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Full text of "Chicago Recreation Survey: Volume I: Public Recreation"

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The Chicago recreation 
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CHICAGO RECREATION SURVEY 

VOLUME I 
PUBLIC RECREATION 



THE CHICAGO 
RECREATION SURVEY 1937 

VOLUME I Public Recreation 



A project sponsored joititly by the 

Chicago Recreation Commission 

and 

Northwestern LTniversity 



by 

Arthur J. Todd 

Chairman 

Department of Sociology and Anthropology 

Northwestern University 

In collaboration vyith 

William F. Byron 

Chairman 

Division of Social Work. 

Northwestern LTniversity 

Howard L. \'ierow 

Director 

Chicago Recreation Sur\ey 



Conducted under auspices 

of the II i_,r;[l|c 

Works Progress Administration l'cCn:N. 

National Youth Administration CNI^^A. 

Illinois Emergency Relief Commission 



CHICAGO 

1937 



CHICAGO RECREATION COMMISSION 



l)i-. Philip L. Scmaii, Chairman 



Miss Grace Abbott 
Mr. James P. AUman 
Mrs. Charles W. Balch 
Mr. Clifford W. Barnes 
Mr. Claude A. Barnett 
Miss Jessie F. Binford 
Mr. V. K. Brown 
Mr. A\-ery Brundage 
Prof. Ernest W. Burgess 
Mr. William J. Campbell 
Dr. Henry T. Chamberlain 
Mr. Henry P. Chandler 
Mr. Walter J. Cummings 
Mr. Rufus C. Dawes 
Mrs. William F. Dummer 
Mr. S. J. Duncan-Clark 
Mr. George W. Fleming 
Dr. Philip Fox 
Rev. Ralph A. Gallagher 
Mr. Edward J. Geiger 
Dr. Charles W. Gilkey 
Dr. Robert B. Harshe 
Hon. Bryan Hartnett 
Mrs. Albion L. Headburg 
Mrs. W. H. Hermsdorf 



Mr. Edward E. 



Dr. Robert M. Hutchins 
Mr. Alexander Jackson 
Dr. William H. Johnson 
Mr. Victor Kleber 
Hon. Arthur G. Lindell 
Mr. William J. Lynch 
Hon. John P. McGoorty 
Hon. Michael F. Mulcahy 
Miss Agnes Nestor 
Very Rev. Michael J. O'Connell 
Mr. Peter J. Peel 
Mrs. Isadore Portis 
Mrs. M. L. Purvin 
Mr. Wilfred S. Reynolds 
Dr. Walter Dill Scott 
Mr. Leonard L. Serdiuk 
Most Rev. B. J. Shell 
Dr. Frederick L. Stock 
Miss Lea D. Taylor 
Prof. Arthur J. Todd 
Miss Harriet E. Vittum 
'. Mr. Arch Ward 

Mrs. Eva T. Wells 

Rev. Samuel Knox Wilson 

Mr. Walter W^right 

Burchard, Exccuti\'e Secretary 



Prof. Arthur 
Mr. y. K. Brown 



Reireatioii Sludy CoiiiDi'utee 
Podd, Chaii'man 



Prof. Ernest W. Burgess 
Dr. Henr\' T. Chamberlain 



\'erv Rev. M. J. O'Connell 



Mary Gleason 
} lelen R\aii 
^^'inston Parks 



Sei't'ioii Fiends uj Survey Sldjj 



Charles Ortis 
John Vierow 
Millard Titus 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



lAC.K 

Introduction x 

PART I.— PLANNING AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF 
PUBLIC RECREATION 

I. Planning Metropolitan Recreation 2 

II. A History of Public Recreation in Chicago 17 

Introduction 17 

Beginning of Chicago J^arks ij 

Origin of Chicago's Playgrounds 19 

Inauguration of Public School Recreation 20 

Creation of the Chicago Public Library 21 

Rise of Small Parks and Independent Park Districts 22 

Special Park Commission of 1899 22 

Development of Park Communitv Centers 22 

Cook County Forest Preserve Commission 23 

Chicago Plan of 1908 24 

Consolidation Act of 1934 25 

PART II.— ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS OF 
PUBLIC RECREATION 

Introduction 28 

III. Legal Aspects of Public Recreation 30 

General 30 

Chicago Public Library 30 

Cook County Forest Preserves 33 

State Forests 37 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 37 

Bureau of Recreation of the Board of Education 39 

Chicago Park District 40 

Chicago Exposition Authority 47 

Summar\' 41) 

I\'. Financial Aspects 50 

General 50 

Emergency Funds 51 

Taxation 51 

Gifts and Land Dedications 53 

Fees and Charges 53 

Budgets 54 

Taxation in Chicago 55 

Limitations in Taxing Pdwers 53 

Assessed \'aluation 50 

Total Tax Levies 56 

Bonds 58 

Chicago Public Library 59 

Forest Preserve District of Cook CnuiUy 61 

Board of Education 63 

Bureau of Parks. Recrcatirm and .\vintion 6.1 

Chicago Park District 65 

Valuation of Public Recreation Plant and l''.(|uipment (xi 

V. Management 71 

General 71 

Board of Education Playgrounds 71 

Bureau of Parks. Recreation and .\viatinn 72 

Cook Cf lunty Forest Preserves 74 

Chicago Public Librarv 75 

Chicago Park District 76 

PART III.— PUBLIC RECRE.ATION FACILITIFS .\ND PR(^GRAMS 

Introduction <¥> 

VI. Parks and Playgrounds 93 

Introduction 03 



• 7924L 



PAGE 

Standards for Parks Playgrounds 93 

Chicago Parks 97 

Summarization of Park Control in Chicago 98 

Park Classifications According to Chicago Park District 98 

Large Parks 98 

Neighborhood Parks 98 

Minor Parks 99 

Baby Parks 99 

Parkways 99 

Extent of Parks 100 

Active Recreational Facilities Located in Parks 103 

Types of Play Facilities Included in Parks 103 

Playgrounds 104 

Playfields 104 

Athletic F'ields 104 

Neighborhood Parks 104 

Distribution of Active Recreation Facilities 104 

Chicago Park District 104 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 108 

Board of Education 109 

Summary 1 10 

Private Organizations Using Facilities in Chicago Park District ... 113 
Distribution of Recreational Facilities Among the Parks, Play- 
grounds, Athletic Fields and Community Centers 114 

Chicago Park District 114 

Board of Education 115 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 116 

Summary of Total Public Recreational Facilities within City of 

Chicago 116 

Programs 117 

Board of Education 118 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 120 

Chicago Park District 121 

VIL Public School Facilities 124 

Introduction 124 

Sites 125 

Gymnasiums 127 

Assembly Halls 128 

Sw'imming Pools 128 

Showers and Dressing Rooms 128 

Miscellaneous 129 

Board of Education of the City of Giicago 129 

Attendance 130 

Administration 130 

Community Centers 131 

Cost of Use of Facilities 132 

Sites 134 

Gymnasiums 137 

Swimming Pools 139 

Showers 139 

Play Rooms 139 

Miscellaneous Recreation Equipment 140 

VIII. Museums 141 

Introduction 141 

Field Museum of Natural History 143 

Museum of Science and Industry 145 

Chicago Academy of Sciences 146 

Chicago Historical .Society 148 

Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum 149 

John G. Shedd Aquarium 150 

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens 151 

Chicago Zoological Park 152 

Forest Preserve Trailside Museum 153 



PAGE 

Chicago Park District Conservatories 154 

Garfield Park Conservatory 154 

Lincoln Park Conservatory 155 

Outdoor Garden Features icc 

Miscellaneous Activities 155 

Art Institute 156 

Giicago Park District Art Galleries 158 

John H. \'anderpoel Memorial Art Gallery 158 

Garfield Park Art Gallery 159 

IX. State and County Forest Preservks 160 

General 160 

National Parks and Forests 160 

State Parks 161 

County Parks 162 

Cook County Forest Preserves 162 

Introduction 162 

Control 163 

Management 163 

Finance 163 

Growth of District 163 

Administrative Areas 165 

Attendance 165 

Private Organizations Using Forest Preserve Properties 166 

Concessions Operated on Forest Preserve Properties 167 

Special Structures 173 



Dams 



173 



Monuments and Memorial Boulders 173 

Flag Poles 174 

Game Herds 174 

Bird Sanctuaries 174 

Detailed Analysis of Facilities 175 

X. Golf and Tennis Facilities 190 

Golf Facilities 190 

General 190 

Operation 191 

Appropriations 191 

Attendance 192 

Tournaments or Special Events 192 

Detailed Description of Golf Courses 192 

Tennis Facilities 195 

Public Tennis Courts in Chicago 196 

Administration 196 

Financial 196 

Attendance 196 

Program 197 

Summary of Tennis Courts 197 

Tennis Clubs 198 

XI. Swimming Facilities, Lacoons a.vd Harbors 199 

General 199 

Financial 199 

Sanitation 199 

Life Guards 199 

Attendance 200 

Natatoriums 200 

Chicago Park District 200 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and .Xvialion 201 

Details of all Facilities 201 

Board of Education Swimming b'acilities 202 

Outdoor Swimming Pools 203 

Chicago Park District 203 

Cook County Forest Preserve District I'aciiities 204 



PACK 

Beaches 205 

Chicago Park District 206 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviatimi 206 

Forest Preserves 206 

Details of All Facilities 206 

T-agoons 209 

Introduction 209 

Program 209 

Boating 210 

Harhors 210 

Park District Harbors 211 

Chicago Unrhor Small Craft Anchorage 212 

Boat Gubs 213 

Lincoln Park Canoe Club 213 

junior Yacht Clubs 213 

"Model Yacht Basin 214 

XII. Chicago Public Library 216 

General 216 

Chicago Public Library 217 

Control 217 

Financial 217 

Personnel 217 

Library Phm 218 

Valuation of Plant and Equipment 219 

Plan of Operation 219 

Detailed Analysis of Facilities 226 

Requirements for Use 221 

Books 221 

Card Holders 222 

Circulation 223 

Special Departments 224 

Schedule 225 

XIII. Miscellaneous Recreational Facilities 231 

Public Baths 231 

Armories in the Citv of Chicago 235 

Navy Pier 242 

Municipal Airport 244 

Boulevards 244 

Bridle Paths 246 

Humboldt Park Bicycle Bowl 249 

Grant Park Band Shell 249 

Soldier Field 250 

Burnham Park Lagoon Open Air Theater 251 

Buckingham Memorial Fountain 251 

Index 253 



LIST OF CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS 

Figure Opposite 

number Page 

1. Growth of Chicago Parks and Playgrounds 1840-1934 24 

2. Number of Acres of City Area to one Acre of Parks 24 

3. Population Per Acre of Chicago Parks 1840-1934 25 

4. Legal Authority for Public Recreation in Chicago 48 

5. The Position of Tax-Supported Recreation Agencies in Local Govern- 

ment in Chicago 49 

6. Assessed Valuation of Taxable Property in Chicago 

Total Taxes Collectible within City of Chicago 54 

7. Relationship of Annual Tax Levy to Assessed Valuation 55 



^'>»''' Opposite 

number p^gg 

8. Funds Designated in Tax Levy r6 

9. Distribution of $icx). Chicago Taxes 1920-23 5^ 

10-11-12. Distribution of $100. Chicago Taxes 1924-35 58 

13. Funds Designated in Tax Levy for I'ublic Library 59 

14. Founds Designated in Tax Lev_\- for Forest Preserves 59 

15. Funds Designated in Tax Levy fof Schools 64 

lb. Funds Designated in Tax Levy for Parks 64 

17. Chicago Park District Corporate Appropriation 1937 63 

18. Organization Chart, Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 74 

19. Organization Charts, Chicago i'ark District 78 

20. Organization Charts, Chicago Park District 70 

21. Organization Charts, Chicago Park System 80 

22. Organization Charts, Chicago Park District 8x 

23. Plat Plans of Several Cliicago Parks 105 

24. Sites, Amundsen and Coudy Schools 137 



LIST OF iMAPS SHOWING POPULATION 

Opposite 
Page 

Map No. I All ages 16 

Map No. 2 Under 5 years 68 

Map No. 3 5 to 9 years 96 

Map No. 4 10 to 14 years 140 

Map No. 5 15 to 10 years 13S 

Map No. 17 to 20 years 174 

Map No. 7 21 to 29 years igy 

Map No. 8 30 to 40 years 214 

Map No. 9 45 to 04 years 224 

Map No. 10 (35 and over 250 



LIST OF xMAPS SHOWING FACILITIES 

Properties Controlled by Tax-Suppurted Recreation — Lducation Agencies.... 92 

Distribution of Facilities Chicago Park District 98 

Development of Lake Front i'arks 99 

Distribution of Supervised Playgrounds 104 

Bureau of Parks Recreation and Aviation Distrilnition of bacililicb ioi> 

Distribution of Chicago Park District Field Houses 109 

Distribution of I'ubhc Playgrounds 1 10 

Chicago Board of Education Distribution of Facilities 130 

Distribution of Museums 152 

Public Recreation Facilities in Loop District 153 

Cook County Forest Preserves 104 

Distribution of Golf Courses 194 

Distribution of Tennis Courts 195 

Distribution of Swimming Facilities 200 

Distribution of Board of Lducation Swimming i'ools 201 

Distribution of Chicago Park District Swimming Pools 20O 

Distribution of Beaches 207 

Distribution of Lagoons and Harbors 210 

Distribution of Natatoriunis 211 

Distribution of Facilities Chicago Public Library 19K) 218 

Distribution of Facilities Chicago Public Library 1937 219 

Distribution of Bath 1 louses 232 

Distribution of Armories 233 

Chicago Park District r.oulevard Sv^tem 246 

Distribution of Bridle Paths 247 



INTRODUCTION 



In the earJy part of 1934 certain members of 
the staff of the Civil Works Administration of Il- 
linois approached members of the Department of 
Sociology and Anthropology at Northwestern 
University with a view to undertaking a state- 
wide recreational survey for Illinois. Originally, 
under the Civil Works Administration, a state 
planning board was set up to lay out a broad 
scheme of state planning in Illinois, as a part of 
national planning. It was proposed to prepare 
tentative plans for land use and transportation, a 
ten-year program of public works, direction of 
state planning toward increasing economic secur- 
ity, wise development of physical resources and 
the establishment of sound social institutions. The 
chairman of this commission announced to the 
press that, specifically, the commission's program 
was to consist of ten main surveys, including gen- 
eral and statistical data, zoning and local plan- 
ning, state institutions, stream sanitation, mineral 
resources, agricultural problems, transportation, 
public works, and out-door recreation. For what- 
ever reason, but primarily, no doubt, because of 
the constant shifting of policies and personnel, 
the recreation element in this program soon 
dropped out of sight. At that point the Civil 
Works Administration turned to the University 
to fill in this gap. Several drafts of a plan for the 
state-wide recreational survey were submitted. 
The final draft called for "a comprehensive state- 
wide survey of all public, private and commercial 
recreation in Illinois, organizations, programs, 
facilities, participants. . . . This includes all tax- 
suported agencies, educational institutions, re- 
ligious organizations, industry, settlements, semi- 
public organizations, all types of commercial 
recreation, social clubs, civic organizations, etc., 
with specific emphasis being placed on programs 
and what organizations are doing rather than 
merely recording numbers of institutions in a 
community." 

It was originally planned that Civil Works Ad- 
ministration employees would conduct all of the 
actual investigational work. Because of restricted 
finances, it was necesssary to limit the size of the 



staff and to place upon local, county and town 
agencies the responsibility for self-administering 
the survey within their own limits, and to provide 
funds only for a central technical staff. Fortunate- 
ly, the Illinois Conference of Parent-Teachers 
Associations approved the project, and undertook 
responsibility for making these local and district 
surveys. Questionnaires and survey forms were 
prepared by the central staff, local committees 
were organized, and the questionnaires sent out. 
Approximately half the counties returned these 
schedules. Before the project could be completed, 
the suspension of the Civil Works Administration 
program and a wholesale overhauling of policy 
and personnel at the Relief Commission pulled 
up the whole plan by its roots; but the schedules, 
so far as they were in shape, were turned over to 
the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission staff 
to guide them in administering programs, par- 
ticularly in rural counties. Along with what was 
called in the project a quick preliminary recon- 
naissance as a basis for the actual working out of 
the larger aspects of the project, a parallel project 
was laid out which was denominated a "highly 
detailed survey of the recreation facilities and re- 
sources of Cook County itself." 

In 1934 this plan for a Cook County recrea- 
tional survey was drafted and submitted to the 
Civil Works Administration. It set up a survey 
committee composed of members of the Depart- 
ment of Sociology and Anthropology at North- 
western University, a survey director, an advisory 
committee and local co-operating committees. 
The plan was presented to the voluntary advisory 
committee, to the Chicago City Club and other 
interested groups. The Civil Works Administra- 
tion granted funds to the amount of twelve thou- 
sand dollars to provide for a staff of one hundred 
and fifty untrained work relief people. For the 
preliminary spade work of the project over sixty 
of these people were put through a brief inten- 
sive training course. Many delays and further 
shifts of policy held back work on the project. 
Because of a ruling that only a tax-supported 
agency could sponsor such projects, a tenuous and 



more or less nominal sponsorship was secured 
from the State Library Commission, located at the 
state capital one hundred and fifty miles from 
Chicago. Some progress, however, was made; 
schedules were drafted and tried out by sampling. 
Within two weeks the Civil Works Administra- 
tion suddenly passed out of the picture, and the 
Illinois Emergency Relief Commission took over 
its activities. Since this survey was classified as a 
work relief and not a research project, it fell 
under the rule that ninety per cent of the per- 
sonnel must be relief clients. This left only a 
handful of non-relief trained investigators. 

However unsatisfactory the progress in the 
survey was to those conducting it, it at least made 
sufficient headway so that when in the middle of 
the summer of 1934 further shifts in relief policy 
occurred, it was possible to transfer official spon- 
sorship of the survey to the newly created Chicago 
Recreation Commission. The members of this 
commission were appointed during the summer, 
and began work actively about the end of August. 

The project was completely redrafted and re- 
submitted to the Relief Commission. It called for 
one hundred investigators, five editorial workers, 
ten research workers, two draftsmen and one 
statistician. Many technicalities and re-submis- 
sions were encountered, but at last the wheels be- 
gan to turn. It was necessary to retrain a con- 
siderable part of the staff which, because of the 
delays, had been disorganized. Out of a total of 
one hundred and fifty, all but four were on a 
budgetary basis with a monthly average of ten 
days works assignment; some of the workers had 
been absorbed into regular jobs, others had asked 
for other assignments because they were tired of 
waiting for this project to de\'elop. But the staff 
was finally organized into crews which attacked 
the various sections of the survey schedule. 

By the middle of February, 1935, a consider- 
able part of the basic community data had been 
gathered and one section of the report was in pre- 
liminary draft form. But just before the first 
of March relief appropriations were drastically 
cut; and finally all funds were cut off on April 
21. It was necessary, therefore, to suspend further 
data gathering and all other operations until an 
extension of the project made it possible to get 
under way again June 15. With various ups and 



downs, work on the survey trudged along 
through the summer with a staff averaging twenty 
people. 

But before long all of these local work projects 
were terminated by the elimination of the local 
relief administration work program, which was 
succeeded by the Works Progress Administration 
more or less in co-operation with the National 
Youth Administration. The whole project was 
suddenly brought to a standstill by this complete 
withdrawal of support from the Illinois Emerg- 
ency Relief Commission. It was necessary hastily 
to redraft the project and submit it to the Works 
Progress Administration. Further delays during 
September, October and November occurred. 
Early in November by special request of the 
Works Progress Administration, we redrafted and 
re-submitted the project, which in this form 
called for the completion of the Chicago survey 
and also an expansion of it at certain points to in- 
clude aspects and agencies of recreation not con- 
templated in the original project, such as an 
e\'aIuation of the nearly eight million dollars ap- 
propriated for the Works Progress Administra- 
tion, Emergency Education Program and Chicago 
Leisure Time Service recreational and educational 
projects in the Chicago area. Later, these 
projects had to be newly broken down and re- 
drafted to bring about some measure of integra- 
tion of policy between the planning authorities 
in Washington and the administrative authorities 
in Chicago. As a temporary measure the National 
Youth Administration appropriated a considerable 
fund, and allotted both trained staff and partially 
skilled field investigators to forward the study 
before the basic data gathered too much moss. 

In May, 1936, the redrafted project, shorn of 
all but its recreational survey objectives, was 
hiiLilly appro\ed and launched again; but the 
requirement that not more than ten per cent of 
the workers on the project could be from non- 
relief sources seriously handicapped this under- 
taking, as it did most other distinctly research 
projects. Progress of completing schedules and 
working up the materials was very slow, because 
so large a share of supervisor)' time and talent 
must be spent in keeping untrained personnel busy 
and reasonably productive. The National "^'outh 
Administration furnished draftsmen and other 
skilled workers also and a multilith machine 



which made possible preparation and printing of 
many maps and charts not only for the final re- 
port but also for special use, for example, at the 
extensive exhibit during Youth Week. 

But again in October, 1936, came another al- 
most total shut-down until the project could be re- 
authorized and refinanced. With special help from 
the Works Progress Administration and the Rec- 
reation Commission, it was possible to keep a skele- 
ton of the staif during this interval of reconsidera- 
tion and until final approval in January, 1937. 

The set-up of the survey staff has included 
field investigators, interviewers, draftsmen, 
photographers, clerks and editors furnished from 
the Works Progress Administration and National 
Youth Administration rolls. The staff has ranged 
from eleven to a maximum total of two hundred 
and fifty-six; but at no time has it been possible 
to secure more than approximately ten per cent 
of non-relief skilled people for technical and 
supervisory administration and direction, and us- 
ually this percentage has run considerably below 
the allowable limit. Research under such con- 
ditions is made almost indescribably difficult; 
nevertheless, by great patience, persistence, and 
genuine self-sacrifice the staff has brought its task 
to relative completion. This modest term is used 
because of full realization that a survey of a great 
metropolitan area in full bluum must necessarily 
be something in the nature of a perpetual in- 
ventory, never a finished product. It must be 
taken as a "still" rather than as a moving picture. 

The general outlines of this survey do not dif- 
fer materially from those drawn by Burgess in his 
less extensive survey of Chicago in 1926, or from 
such undertakings as the Buffalo recreation survey 
in 1928. It differs considerably from Lundberg's 
leisure survey of Westchester County, New 
York; or from certain aspects of the Merseyside 
survey of Liverpool, England. No attempt is 
made to utilize questionnaires covering the recrea- 
tional choices or interests of individuals. As 
phrased in the statement submitted to the Illinois 
Emergency Relief Commission, it proposed "a 
comprehensive study of all public, private and 
commercial recreational facilities and leisure time 
opportunities as a phase of community life, with 
consideration of their social implications." In 
"social implications" were included the relations 
of the recreational set-up to population, housing, 



commerce and industry, transportation, health 
and accidents, crime and delinquency. 

It was made clear at the very beginning that 
the mandate for this survey included three con- 
siderations which must be carefully kept apart: 
first, straight fact finding, gathering of basic data; 
second, conclusions and implications; third, 
recommendations. This mandate has been strict- 
ly followed. Hence, the first volumes of the 
printed report will contain only facts and find- 
ings, those products of ordinary research pro- 
cedures attained by questionnaires, tabulations, 
statistics, historical records, reports, statutes and 
ordinances, and comparative analysis. From these 
facts and findings are to be derived whatever 
recommendations as to public policy the staff 
direction together with the Survey Study Com- 
mittee and the Chicago Recreation Commission 
find it possible to give out. These will appear in 
the final volumes. 

Incidentally, it may be worth while to record 
that in the very process of making the survey 
many facts and procedures have been put at the 
disposal of both public and private agencies in 
Chicago. For example, maps never before avail- 
able have been made and furnished to the gov- 
ernmental bodies. Standard base community 
maps have been corrected and brought up to date. 
Data have been shared with the editor of the 
Leisure Time Directory, the Police Department 
for its Recreation Institutes, the Council of Social 
Agencies, the University of Chicago and other 
agencies. On many occasions sections of the study 
have been presented to audiences in the Chicago 
area interested in civic affairs. This is extremely 
important, because all too often surveys have been 
made at great cost of time and money only to be 
filed away to gather dust in some library or public 
office. It is to be hoped that this survey in which 
various governmental agencies. Northwestern 
University and the staff have made so large an in- 
vestment will have a commensurate circulation 
and reading. To this end the data are being pre- 
sented in two forms: first, for the city as a whole 
(Volumes I-III); second, by a break-down into 
the seventy-five community areas into which Chi- 
cago is commonly divided (Volume IV). More- 
over, liberal use of maps, diagrams, charts, photo- 
graphs and other visual aids is designed to yeast 
the text. 



It was ine\'itable that such a study should be 
urged to include qualitative judgments upon such 
matters as regulation of taverns or the effective- 
ness of the Chicago parks and playgrounds. It 
was equally necessary that the survey restrict it- 
self primarily to quantitative measurements, al- 
lowing the facts and findings to speak for them- 
seh^es. Such qualitative judgments are very 
delicate matters, compatible only with highly ex- 
pert staffs, vast expenditures, and other conditions 
unrealizable under the set-up of this project. 

The survey represents the co-operation of four 
bodies; namely, (i) Northwestern University, 
initiator of the project and later co-sponsor; with 
(2) the Chicago Recreation Commission, which 
has recently accepted sponsorage for all recreation 
projects operating in the Chicago area; (3) the 
Works Progress Administration; and {4) the 
National Youth Administration. Northwestern 
University has from the beginning provided the 
technical and editorial service, and for most of the 
life of the project has provided space, supplies 
and other essentials. The Recreation Commission 
has provided sponsorage, funds for publication, 
and many supplies, incidental expenses and ser\'- 
ices particularly vital in the periods when the 
project was being held up while federal admin- 
istration was undergoing change. The Works 
Progress Administration has provided the funds 
for most of the labor and supplies. The National 
Youth Administration has provided some essen- 
tial personnel and equipment of extraordinary 
value in certain emergencies. The president of 
the University appointed an official advisory 
committee consisting of Professors William F. 
Byron, Ernest R. Mowrer, Neva L. Boyd, Elmo 
P. Hohman, Leon C. Kranz, Garrett H. Lever- 



ton, Murray H. Leiffer, Francis C. Rosecrance, 
and Glen C. Bainum to assist the survey 
staff in its work. The Recreation Commission 
appointed a Survey Study Committee con- 
sisting originally of three members (but after 
two years enlarged to five) to advise partic- 
ularly on recommendations.* Under the 
present organization of the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration the executi\-c director of the survey, 
Mr. H. L. Vierow, is an assistant to the director 
of recreation projects in the Chicago district. So 
much for the machinery involved. 

At this point the editor of this survey desires 
to express appreciation of the co-operation of vari- 
ous administrative officers in public and private 
agencies of Chicago without which it could not 
have been brought to completion. Mr. W. F. 
Reynolds and Mr. Leo Lyons of the Illinois 
Emergency Relief Commission; Mrs. Mary 
Moon, Mr. H. K. Seltzer, and Miss Wilda 
Sawyer of the Works Progress Administration; 
Mr. William J. Campbell, State Director of the 
National Youth Administration; and Mr. Fred- 
erick Rex, Reference Librarian of the Municipal 
Reference Library have been particularly helpful. 
Mr. Victor Kleber, of the Mayor's office, Mr. 
Edward L. Burchard, Executive Secretary of the 
Recreation Commission, and Mr. Harry Wells 
and others of the Business Office of Northwestern 
University have jumped in to aid the project at 
\arious critical junctures. To my colleagues, par- 
ticularly Professor Neva Boyd, and Professor W. 
L. Bailey, credit must be recorded for technical 
ad^•ice in laying out procedures, preparing sched- 
ules, and evaluating data. To the whole hard- 
working sur\e\' staff is due grateful recognition. 

Arthur J. Todd 



*The Secretary of the Commission has by re- 
quest prepared the following statement as to the 
organization and functions of the Commission: 

The Chicago Recreation Commission was ap- 
pointed by Mayor Edward J- Kelly in March, 
1934, to act as a clearing house for information 
on recreation in Chicago, and as an advisory body 
on city planning of recreation. More than fort\- 
of the leading citizens of Chicago representing the 
educational, social, cultural, civic and business in- 
terests of the city accepted appointment on the 
Commission. Many other persons in related edu- 
cational and recreational agencies have aided in 
the deliberations of the Commission. 



In its advisory capacity the Commission con- 
siders in detail the recreational plans that are pre- 
sented to it by the Mayor, or by other persons 
or groups and formulates an opinion on them. It 
does not itself carry out such projects, but where 
advisable refers them to the recreational agency 
best fitted to handle them. 

As a co-ordinating body, it has brought about 
closer working relationships Iietween various pub- 
lic and private recreation agencies, both centrally 
and in the local communities as well as between 
federal emergency recreation projects of many 
kinds. 



In its informational work, it both sponsors the 
gathering and distributing of facts about Chi- 
cago's recreational facilities, as in the survey 
and itself gathers and distributes such informa- 
tion, in smaller degree, in its bulletins, reports, 
and directories, published at the Commission of- 
fice. 

Among its major activities in the past two and 
one-half years besides the Recreation Survey that 
will service all of them have been: 

(i) The Police Institutes of 1935 and 1936, 
in the course of which some ninety educational 
and recreational leaders delivered lectures to four 
thousand city police officers on the use of super- 
vised recreation in prevention of juvenile delin- 
quency. There developed from the discussions 
that followed a closer relationship between the 
police and the parks, schools, and social agencies. 
Under the Police Institute Committee eight 
lectures prepared by similar leaders were Incorpo- 
rated in the 1937 Police Training School course. 

(2) The Organization of Vacant Lot Clear- 
ance for Play Uses, by which a system has been 
set up for the investigating, clearing, and listing 
of nearly one thousand lots for neighborhood 
play spaces. The Commission office maintains a 
registry of all cleared lots and the agency or 
group making use of each lot cleared by the 
Works Progress Administration Demolition 
Project. 

(3) Co-operation with District Recreation 
Committees, which over five hundred local com- 
munity leaders including professional and lay 
recreation workers have organized in some thirty- 
two districts of Chicago to discuss and act upon 
their community recreation problems. The Com- 
mission has provided these groups with various 
services and has helped to clear information on 
activities from one group to another. 

(4) Federal Housing Co-operation: Through 
its committee on Housing Area Relationships, 
the Commission has made recommendations to 
the Federal Housing authorities modifying plans 
so as to make more adequate provision for recrea- 
tion, with more open spaces. 

(5) Sponsorship of Recreation Training In- 
stitutes, in which three hundred and seventy-eight 
recreation workers, including many park di- 
rectors and administrators went back to school for 
a four-week course conducted by the National 
Recreation Association. 

(6) Publications: Twenty thousand copies of 
Leisure Time Directory, listing recreational fa- 
cilities by the seventy-five Chicago communities 



were distributed in 1935 and 1936 to the police, 
to recreational and educational workers, and to 
social workers. The 1937 edition of seven thou- 
sand copies is now being distributed. One hundred 
thousand copies of "Recreation in Chicago," 
thirty-two page illustrated booklet of the city's 
leisure time attractions, were published in 1935 
and 1936 and distributed by railroads, hotels, the 
Association of Commerce and the Commission and 
the Mayor's Offices. Mimeographed bulletins are 
distributed also from time to time. 

(7) Wider Use of the School Plant: As a re- 
sult of a demand by the District Recreation Com- 
mittees for the community use of the schools after 
day school classes, a committee of the Commission 
studied the situation for several months, made 
recommendations to the proper officials, and is 
now advising the Recreation Committees as to the 
possibility of operating community centers with 
community support. 

(8) Sponsorship of Recreation Projects: In ad- 
dition to the Survey Project, the Commission has 
sponsored during 1935 and 1936 the following 
Projects: The Chicago Leisure Time Service, 
active in sixty to seventy private agencies; the 
Chicago Probation Recreation Project, instituted 
by the United States Children's Bureau to study 
the value of supervised recreation as a preven- 
tive of juvenile delinquency; the Shelters Recrea- 
tion Project providing recreation for nearly one 
thousand non-family men; and the Tours Proj- 
ect, now part of the Adult Education Program; 
the Commission now sponsors the City-wide Rec- 
reation Project, which includes all the recreation 
projects in Chicago. 

(9) Evaluation of Permanent Values of Rec- 
reation Projects: A study is being made by a com- 
mittee of the Commission to determine what por- 
tions of the present Federal Emergency Recrea- 
tion Programs can be carried on after the emer- 
gency measures are eventually closed down. 

(10) Annual Recreation Conferences: Once 
a year the Commission brings together represen- 
tatives of all recreation agencies, public and pri- 
vate, and many lay organizations and individuals 
interested in recreation to discuss in the course of 
an afternoon and evening conference their joint 
problems, and to become better acquainted with 
each other's work. 

(11) Recreation Information Service: A ref- 
erence file on recreation has been built up at the 
Commission office, and information on all types 
of recreation is daily requested and given through 
correspondence, telephone calls, and personal 
interviews. 



PARI I 

PLANNING AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS 

OK 

PUBLIC RECREATION 



CHAPTER 1 



PLANNING METROPOLITAN RECREATION =^= 



One of the mobt ^ignihcant de\elopmc!Us of 
modern conimunit\- and ci\ ic life ha^ been the 
increase of facilities for recreation. In the United 
States this has been \'ery largely a recent matter 
— a development since 1900. It is a movement 
still therefore in its infancy. Recreation in gen- 
eral has bect)nie a rapidh' increasing part of life, 
and forms of recreation, other than public, have 
attained gigantic proportions. Correspondingly 
elaborate facilities ha\e been pro\idcd. 

.\t the turn of the century, just before and after 
1900, recreation won nation-wide recognition as 
a cardinal aspect of community life, ranking along 
with education, religion and social welfare. So 
far commercial and pri\ ate forms ha\'e dominateci 
the held. The federal, state and municipal 
go\'ernments ha\'e recently expanded their activi- 
ties, and public reci-eation may be expected to 
become a principal form (jf civic development and 
municipal progress. 

But public pro\'ision for recreation is a rela- 
tively slight activity of government as such to- 
day. Indeed, it is mostly a function of municipal 
government. A marked \ariation in per capita 
Costs for recreation service, ranging from two 
cents to $2.83 for the year 1934, is shown in 
a repoi't on the costs of recreation ser\-ice of 94 
cities ha\ing a population of o\er 100,000 by 
Director William I,. Austin, Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce. The aver- 
age per capita expenditure on operation and 
maintenance of recreation was $1.49, which was 
2.7 per cent of the total expenditures for opera- 
tion and maintenance of all general departments. 
Chicago was ahead of the average, having spent 
$1.73 per capita, or 4.S per cent (jf total expen- 
ditures. 

The development of school recreation is by 
long odds the chief :^'^pcct of public recreation. 
It has recently been extended far beyond the 
mere mattei' of physical recreation and education 
into the cultural realm, and has come to involve 



the parents anci homes of the school population. 
I'lxtendeci to the secondary schools and to the 
institutions — private and public — of higher learn- 
ing, it has further involved the general public 
on a vast and growing scale. This is particularly 
true of American universities where sports and 
student activities are prominent. 

The increase of facilities for recreation is an 
indirect continuation of the democratic tradition 
of the modern communitv'. The city-for-its-peo- 
ple is climaxing in the provision — increasingly 
public — of recreation, adding this to many other 
earlier phases of regard for general welfare, such 
as home ownership, piublic schools, extensions of 
public health ser^^ices, public charities, and pub- 
lic libraries. 

Leisure is latterly being socialized, and is no 
longer the exclusive monopoly of any class. The 
right to reasonable leisure is now universalized. 
There is, to be sure, a great difference between 
persons and classes as to the amount of that 
leisure, some lives being those of long drudgery 
and others of all too conspicuous idleness and 
diversions. But in general, recreation for every- 
body is an American ideal and almost a standard. 
A sound democratic theory and consequent plan- 
ning for recreation will therefore manifest two 
main phases: first, to further the increase of 
leisure for those who have too little; second, to 
pro\'ide facilities such as to make available and 
accessible to all kinds of people a wholesome and 
constructive i:se of leisure time. 

A recreati(jn plan and program must accord- 
inglv' be a part of general community and civic 
progress. It cannot otherwise be sound or suc- 
cessful. There are many aspects of community 
life which must develop step by step with recre- 
ation. 

Increased leisure for almost all is a direct re- 
sult (jf the reduction of hours of labor; and now 



♦Written specially for this study by Professor William 
T.. Bailey. Northwestern University and Mr. Eugene S. 
Taylor, Manapcr Chicago City Plan Commission. 



probably it is the arrangements for the construc- 
tive use of that leisure rather than any large addi- 
tion to it which is the major problem; this 
in\'olves \ital interests of industry and business, 
the home and social agencies. But there has not 
been an increase in public recreational provisions 
corresponding to the increase in the leisure time 
of all classes of people. Commercial and private 
agencies, however, have largely availed them- 
selves of tlie situation. 

More money has been spent on amusements 
and recreation in the past generation than in any 
previous generation, because the wage earner is 
paid more in wages, due to the increased efficiency 
of machine production. The American worker 
spends approximately onc-fiftli of his income on 
ha\-ing a good time. I-arge masses of tlie peo- 
ple who worked ten and twel\-e hours daily a 
generation ago, work six and seven hours today. 
They have on their hands an increased margin of 
leisure time, much of which is used for recreation. 

Due to the widespread popular demand for 
diversion, commercial recreation flourishes as a 
major American industry. A considerable number 
of wage earners are engaged directly or indirectly 
in supplying the public demand. To get away 
from the confinement of office or factory routine, 
urban man turns to the automobile, the motion 
picture, and the radio, each of which represents 
a billion dollar enterprise. 

"Contcniporar\- enjoyments ai'e i,listinguished 
from those of past times bv theii" numliei", di\er- 
sitv, mass aspects, organizations anci passi\'it\'," 
writes Laurence Martin in Tlie Co!iiinn)i Mmi's 
E)!Jn\i)ieiifs. ''At no time has there been a ci\'il- 
ization that offered such a profusion p.nd such a 
\-ariet\- of appreciati\e contacts; yet underlying 
this number and \-ariety is a devastating sameness. 
The variety is based upon things, and not upon 
spiritual attitudes." 

"The industrial revolution," the author con- 
tinues, "has ncjwhere had profounder conse- 
quences than in the held of enjo\-ments. The 
machine has di\-orced enjo\-ment from produc 
tion. Naturalh' the common man hastened to 
use his increased margin of leisure to noui-i^h \\\> 
star\-ed appreciative faculties. Hut he lacked the 
education, the culture, the discipline, of a leisure 
class. Endowed with leisure time he was help- 
less, 'and he had no inner source to lIimw upon. 



Mere again the machine and the machine organ- 
ization of society stepped m. .\s it hacd isolated 
work and made of it a highly productive drudg- 
ery, now it isolated enjoyment and made it a 
highly i)rganized commodity, purchasable b\- 
those whose drudgery brought sufficient reward." 

The result of this increased leisure of the aver- 
age man will be good or bad for the community, 
and its go\-ernment, according as the public — 
s )cial or ci\ic — provides for control and direction 
of it. l'"oi- recreation is quite uni(iue as an aspect 
of life and, e\-en mom than work, can be ciestruc- 
tive or constructiv'e for the individual and the 
comniLuiity. The leading educational problem of 
the future will be, according to Pound, in The 
Iron Mail III Iiidustyx, not so much vocational as 
axocational education; that is, teaching the cor- 
rect use of leisure. 

So far American labor organizations themselves 
have done little as compared with employers to 
make constructive use of this leisure. In Europe, 
the unions have done much more, and local gov- 
ernments have recognized how economical and 
efficient for all concerned would be public jirovi- 
sion of essential recreational services. 

That is to say, recreation is now increasingly 
i-egarded as a serious business. It is not regarded 
seriously in the vein of the Puritanic attitudes of 
a generation or two ago, but in a more positive 
wa\- as of immense value for all phases of social 
welfai-e. The uinversal recognition of this has 
been evidenced by a growing body of legislation 
and administi-ati\-e expansion for public recrea- 
tion, and control of non-public forms. Recrea- 
tion has by now become in all its v'arious forms 
— direct and indirect — a major item of local gov- 
ernmental activity and expenditure. 

Notable has been the social legislation relative 
to children and woinen in industry, and also to 
the provision of recreation for school children; 
likewise legislation, general and local, looking to 
the removal of traditional taboos on recreation, 
for example, regarding Sabbath observance, thea- 
ters, dancing, boxing, billiards, gambling, liquor 
atid the like. 

Doubtless the Puritans, dead and alive, have 
left us a precious heritage in the idea that recrea- 
tion, publicly, privately or commercially pro- 
vided, nuist be whole-;ome. The churches and 
the social agencies have felt this problem, and 



much of their action has been to prevent recrea- 
tion from dropping to the solely frivolous or vul- 
gar or \'icious, by pro\iding it themselves, or by 
fostering such organizations as the Young Men's 
Christian Association, the "I'cjung Women's 
Christian Association, the Boy Scouts, the Girl 
Scouts, the Catholic Youth Organization, and 
young people's societies of a great variety; hence 
we witness a great expansion of the social and 
recreational work of religious bodies, settlements 
and neighborhood houses. 

This, howe\'er, has not been sufficient, in view 
of the relatively' slight support of such organiza- 
tions in community life today; thcrefijre go\'ern- 
ment has quite recently stepped into the breach. 
This prompted a leading expert, Lee F. Hanmer, 
to write, "The unwholesome character of certain 
types of commercial recreation, their alliance with 
organized crime and \ice, and their tendency to 
contribute to ju\'enile delinquency, ha\e caused 
a widespread popular agitation, which has re- 
sulted in varying forms of governmental regula- 
tion. The basis of such regulation is usually a 
system of licensing and inspection, which in addi- 
tion to restricting admissions, applies to physical 
conditions, including sanitation, ventilation, fire 
hazards and safety of buildings, and to the types 
of offering and the general conduct of the enter- 
prise. In most communities this control is exer- 
cised through local municipal ordinances, al- 
though in some states there are laws governing 
amusements anci public exhibitions. Occasionalh' 
a government goes even further than supervision 
and makes an effort to suppress commercial 
amusements which violate the social code or are 
considered a menace to public morals." 

This is in line with general experience that 
government has always found it necessary to in- 
tervene in pri\'ate business when tlie welfare of 
the community was in\'ol\'ed. 

Some of the I'epressions and taboos of the older 
day still persist, howe\er; iriLlustry and cit\- life- 
conditions provide ugly and harsh en\'ironments 
for childhood and youth and f(jr the ;KluIt; de- 
linquency, criminality, and many psychiatric 
problems result. Almost hysterica! has been the 
latter-day demand for amusement and recreation 
going far beyond the realm of the wholesome. 
.Sports and amusements have become a major item 
(if the budsjet of ihe nation's li\ini;. And e\ en 



before pathological conditions result, there are 
\ast problems associated with health, fatigue, and 
general conduct, which are of great importance to 
the community, to business, and to social agencies 
nf all kinds. 

And this is quite as much a matter for the 
classes as for the masses. Moreover, there are 
many forms of recreation which no individual or 
group or class can provide for itself, but which 
must be provided for the community. The com- 
munity and civic pro\'ision of a well-roundeci 
recreation system is (;f concern to the rich as well 
as to the poor. This is true of parks, drives, 
beaches, museums, libraries, auditoriums and sta- 
diums, and many other forms. 

Hence recreation as a leading community anci 
ci\ic problem developed from recognition of the 
effects of the industrial city upon childhood and 
youth. The recreation mo^'ement and the mo\'e- 
ment for the establishment of juvenile courts 
came about the same time. For the beginnings 
of the efforts to establish small playgrounds ap- 
peared between 1805 ^"d 1900, while the first 
iu\'enile Courts began in 1899. In bv)th these 
niiA'ements Chicago was a pioneer, for here was 
opened the first juA'enile court in 1899, and here 
too Jane Adciams at Hull-House experimented 
with the first small playground. This experi- 
ment proved prophetic. The first municipally 
provided social and community recreation centers 
in the world were the ten South Park fieldhouses 
in 1904. The Juvenile Protective Association, 
organized in 1909, was an other Hull-House by- 
product, and a pioneer for the saving of young 
people from exploitation by commercial amuse- 
ments. The Chicago Crime Commission and the 
Institute for Juvenile Research have pioneered 
in the study of the de\'elopment of the criminal 
em'ironment and youth. In other studies, too, 
Chicago agencies and individuals have led in ex- 
posing the relations of crime and recreation or 
lack of it; most notably the local community stu- 
dies of the University of Chicago. 

The connection between adult crime and vice, 
anci recreation and amusement is not so direct but 
none the less vital, as police and prison records 
show. But it is not a matter of dealing with social 
pathologies alone which sanctions recreation on 
an enlarged scale. The Americanization of immi- 
gi-ants through school playgrounds, public parks, 



beaches, stadiums, and settlements, and through 
commercial amusements liice baseball and other 
sports is recognized. Better family and ht)mc 
life may be facilitated by pla\'; the automobile, 
the radio, and various games ser\'e as antidotes 
against family disorganization. Industrial rela- 
tions may also be greatly improved thereby. 

It may be set down then as fact that the prin- 
ciples of the modern theory of recreation in a 
metropolitan community are now clearly and 
widely recognized in general thinking, in law, 
and in actual administrative practice. It must be 
said, however, that the movement as a whole is 
rather miscellaneous and inchoate, as might be 
expected from a phase of community and ci\ic 
life which has undergone such a transformation 
as has recreation. Probably no other aspect of 
life today has experienced such a change. 

A summary of community recreation in 1935, 
including both regular and emergency service, 
reveals the following significant facts as to equip- 
ment and personnel:^ 

Number of cities with play leadership or 

supervised facilities -5-04 

Total number of separate play areas 

reported 1 8,799 

(This figure includes outdoor playgrounds, 

recreation buildings, indoor recreation centers, 

play streets, athletic fields, bathing beaches, golf 

courses and summer camps.) 

New play areas opened in 1935 for the 

first time i;790 

Total number of play areas and special facili- 
ties reported: 

Outdoor playgrounds 9)650 

Recreation buildings 1,149 

Indoor recreation centers .... 4,949 

Play streets 179 

Archer}' ranges 199 

Athletic fields 1,818 

Baseball diamonds 4ii97 

Bathing beaches 605 

Bowling greens 189 

Golf courses 336 

Handball courts i,4-6 

Horseshoe coiuts 7^407 

Ice skating areas -i3-4 

Shuffle board courts St,t, 

Ski jumps 136 

Softball diamonds 7,696 

Stadiums 145 

(') The figures for Chicago will be found infra Chapter \l. 



Summer camps 113 

Swimming pools 1,098 

Tennis courts 9,880 

Toboggan slides 315 

Wading pools i)-9- 

Total number of employed 

recreation leaders 43,976 

Total number of leaders 

employed full time year 

round 2,6o6 

Total number of \-olunteer 

leaders 10,346 

Total expenditures for public 

recreation $37,472,409.54 

A comparison of the facilities in 1925 with 

1935 reveals: 

Number of cities with ''-^"^' '^-^^ 

employed recreation 

leaders 748 2,606 

Number of 

volunteer leaders I7)'77 43)976 

Cities with training 

institutes 115 219 

Total expenditures $18,816,165 $37,472,409 
Playgrounds under 

leadership 5,i2i 9,650 

Indoor centers under 

leadership 1,6 13 4)949 

Recreation buildings 265 i,i49 

Baseball diamonds -,831 4)^97 

Bathing beaches 273 605 

Gold courses 153 336 

Ice skating areas 1,217 -)3-4 

.Swimming pools 534 i)098 

Tennis courts 6,110 9,880 

Wading pools 629 i)292 

In this general de\'elopment, Chicago ranks as 
progrcssi\e in public and general recreation. But 
she has been notable for achiex'ement rather than 
fnr systematic study of the problem. Until the 
inception of this present sur\ey, there had been 
no compreheiisi\-e study of the whole recreational 
situation as ;i basis for planning. Ten years ago 
there wei'c in Chicago o\er sixt\' communit)' cen- 
ter buildings in operation; indeed, no other city 
has so many e\"en now. Ne\ertheless, the recre- 
ation minement, particularly on its communit\' 
:uid ci\ic sides, public or semi-public, could be 
said to ha\'e been only well launched, but b\- no 
means under steam, oi- full-steam. 

The communit)' organization is basica!l\- re- 
sponsible. The indi\idual is now wideh' recog- 
nized to be quite largch' what environing condi- 
tions make him, and this is verj- true of recrca- 



tional opportunity and facilities. And it is not 
a matter of tlic inipo\cnslicd masses alone. Even 
for the relatively well-to-do classes there is a 
social and public problem of recreation. There 
are major facilities of recreation which can only 
be pro\-ided publicly. This field, howe\-er, has 
been enterei-1 into only in a comparatively limited 
way in this country, notably with parks, boule- 
vards, school playgrounds, but is being rapicily 
expanded into pro\ision of play spaces, sport 
grounds and stadiums, and even into cultural in- 
terests in fieldhouses and centers. It has only 
slightly entered the fields of the arts. And it has 
in the main been regarded as primarily a matter 
of the child and youth and the less privileged. 

City and community planning in the form of 
zoning and of city and regional planning is an 
e\'en mijre recent de\'elopment than public recre- 
ation. Today, (jiily a small fraction of all Amer- 
ican cities are planned in general, or even zoned. 
With the exception of Idaho, Montana and South 
Dakota, every state in the Union had one or more 
official municipal planning commissions on Jan- 
uary I, 1933, according to a bulletin issued by the 
division of Building anci Housing of the United 
States Bureau of Standards. The total number of 
commissions, including one in the District of 
Columbia, was 806, a net loss of 22 during 1932, 
for although 45 new commissions were formed, 
67 went out of existence. Massachusetts led the 
list with 119 commissions. New York followed 
with 118. California had an even lOO; Ohio, 79; 
Pennsylvania, 52; Illinois, 41. 

The following table will indicate the extent of 
municipal planning commissions: 

Number 
of 
Number Com- 
Qf munities 

Population Group Com- with Per 

numities Com- Cent 

missions 

Over 100,000 93 81 87 

2j,ooo to 100,000 .... 283 162 57 

10,000 to 25,000 606 208 34 

5,000 to 10,000 851 135 16 

"Besides 806 municipal planning commissions," 
the Ne--j: Iiitenidtioiial Yearbook states, "there 
were on January i, 1933, 59 official regional 
planning commissions of which 46 were county 
organizations. Twenty states were represented. 
Of these, California had 26 regional commissions, 



of which 25 represented counties; New York had 
12, Illinois (., and New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
5 each." 

Howc\"er, the laying out of town-sites and the 
planning of city subdivisions have been going on 
continuousU', and American communities have 
attained certain characteristic forms and patterns 
which evidence practical planning, and certain 
theories liaxe de\'eloped concerning the nature, 
form and function of communities and their com- 
ponent parts — their streets, blocks, lots, squares, 
and parks. 

Also, public education and the public school 
have been conceived and realized as essential ele- 
ments of community life. Home ownership of 
single houses with yards, became and for long 
continued to be characteristic of the American 
communit}'. The small town had plenty of room 
to expand and park spaces were left open for pub- 
lic use. The vast majority of American com- 
munities appeared and developed along small 
town lines, embodying American conceptions of 
community and ci\'ic life. But what might be 
called "formal" or deliberate planning is a mat- 
ter of the last generation in the United States. 

From the beginning, the laying out of towns 
and cities in this country, whether in New Eng- 
lanci, the old South, or the Spanish Southwest, 
followed various European traditions, as colonial 
settlers usually do.' (^ur few cities which had a 
colonial existence, retain, in the case of the larger 
ones, certain European features. One thinks of 
Dutch New York, Quaker Philadelphia, French 
New Orleans and Williamsburg. Even our na- 
tional capitol, planned Washington, was a copy 
of European arrangements, widely copied by 
Detroit, Buffalo, Madison and Indianapolis. 

The rectangular gridiron design, however, be- 
came dominant, e\'en when altered by radiating 
roads from the original small center. It was 
early and largely embociied in Philadelphia and 
New York, and later in Chicago. This design, 
well established by the middle of the nineteenth 
century, was democratic in spirit. The grid was 
little differentiated. Streets were wider, blocks 
smaller and lots larger than was traditional. Pub- 
lic parks, as distinct from mere squares, did not 

'In making tliis general statement the writer is quite aware 
lit sncli apparent exceptions as Oglethorp's Savannah, Augusta 
and Brunswick, Georgia. 



appear until the middle uf the nineteenth cen~ 
tur\'. Central Park, New "iork City, established 
in 1856, was a pioneer landscape park. It was 
more than a quarter of a century later that buule- 
\-ards or parkways became at all common. The 
lake front drives and parks of Chicagc) of recent 
years, the Fairmont Parkway of central Philadel- 
phia, are landmarks in this respect. The county 
park development is climaxing in the New York 
Westchester Park system, and the vast Skokie 
X'alley dex'elopment under construction through 
federal auspices northwest of Chicago. 

City planning in the United States began in the 
1890's with the innovation of the "city beautiful" 
idea. The Chicago Columbian Exp(;sition or 
World's Fair of 1893 was a landmark in this de- 
velopment. This impetus culminated in the 
Burnham Plan for Chicago, completed in 1908, 
and resulted in the organization of a City Plan 
Commission a few years later. This Chicago plan 
became the chief city planning development in 
this country since the planning of the national 
capitol in Washington, D. C. Jules Guerin, a 
French artist, drew the pictures, which are unique 
in ci\'ic art, showing how Chicago might look if 
adequately planned. Chicago was a city in the 
making, and was considered as a logical place in 
which to experiment with municipal and regional 
planning. San Francisco followed with ct.impre- 
hensive plans. 

For the most part, planning was de\oted to 
civic center plans, and these appeared in CIe\e- 
land, Buffalo and other cities. New ci\'ic cen- 
ters have latterly been planned by Den\-er, and 
St. Louis. The planning of Washington, to be 
the finest capitol in the world, was resumed under 
a special commission in 1902, and Daniel Hud- 
son Burnham, of Chicago, re\'ised and extended 
the original L'Enfant Plan of almost a century 
pre\'ious. This could be described as ci\'ic center 
planning and city beautiful designing also. 

But far more common and important than de- 
liberate planning has been the piecemeal plan- 
ning of cities by zoning ordinances. This began 
about 191 5, when scarcely a half dozen cities were 
zoned; yet the idea spread \-ery rapidly so that 
in ten \ears a hundred times as man\' cnmrnunities 
were thus planned. This, howe\er, applied 
largely to architectural de\-elopment — the control 
of use, height, and density of building — but was 



based on a theory and plan as to the best func- 
tional nature of ditTerent parts of cities. Ameri- 
can ideals of community development are re- 
flected in typical zoning ordinances. 

1 he park systems are the oldest units in pub- 
lic pri)\ision for outdoor recreation. New York 
and other Eastern cities, with rapidly growing pop- 
ulations and expanding development, began to 
recognize corresponding need for provision for 
open parks. In some cases, private gifts for park 
spaces supplemented the public provision. Chi- 
cago's park and boulevard system of the late 
i88o's was a landmark in this development, al- 
though chartered in 1869, for Chicago capped the 
climax at that time in growth of population and 
in extensi\'eness of area.' Right down to 1900 
the creation of large cit)' parks went on apace; no 
city of any size was without some provision. As 
noted above, the extent differed greatly. The 
large park had become a standard pro\'ision of the 
American city. 

Then in the i88o's, Boston pioneered a sys- 
tem of metropolitan parks and boulevards, and 
Essex County, New Jersey, and New York de- 
\eloped notable systems. City, county and state 
co-operated to provide large areas beyond the city 
limits. Here again Chicago pioneered and in 
1 9 1 6 established the Forest Preserves of Cook 
Count}-. This was followed in later years by the 
nation's most extensive system of improved high- 
ways in the metropolitan region and throughout 
the state. 

This had its effect on the newer ideals of city 
and regional planning in the last twenty years for 
such features were incorporated in the plans. De- 
troit's notable pro\ision of Belle Isle Park and 
the great country parks of Los Angeles were out- 
standing cases. 

After 1910, the suburban trend led to tiie de- 
\elopment of main' suburban communities in 
which these s\stematic ideas of public pro\'ision 
for recreation, especial h' in parks and play- 
grounds, were incorporated. The English Gar- 
den City furnished the inspiration for most of 
this, but the generally spacious character of the 
common suburb — a dozen fold as extensive per 
jiopulation unit as the central cities — was even 
more important as a community characteristic of 
recreational significance. 



'For details set- infra. Cli.ipter II. 



By this time, many cities acquired properties 
outside their limits loi- municipal summer camps. 
These developments again have led to the pro- 
\ision of improved highways to make such acces- 
sible. And the automobile and motoiing ha\e 
become maior duersions. I'his again has led t.) 
the de\elopment of state parks, far outside the 
cities and metropolitan regions m districts of 
scenic or historic impoi'tancc. 

The most elaborate project of this kind was the 
work of the New York State Commission on 
Housing and Regional Planning and its consid- 
eration of state planning as a whole. This in- 
volved the whole situation including such matters 
as "giant power," co-ordination of natural re- 
sources and industrial distribution, co-ordinated 
systems of highways and other transportation, a 
system of state parks, and thus some control of the 
processes of metropolitan congestion and the 
suburban trend. 

Even the federal government actively entered 
the field, although it had long been providing 
national parks. The National Conference on 
Outdoor Recreation of 1924 was a landmark, con- 
sidering ''the encouragement of outdoor recre- 
ation as a federal function; the constitutional or 
legal authority for federal participation; the bear- 
ing of outdoor recreation on mental, physical, 
social and moral de\-e!opment; outdoor recreation 
as an influence on child welfare; the wild life re- 
sources of the United States; and withal the ma- 
jor possibilities of national co-operation in the 
promotion of recreation." 

The Federal Department of Labor also during 
the World War and since was empowered to study 
the recreational needs of industrial workers and 
the response of the workers to efforts of employ- 
ers to provide recreational facilities for them. Lat- 
terly and currently, the \'arious emergency ad- 
ministrations have actively entered into the 
recreational phase of relief. In the Chicago 
region, the most notable instance of such work 
has been the vast Skokie I'ark reclamation on the 
North Shore. 

Li this constantly expanding development of 
provision for open spaces for cities and metropol- 
itan populations, the traditional idea of parks has 
been maintained. The far greater proportion has 
been of large park spaces, with a strong tendency 



to procui'e outlying areas. There has been re- 
lati\ely little attempt to secure small parks and 
playgrounds, and almost none at all to modify 
the traditional American arrangements of streets, 
blocks, alleys and lots. This latter, however, as 
above indicated, has in a sense "parked" the 
residence ciistricts generally. This has been 
through a city beautiful idea rather than one that 
was conducive to recreation. 

There has been in recent residential develop- 
ment some teiiciency to eliminate the alley and 
make better use of the back yard of the home; to 
front the house on the side or back of the lot; and 
in a few cases here and there to consolidate the 
back yards into a neighborhood green and play 
space. The development in such a community as 
Radburn, near New York, and in a few other iso- 
lated cases, provides such built-in recreation for 
neighborhoods. 

Organizations active in the study or carrying 
out of a program of public recreation may be 
classified according to their scope. Some are 
national, some state-wide, some regional and some 
local. Nationally there are the National Recre- 
ation Association, the Russell Sage Foundation and 
other similar agencies, the National Resources 
Board, the Federal Housing Project, and the 
recreational aspect of the Emergency program, 
which includes the federal theater, music and art 
projects. The State maintains parks and high- 
way's, and has made a recent study of recreation. 
The Chicago Regional Planning Association 
stuciies Chicago and its suburbs, the Chicago 
metropolitan area, and attempts to co-ordinate the 
acti\ities within and outside the city limits. Local- 
ly there is the Chicago Recreation Commission 
and the Chicago Plan Commission, which has 
been a pioneer in constructive measures of city 
plamiing for almost thirty years. The purpose 
and activities of these organizations will be con- 
sidered separately. 

On June 30, 1934, the National Resources 
Board, composed of the Secretary of the Interior, 
Secretar}' of Agriculture, and the Administrator 
of Federal Emergency Relief, was established. 
The new board represented a consolidation of 
previously existing agencies and was successor to. 
the National Planning Board and the Committee 
on National Land Problems. The board made a 
report on national planning and public works in 



relation to national resources on December r, 
1934, which according to a letter by Secretary of 
the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, to the President, 
November 28, 1934, was "the first attempt in our 
national history to make an inventor)- of our 
national assets and the problems relating thereto." 

The National Resources Board Report 
stressed three things: "The necessity and value of 
co-ordinating our national and local policies, in- 
stead of allowing them to drift apart, or pull 
against each other, with disastrous effects; the 
value of looking forward in national life; and the 
value of basing plans upon the most competent 
analysis of the facts." 

In the section on land planning, the following 
findings and recommendations were made with 
reference to public recreation in the United 
States: "(a) That municipalities be urged to pro- 
vide a minimum of one acre for recreation to each 
100 persons, (b) That states be urged to develop 
state park systems based upon comprehensive sur- 
veys, (c) That the federal government's responsi- 
bility is chiefly to preserve superlative examples 
of scener\', historical and archeological sites of 
national importance, and prime\'al areas, (d) 
That the federal government should co-operate 
with the states in making an inventory of historic 
sites and in establishing a central agency for the 
selection and preservation of historic monuments, 
(e) That the large recreational use of highwaj's 
calls for more attention to roadsides and park- 
ways." 

The report further stated that "cities, counties, 
states, and even the federal government, have 
entered the field of planning for outdoor recre- 
ation in metropolitan districts without developing 
any definite standards or di\"isi(wi of responsibil- 
ities. Planning for metropolitan area recreation 
should be on a unified basis." Suggestions on the 
development of the nation's recreational resources 
were made from the point of view of the city, the 
county, the metropolitan recreation area, the state 
and the federal government. 

Cities. "Because of the high concentration of 
the population of the United States in urban cnm- 
munities, the chief burden of year-round recre- 
ation service must fall upon the municipal parks. 
The best utilization of lands and waters within 



and near the boundaries of cities is therefore high- 
ly important." 

Counties. "The total area of county parks in 
the United States in 1930 exceeded iOO,000 
acres. More than half of the total acreage in 
county parks in the United States is in counties 
of the metropolitan regions of New York and 
Chicago." Cook County rates high in this respect. 

Metropolitan recreation areas. "The objective 
of metropolitan park planning is to secure 
recreational ureas that are accessible for frequent 
use by the people of the district." 

Stales. "There are 3,701,125 acres of state 
parks in the United States." Illinois has less than 
10,000 acres of state parks, which is far below the 
average. 

Federal Government. "The National Park 
Service administers 24 national parks, i na- 
tional historical park, 1 1 national military parks, 
67 national monuments, 10 battlefield sites, 11 
national cemeteries, and 4 miscellaneous national 
memorials, involving in all a total of 15,247,388 
acres. 

"The National Forest Service gives a great 
deal of attention to the recreational use of forest 
land and has specified different types of forest 
areas for recreation purposes. It administers 160 
million acres of national forests in 33 states, a 
large part of which has great recreational possi- 
bilities which the Service is anxious to make 
a\'ailable for public use." 

The federal government in planning its hous- 
ing projects throughout the country took into 
consideration housing studies that had been made 
in recent years, and proposed to make those 
projects as ideal for li\'ing purposes as was practi- 
cally possible. The purpose of the housing 
projects was to educate the povert\-stricken up 
to an American standard of living rather than to 
push them away into congested neighborhoods. 
\\'ith a little planning, a slum district could be re- 
claimed and transferred into a desirable place to 
li\e. Provisions for adequate outdoor garden and 
recreation space constituted an important part of 
this program. Buildings are constructed on not 
more than one-fourth of the land in these housing 
projects so that the majority of the area can be 
landscaped or turned into small parks or play- 
grounds. The first national public housing 
project to go into operation in the Ignited States 



was dedicated in Atlanta, Georgia, on Septem- 
ber I, 1936, with one group of the 604 units of 
Techwood Homes already occupied. 

Three housing projects are under construction 
in Chicago by the Housing l.)i\ision of the 
Federal Emergenc\- Administration of Public 
Works. They are the Jane Addams Housing 
Project, the Trumbull Park Homes and the 
Julia C. Lathrop Homes. The acquisition of a 
site for a fourth project between 37th and 39th 
Streets and South Parkway and Cottage Grove 
Avenue is now well advanceci. 

The Julia C. Lathrop Homes project, locateci 
on the north side at Di\ersey Parkway and Cly- 
bourn Avenue, is the largest of the three projects 
now under construction. It will contain 925 living 
units, or homes for 3,700 persons. The site of 
the Julia C. Lathrop Lkimes contains JS ^icres. 
The buildings will occupy a total of seven acres 
and the other 28 acres will be appropriately land- 
scaped and used for open air recreation spaces, 
gardens, promenades, driveways and parks. Ex- 
tending as it does along the banks of the river, 
the site is peculiarly susceptible to attractive archi- 
tectural treatment. The problem of cleaning up 
the north branch of the Chicago River and con- 
verting it into a clear stream of water will have 
to be solved if the parkways along shores are to 
be made desirable places for children to play. 

The Jane Addams Housing project will con- 
tain 304 family living units, of two, three, four 
and five rooms, consisting of three-story apart- 
ment buildings and two-story group houses. They 
will occupy the six-acre tract of land bounded by 
Cabrini Place, Lytle, Taylor and Sibley Streets, 
just south of Vernon Park, that formerly belonged 
to the Jewish People's Listitute. The buildings 
themselves will cover not more than one-fourth 
of the area. The remainder of it will be left 
open; a part of it will be planted with trees, 
shrubber\- anci grass; and parts will be i'eser\-ed 
for playgrounds and gardens. It will accommo- 
date a total of 981 families, or, assuming an 
average of four to a family, nearly 4,000 persons 
— a small city in itself. To complete this de- 
velopment, and to insure propei" surroundings, 
the government has purchased some 15 acres of 
adjoining pi-operty. The old buildings are being- 
demolished and tile land will be used for ad- 
ditional apartments and group houses, similar in 



arrangement to that of the Jane Addams houses, 
except that there will be more open spaces for 
parks and recreational purposes. 

The Trumbull Park Homes, located in South 
Chicago immediatel}' west of Bensley A\-enue and 
extending south from Lyman Trumbull Park to 
109th Street, are the third federal housing 
project under construction in Chicago. I he site 
will contain 20.9 acres of land, with buildings 
occupying about four acres. The remainder of the 
land will be left open, planted with trees, shrub- 
bery and grass to make an attractive setting for 
the building, with ample space for recreational 
and other uses. As there are no public streets 
in the area, cliildren will be free from traffic 
perils. 

One of the features of the project plan is a 
grass covered mall, with a stage to be used for 
outdoor theatrical or musical performances. The 
mall is depressed so that it may be flooded and 
used for ice skating in winter. Another feature 
is a wide promenade leading from the 107th 
Street and Bensley Avenue entrance across the 
project and swinging north to 105th Street. This 
development will accommodate a total of 462 
families, or about 1,800 persons. 

Although space has been set aside for play- 
grounds and small parks or garciens in connection 
with the three housing projects, no provisions 
have as \et been made for placing equipment 
on the play space, or for having trained leaders 
to conduct a recreation program, "i'et these must 
be recognized as essential parts of planning in 
the fullest sense.' In each of the buildings, there 
will be recreation rooms for the use of occupants, 
but how they will be furnished has not yet been 
determined. In the Jane Addams project, for 
example, an area of 125 by 130 feet acdjoining 
the Jacob Riis school has been left open for play 
space. 

Illinois cities, including Chicago, kept pace with 
(jther sections of the country, especially in zoning, 
but Illinois lagged behind the older urbanized 
states of Massachusetts, Pennsyh'ania and New 
York in planning. 

A large part of this de\'elopment came along 

'Perhaps it is siiijcrfluuiis to add that it is almost a truism 
to say that merely to provide recreational space and equipment 
will not solve the recreation problem. Without adequate sup- 
ervision and leadership, play spaces may become plague spots, 
even breeders of delinquency and the other difficulties which 
wholesome recreation is designed to prevent. 



10 



with the spread of the commission form and city 
manager plans of city government. Combined 
with this administrative progress was the recog- 
nition by the courts of the broader scope of 
municipal acti\ities. Municipal ownership and 
control were being extended. For recreation this 
included recognition of public administration of 
parks, baths, schools, libraries, museums, skating 
rinks, municipal entertainments and fireworks. 

The number of completely planned cities or 
towns is small as indicated by Nolen's Ne'x 
Towns for Old, and planning has been almost 
wholly confined to small residential suburbs or to 
"model" industrial towns. It has followed much 
the same lines as the Garden City movement 
abroad. More surveys have been made, and inore 
civic plans and city beautiful ideas have been put 
down on paper than have been translated into 
actuality. 

As a matter of fact, city planning as such, apart 
from the phases indicated above, has been much 
less constructive and hopeful of actual achieve- 
ments than regional planning for the suburbs. 
The plans for great metropolitan regions like 
those for New York, Washington, Philadelphia, 
Buffalo, Niagara region and Chicago can be 
realized more readily than those for the cities 
proper. These regional plans include notable pro- 
vision for public recreation. Most of Chicago's 
recreation space lies outside the city limits, and 
the forest preserves which encircle the metropoli- 
tan area may be likened to a green oasis around a 
desert of slums and skyscrapers.* 

When it is realized how \ita!ly the problem 
of recreational pro\'ision is dependent on matters 
of housing, zoning, traffic and the like, it will be 
seen how closely planning developments in gener- 
al are associated with progress in recreation. 

Local planning progress has also been 
furthered by the extension t)f state planning laws; 
a more favorable attitude of courts toward zoning 
and planning projects; and the active interest of 
the federal government at Washington, be- 
ginning with the work of the Department of 
Commerce in the furtherance of zoning standards 

'It is recxignizcd tliat the 6,000 park and playground acres 
inside the city of Chicago bear the l>urdcn of tlic daily and 
intense nse which makes them mean most to the recreational 
life and habit of the people. The problem of recreation for a 
city is not that of remote areas but of intimate, close in and 
accessible ones, plus their service meanings, their leadership, 
their impact on community life. 



thnjughout the country. Also it will be realized 
that architectural developments in great terminals, 
industrial and office buildings, and in new housing 
operations are directly related to recreation. 

F.\en the recent movement for planning the 
growth of cities and regions has been limited 
largely to the de\elopment of land for building 
and matters of traffic. The idea of civic design 
has entered only in a limited way into the con- 
ception of the city, or the region as a whole, and 
even then principally in civic center design. But 
for the most part, planning has been for separate 
units; that is, largely structural, architectural, and 
hardly at all sociological. 

That recreation enters into municipal planning 
at least in a limited and secondary way is evi- 
denced by the statement of Thomas Adams, a 
leading American city-planner. "The general 
object of planning," he holds, "is to influence the 
orderly, healthy and efficient development of 
communities. In particular, the aim of the plan 
should be to secure (a) a wholesome and reason- 
ably spacious layout of the sites and surroundings 
of dwellings; {h) a well-balanced distribution of 
all buildings and open spaces, and of building 
bulks and uses of buildings in relation to street 
areas; (c) the order!)' development and archi- 
tectural treatment of private and public build- 
ings; (d) adequate systems of streets and high- 
ways to permit free circulation of traffic, and of 
efficient transit and transportation services, and 
terminals; (e) ample areas for all purposes of 
recreation; and (i) suitable land and water ap- 
proaches to the cit\'."' 

Planning in practice has tended to emphasize 
one or more of these objects. Seldom has it com- 
prehended all of them. However, the provision 
for park and open spaces has from the first been 
a common element in city plans in this country. 

In 1932, 1 larxard Uni\ersity conducted an in- 
quiry into the amounts of land used and needed 
for \ari(His purposes by t\pical American cities. 
The study was based on fifteen cities in the United 
States. Parks occupied an average of four per 
cent of the total area of these cities, and for the 
total dexx-lojicd area around the cities, parks 
occupied 6.'; per cent of the total. 

'The reader is referred to later chapters in this volume for 
evidence that personnel, supervision and programs are included 
as absolute essentials in describing, planning and administering 
a coninuuiitv's recreation. 



A standard was established, although it was 
found that few cities had sufficient park and play- 
ground area to meet the standard. According to 
Urban Land Vsrs, by Harland Bartholomew, 
"Park officials ha\e stated freciuentl)- that the de- 
sirable ratio of park and playground space 
population and city area is one acre for each 
100 persons and about ten per cent of the total 
cit\' area. These standards ha\-e been put forth 
with one important (]ualihcation — namely, that 
this area be about equally distributed among all 
sections of the cit\' rather than concentrated in 
one or se\'eral large holcfings." The same author 
continues, "The ratios of park and playground 
areas to both total city and total developed area 
increase directly with the city's increase in popu- 
lation. To some extent this may be due to an 
increased recognition of social responsibility, with 
the increased size of the city. It is bad economic 
policy, however, to wait until a city becomes large 
before adequate park and playground areas are 
acquired." 

The planned provision of dwellings has been 
perhaps the most neglected aspect of metropolitan 
planning, largely perhaps because of the general 
spaciousness of American communities, se\'eral 
times as extensive for corresponding population as 
European cities, and constantly increasing in pro- 
portion. Following the war, there was a rapid 
development of apartment building construction, 
which brought the matter of housing into the 
forefront of planning. The recent emergency has 
still furthered this crowding into small quarters, 
because the raising of rent anci inflation of land 
values have dri\'en the family into smaller and 
less desirable living quarters. The bearing of 
these facts on recreation planning, though obvious 
enough to the sociologist, has not always been 
grasped by the average citizen or |iublic official. 

Most of the city planning is really replanniny, 
and only of parts, of already existing cides. Or it 
is the planning of relatively small and slightly 
developed suburban districts. English Garden 
cides, such as Hampstcad, I.etchworth and Wel- 
wyn, are examples of suburban planning. It is 
generally accepted that the most notable m(jdcrn 
reconstruction of a city is that of Paris under 
Haussmann, after 1853; ''"■'t the remodeling of 
Vienna, a quarter century later by the famous 
Ringstrassc boulevard, is almost as noteworthy. 



Both these experiments emphasized beauty and 
recreation along with coin'enicnce and public 
safet\'. There has seldom in modern history been 
any opportunity for planning an entire large city, 
although there ha\'e been hundreds of instances 
of planning new and small communities. Chi- 
cago's plan of 1908 is one (if the most extensive 
large city projects in the United States. 

Historic town and city planning strongly indi- 
cates that planning has in general always been in 
much the same spirit and of the rather limited 
scope of today. The planning of the modern city 
as indicated by Lev.'is, T he PlaiDiiug of a Modern 
City, and by such writers as Unwin, To'wn Plan- 
ning in Practice, and Lancaster, The Art of Town 
Planning, has been increasingly democratic, with 
the whole city and all the aspects of its life and 
affairs in mind — in the \'ein of Adams's pro- 
nouncement abo\'e quoted. And this has involved 
an increasing recognition of the provision for the 
masses. So that increasingly there has been substi- 
tuted for planning inspireci by the wish to provide 
for the prestige, power, profits and pleasure of 
the classes a growingly democratic urge that is al- 
ready making revolutionary changes in the cities 
of today. 

Since the war this has reached a climax in the 
revolutionary and reconstructing states of 
Europe, not only in fascist, communist and semi- 
socialist regimes, but in England, Holland and 
the Scandina\ian countries. Wholesale recon- 
struction and planning of cities is widespread. In 
all these plans recreation is fully recognized. This 
includes recreation directly and also such allied 
matters as housing and traffic. European cities be- 
cause of their greater need have shown greater 
and more advanced developments in recreational 
facilities than anything this country can show. 

The logical consummation of all such cievelop- 
ments of recreation centers as such is realized in 
the great parks of many European cities, such as 
the Stadtpark of Nuremburg and the Parks of 
Culture and Rest in Leningrad and Moscow. 

In the development of the modern re-created 
metropolis, Chicago has lieen a pioneer and a 
leader. Being so largely a growth of the last two 
generations, Chicago represents the typical 
American form of plant and plan for a city and 
metropolitan region. It typifies the American city 
features already referred to. Only Los Angeles 



perhaps is more significantly American in layout 
and arrangements. This does not imply perfec- 
tion, but just those merits of civic development 
' which this country has given cities an opportunity 
to realize. Chicago also was, let us repeat, a 
pioneer in comprehensive city planning because 
she was and still is so largely a city-in-the-mak- 
1 ing. Thus in her very layout and structure, as she 
! has grown and also as prospected by the Chicago 
I and Regional Plans, Chicago has had an oppor- 
' tunity such as is before few great cities of the 
1 world to become the pioneer recreated metropolis. 
Chicago, for at least half her history, has been a 
I pioneer in the recognition of recreation. From the 
beginning an essentially American and democratic 
city — a city of the people — there has been no 
phase of recreational development to which she 
has not notably contributed. Even in Russia today, 
leaders have looked to Chicago and her popular- 
I ized recreation as something to emulate and, if pos- 
sible, even outdo. Current recreational advances in 
European centers are practically all along lines 
I which Chicago in the normal course of her demo- 
I cratic and municipal progress initiated, and to 
which she gave preliminary de\'elopment. 

Chicago led the nation in putting her parks 
i under control of nun-partisan, permanent commis- 
sions, with the Park Act of 1869. She also led in 
the consolidation of park administration in 1934 
to the great advantage of any comprehensive 
recreational plans that may be launched in the 
future. The streets have frequently been con- 
verted into playgrounds. Recreational develop- 
ment at present is being turned toward the neigh- 
borhood and the home. The parks and the theater 
have been decentralized. Trends inciicatc that 
housing is about to be the dominant feature and 
interest of city planning in the near future. The 
block and lot planning of the past provided for 
the single house, hut all tno often on a \'ery 
limited yard which was of little or no use for 
recreation. The apartment or multiple dwelling 
place makes even less facility for play space or for 
other recreational conveniences. Other amenities 
have not been wholly unprovided in the newer 
apartments; but recreational facilities and lead- 
ership for children or adults, or even space to 
park a car, seem to have been disregarded. 

Chicago has a few instances of recreational 
facilities liuilr into juis-ate housing dcvclopmcnr-^. 



The Michigan Garden apartments of Julius 
Rosenwald and the Edgewater Beach Hotel are 
examples of what has been done. But private 
real estate and other interests have been content 
to leave the pro\'ision of recreational facilities 
largely to public agencies. 

What the other large metropolitan regions of 
this country pro\ide in the way of notable recre- 
ational facilities and activities may be briefly 
chronicled. Chicago's place in the e\'olution of 
American cities is midway between that of the 
older eastern cities and the newer ones of the 
Pacific coast. Chicago occupies this intermediate 
position not only geographically but also his- 
torically. .Ind this middle position characterizes 
her recreational development. In growth of popu- 
lation, in extensi\'eness, in centralization and de- 
centralization, in suburbanism, as in other re- 
spects, Chicago stands midway between New York 
and Los Angeles. 

The highest rated cities in the United States, 
with regard to general living conditions, of which 
recreation provisions are only one out of some 
twenty factors, have long been the Pacific Coast 
cities — Seattle, Portland, Tacoma, Eos Angeles, 
and San Francisco. Other western and midwest- 
ern cities, such as Den\'er and Minneapolis, have 
also had a high rating in this respect. In general, 
no other cit\- of more than a million inhabitants 
can compare with Los Angeles. New York, Chi- 
cago, Philadelphia and Detroit follow quite far 
behind and in the order named, all ranking in the 
third class, as compareci to the west coast cities 
which are in the first class. 

Los Angeles has been ranked b\' some authori- 
ties as the American metropolitan region best out- 
fitted recreationally. Fa\^ored by natural site and 
climate, as tourist center of the nation, Los 
Angeles has felt it desirable to provide publicly 
(jr, supplemented by exceptional benefactions, 
semi-publicly, for recreation to a degree scarcely 
equaled elsewhere. 

Outstanding developments in other lesser 
American cities present also a challenge and sug- 
gestion to Chicago in the planning of her recre- 
ation. Space and buildings, equipment, and activi- 
ties are of relatively little use, and as we have 
already pointed out, may e\'en be a menace, 
unless there is adequate direction and leadership. 
But here again Chicago has pioneered. Organized 



13 



training for professional group work and recre- 
ation leadership was an integral part of the Chi- 
cago School of Civics and Philanthropy up to 
192O; in that year the School, with the exception 
of the Department of Recreation, affiliated with 
the University of Chicago. The Recreation De- 
partment was then for seven years operated by 
Miss Neva Boyd as an independent school housed 
at Hull-House. It was incorporated in 1927 into 
the Department of Sociology of Northwestern 
University. Such training is now offered by other 
agencies both local and national. Special emergen- 
cy courses ha\e been a feature of the past five 
years under W.P.A. and other federal and state 
sponsorage. 

In order to make clear beyond question that 
recreation is a major concern in any modern city 
plan worth the name, we shall incorporate into 
this preliminary chapter at this point a statement 
on Recreation in the Chicago Plan, specially 
written for this report by Mr. Eugene S. Taylor, 
Manager of the Chicago City Plan Commission: 

"There are two main purposes in the Plan of 
Chicago so clear that they may be called self- 
evident. One of these purposes can be classed as 
commercial, the other as humanitarian. When the 
Commercial Club of Chicago undertook the 
preparation of the Chicago Plan some thirty years 
ago the members of that organization set out two 
goals which they desired the Plan to achieve. 
The first was to make Chicago a better city in 
which to Work and carry on business. The second 
was to make this city a better place in which to 
live." 

The recreational features in the Plan of Chi- 
cago come under this latter aim. In the \ery first 
paragraph of the Plan report this statement is 
iTiade: "Practical men of alfairs are turning their 
attention to working cAit the means whereby the 
city may be made an efficient instrument for pro- 
viding all its people with the best possible con- 
ditions of living." 

As a matter of fact, a recreational project was 
the beginning of a general plan for all Chicago. 
The dignity, beauty and convenience of the great 
World's Columbian Exposition, held in Jackson 
Park, Chicago, in 1893, suggested the permanent 
impnn'ement of the city's waterfront. Plans were 
drawn, exhibited at meetings throughout the city, 



and were highly commended by press and public | 
alike. This was the inception of the project for 
lake front park development such as has subse- 
tiuenth- been carried out along Chicago's shore- 
line. 

While this lake front park plan was in course 
of preparation a plan was formulated for a metro- 
politan park system, including an outer belt of 
parks and parkways. This was the inception of 
the forest preserve de\-elopment in the Chicago 
metropolitan region. There can be no better 
method of setting forth what the Plan of Chicago 
suggests in the way of recreational improvements 
than to allow the Plan to speak for itself. There- 
fore, in large part the following material consists 
of selected excerpts from those portions of the 
Chicago Plan that have to do with the matter of 
recreational facilities. 

Chicago, on becoming a city just one hundred 
years ago in 1837, chose for its motto, Urbs in 
Horto, a city set in a garden. Such indeed it 
then was, with the opalescent waters of the Lake 
at its front, and on its three sides the boundless 
pi-airic carpeted with waving grass bedecked with 
brilliant wild flowers. The quick advance of com- 
merce and manufacturers, the rapiti building of 
i-ail roads and factories and the large extent of 
home construction crowded out nature's parterres 
of flowers. Still the motto lingered in the minds 
of men, and in 1839 the struggle began to secure 
for the fast-growing population park spaces which 
should at least recall the gardens that of necessi- 
ty had been sacrificed. 

In the year mentioned, a half-square on Mich- 
igan A\'enue, where the Public Library now 
stands, comprised the entire park system of the 
City of Chicago. Three years later Washington 
Square was added; then fallowed at intervals 
Jefferson, Union, Ellis and Vernon Parks, each 
representing the public spirit of individuals 
rather than the foresight of the city. In 1864 the 
City Council secured a portion of the lands which 
later came to be named Lincoln Park. At first no 
effort was made to provide connections among the 
\'arious parks; but in 1869 a movement was 
started to realize the then half- forgotten and 
whiilly disregarded motto, by framing the city 
with a garden of parks and boulevards, beginning 
:ir Lincoln Park on the mirth and connecting 
Humbi.Klt, r.arficld, iXjuglas, Washington and 



H 



Jackson parks. The attempt succeeded; the Chi- 
cago Park system came to take second place 
among the park areas of the United States, and 
was the pride and glory of the city. 

But there park acquisition halted. Second onl\- 
to Philadelphia in 1880, when the Plan of Chi- 
cago was prepared Chicago had dropped to 
se\'enth place insofar as park area was concerned; 
and when the relative density of population is 
taken into consideration Chicago occupied the 
thirty-second place among American cities. At 
least half the population of Chicago then lived 
more than a mile from any large park, and in the 
congested sections of the city there were fi\'e thou- 
sand people to each acre of park space. The 
average for the entire city was six hundred people 
to each acre of park, whereas for health and good 
order it has long been recognized the world 
around that there should be one acre of park for 
each one hundred persons. 

The seriousness of those conditions was then 
generally realized, perhaps more so by the mem- 
bers of the Commercial Club than by others. For 
in 1903, fl\e years before the Plan of Chicago 
was launched, members of that club had succeeded 
in obtaining state legislation authorizing the re- 
spective park commissions to connect Lincoln Park 
with Grant Park and Grant Park with Jacks(jn 
Park and securing to those park boards the sub- 
merged land along the lake front needed for such 
park connection. Besides that, other state legisla- 
tion had authorized the establishment of small 
parks and playgrounds, boulevards and driveways, 
and when the Chicago Plan was being formulated 
a real program of park extension was under way. 
Consequently the Plan included the \arious large 
and small park developments then proposed and 
being acquired, and suggested a logical and ap- 
propriate placement for new park facilities, par- 
ticularly with respect to the density of adjacent 
population and the matter of adequate access be- 
tween the vari(jus elements (jf the park system. 

The Plan points out that the need for breath- 
ing spaces and recreation grounds was then being 
forced upon the attention of the citizens, who 
were learning to appreciate the fact that a city 
must provide for the health and pleasure of the 
inhabitants. It said further that density of popu- 
lation beyond a certain point results in disorder, 
vice and disease, and flicrelu' becomes the great- 



est menace to the well-being of the city itself. 
Therefore, as a measure of precaution, the es- 
tablishment of adequate park area was essential. 

We of today take our parks and especially our 
lake front playground for granted. Seldom do we 
stop to realize that not so many years ago our 
citizens did not ha\'e the facilities we enjoy now. 
Therefore it is interesting to see how the Plan of 
Chicago called attention to the need for and de- 
sirability of acquiring and creating these park 
lands. Here is what they were saying thirty years 
agc3 when the Plan of Chicago was being formu- 
lated. The opportunities for large parks in the 
immediate vicinity of Chicago are ample. First in 
importance is the shore of Lake Michigan, which 
should be treated as park space to the greatest 
possible extent. The lake front by right belongs 
to the people. It affords their one unobstructed 
\iew, stretching away to the horizon, where 
water and clouds seem to meet. No mountains or 
high hills enable us to look over broad expanses 
of the earth's surface; and perforce we must come 
e\'en to the margin of the lake for such a survey 
of nature. These \iews of a broad expanse are 
helpful alike to mind and body. They beget calm 
thoughts and feelings and afford escape from the 
petty things of life. Mere breadth of view, how- 
ever, is not all. The lake is living water, even 
in motion, delighting man's eye and refreshing his 
spirit. Not a foot of its shores should be appropri- 
ated by individuals to the exclusion of the people. 
On the contrary, everything possible should be 
done to enhance its attractiveness and to develop 
its natural beauties, thus fitting it for the part it 
has to pla\' in the life of the whole cit\'. It should 
be made so alluring that it will become the fixed 
habit of the people to seek its restful presence at 
every opportunity. 

After describing the proposed lake front park, 
which in the Plan extends along the entire shore- 
line of the city from its northern to its southern 
cit\- limits, the plan asks us to imagine this 
vupremcly beautiful parkway, with its frequent 
stretches of fields, playgrounds, avenues and 
groves, extending along the shore in closest touch 
with the life of the city throughout the whole 
waterfront. Fortunately, no longer do we have 
to imagine what the lake front development will 
be like or the advantage it will be to Chicago and 
its citizens. Although still unfinished, already we 



15 



have enough of the plan realized to be able to 
see for ourselves what it means in the way of 
healthy, happy recreation. 

Nor do we have to iniagine huw splendid the 
forest preser\x-s are, nor what an extremely im- 
portant part they are playing in providing the 
inhabitants of the Chicago metropolitan region 
with outdoor recreational facilities. So familiar 
are most of us with our great thirty-three 
thousand-acre forest preserve system that any de- 
scription would be mere repetition. Therefore let 
us turn once more to the Plan of Chicago and see 
what it has to say with regard to the need for and 
benefit of the forested recreational areas it pro- 
posed should be acquired for the public. Here's 
what the plan says: 

Next in importance to the development of the 
lake shore possibilities is the acquisition and im- 
provement of forest spaces. Both the waterfront 
and the near-by woodlands should be brought 
within easy reach of all the people. Natural 
scenery furnishes the contrasting element to the 
artificiality of the city. All of us should often run 
away from the work of men's hands and back into 
the wilds, where mind and body are restored to 
a normal condition, and we are enabled to take 
up the burden of life in our crowded streets and 
endless stretches of buildings with renewed vigor 
and hopefulness. Those who have the means and 
are so placed in their daily employments that they 
can do so, coiibtantly seek the refreshment of the 
country. Should not the public see to it that 
every one may enjo}' this change of scene, the 
restorer of mental and bodily vigor, and will not 
citizenship be bettered thereby? He who habitual- 



ly comes in close contact with nature develops 
saner methods of thought than can be the case 
when one is habitually shut up within the walls 
i)f a city. 

No city conditions, however ideal in them- 
selves, satisfy the craving for real out-of-door 
life, for forests and wild flowers and streams. 
Human nature demands such simple and whole- 
some pleasures as come from roaming the woods, 
from rowing and canoeing, and from sports and 
games that require large areas. The increasing 
number of holidays, the growing use of Sunday 
as a day of rest and refreshment for body and 
mind tired by the exacting tasks of the week, to- 
gether with the improvement in the scale of 
living, all make imperative such means of enjoy- 
ment as the large parks and forested areas provide. 

We know now that these splendid recreational 
facilities visioned in the Plan of Chicago have 
been transformed from suggestions into realities, 
but even with that knowledge is our civic faith 
today any greater than it was thirty years ago 
when in presenting the Plan of Chicago to the 
public its creators said: The Chicago spirit is now 
impelling us to larger and better achievements 
for the public good. It conceals no private pur- 
pose, no hidden ends. This spirit, the spirit of 
Chicago, is our greatest asset. It is not merely 
civic pride; it is rather the constant, steady de- 
termination to bring about the the very best con- 
ditions of city life for all the people, with full 
knowledge that what we as a people decide to do 
in the public interest we can and surely will bring 
to pass. How true that prophecy has been in the 
case of the recreational features of the Plan of 
Chicago. 



i6 




Population Series — Mop I 



4.'^M' 



CHAPTER II 



A HISTORY OF PUBLIC RECREATION IN CHICAGO 



Introduction 

A history of public recreation in Chicago covers 
those forms of recreation which receive financial 
support, entirely or in part, from tax funds, and 
those which, though not tax-supported, are 
located on property belonging to city, county, 
state or federal government. 

Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837. 
The entire history of public recreation in Chicago 
may thus be included within the span of a century. 
Beginning with the establishment uf a park in 
1839, the scope of public recreation has been 
enlarged so that it now includes not only parlis, 
but also playgrounds, zoological and botanical 
gardens, museums, highways and forest preserves. 
In the early days, only the City of Chicago 
offered its residents any form of recreation. To- 
day, city, county and state have made provisions 
for the recreational life of the community. The 
city provides libraries, parks and playgrounds; 
the county maintains forest preserves; and the 
state constructs highways and has set aside state 
parks. 

Before attempting to trace the development of 
each type of public recreation, it would be well 
to show the order in which they developed. For 
more than a decade following 1839, parks were 
the only form of public recreation available to 
the people. Museums were established in the 
1850's with the founding of the Chicago Academy 
of Sciences and the Chicago Historical Society. 
During the next decade, the Chicago Board of 
Education, realizing that child recreation was be- 
ing neglected as the city grew, introduced music 
and physical education into its curriculum, later 
sponsoring playgrounds for children and adults 
in school yards. 

Although there were libraries in Chicago from 
the early days, it was not until 1872 that the 
Chicago Public Library was founded and sup- 
ported by tax funds. Municipal playgrounds for 
children, important as they are to the modern 



city, were not available before 1890. A small 
playground was established near Hull-House in 
1894, and in 1899 Mayor Carter H. Harrison 
sponsored a campaign for the establishment of 
other playgrounds and small parks throughout 
the city, particularly in neighborhoods not ade- 
quately served by the Lincoln, West and South 
Park Districts. 

The Chicago plan of 1908 was a stimulus to 
the development of public recreation because it 
recommended the extension of parks, beaches, 
highways, forest preserves and other recreational 
facilities in Chitago and the metropolitan area. 
Cook County offered the public no recreational 
facilities until 19 16, when forest preserve land 
was first acquired. 

The history of public recreation in Chicago has 
been cumulative, and public agencies today offer 
the people more extensive and more varied 
facilities for the constructive use of leisure time 
than ever before. AH of this is in keeping with 
the democratic ideal of extending every possible 
effort for bringing cultural and educational ad- 
vantages to the people. 

The Beginning of Chicago Parks 

Chicago's first park was located on the present 
site of the Chicago Public Library. In 1839, two 
years after Chicago was incorporated as a city, 
two acres of land, bounded by Michigan Avenue, 
Washington Street, Garland Court and Randolph 
Street, were set aside as Dearborn Park. This 
area, a vacant piece of public land without im- 
provements, and owned by the government of 
the United States, served the city for three years 
before a second park was established. 

Dearborn Park was in use until 1894, when 
the present Chicago Public Library was erected. 
The land was presented to Chicago by an .'\ct of 
Congress in 1885 for the purpose of erecting the 
public library building as a memorial to the 
famous Chicago fire of 1871. 



17 



The oldest existing park in the city is Wash- 
ington Square, sometimes called "Bughouse 
Square." It was established in 1842, and consists 
of the block bounded by Clark' Street, Dearborn 
Street, Walton Su-eet and Delaware Place, direct- 
ly opposite the Newberry Dibrar\'. 

As early as 1844, city planners realized the 
desirability of having a park area along the lake 
front near the loop. On April 29, 1844, far- 
sighted property owners dedicated the land east 
of Michigan Avenue from Randolph Street to 
Park Row (now Roosevelt Road) to the city and 
named it Lake Park. It was established by city 
ordinance in i 847 and is now part of Grant Park. 
Within recent years, Grant Park has been beauti- 
fied by the erection of the Chicago Art Institute, 
the Buckingham Memorial Fountain, and the 
band shell, where outdoor concerts are held dur- 
ing the summer months. 

In 1851, the State Legislature authorized the 
City Council of Chicago to levy and collect taxes 
for the purchase of public squares and parks. 
Union Park, at Lake Street and Ashland Boule- 
vard, was established in 1854, and Vernon Park, 
at Gilpin (now Cabrini ) Street and Racine 
Avenue, in 1859. By i860 there were thirty- 
seven acres of parks in Chicago. Tcjday there are 
approximately 7,328 acres of parks within the city 
limits. 

A group of citizens became interested in the 
development of better park facilities on the north 
side in i860. They petitioned the City Council 
to establish as a public park the tract of land just 
north of Lake Park cemetery and extending to 
the lake. Much of this land along the lake shore, 
being swamp and sand waste, required reclaiming 
and filling in before it could be used as a park. 
Four years later, October 21, 1864, a city ordi- 
nance was passed appropriating sixty acres of 
near-by land for park purposes. The name was 
changed to Lincoln Park, and ten thousand 
dollars was appropriated by the City Council for 
park improvements and reclamation. A landscape 
gardener was employed and the task of trans- 
forming this wasteland into a public park began. 
In 1868 New York Zoo gave Lincoln Park a pair 
of swans for one of its ponds. Other types of 
animals were brought to the park later. In this 
manner Lincoln Park Zoo came into being. To- 
day, Lincoln Park extends from N(jrth Avenue 



to Foster Avenue, and is the largest of Chicago 
parks. 

In 1868, Chicago had only 126 acres of park 
area to serve a population of over 250,000 people, 
but the following year proved to be a milestone 
in the development of Chicago parks. The State 
Legislature in 1869 passed a Park Act which 
created the Lincoln, South and West Park Dis- 
tricts. The commissioners of these districts were 
gi\cn the power to levy taxes, subject to certain 
limitations, for the purpose of establishing, im- 
proving, and maintaining parks and boulevards. 
The statute provided that the commissioners of 
the Lincoln and West Park Districts be appointed 
by the Governor of the State. The South Park 
Commissioners were appointed by the Circuit 
Court Judges of Cook County. 

Although a progressive measure at the time, 
the Park Act of 1869 did not take into consid- 
eration Chicago's potential growth. It did not 
gWe. the three Park Districts the power to es- 
tablish parks in outlying neighborhoods beyond 
their original corporate boundaries. 

I'ollowing the passage of the Park Act of 1869, 
new parks were established in the North, West 
and South sections of the city, and plans for Lake 
Shore Drive and other boulevards connecting the 
parks of Chicago were laid. Lincoln, Grant, 
Humboldt, Garfield, Douglas, Washington and 
Jackson Parks were all in use or were created 
in 1869. A document entitled Public Grounds 
}ii C/iicdgo, published in 1869, stated that "with 
wise forethought, Chicago has secured and ap- 
propriated lands for parks while they were still 
unoccupied. No one who has made himself ac- 
(]uainted with the past history of the city can have 
any doubt that before many years, the areas which 
ha\'e been thus preserved will be enclosed within 
thickly populated streets and avenues." 

By 1870, the city had acquired 1,887 ^cres of 
park land, more than ten times as much as it 
had in 1868: in short, an acre of parks for every 
158 people in the city. A decade later, 18 80, the 
Chicago Park System was known as the second 
largest in the country, with only Philadelphia 
ahead. Chicago had 2,000 acres of parks in 1880 
and a total city area of 22,883 acres, or about one 
acre of parks for each 1 1 acres of city land. The 
population of Chicago at the time was 503,185, 
making an acre of parks for each 252 people. It 



:i8 



was in the i88o's that Chicago's motto, Urbs hi 
Horto, a city set in a garden, was justified before 
all the world. 

After 1880, Chicago began to lag behind other 
cities with respect to its public recreational facili- 
ties. By 1890, the population had jumped to 
1,099,850, yet only 123 new acres of parks had 
been established. At that date Chicago covered 
108,695 acres of territory, and possessed 2,123 
acres of parks, or one acre of parks for each 51 
acres of city land. The ratio of park space to 
territory and population steadily declined. In 
1900, the showing was even worse, for there were 
only 2,341 acres of parks, although the popula- 
tion of the city had risen to 1,698,575, more than 
three times what it had been in 1880; this meant 
only one acre of park to each 725 people. 

Citizens began to express their dissatisfaction 
with the city's park facilities in the 1890's. "Resi- 
dents of the West Side," said the Chicago 
Record, June 15, 1894, "are loud in their com- 
plaints about the ragged, unsightly appearance of 
Garfield Park. They declare that while the man- 
agement has as much money to spend as ever, 
it has grown shiftless and inattenti\'e to the in- 
terest of the public." 

In the Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, March, 19 10, is 
to be found an article written by Graham Taylor 
on "Recreation Developments in Chicago Parks." 
"From 1880 to 1903," Dr. Taylor observed, 
"population had increased 272.4 per cent, while 
park area only increased 58.7 per cent. Nearly a 
million people lived more than a mile from any 
one of Chicago's parks in 1904. Eleven wards 
with a population of 425,000 contained 1,814 
acres of park space, 234 people to the acre. The 
remaining twenty-three wards with a population 
of over a million, contained only 228 acres, 4,720 
people to each acre of park space." 

Several of Chicago's parks had developed spe- 
cial recreational facilities for public use on their 
grounds by 1900. Some of the buildings from 
the World's Fair of 1893 had been left standing 
in Jackson Park. Washington Park had installed 
tennis courts and baseball diamonds to be used in 
outdoor sports. Garfield Park had a conser\-a- 
tory and Lincoln Park its zoo, the largest in the 
Middle West. The Chicago Academy of Sciences 



placed its natural history museum in Lincoln Park 
at Center Street, with the provision that it always 
be open free to the public. 

The Origin of Chicago's Playgrounds 

"The great need for children's playgrounds 
was increasingly urged by those in a position to 
know the effects of congestion upon the child life 
of the community. Accordingly, in 1894, the first 
playground was opened at Hull-House," Graham 
Taylor wrote in the article already cited. It was 
referred to as a "Model Playground," and others 
were patterned after it. It consisted of about 
three-quarters of an acre of play space, equipped 
with a sand pile, swings, building blocks, and a 
giant stride. There was space for handball and 
indoor baseball. An experienced kindergartner and 
a policeman supervised the play. 

"Within the next few years," Graham Taylor 
added, "Northwestern University Settlement, 
the University of Chicago Settlement, and Chi- 
cago Commons opened small playgrounds for 
children in their neighborhoods. In 1897, the 
first school playground was opened in the yard 
of the Washington School by the West Side Dis- 
trict of the Associated Charities. 

"The beginnings of the playground movement 
in Chicago were soon followed by municipal 
action. In 1898 the first public funds, one 
thousand dollars, were appropriated by the City 
Council. Individuals subscribed seven hundred 
and fifty dollars additional. Six school yards, their 
use granted by the Board of Education, were 
maintained and equipped and super\'ised under 
the direction of the \'acation school committee of 
the women's clubs." 

Playgrounds of a half-dozen school yards were 
thrown open after the Fourth of July, 1899, so 
that children could ha\'e a place to play during 
the summer vacation. The Chicago Daily 
Nezis, July 5, 1899, reported that "the grounds 
of the Kinzie School attracted a typical crowd of 
children. In the school yard were swings and 
'teeters,' blocks, turning poles, sand box and base- 
ball. In the basement of the school was a piano 
in a room set apart for children on rainy days. 
The other schools with open grounds are the 
Holden, Walsh, Washburnc, Schiller and Wash- 
inyton." 



19 



A municipal stadium for Chicago was discussed 
ill 1899. It was to have been located on the lake 
front, but a few property owners balked the plan. 
All sections of the city clamored for the stadium, 
and it looked as though it would finally be erected 
in Garfield Park. It was to include a horse track, 
bicycle track, band stand, and a half-mile of play 
space for games and sports. The C/iicago Daily 
Nezis, July 11, 1899, published a front-page 
cartoori to impress upon the public mind the need 
of such a play space for the children of the west 
side. But a week later, July 18, 1899, a news- 
paper article announced that plans for the stadium 
had been dropped. 

The Inauguration of Public School Recreation 

When Chicago's first schoulhouse was built on 
the corner of Madison and Dearborn Streets in 
1836, popular belief considered that children had 
little need for physical education, which today 
constitutes one of the major developments in pub- 
lic school recreation. There was plenty of vacant 
space on which the children could run and play. 
However, as the city grew, congestion increased, 
and the need of play space and physical education 
became imperative. 

There was a pressing need for some form of 
school recreation, whereby the excess energies of 
the children might find expression, by the time 
the Board of Education was organized in 185-I-. 
Annual reports of the school board indicate that 
the early school officials were fully aware of that 
need, but they were face to face with those con- 
stant forces of opposition which f^'rcstall e\'ery 
mo\-e of progress. 

Chicago lighted the torch of public school recre- 
ation during the Civil War decade by introduc- 
ing music and light gymnastics into the cur- 
riculum. Some believed that only the three R's, 
reading, writing and arithmetic should be taught 
at school, and that all other studies and activities 
were "fads and frills." When music was intro- 
ciuced, for example, it had to be fought out in the 
State courts to determine whether or not it was 
constitutional for a child to sing in a public school 
in Illinois. 

Yet progressive educators in the i86o's held 
fast to the idea that physical education and music 
were necessary to the grammar anci high school 



programs. Charles Dupee, Superintendent of the 
Chicago Public Schools, in his report of 1859, ob- 
served that "111 health is seldom caused by exces- 
si\ e mental labor, but is often induced among stu- 
dents by a neglect of the physiological laws rela- 
tive to exercise, sleep and food." He recom- 
mended physical training, particularly for girls. 
"With comparatively little expense," he wrote, "a 
gymnasium might be erected for the girls of the 
high school, and physical exercise might well be- 
came a regular department in their education." 

Between 1863 and 1864, an attempt was made 
to introduce "Turner Exercises" into the high 
school. A special teacher was engaged, but funds 
could not be raised to cover the additional ex- 
pense. The high school boys were forced, as in 
the past, to practice upon some apparatus they 
had erected in the school yard at their own ex- 
pense, without the assistance of a teacher. 

In an experiment, in 1896, a teacher of physical 
culture was employed to give instruction to the 
grammar grade pupils of the Lincoln, Douglas, 
Brown and King Schools. George Howland, 
Superintendent of Schools, declared that the ex- 
periment was successful. "No action of the board, 
as it seems to me, has been more wisely taken than 
this of an efficient system of physical culture," he 
wrote. 

Physical education had already been introduced 
into the high schools. In the early summer of 
1892 Henry Suder, Supervisor of Physical Cul- 
ture, was able to say, "Calisthenics in our public 
schools so far have been a success, but I think it 
is a wise step on the part of the Board of Educa- 
tion to pro\'ide a gymnasium in our new high 
school building. There is hardly a college or 
private school in the country without a gym- 
nasium. Only the public schools have been neg- 
lected. Chicago has made the first step for the 
ad\'ancement of physical culture, for the gym- 
nasium of the North-West Division High is, I 
belie\'e, the first gymnasium in connection with a 
public school in this country. The gymnasium 
is 90 feet by 40 feet and is 26 feet high, well sup- 
plied with apparatus for individual as well as 
class work. Exercises are practiced there twice a 
week during the school session and after school 
tiine." 

Today a gymnasium is considered necessary 
to a school building; physical training for boys 



20 



and girls is an essential part of the curriculum in 
the grammar and high schools. 

As early as 1897 a playground had been es- 
tablished and equipped in the yard of the Wash- 
ington School, 1000 West Grand Avenue. Other 
supervised school playgrounds were established 
in the years that followed, and by 1921 there 
were ss such playgrounds in the city. Until 1921, 
these playgrounds were operated by the Munici- 
pal Playground System, under the Bureau of 
Parks and Recreation of the Department of Pub- 
lic Works. In that year the State Legislature 
passed an act empowering the Board of Education 
to take over playgrounds adjacent to schools, and 
tax funds were made available for the operation 
of playgrounds in school yards. 

Library service for students, the teaching of 
music, drawing and manual training as a part of 
the school curriculum all have a recreational as- 
pect in that they train young people to use their 
leisure time wisely. S. A. Biggs, President of the 
Board of Education in 1896, called attention to 
the need of libraries in the schools. "I ha\'e a deep 
interest," he wrote, "in the establishment of a 
Public School Library, with its reading rooms, 
art galleries, cabinets of natural history, and a 
system of public lectures." Today the Chicago 
Public Library maintains branches in each of the 
Chicago public high schools, as well as in many 
parochial schools, for student use. 

Between 1865 and 1870, musical education 
made considerable headway in the public schools; 
and also during that period drawing, hitherto a 
neglected study, was introduced on a broader 
scale. A special teacher was engaged to conduct 
art classes, and exhibitions of the work of pupils 
were placed on display at the end of each school 
year. In 1872, chorus groups or glee clubs from 
the schools were massed together for an annual 
musical festival called "The Jubilee." 

"Music in schools is primarily a form of recre- 
ation," James Doolittle, President of the Board 
of Education, wrote in 1885. "It comes as a re- 
lief from the close application to study and is a 
pleasant and beneficial exercise of the emotional 
as well as the physical nature." 

Manual training was included in the high 
school program in 1896, and the interest shown 
by the pupils exceeded the highest expectations 



of the board. I^ater manual training was intro- 
duced into the grade schools. 

In 1933, as a measure of economy due to 
failure of taxes, the Board of Education abolished 
manual training in the elementary schools. The 
teaching of physical education by special teachers 
in the elementary schools was also suspended, and 
the number of physical education teachers in the 
high schools was cut by fift\' per cent. 

The Creation of the Chicago Public Library 

The Chicago tire of 1871 destroyed a library 
of 30,000 volumes belonging to the Young Men's 
Association, a self-improvement group, in the 
Metropolitan Block Building at Randolph and 
La Salle Streets. This destruction of valuable 
books called world-wide attention to the need of 
a library in Chicago. As a mark of English sym- 
pathy, Thomas Hughes, author of Tom Brozvii's 
School Days, made an appeal to authors and 
publishers in Great Britain and collected 8,000 
volumes for a new library in Chicago. A special 
room in the main branch of the Chicago Public 
Librarj- has been named after him. A bookplate 
in each gift \-olume stated that it was contributed 
toward the formation of a free public library in 
Chicago, and some noted English men and 
women signed them. One of the \'olumes was 
autographed b)' Queen Mctoria. This gift formed 
the nucleus of the present Chicago Public Librarj-, 
which was established under the Illinois Library 
Act of 1872. 

When the books arrived from England, two 
months after the tire, no place had been pro\-ided 
to house them, so an iron water tank standing on 
trestles behind tlie temporary cit\' hall at the 
Sijutheast corner of Adams and La Salle Streets 
was pressed into temporary service. Because of 
its shabby exterior it was called the "Rookery." 
The capacity of the sheK'es around the circular 
walls was estimated at 17,000 volumes. 

On Chicago Fire I)a\-, October 9, 1897, ''i^ 
main branch of the Chicago Public Library moved 
into its present headquarters at Wasiiington Street 
and Miciiigan .•V\'enue on land formerly used as 
Dearborn Park, l-'mm this center the library 
service has been extended so that now there arc 
hi-anches throughout the cit\-, and also reading 
roiims in Chicago public and private schools and 
in park heldhouses. 



There arc always breaks in the line of progress, 
and in )-ecent \ears the hhrary was furced to dis- 
continue the pin-chase of new and CLUTcnt hooks, 
which are al\\ays in demand by the jieople, be- 
cause of a Jack of funds. Recenth', however, the 
library has again been able to include current 
books on its sheh'es. 

The Rise of Small Parks and Independent 
Park Districts 

On July 1, iSy5, the Illinois State Legislature 
passed a "General Enabling Act," under which 
new park districts might be established. The law 
provided that any one hundred legal voters within 
a proposed park district might petition the County 
Judge to order an election to decide whether or 
not a new park district should be established. If 
the decision was affirmative, five commissioners 
could be selected and new land for park purposes 
could be acquired. 

The first district organized under this new Act 
was the Ridge Area, April 14, 1896. After 1899, 
when there was a drive for the creation of new 
small parks throughout the city, other minor dis- 
tricts were established. Some of them were: 
North Shore, May 10, 1900; Calumet, Septem- 
ber 12, 1903; Fernwood, May 16, 1908; Ridge, 
October 24, 1908; Irving Park, April 12, 191O; 
and Northwest, June 30, 191 1. In 1934, when 
all of the Chicago Park Districts were merged 
into one, there were nineteen such local park dis- 
tricts, in addition to the Lincoln, West and South 
Park districts. 

The Special Park Commission of 1899 

In the autumn of 1899, under the administra- 
tion of Mayor Carter H. Harrison, a movement 
was begun for the establishment of playgrounds 
and small parks throughout the city. The Chicago 
City Council created a Special Park Commission 
to make a study of the situation. 

Investigation uncovered the fact that one-third 
of the total population of the city lived more 
than a mile away from any (jne of the parks main- 
tained by the Lincoln, West, or South Park dis- 
tricts. According to T/ie Piny A'lovefi/etit in the 
United States, by Clarence E. Rainwater, the 
most congested sections of the city were found to 
be most deficient in park spaces. For instance, 
the great stockyards district with its 100,000 



people was without park facilities in 1900. The 
same was time of the Englewood region, which 
had moic than 150,000 people, the Calumet 
manufacturing district, with its I00,000 resi- 
dents, and the congested ri\'er wards of the west 
and north sides. 

The report of the Special Park Commission, 
issued in 1904, ad\'ocated the extension of small 
parks throughout the city, and recommended an 
outer belt system of parks and boulevards in Cook 
County. A campaign was begun to have more 
small parks established in Chicago, the slogan 
adopted by the inovement being, "Take the parks 
to the people, if they cannot come to the parks." 

Five small parks were established in congested 
sections of the city in 1900. The three major 
park districts were urged to follow this example 
and to provide more park facilities for people 
living in outlying neighborhoods of the city. The 
Illinois Park Act of 1869 was amended, and in 
1903 the Chicago Park Boards were authorized 
to spend $6,500,000 for new parks. Between 
1900 and 1904, the number of acres of Chicago 
parks increased from 2,341 to 3,180. In 1905 
nine small playgrounds for children were es- 
tablished, and a study of local park needs was 
extended. 

Development of Park Community Centers 

In accomplishing the transition of its parks 
from merely formal garden and landscaped areas 
to acti\'e recreation centers, the South Park Dis- 
trict of Chicago pioneered in the development of 
the parks as community centers. Through the 
efforts of the Special Park Commission, legisla- 
tion was enacted enabling park authorities to 
locate parks and pleasure grounds of not more 
than ten acres in any portion of their respective 
districts, and to finance the costs of the acquisition 
and the improvement of such properties through 
bond issues. The Chicago Plan of 1908, in in- 
dicating the importance and effect of this legisla- 
tion, points out the beginning of the South Park 
Community Center program as follows: 

"On the South Side seventeen new parks, with 
a total area of 671 acres, have been acquired. A 
feature of these small parks is the neighborhood- 
center building, provided with baths, gymnasia, 
refectory service, club rooms, and reading rooms 
for the district served. These 'clubhouses for the 
people,' as they are called, are in service both 



winter and summer. The outdoor b-vvimming- 
pnols and athletic fields are in charge of expert 
directors furnished by the authorities. The aim 
nf the commissioners is to impro\'c the health and 
morals of the people, and to stimulate local pride 
and patriotism; and the work has attracted inter- 
national attention. The South Side expansion 
movement, now nearing completion, will cost 
about sev'en million dollars." 

Since 1908 all of the other major park dis- 
tricts in Chicago adopted community center build- 
ing programs somewhat similar t(j that of the 
South Park District, and provided supervision 
and direction for the activities of these centers. In 
many of the smaller Park Districts fieldhouses 
and community center buildings of one type or 
another were erected. It was not, however, until 
1934 that a uniform t\"pe of program was es- 
tablished for all community center parks in the 
city. 

The Cook County Forest Preserve Commission 

Generally a considerable period of agitation for 
a public improvement precedes the actual under- 
taking. This is true in the instance of the Cook 
County forest preserves. In 1899, even before the 
Chicago Plan of 1908, a program for preser\"ing 
some of the natural woodlands along the Des- 
plaines Ri\-er was proposed, discussed and fa\'or- 
ably recei\ed. According to the C/iicagi> Dailx 
Neti-Sy October 5, 1899, "Plans for a park 
twenty miles in length, extending from Des- 
plaines to Riverside along the Desplaines River 
and connected by boulevards with the Chicag(j 
Park System, were discussed at Oak Park, and 
great enthusiasm was aroused by the speakers who 
favored the project. 'The Desplaines A'allcy,' 
one speaker said, 'contains the most beautiful 
country around Chicago. The opportunit\- of ob- 
taining vast \-acant tracts for a public grovmd 
should not be allowed to pass.' " 

A plan to co-ordinate the boule\ards within the 
city with highways outside the city materialized 
before the forest preserves were established. In 
1903, the Cook County Commissioners adopted a 
resolution which established the Outer Park Belt 
Commission. Dwight L. Perkins, in 'Ilw Muni- 
cipal Park Report of 1904, suggested that the 
Chicago boule\'ards be co-ordinated with those 
outside the city. He also suggested "a continuous 
belt of parks around the city, of 37,000 acres." 



Toda}- there are 33,000 acres of forest prcser\'es 
in Cook County. 

I he public was given the opportunit}' to \ote 
on a forest preser\'e proposition in 1905, but the 
measure failed to pass, although more people 
\oted for it than against it. "Although the result 
was 86,768 affirmative and 59,028 negative," 
Graham Taylor wrote, "it was found that under 
the law the proposition must recei\'e a majority of 
all the \otes cast at the election. It therefore 
tailed by a few thousand \'otes." 

A ciecade later action was taken. The people 
\'oted again on a forest preser\"e proposition, No- 
vember 6, 1 9 14, and this time it carried. The 
I-'orest Preserve District of Cook Count)' was or- 
ganized, February 11, 1915, with Peter Reinberg 
as president. Mr. Reinberg ser\"ed in that ca- 
pacity until the date of his death, February 21, 
1 92 1, when he was succeeded by Commissioner 
Daniel Ryan. 

Proceedings to test the constitutionalit}' of the 
Act under which the Forest Preserve District was 
organized were begun and a favorable decision 
was rendered by the Illinois Supreme Court, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1916. The Commission began to ac- 
(juire forest preser\e land towaixi the end of that 
year. In some instances opportunists purchased 
unimpro\ed land at low prices from property 
owners who did not realize the \alue of their 
v\-oodcd land as forest prescrxes, and then sold 
the land to tiie public at high prices. 

The forest preser\es were originally established 
to sa\e from destruction the natural woodlands 
of Cook County, particularU' along the Desplaines 
Ri\er and the North Branch of the Chicago 
l\i\er. Hciwe\er, the Commission found itself 
faced with the prolilem of pro\-iding recreational 
facilities for the thousands of people who flocked 
to the woods for week-end outings. So important 
ha^; the recreational aspect of the forest preserves 
become, that recenth' golf courses, swimming 
pools, shelter houses and other facilities ha\e been 
erected for the ci)n\'enience of the public. 

The sewage em[^tying into the Desplaines and 
the North Branch of the Chicago l\i\er detracted 
consideiMbly from the \aluc of the forest pre- 
ser\es as places for outings. How to abate the 
sewage nuisance became a pressing problem, in 
1Q2 1 a group of engineers made an inxestigation 
of sewage disposal of sc\eral towns bordering 



43 



iilong the Dcsplaiiics Ri\cr. They agreed that a 
solution could be worked out; but to this elay, 
sewage still contaminates the Desplaines and the 
North and South branches of the Chicago Ri\-ei-. 
As the result of a generous gift of three hun- 
dred acres of land by Mrs. Edith Rockefeller Mc- 
Cormick, plans were formulated in 1920 to ha\"e 
an outdoor zoological garden in the Brookfield 
forest preser\'es. A spacious zoo was planned 
where animals could be kept under conditions re- 
sembling their natural state, rather than be im- 
prisoned in cages. The Chicago Zoological Garden 
Committee made its report to Peter Reinberg, 
August 9, 1920. Commissioner Reinberg, in his 
last annual message to the Commission, referred 
to the proposed Brookfield Zoo as the "greatest 
and most important project" of the District. That 
was on January 3, 1921, shortly before his death. 
He did not live to see the project materialize, for 
the Brookfield Zoo was not opened to the public 
until July, 1934. 

The Chicago Plan of 1908 

Ci\'ic improvement was the keynote of the Chi- 
cago Plan of 1908. According to Chicago Plan 
Progress, a pamphlet published in April, 1920, 
"The plan proposed to improve public health, to 
promote the convenience, to increase the happi- 
ness and to advance the general well-being of our 
citizens. To this end it suggests great parks along 
the shore of Lake Michigan and inland, vast areas 
of forest preserves encircling the city, and similar 
developments providing outdoor rest and recrea- 
tion facilities." 

In Ten Years^ Work of the Chicago Plan 
Comnuss'ion, a pamphlet issued in 1921, it was 
brought out that "The cost of public play- 
grounds, lake front parks, bathing beaches, forest 
preserves and other recreational features for the 
benefit of all our people, drops into insignificance 
when compared with the priceless value of safe- 
guarding the health of our men, women and chil- 
dren, and creating conditions which will increase 
happiness, elevate morals, and produce better 
citizens." 

The Plan had its origin in the Commercial Club 
of Chicago in 1908 with Daniel Hudson Burn- 
ham, an architect and city planner, and Edward 
H. Bennett as leaders. They were assisted by 
Jules Guerin, Charles Moore and Walter L. 



Fisher. The Commercial Club presented the fin- 
ished plan of Chicago to Mayor Fred A. Busse 
in 1909. Wide streets and boulevards, large parks, 
particularly along the lake front, bathing beaches, 
and forest preserves were all proposed in the Chi- 
cago Plan. It was considered "visionary" at the 
time. 

The Chicago City Council approved of the 
project, and Mayor Fred A. Busse appointed the 
Chicago Plan Commission, the membership of 
which was confirmed by the City Council, No- 
vember 4, 1909. Charles H. Wacker, after whom 
Wacker Drive was named, was the first chairman 
of the commission. He served in that capacity for 
seventeen years. 

The first accomplishment of the Chicago Plan 
Commission was the passage of an ordinance in 
191 1 by the City Council, which permitted work 
to begin on the widening of Michigan Avenue to 
one hundred and thirty feet between Jackson 
Boulevard and Randolph Street. 

Work was then begun on the widening of 
Roosevelt Road. Only a short distance was wid- 
ened at first. Today, Roosevelt Road is one of 
Chicago's chief highways, extending from Michi- 
gan Avenue to the city limits and beyond. 

Looking back from the perspective of today, 
one can see that many civic improvements may be 
traced to the Chicago Plan of 1908. The slogan 
with regard to Grant Park was "Give Chicago the 
World's Most Splendid Waterfront." Not only 
was Grant Park enlarged and improved by the 
erection of fountains and museums, but other lake 
front parks were established, notably Burnham 
Park. The new Leif Ericson anci Columbus 
Drives, which now extend to Sixty-seventh Street, 
were proposed in the Chicago Plan. With the new 
outer link bridge completed in 1937, Chicago has 
a continuous driveway along the lake shore nearly 
eighteen miles long, extending from Sixty- 
seventh Street and South Shore Drive to Foster 
Avenue and Sheridan Road. The plan also called 
for a line of public beaches along the shore suffi- 
cient to accommodate two hundred thousand per- 
sons daily. 

Burnham Park, the Navy Pier, the Union Sta- 
tion and Railway Terminal, the new Federal Post 
Office building, the Michigan Avenue bridge, and 
the straightening of parts of the Chicago River 
are all fruits of the Chicago Plan of 1908. The 



24 



GROWTH OF CHICAGO PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 1840-1934 



1840 
1850 
I860 
1870 
1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 
1920 
1930 
1934 



2 ACRES 



37 ACRES 



|l,887 ACRES| 



|2,ooo acres! 



|g,l23 ACRES 



|2,34l ACRES 



|3.4I2 ACRES] 




15,523 ACRES! 



17.199 ACRES 



|7,327 ACRES| 



Figure I 



NUMBER OF ACRES OF CITY AREA TO ONE ACRE OF PARKS 






O 
00 



in o 



o 

lO 
CO 



iH UJ UJ UJ 

— ^ od a: oc 
< < < < 



' I 



o 
to 

CD 



W (O (0 CO 



UJ UJ 
CE CC 



^ S^ " ^ 

< < < < 



UJ 

cr 
o 

< 



CVJ ID fO 0^ 00 

lO rO ro -j- — 

I I ; I I I I i 



o o o 
r^ GO o) 
59 00 oo 



o 
o 



n 


o 


O 


^ 




CM 


ro 


r<) 


0) 


CD 


(T> 


CT) 



Black center square represents one ocre of porks 



Figure 2 



^J^Or^OOOOO 00_0^0 00000^0000 

1840 



mixxxiixxiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitxiiiiiii 

'" : ■:■ 

xxioiiiiiiimxiiiKiiiixiiiiiiiiiiiiidiiii 

'OOOOijOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOC 

xmiiiitiimiDDimiiiiiimiiiDiioiiiii) 



1870 



1880 ^^^ 



1890 



1900 



1910 







O 

(zi m (n 





iH (4] (D 



1920* ■i^ii 





-° urn 
xlili 



1934 



* 1922 PARK ACREAGE 



EACH FIGURE REPRESENTS 100 PERSONS. 



POPULATION PER ACRE OF CHICAGO PARKS 1840-1934 

Figure 3 



I 



old South Water Street was changed into the new 
Wacker Dri\-c with its modern double deck high- 
way, the hrst elevated traffic lane in the Chicago 
metropolitan area. A few of the streets to be 
widened were: Michigan A\'enue, Roosevelt 
Road, Western Avenue, Ogden Avenue, North 
La Salle Street, Ashland A^•enue and Damen 
Street. 

The Chicago Plan cannot be regarded as some- 
thing of the past. New civic improvements are 
still being proposed. Recently, for example, a 
park surrounding the Cook County Hospital for 
the use of patients recovering from illness was 
suggested. The University of Illinois Medical 
and Dental School took a first step in this direc- 
tion by setting aside space for lawns and trees be- 
tween the new buildings which are under con- 
struction. When the Jane Addams housing project 
was planned at Roosevelt Road and Racine Ave- 
nue, allowances for park and playground spaces 
were made. 

The Consolidation of Act of 1934 

Consolidation of the Lincoln, West and South 
Park Districts was urged long before 1934. A 
Park Consolidation bill was passed by the Illinois 
State Legislature as early as 19 15, only to be 
vetoed by the Governor on technical grounds at 
the advice of the Attorney General. "In my in- 
augural address," Governor Dunne said, as 
quoted by the Chicago Daily Nezvs, February 
17, 1 91 5, "I recommended the consolidation of 
the different park boards of the City of Chicago, 
and I trust that constitutional legislation to that 
end will be enacted at the coming session." 

Nearly twenty years passed before Chicago's 
park districts were finally consolidated. In No- 
vember, 1932, a Chicago firm of research special- 
ists made a study of the Chicago metropolitan 
area and published their "Proposals for the Re- 
organization of Local Governments in Illinois." 



Park consolidation was recommended in one of 
the sections of this report. "There are fifty-six 
special park governments in Cook County," this 
so-called Griffenhagen report stated, "organized 
for park purposes alone, ranging from the Forest 
Preserve District with its 31,832 acres, down to 
districts purely local in character operating a few 
acres in extent. The City of Chicago, the Chicago 
Board of Education and numerous cjther munici- 
palities and school districts maintain playgrounds 
and recreation facilities in connection with their 
other functions. Within the limits of the City of 
Chicago there are three large and nineteen small 
park districts, each expending public moneys, and 
each raising taxes for the construction, mainte- 
nance and operation of parks and playgrounds." 
In 1933 the State Legislature of Illinois passed 
a bill which gave the people of Chicago an oppor- 
tunity to vote on park consolidation at the 1934 
election. The measure passed, and on May 4, 
1934, the twenty- two separate park districts in 
Chicago were merged into one system. The Chi- 
cago Park District was created. It assumed con- 
trol of 5,416 acres of parks, 176 miles of boule- 
vards including dri\-eways within parks, 78 field- 
houses, and many other public recreation facilities. 
As a result of the consolidation, the park commis- 
sioners were reduced in number from 114 to 5. 
Greater efficiency in the management of park af- 
fairs has been made possible since the consolida- 
tion. But many difficult problems of administra- 
tion, personnel and finance have not yet been 
<n-ercome. The long years of depression have 
taken their toll from the field of recreation, but 
at the same time have produced a new awareness 
of the city's recreational needs. In this emergency 
the federal government through the Works 
Progress Administration and other agencies has 
rendered signal aid to both facilities and staffs. 
At the middle of 1937 the whole situation is in 
the throes of transition. 



25 



PART II 

ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS 
PUBLIC RECREATION 



INTRODUCTION 



In Itself the definition of public recreation as 
"that provided under the auspices of a govern- 
mental unit" implies the existence of legally cre- 
ated governmental bodies charged with the re- 
sponsibility for the establishment and operation 
of recreational facilities and programs. Such gov- 
ernmental agencies, it has already been pointed 
out, may be local municipalities or may be divi- 
sions of county, state or even federal government. 
In addition, many independent local govern- 
mental agencies separate from the municipality 
have assumed or had delegated to them functions 
relating to the provision of leisure time oppor- 
tunities for the residents of the communities in 
which they are located. School boards, park dis- 
tricts, sanitary districts, and library boards repre- 
sent the range of such governmental units. 

An analysis of local administration of recrea- 
tion in 214 cities, made in 1925, revealed that the 
responsibility was divided in the following man- 
ner: 



Majiag'mg authorities 



Nuniher 
of cities 



Independent recreation commissions or 

departments 93 

School boards or department of education. 40 

Recreation bureaus in park departments. . 28 
Joint departments or commissions such as 

parks and playgrounds 21 

Other city departments 8 

More than one department or divided re- 
sponsibility 24 



Total 



214 



The 1936 Year Book of the Recreation Maga- 
zine indicates that in 1935, with a greatly ex- 
panded number of cities reporting public recrea- 
tion, those cities providing full-time year-round 
workers had delegated the management to the 
following authorities: 

Number 
Managing authority of agencies 

Playground and recreation commissions, 
boards and departments 115 

Park commissions, boards, bureaus and de- 
partments 47 



Boards of education and other school au- 
thorities 23 

Park and recreation commissions and de- 
partments 10 

Municipal playground committees, recrea- 
tion associations, etc 9 

Departments of public welfare 8 

Departments of parks and public property. 7 

Departments of public works 5 

City councils 4 

Swimming pool, beach and bath house 

commissions 2 

Miscellaneous 12 

The progressi\e development of public recrea- 
tion in the United States has until comparatively 
recent times been concerned chiefly with the estab- 
lishment of facilities; therefore, there exists to- 
day a definite lag in the provision of programs 
and in the efiicient operation of facilities. With 
the growing realization on the part of the general 
public that the provision of facilities is not the 
full attainment of an ideal in the provision of 
adequate public recreation but merely the pri- 
mary step in that direction, and that the use of 
these facilities depends upon adequate intelligent 
supervision, has come a gradual change wherein 
recreation is now viewed as a combination of two 
equally important components: facilities and pro- 
gram. The degree of effectiveness is dependent 
upon the extent and type of management pro- 
vided. Any inventory of public recreation will 
therefore be concerned with the following major 
divisions: administration, plant and equipment, 
and program. In view of the fact that in most in- 
stances some form of governmental agency existed 
prior to the establishment of the facilities, which in 
turn preceded the program employing the plant 
and equipment, it is logical that these divisions 
should be taken up in that order. A study of the 
administrative aspects of public recreation may be 
subdivided into three general topical classifica- 
tions: (i) legal aspects, in which are embodied 
the powers and limitations of the agency; (2) 
organizational aspects, related to the administra- 
tive set-up of the agency; and (3) financial as- 
pects, concerned with the means of financial sup- 
port and the extent of revenues. 



28 



Since May of 1934 the administration of all 
tax-supported recreation within the City of Chi- 
cago has been vested in five major agencies: the 
Chicago Park District; the Bureau of Parks, Rec- 
reation and Aviation; the Bureau of Recreation 
of the Board of Education; the Cook County For- 
est Preserves; and the Chicago Public Library. 
Prior to that date the total number of major pub- 
lic tax-supported agencies controlling recreation 
within the city was twenty-six, including twenty- 
two park districts which through the Consolida- 
tion Act of 1934 were supersecied by the Chicago 
Park District. In addition to these major agencies 
there are also several quasi-public bodies located 
on property of the Park District and the Cook 



County Forest Preserves, some of which derive 
support from a museum tax. These agencies, in- 
dependent of the above bodies, being subject only 
to specific restrictions and regulations established 
by the State Legislature, include: the Chicago 
Zoological Gardens, Art Institute, Field Mu- 
seum, Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago 
Historical Society, and Shedd Aquarium. It is 
not intended in this section to present an involved 
discussion of the legal ramifications and implica- 
tions of the various agencies, the purpose of the 
chapters on administration being rather to pro- 
vide a more appreciative understanding of the 
powers and limitations of the various agencies as 
a preliminary to a discussion of their facilities and 
programs. 



29 



CHAPTER III 



LEGAL ASPECTS OF PUBLIC RECREATION 



General 

In a democracy governmental agencies are sub- 
servient to the people, and in their establishment 
are provided with certain powers and functions 
within which they are restricted by limitations 
placed upon them at the time of their origin or 
at a later date. The original legislative units of 
government in the United States after the War 
of Independence were the thirteen original states, 
to whom powers of government were given in the 
original colonial charters. The Constitution of the 
United States, consequently, is a grant to the fed- 
eral government by the states of certain specific 
rights previously inherent in these individual 
states; and the powers of the federal govern- 
ment therefore are limited to this original con- 
stitutional grant, except where the states have 
since that time added to its powers by amending 
the constitution. The relationship of the state to 
local governmental units is very similar to its re- 
lationship to the federal government. Through 
their original powers states were empowered to 
issue to the local municipality corporate charters 
in which the functions and limitations of the local 
unit were usually very definitely restricted. This 
situation still exists today, except where the state 
has by home rule bills permitted the local unit to 
govern itself independent of the state legisla- 
ture. Nevertheless, even with home rule bills the 
original power for such permissive legislation 
rests with the state legislative body. In Illinois, 
although the City of Chicago contains more than 
forty per cent of the population of the state, all 
powers of the various agencies providing recrea- 
tion within the city originated through the state 
legislature either through direct charter to 
municipalities and subsequent amendments to 
these charters or by the actual creation by the 
state legislature ("subject to a referendum of the 
people — which is a modified and limited form of 
home rule) of independent local municipalities, 
such as the Chicago Park District. This study of 



the legislation empowering the various recrea- 
tional bodies serving the city indicates the specific 
powers and functions of the individual agencies 
and the relationship of the various organizations 
to other units of government. 

The Chicago Public Library 

The Chicago Public Library was established in 
1872 as the result of a movement started after 
the great Chicago fire in which an appeal to 
authors, publishers, scientific societies and literary 
institutions, primarily in Great Britain, resulted in 
a donation of about eight thousand volumes. 
These contributions, each with a bookplate stating 
that it was presented to the City of Chicago for 
the formation of a free library as a mark of Eng- 
lish sympathy, served as the instruments which 
led to the passage of the Library Act of March 7, 
1872, through which the Chicago Public Library 
and many others throughout the state were 
founded and are now operating. As amended to 
1935 the Act provided for the creation and opera- 
tion of libraries in the following manner: 

"The city council of each incorporated city, 
whether organized under general law or special 
charter, shall have power to establish and main- 
tain a public library and reading room for the use 
and benefit of the inhabitants of such city and may 
levy a tax of not to exceed one and two-tenths ( i 
and 2^10) mills on the dollar annually, on all 
the taxable property in the city: Provided, that in 
cities of over one hundred and fifty thousand in- 
habitants, such tax shall not exceed for the years 
1935, 1936 and 1937, three-quarters of one mill 
on the dollar of the assessed valuation; or at such 
rate which will produce, when extended, an 
amount not to exceed one million eight hundred 
thousand dollars ($1,800,000) whichever may 
be greater; and for the year 1938 and thereafter 
three-quarters of one mill on each dollar of the 
assessed valuation annually for maintenance and 
operation and an additional tax of one-tenth 
( r 10) of a mill on the dollar annually for the 
purchase of sites and buildings and for the con- 



30 



struction and equipment of buildings, for library 
purposes, such tax to be levied and collected in 
like manner with the general taxes of said city, 
and to be known as a library fund; provided, that 
said library taxes shall be in addition to all other 
taxes or tax rates authorized to be levied by any 
city, village or incorporated town or other tax- 
ing authority and shall not be subject to reduc- 
tion under the provisions of 'An Act concerning 
the levy and extension of taxes,' approved May 9, 
1 90 1, as amended, nor be a part of the taxes 
making up the aggregate which determines the 
rate of reduction under said Act, nor a part of the 
taxes making up the rate prescribed as the limit 
of reduction under said Act nor a part of the taxes 
making up any rate prescribed as a limitation on 
the amount of taxes any city, village, incorporated 
town or other taxing authority may levy."' 

Section i of the Public Library Act was 
amended by the state legislature in 1937. It now 
pro\'ides: 

. . . .that in cities of over 150,000 the tax for 
library purposes for the year 1938, and annually 
thereafter shall not exceed the rate of .75 of a 
mill or a rate which when extended will produce 
an amount not to exceed $2,000,000 instead of the 
present $i,8oo,ooo.' 

The appointment of directors for the public 
library system was delegated to the mayor of the 
city by Section 2 of the Act of 1872. 

"When any city council shall have decided to 
establish and maintain a public library and read- 
ing room, under this Act, the mayor of such city 
shall, with the approval of the city council pro- 
ceed to appoint a board of nine directors for the 
same, chosen from the citizens at large with refer- 
ence to their fitness for such office; and not more 
than one member of the city council shall be at 
any one time a member of said board."" 

These directors hold office for terms of three 
years or until their successors are appointed; and 
are subject to remo\'al by the mayor, by and with 
the consent of the cit\' council, for misconduct 
or neglect of duty." The functions and powers of 
directors, who receive no compensation for their 
services, are: 

"They shall make and adopt such by-laws, 
rules and regulations for their own guidance and 

'Cahill, C. J., and Moore, F. D.. Revised Slalulcs vj Ihc SUile 
of Illinois, Callaghan and Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1935, 
ch. 81, par. 1, sec. !. 

•Eden, A. ¥.., Taylor, H. J., and Legislative Reference Bnrcaii, 
I.egislalixc S'vunf>sis and Digest uf the Si.vlielli General .Issem- 
bh. Slate I'l Illinois. No. 20, 1W7. 

'Cahill, C. J., and Mooro, K. D., op. cil. ch. J!l, par. 2. 



for the government of the library and reading 
room as may be expedient, not inconsistent with 
this Act. They shall have the exclusive control of 
the expenditure of all moneys collected for such 
library and deposited to the credit of the library 
fund, and of the construction of any library build- 
ing, and of the supervision, care and custody of 
the grounds, rooms or buildings constructed, 
leased or set apart for that purpose."* 

The board is further empowered to "purchase 
or lease grounds or to purchase, lease, or erect and 
occupy an appropriate building or buildings for 
the use of said library,"^ and is permitted to re- 
model or reconstruct such buildings to conform to 
library purposes or needs. The board is also 
authorized, with the approval and consent of the 
city council, to "sell or otherwise dispose of any 
real or personal property that it deems no longer 
necessary or useful for library purposes."' Ap- 
pointment of a suitable library staff and the fixing 
of the compensation for employees are also among 
the functions and powers of library boards in Illi- 
nois. The Library Enabling Act as amended, pro- 
vides for the use of the library in the following 



"Every library and reading room, established 
under this Act, shall be forever free to the use of 
the inhabitants of the city where located, always 
subject to such reasonable rules and regulations 
as the library board may adopt, in order to render 
the use of said library and reading room of the 
greatest benefit to the greatest number; and said 
board may exclude from the use of said library 
and reading room any and all persons who shall 
willfully violate such rules. And said board may 
extend the privileges and use of such library and 
reading room to persons residing outside of such 
city in this state, upon such terms and conditions 
as said board may from time to time by its regula- 
tions prescribe."' 

The boards of directors of public libraries are 
required by Section 7 of the Library .Act as 
amended to submit reports to the city council in 
accordance with the following regulations: 

"Within fifteen davs after the expiration of 
each fiscal >-ear of the city, incorporated town, 
township or \'illage, the board of directors shall 
make a report of the condition of their trust on the 
last day of the fiscal year, to the city council, board 

'Ihid. par. B, sec. 5. 

"■Ibid. 

'Ihid. 

'Cahill, C. ].. and >ruorc, F. D., of. eit. c!i. 81. par. 6, sec. 0. 



31 



of town auditors or board of trustees, as the case 
may be. This report shall be made in writing and 
shall be verified under oath by the secretary, or 
some other responsible officer of the board of 
directors. It shall contain (a) an itemized state- 
ment of the various sums of money received from 
the library fund and from other sources and (b) 
an itemized statement of the objects and purposes 
for which those sums of money have been ex- 
pended; (c) a statement of the number of books 
and periodicals available for use, and the number 
and character thereof circulated; (d) a statement 
of the real and personal property acquired by de- 
vise, bequest, purchase, gift or otherwise; (e) a 
statement of the character of any extensions of 
library service which have been undertaken; (f) 
a statement of the financial requirements of the 
library for the ensuing fiscal year, and of the rate 
of tax which, in the judgment of the board of 
directors, it will be necessary to levy for library 
purposes in the next annual tax levy ordinance; 
and (g) any other statistics, information and sug- 
gestions that may be of interest. A report shall 
also be filed, at the same time, with the Illinois 
Library Extension Commission."^ 

The city council is empowered to provide 
penalties for misuse of library property in the 
following manner: 

"The city council of said city shall have power 
to pass ordinances imposing suitable penalties for 
the punishment of persons committing injury 
upon such library or the grounds or other prop- 
erty thereof, and for injury to or failure to return 
any book belonging to such library."' 

The right of individuals to make contributions 
to public libraries is explained by Section 9. 

"Any person desiring to make donations of 
money, personal property or real estate for the 
benefit of such library, shall have the right to vest 
the title to the money or real estate so donated, 
in the board of directors created under this Act, to 
be held and controlled by such board, when ac- 
cepted, according to the terms of the deed, gift, 
devise or bequest of such property; and as to such 
property the said board shall be held and con- 
sidered to be special trustees."^ 

The erection of buildings is provided for by 
Section 13 of the Act, as amended June 18, 1935: 

"Whenever any board of directors of any public 
library organized under the provisions of this Act, 

'Cahill and Moore, o/". cil. rli. SI, par. 7, sec. 7. 
'Ibid, par. 8, sec. 8. 
'Ibid, par. 9. 



shall determine to erect a building to be used for ' 
their library, or to purchase a site for the same, or ; 
to furnish necessary equipment therefor, or to do 
any or all of said things, or to purchase a building 
and site, and necessary equipment for said library, , 
or to provide or accumulate a fund for the erec- I 
tion or purchase of such building, or to pay for a \ 
library site, or to purchase necessary equipment 
for said library, or to do any or all of said things, 
they may do so as follows: 

"In case a new building is to be erected, the 
board of directors shall cause a plan for such 
building to be prepared and an estimate to be 
made of the cost. If a site is to be provided for 
the same, they shall also cause an estimate to be 
made of the cost of such site. If necessary equip- 
ment is to be provided for said library, they shall 
cause an estimate to be made of the cost of such ; 
equipment. They may then determine the term ' 
of years over which they shall spread the collec- 
tion of the cost of such building, or site, or equip- 
ment, or any of said things, not exceeding twenty 
(20) years, and shall make a record of their said 
proceedings. The library directors of a public 
library organized in any city, village or incorpor- 
ated town shall transmit a copy of the record of 
their said proceedings to the city council or board 
of trustees for its approval. If such city council or , 
board of trustees shall approve the action of the I 
library board, it may, by ordinance, provide that I 
bonds of the city, village or incorporated town be \ 
issued for the payment of the cost fso estimated 1 
as aforesaid) of the said building, or site, or | 
equipment, or any of said things, in which event ! 
the said ordinance shall also state the time or 
times when such bonds, and the interest thereon, 
shall become payable: Provided, that the whole 
of the principal of such bonds and the interest 
thereon shall be payable within twenty (20) 
years: Provided, further, that the interest on such 
bonds shall not exceed the rate of five (5) per 
cent per annum; but the said interest may be 
made payable at such time (annually or semian- 
nually") as the said ordinance shall prescribe: 
Provided, always, that in case said council or 
board of trustees shall provide for such payment 
by the issuance of bonds, it shall make provision 
at or before the issuance thereof, by ordinance, 
which shall be irrepealable, for the levy and col- 
lection of a direct annual tax upon all the taxable 
property within such city, village or incorporated 
town, sufficient to meet the principal and interest 
of said bonds as the same mature, which tax shall 
be in addition to that otherwise authorized to be 
levied and collected for corporate purposes. If, 
however, the said council or board of trustees 



32 



shall not provide that bonds of the city, village or 
incorporated town be issued as and for the pur- 
pose aforesaid, but shall otherwise approve the 
action of the said library board, then the library 
board shall divide the total cost of said building, 
or site, or equipment, or any of said things, into 
as many parts as they sha-ll determine to spread 
the collection thereof, and shall certify the 
amount of one of said parts to said council or 
board of trustees each and every year during the 
terms over which they shall have determined to 
spread the collection of the cost of such building, 
or site, or equipment, or any of said things. 

"The said council or board of trustees on receiv- 
ing said last mentioned certificate shall, in its next 
annual appropriation bill, include the amount so 
certified, and shall, for the amount so certified, 
levy and collect a tax to pay the same with the 
other general taxes of the city, village or incor- 
porated town, and the proceeds of such tax shall 
be paid over by the officer charged with the col- 
lection thereof to the board of directors of such 
library in cities, villages and incorporated towns 
having a population of five thousand inhabitants 
or less to be applied by such board of directors to 
the purpose for which such tax was levied. Pro- 
vided, the said levy shall not exceed one and two- 
thirds mills on the dollar in any one year, and 
shall not be levied oftener than for the number of 
years into which the library board in those cases 
where bonds are not issued, as aforesaid, shall 
have divided the cost of said building, or site, or 
equipment, or any of said things; and when col- 
lected as last aforesaid, the tax shall cease. 

"Such board of directors shall have authority to 
enter into contracts and to take title to any prop- 
erty acquired by it for library purposes by the 
name and style of 'The Board of Library Direc- 
tors of the (citv, village, town or township) of 

It will be observed that the legislation thus far 
mentioned does not create public libraries, but is 
permissive in character and pro\'idcs that such 
agencies may be established and thereupon places 
the limitations and restrictions upon them in the 
event they are established. The responsibility for 
the creation of the public library therefore is 
placed upon the city council. The Chicago Pub- 
lic library was established by the city council 
of the City of Chicago in accordance with the 
aforementioned legislation. Inasmuch as the func- 
tions of the library director are \'ery clearly de- 

'Cahill, C. J., and ^roore, F. D., of- cil., ch. 81, par. 13. 



fined, and the responsibility for the operation of 
the library system is placed by the state legisla- 
ture in that body, the city code provides for the 
establishment of the library in one brief clause: 
"There is hereby established a free public library 
and reading room for the use of inhabitants of 
the city, which shall be called The Chicago Pub- 
lic Library."' The only other statutory enactments 
of the city council referring to the public library 
provide for all departments of the city to send to 
the public library six copies of all printed reports 
and public documents, and provide a fine of five 
dollars to fifty dollars for each offense of willful 
or malicious destruction of books or other things 
of value belonging to the public library and a fine 
of not less than ten dollars nor more than one 
hundred dollars for malicious or willful injury on 
the grounds, buildings, furniture and fixtures of 
the library. Fines of not less than one dollar nor 
more than ten dollars for failure to comply with 
the requirements of the by-laws of the Library 
Board regarding the returning of books, conclude 
the statutes of the City of Chicago relating to the 
operation of the Chicago Public Library. 

Cook County Forest Preserves 

The Cook County Forest Preserve District was 
formally organized on February 15, 1915, as a 
result of a referendum by the people of Cook 
County, in accordance with "an Act to provide for 
the creation and management of Forest Preserve 
Districts" as approved June 27, 19 13, which pro- 
vided: 

"That whenever any area of contiguous terri- 
tory lying wholly within one county contains one 
or more natural forests or parks thereof and one 
or more cities, towns or villages, such territory 
ma\' be incorporated as a forest preserve district in 
the following manner, to wit: 

"Any five hundred legal voters residing within 
the limits of such proposed district may petition 
a circuit judge of the county in which such pro- 
posed district lies, to cause the question to be sub- 
mitted to the legal voters of such proposed dis- 
trict whether or not it shall be organized as a for- 
est preserve district under this Act, such petition 
shall be addressed to the circuit judge or judges 
of the county in which such proposed forest pre- 
serve district is situated and shall contain a defi- 
nite description of the territory intended to be 

'Biiscli. F. X., and Honistcin, L., Fc-.-iscd Chicago Code of 
1031. ch. 7, art. 1, .sec. 626. 



33 



embraced in such ciistrict, ancH the name of such 
district. . . .After the entry of the order 
fixing and defining the boundaries and the name 
of such proposed district, it shall be the duty of 
said circuit judge to order to be submitted to the 
legal voters of such proposed district at any spe- 
cial or general election held therein. . . ."'' 

". . . .if a majority of the votes cast in any 
district upon such question is found to be in favor 
of the organization of such forest preserve district, 
such forest preserve district shall thenceforth be 
deemed an organized forest preser\e district un- 
der this Act."' 

The Act pro\'ided further for the management 
of the district by a board of commissioners who, in 
the instance of districts which are co-extensive 
with the boundaries of any other city, village, in- 
corporated town, or sanitary district, shall consist 
of the corporate authorities of such count}', city, 
village, incorporated towns or sanitary district. 
Sections 5 and 6 as amended pro\'ided the 
commissioners with the power to create forest pre- 
serves through the following procedure: 

"Any forest preser\'e district organized under 
this Act shall have the power to create forest pre- 
serves, and for that purpose shall have the power 
to acquire in the manner hereinafter provided, 
and hold lands containing one or more natural 
forests or parts thereof or land or lands connect- 
ing such forests or parts thereof, for the purpose 
of protecting and preserving the flora, fauna and 
scenic beauties within such district, anci to restore, 
restock, protect and preserve the natural forests 
and said lands together with their flora and 
fauna, as nearly as may be, in their natural state 
and condition, for the purpose of the education, 
pleasure and recreation of the public. 

"Lands may be acquired for the consolidation 
of such preserves into unit areas of size and form 
convenient and desirable for public use and eco- 
nomical maintenance and improvement and when 
in the judgment of the board of commissioners, 
the public access, use and enjoyment of such pre- 
serves and other purposes of this Act will be 
served by connecting any such preserves with for- 
ested ways or links, lands for connecting links of 
such width, length and location as the board of 
commissioners deem necessary or desirable may be 
acquired and held for such purposes and improved 
by forestation, roads and pathways. Any such 
district may also acquire lands along water courses 
or elsewhere which, in the judgment of jts board 

'Cahill. C. I., anil M...ir<-, 1'. I)., <//■. ril.. .ii. .va, jur. 1, sec. 1. 
7/.;V/, par. 2, sec. 2. 



of commissioners, are required to control drain- 
age and water conditions and necessary for the 
preservation of forested areas acquired or to be 
acquired as preserves. Unforested lands adjacent 
to forest preserves may also be acquired to pro- 
vide for extension of roads and forested ways 
around and by such preserves and for parking 
space for automobiles and other facilities not re- 
quiring forested areas but incidental to the use 
and protection thereof." 

"All}- such district shall ha\'e power to acquire 
lands and grounds within such district for the 
af(jresaid purposes by gift, grant, devise, pur- 
chase or condemnation and to construct, lay out, 
improve and maintain wells, power plants, com- 
fort stations, shelter houses, paths, driveways, 
roadways and other improvements and facilities 
in and through said forest preser\'es as they shall 
deem necessary or desirable for the use of such 
forest preserves by the public. If any of the 
poVv'crs to acquire lands and hold or improve the 
same gi\'en to Forest Preserve Districts, by Sec- 
tions 5 and 6 of this Act should be held in- 
\'alid, such invalidity shall not invalidate the re- 
mainder of this Act of any of the other powers 
herein given and conferred upon the Forest Pre- 
serve Districts. Such Forest Preserve Districts 
shall also have power to lease not to exceed forty 
acres of the lands and grounds acquired by it, for 
a term of not more than ninety-nine years to 
\'cterans' organizations as grounds for convalesc- 
ing sick and disabled veterans, and as a place 
upon which to construct rehabilitation quarters."* 

The power to control the Forest Preserve Dis- 
tricts under their jurisdiction was given to the 
board of commissioners, who may "by ordinance 
regulate and control the speed of travel on all 
paths, driveways and roadways within Forest Pre- 
ser^'es, and prohibit the use of such paths, drive- 
ways and roadways for racing or speeding pur- 
poses, and may exclude therefrom traffic, teams 
and vehicles, and may by ordinance prescribe such 
fines and penalties for the violation of their ordi- 
nances as cities and villages are allowed to pre- 
scribe for the violation of their ordinances."'' In 
addition, as corporate authorities of such Forest 
Preserve Districts the board of commissioners: 

"Shall have power to pass and enforce all neces- 
sary ordinances, rules and regulations for the 
management of the property and conduct of the 
business of such district. Such board shall have 

'Iliid. par. 5, sec. S. 
'Ibid, par. C, sec. 6. 
'iliiil. par. 7, .sec. 7. 



34 



power to appoint a secretary and treasurer and 
such other officers and such employees as may be 
necessary, all of whom, excepting the treasurer 
and attorneys, shall be under civil service rules 
and regulations, as provided for in Section 9 of 
this Act. All contracts for supplies, material or 
work involving an expenditure in excess of 
$500.00 shall be let to the lowest responsible bid- 
der, after due advertisement, excepting work re- 
quiring personal confidence or necessary supplies 
under the control of monopolies, where competi- 
tive bidding is impossible. All contracts for sup- 
plies, material or work shall be signed by the 
president of the board of commissioners and by 
any such other officer as the board in its discretion 
may designate."^ 

To enforce ordinances and laws and to preserve 
the public peace in the Forest Preserves the com- 
missioners of I-'orest Preserve Districts are 
granted the right tu appoint and maintain a suffi- 
cient police force who have complete jurisdiction 
over the Preserves in land outside the limits of 
cities and villages, but who within such corporate 
limits are subject to the direction of its chief of 
police. In the event the county operates under 
civil service regulations, Section 9 provides that 
all employees of such forest preser\e district ex- 
cept the treasurer and attorneys shall be selected 
in the manner provided by the law regulating the 
civil service in such county and all such employees 
shall be subject at all times to the provisions of 
such Act. 

The board of commissioners is required to sub- 
mit records annually to the board of county com- 
missioners, indicating: 

". . . .the revenues received, expenditures 
made, land acquired, with the progress of con- 
struction work, the condition of the property anci 
such other matters as may have been acted upon 
by the biiard during the previous year."' 

Section 1 1 requires the publication of ordi- 
] nances imposing fines or appropriating moneys in 
a newspaper of general circulation within the dis- 
I trict which do ncjt become effective imtil ten days 
I after such publication. All other ordinances of 
the district in order to become legal in courts 
I without further proof must be published in hook 
j or pamphlet form under the seal of the district. 
1 The president of the board of commissioners 
j presides at all meetings, and as the executive of- 
ficer of the (.listrict signs all ordinances, resolu- 



'Caliill. C. I.. ; 
' I hill. par. 11. 



!■. I).. W. 



n. p.ir. S. 



tions, and other papers, and executes contracts and 
other duties as may be prescribed by ordinance. 
He has the power to veto, which may be circum- 
vented by the repassage of vetoed ordinances by 
two-thirds \'ote of the board. 

Provision was made for bond issues and gen- 
eral taxation by Section 13 of the Forest Preserve 
Act in the following clause: 

"The board of commissioners of any forest pre- 
serve district, organized hereunder, shall have 
power to raise money by general taxation, for any 
of the purposes enumerated in this Act, and power 
to borrow money upon the faith and credit of 
such district, and to issue bonds therefor: Pro- 
vided, hoijcever, such district shall not become in- 
debted in any manner or for any purpose, to any 
amount including existing indebtedness in the ag- 
gregate exceeding one per centum of the assessed 
\'alue of the taxable property therein, as ascer- 
tained by the last equalized assessment for state 
and county purposes. No such district shall incur 
indebtedness for any purpose other than the ac- 
quisition of land unless the proposition to issue 
bonds or otherwise incur such indebtedness shall 
have been first submitted to the legal voters of 
such district at a general election or at any special 
election called for such purpose and shall have 
been approved by a majority of those voting upon 
the proposition; and no such district shall incur 
indebtedness for the acquisition of land or lands 
in excess of thirty-five thousand acres, including 
all lands theretofore acquired, unless the proposi- 
tion to issue bonds or otherwise incur such indebt- 
edness shall have been first submitted to the 
voters of such district at a general election or at 
any special election called for such purpose and 
shall have been approved by a majority of those 
voting upon the proposition. Before or at the 
time of issuing bonds, the board of commissioners 
shall provide by ordinance for the collection of 
an annual tax sufficient to pay the interest on such 
bonds as it falls due, and to pay such bonds as 
they mature and said tax to so pay the interest 
on said bonds as it falls due and to pav said bonds 
as they mature, shall not be permitted to increase 
the taxing power of said district as herein pro- 
\'ided for, excepting in forest preserve districts 
containing a population of two hundred thousand 
or more. .All bonds issued by any forest preserve 
district shall be divided into series, the first of 
which shall mature not later than five years after 
the date of issue and the last of which shall ma- 
ture not later than twenty years after the date of 
issue. 



35 



"All general taxes levied by the board of com- 
missioners of any forest preserve district shall be 
levied at the same time and in the same manner 
as taxes are levied for city and village purposes; 
frovided, that the amount of taxes levied for one 
year shall not exceed the rate of one-half (^) 
of one mill on each dollar of the assessed value 
of the taxable property therein, as ascertained by 
the last equalized assessment for state and county 
purposes; provided, that in forest preserve dis- 
tricts containing a population of two hundred 
thousand or more such commissioners may levy a 
tax of not exceeding nine-fortieths (9/40) of one 
mill on the dollar of such valuation for general, 
corporate purposes, in addition to the taxes re- 
quired for the payment of bonds and interest on 
bonds and provided further, that in such districts 
for the year ending December 31, 1935, such 
commissioners may, by separate ordinance, 
adopted on or before September 17, 1935, levy an 
additional tax for general corporate purposes not 
to exceed 3/40ths of one mill on the dollar of such 
valuation without any appropriation thereof being 
made in the annual appropriation ordinance or 
otherwise, provided, that the purposes and the 
amount levied for each purpose, shall be stated 
separately. 

"The county clerk in reducing tax levies as and 
when required to do so by virtue of the provisions 
of 'An Act concerning the levy and extension of 
taxes,' approved May 9, 1 901, as amended, shall 
not include the taxes levied by the board of com- 
missioners of any forest preserve district In the 
aggregate of all taxes to be reduced and no reduc- 
tion of any tax levy made under the provisions of 
said Act above mentioned, as amended, shall 
diminish any amount appropriated or levied by 
the board of commissioners of any such forest pre- 
serve district. All moneys collected under the 
provisions of this Act shall be paid to the treas- 
urer of such district."' 

In addition, an Act concerning zoological parks 
in Forest Preserve Districts as amended permits 
additional taxation for the construction and main- 
tenance of such facilities. 

"For the purpose of constructing and maintain- 
ing and caring for any such zoological park and 
the buildings and grounds thereof and of secur- 
ing and displaying zoological collections thereon 
the corporate authorities of any forest preserve 
district containing a population of two hundred 
thousand or more are hereby authorized to levy 
annually a tax on all taxable property in such dis- 
trict as assessed for the purpose of county taxa- 

and Moore, F. D., o/". cit., cli. 57a, par. 14, 



tion, of not to exceed three-fortieths of one mill 

on the dollar 

"Said taxes shall be levied and collected in like 
manner with the general taxes of such forest pre- 
serve district and shall be in addition to the maxi- 
mum of all other taxes and tax rates which such 
district is now or may hereafter be authorized to 
levy upon the aggregate valuation of all taxable 
property within such district and shall be exclu- 
sive of and in addition to the maximum amount 
and rate of taxes such district is now or may here- 
after be authorized to levy for general purposes 
under and by virtue of Section 13 of 'An Act to 
provide for the creation and management of for- 
est preserve districts and repealing certain Acts 
therein named,' approved June 27, 1913, as 
amended, or under and by virtue of any other 
law or laws which may limit the amount of tax 
which such district may levy for general purposes. 
The county clerk of the county in which such for- 
est preserve district is located, in reducing tax 
levies under the provisions of 'An Act concern- 
ing the levy and extension of taxes,' approved 
May 9, 1 90 1, as amended, shall not consider any 
such taxes as a part of the general tax levy for 
forest preserve purposes, and shall not include 
the same in the limitation of one (i) per cent of | 
the assessed valuation upon which taxes are re- ' 
quired to be extended, and shall not reduce the j 
same under the provisions of said Act. The pro- ; 
ceeds of the tax herein authorized shall be kept j 
as a separate fund."' 1 

The creation of such zoological parks is placed 1 
with the board of commissioners, who: | 

". . . . are hereby authorized to erect and maintain 1 
within such forest preserves, under the control or ! 
supervision of such corporate authorities, edifices i 
to be used for the collection and display of ani- 1 
mals as customary in zoological parks, and to col- \ 
lect and display such animals, or to permit the 
directors or trustees of any zoological society de- 
voted to the purposes aforesaid to erect and main- 
tain a zoological park and to collect and display 
zoological collections within any forest pre- 
serve, now or hereafter under the control or su- 
pervision of such forest preserve district, out of 
funds belonging to such zoological society, or to 
contract with the directors or trustees of any 
zoological society on such terms and conditions 
as may to such corporate authorities seem best, ^ 
relative to the erection, operation and mainte- | 
nance of a zoological park and the collection and 
display of such animals within such forest pre- 
serve out of the tax hereinafter in this Act pro- 
vided. 



7/'jW, par. 19, sec. 2. 



36 



"Such forest preserve district may charge, or 
permit such zoological park society to charge, an 
admission fee not to exceed fifty cents for each 
visitor over ten years of age and not exceeding 
twenty-five cents for each visitor of ten years of 
age or under, the proceeds of such admission fee 
to be devoted exclusively to the operation and 
maintenance of such zoological park and the col- 
lections therein; provided, that all such zoological 
parks shall be open to the public without charge 
for at least three days each week, and to the chil- 
dren in actual attendance upon any of the schools 
in the State at all times."^ 

State Forests 

Through enactment of the state legislature, 
approved July a, i9-5, state forests are estab- 
lished and managed in the following manner: 

"The Department of Conservation shall have 
control, supervision and management of all state 
forests herein provided for and hereafter to be 
established. 

"State forests shall include only such lands as 
are decided by the Department of Conservation 
to be more valuable for the growing of forests 
than for other purposes, and shall have for their 
purpose the production of forest products, the 
protection of watersheds that are subject to serious 
erosion, the maintenance of purity of springs and 
streams and to afford recreation places for the 
people of the state. 

"The Department of Conservation may pur- 
chase, lease, receive by donation or devise or take 
options on tracts of land suitable for state forests. 
The department may also acquire title by con- 
demnation in the name of the State of Illinois 
under the laws relating to eminent domain. Such 
proceedings shall be conducted by the Attorney 
General at the request of the department. 

"From time to time, as tracts of land are ac- 
quired, the department shall designate and or- 
ganize such lands as state forests. The depart- 
ment shall protect such lands from fire and tres- 
pass and cause them to be so managed as to pro- 
duce continuous crops of timber for use of the 
people and industries of the state. 

"Timber grown on such forests may be sold un- 
der rules and regulations of the department, but 
all cutting and removal of forest products shall 
be in accordance with the best practices of forestry. 
The department shall make such forests accessible 
to the general public by improved highways lead- 
ing through them. 

"The department shall have authority to estab- 
lish forest nurseries for the growing of trees for 

'Cahill, C. J., and Moore, F. D., oj'. cil., cli. S7a, par. 18, 
sec. 1. 



planting in the state forests, and to procure or 
acquire tree seeds for nursery use. Such planting 
stock as is not required in the state forest may be 
sold at not less than cost to landowners within 
the state for planting purposes, but all such plant- 
ing shall be under plans approved by the depart- 
ment. 

"The department shall employ such foresters, 
cruisers and other assistance as are necessary for 
the acquisition of such state forests and for their 
administration, protection, improvement and use. 
It shall make reasonable rules for the regulation 
of the use of such state forests by the public. Such 
regulations and rules shall be posted in conspicu- 
ous places in such state forests."' 

Penalties are pro\'ided for the following of- 
fenses: 

"Whoever: 

1. Willfully destroys, injures or defaces a 
guide post, sign, fence, enclosure or structure 
within a state forest; or 

2. Willfully destro\'s, injures or removes a 
tree, shrub or plant or flower within a state for- 
est; or 

3. Violates any reasonable regulation adopted 
by the department and published by posting in 
conspicuous places 

Is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of not less than five dollars 
($5.00) and not more than one hundred dollars 
($100.00), or by imprisonment for not more than 
three months, or by both fine and imprisonment."^ 

"The department shall have authority to desig- 
nate portions of the state forests as game or fish 
sanctuaries and shall promulgate rules and regu- 
lations for the protection and breeding of game 
or fish within such areas."' 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation, artd Aviation 

The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\-iation 
is a division of the Department of Public Works 
of the City of Chicago and is regarded as the 
municipal playground system of the city. The 
Bureau was established under the jurisdiction and 
control of the Commissioners of Public Works 
by ordinance of the city council passed January 
31, 19 1 7. However, prior to that, the Bureau 
had existed as the operating unit under the Spe- 
cial Park Commission, which was created by the 
city council November 6, 1899. Tho City of 
Chicago even before the establishment of the 



~-lh!J. par, 22-2S.. sec. 1-7. 
•V(>r<y. par. 29. sec. 8. 
'Ibid, i>ar. 30, sec. 9. 



37 



Bureau of Parks and Playgrounds under the Spe- 
cial Park ComiTiission controlled park properties 
through powers given it by the state legislature; 
in fact, e\'en in the charter creating the city, pro- 
\ision is made by Chapter 7 that "the common 

council shall ha\c powci" from time to time 

t(j impro\'e, protect, ancf ornament any public 
st^uare now or hereaftei- laid out." The Municipal 
Cocie of 1856, Chapter 45, in incficating the func- 
tions of the \arious city departments pro\'ided 
that: 

"It shall be the duty of the Street Commission 
to superintend all inclosed public grounds in their 
respective divisions and keep the fences thereof in 
repair, the walks in order and trees properly 
trimmed. They shall likewise cause printed or 
written copies of the second and third sections and 
other ordinances to be posted in the said grounds 
or parks." 

A revision of the laws and ordinances placed 
this authority in 1866 in the Board of Public 
Works, which was charged with the duty "to take 
special charge and superintendence . . . of . . . pub- 
lic places public ground and parks in said 

city." The state legislature empowered the city to 
provide for park and playground functions in the 
following manner: 

"The City of Chicago may acquire, by purchase 
or otherwise, municipal parks, playgrounds, pub- 
lic beaches and bathing places, and improve, 
equip, maintain and regulate the same. 

"The city may exercise the right of eminent do- 
main by condemnation proceedings in conformity 
with the provisions of the constitution and stat- 
utes of the State of Illinois for the acquirement 
of property useful, advantageous or desirable for 
municipal purposes, and the procedure in such 
cases shall be, as nearly as may be, like that pro- 
vided for in an Act entitled 'An Act concerning 
local improvements,' approved June 14, 1897, in 
force July, 1897, as now or hereafter from time 
to time amended."^ 

The cities of over 75,000 in population are 
granted the further power and authority to 
acquire and construct, manage and control, main- 
tain and operate within the corporate limits of 
such a municipal convention hall or halls, with all 
necessary adjuncts thereto. 

In providing for the use of such convention halls, 
the state legislature granted to the city the power 
and authority to license or lease out such facilities 



'Cahill, C. I., and Moore, F. I)., 
sec. 6-7. 



o/-. i-il.. cli. 24, par. 296-297, 



and for the city council to pass ordinances regu- 
lating such plants. The City of Chicago, by an 
Act benefiting only cities in the state of over 500,- 
000 in population, also has the power and author- 
ity to contract for the purpose of arranging gen- 
eral exhibitions, dances, entertainments, or cele- 
brations and is permitted to provide for the neces- 
sary expenses out of the miscellaneous receipts of 
the city. 

The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation, 
as it now exists, operates under the following or- 
dinances: 

"There is hereby established the Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation, which shall be 
under the jurisdiction and control of the commis- 
sioner of public works, and shall embrace such 
employees as the city council may provide. 

"There is hereby created the office of superin- 
tendent of parks, recreation and aviation, who 
shall be under the immediate jurisdiction and con- 
trol of the commissioner of public works, and who 
shall have the management and control of all city 
parks, public squares, triangles and other open 
spaces at street intersections, city playgrounds, 
bathing beaches and swimming pools, public baths 
and comfort stations, the recreation end of the 
Navy Pier, the municipal airport, and of all trees, 
plants and shrubs planted and to be planted in the 
streets and public highways of the City of Chi- 
cago, and the municipal nursery, including their 
construction, operation and maintenance. 

"The superintendent of the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation, under the direction of 
the commissioner of public works, shall have 
jurisdiction over all city parks, public squares, 
triangles, municipal playgrounds, municipal bath- 
ing beaches, swimming pools, now established or 
hereafter established or created, and also over all 
municipal bath houses, comfort stations, municipal 
nursery, municipal airports, the recreation end of 
Navy Pier and street parkways. 

"Such employes of the Bureau of Parks, Recre- 
ation and Aviation as the commissioner of public 
works or the superintendent of said bureau may 
designate shall have full police powers, and for 
that purpose shall be sworn in as special police- 
inen by the commissioner of police, and furnished 
with suitable badges of authority, and shall have 
full power to eject from any public park, play- 
ground, bathing beach, public bath or airport, any 
person who acts in a disorderly manner, or in a 
manner calculated to injure the property of the 
city within such public park, playground, bathing 
beach, public bath or airport, or in a manner cal- 



38 



culated to interfere with the full enjoyment of 
same by the public. 

"The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avia- 
tion, under the direction of the commissioner of 
public works, shall have full power and authority 
over all trees, plants and shrubs planted and to be 
planted in the streets and public highways of the 
City of Chicago, including the right to plant new 
trees and to care for the same, and to that end 
the said commissioner is authorized to appoint ac- 
cording to law a person to be known as city 
forester, who shall be a man skilled and learneti 
in the science of forestry. It shall be the duty 
of the city forester, under the control and direc- 
tion of the superintendent of the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation, to superintend, regulate 
and encourage the preservation, culture and plant- 
ing of shade and ornamental trees, plants and 
shrubbery in the streets and public highways of 
the City of Chicago; to prune, spray, cultivate 
and otherwise maintain such trees, plants and 
shrubbery, and to direct the time and method of 
trimming the same; to advise, without charge, 
owners and occupants of lots regarding the kind 
of trees, plants and shrubbery and the method of 
planting best adapted to, or most desirable on, 
particular streets, and to take such measures as 
may be deemed necessary for the control and ex- 
termination of insects and other pests and plant 
diseases which may injuriously affect trees, plants 
or shrubs that are now growing or may hereafter 
be growing on the streets or public highways of 
the City of Chicago. He shall report to the 
corporation counsel of the City of Chicago all 
cases which may come to his knowledge of viola- 
tions of ordinances respecting such trees, plants 
and shrubbery. 

"The city forester shall, subject to such rules 
and regulations as the commissioner of public 
works may prescribe, keep a record of all transac- 
tions of his office, and shall, whenever the com- 
missioner of public works may require, make a 
full and detailed report of such transactions."' 

Bureau of Recreation of the Board of Education 

The Bureau of Recreation of the Board of 
Education, under whose control all super\ised 
school playgrounds are placed, was established by 
the Board of Education of the City of Chicago as 
a result of the Act to pro\'ide for the control and 
maintenance and operation of playgrounds In- 
boards of education in cities ha\ing a population 
exceeding 500,000 inhabitants. Tiiis Act, passed 

'Biisch, F. X., and Hi)rnstciii, L.. Revised Chietuio Code of 
1931, ch. 4, art. .?. div. G, sec. 203-8. 



by the State legislature at the request of the board 
of education, states: 

"That the board of education in any city having 
a population exceeding 500,000 inhabitants shall 
take control and management of all public play- 
grounds now owned or hereafter accjuired by any 
such city, which are adjacent to or connected with 
any public school in such city and shall equip, 
maintain and operate the same for the moral, in- 
tellectual and physical welfare of the children 
and persons using them; the title to all lands oc- 
cupied as such playgrounds shall \'est in and be 
held by such city in trust for the use of schools: 
Provided, /lozvever, that nothing herein contained 
shall prevent any such city from owning and op- 
erating parks, bathing beaches, municipal piers 
and athletic fields as is now or may hereafter be 
provided by law."' 

Provision for financial support for such play- 
grounds is provided by Section 2 of the Act. 

"The city council of any such city shall, upon 
demand, and under the direction of such board 
of education, annually levy for the purpose of 
equipping, maintaining and operating play- 
grounds adjacent to or connected with any public 
school under the control of such board of edu- 
cation or school district, an annual tax not exceed- 
ing one-fourth (J4) of one {1) mill on each dol- 
lar of assessed value of all taxable property, on 
all taxable property in such city, said tax to be 
known as school playground tax; provided, that 
the amount of tax so levied for the year 1931 and 
each year thereafter shall be subject to the further 
limitation that it shall not exceed the estimated 
amount of taxes to be levied for any such year as 
determined in accordance with the provisions of 
Section 135^ of 'An Act to establish and main- 
tain a system of free schools,' approved and in 
force June 12, 1909, as amended, and set forth 
in the annual school Isudget of such board of edu- 
cation; and in ascertaining the rate per cent that 
will produce the amount of any such tax, the 
county clerk shall not add to such tax or rate an\- 
sum or amount to co\'er the loss and cost of col- 
lecting such tax. Said tax shall be in addition to 
the maximum of all other taxes which the school 
district, \illage or city is now, or may hereafter 
be, authorized to levy upon the aggregate \-aIu- 
ation of all taxable propert\- within the school 
district, village or city, and the count\ clerk in 
reducing taxes le\'ied as and when required so to 
do, by virtue of the provisions of an .\ct entitled, 
'.\n Act concerning the levy and extension of 
taxes,' approved Ma\- 9, IQOI, in force July i, 



-Caliill. C. .1 , 



cli. J4, i>ar. (>■ 



39 



1901, as subsequently amended, shall not consider 
said playground tax as part of the tax levy of the 
school district, village or city required to be in- 
cluded in the aggregate of all taxes to be reduced, 
and no reduction of any tax levy made under the 
provisions of said last mentioned Act and amend- 
ments thereto, shall diminish any amount appro- 
priated or levied for said playground tax."' 

The Board of Education is further empowered 
to request the City Council: 

"When there is not sufficient money in the 
treasury to meet the ordinary and necessary ex- 
penses for playground purposes, and for the pur- 
pose of equipping, maintaining and operating 
playgrounds. . . .to order issued warrants 
against and in anticipation of any taxes levied for 
the payment of the expenditures for the purpose 
of equipping, maintaining, and operating play- 
grounds, to the extent of seventy-five (75) per 
cent of the total amount of taxes levied for such 
purposes: Provided, however, that warrants 
drawn and issued under the provisions of this 
section shall. . . .show upon their face that 
they are payable solely from said taxes when col- 
lected and not otherwise, at the time fixed therein, 
and shall be received by any collector of taxes in 
payment of taxes against which they are issued 
and such taxes against which said warrants are 
drawn shall be set apart and held for their pay- 
ment. . . .Every warrant issued against said 
taxes shall bear interest, payable annually out of 
the taxes against which said warrants are drawn 
at a rate of not to exceed six per cent per annum, 
from the date of their issuance until paid, or until 
notice shall be given by publication in a newspaper 
or otherwise that the money for the payment of 
said warrants is available and that said warrants 
will be paid on presentation."" 

The Bureau was established by the Board of 
Education after the transfer of school play- 
grounds from the municipal playground system 
in October, 1921. It operates under the super- 
intendent of schools, and its finances are con- 
trolled by the business division of the Board of 
Education. Its taxes, as has already been indi- 
cated, are distinct from the general levy of the 
Board of Education. 

The legislation provides further that the Board 
of Education shall: 

". . . . exercise general supervision and man- 
agement of the public education and the public 

'Cahill, C. J., and Moore, F. D., oK cil., ch. 24, par. 640. 
"Ibid, -par. 640 (1), sec. 3. 



school system of the city, and shall have power to 
make suitable provision for the establishment and 
maintenance throughout the year, or for such por- ' 
tion of the year as it may direct, not less than nine ! 
months in time, of schools of all grades and kinds, 
including normal schools, high schools, night 
schools, schools for defectives and delinquents, 
parental and truant schools, schools for the blind, 
the deaf and the crippled, schools or classes in 
manual training, constructural and vocational 
teaching, domestic arts and physical culture, vo- 
cation and extension schools and lecture courses, 
and all other educational courses and facilities, in- 
cluding playground maintenance. . . .It shall have 
the power to co-operate with the Juvenile Court, 
to make arrangements with the public or quasi- 
public libraries and museums for the purpose of 
extending the privilege of such libraries and 
museums to teachers and pupils of the public 
schools The board may grant the use of as- 
sembly halls and class rooms when not otherwise 
needed, including light, heat and attendants, for 
free public lectures, concerts and other educa- 
tional and social interests, free of charge, but un-' 
der such provisions and control as the board may 
see fit. . . ."' 

It will be observed from the preceding that the 
Board of Education in the City of Chicago, there- 
fore, not only has the power to provide formal j 
educational instruction to residents of the City I 
and to maintain supervised playgrounds, but that I 
it also has the authority to furnish other educa- ; 
tional-recreational opportunities both under its 
own sponsorship and by co-operative arrangement 
with other agencies, public and private. 

The Chicago Park District 

The Chicago Park District is the largest tax- 
supported public recreation agency in the City of 
Chicago in size of properties under its control, in 
the number of employees on its pay roll, and in 
amount of annual budget and appropriation. It 
is an independent municipal body with independ- 
ent taxing, police, and ordinance powers akin to 
those of the City of Chicago itself. Although the 
Park District is coextensive with the limits of 
the City of Chicago, the sole official connection 
between the district and the city lies in the ap- 
pointment of the Board of Park Commissioners 
by the mayor of the City of Chicago. The Chi- 
cago Park District came into existence on May i, 

'Ibid, par. 160, sec. 136. 



40 



I934> 'IS a result of a persistent demand by civic 
bodies for a unified park system for the entire city 
and for a co-ordination of park and recreational 
services. Twenty-two former park districts were 
consolidated as the result of the creation of the 
District. 

Number of 
parks to 
Dale each 

Park district established district 

South Park District 1869 27 

Lincoln Park District 1869 7 

West Park District 1869 20 

Ridge Avenue Park District 1896 i 

North Shore Park District 1900 2 

Calumet Park District 1903 5 

Fernwood Avenue Park District .. . 1907 2 

Ridge Park District 1908 4 

Irving Park District 1910 8 

Northwest Park District 191 1 6 

Old Portage Park District 1912 4 

Edison Park District 1913 3 

West Pullman Park District 1913 i 

Jefferson Park District 1920 4 

Ravenswood Park District 1926 4 

Sauganash Park District 1927 i 

River Park District 192S 6 

Norwood Park District 1929 3 

Hollywood Park District 1929 i 

Edgebrook Park District 1930 i 

Albany Park District 1930 4 

Forest Glen Park District 1933 1 

Of these the three oldest districts were organized 
under special acts of the state legislature passed 
in 1869. The five South Park Commissioners 
were appointed by the judges of the Circuit Court 
of Cook County, and the seven West Park Com- 
missioners and the seven Lincoln Park Commis- 
sioners were selected by the governor of the 
state. The nineteen small park districts were 
organized under enactments of the Legislature, 
put in force in 1895, designed to afford park 
facilities in those areas outside the districts of the 
three large park systems. They were organized 
on petition and vote of residents of the individual 
district. Each district had five commissioners 
elected by the voters of the district for a term of 
six years; in the twenty-two park districts located 
within the City of Chicago, there were, therefore, 
one hundred and fourteen park commissioners, of 
whom ninety-five were elected by the voters. It 
will be observed from this that the control of 
West Park and Lincoln Park therefore rested 
with the Governor through his power of appoint- 
ment of the park commissioners; in the instance 
of the South Park the control through the ap- 



pointment of the commissioners was placed in the 
judges of the Circuit Court of Cook County. 

The South Park District, as well as all of the 
small park districts, was a municipal entity and 
was empowered to levy all of its taxes separately. 
The West Park District, also a municipal corpora- 
tion, derived part of its taxes from a direct levy, 
the balance being secured by the town of West 
Chicago. The Lincoln Park Board was not a 
municipal corporation, and in the absence of 
power to levy taxes derived its financial support 
from taxes levied by the towns of Lake \'iew and 
North Chicago. 

Although the Act abolishing the twenty-two 
former park districts and creating the Chicago 
Park District was approved by the voters on 
April 10, 1934, the vote being 507,399 for and 
173,453 against, it was not until October, 1934, 
that the State Supreme Court validated the Con- 
solidation Act on a test case, and the merger be- 
came an accomplished fact. In establishing the 
Chicago Park District the enabling legislation 
provided the following major powers and func- 
tions for the new district: 

". . . . Such park district shall be in succession to 
all park districts now existing within the territory 
included within the proposed Chicago Park Dis- 
trict and shall exercise control over and supervise 
the operation of all parks, boulevards, ways and 
other public property now under the jurisdiction 
of any of said park districts. The Chicago Park 
District shall comprise all of the City of Chicago 
and such territory located without the corporate 
limits of the City of Chicago as may be included 
in any existing park district lying partly within 
and partly without the limits of such city. 

"From the time of the beginning of the term 
of the first commissioners, the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict shall constitute a body politic and corporate 
and by such name and st\le may sue and be sued, 
contract and be contracted with, acquire and hold 
real property necessary for corporate purposes, 
and adopt a common seal and alter the same at 
pleasure."' 

The right to expand the district and to enlarge 
on the recreational opportunities being offered to 
the public at the time of consolidation w.as pro- 
vided by Section 1 5 of the Consolidation .-Vet, as 
follows: 

■Cahill, C. J., and ^[oo^c, V. U., of- <'!■. ch. 105, par. 5oS, 
sec. 1 ; par. 570, sec. 3. 



41 



"The Chiciigo Park District shall have the 
power to acquire by gift, grant, or purchase, oi' 
by condemnation and to incur indebtedness for 
the purchase of any and all real estate lands, 
riparian estates or rights, and all other property 
required or needed for any such park or for park- 
ways, driveways, or boulevards, or for extending, 
adorning, or maintaining the same for the purpose 
of establishing, acquiring, completing, enlarging, 
ornamenting, building, rebuilding, and improv- 
ing public parks, boulevards, bridges, subways, 
viaducts and approaches thereto, wharfs, piers, 
jetties, air landing fields and basins, shore pro- 
tection works, pleasure grounds and ways, walks, 
pathways, driveways, roadways, highways and 
all public works, grounds or improvements under 
the control of and within the jurisdiction of such 
park commissioners and including the filling in of 
submerged land for park purposes and construct- 
ing all buildings, fieldhouses, stadiums, shelters, 
conservatories, museums, service shops, power 
plants, structures, playground devices, boulevard 
and building lighting systems and building all 
other types of permanent improvement and con- 
struction necessary to render the property under 
the control of said park commissioners usable for 
the enjoyment thereof as public parks, parkways, 
boulevards and pleasureways, whether such land 
be located within or without such district, if such 
land is deemed necessary for park purposes or for 
parkways, driveways, or boulevards, but the Chi- 
cago Park District shall have no power of con- 
demnation as to real estate lands, riparian rights, 
or estates, or other property located outside of 
such district, but shall only have power to acquire 
the same by gift, grant, or purchase. 

"And said Chicago Park District shall have 
power to acquire by lease or permit from any 
other municipal corporation the right to occupy 
and use real estate land and riparian estates for 
park and parkway purposes and to improve, main- 
tain, and equip the same as a park or playground, 
but no permanent building or structure shall be 
placed upon lands so acquired by lease or per- 
mit."' 

". . . The Chicago Park District shall be vested 
with all powers heretofore vested in park districts 
or corporate authorities whose authority is abro- 
gated by this Act or by the operation thereof. All 
powers now vested in such commissioners or dis- 
tricts with regard to the extension of parks, boule- 
vards, and driveways by reclaiming submerged 
lands and by the acquisition of riparian rights and 
shore lands shall hereafter be exercised by the 
Chicago Park District. 

'Cahill, C. J., and Moore, F. D., of. cit., ch. 105, par. 582. 



"The Chicago Park District shall have power 
to accjuire, lay out, establish, construct, and main- 
tain parks, driveways, and boulevards in such dis- 
tricts, and to control, manage, and govern such 
parks, driveways, and boulevards, and the use 
thereof and to exercise the powers stipulated in 
Section 15 hereof. The commissioners of such 
district shall constitute the corporate authorities 
thereof, and shall have full power to manage and 
control all the officers and property of the district, 
and all parks, driveways, boulevards, and park- 
ways maintained by such district or committed to 
its care and custody. 

"The commissioners of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict may from time to time establish by ordinance 
all needful rules and regulations for the govern- 
ment and protection of parks, boulevards, and 
driveways and other property under its jurisdic- 
tion; may exclude all objectionable travel anci 
traffic and may make and enforce reasonable traf- 
fic and other regulations; and provide penalties 
nc^t exceeding two hundred dollars for any one 
ofi^ense for the violation of such rules and regula- 
tions."" 

The Comissioners are empowered to act as a 
Board of Local Improvements for the Park Dis- 
trict without compensation, and to initiate such 
local improvements as they may deem desirable 
within the limits of the district, and to provide for 
such special assessments as may be required in 
conformance with "An Act concerning local im- 
provements" originally approved in 1897, which 
has since been amended. The method of collec- 
tion of assessments and issuance of bonds and 
vouchers was provided in the aforementioned Act 
and other pertinent legislation, which also directs 
the method of making special assessments and in- 
dicates the function of the various officers of the 
Park District in the issuance of bonds, the collec- 
tion of moneys and payment of assessments. The 
statute specifically states "that the word 'improve- 
ment' as used herein shall include the condemna- 
tion of park and property for park and budgetary 
purposes." 

Inasmuch as the Chicago Park District abol- 
ished twenty-two distinct legal entities, the en- 
abling legislation provided further that: 

"All legal acts, lawfully done by or in favor of 
any of the park districts or corporate authorities 
superseded by the Chicago Park District by the 
terms of this Act shall be valid and binding upon 
the respective parties affected by such Acts except 
'Ibid, par. 574, sec. 7. 



42 



that the Chicago Park District shall be substituted 
in lieu of such park district or corporate authority. 
This provision shall apply among other things to 
contracts, grants, licenses, warrants, orders, 
notices, assignments, and official bonds, but shall 
not affect any existing or contingent rights to 
modify, revoke, or rescind such acts of such park 
districts or corporate authorities. Any arrange- 
ment or agreement existing at the time this Act 
takes effect with any museum, art institute, aqua- 
rium, library, or other institution, agency or asso- 
ciation, public or private, that shall now be located 
or authorized to be located in any park, shall not 
be impaired or affected, but shall be continued in 
force by the provisions of this Act. 

"All fines, penalties, and forfeitures incurred or 
imposed before this Act takes effect for the viola- 
tion of the ordinances, by-laws, or rules of any of 
the park districts or corporate authorities hereby 
superseded by the Chicago Park District shall be 
enforced or collected under the authority of the 
Chicago Park District. 

"All powers of taxation or assessment that may 
have become part of any contract of indebtedness 
incurred or entered into by any of the park dis- 
tricts or corporate authorities hereby superseded 
by the Chicago Park District shall be preserved 
only in so far as their exercise may become nec- 
essary to save and protect or enforce the rights of 
creditors or those holding obligations created in 
view or in respect of any tax, assessment, or power 
of taxation or assessment, and in the event of any 
such powers so becoming necessary shall be exer- 
cised by the corporate authorities of the Chicago 
Park District to the same extent as the park dis- 
tricts or corporate authorities contracting such in- 
debtedness would have been bound to exercise the 
same.'" 

Title to property pre\'iously held by the super- 
seded districts was vested in the new Chicago Park 
District as follows: 

"The title to all lands, property and funds of 
every description now owned or held by the park 
districts and corporate authorities superseded by 
the Chicago Park District shall be vested in the 
Chicago Park District, and funds held by any 
such superseded park districts or corporate au- 
thorities for a particular purpose shall be set aside 
and used by the Chicago Park District only for 
the purpose originally designated. 

"Any surplus of such funds remaining after ac- 
complishing such purpose shall become a part of 
the general corporate fund of the Chicago Park 
District. 



"Any property or funds held by any of the park 
districts or corporate authorities superseded by 
the Chicago Park District upon any special ex- 
pressed trust shall be held by said Chicago Park 
District under such trust. 

"The proceeds of taxes and special assessments, 
le\ied before this Act takes effect, shall be applied 
to the purposes for which they were levied or 
imposed. 

"Any surplus of such proceeds available after 
application t(; and completion of such purposes 
shall re\'ert to and become a part of the general 
corporate fund of the Chicago Park District."' 

Appointment of commissioners was provided 

for by the following section: 

"Within sixty days after the adoption of this 
Act the mayor of the City of Chicago, with the ap- 
proval of the city council, shall appoint the five 
commissioners of the Chicago Park District and 
upon their appointment and qualification the of- 
fices of park commissioners in existing districts 
and the corporate existence of such districts shall 
cease. 

"One of such commissioners shall be appointed 
to serve for one year, one for two years, one for 
three years, one for four years and one for five 
years from the date of their appointment and 
until their successors are appointed and qualified. 
Annually in the same manner as the original ap- 
pointments are made, one commissioner shall be 
appointed to succeed the commissioner whose 
term then expires to serve for a term of five years 
and until his successor is appointed and qualified. 
^'acancies in the office of commissioner shall be 
filled by appointment by the mayor with the ap- 
proval of the city council. 

"Each commissioner shall be a legal voter of 
and reside within the district and before entering 
upon the duties of his office shall take and sub- 
scribe an oath to faithfully discharge his duties as 
commissioner. Each commissioner shall be re- 
quired to post a bond in the sum of fifty thousand 
dollars for the use and benefit of the district sub- 
ject to the apprt)\'al of the county judge of Cook 
County with whom such bond shall be posted. 

"It shall be a misdemeanor for any commis- 
sioner to be directly or indirectly pecuniarily inter- 
ested in any contract or work of any kind whatever 
connected with said park district, and any contract 
in which an\' commissioners shall he directly or in- 
directl\- interested shall be null and void."' 

Although only the three major superseded sys- 



'Cahill. C. J., and Moore, F. D., o/>. cil.. par. 



>/()0//. sec. 



'Ihid, ch. 105. par. 579, sec. \2. 
'Ibid. par. 570, sec. i. 



43 



terns operated on this basis, the enactment of the 
Chicago Park District pro\'ided that: 

"'An Act relating to the civil service in park 
systems,' approved June lo, 191 1, as amended, 
shall apply to the Chicago Park District, and upon 
the coming into effect of this Act there shall be 
appointeci but one superintendent of employment 
and but one civil service board for such district. 

"Every officer and employee in the classified 
civil service at the time this Act takes effect shall 
be assigned to a position having, so far as possible, 
duties equivalent to his former office or employ- 
ment, and such officers and employees shall have 
the same standing, grade, and privilege which 
they respectively had in the districts from which 
they were transferred, subject, however, to exist- 
ing and future civil service laws. This section shall 
not be construed to require the retention of more 
officers and employees than are necessary to the 
proper performance of the functions of the Chi- 
cago Park District and the rules of the civil serv- 
ice board made in pursuance of the civil service 
law shall control in the making of layoffs and re- 
instatements of such officers and employees as are 
not necessary to be retained. This Act shall in no 
way be construed to affect the operation of 'An 
Act to provide for the creation, setting apart, 
maintenance, and administration of a park police- 
men's annuity and benefit fund,' approved June 
29, 1 92 1, as amended, nor to affect the operation 
of 'An Act to provide for the creation, setting 
apart, formation, administration, and disburse- 
ment of a park employee's annuity and benefit 
fund,' approved June 21, 1919, as amended, nor 
to affect the rights of employees to pensions or 
annuities nor any taxes authorized to be levied 
therefor. In the case of employees and policemen 
of superseded park districts not having annuity 
benefit funds retained as employees or policemen 
of the Chicago Park District such employees and 
policemen shall have the right to enter as new 
employees and policemen."' 

The establishment of the Park District in May 
created the problem of transferring the functions 
of the superseded districts in the middle of their 
1934 fiscal year. Accordingly, legislation pro\-ided 
emergency clauses which took cognizance of this 
situation and enabled the Park District to operate 
during the remainder of that year without actu- 
ally having a full year's budget prepared in ad- 
vance. However, since that date the District is 
required to operate under the following fiscal and 
budgetary limitations: 

'Cahill, C. J., and Mt>ore, F. D., op. ell., par, 581, sec. 14. 



"After the year in which this Act is adopted, the 
fiscal year of the Chicago Park District shall com- 
mence on the first day of January and end on the 
thirty-first day of December and this period shall 
constitute the budget year of the district and the 
fiscal provisions hereinafter set forth in this sec- 
tion shall apply only in the years following the 
year of the adoption of this Act. 

"At least sixty days prior to the beginning of 
each fiscal year, the secretary shall prepare and 
submit to the president a budget report to the 
commission which shall include, among other 
things, a statement of proposed expenditures for 
the ensuing fiscal year. The statement of proposed 
expenditures shall show separately the amounts 
for ordinary recurring expenses, for extraordinary 
expenditures, for debt service, and for capital out- 
lays, and shall be accompanied by detailed esti- 
mates of expenditure requirements setting forth 
the objects of expenditure such as personal serv- 
ice, contractual services, supplies and materials, 
and the like, and showing such further classifica- 
tion, by character, object, or purpose as may be 
required by the system of expenditure accounts 
adopted by the commission. The secretary shall 
also submit with his statement of proposed ex- 
penditures a consolidated summary statement of 
the financial condition of the district; classified 
statements of income and receipts and of expendi- 
tures and disbursements for the last completed 
fiscal year and as estimated for the fiscal year then 
in progress; and a statement of the means of 
financing the operations of the district, indicating 
the cash and other current resources to be avail- 
able at the beginning of the next fiscal year and 
the estimated cash receipts of that year. Estimated 
receipts from taxes levied from property shall in 
no event exceed an amount produced by multiply- 
ing the maximum statutory rate of tax by the last 
known assessed valuation of taxable property 
within such district as equalized for State and 
county taxes. The secretary shall submit, with 
his budget report, a draft of an appropriation or- 
dinance and such description of the proposed 
financial and operating program and of Its antici- 
pated effects on the district's finances and affairs 
as may be pertinent. 

"The amounts of proposed expenditures, and of 
revenues for appropriations, as set forth In the 
proposed appropriation ordinance shall include, in 
addition to the other requirements for operation, 
maintenance and Improvement, the full amounts 
reasonably to be anticipated as needed for inter- 
est on district debt coming due and payable, the 
paying off of principal debt maturing during the 
year, and the annual installments on sinking 
funds for the meeting of any anticipated cash defi- 



44 



cit from the operations of the fiscal year then in 
progress, for payments due to any retirement or 
other special funds, for the paying off of any final 
judgments in effect at the time, the making good 
of any deficiency in any sinking, endowment, or 
trust fund to be kept inviolate, and any payments 
for any contracts for capital improvements prop- 
erly entered into during the current fiscal year 
or any previous fiscal year for work to be per- 
formed in the fiscal year for which the budget is 
prepared. Such requirements shall be adequately 
provided for in the appropriation ordinance 
adopted by the commission. 

"Upon receipt of the budget report, the com- 
mission shall thereupon make the report and a 
tentative budget appropriation bill available to 
public inspection for at least ten days by having 
at least three copies thereof on file in the office of 
the secretary of the district and shall hold at 
least one public hearing thereon of which seven 
days' public notice shall be given by at least one 
publication in a newspaper ha\'ing a general cir- 
culation in the district. 

"After such hearing the commission shall con- 
sider the budget report and shall before the be- 
ginning of the new fiscal year adopt an annual 
appropriation ordinance in which the commission 
shall appropriate such sums of money as may be 
required to meet all necessary expenditures during 
such fiscal year. In no event shall the aggregate 
amounts appropriated exceed the total means of 
financing. The vote of the commissioners upon 
the appropriation ordinance shall be taken by 
yeas and nays and recorded in the proceedings of 
the commission. 

"After the adoption of such appropriation ordi- 
nance the commission shall not make any further 
or other appropriation prior to the adoption or 
passage of the next succeeding annual appropria- 
tion ordinance and shall have no power either 
directly or indirectly to make any contract or do 
any act which will add to the expense or liabilities 
of such district, anything or a sum over and above 
the amount provided for in the annual appropria- 
tion ordinance for that fiscal year. 

"When the voters have approved a bond ordi- 
nance for a particular purpose and such bond ordi- 
nance had not been passed at the time of the 
adoption of the annual appropriation ordinance 
the commission shall have authority to pass a 
supplemental appropriation ordinance (upon 
compliance with the terms of this Act) making ap- 
propriations for the particular purpose for which 
such bonds were authorized. Nor shall anything 
in this Act be construed to forbid the commission 
from making any expenditure or incurring any 
liability rendered necessary to meet emergencies. 



such as floods, fires, storms, unforseen damages, or 
other catastrophies happening after the annual ap- 
propriation ordinance shall have been passed or 
adopted. Nor shall anything herein contained be 
construed to deprive the commission of the power 
to provide for and cause to be paid from the dis- 
trict's funds any charge upon the said district im- 
posed by law without the action of said commis- 
sion. 

"The Commission shall at any time after the 
first half of each fiscal year have power upon 
recommendation by the secretary to authorize the 
making of transfers among appropriations within a 
department or other separate division under their 
jurisdiction or of sums of money appropriated for 
one object or purpose to another object or purpose 
but in no event shall transfers from appropria- 
tions for ordinary recurring expenses to appropri- 
ations for capital outlays or from capital outlays 
to ordinary recurring expenses be authorized or 
made. Such action by the commission shall be 
entered in the proceedings of the commission and 
no appropriation for any purpose shall be reduced 
below an amount sufficient to cover all unliqui- 
dated and outstanding contracts or obligations 
certified from or against the appropriation for 
such purpose. 

"No contract shall be made or expense or lia- 
bility' incurred by said commission or by any mem- 
ber or committee thereof or by any person or per- 
sons for or on its behalf notwithstanding the ex- 
penditures may have been ordered by the said 
commission, unless an appropriation therefor shall 
have been previously made by said commission in 
the manner aforesaid. No officer or employee shall 
during a fiscal year expend, or contract to be ex- 
pended, any money or incur any liability or enter 
into any contract which by its terms involves the 
expenditures of money for any purpose for which 
provisions are made in the appropriation ordi- 
nance in excess of the amounts appropriated in 
such ordinance. Any contract, verbal or written, 
made in \'iolation of this section shall be null and 
\'oid as to the district and no moneys belonging 
thereto shall be paid thereon. Nothing herein 
contained shall prevent the making of contracts 
for the lawful purposes of such district for a 
period of more than one year but any contract so 
made shall be executory only for the amounts for 
which the said district may become lawfully liable 
in succeeding fiscal years. 

"If at the termination of any fiscal year or at 
the time when the appropriation ordinance is re- 
quired to have been passed and published as pro- 
\-ided b\- this Act, the appropriations necessary for 
the support of such district for the ensuing fiscal 
\ear shall not ha\e been made, the several 



•45 



amounts appropriated in the last appropriation or- 
dinance for the objects and purposes therein speci- 
fied, so far as the same related to operation and 
maintenance expenses, shall be deemed to be re- 
appropriated for the several objects and purposes 
specified in such last appropriation ordinance; and 
until the commission shall act in such behalf, the 
proper officer shall make the payments necessary 
for the support of the district, on the basis of the 
preceding fiscal year. 

"The appropriation ordinance shall not be con- 
strued as an appro\al by the commission of any 
contract liabilities or of any project or purpose 
mentioned therein but should be regarded only as 
a provision of a fund or funds for the payment 
thereof when contract liabilities have been found 
to be valid and legal obligations against such dis- 
trict and when properly vouchered, audited, and 
approved by the commission, or when any project 
or purpose is approved and authorized by the 
commission, as the case may be."^ 

"After the adoption of the annual appropriation 
ordinance, the commissioners may pass a supple- 
mental ordinance or ordinances appropriating the 
proceeds of bonds of any superseded park districts 
for the purposes for which such bonds shall have 
been authorized. 

"The annual appropriation ordinance and any 
supplemental appropriation ordinance, within one 
month after adoption shall be published once in 
a newspaper published in the City of Chicago and 
shall be in force ten days after such publication."" 

Although the original enabling act provided 
that the districts thus superseded by the Park Dis- 
trict were to remain liable for the payment of all 
bonded indebtedness of such districts and the Park 
District Commissioners were authorized to deter- 
mine the amount of taxes required for the interest 
and payment of such bonded debts which were to 
be assessed by the County Clerk against all prop- 
erty within the original districts, an amendment 
by the State Legislature on July 12, iq;,5, pro- 
vided: 

" The liability of any superseded park dis- 
trict upon its bonds shall not continue to such 
bonds that may be refunded by the commissioners 
of the Chicago Park District under 'An Act au- 
thorizing the Chicago Park District to assume and 
become liable for the payment of certain indebted- 
ness of superseded park districts and to issue its 
bonds to refund and/or fund same, legalizing such 
indebtedness and providing for the levy and 

'Cahill. C. j., and M<H,r<, 1-". 1),, ,(^ rit.. cli. 1115, par. 5K4 
SCO, 17, 

7W(/, par. 5S-) (Ij, sec. 1 7a. 



collection of taxes for the payment of such 
bonds' '" 

The Chicago Park District, in order to provide 
funds for the necessary expenses of the District, 
construction and maintenance, and for the acquisi- 
tion and improvement of lands, is empowered to 
levy and collect a general tax on the Park District 
not to exceed three mills on each dollar of taxable 
property in the District. For the years 1935 and 
1936 a pegged levy of nine million dollars was 
provided, which permitted as an alternative that 
these taxes shall not be subject to reduction under 
provisions of "An Act concerning the levy and col- 
lection of taxes," approved in 1901, as amended. 
An additional tax of one and one-half cents on 
each one hundred dollars of assessed value of 
taxable property in the District was permitted to 
the Park Commissioners in accordance with the 
provision of the Aquarium and Museums in Pub- 
lic Parks Act, as amended. 

In June, 1937, action of the State Legislature 
amended section 19 of the Chicago Park District 
Act by providing: 

". . . that the aggregate taxes levied by the dis- 
trict for 1937 and 1938 shall not exceed three 
mills, or such rate as will produce $7,600,000 
whichever is greater, for each of said years. Dis- 
trict authorized to levy supplemental tax for 
1937, which tax is retrospective in its operation 
under rate provided above, and for such supple- 
mental tax there need not be required a detailed 
specification of the purposes thereof. Such sup- 
plemental tax may be levied at any time subse- 
quent to the effective date of this Act and prior 
to September i, 1937."* 

"The Chicago Park District is authorized to is- 
sue the bonds of such district for the payment of 
land condemned or purchased for park or boule- 
\'ards, for the building, maintaining, improving, 
and protecting of the same for the purpose of 
establishing, acquiring, completing, enlarging, or- 
namenting, building, rebuilding and improving 
public parks, boulevards, bridges, subways, via- 
ducts and approaches thereto, wharfs, piers, 
jetties, air landing fields and basins, shore pro- 
tection Works, pleasure grounds and ways, walks, 
pathways, driveways, roadways, highways and all 
public works, grounds or improvements under 
the control of and within the jurisdiction of such 

Ihitl. par, 5S5, jc-c, IS, 

'Men, A. E., Taylor, H. J., and Legislative Reference Bureau, 
l.c:iixl(ili;v Syiiopsix and Digcsl of Ihc Sixtieth General Asscm- 
hly, Slate nf Illinois, No. 20, 19,37, Senate l?ill .35, p, .35, 



46 



park commissioners and including the filling in of 
submerged lands for park purposes and construct- 
ing all buildings, fieldhouses, stadiums, shelters, 
conservatories, museums, service shops, power 
plants, structures, playground devices, boulevard 
and building lighting systems and building all 
other types of permanent improvement and con- 
struction necessary to render the property under 
the control of said park commissioners usable f(jr 
the enjoyment thereof as public parks, parkways, 
boulevards and pleasureways and for the payment 
of the expenses incident thereto, and may pledge 
its property and credit therefor."' 

The limitation of bonded indebtedness, exclu- 
sive of bonds and refunding purposes, is one and 
one-half per cent of the value of the taxable prop- 
erty within the Park District. With the exception 
of the refunding bonds and the bond issue author- 
ized for the purpose of providing a working cash 
fund, no bond issues are permitted: 

"until the proposition to issue the same has 
been submitted to and approved by a majority 
of the legal voters of said park district voting 
upon the proposition, either at a general or special 
election, after notice of such submission has been 
given by posting notice thereof at least ten days 
before the date of the election in ten public places 
in the park district and by publishing said notice 
for three successive days before the date of the 
election in a newspaper having a general circula- 
tion in the park district, the first of such publica- 
tion to be made at least thirty days before the date 
of such election. 

"Submission of any proposition of issuing bonds 
shall be authorized by resolution to be adopted b\ 
said Chicago Park District Commission, which 
shall fix the date of the election, provide for elec- 
tion officials, polling places and other details 
thereof and form of notice to be posted and pub- 
lished, and designate the amount of bonds and 
purpose for which said bonds are to be issued."" 

Bond issues of the Park District must be paid 
within twenty years and must not bear interest ex- 
ceeding six per cent per annum. For the purpose 
of pa)'ing the principal and interest the Park Dis- 
trict is authorized to le\\' an annual tax in addi- 
tion to all other taxes, sufficient to pay interest and 
principal on these bonds. In addition, tax lc\-ies 
are authorized for the purpose 

"of paying the principal of and interest 
upon refunding and funding bonds of any super- 

'Cahill, C. J.. aiKl ^rn^R•, I". D.. »^ iil.. cli. 1115, i.:ir. 5X7. 
sec. 20. 
V6irf. 



seded park district .... on all the taxable prop- 
erty in such superseded park district, in addition 
to all other taxes authorized by law to be levied 
and collected for park purposes, sufficient to pay 
the interest upon said refunding and funding 
bonds as it falls due and to pay the principal 
thereof as it matures, and the County Clerk of 
Cook County upon recei\'ing a certificate from the 
commissioners that the amount set out in such 
certificate is necessary to pay the interest on and 
principal of said refunding and funding bonds, 
shall assess and extend such amount upon the tax- 
able property embraced in the superseded park 
district, the bonds and/or floating indebtedness 
of which are refunded and/or funded, the same 
as other park taxes are by law assessed and ex- 
tended, and such taxes shall be collected and paid 
o\er in like manner as other park taxes are re- 
quired by law to be collected and paid."' 

In accordance with the legislation creating the 
Act, the park commissioners have from time to 
time passed ordinances and adopted regulations 
go\'erning the use of Park District property and 
providing the means of operation of the District. 

Chicago Exposition Authority 

On July 15, 1935, the State Legislature passed 
o\'er the Go\-ernor's \-cto several acts providing 
for the formation and incorporation of an exposi- 
tion authority within the City of Chicago. These 
acts were initiated primarily as a result of efforts 
of hotel and business groups, who were influenced 
chiefly by the financial success derived by the vari- 
iius business interests of the city in the two years 
of the Century of Progress Exposition, held in 
Burnham Park on propert\- of the Chicago Park 
District during 193;, and 1934. Although it has 
been two years since the enabling legislation has 
been passed and the Exposition Authority created, 
no program has as yet been undertaken to provide 
the facilities and programs for which the .'\u- 
thority was established. 

The first of the enabling legislation states the 
functions of the Exposition Authority as follows: 

"Exposition Authorities may be organized in 
the manner provided by this .Act to conduct expo- 
sitions, theatricals, cinema expositions, concerts, 
recitals, lectures and industrial, trade, scientific, 
cultural and educational exhibits, amusement de- 
vices, convention hiilN, public rc-taurants, stadia, 

'Ihiil. oh. 1(15, par. 5S", ^<;^. Ji. 



47 



athletic fields, athletic contests and games, and 
other forms and places of public entertainment in 
any park district located in whole or in part in any 
city having a population of two hundred thousand 
or more. Each such authority shall be a body 
politic and corporate, but shall not have the power 
to levy or impose taxes."' 

It is provided that the Secretary of State shall 
issue a certificate of incorporation to the Exposi- 
tion Authority whenever the majority of commis- 
sioners of the Park District file a petition request- 
ing the formation of such a body. This petition 
shall include a description of the area of the Park 
District and the site to be occupied by the Author- 
ity. The Exposition Authority consists of a board 
of ten commissioners appointed, with the approval 
of the city council, by the mayor. The normal 
term of the commissioners, who must be legal 
voters of the city, is ten years. 

The functions of the Exposition Authority, as 
outlined by Section 5 of the enabling legislation, 
are as follows: 

"Every Authority organized under this Act 
shall have the following rights, powers and privi- 
leges in addition to the powers expressed in the 
purposes for which such Authority is authorized 
to be organized: 

(i) to have succession by its corporate name; 
(2) to sue and be sued in its corporate name; 
( 3 ) to adopt and use a corporate seal ; 

(4) to acquire park lands by lease from any 
park district and to construct, reconstruct or ac- 
quire by gift, grant, purchase, lease or otherwise 
buildings and other structures and personal prop- 
erty for any purpose within the powers of such 
Authority and to sell, transfer or convey its prop- 
erty, or any part thereof, except that acquired by 
lease, when no longer necessary or useful for its 
purposes or to exchange any such property for 
other property which it may use for any purpose 
within the powers of such Authority; 

(5) to charge and collect rentals, license or 
permit fees and admission fees; 

(6) to purchase and enter into contracts for 
any type of insurance or surety bond covering fire, 
use and occupancy, tornado, weather, damage to 
property, theft, robbery, workmen's compensa- 
tion, public liability, fidelity, contract obligations, 
and all other types of insurance and indemnity 
that may be desirable in the performance of the 
functions of such Authority; 

'Caliill, C. J., mid Moore, F. D„ of. cit., ch. n, par. 548, 
sec. 1. 



(7) to enter into any contract or agreement i 
which may be desirable in the opinion of the ' 
board of commissioners of such Authority for the I 
performance of any function or the exercise of '. 
any powers granted to it; j 

(8) to borrow money and to issue and sell | 
or pledge to any person its notes, bonds or other 
evidences of indebtedness which, however, shall 
not be a lien upon any rights or property of such 
Authority but may be secured by a lien only upon 
its revenue or upon the revenue of any project of 
such Authority; 

(9) to invest and reinvest any money held in 
rcser\'es or sinking funds or in any funds not re- 
quired for immediate disbursement in bonds and 
tax anticipation warrants issued by the park dis- 
trict, sanitary district, school district, county, or 
city in which the property of such Authority is 
located, or in the bonds of the State of Illinois 
or of the United States, and to sell or pledge such 
securities for any purpose within the powers of 
such Authority; 

(10) to secure grants and loans, or either, 
from the United States government, or any 
agency thereof, for financing projects authorized 
under this Act and for such purposes to sell or 
pledge its notes, bonds or other evidences of in- 
debtedness, and its securities, and execute any 
contracts and documents and do all things that 
may be required by the United States government 
or such agency."' 

A companion bill authorized the Park District 
to lease to the Exposition Authority for a term not 
exceeding twenty-five years, parcels of land not 
exceeding five per cent of the total park area, to- 
gether with all improvements thereon, all such 
properties to be located in Burnham Park and not 
to exceed i8o acres. The Park District is em- 
powered to continue to operate the property upon 
the expiration of the lease and is permitted the 
right to charge admission fees and rentals for the 
use of such property. 

The Chicago Park District, in accordance with 
the above legislation, leased to the Chicago Ex- 
position Authority the 180 acres of land located 
in Burnham Park, including the major portion of 
Northerly Island. In view of the fact that the 
Exposition Authority has, however, been non-op- 
erative, the Park District has continued exclusive 
control over the area and has completed the re- 
landscaping of the district following the demoli- 
tion of the Century of Progress buildings. 

'Ibid. cli. il. par. 552. 



48 





















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The chief obstacle to the active operation of the 
Exposition Authority apparently lies in its ina- 
bility to derive funds from federal sources to 
finance the improvement program which would 
be required to provide the necessary buildings and 
other recreational equipment. While the Exposi- 
tion Authority, therefore, is an existing public 
recreation body in the City of Chicago, em- 
powered to operate on public lands, it is at pres- 
ent providing no recreational opportunities of any 
kind for the residents of the City of Chicago. 

Summary 

The administration of public recreation within 
the City of Chicago is divided among four con- 
trolling governmental bodies: the City of Chi- 
cago, under whose jurisdiction the Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation anci Aviation and the Chicago 
Public Library are operative; the Chicago Park 
District, a separate municipal entity; the Board of 
Education; and the Cook County Forest Preserve 
District, the greater percentage of whose property 
is located outside of the city limits. Of these 
agencies the controlling boards in the instance of 
the Chicago Public Library, the Board of Educa- 
tion and the Chicago Park District are appointed 
by the mayor of the City of Chicago, subject to 
the approval of the city council. 

The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
is a regular department of the city government. 
The city council supervises the operation of the 
Bureau in the Department of Public Works 
through its Committee on Recreation and Avia- 
tion. The voters of Cook County elect County 
Commissioners, who by statute automatically are 
the Forest Preserve District Commissioners. 
Thus, in effect, this agency is the only one in 
which the governing body is actually selected by 
the voters. Powers of the Chicago Park District 
are limited and defined by the restrictions in the 
enabling legislation. Similarly, the functions and 
powers of the Cook County Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict are outlined. In the instance of the Bureau 
of Parks, Recreation and Aviation, ordinances of 
; the City of Chicago, by which the agency was cre- 
1 ated, further establish the functions of the agenc\-. 
' The original power to operate municipal play- 
grounds and parks was given to the City of Chi- 
cago by the state legislature. The Bureau of 



Recreation of the Board of Education is operated 
as one of the divisions of the Board, and there- 
fore is subject to whatever limitations and ordi- 
nances the Board may impose to further restrict 
the operations allowed by the permissive legisla- 
tion of the State Legislature. 

Only in the instance of the Cook County For- 
est Preserve is there a limitation placed upon the 
amount of property which can be acquired. All of 
the other units may be enlarged or reduced at the 
discretion of their respective governing boards. 

The Chicago Park District and the Cook 
County Forest Preserves are supported by a direct 
tax paid over to them by the county clerk. The 
Chicago Public Library, while the beneficiary of 
a special tax, derives its levy through the City of 
Chicago. The Bureau of Recreation of the Board 
of Education, likewise provided with a special tax, 
secures its funds through the Board of Education, 
which in turn derives its total appropriation 
through the City of Chicago. The Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation has no special tax 
in its behalf, its annual budget being included in 
the Department of Public Works appropriation. 
All of the agencies except the Bureau of Recrea- 
tion of the Board of Education are required by 
law to conform to civil service regulations. The 
Board of Education has, however, by ordinance 
placed employees in this division under civil serv- 
ice. The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avia- 
tion and the Chicago Public Library operate un- 
der the City of Chicago Civil Service Commission, 
the Park District employees being protected by its 
own Commission, and the Cook County Forest 
Preserve District coming under the jurisdiction of 
the County Civil Service Commission. The Chi- 
cago Park District and the Cook County Forest 
Preserve District are empowered to issue bonds 
subject to certain restrictions and limitations and 
have maximum bonding powers established by the 
State Legislature. 

The laws and ordinances relating to any gov- 
ernmental unit do not in themselves determine 
the operation of these agencies, this being con- 
tingent upon the calibre of the governing boards 
and the degree to which these administrative 
agencies utilize the powers and functions given to 
them b\- the legislation; hence Chapter V. 



49 



CHAPTER IV 



FINANCIAL ASPECTS 



General 

Certain aspects of public recreation agencies 
have much in common with private leisure time 
organizations and commercial amusements. Each 
type is engaged in providing leisure time oppor- 
tunities; all have facilities of one kind or another 
designed for participant or spectator use; and 
each employs a staff to maintain these facilities, 
to direct activities or to provide the program of 
the indi\'idual agency. In some instances there are 
no distinguishing features in the facilities which 
set the agencies apart. A private university library 
and a public library could very easily be inter- 
changed without major alterations; a public civic 
center in one city and a commercial arena in an- 
other provide virtually the same accommodations. 
Similarly, a qualified golf professional at a daily 
fee course could be "transplanted" to a public 
course or a private club without affecting the ser- 
^■ices of either. 

The primary distinction which sets apart these 
three major types of recreational agency centers 
around their means of financial support, sources 
of income, and methods of securing the necessary 
money for construction, maintenance, and opera- 
tion of facilities. Commercial recreation, wherein 
profit is the primary motive, is dependent upon 
income in the form of various charges and fees for 
the recouping uf the original investment, for the 
payment of suhiries and other maintenance and 
operating costs, and for the return of profits to 
the investor, whether as sole owner or as stock- 
holder in a large corporation. Obviously, there- 
fore, the success of commercial recreational estab- 
lishments is contingent upon the ability and will- 
ingness of the public to pay for the attractions 
v/hich are offered. 

Private recreation derives its financial support 
through se\^eral channels. In the instance of clubs 
and similar private groups revenues are usually 
secured through membership fees, dues and spe- 
cial charges. Such groups in many instances are 



exclusive, participation being restricted by eco- 
nomic and social barriers. In other private groups, 
particularly religious agencies, various national 
groups, settlements and distinctively philan- 
thropic institutions, the chief sources of revenue 
are gifts, contributions, endowments and benefits. 
Settlements and other group work agencies often 
participate in community funds or community 
chests. It should be noted that the contributors 
to such agencies in the majority of instances are 
not those for whom the agenc\- is established and 
that they usually reside outside of the area served 
by the institution. In addition to the aforemen- 
tioned revenues, group work agencies secure in- 
come from rentals and service charges or fees for 
certain specialized activities. 

The provision of public recreation facilities, the 
maintenance of equipment and the development 
of the various types of recreational programs are 
dependent primarily upon the extent to which 
tax funds are made available for these purposes. 
It should be indicated that the term "public recre- 
ation," as here employed, is defined as that under 
governmental auspices; this definition eliminates 
from consideration in this section those phases of 
community programs which are under private 
control, an analysis of which will be included in 
Volume III. In many communities expenditures 
of agencies in this group are included in total com- 
munity recreation expenditures. Public recrea- 
tion, as a governmental function, receives its 
financial support in accordance with constitutional 
and statutory regulations and limitations. In the 
United States the primary means of support for 
public recreation, as well as other governmental 
departments, has been through taxation, which is 
defined as "compulsory contributions to the sup- 
port of government which are levied at regular 
intervals upon persons, properties and businesses." 
A survey of municipal recreation in 1930 revealed 
that 39 per cent of all expenditures were from 
funds derived from city appropriations, 17 per 



50 



cent from special taxes, 28 per cent from bond 
issues, 5 per cent from fees and charges, and 5 
per cent from miscellaneous sources. Thus 56 per 
cent represented direct expenditures from current 
taxes; while 28 per cent more, although derived 
from bond issues, were actually appropriations to 
be refunded by future taxation. A total of 84 
per cent of all expenditures therefore was secured 
from present or future taxation. A study of bud- 
get expenditures for 1932 revealed that only 3 
per cent of the appropriations for public recrea- 
tion were from other than public sources. In com- 
munity recreation programs in 1934, 86 per cent 
of all funds expended were from public sources 
and in 1935, 82 per cent. In 1935 there was an 
appreciable increase in revenues from fees and 
charges compensating for the decrease from public 
funds. Comparative tables of annual expenditures 
for public recreation in the United States are of 
little value because of variable factors involved, 
such as the increase in numbers of cities reporting 
data, and the wide variation in the functions of 
the governmental units involved, which would re- 
quire a breakdown of all reports to eliminate 
those functions which are non-recreational and to 
insure the inclusion of items relating to recreation 
in other departmental budgets of the municipality. 
However, for the purpose of indicating the ex- 
pansion of the public recreation movement and the 
consequent increase in annual expenditures, the 
change during the ten-year interval, 1925 to 
1935, is of some significance. 

1925 1935 

Number of 

cities 748 2,204 

Total ex- 
penditures $18,816,165.55 $37,472,409.54 

Emergency Funds 

The public recreation movement during the last 
five years has made more progress than in any 
similar period since its inception. Unemployment 
is, of course, not true leisure and therefore cannot 
be regarded as desirable from the recreation stand- 
point. However, recognition of mental and 
physical deterioration as possible effects of con- 
tinued unemployment and acknowledgment of the 
possibility that loss of morale among the unem- 
ployed might result in the unemployed becoming 
unemployabks resulted in the various work pro- 
grams which were developed by local, state and 



federal governments. Through these programs 
relief clients were permitted to earn a living by 
employment on government sponsored projects. 
Inasmuch as park and playground construction in- 
volves a high percentage of labor costs as com- 
pared with the cost of materials and because there 
were many "white collar" workers on relief, park 
construction and program supervision were promi- 
nent beneficiaries of the federal works programs. 
In 1933, $5,991,303 of emergency funds was 
spent in community recreation programs; in 1936, 
almost $300,000,000 was expended in 8,500 rec- 
reation projects. This amount included both con- 
struction of facilities and the provision of recrea- 
tional leadership. 

Taxation 

The theory underlying taxation based upon 
property valuation, which at present is the most 
widely accepted method of levy for government 
needs, is to distribute the tax so that each prop- 
erty-owning person or corporation pays a tax in 
proportion to the value of property owned. 
Taxation would seem to have no primary relation 
to benefits received. In the instance of recreation 
it must be admitted that the largest users of parks 
and playgrounds, libraries, forest preserves, etc., 
are people in the lower wage brackets. This might 
create the impression that the more affluent citi- 
zenry pays the bill for the benefit of the resident 
with little property. However, it is generally true 
that the individual who leases a home or apart- 
ment in reality pays the tax as an invisible item 
in his rent; similarly, the price of merchandise in- 
cludes the item of taxes which along with other 
"costs of production" the manufacturer or dis- 
tributor passes on to the consumer. While the 
wealthier citizen pays a large direct tax bill, the 
smaller propertied, or even propertyless, primary 
users of public recreational facilities actually con- 
tribute indirecth- but largely to their upkeep. In 
addition, it has been observed over a period of 
years that it is not unknown for the large property 
holder to take ad\'antage of tax loopholes and by 
court action to have taxes reduced and assess- 
ments lowered. 

There are several main types of financing pub- 
lic recreation through taxation, all of which are 
used to a considerable extent. The most preva- 
lent method is hv the inclusion of the budget of 



51 



the department or unit which controls recreation 
in the total budget of the municipality. In this 
manner the agency derives its revenue from the 
general tax funds of the community, from what is 
generally known as the operating or corporate 
levy. In the employment of this method of financ- 
ing, the administrative authorities view recreation 
as one of the several municipal functions, and the 
budget must be adjusted as are those of other de- 
partments so that the total tax income of the com- 
munity can be distributed among the various func- 
tions of government according to the evaluation 
of those responsible for approving the total city 
budget. The main argument supporting this 
method of financing municipal recreation is that 
through this means the agency is dependent upon 
the central governmental authorities; thus plan- 
ning and programs can be co-ordinated more 
easily. In addition, advocates of this form of fund- 
raising maintain that recreation, while of special 
interest to the entire community, should be re- 
quired to conform to fluctuations in total corpor- 
ate revenues in the same manner as other units of 
government. 

Those who oppose the financing of public rec- 
reation in this manner maintain that the character 
of service provided by public recreation bodies 
should not be impaired by fluctuations of income 
at the discretion of budget-making officials, who 
may not be cognizant of the values of recreation 
and who in the necessity of adjusting govern- 
mental expenditures to total governmental income 
might very easily reduce recreational appropria- 
tions below the amount required for the successful 
operation of recreational services. This point is 
often stressed because of the fact that a consider- 
able portion of public ixcreation expenditures is 
devoted to services, whereas certain other govern- 
mental functions are concerned with providing 
more material tangible goods. 

A second method of financing public recreation 
is by a special public tax levy for the purpose. 
The customary means of deriving a special tax 
is through the establishment by the legislative 
body of a special mill tax. This mill tax, in which 
only the rate of taxation is established, derives 
funds proportionate to fluctuations in the value of 
assessable property; consequently as a community 
becomes more wealthy, the amount allocated for 
public recreation increases proportionately. In- 



versely when for any reason property values de- \ 
cline, the amount of revenue available for the sup- ' 
port of such service suffers proportionately. While 1 
under this plan the recreation authority is usually '■ 
required to submit an annual budget before the i 
beginning of the fiscal year, it is usually found ; 
that the budget is increased in anticipation of ad- 
ditional revenues based upon increased property 
\'alues, which means that in effect the amount ■ 
anticipated through such special tax levies actually 
becomes the amount expended during the year. 
Considerable discussion centers around the ques- 
tion as to whether a city should expand its recrea- 
tional opportunities in proportion to the increase 
of its wealth or whether through such means of 
taxation a recreational agency might be led into 
extravagance and into expenditures beyond the 
actual requirements and needs of the community. 
While few communities in the United States can 
be said to have ideal recreation systems and there- 
fore increasing expenditures to attain a Utopian 
goal may be defensible, nevertheless the question 
does arise as to whether the community should 
continue to expand service in direct proportion to 
an increase in property values upon which its taxa- 
tion is based. On the other hand, it is suggested 
that should property values for any reason de- ; 
crease, the total revenue derived for the support ; 
of public recreation would decline below the i 
actual needs of the community, resulting in inade- ! 
quate service and inefficient provision for the lei- 
sure time of the people. There is general agree- ' 
ment that in periods of economic disorganization 
and consequent unemployment the ability of the 
individual to provide for his recreation through 
commercial and private agencies decreases, with 
the result that the burden shifted upon public 
agencies shows a tremendous increase. Under the 
special tax levy, therefore, in such a crisis the 
burden upon public agencies increases inversely to 
the funds available for the maintenance and opera- 
tion of their services. One of the objections to the 
special tax is that the agency tends to become in- 
dependent of the legislative bodies and that its 
activities are therefore subject to less managerial 
authority and control. While it is agreed that this 
situation may eliminate political influence upon 
personnel and policies of the agency, nevertheless 
there is considerable doubt in the minds of many 
municipal administrators as to the desirability of 



52 



decentralizing control of the various go\-ern- 
mental functions. 

Another form of tax is the special assessment 
which is levied for a specific purpose, such as the 
construction of additional facilities or the improve- 
ment of the plant and equipment of the agency. 
It is usually imposed on properties in proportion 
to the amount of benefit which these properties 
derive j consequently, it is more desirable in small 
districts where the benefits can be definitely placed 
and allocated. This type of assessment is em- 
ployed quite successfully in small park districts 
wherein the taxpayer is able to see what he is 
going to get for his money, and consequently is 
more agreeable to such assessments. In general, 
it may be said that such assessments and public 
improvements in districts covering a large area 
are not so successful because the property owner 
in one section of the district is less willing to be 
assessed for improvements in another area within 
the same district. 

In many communities public recreation bodies 
are authorized to issue improvemetit and other 
bonds to provide revenues for acquiring additional 
lands, for making special improvements, and to 
provide for other than general operating needs 
of the agency. These bonds are usually refunded 
over a stated number of years by prorating the 
interest and principal and annually levying addi- 
tional taxes, over and above the corporate levy. 

To prevent the governmental unit from unduly 
burdening the taxpayer and at the same time to 
provide a basis for intelligent planning, expansion 
and improvement, the legislature usually creates 
a maximum bonding power for the agency. By this 
restriction the agency cannot become indebted be- 
yond a definite amount, either actually fixed or 
expressed in terms of a percentage of the value of 
all assessable property in the district. 

Under the latter during a period of property 
devaluation, an agency, which prior to the reduc- 
tion in assessment valuation has been within the 
legal limit, can be placed in the position of ex- 
ceeding the legal limit the following year even 
though it may not have issued additional bonds, 
or while it may even have reduced the previous 
year's total bonded indebtedness. For this reason, 
particularly in recent years, it has been suggested 
by taxing authorities that agencies should adopt 
less extensive programs and arrange means of 



financing so that a considerable margin of leeway 
is provided between outstanding bonds and the 
constitutional and statutory debt limitations. 

Tax collecdons during depressed financial 
periods often lag considerably behind the legal 
deadlines provided for payments. This delay in 
tax collections places a governmental unit in the 
position of having book assets in the form of an- 
ticipated tax revenues, and yet being unable to 
meet its obligations due to lack of actual cash. 
To alleviate this situation many governmental 
bodies are permitted to sell warrants against these 
anticipated revenues. Tax anticipation warrants 
are usually refunded as the delinquent taxes are 
paid. Limits are generally placed on the percent- 
age of the tax levy against which these warrants 
can be issued because of the fact that often, par- 
ticularly during "hard times," an appreciable 
amount of the levy is for various reasons un- 
collectible. 

Gifts and Land Dedications 

Other means of financing public recreadon in- 
clude gifts and donations, both of which were im- 
portant factors in the early days of the public 
recreation movement, particularly in the play- 
ground and acdve recreation phases. Libraries, 
civic centers, swimming pools, and other types of 
plant and equipment represent recent contribu- 
tions to the recreational plants and equipment of 
many communities in the United States. It is be- 
coming an accepted practice in real estate subdivi- 
sion promotion for certain areas within such dis- 
tricts to be dedicated and set aside for schools, 
parks, playgrounds, civic centers and other com- 
munity purposes. While the motives are not gen- 
erally altruistic in that the values of lots are in- 
creased because of these features, nevertheless the 
provision of these areas does much to insure ade- 
quacy of public recreation as the community ex- 
pands to absorb such subdivisions. This also obvi- 
ates the necessity of a community expending large 
sums of money to provide for recreation in 
these areas when they are built up, by which time 
the cost of acquiring such properties becomes con- 
siderable. 

Fees and Charges 

In order to provide many specialized recrea- 
tional opportunities for which the per-capita-user 
cost is relativelv hich and for which the demand 



53 



is comparatively limited, many communities have 
financed these specialized functions out of fees and 
charges for their use. A stud\- by the National 
Recreation Association in 1932 of the principles 
and practices governing charges for individual 
facilities and activities is summarized as follows: 

To Children 

In general, recreation service to children under 
14 years of age should be free. 

If any charges arc considered ad\'isable for the 
use of supplies, materials or equipment, they 
should be on the basis of cost. 

Free periods or reduced rates should be ar- 
ranged for children when charges are regularly 
made. 
To Adults 

Recreation service to adults should at least be 
partly free. Services for which fees may be con- 
sidered are: 

(a) Those requiring large capital expenditures 
and operating and maintenance expenses. 

(b) Special services or conveniences involving 
extra cost for leadership or equipment to 
accommodate a limited number of persons. 

(c) Those services involving the use of ma- 
terials ultimately retained by participants. 

(d) Facilities and services used by non-resi- 
dents. 

Miscellaneous Principles 

The objective in both free and charge service 
should be to provide the best possible recreation 
for each individual and for the community as a 
whole in adequate variety and amount. 

Admission fees should be employed with the 
utmost discretion. 

A great deal of question has arisen regarding 
the advisability of collections at amateur athletic 
contests. If considered necessary for any reason, 
they should be under the control of the recreation 
administering body. 

Charging a fee primarily for the purpose of 
simplifying discipline or eliminating troublesome 
individuals is questionable. 

The use of public recreation facilities by pri- 
vate individuals or groups for personal benefit or 
gain is unwarranted. 

Charges designed to provide more than the cost 
of operation and maintenance of the services pro- 
ducing the revenue may tend to defeat the funda- 
mental objective of the best possible recreation for 
each individual and for the entire community. 

Neighborhood needs and living conditions of 
those for whom public recreation is intended are 
constant considerations of paramount importance. 



Budgets 

It has already been pointed out that a compari- 
son uf expenditures for recreational agencies in 1 
the various communities of the United States , 
would be of little value. The inclusion of ex- ; 
traneous acti\ities in recreation budgets and the ' 
multiple units providing similar services in the ' 
same communities, some of which do not submit 
annual reports to the bodies collecting the data, ; 
make it difficult to secure reliable comparable sta- ' 
tistics which could be utilized as a basis for such I 
studies. In a comparison of per capita expendi- , 
tures one community might exceed by a wide mar- 1 
gin those of another in the same population group, i 
Analysis of such data, however, and a comparison 
of the functions of the agencies in the several com- : 
munities often reveal that the types of facilities ; 
provided and the extent of programs conducted \ 
by the agencies are quite dissimilar. A study of ' 
public recreation expenditures must therefore of ' 
necessity go beyond the total appropriations of the 
various agencies into an analysis or breakdown of ; 
their budgets. Here, again, lack of uniformity | 
in budget-making not only between recreation 
agencies in different communities, but also among 
the various units within the same city or town, , 
creates a difficult problem. In some budgets the ! 
expenditures are classified according to the various : 
organizational units within the agencyj in others, [ 
the classification is according to the physical equip- ; 
ment under the control of the agency, the total , 
expenditure being subdivided in the budget to ' 
provide the actual operating and maintenance cost 
for each location j and again in the budgets of ; 
other agencies the expenditures are classified ac- 
cording to the character of the service provided. 
In those agencies deriving moneys through several 
funds, the budgets are often complicated further 
by divisions into expenditures based upon the 
various sources of revenue. This is particularly 
true of those agencies which benefit through en- 
dowments and trust funds of one kind or another. 
In order, therefore, to provide comparable data 
in analyzing expenditures of public recreation 
agencies, and to provide comparisons of unit costs, 
a reconciliation between various types of budgets 
employed is required. In many instances insuffi- 
cient data regarding the distribution of expenses 
make such adjustments well nigh impossible. In 
addition, as has been indicated, the activities and 



54 



ASSESSED VALUATION OF TAXABLE PROPERTY IN CHICAGO, 1920-1935 



1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 I 

1935 



h,654,ai4.B38 001 



1.707.817,620 00 1 



1.666. 2<l, 773 001 



1,768,665,329 001 



,786,275,485 001 



11,873,921,764 00| 
1,882,067.121 OOB 



1,250,437,799 001 



13,650,351,135 001 



13,654,495,766 661 



■ 2,844.748,247 001 



|2, 474,836,133001 
12,397,652,228 001 
|2,274,558,"l4F00l 



IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



TOTAL TAXES COLLECTIBLE WITHIN THE CITY OF CHICAGO, 1920- 35 



90,617,58600 



128.030,678 62 I 



130 661.74016 



I 142.900.687 381 



I 206.192.005121 



188.025.26560 | 



ra2.48740509l 



1229.412.443 001 



1932 
833 



1 1 1 1 II I ii M 

^H 159 .404.77910 | 



_|g|^^^^^^^^^^_H^^^B|||^B|IB^^Himj>926e,g204_^HB 

10 20 so 40 50 60 TO 80 90 100 HO 120 UO 140 ISO 160 r?D 180 190 200 20 220 230 2*0 250 

MILLIONS Of DOLLAftS 



Figure 6 



lO 



< 

_l 

$ 

Q 

^ A 
(/) 0} 
< o 

p^ 

X 

o 



>- 
> 

UJ 



X >- 

^^ 

< o 
1 ^ 

(/) ; 
o o 



UJ 

q: 




O — CMrO^U-)(X)(^00 Cr)0 — (MrO^in 



functions of no two agencies are exactly alike; 
consequently, e\-en when budgetary figures are 
reduced to common denominators, comparisons 
cannot be accepted as fully indicative of the effec- 
tiveness of operation of tax-supported recreation 
bodies. 

It is not intended that the preceding pages 
should be accepted as an exhaustive study of taxa- 
tion and other means of financing public recrea- 
tion in the United States. The short synopsis was 
included primarily to indicate the trends in financ- 
ing such public agencies and to serve as a back- 
ground to a study of the financial aspects of public 
recreation in the City of Chicago. 



Taxation in Chicago 

In the City of Chicago governmental agencies 
providing recreational services derive their finan- 
cial support through several sources. The major 
revenue is obtained through corporate tax levies 
of the various agencies. Other sources include 
license fees, rentals from leases, miscellaneous 
charges, fines and permit costs. 

The total tax levy for all governmental func- 
tions in the City of Chicago is the sum of all 
money specified by the various governmental 
units in their tax levy ordinances as the amounts 
required to defray the costs of their various activi- 
ties and services during the year. The individual 
agency, however, must not exceed its legal maxi- 
mum rate in establishing this amount. The total 
rate for the city is ascertained by dividing the total 
amount of money in the levies of all agencies b\- 
the total assessed value of all property in the city. 
Thus, in reality the aggregate tax rate is the sum 
of the separate rates. 

There are, therefore, two equally important 
factors which establish the amount of the taxes 
derived: rate, and assessed valuation of property. 
If the total levy increases, while the value of as- 
sessable property remains constant, the tax rate in 
effect is increased; similarly, if the amount of the 
total levy is reduced while the value of property 
remains stationary, the rate of the levy decreases; 
should the value of property fluctuate in this same 
manner while the levy remains constant, the op- 
posite occurs. 



From this it can be discerned that governmental 
agencies are dependent upon the valuation of as- 
sessable property in Chicago. A reduction in 
property valuation creates a two-fold problem: 
first, the individual agency's tax levy is reduced, 
often necessitating drastic curtailment in opera- 
tions; second, and even more important because 
reduction in property valuation is usually the re- 
sult of a lessening of the earning capacity of prop- 
erties, the tax-payers' ability to pay even a reduced 
tax is often disproportionate to the decrease in the 
levy. In the resultant situation the property- 
owner does not pay his taxes and the public agency 
does not secure sufficient funds to operate even 
under a reduced budget. Since 1930 the decrease 
in property values in the City of Chicago has 
played a vital part in the operation of the various 
recreational units of the city. To provide funds 
for operating it has been necessary for many 
agencies to issue anticipation tax warrants. 

Limitations in Taxing Powers 

The rates of taxes permitted the various 
agencies have fluctuated from time to time accord- 
ing to legislation enacted by the State govern- 
ment. A survey of maximum local tax rates per- 
mitted in Illinois during 1936, made under the 
auspices of the Illinois Tax Commission, reveals 
the following limitations in taxing powers of gov- 
ernmental agencies which provide recreational 
services to the residents of the City of Chicago: 

City of Chicago^ 

In 19^,6 the corporate levy of the City of Chi- 
cago was established with a maximum rate of 1.29 
per cent or a rate to produce $37,000,000, which- 
ever is greater. This rate was exclusive of taxes 
for bonds and interest, judgments for which spe- 
cial taxes are authorized, pension funds, working 
cash fund, public library, and the Municipal 
Tuberculosis Sanitarium. 

Chicago Public Library 

A. Library Maiutemuue Fund. The library 
maintenance fund of the Cit\- of Chicago during 
1 9 •56 was fixed at a maximum of three-fourths 
mill per dollar or a rate to produce not to exceed 



'The total anu.uiit of taxc- ixrmittcti to the City of Chicago 
Iwars no direct relationship to the amount a\-ailablc to the 
Bureau of Parks. Recreation and Aviation, inasniuch as this 
afjcncv is provided for in the general corixirate budget of the 
citv ill which the tax \evy is supplemented by other revenues. 
In' 1936 the additional amount derived thronch license fees, 
fines, etc., was approximately $17,000,000. 



55 



$i,8oo,000, whichever is greater. Legislation was 
passed in 1937 which provides a fixed $2,000,000 
annual levy for this purpose. This does not be- 
come operative until 1938. 

B. Library Building FiDid. A library build- 
ing fund of one-tenth mill per dollar was in-op- 
erative during 1935, but was attain in effect 
during 1 93 6- 1 93 7. 

Board of Education 

For the support of playgrounds under the 
auspices of the Board of Education, a tax of one- 
fourth mill per dollar was established as a maxi- 
mum rate. 

Chicago Park District 

A. A corporate levy of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict was established at three mills per dollar or a 
rate to produce $9,000,000, whichever is greater. 
This tixed levy of $9,000,00 was in effect during 
1 935- 1 936. In 1937 a fixed corporate levy of 
$7,600,000 was established by the legislature. 

B. Museum Fund. A museum fund of one 
and one-half cents per hundred dollars is also as- 
sessed by this district toward the support of cer- 
tain museums and aquariums located on its prop- 
erty. 

C. Employees' Annuity and Benefit Fund. An 
employees' annuity and benefit fund of the Chi- 
cago Park District is permitted an additional one- 
half mill per dollar. 

D. Park Police Annuity and Benefit Fund. 
One-sixth mill per dollar maximum levy is al- 
lowed for park police annuity and benefit funds. 

Thus a total of 229/600 of one per cent of the 
assessed valuation of property in the City of Chi- 
cago is permitted toward the support of the vari- 
ous functions of the Chicago Park District.' In 
addition to this, the District is empowered to re- 
tire its bonds and to pay interest through the as- 
sessment of a tax levy on which there is no limit. 
During 193 5- 193 6 this item was in excess of all 
other taxes of the district. 

Cook County Forest Preserve District 

During 1936 a revenue of nine-fordeths mill 
per dollar was permitted for corporate purposes 
of the Forest Preserve District. An additional 



two-hundredths mill per dollar was assessed for 
employees' annuity and benefit, and three-fourths 
mill per dollar was permitted for the support of 
the zoological park. This makes a total of 4/125 
of one per cent on the assessed valuation of prop- 
erty in Cook County. 

Assessed Valuation 

The assessment valuation for taxing properties 
in Chicago includes three types of properties: real 
estate, personal and railroad property. Of these 
the assessment of real estate has provided the 
largest amount, constituting in 1927 more than 
76 per cent of the endre assessment valuation. 
Since 1930 the ratio of real estate property to the 
total assessment declined so that in 1933 it was 
only 64.91 per cent of the entire levy. Of the 
remainder in that year, approximately 5 per cent 
applied to railroad properties and 30 per cent to 
personal properties. A study of the total assessable 
property in Chicago and Cook County since 1925 
reveals the extent of the decline in valuations 
since 1930. 

Valuation 



\ ear City of Chicago 



Cook County 



1920 $1,654,814,838 

1921 1,707,817,620 

1922 1,666,241,773 

1923 1,788,665,329 

1924 1,788,275,485 

1925 1,873,921,764 

1926 1,882,067,121 

1927 4,250,437,799 

1928 3,650,351,135 

1929 3,694,495,706 

1930 3,788,915,049 

1 93 1 2,844,748,247 

1932 2,474,836,133 
'933 2,397,652,228 

1934 2,274,558,142 

1935 1,928,798,271 

1936 1,956,928,663 



$1,797,265,770 
1,823,602,081 

1,813,154,479 
1,826,172,311 

1,953,209,350 
2,049,049,089 
2,065,666,319 
4,667,939,475 
4,338,891,490 
4,404,233,632 
4,516,485,826 
3,756,778,446 
2,950,976,987 
2,843,925,355 
2,713,885,589 
2,463,044,300 
2,387,041,085 



'This is based upon a corporate rate of three mills. The 
pegged levy of $7,600,000 increases this percentage. 



It should be noted that while for taxing pur- 
poses the above amounts are regarded as the full 
property valuations, they do not actually repre- 
sent fair cash values. At the present time the as- 
sessed \'aluation has a ratio to full cash values of 
approximately 37 per cent. 

Total Tax Levies 

The annual tax levies in Chicago since 1920 
have varied as follows: 



56 



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DISTRIBUTION OF ^100 

CHICAGO TAXES 




1922 



Figure 9 



Year 



Tax Levy 



1920 $ 90,617,586.00 

1921 128,030,678.62 

1922 130,861,740.16 

1923 142,900,687.38 

1924 151,535,442.22 

1925 170,909,288.26 

1926 174,881,232.56 

1927 206,192,005.82 

1928 188,025,265.60 

1929 225,518,778.33 

1930 252,487,405.09 

193 1 229,412,443.00 

1932 187,934,092.00 

1933 153,299,789.97 

1934 159,404,779.10 

1935 179,168,122.04 
The annual aggregate rate based upon these 

totals and the property valuations are as follows: 



sus was conducted), rc\'ealed the following fluc- 
tuations: 



Pof>ulation 



School School Forest 

build- Educa- Pre- 

ings Hon Libraries serves 



1920—2.701,705 


$2,553 


$2,516 


$7,405 


$.326 




1921—2,831,923 


3.329 


3.709 


12.272 


.459 




1922—2,897,557 


3.370 


4.313 


11.616 


.46 


$.575 


1923—2,964.692 


3.804 


4.525 


12.25 


.483 


.904 


1924—3,031.300 


4.420 


5.899 


11.979 


.472 


.763 


1925—3.096,40; 


4.601 


6.052 


12.345 


.484 


.847 


1926—3,162,239 


4.892 


5.952 


12.082 


.711 


.892 


1927—3,228,981 


6.201 


6,582 


13.426 


.789 


1.053 


1928—3,295,027 


6.101 


5.539 


11.244 


.665 


1.108 


1929—3,360,154 


6.313 


5.498 


16.767 


.769 


.989 


1930—3,376,438 


7.450 


5.611 


15.8.« 


.785 


1.009 


1931—3,410,000 


6.724 


5.-354 


14.339 


.528 


1.015 


1932—3,456,700 


6.197 


.641 


11.423 


.430 


1.002 


1933—3,490,700 


6.001 


.6994 


12.773 


.4121 


.7556 


1934—3,524,700 


S.473 


1.134 


12.659 


.3872 


.903 


1935—3,558,700 


5.679 


1.124 


12.517 


.5058 


.306 



Broken down into the various governmental 
units for which the taxes are levied, the annual tax 



I930 I931 I932 I933 I934 I935 193^ I937 



Base rate 

Old South Park District** 

Total — South Chicago, H3cle Park and Lake. 
Old Lincoln Park District**— 

In North Chicago 

In Lake View 

Total — North Chicago 

— Lake View 

Old West Park District** 

Total — West Chicago Park District 



. $6.00 $6.56 $6.74 
■ 0.74 0.79 0.99 
• 0-74 7-35 7-72, 



0.86 



I.OI 



1-13 



.88 1.02 1. 16 

6.86 7.57 7.87 

6.88 7.58 7.90 

0.58 0.62 0.62 



5-52 


$6.46 


$8.36* $9.71 


0.97 


0.66 


O.OI . ... 


6.49 


7.12 


8.37 .... 


1.20 


0.71 


0.02 


1. 21 


•71 


.02 


6.72 


7-17 


8.38 .... 


673 


7.17 


8.38 .... 


0.70 


0.33 


O.OI .... 



J.I7 



0.58 y.n 



6.22 6.79 8.37 



*For property in following old small park districts, add : 
Hollywood, $0.05: Northwest, $0.03; The Ridge (Calumet), 
$0.01. 



**In the estimates for 1936 and 1937, levies for unexchanged 
bonds are included in the Chicago Park District total; there 
may be levies of $0.01 or $0.02 in some of the old park dis- 
tricts, but the posiibilily of tlie bonds being exchanged with 
consequent abatement of levies therefor, before extension, 
makes a reliable forecast impracticable. 



The annual per capita 
mated population in those 


tax, 
yean 


(based upon esti- 
in which no cen- 


levies for the five years, 193 1- 193 5, were dis- 
tributed as indicated in the following table: 










RATE 








.\M0UNT 




FUND 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1931 


1932 


1933 


STATE 


ict!" 


. .39 

. .52 
. .11 

. Various 
. .56 


.50 
.58 
.14 
Various 
.67 

1.35746 
.95460 
.10 

.03 

.06 

.07 

.11 

.045 

.092935 

1.561387 
.101611 

.009277 
.0](,42 
.04 
.293083 


.52 
.11 

Various 
.65 

1.32398 
.30508 

.03 

.06 

.07 

.11 

.065 

.095927 

1.837072 
.101831 
.025 

.04 
.176097 


.'62 
.14 

Various 
.80 

1.40329 
.32179 

.03 

.06 

.10991 

.13 

.12 

.065 

1.896675 
.175859 
.025 
.04 
.05 
.172466 


.57 
.04 
.98 
.67 

1.76857 
.84998 

.061408 

.088428 

.122817 

.13 

.085 

.12 

.006484 

2.112467 
.196508 
.025 
.04 

.05 
.383280 


$ 12,275,698 
16,367,597 
3,462,376 
22,928,906 
17,626,643 

43,292,925 

22,898,678 

999,998 

944,285 

1,799,995 

2,199,994 

2,619,980 

1,416,427 

3,147,615 


S12,374,1S1 
14,354,050 
3,464,771 
21,420,134 
16,581,402 

33,594,960 
23,634,860 
2,474,836 
742,451 
1,484,902 
1,732.385 
2.722,320 
1,113.676 
2,299,989 




COUNTY 

FOREST PRESERVE DISTR 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 
SANITARY DISTRICT 


$12,4o7.791.60 

2,637,417.45 

20,949,386.95 

15,584,739.50 


CITY: 

Corporate Fund 

Bonds and Interest Fund 

Working Cash Corp. Fund.. 

Judgment Ta.x 

Public Library Main. & Oper. 
Municipal Tuber. Sanitarium. 

Policemen's A. & B. Fund 

Municipal Employees' A. & B. 
Firemen's A. & B. Fund 


Fund 


. 1.37542 
. .72749 
. .03177 
. .03 

. .05718 
. .06989 
. .083237 
. .045 
. .10 

. 1.553408 
. .58 
. .025 
. .04 
. .025 
. .236592 


31,744,603.80 
7,314,901.28 


719,295.67 
1,438,591.34 
1,678.356.56 
2,637,417.45 
1,558,473.95 
2,299,995.85 


SCHOOLS : 

Educational Fund 

Buildings l"\uid 

Playgrounds Fund 

Free Text Book Fund 

Teachers' Pensions 

Bond Redemption and Interest 


48,895,301 

18,256,166 

786,904 

1,259,046 

786,904 

7,447,005 

$229,412,443 


38,790.260 

2,514,706 

22<).501 

461,359 

989,935 

7,253,324 

$187,934,092 


44,046,597.74 

2,441,553.24 

599,413.06 


959,060.89 
4,222,193.64 

$153,299,789.07 



{Tabic continued on pngc 196) 

57 





AMOUNT 


■ — Continued 






PERCENTAGE 




FUND 


1934 


1935 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


STATE 


... Sl'-i,'liL'!V,(i.47 




5.35 
7.14 

1.51 
10.00 
7.68 

18.87 
9.98 
.44 
.41 
.78 
.96 
1.14 
.62 
1.37 

21.31 
7.96 
.34 
.55 
.34 
3.25 


6.57 
7.63 

1.84 
11.38 
8.81 

17.85 
12.55 
1.31 
.40 
.79 
.92 
1.44 
.59 
1.22 

20.61 
1.34 
.12 
.25 
.53 
3.85 


8.13 

1.72 

13.67 

10.17 

20.71 
4.77 

.47 
.94 
1.09 
1.72 
1.02 
1.50 

28.73 
1.59 
.39 

.63 
2.75 


8.85 
2.00 
12.10 
11.41 

20.02 
4.59 

.43 
.86 
1.57 
1.86 
1.71 
.93 

27.06 
2.51 
.36 
.57 
.71 
2.46 




COUNTY 


$ 15,036,206.00 

1,087,689.00 

20,210,407.82 

17,315,422.39 

36,000,000.00 
17,301,763.00 


8.39 


FOREST PRESERVE DISRICT 

CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 


3,184,381.40 
. . 19,291,997.58 


.61 
11.28 


SANITARY DISTRICT 

CITY: 


.. 18,196,465.12 
.. 31,918,669.71 


9.66 
20.09 




7,319,482.61 


9.66 


Working Cash Corp. Fund 


.. ' "682,367.44 




1,250,000.00 
1,800,000.00 
2,500,000.00 
3,500,000.00 
2,300,000.00 
3,200,000.00 
132,000.00 

43,000,000.00 

4,000,000.00 

594,091.00 

950,546.00 

1,188,183.00 

7,801,813.83 


.71 


Public Library Main. & Oper 


1,364,734.88 
2,499,989.60 


1.01 
1.40 


Policemen's A. & B. Fund 

Municipal Employees' A, & !'.. Fund... 

Firemen's A. & B. Fund 

Laborers' A. & 1'.. Inind 

SCHOOLS: 


. . 2,956,925.58 
.. 1,478,462.79 
. . 2,729,469.77 

.. 43,140,975.64 


1.95 
1.28 
1.79 
.07 

24.00 




4,000,015.20 
568,639.54 
909,823.26 


2.23 




.33 




.53 




1,137,279.07 


.67 




3,922,839.44 


4.34 










>15'i,4il4,;79.1U 


$179,168,122.04 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



It has already been indicated that since 1930 
there has been a considerable lag in the collection 
of tax levies in Chicago and Cook County. As of 



January i, 1937, the percentages of collected and 
uncollected taxes in the City of Chicago were as 
follows: 





Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Real estate . 
Personal . . . 
Railroad . . . 

.'Xverase . . . 


... 94.14 
... 09.47 
. . . 98.69 

. . . 89.87 


5.86 

30.53 

1.31 

10.13 


87.41 
67.38 
97-79 

84.41 


12.59 
2.21 

15.59 


84.39 
54.13 
92.49 

78.97 


15.61 

45.87 

7.51 

21.02 


86.35 
50.73 
93.63 

77.15 


13-65 
49.27 

6.37 
22.85 




1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 




Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Percentage 
collected 


Percentage 
uncollected 


Real estate . 
Personal . . . 
Railroad . . . 


... 79.18 

■ ■ • 50.51 
. . . 88.01 


Jo.8_' 

49-49 
11.99 


«3-3'3 
43.81 
87.71 


16.64 

56.19 
12.29 


77-9- 
43.04 
86.99 


22.08 
56.96 
13.01 


43-45 
52.89 
46.17 


5(5-55 
47.11 

53-83 



.\verai,'e ; 


I.I I 28.89 71.66 


28.34 0S.88 31.12 45.83 54.17 


Bonds 

On January i 


, 1937, the bonded indebtedness 


of the various governmental agencies in the City 
of Chicago was as follows:* 



Governing unit 



Principal 
oitt.^tanding 



Sinkin, 

fund' 

rcscri'c 



Net debt 



Constitu- 
tional debt 
other than 
general 
obligation 
bonds 



Total con- 
stitutional 
debt 



City of Chicago' $119,098,000 

Chicago Board of 

F:ducation* 41,432,000 

Chicago Parks 113,029,894 

Sanitary Di.strict 1,39,945,890 

Cook County" 47,541,910 

Forest Preserve District. 12,415,750 



Constitu- 
tional debt 
liii 



$ 11,101,186 $107,996,814 $22,613,771 $130,610,585 $101,775,664 



4,947,725 
'8,587,928 
12,903,959 
6,463,130 
1,284,880 



Total $473,463,444 $ 45,288,808 



36,484,275 
104,441,966 
127,041,931 
41,078,780 
11,130,870 



5,1W3,687 

15,799 

464,768 

2,685.550 



41,650,962 
104,457,765 
127,506,699 
43,764,330 
11,130,870 



$428,174,636 $30,946,575 $459,121,211 



101,775,664 
101,775,664 
119,915,556 
123,152,215 
123.152,215" 



To the Chicago Park District total sinkmg fund reserve tlierc will probably be added $60,636.89, as of 12/31/36. 
nw f TJ T?o^$ valuations. includes $19,000 bonds of annexed districts. 

,,V K ^ T^ •^^^■- , ,- - '^^ of November 30, 1936. 

On basis 1.1 c.institutional limit: on basis of 1 per cent statut..ry limit the margin is $13,499,573. 



'The Civic Federation and Bureau of Public Efficiency Fourth 
Annual Study of Debts, Taxes and Assessments. Bulletin No 
149, .-Xpril, \9i7, p. 6. 



Unused 
available 

debt- 
incurring 
capacity 



$ 60,124,702 



79,387,885 
112,021,345 



$251,533,932 



58 



DISTRIBUTION OF $100 

CHICAGO TAXES 




1924 



925 




1926 




927 



Figure 10 



DISTRIBUTION OF $100 

CHICAGO TAXES 




1928 



1929 




1930 




Figure 



DISTRIBUTION OF $100 

CHICAGO TAXES 





1933 



1934 




1935 



Figure 12 









FUNDS DESIGNATED IN TAX LEVY FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY 










" ] ^ 


L-^ ' 








I 


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FUND 


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TAX LEVY FOR FOREST PRESERVES 
















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Figures 13- 14 



The bases of determining the maximum bonded 
indebtedness are as follows: the City of Chicago 
is limited to 5 per cent of the last known valua- 
tion of property within the city 3 the Chicago Park 
District has a lYz per cent statutory limitation in 
its bonding power, exclusive of debts and bonds 
incurred and authorized by or for any of the 
superseded districts. The Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict of Cook County has a i per cent statutor}' 
debt limitation based upon the property valuation 
of the entire County, in addition to a 5 per cent 
constitutional limitation based upon valuations of 
assessable property in Cook County. Cook County 
in addition to the 5 per cent limitation is further 
restricted by a constitutional tax rate limit of $.75 
on the hundred dollars, which, in effect, further 
reduces its bonding power inasmuch as it restricts 
the amount of taxes which can be levied for the 
payment of indebtedness 3 the Board of Education 
of the City of Chicago is governed by the 5 per 
cent limit in its bonding power. 



Governing unit 



Purpose of bonds 



Unsold 
authorization 



City 



Judgment Funding 
North State Street 
Widening 



Board of Education Revolving Fund of 



Parks 

Sanitary District 
Forest Preserve 
District 

Total 



1934 
Land Damage 



Land Acquisition 



$12,349,000' 
2,000.000 

$14,349,000 

17,700,000^ 

195,000' 

1,222,000 

$33,466,000 



On January i, 1937, the various governmental 
units had a total of $33,466,000 of bond issues 
authorized, which had not been sold.* 

'$11,000,000 sold in January, 1937. 

"Balance of legislative authority to issue bonds to fund 
outstanding debts of old Northwest Park District incurred by 
"unauthorized" expenditures from Bond funds for corporate 
purposes still exists (about $1,200,000) but probably will never 
be used. 

"Authority to issue $24,205,000 bonds (approximately 
$6,000,000 of which had matured unsold) was officially aban- 
doned by ordinance on January IS, 1935 (Proceedings, page 
178 and on). However, under Senate Bill i&l (Laws of Illi- 
nois, 1933, page 499 and on) $22,601,000 of the abandoned 
authority may be reclaimed by issuing new bonds for tlie pur- 
poses set forth in said Senate Bill. In addition, there remains 
$77,000,000 unused bonding power from the $100,000,000 legis- 
lative authorization, making a total latent non-referendum 
bonding authority as of December 31, 1936, of $99,601,000. 
Since the District already is over its constitutional debt limit 
most of this huge sum will be unused until substantial pay- 
ments are made on the present outstanding debt. 

''The Civic Federation and Bureau of Public Efficiency. 
Fourth Annual Studv of Debts. Taxes and Assessments, Bul- 
letin No. 149, April, '1937, p. 11. 



Chicago Public Library 

The Chicago Public Library has several sources 
uf revenue. Its primary means of support is 
through two special taxes which it secures through 
the Cit>' of Chicago: a library maintenance tax and 
a library building tax. In addition, the Chicago 
Public Library has trust funds approximating 
$300,000 and is the recipient of donations of 
books and other equipment from time to time. 
During 1936 it also participated in the library re- 
lief fund established by the State Legislature. 

Tax Rates 

The maximum rates of assessment for library 
taxes are as follows: library building, i/io mill 
per dollar, which is i/ioo of one per cent of as- 
sessable valuation; library maintenance, J4 "^'1^ 
per dollar, or an alternative rate to produce a 
fixed levy of $1,800,000. The mill rate is 3/40 
of one per cent of assessed valuation. In 1938 a 
pegged levy of $2,000,000 will become operative. 

Miscellaneous Revenues 

Receipts and disbursements of miscellaneous 
funds during 1936 are as follows: 

Rental Collection : 

Balance January 1, 1936 $ 2,853.70 

Fees for loan of books 18,442.17 

$21,295.87 

Books purchased $21,284.12 

Balance Decemter 31, 193o 11.75 $21,295.87 

Slide Collection: 

Balance January 1, 1936 97.92 

Fees for loan and sale stereopticon 
slides 445.81 

543.73 

Slides and supplies purdiased 488.59 

Balance December 31, 1936 55.14 543.73 

Security Deposits: 

Balance January 1, 1936 2,111.99 

Deposits for cards and books 3,775.16 

5,887.15 

Deposits refunded 3,774.97 

Balance December 31. 19,i6 2,112.18 5,887.15 

Insurance Fund: 

Balance January 1, 1936 8.64 

Rooks purchased 8.20 

Balance Dccemlx^r 31, 1936 .44 8.64 



Branch Building Preliminary Expense Fund : 

Balance January 1 , 1936 

Balance December 31. 1936 847.02 

Latvian Book Fund: 

Balance Januar>' 1, 1936 

Books purchased 60.00 



59 



Julius Rosenwald Fund : 

Balance January 1, IW' ■ll'-26 

Books purchased '^OJt) 

Book Week Fund : 

Balance January 1, 1936 133.20 

Miscellaneous receipts lor purchase of 
books 66.00 

199.20 

Purchase of books and supplies 171.41 

Balance December 31, l^.'O 27.79 199.20 

Special Deposits : 

Balance January 1, \93b 100.00 

Balance December 31, 1930 1 00.00 

High School Libraries: 

Balance January 1, 1936 22.46 

Received from Board of Kducation . . . . 94,190.24 

94,212.70 
Payment of High School Libraries 

payroll 94,190,24 

Balance December 31, 1936 22.46 94,212,70 

Fines : 

Fines for retention of books 54,552.71 

Paid to Public Library liniployees Pen- 
sion Fund in accordance with law and 
action of Board of Directors 54,552.71 

Secretary's Petty Cash: 

Balance January 1, 1936 23.81 

Reimbursed from Library Fund 9,873.26 

9,897.07 
Miscellaneous expense as per vouchers 

audited 9,837.38 

Balance December 31, 1936 59.69 9,897.07 

Undistributed : 

Balance January 1, 1936 632.50 

Interest coupons past due 320.00 

952.50 
Payment of interest coupons past due.... 952.50 

TRUST FUNDS 
Receipts and Disbursements 
Kelly Fund Income : 

Balance January 1, 1936 $ 2,412.06 

Income from investments 8,045.10 

10,457.16 

Books purchased 9,512.93 

Collection fee on coupons .60 

Balance December 31, 1936 943.63 10,457.10 

Ryder Fund Income : 

Balance January 1, 1936 186.16 

Income from investments 263.25 

449.41 

Books purchased 393.67 

Balance December 31, 1936 55.74 449.41 

Beecher Fund Income : 

Balance January 1, 1936 81.19 

Income from investments 90.00 

171.19 

Books purchased 124.22 

Balance December 31, 1936 46.97 171.19 

Jackson Fund Income: 

Balance January 1, 1936 117.36 

Income from investments 50.00 

167.36 



Books purchased 10.60 

Balance December 31, 19.16 156.76 

Quinn Fund Income: 

Balance January 1, 1936 

Books purchased 31.64 

Balance December 31, 1936 348.56 

Public Library Braille Fund Income : 

Balance January 1, 1936 

Purchased material for books for the 

Blind 317.08 

Balance December 31, 1936 548.00 



167.36 ' 



380.20 ; 
380.20 I 



865.08 



Trust Funds 

The total amount of the various trust funds of 
the public library on January i, 1937, was as fol- 
lows: 

Trust Funds: 

Hiram Kellv bequest $200,000.00 

Wm. H. Ryder be- 
quest 10,000.00 

Jerome Beecher be- 
quest 2,000.00 

H. W. Jackson be- 
quest 1,000.00 

Rose C. Quinn be- 
quest 3,000.00 

Hiram Kelly Incre- 
ment 65,000.00 

Public Library Braille 

Fund 12,500.00 

Total $293,500.00 

Annual Tax Levy 

The total amounts of taxes levied annually 
since 1920 for library purposes are as follows: 

Percenlage 
Year Amount of total levy 

19-O 882,512.00 .97 

1921 1,300,161.55 i.oi 

1922 1,332,993.42 I.OI 

19-3 1,430,932.30 I.OO 

1924 1,430,620.39 .94 

1925 1,449,137.41 .67 

1926 2,258,480.34 1.29 

1927 2,550,262.68 1.23 

1928 2,190,210.68 1. 16 

1929 2,586,149.09 1. 14 

1930 2,652,240.53 1.05 

193 1 1,799,995.00 .78 

1932 1,484,902.00 .79 

1933 1,438,591.34 .94 

1934 1,364,734.88 .86 

1935 1,800,000.00 I. II 



6q 



Based upon total population of Chicago during 
these years this represents the following annual 



cost per capita: 
Year 



Cost per Capita 



1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

Annual Budgets 

For the eleven-year period, 1926-36, the an- 
nual budgets of the library included the follow- 
ing expenditures: 

Operation Building and 
Year and Maintenance Sites Fund Total 



.326 

•459 
.46 

•483 
.472 

.484 
.711 
.789 
.66$ 
.769 
.785 
.521 
.418 
.412 
.419 
.506 
•503 



1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1Q31 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 



$2,000 
2,173 
2.315 
2,613 
2,1 
2,567 
2,022 
1,900 
1,588 
1,696 



000.00 
000.00 
,000.00 
,000.00 
,000.00 
,118.96 
,000.00 
,000.00 
,887.68 
860.00 
,000.00 



$432,000.00 
435,000.00 
463,000.00 
522,000.00 
435,600.00 
553,853.16 
366,520.00 
295,000.00 
335,000.00 
285,000.00 
327,745.58 



$2,432,000.00 
2,608,000.00 
2,778,000.00 
3,135,000.00 
2,613,600.00 
3,120,972.12 
2,388,520.00 
2,195,000.00 
1,923,887.68 
1,981,860.00 
2,427,745.58 



1936 Budget 

The 1936 budget of the Chicago Public Library 
provided for the following expenditures: 

Amounts 
iif'prol'riatcd 

For Library piir[)Oses and all expense of mainte- 
nance and operation of the Chicago Public 
Library and its branches; 

Salaries and wages 

Salaries — Deposit Stations (Unit base) 

Material and supplies 

Machinery and vehicles 

Repairs by contract or o[)en order 

Fuel, lijiht and jxiwer 

Furniture and fixtures 

Printing, stationery, books, periodicals, binding, 
postage and supplies 

Impersonal services and Ijenefits 

Interest on anticipation tax warrants 

Rents 

Other expense of operation and administration. . . 

Loss and cost in collection of taxes 



100,000.00 
10,000.00 
15,000.00 
8,000.00 
4,000.00 
60,000.00 
15,000.00 



590,000.00 
20,000.00 
50,000.00 
45.000.00 
3,000.00 

180,000.00 



Total from Library Fund — Maintenance and 

operation $2,100,000.00 



Library Fund — Building and Sites 

For building purposes and purchase of buildings, 

sites and equipment of library buildings . . . $205,000.00 

Replacements, alterations and repairs to buildings 100,000.00 

Loss and cost in collection of taxes 22,745.58 

Total from Library Fund— Building and Sites $327,745.58 

Grand total $2,427,745.58 

The Forest Preserve District of Cook 
County 

The Forest Preserve District of Cook County 
derives its financial support from two major 
sources: (i) tax levies, and (2) revenue from 
property rentals, concessions, and fees from the 
operation of golf courses and swimming pools. 

Tax Rates 

The Forest Preserve District of Cook County 
is empowered to levy the following taxes: 

( r ) A tax levy of 9/40 of one f i ) mill on the 
dollar of the assessed valuation of all taxable 
prupert}- in Cook County for general corporate 
purposes; and 

(2) A tax levy of 3 ^40 of one ( i ) mill on the 
dollar for the maintenance and operation of the 
Chicago Zoological Park by the Cook County 
Forest Preserve District; and 

(3) A tax levy of 2/100 of one (i) mill on the 
dollar for the purpose of providing revenue for 
the Employees' Annuity and Benefit Fund; and 

(4.) In addition to which provision is made for 
whatever tax levy is required for the payment of 
bonds maturing, and interest on bunds which be- 
come due in a given taxable year. 

Annual Levies 

The total amount le\'ied annually through 
taxation b\- the Forest Preserve District since 1922 
is as follows: 



Year 

1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
193 I 
1932 
■933 
1934 
1935 





Percentage 


A mount 


of total levy 


1, 666,24.1. -jS 


1.27 


2,682,998.07 


1.88 


2,324,758.13 


1-53 


2,623,490.47 


1-53 


2,823,100.68 


1.61 


3,400,350.24 


1.64 


3,650,357-33 


1-94 


3,325,048.83 


1.46 


3,410,023.55 


1-35 


3,462,376.00 


1. 51 


3,464,771-00 


r.84 


2,637,417-45 


1.72 


3,184,381.40 


2.00 


1,087,689.00 


.61 



61 



Annual Budgets 

The annual budget appropriations since 1926 
have been as follows: 









Bond and 


Real estate 


Year 


Corporate fund 


interest fund acquisition fund 


1926 . 


$454,751.10 


$2,479,300.00 


$6,315,007.18 


1927 . 


568,527.84 


2,594,190.00 


5,966,155.19 


1928 . 


543,907.84 


2,666,180.00 


6,461,844.41 


1929 . 


896,181.00 


2,777,150.00 


6,457,725.54 


1930 . 


1,259,269.83 


2,568,546.67 


3,085,028.91 


1931 . 


1,510,227.62 


3,201,550.00 


2,332,574.75 


1932 . 


923,807.91 


3,243,450.00 


1,784,198.96 


1933 . 


927,754.98 


2.85 


2,150.00 


989,070.80 


1934 . 


979,969.78 


2,947,440.52 


925,074.91 


1935 . 


727.095.26 


2,004,300.00 


2,176,726.72 


1936 . 


1,003,944.84 


1.847,200.00 


1,918,789.56 




Improvement 


Zoological 


Employees 




Year 


fund 


Park 


annuity fun 


d Total 


1926 


$107,060.16 


$614,714.73 




$9,970,833.17 


1927 


90,791.98 


1,184,214.73 




10,403,879.74 


1928 


50,137.27 


1,511,703.80 




11.233,773.32 


1929 


345,000.00 


1,840.087.7.=; 




12,316,144.29 


1930 


261,287.18 


1,267.585.99 




8,441,718.58 


1931 


2,500.000.00 


1,496.456.93 




11,040,809.30 


1932 


749,469.65 


1,669,499.41 


$25,000.00 


8.395,425.93 


1933 


49,618.43 


1,494,106.98 


25,000.00 


6,337,701.19 


1934 


* 


1,625,386.93 


60,000.00 


6,537,872,14 


1935 


500,000.00 


1,213,266.72 


,!7.000.00 


6,658,388.70 


1936 


473,960.73 


1,028,054.72 


59,706.00 


6,331,655.85 



*No appropriation was made for the Improvement Fimd for 
the fiscal year 1934. 

The annual per capita cost of the Forest Preserves, 
based upon tax levies within the City of Chicago, 
from 1922 to 1935 was as followsif 

Year Cost -per capita 



1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929. 
1930. 

1931- 
1932. 

1933- 
1934- 
1935- 



575 
904 

763 
847 
892 

053 



009 
001 
974 
756 
977 
306 



The appropriation bill of the Forest Preserve 
District for the fiscal year 1936 was as follows: 



Corporate Funds: 
Current Assets 

Cash 

Taxes receivable from tax levies 
of 19.32-1933-1934-19.35 

Other sources — sinking fund 



$12,801.54 



1,185.086.89 
64,337.60 



$1,262,226.03 

tTotal tax levy of the Cook County Forest Preserve District 
based upon the assessed valuation of all property in the County. 
The above per capita costs are based tipon tlie levy on that 
portion of the Cook County valuation located virithin the City 
of Chicago. 



Current Liabilities: 

Vouchers payable $40,783.50 

Tax anticipation warrants, 1934-35 363,020.85 

.•\dvanced from other funds 581,476.84 

Surplus 12/31/35 276,944.84 

Iicvci:ue for Fiscal Year 1936: 
Surplus 12/31/35 as reported 

above $276,944.84 

1936 tax levy — 2;4 cent rate on 

every $100 tax valuation 607,500.00 

Revenue from operations : 
Golf, swimming, property 
rentals, concessions and 
misc. revenue 119,500.00 



BOND .\ND INTEREST FUND 
iirrcnt Assets: 

Cash $1,798,650.52 

Tax receivable from tax levy of 

19.32-1933-1934-1935 5.146,181.83 



'urrcnt Liabilities : 
For payment or purchase on 

bonds 1931-1932-1933-1934- 

1035 tax levies 
For interest, 1934-1935 
For "■■n principal in default" 

1434-1935 
Deferred tax lew credit 



$5,388,750.00 
558,300.00 



324,240.52 
884,601.49 



Real Estate Acquisition Fund: 
Assets: 

Cash $19,011.72 

Due from 1932-1934-1935 tax levies 581,476.84 
Invested in Forest Preserves bonds 20,625.00 
Unsold bonds, series "P" 1,303,000.00 



Liabilities: 

Vouchers payable $5,324.00 

Surplus 12/31/35 1,918,789,56 

Prookficld Zoological Fund: 
Assets : 

Cash $47,523.77 

Due from 1932-1933-1934-1935 

tax levy 778,030.95 

Surplus, 12/31/35 

Revenue, 1936: 

Surplus, 12/31/35, as above $825,554.72 

1936 zoological fund tax levy at 

34 of a cent rate on each $100 

valuation 202,500.00 



Total 
Iinpro-vement Fund : 
Cash 
Due from bonds issued 



$215,020.39 
258,940.34 



Surplus. 12/31/35 

Appropriation for F.rpendilnres, 1936: 

CORPOR.-\TE FUND 
Personal Service : 

General Administration : 

General office $27,836.00 

Comptroller's office 14,965.80 

Forestry 14,175.60 

Construction and repairs 25,289.80 

Maintenance 202,759.00 

Police division 51,363.80 



62 



Recreation : 






Golf 




54,025.00 


Swimming 


ice 


24,550.00 


Total Personal Sen 


$414,965.00 


Impersonal Service : 






Transportation 




$35,000.00 


Truckine 




10,000.00 


Telephone 




8,000.00 


Postage 




600.00 


Printing 




4,500.00 


Light, heat, power 




10,000.00 


Water 




4,500.00 


Repairs and replacements 




3,500.00 


Fees and other compensal 


ion 


8,500.00 


Miscellaneous 




3,500.00 




$88,100.00 


Afpropriation for E.vpcnditi 


res, 1936 : 


CORPORATE 


FUND 


Supplies : 






Office 




$1,200.00 


Gas and oil 




9,500.00 


Laundry and janitor 




1,500.00 


Wearing apparel 




250.00 


Trees, shrubs, seeds 




1,000.00 


Chemical equipment 




3.000.00 


Mechanical and electrical 




2,000.00 


Miscellaneous 




3,000.00 


Material and parts 




12,000.00 


Equipment 




5,000.00 


Insurance 




3,000.00 


Contingent fund 




3,000.00 


Interest on tax warrants. 


1934 


2,000.00 


Interest on tax warrants, 


1935 


7,500.00 


Interest on tax warrants, 


1936 


7,500.00 


Workmen's compensation 




10,000.00 


Tax deficiency 6% 




36,450.00 


Land purchase 




342.979.84 


Cost of building repairs 




50,000.00 



Year 



Amount 



Pet. of 

total levy 



$500,879.84 

RECA-PITUUVTION OF .\PPROPRIATION FOR 
EXPENDITURES, 1936, CORPORATE FUND 
Personal Service, General .\dministration $414,965.00 

Impersonal Service 
Supplies 



88,100.00 
500,879.84 



$1,003,944.84 



Board of Education 

The tax levy for the Bureau of Recreation of 
the Board of Education is classified as the play- 
ground fund in appropriations of the Board of 
Education. 

Tax Rate 

The maximum tax levy permitted for play- 
grounds is .025 of one mill on the dollar of as- 
sessable property. Expressed as percentage of 
total assessed valuation, the rate is one-fortieth of 
one per cent. 
Annual Tax Levy 

The total amounts levied annually since 1922, 
when the rate first became effective, are as fil 
lows: 



1922 
1923 
1924 

1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

193 1 
1932 

1933 
1934 
1935 



$499,872.53 
536,599-61 
546482.65 
562,176.53 
564,620.14 

637.565-67 

912,587.78 

1,055,184.76 

694,837-85 
912,587.00 
819,599.00 
608,300.00 
618,709.00 
594,091.00 



.381 
■376 
•354 
•329 
•323 
•309 
46 

•27 
•27 
1.29 
.40 
•39 
•38 
•33 



Annual Budgets 

The annual budgets of the Bureau of Recrea- 
tion of the Board of Education since 1926, were 
as follows: 

Equipped Minor 

Playgrounds Repairs 



Year 

1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 



$ 606,003.00 
642,067.00 
743,710.00 
666,890.00 
1,147,779.00 
1,144,077.00 
695,561.00 
497,635.00 
528,496.00 
559,385-00 
472,052.00 



$51,082.00 
53,746.00 
54,426.00 
62,063.00 
63,323.00 
73,045.00 
74,146.00 
67,615.00 
62,109.00 
71,514.00 
61,280.00 



Total 

$ 657,085.00 
695,813.00 
798,136.00 
728,953.00 
1,211,102.00 
1,217,122.00 
769,707.00 
565,250.00 
590,605.00 
630,899.00 
533.332-00 



This represents the following annual cost per 
capita based upon total population of Chicago 
during these years: 

Year Cost per capita 



1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929. 
1930. 

1931- 
1932. 

1933- 
1934- 
19.^5- 



.1725 
.1810 
.1803 
.1816 
.1786 

•1975 
.2770 

•3141 
.2058 
.2638 
.2305 
•1743 
•1755 
.1669 



The 1936 budget of the Bureau, as approved 
by the Board of Education, provides for the fol- 
lowing expenditures: 



Salaries and wages : 
Total salaries $358,7,?2.00 

Fees and compensations 400.00 
Communication and 

transportation 8.760.00 

Print inir and engraving 200.00 

Gas and electricity 21,360.00 



63 



special and 

Miscellaneous: 
Films and photographs 100.00 

Supplies 22,800.00 

Fuel 1,675.00 

Maintenance 56.525.00 

Loss by fire and burglary 1,500.00 

Total equipped 

playgrounds ?472,052.00 

Minor repairs (salaries) 51,400.00 
Communication and 

transportation 800.00 

Garage service 570.00 

Gas and electricitv 125.00 

Supplies 7,000.00 

Fuel 450.00 

Maintenance 61,280.00 

Total minor repairs — 
playgrounds 61,280.00 

Total' appropriate .n $533,332.00 

School Playground Fund 

On January 8, 1936, official reports of the 
Board of Education indicated that the financial 
balance of the Playground Fund was as follows: 

Estiniate<l Current .\ssets: 

Tolal Available jor 

aj^f^rofiriation 



$278,019.06 $278,019.( 



Cash — 

City treasurer (available 

balance) 
City treasurer (reserve for 

loans and interest) 47,553.44 47,553.44 

Taxes receivable, net 1,480,049.23 1,480,049.23 

Gross balance of uncollected taxes 
extended for the following years : 

1928 $70,477.03 

1929 108,597.04 

1930 151,099.59 

1931 231,403.07 

1932 84,071.12 

1933 259,612.69 

1934 568,639.54 

1935 568,639.54 



Accounts Receivable : 

.\dvance to b<ind n-dcniptiDn fund 



$30,200.00 $30,200.00 



Estimated Current Liabilities: 

Temporary loans 

1029 tax warrants $22,000.00 

1931 tax warrants 3,150.00 

1932 tax warrants 40,000.00 
19.V tax warrants 149,225.00 
1934 tax warrants 415,500.00 
19.35 tax warrants 315,000.00 



Interest accrued 



$1,835,821.73 $1,835,821.73 
Tvtal Appropriated 



$944,875.00 $944,875.00 



1929 tax warrants $9,013.56 

1931 tax warrants 120.011 

19.« tax warrants 4,555.55 

1933 tax warrants 7,888.25 

19,34 tax warrants 25,968.75 

1935 tax warrants 10.925.00 

.Accounts payable 
.Advance — • 

Other funds $702,99L83 

Participation 

certificates 7,235.00 

Interest on 

certificates 15,835.71 

Audited vouchers 58,000.00 

Reserve for interest to 

accrue on tax warrants 
Surplus 



$58,471.11 $58,471.11 



$784,062.54 $784,062.54 



$28,000.00 
20,413.08 



$28,000.00 



$1,835,821.73 $1,815,408, 



Tax AnHcipation Warrants 

In order to provide operating funds, because of 
the lag in tax collections, the Board of Education 
has from time to time issued anticipation tax war- 
rants against the various tax levies. As of January 
I, 1937, the amounts of such anticipation warrants 
unredeemed were as follows: 

Levy of 193 1 $ 1,050.00 

Le\'y of 1932 26,300.00 

Levy of 1933 54,900.00 

Levy of 1934 63,000.00 

Levy of 1935 200,000.00 

Levy of 1936 238,000.00 

Total $648,250.00 

Of this amount $595,950 were sold to private 
buyers and $52,300 represented the amount held 
In Idle funds of the Bureau. 



The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and 
Aviation 

The appropriations for the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation are Included in the total 
budgets of the general corporate fund of the City 
of Chicago ; therefore, there is no special levy for ; 
the Bureau. Furthermore, any revenues derived i 
by the Bureau through fees and charges revert to 1 
the total corporate fund of the City. ' 

Annual Budgets 

The total budgets of the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation for the period 1926 to 
1036 are as follows: 

A mount 
Year afprofriated* 

1926 $ 676,826.00 

1927 946,731-00 

1928 1,031,568.00 

1929 878,331.00 

1930 728,261.00 

1931 912,021.00 

1932 690,430.88 

IQ33 674,658.09 

1034 658,190.26 

193.5 648,420.78 

1936 758,198.81 

65 *Navy Pier recreation expenditures are included in 1932. 
64 





FUNDS DESIGNATED IN TAX LEVY FOR SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL AND BUILDING 




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20 1921 1922 .923 ^23 1925 r926 i927 1928 I929 MO S3. .932 .933 .9M .935 









FUNDS DESIGNATED IN TAX LEVY FOR PARKS 










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1 







Figures 15- 16 



CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 
CORPORATE APPROPRIATION - 1937 




TOTAL APPROPRIATED 



$7,774,675.17 



Figure 17 



The cost per capita for these same years was 
as follows: 

Cost fer 
Y ear capita 

1926 214 

1927 293 

1928 313 

1929 261 

1930 216 

1931 264 

1932 194 

1933 193 

1934 187 

1935 182 

1936 213 

The 1936 budget as approved by the City 
Council is as follows: 

jldm'nustrath'c Service Division 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $27,232.15 

Parks and Forestry Diz-ision 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $118,416.22 

Recreation Division 
Playgrounds Section 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $196,115.71 

Beaches and Pools Section 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $62,362.09 

Summer Season 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $54,330.88 

Comfort Stations Section 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $10,186.24 

Miscellaneous — General 
Personal services $300.00 

Material and supplies 44,000.00 

Machinery and vehicles 3,500.00 

Repairs by contract or open order 7,500.00 

Fuel, light and power 21,000.00 

Furniture and fi.xtures 1,200.00 

Printing, stationery and office supplies 2,400.00 

Passenger transportation 2,000.00 

Supervisor of parks and forestry, su- 
perintendent of playgrounds, direc- 
tor in charge of maintenance and 
superintendent of beaches and 
pools $2,177.76 

Hire of teams, carts, and trucks 6,000.00 

Impersonal services and benefits 2,000.00 

Telephone service 3,200.00 

For the erection of fence at the munic- 
ipal nursery 5,428.00 
For maintenance and operation of 
Hummel Square and Host House, 
including services of one junior 
clerk at $125.00 per month 3.000.00 
For the purpose of furnishing labor, 
teams, trucks, material and sup- 
plies for planting, removing or 
caring for trees, shrubbery, plants 
and lawns, for other departments 
or governmental agencies 500.00 
For the purpose of furnishing labor, 
teams, trucks, material and sup- 
plies, for planting, removing, or 
caring for trees, shrubbery, plants 
and lawns on city property for 
private individuals, firms, or cor- 
porations outside of the city 
government 500.00 
Total for administration, parl-:s and 

recreation $573,349.05 



Public Baths 

Amounts appropriated for salaries $55,347.48 

Material and supplies 3,000.00 

Machinery and vehicles 500.00 

Repairs by contract or open order l,O(J0.00 

Fuel, light and power 11,200.00 

Furniture and fixtures 200.00 

Printing, stationery and office supplies 300.00 

Passenger transportation 50.00 

Impersonal services and benefits 2.00O.O0 

Telephone service 700.00 
Total for public baths $74,297.48 

Municipal Airport 
Amounts appropriated for salaries $77,602.28 

Material and supplies 10,500.00 

Machinery and vehicles 1,500.00 

Repairs by contract or open order 2.000.0fl 

Fuel, light and power 12,000.00 

Printing, stationery and office supplies 350.00 

Hire of teams, carts and trucks 600.00 

Telephone service 1,000.00 

For other expenses of operation and 
administration as per Section 4 
of this ordinance 500.00 

Equipment and supplies for mainte- 
nance and operation of radio-air 
traffic control and broadcasting 
station 2,700.00 

Installation in radio tower of P..\.X. 
police and fire alarm telephone 
line 1,800.00 

Total for municipal airport $110,552.28 

Total for Bureau of Parks, Recrea- 
tion and Aviation $738,198.81 

The revenue for the financing of these activi- 
ties was to be derived as follows: 

Taxes to be levied for the year— 1936 $568,6,^.54 

Miscellaneous revenue 400.00 

Interest — County treasurer $200.00 

Interest on bank deposits 200.00 

Total estimated current revenue $569,039.54 

Chicago Park District 

The Chicago Park District financial support is 
derived through several sources: (i) property 
taxes, which in 1936 comprised approximately 93 
per cent of the District's total revenue; (2) in- 
come from concessions; (3) fees and charges for 
use of certain park facilities; (4) franchise fees 
for use of boulevards by a transportation utility; 
(5) payment by the State for maintenance of some 
boulevards used as State highway's; (6) mis- 
cellaneous receipts from fines, damage claims, etc. 

Taxation 

.■\. Ra/c\ When the Chicago Park District 
became operati\'e in Ma\', 1934, it was em- 
powered by the enabling legislation to levy the 
following taxes: 

1. Corporate: 1935- 1936, 3 mills per dollar 
or a rate to produce $9,000,000. In 1937 a 
"pegged levy" of $7,600,000 became operative as 
alternative to the 3 mill rate, superseding the 
$9,000,000 fixed levy which had expired. 

2. Bonds and Interest: No limit, the rate be- 
ing determined by the amount required to retire 
and pay interest on bonded indebtedness. 



65 



T,. E»iployees' Atimii/y and Benefit: J j mill 
per dollar (additional to corporate levy). 

4. Police Annuity and Benefit: 1/6 mill per 
dollar (additional to corporate levy). 

5. Museum: i>2 cents per $I00 (additional 
to corporate levy). 

B. Amount of Levy. In 1935, the first full 
\-ear of operation of the new Park District, the 
amount le\ied for all purposes was $20,210,- 
407.82. In 1936 the total had decreased to $20,- 
036,100. A comparison of the 1935-1936 totals 
with the amounts levied by all of the districts 
superseded by the Chicago Park District indicates 
the following: 

Percentage 
Year Amount of total levy 



1920 


$ 6,899,972.00 




7.61 


1 92 1 


9,429,766.50 




7-365 


1922 


9,766,414.63 




7-463 


1923 


11,280,634.27 




7-894 


1924 


13,399,738-38 




8.843 


1925 


14,249,4^8.79 




8-337 


1926 


15,470,147.40 




8.846 


1927 


20,022,830.24 




9.711 


1928 


20,105,852.83 




10.80 


1929 


21,213,000.00 




10.08 


1930 


25,152,502.14 




9.96 


1 93 I 


22,928,906.00 




10.00 


1932 


21,420,134.00 




11.38 


1933 


20,949,386.95 




13.67 


19.U 


19,291,997-58 




12.10 


1935 


20,210,407.82 




12.44 


1936 


20,036,100.00 




10.65 


Based 


upon the total popi 


.ilation 


in these same 


years, thi 


t per capita park cost was 


as follows: 




Per capita 




Per capita 


Year 


cost 


Year 


cost 


1920 


$2.55 1 


[929 


$6.3 1 


1 92 I 


3-23 ) 


1930 


7-45 


1922 


3-37 1 


[931 


6.75 


1923 


3.80 ) 


[932 


5.92 


1924 


4.42 1 


'933 


6.00 


192"; 


4.60 1 


'934 


5-47 


.926 


4.89 1 


t935 


S-67 


1927 


6.20 1 


1936 


5.60 


1928 


6.10 







It will be observed that the peak in levies for 
park purposes was reached in 1930, and that this 
was succeeded by declines in total levies until the 
1935 Consolidated Chicago Park District levy, 
when an increase became effective. A considerable 
percentage of the increase was devoted to estab- 



lishing the credit of the District by paying inter- | 
est and other charges against the bonded indebted- ! 
ness of the absorbed districts. 1 

Reliable data concerning many of the indi- ! 
\idual corporate levies of the twenty-two park i 
districts for the years prior to consolidation are ' 
unavailable. In addition, it has been discovered 1 
that in some instances corporate levies had been ! 
di\'erted to bond interest payments, and in several i 
cases bond funds had been used for operating pur- , 
poses. It is not possible, therefore, to present any i 
factual financial statistics for these districts. Esti- 
mates of the total corporate levies for the super- I 
seded districts for the period 1929-1933 indicate '■ 
an average total corporate levy of $8,515,646.09. i 
This was supplemented by varying miscellaneous 1 
revenues. ; 

I 
Miscellaneous Revenues | 

During 1936 the amount derived for corporate 1 
purposes was supplemented by the following mis- | 
cellaneous revenue:' ! 

Revenue from concessions ; 
Fishing bait 
Beach novelties 
Boating 

Pony (Lincoln Park) 
Refreshment stands, restaurants 
Scales 
Souvenirs (Lincoln Park Zoo) 500.00 $ 59,539.18 

Revenue from operation of 

park facilities : 
Golf courses 

Parking station ( Monroe street ) 
Yacht liarhor and boat dockage fees 
Bathing beaching and swimming pool- 
Rental of halls, clubrooms and 

gymnasiums, dining rooms and 

kitchens 
Rental of lagoon theater 
Rental of bicycle bowl 
Rental of Soldier Field 
Rental of property not used in park 

operations 
Planetarium : 

Admission fees $10,122.55 

Sale of literature, etc. 2.471.75 



3,000.00 
164.82 

4,758.23 

2,025.00 
47,818.07 

1,273.06 
500.00 



$ 67,355.35 

122,493.75 

18,501.45 

. 10,7,33.50 



9,074.14 

182.25 

1,272.27 

42,008.98 

2,450.00 



Otlier revenue : 
Permit fees 
Fines and forfeitures 
Franchises — Chicago Motor Coach 

Company 
Damage claims 
Sale of scrap, equipment, etc. 
Maintenance of state highways 
Driveway maintenance (Lincoln 

Park) 
Cash discounts earned 
Public telephones 
Dumping fees 
Reimbursement — account injury to 

employees 
Reimbursement — account operation 

and maintenance of Buckingham 

Fountain 

( Tabic lOiitiiiucd on l^a. 



12,594.30 286,665.99 ! 

$ 10,532.00 
91,321.29 

173,130.88 
32,319.10 
4,397.24 
78,735.31 

2,150.11 

4,821.49 

1,632.88 

135.75 

1.159.96 



10,73292 
• 2(b-) 



'1936 .Xnnual Report, Chicago Park District. 



66 



Reimbursement — account preparation 

before and cleaning after Soldier 

Field events _ $11,598.82 

Reimbursement — repair charges on 

permits 22,344.00 

Reimbursement — account loss of 

life guard uniforms 30.15 

Reimbursement — repair charges other 

than permits 17,706.10 

Miscellaneous 15,896.31 478,644.31 



Expended 
Appropriations Dec. 31, 1936 



Amount received by the Corporate 
Fund from Improvement Funds, 
as rental equivalent to deprecia- 
tion on essential park owned 
equipment used on joint projects 
with Works Progress Adminis- 
tration; said amount constituting 
portion of sponsor's contribution 
Total 



$824,849.48 



295,329.80 



$1,120,179.28 

The franchise charge to the Chicago Motor 
Coach Company and the fees from the Monroe 
Street Parking Lot were the largest regular con- 
tributions to the total. The $295,329.80 indi- 
cated as the amount received by the corporate 
fund from the improvement fund as rentals for 
equipment used on Works Progress Administra- 
tion property of the Park District, therefore, is 
not income of a permanent character. Revenue 
derived from the operation of park facilities repre- 
sents, in most instances, gross income, costs of op- 
eration being included in the regular corporate 
budget of the Park District. 

Corporate Appropriations and Expenditures 

It has already been indicated that the expenses 
and financial obligations of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict are divided into two main classifications: (i) 
corporate or operating, and (2) bonds and inter- 
est. Included in the corporate expenditures are 
the cost of maintenance of all of the Park Dis- 
trict's plant and equipment, provision of the \'ari- 
ous services and programs and the general ad- 
ministrative costs of management. The 1936 ap- 
propriation of the Chicago Park District, as ap- 
proved December 30, 1936, provided for a total 
corporate appropriation of $9,633,623.75. As of 
December 31, 1936, the end of the fiscal year, 
$8,563,675.01 of this total had been expended, 
leaving a balance of $1,069,948.74. Summarized 
I according to departments, the appropriations and 
I expenditures were classified as follows: 

i Expended 

' Appropriations Dec. 31,1936 

; 394,214.00 $ 328.669.19 
80,940.00 74,060.09 

144,182.00 138.285.09 



Administration Department 
Law Department 
Personnel Department 
Operating Department 

General Superintendent and 
Supervisors 

Engineering Division 



Recreation Division 
Landscape Division 
Special Service Division 
Purchasing Division 
Police Division 
Totals 



$1,442,153.35 

1,943,121.96 

414,581.12 

77,780.00 

1,793,002.51 



$1,373,401.13 

1,756,999.19 

212,043.12 

69,332.11 

1,709,911.55 



$9,633,623.75 



!,563,675.01 



66,523.34 
3,277.125.47 



58.819.07 
2,842,154.47 



Of the $8,563,675.01 total corporate expendi- 
tures during 1936 approximately $589,000 repre- 
sented additional corporate expenses entailed in 
the operation of the various Works Progress Ad- 
ministration and Public Works Administration 
projects of the Park District. The 1934 corpor- 
ate appropriation totaled $5,478,637.60 for the 
last eight months of the year during which the 
Park District was operative. Assuming that the 
expenditures would have been constant for the 
remaining one-third of the year, the total for 
twelve months would have approximated $8,217,- 
956.40. In 1935, $7,414,628.07 was expended of 
a corporate appropriation of $9,929,492.38. 

Accounting and bookkeeping procedures of the 
Chicago Park District during 1934, 1935 and 
1936 were on a departmental basis. Because all of 
the various departments of the Operating Divi- 
sion are concerned in some manner with the opera- 
tion and maintenance of most of the individual 
park areas, it was not possible under this system of 
accounting to compute with any degree of accuracy 
the total amount expended by each departinent 
at any one location during a given period. Accord- 
ing to Park District officials, the accounting system 
operative during the 1937 fiscal year takes cog- 
nizance of the individual location as a unit. 

Analysis of the 1936 budget reveals that 55.9 
per cent, or $5,385,216.44, of the total corporate 
appropriation was allocated for salaries and wages. 

Bonded Indebtedness 

The Chicago Park District is limited in bonded 
indebtedness to one and one-half per cent of the 
value of assessable property in the District. (This 
is exclusive of debts and bonds incurred or author- 
ized by the superseded districts.) In 1936, based 
upon the assessable valuation in the city, the Con- 
stitutional debt limit of the Park District was 
$101,775,664. The bonded indebtedness of the 
Chicago Park District on September 30, 1937 was 
$100,918,556.00. During the previous twelve 
months a decrease of $9,112,714.00 had been ef- 
fected. 



^7 



When the Park Ct)nsolidation Act became oper- 
ative in May, 1934, the superseded districts had 
total liabilities of $127,403,708.16 consisting of 
the following items: 

Bonds ..utstanding $ 99.084.366.67 

Interest on bonds, due and payable 3,933,402.0- 

Corporate tax anticipation warrants outstand- c7rnQj5Qn 

ing and accrued interest 5.75U,&3_.yo 

Bond and interest warrants outstanding and ,,,,,,, nr,, 

accrued interest lo.641.14b.(>/ 

Otbcr liabilities : accounts payable, salaries and 

wages, etc 4.993,J5/./0 

Total $127,403,708.16 

Nearly $5,000,000 in principal on the 224 sepa- 
rate bond issues of the superseded districts was in 
default, and by January i, 1936 the amount had 
increased to approximately $10,000,000 with an 
additional $5,700,000 in interest payments also 
defaulted. 

To alleviate this situation a refunding program 
was undertaken which became effective in April 
of 1936, whereby $101,897,006 of Chicago Park 
District bonds were authorized and exchanged for 
the outstanding bonds. The net cost of the re- 
funding operations was less than one-half of one 
per cent, regarded as an unusually low cost in 
municipal financing. 

Corporate Warrants 

To provide operating funds pending collection 
of taxes, the Chicago Park District, along with 
most local governmental agencies, has issued tax 
anticipation warrants. A total of $3,240,000 was 
issued against the 1934 corporate levy; $6,435,- 
000 against the 1935 levy, and $2,000,000 against 
the 1936 anticipated tax receipts. As of December 
'?!, 1936 the 1934 warrants, with the exception 
of $8,000, had been retired; $3,625,000 of the 
1935 warrants had also been liquidated. On De- 
cember 31, 1936 in addition there remained out- 
standing $1,377,424.47 of warrants of superseded 
districts. The total of uncalled warrants on De- 
cember 31, 1936 was $6,796,679.51. By Septem- 
ber 30, 1937 the amount of outstanding tax war- 
rants had been reduced to $2,213,435.00, of 
which $406,350.00 were held in funds of the 
Park District. The 1936 Annual Report of the 
Chicago Park District includes the following 
statement of debts as oi December 31, 1936: 



Increase 1 
Dec. 31, 1936 May 1, 1934 or Decrease ', 

Gross Funded ' 

Debt $113,029,894.54 $99,084,366.67 $13,945,527,871 

Sinking Funds 8.587,927.96 265,401.23 8,322,526,73' 

Net Funded Debt $104,441,966.58 $98,818,965.44 $ 5,623,001.141 

Accrued Interest 
on Funded 

Debt 1,635,786.08 3,933,402.02 2,297,615.94, 

Funded Debt 

Liability $106,077,752.66 $102,752,367.46 $ 3,325,385.20. 

Floating Debt 1,541,404.78 4,993,957.70 3,452,552.92; 

Total Debt 

(exclusive 1 

of Tax 

Anticipation 

Warrants) $107, 619,157.44 $107,746,325.16 $..127,167.72 ; 

Tax Anticipation \ 

Warrants Out- ; 

standing and 

Accrued Inter- i 

est thereon : ' 

For Corporate 

Purposes $ 5,913.528.65 $ 5,750,832.90 $ 162,695.75 
For Bond and | 

Interest 

Purposes 883,150.92 13,641,148.87 12,757,997.95 

Total $ 6,796,679.57 $ 19,391,981.77 $12,595,302.20 

Total Debt $114,415,837.01 $127,138,306.93 $12,722,469.22 

Revolving Fund Bonds 

Due to the lag in general tax collections in Chi- 
cago, only sixty-five per cent of the total 1934 
levy had been collected by the middle of 1936;' 
hence this left but little cash available for current; 
expenditures. This had required the sale of tax| 
warrants to preserve credit ratings. Inasmuch as; 
tax warrants are discounted at the expense of the 
issuing agency, thus creating additional expenses, 
the Chicago Park District in order to avoid re- 
course to this expedient established a working cash 
fund. The initial funds were secured through the 
issuance of $5,000,000 revolving fund bonds. 

As of December 31, 1936 the financial state- 
ment of the Park District revealed the condition 
of the Working cash fund to be as follows: 

Assets 

Cash — general $2,900,000.00 

Inter-Fund Loan Receivable — Chi- 
cago Park District Corporate 
Fund 2,100,000.00 

Total $5,000,000.00 

Liabilities 

Inter-Fund Loan Payable — Chi- 
cago Park District Bond Im- 
provement Fund $5,000,000.00 



68 



'= It 8v 



COMMUMTV AhEAS 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 

POPULATION BY 

AGE GROUPS 




COMMUMTV- NUMBERS 
— COMMUNITY BOUNDARIES 
SCALE- •■■ I MILE 



ChiO-jO Becreol.on Surve) - 193^ 



?= n ^- i? '^ 



Population Series - Mop 2 



Public Works Administration and Works Progress 
Administration Project Financing 

The Chicago Park District has participated 
heavily in the various relief work programs of the 
federal government. Through this means exten- 
sive rehabilitation of physical properties under 
Park District control has been accomplished. In 
addition, new improvements have been made 
through the co-operation of the federal govern- 
ment, including the new outer drive bridge, field- 
houses and the completion of additional sections 
in Lincoln Park. As of December 31, 1936 con- 
tributions of the Works Progress Administration 
for material and labor totalled $25,016,507.91; 
the Park District had contributed as its share 
$7,331,562.11. The major portion of this total 
had been secured from improvement bond funds, 
the remainder being rental for the use of Park 
District facilities and equipment on the projects. 
In completing the outer drive bridge the Park 
District was able to benefit by a grant of $2,324,- 
181 from the Public Works Administration. In 
addition, through this same agency a loan for a 
considerable portion of the balance was also 
secured. During 1936 the Public Works Admin- 
istration made another grant approximating 45 
per cent of the cost of the Randolph Street viaduct 
to the bridge. As of December 31, 1936 the Park 
District had contributed a total of $6,409,357.72 
toward its Public Works Administration projects. 

To provide the necessary funds for these vari- 
ous projects a special bond issue of $6,000,000 
was approved in December, 1935. 

Museums 

The tax levy for museums located on Park Dis- 
trict property during 1936 at ij^ cents rate per 
$100 tax for the support of museums yielded 
$288,600. The amount was divided equally be- 
tween the Art Institute, Field Museum and Shedd 
Aquarium. The Adler Planetarium, Conserva- 
tories and Lincoln Park Zoological Garden are 
provided for in the corporate levy of the Park 
District. 

Valuation of Public Recreation Plant and Equip- 
ment 

It has not been possible in this analysis of pub- 
lic recreation in Chicago to arrive at any accurate 
valuation of the public properties devoted to 
recreation in the City of Chicago. Most of the 



agencies controlling recreational facilities perform 
other public services: e.g., the Board of Educa- 
tion, its principal function of teaching; the Park 
District, maintenance of boulevards, etc. Further- 
more, the data required to compute actual present 
valuations are incomplete in many instances. No 
pertinent information is available for the Bureau 
of Parks, Recreation and Aviation other than the 
amount paid for land and the cost of buildings and 
equipment. V'aluations for the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict, as furnished to this study by the Accounting 
Department, include the actual valuations of the 
three former districts — South Parks, West Parks, 
and Lincoln Park at the time of consolidation — 
with an estimate for the smaller parks, but with 
no allowance made for improvements since 1934. 
No recent estimate of the value of either land or 
equipment of the Forest Preserve District is 
a\'ailable. By combining the purchase price of the 
land and the value of improvements made at the 
time of purchase with the sum of annual appropri- 
ations for improvements since 1915 an approxima- 
tion of the amount actually expended has been 
secured. The Board of Education plant and 
equipment valuations are for January i, 1933, an 
inventory and valuation of school property being 
made every ten years. The Chicago Public Library 
data are cost figures as of December 3 1, 1932. No 
estimates were obtained for the armories within 
the city. 

From the various purchase figures, appropria- 
tion data and cost of improvements, an estimate of 
over $619,000,000 is derived. This amount is 
divided by agency as follows: 



A gency 



Per 

Amount cent 



Board of Education. . .$236,576,062.75 38.19 

Chicago Park District. 172,313,831.02 27.82 

Museums* 165,450,000.00 26.71 

Cook Count)- Forest 

Preserves 29,834,382.62 4.82 

Chicago Public Library 11,095,288.93 1.79 
Bureau of Parks, Recre- 
ation and Aviation. . 4,209,991.82 .67 



Total $619,479,557-14 100.00 

•Iiichiding Adlcr Planetarium suprx>rtcd In- puMic taxation: 
Art Institute. Field Museum, Shedd .\quarium. and Zixilogical 
Park, partially maintained by taxation: and Kosenwald Museum. 
Clncago Historical Society, and Academy of Sciences located 
on tax-supported pro|x;rty, but privately maintained. 



69 



A more detailed analysis follows: 



Board of Education 






Real estate 




$50,377,665.25 


Books, buildings and 




equipment 




186,198,397.50 


Chicago Park District 




South Parks 




96,498,510.88 


West Parks 




30,582,554.13 


Lincoln Park 




35,232,766.01 


Smaller parks 




10,000,000.00 


Chicago Public Lib 


ary 




Real estate 




2,739,535.00 


Building 




3,561,644.55 


Equipment 




3,794,049.38 


Books 




1,000,000.00 


Cook County Fores 


Preserves 




Purchase cost of 


land 


21,317,334.79 


Improvements at 


time 




of purchase 




2,362,477.19 


Improvements since purchase 


6,154,570.64 


Bureau of Parks, Recreation 




and Aviation 






Small parks 




158,155.56 


Real estate 


$74,010.00 




Buildings and 






equipment 


84,145.56 




Bathing beaches 




1,525,029.55 


Real estate 


829,169.51 




Buildings and 






equipment 


(j95,860.04 




Public playground 




2,526,806.71 


Real estate 


950,051.66 




Buildings and 






equipment 


1,576,755.05 




Museums 






Adler Planetarium 


750,000.00 


Building 


600,000.00 




Equipment 


150,000.00 




Art Institute of 






Chicago 




32,000,000.00 


Building 


7,000,000.00 




Exhibits 


25,000,000.00 




Chicago Academy 






of Sciences 




200,000.00 


Building 


100,000.00 




Equipment 


50,000.00 




Exhibits 


50,000.00 





$236,576,062.75 



172,313,831.02 



11,095,228.93 



29,834,382.62 



165,450,000.00 



Chicago Historical 

Society $1,000,000.00 

Building, equipment 
and exhibits 1,000,000.00 
Chicago Zoological 

Park 5,000,000.00 

Buildings and 

equipment 5,000,000.00 

Field Museum 69,000,000.00 

Building 9,000,000.00 

Exhibits 60,000,000.00 i 

Rosenwald Museum ' 

of Science and j 

Industry 54,500,000.00 ! 

Building 4,500,000.00 i 

Exhibits 50,000,000.00 I 

Shedd Aquarium 3,000,000.00 | 

Building 3,000,000.00 I 

Exhibits not given 

Grand total $619,479,557.14 i 

The above estimates are regarded as being very ; 
conservative. Increases in realty values since dates ' 
of purchase in the instance of the Forest Preserve 
properties as well as the cost of many improve- 
ments made through work projects of the various 
relief agencies and the Civilian Conservation 
Corps, have not been considered in the computa- 
tion. Similarly the lake front location of more 
than one-third of the Chicago Park District prop- 
erties, particularly the acreage in Grant and 
Burnham Parks, makes this land extremely de- 
sirable were it available for other than public pur- 
poses. Based upon all available data and taking 
these factors into consideration, the actual valua- 
tion of public recreation and education facilities in 
the City of Chicago may be reckoned as one 
billion dollars, almost one-fifth of the face value 
of all assessable property within the city. 



70 



CHAPTER V 



MANAGEMENT 



Through legislative measures passed by the 
State Legislature, the City Council of Chicago, 
the Board of Education of Chicago and the Cook 
County Commissioners, five major tax-supported 
recreational-educational agencies have been cre- 
ated in the City of Chicago. The powers, func- 
tions and purposes of these various bodies, as pre- 
scribed by law, have been indicated in the previ- 
ous chapter. The establishment of these agencies, 
however, provides neither services nor facilities; 
it merely paves the way so that administrative 
units can be set up to perform the various func- 
tions of the agencies and to administer whatever 
properties may be placed under their control. 

Two factors enter into the effectiveness of op- 
eration : 

( 1 ) Management, by which is meant the ad- 
ministrative organization, personnel and other 
items relating to administrative detail and opera- 
tion; and 

(2) Methods of financing by which an agency 
derives revenues and other means of financial sup- 
port which make possible the acquisition and 
maintenance of facilities and the provision of per- 
sonnel to administer and to provide the agency's 
programs. 

Obviously, the success of any organization, 
whether it is in private business or in government, 
depends largely upon efficiency of administration; 
the qualitative and quantitative aspects of its per- 
sonnel are inevitably reflected in the operation of 
any agency. 

In this chapter on management it is proposed 
to indicate the various functional units within 
I each of the major public recreation bodies in the 
I city, to summarize the personnel aspects of each 
\ agency including in so far as possible the various 
I classifications embodied in each organization and 
1 the wage rates paid for personnel by each unit. In 
1 view of the fact that a study of public administra- 
1 tion concerned with many highly specialized func- 
tions and types of personnel would require the 



services of a highly trained staff equipped to 
evaluate the quality of service provided, this 
study provides only a general analysis of the ad- 
ministrative aspects of public recreation in the 
City of Chicago. It is suggested, howe\er, that 
an intensive study of the personnel element might 
be highly desirable in view of the fact that even a 
brief reconnaissance indicates the existence of 
widely different indi\'idual abilities within the 
same classifications not only between personnel 
of the different units, but also among employees 
within the same agency. With the exception of 
the Bureau of Recreation of the Board of Educa- 
tion, all of the agencies provide ser\-ices which 
in some instances are definitely non-recreational, 
and which in the case of the Chicago Public Li- 
brary are regarded by the agency as educational 
functions. No attempt is made in this study, how- 
ever, to break down a general definition of func- 
tion into finer degrees of specialization, inasmuch 
as a broad interpretation of recreation is herein 
employed, whereby any public pro\-isions for the 
use of leisure time are considered and included. 

Board of Education Playgrounds 

The Bureau of Recreation of the Board of Ed- 
ucation was established by the Board of Educa- 
tion as the operating unit for the administration 
and maintenance of school playgrounds. This de- 
partment, functioning under a director, has juris- 
diction only over the pla\grounds and shelter 
houses on the supcr\-ised school yards of the 
school s\stem; its authority does not extend to 
any of the recreational equipment within the 
school buildings proper. All formal plu'sical edu- 
cation instruction provided by the Board of Edu- 
cation is under a separate department known as 
the Department of Physical Education and In- 
struction, whose activities in turn are concerned 
onl\- with the physical education program during 
the regular school hours in the schools and the 
interscholastic programs in the high schoul^ and 
junior colleges. 



71 



Staff 

During 1936 the number of employees of the 
Bureau of Recreation consisted of 231 employees, 
of whom 193 were in the Recreational and Cler- 
ical Division and 38 in the Maintenance and 
Minor Repair Department. According to officials 
of the Department, the minimum educational re- 
quirement for positions on the professional staff 
is the equivalent of two years of normal college. 
Whether or not this requirement is actually ad- 
hered to in the filling of positions on a temporary 
basis cannot be determined from the sources of in- 
formation available to this study. Full-time em- 
ployees of the Department are governed by the 
civil service regulations of the Board of Educa- 
tion. 

The following indicates the range in salaries 
paid in the various occupational classifications 
within the Department during 1936: 



Professional A'k;/ 


bcr of cm thy 


■cs Rate fcr month 


Director 


I 


$500.00 


Supervisors 


2 


316.66 


Supervisors 


3 


275.00 


Instructor 


I 


240.00 


Instructors 


60 


2-23-33 


Instructors 


19 


210.00 


Instructors 


4 


200.00 


Instructors 


iS 


190.00 


Instructors 


9 


180.00 


Instructors 


8 


170.00 


Instructors 


2 


160.00 


Clerical 






Senior clerks 


2 


206.66 


Attendants 


64 


135-00 


Maintenance and repair 






General foreman 


I 


250.00 


Motor truck drivers 


2 


200.00 


Carpenters 


3 


10.50 day 


Painter 


I 


8.00 day 


Laborers 


II 


5.20 day 


Laborers 


20 


4-7S day 



These employees operate all of the supervised 
playgrounds of the Board of Education during 
the regular year and the summer vacation period. 

During 1936 the Board of Education operated 
a total of sixty supervised playgrounds and one 
athletic field. The plan of operation of the Bureau 
of Recreation provides for a male and a female in- 
structor at each playground, together with an at- 
tendant who is responsible for the general main- 
tenance of the plant and equipment. The pro- 
gram is uniform throughout the City of Chicago. 
Supervisory functions are divided among five 
members of the director's staff as follows: 

I . Two supervisors in charge of boys' activities 



who direct the program in this field 
throughout the entire city. 

2. Two supervisors in charge of girls' activi- 
ties, whose responsibilities likewise cover 
the entire city. 

3 . One supervisor in charge of general mainte- 
nance of facilities and equipment. 

The entire program, therefore, in effect, is di- 
rected from the main office of the Board of Edu- 
cation, the individual instructor's function being 
essentially that of carrying out the program at 
each playground. 

Repairs of a minor nature are directed by a gen- 
eral foreman, who is responsible to the director 
of the Bureau. The necessary labor personnel is 
assigned from the office to the individual site upon 
the approval of repair requisitions by the director. 

From the above it can be seen that the Bureau 
of Recreation of the Board of Education is 
divided into two major functional divisions: a pro- 
fessional or operating division, and a repair divi- 
sion. The attendants are included in the operating 
division because their functions include assistance 
to the instructor in developing the programs. 

Based upon the total salaries appropriated in 
1936, $358,732 was expended for wages in the 
operating division, of which approximately 
$16,000 was for supervision, $5,000 for clerical 
assistance, $104,000 for playground attendants, 
and $233,732 for trained recreational leadership 
on the individual playgrounds; $51,400 was for 
salaries in the repair division. 

The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avia^on 

The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
is an operating unit of the Department of Public 
Works of the City of Chicago. The administra- 
tive head of the Bureau is the Superintendent, a 
civil service employee who is responsible to the 
Commissioner of Public Works. The Commis- 
sioner of Public Works of the City of Chicago is 
an appointive officer of the mayor by and with 
the consent of the city council. 

The activities of the Bureau of Parks, Recrea- 
tion and Aviation are divided into five major 
divisions: 

1. Playgrounds 

2. Beaches and Pools 

3. Parks and Forestry 

4. The Municipal Airport 

5. Office and Administration 



72 



The Playground Division of the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation is responsible for the 
direction of activities upon the thirty-seven play 
areas under its control and also for the con- 
struction of new playgrounds. The Beaches and 
Pools Section is subdivided, one division being 
concerned with the operation of three municipal 
bathing beaches, twenty-seven street-end beaches, 
and three municipal natatoriums; the twenty pub- 
lic bath houses are also the responsibility of this 
section. The Parks and Forestry Section has three 
distinct functions: (i) the maintenance of the 
seventy-eight parks, parkways, triangles and 
squares for which the Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and Aviation is responsible; (2) the operation of 
the Municipal Nursery; and (3) the care of trees 
in the parkways of the city. The Municipal Air- 
port Section is responsible for the maintenance 
and operation of the Municipal Airport. In addi- 
tion to these subdivisions of the Bureau, the plan 
of organization provides for an Office and Ad- 
ministration Division which functions for the en- 
tire Bureau. 

Figure No. 18 indicates the operating plan of 
organization of the Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and Aviation and the classifications of personnel 
employed in each section. The full-time staif of 
the Bureau is governed by civil service regulations 
of the City of Chicago; and in the instance of 
clerical and maintenance personnel, wage rates are 
comparable to those of other city departments. 
Temporary appointees for the summer season are 
neither selected nor protected by civil service. 

The 1936 budget of the Bureau provides for 



Classification 



$5-50 



5-50 



90.00 

192.00 

6.20 



270.00 

22333 

190.00 
180.00 
160.00 

200.00 

If)0.(X3 

150.00 

13500 

5-50 

5-50 
5-50 



lic luiiuwuig ciupiuyccb. 
Classification Salary 


3 


Administrative Service Division 


3 


I Superintendent $6,000.00 per annum 




I Head clerk and office secretary 311.66 pernionth 




I Principal clerk and assistant to 




superintendent 311-66 per nicmth 




I Principal clerk 246.66 per month 




3 Senior clerks 206.66 per month 




I Junior clerk 171.66 per month 




I Senior stenographer 206.66 per month 




I Junior stenographer 171.66 per month 




Parks and Forestry Division 


4 


I Supervisor $355-oo per month 


4 


I Storekeeper 176.66 per month 




3 Foremen of gardeners 250.00 per month 


I 


I Foreman of farm and nursery 250.00 per month 


16 


I Tree inspector 200.00 per month 


3 


Gardeners 8.00 per day 


1 1 


Tree foremen 8.00 per day 


2 


Park laborers 5-50 per day 





Tree laborers 

Tree trimmers 
I Laborer assigned as utility man 

Attendants (female) assigned as 
special police 

Attendants (female) 
3 Motor truck drivers 

Repairmen 

Recreation Division 
Playgrounds Section 

I Superintendent $305.00 

I Playground director in charge of 
maintenance 

23 Playground directors 

5 Playground directors 

3 Playground directors 
8 Playground directors 

1 Supervisor of women's activities 

(female) 
16 Physical instructors 

2 Physical instructors 
10 Attendants 

I Laborer assigned as utility man 
I Lalxirer assigned as watchman 
Laborers as needed 

(Not to exceed i general re- 
pairman at $8.25 per day 
and 6 repairmen at $6.20 
per day) 

Beaches and Pools Section 

I .Superintendent $305.00 

I Beach director 223.33 

5 Beach and pool directors 200.00 

5 Senior life guards i45-00 
I Senior life guard 140.00 

6 Life guards 125.00 

7 Bathing beach assistants 115.00 

4 Beach janitors 115.00 

8 Beach janitors 100.00 

3 Laborers 5.50 

Summer Season 

I Senior life guard 
3 Senior life guards 
Life guards 

Bathing beach assistants 
Bathing beach assistants 

(female) 
Bathing beach assistants 

( female ) 
Bathing beach assistants 

(female) 
Beach janitors 
Beach janitors for street-end 

beaches 
Extra life guards 
Laborers 

Comfort Stations Section 

.\ttendants (male) $120.00 

Attendants (female) 115.00 

Public Baths 

Supervisor 
P.ath caretakers 
Bath caretakers 
Bathing attendants 
Bathing attendants 



Salary 



per day 
per day 
per day 

per month 
per month 
per month 
per day 



per month 

per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 

per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per day 
per day 
per day 



per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per month 
per day 



per month 

per month 

per month 

(male) loo.oo per month 



^ 140.00 
130.00 



115.00 



100.00 
1 00.00 

100.00 
S-OO 
5-50 



^ I l)0.tK) 
170.00 
150.00 
125.00 
115.00 



per month 

per month 

per month 
per month 

per month 
per day 
per day 

per month 
IKT month 

per month 
]>er month 
per month 
per month 
per month 



(Continued on next page] 



73 



Classification 

MunicipsI Ai 

I Supervisor of operation 

I Senior clerk 

I Junior stenograplier 

4 Radio operators 

4 Air traffic clerks 

1 Maintenance foreman 

2 Motor truck drivers 

3 Electrical mechanics 
Janitors 
Laborers 

Hummel Square and 
I Junior clerk 



rport 



Salary 

$325.00 per month 
206.66 per month 
125.00 per month 
240.00 per month 
iSo.oo per month 

0.40 per day 

192.00 per month 

340.00 per month 

140.00 per month 

5.50 per day 

Host House 

125.00 per month 



Cook County Forest Preserves 

To administer the properties under their con- 
trol and to direct the program of the Cook County 
Forest Preserve District, the Forest Preserve 
Commissioners delegate the responsibility to the 
general superintencient. x^ll employees of the 
District, with the exception of the treasurer and 
attorneys, are appointed under and governed by 
the civil service regulations of the Cook County 
Civil Service Commission, and all salaries are 
established by that body. The administrative or- 
ganization of the Forest Preserve District is 
divided into the following classifications: 

1. General office 

2. Ofiice of the comptroller 

3. Forestry division 

4. Construction and repair division 

5. Maintenance ciivision 

6. Police division 

7. Recreation and sports division 

8. Real estate di\'ision 

9. Legal division 

10. Engineering division 

1. The General Office Division includes the 
following personnel: 

Niiiiihcr Classificalion Salary />i-r inoiilh 

I General superintendent $937-50 

I Secretary-treasurer 345-30 

1 Purchasing agent 281.20 

I Chauffeur and sergeant-at-arms 17340 

3 Junior stenographers 149.10 

I Messenger 126.60 

The General Office Department is the Superin- 
tendent's administrative unit, and all activities 
of the various departments are controlled and 
centralized through this office. 

2. The office of the Comptroller is responsible 
for the accounting of all financial operations of 
the District. In 1936 the staff consisted of the fol- 
lowing: 



Number Classification 



Salary per month 



I Comptroller 

I Supervisor of properties 

I Senior bookkeeper 

I Junior stenographer 

I Timekeeper 



$326.00 
326.00 
234.40 
149.10 
210.90 



3. To the Forestry Division is delegated the 
care of trees and other plant life on the Forest 
Preserve property. Continued inspection, tree 
surgery, replanting, etc., are functions carried out 
under the supervision of the following personnel: 



X II til her Classificalion 



Salary per month 



I Chief forester 

4 Assistant chief foresters 



$431-30 
187.50 



4. The Construction and Repair Division, 
while including only the following personnel, has 
had its normal staff supplemented during recent 
years by the employment of "relief" labor. In 
1936 the regular staff consisted of: 



Xiimher Classificalion 



Salary per month 



I Superintendent of construction $281.30 

I Junior clerk 149.10 

72 Man months, class "B" laborers 150.00 

1,865 Days, class "D" laborers at $5.00 per day 

5. The Maintenance Division is subdivided, 
with a superintendent in charge of each of six 
geographical divisions. These District Superin- 
tendents are responsible for the maintenance of 
all Forest Preserve property within their respec- 
tive areas. The necessary reconditioning of Pre- 
serve property and "picking up" after picnics are 
under the jurisdiction of the Division. The 1936 
budget provided for the following: 



N limber Classification 



Salary per month 



I Superintendent of maintenance $325.00 

6 Division superintendents 234.40 

1 Storekeeper 164.10 

2 Plumbers 300.00 
1 ,040 Man hours, painters as required, at 

$1-33 1/3 per hour 
9 Division foremen 164.IO 

I Junior stenographer 149.10 

(X) Man months, class "A" laborers 160.00 

350 Man months, class "B" laborers 150.00 

17,470 Man ilays, class "D" laborers at $5.00 
per day 
i.ihjo Hours, maintenance electrician at 
$1.50 per hour 

6. The Police Division is responsible for the 
preser\'ation of order and the enforcement of 
Forest Preser\'e ordinances. The 1936 Police 
Force included: 



74 



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Number Classification 



Salary per month 



3 Sergeants 
22 Patrolmen 
I Permit clerk 



$173.40 
164.10 
150.00 



7. The Recreation and Sports Division pro- 
vided the only active recreation supervision in 
the Forest Preserves. It is divided into two sec- 
tions, golf and swimming. The Golf Section per- 
sonnel consists of: 



Number Classifiealion 



Salary per month 



I General supervisor of golf $325.00 

1,800 Alan cla\s, ticket sellers at $5.00 per 
day 
5 Greenskeepers 150.00 

1,800 Man days, checkers at $5.00 per day 
4,625 Man days, class "D" laborers at $5.00 
per day 

The Swimming Pool and Beach staff in 1936 was 
composed of: 

Number Classification Salary per month 



I 


General supervisor of pools 


$187.50 


29 


Life guards 


100.00 


3« 


Attendants 


100.00 


8 


Ticket sellers 


100.00 


I 


Checker 


100.00 


12 


Man months, class "D" laborers 


150.00 



8. Appraisals of prospective land purchases 
and the handling of leases are taken care of by 
the Real Estate Division of the Forest Preserves 
administration, which consists of a staff of two 
employees, namely: 



Number Classifiealion 



Salary per month 



I Real estate agent 
I Junior clerk 



$32340 
149.10 



9. The Legal Division represents the Forest 
Preserve District in all litigation. It is responsible 
for passing upon the legality of contracts, pur- 
chases, etc. The Chief Attorney is an appointive 
office not subject to civil service. 

Number Classification Salary per month 

I Chief attorney $585.90 

I Investigator 187.50 

I Stenographer and docket clerk 17340 

10. All improvements of the Forest Preser\'e 
District are directed and supervised by the Engi- 
neering Division. This includes the construction 
of roads, drainage projects, recreational facilities 
and any buildings. The Department is entirely 
of a planning and supervisory character, the actual 
labor being provided through the other depart- 
ments. In 1936 the staff of the Engineering Divi- 
sion included: 



Number Classification Salary per month 

I Chief engineer $407.80 

I Chief construction engineer 375-00 

I Assistant construction engineer 3i4-00 

1 Landscape architect 281.20 

1 Assistant engineer of design 281.20 
3 Assistant civil engineers 2O2.50 

2 Junior civil engineers 225.00 

3 Transit men 206.20 

4 Rodmen 178.10 
I Junior stenogra[)Iier 149. 10 

The Chicago Public Library 

All library empKjyees are selected through 
competitive civil service examinations. According 
to the Sixty-Fourth Annual Report issued Janu- 
ary 26, 1936, the personnel consisted of 923 
people including 78 engineers, janitors and other 
mechanical help, and 72 persons in the high 
school library service whose salaries are paid by 
the Board of Education. Of the remaining 773, 
nearly one-tenth, 76, are part-time employees av- 
eraging twenty hours per week, 369 are in the un- 
trained and clerical or sub-professional grades, 
and 328 constitute the trained and experienced 
staff. 

The Civil Service Commission includes under 
its jurisdiction the following classifications of per- 
sonnel employed in various functions of the Chi- 
cago Public Library: 

Operating Dii'ision Salary per month 

Director No compensation 

Secretary of library board.. $845.83 per month 

Librarian 750.00 per month 

Assistant librarian 550.00 per month 

Chief children's librarian . . . 200-435.00 per month 

Division chief 200-435.00 per month 

Director of training class. . . 200-435.00 per month 

Editor of publications 200-435.00 per month 

High school librarian 200-435.00 per month 

High school librarian 204-234.00 per month 

Children's librarian 170-195.00 per month 

Head reference librarian ... 170-195.00 per month 

Lantern slide expert 170-195.00 per month 

Principal branch librarian.. 145-165.00 per month 

Principal library assistant .. 145-165.00 permonth 

Principal reference librarian 145- 1 65.00 per month 

Principal library clerk 135-150.CK) \kx month 

Senior library assistant 1 10-140.00 per month 

lunior library assistant 75- 95.00 per month 

"Senior library clerk 105-125.00 per month 

lunior librarV clerk 75- 95.00 per month 

"Messenger .'. 75" 95oo per month 

Patre . ! 50- 65.00 per month 

Principal library shipping 

clerk i45-'''500 per month 

Maintenanec 

Custodian 34^'^-33 P^r nionth 

Chief of bindcrv 2tx:)-435.cw per montli 

Fireman .' 225.00 per month 

Automobile operator -:o8.33 per montli 



75 



Maintenance Salary per month 

Marble cleaner $191.60-220.00 per month 

Coat room attentlant and 

porter 1 20.00 per month 

Coat room attendant 70.00 per month 

Janitor 50-210.00 per month 

Janitress 50-135.00 per month 

The Chicago Park District 

The Chicago Park District is the most recently 
established tax-supported recreation agency in the 
City of Chicago; and yet because of the circum- 
stances through which it was created, involving 
the consolidation of twenty-two existing govern- 
mental units, the Chicago Park District from its 
origin has been the largest public recreation body 
with the greatest number of employees and with 
more distinctl}- recreational features than any 
other agency in the city. 

The enabling legislation by which the Park 
District was created provided that: 

"The Chicago Park District shall be vested 
with all powers heretofore vested in park districts 
or corporate authorities whose authority is abro- 
gated by this Act or by the operation thereof. All 
powers now vested in such commissioners or dis- 
tricts with regard to the extension of parks, boule- 
vards, and driveways by reclaiming submerged 
lands and by the acquisition of riparian rights and 
shore lands shall hereafter be exercised by the 
Chicago Park District. 

The Chicago Park District shall have power to 
acquire, lay out, establish, construct and maintain 
parks, driveways, and boulevards in such districts, 
and to control, manage, and govern such parks, 
driveways, and boulevards, and the use thereof 
and to exercise the powers stipulated in Section 
15 hereof. The commissioners of such district 
shall constitute the corporate authorities thereof, 
and shall have full power to manage and control 
all the officers and property of the district, and all 
parks. . . "' 

In effect, therefore, the Chicago Park District 
was empowered to take over all of the facilities, 
functions and powers of the superseded districts. 
The Consolidation Act provided further that the 
commissioners were to appoint a secretary, a 
treasurer and a general superintendent (the last 
named to be selected solely on the basis of his ad- 
ministrative and technical qualifications to manage 
the District without regard to political affilia- 

'Cahill, J. C, and Moore, F. D., Revised Statutes of the Stale 
of Illinois. Callaghan and Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1935, ch. 
105, par. 574, sec. 7. 



tions). To the commissioners was delegated the 
responsibility for prescribing the duties and 
powers of these officials, setting up the operating 
machinery to administer their various functions, 
and fixing the compensation of said officers and all 
other employees of the District. 

In accordance with this legislation, the commis-, 
sioners of the Chicago Park District by ordinance 
created the following offices and departments, and 
iiidicated the functions of each: 

I. Administration Department 

A. Secretarial Division 

B. Accounting Division 

C. Auditor's Division 

D. Commissioners' Office Division 

E. Treasury Division 
II. Law Department 

III. Operating Department 

A. Engineering Division 

I . Civil Engineering Section 

2 . Landscape Design Section 

3 . Repair and Construction Section 

4. Landscape Maintenance and Con- 
struction Section 

5 . Record and Estimate Section 

6. Traffic Section 

7. Electrical and Mechanical Section 

B. Police Division 

1 . Central Police Section 

2 . Northern Police Section 
3 . Southern Police Section 
4. Western Police Section 

C. Purchasing Division 

D. Recreation Division 

I . General Activities Section 

2 . Physical Activities Section 

3 . First Recreation Section 
4. Second Recreation Section 

5 . Third Recreation Section 

6 . Fourth Recreation Section 
7. Fifth Recreation Section 

8 . Sixth Recreation Section 
9 . Recreation Clerical Section 

E. Special Service Division 

1 . Auto Parking and Marine Section 

2 . Planetarium Section 
3 . Soldier Field Section 

4. Zoological and Aquarium Section 

5 . Special Service Clerical Section 

IV. Personnel and Civil Service Department 

A. Civil Ser\'ice Division 

B. Employee Relations Division' 

"Ordinance amending Section 1 of Chapter V of the General 
Ordinance of the Chicago Park District. 



76 



In addition to the appointive officers prescribed by 
law the commissioners created the following ad- 
ministrative positions: 

I Assistant Secretary 

I Assistant Treasurer 

I Comptroller 

I Assistant Comptroller 

1 Auditor 

2 Assistant Auditors 
I General Attorney 

I First Assistant Attorney 

These officials were appointed by the commis- 
sioners for a term of six years. The functions of 
the general superintendent, as established by Sec- 
tion 14 of Chapter i of the Park District ordi- 
nances, indicate that he shall: 

"(a) Be the department head of the Operating 
Department and as such be the appointing officer 
of all employees of the said department and 
otherwise exercise the authority and perform the 
duties prescribed for department heads in Section 
r of Chapter VII of this Ordinance. The General 
Superintendent shall report all appointments and 
remo\'als of division heads and section heads with- 
in the Operating Department to the Commis- 
sioners ; 

(b) Have charge of the operation, preserva- 
tion, maintenance, construction and repair of all 
park facilities and property, subject, however, to 
the approval and direction of the Commissioners 
and the President; 

(c) Provide, for the public, the conveniences 
and pleasures of the Park System, in such man- 
ner as shall be consistent with public safety and 
the proper preservation and protection of the Park 
System, ancH establish rules and regulations, with 
the approval of the Commissioners, governing the 
use of park facilities by the public; 

(d) Be a member of the Estimates Committee 
as provided in Section 5 of Chapter III of this 
Ordinance, and aid in preparing an estimate each 
year of the Park District's requirements and ex- 
penditures for the succeeding year, and present 
the same to the Secretary for transmission to the 
President, as provided in the Park Consolidatinn 
Act and in this Ordinance; 

(e) Cause to be prepared for the Commission- 
ers proper and complete specifications and other 
data required for bids and proposals for necessar\' 
work, material or supplies; and tabulate and re- 
port to the Commissioners upon such bids when 
received; 

( f ) At the annual meeting, make a report to 
the Commissioners of all activities under his con- 
trol, together with his recommendations concern- 



ing the future development and operation of the 
Park System."' 

"The General Superintendent may, with the 
approval of the Commissioners, establish rules and 
regulations governing the use of all assembly 
halls, meeting halls, auto parking facilities. Sol- 
dier Field Stadium, indoor and outdoor gymnas- 
tic, swimming, athletic, sports, pageant, picnic, 
boating, aeronautic or other facilities belonging to 
or under the jurisdiction of the Park District. He 
may require that certain such facilities may be 
used only upon the issuance of a permit by him, 
or such of his subordinates as he may authorize to 
issue such permit. He may establish schedules of 
fees or charges for the use of any such facilities in 
accordance with such rules and regulations, ■pro- 
vided, hovcever, that permits for the use of Sol- 
dier Field shall be issued by the General Superin- 
tendent only upon authorization b\' the Commis- 
sioners and under terms and restrictions fixed by 
the Commissioners."' 

The functions of the various departments are 
as follows: 

Ad»i!nistrdtlo)i DeparDiioit: "Financial, ac- 
counting, business administration and budgetary 
control; the keeping of financial, accounting, ap- 
propriation, pay roll and cost records, and records 
of proceedings of the Commissioners; special as- 
sessment records and accounting; the making of 
statistical studies, in\'estigations and reports; the 
collection and custody of all moneys belonging to 
the Park District, whether received from the sale 
of securities, from taxes levied, from concessions 
and service activities for which a charge is made, 
or from deposits or fees for permits; the custody 
of all securities belonging to the Park District; 
the dissemination of information to the public and 
the handling of general public relations matters; 
the administrative and clerical work involved in 
the letting of contracts and the financial and ac- 
counting control of contract work; and such other 
functions and responsibilities as are herein pre- 
scribed for any suljdivision of this Department or 
as may be assigned to this Department by direc- 
tion of the Commissioners." 

Secreland Division: "The keeping of accurate 
records of the proceedings of the Commissioners; 
the custody of official documents, contracts and 
related correspondence and records; the collection 
of special assessments; administrative and clerical 
work involved in the letting of contracts; the op- 
eration of local telephone switchboards of the 
Park District, other than those operated by the 

'Ordinance amending Section 14 of Chapter I .>i the General 
Ordinance of the Chicago Park District. 
'Ibid. Section W.i. 



77 



Police Division; all functions and responsibilities 
assigned to the office of Secretary by law and by 
direction of the Commissioners." 

Accounting Division: "All accounting work re- 
quired of the Administration Department; the 
preparation of financial statements and records; 
the keeping of special assessment records and ac- 
counts; accounting control of contract work; all 
functions and responsibilities placed upon the of- 
fice of the Comptroller by this Ordinance; re- 
sponsibility for periodical audits of the fiscal rec- 
ords of all departments; and such other functions 
and responsibilities as may be assigned to it by 
direction of the Commissioners." 

Auditor's Division: "All those specifically as- 
signed to the office of Auditor by this Ordinance; 
the collection of all moneys due and received by 
the Park District from whatever source and their 
prompt remittance to the Treasurer; such other 
functions and responsibilities as may be assigned 
to it by direction of the Commissioners." 

Commissioners' Office Division: "General Ad- 
ministrative work as required by individual Com- 
missioners in the conduct of their respective of- 
fices; the gathering of facts and the study of con- 
ditions necessary as a basis for determining public 
policies of the Park District; the gathering, prep- 
aration and dissemination of information to the 
public; the making of statistical studies, investiga- 
tions and reports; the supplying of clerical and 
office service to individual Commissioners; such 
other functions and responsibilities as may be as- 
signed to it by direction of the Commissioners." 

Treasury Division: "The custody of all moneys 
belonging to the Park District and received from 
the Auditor's Division and from other sources; 
the deposit of such moneys in banks approved by 
the Commissioners according to law; the disburse- 
ment of moneys only upon cash warrant signed by 
the Comptroller and countersigned by the 
Auditor; the custody and safekeeping of all bonds 
and other negotiable securities belonging to the 
Park District; all functions and responsibilities as- 
signed to the office of Treasurer by this Ordi- 
nance; such other functions and responsibilities 
as may be assigned to it by this Ordinance or by 
direction of the Commissioners." 

La-Jo Department: "All those involved in the 
execution of the duties and responsibilities of the 
office of General Attorney as prescribed in this 
Ordinance; and such other functions as may be 
assigned to it by direction of the Commissioners." 

Operating Departiiwnt: "The preservation 
maintenance and repair of all properties of the 
Park District; the planning and execution of all 
alterations, improvements and extensions in and 



to the Park System; the supervision of all such: 
work done by contract in order to assure its con- 
formity with the respective contracts applying 
thereto; the de\'elopment and operation of all 
conveniences and facilities of the Park System so 
as to provide maximum public use and benefit! 
consistent with public safety; the enforcement of! 
laws and ordinances, preservation of peace and' 
good order throughout the Park District; the pro- 
tection of park property; all functions and re- 
sponsibilities imposed by this Ordinance or other 
direction of the Commissioners upon the office of 
the General Superintendent and upon the Operat- 
ing Department." 

Engineering Division and Sections Thereof: 

( a ) Engineering Division of the Operating 
Department: "All engineering, construction and 
architectural work, whether done by contract or 
by park forces; the preparation of plans and speci- 
fications for such work; the maintenance, repair 
and operation of mechanical, electrical, motor 
vehicle, laundry, road construction and repair 
equipment and appliances; the development of 
traffic regulatory measures; all functions and re- 
sponsibilities imposed by this Ordinance or by 
other direction of the Commissioners upon the 
office of Chief Engineer and upon the Engineer- 
ing Division." 

(b) Civil Engineering Section: "All civil, struc- 
tural, marine and architectural engineering design 
and construction done by park forces; all survey- 
ing operations; all paving repairs, replacements 
and new construction work done by park forces; 
all engineering inspection and superintendence of 
contract work; the preparation of plans and speci- 
fications for such contract work assigned to this 
Section by the Chief Engineer; such other func- 
tions and responsibilities as may be assigned to it 
by the Chief Engineer with the approval of the 
General Superintendent." 

(c) Electrical and J^lechanical Engineering 
Section: "All operation, design, construction and 
maintenance of electrical, mechanical, motor 
vehicle and laundry equipment; the economical 
and effective operation and maintenance of all 
heating, lighting, ventilating, power generating 
or transforming plants and equipment; the prepa- 
ration of plans and specifications for such contract 
work assigned to this Section by the Chief Engi- 
neer; such other functions and responsibilities as 
may be assigned to it by the Chief Engineer with 
the approval of the General Superintendent." 

(d) Repair and Construction Section: "All 
maintenance, repair and alteration of buildings, 
tools, mechanical and other equipment, bridges 
and general structures including monuments, in- 



78 



COMMISSIONERS OF THE CHICAGO PARK DISTRIO 

Rv» Com>nluickn*n af-poJi^lvd by Mayor of CtucMO, wHk •ppro**J <ri Cft* 
Council, for 0'*rUpp<na tormt of 5 yvan aAck vitkowl cofnpanution, witK 



( Ik* Pari Oirtrict 



ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRia 



LAW 06PARIVIENT 



I ADMINISTRATION D€PARTKIENT' 



OPERATING DEPARTMENT 



PERSONNa AND CIVIL SERVICE DEPARTMENT 



WNCTK>NS— C««dw«l of al Uii»i 
matWi and al (l.qahon *aft.nq of 







FUKK:TIONS>-Op«'a(.on of a. 
P«rf SriUm; al ma^ntananc*. r« 
•ltd cwubvctlon wort: al poEcJ. 



FUNCTIONS — Al pa,»o»naJ adm.^.t.at.a^ 
-•H*.. p'O.acU al fMt^. erf C.J W>,c. 



- &«n*r«l Supvrlntoodwnt 



. AalfUM &«fM>«l Supw^ntM^Mrt 



QE 



SupfWiUn^aM.of Errtploypn 



cipaJ Ci«l Sar^u:* CUi 



. S*cr«l«4 J StMK>9raphar 



Watttm Dirtrid Sup«rviiw 



Northern Oirtrkl SurMrvtu 












l~ G«n«rd TlnMU*p«r 



3— SacrvUrfd SUnograpkw 






2— Sanior CirB S«f»>c« C 



I— SamorCW* 



EN&INE£RIN6 DIVISION 



POUCe DIVISION 



PURCHASING DIVISION 



RECREATION DIVISION 



SPECIAL SERVICE DIVISION 



LAM>SCaP€ DIVISION 



SK CHART "C" 



SEE CHART "E" 



SEE CHART "E" 



SEE CHARTS "F" I "G" 



Cfv3 Enqinsvrvig Section 



Rtcord «nd Eitim«l« S*ctien 



Traffic Engineering Section 



Repeir end Corwtruction Sed 



Western PoGce Sectiw 



Northern Police Section 



Southern PoRce Section 

















PhYtical Activitiei Section 






General Activities Section 












Hnt Recreation Section 


Fourth Recreation Section 


Second Recreation Section 


Rfth Recreation Section 


Third Recreation Section 


Sixth Recreetion Section 



Zoological and Aquarium Section 



Auto Pa rtnq Section 



Soldier Reld Section 



Special Service Clerical Se< 



SEE CHART D 1 






Land»c«pe Construction Section 


Landtcape Plannir»g Section 


Roral Section 






Undicepe MainUnance Section 



ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT 

FUNCTIONS:— FiMncial. accou-itinq. buiinau adminirtration ar>d budg.tarv cor. 



pubCc 






ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRO 



TREASURY DIVISION 



SECRETARIAL DIVISION 



ACCOUNTING DIVISION 



AUDITOR'S DIVISION 



FUNCT10NS>-Col*ctlor. of al mof^iai 6>m 
tKa Part Diitrict fi-ont ta> U'riai. mI* of tacu- 



FUI^DONS — Tka caitcbo- a-d <(•»• 
KatioA of .f.forfnat>w> ^ tha p»t>t< 

da*cHb>nq part lacibai and pnur^ 



I — Contracl Raqlrtrw 









I— TalapttoMaSwparvfMT 
■ Poka TabpKona Operator {UaU| 







1— AlVllilt SpMitJ Aumt ColMtM 


1— $*cr«W>al S(«A«fl»«pK* 




1I-$M«CM 


>_j»j»a»» 


^- «-"--« "-^-"P-- 



1— Sa«r«ta»T la bMoA-n 






,-..,.c. 


1 


l_ i..<.Cl..l 


l_ A^.CM 


1— S«'>1v.at St» u>'t»><» 


I_Si«»,»»- 



Figure 19 



ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRIQ 



il Enqincarinq Section I I R*cord and tvtimat* S«ctioi 

I -^ I 



1- A«,n.» 


=--— 1 






l_ *»..<«.. £n„-~. 


1— Architect 


1 - CK..I D..tUm« 


1— &«n*f *l P«vi«) For«m«n 


1_ P.„«, Po^m., 






- Ajxhit»<tur«J 0*(i< 



I — Aui>t*M CKwTwcal Engim 



^ S.nio'CUl 








EUctrical and M«ch«n 


cat Engin«»ring Section 










FUNCTIONS--AI op.r 
•Wcb^cal. m«ch«ii.e«l, 1 

•nd m«cK«niC4l iiwUikti 


onjry .nd motor .,h.cJ« 












1 — tt.ctr.C«l enq.n**r 


1 _ M.cki~.t Fo,.m.. 


1 — AM(t*nt EWV>c«l £n9>nMf 


I-H..ti», Sop.r.l.„,En,in..r 


1 _ &«n«'«l Foreman of EWrtridani 


2- H..t,~, Fo..m.. 


4— EWtncJ For*m«n (Out*id«) 


1 _ Po.«r Plant Chiaf 


y— B.ctr.e«l Forwiwi (Innd*) 


3— StoamfiHaf Foroman 




t — Suparvitor of Trantportation 






l_ Bcctriul D«u9fM> 


3— SlaamflHar Halpar 


7— EUctric*! Op«r»lw 


12— Madiiniil 


fr — BKtHcal RapcirTTMH 


J_ MacJinirt Halpa, 


40— BKtHcian (Irwda) 


1 - Bo.1ar S.M.. 


15— Ehctncian [Otrt«>da| 


3— Pipa Co*arw 


S— tWcthdan Halpw [Outiid*) 


l_OiW 


1— E Ktrieal & M»ch«ruc«l Ori»t«n*n 


ll_>.loto.V.h.daRapaim,a. 


S— EUctriealCbUSpSc*. 


M_ Chauflaur 


tS— EUctne Ump CU*nm 


J_ Bote Walk., 


7i-~ SUtionvy &t9in««r 


5-8.Ml.^ aod Co-rtvctioo Lab«a. 


I_ P{>w«f PUnt &>9inMr 


19— AtlandanllMaUl 


1 -^ Cuitcxfiu En^inMr 


J- AHaad..! |F.mal.| 


^— Tr«etof 6n9in»«f 


U-Gar.g.AHaadaat 




»-La».*,6W 


II_ G.Miin. bsi»M' 


2— LauadrY WaaW 


1 — Cr«n« Op«ratof 


2— Laundrv twtarW and Sortw 


6J_ Rr»m*n. Lo- Pr««uf« 


1 6 - Spaciai Labora^ 


4— SU«mftt»r 


«- Labour 



Traffic 


En,l„.. 


,in 


S.c«oa 


1 


fUNCIlONS -I. 

of baman. iqM, .. 
of bafSc lanat 


da 




1 




afflctn^ 


»« 




1 



Rapcir end Conitrwction S*ctiM 



• of aJ part rtrxic- 
cap*. alvctnealMd 



1 — RapAT 1 ConttructJM biJJMW 




3 — Repair & Comtrwction Fnrwmn 




l-Au....n.t.^«^ 




|-&..^.IM.,M...no,Fo,am«, 








2— Plumb* Foramaf. 


1 


1 — St»»t Mat*; Foraman 




2— Caipaniaf Foreman 




1 — Foraman of L«borvi 





3 — En9inaa<in9 Inipector 


A-Blackim.lt> RmiW 


1 — Str%j<tofaJ Ifon Wortaf 


t-e^ci ,.. 


»- ShaatMalalWort., 


Stt- Cpaata. 


> — Skaat Matal Worlar Helpar 


6-Caman<R«.iI.a> 


2- A,*t~*ir.| l.on Worta. 


l-Slai». 


|_ k(.,bUS.«.. 


4 1 — Paintaf 


1— Marbia Sattar Halpaf 


4-PbRar. 


2— Slata S Hla Roofar 


it-Pkmba. 


2— Slala & Tlla Roofaf Halpaf 




1 — Roofaf CompoBtion 


2- fc(cUaw.|Sa-ar,U«la.yo»,d| 


1 - rj. SaMaf 


40- Bo>1dinq and ConrtnKtian Ubom 


1— nia SaMar HaJpaf 


J_ S^qn Paima, 


1 - Blacbmith 


21 - Spactal l^ba.a. 






i M. araai: propagabo", Qanaral 
>lanti. U.xi and A/^br opaf abon 
»• of imJMK axd outdoor floral 



ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRia 



LANDSCAPt CONSTRUCTTON 



HORAl SECTION 



LANDSCAPE CLERICAL 5 



LANDSCAPE PLANNING SECTION I 



ONS— PUnning and daii^'i of naw 
« woii. mdjor altarationi to pmant 









1— Ai(irt«M CKiaf Horticukurirt 1 






1— HorticUtMHrt 


i— a^Mor Hortk>iti#iat 


1— Florirt F«rwn» 


S4— Hand 




20- Spaoal Laborw 


lt-Lab«« 



] Ei 



t — L«ndicap« ArcKrtad 



- Land*capa D«B9nw 



I— SaniorCWi 



2— $M7elari«J Stawographf 



4^MaiMa«n.aF-.man 


,-Ilmala.p, 


49^ F«/aman«flabowt 


1- feaa-taap. 


1— Comfort StMlon Inipactcr 



I 


fcZ_ Sp«^ Labor* 


ISOO— Laborar 


4_ Watchman 


21— AttondMl (Mala) 


22— Comlort Station AtHwJart 


1 (—Comfort SUtion AHdt 


— 1 



Chicago Pork District Cirsi Annual Report 



Figure 20 



door and outdoor water service and drainage and 
gas service, except such work as is done by con- 
tract or as may be specifically assigned by the 
General Superintendent to other sections or divi- 
sions; all construction work done by park forces 
except electrical, paving, and other construction 
work specifically assigned to other divisions and 
sections by this Ordinance; the economical and 
effective operation and maintenance of all repair 
shops except those specifically placed in charge of 
other divisions and sections by this Ordinance; 
such other functions and responsibilities as may 
be assigned to it by the Chief Engineer with the 
approval of the General Superintendent." 

(e) Trajfic Engineering Section: "The study 
and development of trafiic regulatory and traffic 
accident prevention measures; co-operation with 
other divisions and sections of the Operating De- 
partment in the planning of park, boulevard and 
driveway alterations, renewals or extensions in so 
far as they affect trafiic regulation; the making of 
trafiic surveys; the study and development, in co- 
operation with other divisions and sections of the 
Operating Department and with other public 
bodies, of a comprehensive plan for trafiic control 
throughout the Park District and adjoining areas; 
such other functions and responsibilities as may 
be assigned to it by the Chief Engineer with the 
approval of the General Superintendent." 

(f) Record and Estimate Section: "The eco- 
nomical and effective performance of all office 
and clerical work of the Engineering Division; 
the maintenance of all files and records of this 
Division; the assignment of employees of the 
Division to particular tasks or posts according to 
the instructions of the head of the Engineering 
Division; the general supervision of all clerical 
and office employees in the Division; the prepara- 
tion of annual departmental estimates; the hand- 
ling, for all sections of the Engineering Division, 
of routine office records, personnel assignments, 
pay roll supervision, budget control, issuance of 
supplies and orders for repairs and purchases, and 
related matters; the correlation of all engineering 
specifications; such other functions and responsi- 
bilities as may be assigned to it by the Chief En- 
gineer with the approval of the General Superin- 
tendent." 

Landscape Division and Sections Thereoj: 

{ a) Landscape Division of the Operating De- 
partment: "The planning and layout, from the 
landscape standpoint, of park, boulevard and 
recreation center alterations, improvements, and 
additions; the propagation, general care and 
planting of trees, flowers and other plants, lawns, 
and shrubs; the economical and effective opera- 



tion of conservatories and the maintenance of in- 
door and outdoor floral exhibits; the cleaning, 
care and maintenance of outdoor park and boule- 
\'ard areas, including manholes and catchbasins in 
surface drainage systems; such other functions as 
may be assigned to it by direction of the Commis- 
sioners." 

(b) Floral Section: "The propagation, general 
care and planting of flowers, perennials and orna- 
mental shrubs; the economical and effective op- 
eration and general care of conservatories and 
propagating houses; the planning, in co-opera- 
tion with the Landscape Planning Section, of all 
indoor and outdoor floral displays and exhibits, 
and their execution and general care; such other 
functions as may be assigned to it by the Chief of 
Landscape Di\'ision with the approval of the Gen- 
eral Superintendent." 

(c) Landscape Construction Section: "The exe- 
cution of all landscape planting work done by 
park forces; the propagation and care of trees, 
shrubs and lawns; all pest extermination in out- 
door park areas and nurseries; tree and shrub 
pruning and surgery; the execution of all altera- 
tion, renewal and improvement, of landscape and 
plantation areas where such work is done by park 
forces; the operation and general care of nur- 
series; such other functions and responsibilities as 
may be assigned to it by the Chief of Landscape 
Division with the appro\'al of the General Super- 
intendent." 

fd) Landscape Maintenance Section: "The 
cleaning and general care of all outdoor park and 
boulevard areas which do not involve technical 
gardening or floral operations, including all clean- 
ing and general care of lawns, trees, paths, plan- 
tations, lagoons, parkways and the Lake Michigan 
shoreline, except such areas as are cared for by 
other divisions and sections by Direction of the 
General Superintendent; the general care of per- 
golas, pavilions, garden halls, comfort stations, 
and other park structures not cared for by other 
divisions and sections; such other functions and 
responsibilities as may be assigned to it by the 
Chief of Lanclscape Division with the approval of 
the General Superintendent." 

(e) Landscape Planning Section: "The plan- 
ning, supervision and technical determination 
from the horticultural standpoint, of all park and 
boulevard alterations, renewals or extensions, in- 
cluding the supervision, in co-operation with the 
Engineering Di\ision, of landscape work done by 
contract or park forces; the study and develop- 
ment, in co-operation with the Engineering Divi- 
sion and with other public bodies, of a compre- 
hensi\-e plan for park, boulevard and recreation 
development; such other functions and rcsponsi- 



79 



bilities as may be assigned to it by the Chief of 
Landscape Division with the approval of the 
General Superintendent." 

(f) Landscape Clerical Section: "The eco- 
nomical and effective performance of all office and 
clerical work of the Landscape Division; the 
maintenance of all files and records of this Divi- 
sion; the assignment of employees of this Divi- 
sion to particular tasks or posts; the general super- 
vision of all clerical and office employees in this 
Division; the preparation of annual departmental 
estimates; the handling, for all sections of the 
Landscape Division, of routine office records and 
personnel assignments, pay roll supervision, bud- 
get control, issuance of supplies and orders for re- 
pairs and purchases, and related matters; such 
other functions and responsibilities as may be as- 
signed to it by the Chief of Landscape Division 
with the approval of the General Superintend- 
ent." 

Police Division and Sections Thereof: 

(a) Police Division of the Operating Depart- 
ment: "The preservation of peace and good or- 
der; the protection of the property of the Park 
System; the arrest, with or without process, of any 
person who breaks the peace or who may be found 
violating any statute of the State or any ordinance 
of the Park District or other municipal ordinance; 
the enforcement of traffic regulations; the supply- 
ing of police protection for other departments, 
divisions, or sections; such other functions as may 
be assigned to it by direction of the Commis- 
sioners." 

(b) Central Police Section: "All those pre- 
scribed in this Ordinance for the Police Division 
as required in the Central Police District of the 
Park District, which police district shall consist 
of such territory as prescribed by the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(c) Northern Police Section: "All those pre- 
scribed in this Ordinance for the Police Division 
as required in the Northern Police District of the 
Park District, which police district shall consist 
of such territory as prescribed by the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(d) Southern Police Section: "All those pre- 
scribed in this Ordinance for the Police Division 
as required in the Southern Police District of the 
Park District, which police district shall consist 
of such territory as prescribed by the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(e) l]^estern Police Section: "All those pre- 
scribed in this Ordinance for the Police Division 
as required in the Western Police District of the 
Park District, which police district shall consist 



of such territory as prescribed by the General Su-i 
perintendent." 

Purchasing Division of the Operating Depart-\ 
merit: "The advertising for and soliciting of bids! 
as provided for in Section i of Chapter IV of this| 
Ordinance; the negotiation for the purchase ofj 
all commodities, intended for stores or for direct! 
delivery to departments, which do not involve the' 
expenditure of more than Five Hundred Dollars 
($500.00), not including commodities purchased' 
on contract let by the Commissioners; the secur-! 
ing, in all cases involving the expenditure of more, 
than Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), of more than 
one bid or tender and, when possible, of not less; 
than three bids or tenders; the preparation of pur-: 
chase orders for the signature of the General Su-i 
perintendent when negotiations have been com-' 
pleted; the enforcement of purchase contracts so; 
as to protect the interests of the Park District; the| 
negotiation of purchases in such manner as to as-; 
sure the lowest cost consistent with the quality I 
and character of goods required, and general re- 
sponsibility for the economical purchase of all 
goods required by the Park District other than! 
those purchased on contract; the maintenance of; 
records of purchases, tenders, inventories and' 
other stores or purchase records, as prescribed by 
the Comptroller and the General Superintendent; 
the operation and supervision of all store houses; 
including responsibility for the care and custody; 
of stores material and its issuance upon proper 1 
requisition according to the procedure determined: 
by the General Superintendent and the Comp-; 
troller; the determination, in consultation with! 
department and division heads, of the amount of 
specific articles that should be carried in stock | 
from time to time; such other functions as may be' 
assigned to it by direction of the Commissioners. 
Functions of the Recreation Division and Sections' 
Thereof: 

( a ) Recreation Division of the Operating De- 
partment: "The operation of all recreation facili- 
ties of the Park System, except those specifically 
assigned to the Special Service Division by direc- 
tion of the Commissioners; the general care of in- 
terior of recreation buildings, structures, and out- 
door gymnasiums and playgrounds operated by 
this Division; the promotion, organization, direc- 
tion and supervision of public recreational, social, 
gymnastic, sports and related community activi- 
ties; the operation of all facilities in its charge so 
as to render the greatest possible service and bene- ' 
fit to the public; all functions and responsibilities , 
herein prescribed for the Sections included in the ' 
Recreation Division; such other functions and re- 
sponsibilities as may be assigned to it by direction 
of the Commissioners." 



80 



POLICE DIVISION 






ORGANIZATION O^ART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRIQ 



Ch,«( of PoKc* 



I— SK^IaHtlSlonogrtphct 



I— S*r9*«H of PoCm 





SOUTHEBN POLCE SfcCTtON 












FUNCTIONS— R«poni.b.i;tv 'or •« 
Pofic* >ori aivd ca"V9 out •■ tK« 












r_C.pt.ir. of PoCc. 












S_ LI«rt0A«nt of PoCm 


b- PoCc.out. 


1 %— W90«nt of PoCc* 


1- PoCc CM 


11 A— Pttrolmin 


1- J.~o.CUfk 





NORTHERN POLtCe SECTION 














FUNCTIONS— R..pon.;b."rf, *of ■)) 






1 






1- Cp,.;.o(P,ji.. 












2— UnUn.M ol PoCu 


204— P*trolm«h 


,«_S.„... 


olPoIp. 


J-PoIt.T.Uph^ 


n.Op.. 


(»|U.1.|| 















WESTERN POtlCt SKTON 














R/MCTIONS -R.w.-.wt, 1, J 
W,iU,K Potc^ O-rtnct, 






1 






1- C.pt... o) PpJf 














2- U.VI.U 


tpfPoIu 


4— P<*« T«i,pho«< Op.' 


,P,|M.i.|| 


1 »_ S.r,..M 


ofPo(c« 


1— P(d««CiM 


IB}— PatrotiMA 


1- Tn». 



PURCHASING DIVISION 







1 




1- 


S<w.t 


Hal Stanograpt^ar 


1- 


A^rt, 


ntSlo. 


^k»«p« 


^— StveE 


MPM 




3— 


Jimor 


CWi 




2- 


Trpit 







Ck..< „l Purck. 


.,d;„... 1 




FUNCTIONS— N.q 


Irtrv! 




3— Purck.»inq AiHrt.nt 



7— io<M»*p<nq M«cK.«a Op«*.tor 


)— Stockpnan 


2-S..^..pk. 


1 — Spacial Labofvt 



RECREATION DIVISION 



ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRIQ 



GOLF AND BEACHES SECTION 



S.ip*rr,u» SaachM and &ot{ 



S— &oH or kach D<r< 






HaaKti Guvd {Mala) 



II— Ufa Guard Car 



14— Chaciaf (FamaU) 



AHAAdanl [FamaU] 



4ft— AtUndaM. Surrvnar |kUa| 



' AHMdaM. Summai (Famala] 



2— Oir.ctar 






m Inrtnicto' (M.U} 


l_G,™.b. 


.. l.«ln,cto. IF..J.I 




RECREATIONAL CLERICAL SECTIOH 



|_ S.p.r„u>,&.».jA«,.B.. 1 


^ 




\— Doctor, Art 


|_ D,r»<lor.AMC-.h(F.rMla| 


1— Dtractor. CratU [Malal 


1- Oir*ct<x. I.^»c 


1— Diracl or, Drama lici 


l-arac.or W^n.A...^.:.. 


1— Inatrvctor. Dramabct 


10— UrtJWctor. Art Oat* (Famala) 


ft_ lp>1rvetor. Cfaftj (W4ate) 



. RECREATION SECTION 



FUNCTIONS -Ik. op...i.~ 


oC J 




SE£ CHART 6- 1 



]— SacratarialSli«iyip>ir 



I— MirfUH. P*.a l aya»fcar t 0»ara»wr 



I — tAAA* P*«tiM F »>!■>— 



. D^i<«tM9 UacVaa Oparat 



1^ frypwtai^ Kftar F ara^aw 



Figure 21 



FUNCTIONS -Op«f 



Pvt Olrtric 
i* aqulpman 



ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRia 



^^^TJ 



FUNCTIONS —Op**.* 



1 




— Op^f.tio* 


of J 


r.cT.At.O'. (k. 






Str^t tOMlti « 




>a>M9* 


C««*J trom L* 


• kr>cK<9«n 




•rn city Emita. 







FltST RECKEATION StCTlON S6CON0 RECREATION SECTION THIRD RECREATION SECTtON FOURTH RECREATION SECTION 



1 RECREATION SECTION 



SIXTH RECREaTWN SECTION 



FUNCTIONS —Op»««t 



NCTIONS^ — Op»f 



FUNCTIONS:— Op»ri 
Riv»r, north of S^' 



illt>«t watt of Chicago 



FUNCTIONS:— Op««tiof. of d , 



I— SMtienal RvcrMflon Dir*ctor 



1- 


St*fl04r«pW 




IJ- 


^rmnMium Inrtrvc 


«(Mj.: 


l!_ &,m..,.om tartnKto. |F.m.l.l | 


1- 


N*(ator^u*i> Inrtnjctw 1 


^^■' 


IMJ.I 


™(n»cto« 


^^ 


(f.mJ.1 


»*«,« 


|_ 


l-rt™rt»,0.«,{MJ.) 


S_ I 


*«<«. /W C-.H |f»~I.| 


>- 


l™«vrto,, 0.™ 


o 


<- 


Ifatn>ct«r. Muaic 




<t- 


PU'Mt 




14- 


Lil. G<»il |M^ 




1- 


P«n«it AH>»d«nl 


|M^| 


;«- 


AH^ntUnt iMAb) 




i«- 


AttMKUnt (F«>tmU) 1 


ii_ 


AHaitdanl Sunwn 


.rlWI^) 


14- 


AH«nd«nt. SumnM 


kIF^^I 



II- DiTKte 1 






l_ SUno9r*f>W 


1 1- &,m™»i«m lMtn,cl~ |M.l.l 


ll_&,m...i„ml.rt«(o.|F.m,l.| 


"— (M«U) 




1 1_ Lrtrvtlo., Art Cr.ft |F.m.U| 


1 1_ IfirtfMelty. Cfilta (Mila) 


t~- Inltrudw. Dr«m«Uci 


21- n»iii 


30- U.S...d|M.U| 


110— AH.ndwl |W«U) 


11- Atl..«l..l |F.-»I.) 


II— AH>»d*nl. Summ.> (F.mak) 



il R*c/*«tJon Dtfvele' 



- S*c1i«nal Rtcr*«tiM Diractw ' 



1— Sttno^rapher 


1— Natatwium lnrtr\ieio» 


3_lnrtr„clo,.ArtC,.(t|F.m.l.) 


i- lr,rtru=l«r.Cta«.|M.l.l 


,-S,....,,ml.«,-ao.|M.I.| 


9— Gymn«(<um InrtructorllFamaU) 


2— Inrtnjrtor. OramstiM 


6- ln.tn.c*«. Mu.ic 


9- Pi.mrt 


30- Uf. Su-fd |M«I«1 


Se— AH«nduit (Mala) 


14— AH.ndant (Fsmale) 


14- AH»nd-nt, Summar (Mal-1 


10_ AHandant. SummB.(F.mala) 






■ Inrirvetof. Craft* (Mala) 



t— AH..«ia.l |F.mal.| 









1- 


st. 


oyapW 




7- 


G, 


...^.ml.«„ 


.«»|M.I.| 


7-&,.^.. 


...ml.rt™. 


o.|F.,«L| 


1- 


.B,^ 


etc. Art C, 


fl|F«n.UI 


4- 


l.rt, 


-utln. Cafti 


(Mai.) 


4- 


M 


rwctof, Draw 


itiaa 


3- 


l«t 


t»rt.».Mu,ic 




10- 


nadtt 




10— 


U(. 


e.,.r<l IMal. 




64- 


AH 


mlant |Mak 




13— 


AH 


Adarrt, (Fam 


-., 


lo- 


AH 


ndanl.S.,... 


»,|Mal.| 



SI«;iAL SERVICE DIVISION 



induJlM tKa colaction o~ 









ORGANIZATION CHART 
CHICAGO PARK DISTRIQ 



Chimf of Spacial Sanrica 






. Dvactor of PUnvt«rium| 



AJTO PARKING SECTION 



FUNCTIONS:— Oparation of i 






I— Planatarium Diract«r, J 






AHandaM (MaU] 






FUNCTIONS— Car 



.— Atfia Parting A>ti«4ant MaM 
I •— Awie Parilng CkKUr 



MARINE SECTION 



FUNCTIONS:— Oparatlon of al h. 



Sacrafarial StanograpW 



I — StafM^rapKar 



. Colaclor and Spadal DIracto) 



AHandant (M^) 



i— WatcltmaA 



SOLDIER RELD SECTK>N 



Managw. Soldtaf FMd 



FUNCT10NS^— Oi>afatt«> aod fM- 
aral ear* of Zooloq^al &ar^«« and 
Aqit»tiiim and cvitady aad MM •( > 



I— DirMtarapfZac 



I— AHandartti Swmmar |) 



1- 


Z..hraiw 


1- 




tl-- 


Zoo AtliadaM 


7- 


A^oartioo AHoodit 


!- 


AHonlaM IMolol 


1- 







Figure 22 



(b) General Activities Section: "The general 
supervision, stimulation and promotion, through- 
out the Park System, of activities dealing with the 

' arts, crafts, music, drama, vocational guidance, 
and other related fields and activities as assigned 

\ to this Section by the Chief of Recreation Divi- 
sion; responsibility for inspecting, training, and 
advising with instructors, directors and other em- 
ployees of the Recreation Division who lead or 
supervise activities for which this Section is re- 

1 sponsible; such other functions as may be assigned 

; to it by the Chief of Recreation Division with the 
approval of the General Superintendent; -pro- 
vided, ho-ocever, that the General Activities Sec- 
tion shall not function nor be responsible for any 
activities involving athletics, sports and the like 
which are assigned to the Physical Activities Sec- 

■ tion." 

1 (c) Physical Activities Section: "The general 
; supervision, stimulation, and promotion, through- 
'out the Park System, of activities dealing with 
athletics, gymnastics, games, sports, and related 
physical activities and other related matters; re- 
sponsibility for inspecting, training, and advising 
with instructors, directors and other employees of 
•the Recreation Division who lead or supervise 
i activities for which this Section is responsible; 
such other functions as may be assigned to it by 
'.the Chief of Recreation Division with the ap- 
proval of the General Superintendent; provided, 
however, that the Physical Activities Section shall 
not be responsible for any activities specifically as- 
signed by this Ordinance to the General Activities 
Section." 

(d) First Recreation Section: "The operation 
uf all recreation facilities in the area of the Park 
System prescribed by the Chief of Recreation 

[Division with the approval of the General Super- 
jintendent; responsibility for such operation in 

■ such manner as to afford maximum beneficial serv- 
jice to the public and conformity with the rules 

and regulations established by the Chief of Recre- 
:ation Division, and the plans and policies estab- 
'lished with respect to such activities by the Physi- 
cal Activities Section and the General Activities 
Section; responsibility for the general care and 
cleanliness of the interior of all recreation build- 
ings, structures and outdoor gymnasiums and 
playgrounds operated by this Section and located 
.within its territory; such other functions as may 
■be assigned to it by the Chief of Recreation Divi- 
'sion with the approval of the General Superin- 
tendent." 

(e) Second Recreation Section: "The same as 
those prescribed herein for the First Recreation 
■Section, but with respect only to area of the Park 
;System assigned to it by the Chief of Recreation 



Division with the approval of the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(f) Third Recreation Section: "The same as 
those prescribed herein for the First Recreation 
Section, but with respect only to area of the Park 
System assigned to it by the Chief of Recreation 
Division with the approval of the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(g) Fourth Recreation Section: "The same as 
those prescribed herein for the First Recreation 
Section, but with respect only to area of the Park 
System assigned to it by the Chief of Recreation 
Division with the approval of the General Su- 
perintendent." 

fh) Fifth Recreation Section: "The same as 
those prescribed herein for the First Recreation 
Section, but with respect only to area of the Park 
System assigned to it by the Chief of Recreation 
Division with the approval of the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(i) Sixth Recreation Section: "The same as 
those prescribed herein for the First Recreation 
Section, but with respect only to area of the Park 
System assigned to it by the Chief of Recreation 
Division with the approval of the General Su- 
perintendent." 

(j) Recreation Clerical Section: "The econom- 
ical and effective performance of all office and 
clerical work of the Recreation Division; the 
maintenance of all files and records of this Divi- 
sion; the assignment of employees of the Division 
to particular tasks or posts; the general super\'i- 
sion of all clerical and office employees in the 
Di\'ision; the preparation of annual departmental 
estimates; the handling, for all sections of the 
Recreation Division, of routine office records, per- 
sonnel assignments, pay roll supervision, budget 
control, issuance of supplies and orders for re- 
pairs and purchases, and related matters; such 
other functions and responsibilities as mav be as- 
signed to it by the Chief of Recreation Division 
with the approval of the General .Superintend- 
ent." 

Special Service Division and Sections Thereof: 

fa) Special Service Division of the Operating 
Department: "The operation and general care of 
park facilities assigned to it by direction of the 
Commissioners, which provide special service to 
the public other than distinctly recreational ser- 
vice; particularly the operation and general care 
of facilities for the use of which a fee is regularly 
charged, including the following facilities: Pub- 
lic auto parking spaces, all yacht harbors and 
docks, boating facilities, airports, the Planetarium, 
.Soldier Field, the Z<iological gardens, the .'Vqua- 
riimi, and the like; the general super\'ision of all 



8i 



concessions ana concessionan-es ; the operation of 
all the facilities in its charge, on a businesslike and 
economical basis and in accordance with the poli- 
cies determined by the General Superintendent or 
specified by the Commissioners; provided, how- 
ever, that this Division shall not have authority 
or responsibility for the collection of any moneys 
receiv'ed for fees, percentages or other charges, 
which receipt and collection shall be under the 
jurisdiction of the Auditor's Division of the Ad- 
ministration Department; such other functions as 
may be assigned to it by direction of the Commis- 
sioners." 

(b) .\i<to Parking and Mari>ie Seclior. "The 
operation and general care of all auto parking 
stations at which users are charged a fee; the 
establishment and adherence to economical and 
businesslike operation of such parking facilities so 
as to provide effective and satisfactory service at 
least cost to the Park District, all in accordance 
with regulations approved by the General Super- 
intendent and with policies established by the 
Commissioners; the operation of airports, am- 
phibian landing berths, harbors, docks, and other 
areas at which charges are made for storing, dock- 
ing, landing or mooring boats or aircraft; the gen- 
eral supervision of any airport, harbor or marine 
facilities for the use of which a fee is charged; 
such other functions as may be assigned to it by 
the Chief of Special Service Division with the ap- 
proval of the General Superintendent." 

(c) PlatietariiiDi Section: "The operation and 
general care of the Adler Planetarium and the 
promotion and development of astronomical ex- 
hibits, studies and related activities that will make 
the Planetarium of greatest possible interest and 
benefit to the public; the custody and care of all 
scientific instruments, records and exhibits of the 
Adler Planetarium; such other functions as may 
be assigned to it by the Chief of Special Service 
Division with the appro\-al of the General Super- 
intendent." 

(d) Soldier Field Secfioir. "The operation 
cleaning and general care of Soldier Field in such 
manner as to make it of greatest possible use and 
benefit to the public at least cost to the Park Dis- 
trict; the supervision of all uses of Soldier Field 
by persons or organizations who have secured a 
permit therefor and co-operation with such per- 
sons or organizations in every manner consistent 
with the interests of the public and the Park Dis- 
trict so as to promote the success of events held; 
such other functions as may be assigned to it by 
the Chief of Special Service Division with the ap- 
proval of the General Superintendent." 

Te) Zoologica/ and Aquariion Sec/ion: "The 
operation and general care of all Zoologica] gar- 



dens and aquariums under the jurisdiction of thai 
Park District; the custody, care and propagation; 
of live animal, bird and fish specimens for exhibi- \ 
tion purposes; responsibility for all activities of! 
Zoological gardens and aquariums that will pro- j 
mote public interest and education with regard to ] 
animal life; such other functions as may be as-! 
signed to it by the Chief of Special Service Divi- 1 
sion with the approval of the General Superin- 
tendent." • 

( f ) Special Service Clerical Section: "The eco- ■ 
nomical and effective performance of all office and . 
clerical work of the Special Service Division; the 
maintenance of all files and records of this Divi- ' 
sion; the assignment of employees of this Division : 
to particular tasks or posts; the general supervi- ' 
sion of all clerical and office employees in this 
Division; the preparation of annual departmental ; 
estimates; the handling, for all sections of the . 
Special Service Division, of routine office records, ' 
personnel assignments, pay roll supervision, bud- • 
get control, issuance of supplies and orders for re- I 
pairs and purchases, and related matters; such i 
other functions as may be assigned to it by the ■ 
Chief of Special Service Division with the ap- ; 
proval of the General Superintendent." [ 

Personnel and Civil Service Department: "Un- 
der the supervision and direction of the Civil Serv- ■ 
ice Board, to have charge of the administration _ 
and enforcement of the Civil Service Law and the 1 
Rules of the Civil Service Board; the recruiting; 
of eligibles for employment in positions in the i 
classified service; the review of transfers, salary: 
changes, layoffs, reinstatements, appointments, ' 
and other personnel changes, for the purpose of i 
determining their conformity with the provisions ' 
of the Civil Service Law and Rules of the Civil 
Service Board; also to have charge of the de- , 
velopment and administration, subject to the ap- 
proval of the President, of general measures for 
the welfare of employees and their families; the 
physical examination of applicants for positions, 
and employees; the physical examination and 
medical care of employees injured or disabled In 
the service; the handling, in co-operation with the 
Law Department, of all industrial compensation 
matters other than the payment of compensation; 
and to perform such other duties as are assigned 
to the Superintendent of Employment by law or 
by direction of the Commissioners or the Civil 
Service Boarci." 

Civil Service Division of the Personnel and. 
Civil Service Department : "Under the supervision 
and direction of the Civil Service Board, to have 
charge of the administration and enforcement of 
the Civil Service Law and the Rules of the Civil 



82 



Service Board j the recruiting of eligibles fur em- 
ployment in positions in the classifieci service; the 
review of transfers, salary changes, layoffs, rein- 
statements, appointments, and other personnel 
changes, for the purpose of determining their con- 
formity with the provisions of the Ci\\l Service 
Law and Rules of the Civil Service Board; such 
other functions as are assigned to it by the direc- 
tion of the Commissioners or the Civil Service 
Board." 

Employee Relations Division of the Personnel 
and Civil Service Department: "The development 
of general measures for the welfare of employees 
and their families; the physical examination of 
applicants for positions, and employees; the phys- 
ical examination and medical care of employees 
injured or disabled in the service; the promotion 
of accident prevention; the handling, in co-opera- 
tion with the Law Department, of all industrial 
compensation matters other than the payment of 
compensation; the adjustment of claims against 
employees; such other functions as may be as- 
signed to it by the Superintendent of Employ- 
ment, with the approval of the Commissioners." 

All employees of the Chicago Park District, 
except appointive officials, are selected and gov- 
erned through the Civil Service Commission of 
the Chicago Park District, which consists of two 
Commissioners and the director of employment. 
Occupational classifications, wages and salaries are 
also established by this Commission. 

The 1935 report of the Chicago Park District 
indicates the various types of personnel employed 
in the four major departments of the Park Dis- 
trict, and also presents the administrati\'e or- 
ganization of the various components of the Op- 
erating Department. 

For the fiscal year 1937 provision was made in 
the budget for the positions hereafter enumerated. 
In view of the fact that in many instances, par- 
ticularly in the Recreation Division, specialized 
I workers are employed only during the summer 
' season, no significance can be attached to a total 
number of employees. However, 3,884 positions 
are provided in the budget classified according to 
departments, the number of employees, period of 
\ service and monthly rate of pay. 

' Administration Department 

Accounting Division 

Xttwhi 



Title 


of Moiilhly 
Period positions rale 


! Comptroller 

. Assistant CoiniilrolkT 

1 Secretarial StL'iiosraiilicr 


12 Mos. ! $600.00 
12 Mos. 1 -1110.00 
24 Mos. 2 loO.dO 





dumber 








of 


Moiilhly 


Title 


Period positions 


rale 


Stenographer 


24 Mos. 


.3 


$135.00 


Stenographer 


24 Mos. 


.1 


125.00 


Principal .'Xccounting Clerk 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Principal Clerk 


12 Mos. 




235.00 


Senior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




225.00 


Senior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




200.00 


Senior Clerk 


12 Mos. 




190.00 


Senior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




175.00 


Senior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




165.00 


Senior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




160.00 


Senior Clerk 


72 Mos. 




150.00 


.Tunior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




130.00 


Junior Clerk 


12 Mos. 




110.00 


Asst. Special Assessment 








Collector 


12 Mos. 




216.66 


Bookkeepin.? Machine Operator 


12 Mos. 




150.00 


Bookkeeping Machine Operator 24 Mos. 




120.00 


Bookkeeping Machine Operator 


12 Mos. 




110.00 


Bookkeeping Machine Operator 


48 Mos. 




125.00 


Administration Departn 


lent 




Auditor 


s Division 






.Auditor 


12 Mos. 




600.00 


-^s5istant Auditor 


12 Mos. 




350.00 


General Cashier 


12 Mos. 




300.00 


Cashier 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Principal Clerk 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


12 Mos. 




160.00 


Stenographer 


12 Mos. 




135.00 


Stenographer 


1 Mo. 




120.00 


Senior Clerk 


12 Mos. 




175.00 


Senior Clerk 


36 Mos. 




150.00 


.Junior Clerk 


24 Mos. 




125.00 


Typist 


12 Mos. 




90.00 


Secretary 


12 Mos. 




600.00 


.\ssistant -Secretan,- 


12 Mos. 




541.66 


Minute and Record Secretary 


12 Mos. 




225.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


24 Mos. 




1 60.00 


Secretarial Steno,grapher 


12 Mos. 




150.00 


Stenographer 


24 Mos. 




1,35.00 


Stenographer 


2 Mos. 




120.00 


Permit Registrar 


12 Mos. 




,300.00 


Contract Registrar 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Tunior Clerk 


12 Mos. 




135.00 


Telephone Supervisor 


12 Mos. 




200.00 


Senior Telephone Operator 


24 Mos. 




160.00 


Telephone Operator 


12 Mos. 




1,35.00 


Telephone Oiwrator 


12 Mos. 




125.00 


Telephone Operators 


40 Mos. 




110.00 


Police Telephone Opera^ir 


12 Mos. 




160.00 


.\ressenger 


12 Mos. 




im.oo 


Messenger 


,% Mos 




100.00 


Administration Departr 


ncnt 




Commissioners 


Office D 


vision 




Executive .-Xssistant 


12 Mos. 




500.00 


Secretary to Kxccutives 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


12 Mos. 




17.5,00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


24 Mos. 




1.55,00 


Senior Clerk 


12 Mos. 




1 50.00 


Public Information Writer 


12 Mos. 




200,00 


Public Information Writer 


24 ^fos, 




175,00 


Messenger 


13 \ros. 




80.00 


Law D 


cpartment 






Cieneral .\ltnrney 


IJ Mo-. 




900.00 


First .\ssistant .-Xttorney 


12 Mos. 




500.00 


.Assistant .Nttorney 


12 Mos. 




433,.33 


.■\ssistant .\ttoriKy 


12 Mos. 




416.66 


.\ssistant .Xttorney 


12 Mos. 




400.00 


.•\ssistant Attorney 


12 Mos. 




.300.00 


.Assistant .'\ttorncy 


12 Mos. 




225.00 


.■\ssistant .Attorney 


6 Mos. 




175,00 


.Assistant .\tiorney 


6 Mos. 




150.00 


Secretarial Stcnograplier 


12 Mos. 




140.00 


Stenographer 


24 Mos. 




125.00 


Investigator, Law 


12 Mos. 




l,30.0f) 



83 



Xuinbcr 

of Monthly 
Period positions rate 



Personnel and Civil 

Sufx.Tiiitendcnt of Hmploymciit 
Assistant Superintendent of 

Employment 
Member Civil Service Board 
Service Director 
Miinite and Record Secretary 
Principal Civil Service Clerk 
Secretarial Stenographer 
Secretarial Stenographer 
Stenographer 
Stenographer 
Typist 

Senior Civil Service Clerk 
Senior Civil Service Clerk 
Senior Civil Service Clerk 
Senior Civil Service Clerk 
Junior Clerk 
Junior Clcrk 
Jnnior Clerk 
General Timekeeper 
General Timekeeper 
Nurse 1 

Ffealth Officer 



1 Service 


Departm 


ent 


t 12 Mos. 




$600.00 


12 Mus. 




416.66 


24 Mos. 


2 


41.66 


12 Mos. 




.100.00 


12 Mos. 




225.00 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


12 Mos. 




160.00 


12 Mos. 




140.00 


12 Mos. 




l.iS.OO 


12 Mos. 




120.00 


12 Mos. 




120.00 


12 Mo.s. 




225.00 


12 Mos. 




175.00 


24 Mos. 




155.00 


12 Mos. 




150.00 


24 Mos. 




125.00 


12 Mos. 




120.00 


12 Mos. 




1 10.00 


48 Mos. 


4 


200.00 


48 Mos. 


4 


180.00 


7 'A A-Tos. 


7 


110.00 


12 Atos. 


1 


110.00 



Operating Department 

Administrative Division 

General Superintendent's Office Section 



General Superintendent 


12 


MM^. 


1 


1,000.00 


.■\ssistant General 










Superintendent 


12 


Mos. 


1 


700.00 


.\dministrative Supervisor 


12 


Mos. 


1 


.500.00 


Secretaries to E.xecutives 


12 


Mos. 


1 


225.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


12 


Mus. 


1 


150.00 


Stenographer 


12 


Mos. 


1 


120.00 


Safety 


Section 






Safety Director 


12 


Mos. 


1 


300.00 


Safety Inspector 


12 


Mos. 


1 


175.00 


Stenographer 


12 


Mos. 


I 


120.00 


District Supe 


rvisors Section 




District Supervisor 


,i6 


Mos. 


;, 


416.6() 


.Secretarial Stenograi)her 


24 


Jfos. 


2 


160.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


12 


Mos. 


1 


150.00 


Junior Clerk 


,i6 


Mos. 


s' 


125.00 


Operating 


Department 




Police 


Division 






Chief of Police 


12 


Mos. 


1 


450.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 


12 


Afos. 


1 


loO.OO 


Junior Clerk 


24 


Mos. 


_> 


1,15.00 


Junior Clerk 


12 


Mos. 


1 


140.00 


Captain of Police 


.'.(1 


Mos. 


.; 


400.00 


Lieutenant of P.^hci 


12(1 


Mos. 


in 
Lcs 


s 7's% 


Ser.aeant of Police 


5t<S 


M,.s. 


4') 
Les 


241.66 
s 7/s% 


Patrolman 7 


404 


Mos. 


017 
Les 


208.33 
i^ 7'A7c 


Patrolman 


4o8 


Mos. 


59 
Les 


188.33 
s 7'/s% 


Patrolman 


270 


Mos. 


59 
Les 


178.33 
s 7"/,% 


Policewoman 


72 


Mos. 


(j 
Les 


208.33 

s 7'^% 


Police Telephone Operator 


84 


Mos. 


7 


loO.dO 


Police Clerk 


12 


Mos. 


1 


200.00 


Police Clerk 


12 


Mos. 


1 


1 75.00 


Police Matron 


12 


.Mos. 


1 


100.00 



Operating Department 
Purchasing Division 



Chief of Purchasing Divisic. 


n 12 Mo.s. 


1 500.00 


Purchasing .\ssistants 


36 Mos. 


1 250.00 


Secretarial Steno2raj>her 


12 Mos. 


1 150.00 


Stenographer 


12 Mos. 


130.00 


Stenographer 


12 Mos. 


125.00 


Typist 


24 Mos. 


2 100.00 





Number 







/ Monthly 


Title 


Period positions Rale 


Principal Clerk Purchasing 






Division 


U Mos. 


$250.00 


Senior Clerk 


12 Mos. 


150.00 


Junior Clerk 


24 ilos. 2 130.00 


Storekeeper 


.% Mos. 


150.00 


A ssistant StorekeciK-r 


12 Mos. 


140.00 


Assistant Storekeeper 


24 Mos. 


I \ism 


Stockman 


24 Mos. 


120.00 


Stcjckman 


12 Mos. 


110.00 


Bookkeeping Machine 






Operator 


12 Mus. 


110.00 


Bookkeeping Machine 






Operator 


12 Mos. 


140.00 


Special Laborers 2,100 Hrs. 


.60 


Operating 


Department 




Special Se 


vice Division 




Chief of Special Service 






Division 


12 Mos. 


416.66 


Secretarial Stenographer 


12 Mos. 


150.00 


Stenographer 


12 Mos. 


125.00 


Stenographer 


24 Mos. 


I 120.00 


Principal Clerk 


12 Mos. 


250.00 


Junior Clerk 


12 Mos. 


120.00 


Typist 


12 Mos. 


100.00 


Director Planetarium 


12 Mos. 


515.00 


\ssistant Director Planetariun 


12 Mos. 


185.00 


Director of Zoo 


12 Mos. 


400.00 


Mana,ger Soldier Field 


12 Mos. 


275.00 


Harbor Captain 


12 Mos. 


175.00 


Ornithologist 


12 Mos. 


175.00 


Foreman 


20 Mos. ; 


125.00 


Zoo Foreman 


12 Mos. 


200.00 


Planetarium Technician 


15 Mos. 


' 170.00 


.\uto Parking Manager 


12 Mos. 


175.00 


.\uto Parking Assistant 






.Manager 


12 Mos- 


150.00 


\uto Parking Checker 


204 Mos. 1 


7 135.00 


Zoo .\ttendant 


108 Mos. 


5 135.00 


Zoo Attendant 


84 Mos. 


< 130.00 


Zoo .Attendant 


126 Mos. 1 


t 125.00 


Attendant CM) 


12 Mos. 


115.00 


.\ttendant (M) 


120 Mos. i; 


100.00 


Attendant (M) 


3 Mos. 


90.00 


Attendant (F) 


3 Mos. 


80.00 


.•\ttcndant (F) 


12 Mos. 


85.00 


Watchman 


12 Mos. 


105.00 


Watchman 


12 Mos. 


100.00 


Planetarium Guard 


48 Mos. 


1 110.00 


Planetarium Guard, Tempora 


y 6 Mos. 


I 90.00 


Planetarium Ticket Seller and 






Checker (F) 


30 Mos. 


90.00 


Laborer 


,000 Hrs. 


2 .48 


Attendant (F) 


,2.W Hrs. 


.45 


Operating 


Department 




Engineer 


ng Division 




Chief Engineer 


12 Mos. 


833.33 


-\ssistant Chief Engineer 


12 Mos. 


500.00 


Electrical Engineer 


12 Mos. 


425.00 


.Assistant Electrical Engineer 


12 Mos. 


350.00 


.Assistant F^ngineer 


36 Mos. 


350.00 


-Assistant Engineer 


12 Mos. 


300.00 


-Assistant Engineer 


16 Mos. 


250.00 


Consulting Engineer 


12 Mos. 


O25.00 


Custodian Engineer 


12 Mos. 1 


200.00 


Chemical Engineer 


1 Mo. 


300.00 


Assistant Chemical Engineer 


1 Mo. 


150.00 


Senior .Assistant Engineer 


12 Mos. 


425.00 


Heating Supervising Engineer 


12 Mos. 


375.00 


Repair and Construction 






Engineer 


12 Mos. 


425.00 


Statistical Engineer 


12 Mos. 1 


150.00 


Stationary Engineer 


688 Mos. 71 


178.00 


Structural Engineer 


1 Mo. 1 


325.00 


Assistant Structural Engineer 


12 Mos. 1 


300.00 


Tractor Engineer 


50 Mos. 5 


150.00 


Tractor Engineer 


30 Mos. 


140.00 


Traffic Engineer 


12 Mos. 


400.00 


Junior Engineer 


1 M,). ; 


180.00 



84 



Tillc 



Xumhcr 

of Moiilhly 
positions rate 



Title 



Xuiiilicr 

of Monthly 
positions rale 



Junior Traffic Engineer 
Junior Traffic Engineer 
junior Traffic Engineer 
Secretarial Stenographer 
Secretarial Stenographer 
Stenographer 
Stenographer 
Principal Clerk 
Senior Clerk- 
Senior Clerk 
Senior Clerk 
Senior Clerk 
Senior Clerk 
Senior Clerk 
Junior Clerk 
Junior Clerk 
Junior Clerk 
Junior Clerk 
Chief Draftsman 
Timekeeper 
Timekeeper 
Specification Writer 
General Draftsman 
General Draftsman 
General Draftsman 
Electrical Mechanical 

Draftsman 
Electrical Mechanical 

Draftsman 
Junior Draftsman 
Junior Draftsman 
Supervisor of Transportation 
Architect 

Architectural Designer 
Architectural Designer 
Architectural Designer 
Electrical Designer 
Structural Designer 
Engineering Inspector 
Engineering Inspector 
Chief Horticulturist 
Assistant Chief Horticulturist 
Horticulturist 
Junior Horticulturist 
Landscape Construction 

Supervisor 
Landscape Architect 
Landscape Designer 
Landscape Designer 
Chief of Landscape 
Landscape Engineer 
Landscape Maintenance 

Supervisor 
General Maintenance FmiiiKui 

(Landscape) 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape) 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape i 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape') 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape ) 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape) 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape) 
Maintenance Foreman 

(Landscape") 
General Plantation Foreman 
Plantation Foreman 
Tree Surgeon 
Tree Surgeon 
Instrument Man 
Rodman 

Senior Traffic Checker 
Traffic Checker 
Investigator and Photograplu-r 
Photographer 
Photographer 



Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 



Mos. 

Mos. 

Mo. 

Mos. 

Mo. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 

Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 



$200.00 
180.00 
250.00 
160.00 
150.00 
135.00 
120.00 
250.00 
200.00 
185.00 
180.00 
175.00 
155.00 
150.00 
140.00 
135.00 
130.00 
125.00 
290.00 
145.00 
125.00 
250.00 
240.00 
200.00 
165.00 

226.86 

175.00 
130.00 
100.00 
250.00 
325.00 
225.00 
200.00 
250.00 
350.00 
250.00 
185.00 
165.00 
400.00 
250.00 
225.00 
175.00 

400.00 
350.00 
200.00 
225.00 
625.00 
400.00 

400.00 



48 Mos. 


4 


195.00 


24 Mos. 


2 


190.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


185.00 


72 M.K. 


'. 


175.00 


84 Mos. 


7 


165.00 


?28 Mos. 


19 


160.00 


24 Mos. 


2 


155.00 


36 Mos. 


3 


250.00 


36 Mos. 


6 


160.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


210.00 


24 Mos. 


2 


180.00 


12 Mos. 


,> 


165.00 


16 Mos. 


4 


130.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


165.00 


6 Mos. 


(, 


100.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


150.00 


24 Mos. 


2 


150.00 


84 Mos. 


7 


125.00 



Traffic Patrol Service Man 
General Traffic Foreman 
General Foreman of 

Electricians 
Repair and Construction 

Foreman 
Repair and Construction 

Foremen 
Florist Foreman 
Heating Fureman 
General Foreman of Machinist; 
Carpenter Foreman 
Electrical Foreman (Outside; 
Electrical Foreman (Inside) 
Foreman of Laborers 
Foreman of Laborers 
Foreman of Laborers 
F'oreman of Laborers 
Plumber Foreman 
Power Plant Chief 
General Paving Foreman 
Paving Foreman 
Power Plant Engineer 
Gasoline Engineer 
Gasoline Engineer 
Gasoline Engineer 
Chauffeur 
Driving Instructor 
Fireman 
Fireman 

Electrical Repairman 
Electric Lamp Cleaner 
Electrical Operator 
Motor Vehicle Reixiirnian 
Electrician (Inside; 
Electrician (Outside i 
Messenger 
Boiler Washer 
Greenskecpcr 

Laundr>' Marker and .Sorter 
Laundry Washer 
Laundry Washer 
.Attendant (M) 
Attendant (.M i 
Attendant (.Mj 
Attendant (F; 
Comfort Station Inspector 
Comfort Station Attendant 
Comfort Station Attendant 
Comfort Station Attendants 

(Summer) 
Garage Attendant 
Garage Attendant 
Garage .\ttendant 
Garage .Vtlendaiil 
Blacksmitli 10. 

Boiler Setter 1, 

Bricklayer 8, 

Carpenter 52, 

Cement Finisher 6, 

Crane Operator 
Electrician ( Inside i 34, 

Electrician (, Outside > 35, 

IClectrician Ilclixr 8, 

Electrical Cable Splicer 5, 
Florist 9-1: 

Florist Apprentice 8, 

Gardener 78, 

Glazier 1, 

Shovel Engineer 
Traffic Maintenance .\[an ?2, 
Traffic Maintenance Man '>, 
Building ("instruction 

Laborer 42. 

Special Laborer 1 1. 

Special Laborer JH. 

Special l.alv.nr 34, 

SjKcial Lab. irer 2 

Special Laborer 
Special LalKirer 



195 



Mos. 
Mos. 



Mos. 

Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
ilos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
ilos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
ilos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 

Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Mos. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hr.s. 
Hrs. 
Hr.s. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hr<. 
llr>. 

Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
Hrs. 
(Irs. 
Hr.s. 
Hrs. 



$140.00 
180.00 



J5U.00 

300.00 
225.00 
275.00 
350.00 
275.00 
277.50 
277.50 
150.00 
145.00 
135.00 
125.00 
275.00 
310.00 
250.00 
155.00 
270.00 
123.78 
111.38 
100.00 
150.00 
125.00 
140.00 
115.00 
252.00 
168.00 
208.00 
200.00 
252.00 
252.00 
100.00 
140.00 
210.00 
115.00 
124.00 
110.00 
110.00 
120.00 
100.00 
100.00 
150.00 
100.00 
80.00 

85.00 
125.00 
155.00 
100.00 
1.55.0(1 
\J7'/j Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

l.(K) Hr. 

1.50 Hr. 

.85 Hr. 

.48 Hr. 

.75 Hr. 

1.80 Hr. 
\.»2'A Hr. 

.80 Hr. 

.•)0 Hr. 

."5 Hr. 
.7(1 Hr. 
.(.5 Hr. 
.1.(1 Hr. 
..sil Hr. 
.75 Hr. 
.55 Hr. 



8^ 





.\ 


umber 








of 


MoiUhly 


Title 


Pcrhid positions 


rate 


Laborer 


1,172.2,« Hrs. 


003 


% .48 Hr. 


Laundry f'lirl 


IS.IIUO Hrs. 


10 


.40 Hr. 


Laundry Truck Helper 


2.100 Hrs. 


1 


.35 Hr. 


Machinist Foreman 


3,750 Hr.. 


2 


I.(i5 Hr. 


Machinist 


18,000 Hrs. 


11 


1.50 Hr. 


Machinist Helper 


.5.(>00 Hrs. 


2 


.80 Hr. 


Machinist Helper 


1.800 Hrs. 


1 


.75 Hr. 


Oiler 


600 Hrs. 


,1 


1.011 Hr. 


Painter 


9,114 Hrs. 


45 


1.5(1 Hr. 


Pipe Coverer 


1,800 Hrs. 


2 


1.5U Hr. 


Plasterer 


2,024 Hrs. 


3 


1.50 Hr. 


Plumber 


36,432 Hrs. 


36 


1.50 Hr. 


Repairman 


28,336 Hrs. 


30 


1.12^ Hr 


Roller Engineer 


1,500 Hrs. 


8 


1.62-4 Hr 


Sheet Metal Worker 


16,192 Hr.s. 


8 


1.50 Hr. 


Slate and Tile Rt>ofer 


2,024 Hrs. 


3 


1.50 Hr. 


Steamfitter Foreman 


3,600 Hrs. 


2 


1.65 Hr. 


Painter 


24,775 5/7 Hrs. 


45 


1.75 Hr. 


Steamfitter 


16,000 Hrs. 


9 


1.50 Hr. 


Steamfitter Helper 


5,400 Hrs, 


3 


.90 Hr. 


Structural Iron Worker 


2,024 Hrs. 


.1 


1.50 Hr. 


Arcliitectural Iron Worker 2,0_M Hrs. 


■' 


1.50 Hr. 


Operating Department 




Recreation Division 






Chief of Recreation 


12 Mos. 




$625.00 


Assistant Chief of Recreation 12 Mos. 




400.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 12 Mos. 




160.00 


Secretarial Stenographer 24 Mos. 




140.00 


Stenographer 


9o Mos. 




120.00 


Principal Clerk 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Senior Clerk 


12 Mos. 




150.00 


Junior Clerk 


30 Mos. 




120.00 


Typist 


6 Mos. 




90.00 


Supervisor Physical Activities 12 Mos. 




300.00 


Supervisor General Activities 12 Mos. 




300.00 


Supervisor Beach and 


jolf 12 Mos. 




300.00 


Director, .\rt 


12 Mos. 




160.00 


Director, Artcraft (F) 


12 Mos. 




225.00 


Director, Craft (M) 


12 Mos. 




175.00 


Director, Dramatics 


12 Mos. 




180.00 


Director, Women's .Act 


vities 12 Mos. 




200.00 


Sectional Recreational Director 72 Mos. 




300.00 


Golf or Beach Director 


iVi Mos. 




170.00 


Golf or Beach Director 


55 Mos. 




150.00 


Director 


12 Mos. 




260.00 


Director 


12 Mos. 




250.00 


Director 


24 Mos. 




230.00 


Director 


12 Mos. 




225.00 


Director 


12 Mos. 




210.00 


Director 


24 Mos. 




208.00 


Director 


117 Mos. 




200.00 


Director 


24 Mos. 




185.00 


Director 


12 Mos. 




180.00 


Director 


96 Mos. 




175.00 


Director 


36 Mos. 




170.00 


Director 


366 Mos. 




160.00 


.-\ttendant (.M) 


426 Mos. 




130.00 


.Attendant (M) 


48 Mos. 




125.00 


.\ttendant (M) 


204 Mos. 




120.00 


.\ttendant (M) 


204 Mos. 




117.00 


.Attendant (M ) 


252 Mos. 




115.00 


Attendant (M) 


336 Mos. 




110.00 


.\ttendant ( M ) 


2,100 Mos. 


198 


100.00 


.\ttendant (Fl 


516 Mos. 




100.00 


.Attendant ( F ) 


324 Mos, 




80.00 


.\ttendant. Summer (M) .i05 Mos. 


150 


90.00 


Attendant, Summer (F) 136 Mos. 




75.00 


Games .Attendant (M) 


157 Mos. 




100.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


( M ) 24 Mos. 




175.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 12 Mos. 




170.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 12 Mos. 




166.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 12 Mos. 




165.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 12 Mos. 




158.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 24 Mos. 




155.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 12 Mos. 




150.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 60 Mos. 




146.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 48 Mos. 


,=; 


140.00 


Gymnasium Instructor 


(M) 552 Mos. 


57 


130.00 



Title 



Xumber 

of Monthly 

Period positions rate 



I iymnasiuni Instructor (F) 

Gymnasium Instructor (F) 

Gymnasium Instructor (F) 

Gymnasium Instructor (F) 

Gymnasium Instructor (F) 

(iymnasium IiLstructor (F) 

(jymnasium Instructor (F) 

Xatatorium Instructor 

Permit -Attendant (M) 

Permit Attendant (F; 

Life Guard Captain 

Life Guard 

Life Guard 

Ticket Seller 

Checker 

Gymnasium Rigger Foreman 

Gymnasium Rigger 

Gymnasium Rigger 

Gymnasium Rigger Helper 

Gymnasium Rigger Helper 

Photographer 

Multilith Photographer and 

Operator 
Multilith Process Foreman 
Instructor, .Artcraft (F) 
Instructor, Crafts (M ) 
Instructor, Dramatics 
Instructor, Music 
Pianist 
Blacksmith 



36 Mos. 


,i 


$175.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


167.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


158.00 


48 Mos. 


5 


155.00 


252 Mos. 


28 


146.00 


12 Mos. 


2 


140.00 


288 Mos. 


30 


130.00 


72 Mos. 


6 


125.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


110.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


90.00 


45 Mos. 


15 


125.00 


175 Mos. 


70 


100.00 


26154 Mos. 


194 


90.00 


26 Mos. 


11 


75.00 


24 Mos. 


11 


75.00 


n 12 Mos. 


1 


305.00 


24 Mos. 


2 


195.00 


108 Mos. 


9 


155.00 


60 Mos. 


5 


120.00 


132 Mos. 


11 


110.00 


12 Mos. 


1 


125.00 


24 Mos. 


2 


125.00 


12 Mos. 


r 


160.00 


40,722 Hrs. 


30 


.90 Hr. 


37,800 Hrs. 


29 


.90 Hr. 


20,892 Hrs. 


19 


.90 Hr. 


18,000 Hrs. 


19 


.90 Hr. 


41,130 Hrs. 


7>< 


.85 Hr. 


720 Hr.. 


1 


1.35 Hr. 



Oil the basis of total salaries the personnel costs , 
of the Chicago Park District, as set up in the 1937 ; 

budget, are as follows: ', 

Department .imount Percent 



Engineering Division 


$2,600,155.07 


42.33 


Police Division 


1,778,329.14 


28.95 


Recreation Division 


1,195,490.10 


19.46 


Special Service Division 


146,242.50 


2.38 


.Accounting Division 


82,220.00 


1.34 


Civil Service Department 


68,165.00 


1.11 


.Auditor's Division 


36,240.00 


0.59 


Secretarial Division 


54,340.00 


0.88 


Purchasing Division 


48,960.00 


0.80 


Law Department 


46,290.00 


0.75 


General Superintendent's Office 


29,940.00 


0.49 


District Supervisors' Division 


25,140.00 


0.41 


C(-immissioncrs' Office Division 


24.180.00 


0.39 


Safety Section 


7,140.00 


0.12 


Total Salaries 


$6,142,831.81 


lUO.OO 



A study of the occupational classifications of 
employees of the Park District and the adminis- ■• 
trative units into which the District is divided indi- 
cates very clearly that the functions of the Chicago 
Park District are not limited to strictly recrea- 
tional acti\'itics. .\s has already been pointed 
out, the Chicago Park District is a munici- 
pal corporation with functions and powers almost 
equal to those of the City of Chicago itself. 
It maintains a police force of more than eight 
hundred men whose acti\'ities are limited to 
policing the boule\ards and to the protection 
of Park District property. This department is ap- 
proximately one-eighth of the full strength of the 
Chicago Police Force Department. In the con- 



86 



struction and maintenance of boulevards, and in 
the protection of Chicago's shore line, an appreci- 
able percentage of the Chicago Park District's 
personnel and expenditures is involved. To indi- 
cate that the entire staff of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict is engaged in functions either directly or in- 
directly related to providing public recreational 
opportunities would, therefore, present an errone- 
ous picture; and yet the recreational functions of 
the Park District are not limited to those provideci 
under the Recreation Division of the Operating 
Department. It will be readily observed that the 
Special Service Division maintains yacht harbors, 
Soldier Field, Shedd Aquarium, and other equip- 
ment which is of a definite recreational character. 
Similarly, through the Landscape Department of 
the Engineering Division, the conser\-atories of 
the District arc maintained and the general beau- 
tification of Park District property is carried out. 



It is readily agreed that these functions provide 
educational and aesthetic leisure time benefits. 
Through its other sub-departments the Engineer- 
ing Division is responsible for the maintenance 
and construction of properties used both in acti\'e 
recreation and in the pnn'isioii of restful park 
areas. Therefore, while the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict is comparable to the City of Chicago in that 
both are municipal ccjrporations with multiple 
function^, in the instance of the City of Chicago 
the entire recreational functions of playgrounds 
and parks, including construction, maintenance 
and operations, are definitely allocated to the 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\'iation; in the 
instance of the Chicago Park District each of the 
departments of the Operating Division is in some 
manner in\'ol\'ed in the construction, maintenance 
or operation of the recreational aspects of the 
Park District program. 



87 



PART III 

PUBLIC RECREATION FACILITIES 

AND 

PROGRAMS 



INTRODUCTION 



Recreation today represents the most popular 
means of utilizing leisure time. As expressed in 
the report of the New York Committee on the 
Use of Leisure Time: "Leisure time is free time. 
Any sense of obligation to do anything other than 
what one's own tastes and interests invite is a 
denial of the very essence of leisure. Consequent- 
ly, no committee or group is competent to pre- 
scribe the manner in which people should use 
it. . .Any attempt at enforced organization in 
the interest of the constructive use of leisure 
would not only tend to destroy this essential 
quality of leisure, but would rob it of what may 
be called its therapeutic \'alue — the release from 
strain and the stabilizing influence which follows 
the spontaneous pursuit of genuine interest. 
Leisure must permit the satisfaction of individual 
desires, so long as it is not anti-social." 

Eduard Lindeman, Director of Recreation of 
the Works Progress Administration, in discussing 
programs, groups leisure into the following five 
major types and comments as follows:' 

1. "The first can be readily dismissed — the 
leisure of non-employed people. They exist on 
both poles of the social ladder. They are the lei- 
sure class at the top, people who never intend to 
work, and another leisure class at the bottom who 
never intend to work. 1 am not concerned about 
them. The class as a whole is relatively small. 
The only difKculty is they set a bad example. But 
otherwise I am not much worried about them. I 
think there is a place in society — the right demo- 
cratic society for hoboes somewhere. I am not so 
sure about those of the other type — the aristocratic 
hoboes who do not work and do not intend to 
work, just spend all their time in leisure. We can 
dismiss those. 

2. "Then there is the leisure of the uneni- 
ployed, which is false leisure. It is not true. They 
do not really have it, and they cannot enjoy it. 

.It is almost impossible for them to get 
any true enjoyment of a leisure time activity. It 
is spiritually impossible. 

3. "More important is the leisure of a grow- 
ing class in America of intermittently employed 
people. I cannot quote to you any reliable statis- 
tics, but I have talked with statisticians and econo-- 
mists, and they say this economic group is rapidly 

Recreation Commission, Chi- 



'Address before 
cago, 111., .May 13, 



Chicago 
1937. 



growing, and growing among professional peoplt 
who only work a short period of time and have 
lost the orderly discipline of regular work. They 
are mostly in the fee-taking class, but not entirely. 
Something can be done for them. 

4. "The next leisure group is that for whom 
employment through external circwmstances is 
postponed, a group between high school and work 
and for whom there is now on the average about 
two years of lost time and the same for the group 
between college and work. Of course, the high 
school group is larger because the total number is 
larger. The number of young people in the high 
schools at present tends to approach the five 
million mark. We have more children in high 
school in this country than in the rest of the world 
combined. They are going to create a terrific prob- 
lem for the universities for the next ten years, and 
I have seen no good planning for them yet. We 
are fortunate in having the C. C. C. to experiment 
with this group when they begin knocking on 
doors of educational institutions in which there 
will be no room for them. 

5. '■'■True leisure is a real problem about which 
we must exercise leadership, — the leisure which is 
a complement to labor. True leisure belongs to 
the man who works, the woman who works. Now 
we must begin to prepare our objectives for this 
group. Primarily, what would a statesman-like 
recreation program look like, if we would plan 
it in terms of the people who play a necessary role 
m our economy and who do useful work.? 

'■'■First. We must furnish leisure in this modern 
machine society that gives people a chance to bal- 
ance their organisms — to produce a symmetrical 
organism. A great mass of American people use 
only their forearms, fingers, and feet. We are not 
going to get a sound organism out of that kind of 
exercise. And there are thousands of clerical 
workers in America, too, a potential mob, who get 
little or no physical exercise on their jobs. 

'■'Second. ]]'e must furnish leisure which will 
id I QIC us to express a variety of skills. Every- 
body must do something with his hands, and 
many things if possible, for the loss of contact be- 
tween personality and the stuff of the earth is a 
dire moral loss. We have got a new type of per- 
son when he loses his connection with the stuff of 
the earth. We neeci this contact. We used to get 
it in work. We cannot do it any more. You can 
do all your work in Chicago and never touch the 
earth. We belong to the earth. Show me the man 
that is skilled and the man that is not skilled. Let 



90 



me give them the same problem. If the problem 
involves a choice of value and judgment, the one 
with no skill and high education will in the long 
run make a much poorer judgment. This is highly 
theoretical and I am merely hurling it out to you 
as a provocative challenge. It is a problem you 
will want to discuss more in the terms of your 
own experience. 

^'■Third. We must furnish a leisure time -pro- 
gram which zoill bring American -peofle once 
more into a junctional and not merely appreciative 
relationship to the arts. I wish we could wipe out 
courses in colleges in art appreciation — -the 
aesthetic conception of one group who make beau- 
tiful things and another group which is to sit in 
awe and appreciate them. We ought to participate 
in them, because in a society which changes rapid- 
ly you have to make more and more judgments 
about values. Who makes the best judgment about 
values: Always the aesthetically-toned person 
does. Technicians always come last. The poet 
comes first. If you want to know where the world 
is going, don't ask the technician. Ask the poets 
and the artists. One of the brightest groups are 
the more recently trained architects. I never saw 
\ such smart young fellows as we have in this coun- 
try, thousands of them, who really know what the 
i future is going to be like and have a fine sense 
of value. Unfortunately, we wo'n't let them do 
'anything so that they are going through a period 

■ of frustration until their idealism gets dammed up 

■ and turns into irony. 

'■'■Fourth. 1 1 ' e must develop a leisure time pro- 
! gram to furnish us ii-ith opportunities for develop- 
ing cooperative and collaborative habits. Certain!}' 

■ our sport system in America has to be revamped. 
I We have too much competitive athletics, and 
'we're not getting social-minded \-cry fast that 
• way. . .The whole mechanism is geared uji 

with a false sense of value. 

"Fifth. Finally ice niust provide a leisure tinie 

program which will give the American people a 
[chance for calm quite reflection and contempla- 
tion. If there ever was an age which needed a 
I sense of value which can only come out of con- 
jtemplation, it is this one. We grasp at sensations, 
' we do not understand what we already have and 

before we can grasp it, we grasp at something else. 
"Sixth. The last thing is coordination. If we 

are to plan for a good sound recreation program 
.and to do it fast enough to turn leisure into an 

asset, we have no time to waste on coordination. 
iThe program must be brought into unity very, 

very soon. \]'e cannot afford the luxury of com- 
petition in t/ie field- of recreation." 



Recreation in the modern sense is linked up 
with the machine and with industrialism. "The 
Coming of industrialization with its concentration 
of populatidii in urban centers brought recreation 
into a new focus. Ihe benefits of shorter working 
hours made possible by the introduction of the 
machine were offset by the high degree of fatigue 
resulting from mechanized, routinized occupa- 
tions that inhibited not only physical activity but 
the exercise of creative capacity, which had been 
possible io S(;me extent under the hand craft sys- 
tem. It was this situation which drew attention to 
the importance of recreation as a community need 
and led to the two major aspects of the recreation 
problem in its modern sense: commercial recrea- 
tion and organized community recreation, or what 
might be called the recreation mo\'ement."' 

President Nicholas .Murray Butler of Columbia 
l^ni\-ersit\' declares: "Work and leisure are two 
independent parts of one and the same thing. He 
who does not work loses one of life's enjoyments 
and he who has no adequate leisure and no knowl- 
edge of how to use that leisure is depri\'ed of life's 
greatest satisfaction."" 

We ha\-e already noted in an earlier chapter 
that the urge of the American people toward more 
ade(]uate recreational facilities is one of the most 
outstanding social trends of recent times. Response 
has come from all sides, from business, from 
church, and recently to an increasing degree from 
state. Public recreation facilities supplementing 
private and commercial opportunities enable indi- 
\iduals to take part in leisure time activities which 
because of cost or for other reasons could not 
otherwise be secured. With the increase in adult 
leisure hours, with wider choices nf recreational 
opportunities being demanded, tax-supported 
recreation encounters the twu-fold problem of 
quantity aiid \ariety. Recent studies indicate that 
an individual's recreational pursuits do not con- 
form to what he would like to do, for his choices 
are restricted by the a\-ai lability of the necessary 
facilities and equipment. 

The recent tendency of active recreation to sup- 
plant spectator t\pes of sports has brought with it 
tremendous increases in facilities. Mr. \ . K. 
Brown, Director of Recreation of the Chicago 

'l-.iuxclol'i-dia of the .Vo.m/ .SViViii.-^, volume 1.5, pp. 17(>-7. 
-Uisiire and its Use." AV.r.M/io.i. vol. 28. pi>. 21O-220. 



91 



f 



Park District, has proposed a four-fold classifica- 
tion of leisure time interests, namely: 

1. Intellectual: history, science, language. 

2. Aesthetic: graphic and plastic arts, music, 
dance, architecture, interior decoration, in 
fact all art, crafts. 

3. Phj'sical: sports, athletics, games, perfec- 
tion of rhythm and achievement. 

4. Creative pursuits: work in copper, glass, etc.^ 

Parks, playgrounds, schools, museums, libraries 
and other similar public agencies have begun to 
provide a wide range oi facilities and programs 
offering recreational opportunities within the 
above categories. At this point, therefore, the ex- 
tent to which public agencies in Chicago provide 
various types of recreational facilities will be dis- 
cussed and summarized. 

In the preceding paragr:iphs the importance of 
a wide range in types of public provisions for 
recreation has been emphasized. Part II con- 
cerned with the Administrative Aspects of Public 
Recreation brought out the fact that in several in- 
stances the control of the same type of facilities 
is vested in more than one tax-supported agency. 
Because we must now look upon the total of each 
type of facility as the primary consideration, the 
factual material is arranged into chapters accord- 
ing to type of facility rather than by the organiza- 
tional units. Where any individual type of facility 

'V. K. Drown, "Municipal Rccreatinii Programs and En- 
forced Leisure," Recreation, August, 1934, 28:245-6. 



is controlled exclusively by one agency the par- 
ticular chapter will logically be confined to that 
agency; in other instances a chapter will present 
the composite picture of the particular facility un- 
cier the control of the several agencies involved.i 

Chicago with its three and one-half million in- 
habitants spread over an area of more than 211 
square miles is a metropolis of many communities. 
For this reason, except for agencies of a city-wide 
character the factual presentation has been con- 
fined to summarizations; a more complete analysis 
together with the application of accepted stand- 
arts will appear in Volume IV, Recreation in the 
Seventy-five Conmntnity Areas of Chicago. 

Some of the agencies included in the chap- 
ter on Museums are not completely supported 
through taxation; indeed several derive no sup- 
port whatever through this source. But because 
they are located on property of tax-supported 
agencies with their tenure subject to legal restric- 
tions imposed by the agency and the State Legis- 
lature, and because they are generally regarded as 
public, a discussion of their facilities is included in 
this volume. 

It should be pointed out that there are in pro- 
cess Works Progress Administration projects 
sponsored by several Chicago public agencies by 
means of which some of the facilities herein dis- 
cussed are being reconditioned and modernized. 
Thus changes in the number and aspects of these 
facilities may be anticipated, perhaps even before 
this report is published. 







8 



CHAPTER VI 



PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 



Introduction 

In 1886 the hrst public playground in the 
United States was established in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, representing the initial provision of an 
area established for the purpose of children's play. 
Prior to that date there were spaces allocated on 
\-illage greens and in the adjoining countryside 
for the games and sports of the older youth of the 
community. 

It was not, however, until the last decade of 
the nineteenth century that established play 
groups anci children's games were permitted in 
parks, whose functions prior to that time had been 
restricted to the beautification of scenery and the 
provision of restful areas for relaxation and en- 
joyment. Since that time active recreation has be- 
come established in parks throughout the country, 
so that today the park represents the major center 
of tax-supported recreation. 

"Without any great sacrifice of their aesthetic 
appeal, municipal parks have been turned into at- 
tractive recreation areas equipped for the enjoy- 
ment of sports of various kinds. They provide 
children's playgrounds, tennis courts, baseball and 
playground ball diamonds, horseshoe courts, bas- 
ketball courts, football fields, croquet courts, vol- 
ley ball courts, skating rinks, boats, canoes and 
swimming p(K)ls. Other sports less commonly 
pnn-ided for are archery, bowling on the green, 
golf, hockey, polo, roque, sailing, casting, skiing 
and tobogganing. In addition, municipal parks 
often provide buildings which are used for social, 
educational and recreational purposes, such as 
art galleries, band stands, club houses, conserva- 
tories, fieldhouses, gymnasiums, grand stands, 
moving picture booths, museums, outdoor thea- 
ters, dancing pavilions and zoological gardens." 

Since playgrounds are now commonly situated 
in park areas and because municipal parks include 
so many active recreation areas a discussion of 

'Keu-iil SoiHil 7 /•.■»</,>■ ill llu- I'lulcl SlaU-s. Rcixirt .^1 Uic 
l'r^■^ide^t'^ Rc-M-arch CommittcL- mi Sm-i.-il 'lix-nds.Mcr.raw- 
llill Bonk Co.. Inc. \'c\v Vi.rk, VXU, p. 914. 



playgrounds can consistently be included in an 
analysis of parks. Playground areas, even outside 
of parks, are included in computing the total park 
acreage of a community. 

Standards for Parks and Playgrounds 

Within recent jears there has been considerable 
discussion regarding what constitutes an adequate 
park system for a community. Frequently stand- 
ards ha\e been set up establishing definite ratios 
of park acreage to total community acreage or of 
park acreage per 1,000 population, etc. Careful 
studies have been made in which the minimum 
space required for the usual recreational equip- 
ment of parks and playgrounds has been con- 
sidered in the computations. Some of the more 
generally accepted minimum standards of park 
acreage thus developed have been adopted by 
planning bodies as a basis for laying out new 
communities. 

Robert Kingery, Director Chicago Regional 
Planning Association, recommends ten acres of 
park per i,000 inhabitants of which three acres 
should be devoted to playground purposes includ- 
ing school playgrounds. In discussing playground 
and other active recreation areas of distribution 
this plan recommends five-acre neighborhood 
plavgrounds within one-fourth mile of each home, 
forty-acre athletic fields within a radius of one 
mile, which, in addition to playground equipment, 
shall include a fieldhouse with library, swimming 
pool, assembly hall, gymnasium, club rooms, etc. 

George Ford, of the Technical Advisory Cor- 
poration, suggests that an ideal standard is one 
acre of parks and playgrounds for each one hun- 
dred residents. Recreational specialists, he indi- 
cates, have accepted as practical one acre of park 
and playground space for every 125 people. One- 
third to two-fifths of this area is reserved for 
playfields, playgrounds and school play yards, the 
balance being de\-oted to parks. This would be 
apjiroximately one net park acre to each aoo resi- 
dents. Of this total more than half is usually out- 



93 



side of the built-up city. He concludes that one 
net park acre within the built-up areas for each 
500 inhabitants can be accepted as a fair standard. 
While park use and need \-ary in\'ersely with the 
density of popuhition the maximum range of ef- 
fectiveness is not more than a mile, smaller parks 
having a shorter radius of maximum utility. 

The Regionnl Survey of New York and its En- 
virons summarizes the use of standards in analyz- 
ing recreation needs in large communities as fol- 
lows:' 

"Opinions differ as to what is the proper amount 
of space that should be devoted to parks or play- 
grounds in a gi\'en area, or for a given population, 
but no city plan can be complete without an analy- 
sis of recreation needs and standards. It is diffi- 
cult to make any reliable estimate of the minimum 
space requirements for the various kinds of recrea- 
tional activities for large communities of different 
types. When such an estimate is made for prac- 
tical application it should be based on a careful 
study of local conditions. 

"Influencing all matters pertaining to the 
amount of open space rec]uired for different recre- 
ation uses, are questions relating to the nature of 
the locality, density of population, means of ac- 
cess, character of residential development, and 
size and distribution of existing areas. Whether a 
locality is crowded or sparsely built upon; 
whether it is occupied by residence, business, or 
industry; whether it is situated on a waterfront 
or not — are all questions which affect the rela- 
tionship between the extent of open space and the 
number of persons likely to make use of it. The 
full use of all space in any form is not obtained 
when it is not suitable for the district it serves, 
when it has difficult approaches for those who are 
to make use of it, or when there is uneven and 
badly balanced distribution. Therefore, a uniform 
standard or proportion of space per capita cannot 
be determined which will be applicable to all 
cases. All that can be suggested are the minimum 
standards which should be ad(jpted where condi- 
tions relating to locality, access, and balanced dis- 
tribution are generally normal. The practical ap- 
plication of such standards must be made in con- 
formitv to a number of local conditions. 



"In suggesting space requirements for the park 
and playground system of a city, we do not pre- 
tend that it is possible to give definite space stand- 
ards to suit even average urban conditions. Much 
less can we pretend to give a definite ratio of space 

'Vol. V. "Public Recreation," Chap. VI. pp. 117, 118, 120. 



to population or area to meet the immense varietyi 
of these conditions in the cities which lie within 
the Region. All we can do, and need do, as a] 
guide in planning, is to arri\'e at an estimate of! 
what is a desirable minimum of space necessary in| 
any urban area to give adequate facilities for recre-| 
ation. Before we can arrive at such an estimate! 
for the whole park system we must calculate the| 
space needs of different types of parks and recrea- 
tion grounds within the svstem. ■ 



"Before considering what would be a desirable' 
combined minimum for all parks, playgrounds, 
and athletic fields, it is necessary to recall the datal 
regarding the needs for acti\'e recreation. These; 
are as follows: ' 

"Children's Playgrounds — lOO square feet for; 
each child playing in the playground at a given! 
time, or 25 square feet for each child five to fif-; 
teen years of age within a radius of approximately! 
one-fourth mile. I 

"Athletic Fields and Playfields — 1,000 square! 
feet for each player on the field at a given time.! 
or 50 square feet for every person of twelve tc; 
twenty-four years of age in borough or city. I 

"Neighborhood or Local Parks — 275 squart! 
feet for each person using a neighborhood parki 
at a given time, or from 3,000 to 5,000 inhabi-' 
tants per acre of park. \ 

"Bathing Facilities — 150 square feet at higH 
tide per person using the beach at a given time: 
or about one linear foot of shore line per person 1 
Thus one mile of beach would serve about 5,00C; 
persons comfortably at one time. i 

"Leaving out of account the water frontagti 
needed for bathing, but including any uplanc 
areas attached to the beaches as waterfront neigh-; 
borhood parks, it may be approximately estimated 
that one acre of open space is needed for activt] 
recrecitiou to every 1,000 persons in the genera., 
population, or about 238 families. ; 



"It is reasonable to assume that twice this are;; 
is needed for all purposes — i.e., one acre to each; 
500 persons as a minimum for combined city 
parks, neighborhood parks, athletic fields, water- 
front parks, and playgrounds. A desirable mini-; 
mum, however, would be one acre to each 3(X| 
persons likely to be resident in a district, and v 
absolute minimum of one acre to each 500. An): 
percentage between these two figures might b(' 
reasonable, having regard to local conditions, ancj 
to proximity of country parks which are not in* 
eluded in the calculation. In areas only partially 
developed the percentage should apply to th(j 
potential, and not to the present, population, anci 



94 



in all cases the figures now being used should re- 
late to open spaces within walking or short driv- 
ing distance of residential neighborhoods. 



"In undeveloped or partially developed areas 
which are likely to be subdivided for building 
purposes, the calculation of the amount of public 
open space required should be made, in the first 
instance, on a different basis than that of persons 
per acre — namely, that of percentage of open 
space to gross area. In such areas not less than ten 
per cent of the gross acreage, that is, all land in- 
cluding the part devoted to streets, should be re- 
served for open space in advance of building de- 
velopment. 



"Given adequate zoning control over density so 
as to prevent overcrowded conditions on any par- 
cel of building land, it should be unnecessary for 
any district to reserve more open space for all 
local park purposes than ten per cent of its total 
area. Parts of a country park system running 
through a district might be included in this pro- 
portion if it is available for every day local use, 
but every local community or subdivision should 
provide a minimum of five per cent for active 



recreation alone and an equal area for pleasure 
parks. The proper division of one hundred acres 
would be sixty acres as building area, inclusive of 
appropriate private space in courts and yards, and 
forty acres in streets and open spaces, providing 
in the latter for a variation in the division of the 
two. uses so as to secure from ten per cent to fifteen 
per cent for all local recreation purposes and 
neighborhood parks." 

Accepting the general principle that nunc of 
these standards can be laid down Procrustes 
fashion on any community, nevertheless they give 
a rough measure by which to judge a city's provi- 
sion of recreational space. How, then, do these 
measures appl\' to Chicago? 

A survey of all public park, playground, and 
school acreage in the metropolitan Chicago area 
completed in December, 1936, by the Chicago 
Regional Planning Association revealed that in 
27 of the 1 1 1 communities studied, there were lO 
acres or more for each 1,000 inhabitants and that 
in ;,2 other communities there were Ix'tween 5 and 
10 acres of parks and playgrounds per i,ooo popu- 
lation. 



PARK, PLAYGROUND AND SCHOOL ACREAGE L\ CHICAGO 
METROPOLITAN AREA 



Acres of 

City or z-illarir {•arks 

Algonquin U.O 

Arlington Heights 12.0 

Aurora 216.(1 

Barrington 4.4 

Batavia 3.0 

BelKvood (Memorial) 18.5 

Bensenville 

Berkeley 

Berwyn 20.0 

Blue Island ?5.0 

Brook-field v.d 

Calumet City 10.0 

Calumet Park 

Chicago Heights 5.0 

Chicago Ridge 

Cicero 37.0 

Clarendon Hills 1.0 

Crete 20.C 

Crown Point 

Crystal Lake 2i'i.O 

Deerfield 0.3 

Desplaines 14.5 

Dolton 20.0 

Downers Grove 

Dyer 4.0 

East Chicago S5.0 

East Gary 52.0 

Elgin 308.3 

Elkhorn 7.0 

Elmhurst 130.0* 

Elmwood Park 4.5 

Evanston 45.2 

Flossmoor 

Forest Park 15.0 

Gary S\XS 

Geneva 10.0 

Glencoe 108.0 



.lacsuj 
flayiirouiids schi 



Icn-soj 
whirounds 



Total 
acres 



Population 
Jan. 1936 
(estimated] 



.leresof 

parks per 

1,000 

persons 



1.0 

is.o 



1.0 
23.5 
20.0 
2.0 
2.0 
1.5 
19.0 
5.0 
.vl 
5.0 

17.') 

2.0 
32.0 

1.0 
11.0 

2.0 
10.0 

7.0 
19.0 

2.0 



21.0 

3.0 
52,0 

7.0 
12.0 

5.0 
24.0 

XO 
95.8 

2.5 

293.(1 
13.0 
14.3 



12.8 


880 


.35.5 


5,750 


285.0 


49.800 


6.4 


3.610 


5.0 


5,220 


22.0 


5,500 


19.0 


2.090 


5.0 


990 


23.1 


51.010 


40.0 


17.770 


37.0 


11.020 


27.9 


13,1.50 


2.0 


1.520 


54.0 


22.660 


1.0 


310 


48.6 


71,800 


xn 


1.220 


30.0 


1.510 


12.0 


4.320 


45.0 


4.020 


11.6 


2.1,W 


38.0 


10.150 


21.5 


3.210 


21.0 


10.490 


7.0 


740 


157.0 


59.890 


59.0 


2.800 


320.3 


.?8.210 


27.0 


2.470 


154.0 


17.0.W 


7.5 


12.640 


184.0 


6'). 170 


■> > 


1.000 


18.2 


I '..500 


813 6 


110.200 


24.0 


5.150 


140.3 


6.650 



14.6 
6.2 
5.7 
1.8 
1.0 
4.0 
9.1 
5.0 
0.5 



0.7 

HJ.O 



2.6 
21 

10.0 
9.0 



95 



City or Tillage 



Acres of 
parks 



A cres oj 
playgrounds 



Acres oj 
schoplgrounds 



Total 
acres 



Population 
Jan. 1936 
{estimated) 



Acres oj 
parks per 

1,000 
persons 



luu.u 
bis 



Glen Ellyn 61.0* 

Glenview 13.0 

Hammond 85.0 

1 larvey 7.0 

Hazelcrc.st 7.U 

Highland Park 250.0 

Hillside 

H insdale 6.4 

Homewood 

Huntley 0.5 

Itasca 3.0 

Joliet (Park District ) 1,469.3' 

Kankakee 96.5" 

Kenilworth 6.7 

Kenosha 407.9* 

La Grange 34.0 

La Grange Park 

Lake Bluff 47.6 

Lake Forest 159.0 

Lake Villa 3.0 

La Porte 250.0" 

Libertyville 5.0 

Lincolnwood 4.5 

Lisbon 1.0 

Lockport 

Lombard 1 7.0 

Mayvvood 18.0 

Melrose Park 18.0 

Michigan City 235.3 

Midlothian 2.5 

Momence 14.0 

Montgomery 

Morris 19.0 

Morton Grove 1.0 

Mount Prospect 14.5 

Mundelein 3.0 

Naperville 31.0' 

Niles Center 72.0 

North Chicago 50.0 

Oak Lawn 

Oak Park 60.9 

Oswego .... 

Palatine 2.0 

Park Ridge 13.6 

Peotone 13.0 

Piano 13.9 

Racine 609.0 

Riverdale 17.0 

River Forest 14.0 

Riverside 60.2 

Ro.selle 

.'^t. Charles 19.0 

Schiller Park 

.Silver Lake 

Smith Wilmington 

Stnrtevant 

.Summit 

Tinley Park 

\'alparaiso 

^"illa Park 

Walworth 

Wauconda 

Wankcgan 

West Chicago 

Western Springs 

Westmont 

Wheaton 

Williams Bav 

Whiting 

Wilmette 

Wilmington 

Winnetka 

Vorkville 

Zion 

Total 6.927.7 

Chicago 5,980.0 



•Inchides park areas owned outside the municipal limits 



5.0 

15.0 

12.S 
4.0 
2.0 

2.6 

'I'.b 



5.0 
25.0 



14.0 
2.1 

52.0 

41.0 

2.11 

5.0 
58.7 
4.0 
2.0 

1.0 

85.6 
6.0 
2,5 
SLO 
V\2 
1.5 

?,.:•■ 

11.5 
1.8 
14.5 
10.4 
1.0 
1.0 
10.0 
11.0 
82 
1.0 
47.0 
2.0 
7.5 
1.5 
15.0 
16.0 
5.0 
2.0 
10.0 



6.3 
44.5 
6.0 
10.0 
5.0 
1.5 
2.0 
900 
4.5 
10.0 
13.0 



75.0 

15.1 

157.0 

48.0 

9.0 

410.0 

5.0 

71.9 

4.0 

2.5 

4.0 

1,554.9 

102.5 

9.2 

458.9 

53.2 

1.5 

50.9 

170.5 

4.8 

283.0 

15.4 

5.5 

2.0 

10.0 

28.0 

31.2 

19.0 

297.3 

4.5 

34.0 

5.5 

36.0 

17.0 

21.5 

5.0 

42.0 

75.0 

55.0 

6.3 

114.4 

6.0 

12.0 

18.6 

14.5 

20.9 

724.0 

21.5 

24.0 

12,17 

0.6 

.34 



8,340 

2,140 

72,300 

17,190 

1,330 

14,100 

1,200 

7,710 

3,610 

690 

700 

71,740 

21,660 

2,750 

53,630 

10,800 

3,170 

1,580 

7,030 

520 

16,380 

4,050 

740 

140 

3,940 

7,600 

27,910 

11,870 

28,370 

1,990 

2,270 

570 

5,680 

2,190 

1,610 

1,160 

5,560 

7,000 

9,080 

2,420 

70,000 

970 

2,460 

11,210 

1,180 

1,790 

70,270 

2,750 

9,410 

7.140 

1,000 

5,840 



9.0 
7.1 
2.2 
2.8 
6.8 

29.0 
4.2 
9.3 
1.1 
3.6 
S.7 

21.7 
4.7 
3.3 
8.6 
4.9 
0.5 

32.2 

24.2 
9.2 

17.3 
3.8 
7.4 

14.3 
2.5 
3.7 
1.1 
1.6 

10.5 
2.3 

15.0 
9.7 
6.3 
7.8 

13.3 
4.3 
7.5 

10.7 
6.1 
2.6 
1.6 
6.2 
4.9 
1.7 

12.3 

11.7 

10.3 
7.8 
2.6 

17.3 
0.6 
5 8 







1.5 


1.5 


850 


l.S ' 


1.0 




on 


100 


380 


26.3 






20 


2.0 


710 


2.8 


2..^ 




1.3 


Xfi 


820 


4,4 


5.0 


3.0 


5 


1.3.0 


6,770 


1,9 






1.0 


1.0 


910 


1,1 


4.0 




15.0 


19.0 


8,540 


7-y 


12.7 


5.3 


8.0 


26.0 


7.610 


,3,4 


0.3 


5.7 


3.0 


9.0 


960 


9.4 


2.0 




12.0 


14.0 


580 


24.1 


268.0* 




55.0 


323.0 


36,750 


8.8 




0.2 


14.0 


14.2 


3,740 


3.8 


23.0 




6 2 


29 2 


4,400 


6 6 


3.0 




1.0 


4.0 


3,370 


1.2 


60.0 




19.0 


79.0 


8,130 


9.7 


6.5 




4.0 


10.5 


660 


15,9 : 


50.0 




S.4 


58.4 


10,940 


5.3 


50.0 


7.4 


10.9 


68.3 


17,120 


4.0 , 


30.0 


10.0 


5.0 


45.0 


1,870 


24.0 ; 


182.8 




49.7 


232.5 


13,580 


17.1 1 


4.0 


0.5 


4.0 


8,5 


500 


17.0 


214.0 




5.0 


219.0 


6.100 


3S.9 i 


. 6.927.7 


495.0 


1.804.1 


9,226.8 


1,404,610 


6.6 • 



96 



COMMuMTr i-tfis 
OF 

CHICAGO 




DISTRIBUTION OF 


POPULATION 


BY 


AGE GROUPS 


Jir,""" FIVE TO Nine years 


';,'*^*I 1 ' " " 


- lOO 


1 101- - 


-500 


H SOI-- 


- 1.000 



1,001 5,000 

5,001 10,000 

10,001 15,000 

15,001 20,000 




Population Series — Map 3 



Chicago Parks 

Chicago is practically surrounded by large 
recreational areas, "A City in a Garden."' When 
the general plan of the city is considered as a 
semi-circle, its twenty-eight miles of lake front 
may be viewed as the diameter. Six parks under 
the supervision of the Chicago Park District, 
Loyola, Lincoln, Grant, Burnham, Jackson and 
Calumet, are adjacent to Lake Michigan and 
comprise seventeen miles of lake frontage. Island 
Number One, under the control of the same 
agency, increases the park shore line by aproxi- 
mately two miles. These seven parks comprise 
2,747.62 acres, or about one-half the park acreage 
within the city. 

The arc of the semi-circle is provided by almost 
continuous tracts of the Cook County Forest Pre- 
serve District. Forty-five tracts comprising 32,- 
923.83 acres have already been acquired and plans 
have been approved to secure the additional acres 
needed to reach the limit of 35,000 acres, which 
will complete the arc or outer belt of Chicago's 
recreational tracts. {See chapter ix.) 

Natural geography has provided "lung space" 
through the shores of Lake Michigan. Forty 
beaches are scattered along the shore line. Ten 
regular beaches are provided by the Chicago Park 
District, and three by the Municipal Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation. In addition to 
these, there are twenty-seven street-end beaches 
maintained by the latter agency. A total of 23,- 
740 feet of water front is devoted to beach pur- 
poses in the thirteen regular beaches. This does 
not include the footage used by the street-end 
beaches. (See chapter xi. ) 

The advantages of the lake are further utilized 
through the maintaining of six harbors, which are 
under the jurisdiction of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict. Three harbors, Belmont, Diversey and 
Montrose, are located in Lincoln Park. Jackson 
Park has three harbors, the Inner and Outer Har- 
bors, and the Fifty-ninth Street Harbor. {See 
chapter xi.) 

The advantages of broad open spaces have been 
secured on the west by acquiring approximateh' 
26,000 acres of natural forests, creating an outer 
belt near the city's border, and providing abund- 
ant space for picnicking, camping purposes, etc. 

'Vrbs ill IIoilo, inscription nn tlie Seal of Chicigi'. 



Further provision has been made for large 
recreational areas by the establishing of six inland 
parks, each spreading o\'er one hundred acres. 
The six inland parks named in the order of their 
size arc: Washington, Marquette, Humboldt, 
Garfield, Douglas and Columbus Parks. These 
have a total of 1,414.27 acres, approximately one- 
fourth of the park acreage within the city. 

While the lake front parks have assumed city- 
wide interest due to their position along the lake, 
se\-eral other factors have entered into their func- 
tions as recreational areas. Size has already been 
indicated as one of these factors. 

Grant Park serves as a recreational area fur the 
closely crowded downtown business district, com- 
monly known as the "Loop." Portions of Jack- 
son, Burnham and Lincoln Parks likewise are rea- 
sonably available to the congested downtown sec- 
tions. 

All of the parks along Lake Michigan, with the 
exception of Island Number One, are traversed 
by city boulevards and state routes, carrying some 
of the heaviest trafiic in the city, thus permitting 
motorists, except during rush hours, to enjoy the 
privilege of the open spaces while traveling 
through these sections of the city. 

The parks located along the lake front have 
gathered city-wide interest in their ha\'ing most 
of the city's combined educational and recreational 
agencies, such as museums, conservatories, etc. 
Seventeen such agencies are located in the parks 
of the city, thirteen being situated in the lake 
front parks. The use of these lake parks is in- 
creased by their accessibility to extensive resi- 
dential areas, which parallel Lake Michigan for a 
considerable percentage of the city's length. 

The acquiring of lake front parks has been a 
lengthy and expensive process, since a large per- 
centage of the acreage is land which has been re- 
claimed from Lake Michigan. Lincoln Park origi- 
nally contained only about 300 acres, extending 
for a mile and a half along the lake. Seven hun- 
dred more acres have since been added, increasing 
the coast line to approximately four and one-half 
miles. {See Map.) Proposed plans will increase 
the total to 1,852 acres when the park is extended 
north to the city limits. All of Grant, Island 
Number One, and Hurnliam Parks, a total of 
992.20 acres, are reclamations from Lake Michi- 



97 



gan. Portions of Jackson Park and the larger part 
of Calumet Park have also been reclaimed. 

Proposals have been drafted in comparatively 
recent years to create a chain of islands along the 
lake front, and a lake front ordinance was passed 
by the City Council on July 21, 19 19, made ef- 
fective February 20, 1920, to empower the South 
Park Board to produce four such islands, to be 
completed in 1930. Northerly Island, or Island 
Number One, with 91.20 acres has been com- 
pleted 5 but the three other islands which were 
proposed to extend southward at about an equal 
distance from the mainland, and which were to be 
joined by bridges, have not been raised from the 
lake. 

According to recent announcements by the Chi- 
cago Park District, the island building program 
must be delayed for some years, inasmuch as the 
$35,000,000 which is estimated as needed to com- 
plete the plan cannot be made available at this 
time. 

The topography of Chicago is such that it has 
not lent itself to the establishing of park spaces 
showing much natural variety. In order to avoid 
sameness among the parks it has been necessary to 
create lagoons and other artificial features. Four- 
teen lagoons are located within Chicago parks con- 
trolled by the Chicago Park District. They have 
a combined area of 471.47 acres or 8.52 per cent 
of the total acreage under the supervision of the 
Chicago Park District. These not only lend vari- 
ety of scenery, but afford active recreational 
variety as well. (See section on Lagoons in chap- 
ter XI.) 

It has also been necessary to provide most of 
the landscaping artificially, since natural forests 
were no longer in existence. In the absence of 
hills and valleys, comparatively recent attention 
has been given to the development of typical 
prairie scenery, as in the case of Columbus Park 
which was established in 19 18. 

Summarization of Park Control in Chicago 

Chicago parks are under the supervision of two 
controlling governmental agencies: the Chicago 
Park District and the Municipal Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation. Between them 2 1 5 park 
units are operated. The Chicago Park District 
maintains 137 parks; the municipal Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation controls 78, this 



latter number including parks, squares, triangles 1 
and parkways. In addition, Chicago's boulevard 
system is maintained by the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict. The maintenance of six squares and tri- 
angles is also included with the boulevards. (See 
section on Boulevards, chapter xni.) 

Park Classification According to Chicago 
Park District 

The Chicago Park District classifies its parks 
in three groups, according to their functional ac- 
tivities: major parks, those with large acreages 
and city-wide interest; neighborhood parks, with 
smaller acreages, equipped with fieldhouse and 
outdoor facilities to minister to individual com- 
munity needs; minor parks, without fieldhouses 
and with incomplete or no physical or active recre- 
ation equipment. 

Large Parks 

Eleven parks, all of which are under the juris- 
diction of the Chicago Park District, have areas 
exceeding lOO acres and attract city-wide interest. 
These are as follows: 



Lincoln 


Center and North Clark Streets 


1,009.00 


Biirnham 


14th Street and Outer Drive 


598.00 


.1 ackson 


56tli Street and Stony Island 






Avenue 


542.89 


Washington 


57th Street and Cottage Grove 






Avenue 


371.00 


Marquette 


67th Street and Kedzie Avenue 


322.68 


Grant 


On lake front, between 






Randolph and 14th Streets 


303.00 


Humboldt 


Augusta Boulevard and North 






Kedzie Avenue 


206.92 


Calumet 


98th Street and Lake Michigan 


194.00 


Garfield 


ino North Central Park Avenue 


187.53 


Douglas 


14th Street and Albany Avenue 


181.99 


Columbus 


Harrison Street and Central 






Avenue 


144.15 



The regional distribution of these large parks is 
as follows: one on the north lake front, two on the 
central lake front, two on the south lake front, one 
near the south lake front, one on the southwest 
side, three in the mid-central section, and one in 
the west-central region of the city. 

The municipal Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and Aviation operates no parks over forty acres 
in size, the largest under its supervision being 
Winnemac Park, located at Damen and Foster 
Avenues, with forty acres. 

Neighborhood Parks 

The Chicago Park District controls 93 field- 
houses. Twelve of these are located in eight of 
the eleven parks which have been designated as 



CHICAGO 
PARK DISTRICT 

DISTRIBUTION OF FACILITES 




Cliic*^ Park Din 




Lincoln Park -— 1937 

Lincoln Pork 1923 

Lincoln Park 1870 

Cemetery Pork -1863 

Lincoln Pork 1873 



Deorborn Pork —2 Acres- 1839 

Lake Pork 36 Acres- 1844 

Grant Pork 303 Acres-1847 

Burnhom Pork 598 Acres -1932 



DEVELOPMENT 
OF 
LAKE FRONT PARKS 



Jockson Pork 
549.82 Acres-1869 



major parks or those having city-wide interest. 
The remainder are to be found in the 79 neigh- 
borhood parks, which have a total of 976.58 
acres, or 17.96 per cent of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict acreage. Thirteen of these neighborhood 
parks are located in the north portion of the city; 
32 in the northwest; 1 1 in the western; 12 in the 
southern; and 11 in the southwestern. 

The municipal Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and Aviation maintains only one park which car- 
ries an active recreation program. Winnemac Park 
functions as a neighborhood park although its 
activities are curtailed by the lack of indoor facili- 
ties. 

Minor Parks 

There are forty-seven parks under the Chicago 
Park District's control which do not offer field- 
house programs and do not have complete physical 
equipment. These parks have a total of 410.92 
acres or 7.36 per cent of the entire acreage con- 
trolled by the Chicago Park District. Their re- 
gional distribution is as follows: 7 in the north 
portion of the city, 20 in the northwest, 5 in the 
west, 3 in the south and 12 in the southwest part 
of the city. 

Seventy-seven of the 78 parks, circles, triangles, 
parkways, and squares provided by the municipal 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation may be 
classified as minor parks. Their regional distribu- 
tion is as follows: 15 in the northern part of the 
city, 13 in the northwestern, 14 in the western, 
22 in the southern portion and 13 in the south- 
western. 

Baby Parks 

The municipal Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and Aviation designates four areas as baby parks, 
this being a functional classification. These parks 
are equipped with small shelters and benches for 
the comfort of mothers and babies. The municipal 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\'iation lists the 
following baby parks: 



Nar, 



Location 



A cres 



Ashland 



Ashland and Foster xA. venues .40 



Irving Park Irving Park Boulevard and 

Keeler Avenue 'iS 

Mellin Bryn Mawr and Ashland 

Avenues 33 

\Vinnemac* Damen and Foster Avenues. 

•Included in Winnemac Park. 



The Chicago Park District does not maintain 
any areas specifically classified as baby parks; 
however, provision is made in most parks for this 
type of use by the installation of benches and 
other facilities. 

Parkways 

The Chicago Park District maintains the park- 
ways in connection with its boulevard system, 
which includes all landscaped spaces adjacent to 
the boulevards. There are four parkways which 
are specifically designated as such. They are as 
follows: North State Parkway, .21 of a mile in 
length; Fullerton Parkway, .47 of a mile long; 
and Dearborn Parkway, .13 of a mile in length, 
all of which are located on the north side. South 
Parkway on the south side has a length of 4.5 
miles. The total length of parkways under the 
supervision of the Chicago Park District is 5.3 1 
miles. {See section on Boulevards, chapter xiii.) 

The municipal Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and A\'iation maintains 19 parkways, totaling 
49.82 acres. These are as follows: 



Avers Avenue 


From West ."\ddison Street to 
Avondale .Vvenue 


.68 


Calumet 


Calumet .-\ venue, 61st-63d 
Streets 


1.50 


Cermak 


In Cermak Road from Pulaski 
Road to Kenton Avenue 


.■5.50 


Champlain 


Champlain Avenue, 80th-82d 
Streets 


.96 


Diversey 


Diversey and Seminary Avenues 


1.50 


Dorchester Avenue 


In Dorchester .V venue, 64th- 
66th Streets 


1.10 


Eberhardt 


Eberhardt Avenue, 80th-82d 
Streets 


.96 


Fernwood 


Stewart and Egglcston 

Avenues, 96th-I03d Streets 


8.00 


Harding Avenue 


In Harding Avenue, from Addi- 
son Street to Byron Avenue 


3.00 


Kinzie 


Kinzie Street, Laramie and 
I-ong Avenues 


1.25 


Kolmar Avenue 


Kolmar .Xvenuc. Diversey and 
Belmont Avenues 


1.22 


Ogden Avenue 


In Ogden Avenue, Randolpli 
and Fletcher Streets 


3.40 


Pleasant 


91st Street and Pleasant Avenue 


A^ 


Stony Island 


Stony Island, ri9th-79th 
Streets 


10.00 


West Knd 


In West End Avenue, from 
Menard to Austin Avenue, 
Xorth Waller and Parksidc 
Avenues 


2.00 


Wrightwood Avenue 


In WrightwootI Avenue from 
Kostner to Cicero Avenue 


5..^0 


7"tti Street 


77th Street. Ashland Avenue to 
Wood Street 


.68 


SI St Street 


81st Street. Cottage Grove 
Avenue to South Parkway 


1.14 


S7th Street 


87th Street. C.R.I.&P.R.R. t" 
Egglesmn .^vfntlc 


.VOO 



Q9 



This agency also provides a total acreage of 
7.92 acres comprising eighteen squares, circles, 
triangles, and points, as follows: 

.Maine Location Acres 



Arbor Rest 


State Street, Belleviie Place 






and Rush Street 


.20 


Arclier Point 


Archer Avenue. 20th Street and 
Dearborn Street 


.15 


Belden Triangle 


North Clark Street, Sedgwick 






Street and Belden Avenue 


.20 


Bickerdike Square 


Oliio, Bickerdike and Armour 






Streets 


1.00 


Blackstoiie Point 


Lake Park and Blackstone 






Avenues and -40th Street 


.20 


Buena Circle 


r.uena and Kenmore Avenues 


.50 


Chamberlain Triangle 


(Ircenwood and Lake Park 






Avenues and 43d Street 


.27 


Colorado Point 


Colorado and Francisco Ave- 






nues and Monroe Street 


.25 


Culiimhns Circle 


South Chicago and Exchange 






Avenues and 92d Street 


.50 


DcKalb Square 


Lexington. Flournoy and De- 
Kalb Streets and Hoyne 






Avenue 


.75 


De Saible Square 


Vincenncs Avenue, 37th Place 


1.50 


Edgebrook llanor 


Tahoma, Algonquin and 




Triangle 


Kinzua Avenues 


.10 


Graceland Triangle 


Maiden .Avenue and Montrose 






.Avenue 


.20 


Lawrence Avenue 


I^iwrence .Avenue, between 




Triangle 


Clark and Broadway 


.80 


McKenna Triangle 


3Sth Street, .Archer and Camp- 






bell .Avenues 


.30 


Mulberry Point 


Nickerson, Nina and Nicollet 






.Avenues 


.40 


Ogden Arrow 


North Clark and Wells Streets 






and Lincoln Avenue 


.40 


Rehm Arbor 


Delaware Place, Cass and 






Chestnut Streets 


.20 



In addition to the above listed acreage, the Bureau maintains 
Hummel Square Host House, 100th Street, Ewing and Indi- 
anapolis .Avenues, consisting of two acres, and the O'Leary 
Homestead, .081 acres, at 558 DeKoven Street. 

Extent of Parks 

The Chicago Park District includes a total of 
5,437.76 acres and the Municipal Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation 366.251 acres of 
parks and playgrounds, a grand total of 5,804.01 1 
acres controlled by the two agencies within the 



City of Chicago. In addition, the Cook County 
Forest Preserve District's areas within the city 
limits have a total of 1,378 acres. 

The Chicago Park District has 1 1 parks with 
areas exceeding lOO acres, representing a total of 
4,061.16 acres or 74.68 per cent of the total 
acreage; 8 parks from 40 to lOO acres, embrac- 
ing 504.54 acres or 9.28 per cent; 29 parks from 
10 to 40 acres, comprising 529.61 acres or 9.74 
per cent; 28 parks from 5 to 10 acres, having a 
total of 214.09 acres or 3.94 per cent; 26 parks 
from 2.5 to 5 acres and containing a combined 
acreage of 89.50 acres or 1.65 per cent; and 35 
parks with less than 2.5 acres, comprising a total 
of 38.86 acres or .71 per cent of the entire Chi- 
cago Park District acreage. 

The municipal Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and .\\'iation maintains four parks and parkways 
with acreages from 10 to 40 acres inclusive, repre- 
senting 112.64 acres, which is 47.10 per cent of 
the entire park acreage controlled by this agency. 
There are six parks and parkways from 5 to 10 
acres comprising 35.62 acres or 14.90 per cent of 
the total acreage; 15 parks and parkways from 2.5 
to 5 acres having a total of 48.98 acres or 20.48 
per cent of the entire acreage; 53 sites have less 
than 2.5 acres totaling 41. 90 or 17.52 per cent 
of the Municipal Bureau of Parks, Recreation and 
Aviation acreage. 

Classified according to size, the major parks, 
neighborhood parks, minor parks, parkways, tri- 
angles, and circles under the control of the Chi- 
cago Park District and the Bureau of Parks, Rec- 
reation and .Aviation of the City of Chicago are 
grouped as follows: 



Xaiiic 



Local'um 



Com- 
mnnity 



Control 



Lincoln Park 
Burnham Park 
.Tackson Park 
Washington Park 
Marquette Park 
Grant Park 
Humlwldt Park 
Calumet Park 
Garfield Park 
Douglas Park 
Columbus Park 
Island Number 1 Park 
Midway Plaisance Park 

McKinley Park 
Sherman Park 
Ogden Park 
Riis Park 
Palmer Park 
Winncmnc Park 



Lake front from North to Foster Avenues 

Lake Shore from 14th Street to Hyde Park Blvd. 

Lake front from 56th to 67th Streets 

57th Street and Cottage Grove -Avenue 

67th Street and Kedzie .Avenue 

Lake front from Randolph to 14th Street 

Augusta and North Kedzie -Avenues 

08th Street and Lake Michigan 

100 North Central Park .\venue 

14th Street and .Albany -Avenue 

llarri^on Street and Central -X venue 

1 2th to 22d Streets 

Between Cottage Grove and Stony Island 

-Avenues, 59th and 60th Streets 
39th Street and Western .Avenue 
53d Street and Racine -Avenue 
65tb Street and Racine .Avenue 
Wriahtwocid and Meade .Avenues 
llltb Street and Indiana Avenue 
Dnunu and Foster Avenues 



■0-7 


North 


1,009.00 


1864 


C.P.D, 


.53 


South 


598.00 


1895 


C.P.D. 


41-2 


South 


542.89 


1869 


C.P.D, 


40 


South 


371.00 


1869 


C.P.D. 


06 


Southwest 


322.68 


1904 


C.P.D. 


32-3 


South 


303.00 


1896 


C.P.D. 


24 


Northwest 


206.92 


1857 


C.P.D. 


52 


South 


194.00 


1904 


C.P.D. 


27 


West 


187.53 


1869 


C.P.D. 


29 


West 


181.99 


1892 


C.P.D. 


25 


West 


144.15 


1918 


C.P.D. 


33 


South 


91.20 


1926 


C.P.D, 


41 


South 


80.00 


1894 


C.P.D. 


59 


Southwest 


74.88 


1896 


C.P.D. 


61 


Southwest 


60.60 


1904 


C.P.D. 


67 


Southwest 


60.54 


1904 


C.P.D. 


VI 


Northwest 


56.84 


1916 


C.P.D. 


4') 


Soutli 


40.48 


1903 


C.P.D. 


. 4 


N<.rth 


40.0n 


1<)1I 


B. of P. 



Name 

Park Number ii 
Portage Park 
Salt Creek Park' 
River Park 
Rainbow Beach Park 
Hamilton Park 
Gage Park 
Avalun Park 
Foster Park 
Bessemer Park 
Tuley Park 
Mann Park 
Grand Crossing Park 
Shabbona Park 
Trumbull Park 
Legion Park Number 2. 
Kennedy Park 
Union Park 
La Follette Park 
Gompers Park 
West Pullman Park 
Norwood Park 
California Park 
Amundsen Park 
Indian Boundary Park 
Femwood Park 
Kilbourn Park 
Russell Square Park 
Fuller Park 
Olympia Park 

Stony Island Parkway 

Marie White Square 

Armour Square 

Field Park 

Loyola Park 

Ridge Park 

Revere Park 

Welles Park 

Wilson Park 

Kelvvn Park 

Chopin Park 

Cornell Square Park 

Davis Square Park 

Franklin Park 

Harrison Park 

Park Number 177 

Hamlin Park 

Eckhart Park 

Kosciuszko Park 

Femwood Parkway 

Independence Park 

Hardin Square Park 

Jefferson Park Number 2 

Sayre Park 

Jefferson Park Number 1 

Blackhawk Park 

Vernon Park 

Madden Park 

Auburn Park 

Merrick Park 

Wrightwood Ave. Parkway 
Brands Park 
Crescent Park 
Altgeld Park 
Dauphin Park 
Avondale Park 
Roseland Park 
Park Number 179 
Austin Park 
Hermosa Park 
, Mozart Park 
Rutherford Park 

Stanton Park 
Chase Park 
Wicker Park 
Ellis Park 



Location 

78th Street and Keeler Avenue 

Irving Park Boulevard and Long Avenue 

Salt Creek and C.B.&Q.R.R. at Brookfield 

5100 N. Francisco Avenue 

75th to 79tli Streets and Lake Michigan 

72d Street and Normal Boulevard 

55th Street and Western Avenue 

83d Street and Dorchester Avenue 

83d Street and Loomis Boulevard 

89th Street and South Chicago Avenue 

90th Street and St. Lawrence Avenue 

130th Street and Carondolet lAvenue 

76th Street and Ingleside .Avenue 

Addison Street and N. Sayre Avenue 

103d Street and Bensley .-V venue 

Byrn Mawr and \"irginia Avenues 

113th Street and Western .Avenue 

Lake Street and .\shland .\venue 

Hirsch Street and Laramie .\venue 

Foster and Tripp Avenues 

123d Street and Stewart Avenue 

5801 N. Natoma Avenue 

3901 N. California Avenue 

6100 Bloomingdale Avenue 

Lunt Avenue and Rockwell Street 

10438 S. Lowe Avenue 

3501 N. Killx)urn Avenue 

83d Street and South Shore Drive 

45th Street and Princeton Avenue 

Avondale and Olympia .Avenues 

Stony Island .Avenue, 69th to 79th Streets 

29th and Halsted Streets 

33d Street and Shields .\venue 

5100 N. Ridgeway Avenue 

1111 Farwell .Avenue 

96th Street and Longwood Drive 
2509 Irving Park Boulevard 

Montrose and Western .-\venues 

Leland and Milwaukee Avenues 

Wrightwood and Kostner Avenues 

Cornelia and Long Avenues 

51st and Wood Streets 

45th Street and Marshfield Avenue 

14th Place and S. Kolin .Avenue 

18th and Wood Streets 

91st and Elizabeth Streets 

Wellington and Hoyne Avenues 

Chicago .Avenue and Noble Street 

2732 N. .\vers Avenue 

103d and 96th Sts„ Stewart and Egglestcu Aves. 

3945 N. Springfield .Vvenue 

26th Street and Wentworth .\venuc 

Higgins and Long Avenues 

I5elden and Nevvland Avenues 

Adams and Throop Streets 

Belden and Lavergne .Avenues 

Cabrini Street and Racine Avenue 

37th Street and \"ernon .Avenue 

Lagoon, Stewart and Normal .-\venucs, 
Winneconna Parkway 

Pine and Long Avenues, Kinzie and Ferdinand 
Streets 

Wrightwood from Kostner to Cicero .\venue 

3259 Elston Avenue 

108th Street and Irving .\venue 

Harrison Street and Washtenaw Avenue 

87th and 91st Streets, I.C.R.R., Dauphin Avenue 

3516 School Street 

103d and 104th Streets, Harvard Avenue 

1518 W. 102d Place 

Lake Street and Waller .\venue 

Belden and Kilbourn .Xvcnues 

2036 N. Avers .-V venue 

Palmer Street. N. Newland and Oak Park 

Avenues, C.M.&St.P.R.R. 
Rees and Vine Streets 
Leland and .-Vshland .Avenues 
Fowler Street and Damon .\venue 
36th and 37th Streets, Langley Avenue, 
Elmwood Court 



Lom- 










munily 










area 


Uislricl 


.teres 


Dale 


Control 


70 


Southwest 


40.00 


1935-6 


C.P.D. 


15 


Northwest 


36.52 


1921 


C.P.D. 




Southwest 


32.64 




B. of P. 


4 


North 


30.69 


i920 


C.P.D. 


43 


South 


30.00 


1930 


B. of P. 


68 


Southwest 


29.95 




C.P.D. 


63 


Southwest 


29.06 


i873-5 


C.P.D. 


45 


South 


27.84 


1930 


C.P.D. 


71 


Southwest 


23.20 


1895 


C.P.D. 


46 


South 


22.88 


1904 


C.P.D. 


44 


South 


20.19 


1927 


C.P.D. 


55 


Soutli 


20.00 


1904 


C.P.D. 


69 


Southwest 


19.16 


1908 


C.P.D. 


17 


Northwest 


18.70 


1912 


C.P.D. 


51 


South 


18.52 


1908 


C.P.D. 


2 


North 


18.20 


1930 


C.P.D. 


75 


Southwest 


18.16 


1930 


C.P.D. 


28 


West 


17.37 


1853 


C.P.D. 


25 


West 


17.35 


1919 


C.P.D. 


13 


Northwest 


15.89 




C.P.D. 


53 


South 


15.56 


1914 


C.P.D. 


10 


Northwest 


14.04 


1927-8 


C.P.D. 


16 


Northwest 


13.52 


1917 


C.P.D. 


25 


West 


13.33 


1911 


C.P.D. 


2 


North 


13.06 


1908 


CP.D. 


49 


South 


12.33 


1908 


C.P.D. 


16 


Northwest 


11.93 


1869 


C.P.D. 


46 


South 


11.47 


1903 


C.P.D. 


37 


South 


10.50 


1909 


C.P.D. 


9 


Northwest 


10.19 


1895 


C.P.D. 


43 


South 


10.00 


1915 


H. of P. 


(jO 


Southwest 


10.00 


1904 


CP.D. 


34 


South 


10.00 


1904 


CP.D. 


14 


Northwest 


9.93 


1926 


C.P.D. 


1 


Nortli 


9.53 


1911 


C.P.D. 


72 


Southwest 


9.32 


1908 


C.P.D. 


5 


North 


9.24 


1919 


C.P.D. 


4 


North 


9.02 


1909 


C.P.D. 


15 


Northwest 


8.81 


1927-8 


C.P.D. 


20 


Northwest 


8.50 


1914 


CP.D. 


15 


Northwest 


8.29 


1927-8 


C.P.D. 


61 


Southwest 


8.29 


1904 


C.P.D. 


61 


Southwest 


8.29 


1904 


C.P.D. 


29 


West 


8.26 


1915 


C.P.D. 


31 


West 


8.24 


1912 


C.P.D. 


73 


Southwest 


8.23 


1908 


C.P.D. 


5 


Norm 


8.16 


1892 


C.P.U. 


24 


Northwest 


S.12 


1905 


C.P.D. 


22 


Northwest 


8.06 


1914 


C.P.D. 


73 


Southwest 


8.00 


1887 


B. of P. 


lo 


Northwest 


7.8o 


18()9 


C.P.D. 


34 


South 


7.41 


1904 


CP.D. 


II 


Northwest 


7.1(. 


1920 


C.P.D. 


25 


West 


7.12 


1916 


C.P.D. 


28 


W^est 


7.02 


1850 


CP.D. 


19 


Northwest 


6.23 




CP.D. 


28 


West 


(1.14 


i857 


CP.D. 


35 


South 


0.(15 


1921 


CP.D. 


69 


Southwest 


(..(Ml 


1913 


B. of P. 


25 


West 


6.00 


1806 


B. of P. 


19 


Northwest 


5.50 


1926 


B. 01 P. 


21 


Northwc-t 


5.27 


1927 


CP.D. 




.Soutlnvi>t 


5.27 


1903 


C.P.D. 


>~ 


West 


5.1(. 


1911 


CP.D. 


44-7 


South 


5.12 


1887 


15. of P. 


21 


Northwest 


5.11 


1930 


C.P.D. 


49 


Soutli 


5.00 


1884 


B. of P. 




Southwe*t 


4.58 


1908 


CP.D. 


>^ 


West 


4.50 


1885 


H. of P. 


20 


Northwest 


4.34 


1915 


CP.D. 




Norihwesl 


4.34 


1914 


t P.D. 


18 


West 


4.33 


1909 


H of P. 


,S 


North 


4.2" 


1909 


cp.n. 




North 


4.09 


1917 


C.P.D. 


24 


Northwest 


4(13 


IS'v'^ 


CP.D. 



Name 

Dvorak Park 
Pulaski Park 
Lake Shore Park 
Roberts Square Park 
Euclid Park 
Sheridan Park 
Athletic Field 
Cermak Parkway 

Glackin Park 
Bell Park 

Ogden Avenue Parkway 
Tireen Briar Park 
Rocky Ledge Park 
Austin Town Hall Park 
Park Number 176 
Chippewa Park 
Eighty-Seventli Street 

Parkway 
Harding Avenue Parkway 

Kedzie Park 
Lyle Park 
Washington Square 
Stanford Park 
Holstein Park 
Park Number 131 
Hollywood Park 
Prospect Park 
Brooks Park 
Jensen Park 
Rosedale Park 
Railway Garden 
Norwood Park 
Normal Park 
Mayfair Park 
Lily Gardens 
Emerson Park 
Sauganash Park 
Oriole Park 
Park Number 130 
Kiwanis Park 
Pottawattomie Park 
Ada Park 
Adams Park 
Hummel Sq. Host House 
West End Parkway 
Norwood Playground Park 
Park Number 132 
Ravenswood Park 

Seward Park 
The Midway 
Myrtle Grove 
Diversey Parkway 
Dickinson Park 
Calumet Parkway 
De Saible Square 
Campbell Park 
Bohn Park 
Barnard Park 

Kinzie Parkway 

Kolmar Avenue Parkway 

Park Number 178 
Gladstone Park 
Eighty-first St. Parkway 

Shedd Park 

Dorchester Ave. Parkway 
Edgebrook Park 
Simons Park 
Bickerdike Square 
Monument Park 
Eberhardt Parkway 
Champlain Parkway 
Arcade Park 

Linden Park 



Location 

Cullerton Avenue and Fisk Street 

Blackhawk and Noble Streets 

Chicago Avenue and Lake Shore Drive 

.\rgyle and Lockwood .Avenue 

99th and Wallace Streets 

Polk and Aberdeen Streets 

3546 W. Addison Street 

In Cermak Road from Pulaski Road to 

Kenton Avenue 
S. Leavitt Street, 83d to 85th Streets 
Oak Park and Barry Avenues 
In Ogden Avenue, Randolph to Fletcher Street 
2650 Peterson Avenue 
79th Street and Lake Michigan 
Lake Street and Central Avenue 
91st Street and Longwood Drive 
Pratt and Sacramento Avenues 
S7th Street from C.R.I.&P.R.R. to Eggleston 

.'\ venue 
In Harding Avenue between Addison Street 

and Byron Avenue 
Kedzie, between Palmer Place and North Avenue 
Wallace Street, 76th to 79th Streets 
N. Clark Street and Walton Street 
14th Place and Union Avenue 
2200 N. Oakley Avenue 
Wrightwood and Laramie Avenues 
Thorndale and Spaulding .\venues 
110th Street and Prospect .\ venue 
Estes and Odell .\venues 
Wilson and Lawndale Avenues 
6312 Rosedale Avenue 
Avondale and Nettleton .Avenues 
Neva, Peterson and Circle .Avenues 
67th, 69th Streets, Lowe .\venue, C.&W.I.R.R. 
Sunnyside and Kilbourn Avenues 
Lowe Avenue, C.&W.I.R.R., 71st, 73d Streets 
Granville and Ravenswood Avenues 
5901 N. Kostner Avenue 
Oriole and Bryn Mawr Avenues 
1735 Mango .Avenue 
Carmen and Christiana Avenues 
Rogers and Hilldale Avenues 
113th and .Ada Streets 

75th Place, 76th Street and Dobson Avenue 
100th Street, Ewing and Indianapolis .Avenues 
In West End .Avenue, Menard to .Austin .Avenue 
Imlay and Newcastle Avenues 
Wabansia and Tripp Avenues 
E. Ravenswood Avenue between Lawrence and 

Berteau Avenues 
Elm and Sedgwick .Avenues 
Between Waller and .Austin Avenues 
Hood Street, Neva and Northcott .Avenues 
Diversey and Seminary .Avenues 
Eclle Plaine, N. Lavergne and Dickinson .Avenues 
Calumet Avenue, 61st to 63d Streets 
\"incennes Avenue and 37th Place 
Oakley and Flournoy Streets 
111th Street and Longwood Drive 
105th Street between Longwood Drive and 

Walden Parkway 
Kinzie Street between Laramie and Long Avenues 
Kolmar Avenue between Diversey and 

Belmont .Avenues 
lOOth Street and Longwood Drive 
5421 N. Menard Avenue 
81st Street, Cottage Grove Avenue to South 

Park Avenue 
23d Street and Lawndale .Avenue 
In Dorchester .Avenue from 64th to 66th Streets 
Tahoma and .Algonquin Streets 
Wabansia Avenue and Hancock Street 
Ohio, Bickerdike and Armour Streets 
.Avondale and Oliphant Avenues 
Eberhardt .Avenue from 80th to 82d Streets 
Champlain -Avenue from 80th to 82d Streets 
lUth and 11 2th Streets, Forrestville and 

Watt Avenues 
Avondale Avenue. C.&N.W.R.R. from School 

Street to Belmont Avenue 
Berteau and Kolmar Avenues 



Com- 










munity 










area 


District 


Acres 


Date 


Control 


31 


West 


3.85 


1908 


C.P.D. 


24 


Northwest 


3.80 


1911 


C.P.D. 


8 


North 


3.69 


1882 


C.P.D. 


11 


Northwest 


3.67 


1920 


C.P.D. 


73 


Southwest 


3.62 


1925 


C.P.D. 


28 


West 


3.57 


1912 


C.P.D. 


16 


Northwest 


3.56 


1869 


C.P.D. 


29 


West 


3.50 


1914 


B.ofP. 


70 


Southwest 


3.50 


1929 


B. of P. 


18 


Northwest 


3.45 


1911 


C.P.D. 


28 


West 


3.40 


1926 


B. of P. 


2 


North 


3.33 


1925 


C.P.D. 


46 


South 


3.25 


1908 


B. of P. 


25 


West 


3.17 


1910 


C.P.D. 


72 


Southwest 


3.14 


1908 


C.P.D. 


2 


North 


3.03 


1930 


C.P.D. 


71 


Southwest 


3.00 


1914 


B. of P. 


16 


Northwest 


3.00 


1902 


B. of P. 


23 


West 


3.00 


1904 


B. of P. 


71 


Southwest 


3.00 


1922 


B. of P. 


8 


North 


3.00 


1842 


B.ofP. 


28 


West 


2.89 


1909 


C.P.D. 


22 


Northwest 


2.82 


1901 


C.P.D. 


19 


Northwest 


2.80 


1911 


C.P.D. 


13 


Northwest 


2.77 


1926 


C.P.D. 


75 


Southwest 


2.75 


1903 


C.P.D. 


9 


Northwest 


2.71 


1913 


C.P.D. 


14 


Northwest 


2.66 


1869 


C.P.D. 


10 


Northwest 


2.55 


1932 


C.P.D. 


10 


Northwest 


2.50 


1873 


B.ofP. 


10 


Northwest 


2.50 


1873 


B.ofP. 


68 


Southwest 


2.50 


1897 


B.ofP. 


16 


Northwest 


2.49 


1869 


C.P.D. 


68 


Southwest 


2.40 


1886 


B.ofP. 


2 


North 


2.34 


1931 


C.P.D. 


12 


Northwest 


2.33 


1928 


C.P.D. 


10 


Northwest 


2.29 


1913 


C.P.D. 


25 


West 


2.12 


1911 


C.P.D. 


13 


Northwest 


2.05 


1926 


C.P.D. 


1 


North 


2.02 


1930 


C.P.D. 


75 


Southwest 


2.01 


1903 


C.P.D. 


69 


Southwest 


2.00 


1862 


B.ofP. 


52 


South 


2.00 


1935 


B.ofP. 


25 


West 


2.00 


1914 


B. of P. 


10 


Northwest 


1.86 


1920 


C.P.D. 


2i 


Northwest 


1.75 


1911 


C.P.D. 


3 


North 


1.75 


1915 


B. of P. 


8 


North 


1,73 


1908 


C.P.D. 


25 


West 


1.50 


1896 


B. of P. 


10 


Northwest 


1.50 


1898 


B. of P. 


7 


North 


1.50 


1919 


B.ofP 


15 


Northwest 


1.50 


1910 


B. of P. 


40 


South 


1.50 


1916 


B. of P. 


35 


South 


1.50 


1875 


B. of P. 


28 


West 


1.38 




C.P.D. 


75 


Southwest 


1.27 


1890 


C.P.D. 


71 


Southwest 


1.25 


1902 


B.ofP. 


25 


West 


1.25 


1888 


B. of P. 


20 


Northwest 


1.22 


1912 


B. of P. 


72 


Southwest 


1.21 


1908 


C.P.D. 


11 


Northwest 


1.17 


1920 


C.P.D. 


44 


South 


1.14 


19.« 


B. of P. 


30 


West 


1.13 


1912 


C.P.D. 


42 


South 


1.10 


1926 


B.ofP 


12 


Northwest 


1.07 


1929 


C.P.D. 


2i 


Northwest 


1.02 


1920 


C.P.D. 


24 


Northwest 


1.00 


1856 


B. of P. 


9 


Northwest 


.98 


1895 


C.P.D. 


44 


South 


.96 


1933 


B. of P. 


44 


South 


.96 


1889 


B. of P. 


SO 


South 


.90 


1909 


B.ofP. 


21 


Northwest 


.90 


1887 


B. of P. 


16 


Northwest 


.87 


1809 


C.P.D. 



I02 



Eldred Grove 

Lawrence Avenue Triangle 

DeKalb Square 

Oakland Park 
Edison Park 
Avers Avenue Parkway 
Seventy-seventh Street 

Parkway 
Park Number 43 
Pullman Park 

North Mayfair Park 
Buena Circle 
Columbus Circle 
Gross Park 

Hodes Park 
Gowdy Square 
Ravenswood Manor Park 
Pleasant Parkway 
Morse Park 
Mulberry Point 
Greenview-Waveland Park 
Ashland Baby Park 
Ogden Arrow 
Jacob Park 

Irving Park Baby Park 
Mellin Baby Park 
Forest Glen Park 
Merchants Park 
Schoenhofen Place 
McKenna Triangle 
Chamberlain Triangle 
Wayne Park 
Colorado Point 
Park Number 50 
Washington Heights Park 
Arbor Rest 
Blackstone Point 
Belden Triangle 
Graceland Triangle 
Patterson Park 
Rchm Arbor 
Leland Park 
Sunken Gardens Park 
Legion Park Number 1 
Archer Point 

Edgebrook Manor Triangle 
O'Leary Homestead 
Buffalo Park 



Location 

Lockwood Avenue and Northwest Highway 
Lawrence Avenue between Clark Street and 

Broadway 
Hoyne Avenue, Lexington, Floiirnoy and 

DeKalb Streets 
Lake Park Avenue, 39th Street, LC.R.R. 
Northwest Higliway and Ottawa Avenue 
W. Addison Street to Avondale Avenue 

77th Street, Ashland Avenue and Wood Street 

Keeler Avenue and Argyle Street 

lUth Street, Cottage Grove and Forrestville 

Avenues 
Carmen and Kolmar Avenues 
Buena and Kenmore Avenues 
South Chicago and Exchange Avenues, 92d Street 
Otto Street between E. Ravenswood Avenue 

and Paulina Street 
S. E. comer 73d Street and Stony Island Avenue 
Goethe and Astor Streets 
Eastwood and Francisco Avenues 
91st Street and Pleasant Avenue 
Morse and Ridge Avenues 
Nickerson, Nina and Nicolette Avenues 
Greenview and Waveland Avenues 
Ashland and Fargo Avenues 
N. Clark and Wells Streets, Ogden Avenue 
\'irginia and Leland Avenues 
Irving Park Boulevard and Keeler Avenue 
Bryn Mawr and Ashland Avenues 
5065 Catalpa Avenue 
Addison Street and Milwaukee Avenue 
Canal and 18th Streets, Canalport Avenue 
38th Street, Archer and Campbell Avenues 
Greenwood and Lake Park Avenues, 43d Street 
Schreiber and N. Ashland Ave., N. Clark St. 
Monroe Street, Colorado and Francisco Avenues 
115th Street and Bell Avenue 
Vincennes Road and 104th Street 
State and Rush Streets, Bellevue Place 
Lake Park and Blackstone Avenues, 49th Street 
N. Clark and Sedgwick Streets, Belden Avenue 
Maiden Street and Montrose Avenue 
Leavitt, Boone and DeKalb Streets 
Delaware Place, Cass and Chestnut Streets 
Leland Avenue and North Shore Channel 
Sunnyside and Virginia Avenues 
Northwest Highway and Oliphant Avenue 
Archer Avenue, 20th and Dearlxirn Streets 
Tahoma, Algonquin and Kinzua Avenues 
558 DeKoven Street 
Sunnyside and California Avenues 



Com- 










muuity 










area 


DislricI 


Acres 


Dale 


Control 


11 


Northwest 


.85 


1920 


C.P.D. 


3 


North 


.80 


1876 


B. of P. 


28 


West 


.75 


1885 


B. of P. 


36 


South 


.75 


1898 


B.of P. 


9 


Northwest 


.69 


1936t 


C.P.D. 


16 


Northwest 


.'j8 


1902 


B. of P. 


71 


Southwest 


.68 


1933 


B. of P. 


14 


Northwest 


.60 


1917 


C.P.D. 


5u 


South 


.60 


1910 


B. of P. 


14 


Nortluve.it 


.56 


1930 


C.P.D. 


3 


Nortli 


.50 


1908 


B. of P. 


46 


South 


.50 


1909 


B. of P. 


6 


North 


.50 


1883 


B.of P. 


43 


South 


.50 


1933 


B.of P. 


8 


North 


.46 


1882 


C.P.D. 


14 


Nortluve?t 


.43 


1915 


C.P.D. 


72 


Southwest 


.43 


1927 


B. of P. 


1 


North 


.41 


1896 


C.P.D. 


10 


Northwest 


.40 


1906 


B. of P. 


6 


North 


.40 


1931 


B. of P. 


1 


North 


.40 


1927 


B. of P. 


7 


North 


.40 


1887 


B. of P. 


4 


North 


.39 




C.P.D. 


16 


Northwest 


.35 


l'887 


B. of P. 


3 


North 


.a 


1930 


B. of P. 


12 


Northwest 


.31 


1929 


C.P.D. 


lo 


Northwest 


.31 




C.P.D. 


31 


West 


.30 


1848 


B. of P. 


5S 


Southwest 


.30 


1866 


B.of P. 


3(j 


South 


.27 


1889 


B. of F. 


1 


North 


.25 




B. of P. 


27 


West 


.25 


1906 


B. of P. 


75 


Southwest 


.20 




C.P.D. 


72 


Southwest 


.20 


1913 


B. 01 P. 


8 


North 


.20 


1843 


B. of P. 


39 


South 


.20 


1904 


B. of P. 


7 


North 


.20 


1848 


B. of P. 


.3 


North 


.20 


1914 


B. of P. 


28 


West 


.20 


1907 


B.of P. 


S 


North 


.20 


1843 


B. of P. 


4 


North 


.18 




C.P.D. 


4 


North 


.16 


19 is 


C.P.D. 


y 


Northwest 


.15 


1913 


C.P.D. 


?:i 


South 


.15 


1852 


B. of P. 


12 


Northwest 


.10 


1930 


B. of P. 


28 


West 


.08 




B. of P. 


14 


Northwest 


.07 


1915 


C.P.D. 



♦Outside city limits 
fLeased from Board of 



Active Recreational Facilities Located in 
Parks 

Many parks in Chicago do not have any strict 
line of demarcation regarding the recreational op- 
portunities which they offer. Athletic fields and 
playgrounds may be situated within the bound- 
aries of neighborhood parks, or they may, in some 
instances, be found in separate locations. It is not 
uncommon for some of the larger parks, such as 
those controlled by the Chicago Park District, to 
serve a fourfold recreational purpose within one 
park unit. 

In addition to space devoted to playgrounds, 
playfields, and athletic fields, larger areas are pro- 
vided for golf courses in four Chicago Park Dis- 



trict parks. Lincoln Park affords two nine-hole 
courses, Diversey and Waveland courses with 
fifty-five and seventy-three acres, respectively; 
Columbus Park offers a nine-hole course with 
fifty-nine acres; Marquette provides a nine-hole 
course with forty-six acres; and Jackson Park 
maintains eighteen holes with eighty-two acres, 
making a total of 315 acres devoted to golfing 
purposes in the city parks. 



Types of Play Facilities Included In Parks 

The Chicago parks afford play tacilitics under 
four classifications, namely: playgrounds, play- 
fields, athletic fields and neighborhood parks. 



103 



Playgrounds 

The pliu grounds arc comparativeh' binall 
spaces, which have been designed and equipped as 
play spaces for children under fifteen years of age. 
The areas of these playgrounds vary according to 
the individual parks. The equipment for play- 
grounds is more exteiisi\'e and specialized than 
the larger athletic lields and playhelds. A primary 
essential of the playground is that it be super- 
\ised by (jualifieti recreation leaders. 

Playfields 

Playfielcis are larger than playgrounds and are 
designed for the use of older boys and girls, and 
adults. Equipment is limited, generally being 
only what is needed for the various kinds of ball 
games and other team sports. Approximately ten 
times as much space is provided for each player 
as is required for children in the playgrounds. 

Athletic Fields 

The athletic fields are similar in some respects 
to playfields, but shtjw more specialization in de- 
sign and equipment. These are used for track and 
held events; hence, adequate equipment includes 
a tieldhouse with lockers, dressing-rooms, and 
showers. A grandstand may also be a part of its 
equipment. The athletic fields are centers for the 
more formal types of ball games. The athletic 
field, like the playfield, serves a large community 
area, and requires about i,000 square feet for each 
plaj'er. 

Neighborhood Parks 

Neighborhood parks are units especially de- 
signed for residential districts, and serve as com- 
munity centers. They afford not only open spaces 
within their district, but also add to the scenic 
beauty of the locality by providing lawns, shrub- 
bery, trees, walks, and flower plots. A limited 
area is frequently equipped for the play purposes 
of smaller children; thus neighborhood parks 
serve the physical recreational needs of the com- 
munity, as well as providing for its social life 
through clubhouse facilities. 

A general description of one of the Chicago 
Park District fieldhouses serves as an illustration 
of the facilities offered by the fieldhouse parks 
maintained under the supervision of that agency. 

Assembly hall: lOO by i8o feet; seating ca- 
pacity, 500 persons; screen for motion pictures, 
small stage and two dressing rooms for theatrical 



purposes, removable chairs so that hall may be 
used for dancing. 1 

Club rooms: eleven rooms for the organized i 
clubs of the community, and for use by the educa- < 
tional and recreational classes of the Chicago Park i 
District's Recreation Division. | 

Game room: one room in the basement! 
equipped for ping-pong, dominoes, chess, checkers,! 
shuffle board and other games. \ 

library: shelf and reading rooms provided for| 
Chicago Public Library branch; approximately 
2,500 volumes available. 

Gymnasiums: two white-tiled gymnasiums, 85' 
by 55 feet, one for men and one for women; 1 
equipped for basketball, volley ball, and gymnas- ; 
tic exercises; balcony in each for spectators. 

Shower baths and lockers: nine private indi- , 
vidual showers for women, twenty-five open ; 
showers for men, two hundred lockers for men, ' 
and two hundred lockers for women. j 

I 
Distribution of Active Recreation Facilities! 
Chicago Park District 

Playgrounds — One hundred parks of the Chi-: 
cago Park District are equipped with from one to; 
a maximum of four playgrounds. These play- 1 
grounds are provided with swings, teeter-totters,' 
sandpits, horizontal ladders and horizontal bars. 
Distributed according to the five major geo-j 
graphical divisions of the city, the 119 park dis-' 
trict playgrounds are located in the following one! 
hundred parks: j 

Community Children's 

area Xame playgrounds \ 

I 
North side 

1 Pottawattomie 2 ; 

2 Green Briar i i 

Legion Number 1 i 

Chippewa i 

Indian Boundary i ' 

Emerson i 

3 Chase i 

Welles I 

4 River 2 

5 Paul Revere i 

Hamlin i 

8 Stanton i 

Seward i 

Lake Shore i 

Total (14) 16 

North-xest side 

9 Brooks i 

Olympia i 



104 



COMMUNITY AREAS 

or 

CHICAGO 

Its? 

DISTRIBUTION OF 
SUPERVISED PLAYGROUNDS 

• (MCAGO FRRK DtSTRCT 

• BUREAU OF niRKS 

• BCWftO Of EDUCATICH 




• 5 COMMUNITY NUMBERS 
— COMMLMTY BOUNDAR£S 
SCALE ■ ■ ! I MILE 

Chicago R«c'«0l'0n S*jfvey - 1937 



11 



> h ;l i! i| 



'U i 





NIVlNnOd SNIX 





Community 

area Name 



Children's 
playgrounds 



tonimuiiily 

area Name 



Children's 
playgrounds 



10 Norwood i 

Norwood Playground i 

Rosedale 2 

1 1 Gladstone i 

i Jefferson Number 2 2 

I 12 Forest Glen i 

' Edgebrook i 

Sauganash i 

13 Gompers 2 

Kiwanis i 

Hollywood 2 

j 14 North Mayfair i 

Christ Jensen i 

Eugene Field i 

15 Portage i 

Wilson I 

Chopin I 

16 Mayfair 2 

Independence i 

Athletic Field 2 

California i 

j Kilbourn 2 

I 17 Shabbona i 

18 Gen. George Bell i 

19 Jacob A. Riis 4 

Park Number 131 i 

Blackhawk i 

20 Kelvyn i 

Hermosa i 

21 Brands i 

' Avondale i 

22 Kosciusko I 

Mozart 3 

Holstein i 

23 Elmira SimiMis i 

24 Humboldt i 

Wicker i 

Pulaski I 

Eckhart i 

Total (41) 53 

j West side 

25 Sayre 3 

Park Number 130 i 

Amundsen 3 

LaFoUette 

Columbus 

i 27 Garfield 

Altgeld 



29 



Union 

Sheridan 

Stanford 

Douglas 

Franklin 



Shedd . . 

1 Dvorak . 
Harrison 



Total (is) 19 

South side 

34 Armour Square 

Hardin Square 

'TIS Madden 

37 Fuller 

40 Washington 

41 Jackson 

44 Tuley 

46 Russell Square 

46 Bessemer 

49 Palmer 

Fernwood 

5 1 Trumbull 

52 Calumet 

S}, West Pullman 2 



Total (14) 15 

Sout/iwest side 

59 McKinley i 

60 Mark White Square i 

6 1 Davis Square i 

Sherman i 

Cornell Square i 

6], Gage i 

66 Marquette i 

67 Ogden I 

68 Hamilton i 

69 Grand Crossing i 

71 Foster I 

72 Number 1 76 i 

Ridge I 

Number 178 i 

Number 179 i 

75 Ada I 

Total ( 16) 16 

Grand Total ( lOO) 119 

Xote: Fistirc> in pan ntlicscs indicate mimlx-r of I.Krations. 

Athletic fields— Ninety-six athletic fields are 
located in eighty-four parks of the Park District. 
Grouped according to geographical distribution, 
the parks pro\iding these facilities are shown in 
the following tabulation with the more popular 
fields, courts, and other game facilities: 



105 



« C 
J3 O 



Name of park 

North side 
Pottawattoniie 
Green Briar . . 

Chase 

Welles 

River 

Revere 

Hamlin 

Lincoln 

Stanton 

Seward 

Lake Shore . . . 
Total 



.00)29 (11)12 (0)17 (9)1 



NortJnvest side 

Olympia 

Norwood 

Rosedale 

Jefferson Number 

Sauganash 

Gompers 

Jensen 

Field 

Portage 

Wilson 

Chopin 

Athletic Field 

California 

Kilbourn 

Shabbona 

Bell 

Riis 

Park Number Lil 

Blackhawk 

Kelvyn 

Hermosa 

Brands 

Avondale 

Kosciuszko 

Holstein 

Mozart 

Humboldt 

Pulaski 

Eckhart 

Total 



.(29)59 (29)3 



West side 

Sayre 

Amundsen 

Park Number 130 

La Follette 

.Columbus 

Garfield 

Altgeld 

Union 

Sheridan 

Stanford 

Douglas 

Franklin 

Shedd 

Dvorak 

Harrison 



(15)19 (15)19 



Total (14)54 (15). 

South side 

Grant 26 

Burnham 

Armour Square 1 

Hardin Square 1 

Madden 3 

Fuller 2 

Washington 15 

Jackson 1 

Tuley 6 

Russell .Square 7 

Bessemer 6 

Palmer 12 

Fernwood 



1 

(10)20 (14). 



1 

i 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

4 
1 

1 
(27)30 



o u 



(8)14 (1)1 



(7)9 



(14)17 (4)() (14)2 






1 
'i 

"i 

(4)4 



(25)38 (6)6 (2)2 (5)5 



(12)1( 



(2)2 



io6 



I S Name of park 
U rt 

51 Trumbull 

52 Calumet 

53 West Pullman 
55 Mann 

Total 



Southiccst side 

59 McKinley 

60 Mark White Square 

61 Davis Square 

61 Sherman 

61 Cornell Square 

63 Gage 

66 Marquette 

67 Ogden 

68 Hamilton 

69 Grand Crossing 

71 Foster 

72 Park Number 179 ... 



Total 

Grand total 



1 



I I 



2 1 1 
114 2 
4 111 

3 111 
.(15)90 (17)20 (13)29 (12) IS 



(1)1 (16)22 (1)2 (11)20 



1 

1 

(8)8 



(10)10 



3 




2 




3 
] 




] 


-' 


-; 


1 




3 
4 
10 








1 
.i 

1 




3 '. 




•^ 






1 
14 
12 

(1 

5 








4 
4 
2 




2 '. 

2 

2 


• I • 








' 






















(12)67 


(1- 


)13 


(11) 


25 


(10) 


21 


. (11)16 


. (11)21 


(7)8 


. (8)8 



(80)299 (84)96 (55)110 (60)91 

Note : Figures in parentheses indicate number of location?. 



(1)1 (76)99 (6)9(68)112 (37)42 (2)2 (29)29 



Community centers — Community centers pro- 
viding facilities for indoor athletics, games, work- 
shops, arts and crafts, dramatic groups, club 
activities, and neighborhood social gatherings are 
located in 92 fieldhouses distributed in 84 parks 
of the Chicago Park District. 

The Northwest region of the city, with 34 
fieldhouses, has the largest number of community 
centers; the North section has 16; the West side 



16, the South side 14, and the Southwest region 
12. 

Miscellaneous 

Twenty-nine parks of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict do not have fieldhouses, athletic fields, or 
children's playgrounds. Se\cnteen of these are 
merely landscaped; the facilities in the remaining 
twelve are listed in the following table: 



Area 



Name 



>. -s 



Northwest side 

Monument 

Oriole 

Roberts Square . . 
Park Number 43. 
Kolmar 

South side 
Midway Plaisance 
Avalon 

Soutlnvest side 
Park Number 177 

Euclid 

Crescent 

Kennedy 

Prospect 



Total (3)3 (2)2 (1)1 (1)1 (1)1 (3)3 n)2 (7)7 (^)-' (7I'-' C^- (05 (1)1 

Note ; Figures in parentheses indicate number of locations. 



107 



Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Pluygrounds — OutMcic of tlic parks under Its 
jurisdictiiin and on sites indicated as playgrounds, 
the Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation has 
under its control 33 playgrounds of which two, 
Augusta at 443 1 Augusta Boule\'ard in the 
Northwest region, and the 6 1st and Western in 
the Southwest region, are unimproved. All of the 
other playgrounds are equipped with play ap- 
paratus, and space is provided for softball, volley 
ball, horseshoe pitching, skating, etc. Equipment 
on the playgrounds includes office buildings, shel- 
ter houses, sand courts, football fields, softball 
fields and gymnasiums. The play apparatus of a 



typical playground, as submitted by the office of 
the Director of Playgrounds of the Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation, is as follows: two; 
combination frames with ladders and sliding bars, \ 
climbing poles, swinging rings, two circular bars, [ 
teeter-totters, four giant strides, two athletic ■ 
slides, four teeter ladders, one toboggan slide, two ' 
horizontal bars, three parallel bars, one set of 
volley ball standards, one basketball standard, two ; 
high jump standards, two playground ball back- 
stops. 

A detailed analysis of these playgrounds ar- 
ranged according to community areas and regional 
sections follows: 



Name 



Address 



Dimensions 
(feet) 


Area 
(acres) 







1 


S 

1 




1 
K8 





2 




Cm 


3 


i 




C 

JS g 
in s. 


i 


1 
it 
c 


160 .x200 


.7,3 












1 






1 


1 


1 


1 




250 x300 


1.72 


T 


1 


















1 


?. 




361 x454 


0.76 


1 






1 




1 






1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


102 x288 


.67 












1 






1 


1 


1 






70 x350 


.56 












1 












1 





North side : 

1 Paschen Damen and Lunt 

3 Thompson 4501 Clarendon 

7 Wrightwood 2534 Greenvievv 

8 Adams 1919 N. Seminary 
8 Northwestern 626 W. .Maska 

Total 



Northwest side : 
Haas 

Kedvale and 

Hirsch 
.\ugusta- 

Kilbourn 
Commercial 

Club 

Total 



W'aslUenaw and 
FuUerton 

4134 Hirsch 

4431 Aiigii<^ta 

1837 Rice 



141.875x266 
125 xl92 
298.38 X123.65 
120 x395 



Unimproved 



1 1 
Unimproved 
1 



West side : 
25 Clark 

25 Moore 

26 Tilton 

27 Koran 

28 Damen 
28 McLaren 
28 Touhy 

30 24th and 

Tnimbnll 

31 Barrett 

Total 



4615 W. Jackson 262 x27S 

.•Kdams-Leamingti >Ti 528 .x264 

Kostner-Lake St. 208.8 x228.7 

3035 W. VanBiiren 130 x303.6 



903 S. Damen 
1520 W. Polk 
128 S. Hovne 
2410 S. Trumbull 



114 xl77 
175 xl85 
130.22 X199.44 
120 X125.32 



2022 Cermak Rd. 125 x277 



1.65 












1 1 


3.20 












2 1 


1.10 














.91 








.46 














.74 


1 .. 1 












.60 




1 






1 




.35 








.79 








9.80 


1 .. 9 


9 . 


6 




9 


8 2 



South side : 

34 Beutner 

35 Anderson 
38 Harding 
43 Woodhull 
43 Rainbow 

Beach 
52 -Avenue M 
52 Wolfe 

Total 



3320 S. LaSalle 
3748 Prairie 
49th and Calumet 
73d and E. End 

76th-Lake Michiga 
97tli and .\ve. M 
3425 E. 108th 



258 x546 
125.25 X250.23 
103.05 X273.71 
300 x363 



150 
124 
251 



xl50 
X 194.7 
x592 



3.2i 
.72 
.65 

2.50 



.55 
.141 



108 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 



BUREAU OF 

PARKS, 

RECREATION 

AND AVIATION 

DISTRIBUTION 
OF FACILITIES 






H ?5 j 


75 COMMUNITY MuMBERS 


,!70C SOO'- ; 


— COMMUMTY BOU^DARlES 




SCALE = iMIlE 





!S =8 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 



-' DISTRIBUTION OF 
.::x: FIELD HOUSES 

..«=.., ,„o CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 




r^ COMMUNiTr MljMBfR'^ 
— LrMMijMIv BOUNDARIES 
SCatF- . I MILE 



ChKoflo R•c'•ol««^ Swfvey - 193 















































C 










^ 








c 


a Name Address 


Dimensions 






3 

3 


= 


E 


j2 


g 


3 




c 

u 
>. 




u 


C 




c 


(feet) 


(acres) 


tS^ 


t. 




o 


X 8 


c 


eu 


e. 


LO 


U) 


o^i 


o.s; 


? 


Southwest side : 
































i9 33d Place 1635 W. 33d 


126.3 X227.96 


.66 














1 










1 




60 Bosley 3044 S. Bonfield 


116 x696 


1.85 














1 




1 


1 




? 




60 Wilson 1122 ,W. 34th PI. 


317.13 x226.6 


1.63 




1 










1 




1 






1 


1 


66 61st-\Vestern 6059 Western 


861 x249 


4.92 




Uniniprov 


ed 










Unimproved 


1 






67 Murray 73d and Wood 


263.4 x498.ll 


3.01 






1 








1 




1 


1 




? 


1 


68 Moran 5727 S. Racine 


124 X597.55 


1.70 














1 




1 


1 




2 




68 Sherwood 327 W. 57th 


5t)0 x270. 
200 x270 


4.34 






1 








1 






1 




2 




69 Meyering 7140 S. Park Ave. 


339.44 X398.15 


3.10 














1 




1 


1 




2 




Total 


21.23 




1 


2 








7 




5 


s 


7 


12 


2 


Grand total 


53.41 


9 


2 


3 


3 


1 


29 


31 


1 


19 


19 


30 


36 





Number of locations 








" 






1 


29 


31 


1 


19 


19 


30 


27 


6 



Playfields — The Bureau of Parks, Recreation 
and Aviation maintains 33 areas classified as play- 
fields, 3 1 of which are a part of the regular play- 
grounds; the remaining two are included in ath- 
letic fields. 

Athletic fields — Six athletic fields averaging 
12.66 acres are maintained by this agency. The 
largest of these fields is Winnemac Park contain- 
ing 40 acres; the smallest, Boyce Field, has 2.77 
acres. The facilities are summarized in the table 
on page 113. 

Community centers — Two buildings serving 
community center purposes are under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Bureau of Parks, Recreation and .Avia- 
tion. 

The first of these, Wilson Community Center, 
3225 South Racine Avenue, is located in a build- 
ing which is primarily used as a public bath. The 
bath features are outlined in the section on "Pub- 
lic Baths" (chapter xiii). Recreational provi- 
sions include the following: (jne gymnasium with 
facilities for basketball and handball; one work- 
out room for boxing and wrestling; two play 
rooms, the largest of which accommodates 30 
people and is primarily used for card parties and 
checkers. 

The second, Clarendon Communit\' Center, is 
located at 4501 North Clarendon .■\\enuc; it-> 
building and parkway occupy three acres, with an 
additional 6.5 acres for athletic fields and pla\ 
grounds. The concrete promenade, 6qo by C)0 
feet, is used in summer for a walk and is e(iuipped 



with benches. The community center building is 
a one-story and basement structure. The lobby on 
the first floor is used as a gymnasium and is 
marked off for basketball, badminton and general 
recreational purposes, but contains no other equip- 
ment. Two club rooms e(iuipped for indoor games 
are available, one for boys and one for girls under 
fifteen years of age. A piano and a radio are pro- 
vided. The game room is used for arts and crafts 
classes. .-V room equipped with weights and punch- 
ing bags is called the work-out room, .^.nother 
furnished with parallel bars, wrestling mat and a 
horse is known as the wrestling room. A hall ac- 
commodating 500 people is used in winter as a 
skating shelter and serves as a storeroom at other 
times. 

Board of Education 

Playgrounds — -The Bureau of Recreation of the 
Board of Education has 60 super\ised and 
equipped school playgrounds, with a total of 
82.02 acres averaging 1.37 acres each. 

Athletic facilities include Softball diamonds, 
touch football fields, field ball fields, volley ball 
courts, soccer fields, horseshoe pits, ice skating 
areas and ping-pong tables. .Ml grounds have 
some tvpe of shelter house. Permanent play- 
ground equipment in the majority of school play- 
grounds includes the following: swings (large and 
small), horizontal bars, parallel bars, merry-go- 
rounds, teeter-totters, teeter ladders, slides, etc. 

The table on page i i i arranged according to 
rc'ional division and community area, with the 



109 



dimensions and acreage of each playground, anal- 
yzes the facilities pertaining to organized school 
playground recreation: 

Athletic fields — Hanson Athletic Field, 2148 
North Long Avenue, is operated by the Bureau 
of Recreation of the Chicago Board of Education 
at present. It is in Community Area 19 in the 
Northwest region, and contains 86 acres. The field 
has provisions for six Softball diamonds, eleven 
baseball diamonds, eight touch football fields, six 
field ball diamonds, four volley ball courts, eleven 
hockey fields, four soccer fields, six horseshoe pits, 
two ice-skating areas, one shelter house, one sand 
court, one fieldhouse, one play room, two club 
rooms and two ping-pong tables. 

The Board of Education has a future school 
site at West Roosevelt Road and Central Avenue, 
of which twenty-five acres is being converted into 
an athletic field. Six baseball diamonds are under 
construction, all of which were to be completed 
during 1937. 

Community centers — At the present time, the 
Board of Education is not operating community 
center programs. (See chapter vii.) 

Summary 
Playgrounds 

There is a total of 212 supervised playgrounds 
in the City of Chicago located at 193 sites. They 
are distributed as follows: 



Section 


Chicago 

Park 
District 


Bureau 

of 
Parks 


Board 

of 

Education 


Total 


North 

Northwest 

West 

South 

Southwest 

Total 


16 
5.3 
19 
15 
16 

119 


5 ( 7.44) 
4 ( 3.36) 
8 ( 9.80) 
8 (11.58) 
8 (21.23) 

33* (53.41) 


10 (19.49) 
14 (13.52) 
12 (18.72) 
16 (20.32) 
8 ( 9.97) 

60 (82.02) 


31 
71 
39 
39 
32 

212 



'Includes two unimproved sites. 

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate acres; not available 
for Chicago Park District. 

The total number of playgrounds is distributed 
geographically as follows: 

Section Playgrounds Locations 

29 

59 
36 

37 
32 



North 
Northwest 


31 

71 


West 
South 
Southwest 


39 
39 

32 



Total 



193 



Playfields ' 

The only playfields listed by Chicago recrea- 
tional agencies are those of the Bureau of Parks,! 
Recreation and Aviation, which maintains 33' 
playfields, 31 of which are a part of the regular' 
playgrounds; the remaining two are included ini 
athletic fields. 

I 
Athletic Fields ! 

Public agencies in Chicago maintain 104 ath-' 
letic fields. The Board of Education provides twoi 
fields containing 1 1 1 acres. The Bureau of Parks,; 
Recreation and Aviation has six, averaging 12.66; 
acres each. The Chicago Park District has 96 ath-; 
letic fields in 84 parks; the acreage devoted to; 
these is not available. ! 

The distribution of the 104 athletic fields, ac-| 
cording to region and controlling agency, is given' 
in the following summary: I 





Chicaqo 


Bureau 


B 


oard 






Park 


of 




of 




Section 


District 


Parks 


Hdu 


cation 


Total 1 


North 


12 


1 (40.00) 




( ..) 


13 : 


Northwest 


31 


1 ( 8.38) 


1 


( 86) 


33 : 


West 


20 


.. (....) 


1 


( 25) 


21 ; 


South 


20 


1 ( 9.64) 




( ..) 


21 , 


Southwest 


13 
96 


3 (17.92) 
6 (75.94) 




( ..) 


16 i 


Total 


2 


(Ill) 


104 1 



Note : Figures in parentheses indicate 
ot available for Chicago Park District. 



Limber of acres; 



Community Centers 1 

Chicago is served by 94 community centers;, 
two of this number are under the control of thai 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation, and 92; 
are fieldhouses located within 86 parks operated 
by the Chicago Park District. 

The Northwest region of the city, with 34! 
fieldhouses, has the largest number of community; 
centers; the North section is second with 17; the 
West side has 16, the South side 14 and the 





distribution according to 


controlli 


ng agency 


as' 




well as 


region: 


:orth- 




South- 


' 




Agency 


North 


ivest 


IV est 


South west Total 




Chicago 


Park District. 16 


M 


16 


14 12 


92! 




Bureau 1 


of Parks I 








I 


2 




Total 


17 


34 


16 


14 13 


94; 


1 10 












1 

i 

1 
I 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
PUBLIC PLAYGROUNDS 




75 COMMUNITY MUMBERS 
— COMMUNITY BOUNDARIES 
SCALE ' = I MILE 

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Private Organizations Using Facilities in the Chi- 
cago Park District 

Prior to consolidation in 1934 commissioners of 
several of the superseded districts had granted 
certain private organizations permission to occupy 
space, and in several cases to erect buildings on 
Park District property. The liasis for this prac- 
tice was that the functions of the agencies were re- 
lated in some way or ani;ther to the recreational 
aspects of the Park's program. Particularly is this 
true in the instance of yacht clubs whose mem- 
bership is composed for the most part of owners 
of boats moored in Park District harbors. The 
present policy of the Chicago Park Commission 
provides that when private organizations are per- 
mitted to occupy Park property, clauses are in- 
cluded in the leases or permits specifying that the 
public should be welcome at all times as partici- 
pants or spectators. 

Following is a partial list of organizations with 
headquarters or other facilities on Park District 
property: 



Organization 



Location 



Chicago Casting Club 
Chicago Yacht Club 
Columbia Yacht Club 
Corinthia Yacht Club 
Jackson Park Yacht Club 
Lawn Bowling Association 
Lincoln Park Boat Club 
Lincoln Park Canoe Club 
Lincoln Park Casting Club 
Lincoln Park Gun Club 
Roque Club 

South Shore Motor Boat 
Club 



Garfield Park 
Belmont Harbor 
Down-town lake front 
Montrose Harbor 
Jackson Park 
Washington Park 
Lincoln Park 
Lincoln Park 
Lincoln Park 
Lincoln Park 
Garfield Park 

lackson Park 



In addition, the Daily News Sanitarium and 
the La Rabida Sanitarium, in Lincoln Park and 
Jackson Park respecti\ely, occup\' property of the 
Chicago Park District. Detailed information con- 
cerning the Art Institute of Chicago, Field 
Museum of Natural History, Museum of Science 
and Industr)-, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chi- 
cago Historical Societ\ and Shedd .-\quarium, 
quasi-public agencies located on property' of the 
Chicago Park District, is included in chapter \iii. 



"3 



While a detailed analysis of the site, plant and 
equipment of each tax-supported recreational 
agency in the city is included in \'olume IV, Rec- 
reation in the Coninudiity A reus of Chicago, the 
following will provide a general picture of the 
distribution of Chicago's public provisions for rec- 
reation: 



Distribution of Recreational Facilities 
among the Parks, Playgrounds, Athletic 
Fields and Community Centers 

Chicago Park District 

Included at the various locations administered ! 
by the Chicago Park District is a wide variety of 
recreational equipment. An inventory of the 
Park District in April, 1937, reveals the fol- 
lowing: 



SECTION 



Facility 



Total 



Archery ranges ( 5 

Art galleries ( i 

Assembly halls ( 1 1 

Athletic 'fields (11 

Auto shops ( ■ ■ 

Badminton courts ( y 

Band stands ( i 

Banquet halls (10 

Baseball diamonds ( '5 

Basketball courts (10 

Beaches ( i 

Bicycle bowls , ( • ■ 



(■ 



Billiard rooms 

Boating lagoons 

Bowling greens 

Bridle paths 

Casting pools 

Club rooms 

Conservatories 

Cricket fields 

Fieldhouscs 

Football fields 

Game rooms 

Golf courses 

Gun clubs 

Gymnasiums 

Handball courts 

Harbors 

Hockey fields 

Horseshoe courts 

Infant welfare stations ( 6) 

Kitchens (10 

I.a bocce courts ( ■ ■ 

Libraries — reading rooms ( '> 

Model yacht basins ( ■ . 

Music rooms 

Natatnriums 

Outdoor gymnasiums .... 

Picnic grounds 

Pistol ranges 

Playgrounds — children . . 
Putting greens 



(.. 
(•• 
(•• 
( . . 
( 1 1 
(.. 
(.. 
('-' 
( l.S 

(■• 

( . . 

( 10 
, ( 2 
.(■■ 
.( •• 



( -' 
( I 

. ( 9 
( S 
( .. 

■05 
(•• 



14 



( 4) 
C ^ 


4 ( 


( 1.2 


13 (I 


(17 


21 (I 


(1-2 

1 5"i 


I- (i 


( 4) 


4 ( 


(14) 


39 ( 


03) 


25 (i 


< 3) 
(. .) 


3 (• 


(■■) 
( 4 


4 ( 


( 3 


3 ( 


( 3 

{ T 


3 ( 


(14) 
(■•' 


66 ( I 


( I 
(14I 


I ( 
14 (i 


o.s 


21 (l 


03 


14 


( 2 


- ( 


(13 


25 (I 


( I 


4 ( 


( 2 


4 ( 


(14 


5- ( 


( 7 


7 ( 


( 7 


7 ( 


( S 
( c 


I ( 


{ . . 




(13 


2S 


( 6 

c 


6 ( 
\ ( 


(15 
( I' 


15 n 
I ( 



3) 3 

1) I 

10)12 
11)14 

2) 2 
11)21 

1) I 

3) 3 
7)14 
2)19 
.).. 
.).. 
3) 3 
3) 3 
I) I 
I) I 
I) I 

1-2)47 

I) I 

.).. 

12)14 

10)14 

12)18 

I) I 

I) I 

11)17 

1) I 
.).. 
3> 5 

11)37 

2) 2 

7) 7 
I) 2 
I) I 
■)•■ 
7) 7 
I) I 
10)18 

3)13 

I) I 

II 1 1 r 

I) I 



( I) I ( 


6) 8 


l) I 


20) 
2) 


(14)14 


15)15 


12)12 


74) 


(17)20 
(..).. ( 


i5»i5 

. . ). . ( 


13)14 


84) 
2) 


(11)19 


8) 8 


6) 6 


57) 


(..).. ( 


I) I 


2) 2 


7) 


( 6) 6 


0) 


6) 6 


.35) 


( 6)12 ( 


9)10 


7)18 


5«) 


(14)19 


8) 8 


9)11 < 


66) 


(..).. 
( I) I 
(■•)•• 


..).. 
..).. 
..).. 


2) 6 


6) 
I) 
3) 


( I) I 
(..).. ( 


. . ) . . 


i) 2 


. 9) 
4) 


(..).. 
(..).. 




i) I 

i) I 


5) 
3) 


(12)64 
(..).. 
(..).. 


19)58 
..).. 
..).. 


13)31 
1) I 


81) 
' 2) 
' I) 


(13)13 


20)22 


16)18 


87) 


(14)17 


13)13 


11)17 


78) 


(14)17 


17)18 


16)20 


85) 


(..).. 
(..).. 


. ,).. 
. . ) . . 


1) 2 
1) I 


4) 
' 2) 


(11)16 


8) 8 


9)11 


62) 


(..).. 


. . ) . . 


3) 3 


7) 


(..).. 


,.).. 


i) 2 


3) 


( 1) I 


..).. 


1) I 


7) 


(18)61 


15*5-2 


'15)59 


86) 


( 4) 4 


' 2) 2 


' 4) 4 


25) 


(13)15 


l6)iq 


ii")ii 


64) 


( 1) 2 


..).. 


1) I 


3) 


( 6) 6 
( I) I 


' 2) 2 
..).. 


' 2) 2 


25) 
' 2) 


( 5) 5 


..).. 




14) 


( 2) 2 


2) 2 




6) 


(16)28 


13)18 


10)12 


71) 


( 7)12 


10)10 


6)18 


40) 


( I) 2 


..).. 


i) I 


3) 


(18)27 


25132 


16)18 


100) 


(..).. 


(..)•• 


[ i) I 


[ 3) 



24 

2 
78 
96 

2 

79 
7 
35 
116 
96 
10 



4 

5 

3 

321 



93 
102 

lOI 

5 
2 

94 
13 

6 

10 

303 

25 

69 

S 
25 

2 

14 

6 

117 

67 

4 

119 

3 



114 



Shelters, skating ( 1 1 

Shelters, yacht ( ■ ■) 

Shooting galleries ( . . ) 

Shower rooms (13) 

Shuffle board courts { 5 ) 

Skating areas ( i'> ) 

Ski slides ( • ■ ) 

Soccer fields ( 7) 

Softball fields (19) 

Swimming pools ( 8) 

Tennis courts ( i''>) 

Toboggan slides ( • • ) 

Tracks ( 8) 

Volley ball courts (10) 

Wading pools (11) 

Workshops ( 10) 

Zoos ( . . ) 



Facilities 1 

Radio club rooms (..)•• ( 

Refectories i(--) ■■ ( 

Roller skating rinks ( i ) i ( 

Roque ( i ) i ( 

Roque, indoor ( . . ) . . ( 

Shelters, boat (■•)■• ( i ) i 

Shelters, golf (•■)•■ (2) 2 

II (15) 15 
( I ) ^ 
(..) .. 

24 (15) 29 

8 ( 2) 4 

.. (..) .. 

7 C 9) II 

69 (16)107 

9 (11) 13 
oj (16)159 
.. (..) .. 

S (II) II 

17 (14) 25 

1-2 (^3) 13 

19 ( 7) 7 

_ .. (..) .. 

Note : Figures in parentheses indicate niiml^er of location^. 



(•• 



24 



SECTION 



(..)• 

( 2) 

(..). 

(■■)■ 

( I) 

(..). 

( 9)1 

(..). 

(..). 

(13)29 

( 9)13 

(16)16 

( I) I 

( 7) 7 

(i8)5S 

( 5) 9 

(16)91 

( I) 1 

( 4) 4 

(17)24 

(18)18 

(13)14 

(..).. 



Total 



..). 

•■). 
..)• 
..). 
..). 
• . ) . 



14). 

I I 

..). 

I) 
22)3 

I) 
20)73 

I) 

2) 2 
I o ") 1 o 
13)14 

6) 7 
..).. 



2) 





( 3) 3 




( 2) 2 




( 4) 4 


4 


( 3) 9 




( I) I 




< 5) 5 


2 


( S) 7 


5 


' 47) 5' 




( I) 3 




( I) I 


20 


( 77)152 


3 


( 21) 31 


17 


( 96)100 




( I) I 


3 


( 37) 43 


34 


(100)343 


3 


( 37) 50 


60 


( 86)541 




( 2) 2 


5 


( 31) 31 


14 


( 75)110 


9 


( 73) 75 


3 


( 46) 58 


2 


( 2I 2 



Board of Education 

A similar study made of the facilities under the 



jurisdiction ^if the Bureau of Recreation of the 
B(jard of Education indicates the following: 



f Facilities 



North Northwest 



Hasehall diamonds (..)•• ( 1)11 

Club rooms (..).. ( i) 2 

Field ball diamonds (10)10 (15)20 

Fieldhouses (•■)•■ ( i ) i 

Handball courts (••)•• (1)2 

Hockey fields (•■)■• ' i ) 1 1 

Horseshoe courts (10)22 (i5)37 

Skating areas (8)8 (15)16 

Ping pong tables ( 9) 9 US^i*^ 

Playground apparatus (10) 10 ( 14) 14 

Play rooms (10)10 (15^15 

Sand boxes (2)2 (..).. 

Sand courts ( 9) 9 (i5)i5 

Shelter houses (10)10 (15)15 

Soccer fields (10)10 (15)18 

Softball diamonds (10)22 (15)35 

Tennis courts ( 2) 3 (..).. 

Touch football fields (10)10 (15)22 

Volley ball courts (10)20 '15)32 

Wading pools (••)•• (..).. 

♦Located at Central Avenue and Kuusevclt Road, in i>roc<>* of 
Note : Figures in parentheses indicate number of locations. 



West 


South 


Southwest 


Total 


( 1) 0* 


(..).. 


(..)•■ 


2) 17 


(••)•• 


(..).. 


(■•)•• ( 


I) 2 


(12)12 


(10) 16 


( 8) s I 


61) 66 


(..)•■ 


(..).. 


(..).. 


1) I 


(••)•■ 


(..).. 


(..).. 


I) 2 


( 2) 2 


(••)■• 


(••)•• 


3) 13 


(12)27 


(16)30 


( 8)16 


61)138 


(11)12 


(15)10 


( 8) 8 


57) 60 


(12)13 


(16)19 


( 8) 9 


60) 66 


(12)12 


(16)16 


( 8) 8 


60) 60 


(12)13 


(16)10 


( 8) 9 


61) 66 


(..)■• 


( I) I 


(..)•■ 


. 3) 3 


(12)12 


(15)15 


( 8) S 


59) 59 


(12)14 


(.16)19 


( 8) 


61) 67 


(12)12 


(16)16 


( 8) 8 


61) 64 


(12)26 


(16)32 


( S)n) 


61)134 


(..).. 


(..).. 


(..).. 


2) 3 


(I2)IJ 


(16)16 


( 8) 8 


61) 68 


(12)24 


(16)32 


( 8)16 


'61)124 


( 3) 3 

itinn. 


( I) > 


( I) I 


( 5) 5 



115 



Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

The pla>gruunds and athletic fields of the Bu- 



reau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation includd 
the following recreation facilities: 



Facilities North 

Athletic fields ( i ) i 

Baseball diamonds (3) 9 

Fieldhouses { i ) i 

Football fields (i) 2 

Gymnasiums ( i ) i 

Handball courts ( . ) 

Ofiice buildings (5) 5 

Playfields (5) 5 

Play rooms ( • ) 

Sand courts (3) 3 

Shelters (3) 3 

Skating areas (5) 5 

Soccer fields ( I ) 3 

Softball fields (5) 36 

Tennis courts (i) 9 

Wading pools (i) i 

Note: Figures in parentheses indieate number of Incaticms 



Nortlru'cst 


West 


South 


Soiitlnvest 


Total 


(I) 


I 


(.) 




(I) 


I 


( 3) 


3 


( 6) 1 


(I) 


2 


(•) 




(4) 


5 


( 6) 

1 T ^ 


7 


(14) 2. 
( 2) : 
( 9) I 


( ■ ) 
(I) 


I 


(.• ) 
(.) 




(2) 


2 


( 5) 


6 


(I) 


I 


(I) 


I 


(. ) 




(•■) 




( 3) , 


(.) 




f.) 




( I ) 


I 


(. .) 




( I) 


^^) 


3 


(8) 


8 


(7) 


7 


(10) 


10 


(33) 3. 


(3) 


3 


(8) 


8 


(8) 


8 


( 9) 
( \ 


9 


(33) 3, 
( 1^ 


(I) 
(2) 


2 


I ■ ) 
(0 


S 


(4) 


4 


( 6) 


6 


(20) 21 


(3) 


3 


(4) 


4 


(4) 


4 


( 7) 


7 


(21) 2 


(o 




(8) 


8 


(9) 


9 


(10) 


10 


(35) 3 


(I) 


I 


(.) 




(. ) 




(■■) 




( 2) , 


(3) 
(.) 


3 


(6) 


7 


(8) 


9 


(10) 


20 


(32) 7 
( I) ' 


(I) 


I 


(2) 


2 


(■) 




( 3) 


3 


( 7) 



Summary of Total Public Recreational Facilities 
within City of Chicago 

The sum total of all public tax-supported rec- 
reational equipment, including that under the 



jurisdiction of the Chicago Park District, the Bu^ 
reau of Recreation of the Board of Education anc, 
the Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation ii| 
summarized as follows: 



Facilities 



Chicago 


Bureau 


Board 




Park 


of 


of 


Total 


District 


Parks 


Education 




( 20) 24 




( 


20) 24 


( 74) 78 






74) 78 


( 84) 96 


( 6) 6 


( 2) 2 ( 


92)104 


( 2) 2 






2) 2 


( 57) 79 






57) 79 


( 7) 7 






7) 7 


( 35) 35 






35) 35 


( s8)iiO 


(14)23 


( 2) 17 


74)156 


( 00) 95 






' 66) 96 


( 6) 10 


(30)30 




36) 40 
i) I 


i i) i 






[ 3) 3 


{ 9) 10 






. 9) 10 


( 4) 4 






. 4) 4 


( 5) 5 






[ 5) 5 


( 3) 3 






[ 3) 3 


( 81)321 




( I) 2 


( 82)323 

I) I 
61) 66 


( I ) 1 




(60 66 


( 87) 93 


( 2) 2 


( I 


90) 96 


( 78)102 


( 9)11 




87)113 


( 83)101 






85)101 


( 4) 5 






( 4) 5 


( 2) 2 






' 2) 2 


( 62) 94 


( 3) 3 




[ 65) 97 


( 7')ii7 






' 71)117 


( 7) 13 


( I 


( I) 2 


i 9) 16 


( 3) 6 






[ 3) 6 


( 7) 10 




( 3) 13 


' 10) 23 


( 86)303 




(61)138 


[147)441 


( 25) 25 






25) 25 


( Cm) 69 






( 64) 69 


( 3) 5 






[ 3) 5 


( 25) 23 






' 25) 25 


( 2) 2 






[ 2) 2 



Archery ranges 

Assembly halls 

Athletic 'fields 

Auto shops 

Badminton courts 

Band stands 

Banquet halls 

Baseball diamonds 

Basketball courts 

Beaches 

Bicycle bowls 

Billiard rooms 

Boating lagoons 

Bowling greens 

Bridle paths 

Casting pools 

Club rooms 

Cricket fields 

Field ball diamonds 

Fieldhouses 

Football fields 

Game rooms 

Golf courses 

Gun clubs 

Gymnasiums, indoor 

Gymnasiums, outdoor 

Handball courts 

Harbors 

Hockey fields 

Horseshoe courts 

Infant welfare stations 

Kitchens 

La Bocce courts 

Libraries and reading rooms 
Model vacht basins 



116 



Facililie 



Chicago Bureau 

Park of 

District Parks 



Board 

of 

Education 



Total 



Music rooms ( i_|^) j_^ 

Natatoriums ( i, j i, 

Office buildings 

Picnic grounds ( 40 ) (>- 

Ping pong tables 

Pistol ranges ( :; ) _i 

Playfields 

Playgrounds, children 1 hkj ) 1 nj 

Play rooms 

Putting greens ( 3 ) 3 

Radio club rooms ( 3 > 3 

Refectories ( 2 ) 2 

Roller skating rinks ( 4 ) 4 

Roque ( 3 ) tj 

Roque. indoor 1 11 i 

Sand boxes f 

Sand courts -j- 

Shelters 

Shelters, boat ( 5 ) 5 

Shelters, golf ( 5) 7 

Shelters, skating ( 4.7) 51 

Shelters, yacht ( i ) -^ 

Shooting galleries ( i I i 

Shower rooms ( 77 1 1 52 

Shuffle board courts ( 21) 31 

Skating areas ( 96) 100 

Ski slides ( i ) i 

Soccer fields ( ^j ) 43 

Softball fields ( 100)343 

Swimming pools ( 37) 50 

Tennis courts ( 86 ) 54 1 

Toboggan slides ( 2) 2 

Touch football fields 

Tracks ( 31) 31 

Voile}- ball courts ( 75 ) 1 10 

Wading pools ( 7^) 75 

Workshops ( 46) 58 

Zoos ( 2) 2 

Special 

Aquarium ( i ) i 

Armories 1' i ) i 

Art galleries* ( 3) 3 

Aviaries ( i ) i 

Conservatories ( 2 ) 2 

Museums ( 3 ) 4 

Planetarium ( t ) I 

Stadium { i ) i 

+A11 Chicago Park IJistrict Playgrounds liave these facilities, Xn rcconl uf miml 
'Including Art Institute liicated on park property. 



( 3) 3 



(■33)33 



( 20 ) 20 
(21)21 



' 35 )35 

( 2 I '4 
(3^)75 

( 0'9 



( 7) 7 



(60) 66 



{(X)) 60 

(61) 66 



( 3) 3 
(59) 59 
(61) 67 



(57) 60 

(61) '64 
(61)134 

( 2)"3 

(61) "68 

(6i)i24 
( 5) 5 





( I) I 
( I) I 

( 3) 3 
C 1I I 




( 2) 2 

( 3) 4 
( I 

( I) I 



14) 14 

9) 9 
33) 33 
40) 67 
60) 66 

3) 4 
33) 33 
193)212 
62) 67 

3) 3 

3) 3 
2) 2 

4) 4 
3) 



I) I 

3) 3 

79) 79 

82) 88 

5) 5 

5) 7 

47) 51 

I) 3 

I) I 

77)152 

21) 31 

188)195 

1) I 
100)111 
193)552 

37) 50 
89)553 

2) 2 
61) 68 
31) 31 

i3<J)234 

85) 87 

46) 58 

2) 2 



Programs 

All public playgrounds in the Cit)' of Chicago 
are open for public use daily, except Sunday. The 
hours vary for the playground according to the 
controlling agency. The grounds under the ad- 
ministration of the Board of Education are open 
from 8:30 A.M. to 9:00 P.M. and from 1:00 to 
6:00 P.M. on holidays. Playgrounds controlled 



by the Chicago Park District are a\-ailablc for use 
daily from 2:00 p.m. to i0:O0 p.m. during the 
winter season, and from i :00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. 
during the summer. For some activities, facilities 
are used as carK- as 9:00 a.m. Playgrounds main- 
tained by the Bureau of Parks, Recreation and 
.Vviation are open throughout the year daily from 
9:00 A.M. to 9:00 P.M., except Sundays. 1 Tiliday 



117 



hours arc from I :oo p.m. to 6:00 p.m. During 
summer and fall, playgrounds having facilities for 
baseball and football are open the same hours 
daily, with the exception of Sundays and holidays 
when they arc open from iO:00 a.m. until 6:00 

P.M. 

The playgroLind programs of these agencies 
generally differ only in the amount of emphasis 
which is placeci on one type of activity or another. 
Some variation is to be noted where the equip- 
ment for the playground varies. 

Board of Education 

Weekly and monthly schedules of activities are 
posted at each playground and form a general 



program outlined for all playgrounds under the 
control of the Board of Education. The instruc- 
tors outline the plan for the use of the playground j 
and provide programs to be conducted in the! 
shelter houses during inclement weather, wheni 
outdoor play must be curtailed or temporarily! 
suspended. The program is based upon the policy ' 
of serving children chiefly after school hours. One' 
of the purposes is to keep the children off thej 
street and away from destructive leadership. 

Playground services, that is, the use of facilities; 
and equipment, are available to adults and work-j 
ing boys and girls, as well as school children. 
Given herewith are typical programs planned forj 
the various seasons of the year during 1937: 



Date 



Boys' Program 



Girls' Program 



Monday, January 4, to 
Saturday, January 9 



Saturday, January 9 
Monday, January 11, to 
Saturday, January 16 



Saturday, January 16 
Monday, January 18, to 
Saturday, January 23 



Saturday, January 23 
Monday, January 25, to 
.'^aturday, January 30 



Saturday, January 30 



Thursday, April i 
Friday, April 2 
Saturday, April 3 
Monday, April 5 
Tuesday, April 6 
Wednesday, April 7 
Thursday, April 8 
Friday, April 9 
Saturday, April 10 
Monday, April 12 

Tuesday, April 13 
Wednesday, April 14 
Thursday, April 15 
Saturday, April 17 
Monday, April 19 



Winter Season 

Ice skating 

Ping pong 

Checkers 

Local tourneys 

Novice swimming, skiing 

Ice skating 

Ping pong 

Checkers 

Local tourneys 

Ice skating, novice swimming, skiing 

Sled meets 

Ice skating 

Ping pong 

Checkers 

Local tourneys 

Ice skating 

.Sled meets 

Ski meets 

Ping pong 

Checkers 

Local tourneys 

-Sled meets 

Spring Season 

Ping pong, junior second round 

Ping pong, intermediate second round 

Novice track (indoor) 

Ping pong, junior semi-final 

Ping pong, intermediate semi-final 

Ping pong doubles 

Ping pong, junior finals 

Ping pong, intermediate finals 

Marble practice 

Local tourneys 
Ping pong doubles 
Marble practice 
Marble preliminaries 
Roller skating 
Local tournevs 



Ice skating 
Ping pong 
Checkers 
Rug making 

Ice skating (divisional) 

Checkers 

Ping pong 

Ice skating 

Ring making 

Ice skating (finals) 

Local clubs 

Sled meets 

Ring making 

Ping pong 

Sled meets 
Ring making 
Ping pong 
Snow modeling 



y 



Ping pong, junior second round 
Ping pong, senior second round 

Ping pong, junior semi-final 
Ping pong, senior semi-final 

Ping pong, junior finals 

Ping pong, intermediate finals 

Hop scotch bounce ball (divisional) 

O'Leary 

Roller skating 

Hikes 

O'Leary (divisional) 

O'Leary finals 
Roller skating 
Low organized games 



118 



Date 



Boys' Program 



Girls' Program 



Tuesday, April 20 
! Saturday, April 24 

Tuesday, April 27 



Monday, August 2 

Tuesday, August 3 

Wednesday, August 4 
Thursday, August 5 

Friday, August 6 

Saturday, August 7 

Monday, August 9 



Tuesday, August 10 
Wednesday, August 1 1 
Thursday, August 12 
Friday, August 13 
Saturday, August 14 
Monday, August 16 
Tuesday, August 17 

Wednesday, August 18 

Thursday, August 19 

Friday, August 20 
Saturday, August 21 

Monday, August 23 
Tuesday, August 24 
Wednesday, August 25 
Thursday, August 26 

Friday, August 27 
Saturday, August 28 

Monday, August 30 



Marble practice 

Roller skating preliminaries 

Marble finals 

Roller skating practice 

Summer Sea^wn 
Midget playground ball semi-finals, soft ball 

Local leagues 
Pushmobile practice 



Midget playground ball finals 

Intermediate pla\giound ball, second round, 

soft ball 
Local leagues 
Pushmobile practice 
Horseshoe practice 



Pushmobile 

Intermediate playground ball, semi-finals 

Novice swiinming, junior and intermediate 

horseshoes 
Novice swimming 
Horseshoe practice 



Novice swimming 

Intermediate playground ball finals 

Horseshoe practice 

Basketball free throw practice 

Volley ball practice 



Senior horseshoes 

Horseshoe finals 

Basketball 

Free throw practice 



Roller skating preliminaries 



Senior volley ball 

Horseshoes 

Puppets 

Puppet shows 
Senior volley ball 
Mardi Gras 
Volley ball 
Horseshoes 



Senior volley ball 



Horseshoe preliminaries 
Senior volley ball 
Mardi Gras 
Volley ball 

Senior volley ball, first round 
Horseshoe finals 

Senior volley ball, second round 

Volley ball 
Track 
Mardi Gras 



Senior volley ball semi-finals 

Mardi Gras 

Mardi Gras 

Senior volley ball finals 

X'olley ball 

Track 



lunior volley ball 



Friday, October i 
Saturday, October 2 

Tuesday, October 5 

Wednesday, October 6 

Thursday, October 7 
Friday, October 8 
Saturday, October 9 
Monday, October 11 

Wednesday, October 13 
Friday, October 15 
Saturday, October 16 
Monday, October 18 
Tuesday, October 19 
Wednesday, October 20 
Thursday, October 2i 



fall Season 

Junior volley ball 

Junior and intermediate touchball 

Tug of war practice 

Junior volley ball 

Volley ball 

Touch ball 

Tug of war practice 

Junior volley ball 

Junior and intermediate touchball 

Junior and intermediate tug of war 

Junior volley ball finals 

Junior and intermediate tug of war 

Junior and intermediate touchball 

Junior and intermediate tug of war 
Touchball and pushball practice 



Midget relavs 
l-'ield ball 
Lantern making 



l-ieki ball 

Midget rola\ s 
Field ball 
lantern making 

Midget relays 
Field ball 
Lantern parade 
Field hall 
I .an tern parade 
Midcret relavs 



119 



Date 



Boys' Program 



Girls' Program 



Friday, October 22 

Saturda_v, October 23 
Monday, October 25 
Tuesday, October 26 
Saturday, October 30 



luiiior and intermediate touchball 
Pushball practice 

Juniiir and intermediate touchball 



Field ball, first round 

Ukulele 

Midget relays 

Field ball, second round 

Midget relays 



The Board of Education's Bureau of Recreation 
frequently co-operates with other organizations in 
planning and conducting athletic and play activ- 
ities on a city-wide basis. During the past year 
they have participated in the folhjwing events: 

The Silver Skates Derby promoted by the C/ii- 
cago Tribune, in which from 50 to 60 of the en- 
trants were from school playgrounds; 

The Central Amateur Athletic Union track and 
field championship, sponsored by the Chicago 
A merican ; 

The Horseshoe Pitching Tournament and Ice 
Skating Mardi Gras Festivals promoted by the 
Chicago Daily News. 

\n addition to these city-wide co-operative 
events, the Bureau's program includes exhibitions, 
carnivals, parades, holiday celebration parties and 
other non-competitive forms of amusements. 

In order to establish an equal basis of competi- 
tion and create definite age groups, contestants are 
classified in the following manner: 

Classification Age group 

Girls 

Juniors Under 1 5 years of age 

Seniors 15 years of age and over 

Boys 

Midgets Under 12 years of age 

Juniors Under 15 years of age 

Intermediates Under 18 years of age 

Seniors 18 years of age and over 

The playgrounds are divided into leagues of four, 
which are combined into eight districts for inter- 
playground competition. 

In playground competition each league winner 
is qualified to compete in city-wide finals. Any 
boy or girl who is a regular attendant at a play- 
ground and who has not represented any other 
organization within one year is eligible to com- 
pete, but must compete in the playground nearest 
his home. However, if he mo\'es out of the dis- 
trict, he may continue in competition at the same 
playground. Registration for competition in any 
playground remains in effect for one year, and no 



contestant so registered may compete in any park, 
playground, beach or pool events until properly ; 
released. \ 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation | 

The general rules for conducting activities at , 

playgrounds under the direction of the Bureau of , 

Parks, Recreation and Aviation provide that all ; 

age groups who use the playgrounds be given ' 

some time each day. The particular needs, de- ; 

sires and play tendencies of the various age groups ■ 

are given consideration in the daily program. | 

For the purpose of promoting competitive ' 

activities that are to be carried to a final municipal ] 

playground championship, the playgrounds are ; 

divided into four district groups. Tournaments ■ 

and contests are held in such sports as ground ball, \ 
soccer, skating, marbles, track and field, etc. Pre- 
liminaries in each competitive sport are first held 

in the local playground where the best qualified ' 

are selected to represent the playground in inter- ; 

park competition. District meets are promoted in : 

the same games and sports between the winners \ 

of the local competitions in the district. The win- '. 

ners qualified in the district meets are then \ 

eligible to enter the city championships. | 

For the purpose of establishing an equal basis 

of competition and creating definite eligibility ; 

groups, contestants are classified in the following , 
divisions for all competitive activities: 

Classification Age group 

Girls 

Midgets Under 12 years of age 

Juniors 12, 13 and 14 years of age ' 

Seniors 15 years and over 

Boys 

Midgets Under 12 years of age ! 

Juniors 12, 13 and 14 years of age 

Intermediates Under 18 years of age 

Seniors 18 years of age and over 

The Playground Division co-operated last year 
with other institutions and organizations conduct- 
ing activities for the civic welfare of the commun- 
ity, such as the National Recreation Association, 



National Youth Administration Exposition, 
i'outh Week Celebration, atliletic and sport com- 
aetitions arranged by the local newspapers, the 
\mateur Athletic Union of America and others. 
The following programs are typical of those 
ilanned for all months of the year, according to 
.easonal requirements: 
• Month Program Participants 

January Winter season 

First week Local checker Boys 

tournament 
Second week Skating tests Boys and girls 

Third week Racing Boys and girls 

Fourth week Skating cham- Boys and girls 

pionship 

April Spring season 

First week Local marbles Boys and girls 

Second week Local O'Leary Girls 

contest 
Third week Local horseshoe Boys 

tournament 
Fourth week Local volley ball Boys and girls 

July Summer season 

First week Municipal play- Boys and girls 

ground ball 

league 
Second week Municipal athletic Boys 

meet 
Third week Athletic test week Boys and girls 
Fourth week Local track and Girls 

held meet 
October Fall season 

First week Local volley ball Boys 

tournament 
Second week Municipal horse- Girls 

shoe pitching 

championship 
Third week Municipal volley Girls 

ball tournament 
Fourth week Local touch foot- Boys 

ball 
Athletic test week Boys and girls 

Chicago Park District 

The Chicago Park District has the largest and 
most varied tax-supported recreational plant m 
the City of Chicago; because of this, its super- 
vised program is more extensive than those of the 
other agencies, including many types of activity 
for which it alone in the city has adequate equip- 
ment. Supervised recreation in the Chicago Park 
District is divided into two major classifications: 
(i) physical activities, and (2) general activities. 



I . Physical activities. 

Each of the eighty-sc\en ticldhousc parks of 
the Park District provides a full athletic program, 
utilizing both outdoor facilities and gymnasiums, 
anci other physical recreation equipment located 
inside the fieldhouse. Women's and girls' activi- 
ties consist of the following: 

a. Gymnasium classes, including instruction 
and coaching. Groups served include women and 
girls in the entire Chicago Park District. Classi- 
fications include pre-school, junior, intermediate 
and senior, business girls and married women. 

b. Gymnasium activities: Hygiene classes, 
kindergarten classes, folk dancing, interpretive 
dancing, social dancing, tap dancing, acrobatics, 
calisthenics, heavy apparatus, individual exercises 
(correcdve), rhythmics, tumbling, weight nor- 
malizing, life-saving, swimming and diving, all 
organized games including basketball, indoor 
baseball, indoor track and field, volley ball, 
archery, bowling, fencing, relays, semi-annual and 
annual demonstrations of class activities held in 
park gymnasiums. 

c. Playground and athletic field activities: 
Archery, croquet, cycling, hiking, horseshoes, ice 
skating, jackstones, life-saving, marbles, O'Leary, 
outdoor track and field, outdoor volley ball, roller 
skating, Softball, speedball, swimming and diving, 
tennis. 

In addition to this program, community, section 
and city-wide competitive events are conducted in 
the following activities, including all organizations 
in the City of Chicago: 

Actkilv Participants 



Horsehoes 
Ice skating 



Archery Unlimited 

Cycling Junior novice, intermediate novice, 

juniors, intermediates and seniors 

Unlimited 

Junior novice, intermediate novjcc, 
juniors, intermediates and seniors 
Indoor baseball Jifniors, unlimited, and married women 

Indoor track Cirls. juniors and seniors 

Outdoor swinmiing Juniors, unlnuited. and married women 

Outdoor track and field Juniors, intermediates and seniors 
Roller skating Juniors, intermediates and seniors 

Softball Juniors and intermediates 

'Swimming and diving juniors, intermediates and seniors 
Table tennis Jiuiiors, unlimited, and married women 

xJ,„„J5; juniors, intermediates and seniors 

\'oIIcy ball juniors, unlimited, and niarrietl women 

.Men's and boys' activities consist of: 

a. Gymnasium class -uorh, including instruc- 
tion and coaching. Age groups served include men 
and boys in the entire Chicago Park District. 
Classifications include the pre-school age group, 
midgets (6 to 9 ), juniors ( 9 to 1 5 I, intermediates 
(15 to 17), seniors (18 and over), business men 
and unemployed groups. 



li. Gynnhisiuiii (hlhilit's: Calisthenics, gym- 
nastics, hca\y apparatus, tumbling, weight nor- 
malization, life-sa\-ing, swimming and Lli\^ing, all 
low organized games, athletic achievement tests, 
archery, badmintmi, basketball, bowling, boxing, 
fencing, handball, indoor baseball, indoor track 
and field, relays, ruque, tennis, volley ball, wrest- 
ling, semi-annual and annual demonstration of 
class activities held in gymnasium. 

c. Playground and athletic field activities: 
Archery, athletic efficiency tests, baseball, canoe 
racing, croquet, cycling, football, football tests, 
handball, hiking, horseshoes, iceboat racing, ice 
hockey, ice skating, kite tournament. La Bocce, 
lawn bowling, life-saving, marbles, outboard 
motor boat racing, outdoor track and field, out- 
door volley ball, playground ball tests, roller 
skating, roque, soccer, Softball, swimming and 
di\'ing, tennis, touch football, water polo. 

Community, section and city-wide competitive 
events are conducted in the followmg activities, 
including all organizations in the City of Chicago; 



.U'iivily 



Paiticit'anls 



Archery 


Unlimited 


Basketball 


115 pound, 1.35 pound, and unlimited 


Cycling 


Junior novice, intermediate novice 




and senior race wheel 


Horseshoes 


Junior, intermediate and senior 


Indoor baseball 


lunior, intermediate and unlimited 


Indoor roque 


Unlimited 


Ice skating 


Midget and junior, intermediate 




and senior 


Indoor swimming 


Junior, intermediate and senior 


Indoor track 


Junior novice, intermediate novice 




midget, j unior, intermediate and 




senior 


Marbles 


Junior 


Outdoor swimming 


Junior, intermediate and senior 


Outdoor tennis 


Boys, junior and senior 


Outdoor track and field 


Junior novice, intermediate novice. 




junior, intermediate and senior 


Roller skating 


Midget and junior 


Softball 


75 pound. 85 pound, 95 pound, 1115 




pound, 120 pound, unlimited and 




business men 


Table tennis 


Junior, intermediate and senior 


Tennis 


Boys, junior and senior 


\-nlley ball 


Intermediate, senior and business men 


Wrestling 


112 pound. 115 pound. 118 pound, 125 




pound, 135 pound, 145 pound. 165 




l>ound, 175 pound, and heavy- 




weight 



2. General activities 

a. Music and drama: 

Three-act drainas, musical comedies, revues, 
minstrel shows, festi\"als, operettas, pageants and 
children's playlets are produced in the fieldhouscs 
of the Chicago Park District under the direction 
of the Dramatic Department; in addition, many 
outside amateur dramatic clubs use park facilities. 
Auditoriums having stages equipped with foot- 



lights, drops and scenic properties are standard ii! 
the majority of fieldhouses. ; 

Clubs for solo, instrumental and vocal, prches-' 
tral and choral music are to be found at parks irl 
each section of the city. Experimental work is be-| 
ing done in the use of scrap materials for the mak- 
ing of simple musical instruments. "Tone andi 
rhythm bands" are composed of children, using! 
xylophones made of discarded bowling pins,i 
drums and tambourines constructed from old' 
cheese boxes, chiines which once were steel golf^ 
club shafts, and bottles partly filled with water.] 

b. Crafts : 

In the Crafts Section of the Recreatioi: Division; 
various clubs, under the guidance of trained in-; 
structors, supervise the making of birdhouses, nov-' 
elty furniture and whatnots, woodcarvings, bas-i 
kets, trays, bowls, belts, articles carved from bone, 
and other objects. Members of archery clubs makel 
their own tackle, and then learn to shoot. In the 
majority of parks are model airplane clubs, the! 
members of which make their own miniature, 
planes under supervision. During the course of' 
the year the Chicago Park District sponsors nu-^ 
merous indoor and outdoor contests for model', 
gliders, several classes of rubber powered minia-j 
ture airplanes and gasoline engine powered, 
models. In one of the parks is a club made up of i 
older boys who build and fly man-carrying gliders, i 
In the spring of the year kite making and kite fly- ; 
ing contests are also a part of park activities. As ' 
with model airplanes, model yachts are designed ' 
and built in the parks and then entered by the ; 
owners in park sponsored competition. ' 

For boys between the ages of fourteen and i 
seventeen there are eleven junior yacht clubs ] 
which meet at park fieldhouses to build ten foot ': 
sailing dinghies, which, when completed, are taken ' 
to Burnham Park Lagoon on the lake front for 
inter-club racing. 

Other activities under the jurisdiction of the , 
Crafts Department include the making of gro- 
tesque heads and the design and construction of 
carnival lanterns. These are used in park cele- 
brations such as circuses, water carnivals, festivals 
and Hallowe'en parades. Another park activity 
for men and boys is found in park machine shops 
at which automobile engines are rebuilt and re- 
paired. In some of the parks radio design and 
building is offered, several park radio clubs hav- 



ing licensed short wave stations for communica- 
tion with one another and with other "hams." The 
I Craft Department also sponsors the design and 
construction of homemade musical instruments, 
including violins, cellos, violas, chimes and flutes. 
On completion, the makers of the instruments are 
taught to play them and become members of an 
amateur orchestra. 

Print shops where boys edit the text, set type, 
print their local, and in some cases sectional, news 
sheets, tickets, bulletins, etc., are under the man- 
agement of the Craft Department. 

The list of art crafts includes pottery, felt craft, 
soap carving, raffia craft, basketry, jesso, rug mak- 
ing, weaving on table looms, batik work, needle- 
point, leather crafts, the making of Christmas tree 
ornaments, knitting and crocheting, decorative 
mask-making, quilting and the making of afghans, 
"weavit," block printing, stenciling, crayon craft 
and silk painting. Dress design and sewing in the 
parks include styling, remodeling and the actual 
making of dresses, coats, other garments and ac- 
cessories. Fashion shows of models created b\' 
members of dressmaking clubs are held frequent- 
ly. In two parks are established lapidary shops 
where stones are cut, polished and set as jewels. 
Various clubs cievote their efforts to the fashion- 
ing, costuming and showing of hand puppets and 
marionettes. The considerati(jn of interior decora- 
tion principles has been a part of the program for 
art craft clubs. These principles are applied in 
"New Rooms for Old" contests, promoted by the 
Art Craft Department, for improving the appear- 
ance of club rooms in park fieldhouses. Active in 
thirty- five of the parks are junior garden clubs 
and nature study groups. In four Chicago Park 
District recreation centers are toy lending libraries 
which circulate toys made from scrap materials or 
discarded toys which have been received as dona- 
tions and reconditioned in park shops. The toy 
lending libraries lend toys to children through the 
employment of regular library cards. Children 
may also use the toys and games during super- 
vised play periods at parks where the libraries are 
located. 

c. Wo/nen's and Special Activities: 

A new extension of service encourages employed 
girls and women to make greater use of existing 



recreational opportunities. Community centers 
have special evening classes for older women and 
girls in dramatics, music, dancing, swimming and 
handicraft, all provided free of charge. A course 
in home beautification lias been developed for 
local women's clubs. The Women's Activities Sec- 
tion endeavors to organize women and girls who 
work in offices, stores, shops and factories through- 
out the city into recreational clubs and groups. 
Their program includes city-wide adult hiking 
clubs, girls' industrial softball leagues, bowling 
leagues, volley ball and basketball leagues, gym- 
nasium and dancing clubs, art craft clubs of ail 
kinds, tennis and golf lessons, swimming lessons, 
archery clubs and folk dancing groups. 

Children's pre-school play groups are located in 
the majority of parks. 

At six parks camera clubs have been established 
by the Chicago Park District for the development 
of fine photography. Membership is open to the 
novice as well as to the amateur expert. 

The Chicago Public Library maintains branches 
in many of the parks, the Park District supplying 
the quarters, the Library staff operating the read- 
ing room and loan library features. 

The Parks do not attempt a standard and re- 
quired program. Experimentally, since consolida- 
tion they have, instead, attempted to tit into the 
needs of the community surrounding each park 
center, offering their resources in special personnel 
and leadership, as well as in equipment, to the dis- 
trict at large and particularly to communities 
where local needs indicate that personnel or 
equipment will be of greatest value. 

Attempts are made to organize the forces of 
the local community in promotion of community 
programs. Business men's organizations, for ex- 
ample, are urged to adopt and promote a program 
of Hallowe'en service; other community groups 
are similarly encouraged to sponsor specific local 
developments. It is felt that local initiative can 
best be stimulated by allowing the maximum de- 
gree of local autononi)-, and that the park director 
is an officer appointed to work in liaison with the 
forces and to follow the traditions and desires of 
the community which he and his institution serve. 



123 



CHAPTER VII 



PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES 



Introduction 

Rccrcatioii within recent years has become 
recognized as a fundamental component of ade- 
quate educational programs. Not only in the 
physical education program of the regular school 
curriculum, but also in after school play, adult 
education programs, and community center pro- 
jects, schools in the United States have provided 
for the leisure time of children and adults in 
man)' communities. Ho\ve\'er, an appreciable lag 
still remains in the provision of adequate facili- 
ties and equipment for the effective operation of 
recreational programs utilizing public school 
properties. 

In the report of the President's Research Com- 
mittee on Social Trends, 1933, the place of the 
public school plant in the recreational life of the 
community was summarized as follows: 

"While the sclujol yard has traditionally been 
a part of the American public school plant, ade- 
quate play space for all children has but recently 
been considered a vital necessity to the educa- 
tional program. Unfortunately, the small school 
yards of a generation ago are still to be seen in 
large numbers, and in many cases their size has 
suffered a reduction through the erection of addi- 
tional school buildings. According to a recent sur- 
vey twenty per cent of the elementary schools in 
cities having a population of 30,000 to 100,000 
had no playgrounds and scarcely fifty per cent of 
the city high schools were provided with either 
playgrounds or athletic fields. 

"During the past ten years the increasing dis- 
satisfaction over the small amount of play space 
provided by the public schools has resulted in a 
tendency to secure more ample grounds, specially 
when erecting school buildings in new locations. 
By 1930 at least eight states had passed laws 
which set up minimum requirements for school 
playgrounds. State boards of education in twenty 
states ha\'e adopted rules and regulations concern- 
ing the size of school sites. The areas required by 
statute or regulations of state boards vary from 
one to six acres for elementary schools and from 
two to ten acres for high schools. In the case of 



many of the more recently built schools located in 
small cities or in the outlying districts of large 
cities these minimum standards have been at- 
tained, and in an increasing number of cases have 
been greatly exceeded. The enlargement of the 
older school grounds, however, is proceeding very 
slowly. 

"Recognition of the need for indoor recreation 
space during inclement weather has become gen- 
eral enough during recent years to modify the 
architecture of school buildings. Either a gym- 
nasium, or an auditorium that can be used as a 
gymnasium, is now regarded as standard equip- 
ment for public schools. Play rooms and, less fre- 
quently, swimming pools are also included in 
modern school plants. Unfortunately, many 
thousands of oki school buildings do not contain 
adequate facilities for indoor recreation; they 
were built at a time when the need for recrea- 
tional equipment was less keenly felt. A survey 
made during 1926-1927 showed that only thirty 
per cent of the schools reporting in 410 cities had 
gymnasiums. Forty-eight per cent of the schools 
reported neither gymnasium nor playrooms and 
presumably had made no provision for indoor 
games. Swimming pools were provided in one or 
more of the public schools in twenty-three per cent 
of the cities studied. While provision for indoor 
recreation in the public schools is apparently on 
the increase, it seems to be lagging behind the de- 
velopment of grounds for outdoor games."' 

In commenting on the need for more active 
play areas in communities, J. F. Steiner, author of 
the Recreatio)i and Leisure Time Activities 
section of this report, recommended that "A more 
effective way of dealing with this situation may 
be the greater utilization of school buildings and 
grounds after school hours and during week-ends 
and vacations as local play and recreational cen- 
ters for residents of the immediate neighborhood. 
This would necessitate a much larger play space 
for many schools and, in some instances, a new 

'Recent Soelal Trends in the United States. Report of the 
President's Research Committee on Social Trends, textbook 
edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1933, pp. 
918-919. 



124 



■ type of school building equipped with means for 
indoor recreation. The present widespread failure 
of the public school system to co-operate fully in 
the development of a well-rounded municipal 
recreation program has slowed up the progress of 
the modern recreation movement."^ 

In an address before the National Education 
Association in 1934 President R. M. Hutchins of 

' the University of Chicago, in indicating the rela- 
tionship between the school and the general com- 

I munity, suggested: "We must regard the school 
not as a place where classes are taught, but as the 
center of community life, reflecting the com- 
munity's interest in music, art, the drama and cur- 
rent affairs as well as in what we have been accus- 
tomed to think of as education." 

In many communities throughout the United 
States the school plant is being used extensi\'ely 
in other than formal education programs. Par- 
ticularly is this true of Milwaukee, where the 
"lighted schoolhouse" has become a byword, and 
in California, where state legislation provides for 
the wide use of all public school equipment. In 
many other communities school buildings are 
open to the public either in official programs spon- 
sored by the Board of Education or through pri- 
vately-supported projects directed by civic 
agencies, Parent-Teacher Associations and other 
organizations in co-operation with the local school 
boards. Because of the close relationship between 
education and recreation, and because "if schools 
are properly located to ser\'e the districts, then 
playgrounds are logically at the same location and 
the happy solution is that they can be one and 
the same, thus avoiding duplication of ground 
area, instruction, equipment, teachers, leaders and 
overhead expense,"" some communities place all 
public recreation under the jurisdiction of the 
Board of Education. In any event it must be 
recognized that the school phuit i^ potential]}' a 
tremendous asset in the provision of public lei- 
sure-time opportunities in any communit\'. 

It has already been pointed out that the invok- 
ing of inflexible standards in judging a city's wel- 
fare equipment very often is completely unsatis- 
factory; in many instances a misrepresentation of 
the actual picture may result. There are, how- 
ever, certain general formulae which have been 

'Report of the President's Kcseareli (.'oiiiniitlee nii .'soeial 
Trends, o[>. cii.. p. ''55. 
T.eorgc H. Hcrrold, Plan of Si. I\uil. \922. p. 45. 



established by educators and recreation leaders as 
to what constitute minimums for public school 
recreation purposes. These standards, it should be 
understood, are based upon the hypothesis that 
there are no other public agencies providing simi- 
lar recreational service within the same area, and 
that all supervised recreation is under the auspices 
of the school system. For this reason it should be 
pointed out that in a community such as Chicago, 
wherein there are three niajor recreational bodies, 
these analyses of the Board (jf Education's proper- 
ties are not intended to indicate the adecjuacy of 
the public recreati(Miai provisions within any given 
district, but are included only for the purpose of 
indicating the extent to which the Board of Edu- 
cation of Chicago measures up to minimum 
standards. 

Sites 

High Schools 

N. L. and Fred l-"ngelhardt, in Plautiifig 
School Building PiogrciDis, recommend that a 
high school site have a minimum of twenty acres.' 
Dr. George O. Strayer, Director of the Institute 
of Educational Research, Division of I-"ield 
Studies, Teachers College, Columbia Uni\-ersity, 
has established twenty acres as a desirable mini- 
mum for a senior high school site and ten acres 
for a junior high: 

"The site should lie suflicienth' conimanding to 
give the high school building a setting in keep- 
ing with the cost of the building and the import- 
ance of the structure. No site of less than ten 
to twelve acres will suflice for girls' playfield, 
bo\'s' athletic held, tennis courts, kisketbail courts, 
\olle\' bull courts, experimental gardens, proper 
placement of buildings, and give desinxble land- 
scape setting. In large cities, larger are:is should 
be secured so as to make possible an athletic held, 
separate buildings for gxninasiums, baths, dress- 
ing rooms, shops, and the like. The area should 
be contiguous in nature, preferably rectangular in 
form. Tt should be recognized that outdoor fetes 
pageantry, and other festi\als have become a defi- 
nite part'of the modern high school program, and 
that the planning of the site should include pro- 
vision for this type of activity."" 

'Phmnhu, -SV/...../ Hu.hiin.i rro.irams. I'.nre.iti ,>i V"\'Ua,^ 
tions. TcaelRTS ColleRe, Coliiml.ia Lnivorsity, New \ork. 19J0. 

"*■ r. b. Stravcr and N. I.. I'.nnelhardl. Sl.uul.irds f.-r //...;/■ 
.SV/j.'o/ niiildi'iKif. r.iiuan oi l'iiMi>-.-ili..nv 1 cache rs t oIlcRc. 
Cnlnmhia University, New \'ork. I'L'-I, p. H'. 



125 



The Commission on the Reorganization of 
Secondary Education advises that 150 square feet 
per pupil be established as the minimum play 
space for iunior and senior high school pupils.' 

Elementary Schools 

For the elementary school site Strayer and 
Engelhardt have established four acres as a mini- 
mum.' George D. Butler, of the National Recrea- 
tion Association, stated that: 

"between three and one-half and four acres are 
required in order to provide the spaces and facili- 
ties considered necessary for an adequate play- 
ground program for children five to fifteen years 
of age. In arriving at this standard the following 
requirements, all of which are essential, have been 
taken into account: 

1 . Physical activities and team games com- 
monly included in and recognized as essential to 
school physical education and playground pro- 
grams; 

2 . Spaces and facilities required for these ac- 
tivities both during the regular school session and 
in after-school, noon-hour and vacation periods; 

3 . Other play interests and activities — manual, 
music, dramatic, nature and craft; 

4. Free play activities such as group games, 
swinging, wading, which the children enjoy apart 
from their educational or health values; 

5. Playground beautification; 

6. Space for free circulation, paths and safety 

553 

zones. 

"Henry S. Curtis's estimate for elementary school 
buildings calls for two acres .... the basis of two 
acres for 684 pupils is equivalent to 127 square 
feet per pupil. The National Education Associa- 
tion resolutions demand 272 square feet per child 
for play, recreation and gardening."' Jesse Feiring 
Williams, Professor of Physical Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University, stated 
that two hundred square feet for each student is 
the most acceptable standard for an elementary 
school site when the area per pupil is used as a 
basis.* Strayer and Engelhardt recommend that 
the playground, exxlusive of lawns and gardens, 

'Physical F.ducalifn in Sciomhiry Schools. United State'~ 
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin 
No. 50. 1917, p. 15. 

'G. D. Strayer and N. I.. luiffclhardt. Slamhnds for Elcineu- 
fary School Bnihlings. Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, New York, 1923, p. 10. 

'G. D. Butler, ".Space K(i|uiremcnts for llie Oiildren's Plav- 
LTound," Recreation, .XuRust, 1934, p. 239. 

']. F. Williams. The Principles oj Physical Education, W. B. 
Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1927, p. .1%. 



should provide a minimum of one hundred square ; 
feet per pupil.' In elaborating on space require- 
ments in school sites, Lee F. Hanmer, Director of j 
the Department of Recreation, Russell Sage 
Foundation, indicated that: 

"if the school board will provide twenty-five 
square feet of playground space for every seat in 
the school building, it will come near to meeting 1 
the playground needs for the neighborhood. 1 
These school play spaces should be supplemented 
by such other playgrounds as local conditions may 
determine."' 

William A. Stecher of Philadelphia points out 
the space required for games usually conducted 
on playground and playfield, as follows:' 



"/»/■• ■/"" 



Playe 



Space 
Space needed per player 
in sq. ft. in sq. jt. 



Ring games 




30-40 




625 


18 


Tag games 




30-40 




1,400 


40 


Dodge ball 




30-40 




2,000 


50 


VoUev ball 




20 




1,650 


SO 


Captain hall 




20 




2 275 


113 


Playground ball 


20 




4,900 


245 












Space 


For hic/hlv organic 


ed 




spa 


ce needed 


per player 


games 




Players 


in sq.ft. 


in sq. ft. 



Baseball 
Football 
Basketball 
Field hockey 
Tennis 



105,625 
52,800 

4,000 
59,400 

6,608 



5,8 
2,400 
400 
2,700 
1,652 



In 1923 the Recreation Congress reported the 
amount of acreage required for games:* 



Games 



Acres 



Baseball, football 


4 


Tennis 


2 


Indoor baseball 


I 


Volley ball 


V2 


Basketball 


% 


Running track, etc. 


Va 



Total 8 

For an eight gracie elementary school of 600 
pupils, George D. Butler suggests the following 
space requirements for physical education:^ 



'G. D. Strayer and N. L. Engelhardt, Standards for Ele- 
mentary School Buildings, Bureau of Publications, Teachers 
College. Columbia University. New York City, 1923. p. 10. 

"L. F. Hanmer, Regional Survey of AVtw York and Its En- 
virons, Vol. V, p. 106. 

■7. F. Williams, op. cil.. p. 342 

'Ibid, p. 343. 

'•Butler, G. D., '■Sjiacc KcquirLnicnts (ur t he Children's 
Playground"; Recreation. August, 1934, p. 242. 



126 



Group served 



Facility or area 



Dimensions Sq. fl. required 



Kindergarten 


Level area for circle and running games 


3O'x40' 


1,200 


(2 rooms or periods — 














40 children) 














1st, 2d, and 3d grades. 


.Apparatus area (1 room) 










4,430 


(6 rooms — 235 children) 


Open space for rhythmic and 


hunting 


games and 


SCxSO' 






relays (5 rooms) 








(average) for 
each of the 
5 groups 


12,500 


4th. 5th and 6th grades. 


.Apparatus area (1 room) 










4,430 


(6 rooms — 210 children) 


Open space for game or relay 


(1 


room 




S(y}i60' 


3,000 




Bovs — Simplified soccer 






(22 bovs) 


lOCxlSO' 


15,000 




\'olley ball 






(20 boys) 


40'x70' 


2.800 




High jump 






(10 boys) 


20'x3f>' 


600 




Broad jump 






(10 bovs) 


icxec 


600 




Girls — Playground b;l.^ehall 






(20 girls 1 


120'xl2li' 


14,400 




9 Court basketball 






(24 girls ) 


50'x75' 


3,7S0 




Relays 






(26 girls 1 


S0'x60' 


3.000 




Total space for games, grades 


4-e 








. 47,580 


7th and 8th grades 


Roys — Soccer 






(22 bovsi 


150'x240' 


36,000 


(3 rooms — 115 cliildren) 


Playground baseball 
Tumping pits 






(20 boysi 
(14 boys) 


KSO'xlSO' 
2f/x,3n' 

KKxec 


22.500 
1,200 




Girls — Playground liascball 






(20 girls) 


!2=:'xl2^' 


15.625 




\'oIlev ball 






(18 girls) 


WiJV 


2,800 




9 Court basketball 






(20 girls) 


50'x75' 


3.750 




Total space for games, grades 


7 a 


nd S. 






81.875 









"The younger children can use the same spaces as 
the older ones do for their games. Therefore, the 
minimum space which will serve the needs of the 
8-grade school under scheduled use is that re- 
quired for the seventh and eighth grade children 
— 81,875 square feet — plus the apparatus area of 
4,430 square feet and the kindergarten area of 
1,200 square feet .... total of 87,505 square feet 
or 2 acres." The Subcommittee on the School 
Plant of the White House Conference empha- 
sized that the school site must provide not only 
for adequate play space and the proper placement 
of the building, but that landscaping was an im- 
portant item in the development of the site. 

Gymnasiums 

Physical education is now recognized as an 
; integral part of the school curriculum, and the 
provision of gymnasiums is no longer regarded 
as a frill or luxury. Gymnasiums are, however, 
utilized not only for formal gymnasium exercises 
and calisthenics, but for many indoor athletic 
sports. The development of intramural athletic 
programs for the student body and the conduct 
of interscholastic tournaments in many sports 
'Utilize the gymnasiums of school buildings not 
only during the regular school day, but also fir 
after-school play and general community use in 
the evening. While there is no set standard for 
the size of a gymnasium, there are certain mini 



mums which authorities have established so that 
games may be played and apparatus used with 
adequate protection. The Committee on Recrea- 
tion and Physical Education for the White House 
Conference recommended that a minimum height 
of eighteen feet be established. Strayer and 
Engelhardt, in discussing standards for high 
school buildings, recommend the following: 

"The gymnasium room may have dimensions 
of 40 feet by 60 feet. .\ larger floor space, 50 
by 80 feet, is preferred. The height of the gym- 
nasium should be 18 feet under all beams and 
trestles. When enrollments in high school are 
planned above 800, separate g}-mnasiums for boys 
and girls should be pro\-ided. Two gymn.asiums 
mav even be necessary in schools from 500 to 800 
depending upon the kind of health program which 
is being advanced. Where two gymnasiums are 
planned, it frequently is desirable to so locate 
them that they may be thrown into one large 
Lvmnasium for public games. In such cases, sepa- 
ration of gymnasiums is made possible through 
movable doors or through heavy canvas corridors. 
In the larger schools, gymnasiums are frequently 
50 feet by 80 feet or 60 feet by qo feet."' 

In analyzing minimum ret|uiremcnts for phys- 
ical activities in secondary schools the Commission 
on the Reorganization of Scomdary Education, 
appointed by the National Education .XssiKiation, 

'G IJ Strayer ami X I- Kngelliardt. Standards for High 
\\luH,l Ituildi'tws. Bureau ..1 PuMicatl..u-, Tea. b.-s C.ll.-Kr. 
Columbia Universitv. N, v. V..rk. \^2i. p. 7n. 



lay 



as far back as 191 7 recommended that schools of 
200 to 600 should be provided with one gym- 
nasium not less than 50 by 70 feet in size; and 
in schools of mure than 600 pupils there should 
be two gymnasiums, 60 by 80 feet each, one for 
bo)'s and one for girls.' 

In many instances g\mnasiums are so con- 
structed that the\- can \'ery easily be converted 
into assembh' halls for school meetings, moving 
picture shows, lectures and other types of enter- 
tainment. It is suggested the gymnasium be so 
situated in the building that it can be used after 
school hours without access to the remainder of 
the building; also, that heating arrangements be 
provided independently of the remainder of the 
building. 

Assembly Halls 

Rcpoi-ts i)f the White House Conference indi- 
cate that the assembly hall is regarded by educa- 
tors as an important part of the school plant. Its 
use for lectures, orchestra anci band rehearsals, 
symposiums and dramatics, both during the school 
day and in the e\'enings, makes it valuable equip- 
ment from an eciucationa! standpoint and also a 
desirable community center. It is advisable that 
wherever possible the auditorium should have a 
seating capacity equal to that of the total enroll- 
ment of the school, and that it should be so situ- 
ated as to provide a maximum of safety. It should 
be equipped with a stage having fire-proofed 
scenic effects and properties. Motion picture 
equipment is now recognized as an important item 
in the furnishing of school auditoriums. 

Swimming Pools 

For high schools at least one swimming pool is 
suggested by leading authorities. Formerly the 
minimum size recommended was 20 feet by 60 
feet, but in recent years 25 feet by 75 feet has 
become the more acceptable standard. In larger 
high schools separate swimming pools for boys 
and girls are advised. Adequate lighting and ven- 
tilation are necessary, and conformance to hygienic 
standards is mandatory. In most communities 
either State or local statutes provide the necessary 
protection in this regard. A continuous circulating 
filtered water system is the most satisfactory 

'l'hy<rii-al Education in Srcondary Si-honls. United States 
Department of the Interior, Bnreau of Education, Bnlletin No 
50, 1917, pp. 12-13. 



method of guaranteeing sanitation and tempera-' 
ture control. ' 

Showers and Dressing Rooms 

The Bureau of Education of the Department of 
Interior, in its bulletin on Physical Education in 
Secondary Schools, recommends that the gymna- 
sium and swimming pool facilities include proper 
dressing rooms. Strayer and Engelhardt, in 
Standards for High School Buildings^ make the 
following recommendations regarding dressing 
room facilities: 

"Dressing rooms permitting of changes into' 
athletic and gymnasium garments should be pro- 
vided adjoining each gymnasium. These rooms' 
should include provision for regular classes as well; 
as for visiting teams. Bathing and locker facilities! 
should be made a part of the equipment of these| 
rooms. All of these rooms should be so locatedl 
that passage directly to the gymnasium floor is' 
made directly. .Adequate lighting and ventilatiorl 
of these rooms are highly essential. Rooms should, 
be so constructed as to permit of ease of cleansing! 
It is also desirable to have the dressing rooir; 
facilities conveniently located with respect iC 
swimming pool, provided it is included in the 
plan. Obscure glass should be used in all win-! 
dows and all lighting fixtures should be protectee 
against breakage and rough usage. Radiatioij 
should be so located as to prevent injury to stui 
dents." i 

"In addition, 100 dressing booths, 2 feet ic' 
inches by 4 feet, should be supplied. This give: 
booths for two classes of 50 girls each, one com' 
ing to the gymnasium, the other leaving it. Ii' 
gymnasiums where boys and girls alternate in it 
use, or where the gymnasium is not used continu; 
ously, 50 dressing booths would be sufficient, 
Again, it is possible to reduce the number of dress 
ing booths to 50 by having one girl dress in th' 
booth containing the clothing of a girl on th' 
gymnasium floor." 

"The equipment of dressing rooms include 
lockers, permanent and durable seating arrange 
ments, mirrors, and floor boards. Hair-dryin; 
machines should be installed in the girls' dressia 
rooms." 

"Toilet facilities should be provided in con 
junction with all dressing rooms." 

"Showers should be easy of access from gym 
nasium, swimming pool, and athledc field, th 
number depending upon probable size of gym: 
nasium classes." 

'Pp. 35, 37, 38, 73. 



128 



"For girls there should be individual side show- 
ers in a nest of compartments consisting of shower 
space, drying space, dressing space, and locker 
space; non-absorbent partitions; hair-drying ma- 
chines." 

"For boys there should be individual side show- 
ers in separate stalls, with drying space adjacent 
to general locker room. All valves should be of 
the automatically-operating type. Adequate plan- 
ning will consider proper drainage, non-slip floors, 
.' adequate natural and artificial lighting, and the 
' proper seclusion for shower rooms." 

"Boys' Locker Equipment — There should be 
either a provision of a half-size locker 12 by 12 
by 36 inches for each member of the school, or an 
J equipment of full-size lockers for two large 
1 classes with basket lockers 13 by 9 by 8 inches for 
i each member of the school. Lockers should be 
' located in locker rooms equipped with mirrors, 
' benches, wash bowls, etc., adjoining the gymna- 
i slums. Adequate locker provisions for visiting 
teams will consist of full-sized locker to permit 
of the storage of suitcases as well as outer gar- 
ments. Locker service for football teams and base- 
' ball teams will require full-length locker. It is 
also desirable to provide storage lockers for lost, 
I outgrown and misplaced uniforms, etc." 

"Girls' Locker Equipment — Either the individ- 
ual lockers or the box lockers may be used for 
■ girls as for boys, with the same space require- 
f ments. The box lockers may be used, where the 
street clothes are kept during the exercise period 
in the dressing booths." 

Miscellaneous 

In addition to the aforementioned facilities the 
recreational values of which are readily recog- 

' nized, modern school buildings include libraries, 
club rooms, mechanical drafting rooms, band and 
orchestra rehearsal halls, printing shops and 
manual training rooms, laboratories and similar 
specially equipped rooms. Recreationally these 
rooms serve a two-fold purpose. They arc often 
utilized in general community center and adult 
education programs after school hours, thus be- 
coming part of the community's further recrea- 
tional equipment. Equally important is the fact 
that through supervised instruction in these 
shops and special rooms students very often de- 

. velop special "hobby interests" which are carried 
over into their after-school life, thus providing a 
means of leisure-time enjoyment for adults. 



It is only within comparatively recent years 
that educational building architecture has taken 
cognizance of the possible \alue of the school 
building for uses other than formalized "readin', 
'ritin', and 'rithmetic" instruction; accordingly 
only the newer school buildings include adequate 
provisions. State educational commissions, local 
boards of education, and city governments are 
gradually assuring more adequate school build- 
ings by regulating the size of sites by statute and 
by establishing minimum standards below which 
no new building can be constructed. 

Board of Education of the City of Chicago 

The Board of Education of the City of Chi- 
cago directs all public tax-supported education 
within the City of Chicago and has under its con- 
trol all public school properties within the city. 
During the 1936- 193 7 school term educational 
buildings under its jurisdiction were classified as 
follows: 

Number of 
Classification schools 



Colleges, junior 3 

Colleges, normal i 

Continuation schools i 

Elementary schools 3-- 

Elementary schools, branches 9 

High schools 3° 

High schools, branches 8 

High and elementary schools combined 7 

Prevocational schools* i 

Special schools 5 

^'ocational schools 4 

Total 391 

•Five others iiicludefi in elementary schools. 

In addition, 938 children attended elementary 
school in the thirteen portables on sites separate 
from the buildings listed. Non-educational prop- 
erties and revenue-producing real estate supple- 
mented these properties. The total valuation of 
all plants and equipment has been estim.ated at 
$250,000,000. The present educational buildings 
of the Board of Education range in age over a 
period of approximately eighty years. The oldest 
existing school building in use was erected in 
1856. Based upon the date of erection the present 
educational plant and equipment is classified as 
follows: 



129 



Date of erection 



Before 1870 
1870-1879 
1880-1889 
1890-1899 
1 900- 1 909 
1 9 1 o- 1 9 1 9 
1920-1929 
1 930- 1 93 6 

Total 



Buildings 


Number 


Per cent 


8 


2.06 


15 


3.86 


68 


1748 


90 


23-14 


63 


16.19 


52 


13-37 


71 


18.25 


22 


S.6S 



Technical High School. The average attendance '< 
at the 329 elementary schools was 1,013; '^i the' 
high schools the average enrollment was 3,252. 1 
Based upon January, 1937 records the 482,655! 
pupils were distributed in the 404 schools as fol- ] 
lows: ' 



Eiiroll- of 

incut schools 



Number 




Number 1 


of 


Enroll- 


of . 


schools 


mcnl 


schools 1 



389=* 



*Wilson Junior College and Parker High included in Chicago 
Normal and Parker Practice. 

It will be observed that nearly fifty per cent 
of the buildings still in use were erected before 
1900. In many instances the original buildings 
h;u'e been remodeled from time to time and have 
been supplemented with additions. However, the 
majority of the older buildings cannot be re- 
garded as modern; consequently in many in- 



1-99 

100-199 
200-299 
300-399 
400-499 
500-599 
600-699 
700-799 
800-899 
900-999 
1000-1099 
1100-1199 
1200-1299 



1300-1399 
1400-1499 
1500-1599 
1600-1699 
1700-1799 
1800-1899 
1900-1999 
2000-2099 
2100-2199 
2200-2299 
2300-2399 
2400-2499 
2500-2599 



2600-2(i99 

2700-2799 

2800-2899 

2900-2999 

3000-3099 

3100-3199 

3200-3299 

3300-3399 

3400-3499 

3500-3599 

3600-3699 

3700 and over 

Total 




2 

1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
1 

10 
404 



The 1937 school attendance, classified accord-' 
ing to date of erection of buildings, was divided as ' 
follows: I 



Year of 


A' 


nmherofbt 


liUiings 




Attendance 103 


■; 


Total aiti 


'ndance 


erection 


lilenientar 


v Highf 


Other* 


Elementary 


Might 


Other* 


Number 


Per cent 


1855-1859 


4 






3,182 




242 


3.424 


.718 


1865-1869 


3 






2 822 






2.822 


.591 


1870-1874 


8 






5,864 




154 


6,018 


1.261 


1875-1879 


5 


i 




4,130 


763 




4,893 


1.025 


1880-1 884 


34 


3 




31,150 


1.184 


348 


32,682 


6.848 


1885-1889 


27 


4 




28,340 


12,3()S 


405 


41.113 


8.615 


l,Sc)(l.I8<-)4 


45 


8 




49,214 


7,170 


268 


56.652 


11.871 


hWS-lX'W 


39 


5 




40,709 


9.052 


298 


50.059 


10.490 


l'i|||l-l'){l4 


2?) 


7 




22.611 


14.230 


660 


37.501 


7.858 


10(15. ii)(i<i 


30 


4 




29,518 


5.543 


4.732 


39.793 


8.338 


l'illl-1914 


27 


9 




29.303 


24.506 


213 


54.022 


11.320 


l')13-191') 


15 


4 




16,507 


7.298 


196 


24,001 


5.029 


1>I2()-1924 


12 


2 




14,041 


1.094 




15,135 


3.172 


1925-UI2') 


51 


14 




46,623 


27.677 


512 


74,812 


15.676 


1930-1934 


9 


6 




6,752 


19,392 




26.144 


5.478 


1935-1936 


9 


1 




4,727 


3.432 




8.159 


1.710 



Total 



341 



68 



16 



335,493 133.709 8,028 

tincludes thirty-one Uranclies and seven combined high and elementary huildings. 
*Vocational, prc-voc.uinnal. continuation, and special. 



Stances recreational facilities of any type whatever 
are lacking. During 1936 the Board of Education 
undertook an alteration and remodeling program 
to eliminate safety hazards and to modernize an- 
tiquated equipment. This work, however, did not, 
in most instances, affect the recreational facilities 
in the buildings, as the cost of renovating and im- 
proving these items ran beyond available funds. 

Attendance 

Attendance in public schools in the City of Chi- 
cago during the 1936-1937 school year ranged 
from 23 in an elementary school portable branch 
to the more than 8,500 registered at the new Lane 



Administration 

It has been indicated in Chapter V that the 
control of the playground recreation of the Board 
of Education is under the jurisdiction of a Bureau 
of Recreation. This department operates under a 
director responsible to the Superintendent of 
Schools. Its jurisdiction extends only over the 
sixty supervised equipped playgrounds and one 
athletic field. Where a playground is situated ad- 
jacent to the school, shelter buildings are located 
on the playground site, making the playground a 
separate entity having no relationship to the 
school building itself. The operation of the play- 
grounds includes no use of the indoor recreational 



130 



icilities of the school buildings proper, since these 
uildings are closed immediately after the regular 
:hool day. 

The control of the gymnasiums, swimming 
iools and other physical recreational activities 
quipment located within the school buildings is 
dministered through the Department of Physical 
Education of the Board of Education, which pro- 
''ides physical education instructors for the formal 
;ymnasium program. In some elementary schools 
vhere the enrollment is sufficiently large, full 
ime instructors are assigned to the individual 
.chool; otherwise, the instructor's time is prorated 
imong several schools. The Department of Phys- 
cal Education also directs all physical intramural 
urograms and has charge of the interscholastic 

tompetition in the high schools and junior col- 
eges. During the summer of 1937 the Depart- 
nent of Physical Education supervised the opera- 

;ion of swimming pools in twenty high schools 

which were opened for general use by boys and 

girls during the vacation period. 

Community Centers 

Prior to 1932, for a period of twenty years, the 
Board of Education conducted a community cen- 
ter program in a limited number of school build- 
ings throughout the city. The program was sus- 
pended during 1932 as a result of the economy 
measures inaugurated by the Board of Education 
in that year. In community center programs recre- 
ational activities consisted of athletic events, pub- 
'lic lectures, social dancing, dramatics and other 
entertainment of various types. These distinctly 
recreational features were supplemented by in- 
struction in sewing, art and dramatics, Americani- 
zation courses, together with certain academic 
studies. The school community center program 
was under the jurisdiction of a director responsible 
to an assistant superintendent of schools. For a 
time the community center division was incor- 
porated as a department of the Bureau of Recrea- 
tion. Centers were usually open two evenings a 
week from the early fall to the first of May. In 
the years preceding the suspension of the program 
the cost of maintaining the building and directing 
the activities was divided between the Board of 
Education and a neighborhood community associa- 
tion which, in most instances, assumed the re- 
sponsibility for the acti\'e management of the in- 



dividual center. The Board of Education pro\'ided 
the building with heat and light, in addition to an 
official supervisor. The community association, by 
collecting membership dues and assessing small 
fees and charges for special entertainments, sup- 
plemented the Board of Education's contribution 
by paying additional instructors and financing the 
cost of special social activities and other events in- 
cluded in the program. From 1925 to 193 1 in- 
clusive the number of buildings used in the eve- 
nings exclusively for the community center pro- 
gram varied as follows: 

Number of 
year buildin gs 

1925 18 

1926 18 

1927 18 

1928 27 

1929 28 

1930 27 

1 93 1 27 

Additional buildings supplementing these com- 
munity centers were opened as e\'ening schools 
offering a uniform type of instruction, and also 
providing entertainments and special civic and 
social events. In many districts of the city com- 
munity centers were entirely self-supporting, the 
local community being sufficiently aggressive to 
provide the necessary funds. Community centers 
of the Board of Education were operated along 
lines somewhat similar to the programs of the 
park community centers now functioning in the 
individual park fieldhouses throughout the city. 
In 1928 the amount expended by the Board of 
Education in financing the communit\' center pro- 
gram was divided as follows: 

hislruitiou 

Salaries and wages $10,175.54 

Auto mileage 543.50 

Total $ ■ 0,7 1 9.04 

Operation of plant 

Salaries and wages $21,275.00 

Gas and electricity 3,500.00 

Fuel 5,000.00 

Total $29,775.00 

Total amount ex[iended for com- 

munit\- centers $40,494.04 



131 



Typical schedules of operation and programs 
provided for twenty-seven regular school com- 
munity centers in 1930 are as follows: 

Armstrong 

7051 N. Pingree Street 

Tuesday and Friday, 7-1 1 p.m. 

Classes — gymnasium, dancing, lectures; gen- 
eral program and dancing; family night and 
neighborhood organizations on Friday eve- 
ning; hall seats 1,000. 
Falconer 

3000 N. Lamon Avenue 

Tuesday and Friday, 7-10 p.m. 

Classes — on Tuesday evening in sewing, milli- 
nery, music, dramatics, social dancing, golf 
instruction, ladies' gymnasium; on Friday 
evening men's gymnasium. 

Hayes 

258 N. Leavitt Street 

Tuesday and Friday, 7-10 p.m. 

Classes — English, handiwork, sewing, house- 
hold arts, recreation, chorus, orchestra, 
drama; hall seats 300. 

Locke 

Newcastle and Diversey 

Monday and Thursday, 7-1 1 p.m. 

Classes — gymnasium, household arts, civics; 
headquarters for young men's clubs both 
evenings; art collections of many Japanese 
prints and paintings in corridors. 

Lovett 

Bloomingdale and Mobile 

Tuesday and Friday, 7-10 p.m. 

Classes and clubs; public library deposit station. 
Norwood Park 

5900 Nina Avenue 

Tuesday and Friday, 7-1 1 p.m. 

Classes — dramatics, singing, gymnasium, social 
dancing; Boy Scouts, Parent-Teachers and 
Neighborhood Club meet here; motion pic- 
tures. 
Ridge (Morgan Park High School) 

2350 W. I loth Place 

Tuesday and Friday, 7- 11 p.m. 

Classes — gymnasium; swimming for women at 
7:30 p.m., swimming for men at 8:30 p.m. 
on Tuesday evening, on Friday evening for 
husbands and wives; classes in language, 
drama and other subjects; clubs and civic or- 
ganizations meet here; monthly forum with 
noted speakers when a course ticket admis- 
sion fee is used; hall seats 2,725. 

Ryder 

8716 Wallace Street 

Tuesday and Thursday, 7- 11 p.m. 



Classes — debating, artistic and dramatic study ' 
group, stereoptican travel lectures; motion | 
pictures; meeting place for Camp Fire Girls; , 
girls' clubs; social dancing; meetings of I 
neighborhood organizations; outdoor super-' 
vised playground and fieldhouse; hall seats' 

s^s- ; 

Shoop ' 

1 1 2th and Laflin Streets | 

Tuesday and Friday, 7:30-11 p.m. \ 

Classes — music, gymnasium, cooking, sewing, 

orchestra and chorus; Boy Scouts and Camp 

Fire Girls meet here in forenoon; also meet-1 

ings of neighborhood organizations; outdoor i 

supervised playground and fieldhouse; hallj 

seats 815. j 

Woodlawn (Hyde Park High School) I 

6220 Stony Island Avenue j 

Friday, 7- 11 p.m. ■ 

Classes — $2.50 membership for course of I2j 

lessons, and public dancing; $5 (in advance); 

for entire season of 24 evenings; there werej 

22 classes in standard or popular subjects,! 

manual and household arts, woodwork and; 

machine work, foreign languages, commer-1 

cial subjects, public speaking, current events.j 

new book reviews, voice training, women's. 

gymnasium and swimming, golf instructior, 

and practice, dancing instruction 8 to 9 anc, 

9 to 1 1 P.M.; social hour and dancing afteij 

classes, 9 to 11 p.m.; classes in any newl 

subject for which 20 applied were given ;| 

community orchestra; hall seats 2,000. | 

Cost of Use I 

The Board of Education is empowered by tht! 
State legislature to "grant the use of assembl): 
halls and classrooms when otherwise not neededl 
including light, heat and attendants, for free pub- 
lic lectures, concerts and other educational anc^ 
social interests free of charge. . . . under such pros 
vision and control as the Board may see fit." (Sei\ 
chapter III.) This legislation is permissive iii 
character, the Board of Education having the disi 
cretionary power of restricting the use of its equip 
ment. Within recent years public school building; 
have not been used to any appreciable extent aftej 
school hours. The Board of Education has ai 
established policy whereby outside organization 
are required to pay the cost of lighting and heat 
ing the building beyond the normal school dayi 
including overtime for engineering and maintc 
nance employees. The resultant charge compare 
unfavorably with charges made for similar pri; 



132 



,.L 



vately-owned facilities and tends to discourage use 
of public property by civic groups. A study made 
in 1934 revealed that the fees (based on four- 
hour after school period) for use of assembly halls 
in the various school buildings throughout the city 
were as follows: 



Mondiiv - Friday 
With Heat 



Saturday, Sunday and 
Holidaxs 
With Heat 



$23.00 in 270 schools 

35.00 in 35 schools 

47.00 in 16 schools 

52.00 in 11 schools 

Without Heat 
$17.00 in 262 schools 
23.00 in 56 schools 
30.00 in 11 schools 



$34.00 in 269 schools 

•46.00 in 39 schools 

58.00 in 17 schools 

63.00 in 11 schools 

Without Heat 
$22.00 in 267 schools 
28.00 in 51 schools 
Over 28.00 in 11 schools 



The charges for the gymnasiums, for which no 
heat was provided, varied as follows: 



Monday-Friday 



Saturday, Sunday and 
Flolidays 



$17.00 in 190 schools 
22.00 in 37 schools 



$22.00 in 190 schools 
27.00 in 37 schools 



The amount charged is based upon the capacity 
I of the hall or gymnasium. Because of these rela- 
■ tively high costs, the Physical Education Depart- 
ment of the Board of Education followed a policy 
I in 1934 which resulted in a considerable percent- 
, age of Interscholastic events being held outside of 
) property of the Board of Education. In the case 
of activities conducted outside of buildings, such 
as football and baseball, the primary reason for 
the activities being held In the following locations 
was the lack of suitable sites in the school system. 

I. For class zvork in physical education activities: 
Bowen High School — Bessemer Park and 

South Chicago Y.M.C.A. 
McKInley High School— West Side Y.M.C.A. 

swimming pool 
Washburne Continuation School — Seward Park 
Pulaski School — Pulaski Park 

II. For interscholastic competition: 

Baseball — (Enclosed fields rental cost twenty 
per cent of gate receipts, minimum of 
$15.00) 

Enclosed fields Open fields 

Shewbridge Field Bessemer Park 

Normal Park Hamilton Park 

Greyhound Park McKInley Park 

White City Douglas Park 



Enclosed fields Open fields 

Mills Park Bcuttner Sq. Playground 

Cubs Park Lincoln Park 

Sox Park Welles Park 

Logan Square Kilbourn Park 

Irving Park 
Fuller Park 
Byrne Field 
Grand Crossing Park 
WInnemac Park 

Basketball — (Rental cost twenty per cent of 

gate receipts) 

Loyola gymnasium 

Bartlett gymnasium, University of Chicago 

White City Courts 

Broadway Armory 

7th Regiment Armory 

i22d Regiment Armory 
Cross-Coioitry Run — (Donated) 

Washington Park 

Fencing — (Donated) 

Bartlett gymnasium, Uni\eriit>- of Chicago 
Northwestern University 
Gage Park 

Football Rental cost 

Normal Park lo'-'o of gate 

White City -O'^/r of gate 

Shewbridge Field zo'", of gate 

Gre\'hound Park -O'/c of gate 

Mills Stadium -5^1 of gate 

Soldier Field 10' o of gate plus 

cost of cleaning 

Stagg Field -0% of gate 

DePaul Field 20% of gate 

Lo\ola Field $80 

Logan Square 20% of gate and 

$25 minimum 
\\'innemac Park Donated 

(ly)H)!astics — (Donated) 

Bartlett gymnasium, Uni\ersity of Chicago 
Northwestern Uni\-ersity 
George Williams College 

Ice Skating 

Stadium (indoor) 
Lincoln Park (outdoor) 
Washington Park (outdoor) Donated 
Coliseum (indoor) 

Rifle Marksmanship 

Union League Club (Donated) 

Soccer Football — (All open fields) 
Sherman Park 
Bessemer Park 



133 



Hamilton Park 

Buettner Square Pla\'ground 

McKinley Park 

Grand Crossing Park 

Douglas Park 

Lincoln Park 

Kilbourn Park 

Welles Park 

Winnemac Park 

Swill/ mi97g — (Donated ) 

University of Chicago pool 
Northwestern University pool 
Lake Shore Athletic Club pool 
Illinois Athletic Club pool 

Tennis — (Donated) 
University of Chicago 
Chicago Town and Tennis Club 
Hamilton Club 
River Forest Club 
Beverly Hills Country Club 
Unatre Tennis Club 
Ogden Park 
McKinley Park 
Fuller Park 
Armour Square 
Grand Crossing Park 
Douglas Park 
Columbus Park 
Welles Park 
Kilbourn Park 
Lincoln Park 
Broadway Armory 
124th Field Artillery Armory 

Wrestling — ( Donated, except for cost of at- 
tendants) 

Bartlett gymnasium, University of Chicago 
Patten gymnasium, Northwestern University 

Track and Field 

University of Chicago rteldhouse (Cost — 
erection of bleachers and wages of at- 
tendants) 
Patten gymnasium, Northwestern University 

— ( Donated) 
Stagg Field — (Cost of attendants) 
South Park playgrounds — ( Donated) 
West Park playgrounds — (Donated) 
Lincoln Park playgrounds — (Donated) 
Soldier Field — ( Rental, ten per cent and ex- 
penses, usually $150 to $200) 

When the emergency education program of the 
Illinois Emergency Relief Commission was in- 
augurated in Chicago under the sponsorship of 
the Board of Education, because of the Board's 
policy of non-use of school facilities after school 



hours without payment, it was necessary to pro-i 
vide space for late afternoon and evening classes' 
in other than Board of Education facilities. In; 
order that the program might operate effectively,' 
the co-operation and assistance of settlements,' 
churches, women's groups, park authorities andl 
other groups were secured so that rooms outside of' 
public schools were made available during the 
evening hours when the demand for classes was' 
heaviest. In effect, therefore, while the Board of 
Education sponsored the program as an adjunct; 
of the city's regular educational instruction, its 
active co-operation was very much restricted be-| 
cause it did not make its own facilities available.; 
The opening of the high school swimming pools' 
during the summer vacation period of 1937 with; 
all of the expenses assumed by the Board itself! 
represents a departure from the previous policy. 

Sites i 

The history of Chicago's school system indi-; 
cates that its program of expansion parallels the: 
growth of the city and that new schools were pro-| 
vided in sections of the city as the growth of popu- 
lation warranted. Inasmuch as in almost each in- 
stance the districts were not intensely populated 
at the time the school was provided and there al-| 
ways seemed to be vacant property within the! 
immediate vicinity of the school building and par-i 
ticularly because of the fact that the actual public! 
playground movement itself did not begin untilj 
the last decade of the nineteenth century, no at-| 
tempt was made to provide a larger site than was: 
required by the school building. j 

As the population increased in these districts, 
and the privately owned vacant lots were suc- 
ceeded by residential, commercial, and industrial' 
properties, the play space previously available dis-; 
appeared, leaving school buildings with no pro- 
vision for the games and play of the pupils. It 
cannot be said, however, that even after the play- 
ground movement became established the Board) 
of Education's building program has been con- 
sistent with accepted established standards, par- 
ticularly in relation to size of the school site. ! 

Although when the Board of Education took 
over the supervised playgrounds adjacent to 
school buildings in 1921 it indicated that it re- 
garded itself as being in a position to more intelli- 
gently direct activities on the school grounds, 



134 



there has been no appreciable change of policy re- 
garding school sites since that date, for only 
fourteen of 79 elementary school buildings 
erected since that time occupy sites of more than 
four acres. 

The following table characterizes school buildings 
of the Board of Education according to the date 
of erection and area of site. 



occupying only 8. 03 acres, the adjacent property, 
Winnemac Park, while under the control of the 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and .'Vviation of the 
City of Chicago, is actually owned by the Board 
of Education. This property has a total area of 
approximate!)- forty acres and provides the larg- 
est play space adjacent to public schools in the 
city. The new Lane High School, erected in 1934, 



Type and date of erection 



i'nder 
1 



1.00- 
1.49 



1.50- 
1.99 



2.00- 
2.49 



3.00- 
3.99 



4.00- 
4.99 



'\00- 6.00- 
\99 6.99 



1850-1859: 

Elementary 4 

Special 1 

1860-1869: 

Elementary ,i 

1870-1879 : 

Elementary 12 

Elementary branch 1 

High branch 1 

Vocational 1 

1880-1889: 

Elementary Cil 

High 2 

High branch 2 

Vocational 2 

Pre-vocational 1 

1890-1899 : 

Elementary 7S 

Elementary branch 4 

High >, 

High branch i 

Combined 2 

1900-1909: 

Elementary 50 

Elementary branch 2 

High 5 

Combined I 

Vocational 1 

Special 3 

Continuation 1 

1910-1919: 

Elementary 4(1 



Elementary branch 

High 

High branch 

Junior college . . . . 
1920-1929: 

Elementary 

Elementary branch 

High 

Combined 

Special 

1930-1936: 

Elementary 

High 

Combined 

Junior college 

Total 



1 
389 



♦Including Wilson Junior College, 
tincluding Chicago Normal College. 



28 


9 


9 


5 


2 




i 




-1 


6 


6 
2 


5 

i 
1 


7 
1 


7 


i 

3 


16 



9.00 

and 



Of the total schools now in use only thirty- 
eight have more than four acres of site. This 
represents approximately one-tenth of all school 
buildings. Only one of the high schools exceeds 
the twenty-acre standard established as a mini- 
mum for educational buildings of this type. How- 
ever, in the instance of Amundsen High School 



occupies a site of 29.70 acres, representing the 
largest high school plant within the City of Chi- 
cago. The space unoccupied b\- the building pro- 
vides football fields, baseball diamonds, and other 
active recreation areas. 

In using national standards as a measuring stick 
fur analj'zing the adequacy of school sites, it is 



135 



assumed that the unoccupied property surround- 
ing the school buildings is laid out and equipped 
as playgrounds and for active sports and games. 
Of the 329 elementary schools in the City of Chi- 
cago only 59 are equipped with play apparatus 
and are supervised during after-school hours. Of 
these one is under one acre, four are less than one 
and one-half acres in size, thirteen are between 
jne and one-half and two acres, seventeen are be- 
tween two and two and one-half, nine are between 
two and one-half and three, and eleven between 
three and four; one supervised school playground 
is between four and five acres, one between five 
and six, and two between eight and nine. It should 
be pointed out that the above acreages are for the 
entire school site and include the area occupied by 
the building. 

In some instances more than eighty per cent of 
the total site is occupied by the building. 

Percentage of site occupied by school building 

Number 
Per cent of schools 



Under 10 

10-19 

20-29 

30-39 
40-49 
50-59 
60-69 
70-79 
80-89 
90-92 
Total 



14 

73 
99 
96 
62 
24 
12 
3 
3 



Arithmetic mean: 
Median per cent: 



32.193 
30.554 



In the instance of the Parental School the total 
site of 66. SS acres includes farm lands. The un- 
occupied areas of the school sites which have been 
used for the above computations include land- 
scaped areas, sidewalks, and driveways, in addi- 
tion to that ground which has been surfaced for 
play. As a result, in each instance the estimated 
space per pupil cannot be construed as play space. 
In the fifty-nine schools which have supervised 
playgrounds the areas actually used for play- 
ground purposes are as follows: 







Area of 


Area 


Name 


Area of site 


/flay ground 


per pupa 


of school 


(acres) 


space {sq. ft.) 


{sq.ft.) 


Pickard 


I.71 


9,000 


8.81 


Lavvson 


2.58 


12,100 


5.61 


Moseley 


.92 


12,653 


52.29 


Lloyd 


2.72 


18,000 


14.96 


Earle 


1.88 


20,250 


24.43 


Audubon 


1.69 


20,800 


22.56 


Poe 


1.48 


22,236 


64.27 


Goethe 


2.22 


22,680 


24.44 


Whittier 


1.07 


24.375 


39.76 


Copernicus 


2.21 


25,000 


26.46 


Gladstone 


1-73 


26,784 


21.27 


Mozart 


2.29 


27,664 


27.53 , 


McCosh 


2-53 


30,000 


17.22 


McCorniick 


1. 14 


34.375 


37-24 , 


Otis 


2.04 


34.713 


3390 , 


Washington 


1.69 


34.965 


37.00 


Swift 


2.19 


35.100 


30.60 , 


Ryerson 


2.29 


36.250 


19.58 


Cameron 


2,48 


36,498 


26.76 ; 


Agassiz 


1.70 


36,570 


30.97 ; 


Drake 


1-43 


36,750 


39-52 ■ 


Kershaw 


2.52 


37.026 


41.00 ; 


Henry 


1.97 


37.500 


30.39 1 


Douglas 


2.77 


37,800 


17-23 ; 


Morse 


1.88 


39.168 


30.67 1 


Carter 


2.10 


39.520 


19-94 ' 


McPherson 


2.42 


42,712 


29.66 . 


Fulton 


1.83 


42,884 


37-SS : 


Fiske 


2.15 


43.936 


42-95 : 


Oakland 


1.70 


44,000 


53-01 1 


Scanlan 


2.36 


44,400 


42.6s 


Mitchell 


2.24 


44,460 


42-34 . 


Delano 


2.72 


45.325 


35-83 : 


Brentano 


2-53 


46,182 


32-09 ; 


Belding 


2.14 


47.275 


52.47 ; 


Hawthorne 


2.26 


56,628 


47-27 ■ 


Gallistel 


1.87 


60,000 


45-98 , 


Orr 


3.02 


62,304 


74-17 1 


Ryder 


2.13 


66,752 


115-29 ! 


Howe 


2.30 


67,782 


102.70 ' 


Nash 


2.73 


73,616 


69.98 , 


Burroughs 


1.74 


80,000 


186.48 1 


Kohn 


3-56 


80,600 


98.90 


Davis 


3.66 


83,578 


77.60 


Burley 


I -5 1 


87,625 


II5-.30 1 


LeMoyne 


3-87 


87,842 


38.80 


Shoop 


5.00 


90,000 


75-25 


Hayt 


2.77 


91,476 


86.62 


Perry 


4-35 


94,525 


153-45 


Avondale 


3.61 


96,990 


76.19 


Corkery 


2.22 


102,500 


140.03 


Emniett 


3,02 


105,000 


80.46 


Waters 


3-42 


120,000 


108. 1 1 


Avalon Park 


3.62 


120,825 


146.4s 


Gary 


8.21 


160,664 


182.57 


O'Keeffe 


3.66 


183,388 


137.16 


Budlong 


3-45 


270,000 


190.54 


Forestville 


8.20 


292,000 


87-45 


Hanson Park 


3-56 


3,659,040* 


4,440.58 



*Athlctic fiekl located on separate property adjacent to school. 

The Wells High School, erected in 1934, and 
the new Goudy School, in process of construction, 
make no provision for play space. In the instance 
of the Wells High School, occupying a site of 



136 



W.FOSTER 



AV. 



CO 



^HAPPEL 
•W ELEM. 


CO 

"9 


AMUNDSEN H 
HIGH ■ 

■1 


^- 300' — ' 


o 








WINNE 


:mac 



>W.WINNEMAC 



The Amundsen High School 

erected in 1930 and the 

Ghappel Elementary School, 

constructed in 1937, situated 

with a large play area^ 

Winnemac Park, 40 acres, 

between them represent what 

is regarded by many authorities 

as an ideal arrangement of 

school sites. 




Figure 24 



only 2.07 acres, approximately sixty-eight per 
cent of the site is occupied by the building, ]ea\'- 
ing only 29,000 square feet for sidewalks, lawns, 
and play areas. In addition, the location of the 
building precludes the possibility of the unoccu- 
pied space being used for any active games suitable 
for high school students. 

The new Goudy School, replacing a building 
erected in 1892, will occupy more than sixty per 
cent of its .68 acre site. This will leave less than 
12,000 square feet of unoccupied space for land- 
scaping, sidewalks, and any play area. Based upon 
the 1936 attendance at the school, this will permit 
only 13.38 square feet per pupil as compared to 
national standards of 100 square feet of play space 
per pupil. 

A study of all Board of Education sites indi- 
cates that on the basis of the 1937 school attend- 
ance, unoccupied space per pupil is as follows: 



High 
attd Eicmcn- 
Squarcjeet Kormal Junior Iliyh clcmcit- lary Otln:rj 
/''''' t'>'t''l collegecollcgcs schools lary schools schools 



Sg. ft. per 




Sg. ft. per 




pupil of 




pupil of 




unoccupied 


No. of 


unoccupied 


No. of 


space 


schools 


space 


schools 


I-IO 


8 


201-210 


I 


11-20 


27 


211-220 


2 


21-30 


37 


221-230 


2 


31-40 


53 


231-240 


2 


41-50 


43 


241-250 




51-60 


38 


271-280 




61-70 


22 


281-290 




71-80 


19 


291-300 




81-90 


23 


311-320 




91-100 


15 


331-340 




lOI-IIO 


16 


371-380 




III-I20 


II 


381-390 




I2I-I3O 


7 


441-450 




I3I-I4O 


14 


451-460 




I4I-I5O 


9 


471-480 




I5I-160 


7 


481-490 




161-I7O 


5 


621-630 




I7I-180 


3 


991-1,000 




181-I9O 


4 


7,424* 




191-200 


2 






'Parental School. 









Classified according to type of school, the per 

pupil unoccupied space in this same year is: 

Iliph 

and Elcmcn- 
Squarefeet Normal Junior High elemen- tary Otiier'f 
per pupil college colleges schools lary schools schools 

I-IO 
1 1 -20 
21-30 
31-40 
41-50 
51-60 
61-70 

tContinuation, vocational, pre-vocational, and special scliools 



4 


2 I 


4 


23 


4 


I 32 


3 


3 46 


9 


33 


3 


34 


4 


16 



lOI- 

I II- 

121- 
131- 

Mi- 
ls'- 
lOi 

171- 
i8i- 
191- 
201 
211 

221- 

231 
241- 

271- 

2Sr 
291 
311 
331 
371- 
381 
441 

451- 
471 
48 1 
621 
991 



-80 

■90 

-100 

-1 10 

-120 

-130 

-140 

-150 

-KM 

-170 

-180 
-190 
-200 
-210 



I 



II 



17 



14 



220 . . . . . . . . 2 

230 2 '.'. 

240 2 

250 I 

280 . . . . . . . . 2 

290 1 

300 2 

320 I 

-340 I 

380 I 

390 I 

450 .2 

460 I 

480 I 

■490 I 

■630 I 

-1,000 . . . . . . . . I 

7:424 I 

^Located on same site as Wilson Junior College, Parker 
High, and Parker Practice. 87.65 square feet included under 

each classification. 

Gymnasiums 

The first public school gymnasium in the 
United States was constructed at West Division 
High School in 1892. This gymnasium was 90 
feet long by 40 feet wide, with a ceiling height 
of 26 feet (well above minimum national stand- 
ards). It was equipped for formal physical educa- 
tion instruction and for athletic contests. 

In some instances, in the more than ninety 
buildings erected in Chicago schools before that 
date additions ha\e provided modern gymna- 
siums. In other buildings, classrooms or store 
rooms have been remodeled or converted into 
what are classified as gymnasiums; these are 
usually decidedly substandard in dimensions. In 
recent years, particularly since Public Works :\d- 
ministration grants were made a\ailable for the 
construction of public buildings, the Board of Ed- 
ucation has followed a two-fold policy regarding 
the provision of gymnasiums and assembly halls. 
In some instances where new schools were being 
erected, gymnasiums and assembly halls were not 



137 



provided in order to reduce the cost of construc- 
tion; in other instances grants have been secured 
for the pro\ision of additions to old buildings in 
which these facilities were included. Because of 
this a large number of school buildings which were 
originally constructed many years ago have rea- 
sonably adequate gymnasium e(|uipment, while 
several of the most recently erected buildings and 
supposedly the most modern located m outlying 
districts do not include either gymnasiums or as- 
sembly halls. The gymnasiums in use in the 1936- 
1937 school year may be classified according tt) 
date of erection of building as follows: 

Square jcct oj gymnasium 



Dale oj 

cycclion of 

building 



( ndcr 2400- 3600- 4S00- 6000- 7200 
Total 2400 35W 4799 >099 7199 and ovc 



Before 1870 
1 870- 1 879 
1880-18S9 
1890-1899 
1900-1909 
1910-1919 
1 920- 1 929 
1 930- 1 936 

Total 




31 
55 
53 
50 
80 
26 



3-' i-^'J 



3 
6 

3 

7 
8 

3 

30 



3 
3 

6 
10 

5 

29 



In the 1936-37 school term, 41 buildings had no 
gymnasium facilities of any kind and 103 had 
combination gymnasiums which, by the use of 
temporary seats, were convertible to assembly hall 
purposes. 

The distribution of gymnasiums and combina- 
tion gymnasium-assembly halls according to type 
of school was as follows: 

Ahimhcr of schools 









With 












combined 










]\'ith one 


Qvm- 










or more 


nasiuni 


ir,thno 








gxni- 


and 


II ym- 




Type oj school 




nasiums 


assemblv 


nas}um 


Total 


Normal college 




1 






1 


Junior college 




2 




It 


3 


High school 




M) 






30 


High school branch 


•i 


i 


4 


8 


High and elenie 


ntarv 










school 




7 






7 


Elementary sch^ 


i.ul 


1M7 


CI9 


27 1 


32 1 


Elementary schu 


lol brani. 


h .. 




8 


8 


Continuation 




1 






1 


Vocational 




1 


2 


1 


4 


Prevocational* 






1 




1 


Special 




3 




2 


5 


Total 


245 


103 


4,lt 


391 



*Five included with elementary. 

tFour g}-mnasiums located on site occupied by Chicago Nor- 
mal College, Wilson Junior College, Parker High, and Parker 
Practice. 

An analysis in 1934 of the dimensions of 359 
gymnasiums and combined gymnasium-assembly 
halls shows that 262 rooms or 73 per cent equaled 



or exceeded the minimum standards of 60 feet for , 

length, 40 feet for width, and 18 feet in height. '■ 

Forty-six were below standard length, 55 less ] 

than 40 feet wide, and 48 below 1 8 feet high. 

The following table groups the rooms accord- I 

ing to the number of dimensions equaling or ex-; 

ceeding the national standards: , 

Clynmasiunis equaling or exceeding standard ' 

length, width and hei.ght 262 i 

G\'mnasiunis below standard height 20 1 

Gymnasiums below standard width 251 

Gymnasiums below standard length 17 

Gymnasiums below standard width and height.. 6' 

Gymnasiums below standard length and height.. S; 

Gymnasiums below standard widtli and length ... 7 1 
Gymnasiums below standard length, width and 

height 17! 

Total 359; 

Total substandard gymnasiums 97; 

The median length of the gymnasiums was 73: 
feet. The largest group of 36 were 70 feet long,| 
twenty-eight 80 feet, and twenty-six 60 feet.l 
Fifty-nine are lOO feet long or over, with the| 
largest of 250 feet at Crane High School, and the; 
next of 200 feet at the Wright Junior College. ; 

Of the 144 school buildings without separate^ 
gymnasiums, 103 contain a combined gymnasium 
and assembly hall. Thirty-nine of these schools 
were constructed before 1890, 36 between 1890, 
and 1899, 10 between 1900 and 1909, 17 betweeni 
1910 and 1919, and i in 193 1. Of the remain-i 
ing 41 schools with neither gymnasium nor com-i 
bination rooms, 5 had assembly halls. The total; 
school attendance, as of January i, 1937, in tht| 
36 which had no gymnasiums nor assembly halls' 
was I 7,3 I 8 children. 

A total of 241 schools have rooms designatec' 
specifically as assembly halls. Four schools havt' 
two auditoriums each and the rernaining 237 eacl 
have one assembly hall. These are distributed ac- 
cording to type of school as follows: 

Number Total 

Xumbcr with Kumbcr number 
Number ivithno one ivith tivo oj 



Type of school 


"/ 


assem- 


assem- 


assem- 


assem- 




H-hools 


bly hall 


blv hall 


bly halls 


bly hall: 


Normal college 


1 


1 








Junior college 


3 




3 




3 


Higli schiHiI 


30 




2S 




32 


High school brand 


1 8 


5 


3 




3 , 


High and elementary 7 




7 




7' 


Elementary 


i22 


130 


190 


2 


194 1 


Elementary branch 


8 


8 








Continuation 


1 




1 






\'ocational 


4 


3 


1 






Prevocational 


1* 


1 






! 


Special 


5 


1 


4 






Total 


390 


149 


237 


4 


245 


♦Five included in 


elementary school total. 







138 



Based upon nominal square footage of space, 
the total of 245 assembly halls may be grouped as 
follows : 

Square feet Number Per cent 

Under 2,000 4 1.63 

2,000- 2,999 8 3.27 

3,000- 3,999 20 8.16 

4,000- 4,999 70 28.57 

5,000- 5,999 26 10.61 

6,000- 6,999 -• 8.57 

7,000- 7,999 27 1 1.02 

8,000- 8,999 19 7-76 

9,000- 9,9^9 17 6.94 

10,000-10,999 15 6.12 

11,000-19,999 12 4.90 

20,000 and over 6 2.45 

Total 245 100.00 

The six auditoriums with over 20,000 are in high 
schools, with the largest, 32,924 square feet, at 
the Schurz. The four halls of less than 2,000 
square feet are in schools built before 1890. 

The following table shows the relationship be- 
tween size of assembly hall and date of erection 
of the school : 

Bcjorc ISSO- 1S90- 1900- 1910- 1920- 1930- 
Square jcct Total ISSO 1SS9 1S99 1909 1919 1929 1936 

Under 2,000 4 2 2 

2,000- 2,999 8 1 2 1 1 . . 2 1 

3,000- 3,999 20 . . 3 3 5 . . 7 2 

4,000- 4,999 70 2 1 II 15 2 3(j 3 

5,000- 5,999 26 1 2 10 9 2 2 .. 

6,000- 6,999 21 1 2 6 5 5 2.. 

7,000- 7,999 27 1 2 3 ., 9 10 2 

8,000- 8,999 19 . . 4 5 6 2 1 1 

9,000- 9,99<) 17 .. 1 4 2 3 7 .. 

10,000-10,999 15 .. 2 1 .. 7 1 4 

11,000-19,999 12 .. 1 3 2 5 1 .. 

20,000 and over 6 . . I . . 1 1 3 

Total 245 8 2i 47 46 M'i 12 13 

A Study of all assembly halls and combination 
gymnasium-assembly halls in use in 1934 re- 
vealed a total seating capacity of 221,621. Classi- 
fied according to type of school and date of erec- 
tion, this seating capacity was distributed as fol- 
lows: 

Elcmciilary schools Hijih .whools 

Number Xumher Xumber Number 
Dale of erection of of of of 

schools seats schools seats 

1855-1859 4 665 

I865-1S69 2 700 . . 

1870-18-4 5 2,232 

1875- 1 879 4 1.656 I 1.936 
1880-1884 28 12,642 

1885-18S9 2i 12.703 I 1.398 





Elementary 


schools 


High 


schools 




Number 


Number 


Xumber 


Number 


Date of ereclioii 


of 


of 


of 


of 




schools 


seats 


schools 


seats 


I 890- I 894 


43 


24,142 


2 


1.939 


1895-1899 


36 


19403 


3 


3.299 


1900- 1904 


21 


11,919 


3 


2,197 


I 905- I 909 


29 


15.856 


2 


2,699 


1910-1914 


2b 


20,358 


7 


10,626 


1915-I919 


16 


1 9. 050 


2 


2.824 


1920- 1924 


12 


8,90^) 






I925-1929 


5' 


22,277 


9 


10,019 


1930- '934 


8 


4-336 


5 


7.23y 



Total 



308 



35 



44.176 



Swimming Pools 

Thirt\-eight swunming pools are distributed 
among thirty high schools, three elementary 
school buildings and one special school for 
crippled children. The swimming pool in the 
Spalding School for crippled children is used not 
only for recreation, but also for therapeutic pur- 
poses. The swimming pools in the high schools 
are supervised by the physical education instruc- 
tors, and are maintained for regular class instruc- 
tion and interscholastic swimming events. During 
the summer of 1937 nineteen of the pools were 
open for general use by boys and girls of high 
school age and under. {See chapter xi.) 

Showers 

The 1934 inventory of Board of Education 
facilities indicates that 142 elementary schools 
were equipped with showers and ^^ high school 
buildings had this type of equipment as part of 
their physical education plant. The total number 
of showers in the high schools was 1,185 ''"^ in 
the elementary schools 1,450. The average num- 
ber of showers in the high schools was 35.91, 
while the a\erage number in elementary schools 
having showers was 10.2 i. These shower facilities 
were available only during school hours, and their 
use was restricted to the student body. 

Play Rooms 

Of a total of 338 elementary schools for which 
information was available in 1934> -O? '^'''^^^ 
equipped with rooms designated as play rooms. 
The schools so equipped had an average of 3.32 
such play rooms. The play rooms were not used 
ill after-school recreation, but were part of the 
reuular school day curriculum of the smaller chil- 



139 



dren. They varied in size from small adapted 
store rooms to specially designed and equipped 
spaces. 

Miscellaneous Recreational Equipment 

The 1934 inventory of special rooms in school 
buildings of the Board of Education indicates the 
following facilities which may be regarded as be- 
ing at least indirectly of a recreational character, 
notwithstanding their primary purpose in the 
school curriculum. 



Type of room 



Number of rooms 



Type of room 



Number of rooms 



Manual training 




;^?7 




281 schools 


Machine shop 


and forge 


129 




24 schools 


Printing 






84 




72 schools 


Electric shop 






26 




17 schools 


Kindergarten 






337 




298 schools 


Domestic Science 




465 




292 schools 



Dining 
Fresh air 
Sleeping 



22 in 17 schools 

35 in 16 schools 

6 in 6 schools 



In no instance were these rooms available for gen- 
eral community center recreation programs during 
the year, inasmuch as all school buildings were 
closed after the normal school day, except in those 
instances where the regular evening school classes 
of the Board of Education were conducted. Only 
in these instances were some of the domestic sci- 
ence rooms and the various shops made available. 
A detailed analysis of the site, attendance, play 
area, gymnasiums, assembly halls, special rooms, 
window breakage, costs of utilization of each 
school building of the Board of Education is in- 
cluded in Volume IV. 



•140 



COMMUNlTr AREAS 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 

POPULATION BY 

AGE GROUPS 




rS COWMJMTT- NUMBERS 

COMMUNITY BOUNDARIES 

SCALE' : ■= I MILE 

.-n.togo Dtceolion Sur.e, - 193" 



J 11 u 



Population Series — Map 4 



CHAPTER VIII 



MUSEUMS 



Introduction 

Today there are more than 7,000 museums in 
the world, of which over 1,500 are located in the 
United States. Approximately 800 of those in 
this country are publicly supported, including 400 
historical museums, 170 art galleries, 125 scien- 
tific collections, 24 industrial and 50 general 
museums. Six hundred museums in the United 
States are owned by universities, colleges and 
schools.' 

It was not until comparatively recent times that 
the educational aspects of museums, zoological 
and botanical gardens, aquariums and planetari- 
ums were recognized and exhibits scientifically ar- 
ranged by experts for public instruction. In the 
early days "museums had a tendency to represent 
the abnormal rather than the normal, what was 
rare rather than what was common. . . . The orcii- 
nary phenomena were passed by as of no import- 
ance, or as too familiar to deserve notice or require 
an explanation. . . . The more an explanation ap- 
pealed to the marvelous, the more acceptable it 
was. Rarities and freaks of nature and art en- 
gaged the attention of everyone."' The poet. 
Garth, in the Dispetisary described a museum of 
1726 in the following verse: 

"Here Mummies lay most reverently stale. 

And there the Tortoise hung her Coat of Mail ; 

Not far from some huge Shark's devouring 
Head 

The Flying-fish their finn\' pinions spread."' 
This interest in the unusual not only attracted 
people to museums, but also stimulated the collec- 
tion of antiques and natural history specimens. It 
is only in relatively recent years that museum ex- 
hibits could be relied upon as authentic. "The 
chief function oi a modern museum is education, 
although the services of museums as laboratories 
of research and as guardians of material c\'idencc 

^I.. C. Everard, F.iicyclof-acclicr of Social Sciciucs. II, 141. 
"David Murray, ifiiscums. Their Hislorv and I'lu-ir l'si\ 1S(). 
18S, 191, 198. 
'Ibid. p. 210. 



of the workings of nature in the past and of the 
accomplishment of civilization and of the nation 
continue to be of great importance."' David Mur- 
ray, reflecting on the function of museums in sup- 
plementing education, wrote: "In a general sense 
a museum is a popular educator. It provides 
recreation and instruction for all classes and for 
all ages. The sight of e\en a poorly set-up whale 
in a museum will tell more to a learner than an 
accurate drawing to scale. The faculty which is 
the least trained, under our present system of 
education, is that of observation; and yet none is 
of greater value and none is deserving of more 
careful cultivation. While accurate observation is 
the foundation of all original scientific work, we 
do comparati\'ely little to de\'elop the habit in 
the )'oung."^ 

To encourage learning from direct observation 
as well as from books, children are urged to pay 
regular \'isits to museums, and special exhibits are 
arranged for their edification. In keeping with 
adult education programs, museums have ex- 
tended their services to include lectures and 
courses of instructicjn. They also lend objects, 
photographs, slides, lanterns and motion picture 
films to interested schools and organizations. Art 
galleries are perhaps more recreational in function 
than are museums; people tend to look at pictures 
for the sheer joy rather than instruction. Many art 
galleries which were originally places where paint- 
ings were on display to be sold ha\x' de\'eloped 
into public institutions. In the art gallery the 
public can see, free or for a small charge, works 
of art that cost thousands of times more than the 
average man earns in a lifetime. In order to 
ser\e the public more effectively, art galleries 
ha\e been extended into the field of education. 
Special classes for both school children and adults 
teach the elementary principals of art, and thus 
develop and spread art appreciation. Special ex- 
hibits are placed on display, and are given wide- 

Ul'id. p. 259. 
'//'iV. p. 262. 



Ui 



.pread publicity to develop a popular interest in 
art. Post cards and reproductions of many of the 
vvorks on display arc sold to the public at low 
prices. These and other efforts increase the value 
-jf the art gallery to the community. 

The human interest in animals is universal and 
gi\-es rise to the popularity of zoological gardens, 
particularly among children. Here the function 
is primarily recreational so far as the visiting pub- 
lic is concerned; but the zoo also serves a practical 
service in preserving live specimens of animals 
that are becoming rare in their natural state. It is 
said that Alexander the Great collected animals 
from all parts of the world, and that Aristotle 
wrote his famous treatise on Natural History 
after carefully observing these specimens. 

A botanical garden or conservatory is a museum 
of live plants. In the middle ages flowers hav- 
ing special medicinal properties were grown in 
botanical gardens. "Two general educational pur- 
poses are served by an institution of this character. 
Its collections are arranged to present information 
on the form, relationship, mode of life, habit and 
general biological character of the principal types 
of vegetation, in such a manner as to be capable 
of comprehension by persons unacquainted with 
the technical aspects of the subject. Further inter- 
pretation of such facts may be made by means of 
books, journals, lectures devoted to this branch of 
work and study."' Students of botany do not over- 
look the importance of conser\'atones as the places 
where source materials for plant study are to be 
found. Specimens of plants not indigenous to the 
community where the conservatory is located, are 
displayed. A variety of Texas cactus, a nuisance 
in its home state, may find itself a prize exhibit 
in a northern botanical garden. 

In the planetarium the spectator can see in a 
few minutes celestial motions which could only be 
observed in the heavens by years or centuries of 
watching. A \'ear can be compressed into a few 
seconds. Planctariums were invented by Carl 
Zeiss of Jena, Germany, in 1913. The great ex- 
pense of construction makes for their rarity as 
recreational facilities. The Adler Planetarium in 
Chicago, built in 1931, was the first to be erected 
in the United States. 

The recreational aspects of aquariums are simi- 
lar to those of zoological gardens; in fact, they 

T-ncydof'cd'm .Imcriavui, 1').16, I\', M)7. 



were often built in zoological parks. "Many 
aquariums were purely scientific institutions de- 
signed for the study of water plants and fish. The 
public aquarium is a comparatively recent innova- 
tion, the first to be established being the small 
one opened in 1853 by the British Zoological 
Society's gardens in Regent's Park, London."' In 
most aquariums today fish are hatched during the 
winter for stocking lakes and streams in the 
spring. 

Through an enactment approved by the Legis- 
lature of the State of Illinois, June 17, 1893, ^nd 
amended on several occasions since that date, en- 
couragement has been given to the establishment 
of museums and aquariums on public property 
within the Park District of the city (see chapter 
III.) Not only have the Park Commissioners 
been empowered to purchase, erect and maintain 
edifices to be used as aquariums and museums, but 
they are also permitted to allow the directors of 
private societies to construct these institutions on 
park property, under such supervision as they may 
indicate. Permission is contingent upon all such 
aquariums and museums being open to the public 
without charge for at least three days per week, 
and to school children at all times; and that fees 
and admission at other times may not exceed 
twenty-five cents for adults, or ten cents for chil- 
dren. Through an amendment in 1925, the Park 
Commissioners having control of parks in which 
are located museums of art, science or natural 
history, were authorized to levy annually a tax 
not to exceed three cents on each one hundred 
dollars of the assessed value of taxable property 
in the district, which tax is distinct and separate 
from all other taxes the Park Commissioners may 
be empowered to levy. This rate since the Park 
Consolidation Act of 1933 has been reduced to 
1.5 cents on each hundred dollar valuation. In 
1928 the State Legislature authorized Park Com- 
missioners to permit the erection of a historical 
museum on park property, upon conditions desig- 
nated by the Park Commissioners. 

In 1923 the Forest Preserve District was em- 
powerecH to erect and maintain within preserves 
under its control edifices "to be used for the col- 
lection and display of animals, as customary in 
zoological parks; and to collect and display such 
animals; or to permit the directors or trustees of 

■'L'Hrv<7,i/',-i/i(i Briloiiitii,!. Uth ed., II, 157. 



142 



any zoological society, devoted to the purpose 
aforesaid, to erect and maintain a zoological park, 
and to collect and display zoological collections 
within any forest preserve now or hereafter under 
the control or supervision of such forest preserve 
district out of funds belonging to such zoological 
isociety; or to contract with the directors or trus- 
tees of any zoological society on such terms and 
•conditions as may to such corporate authorities 
seem best relative to the erection, operation and 
maintenance of the zoological park, and the col- 
lection and display of such animals within such 
forest preserve out of the tax hereinafter in this 
lAct provided." A maximum admission charge of 
fifty cents per adult visitor and twenty-fi\'e cents 
for visitors under ten, the proceeds of such fee to 
be devoted exclusively for the operation and 
maintenance of the park and collections, is permit- 
ted by the Act; with the additional provision that 
school children be admitted free at all times, and 
the public must be admitted without charge on 
at least three days per week. The enactment as 
now amended provides further that a tax, not to 
exceed three-fortieths of one mill, can be levied 
at the discretion of the Forest Preserve Commis- 
sioners. 

Under such permissive legislation the Commis- 
sioners of the various Park Districts recently con- 
solidated by the Chicago Park District, and the 
Forest Preserve Commissioners of Cook County, 
have encouraged and assisted in the construction 
and maintenance of museums, aquariums, zoolog- 
ical gardens, and similar agencies on properties 
under their jurisdiction. I^ocated within the City 
of Chicago on Park District property arc the Field 
Museum of Natural History, which has occupied 
Park property since 1893, ^he year of the enabling 
legislation; the Chicago Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, erected in 1893; the Art Institute of 
Chicago, which was allowed to occupy the build- 
ing used during the World's I-^iir of 1893 for the 
World's Congresses; the Museum of Science and 
Industry; the John G. Shedd Aquarium; and the 
Chicago Historical Society; all of which are con- 
trolled by private societies. Of these, the Field 
Museum, the Shedd Aquarium, and the Art In- 
stitute are active participants in sharing the three- 
twentieths of one mill tax established by the 
Legislature. In addition to these agencies, the 
Adler Planetarium, erected in 1930, the Lincoln 



Park Zoological Gardens, and the Park District 
Conservatories, are directly under control of the 
Chicago Park District. 

Through the enabling legislation of 1933, the 
Chicago Zoological Park (jccupies property of the 
Cook County Forest Preserve near Brookfield, 
operating under a private board in co-operation 
with the Forest Preserve Commissioners of Cook 
County. All of these facilities are easily accessible 
by the xarious transportation services, because all 
except the Brookfield Zoo are located within the 
city limits of Chicago. The Field Museum, Art 
Institute, Shedd Aquarium, the Museum of Sci- 
ence and Industry, and the Chicago Zoological 
Park, are internationally known; and the .Adler 
Planetarium pioneered the way in the United 
States. 

The following pages summarize briefly the 
facilities of each of these agencies, the source of 
control, methods of financing, types of programs 
offered, attendance tiuring the past few years, and 
other pertinent facts. 

The Field Museum of Natural History 

The I<"ield Museum of Natural History, estab- 
lished in 1893 ^t the close of the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition for the accumulation and dissemi- 
nation of knowledge and the preservation and 
exhibition of objects illustrating the natural 
sciences, has been located since May 2, 1921 in 
Grant Park near the lake, south of Roose\'eIt 
Road. Prior to that date it was situated in the 
old Fine Arts Building in Jackson Park, which 
within recent \ears was reconstructed to house the 
Museum of Science and Industrv'. The Field 
Museum was made possible In' Marshall l-'ield, 
whose gifts and bequests totalled $9,430,000, of 
which $4,000,000 was designated as endowment. 
Contributions, both of money and of exhibits, 
ha\e supplemented the original gifts of Mr. 
Field. 

The building wliich now houses the .Museum is 
valued at approximately $9,000,000, and the ex- 
hibits are conser\ati\el\' estimated at $60,000,- 
000. The building is Ionic in design, its exterior 
constructed of Georgia white marble. It is four 
stories high, with a floor space of approximately 
eleven acres. The plan of the building provides 
a large central hall 299 feet long, 68 feet wide 
and ■]<; feet high, with the remainder of the space 



143 



divided into four floors, three of which are 
devoted to exhibition purposes and lecture halls. 
In the central hall are four statues symbolizing 
the aims and purposes of the institution: natural 
science, dissemination of knowledge, research and 
record. On the main and second floor are thirty- 
six exhibition halls, divided among the Depart- 
ments of Anthropology, Botany, Zoology and 
Geology. The ground floor contains fourteen 
halls, ten of which are now occupied with exhibi- 
tions of archaeology, ethnology, restorations and 
groups of marine animals. On the third floor, in 
addition to the offices and workshops for the curat- 
ors, are the general library and reading room, 
departmental libraries, study rooms, studios, and 
the Divisions of Photography and Printing. The 
James Simpson Theater accommodating 1,150 
persons, and a lecture hall seating 250 are also 
included in the building. Cafeterias and lunch 
rooms for the convenience of the public are situ- 
ated on the ground floor. 

The control of the Museum, which is incorpor- 
ated under the State of Illinois, is placed in a 
board of twenty-one trustees. The Museum de- 
rives its revenues for maintenance and operation 
from its endowment and contribution funds ad- 
ministered by the trustees, its admission charge 
proceeds and its prorated share of the tax estab- 
lished by state statute for the support of museums 
in public parks. The following table indicates 
the expenditures and receipts of the field museum 
for the period 1926 to 1935: 



constantly reduced, necessitating the curtailment, 
of research and reducing the number of exhibits 
purchased. Prior to 1930 the Museum was rela-' 
tively active in financing expeditions for the pur- 
pose of obtaining new specimens, and for investi-| 
gation and research. Since that date, however.! 
comparatively little has been undertaken in this 
field. '' 

In addition to the customary display of ex-; 
hibits, the Museum provides a program supportec' 
by funds of several foundations. The Normar, 
Waite Harris Public School Extension provide; 
natural history specimens in portable cases, whiclj 
are circulated through the Chicago school system; 
In addition, lecture tours expressly designed io( 
children enabled 643 groups in 1935 to stud}; 
natural history specimens definitely related tii 
their school programs. Within the past several 
years this lecture tour service has been extendec, 
to adults through clubs and conventions. Durinij 
the spring and autumn special Saturday afternooi| 
lectures are given, utilizing motion pictures and 
lantern slides. The library of the Museum, whidl 
contains approximately 100,000 volumes relating 
to natural history subjects in the fields of anthro. 
pology, botany, zoology and geology, is open t: 
the public daily from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., exl 
cept on Sundays and on Saturdays until noon. ! 

The scientific staff of the Field Museum cori 
sists of a general director, who is responsible ti 
the Board of Trustees; a curator for each of th! 
four major Departments of Anthropologij 



Year 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

19.5(1 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

•Deficit. 
tBalancc. 
JDeficit cleared by gift. 



Pierious 


South 








Notes 


balance or 


Park 


Total 


Disbursements 




fiavable 


overdraft 


CoiiiDiissioners 


reeeif^ls 


balance 


Overdraft 


Deccmbe 


$15,895.47 


$1 77, 4.?2.05 


$1 ,(il 4,840.48 


$1,615,427.34 


$586.86 




586.86 


192,582,08 


1,670,085.37 


1,637,212.68 


32,285.83 




32,285.83 


212,637.59 


1.817,179.58 


1,775,459.74 


41,719.84 




41,719.84 


222,220.52 


1,275,297.74 


1,227,318.71 


47,979.03 




47,979.03 


55,911.15 


785,322.09 


900,220.80 


114,898.71* 






167,360.43 


834,529.46 


841,740.85 


7,211.39* 


$184,800, 




112,926.45 


566,959.62 


568,985,18 


2,025.56i 


156,100. 




125,802.68 


636,318.77 


643.246.31 


6,927.54* 


105,000 




101,226.19 


491,002.05 


483,486.72 


7,515.33t 


95,000 




140,838.65 


448.792.95 


421,883.52 


26,909.43t 


95,000 



In 1 934 the Chicago Park District, through con- 
solidation, absorbed the South Park District, 
and the tax portion of the Museum's revenue 
is now derived through that agency. The Mu- 
seum's budget during the past few years has been 



Botany, Geology and Zoology; twenty-five a- 
sistant curators and research assistants, and 5; 
taxidermists. 

During the past several years the Museum h; 
benefited considerably through the various wo: 



144 



irelief programs of the federal government; for 
(example, exhibits have been prepared, and the 
library has been renovated and completely cata- 
ilogued. 

The building is open to the public every day 
from 9:00 A.M. until 5:00 p.m. An admission 
fee of twenty-five cents is charged to adults, ex- 
cept on Thursdays, Saturdays and Sundays, when 
admission is free to all. Children, teachers and 
,students are admitted free at all times. The at- 
tendance for 1930 to 1936 was as follows: 



Year 



Total attendance 



Paid attendance 



1930 


1,332,799 


160,924 


I93I 


1,515,540 


126,209 


1932 


1,824,202 


82,607 


1933 


3,269,390 


212,298 


1934 


1,991,469 


99,553 


1935 


1,182,349 


54,63 1 


1936 


1,191,437 


68,375 



During 1935 and 1936 the attendance varied 
throughout the year, with a sharp decline during 
the winter months and the peak in the summer 
and fall. 



Month 



1935 



1936 



January 


33,361 


February 


62,453 


March 


112,160 


April 


82,359 


Mav 


84,444 


June 


101,189 


July 


104,201 


August 


189,438 


September 


118,131 


October 


128,983 


November 


121,139 


December 


44,491 



Total 



1,182,349 



38,745 

54,859 

100,616 

87,035 
114,294 
103,548 
121,440 
172,656 
107,021 
126,974 
108,535 

55,714 

1,191,437 



.•Approximately five per cent of all visitors during 
1935 and 1936 paid the twenty-five cents admis- 
jsion fee. The average daily admission during 
''935 was 3,239, of whom 150 represented pay- 
ing visitors. In 1936 the average daily admission 
was 3,255, of whom 187 were paying visitors and 
3,068 were free. The major portion of the Mu- 
. seum's attendance is confined to the three free 
;days, Thursdays, Saturdays and Sundays; during 
1935 approximately ninety per cent of all attend- 
ance was recorded on these days. While the 
attendance fluctuates during the day, in general 



it is heaviest immediately following the noon 
hour. 

Due to curtailment of funds this institution at 
the present time is restricted in its acquisition 
plans and limited in its research program. 

Museum of Science and Industry 

The Museum of Science and Industry, located 
in what was formerly known as the Fine .^.rts 
Building of the World's Columbian F.xposition of 
1893, was formally dedicated on June 19, 1933, 
and opened to the public on July i of that year. 
The purpose of the Museum, made possible 
through the generosity of the late Julius Rosen- 
wald, who pro\'ided a total of $5,000,000 toward 
the reconstruction of the building and the acquisi- 
tion of the exhibits, is to provide the residents of 
Chicago with an opportunity to enjoy a popular 
presentation of scientific and industrial subjects. 
The Museum, plans for which were developed in 
1926, was originally known as the Rosenwald In- 
dustrial Museum, this designation being changed 
in 1929 at the donor's request. The reconstructed 
Museum building has an Indiana limestone 
exterior, using the identical architecture of the 
original World's Fair structure. This work was 
financed primarily through a $5,000,000 bond 
issue authorized by the voters of the South Park 
District in 1924, prior to Mr. Rosenwald's con- 
tribution toward its completion and for the estab- 
lishment of the building as a Museum. The 
building co\-ers approximately seven acres, and 
when completed will contain 450,000 square feet 
of space for exhibition purposes, of which approxi- 
mately only one-tenth is now occupied. 

The Museum is divided into eleven basic de- 
partments: physics, chemistry and the fundamen- 
tal sciences; agriculture; textiles; forestry; geol- 
ogy and mineral industries; p(nver; transporta- 
tion (three divisions: land, air and water); archi- 
tecture and public works; printing and communi- 
cation; medical sciences; and the library. At 
present a representative group of the final ex- 
hibits is placed in the main hall, the primary at- 
traction being a fully operating bituminous coal 
mine. AM exhibits and displays are either gifts 
or loans, a large number being acquired immedi- 
ately following the close of the Century of Prog- 
ress in 1934. 



145 



The Museum is controlled by a Board of Direc- 
tors, consisting of eighteen trustees who are busi- 
ness and professional men. With the exception 
of the South Park District bond issue used to de- 
fray a part of the restoration expenses, all funds 
ha\-e been contributed by Mr. Rosenwald and, 
since his death, by the Rosenwald Family Asso- 
ciation. At the present time the Museum is op- 
erating entirely without tax support, although it 
may, when completed, benefit by the provisions 
of the statute pro\iding tax support for museums 
in public parks. Because, during the building and 
equipping period, the Board of Directors is not 
primarily concerned with public exhibits, it is op- 
erating without an annual budget. The staff at 
present consists of a director, two assistant direc- 
tors, eight curators, two assistant curators, two re- 
search assistants, one technical assistant, three 
model makers, three draftsmen, and an office 
force of nine employees. 

The Museum is open free to the public, the 
only charge being twenty-fi\'e cents to those who 
\-isit the underground workings of the coal mine. 
The open hours are from 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 
P.M. daily, including Sundays and holidays. The 
program, which, as already indicated, is limited, 
has for its outstanding feature prearranged lecture 
tours for students of public schools and other edu- 
cational institutions. The following indicates the 
extent of these tours in 1934: 

226 individual high school groups averaging 
98 students each 

276 indi\'idual grade school groups averaging 
100 students each 

538 individual miscellaneous groups averaging 
16 students each 

128 individual professional groups. 
For the general public, guides are provided who 
lea\'e the information desk e\'ery fifteen to twenty 
minutes during the open hours. A library con- 
sisting of 25,000 popular and scientific volumes 
is also available to the public. 

The following represent the attendance figures 
since the opening of the Museum in IQ33: 

]'rnr Biiildinfi Mine 



June 10 to Deceinlicr ,^1, lg,3 
January i to and including 

December 31, 1934 
January i to and including 

December 31, 1935 
January i to and including 

December 31, 1936 



290,061 •'^4.940 

384,163 136,301 

355,719 104,295 

357,510 101,241 



The monthly attendance during 1935 and I93fij 
was as follows: 

I'^S? 1936 



Month 


Building 


Mine 


Building 


m 


January 


16,672 


6,263 


14,631 


4,06 


February 


17,763 


6,460 


10,168 


2,67 


March 


30,410 


9,550 


29,094 


8,15, 


.Xpril 


33.151 


13,920 


27,883 


9,89' 


May 


31,912 


ll,19<.i 


36,265 


12,19! 


June 


34,435 


8,404 


39,097 


9,791 


July 


42,165 


8,319 


47,636 


9,95; 


August 


46,973 


10,895 


52,654 


13,11: 


September 


38,930 


9,300 


32.S73 


9,02! 


October 


26,399 


7,812 


25,187 


7,55: 


Novemlier 


21,849 


7,307 


24,499 


9,24 


December 


15,060 


4,869 


17,823 


5,58! 



355,719 



357.510 



101,24| 



The percentage distribution in daily attendanci; 
(six months from July i to December 31, 1933 
at the Museum was as follows: 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



40.1 
9.0 

9-3 
lO.I 

10.6 

9.2 

II. 7 



Hourly attendance is maintained at a fairly eveii 
level on the week days, but on Sunday the pealj 
attendance is between two and five in the after' 
noon. ' 

Upon the completion of the Museum it will hi 
staffed with a large, thoroughly trained group oj 
lecturers. The library will consist of 183,000 volj 
umes which, in addition to presenting all subject 
from both popular and scientific angles, will alsi 
include a special children's room. Motion picture- ' 
and group lectures will be provided at regulai 
intervals on subjects of a scientific nature. Dinin.i 
rooms are planned for the convenience of em] 
ployees and visitors. ; 

When completed, the exhibits to be housed i-; 
the Museum will total in value more than $50,1 
000,000. The building in its present incomplete 
state is worth approximately $6,000,000. In vie\l • 
of the financial limitations under which the Mu' 
scum is operating, its major problem is to intere; 
industrial leaders, educators, and business oij 
ganizations in providing exhibits and assisting 1! 
completing the plans for the Museum. , 

The Chicago Academy of Sciences 

Located at 200 1 North Clark Street in Lincol 
Park, the Chicago Academy of Sciences and Fre 
Natural History Museum is a museum of biology 



-I46 



zoology, botany, nature study, general science and 
geography, containing specimens of animals, 
birds, rocks, plants, shells and insects to be found 
in Chicago and its immediate environs. Incorpor- 
.ated in 1857, ^he Academy is one of the oldest 
['scientific bodies in the City of Chicago. Robert 
iKennicott, the founder, was a martyr to science 
jwho lost his life nine years later on a scientific 
j expedition to Alaska and North Russia to secure 
specimens for the Museum. The purpose of the 
^Academy as promulgated at its founding is "the 
promotion and profusion of scientific knowledge 
by the reading and publication of original papers, 
'by the maintenance of a museum, and by such 
' other means as may be adopted from time to 
time to arouse interest in and to stimulate scien- 
tific investigation." The early headquarters of the 
Chicago Academy of Sciences on Wabash A\-enue, 
north of Van Buren Street, were consumed in the 
; Chicago fire of 1871 when the work of years and 
exhibits valued at more than $200,000 were de- 
stroyed in an hour. The present Museum, erected 
in 1893 as a memorial to Matthew Laflin, who 
contributed $75,000, is situated at its Lincoln 
Park location through the co-operation of the 
Lincoln Park commissioners, who, in addition to 
providing the land, raised an additional $25,000 
toward the completion of the building. 

The Museum building, constructed of Bedford 
limestone in the style of the Italian Renaissance, 
is 132 feet long and 61 feet wide. It contains 
three floors, providing an auditorium with a seat- 
ing capacity of 300, a library and exhibition 
spaces. Located on the third floor of the Museum 
is the Atwood Celestial Sphere, the only one of 
its kind in the United States. 

The Museum and its contents are controlled by 
the Chicago Academy of Sciences, and all its 
property is under the jurisdiction of a Board of 
Trustees of which the President of the Chicago 
Park District is ex-officio a member. The scien- 
tific phases of the organization are directed by a 
Board of Scientific Governors, of which the Su- 
perintendent of Public Schools is a member. The 
Chicago Park District utilizes part of the building 
for office space and contributes approximately fi\'e 
thousand dollars a year toward the maintenance 
of the building; the remainder of the Museum's 
budget is raised from small endowments and 
membership fees. Since 1926 the annual budget 



has approximated seventeen thousand dollars, of 
which almost eighty-five per cent is devoted to 
the payment of salaries; the balance is expended 
for operating costs, lectures, slides and new equip- 
ment. Most of the research and lecture work of 
the Museum is contributed by members of the 
Chicago Academy of Sciences as a social service. 

In addition to its exhibits, the Academy pro- 
vides free public lectures at 3:00 p.m. on Sun- 
day, and loans moving pictures and slides to be 
used in the Chicago school system in courses of 
botany, zoology and general science. 

The Museum is open free to the public daily, 
except Sunday, from 9:00 .\.\u to 5:00 p.m. On 
Sunday the hours are from i :oo p.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

A small natural history library is also main- 
tained for the use of children. The staff at pres- 
ent consists of a director, a curator of exhibits, a 
mammalogist, a herpetologist, a taxidermist, a sec- 
retary, a librarian and a guard. 

Records indicate the following attendance from 
1930 to 1936: 



Year 


A t tendance 


1930 


309,000 


1 93 I 


325,000 


193^ 


310,000 


1933 


320,000 


1934 


332,000 


1935 


285,000 


1936 


307,973 



The increase in 1933- 1934 is attributed to the 
World's Fair \'isitors. Monthh- attendance in 
1935 and 1936 was as follows: 



.1 1 tendance 



Month 



1935 



1936 



Januar\' 

I-"ebruar\' 

March 

April 

May 

lune 

July 

August 

September 

October 

XoN'embcr 

December 



10,000 12,688 

12,000 11,983 

20,000 -0,475 

21,000 21,610 

25,000 3:1,864 

32,000 3->35- 

48,000 48,438 

46,000 46,513 

21,000 30,903 

19,000 19,645 

16,000 16,254 

15,000 14,-48 



Attendance \'ariations in a t\pical week register: 
Monday through Friday, between 400 and 60O; 
Saturday', 1,500; and Sunda\', 2,ooo. The count 



147 



of hourly attendance shows significant differ- 
ences; for example, from 9:00 a.m. until i ;00 
P.M., 40 people per hour visit the Academy; be- 
tween 1 :00 P.M. and 3:00 p.m., 100 an hour enter 
the Museum; and between 3:00 p.m. and closing 
time, less than 100 an hour. 

One of the major problems confronting the 
Academy at present is the restricted seating 
capacity for its Sunday afternoon lectures, which 
frequently are crowded beyond capacity. Because 
the Academy is dependent primarily upon mem- 
bership and contributions, it has felt itself unable 
to expand its program and to secure additional 
exhibits for its Natural History Museum. 

The Chicago Historical Society 

The Chicago Historical Society, founded in 
1856 "to collect and preserve objects, documents, 
books, maps, portraits and prints pertaining to the 
history of the United States, with special empha- 
sis on Chicago and the Northwest territory," 
maintains its Museum of American History at 
Clark Street and North Avenue, in Lincoln Park. 
Prior to 1932 the Society occupied a building at 
the corner of Dearborn and Ontario Streets, to 
which it moved when its former temporary home 
was torn down in 1892. Originally the Society 
was located on LaSalle Street between Lake and 
Randolph. Its present headquarters, erected on 
Lincoln Park property, were constructed through 
private donations. The building is of Georgian 
architecture, three stories high, covering an area 
of about 250 feet b)' 85 feet, containing an as- 
sembly hall, a reference library, and thirty-four 
period rooms which dramatize American history 
from the days of Columbus to the World War. 
Among the rooms are a reproduction of the Sen- 
ate Chamber, Congress Hall, Philadelphia, where 
George Washington delivered his second inaugu- 
ral address, a reproduction of a pioneer Illinois 
room, the Abraham Lincoln parlor, a Spanish ex- 
ploration room, and a diorama gallery of Chi- 
cago's history. The equipment includes many 
priceless objects of historical significance: the car- 
riage used by Abraham Lincoln when he was 
President, a covered wagon, Chicago's first fire 
engine from 1835, a silver loving cup made of 
70,000 dimes of Chicago school children and pre- 
sented to Admiral Dewey, and a statue of the 
Fort Dearborn Massacre of 18 12. In the women's 



costume gallery are lifelike models, displaying 
one hundred years of feminine fashions in gowns. 
The building and its contents are valued at more 
than one million dollars. 

The Chicago Historical Society, which owns thei 
Museum and its contents, is under the control of' 
a Board of Trustees, an executive committee ofi 
which manages and controls all property. The, 
Society, although located on park property, re-i 
ceives no tax support, deriving its funds from, 
gifts, interest on endowment, membership and. 
door fees. The membership classifications are an-j 
nual, life, governing annual and governing life.' 

The building is open from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00'' 
p.m. daily; and from 1:00 to 6:00 p.m. on Sun-1 
day. Admission is free on all days to children,! 
students and teachers; and on Monday, Wednes-j 
day, and Friday, it is open to the general public' 
without charge. On other days the fee is twenty-! 
five cents. 1 

A staff of thirty employees, including guards,; 
clerical help and librarians, is maintained to carryj 
on the work of the Society and its services to the 
public. 

Attendance since 1932, when the building was! 
opened to the public, has been: i 

Year A t tendance \ 

1933 110,000 I 

1934 130,000 ] 

1935 150,000 i 

By months, the attendance in 1935 approximated, 
between 6,000 and 10,000 in the winter months,! 
October, November, December and January; and] 
more than 10,000 other months. February, be-j 
cause of the national holidays which occur in that) 
month, draws great crowds to the building. 
Throughout the week attendance on Monday,! 
Wednesday, and Friday is larger than on Tues-; 
day and Thursday, the attendance usually rang- 1 
ing between 500 and 1,000 persons daily. Satur-1 
day and Sunday, because of the special attractions, 
draw crowds of more than 2,000 people. Thai 
attendance daily is heavier from two to fourj 
o'clock in the afternoon. Half of the Museum's; 

150,000 visitors each year are children. During! 

1936 the monthly attendance was as follows: 

Alont/i Attendance \ 



January 

February 

March 



5,130 
7,065 
9,245 



148 



Month 


Attendance 


April 


10,950 


May 


12,779 


June 


10,706 


July 


7,348 


August 


8,659 


September 


4,658 


October 


7,575 


November 


9,214 


December 


6,799 



Total 100,128 

The Adier Planetarium and Astronomical Museum 

Located at the northern extremity of the Nor- 
therly Island on property of the Chicago Pariv 
District, the Adler Planetarium and Astronom- 
ical Museum was dedicated May 10, 1930, "to 
further the progress of science ; to guide to an un- 
derstanding of the majesty of the heavens; to 
emphasize that under the celestial firmament 
there is order, interdependence and unity." The 
building and equipment, representing an invcst- 
* ment of $750,000, was presented to the City of 
Chicago by ^■■i Max Adler, who contributed 
approximately $i,ooo,ooo for that purpose. The 
exterior of the building, which is 160 feet in di- 
ameter and dodecagonal in shape, is of Minnesota 
rainbow granite, surmounted by a copper dome 
which rises eighty-eight feet above the terrace 
level. The twelve corners are decorated with the 
signs of the zodiac. The architectural excellence 
of the structure is attested by the award of the 
193 1 gold medal by the Chicago Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects. The Planetar- 
ium proper, or the projection apparatus, is housed 
in the large, circular, main hall, which has a di- 
ameter of seventy-two feet. An inner hemi- 
sperical dome, lined with linen, serves as the 
screen on which the movements of the heavens 
are presented through the projection apparatus. 
Four distinct types of motion representing change 
of latitude, diurnal motion, the interlocked nio- 
tions of the sun, moon, and planets, and the pre- 
cessional motion are regulated in such a manner 
that it is possible to present the movements of 
more than 9,000 astronomical bodies, illustrating 
how they appear at given times and places any- 
where in the world. The precessional cycle, which 
in nature requires 25,800 years, is completed in 
the Planetarium in one minute and sixteen 
seconds. 



The building houses also an astronomical 
museum and a library. Included in the collection 
of astronomical instruments which show the e\-o- 
lution of mechanical aids for scientific study are 
mechanical planetariums, various forms of celes- 
tial globes, ancient mechanical clocks, and geodetic 
instruments, as well as a special group of tele- 
scopes. The astronomical library, containing many 
books on ancient instruments and their uses, also 
provides photographs and transparencies of the 
heavens. 

The Adler Planetarium is controlled by the 
Chicago Park District through its Special Service 
Division. It is maintained by the Park District 
as one of its recreational facilities. In addition, 
the Adler Planetarium Trust contributes t'^ the 
further development of the institution, and a por- 
tion of its membership dues are devoted by the 
Chicago Astronomical Society toward expansion. 
The annual budget of the Planetarium approxi- 
mates $40,000. During the World's Fair years, 
the expenditures were somewhat higher; but in- 
creased admission proceeds compensated and bal- 
anced the budget. 

The Planetarium offers a demonstration lecture 
program on Monday and Wednesday, Thurs- 
day and Saturday at 11:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m., 
the building opening at I0:00 a.m. and closing 
at 5:00 P.M. on these days. Tuesday and Friday 
formal lectures are gi\-en at 1 1 :00 a.m., 3:00 
and 8:00 P.M., with the building closing at 9:00 
P.M. On Sunda\- lectures are offered at 2:30 and 
3:00 P.M. 

The Planetarium staff consists of a director, as- 
sistant director, two technicians and a stenogra- 
pher, together with tweU'e other employees, all 
under ci\'il service. \'isiting lecturers are secured 
from time to time on a fee basis. 

Attendance from the opening of the Museum 
until May 11, 1936, is as follows: 

Total Free Paul Receipts 

3,149,846 1,408,995 1,740,851 $435, '80.53 

Month 1\- attendance during 1935 was: 

/*iii(/ alU-wdance R;ce\fls 



lanuarv 


r..870 


6,015 


855 


12.45 


$il.?.75 


I*"cl>ruarv 


<1,.?(i4 


8.J.W 


l.IJ(. 


IJ.nj 


-'«1.50 


March 


15.111(1 


1-4. ISO 


92(> 


0.1,? 


-Ml. 50 


April 


11. W7 


llUl.5 


l.'vS.' 


14.(1.' 


4J0.50 


Mav 


15.7.'0 


1 -l.O/? 


1.04.1 


10.45 


410.75 



149 



Percentage 
paid to 
total 
Paid attendance Rcceil>ts 





20,232 


16,723 


3,509 


17.34 


$877.25 


July 


28.685 


22,494 


6,191 


21.58 


1,547.75 


August 


37,430 


29,326 


8,104 


21.65 


2,026.00 


September 


24,438 


19,934 


4,504 


18.43 


1,126.00 


October 


21,495 


18,223 


3,272 


15.22 


818.00 


November 


16,507 


14,(.43 


1,864 


11.29 


466.00 


December 


9,884 


8.37U 


1,514 


15.32 


378.50 


The foil 


owing 


tabic indicates 


attendance for 


1936: 








Percentage 

paid to 

total 




Month 


Total 


Free 


Paid 


attendance 


Receipts 



January 

February 

March 

.Vpril 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Decemljer 



6,409 
7,608 
18,193 
15,758 
20,742 
22,574 
31,291 
42,903 
25,308 
21,176 
16,703 
11,750 



5,408 
7,009 
16,894 
13,868 
18,796 
17,652 
24,576 
33,580 
19,337 
18,277 
14,887 
10,038 



1,001 
599 
1,299 
1,890 
1,946 
4,922 
6,715 
9,323 
5,971 
2,899 
1,816 
1,712 



15.62 
7.87 
7.14 
11.99 
9.38 
21.80 
21.46 
21.73 
23.59 
13.69 
10.87 
14.57 



$250.25 

149.75 

324.75 

472.50 

486.50 

1,230.50 

1,678.75 

2,330.75 

1,492.75 

724.75 

454.00 

428.00 



Free days are Wednesday, Saturday and Sun- 
day; an admission fee to the general public of 
twenty-five cents is charged during the remainder 
of the week. School children are admitted free of 
charge every afternoon. 

John C. Shedd Aquarium 

The John G. Shedd Aquarium is dedicated to 
the study of fishes and other forms of marine life, 
exhibits of which are secured from all parts of 
the United States and many foreign countries. A 
further purpose of the Aquarium is to send ex- 
peditions to secure specimens hitherto unknown 
to public aquariums. Located at the foot of Roose- 
velt Road in Grant Park, on the shore of Lake 
Michigan, on property of the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict, the Aquarium is the largest institution of its 
kind in the world. 

The building, completed in 1929, is of simple 
Doric architecture constructed on an octagonal 
plan, with an exterior finish of white marble. To- 
gether with the exhibits and equipment, it repre- 
sents an investment of approximately three 
million dollars. The Aquarium is named after 
John G. Shedd, a Chicago merchant, who con- 
tributed its entire cost as a gift "to the people of 
Chicago." 

The central chamber of the Aquarium is an 
octagonal rotunda with a forty-foot pool, repre- 
senting a semi-tropical swamp. Extending from 



this rotunda are six main exhibition halls in which' 
are placed one hundred and thirty-two permanent, 
wall tanks, varying in capacity from three hun-; 
dred and seventy-five gallons to thirteen thousand' 
five hundred gallons. Water is supplied to thesf 
from four basement reservoirs with a total capac-! 
ity of two million gallons, half of which is fromi i 
Lake Michigan, the balance being salt waterj i 
transported from the ocean at Key West, Florida.1 i 
The Museum has its own tank car for this pur-' ^ 
pose. While the number of specimens varies' 
throughout the year, at the end of the collecting] : 
season the. displays usually total about ten thou-;.'! 
sand specimens. These represent some two hun-{ ' 
dred and fifty species, not including the fishes in! 
the balanced aquarium room or hatchery fish toe; 
small to exhibit. \ 

The John G. Shedd Aquarium is controlled by! 
the Shedd Aquarium Society, composed of out-j , 
standing Chicago business men. Revenue is de-| 
rived from three sources: from admission charges,! | 
from a tax of half a cent on every one hundred I 
dollars worth of taxable property within the Chi- 
cago Park District, which it shares with the Art 
Institute and Field Museum, and by funds raisedj 
by the Society which has an endowment of ap- 
proximately thirty thousand dollars. | 

The Aquarium carries no specialized featurej 
program, its activities being limited to its aquatic 
exhibits. The staff consists of a director, curator,] 
assistant curator, head collector, aquarist balanced! 
aquarium, chief engineer, photographer, secretary' 
and thirty-nine other employees. | 

Since the opening of the Aquarium in 1930, the: 
annual attendance has been as follows: ' 

Yfcir Attendance 



1930 

1931 
1932 

1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 



2,323>i33 
4,689,730 
3,094,384. 
3,368,408 
1,218,333 

593,015 
902,803 



The monthly attendance for 1935 and 1936 isj 
shown in the following table: 



Months Paid 



Total 



Paid 



Free 



Total I 



January 
February 
March 
April 



1,080 
1,354 
1,551 
2,141 



18,370 
24,180 
40,907 
30,449 



19,450 
25,534 
42,458 
32,590 



1,235 

799 

1,965 

2,467 



24,801 
29,126 
87,284 
73,969 



26,036", 
29,925 ii 
89,249!. 
76,436 ii 



150 



1935 



Months Paid Free 



Total 



Paid 



Free 



Total 



vlay 2.538 

lune 5.149 

July 8.999 
•\ugust 11.444 

September 8.557 

3ctober 4.372 

November 2.431 

December 2,071 



37,872 
45,837 
54.407 
85,435 
54,390 
55,680 
59.950 
33,851 



40,410 
50,986 
63,406 
96,879 
62,947 
60.052 
62.381 
35.922 



3,042 
7,966 
10.950 
15.190 
11.410 
3.696 
3.1211 
2.659 



131,761 
88,449 
108,835 
115,428 
56,750 
42.834 
52.599 
26,4o8 



134,803 
96,415 
119,785 
130,618 
68,160 
46,530 
55,719 
29,127 



Attendance figures are highest on free admission 
days and in the order named: Sunday, Saturday 
and Thursday. Wednesday draws the largest at- 
tendance of the pay days. No tabulations are 
.available relative to hourly attendance. The at- 
itendance is normally heaviest in the early after- 
noon, but school tours and other special groups 
cause variations. 

The perishability of aquatic life necessitates 
constant replacement of specimens; hence most of 
ihe Aquarium's budget is of a maintenance char- 
acter. 

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens 

The Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens are lo- 
cated north of the Center Street entrance to Lin- 
coln Park. 
If Established to exhibit \'arious types and species 
' of animals, birds and reptiles not indigenous to 
the area, the Zoological Gardens, or the "Zoo" as 
they are more generally known, had an unpreten- 
tious origin in i868, when "a pair of swans were 
sent from Central Park in New York City to 
• decorate one of the small ponds of Lincoln Park." 
Today the Zoo occupies more than twenty-five 
acres of land, with five major exhibit buildings; 
a small animal house with thirty-two monkey 
cages, the aquarium building with thirty-six 
tanks (at present discontinued), the lion house, 
which has thirty-six cages, and the bird sanctuary 
providing seventy-two bird cages. In addition, 
outside dens, yards and cages are provided. 

More than 250 species of birds from the entire 
world are in the aviary collection; every tropical 
country is represented by some variety of nati\e 
monkey; the lion house includes specimens of the 
Bengal and Siberian tigers, Barbary and Senegal 
lions, jaguars, and several varieties of leopards. 
The fallow from Northern Africa and the 
Japanese sika are among the species of deer in the 
enclosures of the Zoo. 

The building formerly used as an aquarium 



and fish hatchery has been remodeled and is now 
used as the Reptile Exhibition Building. 

The Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens are con- 
trolled by the Chicago Park District and main- 
tained by that agency as one of its recreational 
attractions. Provisions for the support of the Zoo 
are included in the budget of the Park District. 
In 19^6 the total budget was $97,865, appor- 
tioned as follows: 

Salaries $58,215.00 

Food for animals 26,500.00 

Transportation of fish to 

Shedd Aquarium 1,700.00 

New exhibits 6,650.00 

Miscellaneous 3,975.00 

Uniforms (attendants') 600.OO 

Ofiice supplies 225.00 

This budget docs not include cost of maintenance 
and repair of plant and equipment, these items 
being charged to the Park Maintenance Division 
budget. 

The staff of the Zoo in 1936 consisted of a 
director, two Zoo foremen, thirty-three Zoo at- 
tendants, one stenographer and three laborers. 

The Zoological Gardens are open daily, in- 
cluding Sunday and holida}s. During the sum- 
mer the open hours on Sunday and holidays are 
extended to 7:00 p.m.; on all other days visitors 
are admitted from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. As 
there are seven entrances and no admission 
charges, no exact record of attendance is kept. 
During 1936, however, it is estimated that more 
than 3,000,000 visited the Zoo; on se\-eral occa- 
sions during the summer as man\' as 200,000 
crowded in. 

In addition to the Zoological Gardens, the staff 
of the Zoo is charged with the responsibility of 
directing se\-eral aviaries or bird sanctuaries and 
minor collections in the Park District. The larg- 
est of these, located in Jackson Park, covers 
twenty acres and occupies three small isolated is- 
lands in a lagoon. It is protected from the pub- 
lic by fences; hovve\-er, near-b\- walks and bridges 
afford the visitor an opportunir\- to study the birds 
at close range. The water area of the sanctuary, 
phuited with sage, pondweed, wild rice and other 
n:iti\-e plants, affords food and shelter for many 
kinds of waterfowl. Established in co-operation 
with tlic Izaak Walton League, the .\udubon So- 
cietv and the Conservation Council, the primary 



151 



purpose of the sanctuary is to provide a perma- 
nent haven for migrating song birds and water- 
fowl. 

A new bird sanctuary has recently been estab- 
lished on a five-acre tract at the foot of Addison 
Street in Lincoln Park, to which many birds from 
the aviary at the Zoo were transferred. In Indian 
Boundary Park the Park District maintains an- 
other bird sanctuary and a small zoological collec- 
tion which was established by residents of the dis- 
trict prior to consolidation. 

With the assistance of the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration, the Lincoln Park Zoological Gar- 
dens are being renovateci and remodeled to pro- 
vide more adequate facilities for exhibits and bet- 
ter accommodations for handling large crowds of 
visitors. 

Chicago Zoological Park 

The Chicago Zoological Park was opened for 
the first time on June 30, 1934. Located approxi- 
mately fourteen miles south and west of the Chi- 
cago "Loop" District, between 31st Street on the 
north and 34th Street on the south, and between 
the Desplaines River and Salt Creek on the east 
and west, it is near the towns of Riverside and 
Brookfield, Illinois. While the official name is 
"The Chicago Zoological Park," it is commonly 
referred to as the "Brookfield Zoo." 

The purpose of the Chicago Zoological Park, as 
conceived by Mrs. Edith Rockefeller McCormick, 
is to provide Chicago with a zoological garden 
equal to, if not more advanced and attractive than, 
the modern zoological gardens of Europe. 

While the main objective of the Chicago Zoo- 
logical Park is to provide educational advantages 
and entertainment for the public in general, it 
also has another educational purpose. The Field 
Museum of Natural History and the LIniversity 
of Chicago are associated with the Chicago Zoo- 
logical Society and their Zoological Departments 
are using the Chicago Zoological Park for study 
and research. 

The Zoological Park has twelve main exhibi- 
tion buildings, and twenty-one groups of en- 
closures, yards and outdoor cages. In addition, 
there are several buildings in the maintenance 
group, including the administration building, the 
central heating plant, and the service buildings, 
carpenter shop, paint shop, garage, stables, food 



warehouse, kitchens, bakery and miscellaneouS 
buildings for work and storage purposes. 

The control of the Chicago Zoological Park is 
vested in the Chicago Zoological Society, a pri- 
vate group, which under contract with the Cook 
County Forest Preserve District, operates the 
Zoological Park in co-operation with the Forest 
Preserve District. 

The administrative staff includes a director, a 
superintendent of buildings and grounds, curator 
of mammals, curator of birds, superintendent of 
utilities, clerical staff, architects, attendants and 
guards. 

Since the Zoo is incomplete, its budget is not 
stabilized, but it is estimated that the cost of main- 
tenance is between $225,000 and $240,000 an- 
nually. The cost of construction of the buildings 
and major equipment to date is estimated at 
$5,000,000. 

The Cook County Forest Preserve District was 
authorized by a referendum vote of the citizens 
of the county to provide for the maintenance of 
the Chicago Zoological Park by raising funds 
through a tax levy of three-twentieths of one mill 
on every dollar of assessed valuation of property 
for a period of six years, to June 30, 1932, with 
an additional provision for a tax levy of one- 
twentieth of one mill on every dollar each year 
thereafter. This rate was amended so that in 1936 
the rate was set at three-fortieths of one mill per 
dollar. 

The collection of animals, birds and exhibits is 
financed primarily by gifts from private collec- 
tions, by exchange with other Zoological Parks 
and foreign game departments, and by funds sup- 
plied by the Chicago Zoological Society. 

The entire collection on exhibition when the 
Chicago Zoological Park was formally presented 
by the Chicago Zoological Society and its friends 
had been paid for by them without recourse to 
public funds. Individual collectors are offered in- 
ducements, and through amateur collectors and 
travelers, rare specimens are sometimes secured. 
Inasmuch as any exhibition of living animals is 
constantly subject to change, it is the policy of 
the Zoological Society to secure first only the un- 
usual species of animals, birds and reptiles and 
certain important species of special scientific value. 

The Chicago Zoological Park is open every day 
of the year. Thursday, Saturday, Sunday, New 



15a 




PUBLIC RECREATION 
FACILITIES IN LOOP DISTRICT 



! Year's Day, Lincoln's Birthday, Washington's 
Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, 
Labor Day, Columbus Day, Armistice Day, 
Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day, everyone 
is admitted free. Children under fifteen years of 
age are admitted free at all times. There is an 
admission fee of twenty-five cents each for per- 
sons fifteen years or older on Monday, Tuesday, 
'Wednesday and Friday. However, teachers or 
leaders of groups of children who accompany their 
regular classes or groups may enter free of charge 
on the admission charge days. 

The daily visiting hours are as follows: during 
June, July, August and September, grounds are 
open from io:oo a.m. to 7:00 p.m.; the build- 
ings from 10:00 A.M. to 6:45 P.M. During 
April, May and October the hours for the 
grounds are from 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.; 
buildings, from I0:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m. During 
the months of November, December, January, 
February and March, the visiting hours for the 
grounds are from io:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.; for 
the buildings from I0:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m. 

The exhibits at the Chicago Zoological Park are 
divided into the following categories: mammals, 
birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many speci- 
mens in each of these divisions are regularly on 
exhibition, including 433 mammals, 808 birds and 
407 reptiles. These come from North and South 
America, the Arctic Region, the Antarctic Region, 
Africa, Australia, India and the Malayan Islands. 
To provide for propagation all animals exhibited 
are mated, with the result that sixty species 
have been reproduced since the Zoological Gar- 
dens were opened. During the past year several 
species of antelope, a giraffe and sea mammals 
have been added to the collection. 

The attendance at the Chicago Zoological Park 
from June 30, 1934, to June 30, 193 J, totaled 
1,792,986 registered individuals; from July r, 
'935) ^o June 30, 1936, the total dropped to 
1,584,008; from July i, 1936, to November 30, 
1936, a total of 1,005,078 individuals were regis- 
tered. Records indicate that ninety-six out of 
every one hundred individuals visiting the Zo- 
ological Gardens enter on the free days; also, that 
even though many children visit the Zoo, there 
are three adults for every child. Many tours 
are conducted by groups and outside organizations 



interested, but the Zoological Park does not con- 
duct any tours of its own. 

The Chicago Zoological Park is only four- 
sevenths completed. When finally finished, the 
Park will probably be the largest Zoological Gar- 
dens in the world. Until completion, the prac- 
tical needs of equipment, buildings and facilities 
to accommodate the public are of primary im- 
portance. Future building plans of the Chicago 
Zoological Park include a photographic studio 
and laboratory, a zoological research building and 
an animal hospital. Plans have been made for the 
extension of grading, providing new and addi- 
tional parking space in and around the Zoological 
grounds, landscaping and planting of shrubbery, 
trees, terracing, etc., and other work to enhance 
the beauty of the Park. Lecture and guide service 
is contemplated in addition to the improvement 
of the collection in general. 

Forest Preserve Trailside Museum 

The Trailside Museum of the Cook County 
Forest Preser\-e is located at Chicago and 
Thatcher A\-enues in Ri\'er Forest in the 
Thatcher Woods section of the Forest Preserve 
District. Occupying the first floor of an old resi- 
dence, it consists of four rooms which house an 
exhibit of every bird, animal, reptile and butter- 
fly found in the Forest Preserves. Some of the 
specimens are mounted; live exhibits are kept in 
cages in the Museum and outside the building. 

The Trailside Museum co-operates with the 
Chicago Acadeni}- of Arts and Sciences, which acts 
in an ad\'isory capacity in arranging specimens, 
and loans exhibits and equipment on various oc- 
casions. 

The Trailside Museum is open every day of 
the \ear, except Christmas Day. The hours are 
I0:oo A.M. to 5:00 P.M., except in summer months 
when visitors are admitted until 6:0O p.m., the 
closing time on Sunda\- and holidays throughout 
the \ear. The Museum staff consists of two 
curators and a janitor, emplo)-ed by the Forest 
Preserve District, which also maintains the build- 
ing. 

Since its opening in Ma\-, 1932, the Museum 
has recorded a fair increase in attendance each 
succeeding year, with the exception of 1936. In 
1933, 31,561 persons registered; in I934i there 
were 33,5^8; in 1935, 42,098; and in 1936, 



153 



40,786 individuals visited the Museum. During 
1936 the attendance was divided as follows: 



Month 


A t tendance 


January 


1,045 


February 


1,162 


March 


2,512 


April 


2,390 


May 


5,760 


fune 


6,997 


July 


4,447 


August 


3,938 


September 


3,114 


October 


3,965 


November 


2,756 


December 


2,700 



The record of attendance shows that week-ends 
and holidays are most popular. Thanksgiving Day 
having the greatest number of visitors. Three 
major groups \-isit the Trailside Museum: 

1 . Boys under hnirteen years of age, especially 
Boy Scouts. 

2. Family groups, adults with their children. 

3. Organized groups such as high school 
classes in botany, biology, geography and 
general science. 

Relatively few individual adults seek this 
Museum. 

Chicago Park District Conservatories: 
Garfield Park Conservatory 

Erected in 1907, the Garhcld Park Conserva- 
tory was, until 1934, under the jurisdiction of the 
West Chicago Park Commissioners. It is located 
in Garfield Park on North Central Park Boule- 
vard north of Lake Street. Its purpose, in line 
with the function of all conservatories and floral 
displays of the Park District, is tcj afford residents 
of Chicago an opportunity to obser\-e the beauty 
of nature. \'egetatii)n of an exotic character is also 
grown for its educational value. 

The many diiferent sections of the building, 
embracing more than 134,000 square feet of floor 
space, would require the expenditure of more 
than $800,000 to duplicate, and house an indoor 
plant collection valued at $1,250,000. 

All of the plants are designated by appropriate 
labels indicating the common name, family, scien- 
tific name and habitat of the specimen, which as- 
sist in the identification of the various displays. 
The arrangement of the conservatory into many 
display rooms makes it possible to place in the 



same room all exotic plants requiring the same 
general atmospheric conditions. Throughout the 
year the Garfield Park Conservatory presents a 
continuous show, comprising flowering and orna- 
mental-lea\-ed or foliage plants. In addition, four 
major shows are staged annually: the Christmas, 
or Mid-winter; the Easter, or Spring; the Mid- 
summer; and the Chrysanthemum Show. The 
motif of the shows is changed each year, although 
the same varieties of flowers are usually exhibited. 
Since 1930, attendance has been as follows: 



Yenr 


A t tendance 


1930 


639,930 


1 93 I 


536,457 


1932 


541,021 


1933 


563,895 


1934 


464,130 


1935 


535,271 


1936 


482,507 



During 1935 and 1936 the monthly attendance! 
was as follows: I 



Mouth 



^93: 



1936 



January 


17,153 


21,203 


February 


11,532 


12,680 


March 


40,681 


40,681 


April 


90,053 


88,157 


May 


29,655 


37,352 


June 


35,421 


25,954 


July 


29,731 


21,625 


August 


26,241 


27,117 


September 


40,249 


34,996 


October 


20,572 


19,565 


No\'ember 


161,239 


124,241 


December 


32,744 


28,936 



The Conser\atory is open from fall to spring:; 
8:00 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. Monday through Satur- 
day; and 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Sunday. Fromr; 
spring to fall it is open 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.! 
every day including Sunday. During the annuall 
Easter show, the Christmas show and the chrys-' 
anthemum show the conservatories are open from 
8:00 a.m. to 10:00 P.M. e\'ery day including Sun- 
day. 

Attenc^ance varies according to weather condi-; 
tions and the type of display being featured.; 
During the chrysanthemum show, 34,817 at- 
tended on the single day, November 17, a figure; 
overtopping se\en monthly totals. Few are 
present during the morning hours, the peak at- 



154 



tendance usually being between two and four in 
the afternoon, and from seven until nine in the 
evening. It is estimated that 6,000 persons can 
be accommodated at one time in the Conservatory. 

Lincoln Park Conservatory 

Located on Stockton Drive at Fullerton Ave- 
nue in Lincoln Park, the Lincoln Park Conserva- 
tory is approximately one-fifth the size of the 
Garfield Park Conservatory. Its purpose and gen- 
eral program coincide with that of the Garfield 
Park institution, and it is subject to the same 
fluctuations in attendance. During 1935 and 1936 
attendance at Lincoln Park Conservatory was: 



Month 



1935 



1936 



January 


No record 


13,972 


February 


91,44+ 


9,217 


March 


36,975 


54,022 


April 


60,796 


61,387 


May 


45,528 


71,205 


June 


52,106 


63,608 


July 


60,8 r I 


116,875 


August 


67,173 


106,982 


September 


22,690 


43,642 


October 


22,227 


26,327 


November 


46,916 


55,482 


December 


28,692 


22,402 



Total 



535,358 645,121 



The Conservatory is open from fall to spring: 
8:00 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. Monday through Satur- 
day; and 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Sunday. From 
spring to fall it is open 8:00 a.m. until 6:00 
P.M. every day, including Sunday. During the 
annual Easter show, the Christmas show and the 
chrysanthemum show the Conservatory is open 
from 8:00 A.Nr. to 10:00 p.m. every day includ- 
ing Sunday. 

Outdoor Garden Features: 

In addition to the conservatories the Floral Sec- 
tion of the Landscape Division of the Chicago 
Park District maintains the following: 

Garfield and Douglas Park Flower Gardens 

Each of these gardens contains a large number 
of beds varying in size from those containing 500 
plants to those with 8,000 plants. Each autumn 
the plants are removed and replaced with bulbs 
for spring flowering. In 1936 more than 870,000 
plants, covering a total area of more than 50 



acres, were planted throughout the entire Park 
District. 

Rose Gardens 

Special rose gardens, attracting many visitors, 
are maintained in Humboldt Park (7,000 plants), 
Jackson Park (3,000 plants), Garfield and Doug- 
las Parks ( 1,500 each), with smaller beds in other 

parks. 

Perennial Gardens 

In addition to the perennial plants in displays 
in all parks, special gardens are maintained in 
Humboldt, Douglas, Lincoln and Jackson Parks. 

Grandmother's Garden 

Located in a mile strip along the south drive in 
Lincoln Park, this garden features plants known 
during pre-Ci\il War days. 

The Aquatic Garden 

In Garfield Park more than sixty varieties of 
tropical nymphaeas are grown in pools. Douglas 
Park and Humboldt Park also provide ponds with 
a miscellaneous variety of lilies, water poppies and 
other varieties of marine vegetation. All of these 
ponds are utilized as educational outdoor labora- 
tories for schools and students. 

The Japanese Garden 

In 1935 the Japanese exhibit at the Columbian 
Exposition of 1893, located in Jackson Park, was 
restored, and offers an opportunity to study the 
plant life, the landscape art and the general con- 
struction of a garden of this type. 

Miscellaneous Activities 

Since the consolidation of the Chicago parks, 
the staif of the Floral Di\-ision have adopted a 
policy of co-operating with ci\ic groups and as- 
sisting neighborhood clubs to beautify their lo- 
calities. During 1935, 114 lectures attended by 
more than 1 1,000 individuals were presented 
away from the conservatories. In addition, prac- 
tical lectures employing lantern slides were given 
at the Administration Building and in the Park 
District fieldhouses throughout the city. Guide 
ser\ice for 482 groups attending the conser\-a- 
tories, judging of thirty flower and garden shows 
in the city, answering requests for material for 
study from schools, colleges and indi\iduals, and 
radio talks regarding flowers and the subject of 
gardening were among the other services per- 
formed b\- the staff. 



IJ5 



Future plans include the extension of lecture 
courses so that all gardening sections of the city 
may receive practical information to arouse a 
greater appreciation of more livable and beautiful 
home surroundings. A school of gardening whci-e 
the floral personnel will receive instruction so that 
they may serve the public more effectively, and an 
aquatic house wherein water plants may be dis- 
played throughout the year are in the develop- 
ment program. A closer affiliation with public and 
parochial schools wherein gardening may be pre- 
sented in an understandable manner to school 
children is also contemplated by the department. 

The Art Institute 

The Art Institute of Chicago was incorporated 
May 24, 1879, when Chicago's importance as a 
center of commerce and trading had been definite- 
ly established and its cultural development was 
beginning to assert itself. As amended on De- 
cember I, 1925, the charter of the Art Institute 
indicates the purpose of the institution as follows: 
"for the object to found, build, maintain and 
operate museums of fine arts, schools and libraries 
of art, design and the drama with authority to 
confer degrees and grant diplomas; to build, 
maintain and operate theaters, lecture halls, work- 
shops and lunch rooms in connection therewith, 
and to carry on appropriate activities conducive 
to the artistic development of the community; to 
form, preserve and exhibit collections of objects 
of art of all kinds; to cultivate and extend the arts 
of design and the drama by any appropriate 
means; to provide lectures, instruction anci enter- 
tainments including dramatic, operatic and mu- 
sical performances of all kinds, in furtherance of 
the general purposes of the Institute; to receive 
in trust property of all kinds and to exercise all 
necessary powers as trustees for such estates whose 
objects are in furtherance of the general powers 
of the Institute, or fur the establishment or main- 
tenance of works of art in the community." 

l^'or three years after its establishment in 1879 
the Institute was located at the southeast corner 
of State and Monroe Streets, from which in i88'2 
it moved to Michigan Boulevard and Van Buren 
Street, where it occupied its own building. In 
1892, when the Institute had outgrown the facili- 
ties of this building, the site was sold to the Chi- 






cago Club. A year prior to this the City of| 
Chicago had passed an ordinance permitting the| ', 
erection of a building on the lake front I 
opposite Adams Street, "to be used for the . 
World's Congresses during the Columbian Ex-i 
position, and afterwards to be occupied by the Art I 
Institute, the building to be the property of the | 
City of Chicago." The building was erected with j 
the assistance of the Columbian Exposition, which 1 
contributed $200,000 under the following condi- 
tions: that at least $500,000 be spent for the 
building; that the building be controlled by the j 
Exposition from May i to November i, 1893; 
that it contain rooms and appliances suitable for 
the meetings of the World's Congresses. The 
building was turned over to the Art Institute at 
the close of the World's Fair, November i, 1893. 
The building is of Bedford limestone, along 
classical lines, the style of the Italian Renaissance. 
The site includes 840 feet of frontage on Michi- 
gan Avenue; and the building, now valued at ap- 
proximately seven million dollars, houses perma- 
nent exhibits estimated at twenty-five million dol- 
lars. 

The Institute is controlled by a Board of 
Trustees, which includes ex-officio the Mayor of 
the City, the Comptroller of the City, the Auditor 
of the City and the President of the Park District, 
in addition to those trustees who are elected by 
the Institute's two hundred governing members. 
Funds for the operation of the Institute and the 
acquisition of art treasures are obtained from 
membership dues, endowments, trust funds, and 
the twenty-five cents admission charge permitted 
by statute four days each week. In addition, the 
Institute benefits from the Museums in Parks Act, 
receiving its prorated share through the Park Dis- 
trict. Expenditures from 1925 to 1936 were as 
follows: 



Vcar 


Casli 


Trust fund 


Total 




disbursements 


disbursements 


disbursements 


1925 


$1,322,790.31 


$2,289,404.46 


$3,612,194.77 


l'l_'6 


1,230,341.08 


3,022.842.77 


4,259.184.45 


1927 


1,411,34252 


2,170.880.52 


3,582,229.04 


1928 


1.425,635.98 


3,428,880.89 


4,854,516.87 


1929 


1,733,032.57 


3.281.158.28 


5,014,190.85 


19,50 


1,302,790.11 


2.389.652.54 


3,692,442.65 


1931 


1,243,537.08 


1,768.979.24 


3,012,516.32 


19,52 


872751.82 


1.535,103.50 


2,407,915.32 


1933 


1.018,030.09 


836,904.32 


1,855.595.01 


1934 


884,795.40 


1,061,705.71 


1,946,501.17 


1935 


821,o<;.5.7o 


1.187,374.50 


2,009,040.26 


1936 


840,032.78 


Not available 


Not available 



156 



The 1936 expenditures were divided as follows: 
General Funds 
Cash Disbursements 
Musciiin Account 
Operating expenses : admin- 
istration, curators', pub- 
lications, exhibitions, li- 
Ijraries, Iniilding services, 
. heat, light, restaurant and 

miscellaneous $452,491.34 

Membership department ex- 
pense 41,997.00 



$494,488.34 



E. J. i Slock gift from Sus- 
taining Membership to 
j Helen M. Block Fund 
^School Account 

Operating expense 
School of Dramatic Art Account 

Operating expense 
Sundry Accounts 
Accessions, objects of art 
purchased from income 
of restricted funds 64,696.97 

Cash gifts 6,114.55 

Buildings, B. F. Ferguson 

Monument Fund, Unit A 598.40 



217,861.03 



54.273-49 



71.409.92 



Cash in bank, December 31. 
1936 




$855,184.6(5 



Among the major activities of the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago is its operation of the largest Art 
\ School in the world, the only school of its kind to 
i be accepted as a meinber of the North Central 
, Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 
' Originating in 1886, the school now has an annual 
[ enrollment of o\'er four thousand students, and 
I occupies the entire ground floor together with a 
1 modern annex recently added. Instruction is of- 
j fered in some twenty-seven subjects by a faculty 
{ of eighty-six lecturers and instructors. Each year 
■ more than four hundred and fifty public lectures 
are given, while from time to time nationally and 
i internationally known artists give special courses 
i of instruction. Full-time students attend five days 
a week, and there is also an evening school on 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday evenings from 
7:00 P.M. to 9:00 P.M., in addition to the special 
school conducted on Saturday only. 

Within recent years the curriculum of the ,'\rt 
Institute has been expanded to include a School 



of Drama, maintaining two independent theaters: 
the Kenneth Sawyer Goodman Memorial 
Theater, seating seven hundred and fifty; and the 
"Studio" Theater, seating one hundred and fifty- 
eight, which is used for rehearsals. Inasmuch as 
the number of students is restricted and admission 
is on a competitive basis, the average enrollment 
is approximately one hundred and twent\-. Per- 
formances are presented at frequent inter\'als, Sat- 
urday afternoons being devoted to special mati- 
nees for children. 

The Ryerson Library, which has grown from a 
shelf of books in 1879, now includes thirty-seven 
thousand volumes. The Library of Architecture, 
endowed by Daniel Burnham, has more than six 
hundred books of a technical nature. Both libraries 
are open without charge to all who visit the Insti- 
tute, and during the school year they are open on 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday e\'enings until 
9:30 P.M. In the Photograph and Slide Depart- 
ment 60,000 photographs, 8,300 color prints, and 
30,500 slides representing almost every field of 
art, supplemented by 37,000 post cards, are avail- 
able to visitors and may be borrowed by Chicago 
educational and religious institutions free of 
charge. There are in the Oriental Department 
seven galleries devoted to Chinese art, one to 
Persian, one to Indian, and two to Japanese art. 
The Buckingham Collection of Japanese Prints is 
reported to be one of the inost complete and valu- 
able in existence. The eight exhibition galleries 
of the Department of Prints and Drawings on 
the main floor have about i8,000 prints and draw- 
ings, and an extension library on the graphic arts 
is available to the public in the print room. The 
Agnes .'Vllerton Textile Wing, containing textiles 
from the Coptic Period to the present, is a part 
of the Decorative Arts Department. An organiza- 
tion of Chicago women, whose aim is to revive the 
lost art of hand needlework, has formed the 
Needlework and Textile Guilci, and uses the .^rt 
Institute as its headquarters. F.gyptian art is 
represented by a collection of sculpture, prehis- 
toric pottery, vases, statuettes, ushabti figurines 
of terra cotta and wood, mumm\- masks, scarabs, 
necklaces, and mummy wrappings. 

Besides the free lectures on art for children, 
gi\'en e\'ery Saturday morning at 9:15, and the 
special matinees given on Saturday afternoon by 
the School of Drama, the .Vrt Institute maintains 



157 



a Children's Museum. It was organized in 1923 Chicago Park District Art Galleries: 

by donations received from the Municipal Art John H. Vanderpoel Memorial Art Gallery 

League and clubs and associations in Chicago. The Vancierpoel Art Gallery, located in Ridge 

Later endowments came from Mr. and Mrs. Park at Longwood Drive and 96th Street, was 

Charles H. Worcester. established in 19 13, two years after his death, to 

ATTENDANCE AT THE ART INSTITUTE 

Pay Free Paid Pree Free 

Year ilays days admissions visitors membership Students* Total 

1930 . 312 163 65,410 536.068 106,908 188.430 916,816 

19^1 .... _'(!<) 156 52,581 550,6.15 138,734 176,691 918,639 

193? . .. I'W 1(,7 48,188 563.290 127,955 161,739 901,172 

1Q35 ....** ** 721,631 1,0.56.445 135,251 137,277 2,050,604 

1934 . *» ** 194,032 490,903 108,481 151,478 944,894 

1935 . ** ** 38,392 475,057 147,648 258,523 919,620 

1936 ** ** 73,425 023,791 157,070 304,380 1,158,666 

♦Estimated by counting each slndcnt once a day during hiN term of enrollment. 
**Not given. 



The breakdown cf the attendance for 1935 and 
1936 was as follows: 

A lonlh A t tendance 





/9.?,5 


19 S 6 


January 


90,485 


147,530 


February 


84,898 


88,778 


March 


94,199 


106,256 


April 


78,680 


93,512 


May 


71,957 


83,546 


June 


58,954 


63,678 


July 


46,352 


54,312 


August 


46,553 


82,269 


September 


62,528 


154,024 


October 


93,045 


104,741 


November 


125,586 


113,528 


December 


66,383 


66,492 



Total 



919,620 1,158,666 



The preponderance of attendance is on the free 
da\'s, Sundays being the most popular. Special 
exhibit attracticjiis presented at intervals through- 
out the year cause \'ariations. The majority of the 
Institute's \'isitors attend between the hours of 
11:00 A.M. and 3:00 P.M. 

The most important consideration in the fu- 
ture plans of the Institute is that of enlarging its 
plant so that it may present its exhibits more ade- 
quately. The ground space is a\-ailable, but at 
the present time there are insufficient funds to 
begin the actual construction. Upon its comple- 
tion the Institute would take on the appearance 
of a block surrounding a series of rectangular 
courts. 



perpetuate the name of a distinguished artist and 
teacher, John H. \'anderpoel. Now, broader in 
its scope and purpose, the Gallery has a perma- 
nent collection of 502 paintings representing the 
work of many artists. Though independently con- 
trolled and financed, the \'anderpoel Gallery is 
affiliated with the Chicago Park District, which 
superseded the Ridge Park District through the 
provisions of the Park Consolidation Act of 1933. 
Complete control of the Gallery is held by the; 
Vanderpoel Art Association, while the Chicago] 
Park District co-operates in the maintenance of| 
the building. The Association has a ninety-nine 1 
year lease from the Park District on the section! 
of the Park building which it occupies. All funds 
for its operation are obtained from the Vanderpoel 
Association through one dollar a year member- 
ship dues, a total of $15,000 per year being re- 
quired. Frequently private contributions are 
necessitated to make up the deficit. 

In addition to the exhibit of paintings, the 
Vanderpoel Gallery conducts several art classes 
under the supervision of Works Progress Ad- 
ministration teachers. Classes for children are 
held on Monday and Saturday afternoons, and 
those for adults on Monday evening and Friday 
afternoon. A class for small children six years 
of age to ten, which meets twice a week, has an 
enrollment of approximately ninety-five. The 
Gallery loans to public schools and churches ex- 
hibits from its permanent collection. The last Sun- 
day of each month is given over to lectures, music, 
and "one-man shows," for which the Association 
makes an attempt to secure persons of national 



158 




Population Series — Map 5 



reputation. The curator served in this capacity 
without salary for twenty years until the Park 
Consolidation Act went into effect and he was 
placed on the salaried staff of the Chicago Park 
District. The remainder of the staff in 1936 con- 
sisted of two Works Progress Administration 
teachers and two Works Progress Administration 
assistants paid by the federal government. 

Although no records of attendance are kept, it 
is estimated that an average of 500 people visit 
the Gallery each week. It is open every day free 
of charge until ten in the evening with the maxi- 
mum attendance between 3:00 and 5:00 p.m. The 
largest crowds visit the exhibits on Wednesdays 
and Sundays. 

An unique feature of the Museum is that only 
one picture, "The Buttermakers," by Vanderpoel, 
has ever been purchased by the Association; the 
others are gifts of the artists and friends. The 
entire collection is valued by the Association at 
$1,000,000. Future plans provide for the addi- 
tion of old masters to the collection, but, as in the 
past, these would have to be contributed because 
of the limitations of the Association's budget. 

Garfield Park Art Gallery 

Recognizing that throughout the various sec- 
tions of the city there are many people who are 
appreciati\'e of paintings and works of art and 
who are financially unable or have not the time 
to go into the Loop, the Chicago Park District, in 
co-operation with the Art Institute of Chicago, 
established the Garfield Park Art Gallery in 1935 
as the first of a series of branch art galleries 
throughout the city. The exhibits at Garfield 
Park are housed in the rotunda of the former 
West Park Commissioners Administration Build- 
ing, which pro\'ides two large and one small ex- 
hibition galleries. With the exception of twelve 
casts of famous Greek statues, each one in a sepa- 
rate niche, the exhibits are temporary, the average 
showing of each being about two months. 

Control of the Garfield Park Art Gallery is 
held by a board composed of representatives of 
the Art Institute and the Chicago Park District; 
all funds for maintenance are provided in the 
regular budget of the Park District. Five thous- 
and dollars has been allocated in the 1937 budget 
for this purpose. Although the majority of the 
exhibits are loaned through the Art Institute, 



some are secured from other sources, such as the 
Municipal Art League of Chicago. The Art In- 
stitute, however, restricts all exhibits to its own 
artistic standards. 

In \'iew of the fact that there is no full-time lec- 
turer at the Gallery, detailed labels ha\e been 
placed under each work. The staff is composed of 
guards, two full-time and one part-time, in addi- 
tion to a lecturer who plans and arranges for the 
exhibits besides conducting t(An-s when arranged 
in advance. 

Attendance figures for the Garfield Park Art 
Gallery since its founding are as follows: 



Month 



A t tendance 



November 10, 1935, to November 9, 

1936, inclusive 61,278 

November 10, 1935, through Novem- 
ber 30, 1935 13)950 

December, 1935 4,458 



Total for 1935 



18,408 



Atteudance dining 1936 
Month Attendance 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

|une 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 



3,526 
3,182 
5,259 
5,639 
5,335 
4,432 
3,155 
4,503 
3,120 
3,007 
8,087 
2,687 

51,932 



The Galler\- is open e\ery da\', including 
Sunday, from i :00 to 5:00 p.m., and on Wed- 
nesday and Sunday the closing time is extended 
to 9:00 P.M. The best attended day is Sunday 
and throughout the week the hour between 3:30 
and 4:30 P.M. is most popular.' 

The future plans of the Chicago Park District 
provide for the opening of similar art galleries 
in Washington and Lincoln Parks, with bi-month- 
1\- rotating exhibits in each of the three parks. 



'During 1W7. however, the Garfield Park (lallerics were 
suspended, and the space was devoted to Park District 
I'rojerts of the Works Progress Administration. 



1.59 



CHAPTER IX 



STATE AND COUNTY FOREST PRESERVES 



General 

The functions of national parks and forests, 
state reservations and county forest preserves are 
five-fold: namely, the protection of watersheds 
and the prevention of erosion; the maintenance 
of the purity of springs and other sources of water 
supply; the production and preservation of forest 
products and the regulation of their consumption; 
preservation of the native landscape; and the pro- 
vision of recreational opportunities for visitors. 
Within recent years the recreational phases of 
forests and parks, which heretofore had been of 
^•ery minor importance, ha\'e been recognized as 
filling a very vital need, particularly for the ur- 
ban population of the country. Public interest in 
state parks and forests, according to the Presi- 
dent's Research Committee on Social Trends in 
1932, began to develop early in the twentieth cen- 
tury. It was not, however, until the last fifteen 
years that rapid expansion was evidenced in this 
field. 

National Parks and Forests 

In 1937 there was a total of twenty- four na- 
tional parks under the control of the National 
Park Service of the Department of the Interior. 
In addition, two parks, Abraham Lincoln in Ken- 
tucky and Fort McHenry in Maryland, were un- 
der the jurisdiction of the War Department un- 
der the Congressional Consolidation Act of 1933. 
The national parks listed in order of their federal 
creation are; 







square 


Date 


Name 


Location 


miles 


established 


Hot Springs 


Arkansas 


1.58 


1832 


Yellowstone 


Wyoming 


3,471.51 


1872 


Sequoia 


California 


604 


1890 


General Grant 


California 


3.96 


1890 


Yosemite 


California 


1.176,16 


1890 


Mount Rainier 


Washington 


.i77.78 


1899 


Crater Lake 


Oregon 


250.52 


1902 


Piatt 


Oklahoma 


l..!3 


1902 


Wind Cave 


South Dakota 


18.47 


1903 


Mesa Verde 


Colorado 


80.21 


1906 


Glacier 


Montana 


1,533.88 


1910 









Area in 










square 


Date 


.V(i»ii' 


Location 




miles 


cstablishei 


Rocky Mountain 


Colorado 




405 


1915 


Hawaii 


Hawaiian 


Islands 


245 


1916 


Lassen \'olcanic 


California 




163.32 


1916 


.Abraham Lincoln 


Kentucky 




0.17 


1916 


Mount McKinley 


.Alaska 




3,030.46 


1917 


Grand Canyon 


.Arizona 




1.009.08 


1919 


.'\cadia 


Maine 




24.08 


1919 


Zion 


Utah 




148.26 


1919 


Fort McHenry 


Maryland 




13.62 


1925 


Bryce Canyon 


Utali 




55.06 


1928 


Grand Teton 


Wyoming 




150 


1929 


Great Smoky 


North Car 


olina 






Mountains 


and Tennessee 


617 


1930 


Carlsbad Cavern 


New Mexico 


15.56 


1930 


Shenandoah 


\'irginia 




275.81 


1935 


Mammoth Cave 


Kentucky 
Total 


area 


38.34 


1936 




13,710.16 



The total area represents an increase of more than 
1,000,000 acres since 1928. 

During the last few years all of the national 
pai'ks have been made accessible by automobile,, 
and facilities for camping are now provided in 
addition to hotels and lodges. The increasing im-; 
portance of the parks is shown by the huge in- 
crease in the number of visitors: from 1910, when, 
less than 200,000 visited the parks, to 1935, with 
7,676,490 visitors, their patronage increased more 
than 3,000 per cent. In addition, 38,000,00c; 
people visited or passed through the more than, 
200,000 acres of national forests maintained by 
the Department of Agriculture throughout the! 
country. 

National and state forests and parks have bene- 
fited considerably by the location of numerous 
Civilian Conservation Corps camps within their 
boundaries. The work of the C. C. C. boys con- 
sists chiefly in impro\'ing means of transportation,! 
eliminating fire hazards, preventing further ero-; 
sion, and generally improving the areas and mak-; 
ing them more suitable for camping and for gen- 
eral recreational use. 

Expenditures for forest recreation in the 
United States total approximately $1,750,000,000 



160 



annually, according to latest information. Within 
the past several years, through the National Park 
Service, the National Resources Board and the 
various state planning bodies, establishment of 
permanent relationships of co-operation among 
the various governmental units has made rapid 
progress. 

State Parks 

During 19J4, according to reports of the Na- 
tional Resources Board, there were. 3,701,125 
acres of state parlis in the United States. A sur- 
vey completed under the direction of the Illinois 
Plan Commission in that same year indicates that 
Illinois provided less than I0,000 acres of this 
total. On the basis of this study the Plan Com- 
mission concluded that the "acquisition of new 
■ park sites is urgently recommended. Park sites 
acquired by the state through gift or purchase 
should meet the recognized specifications. That 
is, they should be (i) historic sites; (2) areas of 
unusual scenic beauty made so by geologic or 
topographical features; (3) forested areas along 
waterways and lakes; and (4) scenic parkways 
varying in width from lOO to 1,000 feet and con- 
necting state parks either existing or contem- 
plated." 

A summary of all state parks and monuments 
under the control of the Division of State Parks 
of Illinois in 1936 indicated the progress made 



during 1935 in carrying out the recijmmendations 
of the Plan Commission. 

According to the Plan Commission's report the 
distribution of Illinois state parks of over 15 acres 
in 1934 was as follows: 



Xaiiu- of park 



Population 
Location by within a 

Counties .Icreagc W-mile radius 



Pere Marquette 


Tersev 


1,.S.S0 


Starved Rock 


La Salle 


81. •? 


Giant City 


Tackson 


7SD 


White Pine Forest 


Ogle 


27.S 


Black Hawk 


Rock Island 


200 


Fort Massac 


Massac 


194 


Apple River Canvon 


To Daviess 


1.S2 


Cahokia Mounds 


Madison 


144 


Mississippi Palisades 


Carroll 


UQ 


Buffalo Rock 


La Salle 


98 


Lincoln Log Cabin 


Coles 


86 


Xew .Salem 


Menard 


80 


Cave-in-Rock 


Hardin 


f.O 


Kaskakia Fort 


Randolph 


56 


Fort Chartres 


Randolph 


21 


Fort Creve Coeur 


Tazewell 


15 



1,563,873 
338,830 
336,120 
310,686 
363,880 
265,837 
307,041 

1,299,119 
334,885 
224,257 
312,982 
271, .323 
240,867 
222,960 
599,262 
350,556 

The following additions were made in the ten 
months beginning June, 1935: gift of 96 acres 
to the Illinois Michigan Canal, running from 
Dayton to east of Ottawa, given by Chicago Re- 
tort and Fire Brick Company; gift of 3,072 acres. 
Grass Lake Addition, located near Fox Lake, 
Lake County; gift of 372 acres to Fox Ridge 
State Park, i ' 2 miles northeast of Lincoln Log 
Cabin .State Park, given by the citizens of Charles- 
ton. 

These additions supplemented the following 
state parks and memorials with locations and 
acreages as of June i, 1935: 



Park or mo, 



rial 









Year 


Location 


County 


Acres 


acquired 


Near Warren 


Jo Daviess 


155 


1932 


Springfield 


Sangamon 






Rock Island 


Rock Island 


200 


1927 


Chester 


Randolph 






Ottawa 


La Salle 


4,1 


1'128» 


F.ast St. Louis 


St. Clair. Madison 


144 


1925 


Rock Island 


Rock Island 


7 


1920* 


Cave-in-Rock 


Hardin 


00 


107Q 


Chicago 


Cook 


2 


ISoS 


Springfield 


Sangamon 






Winchester 


Scott 






C.ettysburg, Pa. 








Gettysburg. Pa. 








Peoria 


Peoria 






Prairie du Rochcr 


Randol]>li 


21 


1915 


Peoria 


TazewcU 


17.5 


1921t 


Warsaw 


Hancock 


5 


1932» 


Chester 


Randolph 


57 


1927 


Chester 


Randolph 




1891 


Chester 


Randolph 






Metropolis 


Massac 


1.-54 


1903 


Morris 


Grundy 


33 


1034* 


Carbondalc 


Tackson. Union 


196 


1027r 


Springfield 


S.ingamon 






Marseilles 


T-a Salle 


406.25 


1934t 


C hicago to Peru. 


Cook. Duragc, 






La Salle 


Will. Crundv 


.1742 


1935t 


\'icksburg, Miss. 








Shiloh. Tenn. 








Memphis, Tenn. 









Apple River Canyon State Park 

Governor Bissell Monument 

Black Hawk State Park 

Governor Bond Monument 

Buffalo Rock State Park 

Cahokia Mounds State Park 

Campbells Island State Park 

Cave-in-Rock State Park 

Stephen .\. Douglas Tomb 

Stephen A. Douglas Statue 

Stephen .\. Douglas Monument 

Eighty-Second Illinois Infantry Monument 

Eighty-Second Illinois Cavalry Monument 

Governor Ford Monument 

Fort Chartres State Park 

Fort Creve Coeur State Park 

Fort Edwards Monument 

Fort Kaskaskia State Park 

Garrison Hill Cemetery 

Pierre Menard Hi>mestead 

Fort Massac State Park 

Gebhard Woods State Park 

Giant City State Park 

Gold Star Mothers Memorial 

mini State Park 

Illinois and Michigan Canal State Parkway 

Illinois Monument at Vicksburg 
Illinois Monument at Shiloh 
Illinois Civil War Memorial 



r6i 



Park or memorial 


Location 


t ouiily 


.-teres 


5V(7r 
ac(iuircd 


Illinois Soldiers Monument 


Mound City 


Pulaski 






Illinois Soldiers Monument 


Stillmans Valley 


Ogle 






Jubilee College State Park 


Peoria 


Peoria 


96 


1934* 


kenesaw Mountain Monument 


Marietta, Ga. 








Lincoln Log Cabin State Park 


Charleston 


Coles 


86 


1928 


Lincoln Home-^tead 


Springfield 


Sangamon 


0.4 


1887 


Lincoln Monument 


Dixon 


Lee 


0.S 


1921 


Lincoln Tomb 


Springfield 


Sangamon 


7.2 


1895 


Lincoln Statue 


Springfield 


Sangamon 






General Logan Statue 


Chicago 


Cook 






General Logan Statue 


Murphy sboro 


Jackson 






Lovejoy State Monument 


Alton 


Madison 






Metamora Court House 


Metamora 


Woodford 


0.2 


1891* 


Mississippi Palisades State Park 


Savanna 


Carroll 


40.2 


1929 


New Salem State Park 


Petersburg 


Menard 


200 


1919t 


Norwegian Settlers Memorial 


Norway 


La Salle 




1934* 


Governor Oglesby Monument 


Chicago 


Cook 






Governor Palmer Statue 


Springfield 


Sangamon 






Pere Marquette State Park 


Alton 


Jersey 


1,670 


1932t 


Pierre Menard Statue 


Springfield 


Sangamon 






Shal)bona State Monument 


Ottawa 


La Salle 






Soldiers Monument 


Springfield 


Sangamon 






Starved Rock State Park 


La Salle 


La Salle 


898 


1911 


Twelfth Illinois Cavalry Monument 


( iettysburg. Pa. 








370 Infantry Monument 


Chicago 


Cook 






L'lysses S. Grant Home 


Galena 


Jo Daviess 


5 


1932t 


\"andalia State House 


\"andalia 


Fayette 


3 


1920 


White Pine Forest State Park 


Oregon 


Ogle 


315 


1927 


Wild Bill Hickok State Monument 


Troy Grove 


La Salle 


2 


1929 


Governor Yates Statue 


Springfield 


Sangamon 


2 


1929 


♦Gift 










JPark gift 










tState lands transferred to iiarks 











County Parks 

The total acreage of county park systems in the 
United States in 1930 exceeded 100,000, of which 
more than thirty per cent was in Cook County, in 
which the City of Chicago is situated. More than 
fiftv per cent of all county park acreage in the 
country was within the metropolitan regions of 
Chicago and New York. 

Cook Count-y Foresf Preserves 
Introduction 

The appointment by the Cook County Board of 
the Outer Belt Park Commission in 1903 repre- 
sented the first public acknowledgment of the 
desirability of pro\'iding (jutlying park areas for 
residents of the City of Chicago. This Commis- 
sion aciopted as a premise fur its discussions that 
it was working "not merely for tlie present popu- 
hition — for ourselves and our children — but for 
future generations." It urgeci that the actjuisition 
of land outside of the city limits was required to 
supplement existing facilities within the city. In 
the discussion of the need for such outlying dis- 
tricts, it was brought out that "the great mass of 
our population today is a trespasser when it seeks 
an outing in near-by forest lands." It was sug- 
gested, mi)rei)\'er, that Chicago had a great 
foreign-born working class who were by tradition 



accustomed to recreation furnished by govern- 1 
ment, and for whom the securing of great outly-j 
ing parks designed for the "masses" would be a- 
great boon. | 

The Outer Belt Park Commission did not bring] 
immediate accession of forest preserves in thei 
county, since a referendum failed to secure the; 
required vote in 1905; but it was instrumental in; 
fostering the mo\-ement which finally culminated' 
in the establishment of the Cook County Forest; 
Preserve District. The Chicago Plan of 1908; 
placed "the acquisition and improveinent of forest' 
spaces" as "next in importance to the develop-' 
ment of the lake shore"; and stated that "near-byj 
woodlands should be brought within easy reach: 
of all the pe(;ple, and especially of the wage^ 
earners," because of the restorative value of 
natural scenery to city dwellers. The report spea-! 
fied that "the spaces to be acquired should be of 
wild forests," to be "developed in a natural con-i 
dition." The selection of the areas first on thei 
basis (jf e\'en distribution about the city, and; 
secondly on the basis of "greatest charm" was,' 
recommended, and a proposed encircling park 
system combining these two requirements was; 
outlined. The report contained detailed descrip- 
tions of the ^'aried beauties of this surrounding] 



162 



area from Glencoe on the north, Desplaines River 
[on the west, and the Calumet on the south. 

The Cook County Forest Preserve District was 
'organized on February n, 191 5; the purpose, as 
stated in reports of the Forest Preserve Commis- 
sioners Board, being "to protect and preserve the 
flora, fauna, and scenic beauties of the Forest Pre- 
serve District, and to restore, restock, protect and 
'preserve the natural forests and their flora and 
fauna as nearly as may be, in their natural con- 
dition, for the purpose of the education, pleasure 
and recreation of the public." 

Control 

The Forest Preserve District of Cook County 
is managed by the Board of Forest Preserve Com- 
missioners, who, under the law as applied to 
counties of five hundred thousand or over, are 
also the Cook County Board of Commissioners. 
These Commissioners have the power to raise 
money by general taxation to the county; to bor- 
row money; to issue bonds; annex territory or buy 
new tracts of land. (See chapter in.) 

Management 

The facilities of the Cook County Forest Pre- 
serve District are administered by a general su- 
perintendent, appointed by the Board of Commis- 
sioners. In addition, the Board appoints a secre- 
tary and treasurer. All employees, excepting the 
treasurer and attorneys, are appointed and gov- 
erned by the rules and regulations of the Cook 
County Civil Ser\'ice Commission. The plan of 
organization of the District distributes the opera- 
itions among ten major divisions: 

\ General office 

! Office of the comptroller 

i Forestry division 

I Construction and repair division 

Maintenance div'ision — Six di\'ision superin- 
tendents, one superintendent in charge of 
each of the six geographical divisions of the 
Forest Preser\'e District 
' Police division 

Recreation and sports division — General super- 
visor of golf in charge of golf courses, gen- 
eral supervisor nf pools in charge of swim- 
ming pools 
Real estate dixision 
Legal division 
Engineering division 



The number of employees during 1936 \aried 
with the seasons, but was over 311, of whom 135 
were in the Recreation Division. ( For detailed 
information see chapter v.) 

Finance 

The Cook County Forest Preser\-es are sup- 
ported by a tax le\\- of nut more than three- 
twentieths of one mill on each dollar of assessed 
valuation of propert\- within Couk County. In 
addition, bond issues are authorized at \'arious 
times for impnj\-ements or purchases of new 
tracts of land, and the Commissioners are em- 
powered to sell tax anticipation warrants. Addi- 
tional revenue is derived from the operation of 
golf courses, swimming pools, property rentals, 
and concessions within the District. {See chapter 

IV.) 

Growth of District 

A test of the constitutionality of the law under 
which the Forest Preserve District was organized 
resulted in a favorable decision by the Supreme 
Court of the State of Illinois in 19 16, and the 
acquisition of land began with the first purchase 
on September 26, 19 16. This tract, known as 
Deer Grove, is located in the northwestern part of 
the county in Palatine Township. During the first 
few years of its existence the Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict added considerable land to this first acquisi- 
tion: in 19 16 the total area of its properties was 
1,316.16 acres; in 1917, 8,477.01 acres were 
added; in 1918, 3,062.90; in 1919, 1,585.50 
acres; and in 1920, 3,587.20 acres, making a 
total area of 18,028.77 acres acquired in the first 
five-year period of operation. On January i, 
1937, the total acreage under the jurisdiction of 
the Commissioners of the Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict was 32,925.83, acquired at a total cost of 
$2 1,229,914.00. 

The following table indicates the growth of the 
District: 



Year 

1916 

19 I 7 

1918 

1919 

1920 

l02t-2; 

l')2;,-2; 



Acreage 


Total 


added 


acreage 


1,316.16 


1 ,3 16.16 


8,477.01 


9,79.^'7 


3,062.90 


12,856.07 


1,585.50 


r4,+4i-57 


3,587.20 


18,028.77 


6,778.21 


24,806.98 


4,602.52 


29,409.50 



163 



Year 



A creage 


Total 


added. 


acreage 


497-50 


29,907.00 


46 1 .00 


30,368.00 


547.00 


30,915.00 


796.00 


31,711.00 


1,084.00 


32,795.00 


91.68 


32,886.68 




32,886.68 


39-15 


3-,925-83 




32,925-83 



1926 

1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1 93 1 
1932 
1933 
1 934-3 ^J 

Until 1929 the program of the Forest Preserve 
Commissioners was de\'oted primarily to increas- 
ing the number of preserves and to adding contig- 
uous lands to existing preserves. In 1930, with 
approximately 33,000 of the legal maximum of 
35,000 acres already acquired, the emphasis was 
shifted to the de\elopment and preservation of 
these 'x ^,000 acres of preser\'es. To assist the 
Commissioners an advisory group was appointed, 
whose function is to aid in planning improvements 
and to make recommendati(jns regarding the ac- 
quisition of additional acreage. This committee, 
which ser\'es without compensation, consists of 
leaders in the fields of city planning, recreation 
and conservation. 

To finance the general improvement program a 
bond issue of $2,500,000 was approved by voters 
of Cook County in 1930. Since 1932 considerable 
impetus has been gi\'en to the building program 
through the use of personnel provided by the 
various work programs of federal and state relief 
agencies. As a result of this aid, it was estimated 
in 1934 that the Forest Preserve development 
program had gone ten \'ears ahead of schedule. 
One of the outstanding features of the program 
has been the effecting of appreciable savings 
through the use of stone and timber and other re- 
sources deri^•ed from preserve property. 

Among the more important phases of the pro- 
gram of the District has been the correction of 
pollution in the watersheds of the County. 
Through co-operation of the Chicago Regional 
Planning Association with State and Chicago Sani- 
tary District authorities, detailed surveys were 
made of all streams in Cook County. As a re- 
sult sewerage treatment plants have been con- 
structed which will eliminate all traces of pollu- 
tion alijng the eighty-five miles of stream front- 
age of the Forest Preserve District. 



One of the most important projects of the Fori 
est Preserve District is the Chicago Zoologica 
Park, the establishment of which was stimulateci 
by the gift of a tract of one hundred and twenty | 
five acres by Mrs. Edith Rockefeller McCormick' 
Plans were fonnulated in 1920 to build a zoolog' 
ical garden in the Forest Preserves. A private 
ci\'ic group was created, called the Chicagc 
Zoological Society, and the Gardens were openec' 
to the public on June 30, 1934. {See chapter viii.' 

Another cievelopment, however small, is th(I 
Trailside Museum, opened in 193 1, in the ok, 
General Headquarters of the Forest Preserv(, 
District in the Thatcher Woods Preserve. It i, 
a joint project of the Academy of Arts and Sci 
ences, of Lincoln Park, and the Forest Preserve 
Commissioners. {See chapter viii.) 

The major impro\'ement activity of the Distric 
during the past four years has been in the Skoki(' 
Valley, a few miles north of Chicago and west 0' 
Evanston. Here, with the assistance of the Civi 
lian Conservation Corps under the supervision O; 
the National Park Service in co-operation witl* 
the Forest Preserve Commissioners, a forme 
swamp and peat bog area is being transformec 
into the Skokie Lagoons, which will provide ;, 
means of flood control and mosquito abatemen; 
and will also provide additional recreation are:' 
for metropolitan Chicago. This program of im; 
provement provides for the construction of :i 
series of seven lagoons. The lagoons from souti 
to north are: No. r, 15 acres; No. 2, 13 acres' 
No. 3, 26.5 acres, completed; No. 4, 20 acres 
nearly completed; No. 5, 25 acres; No. 6, 2:; 
acres; and No. 7, 12 acres to be completed. Ii 
addition to the lagoons, a connecting channel be 
tween them is being created. Approximately threi 
miles have been completed. 

The Skokie Lagoons, lagoon channel and flow 
plain, when completed, will have a storagi 
capacity of approximately sixty-five million gal 
Ions of flood water. Four dams will be used ii 
connection with the lagoons and channel to con 
trol water flow and levels. 

The lagoons will furnish fishing and boating 
but no swimming will be allowed for a number 
years until there is complete assurance of no pel' 
lution of the waters. Additional recreational fea 
tures (jf the Skokie Valley will include bridli 
trails, ice skating, toboganning, picnic grounds anc. 



164 



DEER GROVE 



J 



SKOKIE MARSH DEVELOPMENT 



NORTHWESTERN GOLF COURSE 



L'_. 



BILlV'cALDWELL GOLF COURSE 




OAK FOREST "^J 
GREEN LAKE SWIMMING POOL '^ | 



^^ 



FOREST PRESERVE DISTRICT 
OF COOK COUNTY, ILLINOIS 



-| SAUK TRAIL 

: SWIMMING a BOATING 



THORN 
CREEK 
\ W' PRESERVES 



m 



■/■ 



hiking trails. Nutural bird sanctuaries will be pro- 
vided b}' the flood plains within the lagoon areas. 

Administrative Areas 

For administrative purposes the Forest Pre- 
serve areas are divided into six divisions, each of 
which is under the direction of a division superin- 
tendent. These divisions again are subdivided into 
active recreation areas with designations utilized 
in allocating picnic areas and other facilities. The 
preserves included in the various divisions are as 
follows: 



Name 



DIVISION I 

Toicnship 



Deer Grove Preserve 

Camp Reinbers 
.Mors Woods 
Pottawatomie Woods 
Winnebago Woods 
(Portage Grove 
/Allison Woods 
Oshkosh Woods 
Northwestern \\'oods 
Belleau Woods or Senne 

Woods 
Marne Reserve 
Elk Grove Preserve 



Soninie Preserve 
Turnbull Preserve 

Chewab Skokie Preserve 

Memorial Woods 
Harms Woods 
Linne Woods 
Miami Woods 
Sausjanash Reserve or 
Caldwell Reserve 



Palatine 

Wheeling 

Wheeling 

Xorlhfield 

\ Northheld 

/ Northfield 

Maine 

Maine 

Maine 
Maine 
Elk Grove 



Total 



DR'ISIOX 3 
Che-Che-Pinqua Reserve Leyden 
George Rogers Clark 

Reserve 
Thatchers Woods 
Cummings Reserve 
.*^tecle Preserve 



Leyden 
River Forest 
River Forest 
River Forest 
1 'r(i\'iso 



Acreage 



1,180.00 

276.00 

541.00 

230.00 

1,190.00 

197.CK) 
31.00 

40.00 
1,579.00 
1,325.00 



Total 


6,589.00 


;isiox 2 




Xorthheld 


boo. 00 


New Trier 


iSo.CKj 


Xorthfield 




J New Trier 


1,270.00 


Xorthfield 




.Xorthfield 


320.00 


Xiles 


517.00 


Nilcs 


218.00 


Niles 


300.00 


(Niles 




/City of Chicago 


935 ■O'J 



4,340.00 
1,615.00 

3^5-00 

280.00 

8.83 

1 20.00 





Total 


-'.348.83 


DIVl.SION 4 






Riverside Woods and 


Proviso 




1 ,726.00 


Brookfield Zoo 


Riverside 






Warren G. Harding 








Woods 


Proviso 




740.00 


Calumet Portage Preserve 


Lvons 




253.00 


Cantigny Woods 


Lyons 




368.00 



DIX'LSION 5 




-\ iJ);ir 


Tm^'ushif' 


Air cage 


.■\rgonne Forest 


Palos 
Lvons 


5,000.0.5 


Pains Hills Preserve 


Palos 
l.emont 


3>7-'o.<X) 


lluniphrcy Woods 


( )rland 


659.00 


."^ag Forest 


Leniont 
Palos 


230.00 


.Masconten Reserve 


ISremen 
( )rland 


1,070.00 


.St. Mihiel Reserve 


Bremen 


675.00 


lilack Partridge Woods 


1 .eniijnt 

Total 


39.00 




1 1 .393.00 


m\'\< 


lOX 5- A 




Dan Rvan Woods 


Calumet 


183. (JO 


(Reverly Hills) 


(.'ity <if Chieago 
Total 






1 83 .o<j 


DIVISION 




Whistler Preserve 


Calumet 


240.00 


Kickapoo Grove 


Thornton 

City of Chicago 


462.00 


ISeaubien Preserve 


City of Chicago 
Tbornton 


270.00 


I'.urnhani Woods 


Tbornton 

Cit\' of Chicagu 


37500 


.^habbona W^oods 


Thornton 


rKi5.oo 


Gurdon S. Hubbard 


liloom 


1,635.00 


Forest 


riiorntcju 




Woodrow Wilson 'Woods 


I'.loom 


90.00 


Sauk Trail Preserve 


i'.loom 


1.188.00 


Wolf Preserve 


City of Chicagu 
Tnt.-il 


1 20.00 




4.985-<» 



Recapitulation of Acreage of Forest Preserves 

Division Number of acres 



I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

5-A 

6 



6,589.00 
4,340.00 
2,348.83 
3,087.00 

ii,393-oo 

183.00 

4,985.00 



Total 



3.087.00 



Total 32,925-83 

Lest the reader become lost in the details of 
facilities and equipment which occupy the re- 
mainder of this chapter, the extent to which these 
recreation facilities are actually used should be 
noted at this point. 

Attendance 

The f>irt\-tive tracts comprising the Forest 
Preser\c District are easily accessible to residents 
of the City of Chicago and suburban Cook 
County. 1 lighways make it possible for the 
motorist to dri\e to any of them. Railroad sub- 



165 



urban trains, street cars and Luis lines in many 
instances are located adjacent to the preserve 
properties. It is estimated that the entire popula- 
tion of the city is within a thirty-minute I'ide of 
some forest preserve. 

The annual attendance of \isitors to the Korest 
Preser\'e District of Cook County is estimated 
from reports of the six division superintendents. 
Each di\'ision superintendent makes out a month- 
ly report of all acti\-ities and recreation in his di\i- 
sion, which includes an estimate of the number of 
visitors using the facilities of the cii\"ision. 

In 1924 the attendance reacheci a total of 
7,650,000 visitors. Each year since 1924 the at- 
tendance has increased, until in 1933 an estiinated 
15,000,000 visitors were recorded. In 1934 this 
estimate rose to 18,000,000; in 1935 dropped 
again to 15,000,000; and remained at that figure 
in 1936. 

During 1936 there were 6,312 picnics In the 
various picnic groves of the Forest Preserve tracts, 
which are open from May to October. Permits 
are granted to clubs, church groups, societies, 
lodges and other responsible civic and social or- 
ganizations. In addition, many family groups had 
informal gatherings. 

A study of 1,818 permits issued to various 
groups during 1936, with lOO or more individuals 
accommodated, shows requests for accommodation 
of 1,215,826 individuals. 

During 1936, 133,529 golfers played on the 
courses of the Forest Preserve District {See chap- 
ter x); and 204,383 utilized the facilities of the 
\arious swimming pools on Forest Preserve 
property. (See chapter xi. ) 

The full significance of what the Forest Pre- 
serves offer to the people of Chicago can better 
be grasped by a study of the cietailed analyses of 
facilities which follow later in this chapter. 

Private Organizations Using Forest Preserve 
Properties 

The following organizations, by arrangement 
with the Forest Preserve Commissioners, have 
had allocated to them the use of certain facilities. 
In most instances the arrangements are with civic 
and philanthropic groups, and in every instance 
the permanency of the arrangement is at the dis- 
cretion of the Forest Preserve Commissioners. In 
addition, the County Bureau of Public Welfare 
maintains Camp Reinberg, which is utilized as a 



\-acation center for underprivileged children and 
their mothers. 

Division 1 

St. Alphonse's Camp — for children 

St. Williams Camp — for children 

Bohemian Sokol — for children 

Camp Reinberg — Cook County Bureau of Public| 

Welfare, for underprivileged children andi 

mothers 1 

Young Women's Christian Association — girls'i 

camp, near Dam No. 2 i 

Women's Trade Union League — near Dam| 

No. 2 
Northwestern Settlement Camp — for girls 
Isaak Walton League of America j 

Second Baptist Church Colored Children's Campi 
Social and Mutual Association for the Blind 
Spaulding Alumni Association Camp for Crippled' 

Children 1 

Camp Remier — Boy Scouts I 

Camp Roosevelt — Oak Park Boy Scouts : 

Camp Dan Beard — Oak Park Boy Scouts | 

Robert Taylor's Colored Recreation Camp near' 

River Road, south of Dam No. 1 

Division 2 i 

Girl Scouts of America — Skokie Section 

North Shore — Boy Scouts 

Camp Jack — Boy Scouts ; 

Division 3 \ 

Girl Scouts of America — Oak Park District i 

Algonquin Canoe Club I 

Camp Fort Dearborn — Chicago Council of Boy: 

Scouts I 

Division 4 

Cornwall Post — American Legion 
Emil Schieve Post — American Legion ' 

Illinois Colony Club — Old People's Home 
Camp Bemis Boy Scout Cabin 

Division 5 

Fifteenth Ward Slovak Camp 
Town of Lake Bohemian Sokol Camp — for chil- 
dren 
Italian Aid Camp — for children 
Catholic Youth Organization Camp — for children 
Forges Post — American Legion 
40 and 8 Convalescent Camp 
Irish- American F'ellowship Club — political 
Prairie Club — walking club 
St. Leo Choir Club — for children 
Little Flower Parish Club — for children 
Camp Kiwanis — Boy Scouts, Chicago Council 
Girl Scouts of America — Chicago Council 



1 



-166 



RECAPITULATION OF PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS USING 

PERMANENT ALLOCATED FACILITIES ON COOK COUNTY FOREST 

PRESERVE DISTRICT PROPERTY 



Type of organi^alioH 1 

Youths' camps 7 

Welfare camps 5 

War veterans' camps 

Miscellaneous : Political, racial, religious, 

special groups 3 

Total 15 

Available camp facilities 

Single dwelling or cabin with auxiliary build- 
ings and use of adjacent area 9 

Organized camp with group of buildings, cabins, 
and space for tents, with exclusive use of 

adjacent area 6 

Total 15 



Total 



1 


9 


•' 


•41 


1 


25 


2 


16 


3 


41 



Camp Sullivan — Operated by Forest Preserve 
District as group camping center for children's 
and other organizations 

Division 6 

Camp Harrison — Boy Scouts of America, Chicago 

Council 
Calumet City Boy Scouts Cabin 
Chicago Heights Athletic Club — baseball and 

football field with grandstand, etc. 

Concessions Operated on Forest Preserve 
Properties 

The concessions in the Cook County Forest 
Preserves District are managed for the District 
by one commercial establishment, which in turn 
contracts concessions to individual firms or com- 
panies. 

There are thirty-six locations where food and 
soft drink concessions are operated. They are 
situated mainly in the various picnic groves, the 
golf courses and at the swimming pools. In ad- 
dition to these food concessions, an experiment 
was conducted in 1936 with a new plan of con- 
cession. Se\'eral truck and trailer concessions 
operated during the year with food ciispensing 
wagons traveling among picnic gro\'es where no 
permanent food concessions were located. The 
experiment was successful, and arrangements are 
being made to develop this plan further. 



Two pony links are operated as concessions, one 
at Dan Ryan Woods (Beverly Hills Forest Pre- 
serves) and the other in Argonne Forest Pre- 
serves near Maple Hill Lake, Willow Springs. 

During the year of 1936 a merry-go-round 
concession was operated in Dan Ryan Woods, but 
it was found to be unprofitable. Boating conces- 
sions are maintained at Dam No. 2 in Portage 
Grove and Allison Woods on the north and at 
Sauk Trail Lake, in the Sauk Trail Forest Pre- 
serve, on the south. Rowboats and canoes can be 
rented by the hour. At Dam No. 2 a motorboat 
is also operated by the concessionaire. 

There are no concessions providing saddle 
horses operated in the Forest Preserves District. 
Howe\'er, pri\'ately owned stables or riding 
academies are maintained on private property near 
the bridle paths of the Forest Preser\-es District 
where saddle horses can be rented by the hour. 
There are also privately owned riding academies 
maintained at \arious locations on private proper- 
ty' adjacent to Forest Preserves grounds. 

Only those concessions which will presumabh- 
be of benefit to the public using the Forest Pre- 
ser\'es District for picnic and recreational purposes 
are permitted. Therefore, only a minimum of 
concessions are maintained, and are situated in 
locations wherein usage of the preser\'es is great- 
est. 



167 



FACILITIES FOR SUMMER GAMES AND SPORTS 



f^utdooi- Horse 

eiinis s:i-imniin,i Ifadiiifi Balhiiut Cidf Boats Playground shoe 

oiirts pools ptjols beaches courses equipment courts 



Deer Grove 

Palatine Rd. and River Kd. 
X. W. Park — Desplaines . . . 
Taylor's Negro Camp* . . . . 

Dam No. 2 

T.ital 



Glcncoc (leased) 

Skokie Camp 

Wayside Inn 

St. Paul's Park 

Devon and Milwaukee 

Indian Road 

Forest Glen 

Snells Woods West 

Snells Woods East 

Whealen Pool 

Northwestern Golf Course.. 

Edgebrook Golf Course 

Rilly Caldwell Golf Course. 

Skokie Lagoons 

Total 



Schiller Park North 

Indian Boundary Gulf Course. 
F. P. Drive and Cumberland.. 

River Grove 

Thatcher Woods 

Park Ridge Camp 

Harlem & Lake 

Total 



1st Av. & L^th St 

White Eagle South 

Mannheim Grove (Brezina) 

National Grove 

Cermak Woods 

Cermak Pnnl 

Total 



Palos Golf Course 
Camp Sullivan . . . . 

Tuma Lake 

Total 



5^A Beverly (87th & Western) 
Total 



Burnham Golf Course (Leased). 

Calumet City 

Thornton CCC Camp 

Thornton Woods (Colored).... 
Chicago Heights Athletic Field. 
Glenwood, Woodrow Wilson Wds. 

North of Thorn Creek 

Hickory St 

Sauk Trail Preserve 

Green Lake Pool < . 

Total 



*Privatc 

tLeascd 

tUsed exclusively by Boy Scouts and Sokol Bohemian organizations 

§Owned but not operated by Forest Preserve District. 

^Planned for future 



i68 



FACILITIES FOR SUMMER GAMES AND SPORTS: RECAPITULATION 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 1 

5-A 1 

(J 5 

Grand Total 16 



ball 


ball 


courts 


'/•■' 


o/i 


'S 


liadiuii 
pools 


Uathin<j 
beaches 


1 


7 


1* 










1 


2 


18 






1 




1 




3 


3 
1 


yf 




1 









a 



19 



♦Private 
tLeased 

tUsed exclusively by Boy Scouts and Sokol Bohemian organizations 
' §Owned but not operated by F.P.D. 

'. Note; Of the total of nineteen tennis courts in the Cook County Forest Preserve District, nine are leased by the Oak Park 

Tennis Club, and operated by them; one is a private tennis court at Taylor's Negro Camp in Div. 1, the property of which is rented 
liy Mr. Taylor from the Forest Preserve District, and operated as a negro camp; the remainder of nine are tennis courts built 
in previous years by the Forest Preserve District, three of which are located at 87th and Western Ave., Beverly Hills Preserve, 
three at Hickory St., in Div. 6, and three near the Eurnham Golf Course in Div. 6. These nine tennis courts, while owned by the 
Forest Preserves, are not now operated by the district. It is understood that those who wish to play must bring their own net, clean 
the court, and put it in shape to play on, the District making only major repairs. However, no major repairs have been made since 
the tennis courts were constructed. 



FACILITIES FOR WINTER SPORTS 



gliding slide 



.ow Earth 
ob. sled 
ide slides 


Ice 
boating 


Sail 
skating 


Ska 


iitg 


Cross 
country 
skiuig ac 


Acres 


Miles 


1 2 
1 2 






13 
13 


ii 

11 


1300 
1300 



1 Deer Grove Lakes. 

Desplaines River . . 

Total 



Forest Glen . . . . 
Skokie Lagoons 
Chicago River 
Total 



3 Thatcher Woods Lagoon 

Desplaines River 

Total 



Camp Bemis 

Cermak Woods Quarry. 

Desplaines River 

Salt Creek 

Total 





13 


1 


13 


1 


if) 


1 


10 


i 2 






.•> 




7'A 


1 2 


\2Vz 



Swallow Cliff Ski & 
Toboggan Slides 

Palos Golf Course . . . . 

Palos Hills 

Maple Lake 

Tuma Lake 

95tli St. & Kean Ave.. . 

Mannheim Rd. & Kean, 

So. of 95th St 

Total 



Beverly, 87th and W( 
Total 



Green Lake Pool 

Wolf Lake 

Sauk Trail Lake . 

Thorn Creek . . . . 

Total 



9K. 
9/. 



♦Under construction. 
tSkating bowl. 



169 



FACILITIES FOR WINTER SPORTS: RECAPITULATION 



Rcgulatwi, Loiv 

high ski 

ski-jump jump 



Low 
tab. 



Earth 
sled 
slides 



ng Cross 

country 

Miles skiing acres 



4 
5 
5-A 



9/. 



4,000 ! 



*Acres of lake and pond 
**Miles of stream 



5,300 



PICNIC SHELTERS— DANCE PAVILIONS— CONCRETE DANCE PLATFORMS 
LOG CABINS— DWELLINGS— AND MISCELLANEOUS BUILDINGS 

{Exclusive of Golf Courses, CCC Camps, and Organization Camps) 



Type of structure 1 

Type A — Picnic shelter : 1 fireplace ; 

size — 26' X 52' concrete floor S 

Type B — Picnic shelter ; 2 fireplaces ; 

25' X 52' concrete floor 1 

Type C — Picnic shelter; 2 fireplaces; 

35' X 70' concrete floor 1 

Type D — Picnic shelter ; open ; no fireplace ; 

16'x38' concrete floor 1 

Concession shelter ( in combination with 

types A, B, C, as noted) 

Open shelter: cinder floor; no fireplace 

Warming shelter 

Open shelter : concrete floor ; no fireplace 

Concrete dance platform ; 20' x 20' or 20' x 30' . . 4 

Log cabins 2 

Large frame dance pavilions (concrete floors ) . . 1 

Boat houses 

Concession stands (within bnildings, or 

otherwise listed above) 4 

Caretaker's dwellings (including Kronenberger 

and Edgebrook, but otherwise exclusive of 

golf courses ) 8 

Tenant houses (paying, gratis, cliarity, vacant) 17 
Comfort stations (flush toilets — men's 

and women's counted separately) 2 

Comfort stations (Imhoff tank) 

(Combination bldgs., men's and women's) 

Welfare camps (containing one or more hldgs. ) 1 
Areas allocated to special organizations, and 

other government sub-divisions, boys and girls 

scout camps, etc 15 

*Harlem and Lake Sts. 
**Log Floor 
t2 Wood Floors 
iCanoe House 



5 


4 


6 


8 


17 


10 


10 


8 


4 









9 


3 

1 




4 

1 


17 
3 
3 


1 
2 
1 

3 
2t 




i 

5 

1 

1 


1 
9 
3 
3 
30 
8 

lot 

3 


3 


3 


4 


31 


8 
9 


1 


3 
12 


35 
73 


1 
1 


6 




30 

1 
2 



170 



PICNIC GROVE FACILITIES'' 

Dirisum 

Facility 1 2 o 4 

Six-foot tables 703 61U SSJ 967 

Twelve-foot tables 27 147 o 6 

Ten-foot folding tables J7 62 30 25 

Comfort stations and toilets : 

2-hole toilets 109 59 34 47 

4-hole toilets (open) 14 16 10 11 

Chemical and special toilets 19 6 9 

Comfort stations (flush toilets) 2 10 8 4 

Old concrete toilets in pairs with windmill 4 3 12 

Imhoff tank toilets 

Windmills 2 . . . . 1 

Steel portable fireplaces (small) 10 75 350t 50 

Wells with power pumps 4 .. 2 2 

Springs (improved only) 1 

Trailside fireplace shelters 3 2 8 13 

Trail shelters 1 2 

♦Inventory taken as of April 1, 1937 
tApproximate number 



806 


345 


554 


4,868 


28 


20 


I 


232 


20 


31 


46 


251 


W) 


6 


29 


393 


3 




19 


75 


34 




7 


81 




6 




30 


1 
1 




2 


14 
1 
4 


94 


2^ 


74t 


675 


8 
3 




1 

I 


17 

5 


9 

1 




2 


37 
4 



SPECIAL BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 
(For Forest Preserve Use Only) 



Type of buildings 



Swimming pools : 
With bath houses, including office, pump 
rooms, showers, toilets and dressing rooms.. 
With bath houses, including office, dressing 

rooms, toilets, and caretaker's quarters 

With pump houses 

Bathing beach facilities : 
Dressing rooms for bathers 

Shelter house : 
With concession kitchen and restaurant, com- 
fort station and living quarters 

Trailside Museum 

Museum garage and workshop 

Brookfield Zoo 

Tennis club house 

Restaurant : 

With comfort station and concession kitchen, 
living quarters 

Beer Bars : 

For use by organization picnics (separate 
buildings, not included within pavilions) .... 

Band stands 

Boat houses 

Waiting rooms and comfort stations 

Dams, creating swimming, boating, and skating 
areas, ponds, marshes, and storage basins : 

Concrete 

Masonry 

Earth (highway) 

Earth (other) 

Pump houses — (Including power pumps l 
(Note : See Green Lake) 

Golf courses : 

(2 leased) 

Club houses : 

Including locker rooms, comfort stations, 
kitchen and restaurant 

Club houses : 

In addition to above, also include caretaker's 
quarters 

Grcenkeeper's dwellings 

Greenkeeper's dwellings, including garage, shop, 
and storage room 

Equipment building, including garage, shop, 
and storage 

Pump houses 

Starter sheds only 

Starter concession stands and golf pro shop. . . . 

Concession stands, golf pro shop and comfort 
station 

Concession stands only 

Open shelters on course 



171 



SPECIAL BUILDINGS 
(For Official Use Only) — Forest Preserves and Cook County 



Type of biiildiiu/s 1 

Welfare camps 1 

Caretaker's cottage 1 

Kitchens 

Mess hall, and kitchens 1 

Dormitory for staff 7 

Mess hall for staff 1 

Dormitory for inmates 4 

Administration buildings 2 

Recreation and chapel buildings 3 

Hospital buildings 1 

Toilets and washroom buildings 3 

Pump house buildings (used and obsolete).... 2 

Equipment buildings and garages 1 

Miscellaneous buildings (small with screen sides) 3 

.IJmiiiistnilion use : 

Division headquarters 1 

Combined office, garage, shop, and 

tool room buildings 

Combined, (as above) including living quarters 1 

Office and tool shed buildings 

Office buildings only 

Buildings for shops, garages, equipment and 

tool room purposes 

Storage sheds 

Miscellaneous small buildings 

Police headquarters 

Saw mills 

Caretaker's dwellings 1 

Caretaker's dwellings with garages 

Caretaker's dwellings with barns 

Pump houses 1 

Division headquarters jor administration: 

Office and tool rooms buildings 1 

P.uildings for general storage, tools and shop.. 

Caretaker's dwellings 3 

Caretaker's dwellings with barns 3 

Caretaker's dwellings with garages and tool sheds 3 
Caretaker's dwellings with miscellaneous build- 
ings (including granaries, chicken houses, and 

implement sheds ) 6 

Caretaker's dwellings in strategic areas 2 

Garages 2 

Barns 

Miscellaneous buildings 1 

General headquarters building 

Central warehouse (including shops, garages, 

and storage buildings) 

Cook County highway bldgs. : garages and shops 

(on Forest Preserve property) 1 

North Shore Mosquito .'\batement District : 

Office and caretaker buildings 

Barns for garages and storage purposes 

Grand Total 56 





2 


3 


1 


2 

1 


'i 

I 

n 


i 
'i 

1 




2 




3 


5 


1 




2 


5 






2 


2 






3 


6 



12 
10 

4 
10 
1 

10 

2 

1 
1 

174 



WELLS: RECAPITULATION 



Drilled 

prior to 

1933 



Since 1933 

drilled and Driven %vells 

deepened bx itnth sand 

FPD point 



CCC zvells 
drilled 



Army 
zt'clls 
drilled 



Dug wells 

at occupied 

Jiouses 



5-A 
6 



Total 213 5 

♦Illinois Emergency Relief Commission Gardens 



172 



PARKING SPACES 
(Classified according to surface) 

Cinder on 

Cravcl on or brick base, or Granite block 

Division Asfhalt Macadam broken Gravel broken asphalt Cinders or brick on Sod Total 

concrete base on ftaaslone concrete base 

i 11 ~ 7. 15 7. ~. 7. 5 31 

2 3 14 .. 2 ^ 1 -^9 

3 3 2 7 5 .. .. .. 1 18 

4 7 24 .. 3 3 1* 7 45 

5 22 .. 1 1 I .. 13 38 

5-A .. 1 4 .. 2 7 

1 17 . . . . 1 3 . . 4 26 

Chicago Zoological Park I . . . . . . 2 . . . . 3 

■ Total 20 7>J 7 26 7, ll fi 37 197 

*Warelioiise 

PARKING SPACES 26th Street (Chicago Heights) east of Western 

(Classified according to size) Avenue and west of Euclid Avenue, to form 

^-ifuioii Tcmtorary Large Medium side road OvcrfUr.e Total Saulc Trail Lakc 

j \ ^ JTi yj ] 3i~ Earth dams without- spillways, not on highway 

^ ^ ^\ !■; - •'! j^ Deer Grove across mouth of big marsh east of 

4 ...W. '4 5 14 i>i 3 43 elevated road for wild fowl refuge 

= ^ ^ " ''^ "• ■'§ Thatcher Woods Lagoon, south of Chicago 

e' ...... 2 4 16 2 2 26 Avenue, across old channel of Desplaines 

Chicago River to form aquatic area adjacent to Trail- 
Zoological -J A /I J I ^• 
Park- 1 2 .. .. 3 Side Museum and skating area 

~ "7 ~ 77 7T 777 Collins Tract Dam constructed bv previous 

Iota! .. !.■-' 3.-1 /S 52 14 1<)/ , , . j i rV i ^ i 

. , _ landowner to torm pond north or bait Creek 

Daml " east of Wolf Road 

_ , Between Kean Avenue, United States High- 
Concrete dams -D .. ^u r -..u c^ ... r 

wav Route 45, north of 95th Street, for sus- 

Dam No. i across Desplaines River south of tainino- aquatic flora 

Dundee Road Tuma Lake Dam three-fourths of one mile 

Dam No. 2 across Desplaines Rner at Foundry ^^^i^h of 95th Street, east of r04th Avenue at 

^°^" Kiwanis Boy Scout and Emmet Whealan 

Willow Road Dam at south end of Skokic j^^j^ol q^^-,-,^^^ fo,. s,,-jmming and fishing 

Lagoon System Dam across lower pool just south of Tuma 

Dam No. 4 across Desplaines Ri\"er north of Lake 

Devon Avenue j y^, ]33„^ ^^ Division 5 Headquarters to foster 

Public Ser\-ice Company of Northern Illinois, bj^d sanctuarv and aquatic flora 

Low Dam across Desplaines Ri^'er south of l^^, Darn south of Archer Avenue, at Red 

Lake btreet Gate, to foster bird sanctuary and aquatic 

Dam between wading area and swimming area flora 

at Green Lake Pool L^^. Dam west of United States Highwa\- 

Masonry dams with concrete core Route 45, one-half mile south of 95th Street, 

Deer Gro\-e Dam at Deer Grove Lake to deepen marsh and foster aquatic flora and 

Salt Creek Nursery Dam across Salt Creek east fauna 

of Wolf Road Palos Ciolf Course Dam for water supply 

Camp Sullivan Dam across Tinley Creek west Monuments and Memorial Boulders 

..f BachcKir Grnve Road Boulder and two light field pieces, World War 
Earth dams formed by highway fills, each with Memorial, Woodrow Wilson Woods, north- 
spillway east corner of Lincoln and Dixie Highways, 
Deer Gro\-e, Lower Lake, Quintens Road six Chicago Heights 

hundred feet north of Dundee Road Carahoe Monument (to early Irish settlers) at 

95th Street east of Wolf Road to forni Maple intersection of Keane .Avenue with 1 19th Street 

Lake Cannon Memorial, World War, Cantigny Woods, 

Mannheim Road ( Ignited States Highwa\- west side of Mannheim Road (Ignited States 

Route 45) at Southwest Highway to deepen Highway Route 45) north of 71st Street 

McGinness Slough Concrete Flag (in Hillside, Cottage Grove 

104th Avenue, just south of 95th Street, to .\ venue, south of 183d Street, just south of 

form game and wild fowl refuge North Creek 

173 



George Washington Monument, McGinness 
Slough, west of United States Highway Route 
45, south of 131st Street 
Grand Army of the Republic Monument, Thatch- 
er Avenue, north side of Washington Boule- 
\ard 

Grave and Monument Memorial to member of 
Chicago Fire Department 

Historic Elm Tree, south side Touhy Avenue, at 
Gross Point Roaci 

Indian Lookout Point Monument, Daniel Ryan 
Woods, north side of 87th Street, on brow of 
hill one-fourth mile east of Western Avenue 

Lawton Fort Monument and site of trading post, 
McBrides Woods, west of Harlem Avenue, 
south of Joliet Road (United States Highway 
Route GG ) near 45th Street 

Memorial Boulder at site of Portage between 
Lake Michigan and the Mississippi Valley, 
Portage Woods, west of Harlem Avenue, south 
of Santa Fe Railway 

Memorial Boulder, Edgebrook Woods, east side 
of Centra! Avenue, opposite Edgebrook Golf 
Course 

Memorial Boulder, Trailside Museum, south 
side of Chicago Avenue (near Thatcher 
Avenue) 

Memorial Boulder, Trailside Museum, Thatcher 
Avenue (near Chicago Avenue) 

Memorial Boulder, Daniel Ryan Woods, south- 
east corner of 87th Street and Western Avenue 

Memorial Boulder, Daniel Ryan Woods, east 
of Western Avenue, south of 87th Street near 
wading pool 

Memorial Boulder, Daniel Ryan Woods, north of 
91st Street, east of Pleasant Avenue, in bird 
sanctuary 

Memorial to Early Settlers, south side of Sauk 
Trail, west of Ashland A^xnue, east of Thorn 
Creek 

Polish Revolutionary War Hero Memorial, 
Pulaski Woods, west side of Wolf Road, one- 
half mile south of 95th Street 

Pottawattomie Village Memorial, Evans Field, 
Thatcher Avenue, north of North Avenue 

Robinson Family Cemetery, graves and grave- 
stones of Chief Robinson and several members 
of family (See Flag Poles section for location.) 

World War Monument, Belleau Woods, Rand 
and Ballard Roads 



Flag Poles 

Belleau Woods, at monument. Rand and Ballard 

Roads 
Camp Dan Beard (Boy Scouts), Potawattomie 

Woods north of Dundee Road 
Daniel Ryan Woods, southeast corner of 87th 

Street and Western Avenue at monument 
Harms Road, midway between Lake Avenue and 

Glenview Road at Skokie Camp Headquarters 
Pulaski Woods, east side of Wolf Road, one-half 

mile south of 95th Street, at Pulaski Road 
Robinson Family Indian Cemetery, northeast 

corner of Lawrence Avenue, and East River 

Road 
Taylors' Grove, colored people's recreation center 

south of Dam No. 1 
Thatcher Woods Shelter House, north of Chicago 

Avenue, west of Thatcher Avenue 
Thatcher Woods Trailside Museum (rear), south 

side of Chicago Avenue, west of Thatcher 

Avenue 
Thatcher Avenue, north side of Washington 

Boulevard, at Grand Army of the Republic 

monument 
Whealan Pool, Devon Avenue, east of Mil- 
waukee Avenue 
Woodrow Wilson Woods, northeast corner of 

Lincoln and Dixie Highways, Chicago Heights, 

at memorial 

Came Herds 

Elk Herd, at Elk Grove Preserve, north side of 
Higgins Road, one mile west of Arlington 
Heights Road; herd of from ten to thirty elk 
in a forty-acre fenced pasture 

Deer Herd, at Deer Grove Preserve on west 
side of Quintens Road, one-fourth mile north 
of Dundee Road; herd of from eight to twelve 
White-Tail Deer 

Bird Sanctuaries 

(Wooded areas fenced to exclude humans, cats, 
dogs, and afford sanctuary to native song birds) 

Cummings Square, Ri\'er Forest, at southeast 
corner of Bonnie Brae and Quick Avenues 

Daniel Ryan Woods, east of Pleasant Avenue, 
north of 91st Street 

Swallow Cliff, west of United States Highway 
Route 45, south of Illinois State Highway 
Route 52 fiiith Street); eroded clay cliff 
used for nesting by bank swallows and king- 
fishers 



174 



COMMUMITY AREAS 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 

POPULATION BY 

AGE GROUPS 

SEVENTEEN TO TWENTY YEARS 



101--- 500 

501 1,000 

1,001-- -5,000 

5,001 10,000 

10,001 15,000 

15,001 20,000 




COMMUNITY' NUMBERS 
— COMMUNITY BOUNDARIES 
SCALE' ■■- IMILE 



icoqo Receolior. Surve, - i9 



Population Series - Map 6 



DETAILED ANALYSIS OF FACILITIES 



The following represents an analysis of the 
facilities of each of the 155 active recreation 
areas within the Forest Preserve District. They 
are separated into the administrative divisions, 
and the numbers refer to the designation pr(j\-ided 
for allocation purposes. 
Division 1 
No. 1 -A — Deer Grove 

Dundee and Quintens Roads — 1,300 acres — • 
United Motor Coach Service, Harrington bus 
from Howard Avenue "L" through Desplaines 
to Deer Grove — allowable picnic load, 3,000 
(three 1,000-person picnics) — parking space, east 
of dam, sod and asphalt; south, sod; side road, 
asphalt — type "D" picnic shelter with concrete 
floor west of dam and one type "B" shelter also 
with concrete floor and two fireplaces at west 
end of lake at toboggan slide — sanitary conveni- 
ences — fifteen wells — 100 table and bench com- 
binations — one ball diamond with backstop south 
of dam — masonry dam, lake, beach ("swimming 
prohibited except for Camp Reinberg Welfare 
Group) — herd of white-tail deer — toboggan slide 
and earthen sled slides — three miles of asphalt 
drive with side road parking — big trees, wild 
flowers, birds, water fowl. 
No. 1-B — Elk Grove (east) 

Higgins Road west of Arlington Heights Road 
fthree and a half miles south of Arlington 
Heights) — parking space, sod — allowable picnic 
load, one 1,000-person picnic and three 300- 
person picnics — two wells — sanitary conveniences 
— twenty table and bench combinations — open, 
level space for races and games — deep primitive 
woods (1,250 acres), wild flowers in great 
variety and profusion — elk herd in west pasture. 
No. 1-C— Elk Grove (north) 

North side of Higgins Road — part of 8 50 
acres — Higgins Road three-fourths mile west of 
Arlington Heights Road, also north entrance off 
Algonquin Road, south of Golf Road, State 
Highway 58 — parking space, side road and sod 
field only (off gravel-surfaced drive through 
preserve) — allowable picnic load, one 1,000- 
person picnic at Togge residence — sanitary con- 
veniences — six wells — seventy table and bench 
combinations — open, level space for races and 
games — burr oak, elm, white oak, deep primitive 
woods, high trees, birds of many varieties, some 
rare wild flowers in great variety and profusion. 
No. 1-D — Elk Grove (south) 

South side of Higgins Road, three-fourths mile 
west of Arlington Heights Road — 400 acres — 



parking space, side road and sod field only (off 
gravel-surfaced drive through preserves) — al- 
lowable picnic load, two 1,000-person picnics and 
two 500-person picnics — sanitary conveniences — 
three wells — sixty-six table and bench combina- 
tions — open, level space for races and games — 
deep primitive woods, huge trees, salt creek, 
marshes, water fowl, other birds, wild flowers in 
great -variety and profusion, elk herd in west 
pasture (north of Higgins Ruad). 
No. 1-E — Pottawatomie Woods (Mors Woods) 

North side of Dundee Road, east of Desplaines 
Ri\-er at Wheeling — parking space, gravel sur- 
face — allowable picnic load, 1,000-person picnic 
— one picnic shelter (type "A") with concrete 
floor and fireplace — one well (water strongly 
sulphur) — two other wells north of picnic area — 
sanitary conveniences — fifteen table and bench 
combinations — open, level space for races and 
games — Indian charcoal pits, sulphur spring west 
of shelter, hard maple trees of size and beaut>', 
two Boy Scouts' (Oak Park) log cabins north trail 
adjacent — danger from rattlesnakes in this area, 
Massasaugia and small species, bite painful but 
not deadly except to persons with heart ailments. 
No. IF— Dam No. 1 (north) 

South of Dundee Road east of Desplaines 
Ri\er at Wheeling — parking space, side road off 
gra\'el drive to Dam No. i — allowable picnic 
load, six small groups, none over 200 — two wells 
— sanitary conveniences — thirty table and bench 
combinations — open, level space for races and 
games in field south — hard maple grove, pleasant 
picnic spots on bank of ri\-cr. 
No. 1-G— Dam No. 1 

East side of Desplaines River, one mile south 
of Wheeling, main entrance off Milwaukee 
A\'enue, cross river on dam, in time of high water 
use north entrance on Dundee Road — parking 
space, gravel-surfaced — allowable picnic load, one 
10,000-person picnic and six small picnics of 300 
each — one type "C" picnic shelter with concrete 
floor and two fireplaces — one concrete platform in 
maple gro\'e one-fourth mile southeast, and one 
concrete platform northeast of dam for dancing — 
three wells, a fourth well on west side of dam — 
sanitary con\'eniences — se\enty-two table and 
bench combinations — (jpen, level space for races 
and games — dam and ri\er concession stand, pony 
ring concession, swings for children — no swim- 
ming, water polluted. 
No. 1-H— Winnebago Woods 

North side of Palatine Road east of Desplaines 
Ri\cr — parking space, shoulder of road only — 



175 



allowable picnic loads family groups only — sani- 
tary conveniences — trail fireplaces — one ball dia- 
mond at school house west of river — Palwaukee 
Airport, airplanes, Goodyear balloon, airships — 
deep woods — isolated picnic spot trail. 
No. 1-1— Allison Woods 

West side of Milwaukee Avenue, south of Des- 
plaines River bridge, one-quarter mile south of 
River Road junction — parking space, macadam 
surfaced — allowable picnic load, one 5,000-person 
picnic — one type "A" picnic shelter with concrete 
floor and fireplace — one trail fireplace 500 feet 
south of trail — one well, also well at caretaker's 
residence — sanitary conveniences — thirty table 
and bench combinations — open, level space for 
races and games — horseshoe bend of Desplaines 
Ri\'er — big elm trees — trail to Dam No. 2. 
No. 1-J — Lake Avenue (west) 

River Road west side of Desplaines River, 
north of Lake Avenue — bus from Desplaines to 
Dam No. 1 (one-half mile south)— gravel-sur- 
faced parking space — bus from Milwaukee and 
Lawrence Avenues (Jefferson Park) to Des- 
plaines — C. and N. W. R. R. to Desplaines — al- 
lowable picnic load, one 500-person picnic — one 
type "A" picnic shelter with concrete floor and 
fireplace — one well — sanitary conveniences — ten 
table and bench combinations. 
No. 1-K — Lake Avenue (east) 

Formerly part of Dam No. 2 area on gravel 
drive to Milwaukee Avenue — log cabin formerly 
south of present shelter — parking space at shelter, 
side road off drive — north of Lake Avenue, en- 
trance east of Desplaines River — bus from Des- 
plaines to Dam No. 2 (one-half mile south") — bus 
from Milwaukee and Lawrence Avenues (Jeffer- 
son Park) to Dam No. 2; C. and N. W. R. R. to 
Desplaines — allowable picnic load, one 3,000- 
person picnic — one type "A" picnic shelter with 
concrete floor and fireplace — two wells, one south 
of shelter and one 500 feet east of shelter — sani- 
tary conveniences — thirty table and bench combi- 
nations — deep woods, wild flowers, Indian trail 
trees, water lilies in old river channel. Old Indian 
portage to north branch of Chicago River — open, 
level space for races and games. 
No. 1-L — Dam No. 2 (north) 

Formerly part of Dam No. 2 area on gravel 
drive to Milwaukee Avenue — south side of Lake 
Avenue on east bank of Desplaines River — park- 
ing space, gravel-surfaced — bus from Desplaines 
to Dam No. 2 — bus from Milwaukee and Law- 
rence Avenues (Jefferson Park) to Desplaines — 
C. and N. W. R. R. to Desplaines — family picnics 
only — three wells- — sanitary con\'eniences — twen- 



ty table and bench combinations — deep woods east, 
and south trail, pleasant picnic spots on river banki 
dam, boat rides, Indian trail trees — no swimming.! 
water polluted. ' 

No. 1-M— Dam No. 2 

Both sides of river — River Road north oi] 
Foundry Road, one mile north of Central Road.' 
three miles north of Desplaines — graveled park-' 
ing space — transportation same as i-L — allowable 
picnic load, two picnics of 1,000 each and eight' 
small picnics of lOO each — ^bubbler fountains 
(power pump) and one well west of dam, three, 
wells east and south of dam — sanitary con- 
veniences — lighting for night picnics — 130 tablej 
and bench combinations — swings for children — : 
dam — foot bridge across river — boat rides up-' 
stream — deep woods east side of river, Indian! 
trail trees, concession stand — trails — no swim-| 
ming, water polluted. j 

No. IN— Taylor Woods j 

River Road one-half mile south of Dam No. 2! 
— bus from Desplaines, bus from Milwaukee andl 
Lawrence Avenues (Jefferson Park) to Des-: 
plaines, C. and N. W. R. R. to Desplaines — nc 
parking space but room for fifty cars in sod field — ; 
allowable picnic load, three picnics of 500 each — i 
two log cabins for colored people only, each with' 
fireplace — three wells, two at house, one in picnic! 
grove east — sanitary conveniences — twenty table,' 
and bench combinations — open, level space foTJ 
races and games — lighting for night picnics irl 
cabins only — tennis court — play apparatus. \ 

No. 1-0 — Lyons Woods (Lyons Park) 

River Road south of Golf Road (Route 58)' 
and north of C. and N. W. R. R. belt line — ^bu;| 
from Desplaines, bus from Milwaukee Avenue 
(Jefferson Park) to Desplaines, C. and N. W. R.^ 
R. to Desplaines — graveled parking space — al-i 
lowable picnic load, one 5,000-person picnic — onei 
type "A" picnic shelter with concrete floor and 
fireplace — concrete floor of former cabin utilized' 
for dancing — one well — sanitary conveniences — ■ 
twenty table and bench combinations — open, level 
space for races and games. ' 

No. 1-P— Belleau Woods 

Corner Rand Road (U. S. 60) and Ballard, 
Road east of Desplaines River, north end of Des-^ 
plaines — C. and N. W. R. R. to Desplaines, bus 
from Milwaukee and Lawrence Avenues to Des-, 
plaines — family picnics only — five tables with; 
benches — deep woods, quiet spot. 
No. 1-Q — Northwestern Woods (Northwesterw 

Park) 

East side of Desplaines River at Desplaines — 
entrance east of Dempster Street (Miner Street)! 



176 



I4, 



Bridge at junction with Busse highway — C. and 
N. W. R. R. to Desplaines, bus from Milwaukee 
and Lawrence Avenues (Jefferson Park) to Des- 
plaines — gravel parking space — allowable picnic 
load, one 20,000-person picnic— beer bar and 
kitchen — concession stand — large dance pavilion 
— bubbler fountains — sanitary conveniences — 117 
table and bench combinations — one ball diamond 
with backstop — lighting for night picnics — 
adapted to large picnics, close to Desplaines — 
open, level space for races and games. 

No. 1-R — Camp Ground Road Picnic Grove (Old 
Oakton Park) 

On macadam road east of Desplaines River, 
one-fourth mile north of Oakton Street — United 
Motor Coach Service, Harrington bus from How- 
ard Street "L" Station through Park Ridge on 
Touhy Avenue to Oakton Street and River Road, 
walk east on Oakton Street across bridge and one- 
fourth mile north — parking space, sod — allow- 
able picnic load, 1,000-person picnic — concrete 
platform in woods west of site of former conces- 
sion stand — one well — sanitary conveniences — six 
table and bench combinations — open, level space 
for races and games — ri\er bank, big timber. 
No. 1-S — Algonquin Woods 

West of Algonquin (Talcott) Road, Route 62, 
600 feet south of Oakton Street — no transporta- 
tion except Barrington bus to Oakton Street and 
River Road {see No. R-I), walk one-half mile 
east on Oakton to Route 62 and one-fourth mile 
south to entrance — parking space, sod — allowable 
picnic load, one 1,000-person picnic — concrete 
platform for dancing — one well — sanitary con- 
veniences — eight table and bench combinations — 
open, level space for races and games — hard 
maple grove, big timber. 
Division 2 
No. 2-A — Turnbull Woods (east) 

East side Green Bay Road, south of Lake 
County Line, Glencoe — C. and N. W. R. R. 
Braeside Station — North Shore Electric R. R. 
North Glencoe Station — allowable picnic load, 
2,000 — two bubbler fountains — sanitary conven- 
iences — seven twelve-foot table and bench combi- 
nations — Glencoe Golf Course, leased fee course. 

No. 2-B — Turnbull Woods (west) 

West side Green Bay Road, south of Lake 
County Line, Glencoe — C. and N. W. R. R. 
Braeside Station — North Shore Electric R. R. — 
family groups only — trailside fireplace at north 
end — four twelve-foot table and bench combi- 
nations — sanitary conveniences — Glenview Golf 
Course adjacent, leased fee course — quiet, isolated 
woods. 



No. 2-C — Somme Woods (north) 

North side of Dundee Road, east of Waukegan 
Road — Greyhound bus line to Milwaukee — C. 
M. and St. P. R. R. to Northbrook Station (three- 
fourths miles southwest) — allowable picnic load, 
5,000 — two wells — sanitary conveniences — eight- 
een six-foot and seven twelve-foot table and bench 
combinations — open, ]e\el space for races and 
games. 
No.2-D — Somme Woods (south) 

South side of Dundee Road east of W^aukegan 
Road — transportation same as 2-C — family 
picnics — two wells — sanitary cenveniences — four 
six-foot table and bench combinations — open, 
le\-el space for races and games. 
No. 2-E— Chipilly Woods 

South side of Dundee Road, west of Skokie 
Boulevard— west of C. and N. W. Belt Line R. R. 
— North Shore Electric R. R. (Mundelein 
branch ) to Northbrook Station — allowable picnic 
load, 500 — two wells, strongly sulphur — sanitary 
conveniences — middle fork of north branch of 
Chicag(3 Ri\'er — deep woods. 
No. 2-F — Glenview Woods (Memorial Woods) 

West of Harms Jioad from Glenview Road 
to Lake Avenue — St. Paul R. R. to Glenview 
station, one and three-fourths miles' walk east on 
Glenview Road to Harms Road — occupied by 
Skokie C.C.C. Camp (1937) — three wells, one at 
house on Harms Road — open, level space for 
games and races — two ball diamonds with back- 
stops — not adapted to picnics until C.C.C. Camp 
is removed. 
No. 2-G — Harms Woods (Glenview Road) 

W^est side Harms Road south of Glenview 
Road — St. Paul R. R. to Glenview station, one 
and three-fourths miles' walk east on Glenview 
Road to Harms Road — macadam parking space — 
family groups only — one well — sanitary con- 
\'eniences — ten table and bench combinations — 
trail bridge across river to trail and deep woods, 
notable for big trees including virgin maple, and 
wild flowers, especially giant trillium. 
No. 2-H — Harms Woods (north) (Harrison Street) 
West side Harms Road, one-half mile north 
of Golf Road (Simpson Street), Route 58 — St. 
Paul R. R. to Golf Station, one and one-half 
miles, walk east on State Route 58 to Harms Road 
— parking space, oiled gra\'el — allowable picnic 
load, 2,000 — one type "B" picnic shelter with 
concrete floor and two fireplaces — frame dance 
pa\'ilion north of Harrison Street on north end of 
grove — one well — sanitary conveniences — forty- 
four table and bench combinations — open, level 
space for races and games — one ball diamond with 



177 



backstop — trails on west side of river, deep woods 
notable for big trees, including elm, linden and 
virgin maple — wild flowers, especially hepaticas 
and the rare giant trillium {see 2-1). 
No. 2-1 — Harms Woods (center) 

West side Harms Road, three-eighths mile 
north of Golf Road (Simpson Street), Route 58 
— transportation same as 2-H — oiled gravel 
parking space — allowable picnic load, 2,000 — 
picnic shelter, same as 2-H (adjacent to it) — 
other provisions for dancing, see 2-G — one well 
— sanitary conveniences — forty-four table and 
bench combinations — open, level space for races 
and games — ball diamond, see 2-G — other fea- 
tures same as 2-G. 
No. 2-J — Harms Woods (south) 

West side Harms Road, one-fourth mile north 
of Golf Road (Simpson Street), Route 58— 
transportation same as 2-H — allowable picnic 
load, 2,000 — oiled gravel parking space — three 
wells — sanitary conveniences — thirty-four table 
and bench combinations — open, level space for 
races and games — ball diamond with backstop on 
former fairway south of parking space — special 
features, same as 2-G — Northwestern Golf 
Course on south side of Golf Road — three riding 
stables at southeast corner of Harms and Golf 
Roads — ten miles of bridle paths, hiking trails 
and footpaths. 
No. 2-K — Linne Woods (north) 

North and west of river, one-fourth mile south 
of Beckwith Road (Church Street) at southern 
corner of Northwestern Golf Course — parking 
space, sod — {See "Wayside Inn") 2-L connected 
with this grove by a foot bridge — allowable picnic 
load, 200 people or family picnics — one well — 
sanitary conveniences — no table and bench com- 
binations unless loaned from Wayside Inn — open, 
level space for races and games — hard maple 
grove, dense hawthorn thicket on north. 

No. 2-L— Linne Woods (Wayside Inn) 

North side Dempster Street opposite Ferris 
Street (Morton Grove) west of St. Paul R. R. 
— St. Paul R. R. to Morton Grove, bus to Demp- 
ster Street from Western and Lawrence Avenues 
• — -parking space for 300 cars under construction — 
allowable picnic load, io,ooo — large frame dance 
pavilion, also two large concrete platforms — one 
bubbler fountain (large) — sanitary conveniences 
— forty-six table and bench combinations — one 
ball diamond with backstop (suitable for hand- 
ball) — open, level space for races and games — 
lighting for night picnics — speakers' stand — suit- 
able for very large picnics — family or small 
groups can be shifted to woods on cinder drive. 



winding north and east to Church Street or to \ 
grove across footbridge on northwest side of river 
— riding stable adjacent, east on Dempster. 
No. 2-M — St. Paul's Woods (St. Paul Park) 

End of Lincoln Avenue west of C. M. and St. 
P. R. R. south of Dempster Street, Morton 
Grove— C. M. and St. P. R. R. to Morton Grove, 
bus from Western and Lawrence Avenues to 
Morton Grove — allowable picnic load 10,000 — j 
cinder parking space — large frame dance pavilion j 
— bubbler fountain — sanitary conveniences — for- 
ty-seven table and bench combinations — one ball 
diamond with backstop — suitable for very large 
picnics — open, level space for races and games — 
gigantic elm in river bottom, southwest from 
pavilion, approximately thirty-five feet in cir- 
cumference — night lighting for picnics. 
No. 2-N — Miami Woods (west) Camp Burke 

North side Oakton Street, west side of north 
branch of Chicago River, one-half mile east on 
Waukegan Road, just east of Caldwell Avenue 
(Route 60) — allowable picnic load, 1,500 (i or 2 
picnics) — one well — sanitary conveniences — ten 
table and bench combinations — open, level space 
for races and games — hard maple grove — so 
named in commemoration of the Miami Cession 
of August 7, 1795. 
No. 2-0— Miami Woods (east) ' 

North side Oakton Street, east side of north 
branch of Chicago River, three-fourths mile east 
of Waukegan Road, one-fourth mile east of Cald- 
well Avenue (State Route 60) — allowable picnic 
load, 200 people (small or family picnics only) — 
open, level space for races and games — major pic- 
nic grove on west side of river — one well — sani- 
tary conveniences — four table and bench combina- 
tions — special features, see 2-N. , 
No. 2-P— Caldwell Woods (east) * 

Grove No. 2 (North P. S.) on southwest side 
of Caldwell Avenue three-fourths mile northwest 
of Devon Avenue — gravel-surfaced parking 
space — Sauganash bus from the "L" at Kimball 
and Lawrence Avenues — allowable picnic load, 
1,000 — well on west side of river — table and 
bench combinations supplied to picnics with per- 
mits — open, level space for races and games — 
connected with Whealan pool picnic area by foot- 
bridge across river. 
No. 2-Q— Caldwell Woods (east) 

On southwest side of Caldwell Avenue, one- 
half mile northwest of Devon Avenue — Sauga- 
nash bus from the "L" at Kimball and Lawrence 
Avenues — gravel-surfaced parking space — family 
picnics only — trail fireplace on river bank nearby 
— one well, 500 feet north of Devon Avenue — 



178 



1 



table and bench combinations supplied to picnics 
with permits — open, level space for games and 
races — connected with Whealan pool picnic area 
by footbridge across river from Grove No. 2. 
No. 2-R — Whealan Pool Picnic Area (Green Hill) 

North of Whealan swimming pool on Devon 
Avenue two blocks east of Milwaukee Avenue — 
Chicago Surface Lines to Devon Avenue — maca- 
dam-surfaced parking space — allowable picnic 
load, 3,000 — concrete dance platform — one well 
— sanitary conveniences — 100 table and bench 
combinations — space available for Softball — 
swimming pool — footbridge to trail on east side 
of river — pool built on site of former knoll, ex- 
cavated to make fill across river bottom for Devon 
Avenue — open, level space for races and games — 
formerly known as "Green Hill" and reputed to 
be site of Indian village. 
No. 2-S — Caldwell Woods (west) Division 2 

Headquarters 

Devon and Milwaukee Avenues — Chicago Sur- 
face Lines to turn-around north of Devon Avenue 
— cinder-surfaced parking space — allowable pic- 
nic load, 20,000 — one picnic shelter with center 
floor — one concrete platform and one wooden 
platform for dancing — three bubbler fountains — 
two wells — sanitary conveniences — 325 table and 
bench combinations — two ball diamonds with 
backstops for hardball or Softball — open, level 
space for races and games — swimming pool ad- 
jacent on east end — concession stand. 
No. 2-T — Edgebrook Woods 

East side Central (Lillard) Avenue, north of 
river to C. M. and St. P. R. R. one-half mile 
(four blocks), north of Elston Avenue — feeder 
(trolley) bus on Elston to Central Avenue, C. M. 
and St. P. R. R. to Edgebrook station, Sauganash 
bus from the "L" at Kimball and Lawrence Ave- 
nues to Caldwell and Central Avenues — cinder- 
surfaced parking space — allowable picnic load, 
500 — one well — sanitary conveniences — twenty- 
five table and bench combinations — Edgebrook 
Golf Course on west side of Central Avenue — 
Billy Caldwell nine-hole golf course east of rail- 
road tracks — big hackberry trees in river bottom 
— footbridge across river to ball diamonds and 
trail — saddle horse stable south of river on east 
side of Central Avenue. 
No. 2-U— Sauganash Woods (Al Adams) 

Caldwell Avenue south of Central (Lillard) 
Avenue north of Billy Caldwell Golf Course — 
Sauganash bus from the "L" at Kimball and 
Lawrence Avenues to Billy Caldwell Golf Course 
on Caldwell Avenue, C. M. and St. P. R. R. to 
Edgebrook station, Elston Avenue feeder bus to 



Central Avenue — cinder-surfaced parking space 
— family picnics only — two wells, one at care- 
taker's residence — sanitary conveniences — twenty- 
five table and bench combinations — Billy Cald- 
well nine-hole golf course — saddle horse stable 
east of Caldwell Avenue. 

No. 2-V — Indian Road Woods 

East side Central (Lillard) Avenue, south of 
river and two blocks north of Elston Avenue — 
Elston Avenue feeder bus to Central Avenue — 
no picnics to be scheduled — cinder-surfaced park- 
ing space — one well — sanitary conveniences — 
table and bench combinations supplied as needed 
for picnics with permits — open, Ie^■eI space for 
races and games — one ball diamond with back- 
stop below hill in river bottom — two ball dia- 
monds with backstops east on Indian Road — one 
ball diamond with backstop west of Central A^'e- 
nue — four hardball or softball diamonds — saddle 
horse stable at entrance off Central Avenue — foot- 
bridge across river — large hackberry trees along 
river — Edgebrook eighteen-hole golf course — 
Billy Caldwell nine-hole golf course. 
No. 2-W— Forest Glen 

North side Forest Glen Avenue, north of El- 
ston Avenue and east of C. M. and St. P. R. R. — 
Elston Avenue feeder bus to Elston Avenue, C. 
M. and St. P. R. R. to Forest Glen station — sod 
parking space — allowable picnic load, 5,000 — 
wooden dance platform — picnic shelter with cin- 
der floor — two bubbler fountains — sanitary con- 
veniences — sixty-four table and bench combina- 
tions — hardball diamond with backstop — open, 
level space for races and games — toboggan slide 
for winter sports. 
No. 2-X— Snell's Woods (west) 

North of Foster A\'cnue, east of Cicero A\-e- 
nue, west of C. and N. W. tracks — Chicago Sur- 
face Lines on Crawford Avenue to Foster A\-enue, 
and three-quarters' mile walk west — Chicago Sur- 
face Lines to Lawrence and Cicero Avenues, one- 
half mile walk north — Elston Avenue feeder bus 
to Elston and Cicero Avenues, one block walk 
north — parking space under construction — one 
t\pe "B" picnic shelter with concrete floor and 
two fireplaces — one well — sanitary conveniences 
• — se\-eral ball diamonds under construction — 
recreation center — big trees in woods on low 
ground — open, le\'el space for races and games — 
trail along river. 
No. 2-Y— Snell's Woods (east) 

North of Foster A\-enue at Kostncr A\-enue, 
east of C. and N. W. R. R. one-half mile west of 
Crawford Avenue — Chicago Surface Lines to 
Crawford and Foster Avenues, Elston Avenue 



179 



feeder bus to Kimberly Avenue and two blocks 
walk north — open, level space for races and 
games — two ball diamonds with backstops. 

Division 3 

No. 3-A — Chippewa Woods 

River Road one-half mile north of Devon, one- 
half mile south of Touhy — one well — sanitary 
conveniences — open, level space for races and 
games. 

No. 3-B — Dam No. 3 (west) 

River Road, i,000 feet north of Devon Avenue 
— allowable picnic load, overflow from Dam. No. 
T, — one well — sanitary conveniences — eight table 
and bench combinations — space available for soft- 
ball and other games — river and footbridge 
across dam to major picnic center — huge elm 
trees. 

No. 3-C — Dam No. 3 

North side Devon Avenue east of Desplaines 
River — gravel-surfaced parking space — allowable 
picnic load, 5,000 (five to ten medium picnics) — 
one type "B" picnic shelter with concrete floor 
and two fireplaces — two wells — sanitary con- 
veniences — 147 table and bench combinations — 
space for softball and other games — dam and 
river trails — stables east and north — deep woods 
— wild flowers. 

No. 3-D — Dam No. 3 (south) 

Dee Road — granite-surfaced parking space — 
family picnics only — overflow from Dam No. 4 
— one well — trail — open, level space for races 
and games — stables on north side of Devon Ave- 
nue — quite fine woods — big trees, wild flowers. 

No. 3-E — Robinson Reserve (north) 

North side Lawrence Avenue three-fourths 
mile west of Cumberland Avenue, one-fourth 
mile east of Desplaines River — gravel-surfaced 
parking space — allowable picnic load, 500 (two 
small picnics) — one well — space for softball and 
other games — deep woods — trail along bank of 
Desplaines River, also on Cumberland Avenue 
south of Lawrence and on Lawrence west of Soo 
Line R. R., one and one-fourth mile west of 
Schiller Park. 

No. 3-F— Schilier Woods (north) Schiller Park 

East of Desplaines River north of Irving Park 
Boulevard — Highway bus line from end of Chi- 
cago Surface Lines on Irving Park Boulevard — 
macadam-gravel parking space — allowable picnic 
load, 20,000 — one type "C" picnic shelter with 
concrete floor and two fireplaces and one type "B" 
shelter with concrete floor and two fireplaces — one 



large concrete platform near "C" shelter for 
daticing — three 20 x 20 concrete platforms among 
thorn tree groves northeast — two wells — sanitary 
conveniences — 120 table and bench combinations 
— large tiled recreation field — one ball diamond 
with backstop, space for more — large picnics and 
small picnics. ; 

No. 3-C — Schiller Woods (south) 

South side Ir\-ing Park Boulevard east of Des- 
plaines River — transportation same as 3-F — 
gravel parking space — allowable picnic load, 
2,000 (five picnics) — concrete dance platform — 
two wells — sanitary conveniences — forty table 
and bench combinations — small open field south 
of grove — deep woods south and east — river bank 
trails. 

No. 3-H— Che-Che-Pinqua Woods (Schiller Park 
east) 

South side Irving Park Boulevard, one-half 
mile east of Desplaines River, one-half mile west 
of Cumberland Avenue — gravel parking space — 
transportation same as 3-F — allowable picnic 
load, overflow from Schiller Woods — one well in 
field east of parking space — sanitary conveniences 
— deep woods — open, level space for races and 
games. 

No. 3-1 — La Framboise Woods (River Crove) 

North side Grand Avenue east of Desplaines 
River — Franklin Park bus from end of Chicago 
Surface Lines at Grand Avenue to River Terrace 
— no picnics — sanitary conveniences — trail fire- 
place. 

No. 3-J — Fullerton Woods (west) (River Crove) 

First and Fullerton Avenues — Chicago and 
West Towns railway bus, River Grove from 55th 
Street, Harlem Avenue, or any point on Harlem 
Avenue to Division Street, Division Street and 
Thatcher Avenue to First Avenue, River Grove 
— macadam parking space — allowable picnic load, 
1,500 (one large, two small picnics) — one type 
"A" picnic shelter with concrete floor and fire- 
place — one well — sanitary conveniences — fifty 
table and bench combinations — open, level space 
for races and games. 

No. 3-K — Fullerton Woods (east) McCaffrey's 
(Old Fullerton Avenue) 

Thatcher A\-enue one-half mile south of junc- 
tion with First Avenue, three-fourths mile north 
of North Avenue, three-fourths mile south of 
Grand Avenue — transportation same as 3-J — no 
picnics — trail fireplaces on south — one well — one 
ball diamond for hardball with backstop. 



180 



No. 3-L — Evans Field 

Thatcher Avenue, one-fourth mile north of 
North Avenue — transportation same as 3-J to 
Evans field — gravel parking space — family pic- 
nics only — one well — site of Pottawatomie \il- 
lage — open, level space for races and games. 

No. 3-M — Thatcher Woods 

West of Thatcher Avenue, north of Chicago 
Avenue — Laice Street car to Thatcher Avenue, 
two long blocks walk — River Grove bus ( Chicago 
and West Towns Railway to Division Street and 
Thatcher Avenue), two blocks' walk south to path 
west through woods to shelter house — parking 
space at shelter house and at south end — allow- 
able picnic load, 20,000 (fifteen picnics) — large 
shelter — log dance pavilion at northwest corner 
of playfield — two concrete platforms — bubbler 
fountain at shelter — three wells — sanitary con- 
veniences — one ball diamond for hardball with 
backstop, space for more — Division 3 Headquar- 
ters at log cabin — concession stand — separate pic- 
nic grove — profusion of wild flowers — huge trees 
— deep woods — open, level space for races and 
games — lighting for night picnics — Trailside 
Museum at Thatcher and Chicago Avenues. 

No. 3-N — Thatcher Woods Glen 

South side of Chicago Avenue, one block west 
of Thatcher Avenue — transportation same as 3-M 
— gravel parking space — allowable picnic load, 
2,000 (eight small picnics) — wooden platform 
for dancing — one well — sanitary conveniences — 
huge elm trees — lagoon with aquatic plants — 
fauna — Trailside Museum with both mounted 
and living specimens of the various species of 
birds, animals, reptiles and insects common to for- 
est preserves — nature trail walk — open, level 
space for races and games. 

No. 3-0 — Maywood Grove (Bill Gleason's) 

North of Lake Street at First Avenue east of 
Desplaines River — Lake Street car to Desplaines 
Avenue (Maywood) — sod parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 5,000 (one big picnic ground) — 
one well — sanitary conveniences — twelve table 
and bench combinations — large playfield — one 
ball diamond with backstop for hardball — open, 
level space for races and games. 

No. 3-P — C. A. R. Memorial Woods 

(Grand Army of the Repubhc Memorial Woods) 
North side Washington Boulevard at Thatcher 
Avenue (River Forest) — Madison and Lake 
Street cars — trail fireplace in woods north — one 
bubbler fountain — sanitary conveniences — wild 
flowers — open, level space for races and games. 



No. 3-Q — Thomas Jefferson Memorial Woods 

Rescr\cd for Borrowed Time Club — south 
side of W^ashington Boulevard at Thatcher Ave- 
nue (River Forest) — Washington Boulevard re- 
stricted parking, 20 cars only — allowable picnic 
load, 200 (one small picnic) — one bubbler foun- 
tain — sanitary conveniences — four park benches. 
Division 4 
No. 4- A — Schuth Grove 

Twenty-second Street and Desplaines Avenue, 
one mile west of Harlem Avenue — macadam 
parking space — allowable picnic load, 5,000 (one 
large picnic) — large dance pavilion — one well — 
sanitary conveniences — fifty-five table and bench 
combinations — space available for ball diamonds 
— lighting for night picnics by special arrange- 
ment paid for by picnic group — open, level space 
for races and games. 

No. 4-B — National Grove No. 4 

North of 26th Street east of Scottish Old 
People's Home — Chicago West Town Railway, 
La Grange street cars to 28th Street — allow- 
able picnic load, 200 (one small picnic) — one well 
(another well available but now plugged) — space 
available for ball diamond and games. 

No. 4-C — National Grove No. 1 

West of Desplaines A\'enue, north of 30th 
Street — Chicago West Town Railway, La 
Grange street car to 30th Street — two parking 
spaces, one macadam, one sod — allowable picnic 
load, 10,000 (one large) — large dance pavilion — 
one well — sanitary conveniences — two bubbler 
fountains — sixty-nine table and bench combina- 
tions — one ball diamond with backstop for hard- 
ball — lighting for night picnics — play apparatus 
for children — and space for other games and 
races. 

No. 4-D — National Grove No. 2 — Riverside No. 1 

Immediately west of National Grove No. i, in 
lower ground in bend of river — transportation 
same as 4-C — allowable picnic load, 2,000 (one 
large ) — dance pa\-ilion, concrete dance platform 
— one well — sanitary conveniences — forty table 
and bench combinations — space for races and 
games. 

No. 4-E — National No. 3 — Riverside No. 3 

Immediately north of National Grove No. 2 
toward 26th Street — transportation same as 4-C 
— macadam and sod parking spaces — allowable 
picnic loat-i, 500 (one picnic ground) — one t\'pe 
"B" picnic shelter with concrete floor and two 
fireplaces — two wells, one where McHalc House 
stood, east shelter — sanitary con\-eniences — thirty 
table and bench combinations — space a\ailable for 
Softball and other games. 



No. 4-F — McCormick Woods 

Northeast corner of 31st Street and First Ave- 
nue — Zoo bus — macadam parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 500 (one picnic) — one type "B" 
picnic shelter with concrete floor with two fire- 
places — bubbler fountain — sanitary conveniences 
— thirty-two table and bench combinations — space 
for races and games — Brookfield Zoo adjacent. 

No. 4-C— Brookfield Woods 

North of 31st Street, one-half mile west of 
First Avenue, immediately west of Zoo parking 
space — Zoo bus — sod parking space — family pic- 
nics only — Brookfield Zoo adjacent — British Old 
People's Home immediately north and west — 
space for races and games. 

No. 4-H — Riverside Woods 

North of Ogdeii Avenue on east bank of Des- 
plaines River (Riverside) — Ogden Avenue bus — 
parking space, sod side road off Lionel Road — 
family picnics only — sanitary conveniences — Cer- 
mak pool south of Ogden Avenue and west of 
river — site of old brewery — old caverns still be- 
neath — fine grove of silver poplars. 

No. 4-1 — Cermak Woods (Cermak Park) 

South of Ogden Avenue west of Desplaines 
River (Lyons) — Chicago West Towns Railway, 
street car to Harlem and Ogden Avenues, one- 
half mile walk west on Ogden; also Chicago West 
Towns Railway, Congress Park bus to entrance on 
Ogden Avenue — macadam parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 5,000 (five picnics) — large con- 
crete dance platform east of pool — bubbler foun- 
tains at pool on grounds — sanitary conveniences — 
155 table and bench combinations — space avail- 
able for ball diamonds and other games — Cermak 
Pool, admission: adults 25 cents, children 10 
cents. 

No. 4-J — White Eagle Woods (north) Chernoukas 
Grove No. 1 and 2 

Between 39th and 40th Streets (Lyons) from 
Haas Avenue west to Desplaines River — trans- 
portation same as 4-I — parking space side road off 
Haas Avenue — allowable picnic load, 5,000 (two 
picnics only) — large log dance pavilion, concrete 
floor — bubbler fountains — sanitary conveniences 
— forty-seven table and bench combinations — 
Cermak Pool across river — space for races and 
games. 

No. 4-K— White Eagle Woods (center) White 
Eagle Grove 

Haas Avenue and 40th Street (Lyons) south 
of 40th Street — transportation same as 4-I — 
parking spaces, macadam and sod — side road off 



40th Street — allowable picnic load, 2,000 (one I 
picnic only) — type "B" picnic shelter with con- ! 
Crete floor and two fireplaces — bubbler fountain — \ 
sanitary conveniences — forty table and bench ■ 
combinations — ball diamonds (see 4-K) — addi- ] 
tional space available for softball and other games I 
— Cermak Pool across river. 

No. 4-L — White Eagle Woods (south) McBrides 
Grove 

North side Joliet Road (U. S. 66), one- fourth | 
mile west of Harlein Avenue, east of river — trans- 
portation same as 4-K — macadam parking space — 
allowable picnic load, 10,000 (one picnic only) — i 
large concrete dance platform — two bubbler foun- i 
tains — sanitary conveniences — thirty table and ; 
bench combinations — one ball diamond with back- i 
stop for hardball — open, level space for races and 1 
games. | 

No. 4-M — Ottawa Trail Woods, Grove No. 3 (Mc- i 
Brides Woods No. 3) ; 

South of Joliet Road (U. S. 66), east of Des- j 
plaines River — transportation same as 4-K — 1 
macadam parking space — allowable picnic load, j 
5,000 — one type "A" picnic shelter with concrete | 
floor and fireplace — concrete dance platform 500 ' 
feet south — two wells — sanitary conveniences — ' 
forty table and bench combinations — open, level ' 
space for games and races — space available for j 
Softball — stony ford of pioneer days still visible 1 
in river just south of Joliet Road bridge (site of I 
Lawton trading post) and for 1,000 feet south on 1 
old Ottawa trail. ; 

No. 4-N— Ottawa Trail Woods, Grove No. 2 (Mc- | 
Brides Woods No. 2) 

South of Joliet Road, 600 feet west of Harlem 

Avenue — transportation same as 4-K — allowable | 

picnic load, i,ooo (one picnic only) — one well — | 
sanitary conveniences — thirty table and bench 

combinations — open, level space for races and .; 

games — same special features as 4-L. i 

No. 4-0 — Ottawa Trail Woods, Grove No. 1 (Mc- \ 
Brides Woods No. 1 ) 

West side Harlem Avenue at 43d Street — 

transportation same as 4-K — macadam parking i 

space — allowable picnic load, 5,000 (one large, j 

two medium) — one type "B" picnic shelter with ; 

concrete floor and two fireplaces — two wells — ! 

sanitary conveniences — sixty table and bench com- ' 

binations — open, level space for races and games i 

— same special features as 4-L — boulder marking 1 
site of Lawton trading post immediately west — 

old Ottawa trail to Chicago passed northeast 1 

through this grove. '' 



182 



No. 4-P — Portage Woods 

West of Harlem Avenue, south of Santa Fe R. 
R. entrance at north end of overhead structure — 
Chicago West Town Railway bus on tiarlem 
Avenue — sod parking space — open, level space 
for races and games — boulder marking site of 
portage from Great Lakes to Mississippi Valley, 
from Chicago River through mud lake east of 

■ Harlem Avenue, through small creek to Des- 
I plaines River — gateway to the Middle West 

■ shown by the Indians to La Salle and the other 
French explorers. 

No. 4-Q — Mannheim Woods (Brezina Groves) 

East of Mannheim Road ( U. S. 45), one- 
fourth mile south of 22nd Street — W^estchester 
"L" to end of line, 1,700 foot walk south on 
Mannheim Road — two parking spaces, sod and 
macadam — allowable picnic load, 2,000 (three 
picnics) — one type "B" picnic shelter with con- 
crete floor and two fireplaces — concrete dance pa- 
vilion — one well — sanitary conveniences — 122 
table and bench combinations — open, level space 
for games and races — one ball diamond with back- 
stop. 

No. 4-R — La Grange Park Woods 

Southwest corner Mannheim Road (U. S. 45) 
and 31st Street — gravel parking space — family 
picnics only — bubbler fountain — six table and 
bench combinations. 

No. 4-S — Salt Creek Woods (Collins tract) 

East of Wulf Road, north of Salt Creek to 31st 
Street — no picnicking except by trail hikers — trail 
fireplace — very fine woods in natural state — hik- 
ing and bridle path. 

No. 4-T — Camp Bemis (north) 

West of Wolf Road, south of 31st Street and 
north of Salt Creek — three parking spaces — al- 
lowable picnic load, 5,000 (seven picnics) — two 
concrete dance platforms, one south of entrance 
drive and one west of upper parking space — two 
wells, third well one-half mile west of upper 
parking space on trail — sanitary conveniences — 
sixty-three table and bench combinations — open, 
level space for races and games — space available 
for Softball — fine woods, birds, wild flowers — 
bridge across Salt Creek — hiking and bridle trails 
— saddle stable west of Preserve — ideal for small 
group and family picnics. 

No. 4-U — Camp Bemis (south) 

North side of Ogden Avenue, one-fourth mile 
west of Wolf Road, south of Salt Creek — three 
parking spaces, two cinder and one macadam — al- 
lowable picnic load, 3,000 (two picnics only) — 



one type "A" picnic shelter with concrete floor 
anci fireplace — two wells — sanitary conveniences 
— thirty table and bench combinations — open, 
level spaces for races and games — fine woods, 
birds, wild flowers — bridge across Salt Creek — 
hiking and bridle trails — -Boy Scouts' cabin in 
north end. 

No. 4-V — Cantigny Woods (north) 

One entrance on south side of Joliet Road (U. 
S. 66) at Brainard Avenue, west of Mannheim 
Road, two entrances on north side of 71st Street 
600 feet and one-half mile west of Mannheim 
Road (U. S. 45) — bus on Joliet Road to Brain- 
ard Avenue, one-half mile walk south — asphalt 
and macadam-surfaced parking spaces — allowable 
picnic load, one 200-person picnic for shelter 
house, five lOO-person picnics — one type "B" pic- 
nic shelter with concrete floor and two fireplaces 
— eight trailside fireplaces scattered through 
woods generally convenient to parking space — 
seven wells, one additional at caretaker's residence 
— sanitary conveniences — eighty-nine table and 
bench combinations — open, level space for races 
and games — space available for Softball — fine 
woods and meadows — hazel and thorn thickets — 
bridle trails with saddle horse stable adjacent on 
north end — ideal for small group and family pic- 
nics. 

No. 4-W — Cantigny Woods (south) 

South side 71st Street, one-half mile west of 
Mannheim Road (U. S. 45) — macadam parking 
space — allowable picnic load, 500 (one picnic 
only) — table and bench combinations as required 
— open, level space for games and races. 

Division 5 

No. 5-A — Leafy Grove 

Southwest Corner Kean and Archer Avenues — 
transportation, bus — sod parking space — no pic- 
nics — dancing pavilion now removed — bubbler 
fountain at County Highway Police Station — 
open, le\'el space for races and games. 

No. 5-B — Buffalo Woods (northi (Buffalo Grove) 

West side Kean Avenue, four-tenths mile south 
of Archer Avenue — bus on .A.rcher — clay parking 
space — allowable picnic load, 1,000 — old type 
open shelter with cinder floor — one well — sani- 
tary conveniences — twenty-five table and bench 
combinations — open, level space for races and 
games. 

No. 5-C — Buffalo Woods (center) 

West side Kean A\'enue, se\'en-tenths mile 
south of Archer .\\-enue. 



183 



No. 5-D — Buffalo Grove (south) 

West side Keaii Avenue, 500 feet north of 87th 
Street and eight-tenths mile south of Archer Ave- 
nue — temporary parking space, permanent one 
under construction — allowable picnic load, 1,000 
— one well — sanitary conveniences — fifteen table 
and bench combinations — open, level space for 
races and games — space available for ball dia- 
monds. 

No. 5-E — Hidden Pond Woods (east) 

West side Kean Avenue, 500 feet north of 95th 
Street — allowable picnic load, 1,000 — macadam 
parking space — concrete dance floor to be con- 
structed — one well — sanitary conveniences ■ — 
twenty-five table and bench combinations — open, 
level space for races and games — large pond for 
winter skating — saddle horse stable opposite on 
east side of Kean Avenue — hiking and bridle 
trail, west to junction with main north and south 
trail. 

No. 5-F — Hidden Pond (west) 

East side Mannheim Road ( U. S. 45), one- 
fourth mile north of 95th Street — allowable pic- 
nic load, 1,000 — concrete dance floor to be con- 
structed — one well — sanitary conveniences — 
twenty-five table and bench combinations — open, 
level space for games and races — same special 
features as No. 5-E. 

No. 5-C — Spear Woods 

West side Mannheim Road (U. S. 45), one- 
half mile north of 95th Street — sod parking space 
— one well — sanitary conveniences — open, level 
space for races and games. 

No. 5-H — Willow Springs Woods 

East side Willow Springs Road ( 104th Ave- 
nue) 500 feet south of Archer Avenue — three 
parking places, all macadam, at foot of hill, on 
top of hill, at end of drive — allowable picnic load, 
1,000 (for colored people) — concrete dance plat- 
form — one well along highway south of entrance, 
one well on top of hill — sanitary conveniences — 
twenty table and bench combinations — open, level 
space for races and games — space available for 
ball diamond in open field east — hiking trail 
across entrance drive. 

No. 5-1 — Maple Lake Woods (Maple Lake East; 
also Pulaski Woods) 

South side 95th Street, one-fourth mile west 
of 104th Avenue (Willow Springs Road) — ma- 
cadam parking space — allowable picnic load, 
2,000 (two picnics of 500 people each) — conces- 
sion shelter with concrete floor — concrete dance 
platform — one well — sanitary conveniences — 



thirty table and bench combinations — -Maple Lake; 
west of grove — wild fowl and muskrat refuge in 
big slough east of grove — deep woods and thorn; 
thickets. ', 

No. 5-J— Pulaski Woods (east) i 

East side Wolf Road, at top of hill, four-; 
tenths mile south of 95th Street — transportation, 
see 5-K — macadam parking space under construc-i 
tion — no picnics {see 5-K) — picnic shelter {seei 
5-K) — one well — sanitary conveniences — sixj 
table and bench combinations — monument to; 
General Pulaski — Maple Lake, Division 5 Head-; 
quarters just north. j 

No. 5-K— Pulaski Woods (west) ! 

West side Wolf Road at top of hill, four-tenths ; 
mile south of 95th Street — bus on Archer Avenue 
to 95th Street, one-half mile walk up hill to Wolf i 
Road and south on Wolf — macadam parking] 
space — allowable picnic load, 10,000 (one large! 
or three medium if all Polish or Slav) — type "A" | 
picnic shelter with concrete floor and two fire- j 
places — one well — sanitary conveniences — forty | 
table and bench combinations — open, level space 1 
for races and games — space available for softball j 
— Maple Lake — trails — magnificent view across ' 
Desplaines Valley — Division 5 Headquarters just . 
north. j 

No. 5-L — Pulaski Woods (south) | 

East side Wolf Road at bottom of hill, five- 
tenths mile south of 95th Street — three parking 
spaces, two sod and one macadam — allowable pic- 
nic load, 5,000 (several small picnics) — concrete 
dance platform under construction — sanitary con- 
veniences — one well at east end — twenty table 
anci bench combinations — space available for soft- 
ball, games and races — deep woods and thorn 
thickets — Maple Lake. 

No. 5-M— Wolf Road Woods (Studnik Tract) 

West side Wolf Road, nine-tenths mile south i| 
of 95th Street, three-tenths mile north of 107th i 
Street — macadam parking space under construc- 
tion — concrete dance platform — one well — sani- 
tary conveniences — space available for softball, 
games and races — Palos Golf Course immediate- 
ly west — hiking trails. 

No. 5-N— Red Gate Woods 

Southeast side Archer Avenue at Red Gate bus 
stop, one-half mile south of 95th Street — family 
or small groups — sanitary conveniences — space 
available in open field west for ball diamonds, 
games and races — deep woods — upland marshes 
— wild flowers and birds — hiking trails — Red 
Gate private picnic grove on opposite side of Ar- 
cher Avenue. 



184 



No. 5-0 — Dynamite Road 

On top of bluff reached by narrow, rough 
wagon road, north side 107th Street, three-fourths, 
ijiile east of State Route 54 (Sag) and 1.3 miles 
west of Wolf Road — family picnics only — fine 
woods — wild flowers — birds — especially noted 
for wild rose thickets — fine view across Sag Val- 
ley — Palos Golf Course immediately east. 

No. 5-P — Pioneer Woods (west) 
iMcMahon's Wood) 

West side lOOth Avenue, one-half mile west 
of U. S. 45, one-fourth mile north of 107th Street 
— allowable picnic load, 2,000 (four or five small 
picnics or one large picnic) — one well — sanitary 
conveniences — fifty table and bench combinations 
— open, level space for races and games — quiet 
and isolation — brooks trickling through grassy 
valleys — big white oak and other timber on the 
hilltops. 

No. 5-Q — Pioneer Woods (east) 

East side lOOth Avenue, one-half mile west of 
U. S. 45, one-fourth mile north of 107th Street — 
family groups only — quiet isolated woods — big 
white oaks. 

No. 5-R — Apple Orchard Grove 

North side 107th Street, one-fourth mile west 
of U. S. 45 — allowable picnic load, 500 (one pic- 
nic only) — one well — sanitary conveniences — 
twelve table and bench combinations — space avail- 
able for ball diamonds, games and races. 

No. 5-S — White Oak Woods (west) 

West side U. S. 45, three-fourths mile south 
of 95th Street, three-fourths mile north of 107th 
Street — trail fireplace to north — shelter to be con- 
structed — space available in large open field for 
ball diamonds, games and races — huge white oaks 
— trails — brook running through \-alley to north. 

No. 5-T— White Oak Woods (east) 

East side U. S. 45, one mile south of 95th 
Street, one-half mile north of 107th Street — tem- 
porary parking space — family picnics only — water 
well in White Oak Woods (west) on opposite side 
of highway — sanitary conveniences — five table 
and bench combinations — heavy woods of many 
species — big white oaks — trails. 

No. 5- U— 86th Avenue Woods 

West side 86th Avenue, one-fourth mile south 
of State Route 52, one-fourth mile north of 1 19th 
Street — macadam parking space — allowable pic- 
nic load, 500 (one picnic only) — one type "B" 
picnic shelter with concrete floor and two fireplaces 
— one well — sanitary conveniences — twenty table 
and bench combinations — space available for ball 



diamonds — open, level spaces for races and games 
on east side of 86th Avenue — trail passes through 
gro\'e — thick fine woods — rare \'ariety of poison 
i\y ( in bush form). 

No. 5-V — Palos Park Woods (north! 

East side Kean A\-enue, south of State Route 
52 — temporary parking space — allowable picnic 
load, 200 (one small picnic) — one well — sanitary 
conveniences — six table and bench combinations — 
open, level spaces for races and games — space 
available for Softball — trail — many walnut trees 
— several large and fine specimens of choke- 
cherry trees. 

No. 5-W— Palos Park Woods (south) 

North side 1 19th Street at school house, three- 
fourths mile east of Kean Avenue and three- 
tenths mile west of 86th Avenue — two parking 
spaces, both macadam — allowable picnic load, 
2,000 — concrete dance platform — one well — 
sanitary conveniences — twenty table and bench 
combinations — space available for Softball, games 
and races — trail passing through grove — deep 
fine woods. 

No. 5-X — McClory Springs 

West side Kean Avenue, two-tenths mile north 
of 119th Street — macadam parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 100 (one small picnic) — good 
spring at foot of clay cliff across footbridge — 
sanitary conveniences^-six table and bench com- 
binations — space available in open field for ball 
diamonds and space for games and races in open 
field on east side of Kean Avenue — spring — trail 
bridge across Mill Creek — trails — fine woods — - 
fine specimen of ironwood ( Hop Hornbeam) — 
tree near bridge on Creek bank, unusually large 
and well-formed. 

No. 5-Y — Forty-acre Woods 

South side 119th Street, one-fourth mile east 
of U. S. 45 — macadam parking space — allowable 
picnic load, 1,000 — one well — sanitary con- 
\-eniences — twelve table and bench combinations 
— open, level space for races and games — two 
saddle stables nearby. 

No. 5-Z — Swallow Cliff Woods (east) 

Northwest corner U. S. 45 ( Mannheim Road) 
and 119th Street — gravel parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 5,000 — old type open picnic 
shelter with cinder floor — one well — sanitary con- 
veniences — spring in ra\'ine north with stone 
steps down hill — twenty-five table and bench 
combinations — space for games and races — bird 
sanctuar\- for bank swallows and kingfishers — see 
also 5-AA. 



185 



No. 5-AA— Swallow Cliff Woods (west) 

West of 5-Z; same entrance at U. S. 45 and 
1 19th Street; west of entrance, drive to macadam 
parking space — one well — spring in ravine north 
with stone steps down hill (same as 5-Z) — sani- 
tary conveniences — open, level space for races and 
games — deep woods and upland marsh ponds — 
high white oaks in west section — deep wooded 
ravines — trails — two saddle stables nearby — ski 
and toboggan slides west. 

No. 5-BB— Ski Slide 

South of State Route 52 (old iiith Street), 
four-tenths mile west of U. S. 45 — sod parking 
space — allowable picnic load, 10,000 — good for 
big organized picnics — warming shelter with con- 
cession stand, flagstone floor, two fireplaces and 
two stoves — power pump and bubbler fountain at 
warming shelter — one well on top of hill — sani- 
tary conveniences — twenty table and bench com- 
binations — space for races and games — space 
available for ball diamonds — regulation ski slide 
— three high toboggan slides — three more slides 
under construction with control tower — fine view 
of Sag Valley — deep wooded ravines — trails. 

No. 5-CC — Crab Apple Woods (Robinson's Grove) 

Southeast corner U. S. 45 ( Mannheim Road) 
and 123d Street (McCarthy Road) — bus on 
123d Street — small or family picnics only, lOO 
people — one well — sanitary conveniences — six 
table and bench combinations — dense thickets of 
crab apple and hawthorn — wild flowers and birds 
■ — Spencer Springs east {see 5-DD) — two saddle 
stables nearby. 

No. 5-DD — Spencer Spring 

South of 123d Street on 92d Avenue, one- 
fourth mile to 125th Street, west one block to end 
of road — bus on 123d Street — family picnics only 
— fine spring in valley — heavily wooded hills and 
ravines — marshy ponds — bird and animal wild 
life. 

No. 5-EE — Black Partridge Woods 

North on Downers Grove (Stephen Street), 
three-fourths mile from business center of Le- 
mont. Bluff Road (first road) west one mile to 
Will County line — macadam parking space — al- 
lowable picnic load, 500 (one picnic only) — one 
type "D" picnic shelter with concrete floor — flow- 
ing well — sanitary conveniences — twelve table 
and bench combinations — open, level space for 
races and games — deep woods — brook winding 
through ravine — springs — birds and wild flowers 
— site of Indian villages and chipping station for 
manufacture of arrows and axes. 



No. 5-FF — Columbia Woods (Columbia Park) 

Both sides Santa Fe R. R. on west bank Des- 
plaines River, entrance at Wolf Road and 87th 
Street, at corner one-half mile south of German 
Church Road and one-half mile west of Willow 
Springs Road — family picnics only — sanitary con- 
veniences — open, level space for races and games, 
space available for ball diamonds — fine, big oak 
trees, principally burr oak — quiet, isolated spot on 
bank of Desplaines River — fishing. 

No. 5-CC — McCinness Slough (Orland Park) 

North side 143d Street, one-half mile west of 
Wabash R. R., three-fourths mile west of U. S. 
45 — bus on 143d Street — allowable picnic load, 
1,000 — large wooden platform for dancing — 
table and bench combinations only when required 
for special picnics — sanitary conveniences — this 
grove a peninsula projecting out into McGinness 
Slough — 265-acre marsh lake and the principal 
wild fowl refuge near Chicago — song birds, shore 
birds, wild geese, wild duck, mud hens, cranes, 
egrets, bald eagles and water animals observed 
here — principal stop for migratory water fowl. 

No. 5-HH— Walnut Hill 

South side 95th Street, one and one-half miles 
west of Harlem Avenue, three-fourths mile east 
of Kean Avenue — forty acres — family picnics 
only — three leased golf courses adjacent, Black 
Bear, Hickory Hills and Walnut Hill. 

No. 5-11 — Tinley Creek Woods 

East side Harlem Avenue, one-fourth mile 
north of 143d Street — allowable picnic load, 
1,000 (two medium picnics or one large) — ma- 
cadam parking space — one type "B" picnic shelter 
with concrete floor and two fireplaces — two wells 
— sanitary conveniences — twenty-five table and 
bench combinations — open, level space for races 
and games — fine woods and upland marsh ponds 
— huge white oak trees. 

No. 5-JJ — Tinley Creek Woods (east) 

West side Bachelor Grove Road, one-half mile 
east of Harlem Avenue, north of 143d — allow- 
able picnic load, 500 (one picnic only) — see 5-II 
for drinking water facilities — sanitary conven- 
iences — six table and bench combinations — open, 
level space for races and games — see 5-II for 
special features. 

No. 5-KK — Bachelor Grove 

East of Bachelor Grove Road, north of 143d 
Street, entrance at junction of two roads — open, 
level space for races and games — fine woods — 
Tinley Creek winds through valley. 



186 



No. 5-LL — Mascouten Woods 

East side Ridgeland Avenue, one mile west of 
Harlem Avenue, one-fourth mile north of 143d 
. Street — deep fine woods — wild flowers and birds 
— Tinley Creek winds through valley. 

No. 5-MM — Oak Forest (St. Mihiei Reservation) 

North side 167th Street from Cicero Avenue to 
Central Avenue — family picnics only — well at 
caretaker's residence — space available for ball dia- 
monds, races and games. 

Division 5-A 

No. 5A-A — Daniel Ryan Woods — Warming 
Shelter 

87th and Western Avenue, north of 87th Street 
below hill — Chicago Surface Lines to 87th Street 
— cinder parking space — allowable picnic load, 
1,000 (one picnic only) — large closed shelter 
with concrete floor and two stoves — bubbler foun- 
tain — sanitary conveniences — five hardball dia- 
monds and six Softball diamonds — space for races 
and games — lighting for night picnics — low ski- 
jump slide — toboggan slide — earthen sled runs — 
skating pond. 

No. 5A-B — Daniel Ryan Woods (north) 

87th Street and Western Avenue, north of 87th 
Street — cinder parking space — three picnic spaces 
accommodating 300 persons each — concrete dance 
platform — two bubbler fountains — sanitary con- 
veniences — see 5A-A for ball diamonds — space 
for races and games — -three tennis courts — ponies 
for hire at pony ring — bridle paths through entire 
preserve — for other special features see 5A-A, 
5A-C, and 5A-D. 

No. 5A-C — Daniel Ryan Woods (southeast) 

South of 87th Street, 1,000 feet west of West- 
ern Avenue — cinder parking space — street cars on 
Ashland and Western Avenues, Chicago Surface 
Lines feeder bus, from Vincennes to Western and 
Rock Island R. R. — six picnics of 300 each on 
top of hill and four picnics of 300 each on Long- 
wood Drive — old type open shelter with concrete 
floor — two concrete dance platforms — four bub- 
bler fountains — sanitary conveniences — see 5A-B 
for ball diamonds and open spaces — horseshoe 
courts — bandstand — merry-go-round — conces- 
sion stand — wooded ravine with flagstone wall 
and masonry channel — for other special features 
see 5A-A, 5A-B and 5A-D. 

No. 5A-D — Daniel Ryan Woods (southwest) 

South of 87th Street, east of Western A\-enue 
— cinder parking space — Chicago Surface Lines to 
87th Street — unlimited picnic load — two concrete 
dance platforms — two bubbler fountains — sani- 



tary conveniences — see 5A-B for ball diamonds 
and open space — band stand — merry-go-round — 
wading pool — play apparatus for children — for 
other special features see jA-A, 5A-B and 5A-C. 

No. 5A-E — Daniel Ryan Woods (south) 

East of Western Avenue, south of ravine, south 
of 87th Street — at north end of Leavitt Street, 
entrance off Western north of 90th Street — see 
5A-D for transportation, allowable picnic load, 
and other special features — see 5A-C for drinking 
water facilities — see 5A-B for ball diamonds and 
open space. 

No. 5A-F — Daniel Ryan Woods (91 st Street) 

North of 91st Street at Hermitage Avenue, op- 
posite Rock Island R. R. station — cinder parking 
space — allowable picnic load, 5,000 persons (one 
picnic only) — one bubbler fountain — sanitary 
conveniences — twenty table and bench combina- 
tions, more as needed — open, level space for 
games and races — bridle path through the entire 
area — bird sanctuary. 

Division 6 

No. 6-A — Calumet Crove ( Kickapoo Woods) 

South side of B. and O. R. R. tracks at 135th 
Street and Row Avenue, south of Little Calumet 
River, Blue Island — cinder and sod parking space 
— allowable picnic load, io,ooo — large dance 
pavilion — two bubbler fountains — space available 
for ball diamonds — lighting for night picnics. 

No. 6-B— Whistler Woods 

East side of Halsted Street, at 130th Street, 
just south of Little Calumet River (Sag Chan- 
nel) — sod parking space — (Sag Channel con- 
struction by U. S. Army) — two concrete dance 
platforms — c^pen, level space for races and games. 

No. 6-C — Eggers Woods (Wolf Lake Preserve) 

South of 1 1 2th Street at Avenue B, east of 
Pennsylvania R. R. and west of Indiana state line 
— Ewing Avenue street car to 1 1 2th Street, five 
blocks' walk east — one parking space (second un- 
der construction) — allowable picnic load, 10,000 
(five or six large picnics of 1,000 each) — one open 
shelter with cinder floor- — comfort station and 
fieldhouse with large dance pavilion to be con- 
structed—three concrete dance platforms — one 
well— sanitary conveniences — sixt\' table and 
bench combinations — one ball diamond with back- 
stop, other space a\'ailablc — Wolf Lake adjoining 
on the southeast — notable for water fowl and 
shore birds. 

No. 6-D — Calumet City Playfield Area 

South of 154th Street ( Warren Avenue in Cal- 
umet Cit\), east of Burnham Avenue, entrance at 



187 



Freeland Avenue — macadam parking space — no 
picnics — space available for ball diamoiids, games 
and races. 

No. 6-E — Wentworfh Woods 

Both sides of Wentvvorth Avenue, from Michi- 
gan City Road to U. S. 6, from Gordon Avenue 
to Indiana State Line — Boy Scout cabin just east 
of Wentworth Avenue and south of 159th Street 
• — two wells. 

No. 6-F — Green Lake Woods 

East side of Torrencc Avenue, south of Michi- 
gan City Road, entrance 600 feet north of 159th 
Street (U. S. 6) — bus line (Safeway) to 154th 
and Torrence, Michigan City Road to 154-th 
Street — macadam parking space — allowable picnic 
load, 5,000 (two large picnics) — one well — sani- 
tary conveniences — fifty table and bench combina- 
tions — space available for Softball, games and 
races — Green Lake swimming pool on east side of 
picnic area — former clay pit, fifty feet deep, now 
"Green Lake," fed by springs — this area part of 
a series of low sand dunes ancd once the shore of 
Lake Michigan. 

No. 6-C — Shabbona Woods (Dynamite Grove) 

West of Torrence Avenue, south of Michigan 
City Road, entrance one-fourth mile north of 
159th Street ( U. S. 6) — allowable picnic load, 
5,000 (two large picnic areas) — twenty-five table 
and bench combinations — sanitary conveniences — 
space available for ball diamonds, games and races 
— large marsh from Torrence Avenue, west to 
Paxton (Elizabeth) Avenue, north of picnic area 
■ — marsh birds — willow, button-bush, and red 
dogwood thickets. 

No. 6-H — Lansing Woods 

South of 183d Street, one-fourth mile east of 
Torrence Avenue — macadam parking space — al- 
lowable picnic load, 3,000 (one large picnic area) 
— one well — twenty-five table and bench combi- 
nations — space available for ball diamonds, games 
and races — very fine, deep woods — profusion of 
wild flowers and bird life. 

No. 6-1 — )urgenson Woods, Grove No. 1 (North 
Grove) 

South of 183d Street, entrance east of Cottage 
Grove Avenue — macadam parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 3,000 (one large or three or four 
small ones) — old type open shelter with cinder 
floor — one well, and spring in Creek Valley — 
sanitary conveniences — thirty-five table and bench 
combinations — space available for ball diamonds, 
games and races — very fine, deep woods — east 
trail passes through Grove — North Creek. 



No. 6-J — Jurgenson Woods, Grove No. 2 (SoutK 
Grove) 

South of Grove No. i {see 6-1) — macadair, 
parking space — allowable picnic load, 3,000 (cm 
large picnic or three or four small picnics) — typej 
"B" picnic shelter with concrete floor and two fire-l 
places — one well, also spring in Creek Valley — 
sanitary conveniences — thirty-five table and benchi 
combinations — space available for ball diamonds, 
games and races — other special features same as| 
6-1. ; 

No. 6-K — Thornton Woods (for colored people 
only) I 

East side of Chicago Road (State Street), north; 
of Thornton and north of Mt. Forest Cemetery! 
— allowable picnic load, 3,000 — fifteen table and: 
bench combinations — sanitary conveniences — one; 
ball diamond with backstop and bleachers — space; 
for races and games. | 

I 
No. 6-L — Sweet Woods (north) I 

South of Schwab Street, southeast of Thornton,! 
from Division 6 Headquarters east to bridge — bus! 
to Thornton — macadam parking space — allow-; 
able picnic load, 3,000 (one large picnic area) — 1 
type "D" picnic shelter with concrete floor — two 
wells — sanitary conveniences — thirty table and 
bench combinations — space available in valley for, 
ball diamonds, games and races — concession standi 
— bridge across North Creek — used in conjunc-l 
tion with 6-M for very large picnic — fine, deep] 
woods with big timber north and south. i 

No. 6-M — Sweet Woods (south) Sanaford Tract* 

West of Cottage Grove Avenue, north of 183d' 
Street (if extended), south of North Creek — ma-i 
cadam parking space — bus to Thornton — allow- 1 
able picnic load, i,ooo (one medium-sized pic-j 
nic), or used in conjunction with 6-L — one type 
"B" picnic shelter with concrete floor and two fire-i 
places — one well — sanitary conveniences — fifteen 
table and bench combinations — one ball diamond; 
with backstop available at C.C.C. Camp — open,j 
level space for games and races — ^Thorn Creek; 
and North Creek Valleys — trail passes through 
Grove — trail fireplace southwest. 

No. 6-N — Brownell Woods 

West of Thorn Creek, east of Hunter Street,' 
immediately south of village of Thornton — trans-' 
portation, bus to Thornton, C. and E. L R. R. — , 
macadam parking space — allowable picnic load,; 
2,000 — one well — space available for ball dia- 
monds, races and games — Thorn Creek on east; 
boundary of Grove. i 



No. 6-0 — Clenwood (north~» 

West of \'incennes Road, north of Chicago 
Heights Road — transportation, C. and E. I. R. R. 
: — allowable picnic load, 5,000 (five small or one 
large) — type "B" shelter with concrete floor and 
two fireplaces — one well — sanitary conveniences 
— twenty-five table and bench combinations — 
space available for ball diamonds, games and 
races. 

No. 6-P — Clenwood (south) 

West of Glenwood-Dyer Road, south of Chi- 
cago Heights Road — transportation, C. and E. I. 
R. R. — macadam parking space — allowable picnic 
load, 3,000 (one large or two small) — old type 
open shelter with cinder floor — one well — sani- 
tary conveniences — twenty-five table and bench 
combinations — one ball diamond with backstop, 
also space for games and races — Thorn Creek, 
bridge across creek to valley and woods beyond. 

No. 6-Q — Halsfed Woods (west) 

West side of Halsted Street, south of Thorn 
Creek, Chicago Heights — no picnics — two bridges 
across Thorn Creek for walks to high school. 

No. 6-R — Woodrow Wilson Woods 

North of Lincoln Highwa\- ( 14th Street), west 
of Chicago Street (old Dixie Highway), Chicago 
Heights — sod parking space, off Lincoln High- 
way — family groups only — ten table and bench 
combinations — sanitary conveniences — one ball 
diamond with backstop north of Thorn Creek, 
also open, level space for races and games — band 
stand — lighting for night picnics. 

No. 6-S— Indian Hill 

South of 1 6th Street, west of Thorn Creek, 
Chicago Heights — no picnics — open, le\'el space 
for races and games. 

No. 6-T — Sauk Trail Lake (north) 

West of Sauk Trail Preser\'e dri\-e, south of 
26th Street, east of Sauk Lake, Chicago Heights 
— macadam parking space — allowable picnic load, 
2,000 (or four picnics of 300 each) — -old type 
open shelter — one well — sanitary conveniences — 
fifty table and bench combinations — one ball dia- 
mond with backstop, also space for games and 
races — swimming in Sauk Lake with dressing 
rooms — sand beach — di\-ing platform. 



No. 6-U — Sauk Trail Woods (26th Street Crove) 

At entrance to Sauk Trail Preserve, cast of 
drive, south of 26th Street at Euclid Avenue — 
family picnics only — one ball diamond with back- 
stop, one without — open, level space for races and 
games — swings and other playground equipment. 

No. 6-V — Sauk Trail Woods (East Crove) 

East of Sauk Trail drive, one-fourth mile south 
of 26th Street — macadam parking space — allow- 
able picnic load, 1,000 (one picnic) — one well — 
sanitary conveniences — fifteen table and bench 
combinations — one ball diamond with backstop, 
one without — open, le\'el space for races and 
games — swings and uther playground equipment. 

No. 6-W— Sauk Trail Lake (south) 
(for white people only) 

West of preserve drive, one-half mile south of 
26th Street — one cinder and one sod parking 
space — allowable picnic load, 5,000 (two large 
picnics) — one type "C" picnic shelter with con- 
crete floor and two fireplaces — one well — sanitary 
conveniences — fifty table and bench combinations 
— concession stand — dressing rooms for men and 
women — swimming in lake — sand beach — diving 
platforms — boathouse with boats for hire — trails 
around lake through fine woods. 

No. 6-X — Schubert's Woods 

North of Sauk Trail road, one-quarter mile 
west of preserve drive — macadam and cinder 
parking space — allowable picnic load, 3,000 (two 
medium-sized picnics) — type "B" picnic shelter 
with concrete floor and two fireplaces — one well 
— sanitary conveniences — thirty table and bench 
combinations — Sauk Lake {see 6-W) trail around 
lake — very fine woods with huge white oaks. 

No. 6-Y — Steger Woods (north) 

South of Sauk Trail road, from Ashland Ave- 
nue to Western Avenue — \'ery fine deep woods 
with \'ery large trees of many species — hazel 
brush thickets. 

No. 6-Z — Steger Woods (south) 

Xorth of Steger lioad (county line) from Ash- 
huid to Western Avenue- — one of the finest woods 
in the entire forest preser\'e district — fine large 
white oaks and burr oaks. 



189 



CHAPTER X 



GOLF AND TENNIS FACILITIES 



GOLF FACILITIES 
General 

The development of golf as a sport in the Chi- 
cago area encompasses a period of forty-four 
years, for the first course was constructed in 1893. 
In that year interest in the game had reached the 
point of organizing the Chicago Golf Club. Since 
that time there has been a rapid gain in the num- 
ber of players of the game in the Chicago area; 
consequently provisions for this form of play have 
also shown a tremendous increase. 

Today there are more than two hundred 
courses within the Chicago district, divided among 
private membership courses, daily fee courses and 
public tax-supported courses. The private mem- 
bership course provides for a limited group who 
are assessed annual fees for the use of the course 
and other facilities of the club. The daily fee golf 
course, operated for financial gain, enables the in- 
dividual golfer to take advantage of many courses 
inasmuch as he pays only in proportion to his use 
of the facilities. During the past several years, 
due to financial exigencies, many private clubs, 
faced with having either to close or reorganize, 
have been converted into daily fee courses. The 
major difference between the daily fee courses and 
public courses which also charge a fee is that the 
former are entirely dependent upon daily revenues 
for maintenance, return on original investment 
and profits; while public courses, being con- 
structed out of tax funds and also being supported 
through the corporate levies of the various gov- 
ernmental bodies, do not in most instances have to 
derive sufficient revenue for the return of the 
original investment, nor is it imperative that a 
profit be shown. 

A study of charges and fees for the use of vari- 
ous public recreational facilities made in 1932 by 
the National Recreation Association, reveals that 
of sixty-six cities providing statements of income 
and operating expenses thirty-five, or fifty-three 
per cent, show revenue equal to or in excess of ex- 



penditures. In some instances receipts are con- , 
siderably in excess of expenses; in twenty-one per ; 
cent of the total cities reporting, income was 
slightly less than maintenance expenditures. Of '• 
the remaining cities receipts did not even approach i 
operating expenses. j 

Chicago's first public golf course was laid out in ; 
Jackson Park in April, 1899, and was later re- j 
tnodeled from a nine-hole to an eighteen-hole ' 
course. At present there are ten public courses, j 
In 1936 the nine-hole course at Riis Park, under] 
the jurisdiction of the Chicago Park District, wasj 
closed and the property converted into general j 
park and play area. ■ 

Public golf courses in the Chicago area are con-! 
trolled by two public tax-supported bodies, the' 
Cook County Forest Preserve District and thei 
Chicago Park District. ■ 

Of these ten public golf courses, five are under; 
the jurisdiction of the Chicago Park District. Four| 
of these are nine-hole courses: Columbus Park| 
Golf Course, located in Columbus Park; Diverseyi 
Golf Course, in Lincoln Park at Diversey Avenue j 
(2800 north); Marquette Golf Course, located in! 
Marquette Park at 67th Street and Kedzie Ave-! 
nue; and Waveland Golf Course, in Lincoln Parkl 
at Waveland Avenue (3700 north). In addition,; 
there is one eighteen-hole course, the Jackson j 
Park Golf Course, in Jackson Park. j 

The remaining five courses are controlled by; 
the Cook County Forest Preserve District. The! 
Billy Caldwell Golf Course, the only nine-holej 
course in the Forest Preserve District, is located! 
at Devon and Cicero Avenues in the Sauganash! 
Reserve, commonly known as the Caldwell Re- 1 
serve. The other four, eighteen-hole courses, arej 
located as follows: Edgebrook Golf Course at EI-' 
ston Avenue, De\'on Avenue, and North Central 
Avenue, in the Sauganash Reserve (Billy Cald-i 



190 



well Reserve) ; Indian Boundary Golf Course at 
Cumberland Avenue, Belmont Avenue and Addi- 
son Street, in the Che-Che-Pinqua Indian Re- 
serve, also known as the Schiller Park Preserve; 
and Northwestern Golf Course in the Harms 
Woods Preserve, near Morton Grove, west of 
Evanston. The only golf course under the juris- 
diction of the Cook County Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict located south of Chicago is in the Palos and 
Argonne Forest Preserve. It is known as the 
Palos Hills Golf Course, and is located at 107th 
Street and Wolf Road. 

Operation 

The plan of operation of the golf courses is 
similar in both of the controlling bodies, although 
there is no co-operation between the two agencies 
nor co-ordination of planning for public golf pro- 
visions in the Chicago area. 

In each agency there is a supervisor of golf, a 
greenskeeper or director at each of the courses, 
ticket sellers, checkers, and laborers. In the Chi- 
cago Park District administrati\'e organization, 
the golf course maintenance employees are under 
the Landscape Maintenance Division; the operat- 
ing employees in the Recreation Division. In the 
Cook County Forest Preserve District set-up golf 
course employees are included in the Recreation 
and Sports Division. 

Small fees or charges are made by both agencies 
for use of the courses. In the courses controlled 
by the Forest Preserve Commissioners a charge 
of one dollar for week-ends and holidays, and 
fifty cents for week days, is made at all of the 

; eighteen-hole courses. A charge of fifty cents on 

; week-ends and holidays, and twenty-five cents on 
week days, is made at the nine-hole course in the 
Forest Preserves. In the golf courses under the 
jurisdiction of the Chicago Park District a nomi- 

: nal fee, twenty cents or forty cents (Waveland 
Golf Course, twenty-five cents) is made for the 

I nine-hole and eighteen-hole courses, respectively. 

' These charges are fairly in line with those of 
other cities. In twenty-two cities the playing fees 
on nine-hole courses are twenty-five cents, fifty 

i cents, seventy-five cents or one dollar; ten charge 

' fifty cents, and in five instances the fee is over fifty 
cents. In twenty-nine cities daily rates on cigh- 

; teen-hole courses are twenty-five cents, fifty cents, 
seventy-five cents or one dollar. In twelve in- 
stances the fee is fifty cents, in six cities it is 



twenty-five cents, and one dollar in eight cities. 
Daily rates reported for twenty-nine courses for 
Saturdays, Sundays and holidays vary from forty 
cents to one dollar for nine holes; and for eighteen 
holes the charge ranges from fifty cents to one 
dollar and fifty cents, seventy-fi\'e cents and one 
dollar being reported most frequently. 

The schedules of operation, opening and clos- 
ing hours, are not uniform. All golf courses in 
the Forest Preserves are open from the first of 
April each year to the latter part of November; 
and are open daily from 6:00 a.m. until dark 
during the eight-month period. There is no estab- 
lished date for the opening and closing of the golf 
courses of the Chicago Park District, this being 
contingent upon the condition of the turf and 
weather. Usually, however. Park District courses 
open the early part of May, with the exception of 
the Marquette Golf Course, which does not open 
until June. All courses are open daily during the 
season from dawn until dark. 

Appropriations 

The 1936 Appropriation Bill (if the Chicago 
Park District included the following appropria- 
tions for the golf courses under its jurisdiction: 





Per 
month 


Length 


Total 


Recreation divh'wn 
! Supervisor of beach and g 
2 Golf or beach directors 
(1 Golf or beach siipervi-or> 

(directors) 
14 Ticket sellers 
14 Checkers 


.If $000 
1711 

150 
75 
75 

$21(1 


12 nios. 

5K' " 

8K- ;; 

12m..s. 


?3.600.0n 
1,870.00 

7.650.00 
2.062.50 
2.062.50 


Landsi'ii^c division 
Miscellaneous supplies: 
Golf course supplies 
1 Greenskeeper 


$17,245.00 

$7,000.00 
2.520.00 



$26,765.00 

In addition, labor and other maintenance ex- 
penses of the golf courses are charged to the 
Landscape Division, which is so organized that 
men are moved from one park or activity to an- 
other as required. Thus, no labor charge as such 
is specified for golf courses in the Park District 
budget. An actual profit of $I2,000 above cost of 
operatitm is shown in the 1935 Park District .An- 
nual Report. In 1936 the gross re\'enuc totaled 

$''7».^55-35- 

The 1 936 .Appropriation Bill for the Cook 
County Board of Forest Preserve Commissioners, 
includes an appropriation of $54,025 for golf 

courses, which is subdivided as foIK)ws: 



191 



Per month Per xcar 



Recreation and Sf'orts Division 
(Administrative) 

1 General supervisor of golf $,?2 

Billy Caldwell yolf course 

1 Greenskeeper 15 

Ticket sellers, 300 men days 

at $5 
Checkers, 360 men days at $5 
Laborers, class "D", 825 men 

days at $5 



EJoebrook golf course 

1 Greenskeeper 150.00 

Ticket sellers, 360 men days 



Edge- Indian North- Pales 
Month Caldzuell brook Boundary ivestern Hills Total 



.on $3,900.00 



1,800.00 
1,800.00 



1,800.00 



at $5 


1,800.00 


Checkers, 360 men days at $5 


1,800.00 


Laborers, class "D", 1.000 men 




days at $5 


5,000.00 


Indian Boundarv golf course 




1 Greenskeeper 150.00 


1,800.00 


Ticket sellers, 360 men davs 




at $5 


1.800.00 


Checkers, 360 men davs at $5 


1,800.00 


Laborers, class "D", 1,000 men 




days at $5 


5,000.00 



A'ortlneestern golf course 

1 Greenskeeper 150.00 1,800.00 

Ticket sellers, 360 men davs 

at $5 1,800.00 

Checkers, 360 men days at $5 1,800.00 

Laborers, class "D", 1,000 men 

days at $5 5,000.00 



Palos Hills golf course 

1 Greenskeeper 150.00 1,800.00 

Ticket sellers, 360 men davs 

at $5 1,800.00 

Checkers, 360 men days at $5 1,800.00 

Laborers, class "D", 800 men 

days at $5 4,000.00 



Total golf division 



1.400.00 



$54,025.00 



Attendance 

The attendance record for 1936 in the Chicago 
Park District golf courses was as follows: 





n'ave. 








Mar- 




Month 


land 


Diverse). 


Colund' 


s Jackson 


quette 


Total 


Mav 


8.350 


7.876 


6,443 


7.714 




30,383 


June 


14.548 


14.479 


12,579 


14.162 


3,281 


59,049 


July 


14.982 


13.981 


11,453 


14.147 


5,691 


60.254 


August 


13,318 


12.265 


10,725 


13,350 


5,155 


54.813 


September 


9.092 


7.797 


5,872 


8,355 


2,830 


33,946 


October 


5.202 


4,417 


2.466 


4,746 


1,209 


18,040 


November 


636 


407 


177 


756 


53 


2,029 



Total 66,128 61,222 49.715 63,230 18.219 258.514 

The attendance in the five golf courses of the 
Cook County Forest Preserve District was as fol- 
lows: 



April 


3,205 


1,765 


1.774 


1,107 


367 


8,218 


Mav 


10,791 


6,508 


5.976 


4,527 


1,507 


29,309 


1 une 


12,928 


9,161 


6.691 


5,845 


1,3.» 


35,964 


lulv 


11,975 


9.219 


5.691 


5,706 


1.004 


33,595 


August 


10,429 


7.977 


5.546 


5,400 


1.031 


30,383 


September 


6,001 


2.619 


3.536 


3,065 


547 


15.768 


October 


3,595 


1.133 


2.064 


1,360 


387 


8,539 


November 


L008 


164 


402 


190 


9 


1,773 



Total 59,932 38.546 31.680 27.200 6.191 163,549 

Tournaments or Special Events 

During 1936, the Chicago Park District in- 
augurated several types of tournaments, such as 
an inter-city caddy championship tournament 
among golf caddies from New York, Chicago and 
other cities, and special tournaments in which 
well-known and leading professional players and 
their caddies competed as a team. Another fea- 
ture was the staging of exhibitions and demonstra- 
tions by leading professional players. Also, schools 
of instruction for beginners in golf were provided 
at each of the Chicago Park District golf courses. 

Detailed Description of Coif Courses 
Norfhwestern Coif Course 

Northwestern Golf Course is in the Harms 
Woods Preserve of the Cook County Forest Pre- 
serve District in Morton Grove, west of Evanston. 
It was established in 1931 and is an eighteen-hole 
course. It has 6,313 driving yards and a par of 
72. The golf course is wooded, hilly and has bent 
greens and dirt tees. There are five river crossings 
within the confines of the course. 

Equipment: Besides the golf course, there is a 
recreation shelter building, which is used for the 
purpose of a clubhouse and for the storage of 
equipment. It contains ofiices, dressing rooms and 
showers, comfort facilities and recreation rooms. 
A picnic grove is on the course. 

Staff: The staff of the Northwestern Golf 
Course consists of one greenskeeper; ticket sellers, 
360 men days per year at $5 per day; checkers, 
360 men days per year at $5 per day; and 
laborers, 1,000 Class "D" men days per year at 
$5 per day. 

Rates: The rate per person for eighteen holes 
of golf at Northwestern Golf Course is one dollar 
for Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, and fifty 
cents during the week. 

Attendance: The 1936 attendance record of the 
course for the eight-month period is 27,200 
players. The monthly attendance is as follows: 
April, 1,107; May, 4,527; June, 5,845; July, 



192 



5,70bj August, 5,400; September, 3,065; Octo- 
ber, 1,360; and November, 190 players. 

Waveland Golf Course 

The Waveland Golf Course is in Lincoln Park, 
at 3700 north (Waveland Avenue). It was estab- 
lished in 1932, has 73 acres and is controlled by 
the Chicago Park District. It is a nine-hole course 
with 3,295 driving )'ards and a par of 36. It has 
, bent greens and mat tees. 

Equipment: In addition to the course, club- 
j house accommodations are provided in a recrea- 
;tion building, which consist of locker and dressing 
j rooms, showers and recreation rooms. Other out- 
jdoor sports are provided as follows: ping-pong, 
horseshoe pitching and driving nets for practice 
while players are waiting to tee off. 

Staff: The staff of the Waveland Golf Course 
consists of one greenskeeper or director, one golf 
[instructor, ticket sellers and checkers. 

Rates: Green fees are twenty-five cents at all 
times. Free golf instruction is offered for juniors. 
Attendance: The 1936 attendance at the Wave- 
land Golf Course was 66,128 players. The month- 
ly record was: May, 8,350; June, 14,548; July, 
114,982; August, 13,318; September, 9,092; Oc- 
tober, 5,202; and November, 636. 

Diversey Coif Course 

The I)i\crsc\' Golf Course is located in Lin- 
coln Park at Diversey Avenue (2800 north). It 
was established in 1932, is a fifty-five acre, nine- 
hole course with 3,247 driving yards and a par 
of 37. It is controlled by the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict. The course is level and has bent greens and 
j mat tees. 

I Equipment: The course is equipped with ping- 
• pong tables, horseshoe pits and driving nets. A 
shelter on the course is used as a recreation house 
and is equipped with lockers and showers. 

Staff: The staff includes one greenskeeper or 
director, one golf instructor, ticket sellers and 
checkers. 

Rates: The fee charged each player for the use 
of the course is twenty cents per round at all times. 
No reservations are made, and each player must 
take his turn. 

Attendance: The 1.936 attendance record for 
the Diversey Golf Course shows a total of 6 1,2 2 2 
players for the seven-month period. The monthly 
attendance is as follows: May, 7,876; June, 14,- 



479; July, 13,981; August, 12,265; September, 
7)797 j October, 4,417; and November, 407 
players. 

Billy Caldwell Golf Course 

The Billy CiikiwcU Golf Course, at Devon and 
Cicero Avenues, is located in the Sauganash Re- 
serve (the Billy Caldwell Reser\c ) of the Cook 
County Forest Preserve District. It was estab- 
lished in 1932 and is controlled by the Cook 
County Forest Preserve Commissioners. I he 
Billy Caldwell Golf Course is a nine-hole course 
and has 3,170 yards and a par of 35. The course 
is wooded and rolling with bent greens and dirt 
tees. 

Equipment: In addition to the golf course, 
there is a recreation shelter building, used for the 
purpose of storing equipment, offices, dressing 
rooms, showers, comfort facilities and recreation 
rooms. There is also a picnic gro\-e near the 
course. 

Staff: The staff of the course consists of the fol- 
lowing for the golf season: one greenskeeper; 
ticket sellers, 360 men days per year at $5 per 
day; checkers, 360 men days at $5 per day; and 
laborers, 825 Class "D" men days at $5 per day. 

Rates: The rate for nine-hole golf at this golf 
course during 1936 was fifty cents on Saturdays, 
Sundays and holidays, and twenty-five cents on 
week days. Caddy fees were forty cents per round. 

Attendance: The 1936 record of attendance is 
as follows (total for eight-month period): 59,932 
players. Monthly attendance is as follows: April, 
3,205; May, 10,791; June, 12,928; July, 11,- 
975; August, 10,429; September, 6,00t; Octo- 
ber, 3,595; November, 1,008 players. 

Edgebrook Golf Course 

The Edgebrook Golf Course is located at 
Devon Avenue and North Central A\-enue and is 
in the Sauganash Reserve (Billy Caldwell Re- 
serve) of the Cook County Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict. It was established in 1932, is an eighteen- 
hole course of national standard size, and is under 
the control of the Cook County Forest Preserve 
Commissioners. The Edgebrook Golf Course has 
5,500 driving yards and a par of 72. The course 
is wooded and rolling. The greens are bent, the 
tees are of dirt and there are four water hazards. 

Equipment: A recreation shelter, located on the 
course, is used as a clubhouse, and contains storage 



193 



place for equipment, offices for the greenskeeper, 
dressing room and showers, comfort facilities and 
recreation rooms. Adjacent to the course is a pic- 
nic grove. 

Staff: The staff of the Edgebrook Golf Course, 
all employees of the Cook County Forest Pre- 
ser\-e District, consists of one greenskeeper; ticket 
sellers, 360 men days per year at $5 per day; and 
laborers, i,000 Class "D" men days at $5 per 
day. 

Rates: The rate during week-ends for players is 
one dollar for Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, 
and fifty cents during the week. Caddy fees are 
seventy-five cents. 

Attendance: The attendance for the year 1936 
for the period from April to November, inclusive, 
was 38,546 players. The monthly attendance was: 
April, 1,765; May, 6,508; June, 9,i6i; July, 
9,2 19; August, 7,977; September, 2,619; Octo- 
ber, 1,133; '^"'^ November, 164. 

Indian Boundary Coif Course 

The Indian Boundary Golf Course is in the 
Che-Che-Pinqua Indian Reserve (Schiller Park 
Preserve ) of the Cook County Forest Preserve 
District. It is located at Cumberland Avenue, 
Belmont Avenue and Addison Street. The course, 
consisting of eighteen holes, was established in 
1 93 r and is under the control of the Cook County 
b'orest Preser\-e Commissioners. It has 6,^22 
dri\'ing yards and a par of 71. The course is a 
wooded area, and the fairways are rolling. 

Equipment: In addition to the golf course, the 
Indian Boundary Golf Course has a recreation 
shelter building, which is used for the purpose 
of clubrooms and storing equipment. It contains 
offices, dressing rooms and showers, comfort facili- 
ties and recreation rooms. The course also has a 
picnic grove. 

vStaff: The staff of the golf course is as follows: 
one greenskeepei"; ticket sellers, 360 men days 
per year at $5 per day; checkers, 3 60 men days 
at $5 per day; and laborers, 1,000 Class "D" men 
days at $5 per day. 

Rates: The rate for players is one dollar per 
person for Saturdays, Sundays and holidays; and 
fifty cents during the week for eighteen holes of 
golf. Caddy fees are seventy-five cents. 

Attendance: The attendance record of players 
during 1936 for the period from April to Novem- 
ber was 3r,68o. The monthly attendance figures 



are as follows: April, 1,774; May, 5,976; June, [ 
6,691; July, 5,691; August, 5,546; September, I 
3,536; October, 2,064.; ^^^ November, 402. 1 

Columbus Park Coif Course 

The Columbus Park Golf Course is in Co- 1 
lumbus Park of the Chicago Park District. It was ' 
established in 1921, has 59 acres and is a nine-hole ' 
course with 2,602 driving yards and a par of 33. [ 
It is controlled by the Chicago Park District. Its ', 
golf course is level and has bent greens, dirt tees 
and two water hazards. 

Equipment: A clubhouse is a part of the equip- > 
ment of the course, with recreation rooms and ; 
comfort facilities. There are ping-pong tables, 1 
h(jrseshoe pits and driving nets. . 

Staff: The staff includes one greenskeeper, one | 
golf instructor, ticket sellers and checkers. \ 

Rates: Greens fees are twenty cents per player, i 
Free golf instruction is available at the course for ; 
juniors. j 

Attendance: The 1936 attendance for the 1 
seven-month period was 49,715 players. The 1 
monthly attendance was: May, 6,443; June, 12,- j 
579; July, 11,453; August, 10,725; September, ; 
5,872; October, 2,466; and the first two weeks in ! 
November to closing of the course, only 177 I 
players. 1 

Jackson Park Golf Course 1 

The Jackson Park Golf Course is in Jackson ) 
Park on the south side of Chicago. It was estab- j 
lished in 1902 and is controlled by the Chicago | 
Park District. The course covers 82 acres, with 1 
5,438 driving yards; it has a par of 69 for 
eighteen holes and is slightly rolling, with bent 
greens and dirt tees. The course has two water 
hazards and the fairways are kept in condition by 
a sprinkling system. 

Equipment: In addition to the golf course, the 
equipment includes a clubhouse, equipped with 
recreation rooms, locker rooms and showers, ten- 
nis courts, swimming facilities, ping-pong tables, 
horseshoe pits and a driving net. In addition to 
golf, other outdoor sports on and near the course 
include ping-pong, horseshoe games, and driving 
nets for practice while golfers are waiting to play 
on the greens. 

Staff: The staff of the Jackson Park Golf 
Course consists of one greenskeeper oi" directory 
one golf instructor, ticket sellers and checkers. 



194 



COMMUNITY AREAS 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
TENNIS COURTS 

• CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 

# BUREAU OF PARKS 




« 5 COMMUNITY NUMBERS 
— COMVUtgiTY BOUNOARES 
SCALE' •= I MILE 



Rates: Greens fees are forty cents a player. 
Caddy fees are eighty cents for eighteen holes of 
golf. Free golf instruction is available for juniors. 

Attendance: The 1936 attendance for the seven- 
month period was 63,230 players. The monthly 
attendance was: May, 7,714; June, 14,162; July, 
14,147; August, 13,350; September, 8,355; Oc- 
tober, 4,746; and November, 756 players. 

Marquette Coif Course 

The Marquette Golf Course is in Marquette 
Park, at 67th Street and Kedzie Avenue. It was 
established in 1926 and is controlled by the Chi- 
cago Park District. The course has an area of 46 
acres, has nine holes, a length of 3,300 yards and 
a par of 37. It is slightly rolling with bent greens 
and dirt tees. It has two water hazards. 

Equipment: There are ping-pong tables, horse- 
shoe pits and driving nets on the course. A club- 
house for indoor recreation purposes is also a part 
of the plant. It contains dressing rooms and 
showers, comfort facilities and recreation rooms. 

Staff: The staff of the course consists of one 
greenskeeper or director, one golf instructor, 
ticket sellers, and checkers. 

Rates: The greens fees are twenty cents a per- 
son. Caddy fees are forty cents for nine holes 
of golf and eighty for eighteen holes. Free golf 
instruction is available for juniors. 

In addition to the pro\isions on the course for 
playing golf, there are other sports available, in- 
cluding ping-pong and horseshoe games and driv- 
ing nets for practice while players are waiting to 
play on the green. 

TENNIS 

Tennis is regarded as one of the fastest grow- 
ing sports in the United States. During the past 
ten years in this country great progress has been 
made in the establishment of court facilities and 
in the provision of instruction in this game. A re- 
port of the United States Department of Labor 
indicates that in 1930 in cities of 5,000 and over 
there were approximately 7,000 publicly-sup- 
ported tennis courts of one kind or another. In 
1935, according to the National Recreation As- 
sociaticm, this number had increased to about 
10,000. 

The fact that a considerable portion of the 



Attendance: The 1936 attendance record shows 
a total of 18,219 players for the Marquette Golf 
Course. The monthly figures are as follows: June, 
3,281; July, 5,691; August, 5,155; September, 
2,830; October, 1,209; November, 53 players. 

Palos Hiils Coif Course 

Palos Hills Golf Course, the only course in 
the Cook County Forest Preserve District on the 
south side of Chicago, is located at 107th Street 
and Wolf Road. It is in both Argonne and Palos 
Hills Forest Preserves. 

The course was established in 1 921, is an eight- 
een-hole course and has 6,220 driving yards and 
a par of 70. It is hilly and has dirt tees. It has 
one water hazard. 

Equipment : The course has a recreation shelter 
building, which is used as a clubhouse and for 
storage purposes. It contains offices, dressing 
rooms and showers, comfort facilities and recrea- 
tion rooms. A picnic grove is adjacent to the golf 
course. 

Staff: The staff includes one greenskeeper; 
ticket sellers, 360 men days per year at $5 per 
day; checkers, 360 men days at $5 per day; and 
laborers, 800 Class "D" men at $5 per day. 

Rates: The rate for players for Saturdays, Sun- 
days and holidays is one dollar a person for eight- 
een holes of golf and fifty cents a person during 
the week. 

Attendance: The 1936 attendance for the eight- 
month period was 6,191 players. The monthly at- 
tendance shows: April, 367; M;iy, 1,507; June, 
'j339» July, 1,004; August, 1,031; September, 
547; October, 387; and November, only 9 
players. 

FACILITIES 

iirigiiial cost of tennis courts is devoted to labor 
has resulted in this particular facility being among 
the major rccreatioiTal contributions of the \'arious 
federal relief agencies in their work programs 
throughout the country. This has been true par- 
ticularly in small communities which formerly 
had no tennis facilities of any kind. 

The financing of this form of public recreation 
\-aries widely. A. study of charges and fees for the 
use of tennis courts, released in 1932 by the Na- 
tional Recreation .Association, reveals th:it of 126 
departments reporting information, 73 made no 
charges, 30 departments had some ourts for 



195 



which charges were iiiiicie, and it, required for all 
courts. The fee in some communities is limited 
to those specializeci high-maintenance type of 
courts, such as grass and chiy; on the other hand, 
use of concrete, asphalt, and other hard-surface 
courts which ha\e a negligible maintenance cost is 
ordinarih' pro\'icied without any fees. In other 
communities which ha\e a limited number of 
courts, a charge is made piimarily to limit the 
number of potential users to the total which can 
be accommodated. In almost e\'ery instance the 
original costs of the com'ts are included in the 
regular budget of the agency, and no attempt is 
macie to refund this amount through the fee. The 
trend in type of coui"ts, particularly in the past 
h\'e years, has been away from the grass, gravel, 
and clay courts to hard-surface courts for several 
reasons, chiefly the cost of maintenance. In addi- 
tion, it has been fcjund that hard-surface courts, 
because ijf their fast-drying properties, are less 
likely to be thrown out of operation through in- 
clement weather. 

Public Tennis Courts in Chicago 

Tennis as a popular foi'm of recreation has be- 
come one of the leading sports in Chicago. There 
are 550 courts in 87 parks located throughout the 
city, of which 541 in 86 parks are under the 
jurisdiction (if the Chicago Park District, and q 
in one park are under the Bureau of Parks, Recre- 
ation and Aviation. 

The distribution of courts in \'arious sections of 
the cit\' is as follows: 

Nu>nber of 
Section Courts locatious 



9 

16 
16 



550 87 

Four parks ha\e only one court each, while the 
largest number is locateci in Jackson Park, which 
has 32 courts. 

I-'our t\'pes of surface are to be found among 
the 541 tennis courts in the District, namely, clay, 
asphalt, other hard surface, anci grass. There are 
[2 1 clay, 98 hard surface, ;^ i 7 asphalt and 5 grass 
courts. The luimlier and types of tennis courts 
Ljcated in the Cliica<jo Park District are in a transi- 



North 


('i 


Northwest 


ij8 


West 


68 


South 


157 


Southwest 


104 



tional stage. Through the co-operation of the 
Works Progress Administration a program of re- 
placing clay and grass courts with asphalt surfaces 
is in process. During 1936 two hundred and 
thirty clay courts were rehabilitated, being re- 
placed with an asphalt surface laid upon a six inch 
rolled stone base. 

Administration 

The Park District tennis courts are super\'ised 
by the staff assigned to the individual parks. 
There is no separate permanent personnel as- 
signed to tennis on a full-time basis. Courts are 
cleaned daily, boundary lines are renewed as they 
fade, grass is cut at inter\-als. 

Financial 

Tennis coiu'ts are financed in the Park District 
by the se\'eral divisions concerned in maintenance, 
operation, lighting, policing and other functions 
involved and by the Recreation Division of the 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation of the 
city. All tennis courts under the jurisdiction of 
both agencies are open free of charge to the play- 
ing public. The annual budgets provide for nets 
and other facilities necessary for the upkeep. 

Attendance 

Attendance reports for Winnemac Park which 
is uiuier the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and Aviation are not available. While 
the figures given by the Park District were sub- 
mitted as conservative, it must be understood that 
only estimates are a\'ailable for determining the 
number of players using public tennis facilities; 
and such estimates are obtainable only for parks 
having a promotional staff. No records are kept 
in parks such as CJrant Park, where no recreational 
staff is assigned. Some parks base their figures on 
the number of permits issued while others use 
some other means for arriving at a figure. The 
estimated numbers for the months of March to 
November, 1936, may be summarized from the 
records of the Chicago Park District: 

Number 
Months of flayers 



\ 



March 
April 
May 
June 

August 



3,574 
13,-41 
83,308 

157,693 
161,742 
130,201 



196 



M (J III lis 



N umber 
of players 



September 

October 

November 

Total 



66,932 
57,465 



675,511 
Program 

The Chicago Park District in 1936 instituted a 
program to stimulate interest in tennis. Athletic 
instructors gave lessons to beginners in most parks, 
while other parks organized regular classes. These 
classes were held at Calumet, Russell Square, 
91st Street, McKinley, Palmer and Tuley Parks. 
Special coaching for young business and profes- 
sional women was given on the Grant Park courts 
after business hours. 

Each park in the system sponsored its own im- 
mediate community tennis acti\'ities, teams were 
formeci, and tournaments were held for local 
championships, the winners of which were in turn 
entered in sectional championship playoffs. Out of 
these tournaments the finalists were all eligible 
for the National Public Parks Tennis Association 
Tournaments. 

In July, 1936, the HeraJd-Exanuner in co-op- 
eration with the Chicago Park District and the 
Public Parks Tennis Association sponsored the 
public parks tournament. Over 2,000 entries par- 
ticipated in this e\'ent in twent\' district parks. 

The tennis courts arc open daih' to the public 
from 5 A.M. until dark depending on weather 
conditions. Time permits are issued hourly by the 
park director on a hrst-come, first-ser\ed liasis. In 
sectional and tournament c\ents this rule is 
waived. 

There is no program at Winnemac Park and no 
permits are necessary for the use of its tennis 
facilities. 

SUMMARY OF TENNIS COURTS 





llan! 






Park 


Location siirfiici 


Clay.-lsl>lia 


// Total 


Emerson 


Granville and Ridge 2 




2 


Indian Boundary 


I.unt and Rockwell 


'4 


4 


Chase 


Lcland and Ashland 


4 


4 


Green Briar 


2760 Peterson Ave. 


2 


2 


River 


510n\. Francisco Av. .. 




7 


Welles 


Montrose-W'estern Av. 4 




4 


Paul Revere 


2509 Irving Park Blvd. 2 




2 


Hamlin 


Wellington and Hoyne . . 


2 


2 


tLincoln 


Center and Clark 10 


HI 


t25 


Lake Shore 


Chicago Ave. and 








Lake Shore Dr. 2 




2 


Olympia 


.•\vondale-01vmpia 


'.'. .i 


.! 


Brooks 


F.stes and O'dcll 


2 


2 


Rosedale 


6319 Rosedale 2 




2 


Norwood 


5801 N. Natoma 


'4 


4 





IhuJ 








Park 


Locatiioi su 


/m-c 


C7.,.v. 


Isl^lialt ' 


nial 


Norwood 












Playground 


Imlay and Newcastle 






1 


1 


Jefferson No. 2 


Higgins and Long 






4 


4 


Sauganash 


5901 N. Kostner 






2 


2 


Edgebrook 


Tahoma-.-\lgon(iuin 


'i 






I 


Sam Gompers 


Foster and Tripp 




3 




3 


Christ Jensen 


Wilson and Lawndale 


i 






1 


Eugene Field 


5100 N. Ridgeway 






4 


4 


Chopin 


Cornelia and Long 






4 


4 


Wilson 


Leland and Milwaukee 






4 


4 


Portage 


Irving and Long 






(> 


6 


California 


3901 N. California 






4 


4 


Kilbourn 


3501 X. Kilbo.irn 






8 


8 


Mayfair 


Sunnvside-Kildare 


,1 






3 


Independence 


3')45 X. Springiiekl 


4 






4 


Athletic Field 


3546 W. .\ddison 






() 


6 


Shabbona 


Addison and Sayre 


6 






6 


Gen. Bell 


Oak Park and Barry 


2 






2 


Rutherford 












Sayre 


Belden and Newland 


3 






3 


Tacob A. Riis 


Wrightwood-Mead 






io 


16 


No. 131 


Wrightwood-Laramie 


4 






4 


Blackhawk 


Belden and LaVergne 






6 


6 


Kelvyn 


Wrightwood- Kostner 






5 


5 


Hermosa 


Belden and Kilbourn 


'4 






4 


Brands 


3259 Elston 






2 


2 


Kosciusko 


2732 N. Avers 


'6 






6 


ITolstein 


2200 N. Oaklev 




2 




2 


Mozart 


2036 X. .\ver.s 




1 




T 


Huinbolflt 


Augusta-X. Kcdzie 






2() 


26 


Pulaski 


Blackhawk and Noble 




2 




2 


No. 130 


1735 N. Mango 


2 






2 


Eckhart 


Chicago and Xoble 




2 




2 


.\miindsen 


6100 Bloomingdale 


4 






4 


LaFollette 


Hirsch and Laramie 






6 


6 


Columbus 


Harrison and Central 


Vj 







12 


.Vvondale 


3516 School 






5 


5 


Garfield 


100 X. Central Park 




'9 


9 


18 


Union 


Lake and -Vshland 


'4 






4 


Franklin 


14thPl. andKolin 




2 




2 


Douglas 
Harrison 


14th and Albanv 


6 




i2 


18 


ISth and Wood 






2 


2 


Grant 


Lake front 


\l 






12 


Burnham 


14th and Outer Drive 




8 




8 


Hardin Square 


26th and \\'entworth 






'4 


4 


.■\rmour Square 


33rd and Shields 






2 


2 


Fuller 


45th and Princeton 




'4 




4 


Washington 


57th-Cottage Grove 






25 


25 


lackson 


56th and Stony Island 




3 


29 


32 


Tnlcy 


90tli and St. Lawrence 




6 




6 


Russell Square 


83rd-South Shore Dr. 






9 


9 


Bessemer 


.S9th-South Chicago 




2 


() 


8 


Fcrnvvood 


10438 S. Lowe 


'4 




2 


(1 


Palmer 


Ulth and Indiana 




(1 


r> 


12 


Lyman Trumlni 


1 103rd and Benslev 






4 


4 


Calumet 


<)8tli-Uike Michigan 




id 




lo 


West Pullman 


123rd and Stewart 






5 


5 


Tames R. Mann 


130th and Carondolet 


2 


2 




4 


McKinlev 


39th and Western 




4 




4 


Mark White 












Square 


29th an<l Halsted 




4 




4 


Davis Square 


45th an<l Marshfield 




4 




4 


Sherman 


53rd and Racine 




2 


5 


7 


Cornell Square 


51st and Wood 




3 




3 


Gage 


55th and Western 


1 




4 


6 


Marquette 


(>7th and Kedzic 






22 


22 


Ogden 


(oth anil Racine 




8 




8 


Hamilton 


72nd and Xornial 




8 


6 


14 


Grand Crossing 


7()th and Inpleside 




4 


2 


6 


Foster 


83rd and I.ooniis 




4 


4 


8 


Xo. 17') 


1518 W. 102n<l Pl.-ice 






'• 


6 


Xo. 176 


91st-Longwood Drive 






3 


3 


Ridge 


')6th-LongwiK.d Drive 






2 


■> 


Ada 


113th and Ada 






2 


2 


Kennedy 


113th and WeslerT, 






5 


5 


•Winnemac 


Damen and Foster 


9 






9 



Total 



107 121 



317 550 



tl-inculn Park has also five grass tennis courts. 

♦This park is under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and .\viation ; all other parks are under the Chi- 
cago Park i:)istrict. 



'07 



Tennis Clubs 

The following parks of the Chicago Park 
District have tennis clubs which are affiliated 
with the Park District Tennis Association: 

Indian Boundary Athletic Meld 



Chase 

River 

Hamlin 

Jefferson No. ; 

Eugene Field 

Wilson 

Portage 

KiJbourn 

Mayfair 

Independence 



Jacob A. Riis 

No. 131 (formerly No. 12) 

Blackhawk 

Kelvyn 

Hermosa 

Kosciusko 

Humboldt 

Eckhart 

Amundsen 

Columbus 



Avondale 
Garfield 
Douglas 
Washington 
Jackson 
Tuley 

Ivussell Square 
lames R. Mann 



McKinley 

Sherman 

Cornell Square 

Gage 

Ogden 

Hamilton 

Grand Crossing 

Foster 



Two courts are necessary for each home team. 
During 1936 tournament games started at 2:30 
P.M. Saturday, and playing continued until fin- 
ished. There were 18 Class "A" teams; 28 Class 
"B"; 20 Class "C" and 26 women's teams, with 
an average of six players per team. 



198 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 

POPULATION BY 

AGE GROUPS 




75 COMJMTY NLWBERS 
— CCMMUNITY eOUNDflRES 



Population Series — Map 7 



CHAPTER XI 



SWIMMING FACILITIES, LAGOONS AND HARBORS 



General 

Lake Michigan borders the city on more than 
twenty-eight miles of Chicago's eastern boundary. 
As a result, residents of the city have access to 
natural fresh water bathing beaches unequaled in 
any other metropolitan area. Thirteen large pub- 
lic bathing beaches are located along the shore 
from the northern city limits to the southern-most 
point on Chicago's shore line. In addition, super- 
vision is provided for twenty-seven street-end 
beaches. Supplementing these lake shore swim- 
ming facilities are fifty-three outdoor swimming 
pools in forty locations in and adjacent to the city, 
and forty-seven indoor swimming pools or nata- 
toriums.' 

Four governmental units share the responsibil- 
ity for the operation and maintenance of these 
various facilities: namely, the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict, the Board of Education, the Bureau of 
Parks, Recreation and Aviation, and the Cook 
County Forest Preserve District. In the instance 
of the latter, the swimming facilities are pro\'ided 
outside (jf the cit\- limits. The number and type 
of facilities under the control of each of the above 
governmental units are distributed as follows: 

Street- 
cud Outdoor Nala- 
.-Igouy Bcachi-s beaches pools toriums Toiid 

Chicago Park DLstrict. . lo o 50* 6 66 

Bureau of Parks 3 27 o 3 33 

Cook County Forest 

Preserves** 2 o 3 O 5 

Board of ivlucation . . . . o o o 38 38 

Total 14^*** 

*Thirty-seven locations. 

**Locatcd in Forest Preserves outside nf tiiy limits. 

***One hnndrcd twenty-nine locations. 

Financial 

Funds for the operation, maintenance and pro- 
grams of all public swimming pools serving resi- 
dents of the city arc provided for in the regular 
budgets of the controlling agencies. There are no 
charges for the privilege of using the beaches; 

'For Xaval .\rmory swimming ixjol, use of which is re- 
stricted to enlisted men and officers (see chapter XIII). 



however, in some locations checking, locker and 
shower accommodations are provided for a small 
fee. This is in conformity with the general prac- 
tice throughout the country wherein charges for 
bathing privileges are usually confined to such 
specific services. An admission fee is charged for 
the use of the swimming pools of the Cook County 
Forest Preserve District. This charge, however, 
includes showers (^ which are compulsoryj, locker 
and checking privileges. During 1936 a small fee 
was charged, except to children, for the use of the 
natatoriums of the Chicago Park District. 

Sanitation 

.A.11 swimming pools within the State of llliiiois 
are required to conform to minimum health re- 
quirements, and inspection is pro\ ided for by the 
State Department of Health. .\t the present time 
a considerable number of the pools under the 
jurisdiction of the Chicago Park District fail to 
conform to this tninimum, and plans are under 
way for the reconditioning of this equipment. The 
Chicago Board of Health regularly inspects the 
water at the \'arious public beaches, and tests are 
made daily throughout the season to determine 
the extent of impurity. 

Life guards 

.•\I1 public swimming pools and beaches in the 
city during their regular hours are inanned by 
life guards. In the Bureau of Parks life guards arc 
luider tlie direction of the superintendent of 
beaches and pools. In the Cook County Forest 
Preserve District all swimming accommodations 
are maintained by the Recrcatii)n and Sports Di\'i- 
sion under a general super\isor of pools, who is 
also responsible for the ticket sellers and pool at- 
tendants assigned to each pool and beach. In the 
Chicago Park District all beach life guard per- 
sonnel arc under the jurisdiction of the supervisor 
of beaclus and golf; swimming pool guards and 
service are under the director of each park. .All 
natatoriums and outside swimming pools are su- 



199 



pcr\iscd by the Rccrciitli)ii Department through 
the indi\idi.uil park direetoi-. 

The following represents the administrati\e 
and life guard staff of each agency: 



.(/ /') 



C,.,,k Cniiily I'. 
Ol'cratinn : 

3 Swimmins; ponU ( Jiilv and Aiiyu'-t ) 
2 BcaclK-^ 



Units 



1 General superintemknt 
29 Lite guards 



1-' Mo- 
72 M.i- 



$liS7.,-;u per mo. 
IIKI.OO per mo. 



Total 



las 



.$9,450.0(1 



ami .Iriuli, 



Ilinrau oj Parks. A'.Y 
Ofcraiing : 

3 Public nataluriunis ( all year ) 
3 Beaches (June 15 to Labor Day) 
27 Street-end heaclies (June 15 to Labor Day) 

33 L^iiits 

1 Superintendent tit' beaches 

and pools 12 Mos. (a' $305.00 per mo, 

1 Beach and pool director 12 Mos. @ 223.35 per mo. 

5 Beach and pool directors 60 Mos. (aJ 200.00 per mo, 

5 Senior life guards 60 Mos. (a 145.00 per nio. 
1 Senior life guard 12 Mos. @ 140.00 per mo, 

6 Life guards 72 Mos. @ 125.00 per mo. 
1 Senior life guard 4 Mos. (g: 140.00 per mo, 
3 Senior life guards 12 Mos. @ 130.00 per mo. 

80 Life guards^ 240 Mos. (a 125.00 per mo, 

103 484 

Total cost on above basis $69,839.9Ci 

Chicago Park District 
Operating : 

6 Natatoriums (all year) 
50 Swimming pools (July 1 to August 31) 
10 Beaches (July 1 to September 7) 

66 Units 

1 Supervisor of lieaches 

and golf 12 Mos. @ $300.00 per mo, 

1 Beach director 3j4 Mos. (a} 155.00 per mo, 

7 Beach directors 21 Mos. @ 125.00 per rao, 
15 Life guard captains 45 Mos. (<i! 125.00 per mo, 

140 Life guards 260 Mos. @ 93.50 per mo, 

() Natatorium instructors 72 Mos. <ii 125.00 per ma 
9(1 Life guards (pools) ISO Mos. ta' 90.00 per mo 

260 593^ 

Total cost on above basis 



$61,902.50 

Based upon the units operated, comparative costs 
were as follows: 

Man 
Employees months Cost per 
Agency per unit per unit unit 

Cook County Forest Preserves 6.00 16.8 $1,890.00 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation 

and Aviation 3.12 14.67 2,116.36 

Chicago Park District 3.94 8.99 937.91 

It will be noted that there is a great variation 
in the salaries and wages paid by the various gov- 
ernmental agencies for personnel in the same 
classifications. The Bureau of Parks has the high- 
est wage scale, while the Cook County Forest Pre- 



seiA'e District pays the same rate to all life guards , 

on its staff. i 

Attendance I 

In view of the fact that attendance at bathing ; 
beaches can only be estimated, the attendance i 
figures for the use of the various types of swim- ' 
ming facilities in the City of Chicago are to be ' 
taken only as approximations. On the basis of in- 
formation derived from the respective controlling ] 
agencies, it has been estimated that twenty-one ' 
million people availed themselves of Chicago's I 
public swimming provisions during 1936. Nearly 1 
two-thirds of this total patronized Park District > 
facilities; one third, the Bureau of Parksj less i 
than one per cent the Forest Preserves. \ 

Attendance 1036 1 





Chicago 










Park 


Bureau 


Forest 




Type 


District 


of Parks 


Preserves 


Total 


Beaches 


11,390,292 


3,191,025 


No record kept 


14,581,317 


Natatoriums 


244,000 


663,097 


None 


907,097 


Street-end 










beaches 


None 


3,398,350 


None 


3,398,350 


(Jut-door 










pools 


2,073.100 


None 


204,283 


2,277,443 


Total 


13,707,452 


7.252,472 


204,283 


21,164,207 



Nat-atoriums 

Pro\iding year-around swimming opportuni- 
ties, nine natatoriums in the City of Chicago are i 
operated under the jurisdiction of two govern- I 
mental agencies. Six park fieldhouses of the Chi- 1 
cago Park District are equipped with indoor swim- i 
ming pools. The Bureau of Parks, Recreation and ' 
.\\'iation maintains three public natatoriums. ' 

Chicago Park District Natatoriums 

The following natatoriums are operated under 
the jurisdiction of the Chicago Park District: 

Austin Town Hall Natatorium 
Blackhawk Park Natatorium 
Indepencience Park Natatorium 
LaFollette Park Natatorium 
Portage Park Natatorium 
Ridge Park Natatorium 

Indoor swimming activities of the Park District 
are directed by the Physical Activities Department 
of the Recreation I^i vision. Life guards and swim- 
ming instructors are in attendance during the open 
hours of the natatoriums, and lessons in swim- 
ming, opportunities for team competition and spe- 
cial classes in life-saving have become features of 
the regular program. Two city-wide meets an- 
nually culminate the winter season. Male con- 



COMMUNITY AREAS 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
SWIMMING 
FACILITIES 



Street End Beaches 
:.' • Natotoriums 

Beaches 
""" • Pools 




i.OMMJMTY NUMBERS 
— cr>«MUNiTY BOUNDARIES 
SCA^E- ■= I MILE 



I Sur.t, - 1937 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
Of 

CHICAGO 

DISTRIBUTION OF 
SWIMMING POOLS 

BOARD OF EDUCATION 




«3 COMMUMTY NUMBERS 

LOMMUniTY BOUNDARIES 

SCALE- -■ I MILE 

Cnicogo Ree«eolion Survey - 1937 



tcstants arc classified into: midgets ( ii years and 
under), juniors, intermediates and seniors. In the 
women's indoor city-wide meet the entrants are 
divided into three groups: juniors, 14 years and 
under; intermediates, 15-17 years; seniors, 18 
years and o\'er. The Chicago Park District Water 
Polo Ivcague emhraces not only teams using the 
indoor pools of the Park District, but includes also 
clubs, universities and other organizations which 
have their own swimming po(jls. 

During 1936 there was an admission charge to 
the pools of ten cents for adults, but children were 
admitted free. 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
Natatoriums 

The natatoriums of this agency, namely, Jack- 
son Natatorium, Griffith Natatorium and Beilfuss 
Natatorium, are located on the southwest, west 
and northwest sides of the city, and in addition to 
providing for indoor swimming, serve their com- 
munities as neighborhood centers. The pools are 
operated by the Beaches and Pools Section of the 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation, with 
life guards and swimming instructors in constant 
attendance. 

Hours of operation vary at these municipal 
natatoriums. The Griffith Natatorium is open 
from 2:00 p.m. to I0:00 p.m. daily; hours at the 
Jackson Natatorium are from 2:00 p.m. to 9:30 
P.M.; and the Beilfuss Natatorium is open during 
the week from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. On Satur- 
days all of the natatoriums are open from 9:00 
A.M. to 5:00 P.M.; all are closed on Sunday. Men 
and boys have access to the pools on Tuesday, 
Thursday anci Saturday, and women and girls on 
Monday, Wecinesday and Friday. Admission is 
free at all times, but bathers must pro\'ide their 
own suits and towels. 

Details of Natatorium Facilities 

All of the pools of the Park District and the 
Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation have 
water purification systems, and the temperature is 
maintained at seventy-two to seventy-five degrees 
throughout the year. Following is a summary of 
Chicago's public natatoriums including facilities, 
schedule of hours, and the attendance for 1936 
(when a\'ailable) : 



Independence Park Natatorium 

Location: Irving I'ark Boule\ard and Springfield 

Avenue 
Control: Chicago Park District 
D'tDiensioiis: 2i'x6o' pool 

Sihedule: Hours r :00 to io:00 p.m. daily, ex- 
cept Sunday, through(_)Ut the year 
Attendaiue: A)innal total, 1936 — 24,551 
Jan. 1,754 May 2,513 Sept. 2,074 

Feb. 1,104 .K'"^ -)673 Oct. 1,512 

Mar. 1,913 July 3,838 Nov. 1,261 

Apr. 1,903 Aug. 3,i-0 Dec. 886 

Blackhawk Park Natatorium 

Location: Belden and Taramic Avenues 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Dimensions: 25'x6o' pool 

Schedule: Hours i :00 to io:oo p.m. daily, ex- 
cept Sunday, throughout the year 
Attendance: Annual total, 1936- — 37,570 

Jan. May 4,742 Sept. 3,800 

Feb. 3,079 June* 1,592 Oct. 2,872 
Mar. 4,671 July 5, 143 Nov. 2,687 
Apr. 3,741 Aug. 5,243 ]\'c 

*Closed two weeks. 

Beilfuss Natatorium 

Location: 1725 North Springfield Avenue 

Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and .Aviation 

Established: 19 16 

Dimensions: 3o'x6o' pool 

Equipment: Dressing rooms, 200 lockers, 2 
springboards, diving platform, gymnasium and 
club rooms, out-door play and gymnasium 
equipment, skating pond, athletic field, 24 
showers, 50 lockers 

Schedule: Hours 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily. 
Monday, Wednesda\- and l'"riday, women and 
girls, 2:00 p.m. to 9:30 P.M. Tuesday, Thurs- 
day and Saturday, men and boys 

Program: Team entered in Chicago Water Polo 
League. Free swimming lessons 

Attendance: Annual total, 1936 — 313,829 

Jan. 14,861 May 24,477 .Sept. 30,437 

Feb. 14,324 June 34,740 Oct. 32,306 

Mar. 20,490 July 43, .U7 ^'^v. 18,095 

Apr. 22,679 Aug. 45,060 Dec. 13,013 

LaFoliette Park Natatorium 

Location: West Hirsch Street and Laramie Ave- 
nue 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Dimensions: 3o'x6o' pool 

Schedule: Hours i :00 to 10:00 p.m. daih', ex- 
cept Sunday, throughout the year 



Attetidainr: Ai/nm// total, 1936 — 48,644 
Feb. 2,765 June 6,480 Oct. 1,905 

Mar. 3,315 July 10,650 Nov. 2,570 
Apr. 2,191 Aug. 11,958 Dec. 2,560 
May 4,250 Sept.* 

♦Under repair Sept. 1 In O.t. 19. 

Austin Town Hall Natatorium 

Locatio)/: West Lake Street and Central .A. venue 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Dimensions: 25'x6o' pool 

Schedule: Hours i :00 to I0:00 p.m. daily, ex- 
cept Sunday, throughout the year 
Attenda>ice: Ajiriiial total, 1936 — 25,689 



Feb. 


1,229 


May 


5,771 


Oct. 


3,477 


Mar. 


1,301 


June 


2,836 


Nov. 


2,769 


Apr. 


2,783 


Sept.* 


2,655 


Dec. 


2,868 



*Cloied July 6 to Sept. 9. 
Jackson Natatorium 

Locatioir. 3507 West Fillmore Street 

Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Established: 19 16 

Dimensions: 3o'x6o' pool (indoor j 

Equipment: Dressing rooms for men, women and 
children, 200 lockers, springboards, diving 
platform, gymnasium and club rooms, ping- 
pong tables and accessories. 

Schedule: Hours 2;00 to 9:00 p.m. daily; 9:30 
A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Saturday j closed Sunday. 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday for men anci 
boys; Monday, Wednesday and Friday for 
women and girls. 

Program: Swimming instructions. Team entered 
in Chicago Water Polo League. 

Attendance: Ai/nital total, 1936 — 179,853 

Jan. 6,747 May 9,727 Sept. 

Feb. 6,399 June 20,573 Oct. 



No\'. 
Dec. 



18,14s 

8,974 
6,127 

4,917 



Mar. 12,065 July 44,352 
Apr. 8,049 Aug. 33,775 
Griffith Natatorium 

Location: 104th Street and Harvard Avenue 

Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Established: 1916 

Dimensions: 3o'x6o' pool (indoor) 

Equipment: Dressing rooms for men, women and 
children, 200 lockers, springboards, di\'ing 
platform, gymnasium and club rooms. 

Schedule: Hours 2:oo p.m. to io;00 p.m. daily; 
Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., admission 
free. Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, men 
and boys; Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 
women and girls. Bathers furnish own towels 
and bathing suits. 

Program: Teams entered in Chicago Water Polo 
League; 2 baseball teams; 2 football teams; 2 



basketball, 2 indoor, volley ball and handball 

teams. 
Attendance: Annual total, 1936 — 169,415 

Jan. 4,520 May 10,860 Sept. 21,440 

Feb. 4,590 June 16,960 Oct. 18,650 

Mar. 8,580 July 27,360 Nov. 10,400 

Apr. 8,100 .'Vug. 30,325 Dec. 7,630 

Ridge Park Natatorium 

Location: 96th Street and Longwood Drive 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Dimensions: 36'x75' pool 

Schedule: Hours i ;00 to io:oo p.m. daily, ex- 
cept Sunday, throughout the year 
Attendance: Attnual total, 1936 — 81,148 
Jan. 2,353 May 7,931 Sept. 

Feb. 2,678 June 9,033 Oct. 
Mar. 4,296 July 20,976 Nov. 
Apr. 4,324 Aug. 19,052 Dec. 



3,350 
2,555 
2,364 
2,236 



Portage Park Natatorium 

Location: North Long Avenue and Ir\ing Park 
Boulevard 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Dimensions: 3o'x6o' pool 

Schedule: Hours i :00 to iO:00 p.m. daily, ex- 
cept Sunday, throughout the year 

Atteinlance: Annual total, 1936 — 20,599 

Jan. 1,461 Aug.* 5,736 Nov. 2,256 

Feb. 1,908 Sept. 4,309 Dec. i,794 

Mar. 1,243 Oct. 1,892 

*Closefl from March to August for remodeling. 

Board of Education Swimming Facilities 

The Board of Education of the City nf Chicago 
has a total of thirty-eight indoor swimming pools 
distributed in public school buildings throughout 
the city. Thirty-two of these are located in high 
schools, one at the Chicago Normal College and 
one at Wright Junior College; one in the Spald- 
ing School for Crippled Children, used pri- 
marily for therapeutic purposes; three are situated 
in elementary school buildings. 

The pools in the high schools are utilized in 
the regular physical educational program and in 
interscholastic swimming activities of the Board of 
Education. According to recent information, the 
swimming pools in the elementary schools are not 
being used. During the summer of 1937 the 
Board of Education as an experiment opened the 
swimming pools in nineteen schools for the use 
of school children during the \acation period. 
Prior to this the Board of Education had not per- 
mitted any community use of its pools because of 



the expense of supervision and maintenance, and 
also because it was believed that public use of the 
pools jeopardized the health of school pupils. The 
following schools contain swimming pools: 







Capacity 








Dimen- 


(it, 


Year 




School 


sions 


gal.) 


built 


Type 


Chicago Normal 








College 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1912 


Empty and fill weekly 


Wright Junior 










College 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1931 


Continuous recirculating 


Amundsen 


2-t'x60' 


55,000 


1930 


Continuous recirculating 


Austin (new 










building) 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1930 


Continuous recirculating 


Austin (old 










building) 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1915 


Continuous recirculating 


Calumet 


50'x75' 


125,000 


1926 


Continuous recirculating 


Crane 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1922 


Continuous recirculating 


Du Sable 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1934 


Continuous recirculating 


Englewood 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1917 


Continuous recirculating 


Farragut 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1926 


Continuous recirculating 


Fenger 


50'x7S' 


125,000 


1926 


Continuous recirculating 


Foreman 


24'x60' 


55.000 


1928 


Continuous recirculating 


Harper 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1930 


Continuous recirculating 


Harrison 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1912 


Empty and fill weekly 


Hirsch 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1926 


Continuous recirculating 


Hyde Park 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1911 


Empty and fill weekly 


Kelly 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1928 


Continuous recirculating 


Kelvyn Park 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1918 


Continuous recirculating 


Lake View 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1916 


Empty and fill weekly 


Lane Tech 


40'x7S' 


125,000 


1934 


Continuous recirculating 


Lindblom 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1919 


Empty and fill weekly 


Manley 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1928 


Continuous recirculating 


Marshall 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1930 


Continuous recirculating 


Morgan Park 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1914 


Continuous recirculating 


Parker 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1914 


Continuous recirculating 


Roosevelt 


50'x75' 


125,000 


1927 


Continuous recirculating 


Schurz 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1915 


Continuous recirculating 


Senn 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1912 


Continuous recirculating 


Steinmetz 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1934 


Continuous recirculating 


Sullivan 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1926 


Continuous recirculating 


Tilden 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1924 


Empty and fill weekly 


Tuley 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1918 


Empty and fill weekly 


Von Steutien 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1930 


Continuous recirculating 


Wells 


24'x60' 


55,000 


1935 


Continuous recirculating 


♦Carter 


24'x60' 


32,000 


1913 


Empty and fill weekly 


*Scanlan 


24'x60' 


32,000 


1914 


Empty and fill weekly 


♦Swift 


24'x60' 


32,000 


1914 


Empty and fill weekly 


**Spalding 2S'x43'x20' 








(L-sliaped) 


x8'x23' 


31,852 


1928 


Empty and fill weekly 



♦Elementary school ; **special school. 

Outdoor Swimming Pools 

.•Artificial outdoor pools for bathing and swim- 
ming are situated in sections of Chicago not near 
the lake. These pools, supplementing bathing 
facilities provided by Lake Michigan, enable those 
who reside in districts a great distance from the 
beaches to enjoy aquatic sports in their own neigh- 
borhoods. While the number served by such 
pools is necessarily limited by the size of the 
facilities, nevertheless outdoor pools supply a con- 
siderable portion of Chicago's public swimming 
opportunities. During 1936, 47 outdoor pools 
were open to residents of the city: 44 under con- 
trol of the Chicago Park District, and the remain- 



ing three operated by the Cook County Forest 
Preserves. This number has been recently in- 
creased through construction of several pools by 
the Park District. On May i, 1937, this agency 
had a total of 50 swimming pools at 37 locations. 
It is estimated that two million people used the 
Park District pools during 1936, and attendance 
at the various Forest Preserve pools was 204,283 
during the same period. 

Chicago Park District 

The outdoor swimming pools of the Chicago 
Park District are operated in the various parks 
throughout the city under the supervision of the 
Recreadon Division. Swimming instructors anci 
life guards are provided during the regular sum- 
mer season. In every instance the pools are op- 
erated in conjunction with other facilities for 
active recreation and bath house facilities. Locker 
rooms, while used during the summer months as 
accommodadons for swimming, are provided pri- 
marily for the year-round program of the field- 
house or gymnasium in which they are situated. 

The water systems of the swimming pools vary 
:iccording to the age of the indi\'idual pool, some 
purification systems requiring daily changes of 
water and others necessitating this procedure only 
twice weekly. 

The only scheduled program of the Park Dis- 
trict outdoor pools is the Learn-to-Swim Cam- 
paign during the months of July and August. All 
of the pools are open from 1:00 p.m. until I0:00 
P.M. daily; on Saturday and Sunday additional 
time is provided, as the pools open at I0:00 a.m. 
on these days. 

The Park District outdoor pools are distributed 
throughout the city as follows: 





A- 


umber 


'Number of 


Section 


of 


fools 


locations 


North side 




2 


2 


Northwest side 




10 


7 


West side 




15 


8 


Southwest side 




12 


10 


South side 




II 


10 



Total 



50 



37 



The following table indicates the locations of the 
\arious outdoor swimming pools of the Park Dis- 
trict and the number and dimensions of each pool: 



203 





C< 


■ym- 


Numbei 














//111 


iiily 


of 




Maximum 


Minimum 


.l/(;.n')/i/iHi 


Miiiinuivt 


Name 


middle ss Area 


pools 


Shape 


depth 


depth 


length 


width 


Ada Park 


113th Street and Ada Avenue 


75 


1 


Rectangular 


7'y' 


3'4;.4" 


74'9" 


44'10}^" 


.vrmour Square 


33d Street and Shields Avenue 


34 


1 


Rectangular 


8'o" 


3' 


88' 


50' 


Bessemer Park 


Syth Street and S. Chicago Avenue 


48 


1 


Rectangular 


9'0" 


2'0" 


14U' 


94' 


California Park 


3901 N. California Avenue 


10 


1 


Rectangular 


9'8" 


1'9" 


300' 


100' 


Columbus Park 


Harrison Street and Central Avenue 


25 


2 


Irregular 


'_)' 


8' 


70' 


60' 










Irregular 


4' 


3' 


155' 


95' 


Cornell Square 


51st and Wood Streets 


01 


1 


Rectangular 


9' 


2'0" 


76' 


60' 


Davis Square 


45tli Street and Marshfield Avenue 


01 


1 


Rectangular 


8'0" 


3' 


100' 


70' 


Douglas Park 


14th Street and Albany Avenue 


29 


2 


Rectangular 


7 '8" 


3'o" 


60' 


60' 










Rectangular 


8'4" 


3'11" 


120' 


56' 


Dvorak Park 


CuUerton Avenue and Fisk Street 


31 


1 


Rectangular 


8'(." 


3'6" 


150' 


50' 


Eckhart Park 


Chicago Avenue and Noble Street 


24 


1 


Irregular 


















North section 


9' 


8'4K'" 


00' 


42' 










South section 


4'3" 


3' I" 


120' 


80' 


Franklin Park 


14th Place and S. KoHn Avenue 


29 


2 


Curved 


4'0" 


2'6" 


190' 


IOC 










Irregular 


8'ii;j" 


8'6" 


65' 


72' 


Fuller Park 


45th Street and Princeton Avenue 


37 


1 


Rectangular 


8' 


8' 


isy 


ec 


Gage Park 


55th Street and Western Avenue 


o3 


1 


Rectangular 


10' 


3' 


150' 


50' 


Garfield Park 


lUO N. Central Avenue 


27 


2 


Rectangular 


5'5" 


2'0" 


100' 


6^ 








£ 


Rectangular 


9'5" 


8'9" 


oO' 


40' 


Grand Crossing 


7otli Street and Ingleside Avenue 


69 


1 


Rectangular 


8' 


2' 


130' 


60' 


Park 


















Hamlin Park 


Wellington and Hoyne Avenues 


5 


1 


Rectangular 


8' 


2'6" 


150' 


50' 


Harrison Park 


18th and Wood Streets 


31 


2 


Rectangular 


5' 


y 


137'6" 


75' 










Rectangular 


8'11" 


8' 


50' 


75' 


Holstein Park 


2200 North Oakley Avenue 


22 


2 


Irregular 


4' 


3' 


150'8" 


50' 










Oval 


y'3" 


8' 10" 


61' 


40' 


Humboldt Park 


Augusta lloulevard and N. Kedzie 


24 


2 


Rectangular 


4'6" 


3' 


100' 


50' 




Avenue 






Rectangular 


9' 1(1" 


9' 


A(r 


50' 


Kennedy Park 


113th Street and Western Avenue 


75 


2 


Rectangular 


















(men) 


9'8" 


4'1" 


75'1" 


40'1" 










Rectangular 


















( women ) 


7'9" 


V 


70' 1" 


40'6" 


Madden Park 


37th Street and Vernon Avenue 


35 


1 


Rectangular 


9'8" 


Vl" 


150' 


50' 


McKinley Park 


39th Street and Western Avenue 


58 


1 


Irregular 


8'8" 


8' 


320' 


SO'-ISO' 


Norwood Park 


5801 North Natoma Avenue 


10 


1 


Irregular 


7'6" 


I' 


290' 


157' 


Ogden Park 


C)5th Street and Racine Avenue 


67 


1 


Rectangular 


9' 


3'6" 


150' 


80' 


Palmer Park 


11 1th Street and Indiana Avenue 


49 


1 


Rectangular 


9' 


2'6" 


140' 


80' 


Pulaski Park 


Blackhawk and Noble Streets 


24 


' 


Rectangular 
Rectangular 


9'2" 
5'o" 


8'6" 
2'11" 


39' 
107' 


60' 
60' 


Riis Park 


Wrightwood and Meade Avenues 


19 


1 


T-shape 


9' 10" 
5'o" 


T 
3'6" 


50' 
100' 


83' 
50' 


Russell Square 


83d Street and South Shore Drive 


46 


1 


Rectangular 


9' 


3' 


86' 


45' 


Sheridan Park 


Polk and Aberdeen Streets 


28 


2 


Rectangular 


97" 


9'1" 


40' 


60' 










Rectangular 


4' 


i'i" 


120' 


60' 


Sherman Park 


53d Street and Racine Avenue 


61 


1 


Rectangular 


9' 


2'8" 


150' 


80' 


Stanford Park 


14th Place and Union Avenue 


28 


2 


Rectangular 
Rectangular 


8'0" 
3'6" 


8' 
3' 


63'6" 
95'5" 


ec 

60' 


Stanton Park 


Recs and Vine Streets 


8 


1 


Rectangular 


8' 


3'6" 


150' 


42' 


Tuley Park 


90tli Street and St. Lawrence 


44 


1 


I'tectangular 


9'3" 


3' 


150' 


SO' 


Trumbull Park 


103d Street and Bensley Avenue 


51 


1 


Rectangular 


S'o" 


2' 


130' 


60' 


Union Park 


Lake Street and Ashland Boulevard 


28 


1 


Irregular 


8'0" 


2'6" 


210' 


21'-70' 


Wa^liington Pk. 


57th Street and Cottage Gruve 


40 


3 


Competition** 


5'o" 


4' 


164' 


60' 




Avenue 






General 


5'8" 


2'0" 


230' 


60' 










Diving 


11 '8" 


4'4" 


42' 


60' 


^^ark White 


29th and Halsted Streets 


60 


1 


Rectangular 


8' 


2'3" 


108' 


65'S" 


Stjuare 


















*Portage Park 


Long Avenue and Irving Park 
Boulevard 


15 


1 













*Under construction. 
♦Standard Olympic pool. 



Cook County Forest Preserve District Facilities 

Three outdoor swimming pools are opei"ated by 
the Cook County Forest Preserve District. The 
swimming pools and beaches, together with the 
golf courses operated by the District, comprise the 
activities of its Recreation Department. The 
swimming pools are directed by a general super- 
visor of pools; and each pool is manned by life 
guards, attendants and ticket sellers. The oper- 



ating season includes the months of July and 
August, during which the pools are open daily 
from lOiOO a.m. until I0:00 p.m. 

Adults are charged a fee of twenty-five cents 
at all times. Children under the age of twelve 
years are charged ten cents until 6:00 p.m., after 
which they are subject to the twenty-five cent rate. 
On Monday, Wednesday and Friday children un- 
der the age of twelve are permitted to swim in 



204 



the pools from I0:00 a.m. until noon without an 
admission charge. 

The following is a detailed summary and de- 
scription of the individual pools and the attend- 
ance during 1936: 

Emmett Whealan 

Location: Milwaukee Avenue and Devon Avenue 
(Chicago) in Sauganash Reserve (Caldwell 
Reserve) 

Control: Cook County Forest Preserve District 

Plant and equipment: Outdoor swimming pool 
and complete equipment; shelter house, 
equipped with lockers and showers; comfort 
facilities; picnic grove adjoining swimming pool 

Staff: Pool attendants, 40 man months per year; 
life guards, 20 man months; ticket sellers, 5 
man months; laborers, class "D", 12 man 
months 

Operating schedule: Open daily during July and 
August from 10:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. 

Program: Adults charged twenty-five cents for 
the privilege of using the swimming pool, 
showers, locker and checking facilities. No 
rental suits provided; each participant required 
to bring his own suit. Children under 12 
charged ten cents until 6:00 p.m., after this 
hour twenty-five cents. Monday, Wednesday 
and Friday children under 12 allowed free 
from 10:00 A.M. until noon. 

Attendance, 1936: 

Monthly 
Annual Paid Free 



Paid 75,892 
Free 13,295 



July 41,888 6.657 

Au.sr. 34.004 6,638 



Total S0.18- 



Cermak Swimming Pool 

hocation: Harlem Avenue and Ogden A\enue, 
Riverside. Located in Calumet Portage Pre- 
serve 

Control: Cook County Forest Preserve District 

Plant and equipment: Outdoor swimming pool 
. I and complete equipment; shelter house, 
11 equipped with lockers and showers; comfort 
• ' facilities; picnic grove adjoining swimming pool 

Staff: Pool attendants, 40 man months per year; 
life guards, 20 man months; ticket sellers, 5 
man months; laborers, class "D", 12 man 
months 

Operat'mg schedule: (^pcn daily during July and 
August from I0:00 a.m. to I0:00 p.m. 

Program: Adults charged twenty-fi\'e cents for 
the privilege of using the swimming jiool, 
showers, locker and checking; facilities. No 



rental suits pro\'ided; each participant required 
to bring his own suit. Children under 12 
charged ten cents until 6:00 p.m., after this 
hour twenty-five cents. Monday, Wednesday 
:uid Friday children under 12 allowed free 
from 10:00 a.m. until noon. 

Attendance, 1936: 



Annual 



Monthly 
Paid Free 



Paid 46,888 
Free 12,111 



Tulv 31,001 8,954 
Aug:. 15,887 3,157 



Tdtal 58,999 



Green Lake Swimming Pool 

T.I nation: Torrence Avenue near Incdiana bound- 
ary line. Located in Shabbona Woods 

Control: Cook County Forest Preserve District 

Plant and equipment: Outdoor swimming pool 
and complete equipment; shelter house, 
equipped with lockers and showers; comfort 
facilities; picnic grove adjoining swimming pool 

Staff: Pool attendants, 40 man months; life 
guards, 15 man months; ticket sellers, 5 man 
months 

Operating schedule: Open daily during July and 
August from I0:00 a.m. to iO:00 p.m. 

Program: Adults charged twenty-five cents for 
the privilege of using the swimming pool, 
showers, locker and checking facilities. No 
rental suits provided; each participant required 
to bring his own suit. Children under 12 
charged ten cents until 6:00 p.m., after this 
hour twenty-five cents. Monday, Wednesday 
and Friday children under 12 allowed free 
from I0:00 a.m. until noon. 



Attendance, 1936: 



Annual 



Monthly 
Fatd Free 



Paid 50,708 July 33,594 3.529 
Free 5.389 Aug. 17,114 1,860 



Total 56.097 
Beaches 

Exclusi\e of street-end beaches, 23,740 feet of 
water front on Lake Michigan were used in 1936 
:is public bathing beaches. Because of the fact that 
street -end beaches are not limited to the street- 
end width, but extend over the entire block in most 
instances, the area co\-ered by these beaches can- 
not be accurately estimated. All beaches on Chi- 
cago's lake front are under the direction of either 
the Chicago Park District or the Bureau of Parks, 
Recreation and A\-iation. Two other beaches ac- 
cessible to Chicagoans are located on water front- 
age of the Cook County Forest Preserve District. 



205 



The official season for the regular beaches and 
street-end beaches is approximately two and one- 
half months from the middle of June until the 
early part of September. 

Chicago Park District 

During 1936 there were ten supervised beaches 
under the control of the Chicago Park District. 
These beaches are officially open during the 
months of July, August and the early part of Sep- 
tember from 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. daily, in- 
cluding Sunday. The facilities of the beaches are 
not standardized, some having bath house pro- 
visions, checking privileges, beach chairs, umbrel- 
las, picnic equipment including brick ovens, and 
several having playgrounds. The organized pro- 
gram for the Park District beaches is limited to 
two activities: a Learn-to-Swim Campaign con- 
ducted on all beaches, and a junior life guard ser- 
vice in which more than two thousand boys were 
given preliminary life guard training as assistants 
to senior life guards in 1936. 

Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

From June 15 through September 2 of each 
year the thirty beaches supervised by the Bureau 
of Parks, Recreation and Aviation are officialh' 
open from 7:00 a.m. until 9:30 p.m. daily, in- 
cluding Sundays. 

The three regular beaches, Rogers Park Beach, 
Rocky Ledge Beach and Rainbow Beach also have 
other recreation equipment. Lifeboats, rafts, div- 
ing platforms and piers are part of the standard 
equipment. These same beaches have dressing 
rooms and some provision for the checking of 
wearing apparel. Skating ponds in the winter sea- 
son are provided at two of the beaches. Only one, 
the Rogers Park Beach, has a building which pro- 
vides rooms suitable for club and organization 
meetings. 

The twenty-seven street-end beaches serve as 
neighborhood swimming centers and have no for- 
mal programs. These beaches are used by more 
people than the three regular beaches. 

A staff of eighty-four life guards is employed 
regularly during the summer by the Bureau. This 
number is supplemented at intervals by extra 
guards. 

Forest Preserves 

The beaches of the Cook County Forest Pre- 
serves are open daily during July and August 



from 10:00 a.m. until 10:00 p.m. Life guard 1 
service is provided. ' 

Deer Grove Bathing Beach is for the exclusive 1 
use of the Cook County Bureau of Public Wel- 
fare, which maintains Camp Reinberg. There are 
two beaches on Sauk Trail Creek; one is used ex- 
clusively by colored people. 

Details of All Beach Facilities 
Rogers Park Beach 

Location: I>ake Michigan, foot of Touhy Avenue 

Date established: 19 19 

Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avia- 
tion 

Area: 250 feet frontage 

Equipment: 500 lockers, lifeboats, rafts, diving 
platforms, piers, large and small gymnasiums, 
club and meeting rooms, outdoor play and 
gymnasium equipment, skating pond and ath- 
letic field. 

Schedule: June 15 to September 2. Open daily 
and Sunday from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. 

Program: Junior Life Guard Service 

Attendance: Annual total 781,216* 

Monthly, 1936: June 49,880 Aug. 228,300 
July 326,450 Sept. 30,587 

*Total includes playground attendance during swimming 
season. 

Lunt Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Lunt Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(Loyola Park) 
Cnntrnl: Chicago Park District' 
Birchwood Beach (Street-end) 
Location: Birchwood Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Rogers Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
Jarvis Avenue Beach (Street-end) 
Location: Jarvis Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Rogers Park) 
Cdjitrol: Bureau i if Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
Chase Avenue Beach (Street-end) 
L^ocation: Chase Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(Part Rogers Park Beach ) 
Co)itrol: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\'iation 
Touhy Avenue Beach (Street-end) 
I.ocatio)i: Touhy Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(Part Rogers Park Beach) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
Sherwin Avenue Beach (Street-end) 
Location: Sherwin Avenue ;ind Lake Michigan 

(North Rogers Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

'Operated in 19.i6 by Bureau ^f Parks, Recreation, and .^v!- 
.11 inn. Now included in the new Lovola Park. 



206 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 

IS37 

DISTRIBUTION OF 
SWIMMING POOLS 

CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 




'5 COMMUNITY MUMBERS 
— COMMUMITY BOUtOARIES 
SCALE • •= I MILE 

Chicogo Recreolion Survey - I937 



COMMUNITY AREAS 



CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
BEACHES 



O CHICAGO PARK DISTRK 
• BUREAU OF PARKS 




75 COMMUNITY NUMBERS 
— COMMUNITY BOUNOARES 
SCALE' .. I MILE 

Ch.coqo Recreotion Sufwfly - 1937 



Fargo Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Fargo Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Rogers Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Howard Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Howard Avenue and Lake Michigan 

f North R(jgers Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 
Rogers Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Rogers Avenue and Lake Michigan 
(North Rogers Park) 
. \ Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

I I Foster Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Foster Avenue and Lake Michigan 
Control : Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\'iation 

I Berwyn Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

! Location: Berwyn Avenue and Lake Michigan 
i Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avia- 
tion 
Ardmore Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Ardmore Avenue and Lake Michigan 

('South Edgewater) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Pratt Boulevard Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Pratt Boulevard and Lake Michigan 

(South Rogers Park) 
Control : Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

North Shore Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

^Location: North Sh(M-c Avenue and Lake Michi- 
gan ( South Rogers Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Morse Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Morse Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Shore Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Loyola Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Loyola A\-enue and Lake Michigan 

(South Rogers Park) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A^'iation 

Creenleaf Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Greenlcaf and Lake Michigan (Part 

Rogers Park Beach) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

' Farwell Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Farwell Avenue and Lake Michigan 
, (Part Rogers Park Beach ) 
• Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\'iation 

Estes Beach (Street-end) 

[Location: Estes Avenue and Lake Michigan (Part 

Rogers Park Beach I 
' "iitrol: Bureau of Parks, Recreation anti A\'iatii)n 



Devon Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Devon Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Edgewater) 
Control : Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Albion Beach (Street-end) 

L.ocation: Albion Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(South Rogers Park) 
('otitrol: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Hollywood Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Hollywood Avenue and Lake Michigan 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Bryn Mawr Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Bryn Mawr Avenue and I,ake Michi- 
gan (South Edgewater) 
(Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and A\'iation 

Thorndale Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Thorndale Avenue and Lake Michigan 
Control : Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Rosemont Avenue Beach (Street-end) 

L.ocation: Rosemont Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Edgewater) 
Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Granville Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Granville Avenue and Lake Michigan 

(North Edgewater) 
Control : Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Clenlake Beach (Street-end) 

Location: Glenlake A\'enue and Lake Michigan 

( North Edgewater) 
Control : Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Montrose-Wilson Beach 

Location: 4400-4600 North 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Area: 2,500 feet frontage 

Eqiiip})ie)it: Bath house, checking [irivileges, brick 

ovens 
Sc/iedide: July, August and early September from 

6:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M. 
Progra)u: Junior Life Guard Service; Learn-to- 

Swim Campaign 
A tt tendance: Annual total, 19.^5: 5,989,955; 

19,16: 2,821,976 

Monthly, 1936: July 1,295,162 
Aug. 1,480,309 
Sept. 46,505 

Diversey-Fullerton Beach 

Locatio)i: 2800 North 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Area: i,000 feet frontage 

Kquipntent: Checking privileges, brick o\ens, bath 
house at Fullerton Avenue 



207 



Attendance: Animal total, 1935: 1,337,434; 
1936: 724,430 

Monthly, 1936: July 365,600 

Aug. 350,000 
Sept. 8,830 

Oak Street Beach (including North Avenue and 
Ohio Street) 

Location: lOOO North 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Area: 5,000 feet frontage 

Equipment: Bath house facilities at North Avenue 
Attendance: Annual total, 1935: 1,605,315; 
1936: 2,979,904 

Monthly, 1936: July 1,483,106 
Aug. 1,388,868 
Sept. 107,930 

Twelfth Street Beach 

Location: 1200 South 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Established: 1936 

Area: 1,500 feet frontage 

Attendance: Annual total, 1936: 524,019 

7\/o;//'/;/);, /9J6: July 217,715 

Aug. 290,723 
Sept. 15,581 

Thirty-First Street Beach 

Location: 3100 South 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Established: 1936 
Area: 300 feet frontage 
Attendance: Annual total, 1936: 1,032,528 
Monthly, 1936: July 398,595 

'^ug- 595,445 

Sept. 38,488 

Fifty-Seventh Street Beach 

Lncatioti: 5700 South 
Control: Chicago Park District 
Area: i,6oo feet frontage 

Attendance: Annual toia], 1935: 879,423; 1936: 
195,345 

Monthly, 1936: July 60,809 

Aug. 131,581 

Sept. 2,955 

Forty-Ninth Street Beach 

Location: 4900 South 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Area: 800 feet frontage 

Plant and equipment: Checking and renting of 

umbrellas and beach chairs 
Stajf: Number of guards, 1936: 5 
Attendance: Annual total, 1935: 437,670; 1916: 

2,295,324 



210,050 

303,343 

28,655 



Monthly, 1936: July 913,955 

Aug. 1,290,094 
Sept. 91,275 

Jackson Beach 1 

Location: 63d Street Beach 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Area: 3,200 feet frontage 

Plant and equipment: Bath house facilities, check-i 

ing, renting of umbrellas and beach chairs, brickj 

ovens j 

Stajf: Number of guards, 1936: 18 j 

Attendance: Annual total, 1935: 2,016,473;! 

1936: 542,048 " I 

Monthly, 1936: July 
Aug. 
Sept. 

Sixty-Seventh Street Beach i 

Location: 6700 South ; 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Area: 2,400 feet frontage 

Staff: Number of guards, 1936: 3 

Attendance: Annual total, 1935: 407,099 

Rainbow Beach 

Location: 75th to 79th Streets 

Control: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Established: if^ll 

Area: 3,300 feet frontage 

Plant and equipment: Temporary buildings with 
dressing rooms for men, women and children, 
5,000 baskets, lifeboats, raft, diving platform, 
2 piers, outdoor play and gymnasium equip- 
ment, skating pond and field, rental suits and 
towels, three handball courts; shower bath; 
soft ball diamond. 1932 value $3,500,000 — 
land acquired in 1917 

Operating schedule: Open daily 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 
p.Nr., July I to September i 

Program: Life guard and police protection 7:00 
A. M.-9 :30P.M. 

Attendance: Annual total, 1935: 1,952,748* 

Monthly, 1936: June 124,336 

July 1,077,390 

Aug. 613,888 

Sept. 23,865 

*lncludes playground attemlance during swimming season.' 

Rocky Ledge Beach 

Location: 79th Street and Luke Michigan 

Co)itrol: Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

Date established: 1908 

Area: 890 feet frontage 

Plant and equipment: Dressing room for children, 
checking system, lifeboats, outdoor play and 
gymnasium equipment. 1Q32 value land and 
buildings, $25,000 



operating schedule: Open daily 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 

P.M., July I to September i 
Attendance: June 15 to September 1, 1935: 

457,061 



32,053 

274,985 

148,273 

1,750 



Monthly, 19S6: Tune 

July 

Aug. 
Sept. 
Calumet' Beach 

Location: loooo South 

Control: Chicago Park District 

Area: 1,000 feet frontage 

Plant and equipment: Bath house facilities, check- 
ing, renting of umbrellas and beach chairs, brick 
ovens 

Staff: Number of guards, 1936: 5 

Attendance: Annual total, 1935: 1,146,614; 
1936: 274,700 

'Monthly, 19 }b: August (8-31 I 249,450 
September 25,250 

Sauk Trail Creek (Outdoor swimming-bathing 
beach) 

Location: Sauk Trail Preserves 

Control: Cook County Forest Preserve District 

Staf: Life guards — 12, 5 man months per year 

Deer Crove Bathing Beach 

Location: Deer Gro\'c Forest Prescr\'e 

Control: Cook County Forest Preserve District 

Established: 1936 

Plant and equipment: Improved bathing beach at 
Deer Grove Lake for the use of the guests of 
the Cook County Bureau of Public Welfare 
Camp, at Camp Reinberg 

Staf: Life guards — 12 man months per year 

Lagoons 
Introduction 

In fourteen' of the larger parks in the Chicago 
Park District artificial bodies of water ha\-e been 
created which serve a twu-fold purpose. These 
lagoons, as the\' are called, provide an interesting 
variation in the scenery of those parks which, be- 
cause of their distance from the lake, arc in neigh- 
borhoods where the terrain is unmodified by an\- 
natural bodies of water. They therefore enhance 
the scenery and beautify the park areas in which 
they are located. These lagoons also offer a wide 
variety of recreational opportunities through all 
seasons of the year. Boating, fishing, ice skating, 
pageants and special e\'ents of the Recreation 
Division of the Chicago Park District are located 
on manv of these bodies of water. In addition to 



the artificial lagoons, three parks located adjacent 
to Lake Michigan provide protected water areas 
connected with the lake for similar use. The 
lagoons of the Chicago Park District occupy a 
total of 471.47 acres, approximately nine per cent 
of the 1936 total Park District acreage. 

Lagoons are located in the following parks: 







Per cent of 


Park 


Acreage 


acreage of park 


Burnham 


85.50 


14.30 


Columbus 


10.90 


7.56 


Douglas 


15.28 


8.40 


Garfield 


17.21 


9.18 


Humboldt 


10.60 


5.12 


Jackson 


103.10 


18.99 


Jefferson 


•71 


1. 01 


Lincoln 


128.35 


12.72 


McKinley 


8.00 


10.68 


Marquette 


43.76 


^i-s(^ 


Ogden 


11.49 


18.98 


Riis 


1.40 


.25 


Sherman 


10.30 


17.00 


Washington 


24.87 


6.70 



Total 



471-47 



'Less e.xteiisivc bodies of water are also located in sevcr.1l 
'1 the smaller parks of the Chicago Park District. 



Program 

In Lincoln, Humboldt, Garfield, Douglas, 
C(jlunabus and Jackson Parks the lagoons are used 
for rowboating. At the Jackson Park lagoon elec- 
tric boats are available in addition to the standard 
rowboats. In Washington Park lagoon boats are 
used only from September 15 to October 15. 

The lagoons in the above-mentioned parks are 
stocked with fish every year, and an open fishing 
season is declared from September 1 5 through 
October 15. During this period the lagoijns are 
used most extensi\'ely. 

Several annual e\ents sponsored by the Chicago 
Park District are held in the lagoons each season. 
Outstanding was the annua! Carni\al of the 
Lakes, which was city- wide and was held on the 
Burnham Park lagoon. In 1935 it was held for 
se\en nights, and it is estimated that 40,000 
people each evening were attracted to the park for 
the water pageant. All parks under the District's 
control were represented by floats prepared by 
each of the six sections in the Park District. Sea 
Scouts, canoe clubs and swimming groups par- 
ticipated in the affair. 

\'enetian Night is a prominent e\ent cm the 
Garfield Park hi<:nuii. This event, held on August 



209 



14, in 1936 brought more than 1,200 people into 
participation; and it is estimated that a throng of 
150,000 lined the banks of the lagoon. The pro- 
gram consisted of water sports, dancing performed 
on water stages, and a parade of floats. A Vene- 
tian Night program was inaugurated also at Hum- 
bolt Park in 1936. 

No record is kept of the thousands who use the 
lagoons for ice-skating. When weather permits, 
many groups form skating parties to be held on 
the park lagoons. 
Boating 

Three hundred and fifty-two boats are available 
in the seven park lagoons. The boating feature is 
leased by the Chicago Park District as a conces- 
sion to a private organization. The number of 
boats available in the several lagoons varies con- 
siderably. 

Number of 
Lagoon rowboats 



Columbus Park 
Douglas Park 
Garti'eld Park 
Humboldt Park 
Jackson Park 
Lincoln Park 
Washington Park 



21 

50 

70 

40* 

75 

35 



*Also 26 electric boats. 

People using the rowboats must pay at the fol- 
lowing rates: 
Number of 

passengers Rate -per hour 

1 $0.25 

2 0.25 

3 0.30 

4 0.30 

The rates on electric boats which are found in 

Jackson Park are: 

Number of Rate per 

passengers half-hour 



$0.50 
0.50 
0.75 

0.75 
1. 00 



A one dollar deposit after 6:00 p.m. is re- 
quired at all parks. The rates in Jackson Park are: 
fifty cents during the day-time, and one dollar 
after 6:00 p.m. A one dollar deposit is required 
at all times on electric boats. For boats in Wash- 
ington Park (September 15 to October 15) the 



rate is three hours for sixty cents; and rentals may , 

be made for the entire day. ' 

The Accounting Division of the Chicago Park \ 

District reported for the year ending December - 

31, 1936, an income of $4,158.23 from the row- i 

boat concession and an expenditure of $2,948.06, 1 
leaving a profit of $1,210.17. 

Harbors 

l^'or several years in the recent past there has ■ 
been an increasingly active interest manifested in 
boating, particularly in the small boat class, as a 
recreational pursuit throughout the country in j 
communities bordering on large bodies of water. 
Chicago is admirably located for this type of ac- ! 
tivity, as Lake Michigan forms the eastern bound- 
ary of the city. Whereas formerly yachting and '< 
small boat racing, as well as strictly pleasure 1 
watercraft, were regarded as avocations exclu- [ 
sively for the wealthy, in recent years the number ' 
partaking in various boating activities in the Chi- 
cago area has been extended so that it now in- 
cludes individuals in virtually every income ; 
bracket. I 

In 1936 a total of 917 boats, varying in length 
up to 150 feet, were moored or anchored in the 
eight public harbors distributed along Chicago's j 
shore line. Six of these harbors are controlled by ; 
the Chicago Park District; two are under the ' 
jurisdiction of the Chicago Division of the United i 
States Coast Guard. \ 

In addition to the harbors located within the 1 
borders of the city, Wilmette Harbor, situated at 
the Sheridan Road Bridge over the Drainage , 
Canal in Wilmette, moors approximately 170 
boats including one of the largest star class sailing 
fleets in the world. No funds are provided by the ' 
Sanitary District for the dredging of this harbor, 
which is approximately five acres in area, the cost 
until recently being met by members of the Sheri- 
dan Shore Yacht Club, which has a club house on 
the harbor. During the summer of 1937 the State 
made an appropriation for the dredging of this 
harbor. The Federal Board of Engineers for 
Rivers and Harbors in March, 1936, approved a ' 
project to enlarge the harbor to thirty acres; the : 
War Department, however, rejected the project 
in 1937. 

The Chicago Plan Commission, the Lake 
Michigan Yachting Association and other inter- 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
LAGOONS 

AND 
HARBORS 




• 5 COMMUNITY NUMBERS 
— COMMUNITY BOUNDARIES 
SCALE' .= I MILE 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 

1*37 

DISTRIBUTION OF 
NATATORIUMS 

., O CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 
A BUREAU OF PARKS 




• 5 commumitt numbers 

— i.nwMUNiIY BOUNDARIES 
SCALE- . I MILE 



ested groups were active during 1937 in efforts 
to secure appropriations from Congress to provide 
more adequate facilities in the Chicago Harbor, 
particularly in the area north of Navy Pier which, 
though designated as a harbor, is at present un- 
suited for small craft anchorage because of the 
lack of an adequate breakwater. It is hoped by the 
interested groups that an appropriation will be 
made by Congress in 1938 for this purpose. 

Park District Harbors 

Of the six harbors of the Chicago Park District, 
namely Belmont, Diversey, Montrose, Jackson 
Park (two) and 59th Street, the first three are 
located on the north sidej the others are situated 
along the shore on the south side of the city. 

Administration: Supervision of the harbors is 
under the Marine Section of the Special Service 
Division of the Chicago Park District. 

Stajf: The operating staff consists of a harbor 
captain and six harbor attendants, one in charge 
of each harbor. 

Finances: To use the Park District Harbors 
permits must be secured by boat owners from the 
District. The rate charged for a permit is based 
upon the size of the craft. For vessels up to fifty 
feet a charge of seventy-five cents per foot is 
made; for all boats over fifty feet, the rate is one 
dollar per foot. The payment of the rental fee 
entitles the owner to the use of the harbor for the 
entire season. During 1936 the total fees col- 
lected for moorings, stalls and anchorages 
amounted to $18,501.45. The revenue was di- 
vided as follows: 

Harbor Revenue 

Belmont $ 8,038.00 

Diversey 1,239.00 

59th Street 1,308.21 

Jackson Park 4»953-38 

Montrose 2,069.51 

Total 1 7,608. 10 

Miscellaneous docking 

facilities 893.35 

Total $18,501.45 

The cost of operation reported by the Accounting 
Division is $39,505.90, showing a net loss of 
$21,004.45. 

Facilities and Uses: The facilities of these har- 
bors are in very active demand. Indeed, demand 



seems almost to overtop supply. Montrose Har- 
bor has space for 109 moorings; Belmont Harbor 
has space for 129 moorings and 75 stalls; Diver- 
sey Harbor for 48 stalls and 13 moorings; Fifty- 
ninth Street Harbor 95 stalls and space for ac- 
commodation of 50 additional boats; and Jackson 
Park Inner and Outer Harbors space for 229 
moorings. During the 1936 season 722 boats 
(power, sail, and type unknown) made use of 
these harbors. Park District Harbors open official- 
ly on May i and close on October i of each year. 
The following table shows the number, size and 
type of boats at the indi\-idual harbors: 

Montrose Harbor 





Pozcer 




Sail 


Type 


Size in feet 


boats 




boats 


unknozcn 


0-19.99 


22 




16 


I 


20-29.99 


15 




19 




30-39.99 


13 




8 




40-49.99 


I 




5 


I 


50 and over 


I 




I 




Total number 


5^ 




59 


2 




Belmont 


Harbor 




0-19.99 


7 




10 




20-29.99 


19 




42 


I 


30-39-99 


40 




29 


2 


40-49.99 


22 




13 


I 


50 and o\-er 


-3 




8 


2 


Total number 


1 1 1 




102 


6 




Diversey 


H; 


irbor 




0-19.99 


14 








20-29.99 


31 






I 


30-39.99 


15 








40-49.99 


4 






I 



Total number 64 

Fifty-ninth Street Harbor 



0-19.99 
20-29.99 



6S 
31 



Total number 99 

Jackson Park 1 Inner' Harbor 



0-19.99 
20-29.99 
30-39.99 
40-49.99 
50 and over 

Total number 



3 
29 

39 
I 
I 

73 



Jackson Park (Outer) Harbor 





Poii-t'i- 


.SV//7 


Type 


Size in feet 


boats 


boats 


uiiktiozvn 


0-19.99 


2 


38 


3 


20-29.99 


13 


26 


2 


30-39-99 


16 


14 




40-49-99 


16 


9 


I 


50 and over 


7 


3 




Total number 


54 


90 


6 



Total Number of Boats in All Chicago Park District 
Harbors— 1936 

0-19.99 116 74 5 

20-29.99 138 87 5 

30-39.99 123 51 2 

40-49.99 44 27 4 

50 and over 32 I2 2 

Total number 453 251 18 

The area, mooring facilities, staff and regula- 
tions of the Park District Harbors are as follows: 

Montrose Harbor 

Location: 4400 North and the Lake 
Dimensions: 30 acres water surface, average depth 

19 feet 
Plant and eqmpnieiit: 109 moorings 
Area: 2,750 feet, average mooring space 25.3 feet 

per vessel 
Recital: 75 cents per foot up to '^o' \ over 50', 

$1.00 per foot 
Staff: I harbor attendant 

Belmont Harbor 

Location: 3200 North and the Lake 
Dimensions: S3 acres water surface, average depth 

22 feet 
Plant and equipment: 129 moorings, 75 stalls 
Area: 7,529 total feet, average mooring space 36.9 

feet per vessel 
Rental: 75 cents per foot up to 50'; over 50', 

$1.00 per foot 
Staff: I harbor attendant 

Diversey Harbor 

Location: 2800 North and the Lake 

Plant and equipment: 13 moorings, 48 stalls 

Area: 1,616 feet, average mooring space 26.5 feet 

per vessel 
Rental: 75 cents per foot up to 50'; over 50', 

$1.00 per foot 
Staf: I harbor attendant ' ". ■ 

Fifty-ninth Street Harbor 

Lncdtio)!: 5900 South and the Lake 
Plant and equipment: 95 stalls; no moorings pro- 
vided, as this harbor is restricted to motor boats 
Area: 1,772 feet, average space 18.7 feet per 



boat; space for the accommodation of 50 addi- 
tional boats 

Rental: 75 cents per foot; no outboard motor 
boats under 14 feet or over 26 feet in length, 
with a capacity of less than 3 persons admitted 
to this harbor 

^taff: I harbor attendant 

Jackson Park Inner Harbor 

Location: 6300 South and the Lake 

Plant and equipment: 70 moorings, no stalls 

Area: 2,055 f^^t, average mooring space 29.3 feet 
per vessel 

Rental: 75 cents per foot up to 50'; over 50', 
$ 1 .00 per foot 

Staff: 1 harbor attendant 

Jackson Park Outer Harbor 

Location: 6500 South and the Lake 

Plant and equipment: 159 moorings, no stalls 

Area: 4,539 feet, average mooring space 28.6 feet 

per vessel 
Rental: 75 cents per foot up to 50'; over 50', 

$1.00 per foot; permits not issued for boats 

under 15 feet or over 65 feet; no outboard 

motor boats allowed to anchor 
Staff: I harbor attendant 

Chicago Harbor Small Craft Anchorage 

Located between Grant Park and the easterly 
breakwater on which is situated the United States 
Coast Guard Station, two harbors with moorings 
for small craft extend from Randolph Street to 
Roosevelt Road. Li these harbors during the 1936 
season 197 yachts in the following length divisions 
were moored: 

Feet Class Moorings 



Under 20 (a) 


39 


20-27 (b) 


42 


28-34 (c) 


26 


35-49 (d) 


50 


50-64 (e) 


15 


65-74 (f) 


3 


■ 75-89 (g) 


3 


90-99 (h) 


12 


100-150 (l) 


5 


Over 150 (j) 


2 



Total 



197 



In addition to these two anchorages, another area 
for small craft is provided in Chicago Harbor 
north of Navy Pier and east of the easterly 
breakwater extended. This area of 3,451,000 
si]uare feet, being less protected, had compara- 



iiZ 



tively Jittle use during i()}6. Several large yachts 
were anchored, although no mooring facilities 
were provided. 

Control: The use of the Grant Park Harbor is 
under the control of the United States Coast 
Guard, Chicago Division. The harbor anchorage 
areas are designated by the United States War 
Department under the War Department regula- 
tions relating to the anchorage grounds in the har- 
bor at Chicago, Illinois. 

Usage : There are no fees for mooring yachts 
in the Grant Park Harbor. However, each moor- 
ing is lettered and numbered and each yacht given 
a mooring space. A check is made by the Coast 
Guard Patrol that each yacht conforms to harbor 
regulations. 

Boat Clubs 

All of the boats using the harbors are the private 
property of individuals or of groups of persons. 
In most instances the owners are members of one 
of the yachting or motor boat clubs. The follow- 
ing clubs have headquarters in or adjacent to Park 
District harbors or are located in Grant Park Har- 
bor, which is off the shore of Park District prop- 
erty. 



Club 



Harbor 



Montrose 



Cliicago Corinthian Yacht Cliih 

(Anchorage) 
Cliicago Motor Yacht Club 

(Club Ship) Belmont 

Chicago Yacht Chib (Club House) Belmont 

(Club Station) Foot of Monroe Street 

Columl)ia Yacht Club (Club Ship) Foot of Randolph Street 
Jackson Park Motor Boat Club 59th Street Harbor 

Jackson Park Yacht Club 

(Club House) Jackson Park Harbor 

South Shore Power Boat Club Inner Harbor Jackson Pk. 



In addition to the boating by individual owners 
throughout the season, a number of weekly and 
annual events, consisting principally of races, are 
held. Among the annual events of the Yachting 

j Association are the Star Class Invitation Races 
held at Jackson Park under the auspices of the 
Jackson Park Yacht Club; Annual Michigan City 
Race, all classes, starting from \'an Buren Street 

! Gap, under the auspices of the Columbia Yacht 
Club; the Belmont Harbor to Milwaukee Race 
for the Clinch and Dreadnaught Trophies, spon- 
sored by the Chicago Yacht Club; Annual Macki- 
nac Race, starting from Belmont Harbor, under 

i the auspices of the Chicago Yacht Club; Chicago 

. Daily News Regatta, all classes, off Navy Pier, 
auspices Take Michigan Yachting Association; 



Triangular Race, St. Juscjih tcj Chicago, under the 
auspices of the Columbia Yacht Club; Luts Tro- 
phy Series, Q-class, off Jackson Park Yacht Club; 
the Autumn Regatta off Navy Pier, auspices of 
the Chicago Yacht Club. 

The Power 'iacht .Squadron arranges a pro- 
gram of races each season. Their affairs include 
the annual Illinois Waterway Cruise to Ottawa 
and Starved Rock; Annual .Michigan City Race, 
all classes, sponsored by the Columbia Yacht 
Club, and the Evinrude Troph\- Race to Milwau- 
kee. 

Sea Scout ships are kept in each of the six har- 
bors. Youths who are too old for Boy Scouts, and 
who are interested in nomenclature and the lore 
of the Navy, may be enrolled in this organization. 
The majority of the boys ha\-e been members of 
the Bo\' Sccjuts of America. 

Lincoln Park Canoe Club 

This club has an approximate membership of 
"^OO with an acti\'e membership of 150. The group 
owns about 1 75 canoes. The season extends 
throughout the year. Meetings are held the first 
Monday of each month in Lincoln Park Field- 
house. The program features canoe races and 
shell races which are held in the Lincoln Park 
Lagoon. 

Junior Yacht Clubs 

The Chicago Park District, in co-operation 
with the Lake Michigan Yachting .Association, 
sponsored the organization and development of 
Junior Yacht Clubs in many of the park field- 
houses. For the past several years the Lake Michi- 
gan Yachting Association has been interested in 
junior yachting, and in 19.^6 held a junior regatta 
off Belmont Harbor in which twehe mcmlter 
clubs of the Association participated. 

.Vs a result of the success of this experiment, 
junior clubs were launched by the Crafts Depart- 
ment and the Golf and Beach Sections of the Park 
District. The purpose of the Junior Yacht Clubs 
is to teach b\- instruction and example good sea- 
manship and sportsmanship, as well as the funda- 
mentals of \acht building. .Members of the clubs 
build their own craft; and during the season \'ari- 
ous clubs compete in races. Boys between the ages 
of 14 and 17 are eligilile for membership in the 
clubs, which are org:uiized along the same lines 
as senior \acht clubs, ha\ing their own officials, 



;i ^ 



a commodore, vice-commodore, secretary and 
treasurer. 

The controlling body of the Junior Clubs is 
known as the Chicago Park District Rainbow 
Fleet. The officially designated type of boat used 
by these clubs is a ten-foot Rhodes dinghy, the 
material for the building of these dinghies being 
furnished by the Lake Michigan Yachting Asso- 
ciation, while the organization, maintenance and 
technical instructions for building the dinghies, as 
well as headquarters for the craft, are provided by 
the Chicago Park District. 

Each member of these clubs is furnished with 
a glossary of sea terms, and a list of books avail- 
able at public libraries on boating and boat in- 
struction. After training, each boy is put through 
an examination, which includes all phases of 
yachting, water sports, swimming and lifesaving. 
This is followed by a final examination to deter- 
mine knowledge of sea terms including racing 
rules, sailing and boat handling. Upon successful 
completion of this examination the boy is given a 
membership card, which is a "Junior Skipper's" 
certificate, in the Park District Junior Yacht Club. 

This group of clubs is called the Rainbow Fleet 
because each of the club boats has varicolored 
sails, with no two sails made up of the same color 
combinations. This makes identification easy when 
the boats are in the water, and also gives the effect 
of a rainbow. 

Eleven of the Rainbow Fleet of the Junior 
Yacht Clubs are directly connected with the Chi- 
cago Park District, each having an average mem- 
bership of thirty. The Lane Technical High 
School Junior Yacht Club, consisting of fifty 
members, also uses park district facilities. 

Clubs are now organized at: 

Portage Park, Irving Park Boulevard and 

Long Avenue 
Jefferson Park, Higgins and Long Avenues 
Riis Park, Wrightwood and Meade Avenues 
Garfield Park, Central Park Avenue and 

Washington Boulevard 
Dvorak Park, 2ist Street and Cullerton Ave- 
nue 
Sherman Park, fjci Street and Racine Avenue 
Waveland Park Fieldhouse in Lincoln Park 
Green Briar Park, 2650 Peterson Avenue 
Ridge Park, 96th Street and Longwood Drive 
Tuley Park, 90th Street and St. Lawrence Ave- 
nue 



Eckhart Park, Chicago Avenue and Noble ! 

Street j 

Lane Technical High School, 2501 West Addi- j 

son Avenue I 

Model Yacht Basin 

The only model yacht basin in Chicago, under 
the control of the Chicago Park District, is located 
in the east end of Washington Park at 51st Street 
and Leif Erickson Drive. The basin is oval in 
design 5 its diameter measures 460 feet, with 323 
feet as its greatest width. The depth varies from ' 
a minimum of eighteen inches to a maximum ] 
depth of two feet, nine inches. Benches surround 
the basin, and sections which accommodate ap- 
proximately 150 cars are reserved for parking 
automobiles. Officials of the clubs using the basin 
claim that both the seating capacity and the park- I 
ing space are inadequate, and point out that ac- j 
commodations should be provided for some five | 
thousand spectators and sufficient space allotted 
around the basin to accommodate at least five hun- 
dred automobiles. 

The Chicago Model Yacht Club and the Ogden 
Park Model Yacht Club are the primary users of 
the basin. Races are held every Sunday from 8:30 
A.M. to 5.00 P.M. from the latter part of March 
until the middle of November. The Mid- West '. 
races are held here and attract model yacht en- \ 
thusiasts from other cities. In addition, national 
model yacht events are frequently conducted. 
Entrants in the Mid- West competitions are < 
selected on the basis of points scored by individual 
members of the clubs in a series of three elimina- 
tion races. The successful participants are auto- 
matically entered in the Mid- West trials, and the 
winners of these races become participants in the 
national events. 

Throughout the season a number of trophy and 
cup races are participated in by club members. 
Some of these are open to both clubs, others are 
limited to one of the clubs, while still others are 
open to all clubs including those outside of the 
City of Chicago. 

The outstanding event of the year is the Com- 
modore Sheldon Clark Trophy Race held annual- 
ly in the early part of September. The winner of 
this trophy is sent to England to participate in the 
International Model Yacht Club Races. 

The two clubs have a total membership of fifty, 



214 




Population Series - Map 8 



the Ogden Park Club having twenty-two mem- each month. Club officials maintain that if proper 

bers and the Chicago Model Yacht Club having facilities were made available several hundred 

twenty-eight. The members, who range in age men from all walks of life in the Chicago area, 

from sixteen to seventy years, meet in the Ogden owning one or more boats, would be interested in 

Park Fieldhouse on the first and third Friday of entering races. 



215 



CHAPTER XII 



THE CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY 



General 

"The public library is maintained by a demo- 
cratic society in order that every man, woman, 
and child may ha\e the means of self-education 
and recreational reading. The library provides 
materials for education and advice in their use. It 
diffuses information and ideas necessary to the 
present welfare and future advancement of a com- 
munity. It strengthens and extends appreciation 
of the cultural and spiritual values of life. It 
offers opportunities for constructive use of the 
new leisure. It serves all ages and all classes." 
The relationship of the public library to increased 
leisure was recently expressed by Mrs. Eleanor 
Roosevelt in this manner: "We are facing a great 
change in civilization, and the responsibility, I 
think, for what we do with our leisure time is a 
very great responsibility for all of us who have 
intellectual interests. Somebody said to me, 'I 
would not be so worried and I would not mind 
facing the fact that we are working fewer hours, 
if I only knew what people would do with their 
free time. I would not know what to do myself 
if I had only to work six hours a day.' That is a 
challenge. We, here in this country, ought to 
know what to do with our time, if we have it. I 
do not know whether we are going to have it, but 
if we are going to have more leisure time, it is the 
library, and people who live in the libraries and 
work in libraries, who are going to lead the way, 
who are going to give other people the curiosity 
and the vision of useful things, and pleasant 
things, and amusing things, which can be done in 
those hours in which we may not have to work in 
the ways in which we have worked before. It is 
a very great responsibility, but it is also a very 
great interest."' 



Library Associalion, November, 



'Bulletin of the Atr 
1933. 

-What Libraries Mean to the Nation, address given April 1, 
1936, District of Columbia Library Association Dinner, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



The American Library Association in October, 
1933, in a discussion of requisites for a "reason- 
ably adequate library service" indicated that a 
community should provide a main library with 
reading room facilities, lending, reference, and 
periodical collections, as well as special provisions 
for children. A sufficient number of professionally 
trained personnel to operate the library was em- 
phasized as of great importance. The area of the 
city and the distribution of its population are fac- 
tors to be considered in determining the number 
and type of branches and other distributing 
agencies of a library system. It was suggested that 
absolute criteria in determining the adequacy of 
library service could not be formulated in view 
of the fact that the variable elements of area, 
population, racial and reading traits, as well as 
other factors peculiar to the individual community 
make it difficult to use common denominators for 
evaluation purposes. However, certain measuring 
sticks, which past experience had indicated could 
be accepted as minimum standards, were set up 
for general comparisons. In cities over two hun- 
dred thousand population it was agreed that the 
library should provide at least one and one-half 
books per capita, and for those cities of over one 
million inhabitants a minimum of twenty-five per 
cent of the population should be registered as bor- 
rowers, with the library lending the equivalent of 
five books per capita annually. A tentative mini- 
mum of financial support for reasonably adequate 
library service was set at one dollar per capitaj 
but, it was pointed out, the size of the community 
and the extent of the library's services must be 
taken into consideration in determining its finan- 
cial requirements. The one dollar per capita 
standard, while subject to criticism, had worked 
with reasonable success for more than ten years. 
Generally, the Library Association determined 
that a large library system should spend more 
than fift\--five per cent of its total income for 



216 



salaries of the professional staff, and twenty-tivc 
per cent for books, periodicals, and binding. The 
remainder should be available for building main- 
tenance and other phases of the library's budget. 
During the past seven years with tax levies be- 
ing reduced continually, librarians have found it 
necessary to curtail the operation of their 
agencies j in many instances retrenchment has re- 
sulted in economies and reduction in unit costs. 
In general, library circulation during the early 
years of the depression was on a downward trend ; 
but the addition of new volumes, together with 
the resumption of suspended activities, has been 
reflected in an upturn in library use within the 
past several years. In 1926, according to the 
American Library Association, there were 6,524 
free public libraries in the United States, housing 
68,653,275 volumes, with a total circulation of 
237,888,282. In 1935 the number of volumes 
had increased to 100,470,215 and the circulation 
to 449,998,845. In 1925 the total library income 
in the United States was approximately $35,000,- 
000 ; in 1935 the income, $45,000,000. Thirty- 
seven cents per capita represented the expenditure 
by Americans for public libraries in 1935. The 
number of books read approximated 3.67 per per- 
son, and the total valuation of these books, had 
they been bought by the reader, would have been 
$7.00. A study of library service made in 1935 
revealed that 36.7 per cent of the population of 
the United States was still without library serv- 
ice. However, only six communities with more 
than 25,000 population did not make library pro- 
visions for their residents. In Illinois in 1935 
there were 274 public libraries with an income 
"f $3>75i>468, or $.49 per capita, for its 7,630,- 
654 residents. There were .84 volumes per per- 
son, and the circulation for the State was 4.12 per 
capita. The study also revealed that 25 per cent 
of the population of Illinois was without adequate 
library service, ten counties having no public 
library facilities of any kind. However, only 86,- 
944 urban residents had no library opportunities, 
the 1,855,270 rural people making up the bulk 
of the 25 per cent of the State's population who 
were not being provided with library service. 

Chicago Public Library 

Library facilities for residents of the City of 
Chicago are provided by the Chicago Public Li- 
brarv founded bv ordinance of the Citv Council in 



1872 in accordance with legislation of the State 
of Illinois of that same year. On January i, 1937, 
library service was being provided by the Main 
Library, located at North Michigan Avenue be- 
tween Washington Street and Randolph Street, 
and by 44 branch libraries, 1 1 sub-branches, and 
138 deposit staUons. In addition, 350 public, pri- 
vate and parochial schools had either a branch unit 
for the entire school or classroom library units 
consisting of 50 to lOO books each; two junior 
colleges of the Board of Education likewise were 
served by the Chicago Public Library. 

Control 

A board of directors of nine members appointed 
by the Mayor, three annually for terms of three 
\ears, is vested with the power to operate, main- 
tam, and govern the Chicago Public Library. {See 
chapter v.) 

Financial 

The Chicago Public Library derives its major 
financial support by means of two special library 
tax levies. During 1935, 1936 and 1937 the 
maintenance and operation levy was pegged at 
$1,800,000.00 with the provision that in 1938 the 
rate would revert to three-quarters of one mill 
on each dollar of assessed valuation within the 
City of Chicago. During 1937 the 6oth General 
Assembly of the State Legislature amended the 
Public Library Act so that during 1938 and there- 
after the tax for lihrar)- purposes will produce a 
pegged lc\\- of two million dollars. The library 
is permitted an additional tax of one-tenth of a 
mill on each dollar of assessed valuation for a 
building fund. This tax was inoperative during 
1935, but was in effect in 1936. The library also 
has trust funds of approximately $293,500.00 and 
several minor sources of re\'enuc. (For detailed 
discussion of library finances see chapter iv.) 

Personnel 

During 1936 a total of 923 employees com- 
prised the staff of the Public Library. Of this 
total 78 were engineers, janitors and other main- 
tenance employees; 72 were high school libra- 
rians, whose salaries were paid by the Board of 
Education; and of the remainder 76 were part- 
time employees a\'eraging 20 hours per week; 
369 were untrained, clerical or in the sub-profes- 
sional grades, and 328 constituted the trained pro- 
fessional staff. (See chapter v.) 



217 



The Library Plan 

111 1916 the Board of the Chicago Public Li- 
brary, after a thorough analysis of library service 
within the city, particularly regarding the distri- 
bution of its facilities in relationship to the popu- 
lation, established a reorganization program. This 
program had the following objectives: 

1. To provide library service to 700,000 per- 
sons who by reason of the distance had no library 
service or at most were being serviced ineffective- 

ly. 

2. To reduce maximum travel required to con- 
sult special reference material from 32 miles to 
an average of less than one mile. 

3. To reduce the distance of delivery routes to 
branches from 32 miles to six miles and to pro- 
vide more intensive service with the shorter 
routes. 

4. To place library service within walking dis- 
tance of the home of every person in Chicago who 
wants books, and to eliminate the necessity of one- 
half the population traveling an average of ten 
miles by street car for library service. 

The plan proposed the following: 

1. Five Regional Branches, situated as follows: 

A. Ravenswood 

B. Garfield Park 

C. Loop 

D. Englewood 

E. South Chicago 

2. Seventy Auxiliary or Local Branches, equal- 
ly distributed where most needed, and where 
largest groups of population live. 

3. Sixty Deposit Stations, in more sparsely 
settled sections, or as many more as inay be neces- 
sary to supply places not otherwise served. 

4. One hundred Industrial and Commercial 
Branches, or as many more as business concerns 
are willing to equip and maintain. 

5. Twenty-two High School Branches, if suit- 
able quarters are provided by the school authori- 
ties. 

6. Three thousand Class Room Libraries, or 
as many as may be needed (traveling collections 
of 50 volumes each, supervised by teachers and 
exchanged twice a year). 

7. One hundred Special Deposits (or more, if 
needed) supplied to Y.M.C.A. houses, Eleanor 
Clubs, Organizations of Foreign Groups, 
Women's Clubs, Institutions, Special Groups such 
as Telegraph Messengers, Postal Clerks, etc., etc. 
These deposits are traveling collections of 50 to 
100 volumes, exchanged monthly, bi-monthly or 
quarterly. 



It was planned that each regional branch 
should have: 

I*. Floating Collection of 50,000 volumes for 
use of auxiliary or local branches, as needed, 
through daily delivery service. 

A Reference Collection suitably balanced, for 
use of research workers, students, business men, 
women's clubs, etc., supplemented by daily de- 
livery from the Main Library of special material 
not duplicated in the regional branches. 

Trained assistants to conduct story hours, ref- 
erence librarians, to assist club workers, teachers, 
etc. 

Suitable collections of books in foreign langu- 
ages, for redistribution to local centers where for- 
eign groups are located. 

Automobile delivery truck, with garage for 
housing, to distribute books daily in agencies of 
the district. 

Although the population in Chicago has shifted 
in the twenty years since the Library Reorganiza- 
tion Plan was promulgated, the Plan has served 
effectively as the general pattern for the develop- 
ment and extension of public library service in the 
city. A comparison of the numerical aspects of 
the Plan, the number of units in 191 6, and the 
total facilities as of January i, 1937, reveals the 
following: 

Number in Number in Number in ig^6 

reorganisation plan igi6 



I . 


Five Regional 

Branches 
A. Ravenswood 


Loop only 


Hild (1931) 
Legler (1920) 
Central Bldg 




B. Garfield Park 

C. Loop 

D. Englewood 




(1897) 


2. 


E. South Chicago 
Auxiliary Branches 


35 


43 branches 




70 




1 1 sub-branches 


3- 


Deposit Stations 
60 


28 


35 


4- 


Commercial and In- 
dustrial Branches 
100 


21 


59 


5 ■ 


High School 


5 


^•,j and 2 Junior 




Libraries 




colleges 




22 






6. 


Class Room 
Libraries 


848 


2505* 


7 ■ 


3000 
Special Deposits 
100 


29 


44 



*The policy has been changed to establishing a more com- 
plete library for each school. .550 schools now have library 
service of one type. 

A Study of the accompanying maps showing the 
1916 library branches and 1936 facilities reveals 
that progress has been made in the interim in 



218 



COMMUNITY AREAS 

CHICAGO 

1937 

CHICAGO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

DISTRIBUTION 
OF FACILITIES 

-1916- 




75 COMMUMTY NLMGERS 
— COMMUMTY 80UM>AnES 
SCALE' .. IMIL£ 

Chtcooo RtoMtton Sunwy - 1937 



COMMUNITY AREAS 
OF 

CHICAGO 

1937 

CHICAGO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

DISTRIBUTION 
OF FACILITIES 

- 1937- 




'5 COMvUMTY NUMBERS 
— COMMUgiTY BOUNDARES 
SCALE- ■. I MILE 



bringing the library to the people. The location of 
existing units in relationship to distribution of 
population shows that there still remain areas 
which have yet to attain adequate library service 
from the standpoint of proximity of branches to 
residential districts. 

Plant and Equipment 
Valuation 

The \'aluation of the real estate, buildings, and 
equipment owned by the library is estimated at 
more than eleven million dollars. This figure, 
however, based upon the original costs of build- 
ing and real estate, does not take into considera- 
tion increased property values in most instances. 
(See table below.) Therefore the actual valuation 
of the properties, after allowing for depreciation 
of buildings, must be far greater than the esti- 
mated total. 



CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY REAL ES 



Name 



especially designed for the building. 

The central building houses the main collection 
of books and in addition has many specialized de- 
partments and service rooms. These include a 
reference room, music room, civics room, women's 
reading room and teachers' room, a rental depart- 
ment, which is self-supporting, a newspaper room, 
an art room and the Braille room, in which are 
located various types of books for the blind. Other 
divisions include the patents department and a 
school division through which books, direction, 
and frequently personnel are made available to 
the schools and groups interested in school affairs. 
A large children's department is situated in the 
central building. 

The main library supplies books to the forty- 
four branches. Eleven of the branches supply 
books to the eleven sub-branches by means of 
trucks which go to and from the main library to 

TATE BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

Cost of 

Real Estate Buildiny Equipmeiil Total 

$2 465 500.00 $2,0o4,810.0U $3.40^,7^5.83 $7,940,105.83 
13,200.00 122,538.97 22,321.47 158,060.44 

25,000.00 *225,000.00 250,000.00 

18,.U6.07 18,346.07 

»2S.OOO.0O 123,849.28 22,192.38 171,041.66 

58,000.00 250,679.28 66,082.26 374,761.54 

14,750.00 54,650.55 69,400.55 

33.,175.00 242,275.00 275,650.00 

*3,32().00 93,118.41 13,811.10 110.249.51 

*13 5(M).nil 77.738.3U 34,534.38 125,772.kS 

35,000.00 87.180.31 122.180.31 

*4.950.00 51.768.(>1 18,303.65 75,022.26 

8,000.00 23,250.00 31,250.00 

tlO,000.00 120,661.30 31,810.07 162,471.37 



Main 

Austin branch 

Blackstone Memorial Branch 

(One-fifth acre ground and 

building donated) 
Chicago Lawn branch 
Douglas branch 
Hild branch 
Kelly branch 
Legler branch 
Pullman branch 
South Shore branch 
Toman branch 
Walker branch (.-Vcquired 

through annexation, 19141 
Woodlawn branch 
Hall branch 
Branch libraries (undistributed 

expenses) 
Branch libraries 
♦Equipment of 15 branches 



Randolph St. & Michigan Ave. 
Central & Parkside Aves. 
Lake Ave. & 49tli St. 



66th PI. & Kedzie Ave. 
13th St. & Homan Ave. 
Linc.-Oakl.-Wilson 
62nd St. & Normal Blvd. 
Crawford Ave. & Monroe St. 
110th St. & Indiana Ave. ^ 
Kensington .Ave. & 73d St. 
27th St. & Crawford Ave. 
Morgan Park 

6246 Kimbark Ave. 
Michigan Ave. & 48th St. 



765.34 



6,852.17 
1 150,000.00 



7,617.51 
150.000.00 



Total 



$2,709,595.00 $3,538,285.35 $3,794,049.38 $10,041, 929.73 



♦December 31, 1932 report 

tDecember 31, 1932, cost given at $40,000. 

tX'aluc of books estimated at $1,000,000.00 



Plan of Operation 

The central library is logically the axis around 
which the entire system operates. The central 
building, as it is generally known, located on 
Michigan Avenue between Washington and Ran- 
dolph Streets, was completed in 1897. While it 
adheres to no specific architectural style, the cen- 
tral building presents a combination of Renais- 
sance and Neo-Greek form. Its exterior is of Bed- 
ford limestone with a granite base. Light fixtures, 
elevator enclosures and window grills were all 



the branches, sub-branches and other agencies. 
These books are brought to the public in the fol- 
lowing ways: to a neighborhood where population 
and need for books result in request for such ser- 
\ice, a branch library is installed, sometimes in its 
own building, sometimes in rented quarters. .\ 
good stock of books with special attention to the 
ethnic and linguistic needs of the neighborhood 
served, is brought from the main library. .\ 
trained staff, including whenever possible a chil- 
dren's librarian, immediately takes o\er the work 



219 



CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCHES AND SUB-BRANCHES 



Name 



Address 



Date 


Number of volumes 




Circulation 




opened 


Original 


1935 


1936 


Original 


1935 


1936 


6-12-22 


11,662 


11,500 


17,110 


100,540 


198,457 


235,722 


1-13-30 


32,578 


27,669 


28,759 


•.9,2.ZZi 


266,319 


234,684 


11-15-26 


3,684 


(1,321 


7,256 


86,951 


55,035 


57,646 


12-13-11 


2,561 


4,318 


0,942 


22,909 


58,279 


73,888 


4- 6-05 


4,741 


24,704 


25,921 


36,343 


186,510 


181,824 


10- 7-29 


15,141 


10,360 


12,840 


205,195 


132,910 


131,281 


Nov., 1922 


7,8(i3 


15,330 


16,188 


150,859 


207,752 


203,089 


9- 8-27 


9,248 


11,971 


15,574 


226,702 


121,784 


121,083 


5- 1-29 


15,434 


13,924 


16,267 


284,477 


191,21)2 


188,099 


11-10-10 














*1-31-21 


2,974 


3,734 


5,259 


2d~,97(> 


40,975 


59,029 


** 10-30-22 














11-20-11 


2,569 


2,982 


4,641 


16,lo5 


27,833 


37,978 


Unknown 














♦*4-24-22 














9-30-30 


21,240 


17,048 


22,834 


453,812 


249,443 


254,405 


1-15-12 














n-31-21 


3,016 


3,955 


5,834 


26,739 


45,033 


54,629 


**5- 1-22 














2- 1-11 


4,495 


6,608 


8,613 


46,639 


79,941 


79,995 


2- 5-12 














*1-31-21 


4.70c 


5,189 


7,612 


45,294 


40,008 


55,227 


**5-17-27 














1-18-32 


20,555 


19,078 


21,564 


248.373 


191,461 


187,474 


1- 8-12 


3,431 


9,747 


11,051 


54,Z?4 


112,271 


120,415 


7-22-11 


4,168 


8,366 


10,428 


45,539 


92,638 


108,503 


1-27-17 


2,746 


4,847 


6,761 


50,526 


62,301 


62,375 


4- 6-31 


42,463 


40,851 


45,059 


(.24.937 


411,087 


383,221 


12-16-12 


2,409 


3,117 


4,816 


45,916 


59,640 


64,002 


Jan., 1916 


5,319 


13,173 


17,522 


171,465 


238,858 


272.446 


7-19-28 


12,888 


13,448 


15,521 


236,353 


194,799 


187,931 


6-26-11 


12,394 


25,674 


17M2 


150,616 


226.540 


214,733 


4-17-17 


1,786 


4,211 


6,362 


50.044 


70,995 


85,867 


10- 9-20 


23,060 


48,475 


47,985 


2(>7,(321 


413,039 


368,457 


11-15-09 


9,812 


14,524 


16,012 


84,484 


132,635 


124,659 


4- 1-21) 


9,721 


10,972 


13,710 


14(1.127 


185.649 


191,606 


1- 6-27 


10,021 


10,355 


14,842 


2i2.},71 


152,838 


146,130 


1-27-31) 


10,008 


8,427 


10,018 


117,150 


69,826 


56,042 


11-14-11 


3,503 


10,108 


11,079 


35,583 


117,813 


121,779 


. 10-29-26 


4,774 


4,492 


6,372 


101,980 


107,603 


104,749 


6- 5-33 
9-22-15 

* 10-28-20 
**11- 7-23 

7- 9-28 


6,035 


9,971 


11,998 


181,512 


158,453 


146,985 


2,494 


4,029 


5,723 


45,625 


52.566 


57,400 


12,935 


14,948 


16,340 


250,049 


156,289 


144.867 


12- 3-22 


11,598 


19,938 


21,925 


176,690 


222,671 


205,291 


11- 5-2f. 


4,088 


5,642 


7,156 


65,684 


45,149 


44,934 


1-14-14 


2,323 


5,278 


7,280 


70.398 


41,601 


47,783 


5- 1-21 


11,519 


18,049 


20,550 


199,062 


259,021 


263,930 


11-10-10 


4,437 


5,175 


7,403 


42,679 


84,510 


90,832 


5-14-29 


16,175 


Z2fi77 


23,281 


237,379 


236,732 


221,812 


6-20-27 


16,567 


13.847 


16,856 


342,867 


222.582 


219.212 


4-24-14 


6,978 


22,475 


24,221 


15,435 


123,360 


112,600 


2-13-17 


12,377 


34,366 


33,038 


252,384 


340,697 


308,489 



Albany 

Austin 

Avalon 

Bessemer 

Blackstone 

Brighton Park 

Broadway 

Chatliam 

Chicago Lawn 

Cornell Square 



Davis Square 



Douglas 
1 )vorak 



Eckhart 
Fuller Park 



Hall 

Hamilton Park 

Hamlin Park 

Hardin Square 

Hild 

Holstein 

Humboldt 

Independence 

Kelly 

Kosciuszko 

Legler 

Lewis 

Logan Square 

Northwesttown 

Oakland 

Ogden Park 

Olivet 

Portage 

Pulaski 



Pullman 
Rogers Park 
Roosevelt 
Seward Park 
Sheridan Road 
Sherman Park 
South Shore 
Toman 
Walker 
Woodlawn 



3536-S Lawrence Avenue 

5609-15 Race Avenue 

81st Street and Dante Avenue 

89th Street and Muskegon Avenue 

49th Street and Lake Park Avenue 

4142 Arclier Avenue 

3319-21 Broadway 

79th Street and Maryland Avenue 

62d Place and Kedzie Avenue 

Wood and 51st Streets 



45th Street and Marshfield Avenue 



13th Street and Homan Avenue 
CuUerton and Fisk Streets 



Chicago Avenue and Noble Street 
45th Street and Princeton Avenue 



4801 South Michigan Avenue 

72d and Normal Avenue 

Barry and Hoyne Avenues 

2555 Wentworth Avenue 

4536 Lincoln Avenue 

N. Oakley Avenue and Colvin Street 

2553 W. North Avenue 

3718-20 Irving Park Boulevard 

62nd Street and Normal Avenue 

2732 North Avenue 

Crawford Avenue and Monroe Street 

1945-47 Madison Street 

3248 FuUerton Avenue 

1615-17 North Pulaski Road 

3987 Cottage Grove. A venue 

o6th Street and Racine Avenue 

Cleveland Avenue and Blackhawk .St 

5148 Irving Park Boulevard 

Blackhawk and Noble Streets 



1 10th Street and Indiana Avenue 

1731 Greenleaf Avenue 

934 W. Roosevelt Road 

Elm and Orleans Streets 

4869 Broadway 

Loomis and 53d Streets 

73d Street and Exchange Avenue 

27th Street and Pulaski Road 

111th Street and Hoyne Avenue 

6247-9 Kimbark Avenue 



Total 
Sub-Branches 



428.40(1 591,273 683,955 6,656,908 6,685,111 6,633,103 
Bprroiesjrom 



Calumet 98th Street and Lake Michigan 

Chicago Commons 955 W. Grand Avenue 

Forest Glen Lawler and Catalpa Avenues 

Forestville 4401 St. Lawrence Avenue 

Gads Hill 1919 W. Cullerton Street 

Gage Park 55th Street and Western Avenue 

Hull-House 800 South Halsted Street 

Jefferson 4820 Long Avenue 

Mont Clare (>S51 Belclen Avenue (Sayrc Park) 

North Austin 5518 W. North ,-\venue 

Tuley Park 90th Street and St. Lawrence Avenue 



2-17-30 


Bessetner 


3,021 


3,643 


22,892 


28,354 


1-11-29 


Eckhart Pk. . . . 




18,866 


7,082 


10,565 


4- 2-28 


Albanv 




17,553 


4,859 


6,752 


10- 3-32 


Hall 3.02 


2,788 


?<2.2()7 


16.893 


15,795 


10- 3-27 


Legler 




53,799 


54,391 


53,669 


9- 4-28 


Brighton 




70,130 


37,119 


45,142 


9-20-27 


Lewis 




14,774 


19.817 


20,1.59 


6-20-27 


Hild 




30,686 


53,968 


51,303 


1-31-23 


Northwest- 












town 




20,498 


24.1,W 


18,788 


10- 1-28 


Austin 




81,059 


53,726 


54,461 


2-20-28 


Chatham 




63,081 


2?,,727 


36,009 



3,021 



406,296 323,608 340,997 



GRAND TOTAL 



594,294 689,764 7,063,204 7.008,719 6.974,100 



*Closed. **Reopened 



220 



of keeping aji entire community supplied with 
reading material of all kinds. Books which are 
not in the branch can be ordered from the main 
library through the branch librarian and the 
patron is notified by mail when requested books 
arrive. 

The plants of the branch library and sub- 
branches vary with the age of the building and 
costs of construction, but in general a tyiJical 
branch library consists of an open-shelf system 
together with reading rooms, a small reference 
department, club rooms whenever possible, a chil- 
dren's room, and often special rooms for foreign 
language books. Information relating to the estab- 
lishment, number of volumes and circulation of 
branch libraries can be derived from the table on 
[j page 220. 

Requirement's for use 

The circulation of books for home use is the 

major function of the Chicago Public Library. 

The ordinances of the public library provide that 

the following groups are entitled to library privi- 

! leges in the City of Chicago: 

I. Adult residents of the City of Chicago and 
I Cook County able to read and write ; 
f 2. Teachers and others engaged in educational 
' work in Cook County, although without home or 
business in Chicago; 

3. Transients and temporary borrowers on a 
deposit of five dollars in lieu of a guarantor. 
"Application for library cards consists of two 
parts, one of which is signed by the applicant and 
the other by a guarantor. Any responsible person 
whose name appears in the city or telephone direc- 
tory is accepted as guarantor." 
! The following types of cards are issued to these 
I groups in accordance with the individual require- 
ments and eligibility: 

Adult card, good for five books at one time 

{one seven-day book) to adults and to young 

people above fourteen years of age or below that 

age if actually enrolled in high school. 

I TeucJwr^s card, good for a maximum of fifteen 

i! books (not more than five fiction nor one seven- 

' ' day book) to teachers in public and private schools 

in Chicago and suburbs. 

Research card, good for a maximum of eight 
books (not more than five fiction nor one seven- 
day book) to persons engaged in special research 



work, journalists, writers, etc. Not issued to un- 
dergraduates. 

Period card, issued for three years from the 
date thereon. 

Parcel Post card, issued on payment of one dol- 
lar, covering postal charges to the same amount 
and enabling library patrons to arrange for the 
receipt and return of books by mail. 

Music card, for the withdrawal of musical 
scores and compositions, issued to all regular li- 
brary card holders on applicati(;n in the music 
room. 

Rental Card, issued to all regular library card 
holders. Rental fee is two cents per da\-. 

Juvenile card, issued to children upon entering 
elementary school, and good up to the seventh 
grade for certain types of books. Limited to two 
books. 

Senior card, issued to students in the seventh 
grade, eighth grade and first year high school. 
This card entitles the holder to fi\e books relating 
to his school work. 
Books 

The total number of volumes in the Chicago 
Public Library on January i, 1937, was 1,612,- 
121. Of these 683,955 were in the various 
branches throughout the city. The 1936 annual 
report of the library indicates that the number of 
^•olumes distributed through each of the various 
branches and sub-branches in the cit\- was as fol- 



Branch 


Juvenile 


Adult 


Total 


I. 


Legler 


14,117 


.13,8(>8 


47.985 


2. 


Hild 


14,15.1 


30,906 


45,059 


;,. 


W'oodlawn 


7,225 


25,81.1 


33,038 


-t. 


.\xnun 


8.406 


20,35.1 


28.759 


5 


Kcll.v 


7,154 


20,278 


27.432 


(1. 


Blackstono 


5,85o 


20.»,8 


25,921 


7. 


Walker 


8.'6S1 


15,540 


24,221 


8. 


South Shore 


6.676 


16,605 


23,281 


9. 


Douglas 


7,847 


14,987 


22,834 


10. 


Koprers Park 


5.470 


16,455 


21.925 


11. 


Hall 


8.851 


12.713 


21,564 


12. 


Sheridan 


5.0.TO 


15 520 


20,550 


U. 


Humboldt 


6.555 


10.967 


17,522 


14. 


.Mbany 


5,748 


11,362 


17.110 


15. 


Toman 


5.886 


10,970 


16.856 


16. 


Pullman 


6,527 


9,81,^ 


16,340 


17. 


ChicaRO I.awii 


5.76.? 


I0..5O4 


16.267 


18. 


Broadway 


4.051 


11,237 


16.188 


19. 


Lewis 


4.191 


11.821 


16.012 


20. 


Chatham 


6.664 


8.010 


15.574 


21. 


Independence 


5.509 


10,012 


15..521 


22. 


XorthwcsttoHii 


5.091 


8.851 


14..842 


Yi 


Logan 


4.752 


S.05R 


l.VIO 


2-4. 


Brighton 


6. KM 


670(1 


12,840 


2.^. 


Portage 


4.75.> 


7.245 


11,008 


2(<. 


Ogdcn 


.'.528 


7.551 


11.070 


27. 


Hamill<in 


.V'.(¥. 


7.445 


11.051 


2S'! 


Hnniliu 

1 ( '■■nil 


4.475 


5.95.i 


10.428 



Number of volumes 



Br 


vich 


Juvenile 


Adult 


Total 


29. 


Oakland* 


2,866 


7,152 


10,018 


30. 


Eckhart 


4,923 


3 (i''(l 


8,013 


31. 


Fuller 


3,435 


4,177 


7,612 


i2. 


Sherman 


3,274 


4,129 


7,403 


ii. 


Seward 


3.115 


4,165 


7,280 


34, 


.-\vaIon 


3,779 


3,477 


7,256 


35. 


Roosevelt 


3,073 


4.083 


7,156 


36. 


Bessemer 


3,692 


3,250 


6,942 


37. 


Hardin 


3,368 


3,393 


6,761 


38. 


Olivet 


2.425 


3,947 


6.372 


39. 


Kosciuszko 


2,785 


3,577 


6,362 


40. 


Dvorak 


2,774 


3,0(» 


5,834 


41. 


Pulaski 


2,743 


2,980 


5,723 


42. 


Cornell 


2,549 


2,710 


5,259 


43. 


Holstein 


2,589 


2,227 


4,816 


44. 


Davis 


2.443 


2,198 


4,641 




Total 


IMM^ 


449,626 


683,955 


Su 


b-Bram-h 


Juvenile 


Adult 


Total 


1. 


Calumet 


974 


2,047 


3,021 


2. 


Forestville 
Total 


575 
1,549 


2,213 


2,788 




4,260 


5,809 




Grand total 


235,878 
lation Oct 


453,886 
.ber Zi, 1936. 


689,764 




♦Closed for circi 





The following compilation of the number of 
volumes purchased annually since its establish- 
ment shows the progressive growth of the library. 
It will be observed that during 1932., 1933, and 
1934, because of sharp curtailment of funds, the 
number of accessions to the library was exceed- 
ingly small. The tremendous gain in the number 
of purchases and the amount expended in 1935 
and 1936 is attributed to the State Library Relief 
Fund, which was prorated to the communities 
through the State on the basis of population. 



Year 


V olu»ies purchased 


Expenditure 


1873 




$ 1,224.26 


1874 


9,899 


10,733-11 


1875 


20,122 


28,410.63 


1880 


7,799 


7,404.52 


1885 


5,692 


6,899.14 


1890 


10,073 


11,148.66 


1895 


16,727 


19,431.18 


1900 


9,651 


12,476.70 


1905 


18,436 


19,884.79 


1910 


51,482 


45,520.85 


1915 


69,305 


61,661.31 


1920 


126,990 


105,465.93 


1921 


88,246 


99,410.32 


1922 


209,957 


285,049.93 


1923 


185,164 


223,901.80 


1924 


178,798 


206,188.05 


1925 


125,983 


177,526.09 


1926 


177,781 


245,382.72 


1927 


231,137 


307,666.29 



Year 


Volumes purchased 


Expenditure 


1928 


237,531 


336,813.79 


1929 


237,717 


329,942.98 


1930 


110,740 


159,057-95 


1931 


142,401 


218,835.14 


1932 


1,986 


12,961.45 


1933 


2,340 


20,815.75 


1934 


11,940 


34,462.29 


1935 


99,435 


148,227.93 


1936 


192,887 


287,137.90 



Since 1930 the library has also benefited by 
gifts of volumes as follows: 1930, 6,139; 1931, 
6,536; 1932, 16,465; 1933, 28,147; 1934, 
38,749; 1935, 16,764; 1936, 11,829. 

During 1936 a total of 145,732 books were 
subtracted from the number of volumes in the 
library, 116,457 being withdrawn as a result 
of being worn out; the balance of 29,275 in- 
cludes missing and delinquent books, withdrawn 
duplicates, lost and paid for volumes; 86,367 
books were bound or rebound at a cost exceeding 
$58,000. Through the Works Progress Admin- 
istration the bindery staff was supplemented by 
twenty-one experienced bindery workers. 

Card Holders 

In 1936 a total of 606,183 individuals held 
cards entitling them to utilize the facilities of the 
library. This number represents a slight increase 
over 1935 when there were 598,553 card holders. 
However, it is still far from the 1932 total of 
695,530. The following table shows their distri- 
bution: 



1935 



1936 



Central and branches, three- 
year registration 

Local registration: 



445,168 447,187 



Deposit stations 


16,147 


16,785 


Business house libraries 


11,541 


10,926 


Special deposits 


12,972 


14,780 


School room deposits (est.) 


112,725 


116,505 


Total 


598,553 


606,183 


ncluded in above totals: 






Music cards 


9,224 


9,233 


Borrowers of books for the 






blind 


2,488 


3,099 



222 



GROWTH OF LIBRARY FROM 
1873 TO 1937 











Home 






Volumes 


Number 




& central 




Year 


m 


of 


Registered 


circulation 


Staff 




library 


branches 


borrozuers 


branches 




1873 


6,852 








5 


1874 


18,183 




2,574 


7,659 


15 


1875 


39,236 




23,283 


399,156 


26 


1880 


67,772 




18,635 


306,751 


25 


1885 


111,621 




25,906 


519,691 


45 


1890 


156,242 




36,478 


843,971 


71 


1895 


211,159 


6(a) 


53,956 


1.147,862 


110 


1900 


258,498 


6(a) 


79,605 


1,749,775 


210 


1905 


304,510 


7(b) 


73,368 


1,336,199 


173 


1910 


402,848 


17(c) 


111,684 


1,805,012 


245 


1915 


627,619 


32(d) 


260,955 


4,326.057 


350 


1920 


1,075,292 


S2(e) 


393,573 


7,651,928 


629 


1921 


1,099,711 


46 


423,164 


7,472,768 


520 


1922 


1,213,835 


44 


419,722 


8,825,773 


(M 


1923 


1,305,140 


45 


459,636 


9,901,576 


761 


1924 


1,380,799 


46 


501,716 


10,613,978 


817 


1925 


1,402,136 


60 


546,307 


11,002,736 


822 


1926 


1,454,232 


61 


559,492 


11,611,107 


886 


1927 


1,570,642 


70 


594,209 


12,816,807 


939 


1928 


1,677,133 


78 


645,090 


14,128,771 


1,053 


1929 


1,745,605 


83 


677,959 


14,534,393 


1,082 


1930 


1,732,950 


56(f) 


689,739 


13,915,333 


899 


1931 


1,766,412 


57 


694,958 


15,807,902 


1,050 


1932 


1,687,288 


56 


695,530 


15,558,622 


1,014 


1933 


1,628,248 


55 


659,581 


13,100,826 


986 


1934 


1.578,589 


jj 


624,557 


10,992,812 


939 


1935 


1,539,717 


55 


598,553 


10,192.866 


933 


1936 


1,612,121 


55 


606,183 


10,378,024 


938 


(C 


ompiled from Statistical Survey, 


1873-1935. Six 


v-fifth 


Annual Report, Ch 


icago Publ 


c Library, 1936) 





a. Branch Reading Rooms, non-circiilatine;, first one estab- 
lished 1891. 

b. Includes Blackstone Branch, opened April 1, 1905, and 
six Branch Reading Rooms. 

c. Six of these converted into circulating Branches in 1910. 

d. All Branch Reading Rooms converted into circulating 
Library, 1910-11. 

e. From 1917-29 includes senior and junior high school 
libraries. 

f. United States Libraries formerly included with branches. 
now with other agencies. 

Even allowing for the fact that the libraries are 
located in the more densely populated sections of 
the city which should consequently provide the 
greater number of card holders, those areas which 
are located outside of the districts in which the 



libraries are situated do not ha\'e a proportionate 
share of card holders, which would indicate that 
the number of card holders varies inversely with 
the distance from the library facility. 

Circulation 

In 1936 the total home circulation of the Chi- 
cago Public Library was 10,378,024, compared 
to 10,192,866 in 1935. It will be noted in the 
table on this page that these totals are far below 
the 1 93 1 high of 15,807,902 volumes circulated 
through the various units of the library sj'stem. A 
study of the 1935 and 1936 home circulation of 
the Main Library, branches and sub-branches, ex- 
clusive of deposit stations and schot)l extensions, 
indicates that in 1935, 5,265,311 or 65.34 per 
cent represented adult circulati(jn and 2,519,981 
or 31.27 per cent ju\'enile circulation. Three and 
thirty-nine hundredths per cent of the total cir- 
culation, or 272,856 volumes in the foreign lan- 
guage groups were not classified into adult and 
juvenile circulation. In 1936, 5,034,853, 62.97 
per cent of the total circulation, was adult, and 
2,741,264, 34.28 per cent, was juvenile circula- 
tion. In 1936, 2.75 per cent of the total circula- 
tion or 219,640 volumes of foreign language 
books comprised the balance of the home circula- 
tion through the main library, branches, and sub- 
branches. Of the total home circulation through 
the central library and branches in 1935, 43.17 
per cent, or 3,478,366 volumes, represented fic- 
tion circulation. 

The home circulation for 1935 and 1936 is 
broken down into adult and juvenile with a fur- 
ther anah'sis within each di\"isi()n. 



NUMBER OF VOLUMES IN CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY 
HOME CIRCULATION 



1 


Classification 








Cen 


ral 


AVc 


nch.-s 


Total 




19.\S 


1936 


19.15 


1936 


1935 


1936 




Adult : 






















Pliilosophy, social science 


, (D.C. 


100, 300) 


125.603 


125.170 


219.843 


227.098 


345.446 


352.268 




Religion (D.C. 200) 








14.911 


13.721 


28.830 


2(1.556 


43.741 


40.277 




General works, literature 


and Ian 


guage 
















(D.C. 000, 400, 800) 








98.320 


94,314 


269.676 


261.829 


367.996 


.156.143 




Arts and sciences (D.C. 500, 


600, 


700) 


197.918 


1S7.244 


322.820 


335.123 


520.738 


522.367 




History (D.C. 9001 








38.6S7 


40.906 


161.0(i3 


171.215 


109,750 


212.121 




Travel (D.C. 910) 








32.074 


33.000 


109.989 


127.762 


142.06.3 


160.768 




Biography (D.C. 920) 








45.704 


44.448 


121.487 


121.057 


1()7.191 


165..505 




Fiction 








367.573 
920,790 


359,330 
898.1.S9 


3.110.813 


2.866.074 


3,478,386 


3,225,404 




4,344,521 


4.1.16.714 


5,265.311 


5.034.853 




Juvenile : 








27,608 


27.573 


820.413 


96.1494 


848.021 


991.067 




Non-fiction 








31,408 


.32.120 


1.570.929 


1.654.252 


1.602.337 


1. 686.372 




Fiction 

Foreign language collecti 








69,623 


63.825 






69.623 


6.1.825 










128.639 


12.S.518 


2.391,342 


2.617.746 


2.519.9S1 


2.741.264 




Foreign language collect 
Grand total 


on 


not 


included 










272.8.V, 
8.058.148 


219.640 




1,049.429 


1.021.657 


6.735.86.? 


6.754.460 


7.095.757 


■ 










223 











The juvenile circulation through the central 
library, branches, and sub-branches in 1935 and 
1936 was divided as follows: 





Number 


Per 


cent 




1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


Non-fiction 
Fiction 
Foreign (main) 


848,021 

1,602,337 

69,623 


991,067 

1,686,372 

63,825 


33.65 
63.59 
2.76 


36.15 
61.51 
2.33 


Total 


2,519,981 


2.741,264 


100.00 


100.00 



In general, it may be said that circulation in- 
creased 1.8 per cent during 1936, marking an up- 
turn after five years of successive losses. In the 
central library the circulation during 1936 did not 
reach that of 1935; a loss of 2.6 per cent in non- 
fiction and 2.1 per cent in adult fiction resulted. 
In the branches and sub-branches non-fiction cir- 
culation showed a gain of 36,932 volumes or ap- 
proximately 3 per cent. Adult fiction throughout 
the branches showed a decrease of 7.8 per cent 
from 1935. As a result of the addition of more 
than 120,000 juvenile volumes, circulation in this 
division increased 9.4 per cent. The only trend of 
definite import revealed by circulation figures 
during 1936 indicates that there is an increasing 
demand for new books on new subjects, especially 
in the mechanical arts. An increase in interest in 
adult education in the city is reflected in increased 
circulation of books related to the various move- 
ments for self-education and to the other educa- 
tional opportunities provided for adults in the 
city. It is suggested that an increase in fiction cir- 
culation can result only from the increase of such 
new volumes to the library. 

Since 1900 the per capita circulation of books 
by the Chicago Public Library has been as fol- 
lows: 

Home Volumes 

Year circulation Population per 

of books person 



1900 


1,749,775 


1,698,575 


1.030 


I9I0 


1,805,012 


2,196,238 


.822 


I9I5 


4,326,057 


2,464,189 


1.756 


T920 


7,651,892 


1,766,815 


2.766 


1925 


11,002,736 


3,096,409 


3-553 


1930 


13,915,333 


3,376,438 


4.121 


I93I 


15,807,902 


3,458,936 


4.570 


1932 


15,558,622 


3,555,782 


4-376 


1933 


13,100,826 


3,490,700 


3-753 


1934 


10,992,812 


3,258,528 


3-374 


1935 


10,192,866 


3,558,700 


2.864 


1936 


10,378,024 


3,575,700 


2.902 



Special Departments 

One of the most notable departments within 
the public library is the Braille Room, which in 
1936 comprised 20,828 volumes prepared spe- 
cifically for the use of the blind. During the year, 
through the provision of the Pratt-Smoot law, the 
Library of Congress, which produces books with 
raised print, contributed 1,376 books to the Chi- 
cago Public Library. In addition, the Braille 
room includes 11,103 talking books, which are 
records likewise received from the Library of 
Congress. Three thousand and ninety-nine handi- 
capped individuals in Chicago and the Middle 
West utilized the facilities of the department 
during the year. The circulation of the talking 
hooks increased from 26,075 in 1935 to 418,809 
during 1936, which is indicative of the reception 
accorded to increased opportunities. 

The Reference Department provides oppor- 
tunities for patrons to secure information from 
pamphlets, dictionaries, and almanacs. It is sig- 
nificant that more than fifty individuals each day 
secure information over the telephone from the 
Reference Department. Usage of the Reference 
Department during the past two years is indicated 
as follows: 



Readers 



Volumes consulted 



1935 



1936 



1935 



1936 



240,413 211,160 482,997 445,041 

The Civics a>id Documents Division comprises 
governmental reports, pamphlets, newspaper clip- 
pings, city and telephone directories, maps and 
other material in the fields of politics, govern- 
ment, social and economic discussion, business 
and finance. During 1935 and 1936 this depart- 
ment was utilized in the following manner: 

Readers Volumes consulted 



Civics department 

Public documents 

Other books 

Pamphlets, clippings 
( in packages 
by subject? ) 

Business services 

Maps 

Telephone calls 



80,696 
104,155 



21,177 
19,386 
7,225 
7,802 



92,847 
110,813 



25,218 
26,897 
6,096 
8,296 



The Readers' Bureau is utilized primarily by 
persons interested in courses for individual study 
and also by lecturers, club leaders, and specialists 
in various fields of education and science. 

The Art Room pro\'ides pictures, pamphlets, 



224 




Population Series - Mop 9 



and clippings, which are available to holders of 
library cards. This particular department is used 
continually by artists and amateurs, collectors and 
others interested in informative material on the 
fine arts and crafts. 

The Music Room includes scores and librettos 
of operas and symphonic music as well as special 
gifts of organ and violin music. During 1936 ap- 
proximately one thousand pieces of music were 
presented to this department. 

The A. W. S'-jcayne Collection of lantern slides 
now numbers 67,282 slides and 29,087 negatives 
on a multitude of subjects. During 1936, 1,043 
were added to the collection, of which 777 were 
gifts. Borrowers took out a total of 263,075 
slides during the year 1936. 

The Patent Room of the library consists of 
118,565 volumes of patents and 4,272 copyright 
records, which were consulted during the year by 
25,875 different individuals. 

The School Division, as has already been in- 
dicated, administers library services to all of the 
public high schools, junior colleges, elementary 
schools, and to parochial schools. The number of 
volumes in circulation through this division totals 
150,322. In addition to this total, the Board oi 
Education has supplemented the collections in the 
high schools by purchases made by the school 
board. The Teachers' Room provides the oppor- 
tunity for that professional group to continue 
their study both on the theoretical phases of edu- 
cation and for use in school rooms. 

The library also provides service through the 
Hughes Room, wherein the staff reviews new 
juvenile books each year and compiles graded 
reading lists for the use of teachers and parents. 

In addition to the facilities for children in the 
central library, each of the branches provides spe- 
cial service to children. Special shelves of juvenile 
books represent a minimum of such provisions. 



These are supplemented by story hours, special 
projects for children, with prizes to stimulate 
competition. The branches also provide by means 
of an extension service special circulation and fea- 
tures for the various agencies for handicapped 
children throughout the city. These include Chil- 
dren's Memorial Hospital; Spalding, Christo- 
pher, and Jahn Schools for crippled children; the 
Marks Nathan Orphan Home; and the American 
Bo)'s Commonwealth. 

Schedule 

The operating schedules of the Chicago Public 
Library are as follows: 

Central Library 

Daily 

Circulation and patent 

departments 9:00 .a.m.- 7:00 p.m. 

Reference, periodical and 

civics departments ...9:00 a.m.-io:00 p.m. 

Art and music depart- 
ments 9:00 A.M.- 5:30 P.M. 

Children's department. . 9:00 a.m.- 6:00 p.m. 

Teachers' room 9:00 a.m.- 6:00 p.m. 

Sundays and holidays 

Reference department. . i :00 p.m.- 6:00 p.m. 

Periodical department .. r :00 p.m.- 6:00 p.m. 

Civics department 1:00 p.m.- 6:00 p.m. 

All departments are closed on Independence and 
Christmas Days. 

Branch Libraries 

Branches are open daily from 9:00 a.m. to 
9:00 P.M., except in small fieldhouse branches, 
which are open from i :00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. 
None of the branches are open on Sundays or holi- 
days, with the exception of Lincoln's and Wash- 
ington's Birthda\s, when the)- are open from 2:00 
P.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

The ele\'en sub-branches ha\-e \'arying hours, 
which are as follows: 



Sub-branch 



A'lother branch 



Schedule 



Calumet 

Chicago Commons 

Forestville 



Gads Hill 



Bessemer 

Hall 

Hall 



Legle 



Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 1:00-9:00 p.m. 

Wednesday, 3:00-7:00 p.m. 

Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 1:00-9:00 p.m. 

Tuesday, Thursday, i :oo-6:00 p.m. 

Saturday, 9:00-1:00 p.m. 

Monda\', Wednesday, Friday, 2:30-6:00 p.m. 

Tuesday, Thursday, 2:30-6:00 p.m. 

Saturday, 9:00 a.m.- 12 noon 

(Coiilinufd ttn fage 226) 



Sub-branch 



Mother branch 



Schedule 



Gage Park Brighton Monday, Wednesday, Friday, i :oo p.m.-9:oo p.m. 

Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, 1 :00 p. M.-6:oo p.m. 
Hull-House . Lewis Monday to Friday, i :00 p. m.-9:oo p.m. 

Saturday, 9:00 a.m.- 12 noon 
Jefferson Hild i :oo-9:oo p.m. daily, except Sunday 

Mont Clare Northwesttown Wednesday, 3:00-9:00 p.m. 

Saturday, 2:00-6:00 p.m. 
North Austin Austin 1:00-9:00 p.m. daily, except Sunday 

Tuley Park Chatham Monday, Wednesday, Friday, i :oo p. M.-9:oo p.m. 



Detailed Analysis of Facilities 

The following pertinent facts indicate the gen- 
eral reading facilities available at the various 
library branches and sub-branches throughout the 
City of Chicago. For conveniences in reference to 
the maps, the material is presented using the 
community area numbers as a guide. 

Area 1 Rogers Park Library 

Location: 1731 Greenleaf Avenue 
Date estahlishcd: December 3, 1922 
Plant and equitmenl: Book<; : 1935 1036 

Juvenile 4,165 5,470 

Adult 15,773 16,455 

Total 19,938 21,925 

Pictures in frames : 5,639 

Special program :Library instruction classes, Par- 
~ lub talks, story 



ent-Teacher Association talks 
hour 

Circulalinii : Annual total : 

Slieridaii I\oad Library 



Localinn : 4869 Broadway 



1935 
222,671 



1936 
205,291 




Dale established 
Plant and eqiiipn 



Total 18,049 

Pictures in frames : 

Sf-eci(d program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 

ri;Tr(/(7/ifi;i: Annual total : 1935 1936 

259,021 263,930 



Hild Regional Library 

Location : 4536 Lincoln Avenue 
Date established: April 6, 1931 
Plant and eqnipineni : 

Real estate 

Building 

Equipment 



Total 

Books : 
Tuvenile 
Adult 



$58,000.00 
274,038.28 



$,W8,120.54 

1935 1936 

11,735 14,153 
29,116 30,906 



Total 40,851 

Pictures in frames 



45,059 
5,398 



Special prcflratn : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teaclier Association talks, civib talks, story 
hour, historical group 

riV,-»/f7//oi; : Annual total r 1935 1936 

411.087 .383,211 



Hmnlin Park Library 

Location : Barry and Hoyne Avenues 
Date established: July 22, 1911 
Plant and equipment: Books: iO.?.i 

Juvenile 3,237 
Adult 5,129 



1936 
4,475 
5,953 



Total 8,366 10,428 

Pictures in frames ; 4,328 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
Circulation : Annual total : 1035 1936 

92,638 108,503 

Broadway Library 

Location: 3319-21 Broadway 

Date established: November, 1922 

Plant and equipment : Book^ : 1935 1^36 

Juvenile 3.695 4,951 

Adult 11,635 11,237 

Total 15,330 16,188 

Pictures: 4,071 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
Circulation : Animal total : 1935 1936 

207,752 203,089 
Olivet Library 

Location : Cleveland Avenue and Elackhawk Street 

Date established: October 29, 1926 

Equipment: Books: 1935 1936 

Juvenile 1,194 2,425 

Adult 3,298 3,947 

Total 4,492 6,372 

Pictures: 2.796 
Special program: Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, chib talks, story 
liour; sponsoring of local history project 
C'iri-»/(i/;>); : Annual total : 1935 1936 

107.603 104.749 

Seward Park Library 

Location : Elm and Orleans Streets 

Date established : January 14, 1914 

Equipment : Books : 1935 

Tuvenile 1,925 

Adult 3.353 



Total 
Pictures 
Circulation: .Annual total: 



1936 
,^115 
4,165 

7,280 

1936 
47,783 



Jefferson Library. Sub-Bratuh (Hild) 
Location : 4820 Long .Avenue 
Date established : Tune 20, 1927 
Circnlalion: Annua] tota\: 1935 1036 

53,968 51,303 

Eoresl Glen Library, Sub-Pranch (Albany) 
Location : Lawler and Catalpa Avenues 
Date established: .\pril 2, 1928 
Circnlallnn : Annual total : 1935 1936 

4,859 6,752 



226 



Area 14 Albany Library 

Location : 3536-38 Lawrence Avenue 
Date established: June 12, 1922 
Equipment : Books : 1935 

Juvenile 3,H6 
Adult 8,354 



1936 
5.748 
11,362 



Total 11,500 17,110 

Pictures; 3,932 
Special profiram : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
riVdi/n/ioH; Annual total: 1935 1936 

198,457 235,722 



Area 15 Portage Park Library 



Location: 5148 Irving Park Boulevard 

Date established: June 5, 1933 

Equipment : Books : 1935 

Juvenile 3,642 

Adult 6,329 



1936 
4,753 
7,245 



Total 9,971 11,998 

Pictures: 3,096 
Special program: Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
Circulation : Annual total : 1935 1936 

158,453 146,985 

Area 16 Independence Library 

Location: 3718-20 Irving Park Boulevard 

Date established: Tulv 19, 1928 

Equipment: Books: 1935 1936 

Juvenile 4,221 5,509 

Adult 9,227 10,012 

Total 13,448 15,521 

Pictures; 9.031 
Special program: Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
CiVi-ii/n/i'i'ii : Annual tut;il ; 1935 1936 

194,799 187,931 

Area 18 Mont Clare Library, Sub-Branch (Northwesttouti) 
Location: 6851 Belden Avenue 
Date established: January 31, 1923 
Circulation : Annual total : 1935 1936 

24,134 18,788 

Area 22 Kosciusko I'ark Library 



Location : 2732 North Avers Avenue 
Date established: April 17, 1917 
Equipment : Books : 1035 

Juvenile 1,247 
Adult 2.964 



1936 
2,785 
3,577 

6.362 



Total 4.211 

Pictures: 3,418 
Special program: Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
OVi-»/c//iVik; Annual total: 1935 1936 

70,995 85,867 

Area 22 Logan Square Library 

Location : 3248 Fullerton Avenue 
Date established: April 1, 1920 
F-quipmenf : Books : 1935 

Juvenile 3,500 
Adult 7,472 



Special progran 
ent-Teachcr 
hour 
Circulation : Annual total 



Total 10,972 

Pictures: 5,829 
Library instruction classc 
sociation talks, club talk; 



1936 
4,752 
8,958 

13.710 

s. Par- 
I, story 



l'>35 1036 

185,649 191,606 

Area 22 Holslcin Park Library 

Location: Nortli Oakley and Colvin Streets 
Date established: December 16, 1912 



1935 


1936 


3.299 


5.991 


7,056 


8.851 



Equipment: Bwks: 1935 1936 

Juvenile 1,178 2,589 
Adult 1,939 2,227 

Total 3,117 4,816 

Pictures; 1,669 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
r/rf»/n/ioii: Annual total: 1935 1936 

59,640 64,002 

Irca 23 Northii'csttoivn Library 

Location: 1615-17 North Crawford Avenue 
Date established: June 6, 1927 
Equipment : Books : 

Juvenile 

Adult 

Total 10.355 14,842 

Pictures : 5,041 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
(^iV<-i(/a/if>«; Annual total; 1935 1936 

152,838 146,1.30 

Area 24 Eckhart Park Library 

Location: Chicago Avenue and Noble .Street 
Date established: Februarv 1, 1911 
Equipment: Books: 1935 1936 

Juvenile 2.628 4.923 

Adult 3.980 3,690 

Total 6,608 8.613 

Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
rn-r»/«/K)ii: Annual |(.tal: 1935 1936 

79,941 79.995 

.■Irea 24 Humboldt Library 

Location : 2553 West North Avenue 
Date established: January, 1916 
Equipment : Books : 1935 

Juvenile 4,113 
Adult 9.060 



1936 

6.555 
10,967 

17.522 



Total 13,173 

Pictures: 15,304 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher .Association talks, club talks, ston- 
hour 
Circulation : .Annual total : 1935 1936 

238,858 272.466 

Pulaski Park Library 

Location : Blackhawk and Noble Streets 

Date established: Opened September 22. 10].=;: 

closed October 28. 1920: re-opened November 7. 

1923 

Equipment: P„wk> : 1035 1036 

Tuvenile 1,463 2.743 

Adult 2,566 2.980 



Total 
Picture? 

Annual lota! : 



4.029 5.723 
1.742 

Circulation: Annual total: 1935 1936 

52,566 57.400 

Area 24 Chicago Commons Library, Sub-Branch (Eckhart) 

Location : 955 West Grand .Avenue 

Date established: January 11. 1929; i-los«i for 

circulation Mav 2'^, 1936; reopened September 

16, 1936. 

riV<-i</.i/ioM: Annu.ll |..t:il: 19S5 1936 

7.082 10.565 

■ Irca 25 Xorlh Austin Library, Suh-Biaiich (Austin) 
Location: 5518 West North .Avenue 
Dale established: October 1. 192S 
Equipment: Pictures: 2.000 

rirfH/nrr'.^'i; Annual ti.tal: 1035 1036 

53.726 54.461 



227 



Area 25 Austin Library 

Location: 5609-15 Race Avenue 
Date established: January 13, 1930 
Plant and equifment : 

Real estate 

Building 

Equipment 



Total 

Books : 
Juvenile 
Adult 



$13,200.00 
122,538.97 
22,321.47 

$158,060.44 

1935 1936 

6,558 8,406 

21,111 20,353 



Total 27,669 28,759 

Pictures: 13,063 
Special program: Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
Circulation : .Annual total : 1935 1936 

266,319 234,684 

/Jrea 26 Legler Regional Library 

Location : Crawford Avenue and Monroe Street 
Date eslablishcd: October 9, 1920 
Plant and equipment : 

Real estate $33,375.00 

Building 242,275.00 



Total 



$275,650.00 

Books : 1935 1936 

Juvenile 12,612 14,117 
Adult 35,863 33,868 



47,985 



Total 48,475 

Pictures: 14,478 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour, historical group 
Circulation : .Annual total : 1935 

413,039 
Lcifis Library 

Location : 1945-47 West Madison Street 

Date established: November 15, 1909 

Equipment : Books : 1935 

Juvenile 2,763 

Adult 11,761 



1936 
368,457 



1936 
4,191 
11,821 



16,012 



Total 14,524 

Pictures: 5.259 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
I hour 

Circulation : Annual total : 1935 

132,365 
Area 28 Hull-House Librarv. Sub-Branch (Le~,vis) 
Location : 800 South Halsted Street 
Date established: September 20, 1927 
Circulation : .Annual total 1935 

19,817 
Area 28 Roosevelt Library 

Location : 934 West Roosevelt Road 
Date established: November 5, 1926 
Equipment: Books: 1935 

Juvenile 1,886 
Adult 3.756 



1936 
124,659 



1936 
20,1,59 



1936 
3,073 
4,083 



7,156 



Total 5,642 

Pictures: 1,587 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
Circulation : Annual total : 1935 1936 

45,149 44.934 

Douglas Library 

Location : 13th Street and Homan .Avenue 
Date established: September 30, 1930 
Plant and equipment : 

Real estate $25,000.00 

Building 123,849.28 

Equipment 22,19238 



Books: 1935 1936 

Juvenile 4,844 7,847 

Adult 12,204 14,987 

Total 17,048 22,834 

Pictures; 7,371 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher Association talks, club talks, story 
hour 
Cirf»/a/ 10)1 : .Annual total : 1935 1936 

249,443 254,405 
Toman Library 

Location : 27th Street and Pulaski Road 
Date established: June 20, 1927 

Real estate $35,000.00 

Building 87,180.31 



Total 



$122,180.31 

Books : 1935 1936 

Juvenile 4,485 5,886 

Adult 9,362 10,970 

Total 13,847 16,856 

Pictures: 6,938 
Special program : Library instruction classes, Par- 
ent-Teacher .Association talks, club talks, story 
hour; sponsoring of local history project; forum 
(under independent auspices) 
Circulation : Annual total ; 1935 1936