fire dept 47 

Force employed in post 

office 83 

Foreign cities, population. "61 
Foreign coin, value of, in 

U. S. money. 353 

Foreign mails, closing of. . 84 
Foreman Bros., bankers.. 152 

Forest Hill 88,390 

Forest Home cemetery... 156 

Forest Home 390 

Forestvilie ch., Cong'l 187 

Forest Glen P. 86 

Forge an", bolt company. . .264 
Forge and Iron Co., nat'l.:i85 

Fort, built at Chicago 23 

Fort Dearborn 21 

Fort Dearborn, site of 353 

Fort Dearborn first garri- 
soned 34 

Fort Dearborn, officers in 
command of 25 



Fort Dearborn evacuated 26 
Fort Dearborn massacre, 

cause of. 24 

Fort Dearborn rebuilt ... 28 
Fort Dearborn Nat. bank. 144 

Fort Sheridan 335-390,543 

Fortnightly club of Chi . . sl3 

Forty club 314 

Forty-first Street church, 

Presbyterian 192 

Foundlings' Home 93,167 

Foundries, general 271 

Foundries, stove 291 

Fountain (Drake) 347 

Fountain (the Yerkes) ... .367 
Fourth class mail matter.. 88 
Fourth ward private schls. 90 
Fourteenth ward private 

schools 93 

Fowler Rolling Mill Co . . 371 

Fowler Steel Car Co 271 

Fox Lake 390 

Franklin Park 3^0 

Franklin public school ... .101 
Frankhn MacVeagh & Co., 

wholesale grocers 527 

Fraser & Chalmers wks.270-539 

Eraser's Donald, res '31 

Free delivery of letters 83 

Free delivery stations of 

public library 106 

Free night schools, loca- 
tion of 99 

Free Sons of Israel ceme- 
tery 157 

Free Thinkers, congrega- 
tion of 453 

Freiberg's opera house. . .123 

Freidberg's " fence " 500 

Freie Presse 371 

French in Chicago 82 

French, Potter & Wilson, 

glass and china ware . . 5:7 
Fresh air fund(D'ly News) 163 

Friendless, Home for 172 

Friends' meeting house.. 94 

Froebel pub. school 101 

Frog & Crossing Co., Mor- 

den 284 

Fruit buyers' ass'u 2;^5 

Fruit and vegetable d'lers' 

ass'n 223 

Fuel dealers 354 

Fulton St. church, M. E.,.191 

Fulton St. market 354 

Furniture dealers 354 

Furnished rooms 354 

Cage Park ,. 70 

Gage's, Lj-man J., res 541 

Gain in population of Chi- 
cago — 80 

Gambling in Chicago 518 

GanoP.O 86 

Garfield park 67, 70 

Garfield boulevard 70 

Garfield public school 101 

Garibaldi Legion 454 

Garrett Biblical Institute. 240 



Vlll 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Gas illumination 354 

Gault house 319 

Gazette's, Norman TMres.530 

Geneva 390 

Gen'r'l man'g'm'nt of the 

Fair 475 

General offices of the va- 
rious railroads 411-452 

Gentlemen's clubs 209 

Geographical cen. of Chi- 
cago 51 

George H. Thomas pub. 

school 101 

German Advent ch 194 

German-American Dental 

College 250 

German-American Miller. 379 
German Catholic ch'ches.l94 
German dept. Y. M. C. A 184 

German hospital 310 

Germans in Chicago. ...... 82 

German Luthei-an school. 91 
German Lutheran c'm't'ry 157 
Germania Maennerchor. 214 
German mut'l ben't ass'n ,455 
German M. E. churches .192 
German old people's home,169 
German Pilg'm ch., Con'l . .187 
German Soc'ty of Chicaso,455 
Giles Bros. & Co., jewelers,514 
Girls' and Boys' training 

school 253 

Girls' friendly society 455 

Girls' industrial school — 255 
Girls' mut'l ben'f 't club. . .214 
Girls (unemployed) , home 

for 171 

Glencoe 391 

Glen Ellyn 391 

Glenwood 391 

Glessner's, John J.,res 528 

Globe, the 371 

Globe national bank 145 

Globe savings bank 152 

Goodall's Daily Sun 371 

Goodenow 391 

Goodrich line, steamboats471 

Goodrich pub. school 101 

Good Samaritan society. .169 

Gore's hotel 319 

Gos?age & Co., dry goods.514 
Gossage's, reputation of ..515 
Gov. exhibits World's rair474 
Gi'ace ch., Congregat'onall87 
Graceland cemetery — 157 

Grace M. E. church 191 

Grace school 90 

Graded schools 97 

Graham & Morton Trans- 
portation Co 471 

Grain elevators 272 

Grain exports 33 

Grain shipments by lake. . 61 

Grain inspected 34 

Grain and produce, re- 
ceipts and shipments — 35 
Grain and produce busi- 
ness of Chicago 31 



Grain storage capacity of 

warehouses 34 

Grain trade of Chicago, 

growth of 274 

Grand Crossing 86, 391 

Grand Trunk Ky 430 

Grand opera ln)use — 123 

(irand boulevard 70 

Grand blvd. res 530 

Grand Pacific hotel 319 

Grant club 214 

Grant Collegiate institute 95 
Grant Locomotive works 273 

Grant pub. school 102 

Graphic, the 378 

Grass seed, receipts and 

shipments 35,37 

Gray's Lake 391 

Gravland 391 

Great Fire, the 350 

Great Western Locomo- 
tive works 273 

Greenebaum's, H. E., res..531 
Greenebaum Sons,bankersl52 

Greenwood 391 

Gregti's 391 

Griffin Wheel& F'd'ry Co. .274 

Griffith 391 

Grossdale 391 

Gross Park 392 

Grosse Point light-house.. 334 

Groveland square res 532 

Groveland Pa^-k 77 

Growth of Chicago, by 

wards 81 

Guarantee Company of 

North America 152 

Guardian angel orphan 

asylum 189 

Guardian angel academy. 94 
Gun and fishing clubs.. .207 

Gurnee 392 

Hack and cab rates.. .. 483 
Hahnemann hospital . .310 
Hahnemann Medical Col . 250 
Half-orphan asylum . . . . 164 
Halsted st. M. E. church. .191 
Halsted st. opera house . . 124 

Halsted st., south 533 

Hamlin's, John A., res — 530 

Hammond 392 

Hancock public school 102 

Hand-ball courts 207 

Hardware 354 

Ha lem 394 

Harrison's, Cai'ter H., i"es 538 
Harrison public school . . . 10<J 
Harrison st. police stat'n..493 
Hartington & King's Per- 
forating Works 274 

Hartman detective ag'cy. .226 

Harvard club . 214 

Harvard LTniversity club. 2 15 

Harvard school 90 

Harvesting Machine Co.— 

Mccormick's 283 

Harvesting Machine w'rks 
of Wm. Deering & Co . . . .300 



Harvey 394 

Harvey's, T. W., res 528 

Havelock P. O. 86 

Haven pub. school 103 

Haviin's theatre 124 

Hawthorne 394 

Hayi-ec'ptsand shipments 37 

Hayes pub. school 102 

Hay market massacre 354 

Hay market square 355 

Haymarket theatre 124 

Hay market bldg 536 

Headquarters and organi- 
zation of fire dept 47 

Headquarters of police 

dept 80, 487 

Headq'rtersof the World's 

Columbian Exposition. .483 
Headq'ters of the World's 

Exposition directory. . . .497 
Headley pub. school ... 102 
Heald evacuates Ft. Dear- 
born 26 

Health of city 51 

Health dept., city hall 485 

Health dept., report of 51 

Health dept., salaries. 64 

Healy pub. school 103 

Heath & Milligans paint 

house 521 

Hebrew benevolent soc'ty 

cemetery 158 

Hebrew charity ass'n. . 169 

Hebrew free school 89 

Hebrew hospital 311 

Hebrew school 91 

Hegewisch 86, 395 

Hell Gate crossing 355 

Hendricks public school. . 103 

Herald, the 373 

Herald building 523 

Herald, the Sat'dy Eve'ng,378 
Hereford free kind'gar'tn. 90 

Hermosa, P. 86 

Hessville .■ 395 

Hewitt M'f'g Co 374 

Hibernian banking ass'n.. 153 
Hide & Leather nat'l bank. 145 
Hides, receipts and ship- 
ments 37 

High schools 97 

High schools, location of .101 

Highland Park 395 

Highlands 395 

High Ridge 86,395 

Higinbotham's, Henry N. 

residence 531 

Hill's, David K., res 531 

Hinsdale 395 

Hirsh, Joseph 538 

Hii'sch monument 355 

History of Auditorium — 136 

Historical society 453 

Historical society library. 330 
Hoffman ave. pub school.103 
Hogs and cattle slaugh- 
tered in 1890 35 

Hogs packed 58 



GEJfERAL IKDEX. 



IX 



Hog^, receipts and snip- 

meiits 35 36,37 

Hogs (live), receipts and 

sbipments 35,37 

Hogs slaughtered 19 

Holden pub- school 103 

Hollanders in Chicago — 82 
Holman&Dickerson(schl) 90 

Holmes', O. W., res 538 

H0I3' Name school 95 

Holy Familj^ orphan asyl.170 

Holy Family school 91 

Home of the aged 175 

Home for aged persons. . .166 
Home of the friendless. 89, 172 

Home for incurables 170 

Home of industry 173 

Home for newsboys, St. 

Paul's 180 

Home of Providence 175 

Home for self-supporting 

women 171 

Home for unemployed 

girls... 171 

Home for working women 17 i 

Home and day school 90 

Home Ins. bldg 496 

Home Nat. bank 145 

Homoeopathic hospital . ..308 
Homoeopathic med. col. .250 
Homicides, number of — 42 

Hooley's theatre 12i 

Horse ass'n -...207 

Horse exchange 223 

Horseman, the 879 

Horse market 356 

Horse shoe co. works 264 

Horseshoers 356 

Horses, receipts and ship- 
ments . ..35, 36 

Horticultural society 455 

Hospitals in Chicago 20 

Hospitals, charitable 162 

Hospital district 539 

Hospital and dispensaries. 306 
Hospital (detention).. . . 44 
Hospitals for the insane 

(State) 452,460 

Hospitals (State) 460 

Hospital for Women and 

Children 308 

Hotels of Chicago 318-326 

Hotels, list of 323-326 

H'^tels on Michigan ave. . .359 

Hotel Brevoort 320 

Hotel Drexel 321 

Hotel Grace 321 

Hotel Wellington 321 

Hotel Woodruff 321 

Hotels & boa» ding houses. 484 
Hotel reporter (Nat'l).... 374 
House of Correction, or 

Br'dewell 49 

House of Correction, ex- 
penses of 44 

House of the Good Shep- 
herd 46, 175 

Hoyt's, Wm. M., res 541 



Hub clothing house 518 

Humane Society of Illi- 
nois 46,455 

Humane soc'y, exp. of . . . . 44 

Humboldtblvd 71 

Humboldt park 67, 71 

Humboldt park ch.. Bap. .188 
Humboldt park ch., Con- 
gregational 187 

Humboldt pub. school. . .102 
Hungarians in Chicago... 82 

Hungarian cemetery 156 

Hunting —Fishing — Gun 

clubs 207 

Huron st. pub. school. . . .102 

Husche & Jurs 274 

Hutchinson, Chas. L 494 

Hyde park center 396 

Hyde park hotel 321 

Hyde park lyceum 30 

Hyde pk. suburban club.. 215 
Hyde park water works. .117 
Ice companie8,businessof 356 

Ice consumption 356 

Ideal club 215 

Illinois asylum for feeble- 
minded children 460 

Illinois Catholic Coloniza- 
tion ass'n 456 

Illinois Central Hospital 

for the Insane 460 

Illinois Cen.R.R. depot 381,431 
Illinois Cen. sub. service. .196 
Illinois charitable eye and 

ear infirmary 460 

Illinois Col. of Phar . . . . 89,250 

Illinois club 215 

Illinois East. Hos. for Ins. 460 
Illinois Humane societj'46,455 
Illinois Institution for the 
education of the deaf 

and dumb 460 

Illinois Institution for the 
education of the blind. . .460 
Illinois internal revenue, 

payments 357 

Illinois Malleable Iron Co. 

works 274 

Illinois military academy.. 232 
Illinois musical college... 89 
Illinois national guard. . . 336 
Illinois northern hospital 

for the insane 460 

Illinois penitentiaries 460 

Illinois, population of 8^ 

Illinois school of agricul- 
ture 253 

Illinois soldiers' orphans' 

home 460 

Illinois soldiers'and sailors' 

home 4R0 

Illinois southern hospital 

for the insane 460 

Illinois State board of ag- 
riculture 456 

Illinois Staats Zeitung — 372 

Illinois Steel Co 275 

' Illinois Tract society lib. .830 



Illinois Training schl.. 93-250 
Illinois Training school 

for nurses 252 

Illinois Trust and Savings 

bank 153 

Illustrated American 379 

Immaculate Conception 

school. 91 

Immanuel church Presby- 
terian... 192 

Importance of Board of 

Trade transaction 31 

Import trade of Chicago. . 55 

Imp. prop, in Cook co 45 

Improved town and city 

lots in Cook county. ..45 
Improvement of the West 

Side parks 78 

Income of Chicago P. O. . . 88 
Increase of bus. in P. O . . . 84 

Increase in population 81 

Increase in trade of Chi- 
cago 40 

Increase of traffic on 

street car lines 196 

Incurables, home for... .170 

Indebtedness of city 345 

Independent, the 379 

Independent churches 191 

Indiana club 215 

Indians under Tecumseh 
against Fort Dearborn.. 25 

Indoor base ball clubs 209 

Industrial American 379 

j Industrial home for girls, 

(Servite sisters) 179 

Industrial World 379 

Industries of Chicago 257 

I Inebriate asylums. 326 

Infirmaries (state) 460 

Inland Architect 378 

Inquests of coroner 42 

Insane asylum 42 

Insan e asylum, exp'n's of.. 44 
lns'ne,hos't'lsfor the. .452,460 

Inspectors' dept. P. O 85 

Inspection of factory and 

tenement house 53 

Inspection of grain 84 

Institute of bldg. arts 226 

Institutions, medical 250 

Insurance exchange bldg. 498 
Insurance patrol, purpose 

of, equipment, etc 47-48 

International bank 153 

Internat'ldet've agency.. 226 
International money order 

system, post office 85 

Internal revenue receipts. 41 
Internal revenue pay- 
ments 357 

Interior, the 379 

Inter-Ocean, the 373 

Inter-Ocean building 504 

Inter-State exposition 357 

Irish- American club 215 

Irish in Chicago 82 

Iron interests of Chicago. .258 



X 



ge:5seral index. 



Iron ore and coal sources,258 
Iron and steel center of 

the city 539 

Iron and steel manufact- 
urers 58 

Iron and steel market.. . . 56 
Iron and Avood manufact- 
urers 57 

Iroquois club 210 

Irving Park 86,397 

Irving Park club 215 

IrviDg Park church, Bapt.188 

Irving public school 103 

Italians in Chicago 82 

Italian society 459 

Itaska 397 

Jackson blvd 72 

Jackson hall 491 

Jackson park 66,71 

Jackson st. (west) res 539 

Jac o b's Academy 125 

Jacob's Clark st. theatre.. 125 
Jacob Litt's Standard thea- 
tre 125 

Jail of Cook county 43 

Jail expenses .. 44 

James Wilde Jr. & Co., 

clothing house 516 

James H. Walker & Co,, 

dry goods 526 

Jefferson park church, 

Congregational 188 

Jefferson Park 77-397 

Jefferson P. 86 

Jefferson public school , . .102 

Jewelers 357 

Jewish synagogues 191 

Jewish training school. 90,253 
Jobbing and wholesale 

business of Chicago — 54 
Johannes Church, Congre- 
gational 188 

John A. Logan club 216 

John Crerar library 330 

John H. Bass, car wheel 

works 280 

Joliet 397 

JolietWorks (Illinois Steel 

Company) 279 

Jones public school 102 

Jones', J. Russell, res 332 

Josephinum, the 232 

Joseph Kiicka works.. 280 
Journal(Evening), history 

of 369 

JuddP. O 86 

Judiciary of Cook co — 45 

J. V. Farwell Co 357 

Kearns & Orme works . . 280 

Kearsarge bldg 502 

Keelev's, Dr., institution . .327 
Keith & Co., millinery .... .526 
Keith's, Elbridge, res... 529 

Keith's, O. R., res 528 

Keith pub. school 102 

Kenosha, Wis 398 

Kensington 398 

Kensington P. 86 



Kent's, Sidney A., res. 494, 531 

Kenwood 398 

Kenwood club 216 

Kenwood institute 96 

Kenwood inst'e for young 

ladies 233 

Ketcham's, F. D., res 538 

Ketcham's, W. P., res 538 

Kimball hall 5:^5 

Kimball shorthand school 89 

Kimball's, W. W., res 532 

Kimbark's. S. D., res 532 

Kindergartens. 89 

Kindergarten ass'n (free) 164 
Kindergarten (Margaret 

Etter Creche) 175 

King pub. school. 102 

Kinzie pub. school 102 

Kirk's, James A., res 541 

Kirk's soap factories.. ..527 
Kitchen Garden ass'n 231 
Kohl & Middleton's South 

Side museum 126 

Kohl & Middleton's West 

side museum 126 

Koscuisko pub. school 10:5 

Kurz Bros. & Buhrer... 281 

Lacton 399 

Lady managers of the Fair475 

Lafayette club . . .216 

Laflin's, Wm.,res 538 

La Fox 399 

Lager beer riot 357 

LaGrange 399 

Lake 399 

Lake Bluff 399 

Lake Forest 400 

Lake Forest University. . .233 
Lake M. & Lake S. Trans. 

Co 472 

Lake Park 77 

Lake shipments of grain. 61 

Lake shore drive 72 

Lake shore drive, res 542 

Lake Shore & Michigan 

S'th'rn R. R. depot. .381, 434 
Lakes and rivers in city 

limits 52 

Lake and river frontage . .52 

Lakeside 400 

Lakeside club 216 

Lakeside Nail Co 281 

Lake st. before the fire ... 357 
Lake st. elevated R. R. . . 201 
Lake st., nature of busi- 
ness on 505 

Lake transportation 471 

Lake View, points of inter- 
est in ?42 

Lake View ch.. Baptist — 188 
Lake View church. Con- 
gregational 188 

Lake View water works.. 117 

Lake Villa 400 

Langland pub. school 102 

Lansing & McGarigle res- 
taurant . 520 

Lard* receipts and ship- 



ments 85,37 

LaSalle ave. residences... 643 

LaSalle club 2i7 

LaSalle pub. school 103 

Laundries 358 

LaVergne 399 

Law department, salaries. 64 
Law Institute (Chicago).. 458 

Law libi-ary 490 

Lawndale pub. school 102 

Law's, Robt. A., res 528 

Lawson's, Victor F., res.. 542 
Law school. Northwestern 

University 243 

Lawyers 358 

Leading churches, loca- 
tion of 186-195 

Leather manufacturers... 59 
Leavitt street church, Con- 
gregational 188 

Legal Advisor 379 

Legal News 379 

Leiter building 518 

Leland Hotel 321 

Leland's, Warren F., res. ■'82 
Le Mai, an early settler ... 22 

Lemont 400 

Lemont stone quarries — 281 
Length and width of Chi- 
cago 19 

Length and width of the 

city 5'3 

Length of street railways. 195 

Lewis', D. R., res 531 

Lewis' Institute. 234 

Liabilities of banking 

houses 139-155 

Liabilities of nat. banks 

of Chicago 31 

Libby Prison Museum... 126 

Libertyville 400 

Libraries 329,333 

Library. McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary 236 

Library, the public 488 

Life-saving stations 332 

Light-houses a33 

Light, pub. oflQce of 378 

Lincoln Nat. bank 146 

Lincoln park . . 67, 7a 

Lincoln Park church, Con- 
gregational 1 88 

Lincoln Park palm house 74 
Lincoln Park yacht club..2i'3 
Lincoln st. M. E. church 191 
Lincoln st. pub. school . .103 

Linden Park- ..400 

Linden Park P. O 86 

Lines op'ted by the various 

Chicago railroads . 413-452 
Link-Belt Machine Co. . . 282 

Lisle 400 

Listy (Bohemian) 374 

Literary organizations in 

Chicago 20 

Lithogrsphing, etc 59 

"Little Hell" 3.58 

Litt's Standard theatre.. .125 



GENERAL I]S"DEX. 



XI 



Live Stock commission. . .358 

Live Stock exchange 226 

Live st'ckhandl'd, value of 19 
Live stock Insurance Co., 

mutual 226 

Live Stock Journal 379 

Live stock transactions at 

Union Stock Yards ... 37 
Live stock trans, by var- 
ious roads to Chicag:o. .37,38 
Live stock at the 5'ards,how 

received 293 

Livery stables 358 

Living church, the 379 

Lobby of the Auditorium. 137 
Local directory of "rair'\475 
Location the Auditorium.. 137 

Location of Chicago 29 | 

Location of ex. offices 257 

Location of first fort 23 

Location leading chs. ..186-195 
Location of massacre of 

Fort Dearborn 27 

Location of stations, fire 

department 48 

Lockport 400 

I jcomotive works 273 

Lodging houses, cheap. .501 

Logan pub. school . 102 

Lombard 401 

Longfellow club 217 

Longfellow pub. school . .102 

Loomis' residences 539 

Loring's school 90 

Losses from lire, 1890 46 

Lotus social club 217 

Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago R.R. depot. 381, 436 

Lumber dealers ass'n 226 

Lumber district 282, 539 

Lumbermen's ass'n 225 

Lumber, receipts and ship- 
ments 37 

Lumber trade of Chicago. 41 
Lutheran Evangelical 

churches 189 

Lutheran Trinity Congre- 
gational school 91 

Lyceum theatre 126 

Lyman's school of elecu- 

tion 89 

WJackin's, Judge, res 531 ! 

MacVeagh & Co. (Frank- 
lin' 527 

MacVeagh's, Franklin,res.542 

Madam Kuntz's school 90 

Madison and Clai'k st. cor.5]8 

Madison hall 63G 

i'tadison Park 401 

Madison st., extent of 535 

Madison st. bridge r34 

Madison st. cable line 199 

Madison st. theatre 126 

Mails (foreign), closing of. 84 

Mail, the 374 

Mail mattyer delivered and 

dispatched 88 

Mail nsatt'r of fourth class. 88 



Mail matter of the second 

class 87 

Mail matter of third class. 88 

Mail train service 85 

Maior block 494 

Male pop. of Chicago 8:i 

Malleable Iron Works 2^4 

Management (General) of 

the Fair 475 

MandellP. O 86 

Mandel Brothers' store. . .615 
Mandel's, Emanuel, res. ..531 

Mandel's, Simon, res 531 

Manhattan 401 

Manhattan bldg 502 

Manierre pub. school 102 

Manner of handling grain 

at elevators 273 

Manual training schools.. 253 
Manual training school .229 
Manual training in the 

pub, schools 98 

Manual training school, 

course of study in 98 

Manufactures of Chicago. 56 
Manufactured products of 

Chicago 19 

Map department— salar's. 64 

Maple Park 401 

Maplewood 401 

Maplewood P. O 86 

Maplewood pub. school. . .102 
Map of sanitary district. .. 110 
Margaret Etter Creche, 

kindergaten 175 

Marine building 491 

Marine hospital 316 

Marine ins. of Chicago. . . 259 
Maritime ins. in Chicago60,63 

Market, Fuhon st ..354 

Market, the horse 356 

Market st. mission 191 

Market squares 368 

Marley 401 

Marquette pub. school 102 

Marriage licenses issued... 52 
Marr's shorthand school... 89 
Marshall Field & Co., dry- 
goods, retail store ,510 

Marshall Field, career 510 

Marshall Field's emps 513 

Marshall Field & Co., io. of514 
Marshall FieH's success.. .510 
Marshall Field & Co's 

wholesale house 511 

Martha Washington h'me. 327 

Masonic aid ass'n 456 

Masonic Orphans' home.. 175 
Masonic temple, con- 
struction of 506 

Masonic temple, magni- 
tude of 505 

Masonic temple, promot- 
ers of the building of . . .506 
Massacre of Fort Dear- 
born, cause of 24 

Massacre of Fort Dear- 
born, location of . ....... 27 



Matrons of police st'ns ... 80 
Maurice Porter Memorial 

Free Hospital 311 

Matteson 401 

Mayer's, David residence. 531 

Mayf air P. 86 

Maynard 401 

Mayors of Chicago 359 

Mayor and council, sal 65 

Mayor's office 487 

Maywood 401 

McAllister public school.. 102 
M. C. Bullock Mfg. Co. 

works 282 

McBirney's, J. L., res 528 

McCaffrey 401 

McClellan public school. .102 
McClurg's, A. C, book- 
store 526 

McClurg's. A. C, res 542 

McCormick block 504 

McCormick ' Harvesting 

Machine company. .. . 283 
McCormick's, Mrs. Cyrus 

H., residence 541 

McCormick reaper wks 283,534 
McCormick Theological 

seminary 234 

McCormick Theological 

seminary 94 

McCoy'sEuropean hotel. . . 322 

McGrath's, J. J., res 541 

McNeil's, Malcolm, res 543 

McVicker's, J. M., res. . . .5t^2 

McVicker's theatre 126 

Meadowcrof t's, R., res 541 

MeadowcroftBros., bank- 
ers 153 

Meaning of "Chicago" ... 22 
Mean temp, of Chicago for 

1890 39 

Meat markets 359 

Meats (cured), receipts and 

shipments... 35,37 

Medical col'ge Northwest 

ern university 241 

Medical institutions ^50 

Medical Societies, list of.. 457 

Melrose 401 

Membership Y. M. C. A. ..185 
Membership of Board of 

Trade 31 

Memorial church. Baptist. 188 
Mercantile building. . . 493 
Merchant's Loan & Trust 

Company 154 

Merchant's Nat'l bk.. .491,146 

Mercy hospital 311 

Method of construction of 

buildings 129 

Methodist church block . .521 
Meth. Episcopal church. . .191 
Metropolitan business col- 
lege 89 

Metropolitan Nat'l bank.. 147 
Michael Reese hospital . . .312 

Michigan ave 359 

Michigan ave. blvd <- 



Xll 



GENERAL IKDEX. 



Michigan blvd. residences 531 
Michigan Central R. R.381,436 

Microscopical society 459 

Midway plaisance 74 

Midwives 359 

Mileage of streets 52 

Military academy (Illinois) 233 
Military outposts near 

Chicago 23 

Military division of the 

Missouri 334 

Military headquarters 334 

Military officers in Chic'go 334 

Military societies 341 

Milk depots 359 

Milk exchange 226 

Milk supply of Chicago. . .359 

Millers 401 

Millinery shops 359 

Millard ave. church, Con- 
gregational 188 

Milwaukee ave/cable line 200 
MilwaLikee ave., kind of 

people found on 510 

Milwaukee ave. reading 

room 106 

Milwaukee works (Illinois 

Steel Co) 278 

Mining stock exchange. . .223 
Ministers and preachers 

(popular) 187 

Minneola club 217 

Minnette club 217 

Municipal government .... 63 
Miscellaneous churches . .194 

Missions 89, 188 

Mission (Armour) 160 

Missions, Baptist 189 

Missions, Episcopal 190 

Missions, Presbyterian . . . 193 

Mission (waifs') 181 

Missionary, Episcopal .. .190 

Miss Martin's (school) 90 

Miss Nash's school 90 

Miss White's school . 90 

Mokena 401 

Monadnock building 602 

Monee 401 

Money of foreign coun- 
tries, value of in CJ. S. 

money • ■ .353 

Money order system of 

post office 85 

Money order transaction 

Chicago post office 88 

Monon building 502 

Monroe st. (west) res 539 

MontClare 401 

M7nt Clare P. O . 86 

Monteflore pub. school ... 102 

MoiJtrose. 401 

Mon';raents of Chicago. .360 

Monvment, the Fisk 352 

Monufnent, the Hirsch — 355 
Moonef & Boland detect- 
ive agency 226 

Morden Frog & Crossing 
Company 284 



Moreland 402 

Moi-eland post office 86 

Morgan Park 402 

Morgan Park female sem- 
inary 237 

Morgan Park theological | 

seminary 337 

Morgue, situation of, etc., 53 

Morning News b69 

Morton Park 403 

Moseley public school 102 

Moses Monteflore cem't'y.l58 

Motley pub. school 103 

Mt. Carmel academy 95 

Mt. Forest 403 

Mt. Greenwood 403 

Mt. Greenwood cem't'ry..l58 

Mt. Hope cemetery 158 

Mt. Olive cemetery 1 58 

Mt. Olivet cemetery 158 

Mt. Prospect 403 

Mrs. Rice's school 94 

Mrs. Ross (school) 90 

Mulligan pub. school 103 

Munson's short-hand sch'l 89 

Museums 123. 126 

Museum of art 130 

Musical colleges 89 

Music halls 118-128 

Music teachers 360 

Naperville 403 

Nardi Italian mission 89 

National banks 139, 151 

National bank of Amer- 
ica 147,492 

Nat. banks, capital of . . 139 
Nat. banks, condition of. . .31 

Nat. bank of Illinois 147 

Nationalists' club 217 

National commission of 

the "Fair" 475 

National Forge & Iron Co.285 

Nat. Hotel Reporter 374 

Nat. live stock bank 148 

Nat. pol. con. in Chicago. 360 
Nationalities represented 

in Chicago 81 

Nat. Temperance bos 313 

Nat. W, C. T. U„ head- 

I quarters 183 

Nativity school 91 

Natural gas supply 53 

New armory. First Reg., 

I.N.G 327 

Newberry library 331 

Newberry pub. school — 102 
New buildings erected in 

1890 107 

New church temple, Swe- 

denborgian 194 

New England church. 

Congregational 188 

New Lenox 403 

New libraiT bldg 106 

New school bldgs 102 

New stock yards 286 

New tunnel 20n 

New water tunnel 116 



New Windsor theatre — 127 
New York Cen'l.& Hudson 

River R. R 439 

New York, Lake Erie & 

Western R.R 440 

News, Daily 368 

Newsboys' and bootblacks' 

home 175 

Newsboys' club 217 

Newsboys' home 89 

Newsb'ys' home,St. Paul's. 180 

Newspapers 367 

Night free sch'ls, loc'n of, 99 
Ninet'nth w'rdpriv.sch'ls. 94 
Ninth ward private sch'ls. 91 

Normal Park 403 

Normal sch'l of Cook co. . . 97 
Northern Pacific Ex. Co.. 257 

Northern Pacific R.R 441 

Northern Trust Co 154 

North Chicago st. R'y Co . 198 
North Chicago Works (111. 

Steel Co.) 276 

North Evanston 403 

North Div. bldg. permits . . 109 
North Div. high school.. .101 
North Division night free 

schools 99 

North Div., population of. 82 
North Div. sch'ls (priv.) . . 97 

North Pacific Ass'n 462 

North pk. commissioners. 66 

North Shore club 217 

North Side collegiate 

school 244 

North Side parks 67 

North and South Side 

viaduct 75 

Northwestern college of 

den tal su rgery 89,250 

Northwestern dental uni- 
versity 90 

Northwest Division high 

school 101 

North wn. Lumberman... 379 

Northwn. Nat'l bank 148 

Northwestern oratorical 

league 237 

Northwestern university. 238 

Norton Bros works 286 

Norwegian churches. ..... 189 

Norwegian M.E.churches.]93 

Norwood 403 

Notaries public 360 

Notre Dame s3hool.. . 92 
No. car loads live stock 

furnished Chicago 37 

Number of churches in 

Chicago 20 

No. of d. newspapers 20 

Number of officers and 

men in police dept 79 

Number of suicides 43 

No. of vol. in pub. library. 20 
No. of w'kly newspapers. . 20 
Nursery and half-orphan 

asylum 164 

Nurses 360 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Xlll 



Nurseo training sch'l 252 

OakG en 403 

Oakland. 403 

Oakland club 217 

Oakland M. E. ch 119 

Oakland Nat'l bk 148 

Oak Lawn . 403 

Oakley pub. school 102 

Oak Park 403 

Oaks club, of Austin 217 

Oak Woods 404 

Oakwood blvd 75 

Oakwoods cemetery 158 

Oats, receipts and ship- 
ments 35,37 

Odd Fellows' orp'n's h'me. • 77 

Odeirs, J. J. P., res 541 

Office bldgs 129 

Officers of the S. Side Ca- 
ble Co 198 

Officers and directory of 

Auditorium 135 

Officers of art museum 130 

Officers of bkg. houses 139,155 
Officers of Board of Trade232 

Officers of fire dept 47 

Officers first regt. I. N. G..337 
Officers in command of Ft. 

Dearborn 25 

Officers stationed at Fort 

Sheridan 335 

Officers of ins. patrol 48 

Officers of police dept 78 

Officers of the post office... 85 
Officers of the various 

railroads 412,452 

Officers real estate board.. 224 
Officers 2d regt., I. N G. . .339 
Officers N. Chicago st. rail- 
way Co 198 

Officers W. Chicago st. 

railway Co 200 

Officers (general) of the 

various railroads 411,452 

Ogden boat club 203 

Ogden boulevard 75 

Ogden dam, location of . . . .112 

Ogden public school 102 

Ogden residence 361 

Ogden-We ntworth 
ditch, location of . . HI 

Ohavey Sholom cem 158 

Ohavey Emunah cem . . . .158 
Ohio society of Chicago ... 462 
Old Chamber of Com- 
merce 360 

Old Peoples' home 177 

Old Peoples' home (Ger- 
man) 169 

Old university. 361 

Oleomargarine Mfg 287 

Open Board of Trade 226 

Opening ceremonies of the 

Auditorium 119 

Opera houses. . 118-128 

Opera House block 520 

Oratorical League, north- 
western 237 



Orchard place 404 

Orchesti-al Union (Chi- 
cago) 454 

Organization of banking 

houses. 139-155 

Organization of fire de- 
partment 47 

Origin of name "Chicago" 21 

Orland 404 

Ornithological club 458 

Orphan asylums 159-181 

Orphan asylum, Chicago . . 165 
Orphan asylum (Guardian 

Angel) 169 

Orphan (half) asj'ium 164 

Orphan as^^lum (Holy 

Family) 10 

Orphan asylum (St. Jo- 
seph's) . . . , 180 

Orphan asylum (St. Jo- 
seph's Providence) 180 

Orphan asylum (Ulich 

Evangelical Lutheran) . . 180 
Orphans' home, Danish 

Luthei'an 166 

Orphan's home. Masonic. 175 
Orphans' home (Odd Fel- 
lows') 177 

Orphans' home, soldiers' 460 

Otis building 493 

Outlying Chicago 379 

Outlj'ing Chicago post 

offices 86 

Output of Chicago brew- 
eries 41 

Owings building 502 

Pacific avenue 500 

Pacific ch.. Congregat'l. 188 
Pacific Express Company. 257 

Pacific garden mission 89 

Pacific mission 500 

Pacific post office 86 

Packing business in gen'l. 59 
Packing companies at 

stock vards 297 

Painters 361 

Paiacehotel 540 

Palatine 404 

Palmer house 322 

Palmer house, rebuilding 

of the 509 

Palmer, Potter 508 

Palmer's. Potter, res c42 

Palrner, Potter, popular 

estimation of 509 

Panoramas 122 

Pardridge's, C. W., res 531 

Paris Gaities 127 

Parks, area of 20 

Park club of Hvde Park..218 

Park Manor P. 86 

Park Ridge 404 

Park Side 404 

Parkside P. 86 

Park system of Chicago.... 66 

Park theatre 127 

Parraelee's omnibus line.. 483 
Parochial schools 89-97 



Passenger departments of 

the various railroads 411-452 
Patrol wagon system (po- 
lice) 80 

Patronage of the public 

library 105 

Paul Stensland & Co., 

bankers 154 

Pawn shops and *' fences" 500 
Pay of cable employes.* . . 196 
Peacock's (jewelei-s) .... .514 
Pearson public school. . 102 
Peck's, Ferd W., res ... . 531 
Penitentiary, 111., south- 
ern 461 

Penitentiary, 111. State 460 

Pennsylvania lines of rail- 
road 444 

Pension fund (firemen's) . 45 
Pension fund (firemen's) . 48 
Pension fund (police). ... 46 
People's church (Thomas) 191 

People's theatre 127 

Perforating works 274 

Periodical newspapers 367 

Periodical public a t i o n s , 

number of 20 

Perpetual Help school 91 

Perrin's shorthand school . 89 
Personal property, valua- 
tion in Cook county. ... 45 
Peter Schuttler wagon 

works 287 

Peterson & Bey, bankers. .154 
Pettibone-MuUiken &Co. 

works 287 

Pharmacy schools 89 

Philosophical society of 

Chicago 457 

Phoenix club 218 

Photograph galleries 361 

Physical culture in the 

public schools 100-101 

Physicians and surgeons. .361 

Piano m'f 'g 305 

Pickard pub. school 10 i 

Pine 404 

Pinkerton's Nat'l detect- 
ive agency 227 

Pinkerton's pr't'ctive pa- 
trol ..227 

Pioneer aid and support 

ass'n 178 

Pitkin & Brooks, fine 

crockery c05 

Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & 

Chicago R. R. depot. 38, 444 
Piatt Deutsch Verein — 458 

Playhouses 118-128 

Plymouth ch., Cong'nal. ..388 
Plymouth kindergarten.. 91 
Point De Sable— first set- 
tler of Chicago 22 

Points reached by the Chi- 

cago railroads 412-452 

Police benevolent fund... 80 

Police court, salaries 64 

Police dept. of Chicago. . . 78 



XIV 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Police dept., salaries 65 

Police headquarters 487 

Police monument 35i 

Police patrol wag'n system 80 

Police pension fund 46 

Police station matrons. . . 80 
Police stations, number 

and location of 79 

Policlinic (Chicago) . . .165, 350 
Polish Catholic churches. .194 
Polish population of Chi- 
cago ..' 82 

Political (national) conven- 
tions in Chicago 360 

Polk St. public school 103 

Poor house of Cook co. ..43 
Poor house, expenses of.. 44 
Popular ministers and 

preachers 187 

Population of Chicago.. 19, Ji9 
Population of Cook co ... 83 
Population by divisions. . . 82 

Population of Illinois 83 

Population statistics 80 

Population of Amer.cities361 
Population of the cities of 

the world 361 

Pork, receipts and ship- 
ments 35,37 

Portland block 504 

Post, the 374 

Postal notes 87 

Postal railway service • 85 

Postal rates 87 

Post building- 522 

Post mortem examination 42 

Post office bldg 86,503 

Post office,expenses of 88 

Post office of Chicago 83 

Post office, inspectors dept. 85 
Post office, increase of 

business 84 

Post office money order 

system. International ... 85 
Post office money order 

svstem. Domestic 88 

P. b. officials. 85 

P. O., outlying 86 

P. O. recpts. and rev. of . . 88 

P. O.sal. of officials 88 

Potter Palmer's gener- 
osity 509 

Pottsr Palmer's part in 
development of the citj-.oOO 

Poverty in Chicago 53 j 

Power-houses of West i 

Side cable 199-200! 

Pra'rie ave. residences... .528 i 
Prairie State Nat'l. bk . 148 i 
Prairie State Saving and 

Trust company 154 | 

Prairie View 404 ! 

Preachers and ministers 

(popular) 187 

Preparatory school at the 

N. W. University 240 

Presbyterian churches 192 

Presbyterian hospital 8i3 



Presbyterian missions. . . 193 

Press club of Chicago 218 

Presto, the, office of 378 

Principal officers of the 

railroads in Chicago. 412-452 
Principals of schools, sal- 
aries of 103 

Print., bidg., lithograph 59 

Print, busmess, locat'n of 503 
Private art collections ...132 

Private banks 151 

Private schools 89-97 

Private schools in Chicago 20 

Probate court 49u 

Proclamation of the Fair 

by the President 476 

Produce business of Chi- 

caaro 31 

Produce business of South 

Water st 505 

Produce exchange 226 

Produce, rec'pts and ship- 
ments of 35 

Produce, rec'pts and ship- 

m'nts for past two years. 37 
Production of bou'd b'ks. '^0 

Profit of banks 19 

Prohib'n, State cen. com. 364 
Promoters of the Masonic 

temple 506 

Proposed city improv'nts. 50 
Prop'ty of the pub. sch'ls.lOI 

Prospect Park 404 

Provision storage v/are- 

houses, list of 38 

Public art museum 131 

Publications (periodical) 

number of 20 

Public clocks 354 

Public library brancn 

reading rooms 106 

Pabi ic 1 ibrary, character of 

books in lOr- 

Public librarj', class of 

books most called for. . .106 
Public librar-, city hall 488 
Public library, cost of 

maintenance, etc 105 

Public librai'y, general de- 
scription of 104 

Public li'irary, free deliv- 
ery stations 106 

Pu 'lie librarv, nev/ build- 
ing ,...' 106 

Pub. librarv, patronage ..lOo 
Public school buildings . .101 
Pub. schools of Chicago 97,104 
Public school dept. city 

hall 488 

Public school employes, 

salaries of 103 

Public schools, manual 

training in 98 

Public schools, physical 

culture in 100-101 

Public school property . . 20 
Public schools, prop'rty of 101 
Public schools, revenue of 102 



Public school receipts and 

expenditures 98 

Public Service supt., ex- 
penses of 44 

Public works, dept. of 487 

Public works dept. salaries 65 

Publishers SOI 

Pullman 404 

Pullman car works <i88 

Pullman building 130 

Pullman, description of.. 288 
Pullman's, Geo. M., res.. 528 
Pullman Ir'n and Steel Co. 2: 9 
Pullman's military band Sal 
f Pullman Palace Car Co. ..359 

Pullman P. O 86 

Pullman public library . . .33i 
Pumping engines of water 

works 114 

Pupils attending public 

schools 20 

Pupils in prlv'te schools, 82, 89 
Pupils in public schools. . . 8.i 
Putnam clothing house. . . 520 
Railroad chapel kinder- 
garten 89 

Railroad interests of Chi- 
cago 2.".9 

Railroad live stock trans. 37 
Railroad (steam) serv ice . . 196 
Railroad transDortation 259 
Railroads, valuation of in 

Cook county 45 

Railroads and where they 

lead to 410 

Railroad Age 379 

Railway Brotherhood hos- 
pital 313 

Railway lines and de- 
pots 380,410 

Railway mail service, of- 
fice of 87 

Railway postal service — 85 

Railway post offices. 87 

Rainfall at Chicago 40 

Randolph st. elevated ry...202 
Rand-McNally building.. .497 
Rates at hotels and board- 
ing houses 484 

Rates of postage 87 

Ravens wood 404 

Ravenswood ch., Cong. . . 188 
Ravenswood post office — 86 
Ravenswood pub. library. 3 2 

Ravinia 405 

Raymond mission 91 

Raymond pub. school 102 

Reading rooms, branches 

of public library 108 

Reading room, Milwaukee 

ave 106 

Real estate 361 

Real estate board 323 

Real Estate Journal 379 

Real estate of the public 

schools 101 

Real estate titles, abstracts 
of 342 



GEKKKAL INDEX. 



XV 



Real estate transactions in 

Chicago 106 

Heal estate valuation in 

Cuok county 45 

lieiim's, Norman B., res.. .5:i8 

Reaper block 5:il 

Receipts of county officers 45 
Rcc ipts of public schools 98 
Receipts and revenues of 

the Chicago post office .. 88 
Receipts and shipments of 

l>ailey 3.' 

Receipts and shipments of 

cattle, calves, hogs, etc. 

35-36 

Receipts and shipments on 

the coast 62 

Receipts and shipments of 

corn 33 

Receipts and shipments of 

flour 33 

Receipts and shipments of 

grain and produce 3 

Receipts and shipments of 

produce for past 2 yrs. . . 37 
Receipts and shipments of 

rye for past 20 yrs 38 

Recorder's office 489 

Recorder's office, exp's of. 44 

Redesdale 405 

Reform school (state) — 461 

Reform societies 458 

Refuge for erring w'm'n . .166 

Rejf istry dept. P. 88 

Reid, Murdoch & Co., gro- 
ceries 505 

Relics of the Chicago fire.351 
Relic house of the Chicago 

Are 352 

Relief societies 159-181 

Relief and aid societies . . 53 

Relief and aid societj^ 165 

Religious societies — 182-195 
Report of health dept ... 51 
Reporters' room at police 

headquarters 4S6 

Republic Life bldg 494 

Republican ritate central 

committee 363 

Resers'e fund of Chicago 

bank compared with 

others 31 

Residences on Ashland 

blvd 538 

Re^id'nc's on Calumet a ve. 530 
Residences on Dearborn 

ave 541 

Residences on Drexel blvd.532 
Residences on Grand blvd. 530 
Residences on the Lake 

Shore drive 542 

Residences on La Salle av .542 
Residences on Michigan 

boulevard 531 

Residences on Prairie ave. 528 
Residences on Rush st 541 
Residences on Washington 

boulevard 538 



Rfrsidences on W. Adams, 

Monroe and Jackson sts.539 
Resources of banking 

houses.. 139-155 

Resources of Chicago state 

banks 155 

Resources of national 

banks of Chicago 31 

Restaurants 362 

Retail ave. of the city . . . .506 
Retail houses on State st. .509 
Revenge circular, anarch- 
ists 362 

Revell's furniture house.. 522 
Re\enue estimated for 

1891 (city) 51 

Revenue (internal) pay- 
ments 357 

Revenue of pub. schools.. 102 
Revenue receipts internal. 41 

Rhodes 405 

R. H. Spaid's kindergar- 
ten 90 

Rialto building 130 

Richards& Kelly Mfg. Co. 290 

Richelieu hotel 322 

Richton 405 

Ridgeland 405 

Ridgeway orinthological 

club 458 

Riot of 1877 362,533 

Riot, the Haj'market 354 

Riot, the lager beer 357 

Riverdale 405 

RiverdaleP. 86 

River Forest 405 

Rivers and lakes in city 

limits 52 

River and lake frontage. . 52 

River Park 405 

Riverside 405 

Rockefeller 406 

Rogers pub. school 102 

Rogues' gallery (police 

dept) 80 

Roman Catholic chs 193 

Romeo 406 

Roofers' exchange 226 

Rookery building . .129,498 
"Rookery" the ... .362 

Root & Sons, music store. .526 

Rose Hill cemetery 158 

Roseh ill church, Cong 188 

Roseland post office 86 

Route of the ship canal. .Ill 

Royal insurancebldg 499 

R. Ried's school 90 

Runnels', John S., res — 541 

Ru.sh medical college 250 

Rush St. residences 541 

Russians in Chicago 82 

Ryan *& Co., P. F.. store... 536 

Ryder club 218 

Rye, receipts and ship- 
ments a6, 37 

Rye, receipts and ship- 
ments, past 20 years. ... 38 
Sacred Heart academy. .94-95 



Sacred Heart convent . ... 94 
Sag bottoms, location of . .118 

Sag Bridge 406 

Sailors and Soldiers home. 460 
Salaries of city officials. .63-65 
Salaries of officers, (P.O.).. 88 
Salaries of schl. employes. 103 
Saloons or pub. houses. . . 362 
Salt, rec. and shipments.. 37 
Sanitary district map . .110 
Sanitarium (South Side) . . 163 

Saratoga hotel 3:^2 

Sardis (Welch) church 

Congregational 188 

Saturday Evening Herald.378 
Scammon public school ... 102 

Scandinaven. the ... 375 

Scandinavian chapel 194 

Scandinavian Pilgrim ch.. 

Baptist 188 

Schaffner & Co., bankers. 154 
School for deaf and dumb 178 

School of art. 134 

Schools, expenses of 44 

School of language ... 89 
School of oratory at North- 
western university 241 

School propertv 516 

Schools (public) of Chicago 

97-104 

Schwartz, Chas., res 528 

Scotch in Chicago 82 

Second ch., Presbyterian .192 
Second-class mail matter.. 87 

Second regiment band 340 

Second wd. private schools 89 

I Second regt., 1. N.G 338 

Secret societies 452 

I Security, loan and savings 

I bank 155 

I Seeberger's, Chas. D., res. 533 

1 Seed market 290 

I Selection of Chicago for 

! the Fair 473 

j Selz, Schwab& Co 524 

Seminaries, private 89-97 

Service of steam railroads 196 
I Service of street railways, 

i character of 195 

I Servite Sisters,- industrial 

I home for girls 179 

I Seth Hamedrash ceme- 

i tery 1.56 

I Settlement of trappers 22 

; Seventh ward private 

j schools 91 

t Seventeenth ward private 

: schools 93 

Sewage of Chicago, dispo- 
sition of Ill 

Sewerage of Chicago 53 

Sewerage dept., salaries.. 65 

! Sexton's, P. J , res 5.32 

Shaving, hair cutting, etc. 363 
Sheep, receipts and ship- 
ments 35-36-37 

I Sheldon public school 102 

' Shepard's, Judge, res 630 



XVI 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Sheridan club 218 

Sheridan public school... 102 

Sheridan road 363 

Sheriff of Cook county, 

office of 489 

Sheriff's office, exp'ses of.. 44 

Sherman 406 

Sherman House 323 

Shingles, rec'pts and ship- 
ments 37 

Ship building yard 290 

Ship canal, route of Ill 

Ship and drainage canal. ..109 
Shipments and receipts of 

barley 32 

Shipments coastwise 62 

Shipments of corn .33 

Shipments and receipts of 

flour 33 

Shipments of grain by lake 61 
Shipments and receipts of 

grain and produce 35 

Shipments and receipts of 
produce for past two yrs 37 

Shortairs, J. G., res 528 

Shorthand schools 89 

Shufeldt's, H. H., res.. . . 541 
Siege], Cooper & Co., gen- 
eral store 517 

Signs, destroyed by Mayor 

Wentworth 508 

Silver Lake 406 

Silverman's, L., res 530 

Simons, P. O . . . 86 

Sinai Cong'l cemetery 159 

Singing societies 4"d8 

Sisters of Sacred Heart 

(school) 91 

Site of the exposition 480 

Sixtennth st. department 

Y. M. C. A 184 

Sixteenth ward private 

schools 93 

Sixth Presbyteri'n church 192 
Sixth ward private schools 91 

Skinner pub. school 102 

Slack, Chas. H., groceries 526 
Slaughter of cattle at the 

yards 296 

Slaughter's, A. O., res 531 

Smyth, Jno. M., block . . . r-36 

Snell murder 363 

Social clubs 209 

Societies 452 

Society of artists 134 

Society of Christian En- 
deavor 183 

Societa Christofora Co- 

lumbo 459 

Society of decorative art. 454 \ 
Societa Francaise De Se- 

cours Mutual 459 

Societa It« liana Unione e 

Fratel lanza 459 

Soldiers' home fund 179 

Soldiers' orphans' home 460 
Soldiers' and sailors' home. 460 
Sons of Connecticut 463 



Sons of Delaware . . 463 

Sons of Indiana 463 

Sons of Louisiana 463 

Sons of Maine 463 

Sons of Massachusetts 463 

Sons of New York 464 

Sons of Pennsylvania 464 

Sons of Ilhode Island 465 

Sons of Vermont 466 

Soper's typewriting sch'l. 90 

Sender's college 94 

Source of water supply. . .116 

South Chicago 406 

South Chicago dept. Y. M. 

C. A 184 

South Chicago P. O 86 

South Chicago public 

library 332 

South Chicago works (111. 

Steel Company) 277 

South ch., Congregational. 188 
South church (German), 

Congregational 188 

South Clark st 500 

South Div. bldg. permits 108 
South Div. high school . . 101 
South Division night free 

schools 99 

South Div., population of . 82 
South Division schools 

(private) ... 96-97 

South end electric ry.. .202 

South Englewood 406 

South Englewood P. O . . . 86 

South Evanston 406 

South Halsted street 533 

South Lawn 4('7 

South Lvnne 407 

South Lynne P. 86 

South market square .. 508 
South Park ave. M. E. 

church 191 

South Park church. Con- 
gregational 188 

South park commissioners 66 • 
South Side alley "L" road.208 
South Side cable line,bu8i- 

ness of 197 

South Side cable system. .197 
South Side parks . . 66 

South Side sanitarium ...163 
South Water street, nature 

of business on 505 

Southern hotel 323 

Spalding's, Jesse, res 528 

Spalding, Jesse, office 491 

Special assessment dept., 

salaries 65 

Speculative business of the 

Board of Trade 39 

Spice mills, Thomson & 

Taylor 292 

Spiritualist association .. 194 

Splice bar mill 265 

Sporting clubs 203, 209 

Sporting Journal 379 

Sportsman, the Chicago.. ..379 
Sprague's, Wm., res 541 



Spring Bluff 407 

Standard club 219 

Stand ard theatre 1 25 

Standing com. of the Fair 479 

Staats Zeitung 372 

Staats Zeitung bldg ..522 

State association 466 

State's attorney, office ex- 
penses of 44 

State banks 151 

State banks, capital of . ..139 
State bank of I Uinois ... 155 

State bk., resources of 155 

State board of agr'l 466 

State central committees. .363 

State Institutions 460 

State microscopical so'ty.4l9 
State organizations in Chi- 
cago 461 

State reform school 461 

State street 364 

State St., nature of busi- 
ness on 506 

Statest. (north) residences 541 
State St. widened by Pot- 
ter Palmer 509 

Stations (police) number 

and location of 79 

Statistics of population... 80 
Steamboat transportation.47l 

Steamers, lake 4T1 

Steam railroad service. . . 196 

Steel Co. (Illinois) 275 

Steel works .265 

Steel works (the Illinois). 275 

Stewart Clark bldg 604 

Stock exchange (Chicago) 224 
Stock exchange (mining) .223 

Stock yards exchange 298 

Stock yards, business trans- 
acted at 36 

Stock yards (new) ..... .285 

Stock yards (Union) . . .293 

Stone building 537 

Stone quarries (Lemont) .281 

Stone Wood 407 

Storage capcy. of ware- 
houses 34 

Stough 407 

Stove foundries 291 

Straight Fibre Iron Co.'s 

Works 291 

Street car companies. .195-5:03 
Street car lines, increase of 

trafficon 196 

Street car service . . 195-203 

Street cleaning, cost of 346 

Street dept., salaries 65 

Street electric lights 364 

Streets, mileage of 53 

Street nomenclature 365 

St. Andrew's church. 

Episcopal 190 

St. Andrew's Evangelical 

school 91 

St. Andrew's society 459 

St. Agnes' school 91 

St. Anthony's school 91 



GENERAL INDEX. 



XVll 



St. Antonius' school 91 

St. Augustine's school 96 

St. Bartholomew's church, 

Episcopal 190 

St. Bernard's ch., Catholic.193 
St. Boniface cemetery — 159 

St. Bridget's school 91 

St. Clement ch.. Episcopal. 190 

St. Columba's school 92 

St. Elizabeth's hospital — 314 

St. Frances' school 9i 

St. Ignatius' college 243 

St. James (school) 90 

St. Joan's ch., Catholic . .194 
St. John's ch„ Episcopal .. 190 

St. John's (school) 90 

St. John Baptist school ... 91 
St, John's boys' schools.... 89 
St. John's girls' schools. ... 89 
St. Joseph's asylum for 

boys 180 

St. Joseph's orphan asy- 
lum. ... 90, 180 

St. Joseph's providence or- 
phan's asylum 180 

St Joseph's hospital 314 

St. Joseph's school 9^ 

St. Luke's free hospital. 315 
St. Luke's hospital train- 
ing school for nurses — 250 

St. Marcus' school 91 

St. Mark's ch.. Episcopal. . 190 
St. Mary's school ....91,96 
St. Mary's training sch'l 254 

St. Michael's school 94 

St. Paul's ch., Univ'rs'st . .194 

St. Paul's M. E. en 191 

St. Paul's home for boys. . 89 
St. Paul's home for news- 
boys 180 

St. Paul's kindergarten... 90 

St. Peter's (school) 89 

St. Pius' school 91 

St. Pius' boys' school 92 

St. Procopius' school 91 

St. Stephen's (school) 90 

St. Vincent's asylum and 

maternity hospital . . 316 
St. Vincent de Paul socie- 
ties 459 
St. Vitus 'church,Catholic".194 
St. Xavier academy — 90, 244 
Studebaker's, P. E.. res . .528 
Substations, post office, lo- 
cation of 83 

Suburbs annexed 48 

Suburbs of Chicago 380 

Suburban points of inter- 
est 543 

Suburban ry. service 197 

Subu rban water supply . . . 117 

Suicides, number of 42 

Suraraerdale 407 

Sumraerdale church, Con- 
gregational 18S 

Summerdale post office... 86 

Summit 4^7 

Sun (Goodairs daily) 371 



Sunset club 219 

Supt. of schls., sal. of 103 

Superior court 490 

Surplus and profits of bks. 19 
Swedenborgian churches 194 
Swedish Luth. churches.. 189 
Swedish M. E. churches... 192 

Swedish Luth. schl 91 

Swedish mission schl 90 

Swedish pop. of Chicago.. 82 

Sweenie residence 528 

Swiss in Chicago 82 

Sycamore 408 

Synagogues (Jewish) 191 

System of operation of 
N. Chicago st. Ry. Co. . . . 198 

System of taxation 46 

Tabernacle church. Con- 
gregational 188 

Tacoma building . ...130,493 

Tailor shops 365 

Talcott pub. school 102 

Taxable valuation of Cook 

county propertj'' 46 

Taxable value of State 

property 365 

Teachers in private sch'ls 97 
Teachers in pub. sch'ls. .20,97 
Teachers in pub. schools, 

salaries of 103 

Tea-tasting 365 

Tecumseh, leader of the 
Indians against Fort 

Deai'born 25 

Telegraph service 365 

Telephones 366 

Telephone dept., salaries. 65 

Temperance societies 459 

Temperance temple 495 

Temperature of Ik. water. 116 

Temple court bldg 603 

Tenement house and fac- 
tory inspection 53 

Tennis clubs 209 

Tenth ward, private schools 92 
Terror district of the city .534 
Textiles manufactured.... 60 

Thatcher's Park 408 

Theatres 118,128 

Theatre trains 366 

The Fair, een" \ store 617 

The Leader, gen'l store 517 

The Levee, location and 

character of 5(X) 

"The Slums "of the city. 501 
" The South Parks ". . . 68-69 
" The Store," kept by M. 

C. McDonald 519 

Theological schools 90 

Theological sem. Chicago. 231 
Theological sem. Morgan 

park 237 

Theological sem. McCor- 

raick'a 234 

Theological sem., (Swedish) 

Northwestern univ .. ..241 
Theological seminary. 
Western «49 



Third church, Presby 192 

Third-class mail matter.. . . 88 
Third ward private schoold.90 
Thirteenth ward private 

schools 93 

Thirtieth ward private 

schools 96 

Thirty-fifth street blvd.. . . 75 
Thirty-first ward private 

schools 96 

Thirty-fourth ward private 

schools 96 

Thirty -second ward private 

schools. 96 

Thirty-third ward private 

schools 96 

Thomas Hoyne public 

school 102 

Thomas orchestra 366 

Thomson & Taylor spice 

mills 292 

Thornton 408 

Throop public school 102 

Ticket offices of the var'us 

railroads 41^-452 

Tiffany pressed brick 292 

Tilden public school 102 

Tilton branch pub. sch'l. .lOi 

Tilton public school 102 

Times, the 375 

Timmerman opera house.. 127 
Tire and Spring Co. w'rk8.26ft 

Titles, abstracts of 342 

Tobacco manufacturers 66 
Tobey Furniture Co. .. 526 

Tolleston... 408 

Tolman's, D. H,, res. 541 

Tonnage of arrivals and 

clearances at Chicago. .. 6:5 
Topography of Chicago ... 53 
Tower of Auditorium. . . 344 
Tower observatory, Audi- 
torium 136 

Towers, water works 118 

Towns and cities tributary 

to Chicago 466 

Towns reached by the Chi- 
cago railroads 412-452 

Tracy 408 

Trade in Chicago increase 40 
Trading posts established. 22 

Training school 89, X51 

Trainmg school for boys 

and girls 2.=i3 

Training sch'l for brewers. 255 
Training school, manual . .229 
Transactions of Board of 

Trade 19 

Transfers of real estate. . .107 
Transportation Co., Lake. 471 
Transportation facilities 

for the Fair 481 

Trappers and traders, first 

settlement of 22 

Treas., office expenses of.. 44 
Treas. (city), condition of . 51 

Treas., office (county) 490 

Tremont 408 



XVlll 



GENERAL JNDEX. 



Treraont house 333 

Trevor 408 

Tdbune, the 378 

Tribune building 504 

Trib. cities and towns. . . .466 
Trinity church, Epi8copal.l90 

Trinity Lutheran 91 

'I'rinity M. E. church 191 

Tunnels, use of in cable 

gi-cfprri 199 

T iin nel CWas'h.' st. ) ' loop .' .' 200 

Turner 408 

Turners' societies 459 

Twelfth ward private 

schools 92 

Twentieth ward private 

schools 94 

Twenty-eighth ward pri- 
vate schools 9i 

Tweat3'-flfth ward private 

schools 95 

Twenty-first ward private 

schools 94 

Twenty-fourth ward pri- 
vate schools 95 

Twenty-ninth ward pri- 
vate schools. 95 

Twenty-second ward pri- 
vate schools 94 

Twenty -seventh ward pri- 
vate schools 95 

Twenty-sixth ward pri- 
vate schools 95 

Twenty-third ward pri- 
vate schools 95 

Typewriting schools 89 

Ulich Evangelical Luth- 
eran Orphan Asylum.. . 180 
Uhlich's Orphan Asylum 94 
Unemployed girls, home 

for 171 

Unimproved lots in Cook 

county 45 

Unimproved lands in Cook 

county 45 

Union athletic club 205 

Union building ...492 

Union Catholic librarv 332 

Union club 219 

Union college of law 89 

Union detective ass'n 227 

Union depot 535 

Union Fratellanza 459 

tinion League art ass'n. . .135 

Union League club 219 

Union NatMbk 148.496 

Union Pacific ry 445 

Union park 75 

Union park ch., Cong'al.l88 

Union stock yards 292 

Union stock yards, busi- 
ness transacted at 35 

Union Stock Yards and 

Transit Co 226 

Union tabernacle. Congre- 
gational 188 

Union Trust Co 155 

Union veteran club 220 



Union works (111. Steel 

Co.) 278 

Unitarian churches 194 

United States courts 46 

United States Ex. Co 257 

United States marine hos- 
pital 316 

United States money order 

system 88 

United States Nat'l bk .... 148 
United States officers in 

Chicago 48 

United States rolling stock 

works 292 

Uniting city and county.. 53 
Unity church (Unitarian) 194 

Universalist churches 194 

University of Chicago . . .245 
University of Chic'go(old) 361 

University club 2i0 

University dental college 250 

U ni versity Place, res 530 

University school 248 

Upwood 408 

Valuation of live stock 

received at stock yards.. 35 
Valuation (taxable) o f 

Cook county property.. 45 
Value of exports by lake 

to Canada 63 

Value of live stock handled 

in Chicago 19 

Value of real estate trans- 
fers 107 

Varnish dealers and mf r8.525 
Vedder st. public school . . 103 
Vegetable dealers' asso- 
ciation — , 223 

Vernon Park 77 

Vessels owned in Chicago. 63 

Veteran's police patrol 227 

Veteran societies 341 

Viaducts and bridges 50 

Views of the Auditorium.137 
Vincennes a ve. residence8.530 

Virginia hotel 323 

Visitors to art institute. . . 20 

Visitors to art museum 131 

Visitors to public library, 

number of 20 

Volumes in pub. library. 20 
Von Humboldt public 

school lO"? 

Vulcan Iron works.. 303 

Wabash ave 366 

Wabash ave. changed into 

business st 524 

Wabash ave. M. E. church. 191 
Wabash R. R. depot... 381,448 
Wagon w'ks, Peter Schut- 

tler 287 

Wah Nah Ton club 220 

Waifs' mission 181 

Waldheim cemetery 1 59 

Walker's, Jas. H., res 528 

Walsh's, John R., res 530 

Walsh pub. school 102 

Wanderers' cricket club. . .206 



Warder-Bushnell & Gless- 

ner Co 303 

Wards of Chicago, area of 

each 49 

Ward pub. school 102 

Warehouses (provision) 

list of 38 

Warehouses, storage ca- 
pacity of 34 

War of 1812 i5 

Warren ave. church. Con- 
gregational 188 

Warrentou 408 

Washburn pub. school . . . 102 
Washington boulevard 75 

Washington blvd. res 538 

Washington Heights P. O. 86 
Washingtonian Home .328,46 

Washington park 66,76 

Washington park club 22u 

Washington pub. school.. 102 

Washington square 77 

Washington st. tunnel 200 

Watch manufactory 266 

Water flow, changing 

of 109-111 

Water offices 487 

Water supply, source of . .116 

Water supply system 64 

Water sup'y of the8ub'rb8.117 

Water towers 116 

Water transportation 359 

Water transporta'n, lake. 471 
Water works of Chicago . . 114 

Water works, cost of 115 

Water works at Evanston.117 
Water w'rks of Hyde P'rk.llT 
Water w'rks of Lake View.117 

Waukegan 408 

Waukesha 408 

Waverly theatre .127 

Wayne 409 

W. C. T. U. of Chicago .... 183 
W. C. T. U. kindersrarten. 91 

W. C. T. U., national 1 83 

Weber music hail 128 

Webster club 221 

Webster Mfg. Co 303 

Webster pub. school . .102 

Weekly newspapers, num- 
ber of 20 

Weekly publications 377 

Wellington hotel 321 

Wells, Fargo & Co. ex . ... 257 
Wells & French Co.'s wk8.304 

Wells public school lO"^ 

Wells street 367 

Welsh in Chicago 82 

Wentworth 409 

Wen*worth, "Long" 

John 491 

Wesley hospital.. 317 

W. Chicago St. Ry. Co 198 

West Division building 

permits — 109 

West Division, pop. of — 82 
West Division schools (pri- 
vate) 97 



GENERAL IXDEX. 



XIX 



West Division highech'l. 101 
West Diviaion night free 

schools 100 

Western ave. bh'd 7«5 

Western ave. M. E. ch. . . 191 
Western Bank Note and 

Engraving Co 304 

Western Electric Co. wk8.306 

Western Springs 409 

Western theological sem- 
inary 93, 249 

Weskninster church, Pres- 
byterian 193 

West pk. commissioners... 66 

West Ridge 409 

West Roseland 409 

West Side cable system . . 199 
West Side ch., Chr'st'n ... 187 

West Side parks 67 

West Side park improve- 
ment 78 

West 12th St. blvd 76 

Wheaton. 409 

Wheat receipts and ship- 
ments 35,37 

Wheeler library 332 

Wheeling 409 

Whitechapel club 221 

Whitings 409 

Wholesale and jobbing 

business of Chicago. . 5i 
Wholesale business of Chi- 
cago 19 

Wholesale district 623 

Wicker park 77 



Wicker park public school 102 
Width and length of the 

city 63 

Wilce'e, E. P.,res 638 

Wildwood 409 

Wildwood post office 86 

Williams ave. pub. school. 102 
William Deering <v Co., 

harvesting machine wks 300 

William Norman, res .530 

Willoughby, Hill & Co., 

clothing house 620 

Willow Springs 409 

Wilmette 409 

Winfield 409 

Winnetka 409 

Wisconsin Cen.lines (R.R.)448 

Wolff mfg. Co. works 282 

Woman's alliance 460 

Woman's Canning and 

Preserving Co 387 

Woman's club 211 

Woman's college, North- 
western University 240 

Woman's (erring) reruge..l(56 

Woman's hospital 317 

Woman's hospital, training 

school for nurses 250 

Woman's med. college. . .550 
Woman's union klnder'n.. 89 
Women, self-supporting, 

home for 171 

Women's suff. club ....186,221 
Women, working, home 

for ITl 



Wood and iron mfg 75 

Woodlawn 410 

Woodlawn park 77 

Woodlawn park P. O . . . . 86 

Woodruff( hotel) 321 

Wool, receipts aud ship- 
ments 37 

Working men's institute.. .184 
Working women, home 

for 171 

World's Columbian Expo- 
sition 473-483 

World's Fair., 473-483 

Worth 410 

Worthen's route, drainage 

canal 114 

Would-be sports 619 

W. W. Kimball Co., the. . .305 
Yacht and boat clubs. ... 203 
Yerkes', Chas. T., res. . .531 
Yerkes' electric fountain 541 

Yerkes fountain, the 367 

Y. M. C. A. building 494 

Y.M.C. A. (ScaDdinavian)186 
Young ladies' charity 

circle. 181 

Young men's christian 

association 184 

Young's, Otto, residence. .530 
Young woman's christian 

association 186 

Zion ch., Congregational. 188 
Zion congregation ceme- 
tery 169 



Thepublisheru desire to state that no "paid" matter of any description what- 
ever appears in the body of this work. Commercial houses, co7'porations, private 
interests and individuals are referred to only because a Guide to Chicago would not 
be complete were mention of them omitted. These references are made not only 
loithout previous arrangement, but in nearly every instance without the knowledge 
of the houses, corporations or persons refei^red to. The sole aim of the publishers has 
been to make a perfect hand-book. Such " paid " matter as appears in this volume 
is printed plainly as advertising. 




LA SALLE STREET FRONT OF CITY HALL. 



Not in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, though bathed in all the 
glorious colorings of Oriental fancy, is there a tale which surpasses in woii- 
der the plain, unvarnished history of Chicago. And it is probable that even 
the elastic credulity of childhood, which from generation to generation has 
dccepted, without question, the impossible adventures of Aladdin, Ali Baba 
and Sinbad the Sailor, would be sorely strained if confronted with the story 
which the most prosaic- historian of this remarkable city is called upon to 
cell. 

Chicago is one of the wonders of modern times. Her progress amazes 
mankind. There is not on record an achievement of human intellect, skill 
and industry that will bear comparison with the transformation of a dismal 
swamp, in the midst of a trackless desert, within the span of a human life, 
into one of the mightiest and grandest cities on the globe. 

The aim of this volume is to present to the reader the results attained by 
the people of Chicago in government, art, science, culture, commerce and 
general advancement. To do this within the limits of a pocket compendium 
has required exacting labor and the exercise of all the skill which the com- 
piler could command. 

Neither Baedeker's nor Gallignani's celebrated guides, which European 
travelers find indispensable, are the results of a year's or of ten years' labor. 
It has required a quarter of a century or more, and frequent alterations and 
revisions, to bring them up to their present degree of excellence. It requires 
time to perfect a volume of this character, particularly when it pretends to 
cover faithfully a city like Chicago, where changes of magnitude are con- 
stantly occurring, and where it demands all the watchfulness, energy and 
enterprise of the editors of our great daily newspapers to keep up with the 
rapidly-moving and never-halting procession of events. 

I do not claim for " The Standard Guide" any more or less than that it 

is a faithful compilation. I have sought material everywhere, and havetaken 

the liberty of using all the facts and information that have fallen under my 

eye. 

17 



18 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

I take advantage of this opportunity to cheerfully and publicly place on 
record my obligations to the reporters of the city press, whose work has 
made it possible for me to collect within the covers of this volume much of 
the information it contains. 

This book, I believe, will prove to be one of the most useful ever issued in 
Chicago, both as a guide and an encyclopedia, and valuable alike to the resi- 
dent and the stranger. My aim has been to place this city, so much misrepre- 
sented of late, in a proper light before the World — to convince the people of 
all countries that Chicago is not merely a big, bustling, uncultivated Western 
town, but a great Modern Metropolis, whose people are blessed with all the 
advantages and surrounded with all the elevating and refining influences 
enjoyed by the residents of cities ten times her age. This volume will be 
read extensively throughout America and Europe, and I believe it will con- 
tribute in no small degree toward removing the erroneous impressions con- 
cerning Chicago and her people which have found a lodgment abroad. 

The printing and binding of this book were placed in the hands of Messrs. 
Donohue & Henneberry, who have performed their work in a most creditable 
manner. The photographic views from which the half-tone engravings were 
taken, were furnished by Mr. J. W. Taylor ; the photogravures were made by 
Vandercook & Co. 

The Standard Guide to Chicago will be revised and issued annually. 

John J. Flinn. 
Chicago, 1891. 



THB MARVELOUS CITY. 



A BUSINESS VIEW. 



Population of Chicago, 1837 - - - - . 4,170 

Population of Chicago, 1890 (U. S. Census) - - - 1,098,576 

Population of Chicago, 1890 (School Census) - - - 1,208,669 

Population of Chicago, 1891 (Estimated) - ... 1,250,000 

Area of Chicago in Square Miles, 1837 - - - - 10.70 

Area of Chicago in Square Miles, 1891 - - - 181.70 

Length of Chicago, Lineal Miles, 1891 .... 24 

Width of Chicago, Lineal Miles, 1891 .... 10 

Buildings erected in Chicago since 1876 .... 56,240 
Cost of Buildings erected since 1876 - - - $255,298,879.00 

Frontage of Buildings erected since 1876, miles - - - 256 

Buildings erected in Chicago in 1890 . . . _ 11,608 

Cost of Buildings erected in 1890 .... $47,322,100.00 
Frontage of Buildings erected in 1890, miles ... 50 

Bank Clearings of Chicago, 1866 - - - $453,798,648.11 

Bank Clearings of Chicago. 1890 - - - $4,093,145,904.00 

Commerce of Chicago, 1850 ..... $20,000,000.00 
Commerce of Chicago, 1890 .... $1,380,000,000.00 

Capital of Chicago National Banks, 1890 - - - $16,100,000.00 

Surplus and Profits of Chicago National Banks, 1890 $10,343,119.00 

Board of Trade Transactions, 1890 .... $86,677,157.25 
Value of Live Stock handled in Chicago, 1890 - - $231,344,879.00 

Hogs Slaughtered at Stock Yards, 1890 - - - 5,733,082 

Cattle Slaughtered at Stock Yards, 1890 - - - 2,219,312 

Wholesale Business of Chicago, 1890 - - - $486,600,000.00 

Manufactured Products of Chicago, 1890 - - $96,200,000.00 

SEE NEXT F»A.GE. 
19 



THE MARVELOUS CITY. 



ANOTHER VIEW. 



Investment in Public Schools to Date 

Pupils attending Chicago Public Schools 

Teachers in Chicago Public Schools 

Cost of Maintaining Public Schools, 1890 . 

Academies and Seminaries in Chicago 

Universities in Chicago ..... 

Private Schools in Chicago .... 

Pupils attending Academies, Seminaries, Private Schools, etc 

Teachers in Academies, Seminaries, etc. 

Number of Children of School Age iu Chicago 

Number of Illiterate Children of School Age . 

Number of Books taken from Public Library per annum . 

Number of Volumes in Public Library 

Number of Volumes in other Libraries 

Number of Visitors to Public Library Reading Room, 1890 

Visitors to Art Institute, 1890 

Number of Daily Newspapers in Chicago 

Number of Weekly Newspapers .... 

Total number of Periodical Publications 

Production of Bound Books in Chicago, 1890 

Hospitals in Chicago ..... 

Charitable Asylums in Chicago .... 

Amount Expended in Public Charities Annually 

Amount Contributed toward Private Charities Annually . 

Number of Churches in Chicago 

Number of Literary Organizations .... 

Number of Gentlemen's and Family Clubs 

Area of Public Parks, acres ..... 



$60,000,000.00 

135,651 

2,842 

$3,787,222.00 

341 

2 

786 

62,640 

. 11,640 

166,621 

. 2,599 

. 1,260,000 

160,000 

. 2,800,000 

700,000 

66,926 

24 

260 

631 

. 8,000,000 

25 

34 

$5,000,000.00 

$3,000,000.00 

317 

687 

46 

1,974 



20 



it the 



PART I. 

CHICAGO AS IT WAS. 

In order that the visitor may thoroughly appreciate the magnitude and 
splendor of the Chicago of the present, perhaps it would be well enough to 
take a glance at the Chicago of the past. The history of the city is as brief 
as it is wonderful. One hundred years ago the ground which it covers was 
a pathless wilderness — an almost impenetrable morass; a swamp, out of 
which sprang a dense growth of wild and tangled grasses, with here and 
there a mound or a ridge covered with wild reeds, or oak and maple trees, 
stunted in their growth but luxuriant in their foliage. 

Since 1673, when Joliet and Marquette, induced by the marvelous tales 
told them by the Indians regarding the Big Water that laid toward the 
north, gazed upon Lake Illinois (the name which Lake Michigan bore for 
many years), and discovered the portage of the Chicago, or Checagow, as the 
natives pronounced it, a number of French explorers and missionaries from 
the South and Canadian toyageurs from the North had visited the spot upon 
which Fort Dearborn was afterward erected by the United States govern- 
ment, then in its infancy. Louis Joliet was the agent of Count Frontenac, 
the Governor of " New France " — afterward Louisiana; and Father Jacques 
Marquette was a priest of the Society of Jesus, full of zeal for his religion 
and bent upon the salvation of the savage. Some writers maintain that La 
Salle preceded Marquette, but the doubt as to this is decidedly in favor of the 
Jesuit priest. It was Joliet, however, who first made the outside world 
acquainted with the fact that such a stream as the Chicago river existed, by 
giving it a place in a roughly-drawn map which accompanied his report to 
the French governor, Marquette did not long survive his arrival at Chicago 
Portage. He died of a fever contracted in th© malarial swamp during the 
year 1675, after having established his religion among the Indians. His 
succq^sor was Father Claude Allouez, who, during his mission to the Illi- 
nois, made several trips to this section. 

The Indians had given the name which this city bears to the river. To 
them it was Eschikagow or Checagow. There are various stories regarding 
its origin. It is known that a chief of the tribe of Illinois was named " Che- 
cagow " and that he was sent to France in 1725 and had " the distinguished 
honor of being introduced in Paris to the Company of the Indies^" but the 

21 



2^ GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

river was catUed Escliikagow or " Checagow " long before this. The word 
" Checagow " in the language of the Illinois meant " Onion;" in the language 
of the Pottawatomies it signified " pole cat." The probabilities are that the 
stream received its name from the "Onion," that vegetable having been 
found in great profusion along its banks by the early explorers. 

La Salle in 1678 secured a patent of nobility from the French monarcli 
and a grant of seignority for Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario, He then 
undertook the task of "Western exploration, and visited the Mississippi and 
Illinois rivers in furtherance of his object. In his company were three 
Flemish friars, and of these Fathers Membre and Ribourde became the 
immediate successors of Marquette and Allouez in the Illinois mission. For 
nearly a hundred years we read of a succession of missions, of the occa- 
sional arrival of an emissary of the French government, of the establishment 
of trading posts here and elsewhere along the shore of Lake Michigan, but 
nothing in the nature of a permanent settlement is mentioned, and it is plain 
that no idea of the foundation of a city at or near the Chicago Portage ever 
entered the minds of the few adventurous spirits who found their way hither. 

The first settler of Chicago was a fugitive San Domingoan slave named 
Point De Sable. How he found his way from his master's plantations to the 
French settlements of Louisiana and afterward into the jungles of the North- 
west is unknown, but that he was settled in a cabin at the mouth of the Chi- 
cago river and was leading the life of a trapper here in 1779 is a settled fact. 
Attention is called to his existence by the British Commander of Fort Mich- 
ilimacinac in a letter written on the 4th of July of the year mentioned, who 
speaks of him as " Baptiste Point De Sable, a handsome negro, and settled at 
Eschikagow, but much in the French interest." This negro became quite 
prominent as a fur trader, and others who sought to obtain a share of the prof- 
its obtained through barter with the Indians soon gathered around him. 
Quite a settlement of these trappers and traders sprang up at the mouth of 
the river. One of them, a Frenchman named Le Mai, bought De Sable out. 
The latter died shortly afterward at Peoria. Le Mai put new life into the 
business and caused several improvements to be made in the settlement. 
The point continued to grow in importance as a trading post, and Le Mai 
became quite a prosperous if not a wealthy man. He continued in busi- 
ness here until 1804. 

The result of the Anglo-French colonial war, in which George Wash- 
ington under General Braddock first achieved military distinction, was to 
deprive France of all territory lying upon the great lakes and east of the 
Mississippi, and without having any knowledge of the fact, for the scene of 
operation was far away and means of communication were few, the settle- 
ment of Chicago Portage passed under the protection of the British flag. 
Concerning this period, Flinn, in his history of Chicago, says: "In all the 



CHICAGO AS IT WAS. 23 

subsequent events, the session of Louisiana to Spain, the insurrection of the 
Indians under the great Pontiac, and, spurred on by the French traders, 
the attempt of the Illinois Chief Chicago to drive back the English; the 
English attempt to prevent settlements beyond the Ohio river; the annexa- 
tion of the Northwest to Canada; the preparation for a colonial revolt against 
King George — through all these events Chicago Portage slumbered obliv- 
iously in her desolate neck of the woods, as blissfully ignorant of the world 
as the world could possibly be of her." 

While negotiations for the purchase of Louisiana by the United States 
government were in progress the project of building a fort — a sort of an out- 
post of civilization — at the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, was being 
entertained by Congress. From the close of the Revolution it had been remem- 
bered that British influence among the warriors who overran the West, and 
who could be counted in bands of thousands along the upper lakes, was gain- 
ing headway, and it became necessary with the acquisition of the new terri- 
tory that the United States government should make some demonstration of 
its strength in order to counteract the pernicious effects of England's tactics. 
The Indians could be made very troublesome to us by the artifices of a nation 
that was secretly, if not openly, still an enemy of the republic. Hence the 
proposition to build a fort. 

The mouth of the St. Joseph river on the east bank of the lake was first 
proposed as the proper site for the outpost, but the friendly Indians were 
hostile to the measure, withheld their consent to its construction, and the 
government commissioners, in the interest of peace, decided to select another 
location. 

Across the lake from St. Joseph was the Chicago Portage, where 
a piece of territory six miles square had been ceded to the government 
by the Indians. The mere fact that the government was the owner of 
these six miles square appears to have been the most potent influence brought 
to bear upon the commissioners. Beyond the fact that the government owned 
this little piece of land in the wilderness, there was no particular reason why 
the fort should be located here, except that the Chicago river emptied into 
the lake at this point, and from the Chicago communication could be had by 
water with the interior. The undertaking was considered at the time a bold 
one, as the post would be far removed from the borders of civilization, and 
the safety of its defenders would depend in great measure upon the friecd- 
ship of the Illinois and Pottawatomie Indians. An order for the construc- 
tion of the works was issued by the War Department in 1803. There were no 
American military outposts nearer than Detroit and Michilimacinac at this 
time. A company of United States soldiers was stationed at the latter place, 
under command of Capt. John Whistler, an officer of the Revolution, and 
to him was intrusted the work of establishing the new fort. Two young 



24 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

lieutenants, William Whistler, the Captain's sod, and James S. Swearington 
from Chillicothe, Ohio, assisted him in command. To the latter he gave in 
charge the difficult and dangerous task of conducting the soldiers through the 
forests of Michigan to Chicago, while with his wife, his son and his son's 
wife — a young bride — he embarked on the United States schooner "Tracy' 
for the same destination. 

The schooner arrived in front of the settlement on July 4, 1803. The 
mouth of the river was choked with sand, driftwood and weeds. On the 
sand bar the schooner discharged her cargo of ammunition, arms and 
provisions into small boats which were rowed into the river, and landed at 
the spot where the fort was to be erected. There were at this point three 
rude huts occupied by French fur traders with their Indian wives and broods 
of half-breed children. But the news of the projected work had been noised 
around the country, and nearly 2,000 Indians were present to witness the 
debarkation. In the presence of these natives the United States flag was 
planted on a spot made venerable with the memories of 130 years of transient 
French occupation. The fort was not completed until the following year, 
It occupied, according to Eastman, "one of the most beautiful sites or 
the lake shore. It was as high as any other point, overlooking the sur 
face of the lake, commanding as well as any other view on this fiat 
surface could, the prairie extending north to the belt of timber along the 
south branch and on the north side, and the white sand hills both to the 
north and south, which had for ages past been the sport of the lake winds.' 
Around the fort, little by little, began to gather the wild and 
restless adventurers who blazed the path of civilization through thf- 
trackless forests. Now and then hunters "dropped in," liked thf 
place and stayed. Little by little the three log huts which the schoone? 
"Tracy" had found here became surrounded by a little village of similar 
huts, but their occupants, instead of being French traders with squaw wives 
were more closely allied by race and disposition to the soldiers within th^t 
palisades. There were Indians about in great numbers, but they werf: 
friendly and manageable as a rule. The post continued to be entirely isolated 
from the rest of the Caucasian race on the continent, and save for an occa 
sional visit from a supply schooner, its little garrison mi^ht well have been 
impressed with the belief that all the world had forgotten them. 

The war between the United States and England in 1812, was the cause 
of that important event in the history of Chicago, the massacre of Fort Dear- 
born. The French settlers previous to this time had been driven out of Illi- 
nois by the English, and the latter had worked their way steadily into the 
confidence and affections of the Indians. They had been taught by English 
agents and emissaries that the Americans were attempting to rob them of 
their hunting grounds and led to believe that if they would join their fortunes 



CHICAGO AS IT WAS. 25 

with the British the Americans would be driven out of the country. The 
Shawnees, a powerful western tribe, had been thoroughly blinded by the 
English and had given themselves over bodily to the enemy, with the great 
chief Tecumseh at their head. This chieftain was as eloquent as he was brave. 
He talked to the friendly Pottawatomie chiefs, worked upon their credulity 
and gained their adhesion to the English cause. Several of them had fought 
by his side at Tippecanoe the year before, and it is stated, on good authority, 
that Tecumseh contemplated the destruction of Fort Dearborn even then, 
and would have carried his design into execution were it not for the defeat 
he suffered in that memorable engagement. 

He was an energetic man, and he wandered through the wilderness 
constantly in search of new allies to assist him in driving the white settlers 
east of the Ohio river. He succeeded in forming an alliance of this charac- 
ter with the Winnebagoes of Rock River. 

The officers who were originally in command of Fort Dearborn were 
replaced in 1811 by Capt. Heald, Lieut. Helm, Ensign George Ronan and 
Surgeon Van Voorhees. The garrison, at the time, contained sixty-six 
soldiers. John Kinzie, the first "prominent citizen," was living with his 
family close to the fort. There were a few straggling farm-houses along the 
river. Inside the palisades dwelt the wives of Capt. Heald and Sergeant 
Holt, and three other women, the wife of a French trader named Ouilmette, 
a Mrs. Boriou, her sister, and Mrs, Corbin, the wife of a soldier. The Kinzie, 
Burns and White families were the most prominent in the settlement. 

Everybody acquainted with American history will recall readily the disas- 
trous defeats and humiliations which befell our armies in the Northwest during 
the early months of the War of 1812. Fort Michilimacinac, Mich., the nearest 
post to Fort Dearborn, had fallen. Finally the garrison at D»etroit, together with 
the town and the entire territory of Michigan, fell into the hands of the Brit- 
ish. General Hull, who was in command, was tried by court martial and 
sentenced to be hanged, a sentence never executed, however, for it developed 
to the satisfaction of the government and the country shortly afterward 
that the War Department, which had been inefficiently conducted, was 
really responsible for the disaster. Some days before surrendering he had 
the forethought and the manliness to acquaint Captain Heald, commander of 
Fort Dearborn, with the situation, to warn him of the impending danger and 
to urge hini q,nd the little garrison to evacuate the fort and retreat to Fort 
Wayne. This was the first intimation Fort Dearborn had received of the 
declaration of war with England and the unfortunate disasters which had 
followed. The news created consternation and confusion bordering upon 
panic. To make matters worse, there was anything but harmony existing 
between Heald and his subordinates The latter decided upon evacuation 
without consulting with his officers, in spite of the opposition of Kinzie, 



26 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

who was powerful among the settlers, and against the advice of Winne- 
mac, the friendly chief, who had brought the tidings from Hull. The 
latter had suggested, or ordered, that the supplies contained in the fort 
be distributed among the Indians. When arguments failed, and Kinzie 
found that Heald could not be turned from his purpose, he begged the 
commander to evacuate at once, before news of the American defeats and the 
peril of their position became noised among the tribes. Heald, however, 
obstinately insisted upon postponing the move till he could summon all the 
Indians, in order to divide the supplies among them. Winnemac saw clearly 
the danger of this course, and advised that the fort be abandoned without 
delay, with everything left as it was; so that while the Indians were ransack- 
ing the place, and gorging themselves with the provisions, the garrison might 
safely escape. He knew that the savages had become generally hostile. 
Further appeals to Heald from officers and settlers proved to be of no avail. 
On August 12th, a council of Pottawatomies was assembled and called to 
order by Captain Heald, in the presence of Mr, Kinzie, who accompanied him 
to the place of meeting outside the palisades. This council passed off peace- 
ably enough, Capt. Heald promising to evacuate the fort and distribute the 
supplies and all surplus ammunition and arms within the garrison. The 
Indians were also to receive a liberal gift of money. The Indians appeared to 
be satisfied. They had not as yet heard of the American defeat, Capt. Heald 
remaining silent on that subject. It was conveyed to them, however, by 
Tecumseh, who promised them a glorious opportunity of driving the whites 
forever out of the hunting-grounds. 

The effect of this intelligence was to make the Indians at once more 
insolent than ever. Heald, in a foolish effort to correct a criminal mis- 
take, decided to disfribute provisions only, and to destroy the arms and ammu- 
nition. The Indians prowling around the fort found fragments of muskets, 
flint-locks and broken powder casks thrown in a well, and at the river bank 
a number of headless whisky casks. When these discoveries were reported to 
the multitude of red-skins now assembled, their rage knew no bounds. They 
justly looked upon Heald's act as a piece of treachery, and it compromised 
all the good fellowship that existed between the Indians and the garrison, and 
even the Chief Black Partridge, who had always been friendly, threw off his 
allegiance and became an enemy. 

Rumors of the threatened danger at Fort" Dearborn had reached Fort 
Wayne. Capt. Wells stationed there was a brother of Mrs. Heald. He 
started with fifteen Miamis to the rescue, and arrived on August 14th, find- 
ing the garrison without hope of deliverance. Evacuation at any cost had 
now been determined upon Starvation was the only alternative. Kinzie 
left his family in charge of some friendly Indians, and volunteered to accom- 
pany the troops. His influence with the savages was great, and it was hope ' 
that his nresence mie^ht prevent an attack. 



CHICAGO AS IT WAS. 27 

The evacuation occurred on the morning of the 15th. It was a sad spec- 
tacle. As the inmates left the palisades they were preceded by the post 
band which played the Dead March. Not a man or a woman among them 
expected to reach Fort Wayne. All felt that their doom was sealed. Capt. 
"Wells led the little band of Miamis which formed the van. He had black- 
ened his face in token, it is said, of his impending fate. 

The evacuating party consisted of the garrison, about sixty-five men, 
officers included; the Miamis and leader, the wives and children of ofiicers, 
soldiers and settlers — about one hundred and twenty-five persons, all told. 
They took their route along the southern shore of the lake beach. This was 
skirted by a range of sand hills. To the west of these hills, or say from the 
line of the present State street inward was the prairie or swamp lands, dry in 
the month of August, 1812. Much to the alarm of the fugitives the 
Pottawatomies took the prairie on the west side of the sand hills, 
and followed them at a distance. They must have reached a point 
on the shore at the foot of the present Eighteenth street, when Capt. 
Wells, who had been riding in advance, came galloping back with the 
announcement, " They are about to attack us, form instantly and charge upon 
them." These words were echoed by a volley from the sand hills. The 
massacre had begun. 

At the very first discharge of the enemies' muskets, Capt. Wells' band of 
Miamis fled precipitately, their chief following. 

The whites fought with all the courage and energy of desperation. 
Again and again, the attacks of the Pottawatomies were repulsed, with great 
losses on both sides. Easign Roaan, mortally wounded and kneeling on the 
sand, loaded and fired with deadly precision until he fell exhausted. Kinzie 
and Capt. Wells were fighting like madmen to protect the women and children. 
While the whites were charging on a squad of Indians hidden in a ravine, 
a young Indian brute climbed into a baggage wagon in which were the chil- 
dren of the white families, twelve in number, and slaughtered every one of 
them. The number of whites had been reduced to twenty-eight. After hard 
fighting near the ravine the little band succeeded in breakingthrough the enemy 
and gaining a rising ground not far from the present Oakwoods, or between 
Thirty-Fifth and Fortieth streets. The contest now seemed hopeless, and 
Lieut. Helm sent Perish Leclere, a half-breed boy in the service of Kinzie, 
to propose terms of capitulation. It was stipulated that the lives of survivors 
should be spared, and a ransom permitted as soon as possible. 

It was then that the tidings of the massacre of the children reached 
Capt. Wells. "Is this their game," he cried, "butchering women and 
children. Then I will kill too ! " 

So saying he started for the Indian camp, where the Indians bad left 
their squaws and children, pursued closely by Pottawatomies. He laid him- 



28 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

self flat on the neck of his horse, loadiDg and firing in that position, as he 
would occasionally turn on his pursuers. At length his horse was killed 
under him, and he was seriously wounded. While a couple of friendly 
Indians were trying to drag him to a place of safety he was stabbed in the 
back and killed. It is said the Indians took out his heart and chopped it into 
little pieces. Mrs. Corbin, the soldier's wife, fought like a tigress and 
refused to surrender, although safety and kind treatment were promised her, 
and was finally cut to pieces. Sergeant Holt finding himself mortally 
wounded, gave his sword to his wife, who was on horseback, telling 
her to defend herself. She, too, was wounded by Indians, who endeav- 
ored to capture her alive. She fought with desperation, and finally 
breaking away, fled to the prairies. She was captured, however, but 
her bravery saved her life, and, after some months of captivity, was turned 
over to her friends. Mrs. Heald, who was wounded, was on the point of 
being scalped, when a friendly Indian saved her life. Kinzie escaped and 
his family was unmolested during the outbreak. Two-thirds of the evacuating 
party were massacred. The remainder were finally returned to freedom. 

Of course this event broke up the settlement at Chicago Portage. The 
fort was completely destroyed and the homes of the settlers were burned 
down. The place remained desolate until 1814, when the Government com- 
menced the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn. 

The new fort occupied the exact site of the one destroyed, and resembled 
it in construction. The government at this time also ordered a survey of the 
water-course between Chicago and the Illinois river. John Kinzie and family 
returned. The settlement began to fill up for the second time. Communi- 
cation was opened with towns and settlements in southern Illinois. The tide 
of emigration turned toward the West. The waste places were taken up rap 
idly under the homestead act. Illinois was admitted to the Union in 1818. 
Chicago began to assume the appearance of a thrifty village, and from that 
time on, though interrupted now and then by dreadful calamities, her course 
has been steadily upward and onward. These calamities, as well as all other 
events in her history, are noted under appropriate headings in the JEncyclopedia 
of this work. 



PART 11. 

CHICAGO AS IT IS. 

Chicago, Cook County, State of Illinois, United States of Americans the 
second city on the American continent in point of population and commerce. 
Among the cities of the civilized world, it is only outranked in population by 
London Paris, New York, Berlin and Vienna, in order named. The U. S. 
census, taken in June, 1890, placed the number of inhabitants at 1,098,576. 
The school census, taken at the same time, generally believed to be far more 
reliable, increased the number to 1,208,669. Since then new districts have 
been annexed to the city, and the former ratio of increase has been more 
than maintained, so that a conservative estimate of the population of 
Chicago, in the summer of 1891, brings the figures up to 1,250,000. 

The City of Chicago, incorporated March 4, 1837, comprised "the district 
of country in the County of Cook, etc., known as the east }^ of the south- 
west 3^ of section 33, township 40 north, range 14 east ; also the east ^ of 
sections 6, 7, 18 and 19, all of fractional section 3, and of sections 4, 5, 8, 9 and 
fractional section 10 (except the southwest fractional^ thereof, occupied as a 
military post, until the same shall become private property), fractional section 
15 ; sections 16, 17, 20, 21 and fractional section 22, township 39 north, range 
14 east." Since then there have been twelve extensions of the city limits. 

The rapid growth of Chicago has been an enigma to those who have not 
intelligently investigated the conditions which have led to it. In reality It 
has only kept pace with the country of which it is the natural commercial center. 
Situated as it is on the southwest shore of Lake Michigan, in 41° 52' N. lat. 
and 87^* 52' W. long., 854 miles from Baltimore, the nearest point on the 
Atlantic seaboard, and 2, 417 miles from the Pacific ocean, directly on the 
highways from East to West and from the Great Northwestern States to the 
Atlantic; having all the advantages of a seaport town combined with those of 
a great inland feeder, it is not to be wondered at that within the space of half 
a century it grew from a mere hamlet to the dimensions of a great metropolis. 

In 1837 the population of Chicago was 4,170. Ten years later it wa8 

39 



30 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



16,859. In 1855 it had grown to 80,000. In 1860 it was 100,206. In 1866 it 
was 200,418. In 1870 it was 306,605. In 1880 it was 503,185. In 1886 it was 
703,817. In 1889, Hyde Park, Lake, a part of Cicero, Jefferson and Lake 
View, outlying towns, which had in fact years before become parts of the 
city, were annexed, and the school census of that year gave the population of 
the city at 1,066,213. 



BANKING. 

Chicago in volume of banking business transacted ranks next to New 
York, although Boston usually occupies second place in the clearing-house 
column which is published by the papers. Boston has fifty-one banks that 
clear, while Chicago has but twenty-one, yet the Chicago banks relatively do 
more business than the Boston banks. The fact that the clearing-house 
figures apparently give Boston a larger business cuts no figure in actual facts. 
Chicago really is the second city of the country in financial affairs. 

Clearances for 1890. — The following were the monthly totals of clearings 
by the associated banks of this city for 1890: 



Month. 



January — 
February . . . 

March. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August — 
September. . 

October 

November. 
December . 



Total 

Total 1888. 
Totall887. 
Total 1886. 



1890. 



1889. 



296,038,598 
253,053,263 
304,703,836 
323,624,385 
374,^69,955 
358,607,984 
350,804,127 
342,118,026 
359,984,613 
405,679,992 
364,309.585 
359,252,540 



269,209,079 
234,398,01^ 
261,891,693 
2^2,122,111 
295,131,213 
275,068,^97 
269,866,659 
284,168,138 
284,927,160 
330,190,039 
300,776,129 
313,176,053 



$4,093,145,904 $3,379,925,189 
3,163,774,463 
3,969,216,211 
2,604,762,913 



Clearances, Comparative.— The following shows the bank clearings from 
1866 to 1890 inclusive: 

1879 1,257,756,124.31 

1880 1,725,684,894.85 

1881 2,249.329,924.73 

1882.' " " ?,393,437,874.35 

1883 ".'. 2,517.371,581.24 

1884 2,259,680,391.74 

1885 " : 2.318,579,003.07 

1886 2,604,762,912.35 

1887" .... 2,969,2 '6,210.60 

1888." 3,163,774,463.68 

1889 3,379,925,188.67 

1890 4,093,145,904.00 



1866 $ 453,798,648.11 

1867 580,727,331.43 

1868 723,293,144.91 

1869 734.664,949.91 

1870 810,676.038.28 

1871. '. 868,936,754.64 

1872 993,060,503.47 

1873 1,047,027,828.83 

1874 1,101,347,918.41 

1875 1,212,81', ,207.54 

1876..... 1,110,093,6''4.37 

1877 1,044,678,475.70 

1878.. 967,184,093.07 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



31 



Gondition of tJie Chicago National Banks. — Following is a summary of 
statements of the Chicago national banks, showing the condition of the 
banks at the close of business December 19, 1890: 



RESOUKCES. 



Loans and discounts 

Overdrafts 

United States bonds for circulation. 

United States bonds for deposit 

United States bonds on hand 

Other stocks and bonds 

Premiums paid 

Real estate and oflSce fixtures 

Checks for clearing-house 

Due from banks and agents 

Cash and treasury credits 



$72,393,018 

79,763 

1,163,500 

700,000 

164,550 

3,082,864 

79,750 

769,936 

4,959,001 

14,707,313 

23,919,431 



LIABILITIES. 



Capital 

Surplus and profits 

Circulation 

Individual deposits 

Demand certificates of deposit. 

Certified checks 

Cashiers' checks 

Due banks 

United States deposits 

Total deposits 



$16,100,000 

10,343,119 

803,740 

47,530,972 

3,883,533 

1,176,366 

1,109,779 

40,003,458 

767,168 

94,471,271 



In making the report of the condition of the National banks of the coun- 
try for the last quarter of 1890, the controller of the currency at Washington 
said: "The general showing is a good one for the country at large, but the 
Chicago banks seem to be in especially good shape. A reserve of 31.42 per 
cent, indicates a healthy condition for that city. Philadelphia's reserve is 
28.38 per cent., while New York's is 28.11 per cent. So you can judge of 
the relative standing of Chicago." 

BOARD OF TRADE TRANSACTIONS. 

The Chicago Board of Trade is a world-renowned commercial organization. 
Itexercisesawiderand a more potential influence over the welfare of mankind 
than any other institution of its kind in existence, for it practically regulates 
the traffic in breadstuffs the world over. Its transactions are of far more 
importance to humanity in general than are those of the Exchange of London, 
the Bourse of Paris, or the Stock Exchange of New York. The volume of 
business transacted on the floor of the Chicago Board of Trade annually is 
amazing; the fortunes made and lost within the walls of the great building 
every year astonish the world. The membership of the Board of Trade is 
about 2,000 — nearly all young men, full of the genuine Chicago spirit of 
enterprise, pluck and perseverance. Notwithstanding the severe criticisms to 
which the methods of the Board have been subjected from time to time, the 
commercial honesty and personal integrity of the members are recognized 
everywhere. On the Board of Trade there is a code of moral ethics which 
can not be violated with impunity. The member who is not known to be 



32 



GUIDE TO CHIC AGO. 



commercially Iiouorable, or whose word has once been broken, or who has 
been detected in a disreputable transaction, loses caste among his fellows and 
is shunned for all time. Men lose fortunes here because they risk them, not 
on a game of chance, but in a trial of judgment. The Board of Trade 
building is one of the architectural monuments of Chicago. (See "Board of 
Trade Building.") The volume of business done on the Chicago Board of 
Trade during the year 1890 was largely in excess of any previous year of its 
history. The grain and produce business of Chicago is transacted on the 
Board of Trade. The following exhibits will give the stranger an idea of the 
immensity of the business done: 

Barley — Receipts and Shipments: The following table exhibits the receipts 
and shipments of barley in this market during the past twenty-one years: 



Year. 



Received 
Bushels. 



1870 
1871, 
1872 
1873 
1874. 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
18^2 
1883 
1884 
1885 
18S6 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 



3,335,653 

4,069,410 

2,251,750 

4,240,239 

4,354,981 

3,107,279 

4,716,360 

4,990,370 

5,754,059 

4,936,562 

5,211,536 

5,695,358 

6,488,140 

8,831,899 

7,849,829 

10,760,127 

12,511,953 

12,170,402 

12,387,526 

12,524,538 

15,133,971 



Year. 



Shipped 
Bushels. 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873, 
1874. 
1875. 
1876 
1877. 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881. 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 



2,584,692 
2,908,113 
5,032,308 
3,366,041 
3,404.538 
1,868,206 
2,687,932 
4,213,646 
3,520,983 
3,566,401 
4,110,985 
3,113,251 
3,298,352 
4,643,011 
4,095,500 
5,523,003 
7,293,190 
7,216,580 
7,772,351 
8,138,109 
9,470,221 



Flour in Store: The following table exhibits the stock of flour in store 
in this city on the first of each month for the last four years: 



Month. 



January... 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . 

September 

October... 

November. 

December. 



1890. 



55,590 
52,485 
50,565 
62,097 
62,283 
61,159 
53,657 
53,157 
62,879 
66,730 
91,014 
55,650 



1889. 



82,020 
72,785 
70,600 
69,270 
64,960 
69,765 
68,415 
62,080 
40,200 
45,460 
56,600 
49,500 



1888. 



45,000 
57,961 
47,455 
47,328 
49,677 
46,168 
34,933 
36,988 
39,393 
34,506 
60,478 
84,670 



1887. 



48,646 
54,475 
43,617 
40,722 
48,583 
34,789 
25,437 
30,51 lO 
30,500 
34,348 
86,368 
45,320 



^^^»^^-7^^^!!^ 



■wz?^-^wm 







THE INDIAN GROUP, LINCOLN ^ARK^ 

" ^ O 4* l> 



4 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



33 



(Jorn — Receipts and Shipments: The following were the receipts and ship- 
ments of corn at Chicago during the past twenty-one years: 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1873 
1873 
1871 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 



Received 
Bushels. 



30,189,775 
41,853,138 
47,366,087 
38,157,233 
35,799,638 
28,341,150 
48,668,640 
47,915,728 
63,651,518 
64,339,311 
97,272,844 
78,393,395 
49,061,775 
74,412,319 
59,580,445 
63,930,897 
63,535,126 
51,538,217 
74,208,908 
79.920,691 
81,117,251 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1873 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883. 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887. 
1888 
1889 
18C0. 



Shipped 
Bushels. 



17,777,377 
36,716,030 
47,013,553 
36,754,943 
32,705,224 
26,443,884 
45,6-^9,035 
46,361,901 
59,914,200 
61,299,376 
93.572,9.-'4 
75,463,213 
49,073,609 
71,656,508 
53,274,050 
58,805,567 
56,363,781 
50,443,992 
69,522,565 
83,860,818 
90,556,109 



Flour — Receipts and Shipments: The following table exhibits the receipts 
and shipments of flour at Chicago during the past twenty-one years: 



Year. 



1870 
1871 

1873 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 

isas 

1889 
1890 



Receipts. 

BBLS. 



1,765,037 
1,413,177 
1,533,014 
1,487,376 
3,666,689 
3,635,833 
3,955,197 
3,691,143 
3,030,563 
3,369,958 
3,215,389 
4,815,219 
4,179,913 
4,295,515 
4,960,830 
5,385.773 
4,183,147 
6,572,327 
6,034,006 
4,410,535 
4,358,058 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 



Shipments. 

BBLS. 



1,705,977 
1,287,574 
1,361,228 
2,303,490 
2,306,6(6 
2,285,113 
3,6 4,838 
2,482,305 
2,779,640 
3,< 90,540 
2,862,737 
4,499,743 
3,843,067 
3,999,441 
4,8 '8,884 
5,240,199 
3.607,233 
6,362,580 
5,493,213 
3,916,454 
4,134,586 



Grain Exports.— The shipments of grain in transit and export to Canadian 
ports during the year 1890 were 5,201,029 bushels of corn; 2,296,510 bushels 
of oats; 635,296 bushels of wheat; 40,028 bushels of rye; total, 8,172,863 
bushels. 



34 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



G-rain Inspection. — The following shows the number of cars, boat-loads, 
and bashels of ,£:rain inspected on arrival in the city for the twelve months 
ending Oct. 31, 1890. and for the previous inspection year, also the out-inspec- 
tion for the same periods: 



Inspected in 


Inspected out. 




1890. 


1889. 


1890. 


1889. 




272,956 

610 

9,126,046 

9,3:0.484 

94,99 .6:^0 

74,605,342 

3.085,139 

13,378,080 


249.883 

363 

13,695,185 

4,654,590 

84,775,590 

58,768,513 

2,570,410 

9,206,163 






Boats, number 

Winter wheat, bushels. . . 
Sprinsr wheat, bushels... . 

Corn,"bushels 

Oats, bushels 

T?vp> biTshftla 


■"4,108,468'"" 

4,690,471 

57,2-?5,534 

16,839,843 

l,666,2r,3 

1,753,839 


9,156,616""* 

3,637,232 
66,?>17,282 
20,668,531 

1,778,321 


Barley bushels 


1,399,573 







Orain Storage Capacity. — The following table shows the regular grain 
warehouses of the city of Chicago at the present time. 



Name or Elevator. 



do 
do 
do 
do 



Central A I 

Central B ( 

C. B. & Q. A 1 

B I 

c ^ 

D I 

D anx J 

Rock Island A . j- 

Ro'^k Island B... 

Galena 

Air Line 

Fulton 

8t. Paul 

City 

Union 

Iowa 

National 

Chicago & St. L.. . 

Wabash 

Indiana 



1 



Pacific B. 



Illinois River. 

Alton 

Alton B 



Santa Fe — 

Armour Elevator. 
Neeley'a Elevator. 

Total 



Proprietors. 



Central Elevator Co . . . 



Dole & Co. 



Chas.Counselman & Co. 
Congdon & Co 



Citv of Chicago Grain 
Elevators, limited ... 



National Elevator & 
Dock Co 

Chicago Elevator Co.. . . 

Chicago & Pacific Ele- 
vator Co 

m. River Elevator Co . 

G. A. Seaverns 

G. A. Seaverns 

Santa Fe Elevator Co. . . 

Armour El'^vator Co. . . 
Illinois T. &S. Bank., 



Receive from 



r. C. R. R. 



C. B.&Q. 



C. R. I. & P. 
C.R. I.&P. 
C. &N. W.. 



C. M. &St. P. 



R. R. & Canal. 

W.St. P. &P. 
C. &N. W. . 
II. R. & Canal. 

Various R. R . 



C. M. &St. P. 



Canal 

R. R. & Canal . 



A. T. & S. Fe R. R . 

C. M. &St. P. R. K. 
R.R.& Canal 



Capacity 
Bushels. 



1,000,000 
1,500,000 
1,250,000 
800,000 
1,500,000 
1.8C0,000 
1,200,000 

1,350,000 

1,000,000 

700,000 

700,000 

400,000 

900,000 

1,000,000 

800,000 

1,500,000 

l,000,f00 

1,000,000 

1,500,000 

1,500,000 

1,000,000 

175,000 

1,100,000 
500,000 

1,500,000 

2,00n,C00 
700,000 

28,675,000 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



35 



Grain and Produce — Eeceipt8and Shipments. — Following were the receipts 
and shipments of grain and produce for 1890, compared with 1889: 



Received. 


Shipped. 




1890. 


1889. 


1890. 


1889. 


Flour, barrels 

Wheat, bushels 


4,358 058 

13,366,6^9 

81,117,251 

64,430,560 

2,946,720 

15,133971 

6,"44,847 

72,10.',031 

7,663,828 

77,985 

147,475,267 

300,198.241 

109,704,834 


4,410,535 
18.762,746 
79,920,691 
49,901,942 
3,605,984 
12,524,538 
4,501,266 
84,593,331 
5,998,526 
54,608 
99,95 ?,687 
279,317,936 | 
88,894,033 | 
i 


4,134,586 

11,975,276 

90,574,379 

70,768,2^2 

3,280,433 

9,47^971 

6,594,581 

59.213,035 

1,9<5,700 

393,7?'8 

47I,91-",13S 

823,801,460 

964,134,8C7 


3,916,454 

16,138,825 

83,851,818 

50,471,836 

2,801,366 

8,138,129 

3,754,077 

84,961,097 

1,786,619 

424,139 

395,8^8,737 

738,915,033 

959,727,140 


Corn, bushels 

Oats, bushels 


Rye, bushels . . . , 


Barlev, bushels 


Flaxseed, oushels 

Grass seed, pounds 

Li e hog's. No 


Pork, pounds 


Lard, pounds 

Cured meats, pounds. . . . 
Dressed beef, pounds 



Hogs and Cattle slangJitered in 1890. — In Chicago, during 1890, 2,219,313 
cattle and 5,733,082 hogs were slaughtered, against, respectively, 1,763,310 
and 4,211,766 in the previous year. 

Live Stock Transaction. — The following is an exhibit of the business 
transacted at the Union Stock Yards, in this city, during the year 1890, as 
compared with the transactions of the year 1889: 

RECEIPTS FOR 1890. 



January .. 
February . 

March 

I April 

May 

June 

July 

Aujfust 

September. 
October ... 
November . 
December. 



Total. 



Cattle. 


Calves. 


383,356 


6,278 


232,796 J 


5.023 


k46,593 


6,288 


g59,v47 


11,131 


299,090 


9,767 


:i84,037 


19,909 


328,2ji0 


' 26.425 


294,4:^3 


21,939 


332,706 


24,953 


382,098 


21,555 


263.511 


13,125 


277,684 


8,631 



3,484,280 



175,025 



Hogs. 



563,836 
534.0;6 
467,-599 
537,977 
601,076 
612,355 
674,207 
518,a37 
146,344 
878,993 
821,221 



7,663,828 



Sheep. 


Horses. 


165,973 


6,261 


153,453 


9,398 


171,495 


12,927 


191,260 


11,459 


172,833 


11,037 


181,466 


9,0^0 


143,958 


7,574 


185,174 


8,081 


3!8,7c4 


8,061 


219,107 


7,064 


] 6-3,361 


6,019 


195,844 


4,635 



2,183,667 



101,566 



To bring the stock to the yards 311,557 cars were needed, which exceeds 
1888 by ov^er 100.000 cirs, and 1889 by over 40,000 cars. The valuation of the 
stock was $231,314,879 for the year, and for the years since 1866 to 1889 the 
sum of $3,207,981,448. 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



RECEIPTS FOR 1889. 



January... 
February.. 
March 

A pril 

May 

Juue 

July 

August 

September. 
October . . . 
November , 
December. 



Total. 



Cattle. 



Calves. 



232,413 
307,778 
191,793 
223,574 
247,877 
230,583 
272,541 
297,276 
276,419 
330,994 
261,a59 
349,666 



3,470 

3,351 

4,487 

6,696 

7,775 

15,276 

15,256 

19,007 

18,5.55 

13,403 

9,419 

6,174 



3,023,281 132,968 5,998,526 



Hogs. 



483,677 
559,489 
429, .')50 
358,192 
496,250 
515,653 
414,696 
337,626 
431,394 
691,763 
698,095 
633,131 



Sheep. 



154,316 
138,313 
1-9,073 
131,041 
131,740 
130,074 
133,744 
174,366 
189,ti4] 
327,316 
144.883 
157,963 



1,832,469 



SHIPMENTS FOR 1890. 



Cattle. Calves. Hogs 



January . . , 
February. 
March . . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. .. 
September 
October. .. 
November 
December 

Totals 



134,315 

112,675 
119,213 
131,249 

139,888 

86,976 

107,016 

100,284 

1015,234 

108,195 

74.446 

85,818 



2,063 

1,469 

703 

l,or3 

653 

5,476 

7,457 

10,?39 

11,083 

11,018 

5,531 

3,819 



1,360,309 61,466 1,985,700 



141,746 
327,9b7 
211,023 
143,131 
121,903 
128,841 
158,613 
157,623 
191,797 
314,170 
157,826 
132,022 



Sheep. 



68,922 
68,747 
75 474 
64,639 
59,554 
85,401 
40,620 
99,963 
107,572 
96,675 
63,8^1 
78,416 



929,854 



SHIPMENTS FOR 1889. 



January . . 
February . 

March 

April . 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . 
November 
December. 

Total.. 



97,615 

98,6^3 
10 1, (.•47 
111,511 
114,741 

94,11(10 
104,803 
119,425 
104,329 
1)1,771 

95,091 
106,035 



1,269 

1,355 

319 

108 

176 

3,048 

4,884 

5,901 

1,536 

5,365 

4,245 

2,374 



1,250,971 



35,576 



Hogs. 


Sheep. 


125,865 


62,545 


189,854 


46,309 


158,608 


47,453 


143,751 


33,248 


154,433 


31,213 


131,627 


41,366 


147,379 


42,680 


144,619 


26,lo8 


168,577 


81,957 


197,427 


117,627 


11.5,089 


64,263 


110,731 


66,584 


1,786,619 


711,315 




ROOKERY" AND BOARD OF TRADE. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



37 



Produce — Receipts and shipments for Two Yeirs. — The following table 
exhibitsthe receipts and shipments of flour, grain, live stock and produce at 
Chicago for the past two years: 



Articles. 


RECEIPTS. 


SHIPilENTS. 


1890. 


1889. 


1890. 


18S9. 


Flour, Brls 

Wheat Bu 


4,358,058 

13,306,699 

81,117,251 

64,470,560 

2,916,720 

15,133,971 

73,054,169 

6,214,847 

14.504,233 

300,198.241 

36,324 

109.704,834 

2,703 

77,935 

147,075,317 

67,338,.':90 

140,558,660 

12,273 

7,682,218 

3,492,520 

2,177,215 

100,574,921 

23,234,570 

4,566,868 

1,930,781 

515,475 

1,384,547 

170,083 


4,400,535 

18,762,646 

79,9i0.691 

49,901,94 i 

2,9l5,984: 

12,524.538 

84,599,331 

4,501,26rj 

13.595,523 

279,317.936 

23,5'Jd 

99,952,687 

2,254 

54,608 

99,952,687 

61,039,396 

156,315,245 

18.481 

5,998,526 

3,0:6.281 

1,832;469 

101,115.466 

28,839,183 

4,653,373 

1,909,443 

633,565 

1.309,313 

206,275 


4,134,586 

11,979,723 

90,556,109 

70,732,945 

3,2:4,382 

9,470,221 

59,213,035 

6,524,581 

15,395,873 

833,801,468 

1,767,051 

964,134,807 

144,89(i 

398,786 

471,910,129 

53,829,86 i 

150,038,847 

149,330 

1,99 ',r 80 

1,264,272 

988,524 

199,083,623 

39,0' •9,131 

721,151 

812,655 

108,833 

957,205 

19,388 


3,919,454 
16,138,815 
83,861,818 


Com Bu - . 


Oats, Bu 

Rye, Bu 

Barley Bu 


50,471,836 
2,801,366 
8,138,109 


Grass Seed, Lbs 


84,961,097 


TTlti Ycpprl R'.l 


3,754,679 


Broom Corn, Libs 


18.889,c24 


Cured Meats, Lbs 

Corned Meats, Cases 

Dressed Beef, Lbs 

Beef, Pkg-3 

Pork, Brls 


738,975,633 
1,505,474 

959,727,149 
136,937 
424,139 


Lard, Lbs 

Cheese, Lbs 


395,838,737 
47,435,900 


Butter, Lbs 

D Hoo"s No 


157,425,605 
129,241 


Live H oo^s, No 

Cattle,No 


1,780,659 
1,259,791 




711,315 


Hides, Lbs 

Wool, Lbs 

Coal, Tons 

Lumber, M 


208,811,369 

43,206,572 

647,564 

730,767 


Shingles, M 

Salt, Brls 

Hay, Tons 


158,488 

1,051,909 

73,263 



Railroad Live Stock Transactions. — Following is the number of car-loads 
of live stock furnished Chicago by the twenty railroads entering the Stock 
Yards during 1890, with comparisons: 



Railroads. 



C, B andQ. 

C. and N. W 

C, M. and St. P.... 

C, R. I. andP 

111. Central 

C and Alton 

C.,S. FeandCal. . 
W., St. L. and P 
C, St. P. and K. C. 

C. and E. Hi 

Wis. Central 

Mich Central 

C.,St. L. andP ... 

B. andO 

C. and At' antic 

C.andG. T 

L. S. andM. S ... . 
L., N A. and C . 
N. Y. C. and St. L 
P., Ft. W. andC .. 



1890. 



1889. 



80,400 


6\763 


47,827 


48,648 


42,153 


34,921 


40.643 


33,490 


2;7,129 


30,406 


Si9,2bO 


25,053 


22.679 


20,765 


16,641 


22,060 


21,895 


24,715 


24,215 


13,287 


6,315 


18,943 


17,195 


15,666 


11,458 


9,506 


3,56i 


5,197 


4,361 


2,971 


2,446 


1,348 


1,249 


810 


900 


954 


799 


816 


706 


268 


263 


237 


220 


179 


133 


286 


SCO 


350 


581 


5")8 


533 


1,126 


1,473 


1,291 


211 


2il 


258 


379 


856 


295 



1888. 



38 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



The Burlington Road furnished over 80,000 car-loads of stock durirg the 
year, being a little more than one-fourth of the entire receipts and almost 
32,000 cars more than any other road furnished during the year. Compared 
■with the receipts of 1889 there was an increase of 12,698 cars, and compared 
with 1888 over 32,000 increase. All of the Western roads hauled more cars 
than during 1889, while the Eastern roads, as a rule, furnished fewer cars. 
The Sante Fe had twice as many cars as in 1889 and four times as many as 
in 1888. 

Of the 3.490,500 cattle, 7,660,600 hogs and 2,180,800 sheep received during 
1890. the Burlington Road furnished, in round numbers, 897,000 cattle, 
1,915,000 hogs and 258,000 sheep. The North- Western was credited with 
467,000 cattle, 1,354,000 hogs and 436,000 sheep, and the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul with 463,000 cattle, 921,000 hogs and 388,000 sheep. The Rock Island 
and Illinois Central furnished about 800,000 hogs each. 

Of the 1,260,300 cattle, 1,998,800 hogs and 925,300 sheep shipped from 
Chicago during 1890, the Grand Trunk forwarded 1,058,000 hogs and the 
Nickel-plate 273,000 cattle. The Michigan Central and Fort Wayne shipped 
about 230,000 cattle each. The Lake Shore sent out 162,000 cattle, 420,000 
hogs and 239,000 sheep. The Lake Shore, Nickel-plate, Grand Trunk, and 
Fort Wayne shipped about 18,000 cars each during the year. 

Provision Storage Warehouses. — The list of regular provision warehouse 
is as follows: 

TheAllerton Packing Co. ; The Anglo-American Packing Co. ; Armour 
& Co.; John Cudahy; Chicago Dock Co.; Cyrus Dupee; H. M. Dupee; Henry 
D. Gilbert & Co. ; International Packing Co. ; Jones & Stiles; Hately Brothers; 
Thomas J. Lipton; John Morrell & Co., Ltd.;Moran& IIealy;MichenerBros. 
&Co.; Swift&Co.;TheStock Yards Warehouse Co.; Underwood &Co.; J. H. 
Winterbotham & Co.; The W. H. Silberhorn Co.; The T. E. Wells Co.; The 
North American Provision Co.; The Chicago Packing and Provision Co. 



Rye Receipts and Shipments. — The following were the receipts and ship- 
ments of rye in this market for the past twenty years : 



Tear. 


Received, 
Bushels. 


Year. 


Received, 
Bushels. 


Year. 


Shipped, 
Bushels. 


Year. 


Shipped, 
Bushels. 


1870 

1871 ... 

1873 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

Ib79 

1880 


1,093,403 
3,011,788 
1,1:^9,086 
1,189,464 
781,181 
699,583 
1,447.917 
1,7^8,865 
2,490,615 
4,4v7,:^40 
1,869,218 


1831 

1882 

1883.... 

1884 

1885 

1886 .... 

1887 

1888.... 
1889.... 
1890 


1,^63,553 
1,9-4,516 
5,484,259 
6,327,516 
1,892,760 
936,547 
847,009 
3,767,571 
2,605,984 
2,946,720 


1870 

1871 

1873 .... 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1«77 

1878 

1879 

1880 


913,627 

1,32.),685 

776,805 

960,613 

335,077 

310,592 

1,433,976 

1,553,374 

2,025,651 

2,234,:^63 

1,365,163 


1881.... 

1882 

1833 

1884.... 
1885.... 

1880 

1887... . 

1888 

1889 

1890.... 


1,104,453 
1,773,143 
8,838,557 
4,365,745 
1,216,961 
8i7,.5.'3 
690,830 
1,744,380 
2,801,^66 
3,274,382 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



39 



speculative Busiiuss of the Board. — The increase in speculative business on 
the board is indicated by the annual reports for the last two years of the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade clearing-house. The monthly aad total clearings were 
as follows: 



Date. 



January.. 
February. 

March 

April 

May. 



Juue 

July 

August . . . 
September. 
October . . 
November. 
December. 



1890. 



1889. 



B ?, 090,090. CO 
2,363,103.75 
2,814,618.00 
8,762,605.75 

10,017,336.25 
6,429,c76.25 
7.903,114.50 

13,6.i 1,411.25 
9,939,287.50 
6,470,851,25 
9,489,613.75 
6,699.8.50.00 



§8,677,053.00 
6,991,001.25 
6,078,957.00 
6,.56 4, 766.75 
4,584.95i.00 
3,47:^,982.50 
3,779,4'^4.J-3 
3,262,478.75 
3,933,817.50 
3,517,875.07 
2,4-M,9i7.43 
2,174,781.25 



Totals 



Total balances last year were reported at 
093.56 in 1889, and $30,153,835.15 for 1888. 
more than $31,000,000 greater than in 1889. 

CLIMATE OF CHICAGO . 



. $86,6.7,117 25 $55,463,080.75 

|28,190,C93.56, against $18,763,- 
Tiie clearings last year were 



The climate of Chicago is healthful and beautiful, though the 
weather sometimes goes to extremes in summer and winter. The air is 
cool and bracing through most of the summer, and hot nights are very 
rare. Many thoughtful persons attribute the wonderful growth of the city to 
the stimulating atmosphere which arouses all the latent energy in the human 
system, and makes possible the hard mental and ph3^sical labor of the people. 
The meia barometric pressure during a period of ten years was discovered 
by the United States signal office to have been 29,303 inches ; the mean an- 
nual temperature 40.03°, the mean annual precipitation 36.64 inches and the 
mean annual humidity of the air 70.9, 100 representing complete saturation. 
The mixlmum annual precipitation averaged about 46 inches during this 
period. The highest mean temperature was 51.40°, the lowest 45.42°. Al- 
though the mercury reaches the nineties in the summer at times, and falls 
below zero in winter, this is rarely the case. In winter the cold is tempered 
by the lake, and extremely severe weather seldom continues longer than a 
week at a time. 

Mean Temperature. — The mean temperature of Chicago for 1890, as 
observed bvthe United St^ites Signal office, was as follows: Januarv, 30.8; 
February, 32.4; March, 29.5; April, 45. H; May, 53.4; June, 70.2; July, 7.!.1; 
August, 61.6; September, 60.4; October, 29.5; November, 41.9; December, 
30.5. 



40 



GL'IDE TO CHICAGO. 



Excessive Precipitation at Chicago. — Statement showiDg dates of excessive 
precipitation at Chicago, from October, 1871, to August, 1890, inclusive, 
with the duration and rate of fall: 





DATES. 


Fall equaling or ex- 
ceeding the raie of 
1 inch per hour. 


Fall of 2.50 inches or 

more in tAventy- 

four hours. 




Amount. 


Duration. 


Amount. 


Duration 


December 


23-23, 

28-29, 

1-3, 

15, 

9-10, 

18, 

8, 

19-20, 

25-26, 

25, 

6-7, 

11-13, 

5-6, 

25-26, 

1-3, 

2-3, 

23-24, 

28, 

3, 

31, 

3, 

ll 

18-19, 

27, 

4, 

14, 


1871 




H. M. 


2.50 
2.70 

2.82 

'"i.'hd" 


H. M. 

23 30 
18 45 

24 (JO 


September 

May 

August 

September 

January 


1872 






1873 






1875 


l.(X) 


1 00 


1875 


33 50 


1876 

1876 

1877 

1878 


1.00 

0.84 


1 00 
30 


June 






October 
July 


2.55 
4.14 
3.77 
3.32 
3.38 
3.39 
3.26 
3.34 
5.90 
2 95 


24 00 
13 40 


May 


1879 

1879 

1881 

1883 




33 00 


July 

November 

November 







23 80 

24 00 
24 00 


Max'ch 
June 


1884 

1885 






21 55 
8 03 


August 


1885 






24 00 


August 
May 


1885 

1888 


0'75' 
75 
l.CO 
67 
0.28 
0.25 
1.55 
4 03 
0.25 
1.00 


6 19" 

23 

1 00 
33 
10 
10 
35 
3 34 
10 
34 


24 OU 


July 


1888 






July 


18S8 






August 


1888 






July 


1889 

1^89 

1889 

1889 

1889 

1891) 







July 






July 






July 
September 


4.02 


3 34 


August 







COMMERCE OF CHICAGO. 

The Commerce of Chicago has grown in volume from a total of |20,000,- 
000 in 1850 to a total of $1,380,000,000 in 1890. The increase in the trade of 
the city from year to year during the period named is shown by the following 
table. The -figures in the nineteenth line are for the twelvemonths from 
October 11, 1871, to Octo'jer 11, 1872, the series having been interrupted by 
the great fire: 



Year. 


In Currenct. 


In Gold. 


Tear. 


In Currency 


In Gold. 


1890 

1889 


S 1,380,000,000 

1,177,000,000 

1,125,000,000 

1.103,000,000 

997,000,000 

959,000,000 

933.0 '0,000 

1,050,000,000 

1,045,'X)0,000 

1,015,000,000 

900.000.000 

764,000,000 


$1,380,000,000 
1,177,000,000 
1,125,000,000 

l,io3,ooo,oro 

997,000,000 

959,000,000 

933,000,000 

1,0.50,000,000 

l,045,0f 0,000 

1, 01 r, 000,000 

900.000,000 
764,001 ',000 


1878 

1877 

1876 


655,000,000 
621,500,000 
652,000,000 
6o7,000,000 
639,000,000 
59ii,0C0,0 
490,000,000 
439,000,000 
450,000,000 
434,000,000 
97,000,000 
20,000,000 


650,000,000 
695,000,000 
587,000.000 


1888 


1887 


1875 

18T4 

1873 


f 66 000 000 


1886 


575,000,000 
SUOOO.f'CO 


1885 


1884 

1883 


187l-';2 

1870 


437,ooo,oro 

377,000,000 


1883 


1HP9 


33;%0 000 


1881 


868 


310,000,000 


1880 


1^'60 


97,000,000 


1879 


ISiO 


20,000,000 









CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



41 



These figures were prepared by the commercial and financial writers of 
Theauo^iqolnb>ine, mea wao liavebeea careful students of the commerce 
of Chicago for years, and maybe depended upon implicitly [See "Bank 
ing"^^" Board of Trade Transactions," " Manafdctures," '' :,Iaritime Inter- 
ests, etc., in their proper alphabetical order.] 

^ Internal Revenue BeceijJts.— The following shows the total receipts of the 
United States Internal Revenue office in this city for each month of 1889 and 
1890, with the increase: 



Months. 



1889. 



January 1$ 

February 

March 

April 

May ;.. 

June 

July :..;;; 

August 

September 

October • /[ 

November . . 

December 



Totals . 



T43,-t9;2, 

5-t7,«98, 
635,954. 
(564,8 tl. 
817,169. 
545,005. 
^r5,486. 
610,53?. 
637,024. 
804,333. 
370,6-29. 
890,4.%. 



1890. 



869,242.21 
859,832.51 
915,152.48 
1,065,998.62 
1,232,204.-52 
1,047,960.71 
1,158,308.27 
1,160,310.18 
1,182,495.28 
1,363.628.64 
1,2.52,192.65 
1,311,670.£6 



Increase 
Over 188J. 



125,749.31 
312,134.24 
279,198.16 
401,186.66 
415,035.17 
5 2,955.14 
582,821.73 
549,777.21 
645,470.49 
559,295.01 
381,563.37 
"421,243.40 



$ 8,343,566.45 



$13,518,896.33 's 5,176,429.88 



Lumber Trade of C/iicago.— The lumber trade of Chicago during 1890 was 
greater than in any previous year. The city sales and shipments amounted 
to 2,050,000,000 feet, of which about 1,200,000,000 was consumed in the city 
and the rest, or 850,000.000. went to shipments on outside orders. Never 
before has this amount of business been equaled in the history of the lumber 
trade. The receipts of lumber aggregated about 1,950,000,000 and some 515 - 
000,000 shingles. 

One of Chicago's Greatest Aclvantages.~¥Tom this market to the consum- 
ing and manufacturing maikets of the East nature Las provided, in the great 
chain of inland seas, a carrier which transports her commodities at reason- 
able rates and which can not be manipulated solely in the interests of capital- 
ists convened in Wall street 1o tax tne industries of the people by increasirg 
capital stock far above its intrinsic value. Water transportation can not be 
manipulated. This great water transportation route exercises a salutary 
restraint upon the greed of railway monopolists. 

Output of Chicago Breweries.— The output of the Chicago breweries for 
1890 was 2,250,000 barrels. It was the most prosperous year in the history of 
the brewing business of this city. 

COUNTY ORGANIZATION. 

The government of Cook county, Illinois, is vested in a Board of 
County Commissioners, consisting of fourteen members, elected for four 
years, half of whom retire biennially. The salaries of these commissioners 
amounted to $33,551 for 1891. The presiding officer is elected from their num- 



42 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

ber. The Board has the direction and control of all county officers, collects 
through the County Treasurer the revenues of the county, and appropriates 
money for the maintenances of the courts, jail, insane asylum, poor-house, 
county hospital, court-house building, sheriff's office, county clerk's office, 
coroner's office, etc., and has general supervision of county highways, bridges, 
etc. The County Board is entirely independent of the City Council, although 
the jurisdiction of the latter extends over a large portion of the county, 
included within the corporate limits : 

Cook County Court ifoMse.— Occupies the entire east half of block, 
bounded by Washington, Dearborn, La Salle and Clark sts., in the center of 
the business district of the South side, the west half being occupied by the 
City Hall. This magnificent pile was erected in 1876-77 at a cost of about 
$3,000,000, and is one of the handsomest public buildings in the county. It is 
at present four stories in height, and two additional stories are to be added 
during the present year at a cost of $275,000. [See "Guide."] In this 
bnilding are located the County, Probate and various Circuit and Superior 
courts, the Law Library, and all the County offices, except that of the State's 
(or prosecuting) attorney which is located in the Criminal Court building, 
North side. 

Coroner's Liquests. — The report of the Coroner of the County for the year 
1890 showed the total number of cases investigated during the year was 
1,939; number of inquests held, 1,478; post-mortem examinations, 290. There 
were 1,225 males and 253 females; married, 597; single, 743; widowers, 33; 
widows, 79; divorced, 12; white, 1,429; colored, 49, Of the decedents 650 
were Americans; German, 290; Irish, 194; Scandinavian, 100; Bohemian, 
54; English, 45; Canadians, 33; Scotch, 26; the remainder being scattered over 
the other nationalities. There were 216 suicides, of which 173 were males 
and 43 females; white, 214; colored, 2; married, 110; single, 77; widows, 9; 
widowers, 13; divorced, 2. Of the suicides 63 were American; 69 German; 
Scandinavia and Ireland each furnished 17 victims: Bohemia, 18; England 
and Poland, 5 each; Canada and Austria, 6 each; Hungary, 4, Scotland, 3; 
Russia, 2; and Mexico, 1. Of these 2:3 took rat poison; 3 strychnine; arsenic, 
3; laudanum, 1; morphine, 9; opium, 2; Paris green, 4; carbolic arid, 5; 
chloroform, 1. Five of these were tired of life; domestic trouble, 19; 
despondency, 50; financial trouble. 12; intemperance, 23; ill-health, 33; 
jealously, 4; mental derangement, 46; out of employment, 6. There were 
67 deaths from homicide; of these 14 were stabbed; 30 shot; 3 poisoned; 13 
struck on the head; 1 was smothered, and another drowned;! was stabbed 
and another strangled; 3 were kicked to death. Total number held to the grand 
jury, 66. There were 294 killed by the railroads, of which 40 were passen- 
ger's and 52 employes: 105 were killed at street crossings and 30 by jumping 
on or off cars while in motion. 

County Insnne J.s^?mw.— Located at Dunning, a suburb of Chicago. 
Take trun a^, Uaion depot, Canal and Adams streets. This institution is a 
large and costly structure, surrounded by spacious grounds, far enough 
removed from the city to make the location a quiet and healthful one. 
Numerous additions in the way of cottage-wards have-been ii^ade to relieve 
the over-crowded condition of the main buildins:. The current expenses of 
1890 were: salaries, $44,111.03; supplies, repairs, etc., $112,006.87. There 
were 1,013 patients in the asylum at the beginning of last year, and during 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 43 

1890 470 were admitted, of which 63 were re-admissions, 30 per cent, were 
native-born and 70 per cent, were of foreign birth. The total number for 
treatment was 1,483; of these 717 were men and 766 were women. The 
number remaining under treatment at the close of 1890 was 1,083, of which 509 
were men and 5 <4 were women. The superintendent makes this important 
statement in his annual report: " I would here call attention to a fact, and 
tkat is where those that are insane are placed under proper treatment in well- 
arranged hospitals within the firstthree months of theincepticn of the diseate 
the chances for recovery are about as good as from any serious be dily ailment 
The average of cures when this class of disease is thus treated \^ill laBge as 
high as 60, 65 and even 70 in 100." 

County Jail. — Situated in the rear of the Criminsl Court "building, 
Michigan St., between Clark st, and Dearborn ave., Isorth Side. Enliarce 
from Michigan street. Visitors admitted by permission of the sheriff. The 
jail, like the Criminal Court building, has long since ceased to neet the 
demands made upon it by the extraordinar}'- growth of the city, ard the coe- 
sequent and natural increase in the number of criminals. It is an old- 
fashioned prison, built after the manner of the jails constructed in the early 
years of the present century. It lacks every modern improvement, and will, 
doubtless, soon be replaced by a much larger and a bettf.r structure. The 
jail is connected witli the criminal court building by a "bridge of sighs," 
over which the culprits pass for trial and after conviction. Aside from this 
entrance, which is never used except by deputy sheriffs and jailers in dis- 
charge of their duties, there is but one entrance, and that is up a narrow 
flight of steps leading from the open court between the two buildings. At 
the head of these steps is a double iron gate, where stands the outer turnkey. 
If he admits you, you find yourself in the jail office. On one side, as you 
face the prison entrance, is the head-jailer 'j? room ; on the other, the office 
of the jail clerk. Before going farther, you must have a permit. If you 
secure it, you are admitted into the "Cage," an iron-bound arrangement 
covered with several thicknesses of wire netting, through the meshes of 
which you can hardly poke your finger. If you wish to see a prisoner, he is 
called, and you must talk to him through this netting. Here it was that the 
"Tiger Anarchist" Lingg received from his sweetheart the dynamite cart- 
ridge which he exploded in his mouth, killing himself, the day before that 
set for his execution. As you look straight in front of you, with your back 
to the jailer's door, you will see the cell in which the suicide occurred. It is 
on the ground floor. Along the same line of cells the Anarchists were con- 
fined. Just above, on the next balcony, is " Murderers' Row," from which a 
Humber of unfortunates have gone forth during the past twenty years to find 
the gallows waiting for them on the other side of the cell building. The 
cell balconies, just as you see them before you, four in number, run all 
aroHnd this interior building. At the northeast corner of the cell building, 
the gallows is always erected, and here the Anarchists were hanged. [See 
" Haymarket Massacre."] There is nothing of interest to be seen inside the 
jail, unless you have a morbid desire to witness the pale, hopeless faces of 
the prisoners. There are four departments: Men's, Women's Boys' and 
Debtors'. 

County Poor Rouse. — Located at Dunning, a suburb of Chicago. Take 
train at Union depot. Canal and Adams streets. This institution is not 
remarkable in any sense, save as the home of the most wretched class of 



u 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



paupers of the county. It was conducted at an expense of $19,247.16 for 
salaries, and $86,419.79 for supplies, repairs, etc., last year. The second 
item also includes expenses of the County Poor Farm. 

Cost of County Officers. — The following were the estimated and actual 
receipts of county officers, over and above their own salaries, for 1890: 



County Officers. 



County Treasurer 

Kecorder of Deeds 

County Clerk and Clerk County Court. 

Clerk Probate Court 

Clerk Circuit Court 

Clerk Superior Court 

Sheriff 

Clerk Criminal Court 



Total 



Estimated 
Receipts 
for Fear. 



$310,000 00 
175,000 00 
133,000 GO 
40,000 OU 
55,000 00 
40,000 00 
25,000 00 



$667,000 00 



Actual 

Receipts 

6 ms. June 1. 



5,641 15 
93,0^5 93 
58,432 47 
27,000 55 
33,9;: 70 
20,689 75 
14,099 73 

1.029 80 



$251,850 06 



Detention Hospital. The present detention hospital for the insane is 
located on West Madison street, near Western avenue; but it is on the eve of 
being abandoned for a new building. The new structure will cost about 
$20,000. The alleged or suspected insane are sent to the detention hospital 
pending a hearing of their cases in the County Court. 

Expenses of Cook County. — The total estimated expenditures of Cools 
County for 1891 foot up $1,466,140, as follows: County Hospital — salaries, 
^53,704; supplies, $125,000. Insane Asylum— salaries, $52, 370; suDplies, $130,- 
000. Poor House— salaries, $26,000; supplies, $110,000. Sheriff's Office— sal- 
aries, $192, 340; supplies, $14,000. Criminal Court— salaries, $30,250; supplies, 
$2,000. County Agent- salaries, $25,000; supplies, $100,000. Coroner's 
Office — salaries, $16,900; supplies, $1,000. County Board — salaries of com- 
missioners, $33,551; office of Public Services Superintendent, $9,700; Comp- 
troller's office, $22,070. State's Attorney's Office — salaries, $23,600; supplies, 
$5,000. County Attorney's Office— salaries, .$8,320; supplies and expenses, 
$7,000. Schools — county superintendent's office, $5,600; normal school, 
$28,000. Court House— salaries, $8,740; supplies, $30,000. Jail and 
Criminal Court Building— salaries, $4,200; supplies, $12,000. County 
Physician— salaries, $6,020; supplies, Detention Hospital, $6,000. Miscel- 
laneous Purpases — for dieting prisoners, jail, $25,000; for dieting prisoners, 
House of Correction, $8,000; Humane Society, $2,000; for telephone 
services, $2,500; for State institutions, $10,000; for industrial schools, boys 
and girls, $40,000; out-door relief, country towns, $12,275. 

This makes a total of $1,466,140, including interest charges, in other 
words leaving $35,427.19 of estimated revenue in the treasury. 

These expenditures are based on the estimated tax levy. Outside of 
them are the receipts of the recorders, county clerks, and officers of the civil 
courts, which are self-sustaining. The estimated expenses of these are as 
follows. Treasurer's office, $181,524; clerk's office, $135,216; clerk 
Superior Court, $34,450; clerk Circuit Court, $40,950; clerk Probate Court, 
$44,330; recorder's office, $169,690. 




> 

Q 

< 
> 

O 

03 

O 

X 
u 

i 



CIIICAOO AS IT IS. 45 

Of these latter oMces the following estimate of receipts was made by 
Comptroller Wulff: Country treasurer's office, $205,000; recorder's office, 
1210,000; county clerk's office and clerk County Court, $160,000; clerk of 
Circuit Court, |65,000; clerk of Superior Court, $55,000; clerk of Probate 
court. $75,000. 

Judiciary of Cook County. — There isone county, one probate and eighteen 
judges of the Superior and Circuit Courts. The amounts expended for salaries 
of the judges of the courts of Cook county for 1890, were as follows: Eighteen 
judges, Superior and Circuit Courts, $55,415.40; two judges, County and Pro- 
bate Courts, $14,000; supplies and repairsof court rooms, $1,949.83. In addi- 
tion to these items was the salaries of clerk of Circuit Court (including assist- 
ants), $35,550; Clerk of Superior Court (including assistants), $29,750;Clerk of 
Probate Court (including assistants), $29,832. 

Taxable Valuation of Cook County Property .—The total valuation of all 
the taxable property in Cook county is $188,172,558. The total real estate 
valuation aggregates $157,886,713; personal property, $29,007,490; railroads, 
personal, $381,553; realty, $896,802. There are 390,165 acres of improved 
property in Cook county and 105,184 acres unimproved. The value of 
improved lands averages $21.13 an acre, or a total of $8,247,246; the unim- 
proved lands are assessed at an average of $59.82 an acre, or a total of 
$6,292,348. There are 146,378 improved town and city lots in the county, 
worth an average of $799.19 each, or a total of $116,984,577; there are 346,- 
596 unimproved town and city lots, worth an average of $76.03 apiece, or a 
total of $26,362,542. The railroads own 445.82 acres and 1,078 lots in the 
country. The systemunderwhichpropertyof all kinds is assessed in city and 
county, is generally looked upon as being lax and even farcical. For instance, 
the grain of all kinds found by the assessor last year in Cook county was 
valued at only $9,340, The entire silver plate of Cook county taxpayers 
was only $16,085, and watches, diamonds and jewelry, $16,920. The banks, 
bankers, and brokers had only $956,390 in money and $30,380 in credits, 
while bonds and stocks were found to be worth the niggardly sum of $7,040. 
There was only one royalty in the country, and it is worth but $100. There 
were but two patents, and they are only worth $250. Only eight franchises 
could be found, and they are only worth $31,650. The hogs only number 
11,750; horses, 42,175, and cattle, 37,793, All the burglar and fire-proof 
safes found in the county number 477, and only 285 billiard, pool, and baga- 
telle tables. Pianos, in tune and out, figure 9,761, and melodeonsand organs 
661. Of mules and donkeys there are supposed to be but 387 in the county. 
These figures are so outrageously incorrect that they scarcely deserve and do 
notrecaive serious consideration from intelligent people. 

ELEEMOSYNARY SUPPORT, 

The city of Chicago supports entire or aids in the maintenance of several 
eleemosynary institutions, charities and pension funds, as follows: 

Erring Woman's Refuge for Reform. — Receives a percentage of certain 
fines imposed in police courts, according to act of the general assembly, 
approved March 31, 1869. 

Firemen's Pension Fund. — This fund receives 1 per centum of all reve- 
nues collected or received from Mcenses issued during each year, according to 
an act of the general assembly , approved May 13, 1887, in force July 1, 1887. 



46 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

House oftlie Oood Shepherd. — This institution also receives a per centum 
of certain tines imposed by the police courts, according to act of the general 
assembly, approved March 31, 1869. 

Illinois Humane Society. — This society is entitled to fines collected 
through the agency of the organization, for the prevention of cruelty to 
animals, according to an act of the general assembly, approved June 28, 
1885, in force July 1, 1885. 

Police Pension Fund. — This fund receives 2 per centum of all moneys 
received from licenses for saloons or dramshops, % of dog tax, y^ of all mon- 
eys received for licenses granted pawnshops, j^ of all moneys received for 
licenses granted second-hand dealers, 3^ of all moneys received from mon- 
eys for licenses granted junk dealers; all moneys collected for fees for car- 
rying concealed weapons; 3^^ of all costs collected for violation of city ordi- 
nances, according to an act of the general assembly, approved April 29, 1887; 
in force July 1, 1887. 

Washingtonian Home — This institution receives a per centum of moneys 
collected for saloon licenses, not to exceed $20,000 per annum, according to 
act of the general assembly, approved February 16, 1867, amended by an act 
in force July 1, 1883. 

FEDERAL REPRESENTATION. 

The civil authority and functions of the Federal government are repre- 
sented in Chicago by the United States courts — Circuit (Walter Q. Gresham, 
judge) and District (H. W. Blodgatt, judge), and their officers, including the 
U. S. District Attorney, U. S. Marshal and U. S. Commissioners; by the Col- 
lector of Customs, the Collector of Internal Revenue, the U. S. Sub-Treasurer 
and minor officers. 

United States Courts. — The United States Courts are two in number, the 
Circuit (Judge Walter Q. Gresham), the District (H. W. Blodgett). An Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States sits here also on stated 
occasions. The courts are located in the post-office (or government) building; 
clerk, W. H. Bradley. The United States Court of Claims is represented by 
U. S. Commissioner Hoyne, room 52 post-office building, and Simeon W. 
King, M. E. Church block. 

XT. 8. Officers in OJiicago.— The United States officers in Chicago, aside 
from the postmaster, are "the Collector of Customs, Collector of Internal 
Revenue, U. S. Sub treasurer, Special Agent U. S. Treasury, U. S. 
Appraiser, U. S. District Attorney, U. S. Engineer, U. S. Inspector of Life- 
saving Stations, U. S. Inspector of Steam-vessels, Surgeon of U. S. Marine 
Hospital, U. S. Marshal. U. S. Pension Agent, Superintendent of U.S. Secret 
Service, U. S. Signal Officer andU. S. Lighthouse Inspector. The offices of 
all of these, excepting the appraiser's (210 Market street) and the U. S. Signal 
offices (seventeenth floor of the Auditorium building), are located in the post- 
office building. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The fire department of Chicago is generally acknowledged to be the best 
equipped and most efficient in the United States, which means that it is the best 
equipped and most efficient in the world, for the firemen of this country are 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 47 

called upon to be prepared for and to meet emergencies which do not arise in 
the cities of Europe. The Chicago corps has been brought up to its present 
high standard of discipline and efficiency by the two chief marshals — who 
have had charge of the department since the great fire of 1871 — Benner 
and Swenie. The former retired from the service about ten years ago, after 
reorganizing the department upon a basis which has served as a foundation 
for the growth and character it has since attained. Marshal Swenie was Mr. 
Benner's chief assistant, and was largely instrumental in suggesting and 
carrying out many of the reforms, ideas and improvements that characterized 
thelatter's administration. Sincethe succession of Marshal Swenie the depart- 
ment has quadrupled its machinery and its force. In Mr, Benner's time 
Chicago was a city covering an area of less than forty square miles, with a 
population of about 500,000. Now the city covers an area of 181 square 
miles and has a population of 1,250,000. The following information will 
give the visitor an idea of the strength and workings of the fire department: 

Alarms and Losses, 1890. — There were 3,733 fire alarms during 1890 against 
2,895 in 1889, an increase of §38. The total value of property involved was 
$95,147,058, while in 1889 it was $66,409,323, being an increase of $28,737,735. 
The total loss in 1890 was $2,047,736, while in 1889 it was $2,154,340, a 
decrease in favor of 1890 of $106,604. The total insurance was $44,083,330 in 
1890, and in 1889, $32,405,169, an increase of $11,678,261 in favor of 1890. 

City Telegraph and Electric Lights. — The police and fire telegraph and 
telephone system and the electric lighting service are in charge of the city elec- 
trician. [See "Encyclopedia."] 

Equipment and Force. — The fire department of Chicago (1891) consists of 
917 men and officers, 65 steam fire engines, 21 chemical tire engines, 87 hose 
carts, 26 hook and ladder trucks, 1 water tower, 3 fire boats (for river and 
harbor service, and for work along the river sides on buildings, warehouses, 
lumber yards, etc., adjacent), 90 apparatus stations, 390 horses, and an 
extensive and well equipped repair shop. As an auxilary to the department 
there are 1,800 stations, provided with necessary instruments and several 
thousand miles of wire, by which alarm of fire may be communicated. 

Headquarters and Organization.— The headquarters of the Chicago Fire 
Department are located in the City Hall. Following is the organization: 
Fire Marshal and Chief of Brigade, D. J. Swenie; Assistant Fire Marshal 
and Department Inspector, William H. Musham; Assistant Fire Marshal 
and Department Secretary, Charles S. Petrie; Fire Inspector, Maurice W. 
Shay; Chiefs of Battalions: 1st, Patrick O'Malky; 2d, John H. Greene; 3d, 
Peter Schnur; 4th, Paul F. A. Pundt; 5th, John Campion; 6th; Joseph C. 
Pazen; 7th, Richard Fitzgerald; 8th, Leo. Meyers; 9th, William H. Town- 
send; 10th. Nicholas Dubach; 11th, Michael W. Conway; 12th, Edward W. 
Murphy; 13th, Frederick J. Gabriel. Each Engine and Hose Company is 
commanded by a Captain and Lieutenant, and the officers and men of the 90 
apparatus stations are divided into 13 Batalions, under command of the 
Chiefs mentioned above. [See " Municipal Government" for salaries.] 

Insurance Pa^ro?.— Established in 1871, by the Underwriters of the city, 
for the protection of property, merchandise, etc., and the recovery of salvaije 



48 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

from the interior of burning buildings. There are four Fire Patrol stations, 
as follows: No. 1, 176 Monroe st., Captain, Chas. W. O'Neill, 16 men; No. 
2, 16 Peoria St., West Side, Captain, James Hume, 9 men; No. 3, Dearborn 
and Twenty-third sts.. Captain, August Bagemenk, 5 men; No. 4, Forty- 
third street and Centre ave.. Captain, Patrick L. Mullins, 6 men. E. T. 
Shepard, Superintendent. Patrol Station No. 1 is located on Monroe St., 
between La Salle street and Fifth ave., and is the most accessible to visitors. 
The horses and men are trained to perfection and the operation of responding 
to an alarm is one of the most interesting things to be seen in Chicago. The 
Patrol Service, or Salvage Corps, are generally first at a fire, employing fast 
horses and light equipment, and they save a vast amount of property 
annually. 

Location of Stations. — The Engine Houses near the center of the city, and 
within easy access of visitors, are located as follows: No. 1, 271 Fifth ave., 
wholesale district; No. 10, 82 Pacific ave., near Board of Trade and Van 
Buren St. depot; No. 13, 19 Dearborn St., near bridge; No. 87 (river fire 
boat), foot of La Salle St.; No. 40, 83 South Franklin st., near Telephone 
building. The visitor, should an alarm happen to be signaled, will be inter- 
ested in the perfect training and discipline exhibited by men and horses. 

Pension Fund. — Firemen are retired on half-pay after continuous service 
of 20 years, the fund for this purpose being established and maintained by 
percentage of certain municipal revenues. [See Eleemosynary Support.] 
The firemen also have a Benevolent Society which cares for disabled mem- 
bers, and the widows and orphans of members. It is in a prosperous 
condition. 

GENERAL INFORMATION. 

Annexation. — On the 28th of June, 1889, the city embraced about forty- 
four square miles of territory. On the day following, by vote of the people, 
the city of Lake View and the towns of Hyde Park,- Lake, Jefferson and 
Cicero, aggregating 128.24 square miles of territory and about 220,000 people, 
were annexed to and became part of Chicago, thus constituting one great 
metropolis, extending twenty-four miles from north to south, and from four 
and one-half to ten and one-half miles from east to west. The validity of 
the proceedings resulting in the annexation was confirmed by the Supreme 
Court, October 29, 1889. By this extraordinary consolidation, six independ- 
ent municipal corporations — each having a legislative and executive depart- 
ment of government, each controlled and operated under more or less 
different systems and methods of conducting public affairs — were merged 
into one municipality, under the authority and control of one city govern- 
ment. During the year 1890, there were annexed to the city four 
suburbs — South Englewood, area, 2.92 square miles, population 3,000; 
Gano, 1.80 square miles, population 2,600; Washington Heights, 2.8 square 
miles, population 3,315; West Roseland, 1.80 square miles, population 792; 
making a total annexation for the year of 9.32 square miles, with a popu- 
lation of 9,900. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



49 



Area of Chicago. — Chicago has grown from 2.55 square miles in 1835 to 
181.70 square miles in 1891, as follows: 



SQUARE MILES. 



February 11, 1835, original to -wn 

March 4, 1837, there was added 

February 16, 1847, there was added 

February 12, 1853, there was added 

February 13, 1863, there was added 

Februarj' 27, 1864, there was added 

May 16, 1887, there was added 

November and December 5, 1887, theie was added 

July 29, 1889, there was added ... 

April 16, 1890, village of Gano added 

1890, South Englewood added 

1890, Washington Heights 

1890, West Koseland 



8 
3 

3 
6 

II 
1 

7, 
128 
2 
J^ 
3 
1 



,15 makng 
33 making 
,9J making 
,48 making 
,35 making 
.00 making 
,15 making 
.24 making 
00 making 
,98 making 
.80 making 
.80 making 



2.55 

10.7J 

14.13 

17.93 

24.41 

35.79 

36.79 

43.94 

172.18 

374.18 

177.16 

179.96 

181.70 



Of the present area 5.14 square miles are water, 176.56 land. The city 
is divided into 34 wards, each covering a territory as follows: 



First ward 1.75 square miles 

Second ward 1.5 square miles 

Third ward 1.5 square miles 

Fourth ward 1.75 square miles 

Fifth ward 1.5 square miles 

Sixth ward 2.75 square miles 

Seventh ward 0.75 square mile 

Eighth ward. 0.75 square mile 

Ninth ward 1.5 square miles 

Tenth ward 1.5 square miles 

Eleventh ward 1.25 square miles 

Twelfth ward 3.00 square miles 

Thirteenth ward 3.00 square m'les 

Fourteenth ward 3.00 square miles 

Fifteenth ward 3.25 square miles 

Sixteenth ward 0,75 square mile 

Seventeenth ward 0.75 square mile 



Eighteenth ward 0.75 square mile 

Nineteenth vrard 0.75 square mile 

Twentieth ward i .00 square mile 

Twenty-first ward. . . . 1.00 square mile 
Twenty-second ward.. 0.75 square mile 

Twenty-third ward 0.75 square mile 

Twenty-fourth ward. .1.00 square mile 

Twenty-fifth ward 5.00 square miles 

Twenty-sixth ward 5.75 square miles 

Twenty-seventh ward. 29. 5 square miles 
Twenty-eighth ward. ..7.00 square miles 
Twentj'-ninth ward... .6.00 square miles 

Thirtieth ward 12.00 square miles 

Thirty- first ward 18.00 square miles 

Thirty-second ward. . .3.75 square miles 

Thirty-third ward 28.5 square miles 

Thiity-fourth ward. ..27.00 square miles 



Bridewell, or House of Correction. — This is the city prison and is generally 
known as the Bridewell, a name which it derived from the Bridewell of Dub- 
lin, Ireland, to which it bears a similarity in many respects. The manage- 
ment is vested in a superintendent, appointed by the mayor. The expendi- 
tures for salaries and maintenance and construction are about $125,000 per 
annum; the receipts from police court fines, brick made by inmates inside the 
walls, labor of prisoners, laundry work for police department, etc., amounts 
to about $60,000 per annum. The number of prisoners committed to the 
Bridewell annually is about 9,000, of whom about seven-eighths are male. 
The average number of prisoners confined is about 760 males and 40 females. 
The cost of the prison to the city of Chicago, as it stands to-day, Is about 
$1,500,000. The prisoners are employed in brick-making and other indus- 
tries. County prisoners are also sent here, for whose support the city is paid 
about 3 ) cents per capita daily. The Bridewell is situated at South Califor- 
nia avenue, near West Twenty-sixth street, West Side, and may be reached 
by Blue Island Avenue cars, Mark L. Crawford is the superintendent. 



50 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Bridges and Viaducts. — As the Chica^jo river is navigable for lake vessels, 
and it, with its branches, intersects the heart of the city, a large number of 
bridges have been required. No less than forty-five now span this small 
stream. Nearly all are swinging bridges, and many of them are operated by 
steam. Steel construction has been employed in the bridges most recently 
erected. Among these, the Adams street bridge is a notable structure. It is 
a 4-track bridge, 259 feet long on center truss, and 57 feet in width. This 
bridge is two feet three inches lower at the east end than at the west end, and, 
at the same time is reversible, the turn-table track being set on a grade of one 
in 115. Some doubts were expressed as to its feasibility when the plan was 
proposed, but the city engineers say that no bridge in the city works better 
than this one. The Rush street draw is one of the longest in the world. The 
Lake, Wells and Jackson street bridges are handsome structures. The present 
bridge at Madison street is to be moved to Washington street, and one of tbe 
finest bridges in the city erected in its place, which will probably be com- 
pleted this year. 

The railroads entering the city do so in but few instances above or below 
the street 1 ivel. Grade-crossings are the rule. Engineers have long sought 
to remedy this state of affairs, which will probably be accomplished in time; 
but, meanwhile, some relief is being provided at the most dangerous crossings 
by the erection of viaducts. There are thirty-five of these structures in the 
city, the longest and finest of which is on Twelfth street, extending from 
Clark street to Wabash avenue, crossing the tracks of the Atchison, Topeka 
and Santa Fe Railroad Company, and costing $209,736. 

City Improvements. — Among the great public works and improvements, 
advocated for completion before the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 
are the following, many of which will undoubtedly be carried out: 

An amplification of the financial limitations of the city, so that its present 
limited resources shall be commensurate with its present necessities and 
requirements. 

The formation of subways by excavation from curb to curb, in 
which shall be placed all the city's work, the balance of space to be rented to 
any corporation entitled to the same. 

A system of public heating, public electric or gas lighting, both for street 
or house service, and a system of pneumatic tubes for mail and other service, 
and also underground ducts for smoke. 

Additional small parks in different parts of the city, and public bathing 
houses. 

The abolition of swing bridges over the river, and the substitution of 
a barge service for the present system of river navigation. 

The elevation of railroad tracks and provision for subways under the 
same. 

An improved system for the cleaning of the alleyways tri-weekly. 

Daily service for the collection and disposal of garbage. 

Sprinkling and cleaning of the streets by special assessment. 

Removal of all obstructions over and along the sidewalks before May 1, 
1892. 

Increase in the force of the fire and police departments. 

The extension of the sewer system of the city. 

Condition of the City Treasury. — The condition of the City Treasury on 
January 10th of the present year was as follows.* 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 51 

Balance in Treasury January 9 $733,791 

Keceived January 10 45,780 

$779,571 
Warrants drawn January 10.. 16,059 

Cash on hand and in various banks $763,511 

Bonds and accounts in the hands of the treasurer were as follows: 

Four per cent. -water bonds ordered issued $875,280 

Amount sold k84,7eO 

Onhand $590,500 

Three and one-half per cents ordered Issued to retire city Is 934,0fV) 

Sold 237,200 

On hand $698,800 

Also ;$33,000 of Jonathan Burr fund bonds and $3,000 of bonds to the 
credit of the Police Life and Health fund. The Barber Asphalt Company 
had $18,000 on deposit in bonds as guarantee for street-paving and $1,220 to 
the credit of the Harrison and Tree medal funds. Of bonds canceled there 
was $50,000 from Lake View, $7,700 outside school bonds, and $5,000 in 
bonds of the Town of Lake. 

Last year there was at the same date $1 ,903,000 balance in the treasury. 
The controller explained this reduction by saying that he was unable to sell 
$634,000 of bi^ per cent, bonds. 

Estimated Expenditures for 1891. — The estimated expenditures of the 
municipality for 1891 are placed at between $15,000,000 and $16,000,000. 

Estimated Revenue for 1891. — The estimated revenue of the city govern- 
ment for 1891 it is believed will exceed 13,000,000. The total appropriations 
last year for school and municipal purposes were $9,558,334.80, in addition 
to certain unexpended balances and certain undetermined amounts due the 
firemen's and police pension funds and various reformatory institutions. The 
amount appropriated for sewer construction, not including repairs and main- 
tenance, was $398,705 34. This item in the appropriation bill for the current 
year was wipedout by reason of the system adopted of building sewers by special 
assessments. This amount, added to the expected increase of revenue, gives 
about $3,500,000 more this year than last to meet the necessarily increased 
expenses of the city due to annexation and the approach of the world's fair. 

Geographical Center of Chicago. — The geographical center of the present 
city of Chicago is located at the intersection of Ashland avenue and Thirty- 
ninth street. 

Health of the City, — There was not a single case of small-pox in Chicago 
during^ the year 1890. The physician of the Health Department during that 
period vaccinated 19,277 persons. The vital statistics for 1890 were based 
upon a population of 1 .100,000. During the present year they are based upon 
a population of 1,200,000. Said Health Commissioner Wickersham, at the 
beginning of 1891: "The health of the city, apart from the influenza epi- 
demic of last January and February, has been good and very satisfactory to 
us. Our mortality for every month of the year, except the two I have alluded 
to, was remarkably low." The report of' the Health Department for 1891 
show that there were 21,856 deaths in the city during the year, making a 
perceataffe based upon a population of 1,200,000 of 18.21 per 1,000. Of the 
deaths 9.95 were children under five years of age and 7 over one hundred 
years. The grippe directly caused but 112 deaths, but pneumonia and other 



52 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. / 

complications with the deadly influenza swelled the number of victims of 
this class of diseases. Pneumonia carried oft' 2,073; consumption, 1,972 
bronchitis, 1,189; typhoid fever, 1008; accidents, 999; diphtheria, 881 
croup, 380; scarlet fever, 193; malarial fever, 121; whooping-cough, 201 
murder, 77; suicide, 208; delirium tremens, 114; hydrophobia, 2. The total 
deaths from tubercular diseases was 2,231. 

Lake and Rider Frontage. — The city has a frontage on Lake Michigan of 
twenty-two miles and a river frontage of about fifty-eight miles, twenty- 
two and one-half miles of which are navigable. 

Lakes and Rivers. — There are three lakes within the present city limits 
containing an area of 4,095.6 acres, as follows; Calumet Lake 3122 acres, Hyde 
Lake 330.8 acres, the portion of Wolf Lake lying within the city limits 642.8 
acres. Of these Calumet and Wolf are navigable. There are two rivers within 
the corporate limits; the Chicago river, with north and south branches, which 
divide the city into districts known, respectively, as the North, South and 
West " Divisions" or "Sides" — and the Calumet river, with Big and Little 
Calumet rivers, which penetrate the extreme southern part of the city. 

Length and Width of CMcago. — The distance between north Seventy-first 
street, being the northern city limits, and One Hundred and Thirty-ninth 
street, being the southern city limits, is twenty-four miles. The city at its 
broadest point is 10.5 miles in width. State street has the greatest extension 
north and south, running from North avenue to the southern city limits, 
eighteen miles; Eighty-seventh the greatest western extension, running the 
entire width of the city. 

Marriage Licenses. — The number of licenses issued in Chicago, in 1890, 
was 14,200, or nearly 1,200 more than issued in the previous year, when 
12,850 was considered a high number. In January, 935 licenses were issued. 
February showed 955 licenses; March, 763; April 1,238; May, 1,211; June, 
1,286; July, 1,089; August, 1,125; September, 1,299; October, 1,519; Novem- 
ber, 1,455; December, 1,188. In nearly 700 instances the father orthe mother 
had to be relied upon to give their consent. The youngest bride was 15 
years old and the youngest groom was 18 years old. The youngest couple 
were respectively 18 and 16. The oldest maid was 59, and the oldest groom 
(married twice before) was 71. In contrast to former years no octogenarian 
got married in Chicago in 1890. The oldest couple were respectively 67 and 
61, Among the applicants who took a bright view of married life were two 
widows, of whom one was 18 and the other 19 years old. One applicant, 
who claimed to be in the prime of life, was 65 and married a woman 22 years 
old. More than twenty men applied for permits to remarry their former 
divorced wives. 

Mileage of Streets. — The mileage of streets laid out within the City of 

Chicago, as at present constituted, is as follows: 

Old citv, including sections 35, 35 and 36, 40, 13 ) 

Sections 25, 40, 13 V 853.87 miles. 

Annexed parts of former town of Cicero ) 

Former city of Lake View 131 .53 '' 

Former town of Jefferson .242.28 " 

Former village of Hyde Park 5^],-9i \\ 

Former town of Lake 347 09 

Gano, Washington Heights, West Koseland and part of Calumet 119.03 " 

Total 223-1.71 " 

Boulevards laid out (take from Park Commissioners report) 50.00 " 

Viaduct approaches.... 1-15 " 



Grand Total 2286.86 




THE PULLMAN BUILDING. 



CHICAGO A3 IT IS. 63 

Morgue. — Situated in the rear of the County Hospital, near the Polk 
street side. Take Harrison street or OgJen avenue car. Ten bodies, on an 
average, are picked up in the streets of Chicago every day. Besides these, 
morgue accoaimodations are necessary for many of those who die in the 
coanty and other hospitals, police stations, etc. The present morgue has 
long been too small, and a new one is being built on the hospital grounds, 
The inside will measure 40x463^ feet, and the entire affair, with offices, 
etc., will cost about $18,0u0, the money for it having been already appro- 
priated. All bodies are to be disinfected and frozen by the carbolic acid 
process before being placed on view. 

Natural Gas S>j,pply. — Natural gas for fuel purposes will be conveyed to 
and used in Chicago extensively before the close of 1891. 

Poverty in Ghicago. — Not withstanding the great prosperity of the people 
as a whole, poverty is to be found in Chicago as well as elsewhere. Mu- 
nicipal charity in Chicago has risen to the dignity of an applied science. 
Through the refuse of alleys, up the trembling stairs of tenements, and into 
the hovels of want and misery a force of men and women daily goes, 
carrying food for the hungry, warm clothing for the naked, coals for the 
needy, aod medicine for the sick. From November until April, Cook 
County gives away 200 sacks of flour, forty pairs of shoes, and fifty tons of 
coal every diy. Relief of the deserving poor involves not alone the dis- 
covery and proper aid of the unfortunates, but is attended with a constant 
warfare against the idle and vicious. Agents of the Visitation and Aid 
society, the Relief and Aid society, the German Aid society, the Hebrew Aid 
society, andSt. Vincent de Paul's daily seek the sick and needy, but their work 
is only of a semi-public nature. From the office of the county agent, at 36 
West Madison street, there are sent twenty-seven men and three women, who 
investigate the condition of those reported to be in want and who, by reason 
of their familiarity with neighborhoods and individuals, are able to insure a 
wise bestowal of public charity. 

Tenement House and Factory Inspection. — During 1890 the Tenement 
House and Factory Inspectiori Department examined 23,142 buildings 
and houses, containing 131,938 persons; 22,877 workshops with 259,051 
employes, served 13,675 notices; abated 12,178 nuisances; 3,110 cases of 
defective plumbing and 1,406 cases of defective drainage. 

Topography of Ghicago. — The city of Chicago is level but not flat. There 
are considerable rises here and there, the most noticeable being the ridge 
which traverses the southern portion, west of Hyde Park, to the Indiana line. 
All difficulties in the way of sewering have been overcome long since by skill- 
ful engineering. The Chicago river which originally emptied into, now flows 
out of the lake. The sewerage is carried by the river, in great part, to a canal 
which conducts it through the interior. It finally finds its way into the Illi- 
nois and Mississippi rivers. The drainage of the city is an interesting subject, 
and the plans for future work in this connection are of great magnitude and 
involve the expenditure of many millions. [See "Ship and Drainage 
Canals," with map.] 

Uniting City and County. — Tiie question of uniting the city of Chicago 
and the county of Cook under one government, is being seriously considered 
at present. A constitutional amendment with this end in view will probably 
be submitted to a vote of the people at the next general election in 1892. 



54 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Water Supply. — The water supply system of Chicago is one of the 
most magnificent in the world, and some idea of its present magniuide may 
be gathered from the fact that over forty billions of gallons were supplied 
during 1890. The present capacity will be more than doubled by the com- 
pletion of the new lake tunnel. The new^ crib erected at the north end of the 
government pier will give an additional capacity of 90,000,000 gallons of 
water per day. [See " Water Works."] 

JOBBING AND WHOLESALE BUSINESS. 

The jobbing and wholesale business of Chicago amounted to $486,600,000 
in 1890. Of this, the dry goods trade alone amounted to $93,730,000, or 
nearly one-fifth. The following statement exhibits the business transacted in 
the various lines of trade, compared with previous years. 



Dry Goods and Carpets 

Groceries 

Lumber 

Manufactured Iron 

Clothing 

Boots and Shoes 

Drugrs and Chemicals 

Crockery and Glassware 

Hats and Caps 

Millinery 

Tobacco and Cigars - . 

Fresh and Salt Fish, Oysters and Salmon. 
Oils. 



Dried Fruits 

Building Materials. 
Furs 



Carriages 

Pianos, Organs and Musical Instruments 

Music-books and Sheet Music 

Books, Stationery and Wall Paper 

Paper 

Paper Stock 

Pig Iron 

Coal 

Hardware and Cutlery 

"Wooden and Willow Ware 

Liquors 

Jewelry, Watches and Diamonds 

Leather and Findings 

Pig Lead and Copper . 

Iron Ore 

Miscellaneous 



Totals 




$93,730,000 

56,700,U(jO 

3t>,900,000 

1.5,5fc0,0 

21,f.00,000 

25.900,000 

7,100,000 

5,500,000 

7,001 >,00 J 

7,000,(1(0 

10,850,000 

5,4t50,000 

4,a^o,ooo 

4.300.000 

4,4t)8,000 

1,500,01 

1,850,000 

7,~'00,000 

575,000 

23,000,f0) 

25,500 000 

5,000,000 

20,035,000 

25,(175,0 

17,500,000 

3,16J,(00 

13,8^0,000 

2t»,400,000 

2,520,000 

5,666,00) 

4,000,000 

5,0?5,000 



$486,600,000 



1889. 



$87,6' 0,000 

54,000,000 

36,0 0.0 

15,530,000 

21,^00,000 

f3,6UO,OOJ 

6,800,0.10 

5,100,0 

6. 0",(00 

6,000,0 

9,69i»,000 

5,140,OiO 

4,000,000 

3,500.000 

3,6M),' 00 

50 '.000 

1,640,0*10 

6,625.0^0 

5-iO,000 

20,7(0,- 00 

25,000,(00 

5,500,000 

16,2 0,000 

23,2o0,000 

15,?i00.000 

2,875,{K)0 

11,500,000 

17,000.000 

2,400,0(0 

3,7bO,0C0 

2,000,000 

5,"85,000 



$448,165,000 



DoinlB'S '. $437,500,000 

Do in 1887 449,000,000 

Doinl8S6 408000.000 

Doinl885 380,000,000 

The increase of $38,335,003 from 1889 is 83^ per cent. 

Dun' 8 Report. — K. G. Dun&Co.'s Commercial Report, the first week in 

1891, said, among other things: The new year opens with so much of unce»- 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



55 



tainty that there is a natural disposition to dwell upon the crowning records 
of the year just closed, which show an extraordinary volume of business, in 
many liaes surpassing all precedent. Iron, cotton, leather, boot and shoe, and 
meat production was larger than in any previous year. Thus 2,219,313 cattle 
were slaughtered at Chicago, against 1,763,310 in 1889, a gain of 25 per 
cent., and 5,733,082 hogs, against 4,211,767 in 1889, a gain of 36 per cent. 
* * * * ^t Chicago, tliough money is close, confidence rapidly revives, 
collections are easy, and the last year's trade exceeds by 6 per cent, that of 
18S9 ia general merchandise, dry goods and shoes, somewhat more in clothing, 
20 per cent, in furniture, and 33 per cent, in some other lines, while the in- 
crease in products of factories is $25,000,000. 

Export Trade of Chicago. — The tollowing is the merchandise entered for 
export, with benefit of drawback, at the port of Chicago during the year 1890. 



Packages and Contents. 



721,723 packages canned meats. . . 
26^,1 90 packages salted meats . 

4.995 bags of Hour 

174 pkgs. barbed wire and spelter 



Total. 



Quantity. 



44,401,308 lbs 

39,6.'.5,1181bs 

699,300 lbs 

31,533 lbs 



Articles and Quantities 
Entitled to Drawback. 



Tin plate 7,?43, 637 lbs 

Salt 6,384,56^^3 

Burlaps 5,960 yds 

Wire and spelter. 20,623 lbs 



Amo'nt of 
Drawb'k. 



$66,096.53 

5,107.61 

73.17 

9^.61 



871,369.91 



Import Trade of Chicago — Following is a list of the merchandise imported 
to Chicago during the year 1890: 



Commodities. 



Goods exempt from dutj 

Ale. Beer and Porter 

Hat Materials 

Barley 

Books, Printed, ..., 

Brushes 

Ctieese & Cheese Coloring 

Chemicals 

China and Glassware 

Caustic 'Oda 

Cigars & Man'f 'd Tob<icco 
Clocks & Clock Material.. 

Cutlery.. . .. 

Diamonds 

Dressed Furs. . 

Dried Fruits and Nuts 

Druggists' Sundries 

Dry Goods 

Fish, all kinds 

Gelatine 

Guns 

Hops , 

Ink 

Iron, Pig 

Iron, Manufactures of.. . . 

Iron, Wire Hope 

Jewelry 

Leaf Tobncco. 

Leather, Manufactures of 



Values. 



S3,405,285 

50,329 

73,953 

6,741 

51,526 

27,162 

18,436 

18,77- 

561.195 

91,6)6 

498,727 

25,807 

23,797 

361,256 

156,364 

54^29^ 

43,678 

4,807,473 

153,150 

6,069 

43,360 

850 

1,093 

399 

154,('87 

30,025 

1\337 

166.48^ 

25-3,758 



Duties. 



$17,35t.43 

17,^96.07 

1,551.40 

12,857.20 

8,405.65 

5,738.31 

3,766.85 

318,108.23 

30,275.93 

486,33?.34 

6,949.90 

11,059.39 

36,125.60 

31.666 00 

19^,720.49 

15,428.01 

?,255.509.70 

28.633.55 

1,830 701 

14,674.40 

6D3.04 

327.6n 

87.36 

44,338.74 

13,065.25 

4,483.75 

118,574.58 

120,753.72 



Commodities. Values. Duties. 



L^k'ng-Gl's Pit. 
Mapie Sugar... 
Metal, M'f'rs of 
Millinery Goods 
Musical Goods.. 

Needles 

P'ntgs & St'tury 
Paper, M"f 'rs of 
Spic-, Ground.. 
Pickles & Sauce 
Pit. Wnd'w-GTs 
Prep'd Vegt'bls 
Rice, Cleaned. 
Rub r, M'f 'rs of 
Salt & Saltpetre 
Seeds and Bulbs 
Smok'rs' Art'cls 
Stone Ac Marble 

Tinplate 

T'ys&F'cyG'ds 

Varnish 

Wines & Liq'rs.. 
Wool Manf 'res . 
Misc'lan's Art 8. 

Lead 

Paper-hangings 
Steel Bars 



Total. 



16,759 

20,330 

220,296 

88,676 

209,597 

11,273 

73,084 

21,845 

31 

14,G94 

59,337 

35,191 

7,009 

4,561 

108,559 

34,590 

12,687 

37,353 

1,633,407 

119,961 

4,199 

369,460 

93,653 

594,136 

24,4-9 

2,'?28 

885 



$15,406,786 



4,785.28 

5,274.73 
87,131.50 
3-M99 25 
56,831.05 

2,818.25 
17,898.16 

7,881.34 
9.50 

.',459.40 
43,510,48 
10,286.01 
10,179.47 

1,331.85 
40,422.21 

6.754.88 

6,915.58 

11,979.72 

499,961.07 

47,366.33 

2,183.28 

342,607.38 

29,339.41 

180,'^74.11 

12,846.58 

557 Of) 

1,184.12 



$5,182,476.50 



66 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Iron and Steel Market.— T>\\rmg the last few years a large number of 
manufacturers, who use large quantities of iron ard steel, have been located 
in Chicago, and the home consumption of this material is probably the largest 
of any point in the United States; besides this, the Chicago jobbers have sold 
an unusually large tonnage for shipment to all points in the west and north- 
west, so that it must be conceded that Chicago takes first place in the United 
States as an iron and steel market, it being well known that whenever manu- 
facturers are overstocked with any material in this line, they usually come to 
Chicago to dispose of their surplus. 

MANUFACTURES OF CHICAGO. 

The manufactures of Chicago keep pace with the growth of population 
and commerce. There were 3,250 manufacturing firms in this city in 1890, 
against 3,lo0in 1889; the capital employed in manufactures in 1890 was $190,- 
000,000, ae-ainst $168.C00,000 in 1889; the number of workers employed in 
manufacturing in Chicago in 1890 was 177.000, against 153,500 in 1889; the 
wages paid by manufacturers in 1890 amounted to $96,200,000, against $84,- 
600,000 in 1889, and the value of the product of Chicago manufactories in 
1890 was $538,000,000, against $450,300,000 in 1889. 

Aliments.— The manufacture in Chicago of articles coming under this 
heading in the year 1890 was as follows: 



Alimekts. 



Principal bakeries 

Flour mills 

Meal and feed mills 

Coffee and spice mills 

l-aking powder, extracts, etc 

Confectionery 

Preserved and canned goods. 

Vinegar and pickles 

Sugar refinery • 



Totals 

Totals, 1889. 



No. 


Capital. 


Work- 
ers. 

770 


Product. 


35 


$ 1,400,000 


S 3,300,000 


3 


1,000,000 


110 


2,000.000 


3 


250,000 


100 


l,500,OfO 


12 


3,000,000 


750 


11,000,< 00 


10 


2,500,000 


450 


3,500,000 


8 


750,000 


1,200 


3,000,000 


18 


400,000 


500 


1,90 ,000 


:.'0 


550.000 


30 


3,0 '0,000 


' 


300,000 


475 


3,500,000 


110 


$10,150,000 


4.655 


S?l,700,000 


98 


7,610,000 


4,500 


27,500,000 



The wages paid in 1890 were estimated at $2,523,000, against $2,439,000 
for 1889. 

Brewing, Distilling and Tobacco.— The manufactures coming under this 
heading in Chicago for the year 1890 were estimated as follows: 



Drixks and Tobacco. 



Breweries 

Jifaithouses 

Distillers and rectifiers. 
Tobacco and snuff . .. . 
Cigars and cigarettes. . . 



No. I Capital. 



43 
32 
72 
23 
990 



Totals h,i60 

Totals, 1889 11,149 



811,500,000 

6,000.000 

5,000,000 

910,000 

1,750,000 



$25,160,000 
22,550,000 



Work- 
ers. 



2,2f'0 
600 
950 

sro 

2,500 



7,050 
5,700 



Product. 



$12,790,000 

4,400,000 

18,073,000 

2,600,000 

6,925,000 



$4i,787,000 
28,223,000 



The amount paid in wages was estimated at $4,368,000, against $3,550,000 



for 1889. 



(.liiCAtTt) A> 11 i.-- 



< 



Brass, Copper, etc. — The following table exhibits the manufactures in 
bras?, copper, etc., in Chicago, for the year 1890: 



Brass, Copper, etc. 



Brass, copper and plumbers' supplies 

Tin, stamped, and sheet metal ware 

Jewelry manufactures 

Watch case and tools 

Optical goods 

Teleg-raph and electrical supplies . 

Smeltins?, redaing and iron and brass works 
Miscellaneous 

Totals 

Totals, 1889 



Xo. 



25 

34 

20 

9 

4 

4 

10 



Capital. 



Work- 
ers. 



750,000 
3,000,0(0 

750,000 

30 >,000 

60,CO0 

1,500,000 

1,300,(00 

600,000 



1,700 

2,700 

500 

475 

60 

2,0(0 

900 

803 



141 
130 



S 8.26'^,0n0 : 9,135 
6,210,000 j 7,280 



Product. 



S 3,200,000 
6,500,000 
2,250,01 
2,250,000 
270,000 
3.250,000 
24.000,000 
2,700,000 



$46,4':0,000 
37,300,100 



The estimated amount of wages paid in 1890 was $o. 750, 000, as against 
14,600,000 for 1889. 

Brick, Stone, etc. — The estimates of the manufactures in brick, stone, 
etc., in Chicago, for 1890, were: 



Brick, Stoxe, Etc 



No. 



Capitai.. 



Brickyards 

Cut Stone Contractors 

Marble and Granite Works . 

Gravel Roofers 

Lime Kilns 

Terra Cotta 

Stained Glass Factories 



Totals 

Totals, 1889. 



66 
60 
;3 
35 
6 
1 
14 

214 
194 



§3,.500,000 
1,500.000 
830,001 
225,000 
225,000 
100,000 
300,010 



$5,080,000 
•^,975,000 



Workers.; Product. 



3,.?00 

2,000 

600 

500 

370 

4r.O 

400 



7,520 
6,820 



$4,20", 000 

2,o00,0l0 

2,800,000 

1,15 ',000 

4.50,0U0 

600,000 

900,000 

Si2,6no,roo 
10,70U,000 



The amount of wages paid was about $3,209,000, against $2,900,000 in 
1889. 

Iron and Wood. — Following are the estimates of the combined wood and 
iron manufactures of Chicago for the year 1890: 



Iron and Wood Combined. 



No. 



Capital,. Workers. 



Wagons and Carriag-es 

Agricultural Implements.. 
Car and Bridge Builders . . . 

Elevators 

Sewiug Machiues and Cases 

Totals 

Totals, 1889 



70 
4 
4 
8 
6 

92 
81 



$2,.'00,000 

5,500,000 

3,7o0,0U0 

1,250,000 

700,000 



2,500 
4,700 
6,000 
1,000 
3,000 



Product. 



$ 3,750,000 

16,' 00,000 

18,0 0,000 

2.750,000 

1,500,1 00 



$13,7 0,^-00 
11,850,000 



15,200 
13,000 



$42,000,000 
35,400,000 



The wages of the year were estimated at $13,000,000, an increase 
$2,000,000 over the amount of wages for the previous year. 



of 



58 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Chemicals. — The manufacture of chemicals in Chicago for the year 1890, 
was estimated as follows: 



Chemicals. 



No. 



Chemical Works 

White Lead and Paint 

White Lead Corroders 

Varnish 

Axle Grease 

Glue, Fertilizers, etc 

Soap ... 

Candles 

Linseed Oil and Cake 

Soda, Mineral Waters, etc 
Ink 

Totals 

Totals, 1889 



6 

26 
3 
6 
1 
4 
8 
3 
8 
18 
3 

81 

83 



Capital. 



Workers, 



% 730,000 

1,500,000 

1,30^000 

400,000 

500,030 

5,OUO,000 

l,6C0,<i03 

500,000 

2,000,000 

720,000 

103,000 



Si4,33n,oro 

12,3:5,000 



250 

1,200 

250 

no 

25 

1,0 
l.'JOO 
125 
210 
580 
150 



4,900 
4,400 



Product. 



81,750,000 
4,030,000 
1,60 \000 
1,150,000 
1,000,' 00 
2,000,000 
5,000,000 

800.()UO 
4,000000 
2,000,000 

250,000 



^3'^,550,0(K) 
19,475,uOO 



The wages paid in 1889 and 1890 were estimated at $2.208,0C0 and 
$2,460,000, respectively. 

Iron and Steel. — The following table exhibits the manufactures in iron 
and steel in Chicago for the year 1890: 



Iron Manufacturers. 



Rolling- Mills , 

Foundries 

Machinery, malleable iron, etc. ... 

Boiler works , 

Carwheel works 

Stoves, furnaces and ranges , 

Steam fitting' and heating 

Galvanized iron, tin, slate roofing. 

Barbed wi re, wireworks 

Miscellaneous 



Totals 

Totals, 1889. 



No 


Capital. 


Work- 
ers. 


Product. 


e 


3'}5,oo(),ono 


15,000 


522,275, 00 


60 


3,500,003 


5,000 


12,000,000 


67 


2,800,000 


3,400 


9,b0O,OU0 


22 


60O,O(<0 


l,f^00 


2.830,0, 


7 


i,6CO,nao 


1,700 


5,50 ',(i00 


22 


1,750,000 


2,000 


3,20(\0fi0 


12 


600.000 


800 


2,700,000 


70 


6' 0,000 


1,000 


l,TOi»,000 


l(t 


150,000 


20') 


3"A0f)') 


45 


4,000,0C0 


4,UC0 


9,C00,000 


32 


$4^,600.0-0 


34,600 


.$69,325,000 


290 


34,200,000 


2o,3U0 


131,450.000 



The amount of wages paid in 1890 is estimated at $18,500,000, as com- 
pared with $15,600,000 for 1889. 

Meats — The following table shows the number and value of the hogs 
packed in this city during the last two calendar years: 



January and February 

Summer months 

November and December. 



Total for year 
Value of animals. 
Value of prod uct . 



1890. 



1,063,003 
3, 18 J, 010 
l,3d8,000 



5,613,000 

$"^l,92'i,030 

66,400,000 



1889. 



650,ono 

3,291,000 
1,116,000 



4,010,^^00 

$43,931,000 

50,050,000 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



59 



Seventy-five per cent, of the cattle received here is used by the packing- 
houses, the remainder beina: shipped alive. The number of cattle killed in 
the city was about 2,219,000; of calves, 113,410; of hogs, 5,733,000, and of 
sheep, 1,252,000. 

The following are the estimates in regard to the packing business in gen- 
eral for two years: 



Number of companies 

Capital 

"Workers 

Was:es paid 

Value of product 



1890. 



5 17,000,000 

24,500 

5 13,585,000 

137,275,000 



1889. 



75 

S 14,000,000 

k;2,000 

S 12,100,000 

112,000,000 



Leather.— The manufactures of leather in Chicago for the year 1890 were 
estimated as follows: 



Leather. 



Tanners & Curriers 

Boot, shoe and slipper manufacturers 
Saddle and harness manufacturers. . . 

Trunk manufacturers 

Hose and leather-belting makers 



No.j Capital, r^^^f^'j Product. 



Totals 

Totals, 1889 



19 S 5,000,001 

60 1 4,0ii0,000 

3 400,000 

9 800.000 

3 275,000 



84 $10,475,000 
81 j 9,325,000 



1,800 

5,00) 

400 

500 

275 



S 6,500,000 

13,000,000 

2,000,0 

1,600,' 100 

900,000 



7,975 $24,000,000 
7,350 19,975,000 



The amount of wages paid was approximately $5,340,000, against M 920 - 
000 for 1889. o t . , 

Printing. — The manufactures of Chicago coming under this heading in 
the year 1890 were estimated as follows: 



Printing, etc. 



Printing, binding and newspapers. 

Lithographing houses 

Electrotypiui^ and stereotyping — 

Type-founders 

Printer's ink factories 

Printer's supplies and presses 

Printer's furniture, etc 

Book-binderies 

Totals 

Totals, 1889 ... 



No. 


Capital. 


Workers. 


Product. 


240 


$4,400,000 


6,000 


$20,000,000 


7 


230,000 


440 


600,000 


15 


300,000 


500 


900,000 


4 


600,000 


400 


8ro,ono 


3 


62,C00 


20 


77,000 


3 


400,000 


300 


475,^00 


3 


30,(00 


40 


100,000 


11 


300,000 


1,500 


960,000 


281 


$6,323,000 


9,300 


$20,912,000 


277 


5,490,000 


8,070 


19,720,000 



The estimated amount of wages paid in 1889 was $5,100,000; in 1890, 
$5,800,000. 



60 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Textiles. — The manufactures of textiles in Chicago for the year 1890 were 
estimated as follows: 



Textiles. 


No. 


Capital. 

* 


Workers. 


Product. 


Men's and boys' clothing- 

Colored shirts, overalls, etc 


50 

25 

6 

40 

10 

18 

4 

3 


$10,001,000 

3,000,00:) 

400,000 

34 \ono 

700,000 

2,600,000 

383,000 

50,000 

350,000 


14,000 

23,500 

1,300 

930 

400 

6,000 

480 

250 

1,200 


S 20.000,000 
3,750,000 


Men's nee li wear 


1.500,000 


White shirts . . 

Furs 

Cloaks and suitings 

Cloak and dress trimmings 

Children's caps, etc., of lace and plush 
Millinery 


1,700,000 
8C0,0C0 

8,500,000 
400,000 
175,0f0 

1,500,000 


Totals 

Totals, 1889 


151 


S 16,733,000 26,960 
14,285,000 3^,785 


S 38,325,000 
33,000,000 



The estimated amount of wages paid was $8,700,000, again&t $7,860,000 
for 1889. 

Other Manufactures. — The other manufactures of Chicago, coming under 
the head of miscellaneous, for the year 1890, were estimatrd as follow^: 



Miscellaneous. 



Toy and bicycle factories 

Sign-makers 

Brushes (not brm.) 

Brooms 

Feather-dusters 

Show-cases 

Glass 

Corks 

Paper boxes 

Sails, awnings, etc 

Shipyards 

Perfumer 



Totals 

Totals, 1889 



No. 


Capital. 


Workers. 


Product. 


5 


% 450,000 


1,000 


$ 1,300,000 


30 


13ii,000 


415 


715,000 


16 


275,000 


350 


650,000 


1 


50,000 


250 


250,000 


5 


73.000 


250 


250,000 


10 


70,000 


130 


300,000 


1 


100 ODO 


200 


200,000 


3 


100,(iOO 


90 


175,000 


11 


170,000 


800 


800,000 


13 


400,000 


350 


1,500,000 


2 


300,000 


2 


3 '^0,000 


3 


170,000 


200 


650,000 


93 


S 3,377,000 


4,235 


87,140,000 


95 


3,210,000 


3,920 


6,660,000 



The wages paid approximate $2,053,000, against $1,900,000 for 1889. 

MARITIME INTERESTS. 

It will be a surprise to th3 stranger, whether American or foreign, to 
learn that the arrivals and clearances of vessels at Chicago harbor exceed 
those of New York by fully 50 per cent.; that they are nearly as many as 
those of Baltimore, Boston and New York combined, and that they are a 
fraction of over 60 per cent, as many as all the arrivals and clearances in 
Baltimore, Boston, New York, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Portland and San 




IN THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, LINCOLN P.aKK. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



61 



Francisco. Chicago has also fully 25 per cent, of the entire lake-carrying 
trade, as compared with the total arrivals and clearances in Buffalo, Detroit, 
Duluth, Erie, Huron, Grand Haven, Milwaukee, Ogdensburg, Sandusky and 
Marquette. These noteworthy facts are amplified in the two following 
tables: 



DISTRICTS ON THE SEABOARD. 



Districts. 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mas 

New York, N. Y... 
New Orleans, La. . . 
Philadelphia, Pa... 

Portland, Me 

San Francisco, Cal 

Total 

Chicago, 111 



Arrivals. 


Clearances. 


Total. 


1,756 


2,lo6 


3,912 


3,171 


3,389 


6,560 


7,571 


7,712 


15,:83 


1.040 


987 


2,r.27 


1.8 6 


1,94 J 


3,740 


2,758 


698 


3 456 


1,181 


1,597 


2,778 


19,283 


18,473 


37,756 


11,300 


11,401 


22,701 



DISTRICTS ON THE GREAT LAKES. 



Districts. 



Arrivals. Clearances. 



Buffalo, N. Y 

Detroit, Mich 

Duiuth, Minn 

Erie, Pa 

Huron, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 
Milwaukee, Wis — 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. . 

Sandusky, O 

Marquette, Mich... 

Total 

Chicago, 111 



4,486 


4,490 


8,976 


6,750 


6,710 


13,460 


1,2^5 


1.224 


2,449 


595 


594 


1,189 


4,325 


4,133 


8,458 


7,845 


7,785 


15,038 


9,982 


10,036 


20,63 ' 


1,330 


1,316 


2,646 


2,4li3 


1,442 


3.9 5 


5,764 


5,765 


11,529 


4t,765 


43,515 


88,280 


11,30J 


11,401 


22,701 



Total. 



Shipments of Grain hy Lake. — The shipments of grain by lake during 1890 
embracing corn, oats, wheat and rye, were: 



Destination. 


1 
Bushels. 


Destination. 


Bushels. 


Montreal 


634.539 

113,267 

2,288,474 

32,836 

75,076 

352,219 

1,584,568 


Midland 

Owen Sound 

Sarnia 


1,612,759 


Prescott 

Kingston 

Walkerville. 


439,580 
1,03?,346 


Toronto 

Port Edwards 

CoUingwood 


Total 


8,172.863 







6^ 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Coastwise Receipts and Shipments. — The coastwise receipts and shipments 
at the port of Cjiicago during 1890 were: 



RECEIPTS. 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Merchandise, packages 

Lumber, M 

Lath M 


5,604,041 

1,380,296 

e6,643 

2,255,365 

3J,490 

1,124,138 

3i7,00(J 

5,715 

85,705 

9,202 

50,110 

4,811 

2,705 

337,079 

26,492 

1,964 

19,088 

44,694 


Sugar, barrels 

hyrup 

Shingles, M 

Posts, number 


655,271 

24,683 
446 C95 


Railroad Ties 


3,887,932 
78,955 
10 199 


Wood, cords 

Coal, Anthracite, tons 


Telegraph Poles 

Bark, cords 


Salt, barrels 

Butte r, packages 


Coal, Bituminous, tons 

Salt, sacks 

Cheese, packages 


44,367 

44,959 

70,449 

26,227 

47,882 

50,508 

3,558 

3,4P4 

179,811 


Iron Ore, tons 


Pig Iron, tons 


Miscellaneous iron, tons. . . 

Coffee, bags — . 

Liquors, packages 


Nails, kegs , 

Tea, chests 


Tallow, packages 

Potatoes, bushels 


Hides, number 

Hay, bales 

Wheat, bushels 

Grass Seed, sacks 


Flour, barrels 


Sulphur, tons 


2,025 

59,722 

256,402 


Stone, tons 


Ice, to^^B 


Plaster, barrels ... 


Cement, barrels 



SHIPMENTS. 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Merchandise, packages 

Flour, barrels 

Whpat bushels 


1.737,196 

],8U3,514 

6 471,999 

54,039,496 

18,025,833 

941,683 

2,' 43,466 

75,580 

2,595,033 

15,501 

16,869 

9,304 

12,158 

12,191 

217,899 

6,631 

4,285 


Broom-corn, bales 


3,084 


Pork, barrels 

Beet', barrels 


69,b37 

7,199 

16,195 

14,163 


Corn, bushels 

Oats, bushels 


Oat Meal, barrels 

Corn Meal, barrels 

Lard, packages 

Lard, tierces 

Cotfee, bags 

Tallov/, packages 

Nails, kegs 

Miscellaneous Iron, tons . . 

Salt, barrels 

Lead, pigs 


Rye, bushels 

Barley, bushels 


8,937 
318,998 


Grass Seed, sacks 

Flax Seed, bushels 

Tea, chests 

Sugar, barrels 

Syrup, barrels 

Hides, number ... . 


17,480 

49,943 

18.375 

6,858 

663 

289,160 


Liquors, packages 

Oil Cake, bags 


Lumber, M 


2.353 


Wool, bales 


3,688 


Hay, bales 

Cured Meats, packages 


Glucose, barrels 


11,665 


Potatoes, bushels 


12,895 







Value of Exports by Lake to Canada. — The value of exports by lake to 
Canada during 1890 was $1,887,583. Of this amount $1,120,750 was for corn, 
$626,616 for wheat, $54,920for oats, $20,140 for rye, $1,450 for grass seed, 
$11,987 for flour, $6,613 for corn meal, $85 for oil cakes, $18,766 for pork, 
$275 for beef, $86 for cured meats, $9,718 for tallow, $17,240 for steel rails 
and $957 for general merchandise. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



63 



Arrivals and Clearances of Vessels. — Following is a table showing the 
ftrrivais and clearances of vessels, with tonnage, at Chicago harbor, for 1883 
to 1890, inclusive: 



Year. 



1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 



Arrivals. 



No. 



Tonuaffe. 



11,203 

10,513 

9,846 

lO.lSO 

10,828 

10,158 

9,552 

9,188 



3,555,586 
3,481,957 
3,347,647 
3,546,309 
3,808,465 
3,990,921 
4,417,415 
4,344,502 



Clearances. 



No. Tonnage. 



11,271 

10,640 

9,910 

10,267 

10,9»'0 

10,308 

9,462 

9,284 



3,743,574 

3,489,066 
3,364,169 
3,594,549 
3,989,615 
4,134,064 
4,403,634 
4,429,6 52 



Total. 



No. Tonnage. 



22,474 
21,153 
19,756 

20,447 
21,748 
20,466 
19,014 
18,472 



7,299,160 
6,971,623 
6,711,816 
7,140,858 
7,858.000 
8,124.985 
8,821.049 
8,774,154 



Vessels owned in Chicago: — The following table exhibits the number and 
character of vessels owned in Chicago: 



Class. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Class. 


Number 


Tonnage. 


Propellers. ... 

Tugs 


59 
80 
5 
24 
27 


17.851 

1,557 

708 

56 

1,998 


Schooners 

Sloops 


178 
9 
6 


42,498 
77 


Side wheel steamers 

Steam yachts 

Steam canal boats . . 


Yachts 


268 


Total 


338 


65,013 









MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. 

City Clerk's Offif^e— Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as follows: 
Deputy clerk, $3,000; chief clerk, $2,400; minor clerks from $1,000 to $1,300. 

Citi/ Collector's Offi'^e — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as fol- 
lows: Chief clerk, $3,000; cashier, $1,800; book-keeper, $1,400; clerk, $1,400; 
five clerks, $1,500 each; five clerks, $1,000 each; messenger, $800. 

City Rail Employes — Salaries. — Janitor, $1,400; 2 carpenters, $3 per day; 
4 finishers, $730 each; 10 elevator attendants, $730 each; 10 janitors, $720 
each; 11 female janitors, $480 each; chief engineer, $1,500; 3 assistant engi- 
neers, $1,000 each; 6 firemen, $730 each; 3 coal passers, $660 each; 3 oilers, 
$720 each. 

Comptroller's Office — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as fol- 
lows: Chief clerk, $3,000; general book-keeper, $2,400; assistant book- 
keeper, $1,800; cashier, $1,800; assistant cashier, $1,500; warrant clerk, 
$1,600; minor clerks, $1,000 to $1,200. 

Engineering Department— Salaries — The salaries of subordinates are as 
follows: Assistant engineer, $2,500; second assistant engineer, $2,000; one 



64 GUIDE TO CH1(\\G0. 

assistant engineer, $2,000; two assistant engineers, $1,800 each; rodman, 
$900; draughtsman, $1,200; chief clerk, $1,800; messenger, $600. 

Feed Officers. — City sealer of weights and measures, oil inspector, 
inspector of steam boilers, building inspector, elevator inspector, and some 
other minor officers of the city government are paid in fees, or a percentage of 
fees collected in their respective offices. Of these the oil inspectorship is 
the most lucrat.ive, being worth about $20,000 per annum. 

Fij^e Department — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as follows: 
First assistant fire marshal and inspector, $3,500; second assistant fire mar- 
shal, $3,000; assistant fire marshal and secretary, $3,200; fire inspector, 
$2,500; 13 chiefs of battalions. $2,500 each; book keeper, $1,800; 2 clerks, 
$1,800 each; clerk and storekeeper, $1,400; superintendent of horses, includ- 
ing medicines, $2,200; 19 captains, $1,360.80 each; 42 captains, $1,260 each; 
14 3aptains, $1,200 each; 19 lieutentants, $1,155 each; 25 lieutenants, $1,000 
each; 17 engineers, $1,360.80 each; 30 engineers, $1,260 each; 12 engineers 
$1,200 each; 13 assistant engineers, $1,134 each.; 30 assistant engineers 
$1,050 each; 12 assistant engineers $1,000 each; llSpipemen and truckmen 
$1,134 each; 131 pipemen and truckmen, $1,050 each; 69 pipemen and truck 
men, $945 each; 40 pipemen and truckmen, $840 each; 37 drivers, $1,134 each 
81 drivers, $1,050 each; 39 drivers, $945 each; 4 pilots, $1,260 each; i 
stokers, $1,050 each; 2 stokers, $*945 each; 9 watchmen, $798.80 each 
superintendent city telegraph, $3,675; chief operator, $2,362.50; 3 assistant 
operators, $1,260 each; chief of construction, $1,800; battery man, $945; 
five repairers, $1,102.50 each; chief of electric repair shop, $1,575; 3 linemen, 
$945 each; machinist, $1,050; 2 assistant machinists, $756 each; clerk and 
stenographer, $1,260; 2 electric light inspectors, paid in fees collected, 
1 maoager, $1,700; 3 operators, $1,200 each; 3 repairers, $1,000 each; 
1 lineman, $945; 1 instrument man, $900; 1 battery man, $900. Total for 
salaries of Fire Department, including Chief Marshal, $974,348.00. 

Health Department — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as follows: 
Assistant commissioner, $2,500 ; department clerk, $1,500 ; secretary, $1,500; 
registrar of vital statistics, $1,200; thirty-four sanitary police, $1,000 each ; 
eight medical inspectors, $900 each; chief tenement house and factory in- 
spector, $2,000; nine meat and stock yards inspectors, $1,200 each; assistant 
tenement house and factory inspector, $1,500; clerk to tenement house and 
factory inspector, $1,000; thirty-four tenement house and factory inspectors, 
$1,000 each; five female factory inspectors, $1,000 each; city physician, 
$2,500; assistant, $1,500. 

Laio Department — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are: Assistant 
corporation counsel, $5,000; assistant corporation counsel, $3,000; assistant 
city attorney, $4,000; chief clerk, $2,000; 3 minor clerks, $1,500 each; 2 minor 
clerks, $1,200 each; clerk to city attorney, $1,500. 

Map Department — Salaries. — Superintendent, $1,800; 8 draughtsmen, 
$1,200 each; 2 draughtsmen, $1,000 each; house numbering clerk, $900, 

Police Court— Salaries. — There are eight police court districts in the city of 
Chicago, in which ten police court justices administer the municipal law. These 
are appointed by the mayor. The salaries are as follows: two police justices, 
1st district, $5,000 each ; two police justices, 3d district, $5,000 each ; one 
police justice. 2d district, $5,000; one police justice, 4th district, $2,500; 
one police justice, 5th district, $2,500 ; one police justice. Englewood dis- 
trict, $1,800; one police justice. Lake View district, $1,200. The clerks 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 65 

of the 1st district court receive $1,500 and $1,200 ; all other clerks 
$1,200 each, except the assistant of the 1st district, whose salary is $1,000, 
and those of Englewood and Lake View, who receive $900 and $600, respect- 
ively. 

Police Department — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as follows: 
Five inspectors, $2,800 each; secretary, $2,000; two clerks, secretary's office, 
$1,100 each; stencjgrapher, $1,000; custodian, $1,823; clerk, detective office, 
$1,500; 2 assistant clerks, detective office, $1,200 each; night clerk, $900; 13 
captains, $2,250 each; 2 lieutenants, detective office, $1,700 each; sergeant, 
detective office, $1,600; 48 lieutenants, $1,500 each; 48 patrol sergeants, 
$1,200 each; 20 matrons, each $630; photographer, $1,200; 50 detective 
patrolmen, $1,212.75 each; 6 police court baililfs, $1,000 each; 5 pound 
keepers, $771.75 each; 74 desk sergeants, $1,102.50 each; patrolman, 
mayor's office, $1,000; patrolman, comptroller's office, $500; 16 lock-up 
keepers, $1,000 each; 4 inspectors of pawnshops, $1,000 each; 2 inspect- 
ors of vehicles, $1,200 each; 180 patrolmen on duty at bridges, cross- 
ings, depots, etc., $1,000 each; 140 patrolmen, first-class, for duty on 
patrol wagons, $1,000 each; 1,168 patrolmen, first-class, for regular duty, 
$1,000 each; 100 patrolmen, second-class, for patrol duty, nine months, 
$60 per month; 4 engineers for police stations, nine months, $83 33^ 
per month; 4 assistant engineers for police stations, eight months, $550 each; 
16 janitors, $530 each; veterinary, including medicines, $1,500; 8 hostlers, 
$630 each; 3 watchmen, $750 each; 5 drivers of supply wagons, $720 each; 
70 drivers of patrol wagons, $7"-30 each. Total for salaries of police depart- 
ment, including general superintendent, $2,002,447.25. 

Public Works Department — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as 
follows: Secretary, $2,400; assistant secretary, SI, 500; book-keeper, $2,400; 
assistant book-keeper, $2,000;clerk, $l,200;minoi clerks from $600to $1,000. 

Sewerage Department — Salaries. — Superintendent, $3,500; 6 assistant 
engineers, $1,800 each; 6 rodmen, $900 each; chief clerk, $1,200; chief clerk 
of house drains, $1,800; permit clerk, $900; chief inspector house drains, 
$1,200; draughtsman, $1,200; draughtsman, $1,000. 

Special Assessment Department — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are 
as follows: Attorney, $2,700; assistant attorney, $1,800; chief clerk, $2,100; 
clerk, $1,800; clerk, $t,680; two clerks, $1,500 each; four clerks, $1,400 
each; sixteen clerks, $1,200 each; clerk, $1,000; three clerks, $900 each. 

Street Deparirnent — Salaries. — The salaries of subordinates are as follows: 
As.sistant superintendent, $2,000;chief clerk, $1,500; bill clerk, $1,200; permit 
clerk, $900; assistant permit clerk, $720; general clerk, $900; messenger, $720; 
chief sidewalk inspector, $1,500; superintendent of house moving, $1,800 
(paid from fees). 

TelepTwne Department — Salaries. — Chief operator, $1,300; assistant chief 
operator, $900; 71 operators, $720 each; 7 repairers, $1,000 each; 2 battery 
men, $900 each; 2 hostlers, $620 each; driver, $720; operator bridge tele- 
phone office, $720; 12 operators bridge telephone system, nine months, 
$472.50 each. 

Tlie Mayor and Council — Salaries. — The government of the city of Chicago 
is vested in a mayor, elected for two years, salary $7,000, and a city council, 
composed of sixty-eight aldermen, or two from each of the thirty -four wards, 
who receive a per diem for actual services, the total of which amounted this 



66 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

year to about $15,000, One alderman is elected from each ward on alternate 
years. The mayor is assisted in the performance of his duties by heads of 
departments and bureaus, as follows: Comptroller, $5,000; treasurer, includ- 
ing assistants, $25,000, and interest on city deposits, his right to the latter being 
now in dispute; city clerk, $3,500; commissioner of public works, $5,000; 
city engineer, $3,500; counsel of corporation, $6,000; city attorney, $5,000; 
prosecuting attorney, $4,000; general superintendent of police, $5,000; chief 
marshal of fire department, $5,000; superintendent of fire alarm telegraph, 
$3,675; commissioner of health, $4,000; city collector, $4,000; superinteod- 
ent of special assessment, $3,500; superintendent of street department, $3,500; 
mayor's secretary, $2,500; mayor's assistant secretary, $1,500; mayor's 
messenger, $2,000. 

PARK SYSTEM. 

The Park System of Chicago was designed and is conducted upon 
an elaborate scale. In its entirety the area covered by the different 
parks and public squares within the city limits embraces 1,974.61 
acres. This is exclusive of the ground covered by park boulevards. The 
Park System proper is divided into three divisions, each division being under 
the control of Park Commissioners, elected by the Courts. Thus we have 
three boards : The South Park Commissioners, the West Park Commis- 
sioners and the North Park Commissioners. The parks under the supervi- 
sion of these commissioners are maintained by direct tax upon the respective 
divisions of the city. Under control of the city government are a number of 
small parks, squares and " places," which are maintained at the expense of 
the city treasury. [See "Area of Parks and Public Squares."] The parks of 
Chicago form, with the boulevards as their connecting links [See Map], a 
chain around the city, both ends of which are anchored in Lake Michigan. 
Only a very few years ago complaint to the effect that the great parks of the city 
were too far removed from the people, and practically inaccessible to the very 
class whom they were intended to serve, was general. Now, however, they 
are becoming the nuclei around which populous districts are growing. In a 
few years, instead of being on the outskirts of the city, they will be breathing 
places in its interior. For the visitor, all the parks are within convenient 
reach. Cable lines or street cars will carry you to any of them at the uni- 
form rate of five cents. Trains on the Illinois Central will take you to Jack- 
son Park (South Park Station) and return for twenty-five cents. The great 
parks are grouped as follows : 

South Side.— Jackson Park— take Illinois Central train foot Randolph, 
Van Buren, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Twenty-seventh or Thirty -first streets, 
or Cottage Grove avenue cable line. Washington Park— take State street or 
Cottage Grove avenue cable line, the former for Grand boulevard, the latter 
for Drexel boulevard eutrance. Park phaetons convey visitors around Wash- 
ington and Jackson parks, touching or stopping at all points of interest, for 
25 cents per adult passenger ; 15 cents for children. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



67 



West Side. — Douglas Park — take West Twelfth street or Ogden avenue 
cars. Garfield Park — take West Madison street cable or West Lake street 
cars. Humboldt Park — take Milwaukee avenue cable line, or West North 
avenue cars. 

North Side. — Lincoln Park — take N. Clark or Wells street cable lines 
to main entrance ; take North State street cars to Lake Shore Drive entrance. 

Persons desiring to take other conveyances can make their selection from 
the hackney cabs, hansoms, coupes, etc. .found at downtown stands. [See 
hack and cab rates.] Carriage arrangements may be made by telephone with 
the various livery stables, by the hour or by the day. The parks and boule- 
vards are as follows : 

Area of Parks and Public Squares. — Following are the parks and 
public squares of the city, belonging to the municipality or under control 
of the State Boards of Park Commissioners, with their area in acres: 



Aldine Square 

Campbell Park 

Congress Park 

Dearborn Park 

Douglas Park 

Douglas Monument Square 

Ellis Park 

Gage Park 

Garfield Park 

Gro veland Park 

Holstein Park 

Humboldt Park 

Jackson Park • , 

Jefferson Park (city) 

Total 



Acres. 



1.44 
.05 
.07 
1.43 
179.79 
2.03 
3.38 
20.00 
185.87 
34 
2.3 
200.62 
686.00 
6.5 



Jefferson Park (Jefferson) 

Lake Front Park 

Lincoln Park 

Logan Square 

Midway Plaisance 

Oak Park 

Sheets Park 

Union Park 

Union Square 

Vernon Park 

Washington Park 

Washington Square 

Wicker Park 

Woodlawn 



Acres. 



5.00 

41. on 

250.00 

4.25 

80 00 

0.25 

1.00 

14.03 

.05 

4.00 

371.00 

2.25 

4.00 

3.86 



1,974.61 



Conservatories. — Winter visitors will find the conservatories of the differ- 
ent parks among the most attractive sights in the city. These conservatories 
are open during all seasons, and are in charge of a skillful corps of gardeners, 
chosen by the several park boards. The greenhouse at Lincoln Park Is upon 
the eve of entering a state of transition. A section of the new propagating 
houses is nearly completed, and the contract has been awarded for building 
the palm-house. The old palm-house is overcrowded. Among the curious 
things to be seen within its walls is a sago palm 100 years old that came from 
Mexico many years ago; a tree fern 15 feet high; a very large date palm, and 
a Carludonlco palmata in bloom. Mr. Stromback, the chief gardener, gives 
some interesting facts in reference to the water-lilies that have proven 
so attractive outdoors during the past summer. The large lily with the tub- 
like leaves, Victoria Regia, is annually raised from seed, a single pod having 
been known to contain 435 seeds. It is a night-bloomer, and the blossom is 
quite fragrant. Some of the other water-lilies are also night bloomers, while 
some open in day-time. The water in the basins in which they are grown 
flows from the engine-house nearby, after being heated to something like 90 
degrees Fahrenheit. The managers of Lincoln Park have the honor of being 
the first to bring these wonderful lilies to Chicago. Fine collections of 



68 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

chrysanthemums, ferns, and orchids are seen here. More people visit 
Lincoln Park greenhouses than any of the others. 

Nothing could excel the delicious sense of refined taste pervading the 
conservatory at Washington Park, with its bank of chrysanthemums pre- 
senting a symphony in color, its aquarium half hidden beneath the delicately 
traced fern fronds that spring from the margin and gracefully bend and 
reflect in the mirrored surface, and its giant palms forming leafy frescades 
suggestive of tropical luxuriance and love making. That remarkable aquatic 
production, the water hyacinth, is cultivated here extensively, and the round 
balls are seen like Limniades, or, what are more generally known, ducks, 
swimming about in the basins on top of the water. Upon entering the green- 
house the large stock of diminutive variegated-leaved plants intended for next 
summer's lawn decorations are observed in a room by themselves, laid off 
systematically in designs, so as to make a pretty display, thus utilizing a 
hitherto neglected agent for indoor ornamentation. In the cactus-room is a 
great assortment of that peculiar plant. A striking novelty in the palm-room 
is a plant from West Indies bearing an edible fruit. The fruit is said to be 
like honey, quite palatable and much sought by natives of the islands, but 
otving to the frailty of its rind it can not be successfully transported to this 
country. The outside covering resembles that of the American custard 
apple or pawpaw. 

One of the most popular conservatories in the public parks is that at Gar- 
field. Here is to be found one of the largest assortments of orchids in the 
city. The greenhouse contains a date palm of extraordinary dimensions — 
probably the largest specimen of that particular variety of palm in all Chi- 
cago. The stock of agaves or century plants is very full, and one of these 
plants, the gardener asserts, is known to be thirty-two years old. 

Decidedly the handsomest and costliest conservatory at any of the parks 
Is the new $50,000 edifice recently erected by the West Chicago Board of 
Commissioners at Douglas Park. The new building is filled with an immense 
quantity of rare plants. In the east wing is a large circular basin of water, 
in which are grown aquatic productions, including the Victoria Regia lily. 
Last summer this plant flourished in the basin in a way it has never been 
known to do before in the city, its leaves having reached the remarkable 
size of 7^ feet. Above the basin and ranged in a circle around the margin are 
suspended in baskets a splendid collection of that unique exotic, the pitcher 
plant, nearly all of them in bloom and no two alike. 

An eucalyptus, growing in free ground indoors.measuring 47 feet in height, 
is one of the numerous attractive sights to be witnessed at the famous Hum- 
boldt Park conservatory. The greenhouses at Humboldt are among the 
largest and handsomest to be found anywhere. At the threshold are caught 
glimpses of banks of color and vistas of verdure of the most entrancing char- 
acter, and the air is richly perfumed by heliotrope, tuberose, and orange blos- 
soms— a veritable paradise. In the palm-room, the central plateau resembles 
a miniature tropical forest, and ranged around this are fern-covered and vine- 
clad rockeries calculated to revive memories of dense woodlands. The 
fernery, a separate room, is, without doubt, one of the most artistic creations 
of the conservatory, being arranged to show to the best advantage thoselovely 
contrasts which are a prominent peculiarity in the foliage of this class of 
plants. 

South Parks.— Washington Park, Jackson Park and Midway Plaisance 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 69 

are known collectively and familiarly as "The South Parks." The cost to 
the city of the ground which they cover was $3,208,000. They are as yet in 
their infancy, but even now they rank among the finest parks in the world. 

Ashland Boulevard. — From West Lake street to West Twelfth street, or, 
rather, from Union Park south to the boulevard extension of West Twelfth 
street, which makes the connection with Douglas Park. The finest residence, 
street of the West Division. Elegant mansions rise on either side, from Mon- 
roe street south. There are also some handsome church edifices on the boule- 
vard, among them the Union Park Congregational, opposite Union Park; the 
Third Presbyterian, between Madisonand Monroe; the Fourth Baptist, nearthe 
iutersectionof Ashland and Ogden avenues, and Epiphany Episcopalian, atthe 
southeast corner of Adams street. The boulevard is a fashionable drive. It 
is paved with asphaltum, and is the most perfect roadway in the city. This 
boulevard connects Washington with Twelfth, thus completing a circular 
drive which includes Douglas, Garfield and Union Parks. 

Central Boulevard. — Connects Garfield with Humboldt Park; one and a 
half miles in length; average width, 250 feet. Leaves Garfield Park at West 
Kinzie street, runs north to Central Park avenue, east along Indiana street to 
Sacramento Square, north to Augusta street and Humboldt Park. This, like 
other West Side boulevards, has been neglected up to the present time, but 
improvements are now contemplated or under way which will make it a 
magnificent avenue. Even as it is at present, it is a pleasant drive between 
the two parks. 

Douglas Boulevard. — Running from the west side of Douglas Park, at 
Albany avenue, west seven-eighths of a mile, then north seven-eighths of a 
mile, to Garfield Park. The roadway is kept in good repair and the drive is 
a beautiful one; but up to the present time, like the other West park boule- 
vards, it has not received proper attention. The work of improvement, how- 
ever, will now go on rapidly, and it is expected to be one of the finest of the 
boulevards before 1893. It is a very popular drive, for the circuit from Union 
Park to Garfield, then via Douglas boulevard to Douglas, and thence back by 
Ogden and West Twelfth street boulevards to Ashland boulevard and point 
of departure, completes a perfect summer evening's ride. 

Douglas Park. — Area, 179.79 acres; situated four miles southwest of the 
Court-house; bounded on the north by West Twelfth street, on the south by 
West Nineteenth street, on the east by California avenue and on the west by 
Albany avenue. The district in the vicinity of this park was almost entirely 
destitute of residences ten years ago. Within a decade it has been built up, 
however, until those who have not visited the section for four or five years, 
or even two years, would hardly recognize it as the same. The popularity 
of the park, which has always been a beautiful piece of ground, has increased 
with the growth of the neighborhood and the improvement of the streets and 
drives in the vicinity. Douglas Park is beautifully laid out, well wooded and 
admirably situated. It has been cared for nicely of late years, and its lawns 
and flower beds bear evidence of skillful and faithful attention. Some of the 
avenues through this park are not surpassed by any in the city. The lake 
covers an area of seventeen acres. There is a handsome boat-house and 
refectory here. Douglas Park also has a medicinal artesian well with prop- 
erties similar to those at Garfield and Humboldt Parks. The conservatories 
and propagating houses are among the largest of the system. [See Con- 
servatories.] Vast improvements are promised for Douglas Park within thQ 
next two years. 



70 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Drexel BoulevaTd.-^The eastern entrance to "Washington Park commences 
at Oakwood boulevard and the junction of Cottage Grove avenue and Thirty- 
ninth street. It is a double driveway, 200 feet wide for its entire length, run- 
ning south to Drexel avenue and southwest from that point to the park. 
Through the center is a wide strip of sward, covered here and there with 
beautiful shrubs, rose bushes and mounds. Upon the latter, which are inter- 
spersed with flower-beds of beautiful design, appear, during the summer 
season, unique figures wrought from flowers and foliage, and which attract 
thousands of sightseers annually. At the intersection of Drexel avenue is a 
magnificent bronze fountain, presented by the Messrs. Drexel, of Philadel- 
phia, in memory of their father, after whom the boulevard was named. On 
either side of the driveways are to be seen some of the handsomest mansions 
and prettiest villas of Chicago. At the head of the boulevard, a few steps 
from the Cottage Grove avenue cable line, is the " Cottage," from which 
phaetons start, at intervals through the day, for a circuit of the South Parks. 

Gage Park. — Area, 20 acres ; situated at the junction of Western avenue 
and Garfield boulevard. It is laid out with trees, and will become a popular 
halting or half-way station, when the boulevards which enter it are com- 
pleted. 

Garfield Boulevard.— TYlq first link in the chain which is intended to 
connect the South Park with the West Park system ; 200 feet wide ; extends 
along Fifty-fifth street from Washington Park to Gage Park, a distance 
of about four miles, in a direct westerly course. This boulevard is in good 
condition for driving, and soon will be completed. The plan is for a central 
driveway, bordered by grass and rows of trees, outside of which there is to 
be on one side a roadway for equestrians, and on the other a carriageway, 
the whole to be lined with elm trees. 

Garfield Park. — Area 185.87 acres, situated four miles directly west of the 
Court-house ; bounded by Madison street on thesouth, Lake street on the north, 
and running a mile and a half west from the head of Washington boulevards 
This was formerly known as Central Park. The name was changed in mem- 
ory of President Garfield. The lake in the center of the park covers an area 
of 17 acres. The park is extremely picturesque, the drives and promenades 
being laid out in the most enchanting manner. The boat-house is one of 
the finest to be seen in the park system. There is a handsomefountain here, 
the gift of Mrs. Mancel Talcott, and an artesian well which furnishes half 
the city with medicinal mineral water. It is 2,200 feet deep and discharges 
at the rate of 150 gallons per minute. The water is recommended for 
angemia, diseases of the stomach and kidneys, and rheumatic disorders. Gar- 
field Park is beautiful as it is, but just at present it is receiving the attention 
of West side citizens, who contemplate making many improvements. 
Opposite the west end of the park on Madison street is the West Side Driving 
Park; west of the park near the Lake street side are the extensive shops of 
the West Division Railway Company. Just beyond the park on Madison 
street is the Fortieth street power-house of this company, and the terminus 
of the Madison street line. Connecting with the cable cars an electric rail' 
way line will be shortly in operation, which will carry passengers through 
the town of Cicero, in view of the Grant Locomotive works and other great 
industries which are to be established in that section. 

Grand Boulevard.— The western entrance to Washington park; 198 feet 
in width; beginning at Thirty-fifth street and entering the park at its north- 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 71 

western angle. Is bordered by a double colonade of elms and strips of 
sward. The road-bed is perfect for driving. On the western side a strip is 
reserved for equestrians. Toward the southern end another strip is reserved 
for speeding fast horses. It is one of the most fashionable drives in the city. 
Following up the avenue connecting with Grand boulevard you are carried 
past the "Retreat "and on to the Washington Park Race-track. By keep- 
ing on the same course you may return by the flower-beds and back via 
Drexel boulevard. 

Humboldt Boulevard. — This boulevard is not completed nor in such con- 
dition as to be worthy of the attention of the visitor. It is intended to con- 
nect Lincoln and Humboldt parks. At present the drive between the two 
most used is along North avenue; a good street, which touches at the south- 
ern extremity of Lincoln and at the northern extremity of Humboldt. 
While on this subject it might be well enough to say that the entire system 
of western park boulevards are at this time receiving the serious attention of 
the public. It is thought that all will be much improved before 1893. [See 
West Park Improvement.] Humboldt boulevard as designed will be one of 
the most beautiful of the system. Wrightwood avenue will probably be 
taken to fill the gap between Lincoln park and the north branch of the Chi- 
cago river. As shown in the commissioner's plans, Humboldt boulevard 
runs west a mile and a quarter to Logan square, then south one-half mile to 
Palmer place, which extending north two blocks opens into a third division 
running south three-quarters of a mile into Humboldt park at North avenue. 
The boulevard proper will be 250 feet wide; Logan square 400 by 800 feet; 
Palmer place 4,000 by 1,750; total length of drive, three miles. 

Humboldt Park. — Area, 200. 63 acres ; situated four miles northwest from 
the Court House ; bounded on the north by West North avenue ; on the 
south by Augusta street ; on the east by North California avenue, and on 
the west by North Kedzie avenue. This is one of the prettiest of the West 
Side parks. It is laid out beautifully, has a charming lake, splendid avenues; 
is clothed in superb foliage, and in the summer season makes a magnificent 
display of flowers. Its conservatory is conducted admirably. There is a 
mineral artesian well here, 1,155 feet in depth. This park is the popular 
resort of the northwestern part of the city, and forms one of the group of 
three in the West Division. Immense improvements are contemplated, both 
as regards the park proper and its boulevard connections. 

Jackson Park. — Area, 586 acres ; about eight miles from the Court House; 
bounded by Lake Michigan on the east ; Stony Island avenue on the west ; 
Fifty-sixth street on the north ; and Sixty-seventh street on the south. This 
beautiful park has been brought into great prominence of late by reason of 
its selection as the site for a portion of the Columbian Exposition. About 
one-third of the park had been improved up to the present year, although 
immense works have been in progress for some time in preparing the unim- 
proved portion for the public. These works included excavating and dredg- 
ing for the chain of lakes which are to have connection with Lake Michigan ; 
bridge and breakwater construction ; leveling and embanking, and land- 
scape gardening on an extensive scale. The improved portion of the park is 
at the northern end. Here there is a broad stretch of sward which has been 
used frequently as a parade ground by the militia, and by large picnic parties. 
This is surrounded or hemmed in by a wooded avenue of great beauty, which 
opens upon a sea-wall and a beautiful view of Lake Michigan. There is 



72 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

erected here an immense shelter, of great architectural beauty, where thou* 
sands may, on occasion, be protected either from the heat of the sun or from 
a sudden rainfall. The trees and shrubbery in the improved part of the 
park, as well as the flowers, are very attractive, although the variety which 
one finds in some of the other parks is lacking. The number of trees and 
shrubs in the unimproved portion is comparatively small. About Sixty-first 
street there is one clump of oaks and maple, shot here and therewith bunches 
of fiery sumac. There is another and a larger grove west and north of this, 
Beyond there, except for a few small bunches and a fringe along the west 
fence, the unimproved portion is unbroken by wood. Jackson park will 
have undergone such alterations before the close of the present year that time 
spent in describing it as it is to-day would be time wasted. The opportunity 
of making it the grandest park of the system presents itself, and it will 
undoubtedly be taken advantage of. [See "World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion."] 

Jackson Boulevard. — West Jackson street from Halsted street to Gar- 
field Park has finally been declared a boulevard by the Supreme Court. The 
Park Commissioners will have the boulevard fully improved before the close 
of 1891. 

Lake Shore Drive. — This is the grandest boulevard drive in Chicago. 
Beginning at the North Side Water- Works on Pine street it skirts the lake to 
the northern extremities of Lincoln Park, where it connects with Sheridan 
Road, which is nearly completed for 25 miles along the north shore. Before 
reaching the park some of the most magnificent mansions in the city are 
passedon the left. On the right is a fringe of sward, dotted with flower-beds 
and covered with beautiful foliage in the summer months. The lake beats 
against an embankment to the right, and frequently the spray is dashed across 
the flower-beds when the sea is high. Reaching the park you pass through 
beautiful avenues until you strike the Drive again. Here vast improvements 
are being made. Three years ago the State legislature gave the Lincoln 
Park Commissioners the right to issue bonds for $300,000 with which 
to defend the shore line against the encroachments of storm-tossed 
Lake Michigan, With that sum as a nucleus the commissioners designed 
and began work on a system of improvements which, when completed, 
will have cost a sum many times that raised from the original issue of 
bonds. Enough has now been finished to give a general idea of the work as 
it will appear when a continuous sea-wall will extend from Ohio street to 
almost the extreme northern limit of the city. The work was commenced 
less than two years ago at the foot of North avenue. Several hundred feet 
out in the lake a line of piles was driven. Powerful dredging-machines were 
placed in position and slowly but surely acre after acre was reclaimed from 
the lake. It is at this point that the Lake Shore Drive joins the boulevard 
now in course of construction. It is practically finished for 2,500 feet. The 
breakwater proper rests on piles driven thirty-five feet into the sand. On this 
foundation granite blocks are laid and securely cemented. Back of this starts 
the paved beach, forty feet in width, slanting at an angle of about twenty 
degrees until it meets the granilethic promenade. This promenade is the 
most attractive feature of the improvement and is destined to become famous. 
Imagine a twenty-foot promenade, smooth as glass, three miles in length, 
with Lake Michigan vainly striving to scale the paved beach to the east of it, 
and a grand boulevard lined with carriages to the west of it ; a promenade 
commanding on one side a magnificent view of the lake, and on the other a 




THE TACOiMA BUILDING. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 73 

prospective of Lincoln Park with all its natural and acquired beauties. There 
is nothing rigid in the lines of the promenade or .boulevard. Without 
detracting from the attractiveness of the sweeping crescent described by the 
sea-wall at Jackson Park, it must be said that the sinuous curves marking the 
contour of the Lincoln Park beach, promenade, boulevard and canal, are more 
artistic and pleasing. The old shore-line has been followed as nearly as pos- 
sible. It is hard to improve on nature. With the shifting sands as the only 
obstacle to check their course, the waves have drawn along the beach curves 
such as would delight a follower of Hogarth. When they planned the out- 
lines of the drive-way the commissioners wisely decided to follow nature. 
They have made no mistake. The objective point is Diversey avenue, the 
northern limit of the park. Here the regatta course will end, but the sea- 
wall and boulevard will be continued by the people of Lake View, who pro- 
pose to make the Sheridan Road and the Lake Shore Drive continuous. The 
sea-wall will be extended to Byron avenue, opposite Graceland cemetery. 
It is thought that the park commissioners will be able to complete their 
part of the work by the commencement of next winter. They will then have 
added 100 acres to the area of the park, and have given to Chicago a boule- 
vard and regatta course unequaled in the world. Between the new boulevard 
and the park there will be three connecting points. There will be land con- 
nection at the north and south ends of the park and a bridge at a point oppo- 
site Webster avenue. The canal will connect with the lake at two points, one 
opposite Wisconsin street and the other at Fulton avenue. The boulevard 
will cross these connections on steel swinging bridges of a special construction. 
It will be several years before the dreams of the designer will be fully realized. 
Kows of shade trees will be planted to the east of the boulevard, and between 
the trees and the edge of the regatta course the sloping lawn will be beautified 
in the highest style of the landscape gardener's art. Between the west shore 
of the regatta course and the present Lake Shore Drive is a tract of land now 
piled high with stone and pine bark. This will be made one of the finest 
features of the park. Planked thus on either side by verdure-decked banks, 
the canal will wind its sinuous course towards what was Fisher's garden. 
At no point will this placid stretch of water be less than 150 feet in 
width, while the average is nearer 200. At the ends it is widened to 350 
feet, so as to permit boats to make a sweeping turn. Hardly less 
important is the improvement contemplated by the Lincoln Park Com- 
missioners and the property owners who own the land fronting the 
lake between Elm and Oak streets. The sea-wall ends at Elm street on the 
south. With it the Lake Shore Drive practically comes to an end. The 
problem which has ever confronted the boards of park commissioners is to 
connect the North and South Side boulevard systems. In a recent message 
to the city council. Mayor Cregier suggested that Michigan boulevard be con- 
nected with a viaduct extending over the Illinois Central tracks and crossing 
the river at some point between Rush street and the lake. An expensive plan, 
there seems to be no other available. It is proposed to swing the boulevard 
out into the lake, starting at Elm street. It will curve out 1,000 feet from the 
present line aad strike the existing beach at the foot of Ohio street. The Lake 
Shore Drive has for years been the fashionable rendezvous of the North Side. 
Thousands of carriages line the beautiful embankment on summerafternoons. 
Lincoln Park. — Area, 250 acres, two and a half miles in width by one and 
a half miles in length; bounded by Lake Michigan on the east; Clark street 
on the west; North avenue on the south, and Diversey street on the south. 



74 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

The southern portion was formerly a cemetery. The tomb of the Couch 
family remains; all others were long since removed. First board of commis- 
sioners appointed in 1869, since which time it has been under State super- 
vision. There is embraced within this small piece of territory perhaps more 
attractions than can be found in any park of the country. Where nature left 
off art began, and the two have contributed toward making Lincoln Park the 
most charming in the city. The visitor will be delighted with the undulating 
character of the ground, the gracefully winding and curving avenues, which 
stretch out in every direction; the beautiful lakes, the handsome bridges, the 
splendid foliage, the magnificent statuary, the gorgeous banks, beds and 
avenues of choicest flowers, the rare and wonderful' shrubbery, the pretty 
little dells, knolls and nooks, that lie half concealed beneath the noble trees, and 
last, though not least, with the zoological collection, which has contributed in 
no small degree toward making Lincoln Park famous. Here we find the 
Grant monument, facing Lake Michigan on the Lake Shore drive. This mag- 
nificent work of art was presented by the citizens of Chicago, and cost $100,000. 
Here, also, is the Lincoln statue, by St. Gaudieur, facing the main entrance, 
a splendid likeness of the great president, and pronounced one of the 
finest pieces of sculpture in the world. This statue cost $50,000, and 
was presented, together with a drinking fountain, by the late Eli Bates. 
Here, also, are the "Indian Group'" in bronze, presented 'by the late 
Martin Ryerson; the La Salle monument, presented by Lambert Tree, 
and the Schiller monument, presented by German residents of Chicago. 
An entire day may be spent pleasantly by the visitor in Lincoln Park. The 
great conservatories, flower beds and zoological collection, can hardly be seen 
in less time. There is a comfortable refectory in the boat-house on the main 
lake. Boats may be rented at 25 cents an hour. 

Lincoln Park Palm- House. — The plan of the new palm-house to be erected at 
Lincoln Park, drawn by Architect Silsbee, shows a beautiful structure of steel 
and glass, light, airy and picturesque, sixty feet high, resting upon a bowlder 
foundation of split granite. The main building is 168x70 feet, with a rear exten- 
sion of seventy feet, making the entire length of the structure 238 feet. In front 
of the main building there is to be a lobby 25x60 feet, which is approached by a 
vestibule twenty feet square. The interior of the main building shows an 
unbroken stretch, save a few light supporting iron columns for the glass roof. 
The conservatory is in the rear of the palm-house. It is thirty feet wide. At 
the extreme north end is a room 30x60 feet, which will be exclusively devoted 
to the culture of orchids. This room will be further beautified by a sort of 
observatory tower built of pressed brick and terra-cotta trimmings. The 
building will be erected on two terraces northeast of the present canal vista 
and the animals' summer quarters. The terraces occupy the space due north 
of the present green-houses. The latter structure will be removed as soon as 
the new palm-house is completed. The main approach to the palm-house will 
be from the floral gardens. The new house will cost $60,000. 

Michigan Avenue Boulevard. — Michigan avenue, from .lackson street on 
the north to Thirty-fifth street on the south, a distance of three and a quarter 
miles. It is 100 feet wide from curb to curb, and skirts the Lake Front Park, 
the site for a portion of the Columbian Exposition. Formerly the ultra fash- 
ionable residence street of the city. Now undergoing a transformation. [See 
"Michigan Avenue."] 

Midway PlaAsance. — Area, 80 acres; a woodland drive connecting Wash- 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 75 

Ington with Jackson Park, and, although unimproved to any extent worth 
mentioning up to this year, one of the most beautiful and romantic avenues 
within the park system. It runs between Fifty -ninth and Sixtieth streets, 
and is one and one-tenth miles in length. The Midway Plaisance, with 
adjoining lands added, will become the site of a portion of the Columbian 
Exposition. The plans for improvement during the next two years are elab- 
orate. [See "World's Columbian Exposition.'^ 

North and South Side Viaduct. — The great viaduct which is to connect 
the North and South Side boulevard systems will take the following route: 
Beginning at a point on St. Clair street south of Ohio, at a point where the 
Sheridan drive now terminates, the viaduct of solid masonry work fifty feet 
wide, exclusive of pedestrian ways on each side, takes its rise. South on St. 
Clair to Michigan street, thence southwestwardly across Michigan street and 
the parallel railroad tracks; thence south along and over a private street 
between Kirk's soap factory and the McCormick, thence by a drawbridge 
across the river and by a long span across the Goodrich steamer docks to 
Front street, west on Front to a private street which is a continuation of Cen- 
tral avenue, and south along this private street and Central avenue to the 
Randolph street viaduct, at which point it begins to fall. By easy stages from 
the viaduct in a southwestwardly direction, the new viaduct is traced across 
the northwest corner of the unimproved part of the Lake Front Park to Mich- 
igan avenue and Washington street, where it comes to the level of the avenue. 

Oakwood Boulevard. — Connects Drexel and Grand boulevards; 100 feet 
wide and half a mile long. It enters Grand boulevard at Thirty-ninth 
street, and touches Drexel boulevard at its intersection with Cottage Grove 
avenue. 

Ogden Boulevard. — Running southwest from the junction of West Twelfth 
street boulevard and Oakley avenue. Not yet completed, but being rapidly 
pushed forward. It will connect Ashland and West Twelfth street boule- 
vards with Douglas Park. 

Thirty-Fifth Street Boulevard. — The connecting link between Grand and 
Michigan avenue boulevards; sixty-six feet wide and one-third of a mile in 
length. 

Union Park.—AvesL, 14.3 acres; situated one and three-quarter miles 
directly west of the Court House; bounded by Warren avenue on the south, 
Lake street on the north, Ogden avenue on the east and Ashland avenue on 
the west. This park, one of the oldest in the city, only passed into the hands 
of the Park Commissioners a few years ago. Since then it has undergone many 
alterations and improvements. On the northeast corner of the park stands 
the headquarters of the West Park Board. The lake has recently been 
enlarged and rebedded; many unsightly mounds have been cut away, and 
every year will add to its attractiveness in the future. The portion of the 
park, through which Washington boulevard passes, is laid out in flower beds. 
This is one of the most popular West Side breathing places in thesummer, and 
on Sundays it is usually crowded. 

Washington Boulevard. — The continuation of West Washington street, 
west from Halsted street to Garfield Park, and the driveway from the center 
of the city to the parks and boulevards of the West Park System. Passes 
through Union Park, a beautiful square. This boulevard is lined for the 
entire distance of nearly three miles with handsome residences. Large shade 
trees and a continuous strip of green sward fringe either side of the avenue. 



76 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

On Washington boulevard are many fine church edifices. The Chicago 
Theological Seminary is passed at Union Park and Warren avenue; the 
Episcopalian Seminary on the north side, west of California avenue. 

Washington Park. — Area, 371 acres; situated about one and a quarter 
miles west of Lake Michigan and about six and a half miles southeast of the 
Court House; bounded on the east by Kankakee avenue, on the west by Cot- 
tage Grove avenue, on the north by Fifty-first street and on the south by Six- 
tieth street. The finest of Chicago's parks, more by reason of its magnificent 
entrances, Drexel and Grand boulevards, than by any great natural or artificial 
attraction of its own, although its flower beds are the most beautiful of any. 
It lacks many of the advantages which are enjoyed by Lincoln and Jackson 
Parks, the contiguity of the lake being of itself one of the greatest charms of 
the two last named. " It can not boast of a zoological garden that will com- 
pare with Lincoln Park's, nor of the magnificent monuments that are making 
the north shore park classical ground. But South Park has statelier trees, 
grander avenues, more sweeping perspectives, more charming drives than any 
other park in the city. It has the famous "Meadow," a stretch of velvety 
sward that covers 100 acres and the "Mere," with its thirteen acres of water, 
picturesquely sparkling behind long lines of ancient oaks and elms, and bath- 
ing the emerald banks of the mounds and knolls which almost conceal it from 
the view of the passing visitor. It has also its great conservatory [see 
Conservatories] and its splendid stables, which cover 325x200 feet, and 
through which you will be driven if you take a park phaeton. It has its 
delightful refectory, known as the " Retreat," where refreshments are served 
for man and beast, but its flower gardens are its greatest boast, and here the 
visitor will pause the longest, for the angle in front of the flower house is 
probably the most seductive spot Chicago has to offer the lover of the beauti- 
ful in nature. Here you will find, during the months between May and 
November, the best exhibition of the landscape gardening art in the world. 
Plowers and foliage are made to do, in the hands of the gardener, what the 
brush and palette accomplish for the artist. The designs are changed annu- 
ally, and are always original, always interesting and always lovely. An 
entire day can be very pleasantly spent in Washington Park. 

West Ticelfth Street Boulevard. — West from Ashland avenue to Oakley 
avenue, were it connects with Ogden boulevard, which runs in a southwest- 
erly direction to Douglas Park. This boulevard is planted with a double 
TOW of trees and parked through the center, street cars and traflBc teams tak- 
ing the roadways on either side. It is a splendid driveway and is becoming 
more and more popular every year. 

Western Avenue Boulevard. — A zig-zag boulevard is projected to connect 
Douglas Park with Western avenue, which it is proposed to boulevard south 
to Gage Park. From the latter point, a boulevard is to extend east to Wash- 
ington Park, thus connecting the West and South Side park systems. For 
some inscrutable reason the east and west boulevard last mentioned is called 
Garfield, probably with the idea in view of creating still more confusion in 
the nomenclature of streets, which is confused badly enough now to be a con- 
stant annoyance to residents. How strangers will be able to grapple with the 
intricacies of street, avenue and boulevard names is uncertain. The boule- 
vard known as Western avenue is not beyond the point of projection, and 
neither is the boulevard known as Garfield, but it is probable that the com- 
pletion of these connecting links will now be hastened, as they will open up a 
driveway from the great southwestern portion of the city to the Columbian 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 77 

City Parks.— Theie. are a number of small but verj- pretty parks scattered 
throughout the city, not under the control of the State Park Commissioners. 
These are maintained at the expense of the municipal government. Many of 
them, as a matter of fact, are of far more importance to the neighborhoods in 
which they are situated than the larger and more pretentious ones. Among 
these are the following: On the South Side: Lake Park, known more 
familiarly as the Lake Front ; bounded by Lake Michigan on the east, 
Michigan avenue boulevard on the west, Randolph street on the north andPark 
place on the south. From Randolph street to Madison has been vacant in 
the past; the space between Madison and Jackson has been covered with 
the B. & O. railroad passenger depot, the First Regiment Armory, Battery D 
Armory and the Inter-State Exposition buildings; and the space between 
Jackson street and Park place only has been improved as a park. The area of 
the park proper is forty-one acres. This is all made ground, having been 
recovered from the lake by filling in with the debris of the great fire. Lake 
Park has come into prominence of late by reason of its having been selected 
as the site of a portion of the Columbian Exposition [see " "World's Columbian 
Exposition "]. The park has been very popular with the business people of 
the South Side, not because of its attractions, but rather on account of the 
large area of free breathing space which it gives contiguous to the business 
center. Gromland o^nd-Woodlawn -gaxk^ adjoin each other on Cottage Grove 
avenue, near Thirty third street. Take Cottage Grove avenue car. These 
parks, together with the University grounds, which were opposite, were a 
gift from the Hon, Stephen A. Douglas. The University has been aban- 
doned, and the buildings removed. [See "University of Chicago."] The 
Dearborn Observatory, which was formerly attached to the University, has 
become a part of the Northwestern University at Evanston, the great tele- 
scope having been transferred to the care of that college by the trustees. 
[See Northwestern University.] Douglas Monument Square; area, 2.02 acres; 
situated on the Lake shore, between Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth streets, and 
close to the two parks last mentioned. Take Illinois Central train to Thirty- 
fifth street. Here stands the mausoleum and monument to Stephen A. 
Douglas [See " Douglas Monument"], a pretty little square; from which a 
splendid view of Lake Michigan may be obtained. Ellis Park; area, 3.38 
acres; situated four miles south of the Court House; between Vincennes and 
Cottage Grove avenues, at Thirty-seventh street. Aldine Square; area, 1.44 
acres; situated at Thirty-seventh street and Vincennes avenue, which is 
surrounded by beautiful private residences, and a number of other smaller 
squares and parks, farther to the south. West Side: Jefferson Park, area, 5.5 
acres; situated between Adams street on the south, Monroe street on the 
north, Throop street on the east and Loomis street on the west. Take Adams 
street car to Centre avenue or Madison street cable line to Throop street. A 
beautiful and popular little park, with many attractive features, Vernon 
Park; area, 4 acres; situated between Gilpin place on the south, Macalister 
place on the north, Centre avenue on the east and Loomis street on the west. 
Two miles from the Court House, Take Adams street or West Taylor street 
cars. Wicker Park; area, 4 acres; situated in the triangle between Park, 
North Robey and Fowler streets; three miles northwest from the Court 
House. Take Milwaukee avenue cable line. North Side: Washington 
Square; area, 2.25 acres; situated between North Clark street. Dearborn 
avenue, Lafayette place and Washington place. This is a popular resort for 
North Siders who do not care to go as far as Lincoln Park, and for children. 



78 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

There are other parks and squares not mentioned here, such as Campbell and 
Congress parks on the West Side and Dearhorn park on the South Side. The 
former has no attractions for the visitor. The latter is fenced in and is the 
proposed site of the new Public Library building. Its area is 1.43 acres, 
and it is situated on Michigan avenue, facing east, between Dearborn and 
Washington streets, oppoiite the north end of the Lake Front. 

West Side Park Improvement. — A committee of one hundred West Side 
residents has in charge the matter of improving the West Side parks and 
boulevards immediately. The step the property owners believe it necessary 
to take is the issuance of not less than $1,000,000 in bonds and the levying of 
a tax of not less than six mills. The improvements contemplated are as fol- 
lows: The total length of Humboldt boulevard as planned is 13,2383^ lineal 
feet, comprising an area of ninety acres. Logan square is 400 feet wide, and 
Palmer square is the same. From Palmer square to North avenue the boule- 
vard is, for a considerable distance, 317 feet wide. Humboldt Park contains 
over two hundred acres. While less than half is improved and beautified at 
present, the whole is to be brought under the, hand of the artist and land- 
scape architect within the next two years. Of the two and one-half miles of 
public streets fronting on Humboldt Park, but one and one-half miles are at 
present improved. The new plans contemplate the improvement and orna- 
mentation of the whole distance. Central boulevard, from Augusta street 
to Grand avenue, a distance of 890 feet, is 400 feet wide; from Grand avenue 
to Sacramento square, a distance of 2,206 feet, it is 263 feet wide. Sacra- 
mento square is to be a 400 foot square, and from that point the boulevard is 
to be 250 feet wide until it reaches Central Park square, which is a distance 
of 3,662 feet. Central Park square is to be a 400-foot square. The seventy- 
five acres of unimproved grounds in Garfield Park are to be put in splendid 
order, and the three miles of unimproved public streets surrounding it are to 
be put in much better shape than the quarter of a mile of the same already 
improved. Douglas boulevard will be 250 wide from Colorado avenue to 
the square south of Twelfth street, which is a distance of 4,077 feet. The 
square will be the usual 400 feet, and the boulevard from that point to Doug- 
las Park will be 250 feet wide. Douglas Park has ninety-six and a half acres 
improved and eighty-three and a half acres unimproved. The latter is to be 
beautified under the new plans, and all the public streets which surround the 
park are to undergo a transformation. Southwestern boulevard will be 250 
feet wide from the park to the east turn, which is a distance of 2.950 feet, 
and will run a uniform width for its whole length of 11.148 feet. The plans 
also include the addition of many attractions to the parks. These will 
include lakes in the now unimproved portions, buildings for the accommoda- 
tion of visitors, cafes, boating facilities, lawns, flowers, trees and pavilions. In 
short, the system when completed will be the finest in the world. The total 
length of all the boulevards ouside of the parks, as planned under the new 
order of things, is nearly eighteen miles. This will make the whole drive on 
the West Side nearly twenty-two miles. 

POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

The Police Department of the City of Chicago is under the official con- 
trol of the Mayor, and is conducted by — A General Superintendent (Frederick 
H. Marsh); a Secretary, with rank of Lieutenant (Joseph B. Shepard); a 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 79 

Chief Clerk, with rank of Captain (Michael Brennan); five Inspectors (Fred- 
erick Ebersold, commanding 1st division; Nicholas Hunt, commanding 2d 
division; Simon O'Donnell, commanding 3d division; Amos W. Hathaway, 
commanding 4th division, and George W. Hubbard, commanding 5th divi- 
sion); 13 Captains of Precincts, 50 Lieutenants, 50 Patrol Sergeants and 74 
Desk Sergeants. The total force, including officers and men, numbers 1,870. 
The number of stations, including the Central Detail Station at the City Hall, 
is 35. The number of arrests made in 1890 was 62,230. 

Central Detail. — The policemen of the Central Detail, whose station is at 
the City Hall, are those who do patrol duty during the day time at the 
bridges, railroad depots and street crossings. These are generally the 
picked men of the force, averaging about 6 feet in height and about 190 
lbs. in weight. 

Cost of Maintenance. —The amount appropriated for the maintenance of 
the Police Department in 1890 was, for salaries, $2,244,176 25; for new sites 
and buildings, $66,800; for miscellaneous supplies, $180,000; total, $2,490,- 
976.25. 

Detective Police. — The headquarters of the detective police force is at the 
city hall. Detectives rank as patrolmen simply, with the same pay. [See 
"Police Department Salaries."] They are not uniformed. The detectives 
of the Chicago force have proved themselves to be experts on many occa- 
sions. Of late they have shown more real ability than ever before. 

Division Headquarters and Precincts. — The 'division headquarters and 
precinct stations are located as follows: Central Detail, City Hall, in charge 
of a captain and two lieutenants. 

1st division headquarters, Harrison st and Pacific ave. ; 1st precinct, 
Harrison st. and Pacific ave. ; 2d precinct, 318 Twenty-second st. ; 3'd precinct, 
2523 Cottage Grove ave. ; 4th precinct, 142 Thirty-fifth st. ; 5th precinct, 
Thirty-fifth St., near South Halsted st. ; 6tli precinct, 2913 Deeringst. 

2d division headquarters. Fifty-third st. and Lake ave.; 7th precinct, Hal- 
sted and Root sts.; 8th precinct, Fiftieth and State sts.; 9th precinct, Fifty- 
third st, and Lake ave.; 10th precinct, Sixty-fourth st. and Wentworth ave.; 
11th precinct, Grand Crossing; 12th precinct. South Chicago; IB'h precinct, 
Hegewisch; 14th precinct. Kensington; 15th precinct, Brighton Park. 

3d division headquarters, Morgan and Maxwell sts.; 16th precinct, Mor- 
gan and Maxwell sts. ; 17th precinct, 187 Canalport ave., near Halsled st.; 
ISth precinct, 691 Hinman st., cor. S. Paulina st. ; 19th precinct, 587 W. 13th 
St., near Oakley ave.; 20th precinct, Lawndale. 

4th division headquarters, 19 S. Desplaines st.; 21st precinct, W. Lake 
and W. 43d sts. ; 22d Drecinct, 19 S. Desplaines st. ; 23d precinct, 609 W. Lake 
St. ; 24th precinct, 256 and 258 Warren ave. ; 25th precinct, 231 W. Chicago 
ave., near Milwaukee ave. ; 26th precinct, 34 Rawson St., near Elstonave.; 
27th precinct, 478 W. North ave., near Milwaukee ave.; 28th precinct, Mil- 
waukee ave. and Attrill st. ; 29th precinct, Irving Park. 

5th division headquarters, 242 Chicago ave. ; 30th precinct, 242 Chicago 
ave.; 31st precinct, Larrabee st. and North ave.; 32d precinct, 958 N. Hal- 
sted St.; 83d precinct, Diversey and Shefiield aves. ;34th precinct, N Hal- 
sted St. and Addison ave.; 35th precinct, Thirty-fifth St., near S. Halsted st. ; 
6th precinct, 2913 Deering St., near Archer ave. 



80 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Headquarters. — The headquarters of the police department are located in 
the City Hall. 

Police Station Matrons. — Twenty matrons, each receiving $630 per 
annum, are employed at the principal precinct stations, to care for females 
and children arrested. The matron service is carefully supervised by the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

Patrol System. — The. Patrol Wagon system, which is worked to per- 
fection in this city, had its origin in Chicago. From the patrol boxes located 
at convenient corners, or by telephone from any point, place of business or 
residence, a patrol wagon containing from four to eight police officers may 
be summoned at any hour of the day or night. The response is quick, sur- 
prisingly so to strangers, who are always interested in its operation. The 
telephone and telegraph are constantly employed in connection with the 
polite system of Chicago, and some arrests of dangerous and notorious 
characters have been made within recent months by the operations of this 
system that could not have been accomplished under the old methods. The 
patrol service is also an ambulance corps, and renders valuable assistance in 
rescuing the injured in accidents, or in carrying to hospitals those who are 
suddenly stricken with illness. Besides the patrol wagons there are two 
regular ambulances connected with the department, and others are to be 
added. The number of patrol wagons in the service is 35. 

Policemen's Benevolent Fund. — The policemen of Chicago are retired on 
half pay after twenty years of service. They have also a benevolent organi- 
zation [see Eleemosynary Support], assisted by the municipality, called "The 
Policemen's Benevolent Association," which cares for its members if they 
become disabled, and for the wives and orphans of deceased officers. Of this 
fund Captain Michael Brennan is treasurer. In his report for 1890 he made 
the following handsome showing: 

EXPENDITURES. 

Paid to widows $48,000 00 

Sick benefits 3,924 00 

Funeral expenses 3,009 CO 

General expenses , 653 33 

Expenses theater benefit 9,083 50 

Total $75,tl615 Total $63,65983 

Members in grood standing 1,538 

Admitted during year 347 

Number of deaths 34 

Dropped out 55 

Assessments ordered ". 7 

Cost to each member $20 08 

Bogues' Gallery. — Now called " The Bureau of Identification." The gal- 
lery is in charge of the police photographer and is situated in the City Hall 
basement. Visitors are not allowed except by special permission. The 
albums contain the photographs of thousands of noted criminals of this 
and other cities. 

POPULATION STATISTICS. 

The present ratio of gain in the population of the city of Chicago is 1,000 
per week. In the ten months, or, say forty weeks, intervening between the 
time of the completion of the school census, in June, 1890, and the present 
time, April, 1891, forty thousand persons would, therefore, be added to the 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand $ 9,720 40 

Annual benefit at Auditorium 35,606 25 

Dues and initiations 38,948 50 

Donations 696 00 

Theater tickets 1889 145 00 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



81 



population of the city. The school census figures were 1,208,669. Add 
40,000, and we have 1,348,669. Add additions to population by annexation, 
since June, 1890 (9,900), and we have 1,258,569. It is perfectly safe, therefore, to 
claim for Chicago in the summer of 1891, in round numbers, a population of 
one million and a quarter. The statements which follow are all based upon 
school census returns. 

Growth hy Wards. — In order to illustrate the rapidity with which the 
population of Chicago increases, the following tables, showing the increase 
in the inhabitants of the different wards between 1888 and 1890 is given. 
Comparison is made between the school census returns of both years: 



^Yard. 


Population in 

1890. 


Population in 

1888. 


Increase. 


1 


44,897 
30,652 
30,511 
31,415 
40,642 
45,199 
45,699 
36,539 
41,411 
42,925 
37,182 
52,127 
37,501 
40,724 
42,342 
58.699 
28,333 
3%126 
48,590 
27,126 
35,335 
36,505 
41,519 
35,120 


33,333 
26,964 
28,052 
26,236 
40.067 
40;513 
36,398 
33,497 
36,592 
33,435 
32,298 
40,536 
32,023 
31.350 
29,761 
50,750 
24,589 
31.667 
41,671 
22,597 
30,620 
32,283 
38,579 
30,141 


13,564 


2 

3 


3,688 
2,4^.9 


4 

5 • •■• 

6 

7 

8 


5,179 

575 
4,687 
9,301 
3,342 


9 


4,819 


10 


9,490 


11 

12 

13 

14 


4,884 

11,591 

5,478 

9,374 


15 


12.681 


16 


7,949 


17 

18 


3,744 
4,4'9 


19 

20 


6,919 

4,715 


21 


4,529 


21 


4,223 


23 


2,940 


24 


4.979 



These are the old wards. The population of the new wards must be com- 
pared with the population of the townships in which they are situated. 



Toivnsliips. Wards. 
I 25 
Lake View -| 25 

.Tefferson 27 

Part of iCicero 28 

(29 

Lake ^30 

I 31 
(32 

^33 

34 



Hyde Park . 



opulation 


Population 




in 1890. 


in 1888. 


Increase. 


23,788 
28,003 


1 46,164 


5,637 


11,368 
8,785 


11,553 
6,850 


1,935 


31,139 


) 




49,718 


y 84,585 


17,860 


21, .586 


i 




29,413 


) 




39,230 


y 67,063 


11,191 


39,611 







The large increase in the population of Jefferson was due to the fact that a 
great portion of it, containing about 4,000 persons, was annexed during 1889. 

nationalities Represented. — Chicago is a thoroughlv cosmopolitan city. 
Les9 than one-fourth of her people are of American birth — fully one-third 



82 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



of the 292,463 native-born citizens are of immediate foreign extraction. The 

following is a careful estimate of the nationalities represented. 

American 292,463 

German 384,958 



Irish 215,534 

Boliemian 54,209 

Polish 52,756 

Swedish 45,877 

Norwegian 44,615 

English 33,785 

French 12,963 

Scotch 11,927 

Welsh 2,966 

Russian 9,977 

Danes 9,891 

Italians 9,921 



Hollanders 4,912 

Hungarians 4,827 

Swiss 2,735 

Roumanians 4,35U 

Canadians 6,0fc9 

Belgians 682 

Greeks 698 

Spanish J;97 

Portuguese 34 

East Indians 28 

West Indians. . . . 37 

Sandwich 1 slanders 31 

Mongolians . 1,217 



1,^08,66^ 

Population by Divmons. — According to the census of 1880 the South 
Division had a population of 127,266, the West Division 276,321, and the 
North Division 99,717. Between 1880 and 1889 the West gained rapidly on 
the other sides, until, before the annexation of adjoining towns, it was esti- 
mated to contain two-thirds of all the inhabitants in the city. The acquisi- 
tion of the populous towns of Hyde Park and Lake, on the South, and Lake 
View and Jefferson, on the North, by the vote of 1889, however, swelled the 
population of these divisions to a point which considerably weakened the 
ascendency of the West Division. 

Following i3 the population by Divisions, according to the school census 
of 1890: 

Total population of South Division, comprising the South Town wards 
and those of Lake and Hyde Park, male, 222,077; female, 191,845; total, 
413,922. 

Total population West Division, comprising the West Town wards and 
Twenty-eighlh ward (annexed portion of Cicero), male. 297,722; female, 
258,261; total, 555,983. 

Total population North Division, comprising the North Side wards and 
those of Lake View and Jefferson, male, 126,091; female, 112,673; total 
238,764. 

Population Summary.— Oi the 1,208,669 inhabitants in Chicage in 1890, 
645,890 were males and 562,779 were females. There were 735,435 persons 
over 21 years of age, of whom 409,676 were males and 325,759 were females. 
The total number of persons under 21, 473,234 ; 236,214 being males and 
237,020 being females. The number of school children between 6 and 14 
was males, 84,272 ; females, 81,344 ; total 165,621 . The total number of chil- 
dren under 6 was 183,801. The blind numbered 183 ; deaf and dumb, 427— 
males, 203 ; females, 224. The total number of pupils in private schools was 
39,906 ; total number of pupils in public schools 135,551. The total number 
of children under 21 who had finished their studies was 35,246, while there 
were 35,246 who had to work but would have attended school had they an 
opportunity. The total number between 12 and 21 who could not read 
or write English was but 2,599, of whom 1,200 were males. The total 
number between 6 and 14 who did not attend school was 6,216. The colored 
people of all ages in the city were 14,490—7,932 males, 6,558 females. The 
Mongolians numbered 1,217, of whom only 10 were females. The population 
of the annexed districts was 262,640, as against 216,213 in 1889, and within 
the old city boundaries 946,029, as against 802,651 in 1889. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 83 

Population of Cook County. — The population of Cook County, 111., in 
which Chicago is situated, accordina:to the United States Census of June, 1890, 
was 1,189,258 against 607,524 in 1880. This is grossly incorrect. The pop- 
ulation of the county outside of the city is not less than 100,000, which, added 
to the estimate of $1,250,000 for the city at the present time, makes the 
population of Cook county 1,350,000. 

Population of IHinois. — The population of Illinois, according to the 
United States census of June, 1890, was 3,801,285, which gave her the third 
place among the States of the Union — New York ranking first and Pennsyl- 
vania, second. By census districts the count was as follows : 



First District 1,225,292 

Second District 342,500 

Third District 393,155 

Fourth District 400,092 

Fifth District 370,000 



Sixth District 384,928 

Seventh District 383,940 

Eighth District 352,378 



Total 3,801,285 

If the error made in the count of Chicago, which is included in the first 
district, be taken into account, and the gain in population since June, 1890, 
be added, the population of Illinois in April, 1891, can be fairly said to exceed 
four millions. 

POST-OFFICE. 

The limits or jurisdiction of the postmaster of the Chicago Post office 
covers less than one-third of the area of the city proper, the outlying post- 
offices being entirely distinctive, and having postmasters of their own. [See 
" Outlying Chicago Post-Offices."] The central or general ofiice is located 
in the business portion of the city. It has eleven carrier stations and twenty- 
two sub-postal stations, distributed at various points within said jurisdiction. 
The force employed consists of about 650 regular carriers, 200 substitute 
carriers, 687 regular clerks and sixty substitute clerks, making a total of 
1,597 employes. Of this force, eighty carriers, thirty-six horses and thirty- 
six wagons are employed in the collection of the mail from the street letter- 
boxes. 

Branch Offices. — The city branch post-offices, or sub-stations, are located 
as follows: North Division Station, 355—359 N. Clark, nw. cor. Oak, Supt. 
Theodore Stimming; Northwest Station, 517 Milwaukee ave., Supt. W. S. 
Householder; West Division Station, W. Washington^ cor. S. Halsted, Supt. 
George Berz; West Madison Street Station, 981 W. 'Madison, Supt. S. S. 
Corson; Southwest Station, 543 Blue Island ave., Supt. John Vanderpoel; 
South Division, 3217 State, Supt. A. S. Reynolds; Cottage Grove Station, 
3704 Cottage Grove ave.. Supt. Peter Witt; Stock Yard Station, S. Halsted 
cor. 42d, Supt. Frank Ketchum; Lake View Station, 1353 Diversey ave., 

Supt., ; Humboldt Park Station, 1576 Milwaukee ave., Supt. H. S. 

Worth; Hyde Park Station, 142 Fifty-third, Supt. B. F. Head. Sub-Postal 
Stations: Twenty-second Street Station, 86 Twenty-second, Supt. E. P. 
Brooks; Ogden Avenue Station, 324 Ogden ave., Supt. H. R. Tyner. 

City Delivery. — Free delivery of letters by faithful carriers will be secured 
by having the letters addressed to the street and number. 



84 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Closing of Foreign 3/rti7s— Foreign visitors will be guided by the following 
rules of the closing of mails: Mails for Great Britain and Ireland dispatched 
in closed bags as follows: Sundays, Mondays and Thursdays via ISew York, 
close 4 p. M. For Denmark, M or way and Sweden, dispatched in closed 
bags, Sundays, Mondays and Thursdays close 4 p. m. For Germany, dis- 
patched in closed bags, Mondays and Thursdays. For China, Japan, New 
Zealand, Australia, Sandwich Islands, Fiji Islands, Samoa, and special 
addressed matter for Siam, close dail}' at 2 p. m., sent to San Francisco for 
dispatch in closed bags from that office. Note: Mails for countries not 
named above close daily 4 p. m, and are sent to New York for dispatch in 
the closed bags from that office. For Canada, Province Ontario and Quebec, 
close 7 A. M. and 8 p. m. daily except Sunday, Sunday 5 p. m. Hamilton 
(city), Ontario, Toronto (city), Ontario, special despatch close daily at 2:30 p. m. 
Quebec, London special dispatch close daily 10 a. m. Mail for above points 
close Sundays 5 p. m. For Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Prince Edward's 
Island and Newfoundland close daily at 8:15 a. m. and 7 and 8 p. m. For 
British Columbia and Manitoba, close daily at 2 a. m. Foreign postage 
tables will be found in the public lobbies of the main and branch offices. 
For Mexico, close daily at 8:15 a. m. and 8 p. m. 

Increase of Business. — The following shows the business of the Chicago 
Post-office for the five years ending June 30, 1890, and the probable increase, 
providing the same ratio is maintained for the five years ending June 30, 
1895: 





Gross Revenue. 


Gross Disburse- 
ments. 




Amount. 


Increase 
per cent. 


Amount. 


Increase 
per cent. 


1885 


$1,930,363 
3,026,274 
3,226,841 
2,470,439 
2.784,304 
3,126,840 




% 726,860 
769,441 
8b'6,146 
868,783 
964,418 
1,131,474 


5.9 


1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 , 


ft.O 
10.0 
11.0 
12.7 
12.3 


8.7 

3.9 

11.0 

17.8 



COMING FIVE YEAKS. 



1891. 

1893 

1893. 

1894 

1895. 



^3,445,757 
3,797,223 
4,184,539 
4,611,361 
5,081,198 



10.3 


Sl,237,832 


9.4 


1C.3 


1,354,188 


9.4 


10.2 


1,481,481 


9.4 


10.2 


1,620,740 


9.4 


10.3 


1,773,049 


9.4 



In this table the rate of increase is estimated by the same method adopted 
in refel-ence to the New York office. But, unless all expectations prove delu- 
sive, the increase in the receipts of the Chicago office will far outrun these 
figures. It would not surprise any observer of the growth of Chicago and 
the expansion of its business, if these should be so accelerated during the 
next two years from natural causes and by reason of the World's Fair that 
the receipts of this post-office for the year ending June 30, 1893 should bound 
up to $6,000,000. In that event, which is entirely within probability, the 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 85 

urgency for increased post-office accommodations to take care of such busi- 
ness is 50 per cent, greater here than in New York, for our local office is 
already accomplishing more with proportionately less facilities and expendi- 
tures than is the New York office. 

Inspector's Department. — Located on top floor of Post-office building : 
Inspector, James E. Stuart, in charge of Chicago Division, comprising the 
States of Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Dakota. 
Assistants : Angrew Isle, Miss Lenore Mooney, Geo. A. Smith. All cases of 
irregularities, depredations or violations of postal laws, should be reported 
to the Inspector. 

International Money Order System.— Orders Can be obtained upon any 
money-order office in Great Britain and Ireland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, 
Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Italy, Canada, France, 
Algeria, Japan, Portugal, The Hawaiian Kingdom, Jamaica, New Zealand, 
New South Wales, Hungary, Egypt, and Hong Kong, India and Tasmania, 
Queensland, Cape Colony, The Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands for 
any sum not exceeding $50 in United States currency. No single order issued 
for more than $50. Parties desiring to remit larger sums must obtain addi- 
tional money-orders. There is no limit to the number of orders in the Inter- 
national Money-order System. The fees for all International Money-orders, 
are on orders not exceeding $10 — 10 cents ; over $10 and not exceeding $20 — 
20 cents ; $20 and not exceeding $30—30 cents ; $30 and not exceeding $40 — 
40 cents ; $40 and not exceeding $50 — 50 cents. 

3Iail Train Service. — There are 220 mail trains arriving and departing from 
the city daily, excepting Sunday; of these trains 118 have railway post-offices 
attached, in which 300 clerks are daily employed in the distribution of the 
mails while in transit. In addition to this number of railway clerks, a force 
of thirty-three clerks employed by the Chicago post-office is sent out on the 
night trains to the meeting point of incoming railway post-office trains, on 
which they return to distribute aud make up the mail for the main office and 
stations, for immediate delivery by carriers upon arrival. This system of 
quick delivery of incoming mails was instituted by the present postmaster. 
Col. James A. Sexton. By this method sixty-five to seventy per centum of 
the mails received during the twenty-four hours is placed upon the counters 
of banks and business houses in the business portion by 9 o'clock in the 
morning. There are 110 separate mails closed daily for despatch, the first 
close being made at 3:20 A. m., and the last at 10:30 p. m. A corresponding 
number of mails is received daily. There are also used daily 1,014 leather 
bags, and 2,930 canvas bags in conveying the mails to and from the post- 
office and railway trains. The weight of the empty bans alone amounted to 
3,249,253 pounds for the year. The headquarters of the 6th Division Rail- 
way Mail Service, comprising the States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, and 
Wyoming Territory, are located in Chicago. In this division 856 railway 
clerks are employed in the distribution of the mails on the cars. During the 
year ending June 30, 1890, these clerks traveled 33,330,704 miles. The 
Division of Post-office Inspectors, comprising the States of Illinois, Iowa, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and the two Dakotas, have their head- 
quarters here. The Inspector in charge has fifteen inspectors under his 
supervision, with 10,000 postmasters and their innumerable employes to look 
after. 

Officers of the Post-office. — The principal officers of the post-office are: 



86 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Postmaster, James A. Sexton ; Assistant Postmaster, John M. Hubbard ; 
Supply Clerk, J. W". Ward ; Record Clerk, John Matter ; Superintendent, 
John A. Montgomery ; Private Secretary, Horace H. Thomas ; Cashier, 
Charles Catlin ; Book-keeper, T. R. Melody; Superintendent of City 
Delivery, M. J. McGrath ; Superintendent Money-order Division, H. P. 
Thompson ; Superintendent of Registry Division, R. T. Hov^ard. 

Outlying ChicagoPost-offices. — There are, aside from the general post-office 
and its branches in the different divisions of the old city, fifty-three separate 
and distinct post-offices within the corporate limits of Chicago, as follows: 
Argyle Park, corner Winthrop avenue and Argyle street; Auburn Park, 
corner Seventy-ninth and Wright streets; Avondale, corner of Kenzie and 
Belmont avenues; Bowman ville, Lincoln avenue, near Fifty-ninth street; 
Buena Park, opposite railroad station of that name; Burnside Crossing, cor- 
ner Cottage Grove and Lyon avenues; Calumet, Clinton, near Eighty-ninth 
street; Central Park, 4131 West Lake street; Cheltenham, 159 Cheltenham 
place; Chicago Lawn, corner Sixty-third street and Central Park avenue; 
Colehour, 10301 Avenue K; Cragin, opposite railroad station of that name; 
Crawford, Butler avenue, near Twenty-fourth streeet; Cummings, Torrence 
avenue, near One Hundred and Seventh street; Dunning, corner of Cherry 
street and Irving Park boulevard; Edge water, on Chicago & Evanston rail- 
road; Elsdon, Fifty-first street, near Trumbull avenue; Englewood, 6211 
Wentworth avenue; Englewood Heights, corner Eighty-ninth and Page 
streets; Forest Glen, corner Elston and Forest Glen avenues; Forest Hill, 
corner Seventy-ninth and Robey streets; Gano, corner One Hundred and 
Sixteenth and Dearborn streets; Grand Crossing, corner Seventy-fifth street 
and Wilson avenue; Havelock, corner Front street and Cemetery avenue. 
Hegewisch, 13303 South Chicago avenue ; Hermosa, Armitage street, near 
Keeney; High Ridge, corner Weber avenue and Chicago & North Western 
railway; Irving Park, Charles avenue, near.Irving Park boulevard; Jefferson, 
Milwaukee avenue, near Maynard street; J udd, corner Ninety-third street 
and Washington avenue; Kensington, Kensington avenue, near Front street; 
Linden Park, corner Robinson avenue and Kinzie street; Mandell, corner 
West Forty-eighth and Harrison streets; Maplewood, corner of Evergreen 
and Maplewood avenues; Mayfair, St. James street, near Franklin; Mont 
Clare, at the railroad station of that name; Moreland, corner West Forty- 
eighth and Kinzie streets; Pacific, at the railroad station of that name; Park 
Manor, 6760 South Chicago avenue; Parkside, Stony Island avenue, near 
Sixty-ninth street; Pullman, corner Morse avenue and One Hundred and 
Twelfth street; Ravenswood, east of Ravenswood park, near Wilson avenue; 
Riverdale, corner Indiana avenue and One Hundred and Thirty-sixth street; 
Roseland, corner Michigan avenue and Union street; Simons, Kimball ave- 
nue, near Bloomingdale road; South Chicago, 9150 Commercial avenue; 
South Englewood, corner Vincennes avenue and Halsted street; South 
Lynne, Sixty-fifth street and Chicago, St. Louis & Pittsburgh railroad ; Sum- 
merdale.near Fifty-ninth street and Ravenswood park; Washington Heights; 
Wildwood, Indiana avenue, near One Hundred and Thirty-third street; 
Woodlawn Park, corner Sixty-third street and Illinois Central railroad. 

Post-office Building. — Located on the square bounded by Adams street 
on the north, Jackson street on the south, Dearborn street on the east and 
Clark street on the west, in the heart of the business center, within easy walk- 
ing distance of all the great hotels, railroad depots and street car terminals. 
The erection of the building was commenced in 1871, after the great fire. In 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 87 

which the old post-office building, northwest corner of Dearborn and Mon- 
roe streets, where the First National Bank building now stands, was 
destroyed. Architecturally and mechanically the structure is a failure. 
Although costing in the neighborhood of $5,000,000, it has been an eyesore 
to the people of Chicago, a perfect blot upon the architectural beauty of the 
city, and inconvenient, inadequate and unsafe for the purposes to which it is 
dedicated. When erected it was supposed to be large enough to meet the 
demands of the Chicago postal service for fifty years to come. Inside of 
ten years it proved to be too small. The building as it stands to-day is 
hardly worth a description. The visitor, however, will be interested in 
walking through it, because of the immense volume of business conducted 
there, and the bustling crowds to be met with in the corridors. A new post- 
office to cost between $5,000,000 and $6,000,000 will shortly take its place. 
Whether the same site will be occupied is not definitely settled at this writ- 
ing. The building is also occupied by the Custom-house officers and the 
United States courts. 

Postal Notes. — Postal notes for sums not exceeding $4.99 will be issued on 
payment of a fee of three cents each. These notes are made payable to 
bearer at any money order office in the United States which the purchaser 
may designate. 

Railway Mail Service. — Room 83 Postoffice building. Superintendent of 
Sixth Division, James E. White; Asst. Supt., L. L. Troy. 

Railway Post-offices. — Railway post-offices are established on all lines from 
Chicago, These offices run upon nearly all trains, and letters may be mailed 
at the cars up to the moment prior to the departure of the trains. Stamps of 
the denomination of tw^o cents may be had at the cars. 

Rates of Postage. — The letter rate of postage is two cents for each ounce, 
or fraction thereof, throughout the United States and Dominion of Canada. 
The postage on letters dropped in the office for delivery in the city is two 
cents per ounce. All letters must be fully prepaid by stamps. The following 
classes of letters are not advertised: Drop letters, box letters, letters directed 
and sent to hotels and thence returned to the post-office as unclaimed; letters 
returned from the dead-letter office to writers, and card request letters; circu- 
lars, free packets, containing documents, speeches, and other printed matter. 
N. B. — A request for the return of a letter to the writer within thirty days or 
less, written or printed with the writer's name, post-office and State across 
the left-hand side of the envelope, on the face side, will be complied with. 
Such letters will be returned to the writer free of postage. 

Mail Matter of the Second Glass. — This class embraces newspapers and 

)ther periodical publications, issued not less than four times a year, from a 

inown office of publication, and bearing a date of issue, and which have no 

loth, leather, or other substantial binding. Such publications must have a 

'egitimate list of subscribers, and must not be designed primarily for adver- 

\ising purposes, or for free circulation. The rate of postage on second-claFs 

i/iatter, when sent from the office of publication (including sample copies), or 

v/hen sent from a news agent to actual subscribers, or to other news agents, 

js one cent per pound, or fraction thereof; but if sent by any other than the 

publisher, or a news agent, is one cent for each four ounces, or fraction 

hereof. 



88 ' GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Mail Matter of the TJdrd Glass. — This class embraces transient news- 
papers and periodicals, books (printed), photographs, circulars, proof-sheets, 
and corrected proof-sheets with manuscript copy accompanying the same, 
and all matter of the same general character, as above enumerated. The rate 
of postage is one cent for each two ounces, or fractional part thereof, 
except on transient newspapers and periodicals of the second class, which 
will be one cent for each four ounces, or fraction thereof. 

Mail Matter of the Fourth Class. — This class embraces labels, patterns, 
playing cards, addressed tags, paper sacks, wrapping paper, and blotting pads, 
with or without printed advertisements thereon, bill heads, letter heads, 
envelopes plain, or printed addresses thereon, ornamented paper, and all 
other matter of the same general character. This class also includes merchan- 
dise and samples of merchandise, models, samples of ores, metals, minerals, 
seeds, &c., and any other matter not included in the first, second or third 
classes, and which is not in its form or nature liable to damage the contents 
of the mail bag, or harm the person. Postage rate thereon, one cent for 
each ounce, or fraction thereof. 

Receipts and Revenues of the Chicago Post-office. — The receipts of the Chicago 
office and sub-stations (exclusive of the fifty-three outlying post offices) for the 
last fiscal year amounted to $3,126,840.68, and the expenses to $1,131,474.24, 
showing a net income of $1,995,366.44, or profit of nearly $2,000,000 for the 
year. During the same period the mail matter deliveredand dispatched from 
the Chicago office amounted to 35,500,641 pounds, or 519,414,681 pieces, while 
the number of registered articles handled and not included in the above 
amounted to 3,097,986 pieces. In addition to this, the number of money- 
order transactions reached 1,879,292, aggregating a sum of $19,288,947.54, in 
that department of the office alone. The amount of mail in transit through 
the city of Chicago and transferred from incoming to outgoing trains is esti- 
mated to have reached the enormous bulk of 27,375 tons for the year. 

Receipts for 1890. — The receipts of the Chicago post-office for 1890 were 
$3,318,889, as against $2,952,450 for 1889 ; percentage of increase, 12^^ per 
cent. 

Registry Department. — Letters can be registered to all parts of the United 
States upon payment of a fee of ten cents in addition to the regular postage. 

Salaries of Officers. — Postmaster, $6,000 per annum; assistant postmaster, 
the superintendent of the city delivery, the superintendent of mails, the 
superintendent of the money order department, the superintendent of the 
registry department, the cashier and the accountant, $4,000 per annum; clerks, 
from $800 to $1,200, according to length of service; carriers, from $600 to 
$900, according to length of service. 

United States Money Order System. — The Fees for Money-orders are : On 
orders not exceeding $5 — 5 cents ; over $5 and not exceeding $10 — 8 cents ; 
over $10 and not exceeding $15 — 10 cents ; over $15 and not exceeding $30 — 
15 cents ; over $30 and not exceeding $40 — 20 cents ; over $40 and not exceed- 
ing $50 — 25 cents ; over $50 and not exceeding $60 — 30 cents ; over $60 and 
not exceeding $70—35 cents ; over $70 and not exceeding $80 — 40 cents ; over 
$80 and not exceeding $100—45 cents ; no fraction of cents to be introduced 
in the order. No single order issued for more than $100. Parties 
desiring to remit larger sums must obtain additional money-orders. No 
applicant, however, can obtain in one day more than three orders payable at 
the same office and to the same payee. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 89 

PRIVATE EDUCATION. 

Aside from Chicago's magnificent public schoot system, which employs 
2,843 trained teachers, and which are attended by 135,551 pupils, private 
instruction is conducted on an extensive scale in the city. The total number of 
pupils enrolled in private schools is 63,713. The number of teachers employed 
in private schools is 11,640. Following is a complete list of the kindergartens, 
private and parochial schools, academies, seminaries, colleges, etc., in 
Chicago: 

First Ward. — Chicago Business College, 45 Randolph st. , teachers 4, pupiJ ^ 
male 175, female 75; Bryant & Stratton's Business College, Wabash ave. and 
Washington St., teachers 34, pupils, male 500, female 150; Chicago Athenaeum, 
50 Dearborn St., teachers 33, pupils, male 537, female 338; Illinois College of 
Pharmacy, 40 Dearborn st., teachers 7, pupils, male 97, temale 5; Union Col- 
lege of Law, 40 Dearborn St., teachers 5, pupils, male 164, female 4; Central 
College of Shorthand, 94 Dearborn st., teachers 4, pupils, male 20, female 30; 
Chicago Conservatory, the Auditorium, teachers 30, pupils, male 136, female 
134; Illinois Musical College, corner State and Randolph sts., teachers 3, 
pupils, male 50, female 100; School of Language, Central Music Hall, 
teachers 5, pupils, male 50, female 150; Chicago Musical College, State and 
Randolph sts., teachers 33, pupils, male 433, female 867; Brown & Holland, 
shorthand and typewriting, 3103^ South Clark st., teachers 3, pupils, male 
100, female 300; Metropolitan Business College, corner Monroe st. and Mich- 
igan ave., teachers 13, pupils, male 350, female 100; Chicago Dramatic and 
Musical College, 116 Monroe St., teachers 4, pupils, male 60, female 40; 
Kimball Shorthand School, 85 E, Madison st., teachers 2, pupils, male 15, 
female 30; Munson's Shorthand School, corner Monroe and Dearborn sts., 
teachers 3, pupils, male 49, female 134; Perrin's Shorthand School, 135 Dear- 
born St., teachers 3, pupils, male 34, female 36; Marr's Shorthand School, 
Chicago Opera House, teachers 5, pupils, male 50, female 50; Chicago Art 
School, Michigan ave. and Jackson st., teachers 9, pupils, male 106, female 
130; St. Paul's Home for Boys, 45 Jackson st.. teachers 3, pupils, male 38; 
Pacific Garden Mission, 40 Fourth ave., teachers 5, pupils, male 38, female 
43; Chicago College of Pharmacy, 465 State st., teachers 7, pupils, male 374, 
female 6; Bethesda Kindergarten, 406 South Clark St., teachers 5, pupils, 
male 35, female 30; Hebrew Free School, 104 Pacific ave., teachers 3, pupils, 
male 63; St. Peter's, corner Clark and Polk sts., teachers 3, pupils, male 50, 
female 50; Nardi Italian Mission, 505 Clark st., teachers 5, pupils, male 13, 
female 10; Chicago Manual Training School, Twelfth st. and Michigan ave., 
teachers 10, pupils, male 250; Lyman's School of Elocution, Argyle building, 
teachers 1, pupils, male 40, female 70. 

Second Ward. — Northwestern College of Dental Surgery, 1301 Wabash 
ave., teachers 10, pupils, male 45, female 2; Railroad Chapel Kindergar- 
ten, 1419 State St., teachers 4, pupils, male 25, female 28; Newsboys' 
Home, 1431 Wabash ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 65, female 3 ; St. John's 
Boys' School, 1715 South Clark St., teachers 3, pupils, male 225; St. 
John's Girls' School, 1713 Butterfield st., teachers 5, pupils, female, 250; 
Women's Union Kindergarten, 1627 South Clark st., teachers 3, pupils, 
male 36, female 40; Home of the Friendless, 1926 Wabash ave., Kinder- 
garten, teachers 4, pupils, male 21, female 15, private teachers 5, pupils. 



90 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

male 41, female 46 ; Allen's Academy, 1832 Wabash and 1836 Michigan 
a ve., teachers 7, pupils, .male 85, female 33 ; Miss Martin's, 1626 Indiana 
ave., teachers 6, pupils, male 13, female 79; Christian Science Theological 
Seminary, 2019 Indiana ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 10, female 20 ; Dear- 
born Seminary, Twenty-second St., and Calumet ave., teachers 12, pupils, 
female 90; Holman & Dickerson's, 2115 Indiana ave., teachers 10, 
pupils, female 95; Harvard School, 2101 Indiana ave., teachers 12, pupils, 
male 120 ; Jewish Training School, 91 Twenty-first St., teachers 2, pupils, 
female 60; Chicago Orphan Asylum, 2228 Michigan ave., teachers 9, 
pupils, male 143, female 102; Charity Kindergarten, 2351 State St., teachers 
4, pupils, male 34, female 35; Allen's School, 2253 Calumet ave., teachers 
13, pupils, male 65, female 36 ; Loring's School, 2536 Prairie ave., teachers 20, 
pupils, male 20, female 125 ; R. Reid's School, 2359 Calumet ave., teachers 5, 
pupils, male 50, female 35 ; Baptist Training School, 2411 Indiana ave.. Kin- 
dergarten, teachers 4, pupils, male 10, female 35; parochial, teachers 2, pupils, 
female 28. 

Third Ward. — Northwestern Dental University, 51 Twenty-sixth St., 
teachers 9, pupils, male 24; St. Xavier Academy, 2834 Wabash ave.» 
teachers 25, pupils, male 190 ; St. James, 2924 Wabash ave., teachers 19, 
pupils, male 525, female 540 ; Swedish Mission School, Thirtieth and La 
Salle sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 16, female 12 ; Kindergarten, 3033 Vernon 
ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 7, female 13 ; Kindergarten, 3017 Groveland 
ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 6, female 10 ; Soper's Typewriting School, 3009 
Michigan ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 15, female 20 ; R. H. Spaid's Kinder- 
garten, Thirty-first St., teachers 5, pupils, male 8, female 16; Shorthand 
School, 2151 Indiana ave., pupils, male 1, female 20 ; Miss Nash's School, cor- 
ner Thirty -first st. and Indiana ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 6, female 10; 
Miss White's School, 3245 Indiana ave., teachers 4, pupils, male 12, female 
28 ; Madam Kuntz's School, 3119 Indiana ave., teachers 5, pupils, male 21, 
female 65 ; St. Paul's Kindergarten, corner Twenty-ninth st. and Prairie ave., 
teachers 3, pupils, male 15, female 20. 

Fourth F(zrd— Central Bible School, College pi., teachers 4, pupils, 
male 3, female 23 ; College of Life School, College pi. , teachers 2, pupils, 
male 8, female 5 ; A. Scranton's School, 69 Thirty-first St., teachers4, pupils, 
male 36, female 45 ; St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum, Lake ave. and Thirty-fifth 
St., teachers 16, pupils, male 1, female 90 ; Ellis Avenue Kindergarten, 3731 
Ellis ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 10, female 7 : Mrs. Ross, 3732 Lake ave., 
teachers 6, pupils, male 6, female, 40 ; Armour Mission Kindergarten, cor- 
ner Thirty-third and Butterfield sts., teachers 9, pupils, male 75, female 75; 
Drexel Kindergarten, 3711 Cottage Grove ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 10, 
female 20; Home and Day School, 32 East Thirty-third st., teachers 4, 
pupils, male 7, female 8. 

Fifth Fanl— Hereford Free Kindergarten, 406 Twenty-second st. 
teachers 6, pupils, male 35. female 40 ; Kindergarten, 101 Bushnell st., teach- 
ers 5, pupils, male 30, female 50 ; Kindergarten, Twenty-third st. and 
Wentworth ave., teachers?, pupils, male 47, female 65; Eva Sadams', 370 
Twenty-fifth st., teachers 1, pupils, male 29, female 17; St. John's, 426 
Twenty-fifth St., teachers 1, pupils, male 45, female 47; St. Stephen's, 
corner of Twentv-fifth st. and Went worth ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 9, 
female 19; Bohemian, 426 Twentv-fifth st., teachers 1, pupils, male 53, 
female 27 ; Grace School. 167 Twenty -third pi., teachers 1, pupils, male 19 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 91 

female 23 ; Burr Mission, Twenty-third st. and Wentworth ave., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 30, female 38 ; Kindergarten, 2317 Wentworth ave., teachers 1, 
pupils, female 60 ; St. Antonius', Twenty -fifth st. and Portland ave., teach- 
ers 3, pupils, male 131, female 133 ; Swedish Lutheran School, 2815 Portland 
ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 36, female 48; Plymouth Kindergarten, 3037 
Butler St., teachers 8, pupils, male 44, female 57 ; All Saints', 71 and 73 
Twenty-fifth pi., teachers 12, pupils, male 300, female 350 ; St. Anthony's 
Twenty-fourth pi., teachers 10, pupils, male 352, female 344 ; Trinity Luth- 
eran, northwest corner of Hanover st. and Twenty-fifth pi., teachers 2, 
pupils, male 90, female 90. 

SixtJi Ward.—^t. Bridget's, 2954 Archer ave., teachers 12, pupils, male 475, 
female 525; Raymond Mission, 2951 Poplar street, teachers 2, pupils, male 19, 
female 28; Immaculate Conception, 2950Bonfieldst., teachers 5, pupils, male, 
200, female, 150; German Lutheran, corner of Arch and Lyman sts., teachers 5, 
pupils, male 220, female 200; W. C. T. U. Kindergarten, corner of Ullman and 
James aves., teachers 3, pupils, male 35, female 50; Perpetual Help, corner of 
Thirty-second and Laurel sts., teachers 3, pupils, male 164, female 158; St. 
Mary's, 889 Thirty-second St., teachers 6, pupils, male 168, female 176; German 
Lutheran, Ullman St., teachers 1, pupils, male 39, female 41; St. John Baptist, 
1370 Thirty-third ct., teachers 1, pupils, male 18, female 35; St. Andrew's 
Evangelical, 3621 Wood St., teachers 2, pupils, male 81, female 84; St. 
Andrew's, 3657 Honore st., trachers 1, pupils, male 76, female 53; Evan- 
gelical Lutheran, 888 Thirty -fifth st., teachers 2, pupils, male 64. female 40; 
St. Marcus', corner of Thirty -fifth and Dashiel sts., teachers, 1, pupils, male 
14, female 10; Nativity, corner of Thirty-seventh and Dashiel sts., teachers 
13, pupils, male 450, female 479; Lutheran Trinity Congregational, 3705 
Emerald ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 80, female 70; St. Joseph's, Thirty- 
ninth and Halsted sts., teachers 9, pupils, male 230, female 420; W. C. T. U. 
Kindergarten, Lock and Bonaparte sts., teachers 3, pupils, male 35, female 
50. 

Seventh Ward. — Hebrew School, 71 Judd St., teachers 3, pupils, male 
160; R. Roshum's, 51 Liberty St., teachers 1, pupils, male 20; Stolke's, 181 
Maxwell street, teachers 2, pupils, male 45, female 16; Hebrew and German, 
509 South Jefferson St., teachers 1, pupils, male 16, female 12; St. Francis, 
73 Newberry ave., teachers 34, pupils, male 475, female 450; St. Aloysius, 210 
Maxwell st., teachers 16, pupils, male 100, female 700; Zion Evangelical, 497 
Union st.. teachers 3, pupils, male 70, female 45; Hebrew and German Insti- 
tute, 660 Halsted st., teachers 1, pupils, male 25, female 12; Foster's Kinder- 
garten, 778 Halsted street, teachers 6, pupils, male 55, female 55; Evangelical 
Lutheran, corner Union and Twenty-first sts., teachers 6, pupils, male 245, 
female 263; Sisters of Sacred Heart, 212 to 222 West Eighteenth st., teachers 
20, pupils, male 443, female 544. 

Eighth Ward.—Ro\j Family, 462 South Morgan st., teachers 22, pupils, 
male 1,400; St. Agnes', 530 South Morgan st., teachers 5, pupils, female 360; 
Idah Flosky, 472 Centre ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 2, female 6; Bohemian 
and English, 400 and 402 West Eighteenth street, teachers 3, pupils, male 120, 
female 90; St. Procopius, 573 Center ave., teachers 2, pupils, female 20; St. 
Procopius, 712 AUport ave., teachers 21, pupils, male 483, female 476; Beth- 
lenska, corner of Nineteenth and Throop sts., teachers 3, pupils, male 30, 
female 35. 

MnthWard.—St, Pius, Twentieth st. and Ashland ave., teachers 13,pupils, 



92 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

female 450; Zion School, 683 Loomis St., teachers 3, pupils, male 108, female 
98; Hebrew School, 606 Blue Islaud ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 4, female 6; 
St. Adalbert, Seventeenth and Paulina sts., teachers 8, pupils, male 800, 
female 260; St. Vitus, Van Horn and Paulina sts., teachers 3, pupils, male 
124, female 136; St. Pius Bays' School, Van Horn and Paulina sts., teachers 

6, pupils, male 400; German Reform, 177 and 179 Hastings St., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 22, female 19; German-English, 230 Washburn St., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 30, female 20; St. Joseph's, 147 Thirteenth st., teachers 7, pupils, 
male 278, female 300; Emanuel Lutheran, 528 Marshfield ave., teachers 2, 
pupils, male 60, female 64, 

Tenth Ward. — Lutheran German, 73 Cypress st., teachers 1, pupils, male 
45, female 35; St. Charles, 91 Cypress st., teachers 6, pupils, male 150, female 
140; Hawley Kindergarten, 640 Ogden ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 10, 
female 5; St. Francis', corner of Wood and Hastings sts., teachers 5, pupils, 
male 150, female 145; Kindergarten, 12 Fairfield ave., teachers 3, pupils, 
male 17, female 26; Kindergarten, 533 West Thirteenth st., teachers 3, pupils, 
male 30, female 20; St. Matthew's, Twenty-first st. and Hoyne ave., teachers 
9, pupils, male 470, female 438; Holy Evangelical, Leavitt st., teachers 3, 
pupils, male 75, female 60; St. Paul's, Hoyne ave. and Ambrose st., teachers 

7, pupils, male 218, female 197; Evangelical Trinity, Ambrose and Robeysts., 
teachers 1, pupils, male 28, female 29; St. Malachi's, Colter st. and Western 
ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 74, female 90; Swedish School, Ambrose and 
Lincoln sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 18, female 7; Kindergarten, Ambrose 
and Lincoln sts., teachers 4, pupils, male 33, female 30; Swedish Mission, 
Parmelee and Rockwell sts., teachers 2, pupils, male 92, female 62; St. Mark's, 
1119 California ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 85, female 69. 

Eleventh Ward, — St. Columba's, 190 Paulina st., teachers 8, pupils, female 
375; St. Columbkill's, 184 Paulina St., teachers 7, pupils, male 435; Masonic 
Orphan's Home, 447 Carroll ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 16, female 14; 
Maplehurst, 550 Monroe st., teachers 7, pupils, male 10, female 20; Chicago 
Theological Seminary, 45 Warren ave., teachers 13, pupils, male 177; 
St. Margaret's, 606 Adams st., teachers 14, pupils, male 20, female 
115; Losse's Heart, 426 Madison St., teachers 2, pupils, male 15, female 20; 
Private School, 390 Adams st. , teachers 2, pupils, male 12, female 12; Acad- 
emy, 434 Carroll ave., teachers 6, pupils, male 9, female 12; Miss Galla- 
gher's, 330 Loomis St., teachers 1, pupils, male 45, female 17; Academy of the 
Sacred Heart, Taylor and Throop sts., teachers 24, pupils, female 110; Con- 
vent School, Taylor and Throop sts., teachers 15, pupils, female 800; Notre 
Dame, 87 Vernon Park Place, teachers 11, pupils, male 178, female 288. 

Tioelfth Ward. — School of Elocution, 665 West Madison St., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 5, female 20; Kindergarten, 881 West Monroe St., teachers 5, 
pupils, male 15, female 35; Our Lady of Sorrows, Van Buren st. and Albany 
ave., teachers 10, pupils, male 197, female 203; St. Mary's Seminary, Van 
Buren st. and Albany ave. , teachers 10, pupils, female 64; Haven College, 
1302 West Madison st., teachers 2, pupils, male 3, female 1; Kindergarten, 
1185 Wilcox ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 1, female 7; Kindergarten, 1347 
Madison st., teachers 3, pupils, male 6, female 6; Kindergarten, 376 Leavitt 
St., teachers 1, pupils, male 11, female 6; Campbell Park, 386 Leavitt st., 
teachers 5, pupils, male 70, female 25; Holy Trinity German. 841 West Tay- 
lor St., teachers 4, pupils, male 100, female 100; St. Jarlath's, 624 West Jack' 
eon St., teachers 5, pupils, male 110, female 135; Germaa-Americaa Academys 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 93 

623 West Adams St., teachers 5, pupils, male 65, female 20; Mrs. Thurman's 
School, 770 Jackson St., teachers 1, pupils, male 2, female 2; College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, Honore and Harrison streets, teachers 25, pupils, male 
150; Illinois Training School, 304 Honore St., teachers 6, pupils, female 110; 
Foundlings' Home, 114 South Wood street, teachers 1, pupils, male 23, 
female 35. 

Thirteenth Ward. — Talcott's, 581 Austin ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 
25, female 35; German Lutheran, 108 Oakley ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 
37, female 42; St. Patrick's, Oakley and Parkaves., teachers 13, pupils, male 
43, female 170; Froebel Kindergarten, Park ave. and Robey st. , teachers 2, 
pupils, male 17, female 15; St. Malalchi's, Fulton st. and Western ave., 
teachers 6, pupils, male 100, female 100; Western Theological Seminary, 
1113 Washington blvd., teachers 8, pupils, male 18; German Evangelical 
Lutheran, California ave. and Walnut st., teachers 2, pupils, male 62, female 
41. 

Fourteenth Ward. — Bethlehem, Paulina and McReynolds sts., teachers 5, 
pupils, male 225, female 220; St. John, Wood and Cornelia sts., teachers 4, 
pupils, male 225, female 189; St. Aloysius, Thompson and Davis streets, 
teachers 5, pupils, male 180, female 160; St. Marcus, 435 Ashland ave., teach- 
ers 3, pupils, male 24, female 29; Rice's Kindergarten, 26 Potomac ave., 
teachers 1, pupils, male 8, female 17; German Pilgrim, Avera ave., teachers 
1, pupils, male 5, female 7; German Lutheran, Washtenaw ave. and Iowa st., 
teachers 2, pupils, male 26, female 40. 

Fifteenth Ward. — Evangelical Lutheran, 946 Girard ave., teachers 2, 
pupils, male 108, female 70; Annunciation, 36 Commercial ave., teachers, 
12, pupils, male 290, female 293; St, Simon's, 860 Kedzie ave., teachers, 2, 
pupils, male 60, female 80; Evangelical Lutheran, Frankfort and Leavitt 
sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 44, female 47; Christ Church School, Hum- 
boldt St., teachers 2, pupils, male 81, female 64; St. Johanes, 39 to. 43 Mof- 
fat St., teachers 2, pupils, male 44, female 47; Danish Lutheran, Waban- 
sia and Dania aves., teachers 1, pupils, male 15, female 15; St. Hedwig, 
Webster and Hoyne aves., teachers 5, pupils, male 125, female 110; TheHaas 
Industrial and Kindergarten, Johnson ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 18, 
female 21; Chicago Industrial, Half Orphan Asylum for Wayward Children, 
917 Brazil ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 8, female7; Danish Lutheran Orphan 
Asylum, 69 Prairie ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 12, female 14: German 
Lutheran, California and Centre aves., teachers 2, pupils, male 25, female 35. 

Sixteenth Ward. — St. Stanislaus, Bradley and Noble sts., teachers 16, 
pupils, male 405, female 440; St. Bonifacius, 84 Cornell st. , teachers7, pupils, 
male 262, female 280; Sisters of Nazareth, 130 West Division St., teachers 17, 
pupils, female 65; Holy Trinity, 540 Noble st., teachers 1, pupils, male 48, 
female 36; St. Peter's, Noble street and Chicago ave , teachers 4, pupils, male 
150, female 130; Industrial Kindergarten, 258 May St., teachers 1, pupils, 
males, female 12; Our Saviour's Church, 220 May st,, teachers 3, pupils, 
male 50, female 50; Holy Trinity, 13 Snell St., teachers 2. pupils, male 60, 
female 35; St. John's Lutheran, Superior and Bickerdike sts., teachers 5, 
pupils, male 208, female 210; Danish Trinity, Bickerdike and Superior sts., 
teachers 1, pupils, male 26, female 20. 

Seventeenth TFart?,— Norwegian, 191 Austin ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 
16, female 20; Tabernacle, Morgan and Indiana sts., teachers 4, pupils, male 
35, female 61; St. Stephen's, 186 N. Peoria St., teachers 5, pupils, male 150, 
female 200. 



94 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Eighteenth TFarci.—Souder's College, 276 West Madison St., teachers 5, 
pupils, male 60, female 40; Kindergarten, 122 South Morgan St., teachers 2, 
pupils, male 15, female 27; Superior College, Haymarket Building, teachers 
2, pupils, male 1, female 24; Cathedral Kindergarten, Peoria street and 
Washington blvd., teachers 1, pupils, male 12, female 20; Cathedral Primary, 
Peoria street and Washington blvd, teachers 2, pupils, male 20, female 26; St. 
Patrick's Academy, Adams and Desplaines sts., teachers 12, pupils, male 
512; Talcott's Kindergarten, 169 West Adams St., teachers 3, pupils, male 
105, female 81; Chinese Mission, 219 West Madison St., teachers 28, pupils, 
female 30; St. Patrick's Convent, Desplaines and Adams sts., teachers 10, 
pupils, female 250. 

Nineteenth Ward. — Sacred Heart Convent, Lytle and Taylor sts., 
teachers 15, pupils, female 800 ; Sacred Heart Academy, Throop and Taylor 
sts,, teachers 10, pupils, female 121 ; Guardian Angel Academy, 170 Forquer 
St., teachers 4, pupils, male 125, female 230; St. Joseph's Home, Deaf and 
Dumb School, 409 South May st. , teachers 4, pupils, male 17, female 26 
St. Ignatius College, 413 West Twelfth st., teachers 15, pupils, male 250 
Miss Morrison's, 249 Forquer St., teachers 1, pupils, male 12, female 13 
Emanuel Lutheran, 16 Brown St., teachers 1, pupils, male 19, female 14 
English Bohemian, 46 Bunker st., teachers 1, pupils, male 29, female 24 
St. Wencelaus, Desplaines and De Koven sts., teachers 5, pupils, male 215, 
female 90 ; Holy Family Schools (6 in number). Twelfth st. and Blue Island 
ave., teachers 95, pupils, male 2,100, female2,237; Kindergarten, 335 South 
Halsted st., teachers 4, pupils, male 20, female 30. 

Twentieth Ward. — St. Vincent's Academy, Osgood and Webster aves, , 
teachers 7, pupils, male 150, female 120 ; St. Joseph's, Belden ave., teachers 
4, pupils, male 52, female 102 ; St. James' Evangelical Lutheran, Garfield 
ave. and Fremont St., teachers 3, pupils, male 137, female 117 ; McCormick 
Theological Seminary, 1060 North Halsted st., teachers 8, pupils, male 158 ; 
St. Jacobi's, Fullerton ave, and High St., teachers 2, pupils, male 90, female 
75 ; St. Theresa's School, Pope and Clyde sts., teachers 4, pupils, male 60, 
female 40. 

Twenty-first Ward. — St. Michael's, 331 North ave., teachers 21, pupils, 
male 650, female 720 ; Wards of Jesus, 220 Hudson ave., teachers 2, pupils, 
male 60, female 40; St. Jacob's Evangelical Lutheran, 73 Willow St., 
teachers 2, pupils, male 98, female 92 ; Primary School, 682 North Wells 
St., teachers'2, pupils, male 25, female 23; German-English Kindergarten, 
682 North Wells st., teachers 3, pupils, male 16, female 22 ; Fick and Schutt, 
621-623 North Wells st,, teachers 9, pupils, male 95, female 50; Uhlich's 
Orphan Asylum, 221 Burling St., teachers 2, pupils, male 39, female 31 ; 
Chicago Half Orphan Asylum, 175 Burling st,, teachers 4, pupils, male 85, 
female 75; Lincoln Park Kindergarten, Garfield ave. and Mohawk St., 
teachers 8, pupils, male 55, female 60. 

Twenty-second Ward. — Immaculate Conception, 509 North Franklin st., 
teachers 4, pupils, male 100, female 100 ; Mrs. M. J. Holmes', 44 Scott st., 
teachers 3, pupils, male 15, female 20 ; Mrs. Rice's, 479 Dearborn ave., teach- 
ers 11, pupils, male 10 female 98 ; St. Paul Evangelical Lutheran, 333Larra- 
bee St., teachers 3, pupils, male 110, female 81 ; Sedgwick Street Kindergar- 
ten, 388 Sedgwick st., teachers 5, pupils, male 28, female 74 ; McClurg's 
French, 60 Lake Shore Drive, teachers 1, pupils, male 3 ; St. Ignatius Broth- 
ers, 616 La Salle ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 53 ; Holmes' Kindergarten, 
245 Cly bourn ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 141, female 148. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 95 

Twenty-third Ward. — St. Joseph's, Franklin and Hill sts. , teachers 7, 
pupils, male 212, female 167 ; Riverston's, 134 Oak St., teachers 2, pupils, 
male 17, female 23; Swedish Mission, 270 North Market St., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 30, female 32 ; Holy Name, 81 Sedgwick St., teachers 8, pupils, 
male 600; St. Paul's German Lutheran, Superior and Franklin sts., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 30, female 30 ; St. Benedict's 321 North Market sts., teachers 5, 
pupils, female 50 ; St. Scholasticus, 333 North Market st., teachers 7, pupils, 
female 100 ; Swedish Evangelical Lutheran School, Hobbie and Sedgwick 
sts., teachers 4, pupils, male 80, female 80 ; Unity Church Industrial Kinder- 
garten, Elm and Chatham sts., teachers 5, pupils, male 12, female 90 ; House 
of Providence, 353 North Market st., teachers 4, pupils, female 60 ; Ronayne's 
School, 104 Milton ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 1, female 6, Memorial Kinder- 
garten, Milton ave. and Hobbie St., teachers 5, pupils, male 55, female 35 ; 
N. S. Elementary Institute, 75 Oak st., teachers 1, pupils, male 19, female 1. 

Twenty-fourth Ward. — St. Vincent's Asylum, 191 La Salle ave., teachers 
3, pupils, male 25, female 40; Holy Name, Cass st. and Chicago ave., 
teachers 10, pupils, male 70, female 550 ; Sacred Heart Academy, Chicago 
ave. and State st., teachers 12, pupils, female 120 ; Johnson School for Girls, 
379 Elm St., teachers 9, pupils, male 9, female47 ; Grant Collegiate Institute, 
247 Dearborn ave., teachers 13, pupils, male 20, female 60 ; Grant Kindergar- 
ten, 249 Dearborn ave., teachers 3, pupils, male 40, female 20 ; University 
School, 223 Dearborn ave., teachers 10, pupils, male 80 ; Kirkland School, 
275 Huron St., teachers 15, pupils, male 30, female 130; Kirkland Kinder- 
garten, 275 Huron st., teachers 2, pupils, male 10, female 19; Stockham's, 
Moody's, Chicago and La Salle aves., teachers 3, pupils, male 35, female 50 ; 
Matilda Kreigh's, 372 La Salle ave., teachers 1, pupils, female 7 ; Chicago 
Training School, 114 Dearborn ave., teachers 2, pupils, female 60; The Julia 
Necker School, 65 Cedar st., teachers 1, pupils, female 12. 

Twenty -fifth Ward. — Lill Avenue Kindergarten, Seminary and Lill aves., 
teachers 1, pupils, male 10, female 17; Maurice Porter Kindergarten, 606 
FuUerton ave., teachtrs 1, pupils, male 15, female 10; Mount Carmel Acad- 
emy, 1634 Belmont ave., teachers 4, pupils, male 30, female 90; Swedish 
Lutheran, Noble and Seminary aves., teachers 2, pupils, male 24, female 28. 

Twenty-sixth Ward. — Guardian Angels, Ridge ave., teachers 2, pupils, 
male 60, female 40; St. Mathias, Grant and Western aves., teachers 1, pupils, 
male 20, female 20; Minerva Institute, Paulina St., teachers 6, pupils, female 
25; German Lutheran, Belmont ave. and Perry St., teachers 5, pupils, male 
215, female 198; St. Alphonsius, Southport ave. and Wellington st., teachers 
10, pupils, male 394, female 389; St. Lucas, Hoyne ave. and Wellington st., 
teachers 4, pupils, male 54, female 60; St. Luke's Evangelical Lutheran, 1020 
Diversey St., teachers 1, pupils, male 30, female 25; Morgan's School Kinder- 
garten, 1135 Montana St., teachers 1, pupils, male 14, female 17; St. Jacobi's 
Lutheran, FuUerton av., teachers 2, pupils, male 90, female 75. 

Twenty-aeventh Ward. — Parochial, Montrose blvd., teachers 3, pupils, male 
90, female 75; St. Viata, Milwaukee ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 8; Kinder- 
garten, Douglas ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 7, female 12; Hunting's Kinder- 
garten, Hunting ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 6, female 14. 

Tipenty-eigJith TFard— St. Philip's. Forty-second st. and Park ave., 
teachers 8, pupils, male 140, female 130; St. Agnes', Washtenaw and Johnson 
aves., teachers 6, pupils, male 120, female 180. 

Twenty-ninth Ward.—^t. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran, 3922 Dearborn 



96 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

St., teachers 2, pupils, male 55, female 58; German Evangelical, Forty-sixth, 
and Dearborn sts., teachers 2, pupils, male 90, female 90; St. George's, 3918 
Wentworth ave., teachers 4, pupils, male 89, female 101; St. Gabriel, Forty- 
fifth and Wallace sts., teachers 9, pupils, male 230, female 300; Kindergarten, 
4643 Dearborn st., teachers 1, pupils, male 8, female 8; Lutheran, 336-340 
Forty-sixth St., teachers 2, pupils, male 59, female 55; St. Peter's, corner of 
Forty-sixth and Inkermau sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 20, female 26. 

Thirtieth Ward. — St. Augustine's, Laflin and Fiftieth sts. , teachers .6, 
pupils, male 233, female 223; Frieden's, Fifty -second and Justine sts., 
teachers 1, pupils, male 40, female 38; St. Martin's, Princeton ave. and Fifty- 
ninth St., teachers 6, pupils, male 154, female 130; Bethlehem, Fifty-eighth st. 
and Atlantic ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 30, female 30; St. Luke's Evangel- 
ical Lutheran, Sixty-second and Green sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 35, female 
35; Kindergarten, Green and Fifty-sixth sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 3, 
female 14; St. Martin's, Forty-eighth and Frazier sts., teachers 8, pupils, 
male 125, female 130; St. Joseph's, Page and Forty-eighth sts., teachers 3, 
pupils, male 75, female 91; St. Rose's, Forty-eighth st. and Ashland ave., 
teachers 3, pupils, male 100, female 103. 

Thirty first Wa?'d. — Deaf and Dumb, 6550 Yale st., teachers 6, pupils, 
male 12, female 20; Kindergarten, Seventh-eighth and Halsted sts., teachers 

1, pupils, male 6, female 10; Evangelical Lutheran, 6614 Carpenter St., 
teachers 1, pupils, male 11, female 13; Holland Christian, Seventy-first and 
Peoria sts., teachers 1, pupils, male 25, female 27. 

Thirty-second Ward. — Kenwood Institute, 5001 Lake ave., teachers 15, 
pupils, male 15, female 136; Rev. J. T. Phillips', 4726 Lake ave., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 10; Holy Angels' Academy, Oak wood Boulevard, teachers 7, 
pupils, male 80, female 150; Girls' Industrial, Forty-ninth st. and Indiana 
ave., teachers 1, pupils, female 47; Kindergarten, 5436 Madison ave., 
teachers 5, pupils, male 9, female 36; St. Elizabeth's, State and Forty-first 
sts.. teachers 10, pupils, male 200, female 260; St. Thomas', 5468 Kimbark 
ave!, teachers 2, pupils, male 36, female 44; St. Agatha's, Evans ave. and 
Forty ninth st., teachers 3> pupils, male 24, female 37. 

Thirty-third TT^r^^.— St. Mary's, Commercial ave. and Eighty-eighth st., 
teachers 5, pupils, male 205, female 200; German Catholic, Ninety -first et. 
and Exchange ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 79, female 65; German Lutheran, 
Houston ave. and Nintieth St., teachers 2, pupils, male 68, female 66; Swed- 
ish Lutheran, N"inety-second st. and Houston ave., teachers 1, pupils, male 
23, female 23; German Lutheran. Superior ave. and Ninety-first st., teachers 

2, pupils, male 68, female 42; St. Patrick's, Commercial ave. and Ninety- 
sixth St., teachers 7, pupils, male 118, female 123; German Lutheran, One 
Hundred and Third st. and Seventh ave., teachers 2, pupils, male 74, female 
67; St. Peter's German, One Hundred and Third st. and Avenue J, teachers 
1, pupils, male 23, female 14; St. Francis, Ewing ave. and One Hundred and 
Third st., teachers 1, pupils, male 24, female 22. 

Thirty-fourth TF^^r^^.— St. Paul's Lutheran, Madison ave., teachers 1, 
pupils, male 36, female 14; Holland Christian Reform Church, corner One 
Hundred and Eleventh and State sts., teachers 4, pupils, male 122, female 
82; Evangelical Zion, One Hundred and Thirteenth St., teachers 1, pupils, 
male 60, female 40. 

In the South Division there are 711 males and 909 females attending 
kindergartens; 2,237 males and 2,728 females attending private schools. 




LINXOLX MONUMENT, LINCOLN PARK 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



97 



academies, etc. ; 6,690 males and 7,342 females attending parochial schools, 
and 2,161 males and 1051 females attending business colleges. 

In the West Division there are 518 males and 706 females attending 
kindergartens; 763 males and 431 females attending private schools, acade- 
mies, etc.; 13,705 males and 15,118 females attending parochial schools; and 
262 males and 40 females attending business colleges. 

In the North Division there are 469 males and 628 females attending 
kindergartens; 483 males and 728 females attending private schools, acade- 
mies, etc.; 3,701 males and 3,616 females attending parochial schools; and 19 
males and 1 female attending business colleges. 

PUBLIC EDUCATION. 

The public schools of Chicago are conducted under the supervision of a 
board of education, which consists of male and female members, appointed 
by the mayor, and who are about equally divided politically. The execu- 
tive department is in charge of a superintendent, five assistant superintend' 
ents, a superviser of evening schools, a clerk, an attorney, school agent, 
building and supply agent, chief engineer, book-keeper, assistant clerk, 
assistant clerk and manager, assistant to building and supply agent, stenog- 
rapher and type-writer, and manager and assistant in supply department. 

City and County Piihlic Sclwols. — The following is a summary of miscel- 
laneous statistics, compiled by the county superintendent of schools, from 
the reports of township trustees for 1889 — 1890. It contains later statistics of 
the city public schools than any issued by the Chicago Board of Education : 



MiSCEIiLANBOUS ITEMS. 



No. ungraded sehools 

No. graded schools 

No. high schools 

Whole No. schools 

Average No. of months schools sustained. 

Children under 21 years 

Between 6 and 21 years 

No. in graded public schools 

No. in district country schools 

No. enrolled in private schools 

Total in public and private schools 

Average daily in public schools 

No. teachers in public schools 

No. teachers in private schools 

No. unable to read or write 

Principal of township funds 

Total district tax levy 

Bonded school debt 

Estimated value township fund lands 



I County 
Chicago, excluding 
! Chicago. 



Whole 
County. 



194 

11 

205 

9.25 

473,234 

289,433 

135,551 



63,713 
198,26i 



2,842 
1,164 
2,599 
\ 911,834 
4,250,000 
2,036,000 
3,963,231 



131 

57 

5 

193 

8.4 

429,104 

28,171 

10,890 

4,460 

3,8S6 

19,246 

11,415 

409 

145 

36 

204,536 

367,457 

364,659 

942,211 



131 

251 

16 

698 

9 

616,138 

317,604 

146,441 

4,460 

68,6C9 

217,510 



8,251 

1,809 

2,635 

$1,116,371 

4,617,457 

2,400,650 

4,9C5,440 



Cook County Normal School. — Situated on Stewart avenue, near Sixty- 
seventh streets. Post-ofiice address, Englewood, Cook county. Take train 
at Van Buren street depot, Van Buren and Sherman streets. An institution 
for the higher education of public school graduates desirous of becoming 
teachers. 



98 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Summary of receipts and expenditures in districts, as shown by reports 
of township treasurers for 1889-1890 : 



RECEIPTS. 



Balance in hands township treas. July 1 

State, county and township funds distributed by 

trustees 

Special district taxes received 

District bonds issued 

Temporary loans and other sources 



Total. 



EXPE>rDITURES. 



Paid to teachers 

IS' ew school houses 

School sites and grounds 

Repairs and impx'ovements 

School furniture and apparatus . 

Libraries . 

Paid district clerks 

Paid on district bonds 

Paid interest on district bonds. . 
Miscellaneous 



Total 

Balance in treasurer's hands due district. 



Total. 



Chicago. 



$ 83,374 

463,347 
3,.581,456 



310,503 



4,246,683 



3,031,779 
688,373 

39,790 
341,116 

48,275 
9,883 

27,377 

77,500 
10.5,583 
151,667 



3,787,?23 
459,460 



$4,246,683 



Excluding 
Chicaero. 



Whole 
County. 



$ 405,374 

3,931 

375,350 

44,574 

31,768 



878,993 



294,511 
86,175 
13,084 
36,891 
11,504 
57,521 
2,308 
47,63") 
35,488 

311,149 



S:, 397, 749 

48t,278 

2,956,806 

44,f>74 

342,273 



785,413 
93G,865 



$ 878,499 



5,125,683 



2,316,291 
774,548 

51,874 
278,008 

59,780 
433,397 

29,585 
125,130 
131,059 
362,817 



S4,573,835 
553,046 



$5,125,683 



Compulsory Education. — There is a compulsory education law in force in 
this State, the provisions of which would require too much space to set forth. 
In effect, however, it provides that all children between the ages of seven and 
fourteen years shall beia some school for at least sixteen weeks of each year. 
It does not iasist upon attendance at public schools. They may be public, 
private, or parochial, but the law flatly states that all children who are able 
must be at school somewhere for the time specified. Reasonable exceptions 
are made of course and are observed at the discretion of the truant agents. 
The process of picking up a child from the streets and placing him in school 
is called by the agents "an investigation." About 9,000 investigations were 
made in 1890. Over 4,400 children were placed in school, and the others were 
excused for proper causes. The amount of work done showed a great increase 
over that of the previous year. During the entire nine months of the school 
year of 1889, there were but a few over 8,000 investigations, and less than 
3,000 children were placed in schools. 

Manual Training in the Pahlic Schools. — The Chicago English High and 
Manual Training School, for iastruction in the mechanical arts, was opened 
in August, 1890, and occupies the large public school building on West 
Monroe St., near Halsted st. This school is under the direction of the 
city board of education. James F. Claflin is the principal. In grade the 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 99 

manual trainiDg school ranks with the high schools, and no student is admit- 
ted until he has passed through the grammar grade. Promotion cards 
eutitllng the holder to be admitted to the ordinary high school will admit 
him also to the polytechnic school. A full term, three years' course, has been 
laid down, and when the student has completed this, he will be graduated 
with honors and a diploma, the same as if he had gone through the high 
school. Three years as:o the school board decided to provide a manual train- 
ing course of study. Those who desired to take advantage of the study were 
excused from certain branches in the high school and went to the training 
school at noon to take the lessons. In 1889 there were about seventy-five stu- 
dents in the manual training classes, but the division of work between this 
and the high school was far from satisfactory to the board, and hence the old 
scheme was abolished, and the necessary step was taken to launch the new 
school. The previous work had gone no deeper than working in wood. Now 
all of the departments are added. Blacksmith forges are placed in the base- 
ment, and all the machinery is located on that floor also. The first floor is 
given up to the wood-working trades, while the upper floors are utilized by 
the classes in English, mathematics and the natural sciences. There is a 
course in commercial law and practical book-keeping, and every effort is 
made to send each student away with a sufficient knowledge both of busi- 
ness and the trades to help him in almost any line of work which it may be 
his lot to follow. By g'ancing over the curriculum below it will be seen that 
none of the essential high-school branches are neglected. The idea is to 
combine the practical and theoretical as far as possible. The Latin and 
Greek branches are lopped off the regular high-school course as well as some 
of* the higher sciences, such as geology, astronomy, biology, etc. Professor 
Claflin has six assistants, all skilled in the different arts. 
The following is the course of study adopted: 

First year: Algebra, three terms. Study of English and letter-writing, three 
terms, two hours a week. Physiology, one term. Phytical geography, two terms. 
Freehand and mechanical drawing, one hour a day. Carpentry, joinery, wood-turn- 
ing, pattern-making, two hours a day. 

Second year: Geometry, two terms. Trigonometry, one term. Universal his- 
tory, three terms. English literature and composition, two terms, two hours a week. 
Chemistry, three terms. Drawing, one hour a day. Work, two hours a day at mould- 
ing, casting, forging, welding, tempering, soldering and brazing. 

Third year: Analytical geometry, one term. English literature and authors, 
three terms, two hours a week. Civil g' )vernment and political economy, three terms. 
Physics, three terms. Drawing, one hour a day. Machine-shop work, two hours a 
day. Study of machinery, care of engines, tools, etc. 

After first year, pupils wishing to take a commercial course may select 
arithmetic, book-keeping, commercial arithmetic and the principles of com- 
mercial law in place of trigonometry and the sciences. School sessions are 
from 9 A. M. to 3:30 p. m., with thirty minutes' intermission at noon. 

Night Free Schools. — The schools open for free night instruction under 
the direction of the city Board of Education, are located as follows : 

North Division. — Huron street — Corner of Huron aL-d Franklin sts.; 
Franklin — Corner of Division and Sedgwick sts. ; La Salle — Corner of Ham- 
mond and Eugenie sts.; Newberry — Corner of Willow and Orchard sts. 

South Division. — Haven^Wabash avc, near Fourteenth st.; Calumet 
avenue — Calumet ave., south of Twenty-s^ixth St.; Harrison — Twenty-third 
place, between Portland and Went ivorth aves.; Raymond — Corner of Wabash 
ave. and Eda st.; Holden — Corner of Deering and Thirty-first sts. 



100 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

"West Division. — Scammon— Corner Morgan and Monroe sts.; Polk 
street— Polk St., east of Halsted ; Garfield— Coiner Johnson and Wright sts.; 
Walsh — Corner Johnson and Twentieth sts.; Throop — Throop St., south of 
Eighteenth; Froebel — Twenty-first St., west of Robey; Brainard — Thirteenth 
phtce, west of Hoyne ave. ; Tildeu — Corner Elizabeth and Lake sts. ; Calhoun 
— West Jackson St., between California ave. and Francisco St.; Tilton — Cor- 
ner Lake and West Forty-fourth st. ; Hayes — Leavitt st, , between Walnut and 
Fulton sts.; Von Humboldt — Coroer Rockwell ave. and Hirsch st.; Hoffman 
avenue — Hoffman ave., opposite Bremen st.; Burr — Corner Ashland and 
Wabansia aves.; Wells— Corner Ashland ave. and Cornelia st. ; Montefiore — 
Corner Indiana and Sangamon sts. 

Annexed Schools. — Bo wen — Corner Ninety-third and Houston ave.; 
Gallistel— Ewing ave. and One Hundred and Fourth st. ; Webster — Corner 
One Hundred and Thirty-third st. and Superior ave.; Cornell — Drexel ave., 
between Seventy-fifth and Seventy-sixth sts.; Dunning — Ridgeland ave., one- 
half mile south of Insane Asylum ; O'Toole— Corner Forty-eighth and 
Bishop sts. ; Hendricks — Corner Forty-third st. and Tracey ave. ; Auburn 
Park — Eighty-first St., between Vincennes and Chicago and Eastern Illinois 
Railway; Pullman (Lake)— Corner Fifty first and School sts.; Pullman 
(Calumet) — Corner Pullman ave. and One Hundred and Thirteenth st. 

The term of the night schools is three months every winter preceding the 
holidays. The total average weekly attendance at the above schools last 
winter was about 10,000. New schools and new branches of study a re added 
every year. The Bc)ard of Education is paying more attention and attach- 
ing more importance to free night instruction now than ever before. 

Physical Culture in the Public Schools. — When, Nov. 4, 1885, the Board 
of Education appointed Henry Suder, instructor at the North Side Turner 
Hall, and a graduate of the Normal Training School, of Milwaukee, as a 
special teacher of physical culture, it was a test. Prof. Suder had only four 
schools to teach then — the old Douglas on the South Side, the Brown and 
King schools on the West Side, and tiie Lincoln on the North Side. The 
pupils became at once interested in the new departure, and the teachers were 
quick to notice an improvement in the discipline and mental work of their 
classes. In 1886 the board extended the physical culture classes to all the 
grammar schools in the city, and eight special teachers were appointed to 
assist Prof. Suder. In January, 1889, the system was introduced into all the 
primary departments of the city, and four teachers were added to the physical 
culture staff. In the following May, exercises were commenced in the North, 
South, and West Division high schools, Henry B. Camann, a graduate of the 
Milwaukee Normal Training School, being appointed to conduct the classes 
in those schools. In addition to Prof. Suder and Mr. Camann, the following 
teachers comprise the physical culture staff: Grammar Schools — Herman 
Hein, Oscar Weinbrod, August Zapp, William Kopp, Henry Hartunff, Alvin 
Kindervater, OttoGreubel, F. D. Brasius; Primary Schools — Ernst Hibbeler,- 
F. L. Jahn, Alfred E. Belitz, Carl Graner, Charles Cobelli, Joseph Grund- 
hofer and Mr. Ferdinand Rheil. In the primary schools the pupils are exer- 
cised in calisthenics only. These exercises consist of simple muscular move- 
ments of the arm and foot, arm and trunk, trunk and foot, and marching and 
breathing exercises. The arrangement is such that all parts of the body are 
broua:ht into play during the lesson. In the grammar schools smooth wooden 
wands, an inch in diameter and three feet long, and wooden dumbbells, shel- 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 101 

laced, having a combined weight of one pound, and eleven inches long, are 
used as an aid to the physical training of the scholars. Wand and dumbbell 
exercises are practiced once a week in all the grammar schools, and once a 
week the pupils are put through calisthenic exercises. It is in the North, 
South, and West Division high schools that physical culture is most practiced 
and appreciated. The high schools have more facilities to practice, and the 
pupils enjoy the physical culture lessons because they are a relaxation, if noth- 
ing else. Mondays and Thursdays of each week Mr. Camann visits the South 
Division high school and instructs the classes between the hours of 9: 45 a. m. 
and 1:15 p. m. The assembly hall on the top floor is an admirable place 
for the exercises to be held in, and a piano gives a zest and spirit to the move- 
ments, which are lacking in the other schools. Light clubs are also used in 
the South Division high school, and form the most picturesque of all the 
exercises. Mr. Camann takes two or three rooms at a time, marshals the 
scholars, who number from 80 to 120, and gives them one hour's praciice. 
Fridays he visits the West Division high school, where there is an assembly 
hall similar to the one on the South Side, and drills the scholars for three 
hours. Wednesday is the physical culture day at the North Division high 
school. In the Northwestern high school one of the grammar school 
instructors devotes Tuesdays to exercising the first-year pupils. The cost of 
maintaining the physical culture branch in the schools is not great. The 
salary list for eighteen teachers amounts to $17,200 per year. 

Property of tlie Public Schools. — The property owned by the public School 
Fund of Chicago is as follows: The real estate within the city limits, 
belonging to the School Fund, is appraised at $4,518,346.00; the real estate 
outside the city limits, belonging to the School Fund, is appraised at $78,- 
485.00; the principal of the School Fund amountsto $275,474.94; the Warfing 
Lot Fund am..unts to $68,061.94— Total, $4,940,368.68. 

Public School Buildings. — The following is a list of the public school 
buildings of Chicago, with names and locations: 

North Division High School — Wendell and Wells sts= ; Northwest 
Dr'^ision High School — Augusta st. and Hoyne ave.; South Division 
High School — Twenty-sixth st. and Wabash ave. ; West Division High 
School— S. Lincoln st. and Ogden ave.; Anderson — 520 N. Lincoln, near 
West Division St.; Armour Street — Armour st. and Blckerdike square; Bur- 
ling — N. E. corner Center st. ; Blue Island Avenue— 490 Blue Island ave. ; 
Boulevard— Armitage ave. and Humboldt bid. ; Brainard— 587 Washbourne 
pi.; Brenan— '^535 Lime St., near Archer ave.; Brighton — Thirty-sixth, W. of 
C. R. I. & P. R. R. track; Brighton Park— Thirty-fifth and Lincoln sts.; 
Brown— Warren ave.. between Wood and Page sts; Burr — N. Ashland and 
Wabansia aves. ; Calhoun — 1277 W^. Jackson st. ; California Avenue — 1119 
California ave.; Calumet Avenue — 2643 Calumet ave.; Carpenter — N. 
Center ave. and W. Huron st. ; Central Park — Walnut st. and Kedzie ave. ; 
Clarke — S. Ashland ave. and Thirteenth st.; Columbus — Augusta, between 
Hoyne ave. and Leavitt st, ; Cooper — 625 W. Nineteenth st.; Crawford — 
Twenty-fifth st. and Delaware ave. Dearborn — 768 Cly bourn ave; Doo- 
little— 109 Thirty fifth st. ; Dore— 217 W. Harrison st. ; Douglas— Forest 
ave. and Thirty-second st.; Emerson — Walnut and Paulina sts.; Foster — 
441 South Union st.; Franklin — Sedgwick and Division sts.; Frcebel — 
858 W. Twenty-first st; Garfteld— Johnson and Wright sts; George H. 
Thomas — High st. and Belden ave.; Goodrich— Brown and Taylor sts.; 



102 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Grant— 994 Wilcox ave.; Hancock— S. Fairfield ave. and Twelfth st. ; Har- 
rison— 133 Twenty-third St.; Haven — 1470 Wabash ave.; Hayes — N. Leavltt 
and Walnut sts. ; Headley — Lewis st. and Garfield ave. ; Healy — 3035 Wal- 
lace St. ; Hendricks — York and Laflin sts. ; Hoffman Avenue — Hoffman and 
Milwaukee aves. ; Holden — Deering and Thirty-first sts.; Humboldt — 920 
N. California ave. ; Huron Street — Huron and Frank sts. ; Irving — 45 Lex- 
ington ave.; Jefferson — Nebraska and Laflin sts. ; Jones — Third ave. and 
Harrisonst.; Keith — Dearborn and Thirty-fourth sts. ; King — Harrison st. and 
Western ave.; Kinzie— Ohio st. and La Salle ave. ; Kosciusko — W. Division 
and Cleaver sis.; Langland — 121 Cortland St.; LaSalle — Hammond and 
Eugenie sts.; Lawndale — S. Central Park ave. and Twenty-fifth st.; 
Lincoln Street — W. Ohio and Lincolnsts,; Logan — Rhine and Bremen sts. ; 
Longfellow — 688 Throopst.; Manierre — 100 Hudson ave.; Maplewood 
— Diversey St. and California ave; Marquette — 297 S. Wood St.; McAllis- 
ter — Thirty-sixth and Gage sts. ; McClellan — Wallace and Thirty-fifth sts. ; 
MoNTEFiORE — Sangamon and W. Indiana sts. ; Moseley — Michigan ave. and 
Twenty-fourth St.; Motley — Snell st. and W. Chicago ave.; Mulligan — 
Sheffield ave,, between Clay and Willow sts.; Newberry — Willow and 
Orchard sts.; Oak Street— 85 Oak st. ; Oakley— N. Oakley ave. and W. Ohio 
St.; Ogden — Chestnut, between Dearborn ave. and North State st. ; Pearson 
— W. Pearson and N. Market sts.; Pickard — Hinman st. and S.Oakley ave.; 
Polk Street — 195 W. Polk st.; Raymond — Wabash ave. and Eda St.; 
Rogers — 65 W. Thirteenth St.; Scammon — S. Morgan and Monroe sts.; Shel 
DON — N. State and Elm sts.; Sheridan — 627 Twenty -seventh st.; Skinneb, — 
W. Jackson and Aberdeen sts.; Talcott — W. Ohio and Lincoln sts; Thomas 
HoYNE — Illinois and Cass sts. ;TnROOP — 626 Throopst.; Tilden — W.Lake 
and Elizabeth sts.; Tilton — W, Lake and W. F.-rty-fourth sts.; Tilton 
branch — Mailer, near W . Forty-eighth st. ; Tilton branch — 4005 W. Har- 
rison st; Vedder Street — Vedder, near Larrabee st. ; Von Humboldt — Rock- 
well and Hirsch sts.; Walsh — W. Twentieth and Johnson sts.; Ward — 
Shields ave. and Twenty-seventh sts.; Washbourne — 220 W. Fourteenth St.; 
Washington — Morgan, between Erie and W. Ohio sts. ; Webster — Went- 
worthave. and Thirty-third st. ; Wells — N. Ashland ave. and Cornelia st.; 
Wicker Park — 153 'Evergreen ave.; Williams Avenue— Williams and 
Tinkhara aves. 

The Board of Education expended, during 1890, about $320,000 on the 
Clarke, Longfellow, Foster, Carpenter and Hedges schools, new schools on 
Maplewood, Campbell and Belden aves. and Wright St., and completed 
the Horace Mann. The Hammond, Mulligan and George H. Thomas 
schools were begun in 1889, on which have been expended about $250,000. 
About $20,000 was expended on schools in the annexed districts and for sun- 
dry needs. 

Revenueof the Public Schools. — The revenue of the public schools varies 
from year to year, because of the changes (generally increases) in the tax 
levies for school purposes, and for other reasons. The last report of the 
board of eiucation, however, gives the following statement of revenues, 
which will serve as an example: School Fund — From rentals of School Fund 
land, $512,036,30; from State dividend. $136, 313.06; from interest on principal 
of School Fund, $45,800.04; refunded by school districts, annexation of 1887, 
$19,453 38; tuition of non-resident pupils, $1,275.00; to correct errors in 
teachers' pay-rolls, $238.10; unclaimed pay of canvassers of school census 
of 1888. $62.62; total on account of School Fund. $715,178.50. School 



CiilCAGO Ari IT lb. lUo 

Tax Fand — On account of taxes of 1887 and previous years, $918,473.16; 
OQ account of tax of 1888, $L, 200, 078. 26; total on account of School Tax 
Fund, $2,118,550.42. Miscellaneous sources — From sale of old furniture, old 
lead, steam-pipe, old iron, stoves, etc., $2,100.64; from rebates on special 
assessments, $9,495.88; from sale of old buildings, $1,256,00; from forfeited 
deposit of contractor, $117.00; total from miscellaneous sources, $12,969.52; 
total actual cash receipis, $2,846,698.44. 

SaMHes of Sclwol Employes. — Superintendent of schools, $5,000; tvro 
assistant superintendents, $4,000; three assistant superintendents, $3,500; 
special teacher of German, $2,400; special teacher of siuging in High Schools, 
$2,000; special teacher of singing in Grammar Department, $2,200; special 
teacher of singing in Primary Department, $1,900; assistant special teacher 
of singing in Primary Department, $1,100; special teacher of drawing in 
High Schools, and la charge of Manual Training School, $2,500; special 
teacher of drawing in Grammar and Primary Schools, $2,200; assistant 
special teacher of drawing, $1,800; assistant special teacher of drawing, 
$1,000; special teacher of physical culture, $1,800; assistant special teacher of 
physical culture in High Schools, $1,000; eight assistant special teachers of 
physical culture in Grammar Schools, $900; four assistant special teachers of 
physical culture in Primary Schools, $750; one assistant special teacher of 
physical culture in Primary Schools (half day), $450. High Schools: Princi- 
pal of West Division High School, $2,800; principals of North and South 
Division High Schools, $2,600; eleven assistants, $2,000; four assistants, 
$1,800; three assistants, $1,600; eight assistants, $1,500; eleven assistants, 
$1,400-, six assistants, $1,300; four assistants, $1,200; five assistants, $1,100; 
six assistants, $1,000; two assistants, $900; two assistants, $800. Principals 
of Grammar Schools: First group — Principals of the Andersen, Armour 
Street, Brighton, Brown, Burr, Carpenter, Clarke, Doolittle, Dore, Douglas, 
Enerson, Franklin, Frcebel, Garfield, Harrison, Haven, Hayes, Hendricks, 
Holden, Irving, Jones, King, La Salle, Lincoln, Marquette, McClellan, Mose- 
ley, Newberry, Oakley, Ogden, Raymond, Sheridan, Skinner, Throop, Walsh, 
Washington, Webster and Wells Schools, each $2,200 per annum. Second 
group — Principals of the Brainard, Calhoun, Central Park. Headley, Hum- 
boldt, Keith, Logan, Scammon, Thomas Hoyne, Tilden and Von Humboldt 
Schools, each $1,700 per annum for the first year of service as principals of 
schools in this group; $1,800 per annum for the second year of service; 
$1,900 per annum for the third year of service; $1,950 for the fourth year of 
service, and $2,000 per annum for fifth and subsequent years of service. 
Third group — Principal of the Hancock School. $1,400 per annum for first 
year of service; $1,500 for the second year of service, and $1,600 for the third 
and subsequent years of service; principal of Tilton School, $1,500; principal 
of the Lawndale School, $1,400; principal of the Maplewood School, $1,200; 
principal of the Brighton Park School, $1,200 Principals of Primary 
Schools: First group — Principals of the Arnold, Cooper, Foster, Healy, Jef- 
ferson, Langland. Longfellow, Montefiore. Motley, Oak Street, Pickard, Polk 
Street, Rogers, Talcott, Washburne aod Wicker Park Schools, each $1,400 
per annum for the first year of service as principals of schools in this group; 
$1,450 per annum for the second year of service; $1,500 per annum for the 
third year of service, and $1,600 per annum for the fourth and subsequent 
years of service. Second group — Principals of the Brenan, Grant, Hoffman 
Avenu^, Manierre. McA.llister, Pearson Street, Vedder Street and Ward 
Schools, each $1,400 per annum for the first year of service as principals of 



104 GUIDE TO CHIC AGO. 

schools in this group; $1,450 per annum for the second year of service, and 
$1,500 per annum for the third and subsequent years of service. Third group 
— Principals of the Calumet Avenue, Columbus, Huron Street, Kinzie, 
Kosciusko and Sheldon Schools, each $1,250 per annum for the first year of 
service as principals of schools in this group, and $1,350 for the second and 
subsequent years of service. Fourth group — Principals of the Boulevard and 
Dearborn Schools, each $1,100 per annum; principal of California Avenue 
School, $1,050; principal of Blue Island Avenue School, $1,050; assistants to 
principals, each $1,100 per annum. Head Assistants: Grammar Schools — 
Head assistants who have served less than live years in such capacity, each 
$900 per annum; head assistants who have served between five and ten years 
in such capacity, $950 per annum; head assistants who have served ten years 
or over in such capacity, each $1,000 per annum. Primary Schools — Head 
assistants who have served less than five years in such capacity, $850 per 
annum; head assistants who have served between five and ten years in such 
capacity, $900 per annum; head assistantswho have served over ten years in 
such capacity, $950 per annum. Assistant Teachers in Primary Grades: For 
the first year of service, $400 per annum; second year, $475; third year, $575; 
fourth year, $650; fifth year, $700; sixth and subsequent years, $775. Assist- 
ant Teachers in Grammar Grades: For the first year of service, $450 per 
annum; second year, $525; third year, $600; fourth year, $650; fifth year, $700; 
sixth and subsequent years, $775. Second teachers in Half-day Divisions 
to receive $50 per annum less than the rates paid assistants in Primary Grades. 
Three reserve teachers at a salary of $700 each per annum. All changes in 
salary to take place at the commencement of the school month succeeding the 
expiration of the year's service Substitutes: Four substitutes to be employed 
at the discretion of the superintendent, at a compensation of $4.00 each for 
each day of actual service. Other substitutes to be paid at the rate of $1 50 
per day for each day of actual service. Cadets: All candidates for positions as 
teachers, who hold partial certificates of qualifications to teach in the Chi- 
cago Public Schools, issued by the Board of Education, who have been in 
regular service in the schools for two months as cadets, and who have shown 
such proficiency as to satisfy the superintendent that they are desirable as 
teachers, shall, upon his recommendation, receive a compensation of 75 cents 
per day for each day of actual service in such capacity. After a service of 
six months as cadets, they shall receive a compensation of $1,25 per day. 
Office and other employ es,'Clerk of Board of Education, $3,000; supply agent, 
$3,000; attorney of the board. $3,600; chief engineer, $3,000; foreman of 
repairs, $1,500; auditor, $2,500; assistant to auditor, $l,5u0; school agent, 
$1,800; assistant clerk in office of clerk, $1,000; clerk in supply room, $1,500; 
assistant to supply agent, $1,200; assistant in supply room, $600; stenographer 
in office of supply agent, $720; stenographer. $720; "Stenographer, $540; 
stenographer in office of clerk, $600; messenger in office of supply agent, $300, 
messenger in office of clerk, $300. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY: 

Occupies (excepting council chamber) entire fourth floor of the City Hall. 
Was founded in 1872. The library contained at the date of the last annual 
report of the directors, June 1, 156,243 volumes, and the collection is increas- 
ing by purchase and donation at the rate of 7,000 to 10,000 volumes annually. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 105 

Its literary treasures, many of which can not be duplicated at any cost, are at 
the lowest estimate valued at $250,000. With an annual circulation of over 
1,250,000 volumes it maintains high rank among the free public libraries of 
the country. At the Paris Exposition of 1889 it received the distinguished 
honor of an award of a gold medal, on an exhibit consisting of the annual 
report, finding lists and a volume showing in detail the administration 
of the library in every department. A reading-room is maintained, which 
last year was patronized by 700,000 visitors, 550,000 periodicals being given 
out across the counter. There are also reference departments including 
general, patent and medical, which are consulted, by thousands of people in 
search of special knowledge, annually. 

A Cosmopolitan Collection. — There is not a more cosmopolitan place in 
the city than the library rooms. It is a place wheie the people of all nationt 
come for their reading matter. The library is composed of books in all 
languages, selected with the greatest care. Naturally, the English tongue 
predominates, but the Bohemian or the Greek or the Italian can find the 
works of the leading writers of his country in its cases. As a result, the 
library assumes a cosmopolitan phase, because it is so extensively patronized 
by the people of so many different nationalities. The method of securicg 
new books is simple. The librarian really does the selecting. The list 
prepared by him is placed in the hands of a proper committee, who either 
indorse or modifythe librarian's choice, and the amended list is finally voted 
upon by the board. That the majority of the reading public who look to the 
library rely greatly upon it. is proven by the many applications made daily 
f )r the new books they have heard about or read about in the newspapers. 
The fact also proves that this city is the home of intelligent, wide-awake 
people, who wish to keep abreast of contemporaneous thought and literature. 

Administrati07i and Cost of Maintenance — Frederick H. Hild, the 
librarian, has four assistants, namely, W. B. Wickersham, secretary; E. 
F. L. Gauss, Elizabeth A. Young and Kate M. Henneberry. There are 
forty attendants regularly employed in the day service of the library, 
and twelve in the evening service. With five janitors, one night watch- 
man, one electrician, and one expressman, the total number of persons in 
the employ of the Library is seventy-one. The amount expended for 
salaries last year was $45;919.61, which included $2,787.00 paid for the 
transportation of books to and from the delivery stations. The total cost 
for the maintenance of the library for the year was $80,085.47. The board 
of directors consists of ten members. The estimated expenses of the Library 
for 1891 were as follows: Salaries, $50,000; books, $20,000; binding,$7,000; 
heating and lighting, $5,000; delivery stations, $11,000; newspapers and 
periodicals, $3,250; printing and stationery, $2,000; findirc: lists, $2,000: inci- 
dentals, $1,500; furniture aud fixtures, $4,000; rent of reading-rooms, $2,880. 

Character of Books. — A classified analysis of the entire number of volumes 
in the library shows that English prose fiction leads in popularity, there 
being 21,279 volumes in that department alone. In the department of Ger- 
man literature are found 17,351 volumes. French literature follows with 
6,682 volumes. Some general idea of the character of the entire collection 



106 GUIDE TO CHIGAGO. 

may be formed from the fact that among the classes well represented are 
those of history; biography; travels; poetry and drama; essays and miscel- 
lanies; polygraphy and collected works; fine arts; natural sciences; practical 
arts (including patents); political and social science; lauguage and literature; 
mental and moral science; ancient classics; religion; medicine; law; period- 
icals and newspapers; Government documents and State papers; bibliography; 
dictionries and encyclopedias; English prose fiction; juvenile literature; Ger- 
man, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Bohemian .Polish, Russian 
and Scandinavian literature. The largest number of books issued on any 
one day in 1890 was 5,272, on February 24th. On the same day there were 
used in the other departments 1,799 volumes, making a total of 7,071 vol- 
umes, which is the largest circulation reported for any one day in the history 
of the Library. 

Class of Books Most Galled For. — About 62.12 per cent, of the books 
taken out last year belonged to fiction and juvenile publications. Fire years 
ago, the per cent, was 60.12. History and biography can show 9.70 percent.; 
science and the arts, 6.15 percent.; voyages and travels, 4.63 per cent, and 
poetry and the drama, 3.12 per cent. 

Free Delivery Stations. — There are twenty-two free delivery stations for 
books, located at convenient points throughout the city, and the number of 
tapoks circulated through these stations is very large, exceeding 500,000 
copies per annum. Cards entitling holders to books may be procured at the 
delivery station. 

Milwauhee Avenue Reading Room. — Located at 1204 Milwaukee avenue. 
This is the first of the new reading-rooms to be established in different parts 
of thecity by the Public Library Board, The part of the city in which it 
is located is densely populated. The room is open every day in the year from 
9 o'clock in the morning to 10 at night— except Sunday, when the opening 
hour is 10 o'clock. The room is 25x80 feet in dimensions, on the ground 
floor, lighted from two sides, and has been newly equipped with tables, 
periodical cases, chairs, file-racks, and other furniture, and seventy-five of 
the best English, French, German and Scandinavian periodicals. 

The board has been offered the ground floor of a building being erected at 
number 331 South Halsted street, free of rental, for one of the rooms. The 
offer will doubtless be accepted. Another will be established on Clybourn 
avenue near the intersection of that street with Halsted street and North 
avenue. The next one to be opened will be in the vicinity of the stockyards. 

New Library Building. — The block of ground on the Lake Front, 
formerly known as Dearborn Park, is reserved by the City of Chicago for a 
great Public Library Building, the construction of which can not be much 
longer postponed. 

REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS; 

The real estate transactions in Chicago during the year 1890 were the 
greatest in the history of the city. The recorded transfers of real property 
for cash of the four quarters of the year, as compared with 1889, were as 
follows; 



CHICAGO AS IT 18. 



107 



Periods. 



First quarter... 
Second quarter 
Third quarter. 
Fourth quarter 

Year 

Increase . 



1890. 



839,474,580 
6^,863,902 
6t,208,6:6 
60,941,861 



8227,486,959 
94,113,010 



1889. 



$28,915,705 
33,205,022 
31,328,859 
39,925,263 



8133,374,949 



Increase per cent., 70. 

The following shows the relative amount of business in the city and out- 
side the limits during 1890: 



Periods. 



First quarter... 
Second quarter 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter. 

Tortal 




833,777,955 
53,813,507 
47,404,669 
49,912,330 



$183,878,461 



Outside. 



$5,726,625 
10,050,395 
16,801,947 
11,029,531 



$43,608,498 



Building Operations Since 1876:— Fiom 1876 to 1889 there were erected 
in the city 37,042 buildings, covering a frontage of 172 miles, costing $176,- 
460,779, being an average of 3,087 per year for twelve years, an average of 
14)^ miles of frontage, and an average cost of $14,705,065. The least number 
of buildings erected in any one year was in 1878, with a frontage of about 
six miles. The least expenditure was in 1879. The largest tiansaction for 
same period was in 1888 — number of buildings 4,958, 22 miles frontage, 
expenditure $20,360,800. During 1889 the number of buildings erected was 
7,590, covering over 34 miles of street frontage and costing $31,516,000. 
The buildings erected in 1890 covered a frontage of 503^ miles. In the 
South Division 1,120 buildings were erected, having a frontage of 29,594 
feet, and at a cost of $15,400,800; in the North Division 502 buildings, with a 
frontage of 14,055 feet, costing $3,681,200; in the West Division 3,994, with 
a frontage of 91,336 feet, costing $13,687,600. In Hyde park 2,052 buildings 
were erected with a frontage of 44,481 feet, costing $6,624,300. In Lake 
2.889 were erected, with a frontage of 63.297 feet, costing $5,578,100. Lake 
Viewadded 1,051, with a frontage of 23.518 feet, costing $2,350,100. The total 
building transactions of Chicago in 1890 were as follows: 

New buildings erected 11,608 

Feet f ron tage 266,284 

Total cost $47,322,100 

Number of sheds, 2,257, at a cost of $225,700 

Total number of buildings erected since 1876 56,240 

*' cost " " '* " $255,298,870 

•• frontage " •♦ " " 256 miles. 



108 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



Building Permits for ISQO.—Bmlding during 1890 showed an expected 
increase. The totals Inside the city limits revealed the issuance of 11,544 per- 
mits, for 263.377 feet or about 5D.1 miles of frontage, at a cost of $47,322,100. 
This showed an increase over 1889 of 52 per cent, in the number of permits; 
45 per cent, in the amount of frontage covered, and 19 per cent, in the cost of 
buildiags. In the following table the totals for each month are given: 





Perm'ts Is- 
sued. 


i 
Frontage, 
Feet. 


Cost. 


January - 

February 


573 

866 

1,319 

964 

1,0-4 

1,064 

1,047 

1,036 

1,035 

1,178 

820 

588 


13,256 
19,816 
39,695 
20,504 
24,450 
24,840 
24,579 
34,752 
23,443 
28.884 
16,710 
12,549 


$1,310,800 
2,226,000 


March — 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 


3,>- 54,600 
2,767,000 
3,387,900 
7,898,900 
4,789,600 
6,736,600 
3,675,500 


Oftohpf . 


4,832,400 


N^ovpmh>pr 


2,169.700 


December 


3,724,30f 




Total, 1890 


11,544 
7,590 


263,377 
181,126 


S47,373,2a 


Total, 1889 


31,516,000 


Increase 


3,954 


83,251 


$15,857,200 






The above were divided as folio 


ws: 








Permits. 


Pro NT AGE, 

Feet. 


Cost. 




3,967 
1,115 
501 
2,044 
2,873 
1,044 


88,999 
29,622 
14,061 
44,888 
62,930 
23,386 


$13,542,100 


South Side 


15,.'i77,500 
3,685,500 


Hyde Park 

Lake View 


6,6i7,4<!0 
5,552,500 
2,316.700 








11,514 


263,377 


$17,373,200 







Division Goynparisom. — The following table shows the divisions of the 
city as compared with the building done the previous year: 

south division. 



1890 
1889 



Permits. 



1,115 
1,082 



Gaiu, 



33 



Frontage. 



29,833 
30,004 



Cost. 



$15,577,500 
969,100 



Decrease, 383 



Gain, $ 6,886,500 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 



109 



■WEST DIVISION. 





Permits. 


Frontage. 


Cost. 


1880 


3,900 
3,355 


88,990 
75,647 


$13,442,100 
11,199,400 


1889 






Gain, 545 


Increase, 13,341 


Gain, $ 2,001,700 



NORTH division. 





Permits. 


Frontage, Feet. 


Cost. 


1890 


501 
494 


J 4,061 
13,922 


$3,685,500 
3,876,800 


1889 




Gain, 7 


Gain, 139 


Loss,$ 191,300 



During the year on long termed ground leases $10,000,000 worth of prop, 
erty changed control. 

SHIP AND DRAINAGE CANAL. 

The question of drainage is one that has received the most earnest atten- 
tion of the people of Chicago during recent years. It involves so much of 
momentous importance that the State of Illinois has placed it in the hands of 
a Drainage Commission, with powers equal to those exercised by the county 
or municipal governments. These powers embrace the borrowing of an enor- 
mous amount of money upon the credit of the people owning property in the 
districts to be affected by the carrying out of the scheme, the condemnation 
of land, the digging of canals, the construction of dams, dykes, docks, etc., 
etc., and the general management of the drainage system of the district known 
as the Desplaines Water Shed. It would require a volume in itself to give a 
proper review of the drainage question. The -chief features only can be 
treated of here: 

Changing the Water Flow. — In the remote past the overflow of the waters 
of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan ran through the Mississippi south to the 
Gulf of Mexico, instead of as now — northeast through the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence to the Atlantic. At the same time Lake Erie was emptying into the 
Atlantic through Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence; not by the Niagara, but 
by the Dundas valley, a channel not far from the line of the present Welland 
canal. Then, at some epoch unknown and for some cause unguessed, the 
Detroit strait and the Niagara strait were opened, Lake Michigan slowly fell 
about thirty feet, audits outlet (now "the Divide," at Summit, close to city 
limits, twelve miles southwest of the Court-house) gradually filled up with 



GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



S>?owing^the new 
^ mHY LIMITS 



°a"v " p — •* 



I DistricT . 

,)?aM STANDARD 
y)} I 1 CutD& 




RTJU. 



THE SANITARY DRAINAGE DISTRICT, 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. ' 111 

mixed deposit; so that tcday the dry bed of " Mud Lake " is the sole remain- 
ing representative of the once great southward waterway. "Within a few 
years, long before the close of the nineteenth century, the old order of things 
must be re-established and mighty Michigan once more find its waters flowing 
southward. The hand of man will compel it again to turn in its bed, and lie 
with its head to the north and its foot to the south as of old. The canal which 
is to be built as an outlet will carry a stream of water 160 feet wide, 18 feet deep, 
flowing 24 miles an hour. Through this canal the largest steamers might float, 
but it is not intendedthat passage through shall be provided for them, because 
the locks by which they would have to descend (151^ feet) 40 reach the Illi- 
nois river are too small and the river itself is far too shallow for their accom- 
modation. Some Mississippi boats can come to us, but our stately ships can 
not go to them. Each must break bulk in Chicago. Also — an important 
consideration — light draft gunboats may pass and repass freely between the 
great lakes and the great river. As we stand now, any nation having control 
of the St. Lawrence and the Welland canal has at least the highway necessary 
to command Lakes Erie, St. Clair, Huron and Michigan with all that lies on 
their shores. 

Cost of the Undertaking. — To accomplish the ends desired will cost the 
Sanitary District (practically the city of Chicago) about $20,000,000. 

Disposing of Ohicago Sewage. — The one great object of this ship canal, how- 
ever, is to dispose of Chicago sewage. When the population was small, the 
city was drained by the Chicago river and the lake. Years ago it became 
apparent that a change would have to be made in this respect. The course 
of the Chicago river is naturally into Lake Michigan, but pumping works 
were erected at Bridgeport, in the southwestern part of the city, which lift an 
average of 40,000 cubic feet per minute into the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
causing, under ordinary conditions, a perceptible current away from the lake. 
The water thus pumped into the canal flows south to the Illinois river and 
thence to the Mississippi, Pumping works at Fullerton avenue, on the north 
branchof the Chicago river, force water from the lake into thatstream, diluting 
its contents, and furnishing the head needed for a flow toward the Bridgeport 
pumps. This means of disposing of the city's sewage is wholly inadequate 
to its needs, and the pollution of the water supply of the city is constantly 
menaced. Measures have therefore been taken to construct a large gravity 
channel as an outlet for the sewage of Chicago into the Illinois river. The 
Chicago Sanitary District has been formed by act of Legislature of the State 
of Illinois; nine trustees have been elected to supervise the construction of a 
channel; a corps of engineers has been set at work making preliminary sur- 
veys, and plans are being perfected for a channel which will answer the 
double purpose of disposing of the city's sewage and establishing a naviga- 
ble waterway for the interchange of commerce between Lake Michigan and 
the Mississippi river. 

Route of the Ship Canal. — A trip over the route of the great ship and drain- 
age canal will be interesting and instructive to visitors who are of an inquir- 
ing or of a scientific turn of mind. Starting from Bridgeport, where is located 
the present pumping works (Ashland and Archer avenues), whose ponderous 
engines are laboriously lifting, every minute, 60,000 cubic feet of the slimy, 
filthy water of the river, at a cost of $1,000 per week, we strike right across 
the country to Summit. Here we come to the bank of the ' ' Ogden-Went- 
worth ditch," well known by name to very many and by face to very few. 



112 GUIDE TO CHICAGO, 

Sometimes it has been a great, moving flood, briDging Desplaines water in 
to work harm to all the low-lying parts of Southwestern Chicago. Now it is a 
huge gutter, dry, except for a sluggish rivulet trickling along its middle. 
Its purpose was to drain Mud Lake, and by its aid that long, narrow basin is 
now and has been for many years dry land — at least land dry enough for 
agriculture, and to some extent for humble habitation by theunexacting poor. 
Its course presents few attractions — none, unless the great Chicago Bride- 
well be called attractive, which it is not, usually — rather to be avoided if con- 
venient. 

Eight mile^out, at the head of the ditch, is the " Ogden Dam,'* another 
entity whereof many know the name who would not recognize the aspect If 
they met it in their morning walks. It is a plank wall perhaps twelve feet 
high on an average, running less than 100 feet northerly and southerly, bar- 
ring the eastward flow of the Desplaines river, save when spring floods over- 
top it, Mud Lake becomes once more a lake, and its waters flow with great 
speed and volume unchecked toward the city, where they enter the South 
Branch and drive its foul winter accumulations out into the lake — our drink- 
ing fountain. 

So we have reached the famous "Divide." This is " Summit." Before 
us is the Desplaines, flowing toward the warm, torrid Gulf of Mexico; behind 
us the waters that are destined to the Gulf of St. Lawrence by icy, stormy 
Labrador. We have come eight miles fr m Bridgeport, and all the way on 
our left we have passed the present canal, its course marked by the long high 
pile ot rocks excavated from its bed. Just beyond the canal is the Chicago 
& Alton railroad, which closely follows its course nearly all the way to Joliet, 
and just this side of it the Chicago and Santa Fe, which ciosses the ditcheast 
of the dam. 

It happens quite by accident that the flrst stretch of the Ogden Ditch 
points directly toward the Auditorium tower, and, as we look back along its 
course, that square structure is perfectly visible with a glass — may be faintly 
descried with the naked eye in favorable states of the atmosphere, looming 
in the little gap between the low shrubbery that has sprung up on either side 
of the watercourse. 

Turning our backsto Lake Michigan we see before us to the southwest the 
"twelve-mile level " of the Desplaines. At this dry time it is almost without 
current, and the landscape along its banks is as tame and featureless as 
can well be imagined. Even the canal itself has more fall here than the 
river, and its bed is some twelve feet lower than the surface of the stream. 
The rolling prairie near Summit changes to a wooded ridge coming in from 
the left as we near "Willow Springs, a place attractive to festive picnickers 
brought out by the Alton and the Santa Fe railways, the former following 
the left bank and the latter the right. Following the tow-path we come in 
sight of frequent piles of waste rock, showing that we are entering the great 
quarry district. The old canal (still some feet lower than the river) runs near 
a high wooded ridge that marks the southeasterly limit of the valley. At 
length this ridge begins to grow lower ; we are approaching the "Sag" feeder 
which used to bring water from the Calumet river and deliver it to the canal. 
"Wearily we climb the hill, when, all at once, a strong, cool breeze greets the 
beaded brow, and lifting the eyes they are surprised with the sight of abroad 
green vale stretching eastward far below, bringing a silvery, winding stream 
and a refreshing breath of unmistakable Lake Michigan air. Here is a ceme- 
tery and a Catholic priest in attendance. From him we learn : 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 113 

* ' This is the Sag Bottoms before you. It is a low area of land running to 
Calumet Lake, some twenty-five miles away. The Indians who used to live 
here called the stream the Au-sag-nous-ki, the west grass valley. You see 
that winding stream? Well, that's the Sag feeder, the old Calumet Canal. 
Back about '50 they used to run passenger-boats down the feeder. There 
weren't any railroads to speak of then. The feeder runs clear through from 
the Calumet river to Stony Creek, round Lane's Island (which isn't an island 
at all, but only high ground), and down through the bottoms into the Illinois 
and Michigan Canal just below here. That is the town of Sag over there." 

We descend and follow the feeder to its junction with the canal. Its 
water is low now, since the canal was deepened (1870), but there is still a cur- 
rent passing under the bridge of the railway, its successful and dominant 
rival. From Hastings toLemont the canal presents a lively aspect. Quarry 
succeeds quarry in close succession. Each has its swinging cranes at work 
loading track-cars and canal-boats, and the canal is frequently bridged with 
"locomotive cranes "running on supporting trusses, and carrying huge blocks 
of stone from the quarries to the mills to be sawed or planed into building 
blocks or flag-stones. In the quarries proper the scene is active and the sound 
continuous. Steam drills and channelers bore and carve the sandstone, and 
brawny arms raise and drop the heavy hand-drill. Here is a line of men 
sinking a series of wedge-holes into a stratum of the milk-white rock ; beyond 
is another line driving a row of wedges with fast-falling blows of the sledge- 
hammer. A sharp, cracking noise and the split has run from hole to hole, 
and with a grinding sound a long, narrow strip of stone pushes out from its 
immemorial bed. "Do you see those'men slinking off through the weeds on 
the hill ? They are getting out of the way of a blast." Sure enough, in a few 
seconds a sound of cannon-shot indicates that several blasts have been fired 
simultaneously by electricity. A mass of smoke rises, and as the cloud dis- 
perses it discloses a shower of fragments and falling stones. 

B3I0W Lemont some extensive earth-moving, "scalping," is doing by 
steam shovels to strip the rock for quarrying. Though the Desplaiues here is 
broad, shallow and sluggish, yet it has already fallen a good deal, for it is 
now about level with the canal or lower. These inexhaustible quarries of 
easily-worked stone are a great and ownly partly recognized factor in making 
Chicago what she is and what she will be. Timber to the north, coal to the 
south, a great lake to the northeast, a great river to the southwest, and a 
glorious country all around—what more could be asked to build her up to be 
the metropolis of America? Nothing but something to build with. And she 
has it all. Lumber is her great staple. Brick, clay and building-sand are her 
very foundation, and a whole valley of kindly rock is at her very door. In 
truth Chicago is Nature's chosen tabernacle. Vain — vain and foolish for us 
Chicagoans to fancy that we made our city, for it is Chicago which has made 
us. From Lemont to Lockport the valley widens, the bottoms forming level 
and open areas of prairie. At Lockport the river is some twenty-five feet 
lower than at Lemont. Lockport is a large and interesting manufacturing 
town, showing the effect of the water-power which even the old canal has 
furnished. Much surplus water is now wasting here; not because it is not 
valuable, but because it is the product of the increased action of the Bridge- 
port pumps, an increase which has accrued too lately to allow time to erect 
the mills which should be using the power. The flood forms a raging torrent 
forty feet wide, attractive to the eye, offensive to the nose. 

From Lockport to Joliet is eight miles, but the drainage canal, strictly 



114 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 



speaking, ceases at Loakport, thirty-four miles below Chicago, where the 
river bed becomes low enough to care for the water. The canal is under way 
and will surely be completed within our own times. All craft short of our 
great lakers will use it. By water to the gulf and beyond will be part of our 
daily traffic. 

Worthen's Boute. — Some changes have been made recently in the pro- 
posed route of the canal. The route chosen by Engineer Worthen is as fol- 
lows: Starting from the west fork of the south branch of Chicago river in 
Bridgeport, following the Ogden ditch to Ogden dam, where the route crosses 
the Des Plaines river, then following the west bank of Des Plaines river to 
Joliet. In one or two places where there is too great a curve in the river it 
leaves it for a short distance. Again it runs in the river at places, but never 
crosses over, always running on the west bank. 

WATER WORKS. 

The water works of Chicago are among the wonders of the city, not 
alone because of their magnitude, but because of the magnificent engineering 
features which they present to the intelligent or curious visitor. The great 
central pumping works of the system are as follows: Foot of Chicago avenue, 
North Side. Take North Clark street cable or 8tate street car to Chicago 
avenue, and walk east toward the lake. These works are at the Southern 
end of the Lake Shore drive and should be visited by all strangers. West 
Side works, corner of Blue Island avenue and Twenty-second street. Take 
Blue Island avenue car. Central pumping station. West Harrison street; 
between Desplaines and Halsted streets. Take Harrison street o-r South 
Halsted street cars. To visit the different "cribs" situated in Lake Michi- 
gan, during the summer months, take excursion boats on the lake shore, foot 
of Van Buren street. The fare for round trip is 25 cents. The area of Chi- 
cago is about 181 square miles, the greater part of which is thickly populated, 
requiring good facilities for an abundant supply of water. This is drawn 
from Lake Michigan by a number of separate water works, all of which are 
operated upon the same plan. Owing to the perfectly level plain upon which 
Chicago is built, there is no natural elevation available for the establishment 
of reservoirs. The water, when drawn from the lake, is pumped directly into 
the mains against a stand-pipe head of about 100 feet. 

Descriptioti of Water Works.— Th.^ Water Works System may be intelli- 
gently described by confining ourselves to the principal Water Works, or 
those now in full operation. Two miles from the shore, in the lake, a substan- 
tial structure is located, which is popularly styled "the crib," within which 
is an iron cylinder 9 feet in diameter, extending down 31 feet below the bot- 
tom of the lake, and connecting with two distinct tunnels leading to separate 
pumping works on shore. Water is admitted into the crib from the surface 
of the lake, its flow being regulated by a gate. The tunnel first constructed 
is five feet in diameter, and communicates with the pumping works at the 
foot of Chicago ave., where there are four double and two sfagle engines. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 115 

which furnishes a daily average of 50,000,000 gallons under a head of 105.7 
feet. The second tuanel is seven feet in diameter, and extends under the lake 
and uader the city, a distance of six miles, to the pumping works on the 
West Side, in which there are four engines whose daily performance is about 
61,000,000 gallons under a head of 106 feet. A new central pumping station 
has recently been built on West Harrison St., between Desplaines and Halsted 
sts., which is for the present obtaining its supply of water from the seven- 
foot tunnel just referred to. It is equipped with two triple expansion 
engines, built by the Edward P. Allis Company, of Milwaukee, each weigh- 
ing 440 tons, including pumps, and each calculated to deliver 15,000,000 gal- 
lons daily against ahead of 125 feet, with a steam pressure of 125 pounds. 
With a view to meeting the requirements in the near future of this rapidly 
growing city, a new late tunnel is in course of construction. The in-take to 
this tunnel will be located four miles from shore, to avoid the pollution of 
the tvater supply from the drainage into the lake. The original plans con- 
templated an ei2;ht-foot tunnel, but difficulties were encountered in the 
nature of the soil which made it necessary to reduce the size, and two six- 
foot tunnels are now being driven. An intermediate crib has been built, two 
and one-half miles from shore, to enable the water supply from this source 
to be made available at an early day. The central pumping station at Harri- 
son St. will eventually draw its supply from this new tunnel, as will another 
pumping station now in course of erection on Fourteenth st. The latter sta- 
tion will be supplied with four triple expansion engines of the same pattern 
as those at the Harrison street station. 

Cost of Water Works. — The total cost of the works constituting the 
Chicago Water system is as follows: 

Cost up to May 6, 1861, when the works were transferred from Board 

of Water Commissioners to the Board of Public works. . . $1,020,160 21 

Expenditures since 1861. 

Cost of ^vater pipe laid (including labor) ... $7,813,133 37 

Cost of North pumping works 91 8,673 14 

Cost of West pumping works 898,849 37 

Cost of first lake tunnel 464,866 37 

Cost of second lake tunnel 415,709 36 

Cost of lake crib protection ilS'^*^^ ^ 

Cost of new lake tunnel 232,466 19 

Cost of land tiinnei to West pumping works ... 54:^,913 63 

Cost of new land tunnel 254,894 38 

Cost of lake tunnel crib 70,319 10 

Cost of lake shore inlet 42,871 17 

Cost of new lake shore inlet 84,474 17 

Cost of water works shop 26,55173 

Cost of water works stock 29,318 00 

Cost of water reservoir fence IJOS 87 

Cost of addition to stable 1,019 48 

Cost of real estate for sites of new pumping works 206,973 35 

Cost on account of Central pumping works 235,150 11 

Cost on account of South Side pumping works 141,743 46 

Cost on account of new lake crib 19i,262 65 

Cost on account of breakwater 28,181 93 

Total cost of the entire water works to December 31, 1889 $13,773,563 25 

Amounts expended in 1890 1,250,000 00 

Total cost to December 31, 1890 f 15,028.562 25 



116 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

• 

New Water Tunnel. — The new water tunnel will be completed long before 
the World's Columbian Exposition is held here. It is expected that the 
additional water supply will pass through this tunnel and be distributed in 
the city before the close of 1892. 

Sozirce of Water Supply. — The water supply of Chicago and her environs 
is taken from Lake Michigan, which is a part of the chain of lakes and rivers 
composing the basin of the St. Lawrence. To form some idea of this inex- 
haustible and magnificent reservoir of pure water, at the very doors of her 
people, it is only necessary to give a few pertinent statistics. The chief 
geographer of the United States geological survey give's the following 
data: Area of basin of St. Lawrence, 457,000 square miles, of which 
330,000 belong to Canada, 127,000 to the United States. Lake Superior 
—area, 31,200 square miles; length, 412 miles; minimum breadth, 167 
miles; maximum depth, 1,008 feet; altitude above sea level, 602 feet. 
Lake Huron— area, 21,000 square miles; 263 miles long, 101 broad; maxi- 
mum depth, 702 feet, altitude, 581 feet. Lake St. Clair, 29 miles long; 
Lake Erie, area, 9,960 square miles; length, 250 miles; maximum breadth, 60 
miles; maximum depth, 210 feet; altitude, 573 feet, and above Lake Ontario 
326 feet. Lake Ontario— area, 7,240 square miles; length, 190 miles; breadth, 
54 miles; maximum depth, 738 feet; altitude, 247 feet. Lake Michigan — 
area, 22,450 square miles; maximum breadth, 84 miles; length, 345 miles, 
maximum depth, 870 feet; altitude, 581 feet. 

Temperature of Lake Water. — The average temperature of the water in 
the lake, from observations taken at the crib during the year 1890, was: Jan- 
uary, 32.0; February, 32.0; March, 35.4; April, 43.3; May, 51.9; June, 54.9; 
July, 65.9; August, 60.2; October, 50.6; November, 43.0; December, 37.5. 

Water Towers. — For the benefit of those who do not understand the prin- 
ciples of water distribution in a great city, the following explanation is 
given : A tunnel from the crib in the lake is built on an incline so that the 
water pours into a well under the water works. In getting there it has been 
allowed to fall several feet below the level of the lake. When the pumping 
is light, of course the water rises in the well to the level of its source — the 
lake — but in Chicago the demand is so strong that the pumps keep the water 
in the well several feet below that in the lake, raising the water from a dis- 
tance maybe sixteen feet below lake surface. After the pumps have thus 
raised the water their work is just begun. They must now force it out the 
mains and into the houses, just as an ordinary well pump, with the valve in 
the bottom of the well instead of up near the pump handle, brings the water 
to the pump spout. The use of the tower is now shown. Take away a sec- 
tion of the masonry and there remains an upright pipe. A description of the 
West Side water works tower will serve as an illustration. There the stand- 
pipe is five feet in diameter and about 167 feet high. It is made of plate 
boiler iron about five-eighths of an inch thick, and looks like an ordinary 
engine boiler, except in length. When the water passes the valve in the 
pump it passes through the main pipe close by the base of this tower, or may 
pass under the tower. An opening allows the water to run out of the pipe 
into the tower stand-pipe. At the West Side works there are four of these 
main pipes, all opening into the stand-pipe. Now comes the essential part, 
which is very simple, when understood. The pumps are started, say at a 
pressure of forty pounds to the square inch of surface. The water is forced 
out along the mains, and through the opening into the tower stand-pipe. 



CHICAGO AS IT IS. 117 

That will raise the water about two and one third feet in the stand-pipe for 
each pound of pressure, which is about ninety-three feet for the forty 
pounds. The weight of the water in the pipe represents that power, and 
stands there as au elastic spring or cushion, rising and falling, equalizing the 
pressure on the water faucets and pipes. If every one having faucets on the 
main should close them, the water pumped in the main would have an escape 
through this pipe, and the result can be imagined— the pipe wouldn't hold it 
very long if the pumps were not stopped. But there is an indicator, like the 
hands on the face of a clock, which shows just how much water is being 
drawn, or how much of the power is used, and the engineer regulates his 
pumping accordingly. After the above explanation it may be simply stated 
that the stand-pipe in the water tower furnishes an equalizer, so that when 
an engine is running at a given rate of speed or pressure, the turning on or 
off of a few more or less faucets by consumers may not seriously and too 
suddenly affect the pressure and supply. 

Wate)' Supply of the Enmrons.—The water supply of the southern portion 
of the territory recently annexed to the city, and known as Hyde Park 
and Lake districts, is taken through a five-foot tunnel about 5,000 feet long, 
and is pumped by two 12,000, OOOhorizontal and one6,000,000-verlical Gaskill 
pumping engines, one horizontal 3,000,000 Knowles engine, two 3,000,000 
Cope & Maxwell engines and one of Henry R. Worthington'& horizontal high- 
duty pumping ennrines. This plant is located at the foot of Sixty-eighth 
street, near the tiouth Shore station of the South Chicago branch of the 
Illinois Central railroad. The water supply of the northern portion of the 
annexed territory, known as the Lake Vfew district, is taken through one 
twenty -four-inch pipe and one eighteen-inch pipe, and is pumped by one 
horizontal 12,000,000 Gaskill engine, one horizontal 5,000,000 Worthington 
low-duty engine and a 3,000,000 Vergennes geared engine. A lake tunnel to 
supply the pumping engines for this district is now in course of construction. 
It will be six feet in diameter and two miles long. 

Suburban Water Supply.— l^e&rly every suburban town, whether within the 
corporate limits or outside of them, has its own water works. A great many use 
the Artesian well system at first, but some, for various reasons, take their supply 
from the lake, the water of which answers all purposes of a domestic nature. 
Some of the suburbs have water works of considerable magnitude.^ Evanston, 
tor instance, has a system and machinery which a city of 50,000 inhabitants 
might be proud of. [See *' Outlying Chicago."] 



PART in. 

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 
AMUSEMENTS. 

The visitor, whoever he may be or wherever he may come from, will 
not lack for opportunities of enjoying himself to his heart's content in Chicago, 
no matter in what direction his taste may happen to lie. It is said by those 
who have made a study of the matter that there are more places of amuse- 
ment open in Chicago daily and nightly than in any other city on the globe. 
In addition to such amusements as may be termed strictly American, we 
have presented to us here constantly the leading attractions of European 
cities. Whatever is popular abroad speedily finds its way to Chicago, to be 
tested here at least. The Chicago theatre-goers are as familiar with the work 
of the dramatists and actors of Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria, 
Italy and Russia, as they are with the work of American dramatists and actors, 
becausethere is a constant procession of attractions across the Atlantic, and 
because foreign play- wrights and actors of celebrity find an appreciative public 
and a golden harvest on this side of the ocean. Chicago during recent years 
has become a dramatic center of the first rank. Many new plays are pro- 
duced here every season for the first time. The stamp of Chicago approval 
usually insures the success of a drama, comedy or burlesque, throughout the 
country. Architeeturally the amusement houses of Chicago are the best in 
the United States ; the interior decorations, the scenery and the stage 
fittings of our theatres are unsurpassed. Aside from the theatres there are 
numerous first-class places of amusement, all of which are pointed out under 
this heading. 

Alhambra Theatre. — Located at the corner of State st, and Archer ave. ; H. 
R. Jacobs, manager. Take State st. cable line. This theatre was opened by 
Miss Emma Juch, the prima donna, in 1890. It is one of the handsomest in 
the city. The theatre has a grand entrance on State st. and another entrance 
on Archer ave., both leading inward through a business block to a large court 
from which a spacious lobby opens into the main foyer. Here a wide staircase 
leads to the balcony and branches into side flights of steps both at the top and 
bottom. The auditorium, constructed upon the most approved modern sys- 
tem, is wide but not deep, and has a seating capacity of 2.500 aside from the 
twelve boxes. The lower floor seats 750, the balcony 550, and the gallery 
1,200. The ornamentation of the interior about the boxes, balconies and 
stage front and ceiling, is Moorish in design, and the colors are salmon and 
shrimp pink with intermediate shades. One feature of the new playhouse 

118 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 119 

that makes its plan well-nigh a model one is the excellent system of fire- 
escapes aud exits provided. From the various parts of the house are twenty- 
eight exits, those from the gallery and balcony reaching to iron staircases, 
spiral and straight, runoing down the exterior walls. The stage is forty-five 
feet deep and has an opening of twenty-five feet. There are twenty-four 
dressing-rooms, besides two large rooms for "supers," a bill-room, and music 
rooms — all supplied with every convenience and arranged after the most 
desirable plans. 

Auditorium Theatre. — The theatre of the auditorium building is justly 
entitled to the distinction of being the best equipped for stage purposes, the 
handsomest in interior decorative work, the most perfect in acoustics and 
the most convenient and comfortable for audiences in this or any other 
country. Columns of praise have been written about it. Architects and 
artists of international fame have lauded its merits and its beauties. 
Thousands from foreign shores, who have visited it during the various 
notable performances which have been given within its walls, have been 
surprised at its size and magnificence, and gave willing testimony to its superi- 
ority over their own famous places of amusement. No less remarkable have 
been the compliments paid by the famous vocalists who have sung on its 
stage. Patti, whose presence has graced all the great opera-houses of the 
new and old world, marveled at the ease with which she could sing to the 
immense audiences which made the opening season so notable. Tamagno, 
Lehmann, Albani, Reichman, Nordica and others of like fame, were no less 
complimentary. In short, the opinions of everybody — artist, auditor, 
lecturer and critical foreigner — have been unanimous in declaring the grand 
auditorium theatre unsurpassed for all the purposes to which it was 
dedicated. The great audience room was thrown open to the public on the 
evening of December 9, 1889. The occasion is not likely to be forgotten by 
those who were fortunate to secure admission. 

The following programme was given : 

Triumphal Fantasie, - Theodore Dubois. 

Composed for this occasion for grand organ and orchestra. 
Clarence Eddy, Organist. 

Address, - - - Hon. Dewitt C. Cregier, Mayor of Chicago. 

Address, Ferd. "W. Peck. 

Cantata, ..->-.- Frederick Grant Oleason. 

Composed for this occasion and sung; by a chorus of five 
hundred voices under the direction of 

William L. Tomlins. 

Address. .-...-. PRESIDENT HARRISON. 

Address, Hon. John S. Runnells, of Chicago. 

"Home, Sweet H©me," 

MADAME ADELINA PATTI. 



INTER>nSSION. 



120 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

" America," 

Apollo Club. 

Concert Fantasie, Op. 33, F. De La Tombelle. 

Composed expressly for the dedication of the Auditorium organ. 
Clarence Eddy. 

"The Heavens ARE Telling," - - Haydn. 

Apollo Club. 
Address (Dedicatory), - Hon. Jos. W. Fifer, Governor of Illinois. 
"Hallelujah," — Chorus from "The Messiah." - - - Handel. 

Apollo Club. 

The presence of President Harrison gave a national color to the festivi- 
ties. Patti received a tremendous ovation when she stepped in front, on tht 
arm of Manager Mil ward Adams, and as the last note of "Home, Swee. 
Home" watted through the space the demonstrations were extraordinaryt 
When midnight came the vast audience dispersed and the most brilliane 
scene ever enacted in an American theatre remained fixed forever in thr 
memory. A reoiarkabiy prosperous season of Italian opera followed, undee 
the management of Henry E. Abbey, which lasted four weeks. Next to the 
appearances of Patti was, perhaps, the debut of the renowned Tamagno, the 
tenor in Verdi's Othello, the first complete performance of which was given 
in America during this season. A few weeks later the same company returned 
for a supplementary ssason of two weeks, and the success of the first series 
was repeated. The Apollo Club gave its first concert on December 25th. A 
grand charity ball, attended by the wealth and fashion of the city, was held on 
the 9th of January, 1890. 

The Hebrews followed with a grand ball on 21st of same month. Sarasate 
and D' Albert, the famous violinist and pianist, appeared on 27th and 29th of 
January, and again in February. The important engagements following were: 
The Duff Opera Company, in a series of Gilbert & Sullivan operas; DeWitt 
Talmage'slecture, AprilSth; the " Kirmess," April 17th, 18th,19th;the German 
Opera Company, from the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, from Feb- 
ruary 21st to March 10th; the Apollo Club, May 26th and 27th; the Strauss 
Orchestral Concerts, June 2d to6ih; "Shenandoah," August 26th to September 
6th; return engagement of Duff Opera Company, September 18th to October 
4th; Strauss return concert, October 9th to 14th, and a magnificent production 
of an English pantomime, direct from Drury Lane Theatre, London, entitled 
" The Babes in the Wood," November 10th to December 20th. 

The audience room of the theatre is reached from Congress street near the 
corner of Wabash avenue, A grand vestibule with ticket offices on the 
right and left sides leads to a mosaic paved lobby. The low vaulted ceiling, 
pillared by shapely towers and jetted with electric lights, give it a unique 
appearance. Several large cloak rooms range along one side, and from the 
other broad marble stairs, protected by solid bronze balusters, reach to the 
foyer. This part of the house is of ample dimensions, and richly furnished. 
Two large retiring rooms for ladies and smokers adjoin on the south end. 
both decorated and furnished with dainty taste. The house contains 40 
boxes, supplied with luxurious chairs and sofas and hung with curtains of 
delicate tinted plush. There are 4,050 seats, about 1,500 of which are 
located in the parquet. Above the parquet are the first and second balconies 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 121 

and the gallery. The two latter portions of the house can be closed down for 
special occasions by iron curtains worked by a windlass and chains — an 
ingenious arrangement and very useful at times. Over 5,500 incandescent 
lamps are used in the theatre and stage. The general color treatment of its 
walls, ceiling and pillars is yellow in various shades. The effect produced 
when the electric lamps are lit is extraordinarily impressive. The orchestra 
pit has accommodations for 100 players. 

A special feature of the theatre is the great organ located in a compartment 
behind the north wall. This instrument was dedicated October 29, 1890, in 
the presence of an audience which filled every seat and occupied much of the 
Btaading space in the foyer. The organ is considered to be the most perfect 
in the world, and in size ranks among the largest. It contains 7,193 pipes 
and swell, and is divided into seven parts, namely, " Great, Pedal, Swell, 
Choir, Echo, Solo and Stage." The echo organ is located in the roof over the 
parquet, and is operated by means of electricity from the keyboard. The 
stage organ, as its name implies, is utilized for chorus purposes in operas, 
and"^ for certain stage effect. The instrument, in all its parts, is ^ a model of 
moderningenuity, combining all the latest inventions. It is the intention of 
the management to give recitals from time to time, consisting of popular 
music, for which popular prices will be charged. 

The equipment of the stage is the most complete of any in this or foreign 
countries. It is modeled after the famous one of Bud a Pesth in Hungary, but 
has the advantage of improvement effected inthepastfive years— mechani- 
cal, electricaland hydraulic. The depth from footlights to the rear wall is 
sixty-nine feet; the clear width from wall to wall is ninety-eight feet, giving 
the total available stage room of 6,862 square feet, an extent equal to the 
demands of the most sumptuous productions. 

The floor is entirely level in accordance with the last ideas. From the 
stage to the cellar floor is a depth of 18 feet, but there is an intermediate floor 
for working purposes. The rigging loft is 90 feet above the stage floor, the 
entire framework from top to bottom, including the rigging loft, paint 
bridges, fly galleries, etc., is of iron and steel. All the pulleys, sheaves and 
their bearings are of iron, and the cables by which the drops and border light 
are 8uspended are of steel, flexible and durable. In tl e stage floor are four 
bridges, four traps, four small bridges and three small traps, so disposed that 
the stage can be formed into any shape required for spectacular purposes. 
The immense weights of iron 'and stage floor are lifted and lowered by 
hydraulic machinerv located beneath. The system is most complete, and 
yet so simple that the mere movement of a lever can control all its parts. 
The water-power is obtained from an immense tank set in the tower 180 feet 
above the street, and two force pumps with a capacity of 400 gallons per min- 
ute maintain the pressure. A unique feature is the "horizon," a panoramic 
device moving on a semi-circular iron frame around the three sides of the 
stage. Its purpose is to do away with the old time "Sky borders" which 
have long since grown next to useless, though still found in all other theatres 
of America. This "Horizon" is painted to depict all phases of the sky, 
clouds and clearness, and the effect of light thrown on it from the sides give 
all the necessary effect of movement, lightning, sunset, etc. The property 
room lies above the parquet and is a capacious compartment for the purpose 
of manufacturing and storing all the manifold furnishings required for every 
conceivable production. The accessories of the stage are in thorough keeping 
with its principal features. 



I'Z'Z GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

The dressing-rooms are large and splendidly furnished with every neces- 
sary convenience forartists. The electric apparatus is a wonder of complexity 
and ingenuity and the arrangement for the disposal and hanging of scene 
drops are of the latest and most approved device. To sum up, it may truly be 
said that the stage marks the beginning of a new era in theatrical produc- 
tions in this country. 

The credit for the conception of this splendid structure is due to Mr. Ferd. 
W. Peck. It was his unflagging energy, generous and optimistic nature and 
personal influence that carried the great project to completion. When others 
saw disaster, he inspired hope . The result has demonstrated his wisdom and 
foresight. Chicago has amply shown its appreciation of his successful effort 
and the world at large has looked on and applauded. [See Auditorium.] 

Battle of OeUyshurg Panorama. — Located at the corner of Wabash ave. 
and Panorama pi. Take Wabash ave. cable line. This magnificent cyclo- 
rama has been one of the leading attractions of Chicago for several years, 
and hundreds of thousands of people have seen and admired it. The build- 
ing in which the painting is exhibited is similar to those in the leading conti- 
nental cities of Europe. Open day and evening. Admission, 50 cents; 
children, half-price. 

Central Music Hall. — Located at the northeast corner of Randolph and 
State sts. Opened Dec. 9, 1879; Geo. Harrison, business manager. This is 
the most popular lecture and concert hall in the city, and is open generally 
through the amusement season. The auditorium is a beautiful one and seats 
2,000. It contains a grand concert organ. Some of the greatest singers and 
lecturers in the world have appeared here. Prof. David Swing preaches here 
every Sunday. [See Central Church.] The stage is 25 by 45; no scenery. 

Chicago Opera House. — Located in the Chicago Opera House building, 
a magnificent structure, southwest corner of Clark and Washington streets, 
opposite the Court-house; close to the principal hotels and convenient to 
railroad depots and street car terminals. J. W. Norton & Co., proprietors; 
David Henderson, manager. This is one of the handsomest as well as one of 
the most popular theatres in the city. It is considered absolutely fire-proof, 
every precaution known in modern architecture having been taken to make 
it so. The theatre is built entirely independent of the main building, except 
so far as the entrance and exits are concerned. It was opened August 18, 
1885, by Thomas W. Keene, in "Hamlet," and since then, with scarcely an 
exception, there has been a perfect succession of popular and profitable 
attractions presented here. From time to time some tragedies and dramas of 
the highest order have been produced, and many of the leading actors of this 
country and of Europe have appeared in the Chicago Opera House; but, as 
a rule, the management seems to favor the lighter species of plays, popular 
and sensational burlesques, and the spectacular. And, however this policy 
may be viewed by those inclined to be critical, the patrons of the house 
appear to give it their approval. The theatre has a seating capacity of about 
2,300 The proscenium opening is thirty-six feet wide, and the height from 
stage to " gridiron " is seventy feet, making it one of the finest stages in the 
country for plays requiring machinery to produce spectacular effects. The 
main floor of the auditorium is constructed of fire-brick or tiling, supported 
upon arches covered with a solid bed of cement; all the galleries and boxes 
are constructed of iron and steel, and there is scarcely a piece of wood to be 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 123 

found in the entire interior. The dressing-rooms are below, and are large 
and comfortable. There are fourteen exits distributed over the house. The 
house is illuminated by electricity exclusively. Admission prices. 50c. , 75c., 
$1.00 and |1.50, according to location. Boxes, $10, $12 and $15. 

Columbia Theatre. — Located at the south side of Monroe, between Clark 
and Dearborn sts., close to all the leading hotels and convenient 
to railroad depots and street car terminals. Proprietors, Al. Hayman 
and Will J. Davis; acting manager, Alf. Hayman. This theatre is the pre- 
decessor of "Haverly's." successor of the "Adelphi," which occupied the old 
post-office building on Monroe and Dearborn sts., the present site of the First 
National bank building. Haverly opened the new theatre, giving it his name, 
on beptember 12, 1882, with Robson and Crane in "Twelfth Night." Business 
reverses having compelled Haverly to retire from the macagement, a new 
company was formed, and the theatre was re-christened the ''Columbia," by 
Miss Ellen Terry, during an engagement of Henry Irving, in 1885. Since 
then various managements have had the bouse in charge, but all have failed, 
with the exception of the preseiit one, to secure for it a sufficiently steady 
patronage to make the theatre a profitable one Since Messrs. Hayman and 
Davis secured alease, however, the Columbia has grown in popularity, and the 
patronage of the theatre now is equal to that of any in the city. The very 
best attractions are to be found here, and the scenic and other stage appoint- 
ments are always commensurate to the high characterof the productions. The 
interior of the Columbia is beautful, the decorations being at once rich and 
pleasiDg. The house is practically fire-proof, but numerous exits are pro- 
vided so that the theatra may be emptied in afew minutes in case of apanic 
arising from any cause. The house is illuminated by electricity. Dimen- 
sions: The building is 70 by 190 feet, sis storiesin height; stage 70 by 54 feet; 
proscenium opening 34 feet wide ; seating capacity, 2,400. The house is lit by 
electricity. Admission, 50 cts., 75 cts., $1.00 and $1.50, according to loca- 
tion. Boxes, $10, $12 and $15. 

Criterion Theatre. — Located on Sedgwick and Division sts., North Side. 
C. S. Engle, lessee; Alf. Johnson, business manager. Seating capacity, 
1.800. Conducted as a theatre of the light comedy and burlesque character. 
Has a large neighborhood patronage. 

Eden Musee. — Located on Wabash avenue near Adams street. This is 
conducted after the manner of the Berlin Panopticon, and is principally an 
exhibition of wax works. It is a delightful place to spend an hour. There is 
usually a concert troupe performing in the amusement hall. Lvman B. 
Glover, business manager. ' Admission to all parts of the house 50 cents; 
children 25 cents. 

Epstean's New Dini'^ Museum. — Located on the north side of Randolph 
St., near Clark St. Louis Epstean, proprietor. A first-class museum of the 
kind, containing numerous curiosities, novelties in the way of human and 
animal natural freaks, wax works, electric contrivances, etc. Very amusing 
to children. Admission, 10 cents. 

Freiberg's Opera Honse. — Located at 180 and 182 Twenty-second street, 
between State street and Wabash avenue. Not regularly open. 

Grand Opera House. — Situated on the east side of Clark, between Wash- 
ington and Randolph streets, opposite the Court-house, close to all the lead- 



134 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

ing hotels and convenient to railroad depots and street car terminals. Harry 
L.Hamiin, manager. This building stands on the site of the old *' Colos- 
seum," a once famous beer and concert hall. The latter was transformed 
into a vaudeville theatre and christened "Hamlin's" about 1878. It was 
again reconstructed at a cost of about $55,000, christened "The Grand 
Opera House," and opened, under the maoagemcnt of the Hamlins by 
Hoey & Hardy's company, September, 1880. The Grand Opera House 
has been conducted during recent years as a first-class place of amuse- 
ment in every respect. Although prestniicg dramas and comedies of 
the modern school, and consequently light in character, there has been 
observed by the management a proper regard for the decencies, and cleanli- 
ness in the attractions presented as well as in the speech of those presenting 
them, have contributed largely toward, making the Grand Opera House a 
favorite family resort. Dimensions: The seating capacity is divided as fol- 
lows: Auditorium, 573; balcony, 375; gallery, 800. There are eight hand- 
some proscenium boxes. The stage is 42 by 76 feet and the proscenium open- 
ing 35 by 33 feet. The fittings and decorations are modern and pleasing. 
The house is illuminated by electricit3\ Visitors will find it a pleasant house 
in summer, the ventilation being perfect. Admission 50 and 75 cents, $1 and 
$1.50; boxes from $10 to $15. 

Halsted Street Opera House. — Located at the corner of Halsted and Harri- 
son streets. Take South Halsted or Blue Island avenue car. This theatre is 
generally occupied by a stock company in sensational drama. 

HavUn's Theatre. — Located on the west side of Wabash avjoue, between 
Eighteenth and Twentieth streets. John A. Havlin, lessee; J. S. Hutton, 
manager. This was originally Baker's Theatre. It is a popular resort and 
deservedly so. The theatre building is quite an ornament to the section of 
the city in which it is located; and the theatre is conducted as a high-class 
place of amusement. Seating capacity, 2,000; stage 50x65; proscenium 
opening 36, to loft 67. The building is fire-proof and was constructed at a 
cost of $300,000. 

Haymarket Theatre. — Located on the north side of West Madison street, 
between Halsted and Union streets. West Side. Take West Madison street 
cable line. Will J. Davis, manager. This is one of the newest and one of 
the handsomest and largest houses in the city. Its seating capacity is 2,475; 
stage, 48 by 90 feet. Since its opening, in 1889, it has been recognized as a 
first class place of amusement and has attracted a large proportion of the 
better class of West Side theatre-goers, who formerly patronized South Side 
houses. Its interior is modern and beautiful in jiesign and finish. The audi- 
torium is so arranged that there is a perfect and unobstructed view of the 
stage from every seat. Its manager, Mr. Davis, has,^ during his lifetime 
almost, catered to the amusement-seeking people of Chicago; has won their 
confidence by keeping all houses entrusted to his care on a high plane, and 
has achieved a phenomenal popularity for " The Haymarket." The theatre 
is constantly presenting attractions of a meritorious and a high order. 
Admission, 15, 25, 50, 75 cents and $1; Davis' Turkish chairs, $1.50; boxes, 
$5 to $10. 

Hooley's Theatre. — Located on the north side of Randolph, between 
LaSalle and Clark streets, opposite the Court House; close to the leading 
hotels and convenient to railroad depots and street car terminals. Richard 



THE Els^CYCLOPEDIA 125 

M. Hooley, proprietor; Harry Powers, business manager. Hooley's, before 
the great lire of 1871, occupied the present site of the Grand Opera House, 
Originally it was " Bryan's Hall," built in 1860, and opened by the Hans 
Balatka Orchestra. In the fall of 1870 the theatre passed into the hands of 
R. M. Hooley. It was opened January 2, 1871, by this veteran manager, 
with " Hooley's Minstrels" as the attraction. Negro minstrelsy was then 
in its glory, and Hooley's was one of the best troupes in existence at the 
time. Giacometti's tragedy was on the bill as the attraction for the week 
beginning October 9, 1871, but before the sun had arisen on the morning of 
tnat day Hooley's theatre was a blackened ruin in the midst of a wilderness 
of ruins. On October 17, 1872, the present theatre was opened by the 
Abbott-Kiralfy Company in the "Black Crook." Once, for only a brief 
period, however, Mr. Hooley's name disappeared from connection with this 
theatre. The ephemeral Haverly secured a lease of it in some manner for 
one season, and gave it his name, ashedid to everything he touched. Mr. 
Hooley, upon regaining possesfciou, remodeled and refitted the theatre, and 
twice since that time it has undergone almost a complete transformation. 
It is generally known as "Hooley's Parlor Home of Comedy," and the title 
conveys a proper idea of the popular family resort. The seating capacity of 
the theatre is 1,506; the stage is 42x62; proscenium opening, 33x34; 
height to "gridiron," 20 feet; to loft, 62 feet. The auditorium is furnished 
with " Hooley's Opera Chair;" lighted throughout by the latest incandescent 
electric system; the scenic artist is E. J. Nuitt; the orchestra is one of the best 
inthecity, consisting of fifteen pieces. The visitor to Chicago may feel assured 
that he will find at Hooley's whatever is new and bright and entertaimng in 
European or American comedy. Regular first-class theatre admission prices. 

H. R. Jacobs' ^cac^^my. — Located on the west side of South Halsted, near 
"West Madison street. Take Madison street cable line. H. R. Jacobs, mana- 
ger. This place of amusement was first popularized under the management 
of the late William Emmett, who dragged it out of obscurity, almost, and 
made it one of the most profitable theatrical houses in Chicago. It was then 
known simply as the Academy of Music. Upon Emmett's retirement it fell 
Into the hands of Daniel Shelby, and was known as " Shelby's Academy of 
Music." Outside ventures, as in Emmett's case, compelled Shelby to retire, 
and Mr. Jacobs secured the management. It is conducted as a comedy and 
high-class vaudeville theatre. The interior is one of the finest in the city, the 
furnishings being beautiful. It was twice destroyed by fire, and twice com- 
pletely remodeled. The theatre seats 1,800. 

E. R. Jacobs" Clark Street T/iea^re.— Located on the east side of North 
Clark St., near the bridge. Formerly McCormick's hall, later the Casino. Has 
been remodeled and refitted in a first-class manner. H. R. Jacobs, lessee; 
Joseph A. Chenet, manager. A popular light comedy and vaudeville 
theatre. 

Jacob LitVs Standard TTimf re.— Located at the corner of Halsted and 
Jackson streets. West Side. Take South Halsted or Van Buren street cars. 
Jacob Litt. lessee and manager; William J. Coxey, acting manager. Seating 
capacity, 2,200; stage, 60x40 feet; proscenium opening, 32 feet; height to 
" gridiron," 20 feet. The theatre was erected in 1883. Under its present 
management it has become a popular place of amusement. Light comedy 
and burlesque are produced here generally. Admission from 10 cents to |1, 
according to location of seats. 



126 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Kohl d; Middletan'8 South Side Museum.— hoc&ted at 146, 148, 150 and 
152 South Clark St., near Madison. Kohl & Middleton, proprieiors. 1 his 
is what is popularly known as a dime museum. Stage performances are given 
almost hourly through the day. A visit to the place will reveal a curious 
collection of freaks, etc. Admission, 10 cents. 

Ko?U & Middleton' s West Side Museum. — Located on W. Madison street, 
opposite Union street, West Side. Conducted on the same general plan as 
South Side museum of the same name. Open day and evening. Admission, 
10 cents. 

Libby Prison Museum — Located on Wabash avenue, between Fourteenth 
and Sixteenth streets. One of the principal permanent attractions of the 
city. The original Libby prison (transported from Richmond, Va., and put 
upi brick after brick, just as it stood during the War of the Rebellion, when 
used as a prison for Union soldiers) is enclosed withiQ massive walls, built 
after the manner of the middle ages (see illustration). Among the attractions 
offered in Libby Prison are the following: Portraits in oil of all the leading 
Northern and Southern generals and statesmen; all kinds of firearms used in 
America, from colonial times to the present period; the finest collection of 
shot and shell used in American warfare; the original first dispatches of war 
from Generals McClellan, Grant, Hooker, Sherman, etc.; the original, accept- 
ance of the command of the Confederate Army by Generals Lee and Stone- 
wall Jackson; original portraits of Abraham Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln, with 
relics and mementos; the stove, goose and shears used by Andrew Johnson 
when working as a tailor in Tennessee; the original will made by John 
Brown an hour before his execution; the very rare curiosity of two bullets 
that met in mid-air in battle at Petersburgh; the finest collection of historic 
chairs in America; the original photographs of scenes in Sherman's March 
from Atlanta to the Sea; the original commission of Jeff. Davis to Congress 
in 1845; also his commission in the war with Mexico; the wheel of Commo- 
dore Perry's flag-ship, " Powhatan," that opened the ports of Japan to the 
world; the original Arctic clothing used in the Greely relief expedition. 
Admission, 50 cents; children, half-price; open day and evening. 

Lyceum Theatre — Located on Desplaines st., between Madison and Wash- 
ington sts. T. L. Grenier, proprietor. A variety theatre. 

Madison Street Theatre, — Located on the north side of Madison streets 
opposite McVicker's theatre. G. L. Hogg, manager. Seating capacity, 
1.000; stage 22x68; proscenium opening, 37; height to gridiron, 13; to loft, 19, 
Not regularly open. 

McVicJcefs Theatre. — Located at the south side of Madison, between 
Dearborn and State streets, in the heart of the city and close to all the leading 
hotels, railroad depots and street-car terminals. Horace McVicker, manager. 
This was the fifth amusement house established in Chicago, and its history 
dates back to 1857. The first building erected by Mr. J. H. McVicker was 
destroyed by fire in the conflagration of 1871. The strticture which succeeded 
it was partially destroyed by fire in 1890. The building has been completely 
remodeled, and will probably be thrown open to the public about the time 
this volume is published. McVicker's Theatre has for years held a leading 
place among the amusement houses of Chicago, and its manager for over a 
quarter of a century, and now one of its owners (Mr. J. H. McVicker), did 
everything in his power to stem the tide which finally swept the higher and 



THE EN^CTCLOPEDIA. 12? 

cleaner drama from the boards of American theatres, resulted in the abandon- 
ment of stock companies, and caused the managers of the principal theatres 
to follow the example of concert hall keepers in giving Sunday evening per- 
formances. The new McVicker Theatre will doubtless assume its old and 
high position among the first-class houses of the city. 

New Windsor Tfieatre. — Located at North Clark and Division sts. Take 
North Clark st. cable line. M. B. Leavitt, manager; Bruno Kennicott, 
assistant manager. Seating capacity, 2,000; stage, 49 x 70 feet; proscenium 
opening, 43 feet; height to "gridiron," 22 feet; to loft, 65 feet. This is a 
beautiful little theatre, is conducted in a first-class manner and is very popu- 
lar with North Side residents. 

Paris Gaities. — Located on Michigan ave,, near Madison St., opposite the 
old Exposition building. This is a cycloramic building, formerly occupied 
by the picture of the Battle of Shiloh. Slides, roller skating, music by 
military band and novelties make up the entertainment. Open day and even- 
ing. Admission, 50 cents ; children, half-price. 

Park Theatre. — Located on State, between Congress and Harrison sts. 
J.D.Long, proprietor and manager. This is a strictly variety theatre. 
Seating capacity, 1,500; stage, 35 by 40. 

Peoples' Theatre. — Located on the east side of State, between Congress 
and Harrison sts. Jo Baylies, lessee and manager; Joseph J. Oliver, busi- 
ness manager. Conducted as a vaudeville. 

Tiramerman Opera House. — Located at the corner of Sixty-third street 
and Stewart ave. Take train at Van Buren st. depot, Van Buren and Sher- 
man sts., or Slate st. cable line to Englewood. H. B. Thearle, manager; 
Harry M. Heneford, acting manager. The building in which the theatre is 
located is the most imposing one in Englewood. It is named after its pro- 
jector, Ben Timmerman, and its cost was $100,000. The building is finished 
in red brick, terra cotta and stone trimmings, and is exceedingly pleasing in 
architectural design. There are large bay windows on the Sixty- third street 
front and handsome iron balconies on the Stewart avenue side. The audi- 
torium is on the ground floor, and in beauty and richness of furnishings and 
decorations is equal to any theatre in the city. Silk, velvet and plush drap- 
eries in harmonious shades add to the elegance of the luxurious interior. 
The aisles are wide and the seat rows are arranged with sufficient width 
bet vveen to insure the comfort of auditors. Twelve hundred persons may 
find seats — the first floor and balcony being provided with opera chairs — and 
several hundred others may see the stage from " standing room, "should they 
so elect. The house is lighted by incandescent electric lights and is heated 
by steam, a late device in ventilation being employed. The precautions 
against danger from fire are most complete. The theatre is open on four 
sides, and in addition to this there are seven exits from the main floor, six 
from the balcony and three from the gallery. It is calculated that when the 
house is crowded the audience may disperse in one and one-half minutes. 
The stage is forty-nine feet wide and thirty-four feet deep, while the height 
to the rigging loft is ninety feet. A complete and modern stage equipment 
has been given the stage, and the most pretentious productions may be per- 
fectly presented on its boards. The drop curtain, the work of a local artist, 
presents a handsome marine view. 

Waverlp Theatre. — Located on W. Madison street, between Throop and 



128 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Loomis streets, West Side. Take W. Madison street cable. Seating capacity, 
1,400; stage, 40x60. A comedy and vaudeville theatre. 

Weber Music Hall. — Located on Wabash avenue and Adams st. Charles 
C. Curtiss, manager. Seating capacity, 400; stage, 28x20; no scenery. Fre- 
quent high-class concerts are given here during the season. 

Other Places of Amusement. — In addition to the places mentioned above, 
there are innumerable concerts, lectures, etc., in the various halls of the city, 
nightly. There are also winter and summer permanent circuses, mechanical 
riding schools, "merry-go-'rounds," picture galleries, etc., open daily and 
evening. There are also club balls, mask balls and numerous entertainments 
advertised in the daily papers. See daily papers, also, for excursions by 
land and water. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

The traveled stranger, to whom the great cities of the world are familiar, 
however he may become impressed with the manners and customs of our peo- 
ple, or with their methods of doing business, and however loath he may be to 
admitthe justice of our claims to pre-eminence in other respects, must acknowl- 
edge that this is the best built city in the universe to-day. For nearly twenty 
years, or since the great fire of 1871 swept over the business center of the 
city, and laid it in ruins, architecture in Chicago has been steadily marching 
forward, until we are enabled in 1891 to point out some of the grandest 
achievements of the art to be found on the face of the earth. 

Character of Chicago Buildings. — The character of the great buildings 
erected during recent years in Chicago demonstrates that architects have 
risen to the plane of the highest constructive knowledge in structures. It is 
not enough to use a material guaranteed by the maker, but Chicago's archi- 
tects themselves now employ engineers for the special purpose of examining 
and testing each and every piece and passing their individual opinion upon it 
in a written report, and only such as is accepted by these engineers is used in 
the buildings. So essential and necessary is this department of architectural 
engineering considered, that specialists are sent to the mills which furnish 
the iron and steel structural shapes and beams for buildings, and the metal is 
not only tested in the ingot, but the strength of resistance is ascertained for 
every finished beam. The result of all this gives to Chicago buildings which 
are not only theoretically safe, but known to absolute certainty to be safe 
down to the last cubic foot of masonry and the last cubic inch of steel. In 
this respect Chicago is unique, and it is a common remark in Eastern and 
foreign cities, among those actively engaged in building, that Chicago to-day 
erects the best-built structures ever known, and with the notable distinction 
that she does it with the closest economy in material and time. That is to 
say, that it is a fact that in Chicago buildings the quality is better, the dis- 
tribution of material is more skillful and the buildings are naturally more 
reliable. The buildings have all been constructed fire-proof to a degree sur- 
passing those erected under old methods. Not only are steel and iron used 
for supports for girders and for joists, but they are covered with fire clay, 
which is so disposed that air chambers are left nest to the iron or steel in 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 129 

every case, making it impossible for the metal to be overheated, even by the 
hottest fires. 

Method of Construction. — While many of the largest and handsomest of 
Chicago's buildings are built solidly of stone, a new system has found much 
favor here, and is being generally followed now in the construction of the 
mammoth buildings known as "Sky Scrapers," which has given Chicago a 
new celebrity. This is known as the steel-frame system, the structure proper 
being erected from the foundation entirely independent of the walls, which 
consist of a mask of terra cotta or other material not intended to serve as a 
support for the edifice in any way. The floors consist of steel beams with 
arched terra cotta tile-work filled in between them, and covered either with 
the usual floor boards, or with ornamental tiles, or mosaic work. The par- 
titions are built of hollow terra cotta tiles. As little wood as possible is used, 
so that these tall structures are as nearly fire-proof as they can be made. 
Owing to the character of the ground on which Chicago is built, the con- 
struction of the foundations of large buildings is a much more serious 
problem than in most large cities. Water is encountered at a very slight 
depth below the surface of the ground. Piling was at first used, but experi- 
ence demonstrated that it did not form a satisfactory foundation. The 
method now employed is the formation of a solid substructure of steel beams 
or rails and concrete. The steel pieces laid crosswise are of a length pro- 
portioned to the weight they will have to sustain, and are imbedded in con- 
crete. Other beams or rails are then laid lengthwise, with concrete filled in, 
and thus several layers are placed in position until the foundation is com- 
pleted. Hundreds of tons of steel may thus be imbedded in Chicago earth 
before the walls of a building are on a level with the surface. 

Office Buildings. — Fifteen years ago there was no such thing as an office 
building known in Chicago. The Howland Block, on the southwest corner of 
Dearborn and Monroe streets; the Kentucky Block, on the northeast corner 
of Clark and Adams streets, and the Ashland Block, on the northeast corner 
of Clark and Randolph streets came nearer the requirements of office build- 
ings than any in the city. Strictly, they were what insurance men would 
have denominated omnibus blocks. To-day the office buildings of Chicago 
rise up in every direction. They do more than rise up. They tower, and 
some of them seem to soar. And they are what their names indicate — office 
buildings. The stranger in his travels about down-town is impressed with 
the idea that the business of Chicago is done in offices. Think of only a few 
of these office structures: The new Chamber of Commerce BuildiDg has 500 
offices in its thirteen stories. Temple Court, at the corner of Quincy and 
Dearborn streets, has 400 offices beneath its roof . The Monon, two blocks 
south, has 300 rooms in its thirteen stories. The Manhattan, an exclusive 
office structure building, opposite the Monon, is sixteen stories high and con- 
tains 700 offices. The Rookery, with over 600 rooms, is a wilderness of 
offices, one great pile of marble, andiron, and glass, and tiling. The Home 
Insurance Company Building, which, when completed a few years ago, was 
looked upon as the ultima thule in office buildings, has had its dizzy heights 
capped by two additional stories, so that the occupants of the top floor look 
down upon those of the top floor of the Rookery. The Tacoma, that grace- 
ful structure on the northeast corner of Madison and LaSalle streets, has 500 
abodes on its many floors. Mailer's building, on the southwest corner of 



130 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

LaSalle and Quincy streets; tlie Gaff and Counselman Buildings, and the 
Royal Insurance Company's building adjoining, contain 100 and 200 and 800 
and 400 offices. " Brother Jonathan " Building, on Sherman and Jackson 
streets; the Rialto, which gives the Board of Trade a Venetian atmosphere, 
and the Insurance Exchange, opposite the Rookery, are colonies within 
themselves. 

Some JSotaUe Examples. — At the proper time and in the proper place many 
of the great structures of Chicago will be pointed out to the visitor and 
described. Some of the great architectural monuments that shall demand 
attention here are, the Board of Trade, the ' ' Rookery," the Phcenix building, 
the Counselman building, the Gaff building, the Insurance Exchange build- 
ing, the Home Insurance building, the Calumet building, the Tacoma 
building, the Chamber of Commerce building, and the City Hall and Court 
House ; all of which may be seen in a walk down La Salle street, from Ran- 
dolph to Jackson street. Marshall Field & Co.'s retail store, the Palmer 
House and the Leiter building, on State street. The Auditorium, Stude- 
baker. Art Institute and Pullman buildings, on Michigan avenue. The im- 
mense structures that are now rising, and have arisen like giants on South 
Dearborn street during the past two years; the Rialto and surround- 
ing structures on Van Buren street ; the Royal Insurance building on Jackson 
street; the Rand & McNally, and the Marshall Field & Co.'s building on Adams 
street ; the Grand Central railroad depot on Fifth ave. ; the Herald building 
on Washington street, and the First Regiment Armory on Michigan boule- 
vard. Besides these, the great Masonic Temple, the Temperance Temple, 
and a score of other magnificent structures, now in course of erection, will 
add to the amazement of the foreign or the American visitor, who has been 
taught to look upon Chicago as a clumsily-built Western town. 

ART. 

There are estimated to be in Chicago at least five hundred artists, who 
are engaged exclusively in their calling, and who find a ready market for 
their work, if it is meritorious in character. There are here a large number 
of gentleman of wealth who have devoted themselves for years past to fos- 
tering the development of art in Chicago, and who have contributed largely 
toward popularizing art exhibitions and art studies. During the past few 
years great progress has been made in the direction of building of private gal- 
leries, and the walls of many of the residences of the city are now orna- 
mented with some of the choicest productions of the studios of Europe and 
America. 

Art Institute of Chicago, Art Museum. — Located in the Art Institute 
building, Michigan avenue and Van Buren street ; incorporated May 24, 
1879. Officers — Charles L. Hutchinson, president ; Edson Keith, vice-presi- 
dent ; Lyman J. Gage, treasurer ; N. H. Carpenter, secretary ; W. M. R. 
French, director. Executive Committee — Charles L. Hutchinson, Edson 
Keith, James H. Dole, Charles D.Hamill, John C. Black, William T. Baker. 
Trustees, 1890-91 — Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel M. Nickerson, David W. 
Irwin, Martin A. Ryerson, William T. Baker, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 131 

Nathaniel K. Fairbank, James H. Dole, Albert A. Sprague, John C. 
Black. Adolphus C. Banlett, Joseph M. Rogers, Charles D. Hamill. Edson 
Keith, Levi Z. Leiter, Wirt D. Walker, Homer N. Hibbard, Marshall Field 
George N. Culver, P. C. Hanford. 

The Art Institute building [see illustration] has been pronounced by crit- 
ics the finest specimen of modern architectur-e in Chicago. It is built of 
brown stone; has a beautiful facade, is splendidly located, liehted perfectly 
and, although not as massive in construction as some of its neighbors is one of 
the attractive edifices of the Lake Front. The Art Institute owes its origin 
and prosperity to the disinterested and energetic services of a few Chicago 
gentlemen, who have expended upon it not only a great deal of their private 
means, but much of their time during the past ten years. During 1889 a 
very handsome addition was made to the building, which led to some very 
desirable changes in the interior arrangement. The portion of the Art Insti- 
tute formerly occupied by sky-lighted picture galleries, was carried up three 
floors, thus raising all the galleries to the fourth floor, and two floors of the 
same area as the former picture gallaries were added for exhibition or other 
uses. These gallaries are six in number, of which five occupy a space of 170 
by 27 feet; and the other a space of 40 by 50 feet. They accommodate about 
550 pictures when closely hung, and the light and appointments are in every 
way excellent. The Cast collection occupies the whole of the main floor and 
one large room upon the second floor. The Library is accommodated in a 
commodious room. The collection of Greek vases and antiquities occupies 
one room and the metal collection and bronzes another. The space on the 
lowest floor formerly occupied by a part of the Cast collection has been 
arranged for a lecture room. The building is provided with two passenger 
elevators. The following societies are tenants of the building: The Chicago 
Literary Club, The Fortnightly Club, The Chicago Women's Club The 
Chicago Society of Decorative Art, The Chicago Architectural Sketch Club. 

As an evidence of the popularity of the Art Institute among the people 
the following facts are given: During the year 1889-90 the building was 
closed half the time on account of building operations. The aggregate 
attendance of visitors to the museum during the six months was 66 927 and 
the admission fees and catalogue sales amounted to |1 .942. 15; number of visit- 
ors paid admission fees, 5,344; number on free days, 45,915; number admitted 
free on membership tickets, other days, 12,667; number of visitors, students 
artists; etc., admitted free, on other days (estimated) 3,000; total admission' 
66,926; average number of visitors on Saturdays, free all day, 669- average 
number of visitors on Sundays, open 1 to 5, free, 855. The income from all 
sources for the year was $44,624.71; current expenses, $43,850.60- cash 
donations, $25,685.03. The whole income from all sources (aside frorn sums 
which merely passed through the treasury) was $70,309.74. The original cost 
of the land, with the building upon it, was $61,000; the amount expended 
by the Art Institute in building since that time has aggregated $208 500 
The value of the collections now in the keeping of the institute partly 
i^AA^AA/P®'^^^ °^ ^^® ^^^ Institute, but chiefly loans, considerably exceeds 
$500,000. Large additions are being made annually to the collections in the 
galleries and museum. The principal accessions of late have been: A collec- 
U??T T?^®®^ ^^^^^ ^°^ antique marbles, and other objects, the gift of Mr 
Philip D. Armour and Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson; a full set of chromolitho- 
graph reproductions of the old masters, published by the Arundel Society 



132 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

presented by Mr. Edward E. Ayer; a collection of works in metal, chiefly 
electrotype reproductions, presented by Mr. Martin A. Ryerson and Mr. 
Hutchinson; oil paintings, "The Shepherd's Star," by Jules Breton, pre- 
sented by Mr. Philip D. Amour; " Marsh in the North of Holland," by 
Eugene Jettel, presented by P. C. Hanford; *' The Close of Day," by Charles 
H. Davis, purchased from the gift of the Opera Festival Association; Gobelin 
Tapestry, presented by Mr. Charles J. Singer. The Cast collection has been 
enriched by the fine collection of antique sculpture presented by the Inter- 
State Industrial Exposition of Chicago, and the library has received the 
splendid work upon the Basilica of St. Marks, presented by Mr. Franklin 
MacVeagh and Mr. Hutchinson. 

During Mr. Hutchinson's visit to Europe in 1890, he made numerous 
purchases for the Art Institute. Among them are two fine examples of 
carved ivory. One of these, a triptych, represents in high relief on the cen- 
tral tablet the flight of the holy family into Egypt. The virgin, with the 
child Jesus in her arms, is seated on an ass that is being led by an angel, who 
is feeding the animal from an up-drawn fold of its robe, Joseph follows with 
staff and water-bottle. Above this group are cherubs in the bough of a tree 
handing down fruit to the babe in Mary's arms, vrho is stretching out his 
arms to receive it. On each of the leaves of this triptych are two panels rep- 
resenting saints, the crucifix, the lamb and other ecclesiastical symbols. The 
other piece of ivory carving is a panel representing the crucifixion and is a 
very high relief, the principal figures being almost in the round. Within a 
space of five and one-half by four and one-half inches there are indicated 
fourteen figures of people, three horses and a dog. Next in prominence to 
the figures on the three crosses are two soldiers in the immediate foreground 
w ho are parting the raiment, as is recorded in sacred story, while to the left 
a dog stands regarding their action. In the middle distance a Roman soldier 
is thrusting his spear into the Saviour's side. Clinging to the foot of the cross 
is Mary Magdalen, while back and to the right St. John supports the grief- 
bowed figure of Mary, the mother of Christ. The whole work on this panel 
is most carefully studied and skillfully wrought. These two pieces are the 
first examples of ivory carving which have been acquiredby the Art Institute, 
although a fine example of Japanese carving is in the loan collection and a 
figure of carved wood and ivory has for some time been the property of the 
Institute. [Visitors to the Art Institute will be provided with catalogues of 
the entire collection.] 

Art Collections. — The private art collections of Chicago are very numerous 
and very extensive. This is strikingly evident at each recurring exhibit of 
loaned pictures at the Art Institute or elsewhere. The annual exhibits at the 
Inter-State Exposition, now a thing of the past, by reason of the changes 
necessary pending the World's Columbian Exposition, have grovrn from year 
to year, until they promised to rank among the best in the country. Steps 
have been taken to erect a permanent Art Hall on the Lake Front, in which 
these annual exhibitions will be continued. This building will be erected 
for the Columbian Exposition, but will be constructed in such a manner as to 
be acceptable to the city as a permanent building after the exposition closes. 
The art galleries of the Illinois Club, the Chicago Club, the Marquette Club, 
the Calumet Club, and especially of the Union League Club, are becoming 
verv valuable. [See Union League Art Association.] Tbe Vincennes Gallery 
of Fine Arts, 3841 Vincennes avenue (take Illinois Central train to Oakland 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 133 

Station, Thirty-ninth St.), is open at all times, free to visitors. There are 
many beaucitul collections in the private mansions of the iSouth Side. The 
largest and best private collection in the city at present is that contained in 
the gallery of Mr. Charles T. Yerkes, 3201 Michigan avenue. The more 
important of his pictures were purchased by Mr. Yerkes in 1890, during a 
visit to Europe, when he devoted himself to the study and selection of 
pictures. The pictures are first-class examples of masters of the Dutch school, 
Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Rubens, Jan Steen, Van Ostade, Gerard Dow, 
Ruysdael, and Wonwerman being represented. From the last century there 
is a head by Greuze, and from later schools there are important pictures by 
Millet, Diaz, Daubigny, Detaille, Ziem, Yibert, Alfred Stevens, Willems, 
Charlemonte, and others. 

Art Institute of Chicago Art School. — Located in the Art Institute 
building, Michigan avenue and Van Baren street. Incorporated May 24, 
1879. Officers: Charles L. Hutchinson, president; Edson Keith, vice- 
president; Lyman J. Gage, treasurer; N. H. Carpenter, secretary; W. M. 
R. French, director. Teachers: W. M. R. French, director; Oliver Dennett 
Grover, and John H. Vanderpoel, drawing and painting, life and antique; 
Miss Caroline D. Wade, still life classes; Miss Lydia P. Hess, antique and 
statuary classes; Miss Charlotte F. Dyer, antique; N. H. Carpenter, per- 
spective; Lorado Taft, modeling; Louis J. Millet, architecture and designing; 
Charles L. Boutwood, evening classes. The arrangement of classes are as 
follows: 

Costumed Life Class. — Drawing and painting from the costumed model, 
daily, 9 to 12 a. m., 1 to 4 p. m. 

Nude Life Class. — Drawingand paintingfrom the nude, daily: Women, 
8:30 to 12 A. M. ; Men, 1 to 4 p. m. 

Painting From Still Life. — Oil and water color, daily, 1 to 4 p. m. 

Classes in the Antique. — Drawing from the cast, elementary and 
advanced, daily, 9 to 12 a. m., 1 to 4 p. m. 

Modeling. — Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 9 to 12 a. m. Room open 
for practice, daily, 9 to 12 a. m., 1 to 4 p. m. Lorado Taft, teacher. 

PER^'ECTn^E. — The last six weeks of the Fall and Winter terms, Wednes- 
day and Friday, 3 to 4 p. m. 

Saturday Sketching Class. — Saturday, 9 to 12 a. m. This class is free 
to all students. 

Artistic Anatomy. — Fall and Spring terms, 3 to 5 p. m., Monday and 
Wednesday. W. M. R. French, teacher. 

Ornamental Designing. — Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 1 to 4 p. m. 
L. J. Millet, teacher. 

Saturday Class.— Intended for children and teachers, 10 to 12 a. m. 
Miss Lydia P. Hess, teacher, assisted by Miss Charlotte F. Dyer, Miss 
Matilda Vanderpoel, Miss S. S. Hayden, Miss Marie R. Meli, Miss Jeannette 
Buckley, Miss Alice Randall, Miss Bertha S. Menzler, Mrs. E. R. Copp, 
Miss Kate Burton and Miss Gwynne C. Price. 

Evening Life and Antique Classes. — Monday, Wednesday and Friday 
evenings, 7 to 9:30 o'clock. Oliver Dennett Grover and Charles E. Boutwood, 
teachers. 

Architectukal Class. — Daily, 9 to 12 a. m., 1 to 4 p. m. 

Class Lectures on Antique Sculpture. — Winter term, Thursday, 3 to 
4 p. m. Lorado Taft, lecturer. 

V 



134 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Composition. — Inspection of Compositions, Friday noon. J. H. Van- 
derpoel. 

The school room opens from 8:30 a. m. to 5 p. m. Regular school hours, 
9 to 4 p. M. Fall term, September 29 to December 20; Winter term, Decem- 
ber 29 to March 21; Spring term, March 23 to June 13. Pupils may enter 
the elementary class at any time without examination. Tuition fees admitting 
students to all classes for which they are qualified are: Every day each week, 
for one term, $25; three days each week, for one term, $20; two days each 
week, for one term, $15; evening life class, $10 a term; evening antique 
class, $6 a term; Saturday class, 10 to 12 a. m., $5 a term. In the architec- 
tural class, students are received only for the full time, $25 for a term of 
twelve weeks. Pupils are required to furnish their own material, except 
easels and drawing-boards, which are furnished free. The cost of drawing 
material is about $4, and the cost of material for painting about $10 a term. 
Board for non-resident students may be obtained at from $5 to $7 per week. 

The object of the Art Institute is to maintain a school and museum 
of art. The art school re-opens its classes September 29, 1891, for its 
thirteenth year. The new museum building was completed and opened in 
1887, and contains a large and carefully selected collection of casts of 
sculpture, pictures, drawings, marblesand otherobjects of art, to which students 
have free access. Advanced pupils are permitted to study in the galleries of 
the museum. Students also enjoy the use of a library of works upon fine 
art, and of the principal art journals. The school rooms are among the best 
arranged and best lighted in the country. Every student is expected to 
hand in examples of the month's work at the end of every four weeks, to be 
inspected by the board of teachers and returned with written comment and 
advice. There are exhibitions of students' work every year. 

Chicago Society of Artists. — Roomslocated on the seventh floor of the new 
Athenaeum building, 16 to 26 Van Buren street. There are fourteen studios 
fitted up for the purpose of the society. N. H. Carpenter, secretary of the 
Art Institute, designed the lighting of these society rooms and studios in a 
manner the most complete for the purposes of any in the city. It has long 
been acknowledged that the lighting of the top floor of the Art Institute was 
the finest in the West for artistic purposes, but this new method, it ia believed, 
will prove far preferable. The Art Institute skylight rises from the flat roof 
house-shaped ; that is, with uprights and roof of glass. The result is that 
there is a part of the upper portion of the walls of the room which is darker 
than the remainder because the light rays can not penetrate directly there. 
Mr. Carpenter's method covers each studio with a separate skylight, and, 
instead of rising straight up, house-shaped, these skylights rise from the roof 
with two surfaces, one, the shorter, at an angle of forty-five degrees, facing 
the north. By this ingenious skylight the perpendicular rays fall on his 
work, while the rays through the glass sloping from the north will lighten up 
his models. Above the main room to be used by the Chicago Society of 
Artists stretches another novel skylight designed by Mr. Carpenter. It rises 
from the outer edge of the room, north and south, to a peak. Then there is 
a basis of ground glass beneath this, a short space above the upper edges of 
the room. This diffuses the light equally through all parts of the room, 
which are used for the exhibition of pictures. The other rooms of the society 
are used for water colors and evening classes. The walls on this floor are of 
wood so that pictures can be readily hung up. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 135 

Union Lea-gueArt Association. — An organization within the Union League 
Club for the purpose of advancing the interests of its art galleries. OflScers : 
President, Henry S. Boutell ; vice-president, L. W. McConnell ; secretary 
and treasurer, Shea Smith ; directors, J. W. Ellsworth, D. C. Osman, and 
C. S. Frost. The report for last year shows a membership of 205. During 
the year the association has acquired a portrait of Rufus Choate, painted 
by the late H. F. Spread, and a faithful copy of Trumball's portrait of 
Alexander Hamilton, owned by the Chamber of Commerce of New York, 
which was executed by Eastman Johnson of that city. There has been pre- 
sented to the association a portrait of William H. Seward, executed by E. 
Cameron, also a bronze entitled "Love, Labor, and Learning," by Lorado 
Taft. 

AUDITORIUM BUILDING. 

Among the many magnificent structures of Chicago, the Auditorium is 
the greatest. It is the most famous building on the American continent. 
At once a grand opera house, a superb hotel and a mammoth oflBce build- 
ing, there is not to be found on the face of the earth a pile that will compare 
with it. It represents the modern idea, as the Coliseum of Rome represented 
the ancient. It is in construction representative of Chicago as a city, where 
art, beauty and utility are so strongly defined though nearly always blended 
on every side. 

Auditorium Dimensions. — Total street frontage on Wabash avenue, 
Michigan avenue and Congress St., 710 feet; height of main building (10 
stories), 145 feet; height of tower above-main building (eight floors), 95 feet; 
height of lantern tower above main tower (two floors), 30 feet; total height, 270 
feet; size of tower, 70x41 feet; the foundations cover almost two and a half 
times greater area; weight of entire building, 110,000 tons; weight of tower, 
15,000 tons; exterior material, first and second stories granite; balance of 
buildingstone; interior material, iron, brick, terra cotta, marble, hard-wood 
finish, etc.; cost of iron work about $600 000; number of brick in building, 
17,000,000; number of square leet of Italian Marble, Mosaic floors, 50,000 
(c )ntaining about 50,000,000 pieces of marble, each put in by hand); number 
of square feet of terracotta (arches and partitions), 800,000; numberof square 
feetof wire lath, 175,000; numberof square feet of plate glass, 60,000; number 
of miles of gas and water pipes, 25; number of miles of elastic wires and 
cable, 230; number of miles of steel cable for moving scenes on stage, 11; 
number of electric lights, 10.000; number of dynamos, 11; number of electric 
moters for driving ventilating apparatus, and other machinery, 13; numberof 
hydraulic moters for driving machinery, 4; number of boilers, 11; number of 
pumpingengines, 21' number of elevators, 13; numberof hydraulic lifts for 
moving stage platforms, 26. 

Auditorium Directory and Officers. — The following are the directors of 
the Auditorium Association for 1890-91: Ferd W. Peck, President; N. K. 
Fairbank, First Vice-President; John R. Walsh, Second Vice-President; 
Charles L. Hutchinson, Treasurer; Charles H. Lunt, Secretary; Charles L. 
Hutchinson, John R. Walsh, N. K. Fairbank, A. L. Coe, Charles Counsel- 
man, Ferd W. Peck, A. A. Sprague, Clarence I. Peck, Martin A. Ryerson, 
L. Wampold, F. H. Head. 



136 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Auditorium Enclosures. —ThQ Auditorium building includes: 1st— -The 
Auditorium, permanent seating capacity over 4,000; lor conventions, etc. (for 
which the stage will be utilized), about 7,000. 2d— Recital Hall, seats 500. 
3(1 — Business portion, consists of stores and 136 offices, part of which are in 
the tower. 4th — Tower Observatory, to which the public are admitted (26 
cents for adults, 15 cents for children). U. S. Signal Service occupies pai t of 
the 17th, 18th and 19th floors of the tower. These departments of the build- 
ing are managed by the Chicago Auditorium Association. 5th— Auditorium 
Hotel, has 400 guest rooms. The grand dining-room (175 feet long) and the 
kitchen are on the top floor. The magnificent Banquet Hall is built of steel, 
in trasses, spanning 120 feet over the Auditorium. (See Auditorium Hotel.) 
The hotel is leased aud managed by the Auditorium Hotel Company, J. H. 
Breslin, of New York, president; R. H. Southgate, vice-president and manager. 

Auditorium Etitrances. — The Auditorium has several entrances, but the 
main one is on Congress street. The arches spring from four marble columns, 
whose immense size is lost sight of in the general eftect. Passing through the 
bronze doors the spectator finds himself in a court whose beauties compare 
with anything in the building. Marble, bronze carvings, stained glass and 
gold have been fashioned into a design worthy of the structure of which 
it forms a part. The floor is inlaid in marble mosaic work in intricate 
designs. Huge polished shafts of glittering marble are set off by carvings 
and bronzes. A thousand people are easily accommodated in it. 

Auditorium Risfori/.—The idea of the construction of a great building 
of this character was first made public before the Commercial Club, in an 
address delivered by Ferdinand W. Peck, the originator of the enterprise, 
May 29, 1886. The idea was received with great favor at once, and, on 
December 4th of the same year, a stock company was organized to carry it 
into execution. There are now nearly 300 citizens among the stockholders. 
On January 20, 1887, the contract for excavation was let. The demolition of the 
oldrink which stood on the Congress street end of the site was begun eight days 
later. The first shovelful of earth was thrown out on the same day ; the next day 
saw 200 men and thirty teams breaking ground. The plans were adopted in 
April, 1887, but an obstacle was met with almost immediately in obtaining 
the quarter of a million tons of granite required from Maine and Minnesota. 
Preparations were completed, however, for the laying of the corner stone in 
September of that year. In March, 1888, the roof over the sixty-two thousand 
square feet was cjupleted, which admitted of the Republican convention 
being held within its walls in the following June. The nomination of Harri- 
son for the presidency in the presence of over twelve thousand spectators 
demonstrated the capacity of the great hall, and called international attention 
to the vastness of the structure. The cope stone on top of the tower was laid 
with impressive masonic ceremonies on October 2, 1888. The grand lodge 
of Illinois was in charge of the celebration, and among the participants were 
numbered the greatest dignitaries of both Stale and city. The last dedica- 
tion before the formal opening was "Recital Hall," on the seventh floor, 
which modestly accepts the seating cap9.city of 500, and was made the 
objective point for the twentieth anniversary of Ihe Illinois Hurr are Society, 
on October 12. With the grand opening of the Auditorium on December 9, 
1889, upon which occasion the president of the United States, governors of 
many States, and other dignitaries were present, history gave place to reality, 
and the dreams of projectors, architects and engineers were realized. 




THE MASONIC TEMPLE. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 137 

Auditorium Investment. — In his annual report to the stockholders, at the 
close of 1890, Mr. Ferdinand W. Peck, the president, said: " It may be stated 
here in a general way, that the history of the past year, since your building 
has been in use, has demonstrated that its revenue will exceed all fixed 
charges, and will admit of returns to the stockholders fully equal to those 
originally contemplated, after the unsold stock in the treasury is disposed of 
and the final settlements made for construction. The earning power is 
unlikely to be less in the future, as the business growth of our city tends 
toward your building, and the prestige of the Auditorium and hotel is now 
established." 

Auditorium Lobby. — The first adequate idea of the grandeur of the Audi- 
torium and the general style of its decorations is obtained on entering the 
lobby. Here is in itself a vast hall, with a score of polishe'd marble columns 
supporting arches, which form a fine perspective. The floor is marble mosaic 
worked into complicated designs. An examination of this floor and a 
knowledge of the seemingly endless labor required to lay it is instructive as 
showing the magnitude of the work. For the first time in the United States 
the mosaic has been introduced on a large scale. Those who have admired 
the results attained in the Rookery building will know what to expect from 
the Auditorium. No more daring thing was ever attempted in decorations. 
There was but one precedent. The lobby shows it to advantage, although 
the effect is modified by the more brilliant colors of the marbles. Some of 
the finest marble ever brought to the United States is utilized in the construc- 
tion of the grand staircases which open from the right side of the lobby. The 
most exacting care was taken in the selection of this marble. Every slab is 
a painting in itself. The grand staircase is marble, mahogany, bronze and 
gold. It is one of the finest examples of skill in the United States. The 
lobby is plain but none the less beautiful. The solid ivory color of the walls 
is kept from becoming monotonous by the use of a limited amount of gold 
leaf. The general impression is one of vastness and anticipation. Five 
entrances lead from the lobby to the parquet. The grand staircase leads to 
the foyer, from which point probably the best general view of the hall can 
be had. 

Auditorium Location. — The Auditorium building is located on Wabash 
avenue, Michigan avenue and Congress St., almost within the business center 
of the city. Only a short walk from tlie terminals of all street car lines and 
railroads. Take "Wabash avenue cable line going south. Take Adams or 
Van Buren street lines going east . 

Auditorium Recital Hall. — Recital Hall is finished in ivory and gold, and 
the decorations are fully up to the high standard fixed in the Auditorium. 
This hall is used for rehearsals, concerts, lectures, etc. Within the hall are 
486 seats, though at first sight the impression is that there are not half that 
number. The sky-light is a pretty piece of work, in which the stained glass 
artist is seen at his best. The shafts are decorated in gold ornaments, and in 
all the room not a line foils. 

Auditorium Views. — The Auditorium can be seen at its best from a point 
i n the Lake Front Park on a line with Polk street. From this location an almost 
;9 erf ect perspective can be obtained. The walls loom up over the surround- 
ing buildings like some great cliff over the scraggy pines which cling around 
its base. The tower is seen in its true proportions and stands out sombre and 



138 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

grim. It requires nostretcb of the imagination to picture the muzzles of guns 
protruding from the windows beneath the masonry of the cornice. From 
the lake the Auditorium is the first thing which breaks the monotony of the 
horizon, as the incoming steamer plows its way toward the city. But what 
shall be said of the view of the lake frooi the top of the tower? Two thou- 
sand square miles of water are spread out before the vision of him who climbs 
to the top of the signal service observatory. Michigan City, half hid by the 
sand hills, which line the eastern coast, is plainly revealed on a clear day. 
South Chicago lays almost at your feet. Evanston is in view, and its 
University buildings can be picked out by those familiar with the place. 
Below you is the city, a seething ocean of smoke, with half obscured build- 
ings, shoving their domes and battlements out of the clouds, as if vainly striv- 
ing for one breath of fresh air. Out over the lake the air is clear as the blue 
of the sky above it, and undefiled as the waves which curl into foam below it. 
Michigan boulevard melts away into a perspective, in which the long lines of 
lamp-posts and shade trees merge into nothingness. Over a hundred and 
fifty feet below is the broad roof of the Auditorium and the skylight which 
surmounts the hall. The spire of the average church would not reach that 
skylight. Here it is that the United States signal service has established its 
station. It may be considered safe to say, that the local station occupies the 
highest artificial altitude of any in the country. 

Tlie Auditorium. — The designers were not hampered for lack of room. 
Their instructions were to make a perfect opera house, and neither time nor 
money was spared in the work. The distinguishing triumph attained was the 
designing of a grand opera house with every facility for entrance and exit. 
Eight thousand people can enter and leave the building in five minutes. 
There are forty-four figures in the proscenium arch-painting, and every one 
of them is worthy of an hour's study. The two mural paintings are com- 
panion pieces, and help to convey to the visitors the inspiration of the artist. 
In the mural paintings attempt has been made to symbolize what is poetic in 
every-day life; the proscenium group or procession is allegorical, but not in 
the line of the hackneyed subjects generally introduced in works of the kind. 
Next to the proscenium arch the two mural paintings, which fill the grand 
arches on opposite sides of the opera house, form the finest decorative 
features of the Auditorium. The two paintings conform to the sentiments of 
the work above the proscenium; they are twenty-four feet wide at the base 
and twenty and a half feet in height. On the south wall is " Spring," the 
morning of life. Below the painting is the inscription: 

"Oh, soft, melodious springtime. 
First-born of life and love." 

On the north wall is "Autumn and Winter," the decadence of life. 

" A great life has passed into the tomb. 
And there awaits the requiem of Winter's snow.'* 

The stairs which lead into the foyer are worthy of mention. Massive 
columns of marble stand on either side of a broad stairway formed of mar- 
ble, bronze and rosewood. The floor of the foyer is laid in Italian Mosaic 
work, which glows like precious stones under the hand of the polisher. The 
forty boxes are finished in plush and silk. The drop curtain, with its hun- 
dreds of yards of satin and plush and the beautiful gold effects produced 
thereon. (See " Auditorium Theatre.") 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 139 

BANKING INSTITUTIONS— NATIONAL. 

Thebanks doing business in Chicago are classified under three headings, 
National, State and Private. The National banks are conducted in accord- 
ance with the Federal banking laws and are under the supervision of the 
National Government. The State and Private banks are organized under 
State laws. The former make reports of their condition to the Audi- 
tor of State. The latter are not supervised, but conduct business 
under general commercial laws. The capital of the National banks of 
Chicago at the close of the year 1890 was |16,100,000 as against $16,- 
250,000 at the close of 1889; surplus and profits were $10,343,119 as 
against $8,836,415 for 1889; deposits were $94,471,271 as against $94,346,- 
958 for 1889, and loans and discounts were $72,393,018 as against $71,347,283 
for 1889. The total capital of the State banks at the close of last year was 
$8,352,000, making the combined capital of National and State banks 
$25,603,000. The report of the Controller of the Currency for 1890 shows 
that Chicago is rapidly making headway on her sister cities of the East as a 
great money center. V/ithin the last ten years the percentage of drafts and 
checks which Chicago banks have handled has rapidly increased, while the 
percentages of New York and Boston have fallen off. Chicago now does 
seven per cent, of the whole banking of the country in the matter of checks 
and drafts. New York still leads, but Chicago is gaining fast. Illinois 
ranks second among the States in the amount of drafts drawn. Massachu- 
setts comes first with $1,600,000,684, Illinois next with $1,261,844,062, and 
New York fourth with $919,743,864. Illinois passes the billion mark and 
New York does not. The Park National bank was closed by the Controller 
during the year 1890. The Globe National bank, with a capital of $1,000,000 
was opened on December 22d, The Chemical Trust and Savings bank was 
organized with a capital of $350,000, and the Globe Savings bank with a cap- 
ital of $200,000. There were several private bank failures. The Thirty- 
first Street bank was a dependency of the Park National, and failed in conse- 
quence of the failure of that bank. The failure ot the Oakland, Prettyman, 
and Kean banks, all private institutions, also occurred during 1890. There 
are twenty-four National banks in existence here. 

The New York Financier newspaper, speaking of Chicago's financial 
business at the close of the year 1890, said: "The bankers of the country 
think New York's banking business is large, and that the percentage of 
increase of deposits during the period mentioned (the six years preceding 
this statement) is, or ought to be, larger than elsewhere, hut this is a mistake 
80 far as the percentage of increase is concerned, for Chicago beats New York by 
over 125 per cent, on New York's increase. This is a remarkable difference, 
and means that Chicago's commerce, so far as bank deposits show it, is growing 



140 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

twice and o?ie-fourth as fast as New York's. Everybody knows that Chicago 
is one of the phenomena of the country, so far as its development is con- 
cerned, but few are aware of the remarkable speed shown by the figures of 
our tellers. Even Boston's growth of banking during the six years men- 
tioned is far outstripped by Chicago, and it does look as if the "Hub" is 
going West. Chicago's percentage of increase exceeds Boston's by 30 per 
cent upon Boston's figures, in spite of the big manufactories in New Eng- 
land, Philadelphia, too, whose population is now slightly exceeded by Chi- 
cago, is away in the rear in percentage of increase, as Chicago's figures 
exceed Philadelphia's by 44 per cent. On the deposits of its national banks 
for 1890, Chicago increased its business during the past six years 46 percent., 
or $50,153,348 upon $108,178,165 deposits; New York increased during the 
same period about 20 per cent., or nearly $80,000,000 on $431,000,000 depos- 
its; Boston increased about 363^£ per cent., or $49,800,000 on nearly $137,- 
000,000 deposits; Philadelphia increased about 33 per cent., or about $30,- 
500,000 on $98,600,000 deposits." 

American Exchange National Bank. — Organized in May, 1886, with D. 
W. Irwin, president; D. B. Dewey, vice-president; D. K. Pearsons, second 
vice-president, and A. L. Dewar, cashier. Present officers — D, B. Dewey, 
president; John B. Kirk, vice-president; W. C. Seipp, second vice-president; 
A. L. Dewar, cashier; R. M. Orr, assistant cashier. December 31, 1890, it 
showed capital stock paid in $1,000,000; surplus fund, $100,000; undivided 
profits, $135,000; after paying its regular semi-annual dividend. The 
American Exchange National Bank of Chicago, though comparatively 
young, is perhaps as widely and favorably known as any bank in the city. 
Out of misfortune, it erected a monument. Finding itself caught with 
$300,000 of the exchange of the Fidelity National Bank, of Cincinnati, at 
the time of the latter's failure, and realizing the lock-up, it called on its 
stockholders to make good the amount. The call was responded to promptly, 
leaving the bank free to persistently fight, first in the lower and afterwards 
in the Supreme Court. Stubbornly refusing any compromise, and winning 
in every case against the plea set up by the receiver of the Fidelity Bank, 
that the exchange was issued without consideration, the American Exchange 
National Bank established a precedent of interest to every banker. The 
directors are — John B. Kirk, J. S. Kirk & Co., soap manufacturers, chemists 
and perfumers; William C. Seipp, Conrad Seipp Brewing Co.; E. W. 
Gillett, flavoring extracts; D. K. Pearsons, capitalist; I. K. Hamilton, 
Hamilton & Merryman Co., lumber; Wm. S. Mellen, general manager 
Northern Pacific railway; G. F. Bissell, general agent Hartford Fire 
Insurance Co.; J. A. Markley, Markley, Ailing & Co., wholesale hardware; 
J. H. Swan, White, Swan & Co., lumber; A. N. Young, Young & Nichols, 
commission; D. B. Dewey, president. Location of banking house 185 
Dearborn street. 

Atlas National jB^ti^.— Organized May 17, 1886. Present oflScers— W. 
C. D. Grannis, president; C. B. Farwell, vice-president; S. W. Stone, 
cashier; W. S. Tillotson, assistant-cashier. "Resources — Loans and dia- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 141 

counts, $1,689,061.33; overdrafts, $1,451.98; U. S, bonds to secure circula- 
tion, $50,000.00; other stock, bonds and mortgages, $97,820.34; due from 
other National banks, $318,328.13; due from State banks and bankers, 
$86,932.21. Current expenses and taxes paid, $34,711.34; premiums paid, 
$10,000.00; checks and other cash items, $1,227.65; exchanges for clearing 
house, $93,339.94; bills of other banks, j$ 10, 800. 00; fractional paper currency 
nickels and pennies, $1,207.80; specie, $254,224.25; legal tender notes 
$401,260.00; U. 8. certificates of deposit for legal tenders, $61,000.00; re 
demption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $3,250.00 
due from U. S. Treasurer, other than 5 percent, redemption fund, $6,000.00 
total, $3,119,514.99. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $700,000 00 
surplus fund, $115,000.00; undividedprofits, $90,610. 89; National bank notes 
outstanding, $45,000.00; individual deposits subject to check, $1,542,084.12 
demand certificates of deposit, $39,116.00; time certificates of deposit, $31, 
685.00; certified checks, $27,081.93; cashier's checks outstanding, $2,016.80 
due to other National banks, $115,965.15; due to State banks and bankers, 
$410,955.10; total, $3,119,514.99. The Atlas National bank numbers 
among its shareholders and directors many of the representative merchants 
and capitalists of Chicago, and is recognized as a sterling bankinginstitution. 
The directors are Uri Balcolm, R. C. Clowry, C. B. Farwell, R. J. Bennett, 
Joseph Austrian, J. C. McMuilin, Albert A. Munger, William M. Van Nort- 
wick, J. W. Ellsworth, J. T. Chumasero, W. C. D. Grannis. Location of 
banking house, southwest corner of La Salle and Washington streets. 

Calumet National Bank. — (3outh Chicago ) Present officers — President, 
J. J. Fitzgibbon; vice-president, J, M. Bacon; cashier, A. G. Ingraham. 
Directors — J. M. Bacon, E. E. Bacon, John Walters, G. D. Uebele, O. S. 
Gaither, John Cunnea, Hans Henisen and J. J. Fitzgibbon. Although South 
Chicago is now within the corporate limits of this city, the reports of the 
Calumet National Bank have not thus far been included among those of the 
other Chicago National banks. Location of banking house. South Chicago. 

Ghicaqo National B%nk — Orgac.zed January 2, 1882. Present officers — 
John R. Walsh, president; H.H. Nash, vice-president; William Cox, cashier; 
F. M.Blount, assistant cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $3.309, - 
040.58; overdrafts, $6,436.21; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; 
other stocks and bonds. $175,429.19; due from other National banks, $475,- 
604.65; due from State banks and bankers, $70,405; exchanges for clearing- 
house, $215,101.19; bills of other banks, $30,000; fractional paper currencv, 
nickels and pennies, $738.98; specie, $860,000; legal-tender notes, $510,000; 
redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation); $2,250; 
due from U. S. Treasurer, other than 5 per cent, redemption fund, $13,000; 
total, $5,718,050.80. Liabilities: Capital stock paid in, $500,000; surplus 
fund, $400,000: undivided profits, $110,651.53; National bank notes out- 
standing, $45,000; individual deposits subject to check, $3,623,659.^7; 
demand certificates of deposit, $166,024.82; time certificates of deposit, 
$59,058.54; certified checks, $111,157.91: cashier's checks outstanding, $41,- 
891.11; due to other National b'lnks, $469,834.32; due to State banks and 
bankers, $190,773.10; total, $5,718,050.80. Directors— Andrew McN"ally, 
F. Madlener, Adolph Loeb, Perd. W. Peck. H. H. Nash, J. R. Walsh, 
William Cox. The Chicago National Bank ranks among the leading finan- 
cial institutions of the country. Its management is considered most con- 



143 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

servative and wise. Location of banking house, southwest corner of Def 
born and Monroe streets. 

Columbia National Bank. — Successor of the United States National bank. 
[The United States National Bank, with $500,000 cash capital, having 
received permission from the Controller of Currency, Washington, to change 
its name to ** The Columbia National Bank of Chicago, and increase its capi- 
tal stock to $1,000,000, the United States National bank transferred its entire 
business — including $8,000 in surplus fund, and pays the new bank all 
unearned interest on loans from date of change to maturity of same, 
amounting to at least $7,000 — making the book value at date of change about 
$101,50. The transfer occurred and the new bank began business in 1890. 
See United States National Bank.] 

Commercial National Bank, — Organized December, 1864. The present 
officers are — Henry F. Eames, president ; O. W. Potter, vice-president ; F. 
S. Eames, 2d vice-president ; John B. Meyer, cashier ; D, Vernon, assistant 
cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $6,215,832.72 ; overdrafts, 
$1,081.28 ; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000 ; other stocks, bonds, and 
mortgages, $199,463.29 ; due from other National banks $1,195,817.06 ; due 
from State banks and bankers, $10,779.34 ; real estate, $29,080.05 ; taxes paid, 
$13,156.99; checks and other cash items, $597.10; exchanges for clearing 
house, $266,280.45 ; bills of other banks, $40,812 ; fractional paper currency, 
nickles and pennies, $984.12 ; specie, $1,047,080.50 ; legal-tender notes, $659,- 
000; redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation) 
$2,250 ; total, $9,732,214.90. Liabilities —Capital stock paid in. $1,000,000 ; 
surplus fund, $800,000 ; undivided profits, $157,441.25 ; National bank notes 
outstanding, $45,000 ; individual deposits subject to check, $3.544,763.09 ; 
demand certificates of deposit $630,537.09 ; certified checks, $122,478.58 ; 
cashier's checks outstanding, $197,942.41 ; due to other National banks, 
$1,420,973.16; due to State banks and bankers, $1,813,079.32 ; total, $9,732,- 
214.90. The names of many of the millionaire merchants and capitalists of 
Chicago are to be f ounQ among the list of shareholders and directors of the 
Commercial National bank. Directors— Henry F. Eames, S. W. Rawson, 
N. K. Fairbank, William J. Chalmers, O. W. Potter, Jesse Spalding.Henry 
W. King, Franklin MacVeagh, Norman Williams. Location of banking 
house, Southeast corner of Dearborn and Monroe streets. 

Continental National 5(i7i^.— Organized March 5, 1883. Present oflScers— 
John C. Black, president ; J. R. Winterbotham, vice-president ; J. N. 
Perry, 2nd vice-president ; cashier, Douglas Hoyt ; assistant cashier, Ira 
P. Bowen. Resources— Loans and discounts, $6,073,579.95; overdrafts, 
$8,474.27; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000.00; other stock and 
bonds, $1,600.00 ; due from other National banks, $725,407.66 ; due from 
State banks and bankers, $314,678.17 ; real estate, furniture and fixtures, 
$46,239.96; current expenses and taxes paid, $47,984.36; premiums paid, 
$8,000.00; checks and othercashitems, $13,068.21 ; exchanges for clearing- 
house, $511,481.49 ; bills of other banks, $12,120.00; fractional paper cur- 
rency, nickels and pennies, $4,368.07; specie, $768,751.85 ; legal-tender 
notes, $551,559.00 ; redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of 
circulation), $2,250.00. Total, $9,139,562.99. Liabilities— Capital stock paid 
in, $2,000,000.00; surplus fund. $210,000.00 ; undivided profits, $240,175.22 ; 
National bank notes outstanding, $14,800.00; dividends unpaid; $183.00; 



THE Eiq-CYCLOPEDIA. 143 

Individual deposits subject to check, $3,120,345.56 ; demand certificates of 
deposit. $237,407.57; certified checks, $59,101.66; cashier's checks out- 
standing, $36,644.15; due to other National banks, $2,175,785.08; due to 
State banks and bankers, $1,045,120.75 Total, |9,139,563.99. Directors— 
John C. Black, John R. Winterbotham, C. T. Wheeler, Richard T. Crane, 
George H. Wheeler, H. C. Durand. William G. Hibbard, A. G. Van Schaick, 
Richard Hill, Henry Botsford, James H. Dole. Location of banking house, 
southwest corner of La Salle and Adams streets. M. Calvin T. Wheeler, 
one of Chicago's foremost business men and financiers, was the organizer of 
this bank and its first president. He was succeeded in 1887 by Mr. Black, 
who has been connected with the bank since its organization. He was its 
first cashier, and was actively instrumental in perfecting the system inaugu- 
rated for the transaction of the business of the bank with the greatest con- 
venience to its customers. 

Drover's National Bank. — Organized 1883 ; Present officers — S. Brint- 
nall, president; John Brown, vice-president; W. H. Brintnall, cashier; 
Edward Tilden, assistant cashier. Resources— Loans and discounts, $792,- 
434.80; overdrafts, $2,446.24 ; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000 ; 
due from approved reserved agents, $272,478.93 ; due from other National 
banks, $18,962.32 ; due from State banks and bankers, $17,015.78 ; real estate, 
furniture, and fixtures, $12,500; premiums paid, $6,000; exchanges for 
clearing-house, $51,052.72; bills of other banks, $5,326 ; fractional paper 
currency, nickels and pennies, $319.79; specie, $23,347.50; legal-tender 
notes, $25,000 ; redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circula- 
tion), $2,250; total, $1,279,134.08. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $250,000; 
surplus fund, $50,000; undivided profits, $27,145.60 ; National bank notes 
outstanding, $45,000; individual deposits subject to check, $338,066.22; 
demand certificates of deposit, $35,254.55; certified checks, $2,128.89; 
cashier's checks outstanding, $185,955.60; due to other National banks, $125,- 
035.20; due to State banks and bankers, $220,548.02 ; total, $1,279,134.08. 
Directors— Percy W. Palmer, Charles L. Shattuck, Watson S. Hinkly, 
John Brown, James P. Sherlock, J. E. Greer, W. H. Brintnall, Solva Brint- 
nall. Location of banking house, 4207 South Halsted street. Union Stock 
yards. 

Englewood National Bank. — Present officers — J. R. Embrew, president ; 
E. L. Roberts, vice-president ; W. E. Brown, assistant cashier. Directors — 
J. R. Embrew, E. L. Roberts, V. E. Prentice, L. A. McDonald, H. P. 
Murphy, J. W. Johnston, J. J. Nichols, C. H. Knights and W. H. Collins. 
Although Englewood is within the corporate limits, the report of the con- 
dition of the Englewood National Bank is not included among the reports 
of the other National banks of the city. Location of banking house, Engle- 
wood, Chicago. 

First National Bank. — Organized November, 1863. Present officers — 
Samuel M. Nickerson, president; Lyman J. Gage, vice-president; H. R. 
Symonds, cashier; H. M. Kingman, assistant cashier; R. J. Street, second 
assistant cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $16,688,603.28; over- 
drafts, $2,188.09; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; U. S. bonds on 
hand, $10,600; other bonds, $841,480; bank building, $500,000; due from 
other National banks; $2,080,288.76; due from State banks and bankers, 
$1,729,309.84; checks and other cash items, $1,894.10; exchanges for clearing 



144 GUIDE TO CHICAGO, 

house, $1,288,613; bills of other banks, $65,500; fractional paper currency, 
nickels and pennies, $11,623.29; specie, $4,652,266; legal tender notes, $98Q,- 
000; redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 percent, of circulatioA), 
$2,250; due from U. S. Treasurer, other than 5 percent, redemption fund, 
$26,000; total, $28,930,615.36. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $3,000,000; 
surplus fund, $2,000,000; undivided profits, $660,312.19; dividends unpaid. 
$5,754; individual deposits subject to check, $10,145,848.68; demand certifi- 
cates of deposit, $1,021,568.67; certified checks, $345,127.62; cashier's checks 
outstanding, $69,565.84; due to other National banks, $7,433,300.06; due to 
State banks and bankers, $4,249,138.30; total, $28,930,615.36. Directors- 
Samuel M. Nickerson, F. D. Gray, H. H. Porter, E. F. Lawrence, Norman 
B. Ream, L. J. Gage, S. M. Allerton, Nelson Morris, Eugene S. Pike, A. A. 
Carpenter and H. R. Symonds. Location of banking house, northwest 
corner of Dearborn and Monroe streets, First National Bank building. 

At the date of incorporation, the First National Bank had a capital of 
$100,000. Its officers were— President, E. Aiken; cashier, E. E. Braisted. 
It then stood number 8 in the order of National Banks. The capital of the 
bank was soon increased to $1,000,000. In 1867 President Aiken died, and 
was succeeded by Samuel M. Nickerson, who has held the office ever since. 
In 1868 Lyman J. Gage was appointed cashier. The fire of 1871 destroyed 
the bank's building, which stood at the southwest corner of State and Wash- 
ington sts. This building was at once rebuilt, and was occupied until the 
bank moved into its present magnificent structure, which was erected espe- 
cially for its accommodation, and with aviewtothe convenient transaction of 
its immense business [See " First National Bank Building" andillustration.] 
During the panic of 1873 the bank passed through the^ordeal in excellent 
shape, coming out of it with the renewed and strengthened confidence of the 
public in the stability of its resources, and the wisdom and integrity of its 
management. The fact is often referred to even in these days, that Mr. 
Gage's courageous and judicious executive ability in 1873 not only averted a 
calamity for his own bank, but had the effect oif stimulating the nerve of 
others in Chicago, and of inspiring the public with faith in the ability of all 
to meet their obligations if they were not harassed or hampered. The 
charter of the First National Bank expired in 1882; it went into liquidation, 
paying off its stockholders and giving each one of them $294 for every $100 
paid in. This was in addition to dividends upon the capital from time to 
time, which averaged through its entire history 10 per cent, per annum. On 
the expiration of the old charter the new First National Bank, No. 2670, was 
organized, and succeeded to the business of the old bank. Its paid-up capi- 
tal was fixed at $3,000,000; Mr. Gage was made vice-president, and Mr. 
Symonds, cashier. The First National Bank is not only the greatest finan- 
cial institution in Chicago, but one of the greatest in the country. The 
showing of earnings and surplus which it made at the close of last year's 
business attracted universal attention. 

Fort Bearhorn National Bank.— Oxgs.mztdi May 1, 1887, with H. N. Hib- 
bard, president, and C. E, Crippen, vice-president. Present officers — John A. 
King, president; W. L. Barnum, vice-president; Peter Dudley, cashier; Sey- 
mour Dratton, assistant cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $926,- 
991.97; overdrafts, $50; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; other 
stock, bonds and mortgages, $9,375; due from other National banks, $119,- 
431.92; ^ue from State banks and bankers, $48,835.18; real estate, furniture 



THE EJTCTCLOPEDIA.. 



145 



5,nrl fixtures $6 977.06; premiums paid, $9,000; checks and other cash items, 
lloq 49 exihan.es f^^ house, $46,757.46; bills of other banks, 

le 168 fractional paper currency, nickels and pennies $276.25; specie, $12,- 
952 72 le-al-tender notes, $130,519; redemption fund .vith US, Treasurer 
(Snercent of circulation) $2,250; total, $1,369,994.05. Liabilities-Capital 
itockpa^d in $500,000; surplus fund $25 000; undivided profits, $6,073 84; 
National bank notes outstanding. $45,000; individual deposits subject to 
check S512 085 59; demand certificates of deposit, $8,643; certified checks. 




its directors being men of large financial resources I^/J^^tors-W L. 
Barnum- J W. Plummer, John J. McGrath, Wilham .J. Wilson, D. K. Hill, 
E Mandel' Thomas Kane, George Keller, Arthur D. Rich, A Plamondon 
aiid John A. King. Location of banking house, 187-189 Dearborn street. 

Globe National Bank.— Commenced business December 22, 1890; capital, 
^1 000 030 Present officers— Oscar D. Wetherell, president; Melville iL. 
Stone,' vice-president; D. A. Moulton, cashier. The directors comprising 
well-known business men and capitalists, are as follows-MelvilleE. Stone, 
late editor Chicago i)a%A"e7cs.-Gustavus F. Swift, president Swift & Co., 
packer wVlliam^H. Harper, manager Chicago & Pacific Elevator Company; 
Robert t Henry, president Keystone Palace Horse-Car Company; Godfrey 
Snydacker, private banker; Everett W. Brooks, lumber manufa^tui^r; James 
L. High, attorney-atlaw; Amos Grannis, contractor; Oscar D Wethere 1 
LocatToA of banking house, northwest corner of Jackson and La Salle streets, 
opposite Board of Trade, 

Hide and Leather National Bank.-OTgQ.mzed in 1872, received its char- 
ter as a National bank in 1878. Present officers-Charles F- ^^f^y, presi- 
dent- J V Taylor, vice-president; D. L. Forest, assistant cashier. 
Resources-LoanJ and disc^ounts $910 347.29; overdrafts $27 .53; US^ 
bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; U. S. bonds on hand, |2.60<3; other 
stock, bonds, and mortgages. $91199. 07; ^^e from other N^iona banks. 
$108,081.72; due from State banks and bankers, ^38f9^6o real estate 
furn ture and fixtures, $6,699.03; current expenses, $6 602.07; premiunis 
S $8 382.60; checks and oiher cash items. $3,241.67; exchanges for clearing- 
Cse, $102 602.06; bills of other banks, $41,184; fractional paper currency 
nickels and pennies, $83.51; specie, $556,840; legal-tender notes, $138,263; 
U S certiflcSof deVsit^^^ redemption fund wi^ 

U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $2,250; f ^.^/jo?^.^ ^^^^^ 
other than 5 per cent, redemptionfund $7,000; total, ^^'^1%^^^:^^'^^^^ 
ties-Capital stock paid in, $300,000; surplus fund, $87,500 ^^divided 
profits, $49,971.76; National bank notes outstandmg $4d 000 divi^^^^^ 
unpaid, $232; individual deposits subject to check f I'^.^^^'^^^jl^M 
certificktea of deposit, $14,406.60; certified f^^cks, $8,001.12; cashier s checks 
outstanding, $7,348,62; d^e to other National .^^^Jl«'. J^J^^^^^?;,^^ 
State banks and bankers, $249, 63a. 70; total, ^^'lj^'^86.20. Directors 
George C. Benton, William L. Gray, C. H. Morse, Hugh A. White, J^ V . 
Taylor, George M. Lyon, P. P. Mathews Charles F. Grey, O. F. tuller. 
Location of banking house. La Salle and Madison sts. 

Home National Bank,-FTesentomceTS--C.M. Billings, president; II. 



146 «UIDE TO CHICAGO, 

H. Blake, cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $848,850.11; over- 
drafts. $7,926,94; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; U. S. bonds on 
hand, $150,000; other stock, bonds and mortgages, $38,300; due from other 
National banks, $194,064.51; due from State banks and bankers, $6,673.20; 
furniture and fixtures, $2,250; current expenses and taxes paid, $9,748.36; 
premiums paid, $1,121.25; checks and other cash items, $2,166.05; exchanges 
for clearing-house, $13,178.23; bills of other banks, $7,979; fractional 
paper currency, nickels, and pennies, $270.96; specie, . $159,159.95; 
legal-tender notes, $250,000; redemption fund with TJ. S. Treasurer (5 
per cent, of circulation), $2,250; due from U. S. Treasurer, other 
than 5 per cent, redemption fund, $3,000; total, $1,736,838.56. Liabilities 
—Capital stock paid in, $250,000; surplus fund, $100,000; undivided profits, 
$164,150.07; National bank notes outstanding, $5,500; individual deposits 
subject to check, $1,131,322.11; demand certificates of deposit, $6,849.25; 
certified checks, $8,838.70; cashier's checks outstanding, $157.20; due to State 
banks and bankers, $69,521.23; total, $1,736,338.56. Directors: A. M. Bil- 
lings, J. C. McMullin, W. A. Talcott, C. K. G. Billings, David Bradley. 
Location of banking house, Washington and Halsted sts., West Side. 

Lincoln National Bank. — Organized March, 1887. Present ofllcers — V. 
C. Price, president; H. F. Vehmeyer, vice-president; E. S. Noyes, cashier; 
J. R. Clarke, assistant cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $427,- 
250.28; overdrafts, $569.97; U. S. bonds to secure circulation. $50,000; due 
from other National banks, $23,931.01; due from State banks and bankers, 
$15,639.09; real estate furniture and fixtures, $3,699.80; current expenses and 
taxes paid, $5,099.51; premiums paid, $12,000; checks and other cash items, 
$264.09; exchanges for clearing-house, $24,074.37; bills of other banks, 
$8,890; fractional paper currency, nickels and pennies, $187.72; specie, 
$52,157; legal-tender notes, $60,000; redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer 
(5 per cent, of circulation), $2,250; total, $686,012.84. Liabilities— Capital 
stock paid in, $200,000; surplus fund, $2,000; undivided profits, $15,032.49, 
National bank notes outstanding, $45,000; individual deposits subject to 
check, $361,590.65; demand certificates of deposit, $38,219.49; certified 
checks, $44; cashier's checks outstanding, $1,081.82; due to other National 
banks, $15,653.14; due to State banks and bankers, $7,391^25— total, $686,- 
012.84. The directors are— V. C. Price, H. F. Vehmeyer, W. C. Newberry, 
C. C. Housel, F. B. Rockwood, H. P. Klein, F. C. Vehmeyer, R. C. Price, 
E.S. Noyes, all representative business men and capitalists. Location of 
banking house, Clark and Michigan streets, [North Side.] 

Merchant's National 5ar?-^\— Organized December, 1863. Present officers 
— Chauncey B. Blair, * president; Chauncey J. Blair, vice-president; F. W. 
Crosby, second vice-president; John C. Neely, cashier. Resources — Loans 
and discounts, $5,589,728.86; overdrafts, $270.12; "01. S. Bonds to secure cir- 
culation, $50,000; other stock and bonds at par, $223,200; due from other 
National banks, $825,731.44; due from State banks and bankers, $70,799.30; 
real estate, furniture and fixtures, $125,000; exchanges for clearing-house, 
$229,873.89; bills of other banks, $264,427; fractional paper currencv, nickels 
and pennies, $21.84; specie, $3,360,111.70; legal-tender notes, $165,300; 
redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $2,250; 
due from U. S. Treasurer, other than 5 per cent, redemption fund, $2,000; 
total, $10,908,714.15. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $500,000; surplus 
fund, 1,000,000; undivided profits, $746,384.44; Individual deposits subject 

* Died in January; vacancy unfilled. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 147 

to check, $3,174,332.40; demand certificates of deposit, $57,946.53; certified 
checks, $36,194.51; cashier's checks outstanding, $55,087.40; due to other 
National banks, $3,676,911.81; duo to State banks and bankers, $2,661,927.06; 
total, $10,908,714.15. Directors— C. B.Blair, William Blair. C. J.Blair, 
W. F. Blair, Martin A. Ryerson, F. W. Crosby and John C. Neely. Loca- 
tion of banking house, 80 and 82 La Salle street. 

Metropolitan National Bank. — Organized May 12, 1884. Present oflicers, 
E. G. Keith, president; J. L. Woodward, vice-president; W. D. Preston, 
cashier; H. H. Hitchcock, assistant cashier. Resources — Loans and 
discounts, $4,269,278.36; overdrafts, $2,179.75; U. S. bonds to secure 
circulation, $50,000.00; other bonds, $71,300.00; due from other National 
b^nks, $790,7;i9.92; due from State banks and bankers, $297,140.32; checks 
and other cash items, $1,107.56; exchanges for clearing-house, $335,206.29; 
bills of other banks, $23,910.00; fractional paper currency, nickels, and 
pennies, $868.64; specie. $509,840.30; legal-tender notes, $721,188.00; 
redemption fuftd with U. S. treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $2,250.00; 
total, $7,074,997.14. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $500,000.00; surplus 
fund, $425,000.00; undivided profits, $87,245.93; National bank notes out- 
standing, $45,000.00; individual deposits subject to check, $3,662,912.05; 
demand certificates of deposit, $138,846.90; certified checks,^ $52,272.82; 
cashier's checks outstanding, $10,124.43; due to other National banks, 
$873,770.16; due to State banks and bankers, $1,279,824.85; total, $7,074-, 
997,14. Directors — William Deering, A. C. Bartlett, Edson Keith, James 
L. Woodward, W.J. Watson, E. Frankenthal, G. B. Shaw, T. W. Harvey, 
E. G. Keith, W. D. Preston. Location of banking house, La Salle and 
Madison streets. 

National Bank of America. — Organized January 1, 1883. Present 
officers — Isaac G. Lombard, president; Henry Wit beck, vice-president; 
Edward B. Lathrop, cashier; Charles A. Tinkham, assistant cashier. 
Resources— Loans and discounts, $3;168,853.06; overdrafts, $147.34; U. S. 
bonds to secure circulation, $50,000.00; other bonds, $100,500.00; due from 
other National banks, $364,058.62; due from State banks and bankers, 
$77,001.85; checks and other cash items, $13,629.21; exchanges for clearing- 
house, $130,554.43; bills of other banks, $20,135.00; fractional paper 
currency, nickels and pennies, $20.45; specie, $668,568.40; legal tender 
notes, $236,000 00; redemption fund with U. S. treasurer (5 per cent, of 
circulation), $2,250.00: total, $4,831,718.36. Liabilities— Capital stock paid 
in, $1,000,000.00; surplus fund, $2,000,000.00; undivided profits, $99,324.27; 
National bank notes outstanding, $45,000.00; dividends unpaid, $32.00; 
individual deposits subject to check, $1,393,064.60; demand certificates of 
deposit, $159,028.55; certified checks, $41,881,87; due to other National 
banks, $1,209,219.71; due to State banks and bankers, $684,167.36; total, 
$4,831,718.36. The directors are— Henry Witbeck, Morton B. Hull, William 
Dickinson. Charles M. Henderson, Cyrus H. Adams, John H. Witbeck, 
Clarence Buckingham, Isaac G. Lombard, Edward B. Lathrop. Location of 
banking house, La Salle and Washington streets. 

National Bank of IlUnms.—OT^amzQd. December, 1871. Present offi- 
cers — George Schneider, president; William H. Bradley, vice-president; W. A. 
Hammond, cashier. Resources — Loans and discounts, $6,908,089.68; over- 
drafts secured and unsecured, $16,661.93; U. S. bonds to secure circulation. 



148 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

par value, $50,000; Other bonds, $70,500; due from other National banks, 
$755,098.88; due from State banks and bankers, $313,367.34; exchanges for 
clearing-house, $610, 310.70; bills of other banks, $15,200; fractional paper 
currency, nickels and cents, $3,358.13; specie, $759,800; legal-tender notes, 
$233,000; U. S. csrtificates of deposit for legal-tenders, $570,000; redemption 
fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $2,350; total, $10,206,- 
534. 15. Liabilities— Capital' stock paid in, $1,000,000; surplus fund, $700,- 
000; undivided profits, 198,226.53; National bank notes outstanding, $45,0.'0; 
dividends unpaid, $35,122.50, individual deposits subject to check, $5,187,- 
394.38; demand certificates of deposit, $371,510.63; certified checks, $153,- 
334.73; cashier's checks outstanding, $361,150.80; due to other National 
banks, $1,430,858.86; due to State banks and bankers, $843,935.83; total, 
$10,306,534.15. Directors— S. B. Cobb, Walter L. Peck, William R. Page, 
George E. Adams, Charles R. Corwith, William H. Bradley, Frederick 
Mahla, R. E. Jenkins, Albert A. Munger, William A. Hammond, George 
Schneider. Location of banking house, 111, 113, 115 and 117 Dearborn 
street. 

J:^ at ional Live Stock Bank. — Present officers — Levi B. Doud, president; 
George T. Williams, vice-president; Roswell Z. Herrick, cashier. Resources — 
Loans and discounts, $3,396,118.97; overdrafts, $11,504.65; U. S. bonds to 
secure circulation, $50,000; other stock, bonds and mortgages, $48,875; due 
from other National banks, $1,287,465. 30; due from State banks and bankers, 
$143,217.29; real estate, furniture and fixtures, 2,331.47; current expenses 
and taxes piid, $803.90; premiums paid, $10,000; exchanges for clearing- 
house, $43,130.43; bills of other banks, $5,353; fractional paper currency, 
nickels and pennies, $3,553.71; specie, $383,176.50; legal-tender notes, $94,- 
867; U. S. certificates of deposit for legal-tenders, $100,000; U. S. Treasurer 
(5 per cent, of circulation), $3,250;total, $4 536,336.22. Liabilities— Capital 
stock paid in, $750,000; surplus fund, $300,000; undivided profits, $147,- 
487.56; National bank notes outstanding, 20,500; dividends unpaid, $638; 
individual deposits subject to check, $1,843,736.30; demand certificates of 
deposit, $533,734,61; certified checks, $300; due to other National banks, 
$737,499.84; due to State banks and bankers, $364,460.01; total, $4,586,- 
336.33. Directors— John B. Sherman, Irus Coy, George T. Williams, Levi 
B. Doud, Roswell Z. Herrick, Samuel Cozzens, Daniel G. Brown. At the 
last annual meeting of directors the sum of $100,000 was carried to the sur- 
plus fund, now $300,000. while the individual profits-reached $37,000. The 
dividends have been 2 per cent, quarterly. Location of banking house. 
Main Stock Yards. 

Northwestern National Bank. — Organized August, 1864. Present offi- 
cers— E. Buckingham, president; W. F. DuDaoaer, vice-president; W. 
Gookin, cashier ; F. W. Griffin, assistant cashier. Resources— Loans and 
discounts, $1,943,607.33 ; overdrafts, 9,318.01 ; U. S. bonds to secure circula- 
tion 4 per cent. $300,000 ; U. S. bonds to secure deposits 4 per cent, $700,000 ; 
other bonds, $97,500 ; due from other National banks, $431,566,36 ; due from 
Stare banks and bankers, $49,153.50 ; checks and other cash items, $421.45 ; 
exchanges for clearing-house, $153,783.10 ; bills and other banks, $7,850 ; 
fractional paper currency, nickels and pennies, $381.86 ; specie, $368,915.55 ; 
legal-tender notes, $470,000; rederaotion fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per 
cent, of circulation) $9,000 ; total, $4,430,496.06. Liabilities— Capital stock 
paid in, $200,000 ; surplus fund, $50,000 ; undivided profits, $106,758.41 ; 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 149 

National bank notes outstanding, $165,690 ; iDdividual deposits subject to 
check, $i.24d,320.2i ; demand certiticates of deposit, $223,987.72 ; certified 
checks, §42,594.81 ; castiier's checks outstanding, $51,774.49 ; United States 
deposits, $750,853.03; ]Jeposits of U. S. disbursing officers, $16,314.81 ; due 
to other National banks, $677,691.50 ; due to State banks and bankers, $896.- 
511.08 ; total, $4,430,496.06. A trust fund of $2,000,000, consistingof L'. S. 4 
per cent, bonds and other securities, is pledged by the stockholders of the 
Korthwestern National Bank as additional security for all obligations. 
Directors — El>enezer Buckingham, Edward E. Aver, William F. Dummer, 
Marshall M. Kirkman and Franklin H. Head. Location of banking house. 
La Salle and Adams streets. 

Oakland National Bank. — Present officers — H. P. Taylor, president; 
Arthur W. AUyn, vice-president ; J. J, Knight, cashier. Resources — Loans 
and discounts, $178,545.44; overdrafts, secured and unsecured, $42.09 ; U. S. 
bonds to secure circulation, $12,500 ; due from approved restrYC agents, 
$26,832.24 ; banking-house furniture and fixtures, $i,675 ; current expenses 
and taxes paid, $1,709.89 ; premiums on U. S. bonds, $2,093.75 ; checks and 
other cash items, $265.23; exchanges for clearing-house, $419.75 ; bills of 
other banks. $1,220; fractional paper currency, nickels, and cents, $10.82 ; 
specie, $7,214.50 ; legal-tender notes, $6,500 ; Vedemption fund Vfith U. S. 
Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $562.50; total, $239,091.21. Liabili- 
ties — Capital stock paid in, $50,000 ; surplus fund, $1,500 ; undivided 
profits, $9,579.42; National bank notes outstanding, $11,250; individual 
deposits subject-to checks, $128 800.99 ; demand certificates of deposit, $36,- 
263.47 ; certified checks, $1,697.33 ; total, $239,091 .21. Location of banking 
house, 3961, Cottage Grove avenue. 

Union National Bank, — Organized December, 18G3. Present officers — 
John J. P. Odell, president; David Kelley, vice-president; W. C. Oakley, 
cashier; W. O. Hipwell, assistant cashier; August Blum, second assistant 
cashier. Resources— Loans and discounts, $6,177,274.20 ; Overdrafts, $126.92; 
U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; U. S. bonds on hand, $1,350; 
other stocks, bonds and mortages, $784,019.21 ; due from other National 
banks, $691,975.84; due from State banks and bankers, $327,498.19; real 
estate, furniture and fixtures, $11,500; exchange for clearing-house, $437,- 
257. 17 ; bills of other banks, $10,000 ; fractional paper currency, nickels and 
pennies, $2,795.77; specie, $866,899.50; legal tender notes, $650,000; 
redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), $2,250 ; 
due from U. S. Treasurer, other than 5 per cent, redemption fund, $6,000; 
total, $10.018,946. 76. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $2,000,000 ; surplus 
fund, $700,000; undivided profits, $141,537.54; National bank notes out- 
standing, $45,000 ; reserved for taxes, $30,000 ; individual deposits subject 
to check, $2,471,316.28; demand certificates of deposit, $142,612.21 ; certi- 
fied checks, $67,930.79; cashier's checks outstanding, $89,857.20; due to 
other National banks, $1,959,081.20; due to State banks and bankers, 
$2,371,611.54; total, $10,018,946.76. The directors are— C. R. Cummings, 
J. H. Barker, H. N. May, David Kelley, O. C. Barber, S. K. Martin, S. B. 
Barker, V. Shaw-Kennedy, J. J. P. Odell. The Union National has been 
specially favored in having had for its presidents some of Chicago's ablest 
and most experienced financiers, and to this is mostly due the bank's prompt 
rush to the front line of the city banks and its maintenance of that position 



160 6UIDE TO CHICAGO. 

for SO many years. The first president was William F. Coolbaugh, who at 
his death, which occurred in November, 1877, was succeeded by Calvin T. 
"Wheeler. On the expiration of its original charter December 30, 1884, the 
Union National Bank was re-organized, and under its new charter, W. C. D. 
Graonis was chosen president, and J. J. P. Odell, vice-president. Mr. C. 
R. Cummings was made president in 1886, but took no active part in the 
management of the bank. Upon his retirement Mr. J, J. P. Odell became 
president, and has continued in that position up to the present date. Mr. 
Odell has been identified with the banking business of Chicago since 1865, 
and for twenty-four years has been connected with the Union National, hav- 
ing entered its service in 1866, as bookkeeper, and in the interval filled 
almost every intermediate position of responsibility in the bank. In 
amount of deposits the place of the Union National at the present time is in 
the second group averaging $9,750,000. Location of banking house, north- 
east corner of La Salle and Adams streets, Home Insurance building. 

TTnited States National Bank. — Succeeded by the Columbia National 
Bank, cash capital, $1,000,000. Officers of the United States National Bank— 
Zimri D Wiggins, president; J. M. Starbuck, cashier. The last statement of 
the TJnited States National Bank made to the controller was as follows: 
Resources— Loans and discounts, $593,326.80; overdrafts, $634.08; U. S. 
bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; due from other National banks, $105,- 
481.06; due from State banks and bankers, $28,109,16; real estate, furniture 
and fixtures, $3,452.50; current expenses and taxes paid, $10,897.64; 
premiums paid, $2,027.50; checks and other cash items, $6,767.11; exchp.Dges 
for clearing-house, $108,092.57; bills of other banks, $4,193; fractional paper 
currency, nickels and pennies, $87.02; specie, $1,761.40; legal-tender notes, 
$28,000; redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, of circulation), 
$2,250; total, $945,079.84. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $500,000: sur- 
plus fund, $8,000; undivided profits, $13,024.14; National bank notes out- 
standing, $45,000; dividends unpaid, $60; individual deposits subject to 
check, $148,539.87; demand certificates of deposit $3,630.62; time certificates 
of deposit, $12,430.95; certified checks, $6,600; cashier's checks outstanding, 
.14; due to other National banks, $7,858.02; due to State banks and bankers, 
$199,936.10; total, $945,079.84. Location of banking house, Clark and 
Jackson streets. 

Prairie State National 5^ ti^.— Organized May 15, 1888. Present officers- 
James W. Scoville, president; George Woodland, vice-president; George Van 
Zandt cashier. Resources— Loans and discounts, $700,140.91; overdrafts, 
$5 927 91; United States bonds, $50,000; other bonds, $231,804.38; due from 
other National banks, $61,804.94; due from State banks and bankers, $15,- 
158 07- furniture and safes, $1,875; premiums onU. S. bonds, $1,125; checks 
and other cash items, $221.85; exchanges for clearing-house, $51,203; bills for 
other banks $7,837; fractional paper currency, nickels and pennies, $605 05: 
snecie $152 856.12; legal-tender notes, $28,500; due from U. S. Treasurer 
$2 25d- total $1,311,309.29. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, $200,000 
surplus fund,' $5, 000; dividends unpaid, $37.50; undivided profits, $1,657.91 
individual deposits subject to check, $999,036,85; certified checks, $14,142.88 
cashier's checks outstanding, $4,947.90; due to other National banks, $2,016.26 
due to State banks and bankers, $84,469.99; total, $1,311,309.29. The 
directors are B. F. Homer, M. C. Bullock, George Van Zandt, James W. Sco- 
ville, H. J. Evans, George Woodland, William Spooner. Location of bank- 
ing house, 110 West Washington street. 



THE E^SrCYCLOPEDIA. 151 

BANKING INSTITUTIONS— STATE AND PRIVATE. 

Adolph Loeb & Bro., Bankers. — Established over thirty-three years ago, 
since which time the house has been doing an extensive mortgage loan, real 
estate and general banking business. The house was founded by AdolphLoeb, 
and shortly afterward he associated with himself his brother William. Two 
years ago Julius Loeb and Edward G. Pauling were admitted into the firm. 
Loeb & Bro. are bankers of large capital and the very highest standing in 
Chicago commercial circles. 

American Tritst and Savings Bank. — Organized under the laws of the 
State of Illinois, 1889; capital, $1,000,000; surplus, $65,000. Present officers— 
G. B. Shaw, president; Edson Keith,vice-president; Franklin H. Head, 2d vice- 
president; J. R. Chapman, cashier; W. L. Meyer, assistant cashier. Direct- 
ors — William J. Watson, T. W. Harvey, Adolph Kraus, Franklin H. Head, 
S. A. Maxwell, J. H. Pearson, C. T. Trego, Ferd.W. Peck, William Deering, 
G. B. Shaw, V. A. Watkins, E. L. Lobdell, O. D. Wetherell, Joy Morton, 
George E. Wood, William Kent, S. A. Kent. Location of banking house, 
Owings building, Dearborn and Adams streets. 

Bank of Montreal. — William Monroe, manager; E. M. Shadbolt, assistant 
cashier. 

Cahn and Strauss, Bankers. — Do a general commercial business, making 
specialties of government bonds, local securities and foreign exchange. 
Location of banking house, 128 La Salle street. 

Charles Henrotin, Banker and Broicer. — One of the founders of the Chi- 
cago Stock Exchange, and one of the heaviest brokers in local and outside 
stocks in Chicago. A promoter of some of the largest enterprises of the 
times. Location of banking house, 169 Dearborn street. 

Chemical Trust and Savings Bank. — Organized May, 1890. Present offi- 
cers — Adlai T. Ewing, president; E. C. Veasey, vice-president; G. A. Boden- 
schatz, second vice-president; A. J. Howe, assistant cashier. Capital, $350,- 
000; additional liability of stockholders, $350,000. Directors— M. McNeil, 
Robert Vierling, George B. Marsh, William F. Burrows, Otis Jones, G. A. 
Bodenschatz, Adlai T. Ewing, E. J. Edwards, Jacob Hirsh, J. G. Boden- 
schatz, Edwin C. Veasey. Location of banking house 85 Dearborn street. 

Chciago Trust and Savings Bink. — Under the supervision of the State 
of Illinois, organized May, 1885; capital paid in, $400,000; additional liability 
of stockholders, $500,000; total security for depositors $900,000; surplus, 
January 1, 1891, $37,000. Present officers— D. H. Tolman, president; P. E. 
Jennison, cashier. Transacts a general banking business, and is looked upon 
as one of the most safely managed banking houses in Chicago. Location of 
banking house, northeast corner of Washington and Clark streets. 

Corn Exchange 5a/iAj. —Organized 1873, re-organized 1879; capital, 
$1,000,000; surplus, $1,000,000. Present officers— Charles L. Hutchinson, 
president; Ernest A. Hamill, vice-president; Frank W. Smith, cashier. 
Directors — Charles L. Hutchinson, Byron L. Smith, Charles Counselman, 
Sidney A. Kent. John H. Dwight, Edwin G. Foreman, Ernest A. Hamill, 
Charles H. Wacker, B. M. Frees, Charles H. Schwab, Edward B Butler. 
The Corn Exchange is one of the great banking houses of the city, and for 
over eighteen years has ranked among the leading financial institutions of 
the West. Location of banking house, Rookery building, Adams and La 
Salle streets. 



152 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Dime Savings Bank. — Organized under State supervision ; incorporated 
April, 1869. Present officers — Samuel G. Bailey, president, merchant; 
W. C. D. Grannis, vice-president, president Atlas National bank; Eugene 
Gary, insurance, Rialto building; C. B. Farwell, merchant and United 
States Senator; A. R. Barnes, printer, 68 and 70 Wabash avenue; W. M. 
Van Nortwick, paper manufacturer, Batavia, 111.; L. R. Giddings, mortgages, 
Chamber of Commerce building; J. W. Converse, teller of the bank; Wm. 
Kelsey Reed, treasurer. This is exclusively a savings bank and ranks high 
among Chicago's financial institutions. Location of banking house, 104- 
106 Washington street. 

E. S. Dreyer & Co., Bankers. — Established over twenty years ago, and 
one of the leading banking houses of the city. The firm is composed of E. S. 
Dreyer, Edward Koch and Robert Berger. A specialty is made of mortgage 
loans, though the house does a general banking business. Location north- 
east corner of Dearborn and Washington sts. 

Farmers' Trust Company. — Present officers — R, Sayer, president; Josiah 
L. Lombard, vice-president and treasurer. Capital $100,000. Location of 
banking house, 112 Dearborn street. 

Foreman Bros., Bankers. — Founded thirty years ago, by the father of the 
present proprietors of the house, Edwin G. Foreman and Oscar G. Foreman. 
A banking institution that has maintained a high standing through the ad- 
verse as well as prosperous times in Chicago history, for over a quarter of a 
century. Foreman Bros, receive deposits, buy and sell martgages and other 
investment securities, and make a specialty of loans on real estate. Location 
of banking house, 138 and 130 Washington St., near Chamber of Commerce, 
opposite City Hall. 

Globe Savings Bank.— Or^dinized.'i^^Q. Capital paid in, $200,000. Sav- 
ings accounts bear interest at 4 per cent, per annum. Four interest days 
each year— January 1st, April 1st, July 1st, October 1st. Deposits on or 
before the 3i of the month bear interest from the 1st. G. W. Spalding, 
president ; Edward Hayes, vice-president ; J. P. Altgeld, second vice-presi- 
dent ; H. S. Derby, cashier. 

Oreenehaum Sons, 5a7iA;s?'s.— Founded by Elias Greenebaum thirty-six 
years ago. Thepresentfirmconsistsof Elias Greenebaum, H. E. Greenebaum, 
M. E. Greenebaum and James E. Greenebaum. The house transacts a very large 
banking business and makes a specialty of loans and real estate. The bank 
occupies the main floor of 116 and 118 La Salle St., Mercantile building. 
Greenebaum & Sons' bank has occupied an important place in the growth and 
development of the city. Thousands of buildings, from the neat residence 
to the business block, have been erected primarily^by funds obtained through 
this firm. 

Guarantee Company of North America. — Head office, Montreal, Canada. 
Chicago directors— L. J. Gage,vice-president, First National Bank; R. R. Cable, 
president C, R. I. & P. R. R.; the Hon. J. Russell Jones, ex-president 
We?t Side Ry.; C. T. Wheeler, ex-president Continental National Bank; E. 
Nelson Blake, ex-president Board of Trade. Capital and resources, $1,079,- 
574. Office, 175 La Salle street. 

Rihernian Banking .4 ssocm^iOTi.— Organized 1867. One of the most sub- 
stantial banking houses in the city; capital, $222,000. Present officers— J. V. 



I 





THE DOCGLAS MONUMENT. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 153 

Clarke, president; Charles F. Clark, vice-president; Hamilton B. Dox, cash- 
ier; J. V. Clarke, Jr., assistant cashier. Directors— J. V. Clarke, Hamilton 
B. Dox, James R. McKay, Henry B. Clarke, Thomas Lonergan, Charles F. 
Clark, J. V. Clarke, Jr. Location of banking house, Clark and Lake 
streets. 

Illinois Trust and Savings Bank. — Organized under the laws of the State 
of lUiuois, August, 1887. Capital stock paid in, |1,OUO,000; surplus, $1,000,- 
000; additional liabilities of its stockholders, $1,000,000; total amount pledged 
for the security of depositors, $3,000,000. Present officers — John J, Mitchell, 
president; John B. Drake, vice-president; William H. Mitchell, 2d vice-presi- 
deat; W. fl. Reid, 3d vice-president; James S. Gibbs, cashier; B. M. Chattel, 
assistant cashier. Directors — L. Z. Leiter, William G. Hibbard, John B. 
Drake, Jolin J". Mitchell, John McCaffery, J. C. McMuUin, W. H. Reid, 
William H. Mitchell, D. B. Shipman. Among the stockholders of the bank 
are the vealthiest capitalists and merchants of Chicago, including L.Z. Leiter, 
J. Russell Jones, Marshall Field, Albert Keep, Philip D. Armour, Robert 
Law, J. C. McMullin. Following is a statement of the bank's resources and 
liabilities: Resources — Bonds and stocks, $1,440,816.50; real estate, $26,291.34; 
current expenses paid, $25,314.61; cash and exchange, $2,856,178.05; loans on 
demand, $8,155,679.21; loans on time, $1,943,153.25; loans on real estate, 
$1,817,193.32; total, $16,264,625.28. Liabilities— Capital stock, $1,000,000; 
surplus fund, $788,916.20; undivided profits, $275,737.58; dividends unpaid, 
$3,500; time deposits, $7,699,740.73; demand deposits, $6,496,730.77; total, 
$16,264,625.28. The bank has savings, commercial safety deposit and trust 
departments. Location of banking house. Rookery building, southeast 
corner of La Salle and Adams streets. 

International Bank. — Organized October 21, 1868, as the International 
Mutual Trust Company, and was changed to irs present name in 1871. The 
first officers were — Frances A. Hoffman, president; Julius Busch, vice-presi- 
dent; and Rudolph Schloesser, cashier. Present officers — B. Loewenthal, 
president; Leo Fox, vice-president; Bernhard Neu, cashier; Jos. B. Loewen- 
thal, assistant cashier. Mr. Loewenthal, the president, became connected 
with the bank in 1870. Capital, $500,000; surplus, January 1, 1891, $100,000. 
Directors — John Kranz, Louis Wambold, August Bauer, B. Mergentheim, 
Ed. Rose, Michael Brand, B. Loewenthal and Leo Fox. Besides doing a 
general banking business, the International Bank issues circular letters of 
credits, and draws drafts on all parts of the world. The standing of the 
International is first-class. Banking house located at 110 La Salle street. 

Meadowcroft Bros. , Bankers. — Established 1860. Located at the northwest 
corner of Dearborn and Washington streets. This banking house offers 
every facility for individuals or merchants who contemplate opening an 
account or making changes. Aside from the ordinary conveniences of hav- 
ing banking connections, the depositor can make his selection from different 
classes of deposit contracts, either certificates bearing interest or special de- 
posits with interest. Those desiring safe investment for their fuu'^s can be 
supplied with good real estate securities, or have orders for any bonds or 
stocks executed. The bank is enabled to offer the advantages of European 
correspondents both in buying and selling. Location of banking house, 
northwest corner of Dearborn and Washington sts. 



154 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Merchants' Loan and Trust Company. — Organized under the laws of the 
State of Illinois in 1857. Capital, $3,000,000; surplus, $1,000,000; undivided 
profits, $435,010. The trustees are— Marshall Field, C. H. McCormick, John 
DeKoven, Albert Keep, John Tyrrell, Lambert Tree, J. "W. Doane, P. L. Yoe, 
George M. Pullman, A. H. Buriey, E. T. Watkins, Erskine M. Phelps, Orson 
Smith. Present officers — J. W. Doane, president; P. L. Yoe, vice-president; 
Orson Smith, second vice-president; F. C. Osborn. This is the oldest and one 
of the greatest banking houses in Chicago. ' ' Long " John Wentworth was 
one of tiie original incorporators, and throughout the latter part of his^lif e was 
active in the bank's interest. The Merchants' Loan and Trust Company does 
the general work of a modern Trust company and that of a bank of discount 
as well. 

Northern Trust Company. — Organizedunder the jurisdiction and supervision 
of the Stateof Illinois, August, 1889. Capital fully paid in, $1,000,000. Present 
officers — B. L. Smith, president; Charles L. Hutchinson, vice-president; Joseph 
T. Bowen, cashier; Arthur Heurtley, assistant cashier. Directors — A C. 
Bartlett, J, Harley Bradley, H. N. Higinbotham, Marvin Hughitt, Charles L. 
Hutchinson, A. O. Slaughter, Martin A. Ryerson, Albert A. Sprague, B. L. 
Smith. Location of banking house. Chamber of Commerce building, southeast 
corner of Washington and La Salle streets. 

Paul 0. Stensland & Co., Bankers. — The leading banking institution of 
the northwestern portion of the city, and particularly of that great business 
and manufacturing district lying tributary to the wonderful artery known 
as Milwaukee avenue. The head of this banking house, Mr. Paul O. Stens- 
land, is a man of substantial means, large experience and sound business 
judgment. This institution does a general banking and real estate business, 
sells drafts, issues money-orders in all parts of Europe ; receives commercial 
deposits, and pays the usual interest on savings deposits. Location of bank- 
ing house — Milwaukee ave. and Carpenter st. In connection with the bank 
are the safety vaults of the Milwaukee Avenue Safe Deposit Company, con- 
structed after the most modern plans and guaranteed to be absolutely safe 
for the deposit of valuables, papers, deeds, wills, jewelry, diamonds, etc. 

Peterson & Bay, ^^iTiAiers.— Established 1873. Andrew Peterson and Geo. 
P. Bay, owners; deal in investment securities, foreign exchange, mortgage 
loans, make collections and do a general real estate business. Location of 
banking house — Southwest corner La Salle and Randolph sts. 

Prairie State Samngs and Trust Ci?TOj9<j«.;?/.— Organized February 22, 1861, 
with a capital of $100,000; increased to $200,000 October 8, 1890; present 
officers, Charles B. Scoville, president ; George Van Zandt, vice-president ; 
George Woodland, cashier. Location of banking house — 45 South Des- 
plaines st. 

ScJiaffner & Co., Bankers. — Established January, 1878. One of the 
largest and most responsible private banking houses in the country. Herman 
Schaffner and A. G. Becker, proprietors and managers. Makes a specialty of 
handling commercial paper and dealing with manufacturing and business 
firms. Annual business transacted, about $25,000,000. Itsbusinessis not con- 
fined to the securities and paper of this country, but it has extensive foreign 
dealings as well. The firm has no equal in the amount of the actual moneyed 
transactions made in any of the Eastern cities. The successful handling of 
the immense amount of paper as shown by a single year's business, is as 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 155 

highly gratifying as it is commendatory of the financial ability and acumen of 
the members of the firm. 

Security, Loan and Savings Bank. — Organized August, 1886. Capital, 
$100,000. Present officers — E. R. Walker, president; D. Rankin, cashier. 
Location of banking house, 127 La Salle Street. 

State Bank of Illinois. — Incorporated 1891, as successor to the private 
banking house of Felsenthal, Gross & Miller ; capital stock paid up, |500,000. 
Location — 108 La Salle street. The business of the private bank had 
increased so that the firm felt it incumbent on them to join the clearing- 
house, and consequently increased their capital to the required amount, 
$500,000, The pronounced feeling among all classes against the stability 
and crustworthiness of private banks, indiscriminately, together with recent 
bad failures, led them to become a State bank in justice to themselves and 
the confidence reposed in them by their customers. The officers of the State 
Bank of Illinois are among the most substantial and reputable citizens of 
Chicago. 

Union Trust Company. — Organized under the laws of the State of Illinois, 
April 20, 1870. Present officers — S. W. Rawson, president; E. F. Pulsifer, 
vice-president; G. M. Wilson, Cashier. J. H. Pearson and James Longley in 
addition to the above constitute the Directory. Capital and surplus, $900,- 
000. Location of banking house, northeast corner of Madison and Dearborn 
streets. 

Western Trust and Savings Bank. — Organized under the name of 
Western Investment Bank, in 1884. Reorganized under its present name, 
January, 1890. Present officers — William Holgate, president; E. Jennings, 
vice-president; William P. Kimball, second vice-president. Capital, $100,- 
000. Location of banking house, Washington street and Fifth ave. 

Resources of Chicago State Banks. — The last report of the State Auditor 
in reference to State banks, shows the following resume of the Chicago State 
banks: The Bank of Illinois has total resources of $103,037. The Chemical 
Trust and Savings Bank has total resources of $715,897, and individual 
deposits subject to check of $287,455. The Chicago Trust and Savings Bank 
has total resources of $661,521. The Corn Exchange Bank has resources of 
$6,894,114; the Dime Savings Bank, $491,625; the Globe Savings Bank, 
no report; Home Savings Bank, $266,158; Illinois Trust and Savings Bank, 
$14,960,071; International Bank, $1,509,061; Northwestern Bond and Trust 
Company, $633,968; American Trust and Savings Bank, $3,522,988; Hiber- 
nian, $8,118,321; Merchants' Loan and Trust Company, $12,868,452; North- 
ern Trust Company, $3,654,932; Union Trust Company, $3,682,455; Prairie 
State Savings and Trust Company, $1,810,859, and the Western Trust and 
Savings Bank, $198,993. 

CEMETERIES. 

There are many beautiful burying grounds within the present corporate 
limits of the city, and in the immediate suburbs. There are no old grave- 
yards, or church-yards, such asmaybe seen in the cities and towns of Europe, 
or in the older cities of this continent, within the business district. The 
only remains of a cemetery to be seen in the old city is the tomb of the Couch 
family, which still holds its place in Lincoln Park, a great portion of which 



166 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

covers the site of an old graveyard. [See Lincoln Park.] There are no 
church-yards in existence in any part of the West. The different ceme- 
teries, together with the means of reaching them, are pointed out below. 

Anshe Maariv Cemetery.— Located at North Clark st. and Belmont ave. 
Take Evanston Division of Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad or 
North Clark st. cable line. 

Austro- Hungarian Cemetery .—LocdiiQd at Waldheim, 10 miles from the 
City Hall. Take train at Graud Central depot, via Chicago and Northern 
Pacific railroad. Train leaves at 12:01 p. m. daily, including Sundays, run- 
ning direct to the new cemetery station, immediately adjoining Waldheim, 
Forest Home and the Jewish Cemeteries. [See Waldheim Cemetery.] 

Beth Hamedrash Cemetery. — Located at Oakwoods, Sixty-seventh st. and 
Cottage Grove ave. Take Cottage Grove ave. cable line or Illinois Central 
train, foot of Randolph or Van Buren st. [See Oakwoods Cemetery.] 

B'nai Abraham Cemetery. — Located one-half mile south of Waldheim, 
nine and one-half miles from the City Hall. Take train at Grand Central 
depot, via Chicago and Northern Pacific railroad. Trains leave at 12:01 
daily, including Sundays. [See Waldheim Cemetery.] 

B'nai Shilom Cemetery. — Located on North Clark st. and Graceland ave. 
Take North Clark st. cable line, or Evanston Division of ChLago, Miiwau-, 
kee & St. Paul railroad. 

Calvary Cemetery. — Located south of and adjoining the village of South 
Evanston, ten miles from the City Hall., Take train at Wells St. depot, via 
Chicago & North-Western railway, or at Union depot, via Evanston Division 
of Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad. This is the largest and oldest 
of the Roman Catholic cemeteries. It is situated beautifully, fronting Sheri- 
dan road and Lake Michigan. The cemetery is laid out with great taste. 
There are many costly and handsome tombs and monuments to be seen here. 
Among the latter is one erected to the memory of Colonel Mulligan, the hero 
of Lexington. The tombs of the leading Roman Catholic families of Chicago 
are located here. This burying ground was consecrated in 1861. The inter- 
ments have exceeded 25,000. Trains leave on both lines for Calvary at brief 
intervals daily, including Sundays. 

Cemetery of tlie Congregation of the North Side. — Located at Waldheim, 
ten miles from the City Hall. Take train at Grand Central depot, via 
Chicago & Northern Pacific railroad. Trains leave at 12:01 daily, including 
Sundays. 

Chebra Gemilath Chasadim Ubikar Cholim Cemetery. — Located on N. 
Clark St., south of Graceland Cemetery. Take train on Evanston Division of 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad, or N. Clark street cable line. [See 
Graceland Cemetery.] 

Chebra Kadlsha Ubikar Cholim Cemetery. — Located on N. Clark st., south 
of Graceland Cemetery. Take train on Evanston Division of Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul railroad, or N. Clark street cable line. [See Graceland 
Cemetery.] 

Concordia Cemetery. — Located about nine miles west of the City Hall on 
Madison st. , beside the Desplaines river. [See Forest Home Cemetery.] 

Forest Home Cemetery. — Located about nine miles west of the City Hall 
on Madison st., beside the Desplaines river. Concordia Cemetery adjoins 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 157 

this burying ground. Take train at Grand Central depot, via Chicago & 
Northern Pacilic railroad. Its eighty acres comprise a portion of the giound 
once constituting Haase's park, a noted resort of its day. This cemetery is 
beautifully situated and laid out with great taste. The interments in Forest 
Home Cemetery and Concordia Cemetery combined have numbered about 
15,000. 

Free Sons of Israel Cemetery. — Located at Waldheim, ten miles from the 
City Hall. Take train at Grand Central depot, via Chicago & Northern 
Pacific railroad. [See Waldheim Cemetery.] 

Oerman Lutheran Cemetery. — Located on N. Clark St., se. cor. of Grace- 
land ave. Take N. Clark street cable line. This cemetery belongs to the St. 
Paul and Emanuel Luthern Churches. 

Oraceland Cemetery. — Located on North Clark street, five miles from the 
City Hall. Take train at Union depot, via Evanston Division Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul railroad for Buena Park, the beautiful station of which 
suburb faces the main entrance of the cemetery, or take the North Clark street 
cable line. Better still, the visitor will enjoy a magnificent carriage ride by 
way of the North Side Water Works, Lake Shore Drive, Lincoln Park, 
through Lake View and some of the most charming of the Northern suburbs, 
to this cemetery. The Graceland Cemetery Company was organized under a 
special charter in 1861. William B. Ogden, Edwin H. Sheldon, Thomas B. 
Bryan, Sidney Sawyer, and George A. Healy being the first incorporators. 
The charter confers ample powers for the maintenance and preservation of 
the cemetery. All burial lots are declared exempt from taxation, and from 
execution and attachment; no street or thoroughfare can be laid out through 
the cemetery; nor can any part of the grounds be condemned for right of way 
by any other corporation for any purpose whatever. Under the charter ten 
per cent, of the gross proceeds of all sales of burial lots are set apart as a sink- 
ing fund for the perpetual m.aintenance of the cemetery grounds. This fund 
is held and managed by trustees elected by the lot holders, and is under their 
sole control. These trustees are also authorized to take any grant or bequest 
in trust, and to apply the same in such manner as the donor or testator may 
prescribe, for the care or embellishment of any particular lots. Save for the 
building of a receiving vault, nothing has been taken from the general sink- 
ing fund during thirty years; and this fund at the past rate of increase will, 
within a few years, reach $250,000; which sum the trustees propose to retain 
as a permanent capital, whereof the income shall be devoted to the purposes 
of their trust. The trustees of this fund will be recognized as among Chi- 
cago's most prominent and honored citizens, viz.: William Blair, J. W. 
McGenniss, Daniel Thompson, E. W. Blatchford, George C. Walker, Hiram 
Wheeler, Edwin H. Sheldon, Jerome Beecher, A. J. Averill, John De 
Koven, Henry W. King; Hiram Wheeler, president: Edwin H. Sheldon, vice- 
president; Jerome Beecher, treasurer; George C. Walker, secretary. The 
site of Graceland is admirably adapted for a burial ground. It extends for 
a mile along an elevated and handsome ridge, whose natural beauty has 
been enhanced by every appliance of taste and art. The superintendent, 
O. C. Simonds, is an accomplished landscape gardener and civil engin- 
eer, and under his direction Graceland will bear comparison with any 
cemetery in the United States. Stone coping, hedges and side-paths are 
dispensed with. The entire planting is done under the direction of the 
superintendent, and each section resembles a beautiful lawn covered with 



158 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

green turf and dotted with shrubs and graceful treea. In this City of the 
Dead the voices of Nature breathe comfort into the hearts of tne souoaIuI, 
and whisper of hope and consolation. The cemetery has become a garden 
whose beauty renders less sombre the solemn associations of the tomb. If the 
mourner sees in the flowers which are laid upon the new-made grave an 
emblem of the cherished form which is buried from his sight, he also sees in 
the blossoms which bloom around him the emblem of its resurreetion. 

Hebrew Benevolent Society Cemetery. — Located South of Qraceland Ceme- 
tery and may be reached in a similar manner. 

Moses Montefiore Cemetery. — Located at Waldheim, ten miles from the 
City Hall. [See Waldheim Cemetery.] 

Mount Greenwood Cemetery. — Located one-half mile west of Morgan 
Park, a suburb, fourteen miles south of the City Hall. Take trains at the Van 
Buren Street depot, via Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railway. 

Mount Hope Cemetery. — Projected; to be located at Washington Heights, 
south of the city. 

Mount Olive Cemetery. — Located at Dunning, nine miles west of the City 
Hall. Take train at Union depot, via Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul rail- 
road. This is a beautiful cemetery and is the burying-place of Scandinavian 
families. The secretary and treasurer is Mr. Paul O. Stensland. 

Mount Olivet Cemetery. — Located one-half mile west of the suburb of 
Morgan Park. Take train at Dearborn station, via Chicago & Grand Trunk 
railway. 

Oakwoods Cemetery. — Located on Sixty-seventh street and Cottage Grove 
avenue. Take Illinois Central railroad, foot of Randolph or Van Buren 
street, or Cottage Grove avenue cable line. This cemetery was laid out in 
1864. It includes 200 acres of ground beautifully laid out on the "lawn 
plan." A charming drive to the cemetery is via Michigan and Grand boule- 
vards and Washington Park. This, Rosehill and Graceland are the three 
prominent native Protestant burying grounds of the city. 

Ohavey Emunah Cemetery. — Located at Waldheim, ten miles from the 
City Hall. Take train at Grand Central depot, via Chicago & Northern Pacific 
railroad. Trains leave at 13:01 p. m. daily, including Sundays. [See Wald- 
heim Cemetery.] 

Ohavey Scholom Cemetery. — Located at Oakwoods, Sixty-seventh street 
and Cottage Grove avenue. Take Cottage Grove Avenue cable line or Illi- 
nois Centraltraiu, foot of Randolph or Van Buren street. [See Oakwoods 
Cemetery.] 

Bosehill Cemetery. — Located seven miles northeast of the City Hall. 
Take train at Wells Street depot, via Milwaukee Division of Chicago «fc 
North- Western railroad. The Rosehill Cemetery Company was chartered 
February 11, 1859. This burying ground covers at present about 500 acres, 
but extensions can be made. Two hundred additional acres have already been 
platted and improved. It is the most beautiful cemetery in the vicinity of 
Chicago and contains many handsome and costly tombs and monuments, the 
most prominent of the latter being the soldiers' monument at the head of the 
main avenue. Large numbers of those who were once the leading men of the 
city are interred here, and the inscriptions on the tombs are interesting to the 
students of Chicago history. The green-houses and conservatories of Rose- 
hill are very handsome and extensive. The ground slopes down to the rail- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 159 

road track and forms a beautiful landscape. It is thickly wooded with fine 
trees, and a large lake adds greatly to its beauty. This cemetery may be 
reached easily by carriages, via Lake Shore drive, Lincoln Park, Graceland 
and some of the most cheering of the northern suburbs. Among the things 
which will at once strike the visitor with admiration is the handsome entrance 
arch. 

Sinai Congregational Cemetery.— Loc&ted at Rosehill. [See Rosehill 
Cemetery.] 

St. Boniface Cemetery. — Located on N. Clark st., cor. of Lawrence ave. 
Take North Clark street cable line. This is the German Roman Catholic 
Cemetery. 

Waldheim Cemetery. — Located ten miles west of the City Hall. Take 
train at Grand Central depot, via Chicago & Northern Pacific railroad. 
Funeral train leaves at 13:01 p. m. daily, including Sundays, running direct 
to the new cemetery station, immediately adjoining Waldheim, Forest Home 
and the Jewish cemeteries. Here are interred the anarchists executed for 
connection with the Haymarket bomb-throwing. [See Haymarket Massacre.] 
A number of burying-grounds are located in this vicinity. 

Zion Congregation Cemetery. — Located at Rosehill. [See Rosehill 
Cemetery.] 

CHARITIES. 

Charity aboundeth in Chicago. It is estimated that the amount volun- 
tarily subscribed annually for charity, and in support of charitable institutions 
in Chicago, exceeds $3,000,000. Hospitals, which are supported either by 
public or private charity, are not included under this heading. Neither are 
reformatory institutions. The following are the leading charitable works 
and institutions of the city. 

American Educational and Aid Association. — V. B. Van Arsdale, super- 
intendent, explains the character and scope of the organization as follows : 
" We have 1,000 local advisory boards composed of representative citizens in 
as many towns and communities, whom we have made known to their coun- 
ties and committees through the local notices by the press, and through 
notices read from the pulpits, as well as by our printed matter. A homeless 
and needful child, as soon as it is known, is reported to some of this local 
board, which reports the same to me as general superintendent. In the city 
of Chicago we have local boards in the various churches, as the result of res- 
olutions passed in their ministerial associations. Besides these local advisory 
boards we have the co-operation of the members and friends of our associa- 
tion and the various institutions where homeless children are sent. We send 
these children who come to our care to the temporary Homes at Englewood 
and Aurora. Our work is sustained by voluntary contributions. The total 
expense of every kind for the rescue of these children and placing them in 
families, where a large per cent, of them become worthy citizens, is less than 
$50 per child." 

TheAmerican Educational Aid Association has become familiarly known 

as the Children's Home Society of Chicago, and the following lines have 

l^en adopted as its popular symbol and motto : 

Give thy mite, ffive golden treasure, 

Freely as to child thine own ; , 
Give thy heart in loving measure : 
Help a child to find a nome. 



160 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

The following names appear in the list of patronesses : Mrs. John Wood- 
bridge, Mrs. P. E. Studebaker, Mrs. H. N. May, Mrs. N. R. Chittenden, Mrs. 
Francis Lackner, Mrs. Benton J. Hall, Mrs. William Dunn, Mrs. J. D. Gillett, 
Rev. Florence E. Kollock, Mrs, Richard J. Oglesby, Mrs. John M. Palmer, 
Mrs. E. F. Lawrence, Mrs. A. P. Miller, Mrs. G. W. Mathews, Mrs. A. C. 
Mather, Mrs. Solomon Thatcher, Jr.; Mrs. Myra Bradwell. 

Among the officers, active and honorary, are : L. J. Gage, H. W. Walker, 
William Deering, E. F. Ayer, W. F. Leland, J. Woodbridge, B. Bryan, E. 
F. Lawsener, E. B. Butler, E. G. Keith, Rev. J. W. Conley, Solomon 
Thatcher, Jr.; T. B. Blackstone, C. M. Henderson, E. C. Moderwell,Rev.N. 
H. Axtel, L. L. Bond. 

This society has placed 1,700 children in good homes during the last 
eight years. One child, on an average, is now placed every day. Location 
of office, 230 LaSalle St. 

Armour Mission. — Located at Butterfield and Thirty-third streets, take 
State street cable line. Directors — Philip D. Armour, J. O. Armour, William 
J. Campbell, John C. Black, P. D. Armour, Jr. ; Edwin Barritt Smith ; Rev. 
Howard Russell pastor ; established in November, 1886. This magnificent 
charity owes its origin to a provision in the will of the late Joseph F. Armour, 
bequeathing $100,000 for the founding of such an institution. He directed 
that the carrying out of his benevolent design should be chiefly intrusted to his 
brother, Mr. Philip D. Armour, who, accepting the trust so imposed, has given 
to it the same energetic and critical attention that he has given to his private 
affairs. He has greatly enlarged upon the original design and in consequence 
has added enough from his own resources to his brother's bequest of $100,000 
to make the present investment about $1,000,000. Armour Mission is incor- 
porated under the laws of Illinois. In addition to the Mission building 
proper, the Armour Mission corporation owns the Armour Mission Flats, con- 
sisting of 194 separate flats. The entire revenue derived from the rental of 
these flats is used for the maintenance of the Mission and its departments. The 
corporation also owns adjoining ground upon which Mr. Armour has recently 
erected a manual training school, not yet ready for occupancy. The Mission is 
a broad and wholly non sectarian institution. It is free and open to all, to the 
full extent of its capacity, without any condition as to race, creed or other- 
wise. Mr. Armour believes that children develop into manhood and woman- 
hood according to their early training and surroundings, and that much can 
be done for the advancement of mankind by lending a helping hand to chil- 
dren and youth. His deep interest in the welfare of the young has found 
expression in the Mission and no money he has ever expended has yielded 
him more genuine satisfaction and pleasure than the large sum he has here 
invested and set apart to be forever used for the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical advancement of the young. The Mission building proper is located at 
the corner of Armour avenue and Thirty-third street and is constructed in the 
most solid and substantial manner, the material used being pressed brick and 
brown stone. The woodwork throughout is of polished oak and the furnish- 
ings are complete and in entire harmony with the solid character of the build- 
ing. The first floor consists of a large room fitted up to receive the Creche or 
day nursery, the kitchen, day room, kindergarten room, reading room, vault, 
closets, bath rooms, coal and furnace cellar, and the four dispensary rooms. 
The second floor consists of the main audience room, eight class rooms, 
adjoining pastor's study, officers' room, library, spacious halls, and two large 
side rooms to be used for Sunday-school purposes or for small meetings. The 





'.'■'':;< rl^ 




THE EXCYCLOPEDIA. 161 

third floor contains a very large and handsomely-fitted-up lecture room. The 
main audience room will accommodate about 1,300 persons. The building 
when taxed to its full capacity will accommodate a Sunday-school of about 
2,500 persons. The audience room is provided with a large pipe- 
organ. With its colored glass windows, its tasteful frescoing and 
symmetrical form, it is one of the most beautiful rooms of its class. The 
seats bring the audience near to the speaker and the acoustic properties are of 
the best. One of the best features of this room is the arrangement by which it 
can be made into a small or large room, as maybe required. The kindergar- 
ten and the free medical dispensary departments are worthy of the special 
attention of tne visitor. The kindergarten w^ill accommodate about 170 little 
pupils comfortably and is open to children under the age of seven years. 
Upon the completion of the training school the kindergaiten will be 
removed to that building. It has the care of 200 pupils. Visitors are 
greatly pleased with its work and with the bright faces and cleanly appear- 
ance of the little ones. The free dispensary of the mission is in charge of 
Dr. Swartz, a skillful physician and surgeon, who is provided with all neces- 
sary assistants. Treatment and advice are given and prescriptions filled 
without charge ; but it is intended that none shall receive either unless unable 
to pay for them. An average of about forty patients a day are treated at the 
dispensary and a much larger number provided with drugs and medicines 
entirely free of charge. The Sunday-school has always been of special 
interest to the many wlio visit the mission. The school numbers about 
2,000eQrolled members. The average attendance for last year wasabout 1,400. 
In 1889 the average was 1,252. There are now thirty officers and 113 teachers. 
The Armour Mission flats (194 in number) are located at the intersection of 
Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth and Dearborn streets and Armour avenue, occupy- 
ing both sides of Armour avenue and the westside of Dearborn street, entirely 
between Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth streets and the north side of Thirty- 
fourth and a portion of the south side of Thirty-third, between Dearborn street 
and Armour avenue. It is a most desirable location, beingconvenient to down- 
town and cross-town street-car lines and to regular railroad suburban passenger 
service. The buildings are models of modern architectural skill, both in 
exterior appearance and in interior arrangement and finish. The flats rent 
from $17.50 to $35 per month each, which includes water rent, day janitor 
service, night watchman service, hall lights and the care of halls and 
grounds. 

Following are the usual weekly "announcements:" Sunday --Preaching 
at 11 A. M. and 8 p. m. Sunday-school at 3 p. m. Young People's meeting at 
7 p.m. Monday — Temperance meeting at 8 p.m. on the first Monday of 
each month. Wednesday — Children's Choral Class from 4 to 4:30 p. m. 
Friday— Service for Praise and Bible Study, at 8 p. m. Satueday — Indus- 
trial School: Boys, 10 to 12 a, m.; Girls, 2 to 4 p. m. Notes.— The Kinder- 
garten is open from 9 a. m. to 12 m. on every week-day except Saturday. 
One hundred boys and girls from f ourto seven years of age are accommodated. 
The Dispensary is open daily, except Sunday, from 9 a. m. to 11 a. m. It is 
free to all who are unable to pay for medicines or medical attendance, or 
both. The FmY<9.»' is published monthly, for gratuitous distribution in the 
Sunday-school . 

Bethany Home.— Located, at 1029 W. Monroe street, West Side. Take 
Madison street cable line. For the care of children of working-women and 
old persons. [The Bethany Home has fallen into disrepute of late. A 
change in management may restore it to public confidence, however.] 



162 GUIDE TO CHIHAGO. 

Bureau of Justice. — Organized in 1888. Office, 149 La Salle st. Objects: 
To assist in securing legal protection against injustice for lliose who are un- 
lable to protect tliemselves; to take cognizance of the workings of existing 
aws and methods of procedure, and to suggest improvemenis; to propose 
new and better laws, and \o make efforts toward securing their enactment. 
The bureau is supported by many of the leading citizens of Chicago, employs 
the best legal talent, and has done much toward correcting abuses ic the ad- 
ministration of the law. During the initial year the bureau undertook to see 
to the administration of justice in 1,100 cases of misfortune; during 1889-90 
the number of similar cases were 2,500. During 1888-9 $2,500 were collected 
in wage claims; during 1889-90 the bureau collected four tim.es as much, or 
$10,000. During 1888-89 the bureau had 125 cases in court; during 1890 
it had 825 court cases, 300 of which it won. These comparative figures 
show, generally, how rapidly the bureau's field of usefulness is broadening; 
and specifically, (1) liow efficient it is as an agency for the recovery of small 
wage claims withheld on hollow pretenses of varying degrees of knavishness. 
and (2) the exceptionally high average of merit which characterizes its court 
cases. For the ordinary lawyer's court docket usually shows as many cases 
lost as won whereas the Bureau's court docket shows, for each case lost, 
thirteen cases won! 

Chicago Children's Hospital. — To be located at 214 Humboldt boulevard. 
This institution is designed as a mission to the poor and destitute, and a 
charitable asylum for infirm or crippled children. It depends upon volun- 
tar}'^ subscription . Benjamin K. Chase, treasurer board of trustees, 70 State 
street. 

Chicago Daily News Fresh Air Fund. — One of the most beautiful and 
most popular charities of this city is that carried on every summer under the 
auspices of the Chicago Daily News Fund. A summary of the work done in 
1889 will sufllce as a fair example of the administration of its affairs during 
«he years of its existence. There was contributed during the season of that 
year by the public and founders of the charity an aggregate of $4,022.38. Of 
this amount the sum of $1,543.36 was expended at the South Side Sanitarium 
in the care of 8,290 infants, children and adults during the months of July 
and August. The per diem expense defrayed from these contributions was 
18.6 cents for each individual. On account of the Country Week there was 
expended from the same contributions a total of $1,603.21, for which sum an 
aggregate of 123,360 miles of railroad transportation was furnished and all 
other expenses of a fortnight in the country for 1,003 children and mothers 
were defrayed. The average length of the round trip for each individual ^vas 
123 miles, the average duration of visit was a fraction over fourteen days, and 
the average cost was a fraction less than $1.60 for each Country-Week guest. 
As theretofore, the expenses of executive management, printing, stationery, 
postage and sundries — the total amounting to $1,631.22— were defrayed by 
the Chicago Daily News, thus leaving the gross receipts by subscription or 
contribution to go direct for the actual expenses of the beneficiaries. The 
most important feature of the Fresh Air Fund of 1889 was the establish- 
ment of a permanent sanitarium for infants and children in Lincoln Park. 
[Take North Clark street cable line to central entrance of Lincoln Park, 
and walk eastwardly to the lake.] The building is of the most substantial 
character, but without any attempt at elaboration or ornament. Its archi 
i.ectural effect is secured by simplicity and the manifest adaptation of every 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 163 

feature to its intended use. Tlie whole isLiUcture is directly over the water, 
being erected on a great platform, ninety feet wide, projecting into the lake 
over two hundred feet, and supported by substantial piles. 1 he broad roof 
with overhanging eaves covers a floor space of nearly eighteen thousand 
feet, over which swing hundreds of infants' hammocks. The wide verandas 
and the open-air court at the lake extremity furnish accommodations 
for the mothers and older children. At the shore end are grouped the 
necessary offices. On the right of the entrance is a commodious reception 
room, from which the guests pass to the doctor's office for examination and 
for medical attention when required. Thence the guests are registered in 
the office and the matron gives them in charge of trained nurses who assign 
them suitable quarters, provide hammocks, chairs, etc. The matron's room 
communicating both with the office and the physician's room, is a iarge 
dormitory for the care of critical cases, which it may be necessary to keep 
overnight. On the opposite side of the entrance is the kitchen, with pantries 
and storerooms, and beyond is a range of bath-rooms, closets, etc. The west 
front of the sanitarium is connected with the park by a broad bridge, with 
a gentle ascent for baby carriages. Being in close proximity to the zoological 
department and other features of interest in the park, the older children who, 
in many cases, must be brought with the baby, will find enjoyment and 
pastime without encroaching upon the sanitarium proper. Immediately 
south of the sanitarium — with which it is connected about midway by a' 
bridge — is a 400 foot pier at which boats may land with guests from the 
central part of the city. The total cost of the building and equipment of 
the sanitarium amounted to $12,375.79. In addition to the $1000 contrib- 
uted by the Daily News to the building fund there was a balance at the close 
of the season of $1,326.54 in the hands of the treasurer of the Fresh Air 
Fund, making a total of $2,326.54 to be applied on the building account. 
The deficit of $10,049.25 was advanced as a temporary loan by the Daily 
News. 

The South side sanitarium is established temporaiily every summer, for 
the present, at the foot of Twenty-second st. A large pavilion tent, 54x84 feet, 
is erected here, under which hammocks for babies are swung. A kindergarten 
is also established here for the older children which the mother must bring 
with her. 

One of the most far-reaching, as it is also one of the simplest, forms of 
this summer charity is that which has come to be known as " The Country 
Week" — the securing of country homes for a fortnight or so for the city 
poor — especially children. During the last season ninety-two parties, aggregat- 
ing 1,003 persons, were sent to various points in Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin 
and Michigan, at a total cost of $1,603.21; being an average expense to the 
fund of $1.59 8-10 for each guest for a two weeks' visit. The cost of railroad 
travel was greatly reduced by special rates made through the generosity of 
the companies, which, without exception, did all that was in their power to 
further the success of the country week excursions. 

Several of the little country weekers were permanently adopted by the 
families who entertained them, and thus the Fresh Air Fund found a new 
avenue of usefulness in securing for some of its beneficiaries happy, health- 
ful homes. Summer visitors to Chicago will be interested in witnessing the 
workings of the North and South Side sanitariums. The latter may be 
reached speedily by the Illinois Central suburban trains, taken at the foot of 
Randolph or Van Buren sts. A ride of a few minutes will carry the visitor 
to the foot of Twenty-second st. Contributions to the Fresh Air Fund are 
received at the office of The Ohicano Dailii Np,w^. 123 Fifth ave. 



164 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association. — This association is doing a mag- 
nificent work in Chicago. Officers for 1891 — President, Mrs, A. P. Kelly; 
first vice-president, Mrs. P. D. Armour; treasurer, H. M. Sherwood; secre- 
tary, the Hon. T. C. MacMillan; corresponding secretary, Mrs. L. A, 
Hagans; superintendent, Miss Eva B. Whitmore. At the last annual meet- 
ing, held in January of this year, the Board of Directors made the following 
report: We find from the superintendent's report that the work has been 
more prosperous taan in former years. Seventeen kindergartens have been 
under our supervision, with an average membership for the year of 1,058; 
average attendance, 956;highestaverageattendanceforone month, 1,349; high- 
est average membership, 1,299. Two thousand three hundred and twenty- 
seven different children have been enrolled since January, 1890. The cost of 
material was $1,356.52. This includes outfits for two new kindergartens 
established during the year, and averages about 59 cents worth of material 
for each child in tTie kindergartens. Counting teachers' salaries, fuel, and all 
other expenses, it is found that it costs a trifle over $5 per year for each child. 
Sixty-nine certificates and diplomas have been given to young ladies during 
the year. Of this number eleven are still in training, two have married, six 
are at home resting tliis year, and the remaining number are in active work 
either in the city or in other States. At present there are seventy-five ladies 
in training. This number added to seventeen principals, five assistants, and 
' four regular instructors makes a working force of 101. There have been 
3.146 visits to homes of the children b> the teachers in the kindergartens. 
These, with the mothers' meetings held once each month in connection with 
the different kindergartens, have been of inestimable value in bringing about 
a closer sympathy between mother and teacher and the most effectual good to 
the children. There have been 4,059 visitors to the kindergartens. This, 
with the increased number in the training class, is yet another evidence of 
the growing interest in the kindergarten work. The little paper, the Free 
Kindergarten, issued by the association, has a larger circulation this year, 
indicative of a desire by many to investigate more thoroughly the methods of 
this association. The paper is issued quarterly, and contains plans and 
reports. Tiie association has lost by death several of its prominent original 
members; among the number are Mr. L. Hagans, Mr. Caleb Gates, and Mr. 
^. Hiskel. The training class has four regular instructors, Mrs. Mary 
Boomer Pa^e, theory; Miss Eva B. Whitmore, occupations; Miss Margaret 
D. Morley, physical culture, and Mi?s Mary Hofer, vocal music. Besides 
these the classes have special lectures from other specialists. Miss Josephine 
Locke has given to the classes lectures on form, color, and clay modeling. 
Other lecturers of the year have been Dr. I. N. Danforth, Dr. McPherson, 
Miss Prances Willard, Mrs. Kissell, and Dr. Everett Burr. The special 
feature of this association is growing in favor as its work is more thoroughly 
investigated. There have been many of its Bible cards sent home and treas- 
ured by ill members of the family. Texts are chosen that children can com- 
prehend and are not given until the thought is worked out through other 
materials. 

Chicago Nursery and Half Orj)han Asylum. — Located at 175 Burling 
street, and 8")5 "N". Halsted street. One of the most useful and most worthy of 
the charities of Cliicago. Officers of the Board of Mangers — President, Mrs, 
W. C. Giudy; secretary, Mrs. P. H. Beckwith; assistant secretary, Mrs. C. 
Bentley; treasurer, Miss Hurlbut; matron. Miss E, M. Fuller. At the 
last annual mee-insi; the treasurer's report showed the total receipts for the 
year to be $18,039.37; expenses and investm.ents, $17,560.67; balance on 



THE EKCYCLOPBDIA. 165 

Chicago Orphan Asylum. — Located at 2228 Michigan avenue. Take 
Cottage Grove avenue cable line. Under Protestant management, but 
children of all denominations are admitted. Officers — President, Norman 
Williams; vice-president, John M. Clark; secretary, Frederick B. Tuttle; 
treasurer, Chas. F. Gray. Officers of the Board of Directresses — President, 
Mrs. N. T. Gassette; vice-president, Mrs. B. B. Botford; corresponding secre- 
tary, Miss S. M. Horton; recording secretary, Mrs. H. W. Getz; treasurer, 
Mrs. J. D. Dezendorf; collector, Mrs. N. R. Smith; matron, Mrs. Harriet 
C. Bigelow. 

Chicago Policlinic. — Located at 174 and 176 E. Chicago avenue. Take 
Clark street or Wells street cable cars. This is one of the most meritorious 
institutions of the city. All sorts of diseases are treated free of charge to 
sufferers. From an enterprise for gratuitous treatment of the poor the 
physicians interested have developed it into a college, where active prac- 
titioners may take a sort of post-graduate course in surgery and medicine. 
The lecture and other rooms have been enlarged and there is now room 
for 200. The members of the faculty not only contribute their services 
in the interests of human kind, but go deep into their pockets to pay 
for medicines and the appliances necessary for the treatment of the 
patients. The clinics, which continue the year round, are well patronized, 
the daily number of people treated being about 150. One of the recent 
additions to the enterprise is a department of orthopcedics, conducted by Dr. 
Charles F. Stillman. Already the most valuable results have been obtained 
in removing and correcting deformities of children, and also in some cases 
of adults. " In the treatment of deformities," remarked Dr. Brovrn of the 
faculty, "we supply the necessary apparatus to correct the difficulties, and 
these are most expensive. We need a special room equipped with appliances 
for exercising the muscles weakened by disuse in these cases, and hope 
shortly to have our arrangements perfect. We have recently enlarged the 
hospital room for general cases." About twenty Chicago physicians are 
connected with the institution, among them being the following: Drs. 
Miller, Belfield, Harris, Chew, M. R. Brown, Henrotin, Elheridge, Hooper, 
Colburn, Fiske, Hoadley, MacArthur, Senn, Fenger, Futterer, Montgomery, 
Patton, Hotz, Ingals, Church, Stillman, Haj^es. 

Chicago Relief and Aid Society. — Organized by special act of the legisla- 
ture in 1857. Located in Chicago, Relief and Aid Society building. La Salle 
street, between Randolph and Lake streets. This society received a large 
portion of the surplus funds contributed by the world for the relief of the 
people of Chicago, after the great fire of 1871. The society has from time to 
time been severely criticised for the coldness of its management, and the 
gingerly manner in which it extends its charities. In the last annual report 
it advises strongly against the giving of private alms. The society owns 200 
beds in private hospitals. It claims that it has sometimes found a family ask 
ing relief when there are children old enough to contribute to their own and' 
their parents' support, but who are kept at school. The society refuses aid 
in such cases, placing self-support and filial duty before education. " In the 
midst of abject poverty," so the reports reads, "there is often surprising 
wastefulness. There is great need of education in respect to the ways and 
means of economy." During 1890 the following number of articles are said 
to have been Issued : Men's wear. 749 ; children's wear, 1,459 ; shoes, 1,57'5 
pairs ; blankets, 104 ; comforts, 37 ; red flannel, 1,520 yards ; canton flannel. 
S,890 yards; unbleached muslin, ^,165; calico, 2,160 ; worsted goods, 183. 



1G6 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

In the list of nationalities of those who received relief the Germans are at the 
head with 510 families, including 2,470 children, and the Scotch are the 
smallest with 60 families. The total is 2,350 families and 10,940 children. 
In the class of cases relieved there were 2,209 of aged, sick, or infirm widowB 
with families, 400 able-bodied men with families, and 895 deserted women 
with families. The total number of applications was 13,565, of which 6,015 
were approved ; women sent to the Home for the Friendless, 145 ; children, 
300 ; meal tickets issued, 2,746 ; men furnished with employment, outside of 
wood-yard, 10,536 ; expended by Superintendent Truesdell, $39,239 ; balance 
on hand, $13,482. The cash donations, amounting to $31,583, were divided 
into 4 $1,000 subscriptions, sixteen of $500 each, three of $300, thirty of $250 
each, eight of $200 each, and a large number of sums ranging from $150 to 
$1. The officers are— President, C. H. S. Mixer ; H. W. King, treasurer ; 
secretary, W. H. Hubbard; general superintendent. Rev. C. G. Truesdell; 
directors meet first Saturdays of every month. The society has branch offices 
as follows : Southern office, 2207 Michigan ave. Telephone 8531. Northern 
office, 624 N. Clark, telephone 3415 ; Western office, Monroe, cor. Ogden 
ave., telephone 4721. 

Church Home for Aged Per.s()ws.— Located at 4327 Ellis ave. Take Cot- 
tage Grove avenue cable lines. Reports made at the annual meeting of the 
lady managers show the disbursements of last year and no debt for the 
coming year. The board is composed of Mrs. Dr. Warden, Mrs. George W. 
Mathers, Miss Sayer, Miss Josephine I. Wells and Mrs. George S. McRey- 
nolds. 

Convalescents' Home.— Or gsiuized 1891 and as yet in its incipiency. The 
directors hope to begin in a small way with a home for invalids in the city in 
the winter time and a country place during the summer. Officers : President, 
Dr. Walter Delafield; vice-president, General Joseph Stockton; secretary, 
Charles M. Flack; treasurer, Julius Rosenthal. 

Danish Lutheran Otyhans' Home. — Located at Maplewood, a suburb of 
Chicago. Take train at Wells street depot, Wells and Kinzle streets. Under 
direction of the Dmish Lutheran Church Society of Chicago ; superintendent. 
Rev. Andrew S. Nielsen. 

Erring Woman's Eefuge.—Locsited on the west side of Indiana avenue, 
between Fiftieth and Fifty-first streets. Mrs. John Ailing, president; Mrs. 
H Y. Lazeau, vice-president; Mrs. Charles G. Smith, recording secretary; 
Mrs. H. W. B. Hoyt, corresponding secretary; Mrs. E. O. F. Roler, treas- 
urer; Mrs. Helen M. Woods, superintendent; Miss Bessie Stone, assistant 
superintendent. Teachers— Miss Jennie Crawford and Miss Barber. Trus- 
tees—James H. Swan, Charles M. Charnley, Addison Ballard, H. H. Kohl- 
saat, Henry S. Stebbias and G. C. Benton. Take Indiana avenue car on 
Wabash avenue cable line. This institution was founded in 1865. The pres- 
ent building was dedicated and thrown open in the fall of 1890. It cost $60,- 
000 and will accommodate 100 women. The plan of the new building may 
be described generally as octagonal, thirty-eight feet in diameter, with four 
wings 34x48 feet in size. The inner corners of these wings are cut off so as to 
form small square courts, with alternate sides of the octagon. The main 
entrance, facing Indiana avenue, is in one of these courts, and the angle of the 
wings in front of it contains a porch. Across the corresponding angle in the 
rear, and communicating with the two rear wings, is the kitchen building. 
The building has three stories and basement, and the rotunda towers, above 
the wings, constitute another story, The material used is half-dressed lime- 



THE EXCyCLOPEDlA. 167 

Stone for the basement and Roman red brick for the superstructure. The 
architecture is very plain. In the basement are the store-rooms, trunk-room, 
engine-room, boiler-room, coal-room, ice-room, vegetable-room, laundry and 
the drying-room, and in the rotunda the gymnasium. On the first floor, the 
rotunda, into which the entrance opens, contains the main staircase, which 
rises at either side of an ornamental mantel and tire-place fixed in the smoke- 
stack. In the northeast wing are the sewing-rooms, fitting-room and mate- 
rial-room. In the southeast wing are the office, parlor, committee-room and 
a beautiful chapel. In the northwest wing are the nursery, wash-room and a 
few dormitories. In the southwest wing are the dining-room and china 
closet, and connecting with them the kitchen and pantry. On the second 
floor of the rotunda is the library, and in the wings the dormitories, bath- 
rooms, servants' quarters and the hospital. The third floor is devoted entirely 
to dormitories and bath-rooms. In the fourth story of the rotunda are more 
dormitories and two lock-ups, lined with corrugated iron, for the most violent 
inmates. The capacity of the building is about 100 inmates. The cost of 
the ground was f 11, 000. 

The Erring Woman's Refuge is one of the best managed charities in the 
city. The inmates are generally between the ages of 14 and 20. As a rule 
they are plain, uneducated and ignorant girls. They drift.into the Refuge in 
various ways, but mostly from the justice courts, though there is no law 
authorizing justices of the peace to commit them there, nor the Refuge itself 
to receive and restiain them. Whenever they choose they get released on a 
writ of habeas corpus. The aim of the management is to restore the health 
of the inmates, teach them housework, plain sewing and dressmaking, and 
to awaken their moral and religious nature. They all attend school during 
four days in the week. On Sundays there is school in the morning, a sermon 
by some minister in the afternoon, and in the evening a prayer meeting con- 
ducted by one of the inmates, whom the others have selected for that pur- 
pose. There is also a prayer meeting on Thursday evening, a temperance 
band of hope, and on the last Saturday evening in every month a public enter- 
tainment by the inmates, consisting of recitations and music. At all these 
occasions the public is welcome. A sight not easily forgotten is a peep into 
theraatron's photograph album, containing the likenesses of the girls who have 
graduated from the institution. To hear her give the history of one after 
another of them is a sad but interesting experience. Visitors are admitted 
between 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. daily. 

Foundlings' Home. — Located at 114 Wood St., near West Madison St., 
West Side. Dr. George E. Shipman, Supt. Visiting day, Tuesday, from 
11 A. M. to 4 P.M. Take Madison st. cable line. First opened for the recep- 
tion of foundlings January, 1870, by Dr. Shipman. It was originally intended 
only as a haven of refuge for such little castaways as were abandoned in its 
immediate neighborhood, and not as a city charity. But, through a mis- 
understanding upon this score, the city papers spoke of it as such, and the 
doctor found the superintendency of a public charity forced upon him. He 
had realized for a number of years the great need of such an institution 
before he opened his little home, but could find no one who thought it incum- 
bent upon himself personally to undertake it, while all admitted the crying 
need. Dr. Shipman from that moment until the present has never been free 
from its responsibilities. In speaking of the time of its foundation he says 
that the coroner reported to him, upon being questioned, that he held an in- 
quest on at least one child every day " found dead from exposure." This 



i6« GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

would make a yefirly aggregate of 365, to say nothing of the great numbers 
dead by the fearful crime of infanticide. The first home was a small, two- 
story frame house at 54 South Green street, for which $35 per month wafS to 
be paid, with option on a year from the following May. From one friend 
and another, who learned of the doctor's intentions, he received $77.38, and a 
patient of his said he would give $100 more when it was opened. This was 
the sum total of visible capital wherewith to support all the foundlings in 
Chicago. It is interesting to read of this meager home and its still more 
meager furnishings and compare them with the almost luxurious equipments 
of the present home. Although the entire house was made habitable very 
soon, its capacity was reached before the lapse of many weeks, and still the 
basket at the door had every morning its tiny occupant. More room must 
be gained or the basket taken in. This was not to be thought of, and search 
was at once begun for a larger house, although the home had no money. 
This resulted in the selection of two large brick houses on the southeast cor- 
ner of Randolph and Sangamon streets. Two formidable dragons stood 
between the little charity and these. The rent was $133 per month ($35 was 
more than they could pay promptly). They were in a wretched condition, 
and the landlord would do nothing. There was no way to surmount these 
obstacles except to boldly face them. These buildings were selected on 
March 21, and when the doctor returned home in the evening, wondering 
what should be done and praying, in the old way, for aid and guidance, he 
found the following letter awaiting him: 

" Dr. Shipman: My newspaper, just read, gives me an account of your foundlings, 
and says you are relying on the Lord, who has just told me to send you the enclosed 
(a check for $100). Trust iu God and keep the foundlings warm. J. W." 

This letter was taken as an indication that a more forward move was 
demanded, and the dragons slunk away. The 27th of March found the 
little colony moving in at the forbidden doorways. The first month's rent 
was paid with J. W.'s $100 and the balance from the doctor's purse. Now 
the terrible struggles of the home began. These can not better be explained 
than by his diary, kept during these bitter days : 

" Thursday, March 30.— Only %1 received this week . The Lord seems to rebuke us 
for something. May he in mercy show us what it is. Much money is needed, but none 
comes. Has the Lord forgotten to be gracious? ' Fear not; I am with thee,' he saya. 
May we not trust implicitly in him? 

" Friday, March 3L— No money has come in to-day, but considerable has gone 
out, which I have been obliged to furnish out of my own pocket. * * * 

" Monday, April 3.— No relief yet and daily demands upon ray slender purse, 
which is quite unable to meet even those made upon it by my own necessities. 

"Friday, April 7.— But S7.31 has been received, and I have spent very nearly the 
last dollar of my own money." * * * 

A gleam of sunshine came on the following Monday when several brother 
physicians called upon him in the evening and left a purse containing $45. 
The home worried on through the summer, and then in October came the 
great fire. It escaped its terrors, but was $1,500 in debt. The Relief and 
Aid Society voted a monthly stipend to every city charity excepting the 
Foundlings' Home, the objection being that it was managed by an individual 
instead of by a "board," as were the others. This policy was not long per- 
sisted in, however, for they soon decided to appropriate $150 per month for 
six months to the foundlings. In May, 1872, it was intimated to Dr. Ship- 
man that the Relief and Aid Society wished to give $10,000 toward the 
erection of a building for the Home, but that they objected to giving it to a 
private individual. The only objection he had ever had to its being incor- 



THE EKCYCLOPEDIA. 169 

porated was the possibility that the work might be interrupted as one of faith. 
This reasoning was soon set aside, and on May 28th the Foundlings' Home 
was incorporated under a general act of the legislature, with the following- 
named gentlemen as trustees: Thomas C. Dickenson, John Dillingham, the 
Rev. C. D. Helmer, William G. Hibbard, S. A. Kean, the Rev. A. E. Kit- 
tredge, J. L. Pickard, the Rev. H. N. Powers, and George E. Shipman, 
M. D. 

In July, the lot on Wood street was purchased for $8,000, $3,000 being 
paid in cash and a mortgage given for $5,000. Work on the building was 
commenced in October. The Relief and Aid Society gave another $10,000, 
and then $2,500 more. Citizens gave $3,000, and May 9, 1874, the house was 
ready for occupancy. In 1884, some friends of the doctor's, who had 
watched his patient and self-sacrificing efforts to maintain the Home for 
years, raised among themselves the sum of $25,000 and erected a commodious 
addition to the Home building for his residence, so that with his wife and 
four ot his eight children about him he lives in comfort and within sight and 
sound of every movement of his foundlings. There are at present 112 
inmates, including the nurses. The foundlings range in age from the newly- 
born to twelve months. They are usually adopted or redeemed by their 
parents before reaching one year. The Home still depends solely upon vol- 
untary contributions for support, but is now so well known and so widely 
appreciated that it does not suffer the old sorrows of destitution and misery. 
Visitors to the institution are welcome during the usual visiting hours daily, 
and there is scarcely a more interesting institution in the city. 

German Old People's Home. — Located at Harlem^Altenheim P. O. — 
ten miles west of the City Hall. Take train at Grand Central depot, Fifth 
avenue and Harrison street. This Home was established through the efforts 
and generosity of the German residents of Chicago, and is the largest and 
best conducted institution of its kind in the country. The Home buildings 
are complete, the surroundings beautiful, and nothing is spared to make the 
lives of the old people committed to its care as happy as possible. One of the 
prime movers in this noble charity was Mr, A. C. Hesing, its president. The 
treasurer is Mr, John Buehler; secretary, Arthur Erbe; financial secretary, 
C. Mechelke, 

Oood Samaritan Society. — Industrial Home, 151 Lincoln avenue. North 
side ; take Lincoln avenue car. This institution is incorporated by special 
charter. The object of this Society is to provide a place for destitute women 
and girls, believed to be worthy, where they can earn an honest and respect- 
able living. For this purpose a home is provided, where, when necessary, 
they can be cared for temporarily, and as soon as a suitable place can be 
found they are sent to it. No money is given them except to pay car fare 
or for some immediate necessity. The essence of the whole work is, to give 
a chance to those who wish to get on in the world. Supported by volunTary 
contribution. 

Guardian Angel Orphan Asylum. — This is a German Roman Catholic 
institution and is located at Rosehill (Havelock P. O.). Take train at Wells 
street depot, Wells and Kinzie streets. The institution is conducted by the 
Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ ; Superior, Sister Mary Hyacinthe. 

Hebrew Charity Association. — This association is accomplishing a remark- 
able and a noble work in Chicago. It is composed of the various Hebrew 
charitable organizations. [For particulars as to its general transactions, see 
*' Michael Reese Hospital," under heading of " Hospitals and Dispensaries."] 



170 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

The receipts of the last Hebrew charity ball given in Chicago under the 
auspices of the Hebrew Charity Association were $12,000. The report of the 
united Hebrew charities for 1889-1890 showed that during the year there 
were 494 applicants for work, or forty more than the year before. Of these 
443 were provided with work, or fifty-seven more than during the preceding 
year. At the Michael Reese hospital 789 patients were treated, of whom 252 
were Jewish Charity patients and 278 Gentile charity patients. Of those 
treated 344 were Jewish, 330 Protestant, and 115 Roman Catholic. 

Holy Family Orphan Asylum. — Located at Holt and Division streets. 
This is a Catholio institution. Sister Mary Subowidzka, Superior. 

Home for Incurables. — Located on Ellis ave. and Fifty -sixth st. Take 
Cottage Grove ave. cable line. F. D. Mitchell, superintendent ; Miss Libbie 
S. Ains worth, matron ; Dr. William P. Goldsmith and Dr. John H. Wilson, 
attending physicians. The buildings, together with the surrounding grounds, 
are the gift of Mrs. Clarissa C. Peck. This kindly lady, when living, was ac- 
tive in all good works, and, dying, bequeathed the better half of her estate for 
the alleviation of a class for whom no adequate provision was made. In the 
main corridor of the great building is a magnificent brass memorial tablet, 
set like some rare jewel in fine marble. It bears the following inscription : 
* 

Chicago Home for Incurables. : 

This Tablet is Erected in Grateful \ 

Remembrance of ; 

Clarissa C. Peck, • 

Died Dec. 22, 1884, • 

By whose Generosity This Institution • 

Was Founded and Endowed. : 



But a monument more lasting than brass is the great home itself with its 
cheerful apartments given over to the comfort and consolation of the afflicted. 
Mrs. Peck's bequest amounted to something over $500,000, and in the will she 
named eight gentlemen whom she wished to act as trustees in founding the 
institution. These were Byron L. Smith, Edson Keith, Albert J. Averell, C. 
M. Henderson, George L. Otis, Henry J. Willey, Albert Keep, and Charles 
Oilman Smith. Albert Keep, formerly president of the North- Western rail- 
road, is a near relative of the deceased. H. N. Higinbotham was made pres- 
ident of the institution. This gentleman had been manager of a similar 
institution at Lake View, and his omission from the list of trustees named by 
the testatrix was owiog to her not having acquaintance with him. These 
trustees made purchase of a very suitable tract of land ; they have 480 feet 
on Ellis ave. and 170 feet on Fifty-sixth st. For this they paid $22,000. No 
architectural display has been attempted in the buildings. They are com- 
modious and substantial, and so arranged that not a dark or cheerless room 
can be found throughout. When completed the buildings cost $85,000. Mrs. 
Peck died in 1884, but, owing to litigation, the home was not completed till 
March, 1890. Through all these years interest had been accumulating, and 
after deducting the $107,000 expended upon grounds and buildings there 
still remained the equivalent of $600,000 in productive real estate and bonds. 
The interest upon this is more than sufficient to meet all running expenses, 
and lay by each year a goodly sum, so that, when necessary, additions can be 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 171 

made to the buildings and its facilities enlarged and improved, The main 
building is five stories high, and extending from it to north and south are 
wings of four stories. The full capacity is 125. When the Home was opened 
it took from the smaller institution at Lake View thirty-three incurables, all 
it had, and that Home was closed. All races are to be received at this institu- 
tion, which is entirely non-sectarian. When it is possible for the afflicted 
inmate or his friends to pay a monthly stipend for his support it is accepted, 
but there are many who come absolutely free. To be eligible, the applicant 
must be afflicted with some pronounced disease, which is considered incura- 
ble by the trustees, who are the final judges in the matter. The predominat- 
ing diseases are paralysis and rheumatism, the first being the more frequent. 
Those who are so afflicted as not to be able to walk are provided with invalid 
chairs, which they can propel at pleasure about their rooms or through the 
long corridors out upon the wide verandas. There are comfortable seats and 
inciting hammocks and a perspective of lawn and bright flowers which 
means much to feeble eyes and limbs. There is a parlor upon every floor, 
where the chairs are wheeled at the will of each occupant. There is a com- 
modious reading-room, and the men have a smoking-room where they may 
indulge to their hearts' content in the use of their favorite brands. During 
the usual visiting hours strangers are always welcome. 

Home for Self- Supporting Women. — Located at 275 and 277 Indiana st. 
Take Indiana st. car. An institution which affords a home for girls and 
women, whether employed or unemployed, if they are willing to support 
themselves when occasion offers. A great many women who work outside 
make this their home. Officers — President, Mrs. A. A. Carpenter; treas- 
urer, Mrs. H. T. Cro wells ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. J. R. Key ; record- 
ing secretary. Miss J. L. Keith ; matron, Mrs. V. R. Smith. 

Home for JJnem'ployed Oirls. — Located at Market and Elm sts., North 
Side. Take North Market st. car. This institution is conducted by the Fran- 
ciscan sisters. Girls temporarily out of employment are cared for here. 
The charity is a noble one and receives the generous support of Roman Cath- 
olics. 

Home for Working Women. — Located at 189 East Huron st., North side. 
Take North Clark st. cable line. Conducted by the Working Women's Home 
Association. The home is one of the youngest of Chicago's many charita- 
ble works, and the success it has attained has demonstrated that it has filled a 
place long needed. The home was first opened on the seventeenth of May, 
1890, and the building now occupied was then newly painted, papered and 
furnished throughout. Applications for admission were numerous, many of 
them being from strangers in the city, and the home is now taxed to its 
utmost capacity. The aim of those in charge is to furnish a place where no 
respectable woman, regardless of her nationality or religion, will be refused 
needed assistance, and to enable those who earn but little to live comfortably 
and respectably. During the last six months of 1890, 327 girls received the 
benefits of the home. The food is said to be wholesome, well cooked, and 
there is plenty of it. Every inmate has her own bed, and every room has a 
closet. The house is heated with steam, and there is hot and cold water on 
every floor. The directors are anxious that the Home shall be the headquar- 
ters for all working women, whether they live there or not. Free stationery, 
reading, sewing and bathing-rooms are at the disposal of all, and a type- 
writer and piano add to the attractions of the place. The managers are very 



172 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

emphatic that their home is not an institution, but a genuine home in every 
sense of the word. Officers — A. E. Johnson, president; C. R. Matson, 
vice-president; A. Chaiser, vice-president; Alexander Jolinson, recording 
secretarj'^; Anna G. Armstrong, corresponding secretary; George P. Bay, 
treasurer; Dr. Odelia Blinn, medical superintendent. Directors — Dr. 
Frances Dickinson, Dr. Lucy VVaite, John Anderson, Henry L. Hertz, Rev. 
A. Hallner, Rev. Charles Treider. 

Home for the Friendless. — Located at 1926 Wabash avenue. Take 
Wabash avenue cable line. Established in 1858. Officers — A. C. Bartlett, 
president ; F. D. Gray, vice-president ; Mrs. Thomas A. Hill, corresponding 
secretary ; Mrs. C. Gilbert Wheeler, recording secretary ; W. C. Nichols, 
treasurer; Miss A. Z. Raxford, superintendent, and Miss E. M. Stockdale, 
assistant superintendent. Average number of inmates about 200. During 
1890 there were 1,435 admissions, 1,144 dismissals and 9 deaths. At the 
beginning of 1890 there was in the treasury a cash balance of $6,616.90. Of 
those admitted during 1890, 763 were Protestants, 642 Catholics, and 40 
Jews. The largest number received in one month was 182, in October, and 
the smallest 72, in February, Thirty-two children were surrendered to the 
home and fifty-eight found homes of adoption. This is one of the most inter- 
esting charitable institutions in the city. From small beginnings it has grown 
and prospered until the income of the Home is now about $21,000 per annum, 
which includes the Crerar bequest. Ten years ago the whole work of the 
home was conducted in what is now known as the main building, or the north 
and south wings. Since that time there has been erected, atacost of $35,000, 
a part of the generous bequest of Mr. Hobart Taylor, the addition called by 
his name, which has nearly doubled the capacity of the home. It contains 
the " Shelter " and bath-room for transient inmates, two laundries, the linen- 
room, girls' department, including dormitory, bath and store rooms, the 
infirmary, dispensary and nursery. The records also show that during tne 
last ten years a procession of 20,167 women and children have passed through 
these open doors, and here halted for assistance, material and moral, which 
was offered without distinction of color, race, religion, or language, so long 
as the applicant seemed to be overborne in the fierce struggle for life. Among 
the throng hundreds of deserted wives and mothers are included, who fre- 
quently bring with them their little broods to be cared for in this tranquil 
nest. The hospitality, including rest, good food, encouragement, sympathy 
and advice, is freely tendered to all belonging to the class of worthy poor, as 
specifically laid down in the charter. During the last ten years about 
3.400 children, including day scholars, have been enrolled as pupils in the 
Home School, in which are taught the branches of the primary department and 
the graded grammar school. In the industrial class, since 1879, about 350 
girls, between the ages of 12 and 16, have been taught sewing, housework 
and elementary cooking, thereby being prepared to earn a respectable living 
when they go out into the world. Perhaps the most important feature in the 
general work of the home is the arrangement by which children are adopted 
who have been neglected or abandoned by their parents. During ten years 
734 children have been legally ' ' surrendered " to the home, which has found 
permanent places for nearly all that number with reputable families. 

It is stated in the act of incorporation, " The object and purposes of the 
Chicago Home for the Friendless shall be the relieving, aidins: and providing 
homes for friendless and indigent women and children." The middle-aged 
women at the home are usually transients. A woman is out of work, or a 




o 

Q 
I— ( 

< 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 173 

Stranger, and has no money to get a lodging. She makes her way to the 
Home, where all are received except the unfortunate victim of drink, for 
whom there is no immediate place but the police station. After admission 
the new guest is provided with a hot bath, and, if she desires, some clean 
clothes. She is then given a good meal, and, as it is usually at night that 
such applications are made, she is taken to a comfortable bed. In the 
morning, after breakfast, she is expected to help during the forenoon with 
the work of the house, and then she can have the rest of the day to look for 
employment outside. Sometimes such women stay for a week or two weeks 
before they find work, and they are made to feel at home during that time. 
In what is called the "Industrial School," young girls — or women who 
seriously desire to learn — are taken, and, while kept as inmates of the home 
for such time as would be required, are taught sewing and housekeeping. 
The children in the home are mostly those who have been abandoned by their 
parents and picked up by the officers of the Humane Society, They come, 
of course, in different ways, but criminal neglect by their parents is the 
usual cause of their suffering. Children under nine months are not received 
at this institution. But those above that age, up to six or seven years, can 
be found running around their nurseries and play-rooms with as much vigor 
and heartiness as if the world belonged to them. When a child first appears 
at the home, it is the invariable rule that it shall be sent to quarantine 
quarters, at the top of the building, for fourteen days. There is scarcely 
ever any sickness in this quarantine, but considering the places from which 
most of the children are brought, it is considered prudent to isolate them. 
After the two weeks' purification process, the managers of the institution try 
to find a permanent home for the waifs, and, if they are not claimed by 
parents or guardians before six months, an officer of the home goes before a 
judge and is appointed the legal guardian. The parents or guardians also 
may voluntarily surrender all right to a child, after which it becomes the 
ward of the home, and at the earliest opportunity is placed out with 
respectable people, on trial for three months. If such trial proves agreeable, 
both for child and caretakers, the little one is usually adopted and becomes 
" part of the family." Visitors are always welcome between the hours of 10 
A. M. and noon, and 1 and 4p. m. 

Home of Iiilmtry. — Located at 234 and 236 Honore street, West side. 
Take Van Buren street car. William S. Pot win, president; Albert M. Day, 
treasurer; Charles M. Howe, secretary; B. M. Butler, Albert M. Day, Thomas 
Kane, William S. Potwin, Charles M. Howe, Mrs. T. B. Carse, Joseph B. 
Locke and H. J. Coon,_ directors; A. C. Dodds, superintendent. The Home 
of Ind'istry was organized by Michael Dunn, a reformed criminal, who had 
spent over thirty years of his life in penal institutions all over the world. 
Dunn's history as a cnminal is somewhat interesting. He is a native of Eng- 
land and was born and reared a criminal. When only seven years old Dunn 
was first consigned to prison for a petty theft of which he was convicted. 
Imprisonment seemed to do him ne-good, and up to the time he was thirty 
years old he had been confined in prison half a dozen times and had been 
sent to various English penal settlements, but always returned to his old 
tricks. Finally, the English government paid his passage to America to 
get rid of him, and he began in this country the same career that had caused 
him so much trouble in the land from which he had been driven. He was 
frequently in prison in various parts of the United States, and finally, about 
ten years ago, after spending almost his entire life in penal servitude in both 



174 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

hemisplieres, he became reformed and started out to aid and better the rest 
of the class which he had left. Dunn is now about sixty jears old. He has 
the look of a criminal, and most people would hardly believe that he could 
e anything else, but those who know him best and have been brought into 
contact with him through the founding of these places of refuge do not 
doubt his complete reformation. When at last Dunn did see "the error of 
his way," he conceived the idea of providing homes for discharged crimi- 
nals, where they might retire till an opportunity was afforded to earn an hon- 
est living. The first refuge he instituted was in New York. He then went 
to San Francisco and started another. He then founded the one here in Chi- 
cago and afterward another in Detroit. There are at present in the Chicago 
Hffme of Industry about a dozen convicts. The average term of their retire- 
ment there is about two weeks. In connection with the institution is a 
broom factory, where every one who is taken in has to earn his living or do 
as much towards it as he can. The institution is not self-supporting and has 
to depend quite largely on public charity. Most of the inmates of the place 
come from Joliet and Michigan City, the nearest prisons to this city, but the 
place has been a refuge for prisoners from most everypenal institution in the 
countr}^ Superintendent Dodds usually receives from most of the prisons 
a monthly discharge list. To prisoners \^ho arc about to be set at liberty he 
sends circulars telling of the refuge and iLe advantages to be found in it. 
No convicts are received except on recommendation cf tlic warden or chap- 
lain of the prison in which they were last confined, unless Ibn y can convince 
the superintendent of a desire to reform and lead a better liie. Every one 
who stays there must do something toward his own support, and all who 
enter must work or go elsewhere. The aid and influence of the superintend- 
ent are extended to all of them who seek honest employment, and any 
inmate desiring to seek work outside is allowed half c day each week, or 
more, at the discretion of the management. The ex-convicts are not encour- 
aged to stay, but, on the contrary, are given all possible assistance in finding 
work outside. 

The institution enforces a set of rules for the conduct of the inmates of 
the home. They are required to be particular as to personal cleanliness. 
Total abstinence from intoxicants has to be observed. Smoking is permitted 
only in certain places, and profane language is not tolerated. A rising and 
a breakfast bell are lung, and inmates are required to be in bed at 10 o'clock. 
Every inmate is charged with the care of his own room, and all are required 
to attend morning and evening prayers unless excused by the superintendent. 
Any violation of the rules subjects the offender to immediate dismissal. 
Only men are received in the home. They are taught ways of frugality, 
industry and economy, and most of them are susceptible to these teachings. A 
record is kept of the life of every man who enters the place, but that record 
is an inviolable secret to all but the superintendent. After the name of each 
candidate are made entries about his marital condition, his parent;age, his 
birthplace, his religion, the prison in which he was last confined, the length 
of his sentence, his education and occupation, the crime for which he was 
convicted and its cause. A page of Superintendent Dodds' book of record 
is a most eloquent temperance lecture. Drink has led most of his boarders 
into trouble, though their detention in prison can be traced back to all kinds 
of vice. Many of the younger ones assign bad company as the cause of their 
downfall; others have gambled themselves into theft; still others have been 
educated as criminals, and a few state that it is their natural inclination to 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 175 

Steal. The column of Mr. Dodds' book which keeps the record of all dis- 
missals from the Home is interesting. In it are to be found such entries as 
" found good employment as a harness-maker;" "a hypocritical thief, 
bounced without mercy; " " found good position, clear case of conversion; " 
' ' went out to look for work, lost on the way back; " ' ' went home to friends;" 
"put out for lying j " " left to go wandering," and many others of the same 
kind. Every man is paid for his work in the place from the time he enters, 
according to the degree of proficiency he has acquired. Many of them turn 
out well and return to their homes to lead honest lives. Mr. Dodds is con- 
stantly receiving letters from such men, thanking him for the benefits of the 
institution. 

Home of Pravide?ice.— Located at Calumet ave. and Twenty-sixth st., 
adjoining Mercy Hospital. Take Cottage Grove cable line. An institution 
for the care and protection of young women. Conducted by the Sisters of 
Mercy. Sister Mary M. Angela, superior. 

Home of the Aged. — Located at West Harrison and Throop streets. Take 
West Harrison street car. Conducted by the Little Sisters of the Poor, who 
depend for the maintenance of the institution entirely upon the alms which 
they solicit. The building is a very large, plain, brick structure and is gen- 
erally crowded with inmates, whose ages vary between 60 and 100 years. 
It is a worthy charity and the Little Sisters, who have a method of seeking 
alms peculiar to themselves are generally popular among the business people 
of the city, who give them liberal contributions. They never beg, simply 
stating who and what they are and if an unfavorable response is given 
they walk silently away, without jnaking further appeal. The Little Sisters 
are a French order. They have two institutions in the city. 

House of The Good ShejJherd.-^hocRted at North Market and Hill sts. 
Take Market st. car. Conducted by the Sisters of the G-ood Shepherd 
— Superior, Mother Mary Angelique. This institution is a haven and a 
reformatory for fallen women desiring to rise out of their condition, and is 
one of the most extensive as well ac one of the most useful charities in the 
city. 

Margaret Etter Creche Kindergarten. — Located at 2356 Wabash avenue. 
Take Wabash avenuo cablo line. Established August 3, 1885. One of the 
noblest charities in the city. It cares for the children of mothers who are 
compelled to work out la. r, lining. The r.ttendance for the five years of the 
creche's existence shows a marvelous " rowth-. August, 1885, to October, 1886, 
2,136; October 1, 1386,to Gcto'jar 1, 1887, 2,86C; October 1, 1887, to October 
1. 1888, 3,562; October 1, lo>38. to October 1, 1G89, 4,253; October 1, 1889, to 
October 1, 1890, Zi,^22. B'lt the expenses do not show a commensurate 
increase, being as follows. First year, S1,35C.48; second year, $1,383.84; 
third year, $1,375.7:); fourth year, $1,399.52, fifth year, $2,007.16. Besides 
the day nursery a kindergarten Is carried on, but it in no way counts on the 
treasury of the creche. The assistance of charitably-inclined people is 
necessary to the maintenance of the crecho. 

Masonic Orphans' Home. — Located at Carroll avenue and Sheldon street. 
Cares for about 30 children and is supported by voluntary contributions 
from City and State. 

Newsboys' and Boot-blacks' Home. — Located at 1418 Wabash avenue. 
W. H, Rand, president; Rev. E. I. Galvin, vice-president; James Frake, 
secretary; H. N. Higinbotham, treasurer; Edward P. Bailey, auditor; Miss 



176 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. ^ 

Eliza W. Bowman, matron. Directors: A. C. Bartlett, Melville E. Stone, 
William H. Rand and Frank P. Leffingwell for two years. H. N. Higin- 
botham and E. P. Bailey for three years. Take Wabash avenue cable line. 
This institution has been in existence over twenty-one years. It had its 
inception in the Chicago Industrial School, for which a charter was obtained in 
1867, the incorporators being Jonathan Burr, John V. Farwell, William Blair, 
William E. Doggett, J. Y. Scammon, C G. Wicker, Eli Bates, Philo Car- 
penter, J. S. Reynolds and E. P. Dickinson. This industrial school was 
very soon merged into the home and was the first movement to assist helpless 
children in Chicago. The object of the institution is " to provide a good 
Christian home for newsboys and boot-blacks and other unprotected homeless 
boys. Also to aid them in finding homes and employment in either city or 
country." While the doors of the home have always beea open and a 
request for shelter and food has been all that was necessary to obtain admit- 
tance, in order to foster independence and self-help the small sum of 15 
cents is charged for supper, breakfast and lodging. If, however, a boy is 
not able to pay "banner," as all charges for entertainment are called by 
stre3t boys, he is still entertained. Provision is made for destitute boys by 
which they are able to earn what is required for their immediate living 
expenses by furnishing them with a stock of The N'eicsboi/s' Appeal, which is 
the small paper published in the interests of the Home, or with funds for a 
stock of daily papers. 

Although the Home is by no means self-supporting, there is no soliciting 
done in its interests. Previous to the fire, a lot on Quincy street was given to 
the Home upon which a small building was erected. After the fire, through 
the assistance of the Relief and Aid Society, a brick building was built, 
which, together with the lot, was lateron sold toMarshallField & Co. for com- 
mercial purposes for $50,000. This amount the managing board propose to 
invest in a permanent home when they are able to find a location near the 
central part of the city which seems suited to their needs This sum is 
therefore held in reserve, and such funds as are needed for the current 
expenses are furnished by voluntary private contribution. 

The rules of the institution are simple, and are only such as are necessary 
to the well-being of the boys — and a wise, kindly, personal interest is taken in 
every boy who is sheltered there — although they are constantly coming and 
going, and an average of something more than a thousand are entertained 
each year. A careful record of every boy who is taken into the institution is 
kept,together with as much of his history as canba obtained, and these records 
are replete with the pathetic results of human selfishness. No insignificant 
number of these boys have parents living who are comfortably off, but, hav- 
ing been divorced, each has married again, and with one accord refused to 
care for their child, who, often at a tender age, was obliged to shift for him- 
self, and so drifted mto this haven for destitute, forsaken boys. There are 
others who have never known their parents, and still others whose parents 
are drunken, shiftless, ' ' ne'er-do-wells," and a few who have run away from 
home for one cause or another. These last are induced, if possible, to return 
to their homes, and their parents are communicated with, but no^ boy is 
refused shelter and food, whatever the cause for which he stands in need 
of it. 

There is a night school four evenings in a week from 7:30 to 9 o'clock 
which the boys are required to attend, and, where it is deemed advisable, 
other instruction is provided. The institution is intended for a temporary 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 177 

home, the chief aim being to provide permanent employment for the boys 
who come there from all parts of the world. The management of the Home 
co-operates with the Humane Society and other kindred organizations, and in 
this way keeps pretty thoroughly informed in regard to homeless boys. 

Miss Eliza Bowman, who has been the matron of the Home for the past 
five years, is a person admirably fitted for the difficult position which she 
fills with apparent ease and with satisfaction to all concerned. She is in 
hearty sympathy with the boys, and believes unswervingly that a good and 
useful life is possible to each of them. It was through an experiment tried by 
Miss Bowman that a somewhat new departure is being undertaken at the 
Home. She found that the larger boys are often in a more unfortunate con- 
dition than the smaller ones, and that often their greatest need is means to 
get on while they are making a start. She therefore resolved to undertake 
herself to make several of these boys presentable, assist them in getting places 
to work and furnish them funds, as a loan, until such time as they should be 
paid for their work. The boys proved honest and industrious, with scarcely 
an exception, and the plan was a success. Miss Bowman reported the result 
of her experiment to the managing board, which approved this method of 
assisting the boys and made it a part of the work of the Home. In this con- 
nection Miss Bowman makes an interesting statement which is full of hope 
for the philanthropist. She says that when once a boy has become self- 
supporting and has tasted the pleasure of honest independence he is never 
willing again to take to the street life which, as a rule, he is obliged to adopt 
hi his early struggle for existence. 

The Home, which is temporarily located at 1418 Wabash avenue» is the 
only place where a boy can go to make himself tidy and get a clean shirt, 
if need be, in the city. The clean shirt is always on call, and partly worn 
garments of this kind are accepted with enthusiasm at the Home. Indeed, 
Miss Bowman prefers the shirt which has been worn, as one that is quite new 
the boys are likely to sell for what they can get for it, as when they first 
come to the Home they are quite likely to consider it an extravagance to wear 
anything which can be exchanged for money. 

Odd Fellows' Orphans' Home. — Located at Lincoln, 111., 156 miles south of 
Chicago. Take Chicago & Alton or Illinois Central train This is an insti- 
tution forthe orphan children, male and female, of Odd Fellows. Buildings 
erected on a site presented by citizens of Lincoln. Corner-stone laid Apdl 
26, 1891. 

Old People's Home.— Indimn^ ave. and Thirty-ninth st. Take Indiana 
ave. car on Wabash ave. cable line. Founded about thirty j^ears ago by a 
humble seamstress, who resided on Third ave. She had accumulated a little 
money and bought her a home. She found herself growing old, and belong- 
m% to that respectable legion designated " the old maids," without immediate 
family, conceived the laudable idea of establishing some institution or home 
that v.'ould assist in alleviating the sorrows and sufferings she saw about her. 
This ambition she laid before her pastor, theRev. Dr. Boyd, and actingunder 
his advice a home was established for the care of indigent old ladies. They 
first occupied a small frame house near the home of this kind-hearted woman. 
She was made matron and Dr. Boyd first president. It was not long until 
the public was interested in Samantha Smith and her humble charity. Find- 
ing after the first few years the cramped quarters of so small a house inade- 
quate. Miss Smith gave ud her own more commodious dwelling, together with 
its entire furnishings, for the uses of the institution, and its charges were 



I'J'S GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

transferred thereto without delay. Miss Smith continued for some years 
longer as matron and then, for reasons not explained, retired from the duties. 
From Third ave. the Old Ladies' Home removed to Indiauaave., near Twenty- 
sixth St., where it occapied an old frame building for several years. After 
the great lire it received from the Relief and Aid Society the sum of $50,000, 
which was used as the nucleus of a building fund, and the latter part of 1873 
found them established in their present commodious home. Later on the 
vacant lots between them and the corner of Thirty-ninth st. were purchased, 
thus adding 158x100 feet to their property. This donation from the Relief 
and Aid oociety was given under the conditions that the name should be 
changed to read ' ' The Old People's Home," and indigent old gentlemen were to 
be admitted as well as ladies, the Relief and Aid Society to have control of 
twenty rooms for the benefit of its own proteges. Old gentlemen have never 
as yet been admitted, although it was intended, some time ago, to build at 
the north end of the home building a wing or addition especially for them. 
The management does not consider this idea feasible, however, and the old 
gentlemen's home will be located farther out, where they may have vegetable 
aDd flower gardens and trees and plants to cultivate. This institution, in 
common with many others of our city charities, is an heir of the late John 
Crerar and receives by his munificence an addition of $50,000 to their funds. 
There are at present sixty-eight inmates, so that the capacity is very nearly 
reached. The rooms pertaining to the Relief and Aid Society are always occu- 
pied, admittance to them being absolutely free. Of all other inmates an ad- 
mission fee of $300 is charged, the applicant being required to furnish her 
own room. They first enter upon six months' probation, and if the board of 
managers for any reason should not deem it expedient to make them perma- 
nent inmates the honorarium or admission fee paid will be returned, less $3 
per week for each week she has been an inmate. Each applicant is visited 
at her abiding place by a special committee, and all particulars of her needs 
and deserts investigated before her application is brought before the board of 
managers. Applicants admitted must be absolutely eligible in every particu- 
lar. She must be at least 45 years of age and of good character, and must be 
able to show that she has no adequate means of support ; she must have been 
a resident of Chicago for the two previous years, and if she has children who 
are able to support her she can not be admitted. While the rules governing 
the domestic life of the home are of necessity enforced upon all alike, they are 
so kindly intentioned th at obedience sits but lightly upon the reasoning member 
who appreciates the perfect harmony the regulations insure. Yet the man- 
agement of sixty-eight old people, whose habits and natures are their own and 
unchangeable, is quite different from governing an institution given over to 
children, whose plastic minds conform easily to environment. It is quite 
singular that the youngest matron in the city should be found in charge of 
the oldest people. 

Pioneer Aid and Suijport Association. — This society was organized to 
support the families of those executed for participation in the Haymarket 
massacre and those who are now at Joliet. 

School for Deaf and Dumb. — Located at 409 May street. West Side. Con- 
ducted by the religious of the Holy Heart of Mary and supported by the Eph- 
pheta Society; Mrs. John Cadahy, president. Following are the directresses: 
Mesdames John Cudahy, R. P. Travers, N. S. Jones, W. F. McLaughlin, 
Starr, J. B. Sullivan, James Eagle. Thomns Duffy, J. J. Egan, M. Cudahy, 
McLaughlin, J, A. Mulligan, J. H. Drury, J. B. Inderrieden, Z. P. Brosseau, 



THE EKCYCLOPEDIA. 179 

W. A. Amberg, M. Shields, E. A. Matthiessen, James Walsh, A. W. Green, 
M. Sullivan, F. Henrotin, Morris Sellers, W. J. Quan, Thos. Lonergan, W. P. 
Rend. The average number of deaf mutes in the school is about fifty, and 
four experienced teachers are employed, Mrs, John Cudahy has devoted a 
great deal of her time to this noble charity, as have also the other ladies 
named. 

Servite Sisters' Industrial Home for Girls. — Located at 1396 W, Van 
Buren street. Take Van Buren street car or Madison street cable line. An insti- 
tution for the care, protection and training of girls who have no homes or 
homes unfit for them. Conducted by the Servite Sisters of Mary. Superior, 
Mother Mary Francis. 

Soldiers' Home Fund. — This fund amounts to about $70,000 and is the bal- 
ance left from the result of the great Sanitary Fair held in Chicago during 
the early part of the war. With the money then raised was established a 
soldiers' rest or home, where troops going to the front from the Northwest 
might be fed, and, if necessary, housed. It was a hospital, too, for the 
wounded and sick who came back from the campaigns they had made. The 
first home was in an old hotel at No, 75 Randolph street. The association 
was incorporated and bought property at Thirty-fifth street and the lake, 
where the Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum now stands. Here a house was 
built. Ladies canvassed the city for $1 subscriptions and raised a large sum 
in this way. Mrs. Bristol, who is still one of the leading spirits of the associa- 
tion, canvassed the whole of the North Side, then a series of scattering vil- 
lages. The Thirty -fifth street property was sold, a block bought in South 
Evanston, and a house built with part of the proceeds of the sale. Some of 
the money was loaned on property on the North Side^ and the rest on a block 
on State street, near Archer avenue. The mortgages on both pieces of prop- 
erty had to be foreclosed, and the association still owns the State street prop- 
erty. That on the North Side was sold, and the money is now loaned out at 
interest. When the Government had established soldiers' homes there was 
no longer a necessity for maintaining the one here. The property was 
therefore sold and the proceeds converted into a relief fund. 

This fund has remained intact. It has not increased, because its entire 
revenue has been expended in relieving those who were worthy of relief. 
Not one dollar of the fund has ever been devoted to any other purpose, except 
that annually $100 is paid for the use of a room in which to disburse the 
money and for the services of a clerk. The officers of the association have not 
made a charge of even so much as five cents for street-carfare, although they 
regularly and systematically visit their pensioners and devote much time and 
labor to their work. Each month they pay out about $300, the number of 
recipients of their bounty varying from sixty to seventy-five. 

The first president of the board of managers was T, B. Bryan. He still 
occupies this oflBce. Mrs. L, H. Bristol, who disburses the fund, also enlisted 
in 1861, and has not yet been mustered out. Mrs. William H. Myrick and 
Mrs. Dr. Blain, of Hyde Park, are the only other members of the first board 
who still hold their positions. The treasurer of the fund is Mrs. J. S. Lewis. 
Other members of the board of managers are Mrs, Brayman, Mrs. Dr. Ham- 
mell, Miss Blakey, Mrs, Myra Brad well, Justice Brad well. General Bever- 
idge, and Mr. Henry Bacon, the secretary. The first Saturday of every 
month Mrs. Bristol, the disbursing officer of the board, goes to the rooms of 
the Chicago Relief and Aid Society to hold her reception. She finds waiting 
for her a room full of the expectant callers. As they come in they are given 



180 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. z 

numbered tickets fixing the order in which they shall go to the table behind 
a screen and receive from Mrs. Bristol the $2, $5, or $10, or whatever sum 
the case calls for. Very few receive as much as $10. 

St. Joseph's Asylum for Boys. — Located on Crawford avenue, between W. 
Diversy street and Belmont avenue. Take Milwaukee avenue car. 

St. Joseph's Home. —Located at 409 S. May street, West Side. Take Blue 
Island avenue or Twelfth street car. The principal object of this institution 
is to afford a protecting home for respectable young girls out of employment, 
until such time as suitable positions are secured for them, either as domes- 
tics, sales-ladies, cashiers, book-keepers, librarians, etc. The terms for board 
are regulated according to the accommodations required, ranging in price 
from $3 to $5 per week. There are a number of private rooms in the build- 
ing, affording nice accommodations to thoseyoung ladies who are employed in 
various occupations down town and who appreciate the quiet rest their retreat 
here affords them after the labors and bustle of the day. The building affords 
accommodations for over 200 persons and is most conveniently and comfortably 
arranged. Ladies who remain here find accommodations superior to those 
afforded in hotels at a very high figure, not at all taking into consideration 
the home-like quietness they enjoy, and the many spiritual advantages 
besides. The institution is self-supporting. 

St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum. — Located at Lake avenue and Thirty-fifth 
street. Take Wabash avenue cable line. Conducted by the Sisters of St. 
Joseph. Superior, Mother Mary Matilda. 

St. Joseph's Promdence Orphan Asylum. — Situated near Pennock station, 
on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway. Take train at Union depot, 
Canal and Adams streets. West Side. The building stands on a slight emi- 
nence in the midst of a farm of forty acres. The interior arrangements of 
the asylum are on a par with the advantages of space and pure air. The 
largeclass-roomis well lighted and ventilated and each boy has a neat desk. A 
partof the curriculum is devoted tocaiisthenic exercises and each day the bright 
looking youngsters swing the dumb bells and bar bells to enlivening tunes. 
Down in'the refectory the boys sit at long tables, where good food and plenty of 
it is served out to them by the Sisters of St. Joseph. Soup, meat, vegetables, 
bread and milk are given out, not in limited quantities. Meat twice a day is 
the rule for the 180 American boys of all denominations. The dormitories 
are capacious halls, filled with iron bedsteads, covered with blankets and 
comforters. The whole house is heated by steam and has all the modern 
improvements. 

St. Paul's Home for Mwshoys.—Loc?iiG,d. at 45 and 47 Jackson street. An 
institution similar to the Newsboys and Boot-blacks' Home, excepting that it 
is conducted with a view of caring for the training of Roman Catholic street- 
boys, the other being non-denominational. It has a large number of boys in 
charge. Director, Rev. D. S. Mahoney. 

Vlich Evangelical Lutheran Orphan Asylum.— Organized 1867 by some 
ladies connected with St. Paul's church. Incorporated 1869. First cared for, 
only a few children in a small cottage, corner of La Salle avenue and Ontario 
street. A larger building on Clark street, between Garfield and Webster 
avenues was rented later on, but this was swept away by the great fire. The 
orphans'were then brought to the Lake View school for shelter. Afterwards 
the "Chicago Nursery and Half Orphan Asylum," 175 Burling street, took 




LHAMBliR OF COMMERCE BUILDING. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 181 

the children up and boarded them. The ladies had saved up about $8,000, 
and the Chicago Aid and Relief Society contributed $20,000, and they bought 
twelve lots on Burling and Centre streets, where the present building was 
erected during the fall'and winter of 1872-73. This edifice received a brick 
addition in the summer of 1889. The trustees are: Mr. Wm. Knoke, president; 
Mr. John L. Dies, treasurer; Mr. John Baur, secretary; Rev. R. A. .John, 
F. W. Forch, Wm. Schick, Wra. Keller, Jakob Huber, Conrad Furst, trustees; 
superintendent, Geo. Feising; matron, Mrs. Dora Feising. 

Waifs^ Mission. — Located at 44 State street, Taylor E. Daniels, superin- 
tendent. The object of the mission is the care of homeless boys, notably 
those who are abandoned to the streets by their parents or other relatives. 
Directors: Messrs. Walter Q. Gresham, Richard S. Tuthill, B. F. Hagaman, 
J. Irving Pearce, F. E. Brown, B. F. Lighter, W. H, Cowles, A. H. Revell, 
J. Harley Bradley, Lester C. Hubbard, and T. E. Daniels. Advisory Board : 
Messrs. George M. Pullman, Ferd. W. Peck, De Witt C. Cregier, W. Penn 
Nixon, C. M. Henderson, Joseph R. Dunlop, W. G. Beale, G. F. Swift, John 
R. Wilson, W. J. Chalmers, R. R. Cable, Marvin Hughitt, Lyman J. Gage, 
C. T. Yerkes, William Deering. T. W. Harvey, E. ^W. Gillett, George E. 
Marshall, J. M. Longenecker, T, B. Blackstone, D. K. Pearsons, and Potter 
Palmer. During six months of 1890 the work done by the mission was 
summarized as follows: There were 39,500 free meals furnished to hungry 
children; 6,510 free beds; 2,220 free baths, and 540 hair-cuts were given. 
In clothing the naked, 3,760 garments were given out, besides many pairs 
of shoes, and much mending done gratis. The superintendent appeared 
before the justices in 565 cases of boys and girls charged with crime or 
misdemeanor of which 329 were discharged, 72 executions stayed, 92 fined, 
49 continued, 21 held to the criminal court (14 afterwards liberated), 2 
sent home (runaways). Fifty-six boys were placed in employment, 
and homes were found for 9 others. Among the sick and poor 232 
investigations were made, while 87 subsequent visits were made in these 
cases and assistance was given. Of sick and homeless boys 22 were nursed 
and 21 were sent to hospitals. There were 112 religious services held. 
Besides these, many other charitable works were done of which it is difficult 
to keep track. One thing the officers of the mission have had cause to deplore 
and that is the cramped quarters of the present Home and Training School at 
Nd. 44 State street. It has interfered very materially in the way of success- 
ful operations. The following plan is recommended by the officers : A 
ninety-nine years' lease, the report says, might and could be secured on some 
available piece of property, a site that would afford business advantages and 
at the same time yield a favorable outlook to the waifs whose home it is 
intended to be. On this property a permanent home for the mission could be 
had of such a character as to meet all the wants of that institution and afford 
such accommodations for outside enterprises to insure a reasonable return for 
the money invested. 

Young Ladies' Charity Circle, — A band of sixteen young ladies of the 
West Side who give entertainments for the benefit of charitable institutions. 
They have no stated place of meeting. The officers of the circle are: Presi- 
dent, Miss Birdie Lewinsohn; vice-president, Miss Annie Gerber; secretary, 
Miss Belle Davis; treasurer, Mrs. Eva Davis. The other members are: 
Misses Bessie and Annie Stolofsky, Eva Lerber, Sara Paradise, Mollie Lew- 
insohn, Ray Zohn, Miss Lipsky, Miss Uphert, Lena Barnett, Miss Goodkind, 
Ray Nevens, Hattie Grosberg. 



182 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS. 

Church societies are referred to elsewhere. The following are the lead- 
ing Christian organizations of a general character in the city: 

Bible Institute. — The Bible Institute or Training School for Evangelists 
is situated next door to Moody's Chicago Avenue Church, Chicago avenue 
and La Salle street. Take North Clark or Wells Street cable lines. From 
this institute Daniel Moody, the evangelist, draws his assistant workers. 
There are about seventy students of the Bible in the men's department con- 
stantly and about half as many women. The object of the institute is to give 
to men — largely those who have not had the advantages of higher education, 
and who would otherwise, in many cases, at least, be deprived of special 
instruction in lines of Christian work — that knowledge and skill in the use 
of the Word as will fit them the better to do missionary and evangelistic 
work. Not a few are in training as lay helpers, pastors' assistants and sing- 
ing evangelists, and the school is but one evidence of the new aggressiveness 
of the Church to match the modern aggressiveness of the World. 

Central W. C. T. U. of Chicago. — Headquarters 161 La Salle street. In 
addition to the general work of this association it conducts the Bethesda 
Mission, 606 South Clark street, with which is connected a day nursery, 
kindergarten, Sunday-school, kitchen garden, free medical dispensary, relief 
work and gospel meetings; the Talcott Day Nursery, 169 West Adams street, 
with which is connected a day nursery, a kindergarten and an industrial 
school; the Anchorage Mission, 125 Third avenue; the Hope Mission and 
Reading School, 166 North Halsted street; the Bethesda Inn, 408 South Clark 
street, and the W. C. T. U. restaurant, 69 East Washington street. The 
president is Mrs. M. B. Carse; first vice-president, Mrs. J. B. Hobbs; recording 
secretary, Mrs. E. P. Howell; treasurer, Mrs. C. C Davis. The board of mana- 
gers is as follows — MesdamesM.B. Carse, J. B. Hobbs, E. P. Howell, E. War- 
ner, N. Norton, G. Bagley, G. Shipman, H. V. Reed, A. Bond, L. A. Hagans, 
I.Jones, L. R. Hall, E. P. Vail, C. Goodman, U. Bruun,M. J. Haywood, H. J. 
Berry, W. E. Kelley, L. M. Quine,C. E. Bigelow, T. D.Wallace, D. Fuller, Dr. 
Winter, C. G. Davis, E. Trapp, C. B. S. Wilcox, H. R. Smith, M. W.Mabbs,. 
C. C. Lake, Miss Helen L. Hood. The missions, nurseries, kindergartens, 
etc., of the W. C.T. U., are all doing a splendid work in Chicago; so, also, is the 
association'ssupervision of the work of the policematrons at the several stations. 
The treasurer's report for the year ending March, 1890, showed: Balance 
in treasury March 20, 1889, $2.92; receipts to March 20, 1890, $7,147.14; total, 
$7,150.06; expenditures to March 20, 1890, $7,113.36; balance in treasury 
March 20, 1890, $7,150.06. The object of the W. C. T. U., as stated in the 
constitution of the association, is to plan and carry forward measures which 
will, with the blessing of God, result in the suppression of intemperance in 
our midst, and the highest moral and spiritual good of those needing reform; 
and to this end to provide and maintain permanent buildings, rooms and 
accommodations for the devotional, business and social meetings of the asso- 
ciation, and to sustain and carry forward the mission and general work for 
the suppression of intemperance and for moral reform, and to encourage and 
aid such work in general by individual and auxiliary societies and associa- 
tions. (See " National W. C. T. U." and " W. C. T. U. Building.") 

Chicago Bible Society . — Headquarters 49 Ada st. OflEicers — President, N. 
S. Bouton; first vice-president, H. W. Dudley; second vice-president, S. M. 
Moore; treasurer, C. H. Mulliken; corresponding secretary, F. B. Carter; 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 



183 



general secretary and agent, the Rev. J. A. Mack; auditor, C. W. Pritchard; 
business committee, N. S. Bouton, H. W. Dudley, T. W. Farlin, C. H. 
Mulliken, the Rev. J. A. Mack, B. F. Jacobs, J. L. Whitlock, and the Rev. 
N. C. Rausseen, directors for three years; C. H. Mulliken, C. H. McCormick, 
C. W. Newton and C. W. Pritchard, and the Rev. J. L. Withrow, managers 
forfive years; the Rev. R. A. John and S. S. Rogers, managers for two 
years; and J. W. Waughop, manager for one year. 

Christian, Endeavor Society of Cook County. — President, P. F. Chase; gen- 
eral secretary. Otto Buehlman. There are five divisions in the county, as 
follows — Hyde Park, Oak Park, Q. Division, which takes in thirteen socie- 
ties located on the line of the Chicago, Burlington &Quincy Railroad; North- 
western Division, which iaciudes the societies located not alone on the North- 
western road, but also those on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, eight 
all told; and the Evauston Division. Each of these divisions is in charge of 
a secretary. The societies of the different divisionsfrequentlyholdsociables, 
prayer meetings, etc. The report for last year shows an increase of 13 junior 
societies and 24 elder societies since the last convention, which makes a total 
of 154 societies, when last year there were only 117. The membership one 
year ago was 4,000, to-day it can boast of nearly 7,000. 

The first society was organized in the Williston church, Portland, Me., 
February 2, 1881, and in June last there were 11,013 societies, with a mem 
bership of 660,000. It has principally to do with young people, and tne fact 
of such immense progress as the above figures show will be sufficient to enlist 
the interest of all people who have any care for the coming generation of 
men. The following is the statistical division of Chicago unions: 



Unions. 



North Side 

South Side 

West Side (northern) 
West Side (southern) . 

Evanston 

Lake View 

North Western 

Oak Park 

"Q." 

Eng-lewood 

Hyde Park 

Total 



Societies. 



8 

11 

6 

17 

Vi 

8 

9 

8 

10 

9 

13 



110 



Active 
members. 



285 
519 
150 
6i7 
455 
262 
218 
213 
316 
299 
396 



3,740 



Associate 
membei's. 



53 
51 

20 
187 
136 
118 
103 
65 
86 
116 
173 



1,106 



Total mem- 
bership. 



337 
570 
170 
814 
591 
380 
320 
278 
402 
415 
569 



4,316 



The Cook County union is thorough in its organization and discipline, 
and serves well to show the workings of the society. The cosmopolitan and 
liberal christian spirit of the union are also better illustrated here than in 
smaller places, for here the workings maybe seen in many different denomi- 
nations of Christians and in many tongues. The visiting feature of the 
union is a great source of knowledge and is resulting in much good. 
Churches near and far which knew little or nothing of each other are becom- 
ing acquainted. 

National W. C. T. U. Headquarters.— The National W. C. T. U. head- 
quarters are at present located in the suburb of Evanston, twelve miles from 



184 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

the city. Take train at Wells Street depot, Wells and Kinzie streets, or at 
Union depot, Adams and Canal streets. The headquarters ■will probably 
remain at this place until the completion of the Temperance Temple in the 
city. Miss Frances Willard, president of the National W. C. T. U., resides 
at Evanston, as do also Miss Caroline E. Buell and Miss Esther Pugh, officers 
of the Union. The rooms are on Davis street, only a short walk from the 
railroad stations. 

Toung Men's Christian Association. — Organized in the year 1858. Located 
at the building of the Association, 148 Madison street. Officers — John V. Far- 
well, Jr., president; Cyrus H. McCormick, first vice-president; Oliver H. Hor- 
ton, second vice-president; James L. Houghteling, treasurer; H. M. Starkey, 
M, D. recording secretary; John C. Grant, Seymour Walton, A. Kurz, W. I. 
Midler, Francis^M. Buck, R. W. Hare, D. W. Potter, H. M. Hubbard, E. 
Burritt Smith, F. S. Osborne, C. N. Fay, C. E. Simmons, H. W. Maxwell, 
Chas. B. Congdon, J. H, Bradshaw; L. Wilbur Messer, general secretary; G. 
B. Townseud, financial secretary. Advisory managers — A, L. Coe, J. L. 
Whitlock, H. E. Sargent, A. E. Aurelius, C. M. Higginson, O. S. Lyford. C. 
H. Smith. Geo. S. Norfolk, John Benham, E. W. Kohlsaat. Board of Trus- 
tees — H. E. Sargent, president; Geo. M. Hieh, secretary and treasurer; John 
V. Farwell, N/S. Bouton, C. L. Courrier, Philp Meyers, E. G. Keith, B. F. 
Jacobs, Orrington Lunt, E. S. Albro, S. M. Moore. A. L. Coe. Committee 
of Management — H. M. Hubbard, chairman; D. W. Potter, vice-chairman; 
Seymour "Walton, secretary; F. M. Buck, John C. Grant, John V. Farwell, 
Jr., R. W. Hare, Charles Loue:hridge, George L. Wrenn, A. P. White, W. 
H. Dyson, S. B. Wright, Frank Milligan, J."S. Lane, J. W. Hedenberg, J. 
W. Jannev, E. D. Wheelock. Secretaries — Daniel Sloan, department secre- 
tary; W. t. Hart, H. L. Sawyer, W. C. Davis, ^ J. F. Adams, A. F. Lee, 
assistant secretaries; E. L. Hayford, M. D., physical director; L. B. Smith, 
assistant physical director. The various departments of the Association 
areas follows: 

California Avenue Department, 1225 W. Madison st. — Gymnasium, 
bath rooms, members' parlors, recreation and reading rooms, educational 
classes, entertainments and lectures, practical talks, and religious meetings. 
The rooms of the department are furnished very attractively. 

Sixteenth Street Railway Department, 653 8. Canal street. — 
Reading and recreation rooms, gymnasiums, circulating library, baths, and 
other privileges. 

South Chicago Department, 9140-9142 Commercial avenue. — Large 
and finely-equipped gymnasium with new tub and shower baths, reading 
room, recreation room and parlor; lectures, entertainments and socials, prac- 
tical talks, and religious meetings. 

Workingmen's Institute, Bridgeport Department, 3042 Archer avenue. 
— Reading, recreation and conversation rooms, bowling alleys, baths, educa- 
tional classes, entertainments, lectures, practical talks, and religious meet- 
ings. 

German Department, Larrabee street and Grant place. — Gymnasium, 
bath rooms, reading, recreation and conversation r9oms, circulating library, 
educational classes, receptions, religious meetings and other privileges. 

The reading room of the main building is an attractive, well-lighted and 
cheerful room supplied with easy chairs. The papers are conveniently ar- 
ranged in racks. Members will find regularly filed, the leading daily, weekly, 



THE EKCYCLOPEDIA. 185 

secular and religious newspapers, together with publications on science, art, 
mechanics, education, architecture, etc. This room contains also a spacious 
and comfortable writing-table, and all needed material for writing can be had 
upon application. The library tables are covered with choice literary; illus- 
trated, scientific, and humorous periodicals. The library contains diction- 
aries, cyclopedias, and a large collection of books on history, travel, poetry, 
biography, fiction, science and theology. Books of special interest and 
importance to young men will be suggested to members upon application to 
the assistant secretary. The parlor is supplied with comfortable chairs, is 
tastefully arranged, and is intended for conversation, reading, leisure, or 
musical pastime. The amusement room is supplied with numerous games of 
skill, such as chess, checkers, crokinole, faba baga, base ball, croquet, 
authors, etc. The large variety of games will provide for a number of 
members at a time. 

There are connected with the association numerous features which con- 
tribute toward making a membership in this organization both desirable and 
valuable to young men. Among the privileges accorded are participation in 
a connection with the following: Informal receptions, trades receptions, 
members' receptions, boarding-house register, home-like place, good 
company, friendly counsel, general information, employment bureau, 
writing conveniences, care in sickness, 12 members' parlors, parlor games, 
reading room, current literature, educational classes, entertainments, 
practical talks, literary society, reference library, gymnasium, physical 
instruction, medical examination, 24 healthful baths, toilet conveniences, 
summer athletics, outing club, gospel meetings, training classes, Bible 
classes, prayer meetings, teachers' meetings. Associate members are young 
men over sixteen years of age, whose references as to good moral character 
are satisfactory. Active members are young men over sixteen years of age, 
who are members in good standing of some Evangelical Church. A regular 
membership ticket, either active or associate, requires an annual membership 
fee of five dollars. Special junior tickets, neither active nor associate, may 
be secured by boys between the ages of twelve and sixteen years, upon the 
payment of $3.00 annually, in advance, good for limited privileges in this 
department. A membership may be obtained by any young man regardless 
of church membership or belief. The paid membership of the Chicago 
association is over five thousand. The Chicago association is the second in 
the world in number of departments, in membership and in amount of 
money received annually for current expenses. 

In the building of the Madison street department, 148 Madison street, 
are located the offices of the State Executive Committee, the Young Men's 
Era Publishing Co., the "Western Secretarial Institute, and the Young Men's 
Christian Association Training School. 

Six secretaries are employed in the Illinois State work, and the annual 
expenditure by the State Committee in the supervision of the Associations of 
the State is $12,000. [See " New Y. M. C. A. Building."] 

Young Men's Christian Association iScandinavian). — Located at 183 N. 
Peoria st. President, M. EUingson; secretary, P. Hanson; treasurer, T. 
Syvertson; librarian, K. Hall. This association has very comfortable rooms 
and a large membership. 

Young Woman's Christian Association. — Located at room 39, 184 Dear- 
born St. Officers— President, Mrs. L. Stone; treasurer. Miss M. E. True; 
corresponding secretary, Mrs. J. M. Brodie; recording secretary, Mrs. A. S. 



186 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Chamberlain; superintendent employment bureau, Mrs. D. Stobie, 39 How- 
land blk; superintendent of dispensary, Dr. Odelia Blinn; superintendent 
boarding-house (388 Michigan av.), Mrs. L. F. Oliphant. The^boarding-house 
has been overcrowded of late, but arrangements are being made for better 
and more ample quarters. Young women are boarded at a nominal cost. 

CHURCHES. 

The visitor will not be many hours in Chicago before he is impressed 
with the number and beauty of the structures consecrated to divine worship. 
Unlike some of the older American and European cities, however, he will 
notice that there are no church edifices in the business center, nor along any 
of the great business arteries. There were a number of handsome and costly 
church buildings in the business district previous to 1871, but the great fire 
swept them away. After the fire, the ground upon which they had stood 
proved to be so valuable that the various church societies nnd congregations 
decided either to sell or improve their "down town "real property, and build 
their churches on less expensive ground and nearer the residence districts. 
Among the churches that were to be found down town before the fire, were 
the First Presbyterian church, on Wabash ave., near Jackson; the Second 
Presbyterian at the northeast corner of Wabash ave. and "Washington St.; 
St. Mary's Catholic church, at the southwest corner of Wabash ave. and 
Madison St., where" St. Mary's block" now stands; the First Baptist 
church on Wabash ave., and the Rev. Dr. Everts' (Episcopal) church. 
There were many others not so well known and not so well remembered. 
The Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Unitarians, Roman Catholics, 
Episcopalians, and, in fact, all denominations, lost heavily by the great fire, 
both in the South and North divisions. Since then, however, they have all 
prospered, and every year since has added to the magnitude, the costliness 
and the beauty of the church edifices they have erected. 

Location of Leading Churches. — The leading churches of the three 
divisions of the city are removed to the extent of a street car trip from hotels 
and depots of the South Side. On the West Side they are found principally 
along Washington and Ashland blvds. or around Jefferson and Union parks. 
Centenary Methodist and the Second Baptist chuiches, two of the oldest in the 
city, are located on Monroe and Morgan sts. On the North Side they are to 
be found in the district north of Ontario and east of Clark sts., principally 
on Dearborn ave. On the South Side they are to be found on Wabash ave., 
Michigan blvd. , and in the district east of State st. and south of Twenty -second 
St. Take West Madison cable line for West Side, North Clark st. cable line 
or State st. horse line for North Side and Cottage Grove ave. cable line for 
South Side. T wo of the leading Independent churches of the city, however. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 187 

the Central and the People's, hold services in the Central Music Hall and 
Columbia Theatre, respectively, only a short walk from the hotels. Prof. 
Swing preaches at the former every Sunday; Dr. Thomas at the latter. 

Popular Ministers AND Preachers. — Popular ministers of the city and 
those of whom the visitor is likely to hear of tenest, are Prof, David S wing, Cen- 
tral Church, Central Music Hall, State and Randolph sts. ; Dr. H. W. Thomas, 
People's Church, McVicker's Theatre, Madison St., near State St.; Simon J. 
MacPherson, Second Presbyterian Church, Michigan blvd. and Twentieth St.; 

F. J. Brobst, Westminster Presbyterian, Peoria and Jackson sts.; F. W. 
Gunsaulus, Plymouth Congregational, Michigan ave., near Twenty-sixth St.; 
Rabbi E. G. Hirsch, Sinai Congregation, Indiana ave. and Twenty-first St.; 
Dr. .John H. Barrows, First Presbyterian, Indiana ave. and Twenty-first st. ; 
H. H. Barbour, Belden Avenue Methodist Church, Belden ave. and Halsted 
St. ; Dr. P. S. Hensen, First Baptist Church, South Park ave. and Thirty-first 
St. ;Dr. George C. Lorimer, Emanuel Baptist Church, Michigan ave., near 
Twenty-third St.; Dr. W. M. Lawrence, Second Baptist Church, Morgan and 
Monroe sts.; Dr. E. P. Goodwin, First Congregational Church, Washington 
blvd. and Ann St.; Dr. F. A. Noble, Union Park Congregational, Washington 
blvd. and Ashland ave.; Rt, Rev. William E. McLaren, Episcopal Cathedral, 
Washington blvd. and Peoria St.; Rev. Dr. Clinton Locke, Grace Episcopal 
Church, 1445 Wabash ave.; Rt. Rev. Charles E. Cheney, Christ's Episcopal 
Church, Michigan ave. and Twenty -fourth St.; Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows, St. 
Paul's Episcopal, Adams st. and Winchester ave. ; J. P. Brushingham, Ada 
Street M. E. Church, Ada st., between Lake and Fulton sts. ; Robert Mcln tyre, 
Grace M. E. Church, cor. La Salle ave. and Locust st. ; Dr. William Fawcett, 
Park Avenue M. E. Church, Park ave., corner Robey St.; Frank M. Bristol, 
Trinity M. E. Church, Indiana ave., near Twenty-fourth st.; Dr. W. T. 
Meloy, First United Presbyterian Church, Monroe and Paulina sts.; Dr. M. 
W. Stryker, Fourth Presbyterian Church, Rush and Superior sts.; Dr. John 
L. Withrow, Third Presbyterian Church, Ashland blvd. and Ogden ave.; 
Jenkins Lloyd Jones, All Souls' Church, Oakwoodblvd. andLangleyave.; T. 

G. Milsted, Unity Church, Dearborn ave. and Walton place; J. Colman 
Adams, St. Paul's Unitarian Church, Prairie ave. and Thirtieth st. 

Ghristian Ghurclies. — The Christian Churches of the city are located as 
follows: First Church, W. Jackson st. and Oakley ave.; Central, Indi- 
ana ave. and Thirty-seventh st. ; Christian (colored), Apollo Hall, 2730 
State St. ; West Side, 303 and 305 S. Western ave. 

Congregational Churclies. — The Congregational Churches of the city are 
located as follows: Bethany, Superior and Lincoln sts.; Bethlehem 
Chapel, Hoyne ave. and Nineteenth St.; Bowmanville, Bowmanville; Cali- 
fornia Avenue, California ave. and W. Monroe; Central Park, W. Forty- 
first and Fulton sts.; Brighton, 3207 S. Ashland ave.; Church op the 
Redeemer, School st., near Evanston ave.; Clinton Street, S. Clinton and 
Wilson sts.; Covenant, W. Polk St., nw. corner Claremont ave.; Cragin, 
Armitage ave. , near Grand ave. ; Douglas Park, 903 Sawyer ave. ; Duncan 
Avenue, Duncan ave., near Seventy-seventh st.; Emanuel (colored), 2811 
State St.; Englewood, School and Sixty -fourth sts., Englewood; Engle- 
wooD North, La Salle and Fifty-ninth sts. ; Englewood Trinity, Wright 
and Sixty-ninth sts.; First, Washington blvd., sw. corner Ann St.; First 
(Scandinavian), Point and Chanay sts.; Forestville, Champlain ave. and 
Forty-sixth st. ; German Pilgrtm, W. Fulton and W. Forty-first sts. ; Grace, 
Powell ave. and Cherry pi.; Humboldt Park,W. Chicago ave,, near N. Gali- 



188 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

fornia a-^e.; Jefferson Park, Jefferson Park; Johannes (German), Frank- 
lin St., near Eugenie St.; Lakeview, Seminary and Lill aves.; Leavitt 
Street, Leavitt st. and sw. corner W. Adams st. ; Lincoln Pakk, Gar- 
field ave. and Mohawk St.; Millard Avenue, S. Central Park ave., se. 
corner W. Twenty-third; New England, Dearborn ave. and Delaware pi.; 
Pacific, Cortland and Ballou sts. ; Plymouth, Michigan ave., near Twenty- 
sixth St.; Ravenswood, Commercial and Sulzer sts.; Rosehill, Rosehill; 
Sardis (Welch), Peoria st., near Jackson St.; South, Drexel blvd.-, nw. cor. 
Fortieth St.; South (German), Ullman st. and James ave.; South Park, 
Madison ave. and Fifty-sixth st. ; Summerdale, near Summerdale depot, 
Lake View; Tabernacle, W. Indiana St., se. corner Morgan St.; Union 
Park, S. Ashland ave. and Washington blvd.; Union Tabernacle, S. Ash- 
land ave. and W. Twentieth; Warren Avenue, Warren ave., sw. cor. Albany 
ave.; Zion, Fifty-sixth and S. Green sts. 

Congregational Missions.— The Lo\\o\7mg are the Mission Churches con- 
ducted by the Congregationalists: Armour, Thirty-third st., near Butterfield 
St. ; Ashland Avenue, Ashland ave. and Twelfth St.; California Avenue, 
California ave. and Fillmore St.; Chinese, Washington blvd. and S. Ann st, ; 
Commercial Avenue, Commercial ave., near Ninety -sixth st. (S. C); Dore- 
Mus, Butler st., near Thirty-first St.; Graceland, near Graceland Cemetery; 
Harrison Street, Harrison st., nearHalsted St.; House of Hope, 210 W. 
Indiana St.; Hoyne xi venue, W. Nineteenth St., near Leavitt St.; Oakley 
Avenue, W. Indiana St., near Oakley ave.; Pullman (Swedish), Pullman; 
RoBEY Street, N. Robey, near Clybourne ave.; Sedgwick, Sedgwick and 
Blackhawk sts.; Swedish, 704 W. Lake St.; Thirteenth Street, 533 W. 
Thirteenth St.; W. Harrison Street, W. Harrison st., near Kedzie ave.; 
Wentv/orth Avenue (Swedish), Wentworth ave. and Thirty-ninth st. 

Baptist Churches. — The Baptist Churches of the city are located as fol- 
lows: Belden Avenue, N. Halsted st. and Belden ave. ; Bethany, Lock and 
Bonaparte sts.; Bethesda (Colored), Thirty -fourth st., se. cor. Butterfield 
St.; Centennial, W. Jackson st., cor. Lincoln st. ; Covenant, No. 830 Sixty- 
third St. ; First, Englewood ave., near Stewart ave. ; Englewood (Swedish), 
Wentworth St., south of Forty-ninth st. ; Evangel, Dearborn and Forty -seventh 
sts. ; First. South Park ave. and Thirty-first st. ; First (German), Bickerdike 
and W. Huron sts.; First (Swedish), Oak St., near Sedgwick st.; Fourth, 
Washington blvd., nw. cor. Paulina St.; Humboldt Park, Humboldt and 
Cortland sts.; Hyde Park, Madison ave. and Fifty-fourth St., Hyde Park; 
Immanuel (W. S.), Michigan ave., near Twenty-third st, ; Irving Park, Irv- 
ing Park; Lake View, School St., near Lincoln ave. ; La Salle Avenue, La 
Salle ave. , near Division st . ; Memorial, Oakwood blvd. , near Cottage Grove 
ave. ; Millard Avenue, Millard ave., se. cor. W. Twenty-fourth st., Lawn- 
dale; Mission, W. Lakr st., near W. Forty-third St.; North Ashland 
Avenue, N. Ashland ave., near W. North ave.; Olivet (Colored), Harmon 
ct. and Holden pi. ; Providence (Colored), 26 N. Irving pi. ; Pullman (Swed- 
ish), Pullman; Scandinavian Bethel, Rockwell St., near Humboldt Park; 
Scandinavian Pilgrim, N. Carpenter and Ohio sts.; Second, Morgan St., 
sw. cor. W. Monroe st.; Second (German), Burling and Willow sts. ; Second 
(Swedish), 8018-3020 Fifth ave., near Thirty-first St.; South Chicago, 
South Chicago; South Chicago (Colored); South Chicago (Swedish), Fourth 
ave. and Ninety-eighth St.; Western Avenue, Warren ave., nw, cor. N. 
Western ave. 

Baptist Missions,— The following are the Mission Churches conducted by 



THE EI^CYCLOPEDIA. 189 

the Baptists : Bohemian, Throop and Sixteenth sts. ; Congress, Washtenaw 
ave. and Flournoy st. ; Dearborn, 3740 State st. ; Hastings Street, Hastings 
St. near Ashland ave.; Hope, Noble St., sw. corner W. Superior; Ogden 
Avenue, 6i3 Ogden ave., in connection with Centennial Church; Raymond, 
Poplar ave. and Thirtieth St.; Wabansia, 353 Wabansia ave. 

Evangelical Association of North America {German). — The location of 
the churches of this denomination is as follows : Chicago District, Presiding 
Elder, Rev. A. Fuessele, residence 658 Sheffield ave. Adams Street, W. 
Adams and Robey sts. ; First, Thirty -fifth and Dearborn sts. ; Centennial, 
W. Harrison, sw. corner Hoyne av^.; Humboldt Park, Wabansia ave., 
corner N. Rockwell St.; Lane Park, Roscoe and Bosworth sts. ; Salem, W. 
Twelfth and Union sts. ; Second, Wisconsin and Sedgwick sts.; Emanuel, 
Sheffield ave., ne. corner Marianna st.; St. John's, Noble and W. Huron 
sts. 

Evangelical LutJieran {English) Churches. — The Evangelical Lutheran 
(English) Ciiurches of the city are located as follows : Church of the 
Holy Trinity, 398 La Salle ave.; Grace, Belden ave. and Larrabee st.; St. 
Paul's, Fairfield and Hoyne aves.; Wicker Park, N. Hoyne ave., nw. 
corner LeMoyne st. 

Evangelical Lutheran {Danish). — The Evangelical Lutheran (Danish) 
Churches of the city are located as follows: St. Stephens, Dearborn and 
Thirty-sixth sts.; Trinity, 440 and 443 W. Superior st.; Bethel, W. Lakeand 
Forty-second sts. 

Evangelical Lutheran {German). — The Evangelical Lutheran (German 
Churches of the city are located as follows: Bethlehem, N. Paulina and 
McReynolds sts.; Christ, Humboldt and Byron aves.; Church of the 
Holy^Cross, Ullman st., nw. cor. James ave. ; Emanuel, Twelfth st. and 
Ashland ave.; Gnaden, 169 and 171 Twenty-third pi., near Portland ave.; 
Nazareth, Forest ave., near Fullertou ave.; St. Jacobi, Fremont St., sw! 
cor. Garfield ave.; St John's, W. Superior and Bickerdike sts. ; St Mark's, 
Ashland ave. and Augusta st. ; St. Matthew's, Hoyne ave. , bet. Twentieth 
and Twenty-first sts.; St. Paul's, Superior and N. Franklin sts.; St. Peter's, 
Dearborn St., south of Thirty-ninth st.; St. Simon's, 1339 W. North ave.; St. 
Stephen's, Wentworth ave., northwest cor. Twenty-fifth st.; St. Thomas', 
Washtenaw ave. and Iowa St.; Trinity ( U. A. C), Hanover st. and Twenty! 
fifth pi.; Trinity ( West Chicago), 9, 11 and 13 Snell et.; Zion, W. Nine- 
teenth St., cor. Johnson st. 

Evangelical Lutheran {Norwegian). — The Evangelical Lutheran (Norwe" 
giao) Churches of the city are located as follows: Bethnia, W. Indiana st.» 
se. cor. Carpenter st. ; Bethlehem, W. Huron st., cor. N. Centre ave.; 
Norwegian, N. Franklin and Erie sts.; Our Saviour's, May and W. Erie 
sts.; St Paul's. N. Lincoln and Park sts.; St. Peter's, Hirsch st. and 
Seymour ave. ; Trinity, W. Indiana st., sw, cor. Peoria st. 

Evangelical Lutheran {Separatists) Churches. — The Evangelical Lutheran 
(Separatists) Churches of the city are located as follows: Church of Peace, 
N. Wood and Iowa sts.; First Church, 270 Augusta st., near Samuel st. 

Evangelical Lutheran {Swedish) Churches. — The Evangelical Lutheran 
(Swedish) Churches of the city are located as follows: Mission, N. Franklin 
ave., cor. Whiting St.; Gethsemane, May and W. Huron sts. ; Immanuel, 
Sedgwick and Hobble sts.; Salem, Wentworth ave. and Thirty-fifth st,; 
Tabernacle, S. LaSalle and Thirtieth sts. 



190 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Evangelical {United) Churches. — The Evangelical (United) Churches of the 
city are located as follows: First German, St. Paul's, Ohiost., sw. cor. 
La Salle ave.; Second German Zion, Union St., nw. cor. W. Fourteenth st. 
Third German, Salem, 368-372 Twenty-fifth St., near Wentworth ave.; 
Fourth German, St. Peter's, Chicago ave. and Noble st. ; Fifth German, 
St. John's, Cortland st. near Seymour ave.; Sixth German, Bethlehem; 
Diversey ave. and Lewis st. ; St. Luke's Church, sw. cor. Thirty-fifth and 
Dashiel sts.; Trinity Church, W. Twenty-fourth st., sw. cor. S. Robey st. 

Evangelical Reformed. — The First German church of the Evangelical 
Reformed denomination is located at 177-179 Hastings st. 

Episcopal {Reformed) Churches. — The Episcopal (Reformed) Churches of 
Chicago are located as follows: Synod of Chicago, bishop, Rt. Rev. Charles 
E. Cheney, D.D. Christ, Michigan ave. and Twenty-fourth st. ; Emanuel, 
Hanover and Twenty-eighth sts.; St. John's, Thirty-seventh st., cor. Lang- 
ley ave.; St. Mary's, Maple wood; St. Matthew's, Fullerton ave. and Larra- 
bee St.; Trinity, Euglewood; Tyng Mission, Archer ave. and Twenty-first 
St.; St. Ansgarius, Sedgwick st. near Chicago ave.; St. Barnabas', Park 
ave. and Forty-fourth st.; St. Bartholomew's. Sixty-fifth st. and Stewart 
ave.; St. George's, Grand Crossing; St. James' Cass and Huron sts.; St. 
Luke's, 388 S. Western ave.; St. Mark's, Cottage Grove ave. and Thirty- 
ninth St.; St. Paul's, 4928 Lake ave. 

Episcopal Reformed Missionary. — Jurisdiction of the Northwest and West, 
Rt. Rev. Samuel I'allows, D. D., bishop; St. Paul's Church, W. Adams st., 
cor. Winchester ave. 

Episcopal Churches. — The Episcopal Churches of the city are located as 
follows — Bishop of Diocese of Chicago, Rt. Rev. William E. McLaren, 
D. D., D. C. L., office 18 S. Peoria st., residence 255 Ontario st. All Saints', 
757 N. Clark; All Saints', Ravenswood; Cathedral SS. Peter and 
Paul, Washington blvd. and Peoria St.; Calvary, Western av. and Monroe 
St.; Christ, Sixty-fourth st. and Woodlawn av.; Church op Atonement, 
Edgewater; Church of Our Savior, Lincoln and Belden aves.; Church of 
St. Clement, State and Twentieth st. ; Church of St. Philip the Evan- 
gelist, Archer ave. and Thirty -fifth St.; Church of the Ascension, N. 
La Salle and Elm; Church of the Epiphany, S. Ashland ave., corner W. 
Adams; Church of the Good Shepherd, Lawndaleave. and Twenty-fourth 
St.; Church of the Transfiguration, Prairie ave. and Thirty-ninth St.; 
Grace, 1445 Wabash ave., near Sixteenth st.; St. Alban's, State st. near 
Thirty-ninth st ; St. Andrew's, Washington blvd. and Robey st.; St. John's, 
(So. Chicago), Commercial ave. and Ninety-second St.; St. Peter's, 1532 
N.Clark; St. Stephen's, Johnson st.,nearW. Taylor st. : St. Thomas' 
(colored). Dearborn st., near Thirtieth st.; Trinity. Michigan ave. and 
Twenty-sixth st. 

Episcopal Missions and Chapels. — The Missions and Chapels conducted by 
the Episcopalians are as follows: Advent Mission, W. Madison, near 
Albany ave. ; Chapel of St. Luke's Hospital, 1430 Indiana ave. ; Douglas 
Park Mission, superintendent. Rev. H. W. Scaife, M. D.; Home for 
Incurables, Ellis ave., south of Fifty -fifth st. ; Mission of Nativity, W. 
Indiana St., near Lincoln st.; Sisters of St. Mary Chapel, 2407 Dearborn 
St.; St. James' Mission, Elm st. ; St. Michael's and All Saints' Mission, 
4333 Ellis ave. ; Trinity Mission, S. Halsted and Thirty -first sts. 

Free Methodist Churches. — The Free Methodist Churches of Chicago are 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 191 

located as follows: First, 49 N. Morgan st. ; Seco2>d, 447 Ogden ave. ; South 
Side, 5259 Dearborn St.; Milwaukee Avenue, Mozart St., near Armitage 
ave. ; South Chicago, So. Chicago. 

Independent Churches. — The Independent Churches of Chicago are located 
as follows : Chicago Ayenue (Moody's), Chicago ave. nw. corner La 
Salle ave.; Centeal Church (Swing's). Central Music Hall, State st., se. 
corner Randolph St.; Market Street Mission, 38 Kinzie St.; People's 
Church (Thomas'), McVicker's Theatre. 

Jewish Synagogues. — The Jewish Synagogues of the city are located as 
follows : Anshe Emes, 341 Sedgwick st, ; Anshe Kanesses Israel, se. cor. 
Judd and Clinton sts.; Anshe Russia-Pola-Sedek, 519 S. Canal St.; Congre- 
gation Beth Hamedrash Hach-Odosch, 439 Clark st.; Congregation Beth 
HAiiEDRASH, 184 Pacific ave.; Congregation B'nai Abraham, se. cor. Wright 
St. and Newberry ave,; Congregation Emanuel, 280 and 282 N. Franklin 
St.; Congregation Ohaveh Emunah, 386 Clark st. ; Congregation Ohaveh 
Sholom, 582 S. Canal st. ; Congregation of the North Side, ne. cor. Rush 
St. and Walton pi. ; Congregation Moses Montefiore, 180 Augusta st. ; Con- 
gregation Bethel, N. May St., near W. Huron st.; Kehilath Anshe 
Maariv (Congregation of the men of the West), Indiana ave. and Twenty-sixth 
St. ; Kehilath B'nai Sholom (Sons of Peace), 1455 Michigan ave. ; Sinai 
Congregation, Indiana ave. and Twentj^-first st. ; Zion Congregation se. 
cor. Washington blvd. and Ogden ave. 

Methodist Episcopal Churches. — The Methodist Episcopal Churches of the 
city are located as follows: Ada Street, Adast., between W. Lake and Fulton 
sts.; AsBURY, 3120 and 3122, Fifth ave.; Avondale, Avondale ; Bethany, 
ne. cor. Francisco and W. Jackson sts, ; Brighton Park, nw. cor.Thirth-eighth 
St. and Washtenaw ave.; Centenary, 295 W. Monroe St., near Morgan st.; 
Chicago Lawn, Chicago Lawn; Deering, nw. cor. Ward and Dunning ste.; 
Douglas Park, 623 S. Washtenaw ave.; Erie Street, W. Erie st. near N. 
Robey st.; Fifty-Fourth Street, Fifty-fourth and Peoria sts.; First, Clark 
and Washington sts.; Forty-Seventh, Forty-seventh and Dreyersts.; Ful- 
ton Street^, 891 and 898 Fulton St., west of Oakley ave.; Grace, La Salle 
ave. and Locust st. ; Halsted Street, 778 to 784 S. Halsted st. ; Lincoln 
Street, se. cor. Ambrose and S. Lincoln sts. ; Marie Chapel, sw. cor. Twenty- 
third pi. and Wentworth ave.; Marshfield Avenue, Marshfield St.. south of 
W. Van Buren St.; Northwest, Homer st.. west of junct. Milwaukee 
and Western ave.; Oakland, sw. cor. Langley ave. and Oakland blvd.; Park 
Avenue, se. cor. Robey st. and Park ave.; Paulina Street, 3842 S. Paulina 
St., near Archer ave.; Sacramento Avenue, Sacramento ave., head of Adams 
St. ; Sheffield Avenue, Sheffield ave. and George st. ; Simpson Mission, La 
Salle and Fifty-ninth sts. ; South Chicago, ne. cor. Ninety-first st. and Superior 
ave.; South Park Avenue, Thirty-third st. and South Park ave.; State 
Street, 4637 State st. ; St. Paul's, W. Taylor st. and Center ave.; Leavitt 
and DeKalb Streets, near Ogden ave. ; Trinity. Indiana ave. near Twenty- 
fourth St.; Wabash Avenue, Fourteenth st. and Wabash ave.; Wesley, 1003 
and 1009 N. Halsted st, ; Western Avenue, W. Monroe st. and Western 
ave.; Wicker Park Mission, Milwaukee and W. North aves.; Winter 
Street, N. W. Gordon and Dashiel sts.: Woodlawn Park, Woodlawn 
Park. 

Methodist Episcopal {African) Churches. — The Methodist Episcopal (Afri- 
can) Churches of the city are as follows: Allen, Avondale; Bethel, 289 



192 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Third ave.; Quinn's, Fourth ave., near Van Buren St.; St. Stephen's, 682 
Austin ave.; St. Paul's, Dearborn St., between Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth 
sts. 

Methodist Episcopal {Bohemian) Ghurclies. — The Methodist Episcopal 
(Bohemian) Churches of the city are located as follows: First, 778 S. Hal- 
sted St.; Second, 447 S. Desplaines st.; Third, Paulina and Eighteenth sts. 

Methodist Episcopal {German) Churches. — The Methodist Episcopal (Ger- 
man) Churches of the city are located as follows: Ashland Avenue, 485 
N. Ashland ave. ; Centennial Mission, Wellington and Sheffield aves.. Lake 
Vie^v; Center Street, nw. cor. Dayton and Centre sts.; Clybourne Ave- 
nue, 51 and 53 Clybourne ave.; Deering Mission, Clybourne ave., near 
FuUerton ave.; Ebenezer, sw. cor. Thirty-first and Ullman sts.; Fullerton 
Avenue, ne. cor. N. Western ave. and W. Fullerton ave.; Immanuel, W. 
Nineteenth and Laflinsts.; Maxwell Street, 308 Maxwell St.; Portland 
Avenue, se. cor. Twenty-eighth st. and Portland ave. ; Robey Street Mission, 
Robeyst., near W. Twelfth St.; South Chicago Mission, South Chicago; 
Wentworth Avenue, Wentworth ave., south of Thirty-seventh st. 

Methodist Episcopal {Norwegian) Ghurches. — The Methodist Episcopal 
(N"orwegian) Churches of the city are located as follows: Immanuel, W. 
H'lron and Bickerdike sts.; First, se. cor. Sangamon and W. Indiana sts.; 
Maplewood Avenue, 785 Maplewood ave. 

Methodist Episcopal {Swedish) Churches. — The Methodist Episcopal (Swed- 
ish) Churches of the city are located as follows: Atlantic Street, Atlantic 
and Fifty-second sts.; Englewood, Sixty-seventh street and Stewart ave.; 
First, N. Market and Oak sts.; Humboldt Park, Fairfield ave., near 
North ave.; L\ke View, Baxter st. and Noble ave.; May Street, N. May 
St., between W. Ohio and Erie sts,; Pullman, Arcade blvd., Pullman; Fifth 
Avenue, ne. cor. Thirty-third st. and Fifth ave.; Swedish Mission, Chicago 
ave., opposite Milton ave. 

Presbyterian Ghurclies. — The Presbyterian Churches of the city are 
located as follows: Belden Avenue, Belden and Seminary aves.; Bethany, 
Humboldt Park blvd., north of Humboldt Park; Campbell Park, Leavitt st, 
and Campbell Park; Brookline, Brookline; Central Park, W. Madison, 
nw. cor. Sacramento ave.. Occidental Hall; Church of the Covenant, se. cor. 
Belden ave. and N. Halsted St.; Eighth Church, nw. cor. Robey and Washing- 
ton blvd.; Fifth Church, Thirtieth st. and Indiana ave.; Emerald Avenue, 
Emerald ave and Sixty-seventh St.; First Church of Englewood, Sixty- 
fourth and Yale sts.; First Church, Indiana ave. and Twenty-first st.; 
First (German) Church, Howe and Centre sts.; First (Scotch Church), S. 
Sangamon and W. Adams sts.; First (United Church), S. W. Paulina and W. 
Monl-oe sts.; Forty-first Street, Prairie ave. and Forty-first st.; Fourth, 
Rush and Superior sts.; Fullerton Avenue, nw. cor. Larrabeest. and Fuller- 
ton ave.; Grace (colored), 3283 State st.; Holland. Noble and W. Erie sts.; 
Hyde Park, Hyde Park; Immanuel, Archer ave. and Thirty-first st.; 
Jefferson Park, W. Adams and Throop sts.; Lake. nw. cor. Forty-second 
and Winter sts. ; Lake View, Evanston ave. and Addison st. ; Moreland, 
Fulton and W. Forty-eighth sts.; Normal Park, Seventy-second st. and Went- 
worth ave.; Pullman, Pullman; Railroad Chapel, 1419 Siate St.; Reunion, 
sw. cor. Hastings st. and S. Ashland ave.; Second, Michigan ave. and Twen- 
tieth St.; Sixth, Vincennes and Oak aves.; Sixtieth Street, Sixtieth and 
School sts.; South Chicago, South Chicago; Third, S. Ashland and Ogden 




DEARBORN PASSENGER STATION. 



THE E:N CYCLOPEDIA 195 

aves.; Westminster, 161 S. Peoria st., cor. W. Jackson st. ; Welsh, ne. cor. 
Sangamon and W. Monroe sts. ; Woodlawn Park, Woodlawn Park. 

Presbyterian Missions. — The missions conducted by the Presbyterians 
are located as follows: Burr, se. cor. Twenty-third st. and Wentworih ave.; 
Hope, Augusta st., near Western ave.; Moseley, 2539 Calumet ave,; 
Onward, W. Indiana st. and Hoyne ave.; Gross Park, Cornelia st. and In. 
Ashland ave.; Christ Chapel, Centre and Orchard sts.; West Ohio Street, 
W. Ohio St. , near Lawndale ave. ; Elston Avenue, Elston ave. , near Fullerton 
ave.; Larrabee Street, Larrabee St., near Clybourne ave.; Colorado 
Avenue, Colorado ave., near W. Harrison; Wentworth Avenue, Went- 
worthave., near Forty-third st. Services are held at all these Missions at 
3 p. M. Sundays. 

Presbyterian Church {United.) — First Church, located at the corner of 
W. Monroe and South Paulina sts. 

Roman Catholic Churches. — Archbishop of Chicago, Most Rev. Patrick A. 
Feehan, D.D.; vicar general. Very Rev. D. M. J. Dowling; chancellor and 
secretary, Rev. P. J. Muldoon, 311 Superior st. The Roman Catholic 
Churches of the city are located as follows: Cathedral op the Holy 
Name, Superior and N State sts.; All Saints' Church, sw. cor. Twenty- 
fifth pi. and Wallace St.; Chapel of Our Lady op Mercy, St. Paul's 
Home; Church of Notre Dame, De Chicago (French), Vernon Park pi. 
and Sibley St.; Church of Our Lady op Good Counsel (Bohemian), West- 
ern ave. and Cornelia st. ; Church op Our Lady op Mount Carmel, Welling" 
ton and Beacher sts.; Church op Our Lady op Sorrows, 1406 W. Jackson 
st ; Church op the Annunciation, sw. cor. Wabansia ave. and N. Paulina 
St.; Church op the Assumption (Italian), Hlinois St., near N, Market St.; 
Church op the Holy Angels, 282 Oakwood blvd. ; Church op the Holy 
Angels, Hoyne ave.; Church op the Holy Family, May and W. Twelfth 
Sts.; Church of the Holy Rosary, sw. cor. S. Park ave. and One Hundred 
and Thirteenth St., Roseland; Church op the liiMACULATE Conception, N. 
Franklin St., north of Schiller st. ; Church op the Nativity, Thirty-seventh 
and Dashielsts.; Church op the Sacred Heart, se. cor. W. Nineteenth 
and Johnson sts.; Church of the Visitation, Fifty-first and Morgan sts.; 
Holy Trinity ((German), S. Lincoln and Taylor sts,; Holy Trinity (Polish), 
Noble and Ingraham sts.; Immaculate Conception B. V. M, (German), 2944- 
2946 Bonfield st,, near Archer ave.; Immaculate Conception B. V. M. 
(Polish), nw, cor. Eighty -eighth st, and Commercial ave,; St, Albert's 
Church (Polish), W. Seventeenth and Paulina sts.; St. Agntes', S. Washte- 
naw ave,, near Thirty-eighth st, ; St. Aloysius' ((3-erman), Thompson and 
Davis sts.; St. Alphonsus' (German), Lincoln and Southport aves,; St, 
Ann's, Fifty-fifth st. and Wentworth ave.; St. Anthony of Padua (German), 
ae. cor. Twenty -fourth pi. and Hanover St.; St. Augustin's (German), Fifty- 
first and Laflin sts,; St. Augustin's (colored), 2251 Indiana ave,; St, Ber- 
nard's, Sixty-sixth st, and Stewart ave. ; St. Bernard's Church (French), 
Brighton Park; St. Boniface's (German), Cornell and Noble sts.; St. 
Bridget's, Archer ave, and Church pi.; St. Cecelia's, Bristol St., 
near Wentworth ave.; St. Charles Borromeo's, 87-91 Cypress st,; St. 
Columbkill's, N. Paulina and W. Indiana sts. ; St. Elizabeth's, ne. cor. 
State and Forty-first sts. ; St. Francis op Assisium (German), W. Twelfth 
St. and Newberry ave. ; St. Francis De Sales, Ewing ave. and One Hundred 
and Second St.; St. Francis Xayier (German), Avondale; St. Gabriel's, se. 
cor, Wallace and Forty-fifth sts. ; St, George's (German), 8915 Fifth ave. ; 



194 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

St. Heowig's (Polish), North side Kosciusco, bet. N. Hoyne ave. and St. 
Hedwigst.; St. James', Wabash ave. and Thirtieth St.; St. Jarlath's, Her- 
mitage ave. and W. Jackson St.; St. John's, Eighteenth and Clark sts.; St. 
John Nepomucene's (Bohemian), Twenty-fifth st. and Portland ave.; St, 
John the Baptist (French), Thirty -third ct., near S. Wood St.; St. Joseph's 
(German), N. Market and Hill sts. ; St. Joseph's (Polish), Forty-eighth and 
Paulina sts. ; St. Josaphat's (Polish), nvs^. cor. Ward st. and Belden ave. ; St. 
Lawrence's, Seventy-fifth st., near Brooks ave., Grand Crossing; St. Legs, 
Wright St. and Schorling ave.. Auburn Park; St. Louis, Pullman; St; 
Malacht's, Walnut st. and Western ave. ; St. Martin's (German), Forty- 
ninth and School sts.; St. Mary's, Wabash ave. and Eldridge ct.; St. 
Mary's of Perpetual Help (Polish), 901 Thirty-second st., near Ullman St.; 
St. Mathias', Bowmanville; St. Michael's (German), Eugenie st. and 
Cleveland ave.; St. Patrick's, Commercial ave., near Ninety-fifth st., South 
Chicago;ST. Patrick's, S.Desplainesand W. Adams sts. ;St. Paul's (German), 
S. Hoyne ave. and AmiDrose st. ; St. Peter's (German), Clark and Polk sts.; 
SS, Peter and Paul, Ninety-first st. and Exchange ave.. South Chicago; St. 
Philip's, Park ave. and W. Forty-third st.; St. Pius', se. cor. W. Nineteenth 
St. and S. Ashland ave. ; St. Procopius' (Bohemian), Allport and W. Eight- 
eenth sts.; St. Rose of Lima, Ashland ave., neai Forty-eighth St.; St. 
Stanislaus Kostka's (Polish), Noble and Ingraham sts. ; St, Stephen's, 
N. Sangamon and W. Ohio sts.; St. Sylvester's, California and Shakespeare 
aves. ; St. Teresa's (German), Centre and Clyde sts. ; St. Thomas', Fifty- 
fifth St., Hyde Park.; St. Viateur's, Belmont and Crawford aves.; St. 
YiNCENT De Paul's, Webster ave. and Osgood St.; St, Vitus, Paulina and 
Van Horn sts.; St. Wenceslaus' (Bohemian), 173 De Koven st. 

Swedenhorgian {New Jerusalem) Churches. — The Swedenborgian (New- 
Jerusalem) Churches of the city are located as follows: New Church 
Temple, Van Buren st,, east of Wabash ave.; German Congregation, 410 
W. Chicago ave. 

TJnitaHan Churches. — The Unitarian Churches of the city are located as 
follows: All Souls', Oakwood blvd., se. corner Langley ave,; Church of 
the Messiah, Michigan ave. and Twenty-third st.; Third, nw. cor. Laflin 
and W. Monroe sts.; TJnity, se. cor. Walton pi. and Dearborn ave. 

Uiiiversalist Churches. — The Universalist Churches of the city are located 
as follows. Church of the Redeemer, ne. cor. Robey st. and Warren ave. ; 
Church of our Father, Grant pi. and Larrabee st, ; St. Paul's, Prairie ave. 
and Thirtieth St. ; ExGLEWooD, Sixty third St., Englewood; Ravenswood, 
Ravens wood; Ryder, Woodlawn Park, 

Miscellaneous Churches. — Churches not mentioned above are located as 
follows: Central Meeting of Friends, Room 4 Athenseum bldg, ser- 
vices every 1st day at 10:45 a. m, ; Disciples of Christ, meet every 1st day 
at 10:30 A. m. and 7:30 p. m. at 23 and 25 Kendall st, ; Disciples of Jesus the 
Christ, meet at 156 Evergreen ave,; First Society op Spiritualists, meet 
at 55 S. Ada at 10:45 a. m. and 7:45 p. m., Sundays; South Side Mediums' 
Society, meets Sundays at 159 Twenty-second; Radical Progressive 
Spiritualist Association, meets Sundays at 517 W. Madison; Young Peo- 
ple's Progressive Association, meets Sundays at Thirty -fifth st. and 
Indiana ave.; Friends (Orthodox) Meeting-House, Twenty-sixth st., bet. 
Indiana and Prairie aves,, services 10:30 a, m.; German Advent, 273 and 274 
Augusta St., services 10 a, m, and 7:30 p. m.; Scandinavian Chapel, 269 W. 
Erie st., services Saturday, 10 a. m. 



THE ElfCYCLOPEDIA. 195 

CITY RAILWAY SERVICE. 

The City railway, or intramural service of Chicago, embraces horse-car, 
cable, electric and elevated railroads. The great existing street-car compa- 
nies operating horse and cable lines are the Chicago City Railway Company, 
which operates the lines of the South Side; the "West Chicago City Railway 
Company, which operates the lines of the West Side, being practically the 
owner of the Chicago Passenger Railway Company, which also operates 
lines in that division of the city; and the North Chicago Street Railroad Com- 
pany, which operates the lines of the North Side, The South Chicago City 
Railway Company is an independent line. The West Chicago, North Chi- 
cago and Chicago Passenger Railway Company are under one management, 
Mr. Charles T. Yerkes being president. Chicago, according to the last cen- 
sus, stands third in length of street railways, as follows: Philadelphia, 283 
miles; Boston, 201 miles; Chicago, 185 miles; New York, 177 miles. But 
when we take miles of track, including sidings and switches, the ratio is 
changed as follows; Chicago, 375 miles; New York, 369 miles; Boston, 329 
miles; Philadelphia, 324 miles. 

Character of the Service. — In view of all the surrounding circum- 
stances, many of which have contributed toward making street car transpor- 
tation in Chicago difficult, the service rendered the public by the different 
street railway companies is unsurpassed in any city in the world. Yet in no 
city in the country, probably, have street car companies been subjected to 
more severe and unfair criticism. The basis of this criticism has usually 
been a comparison with the lines operated in other and smaller places, and 
in population centers where the conditions are entirely unlike those which 
have to be contended with in Chicago, The West and North Side companies 
have borne the brunt of the ill-natured and unreasonable abuse, which cer- 
tain papers sent broadcast without as much as deigning intelligent inquiry as 
to the causes of such public annoyance as has occurred. Especially is this 
the case in the matter of stoppages and accidents of various kimds, all of 
which have been susceptible of satisfactory explanation, and that without 
the -slightest reflection on the several managements, or the city. The climatic 
difficulties, for instance, have not been the slightest of the causes, nor yet 
the easiest to overcome in perfecting the several cable systems. We have 
here the greatest extremes of heat and cold, the variations at times having 
been as radical as 60° in twenty-four hours. Common intelligence under- 
stands at a glance that such a condition means the great contraction and 
expansion of metals, and opens upa long line of impediments in the success- 
ful operating of machinery exposed to the elements, to say nothing of the 
effect on the slot rails of cable roads. These great extremes are not experi- 
enced in cities like San Francisco, St. Louis, Cincinnati, or New York, yet 
the critics seem to have forgotten this. In many of the cities, too, it is unusual 
for a "grip" car to haul more than one trailer. But in Chicago the South, 
North and West Side lines always draw two, and often three trailers, and con- 
sequently much heavier loads than are carried in other places. Then, again, 
nowhere else do the " grips" run so close together as here, especially in the 
early morning and evening hours when they are often not more than a quarter 
of a minute apart. This, however, is only a mere taste of the exactions on 



196 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

the "West and North Side systems by comparison, for while on most cable 
roads the tracks are straight and run on a level, here they bend around blocks 
in the formation of return "loops," and while on the " loops" climb steep 
tunnel grades, and this when they are loaded the heaviest. For instance, the 
West Madison street train coming east turns at Jefferson and Madison sts., 
at Jefferson and Washington (going into the tunnel beneath the river), at 
Washington and Fifth ave. (having passed under the river), at Fifth ave. and 
Madison, and at Madison and La Salle ; and going west, at La Salle and Ran- 
dolph, at Randolph and Fifth ave., at Fifth ave. and Washington, at Wash- 
ington and Jefferson, and at Jefferson and Madison. The service of the 
North Side cable is equally, if not more, exacting — its loop being longer, its 
curves shorter, and the engineering difficulties more complicated. In a word, 
nowhere else are like demands made on cable roads, for while it is true that 
other systems have " loops," it is also true that, from the nature of their 
termini they are used as switches to haul empty cars around; then, again, 
the further fact that the systems spoken of are the only ones in the country 
that have tunnels as parts of their "loops" should not be lost sight of in 
making comparisons. But, with it all, the service of these particular sys- 
tems is simply marvelous in its regularity, and at the same time makes the 
dream of rapid transit a reality. The cars are comfortable, the roads thor- 
oughly equipped. 

Inceeasing Traffic, — The traffic on the street car lines and suburban 
railways is increasing at an enormous rate annually. The street cars in all 
divisions of the city are over-crowded almost constantly. The North, West 
and South Side cars are all carrying more people than they were built to 
carry, but still the number of passengersis increasing everyday. The sab- 
urban trains are all crowded. On the Illinois Central the same state of affairs 
existSi That road has 108 trains every day to accommodate its suburban traf- 
fic, and, although from five to twelve cars on each train, which run half an 
hour apart, except in the early morning and evening hours, when there is an 
interval of five minutes between trains, the seats are always filled, and often 
people are standing as near together as possible, in every car. When a train 
is a few minutes late the crowding is worse. The Northwestern and St. Paul 
trains are also crowded, while the newer roads, which are just developing a 
suburban region, can scarcely keep up with the tax upon their rolling stock. 

Pay op Cable Employes. — The conductors and gripmcn receive pay 
according to the number of trips made. On the Cottage Grove line the runs 
are numbered from 1 to 113 and on State st. from 1 to 111. In addition to the 
force that runs these cars are sixty-five extra gripmen and conductors on the 
Cottage Grove line and nearly an equal number on the State st. line. A 
"regular" has his "run" as long as he can do his work. An "extra" goes 
on only when one of the "regulars" is off, or when extra cars are put on. 
Consequently all the employes desire to become regulars. On the Cottage 
Grove line the conductors and gripmen receive forty-two cents for a round 
trip from Thirty-ninth st, north, and sixty cents for a round trip over the 
entire length of the line. On the State st. line the pay is forty and fifty-six 
cents respectively. The average time required to make the trip from Thirty- 
ninth St. is 115 minutes, which gives each conductor and gripman about $3.20 
a day. 

Steam Railroad Service. — It should be borne in mind that in addition 
to the street railways of this city it has a steam railroad service, in connec- 
tion with the suburban lines of several of the great railroad companies, which 



THE e:s^cyclopedia. 197 

adds immensely to the transportation facilities of the public between points 
within the corporate limits. It is a well-known fact that the Illinois Central 
railroad suburban trains carry more passengers than any other suburban line 
in the world. The suburban trains of the company carried 15,000,000 
passengers in 1890. Of this number fully four-fifths were passengers carried 
between points within the city limits. The Chicago & North-Western; the 
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; the Northern Pacific ; the Grand Trunk ; 
the Eastern Illinois, and other railroad companies do a heavy suburban business. 
Without the supplementary aid of these lines it would be impossible for the 
existing lines of street railways to meet the demands of the public for transit. 

Chicago City Railway (7(??7ij9o^ny. — This is the company which operates the 
South Side cable system. During the pasteighteen years the property has 
grown from 22)^ miles of track to 152, and from 60 bobtail cars to 1,250 
of the largest and best. Its revenue has increased from $600,000 a year to 
nearly three and one-half millions; its patronage from 30,000 passengers a 
day to 200,000; the speed of its cars from five miles an hour to an average of 
ten miles an hour. The company has developed a cable system second to 
none in the world in extent, eflSciency, and public regard. During these 
eighteen years not a single strike occurred among the employes of the com- 
pany. 

Business Done in 1890.— During 1890 the Chicago City Railway, or, as 
it is now familiarly known, the South Side cable line, carried 68,734,969 
passengers, producing a revenue to the company of $3,436,748. Of this, 
$2,311,455 was earned by the cable cars, and $1,125,293 by the horse cars. 
The cost of operating the road was $2,297,651, leaving for net earnings 
$1,139,097. Out of this there was paid for interest $220,270, and four divi- 
dends of 3 per cent, each on a capital of $5,000,000, amounting to $600,000 — 
$820,270— leaving a surplus of $318,826. After pay ing all operating expenses, 
interest, and dividends, the net earnings, after paying interest, were equal 
to 18.37 per cent, on the capital. The year was the most prosperous in the 
history of the company, as the gross earnings exceeded those of 18S9 by 
$564,246.70. The average earnings per day were $9,415.75. The average 
daily earnings exceeded those of 1889 by $1,545, showing that an average of 
30,917 passengers were carried every day in 1890, more than the previous 
year. The percentage of expenses to earnings was 66.85, a decrease of 3.72 
per cent, over 1889. The cost of operating per mile per car was, by cable, 
9.650 cents; by horses, 21.985 cents. JS'umber of miles run by cable, 12,740,- 
480; number of miles run by horses, 4,859,200. 

The net earnings of the road for the last five years were as follows: 
1886, $619,253; 1887, $686,259; 1888, $683,338; 1889, $845,339; 1890, $1,139,- 
097. 

Equipment op Line. — During 1890 one hundred new open cars were 
built at a cost of $73,122. The present equipment consists of 222 grip cars 
and 1,028 other cars. There are 100 new grip-cars in process of construction. 
The cost of car repairs was $104,876. The track has been Increased from 
148.74 miles to 152.95, of which 34.19 miles are cable and 118.76 miles are 
horse line. At the beginning of the year the company owned 2,273 head of 
horses. During the year there were purchased 635 horses at a cost of $79,- 
460, an average of $125 per head. The number that died was 132, entailing a 
loss of $17,230. Two hundred and sixty -eight horses were sold for $34,854, 



198 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

whicii was $34,257 less than tkey cost ; making a total loss of horses that 
died and were sold of $41,487; leaving on hand at the close of the year 2,508 
horses. 

Officers of the Company. — At the last annual meeting of the stock- 
holders of the company, Mr. C. B. Holmes, who had been its superintendent 
for eighteen years and its president for a great part of this time, presented 
his resignation, which was accepted as to the presidency. He was dropped 
also from the Board of Directors and the following gentlemen were elected: 
Lambert Tree, Erskine M. Phelps, George H, Wheeler, James C. King, 
D. K. Pearsons, S. W. Allerton, L. Z. Leiter. Mr. George H. Wheeler was 
elected president and the superintendency having been offered to Mr. Holmes 

he declined to accept it. The superintendent at present is Mr. . 

At the meeting above referred to, $5,400,000 of the $6,000,000 of capital 
stock of the company was represented. 

J^orih Chicago Street Railroad Company. — This company operates the 
horse and cable railroads of the North Division of the city, and is familiarly 
known as the North Side line. 

Business Done in 1890. — The earnings of the North Chicago Street 
Railway Company in 1890 were $1,972,172; expenses, $1,103,276; net earn- 
ings, $868,899; fixed charges, $353,750; surplus, $515,149. The increase of 
earnings in 1890 over 1889 was $331,656; increase in expenses, $36,010; car 
mileage of 1860, 6,774,103; number of passengers carried, 39,481,445; number 
of trips made, 1,080,975. 

Extensions During- 1891. — Several important extensions of the North 
Side cable system will be pushed forward during the present year. 

System op Operation. — The South Side cable line was the first in oper- 
ation here, having been opened to the public in 1882. Since that time it has 
made numerous additions to the length of its track, as well as its equipment. 
It has three great power-houses, located respectively at State and Twenty, 
first streets, State and Fifty-second streets, and Cottage Grove avenue and 
Fifty-fifth street. This line had the advantage from the first of a level and 
straight roadway. Unlike the North and West Side lines it was not com- 
pelled to cross under the river, nor to make many curves at its terminals. 
The North Side line was the next to change from horse to cable propulsion, 
and was a decidedly tame affair before the present management took hold of 
it. The change from horses to the cable, it is estimated, has added 75,000 
people to the population of that division of the city and increased the value 
of real estate $20,000,000 within five years. The Clark Street power-house of 
the line is magnificently equipped, as is also the loop power-house at the 
LaSallestreet tunnel, and the plant on Lincoln avenue for the operation of 
that line. There is no finer machinery anywhere, and in the general detail 
nothing has been spared that could possibly add to the efficiency of the com- 
pany's service, or the comfort of its patrons. Those who at first were pro- 
lific with adverse criticism have become just as lavish in their encomiums of 
praise, and the entire system is now recognized by the unprejudiced as being 
without its superior in the country, 

Officers of the Company. — The president of the company is Mr. C. T. 
Yerkes. The directors are: Charles T. Yerkes, W. L. Elkins, W. D. 
Meeker, and C. A. Spring, Jr. 

West Chicago Street Railroad Company. — This company operates the West 
3ide horse and cable system of railways, including the lines of the Chicago 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 199 

Passenger Railway Company. The capital stock of the West Chicago Street 
Railroad Company is $10,000,000. 

Business Done in 1890. — The gross receipts of the company for 1890 
were $3,663,381 ; operating expenses, $2,202,767 ; net income, $1,460,613 ; 
fixed charges, $755,749 ; appliable to dividends, $704,864, or about 7 per cent, 
on the capital stock. The added facilities afforded by the cable increased 
the receipts of the Milwaukee ave. line 100 per cent., and on the Madison st. 
line 60 per cent. The number of passengers carried during the year was 
75,152,694. This was an increase over 1889 of 13.82 per cent. The cost of 
carrying each passenger averaged 2.93 cents. This was a decrease of .04 cents. 
The' number of miles the cars traveled was 12,215,903, an increase of 15.57 
per cent. 

Cabling Blue Island Avenue. — It is expected by the company that the 
work of laying cable track on Blue Island ave., the great southwestern artery 
of the West Division, will be commenced during 1891. 

CoiiPARATivE Cost of Cable and Horse Propulsion. — The average 
cost of running a horse car a mile has been 18 cents. Cable expenses are 
much less than that. The average number of miles traveled by a horse each 
day has been fourteen miles. The average feed required by the horses has 
been sixteen pounds of grain and ten pounds of hay. 

Description op Cable Syste:h. — The West Side system is the newest 
and most elaborate in the city and second to none in the extent of its 
resources, or the perfection of its general equipment, and for this reason 
whatever is said in a descriptive way must naturally be confined to it. This, 
as well as the North Side road, it will be borne in mind, reaches the South 
Side or business centre by way of tunnels under the Chicago river. These 
tunnels were built by the city, and prior to the companies in question using 
them were mere holes in the ground and represented the waste of so much 
public money. President Yerkes, however, saw how they could be utilized 
to abace the bridge nuisance, and otherwise serve the people, and was quick 
to move in the matter of obtaining their use. In consideration of the city 
allowing him to use the LaSalle street tunnel he built and donated to the 
public two double steel steam bridges across the river, one at Wells and the 
other at Clark street, at a cost of over $300,000. The Washington street tun- 
nel was in a far worse condition when taken hold of — in fact, it had been 
abmdoned — and before it could be used had to be rebuilt at a cost of nearly 
$200,000. Both tunnels are now totally unlike what they were a few years 
ago, and the public not only recognizes the wisdom of their present use, but 
finds in them the abolition of the former waits at the swing bridges, which is 
worth additional hundreds of thousands of dollars to the cily every year. 

The Madison Street Line, — The West Side cable system consists of 
two distinct lines — the Madison street line, which runs directly west, and the 
Milwaukee avenue line, which runs northwest. Both lines connect with the 
downtown " loop" hereafter referred to, and in smoothness of trackage 
and comoleteaess of equinraent are prepared to invite the most rigid investiga- 
tion and comparison. The power for the operation of the system is supplied 
from three distinct power-houses, all of which are supplied with the best ma- 
chinery and appliances thatcould be obtained. The principal power-house is 
located at Madison and Rockwell sts. , being 210 x 225 feet. Itcontains two 1,200 
horsepower engines, and one of these is going night and day (moving the cars 
on Madison st.), while the other is held in reserve in case of an accident. The 
cable running west t© Fortieth street is driven at the rate of fourteen miles an 



200 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

hour, while the one running east is driven ten and a half miles an hour ; the 
speed of either of them, however, can be increased at will. There is in addi- 
tion a Corliss engine to propel a loop rope in the power-house, by means of 
which the cars can be reversed at Rockwell st. whenever it is necessary. The 
power-house itself is a neat and attractive structure, lighted by electricity, 
and surmounted by a smoke-stack 175 feet high. 

The Milwaukee Avenue Line.— The Milwaukee avenue power-house, 
located at the corner of Cleaver st., in outward appearance and general 
equip aient is very similar to the one on Madison st It is supplied with two 
Corliss engines of 1,200 horse-power each, which were built by Frazer& 
Chalmers,"bf Chicago. These two engines operate the entire Milwaukee ave. 
system, which extends from Jefferson and Washington sts. to Armitage ave. 
The west end rope is driven at the rate of twelve miles an hour, while the east 
end rope is moved at the rate of ten and one-half miles. As with the Madison 
St. ropes, their speed, however, can be increased or lessened at will. 

The Tunnel Loop. — The third power-house is located at the corner of 
Jefferson and Washington sts., and is where the company's offices are to be 
found. This station is furnished with two five hundred horse-power Weth- 
erell-Corliss engines, which are used to operate^ the Washington street tunnel 
loop. The cars of both the Madison st, and Milwaukee ave. lines are deliv- 
ered to the cable at this station, and by it they are drawn through the tunnel 
and around the loop heretofore mentioned. The service of this particular 
cable is very exacting. At times the heavily loaded trains are but a few sec- 
onds apart, yet there is seldom, if ever, any cause for complaint, so perfect 
are all the details and so elaborate the machinery and appliances. The 
dynamos for lighting the tunnel are also located at this point, as is also the 
base of an electric signal system which extends along the several cable lines. 
By this system the conductor or gripman can communicate with the power- 
houses and offices at any time, which is an adjunct of almost incalculable 
advantage in keeping the tracks clear and promptly stopping the machinery 
in case of accidents from any cause. 

The New Tunnel. — The western section of the new tunnel under the 
river between Jackson and Van Burensts,, through which the West Side 
Company will run its cable line for connection with the lines south of Madi- 
son St., was completed early in the present year. The eastern section will be 
completed early in 1892. 

Trackage of the Company. — During 1890 the company laid seven and 
one-half miles of new track. Fifty miles of new track will probably be 
laid during the present year, if the company and the city council come to an 
understanding regarding rights of way, etc. 

Officers op the Company. — The officers are : President, Mr. C. T. 
Yerkes. Directors : C. T. Yerkes, W. L. Elkins, J. B, Parsons, R, C. Craw- 
ford, David R. Fraser. 

OtTier Lines Comjileted and Projected. — The year 1891 will probably see 
remarkable activity in the building of rapid transit lines of city railway. 
Among the new lines completed, under way and projected, are the following: 
Calumet Electric Road. — This line is but the beginning of an exten- 
sive system to connect the various manufacturing and residence suburbs 
which now lack proper communication with each other. It extends from 
the South Chimgo Rolling Mills by way of Eighty-ninth st., Mackinaw ave., 
Harbor ave., Ninety-third st. and Stony Island ave. to Ninety -fifth st. The 



i.n.£j HjJUKj i.K/ij\jtrxiux2\.. /CUX 



Rae system of profpulsion by means of overhead wires is employed. It dif- 
fers from the Sprague and the Thompson-Houston systems chiefly in hav- 
ing a single motor for each car instead of two smaller ones. A speed of from 
fitteen to twenty miles is attained with entire safety, as the road-bed is firm 
and the cars are strongly built, weighing more than five tons each. The 
curves and switches are guarded against accident by an automatic device of 
which Mr. Loss is the inventor. At the power-house are engines of 125 horse- 
power, capable of supplying the lines now in existence, that is the one opened 
yesterday and another already built from Pullman to Cottage Grove ave. and 
Eighty-seventh street. A connecting line has been opened from South Chicago 
to the Pullman line at Cottage Grove avenue and One Hundred and Fourth 
street. As soon as practicable the system will be extended to One Hundred 
and Fifteenth street, through One Hundred and Fifteenth St., Michigan 
avenue, One Hundred and Eleventh street, and Vincennes road, around 
Washington Heights and Morgan Park. Further extensions will probably 
follow. The overhead system will be removed if an economical and other- 
wise suitable storage battery appears. It is said that none at present 
exists. 

Gar ette Lines. — Operated by the Russell Street Carette Company. Office 
of company, 148 S. Green street. Officers: A. W. Buakwood, president; W. 
H. Cowles, secretary and general manager ; Edward Twitty, treasurer. 
Organized July 19, 1889. This company operates carette lines over Madison, 
Adama and Rush streets, from Ashland avenue to Lincoln Park. Number 
of cars at present in the service, thirty-five; number of horses, three hundred. 
The company expects to increase its equipment during the next three years to 
two or three hundred cars. This is the only line that transports passengers 
without change, between the West and ]Srorth Sides of the city, covering a 
portion of the South Side on the way. The Russell Carette is "^a more com- 
fortable vehicle than any yet introduced to meet the demands of the public 
for a conveyance which can be operated on streets without tracks. It is 
much larger and moves much easier than the omnibus. It is provided with a 
rear platform, which is as low and convenient ior elderly persons as the 
street car platform. A conductor as well as a driver accompanies every 
carette and the general conduct of the vehicle is similar to that followed in the 
management of the street car. The carette has the advantage of being able 
to turn aside from its course to evade other vehicles, while it^can pick up and 
discharge its passengers at the curb line. Each carette will furnish seats com- 
fortably for twenty persons -ten on each side— and in addition there is a seat 
in front for at least three persons, which is very popular. While the rear 
platform affords standing room for a number of persons, each carette actually 
seats twenty-three persons, yet they frequently carry from thirty to forty per- 
sons at a time and have had as many as forty-seven passengers on a single 
trip. The carettes are nicely upholstered, contain spring seats and backs 
covered with Wilton carpet. The interior is finished with white, natural 
woods, ash and cherry being used for doors, windows, frames, etc. All trim- 
mings are of bronze. 

Cicero axd Proviso Street Railway Company.— The electric line oper- 
ated by this company extends from the terminus of the W. Madison st. cable 
line, W. Madison and Fortieth sts., to Oak Park. It will be extended further 
west. The ride is a delightful one, passing as the line does through some of 
the most beautiful of our western prairie suburbs. 

Lake Street Elevated Railroad. — The superstructure of this 
railroad was completed from Canal street, along Lake street on the West 



202 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Side, very nearly to Union Park, in the spring of the present year. Its 
course in the future is entirely unsettled, but the probabilities are that it 
will have two branches, one extending toward the northwestern portion of the 
city, the other extending to the southwestern, while the main stem will follow 
the iiue of Lake street into Cicero, passing through the environs of Austin 
and Oak Park. As far as completed the road is substantially built. It will 
have a double track, and will be operated in a manner similar to the system 
employed on the New York elevated roads. The question of securing a 
South Side terminal, that is, a starting-point on the south side of the city, or 
in the business district, is not settled. There have been several propositions 
regarding the establishment of a terminal east of the south branch of the 
river, but all have been abandoned for the time being at least. The probable 
route of the line through the business district is via the alley -ways parallel- 
ing Lake street, from Market street east. The officers are: President, P. H. 
Rice; secretary, O. W. Bruner; treasurer, M. C. McDonald. These three 
constitute an executive board. Directors: P. H. Rice, O. W. Bruner, H. P. 
Thompson, O. M. Brady, M. C. McDonald, W. H. Fitzgerald, H. P. Holland, 
T. P. Hicks and Edward Walker. 

Milwaukee Avenue Elevated Road.— The Chicago Transit Company, 
with a capital stock of $12,000,000, was granted articles of incorporation 
recently by the Secretary of State. The incorporators are: J. M. Hannahs, 
who is Vice-president of the Elevated road which expects to run up Mil- 
waukee avenue; H. M. Taylor, and G. W. Stanford. The incorporators say 
they intend to construct a road that will furnish rapid transit for the 
North Side residents from some point on the river between State and Market 
and to build their road on private property, which they will acquire by pur- 
chase, lease, or condemnation to some portion of the city where the streets 
are less crowded. The road will run from the Chicago River to Waukegan, 
but it is probable it will be elevated only to Eyanston, beyond it will be a 
surface road. The motive power will be electricity. 

Randolph Street Elevated Railroad.— The company which projected 
this line, to penetrate the West Division from the heart of the city, via Randolph 
St., has met with some obstacles in the courts, and its future movements are 
uncertain. 

South End Electric Railway.— A new corporation; capital, $100,000. 
The plan is to connect the territory on the ridge with the Pullman electric 
lines at One Hundred and Fifteenth, One Hundred and Eleventh, One 
Hundred and Third, and Ninety-fifth streets, and also to connect at the 
latter with the Calumet Electric street railroad for South Chicago. The 
road will be one of the best in the country. The rails used will be of the 
girder type, weighing seventy pounds to the yard. The electrical apparatus 
is to be of the very best, involving some new features whereby all noise is 
obviated and a high rate of speed can be maintained if necessary. 

South Side Alley " L " Road.— An elevated railroad line running from 
Van Buren St., over the alley between State st. and Wabash avenue, to the 
southern limits of the city; still incomplete, though being rapidly pushed 
forward. The entire structure from Thirty-ninth st. to Twelfth st. is now 
either delivered on the ground or in process of manufacture and ready to be 
delivered as rapidly as the ground can be cleared. The work of acquiring 
the right of way is progressing rapidly both by private settlement and con- 
demnation in the courts. The foundations are now in the ground north, 
nearly to Eighteenth St., and buildings are being removed and torn down as 



xxix:> Jii-n \_' X v^jjv/i -Cii-fi.^-xi 



far north as Twelfth st. Over 150 buildings have thus far been removed or 
torn down, and all of the owners adjacent to the completed portion of the 
road are friendly toward the enterprise. The structure erected represents 
8,196 lineal feet; weight of structure completed, 7,620,260 pounds; foun- 
dations constructed, 430; track completed, 6,141 feet. The track is superior 
to any heretofore laid in this country, the rails being of first quality steel 
and weighing ninety pounds to the yard. The rails are connected with a 
joint, which gives the top of the rail an even surface for the tread of the 
wheels and prevents the clicking sound frequently heard on surface roads as 
the wheel passes over the joint. The foundations are built of massive brick 
and stone masonry, averaging ten feet in depth below the surface and being 
not less than seven feet square at the bottom, giving a bearing surface of 
forty-nine square feet. The entire road will be finished before the close 
of 1892. 

CLUBS— ATHLETIC, SPORTING, ETC. 

Base Ball Clubs. — In 1890 there were two professional base ball clubs in 
this city, one under the management of the National League, the other under 
the management of the Players' League. The latter club has been absorbed 
by the former organization, the price paid being $25,000. There are two base 
ball grounds — one on the West Side and one on the South Side. Van Buren 
street cars reach the fowner. State street cars the latter. It is probable that 
the former grounds will be used this year. Chicago Base Ball Club — OflBce at 
Base Ball Park, Loomis, corner Congress. President, A. G. Spalding; sec- 
retary and treasurer, John A. Brown. Chicago Commercial Bask Ball 
League — Meets Fridays at Grand Pacific hotel. President, F. M. Burdick; 
treasurer, Frank Reames; secretary, John T. Pope. Western Association 
OF Base Ball Clubs— Office 108 Madison. President, J. S. McCormick; secre- 
tary, J. A. Roach. 

Boat and Yacht Clubs. — Catlin Boat Club, Lake shore, foot of Pearson. 
President, Charles Catlin; secretary and treasurer, T. P. Hillinan. Chicago 
Canoe Club— A boating organization of the South Side; member of the West- 
ern Canoe Association; boat house foot of Thirty-seventh st. C. W. Lee, 
purser. Chicago Yacht Club — Commodore, A. J. Fisher; secretary, Harry 
Duvall, 655 Rookery building; treasurer, F. W. S Brawley. Countess Yacht 
Club— Room 16, 115 Monroe. President, Sidney W. Woodbury; treasurer, T. 
B. Leiter. Evanston Boat Club — Located on Sheridan road (Lake Shoredrive) 
in the suburb of Evanston, Take train at Wells Street depot, Wells and 
Kinzie sts., North Side, or at Union depot, Canal and Adams sts., West Side. 
Officers: Frank Winne, president; George Lunt, vice-president; E. C. Angle, 
secretary; J. B. Ide, treasurer, and James Judd, captain. The club house is 
an elegant one, and it is the center of the social life of the younger portion of 
Evanston's society. Among the events looked forward to with pleasurable 
anticipations by Evanston people is the annual regatta given by the club. 
Rowing has become a popular amusement with the young people of the town. 
Many ladies have become experts, and almost any fine day their barks can be 
seen skimming the surface of the lake. Farragut Boat Club — Located at 
3016 and 3018 Lake Park ave. Take Cottage Grove avenue cable line. 
Organized in 1872. Occupies a handsome brick building, two stories and base- 
ment. In the basement are the bowling alley, pool room and lavatories ; on the 
first floor are the parlors, reception room, billiard room, card room and library. 
On the second floor are a dancing hall and theatre, with equipment of scenery, 



'204 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

etc., and seating capacity of 400. A series of entertainments are given during 
the winter seasons. The boat house of the club is a one-story bricli building 
on the south siiore, foot of Thirty -third st. The club owns about twenty-five 
boats, including an eight-oared barge, four-oared shells, four-oared gigs, 
single and doable shells, single and double training-boats and pleasure boats 
of all descriptions. Admission fee, $50; annual dues, $24. Farragut 
Naval Association OP Chicago — Meets third Thursdays. Committee: R. S. 
Critchell; executive officer, H. L. Waite; paymaster, C. B. Plattenberg; sec- 
retary, T. L. Johnson. Lincoln Park Yacht Club — Organized in 1890. 
Officers: Commodore, James J. Wilson; vice-commodore, S.^S. Johnson; rear- 
commodore, A. E. Back; treasurer, H. A. Paus; secretary, C. O. Andrews; 
committee on membership, E C. Benniman, D. D. Dutton, C. Johnson. The 
club consists in the main of those yachtmen, who, during the last season, kept 
their craft in the new slip at Lincoln Park inside of the new drive that is being 
constructed along the old Lake-Shore drive, several hundred feet out in the 
lake. This new slip is the only place around Chicago that can be called a 
yacht harbor, and, although not completed and not as handy as might be, 
owing to the continuance of the work on the drive, was used last season by 
about ten or a dozen yachts as permanent shelter. The owners of these yachts 
have noworganized as a club for co-operation in matters concerning yachting, 
for economy and safety in taking care of the boats, and in order to be able to 
look after their interests in submitting suggestions or requests to the Park 
Commissioners with reference to the new drive and the harbor it encloses. 
Ogden Boat Club— Lake Shore, foot of Superior. President. J. V. Clarke, 
Jr.; secretary, E. W. Bethune; treasurer, J. B. Waldo; captain, C. F. Clarke. 
Chicago Athletic Association.— 0?^q,qts: President, Charles L. Hutchin- 
son; vice-president, Norman B. Ream; treasurer, Joseph F. Bowen; secre- 
tary, R. C. Nickerson ; directors, Joseph Adams, A. Gr. Spalding, Owen F. 
Aldis, Eugene S. Pike, Warren M. Salisbury, Charles Schwartz, W. Vernon 
Booth, Hobart C. Taylor, B. B. Lamb, P. E. Stanley, M. C. Lightner, Cyrus 
H. McCormick, Henry Ives Cobb, H. P. Crane, N. K. Fairbank, William H. 
Kubbard, W. S. McCrea. Location of new gymnasium building, Michigan 
avenue, adjoining the "Paris Gaities," facing east, only a short walk from 
business center. This magnificent home for the Chicago Athletic Associa- 
tion was begun in February of the present year. The new building contains 
the largest and best-equipped athletic clubhouse in the United States and 
cost $500,000, The ground upon which it stands measures 80x172 feet. The 
building is of a substantial character, with a front of yellowish brick and 
gray stone in Venetian style, with tall, diamond-cut windows covering the 
fourth and fifth floors, which are thrown into one so as to give ample height 
to the gymnasium. The eiarhth story has balconies large enough to set tables 
and chairs upon for those who want to enjoy the fresh air and the prospect 
upon Lake Michigan. That floor is used for the dining rooms. The ninth 
and tenth stories have no windows, being lighted by skylights, as they are 
set apart for the ball courts. The basement contains eight bowling alleys, 
reaching under the sidewalk, a shooting gallery running the whole depth of 
the building; a bicycle storage room, with lockers, and connected by an 
incline with the bicycle club room on the first floor; large storage and repair 
rooms and the boilers and machinery. The first story is reached by a spa- 
cious vestibule in the center of the front, with the business office and recep- 
tion and coat rooms on either side. A large hall at the top of the steps opens 
into the lavatory, barber shop and dressing rooms, back of which are the 



THE EJfCYCLOPEDIA. 205 

Turkish and Russian baths, a swimming tank measuring 40x00 feet, add a 
lounging room. Another door leads from the hall to the bicycle club room, 
which has a separate entrance from the street to admit wheelmen and their 
machines, the object being to make it convenient for bicyclists to ride up to 
the door of the building, store their machines, put on their business suits 
and leave their wheels there during the day. The second story consists of a 
large hall in front, with a cafe at the south end, separated by a colonnade, 
and a billiard room with twenty-six tables. Between the two main rooms 
are small apartments for the billiard-markers and lavatory and serving room. 
The third floor contains a library and reading room at the southeast end, 
with two club rooms adjoining, lavatory, drying room, linen room and ofllce. 
The rear half is given up to thirty-seven baths, with 1,500 lockers and 106 
dressing rooms. The gymnasium occupies the fourth and fifth stories. 
Three rooms are used for special apparatus, leaving for the gymnasium 
proper a larger space than is given to any other similar institution in the 
country. The running track is on a balcony at the height of the fifth story, 
so as not to interfere with the work of gymnasts. The length of the track 
is ten laps to the mile. The sixth and seventh stories are occupied by bed- 
rooms, sixty-six in number, with the necessary baths and other requisites. 
The eighth story is taken up by dining rooms, there being one large general 
dining room and several private rooms, with the store rooms, kitchen, etc., 
in the rear. The balconies on this floor can be used by dinner parties. The 
ninth and tenth stories are thrown into one and contain two racquet courts, a 
tennis court and five courts with a parlor and marker's rooms. Everything 
is finished with more regard to substantiality than elegance. The baths are 
finished with tile and marble, nickel-plated pipes, etc., in the most durable 
manner. The lounging room on the first floor has two fire-places and a col- 
onnade opening into the swimming-tank. It is furnished with comfortable 
chairs, divans and lounges. Each of the dressing rooms has a lounge and 
is comfortably fitted up. The membership numbers 1,400. It is limited to 
2,000. The initiation fee is $100 for active members and $50 for non- 
resident members, with annual dues of $40 and $20, respectively. 

Chicago Curling Club. — Curling was introduced into Chicago in 1854. 
At the start the Chicago Club was composed exclusively of Scotchmen, but 
since that time it has grown and extended its membership, including several 
Americans and members of other nationalities. The present officers of the 
club are: President, David Hogg; vice-president, James McWhirter; secre- 
tary, James Daacan; treasurer, Alexander White; representative to the Grand 
National Curling Club, James White; committee of management. John 
Campbell, James Ralston, Daniel McKay, Richard Pritchard and Robert 
McWhirter; honorary members, James Alston, Andrew V/allace, Robert 
Clark and Alexander Kirkland; regular members, John Angus. John Camp- 
bell, James Duncan, Frank Grady, David Hogg, Robert C. Harper, Alex- 
ander D. Hannah, James B. Hill, E. W. Kibble, Walter Keeran, William 
Manson, Frank Manson, Daniel Manson, John McArthur, Daniel McKay, 
James McWhirter, George Hoffman, Thomas Nicholson, John Pettigrew, 
Richard Pritchard, John T. Raffen, James Ralston, George Wood, Alexander 
White, Alexander Watson, G.Barron, E.Hall, Archibald Savat^e andG. Ham- 
mond. Under the rules of the National Curling Club the club members are not 
allowed to play matches for money, as from the very beginning every effort 
has been made to keep the game pure and free even from the semblance of 
gambling. The rules do not prohibit games between members, however, for 



206 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

some trophy. The rule in the Chica.^o Club has been to play matches for 
certain amounts of money, the winners to donate the spoils to some charity. 
Chicago Fencing and Boxing Club. — Organized 1890. Club rooms, 106 
E. Randolph street. The objectof the organiz^ation was to increase the interest 
in local amateur athletic circles. Officers: President, T. AV. Sprague; first 
vice-president, C. H. Chamberlain; second vice-president, F. E. Willard; 
secretary, F. H. Wightman; treasurer, C. R. Calhoun; captain, Otto Hassel; 
first lieuienanl, C. T. Essig; second lieutenant, J. P. Keary. The instructor 
in boxing is Prof. George Siler, one of the oldest and best known boxers in 
America. The club gives frequent public exhibitions. Union Athletic 
Club — President, J. P. Cook. Meets at 200 Adams street. Chicago Ath- 
letic Pleasure Club— Officers: G. S. Smallwood, president and manager; 
P. Mahoney, vice-president; J. Dullaghan, Jr., secretary, and W. D. Fenner, 
treasurer. 

Cricket Clubs. — Chicago Cricket Association — Annual meeting 1st Tues- 
day in April at Grand Pacific. Chicago Cricket Club (incorporated) — Meets 
room 5, 170 State. St. George Cricket Club — Secretary, W. Lovegrove, 
710 N. Wells. Wanderers' Cricket and Athletic Club — One of the fore- 
most athletic clubs of Chicago. Composed of cricketers, sprinters, rowers, etc. 

Cyclirw Clubs. — Among the cycling organizations of Chicago are the 
following Bicycle Clubs' Association, composed of the wheelmen of the 
various clubs of the city. The objects of this association are to secure 
harmonious and concerted action in all matters of general interest to wheel- 
men in Chicago and vicinity, particularly in such matters as municipal legis- 
lation, improvements of streets and roads, the prevention of the theft of 
wheels, to spread a knowledge of the rights, duties and privileges of wheel- 
men, to promote road and track racing, to foster fraternal club intercourse 
and, as far as possible,, to aid the state and national organizations of the 
League of American Wheelmen. The delegates and the cycling clubs repre- 
sented by them are as follows: Chicago Cycling Club — S. A. Miles, L. B. 
Sherman andM. A. Hosgood. Illinois Cycling Club — T. L. Sloan, A. J, 
Street and W. A. Davis. Lincoln Cycling Club — William Herri ck, J. M. 
Irwin and R. G. Betts. Washington Cycling Club — L. W. Conkling, B. B. 
Ayres and Frank Barrow. Douglas Cycling Club — C. H. Wachter, J. C. 
Wachter and A. W. Miller. iEoLus Cycling Club — J. A. Erickson, R. H. 
Ehret and A. W. Roth. Oak Park Cycling Club — C. A. Sturtevant, C. E. 
Fox and A. T. Merrick. Englewood Cycling Club — H. A. Stoddard, F. 
H. Gere and R. Rees. Lake View Cycling Club — LeRoy Cram, E. C. 
Wescott and E. L. Ward. Vikings Bicycle Club — Carl Dietrich, F. A. 
Kern and H. Behrens. The association controls 1,500 political votes and 
will support candidates favorable to wheelmen and wheeling. American 
Cycling Club — President, C. W. Patterson; secretary, H. M. Kimball. 
Chicago Cycling Club — Club house located at Lake ave. and Fifty-seventh 
St., Hyde Park Centre. Take Illinois Central train, foot of Randolph or 
Van JBuren St., or Cottage Grove avenue cable line. This is one of the 
largest cycling organizations in the country. Its membership consists of 
about 300 wheelmen, from all parts of the South Side, their runs being on 
the beautiful boulevards and avenues of the South Park system. Cook 
County Wheelmen — An off-shoot of the Washington Cycling Club, recently 
organized. Officers: C. E. Graham, president; A. B. McLean, Jr., vice- 
president; G. Howard Cornell, secretary; W. E. Brooks, Jr., treasure^; E. C. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 207 

W. Macholdt and 0. H. Hinson, directors; W. u. Whitson, captain; Robert C. 
Craigie, first lieutenant; Bert Salvage, second lieutenant; C. G. Sinsabaugh, 
third lieutenant; A. L. Holtslander, color-bearer; F. A. Beach, bugler. 
Douglas Cycling Club — A large organization of wheelmen. OflScers: 
J. C. Wachter, president; C, Kopf, vice-president; L. C. DeProft, secretary; 
J. G. Loebstein, Jr.. financial secretary; Ed Blettner, treasurer; A. W. 
Miller, captain; H. B. Walker, William Slavik, board of directors; C. H. 
Wachter, A. A. Wendell, surgeons. Club house, 586 W. Taylor st. 
Illinois Cycling Club — Located at 1068 Washington blvd., just west of the 
railroad crossing, south side of street. Take Madison street cable line to 
Campbell ave. The building is a four-story brick, built expressly for the 
club, and is arranged for the convenience and comfort of cyclers. The 
interior is elegantly furnished. There are billiard-rooms, card-rooms, recep- 
tion parlors, etc. The club has a large membership. The officers are: 
President, T. L. Sloan; vrce president, H. C. Knisely; secretary, W. A. 
Davis; treasurer, George A. Mason; directors, C. R. Street, John Hohmann, 
H, L. Barnum; captain, E. J. Roberts; first lieutenant, Charles Hagaman; 
second lieutenant, H. E. Krause; third lieutenant, H. G. Chisholm; fourth 
lieutenant; Georsre Skeer; color-bearer, John Palmer; bugler, S. C. Beach; 
librarian, H. J. Winn; quartermaster, C. H. Stevens. Lake Yiew Cycling 
Club — Located at Lake View, Chicago. Officers: President, C. Edgar 
Wescott; vice-president, LeRoy T. Cram; secretary, Robert E. Ward; 
treasurer, Harry Parsons; captain, F. R, McDonald; lieutenant, C. Arnold 
Wescott; color-bearer, Irving Telling, The four executive officers and 
captain comprise the board of directors. Lincoln Cycling Club — 235 
La Salle ave. President, T. W. Gerould; secretary, W. F. Hochkirk. Oak 
Park Cycling Club— Located at Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago; has a large 
membership. Following are the officers: President, C. A. Sturtevant ; vice- 
president, Thomas H. Gale; secretary, Ed Burington; treasurer, R. T. 
Miller; board of directors, J, M. Stimpson, Dr. De Vour, Harry Pebbles; 
captain, J. M. Stimpson; first lieutenant, O. L. Cox; second lieutenant, 
Charles Steiners; color-bearer, James C. Carter; quartermaster, C. O. Lud- 
Jow: bugler, A. T. Starkweather; delegates to associated cycling clubs, J. M. 
Stimpson, C. A. Sturtevant, C. E. Fox. Washington Cycling Club— 650 
W. Adams. President, G. D. Christholm; secretary, G. E. Allison. 

Hand Ball Courts.— There are a number of hand ball courts or "alleys" 
in Chicago, the best being McGurn's, located on Division st.. North Side. 
Take Division st. car. Among the leading hand ball players of the city are 
Thomas E. Barrett, John T. McGurn, Peter O'Brien, Mart Scanlan, Hugh 
O'Brien, William McGurn, Dennis Cronin, John Nagle, Captain James 
Pumphry, of the fire department ; Marshal Campion, David Gushing, John 
Healey, Charles Dolan, Catcher Buckley, of the National League; John Car- 
mody, Captain John Hall, of thefire department; ex-Alderman James O'Brien, 
Hugh Harrity, Con Dwyer, Thomas Loftus, John McDonough, Joseph Mc- 
Laughlin, Thomas McCormack and John Coleman. 

Horse Associations. — American Horse Show Association— 182 Monroe. 
President, H. J. McFarland; seewetary, Hobart C. Taylor; treasurer, E. S. 
Btewster ; general manager, E. C. Lewis. Central Park Driving Associa- 
tion — President and treasurer, J. T. Rawleigh; secretary, W. H. Kane, 173 La 
Salle. [See Washington Park Club.] 

Bunting, Fishing and Gun C^wSs. —Audubon Club— Meets second Tues- 
day in each quarter at Kern's, 110 La Salle. President. Chas. Kern; secre- 



208 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

tary and treasurer, William W. Foss. Chicago Cumberland Gun Club — 
Organized in 1881. Located in Lake county, 111. Itsclub house and grounds 
•were formerly the property of the sons of an Englis'h nobleman, Lord Parker, 
and cost that gentleman about $60,000. It is one of the finest pieces of hunt- 
ing club property in the country. Fifty miles from the city, equipped superbly 
for all purposesof this character, invaluable as a hunting ground for feathered 
game, in a healthful locality, the Cumberland's quarters in Lake county offer 
a permanent temptation t) the sportsmen of the club. The ofl5cers for the 
first year were these: President, John M. Smyth ; vice-president. Frederick 

B. Norcom; secretary, Charles K. Herrick ; treasurer, John,Heiland; board 
of managers, Stephen Rymal, Charles D. Gammon, Michael Eich. The 
officers for he present year are: President, C. K. Herrick ; vice-president, 
James Gardner; secretary, William L, Shepard; treasurer, John Heiland. 
Board of managers, Harry D. Nicholls, Charles D. Gammon, Walter Mat- 
tocks. Cumberland Gun Club — Meets at Sherman House, President, 
Chas. K. Herrick ; treasurer, J. Heiland ; secretary, W. L Shepard, 164 La 
Salle. Chicago Rifle Club — President, S. M. Tyrrell ; secretary and treas- 
urer, W. H. Chenoweth, 76 West Monroe. Chicago Sharpshooters' Asso- 
ciation — Meets first Monday at 49 La Salle st. President, E Thielepappe; 
secretary, Orcas Matthai; treasurer, W. Burck. Chicago Shooting Club 
— Meets at Sherman House club room. President, R. B. Organ ; secretary 
and treasurer, John Matter. Diana Hunting Club — Clubhouse at Thayer, 
Ind. President, J, Press; secretary, J. A. Kreutzberg. English Laee 
Hunting and Fishing Club — Located at English Lake, Indiana. The club 
was organized by a number of Chicago gentlemen in 1878 and has prospered 
since its birth. It is not a regularly incorporated body, but is very wealthy 
notwithstanding, and its club house is one of the best and most comfortably 
equipped in the State. The house is a fine frame structure of twenty rooms, 
and surrounding it are 6,000 acres of marsh-lands. These are the property 
of the club and abound in duck, snipe, prairie chicken and geese. The 
members of the English Lake Club who find pleasure in angling are 
furnished with excellent opportunities in the lake. Among the game fish 
in its waters are bass, pickerel and pike. Officers : A. M. Fuller, president; 
J. M. Adams, vice-president ; R. W. Hosmer, treasurer, and A. W. Cobb, 
secretary. Fox Lake Shooting and Fishing Club — Meets at the Tre- 
mont House. President, A. V. Hartwell; secretary, G. M. Millard, 117 
Wabash avenue; treasurer, W. T>. Cooper. Fox River Fish and Game 
Association — An association for the preservation of fish and game in the 
Fox rivei district. President, Georsre E. Cole; directors, H. L. Hirtz, 

C. A. Knight, John Stephens, C. F. Hills, George E. Cole, John Wilkin- 
son, L, M, Hamburgher, George R. Davis, O. J. Weidener and James 
Gardner. Grand Calumet Heights Club— President, W. L. Pierce; secre- 
tary, G. E. Marshall; meets quarterly at Sherman House. Lake George 
Sportsman's Association— Meets second Thursdays in each quarter at Sher- 
man House. President, Jas. W. Sheahan; secretary, J. S, Orvis, Lake View 
Rifle Club— Meets Saturdays at 2p. m. , at Rifle Range, Colehour. President. 
N. S, Warren; secretarv, W. W. Holden, Minneola Fishing Club— Club 
House at Fox Lake, 111. President, J. G. Beazley; secretary, J. C. ^Coy. 
Mississippi Valley Amateur Rowing Association — Prpsident, W, K. 
Moore, Molinp. HI,; secretary, D. R, Martin, Pullmnn. Til. North Chfogo 
Schue'tzen Verein— Meets second Tuesdays nl 267 North avenue. Presi- 
dent. F. W. Labahn; secretary, H. R. Zemple, 244 North avenue. Sports- 
man's Club— Meets third ThuTsdav in each quarter at Sherman House. Presi- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 209 

dent, C. N. Holden; secretary and treasurer, A. W. Carlisle, 1001 Rookery- 
building. The Gon Club— Meets at Sherman House. President, F. C. Don- 
ald; secretary and treasurer, C. E. Willard. Tolleston Club— Club grounds 
near Tolleston, Lake county, Ind.; composed of Chicago business men of 
sporting taste. One of the wealthiest clubs in the United States. The club 
was originally organized in 1871 by a number of Chicago gentlemen, who had 
for years resorted to the marshes of the Calumet, near Tolleston, in Lake 
county, Ind., for the purpose of shooting the duck and chicken for which 
these marshes are noted. They called tne organization " Tolleston Club" 
simply and purchased sixty acres of land close to the marshes and known as 
Van der Naillen farm. On this land, which is somewhat elevated, arose the 
first Tolleston club house. The house has of late years been vastly improved 
and enlarged, until now it possesses every comfort. Twenty-two large rooms 
are finely furnished and nothing is wanting to make the quarters worthy of 
the tenants, among whom are numbered a hundred or more of Chicago's 
wealthiest citizens. The officers of the club are: President, F. A. Howe; 
vice-president, W. R. Linn; secretary, George P. Wells; treasurer, C. D.' 
Peacock; board of directors, C. C. Moeller, James Wright, P Schuttler, 
J. N. Crouse, S. M. Moore; superintendent of club house, Willard West. 
Union Shooting and Fishing Club— Club house at Fox Lake, 111. ; meets 
third Tuesdays each quarter at Grand Pacific, President, John G. Beazley; 
secretary and treasurer, J. C. McCord, 116 La Salle, room 24. Mak-saw-ba 
Shooting Club — Meets at Sherman House ; club house at Davis Station, Ind. 
President, R. B. Organ; secretary, C. S. Petrie. Western Rifle Associa- 
tion — Secretary and trejssurer, W. H. Chenoweth, 76 W. Monroe. 

Indoor Base Ball Oluhs. — There are " Indoor Base Ball Clubs " connected 
with nearly every social club of prominence in the city, besides a great num- 
ber of independent organizations in city and suburbs. There are two leading 
"leagues" of Indoor Base Ball Clubs— the "Midwinter" and Chicago 
Indoor Base Ball League. The game was very popular and fashionable in 
Chicago last winter and th3 probabilities are that it will continue to be so 
for more seasons to come. The game is of Chicago invention and followed 
what came to be known as the " Roller Skating Craze." The ball used is of 
large size and made of a yielding substance. The bat is 2% feet long and 
13^ inches in diameter at the lar^e end. The four bases are each 1^ feet 
square, each filled with sand. They are not secured to the floor, and a man 
may slide in and carry the base with him. The pitcher's box is six by three 
feet, and is marked on the floor in chalk. The nearest line is 22 feet from 
the home plate. The bases are 27 feet from each other, forming a diamond. 
The distance from home to second base by a straight line is 2,1% feet. Eight 
or nine men may be played on a side and only rubber-soled shoes are used. 
The leading teams are La Salles. Kenwoods,'Oaks of Austin, Idlewilds of 
Evanston, Carletons, Marquettes. Farraguts, and Ashlands, of the Midwinter 
League, and the Harvards, Lincoln Cycling Club. Chicago Cycling Chb. 
and South Side Illinois Club of the Indoor League. 

Tennis Club -^Ckicago Trnnis Club— 2901 Indiana ave. Excello 
Tennis Club— Secretary, E. U. Kimbark, 183 Monroe. North End Ten- 
nis Club— President, Wm. Waller; secretary, A. T. H. Brower, State, corner 
Burton pi. 



2l0 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

CLUBS— GENTLEMEN'S AND SOCIAL. 

Acacia Club. — A social organization, 105 Ashland ave., West Side. 

Apollo Club. — A musical organization of prominence and high standing 
in the city, of which Prof. W. L. To'mlins is the director. It has through the 
tireless energy and splendid talents of its leader and his ability to impart his 
profound knowledge of musical art in a practical way, attained a high plane 
of artistic effect. 

Argo Club — Club house situated on Lake Michigan at the extreme end 
of the Illinois Central pier. It is a floating structure and the object of locat- 
ing it on the water is to secure for the members the cool breezes which blow 
across the water in the summer season. It is in reality neither a boat nor a 
house, and yet both combined. It is built entirely of wood and cost $15,000. 
If it were built on shore a fire ordinance governing the building of frame 
structures within the city limits would swell the expenditure to twice that 
size. The kitchen and store rooms are in the hold. The main saloon is 
above, and this room is elaborately finished in mahogany and curly maple. 
From the tables, which are scattered about the saloon, the club men and their 
guests are afforded a splendid view of the lake. The state-rooms are on still 
another deck, and above this is the hurricane or promenade deck, where the 
orchestra is stationed at all receptions. From top to bottom this half ship, 
half house, is furnished in the most luxuriant style and the gymnasium or 
athletic equipment is not surpassed by any semi-aquatic club in the country. 
Nearly one hundred names are on the roll of membership. 

Ashland Club.— A social organization, 575 "Washington blvd. 

Bankers' Club. — An association of the leading bankers of the city. They 
give an annual banquet, to which distinguished guests are invited. Offi- 
cers—President, E. G. Keith; vice-president, John C. Black; secretary, James 
D. Sturges; executive committee, John C. Neely, W. F. Dummer and John 
C. Black. 

Beseda (Bohemian Beading CZw5).— Meets Tuesdays and Saturdays at 74 
AV. Taylor st. President, J. Kasper; secretary, E. A. Haase; treasurer, A. 
Matuska; librarian, F. B. Zdrubek. 

Browning Clubs.— There are several Browning clubs in Chicago and 
vicinity, with no stated place of holding meetings. Nearly all are allied 
closely to the Women's Club and other literary societies. 

Calumet Club. — Located at the corner of Michigan ave. and Twentieth 
St. ^ Take Wabash avenue cable line. Orgacized in 1878. The building 
which it occupies is a magnificent one, four stories high, with fronts on both 
the streets named. The grand hall is very handsome, with its broad fire-place,, 
hatodsome staircase and stained glass windows. To the left are the drawing- 
rooms, with windows the whole length of the Michigan avenue front, and to 
the right the offices, the cafe and the billiard room. On the second floor are 
card rooms and the ball room, where, from time to time during the winter 
months, entertainments are given. The third floor is devoted to private 
apartments, and the top floor to the dining rooms and kitchens. The Club 
has a splendid collection of pictures. It aims to preserve the early history of 
the city and State, and its old settlers' annual receptions have become famous. 
The Club is composed generally of the leading men of the South Side. 
Admission fee, $100; annual dues, $80. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 211 

Carleton Oliib. — A Soutli Side social organization. Meets at 3800 Vin- 
cennes ave. 
\ Chicago Club. — Located on Monroe St., between State st. and Wabash 

ave., opposite the ladies* entrance to the Palmer House. "Was organized in 
1869, and was an outgrowth of the old Dearborn Club, which was located on 
Michigan ave., near Jackson st. The first club house of the Chicago was 
situated at the corner of Wabash ave. and Eldridge ct., and was destroyed in 
the great fire. The present building was erected shortly afterward. The 
structure is not as magnificent as some of the club buildings erected more 
recently, but the interior is beautifully and tastefully arranged. There is 
more real elegance about it than, perhaps, may be found in any of the others, 
although it is of an unostentatious character. The dining rooms and kitchens 
are at the top of the house. The Club is composed generally of the merchant 
princes and leading professional men of the city, and it is very exclusive. 
Comfort and congeniality more than crowds and confusion are desired. The 
admission fee is $300, the annual dues are $80, payable semi-annually. Mem- 
bership limited to 450 residents and 150 non-residents. 

Chicago Electric Club. — Composed of electricians and those connected 
with electric pursuits. A social club for gentlemen. Located at 103 Adams 
street. Its rooms are very handsomely fitted up. There are reception rooms 
for members and their friends of both sexes. There are dining rooms on one 
floor opening into Kinsley's upper corridors, and arrangements are made to 
furnish either liquid or solid comfort after the most approved method. Bil- 
liard, chess and backgammon outfits are provided in elegantly furnished 
rooms, but cards are tabooed. An audience hall occupies a large space on 
the top floor, where the regular club meetings are held for scientific discus- 
sion. Paintings, works of art, bric-a-brac, pervade the whole apartment and 
a music room with piano and other instruments is a part of the fitting. In 
other words, all has been done that was needful to make the club quarters 
elegant, refined and in every particular a recherche gentleman's club. Some of 
the members are as well known in Europe as throughout the United States ; 
many of them are social leaders and all of them are successful business men. 

Chicago Women's Club. — Organized in 1876. An outgrowth of the Fort- 
nightly club, of which Mrs, Caroline M. Brown was the prime mover. Mem- 
bership not limited. Admission fee $10 ; annual dues $5. Although one of 
the distinctly specified aims of the Women's Club was, from the beginning, 
philanthropic work, during the first seven years of its existence it was devoted 
almost exclusively to literary effort and the theoretical study of reformatory 
and philanthropic work. It was in the winter of 1883 that it was decided that 
the club should enter upon practical work. The committee on reform took 
the initiative in the unselfish battle which has since been persistently carried 
on by the club in the muddy pool of moral and political abuses. "The Pro- 
tective Agency for Women and Children" had its inceptions in the Women's 
Club. ^ Three of the committees of the club were not only instrumental in 
founding it, but in securing funds for its conduct during the first few years 
of its existence. In January, 1884, a free kindergarten was established by 
the club. The principal object of this undertaking was to demonstrate the 
desirability of introducing the kindergarten into the public schools. The 
board of education gave the use of a room in the Brighton School and the 
club have met the expenses of the conduct of the kindergarten from its estab- 
lishment to the present time. The ladies of the education committee have 



212 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

been active in securing the enforcement of tlie compulsory education law and 
in providin.a: clothing for destitute children who could not otherwise attend 
school. iStill another philanthropy which owes its existence to the Women's 
Club is the Industrial Art Association. Through the good offices of Mrs. 
Charles Henrotin the Women's Club was materially assisted by the Decora- 
tive Art Society in establishing this charity, which has been successfully 
introduced into the different mission schools of the city. One of the most 
important financial undertakings of the Women's Club was the raising of 
$40,000 for the Industrial School for Boys located at Glenwood. Of course, 
this was not raised within the club, but by the individual effort of members. 
The meetings of the club are held in the afternoon of the first and third Wed- 
nesdays of each month during the club year. 

Church CZz/5.— Organized December, 1890. Located on the fourth floor 
of the High building, No. 103 Adams st. This is an Episcopalian organization 
and its object is to bring into closer relations the clergy and the laymen of the 
diocese and to afford a meeting-place for all the different organizations in the 
diocese, such as the Board of Missions, the standing committees, the St. 
Andrews Brotherhood, the trustees of the Theological Seminary, the Girls' 
Friendly Organization, the Women's Auxiliary, and every other work of the 
church, including a place where the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Chicago can meet 
his clergy and transact any business pertaining to the diocese. 

Club Litteraire Francais. — The leading French club of the city. Has no 
stated place of meeting. Gives frequent receptions, balls, etc. The club has 
a membership of about 200 and has been fifteen years in existence. 

Commercial Club. — An association of the leading merchants, manufact- 
urers, bankers and capitalists of Chicago, the object of which is to encourage 
in a social and informal way the interchange of opinions respecting the com- 
mercial necessities of the city. The club gives frequent dinners and banquets 
and entertains distinguished guests. Some question of great importance 
uppermost at the time is always discussed at their meetings and banquets. 
[See Chicago Manual Training School.] 

Dearborn C^?i&.— Located at 43 and 45 Monroe st. [See *• Chicago 
Club."] 

Dinner Clubs. — Among these are the "Epicurean" and the "Forty 
Club." The members dine periodically at one of the leading hotels and 
discuss questions of current interest. 

Douglas Club. — Located at 3518 Ellis ave. Organized April, 1885. 
Occupies a three story and basement building, formerly a dwelling, which 
has been remodeled. There is a beautiful lawn in front and on the sides of 
the house. In the basem.ent are bowling alleys ; on the first floor are the 
dancing hall, ladies' reception room, library and reading room ; on the second 
floor are dressing and private rooms ; on the third floor is a large hall fitted 
up with portable machinery, where dramatic entertainments are given by 
members of the club. Ladies of each member's family, and males from 
fourteen to twenty-one, are entitled to the privileges of the club, subject to 
certain restrictions. Admission fee, $25 ; dues, $30 per annum. 

Douglas Park Club. — A social organization ; meets at 903 Sawyer st. 

Evanston Club. — Located at the suburb of Evanston. Take train at 
Wells St. depot, Wells and Kinzie sts.. North Side; or at Union depot, Canal 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 213 

and Adams sts., West Side. Club House at Chicago avenue and Grove st. 
OflBcers : President, Marshall M. Kirkman ; first vice-president, Milton W. 
Kirk ; second vice-president, N. C. Gridley ; treasurer, W. 1'. Rickards ; 
additional directors, W. E. Stockton, F. A. Hardy, W. Holabird, A. N. 
Young, N. G. Iglehart, A. C. Buell and H. R. Wilson. Mr. Kirkman 
organized the club and has been its president ever since. The club is open 
every day in the week from 7 o'clock in the morning until midnight. The 
interior of the house is modestly beautiful. A music or dancing hall of 
generous proportions occupies the west half of the building. Handsome 
portieres separate the ladies' reception room from the vestibule, and the 
lobby or smoking room occupies the center of the club home. This room, 
tinted in warm colors, is the general lounging place for the club men, and 
from it open the billiard room, the charming library, decorated in peacock 
blue, and the card room. Below stairs are the kitchen, dining room and 
bowling alley, the latter having two fine runways. The Evanston club is 
not a club in the usual sense of that word. It is a pleasant rendezvous where 
160 gentlemen and their families may meet for recreation and amusement 
and for the promotion of social culture. 

EDinston Country Club. — A summer social organization of the suburb of 
Evanston. The home of the club is known as the "Shelter," and is situated 
in the midst of beautiful grounds, on Hinman ave. and Clark St., close to 
Lake Michigan. It is the leading club of the village from May until Novem- 
ber, and has a quasi connection with the Evanston Boat Club and other social 
organizations. Frequent receptions, band concerts, boating partif^s, etc., 
occur during the season. The membership is about 300, equally divided 
between ladies and gentlemen. The president is Mr. Marshall M. Kirkman ; 
Mr. William E. Stockton and Mr. Frank Elliott are vice-presidents ; Mr. 
Nicholas J. Iglehart is treasurer, and Mr. Edwin F. Brown is secretary. 
The directorate is composed of twenty ladies and eleven gentlemen. It is a 
custom of the club to have one of the directorate ladies, one afternoon and 
evening of each week, act the part of hostess, presiding over the tea tables 
and receiving the guests. The active committee is termed the house and 
grounds committee. ^ The responsibility of success or failure of the season 
rests with this committee, and the appointment is no sinecure. Mr. Thomas 
S. Creighton is chairman, and is aided by Mr. Edwin C. Belknap, Mr. 
Frederick Arnd, Mr. William Holabird and Mr. Edwin F. Brown. Many of 
Chicago's most prominent business men wear the dainty silver four-leaf clover, 
the badge of the club. 

Fortnightly Club of Chicago.— M.eets Fridays at 2:30 p. m. at Art Institute, 
Michigan ave. and Van Buren st. Organized as a Woman's Club in 1873 by 
Mrs. Kate Newell Doggett. Intended originally as a Womans' Suffrage 
Organization, in which men and women should hold membership. Now 
devoted to social intercourse and intellectual culture. The work of this 
association is arranged on a carefully considered plan, which secures a 
thorough knowledge of the subject to be treated at each meeting. Each 
writer has a year in which to master the subject she is to present, and, as the 
writer of an essay remarked, "To prepare a paper for the Fortnightly is to 
add a good deal to your education, it matters not how liberal it maybe." 
The work of the club for the year is divided into two courses, the continuous 
course of study and the miscellaneous course. A committee of five members 
takes charge of the continuous course, which is represented by a paper at one 



214 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

of the two meetings that occur each month, and another committee of the 
same number directs the miscellaneous course, which presents a paper on the 
alternate day. At each of the meetings, which occur the first and third Fri- 
days in the month, a well prepared and brilliant discussion under appointed 
leaders follows the paper. The discussion over, tea and cake are served and 
a delightful social hour closes the meeting, at which the visitor will observe 
that the strictest parliamentary forms, as well as the latest behest of fashion, 
are carefully obeyed. The membership of" The Fortnightly of Chicago" 
is limited to 175. The initiation fee and also the yearly dues are $12. The 
officers are: President, Mrs. Charles D. Hamill; vice-presidents, Mrs. Otto 
H. Matz and Mrs. H. M. Wilmarth; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Henry 
B. Stone; recording secretary, Mrs. F. H. Gardner; treasurer, Mrs. B. F. 
Ayer. 

Forty Club. — A social organization, composed principally of members of 
the legal profession. 

Germania Mmnnerehor.—LocnXQdi at North Clark street, corner of Grant. 
Take North Clark street cable line. President, Harry Rubens; vice-presi- 
dent, George Hofmann; secretary, E. A. Loeffler; treasurer, F. J. Dewes. 
The society had its origin at the funeral of Abraham Lincoln in 1865, when 
a small party of Germans from Chicago attended to render a chorus. They 
were pleased with each other's singing and determined upon the organization 
of a permanent society. To-day it is one of the largest, most respectable and 
most prominent musical organizations in the country. Incorporated March 
31, 1869. Membership about 540, of which seventy are not Germans. The 
club is social as well as musical. The club house is one of the handsomest 
in Chicago. 

Girls' Mutual Benefit Club.— Organized in November, 1890; located at 100 
Cornelia st. The institution was established solely through the efforts of a 
few energetic young ladies of the Third Presbyterian, First Congregational 
and the Epiphany Episcopal Churches, Miss Sadie Morgan, Mrs. C. D. 
Howell, Miss Helen Hutchins, Miss Mary Gillman, Miss Ida E. Moore and 
Miss Alice C. Burkhardt. Nearly one hundred working girls nightly receive 
instructions in those arts which make the model housewife. The follow, 
ing is the curriculum: Monday, dressmaking and typewriting; Tuesday, 
dressmaking and music; "Wednesday, cooking and history; Thursday, music, 
embroidery and millinery; Friday, cooking; Saturday, embroidery, cooking 
and music. The house is self-supporting, each one of the members being 
required to pay a weekly assessment of 5 cents. The teaching force includes, 
besides the ladies already named, Miss Wolf, Miss Avery, Miss Reese, Miss 
Lowden, Miss Page, Miss Mack, Miss Bardick, Miss Fritz, Miss Blanche and 
Content Patterson. Oq every weekday evening there are at least three of 
these ladies present to take charge of the various classes. The house is com- 
fortably furnished and well adapted to the purposes to which it is put. The 
nucleus of a library has been started, and it is expected that before long the 
number of books will be large enough to warrant the starting of a circulating 
library. Officers— President, Miss Sadie Morgan; vice-president, Mrs. C. D. 
Howell; secretary. Miss Ida E. Moore; treasurer. Miss Helen Hutchins. 

Grant Club.— A West Side Politico-Social Club, meets at 111 Honore st. 

Harvard Club. — Organized 1888. Club house located at Sixty-third and 
Harvard sts., Englewood. A social organization. It has a large membership 
and gives frequent receptions through the season. 



THE EN^CTCLOPEDIA. 215 

Harvard University Club. — Composed of graduates of Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., resident in Cnicago. Moses J. Wemworth, president. 
Meets at slated occasions in the Auditorium hotel, holds an annual banquet 
and entertains distinguished officers and graduates of the University, from 
time to time. Many leading citizens of Chicago are members. 

Hyde Park Suburban Giub. — Located at Hyde Park Center. Club house, 
corner of Washington ave. and Fifty-first st. Has a membership of about 
150. Take Illinois Central train, foot of Randolph or Van Buren St., or 
Cottage Grove avenue cable line. The building is a handsome one. Its 
exterior is striking and the interior has evidently been given the thought of 
tasteful decorators. It is strictly a gentleman's club. There are two stories 
and a base;nent devoted to club purposes. In the basement are the gymna- 
sium, bowling alley, store room, kitchen and boiler room. On the first floor 
is a capacious foyer, opening iato which are the office, reception and reading 
rooms, connected by aa inglenook, a billiard room with eight tables and a 
cafe. The second floor is reached by the grand staircase, which leads 
through a broad hall to the ball room and art gallery adjoining, all three of 
which can be U3ed for dancing on occasions. On this floor there are also 
four cosey card rooms and a committee room, which can be thrown together 
when desired. The whole interior is finished in antique oak. The mantels 
and even the office desk, having been designed by the architect of the build- 
ing, blend harmoniously with the treatment of the rest of the woodwork. 
This beautiful building was dedicated by the club in 1890. The officers are: 
President, Judge Van H. Higgins; vice-president, B. F. Ray; secretary, 
W. P. Griswold; treasurer, C. A. Mallory; directors, Hamilton B. Bogue, 
L. P. Harvey, Charles H. Hunt, Alderman William R. Kerr, W. V. O'Brien, 
W. L. Pierce, Barton Sewell, A. W. Wheeler and George L. Warner. 

Ideal Glub. — A social organization; meets at 131 N. Wells st. 

Illinois Club. — Located at 154 Ashland ave.. West Side. Take W. Madi- 
son street cable line. Organized in 1878. First building occupied, 401 
Washington blvd.; moved to Ashland ave. and Madison st. ; purchased pres- 
ent quarters in 1834. Occupies a very handsome and commodious building, 
fronting the most beautiful avenue in the West division of the city. Object 
of club, the cultivation and promotion of literature and the fine arts, and of 
social intercourse. The house contains kitchens, dining rooms, parlors, 
reception rooms, reading rooms, billiard room, wash room, bowling alley, 
ball room, private rooms, etc. Some very handsome pictures ornament 
its walls. It gives elegant entertainments during the winter seasons. 
Admission fee, $100. Annual dues, $40. 

Indiana Club. — Located at 3349 Indiana ave. Organized in 1883. Take 
Indiana avenue car, via Wabash avenue cable line. Occupies a very pleas- 
ant clab house, a two-story brick building. On the first floor are the billiard 
and pool rooms, bowling alley and dressing rooms; on the second floor are 
the parlor, reception room, card room, and a spacious dancing hall. This is 
a family club, the wives and children of members being entitled to all privi- 
leges. Entertainments are given at intervals throughout the year. Admis- 
sion fee, $50. Annual dues, $20. 

Irish- American Club. — Location of club rooms 40 Dearborn st. Organized 
May, 1880, with a charter membership of 100. Present membership 200. 
Offlers, M. B. Harley, president; Thomas H. Cannon, vice-president; John 



216 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

B. Heanly, financial secretary; Joseph J. Duffy, secretary; N. D. Laughlin. 
treasurer. Admission fee, $25. Annual dues, $20. This is tne oldest and 
best club of its kind in existence. It is strictly non-partisan and non-secta- 
rian, and is composed of some of the leading Irishmen and Irish Americans 
in the city. The club rooms are haDdsomely fitted up. Receptions are fre- 
quently given. The members are hospitable and cultivate a natural taste for 
literature and art. 

Iroquois Glud. — Located at 110 Monroe st. (Columbia Theatre Building), 
in the business centerof thecity. Organized October 4, 1881. It isapolitical 
(Democratic) and social club. Has very handsome and spacious quarters, 
and is provided with ail the comforts of modern club houses. It is the lead- 
ing Democratic political club of the city, and numbers among its members 
the most prominent partisans of the Jeffersonian creed. Its influence is felt 
in National, State and Municipal campaigns. The Iroquois Club entertains 
splendidly, and it was at a reception given here that Grover Cleveland used 
the expression, "A public office is a public trust." Membership about 500. 
Admission fee and annual dues reasonable. 

Irving Park Club. — Incorporated 1891. A new hall for this club was com- 
pleted this spring. Membership limited to 150; admission fee, $25. 

John A. Logan Club. — Located at 466 La Salle ave., North Side. Take 
Clark or Wells" street cable line. Organized February 12, 1888. A polit- 
ical (Republican) and social club. Has commodious quarters. Admission 
fee, $10; annual dues, $12. 

Kenwood Club. — Located at Forty-seventh st. and Lake ave., Kenwooc , 
Take Illinois Central train at Randolph orVanBuren Street depot. Organ- 
ized in 1883. A social and family club in which the ladies and other members 
of the family are entitled to privileges. Occupies the former residence of Nor- 
man B. Judd, Esq., which has been remodeled and enlarged. The bowling 
alley, dining-room and kitchen are in the basement; on the first floor are the 
hall, ofiice, reception and dancing hall; on the second floor are the card 
rooms, billiard room, reading room, library, ladies' and gentlemen's dressing 
rooms, etc. Admission fee, $100; annual dues, $40. The officers are: 
Edwin F. Bay ley, president; William S. Seaverns, vice-president; Charles B. 
Vankirk, second vice-president; Harry B. Black, treasurer; Charles C. Whit- 
tiker, secretary. The board of directors is composed of C. B. Bouton, John 
S. Belden, William T. Brown, Ed. R. Woodle, W. T. Whetmore, T. S.Faun- 
tieroy, J. Frank Aldrich and F. H. McClure. 

Lafayette Club.— A. social organization of the South Side. This club 
gives twelve dances each year, nine at Douglas Hall and three at Jackson 
Park pavilion. 

Lakeside Club.— Locsited on Indiana ave., between Thirty-first and Thirty- 
second sts. Organized in 1884. Take Indiana avenue car, via Wabash ave- 
nue cable line. Formerly occupied premises at Wabash ave. and Thirteenth 
St. Owns its present home, a modern building of brick and stone, contain- 
ing three stories and a basement. The billiard room, cafe, bowling alley, 
private supper rooms and dining room, capable of seating 400 guests, are 
located in the basement; on the first floor are the ladies' and gentlemen's par- 
lors and reception room, drawing rooms, and an assembly and dancing room, 
fifty-five feet wide by one hundred feet long; in the second story are the card 
rooms and gymnasium; in the third story are private rooms and servants' 
apartments. Admission fee, $50; annual dues, $40. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 2Vi 

La Salle Club. — Located at 252 Monroe St., West Side. Take West 
Madison street cable line. Organized in 1884. It is a political (Republican) 
and social club. First occupied premises at 9 Laflin st. ; moved to 28 Warren 
ave. and finally came into possession of the former residence of C. C. Hollon, 
Esq., which has been remodeled, enlarged and beautified. It is a marble 
front, three stories and basement, with a frontage of 125 feet, and a depth of 
95 feet. An addition of 48x125 feet has been made by the club. The lunch 
room, cafe, cigar stand, gymnasium and bowling alley are located in the 
basement; on the first floor are the hall, two large parlors, reading room and 
office, and billiard room with twelve tables; on the second floor are eighteen 
card rooms, and the assembly hall; on the third floor are private rooms, ser- 
vants' quarters, etc. Admission fee, $50; annual dues, $20. 

Longfellow Club. — An association of young ladies engaged in the study 
of the poet Longfellow. Meets at the homes of members. On the order of 
*' Browning Clubs." 

Lotus Social Club. — Composed of the leading colored people of the city. 
Give social parties. 

Minneola Club. — Officers: President, O. H. Roche; vice-president, M. 
Hamburger; secretary and treasurer, James G. Deven. Directors, O. H. 
Roche, J. G. Deven, L. M. Hamburger, Robert Lindblom, T. Bennett, J. C. 
Peasley and J. V. Booth. 

Minnette Club. — A West Side social organization which gives receptions 
at Martine's Hall, 55 Ada St., during the season. 

Nationalists' Club. — An association of gentlemen formed for the purpose 
of interchanging ideas regarding questions of National interest and advo- 
cating reform in Legislation and Government. Meets at the Grand Pacific 
Hotel. 

Newsboys' Club. — Located in the Imperial building, 252-260 S. Clark st. 
President, Miss J. P. Mills; vice-president, Miss Sands; recording secretary. 
Miss Rutherford; corresponding secretary. Miss Oldham; treasurer. Miss 
Barker, and Misses Pearson and Miss Castle, librarians. The club is in a 
flourishing condition. There are fifty members, and it has a library of about 
500 volumes. Well-behaved newsboys are admitted to membership. 

North Shore Club. — A social organization of young people on the North 
Side. Meets for dancing and social purposes through the season. 

Oakland Club. — Located at Ellis and Oakland avenues, in building for- 
merly the Lake Side Skating Rink. Take Cottage Grove avenue cable line 
or Illinois Central train at Randolph or Van Buren Street depot to Thirty- 
ninth street, Oakland station. The building has been remodeled and refitted 
for club purposes. It is a large, two-story brick structure, rather unique 
from an architectural point of view. On the first floor are the office, gentle- 
men's and ladies' reading rooms, promenade hall, two ladies' parlors, two 
gentlemen's sitting rooms, billiard hall 100 feet long, two card rooms, kitchen 
and dancing-hall 100 by 80 feet; the second floor contains the assembly 
room, private rooms, servants' quarters, etc. Strictly a family club. No 
Intoxicating liquors or games of chance allowed on the premises. Admis- 
sion fee, $50; annual dues, $30. 

Oaks Club, of Austin. — Located in the Austin Club and Library build- 
ing at Austin suburb, within the limits. Take train at Wells Street depot, 



218 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Wells and Kinzie streets. Has very handsome quarters, consisting of a 
reception hall, parlors, card and billiard rooms, banquet hall, etc. The club 
has facilities for giving amateur theatrical performances. 

Park Club, of Hyde Park. — Located on Rosalie court, Hyde Park Center. 
Take Cottage Grove avenue cable line or Illinois Central train at Randolph 
or Van Buren street to fcsouth Park station. Organized in 1886. A family 
club. Occupies a handsome building four stories in height. In the base- 
ment are the bowling-alleys, pool room and janitor's rooms; on the first floor 
are the ladies' reception room, cafe and hall; on the second floor are the bil- 
liard room, card rooms and director's room; the upper floor is thrown into 
an assembly room, with boudoirs, etc. The club has splendid verandas, 
which make it a most attractive resort in the summer. Admission fee, $50; 
annual dues, $25. 

Phmnix Club. — Located at Thirty-first street and Calumet avenue. Take 
Cottage Grove avenue cars. Composed of young men of Hebrew lineage. 
The club rooms were secured for five years, and $5,000 has been expended in 
remodeling the building. There are two large parlors, a library, dining- 
rooms, billiard hall, smoking room and all the requisites of a first-class social 
club. Card playing and any form of gambling are positively prohibited. 
Olficers — Milton A. Strauss, president; A. J. Briersdorf, vice-president; D. 
L. Frank, secretary; E. Lowenstein, assistant secretary, and L. A. Nathan, 
treasurer. 

Press Club of Chicago. — Organized January 15, 1880. Club rooms located 
at 131 Clark st. Charter members — Melville E. Stone, Franc B. Wilkie, 
Rodney Welch, W. K. Sullivan, T. C. MacMillan, Joseph R. Dunlop, Henry 
F. Donovan, W. B. Sullivan, F. O. Bennett, Theodore Gestefeld, William T. 
Hall, John J. Flinn, J. F. Ballantyne, Elwyn A. Barron, W. T. Collins, 
James Maitland, Piatt Lewis, Thomas E. Burnside, C. A. Snowden, Law- 
rence Hardy, W. P. Hanscom, Guy Magee, W. H. Hicks, John E. Wilkie, 
Sam. V. Steele. The club was organized for the purpose of " bringing the 
members of the newspaper profession together in closer personal relations, to 
elevate the profession, to further good fellowship, and to extend a helping 
hand to all members of the organization who may deserve it." The present 
oflacersare: President, William A. Taylor, the Herald; first vice-president, 
Thomas. R. Weddell, Inter Ocean ; second vice-president, A. T. Packard, 
Railway News Bureau ; third vice-president, Oliver E. Moody, Morning News \ 
recording secretary, William M. Glenn, Tribune; financial secretary, Sam. 
T. Clover, Herald ; treasurer, Melville E. Stone ; directors. Kirk LaShelle, 
Evening Post ; John J. Lane, Mail ; John E, Wilkie, Tribune ; R, C. Jacobsen, 
Hide and Leather ; W. T. C. Hyde, limes. The club rooms are handsomely 
fitted up, and are convenient to the members actively engaged in newspaper 
work. Journalists visiting the city are granted the privilege of the club on 
being properly introduced by a member in good standing. The Press Clubis 
at present contemplating the erection of a building in which it may be enabled 
to more suitably entertain visitors during the comingtw^o years. The mem- 
bership is now about 250. Admission fee, $15 ; annual dues $12. 

Ryder Club. — A social organization, composed of members of St. Paul's 
Unitarian Church. Officers: President, Oliver Sollitt ; vice-president, Frank 
N. Gage ; treasurer, Francelia Colby. 

Sheridan Club.—K South Side social organization, which gives frequent 
receptions of the highest character during the season. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 219 

Standard 67^6.-— Located at Michigan ave. and Thirteenth st. Take 
Wabash ave. cable line. Organized in 1869. The leading Hebrew club of the 
city. Occupies one of the most elegant and complete club houses in Chicago. 
In the basement are the bowling alleys, gymnasium, etc.; on the first floorare 
the parlors, library, cafe, billiard room, etc. ; on the second floor are ladies' 
parlors and retiring rooms, and three dining rooms ; on the third floor is the 
assembly and ball room, with theatrical appointments. The club is magnifi- 
cently furnished and will be enlarged. Membership limited to three hundred 
and fifty. Admission fee, $100 ; annual dues, $80. Ofiicers : President, 
Joseph Spiegel; vice-president, M, Bensinger ; treasurer, Abr. G.Becker; 
financial secretary, Bernard Mergentheim; recording secretary, N, Greene- 
felder. Directors: M. Selz, M. Hirsh, H. Nathan, J. R. Wineman, A. M. 
Snydacker, N. J. Schmaltz, H. Elson, M. Born, Adolph Loeb, H. Heppner. 

Sunset Club. — An association of professional and business men, which 
meets periodically for the purpose of discussing some question of current 
interest and listening to the reading of papers on important national or local 
subjects, read by members of the club. 

Union Club. — Located onWashington pi. and Dearborn ave.. North Side. 
Take North Clark st. cable line or North State st. car. Organized in 1878. 
Formerly occupied the Ogden residence, recently torn away to make room 
for the great Newberry library. The present structure is a handsome one and 
is beautifully arranged and furnished. On the first floor is a magnificent hall, 
finished in carved oak ; to the left are the parlors, extending the length of 
the Dearborn ave. side, and to the rear is the cafe ; the billiard room, reading 
room, coat room and lavatory are also on this floor; on the second floor is the 
dining room, card rooms, director's room, etc.; the kitchen and servants' 
apartments are in the basement. It is a strictly social club and very exclusive. 
The active membership islimited to 600, but only 388 are on the roll. Admis- 
sion fee, $100 ; annual dues, $60. Officers: President, Franklin H, Watriss; 
vice-president. George S. Willits; secretary, John B. Kitchen ; treasurer, 
William D. Beall. 

Union League Club. — Located on Jackson st. and Fourth ave., fronting 
the south end of Custom-house and Post-offlce. The great general commer- 
cial and professional club of the city. Incorporated 1879, with the declared 
object of encouraging and promoting, by moral, social and political influence, 
unconditional loyalty to the Federal Government, and of defending and 
protecting the integrity and prosperity of the nation; of inculcating a higher 
appreciation of the value and sacred obligations of citizenship; of maintaining 
the civil and political equality of all citizens in every section of our common 
country, and of aiding in the enforcement of all laws enacted to preserve the 
purity of the ballot-box, resisting and exposing corruption, promoting econ- 
omy in oflSce and securing honesty and efficiency in the administration of 
National, State and Municipal affairs. The political complexion of the Club 
is strongly Republican, but it is conducted on strictly non-partisan principles. 
The active membership has recently been increased from 1,000 to 1.200, and 
there is a demand for a still further increase. With this great membership, 
the admission fee being $200 and the annual dues $80, taken in connection 
with the large receipts of the dining and wine-rooms, etc., the revenue of the 
Club is very heavy, and it has been possible to make additions to the building 
and to beautify the interior in a manner which makes it the most sumptuous 
club house in the city. It has a splendid library and a large and growing art 



220 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

gallery, the latter being supported mainly by the private contributions and 
subscriptions of members. The house is centrally located and is the popular 
luncheon quarters for business and professional members. It has a ladies' 
department, elegantly fitted up. The east entrance is used exclusively for 
ladies with escorts. It is not possible for strangers to visit the apartments of 
the Club, save when accompanied by a member, nor are meals served to non- 
members who are residents of the city, when accompanied by a member, 
save by special permission. Members, however, may take strangers in the 
city to the cafe at any time. The Union League entertains in a princely 
fashion, and during the World's Columbian Exposition it will contribute 
greatly toward the comfort and enjoyment of distinguished visitors. Ofiicers 
for 1891: President, Franklin H. Head;. first vice-president, Ferd W. Peck; 
second vice president. Porter P. Hey wood ; treasurer, William D. Preston; 
secretary, Henry A. Knott. Committee on political action: H. N. Higin- 
botham, Charles H. Aldrieh, George E. Adams, D. V. Purington, JohiTB. 
Payne, C. C. Kohlsaat. 

University Club. — Located in the University building, Dearborn st. and 
Calhoun pi. Composed of graduates of the various colleges and universities. 
The building is built of brown stone to the third story. All above the fourth 
floor is occupied by the University Club. The apartments are handsomely 
furnished. There are reception rooms, parlors, billiard rooms, card rooms, 
etc. , and all the comforts of a modern club house. The University Club has 
a large membership and is prosperous. 

Union Veteran Club. — An association of Veterans of the War of the 
Rebellion. The Club is in a healthy condition as to membership and 
finances. Officers — President, William Hale Thompson; first vice-president, 
A. J. Miksch; second vice-president, Charles B. Kimbell; secretary, John C. 
Barker; treasurer, Julius C. Wintermeyer; marshal, John Harper; directors, 
John M. St. John, Louis P. Berry, John Lefler, T. F. Rooney, A. F. Walcott. 

Wah Nah Ton Club. — The Tammany democratic club of Chicago. Com- 
mittees: At large— General John C. Black, Allen C. Durborow, Jr., John 
P. Hopkins, J. W. Richards, William H. Barnum, William J. English, 
William C. Walsh, Henry T. Murray, M. J. Kearney, Benjamin F.^Ely, 
Henry P. Fleming, John S. Cooper, Robert J. Smith, James S. Thomas, 
Jacob Stainer, Owen Murray, N. A. Cremer, Frank E. Kennedy. Wards- 
Harry Wilkinson, John C. Schubert, Charles Kern, William Best, Daniel 
Corkery, Edward Burke, W. E. McCarthy, William Loef9er, Edward Culler- 
ton, Patrick McMahon, John A. King, James Bradley, Rodger C. Sullivan, 
H. Olaf Hanson, John Lonergan. Victor Bardonski, William H. Ford, 
William J. Major, John Powers, W. H. Larkin, George Kersten, James H. 
Farrell, William H. Lyman, Fred Griesheimer, Harry Geohegan, Michael 
Fitzgerald, W. J. Florence, Thomas Kelley, Thomas Gahan, John Fitzgerald, 
Jesse Sherwood, C. S. Darrow, Dr. J. J. Larkin, F. J. Gaulter. 

Washington Park Club.—S\tVLQ.ted at South Park ave. and Sixty-first 
St. Take Cottage Grove avenue cable line. Organized 1883. Occupies an 
unpretentious though commodious club house, within easy access of the Wash- 
ington club racing park, south of Washington park. It is a combination of 
the higher class of sporting, country and city clubs, members of nearly all 
the other leading clubs being connected with it. The club house is more in the 
nature of a rendezvous than a resort. The racing meetings of tlie Washington 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 221 

Park Club are of national celebrity. The club house is handsomely fitted up 
for the comfort of the members and the ladies of members' families. Follow- 
ing are the officers for 1891 : President, George Henry Wheeler; vice-presidents, 
Samuel W. Allerton, Albert S. Gage, Charles Swartz, Columbus R. Cum- 
mings; treasurer, John R. Walsh; secretary, John E. Brewster; assistant 
secretary, James F. Howard; executive committee, the president, the vice- 
presidents, the treasurer, ex-officio, Charles D. Hamill, John Dupee, Jr., 
Arthur J. Caton, Henry J. McFarland, Thomas Murdoch, J. Henry Norton, 
John B. Carson; property committee, John Dupee, Jr., Charles D. Hamill, 
John B. Carson; house committee, Charles Schwartz, Charles D. Hamill, 
J. Henry Norton; racing stewards, Albert S. Gage, Samuel H. Sweet, Henry J. 
McFarland, John Dupee, Jr., John E. Brewster; board of directors for 1891, 
Nathaniel K. Fairbank, Norman B. Ream, Samuel W. Allerton, James W. 
Oakley, Columbus R. Cummings, Charles J. Barnes, John R. Walsh, J. 
Henry Norton, Albert S. Gage, Samuel H. Sweet, Henry J. MacFarland, 
George H. Wheeler, Thomas Murdoch, Charles J. Singer, James B. Goodman, 
John Dupee, Jr., Wirt D. Walker, John H. McAvoy, John B, Carson, 
Thomas Cratty, Arthur J. Caton, Charles Schwartz, Charles D. Hamill, 
John E. Brewster. The admission fee is $150, from the payment of which 
subscribers for one thousand or more shares in the capital stock are exempt; 
annual dues, $40. 

Webster Club. — Composed of young men and organized for social pur- 
poses. Following are the members. Fred Abele, M. J. Walsh, Franklin 
Giese, M.J. O'Donnell, G. T. Thirsk, H. C. Grujidman, W. S. Lahey, J. T. 
Stewart, W. A. Diez, J. E. McGrane, E. F. Breyer, H. E. Otte, L. A. 
Lemke, W. W. Lill, F. Becker, H. Stolt, P. H. Berkes, T. Lindberg and 
W. C. Carberry. 

Whitechapel Club. — Located in the rear of 123 La Salle st. Organized in 
October, 1889. The object of the club is given on the charter as "Social 
Reform." The purposes of the club are purely social, the intention in form- 
ing it being to band together professional and literary men of congenial habit. 
Business meetings are held once a week. It is customary to permit residents 
of Chicago to visit the club rooms and inspect the extremely unique decora- 
tions on Saturday. The visitor must be vouched for by a member of the 
club. It is customary, once a month, to hold a social meeting called a 
" Symposium," to which guests are invited by the club and by individual 
members. The initiation fee is $25 and one objection from any member 
bars an applicant from admission. President, Chas. G. Seymour; corre- 
sponding secretary, Hugh Blake Williams, M. D.; financial secretary, Wil- 
lard C. Thompson, treasurer, Henry Kosters: board of directors for 1889, 
1890, Dr. Frank W. Reilly, Sidney P. Browne, Frederick F. Thompson, Will. 
P. MacHenry, George A. Babbitt, Opie P. Read, DanaL. Hubbard and Horace 
Taylor. 

Women's Suffrage Club. — Meets in the club-room of the Sherman House 
on the evening of the third Tuesday of each month. Organized for the pur- 
pose of advocating and agitating equal political rights. Officers — President, 
Mrs. J. A. McKinney; vice-president, Mrs. E. W. Haskett; secretary, Mrs. 
F. Beckwith; treasurer, Mrs. C. B. Sawyer. 

COMMERCIAL EXCHANGES. 

The commercial exchanges, associations and boards of Chicago are 
numerous and powerful. Although the largest, the association known as 



322 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

the Board of Trade (which, in reality and properly, should be called the Grain 
and Produce Exchange), is by no means the only important one. There are 
various interests of magnitude not represented on the floor of the Board of 
Trade, which are handled by other exchanges. The different Exchanges and 
Associations are as follows : 

Board of Trade. — The leading Grain and Produce Exchange in the world ; 
membership, about 2,000. [S«e Board of Trade Transactions.] Following 
are the officers for 1891: President, William T. Baker; 1st vice-president, 
E. W. Bailey; 2d vice-president, James T. Rawleigh ; treasurer, E. A. 
Hamil ; secretary, George F. Stone ; assistant secretary, R. S. Worthington; 
clearing house manager, Samuel Powell ; manager quotation department, 
E. P. Whiteford ; council, A. W. Green. Directors— Terms expiring 1892 — 
A. C. Helmholz, C. B. Congdon, R. G. Chandler, Adolph Seckel, H. H. 
Aldrich. Terms expiring 1893— Jas. T. Healy, H. F. Dousman, E. S. 
Worthington, J. B. Dutch, J. A. Edwards. Terms expiring 1894 — William 
H. Bartiett, John S. Hancock, John M. Fiske, E. A. Beach, Malcon C. Mitchell. 
Committee on Appeals — A. S. White, James M. Sherman, Charles M. 
Armstrong, W. H. Beebe, Josiah B. Reeme. Committee on Arbitration — 
William B. Bogart, James Crighton, Thomas C.Ledward, Silas S. Whitehouse, 
Frederick Dickinson. 

The Board of Trade Building is situated at the foot of La Salle, on 
Jackson st., between Sherman st. and Pacific ave., in the heart of the busi- 
ness center, and only a short walk from the great hotels, railroad depots and 
street car terminals. The immense size and architectural beauty of the 
structure will attract the stranger's attention. It covers an area of 200 by 174 
feet; and is built of gray granite. The beautiful front is surmounted by a 
tower which tapers to a pinnacle 822 feet above the pavement. On the top 
of this tower is the largest weather-vane in the world, a lake schooner 15 feet 
in length, with rigging in proportion. From the street below it does not 
appear to be a fifth of this size. Visitors are admitted to the tower, from 
which a grand bird's eye view of the city and the lake may be obtained. On 
the first floor are settling rooms, private offices, telegraph offices, etc. Above 
these is a great Exchange Hall, the dimension of which are 174 by 155 feet. 
Some idea of the vastness of this room may be obtained from the knowledge 
that one of the largest five story blocks in the city could be accommodated 
within it. The interior decorations are elegant. There are two galleries, 
one for the public and one for invited guests. Admission to the former may 
be gained within business hours. From this gallery a perfect view rnay be 
had of the operations on the floor, operations which it would be impossible to 
describe, and impossible for the average visitor to understand. Admis- 
sion to the floor is granted only on rare occasions, and by the Secretary of the 
Board of Trade. The rear portion of the building is given over to offices. 

Financial Condition of the Board.— The report of the Directors of 
the Board of Trade for 1890 showed that they had cancelled and purchased 
during 1890 $50,000 of the bonds of the board, leaving a total indebtedness of 
$1,350,000, bearing interest at 5 per cent, per annum, payable semi-annually, 
and due in 1933, or at the option of the board after 1893. After the payment 
of all bills and the purchase of $50,000 of bonds a surplus remained of 
$21 969 31. The directory fixed the asse«!sment for 1891 at $65 a member, or 
|5 less than for 1890, $25 less than for 1888. The amount derived from rentals 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA ^23 

of real estate was $99,585.46. The expenditures were as follows: Interest 
on bonds, $69,443.75 ; taxes on real estate, $20,124.14; insurance, $7,260 ; 
expenses of the railroad department, $57,180.08; total, $154,007.97. The 
difference, amounting to $54,422.51, may be considered as the cost to the 
board for the use of the exchange hall and other rooms. 

Builders' and Traders' Exchange. — An organization of builders and dealers 
in builder's materials. Location of Exchange, 12, 14 and 16, No. 159 La 
Salle St. OflScers: President, Joseph Downey; first vice-president, P. F. Con- 
way; second vice-president, W. H. Mortimer; secretary, James John; treas- 
urer, A. J. Weckler. 

Chicago American Horse Exchange. — Situated at the southeast corner of 
Sixteenth and Dearborn sts., facing 151 feet on Sixteenth and 362 feet on 
Dearborn street. Take State street cable line. Officers of the Exchange — 
L. P. Harvey, president; Benjamin Brown, vice-president; Charles L. Easton, 
secretary and treasurer. The board of directors are: Messrs. Harvey, Brown, 
Easton, R, B. Hall, Marian Pickett, Mortimer McRoberts and William Bain. 
The property upon which the Exchange is to s-tand cost $150,000. Total cost 
of the improvement will be $225,000. Capitalization of the company, $300,- 
000. The Exchange will consist of a main building, with frontage aggre- 
gating 1,020 feet. It will be two stories high, with basement under the entire 
building. This structure will surround an open space, 50x360 feet, covered 
with a large glass skylight. In this place the auction sales will be held. It 
will be used mainly for the exhibition track. The course will lie in a straight 
line, 360x20 feet. The turn will be made at either end by an extension or 
widening of the track ten feet. 

F. C. Crowley has the contract for the entire improvement. The con- 
struction will be of brick, iron, glass and terra cotta, and practically fire- 
proof. The offices of the Exchange will front on Sixteenth street. The 
storage will be in the second story of the entire structure. The basement will 
furnish 20,000 feet of additional storage room when it will be required. The 
foundations will be heavy enough to carry five stories, and the height of the 
building will be increased when the occasion demands. Surrounding the 
open court on the first story will be 500 stalls, with other needed stabling 
conveniences. The interior finish will be plain, but neat. The stalls will be 
of iron, with wooden floor. The auctioneer's stand will be at the Sixteenth 
street or main entrance to the open court. More than 1,200 people can be 
comfortably seated while attending sales. The exterior will present an orna- 
mental appearance, although the treatment will be simple. 

Mining Stock Exchange. — Recently incorporated. To be" opened this 
spring. The Exchange will be conducted on the same general principles of 
the exchanges of New York and Denver and the Chicago Stock Exchange. 
Only such mining properties will be listed as are approved by the board 
of directors after an examination by experts. It is said that there is as 
much gold and silver mining stock owned in Chicago as in almost any other 
city in the country, but the want of an Exchange, where it can be readily 
bought and sold, has resulted in its being held by those only who could 
afford to send their own experts to examine the properties in which they pro- 
posed to invest. 

Chicago Real Estate Board. — One of the most important and prominent of 
Chicago's commercial organizations. Organized in 1887. Comprises the 
leading and responsible real estate dealers of the city. Located in the Real 



224 GUIl^E TO CHICAGO. 

Estate Board building, Randolph and Dearborn sts. The Board rooms are 
made a general headquarters and depository for information pertaining to real 
estate interests. A carefully arranged record of transfers, council proceed- 
ings and enactments of the County Board are kept for reference, as well as 
maps, plats, etc., thereby furnishing facilities for members for learning facts 
without going to various public offices. Besides its function as a conserva- 
tor of the public weal, the Board exerts beneficial influence in matters bearing 
more directly upon the interests of property owners and agents. A valuation 
committee of the Board is established whose duty is to value property on 
request for a small compensation by comparison with the service rendered. 
Valuations are made without bias for trust companies, investors, mortgagers, 
and for condemnation or damage purposes, by persons thoroughly competent 
to make them. As showing the high estimate upon servicesof this committee 
it is only necessary to say they were called upon to value $4,001,888.60 worth 
of real estate in 1888. One of the greatest results of this organization, how- 
ever, is the prevention of fraud on the part of dishonest and irresponsible 
real estate dealers, and the creation of a high-toned sentiment among real 
estate men. No man of a blemished commercial character can become or 
remain a member. 

Officers for 1891. — Following are the officers for 1891: President. J. 
L. Lombard; vice-president, E. F. Getchall; secretary, Robert P. Walker; 
treasurer, S. E. Gross. Executive committee — Byron A. Baldwin, one year; 
W. W. Baird, two years. Valuation committee — W. J. Jackson, Joseph 
Donnersberger, E. H. Fishburn. Membership committee — W. P. Harrison, 
one year; W. F. Lubeke, one year; C. W. Pierce, D. M. Erskine, two years; 
J. H. Trumbull, Dunlap Smith, L. J. Swift, J. V. Hair. Call Board com- 
mittee — F. M. Elliott, oneyear; C. L. Bonney, Nelson Thomason, Charles E. 
Rand. Public Service committee — South Side — W. D. Kerfoot. one year; 
B. R, De Young, one year. West Side— A. J. Stone, one year; E. A. Cum- 
mings, one year; George Birkhoff, one year. North Side — E, S. Dreyer, 
one year; J. L. Houghteling, two years. Reference committee — A. B. Mead, 
two years; M. R, Bernard, one year. 

Chicago Stock Exchange. — Located in the Stock Exchange building. Dear- 
born and La Salle streets. Officers — President, Charles Henrotin; secretary 
and chairman, Joseph R. Wilkins; treasurer, W. A. Hammond. Calls at 
10:30 A. M. and 2:15 p. m. on stocks and bonds. The Chicago Stock Exchange 
made greater progress in 1890 toward becoming an institution of prime 
importance in the financial situation of Chicago and the West than it had 
made in all the previous years of its existence. Trading has been active, and 
interest in the market has been widespread. The total sales at the Stock 
Exchange for 1890 were 1,058,074 shares, against 145,725 in 1889, and $18.- 
268,600 bonds, against $19,029,500 in 1889. As Chicago ranks as the second 
city in the United States, the immensity of these operations are only second 
to those of Wall street, and many investors prefer to buy and sell the leading 
speculative stocks of Chicago in this exchange, as they are surer of finding- 
quotations nearer actual values than if they sent their orders to the East, 
where the nature of Chicago properties are comparatively unknown. The 
Exchange building is devoted almost exclusively to the uses of bankers and 
brokers. The ground floor is occupied exclusively by bankers who have 
made a specialty of handling securities and documentary loans that represent 
corporations of great wealth. The arrangement of offices is peculiarly 
adapted to the quick despatch of business. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 225 

Fruit Buyers' Association. — A new organization formed by the wholesale 
fruit dealers of Chicago. Meets at the Produce Exchange. The object of 
the Association is to regulate the sale of California fruit, from ten to twenty- 
car-loads of which arrive daily, representing in value from $10,000 to $20,- 
000. These fruits are disposed of at auction in two rooms. The rule laid 
down by the association is that each room shall begin the sale of fruits at 
9:30 in the morning on alternate days, and if the room whose turn it is to 
commence at 9:30 is not ready, the buyers shall proceed to the other room, 
when the sale is to commence. When one room has begun a sale, the other 
must not start in until the first is finished. One object of this rule is to have 
the sales concluded by noon, instead of late in the afternoon, as formerly. 
Another object is to keep out an objectionable element that crowded the room. 
The fee for members is $25. The association is incorporated under the State 
laws. The following are the ofl&cers: President, J. F. Chacker.of Chacker 
Bros.; vice-president, J. D. Raggio, of J. D. Raggio & Co.; secretary, E. E. 
Connery, with M. Scanlon; treasurer, Samuel Page; trustees, Frank Cuneo, 
O. S. Edwards, Louis Boitano, S. H. Clapp and William Ostatag. 

Fruit and Vegetable Dealers' Association. — Location of Exchange, 144 S. 
Water street. A prosperous and important association of merchants in i he 
fruit and vegetable commission trade. Organized 1888. Officers for 1891: 
President, F. A. Thoma-s; vice-president, Robert A Burnett; treasurer, J. 
W. Sharp; secretary. Colonel Littler; executive committee, George W. Bar- 
nett, Charles B, Ayers, Henry A. Ott, Charles Wilmeroth, and F. A. Thomas; 
arbitration committee, J. W. Sharp, Edwin R. Baker, Richard Kemper, B. 
V. Emery, L. R. Ermeling, and George S. Sawyer. 

Lumbermen's Association of Chicago. — This association was formed about 
April, 1891, from the three existing associations of lumber dealers — the 
Lumbermen's Exchange, Chicago Lumber Yard Dealers' Association, and 
the Lumbermen's Association of Chicago. The new association may be said 
to be the successor of Ihe Lumbermen's Exchange, the oldest of the associa- 
tions, incorporated March 31, 1869. The object of the Exchange is to advance 
the commercial character, awd promote the general lumber interests of the 
City of Chicago and the Northwest, to inculcate just and equitable principles 
in trade, establish and maintain uniformity in the commercial usages ®f the 
city, acquire, preserve and disseminate valuable business information, and 
avoid and adjust, as far as practicable, the controversies and misunderstand 
iogs which are apt to arise between individuals engaged in trade when they 
have no acknowledged rules to guide them. Any person, firm or company, 
interested or engaged in thelumber trade, approved by the iDoard of director.*!, 
may become a member of the association by signing the rules and regulations 
and paying the annual dues. Ex-members of the Exchange on retiring from 
business, may, by vote of the board of directors, be allowed the privile^ps o^" 
the Exchange rooms without fees. The officers are: C. A. Paltzer, president; 
E. Harvey Wilce, vice-president; E, E. Hooker, secretary; John MoLa en, 
treasurer. The Exchange is located at 618 Chamber of Commerce Building. 

The lumber business of Chicago is immense. The figures used in estimat- 
ing it run away up into the billions. The water frontage used for unloading 
lumber needs be computed by miles. The cars used to move the Chicago sup- 
ply to the demand are numbered by thousands. The men engaged in the 
work would make an army. There are about ten miles of water frontage in 
Chicago devoted to the lumber business. This frontage is principally on slips, 



226 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

and is mostly located on the south branch of the Chicago river. There is 
however, a great deal of lumber handled on the lake front. To these large 
lumber districts must be added the many small yards scattered about the city. 
Michigan furnishes about 70 per cent, of the lumber supply, which comes by 
lake. The other 30 per cent, comes from almost everywhere. California 
furnishes the redwood. This is principally valuable for its durability when 
exposed to moisture in tanks, etc. Yellow pine comes from the South. Its 
principal use is for inside finishing, and the demand is increasing. Poplar 
comes almost altogether from Indiana and the South, oak from the middle 
States, walnut from the South, from Indiana, and a little from other localities. 
Mutual Live Stock Insurance Company. — This company during the few 
years of its existence has paid out for losses $14,000. Officers — George Bain, 
president; P. B. Shell, vice-president; Joseph Bee, treasurer; A. H. Smith, 
secretary and general manager; J. A. Bebby, superintendent of agents; 
Joseph Hughes, consulting veterinarian. 

Other Exchanges. — American Live Stock Association, organized May, 
1888. Has paid two dividends since then, 186 per cent, on the capital stock 
in 1889 and 150 per cent, in 1890. Chicago Coal Exchange, 635, 225 Dear- 
born; Chicago Anthracite Coal Association, 203, 225 Dearborn; Chicago 
Flour AND Feed Dealers' Association, 907 Royal Insurance Building; 
Chicago Live Stock Exchange, Union Stock Yards; Chicago Milk 
Exchange, meets Fridays, 144 S. Water; Chicago Open Board of Trade, 
Open Board Building, 18-24 Pacific ave.; Chicago Open Board of Trade 
Clearing House, Open Board of Trade Building; Commercial Exchange, 
(Wholesale Grocers), 11-34 Wabash ave.; Gravel Roofers' Exchange, 99, 
159 La Salle; Institute op Building Arts, 63-65 Washington; National 
Association of Lumber Dealers, 35-92 La Salle; National Butter, 
Cheese and Egg Association, 144 S. Water; National Producers' and 
Shippers' Association meets monthly, 144 S. Water; Produce Exchange, 
144 S. Water, cor. Clark, telephone 5628; Union Stock Yard and Transit 
Company, S. Halsted, cor. Thirty-ninth. ■• 

DETECTIVE AGENCIES. 

In addition to the city detective force there are established in Chicago a 
number of private detective agencies, the most responsible of which are the 
following: 

Bonfield Detective Agency. — Founded by John Bonfield, formerly Inspec- 
tor of the Chicago Police Department, located at 120, 122 and 124 La Salle 
street: John Bonfield, Principal; M. L. Bonfield, superintendent. 

Bruce Detective Agency. — Robert Bruce, general superintendent; located at 
166 Randolph street. 

Hartman Detective Agency . — George A. Hartman, superintendent; located 
at 128 South Clark street. 

International Detective Agency. — C. A. Wallace, superintendent, 186 S. 
Clark street. 

Mooney & Boland Detective Agency. — This is a'stock company, organized 
under the laws of the State of Illinois. The officers of the Company, all of 
whom are stockholders, are: James Mooney, president; John Boland, 
vice-president; T. E. Lonergan, secretary; W. J.Sutherland, treasurer. T. E. 
Lonergan is general manager; W. J. Sutherland, superintendent; andEmil 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 227 

Sandmeyer, assistant superintendent of the new organization. The Moony & 
Boland Detective Agency ranks among the most reliable and respectable con- 
cerns of the kind in the world. It has branch offices in nearly every large city 
in the country. Some of the finest detective work, of a private as well as of a 
public nature, ever presented here, has been done by this agency. Its con- 
nection with the " Boodler Cases " gave it an international reputation. 

Pinkertons" National Detective Agency. — Founded by the late Allan Pinker- 
ton in 1850. William A. Pinkerton, general superintendent Western Division, 
191 and 193 Fifth Avenue, Chicago; Robert A. Pinkerton, general superin- 
tendent Eastern Division, 66 Exchange Place, New York City. D. Robertson, 
assistant to general superintendent, Chicago; Frank Murray, superintendent of 
Chicago office; Charles Wappenstein, assistant superintendent. Offices at St. 
Paul, Kansas City, Denver, New York, Boston and Philadelphia. This is 
the original Pinkerton National Detective Agency. 

Pinkertons' Protective Patrol. — Founded by Allan Pinkerton, 1850. — W. 
A. Pinkerton and Robert A. Pinkerton, principals. Chicago Station-house, 
191-193 Fifth Avenue, Patrick Foley, captain; J. H.Cleary, 1st lieutenant; 
George Hay, 2d lieutenant. 

Union Detective Association.— ^ . H. Lobell, superintendent; 125 S. Clark 
street. 

Veterans' Police Patrol. — John L. Manning, manager; located at 91 S. 
Clark street. 

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

The Educational Institutions of Chicago and its suburbs rank among the 
best in the United States, The new University of Chicago will be, when 
in full operation, one of the grandest institutions of learnicg in the world. 
The Northwestern University of Evanston holds a leading place among the 
higher colleges of the United States. The various universities, colleges, 
seminaries, academies, institutes, etc., are referred to below. 

Chicago Athenceum. — In the lummer of 1890 this nonored institution, 
which has been justly called " The People's College," entered upon the most 
promising period of its history, at the opening of its Twentieth year. At that 
time the Board of Directors, composed of some of the best known and most 
influential citizens, with Ferd. W. Peck, Esq , as president, secured a valu- 
able property 91 x97 feet at 18 to 26 Van Buren st. , one of the choicest loca- 
tions in the city, which has been enlarged to a seven-story building and fitted 
up in the most attractive style,, with all desirable conveniences. The property 
was purchased for $200,000, besides which $80,000 have been expended 
in the improvements. Situated in the very heart of the city, close to the 
Art Institute and in the same grand square on which the Auditorium 
stands, it is destined to become a recognized educational centre, and one of 
Chicago's most beneficent institutions. From the date of its organization in 
October, 1871, its animating spirit has been philanthropic. Though a private 
corporation, it has always maintained the Athenaeum solely for the public 
good, having been chartered as an institution not for pecuniary profit. 
The benefits that it has bestowed upon this city can not be overestimated. 
Open daily throughout the year and five evenings a week for nine months of 
the year, with an able corps of twenty teachers and a large list of studies — 
all elective — young men and women may enter at any time, without exami- 
nation, and receive the desired instruction at moderate cost. Here every- 



228 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

thing is done by the superintendent and teachers not only to aid pupils in the 
special branches that they have chosen but to stimulate a love for learning. To 
this end a well-chosen circulating library of good English literature is main- 
tained, containing books of reference in the arts and sciences, and an open 
reading-room with the daily and weekly papers, magazines and reviews. 
During the fall and winter lectures on popular science, literature and 
applied art are given. In the same building an assembly hall has been 
provided, which will give tar better facilities for such instructive lec- 
tures. A room has been specially prepared to receive apparatus and 
chemicals for the illustration of lectures on natural philosophy and chem- 
istry. For the past fifteen years the Athenseum has been closely allied with the 
Chicago Mechanics' Institute, organized in 1843, of which Geo. C. Prussin^, 
Esq., is president, and has done all its educational work. The liberal 
advantages of the Institute are extended to indigent mechanics or their chil- 
dren, on written application, duly vouched for. Many a worthy young 
mechanic or citizen has thus secured, through the Athenseum evening classes, 
such thorough instruction in mathematics and drawing as to gain for him 
promotion in his trade, as an intelligent and practical foreman or a master- 
builder. While the greater importance in this ' ' People's College" is attached to 
the fundamental branches whose utility is everywhere acknowledged, valu- 
able service is also rendered to young women who desire to qualify them- 
selves for teachers in the public schools, or to pass the examination for still 
higher grades, by giving them able instruction in advanced mathematics, 
physics and the natural science. Here also young men may receive 
special instructions in science, the classics and French or German to 
enable them to enter any college in the land. The new "Athenseum 
Building" is a substantial and commanding edifice constructed of pressed 
brick and stone. It is 91x97 feet and seven stories high. Special attention 
here is given to securing abundant light and good ventilation not only by 
meansofnumerousbroadwindows,those in front beingplate glass, but through 
two large light-wells down through the entire building. A broad entrance and 
hall with handsome marble pavement and side walls leads to two large electric 
elevators, the first of this kind introduced into Chicago, by W. E. Hale & Co., 
and to a broad iron and marble stairway leading to the seventh story. 
The upper story has beed elaborately fitted up with sixteen or eighteen 
studios for the special accommodation of artists. The fifth and sixth floors 
are devoted to spacious and beautiful class-rooms, an assembly hall, library 
and reading-room, the business ofllce and superintendent's private office. 
Other rooms below are occupied by literary, philanthropic and educa- 
tional associations. With the exception of the broad entrance hall leading to 
elevators, the entire first story and basement have been made into the most 
spacious and fairly-appointed gymnasium in this city, with a height of 26 
feet. The east half is devoted to the gymnasium proper, furnished with all the 
best apparatus that can be obtained. Thirteen feet above the floor is a 
suspended and well supported running track, 5 feet wide. The ceiling is 
finished in heavy hard wood panels, and admirably adapted for suspended 
rings, ladders, climbing ropes, etc. The west half is occupied by a splendid 
racket alley (or hand ball court), 65x23 feet, with cement walls; a plunge bath 
lined withEnglish porcelain, 18x28 feet and 7 feet deep; four shower bath and 
five porcelain tub bath rooms, also two rooms 12x16 feet for sparring and fenc- 
ing-. Along the entire front run two of the best standard bowling alleys, being 
partly under the sidewalk and well lighted. Adjoining the office, on the 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 229 

first floor, is a well furnished barber-shop for the special accommodation 
of members. Thus generously equipped with apparatus, and with spacious and 
handsome educational departments, the Chicago Athenaeum is destined to be- 
come one of the most attractive institutions for mental and physical culture of 
any city in the land. The names of the officers and directors of the Chicago 
Athenaeum are asufficient guarantee of its high standard and useful aims. Ferd. 
W. Peck president; John J,Glessner,fir8tvice-president; Wm. R. Page, second 
vice-president; John Wilkinson, secretary and treasurer; Edward I. Galvin, 
superintendent in charge. Directors: Henry Booth, Franklin H. Head, 
Lyman J. Gage, Wm. J. Chalmers, Hugh A. White, Joseph Sears, Ferd. W. 
Peck, John J. Glessner, Wm. R. Page, A. C. Bartlett, J. J. P. Odell, Alex. 
H. Revell, John Wilkinson, Harry G. Selfridge, H. H. Kohlsaat, Horace H. 
Badger. Under the guidance and government of these public-spirited citi- 
zens, this time-honored institution will ever keep in the line of progress, in 
promoting the interests of practical education. 

Chicago Manual Training ScTiooL — Located at Michigan ave. and Twelfth 
St. Take State st. cable line. Founded by the Commercial Club of Chicago, 
and its history dates from the regular monthly meeting of that club held, 
March 35, 1882, at which time the necessary funds were subscribed, and a 
committee appointed to propose a plan for the organization of the school. 
The Chicago Manual Training Association was incorporated under the laws 
of the State of Illinois, April 19, 1883, and the control of the school was vested 
in a Board of Trustees, nine in number, elected by the Association. The lot 
on which the building stands was purchased March 28, 1883; the corner-stone 
was laid with appropriate ceremonies September 24, 1883, and the regular 
school exercises began February 4, 1884. The Junior class, only was organ- 
ized at that time, and consisted of seventy-two pupils, all thatcoujd be accom- 
modated. The dedicatory exercises were held June 19, 1884. The Middle 
class was organized September 1, 1884; the Senior class September 7, 1885. 
The first class was graduated June 24, 1886. In September, 1886, the capacity 
of the school was increased, and a Junior class numbering ninety-six was 
admitted. The object of the school is clearly stated in the Articles of Incor- 
poration, as follows: "Instruction and practice in the use of tools, with suc- 
instruction as may be deemed necessary in mathematics, drawing and English 
branches of a high school course. The tool instruction as at present con- 
templated shall include carpentry, wood-turning, pattern-making, iron chip- 
ping and filing, forge work, brazing and soldering, the use of machine shop 
tools , and such other instruction of a similar character as may be deemed 
advisable to add to the foregoing from time to time, it being the intention to 
divide the working hours of the students, as nearly as possible, equally 
between manual and mental exercises. The Board of Trustees consists of E. 
W. Blatchford, president; R. T. Crane, vice-president; Marshall Field, treas- 
urer; William A, Fuller, secretary; John W. Doane, Christoph Hotz, Edson 
Keith, George M. Pullman. The teachers are: Henry H. Belfield, Ph. D., 
Director; W. R. Wickes, A. M., Algebra;H. W.Eaton, Ph. D., Geometry and 
Physics; Charles E. Boynton, A. B., Chemistry and Physiology; E. B, Per- 
son, A. M. , Drawing; H. C. Powers, Machine Shop; W. O. Hansen, Forge 
and Foundry; G. W. Ritchey, Woodwork; H. C. Fall, B. S., Drawing; S. B. 
Ragatz, Woodwork; Ruth L. Phelps, Latin; W. M. Parks, Passed Asst. 
Engi. U. 8. N. Mechanics, Design and Construction of Engines, The course 
of study and practice is as follows: 



230 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

JuniobYear — 1. MatTismatics — Algebra; Geometry. 2. Science — Physi- 
ology. 3. Language — English Language and Literature; or Latin. 4. 
Drawing — Freehand Model and Object; Projection; Machine; Perspective. 
5. Shopwork — Carpentry, Joinery, Wood-Turning, Pattern-Making. Proper 
Care and Use of Tools. 

Middle Year— 1. Mathematics — Geometry; Plane Trigonometry. 2. 
Science — Physics. 3. Language — General History and English Literature, or 
Latin. 4. Draicing — Orthographic Projection and Shadows ; Line and 
Brush Shading ; Isometric Projection and Shadows ; Details of Machinery ; 
Machines from Measurement. 5. Shopwork — Molding, Casting ; Forging, 
Welding, Tempering; Soldering, Brazing. 

Senior Year — 1. Mathematics — Mechanics ; Book-keeping. 2. Science 
— Chemistry and Physical Geography, or Descriptive Geometry and Higher 
Algebra. 3. Language, Etc. — English Literature, Civil Government, Politi- 
cal Economy, or Latin or French. 4. Drawing — Machines from Measure- 
ment ; Building from Measurement ; Architectural Perspective. 5. Machine 
Shopwork — Chipping, Filing, Fitting, Turning, Drilling, Planing, Etc. 
Study of Machinery ; Management and care of Steam Engines and Boilers. 

Candidates for admission to the Junior year must be at least fourteen 
years of age, and must pass a satisfactory examination in Reading, Spelling, 
Writing, Geography, English Composition, Arithmetic, and History of the 
United 3tates. Boys who have completed a grammar school course should 
have no difficulty in passing the examination for admission. A certificate of 
the completion of the first year's course in a reputable high school is accepted 
in lieu of examination. No boy will be admitted without a certificate of 
good moral character from some responsible person ; and no pupil will be 
retained who is an impediment to the progress, or an injury to the morals, of 
his classmates. The school year is divided into two terms of twenty weeks 
each, and begins on the First Monday of September. Tuition, payable by 
the term, is as follows : 

Junior Year, per term, $40.00. Per year, $ 80.00 
Middle Year, " 50.00. " 100.00 

Senior Year, " 60.00. " 120.00 

To secure or retain a seat, tuition must be paid, or arrangements satisfac- 
tory to the Director made, not later than the first week of each term. A 
deposit of $5 is made by every pupil as an offset against possible damage to 
tools, apparatus, etc. This deposit is returned, less assessments, if any, 
when the pupil leaves school. Pupils furnish their own books, drawing 
instruments and material, aprons, overalls and pocket tools. Shop tools and 
material are provided by the school. The school does not furnish board or 
lodging, which may be obtained in the city or suburbs for $5 to $6 per week. 
The Director will assist non-resident pupils in obtaining homes. The cost of 
books is, for Junior Year, about $5 ; for Middle and Senior Years, about $6 
each. Drawing material and drawing instruments cost about $15 for the 
Junior Year ; about $5 for Middle and Senior Years, each. The founders of 
the school desire that its advantages may be enjoyed by boys who, by reason 
of age, scholarship, mechanical aptitude and good moral character, are fitted 
to enter the school, but who, from lack of means, hesitate to apply for 
admission. Provision has been made for the payment of the tuition of a 
limited number of such deserving boys, whose parents are invited to consult 
with the Director, School hours are from 9 A. m. to 3:30 p. m,, with inter- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 231 

missiou of thirty minutes from 1 o'clock. A warm lunch is provided at rea- 
sonable rates for those who desire it, 

Chicago Kitchen Oarden Association. — Located at Room 12, Huron street 
iichool, where cooking classes are held after regular school hours. Take 
Clark or State st. cars, going north. Officers — IVlrs. J. R. Owens, president; 
Mrs. S. M. Nickerson, Mrs. Victor F. Lawson and Mrs. H. J. Cobb, Tice- 
presidents. From the latest report of the association to the Chicago School 
Board the following facts are derived: Permission to use the school room 
was granted in March, 1889. The room was fitted up by the association; 
cooking stoves put in, a sink built, a separate gas meter and water connections 
added, fuel purchased and the janitor paid for the additional trouble which 
the care of the room gave him, These facts are mentioned to show that all 
the expenses attending the classes have been met by the association. Two 
classes were started, with eleven girls in one and thirteen in the other; but the 
attendance increased so rapidly that by the end of June thirty-nine pupils 
were attending the classes. The cooking school re-opened in September, 1889, 
at the same place, with eighteen of the former pupils in an advanced class and 
a sufficient number to form two new classes. Here is the record of attend- 
ance: From March, 1889, to June, 1889, 39; from September, 1889, to Febru- 
ary, 1890, 52; from February, 1890, to June, 1890, 67; total, 158. During 
this period two exhibitions of the cooking classes were given. The teachers 
and some of the parents attended and enjoyed seeing the pupils cook and 
serve lunch. The directors admit that if the work of the cooking classes of 
the public schools of New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Milwaukee is com- 
pared with that of the Chicago classes, the result is unfavorable to the latter. 
The time allowed for the lessons is too short. Each pupil, they think, should be 
given at least two lessons a week. At present the classes are held after school 
hours, and it is often 4 o'clock before the children from the neighboring 
schools are in their seats. If the girls who attend these classes could be dis- 
missed at 3 o'clock from school they would make great progress in acquiring 
the domestic art^=— f or it can be truly called an art. The association has engaged 
Miss Allen, a graduate of the Boston cooking school, and who has taught 
cooking in the public schools of Boston, to t-ake charge of the classes at the 
Huron street school. This secures for the pupils the best advantages that can 
be obtained. 

Chicago Theological Seminary. — Located at the corner of Ashland and 
Warren aves., opposite Union Park, West Side. Take Madison st. or Ran- 
dolph St. cars, going west. In 1854 the Chicago Theological Seminary was 
founded by delegates from Congregational churches in Michigan, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. The seminary was incorporated under the 
laws of Illinois on March 6, 1855, and opened 'its halls for work on October 
1, 1858. From its inception it has been under the control of the churches of 
the Northwest, which, through what is called the triennial convention, elect 
the director and visitors. In 1869 the management decided to provide a 
special course for men who had not a classical training. In recent years 
there has also been established three foreign departments — German, Swedish 
and Dano-Norwegian. The German department is in close connection with 
the German seminary at Crete, Neb., and receives students from it. The 
Swedish department has the approval and support of numerous Swedish 
churches throughout the United States The Dano-Norwegian department 
has no ecclesiastical connections. The institution is governed by a board of 



232 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

directors, of which the oflScers are: President, E. W. Blatchford; vice-presi* 
dent, C. F. Gates; secretary, Rev. G. S. F. Savage. 

The Faculty, Etc. — The following is the faculty: Rev. Franklin Wood- 
bury Fisk, D. D., LL. D., president and Wisconsin professor of sacred 
rhetoric. Rev. George Nye Boardman, D. D,, LL. D., Illinois professor of 
systematic theology. Rev. Samuel Ives Curtiss, Ph. D., D. D., New Eng- 
land professor of Old Testament literature and interpretation and librarian . 
Rev. Giles Buckingham Wilcox, D. D., Stone professor of pastoral theology 
and special studies. Rev. Hugh Macdonald Scott, D. D., Sweetser and 
Michigan professor of ecclesiastical history. Rev. George Holley Gilbert, 
Ph. D., Iowa professor of New Testament literature and interpretation. 
Rev. Gustav Adolph Zimmermann, Ph. D., instructor in the German depart- 
ment. Rev. Peter Christian Trandberg, instructor in the Dano-Norwegian 
department. Rev. Fridolf Risberg, S. M. C, instructor in the Swedish de- 
partmeMt. Rev. David Nyvall, M. Ph. C, instructor in the Swedish 
department. J. R. J. Anthony, instructor in elocution on the J. W. Scoville 
endowment. Rev. Reinert August Jernberg, B. A., B. D., instructor in 
English in the Scandinavian departments. In addition to its other advantages 
the seminary has a library containing 9,400 volumes, furnishing adequate 
reference material for students The library is open eight hours each day, 
and the reading room attached to it is supplied with the leading American 
and European reviews and religious papers. Recently a handsome dormi- 
tory has been added to the seminary. It was formerly opened at the close of 
1890. The new building is 125 feet by 150. The front portion is five stories 
and the rear portion four stories in height. The lower story contains four 
lecture rooms, parlor, reception room, offices and studies for professors. 
The upper stories are used entirely for a dormitory, and have accommoda- 
tions for 134 students. The main building faces Ashland ave., and there is 
a wing on Warren ave. and one in the rear. The total cost of the building 
was $110,000. « 

Illinois Military Academy. — Located at Morgan Park, a suburb of the city, 
situated on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad, thirteen miles from 
the City Hall. Take train at Van Buren Street depot. Van Buren and Sher- 
man streets. A boarding-school for young men , conducted on the West Point 
plan. The students are known as cadets and are uniformed. The course of 
instruction is thorough, and at the same time the physical powers are devel- 
oped by the exercises and drills for which the Academy is noted. Though 
it is a boarding-school, residents of the town can enjoy all its advantages and 
still have their sons board at home. The school building cost $40,000 and is 
situated on the hill and surrounded by a drill-ground of fifteen acres. 

Josephinum, The. — Situated at Oakley avenue and Thompson street, in 
the northwestern section of the city. The institution is under the pastoral 
supervision of Father Thiele, of St. Aloysius Church , and under the immediate 
charge of Sister Superior Edward and the Sisters of Christian Charity, and is 
for the instruction of young women. The course of study admits of the 
ordinary academic branches, together with a thorough course in practical 
housekeeping. The latter course is a new venture in the field of instruction 
and will be the principal feature of the school. Those attending will not 
only receive a thorough intellectual and Christian training, but they will also 
master the culinary science. The Josephinum is a beautiful structure and is 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 233 

surrounded by a broad expanse of prairie. The building and grounds cost 
$100,000. Tliere are accommodations for about seventy-five boarders and tvro 
hundred day pupils. 

Kenwood Institute for Young Ladies. — Located at "Kenwood." Take 
Illinois Central train, foot of Randolph or Van Buren sts., or Cottage Grove 
ave. cable cars. The Institute is located on Lake ave. and Fiftieth St., and is 
in charge of Mrs. Helen E. Starrett, an accomplished woman and a writer of 
some celebrity. It was founded by Mrs. Kennicott, wife of Dr. Kennicott, 
in 1866, and has been a fashionable boarding-school for young ladies for 
several years. [See " Kenwood."] 

Lake Forest University, — Located at Lake Forest, a suburb of Chicago, 
situated on the Milwaukee division of the Chicago & North- Western railway, 
twenty-eight miles from the city, on the north shore of Lake Michigan. 
Take train at Wells Street depot, Wells and Kinzie sts., North Side. In 1853 
several prominent presbyterians of Chicago, feeling the need of an institu- 
tion where young men might be trained for the ministry, decided upon the 
establishment of a college. There was nothing of the kind nearer than Lane 
Seminary at Cincinnati, and the want seemed to be an imperative one. The 
scheme was crystallized by Rev. J. J. Slocum, who afterward started the New 
York World. Committees that were self-constituted began searching for a 
suitable site for the new college. Offers of land were made at Winnetka, 
Glencoe and other points, but for some reason the sites did not seem to catch 
the fancy of the committee. It was left for Rev. Ira M. Weed to call the 
attention of those interested in the matter to the present site. Mr. Weed 
lived at Waukegan, and had often been moved by the beauty of the scenery 
at Lake Forest. On the first visit the committee decided that they had found 
the place of all places. 

A hDcation decided upon, a plan of operations was devised. An asso- 
ciation, known as the Lake Forest Association, was formed in 1856, with 
Heran F. Mather, president; Horatio Shumway, secretary, and Peter Page, 
D. J. Lake, Thomas R. Clark and Franklin Ripley, Jr., trustees. By sub- 
scription the capital stock was made $50,000, in shares of $500. The scheme 
was to buy the ground, set apart fifty acres for the trustees, thirty acres for 
college grounds, ten acres for an academy and ten acres for a female semi- 
nary." Every other lot was to belong to the University, by the sale of which 
means to pay for the whole was to be raised. In all 2,300 acres of land were 
bought, the price ranging from $25 to $100 per acre. The cholera plague of 
1854 helped the scheme along. By it several wealthy men sought homes 
there, induced by the double opportunity of doing good and at the same time 
of securing desirable and healthy suburban homes. 

It was not till 1878 that the college entered upon its era of prosperity. 
Then the college hall was built at a cost of $30,000, and the college opened 
with a faculty of seven and fifty students. In 1886 Dr. Roberts was called 
to the presidency, and it is through his management that the college is coining 
to be recognized at home and abroad. Among other things he has raised 
$700,000 for the college and has caused new blood to be infused into the fac- 
ulty as well as in the make-up of the board of trustees. There are now about 
one hundred and fifty students and several thorough and complete courses. 
A gymnasium is soon to be erected at a cost of $25,000, and everything points 
to an era of renewed prosperity. 

Connected with the college as a department is the Ferry Hall Seminary 



234 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

for young ladies. It was established in 1858 by Rev. W. D. Ferry, of Fair 
Haven, Mich., who left a bequest of $35,000 for the purpose. A suitable 
building was erected and to-day over one hundred and fifty young ladies are 
in yearly attendance. In many ways this institution is a revelation in the 
way of ladies' seminaries. It provides two courses, the scientific and clas- 
sical, and fits the pupils for entering almost any college. It alsoprovides a 
seminary course of two years, a course in music and special courses. Espe- 
cial attention is given to physical culture. A gymnasium has been fitted up 
with every variety of mechanical appliances for physical training. A com- 
petent instructor is in charge and all are required to take gymnastic exercise. 
In short, at Ferry Hall the pupils can have all the advantages of a home and 
of a first class seminary. 

A $250,000 Art Institute building is in process of erection. Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry Durand are the originators of the enterprise, and, with the assist- 
ance of others, among whom are Senator Farwell, Marshall Field, Walter 
Larned, Simon Reid, and John H. Dwight, the necessary funds have been 
subscribed. The structure is to be of red sandstoneand three stories in height, 
besidesa basement. Every modern improvement will be introduced, theplans 
having been made particularly with a view to durability and permanent use- 
fulness. In the basement will be lecture-rooms for the use of the classes in 
physicsand chemistry. This department is to be furnished with the most recent 
conveniences for the pursuit of those studies. The first and second floors will 
be fitted up for the accommodation of the Art Institute proper. On the top 
floor the classes in biology will be provided for. 

Lewis Institute. — The late Allen C. Lewis left a bequest in the nature of 
a fund to be used in the establishment of a technical school of the highest 
order. The buildings of the Institute are to be erected on the property at 
Van Buren and Morgan streets, West Side. The property is 165x201 feet, 
the longer frontage being on Van Buren street. Title goes from O. W. Bar- 
rett to James Adsit, Hugh A. White, and Henry F. Lewis, trustees of the 
Lewis estate. The consideration is about $100,000. The fund now amounts 
to more than $1,000,000, to be expended, if Mr. Lewis' wishes are followed, 
about as follows: Two hundred and fifty thousand for land and buildings, 
$50,000 for books and apparatus, and $500,000 for a sustaining fund. Now 
that the fund has swollen to greater proportions by one-third than Mr. Lewis 
had anticipated, the project is in even better shape than he thought it would 
be at the time fixed by him. This was 1885, as Mr. Lewis directed that the 
fund should be allowed to increase until that date, or until it reached $800,- 
000. While no plans have yet been drawn it is known that the building, to 
be a structure of few stories, will coverall the ground. The Institute will be 
patterned in a general way after the Girard College, or the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. As Mr. Lewis wished the Institute to include 
reading-rooms, courses of lectures, and day and night schools for young 
men and women, these features will undoubtedly be incorporated in the 
project. 

McCormick Theoloqical Seminary. — Located on North Halsted street, 
between Belden and Fullerton avenues, North Side ; take Lincoln avenue 
cars, North Side cable line. This widely known and successful school of 
sacred learning, organized by the Presbyterian Church for the distinct purpose 
of training young men to preach the Gospel, was permanently established at 
Chicago in the year 1859, in consideration mainly of a donation of one hun- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 235 

dred thousand dollars, made to the General Assembly of that year by the late 
Cyrus H. McCormick, on conjdition of Chicago's being chosen as the loca- 
tion. Prior to this date, however, the institution had passed through an 
important history connecting it with two other localities and extending as far 
back as the year 1830. It was first organized at Hanover, Indiana, in 1830, as a 
department of the Hanover College, where it was taught for ten years, under' 
the instruction of Rev. John Matthews, D. D. . and others, during which time 
forty-five students were educated for the ministry. In 1840 this Theological 
Department was removed by the Synods in charge of it, and re-established as 
a separate theological seminary at New Albany, Indiana, with the title of 
the "New Albany Theological Seminary," and at this place it continued for 
seventeen years, under the instruction of Dr. Matthews and Dr. James Wood 
till the death of the former, and then under Drs. MacMaster, Stewart, 
Thomas and Lindsley. During this second period 147 students were edu- 
cated. In 1859, by the concurrent action of its Board of Directors, and of the 
seven Northwestern Synods then controlling the seminary at New Albany, 
the school was transferred to the General Assembly of the whole Church. 
The Assembly having received Mr. McCormick's offer, fixed upon Chicago as 
the most fitting place for the " Seminary of the Northwest," and at once 
appointed a new Board of Directors and a new faculty to open the school at 
Chicago, under that wider designation. The professors, appointed by the 
Assembly, Drs. N. L. Rice, Willis Lord, L. J. Halsey and W. M. Scott, were 
inaugurated in October, 1859, and with fifteen students in attendance, this 
much traveled institution entered upon its third and now more hopeful term 
of service. About the time of this opening the broad and beautiful grounds 
on which the seminary buildings now stand were donated to the institution by 
four public-spirited citizens of Chicago — ^twienty acres by Messrs, William B. 
Ogden and Joseph E. Sheffield, and five acres by Messrs. William Sill and 
Michael Diversey. At the date of the gift, this ground was valued at one 
thousand dollars per acre. Now it is probably worth fifteen or twenty times 
as much. The first building on the grounds, now known as the "Ewing 
Hall," was erected in 1863, and contains thirty-five rooms for students, a 
reading room and a refectory. The second building was erected in 1875, con- 
taining chapel, library and two lecture rooms. The third, McCormick Hall, 
was erected in 1884, containing fifty-one suites of rooms for students, a parlor 
and a faculty office. The fourth public building, Fowler Hall, was erected 
in 1887, and contains sixty-one suites of rooms for students, and two lecture 
rooms. Besides these, five houses for professors have been erected since 
1882. 

BriLDiNGS. — This fine group of educational buildings, all of brick and 
stone, and all artistically arranged on a spacious campus of grass plots, trees 
and graveled walks, constitutes an attractive feature to the eye of the visitor, 
and makes the seminary an ornament to the city. Both in its outward adorn- 
ments and in the completeness of all its internal arrangements, this seminary 
is probably not excelled by any similar institution in our country. These 
four public edifices, including the five residences of the professors, represent 
an outlay of $315,000, of which $285,000 were contributed by Mr. Cyrus H. 
McCormick and his family. But in addition to this large outlay on buildings, 
Mr. McCormick, prior to his death, which occurred in 1884, had also, in addi- 
tion to his original gift, contributed to the endowment funds of the seminary 
the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars. And after his death, his son, 
Cyrus H. McCormick, Jr., and Mrs. McCormick followed up these great 



236 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

gifts, in 1885, with the further munificent donation of one hundred thousand 
dollars. In consideration of a liberality so long continued and so unusual, the 
Board of Directors and the Board of Trustees of the Seminary took concurrent 
action in 1886, asking the General Assembly to so amend the constitution of 
the Seminary as to change the name of the institution from its old title of 
"Theological Seminary of the Northwest " to that of "TheMcCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Presbyterian Church." This measure, adopted by a 
unanimous vote in the two Seminary Boards, was also adopted in the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1886 by a vote almost unanimous. 

Library. — The library of the Seminary contains about 10,000 volumes, 
mostly of standard theological works. With the ample accommodations in 
the way of buildings and the increased facilities for study secured during the 
last five or six years, the number of students in attendance has had a large and 
steady increase. From less than fifty, the roll of the three classes has gone 
up with each year until it reaches one hundred and seventy-one, the number 
now in the institution. The present faculty consists of eight instuetors, all 
of whom except one have been inducted into their chairs since 1880; and the 
large increase of students is no doubt largely due to the new life and vigor 
which they have infused into their work. The present teaching force of the 
institution is as follows: 

Faculty. — Rev. Le Roy J. Halsey, D. B., LL. D., Prof essor Emeritus 
of Church Government and the Sacraments; Rev. Thomas H. Skinner, D. D., 
Cyrus H. McCormick Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology; Rev 
Willis G. Craig, D. D. LL. D., Professor of Biblical and Ecclesiastical His- 
tory; Rev. David C. Marquis, D. D., Professor of New Testament Literature, 
and Exegesis; Rev. Herrick Johnson, D. D., LL. D., Professor of Sacred 
Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology; Rev. Edward L. Curtis, Ph. D., Professor 
of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis; Rev. John DeWitt, D. D., LL. D., 
Professor of Apologetics and Missions ; Rev. Augustus Stiles Carrier, In- 
structor in Hebrew. 

Tuition Charges. — This Seminary charges students no fee whatever — 
tuition, use of Library and of furnished rooms being entirely free. Con- 
venient day board may be obtained at from f S.OO to $3.50 per week. Wash- 
ing 60 cents per dozen. The charge to each student for steam heat is $12. 00, 
and for gas $4.00. Deserving students, whose circumstances require it, 
receive aid to a limited extent from the scholarships of the Seminary and from 
special funds contributed for this purpose. Students needing aid should 
apply first to the Board of Education through their Presbyteries. If the 
Board's Scholarship should prove insufficient an additional sum will be 
granted from the scholarship funds of the Seminary. But the aggregate 
amount received from both sources shall not exceed $200.00. The session 
for study is seven months. This leaves a continuous vacation of five months, 
during which period, students have no difficulty in finding useful and remu- 
nerative employment in Mission work. Stated preaching, during the term, 
is forbidden by the rules of the Faculty, and occasional preaching must not 
interfere with required Seminary work. 

Students Admitted. — This institution is open to students of all denom- 
inations of Christians. Its object is the thorough training of young men for 
the ministry of the Gospel. The requisites of admission are a consistent 
Christian profession in connection with some Evangelical Church, and a reg- 
ular course of collegiate study. Where a full collegiate course has not been 




KIMBALL HALL— WABASH AVENUE. 



THE EN^CYCLOPEDIA. 237 

pursued, a special recommendation is required from the Presbytery. Each 
student should bring a letter of church standing from his Pastor or Session, 
and also his College Diploma or other testimonial of scholarship. When 
students come from other Theological Seminaries, they must bring evidence 
of an honorable dismission. Testimonials should be furnished on applying 
for admission, 

Morgan Park Female Seminary, — Located at Morgan Park, a suburb of 
Chicago, situated on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad, thirteen 
miles from the Court-house. Take train at Van Buren Street depot, Van 
Buren and Sherman sts. This institution was formerly known as the 
Chicago Female Seminary. It is located opposite the Illinois Military 
Academy in a natural grove, and cost $30,000. Dr. Gilbert Thayer, its presi- 
dent, has so looked after the welfare of those committed to his charge that 
each year the institution has grown and improved till it now ranks with the 
best in the country. Besides pupils from Cook county and Illinois, there are 
numbers from other States. 

Morgan Park Theological Seminary. — Located at Morgan Park, a suburb 
of Chicago, on the line of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad, thir- 
teen miles from the city. Take train at Van Buren Street depot. Van Buren 
and Sherman sts. The Baptist Theological Union founded the Seminary 
here in 1877, having been granted a tract of five acres by the citizens. Imme- 
diately a $30,000 building was erected. Within the last two years there have 
been added a spacious library, costing $15,000, and well stocked with a collec- 
tion of 35,000 volumes. Blake Hall, a beautiful structure, containingthe chapel, 
professors' rooms and recitation rooms, has also lately been added at a cost of 
$35,000. The seminary is benevolent in its character and the largestinstitution 
of its kind in the United States. The course of study is three years, which 
is free to the students. All it costs them is living expenses, which by 
system is reduced to minimum. The course of study is most thorough, 
and the college offers unexcelled facilities for research into biblical literature, 
church history, homiletics and systematic theology. The graduates of 
Morgan Park Theological Seminary are to-day filling many of the best pulpits 
in the land. In 1884, it might be added, a Dano-Norwegian department was 
established, and now many of the regular students are from foreign countries. 
The faculty contains such names as George W. Northrup. D. D., LL. D., 
president; James R. Boise, D. D., LL. D.;B. Hulburt, D. D. The latter 
was a short time ago offered the presidency of Colgate University, formerly 
Madison University, of Hamilton, N. Y,, but refused, that he might continue 
his life-work begun at Morgan Park. [See Uuiversity of Chicago.] 

Northwestern Oratorical League. — The leading universities of the North- 
west have combined to form the Northwestern Oratorical League, providing 
for an annual contest, to be held at each college in rotation the first Friday in 
May. These colleges are the Northwestern University, of Evanston; Mich- 
igan University, of Ann Arbor; Oberlin, Ohio; and Wisconsin State L^ni- 
versity, of Madison, Wis. An executive committee, consisting of president, 
secretary and treasurer of the league has charge of the business details. They 
also are empowered to select the six judges of contest, three of whom grade 
composition and thoughts, and three judge the delivery. In addition to 
specifying an impartial selection of judges, each college association may 
remove two on protest. The prizes are of |100 and $50 each. 

The method of selecting contestants is left to the decision of each college 
association. At Northwestern the contestants will probably be selected from 
the junior and senior classes by a series of preliminary contests. 



238 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. / 

Northwestern University. — An institution under the control of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, but entirely unsectarian in its government and admin- 
istration, was chartered January 28, 1851. The seat of the college of liberal 
arts, the academic department, and the college of music, oratory and theol- 
ogy is at Evanston, a village of 10,000 inhabitants, twelve miles north of 
Chicago, on the shore of Lake Michigan. Take Northwestern train (Mil- 
waukee division) at Wells Street depot. Wells and Kinzie sts., or Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St Paul train (Evanston division) at Union depot, Adams and 
Canal sts. Trains run at brief intervals through the day. Excursion tickets 
60 cents. Visitors may in the course of a morning or afternoon make a trip 
to Evanston, giving abundant opportunity for an inspection of the grounds 
and buildings of the University. The most noteworthy of the buildings of the 
Evanston departments of the University are the following: University Hall, 
Science Hall, the Gymnasium, Herb's Hall, Memorial Hall, the new Dormi- 
tory, the Swedish Seminary, the Dearborn Observatory. These buildings 
are all on the campus of the University. A short distance west of the 
campus are the following buildings: Woman's College, College cottage, and 
the Norwegian-Danish Theological Seminary. The colleges of medicine, law, 
pharmacy, and dentistry are located in Chicago, in proximity to the hospitals 
and the courts of law. The first president of the University was Rev. Dr. 
Clark T. Hinman. The complete list of presidents up to date is as follows: 
1853-1856, Rev. C. T. Hinman, D. D.; 1856-1869, Rev. R. S. Foster, D. D., 
now Bishop Foster; 1869-1872, Rev. E. O. Haven, D. D.; 1872-1881, Rev. 

C. H. Fowler, D. D., now Bishop Fowler; 1881-1890, Rev. Joseph Cummingf. 

D. D. ; Henry Wade Rogers, LL. D., the present incumbent, was elected to 
the presidency in the summer of 1890. 

College of Liberal Arts. — The College of Liberal Arts is the center of 
the entire University system. This department, located at Evanston, offers 
four courses of study, each requiring four years of work, as follows: the clas- 
sical course, the philosophical course, the scientific course, and the course in 
modern literature. These courses lead to the following degrees: A. B.,Ph. 
B. , B. S. , B. L, The requirements to admission to these courses are as follows: 

Classical Course. — 1. English — Grammar; composition. 2. History — 
Smith's Smaller History of Greece, Smith's Smaller History of Rome, John- 
stone's History of the United States. 3, Geography — political geography, 
ancient and modern, and Houston's physical geography. 4. Physics — first 
five chapters ot Avery's Elements of Natural Philosophy. 5. Human anat- 
omy and physiology — Martin's Human Body (Briefer course). 6. Mathemat- 
ics — arithmetic; Loomis' or Wells' College Algebra through Quadratic Equa- 
tions; plane geometry. 7. Latin — Grammar (including prosody); Csesar's 
Commentaries, four books; Cicero, six orations; Virgil, Bucolics, and six 
books of the ^neid; the translation, at sight, of passages from Caesar or Cic- 
ero; Jones' Latin Composition or an equivalent. 8. Greek — Grammar; Xeno- 
phon's Anabasis, three books; Homer's Iliad, three books; Jones' Greek Com- 
position. 

Philosophical Course. — Candidates for the Freshman Class will be 
examined in the following studies: 

1. English — Grammar; Composition. 2. History — History of Greece; 
History of Rome; Johnston's History of the United States. 3. Geography — 
Political Geography, Ancient and Modern; and Houston's Physical Geogra- 
phy. 4. Physics — First five chapters of Avery's Elements of Natural Philos- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 239 

ophy, or an equivalent. 5. Human Anatomy and Physiology — Martin's 
Human Body (Briefer Course). 6. Mathematics — Arithmetic; Loomis' or 
Wells' College Algebra, through Quadratic Equations; Plane Geometry. 7. 
Latin — Grammar (including Prosody); Caesar's Commentaries, four books; 
Cicero, six orations; Virgil, Bucolics, and six books of the ^neid; the trans- 
lation, at sight, of passages from Csesaror Cicero; Jones' Latin Composition. 
8. French — Whitney's French Grammar, or an equivalent; the ability to read 
ordinary French prose at sight. 

Students who take the Greek of the College Course in the place of Latin, 
will substitute for the above Latin, the Latin of the Preparatory Scientific 
Course and the Greek of the Classical Course. 

Scientific Course. — Candidates for the Freshman class will be exam- 
ined in the following studies: 

1. English — Grammar; Composition. 2. History— ^6h.ii%ion's History 
of the United States. 3. Geography — The applicant must be prepared in 
Physical Geography, and be able to draw an outline map of any country 
or state and locate therein the principal towns, rivers and mountains. 4. 
Physics — Avery's Elements of Natural Philosophy ettire. 5. Huvian Anat- 
omy and Physiology — Martin's Human Body (Briefer Course.) 6. Zoology — 
Packard's Elements of Zoology. 7. Botany — Gray's Lessons, and the ability 
to analyze common flowering plants. 8. Mathematics — Arithmetic (famili- 
arity with the metric system of weights and measures required); Loomis' or 
Wells' College Algebra, through Quadratics; Plane Geometry. 9. Astron- 
omy — Steele's New Astronomy. 10. Latin — Jones' Latin Lessons, and two 
books of Caesar's Commentaries. 11. German — Joynes' Revision of Meiss- 
ner's German Grammar; the ability to read ordinary German prose at sight. 
12. French — Whitney's French Grammar ; the ability to read ordinary 
French prose at sight. 13. Drawing — Elements of Free-hand and Geomet- 
rical Drawing, such a knowledge of the subject as may be gained by practice 
UDder instruction one hour a week through the year. 

Course in Modern Literature. — Candidates for the Freshman class 
will be examined in the following studies: 

1. English — Grammar, Composition. 2. History — History of Greece; 
History of Rome; Johnston's History of the United States. 3. Oeograpy 
— Political (Barnes' Common School) and Houston's Physical Geography. 4. 
Physics — Avery's Elements of Natural Philosophy entire. 5. Human Anat- 
omy and Physiology — Martin's Human Body (Briefer Course). 6. Botany — 
Gray's Manual of Botany. 7. Mathematics — Arithmetic; Loomis' or Wells' 
College Algebra, through Quadratics; Plane Geometry. 8. Latin — Jones' 
Latin Lessons, and two books of Caesar's Commentaries. 9. German — Joynes' 
Revision of Meissner's German Grammar; the ability to read ordinary Ger- 
man prose at sight. 10. French — Whitney's French Grammar; the ability 
to read ordinary French prose at sight. 

Special students, not candidates for a degree, are allowed to pursue such 
studies as they may select, under certain conditions. 

Faculty of College of Liberal Arts. — The faculty of the College of 
Liberal Arts is as follows: Henry Wade Rogers, LL. D., President; 
Daniel Bonbright, LL. D., Latin; Oliver Marcy,"LL. D., Natural History; 
Julius F. Kellogg, A. M., Mathematics; HerbertF. Fisk, D. D., Pedagogics; 
Robert L. Cumnock, A. M., Rhetoric and Elocution; Robert Baird, A. M., 
Greek; Charles W. Pearson. A. M., English Literature; Robert D. Shep- 
pard, D. D., History and Political Economy; Abram V. E. Young, Ph. B., 



240 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Chemistry; Marshall D. Ewell, M. D., LL. D., Microscopy; Rena A. 
Michaels, Ph. D., French; Charles Sumner Cook, B, S., Physics; Ci'eorge 
W. Hough, A M., Astronomy; Charles B. Atwell, Ph. M., Natural iTistory; 
Eliakim H. Moore, Ph. D., Mathematics; James Taft Hatfield, Ph. D., 
German; Joseph R. Taylor, A. M., Greek and Latin. 

Woman's College. — Northwestern University is a co-educational insti- 
tution. In 1873 the trustees of the University purchased the grounds, 
buildings and apparatus of the ' ' Evanston College for Ladies," f or thepurpose 
of combining and making available all the special means and advantages of 
both institutions for the college education of women. Young women are 
admitted to all the undergraduate departments and to all the professional 
schools with the single exception of the College of Medicine. The Woman's 
College, a large brick structure completely equipped, is located on ground 
of its own, about three minutes' walk from the Univerdty campus in Evan- 
ston. To accommodate the many young ladies who desire to secure an edu- 
cation at a cost somewhat less than the regular rates, the "College Cottage," 
a brick building near the Woman's College, has been erected. The young 
ladies in this building have charge of a large share of the domestic arrange- 
ments, and expenses are thereby greatly reduced. Co-education has been 
found to work successfully at Northwestern, and experience shows the 
ladies to be in every respect the equals of the young men in college work. 

Preparatory School. — Owing to the lack of good secondary schools 
the University found it necessary many years ago to establish its own pre- 
paratory department. In this school the advanced grade of soholarship 
which the University seeks to maintain may be begun under the direct super- 
vision of the authorities of the University. The number of students in the 
preparatory departments has steadily grown until during 1890 there were 
nearly 700 students in attendance, an increase of 100 per cent, in about 
four years. The graduates of this department pass, in general, to the 
Freshman Class of the College of Liberal Arts, but many here complete their 
preparations for Eastern colleges. The applicant should be at least thirteen 
years of age, and must have such proficiency as to be able in one term to 
complete Geography, and in two terms to complete Arithmetic and English 
Grammar. The faculty consists of Rev. Herbert F. Fisk, D. D., principal; 
Rev. Joseph L. Morse, A. M., assistant principal; George H. Horswell, Ph. 
D.; Harriet A. Kimball, Ph. M.; Leila M. Crandon, M. L. ; Charles B. 
Thwing, A. M.; Ada Townsend, A. B.; Arthur R. Butler, A. M.; CharlesH. 
Gordon, M. S.; George W. Schmidt, Ph. B.; Henry Benner, M. S.; Rev. 
Perry A. Reno, A. M. Ten other instructors are employed for a portion of 
their time in teaching drawing, music, elocution, penmanship, shorthand 
writing, book-keeping and common English. 

Garrett Biblical Institute.— The faculty is as follows: Rev. Henry 
B Ridgaway, D. D.,LL. D., president; Rev. Miner Raymond, D. D.,LL. D.; 
Rev Charles F. Bradley, D. D.; Rev. Milton S. Terry. D. D.; Rev. Charles 
W Bennett, D. D., LL. D.; Robert L. Cumnock, A. M.; Rev. Charles Hors- 
well, A. M., B. D.; Rev. Nels E. Simonsen, A. M., B. D. The Garrett Bib- 
lical' Institute, the theological department of the University, has been in 
operation since 1856. It is open to all young men from any evangelical 
church who are proper persons to study in preparation for the Christian min- 
istry. It is supported by the income from property in the city of Chicago 
bequeathed as a perpetual foundation by the late Mrs. Eliza Garrett. It is 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 241 

essential that those who enter this school should have good preparation in 
previous study. The regular course of study extends through three years and 
leads to the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. There is a diploma course and 
an Eclectic English course for those who are not classical graduates of a col- 
lege. In connection with the theological school there is a Norwegian-Danish 
department. Rev. Nels E. Simonsen, A. M., B. D., is principal. 

Swedish Theological Seminary. — The Swedish Theological Seminary 
was established in 188^ and is the onl}^ school of its kind under the patronage 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. From this school preachers are sent out 
to nearly every State in the Union. It was called into existence to meet the 
urgent and increasing demands for educated pastors and missionaries among 
the Swedish population in the United States. Rev. Albert Ericson, A. M., is 
president, and Rev. C. G. Wallenius is assistant professor. 

School of Oratory. — The School of Oratory, under the direction of 
Prof. R, L. Cumnock, A. M,, the noted elocutionist, has become widely 
known and is largely attended. Students from other colleges, while prepar- 
ing for various oratorical contests, frequently come to Northwestern for 
special training in this school. A high standard of oratory is maintained at 
Northwestern, and the prize speaking at commencement brings together a 
great audience. The College of Oratory offers a two years' course of study 
and gives to its graduates a certificate of graduation. 

Conservatory op Music. — The Conservatory of Music has for some time 
been one of the prominent departments of the University. It affords facilities 
for a thorough and systematical education in the theory and practice of music. 
Pupils in music are advised to pursue at the same time some studies in one of 
the literary departments of the University. Four courses of study are offered, 
each occupying four years. Faculty — Oren E. Locke, director; Joseph 
Singer, W. Warren Graves, Fred L. Lawrence, C. Montgomery Hutchins, 
Mrs. Clara A. Phelps, Andrew J. Phillips, Robert L. Cumnock, A. M.; 
Charles Sumner Cook, B. S. 

Astronomical Department. — The astronomical department of the Uni- 
versity is located at Evanston, The new observatory, a stone building eighty- 
one feet in length by seventy-one feet in breadth, includes a dome for the 
great equatorial telescope, a meridian circle room, a library and eight addi- 
tional rooms for other purposes. The great Dearborn telescope, an equatorial 
refractor, was made by Alvan Clark & Sons, of Cambridge, Mass., in 1861. 
This insturment was the largest refractor in the world until a few years ago, 
and now has few superiors. The observatory will be open to visitors on 
Thursday evening of each week by previous arrangement with the director. 
Visitors may also be admitted at other times by making special arrangements 
with the president of the University or the director of the observatory. 

Chicago Departments. — The Chicago departments of the University 
include the colleges of Medicine, Law, Pharmacy and Dentistry. 

Chicago Medical College. — The Chicago Medical College, the med- 
ical department of the University, is located in Chicago, adjoining the Mercy 
Hospital. The course of study is graded; it extends over three years, and 
leads to the Degree of Doctor of Medicine. Students who begin their med- 
ical studies in this college are required to take three full courses of lectures. 
Applicants for admission must present diplomas or certificates from recog- 
nized colleges, schools of science, aeademies, high schools, or teachers* 
certificates of the first or second grade, or sustain an examination in the 



242 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. / 

following subjects: 1. English — The writing of a composition, in the form 
of a letter, of not less than three hundred words, relating to some weH known 
recent event ; the subject to be announced at the time of the English exami- 
nation, 3. Arithmetic — Prime and composite numbers, factors, divisors and 
multiples; proportion; decimals, including percentage; simple and compound 
interest and discount, but not the technical parts of commercial arithmetic; 
English weights and measures and the metric system. 3. Geography — A 
reasonable familiarity with the principal facts in physical and civil geog- 
raphy, as taught in the public schools. 4, At the option of the candidate, 
either one of the following subjects: (a) Latin — The translation into Eng- 
lish of a short passage of average difficulty from one of the first four books 
of Ccesar's " Commentaries on the Gallic War," and the answering of ele- 
mentary questions relating to the grammar of the passage, (b) Oerman — 
The translation into English of short passages of average difficulty from 
"Whitney's German Reader," and the answering of elementary questions 
relating to the grammar of the passages, (c) Physics — Balfour Stewart, or 
its equivalent. Exception — Special students, not candidates for the degree 
of M. D., will be admitted without the presentation of diplomas or certifi- 
cates, and without the examination mentioned above. 

Faculty of College of Medicine. — N. S. Davis, M. D., LL. D., 
Dean; H. A. Johnson, M. D., LL. D.; Edmund Andrews, M. D., LL. D.; 
E. O. F. Roler, A. M., M. D.; R. N. Isham, A. M., M. D.; J. H. Hollister, 
A. M., M. D.; S. J. Jones, M. D., LL. D.; M. P. Hatfield, A. M., M. D.; 
J. H. Long, Sc. D.; E. C. Dudley, A. B., M. D.; J. E. Owens, M. D.; O. C. 
DeWolf, A. M., M. D.; F. C. Schafer, M. D.; I. N. Danforth, A. M., M. D; 
W. E. Casselberry, M. D.; W. W. Jaggard, A. M., M. D.; N. S. Davis, Jr., 
A. M., M. D.; F. S. Johnson, A. M., M. D.; E. W. Andrews, A. M., M. D.; 
Elbert Wing, A. M.. M. D.; Frank T. Andrews, A. M., M. D.; Frank Bill- 
ings, M. S., M. D., Secretary; Joseph Zeisler, M. D.; W. E. Morgan, M. D.; 
G. W. Webster, M. D. ; H. H. Frothingham ; H. M. Starkey, M. D. ; J. D. 
Kales, M. D.; T. B. Swartz. A. M., M. D. 

College of Pharmacy. — The College of Pharmacy, located at the cor- 
ner of Lake and Dearborn £ts.,is one of the most numerously attended 
schools of pharmacy in the country. The attendance during the last year 
was 273. This college being especially designed for the education of drug- 
gists, the requirements for entrance are such as will admit the great majority 
of drug clerks, apprentices and persons preparing for the drug business. 
Thus a good common public school education is sufficient ; but no person 
under eighteen years of age will be admitted. Faculty — Henry Wade 
Rogers, LL. D., president ; Oscar Oldberg, Pharm. D., Dean, Professor of 
Pharmacy; John H. Long, Sc. D., Professor of Chemistry; Edson S. Bastin, 
A. M., F. R. M. S., Professor of Botany; Wm. E. Quine, M. D., Professor 
of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology; William K. Higley, Ph. C, 
Professor of Microscopy; E. B. Stuart, Ph. G., Professor of Materia Medica 
and Pharmacognosy ; M. A. Miner, Ph. C, Assistant to the Chair of Phar- 
macy ; Mark Powers, Sc. B., Assistant to the Chair of Chemistry. 

College OP Dental and Oval Surgery.— The college of dental and 
oval surgery is one of the most recently established departments of the 
University. The faculty numbers thirty-three professors and instructors. 
The requirements for admission are the pame as those of the Chicago Medical 
College. The course of study is graded and comprises three consecutive 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 44:6 

annual courses of lectures and clinical teaching. A fourth year is provided 
for those who desire to continue their studies and take the M. D. degree. 

College of Law. —The College of Law is located at 40 Dearborn street. 
The course of study covers two years. Students entering the junior class are 
expected to have at least a good common school education. A knowledge of 
Latin is desirable, but is not required. No discrimination on account of sex 
or color. Faculty — Henry Wade Rogers, LL. D., president; Hon. Henry 
Booth, LL. D., Dean; Hon. Harvey B. Hurd, Hon. Marshall D. Ewell, LL. 
D., M. D.; Hon. William W. Farwell, Hon. Nathan S. Davis, M. D., LL. D. 

University Libraries. — Each of the prof essional schools of the Univer- 
sity has its special library, supplementing the general library of the College 
of Liberal Arts. This general library numbers about 23,000 bound volumes, 
besides 8,000 unbound pamphlets. It contains a large number of books for 
general reading and reference, and for use in the several departments of 
study. It is unusually complete in the departments of Greek and Latin 
literature. Every author is represented by the best editions from the earliest 
date. In the related subjects of Archaeology, Criticism and History, the 
Library is correspondingly full, so that in the special field of Classical 
Philology it ranks with the best in America. In modern literature it is well 
supplied with standard works in German, French, Spanish and Italian, 
There is also a valuable selection of books illustrating History, the Sciences 
and Fine Arts. There is a reading room in connection with the Library 
open morning and afternoon, supplied with a good collection of reviews and 
other periodicals. Every student is entitled to its privileges. 

Number of Professors and Students, 1891. — The faculty numbers 111 
professors and instructors. The total number of students in attendance dur- 
ing the present year (1891) is 1915, classified as follows: College of Liberal 
Arts, 297; Collegeof Medicine, 240; College of Law, 145;Collegeof Theology, 
208, Collegeof Pharmacy, 273; Collesce of Oratory, 73; Collegeof Dentistry, 
30; Preparatory Departments, 668. Total, 1934. Counted twice, 19; actual 
number of students, 1915. 

St. Ignatius' College.— Located at 413 West Twelfth St., adjoining the 
Jesuit church. Take West Twelfth st. car. The college was erected in 
1869 for the higher education of the Catholic youth of Chicago and vicinity. 
It is conducted by Fathers of the Society of Jesus, A charter was granted 
the institution by the Legislature of the State of Illinois June 30, 1870, with 
power to confer the usual degrees in the various faculties of a university. 
The Board of Managers are: Rev. Edward A. Higgins, S. J., president; Rev. 
Edwin D. Kelly, S. J., vice-president; Rev. Eugene A. Magevney, S. J., sec- 
retary; Rev, John F. Pahls, S. J., treasurer; Rev. James 31. Hayes, S. J., Chan- 
cellor. The Faculty is as follows: Rev. E, A. Higgins, S. J., president; 
Rev. Geo. A, Hoeffer, vice-president and prefect of studies; Rev, J. F. Pahls, 
S, J,, treasurer and professor of book-keeping; Rev. J, P. Hogan, S. J., 
professor of mental and moral philosophy; Rev, F. A, Moeller, S, J., professor 
of natural philosophy; Mr. M. D, Sullivan, S, J., professor of mathematics and 
chemistrv; Rev. F. X. Shulak, 8. J,, professor of mineralogy and natural 
history; Mr. W. H. Fanning, S. J., professor of rhetoric; Mr. C. B. Moulinier, 
S. J., professor of poetry and elocution; Mr. T, C. McKeogh, S. J., humani- 
ties and elocution; Mr, H. B. McMahon, S, J., first academic class; Mr. T. F. 
Conroy, S. J., second academic class and elocution; Rev. E. J, Hanhauser, 
8. J., third academic class— grade A; Mr, J, E. Stack, third academic 



244 GUIDE to' CHICAGO. 

* 

class— grade B; Rev. T. B. Chambers, S. J., preparatory class; Rev. £. A. 
Higgins, S. J., Mr. C. B. Moulinier, S. J., professors of French; Rev. F. A. 
Moeller, S. J., Rev. E. J. Hanhauser, S. J., professors of German; Rev. F. 
A. Moeller, S. J., professor of vocal music; Mr. T. C. McKeogh, 8. J., Mr. 
H. B. McMahon, S. J., prefects of discipline. 

North Side Collegiate School.— Located at 616 La Salle ave., is con- 
ducted underthe following instructors: Rev. P. J. Mulconroy, S. J., director 
first academic class ; Mr. J. B. Hemann, S. J., prefect of discipline, second 
academic class; Mr. E. M. Paillow, S. J., prefect of discipline, third aca- 
demic class; Mr. J. B. Hemann, professor of German and vocal music. The 
studies pursued in the college comprise the doctrines and evidences of the 
Catholic religion, logic, metaphysics, ethics, astronomy, natural philosophy, 
chemistry, mathematics, rhetoric, composition, elocution, history, geogia- 
phy, book-keeping, arithmetic, the Latin, Greek, English, German and 
French languages and literature. The college is intended for day scholars 
only. The collegiate year is divided into two terms, the first beginning on 
the first Monday of September, the second on the first Monday of February. 
Students, however, are received at any time during the year. At the close 
of each term the several classes are subjected to a thorough examination in 
the branches studied during the previous half year. The Annual Commence- 
ment is held on the last Wednesday in June, when degrees are conferred and 
premiums awarded. On completing the studies of the Collegiate Depart- 
ment, those who prove deserving of the distinction receive the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. Subsequently, by devoting one year more to the study of 
philosophy, or two years to any of the learned professions, they may obtain 
the degree of Master of Arts, if the board of managers be satisfied with their 
proficiency and moral conduct. The Catholic students are carefully 
instructed in the doctrines and practices of their religion, and the most solic- 
itous attention is paid to the morals of all. Whilst upon the college premises, 
the pupils are constantly under the watchful care of one or more of the 
Prefects or Professors. 

Terms of Tuition. — As the Institution is not endowed, it is entirely 
dependent for its support on the fees paid for tuition. Tuition per session 
of ten months, for all classes, $40. Students of chemistry and natural phi- 
losophy, for the use of the apparatus, chemicals, etc., required for purposes 
of ilustration and experiment, pay $10 per session. Diploma for graduates 
inthe classical course, $10. The session is divided, into quarters, which 
begin, respectively, about the 1st of September, the 15th of November, the 
1st of February and the 15th of April. Payments must be made quarterly 
or semi-annually, in advance. No reduction is allowed for absence except 
in case of dismission or protracted illness. 

St. Xavier's Academy. — Located at the corner of Wabash ave. and 
Twenty-ninth st. Conducted by the Sisters of Charity. First opened in 
1846, and is consequently one of the oldest, as it is one of the best educational, 
institutions of the city. Take State st. cable line. The building is a la^-ge 
and handsome edifice of brick with stone trimmings. Hot and cold baths are 
connected with the various departments, and the arrangement of the structure 
generally is well adapted to the purposes for which it is dedicated. The dis- 
cipline of this academy is mild, yet conducted with such uniformity as to 
secure order and regularity, and the young ladies entrusted to the care o f the 
sisters leave their charge cultivated intellectually, strengthened and fortified 
morally, and with habits fixed, which secures them good physical aswell as 
mental health. 





UNION LEAGUE CLUB HOUSE. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 245 

Scholastic Year. — The scholastic year is divided into two sessions of 
five months each, the first session commencing on the first of September; the 
second on the first of February. A vacation of about one week is allowed at 
Christmas, when pupils are permitted to visit their parents if they desire it. If 
residents of the city, they are permitted to do so once a month — generally the 
first Sunday of the month, unless deprived of this privilege for non-observ- 
ance of rules. Wednesday and Sunday are visiting days for parents, rela- 
tives or friends. The correspondence of the young ladies is, at all times, 
Subject to the supervision of the Directress, hence private correspondence is 
not allowed. Pupils may enter at any time during the year, their session 
always commencing with date of entrance; but can in no case leave just 
before the close of the year, without serious damage to their standing, besides 
forfeiting prizes. No undue influenceis exercised over the religious opinions 
of non-Catholic pupils; however, for the sake of the order, all are required to 
conform to the external discipline of the Institution. Monthly examinations 
are held and reports of deportment, scholarship, etc., are forwarded to parents 
and guardians. At the annual distribution of premiums, those who have 
observed the rules and given evidence of polite and amiable deportment are 
crowned by the Most Reverend Archbishop. Graduating Medals are con- 
ferred on those only who take the full Academic Course, and ClassMedals are 
awarded for the highest average . Each pupil is required to write home every 
two weeks. Weekly instructions are given in politeness and all that consti- 
tutes lady-like deportment. There are two general examinations each year, 
after which any pupil who may be found duly qualified is promoted. The 
daily routine for boarders is as follows: 5:30 o'clock, rise; 6:30 o'clock, mass, 
followed by mornig prayers; 7 o'clock, breakfast, followed by recreation; 8 
o'clock, study; 9 o'clock, recitation in respective class-rooms; 11:45 o'clock, 
dinner and recreation; 12:30 o'clock, study; 1 o'clock, mathematics; 2 o'clock, 
plain sewing, penmanship, etc.; 4 o'clock, luncheon and recreation; 4:30 
o'clock, study lessons for next day; 5:45 o'clock, Rosary for Catholics; 6 
o'clock, supper; 6:30 o'clock, recreation; 8 o'clock, nightprayers, after which 
all retire to their respective dormitories for the night, and do not visit the 
rooms of others without special permission. 

Terms.— Terms for boarders per series of five months io advance. Board 
and tuition in English and music, $150; languages, each $10; oil and water- 
color painting, $40; portrait painting, $50; crayon and pastel painting, $40; 
harp, $40; guitar, violin, banjo, mandolin, zither, each, $30; vocal lessonsand 
harmony, each^ $30; washing, $5. For chemical and physical apparatus, etc., 
in senior classes, $3. There are no other extra charges! 

University of Chicago. — Located on the three blocks lying between Ellis 
ave. and Greenwood ave. on the west and east, andFifly-sixth st. and Fifty- 
ninth st. on the north and south. Fifty-ninth st. is better known as "Mid- 
way plaisance." Take Cottage Grove ave. cable line. This site has been 
donated to the University by Marshall Field, Esq. According to the plans 
up to this time the block between Fifty-sixth and Fifty-seventh sts. is to be 
surrounded with four large dormitory buildings for male students and the 
residences for the members of thefacutly,the latter to be erected facing Fifty- 
seventh St. The court within these buildings is to be laid out in park form, 
and in the center is to be built a large and elegantly appointed dining hall. 
The block between Fifty-seventh and Fifty-eighth sts. maybe surrounded by 
eight buildings— a law school, divinity college, medical college, art hall, 



246 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

library and museum, chemistry hall and polytechnic. The chapel building 
is to occupy the center of the park within this block. The block between 
Fifty -eighth st. and Midway plaisance is to have in the center an observatory 
building surrounded by a park. Five buildings are to be erected on the street 
fronts. Facing Midway plaisance, the president's house and a female dormi- 
tory. Facing Ellis ave., a gymnasium and a building for class-rooms. Facing 
Greenwood ave. another building for class-rooms. It should be understood 
that all this is^merely suggestion and is subject to sweeping changes. 

The Rockefeller Gift. — John D. Rockefeller has subscribed $1,600,- 
000, and a total cf $5,000,000 has been raised by the Baptists of Chicago and 
their friends upon which to found thb University. Mr. Rockefeller had first 
subscribed $600,000. His letter conveying the gift of an additional $1,000 - 
000 is as follows: 

Standard Block, Cleveland, O., Sept. 16. 
To the Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago: 

Gentlemen— I will contribute $1,000,000 to the University of Chicago as follows: 
Eight hundred thousand dollars, the income only of which shall be used for non-pro- 
fessional graduate instruction and fellowships, and not for land, buildings or repairs. 
One hundred thousand dollars, the income only of which shall be used for theological 
instruction in the divinity school of said University, and not for land, buildings or 
repairs. One hundred thousand dollars for the construction of buildings for said 
divinity school. I will pay the same to the said University in seven years, begini)ing 
October 1, 1890, and pay one twenty-eighth each three months thereafter in cash or 
approved securities at a fair market value, until the whole is paid, it being understood 
that a certain pledge made July 15, 1890, for $f 6,500 to the Baptist Union Theological 
Seminary of Chicago shall be included in the above million dollars ; and also that the 
said Seminary is to become an organic part of said University; and also that the trans- 
fer of said Seminary to the grounds of the University of Chicago shall be made within 
two j-ears from this date; and also that a thoroughly well equipped academy shall be 
established in the buildings hitherto occupied by the said Seminary on or before Octo- 
ber 1, 189;i. Yours truly, Jno. D. Rockefeller. 

The gift, with its conditions, was gratefully accepted. Prof. William 
R. Harper, of Yale College, has been elected president of the University. 

The New University. — The New University was incorporated at 
Springfield, under the title. University of Chicago. 

The Board of Trustees is authorized to make by-laws not inconsistent 
with the charter or with the laws. It has full control of the corporation and 
its several departments and of all the institutions of learning under its con- 
trol. It has the care and investment of all moneys and properties. The 
by-laws provide for annual meetings. 

The Board of Trustees and the committees are organized as follows: 
Board of Trustees— E. Nelson Blake, Ferd. W. Peck, Judge Joseph M. 
Bailey, Herman H. Kohlsaat, Francis E. Hinckley, Charles L. Hutchinson, 
Dr. William R. Harper, Eli B. Felsenthal, The Hon. G. A. Pillsbury, Mar- 
tin A. Ryerson, Edward Goodman, Judge Daniei L. Shorey, Alonzo K. Par- 
ker, D. D.. George C. Walker. J. M. Midgley, C. C. Bowen, Andrew McLeish, 
Elmer L.Corthell, Fred A. Smith, Henry A. Rust, Charles W. Needham. 
President of the Board, E. Nelson Blake; vice-president, Martin A. Ryer- 
son; secretary pro tem.. Dr. G. A. Smith; treasurer, C. L. Hutchinson; 
financial secretary, Dr. T. W. Goodspeed. Committees: Buildings and 
Grounds— F. E. Hinckley, George C. Walker, Martin A. Ryerson, H. A, 
Rust, Andrew McLeish, E. B. Felsenthal, E. L. Corthell. Finances— L. Nel- 
son Blake, Charles L. Hutchinson, F. W. Peck, C. W. Needham, H. H. 
Kohlsaat, J. W. Midgley. Organization and Faculties — Judge D. L. 
Shorey, W. R. Harper, F. A. Smith, Edward Goodman, Dr. A. K. Parker, 
E. Nelson Blake. 



THE EN^CYCLOPEDIA. 247 

It is the purpose to establish at the outset of the University's work as 
many graduate departments as the funds in hand will permit, and thus from 
the beginning make the institution a true university. It is intended also to 
establish at Morgan Park a well-equipped academy, which shall be of the 
highest character. It will occupy the three buildings now devoted to the 
Theological Seminary. 

The University will begin the work of instruction on October 1, 1892, 
with such facilities as may be at hand then. 

Future Plans. — In relation to the plans for the future of the University, 
the following expression from Mr. Hinckley, of the Board of Trustees, will 
be of interest: 

"The board is agreed that everything connected with the University 
must be the best. The buildings will be the finest that can be erected for the 
money which will be allotted to that purpose. The site is the best that could 
have been secured around Chicago, and the grounds will be laid out in a 
manner that will compare with the landscape gardening in Midway plaisance. 
The faculty will be made up of the most learned professors in the land, and 
will be selected with the greatest care. In electing Dr. Harper to the presi- 
dency the board chose the man who stands at the very front. 

"It is the intention of the trustees that the University shall be a univer- 
sity In the true sense of the term. The removal of the Morgan Park Theo- 
logical Seminary to the University grounds, one of the conditions on which 
Mr. Rockefeller has just added $1,000,000 to his original donation of $600,- 
000, is a first step. Probably it will be two years before the change of location 
will really take place, as there are a great many things to be done first. At 
the trustee meeting a conference committee was appointed to consult with a 
committee to be appointed by the board of the Theological Seminary. 
When the Theological Seminary is located on the Midway Plaisance site, as 
a department of the University, an academy of the first class will have the 
buildings at Morgan Park and will prepare students to enterany course at 
the Chicago University . " 

Schools and Colleges to be Absorbed. — The following schools and 
colleges will be added as soon as practicable: The Law School, the Medical 
School, the School of Engineering, which will include civil, mechanical and 
electrical engineering, the School of Pedagogy, the School of Fine Arts, the 
School of Music. 

Rules Adopted. — Among the rules adopted are the following: The year 
shall be divided into four quarters, beginning respectively on the first day of 
October, January, April and July, and continuing twelve weeks each, thus leav- 
ing a week between the close of one quarter and the beginning of the next. 
Each quarter shall be divided into two equal terms of six weeks each. 

All courses of instruction given in the University shall be classified as 
majors and minors. The majors will call for ten, eleven or twelve hours of 
class-room work each week, the minors for four, five or six hours of class- 
room work each week. All courses shall continue six weeks, but the same 
subject may be continued through two or more successive terms either as a 
major or a minor. 

r Each resident professor or teacher shall lecture thirty-six weeks of the 
year, ten or twelve hours; nor shall any instructor be required to lecture 
more than this amount. 

A professor or teacher may take as vacation any one of the four quarters 
according as it may be arranged ; or he may take two vacations of six weeks 
each at different periods of the year. 



248 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

A professor or teacher, if he desire, may teach two quarters six hours a 
week, instead of one quarter twelve hours a week. For every quarter or 
term in the year he may teach beyond the three-quarters required, and for 
every extra minor in the quarter or term he may teach in addition to the 
twelve hours a week required, he shall receive either an extra two-thirds pro 
rata salary or an extra full pro rata vacation. A teacher who has taught 
three years of forty-eight weeks each, or six years of forty-two weeks each, 
will thus be entitled to a year's vacation on full pay. 

No work will be credited for extra vacation or extra salary except that 
which may have been accepted by the dean of the college or school and the 
president. All vacations, whether extra or regular, shall be adjusted to the 
demands of the situation, in order that there may always be on hand a work- 
ing force. 

Each teacher conducting a major course shall assume, with the dean of 
the college or school, the responsibility of the work and of the conduct of all 
students in that course. Cases of serious breach of discipline shall be pre- 
sented by the dean to the faculty. Appeal may be made from a faculty to 
the University Council. 

The requirements for admission to any college or school shall be as high 
as those of any corresponding college or school in America. Applicants for 
a degree shall be examined upon all required subjects. Certificates will not 
be accepted. In general, arrangements will be made by which students in 
any part of the country shall be given an examination for admission with the 
least possible inconvenience and expense. 

The standing of a student in any course will be determined from his term 
grade, from an examination taken immediately at the completion of the course, 
and from a second examination taken twelve weeks after the date of the 
first examination. A student may take his vacation any one of the four 
quarters; or, if he desire, two terms of six weeks in different parts of the 
year. 

In general, the proportion of required and elective courses for a degree 
shall be equal. The courses of study will be so arranged that a student may 
enter any class of a college or school at the beginning of any quarter without 
disadvantage to himself or the subject. 

University School. — New building located at Dearborn avenue and Elm 
street, North Side. Take North State street or North Clark street cars. 
The building is three stories, 50 by 90 feet, of the Gothic order, and cost 
$100,000. The exterior is plain and simple, of terra cotta for the first course 
up to eight feet in height, above which the walls rise in brown stone. The 
ornamentation is in terra cotta and brown stone. The basement entrance 
opens to a large area, a shelter for bicycles. From thisopen the boys' manual 
training school, 20 by 65 feet, in which are turning lathes and all appliances 
for manual training confined to a complete course as applied to woodwork. 
Adjoining this are two bowling alleys of the regulation length, sixty -five 
feet. Near by is the swimming bath, chemical laboratory, with concrete 
floor, the special apparatus for ventilation, boilers, engine-rooms, etc. The 
first floor, from an arched entrance, shows the court room, embellished with 
classical emblems sculptured in stone. In this room each boy has a separate 
locker. Near by is the lavatory and the fire-proof light well. The main 
study, a room fifty feet square with fourteen foot ceiling, is so arranged that 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 249 

all pupila receive the light over the left shoulder as they bend over their 
books. The room is cheered by fire grates and heated by hot water. The 
room for advanced classes in the classics is adjoining. It is 17 by 35 feet and 
its walls are ornamented with busts of heroic characters, plates, etc. The 
reception room and office of the master is on this floor. The second floor is 
arranged as a wheel, with an oflSce in the center and halls radiating to the 
various recitation rooms, which are 16 by 20 feet to accommodate each 
fifteen boys. These rooms are decorated on walls and corners with emblems 
of the particular study pursued. The third floor has a large gymnasium, 
fitted up by Dr. Sargent, of Harvard. The dressing and bath rooms are on 
the same floor. The room for free-hand and mechanical drawing adjoins it. 
There is a running track, elevated eleven feet from the floor, which encircles 
this large room. In this room, which can be readily closed, the boys are put 
through the manual of arms in military drill. The kitchen, luncheon-room 
and visitors' gallery are on a level with this broad running track. 

The University School prepares boys for colleges, universities or scien- 
tific schools. E. C. Coulter, the master, a graduate of Felix Academy, of 
Andover and of Princeton College, taught in New England five years. This 
school is three years old. It is undenominational, owned and controlled by 
an association of Chicago's leading men. The school trustees are Cyrus H. 
McCormick, F. B. Peabody, GencFal George W. Smith, John P. Wilson, W, 
D. Kerfoot, Abram Poole E. C. Coulter. Among the stockholders are W. 
M. Hoyt, H. H. Porter, Potter Palmer. Henry Field, George Sturges, E. B. 
McCagg, William H. Bradley, L, Z. Leiter, George M. Pullman, John John- 
son, Jr., J. W. Farlin, L. Schmidt, E. S. Dreyer, E. F. Lawrence. C. B. 
King. A. R. Smith, J. G. Coleman, L. W. Bodeman, James H. Walker, E. 
R. Ryerson and F. H. Winston, 

Western Theological Seminary. — Located at 1113 Washington blvd.; take 
West Madison street cable line to California avenue ; founded by the late 
Dr. Tolman Wheeler, of Chicago, as an Episcopal Theological Seminary. 
Dr. Wheeler built and equipped two buildings and partially endowed the 
institution. There is also ground room for additional structures, and accom- 
modations could be provided for one hundred students. The buildings are 
situated on Washington boulevard, the principal avenue of the West Side, 
about four miles from the lake and in the vicinity of Garfield Park. The 
main building contains the Chapel, Refectory, Library, Lecture Rooms and 
apartments for resident instructors. A second building contains accommo- 
dations for about thirty students. Both buildings are heated by steam, and 
are furnished with the best modern equipments for their respective purposes. 
The aim of this Seminary is, in the words of the charter, " the education of 
fit persons in the Catholic Faith, in its purity and integrity, as taught in the 
Holy Scriptures, held by the Primitive Church, summed up in the Creeds, 
and aflSrmed by the undisputed General Councils." While, therefore, its 
principal work is the preparation of Candidates for Holy Orders, neverthe- 
less, any fit persons, clergymen or laymen, and whether looking forward to 
the sacred ministry or not, are received as students or admitted to attendance 
upon the lecture courses of the Seminary under proper conditions. It is 
intended to afford every opportunity and assistance to theological students in 
preparing themselves for the examinations required by the canons of the 
Church for admission to Holy Orders, and in fitting themselves for the 
priestly life and work. 

The board of Trustees is composed as follows : The Bishop of Chicago, 
president ; the Bishop of Quincy, the Bishop of Springfield, the Bishop of 



250 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Indiana, the Rev. Clinton Locke, D. D.; the Rev. W. H. Vibbert, S. T. D., 
Secretary, the Rev. J. H. Kuowles, the Rev. Richard F. Sweet, Mr. Corriimg 
S. Judd, Mr. Edwin H. Sheldon; Mr. Charles R. Larrabee, treasurer. 

Faculty. — The Board of Instruction is as follows: The Rt. Rev. Wil- 
liam E. McLaren, D. D., D. C. L., Dean, Dogmatic Theology; The Rt. Rev. 
George F. Seymour, D. D., LL. D., Ecclesiastical History; The Rev. William 
J. Gold, S. T. D., Liturgies and Exegesis ; The Rev. Francis J. Hall, M. A., 
Theology; The Rev. F. P. Davenport, S. T. D. , Canon Law. 

Course op Study, — The course of study, as at present arranged, provides 
for a period of five years. The curriculum is homogeneous throughout; 
nevertheless, for the last three years it comprehends the usual studies of the 
Candidate for Holy Orders. The following is a scheme of the five years' 
course: First year— Latin, Physics, English Literature, Greek, History, Rudi- 
ments of Theology. Second year— Latin, Greek, Readings from the Gospels 
and Early Christian Authors, Logic, Psychology, History, Rudiments of 
Theology. Thirdyear— Theology, Church History, Liturgies, New Testa 
ment Exegesis, Readings from the Fathers, Hebrew, Canon Law. Fourth" 
year— Theology, Church History, Liturgies, New Testament Exegesis, 
Hebrew, Ecclesiastical Polity and Law. Fifth year— Theology, Church His- 
tory, Liturgies, Old Testament Exegesis, Ecclesiastical Polity and Law. 

Practice in the Composition and Delivery of Sermons takes place once a 
week. Particular attention is paid to this subject. In speaking, the use of a 
manuscript is not ordinarily permitted. Special instructions are given in 
Elocution. The Seminary opens September 29th, the Festival of St. Michael 
and All Angels, and closes about the 1st of June. There is a recess of two 
weeks at Christmas, and also from Thursday in Holy Week until Easter 
Tuesday. Students residing in the buildings are subject to a charge of $200 
per year. This includes board, room, fuel and lights. Washing is done at 
the Seminary at cost. The charge to students not living in the Seminary is as 
may be agreed upon. Letters to the Dean should be addressed to him at 64 
Astor street, Chicago. Letters addressed to instructors and students resident 
in the Seminary should be addressed to 1113 Washington Boulevard, Chicago. 

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS— MEDICAL. 

The Medical Colleges of the city are as follows: American College of 
Dental Surgery, 78-82 S.ate St.; Bennett Medical College, Ada and 
Fulton sts. ; Chicago College op Dental Surgery, Madison st. and Wabash 
ave. ; Chicago College op Pharmacy, 465 Stalest.; Chicago Homeopathic 
Medical College, Wood and York sts. ; Chicago Medical College, Depart- 
ment of N. W. University, Prairie ave. and Twenty-sixth st.; Chicago Poli- 
clinic, Chicago ave.; Chicago Veterinary College, 2537 State st.; Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago, W. Harrison, cor. Honore 
St.; German American Dental College, 167 and 169 N. Clark st.; Hahne- 
mann Medical College, 2811 Cottage Grove ave.; Illinois College op 
Pharmacy, Department of N. W. University, 40 Dearborn st.; Illinois 
Training School for Nurses, Honore st., near W. Harrison ; North- 
western College of Dental Surgery, 1203 Wabash ave; Rush 
Medical College, W. Harrison st., cor. Wood- St. Luke's Hospital 
Training School for Nurses, 1420 to 1434 Wabash ave.; University 
Dental College, Department of N. W. University, Twenty-sixth St., 
cor. Prairie ave.; Woman's Hospital Training School for Nurses, 
Thirty-second St., n. w. cor, Prairie ave.; Woman's Medical College, 
335 to 339 S. Lincoln st. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 251 

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS— TRAINING SCHOOLS. 

Polytechnic education has within the past ten years received the atten- 
tion of Chicago people interested in the training of the youth of both 
sexes. Various training schools have been established here during that time. 
The Public Manual Training School is treated under the head of "Public 
Education," [See also " Chicago Manual Training School," under head of 
"Educational Institutions."] Training schools of another character, how- 
ever, are referred to below. 

Armour Mission Training School. — This institution will probably be in 
readiness for the reception of pupils early in the present year. It is con- 
nected with the Armour Mission, Butterfield and Thirty-third sts., and all 
expenses connected with it are generously defrayed by Mr. P. D. Armour. 
[See "Armour Mission," under head of " Charities."] 

Baptist Missionary/ Training School. — Located at 2411 Indiana ave. Take 
Wabash avenue cable line. The first school established in this country 
devoted to the training of young women for missionary work is the one 
located in Chicago, conducted by the Women's Baptist Home Mission 
Society. The society itself is exceptional in being the first organization of 
the kind composed wholly of women, and was the result of a pressing demand 
from all parts of the country for missionary work, which only women could 
do, among women and children. Thirteen years ago so urgently was this 
need set forth by Miss Joanna P. Moore, who had been a nurse during the 
war, and remained in New Orleans on her own responsibility to work among 
the colored people; also by Mrs. C. R. Blackall, who had spent some time in 
the Indian Territory, and who declared that the need there was epitomized by 
an Indian woman, who said to her, " We want to live like Christian women, 
but we don't know how;" and others, who saw in different parts of the coun- 
try the necessity of work among the women and children of the foreigners, 
who were then, as now, pouring into this country at the rate of seven and 
eight hundred thousand per annum, that the ladies of the several Baptist 
churches in the city decided to organize a society for this work. The repre- 
sentatives of the different churches throughout the country, excepting those 
from Boston, were in favor of making Chicago the headquarters of the 
erganization, not only because it had its inception here, but because of the 
central location. The New England women, however, decided to organize 
a separate society. The society organized here now has between thirty and 
forty thousand regular members, and was last year in receipt, from all 
sources, of between $60,000 and $70,000. 

The most stubborn difliculty which the society found they had to over- 
come was that of getting competent workers. It was Mrs. Crouse, wife of 
Dr. J. N. Crouse, who has been the president of the society from its organiza- 
tion until the present time, who first proposed to eliminate this difficulty by 
establishing a school where workers could be educated for the kind of work 
to be done. In 1881 the school, which is now located at 2411 Indiana ave.. 
was established . Here each person to be sent forth not only to teach Christ 
and him crucified, but also to instruct ignorant women how to make a com- 
fortable home for their husbands and children, and to set the feet of the little 
ones in right paths, is taught all that she should know to accomplish both 
missions successfully. The pupils are each of them instructed in the prin- 
ciples of frugal living and in the preparation of simple, wholesome food, as 



252 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

well as in physical culture, that they may be able to use their bodies to the 
best possible advantage, and elocution that they may convey the instruction 
they have to give in the most effective manner. Not only the expounding 
of the Scriptures in a bright and forceful way, but also caring for the sick and 
what to do in case of emergency, are taught eminent divines and skillful 
physicians and nurses. These missionaries, being prepared to minister to 
body, mind and soul, are instructed in kindergarten methods, and also in the 
cutting of garments ana the conduct of industrial schools. 

All this equipment is made doubly thorough by being put in constant 
practice. Mrs. C. D. Morris, the preceptress of the school, arranges the prac- 
tice work of each student by dividing that portion of the poverty and vice- 
stricken part of Chicago lying a few blocks south of Van Buren street and east 
of State street, into districts, which, under her direction, are visited each week 
by her pupils. Two of them go together, and with their Bible in their hand, 
visit each habitation in the district assigned them. With those whom they 
know they chat of the various interests that enter into their poor lives, giving 
advice and, if needed, help. If the family is being visited for the first time, 
inquiry is made in regard to the children, and, if possible, it is arranged to 
have them attend the industrial school which meets every Saturday morning 
at the Pacific Mission . 

Missionaries trained at the school here are sent to New York, to Castle 
Garden, to receive and assist those newly come to our shores, as well as to do 
other needed work. Indeed, they are sent from this school by the society to 
all parts of the United States, save New England. Not only are regular 
missionarj'- workers educated in the school, but many clergymen's wives, 
Sabbath-school teachers and others take a part of the course . Arrangements 
are being made to enlarge the buildings owned by the society during the 
coming years, as those desiring to enter the school are much in excess of the 
present accommodations. Miss M. G. Burdette, sister of the well-known 
humorist, has been the eflScient secretary of both the mission society and 
school from their beginning, and has done much toward upbuilding both. 

Illinois Training School for Nurses. — Located at 304 Honore st.,West 
Side. President, Mrs. C. B. Lawrence ; treasurer, Mrs. Henry L. Frank. 
Founded in 1880. Take Ogden ave. or West Van Buren st. line. The name 
of the institution sufiiciently indicates its purpose. It is in a most prosperous 
condition. Among recent bequests was one of $50,000 from the late John 
Crerar. From the last report of the president it appears that during 1890 the 
school received a legacy of $20,000 from Miss Phoebe L. Smith. The report 
adds: " This enabled us to pay the mortgage of $12,000 on the Nurses' Home, 
and also to finish and furnish the fourth floor of the same. In June ourhome 
was finished and completely furnished, and with the much desired addition of 
an elevator. Ten years ago we began with a small and inconvenient house, 
which we rented. We had two wards in Cook County Hospital, a superin- 
tendent and eight pupil-nurses. To day we own, free from debt, the Nurses' 
Home ana furniture, which have cost not less than $70,000. We have charge of 
twelve wards in Cook County Hospital and all the nursing in the Presbyterian 
Hospital, with a superintendent, two assistant superintendents, one night 
superintendent, 100 pupil-nurses, and twelve probationers; twenty-nine nurses 
graduated in June. There have been, during the year, 291 applications to 
enter the school; 106 were received on probation, and sixty of this number 
were retained as pupil-nurses. Seven nurses have been discharged for cause 
and two honorably discharged. Five have left the school on account of ill 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 253 

health. There are ninety-eight registered graduates, and there have been 1,012 
calls for private nurses; 774 were supplied by the directory and 149 by the 
school. Our nurses have cared for nearly 8,000 patients in Cook County Hos- 
pital and 1,351 in the Presbyterian Hospital." 

Jewish Training School. — Located on Judd, near Clinton st., West Side. 
Take Clinton st. or W. Twelfth st. car. Formally dedicated October 19, 1890. 
Officers — Charles H. Schwab, president; Mrs. Emanuel Mandel, vice-presi- 
dent; J. L. Gatzert, treasurer; Rabbi Joseph Stolz, recording secretary; Mrs. 
I. Wedeles, financial secretary; directors — Henry L. Frank, Henry Greene- 
baum. Dr. E. G. Hirsh, H. A. Kohn, Julius Rosenthal, Mrs. M. Loeb, Mrs. 
B. Lowenthal, Mrs. Harry Mayer, Mrs. Lee Mayer, Mrs. Joseph Spiegel and 
Mrs. M. Rosenbaum. There are over 15,000 Russian Jewish refugees in Chi- 
cago, and especially for the children of those unfortunate people was the 
training school built. Ever since they began to arrive here their brethren 
have done all they could to assist them to gain a livelihood and become good 
cHlzens. The enterprise was started in 1872, when a training class was 
organized in Sinai Temple. It was successful, and in 1887 the Jewish Train- 
ing School was incorporated under the laws of the State. In the same year a 
scheme was set on foot to raise $12,000 for the purpose of erecting a suitable 
building. The next year Leon Mandel, of New York, gave the committee 
$20,000. This, together with an endowment fund raised from life member- 
ships and the legacy of Max A. Meyer, assured the financial success of the 
project. The school now has over 290 members and thirty life members. 
The building is tasteful, though not pretentious. It is a three-story brick 
structure with pediment and trimmings of brown stone. In the basement are 
a machine shop, carpenter shop, modeling-room, plaster work room and wash- 
room. Through the center of the building runs a broad hall, leading from 
which are three rooms devoted t o the kindergarten . In the rear are two class- 
rooms and superintendent's office. On the second floor are class-rooms so 
arranged that the whole may be thrown together, forming an assembly-room. 
The third floor is occupied by a laboratory, teachers' rooms and additional 
class-rooms. The building cost $60,000. 

Training Schools for Boys and Girls. — There are several charitable train- 
ing schools for boys in Chicago and vicinity. The Illinois School of 
Agriculture and Manual Training School for Boys, formerly known as 
The Illinois Industrial School for Boys, was dedicated during 1890 at 
Glenwood. Take the Eastern Illinois railroad. Dearborn station, foot of 
Dearborn st. This school was moved from Norwood Park to a beautiful 
farm near the suburb named above. The farm, which was the gift of Mr. 
Milton George, consists of 300 acres, and is about a mile west of Glenwood 
station. It is a beautiful body of land, with a rolling surface dotted with an 
occasional cluster of trees. A sparkling stream of clear fresh water cuts 
through the center of the farm. This school derives a small revenue from 
the county. According to its contract with the county it can only receive pay 
for 110 boys, no matter how many more than this number may be actually 
committed to the institution within a year. The amount allowed is $8 per 
month per boy, and only partially provides for maintenance and tuition. 
The deficiency is made up by the charitable people belonging to the associa- 
tion . This institution was chartered in February, 1887, and since the opening 
of the school about 500 dependent boys have been placed in its care by order of 
the court. These boys have been trained for lives of usefulness and industry, 



254 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

and in many cases have been furnished with comfortable homes in the coun- 
try. Starting three years ago with a debt of $6,000, the school now owns 
property to the value of $150,000, and is doing a work in reclaiming unfortu- 
nate boys that can not be overestimated. The president of the institution is 
Mr. Franklin H. Head ; vice-president, Milton George ; treasurer, John T. 
Chumasero ; secretary and general agent, Oscar L. Dudley ; superintendent 
of the school, Mrs. U. L. Harrison. City office, Room 27, 113 Adams St. 

Mrs. Ursula L. Harrison, the superintendent of the school, says she has 
found the children sent her to be like marble in the rough, requiring only to 
be chiseled with patience and polished with love to fashion many pure and 
lovely characters that may become bright and shining lights in the world. 
The hardest task is to inspire confidence in the child and inculcate in him the 
Idea of self-support and independence. The boys are frequently received in 
the home in a state of abject misery. If reclaimed at an early age there is 
enough physical and mental vitality remaining in which morals may be 
planted and take root and grow. It is hard for them to submit to discipline 
and to grasp the ideas of moral training, but patience and kindness have 
brought many an unruly boy to a halt before he plunged over the precipice 
from which so few ever return. 

The training school act, as it stands, reaches a class of boys more deserv- 
ing than any other of being rescued from the depths of indigence and of 
being placed in institutions best equipped to safely guide them in the path of 
integrity and self-reliance. As a rule, the boys entitled to claim assistance 
under this act have committed no serious misdemeanor against the laws. 
Their greatest misfortune arises from the fact that they are deprived of 
proper guardianship, and, consequently, left to the charity of a world that 
knows little of and cares still less for the wants of the half-clad, homeless 
boy. If left to themselves these lads must either starve or live by their wits, 
and to live by their wits means that they will ultimately join the ranks of the 
criminal class, to become a menace to the welfare of the State. 

St. Mary's Training School for Boys is a Catholic institution, in charge of 
the Christian Brothers, under the direction of the Archbishop of Chicago, 
in whose honor the little village of Feehanvile has been named. In 1890 
the average number of boys at the school was 300, of whom 195 were sent by 
the county. The system of training these boys may be briefly stated : The 
lads are kept busy at work, play or study, and appropriate rewards are 
bestowed on those whose good conduct and efficiency in tasks deserve 
recognition. That such a system should have beneficial results is obvious. 
The contrast presented by the inmates of this school, boys well trained in 
head, in hand and in heart, and those more unfortunate youths so pitilessly 
plunged in penal institutions may easily be imagined . As the kind superin- 
tendent of St. Mary's observes, The word " pitilessly" is very applicable in 
this connection. A number of these boys drift into the house of correction 
by reason of circumstances beyond their control, and, be it said to their 
credit, many of them would prefer to lead an upright life, but being destitute 
of friends and the advantages of an education, the dreary career of the crimi- 
nal is the only alternative left to them. St. Mary's Training School was 
established to help save these unfortunate waifs, and ever since its inception 
the school has been taxed to its utmost resources. As it depends almost 
entirely upon voluntary contributions for its support, financial or other assist- 
ance is always gratefully welcomed, and contributors may be certain that all 
donations will be judiciously applied. The school department consists of 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 255 

five well-graded classes, in which every effort is made to give the boys a 
practical elementary education. This is supplemented by a graded course of 
manual training in the various branches of industry taught in the institution. 
The printing, shoemaking, tailoring, baking, carpentering and blacksmithing 
trades are taught, and the pupils are also made familiar with the outdoor 
work of the farm, including the dairy, gardens and cattle yards. The farm, 
by the way, is a most interesting and important adjunct of Feehanville. It 
consists of 440 acres of cultivated ground, pasture and timber land. None of 
the produce is sold, so that the boys are quick to realize that the fruits of their 
labors will later greet them on the well-supplied tables. 

The majority of boys received at St. Mary's have already reached the age 
of twelve and upward, but their previous schooling has been so brief that in 
most cases the child's primer is their first introduction to educational knowl- 
edge. With the development of their intellectual faculties their physical 
powers must be strengthened, and these results are best attained by the alter- 
nate half-day's schooling and exercise in manual labor which, together with 
a wholesome diet and a proper attention to the laws of hygiene, soon bring 
color to the cheeks and lend vigor to the frame. It is surprising what apti- 
tude the pupils manifest both in the school-room and the work-shops, and 
before leaving the institution the boys become so expert in the trades learned 
that they have no trouble to obtain situations and thus earn an honest living, 
which is the great object of the school. 

In addition to these schools for boys there are the Chicago Industrial School 
for girls at Indiana avenue and Forty-ninth street, a branch of St. Mary's 
Training School, and the Girls' Industrial School at South Evanston, of 
which Mrs. M. R. M. Wallace is president. Both these institutions receive 
$10 a month per capita from the county for all inmates legally committed, 
and in addition, the county is compelled to clothe every girl received. The 
act under which these schools were incorporated is a trifle more liberal in 
its workings than the training school act, but still it is largely due to the 
noble efforts of the ladies and sisters in these excellent institutions that they 
have been able to carry on the grand work undertaken. 

The Industrial School at South Evanston may be reached either by the 
Chicago & North-Western or the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad. 
Trains run frequently through the day. 

Training School for Brewers. — The Germania Brewing Company has con- 
tracted for the purchase of $180,000 worth of real estate to be used as a site 
for an immense brewing and malting enterprise. This purchase includes the 
Siebens brewery. The proposed Improvements will involve the expenditure 
of $500,000. When the new plant is completed, the old Siebens breweryis to 
be remodeled into a training school for brewers. 

EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

European visitors will do well to acquaint themselves with the methods 
of the great express companies of this country. The system of forwarding 
parcels, goods, orders, money, and of making collections and performing 
commissions in vogue in the United States, is unknown abroad. 

American Express Company. — The greatest of all the express companies 
is the American. In this city alone over 1,000 men, 400 horses and 150 
wagons, besides 120 agencies, are required in handling its business The 



256 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

general business of this company consists of the for-warding and delivery of 
money, bonds, valuables and merchandise ; the collection of drafts, notes, 
bills, coupons, dividends and other paper; the issuing of money orders, trans- 
mission of money by telegraph and the execution of important business com- 
missions with promptness and careful attention. The great extent of this 
Company's routes, which comprise over 50,000 miles of railroad, with nearly 
6,000 agencies in the United States, Canada and Europe, and its special and 
exclusive fast express trains between New York, Boston and Chicago, which 
connect with fast mail trains for points further west, enable them to guaran- 
tee quicker time, lower rates, with positive responsibility against loss and 
damage, and a more expeditious, convenient and satisfactory medium for 
transportation than offered by any other express company. 

The American Express Company transmits money by telegraph between 
any of its six thousand city and village agencies in the United States, Canada 
and Europe, at very low rates. To send money by telegraph you have simply 
to deposit the amount to be transmitted with the agent of this company, who 
at once telegraphs the company's agent at destination to pay to the party men- 
tioned the sum of money specified. The money is delivered direct to the 
person's place of business or residence without extra charge. The rates 
charged by the American Express Company for this service are from 25 to 
500 per cent, less than is usually charged by telegraph companies who do not 
deliver the money at destination. The principal European offices of the Com- 
pany are located as follows: Messrs. Thomas Meadows & Co., 35 Miik 
Street, London, England ; 13 Water Street, Liverpool ; 51 Piccadilly, Man- 
chester ; 10 Hanover Street, Glasgow ; 4 Rue Scribe (under Grand Hotel), 
Paris ; E. Richards, 1 Rue Chilou, Havre ; A. Huni, Bordeaux ; N. Luchting 
& Co., Bremen and Hamburg, Germany ; Kennedy, Hunter & Co., Antwerp, 
Brussels aad Charleroi ; Salamons & Stevens, Rotterdam; Alfred Lemon & 
Co., Florence, Leghorn and Rome; John White, Genoa, Italy; Fratelli 
Pardo di Guiseppe, Venice. 

Money-orders for any amount, from 1 cent to $50 and upwards, are 
issued at all of the company's agencies in the United States and Canada, pay- 
able almost anywhere in these countries, as well as at all the principal cities 
in Europe, and afford a very cheap and convenient method for the transmis- 
sion of money by mail with absolute security. The object of the order and 
commission department of the company is to afford the company's patrons 
extra facilities for getting goods quickly and for attending to any business 
commissions which ttiey would otherwise have to attend to in person, or hire 
the service performed outside at considerable cost. 

Orders for goods of any description can be forwarded through this 
department to be purchased or procured of dealers or others at any point 
where this company has an agency in the United States, Canada, or at the 
company's European agencies, and are received at any of the company's 
offices and forwarded without charge. Purchases are made by employes of 
experience and discretion, and are returned by express with the utmost 
promptness. Where cost of goods does not exceed $5, amount will be 
advanced by the company, thereby saving persons ordering the expense of 
remitting money or paying C. O. D. charges, as well as stationery, postage 
and trouble. Parties ordering goods of unknown or irresponsible concerns 
can always avoid losses by sending their orders through this department. 
Orders for goods will be telegraphed by this company's agents without extra 
charge other than cost of telegram. 




THE NEW "HERALD" BUILDING. 



THE Eif CYCLOPEDIA. 257 

Besides making purchases and obtaining goods on orders, this depart- 
ment pays tax bilh, redeems articles pawned, collects baggage at hotels and 
railway stations, secures seats at theatres, berths in sleeping-cars, passage 
and state-rooms on European steamers, and performs with intelligence and 
discretion any service that can be legitimately and properly performed. 
Persons, either in this country or in Europe, wishing to have business com- 
missions attended to in connection with the World's Fair to be held in Chi- 
cago in 1893 can avoid unaecessary expense by having heir business attended 
to by this company's Order and Commission department. 

Location of Express Offices. — The Express Companies doing business in 
Chicago, are: The Adams Express Company, 189 Dearborn st. ; The Ameri- 
can Express Company, 72 Monroe st.; Baldwin's European and Havanna 
Express, 187 Dearborn st.; Baltimore & Ohio Express, 89-91 Washington 
St.; Northern Pacific Express Company, 81 Dearborn st ; Pacific Express 
Company, 89-91 Washington St.; United States Express Company, 89-91 
Washington st. ; Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, 154 and 156 Dearborn st. The 
Adams, American and United States Express Companies have their own 
buildings, two of them — the Adams and American — b'iing magnificent struc- 
tures. The Baltimore & Ohio and the Pacific, have offices in the United 
States Express building, and conduct their business jointly with the latter 
compan}'-. The Adams Express Company's business is almost entirely East- 
ern, the Wells-Fargo is Western, the Baltimore & Ohio is confined to the 
B. & O, System of railways, the Northern Pacific is confined to the N. P. 
Transcontinental route; the United States and the American cover all parts- 
of the countrj'. 

Brink's City Express. — This is the leading transfer company handling 
small packages, trunks, etc., in the city. The average price charged on 
trunks is about 50 cents between extreme points Here are the regular rates: 
One package or box, not large, 25 cents; two packages or boxes, small, 40 
cents; three packages or boxes, small, 50 cents; one single wagon load, one 
consignment, $1; one double wagon load, one consignment, $1.50, On all 
packages where value is declared, and where the value is greater than $50, 
an extra charge of five cents shall be made on each $50, or fraction thereof, 
that may be declared in excess of the first $50. Brink's Express' may be 
called by telephone 1754, from any part of the city. General office, 88 
Washington st. 

GREAT INDUSTRIES OF CHICAGO 

The great industries and great industrial centers of Chicago are among 
the attractions which we have to offer the visitor. Some of them are among 
the most remarkable in the world All of them are interesting. We have no 
London Tower, but we have the Union Stock Yards; we have no Versailles, 
but we have Pullman. And it is likely that the European visitor, who is tired 
of the gilded halls of royal palaces and the forbidden wallsof ancient prisons, 
will be refreshed by a visit to the scenes of modern activity which are pre- 
sented on every side here. The compiler is indebted to Mr. George D. Cope, 
for much information regarding our iron interests, and to Mr. John Clay, Jr., 
for facts connected with operations at the Stock Yards. Every branch of 



258 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

productive industry is covered under this classification. The information of 
a statistical character will be entertaining to all classes of readers, and pecu- 
liarly so to those who are interested in the application of mechanics. Not the 
least important matters treated of are the great agricultural works, the 
Union Stock Yards and Pullman. 

Iron Oke and Coal Soukces. — The iron ore districts from which 
Chicago obtains her principal supplies lie in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota. The cok.e districts lie in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia and 
Kentucky. Coal suitable for steam raising and for use in heating and pud- 
dling is, however, obtained near at hand, being mined in both Indiana and 
Illinois. Petroleum is extensively used for fuel in Chicago iron and steel 
works. It is conveyed in pipes from Lima, Ohio, to the city. The following 
statement will show the distances over which these materials are transported 
to reach Chicago. The longest all-rail haul of Lake Superior iron ore to 
Chicago blast furnaces is from the Vermilion range mines in Minnesota. The 
distance is 690 miles. Only a limited quantity of ore has taken that route, 
but the practicability of winter haulage has been demonstrated. This dis- 
tance by lake and rail combined from the Minnesota mines to Chicago is 
about 1,020 miles, of which 70 miles comprises the rail haul to Two Har- 
bors, and the remaining distance covers the lake haul across Lake Superior, 
through the Sault Ste. Marie and the Straits of Mackinac, and up Lake Michi- 
gan to Chicago. The Gogebic mines, in northern Wisconsin and Michigan, 
whose shipping point to Chicago is Escanaba, on Lake Michigan, are 490 
miles from Chicago by rail and lake, but by all rail they are much nearer, 
say 400 miles in round numbers. The mines of the Marquette range, in 
northern Michigan, whose main shipping port for Chicago is also Escanaba, 
are about 375 miles from Chicago by lake and rail, the rail haul to Escanaba 
running about 75 miles. The all rail route to Chicago would be about 400 
miles, or the same distance as from the Gogebic mines. The Menominee 
range mines are situated nearer to Chicago than the mines of the other Lake 
Superior districts, being only about 300 miles by rail. By rail and lake, they 
are 375 miles from Chicago. Of this distance, 75 miles cover the rail haiil 
from the mines to Escanaba, on Lake Michigan. All these figures seem for- 
midable, but lake freight rates are remarkably low for the distance covered, 
and the rail rates are also very reasonable on account of water competition, 
as well as competition between several lines of railroad traversing this sec- 
tion. Coming next to coke, another set of long-distance figures is encoun- 
tered. Coke is hauled to Chicago entirely by rail. It is drawn from several 
sources of suppl}'^ — namely, the Connellsville and Reynoldsville regions in 
Pennsylvania and northern and southern districts of West Virginia. The 
shortest haul is from the Connellsville region, say 525 miles. The Reynolds- 
ville, or Rochester and Pittsburg, coke district is easily 625 miles from Chi- 
cago. The Northern coke region of W^est Virginia is about 535 miles, and 
the southern district 600 miles. The bituminous coal used by manufacturers is 
obtained to a slight extent from western Pennsylvania, to a greater extent 
from Ohio and Indiana, but principally from the coal fields of Illinois. 
When drawn from western Pennsylvania, it is hauled by rail at least 500 miles; 
when obtained from Ohio, it is transported from 300 to 375 miles, and from 
Indiana about 175 miles. The coal fields of Illinois are but 50 to 75 miles from 



THE E^'CYCLOPEDIA. 259 

Chicago. Crude oil is now an important raw material to numerous Chicago 
manutacturers, who use it for fuel. The principal source of supply is the 
Lima district, in Ohio, whence a pipe line 2U0 miles long runs to the southern 
part of the city. These figures are not given as absolute distances, but are 
approximately correct, inasmuch as the various districts tapped are them- 
selves of large extent. They serve to show, hovvever, that the manufactur- 
ers of Chicago have had to conquer formidable disadvantages in establishing 
their various enterprises. How well they have succeeded is known to the 
world. Notwithstanding their remoteness from essential raw materials, they 
hive had countervailing advantages which have enabled them to build up 
enormous plants, with possibilities of great future growth. The most influ- 
ential advantages in making Chicago a great manufacturing center have been 
and are its magnificent transportation facilities. 

Water Transportatiox — Although Chicago is termed an inland city, 
because it is nearly a tiiousand miles from the ocean, it possesses vast marine 
interests through its location on Lake Michigan, one of the chain of great 
lakes slretchiog along our northern frontier. The magnitude of the lake 
traffic is shown by the statistics collected by the government. (See Maritime 
Interests ) A limited means of water communication in a southern direction 
is enjoyed in the Illinois and Michigan canal, extending from Chicago to the 
Illinois river, navigable for light craft thence to the Mississippi river. The 
freight transported over this route in 1889 aggregated 917,047 tons. An am- 
bitious scheme in this direction, which has been undertaken by the city of 
Chicago, contemplates the construction of a grand water-way, not less than 
160 feet wide and not less than eighteen feet deep from Lake Michigan to Lock- 
port, 111., for the improvement of low-vrater navigation of the Illinois and 
Mississippi rivers as well as to afford sanitary relief to Chicago. It is expected 
that the United States government will co-operate in making the connecting 
rivers navigable for large vessels, so that the lake and the Mississippi river 
traffic may interchange. Another water-way, called the Hennepin canal, is 
projeced across the upper part of the State of Illinois, also to connect with 
the Mississippi river. 

Railroad Transportation. — The railroads, however, are the chief fac- 
tor in conducting the trade and commerce of Chicago. No other city in the 
world is so well supplied with railroad lines. Twenty-six independent roads 
run out of the city, diverging to all parts of the United States, Canada and 
Mexico. These railroads, with their branches and immediate connections, 
have a total length of over half of the total mileage of the railroads 
of the country. A belt railroad encircling the city connects with all 
lines, enabling freight to be easily transferred from one to another without 
breaking bulk. Theimmensetrafficof this character, however, hasso farout- 
gro wn the facilities afforded by the belt road referred to thattwo otherintercept- 
ing lineshavesprungintoexisience, oneof whichencirclesthecity atadistance 
of twenty-five to forty miles from it . This line is known as the ' ' Joliet Cut- 
Off." The third belt road, which is known as the Chicago and Calumet 
Terminal, traverses part of the intermediate territory, intersects a number of 
important railroads, and will ultimately connect with all lines. To still 
further facilitate the interchange of freight cars among the various railroad 
lines, a great union transfer yard is being constructed on the west side of the 
city. These railroads and their belt-line connections have established a mul- 
titude of junction points in the immediate vicinity of Chicago, possessing 



260 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

transportation facilities of the most complete character for industrial enter- 
prises. Raw materials originating on the route of any railroad are thus easily 
delivered to a factory on any other line by a short transfer, practically taking 
every Chicago railroad to the doors of every Chicago factory. Manufactur- 
ing products are likewise distributed without difficulty over the region trav- 
ersed by every railroad line. These faciliiieshavestimulated the growth of an 
unusually large number of manufacturing towns as suburbs of Chicago. 
Among such suburbs the town of Pullman has become famous by reason of 
its having been built with a special view to providing workmen with comfort- 
able homes, pleasant surroundings, and everything necessary for their coa- 
venience and social enjoyment. 

Adams & Westlake Works. — Situated in the block bounded by Ontario, 
Franklin, Oaio and Market sts. Take Market street cars. J. McGregor 
Adams, president ; L. J. Todd, vice-president ; Wm. N. Campbell, secretary; 
A. Weinberg, treasurer. Incorporated 1874. Capital, $650,000. This is an 
establishment of world-wide celebrity. The Adams & Westlake Company 
are manufacturers of railroad car trimmings, lamps, lanterns and sheet metal 
specialties. The business was started in 1860 as a branch of Crerar, Adams 
& Co., J. McGregor Adams and the late John Crerar being the principal 
owners. They employ from 900 to 1,000 men. The buildings in the block 
range from one story to seven stories in height, and have an aggregate floor 
space of 250,000 square feet. Included in their plant is one of the largest 
brass foundries in the country, having more furnaces, though using smaller 
pots, than any other concern. Their products are sent to every State in the 
Union, and exported all over the world. 

Aermotor Company's Works. — The Aermotor Company occupy a six- 
story, sixty-foot front, buildingat 110-112 S.Jefferson St., and a forty-foot front 
foundry at 57-59 S. Jefferson St., employ about one hundred and fifty hands, 
annually consume about 4,000,000 feet of lumber and 1,500 tons of iron and 
steel, and manufacture wind-mills, wind-mill towers, tanks and feed grinders. 

Ajax Forge Company. — Situated at the corner of Hoyne and Blue Island 
aves. Take Blue Island ave. car. This company manufacture frogs, 
switches, rail-braces, etc. They are capitalized at $150,000, and employ 
about three hundred hands, run double turn, and annually consume 5,000 
tons of steel rails and 2,000 tons of bar iron. Their products are specialties 
of their own, on most of which they hold patents. 

Architectural IronWorks. — The manufacturers of architectural iron work 
constitute a very important wing of the foundry trade. Among the leading 
establishments of this character are the Bouton Foundry Company; the Dear- 
born Foundry Company; Vierling, McDowell & Co.; the IJnion Foundry 
Works; The Chicago Foundry Company; The Globe Iron Works; Clark, 
Raffen & Co., and the South Halsted Street Iron Works. Vierling, McDowell 
& Co.'s plant is located at Twenty-third st. and Stewart ave., on the lines of 
the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago, and the Chicago & Western 
Indiana railroads. Take State st. car to Twenty-third St., or Chicago & Ft. 
Wayne railroad to Twenty-second st. Robert Vierling, president; Louis 
Vierling, secretary and treasurer; Alfred Grossmith, superintendent. About 
two acres are occupied by a foundry building, pattern shop, and erecting 
shop. The number of hands employed is two hundred and twenty. The 
quantity of material handled last year was over 20,000 tons of pig iron, 
rolled beams, etc. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 261 

Boiler and lank Works. — The principal manufacturers of boilers and 
tanks are John Mohr & Son, Joseph Bee, William Graver Tank Works, 
Kroeschell Bros., William Baragwanath & Son, the Porter Boiler Manufac- 
turing Company, and the Hazleton Tripod Boiler Company. There are 
nufnerous other manufacturers of boilers in connection with steam engines 
and general machinery. The largest of these consume from 4,000 to 5,000 
tons of plate iron and steel annually. The establishment of John Mohr & 
Son, at 33 Illinois St., is one of the best-equipped boiler works in the country, 
having a hydraulic riveter capable of doing the heaviest work, and being 
well supplied with flanging and other machinery. The other boiler shops are 
making creditable progress in the introduction of labor-saving machinery. 

Biida Foundry and Manufacturing Works. — The Buda Foundry and 
Manufacturing Company, 607 Phenix building, Chicago, operate works at 
Buda, 111., manufacturing hand and push cars and switch and track materials, 
employing ooe hundred and twenty -five men and turning out an annual prod- 
uct of about $300,000. In the sime office are represented the Fort Madison 
Iron Works Company, of Fort Madison, Iowa, manufacturers of car-wheels 
and railroad castings, with a daily capacity of 200 wheels and 10 tons 
of castings, and a yearly product valued at $500,000; also, the JVIiddleton 
Car Spring Company, manufacturers of car springs. 

G. A. Crosby & Gompotni/s TF<9r^s.— Situated at 176 and 178 South Clinton 
street, manufacture presses and dies for a variety of purposes, but make a 
specialty of sheet metal machinery. They have a well equipped factory, 
employ 75 to 100 hands, and have a large export trade in can-making 
machinery. 

California Fruit Transportation Company. — This company was organized 
in 1889, after some five or six years of thorough testing of all the different 
plans of carrying fresh fruits under refrigeration. Previously it had been 
the universal opinion of all the men engaged in this business that refrigeration 
was a detriment to fruit, the idea being that articles of such perishable nature 
would not stand the sudden change of temperature when taken out of a cold 
car in hot weather. By this service, however, which combines every 
improvement of car with thorough knowledge and attention given to operat- 
ing, it has been demonstrated that the most tender fruits may be carried suc- 
cessfully two or three times as far as it had been possible to ship them before, 
and to keep them as well as fresh picked fruit when unloaded from the cars, 
even in the hottest weather. The work of this company has, during the past 
two years, completely revolutionized the ideas of the fruit trade in regard to 
transportation. During the summer the attention of the company is confined 
largely to the transportation of deciduous fruits from California, and it has 
succeeded in placing these fruits successfully in the Eastern markets, where 
before it was impracticable to ship beyond Chicago, increasing the sale of 
these fruits in New York from fifty cars two years ago to over 500 in 1890. 
Operations in the South and East during the winter and spring are equally 
successful and important. The surety given the question of transportation 
has opened up a wide range of markets for these peri.<^hable products, where 
heretofore they have been confined to near points and subject to the local 
demand. The work of the company is entirely separate and distinct from the 
railroad company's, in that it has nothing whatever to do with the transport- 
ing of the fruit from point of shipment to destination, but simply cares for 



262 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

and protects it while it is in transit. In connection with this, the company 
is obliged to have its own cars in order to meet the special requirements of 
this class of freight, 

Calumet Canning Company/. — Among the comparatively new enterprises 
at Hammond, to the northwest of the Michigan Central depot, is the large 
four-story factory of the Calumet Canning Company. This plant is one of 
the most thoroughly equipped establishments of the kind in the country, for 
the purpose for which it was constructed, A Corliss engine furnishes the 
motive power, and a huge ice-machine guarantees a frigid temperature at all 
seasons of the year, for the proper curing of meats. Those interested in 
pure, healthy foods, especially meat products, will find this a most interest- 
ing establishment, for all is clean and orderly, and only the best of every- 
thing is used, the aim of the company being to prepare a brand of goods 
which will sell for its merit, rather than a low price. The list of canned 
goods comprises corned and roast beef, lunch and ox tongues, deviled and 
potted meats, chicken, turkey, etc., etc. The company is also the sole pro- 
prietor of the "Chicago Brand" of Liebig's Extract of Beef, and Liebig's 
"Beef, Wine and Iron," which are prepared according to the formulas of 
Baron Liebig, and as these, like all products of this company, are not per- 
mitted to go upon the market without undergoing a thorough and rigid 
inspection, the brand has become justly popular for its uniform excellence 
and perfection, the demand for the past two seasons far exceeding the sup- 
ply. The establishment furnishes employment for a small army of men and 
girls at Hammond, while at Chicago they have an extensive market, occupy- 
ing the stores numbered 68-82 West Jackson st., the main business office 
being located on the sixth floor of the "Rookery " buildiug. The officers of 
the company are : J. C. Hately, president ; G. W, Simpson, vice-president; 
C, W. Simpson, treasurer ; and J. O. Staples, secretary. 

Calumet Iron and Steel Company. — Works located at Cummings, near 
South Chicago, about twelve miles from the Court House, Take train at 
Van Biiren Street depot. Van Buren and Sherman sts., or at Dearborn Sta- 
tion, Fourth ave, and Polk St., or at Union depot, Canal and Adams sts. 
The blast furnace is eighty feet high, with a 173^ foot bosh ; it is equipped 
with one Massick & Crookes and three Siemens Cowper-Cochrane stoves, 
and two blowing engines. The rolling mill has thirty-eight puddling fur- 
naces, six scrap and six heating furnaces, and three trains of rolls — 9, 14 
and 22 inch. In the puddling department the waste heat is utilized from 
eight double furnaces to raise steam in eight upright Hazleton boilers, and 
the system is soon to be extended to twelve. A nail factory with 132 nail 
machines, and steel works with four 4-ton open-hearth furnaces are at pres- 
ent in disuse. These works have about five miles of railroad track with 
rolling stock for carrying raw materials ; also have a good slip, with facili- 
ties for loading and unloading vessels on the Calumet river, emptying into 
Lake Michigan. They employ, outside of the nail factory, about 1,200 men. 
The annual consumption of raw material is 100,000 gross tons of ore and 
cinder; 65,000 net tons of coke; 23,000 net tons of limestone; 40,000 net tons 
of scrap iron; 26 000 net tons of pig iron; 37,000 net tons of muck and scrap 
bar; 80,000 net tons of coal; 10,000 net tons of sand; 50,000 barrels of fuel 
oil. They produce 51.000 gross tons of foundry and Bessemer pig iron; 
45,000 net tons of muck and scrap bar; 50,000 net tons of merchant bar. 

Charles P, Willard & Company's TforAis.— ^Situated at Nos, 1 to 7 Domi- 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. • 263 

nick street, on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad, with dock front- 
age ou the north branch of the Chicago river. They occupy about two acres 
of ground for buildings and yard purposes, employ 100 hands, and have a 
yard capacity for the production of 600 engines and boilers. Charles P. 
Willard & Co. are manufacturers of portable, stationary and marine steam 
engines and boilers, steam launches, steam yachts and tug boats. 

Gliicago Gold Storage Exchange. — Situated on the block between Lake and 
Randolph sts., on the west bank of the Chicago river Take West Lake or 
Randolph st. cars. Only a short walk from business center of South Side. 
The corner stone of the mammoth building was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies on November 13, 1890, by Gen. William Sooy Smith. After the lay- 
ing of the stone the guests, among whom were the mayor and many of the 
leading citizens of Chicago, were escorted through the warehouse of the com- 
pany, then in operation, and the action of ammonia gas in producing the 
necessary low temperature was explained by General Manager J. Ensign 
Puller. The remarkable feature of the concern is the almost entire absence 
of elaborate machinery. The system in use produces a maximum effect with 
a miaimuiii cost, and i3 technically known as the Absorption System, The 
liquid aahydrous ammonia is conducted through pipes to the cold storage 
rooms and freezing vaults, the supply being automatically regulated, keeping 
the temperatures uaiformily at any desired degree. By a natural process the 
ammonia gas is absorbed in water, when it is carried back to the distilling 
plant, there to be converted into anhydrous ammonia again, and continue its 
round of labor. Thus little loss of ammonia is occasioned, and though costly 
experiments have alone been able to bring about this economic process, the 
total cost of refrigeration by this method has been reduced to the lowest point. 
By Gfiis pr )3e3s of refrigeration, eggs, batter, cheese, and dried fruits stored 
away in April, May and June, are perfectly preserved when taken out forthe 
fall and winter trade. All green fruits, particularly apples, are put away in 
October and iNovember, filling the space previously occupied by the summer 
goods, and are carried until the egg trade begins in spring. The natural 
products of California, Florida, Spain, Italy and Sicily, which reach Chicago 
as rhe greatest fruit center of the United States, are carefully stored away 
and oreserved. By bringing sound fruit on the market when desired, it com- 
m mds the highest prices and insures a more equitable market. 

The new building when completed will be the largest in Chicago, exceed- 
ing even the Auditorium in size, and is to be the largest building of its kind 
in the world. The architects, Adler & Sullivan, and the engineers, the 
Osbourne Steam E i /ineeringCo., have been busily engaged revising and aug- 
menting the plans connected with the cold storage building, carrying out suc- 
cessfully the ideas of the promoters. The Cold Storage Exchange will con- 
sist of two buildings extending from West Lake st. to West Randolph st. 
They will be united by an arcade over the railroad tracks. The eastern build- 
ing skirts the edge of the river and extends from it to the railroad tracks. 
The vvestern building runs from the arcade to the alley between West Water 
and Canal sts. The length of each will be 382 feet, the width of the eastern 
b'lild'ni seventy feet and the western eighty-five feet. The dimensions of the 
We^t W-\tor St. arcade are 75 by 382 feet, and the Cold Storage Place arcade 
is 36 by 382 feet. Each building will be composed of a basement and ten 
stories, insulated, piped and fully equipped, prepared to carry any tempera- 
tures required bv the different nature of the goods stored, affording six large 
stores, each seventy'Six feet deep, fronting on Lake st. , and six stores f ront» 



t>04 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

iug on Randolph st. of the same depth, twenty-eight stores on West Water 
St. arcade, and ninety brokers' and commission offices on the first floor above 
the stores. The lowest story on the river front will be thrown open, supported 
by steel columns, thus giving ample dockage facilities for the unloading of 
vessels. The facilities for handling car-load lots of perishable freight will be 
unequaled. The total cost of the entire buildings, including the purchase 
of the business of the Chicago Refrigerating Warehouse Company, will be 
$3,000,000. The estimated cost on steam plant, elevating and electric service, 
refrigerating and ice plant, is $475,000. The foundation will require 9,000 
piles and 1,250,000 feet of oak limber. In the whole construction, which will 
be finished by spring, 1892, there will be 200,000 cubic feet of concrete and 
stone masonry, 6,000 tons of iron and steel, and 900,000 feet of tiling for the 
arched floors. 

Chicago Crucible Steel Casting Company. — Works situated at Elsto^ and 
Webster aves. They have a thirty-pot steel melting furnace and a five-ton 
open-hearth steel furnace, and make steel castings. 

Chicago Drop Forge and Foundry Company. — Situated at Kensington, in 
Pullman. Take Illinois Central train, foot of Randolph street. Their property 
consists of about four acres of land, on which are erected a brick shop, 26x79 
feet and a frame building of equal size. The former is used as a forge and 
rah chine shop, and the latter as a shear shop for the manufacture of domestic 
shears and scissors. The forge shop is equipped with fifteen upright and six 
Bradley hammers, twelve presses, two bolt machines, fourteen drill presses, 
and shaping and dye-sinking machines, milling machines, lathes, planers, 
etc., for special and general work. The products of the company are drop 
forgings of all descriptions, both in steel and iron. They make a partial 
line of carriage hardware, and forge pieces for the use of manufacturers of 
sewing machines, agricultural implements, bicycles, etc. About half of the 
product of the company consists of shears and scissors. The shears are made 
under a process not used elsewhere in the United States, the blade being 
forged solid from the steel bar. About 130 hands are employed, and about 
twenty tons of steel and iron are worked up monthly. Crude oil is used for 
fuel, both under the boiler and in the forge. 

Chicago Forge and Bolt Company. — Main works occupy about twelve 
acres at Fortieth street and Stewart avenue. Branch at Michigan and Frank- 
lin sts. , on the North Side, for job work and small bolts. Bridge work, turn- 
tables, girder work, heavy steam-hammer work, car axles, railroad forgings, 
blacksmith work, ore-dock chutes, bolts, nuts, rods, washers, etc., etc. 
Employ an average of 500 to 550 men. Buildings on the main plant cover 
nearly the entire twelve acres, and this company has run for the last eleven 
years nieht and day with the exception of about three months, when the night 
gang wa"s laid off. Thry have steadily increased in size and volume of their 
business from date of organization of the company, and have gangs of bridge 
erectors in half a dozen States a good part of the time. Their output of 
finished product is very large. A fully-equipped rolling mill represents part 
of their premises; capacity of about 100 tons a day, in rounds, flats and 
squares. 

Chicago Horse-shoe Company's For^s.— Situated at East Chicago, Ind. 
Contain two heating furnaces, one 12-inch train of rolls, and one 13^-ton 
Robert-Bessemer converter, and manufacture horse-shoe bars and horse-shoes. 



"ir 








THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 265 

Chicago Splice Bar ilfj^^.— Situated at Chicago avenue and the north 
branch of the Chicago river. The products of this rolling mill are the Sam- 
son splice bars for railroad use, and the plant is composed of three heating 
furnaces, two trains of 3-high rolls, three boilers, one forge, and a full set of 
four steam punches, two of which are capable of punching one and one- 
eighth inches in diameter through 1-inch thick steel or iron at one movement. 
The capacity of the mill is 12,000 tons of finished product per annum, which 
requires about 14,000 gross tons of old iron rails, and 5,200 tons of bitumi- 
nous coal, with the labor on an average of 175 men to produce this amount. 
Tuose works have been in operation producing the Samson splice bars since 
1878, and always double turn while runniEg. 

Chicago Steel Works. — Situated at 906 Noble street. Take Wells street 
cars. These works have nine heating furnaces, three forge fires, and two 
trains of 14-inch rolls. Old steel rails and steelrail crop ends are used as raw 
material, being slit and rolled into tires, harrow teeth, and special shapes for 
agricultural implements. 

Chicago Tire and Spring Company Works. — Situated at Melrose, on the 
Galena division of the Chicago & North- Western railroad. Take train at 
Wells Street depot. Wells and Kinzie streets. They manufacture locomotive 
and car wheel tires, steel bands for various purposes, and car springs. The 
equipment consists of an 8 ton Siemen's open hearth steel furnace, used in 
the production of steel for tire ingots, a furnace for heating tire ingots, or 
blooms, a tire rolling mill, and eight heating furnaces in the car-spring 
department with the usual machinery for manufacturing springs. The tire 
ingots are cast large enough for three small tires or one large tire, and are 
made hollow, with a collapsible steel core. They are slit by a slitting roll in 
the tire mill, and finished into tires, without the use of a hammer at any stage 
of the process. The heating furnace used in the tire mill has a Roney auto- 
matic stoker for feeding coal, and the waste heat from the furnace is used 
for raising steam in a Hazelton upright boiler. The engine operating the 
tire mill is a double cylinder engine of 1,000 horse- power, built on the revers- 
ing principle to enable it to stop and start quickly. Hydraulic power is used 
in operating the crane and setting the rolls. The fuel used in the heating 
furnaces of the spring department is petroleum converted into gas by the 
Gogin process. 

Columbia Steel Car Company. — Organized for the purpose of building 
steel railroad cars; shops located in the township of Maine, on a tract of 600 
acres, recently purchased. It lies on both sides of the Desplaines river, 
between Desplaines and Park Ridge. The company manufactures railroad 
cars of all descriptions — postal, baggage, passenger coaches and freight — 
entirely out of steel, and is already doing a large business. Its postal cars 
have been running for over a year on different railroads. The offices of the 
company are at room 14, Rialto building. 

Crane Company's Works. — Situated on Jefferson, Desplaines. Judd and 
Pulton streets. Take Randolph or Lake street car to Desplaines street. 
The Jefferson street building, four stories high, is 154 feet long by 150 feet 
deep. The Desplaines street building, also four stories high, has a front of 
130 feet, and a depth of 168 feet. These buildings are occupied by the gen- 
eral olfice and salesroom, gray iron and brass foundry department, tool manu- 
facturing department, brass and iron valve department. One Judd street 
building, four stories high, 205 feet front by 220 feet deep, is occupied with 
the malleable and gray iron foundries, and iron fitting and radiator depart- 



266 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

ments. Another Judd street building, six stories high, 219 feet front by 111 
feet deep, is occupied by a gray iron foundry for the manufacture of steam 
fittings for wrought iron pipe, iron valve department, wrought iron pipe, 
warehouse, etc. A building, at ihe corner of Desplaines and Fulton streets, 
180 feet front by 170 feet deep, is used as a butt-weld pipe mill and galvaniz- 
ing works. The number of hands employed is 1,850. The annual jconsump- 
tion of pig iron and scrap is 15,000 tons; of copper, tin and brass, 1,200 tons; 
of skelp iron, 9,000 tons; of steel, 100 tons. The products are wrought iron 
pipe, cast and malleable iron fitting and brass goods (for steam, gas and water), 
pipe, tools, gate valves and radiators and coils. 

Grader, Steel & Austin's TF(??'A;s.— Graver, Steel & Austin, of Grinnell, 
Iowa, have built a plant at Harvey, a suburb of Chicago, on the Illinois Cen- 
tral railroad. Their buildings consist of a machine shop, foundry, black- 
smith shop, 160x200 feet; office attached, 50x40 feet; wood-working and paint 
shop, 240x200; warehouse, 350x80 feet. They employ from 150 to 250 hands, 
consume annually about 5,000,000 feet of hard-wood lumber, 400 tons of bar 
iron, and about 1,000 tons of pig iron, and manufacture harvesting machines, 
mowers, rakes, springs and buggies. 

David Bradley Manufacturing Company's Fo?'A:s.— Situated on Fulton, Jef- 
ferson and Desplaines sts., and occupies about ten acres of floor space. This is 
one of the greatest of Chicago's factories. The company employs 600 work- 
men, and annually consume 10,000 tons of pig iron; 1,500 to 1,800 tons of bar 
iron,' and 1,000 to 1,200 tons of steel. Their products consist of plows, hay- 
rake's, cultivators, harrows, cotton planters and other farm implements. 

Elgin National Watch Campany.— Located at Elgin, 111., 42 miles from 
this city. Take train at Wells Street depot, Wells and Kinzie sts., via. Galena 
Division Chicago & North-Western railroad. This is one of the most exten- 
sive as well as the most interesting industries carried on in Chicago or vicinity. 
Some idea of its character may be obtained at the outset, from the fact that 
three thousand hands are employed in the works; that a daily average of 
1.800 watch movements are turned out, running in value from $4 to $90; and 
that 540,000 movements were turned out in 1890, the aggregate value of 
which was $3,500,000. Twenty -six years ago Patton S. Bartlett and Ira G. 
Blake, employes of the American Watch Company, of Waltham, paid a visit 
to Chicago, and while here conceived the idea of starting agreat watch fac- 
tory in the inviting fields of the growing West. They formed the acquaint- 
ance of J. C. Adams, of Elgin, a practical watchmaker, who became enthused 
with the idea. After some effort, a company was formed August 27, 1864, 
under the name of " The National Watch Company," of Chicago, 111., with a 
capital stock of $100,000. Through the influence of Mr. Benj. W. Raymond 
and Geo. B. Adams, the location of the factory was offered to Elgin, on con- 
dition that a tract of thirty-one acres of land be deeded to the company, and 
$25,000 worth of stock be subscribed by the city. After efforts to comply 
with these conditions had failed, four of Elgin's citizens stepped to the front 
and fulfilled the requirements. They were S. Wilcox, W. T. Pease, H. 
Sherman and B. F. Lawrence. Thirteen of the original thirty-five acres 
lying east and south of the factory were set apart, and an acre lot was given 
by the company to each of the original seven Waltham men who came West 
in 1865, namely, Messrs. Hunter, Moseley, Hoyt, Bartlett, Mason, Hartwell, 
and Bis'elow. The incorporators of " The National Watch Company " were: 
Benj W. Raymond, Howard Z. Culver, Thos. S. Dickerson, Geo. M. Wheeler, 



THE EN^CYCLOPEDIA. 26^ 

Philo Carpenter, W. Robbins and Edw. H. Williams, In September, 1864, 
Mr. Wheeler and Mr. Adams went East to secure competent men to help start 
the factory on a practical basis. They were fortunate in securing Messrs. 
George Hunter, the present superintendent, to take charge of the machine 
department; John K. Bigelow, now in California, to take the formanshipof 
the train department; P. S. Bartlett, now a retail and wholesale jeweler in 
Elgin, to superintend the plate and screw department; Otis Hoyt,now dead, 
as issistaut to Mr. Bigelow; Chas.E. Mason, now in California, to have charge 
of the escapement department; D. R. Hartwell, still in the company's employ, 
to supervise the carpenter work, and Chas. S. Moseley, now in Dubuque, as 
superintendent. Mr. Raymond was the first president, and served until Octo- 
ber 10, 1867, when he was succeeded by T. M, Avery, who has served in that 
capacity since. The organization of the National Watch Co. was completed 
February 15, 1865. In January, 1865, a wooden structure, three stories high, 
35x60 feet, was erected on the Elgin water power, on the site now occupied by 
DuBois opera house. After countless obstacles had been overcome, the work of 
watch making was fairly begun in April, 1865. On April 25, 1865, the com- 
paay surrendered its certificate of license and was reorganized under a special 
charter and aa authorized capital of $500,000. The first board of directors 
was composed of Messrs. B. W. Raymond, H. Z. Culver, T. S. Dickerson, G. 
M. Wheeler, Philo Carpenter, Joseph T. Ryerson and Benjamin F. Lawrence. 
Noae of these gentlemen are now associated with, or interested in, the fac- 
tory ; Messrs. Raymond, Carpenter, Ryerson and Lawrence being dead. 

The present factory, in its original, consisted of a three-story and base- 
ment structure 40x40, with a two-story and basement wing 273^x1*00 feet, and 
a two-story and basement wiag 273^x86 feet extending south, with additional 
smaller buildings. In one of these was made the first watch ever built in 
Elgin. It was an 18-size (English) full plate, key-wind, with quick train and 
straight line escapement, arranged to set the hands at the back, as was com- 
mon with three-quarter plate, English and key-wind watches of that day. 
This model is still a cherished treasure, carefully preserved in the archives of 
the company. This model was not adopted, but was changed toset on the 
face after the plan of full plate movements of that day, and with that alter- 
ation it was adopted, christened the "B. W. Raymond," in honor of the pres- 
ident of the company, and put upon the market — the pioneer Elgin watch, 
the modest advance guard of a great industry. This watch emanated from a 
factory, then considered great, which had a floor area of about23,000 square 
feet, and which, during the quarter century of the company's existence, has 
increased to upwards of 196,000 square feetexclusive of the detached buildings. 
This pioneer Elgin watch was a four-hole, extra jeweled, adjusted move- 
ment, and was first delivered from the factory April 1, 1867. The next 
watch was the H. Z. Culver, which was first delivered from the factory on 
July 16 of the same year. Following these movements came the Taylor, 
Wheeler, Laflin and Ryerson, all slow train movements, which were delivered 
between October, 1867, and January, 1868. This line of watches was extended 
later by several lower grades named the Ferry, Ogden, Farwell and Fargo. 
George P. Lord became manager in 1868, and continued as such till 1876, 
when this office was abolished On the twentieth of May, 1869, the "Lady 
Elgin," the first of the popular ten-size, key-wind, ladies' movements, was 
put upon the market, and was followed by the "Francis Ruble "(Aug. 24, 
'70), the •' Gail Borden" (Sept. 8, '71), and the "Dexter Street" (Dec. 20, '71). 
None of this line of movements is now manufactured. On June 28, 1873, 



26S GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

the first stem-wiud movements made b}'^ the Elgin company were delivered, 
and bet-ween this date and May 6, 1875, the Raymond, Culver, Taylor, 
Wheeler, Laflin and Ogden movements were all transformed into stem-winds. 
The name of ' ' Elgin " had become so inseparably linked to the products 
of the watch factory, they being generally and familiarly known as " Elgin 
watches " the world over, that on May 12, 1874, at a meeting of the stock- 
holders, the name was changed by prefixing the word "Elgin," 
and a new charter was then adopted. This charter is the one under 
which the factory now operates. In 1874-5 the company contem- 
plated the establishment of a watch case factory in connection with 
the manufacture of movements, but this idea was afterwards abandoned. 
It was in March, 1875, that the factory first manufactured its own mainsprings. 
At present every part of the watch is manufactured at the Elgin factory, 
except the jewels, whicli are imported. In 1875 the name of the company 
was adopted for all new movements of every size and grade, the first of the 
series being issued June 16, 1875. Since that time thirty-three distinct grades 
of eighteen-size have been added to the line. 

After the adoption of the "popular prices" by the Elgin Company in 
May, 1876, the home demand became so heavy, that the producing facilities 
of the factory were taxed beyond their capacity, and the entire line of three- 
quarter plate movements were discontinued, the London ofllceof the company 
closed, and the goods practically withdrawn from the foreign market. Since 
the discontinuance of this line no new key -wind goods of any kind have been 
added to the product. The first nickel movement made by the company was 
delivered August 15, 1877. The company has had but two presidents, Mr. 
Raymond and Mr. Avery. Mr. Lawrence was elected vice-president of the 
company at the time of its organization, and served as such until his death in 
December, 1871, when Mr. Culver was elected, and filled the position until 
June, 1884, when Mr. Scoville was elected. Mr. Wheeler was secretary from 
August, 1864, to January, 1868, when he was succeeded by Hiram Reynolds, 
who was followed by George R. Noyes in January, 1877, and at his death 
in July, 1879, Mr. Whitehead was elected, and served until June, 1884, 
when he was succeeded by Mr. Prall. Between September 29, 1875, and 
December, 29, 1876, the company added to its list of movements seven grades 
of ten-size, six of twelve-size and five of fourteen size three-quarter plate key- 
winds. These movements were especially designed for the English market, 
but were sold to some extent in this country. Between March 28 and June 11, 
1878, a line of eight-size stem-wind movements were put upon the market. 
Between November 1, 1878, and January 6, 1879, four grades of sixteen-size, 
three-quarter plate, stem-wind movements were produced. These embraced 
an entirely new feature in stem- wind movements, being interchangeable 
in hunting and open-face cases by placing the winding pinion at 12 or 8 
o'clock. In February, 1880, this line was increased by two movements. 
The trade of the company increased so rapidly that the capital stock was 
increased in 1884 to $2,000,000. With two exceptions (being the two cheapest 
grades), the watches made by the Elgin Company have straight-line escape- 
ments, making 18.000 beats per hour, and all have fine trains. The company 
has since its organization made and put upon the market just 100 distinct 
grades of the various styles and sizes of their watches. Space does^ not per- 
mit us in this article to give a detailed description of the plant as it is to-day, 
much as we would like to do so. The motive power for the factory machinery 
is furnished by two SO-horse power automatic engines. The factory is heat€d 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 269 

throughout by steam and illumiuated by electric light from the company's 
own plant. An artesian well, 2,026 feet deep, furnishes the entire water supply. 
The many hundreds of busy hands and countless machines are busy ten hours 
a day, turning out a daily average of 1,800 watch movements. These watches 
range in value from $1 to $90. The officers of the company are — T. M. 
Avery, president; J. W. Scoviile, vice-president; "William G. Prall, secretary; 
T. M. Avery, George H. Laflin, O. S. A. Sprague, J. W. Scoviile, Charles 
Fargo, M. C. Town, George N. Culver, directors; J. M. Cutter, general agent, 
with office at Chicago; E. J. Scofield, New York agent. The factory manage- 
ment is in the hands of the following efficientofficers: Superintendent, George 
Hunter; W. H. Cloudman, first assistantsuperintendent; George E. Hunter, sec- 
ond assistant superintendent; Carlos H.Smith, cashier; J. McLaughlin, invoice 
clerk; C. C. Elliott, material clerk; W. C. Thiers, shipping clerk. The Elgin 
Company was the first watch company in America to pay a dividend to the orig- 
inal stockholders. In less than six years from the time of its charter, the watch 
company had erected its buildings, manufactured its machinery, and placed 
on the market more than 42,000 watches. By April 1, 1872, five years after 
the first watch "was turned out, the reputation of the " Elgin watches " was 
thoroughly established, and more than 125,000 had been marketed. The 
property of the company includes a twenty-two acre tract of land, the fac- 
tory buildings and the following; A gas house, 52x180 feet; a generating 
house, 60x118 feet; a purifying house, 30x64 feet; a carpenters' shop, 80x135 
feet; the engine house and the pattern vault. In connection with the factory 
is the National House, a first-class hotel, for the accommodation of employes 
only. This house was opened in March, 1881, and on February 1, 1888, the 
new wing was dedicated. The Elgin Company have erected and equipped a 
magnificent gymnasium, which has recently been formally opened for the use 
of their employes and the town's people. Thebuildingisbuilt of stone, three 
stories in height, and some idea of its character may be gained from its 
cost — $40,000. The interior is handsomely finished. Oak is used in the 
halls, and Georgia pine in the rooms. The gymnasium room is on the upper 
floor. It is a perfectly lighted and exceedingly high room, 75 feet long by 
45 wide. The outfit is as fine and complete as can be found in the country, 
and cost $1,500. There are $500 worth of mats on the floors alone. In its 
equipments, it is a model of completeness. Above this floor is a fine running 
gallery, thirty laps to the mile. It makes also a great visitors' gallery. For 
evening work, the incandescent lamps make the hall as bright as day. The 
ventilation, too, is excellent. In front of the gymnasium are ladies' and gen- 
tlemen's dressing rooms and shower baths. The floor below the gymnasium 
contains an amusement hall for concerts, lectures and dances, of the same 
size as the gymnasium. There is a movable platform in one end. The floor 
is perfect, and a door communicates with the National House. In front are 
two reception rooms and lavatories. Below this is a splendid band room, 
library, lockers, lavatories and directors' room. We do not know of another 
such building in connection with any manufacturing institution in the West. 
This great industrial institution is a glowing tribute to the ability and energy 
of its officers and their associates, as it also is to the ingenuity and superior 
workmanship of their operators. 

Thomas M. Avery, president, as well as active business head, of the 
renowned Elgin National Watch Company, was born at Perry ville, Madi- 
son county, N. Y., in October, 1819, and consequently is nearly 72 years of 
age at the present time, though hale, hearty and as active as a boy. He was 



370 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

given a common-school education, and, at the age of ten years, he was sent 
to a polytechnic school at Chittenango, Madison county, N. Y., where he 
remained two years. He then moved to Cazenovia, N. Y., and remained 
there until he reached the age of fifteen years. At that time his father died, 
and, thrown upon his own resources, young Avery entered a general country 
store to earn his own living. He worked there until the death of his 
employer, after which he settled up the estate, and at the age of twenty he 
embarked in the general merchandise business on his own account. Mr. 
Avery continued this business successfully in Cazenovia, until March, 1851, 
when he came to Chicago, and entered the lumber business, buying and sell- 
ing lumber in small lots. He remained in this business until 1875, amassing 
a comfortable fortune. In 1867 he was elected president of the Elgin National 
Watch Company, which office he consented to accept only temporarily, after 
considerable urging, and on condition that he should devote to its duties 
only such lime as he could spare from his own business. Subsequently he 
gave up the lumber interests, and devoted himself entirely to the Watch 
Company's affairs, as he is now doing. He is one of the largest stockholders 
of the company, and his management has brought it into the front rank, 

Elgin Watch Case Company. — Situated at Elgin, 111., forty-two miles 
from Chicago. Take train at Wells St. Depot, Wells and Kinzie sts., North 
Side. The factory of the Elgin Watch Case Company is beautifully situated 
on an eminence at the north end of Dundee ave. The building presents a 
commanding and picturesque appearance, being a three-story structure of 
brick, 200 feet long, with a wing seventy -five feet in length. It is nicely 
finished and fitted throughout with keen adaptability to the business and an 
eye to the comfort and convenience of all the operatives. It is supplied 
throughout with all modern conveniences, with ample fire protection on each 
floor. It is when the interior of this building is reached that some conception 
of the enterprise can be had. The eye at once catches the orderly and cleanly 
appearance of every department, notwithstanding the accumulations of so 
large a factory. On entering the basement of the building the forges and 
crucibles for melting the gold convey some idea of the complicated machin- 
ery throughout the building. The machinery department, melting and roll- 
ing, twining, jointing, electro-plating, springing, polishing, engraving and 
finishing departments are each operated by experienced and competent 
workmen, and the shaping of each attachment of a watch case seems to be 
simply pastime to many engaged there. 

Fraser & Chalmers Company. — Works located in the neighborhood sur- 
rounding the intersection of Fulton and Union streets, having a frontage of 
690 feet on Fulton street, 280 feet on Lake street, 730 feet on Lydia street and 
450 feet on Union street. They are employing at present 1,075 hands and 
operating portions of the works twenty-four hours per day. Their annual con- 
sumption of pig iron, sheet iron and steel, merchant bar iron, etc., is about 
13,000 tons, and their product comprises steam-engines, boilers and machin- 
ery for the systematic milling, smelting and concentration of ores. Among 
the manufacturers of mining machinery the most conspicuous establishment 
is that of Fraser & Chalmers, who have a truly world-wide reputation. They 
have not only supplied machinery for mining plants and smelting and reduc- 
tion works in every State and Territory of this country where mining is fol- 
lowed, but have many plants in operation in Alaska, Canada, Nova Scotia, 
British Columbia, Mexico, Central and South America, China, Japan, Aus- 



THE Eiq-CYCLOPEDIA. 271 

tralia, Norway, Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, India, 
Italy and the Philippine Islands. They have branch offices in London, South 
Africa, Japan, Peru and Mexico. Throughout the great copper, silver and 
gold country of the West, in mines and smelting works, the visitor sees the 
name of Fraser& Chalmers on the immense machinery used everywhere. 
The demand for their work is constant and urgent, and miners and smelters 
will tell you that of all the machinery employed that built byFraser& Chal- 
mers is scientifically the most perfect, smoothest working and least trouble- 
some. The company has secured the site for immense works farther out, 
and will probably make a change in location during the next two years. 

Fowler Rolling Mill Corapany s Works. — Situated on Fifty-ninth street on 
the Chicago & Western Indiana railroad. Take train at Dearborn station. 
Fourth avenue and Polk street. They manufacture railroad spikes exclu- 
sively, and contain one forge fire, two heating furnaces and one 9-inch train 
of rolls. The material used is old iron rails exclusively, which, after being 
first sheared into proper lengths, are heated and rolled directly into spikes. 
Dies on the rolls are used for shaping the spikes, instead of spike machines. 
The annual capacity of these works is 80,000 kegs of 150 pounds each. The 
fuel used is crude petroleum. 

Fowler Steel Gar Company s Works. — Situated at Stony Island avenue and 
Ninety-fifth street. Take train at Van Buren Street depot, Van Buren and 
Sherman streets, or at Dearborn station, Fourth avenue and Polk street. The 
company manufacture their own steel by the Robert-Bessemer process, using 
a 2-ton converter. The steel is first cast in the form of a blank car- wheel, but 
with the diameter about an inch greater than that of the finished wheel; this 
wheel blank is then heated and afterwards placed in a rolling machine of 
peculiar construction, which operates exclusively on the rim of the wheel by 
means of a cluster of driven rolls, which, being slowly advanced toward a 
common center by enormous pressure, reduce the diameter of the blank, con- 
dense and solidify the steel and produce a beautifully finished wheel, per- 
fectly round and exact to the required form. This rolling machine is of great 
power, weighs about 230 tons and can readily turn out a finished car- wheel 
every five minutes. 

General Foundries. — Among general foundries the most conspicuous 
works are those of John Featherstone's Sons, the Barnum-Richardson Manu- 
facturing Company, the Chicago Malleable Iron Company, the East Chicago 
Foundry Company, the Lake Shore Foundry Company, the R. M. Eddy 
Foundry Company and Francis E. Roberts. The works of the East Chicago 
Foundry Company, at East Chicago, Ind., have some points of special inter- 
est. The main building is 140 feet square, with a circular structure, 80 feet 
in diameter, rising above the center, having windows extending completely 
around it. A 50-ton steam crane swings in this circle, having its mast in the 
center, and the end of the boom supported on a carriage which travels on 
the top of a heavy circular framework. A trolley moves back and forth on 
the boom. There are, also, two 10-ton cranes and one of five tons, two 
cupolas, one reverberatory furnace, four core ovens and two roll pits. The 
company employ 150 men, consume 50 tons of pig iron daily, and manufac- 
ture rolls, ingot molds and heavy castings. Their pattern house is 90x30 
feet and two stories high. They have in their yard a derrick capable of 
lifting 50 tons and a power house for it. 



272 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

Grain Elevators. — The visitor to Chicago will be surprised and interested 
by a visit to some of the great grain elevators of the city. [See Elevator 
Storage Capacity.] The greatest elevators in the world are to be found here, 
and they are more numerous than in any other city on earth. A few figures 
in relation to one of them will serve as a description for all. A grain eleva- 
tor of the first-class costs about $500,000; 12,000,000 feet of lumber is con- 
sumed in its construction; the outside brick wall is sixteen inches thick; a 
fire wall, two feet thick, usually divides the building in the middle; the 
height is about 155 feet; length, 155 feet; as a protection against fire iron 
ladders run this entire height and on all floors there are electric push buttons 
communicating with annunciators in engine room, and in the latter depart- 
ment there is also a fire pump with a capacity equaling that of four steam 
fire engines. Two hundred barrels of water, each accompanied by a couple 
of iron pails, are scattered about over different floors, and twenty-two chem- 
ical fire extinguishers are placed at convenient stations throughout the struct- 
ure; forty-five fire-plugs, to each of which is attached 1,000 feet of two and 
one-half inch rubber hose, together with fourteen fire alarm boxes, about 
complete the precautionary measures for combatirg the devouring element; 
the superintendent and chief engineer are located at opposite extremities of 
the bulky framework, the one in a separate brick office building, with an 
electric instrument within reach, by which he isenabled to converse with the 
heads of departments, and the other in a large two-story, fire proof brick 
building, where he takes pleasure in showiDg visitors a little bottle of river 
water after it has been transmogrified in passing through the granite filter. 
Once every week a fire drill is ordered, the time of turning in an alarm for 
which is known only to the watchmen in charge. When the alarm is 
sounded every man takes his place, but no water is thrown. These drills 
demonstrate that the structure may be deluged with water in exactly 
seven seconds. It requires 100 employesto run a grain elevator; to move the 
ponderous machinery a 1,000 horse-power Compound Corliss engine is 
required, making fifty-six revolutions per minute without varying one revo- 
lution in a day's run. This is one of the most elaborately finished pieces of 
mechanism in existence, and was constructed at a cost of $50,000. The 
diameter of the drive- wheel is twenty feet, and that of the shaft eighteen 
inches. Crank bins fourteen inches in diameter and fourteen-inch steel pins 
are provided, the momentum of which adds impetusto the work of the engine. 
The main belt is of rubber, 200 feet in length and 5 feet in width. It is the 
largest bit of ribbon ever manufactured from any material by any firm for 
any purpose, requiring special machinery in its construction. The chimney 
of the elevator has a 14-foot base and an altitude of 154 feet. 

The manner of handling the grain by these great warehouses is as fol- 
lows: Upon leaving the cars the grain falls through an iron grating into the 
hopper beneath the floor, and is immediately carried by the elevator buckets 
up to the cupola, a distance of 155 feet. There it is discharged over the 
"heads" of the elevators into scale hoppers, twelve in number, each having 
a capacity of 2,000 bushels. The first, or receiving floor, is twenty feet in 
height. The second is called the bin floor. There are 379 bins, or, since a 
portion of them are divided into three partitions, 428 receptacles in all, each 
66 feet in depth, and made to hold from 1,700 to 6,500 bushels, the latter 
figures representing the capacity of the 879 undivided cribs. Above this 
floor is the "spout," " turn-table," or " revolver " floor, as it is variously 
designated. Around each spout are grouped in a circle a dozen or more 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 273 

funnels. The spout revolves and readily connects with these funnels, and by 
having a number of these revolvers grain is distributed to any of the bins. 
Next is the scale floor, where twenty-eight large Fairbanks scales do the 
weighing, and then comes two shaft or machinery floors. 

Arriving at the scale floor we find the car loads of grain have been 
weighed and are being distributed by means of the revolvers into the diiierent 
bins, according to the various grades. In a small ofiice on the scale floor is 
a long blackboard lined off into squares and marked with the number of each 
bin. The grain is never moved without being first weighed, and this slate 
enables the weigher at a glance to tell what kind and how much grain he has 
on hand. 

When it is desired to ship grain it is drawn from the bins into a hopper 
on the ground floor, taken up shipping elevators, twelve in number, and dis- 
charged into garners above the shipping scales, sixteen in number, and 
weighed by draughts of 500 bushels at a time, which are equal to 28,000 
pounds. It is now run into a shipping bin, whence it is conveyed to the hold 
of a vessel, for which purpose there dangle from the side of the building 
sixteen dock spouts. If shipment by rail is desired, a separate track for that 
purpose enters the warehouse, and the cars are loaded in much the same 
manner as are vessels, with this exception, that as the grain enters the car it 
is thrown, by means of an improved bifurcated car loader, in opposite direc- 
tions, so that both ends of the car are filled simultaneously. On the land 
side of the building is a long row of windows where wagons may be loaded. 

The "marine leg" is worth describing. It is a device ninety feet in 
length, vertical, consisting of an endless belt in a movable leg, to which belt 
is attached buckets capable of carrying eighteen pounds each. The elevator 
is carried on guides, and will lift sixty feet, taking grain from the hold of 
the largest propeller at the rate of 10,000 bushels an hour. With the marine 
leg, vessels holding 50,000 bushels are unloaded in five hours. 

Ourelevatois are supplied throughout with every known improvement 
for successfully conducting this branch of business. 'Facilities for handling 
hundreds of tons of grain by means of the elevators are complete. Either a 
single one or the entire twenty-eight elevators may be run or thrown out of 
gear at the will of the operators, and the stuff may be tossed about from the 
bottom to the top of the gigantic building and back again, or from (Sue end 
of it to the other and return, without the loss of scarcely a berry. On Sep- 
tember 25th last, the new propeller America, the greatest carrier on these 
waters, took her initial cargo, consisting of 95,000 bushels of corn, in one 
hour and twenty-five minutes. 

Grant Locomotive TF^r^s.— Located at the corner of Sixteenth st. and 
Robinson ave. Take train at Grand Central depot. Fifth ave. and Harrison st. , 
via the Chicago & Northern Pacific railroad. The works now under coastruc- 
tion will cover forty acres and employ between 1,500 and 2,000 men. The 
product will be equal to the Pennsylvania Company's shops at Altoona, or 
about 350 complete locomotive engines per annum. The plant will cost about 
$1,000,000. 

Great Western Locomotive Works.— Recently incorporated by Alfred 
Skinner, Hugh R. Walker and Thomas A. Wigham. Mr. Walker is a prac- 
tical raaoufacturer, Mr. Skinner is a Board of Trade operator, and Mr. A\ ig- 
ham is an iron merchant. The financial backing of the enterprise is fur- 
nisheri by Chicago men. Capital stock, $1,000,000, It is to employ 2.000 
men. 



274 GUIDE TO CHICAGO, 

Oriffin Wheel and Foundry Company.— The largest consumers of pig 
iron in Chicago, outside of llie steelworks, are tlie foundries. There are 
over 100 foundries in Chicago and its immediate vicinity, manulaciuring 
car-wheels, machinery castings, car castings, stoves, aichiitciuii.1 iron 
works, plumbers' supplies, pipe fittings, ice-making machines, hardware, 
etc. It would be an unnecessary task to enumerate all of these, hence a few 
representative establishments only will be described. Prominent among the 
large consumers of pig iron are the works of the Gritfin "Wheel and Foundry 
Company, located on California ave., between the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul and the Chicago & North- Western railroad tracks. The main 
foundry building, which is a brick structure, is 200x378 feet, and has a 
capacity for the production of between 700 and 800 car- wheels daily. Adjoin- 
ing this building is the machine shop, 75x150 feet, containing all the latest 
machinery and tools for fitting car- wheels for locomotives, cars, electric 
motors, etc.; also the company's special appliances for grinding and balanc- 
ing car-wheels. They have ample ground, a complete system ol narrow 
gauge tracks, elevators, etc., for the economical handling of materi^i) and 
ample switching facilities, enabling them to reach all roads entering Chicago. 
They employ between 20(> and 300 men and consume yearly between 60,000 
and 70,000 tons of iron, 10,000 to 15,000 tons of coke and several thousand 
tons of sand for moulding purposes. The output is confined wholly to car- 
wheels, making chilled iron wheels of every kind and variety. 

Growth of Chicago's Grain Trade. — The first lake shipment of wheat from 
Chicago was made in 1839. In 1842 the shipments were 586,907 bushels. In 
1855, after the opening of railroads to the East, the shipments of grain, two- 
thirds of which was wheat, amounted to 21,583,221 bushels. In the season 
of 1888-9 the quantity of flour and wheat received at Chicago was equivalent 
to 31,491,656 bushels; corn^ 79,920,691 bushels; oats. 49,901,942 bushels; 
rye, 2,605,984 bushels ; barley, 12,524,538 bushels, making a grand total of 
183,563,208 bushels. There are twenty-seven grain elevators in the city with 
a total storage capacity of 29,175,000 bushels. 

Hartington & King Perforating Company's Works. — Situated at 224 and 
286 North Union St., make perforated metal sheets of standard and special 
designs for use in connection with mining machinery and for a variety of 
purposes. Their products are shipped to many foreign countries. 

Hewitt Manufacturing Company's Works. — Situated at 21 Ontario st. The 
Hewitt Manufacturing Company are brass founders, manufacturers cf self- 
fitting lead-lined journal bearings for railroad cars and locomotives, rolling- 
mill bearings, bells and heavy castings of all kinds of brass and special 
bronzes. The daily capacity of the works is 15,000 pounds; their annual out- 
put is about $3,000,000, and their annual «alcs aggregate $450,000. W. J. 
Watson is president, H. H. Hewitt is secretary and general manager, and W. 
F. Bates is treasurer. 

Illinois Malleable Iron Co)7ipany's Works. — Situated at Nos. 581 to 601 
Diversey ave. They employ 225 hands, manufacture specialties for plumbers 
and gas-fitters, melt about fifteen tons of pig-iron daily, and have recently 
purchased eight and one-half acres of land with a view to largely increasitg 
their manufacturing facilities. 

Husche & Jurs. — Located at 105-115 Superior st., corner of Green. One 
of the largest manufactories of composition gold mouldings and picture 
frames in the country. This firm has been established for the past seven 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. ^75 

years; however, some of its members are Chicago's pioneers in this line of 
business. They have shown a remarkable and substantial growth; from an 
euterprifee that enployed twenty-five men to an institution that to-day requires 
the services of 200 employes. 

Illinois Steel Company. — In Chicago and its immediate vicinity there are 
nineteeu coke blast furnaces completed or in course of erection. Of these 
seventeen are owned by the Illinois Steel Company, one by the Calumet Iron 
and Sieel Company, and one by the Iroquois Furnace Company. The fur- 
naces not completely finished comprise four which are being added to the 
South Cliicasro plant of the Illinois Steel Company, and one which is being 
built by the Iroquois Furnace Company, in the same locality. Engaged in 
the manufacture of steel, or rolling iron and steel into shapes of various 
forms, there are seventeen separate plants, of which four belong to the Illi- 
nois Steel Company. Included among these are five Bessemer Steel works, 
two Robert- Bessemer works, three open-hearth steelworks, and one crucible 
works. The products of these steel works and rolling mills consist of steel 
rails, steel wire rods, merchant bar iron, stee/ tires, steel beams, splice bars, 
cut nails, railroad spikes, car axles, steel car-wheels, horse shoes, special 
shapes for agricultural implements and steel castings. The most imp rtant 
iron and steel works are those of the Illinois Steel Company. The Illinois 
Steel Company is a corporation formed by the consolidation of the North 
Chicago Rolling Mill Company, the Joliet Steel Company, and the Union 
Steel Company. The consolidation was effected May 1, 1889, and brought 
under one control and management five plants as follows: North Chicago 
Works, South Uhicago Works and Milwaukee Works, of the North Chicago 
Rolling Mill Company; Joliet Steel Company's Works, at Joliet; Union Steel 
Company's Works, at Chicago. Other property, such as coal lands and coke 
ovens, etc., belonging to the separate companies was also included, the whole 
comprising a property which is capitalized at $50,000,000. The five plants of 
the company occupy over 500 acres of ground, and the coal lands consist of 
4,500 acres, on which there are 1,150 coke ovens. The company own 1,500 cars 
used in the coke trade, and the internal transportation at thedifferent plants 
requires the use of 500cars and forty-two locomotives of standard gauge, besides 
seventeen narrow gauge locomotives hauling special trucks. There are sixty 
miles of standard gauge and seven miles of narrow gauge railroad in the yards. 
The output of finished product for the year ending June 30, 1890, was as fol- 
lows: Rails, 539,603 gross tons; rods, 49,800 gross tons; bar iron and steel, 
56,415 gross tons; billets, 29,295 gross tons; beams and channels, 5,161 gross 
tons; total, 680,274 gross tons. During four months of the year the largest 
rail mill of the company was undergoing reconstruction and did not contrib- 
ute to the above product. The blast furnaces (fourteen in blast) produced 
during the same period the following: Pig iron, 614,240 gross tons; spiegel, 
32,777 gross tons; total, 647,017 gross tons. The Bessemer works (four plants) 
with a total of nine vessels, of capacities from six to ten tons, produced: In- 
gots, 751,833 gross tons. The product handled in and shipped from the vari- 
ous works was thus: Pig iron and spiegel, 647,017 gross tons, Bessemer 
ingots, 751.833 gross tons; rails, 539.603 gross tons; billets, 81,585 gross tons; 
rods. 49,800 gross tons; bar iron and steel, 56.415 gross tons; beams and 
channels, 5,161 gross tons; total, 2,131.414 gross tons. In the manufacture of 
this product there was used in round numbers the following materials: Iron 
ore. 1.100,000 gross tons; coke, 700,000 eross tons; coal, 200,000 gross tons; 
total, 2,000,000 gross tons. About 10,000 men are employed in the mills of 
the company, and the pay-rolls for the year ending June 30, 1890, amounted 
to about $6,000,000. 



276 GUID^ TO CHICAGO. 

It will be noticed that by far the greater part of the product of the Illi- 
nois Steel Company is in the form of rails, and in fact, until within a few years, 
it might be said that the only product of the several works now owned by the 
company took that form. All the works were originally built to make rails, 
and for many years the activity in that trade was such that no other product 
was thought of, but the increase in the demand for other forms of steel has 
made it necessary to diversify the product, and the company now makes bil- 
lets, rods and beams, as well as miscellaneous bar iron and steel. A very 
large open-hearth steel works and plat« mill are under way, and a mill for 
rolling all classes of structural steel will be built in the near future. To pro- 
vide for the increased output and to make the company independent of out- 
side sources for their supply of pig iron, four new blast furnaces of the 
largest size have recently been built and will shortly be blown in. When the 
additions and improvements now under way are completed, the plant of the 
company will comprise the following: 19 blast furnaces, 1,200,000 gross 
tons; 4 Bessemer works, 1,100,000 gross tons; 1 open-hearth works, 75,000 
grosstons; 4 rail mills, 850,000 gross tons; 2 billet mills, 100,000 gross tons; 
1 rod mill, 60,000 gross tons; 1 structural mill, 80,000 grosstons; 1 plate 
mill, 60,000 gross tons; 1 merchant mill, 75,000 gross tons; total annual 
capacity, 3,600,000 gross tons. 

Three of the plants of the company are located within the corporate 
limits of the city of Chicago — the North Works, the South Works and the 
Union Works. One is at Milwaukee, Wis. , ninety miles north of Chicago, 
and one is at Joliet, 111., forty miles southwest of Chicago. All the works 
are connected by telegraph and telephone service with the central office in 
Chicago, and with each other. The following description of each of the 
plants is necessarily brief, and it will be understood that many details of pos- 
sible technical interest are omitted. 

North Chicago Works. — Situated on the North branch of the Chicago 
river, in the northwestern part of the city. Take Chicago & North-Western 
train at Wells Street depot, Wells and Kinzle sts., to Clybourn Station, or 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul train at Union depot, to Works; or Clybourn 
avenue street cars. This is the oldest of the plants of the company, having 
been started in 1857 as a mill for re-rolling iron rails. The manufacture of 
iron has long been discontinued, and the product at present is steel rails, 
beams and slabs. The plant consists of two blast furnaces, 16 feet by 65 feet, 
one of which is making Spiegel; a Bessemer plant, with two six-ton vessels; 
a thirty-inch three-high blooming mill, and a twenty-three inch three-high 
mill, which is used for rolling rails and beams. The furnaces were built in 
1869, and were originally equipped with pipe stoves, which, within two 
years, have been replaced by fire-brick stoves of the Gordon and Massick & 
Crookes type. Ore for these furnaces is brought by vessel and by rail from 
the Lake Superior mines, and delivered close to the furnaces. The product 
is chiefly Bessemer iron, but a good deal of spiegel is made from native and 
foreign ores. All the iron is run into pigs, as the Bessemer plant is not fitted 
to use direct metal. The Bessemer plant was built in 1872, on the designs of 
A. L. HoUey, and consists of two six ton vessels, five cupolas for re-melting 
pig iron, three spiegel cupolas, a ladle crane, and three ingot cranes, all 
arranged on the HoUey, or American plan, two horizontal blowing engines, 
hydraulic pumps, etc. At the time of its construction this was the most com- 
pletely equipped Bessemer works in America, and, for a plant of its relatively 
small size, has done remarkably good work. Very few changes have been 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 277 

made ia the machinery and equipment, and it is now somewhat antiquated, but 
still capable of giving a good account of itself. Ingots (three-rail) are heated 
in coal furnaces, bloomed and cut to single rail lengths, as the mill arrange- 
ments will not permit the rolling of longer lengths. The blooms are re-heated 
in coal furnaces. The rail mill rolls the usual patterns of rails and beams up 
to fifteen inches depth. Pieces are handled at the rail train with hooks and 
tongs in the old-fashioned way, and it may be noted that this is the only mill 
of the company where this is now done. Some historical interest attaches to 
these works from the fact that in the old rail mill the first steel rails made in 
America were rolled May 24, 1865, from blooms made at the experimental 
Bessemer Works, at Wyandotte, Mich. 

South Chicago Works. — This is the largest of the company's works, and 
is situated on the shore of Lake Michigan, twelve miles south from the 
Court-house. Take Illinois Central train, foot of Randolph, Van Buren, Six- 
teenth or Twenty-second streets, for South Chicago. The facilities for receipt 
and shipment of material, both by vessel and rail, are excellent. The largest 
steamers plying on the lakes bring ore to the docks, and three railroad lines 
come into the yard, furnishing connection with the entire railroad system of 
Chicago, The site of this plant was in 1880 a sand beach, barely above the 
level of the lake. In that year the erection of four blast furnaces was begun, 
and in 1881 ground was broken for the Bessemer and rail mills. The plant 
now in operation consists of four furnaces, 21x75 feet; a Bessemer plant with 
three 10-ton vessels; a 40 inch 8-high blooming mill; a 27-inch 3-high rail 
train, and all facilities for handling a large output of rails, which at present 
is the only product. Four more blast furnaces, 21x85 feet, are ready to blow 
in ; an open hearth steel plant and plate mill are under way, and a new harbor, 
200 feet wide by 2,500 feet long, has been built for the accommodation of vessels 
bringing ore to the docks. The four blast furnaces now at work, and fur- 
nishing about 800 tons of metal per day, have 12 Whitewell stoves, eight 
blowing engines, and an excellent equipment in every respect The metal 
from them is used direct in the Bessemer works, to which it is conveyed in 
ladles up an inclined track. Orefor thesefurnacesis received almostentirely by 
water, and vessels are unloaded into an ore-yard back of the furnaces cover- 
ing 300x1,200 feet. The machinery for discharging vessels is exceptionally 
rapid in its operation, and vessels can be unloaded at the rate of 250 to 300 
tons per hour. The Bessemer works began operation in June, 1882. There are 
three 10-ton vessels working to one casting pit, three ladle cranes, four ingot 
cranes, two horizontal blowing engines, pressure pumps, etc. Four spiegel 
cupolas and two iron cupolas for remelting pig, occupy separate houses on 
opposite sides of the converting building. The ladles with iron and spiegel 
pass in front of the vessels. A large building in the rear of the vessels is 
devoted to making bottoms, lining ladles, etc. The vessels are made with 
removable shells on Holley's plan, with a powerful hydraulic lift under each 
for handling the shells and changing bottoms. A new blowing engine and 
boilers are being added to this plant, the intention being to insure a large out- 
put. The largest twenty-four hours' work of this plant to date has been 
1,400 tons of ingots. The steel is cast into ingots sixteen inches square and 
making six rails each. The ingots are taken from the pit and conveyed in an 
upright position to the soaking pits (which are not Gjers' pits, but holes con- 
taining eight or ten ingots, fired with gas passing through regenerators), 
and after heating are taken to the blooming train. Here an ingot is reduced 
in nine passes to a bloom eight inches square, which is cut into two blooms, 



278 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

each making three rails. Ordinarily these blooms are rolled direct to rails, 
but a furnace is provided for reheating any that are too cold to roll. The rail 
train is in two parts (each driven by a separate engine), placed parallel to each 
other and 80 feet apart. The bloom after roughing (live passes) in the first 
tram goes to the second in which it makes four passes and then returns to 
the first train, where it is finished to a rail in four passes. This train 
replaces a 26-inch 2-high reversing mill, put down in 1882, and the arrange- 
ment of the train in two parts was made necessary by the limitation of 
the size of the building in which the old train stood. The rail then passes 
to the saws and hotbed, and to a very complete finishing house where it is 
straightened, drilled, inspected and loaded on cars. The completion of the 
new furnaces, the open-hearth plant and the plate mill, vfill make these 
works the largest establishment in the country. In anticipation of this the 
company have erected a fine office building and a laboratory, which is the 
largest and best of its kind. Nearly all the ore for the supply of fifteen fur- 
naces is unloaded at the docks of this plant, and a large pari of it sent by.rail to 
the Joliet and Union Works. To provide for this immense business, which 
must be done in seven months of the year, the new harbor and ore-handling 
machinery have been put in, and it is expected that shortly 5,000 tons of ore 
will be handled per day on the new dock. An interesting detail of this plant 
is the use of crude petroleum for firing boilers. The oil is delivered to the 
works by a pipe connecting with the main pipe from Lima, Ohio, 208 miles 
distant. 

Milwaukee Works. — This plant is situated on the shore of Lake Michi- 
gan at Bay View, a suburb of Milwaukee, Wis., and occupies a verv fine 
site, with ample room for extension. Take Chicago & North- Western train at 
Wells Street depot, Wells and Kinzie streets, or Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul train at Union depot. Canal and Adams streets. This is the only works 
of the Illinois Steel Company where manufactured iron is produced, the other 
plants being devoted to steel. It was built for a rail mill in 1868, and 
enlarged and adapted to merchant iron work in 1874 and 1884. ^ The product 
is now miscellaneous bar iron and steel, fish-plates, light rails and nails. 
There are two blast furnaces, 17x66 feet, built in 1870, and lately remodeled 
and equipped with fire-brick stoves. The product is mostly forge and 
foundry iron and some Bessemer iron . Ores are brought from the Lake Supe- 
rior mines and from an interesting deposit at Iron Ridge in Wisconsin. 
This latter ore is a red oolite, with 55 per cent, iron and over 1 per 
cent, phosphorus, is cheaply mined and makes a pig very suitable 
for the base Bessemer process. The mills are provided with eight trains 
of rolls, from eight inches up to twenty-two inches in size, puddling and 
heating furnaces, both coal and gas fired, producers, etc., and machinery 
well-adapted to the class of work turned out. There is a well appointed nail 
factory with 100 nail-cutting machines. This plant will probably continue 
to produce manufactured iron, but the increase in the demand for steel prod- 
ucts, now rolled from steel made at other plants, will soon necessitate the 
erection of a steel works to make basic ingots. 

Union Works.— This plant is located in the southwestern part of the 
City of Chicago, on the south branch of the river. Originally built as an 
iron rail mill in 1863, a Bessemer plant was afterwards added, in which, on 
July 26, 1871, the first Bessemer steel produced in Chicago was made. Blast 
furnaces were later erected, as also plate and bar mills, a rod-mill and a wire- 
drawing plant. In 1884 the property came into the hands of the Union Steel 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 279 

Company, and was thoroughly remodeled, a large part of the machinery and 
buildings being removed and replaced by modern appliances. The product 
at present is entirely rails. There are four blast furnaces, two 14 by 73 feet, 
and two 16 by 75 feet, supplied with an excellent equipment and doing very 
good work. The metal is run into pigs, as the Bessemer work does not use 
direct metal. In the Bessemer plant there are two 10-ton vessels working to 
one pit, live iron cupolas, four spiegel cupolas, two ladle cranes, four ingot 
cranes, three blowing engines, the necessary hydraulic pumps, etc. This 
plant made its first blow May 31, 1886, and enjoys the distinction of having 
made the largest product with two vessels of any plant in America. During 
the year ending the 30th of June 1890, 318,000 tons of ingots were turned out; 
the largest month's output was 36,200 tons, and the largest twenty-four hours' 
output was 1,639 tons. Ingots 15-inches square are cast, making four rails 
each, and are heated in soaking pits fired with gas, and rolled in a 36-inch 
8-high blooming mill to blooms 1% inches square and cut to 2-rail lengths. 
These are then rolled without reheating in a 25-inch 3-high train, provided 
with tables for handling the rails at the rolls. This train is driven by one 
engine and has roiled 1,312 tons of rails in twenty-four hours, 28,490 tons in 
a mouth and 260,000 tons in the year ending June 30, 1890. A separate 
finishing house provides ample facilities for handling and shipping a large 
product. Rails from 50 to 90 pounds per yard are rolled in this mill. The 
steam fuel used at this plant is crude petroleum, which is delivered in tank 
cars and pumped to the several departments. The railroad connections to 
the Union Works are ample, but the yards are somewhat crowded, owing to 
the situation in a thickly built part of the city. Ore was formerly received 
by vessels, but now comes by rail from the South Works, where it can be 
more cheaply and quickly handled. 

JoLiET Works. — This works was started as an iron mill in 1870, and a 
Bessemer works and steel rail mill on HoUey's designs were added in 1873. 
Two blast furnaces were built in 1873, the Bessemer and rail mill were 
remodeled in 1885. a Garrett rod mill was put down in 1888, and a third blast 
furnace was completed in 1890. The product is now rails, billets and rods. 
Although ores for this plant have to be transported by rail from Chicago or 
the mines, there is yet a considerable advantage in the location of the works, 
and one which determined the original installation, namely, the ample and 
cheap supply of coal for steam and heating purposes, which is obtained from 
the Illinois coal fields, at no great distance from the works. The railroad 
connections are very good. The blast furnaces are 20 feet by 80 feet, and 
are furnished with fire-brick stoves of the Gordon, Cowper and Massick & 
Crookes type; Their product is Bessemer metal exclusively, which is used 
direct in the Bessemer works, to which it is conveyed in ladles, up an incline, 
crossing two main lines of railroad by an overhead bridge. The Bessemer 
plant contains two 8-ton vessels, cupolas for remelting pig to supple- 
ment the direct metal from furnaces, spiegel, cupolas, hydraulic cranes, 
blowing engines, etc. , all of good and modern types. A great deal of special 
low carbon steel is made for billets, etc., besides the usual rail steel. The 
rail mill comprises gas and coal-fired furnaces, a 36-inch 3-high blooming 
train, and a 24 inch rail train in two parts, each driven by a separate engine. 
The rail train is fed by an ingenious arrangement of troughs and tables, 
which i^ also used in the rolling of billets, which are made in the same train. 
After leaving the triin the billets are cut to lengths by a hydraulic shear 
which works with great rapidity, and dropped under a conveyor consisting 



280 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

of a cliain of rollers kept in motion by an engine. The billets thus travel 
at twice the speed of the rollers, and are carried several hundred yards to the 
rod mill, where they are automatically dumped in piles. Some 360 tons of 
4-inch billets have been rolled and conveyed in twelve hours. The rod mill 
is of the most modern Garrett tj^pe, and is turning out a large product, over 
5,000 tons of No. 5-rod having been rolled in a single month. There are two 
engines driving the sections of the train, and the mechanical details, includ- 
ing the reels, are of the first class. Very complete offices are accommodated 
in a handsome building of the limestone for which Joliet is famous, and an 
interesting and uncommon feature is the Athenaeum, a very completely 
appointed club house and library for the accommodation of the employes. 
This institution was built by the Joliet Steel Company before the consolida- 
tion, and affords to every employe, at a merely nominal charge, the advan- 
tages and conveniences of a first-class library and club. 

John H. Bass Car-wheel Warks. — Situated at Clark and Forty-seventh sts., 
on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad. The main foundry building is 
100x174 feet, and its daily capacity is 193 car wheels and ninety tons of other 
castings, which make an aggregate capacity of 150 tons. These works 
employ 400 men. The Chicago works form only a small part of Mr. Bass' 
iron-manufacturing enterprises. His Fort Wayne works, at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., 148 miles from Chicago, cover between twenty-five and thirty acres. 
The daily wheel capacity of the foundry is 700 car wheels. The total daily 
capacity of the foundry is 300 tons of car wheels and other castings. Other 
departments embraced in this plant are machine, boiler forge and mill- 
wright shops, all of which are in full operation. The Fort Wayne Iron 
Works, also owned by the same gentleman, comprise large foundry and 
machine shops. The total force of hands employed by him in Fort Wayne 
numbers about 1,500. At St. Louis, Mo., is still another plant, consisting of 
one foundry, 80x475 feet, and a second, 60x250 feet, having a daily capacity 
of 300 car wheels. The foundry capacity besides car wheels is 100 tons daily 
of general castings, or 175 tons in the aggregate. A machine shop is operated 
in connection with these foundries. The St. Louis works employ from 400 to 
500 men. Mr, Bass also owns an iron property consisting of 18,000 acres in 
Alabama, on which he operates a charcoal blast-furnace, manufacturing a 
large portion of wheel-iron. Other local manufacturers of cast-iron car wheels 
are the Union Foundry and Pullman Car-wheel Works, the Chicago Car- 
wheel Company, the Barnum-Richardson Manufacturing Company, the 
C. A. Treat Manufacturing Company, the Wells & French Company, and the 
United States Rolling Stock Company. 

Joseph Klicka. — Located at 114-116 South Jefferscn st. Established 1877. 
A great room and picture-frame molding manufactory. Employs about 100 
hands, and supplies dealers in nearly every State ard Territoiy in the coun- 
try. The mill is handsomely fitted up with ingenious machinery and is 
worthy of a visit. 

Reams & Ornu. — Located at 53 Michigan street. Manufacturers of the 
celebrated Kearns' Pop Safety Valve, the most sensitive, effective and dura- 
ble safety valve made. These valves are made of the best material and work- 
manship and under the direct supervision of skilled mechanics, thereby guard- 
ing against all ordinary defects of construction. They have a world-wide 
celebrity. 



THE EKCYCLOPEDIA. -^Oj 

Kurz Bros. & Buhrer. —Locs^ied at 822, 824, 826, 828 and 830 Austin 
avenue. Manufacturers of light gray iron castings. The buildings cover 120 by 
800 feet; capacity, 15 tons per day. There are 120 men employed. All kinds 
of agricultural, architectural and hardware castings are turned out here, and, 
besides, a large business is done in japanning and galvanizing. 

Lake Side Nail Company. — Situated at Hammond, Indiana. Take train 
atVaaiJuren Street depot, Van Buren and Sherman sts., or at Dearborn 
Station, Fourth ave. and Polk st. This company manufactures steel cut- 
nails exclusively. Their plant consists of two 3-ton Bessemer convert- 
ers, four Smith gas-heating furnaces, two trains of 22-inch rolls, and 101 nail 
machines. 

Lemont Stone Quarries.— \^\ien the County of Cook built the "old 
original Court-house" in 1851 and '53, it was decided by the people and the 
wise rulers of the county that there was no suitable stone material in the 
vicinity of Chicago for tlie purposes of permanent building. After looking 
the country over it was decided that Lockport, N. Y., furnished the most 
desirable and conveniently accessible material, and the stone for this building 
and the wall around it was actually transported over 500 miles. But the 
building growth of Chicago was not to beretarded for the want of durable 
and accessible cheap building material, and certain of her enterprising citi- 
zens, who had been connected, or were familiar, with the construction of the 
Illinois & Michigan canal, notably among whom being A. S. Sherman and Mr. 
H. M. Singer, still of this city, conclbded to open up the deposits of stone at 
Lemont, which the cutting through of the canal had developed. From these 
small beginnings has grown up oce of the largest, most important and pros- 
perous industries of the city. These quarries have not only contributed 
largely to the material growth of the city by furnishing an accessible build- 
ing stone for all purposes, from the foundation stone to the roof coping, 
besides flagging, curbing and rubble stone for sidewalk and street improve- 
ment, but coarser material for rip rap,from which the Government, the Illinois 
Central Railroad and all other breakwater works in this vicinitj'have drawn 
their supplies. The business increased to such an extent that in 1889 there 
were 7 large concerns engaged in quarrying and supplying stone for 
Chicago and the surrounding markets at Lemont, besides some 18 other 
companies at Joliet engaged to a greater or less extent in the same business. 
In October of that year a number of Chicago capitalists and business men 
conceived the idea of forming one large company which would concentrate 
the management of a number of these companies, thereby reducing the run- 
ning expenses to a minimum degree, and by centralizing the business and 
managementbe enabled to attend to the wants of the trade with more prompt- 
ness and dispatch and securing better results for the outlay of their capital 
and the exhausting of the quarries, which for various causes had beenlargely 
interfered with by unscrupulous competition and all its attending evils. So 
the Western Stone Company was 'formed, and acquired by purchase the 
property of six of the lars:e concerns at Lemont and Lockport, and is now 
actively engaged in operating all of the quarries, manufacturing and dressing 
all kinds of machine dressed and mill-work limestone. The company owns 
26 canal boats, seven steam canal barges and two steam tugs used in the 
transportation of their products from the qna'-ries to Chicago, besides ship- 
ping extensively by rail. They operate 10 steam stone planners and 17 gangs 
of saws in manufacturing flagging and sawing stone. AVith a practically 
inexhaustible supply of stone of convenient and easy access to Chicago by 



•282 GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

canal and rail, slie is to be congratulated that no fear of a famine in stone 
building material can ever retard her growth. 

Link-Belt Machine Company's Works. — Situated at Thirty-ninth street 
and Stewart avenue, the junction of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
railroad and the Stock Yards tracks. The Link-Belt Machinery Company 
manufacture approved appliance for handling any material in buik or pack- 
age, also special transmission machinery. The main factory is 4i0 feet long 
by 125 feet wide, three stories in height, and is equipped with all the latest 
improved machinery. The foundry is 288 feet long by 88 feet wide, and has a 
cupola capacity of 40 to 50 tons per day. Employment is given to about 350 
hands. The company have furnished some of the largest anthracite coal roads 
in the East with appliances for speedily handling coal at terminal points, 
furaished warehouses with specially designed elevators for handling barrels 
and other packages, and introduced rope transmission of power to cover long 
distances and to meet all kinds of special requirements. 

Lumber District. — Situated in the southwestern part of the city, from five 
and a half to seveu miles from the City Hall, along the south branch of the 
Chicago river. It maybe reached by Canalport ave,, Blue Island ave. or 
Sou.h Halsted st. cars. It extends from the south branch west beyond West- 
ern ave., and practically occupies all of the southern part of the territory 
covered by Western ave., Oakley ave., Leavitt St., Hoyne ave., Robeyst., 
Lincoln St., Honorest., Wood St., Paulinast., Ashland ave., Charlton st. and 
Loomis St. Here the visitor will find mile after mile of lumber yards laid 
out into streets and alleys, where thousands of men are constantly employed 
in " shoving" the boards as they are received from vessels in the river, or in 
loading them on to long lines of freight cars. Here, too, are to be seen some 
of the greatest sash, dof)r, blind and planing mills in the world. The lumber 
district is a district all to itself. Foreign labor of all kinds is employed here, 
but the Bohemians are in the majority. In the lumber season it is interesting 
to watch the unloading of vessels, to see how rapidly a cargo is discharged, 
and to notice with what skill the boards are piled in the yards. A number 
of serious riots have occurred from time to time in the " lumber district," 
the result of labor strikes. Of late, however, the laborers have quieted 
down. Building associaticms have grown up among them; many own their 
own homes, aiJ th3 conservatism which everywhere follows the possession 
of property is felt here. [For information concerning lumber trade of 
Chicago, see page 41.] 

L. Wolff Manufacturing Gomvany's Works. — The L. Wolff Manufactur- 
ing C )mpany have a large plant at Lake a id Jefferson streets, and also have 
an iron f sundry at Hoyne and Carroll avenues. The foundry is of peculiar 
conslraction, having ttie molding room in the second story. 

M. G. Bullock's Manufacturing Gompamfs Works. — Situated at 1170 W. 
Lake st. Take W. Lake sr,. cars. The M. C. Bullock Manufacturing Com- 
pi ly's Vorks cicipy at present a three-story brick building, L-shaped, with 
one side 60x165 feet and the other 55x66 feet, making a total floor space of 
40.59 ) squire f -^et. They contemplate additions in the near future of a foun- 
dry, 100x126 feet; an erecting shop, 122x126 feet, and a boiler shop, 80x120 
feet. Ground has been broken for a smith shop 57x69 and 24x47 feet. The 
hands employed during the pist year have ranged from 175 to 225 men and 
the plant has latterly been operated all nigrht to catch up with orders. The 
products consist of diamond-pointed rock drills, for prospecting and develop- 



THE EN'CYCLOPEDIA 283 

ing mineral lands, Lane's patent band friction hoisting machinery, rope haul- 
age machinery, Corliss and slide valve engines, Murphy Champion ventilators 
for mines and buildings, Cornish pumping plants, air compressors, ice and 
refrigerator machinery, etc. 

McGormick Harvesting Machine Company. — Cyrus H, McCormick, presi- 
dent; Eliridge M. Fowler, vice-president; E. K. Butler, general manager. 
Offices, 212 Market street; works, four miles southwest on the south branch 
of the Cbicago river, at the corner of Western and Blue Island avenues, 
accessible from the business center of the citj via Blue Island avenue street- 
car